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tv   Ataturk  Deutsche Welle  June 22, 2020 11:15am-12:01pm CEST

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under now of our top stories this hour concern is growing in germany after more than $1300.00 people tested positive for corona virus at a meat packing plant facility that has been closed for 2 waves thousands of people placed in quarantine in the surrounding area. this is news live from berlin i'm brian thomas for the entire team thanks for being here. on meal time to complete the 2nd season of on the fence. the planet on the brink of disaster we did long in-depth interview experts about one question how to change the coca-cola dishes.
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most of our come out he calls himself ataturk father of the turks and catapults turkey into the modern age couldn't and didn't have one of his greatest achievements was making women visible. he knows no mercy for himself or for others i'm not a dictator i want to rule by capturing the hearts of the people not by breaking them a controversial hero both loved and hated is present day turkey still divided by ataturk's revolution.
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the 1st world war the ottoman empire allies itself with the german empire and austria hungary against france russia and great britain one of modern history's most brutal battles takes place off turkey's mediterranean coast allied warships attempt to pass through the dardanelles straits and reach istanbul but they fail this gives rise to a new allied strategy and an opportunity for most of our kemal ataturk. the allied forces attacked the deliberately peninsular with infantry sparking a static battle that lasts for months. the young officer mustafa kemal is in command of an entire section of the front. one of his orders from the trenches goes down in history. no great numbers
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game for this day a lot of. ah you. rock you attack our you good god. in the time that it takes us it was august 1 rise up to take out rice. but i was. glad. although his troops are outnumbered. ataturk is able to hold his position until reinforcements arrive. fished those there's no doubt that he was decisively involved in repelling the invading troops at 2 significant positions. but the overall military strategy was developed by the
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german general lee months on sunday. gets age that. to this day turkey celebrates ataturk as the great hero of. there are many monuments to his bravery across the country. illegally the ottoman empire achieves one final victory but at great cost almost half its soldiers for battle. their sacrifice cannot stop the inexorable downfall of the empire. the ottomans rule southeast europe and large parts of the arab world for centuries in the 1900 centuries the empire becomes known as the sick man of europe in $1008.00 the also man empire loses bosnia and herzegovina to the hapsburgs that
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same year old area declares its independence. 3 years later in 1000 a level tripoli is lost to the italians and in 1914 egypt officially becomes a british protectorate. and uses the disintegration of the empire was not in doubt with the question for the government in istanbul and the ottoman people laws could this process be stopped or prevented containment responses. for in the. future most of our kemal ataturk is born into the crumbling multicultural empire in 881 in a house infested on a key at the time the city is known as selling nick and is under ottoman control the death of his pro european father at an early age deeply affects the young man and he enrolled in the military academy against his mother's wishes he soon
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develops a reputation as a good student and is given the name kemal which means the mature or the accomplished almost if i get my news that the extraordinary thing about mr is that he became aware of the difficult situation women faced at a young age i knew his mother was a single parent leagues and he had 2 sisters he knew the challenges his mother faced because of his experiences he became an officer preoccupied with the rights and equality of women. you should learn this. lesson on the remains of part of the ottoman empire until $912.00. the harbor city on the mediterranean attracts jews turks armenians greeks the british and italians. the liberal atmosphere of this city leaves a lasting impression on most of. the certain swedes and those who had
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a newspaper industry a publishing industry and many foreigners there were even journal. it's unfair saloniki who had their own breweries and bowling club slopes swash it was a very multinational western oriented society vest oil and. of. ataturk continues his career at the renowned ottoman military academy in istanbul. training at the academy is heavily influenced by pression military theory as the germans have been responsible for modernizing the ottoman empire as military schools. this environment gives rise to the young turks movement based around an ambitious nationalistic and western oriented military elite. now a young officer mystified come out becomes part of the movement attracted by its ideas of liberal reform he's fascinated by the ideals of the french revolution.
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was so focused. stuff a camera saw and felt the overwhelming technical and scientific superiority of europe every day and her boss the model for him was not a single country like germany france or england but the west as a whole. in schism. the young turks are determined to save the ottoman empire led by envy pascha they demand political and military reforms. in 1008 the young turks take power in istanbul as sting sultan abdul hamid to the 2nd and replacing him with his brother in order to stop the collapse of the fragile empire and pascha joins forces with the germans in the 1st world war. in the course of the war ataturk becomes an
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adverse array of the ambitious war minister he sees and bipasha as an obstacle to his own advancement. both are patriots but while enver assumes an elitist approach ataturk believes in winning the support of the masses. resigned. under difficult conditions for. many years later he recalls those days only a turkish nation in arms can overcome the country's crisis. soldiers not acquainted with him or gang gets caught on an internal han will prove useless in combat. while ataturk becomes a hero at the war minister and the passion suffers a catastrophic defeat of the ottoman russian front. by the spring of 1917 there is no longer any doubt that the world war will bring about the end of the ottoman empire.
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and pascha orders most of our come out to accompany the crown prince on a visit to the german allies. the delegation stops in strasbourg on the way to inspect the western front. the ottoman allies meet with an icy reception from the german imperial governor hands found out its who is incensed by recent chapter of ottoman warfare. your highness general. sars 2 years earlier the young turks under the leadership of enver pascha had used problems along the ottoman russian front as a pretext for brutally persecuting the armenians they accuse them of collaborating with the enemy and ordered they be deported to the syrian desert jaramillo our goal
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there were armenians and an attorney a before there were turks there. we know this. or group people speak of genocide but the ottomans and the armenians were lawful order. this remains the official turkish position to this day however a majority of those deported are civilians women children and old man almost all of them die on the forced marches internationally it is deemed genocide but how does ataturk feel about the treatment of the armenians out there to look. for that attack was lucky that he was fighting english australia new zealand soldiers in 1915 and he wasn't sent to anatolia. so. that imad he was the only prominent figure among the young turks who was not contaminated by those events. controlled media.
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your highness disturbing news has reached my yes the armenians are good gentle people your countrymen have been engaged in terrible assaults. how could you possibly presume to take the side of the armenians who claim to have existed as a nation and now hope to prove their own worth again thereby harming the turkish empire one hears disturbing thing speak we did not come here to discuss the armenian question. but rather to determine the strength of the german army we stick our lives on your troops we are relying on you were a gentleman police. it's one of the few politicians who speaks up about the deportation of the armenians. the german ambassador in istanbul also lodges a protest. manhunt bag the german chancellor merely replies our only an aim is to
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keep turkey at our side until the end of the war irrespective of whether it cost armenian lives or not. most of. your list mostafa came on new that is nobody would deny that the armenians were subjected to incredible suffering. leashes light. for storm whether it was controlled by. local gangs members of the military or the police. that was clear. most of our kemal returns to central europe shortly before the war and traveling to college or carlsbad in bohemia to recuperate from a kidney infection in june 1800. despite
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the war calls but has remained an important meeting place for europe's high society the therapeutic qualities of the thermal baths are not the only attraction in the city. the cosmopolitan atmosphere and cause bad leaves a powerful impression on most of. this is how he imagines a modern society must be. the war hero is particularly taken by the city's women they're confident independent and they do not wear veils. we must be bold when it comes to the question of women they should feel less fear it's with art and science let us teach women the value of education and lachie so that they may may. tain there are no. shortly after our tax return the ottoman empire participation in world war one ends in defeat allied forces occupy large parts of
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the country in november of 1918. the peace treaty of 7 signed on the 10th of august 920 reduces the once mighty empire to a fairly populated section of land in anatolia. the greeks have preemptively occupied is near and continue to advance inland. so it was tools to. serve as the turkish side however at least accorded the germans the potential to be a large power. this was not the case with self which demanded the dismantling of the empire of several signified the end several billeted. in the. ataturk considers the saf going to go see a sions an unmitigated disaster long before an agreement is reached he launches his campaign against the dictated freedom from the coastal town of some soon.
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ataturk already has a plan for a future turkey laid out. ataturk had been sent to some soon with orders to supervise the demobilization of troops instead he refuses to follow the orders of the government in istanbul and calls on the muslim population to resist the greeks this provocation leads to his dismissal from the army. in absentia he and his comrades is my passion later is met and you know are sentenced to death by istanbul's military court. ataturk refuses to give in he calls on his supporters to attend congress's in as a room and save us in order to establish an alternative government. after our victory the country will be governed as a republic. the sultan and the dynasty will be dealt with as necessary when the
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time comes. the veil will be abolished as well the famous people will wear hats as they do in civilized nations. periods year 180 how there were a lot of man like a turk military leaders who became politicians between world war one and world war 2. in hungary there was admiral hawtrey or and inspiring you has general franco. but ataturk was the only head of state with a military background who cut spending for the armed forces and invested the money in education and health in order to heal the nations ones. so much it's the. a new state requires a new capital city
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a small largely insignificant of ministers of center becomes the anchor of the modern era ataturk remains a powerful presence in the city. on the 23rd of april $920.00. opens turkey's 1st grand national assembly the new parliament declares the treaty of 7 avoid and the government representatives in istanbul guilty of high treason. the opposition parliament then signs a contract with the bolsheviks in russia. the soviet union is the 1st country to recognize the new government and sends money and weapons for the fight against the greek occupiers. 2 years later most of troops will have recaptured. most of turkey . in july of 921 ataturk assumes command of the war against the occupying forces once again he proves himself
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a master strategist he declares general mobilization demanding that every turkish citizen contribute to the production of arms and ammunition. even women transport shells to the frontline. this highly motivated army under most of our canals command eventually defeats the greeks resoundingly at the battle of sakaria. ataturk is given the honorary title ghazi the conqueror. in 1922 ataturk and his war against the greek occupy as in on the edge in khost this also marks a significant turning point in his personal life. the city falls to the turkish army without resistance. breaks out in christian areas of
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the city. a fire begins in the armenian quarter and becomes a conflagration forcing local inhabitants to flee. 10 days later the christian areas have burned to the ground. could ataturk have prevented this. these are when ataturk arrived in israel he had defeated the greeks my opinion is this why would a person who enters a city victorious then set fire to that city as far as i can see the fires could only have been set by those escaping and there are documents to back this up however it is not an indisputable claim. nobody can deny is that not only the greek inhabitants of isn't it some sort also between one and 200000 greek refugees were literally forced onto the ships.
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of a spear however we've been unable to establish conclusively who was responsible for the destruction of the city by our sun that. does most of the fact that most of the came out himself for man silent on the issue suggests that the army was involved indeed. the army. in izmir most of our command establishes his headquarters in a villa owned by the shack is out of family successful local merchants. lot effect the families daughter had pledged to marry the man who freed is near from the greeks. such a beautiful elegant woman whereas the image of a 1000000 sold you know around my passion. i had it made early recently.
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seen in nearly got monsieur de or 2 of the met was very dramatic there was the great fire and the beginning of the laughter after yet to be asked is that you know the. houses of your family affected by the fire yes many get all we earn chopin my passion. we have defeated the enemy and under your leadership we will build a new isn't it. the couple are drawn together by passion and patriotism. turkish sources suggest that the events in izmir cost $10000.00 lives while greek sources claimed there were as many as 100000 deaths possibly one 3rd of it is me as total population of the armenian inhabitants only
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a few individuals survived. some desperate people are able to escape to the greek islands the allied ships in the harbor refused to intervene or come to their aid. centuries of multicultural multiethnic existence in the city come to an end is near becomes a turkish city. the victory sell it. nations across the country represent a triumph for the young state mystify kamau becomes a shining hero in the eyes of turkey's population once and for all. the reconquest of turkey's former territories makes the treaty of sapphire worthless forcing the allies to return to the negotiating table. eventually turkey's new government signs the treaty of lausanne which negates many of the session i conditions on the 24th of july 923.
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the treaty effectively legalizes the expulsion of unwelcome sections of the population in order to turn the former multi ethnic ottoman empire into a turkish nation state. this leads to the greatest population exchange the world had so far witnessed. hundreds of thousands of people are affected. large columns of greeks who had been citizens of the ottoman empire she turkey while muslims from phrase and macedonia make their way to the new turkish state. and many more nationalities are affected. without the fergusons go 01 mustn't forget that there were also large numbers of refugees and people resettled from the balkans and the caucasus who made up the new nation soon it wasn't only people born in anatolia. fair experts who claim that in turkey it
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wasn't the people who form the nation but the state which effectively created the nation from the top down. but for all. you should. ataturk's government in ankara banishes the last sultan mcmath the 6th and subsequently all members of the house of. the republic is declared on the 20. the end of october 1923 and attitude is named president. however most of our kemal has not yet achieved his ultimate goal a cultural revolution within turkey. as president he is determined to make his calls about ideas a reality. the 1st step to the long term bachelor takes is to marry latifah her name his ideal of what a modern woman should be despite the fact that you as a head scarf in public out of respect for local traditions.
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ataturk's plans for a western style civil marriage ceremony are dashed by the laws of the ottoman empire which are still in effect. however he immediately changes the position of women in society with lot of his help. bandits fit in for narco latin affairs role in the reforms consisted of her company came out wherever he went up until this point all male leaders or went everywhere alone without their wives most of our commercial and last affair went everywhere together i think that was the biggest reform and i am a little sorry that this is often ignored reform or is this a. lot if i had studied in paris and speaks fluent german she transforms ataturk's former
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bachelor nights into european style middle class dinner parties. women are also invited to attend. but probably not even rather a. few of ataturk's cultural reforms had quite the long term success of his efforts to introduce gender equality in modern day turkey women are to be found in all professions and they are far more emancipated than in other muslim societies the foundations for today's equality lies with turkey's adoption of the swiss civil code in 19255 years later women are given the vote in turkey long before france and switzerland introduce universal suffrage. couldn't live in the sort of. city the most important changes that women hoped for with the
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abolition of polygamy and the right to divorce their husbands. yes after the introduction of the swiss civil code men and women enjoyed the same rights. issues that all women benefited whether they preferred the western or the eastern way of life whether they were for headscarves or against and many women campaigned for these rights and even fought for the. get out the let certain book. listen that picture art on. the civilized evenings of piano recitals and victor hugo quotes soon vanish. replaced by the iraqi soaked man's night's most difficult is renowned for. moved. to the republic to our independence to the republic.
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what is this you are drinking again. your doctor and your mother have warned you you shouldn't drink so much my mother is dead but you you restrict me control every step i take. you are the president this is about tacky for me it's about my freedom of. that if they don't hurt which is why i didn't last if they just go along with everything like other women did why did she contradict him so often a lot of is independence caused consternation and irritated the people around her in addition mostafa came out and spent the formative years of his life alone and was a man who valued his freedom he realized that last phase was restricting him. ataturk
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divorce is latin for in accordance with islamic law just before the swiss civil code would have made this impossible. the divorced wife of turkey's 1st president spends the rest of her life living quietly in istanbul and. despite the divorce ataturk longs for a family he adopts 8 orphans in the course of his life and makes sure to raise his adopted daughters as a mancipation and patriotic women. one girl with an armenian background eventually becomes a fighter pilot and flies missions against the kurds. in . istanbul on the bosphorus and the sea of marmara.
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ataturk feels almost omnipresent here. even though president new mosque now towers above the republic monument on the city's renowned taksim square. modern day turkey is a divided nation torn between europe and the islamic world. this fundamental conflict dates back to the ataturk. all the reforms the president of the new republic introduces pursue a single goal to bring an underdeveloped turkey closer to europe this comes at a high price internal divisions within the country. as soon as the republic has declared mr slocum our attempts to turn turkey into
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a secular country with a clear separation between religion and the state. the caliphate is abolished in 1024. qur'an schools and sharia courts are subsequently closed down followed a year later by syfy orders and dervish monasteries. the qur'an itself is translated into turkish. the highest sophia a christian church until 1453 was the main mosque throughout autumn and rule. in 1934 as the final flourish of his religious reforms ataturk has it converted to a museum. the protests against this move continue to this day.
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and for basically his answer was atheism reduced most of. because he himself had no need for religion and no interest in mysticism he had no understanding that some people needed transcendental beliefs of one kind or another. lives for. ataturk also hopes to change the outward appearance of his subjects making turks look more like europeans his clothing reform forces his compatriots to a bad. and in their fences and have towns these changes also have a religious element in anatolia the heart is seen as a symbol of godlessness. the heart law of $925.00 attracts more criticism than the abolishment of the caliphate the year before. their uprisings and some people who refused to abandon their traditional fans had where
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are sentenced to death. that same year parts of the kurdish population begin to demand autonomy. ataturk refuses although the kurds had supported him during his war for independence. the kurdish leader shakes aid calls for a belly and demands the revival of the caliphate the government suppresses the rebellion brutally sending the shake and $47.00 of his followers to the gallows. secularism and the kurdish question both continue to play an important and divisive role in turkey's internal politics to this day. it is a 924 the regime began its a crackdown in the wake of the kurdish rebellion in 1925 opposition parties were silenced and the press was placed on the government control. turkey became
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a single party state one could call a dictatorship. often considered changing from a one party to a multi-party system similar to that of the french but it simply wasn't possible. resistance against ataturk and his reforms grows even among his former associates in the summer of 1926 a group of conspirators plans to assassinate the president but the plan is uncovered and a wave of arrests takes place across the country it is the perfect up. unitive ataturk to remove his opponents whether they are guilty of a crime or not. the death sentences have been passed big hughes have confessed even ataturk's former trusted associates fall victim to his parents. there will be no mercy. not even for old comrades. 19 death sentences are
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carried out and dozens are found guilty of various crimes and sent into exile the opposition is significantly weakened. even after the uprisings against his dictatorial reign ataturk continues his efforts to fundamentally change turkish society his last great project is the reform of language and the written word. arabic letters are replaced with latin ones within a short space of time and arabic and persian words are replaced by authentic turkish expressions. as a result many turks are only able to read the newspapers with the help of a dictionary within a single generation the books of the past become in comprehensible. ataturk himself attempts to educate the people the former military hero is now turkey's teacher in
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chief. and to me and to many other historians of the era the language reform is the most significant shift the option of abolishing the use of arabic writing serve 2 purposes. break the ties to the islamic world which of course was unacceptable to ataturk's opponents through. the turks. at the same time it vastly encouraged the rise of literacy. that. it's an unprecedented effort despite the 1st indications of the growing international economic crisis the president continues to pursue industrialization and education reform he travels the country in an attempt to understand the daily lives of turkey's largely agricultural population and to develop a national economic program. ataturk also
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invites foreign experts to help turkey make the transition to a modern industrialized society. the speed of the reforms is too great for much of the turkish population and many feel they are being forced to participate against their will ataturk is unwilling to accept this. i am not a dictator. they say i have power yes that is true. there is nothing that i could wish for and not make a reality. however i do not act with force and injustice and a dictator is someone who suppresses the self-determination of others. i want to rule by capturing the hearts of the people. not by breaking up. with the introduction of the surname law in 1934 which brings turkey's naming system in line
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with the european conventions most of our command finally becomes ataturk father of the turks a flood of glorifying images and memorials ensues a cult of personality typical of the era. ataturk statues are still found throughout modern turkey even though his party and kemal as i'm in general have fallen out of political favor it was overjoyed to see that he was convinced that he was the only person who could make this project a reality and that no one else could share this task he was convinced of the uniqueness of his missions. which could not be carried out by others. and he believed he had to give absolutely everything to fulfill this mission. so in the museum. in $127.00 ataturk moves to istanbul and begins to spend more and more time on his yacht. responsibility for the day to day business of the government is increasingly placed
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in the hands of his future successor is met in a new. he has battled illness since the war and his health problems are exacerbated by excessive alcohol consumption. in the winter of 937 doctors determined that he is suffering from cirrhosis of the liver. as the celebrations of the 15th anniversary of the republic draw to a close in 1938 ataturk lies bad written in is some balls tome about his final residence he had hoped to join in the festivities. on its way back from the celebrations in istanbul a ship carrying military cadets passes the palace and the young soldiers sing the national anthem ataturk is said to have had tears in his eyes. soon after on the 10th of november $938.00 ataturk dies in istanbul at 9
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o 5 am turkey marks the moment of his death with a minute's silence every year the clock in the room he died and still shows the time the father of modern turkey passed away. the entire country mourns during his funeral and the country's leaders prepare for a future turkey without a turkey but shaped by his guiding principles. 15 years past before ataturk's body is transferred to its final resting place the mausoleum in ankara. rarely has a politician changed just. so dramatically in such a short period of time however his reforms traumatized a population rooted in tradition and religion and the effects are still felt today . right autocad to talk in his revolution are currently of great significance because turkey is moving away from the ataturk's vision of a republic and towards a more presidential system. it is therefore particularly important to remember
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ataturk's achievements and the effort that went into making a reality that. you don't necessarily have to love the father but you can't deny that he stands at the beginning of this modern nation. but. one of his greatest achievements was making women visible loads and. moving to a true cried remember no not really did. in modern day turn. has become a symbol he represents the hopes of the people who are dissatisfied with the country's current leadership a government that i see many more ataturk images now than i used to use to. attack visionary revolutionary reformer he made turkey the country it is
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