tv Global 3000 LINKTV April 16, 2020 1:00am-1:31am PDT
>> welcome to global 3000. mass tourism and climate change have causesed coral reefefs ine dominicacan republic t to die . could laboratory-bred corals help restore them? tourism is big in cambmbodia t. but chinese investors are the main beneneficiaries.. locacals are largegely losing . first, we go t to a place thtt sesees few tourists. one area of south africa's cape town is in the grip of gangs. it's been 26 years since apartheid ended, and yet more
than half of all south africans still live in poverty. that's around 30 million people. unemployment is ralph, -- is rife, over 50% of young south africans are jobless. with no prospects in sight, some resort to illegal activities. south africa has one of the highest crime rates in the world. violent crime in particular has increased steadily there over the past ten years. the situation in cape town is especially troubling. most tourists stick closely to the small bay area below table mountain. the majority of locals however live in the cape flats. ,>> we're out on patrol with the anti gang unit. the special task force combats gang crime in the poorer districts of the cape flats on the outskirts of cape town. >> we're going into the territory of the "fast guns" and
the "corner boys." we're hoping if our information is still correct, we'll find firearms as well as drugs. >> the team drive to a building that's home to the leader of the corner boys a notorious gang. , heavily armed officers storm the building and turn the entire apartment upside down. defined large sums of cash, 12,800 south african rand, the equivalent of about 800 euros. >> thehe bag has n now been se. you understand the process. i explained it to you. there will be an inquiry, an investigation, and you must bring proof as to how you obtained the money. >> the police also find drugs hidden in mail boxes outside the building. they are packaged into small bundles, ready for sale. >> and that's what we expect this one here is about because
she says this money she sells washing powder. but in her little e book there are peoplele who owe her mone. and there are some people that owe 11,000 rand for washing powder. i mean, really. >> the officers don't find any weapons, but they suspect they're out on the street. more than a million people live inin the cape flflats. gangs have a a hold on the are, and the murder rate isis one f the highest t in the worldl. the army has been on patrol here sincece july 2019.. but the death toll continues to rise. we're driving through gang territory, a landscape that's shaped by poverty, drugs and violence. there are few prospects for the young people growing up here, many of whom join gangs at an early age. an intermediary puts us in
touch with a gang. we meet with a few members in lotus river. no one is forced to become a gangster. so they say. everyone is free to make their own decision. so why did they become gangsters? > i chose to become a gangst. >> why? >> i grew up in the environment. from when i was small i saw how it was going. today i'm doing the same thing , as what i saw when i was smaller. >> the matter-of-fact t way te 23 year old talks about murder is disturbing. >> if i get my rival gangs and such stuff, we go over and kill. we shoot each other. one must die. that's how it works. >> violence and murder are part of their lives, says renade. he, too, is just 23 years old. two -- >> i'm a gangster, i was
shot in my neck. all of my teeth were shot out. but i'm still surviving here also. you see, this is our environment here now. we're in here. it is war here by our side. >> it't's a war thatat also ks innonocent bystandnders, often children.. peopople who happepened to ben the wrong g place at the wrong time. others are targeted if they thwart the gang's activities in some way. like avril andrew's son alcardo. dealers apparently wanted to sell drugs outside his family's home. avril tells us that her son tried to stop them. one evening he said he needed to go out. he'd left his phone at someone's house and wanted to pick it up. avril remembers that it was hard for him to say goodbye. >> for some e reason, , his es were f full of tears a and he d but i have to. i have to. and i said please e don't do t
now, don't go fefetch it nowow. the area's n not ok. and he said but i have to go fetch my phone, because i'm worried d my phonene is in the hands ofof somebody that i dont trust. and he left, and probably about 20 minutes after that somebody came to say he was shot. >> avril andrews chose not to feel bitter. she set up a foundation in order to help others. every woman here shares the traumatic experience of having lost a son. their stories arare all uniqu, but also tragically similar. >> the first shot went off and he didn't know what to do. and i don't know if he f frozen that moment. anand then t the second shot t off and hehe was still tryryino figure it out. and then something inside him probably told him to run because he didn't know how to
react to gunshots and then when he ran he ran between the two guys who were shooting at each other and the bullet caught him in the head and he was instantly braindead. >> some of the perpetrators are still at large. >> i just hope and pray that justice will prevail for all the children losing their lives in the cape flats like this. all the innocent, all the small children, babies. justice. the government must do something because it can't go on like this. >> avril andrews won't simply sit around and wait. she set up a soup kitchen, funded by donations and her own money. around 200 people come every day. avril talks to the youngng peoe
and tries to help them find a way out of the violence. we can't save everyone all at once she says. but maybe one after the other. >> in 2013, china announced its belt and r road initiative. also called the new silk road, the aim is to expand trade links between asia, africa and europe. so far, china has spent around 180 billion euros on the project. the final cost is estimated to reach about 900 billion. while there are some concerns about china's expanding power, many countries welcome the cash injection. individuals, however, are experiencing the downsides of chinese investment like in cambodia. >> pong siyeyearn says she doesn'n't want to geget used to whwhat sihanoukvkville has bec. there's beenen dirt, trashsh d construcuction waste e everywe for three e years.
she shows s us where herer frt and vegetatable shop usesed to. it's now a r restaurant. the chchinese owner r was wilg to pay t three timeses as mucht as her. the rereception is a a litte frosty.. my shop used to be herere, pog tells him. the new o owner doest ununderstand anyny khmer. he uses s a translatioion appo try y and communicicate with . on the scrcreen, it saysys thas busisiness isn't d doing that . >> it makes me s sad. this shop wawas my life. i earneded decent moneney here. i could even save some. now everythihing's changed. >> pong's hohouse is stillll e susurrounded by y skyscaper, craneses and buildining sites. she now w runs a small online shop from m her smartphohon. she gets inqnquiries nearlrly y week from chinese bubuyers who want h her plot of lanand. but popong wants to o stay he. even t though she fefeels
compleletely surroununded. >> thehe building sisites scar. there's consnstant shakingng d noise. and i i don't think k the buils arare all that s sturdy. one ofof them collapsed the otr day. >> little remains of the once tranquil port town of sihanoukville. chinese construction companies have transnsformed thehe placeo a totourist magnet w with hunds of hotels and casinos. most o of the workerers come m chinina. a chinese supermarket chain has opened a branch here. theieir product rarange is tais toto the needs o of the chinesee workers. and momost of the prprofits he end upup in the handnds of the chinese. as night f falls, a sea a of bt lightsts illuminateses the ci. more than 60 newly built casinos lure chinese gamblers
to cambodia. gambling is s illegal forr cambodiaian citizens, , but we ststill meetet plenty in the y center. afteter all, thesese casinos na lot ofof staff. cambodiaians run t the gambling tableses and serve t the gues. some o of them have e managedo prprofit from ththe huge changn their cityty. >> s speaking onlyly in termsf moneney, i have a a slightly br life now, , a bit more i inco. maybe my f family will e even e here too.. >> i donon't like the e the way things h have developeped heret asas far as the e money goes, s ok. >> the facace of sihanououkvie has bebeen completely y transfd by the g gambling indudustry d chinese-funded conststruction projects. but the provincicial governorr maintatains that thihis is a n to t the area. >> it mighght be hard to i imae riright now, but we wiwill soon have a a modern and d magnifit cityty.
we're making this cityty intoa smart cityty. >> right at thatat moment, there's s a blackout.. the gridid is overloadaded ag. but ththe governer c carries on regardless.. we have e everything u under controrol he says. here o on the outskikirts of e city is a small settlement for 50 families. the government relocated people here who were getting in the way of thehe smart city y proj. before t their forcedd resesettlement, ththey were alll liviving on vavaluable plots of laland in the cicity center. the laland was takenen from tm and d used for hototels and cas. >> it's so u unfair. i feel h helpless. these people are so powerful. it's a huguge injustice.e. this area here is tototally deserted. i can n keep a few c chickens e but ototherwise i cacan't earny money. >> her h husband is a a motore taxi d driver and now w has a g
journey y to work. he usually d drives chinesee tourists arounund. hehe takes us alalong and shows wherere he and hisis family ld fofor 30 years.. his six chilildren grew upup t. it was a a tight-knit t commun. ththe houses havave now been n down. city authohorities revokoked s right to l live on the p prope. > it's heartbtbreaking to sd here. i don't t know what weweighs e heavily sasadness or angnge. , i'm justst speechless.s. i was a sosoldier. i worked hard for this land for , this country. look what t they're doining h. is this the e thanks i gete? >> foror sang phean n and oths like himim, it's a bititter pio swallow. >> this week in global ideas, we head to one of the world's most popular tourist destinations the , caribbean.
the high visitor numbers are taking a toll on the natural environmenent though. our rereporter, tim m schauenb, wentnt to the domiminican repuc toto find out whwhat's happeng ababove and belolow the water.r. he m made some worryingg discovereries but alsoso met pe who o are working g hard to tn ththings around.d. >> finallyly, some fish.h. theyey've worked f four days r this h haul. the fishers s have been dodoing this job t their whole l lives, here off t the coast of f punta cana i in the east o of the dominican n republic. they used toto make good m moy doing this.. >> life e was better b before. things arere getting hararderd harder. fishing isn't t the same as st useded to be here.e. busisiness is realally bad.
>> at fifirst glance t this lo, likeke a decent cacatch. 10 y years ago it t would've b, twice the sisize. the e reason lies here the ente , coast of the dominican republic is lined with coral reefs. around 90 percent of them hahae either died d or are severerly damageged. the e water tempererature is rg the water tetemperature isis rg because e of climate c change. this makeses the corals s wear anand more vulnenerable to pollutioion and human n activ. this is s how everythihing los above ththe surface. mass touourism. the e country attrtracts six aa vivisitors everyry year. half milillion the touourism industry cononsumes huge a amos of r resources and t takes itsl onon the wildlifife here.
ironically, it's desestroying e thinings that manyny tourists e for inin the first p place. >> h hardly anyonene knows th, but t about 80% ofof the typil white sasands of the c caribbn are actutually the whihite skeletetons of coralal. ifif we don't hahave healthy rs anand we don't h have healty coralsls, we're in d danger of lolosing all thehese beautifulul thinings, even thehe white sa. and that i in the very p places whwhere tourism m is the man soururce of incomeme. >> marine e biologist sasamana mercado isis working to o prese the reefs. in thehe lab she brereeds cors for , experirimental purpopos. they'll lateter be transferrrro
a reef. >> we've d discovered ththat a coral grows faster if itit's divided up i into small frfrags rarather than leleft in one bibg pipiece. it useses this disc c like a prosthesisis. the coral wrwraps itself a ard it a as if it were it t its own skeleton. >> t the corals cacan grow up 0 centimeters s a year usingng s methodod. upup to four timimes faster tn they would i in nature. the ststaff remove t the algaed sand f from them on n a daily b. itit's usually s several monthts befofore they're r ready to be realeaeased into thehe sea. the e lab is financed d by a gp of investors who o own a rangef hotels in the country. german grants also help to fund their work.. >> w we can see whwhich speciee most resistatant to high o orw
temperatatures, or to loww sunlnlight, or to o other paparameters likike an excessf nunutrients. virgo o other specieies of col requirire different t breeding methodods. seseveral times s a week, samaa and her r colleagues t take a t out to thehe coral gardedens ththey've planteted in the opep. >> the cororal we're wororkingh totoday is calleled the staghn cocoral. it used toto be the domiminant species herere. itit's really sad d when you tk about t it. we'r're transplantnting coraln placaces that useded to be covd in i it. >> with a a hammer and s soe pliers in hahand, the plununger meteters below thehe surfac. the cocorals they'veve plantede are growing alalong a grid.. oncece the tentaclcles have red 15 cenentimeters, ththey can be brokenen off.
researchers s use them to o hp restore the e destroyed rereef. the growowth of the cocorals is precisely y documented.. the tetentacles are e literally naileded to the reefef. 9000 coralals have been n attad to the r reef so far.. about 70 p percent of ththem e survived. it's a s success for t the te. but they maiaintain that w e shouould be actingng proactivy rathther than reacactively. about 25% ofof the world's's me life depepends on coraral ree. >> we can n restore the rereeft if we e don't changege our mindsesets, if we dodon't start using g less plasticic, if we t start ususing detergenents that contain n less phosphahates anf
we donon't start rececycling better, ththen all our w work e wowon't make thahat much diffef. >> the teaeam hopes to e expand ththeir work ovever the comingng yearars. they want toto restore morore s and extetend marine prprotectn zones. but the contntinued growthth of tourism will inevitably pose a challenge. as you make your way from a to b two in many cities around the world, chances are your movements are being tracked. one study suggests there are already around 770 million surveillance cameras in operation worldwide. those in favour say cameras help lower crime rates. others warn that they're slowly eroding our personal freedom. despite such concerns, video surveillance is on the rise. by 2021, there could be a many as a billion such cameras
installed across the globe. >> at this trade fair for security technology in moscow, a major trend is making g wavs facial recognition. , many russian and chinese manufacturers are here. he recognized me. who? the digital doorman. if you're verified, you're in. the camera scans the face and createtes a biometric map. that's compared to a a previouy compiled image. at the next stand, the salesman has a bodycam attached to his jacket, which captures trade-fair visitors without their knowledge. it's something p police could e to match a against a database f suspects. so who's using these systems? two -- >> they can be used in stadiums, stations and other public places. the technology is useful. it allows you to filter out people at the entrance who pose a threat. i like that.
>> now, under the picture, there's all this information about me. a 99 percent probability that i wear glasses for example. but only 1 percent probability that i'm happy. i'm estimated to be 30 years old. t thanks for the complime. and it says i'm a man. >> my face is everywhere anyway. if you ride the subway, there are 20,000 camameras installld there, s so you'll definitely e filmed. if the police need to find you, they could search through 20,000 videos. but it's much faster with this system. >> and it works. in january 2 2019, a man w wad ininto moscow's s tretyakov gay and stole e a painting d direy off the e wall. he was arrrrested soon a afters ththanks to facialal recognit. but not evereryone is convince. alyona p popova is a l lawyer d an activist opposed to facial recognition. >> they can find out that demian and alyona are standing
here and t the exact lococation tverskaya a , zastava sqsquare. plus t the time downwn to te second.. we know for r sure that fafacl recognition n was involveded ie arrest of acactivists atat last year's protests in moscow. it's just like in china, where only people opposed to the government are arrested. >> popopova believeses that ts surveieillance video was used y the authoritities for facial rerecognition. it i includes foototage of herh a protest banner outside t the russian n parliament. > our message t to them is p going after r us withohout a ct order and withthout our agreree. you have no right to d do tha. >> popova a is making use of hr right toto take the auauthoris to couourt. we are not p permitted to o fm duringng the three-h-hour hear, althoughgh we can hearar the judge's voicice.
she dismisissed the casese. ththird co. i'm m not disappoi. on the contrarary. itit's reinforceced my dedetermination toto fight. all ththe authorities admitted gathering dadata. the other siside was nervovousd got veryry irate. when youou lose controrol like that, you hahave to be hididing something. >> popova lolodged an appepeal. and there arare other concnced cicitizens like e her. journalist a andrey kagansnskh wanted to o find out whehethere police c can be trusteted with facialal recognitionon data and searched the black market online. >> i bouought myselflf accesso the cicity's facial l recognin system a and got hold d of a hit-list basased on my facace. > that list w was 80 pages g and includeded a lot of pepeoe whwho look similar to him. but there was no d direct math
with his o own face. some of the e images were takn by c cameras over r building entranceces. in russia,a, that's bebecominge norm.. >> thahat's securityty. itit's importantnt. everyone's's worried aboutut tr sasafety nowadayays. >> doeoesn't it bothther you ie cicity knows eveverything? >> even wiwithout these e came, everyone knonows everythinig anyway thanks s to the interer. >> people could misuse this data, and that gives me a bad feeling. somebobody who wantsts to beae up couldld find out whwhen i t home andnd who with or who i visit. i donon't want that.. >> he anand alyona popopova arn a minonority. for most people in moscow, it seems, security is more important than personal privacy. >> that's all from us at global 3000 this time. we're back next week, and in
narrator: on this episode of "earth focus," the illegal lumber trade is a multi-million-dollar business spanning the globe. in the northwest united states, scientists are using innovative methods to stop lumber from enentering ththe country, w whin brazil, violent clashes have erupted at the source, where indigenous groups are trying to stop poachers from decimating their forest.