tv Book Discussion on Eruption CSPAN April 10, 2016 8:00pm-8:51pm EDT
natural state of the world, i don't think nature provides any moral guidance. i think, ultimately it is nature's god as our founders put it. there needs to be a revelation of good and evil that comes from beyond nature. if you follow nature, the only law that major religious is survival of the fittest. and that's what hitler and stalin believed in. >> host: dennis prager has been our guest for the past hour. his most recent book "the ten commandments." thank you as well for your time. thank you for joining us at the 21st los angeles times those of the book. we've been live all we've been live on we can join booktv and we thank both the "l.a. times" and university of southern california for their hospitality and hosting us.
everything you've seen today will repair the unit 1 a.m. eastern. that's 10 p.m. out here on the west coast. booktv now continues. [inaudible conversations] >> thank you so much for coming out on this really beautiful day. apparently -- if you can manage it go have your allergies takeover. thank you so much for coming. before we get started just a few housekeeping notes that if you take the time to silence you cell phones. you don't have to turn your phone off. want to have it out you can follow kramerbooks sfr e-mailed newsletter if you haven't already. we have a beautiful website and
would love for you to visit. on the website you can sign-up for e-mail newsletter and see all the great events we have got going on like tonight with steve olson with tonight. is going to talk about his connection to kramerbooks. i'm so excited for them to do that. in his book he interweaves the history and science behind the eruption of mount saint helen's with the accounts of what happened to those people who lived it and those who died. as i said steve has some particular connections to kramerbooks ever so glad he can be with us here tonight. one of the great stories as a constructor, i am sarah by the way. i don't know if i introduce myself. one of the great stories assistant director is bringing authors to our local, we have wonderful local connections and you can see that in a wonderful crowd tonight. so please join me in welcoming steve olson to kramerbooks. [applause]
>> i've never given a talk at kramerbooks before, but, and i'm really come i cannot begin to tell you how delighted i am to finally be doing this. when my wife and i were young newlyweds in the early 1980s, kramerbooks was what became for our date night. we get it is to reference together right over there who are now married and live in oregon, not too terribly far away from where we live in seattle. this bookstore has a lot of great memories for me. memories is one going to start tonight because the eruption of mount saint helen's which was in that era on a sunday morning, may 18, 1980, 1 of those events that were so dramatic that for people who have a connection to the northwest, we tend to remember where we were when we heard the news. like when i was writing am working on this book, it was a
sunday morning. i was coming back from church and heard on the car radio that the mountain had erupted. or people would say, yeah, there's an indication of where we were. or they said i was barbecue in my backyard. i know where i was. i grew up in washington state, but in may of 1980 i was living in washington, d.c. and we're about to get married, three weeks away, so the anniversary of the russian is a good opportunity to remember my anniversary is coming up. we got married in rhode island and my grandmother who still lives in the small town where i lived, where i grew up, brought back a big jar of ash to the wedding because she knew everyone would be interested in seeing it. i've always figured that it was a good thing that i was on the east coast because i was exactly the kind of kid who is
interested in science and interested in geology and geological tactical. one of those kids who said when the volcano started shaking in the late went of 1980 i would've said i need to go see that. i would've grabbed a friend and we would've jumped in a car and headed down i five, turned off on the spirit lake highway and seven up mount saint helen's to see the small cups of aashto come out of the volcano when it first awakened. and if i'd done that on may 15 and my friend and i had camped on the volcano i would not be here talking to you today. so 57 people died from the eruption that sunday morning. the majority were asphyxiated by ash, but some people were pulled off ridge tops or swept away in the mudflow. a couple people were crushed by a tree that fell on the. some people were burned by the hot gases.
only three of those 57 were in areas that had been designated as dangerous, at two of them had permission to be there. in fact, the only person who's s breaking the law was the one victim that we didn't remember best from the volcano, remember cantankerous 83 year old harry are true but refused to leave his lodge just four miles away from the summit down by spirit lake. so in the end those 57 were just too close to an extremely ancient volcano. why were they so close? were the danger zones to small? was eruption that much bigger than geologists had expected? and what can wome we learn frome tragedies 57 deaths in living in a world of geological hazards with those with questions to really inspired me to write this book when i moved back to seattle about six years ago. what i discovered is amazingly rich and interconnected story, a story about politics and money
and science but it's also a story about logic. it's a story about the establishment of the national forests and it's a story about the transcontinental railroad. it's a star as big as the clinic itself and it all came together on the one day at this one place in may of 1980. the story began in rock island, illinois, which is a town on the mississippi river about 150 miles west of chicago. it's so hot in here because i think you have a napkin for me? i think i'm going to sit down. it figures i'd come back to washington, d.c. on the one hot day in march. this town of rock island is what would your german immigrant named frederic moved in 1856. he took a job at a lumber yard tending that would be at previous jobs in a brewery and on a railroad. so he was intelligent and
friendly and ambitious, and he rose quickly through the ranks of this lumberyard. he later wrote, i never counted the hours were knocked off until i finished what i had in hand. so within a few years he and his brother-in-law -- thank you very much -- i will pass them around once i am done with them. [laughter] within a few years he and his brother-in-law had bought the lumberyard in rock island and had begun to expand it. so at first that bot logs that were wrapped down the mississippi river from the force of wisconsin and minnesota and put those through their sawmills. but he knew the real moy -- i'm doing this wrong. we would get back to him. a preview. he knew the real money lay in by
land and chopping down the trees on the olympic he began to buy beautiful white pine, birch and ipod and the chippewa river in wisconsin, and with the money he made for chopping down the trees he bought more land in wisconsin and in minnesota. douches and currently good businessman and he was a good one for -- lumbermen. do with a man in america knows so much about lines as he does. in 1891 he moved his family including his seven children at this point from rock island to st. paul, minnesota, so he would be near the center of this log operation was put up the mississippi as wisconsin became more cut over at the center of the locking moved north. he bought a house next door to james j. hill and with another remarkable businessman and visionary, who was just about to complete the great northern railway from st. paul to seattle. both of the houses are still there but if you ever go to st.
paul and a chance to see it, it's an amazing monument. it's a wonderful place to visit. so the two became quickly good friends. they spend often eating at each other's house but the only problem was that warehouse or have a tendency to fall asleep early. the families would often go by the living rooms and hill would be engaged in some monologue and warehouse would be an easy chair. in 1899 bill faced a major problem. he needed money to pay off a bond issue for the railroad but at that point yet way more land than he had money. by the time he had come to control not only a great northern road but also the northern pacific railway which ran from duluth, minnesota, today. and take control of the north
pacific hill came to control the elements of land grants of the north pacific. this was an immense amount of property that the government gave to the railroads as an inducement to build rail lines. both the transcontinental and in kosovo part of the country. the north pacific received about 40 million acres of western land. an area greater than the size of florida. the northern pacific received part of its land grants for the line it build from essentially from portland, oregon, today, washington between 1870-1873. that's the rail line that roughly parallels i-5 today. the land grant expand about 40 miles on either side of the railroads. mount saint helen's is about 35 miles east of wi-fi. that's why when the mountain erupted in 1980, the top of the volcano was still owned by the
railroad. 1000, just a few days into the new century, they announced one of the largest and land purchases in u.s. history. for $6 an acre, they bought almost 1 million acres of timber land in southwestern washington state. with the purchase along with other purchases to build in the area of the land grants, they bought almost all of the land between what is today i-5 and mount saint helen's. by the way, this is one of the greatest investment that anyone has ever made anywhere after correcting for inflation a calculated that they made about $250 for every 1 dollar invested. that's a much of the value of the 10 would they bought. fast forward to 1980. on march 20 of that year, seismic detectors picked up a 4.2 earthquake.
in the pacific northwest we get plenty of earthquakes but we usually just get one or two and then things quiet down at the didn't happen in this case. after the earthquake or more and more earthquakes until the were so many they just ran together on the seismic detector. you couldn't tell them apart anymore. volcanologists want to make sure magnet was on the boat but basically nothing was happening above ground. but then about a week after the initial earthquake a small crater opened up on the top of mount saint helen's. this was the first sig sight oft crater and these little clumps of ash began to originate. so mount saint helen's was less active in 1857 it had been inactive for 120 years and in march of 1980 it came back to life. the renewed activity about sales which is a national treasure people can do washington state not only from the united states
bar from all over the world to see the ultimate. the last eruption of a volcano in the contiguous united states have been in northern california, in 1917. very few people saw the spirit was in a part of the country that was hard to get too. that was not the case with mount saint helen's. there were hundreds and thousands of people. one day there were seven aircraft all struggling the mountain. they had to bring air traffic control to make sure no one would each other. at first federal and state officials sought to limit access to the volcano by setting up roadblocks on the major highways your but there's a problem. they came under pressure from people who owned properties or businesses but on the other side of the roadblock so these people would exert pressure on officials to move the roadblock and gradually these roadblocks got closer and closer to the mountain. but the bigger problem is that
the main roads amount -- around mount saint helen's is just a tiny fraction of all the roads around the mountain. in 1980 they've been logging the area complained when i-5 and amount for decades. in that process the company had built thousands of miles of logging that's what it is would anyone want to close to the mountain could just drive the highway and turn off on one of these logging roads and climb up to one of these ridgelines edited clearcut with a clear view of the mountain set up your camp and stay there for as long as you want it. there was no problem doing that. so by the middle of april government officials realized they needed a better way of controlling access. they took a forest service map and begin drawing lines around the volcano. the first thing they did is they drew a line along the ridgeline to the north of the volcano and along the eastern edge. they figured if anything came out of the volcano and wasn't able to get over those
ridgelines. they continued down to the south on the southern flank of the volcano but they had a problem on the west side between the west and northwest side. they did want to extend this line to the warehouse property. he wanted to cut those trees, close down his nose. gigantic trees that were there. so what government officials did on the website about is they simply drew the line between weyerhaeuser property to the west and the land of the national force to the east. and that anything called the red zone to everything inside that solid line is only law enforcement and scientists could go in that area near the problem was that this red zone, it came only three miles away from the summit of the volcano at its
closest approach. in the officials do another line that generally followed roads, about 10 miles of roads and fort of the ridgelines about 10 miles away from the peak. you could go in this area which was called the blue so they get permission. but again on the west side of the mountain they decided not to do that because they did want to draw this sewn into weyerhaeuser property it would be too complicated for all that weyerhaeuser loggers to get to permission to go to get on those sites there was no zone. so at about the same time these lines were being drawn something very troubling was happening with the volcano. a bulge began to form on the northern and northwestern flank of the volcano. it seemed to be caused by magma it was cooling underneath the volcano and pushing out the site. this was having very dramatically, this bulge was growing by five feet per day.
and volcanologists who are studying the volcano did know exactly what is going to happen. they thought this bold can't keep going forever. it will come cascading come about at point towards spirit lake. the general consensus of level technologists was that it would simply be an avalanche and nothing else would happen. the problem was he just have the right on the side of the volcano with the danger zones were that were closest to the volcano's peak. so that was essentially the situation on the evening of saturday may 17. it was the first clear weekend after a cloudy and rainy spring, and that evening about two dozen people were getting ready to spend the night in the area north of mount saint helen's. harry truman who refused to leave his lodge was getting ready for bed on the edge of spirit lake.
again, about four miles away from mounting them. to employees named bob and beverly were in the cabin a couple of miles down the river from spirit lake they have permission to stay at the cabin. they said they were doing a photographic study of the mountain from their deck because they could see the mountain from their deck. although many of the people who owned cabin site around him thought it was a bit of a ruse every they were doing was just so they could use their cabin. but they still got permission to be there on the weekends. the next closest person to the volcano was geologist dave johnson who is keeping watch on the volcano from that ridgeline about five miles north of the peak. he had never even been to this location until the day before the eruption. he was filling in for a college who had to go away that evening to talk with this graduate advisors in california about an education program.
and dave johnson was quite worried about being this close to the volcano. he had barely escaped a volcano eruption a few years before in alaska. these that i will go to as long as someone can spell me the next day. >> on average about seven miles away from the volcano was a photographer from the columbia newspaper vancouver like to produce taken photographs of the national geographic as part of a project they've been doing a good thing a time lapse study of the mountain but that project was scheduled to conclude after that we can because some have been happening with the mountain. -- nothing was happening. on the second ridge north of mount saint helen's there was a photographer with columbia newspaper named reid blackburn. i told you about him but the other one on the northern ridge was jerry martin who was a retired navy ham radio operator with a group called the radio
amateur civil emergency service. washington state at that i didn't have enough money to put monitors close to the mountain and warm communities downstream if anything happened with the volcano. a group of amateurs decided to set up this network to give an eye on the volcano the jerry martin was the one who is closest to volcano bu by the otr people stationed around the volcano. suggests past the third ridge away from the mountain where john and christie, newlywed couple from washington, a small logging town i write about in the book, give account at long lake which is sort of an alpine search goes on north side of the ridge. john was a joker center for a warehouse or pashtun weyerhaeuser. had been working a few miles away from the he was one of probably three or 400 loggers from weyerhaeuser who would have died if the vulcan had erupted on a weekday rather than on a weekend.
his wife ran a forklift at the weyerhaeuser bill down the ballot about 25 miles away from the volcano. they had been married about seven months that may and do friends told me they're trying to have children if they couldn't even see the fault in a from the campground. it was just out of sight over a ridge on the other side of the lake. finally i write about three separate groups that were camping on the green river which is a river about 12 or 13 miles to the north of the volcano. on the blessed with a group of about six kids, called millennials now, in their 20s from the longview area to which is added and the kinds of things we used to do when your kids. drinking beer and roasting stakes in things like that. on the eastern side of the green river there were two friends who had written their horses up a ridgeline the day before and were camped on the green river. right between them was a family,
mike moore and his wife, they had a four year old daughter and three month old baby. they were taking their girls on the very first camping trip. i tell you more about them in a minute. on sunday morning may 18, the sun rose at 5:36 a.m. into completely cloudless sky. on the ridge just north of mount saint helen's dave johnson took some measurements of the descent of the bulge. the bulge expanded and contracted a little bit. and then at 8:32 a.m. something in the mountain gateway. there were a couple of geologist, there's a lot of amazing quintet in this one wasn't there were these two geologist who just happened be flying over the mountain at this exact moment. what they said they saw is that they saw this sort of crack on the mound, this line from east to west. the whole north side of the mountain just started cascading
down. so this avalanche find occurred but there came this gigantic cloud of sort of gray and white cloud. this expanded, just as -- they barely got away. a pilate of the cessna put it into a steep distrust he died to build to get away from this cloud. they turn around and look at the volcano and saw this column of ash that was rising up and just will of lighting. that's how many people describe the ash. it all happe happened inside the figures look watching a silent movie. you just couldn't, the sound of the volcano went straight up and was muzzled by the ash. there was no sound for anybody on the volcano. the landslide swept down the north flank of the mountain toward spirit lake but before it could reach of spirit lake, this
cloud of hot ash and rock and jazz overtook the avalanche. this blast was coming fast because going to 300 miles an hour and accelerate as it went, as it absorbs energy from hot ash. it could've gone 400, 500 miles an hour. this thing hit the cabin through spirit lake and glue them to smithereens. than a few seconds later the avalanche came and covered these cabins and nobody else within about 200 feet. the three people who were down there, harry truman, bob and beverly were dead before they knew what was happening. just buried in seconds. up on the richland to the north of the mountain, dave johnson and jerry martin were watching the clouds approaching. and they were both on the radio spectacle of time to communicate with people who are monitoring those wikified including johnson was less work, he said vancouver, which is where they were situated. this is it. so the approach as they can go
to invent a minute or so to look at it, just this incredible site it must've looked like the end of the world to them as it was coming towards them. win this cloud hit johnson and martin county basically flung them and their vehicles and everything that they had with them both of the remaining forest edges that copies a 10-foot trees like they were stronger in flung all of the stuff off of this racial identity the next valley. then it covered them with debris and ashton trees. not only have they never found dave johnson or jerry martin's bodies, they haven't even found their vehicles. he was in a 25-foot motor home. about how the people killed in the russian, their bodies were never found or still buried it there today. to the west of those, reid blackburn a time to take a couple of photographs as the club was approaching.
he jumped in the driver seat of his car but before he could go anywhere, blasted the car and blew out the windows, and quickly filled with hot ash. so they contained essentially no oxygen and whenever anyone was caughcaughtcaught by any would k the lungs would instantly fill up with ash. i still have a jar of the ash, a jar my grandma brought to the way if he tasted it at has a taste like chalk. it's a metallic taste like something deep inside the earth. that must've been a sensation a lot of people had who were caught in that couple last sensation they ever had. so the next people to be hit by the blast were john and christie on fondly. i'm not going to tell you what happened to them but fawn lake which was nine miles away from the falcon was completely devastated by the blast. as you can imagine their story is tragic.
maybe it's a good time to make just how immense the devastation from a blast cloud was. the area with applause cloud knocked over trees, is called the blow down some. if you superimposed a map of the modem zone on a map of washington, d.c. so the balkan would be like national park, then the zone extends all the way down bethesda and past landover. more than 200 square miles of area. the last group i would about is the more feminine was camped on the green river about 12 miles north -- the mor moore family tt even though there were fatalities both to the west in the east, they had camped in the shadow of the mountain called black mountain which absorb the worst of the clouds influence. they were having breakfast that
morning and they notice this cloud was coming over the ridge to the south. mike moore who wa is a photograr and out and started taking photographs. this cloud kept coming closer and mike kept taking these photographs. the photographs of the volcano never really capture some of the things that the eyewitnesses say that they saw. they described the color of this cloud for mike said it was filled with green and yellow and pink colors and churning like an egg beater. that was what the cloud look like as it approached. he said it was the most beautiful thing he has ever seen. windows cloud which there came, they took shelter in a hunter's shack that was nearby and he later said that the ash cloud was so loud and so continuous that they couldn't hear each other speak. but they never saw a flash of lightning because the ash cloud was so thick that was completely
dark. .. e >> they realized they would have to get back through the forest to get back to their car. by this time, it was getting late in the day and they realized they were never going to get there that day. they had campers and brought extra food and set them up to camp and god ready to make the best of it. they spent the night and david, they slept well that night. when they woke up to next they were m not feeling bad.
they saw a helicopter ahead and the helicopter saw the orange police and decided they would be the last people they would rescue but the pilot couldn't land in the trees so they lowered a paramedic down and the helicopter put a single skid on this island and started loading the families. the pilot was concerned about the helicopter getting overloaded and said you can't bring the backpack along and he said there is a baby in it.
of the people killed in the mount st. helens, all but three were outside of the danger zone. a in st. paul, there is a real estate transaction and eight years later it is helping these people who are captured around a dangerous volcano. what can we learn from the eruption of mount st. helens that might be relevant to us today? there is three lessons i draw. the first is we have to take volcanos seriously. scientist are not that well prepared to tell when they are going to be erupt.
they issue warnings and watches. the warnings can be expensive and inconvenient for those of us who live in the northwest. but they are like fire drills. we have to engage in them if we are going to be prepared when the real thing happens. and the second lesson i draw is we have to gather information. scientist and public and safety officials learned a lot with the eruption of mount st. helens. new technology has made it easier to monitor the changes around a volcano. there have been plenty of col volcanic activity across the country. there is an observe in vancouver and they keep eye on the mount
st. helens and of all of the volcanos that could erupt. it is interesting for people to read that even don't live in the northwest. the third thing is i learned is we have to get ready. we have many hazards here. we have the earthquakes, the tsunamis and fires and floods that are possible. and people elsewhere have these hazards two. in the 35 years i lived in washington, d.c. before moving to seattle six years ago i lived through several hurricanes, blizzards and even a small tornado. so people in the northwest and elsewhere tend to react to discussions of natural disasters with fear which leads to paralysis or fatalism. but preparing to fail is
preparing to fail and the better prepar prepared we are today the better we will be when a real case happens. it was the most iconic event that happened in washington state. it has a lot to teach us about living in one of the most beautiful parts of the united states but one of the most dangerous as well. i would be happy to answer your questions about mount st. helens. [applause] >> yes? >> yeah, i already read the book. it was really good. i wanted to ask you [inaudible question] >> this is a question, and in the book i describe what happened to all 57 people that died, i didn't do that because i
thought it was too overwhelming. so i chose the area north of the volcano because i could describe the blasts and those people in the volcano. by describing their experience i hope you get a sense of what people elsewhere experienced. i talked about a rescue around mount st. helens and trying to get had people out. this is a question about the clones. they worked. they blocked the navigation on the columbia river and they are a problem today. a huge amount of debris came down the rivers and blocked navigation, ruined the fishing for a few years.
i think these big ships in portland were probably stuck there for a couple months before able to make they way up to the pacific and a channel could be dredged through the columbia. there is a dam that is just about full up there. they are still dealing with the issue of the debris coming down from the volcano. [inaudible question] >> you are right. [inaudible question] >> that was one thing i had in mind when i decided to write about this because there has been plenty other books written. part of my job was to read all of those books and talk to
everybody i possibly could so i could tell the story as comprehensively as i could. i came across information that had not been available before. the company was sued by the family of the victims and that case went to trial in seattle. thousands of pages were on file in the king county court house and no writer saw those before. they allowed me to fill in the gaps. the other thing i tried to do was tell the whole story. going all the way back to the beginning and explain the antecedents of what happened to people as well as on the day of the eruption. [inaudible question]
>> it was a government agency that put things together for inner agencies conditions. part of the reason for the trial was the belief that there had been a deal that was made so the ware houses continued to keep afloat. what i state in this book is that no proof of collision between wearhouser and ray, the governor of washington state. but they didn't have to talk directly for this to occur. there was an economic power interest in washington state that government officials drawing these lines wouldn't have gone in a way to cause it to be steam railed and that was the root cause of the tragedy that happened with people too
close to the volcano. there was a proposal to expand the danger zone that was sitting on governor dixon lee ray's desk when the volcano erupted. she had been away saturday which is when it got to her desks. if the extension of the danger zone had been put in place most of those people wouldn't have been killed. but it never happened. yes? >> can you talk mount
rainier and how it changed people's thinking on it today? >> mount rainier which is very active. lots of people do worry about mount rainier. in the 1980's people realized
significant communities in the pugent sound were created on mudslide and especially after the eruption of mount st. helens people became more aware of that peag being the case. if you go down on to the low areas you will see signs that essentially look like tsunami signs because the same thing happens in the mud flows. sometimes the mud flows occur without accompanying volcano activity. if something comes off the mountain and makes its way to the river valley you have
about ten minutes to escape. there are many complications and if something like this happened in the middle of the night and you have 10-15 minutes to get to high ground it will not be easy.
[inaudible question] >> it is one of these has hazards people have to take serious. it is very difficult to get away in case something like this happens. there needs to be drills so we are prepared. >> do we have to worry about yellow stone? >> in the northwest, there have been eruptions bigger than mt. saint helens. yellow stone doesn't look like
it is going to have a major eruption any time soon but when it has in the past it could devastate the entire eastern half of the united states. i think the last eruption was hundreds of thousands of years ago and there is no sign it is about to do it again. there have been major volcano eruptions in the past and it will continue to do it. it is certainly just a matter of time. >> could you say a little bit about the current situation and the management of the area. last time i was out there it was run by the park service and other agencies. it is an interesting phenomena. what do you feel like the lessons learned from it that specifically occurred with the land and management? >> one thing i didn't talk about
but i do in the book is the formation of the mount st. helens monument that exist there today. there was a group working before the eruption to set aside the area the area. what happens with the eruption is this whole area they were trying to protect was devastated so they had to change their strategy because the area they wanted for recreation was now a giant pile of mud. scientist were interested in studying the area around ther
and see what life can come back. that area is protected. it is not as large as people hope. we were advocating for a larger monume monument. it is true there is major threats in the area. there is a mining company that wants to mine on the gray river and they are allowed to do so. if they find an ore they could make money in that area they could do it. wa warehouses used the area as a tree farm as well. >> this a question about how land comes back from this kind of devastation.
it has been interesting. they thought, for instance, plants and animals would enter into the last zone from the edges growing in. and what they found out is the process is more random than you would think. it depends on the time of the year, what animals are around, what are the first plants to colonize that area. and they form an island where other plats and animals colonize there as well. you see a lot of variability. but interesting feature is the area around mt. saint helens is the most diverse in the state. if you let them enter on their own, you can see all kinds of animals. this is a devastated area but yet vegetation is returning
quickly to the mountains. there is not huge forests around it and it won't for a couple hundred years but the trees a back and the elk is back. it is a wonderful place to visit. i recommend everyone go take a look at it. yes? [inaudible question] >> you might look at the website before you go. but you will know if any of those volcanos get busy again. they issue warnings. >> if you don't show up i will take that as a no. >> if i am there it is safe. two more questions. [inaudible question]
>> there are pockets of forest around washington state. they are not easy to find but they exist. if you go to mt. saint helens you will come across a part that didn't fall to the eruption and they are protected and instrumental in setting aside that area as protected. there are bits and pieces up there. it is amazing there is not more growth forest but i guess the trees are so valuable. one last question. [inaudible question]
>> the question is is about how unusual this volcano is. the fact of the matter is it is unusual in the united states, but this kind of eruption, sideways eruption, the collapse of a volcano and eruption of the side devastating the landscape is common. they see this all over the world. mt. saint helens has done this in the past and it is going to do it again in the future. it is just a matter of time until these volcanos erupt again. we are out of time.
thanks, everybody. >> thank you so much for coming. get a book, get it signed. if you could do us a favor and fold up your chairs. let's have another roundf applause for steve. [applause] >> booktv records hundreds of author programs throughout the country all year long. here is look at events we will cover this week. on monday, we are in clermont, california talking to professors who are authors of books. and we will be at the jimmy carter museum on tuesday to hear