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tv   Asia Analysts Discuss Role of Soft Power Media in U.S.- Japan- South Korea...  CSPAN  January 8, 2019 3:00am-4:15am EST

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next, a discussion on a u.s.-japan south korea trilateral relations at an washington.sium in the panel centers on how soft power and media can affect the relationship among the three nations. this is just over one hour. >> good morning. i am excited to be here to
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issues covering the u.s., japan and south korea relations. it is not often that that are on experts are brought together in washington in front of students -- i will include myself in the -- us older hands, to think about these issues outside the box. i am delighted to open our fast panel today on the role of soft power and media in trilateral relations. i think things like soft power, especially, social media, maybe it is the -- briefly, soft power has the ability to influence iser countries something that japan, south korea and the united states possess and exercise while. i hope we can address how soft power in the media can be used
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to influence public opinion and promote trilateral relations in all three countries. our panel can also address whether the media and the changing role including social media, has made it easier or harder to foster bilateral and trilateral relationships. i would like to introduce our panelistss to my immediate left -- their full biographies are in the program. i will not go at length, but let me just briefly go down. to my immediate left is ambassador kathleen stevens, former american diplomat and u.s. ambassador to the republic 11.orea from 2008-2000 and other overstate -- her other overseas assignments included china, former yugoslavia, portugal, northern ireland and india. ambassador stevens also served policy positions
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in washington at the department of state and the white house. currently, she is a president and ceo of the korea economic institute of america. two from me, is miss ki the chair of them 12th, korean american student conference committee and is currently pursuing a bachelor's in english literature. the next guest, he is assigned to the washington bureau chief, from a leading japanese daily newspaper. he previously served as a deputy managing editor as well as editor in chief of the morning addition and the foreign -- and, where he supervised the
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companies 30 foreign correspondentsp he received his degree in literature from a famous tokyo university and has also held positions at the london correspondent, the paris bureau chief and the european editor. umaida,, we have miss kah serving as the vice chair of the committee for the 71st american -japanese student conference billion she is majoring in political science and international affairs. without further ado, i will let each panelist speak for 5-8 minutes, then we will have a minutes,n for about 20 then after that, i will open it up to the floor for any question you might have for our guest panelists. so i turn over the floor to ambassador stevens. >> andrew, thank you, i will try
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to be very brief, but thank you very much for the kind introduction. my task is made somewhat easier by the fact that i feel that linda and the others kind of laid out the framework very well for this conference. this is not the first time i have been here, it is great to ,ee veterans, i like that word in the audience, as well as many fresh faces. when i see the young faces here, i see my younger self. i really believe in what you are doing in this program because i know how it shaped my life, my both, -- my career, personally and professionally. -- myofficial while, official bio, but as a young woman growing in the united , the firsthe 70's place i went east of the mississippi river was hong kong when i went to study as a student for a year.
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than as a peace corps volunteer, i had a chance to travel to 20's.in my early i never got to the point were i would feel comfortable in doing a panel and either chinese or korean, to say nothing of japanese, so hats off to my students here but those. , whether you call them soft power or people-the-people, or exchanges, those were the foundation for my diplomatic korea and for the way that i tried to approach issues in my personal life and professional life. i appreciate the support, from the korea foundation and for the great work you are doing, linda. this is important. this title for this panel is, to me, actually challenging. -- wef times that i spent could chew on these terms for the rest of the morning -- what is soft power? mean by trilateral
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relations? it is all very complicated, as has been alluded to already. lost power is a term -- actually, public diplomacy is a term that was not even in use when i became a diplomat long ago in the 1970's. i think many of you know that the power was coined in 1990's by a harvard professor and then was further defined in 2002. in part because, in the united states -- i haven't heard this directly, he may have said it -- and was leaning toward the coarser side of our politics, and ibeing done throum is a very much a part of it. i had another thought about soft power, to throw it out there because when we talk about , theteral communications relationship between our three
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-- three countries but it has been mentioned the trilateral relations between our countries and are challenging sometimes but they are very important elements. about that basket of issues and soft power. maybe sometimes with good reason. appreciation, if you like. elements of our cultural history. in that context, i was thinking about was in the washington post yesterday. withs old-fashioned media, all respect to "the washington post," that there was an article about korea and japan. foras about the rage
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"bohemian rhapsody" in both countries. a couple points about that. one, freddie mercury and queen is more my generation than the one we are talking about in korea and japan. arst of all, that is not government official expression of culture or attempt to influence. it was a british band, right? led by a young man from zanzibar. but people are going crazy about it, especially young people in both korea and japan in a way not even seen in britain or the united states. i offer that as one, the soft power. how do you bottle that? been you students have talking about listening to old queen records -- well, not records anymore. i guess my serious point is, it
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kind of does. foreign outsider like myself, not korean nor japanese, it is interesting that the trends in d the technical logical world where the m people in both countries respond in not identical ways, but ways that are interestingly similar. that,is a commonality maybe not so much for government policy but in terms of thinking about communication and finding common ground, maybe a bohemian rhapsody is not a bad place to begin. more seriously, and i think i have run out my five minutes now, what joseph had to say relying onpower and the three pillars is something to keep in mind as we have this conversation. culture is one way, but the
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second is our political systems. i do think that one of the things each of our countries, that makes each of our countries powerful, if you like soft power producers, is at least till now, generally speaking -- the strength of our democracies and the admiration for them. it faces challenges, but maybe in other ways in other countries. underpins not only our soft power projection, but our ability to work together. that goes also devalues. values are a foundation of this and that relates to the third part of the pillar. foreign-policy. foreign-policy that other countries find legitimate, something that they can find a way to work with and again, with respect to the bilateral relationship with japan and korea, generally speaking, we have been able to do that.
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it has been more difficult for japan and korea to do it. i think that looking at it through the lens of soft power and the ability of these various components of soft power, including cultural exchange programs and academic exchange programs that help build a foundation to give a resilience to the relationship that allows us to at least try to address, not overnight or in one year, some of the more difficult challenges, whether they are on or theue of legacy future of the korean peninsula. the unfinished business and things we need to focus on at every level going forward. maybe we can exchange and not just have the senior expert speak and i will let you speak. thank you for giving me the
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opportunity to be here. it is an honor to open the new year with it to learn exchange and grow with esteemed companions. extend great thanks and appreciation to the board members and staff for bringing students together in such an empowering way, the korean foundation for making it trilateral and everyone from the younger generation understanding this is important moving along. panel, ird to the focus more on the fact that it panel and felt that in a world of so much information, attention is power. amounte finite available, it is important to understand where it goes. in every sense of the word, it has become a race to the bottom for the public's attention span
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and screen time. living in korea, i felt this tangibly and the shift from global -- anonymity to recognition. 2 thousand five, if you told somebody you were from korea, you either received a blank stare or a question that was very infamous, north or south? today, people have either heard of south korea, care for south korea, or are heavily invested in south korea. the moment we actually felt on the ground where it blew up was gangnam style. to anonymity,ed we felt the overnight wonder would die out and we would kind of relapse off the grid. next camehat struck bubbling to the service and losing, drama, across the board
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versusoes to soft power hard power, people explain that soft power in itself is a little bit more negligible. however, in this sense, i felt it is the difference between having -- going out and doing what you want to do and having fun and homework. hard power in that sense gets things done, but not much beyond that. waves ins international waters, shifting the landscape of the world order and perception of it. it is powerful because it influences worldviews and what andhink eventually leads to dictates how we act. in the sense, i perceive soft element,a water, the seemingly because it seems harmless because it is capable of altering the formations of the landscape and the way people
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interact within the global economy. powerthis as -- soft wasn't necessarily soft power in that it is split from hard power, but includes both aspects. it includes the ideology that is within the soft power as embedded within media content. be how in kwould -pop how femininity and masculinity is being accepted within the americans fear is interesting to look at. it is also tied in an strongly based on economy how the tour is an industry is gigantically growing and in soft power, you of list off so many examples how it is a formidable force in a country's economy. new zealand has lord of the -pops, korea now has l--- k
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and japan has anime. it upholds a significant part of the economy, so that is something that is always worth looking at and with a force of such a driving part of the economy that it is actually something that has a lot of driving force behind it. something i wanted to mention and as idea of branding, we come into the world of media and content, how the identity of a national state has kind of come into focus because it is not just a nation that influences -- heavily influential of people's lives now because multinational theirations are branding presence into the lives of the people and this creates a gigantic force and shapes the very way people interact in their lives and interact in a global scale.
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understanding that the presence of multinational corporations includes a large role. it is important to see that nations are also branding and revolutionizing their own image, which made me kind of think that it may be like a revolutionized version of imagined communities as we come to understand what it means to be in a country, to be of a certain nationality, and to understand that identity as a whole. thank you. >> some pretty deep insights. [inaudible] >> good morning. also was crazy about queen's music as a teenager. important to have shared
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experience to get to know each other and that is also the reason why it is so important. invited tod to be such a precious event of dialogue between the younger generation of americans, south koreans, and japanese. my opinions are strong given the climate in countries like japan and south korea. i have been working for more than 38 years as a journalist and therefore, i believe more roleever how crucial of a it plays in understanding between us. would like to talk about a little of my personal experience. fromurned to tokyo christmas to the beginning of the new year and adjust back to
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washington, d.c. yesterday. i was surprised by a couple of things while i was in japan that i would like to talk about. japan's largest broadcasting tv the koreanairing royal family story from the 16th century. i was relieved that the trend continues, despite the political tensions between the two nations. additionally, in japan, every new year's eve, the station broadcasts a contest called red and white. performancet had a by the girls group whose members are korean.
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some taiwanese and japanese. to catch up too old with current trends of the japanese entertainment industry, but korean singers and arformers have been already member of this contest, as well. learned that the trend for korean pop culture in japan, neo korean style or the third korean wave. trend came around the year 2000 when korean tv dramas were a big hit. it was followed by the second wave, in 2010, when korea idol groups became popular. we have a third one now. it is said the lifestyle of makeuporeans, hairstyle,
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are getting very popular among japanese young women. for the younger generations, national borders are becoming less important. hierarchy. cultural soft power is so powerful that we share the same values and understanding between countries, but i have to mention that there are still a lot of anti-korean, , so-chinese publications the bookstores in tokyo, not as many as before. easy to understand the gap over japanese contradictory sentiment. love in one hand and hate in the other. to help understand, let me describe an interesting opinion by one of the
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major daily newspapers in japan, on which japanese hate korea. 45ording to the result, percent of japanese people who read the publications are over 60 years old. 8% are of teenagers and indifferent. people do not have direct experience with korea, such as a trip to korea or having korean friends are more likely to have anti-korea sentiment. the heavy users of the internet are also more likely to hold such sentiments. becauseso difficult older people are more likely to be trapped by the stereotypes against neighboring countries and do not have enough experience to enter korean
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modern culture. so what is striking to me is almost 18% of korean china haters in japan are regular readers of newspapers. who are people frustrated at the current state of japan are more likely to hate koreans. it is so hard to believe that the newspaper might either origin of anti-korean sentiment. i have tried to analyze the reason. let me tell you my theory. the papers tend to publish more hard-core political and security news then tv and other media. even though we are proud to be of power, our coverage tends to be more negative than positive, or focused on problems than solutions and more critical .
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information solely from newspapers might be more pessimistic toward foreign nations than optimistic. the daily papers are not focusing so much on the daily life and modern culture of neighboring countries. i would like to conclude my point. what kind of role and responsibility should the news media and journalists have to facilitate and perhaps chromate understanding that promote understanding with neighbors? reporting.he of news news reporting on neighboring countries tends to be more security, social, lifestyle trends. it tends to be more political on policy. hard-core news is very important and crucial, but we often do not know what kind of value our
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neighbor has. what we have in common, and what is different. what are our common trends? for example, i was also surprised that more stores were closed during the holiday season in years before. the reason is due to the labor shortage because it is difficult to find workers and staff available to work during the holidays. japan and south korea and even china, as well as share the same challenge of an aging society and low birth rate combined with -- low i believe there is balance between the hard journalists and -- needs to be balance between hard journalists and soft journalists. japanese and korean people have been exposed to american soft power.
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baseball, disney. at why the u.s. and allies have a history of war. an important point is we need journalists of discovery and not journalists of confirmation. let me tell you what this means. in japan, tv news broadcasts image of small children stuck in mouse holes inside of washing machines or between outer walls. while i was in china in 2013 to 2014, as a visiting fellow of the university, i realized that almost all chinese people carry smartphones and use social media. but for japanese audiences, such
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news is the impression that china is a place for children. this is confirmation bias. by coverage is shaped baseless stereotypes against different countries. journalists are trying to find breaking news which confirms the ready-made ideas and stories. i believe we should instead focus more on real, fact-based observation and the discovery. to discover facts, we have to did for visions of the countries and get information from sources as diverse and various as possible. doing so may contradict our previously held theories and stereotypes. journalism based on discovery instead of bias, we are able to find common ground based on the break freerest and
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of the stereotypes of hate. i believe that should be the goal of the news media. [applause] >> it sounds like selection and confirmation bias in the media can in some ways erode the positive effects. something we can come back to in our discussion. i would like to turn the floor our next guest and let her share her insights about soft power and the media. >> thank you. first, i would like to thank international student conferences and the korea foundation for your support and providing us students with this incredible opportunity to discuss these important topics alongside these excellent experts. first, i would like to talk about the applicability of soft power to policy. havew my fellow panelists talked about the influences of soft power we have seen in all
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three countries and that is undeniable, whether it be k-pop, presence ofhe those new trends in the united states and obviously the u.s. has dominated soft power in the asian countries for decades, but i have the question of how does soft power translate to policy and in the changing landscape we see right now, especially with -- incorporation of multinational corporations, we need to look at it through consumerism and i think in that field, we need to see how soft power can transform into hard power through the usage of economics, and i think that is the main way we can find the applicability of soft power to policy. theso wanted to touch upon influences of soft power that we have seen in our three countries
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today and i think that one of the issues that we do need to address is the usage of social media and how much that accesses influencing people to go out and learn about countries. the internet, the fast-paced media and information we are able to get wherever we are, that does encourage those were interested to then go find that information, but that ease of access encourages people to assume they know about a certain country based on information they get. trilateralgrams like encourage people to go out and have their own experiences, and that is the only way you can truly learn about a country or e, and that is something student leaders need to focus on and emphasize in the future.
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the -- going back to changing landscape that we see presence of corporations and soft power and how that then turns into policy, i know ambassador stephens touched on it but in 2003, he coined the new term smart power, a combination of hard power and soft power and that is important to bring into this discussion. as it iste the two, now, and how the two can work together rather than like in many cases, are seen as two separate entities that need to rival each other in discussions. i would love to take the discussion that direction, as well. start, pick i would then your last point about combination of soft power and hard power or the ability to use soft power to affect policies.
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hello like annime, and pop stars are more recent, but some of these cultural ideas have been around for years but that doesn't necessarily mean we have seen foreign policy between the countries bilaterally or trilateral he improving. so i wanted to ask, does more soft power translate to other countries agreeing with one another on foreign-policy issues? i don't know if anyone wanted to take the first jump on it but it is a question about the effects of soft power and it affects how other countries think about foreign-policy. takesador stephens: i'll that. soft power affecting policy, this is more on economic policy, if you like and will get to the broader security policy issues.
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a little story about korea. asrtly after i arrived korea's ambassador in 2008, i had a conversation with a high-ranking person in the government who said -- we talk about the new green wave, k-pop, but that is not our branding. we want to show our higher culture and we are not sure how k-popis going to influence perceptions of korea in the world and our ability to achieve our policy goals. what we have seen is a realization that in this power -- soft power in the cultural tourism was mentioned. we see a product of japanese and korea that found a place in the global marketplace, and are helping to the early stages. it is a movement away from areas
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vis-a-vis china and the heavy manufacturing sectors into the service sectors, into the cultural things like film, is that come with a vibrant dynamic soft power sector, and democracy. i do not think -- let me back up. i include in my definition of soft power, political values. and the attractiveness of those both within your own country and to others. the concept of democracy, free press, free speech is still a powerful concept to which all of our countries and people sign up. it is under some stress, some questioning. i think that will remain the core going forward, more commonality in foreign policy approach. are we going to have alliances?
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partnerships about korea and japan based upon shared values. >> any thoughts? was a correspondent, i was impressed by the french policy, cultural diplomacy's. if you lookaspect back to the 18th and 19th century time of colonialism, french government used the policy to dominate the culture and influence in the colonial states, but i also am interested in how the french government courage thinking
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about their policies. on the like to say relationship between the cultures and the policies, not power likee soft enemy and monger -- like anime manga, i don't want the government to set up an ideal, control deal of soft power. if you are thinking about control of soft power. mentionnversation
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something that should come from the bottom up, something natural. if the government starts enclosing these things, that looks like propaganda. for those who have studied in , she is close to the part of soft, power our values or political system. it has tremendous soft power, but if you look at global rankings of public u.s., it hasds the been in decline the last couple of years. a small part is the current administration.
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you coming here to the united states, and your interactions going back and forth, do you feel when you go to korea or japan that people are asking what is going on with the united states? do you think that soft power has shifted? ordinary that affect japanese or korean's look at the united states, based on your own experience? maybe you can share with the audience because you have a unique perspective. >> i think soft power has and ambassador stevens touched on this. the importance of political speech, we hold that near and dear to our hearts. playole of the media does a big part in that, and upholding that, and continuing to spread that around the world.
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even under the current , even though the reputation of certain ideas like free speech may be under players such as the media, corporations can continue to send that message of soft power. i would say the values of free speech, of liberty that is upheld is associated very strongly with the u.s., even though there is a lot of political turmoil in the international sphere. , andhing that came to mind within my direct sphere was the most recent success for u.s. soft power is "hamilton."
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what is funny about it, it makes you care more about it. in the past, u.s. history was not a concern for me. . was not invested in it the net i hear songs from "hamilton," it means something to me now, i am very invested. that soft power makes individuals care, and at a basic level, policy and government, the bottom line interaction between individuals on a personal focus, and having that , that ise able to care really important. mentiong i wanted to was soft power helps assume the best intentions when you're
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dealing with issues in the global sphere. >> is soft power more relevant in countries like japan and korea than united states? diplomacy,of public but do you think the way people, the business world thinks about soft power, is it different in korea and japan than in the united states? is there anything americans can learn about the use of soft power in japan and korea? >> i had something to say about that, i was thinking about the korean identity, the japanese identity, the american identity. in relation to where i started before on national branding, america has established itself as a global superpower in terms of military, and has a strong hard power status.
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in terms of people my age in south korea, we understand, we relate with the kpop influence. that people of korea are understanding branding of south korea to be a strong influence in soft power, and having that as an identity and driving force in the branding of a close partcomes to the identity factor. >> i think in terms of the united states, we have seen decades of dominance in soft power, so i think the presence of the united states in asian countries has become accepted and obvious, whereas recently the new wave of korean influences and japanese influences in the united states is seen as a new trend, the unknown. everybody is excited about it
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and wanting to know more, but it is not necessarily that the united states needs to learn something, i think they need to approach it differently because they have a continued dominance. it is very difficult for the united states to change their approach and present something to asian countries that is new and unexpected from what they have seen the past few decades. we have so much hard power, military power, economic power, sometimes we do not really think , and unitedis there states we are quick to turn to hard power, military power, whereas countries -- you mention identity, but if you had this middle power identity which is a in term that comes up japanese and korean foreign policy quarters.
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i think soft power being a middle power country, i do not know if ambassador stevens is immersed in any additional thoughts. >> as we look at our three countries, we can have different situations in terms of history and scale. if we are talking about the postwar. , yes, the u.s. emerged from world war ii as hard power dominant. this may be considered up again a, but it turned out to be effective, not only in ensuring military dominance, but what we now call soft power is huge. our biggest government-funded cultural programs were during the cold war. unionands to the soviet to eastern europe to india, we look at these photographs, the u.s. government, even before the
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term was invented, there was a sense of power of culture, power of ideas and how to use those. a bitk we started going wrong after 2001. we thought we had won the cold war, and we look at our challenges post 9/11 through too much of a military lens. government policy, there has been a shifting. we are a big country, so branding, people knew who the u.s. was, that was not an issue. japan in the postwar era, moved ,rom hard power to soft power and did it effectively overall. a little successfully in the region. rediscovery ofa the creativity and expressiveness of the japanese culture and people. beenrea, some of it has
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andbattle, the real korea the 21st century. is it north korea or south korea? i think south korea has shown it is south korea. that is soft power as well as hard power. i think soft power will be more important in that context. i was thinking about your question and stimulated by the other comments about how soft power helps you achieve foreign policy goals. career, at the end of the cold war nobody saw the end coming for the transformation of 9/11 and the reorientation of policy, and now to the trump administration were all the foundational principles of the americans sponsored created post-world war ii two.
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are being questioned. the u.s. has always had hard power and data has been understood. as a diplomat, it is easier for me to be in south korea or japan, because people pay attention when i walk in the room, they knew there was hard power there. how can you achieve your goals in economic negotiation, negotiation about terms under which her troops will be there, or whatever it is, or cooperation on somewhere else in the world. especially with democratic countries, my counterparts, the diplomats say we have public opinion. people,le, the japanese the south korean people are looking at what you were doing. it was easier for us to accomplish our goals if we have the sense that general public opinion was understood, because united states is regarded as legitimate. it was legitimate and understandable in a positive way. interestt some narrow
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people might know in detail are generally not, just generally in our approach to the world. i think we risk underestimating the importance of what we are calling soft power. in a literal way, i -- i longer in an american am no longer an american diplomat, and for my colleagues and has become more difficult. >> we talk a lot about soft power, i want to turn to the last question. i think you set up my question nicely in terms of the role of media and shaping public opinion , particularly foreign public opinion. the commonality tween soft power and the media is public opinion
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and how we can shape public opinion. ,ou have this interesting note those who read newspapers in japan are more likely to have antiforeign sentiment. that is not just newspapers, the platforms of media is changing, you have facebook, twitter, different text messaging apps. one of your suggestions was to diversify the news we read, that has become easier with media platforms, but do you find the being moreging role positive in terms to shape form , especially in the context of trilateral relations, the u.s., japan, south korea? how do you see this changing media landscape affecting the ability to shape public opinion, and will it move in a more
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positive direction, or will we see old stereotypes about different countries? >> that is a good question because we are probably -- nowadays, cultures moving back and forth in a country, for -- when i was a child i grew up in -- i was pretty much [indiscernible] diversifying.are still, the news people based on
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newspaperse, the , iically to japanese readers understand nowadays many koreans have a different language media is basede on the language boundaries. say we have have to to develop ourselves, people do not read a newspaper much nowadays. people are on social media, they are getting information from
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sources other than new space purpose -- from other than newspapers. encourage [indiscernible] those kinds of formats under the federal government by people who do not read japanese. nowadays, the media has to to theto adapt development of the new format of the media. i am not pessimistic, i am pretty much optimistic. change our mindset, and our conduct. >> good. we have about 10 to 15 minutes
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for q&a. i see hands up. if i call you, briefly identify who you are and state your question. i see a gentleman in the second row here. i am an intel analyst and former diplomat. largely, you have not separated the soft power is the free market of entertainment from the government efforts. admittedly, these overlap like when we smuggle korean dramas into north korea. if you want to use it as a real tool, you have to move it toward the government effort to see what your foreign policy resources will be invested in. it was not the t-shirt that says i love new york that brought down the soviet union, but you could say something about the voice of america jazz program ,hich 80% of soviets listen to
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followed by the news that came afterwards. i want to ask, if we want to take down international projects to improve the world freedom away at therinding hegemony of china, shouldn't we be coordinating a big program, talking to each other? the kinetic side of foreign policy is integrated by treaties, but the soft power is separated. can't we go one more notch up in soft power by coordinating our efforts to target the real demons in the world? >> i think you spoke a little bit about that. >> i appreciate that. i agree with your analysis of the importance of government efforts in the cold war on the
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cultural and information side. many would argue that was as important or more important than going militarily toe to toe with the soviets. i think the world has changed in moreense there is much because of the change in communications and technology that can happen at the nongovernmental level. but we should be strategic about how we approach it. maybe we will have funding of these hopeful programs. add, ier thing i would saw little bit in my own career where we funded the military to do the soft power side -- it did not work so well. lots of money from the government is not always the answer, i do not think you are saying that. things, one, the
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government should kind of support and get out of the way. we have to make sure visas are available, so when entertainers want to travel somewhere, we can get out of the way. i feel this way vis-a-vis north korea, we should be sending more people and information in, and getting people out irrespective of where we are with sanctions. there is an important role for government foreign policy. get a thing i have not thought so much about, but it is a great idea for this group, how can we work together with partners and allies in this area? i think you are absolutely right about that. , i canhink of some areas speak korean because i know it best. we worked together with the korean government to highlight the importance of overseas
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and the role korea is playing now as a provider of overseas development assistance in the film programs. message an interesting for koreans and americans, but some of our broader audiences. that is a very small example, and the fact i cannot say more is a sign that more needs to be done in this area. >> the gentleman in the front. hunter mcdonald, i wanted to ask a question regarding what i think is an elephant in the room that was not brought up in the panel discussion. with the relationship increasingly in contrast to a geopolitical rival in the people's republic of china, where do we evaluate the
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thinkingof china and about how china in recent years the expansion in the south china seas, government supported technological innovation? there has been a strong drive toward hard power reinforcement, but what is power, itty in soft is more likely to become an old country before it is a rich country. and if soft power is correlated with wealth, how will it be inhibited in that regard? >> we talked about it a little yesterday, do you want to take that question? i'm not sure i have the answer, my experience in china five years ago, even at the time
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access toicult to get the american social media from china. it is difficult to access even google or youtube. manysurprised that students and young people are trying to ask me the question about the japanese drama or singers. -- iseople may know about he single, is he married? even though the chinese [indiscernible]
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also, given the chinese government can stop that kind of .eal , it's comments , thee previous question human relation is important not only with information but the important.so -- af the successful program about teachers, so many young american or european
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english speaking people going to japan to teach english in the japanese schools. they conveyed not only the values., but also the withhing that could happen japan and korea and china, they exchange.d the human >> just to get it in perspective, when you are studying in korea, do you feel -- what is your reaction when your friends are studying chinese? what is the perception?
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it is not really soft power, we are suspicious of it. korea, theh attending the university is a specific experience because i do ofl it is not like a lot students going to china, but students coming and understanding korean culture. in terms of how we perceive chinese soft power, i feel it is u.s. isepting than the a chinese are power because it within thend it is same asian district thomas so i have friends who watch chinese dramas. and willing to go abroad to places for film.
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that is a category that is not too niche, but not a mainstream force. the force i see in my surroundings is of chinese influence coming to south korea. mr. yeo: have a handout up here, so they are the bill in this rhodamine one in the back. if we could start on this road, yes -- there are 2 in this row and one in the back. let us start with the first row. >> i am a third-year student in washington and lee university, and i am part of the american executive committee for the 71st japan america student conference. for me, i feel that soft hour is very much tied into cultural
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memory. as a history student, i feel of contentionart with that has to do with the educational system, especially in regards to international incidents. as a less how cultural materials presented. i run into this particularly talking about the civics and history textbook debate in japan , as well as post-civil war related issues in the united states. soft power, do you think about it should be addressed effectively? because these are points of contention that do actually show up outside of the classroom. mr. yeo: you can pass the mic down to your colleague. >> thank you to everyone in the handle for coming. i am a third-year student at the university of st. thomas and i am on the aec team.
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before the new year, the u.s. military tweeted, saying that -- and the ball is about to drop, but the u.s. military is always ready to drop something. a picture accompanied by tweet, of a fighter jet. i find that to be an interesting intersection between this idea of using twitter, which a lot of us would consider to be a soft power tool, but alluding to hard military. when you talk about hard power, we have boots on the ground training, people get military training in that sense. you can train business people and economists, things like that, but the utilization of those tools is much newer. where will the training come from in the future as far as power?tion of soft how can we teach people to use soft power and avoid blunders
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about the u.s. military just made with their twitter account recently? host: and ok, in the back. >> i think i address this question. i would like to ask you. , for people in your age group, how do you see the importance of traditional japanese culture? when i lived in the auto -- some, i had contact with schools, and one of them has an active international outreach. for example, they have a tea room right up here in 18th and l , and there was only open one in romania. prime minister abe attended the opening of that one. i don't know how important that is to young people. mr. yeo: ok, we will start with ambassador stevens. the questions were about later section of soft power and how to train people to employ soft
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power effectively. if you have any thoughts or you can respond to the final question? ms. stephens: both the >> , i wantedand comments to say something about that, so thank you for your questions about them. if i could paraphrase what you are saying -- history does matter, it is important. therry a little bit that way we get information, not just media, but information in general, has becomes no stove piped. there is so much confirmation bias. at the same time, there is a to them, they decline in the ability of experts. we should be able to look up and find an internet whatever fact we want to know anymor -- in the
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moment. and i think when it comes to memoryacts of cultural and historical memory, it is a real challenge. my latest thought about this is s, they seem to be important, i feel a great sense of community with everybody when i walk around with my headphones and listen to a podcast, and i understand that the most popular podcast last year in the united dates -- i may be wrong about very long and very erudite history of the roman empire. so i thought, when you ask about tools, -- i am really thinking about working on a podcast where i will try to engage in conversations on u.s.-korea relations. i think that i see in the younger generation, tell me if i am wrong, a hunger for ,ntellectual depth and nuance and understanding, but i think in the wayserved
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that we are served up information now. i alluded to it in response to your question -- i have great respect for the military. i don't think they are equipped to do what they call -- strategic communications. one of the mistakes, but i think the united states made in the post-9/11 phase was that every task went to the military. they got these enormous budget to do things that they were not trained to do. there have been, i think, some successes, but there have been times when i think it has been counterproductive. and that needs to be corrected. it concerns me that the current administration may not see it in the same way. . i think there were some efforts in the past two years to correct that come i think you identified an initiative.
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anyway, i don't think twitter is by nature soft power, substance does matter. you have tools, you have substance, and substance matters , that is why policy matters and values matter. mr. yeo: would you like to add anything? >> the question about historical contention and all of that, i wanted to provide an insider perspective. we had conversations about very contentions historical issues between japan and korea. beee that it is going to like a very long, strenuous journey in terms of dealing with historical memories between all three countries, but i do have conferencesdent such as these that we are willing to have conversations in a very subtle way, and to understand each other's perspective, and to share what is happening and find a way to get past these problems. i am very hopeful.
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mr. yeo: i think we are over time now, so very briefly? mr. sawamura: just briefly on the historical issues, i think of the role of traditional media is so important in terms of how to think about history. there are lots of new and since and context -- nuances and context. set up a history thatin 2015 after anniversary of the end of world war ii. we were trying to show the history to the audiences. also, the other question about hardifference between power and soft power -- it is an
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interesting phenomenon, in japan. we already have the manga, ani me, and with japanese sake. .he same thing happen in france peoplee french young enthusiastic about japanese quite surprised that many young people understand reading japanese manga about wine, it is a fusion between modern culture and traditional culture as well. so i just wanted to explain? ms. kim: addressing the first two questions come i think it goes back to the idea of selection bias and educating the younger generations to be able to go through news and see what fake news, what is click made,
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and be smart about it and the proactive about seeking news sources and diverse sources. in terms of the question about traditional japanese software our, i had an experience of -- i brought some of my friends who had grown up in the u.s. to a concert in boston and on stage was a j-pop group the riyadh and all of my friends were kind of freaked out . i was kind of let down and -- it is ad, because large festival in boston and there were a lot of people there, and i have been expecting the traditional aspects of japanese culture to be put in the forefront, and to be a way to represent japanese culture the way i know. but i think that things like manga are an
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entry point for people, and from there, they can move deeper into japanese culture. host: thank you. please join me in thanking our panelists. [applause] host: thank

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