A good deal of attention presently is focused on how to improve the nation's capabilities to influence others. These capabilities include public diplomacy, strategic communications, information operations, and other means that can be used to influence attitudes, behaviors, and decisions--i.e., win hearts and minds--without resort to (or excessive reliance on) the use of force. As will be described, we use the term influence operations to describe such efforts, whether the target audience is a specific leader, select elites or members of a decisionmaking group, military organizations and personnel, specific population subgroups, or mass publics. The aims of this study were fourfold: * Define influence operations in an operationally useful way. * Review the scholarly literature related to influence operations. * Describe the elements of a general model for effective influence operations and provide a framework for integrating influence operations into military campaigns. * Provide a description and critique of available approaches, methodologies, and tools that might assist in planning, executing, and assessing influence operations.