tv Pope The Most Powerful Man in History CNN April 1, 2018 7:00pm-8:00pm PDT
despair. >> when bobby goes on the campaign trail, he is a complete rock star. >> jackie would say, i just fear that what happened to jack will happen with bobby. one of the most powerful men on earth. holds a position that has existed for nearly 2,000 years. as the world changes, and faith evolves, his authority remains. what began with one apostle has become 1.2 billion followers under one man. he is the head of the catholic church. the pope. and this is his path to power. ♪
christianity, but rather you get the emergence of a much more individualized or personal faith. >> the beginnings of the reformation are all about this push back against what is seen as excess in rome. >> in the 16th century, many catholics are disturbed by the church's pervasive materialism and corruption. as a result, new denominations of christianity begin to form and break ties with the vatican. the reformation is an anonymous bomb dropped on the theological landscape. >> all great religions of the world successful change. and christianity is no exception to that rule. >> the umbrella of modern christianity includes over 800 million protestants and 1.2 billion catholics worldwide. but in the 16th century,
catholicism is the law of the land. the is a ferment of devotion, deep, deep piety in europe. everyone went to church out of conviction. >> almost the entire population of europe devoutly follows rome's catholic doctrine. and the pope is at the head of it all. in the 16th century there had been a series of very worldly popes who loved power. >> all earthly institutions are flawed. and the renaissance popes got caught up with power. >> it is not surprising that people who loved power took it. but as papal power swells, so does a cultural of greed and corruption. the tenets of christ begin to fall by the wayside as popes spend kpoexorbitant money in th name of luxury, excess, and
absolute power. >> popes during the renaissance bring a sense of majesty into the papacy that had not existed before. even though we would probably say, that their methods were a little bit ruthless. ♪ and in 1513, fopope leo x takes the in dull jdulgence t heights. >> leo x was an extravagant pope. interested in architecture and glories of rome and spent a lot of money in pursuits of that kind. >> the church has become one of the key commissioners of this huge exciting cultural explosion which is the renaissance. pope leo x throws lavish parties and hires rafael to paint elaborate frescos throughout the
vatican. hepends all fortune on the palati expansion of st. peter's basilica. during the renaissance you had lots of art. lots of patronage. but in another way it is dire for t the church. they were breaking the church. the art, sculpture and beauty has to be paid for. >> pope leo x pays for opulent lifestyle by selling positions within his administration. >> he says these offices will cost this much if you want this one you have to pay this much. off awe a all kinds of horrible things are happening. selling positions, putting kids into offices, and, embezzlement. the time the catholic church is pretty profoundly corrupt. >> but the payoffs are still not enough to keep up with leo's
spending. >> it has put a strain on local churches and parishes. people are giving up lots of money during this time period. and they're feeling pressed. only two years into leo x's papacy, the vatican is on the verge of bankruptcy. to save the church from financial ruin, he charges the clergy with selling indulgence throughs out all europe. forgiveness of sins in exchange for cash payments. >> indulgences started in the you sad crusades. the idea was you have soldiers fighting for christ. they're likely kimd lly killed moment. what the church did was to give them a get of purgatory free card. so the indulgence is a way of rewarding people doing something good for god. but the trouble was that the system grew and very soon people
were being offered indulgences for sale. leo x realizes not only will the sale of indulgences deepen the pockets of the katricatholic ch but will also fund the expensive construction of st. peter's basilica. >> people go to st. peter's now and think how did they get all the money to build this? well they were taxing people with indulgences. >> the whole thing about st. peter's indull jengence was applicable to dead relatives. get them out of purgatory paying for indulgence. a seductive and successful idea. >> as word of the pope's campaign for indulgence sales spreads throughout europe -- it triggers a reaction from a fundamentalist professor in germany. martin luther heard about this and found it obscene.
martin luther, a 33-year-old fryar devoted to the bible, is appalled by the exploit of nature of indulgences. martin luther felt this was selling gold's salvation for money. and you can't do that. >> it is the notion of indulgences that finally bring the church down. >> as vatican culture sinks deeper into the pits of corruption. martin luther begins to ignite an extraordinary revolution. mitzi: psoriatic arthritis tries to get in my way? watch me. ( ♪ ) mike: i've tried lots of things for my joint pain. now? watch me. ( ♪ ) joni: think i'd give up showing these guys how it's done? please.
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in 1517, despite the piety of european catholics. materialism and corruption run rampant inside the vatican walls. but in germany, one man decides that it is time to take a stand against the sins of the pope. martin luther was a member of an order of fryars called order of her mitts of saint augustin. luther was professor of scripture. he had become a monk out of fear. he had made a vow to saint ann during a thunderstorm. early in his career. mar thin luther was sent to rome by his religious order. >> and he was shocked by rome. a deeply religious scholar, martin luther is horrified by the heed niz m he sees funded by
indulgences. he is outraged by the fact that the pope is exploiting his followers fear of damnation for financial gain. martin luther felt the god he found in the works of augustin forga forgave sin and didn't actually kid individual sins. he made a free merciful decision to forgive those who loved him. luther found that god loved him and he wanted to spread this message of god's love as well as the the message that you and i people like us human beings are all sinful. there is nothing we can do about that. for luther the sale of indulgences was exactly the antithesis of this sense of christianity as a liberating mode. salvation not as the free gift but as something you have to stump up money for.
martin luther thauflt it was all a sham. he decided to hold a seminar about indulgences. and he would issue 95 things to be discussed in this seminar. the seminar never happened. but the 95 theses, 95 idea to be discuss werd there. >> martin luther sends his 95 theses to the archbishop in germany. who then sends it to the pope. in his theses luther questions the indulgences and whether the pope should have power over who goes to heaven or hell. >> the theses are a series of technical questions about whether or not for example the pope or any priest has jurisdiction in the after life. there were a lot of catholic
theologians thought the afterlife was in god's world and papal authority was for this world. it is often said that he nailed the document, these 95 thesese to the castle church door. off awe this was not the first time the idea had been put out. far fm it. but the difference between 1517 and 14th century is the printing press. the 95 theses were printed and widely distributed. >> martin luther had become a celebrity. in all of europe. he was producing books and finding a real talent. he is one of the first great best-seller writers in print. >> luther was a master up popular media.
previously, the printing press had only been used to circulate scripture and official documents. martin luther is the first to use it to spread a subversive message. martin luther's revolution was fueled by the printing press. he used it with genius. but that brought a real problem. now he was the symbol of all sorts of different discontents. he aroutzed passions which he couldn't control all through europe and now, europe was split. martin luther's statements against the sale of indulgences put him in direct opposition to pope leo x frantically selling them to cover his debts. church leaders were now saying to luther, you must obey the pope and to obey you must keep quiet. luther could not keep quiet. if you were then me of the church that would mean you could be called a hair tick.
martin luther was putting himself in very dangerous rritory now. deep within the vatican secret archive lies the document that split the once universal catholic church. it has never before been seen on camera. on january 3rd, 1521, pope leo x issues a papal order ex-communicating the german preacher. >> all germany was in an uproar. this was very bad news for the overall ruler of germany, the holy roman emperor, charles v. >> acutely aware of the fervor luther ignited in germany, charles v were reetz his excommunication might start a
revolt. and what he did was to summon martin luther to a meeting of the parliament of the empire, called the die it. it was meeting that year in the city. what the emperor was going to do was to order him to be obedient to the church. imagine this great set piece, all of the great figures of the holy roman empire there, bishops, princes, a vast crowd in attendance. and there the emperor told luther to be obedient to the church. luther said he could not be obedient. he must be obedient to the bible. the scripture. rather than being willing to investigate these ideas, the catholic church took a turn in the other direction and erected walls. martin luther is officially marked as being outside of the tra difgs the catholic church. seen as an act of disloyalty.
to be protestant meant that you weren't loyal. >> ats luther's defiance of king charles and the pope at the diet of vermes, a hard line is drawn among christians. >> the foundation of the reformation is that the church is the invisible gathering of awful those who confessed christ in every time and every place. because this is not a temporal group of people. there is no way there can be a temporal head of it. >> those aligned withartin luther protest the pope's divine claim to leading theatlic church. and become known as protestants. they build lutheran churches throughout germany and scandinavia. focusing their teachings on scripture instead of loyalty to the pope. >> in the past, when people don't want to receive catholicism, people could be burned, tortured, imprisoned. martin luther is not the first
person that challenged the church. but he is probably the first person to live off to tell about it. >> martin luther goats into hiding. and the protestant reformation continues to grow. martin luther goes into hiding and the parrot stand reformation continues to grow. in 1523, two years after the diet of vermes, a new pope, clemnt vii is elected. unlike leo x, clement agrees with many of luther's ideas of reform. posing a threat to wealthy who benefit from church corruption. ♪
after he denounces the pope in 1521, european christians are split twine. lutherans develop their own church. founded on the belief that salvation is achieved through faith alone. while catholics continue to practice obedience to the vatican. but the abandonment of catholicism by half of europe, presents pope clement vii with a
dilemma. >> clement vii must have been sorry he was ever elected pope because his whole reign was a calamity. >> he was chronically indecisive. he would go to bed for days with headaches and stomach aches rather than make a serious decision. >> not only is pope clement vii faced with a church martin luther has splintered. but he is also call the in the middle of territory disputes between kings. >> the papacy functions politically as one element in the kook pcockpit of europe whe around it dynastic politics are being worked out. >> in 1527, the vat kican is aligned with luther just six years earlier. ♪
>> charles v was a very unusual person. he was the king of germany. he ruled the north of italy. he was the holy roman emperor. but he had also inherited the rule of spain. so he had more power than at this point any temporal monarch had ever had at any point. he was a very alarming monarch to many people. >> he wants italy at the same time french want italy. in an attempt to balance the power in europe, pope clement vii abandons his alliance with charles and makes a secret treaty with france called, the league of cognac. >> as if the pope hadn't got enough problems by the late 1520s he found himself at war with the greatest catholic in europe, charles v, the very man who challenged luther. >> there is one ruler, king of france who is behind the pope.
and the king of germany against the pope. there is this war between the church and germany. but really between the king of germany and king of france. >> now, charles v invaded italy. and invaded rome. rome is sacked by the imperial troops. many of whom were lutherans. and hated the pope. and so f weeks on end, rome faced terror. it is the most extraordinary irony that it was a catholic who did as much harm to the pope as a protestant. in may of 1527, the german army storms the churches, monasteries and palaces in rome. by the end of that spring, more than 8,000 romans are slaughtered. horrified by the carnage, pope
clement vii flees the vatican and seeks safety. he gets away by sneaking out of the city. the pope hide out in a castle outside of rome for five weeks. but eventually the german army surrounds his refuge. clement vii is forced to surrender to king charles v. >> there was no intention to kill the pope. why would you do that to the holy father? but what the emperor wanted was to make the pope helpless. aened he he did so. and now the emperor had him at
h his mercy. he retreats to a deserted palace in italy. church business slowly resumes. until the pope finds himself clashing with another powerful monarch in a feud that will change the reach of the catholic church forever. ♪ (vo) dogs have evolved, but their nutritional needs remain instinctual. that's why there's purina one true instinct. real meat #1. a different breed of natural nutrition. purina one true instinct. now, try new purina one true instinct treats.
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after king charles of germany attacks rome in 1527, the city is in ruins. after that they took half a century to build rome. >> rome is destroyed. half of europe abandoned catholicism for lutheranism. the pope is determined to strengthen what is left of the catholic empire. but despite his best efforts to revive the splintering church, another threat to papal power brui brews in england. >> henry viii was a fascinating complicated individual. >> henry vii had the biggest ego in the king doucdom of england. he was also a clever man,
talented, good looking when he was young. and like many teenagers he never quite coped with growing up. ♪ henry viii ruled england since he was 18 years old. and as a young charismatic monarch he is used to getting what he wants. henry was married to the daughter of ferdinand and isabella of spain. the wife was a spanish princess. >> henry viii's marriage to katherine of aragon is the foundation of many important political alliances. but despite the advantages attached to their union, henry finds his marriage to katherine problematic. >> they had been together for 20 years. and she had managed to produce one living daughter. >> he was very sensitive to the fact that he had not caught a son to take over when he died.
♪ and that was fatal in the politics of a kingdom at the time. >> not only does henry want a son that his wife cannot give him, but he also has a mistress that he would loike to marry. >> if you want to marry somebody else there is no divorce. you need the pope to annul your marriage. >> he wants the pope to say that he can marry ann bolin. >> he need a declaration that his marriage to katherine was never valid. ♪ >> the vat ican archives contai the letter henry viii sent to pope clement vii, requesting the annulment of his marriage to katherine aragon in 1530. his request is signed by 81 members of parliament. but the pope's response is complicated by his political
alliances. ♪ >> the pope was effectively the prisoner of the emperor charles v, who as the it happens was the nephew of queen katherine of england. >> clement vii does not want to jeopardize his fragile truce with charles v. by agreeing to his aunt's annulment. but king henry threatens to withdrawal all of england from the catholic church if he does not get his way. >> so on the one hand, there was the king of england saying, declare my marriage null or the church will suffer for it. because a stream of money from england to the papacy will be cut off. and on the other hand was the emperor charles v, who says if you divorce my auntie, you will suffer for it. ♪ >> pope clement is in a precarious position and find
himself pair liralyzed with indecision. but henry viii is not known for his patience. >> clement used various little tricks, delaying tactics and the thing just dragged on and on and on. henry finally got fed up and said i'm any just doing this on my own. >> in the decade after martin luther's revolution, a thought circulates europe darting the pope's divine right to power. >> henry viii availed himself of this strong current of reformation thought that said the pope is not the head of the christian church, thehristian church invisible, all believers everywhere, and the pope has no claim to be the leader. he took the reformation thought and then he entirely corrupted it by saying the pope is not the leader of the christian church. i am. which was not at all what the reformers had in mind. >> henry viii says i will do an
act of supremacy and declare myself over the church. ♪ >> henry says i am not a king, i am an emperor, emperors are accountable to nobody. ♪ >> in 1534, four years after henry viii's initial request for an annulment, he denounces the papacy, removing himself and his country from the jurisdiction of the catholic church. he proclaims himself the leader of a new church. the church of england. henry says i decide that i am not married to katherine. >> he divorces his nice catholic wife. he marries ann bolin. now he is head of a church. >> so he can take down catholic priests, put down people who don't follow his particular faith. anythi anglican faith. it destroys the catholic church for a time in england.
>> he tort kie the kingdom apar. >> we have wars of religion in england, between france and england, with france more loyal to the pope, england more loyal to hen reechry. the entire religious landscape becomes weaponized. >> and then henry viii begins to take the church's wealth. >> as head of the church of england, henry viii seizes property. >> he strips the altars in england and taked the wealth for himself. >> he dissolves monasteries and convents stripping 12,000 monks, nuns and priests of their homes and assets. >> henry is very puzzling in terms of religion. >> henry viii had the alliances. he had the wealth to be able to disregard the pope. to be able to say, no, i don't care if you put my entire
country under interdict meaning everybody is excommunicated. this makes no difference to me. essentially he stripped away the authority of the papacy and originally at least kept almost everything else. simply establishing a new church with a different head and that authority was what he was most interested in, who is at the head of it. ♪ >> in the face of spiritual revolutionaries and power hungry monarchs, the once almighty pope saw the power of the offidwindl more than 48 years. at the beginning of the 16th century it looks like the reign of the roman catholic church is finally coming to an end. to get? watch me. ( ♪ ) mike: i've tried lots of things for my joint pain. now? watch me. ( ♪ )
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a papacy swelling with uncertainties. >> just at the moment when the church seemed in real trouble, a particular champion came along. he called himself ignacious loyola. they were a group of french, spanish, and portuguese students at the university of paris. they came under the influence of ignacious. >> at the university of paris, ignacious and his followers initiate a new way of praying based on meditation. in the past, catholic prayer had consisted of standard recitations. but he promotes a more personalized practice. >> he had developed a way of praying and focusing that was very attractive to these young men. so they all came together and
they took vows together. they called this society the society of jesus. they are known as the jesuits. >> like martin luther, ignacious and the jesuits believe every man, not just clergy should have an individual relationship with god. but unlike martin luther, they do not pose a direct threat to the church. >> he had a lot in common with luther. ignacious was a man who believed that a direct communication with god was not only possible but was absolutely essential for the soul to prosper. too often i think we tend to break down catholic and protestants, especially during the reformation, catholics thought you needed mediator between god and man, and protestants thought you could speak to god. he was a catholic who believed the direct experience of god was one of the most important
experiences that the church could steer you towards. >> they begin trying to rehabilitate fallen women, sex workers. they show great concern for the poor. eventually, they go to rome with this new idea for a new order, andhey place themselves at the disposition of the pope. >> ignacious presents the jesuits' ideas to pope paul iii as a means of catholic reform. but in 1540, few had challenged the catholic church and remained in the good graces of the pope. >> the church hierarchy was feeling its way forward. this was an unknown new development, it was a new threat. even though luther's thought was condemned, within the catholic church there was also this recognition that, yes there were reforms that needed to be made. >> the pope allowed them to
become a formal religious order. >> in an unprecedented act, pope paul iii endorses the challenges to the church. he permits the jesuit order to flourish within catholicism. >> ignatius knew how to play t vatic vatican's politics. they've always protected that npd by talking about its loyalty to the pope. >> they become the largest religious order in the church. >> the jesuits make a name for themselves by shifting their focus to universal education. >> the jesuits focus on education for all classes of society. >> they provided a first class
education, and people rushed to get that education. that's what spread the catholic faith back into areas where protestantism had made great strides. >> ignatius had 16 more years to live, and during that period the jesuits mushroomed. they took in more and more and more people. >> they began to spread out through the new world and also into japan and india and other places. >> inspired by the jesuits, pope paul iii calls for catholic unity to fight against the ever growing protestant movement. >> there's tremendous turmoil that is gngn in the church. and so this becomes a time in which the church has to look to rebuild, and how does the church rebuild? what do they do? how do they bring themselves together?
>> in 1545 the pope assembles the council of trent to re-examine the catholic institution. a kind of reformation is born. >> a council was called to start to do reforms in the church they believe must be done to hold on to control in the church and back back against luther and these other reformation movements. >> paul iii, he's a great reforming pope. he makes a series of magnificent appointments to the cardinal ate. and they men become the renewal of catholicism in the mid-16th century. and they're his men. >> a transformation begins. in 1567, the sale of indulgences is outlawed and a culture of change and growth is initiated in the church setting the stage for the first jesuit pope and perhaps the greatest reformer of
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on christians to be missionaries of hope. >> a jesuit is the last person you would ever think was going to become pope. >> right from the start the society of jesus set its face against any member of the society becoming pope. >> they are not supposed to seek echeese easticcal benefits, they should not be bishops and cardinals and things like that. >> why now for the very first time in history a jesuit pope? >> the unprecedented election of a jesuit pope signifies a real shift in t nature oth 2,000-year-old office. >> pope francis positions himself not just the leader of the catholic church and the papacy, but as a moral leader. >> the jesuits are the great success story of the catholic reform. jesuits are flexible thinkers.
they understand that there are different sides to a question. they tend to be more heen yent in their moral judgments. they tend to be more encouraging. so the impact of having a jesuit pope is interesting. >> it almost suggests that society felt jesuits to the rescue, the church was in trouble, so they'd send one of their own in. >> pope francis' election in 2013 comes during a turbulent time for catholicism. the vatican faces scrutiny for sexual and financial scandals while both church and seminary attendance are under decline the world over. >> change happens in the catholic church in a way that it doesn't happen in other places. it never happens directly. emphasis gets changed, certain things are dropped from attention, and they pivot. >> pope francis asked me to taken this job in culture about
a year and a half ago. and he spoke to me about what he wanted me to do. pope francis said, look, there are things changing in our world. there are things emerging that have potential to shape our future very differently. he said, i want you to get out there. i want you to meet the people who are forging the future of the world. >> the changes initiated during the reformation have become part of the fabric of modern christianity. more than 900 million protestants around the world can trace their spiritual roots back to the revolution started in the 1500s. >> the shattering of the unity of christendom was a tragedy, but it also, of course, created a new kind of urgency for catholic reform. >> after 2,000 years of threats, transformations and revolutionaries, the pope still maintains a following of 1.2 billion people around the world.
the capacity of the catholic church to accept change has been central to its ability to remain relevant. >> rerming helped to bring about a renewal of the papacy and of the wider church. >> we can see how the papacy first changes but secondarily how it has to change with the time that it's in. where there might have been a time that science is bad and it's all terrible, pope francis has been able to speak about things like homosexuality, the environment, in ways in which other popes have not. we're now in a time where somebody like pope francis is saying, climate change is real. we need to take care of the earth. so i think that's a tremendous way to sort of look at the papacy to see how it has to develop over time, not just about the faith, but about the world in which it's dealing with. >> as long as the church has existed, the world around it has been in flux. but throughout centuries of
change and challenges, the pope still remains one of the most powerful men on earth. i, john fitzgerald kennedy, do solemnly swear -- >> just over 100 years after his family first set foot in the country, john f. kennedy becomes president of the united states of america. the kennedys have achieved their dream. but in his first year in the white house, jfk learns winning power is one thing, wielding it is another. engulfed by violence at home and conflict around the world, he