The article is devoted to the problem of the development of an integrated approach to the development and implementation of measures aimed at improving the efficiency of the intellectual capital of Russia. The article proves the thesis about the lack of efficiency of functioning of the national economy, including the sector of high-tech industry – the creator and main «consumer» of intellectual capital, which determines the need to find measures to stimulate the growth of efficiency of this important productive force of the economy in an era of high technology. The article also presents the idea that the measures aimed at improving the efficiency of intellectual capital use should be comprehensive in nature, affecting the major factors of the process of its use. The proposed measures need to be enforced and implemented taking into account the current macroeconomic situation in the country, to maximize the benefits from their introduction. The paper proposes a set of measures to promote the use of intellectual capital through the development of the institution of private investment and increase the availability of loan funds for high-tech enterprises; restructuring of tax incentives for companies that actively use the intellectual capital; the development of public-private partnerships; improvement of legislation in the sphere of creation and circulation of intellectual property; provision of uniform and balanced development of the national innovation system to improve the efficiency of the transfer of knowledge and technology. In this context, the actual problem of the restructuring of the Russian scientific and technical sphere and its core – the scientific organizations of the Russian Academy of Sciences, aimed to improve the transfer of scientific knowledge and achievements in the manufacturing sector is also considered.