tv Doc Film Deutsche Welle March 1, 2020 9:15am-10:01am CET
the top of the hour with another update for you stay tuned for dark films of the focus on iran that's coming up next in the meantime you can also always get the latest news and information our website just go to the you dot com american airlines team thanks for watching. but we're all set. to go beyond. that. we're all about the stories that matter to. really. whatever it takes. to be running know. how to change what you know but how can the job you made for mines.
979 shah mohammed to raise up after he was overthrown by a revolution that put an end to a monarchy that was more than 2500 years old. true nature i didn't believe it was an uprising at 1st people get killed oh. that's the way i thought it through machines for 1st gradually and then suddenly. as mistake was to want to do too much too fast mohamed raise our pocket he was the last shah of iran and a key figure in world politics during the 2nd half of the 20th century. his arch opponent was the shiite i have told ruhollah khomeini who became a beacon of resistance to the shops rule. to buy goods through the trees to the 2 of them were polo. opposites both in terms of social
image and personality. by then bezos they became very fierce antagonists absolutely and the shock developed. almost subsection with. their rivalry lasted almost a lifetime eventually the shah was defeated and with the ayatollahs victory came islamic fundamentalism a new challenge for world politics. in september 941 at the height of the 2nd world war the iranian parliament swore in 21 year old mohammed a raise of hostility as the country's new head of state. his
father a razor sharp levy had declared iran neutral but make no secret of his sympathies with the nazi regime the allies demanded his abdication. since hitler's invasion of the soviet union in 1941 the british and americans had been transporting heavy military equipment through iran to aid russians in their fight against the german reich i. i say 5 to one up to one raise a show abdicated and fled iran he left his son behind president mohammad reza stayed in iran raise a shot told him to remain there and take over last year. mohammed razor's father had prepared him for this moment from a young age his crown prince. he always had
a special role among his siblings his father chose his son's playmates and sent him to an elite swiss boarding school to receive a western education. he also dictated who he would marry. the egyptian princess. a union that ultimately would end in divorce razor sharp wanted this arranged marriage between the 2 ruling families to strengthen the power of the past love the dentist in iraq. and he was of very very powerful charismatic figure who completely dominates the son's life. 300 kilometers southwest of the capital tehran lies the away says city of hama and the youngest of 6 children ruhollah khomeini was born here in 1902 in a house on the outskirts of the city. his father was murdered when he was just 5 years old. the case was officially never solved but khomeini always held razor
sharp responsible. until the end of his days at a love from a new thought that there is a shop a surly had intervened and to save the bird this was the bitterness lived in him because in his writings and every now and then uses of those whose fathers have big chill but it is a shock. growing up without a father would shape the rest of common nice life his mother put him in the care of a wealthy aunt who made sure he got a good education. common he started school aged 5 a village school teacher taught him to read and write and he proved to be a quick learner far more capable than his classmates while the children played he studied and read the koran.
before razor sharp was forced to abdicate he had launched a comprehensive program of reforms he wanted iran to become a modern country and one of his moves was to ban women from wearing the traditional veil known as the shadow or the clergy accused them of meddling in their affairs and a wave of protest in chewed. khomeini was now starting islamic law and he also felt that this was a fundamental violation of the principles of islam. it must have come as a relief to khomeini when razor sharp was pressured by the allies to abdicate khomeini demanded that iran should return to being governed by islamic law but his demands fell on deaf ears. died in exile in south africa in 1944 or eyes were on his son when he took
over. people were intrigued to see how he would solve the conflict with the clergy that he had inherited from his father up until then his public image had always been rather reserved. but the young sharon our showed surprising determination like his father he wanted to modernize the country and it society but he also wanted to end the religious dispute. khomeini had by now started teaching as law and he found a willing audience among young students who were becoming increasingly radicalized one shiite fundamentalist group called itself. islam the devoted of islam it still exists today. its members came from poor districts of tehran and campaign for a theocratic state based on the qur'an they wanted all western influences banned
and to force women to cover up in public. redeeming the couple of years they really became very important because the 1st or their assassinated of the intellectual of the said i'm a just family who campaigned against islamizing hold then they proceeded further as a citizen the prime minister general as mara. for many was. the cleric who gave them. cover because you know he. just killed somebody unless. he writes of us for example. in early 1949 unknown attackers trying to kill the shah many believed to devote. behind the attempted assassination although that was never proven the iranian
parliament accused the pro moscow today party and bandits a move the shark proved off because he wants an answer species of communism as he was of radical islam his political path toward the west. i'm looking. a. here you go. here and there great that they marched. in the. u.s. president harry s. truman and the people of america gave sharma had a razor and exuberant welcome when he arrived in november 949 of course this wasn't a purely selfless gesture america was looking to gain access to the immense oil reserves in iran. the shah
also needed support for his plans to modernize the country and was interested in technical innovations like the hoover dam but not everyone shared his enthusiasm for the west. just learned what a pain the country was totally dependent the shar was dependent on the americans and the british but we wanted to have an independent state view. a country that was in control of its own fate. one that made its own decisions so upset and shy that. the post-war global economic boom was fueled by one thing in particular oil the largest refinery in the world was being built in about dan not far from the persian gulf oil production had been a predominantly british enterprise since the start of the 20th century the anglo persian oil company in iran was like a state within a state. in march 951
the iranian parliament decided to nationalize the oil industry and britain cut off its supply to iran many skilled british workers had to leave the country the state takeover of the oil facilities was popular but the oil embargo soon caused an economic slump extreme part is like the communist today party. exploited the crisis for their own ends. the shah even briefly fled into exile to escape the line of fire. several camps were now fighting for power in iran including the mourners and their followers and various political groups like the communists who wanted to abolish the monarchy in favor of a people's republic the shark could only hold on the his power with help from the us the american intelligence service the cia gave him money and helped him to set
up his own secret police called sock. the shah was willing to team up with any ally who would fight against the influence of communism from the soviet union the clerics were traditionally anti communist and pro monarchy so he tried to win them over to his side but it didn't work. he certainly thought that that ideological backing was religion. and that again another mistake that he made. a region. particularly as incarnated boyd the sheer clergy could never have because. the ideological framework on which to build modernization and it was for nitish. in december 1959 terran witnessed huge celebrations press photographers from all over
the world fought for the best picture of mohammad reza pahlavi and his new wife. after 2 failed marriages his 3rd wife the new queen would soon give birth to the much awaited aunt of the throne and ensure the future of the park lobbied in a state. with the shah by her side past ravi became an influential figure in her own right she accompanied him on his trip to america in 1962 by the couple warmly received. together with john f. kennedy as president bashar intensified iran u.s. relations the 2 of them agreed that only a strong military could fend off the latent threats from the soviet union the us promised aid to strengthen iran's armed forces and in return for weapons america would get oil.
was i. very. often the americans gave the shah modern weapons to build up his armed forces. there were countless military advisors in iran who decided what would be done and what wouldn't. it and the things they did was certainly not a service to democracy has diminished a democratic. in the 960 s. iran was still very much a developing country most people were tenant farmers with most of the land in the hands of feudal lords and big landowners including numerous more laws and religious foundations. was. on january 11th 1963 the sham put forward a comprehensive reform program aimed at significantly improving the people's living
conditions he called it the white revolution. and you know this if he can link the white revolution that his majesty decided to undertake was truly his idea and his decision. he wanted his country and his people to develop their vision j. lo better a nationwide referendum was held on a vast majority voted in favor of the m.p. shares programme it aimed to abolish the feudal system privatized state owned companies combat illiteracy and give women the right to vote they want allowed to vote in the referendum but were allowed to fill an unofficial ballot papers to register their support of the rakyat he wanted iran to modernize the word but pollution was intended to make iran better and it did in many many ways it ended feudalism in iraq that's not an easy thing to do. the starting point of the white revolution was a land reform which met with staunch resistance from the clergy the shan gave more
than 500000 head task an area twice the size of luxembourg to 30000 poor families. yet there really with your fit me. there were rumors that the shah's reforms were carried out under pressure from america which would have meant they would only have served colonial and imperialist interests and not those of the iranian people. in other words they were being carried out on foreign on american orders because you have. so-called educational soldiers were sent to village schools to teach children how to read write and count. adult farmers and nomads also had to go to school the shot included people from all social classes in his campaign.
as i don't read so i voted to see if there was an army for literacy but not for real education. i mean of course it's a good thing that people are literate but literacy doesn't equal political education there's a big difference for duty should be little. and segue also into shit and or political education was banned in schools and in universities. from board to. form a name became the spokesman for a group of mullahs who rejected this policy as being pro western. and. that was a macho law for many on one of the at the time the ayatollah khomeini was someone who represented the people and the opposition that is on the hollow fundal was he bravely articulated their demands which is why we supported him. as i told the khomeini him i asked me to go for many votes of the that khomeini was now very much
in the public eye he was no longer the young clergyman he had been in the city of course complaining about razor sharp and holding back out of respect for his teachers so on and mel he was the grand ayatollah he gathered a considerable following and had much more potential to mobilize the people who fought and. so many took advantage of this enhanced power emerging from the shadows and adopting an. gress it stance towards the shah's policies for the 1st time he publicly want him against continuing in the ways of his family. coming he send a couple of letters directly addressed to the shah and the shah gave a couple of lectures speeches directly responding. i have quoted those at length in the shop and there are remarkable khomeini for his defiance. telling the
shop boy. don't do something so that i throw you out of the country like your father and the shah saying these little. the world is like ants like the who survived in feces we are not going to let them rule this country. a key element of the white revolution was to strengthen the role of women in iranian society. iranian women enjoyed their newly acquired rights under self-confidence that came with them not only could women vote they could even run for political office. it was a milestone on a journey towards female emancipation. khomeini and his followers believed the foundations of their faith while under
threat from the new role of women in politics and society and head back how many denounced corruption state violence and the torture employed by their son back secret police threatening what he called the tyrants of our time with a black reaction to the white revolution. any die. ziad the car drama back then khomeini was the only one who spoke out against the shah. to go out. and he threatened to patrol him as a sinful person and. a religiously sinful person mentioned and to organize a revolt against him. or try and i stand here you mean through our various you know. demonstrations and counter-demonstrations swept the country bashar sent the army into the holy city of qum and khomeini was arrested and
sentenced. to dance. the sentence was mitigated after intervention from the clergy but khomeini was forced into exile in the jaffa in iraq. meanwhile the white revolution was running into problems in the country signed. the farmers now had their own fields to cultivate but they often lacked seeds water and modern farming equipment. that he usually is that as the set of. the land reform resulted in people having to move out of their villages and into the cities such as terror. but they couldn't live in the city centers so they settled on the outskirts. it was these
marginalized communities that became the soldiers of the revolution just that it was an analog for that when khomeini arrived in not just the stronghold of shiite islam in iraq he initially withdrew from public life now aged 60 he was isolated and believed that his time was coming to an end many iranian clerics wanted nothing to do with his political activities he started taking a renewed interest in the study of the holy scriptures and talked with just a few of his students to keep up to date with the situation in iran. the family members who had accompanied him into exile were amongst his few supporters. it was just distant figure very little interest in anything other than his mosque and his books in never went once 2 blocks from his house the other side to see
a river. it went to his mosque and came home for 14 years. back in iran the shah had always maintained that he wanted to achieve something for his country before he finally ascended the peacock fry and now he finally allowed himself to be crowned in a lavish coronation in october 967. he knew how important it was to display the dentist his religious foundations and always involve the clergy and his public appearances so he had their support as he took up his rightful place as the new shot one shot the king of kings. island that handlers. oh. he also had his wife crowned empress and elevation unprecedented in
iran's long history amnesia medium only can is that good to be said a man would wish when his majesty placed the crown on my head it was as if he put it on the heads of all women and. it was a very important moment in the history of our country and. i didn't think that i had become important in my own right. i sighed as a sign of progress and respect for women. earlier in 1967 the glamorous couple had been on a state visit to the federal republic of germany where they were greeted by president col hina luca and chancellor court keeping up. the visit focus primarily on economic ties between the 2 countries the shop visited the big steel companies along the rhine and he needed help to industrialize his country for example building new dams for agricultural irrigation it was
a lucrative opportunity for german businesses. but the ugly side of the shah's regime was revealed during the couple's visit to the opera and ballet and when members of savak attacked demonstrators protesting against oppression and torture in iran the situation escalated in the shah's visit and the protests against his policies became a turning point in the history of west germany. to drive his white revolution forward the shah used capital from abroad to upgrade his country's technology he invested billions in electrification and in various industries. he wanted iran to catch up with the modern world and become the global power it once was. i think that our country in the next 10 years will be what you are today. in the
next 25 years according to other people i'm not saying that would be among the 5 always prosperous countries of the world. the iranian capital in particular had started opening up to western culture and was quickly becoming a modern metropolis very few women still covered up in public and young people could travel freely and get an education abroad duran's people enjoyed all the advantages of a cosmopolitan city where they were free to express themselves. but as far as the political structures were concerned nothing had changed embodied by the shah himself the monarchy remained all powerful and unaccountable avoid to it is a line in chad and does. their fear that he wanted to decide everything all by himself for good that was the mistake behind all his failures. and what ultimately led to
his demise and the if your tough well as a large charge at the shows ministers didn't have the courage to tell him about the country's poor economic situation. this has been caused by changes imposed from above the move towards an all thora tearin regime rife with corruption crime and the murder of intellectuals and the country was bleeding to death intellectually it was a bit trite that is if iran were under foreign rule as well to be gone and the government rushed. in a jar for however time seemed to have stood still khamenei was still giving lectures to a small circle of students and thinking about how an islamic legal system by the clergy played a leading role would look he condemned western shallowness and heaven isn't he attacked the colonial powers and israel and he called for an end to the separation of politics and religion. the transcripts of his lectures were published in
a book entitled islamic government. i think i was one of the maybe 1st people to read it i was shocked. but i like a lot of other simple people like me thought this would never work this is a medieval idea they're run and has had a constitutional revolution in 1000 or 5 or 7 is not going to let the clergy come and cut off people's hands in public squares and it's not going to lead the courage to rule because they know sharia. i was wrong as were a lot of other countries and forces. iran wanted to stop the spread of radical ideas and theological demands from shiite clergy and banned harmony's book but this censorship only made it more attractive
to opponents of the ruling class. anyone who opposed the shah's regime could expect to end up in some back cells where torture and executions were commonplace there was no escape from this dreaded prison in tehran which german architects had built in the 19 $130.00 s. this is what the students in germany were protesting at during the shah's visit. even some of iran's current political leaders were imprisoned here during the shah's rule including today supremely. the shah's regime was totally intolerant of opposition or even dissent there was no
open dialogue about the country's social and political development and political parties both left and right are largely stamped out. the opposition had either fled abroad or been locked up. the shah's autocratic rule meant he was increasingly losing touch with the people of his country. tehran with its modern high rise buildings had come to symbolize a belief in progress but many people were no longer able to keep pace with the shock so they turned to the institution that was familiar to them one that had always provided support in times of uncertainty. it completely went after the left. whether it was the left that was dependent on the soviet union or whether there was a social democratic left the only people who were allowed to build mosques build schools teach their own cadres were the religious works and you bring millions
into the cities and shantytowns concentrate them made them easy to mobilize and allow the closure to be the only one who's active and then people are surprised that the revolution was won by the clergy. during the 1970 s. the shah renovated many of the country's mosques and greatly increase the number of qur'an schools as well he wanted to reassure the clergy that islam was fundamentally important to him that it was the very foundation of iranian society despite the orientation of his policies towards the west. through his public appearances and his annual pilgrimage to the city of mashad considered one of the 7 holy sites of shia islam he hoped to keep the clergy family on his side. and. he saw the legion as his last line of defense he saw religion
as his most powerful stronghold within the country and that's where he made a massive miscalculation massive strategic and neither logical miscarry and political miscalculation because what he thought of as his most powerful strong core and backing turned out to be his most fatal and then trips enemy. in 1978 and inflammatory article about khomeini in a leading daily newspaper accused him and the clergy of mounting a counter-revolution. around his followers took to the streets in coom. to show their solidarity. was was this was a very dear fast moving evolution may be. the fosses revolution in human history
because everything happened of it in 4 months with every passing day the resolve of the shah's regime to stay in power was weakening and the resolve of the opposition to demand his removal was increasing. as many as 300 people were killed at the demonstration in coom. there was a 40 day mourning period as is customary in islam but straight after that hundreds of thousands took to the streets again their numbers swelling by the day. the shah wasn't prepared for resistance on this scale it took him and his regime completely off guard and left it paralyzed. with an acid attack on the wrecked cinema in the oil city of abidjan on august the 1978 killed 422 people. the opposition accuse the secret police and the shah however
evidence later suggested that khomeini himself had masterminded the attack after it was a different story both in magnitude and anger and industry organs for the 1st time i heard thousands of people say death to the shah. that would have been unimaginable in 77. the protest became increasingly violent and the military was called to intervene september the eights $978.00 would go down in history as black friday. it's not known how many people were killed on central tehran's janice square that day estimates range from less than 10215000 in searing general strike brought the country to a standstill. sharpshooting . starkers the shah had
a strong military and intelligence services. so all the instruments of power were in his hands this ring through our field of death off story that's why many people like me thought. let's 1st try to overthrow the regime with khamenei. and then we'll deal with him later on sean moved in prayer to share. the sharp pressure of the iraqi government to declare khomeini persona non-grata and he had to leave his acts out in najaf his aides advised him to head to europe which he had 1st rejected asking them what he would do and non islamic countries little did he know that thousands of his followers from all over the world would make a pilgrimage to his new home in new flare château a small suburb of paris western politicians and intellectuals like a sham paul sartre michel foucault and francois mitterrand also showed support for
khomeini in france he suddenly found himself at the center of global attention. but. nobody talked about the radical ideas khomeini had expressed in his book about islamic government since his writings were banned in iran and unknown in the west now one even raised the subject with him his speeches against bashar were recorded and distributed throughout iran. mob aashiqui if you would in that ya it's a lot we spread these speeches around in every form possible that we handed the tapes out all over the place and we even took them to the villages meta. tag the generals in iran were waiting for mohammed razor to order them to take action against the insurgents but nobody realized that the shah was suffering from cancer and was physically weak without orders the military held its fire.
but. once the soldiers had stopped shooting down civilians people put flowers in their guns and held pictures of the many and their hands in a celebration of their future leader. but then the shah used the television address to try and regain the initiative. man needs pay only in the lobby show me like you don't rush anything because we knew going into that oh yeah and they got a source of them not so see. they don't let it be more. better with a 1000000 but they do as is the dog as own. he looked weak he looked absolutely despondent he couldn't read the text. and the point that he was saying is that i have heard of the famous phrase i have heard the. call of your revolution and give me another chance. and people saw it
rightly as a sign of his weakness if ever there was a sign that he is not going to be able to master the situation that was to me the speech. the international community was alarmed by the crisis in iran and french president of valery giscard d'estaing invited german chancellor helmut schmidt u.s. president jimmy carter and british prime minister jim callaghan to a meeting on the island of guadalupe to discuss what to do new socket general offered up the. talks had a twofold objective. to increase security and reduce tension around the world we thought we needed to recognize the realities of today's world and increase our efforts to improve international relations what do you really want if you said no that's your no. western powers decided that meant abandoning the shah and his regime on january the 16th 1979 he left iran with his family.
the shah thought the crisis would soon be over and he would be able to return but in actual fact it was goodbye forever that he's rough i don't never forget the tears in his eyes when we left and the officer who threw himself at his majesty's feet and issued the party and is that in the. 14 days later on february the 1st $979.00 khomeini flew from paris to tehran many fear that the shah's air force would thought khomeini's return by forcing the plane off course or even shooting it down. because. you know the boarding that plane in spite of the danger well you couldn't feel safe of course you'd be worried about how many didn't show any sign of fear but he must have been afraid anyone would. butterflies of the day.
in the lower and middle east. photon iranian soil after 14 years in exile millions of people jubilantly celebrated his return. the iranian monaco had come to an end after $2500.00 yes and khomeini was welcomed as a savior. was nobody had any idea of the consequences the islamic revolution would have for iran. was he to do intellectuals are boarded for ranged from the right to live including those rats supported the shah. over all our big business you know our big tycoons
showed our billionaires they all support it so are here 3 ated the degree of unity among gad all these different factions it turned on which was impressive how many visits were to be hedged as on a cemetery on the outskirts of town where those who were killed by the shah's regime are buried and to the holy city of qum where his fight against the shah had begun many years ago was the confrontation between these 2 could be summers to the confrontation of 2 opposing words and in such a confrontation it is always the stronger will that will win you know and that's what exactly what happened in iraq. khomeini's were was far stronger. to conquer power then the sharks were to keep power.
after a long odyssey through various different countries the shan died of cancer on july the 27th 1980 in cairo he was 60 years old his body was buried in the ari 5 in the egyptian capital. the ayatollah khomeini died from a heart attack on june the 3rd 1989 in tehran during his 10 year reign he followed through on his ideas of an islamic revolution with uncompromising stringency and turned iran into a theocracy. and in doing so he set in motion a dynamic process that even now still keeps the world anxiously guessing.
elite. 80 t.v. robotics and learning merged reality wait a 2nd we want the whole picture our facts instead of make ideas shifts deliver us. from a tragedy reality into cryptocurrency your topics for live in an ever changing digital world let's start there to do as a show or shift to. 15 minutes down to good looks.
good shape. what effect stuff climate change have on our health for me is the g.p. it's a very important to cool their. group teaching the future coons i see. move along bodies. in 30 minutes. pass and it's as if that i don't need to keep a day about the goals for over rushing home the 4th time for the full disclosure sooner that became a literal that missed the boat on the valets at the last dragon was worth recalling the harm to 3 years. on.
the boat. this is due to the e.u. news live from berlin a growing humanitarian and political crisis at turkey's borders with the european union thousands more migrants are on their way to the frontier this morning turkey says they're free to go to the e.u. but greens and the area won't let them in we have a torch for a d w correspondent at the border also coming up u.s. president donald trump imposes new restrictions to stop the spread of the corona virus as health officials are now.