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The Bell System Technical Journal (1922-1983)

The scientific discoveries and technological innovations produced by Bell System research and engineering were critical not only to the evolution of global telecommunications but, more widely, they had a considerable impact on the technological base of the global economy and, indeed, on our daily lives.



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Bell System Technical Journal, 27: 3. July 1948 pp 379-423. A Mathematical Theory of Communication. (Shannon, C.E.)
Topics: log, probability, channel, entropy, source, probabilities, sequences, symbols, discrete, sequence,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 57: 6. July-August 1978 pp 1905-1929. The UNIX Time-Sharing System. (Ritchie, D.M.; Thompson, K.)
Topics: file, system, unix, user, program, files, directory, command, device, programs, operating system,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 39: 4 July 1960 pp 745-808. The Theory and Design of Chirp Radars (Klauder, J.R.; Price, A.C.; Darlington, S.; Albersheim, W.J.)
Topics: signal, chirp, pulse, frequency, network, weighting, amplitude, radars, output, linear, system...
Bell System Technical Journal, 57: 6. July-August 1978 pp 1899-1904. UNIX Time-Sharing System: Forward. (McIlroy, M.D.; Pinson, E.N.; Tague, B.A.)
Topics: unix, system, operating, programs, bell, programming, software, tools, language, program, operating...
Bell System Technical Journal, 41: 3. May 1962 pp 877-884. On Non-Computable Functions. (Rado, T.)
Topics: turing, computable, entries, valid, score, entry, machine, binary, binary turing, functions, bell...
Bell System Technical Journal, 27: 3. July 1948 pp 446-472. Spectra of Quantized Signals. (Bennett, W.R.)
Topics: signal, frequency, quantizing, quantized, signals, band, distortion, sampling, input, spectra,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 34: 5. September 1955 pp 1045-1079. A Method for Synthesizing Sequential Circuits. (Mealy, George H.)
Topics: circuit, circuits, input, method, table, rule, combination, sequential, equivalence, synthesis,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 7: 3. July 1928 pp 535-563. Transmission of Information. (Hartley, R.V.L.)
Topics: transmission, selections, symbols, wave, steady, transmitted, system, frequency, technical journal,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 2: 3. July 1923 pp 112-140. Telephone Equipment for Long Cable Circuits. (Demarest, Charles S.)
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Topics: cable, equipment, repeater, signaling, jacks, mounted, circuits, apparatus, circuit, testing,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 24: 1. January 1945 pp 46-156. Mathematical Analysis of Random Noise . (Rice, S.O.)
Topics: noise, probability, random, function, sin, journal, spectrum, frequency, density, band, random...
Bell System Technical Journal, 28: 4. October 1949 pp 656-715. Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems. (Shannon, C.E.)
Topics: key, secrecy, message, systems, probabilities, system, equivocation, cryptogram, messages, cipher,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 27: 3. July 1948 pp 510-588. The Evolution of the Quartz Crystal Clock. (Marrison, Warren A.)
Topics: quartz, frequency, crystal, resonator, oscillator, clocks, pendulum, clock, bell, accuracy, quartz...
Bell System Technical Journal, 37: 3. May 1958 pp 711-718. Measurement of Sheet Resistivities with the Four-Point Probe. (Smits, F.M.)
Topics: resistivities, resistivity, probe, infinite, voltage, finite, measurement, sheet, sample,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 13: 4. October 1934 pp 532-579. The Electromagnetic Theory of Coaxial Transmission Lines and Cylindrical Shields. (Schelkunoff, S.A.)
Topics: impedance, coaxial, electromagnetic, electromotive, surface, conductor, cylindrical, equations,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 46: 6. July-August 1967 pp 1055-1133. The Si-SiO2 Interface - Electrical Properties as Determined by the Metal-Insulator-Silicon Conductance Technique. (Nicollian, E.H.; Goetzberger, A.)
Topics: interface, bias, surface, density, capacitance, oxide, conductance, silicon, frequency, measured,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 41: 4. July 1962 pp 1337-1346. A Method for Simplifying Boolean Functions. (Scheinman, A.H.)
Topics: prime, implicants, numbers, boolean, function, residues, simplifying, decimal, functions, method,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 23: 3. July 1944 pp 282-332. Mathematical Analysis of Random Noise. (Rice, S.O.)
Topics: random, noise, probability, function, average, theorem, spectrum, interval, density, mathematical,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 54: 2. February 1975 pp 457-465. Microbending Loss in Optical Fibers. (Gardner, W.B.)
Topics: fiber, microbending, fibers, optical, winding, cgw, drum, loss, roughness, stress, optical fibers,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 49: 5. May-June 1970 pp 827-852. An Integral Charge Control Model of Bipolar Transistors. (Gummel, H.K.; Poon, H.C.)
Topics: base, collector, emitter, model, voltage, charge, parameters, current, capacitance, equation, bell...
Bell System Technical Journal, 48: 5. May-June 1969 pp 1249-1292. The Chirp z-Transform Algorithm and Its Application. (Rabiner, Lawrence R.; Schafer, Ronald W. ; Rader, Charles M.)
Topics: fourier, transform, chirp, discrete, algorithm, samples, frequency, contour, fast, magnitude,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 35: 4. July 1956 pp 917-926. A New Interpretation of Information Rate. (Kelly, J.L., Jr.)
Topics: bets, gambler, log, transmitted, exponential, probability, rate, symbol, transmission,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 22: 1. January 1943 pp 1-72. The Mathematics of Physical Properties of Crystals. (Bond, Walter L.)
Topics: matrix, sin, strain, symmetry, axis, vector, crystal, crystals, electric, axes, entirely analogous,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 49: 8. October 1970 pp 1973-1986. Adaptive Predictive Coding of Speech Signals. (Atal, B.S.; Schroeder, M.R.)
Topics: speech, signal, predictor, coding, equation, parameters, reconstructed, predictive, error, input,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 3: 2. April 1924 pp 259-267. A Reactance Theorem. (Foster, Ronald M.)
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Topics: reactance, impedance, resonant, network, formulas, networks, theorem, circuits, formula,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 3: 2. April 1924 pp 324-346. Certain Factors Affecting Telegraph Speed. (Nyquist, H.)
Topics: wave, current, signal, rectangular, telegraph, voltage, frequency, codes, morse, sine, technical...
Bell System Technical Journal, 36: 6. November 1957 pp 1389-1401. Shortest Connection Networks And Some Generalizations. (Prim, R.C.)
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Topics: shortest, terminal, connection, network, labelled, terminals, spanning, subtree, fragment,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 48: 5. May-June 1969 pp 1383-1404. Sun Tracker Measurements of Attenuation by Rain at 16 and 30 GHz. (Wilson, Robert W.)
Topics: ghz, attenuation, antenna, temperature, tion, brightness, tracker, sun, output, beam, sky...
Bell System Technical Journal, 28: 1. January 1949 pp 59-98. The Synthesis of Two Terminal Switching Circuits. (Shannon, Claude E.)
Topics: functions, variables, function, theorem, switching, network, elements, circuits, circuit,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 4: 4. October 1925 pp 685-761. Electric Circuit Theory and the Operational Calculus. (Carson, John R.)
Topics: operational, solution, equation, equations, heaviside, circuit, series, integral, theorem,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 42: 4. July 1963 pp 1449-1473. Launching of the Telstar Satellite. (Upthegrove, H.N.; D'Albora, J.B. Jr.; Kolding, A.R.; McLeod, B.A.)
Topics: spacecraft, telemetry, launch, telstar, test, satellite, spin, command, delta, antenna, command...
Bell System Technical Journal, 11: 1. January 1932 pp 126-147. Regeneration Theory. (Nyquist, H.)
Topics: integral, amplifier, values, expression, lim, curve, network, integration, regeneration, integrand,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 20: 4. October 1941 pp 415-433. The History of Electrical Resonance. (Blanchard, Julian)
Topics: resonance, electrical, patent, circuit, spark, leyden, condenser, alternating, discharge, current,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 25: 2. April 1946 pp 167-348. The Magnetron as a Generator of Centimeter Waves. (Fisk, J.B.; Hagstrum, H.D.; Hartman, P.L.)
Topics: magnetron, resonator, frequency, anode, output, magnetrons, mode, cathode, magnetic, circuit,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 30: 4. October 1951 pp 1103-1128. The Developmemt of Electron Tubes for a New Coaxial Tramsmission System. (Ford, G.T.; Walsh, E.J.)
Topics: tubes, grid, tube, spacing, coaxial, voltage, merit, cathode, electron, figure, current density,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 20: 3. July 1941 pp 255-292. Industrial Mathematics. (Fry, Thornton C.)
Topics: mathematical, mathematics, industrial, mathematician, bell, journal, theory, mathematicians,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 27: 4 October 1948 pp 623-656. A Mathematical Theory of Communication (Shannon, C.E.)
Topics: entropy, log, ensemble, probability, functions, power, noise, theorem, function, continuous,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 32: 2. March 1953 pp 406-424. A Study of Non-Blocking Switching Networks. (Clos, Charles)
Topics: crosspoints, array, switching, equation, intermediary, outputs, inputs, switches, switch, input,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 30: 1. January 1951 pp 50-64. Prediction and Entropy of Printed English. (Shannon, C.E.)
Topics: entropy, prediction, text, frequencies, probabilities, probability, letters, letter, rectangular,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 16: 1. January 1937 pp 35-44. The Physical Reality of Zenneck's Surface Wave. (Wise, W. Howard)
Topics: wave, surface, zenneck, asymptotic, series, sin, tilt, plane, vertical, dipole, wave antennas,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 5: 4. October 1926 pp 539-554. Wave Propagation in Overhead Wires with Ground Return. (Carson, John R.)
Topics: impedance, ground, propagation, mutual, wire, surface, formulas, axial, electric, wave, mutual...
Bell System Technical Journal, 12: 4. October 1933 pp 377-430. Loudness, Its Definition, Measurement and Calculation. (Fletcher, Harvey; Munson, W.A.)
Topics: loudness, tone, intensity, frequency, values, reference, tones, level, component, levels, intensity...
Bell System Technical Journal, 39: 4 July 1960 pp 995-1012. Human Factors Engineering Studies of the Design and Use of Pushbutton Telephone Sets (Deininger, R.L.)
Topics: keying, pushbutton, telephone, button, studies, interdigital, key, characteristics, contact, keyed,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 18: 1. January 1939 pp 76-118. Crossbar Dial Telephone Switching System. (Scudder, F.J.; Reynolds, J.N.)
Topics: crossbar, subscriber, sender, terminating, switch, incoming, marker, link, trunk, switches,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 29: 2. April 1950 pp 147-160. Error Detecting and Error Correcting Codes. (Hamming, R.W.)
Topics: code, error, codes, positions, minimum, single, correcting, parity, check, detecting, code points,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 49: 5. May-June 1970 pp 721-748. SF System: Shore Terminal Facilities and Fault Location. (Lynch, R.L.; Thomas, J.L.; Von Roesgen, C.A. )
Topics: transmission, cable, terminal, supergroup, carrier, repeater, pilot, frequency, band, system,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 27: 1. January 1948 pp 44-57. Electron Beam Deflection Tube for Pulse Code Modulation . (Sears, R.W.)
Topics: beam, grid, electron, aperture, deflection, quantizing, pulse, code, tube, plate, output plate,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 19: 2. April 1940 pp 306-335. A Single Sideband Musa Receiving System for Commercial Operation on Transatlantic Radio Telephone Circuits. (Polkinghorn, F.A.)
Topics: phase, antenna, delay, diversity, sideband, automatic, musa, branch, transmission, antennas,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 44: 4. April 1965 pp 725-729. B.S.T.J. Brief: On the Simultaneous Measurement of a Pair of Conjugate Observables. (Arthurs, E.; Kelly, J. L. Jr.)
Topics: measurement, meter, system, gaussian, interaction, ideal, wave, joint, variances, observables,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 8: 2. April 1929 pp 309-367. The Receiving System for Long-Wave Transatlantic Radio Telephony. (Bailey, Austin; Dean, S.W.; Wintringham, W.T.)
Topics: antenna, antennas, directional, radio, receiving, transatlantic, array, frequency, desired,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 30: 1. January 1951 pp 33-49. Television by Pulse Code Modulation. (Goodall, W.M.)
Topics: code, digits, pcm, amplitude, system, transmission, pulses, signal, system technical, quantized,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 29: 3. July 1950 pp 295-342. Principles and Applications of Waveguide Transmission. (Southworth, George C.)
Topics: wave, force, electric, transmission, waves, waveguide, lines, magnetic, vector, reflection,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 37: 1. January 1958 pp 1-22. Nature and Origin of Standards of Quality. (Shewhart, W.A.)
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Topics: quality, standard, product, specifications, custom, specification, judge, binding, technical,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 38: 3. May 1959 pp 749-783. Stabilization of Silicon Surfaces by Thermally Grown Oxides. (Atalla, M.M.; Tannenbaum, E.; Scheibner, E.J.)
Topics: surface, silicon, surfaces, field, oxide, observed, oxidation, oxidized, impurities, stabilization,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 15: 4. October 1936 pp 603-625. Corrosion of Metals---II. Lead and Lead-Alloy Cable Sheathing. (Burns, R.M.)
Topics: corrosion, lead, cable, cables, soil, anodic, conduit, sheathing, sheath, cent, carbon dioxide,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 48: 5. May-June 1969 pp 1421-1444. Microstrip Lines for Microwave Integrated Circuits. (Schneider, M.V.)
Topics: microstrip, dielectric, impedance, conductor, strip, transverse, ohm, attenuation, thickness,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 61: 2. February 1982 pp 227-246. An Approximate Thermal Model for Outdoor Electronics Cabinets. (Coyne, J.C.)
Topics: cabinet, heat, temperature, transfer, wall, vertical, thermal, solar, center, enclosure, solar...
Bell System Technical Journal, 8: 3. July 1929 pp 515-535. Observations on Modes of Vibration and Temperature Coefficients of Quartz Crystal Plates. (Lack, F.R.)
Topics: frequency, temperature, crystal, coefficient, frequencies, plate, parallel, vibration, plates,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 37: 6. November 1958 pp 1501-1542. Statistics of Regenerative Digital Transmission. (Bennett, W.R.)
Topics: pulse, ensemble, message, regenerative, digital, spectrum, values, exp, spectral, transmission,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 10: 3. July 1931 pp 408-419. Mutual Impedance of Grounded Wires Lying on the Surface of the Earth. (Foster, Ronald M.)
Topics: impedance, mutual, sin, formula, integral, electric, earth, grounded, force, wires, propagation...
Bell System Technical Journal, 13: 4. October 1934 pp 680-700. Regeneration Theory and Experiment. (Peterson, E.; Kreer, J.G.; Ware, L.A.)
Topics: circuit, frequency, transfer, factor, criterion, stability, phase, amplifier, attenuator,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 16: 4. October 1937 pp 513-540. Variable Frequency Electric Circuit Theory with Application to the Theory of Frequency-Modulation. (Carson, John R.; Fry, Thornton C.)
Topics: frequency, amplitude, exp, noise, modulation, theory, modulated, wave, circuit, signal, frequency...
Bell System Technical Journal, 22: 1. January 1943 pp 80-107. A Mathematical Theory of Linear Arrays. (Schelkunoff, S.A.)
Topics: array, arrays, linear, elements, nulls, sin, null, radiation, amplitudes, equispaced, system...
Bell System Technical Journal, 39: 3. May 1960 pp 477-513. High-Frequency Negative-Resistance Circuit Principles for Esaki Diode Applications. (Hines, M.E.)
Topics: diode, circuit, esaki, frequency, mode, diodes, resistance, strip, capacitance, circuits, unit...
Bell System Technical Journal, 60: 8. October 1981 pp 1847-1859. Improving the Quality of a Noisy Speech Signal. (Sondhi, M.M.; Schmidt, C.E.; Rabiner, L.R.)
Topics: noise, speech, signal, channel, noisy, estimating, spectral, filter, formant, frequency, isolated...
Bell System Technical Journal, 9: 3. July 1930 pp 567-594. Long Distance Cable Circuit for Program Transmission. (Clark, A.B.; Green, C.W.)
Topics: cable, transmission, circuit, frequency, delay, coils, volume, program, cycles, range, system...
Bell System Technical Journal, 44: 8. October 1965 pp 1809-1812. B.S.T.J. Brief: An Observation Concerning the Application of the Contraction-Mapping Fixed-Point Theorem, and a Result Concerning the Norm-Boundedness of Solutions of Nonlinear Functional Equations. (Sandberg, I.W.)
Topics: denote, nonlinear, exists, denotes, abf, fourier, maps, linear, real, pya
Bell System Technical Journal, 17: 1. January 1938 pp 17-48. The Impedance Concept and its Application to Problems of Reflection, Refraction, Shielding and Power Absorption. (Schelkunoff, S.A.)
Topics: impedance, wave, waves, impedances, reflection, ratio, radial, transmission, field, characteristic,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 4: 3. July 1925 pp 349-354. Oliver Heaviside. (Gill, F.)
Topics: heaviside, inductance, waves, telegraph, oliver, coils, engineers, electrical, propagation,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 12: 1. January 1933 pp 35-75. Probability Theory and Telephone Transmission Engineering. (Hoyt, Ray S.)
Topics: probability, formulas, complex, values, equations, theorem, axes, equation, theorems, subsection,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 34: 5. September 1955 pp 995-1043. Conversion of Maxwell's Equations into Generalized Telegraphist's Equations. (Schelkunoff, S.A.)
Topics: equations, modes, transmission, generalized, conducting, series, field, mode, transverse, waves,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 37: 6. November 1958 pp 1663-1669. Recent Monographs of Bell System Technical Papers Not Published in this Journal.
Topics: monograph, monographs, graph, electron, bell, resonance, magnetic, transistor, millimeters,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 8: 4. October 1929 pp 613-631. A Method of Sampling Inspection. (Dodge, H.F.; Romig, H.G.)
Topics: inspection, sampling, tolerance, average, method, defective, acceptance, sample, minimum, pieces,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 19: 2. April 1940 pp 221-248. Electrical Wave Filters Employing Crystals with Normal and Divided Electrodes. (Mason, W.P.; Sykes, R.A.)
Topics: filters, crystal, lattice, impedance, attenuation, employing, crystals, filter, resonant, band,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 44: 3. March 1965 pp 455-494. Imaging of Optical Modes -- Resonators with Internal Lenses. (Kogelnik, Herwig)
Topics: beam, lens, optical, focal, modes, resonators, parameters, resonator, diffraction, plane, principal...
Bell System Technical Journal, 57: 6. July-August 1978 pp 1947-1969. UNIX Time-Sharing System: A Retrospective. (Ritchie, D.M.)
Topics: system, unix, file, files, user, bell, program, programs, device, operating, virtual address,...