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tv   The Lost Soldier - The Ordeal of a World War II GI from the Home Front to...  CSPAN  October 13, 2019 9:00am-10:06am EDT

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fierce battle in a german forest. up next, a conversation with chris hartey about his book the lost soldier. the ordeal of a world war ii grimbings the homefront to the forest. using diaries and official war records, they tell the story of pete lynn and his wife rooth and >> good evening, ladies and gentlemen. welcome to the national world war ii exam for what was going to be a discussion about what of the harshest battles of the war. on vice president of education access at the national world war ii museum, and it's a pleasure to have either with us this morning. i also like to welcome our viewers at home who are watching on the internet, and also on
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c-span. great to see our programs getting wider distribution and attention. faithfulon to our many who come to attend all of these in person. for those that are ever faithful here, you know exactly what i'm going to do next. part of our tradition is to recognize those who are the purpose of this museum. so, do we have any world war ii , homefront workers, or holocaust survivors with us today? please waive and be recognized. [applause] >> thanks for coming tonight. how about other veterans? veterans from any other era? if you could stand and be recognized for wave and accept our thanks. [applause] >> thank you all for being here
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with us. you know, this week marks the many famoussary of or infamous world war ii battles. the invasion appellant -- the -- took place onluja september 15. operation market garden, the failed operation that became wasn as the bridgetoo far launched on september 17. in fact, this aircraft above our heads is a veteran of that battle. twoears ago in today's, -- days, this drop the airborne division into battle. arraymarks the 70 that an of the start of the battle of the forest on germany's western border. as you may know, we at the
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museum pride ourselves on bringing personal stories to life. i like to call it the patchwork quilt approach of kelly history. by telling enough personal stories of those involved, you start to understand larger human saga that the war became. chris hartley, our author tonight, understand that intimately. that's the approach he has taken with his book and that's exactly what he has done. in his book, the lost soldier: the ordeal of a world war ii g.i., he tells the story of one soldier and his wife and their two daughters. this is truly a family story, not just a story of taken root, chris chris's family, for is the father of chris's wife who is here with us tonight. would you please stand and be recognized? [applause]
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here, people will come and say, my father did this, my grandmother did that, my grandfather did this. and that's what you're seeing here tonight. so let's learn a little more about chris hartley. i'll put my federal union blue cap on and let you know that he's the author of stoneman's raid, 18 65, which won a prize from the north carolina society of historians. it was a finalist for the ben franklin award in history for the independent book publishers association. speaker,o a andlefield tour guide, author of articles for other publications. joining chris on stage tonight is our own research historian in the museum's institute of the study of war and democracy, where he writes narratives of
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service members from world war ii for their families around the country and worked over the last two years to help solve cases of missing service members as part of our partnership with the defense pow mia accounting agency. gentleman? let me extend my welcome, it's great to have you. it's a fascinating read. ruthtories of pete and during the great depression of world war ii. as you know, the museum takes great pride in the fact that we somea massive collection, 10,000 oral histories, personal testimonies here. several questions this evening,
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can connect to what you turn the --eal of private first class getting started on this, could you tell us how this book came about? do you have a particularly close connection to this story? >> it's wonderful to be here tonight. i'm honored. if you can see what a fabulous facility it is. think it out there is a personal connection here, right? it's 1984, i'm in high school. reagan is president. ghostbusters are on at the movies. and i ask a young lady out on a date. date, weccessful continued for a little while point over the following months,
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these two young kids have an opportunity to go down to a little town in north carolina where her grandmother lives. we go down to the village house that she lives in and we are sharesatting and lori with her that i'm interested in historical time periods and world war ii, civil war, a delightful lady, singsong kind of voice, and she says, wait just a minute. so she gets up and walks to the back of her little village house there and opens up the closet door and comes out of that closet and walks back on the hallway and she says, with a duffel bag in her hand, she says take a look at this. and so i open it up and my eyes probably bulged this wide because inside of this old duffel bag or letters and a
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diary and official documents related to her husband, a soldier in the u.s. army. i was it was brief, i didn't have a chance to spend much time told me but something there was a story that needed to be told. i told myself that i'm coming back to look at this again one day, i hope. fortunately, my dating skills are not terrible, so i married that young lady. [applause] thank you. in spite of myself, right? some years later, i thought it was time to try to put that story together and indeed, it was a fabulous story about a guy named peter lin. i should say, his name was film filmer lonzo.- we did not name any of our
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o, buten after fimler lonz it proved to be a story that really needed to be told. you've got about 65 pages of material sources, about 65 pages of notes. you will see it is extensively documented. could you tell us a little more about the materials that were in that duffel bag and things you supplemented those with? >> the items in the duffel bag for the beginning. there were letters back-and-forth. grandma ruth who met that day. many were in bundles and they were marked return to sender. they had never been opened. they have been sent back to her undeliverable because her husband was missing in action at that time. diary.as a
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as ruth try to find out what happened to my husband when he was first reported as missing in action, later reported as killed in action. she tried as best as she could with her limited education to try to find more. that was the starting point. that's when i had to turn through other sources of history. i interviewed a handful of family members who were still living and able to offer information and memories about that day. other family members as well. but then you had to turn to the documentary evidence. what do the official records say
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about the battle in which he served? so, i looked at after action i talked to other veterans of the war to try to understand what that was like. that helped me put together the story of the lost soldier. >> i know it's a remarkable range of sources that you found and they are extremely rich and personal. you describe early in the book the lost soldier as a postage stamp in history. a very interesting phrase. did you tell us what you mean by this term? i learned a lot from a professor of history at north carolina, and he uses that
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phrase often in his own historical projects. wes a great phrase because all think of his -- we don't think of history books until here's what is happening in d.c. coming years will the president is doing. iris is the story of each individual person's history. telling the story one person at a time, which is what this museum does so well to bring together the common experience of the war. they could be the story of any person from any part of the united states. could have been from north carolina, california, nevada. their story is also very common from soldiers who have served our country and other time periods and that is what is so powerful about this postage stamp history. it's a common story, but it's a story we need to tell.
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that then old saying victors are the ones who write the history. you might also say that the survivors are those who write the history books. we don't often hear the stories of those who don't come home and that's what the story of people in -- pete lynn is. what did like to be a soldier facing her mortality, what did like to be a family member of someone who goes through a tragic experience like the death of a loved one in combat? that's what this story is all about. >> the book has this wonderful movement back and forth between ownle in obviously pete's journey to eventually the forest which we will get into in a few minutes. why don't we talk about pete and ruth if it? could you talk about their background and life in north carolina, the life that they had?
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that was one of the things that i did not expected to be as fascinating as it was, to really learn about their lives. they were born in kings mountain, north carolina, which is a mill town. it is there because of the railroads. and in a mill town in that day and age, everything was where you live. you went to church at the mill, you went to school at the mill. you shopped at the mill. you fell in love at the mill. your parents, your brother, your sister, they're probably living just down the street. you all go to work at the same building every day, every night you come home. everywhere you go in your little world, that mill is always there clocking away every single day.
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and the jobs they had were hard jobs, they were very repetitive jobs. you did the same thing over and over and over again. had is ahat pete lynn dangerous job. there are pulleys and there are belts and there are sharp teeth that are clawing at the cotton to try to pull the cotton off of the fabric. if your hand is in the wrong place at the wrong time, you've got a problem. but that the world he lived in every day as he walked home from the mill covered in lint. the family still tells today the family of pete lynn whistling on his way home every day because he was happy, because he was surrounded by his friends and his family and he had everything he needed right there.
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he did make a whole lot of money, but they were happy. some of the most memorable passages in the first part of the book i when you talk about mill, and youe are just breathing the stuff in all the time. that was a kind of norm for people doing this work like ruth and pete. theiryou tell us about initial connections, we talked about people marry their whole lives, based around work, how does that play out? >> they definitely met in the village, the complex that they both lived in, two complexes were separated by the railroads and the highway. and they both had family members on both sides of the complexes. they were separate companies, but they were so close together they might as well have been the same complex.
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they got to know each other, pete was about five years older than ruth. he started working in the mills of the age of 12. ruth cap going on with her education, but they met in that complex, probably a church, maybe a grade school when they both attended. courting would be very much the way you did it in that day, around family members, around trends. the story is told that they liked to go out on the railway tracks in the southern railway gleaming in the moonlight and pete was a romantic guy apparently, he liked to sing to ruth and he would sing songs like carolina moon or i love you best of all, you probably all have for those songs. he may not have been the best singer but it sure worked with ruth. singing,e loved the
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she really appreciated his romantic side so much. havekind of life would been challenging anyway, the hard work not exactly the greatest, the conditions were often difficult. but it's also a great depression story. how did the great depression impact them and this area? it wase's no question, something that impacted their lives. there was a saying at the time that if you had a job during the great depression, the depression was not that bad. they were among those fortunate enough to have a job during the great depression because the textile industry was still worshiping and as a result, pete and work -- ruth were employed during that whole time. together, pete made roughly $600 a year, and ruth may roughly $600 a year. the poverty line was about $600 a year.
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together they could be somewhat comfortable. they also can make positive ends with different jobs. paint, that actually came in handy when he was learning about wearing a gas mask later in his military service. ruth would do odd jobs as well. that also put food on the table. there was always credit at the company store if that was necessary. the great depression did not affect them that much. as much as other americans. if anything, they certainly saw what was going on with their friends and neighbors but they were in good shape as a result. >> that's a really interesting distinction relating them to other regions of the country. speaking of things getting
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worse, what did they know or what were they interested in, how much were they drawn to the international context of that time? nazi germany, was only -- mussolini, japan and china, where these things that matter to them a lot? if so, how do they know about them? >> is no question they follow those events. their favorite things to do as a couple, they had family radio. they like to sit around and charlotte where you can hear broadcasts. they did that every sunday morning at least on a regular basis around the radio and listen to others. they also love movies.
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, andis a avid moviegoer certainly you can go and see those footage of things happening overseas. before anything happened in america, their first child which is lori's mother was born in 1940, october of 1940. about the same time the blitz was taking place overseas in london. ruth could certainly hear stories of was annoying on but that did not slow them down very much. pete did have to show up for registration day when selective service was launched in 1940. he registered with the selective service a few days before lori's mother was born. concerned, he went down to kings mountain itself, filled out all the paperwork.
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i'm 150 pounds, that's only was. tall drink of water, piercing blue eyes. and did his duty, but he did not think much of that. they were so unconcerned about it but the second member of the family came along in 1942, about the same time the u.s. marines landed on the canal. one that is not as concerned. what they were more interested their next child was born in 1942, barbara, or bobby, as they called her. that was that they were worried about. the letters that you say where p is talking about how really arees a son
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just hilarious. they are really funny lines about how we are going to send her back if it's not a boy. obviously in just but that is something they really want, and family meant everything to them during that time. could you take yourself to when he is called up, and this is older, we he is should make sure he is clear about that, about his age, when he was called up, and how his life takes a dramatic turn. >> pearl harbor does change everything, the war arriving in the united states. if nothing else, it changes right out of the gate the things that are happening at the mill. at, theill they work orders begin to flow in strongly. the mill they work in our making cloth ending up in body bags for
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the u.s. government. men are leaving, going off to serve, more and more women are going out into the workplace. as a mention, ruth has already been an employee, so it's not unusual. nonetheless, things are changing in the workplace. of course there's rationing they had to deal with. there's certainly news about the war. it's certainly part of their lives, but it does not become as critical to them until in about , our military forces begin to experience tremendously high casualties. you had someint, protection around draft laws. they were not going to draft you early on, you would leave from that duty because you had a child before pearl harbor. 1943, that changed.
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gotu.s. government said we to end this, we got too many casualties, we need more men on the field. at that point, he was 33 years old. draftynot your normal age, the average age was about 20 years old. by the end of the war, they would be a million fathers in the u.s. army, and the u.s. military that shows you how that switch from early on in the war because they needed that manpower. >> which is a perfect segue into talking about being 33 years old, now: into the army for the first time. realizing just how difficult the , it obviously concert. home.
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your future is completely caught up in that. tell us how training impacted pete once he entered. >> very jarring in many ways. in march of 1944, he receives his draft notice and after induction at north carolina, he's off to texas right outside of tyler, texas today. the replacement training center, a place were about 20,000 soldiers are located in going through a 17 week course to learn how to be an infantry man. for pete, in some ways it's familiar. that's no problem. he's used to squirrel hunting he rabbit hunting, so it thinks walking around the was with a rifle is a little bit different.
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there are other things that are a little bit more difficult. home, but the at , hee that he learns about thought it was a little heavy, he was talking about a farm animal back home. up recoil of a rifle popped to the point where he said his lip was swollen up like a big hen's egg. bart with an the bazooka. he trained on grenades, he trained on the gas mask. one of his favorite things was when they all went outside of texas, and looked up at the sky and observe the stars.
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one of the most challenging things of all that he encountered was actually a dental issue. as the u.s. military began the war, one of the requirements from being drafted was that you had to have a good set of teeth. that was one of the first requires the military had to do away with because there were not many people coming out of the depression with a good set of teeth. and pete lynn was one of those people. he had a terrible set of teeth. the u.s. army proceeded to pull every single tooth in his mouth. the u.s. army during world war ii had to pull 15 million teeth and theyrvice members, would set 10.5 million sets of dentures along the way because of the severe dental problems. and pete's experience was one
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where they would pull if you teeth. the next day he would have to spend in the sack as his mouth was swollen and even spit in a cup and have to deal with the pain. this went on for several different procedures until he finally was done, he finally pulled the last tooth. then they provided him with this new set of pictures. and he smiled in the mirror and he had his picture dentures. of he went to tyler and had his picture taken and ruth said i don't know who you were when i saw that picture. you're a pretty good looking fella based on that. between dental issues and learning to be a soldier, pete had a bit of a challenge in basic training. >> i couldn't help but jot down one quotes to show how pete kept a sense of humor despite the
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wrote a letter to ruth saying, "the war won't last long, i will bite their ass off with my new teeth." that was a sign he didn't let them slow him down too much. we have gotten him through training and well into 1944. you mentioned the correspondence and how he stays in touch. the correspondence between them is extremely rich and moving. can you talk about the letters between them? mr. hartley: they are powerful. they love each other deeply. and the children. he is sending postcards to the kids, sharing his experiences as much as he can before he goes overseas. once he is overseas, the letters change a little bit, because there is not much she can share.
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he kids with her. the kids in tyler texas are good looking. she knows he's just kidding. there is a deep, abiding love between them. some of the personal things i could not really share in the book. grandma ruth would probably strike me after sharing some of the stories. you can tell their love for each other is so deep and their care for each other. during basic training, pete was a little worried. he only had a sixth grade education and he felt mentally outclassed by the people he was dealing with. she chided him, sooth him. the other men in his company worked looking up to him because of his wisdom.
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she helped pete get his courage back. >> they are both such strong, interesting people. he spends about 12 days back in kings mountain in 1944 before his ships out. mr. hartley: it is a powerful time. he waits patiently to get shipped home. ruth tells the story of she knows he is coming. there is a birthday party for him on that saturday. they get up, go to church at the baptist church like they do every sunday.
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doors burst open and here he comes down the hallway. they all explode with joy and cry and hug and spend time together. next 12 days are just a blur of spending time with each other. i will show a picture here. here is a picture of pete. he loved riding horses. you can see him still wearing his service cap. you can see the water tower. he is having a great time. these days are fleeting.
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one of the other things they do is, they have a neighbor whose husband is home on leave. his wife happens to be an amateur photographer. they have the opportunity to snap photos. there are photos of pete holding one of his dogs. he would go on to be killed in action after pete was killed. it is really just a sad moment. kind of a precursor of what is to come. their third child is conceived during this time. i will tell you that story a little bit later. >> we will definitely have to get to that.
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after this whirlwind 12 days, he ships out and arrives in western europe. a lot of movement you described there. but do you think we should know about this battle? we are celebrating the 75th anniversary, commemorating it. not a lot of americans know a lot about hurtgen forest. what should we know about it? >> pete arrives after sailing on the ship. part. is spare pete was a replacement. he had about a month where he
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was able to learn the ropes. ernest hemingway said it would be easier if they shot them off they got off the trucks. that is how difficult being a replacement was on that day and age. he had about a month where he was able to learn the ropes. he arrived at the front with other replacements, several from north carolina. he was not even the oldest.
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at 33, he was not even close to being the oldest. there was a 38-year-old man who jumped out of the truck that day. it was relatively quiet until it came time to go to hurtgen forest. hurtgen forest. you might think of something out of a fairytale with hanso and hansel and gretel. a dark, forbidding place with towering evergreen trees. where the sunshine does not even reach. creeks and rivers that are blocking your path. hills, mountains. the height of this area reaches
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2100 feet above sea level. as you stand and look west along the german border, it gets higher as you go eastward. there is ridge after ridge after ridge that american forces are being asked to take. it is probably the onset of the worst winter in europe in decades. there were trenches and barb wire and thousands of mines. this will negate any advantages the americans have in mobility and firepower.
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it is a whole lot either for a for ahole lot easier small forest to hold back the attacking americans. why are we fighting their? maybe a bit of hubris. it comes down to strategy. the allies were bent on getting to the rhine river. one of the best approaches was through a natural terrain area. fairly open terrain. pretty good tank country. the fear of american leaders who fought in world war i and new the argonne forest and the german counterattacks, they fear
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attacks like that coming out of the hurtgen forest. that is what got us into the hurtgen forest. there are 120,000 americans who fight in that forest. 33,000 become casualties. it is a terrible, terrible battle. as many as 12 american divisions and up battling in that forest.
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>> we should go ahead now and open this up about what actually happened to pete lynn and what his company assigned to do. mr. hartley: when november 2 arrives, there has already been some progress through the hurtgen forest. they are interested in attacking some high ground. that day we were trying to capture a village. their job was to advance into the forest. pete's part of that was to make
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the main advance to the town through a wooded valley. they were going to march in a column of companies directly to that village. while other units attacked on their left and right. nobody was really happy with the plan. the general and commander of the division was called the palladin of omaha beach. he was in command of this unit and he is worried. he tells his doctor he was a suicide mission. it has come down from above how this attack is supposed to take place. the lieutenant general is in command of the first army.
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they have to deal with it on the company level. pete knows very little of this. he just knows he is going to have to be in his first real battle ever. shortly before this attack takes place, he writes his last letter home. he wishes ruth a happy birthday. he says, i will love you until the day i die. >> and he sends her $60 to buy birthday gifts. you are quite critical in the book about the lack of support given to company b. could you explain why you feel that way?
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mr. hartley: the attack begins that afternoon. they marched down the hill into this wooded valley. the attacks on either side of them have mixed results. they end up in a mine field named the wild pig. they take massive casualties, bringing the attack to a stop. this column marching into this valley, they run immediately into a well defended german position. machine guns, mortars, artillery the squad commander is stitched
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from head to to with machine gun fire and dies immediately. pete is one of three or four other guys there right in front. they are immediately cut off. no one will see what happens to them in the minutes to come. you have options. you can call for fire support. artillery support. some of that happens. not very much. you can also call for reinforcements. that happens. there are other companies in the battalions. the next thing that the lieutenant colonel could do, who is commanding the regimen, is to pull in more units. that is when things start to
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break down. they decide not to do that. let's just fall back and forget this attack and move this way. as a result, pete's battalion falls back into you is not heard from. he is in the front of the attack. he is cut off and will not be seen or heard from again. >> that takes me to my last question. which is ruth. you term the book and ordeal. about the ordeal she undergoes. mr. hartley: it starts with the notice that pete is missing in action. his fellow soldiers don't know what happened to him. he is reported as such that november.
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she gets that terrible telegram. she immediately writes in her diary three words, bottom fell out. that is a powerful saying. she begins a quest to find out anything she can. over the next few months, she will not find out what is happening. she writes letters, she talks to people she knows who have returned from the military. she is desperate. she is looking for help. the following february of 1945, american forces finally capture this piece of land in which pete met this attack. his body was recovered at that moment.
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she finally receives word that her husband has been killed in action. it is over. it is such a powerful, heart-wrenching moment for her to think about. he is not coming home. i am on my own to raise these two kids and she is pregnant with the third. it is a terrible thing she is facing. family and friends are very supportive. the photographer is her closest friend at the moment. they have both lost husbands. it is very frustrating for ruth during these days. >> it is really an amazing story. i highly recommend the book. please join me and thanking him for the interesting exchange. [applause] >> now you know the drill. if you have a question, please
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raise your hand. i have a question online that i will start with. those who are watching who are interested in pursuing their own family history, how did you go about this genealogical study? mr. hartley: there are a lot of things that are helpful. online is a great place to start. the national archives retain records of your draft registrations. world histories are the best place to start. oral histories are the best place to start. those are treasures that are fleeting. without those we cannot carry those messages on. there are other great services. i felt like it was necessary to
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look at the records. you can find records today at the national archives in maryland about what a unit was doing. some records were lost in a terrible fire in st. louis. as far as those who were killed in action during the war, there are personnel files that are still available. they can contain a lot of information. a lot of places to look. those are some good starting points. >> can you supplement his
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answer? >> i will sound a bit self-interested here. at the museum we have world war ii research services. we do this for family members where we will obtain from the national personnel center in st. louis the official military personnel file. there is a gold mine of information. there are a lot of materials. ancestry.com is a great place as well. there are documents there you can find. sometimes there are interesting materials on their -- there. mr. hartley: even small-town newspapers can be helpful.
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>> i have another question online. what if the hurtgen forest was not a disaster? what if it had succeeded in their objectives were met and they were able to penetrate? home by christmas? mr. hartley: i don't know about home by christmas. but certainly quicker is possible. one of the things that the hurtgen forests protected was a series of seven dams. the controlled millions of gallons of water that if they were released would block allied forces from advancing. american forces attempted to capture those dams but did not do so in time to prevent the flow of waters downstream that delayed allied forces for a
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fortnight. the hurt can forest could have saved two weeks -- hurtgen forest could have saved two weeks. it was also very important to the battle of the bulge. it sat on the northern shoulder of that eventual attack. one of the many reasons the german forces defended that area so vigorously was they feared what the allies might find if they penetrated that barrier and found these massing forces that they did not know about. it could have been a spoiler to some degree about how the bulge ended up taking out -- playing out. >> we don't need our live audience to be timid.
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but i have another one. i actually have the answer for this one. you mentioned dental records. why was that an issue? why did he almost passed being excepted and why did he have all his teeth knocked out? mr. hartley: you have to eat. if you don't have teeth, you cannot eat army rations very well. you know what it is like to eat rations dispersed by the u.s. government. if you don't have a good set of teeth, you have some problems. you have to be able to perform in the field using those rations. >> that is the right answer for 1940 and 1941. it goes back to the civil war days. you had to bite the cartridge and shove your bullet down. and fire your rifle. a question over here. >> thank you so much for coming
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by this evening. quick question, and you may not necessarily know the answer or want to answer it. clearly the battle was a failure. somebody screwed up. i am just wondering if you had any thoughts on that. mr. hartley: that is a great question. we were talking a little about this earlier. there is no question that the planning was poor. i am a firm believer that they -- even if they chose to attack the hurtgen forest, they were better ways to do it. i think hubris set a lot to do with it. i also think the germans had a lot to do with it. the germans recovered amazingly during this time. they were led by some of the best leaders.
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as things went, one of the worst things that happened to the allies was when the 20th infantry division launched their attack, all of the german officers in charge of the hurtgen forest were meeting at a castle nearby. they started to get reports of this attack by these american forces. they were able to respond quickly. it was an advantage that we should not discount. there was a lot that went on during this time. the weather and the terrain did not help either. >> you mentioned the overextension.
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getting supplies there was not an easy task. they are fighting for their homeland. they fought hard for france and belgium but now they are in germany proper. the intensity with which they are fighting is even greater. >> i have an obligatory question that i always ask. what's next? mr. hartley: i like to write about a lot of different topics. i am working on an american civil war book next. a biography of one of the most controversial confederate generals. in this day and age, any confederate topic is controversial. it should be interesting to look at. >> a couple of questions here. >> what was the third daughter's name?
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mr. hartley: i'm glad you asked that. i was going to come back to that. she was born around victory in europe day. imagine how ironic that might have been. your husband sacrificed himself in that war in europe. and then the child arrives just as that war in. thelma ruth lynne was her name, but they called her petey. another boy's name. thank you for asking. >> my other question, i saw the movie they never came home. they had terrible industry.
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-- terrible dentistry. somehow they must've learned from that. mr. hartley: certainly it is a response to the fact that the u.s. army and armed forces needed manpower. we were way behind in the ranks of the military. you have to make some changes to your requirements if your requirements are putting too many people out of what is available. a lot of people came out of the u.s. army with some good teeth after that. was there one more in the audience? thank you very much. [applause] it is an honor to have you here to share this story. our next meet the author is october 5.
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it is a change for you here in the audience. it is a daytime program on the weekend. we have a few books remaining. i feel like we have half of them sold already. [applause] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2019] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] >> this is american history tv on c-span3 were each week and we feature 48 hours of programs exploring our nation's past.
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>> tonight on q&a, historian jeff gynn discusses his book rip taken by t henry ford and thomas edison between 1914 and 1925. >> the ideas they wanted to go out and have fun. they wanted to demonstrate, you get in your car and do these things, too. but they were going to have to -- weren't not going to like their own or put a blanket on the ground. they had all these different amenities. soy had a refrigerated car they could have fresh dairy. they had chefs who prepared gourmet meals. in the morning they would dress in freshly ironed clothes. they were so famous and america was so grateful to them that didn't matter. hey, we areint was is,
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out in cars traveling. you can do it, too. >> tonight at 8 p.m. eastern on c-span's q&a. on american history tv, supreme court justices ruth ginsburg and sandra sotomayor d discussed sandra day o'conno. here is a preview. a sandra was quoted, minnesota supreme court justice. who said at the end of the day a wise old man and a wise old woman will reach the same judgment. and i think that is ture. -- was true.
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sandra what it followed it up that we each bring our life experience to the table. growing up female is not the same as growing up male. and you could see the difference in an opinion that justice o'connor wrote. it came out at the end of a very first term on the court. hogan against mississippi university for women. this is about a man who wanted to to become a nurse. and the best nursing school in his area was the mississippi university ofor women. exclusion.enge the as a denial of equal protection. then justices, justice powell, looked on the reservation of the nursing
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school to women as a kind of an affirmative action for women. so it was ok. but sandra, if you read between the lines what she is saying is if you want to improve the status of women in the nursing profession, the best way to do it is to get men to want to do the job, because the pay inevitably will go up. [laughter] so, that was an insight that she had. reservingized that the school for women was not a favor. to women. hear more about former supreme court justice sandra day o'connor's judicial impact monday at noon and 8 p.m. eastern. you're watching american history tv. only on c-span3. the civil war,
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john eric -- explores the battle of philippi. he art that although the action was brief, it is significant because it was the first organized land engagement of the war and broad national recognition to key figures. the talk was part of a forgotten battles of the civil war symposium. hosted by the "emerging civil war" blog. >> our next presenter -- some staffing issues came up at the center for civil war studies and jim was unable to be here, he asked me to pass along his regrets. however, we've got the perfect stunt double and i told jon-erik. i'm just going to go and make some stuff up. he said, i wrote a really nice introduction so i promised i would read it, although i was really attempted to come up here

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