A combinatorial map is a connected topological graph cellularly embedded in a surface. This monograph concentrates on the automorphism group of a map, which is related to the automorphism groups of a Klein surface and a Smarandache manifold, also applied to the enumeration of unrooted maps on orientable and non-orientable surfaces. A number of results for the automorphism groups of maps, Klein surfaces and Smarandache manifolds and the enumeration of unrooted maps underlying a graph on orientable and non-orientable surfaces are discovered. An elementary classification for the closed s-manifolds is found. Open problems related to the combinatorial maps with the differential geometry, Riemann geometry and Smarandache geometries are also presented in this monograph for the further applications of the combinatorial maps to the classical mathematics.