The Tiananmen Square crackdown in June, 1989 caused shock waves throughout the international community, raising serious human rights CONCERNS WITH RESPECT TO THE People's Republic of China (PRC) and casting grave doubts regarding the value of our bilateral relationship with the country. In swift reaction to public outrage and strong Congressional pressure as a result of the incident, President Bush shortly thereafter imposed a series of punitive measures to protest the crackdown on the pro-democracy movement as well as to influence the Chinese leadership to moderate its policies. Nearly three years later, however, the efficacy of these U.S. actions remain highly debatable. Moreover, the dramatic developments on the international political landscape stemming from the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union have altered the manner in which the United States views China's geostrategic importance. That is, with the demise of the Soviet Union, China has become relatively less important to the United States as a counterweight to the Soviet threat. This new equation has allowed other contentious issues to advance to center court, ranging from questions pertaining to China's human rights abuses and predatory trade practices to its arms sales policies and nuclear assistance programs to Middle Eastern and South Asian countries.