2. IJMPSAUG 20192
- Publication date
- Basrah 2014, Under Five Mortality Rate, Basrah Governorate, Infant Mortality Rate, Al-Fao District, Al-Qurna, Deaths from RDS and Prematurity & Al- Hartha and Shat-Al-Arab Districts
The under-five mortality rate (U-5 MR): is the number of Children who die by the age of five per 1000 live births per year. UNICEF classified (U-5 MR) indicators into infant mortality rate(IMR)and mortality rate for 1-4 years age children.
(IMR): is the annual number of deaths of children under one year of age for every 1000 live births. It has two components:
Neonatal Mortality Rate (NMR): is the number of infant deaths under 28 days of age in a year per 1000 live births in the same year. may be subdivided into:
Early neonatal deaths, occurring during the first seven days of life.
Late neonatal deaths, occurring after seventh day but before 28 completed days of life.
Post Neonatal Mortality Rate (PNMR): is the number of deaths of infants between 28 days and one year of life in a given year per 1000 live births
Children (1-4) years deaths: the death of children aged 1-4 years
Live birth: the complete extraction from the mother of a product of human conception, irrespective of the duration of pregnancy, which after such expulsion, shows any other evidence of life. (U-5 MR): is a leading indicator of the level of child health. (NMR): also reflect the health status of mothers. Causes of under-five child mortality is Acute lower respiratory tract infection mostly pneumonia, diarrhea, measles, and malaria are the leading causes of childhood deaths in developing countries. Under nutrition contribute to about 50% of these deaths.
· To assess the rate of mortality for children under five years old, and geographical distribution of deaths with sex and place of residence, socio demographic factors in Basra governorate-2014.
· To know the main causes of death.
· To put advice to reduce rat of mortality, and recommendations for future and better care in Basrah.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
This study is a record based cross-sectional study, which derived its data from death certificates for children less than five years of age in Basrah-2014. The data include age and sex, cause of death, place of death, then data analysis and classification.
The mortality rate(U-5MR) and number of under five children in Basrah-2014 was 24.5 per 1000 live births,2619 ( respectively) in this study, while total number of deaths were 11372 for the whole population in Basrah, the neonatal mortality rate (NMR) was 16.7, post neonatal mortality rate (PNMR) and 1-4 year child mortality rates were 4.6 & 3.1 per 1000 live births respectively, infant mortality rates (IMR) were 21.3per 1000 live births, the highest mortality rates were recorded in Al- Hartha and Shat-Al-Arab districts, while in Al-Fao district show the highest PNMR. Lowest mortality rates estimated by the study in Basrah city center, Al-Qurna, and Al-Medainah. At the first 7 days of neonatal period most of these infant deaths occurred.
Commonest cause of deaths at infant and neonatal period was RDS and prematurity. While infection was the main cause of deaths at late neonatal periods, and injuries was the most common cause of (1-4 year) mortality rate of children.
Children are the future of every nation, Mortality usually reflects community’s major health problems. In the present study the overall under five and infant mortality rates were 24.5 and 21.3 /1000 live births respectively. These rates are higher than those reported for the neighboring countries (Iran, Turkey, and Jordan), and they are many times higher than those reported in the Gulf countries (Kuwait, United Arab Emirates and Bahrain), while they are very much lower than those reported for Pakistan and Sudan. A household study on infant mortality carried out in two areas in Basrah (Hay Al- Hussein & Hay- Al- Jazzier) for the period 1985 – 1989 the overall IMR was 41.7/1000 L.B, which was higher than those reported for Basrah and the whole country at 32.2 and 26.1/1000 L.B respectively in the same period. A same study was carried out to study under five mortality in Basrah at 2004, the under-five mortality and infant mortality were 27.3 and 24 per 1000 live births respectively. Descriptive retrospective study carried out in Basrah for the period from 2008-2013 depending on the data obtained from statistical unit of Basrah directorate of health, infant mortality rate was 22.4/1000 L.B
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