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tv   Doc Film - Lift-off to Mars - Earths Future in Space  Deutsche Welle  January 3, 2019 6:15am-7:01am CET

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a legend after one hundred it is the ideals of the favs are more relevant today than they were a. hundred years ago visionaries reshaped things to evolve most people understood. the power house and does crossover with ideas that are part of our future. what makes the house and its clinicians tiring to this very. exciting part of our. culture world mark you mention it starts in january thirteenth on w.
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julian in the end. astronauts i'm up escape is climbing a volcano and lands are rotting in the canary islands. he returned from his long space mission just a few weeks ago the space agency sent the astronauts here for training the terrain is what is called a planetary analog very similar to the landscape on mars. the . the french astronauts he's a mars mission as the apex of his career the six and a half months he spent on the international space station i s s we're a first step towards potentially being part of the crew lifting off of the red planet one day. humans have to
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adapt to space travel with close to recycling loops total autonomy drive technologies and the use of robots and novel materials the ideas as paves the way for future missions and puts a journey to mars into the realm of the imaginable. but. a lot. of the tube. back in november twenty eighth sixteen at the baikonur space board's temperatures have fallen to minus twenty eight degrees celsius.
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the rocket is being driven to the launch pad a pretty routine occurrence in the space business preparations for the one thousand nine hundred ninety second soyuz launch. but for to mother scale this mission is the first. object to in a half years of intensive training he is about to take a seat in the small capsule forty meters above the ground. these are his last moments on earth moments during which anticipation turns into intense concentration. he joins a russian cosmonaut with skinny and american peggy whitson as they set up for the international space station. he is the only newcomer on expedition fifty fifty one.
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maximum concentration you're taking off on a rocket it wasn't quite clear to me what that meant but your tethered to a ballistic missile in the so use your fasten down everywhere only your arms can interact with the control panel otherwise you feel really tied up in the rocket is vibrating and belching smoke billowed from. on november seventeenth at twenty one twenty sharp the soyuz rocket lifts off the ground. it's a thousand tons of fuel generating twenty million horsepower the thrust in the eight minute ascent phase is enormous. tension is high for the first ten minutes after the launch this is the most dangerous time.
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the earth quickly begins to look like a sphere as the various stages of the launch of bring the capsule up to its orbital speed twenty eight thousand kilometers per hour. days huddled together in the so you the nightmare for anyone who is claustrophobic you're sitting in a kind of cannonball it catapulted four hundred kilometers into orbit around the earth. but human strength is to be able to see that is normal otherwise you'd go crazy. right. after orbiting the earth thirty times in two days the crew has sole muscles but now the eye assess is in sight. it takes more than two hours of intricate maneuvering for the caps who to dock onto
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the space station. there's relief in the mission control center in moscow with the astronauts relatives are watching the whole operation live. at the end of opens and on their peggy and tomorrow welcomed by the three crewmembers who arrived a month earlier. the orbiting research facility has been continuously manned since the early two thousand it's where four hundred kilometers about the earth they are preparing for the interplanetary missions of the future.
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the idea is this is a nine hundred cubic metre labyrinth with everything arranged in a manner as precise as it is complex. it's a high tickler barratry where microgravity turns every notion of up and down on its head. newcomers have to quickly learn how to find their way around. although you know when you suddenly start floating around in weightlessness you can feel your own disorientation or your organs of balance are out of kilter everything is distorted while your stomach feels full because everything in it is clouding. your head hurts it feels bloated because of the high pressure in your brain of. what. these other first symptoms are but they disappear very quickly. at least that's how it was with me so i was very lucky.
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humans are not adapted to life in space our anatomy and metabolism are geared to earthly gravity. without gravity the blood migrates from the lower to the other parts of the body creating a vascular overpressure that can damage the organs this phenomenon and still an obstacle to long term missions. in france the sea any air snatch and all center for space studies is looking closely at the issue. professor phillip bay and to my piscator have to vised a new experiment for the i s s. our bay has had it and number of research programs at the institute of space medicine and physio. elegy all may days here volunteers red impermeable fabric are immersed
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in water filled ten's this so-called dry immersion is currently the primary method available for studying the effects of microgravity on the human body down. sick them warmly and the scene really it's a good way of simulating the effects of microgravity on fluid transport in the first three hours because the conditions in space are reproduced exactly. stagnation in the blood vessels the problem of the brain the eyes and the first this shows the devastating symptoms that can occur when bodily fluids move our ports which is the case in space. we know that over pressure can also cause the vessel walls to age as much in six months in space as in thirty years for a normal person on earth. the nasa astronaut students find that funny at all they're not really jokesters anyway just you can make up for six months but we
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don't know if anything beyond that is reversible. may i play. during the six months on the i assess the crew was confronted with another essential problem of long term flights a psychological one. which is form a cosmonauts canady padalka thing even in space flight circles but delta has considered an extraterrestrial he's a legend who has lived in space longer than anyone else so fun. on five space missions he managed a total of eight hundred and seventy nine days of weightlessness that's two and a half years in other words the estimated duration of a journey to mars small church going on but it's worth it millard ever be possible for humans to live and work in outer space. over the last fifty years countless
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experiments have been carried out and more experience has been gained with each one it was a list of issues with human organism has become more resistant to the aggressive conditions in space for some of the crew members psychological compatibility is the greatest challenge or going to fit your ideal crew or cosmonaut doesn't exist and never will we're not robots. more details that we too will you can't just slam the door between yourself and your colleagues and what with the crew is beneficial to find a common language and make compromises. exactly the right word of this case. over four hundred astronauts have now been an orbiting space station since the first one was launched in one nine hundred seventy one. the personal selection
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criteria for long term flights have been honed. but no one knows yes what a group flying two months would ideally look like. for a living or must be for apollo flight to mars we must learn to survive in space for the long term it's easiest if we do or close to the earth which is why the i assess is a stage on the way our failure says it's not just a research station divorced from the mars project. a good fifty percent of what happens on the i s s is about sending people even further into space. where you don't print one called dollars plus. even further into space today everyone thinks of months when they hear that. some parts of the earth's share features with the red planet. decades of intensive
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volcanic activity on lands or right in the canary islands have given it's a geology that is similar to that of mons. geologists shy of one carol is often drawn to the island as an expert on the red planet he advises nurse and. he's also an important figure in the month society and international association of scientists engineers astronauts and aerospace officials. all of them advocates a journey to mons. i shall be a sea of people on a going to mars reflects our profound urge to explore it's in our genes. let me inspire the discovery of america there are other planets. and we also hope to find out about the origin of life. it was a very miracle that only happened on earth with a chance of one hundred billion years or was it a process that happens naturally i know that there was liquid water on mars and it
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passed just because we've seen the remains of lakes i recall it is still dark but see i think one should live for the reason there are two like maybe we can find the missing link between inanimate mineral matter and the first selves never let me out of the miracle of life come about. mars may give us the answer but it. is undoubtedly fascinating but can we really sent the book how is that supposed to work. that situation fit throughout the m.r. as it is about two hundred twenty seven million kilometers from the sun. whereas the earth is one hundred fifty million. orbit the sun so the path to mars isn't a straight line but a curve and i can orbit. mars is hundreds of millions of kilometers away two hundred times as far as the moon these are completely different dimensions sit at. the most optimistic for cost estimates the voyage to mars and back would take about
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six hundred and forty days six months with the outbound flights a month on site and fifteen months home. to travel to mars we need of course a rocket at a conventional chemical propulsion engines are pretty advanced the fuel is burned with oxygen to give maximum thrust this will enable us to fly to mars in six months . what five. two chemical rocket propulsion projects are currently making advances nonsense space launch system or s.l.s. is a deep space launch vehicle with several propulsion stages that could transport four people and fifty tons of payload to mars. the space x.
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company with its spots on musk is behind the second project with typical optimism musk has said that twenty twenty four will be the year the colonize ation of mars begins the company is working on a reusable launch vehicle and space ship that can transport a dozen astronauts into space at one go the way the various rocket parts can be reduced or recycled is a revolutionary but as far as propulsion technology for conquering distant planets is concerned the real revolution is taking place elsewhere. houston engineers from the ad astra rocket company are testing their propulsion system. was the project seems like something out of science fiction. but one of its underlying technologies is already well known the plasma propulsion
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engine. plasma thrusters have been around for some years now in contrast to conventional combustion engines they work by heating and i noticed gas to ultra high temperatures and then accelerating it's all i know is to ask them through an electromagnetic field. the speed at the outlet nozzle reaches one hundred eighty thousand kilometers per hour and ensures a continuous constant throughout. this type of drive is already being used for some pro. and satellites however it can't generate the power needed to propel a space ship. but this man is trying to change that as. franklin chang diaz is
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a physicist and astronauts who has been involved with more space missions than anyone else. if you on the u.s. space shuttle seven times for forty years he has been working on the ideal propulsion systems. in twenty fifteen he announced that his calculations showed it would be possible to reach mountains in thirty nine days . that number is correct. you can do this if you have a lot of power. and thus the horten thing that's where the nuclear electric propulsion comes into play. chante is calculations involved cutting a small nuclear reactor to a plasma engine to generate the necessary electrical power. my interest. was towards developing a rocket which had all the nice features of the electric
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blast my rockets. the low power rockets but they had a lot a lot of power and sensually building the equivalent of the diesel engine of space something that will allow you to really move heavy massive pieces of equipment from point a to point b. . jan diaz says the reactor which generate the electrical energy needed for the past my engine this would offer the autonomy that no chemical drive would guarantee . chemical. thrusters could still be used to launch and guide the spaceship into orbit where plasma engine running on nuclear power with then take over then. this would considerably shorten the flight time. these are missions that are game changing that changes the chemistry of the me of the mission that changes
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the architecture it reduces a great deal of the issues of human survivability all the problems that we have with physiology with the conditioning of the human body all of those things. begin to get less and less difficult. time is a crucial factor. shaving a few months off the trip means less food would be needed. as well as reducing the harmful physiological effects of long spaceflight. puts months within reach. and follow like all other leading variable we want to minimize is the flight duration it has to be as short as possible so that we need as little logistics and as few supplies as possible and we have to recycle more to achieve this even more
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than we do at this station at the moment there are still a lot to do in terms of waste management will have to grow our own lettuce will have to go without a lot of things but that won't stop us from travelling to mars. last. chance have been cultivated on the i s s for some years now including by the members of the expedition fifty fifty one tama a leg and above all. the program has been so popular with the astronauts that the researchers did away with an agenda and left the care of the plants to their discretion. so all in our own letters made us happy. spot just for us cherished and cared for especially by peggy whose hobby yes but we were all happy about it we watched our salad grow and on friday evening we ate it it was a morsel of life that took on
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a very special meaning. to our. joy a mass that directs the face you program at nasa is kennedy space center. this is a fairly classical project to find out how to grow plants in space and thus ensure the astronauts food self-sufficiency at some point the joy of nasa scientist carly trained smith have quickly realized that gardening in space has more than just nutritional advantages. between twenty fifteen and twenty sixteen american scott kelly spent over a year with russian mission on the i used to. train smith observed that kenny constantly sent photos and tweets of his. killing board the international
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space station. i want to go and check on my. flowers a girl here in the. columbus module. so scott when he took care of the flowers it was very important for him to take ownership of the flowers in and i could tell he really enjoyed it because it through twitter feed hey our plants aren't looking too good would be a problem on mars to my space flowers on the rebound and finally when you got the first bloom how does your garden grow here's my space flower he took his flower out of veggie and took it all around spacestation he took it to the coop a lot they had a centerpiece. for dinner and and most telling of all of to me is what i saw scott a nice show with their three hundred days in space and lo and behold scott's holding his space foreign to me that tells everything how important it is to both the show and scott.
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i think for psychological for morale relaxation and then of course food you know having those fresh food is going to be very important having that connection back to earth having that little piece of nature in this very. you know hostile environment where there's a lot about all the plastics and wires running around and there's this piece of earth that they can smell they can touch and finally eat i think it means a lot to them in when we go to mars when the earth is getting smaller and smaller and smaller it's going to be even more important to have that piece of earth have that reminder of home the smell of home and then the taste of home to remind them where they come from. on board the i s s how home is only present. seen from the coop in
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a panoramic montijo. fills the sky. biscayne never time is of watching the fascinating spectacle. but can you also imagine a time when our planet will no longer be visible from the station. it's estimated there are just well there throughout history we have never lost sight of the earth. just once for a moment when the apollo crew orbit to the moon on a mars mission earth will be lost in the distance at some point you want to even feel any progress it will be like a. between the stars that will be hard just like when humans fly to mars the great unknown will be psychological to all the almost. two man lives at the station for the first time on the thirteenth of january twenty seventeen it's his first
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spacewalk. response choice you know that these are the space suits this one is mine it's in my size. a suit is like a real mini spacecraft equipped with all systems needed for autonomous survival in the foid of space. communication devices protection against a vacuum in the heat including the gold visor and integrated computer control functions are attached to the chest and all. the rest is in the backpack. this is very bulky and heavy but it's the price you pay for a walk in space. two hours before the pressure chamber opens tomorrow and commander shane kimbra already . on the ground. to p.s.-i so that's all about of air so a quest gets underway don't go overboard it gets expelled out into space and that
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at thirty one hundred hours one hatches finally open. the first impression is a feeling of heat and glistening lights. to close the gold vines is to protect themselves from the sun's rays. they movements are not as certain as they were in the training pool it takes a few moments to get used to this new environment. then the mission begins replacing the space station's solar panel for the to have finished sooner than planned. given further tasks by mission control. they want to mount a face across parts of the space station at the window openings you can see the scars left by micrometeoroid says. peter stanley
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we're coming back with us for you. in here and yes every outside mission is meticulously prepared you don't want to mess it up i kept thinking just watch what you're doing so nobody can say you screwed up things can go wrong because a maneuver like this is extremely complicated because i thought so if it fails it won't be down to me so. i want pretty tasty. but you also look around you up here to gather some impressions and images that you'll remember for your entire life when you also. just disservice because it is true i was on a platform above the space station as the i s s was two meters behind me and my feet were fixed to the platform where you from there i saw the earth as a sphere where you would want to be on the solar array as i could see it turning in
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the distance it seemed to be rotating like a bowling ball in slow motion beneath me so that was a really great loss of. nearly . six hours of hard work nevertheless the moment to return to the station comes much too soon. even though the astronauts worry about making the mistake right up to the last seconds things can happen five stars here. my biggest worry on this assignment was losing my equipment you mustn't let go even
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though everything is attached with ropes and small wheels you're always worried for a while i thought i'd lose the bag with all the tools for a minute or two my heart was in my mouth. i mean we're familiar with all these disaster scenarios but of course we do everything we can to make sure they don't actually occur you don't think about it all the time either keep you from sleeping . one of many lasting memories. as with any exceptional experiences the astronaut senses are in turmoil and they have trouble fixing all of these impressions and their memories. back. section. in the airlock and all that help the two astronauts divest their equipment to mark his school has just completed his first spacewalk. with that work.
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the fear of losing a tool on an outside mission is shared by all astronauts no wonder since every piece of debris every object over one centimeter in diameter can cause devastating damage to a station racing by twenty eight thousand kilometers per hour. nevertheless this danger is not the biggest concern of the scientists planning a long term mission. for the earth's magnetic field protects us from cosmic rays from deep in space and from bombardment by the so-called solar wind streams of. particles emitted by the sun. are magnificent polar lights are formed when the energized particles collide with our atmosphere. but the protective shield of the earth's magnetic field doesn't extend deep into the soda system. you know think of
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one hazard it is radiation on the one hand there are solar storms protons blasted out from the sun and on the other we have cosmic rays extremely high energy particles. gilchrist makes us if you don't because my crazy at you from all directions you need a lot of material to intercept and before they get the astronauts and damage their d.n.a. . imagine radiation is a problem but there are solutions we shouldn't overdramatize it yet if you seriously feel about that not easy. as head of the italian space agency in rome physicist roberto bettis stun coordinated a project to shield astronauts from cosmic rays. but the problem and they may start off on. this problem has never been fully addressed you know this plays in for the until now the magnetic field surrounding the earth kept radiation at an
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acceptable level so yes that's nice but sadly. it's our best dancers hope of more but when we go deeper into space the radiation levels there are three to four times higher equator so we know that this entails a measurable but still considerable risk of damage disconnected cancers that can shorten the lives of astronauts returning to earth by five ten or fifteen years the change that nature queen did sammy. civil yet more than a problem here if we wanted to tackle the problem of high energy cosmic rays mechanically we were and. fortunately need three to four metres of absorbent material such as water this is of course absolutely out of the question it would be far too heavy for use in a spaceship but it's that it's out there so that's about it. this space radiation superconducting shield or s r two s.
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project may be halfway towards finding a workable solution to the problem. its idea in itself is simple a force field generated around the spacecraft deflects the rate is similar to the earth's magnetic shield but as simple as the idea it is putting it into practice is highly complex it requires an extremely powerful yet lightweight super conducting magnets that work efficiently at temperatures of just above absolute zero. at cern the european organization for nuclear research your children see and his team may have found the ideal material magnesium dipole right. continued the said meter superconductivity is contained in these fine wires. or in some that are more like ribbons only. this superconductivity is produced by magnesium diab or eyes and this material has the advantage of being very light
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museum is very lightweight and it becomes superconducting at a temperature above that of liquid healing. superior. this makes it an ideal material for magnets to protect astronauts in space on the mall in dallas boston there's a load off from off. the station has anti radiation armor we even have extra protection in our sleeping cabin the banks are the best protected player. as with extra shielding in the event of a solar storm a sudden increase in solar activity or an ion bombardment we flee into our sleeping berths. and i as s. as to know what absolute sixty percent more radiation in a single day than
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a person at sea level on earth does and here however even this amount is still considered homeless. radiation levels may be one of the main challenges facing us missions but there are others to. escape dreams of future missions but for the engineer this monster landing is the stuff of nightmares. one in three missions that has failed so far. and example one of the biggest problems for a mars mission is the landing because of the rapid descent into the martian atmosphere not about five or six kilometers per second with a heavy load for them on it they seem to date we've dropped one ton of payload on mars but a man to be a cool way thirty times and we don't know how to do that yet it's all said you have
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to multiply everything. that heat shield of a small probe is five meters in diameter with a thirty ton or that'll be twenty five meters i'm sorry we're not capable of launching a device with the diameter of twenty five meters from the earth into space especially old like that naturally causes drag and at twice the speed of sound in the space surface traveling at two thousand kilometers per hour so it needs another braking device of an irish roots but in the thin atmosphere of mars parachutes can't do a lot to do celebrate thirty times you need a parachute with a diameter of eighty meters that's practically the size of a football stadium. that's good and even with his parachute fully deployed you'd still drop from the sky like a stone at three hundred kilometers per hour it needs retrorockets and they have to kick in within minutes if it goes wrong you're dead so everything has to be worked out to last detail. off it suppose it stops at the tradition landing on mars is
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like a game of chess there are lots of solutions and scenarios and strategies that we can play through we'll see which ones i like elvis was. is like. gravity on the surface of mars is only about thirty eight percent of that on earth so one hundred kilos human being weighs only thirty eight kilos on mars that should be enough for the muscles to work but bones to stay firm and so forth but this is basically only speculation since how an organism will actually adapt to these conditions over a long period of time has never been properly investigated on mars we have to do a lot of sport as we're already doing on the i assess if people don't leave the module they'll need muscle training and gymnastics.
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physical exercise is an important part of the astronauts daily routine in the audience and it's every team activity as essential as sleeping or eating. in space you just float around there are many muscles that you don't use that all we have to exercise for two and a half hours a day to counteract bone and muscle loss so that that is true. that this exercise is also help the astronauts we learn exist let me say to you. the area is a strength training device specially designed for muscle training in a way to snus which has the added grace advantage of being opposite the coop and. he now takes place under the eyes of the space agency's medical teams muscular
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atrophy can be compensated for quite easily losing bone density is a more serious problem. you can have a silly year and valerie novikoff study bone loss in astronauts who have completed i s s missions. i want to share the show you mine your religion up we're focusing on the d mineralisation of the bones during the roughly six month flight as we can see from these graphs the loss of bone density is approximately seven percent. it will give you a comparison the average loss of bone density in post-menopausal women is two percent a year she thinks this core is good or normal conditions if you like men show hardly any loss but in these men here we're looking at about a seventy percent loss in bone density what if what she needs worse in the package but you to me you know if these girls are not want to fly to mars they'll have to
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counter these bone structure changes his reasoning in him but it's favorable that's not. the mission on the i s s is drawing to a close and the crew is torn between melancholy and impatience to finally get home . to marcus kaye takes his camera into the cooper for one last time. it's a paradox out in space beyond the earth's atmosphere the astronauts are mainly struck by the fragility of our mother planet's. climate up here from a distance you see the consequences of human actions with your own eyes you can see how fragile our planet is you realize. it's not just a theory it's really like that in physics i mean earth is basically just a big space ship with its motley crew and its limited resources we have to look after at one. time or biscay documented the earth for one hundred ninety six days the first thing
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that catches the eye and his face says is our planet's beauty. but the frenchman has also taken a critical stance on some aspects like growing urban density. having the chance to observe at a remove the four hundred kilometers has given the astronauts a sense of social responsibility. are all the time we have the role of witnesses even photojournalists should present my message and i'm not the only one to say it is one of the earth is fragile cease up and we must take care of. my photos make people think about that in the mission has already been a success only from going to mars the great adventure of the twenty first century is to save our planet that it will take some doing.
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entered the conflict zone confronting the powerful. subir is pushing ahead with moves to join the european union the brussels who so far unimpressed with its reforms for my guest this week visiting but leaves is the serbian prime minister i'm not for the beach. fire so little progress oh so many key issues. conflict so far in thirty minutes t.w. .
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this is d w news lawyer from berlin to bring in our correspondent michael holmes already joins us from three of us now that we're here to find out what happened with me and think of the correspondent found out it's not and we do have some of breaking news that's coming in for us now what has come about the perspective closer of w. news thank you for joining us. where is home. when your family scattered across the globe. a son with kids if you could do it listen to them because it's a journey back to the roots should government not be. the shah shallowly from somalia who lives around the world to make them want to come i did urgent assistance. global family starts january twenty third on t.w.
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ana. this is news coming to you live from a new first in the lunar exploration. has successfully landed in space on the far side of the moon we'll have all the details in just a moment also coming up u.s. democrats take over the house of representatives today allowing them to block much of the president's agenda mean for donald trump and the current government shutdown we'll go live to washington. and with the asian cup just around the corner we'll introduce you to one of the tournaments most on.

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