tv Inside Story LINKTV November 11, 2020 5:30am-6:01am PST
you will not help the president's legacy. i think that and know from my discussions with foreign leaders thus far that they are hopeful that the united states democratic institutions are viewed once again as being strong and endured. but i think at the end of the day, it's all going to come to fruition on january 20. >> the u.s. supreme court has began hearing arguments of what could strip 20 million people of medical insurance. justices are unlikely to strike down all of the affordable care act, a key piece of president obama's legacy. president trump and other republicans want the law struck down. russian peacekeeping troops are being deployed to run a cara black. deployed to the region. it is recognized as part of azerbaijan. they spent the day celebrating what has been seen as a win,
delivering swathe of territory to their country. armenia has sparked public anger. protests taking place in peru after the president was removed. protesters fought with police outside of congress. he remains popular, despite the accusations that led to his impeachment. ethiopia central government has vowed to continue a military operation in a number of conditions are met. they want the region's leaders to face trial and a new administration to be setthe prie offensive almost one week ago. those were the headlines. i will be back with more news on al jazeera. next it's inside story. you stay with us. ♪
♪ >> a new hope for a covid-19 vaccine. u.s. firm pfizer says its candidate has proven 90% effective and could be rolled out by the end of the year. what is this realistic, and how do we ensure everyone has equal access? this is inside story. ♪ hello and welcome to the program. it is being hailed as a great day for science and humanity. u.s. drug giant pfizer says it's covid-19 vaccine candidate worked on more than 90% of people during a mass clinical trial. the company, along with germany,
wants to get emergency approval soon so people can get the vaccination come december. it's raising hopes to the end of a pandemic that has killed more the one million people and destroyed economies around the world. but scientists are urging caution. we will bring and our guests any a moment. but first, this report. >> 1.3 billion doses by the end of the year, that is the claim from drugmakers pfizer and biontech after they say their drug is more than 90% effective. there's is the first successful data from a large-scale clinical trial, and large-scale vaccinations good roll out by the end of december. following an application for an emergency use approval from regulators within. the german company admits they are still waiting on more results to further prove it safety. >> it's true that this type of medication is no proof of yet, which is why we are comparing the study with more than 30,000
test persons to find out if there was any intolerance. what we can prove with this study is that the vaccine is compatible, and side effects are moderate and there are no severe side effects. >> news of the vaccine sent mobile stock markets soaring. scientists welcomed the news of the 90% effective mismatch higher than being expected, but also raised questions. >> we have to know who received the vaccine in the first trial. and evaluate if this fantastic result could be extended to other populations which are much more in need of being vaccinated. all the people with comorbidities who are at risk of severe infections, and probably were not included in the first trial. >> as the world health organization decision-making body met in a largely virtual conference, sessions were being raised about how any vaccine
would be distributed, especially to developing countries. >> the world has come together as never before to issue this life-saving tool and given out fairly as global party groups, not private commodities that become one more reason people are left behind. >> 1.2 million people have now died of the virus. more than 50 million people have caught it. 10 million in the u.s. the pandemic shows no signs of abating with hungary and portugal the latest to reimpose strict measures. the assembly had one reason to celebrate. the victory of joe biden means the u.s. will be reestablishing its relationship with the who after trump formally began withdrawal in july. the funding the u.s. brings is key, as the organization reveals, although the world's expectations of the who has grown dramatically, their budget hasn't. >> pfizer has one of a dozen
vaccines in the final stages of testing. in august, russia approved the first vaccine before large-scale safety trials even began. moderna says it's on track to produce 500 million doses of its inoculation annually next year. the british firm astrazeneca and oxford university resumed testing their candidates after a participant fell seriously ill. and in brazil, the government has halted after what the health regulator called a severe adverse event. let's bring in our guests in washington, d.c., the epidemiologists and chief of programs and services for the national association of county and city health officials in the u.s. in new york, the coordinator of work at unicef to rollout a potential covid-19 vaccine. and in ann arbor, michigan, the vice president of vaccine
research and development at blue willow biologists. welcome. this data that pfizer released, this was not in a peer-reviewed medical journal. so this is not yet conclusive evidence that the vaccine is safe and effective, is it? >> no, it's an interim analysis. that gives us a great outcome. it's really interesting that it exceeded all expectation. still we are waiting for the final results, which will be analyzed after receiving the rest of the data. of course, this is a great day and great results, and it does not need to be peer-reviewed to announce it because what we have is an independent group that looked at the data. not the company, not anybody
else, but an independent organization or team that looks at these things, and they have seen these great outcomes and they announced it. of course they have to go through the fda in order to be defined exactly in more details. in addition to the excellent data, the messenger in our technology gives a 90% efficacy. that is great. because we have moderna, which is also -- and we should expect that moderna would be equally or close to efficacy that was shown with the vaccine from biontech and pfizer. so all of these things together gives you a great hope for seeing the light at the end of
the tunnel to see that we are going in the right direction, and we will have a vaccine. of course, there are several options, and i believe we can talk about that later on. questions need to be answered before we decide and say that we have a vaccine and we are really getting into full be. >> you heard he said this was a great outcome thus far. there are still a lot of questions. this announcement reverberated around the world, but there is still a lot we don't know. i want to ask you, is it too early to celebrate, and what are exactly the guidelines for rolling out a vaccine? >> thank you very much. it's very interesting because we are still in the throes of identifying what the distribution allocation, and he didn't, what those plans are. within the last month or so the states had -- the u.s. states had a rapid timeline where they
had to create and disseminate plans for how, if they were given in early out or any issue of vaccines, what steps they would take to ensure it was distributed to the communities and to the people that they serve. so, specifically that tells you have a much buried approach across different yarder fees, and recognizing the logistics that will be necessary in additions to concerns around the vaccine. targeting impact relation to ensure you have enough of the population. whether it is provided in that approach. very similar to what we saw in h1n1. there will be a lot of logistics and a lot of apprehension, but a lot of hope in hoping to turn the corner for this particular vaccine and the pandemic as a whole. >> you brought up a keyword, logistics. let me turn to you, this issue of logistics is of paramount
importance. it will be very difficult to ensure that a covid-19 vaccine can be delivered throughout the world. i know unicef has started laying the groundwork on this. unicef is very experienced as far as china set up delivery -- as far as trying to set up delivery around the world. >> and there are a lot of parallels to what oscar was saying. for us, we are looking to serve the needs globally. a lot of the work we have been doing now is to assess the capacity in countries around the world. particularly low and middle income countries. also looking more generally across the programs and all of the issues that will come into play whether that is social mobilization, the programming and training of health care workers and so a lot of the work right now is really an assessment that the countries are leaving themselves, and
using a checklist and a tool that who and unicef have developed and are working through with those countries. of course one of the key issues within that is of course ensuring that there is the co-chain capacity, the fridges, the freezers that will be necessary to rollout these vaccines. >> will a vaccine that prevents covid-19 be enough to stop spread of the virus? >> that's a great question. what we know from viral infections is that the injectable vaccines, although can prevent disease in many cases, they would not prevent colonization and threat. and if they do and dit for a short amount of time, because we lack what we call it injectable vaccines, we believe that in
this case the virus can still be around in the nose of people vaccinated. it would be interesting to look at asymptomatic cases in the vaccine studies that would tell us exactly how long the virus can stay there and spread. so, what we need really is, looking at the colonization in the asymptomatic carriers of who received the vaccine, if that's the case, then we need to start looking and thinking about new strategies that can approach a second-generation vaccine, which will tackle this problem of colonization and the spread. in the case of epidemic and pandemic, you will never get 100% immunization in vaccination.
therefore, you need to find a way to prevent colonization and the spread, which we call the herd immunity in this case, that we will be reducing the viral load in the community, and therefore we could control epidemics and pandemics. >> i would like to talk about how this particular vaccine is going to work. my understanding is that usually when one gets vaccinated you are given a weekend or dead part of the virus, with the way that this virus works, what specifically does this mean, how is it different? >> the particular target of this vaccine focuses on what is called a spiked protein, which is on the surface and is used in very general terms. the surface of the virus, there is a protein that allows you to
target that level of what we call in immune to response. so by utilizing this target to generate this immune response, you would not necessarily need to create a live virus, where you actually use a specific live virus or a disabled live virus to present the kind of response. so the mrna style of the vaccination is a totally new concept for implementation and a provides some great strategies. on the flipside, the concern of the medical countermeasures that will be necessary. most jurisdictions have cold storage facilities for this type of virus or this type of vaccine. and also, from what we understand, there will be the need for two dose administration. so individuals would have to
really understand that to get the vaccine you are not going to be immediately protected, and you will require a second dose. so there are a lot of things in the details, but that's a very general description of the process. >> if i could ask you to expand a little more on what you are talking about. when it comes to the distribution, you mentioned in your earlier answer this cold chain that has to exist because his vaccine is going to have to be kept in cold temperatures. how much more of a challenge to that -- does that pose to the distribution of the vaccine, and does this mean that governments are going to have to play a key role in distribution? >> unicef is working with our partners in the world health organization and the vaccine alliance and the coalition for epidemic preparedness is part of a global covid-19 access facility.
that facility is trying to build a portfolio of vaccines that may be successful and safe and effective and ultimately recommended for use throughout the world. so without portfolio comes a diversey of means in the systems that we are looking at, health systems we are looking at across lower and middle income countries. what our teams are doing, we have teams from the world health organization and unicef that are right now doing assessments of the co-chain capacity. particularly in low and middle income countries and looking on building on what we have put in place over recent years. who and unicef have been putting in place around 40,000 fridges.
they are really useful for vaccines that reflect the normal storage temperatures of most vaccines that we have worked with. that's two to eight degrees celsius. and those facilities, those fridges that are already in place will serve as the foundation of many a villager stick requirements for many of the products that we see in the pipeline right now. unicef's assessment of the market that we conducted earlier this year, with inputs from many vaccine manufacturers, gave us a sense that the vast majority of the products in the pipeline, the manufacturers, developers are targeting a 2-8 degrees celsius requirement. so certainly that foundation would be leveraged as best possible. of course there are other vaccines that requires slightly more stringent tent --
temperature requirements, which is -20 degrees celsius. and again, because of the almost ubiquitous use of it in a developing world, there is already a degree of capacity for vaccines that might require those kinds of temperatures. then of course anything more stringent, there is much more limited use in the developing world. certainly the trial of some of the ebola vaccines that were conducted predominantly in west africa, have led to some amount of capacity that is more stringent. but certainly that is not as widespread if you like the other types of fridges and freezers that are referred to earlier. i think we need investment, depending on where vaccines are needed for use and to ensure that the systems have the capacity to observe -- absorb. >> i want to take a step back.
for those unfamiliar with the technology, i want to focus on two particular things. there is vaccine efficacy and there is vaccine effectiveness. these are slightly different terms when it comes to describing how effective a vaccine could be. could you explain this difference to our viewers and how it applies to the vaccine? >> vaccine efficacy is the ability of the vaccine to prevent the disease and a controlled study. and the effectiveness, when you look at the general effectiveness of the vaccine in the community and its impact, therefore you have to show efficacy in a controlled study in order to license the vaccine and for the fda to evaluate the efficacy of the vaccine. so therefore, these are really related terms. they are not very much different.
therefore, the efficacy is really what we are looking at in these ongoing clinical trials right now. and also one major thing we are really following is the safety. as i mentioned in the beginning, it's the first time and therefore we would bike to lick at the safety. and in the ongoing studies, the maximum safety that we are getting is two months in the medium. and two months is a short-term safety. we would probably wait for long-term safety later on by monitoring these people coming forward. so there is a short-term in the pandemic context. you cannot wait for a year to collect all of that, and therefore they felt comfortable that any impact of the safety of the vaccine, two months medium
follow-up is good enough to give us an indication of what to expect. but still, we would like to know more about the safety of vaccine. >> i want to ask you about the challenges that lie ahead in educating the public into accepting that a vaccine, this vaccine, that a vaccine is safe. >> that brings us to the third definition, which is that of vaccine hesitancy. vaccine hesitancy speaks to the fact that there are individuals, communities, etc., have been hesitant to take a vaccine for various amounts of concerns. one of the concerns in the u.s. is how this vaccine has been developed. has it been processed through a system that ensures it is effective? and what harm can be put on a population being exposed to a
vaccine that they may not feel has gone through that particular parameter? the other piece has been the unfortunate impact of the course of time with respect to vaccine deniers and anti-vaccinate is. the anti-science trend, which has unfortunately played a role in why we not only see the anxiety and concern, but also feeding into this while there is nefarious activity that is being underlined the cause for why vaccines are being pushed, then you have the third component that of marginalized communities, especially speaking here in the u.s. or we have communities of color, indigenous populations, brown, black, latino, you name it, or at a greater risk and are seeing a much harder risk with this virus in the pandemic, but also have years and decades of concern around systemic racism and other issues that structurally address their ability to have faith in the public health system or the
health care center. in the fourth is the entire response has been related with the roshan in the confidence in the public health with the find to the community. you out all of those together, vaccine hesitancy gets a big h, and it requires us to have a much significant approach to addressing community engagement, education, and ensuring that the education individuals are getting are coming from reliable sources and they can bolster their confidence in taking vaccines when they become available. quex let me ask you, if these results that we have heard so far about the vaccine, if they hold up, how what they can pair to highly effective childhood vaccines, like vaccines for measles? >> i think these results are in that ballpark. one comment on the efficacy overall, i think it is certainly encouraging overall i think it gives confidence more generally
that the portfolio of vaccines at the koufax facility and other entities are trying to build is moving in the right direction. we obviously want a risk-based approach that enables us to ensure that the largest numbers of short-term goals you would like to have, ultimately more than one vaccine available, the kovacs facility is looking to target 2 billion doses by the end of next year. of course that is unlikely to be done just by one vaccine candidate are one manufacturer. so certainly encouraging results are one step along a pathway in the right direction. i would add that many of the things oscar mentioned, and for the u.s. are very relevant in the developing world. and unicef is also verily
heavily -- very heavily engaged in social listening and trying to understand the sources and types of messages that we are hearing on the ground and in low and middle income countries. many of which have seen and tape vaccine movements -- anti-vaccine movements around the world. and trying to design our strategies to roll out any of these vaccine tests as when they are proven safe, licensed and recommended for use. so that we have the strategies and plays both to address hesitancy and the systems that are greater to absorb the necessary requirements that come with these vaccines. but it certainly encouraging, but we still have a way to go. >> we have run out of time. thank you to all of our guests. and thank you for watching. you can see the program again any time by visiting our website, how did your.com -- al jazeera.com. and you can go to our facebook
page. you can also join the conversation on twitter at aj. twitter. bye for now. ♪ >> as soon as the sun goes down the shelling stops. >> russia is a challenging place to work from as a journalist. you can't do it, it's not allowed. you are always pushing the boundaries. moscow is under a lockdown. people are being detained for peacefully marching through the