Illicit drugs pose a threat to the United States by degrading the morale and, social and economic well-being of this country. The Department of Defense has been directed by Congress to take a lead role in drug interdiction. The focus of DOD involvement is still being determined, but one point is clear: The Secretary of Defense is rigorously implementing a National Drug Strategy in accordance with presidential and congressional directives. The study examines the history of U.S. multilateral drug treaties since 1909, the bilateral progress in source countries since 1971, the Congressional debates, legislative laws and directives. The study further examines DOD's participation in the drug war, questioning whether the military has exceeded Congressional intent in the absence of specific guidance. Finally, recommendations are made to shift from a supply side military involvement to a greater emphasis on the demand at home and to seek support of a regional coalition of source countries to eliminate the production and trafficking of illegal drugs.