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tv   European Journal  PBS  August 26, 2012 1:00pm-1:30pm PDT

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♪ >> hello and a very warm welcome to "european journal" coming to you from dw studios. among wolves -- an incredibly tragic childhood story. why italian tourists are keeping clear of the beaches. and rediscovering the hands are. it can often take a long time
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before the dark secrets of the country's past come to light. if record dictatorship is one such chapter for spain. following the first world war, a general effectively sealed the country off from developer going to development going on elsewhere in europe. workers were badly exploited, so much so that many were forced to abandon or sell their children. historians estimate almost 200 chdren ended up living wild during the 1950's and 1960's. >> marcos grew up with a family of rules -- will spirit he recalls how he joined the pack at the age of seven -- grew up with a family of wolves.
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>> i saw a few wolf pups and played with them. i followed them into their den and fell asleep. then the vixen came and gave me the i, so i squeezed into a hollow in the rock. she came up to me and began licking me, and with that, i belonged. >> today, he is 66. he lives in a small village. he had to work hard to learn how to speak. he has neverui grown accustomed to civilized life, despite its comforts. >> everything is very simple here. you make fire with a lighter, not with stones. that is how everything is. out there, you can do whatever you want. you do not have to wear clothes.
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everyone here says, "just look at this pair of pants. the shoes do not match. the shirt -- blah blah blah." people just do not leave you alone. >> he was always something as an outsider, finding it difficult to fit in with villagers. people regarded him as a wild man, uncivilized who told far- fetched stories. >> i would like to believe everything he says, but some things are still hard to believe today. >> at first, i did not believe him. but then they made a movie about his life. >> the film tells how he was beaten by his stepmother. his father cld not feed the family, and the child was given to a shepherd who died shortly after. he was left to fend for himself and into the hunting with wolves until he was 19. then the police brought him out of the mountains.
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he was sent to a convent in madrid where civilization was forced upon him, but the nuns failed to eradicate all the traces of his previous existence. and so, he remained an outsider with a story that defied belief. the film tries to show the truth of his life story. in the end, with a personal appearance by marcos himself. the film did alter people's perceptions of him. >> people in the village change. they took me aside and asked for forgiveness. i asked what i should forget. they have not done me any wrong. "yes, i have. i thought you were someone you were not. you will have to excuse me."
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>> people's reactions have been good. for years, he only really trusted animals like this dog. >> with people, if you have no money, you are no one. you do not have anything to eat. nothing. out in the wild, you can look for something to eat on your own. if you want fish, you catch one in the river. if you want meet -- well, i had it easy. i just how old. the wolves' came, and we went out on a hunt. there was a piece of meat for each of us. >> one of the few people he is close to, except him as he is. >> marcos still has some unusual ways about him. he goes through phases.
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sometimes everything is ok, and sometimes, not so much. >> marcos loves children, perhaps because they always believed him, but he was never able to start a family of his own. >> i would have been very proud. if someone came to me and said, "pop up -- "papa," that would be great, but that is not how i was. i did not have a real home. i had no security. and that is not the way to get a wife. >> all his life, marcos has been a loner. even the people now believe his life story, he does not feel at home with him.
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the only place he ever felt at home was with his wolf pack. >> greece has had to implement some painful austerity measures over the past few years in return for financial aid from international lenders. pensioners have seen their monthly benefits/three times since 2010, and the public sector has faced massive cuts as well -- pensioners have seen the monthly benefits cut three times since 2010. the country faces more cutbacks. already, billions of euros have been cut in health-care spending, and funding shortages at greece's state hospitals mean the economic crisis has literally become a matter of life and death for some. >> greek health-care professionals who volunteer with doctors of the world are normally on missions abroad in africa, but for months, these
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doctors have been working in a clinic 12 kilometers from athens. stephanos is diabetic here the clinic provides the care he needs to manage his condition. the 56-year-old has nowhere else to turn. >> without doctors of the world, i would already be dead. >> medications for chronically ill patients come from donations. those unable to pay for treatment can no longer return to the government. doctors warn that the national health-care system needs 1.5 billion euros to avoid collapse. >> now that we have the crisis, we realize we do not have a real social state.
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everyone was quite happy. now that the money ran out, it is not happy. >> those who are able to pay their debts to the tax office but are still core are issued a pass entitling them to health care. those without the passer left with two options -- getting help from the church or initiatives like doctors of the world. 1/3 of the greek population is no longer covered by the national health-care system. the situation is critical, and it is not limited to the poorest of the poor. dialysis, cancer, aids patients as well as families who need routine medical service no longer have access to medical care. the athens medical association says that the country faces the risk>> as a pediatrician, i canl you that more and more children are going without basic immunizations.
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many parents cannot put food on the table, so they do not even consider immunizing their children because that cost money -- costs money. >> a dilemma. large pharmaceutical companies no longer deliver drugs. the government owes them 2 billion euros. there is a shortage of essential materials like syringes, files, gloves. operations have already been postponed. he has worked more than 20 years and has never experienced such dire conditions. >> it is really bad. it is bad when a doctor cannot help patients who are sent to him with the necessary treatments. i have reached the limits of my strength.
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my salary was massively cut, and in the last nine months, i have done over time without pay because there is no funding to fulfill new positions. >> the next trouble spot of the ailing system is the pharmacy sector. pharmacists digit this pharmacist has been out of stock of all the major drugs now for a while. -- has not stopped all the major drugs now for a while. she would be bankrupt if she did. >> pharmactical companies want payment in advance. i had to take out a loan for some of the more expensive cancer medication. the state health insurance reimburses me months later. >> stephanos and his wife now live with his sister. they could not afford their own men. the unemployed diabetic could not afford even one week's worth
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of medication. when friends and family get together, the conversation often turns to the plight of greece is chronically ill and how they can survive the crisis. >> i do not know what will happen. i am not only suffering from diabetes. i also have problems with high blood pressure and some mental health issues. look at my foot -- that is from diabetes. i need an operation, but i cannot afford it. >> he is just one of millions of patients in greece who can no longer expect help from their government. >> italy is feeling the effects of the crisis, too, although its debts are not as high as those of greece, and it does have functioning state institutions. it is the eurozone posted third largest economy and going through a very tough time. for months now, investors have
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been earning money on speculation that italy will not succeed in reviving its economy anytime soon. nowhere is this more obvious than at italy's unusually quiet coastal resorts. >> peak summertime, and the italian beaches are nearly empty. it seems the good times are over, and those who have money despite thespending as much. >> wages have gone down, expenses have risen, and if the price of food goes up, soon, the coast will be a luxury. >> swimming areas are only half full because families are facing
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big difficulties. >> 10 euros a day on a parasol and lounger. this man and his wife had been managing this resort for many years. it is a family business with 70 employees. he is feeling the pinch but still expects to attract customers. >> people who used to go to the maldives will stay in italy, and people will come here over more expensive places. the customers will still be there. >> he adjusted to the crisis. >> we have a we can offer. if you pay for friday and saturday, sunday is free. >> but these stop flights to and the few remaining customers away.
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leaseholders are striking in reaction to an eu decree, which threatens a rise in contract prices after the current ones run out in 2015. it will hit all of europe. vincenzo represents thousands of italian leaseholders. he worries that international corporations will soon be hanging traditional family businesses out to d. >> that is 30,000 small family businesses with hundreds of employees. they do not know what the future will bring or if the wood -- they will even have one after 2015. it would be bad news if these companies fell into the hands of the multinational corporations. they only think about their bottom line. we do not want to invest in that way of life. we have a concept of hospitality, culture, and solidarity. at the same time, we see to it
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that our families survive and people keep their jobs. >> graciano's son rallies the beach attendance. the strike is over and it is time to get back to work. it is two hours later, and the parasols are open now that the protest is over, but the lounge chairs are still empty. further south, the situation is even more dire. the economic crisis has meant fewer and fewer people can afford parasols and changing cubicles. she lost her job three days ago. friends have invited her to the beach. the loss of income has her worried she will not be able to pay her bills, let alone take a holiday. >> even if you could afford a vacation at the moment, to live in fear of tomorrow, you do not
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do things you might have because you do not know what the future will bring. >> current estimates say there are 20% fewer beachgoers. >> we just extended our season- ticket because the prices have stayed the same as last year. but of course, you can look around and see there are a lot fewer people here. >> soviet is the leasehold for anchor beach. she knows many colleagues who would love to sell their licenses. business is not worth it, but the imminent rise in prices is putting ofbuyers. she is happy with help own business so far, but she has had to lower prices by more than 30%, and she has seen a change in her guests have its. >> it is a bit like it was before. 20 years ago, we had something
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in rome for romans who went to the beach, brought their own food with them from the started to the desert. this had gone out of fashion, but now it is back. >> luckily, there are still free beaches around the country, even if the number is dwindling. a day at the beach has become a luxury for many italians, like the ever so enticing visit to a restaurant. >> in our summer series journeys in europe, we show you the roots that have shaped our continent. some of them live between cities. others link countries. some of the roads you can walk or drive. for others, you need a boat.
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today, we had for the sea. in trading configuration that dominated northern europe. the sea routes once extended along the coast from london in the west. this gigantic association of merchant guilds and cities existed for me than 300 years. merchants with trade goods like grain or jewelry on the routes and get rich doing it as well. we followed one route to see what is left of the past. >> we are setting out on our journey into the past two the year 1361, to be precise. that is when the baltic seaport became an active member of the leak. it was a powerful no. german mercantile federation set up to protect trade, protect merchant ships and carriers of northern europe. for more than 650 years, the
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city, now known by its polish name, has proudly called itself part of the leak. >> the court building was the symbol of the hanseatic league. that is where merchants met to discuss important political and economic decisions. it is a very handsome building that they can still be proud of today. >> once a meeting point for merchant guilds, today, it plays host to foreign dignitaries. it was once a thriving port city. from here, ships carry goods along trade routes that formed a network. >> in fact, they were more like expressway's than roads. very busy highways. trade with cities in germany
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flourish, and ships sailed in and out of the port all day long. >> the waves are choppy as we continue our voyage along one of the old highways. we passed by the cranes in the city's decayed shipyard, past drydocks for supertankers, and out on to the open waters of the baltic. today, only one ship sails this route each week. trucks are a more flexible means of transport in the 21st century. a truck takes a few hours. a ship takes a whole day. >> during the height of the league, there were no roads to speak of, but nearly every city had a harbor. today, we are much more flexible with trucks, airplanes, trains. ships do not offer much of an advantage anymore. that is the main reason the league as it was then is now defunct. >> 24 hours later, the water is calm as we approach the delgado
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river. the tv tower tells us we have reached the outskirts of the capital of latvia. what is more important for our journey into the past is that it has also been a hanseatic city since joining the league in the year 1282. >> if you want to know something about the hanseatic league, you are a few hundred years too late. the league had its heyday a long time ago. today it is nothing more than a page in the history books. >> the building known as the house of the black cat is situated in the center. the meticulously restored building is one of the loveliest in the city. hundreds of years ago, it was a meeting place for the city's
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merchants, a club for the city's movers and shakers. originally called the new house of the large gilt, it is a must-see destination for visitors today. >> in gdansk, you have the artist court. we have the house of the black hats. we are friends, you could say. we are partners, and we exchange, so there is a deeper connection than just commonalities in architecture or around planning or a fondness for brick facades. it is also rooted in catholicism and protestantism, and it is rooted in the traditions of university ucation in gdansk and the baltic. there's always annual creative exchange. >> it is perfect timing for a visit.
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riga is celebrating the 730th anniversary of its membership in the hanseatic league. it is as though we have stepped into a time machine. >> it is a major festival, but i do not really feel like i am living in hanseatic times. that is all history. i am and each citizen. >> the waterway is now mainly a
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tourist attraction, but the historic ties are stronger than ever. this statute of the bremen town musicians is a gift from another hanseatic city. the common currency is not yet a reality. poland and latvia still have theirs, but a common heritage is another matter in thealtic cities that still take pride in the hanseatic legacy, the celebration of past and present unity is a heartfelt one. >> that report brings us to the end of this edition of "european journal." from all of us here dw studios in brussels, thanks very much for watching. please tune in at the same time next week if you can. captioned by the national captioning institute
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