but it makes me happy to hear any time somebody takes those positions do not believe it is hopeless to communicate with people like that or conspiracy thinking it can be hard to get through to people with those ideas that communicating asking questions and taking the time can change things. thank you for that. i think we're done. thank you. [applause] [inaudible conversations]
>> the book festival will continue in a half an hour the final program of the day joined by other contributors to her book to discuss their relationships with their mothers while we wait we will show you their recent visit to toledo ohio. >> known as the glass capital of the world. up next we learn about edward libby and his role to turn toledo into the glass city. >> the city of toledo has been called the glass capital of the world referring to the glass city because of the influence of the major international corporations producing some aspect of glass
and that has been the case since 1888 when the first glass factory was brought to toledo in 1868 scott who owned much of what is downtown toledo who was a real estate broker so the article was titled the future great city of the world. so at that time it was founded in 1837 dayton ohio with 18 oh three so there was a 30 year period summit was arrested development so justice scott bought real estate when it was pretty cheap and decided he would write an article that would define where the next
would be located we bigger than rome and new york and the biggest city ever. and surprisingly he decided the future great city of the world to be toledo ohio where he just happen to own a great deal of real estate. so they started to look for the magic bullet that will take this city which is struggling to make it the biggest city in the world? so in 1887 they found natural gas about 30 miles away and that's the way they said this is our destiny very - - destiny. it is cheap, available form of energy for our future. so businessmen set up a
committee and started to advertise this gas to industries all around the country like economic development promotion. and they targeted the glass companies in particular because gas requires huge amounts of energy you have to hit 2400 degrees to make it malleable. so that is the kind of industry that can make use of natural gas. they set out promotional brochures contacted glass factories and one was the new england glass company from cambridge massachusetts. that was owned and operated by libby who inherited the company from his father but live the glass was known for brilliantly colored glass. bright reds.
they have colored glass called amber rena it was interesting that would be golden slowly turned to bright red that was very popular with the consumer. they made tumblers, vases and high-end glassware products. 71888 the committee approach mister liddy with this incredible offer at the time he was struggling with energy and said we will give you money and land you bring your company to toledo we have cheap natural gas and we welcome you with open arms for he took them up on the offer and close the factory in cambridge loaded up his workers and equipment and came on a train august 1888.
things did not go well. the first two years they really struggled. in england they were known for their brilliant colored glass and glass depends upon a recipe to get those colors and brilliance. it wasn't working in the furnaces in toledo and they were struggling with quality issues. also because the workers who had lived near boston were now stuck in this backwards town of toledo with no culture or what they were used too and they were not happy and a lot of them went home. also the cheap natural gas did not come through it was much more expensive and they got
into disagreements with those who promised them the cheap natural gas so they were struggling. while they were struggling he got a great idea that he would open an exhibition in chicago in 1893 at the world's fair. 's board of directors thought it was the craziest thing in the world. it was $250,000. the company was in debt but liddy thought if it is successful that this would make a national brand and this what will propel the company forward. millions of people came to the fair and millions of people went through that exhibit hall and millions of people went back to where they came with little trinkets that said libby glass. it was a brilliant marketing scheme because it saved his
company. that saved libby glass made it into a national brand and he came out of there with $100,000 in profit after he paid off all of his expenses. that brought him back to toledo and cemented the company here and secured it here where if it had failed he may have went bankrupt and then to go elsewhere. so that is what began to identify toledo as the glass capital of the world and then set in motion a whole series of things that would lead to three other corporations. mister libbey decided he had to replace his workers so we went to west virginia to the glass manufacturers to recruit
people. and their destiny did happen. mister libbey met a young man who was working in the glass industry since he was ten years old. his name was michael owens. he started out the person who shoveled the coal worked two shifts a day. the life of a child worker at the time. he knew glass from the bottom u up. he was a difficult person to get along with and was very demanding. so he offered to become superintendent of the factory but the real interest was automating ways to make bottles because the bottle industry is what he was most familiar with was very labor
intensive. not only that it required lots of young boys working in these hot, unsafe conditions to make bottles. basically you have one skilled glassblower and three or four boys working so the glassblower would pick up the glass from his blowpipe the boy would stand at the bottom and then the blower would blow in then the boy has to open it up that take the red-hot bottle out take it over where it would cool it was incredibly labor-intensive and at that time 24 percent of the employees in the bottle making industry were children so most one quarter of the people circled these conditions were
abominable for go dangerous and hot and treated poorly by the skill blowers there was little chance to move up in the hierarchy. so having known that as a child was very committed so that they did not half to so libbey took some of the profits from the exposition and gave it to owens and created a new company in 1885 which was an exclusive reason was to exploit the technological innovations of owens and said go forward so
come up with new technologies so that is called the biggest improvement in 2000 years. flat glass once people began experimenting with fibers of glass like owens corning they shaped the city in ways that will always be a part of who we are. i say toledo never succeeded to be the great city of the world we can chuckle about that it's a good joke. but in some ways that vision of the destiny for the city is perfectly situated geography.
the fact we could attract the glass industry we could fulfill that. >> built in 1794 by british troops which was considered the northwest territory. here we spoke about general anthony wayne in his march to drive the british forces out of the british territory. >> when people hear the name anthony wayne it's a combination we know him and his name is everywhere we write his highway to the city but know specifically who he is they all say he was mad anthony. so that was the inspiration to begin writing the book and in a way that had not been done
before. born in pennsylvania wealthy young farmer in 1745 he joined the american revolution first as a politician and in 1775 joins the continental army follows them to washington's camp april 1776 in washington said that he bought in battles of canada he was on washington's side from brandywine and as a general but we think of these men who won this battle or that that all we forget what the american revolution is about the only thing anthony wayne new is what he read so he drove washington mad he kept saying if we do this is just
like the british and caesar and it never worked so what people said about him it came to attention he could retreat better than anybody that washington needed a lot he had a complete physical and mental breakdown and had a ruined life after that he cannot go back to his family he said i cannot settle back into the routine of living. he had a plantation in georgia that was failure that almost bankrupted his family and incomplete disgrace was thrown out of congress to have his friend stuffed ballot boxes to get him elected. this was 1781 his life was ruined his wife didn't feel
anything for him in washington was desperate for a general come out to the ohio country so against the wishes of his cabinet, he picked anthony wayn wayne. we had won the 13 original colonies now is the 13th state that the british had given us all the land from the appellation to the mississippi
river especially valuable ohio country. and then signed for major treaties allow them to cross that americans settle to the south indians remain to the north.
howley survive if we don't cross the appellations or the ohio clicks so his plan was simple we will negotiate with the indians and recognize they own the land and buy it from them not just once but every year and set up trading post and trade and eventually we will be one happy people with united states of america and then they say i didn't sign these treaties but then he tells washington's administration you said your young
men and they could defeat to armies and george washington has to make a decision and he does not give up but he needs another army to hold them in check to be perfectly trained that army
has to move against the indians so washington decides who will i pick the list of the 16 generals and said i need someone these men are sick and old and tired so where will i find someone? he cannot remember anything good anthony wayne had done on the battlefield the massacre or the meaning of the men taking too many chances in virginia and his cabinet they say he was an org womanizer he drinks too much he lost almost all of his money. pick me. don't pick him so he had to say what do i have good about
wayne quincy is devoted to me. before every battle the revolution would cheer me on it when i lost he wrote a letter to say it doesn't matter. he has been advocating as the president of the united states writing letters to everyone and also said he loves his country. that loyalty and dedication in begging for anything so he takes a chance he was given a job in the spring 1792 as a commander of the legion of the united states and said we'll give you 5000 soldiers. the previous army was slaughtered in the fall of 1791 he was told training these men come your way.
c must raise up the officers he sent pittsburgh and then down river to cincinnati and then 120 miles north all the while was told train the men and with that legion of the united states train them so perfectly that would washington says go you go in when you can be so aggressive that you frighten the indians because of the negotiations from the spring of 1792 he is now ordered until the summer 1794. >> so the battle comes about
the summer 1794 and for george washington to negotiate with the indians for two years they told him no. the ohio is the border river get out of the ohio country we will never know that he gets so worried we will not win he even offers the ohio river as the border once said you could have it all and they said no there is great hostility. stat of our country forever. so what sets george washington off is this place in 1794 he still negotiating with the indians the british come down from detroit they should not be in detroit that is american soi soil. because of them for to miami is here. you can see the remnant of their forte. saying we're protecting detroit but they come down
here to arm and align with the indians so that upsets washington and says negotiations have failed. anthony wayne take your army and march but don't go to the capital, come up towards the river and make a right and head for the british forte. somewhere between greenville and the british fort the indians will attack and you must win. keep marching to the fort and when you get there take the forte. he was given quite the assignment he marches north. where the indians? they get to fort defiance. they make a deal they make a treaty we don't have to fight marching appear they will get to the british forte august 20th
only a few miles they are marching they get up to the bluff for miles from here and they see down to the river and william harrison who is the aide to wayne rides up and says i think you're going to forget to give me the orders if the battle does begin. charge the back from the bayonet and at that moment a shot rings out those indians had lined up on the front and wayne was astounded they had tread so carefully they
panicked he trained his men at the first sign of attack lineup parallel to the army in five minutes they had lined up across the front go the battle only lasted an hour as the indians came first came on the american right than on the left and the training of his men and the artillery they push the indians back through the fallen timbers from a tornado across the river. they fled the battlefield and they ran for the fort thinking the british would protect them but instead they close the doors and they said we don't know you we don't have any
problems with united states of america. the aftermath of the battle for half a year he doesn't think he has succeeded. he suffers from depression and goes back to fort defiance to go back to what he was ordered to do he sits and waits and the anxiety is overwhelming he walks back and forth to say i cannot save another enemy. we beat them once we will never do it again and finally blue jacket the leader of the shoddy is the true leader little turtle doesn't run the battle it is blue jacket they come into fort and says it is over. you have one for you we will accept the line you can settle
across the ohio we will trade with you the fighting is over. summer 17951 year of the battle he negotiates this treaty and for wayne that was the victory i have to get my people to settle across the ohio or there is no united states of america and he thought there would be peace with the indians. what that does for us? it opens the door from the ohio river they come up from new england and virginia and they free the slaves the southerners come from the backcountry they were coming in from great britain.
there was a huge migration so really it is ten years of peace and then they will enter the union america starts to look west but in ten years the last young man the shawnee gets the gate slammed in his face and said we will try again but i'll put together the biggest confederation bigger than little turtle and blue jacket. in 18 oh five he starts the confederation who will have to defeat him? the aide fighting at the side of wayne at fallen timbers of william gary harrison. ten years before the war of 1812 was finally settled this country belongs to america the british and indians let go.
anthony wayne is still the commander of the army he must come across the lake that would be the headquarters to say there is a giant triangle between pittsburgh and cincinnati and detroit if anything goes wrong my nation needs me i can be at one of those points. he thought you'd be general for another year but coming across the lake he gets in the attack that he he dies in the summer of 1796 and what is interesting it's not like how sad we are. that was the revolution and opens the door with the coming