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tv   Global 3000  PBS  December 23, 2014 7:30pm-8:01pm PST

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>> hello and welcome to global 3000, your weekly check on the global issues that matter wherever you live. the discrimination of women is still one of them. a uganda manager called for a famous singer to be locked up after her former boyfriend posted nude images of her online. more on this in a moment. here is what is coming up. fiji needs financial support to avoid exploiting its forests. the new law in uganda that puts women on the defensive.
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and the reasons argentinian farmers are switching from steak to soybeans. how much is a forest worth? that's one of the many questions on the table at the latest u.n. climate conference which is currently underway in lima, peru. as always, the sticking point is to determine how much wealthier industrialized nations are willing to spend to combat the causes of climate change in poorer, less developed countries. a program called the redd project is intended to add balance to financial considerations. the haggling over numbers has direct consequences in places like fiji. there, entire communities still opt not to cut down trees in their forests beyond what they need for themselves. but how much longer will they hold out if it means denying oneself the chance of a better life?
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>> partially cloudy with breezy winds out of the east... build our own houses. and we collect the bark and leaves for our medicine. it gives us quite a lot. >> lemeki toutou grew up in and with the rain forest. now he owns a tract. in its untouched state, it's invaluable for its role in protecting both climate and bio-diversity.
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he and his clan are taking part in a pilot project to protect the rain forest in emalu on the fiji islands. >> the head of the family association of landowners told me they had three offers from logging companies trying to obtain licenses. so there is some debate within the association about whether to protect the forest or open it up to commercial exploitation. exploiting it means losses of revenues, and that has to be compensated. this approach...
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the villagers of nakavu has opted for the lucrative exploitation of its forest resources, but they're felling trees selectively and sustainably. they do what they can to protect the sensitive eco-system. >> one method is called "direction felling", which means that you always consider which way the tree is going to fall, so you can haul it out while doing as little damage as possible to the forest. >> for some years, jan-hendrik hofmann has been hoping for international support from redd, the united nations 'reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation' program. >> the idea behind redd is that you try to create additional sources of revenue. in this case, carbon credits that give the village additional cash for preserving the forest. >> the forest owners of emalu discussed the pros and cons of
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the u-n redd program for over a year. international cooperation, the giz, works with fiji's forest ministry to help protect the pacific islands' forests as a global carbon stock. now lemeki toutou's clan has also joined in. but they expect something in return. >> part of this pilot project involves determining how international redd funding can be distributed, based on a country's possibilities, directly to those forest owners and users who commit to climate protection. owners have received support for planting sandalwood. but it will be at least 15 years
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before they see returns from these seedlings. >> we know that the project will take some time but the villagers, i mean the landowners, need something at least for their daily activities and for their living in the village. >> fiji was not the only island state hoping for support in forest and climate protection. the giz's project leaders had to turn down many smaller pacific nations. their forested areas are just too tiny to make the redd initiative worthwhile. but all parties agree that, as the biggest polluters, the industrialized countries have an obligation to act. >> now, it is a moral and an ethical question. you don't have to be told. if you know you are partly responsible for it, you must play your role. and i don't think you need to be told to do that.
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a sustainable lumber harvest. this dakua makadre tree is worth some 4000 euros by itself. for the redd program, every single tree is measured to help determine the forest's total carbon stock and protect it from deforestation. and to calculate the exact number of carbon credits. >> redd is a very, very good concept, and if it fails, then i would say it's not because of the projects here, but because of the lack of political consensus worldwide, and because the funding that was promised isn't paid out properly. as i see it, i'd say that's the crucial point.
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>> the head of the forest can do nothing but wait and trust that the international community will fund redd just as it promised so many developing countries it would -- fiji among them. >> sunita narain and her ngo work everyday to put the environment at the center of global developments. we meet her in delhi to find out what the fast-paced change around the globe means for her. >> my name is sunita narain and i work in a center based in delhi called the "center for science and environment." the purpose of our research and our writing is to push for policy and practice change in the field of environment in india and across the world.
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a country has huge impact on other countries, whether it is climate change, whether it is the ozone layer, whether it is the destruction of biodiversity, or whether it's the transportation of hazardous waste. so for me, it is not economic globalization the world should really care about, it is ecological globalization. particularly in my country are raising their voices against injustice. they are demanding a better future and i think that gives me hope.
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i am very fond of lentils. i come from north india. we make it in a particular way and i could live on lentils. affect the most powerful nations of the world and i'm really talking about countries like the united states will learn that they have to govern not in their own self interest but in the interest of the entire world. because today, what we're seeing in the world is more and more attention, more and more conflict and complete disaster in the way we're handling people and their concerns.
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i would love to go to the amazon. so i guess the countries in south america where i go only to do conferences and see boring cities. i would love to see the environment in its absolute wilderness. >> uganda's supreme court just recently declared anti-gay legislation null and void. but a newly passed anti-pornography law remains in force. women find themselves in the spotlight. many have been attacked on the streets, just because the skirt they are wearing is deemed too short. politicians are largely silent on this. that's because those who oppose any law backed by the mighty churches there risks losing public support. we meet some women determined to fight for their personal
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freedom. >> in the hot weather of sub-saharan africa, short skirts may seem like a sensible thing to wear but politicians think too little is too much. >> exposing certain parts of the body. i call that pornographic and therefore condemn it. >> a new anti-pornography law is intended to prevent "moral decline" in uganda. women who do not dress "appropriately" may face punishment. ruth was one of the first to be affected by the new law. she is 19 years old and enjoys going out. on the day the law was passed, ruth was with her friends at a nightclub. suddenly, the police arrived and started to attack them. >> they put me under the chair. they stepped on me. then when we go, they kept on taking other boys and girls. they were many.
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>> and that was just because ruth was wearing this dress. it was too short for the police. she was in jail for three days and is still terrified. and worried. for now, she has put away all of her short skirts. why is the new law so draconian? at which point is a hemline inappropriate? the police spokesman is unable to say. he has to make a call to find out whether the law has entered into force. no information. he tries the internet. finally, he claims it's pole dancing that is illegal. >> in these shows, pole dancing, ladies dancing, you know? it is what we prohibit. >> patience akumu says the police here neither protect nor serve.
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that's why the aspiring lawyer has taken women like ruth under her wing. since the new law came into force, she has documented numerous cases of harassment and posted them to her facebook page. >> the constitution is very clear. we have equality of the sexes here. we have fredom of expression in the constitution. the women have fought tooth and nail to put it this way to make sure that women are respected like men are. if we have a law that is sanctioned by authorities at the highest level and is harassing women, that cannot be a good thing. >> behind this conservative trend in uganda are conservative christians -- pentecostal and evangelical churches. spread by american missionaries, they are enormously popular. not least because they finance schools and clinics in places where there are none. many young people here lack work and opportunities, and turn to
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religion for guidance. almost half the population are now-evangelical christians. the preachers have a strict moral code. their catalog of sins is long. they are behind the idea that homosexuality should be punishable with a death sentence. and what they preach increasingly becomes law in uganda. >> the miniskirt is actually one way of...a man, and getting them to rape a woman. so it's not actually against women's rights, it's actually protecting women from sexual harassment. >> the pentecostal churches in uganda have money and power. their influence over potential voters is strong and thus over politicians who want to be elected. for young women in uganda these days, a night on the town can be a political statement.
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>> we are africans from cultures that shackled us, from religions that shackled us. those are just having fun, women are just having fun. it's harmless, you know? so why would you want to stand in the way of this new culture, if you like. just let it be. >> the fact that farmers today are producing twice as much meat they did just 30 years ago could be perceived as a good sign. it means that more people than ever are able to afford it. intense global livestock farming has made this possible. but it also uses up a massive amounts of resources. it takes, for instance, 15,000 liters of water to produce just one kilogram of beef. brace yourself for our global count on meat. >> the relationship between people and animals has changed with globalization.
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until the 1970s, most meat came from farmers with small herds who grew food in their own fields. the animals weren't just for meat, either -- their musclepower was vital for farmwork. today, factory farming accounts for 40% of agricultural-sector profits. gigantic businesses have emerged with global production chains, scientific breeding and optimized feed. animals are slaughtered on a production line. three countries -- the u.s., brazil and china -- account for much of the world's meat production. without subsidies, small farmers have no chance to compete with the low prices industrial production makes possible. and in rich countries, often only certain parts of animals are eaten. in the european union, consumers much prefer chicken breast, while the rest is exported mostly to west africa. in 2012, 1.3 million tons of poultry made their way there.
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local farmers gave up long ago. as for the growing consumption of meat, animals and humans are today competitors for food. cows, pigs, and chickens no longer eat just -- grass. high-yield dairy cows and rapidly growing animals require concentrated feed that is heavy in starch. more and more soy, corn and other cereals are required. almost 1/3 of the world's arable land is now used to cultivate feed. >> less than a decade ago argentina was the world's third largest exporter of beef. but then argentinean steak became so popular that the government decided to impose an export tax in fear of rising prices back home. that's when many ranchers opted to switch to growing soybeans,
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soon enough they were producing more feed than cattle. now prices for soy are down, and those very farmers that once formed the backbone of their industry are struggling to keep afloat. >> argentina was once renowned for the quality of its beef. raul berrueta is proud of his ranch -- his herd numbers 1,700. but that's fewer than before. the country's beef industry's in decline. these days, it's barely possible to make a living out of cattle farming. raul blames the government and accuses it of interfering in the way small-scale farms are run. >> our president is destroying our livelihoods. for example, the national bank is refusing to lend to farmers. and we're also paying more tax than ever before.
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>> in the past, raul's family earned well by exporting beef. but as meat exports rose, domestic prices did too. the government reacted by limiting exports. it was determined that argentinians should continue to enjoy cheap meat. for farmers, that amounted to a loss in revenue. argentina's currency suffered too. >> inflation is destroying us. we can't increase the size of our herd in line with inflation. we don't have enough money to keep going. taxes and operating costs are constantly on the rise. we're left with no choice but to tighten our purse strings. three generations sit down to enjoy some lunch - a welcome break from the daily grind on the campo. the farm's been in this family's hands for more than 100 years. it's located in the pampas lowlands, an hour and a half
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outside of the capital, buenos aires. the cattle crisis has forced them to explore new options. they're now growing soyabeans, as well as corn and grain. it's a big departure from their former role farming the famous hereford and angus cattle breeds. in the evening, a young generation of farmers to be gather for a traditional asado barbecue to dicuss the cattle crisis with raul. they're determined to find a solution. >> the economic situation and the political decisions being taken affect everyone. we're all suffering because of high inflation. it's just as problematic for people earning salaries as it is for those of us in the agricultural sector. we get together regularly to support each other and find solutions.
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>> some cattle farmers have been forced to give up their livelihoods. these young people are determined to restore argentinian steak to its former pride of place. >> our group hopes to effect change. we're the people who will shape the future. that's why i'm part of it. the sharpening of the knives. for them it's a ritual harking back to a better time, before what they describe as the rise of a populist government with no clear policies. the new generation of farmers have one big wish -- for the pampas once again to be dominated by gauchos and their cattle. we are on our way to the capital buenos aires to find out how the crisis is being dealt with there. argentina's unreliable curency an estimated 40% inflation rate
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has left its economy in tatters. exports have dropped and it no longer has a fixed exchange rate with the u.s. dollar. the country is effectively bankrupt. on first impression, policy makers and ordinary people in the capital seem oblivious to the crisis. but behind the scenes it's a different story. >> inflation is devouring our incomes. >> i'm trying to go on a diet - i save on food. all i eat now as potatoes. lunchtime in an argentinean steakhouse. >> business is down. in the past it was hard to get a table. in the last few weeks, some 8000 jobs have been shed in the restaurant industry. >> people don't come as often as they used to. money is constantly losing in value. but salaries are staying the same. >> meat forms the basis of the argentinean diet. in better times, the average argentinean consumed almost 70
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kilograms of it a year. but those days are over. farmers have been forced to look for alternatives. like soy -- for which there's a huge demand abroad. for a while, it provided raul with an alternative way of making money. then the government imposed a 35% export tax. but as demand for soy grew, so did supply. that soon led to over-supply. so farmers are holding on to their yield rather than selling it at a loss. >> the u.s. has just had a bumper crop, leaving little for us. what are we to do? it was a bad year, with no profits. a wasted year. >> raul has refocused his attention on raising cattle. he's having the calves vaccinated in an attempt to increase the size of his herd.
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but even long-time vet elvio mansilla is skeptical about whether the argentinean beef industry will ever recover. >> the future is uncertain, very uncertain. we don't know how it will develop. i hope, at least, that it doesn't get worse. >> raul invested a lot of money when he switched to soy. but what he's really hoping is that the argentinean beef industry will one day be restored to its former glory. >> and that's all we have time for on this edition of global 3000. as always you can watch any or all of our reports again online, but for now from me and the whole global team, thanks for watching and bye-bye.
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[upbeat twangy music] ♪ >> ♪ world go away >> hank cochran is, without a doubt, one of the greatest songwriters ever on earth. >> ♪ and i fall to pieces
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>> it's important historically that people know who hank cochran was and what he did, and he always wanted to be the hemingway of country music, and i think he did it. >> it's stunning when you look at the body of work that he was able to accomplish and stay relevant for so long. that's way out of the ordinary. >> ♪ i've got everything ♪ everything but you >> they will be recording hank cochran songs way down the line and probably not even know who he was. >> i think it's really important for people to understand where country music came from and the era of the '50s and '60s, which is hank cochran, harlan howard, willie nelson, roger miller. these guys set the standard for writing songs. >> ♪ don't you ever get tired ♪ of hurting me
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♪ he was responsible, really, for me going to nashville and getting a job writing for pamper music. hank had a lot to do with me getting started. >> i met hank. he reached out his hand and had a cd that already had my name on it. i kind of gathered that this wasn't by chance. >> shortly after he first met him, hank was diagnosed with pancreatic cancer, so for the two years he lived after that, jamey would get off the road and pull his bus right up to the hospital, ran up to see hank, raise hank's spirits, and just--he was always--always around. up to the night hank died, he was here. >> ♪ now tell me ♪ would these arms ♪ be in your way >> it was shortly after hank died i got a text message, and it was from jamey, and he said, "would you mind if
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i did a hank cochran album?" so i couldn't believe it, you know. >> ♪ so lay ♪ all your doubts aside ♪ when you go to bed tonight >> he should be in the country music hall of fame. he was very influential in setting the bar for all the writers that we have coming down the line. >> well, he was pretty much the foundation as a songwriter for a long time. >> you know, he was really an artist who chose not to be an artist. all of the artists respected his ability to perform a song. the singers wanted to see if they could just sing that good. i know i did. >> if i had to dream up somebody like hank to influence songwriters, i couldn't have done a better job. he influenced you not only as an artist and songwriter, but also just as a person. [upbeat twangy music] ♪
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♪ >> memphis, tennessee. it has been written if music were religion, then memphis would be jerusalem and sun studio its most sacred shrine. ♪ come on you to baby >> and you are here with the black lilies! ♪ >> resorts casino and hotel in tunica, mississippi, proud to sponsor sun studio sessions on public television. >> sun studio sessions and its performers are brought to you in part by the american society of composers, authors and


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