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tv   Slavery Routes  Deutsche Welle  March 21, 2021 9:15am-10:01am CET

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place shall got lost again sunday schedule includes her to berlin hosting later tuesday you're watching news coming up next as our documentary channel doc film this time it focuses on the history of slavery and human trafficking on exposure thanks for much. been robbed of their soul that's what are people experiences when their heritage is taken from them countless cultural artifacts were stolen from africa by colonialists and carted off to europe. what should be done with the stolen north from africa on. stolen soul starts april 13th on d w. 'd
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this is the story of a world whose borders and territories were drawn by the slave trade a world where violence subjugation and profit imposed their own brutes and forged empires. but back then there was no. slaves with the driving force behind these emerging empires. in the 14th century europe discovered that it was located temptingly close to one of the planet's most important trading regions. we tend to forget the riches that were produced back then in africa. the catalan atlas where did europeans appetite for conquest the winds for the benefit of travelers it also provided information on the military strength of different nations and it provided an economic map tracing the trading routes toward africa and its resources . a small kingdom was the 1st in the rush to seize control of the coasts of africa
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portugal. a new network of slavery routes was drawn. very began this was a portuguese project there were coming out of the crusades fight and does more to what comes to this out so part of the adventure to africa. was to. better look really secure themselves and also maybe secure advantage or again. the largest city in portugal and the only european capital on the atlantic coast at the mouth of the take the discovery monument evokes nostalgia for a time when the portuguese made the world their home. carved in stone some 52
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meters above the water the heroes of portugal pioneers of the conquest looked triumphantly towards the ocean that gave them such wealth and prestige. they are headed by prince henry the navigator the architect of a perilous project to open up a new trade route via the atlantic ocean his aim was to bypass the muslim rivals in the mediterranean and gain access to africa's gold coast in the 14th century the portuguese succeeded in ousting the arabs from their territory the kingdom now had free reign to begin its campaign of conquest promising gold and power henry the navigator convinced the nobility to follow him in this adventure. remember the navigator was the crown prince in a way this mythical figure this great christian portuguese prince was portrayed as very devout and don't get going to he started out commanding a band of raiders pirates who took prisoners before they get. to
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brave the atlantic and ocean few european sailors had dared to explore prince henry had a new and revolutionary kind of vessel. cals. sailing ships that were capable of battling storms in the open sea. the portuguese established a sea route taking in the coast of west africa. kept behind on the islands of arguin and cape verde each mile covered was a victory over the muslims who were present on the entire northern part of the continent. portugal has traditionally glorified its great explorers forgetting that most of them built their fortunes on the slave trade.
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today lisbon is undergoing a facelift after the discovery monument renovation work extended to the district as construction progressed the riches of the 1st world city resurfaced by chance workers uncovered the foundations of the former commercial harbor. in the space of one century lisbon became the richest capital in europe some distance ahead of paris london or amsterdam chinese vases parts from indonesia ornamental class where from a cow and amid the shards of earthenware from all over the world a woman skeleton was also found. d.n.a. tests revealed that she was an african slave buried without a name or gravestone. the archaeology of slavery
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a relatively recent field is a long untold history of the fate of the 1000000 africans who were shipped off to europe between the 15th and 18th centuries. when they were the power doesn't because this was an extremely brutal predatory economy and the portuguese were disembarking and arms in and rush to capture the inhabitants of these african corpses starting with mauritania and then senegal home to many poor fisherman they were captured with nets on each mission you dozens would be captured and loaded onto these ships to be brought back to europe in the. poor don't know up. in various locations between morocco and mora tania prince henry's mercenaries kidnapped unarmed civilians deported to portugal these 1st captives were unloaded in the 1st poor. on the way home lochalsh.
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past on this coastline one morning in august 14th 44250 men women and children who had been captured on the atlantic coast were sold to the highest better it was a major event the 1st spoils brought back to the country by the portuguese conquistadores they had set off on a quest for gold but they came back with slaves the event was so highly anticipated that goal mischa did sought out the chief chronicler of the realm travel to the beach and person to record the event. the following day it was the 8th of august started moaning because of a. cruise began to work their buds unload the captives contained in the shoulder was awarded. 'd some out their faces down white with tears some note of the others and were rowed in with grief some low to
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high heaven fixing their locomotives shouting and out up to it as if asking the father nature of file. others be their cheeks with their problems all through themselves flat on the ground others made lamentation in a sound like manner after the custom of their homeland. and though the words of their language could not be understood by use their sorrow wasn't a start indeed. a sorrow that increased when those in charge of dividing them came and started to split them one from another to make even grow up. to do this and became necessary to take children from parents wires from husbands brothers from sisters. for kin one can grid no rule was kept each captive landed where luck would have it.
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some of these what are our describes an extremely violent scene with your children taken away from their mothers screaming ripping. clearly what he is witnessing makes him very uncomfortable for he says all. things changed after that he got part of what they had to justify it up when they did so by pointing to the civilization brought to the savages report to us when called condominium disembodied. in the early 15th century human trafficking was common throughout the mediterranean in portugal but also in the south of france spain italy and sicily most of the slaves came from the balkans in southeastern europe traded via the ports of cyprus
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constantinople and aleppo. back then africans constituted a minority within the slave trade. in less than these proportions would soon be inverted the 1st african captives deported to portugal would be followed by countless thousands more. on the street of the negroes well one of the few alleys that are the only reminders of when this neighborhood the biodome a combo included a ghetto reserved for africans. 1453 the only war between christendom and islam resulted in the latter's victory. constantinople the last remnant of the byzantine empire fell into the hands of the
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ottoman empire the christian side of the mediterranean was now separated from lands further east with the movement of slaves from the balkans also blocked for christian europe the conquest of the atlantic was now vital. christendom to ash had reached their maid and the whole area where they had been acquiring slabs for slaves. it was now christian to islamicize. there was only one region to head for africa becomes associated with slavery as a result of these developments. officially muslim leaders and the catholic church condemned the enslavement of free people but in practice the demand for slaves did not diminish and justified continued raids.
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in these societies people were driven by religion but they weren't fanatics that term is probably too modern but religious motivations conquering islamic areas to convert them to christianity were very important since the papacy supported portuguese expansion by granting rights to colonize. the water couldn't easy. to take revenge on the muslims pope nicholas the 5th gave the portuguese his moral endorsement thanks to the vatican support they could continue raiding africa with complete impunity. portugal's national archives in lisbon are home to the romanos pontifex issued by the pope that gave the portuguese carte blanche and established a legal framework for the enslavement of africa.
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we have formally by other letters of ours granted among other things free and ample faculty to the aforesaid king off. to invade surcharged capture bank wish and subject some some people and other enemies of christ and reduce their persons to perpetual slavery. perpetual slavery to words decreed by the highest cattle. that amounted to a sentencing of innocent africans to words that would justify everything in the name of god. with the pope's blessing the portuguese ventured further and further south along the coasts of africa their caravels and strategies were copied by other european nations eager to take control of african gold and slaves flemish german english generally and the nation merchants from across europe invested in the atlantic adventure.
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it's not as if africans were passive towards european merchants entering villages to collect individuals and put them in captivity. and captivity. african societies had their own power structures. i.v. they had a capacity for initiative they negotiated discussed the terms of relations with european merchants that. lived. the tipping point was when the portuguese entered the south atlantic beyond the equator and thus entered a new economic space economic they came into contact with the kingdom of congo which would play a big role. $1471.00 the portuguese took possession of an island off the african coast uninhabited virgin and fertile soil
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to me also provided a secure harbor 150 nautical miles from the mainland it enabled them to keep an eye on the region's most powerful state the kingdom of congo. is an interesting case of african history very different from. everywhere else when the portuguese got there they discovered that there was a king there was a what they called a kingdom and not only that it was an area where there was no islamic influence at all portuguese entered into relations with the king of kong on virtually an equal basis and so so were muslims there was no they weren't was no hostility on the basis of religion. and them for reasons i don't think we fully understand that the the king of kong of congo. decided that he was going to convert to
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christianity. came all forms all the 1st and he welcomed the missionaries from portugal. the portuguese were the only ones to supply products from the mediterranean to king of funds. for the 1st time they had established a monopoly on an african territory blip of the gear lever doesn't society yosh easy the more the gays arrived in a hierarchical society where the nobles ensured ate more and better than the others dressed more elegantly than the others and consumed luxury items these all the people do dukes it don't go live with people to get so when the portuguese arrived with all these new items how should i put it on the congo or aristocracy they went completely crazy it's not the should they became infatuated with all of us you can sense that the customs and behavior were changing and they did indeed change.
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the drawings of the 1st missionaries who arrived in congo illustrate this new bartering system. but gold fever encouraged the portuguese to continue their conquest. they learned that the a kind people's gold mines were in elmina for the invaders the only way to get their hands on the precious or was to offer the icons what they needed most slaves to descend into the mines. as such they became the empires slave traders. gold production which had been going on in west africa for centuries including the area of guinea. only an apostle for some a god but i just moved into a commodore fields and gonna. die because gold you know. was booming out
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and. it was a measure a welt means the mind and they were after the gold of the what they called the gold coast because a lot of gold come from the interior right there. the 1st triangular trading system in history was launched between. the icon mines and the congo. european goods for slaves in congo slaves for gold in el nino. the portuguese used this bartering system to create an autonomous trading network. to get. the arrival of the portuguese brought about major changes including cuz they made the direct connection between elmina the coast of congo insult. it was an interesting triangulation because the system that would thrive in the
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americas was 1st tested out of that region. not imo. this portuguese crucifix commemorates the annexation of south tell me which would open a new chapter in the history of slavery. it was here that the portuguese would create the 1st platform for the mass deportation of captives and it is here that is straight forward slave trading system would evolve into a massively profitable production system the sugar plantation. from . with thousands of slaves disembarking i had speeches so tell me became an island
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exclusively dedicated to sugar production so. i made this ultimatum for a laboratory because that's where we witnessed the marriage of a black man then sugarcane. in a column the size to to function well together. so well married a black man with sugar came over the money and so. the idea was simple the auden was transformed into a plantation where slaves within easy reach were imported. each year 4000 slaves arrived in fill this very limited space that means big concentrations. and so this was the 1st example of a black colony and the slave society the model became a global system a system global unsound to me time
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seems to stand still sugar cane was replaced by coffee then coffee by cocoa. when they landed on the island the 1st slaves brought with them their knowledge of working the soil in the tropics but to this day sell to may remains one of the poorest countries in the world and form workers continue to live in the slaves owned cuts. you don't really need a survival population procure. but to grow it on the scale they were doing you know you did out you needed slaves because what you did during the harvest period was you made him work 14 hours a day or you're already into the night and want to any night there were there was a moon you know that you just kept cutting all night long. or down with fatigue the risk of injury increases so it was very risky. it was extremely hard work.
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something amazing lab in various ways it is the 1st big experiment with sugar cane in the tropics and that's what the louse later on the transfer of the sugarcane production into brazil and later into the caribbean. after christopher columbus his journey to the americas peytral opened a new sea routes to the west the portuguese were still obsessed with the search for gold but now they knew that if they failed sugarcane could potentially replace this precious metal on april 23rd $1500.00 pounds ship docked in unknown territory after out of project from them as your majesty now as we reached the canary islands and then the cape verde we followed acela heading west across the sea. that same day at the out of s. because we sighted land that is to say 1st the very rounded mountains and other low
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ranges of hills to the south of us on a plane covered with last 3. papal cover had just reached brazil only to find no gold to be profitable this immense newly discovered land would have to be cultivated. this in turn meant that a new trade route for slaves from africa to brazil would be set up. of the descent a man said look for slaves on the coasts of the african kingdoms and bring them to south. and starting in $1516.00 and they would start bringing them to brazil they were intermediaries is it that leverage. a man's have the monopoly on the supply of slaves to brazil. 1516 ringback from south contingents of captives were now being shipped to brazil and the
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caribbean the 1st trans atlanta slave trade routes were established between the kingdom of congo. brazil and portugal. meanwhile in europe itself hundreds of captives arrived each year via portuguese ships. in lisbon black and whites noblemen a stance a plea lived on an equal footing they shared a common language and the same interests all grew rich from the slave sugar and gold trades among them german merchant and banker. in economy to solicit gonna be involved in the political and trade elites from both european and african societies local sovereigns collaborated with the portuguese some converted to christianity took portuguese names and sent their children to portugal to be latinized and study in the university of people. these elites became the predatory ones that it put a crease. on the west african coast the riches that portugal devoured
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seemed inexhaustible. in the bellingham district of lisbon the building of their own english monastery was financed by the slave sugar and spice trades. the splendor of its architecture are testimony to an era when less than dominated the world and flooded other european capitals with its goods. black clad you have to emphasize that this was a black slave trade as this economy was based on african slaves would this trade was the main income for the crown and for part of the portuguese elites the state was being built upon overseas income so a new phase started busk the minute wolf as a. with the arrival of europeans in africa the history of
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slavery assumed a whole new dimension. for the 1st time the trade focused exclusively on equitorial africa and the number of deportations reached an unparalleled scope and scale. war. it's not comparable in terms of scale because for the islamic trade we're talking about you know roughly a 1000 a year period a much bigger impact in a shorter period of time from the americas. have . heard. her. home. in lisbon
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the history of african slaves who arrived in europe has largely been forgotten most traces of their presence were destroyed during the 755 earthquake and any lasting pieces of that memory were scattered when the city was rebuilt. in this hunting lodge a few miles from the capital a painting by a flemish artist depicts lisbon in 5080. the king's fountain portrays a neighborhood that no longer exists where people of different skin colors danced together. here a black man in shoes embraces a white woman with bare feet musicians play for a pair of lovers. a knight of the order of christ in chains or in ceremonial dress africans present their wealth to europe's smallest kingdom in image of an era when this connection between africa and portugal made
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lisbon the most important economic capital of europe. on his team dollars and in mr sawyer as early as the 15th hundreds of 10 percent of lisbon's population was black and it is not counting december this is a it's a real similar off barcelona and mahler 2. today in southern europe in portugal italy spain and southern france an estimated 50 to 60 percent of the population could have african ancestry. seen a case for law like it's a question which all scholars of slavery of wondered about with the of what happened to those black people in europe or yet they don't need some say the figures are that big thought they melted into the. population disappeared on their own developmental but it's hardly tenable to argue that thousands tens of thousands
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of people are underage of thousands disappeared without a trace without passing anything on to next generations which in essence fueled the new story out for us historians who work on archives it's fairly easy to find an african ancestor but for people's family history and something that they forgot or half suppressed. the metal novel. merchants went to round up slaves in the border regions of the congo kingdom everywhere the raids multiplied. and became one of the crossroads at the original
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transatlantic slave trade in congo the relationship of equality between africans and portuguese collapsed. from then on from 50 ninety's on became the most important single port the single place in africa from where africans left for the americas 23 percent something like that out of all africans a lot from the wound up going heavily to brazil which of course is the biggest area where africans go in the americas by far almost half of all africans and often brazil. was low those was really an outpost of brazil many ways and it domino. down muscle do the lot with many turman to that emerging should import $20000.00 slaves per year that slaves became contractual objects they stopped bartering with if you did it then became something highly speculative. so
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figures then amounted to thousands of slaves were counted by lots and no more one by one and even the language changed they spoke of pieces please define the slave in terms of stature and age as calculations were made in terms of profitability duty. at this club the sea you have to use the expression slave production because within central african states and especially the congo kingdom in small states that had separated from middlebrook and there wasn't a slave trade strictly speaking about a joy you can go. by the apple from the public to comment so the system and conditions that had to be created this icicle industry is on is not like that here it was people from the outside who fed antagonisms that might allow people let's say free people citizens to end up in the slavery networks to do yeah this is
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really done it is order is clever. amidst all the traffic between the african coasts and brazil a slave ship ran aground off the coast of south tell me. the aguilar ish are the descendants of those castaways their ancestors found refuge on this beach for nearly 500 years the anglo irish lived here far from the plantations and the portuguese poor and secluded but still free. they've made this story the bedrock of their identity and of their spirit of resistance. of a ship came from angola. with people on a voyage and. until. the ship capsized and the people started to swim to save themselves. and if the 4 of them swam to seles the beach going on to
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the ship's daybreak. once they got to the beach they stayed there for a long time and. they eventually found a family and had children. i think so to may's also a laboratory for a new forms of social relations and for a new society because you have a society mainly based on slave labor which has fast majority of the population in slaves and where social relations between in slaved and masses will be very.
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unsubtle me the jewel of the empire the sugar plantation system gradually began to crack the island was impossible to control. in the heart of the forest groups of fugitive slaves set up macumba those places of sanctuary where they organize themselves into armed groups. the distance between lisbon and sell to may prove troublesome for the portuguese crown the kingdom of congo was reluctant to intervene in the island's affairs while the portuguese lacked armed men on the ground to defend their interests so to solve the problem they decided to manufacture them. in times of the see that. it sees in him that one of the fundamental elements of the society as a laboratory was the creation of mestizos as they were called to us part of a concerted plan devised by the portuguese. corps knew this the portuguese such
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a cross white men with black women oh she created a mixed race population proper status for 2 years the population where according to the texts of the time the white fathers would transfer portuguese values to their mixed race children meeting the law of the 2 leaders this and yes the aim was to create a group within society who could defend white portuguese interests on south tom they. do what i do for 2 years and something me. we often completely forget that interbreeding stemmed from violence very often these children were the product of rape or relations between master and slave. in a letter addressed to the king it sounds to me that minister been out of state gouda explained how he intended to use these mixed race children the empire's bastards. many settlers have children with their slaves and if your highness granted freedom to
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a few of them they would be allowed to live as free citizens. as they are no other free children they would remain free of the service of god and of your highness. crossing white men with black women and so to me the mixed race individuals fathered by portuguese men were a separate group called the sons of the land by defending the crowns interests they became crucial figures in the slave system. look at the. the future sons of the laramie had no secure position in the country and would therefore live off the street at work which brought them well that gave them authority like that of the portuguese invisibility lemmen qusay and the but
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they too were children of the country and mrs arkell knows it is awful to be if. you mustn't see this just as a black and white issue in the thick lot in the 16th century maybe later but not of that and it wasn't about race it was about the economy money described with my grandfather also had slaves they were black i mean on slaves they were slaves letters too. and they had it enslaves themselves. isn't this i live the story it's in my blood i know what. you got up for you said it. as demand mushroom and the sons of the land started kidnapping citizens of congo despite the religious diplomatic and cultural links between portugal and the kingdom. in a letter to his counterpart in portugal king of funds of the 1st told of his dismay and desperation.
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afonso i think was far more intelligent than alleged. when he's presented as a very christian king likely he appears as some sort of byproduct of fortune. but he tried to modernize the kingdom by integrating the resources that came from portugal. on met the goal of the school so. but he soon realized that his country was losing its soul. every year sent to mainz reenact this 1st merger between africa and europe to exercise its violence incarnate all the roles where appropriate costumes a dance in which victims and persecutors live side by side the sons of one in the same family. the procession is called. and said to originate from the word
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tragedy. as this is the slavery leads to societies that are constantly searching for themselves due to a lack of identity perhaps it's a vineyard left memories of africa. even for a subtle mans who live about 200 to 250 kilometers from the coast in the pooper or closer to the african coast and the intel is already union kids if they're even here memory is a problem. what memories do i have of africa. and yet i'm black. it has all come.
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in 5095 tensions voyles over on south. on a daughter a slave born on the island headed an uprising one that the sons of the land were unable to contain mills factories and harvests were destroyed. the center main experiment had revealed its limits. but the union between african slaves and sugarcane had been consecrated the portuguese knew that they could export the
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system everywhere one by one they disassembled the mills the ovens and the sugar factories and rebuild done in brazil. the key which changes the direction of the slave trade is the transfer of show the as you mentioned earlier from one side of the atlantic to the other. and that then makes the hop to the part of the americas closest to europe which is a car a bit. a year after the uprising i'm a daughter the leader of the rebellion was executed in public. the result of a large scale experiment between portugal and africa south despite the violence it was born in has shaped its own history a history founded on the whole roic struggle of the 1st slaves.
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to ensure the survival of their economic model the portuguese took their slaves with their agricultural insights to brazil. by demonstrating that the model could be exploited to the america as they inspired other europeans to do the same sound to my world for the intermediary stage in the spread of sugar r m m m some ways were world's. first caribbean island although it was more in the caribbean. in 1620 the portuguese were the uncontested masters of the slave trade 25 years after the revolt headed by a my daughter they had already deported 300000 captives to brazil and central america and soon it would be the other european powers turn to embark on conquests of the new world with them this late trades tentacles spread all across the
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atlantic and reached a new target the caribbean. place . a. what's going on here oh no it's a house of your very own from a printer. computer games that are healing. my dog needs electricity. shift experience delivers facts and shows what the future holds . yet living in the digital world shift. in 15 minutes on d w. a fast much better the great fortune.
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play. this is deja vu news live from berlin eastern australia battles its worst floods in a century a relentless downpour leaves the outskirts of sydney under water and dams overflowing with no letup in sight authorities declare a natural emergency our correspondent has the latest also coming up. the spectacular sights continue near iceland's capital as lava flows from a volcano that hasn't erupted in almost 800 years scientists say the eruption doesn't pose a threat to people and that.


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