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tv   Patriot Movement Before the American Revolution  CSPAN  November 8, 2020 2:59pm-4:01pm EST

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i have been given the signal that the time is just about up so we are going to wrap it up so we don't get caught in the middle of an answer. i wish to thank you all for coming today and you have been a great audience. thank you very much. tvthis is american history on c-span3, or each week and we
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feature 48 hours of program exploring our nation's past. >> next, the massachusetts historical society hosts amy watson, who talks about british imperialism and the patriot movement in the 1700s. she discusses why they were involved in the 1745 seizure in modern-day nova scotia and argues the patriot movement inspired the american revolution. she is a research fellow with massachusetts historical society, provided this video. is an opportunity for researchers who are working in the collections at the massachusetts historical society to share their projects. these are works in progress at this informal gathering that allows presenters to explain their projects, sharpen ideas,
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field questions, and receive feedback and advice from the audience, you. we are pleased to welcome dr. amy watson, a long-term fellow at the massachusetts historical society, having earned her phd from yale university in 2018, and from 2018 to 2020, she was a doctorate fellow at the early modern studies institute at the university of southern california. her research is supported from fellowships from the library company in philadelphia, the huntington library, among others. her work has been published in the scottish historical review. dr. watson is working on a book project tentatively entitled "patriots before revolution: the rise of party politics in the british atlantic." it traces the british imperial origin of the patriot movement that inspired the american revolution. i january ofn 2021, dr. watson will become a persists -- will
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become an assistant professor at the university of birmingham in alabama. dr. watson, welcome to the mhs. dr. watson: thank you. let me share my screen and let's get started. ok, is everyone here? >> we do. dr. watson: great. thank you for being here today, and especially to the massachusetts historical society, who have already made my fellowship a great experience, even in the midst of this crazy year we are having right now. is title of my talk today imperial patriots and the siege of louisburg in 1745. with ajust start out song that you may have heard, which is by james thompson.
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i do not want to subject you to my awful singing voice, but i will read the lyrics of this first stanza out loud. "when britain first at heaven's command, arose sangwas the charter of the rul --ttan you britainnia. brittania never will be free." this seems like a triumphant ballad of british imperialism. there is more to this song then meets the eye. this song was originally written as a tease of partisan
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propaganda in support of a british political party called the patriots. the author of, the song, was a patriot poet, who made his money by penning verses. he had a message about britain wasing -- ruling the waves written in support of the ongoing war in a conflict against spain that the patriot party had spearheaded. this song was not just a mutual expression of british pride but instead a partisan call to arms. asking britain to support the patriot party and its vision of british imperialism. first things first, who are the patriots? what do i mean by the term patriot? today, we tend to think of
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patriotism as it is pride in one's country, and in the 18th century, the term patriot meant the same thing that it does today, but it also had a more partisan meaning, as well. the label was first adopted by a group of british politicians, of atood at the front group headed by a ministry. they called themselves the patriots because they claimed that they, in stock contrast to of ahigs, were asking out desire to better the country. wasg the label patriot then extremely savvy political marketing. originated inrty england in the 1720's, but it
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rapidly spread to scotland, ireland, the british west indies, and british north america, where it would go on to inspire the american revolution. today, i am going to be exploring the patriot party's influence and land pick in the mid-18 century. this will consist of three parts. first, i am going to give you an overview of the patriot party's ideology as an organization. what was the patriot party's mission? how did they spread their ideas? in to, i am going to zoom speak about how patriot politics influence dish american colonists during imperial warfare of the 1740's. in particular, i'm going to focus on the active engagement of new englanders in the war effort.
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patriot ideas about foreign policy and empire encouraged these new england patriots to launch their own campaign in of5, capture the fresh part louisburg in modern-day nova scotia. finally, i am going to end by briefly discussing the implications of this project. why does patriotism matter? thatately, i will argue british party politics lay the groundwork for the revolutionary era. with thet's start patriot party itself. in particular, what it advocated for, and how it was organized. what did the patriot stand for? what was their ideological mission? my project argues the patriots' original mission was an imperial
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one. they wanted to create a less anglo centric british empire. let me break that down a bit. there were four main components to the patriot's political agenda. first, they supported an interventionist foreign policy. the patriots thought to expand dish trade and they were willing to go to war to accomplish the same. they firmly believed that a good particularive in political aims, was five better in peace. second, they had an expansionist economic policy. that theyts believed should take a more active role in promoting british economic growth. infrastructure, the development of new industries, such as production,
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and the reduction of commercial taxes. third, the patriots wanted to protect civil liberty. certainught to bolster constitutional rights. they believed britains on both sides of the atlantic were entitled to it. the most important was the right to free speech, habeas corpus, and trial by jury. finally, the patriots wanted to create a more federal imperial system. they believed that the best model of empire was a more decentralized one in which local sections like colonial courts and legislatures could hold greater sway. now to implement their ideological program, patriot britain' is first
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political wide party and spent entire -- spent time and effort creating an organization that would reach as many people as possible across the british atlantic world. as party organization included a leak, including two newspapers like the one on the slide, as well as pamphlets, plays and songs, like old brittania. it also included a dedicated party leader, with politicians who dedicated their career and returning patriot ideas into british imperial policies. the most important of these early patriot leaders were all reddish members of parliament. for instance, admiral vernon, james oglethorpe, and william fitz. finally, and included a serious public outreach anthem, with patriot leaders working directly
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groups,porations, trade to have mass support for their movement. in particular, the patriots go get their recruitment effort on the growing population of britains who live in cities like london and glasgow. as well as north american cities, like new york and boston. citye 18 century, the economies were tied to britain's atlantic trade. patriots' message of imperial reform and economic expansion was very appealing to these people who were living in centers of imperial commerce. the patriot party did especially well with urban artisans. apprentices, shopkeepers, and independent merchants. the patriots focused on public
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outreach, with a few reasons for the movement's astounding success. by the beginning of the 1740's, the patriot party amassed a network of supporters on both sides of the atlantic. ok, so, now that you have a better idea of who these early patriots were, and what they stood for, let's focus on how patriot ideas help to jumpstart the age of imperial warfare. that brings us to part two of our talks. earlier, aned interventionist foreign policy was one of the key elements in their political agenda. they believe the burton's military was a tool that could and should be used to secure british imperial power.
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in particular, the patriots have a significant foothold -- fight two nations with a significant foothold in the americas, spain and france. they thought war against these two nations was a good idea for two reasons. hadt, a successful war forced france to open the american market to burnish -- to british manufacturers. second, a successful war would also help spanish and french expansion in north america, leaving britain's colonies more secure. for the patriots, the only problem with this plan was that the ruling league and ministry wanted nothing to do with it. so they did everything in their power to keep the peace. they drafted treaty after treaty to prevent a widespread conflict between britain and the european neighbors.
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throughout the patriot supported war, the waves believed peace was the best policy to promote british commerce -- the way eggs believed peace was the best policy to brought british commerce. the patriots were looking for any excuse to pick a fight. 1730's, they finally had their chance. with the most evocative leaning toward the 18 century. for decades, the spanish coast stealing been relationships in the west indies, for training illegally with spanish colonies. it was not necessarily a horrifying incident. spanish officers voted to ship of a british captain. to cut offoceeded his ear for punishment. he was probably guilty of struggling -- smuggling goods
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into spanish america, but that hardly mattered. the patriots used his grisly .tory to add fuel to the fire eventually, the crazy, public ministry toed the declare war against spain in its, very much against believe. it was at this moment that thompson penned the song old brittania, written to celebrate the patriots' success in the war. the patriots got their second wish, to pursue a war against france. france had taken advantage of the ongoing imperial conflict to invade territories that were held by the austrian crown, therefore, running into treaties so carefullygs
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crafted. the were expanded to include france and austria. and it was the war of austrian succession. sometimes, it was called king george's war. the patriots got exactly what they wanted. britain was now at war with both france and spain. bit to focusin a on how the patriots' words impacted new england. that brings us to this man, massachusetts governor william shirley. after spending some time in became a fan of many patriot ideas, especially during foreign policy. in the mid-1740's, surely began
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thinking about how new england could contribute to the patriots' goal of creating a more commercially expensive british empire. they came up with a variable plan. he decided new england should capture the french controlled ofts of louisburg -- louisbourg in modern-day nova scotia. louisbourg, while it may not be considered a major metropolitan area today, and the 1740's, it was a significant town, with thousands of inhabitants and an impressive fort. it was only slightly smaller than quebec and montreal. you can see an image here included in the massachusetts historical collection.
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they believed there were two reasons that it would be a good conquest for the british empire. the first was commercial. was aurg -- louisbourg convenient port. they argued that capturing louisbourg would allow british colonists, especially my seditious colonists, to capture this port from themselves. the second reason was geopolitical. louisbourg was situated on the gulf which led directly to french canada. forcesrgued that british could choke off french shipping to canada, making it too difficult for france to continue their colonial operations in the region. wherenquest of louisbourg is the first essential step to "drive off french totally off the north american continent."
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both of these goals, surly followed the patriot playbook in terms of foreign policy. using military force to expand and secure britain's american empire. the inhabitants of new england proved to be enthusiastic supporters as he planned. the intended expedition with their men and pocketbooks supported it. he successfully managed to raise 4200 new england volunteers to participate in his military expedition. about 3200 were from massachusetts. he also managed to recruit an important man to serve as the commander-in-chief of the expedition. and merchantonel from maine, who is pictured here, and also this images is
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from the massachusetts historical collection. also, they raised more than 6000 fund sterling to help expedition. all of these activities, america's colonial legislators act independently of the british state. orders ofhad separate the expedition, but the new england patriots were so eager to contribute to the imperial war that they organized, funded, and launched the expedition completely on their own initiative. although they did ultimately receive some support from british naval forces already in the region. so, william shirley was not alone in seeing this campaign as a great opportunity. it was an extremely popular endeavor.
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that brings us to the siege of louisbourg itself. in may of 1745, american forces arrived and took the french by surprise. the new englanders immediately blocked report so that no french supplies could come in to the besieged city. after seven weeks of siege, louisbourg finally gave in to the inevitable and surrendered to the new england forces. altogether, the americans only was about 100 men, which extraordinarily low at that time. so this was really a complete and total victory for new england. when news reached the american colonies of the conquest of louisbourg, new england erected
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in widespread celebration. started with a gun salute that began at 4:00 in the morning. then they continued well into the night. with fireworks, the firing of cannons, and round after round celebrations. celebrations took place up-and-down the american coast, and dish americans also published newspaper articles, sermons, poems, and songs that celebrated this great new england victory. one of these songs is a valid called "new england bravery," which is in the massachusetts historical society collection. you can see that on the right. ballads like this one were meant to be sung allowed. you could just imagine bostonians singing about 3000
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in thethe cavern -- tavern, probably end in the street, this would have been quite the celebration. read it aloud though. it is important to remember the victory had great consequences for the french inhabitants living on the island. yousame volume i showed also contains an interesting line i underlined here. in france with the islanders, who must see their countrymen with many cares and fear. thehis island celebrated expulsion of the french-speaking inhabitants. many of whom lived in the region or their families lived in the region for centuries. whatsoever toire travel to the european nation
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that was there supposed homeland. it was at this moment, too, that british officials like william portarly, plotting to the all the french acadians in the inion, when this took place the 1750's. the akkadian expulsion, described by historians as the cleansing,american and there were real people whose lives were destroyed by this british victory. it is important to keep that in mind. governor william and other supporters of his campaign, the whigs ministry back in britain were not nearly as excited as new england was about the victory. on the contrary, many whig politicians were upset at
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shirley for acting without their prior approval. whig -- one of the ministers wanted to desperately and the expense of imperial war because they were worried the victory would make it more difficult to advance peace talks with france and spain. and the whigs' secretary of state wrote in september of 1745, "when i heard that people's lives were being taken, i wished it and came true." governor surely hope to capitalize on the victory by undertaking a second new england campaign to conquer french quebec the next season, but when he asked for permission to either take the second expedition, the whig ministry refused to sign off on the campaign. rather than being celebrated as imperial heroes for their contribution to the war, patriot
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minded new englanders found that their great conquest was an unwanted one, at least among britain ministers. matters that only made it worse when the whig ministry announced their longer desire to the peace 1748. with france in the most important provision in the treaty was article two, which estimate -- which theulated all conquests of war. in other words, britain would have to return louisbourg to france. as you might imagine, british and americans reacted to this news with anger and dismay. samuel adams argued that louisbourg had been gained "at
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the expense of new england blood." ministry didwhig not care about their sacrifice. he worried that in the future, massachusetts itself "may share the same fate with this conquest , maybe the purchase of a future peace." too many new englanders, the sign of theirrave lonely place in the reddish imperial hierarchy. a conquest financed by north been signed and delayed without north american consent for the sake of a european peace. massachusetts historical society has the best collection in the world for researching the siege of louisbourg. not only theating
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records of the expedition itself, but also the papers of governor william shirley, who spearheaded the louisbourg campaign, and the papers of william pepper all, who led the new england troops to capture louisbourg in 1745. they also have a great collection of journals that were kept by new england soldiers who fought in the campaign, which see whye me a chance to ordinary new englanders were eager to participate in the british imperial war. i recently found out the louisbourg expedition records ' first of the mhs publications in the late 18th century, so it is the best place in the world to be working on this. finally, let me end by briefly explaining some of the larger stakes of the campaign. why did the patriot expedition against louisbourg matter?
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early patriots tell us about the longer history of the 18th-century british empire? first, the siege of louisbourg shows that as fully as the 1740's, there were already serious british imperial divides of the empire and geopolitics. the british ministry wanted a peaceful and higher lockable thatt -- hierarchal power prioritized england's interest above all others. britons,her hand, many particularly in new england, 18 and expanded empire in which britannia would rule the way, and each colony would have its geopolitical interests taken seriously. to shirley's new england patriots, louisbourg was a great prize because it's conquest protected britain's north
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american colonies from the clear and present danger posed these patriots viewed the whig ministry as a great betrayal of north american interests. the decades between the seven years war and the american revolution, some americans were already beginning to see their interests as separate from britain and questioning whether britain was doing an adequate job of responding to american needs. especially in terms of commerce. wrote in 1745,in showsege of louisbourg that the sense of the present ministry is not the sense of the nation and america.
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this was never simply geographic. british on one side and all of the americans on the other. it was mapped onto political divisions between the whig and patriot party. political parties like the patriots transcended national and colonial borders. with their networks, their political tactics, and their personnel. the patriots were never an exclusively american party. ,here were british patriots like the writer of rule britannia. there were plenty of american preserve theght to vision of empire. while most histories of the american revolution begin in the
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1760's with the stamp act crisis or the end of the seven years that theremise shows was a strong tradition of organized patriot partisanship in both britain and america decades earlier. the same issues that led these early patriots to protest the whig ministry. empire, civil liberties, and a hierarchical approach to government. this eventually led american patriots to separate britain -- from britain entirely and the second half of the century. this offers a new origin story for the american revolution centered on british party politics. thank you so much. i look forward to your questions. >> thank you very much. great presentation. i am so happy that you are getting a lot out of the mhs's
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collection. people who are joining us, you are free to raise your hands or type in the chat box. let me start us off by asking the connection between patriots versus whigs versus tories. of the american revolution usually do not talk about this. what role did the tory party play in this? >> they were not really a major part. but you are completely right. they did play aiden increasingly -- an increasingly important role. to give you a little bit of context on this, in the 1740's, the tories were in a bit of a low spot. where the serious
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rivals. the tories were kind of a third party. they were left out of political power. this all changed in the 1760's when george the third came to the throne. these men really began to transform the british empire. they wanted to create a more hierarchical and authoritarian british empire and forced a policy of austerity on the which the colonists would have little to no stake in. party who tory brought along the stamp act.
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point, both the patriots and the whigs believed that the tory party had gone very far in an attempt to transform the british empire. this point,ed up at almost as political coalition against the tories. that really helps explain the partisan language that americans used during the revolution. they called themselves patriots, they called their opponents tories. this was not a coincidence. knew thisause they ward not just as a war but as a partisan struggle. that is why they are using this type of language. i would argue that the american colonies were for independence. they emerged from these divides.
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, talk aboutof that how your project fits in with the current historiography on the origins of the american revolution. research is certainly very influenced by a lot of scholars. a bit of an older scholarship. focused on the intellectual origins of the american revolution. by project makes a different kind of claim. americansed on how took english political ideas and transformed them into something powerful and distinct of the american. it was not a new set of ideas.
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patriots had a very coherent movement. distinctive about my project is i argue that the party was on both sides of the atlantic ocean. influential work on the origins of the american describes british imperial conflict as a constitutional struggle between the center and the periphery. the center in london and the periphery in the colonies. but my research shows it was more complicated than that. there was a debate between two opposing visions of british imperialism. whigs believed the empire
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andld be peaceful hierarchical with england at the top. the patriots in britain and america believe that the empire should be commercially expansive. regionch different should really be given equal weight within the material structure. i am certainly drawing from those other ideas. my work does emphasize that the british imperial world was quite politically connected. as this empire began to fracture because of these pre-existing divisions. >> very good. we have a couple of questions in the chat. of thee perspective rank-and-file patriots, how much did that treaty influence or build a hunger for subsequent revolution against the british?
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anythingering if interesting was cleaned from the from the- gleaned contemporary journals. >> a lot of them do have a play-by-play. we went out and did this. get at those to opinions a little bit. newspapers are a good source of this. a lot of people were reading newspapers. it is fair to say that as early as the 1740's patriots were already thinking toward revolution. the britishd that empire was the best empire in the world. it needed to be reformed. they needed to create these reforms that would make it even better. that was a pretty radical idea,
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the idea of separating entirely. i do think the new england toriots primed them to want participate in a similar expedition in the seven years war. it included the conquest of louisbourg. the british colonists conquered it twice. participation made them want to finish what they started and really take these french territories away. >> during the french and indian war, the british want to hold onto canada. what has changed? why this sudden desire to have canada when they had just given it back a decade earlier? >> that is a great question. the short answer to that was the politicians in charge of the british government had come.
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there were british patriots as well. actually becomes the de facto prime minister in the 1760's. he pursues a foreign policy that looks in-line with patriot principles. this includes taking an aggressive line against france in order to protect britain's american colonies. they decided that this was an actually good idea. in the battle of quebec. he got what he wanted. it was also very true to another patriot and civil. a federal, imperial government.
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to raise money for the war than forcingther taxes on them without their consent. later on in the 1760's, when he was no longer the prime minister, he was instrumental in getting the stamp act removed. he gave all of these fiery speeches in parliament supporting the american sedition , that this was an unconstitutional tax. of how thed example patriots were not exclusively americans. power, theemained in american revolution may never have happened that all. all. >> a couple of more questions have come in through the chat. of thees the growth patriot party and economic change such as the growing middle-class? >> that is a great point.
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there is a small middle-class. class is not the term that they are using. are living in city center. degraded into british imperial commerce. they are seen as good for the patriots. i don't know if the patriots would have been able to gain so much support 100 years earlier when british -- britain's economy was not taking off. there is a relationship between the growth of commerce and the middle class. >> thank you. here is a great question. howdy british patriots view native nations and what did they envision that their role, or
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lack thereof, in the largest you pillowed -- larger geopolitical needs? >> it is complicated is the answer to this. patriots oftentimes have a very with indigenous nations. , they very much want 's commerce to be based on trade with indigenous nations. they were previously sometimes trading with the french. the city of augustine was fat -- thesta was founded to be trading base with the indigenous nations. the patriots are aligning themselves with these indigenous nations and treating them
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slightly better than they had been in the past. the region i was talking about , it is somewhat patriot aligned. acadia arewithin firmly aligned with the french during this time. are trying to essentially go to war with them over and over again. the patriots sometimes talk a big game about wanting to build better relations with indigenous nations but they do not always follow through with that. have you looked at the cooperation of the royal navy with the new england colonial forces at louisbourg? was there friction or did things go smoothly? >> there was indeed friction.
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clear when hectly ordered the expedition if he was going to have british naval support. he launched this expedition completely on his own. he sent out some feelers to naval officers in the americas. he decided he wanted to come up from antigua to support the expedition. it ran smoothly for a while. but really in the aftermath, after the city was captured, both groups are trying to claim credit for it. there was some correspondence that i read last week in which some of the soldiers who were part of this expedition are -- at him and his
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naval officers. they felt they were responsible for winning this great victory at louisbourg. as with any battle, there are attempts to take the credit for it. you do see a little bit of friction between the naval forces in the new englanders because of that. there is a lot of hurt feelings after this. the term i am curious about, the patriots. in the earlier part of the 18th century. and then the patriots of the american revolution. what is the connection between the terminology and naming of these two groups? >> there are certainly connections between these two groups. name of the british
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patriots was kind of just a marketing scheme. we are the real patriots, not the whigs. we represents the true interests of the british empire. do take up that terminology themselves. it happens a lot earlier than some historians have recognized. i found examples in new york in the early 1730's. they are using this patriot terminology, claiming that they are patriots. they part of this larger movement. some of the continuity is ideological. a lot of the issues that patriots during the mid century were upset by.
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civil liberties was an issue that the patriots were still protesting 30 years later. let me give you one example of that. wase was a $.10 tax that attempted to be passed in 1733. patriots from london to new york city were very opposed of this tax. they said it was a violation of their liberties as british subjects. there is very similar language with how the later revolutionary patriots would describe the stamp act. some of these ideas drop out. policy.iot foreign they accomplished what they wanted to. there were some continuities.
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a lot of the patriot politicians werei studied in my time no longer alive by the american revolution. , theywho still were generally did continue to advocate for america's interest during controversy such as the stamp act. they don't really support the revolution. that is one step too far. but they do support american interests in that time. inre was some continuity terms of the early patriots in the revolutionary patriots in political organizations. had ats during this era lot of newspapers and pamphlets to broadcast their ideas. londonas a popular patriot newspaper called common
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sense. was almost certainly the inspiration for thomas pa ine's common sense pamphlet. while the patriot movement changed over time, you can see many of the roots of the in thisonary movement time. >> we have a question from the french perspective. expeditions along the ohio. where they possibly responses to england's aggression in the trade?rade fur >> the french were trying to take over areas that the british controlled. expedition toan
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capture part of nova scotia. before the siege of louisbourg. people perceived the steeds -- the siege at louisbourg as that. this is still an ongoing imperial conflict between written and france. even after the treaty is signed in 1748. people on the ground still pursed -- perceive themselves as at war with france. people forget about the war of austrian succession. of the samelly part imperial war. conflict between the british and french never really ceases during this time >> >>. we have a question from someone on cape cod. they would like to know if there
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were any soldiers in massachusetts who went to louisbourg. >> there were people from all over massachusetts who went to louisbourg. of the people who were very enthusiastic about this expedition are the people who are on the coast. veryoftentimes were involved in the fishing industry. ae siege of louisbourg was chance for them to recapture that from their french rivals. he gets a series of petitions from people who were on the massachusetts coastline. in places like rocks very, for instance.ury, for he knows he will have a lot of popular enthusiasm.
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think we have time for one more question. oglethorpe the founder of the georgia colony? he wasn't in favor of the revolution? >> he was indeed the founder of the georgia colony. georgia was actually a colony that was founded by a lot of patriot politicians. they were essentially trying to create a colony along patriot lines. they ended up abolishing slavery for the first 10 years of the colony's existence. not exactly for humanitarian reasons but they believed having would diversified economy
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be a better model for british commerce during this time. and georgia are important parts of the patriot movement in the mid 18th century. oglethorpe has correspondence in the library. it talks about his beliefs during the stamp act crisis. he thinks it is a very bad law. that americans are rightly concerned with this tax. you do get a little bit of insight into the 1760's. the 1770's,of revolution is generally one step too far for the british patriots. of america separating entirely from britain is not something they want to advocate for. they were not looking for a revolution. but he was a patriot during this earlier time. >> thank you very much for that.
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and thank you for this lovely presentation. there is a lot of enthusiasm for your book. we are all looking forward to that. we hope you will come back to the mhs and talk about the book. thank you everyone for joining us today. i encourage you to visit our website to see what else we have coming up. we have a lot of programs coming up that the mhs in our seminar series. we hope you will join us again in the future. we wish you a wonderful afternoon. [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2019] you're watching american history tv, covering history with event coverage, eyewitness accounts, archival films,
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lectures and college classrooms, and visits to museums and historic places. all weekend, every weekend, on c-span3. presidency, the white house historical association hosts james conroy to talk about his book, jeffersons's white house, monticello on the potomac. here is a preview. >> this is a map that is also done in our day by a very talented cartographer by the
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took mapswkins who and documents and records of washington in 1801 and constructed this map based on that evidence. you can see the potomac river is twice as wide as it is today. to the upper left, you can see georgetown, which preceded washington, d.c. by a couple of decades in age. in the middle, you can see the in the centeruse of this village, which was all the central part of the city with houses and the little break shops and such extending both east and west. to the lower right, you can see the capital building, which itself was surrounded by a very small community. not even half built by that
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time. only the senate wing had been completed. down below that is the third village, which was built up around the washington navy yard. everything else is open country. the britishf diplomats in washington called it 4.5 square miles of nd land. hard to -- of empty land. hard to visualize today but that is the setting that jefferson visualized over as president. >> learn more about jefferson in the white house sunday at 8:00 p.m. eastern here on american history tv. >> each week, american history tv's real america brings you archival films. this week, three films mark veterans day. in 1997, the defense department minuted this 70
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documentary, african americans in world war ii. the program honors event -- honors veterans with the pentagon argues were not appreciated at the time. short warurse is a department film completed after world war ii ended, showing how nurses contributed to the war effort around the globe. as tensions seem to be mounting between china, taiwan and the united states, we turn the clock back 101960 six. the army in taiwan sketches the history of the island nation and shows how they prepared for a potential communist invasion by china. the town is entered by negro units. >> i was a proud man. i was so happy i was participating in the greatest war in history, but i still could not understand the segregation. >> ♪


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