Since Williams (2005), second language acquisition researchers have performed a series of interconnected studies to verify the claim that adult second language (L2) learners can learn without awareness (e.g., Batterink, Oudiette, Reber, & Paller, 2014; Chen et al., 2011; Faretta-Stutenberg & Morgan-Short, 2011; Hama & Leow, 2010; Kerz, Wiechmann, & Riedel, 2017; Leung & Williams, 2011, 2012, 2014; Rebuschat, Hamrick, Riestenberg, Sachs, & Ziegler, 2015; Rebuschat, Hamrick, Sachs, Riestenberg, & Ziegler, 2013). Results from these inquiries have lacked consistency, suggesting that learner variations may be at play. To examine this hypothesis, we replicated Williams’ Experiment 2 using participants enrolled in one of the top universities in the U.S. (academic sample), as well as participants without college degrees (non-academic sample). Three individual differences variables – reading exposure, education, and intelligence – were examined as moderating factors of implicit L2 learning. The findings will advance our knowledge of implicit learning, which is an essential and ubiquitous property of human cognition (Cleeremans, Destrebecqz, & Boyer, 1998; Reber, 1989).