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tv   American Artifacts Clifford K. Berryman Political Cartoons  CSPAN  February 25, 2018 10:00pm-10:31pm EST

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level up in the archive bookstore. we will see you there in a moment. [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2017] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] you are watching american history tv, every weekend on c-span3. forow us on twitter information on our schedule and to keep up with the latest history news. each week, american artifacts takes viewers into archives, museums, and historic sites around the country. the national archive center for legislative archives in washington, d.c., houses clifford berryman's popular political cartoons from the early 20th century. his work is still relevant 100 years later and is featured in
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the journal of the white house historical association. we take a look at his cartoons. >> clifford berryman was one of the most widely renowned political cartoonists in the first part of the 20th century. 100 years ago in washington, d.c., most people would have known his name or been familiar with his artwork. he was born in a small town in kentucky in 1869. he was a self taught artist. when he was 17, he moved to washington, d.c., and took a job at the u.s. patent office. political cartooning continued to be his passion, and on a whim, he submitted to drawings to the washington post, and to his complete and utter astonishment, the post published those drawings. many years later, he talked about how he avoided the newspaper for several days because he was afraid they might charge him for advertising.
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instead, they paid him what to him, at the time, was a handsome sum. that really inspired him. two years later, the washington post hired him as a political cartoonist, and he eventually became the chief cartoonist for the "the washington post." seven years later, he was hired by the washington evening star. at the time, that was the most widely circulated paper in washington, very influential. he continued to draw for the washington evening star for the next 42 years. his cartoons appeared almost daily, usually on the front page of the paper, prominently placed. he had quite an illustrious career. throughout his career, he won many awards. in 1944, he was awarded the pulitzer prize for editorial cartooning, for a cartoon related to world war ii that he
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had drawn. berryman drew on a wide range of subjects and he drew a lot of different people. he often gave his cartoons away to the people he drew. so, there are many collections around the country that have his cartoons. he gave a collection to the library of congress in 1945, about 1200 cartoons. that was the largest collection until the 1990's when berryman's daughter passed away, and when they were cleaning out her house and preparing possessions for auction, they discovered thousands of pen and ink drawings in the basement in garbage bags. they were almost thrown out as trash.
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luckily, the auction house recognized their value and they were going to put them up for auction, but the foundation got wind of the sale. a lot of the cartoons deal with congress, so they decided to purchase the collection and donate them to the u.s. senate on behalf of former majority leader mike stanfield. the idea was they would become senate records and then become part of the official senate collection in the archives, which they are today. the collection has about 2400 of clifford berryman's cartoons. most of which appeared on the front page of the papers. when the collection first came to us in the early 1990's, we spent a lot of time dating the collection, going to the library, pulling microfilm, finding out when the cartoons were, their titles, their dates. we have about 230 cartoons from jim berryman, clifford's son, who was also a political cartoonist. we also have a great cartoon that berryman drew that was his christmas card.
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they had just moved into the house in northwest washington and he sent this out to his friends and family. so, an archive is not a place where documents go to die. and we use this collection in a variety of ways. first of all, all of the cartoons we have in our collection are available in the national archives catalogue, and you can see them online there. we also see them in exhibits. they have been exhibited in the national archives building and in other institutions with permission from the senate. right now, you can see several cartoons on exhibit at the capitol visitor center. we have a variety of educational publications and resources we
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have done using these cartoons to help teach civics primarily to high school and middle school students. available on our website are two e-books, the first called representing congress, that uses these cartoons to teach about congress, what congress is, how congress works, what congress does. we also have a book called america and the world that looks at american foreign-policy from the spanish-american war up until the eve of world war ii, using these cartoons to look at foreign policy in the beginning part of the 20th century. berryman drew most of his pen and ink drawings much larger than they appeared in the newspaper. here is one original drawing. it is much larger than shown in the facsimile of the washington evening star. this is a cartoon he drew on december 2, 1912, welcoming congress back into session.
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after the 1911 elections. berryman is most well known for his cartoon draing the lines into mississippi. this is a facsimile of a library. the story is that roosevelt went to settle a border dispute and was on a hunting trip, but was unsuccessful, was not able to find and kill a bear. his aides did not want the president to be embarrassed, so one of them tracked down an old bear, incapacitated it, tied it to a tree, took the president over and said here, you can shoot this bear. and the president said no, i will not shoot that bear.
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and berryman took the bear and turned it into a cute, cuddly teddy bear, he calls it, and it became a popular stuffed toy. so, he was the one who really coined the term teddy bear, and it became a recurring symbol in his cartoons. you will see later the teddy bear in some of the cartoons. after roosevelt left office -- this cartoon talks about roosevelt on his last day in office, how he is packing up and going on safari in africa, differed berryman wondered if he should keep the teddy bear. this cartoon is called to go or not to go. he is asking, should i keep the bear now that roosevelt is not president? the teddy bear was very popular to readers, so, much to their delight, he decided to keep the teddy bear in his cartoons. he drew many cartoons that related to national issues.
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in this first cartoon, called "tax him," you can see woodrow wilson and the secretary of the treasury and congress all debating on how they are going to generate new revenue through taxes for the administration's war revenue plan. you can see special interest groups represented by playing cards and motion pictures all pointing to different interest groups because nobody wants to have their own products taxed. this is one of my favorite, a cartoon from 1920, called people first. -- called "april 1." in 1919, both houses of congress, after decades of effort and much debate, past -- passed a constitutional amendment extending the right to vote to women.
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at that point, a number of states had quickly ratified the constitutional amendment and only one additional vote was needed. and mississippi, on march 29, could have been the last vote needed, but mississippi rejected the proposed amendment. here you can see his dry humor, yanking away the suffrage amendment from women of the nation. about five months after this cartoon was published, tennessee did ratify the amendment, and it went on to become law later that year, in 1920. this cartoon represents something our nation goes through every 10 years. the constitution requires that a census of the population be taken every 10 years for the purposes of re-apportioning seats in the house of representatives. here, you can see uncle sam representing the nation. he is announcing the results and saying to the house, it's about time to measure yourselves again.
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you can see berryman's teddy bear holding the measuring tape. interestingly, the house never did reorganize itself after the 14th census. people representing rural areas were concerned about migration to urban areas. congress later passed a law that established how the house seats would be apportioned. berryman also drew many cartoons that related to global issues and talked about america's place in the world. this cartoon called open for business was published the day that the panama canal first opened for business on august 15, 1914.
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you can see uncle sam waving the american flag welcoming ships into the canal. and again, the teddy bear welcoming people. the panama canal opened during the first weeks of world war i. at the time, the administration declared that the canal would remain neutral and be open to all european nations. this cartoon was published in the years leading up to world war ii. at that time, isolationists were calling for the u.s. government to build fortress america, a mighty, defensive shield that would protect america from foreign military attacks. internationalists saw this as a reversal of policy from world war i when troops from america went to the aid of france and other nations. here, berryman is mocking the
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isolationists by showing uncle sam sitting in a heavily sealed off united states. this cartoon was published on the eve of germany's invasion into france. three days later -- earlier, germany had gained access to the english channel. leaving british and english troops trapped on the beaches of dunkirk. here, berryman portrays american isolationism as a betrayal of france. this cartoon is from october of 1940. the selective training and service act had been passed, for the first time instituting a peacetime draft in the united states. you can see mars, the roman god of war, selecting a capsule out of the basket. it was published on the day the first draft numbers were drawn. you can see on the left, uncle
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sam worriedly looking on. in the background, the nations of greece, england, germany, japan, france, all marching off to war. here, berryman is foreshadowing the united states ultimate involvement in world war ii. berryman drew on every presidential election from 1900 to 1948. i want to show you a few of those cartoons. the first was from the 1912 presidential election. in that election, you see a three-way race. the first is former president roosevelt, who came back to run the bull moose party, the progressive party. in the middle, woodrow wilson the democratic nominee. and incumbent president william howard taft running for the republican party. in this cartoon, on the eve of the election, you see all of the candidates public persona, how they are behaving very
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confidently, jovial, laughing, and then you see inside, how they must be nervous and anxious. in that race, the republicans were split and woodrow wilson went on to win. so, the second cartoon deals with presidential primaries. as you can imagine, if a party goes through a bitter primary, they have a hard time getting people to coalesce behind their eventual nominee, and this is what happens in 1924 with the democrats. you see them off the fairway in a bitter contest bunker, fighting each other, while calvin coolidge, the nearby elephant, is saying well, i
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breezed through the primary links and was never once off the fairway. coolidge easily won that election. and then some modern elections ? toward the end of his career, the last election he drew was 1948. this is senator taft from ohio. he is looking at the electoral college map, planning his schedule, because as you know, if you are president, you have to win the electoral college vote, not the popular vote. he is looking at the map in deciding what his summer schedule will be to win the election. unfortunately, he was not able to secure the nomination. it went to dewey. this is probably the most famous cartoon that we have in the collection, the 1948
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presidential election where you had truman, harry truman, running against thomas dewey. before the election, polls forecast that thomas dewey was going to win. here we have dewey saying what the use of going through this election at all? here we have polls that he is going to carry virginia, get 333 electoral college votes. when ended up happening is the truman won the election and became president. this cartoon depicts the activity in congress after the election of franklin roosevelt. here you can see members of congress going from the house with the assistance of a young page carrying lots of legislation relating to ways to solve problems that arose during the great depression.
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he is sweating under the burden of the legislation they are trying to pass. this cartoon is from 1906. in it, berryman is sort of poking fun at the legislative process. the bill here was quite popular at the time, intended to regulate the rates the railroads could charge. but really, the particular piece of legislation in the cartoon is almost irrelevant in terms of the timelessness of the cartoon. you see this bill coming out of the senate, going back into the house. it is limping along on crutches. it has been heavily amended by the senate. in the bill is looking worried because it knows that congress requires that it be passed in identical form before going to the president for signature. in the bottom, you can see the little teddy bear representing the president. he looks happy and says it looks good to me.
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the president was a big proponent of the bill. despite the fact that it was heavily amended, it did go on to pass, and you can see berryman showing the president feeling pretty confident about that. this next cartoon is from 1921. it could really represent almost any time in congress. here you see a congressman going home to face his constituents. you see the capitol building in the back. he is racing home to say it is not going to be such a restful month at that. he has a satchel in his hand, and under his arm are a bunch of speaking points, questions to be answered, why i voted for this, why i didn't vote for that. it really addresses the constant need to be addressing issues and thinking about reelection.
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this next cartoon also really represents a timeless theme for congress. this is a cartoon from 1920 two, and it shows congress getting out, breaking for session, and you see the republican of -- republican elephant and democratic donkey, two symbols that very menus regularly, and in the background, uncle sam. the republican is saying you know, it was a great session, and the democratic donkey saying i know you ought to be a shame to face the folks back home. this is alluding to the constant dilemma of successes and disappointments in congress and the way those translate to the potential for reelection.
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and you see uncle sam in the background saying they won't agree on anything. this is from 1920. it shows mr. district of colombia, a recurring character, and he is holding up a sign that says d.c. beats 28 seats in federal income taxes. d.c. residents, who don't have representation in congress, paid more than 28 states. he says d.c. pays a million more dollars in taxes than five states combined. this is still a big issue in the district of columbia today. mr. d.c. says they called it tyranny in 1776, really bringing back the idea of taxation without representation, which is now on the d.c. license plate. this next cartoon has to do with sports. mr. berryman was an avid sports fan. this cartoon deals with the washington senators, which was a baseball team in 1924, a precursor to the washington nationals. that summer, the senators were
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ahead of the american league most of the time, but at the same time, the yankees were trying to creep in and take the lead in the american league. you see washington driving a car with a yankee coming in and saying, i like the front seat and washington saying i am not through with the driving yet. and that year, a rarity for washington sports fans, the senators went on to win the world series over the new york giants. this next cartoon, when he was trying this, he was thinking about federal workers in particular. every year when congress goes to do appropriations, they decide if they are going to give a cost of living adjustment to government workers. he shows the government worker trying to steer through
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increased rent, increased cost of clothing, increased cost of food, and he his stick is a salary scale from 50 years ago. perhaps his favorite topic was washington weather. he loved to draw washington weather. we love to talk about washington weather. we are talking about it now. this cartoon was drawn on march 21, 1920, and it has to do with the coming of spring. you see old man winter, he is sitting in front of a potbelly stove, ready to go, and then you have young spring admonishing him saying you were supposed to be gone by midnight. this year was a particularly cold spring, and berryman was unhappy with that occurrence.
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finally, if you have ever spent any time in washington, d.c., in the summer, you know it is oppressively hot. and this was the case when this cartoon was published. this is the oldest cartoon that we have. it has to do with mephisto, the devil, is sitting on a park bench, and you see the washington monument behind him sweating, and he is fanning himself saying what have i done to deserve to be in such a hot climate? washington was really hot if the devil thinks it's too hot for him. political cartoons have been drawn and enjoyed since before the founding of the nation. part of the reason they have flourished throughout american history is because they are able to precisely capture events of the day, controversial issues, and translate those into enjoyable, entertaining drawings.
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they can help sell newspapers. i think preserving this collection gives us a glimpse into what the important events of the day were during the first part of the 20th century, and by having these here, preserving them, making them available to the public, they are a resource that can be used by all. political cartoons are important to the democratic process. if you can't poke fun at your elected officials, that's a big problem. so, when berryman was drawing these cartoons, even though they are 100 years old, they are very relevant today. to save these so people can see how democracy worked 100 years ago, and how it is remarkably similar today. [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2018] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org]
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>> c-span, where history unfolds daily. it was created in 1979. we continue to bring you events daily from the white house, the supreme court, and public policy events around the country. it is brought to you by your cable or satellite provider. is onrican history tv c-span3 every weekend featuring films,tours, archival presidency, the civil war, and more. >> the story in the book of judges is about a judge named deborah. quoted timeat gets and time again in religious contexts, preaching for revival,
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in war contexts, is the curse of maraz. thereof.inhabitants they come not to the help of the lord against th emighty. let's break this down. first of all, where was maraz? whoked one of my colleagues happened to be writing a commentary on the book of judges. where is it? he said, we have no idea. they really did not know that much in the revolutionary period, but they know that deborah issued that curse from marazcause the people of would not fight forgot against the canaanites. one person who did join was j ael. some of you will remember her
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story. she was the one who fought for era, anby slaying cis army general for the canaanites. tent, andhim into the when he went to sleep, she took ittent peg and drove through his school. and -- through his skull. in doing so, she exemplified courage. people often connected deborah and jael as two women who would fight and were mighty in battle. mosturse of meroz was the cited biblical verse for over 100 years from the king philip's war through the american revolution. other can watch this and
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american history programs on our website where all our video is archived. c-span.org/history. landmark on c-span's cases. a look at the supreme court case of mccullough v. maryland. the case that authorized the court to take action not explicitly stated in the constitution. withplore this case university of virginia law university ofa arkansas law professor and author of "mccullough v. maryland." listen with the free c-span radio app. order a copy of the landmark cases companion book. is available for $8.95 plus shipping and handling. for an additional resource, here
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is a link on our website on >> next on american history tv. u.s. military academy graduate richard cole talks about his experiences as a west point cadet and his vietnam war service including his second tour of duty in 1973 during the american withdrawal. he was awarded three silver stars for his actions in vietnam. the interview was held by the west point center for oral history and is about 70 minutes. reporter: good morning. i am here in the west point center for oral history. it is june 20, 2017, and i am here with richard cole, class of 1963. welcome back. richard: thank you.

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