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tv   C-SPAN Cities Tour - Newport Rhode Island  CSPAN  February 16, 2018 6:49pm-8:03pm EST

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explore the relationship between ronald reagan, george w. bush, and mikhail gorbachev. and richard burkheiser on the fight for philadelphia. watch monday on the c-span networks. >> for the next hour, an american history tv exclusive. our cities tour visits newport, rhode island. for seven years, we have traveled to u.s. cities, bringing historic site to our viewers. you can see more on our website, c-span.org/sitcitiestour. it is the oldest synagogue
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building in the united states of america. it has a wonderful 600 year story. first of all, it is most important for you to understand that above all, the synagogue is a house of worship. we have services here all year round, a full-time rabbi, a congregation of about 120 members, and it is orthodox in its service. that is what we are doing today. the story starts in 1492 in spain, when eating of ferdinand and clean isabella issued -- and queen isabella issued a decree. it was -- they wanted a purely gavelic country, so they the jewish people two choices. convert to catholicism or leave. those who converted were called conversos. others chose to remain jews in a secret. objects.their ritual
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if they have been found out, they would have been tortured and put to death. to get a sense of how spaniards of jews at the time, their nickname was morano, ort swine. they had four months to get there affairs in order, which meant you of everything away to the spanish government, such as their land or any riches they may have had. the king of portugal did something similar. to those jewish people, jews from spain and portugal, we they to as sephardic jews, fled to wherever they could be safe, where they could worship, where they could work in places like jamaica, potatoes, st. thomas, curis out, and was -- curacao, and brazil. barbados, but
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instead of going to new york or philadelphia, they wanted to come right here to newport, rhode island. what attracted them here? the attraction was the story of how rhode island came about. in 1636, a gentleman by the name of roger williams sounded rhode island. he had -- founded rhode island. he had come from england seeking religious freedom. 20 years after the founding of rhode island, those people in barbados said this is where they wanted to come. quakers,jews, but people who had been persecuted or would be because of their religious beliefs. here77, the jews that were needed a place to bury their loved ones, so they bought a and if land of the hill,
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you see that small little cemetery, you will see that it has the names on the gravestone of rodriguez, rivero. these are all portuguese names, those early jews here in newport, rhode island. the cemetery was important because it documented that jewish people could own property, which wasn't the case in all of the colonies. by 1758, things were changing dramatically for newport because it had been transformed from a sleepy little town to one of the top seaports in colonial there with newup york, philadelphia, boston, and charleston. our waterfront was filled with 150 sailing ships that traded in ports all over the world. inthere was wealth coming to newport.
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also gotsh merchants some of the wealth the cause of what was happening. -- got some of the wealth because of what was happening. , to the jewish people prayed in their homes with leaders. they said, we have been in this town for 100 years. let's find someone who can lead the congregation. a young man of about 25 years old who grew up in amsterdam, holland came here to newport and his name was isaac touro, the first religious leader here for the jewish community. the congregation also did not have a synagogue. it took a few generations of wealth to be able to have the money to start a venture such as building a house of worship.
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hadhink that touro something to say about that and theen -- and convinced merchants to build a plot of land here in the center of old colonial newport at the top of a hill. the cornerstone for the building was laid in 1759, and the congregants found the most procedures architect in colonial america, peter harrison, to design the building. it took four years to build the building. the building was consecrated in 1763, coinciding with the jewish holiday of hanukkah. the congregation filed in the building, about 20 or 30 or so jewish families. they invited the entire jewish community to come inside and worship with them, jew and
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non-jew alike. we know what the building looked like. i want to point out some of the features they saw that we see today. the building has this remarkable brass chandelier, still original to the building. they were donated by wealthy jewish merchants whose names and dates of donation are engraved upon them. the chandeliers and candelabra were filled with candles made from whales. one of the wealthiest jewish merchants, jacob rodriguez ramiro, had one of the candle merchants -- was one of the candle merchants in town. the 12 columns denote the 12 tribes of israel. they not only provide architectural support and structural support, but also they have a biblical reference as well.
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end of our beautiful congregation is a clock, a clock that matches wooden charity boxes. these were gifts from a synagogue in london, which was sephardic, and still exists as a jewish synagogue. one of the interesting things about the clock is it has to be hand woundnnd -- and still works. our most important object is the taurus coral -- the torah scrol l. they are the first five books of the old testament. jewish people around the world read a portion of the torah three times a week. this scroll is over 500 years old. it was a gift from the amsterdam sephardic community to this one in the 1750's.
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we believe those are good -- we believe those early congregants worshiped from this scroll. it is unique because it is written on your skin -- on dear skin and is in almost perfect condition. looksemarkable building very much like it did on the night of december 2, 1763. it has had several renovations, but not a reconstructed space, so we still get the feeling of what those early congregants felt when they came into the building. things went well here for 13 years, which takes us up to 1776. this was an english colony, and when the declaration of independence was red, the english called in their navy, the navy blockaded the harbor, thereby shutting down all of the trade. people started fleeing to
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newport -- from newport because without trade, they could not make a living. this building was closed as a synagogue and used as a hospital for british soldiers. one of the few jews who stayed behind was isaac tauro. he made sure that the building was in tact, no harm done during that time. this building came out of the war unscathed. unfortunately, after the revolutionary war, people did not come back here to newport, rhode island. they had already established businesses, their homes somewhere else. for the jewish people, it was a very difficult time. by the 1820's, not one jewish person lived in newport, rhode island anymore. the building was shut. the keys were given to a quaker family who took care of it for 60 years.
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ashkenazie 1880's, jews or eastern european jews started coming to america to -- a small group of them came to newport, rhode island, saw the shuttered building, and said we want to use it for worship. an agreement was made that they could, as long as the service remained orthodox in nature. and this building has been in continuous use as an orthodox synagogue since 1894. george washington came to newport, we believe, three times, the last in 1790. he came accompanied by thomas jefferson. on a campaign trip to all of the 13 new states of the united states of america, urging ratification of the bill of rights. our constitution had several important omissions.
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to the jewish people here in the new united states, the most important omission was that there was nothing in the constitution speaking to freedom of religion. they were wondering what was going to happen to the jews in this new united states. was it going to be like several other governments that had treated jewish people harshly or expelled them? in that vein, the warden or the president of the combination wrote a letter to george washington on august 17, 1790, asking what was going to happen to the jews. washington read that letter, wrote right on august 21, 1790, using most of moses seixas' own words. to paraphrase, "it is now no more that toleration is spoken of as if it were the indulgence of one class of people over the exercise of another's inherent
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natural rights. for, happily, the government of the united states, which gives to bigotry no sanction, to persecution no assistance." those words which have some relevance to them then and to us now were really the first words on paper in this new united states of america by a federal official that spoke to freedom of religion and the government's responsibility in guaranteeing that freedom of religion. and that's what we celebrate here every day in our touro synagogue story. >> one of the things i have learned, growing up in newport, and before becoming involved in history and interpretation, is my newport grandmother would remind me as a child, slavery is
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how we got here, but it doesn't tell you the story of the people. my interest is telling the story of the people. clearly, people of african and chris -- ancestry, alive in the americas, be it british north america or the west indies of south america, arrived under the most perilous and difficult circumstances of human slavery. on the other hand, we persevered. the fact that so many of african heritage still exist today in either northport -- newport or boston or new york or barbados or anywhere in the western hemisphere is a testament to our perseverance. settled in 1639, over the course of the next 100 years, newport and the colony, rhode island, would grow to become one of the only -- the most active ports in north america, but also the most active slave port. between 1705 and 1805, newport merchants, along with bristol merchants within rhode island, were responsible for nearly 1000 slaving voyages from rhode island to the west african coast
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to the west indies and back to island.rhode they transported about 100,000 africans back to the new world during that 100-year period. the africans that arrived via rhode island ships had several pathways. for the most part, rhode island being an english colony, was trading in english colonies in west africa and the west indies. in the case of west africa, it's the golden guinea coast, what we recognize as nigeria to ghana to guinea. from there, africans would be taken to the west indies, what we recognize today as the bahamas, jamaica, and barbados. from there, africans, along with other products and goods from the west indies, would be transported back to newport in rhode island, what we call the tranquil tried -- triangle trade. in the case of newport, this trade was almost similarly tied to run and molasses -- rum and molasses. from the beginning of the 18th newport washe end,
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involved in about 80% of what is called the guinea rum trade. newport ships would literally take rum that was distilled and produced in newport and would trade it for enslaved africans off the african coast. most africans would be transported to english colonies or the west indies, mostly jamaica, barbados. there, they would become the labor force that would work on the sugar plantations that would produce the sugar and molasses. newport ships would take the raw materials of sugar and molasses and transported back to newport, where it would be distilled into more rum and that rum was used for consumption and currency. the slave trade went on for nearly four centuries. in the case of colonial north america and colonial british north america, the system was different than what many people might have a sense of today. many people, when they think in terms of african enslavement, the slave trade, they tend to think of the west indian system or an antebellum, southern america 19th century system.
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con fields, rice, sugar, coffee plantations -- cotton fields, rice, sugar, coffee plantations, which all existed. in new england, we don't have great soil, so we weren't producing the cash crops. for the most part, the africans who came to new england, generally, but particularly to newport, were more involved in any of the urban trade skills that were required during that time. in the case of newport, we have primary and secondary records and ship logs and work records that show africans being apprenticed and trained as silvers, shipwrights, making, carpentry, fine furniture, snuff making, rum making, seamstress. any of the work that was required in urban new england, colonial seaport community, these africans were involved in doing. so, it's not a better or worse circumstance. it's a different circumstance. the economy of clone your new england, the climate -- of
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colonial new england, the climate, the opportunities were different from what enslaved africans would see in the american south and certainly the west indies. by the very fact that newport was at the very center of the african slave trade and a significant number of africans would come to newport, by the middle part of the 18th century, of the population of newport are enslaved africans. one out of every three families in colonial newport owned at least one slave. there was a significant number of africans here, very much a part of the population, very much a part of the workforce. rhode island is also settled by whites who are looking for the expression of religious freedom and are escaping the tyranny of old world and new world. religious freedom and your ability to worship freely was very important within this community. you find many africans that are enslaved in certain religious households take on the religious identity of master and mistress.
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quaker communities, slaves took on a quaker identity. the anglican episcopal church, they became anglican. these africans have access to work skills, training skills to perform those work skills. they are actively worshiping in the same place of worship as master and mistress. third and most important, there is no separation of living environments. most africans are living in the same quarters as the master and mistress. they are living in an attic or a pantry. they're living together, working together, worshiping together, this interdependent life, which would have been largely unheard of an unnecessary if africans were enslaved in the american south or west indies. this very night -- tightknit community of interactivity would haveallowed africans to access to link which skills, or allowed them to reclaim there -- their african identity much earlier, in a much more comprehensive way than africans
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who were enslaved elsewhere. we find a number of africans now purchasing their freedom or being emancipated. they buy homes, set up businesses and shops. by 1780, the first time in world history, a group of africans come together in newport and form the free african union. it does three important things. it raises money and saves money to educate africans. it would establish the first free african operated school here in newport. it would also raise money for proper burials. the oldest and largest existing slave burial ground is here in newport. many of the markers are paid for by fellow africans. third, they wanted to reclaim their african identities. many africans, through this society, through their school, through the church, would reclaim their african names and customs. that would be very much in place in newport throughout the 18th and into the early 19th century.
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this is important because of the fact that, today, there are at least 30 buildings or historic structures from the colonial era that are directly related to not only where africans were enslaved, but more importantly where africans plied a trade, worship, or taught their children. on a personal level, history is more than a vocation of study of learning. for me, it's a way of life, a definition of who you are. my own family on my mother's side, we date back over 10 generations of newport. many of our newport ancestors did not look like george and martha washington, did not worship like george and martha washington. their backgrounds were african heritage, native heritage, and jewish heritage. for me, this provides me an opportunity to talk about all of american history in the most inclusive manner. every generation of a family has maintained heirlooms and passed it on to the next, so we have 18 century and 19th-century collections of furniture,
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clothing, books, documents, all the things a family might have an cherish -- and cherish has been passed on to our family. it gives us a strong sense of not only being rural new porters, but most importantly rural americans. are story is an untold story of so many other americans in this is any today -- our story untold story of so many other americans in this country today. america was founded on the ideals that anyone, regardless of race, ethnicity, religious persuasion, has a right to settle and prosper here. the story of newport very much represents that story. [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2018] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] ofhere at the center american maritime history in newport, rhode island, it is one of the deepest natural enclosed ports in the world. for that reason, the united states navy chose it as one of its key anchorages during the
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seapoweramerican naval in the early 20th century. of they, the origins naval war college begin in germany. the germans were ahead of the game, literally, in techniques .f wargaming during the wars of german unification, the germans came up with in a day -- with an idea called the general staff, and organization which enabled all the different principalities to fall in line with their regiments under this centralized organization called the general staff. there was a guy who was a , lookier general and said at what the germans did with that general staff. he went over to germany and studied the german -- he made the argument that what we needed to do was create a federally regulated army. that idea sort of ran against
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some of the traditional thoughts of how the american military should be operated. it didn't go all that well for emory upton. emory counted among his friends a kind -- guy who was a naval officer in the civil war. upton told him about this neat idea called the general staff that the germans had come up with. one of the ways the germans came up with this idea was by creating a war college. the purpose of war colleges from notn's point of view was actually to conduct wars, but war in a understand deeper historical sense, so as to not only avoid future wars, but also to win them quickly and decisively. so, the naval war college really had a longer story to tell
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beyond its original inception in 1884. the concept of a war college was, in some camps, seen as slightly un-american. 1884, this isin the building where the first watchers were delivered to american naval practitioners. one of the earlier depictions of that type of activity is seen here in this published in january of 1899, frank wesley's sketch of what was going on here in founders hall. part of the methodology was to reconstruct past battles and piece theece by decisions that were made in the context of the battle and then to have a forthright discussion about the decision that was made in the context of the battle, not to be judgmental of the commander, but to understand the reasoning behind the decision. that was the purpose of those -- looking at historical battles
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for the purpose of examining contemporary challenges and developing strategies for the future. the history of newport and the united states navy of course is a deep story that goes back many, many centuries. during the american civil war, newport looms large in the story .f the war between the states the united states naval academy was established originally in maryland, annapolis. of course, maryland was not quite loyal to the union and not quite disloyal to the confederacy. the decision was made to move the naval academy from its location in annapolis, maryland, and bring it up to newport, rhode island. they installed the midshipmen at the naval academy at the atlantic coast -- house hotel, which was located in central newport. the building is no longer there, but the legacy of the naval
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academy in newport airing the civil war looms very large in understanding how the united states navy involved later on -- evolved later on in the 1880's and 1890's. the mids who were at the naval academy during the civil war studied under instructors like those who were in newport, training midshipm at the at the -- midshipmen naval academy. he is one of the most known. we have a signed photograph of him. he died in 1914, just as the first world war was developing. he is best known for his works on seapower. here we have the exact copy of influences -- influence of
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seapower upon history, which became famous. this is actually the copy that he gave to president theodore .oosevelt roosevelt being who he was very much enjoyed studying history. as you can see, the inscription to theodore roosevelt with best wishes and complements. -- compliments. "the influence of seapower upon history" uses history, specifically the history of the british empire, as a means of making observations about the role of maritime strategy in the interest of the nation. what mahan is actually grappling with is the interrelationship with politics, economy, diplomacy, and the use of naval forces to support the free trade and economic interests of the
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nation. so, mahan, looking to brittania as a model, saw opportunity for the united states after the civil war to take a place at the table as a maritime power in its own right. mahan and theodore roosevelt were very good friends all the way back to the 1880's. theodore roosevelt also new -- knew mahan's father, who taught at west point. because of this interrelationship and shared interest in seapower, inspired by the works of mahan and others, theodore roosevelt really is a champion for the creation of what was called at the time the idea of a navy second to none and, with that, he convinced people to build the great white fleet. it's very interesting how they did it.
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for example, they built ships named after interior states, like iowa or missouri, wisconsin. and the idea was to get people in those interior states excited about their navy, for the purpose of defending the interests of the nation on the high seas, as a show of what the potential might be for this, quote, "navy second to none," they staged the voyage that circumnavigation of the great white fleet. they went all around the world, flag in allamerican the ports, the key ports around the world. of course, everyone was very impressed by the ships. flag in all the♪ powersthe european muddled their way into the first world war in the fall of 1914, the united states decided to remain neutral, largely because
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president woodrow wilson developed a strategy of neutrality. group ofuly, 1916, a agents working for the german ministry actually conducted an attack, a terrorist attack in new york city. they threw some explosives into the naval arsenal facility and it created an earthquake under the city of new york. is actually caused damage to the statute -- it actually caused damage to the statue of liberty. just a few months later, after attack, as the government was trying to figure out who actually conducted the attack, this uboat showed up in newport, rhode island, where we are today. the german submarine, u-53, pulled in to the narragansett bay, pulled up to buoy number
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two, right next door to the united states naval war college. and the skipper of the u-53 got on board a water taxi and got his way up to the field and walked up the hill to the field and went to the main building of .he naval war college he knocked on the front door and said his name and said, "i'm here to send a postcard." the person at the quarter deck said, "ok, what else are you for?" he said, "i'm here to call upon the president of the naval war college." they walked up the stairs to the second floor of luce hall. the lieutenant of the imperial german navy introduced himself to admiral knight, the president of the naval war college. the admiral said, "why are you here? we are neutral.
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you are a warship and you're in danger of violating the neutrality laws, at which time we will have to place you in in turn meant. -- in internment." a said, "i'm here to mail postcard to my mother and to call upon you as is appropriate in naval tradition." he was basically trying to say, look, my u-boat can reach your shores and you should be aware if you decide to get involved in the first world war in actual fact. this was unsaid during their conversation. at the end of it, he said, "admiral, i would like to invite you down to the u-53, where we have some apple schnapps and some freeze-dried cigars. we would like to have a nice day with you real quick before we get underway again." tradition, the admiral decided to say, you know what, i
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will go ahead and come down to the u-boat. during this exchange between his american naval officers and german sailors, what was really happening was the americans were trying to gather as much information as they could about the german submarine, you 53 -- u-53. was very forthright. he told the americans details about the torpedoes on board. he said that the boat could guide very deep, thereby able to evade the prospect of being counterattacked, in the event of an escort being at the scene. he was sort of cheerful about the whole thing. the purpose of his visit was actually to demonstrate to the americans the vulnerability that the united states faced in relation to german submarines and the purpose of that was to intimidate the united states to
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stay out of the first world war. as the boat was getting under way, heading back out to the open sea, the lieutenant, the skipper of the u-53, ordered a life preserver brought up from below. he threw it into the water as there were a number of yachtsmen trailing behind the u-53. after he threw the life preserver into the water, he ordered the boat to dive. before the boat starts to maneuver, diving, he yells out to the trailing yachtsmen from newport, "good luck." for the next week, the lieutenant and the crew of the u-53 sank number of ships right and the approaches of the thereby tryingy, to send a message to the united states, that if you get involved in this foreign war, the first world war, there will be consequences. during the early-1960's,
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american naval forces were deployed to vietnamese waters. and aviator -- an aviator was operating off an aircraft carrier. admiral stockdale, an interesting character in the history of the united states naval war college, a medal of honor winner, who had served in vietnam, was there from the very beginning of the vietnam war, flew over the scene of the gulf of tonkin incident and later on was shot down over north vietnam and became the senior american prisoner of war, issuing orders to the other prisoners of war to conduct themselves with as much composure as possible in the difficult circumstances that they faced in the hanoi hilton.
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among others, john mccain was with admiral stockdale in the hanoi hilton. for their service, admiral stockdale, the senior p.o.w., received the medal of honor in 1973 for his heroic service while in captivity. later on, he came to the united states naval war college as president and was instrumental in the delivery of educational content for the purposes of informing our future strategy. the united states naval war college here in newport is really the center of the u.s. navy of the 21st century. it is through the stores from 1884 to the present day that the great american naval thinkers came through to learn about their profession. the other thing that we teach at the naval war college is that we are not really here to fight the future war.
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we are trying to figure out strategic ways to avoid future wars through seapower. >> we are at the newport historical society. we are so fortunate to have a wealth of information about the battle of rhode island, about the battle for rhode island and about the revolutionary period in general. from the most humble, a small piece of fabric, to the most elaborate, which is an extraordinary sword, they all tell a story, if you're able to read them. so, we can start with this one, which is a piece of the flag of the first rhode island regiment. this is the first integrated regiment of the american revolution, certainly one of the most famous regiments in american military history. this is part of the flag that was carried by that regiment
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during the battle of rhode island on august 28 and 29th, 1778. and we know that because this wasicular note, which written in 1878, almost exactly 100 years after the battle, piece of the flag carried by the kernel's regiment -- colonel's regiment at the battle of rhode island august when he 9, 1778. it is modest, -- august 29, 1778. it is modest, humble, but it tells a story of people fighting for their freedom. perhaps we have one of the pieces of evidence about the worst side of the conflict, which is the violence that occurred. this is a cannonball, solid shot, that was found on the field, not very far from here. this is solid iron. which can cause an extraordinary amount of damage. while it's attributed to the
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battle of rhode island, we are not positive that it actually was part of the battle. it is really large. it comes from the kind of canon -- cannon that the americans do not have at the time, even though the americans engage in a massive bombardment of the city as a way of preparing their retreat on august 29. this is coming from the kind of canon -- cannon that are on the shipsships -- french that the americans need to support their land operations. this is a reminder of the kind of damage that can be done to people and structures during the violence of the conflict. then we get to a more refined side of the conflict, friendships, sentimentality, and some real beauty. this is a piece that obviously, it's meant for conflict. it is a sword, but it is extraordinary in terms of its beauty
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what we know about it is that it is a french sword. it is made in the 1760's. it is made in the northwest corner of france. this kind of basket piercing is extraordinary in almost any kind of 18th century sword. regardless of its function. we pick up the story again in the state ofen rhode island uses it as a centerpiece of the rhode island at the world columbian expedition. towas a sword that was given a man of newport. possible that it is the kind of thing that lafayette would value. it is a certain thing that he anld use to reflect
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important personal relationship. the family story is that it was linemangiven to daniel by the marquis lafayette in newport. it was after a reading of the declaration of independence. in order to show the important contribution that daniel lineman had made to cementing the french-american alliance and facilitating the communication between the two. this is one of our prized possessions. it is from the most mundane to the most elegant. extraordinary relationships that made the american revolution. she was at the most famous woman might housekeeper in the united states. more importantly, she was the most famous lighthouse keeper in the united states.
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she was a little woman. she was barely five foot two inches. she weighed 100 and three pounds. her father, hosea lewis was a revenue cutter captain. he had declining health so he started to tend the what -- of the government that they should build a house there for his family. i was 12 years old when that happens. they moved to the whole family from downtown newport to line rock and that is where she lived her entire life until she died. she died in the lighthouse, just as her father did. i don't was 12 years old in 1854 when she took over the duties of the lighthouse. had been stricken with a stroke and could no longer do the work. her mother and her took over the duties. for women than daughters to take over the father's duties if they became ill.
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they never really got the credit or the money for it. it was not unusual. she was built for this work. she loved the white house read -- the white house. it is not very romantic. it is rugged. you have to provide your own heat, your own food. her siblings out to the mainland for school everyday, pick them up, and some of the worst weather. her father would look away because he would think they would not make it. she always did. she had the most prowess rowing that anybody in newport, any man, any woman, and she was an incredible swimmer. people did not swim back then. at age 16, she had her first rescue. she and her mother were tending the light and they heard screams of help. there were four young boys, her age, that were out in a little boat having a picnic.
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they were getting kind of crazy and wild and someone climbed the mast and the boat capsized. she rode out there and saved all four of them. no one knew about this. they all thanked her and went on their merry way. there was nothing to document. that was her first rescue. she did many rescues, but the one that put her on the map, was when she rescued to soldiers from fort adams who had been having a good time and hired a 14-year-old boy to row them back to fort adams rather than walk however many miles. it was a very windy, stormy night. the boat capsized pretty quickly. she noticed it, or her mother dead, and she dumped in her little skip and paddled out and saved the two men. the little boy had drowned. the men were nearly gone.
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they were twice her size. her father had told her, you always pull someone in over the stern. that is what she did. 5'2".s 103 pounds and she was incredibly strong and always kept a calm head. that became her most famous rescue because it had to be documented. they were soldiers from fort adams and one was a sergeant. the next morning, they spent the night there because they were almost dead themselves, they spent the night there and the next morning the sergeant saw her that when he growing out to get them, he thought, we are doomed. it is only a woman. she will never get us. she will never make it. then i watched her and watched her, and she got closer and closer, and i thought, she is going to do it, we will be all right. that was 1869.
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she became famous overnight. after this famous rescue, the two soldiers, new york press came in and harper's weekly, and a variety of other magazine came in and interviewed her. they sketched her and did illustrations. while they were heralding her as the bravest woman in america, they were also saying things like, is it really a feminine thing to do for a girl or young woman to row a boat, or rescue people? they questioned her femininity. at the end, one surmise she would soon be safely married. after the first major rescue for which it was documented, she got lots of press. andort started to recognize that the next fourth of july they decided it would be a debt lewis day.
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s day. lewi there were postcards, a parade, .nd they surprised her townspeople had chipped in and made a spectacular, wooden boat for her. they thought she deserved a better boat and her little skip. there was lots of pop and circumstances and speeches from the governor and everybody. she thanked them all, got in the rescue, and rode back to the lighthouse. she never used it. it was too heavy and cumbersome. it was very impractical. it had velvet cushions, goldleaf, and she had to break this up to get it off of the rocks. there was no way she could do this by herself. she could handle the skip by herself, so she never used it but she really appreciated what the townspeople had done for
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her. famous after that, that visitors started to come in droves. who was an invalid, would sit by the fire and he would count how many people would come to visit her. one summer, he documented between nine and 10,000 people. she would welcome all of these people, but she had so many chores to do. she kept working while answering their questions and talk about the rescues. that is what they wanted to hear about. it was more than just visitors and townspeople's. people came to visit her. susan b anthony were in new england. sure that they would stop and meet her. they spent the day with her. according to some newspaper accounts, they were so he wasastic and hoping, a woman who personifies what this movement is about, but when they left she said she had to
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get back to work. she did not want to be part of this national movement. also famous civil war heroes, like general tecumseh sherman came to visit her and probably the highlight of her visits was from president grant who had been a general in the civil war. he had been in town for something, and he said he was not leaving newport until he got to shake her hand. of proposals of marriage once a she became famous. she was engaged. she was already engaged to another captain. she did leave the lighthouse to move in with him. do.h was expected to she became a full-time wife. that marriage lasted less than two weirs -- two years. when her father died, she came
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back to lime rock and took over the duties and never left. she saved 18 people total, but it is more likely she save between 25 and 35. so many went undocumented. she got older, she continued to rescue people. she was in her early 60's when she rescued to win and friends were coming to see her. she zipped out and pulled them in. she always said the light is my child. if it no longer needs me, she was ready to go. that is exactly what happened. bureau wasuse starting to automate things, a lecturer said he was being ushered in. she no longer had to care for the wake the way she had in the past. starting to change all of the lighthouse systems. that came of a lot of
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bureaucracies and red tape. she would get messages or letters from washington dc, scolding her for not filling out the proper paperwork, for her inventory, and she was not used to any of this. it worried her i lot read her job might be at stake. one clerk chewed her out, not even knowing she was the famous, the most famous lighthouse keeper in the country, probably around the world. he chewed her out for not doing the job properly. she took this to heart and she worried about it and talked about it with her brother. not long after that, she had a massive stroke, in the lighthouse. she had gone to get some wood outside and collapsed by the stove. her brother found her that morning on the floor unconscious. he roused her and she said, go get the doctor. wrote to the mainland and get the doctor. he did not want to leave her, and but he did. when he did she was unconscious
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and she would never regained consciousness. she lived for three more days. they brought her to the bedroom. peacefully.re, it made national news. she had a stroke. it did not look likely that she was going to live. when she died, they part her in a casket and they rode her to shore. , andhad a funeral unbelievable funeral in all of newport. it shut down, the flags were flown at half mast, the bells told, the ships that were going out would also bring their bells. really something. was something for a public servant like her to get this recognition. she was theirs. she also was the most famous lighthouse keeper ever in the history of the united states. she still is that way.
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we really need to return her to her rightful place in history and into our national memory. she is an inspiration still. >> it is the first -- french and millet -- french and american military alliance. it does not go well. it shows some of the points they need to work on. poor communication between the two. it also shows what the americans can't do without, which is a major french artillery support. in terms of being a test of the french-american alliance, there were lessons to learn. there learned at rhode island. what we are doing is talking about two different things. of overtime and, we're talking about the military action that takes place on august 29, 1778.
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that is the major combat stage of the interaction between the americans and the french that are in the northern part of the island and the british in the hessians that were occupying newport. that was part of a broader battle for rhode island. long before in terms of the context of the american revolution. the british moved into newport in december of 1776. it is one of the first major cities to fall. new york fell to the british in september of 90 -- of 1776. the british were able to move here into newport. at the time it was one of the six largest cities and british north america. one of the most important commercial post. attempt of the americans are to dislodge the british, and perhaps the only real attempt is not until 1778. it ties into these broader, strategic issues. ands because of the french
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americans signed it treaty and february of 1778. it gives washington what he covets, french naval support along with american ground troops. the first time they can try this new alliance out, it is later on that summer when a french fleet -- arrives inand the harbor. among people like the american commander, john sullivan, he is one of george washington's favorites, and he is known for his bravery, his busy as him. he is not known for being moderate or temperate. washington puts him in command of the operation to take back this island, thinking that once we have the french fleet and an american army, we can go ahead. in a combined operation,
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dislodge the british, the heavens, and the loyalist. -- there has ian's, and the loyalists. a combined french bombardment on the city. the americans are expecting not just -- of the use of french troops that are under the command. that is what sullivan is hoping and planning for. there is not a lot of communication between the two, of theving the presence marquee the lafayette. he is commanding an entire wing of sullivan's army, which is arraigned. it is from one side of the island to another. he thinks that lafayette will be able to go ahead and facilitate the communications between the americans and the french. it does not work out that way. weather strikes.
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there is a massive storm in august read it not only impacts the american troops, it soaks the gunpowder and destroys their 10th -- there tents. it turned the roads into mud pits. it created tactical problems. the bigger, strategic issue is that it does a great deal of damage to a lot of the ships. given the priority of maintaining the ships, he is not keen to lead damaged ships out into the harbor. what he wants to do is lead -- to leave to take his fleet from their dance at bay out and around and then up to boston. be any british threat there. he was to refit them before he comes back. this is where the miscommunication reaches its apex. sullivan loses it.
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he goes ballistic over the fact that he will leave. publicly does the one thing you will not do in the country. he questions their honor. he called them, that she called them cowards. to break the alliance. that is what is really at stake. one of the first of the battle of rhode island on august 29, is opportunityhe first for military cooperation between the french and americans in the war. it is almost the last. it has become so serious that lafayette has to ride from newport up to boston in order to convince him to come back. selden makes the decision to move forward with his attack plans on newport.
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and 29mpts on august 28 to move forward in attacking newport. the british positions are too strong. about 10,000are american troops, a small canadian unit, and the unique resins of the for rhode island regiment. first rhode island is one of the most famous regiments of the american revolution. it is the first integrated combat unit of the continental army. it is comprised of former slaves that have been freed by their free blacks, native americans, and of european americans who are joined together in this one common venture. the biggest enemy that the americans have, that general sullivan has, is the weather. because his gunpowder has been damaged, because the roads are in rotten shape, his men are not
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in the best condition. he no longer has that french support caused by the weather. he is not able to launch an effective attack the way he wants to. it is not much of a battle. tried to move,ps get bogged down, and the british can maintain their defensive positions very well. in the end, it is a major defeat for the americans. if sullivan's goal is to dislodge the british from this important port, he completely fails and a publishing that. -- in accomplishing that. he decides to save what there is of his army and retreat back up the island, get off the island, before the british can counter attack. to begin his retreat, he bombards the city of newport. it is a very effective bombardment.
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it keeps the heads of the british and has ian's down, -- and hessians down. he keeps them at bay and get the provincial troops off of the island. that is the greatest success in the americans have of the entire campaign. that ends of the battle of rhode island. battle for rhode island, the british got there in 19 said -- 1776, but they do not leave until october of 1779. only new york remained in british hands for longer. newport remained a british court. captured,eady savannah georgia, we are moving to capture charleston, there has been fighting between the british and french fleet in the caribbean. newport has lost its importance to the british because they cannot spread themselves too thin since they now have a
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caribbean theater. they pull their troops as quietly out of newport in october of 79. they leave and half of the town goes with them. it is not long before the patriots move back in. lafayette, who is gone on a trip back home to france to generate more support and supplies for the americans, he returns in june of 1780. when he returns, they leave an army, and comes here, and that is when the last days of newport's revolutionary story. the battle for rhode island was more or less over when the british leave. then the french come back and the americans come back. this becomes a town every bit estimated by the french and the american armies as it had been by the british and the hessians.
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that's what the project of forging the french-american alliance gets going and gaining traction. lafayette does everything he can in this town to bring washington and rosenberg together, which he does a couple of months later. washington was able to come there and he and rochambeau were able to meet face-to-face and discuss what they were doing. it was under this broader campaign of fostering discussion and communication in order to build on those lessons of that were learned from the title of rhode island that leads -- from the battle of rhode island that leads to cooperation. it all happens here. it is from here that the troops ofd at the end of the summer 1781 to go straight from here to yorktown. newport place an extraordinary role, not just in the american revolution, in terms of the battle of rhode island, this
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important battle and the campaign for new england, that it plays a role in the broader conflict that we call the american revolution. >> was used as a summer white house during two summers, 1958 and 19 escape. he came in the summer of 1957 and stayed in the naval war college. he found that living on the war college was not what he was looking for, so he took a tour of the town, saw this house, which was being used for quarters and decided it would make a good summer house. he was there for two summers. it was late august into the middle or late part of september. the summer of 1957 was the integration of central high
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school in little rock arkansas which was a very big clinically charged event that he did deal with while he was here in newport. he was famously said that the white house was essentially wherever he is. there were always things going on he had to deal with, here as well as in his remote office at the naval war college which you can access by boat only about two miles from here. it was a beautiful area. this is historically part of a larger fort. it was easily defensible and under navy protection. it was easier for the secret service and of those to secure this area. it is very close to the newport country club golf course which we -- which he was a big fan of golf. peninsula this is built on is part of a greater fort all 24 andams, built between
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57 with modifications of brew world war ii. most of that time, the whole peninsula would have been blocked off as an army base, coastal artillery, and the officers originally lived inside the fort itself. those rooms were notoriously damp, cold, and so it in the 1870's they built the eisenhower house and another of under -- of other offices and quarters. one time, this was a family home to many families. starting with general hunt, the first occupant of this house, right up to president eisenhower. then the various naval offices that lived here afterward. at the army moved into fort adams in 1840's, finally right around 1875 this house was built for the common.
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as well as, a role of victorian frame houses for the other offices of the fort to live in with their families. ofs house is a prime example the effort we used to put into our structures. , this was used as our national logo, right after the civil war. it was sort of adopted as a nation united, the form of the u.s., the public hated it. it looks like a $. it does not look like u.s.. it looks like a calligrapher designed it. by the time the houses occupied in 1875, this would left in place. it is on both of the windows, it is original. the architectural details of this house, what we used to put into our federal structures is
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amazing. only getpost, one can and guess at how many pieces of wood are here. again at the bottom. appears with four sections of this. served as auld have receiving room in 1960 resident eisenhower aim to newport to dedicate eisenhower park. to a platformng stage with many dignitaries, lots of music, lots of happiness, and everybody was absolutely pleased that the president chose to honor us with a visit in newport. i'm are at the time they
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i wasted the monument, brought with my mother over to unveilingto see the and my mother was a very small woman. me being a very small child, i could not see anything except the brown canvas covering over to monument. toery nice lady picked me up see the unveiling. the cover was ripped off and you could see the name eisenhower and then the five stars of this general of the army rank. that was fantastic. at that point he came down into the crowd and started shaking hands with people. this woman picked me up a second time and said, shake hands with the general. a pleasant face. it inspired confidence.
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our visit is an american history tv exclusive. we showed it to introduce you to c-span cities tour. for seven years we have traveled to u.s. cities, bringing historic site to our viewers. you can watch more of our visits at c-span.org/cities tour. [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2017] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] >> on the investigation into russian interference and u.s. elections. from washington journal, our interview with a former fbi agent on the shootings in florida and law enforcement. later, live coverage of senate candidate mitt romney at a pumpkin dinner -- at a republican dinner. he announced was running for a seat currently held by orrin hatch who is retiring. he made the announcement by releasing a video earlier today.
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♪ utah is admired for its beauty, but also for the character of its people. utah people are known for hard work, innovation, and our can-do pioneering spirit. people who served, who care, and who rise to any occasion. 2002 ajoined utah's lubeck's team, the gains were in trouble. people wondered whether we would be able to recruit the volunteers needed to work 17 straight days for no pay and no tickets. 47,000 applied. utah has a lot to teach the politicians in washington. utah has balanced the budget, and washington is buried in debt. utah exports more abroad than an imports.
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washington has that backwards. utah welcomes legal immigrants around the world, and washington sends immigrants a message of exclusion. on utah capitol hill, people treat one another with respect. i have decided to run free united states senate because i believe i can help bring utah's value and utah's lessons to washington. utah is a better one for washington. in washington is for utah. over the last five years, we spent plenty of time with children. campaign for republicans and met with young people across the country. championed the center for nor logical research. given that all that america faces, we feel this is the right time for me to serve our state and hours country -an

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