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Palm-leaf manuscripts

Palm-leaf manuscripts are manuscripts made out of dried palm leaves. Palm leaves were used as writing materials in the Indian subcontinent and in Southeast Asia dating back to the 5th century BCE,[1] and possibly much earlier.Their use began in South Asia, and spread elsewhere, as texts on dried and smoke treated palm leaves of Borassus species (Palmyra palm) or the Ola leaf (leaf of Corypha umbraculifera or the talipot palm).


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The Balinese Digital Library
The Balinese Digital Library
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Almost all of the writings in Balinese were digitized and preserved here in 2011 by the Internet Archive from their major library in Denpasar, Bali.   A official in the cultural ministry said that this collection is "90% of all writings in Balinese."  Most of the Balinese literature is written on palm leaves, or Lontar.  Some were not digitized because of the culturally sensitive materials they contain. This makes the Balinese the first to have...
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Founded in 1823, the  Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland  is dedicated to promoting public interest and scholarly exchange into the histories and cultures of Asia.    One of the ways the Society does this is by providing free public access to its historic collections of books, manuscripts, archives, and artworks, which originate from across Asia. The Society seeks to make as many of its collections as possible freely available online. In...
The Balinese Digital Library
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collection

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The Balinese Digital Library
texts

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Whish Collection
by Jyeṣṭhadeva
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Palm leaf; wooden boards. Manuscript consists of the text of the Yuktibhāṣā by Jyeṣṭhadeva, a consolidation of the discoveries by various astronomer mathematicians of the Kerala school, mainly based on Nilakantha Somayaji's Tantrasaṅgraha (or Tantrasaṃgraha). Inscription on label pasted on board: "Tantrasangraha-valiya Bhāṣā (Yukti-Bhāṣā) in Malayalam language". Inscription on verso of first blank folio: "The Tantra-sangraha valiya Bhāshā; or rather the...
Source: folio
Sinhalese Collection
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Palm leaf. Complete in two parcels. Presented by Sir A. Johnston in 1827.
Source: folio
Tamil Collection
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Palm leaf MS. A poetical Saiva hagiology.
Source: folio
The Balinese Digital Library
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The Balinese Digital Library
texts

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The Balinese Digital Library
texts

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The Balinese Digital Library
texts

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Visit this item’s page on Palm Leaf Wiki for text transcription and additional information.
The Balinese Digital Library
texts

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The Balinese Digital Library
texts

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Hodgson Collection
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Paper; 5 lines on each page. Cowell and Eggeling describe the writing as "modern", i.e. 19th century. In 26 paṭalas; text begins: athāto bhūtaḍāmaramahātantrarāje sarvabhūtabhūtānāṃ sādhanavidhivistaraṃ pravakṣyāmi | ityāha bhagavānmahāvajradharastrailokyādhipatiḥ - 1. iti bhūtaḍāmaramahātantrarāje iṣṭabhūtarājā kalpaḥ prathamaḥ paṭalaḥ f.9r; 2. - karmapiśācinībhūtinīsādhanavidhivistaraḥ - f.12r; 3. and 4. -...
Source: folio
1. Sagāthavaggavaṇṇanā 2. Saḷāyatanavaggavaṇṇanā 558 olas (ka-ḷō; ka-ṅāḥ); 485 x 60 mm; 2 cord holes, 10 lines, 75 char., Burm. medium and minute script, 380 mm; numb. Burm. letters; gilded edges; 2 red lacquered wooden covers. Not used for PTS ed. Date: BS. 1224 and 1242? = 1862 and 1880 AD? See Jacqueline Filliozat, 'Survey of the Pāli Manuscript Collection in the Royal Asiatic Society', Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1999, Vol. 9, Pt. 1, pp. 35-76.
Source: folio
Whish Collection
by Kokkoka
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Palm leaf; 11 or 12 lines on a folio. Text consists of the Ratirahasya, a treatise on Kāmaśāstra, by Kokkoka, who composed it for Vaidyadatta. Text begins: yenākāri prasabham acirād arddhanārīśvaratvaṃ dagdhenāpi tripurajayino jyotiṣā cākṣuṣeṇa | indor mmitraṃ sa jayati mudān dhāma vāmapracāro devaś śrīmān bhavarasajuṣān daivataṃ cittajanmā | parijanapade bhṛṃgaśreṇīpikāḥ paṭuvandino himakarasitacchatraṃ mattadvipo malayānilaḥ |...
Source: folio
The Balinese Digital Library
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The Balinese Digital Library
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The Balinese Digital Library
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Burmese Collection
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620 olas (ka-ghyaḥ) in 19 bundles; 560 x 60 mm; 2 cord holes, 5 lines, 62 char., Kham script, 450 mm; numb. Kham letters; red lacquered in the middle, gilded edges; 2 thick wooden covers. Many notes in ink between lines in Siamese language. No date. See Jacqueline Filliozat, 'Survey of the Pāli Manuscript Collection in the Royal Asiatic Society', Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1999, Vol. 9, Pt. 1, pp. 35-76.
Source: folio
The Balinese Digital Library
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The Balinese Digital Library
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Palm leaf; 4 lines on a folio; manuscript consists of 10 blank folios, 148 folios of text, 7 blank folios. Includes paper label with inscription: "The History of Krishna Deva Rajan of Vijianagar in Telugu". South Indian Sanskrit / Whish Manuscript Collection This manuscript is labelled as 227, but in ’A catalogue of South Indian Sanskrit manuscripts (especially those of the Whish Collection) belonging to the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland’ by M. Winternitz,...
Source: folio
Tamil Collection
by Narayana Bhattar Visvanathan
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Palm leaf.
Source: folio
The Balinese Digital Library
texts

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The Balinese Digital Library
texts

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Whish Collection
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Palm leaf; 8 lines on a folio. Manuscript consists of the following texts: the Chandogamantrabrāhmaṇabhāṣya, a commentary on the Mantra-Brāhmaṇa or Mantra-Parvan of the Sāmaveda, by Sāyaṇa, in 2 chapters; the Mantraparvan, or Mantrapāṭha, or Mantra-Brāhmaṇa of the Sāmaveda, in 2 Paṭalas, containing the mantras prescribed by the Gobhila-Gṛhyasūtra. Winternitz notes that there is an entry by C. M. Whish dated 'Tellicherry 1830', but he thinks the manuscript may be about...
Source: folio
The Balinese Digital Library
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The Balinese Digital Library
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The Balinese Digital Library
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favoritefavoritefavoritefavoritefavorite ( 1 reviews )
Hodgson Collection
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Paper; 8 lines on each page. Cowell and Eggeling describe the manuscript as "oldish", and also as "much worm-eaten". Text begins: gurubuddhaṃ gurudharmaṃ gurusaṃghaṃ tathaiva ca | guruvajradharaṃ caiva guruṃ sarvaṃ namāmyahaṃ || Text ends: iti tantraślokasaṃgraha samāpta || kṛtiriyaṃ vajragurujinaharkhena saṃgraha iti || Manuscript acquired by Hodgson in Nepal. See p. 40 in Cowell, E. B. and Eggeling, J. 'Catalogue of Buddhist Sanskrit manuscripts...
Source: folio
Whish Collection
by Nilakantha Somayaji
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Palm leaf; 8 or 9 lines on a folio; wooden boards. Inscription on verso of second blank folio: "The Tantrasangrahah + its commentary; in Malayalam. C. M. Whish". Whish / South Indian Sanskrit Manuscript Collection. The manuscript is listed in the synoptical list of manuscript numbers (Whish numbers and Winternitz numbers) at the beginning of ’A catalogue of South Indian Sanskrit manuscripts (especially those of the Whish Collection) belonging to the Royal Asiatic Society of Great...
Source: folio
The Balinese Digital Library
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The Balinese Digital Library
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The Balinese Digital Library
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favoritefavoritefavoritefavoritefavorite ( 1 reviews )
The Balinese Digital Library
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The Balinese Digital Library
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The Balinese Digital Library
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Palm leaf.
Source: folio
Whish Collection
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Palm leaf; 4, 5, or 7 lines on a folio. Manuscript consists of various collections of Mantras for Tantric worship, and fragments of Tantric treatises, as follows: 1. A collection of 110 mantras, beginning: oṃ hrīṃ śrīṃ klīṃ āṃ[?] nityakāmeśvarī klīṃ sarvasatvaśankarīsenaḥ sarva trīpuruṣavaśankarī aiṃ klīṃ sauḥ sauḥ klīṃ aiṃ hrīṃ namo bhagavativiccai[?] mahātripurasundaryyai namaḥ etc. 2. A fragment begins on f.11: ādhāre liṃganābhau...
Source: folio
The Balinese Digital Library
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The Balinese Digital Library
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The Balinese Digital Library
texts

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The Balinese Digital Library
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The Balinese Digital Library
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Hodgson Collection
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Paper; 5 lines on each page. Cowell and Eggeling describe the writing as "modern" (i.e. 19th century) and "careless". Text begins: jyotibhirvijitaṃ yadasya jagatī - iti saṃjñavajramaṇḍala || 9 || f.9r; || 3 || f.19v; iti mantraḥ sārvakarmikaḥ || f.25r; vajrāmṛtamaṇḍala iti || iti yogānvarataṃtra samāptaḥ || Manuscript acquired by Hodgson in Nepal. See p. 31 in Cowell, E. B. and Eggeling, J. 'Catalogue of Buddhist Sanskrit manuscripts in the...
Source: folio
Palm leaf. Presented by J.H. Huttman, 1826.
Source: folio
Whish Collection
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Palm leaf; 14 lines on average on each folio. Manuscript consists of the Śivarahasya-Khaṇḍa from the Śaṅkarasaṃhitā of the Skanda-Purāṇa. Vol. I, containing the Sambhava-Kāṇḍa in 50 Adhyāyas (ff.1-53), the Āsura-Kāṇḍa in 15 Adhyāyas (ff.53-74), the Viramāhendra-Kāṇḍa in 7 Adhyāyas (ff.74-84b), and the Yuddha-Kāṇḍa in 35 Adhyāyas (ff.85-129b). For Vol. II see RAS Whish MS 102, South Indian Sanskrit MS 103. Winternitz notes that there are entries by C. M....
Source: folio
The Balinese Digital Library
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The Balinese Digital Library
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Hodgson Collection
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Paper; 7 lines on each page. In 30 paṭalas. Text begins: evanmayā śrutamekasminsamaye bhagavāndevīnāṃ bhageṣu yathā vijahārediti (!) | - 1. iti śrīmahākālatantre vārjitasvārthagamanapaṭalaḥ prathamaḥ - f.3v; 2. - kuṇḍābhinayapaṭalavyākhyāne dvitīya | f.4r; 3. - mantrapaṭalaḥ - f.6v; 4. - vajrābhiṣekapaṭalaḥ - f.7r; 5. - tantrarāji devatābhiṣekapaṭalaḥ - f.7v; 6. - paricaryāpaṭala - f.8v; 7. devatotthānaḥ - f.15r; 8....
Source: folio
Whish Collection
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Palm leaf; Text 1 has 9 to 13 lines on a folio; Text 2 has 11 or 12 lines on a folio. Manuscript is slightly damaged by insects in the middle. Manuscript consists of the following texts: 1. the Naukā, or Horāvivaraṇa, a commentary on Varāhamihira's Bṛhajjātaka; also called Daśādhyāyī, according to Th. Aufrecht 'Catalogus catalogorum' (Leipzig, 1891), p.248; 2. the Praśnāmṛta by Kumāra, pupil of Nārāyaṇa Jyotiṣa, a fragment only; a work of the same title is ascribed to...
Source: folio
The Balinese Digital Library
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The Balinese Digital Library
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The Balinese Digital Library
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Hodgson Collection
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Palm leaf. Six lines on each folio. Text begins: gaṇḍavyūhamahārṇavastotra ninādibhojinasutānāṃ | parṣanmaṇḍalasāgaranāmnā vyūhādikam proktiṃ || sugatasamādhyavataraṇā acintyabuddhanidarśanaṃ caiva | Eight introductory slokas, after which: evaṃ mayā śrutam ekasminsamaye - The work consists of many sections, the last of which ends with an enumeration of the 52 kalyāṇamitras: tadyathā mañjuśribodhisatvaḥ prathamaṃ kalyāṇamitraṃ -...
Source: folio
Whish Collection
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Palm leaf; 6 lines on a folio. Manuscript consists of two texts: 1. the Mantrapraśnadvaya, or the Mantrapāṭha of the Āpastambins in 2 Praśnas; 2. the Āpastambīya Gṛhyasūtra, in 23 Khaṇḍas. The Mantrapraśnadvaya is the MS "Wh." used for the edition of the 'Mantrapāṭha or The Prayer Book of the Āpastambins' by M. Winternitz, Part I (Oxford, 1897, Anecdota Oxoniensia). The Āpastambīya Gṛhyasūtra is the MS "C." used for the edition of the Āpastambīya...
Source: folio
The Balinese Digital Library
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Hodgson Collection
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Writing indicates that manuscript probably dates from 19th century. Paper; 5 lines on each page. Work is arranged in 10 chapters. Text begins: śrīmatā yena saddharmastrilokye saṃprakāśitaḥ | śrīghanaṃ taṃ mahābuddhaṃ vande ‘haṃ śaraṇāśritaḥ || natvā trijagadīśānaṃ dharmadhātuṃ jinālayaṃ | tatsvayaṃbhūsamuddeśaṃ vakṣyāmi śṛṇutādarāt || śraddhayā yaḥ śṛṇotīmāṃ svayaṃbhūtpattisatkathāṃ | pariśuddhatrikāyaḥ sa...
Source: folio
Hodgson Collection
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Paper; 6 lines on each page. Cowell and Egeling describe the writing as "modern", i.e. 19th century. In 5 paṭalas. Text begins: sarvajñaṃ jñānakāyaṃ dinakaravapuṣaṃ padmapatrāyatākṣaṃ siṃhāsanasthaṃ sukharatamitaṃ (!) mastakena praṇamya | - 1. (169 stanzas) iti śrīmadādibuddhoddhṛte śrīkālacakre lokadhātuvinyāsapatalaḥ prathamaḥ || f.30r; 2. (180 stanzas) - adhyātmanirṇayo nāma paṭalo dvitīyaḥ || f.61r; 3. (203 stanzas) -...
Source: folio
The Balinese Digital Library
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The Balinese Digital Library
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The Balinese Digital Library
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The Balinese Digital Library
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The Balinese Digital Library
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Hodgson Collection
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Paper; 6 or 7 lines on each page. Text on the philosophy of grammar. It begins: vijñātasakalajñeyamuttīrṇabhavasāgaraṃ | praṇamya sugataṃ samyagucyate śabdaśāsanaṃ || Text is in 5 paṭalas: the Kāraka ends f.14v; the Samāsa f.25r; the Taddhita f.37r; the Tiṅ f.42r (which is missing); the Kṛt f.48r. Text ends: kārakapaṭala [samāsa] paṭalataddhitapaṭalatatiṅpaṭalakṛtpaṭala iti paṃca paṭalā niyamitāḥ || iti prayogamukhaḥ samāptaḥ || - ||...
Source: folio
Hodgson Collection
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Palm leaf; 6 or 7 lines on each folio. Cowell and Eggeling describe the manuscript as "oldish". Text begins: śrīkālacakramīśvaramabhivandya guṇairgurūngurūṃśca mayā śrīmati ṣaḍaṅgayoge guṇabharaṇī ṭippaṇī kriyate | iha khalu vahiradhyātmavidyābhyāsabhāvitacitta sannatirācāryānupamarakṣito nirālambakalpatatvopadeśabhāvanayā śrīsaśarppaṇe (?) dvādaśa samvatsarānanaiṣīt | - It ends: ṣaḍaṅgayogaṭippaṇī samāptā ||...
( 1 reviews )
Source: folio
Hodgson Collection
texts

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Palm leaf; 5 lines on each page. F.11 missing. The manuscript is described by Cowell and Eggeling as "old" and note that it requires some familiarity with the characters to make out the writing. The date (in the reign of Devapāla) is given at the end in letters. Text begins: praṇamya śrīgurūn (?). - | ādikarmapradīpantad - || - || tatrādau darśitā ye tu mantrāḥ pūjādikarmasu | ākṛṣyaikatra sampiṇḍe likhyante te tu nānyathā || mukhasaucādikaṃ (?) kṛtvā...
Source: folio
Hodgson Collection
texts

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Palm leaf; 6 lines on each page. A treatise, in ślokas, on various subjects connected with cookery and eating. Text begins: kleśādyairaparāmṛṣṭamaṣṭamūrttiṃ jagatpatiṃ | vibhumavyayamīśānaṃ praṇamya śaśibhūṣaṇaṃ || rasavīryavipākādyaiḥ siddhiḥ sadvaidyapūjitaḥ | bhāvasvabhāvavādo ‘yamārṣaḥ saṃhriyate mayā || (iti) dravyaguṇādhyāyaḥ f.5r; lavaṇavargaḥ f.6v; madhuravargaḥ f.7r; dugdhavargaḥ f.7v; ghṛtavargaḥ f.9r;...
Source: folio
Hodgson Collection
texts

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Palm leaf; 5 lines on each page. Text arranged in 11 kalpas, each of 4 prakaraṇas. Manuscript is described as old by Cowell and Eggeling. Text begins: evammayā śrutamekasminsamaye bhagavānsarvatathāgatakāyavākcittavajrayoṣidbhageṣu vijahāra - The chapters end: iti abhidhānābhideyabodhicittātpādādibhāvanātatvaprakaraṇaḥ prathamaḥ || f.4v; - bodhicittāvatārannāma dvitīyaṃ prakaraṇaṃ || f.7v; - tatvoddeśaprakaraṇantṛtīyaṃ || f.9r. 1. iti...
Source: folio
Morris Collection
texts

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156 olas (ka-mai); 610 x 62 mm; 2 cord holes, 9 lines, 123 char., Sinh. medium script, 530 mm; numb. Sinh. letters. This ms. has been used for PTS ed. by Taylor in 1894, preface p. VII = S2. No date. See Jacqueline Filliozat, 'Survey of the Pāli Manuscript Collection in the Royal Asiatic Society', Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1999, Vol. 9, Pt. 1, pp. 35-76.
Source: folio
Sinhalese Collection
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Beg.: jayatu anantandarodayagirisantibhe ... jayatu ... gathā-sakalalokapahaṃ ... Ends: indavaṃsagāthā ... dhammarājādhirājavijitamaramakkhaṃ vāyapariyaṃ dipanā sāsanavaṃsakathā--siddhir astu ... 12 olas (ka-kl); 440 x 45 mm; 2 cord holes, 6 lines, 72 char., Sinh. small script, 400 mm; numb. Sinh. letters; a single wooden cover. The text is not known in the Hugh Nevill Collection (British Library, K.D. Somadasa's catalogue), nor listed in Godakumbra's Sinhalese literature....
Source: folio