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Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation

The studies presented in this collection are related to the area of education in a very broad sense. They comprise experiments based on psychological, linguistic, and information science theories and models, which have been applied to both single individuals and samples.



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Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Inger Bierschenk
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Abstract   There is a conviction among leading beer historians that Hildegard von Bingen introduced hops as additive in beer, although there exist several skeptical voices about it. The aim of this article is to give a contribution to the elucidation of some facts in this matter. Two texts were analyzed with Perspective Text Analysis (PTA/Vertex), which captures internal relationships in texts. The first analysis concerned the widely referred translation of chapter 61 about the hop plant in...
Topics: Perspective Text Analysis (PTA/Vertex), text geometry, translation, Hildegard von Bingen, middle...
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Inger Bierschenk
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This study concerns The Dwarf (Dvärgen) by Pär Lagerkvist. The author wanted to give his tribute to the Renaissance masters by letting the dwarf express his scorn and contempt for humanism. Further, Lagerkvist wanted to characterize the greatness and lowness of Man through the prince and his innate dwarf. It is a general conception that the prince character in this novel has retrieved properties from Machiavelli’s Prince. Thus, the research question is whether Lagerkvist, accordingly,...
Topics: duality, mentality, holophor, language space, perspective transformation, fiction, The Dwarf, Pär...
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Bernhard Bierschenk & Inger Bierschenk
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The concept of agent is introduced into a psychological analysis of natural language. The agent component has a steering func¬tion in the development of a perspective throughout a text. This is shown by an experiment with the series of pictures from the Visual Cliff studies. The pictures have been used to examine individual differences in the perception of ecologically significant information. Through a numerical analysis perceptual syndromes have been demonstrated.
Topics: agent concept, numerical analysis, individual differences, symbolic integration, textual...
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Bernhard Bierschenk
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The discussion in this article takes its point of departure in the generally accepted position of cognition-oriented scientists that intelligent behaviour requires an organism/formalism, which can abstract information from the environment. By examining some operationalised schema models the author shows to what extent these have been capable of explaining the development of behaviourally meaningful cognitive functions. The discussion of the models is oriented towards techniques for specifying...
Topics: organism, formalism, cognitive functions, schema model, progressive behaviour, autonomous observer,...
This report contains analyses of the results of student teachers' self-assessment and the assessment by pedagogical experts on videotaped protocol material. The data have been analysed by means of ANOVA and canonical correlations. Further, the ANOVA has been carried out in three steps: Analysis of (1) structure of the F-tests, (2) precision and power and (3) post hoc analyses. Canonical correlations have been analysed with regard to (1) significant bi-variate relations, (2) the relations...
Topics: CCTV-experiment, assessments, educational experts, self-confrontation, contrast analysis, Anova,...
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Bernhard Bierschenk
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The present article is based on the premise that mind is an emergent property of the processes that produce consciousness. Any scientific understanding must necessarily consider the need of an explanation of consciousness. Instead, the non-sense property of traditional scientific modelling appears to hide the phenomenon. In contrast, the explored hypothesis is based on the assumption that the meaningfulness of natural language is the carrier of consciousness. It is assumed that the structural...
Topics: shapes of mind, AaO-axiom, consciousness, non-linear dynamics, awareness, causal loop diagram,...
This article is advancing the bio-kinematic and demonstrates that the discovered mechanism can capture emergent "AaO" units and track their growth in complexity. It is demonstrated that the textual morphogenesis is generating corresponding informational invariants. On the basis of the translation function, it is made evident that the sequential textual translation of English to Swedish and Swedish to Italian is producing the condition for an effective control of the AaO's within a...
Topics: pertex, vertex, evolution, language dynamics, translation, adaptive landscape, structural distance,...
This article presents the geometric foundation and quantification of the Agent-action-Objective (AaO) kinematics. The meaningfulness of studying the flows in verbal expressions through splitting and splicing the strings in a verbal flow relates to the fact that free parameters are not needed, since it is not required that the presented methodological development fits one or the other empirical context. The major aim is to make evident that natural language employs its own intrinsic system of...
Topics: geometry, foundation, string, ring, structure, magnitude, phase, transition, splicing, splitting,...
This report contains a description and discussion of self-assessment data obtained from student teachers, partly as a result of repeated self-confrontation experiences during a confrontation experiment, partly as a result of reassessments six weeks respectively two years after they had participated in the self-confrontation experiment. The data have been analysed by means of ANOVA and canonical correlation analyses. Also assessments obtained from pedagogical experts have been used as a...
Topics: self-confrontation, micro-lesson, teacher training, experiment, self-assessment, closed circuit...
When a society plans the upbringing and education of its members, irrespective of age and level, one absolute requirement must be that it develops their ability of self-determination. A psycho-ecological approach to a study of the individual's self-cognition (perception and evaluation) and self-determination (i.e. development of plans of action) focuses on the mutual relations existing between the individual and his environment, and the dynamics of these relations. More concretely, the aim is...
Topics: simulation, behaviour strategies, transition matrix, event design
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Bernhard Bierschenk & Gustav A. Lienert
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This report describes simple methods to test clusters in samples of N profiles or N learning curves For sign patterns from k binary variables with probabilities {p = 1/2) of being plus or minus under homogeneity hypothesis (H0) r = Zk simultaneous binomial tests are suggested to detect clusters of patterns. Clusters are defined as patterns occurring more often than expected under H0. The main application is to k continuously distributed variables, which have been dichotomised at their medians...
Topics: nonparametric method, cluster, dichotomized patterns, learning curve, panel judgement
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Inger Bierschenk & Bernhard Bierschenk
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The basic hypothesis of the presented contribution is that mind is an emergent property of the processes that produce natural language expressions. The shape of the mind of a particular person can be discovered through the mechanisms forming the corresponding language space. Although covered by textual surface properties, this space is approachable with VERTEX which is a new version of Perspective Text Analysis (PTA). Due to the Agent-action-Objective (AaO) axiom, it has been possible to...
Topics: functional text geometry, PTA/Vertex, text processiong, AaO model, algorithmic coding
The research projects SÖK and SIR had regular meetings during the academic year 1975-76. The author has summarised the discussions at the meetings with the aid of notes taken. The activities of the projects have been documented, both discussions of research as well as of practical nature. In this report are summarised the main subjects of discussion, the way in which the activities were distributed over the year, and how the activities of the group members have been reflected in the protocols....
Topics: teamwork, research process, policy, protocol data, micro-ecology
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Inger Bierschenk
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The purpose of the discussion in this article is to give an evolutionary background to a method developed for the analysis of language seen as expression of intention and morality. The method is named “Perspective Text Analysis”. This name indicates that beyond the physical dimension of a text there is a metaphysical one, which can be discovered by a formal mechanism. The cue component of this mechanism is the Agent, which controls the perspective of the text. It has developed as a...
Topics: language evolution, AaO-axiom, consciousness, language model, perspective control, Kantian schema,...
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Bernhard Bierschenk & Inger Bierschenk
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This report presents the fifth and last experiment in a longitudinal study of text building behaviour at the Gymnasium level of a Swedish School. The series of experiments concerns natural language production as a means for the establishment of state attractors as well as their geometric space descriptions. The hypothesis tested during three years of instruction and learning is whether the evolving attractors pertain to a descriptive dimension (analytic sensibility) or to a reflective dimension...
Topics: AaO-paradigm, Perspective Text Analysis (PTA/Vertex), utopia, dystopy, citizenship, nurture,...
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
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This article presents in compressed form the development of a psycho-ecological model for simulation of interpersonal relations (SIR). SIR is a method and an instrument, which permits a simulation of strat­egies of interactive behaviour. From a behavioural science point of view the method should make it possible to map mechanisms that produce and reproduce behaviour. SIR may also be used as an aid in studying how the individual's perception and evaluation steer and control behavioural changes....
Topics: behaviour theories, markov chains, closed circuit television, videorecording, event simulation,...
This report gives a description of the steps in an analysis of the dimensionality in interview texts. By means of cluster analysis techniques the interview materials have been condensed. Based on the results derived from several clusters a discrimination analysis has been carried out. In the final discussion the results are related to (1) the psycholinguistic model and (2) the model of the research process, which have guided this research.
Topics: cluster, probability, group, assignment, discrimination, dendrogram
This report presents the psycholinguistic model underlying the development of a method for a computer-based content analysis, called ANACONDA. A program-flow diagram for the construction of concepts illustrates basic steps in the Semantic Differential Technique. Some metric properties of the scales applied are discussed. The empirical approach of scaling linguistic elements (adjectives and verbs), which are taken out of context, are described. The results of the scaling procedures are given...
Topics: scaling, Osgood, semantic differentials, regression, panel, similarity analysis
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Inger Bierschenk
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This study concerns The Dwarf (Dvärgen) by Pär Lagerkvist. The author wanted to give his tribute to the Renaissance masters by letting the dwarf express his scorn and contempt for humanism. Further, Lagerkvist wanted to characterize the greatness and lowness of Man through the prince and his innate dwarf. It is a general conception that the prince character in this novel has retrieved properties from Machiavelli’s Prince. Thus, the research question is whether Lagerkvist, accordingly,...
Topics: mentality, duality, Perspective Text Analysis (PTA), holophors, language space, perspective...
This report contains a description and discussion of self-assessment data obtained from student teachers, partly as a result of repeated self-confrontation experiences during a confrontation experiment, partly as a result of reassessments six weeks respectively two years after they had participated in the self-confrontation experiment. The data have been analysed by means of ANOVA and canonical correlation analyses. Also assessments obtained from pedagogical experts have been used as a...
Topics: re-assessment, self-confrontation, microteaching, CCTV-experiment, videorecording, educational...
The article presents an experiment in which students, classified according to high and low analytical performance, were given a reading and text production test to determine their sensibility to the structure of an Icelandic saga. This material was used because of its extreme simplicity on the textual surface level, a property suited for studying structure as something beyond the surface. The hypothesis tested is whether the structure mediated through the produced texts pertains to a...
Topics: learning strategy, single subject study, teaching strategy, writing style, AaO mechanism,...
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Bernhard Bierschenk & Inger Bierschenk
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This report contains the evaluation of an I&D system developed at the Department of Educational and Psychological Research in Malmö. The analysis concerns (1) researcherâs specification of research problems for a selective dissemination of information, (2) the efficiencies of an adaptive and self-regulating system, and (3) information behaviour, need and resources within a locally organised I&D-system. The analyses are based on observation data from one academic year. Together with...
Topics: information, need, use, behaviour, observation, communication, concept, analysis
This report is a fifth bibliographic account of literature concerning television as a technical aid in education and in educational and psychological research and contains materials published during the period 1971 to 1974. The references are classified according to 8 main categories, each having 4 subdivisions. The bibliography contains references, which are a result of computer search in the files of ERIC, ISI and SSCI. Dissertation Abstracts International and research literature available...
Topics: microteaching, television, computer search, technical aids
This report is part of a project on content analysis and deals with dictionary construction as basis for statistical analyses of interviews. The generation of lexical data bases consisting of nouns, adjectives and verbs is described and results from experimentation on authentic materials are accounted for. Dictionaries of scaled base forms of adjectives and verbs are compared with truncated items. The purpose is to obtain a perfect match, so that the results can be assigned a scale value for...
Topics: content analysis, dictionary, data processing, information retrieval
This report describes the development and application of the idea of microteaching in research and education. It presents a cybernetic model for a systematic and controlled study of the way in which the individual makes use of different feedback devices for self-control and self-direction. The model is applied in an examination of an extremely comprehensive collection of research literature. The result of the investigation is studied with regard to its significance for a person's ability to...
Topics: cybernetic model, microsettings, experiments, teacher education
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Inger Bierschenk & Bernhard Bierschenk
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Résumé L’essence de ce rapport est basée sur l’axiome (AaO) proposé par Kant. La version Vertex de la méthode PTA (Analyse de la Perspective du Texte) représente une approche alternative quand il s’agit d’études basées sur des textes. Le système Vertex comprend un mesurage objectif des angles de texte, qui sont utilisés pour une description non-linéaire du flux textuel, qui forme un espace dynamique. Le noyau de Vertex est introduit au moyen d’instructions à une procédure...
Topics: functional text geometry, perspective text analysis (PTA), Kantian AaO-axiom, language space, flow...
An experimental study was carried out at the Malmö School of Education in 1969 and 1970 for the purpose of studying the effects on the self-assessment of student teachers of, firstly, externally mediated self-confrontation processes (via closed-circuit television and video-recording), and secondly, dyadic confrontation processes (in the form of traditional tutoring). Detailed reports on the background, design and result of the experiment have been presented in Swedish. The present report gives...
Topics: self-confrontation, closed circuit televison, teacher training, panel studies, structure analysis
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
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The rune stone at the church of Rök in Östergötland, Sweden (about 800), has been subject to interpretations and speculations ever since it was discovered in the early 1600s. The reason for the great interest it has among scholars in various fields is that it is regarded as the world's longest runic inscription and as the start of Swedish literary history. The interpretations of the meaning in the runes and the purpose of the carving have varied, partly due to the researcher's field and...
Topics: Rök, runestones, Viking Age, Old Norse, language technology, PTA-Vertex, text geometry, flow...
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
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This article is based on the Agent-action-Objective AaO-axiom and assumes that intention can be discovered and made evident. But this requirement can be satisfied only under the condition that a particular individual can be identified with his style of writing. This implies that the nature of writing becomes approachable. Getting a style under control presupposes the A-component, which is discussed with a focus on string rotation and the establishment of lawful relations that include intention...
Topics: space hypothesis, AaO axiom, mirror strategy, topological invariants, uniqueness, comprehension,...
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
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This article attempts to prove that an adequate cognition oriented approach to the processing of symbolic information abstracted from verbal expressions must consider a running text instead of scattered sentences. It is argued that the dominant cognition models do not give due consideration to the fact that a valid abstraction of in-formation structures has to be based on an explicit encoding of intentionality and valuation. Following a critical discussion of the foundations of the existing...
Topics: running text processing, semantics, Osgood scaling, verb, adjectives, discriminant functions
Information retrieval systems have been designed for making possible rapid and precise answers to queries. This report contains an analysis and discussion of the applied strategy for manual and computer-based search for literature on the subject: uses of closed circuit television in the behavioural sciences. The results of the manual search have been published 1969 in the series Didakometry, No. 24, but the result of the computer-based search is presented in this report.
Topics: literature search, bibliometrics, search profiles, frequency distributions, computer-based search,...
This work presents a longitudinal didactic experiment based on the idea that literature, especially fiction, can serve as a basis for developing competence. Of critical importance is the teacher’s knowledge of the variation of conceptual depth in teaching materials. Based on five empirically discovered degrees of difficulty in literary texts, examples of writers and novels suitable as teaching materials for each degree are discussed. Further, a three-year authentic program in the subject of...
Topics: competence, didactics, longitudinal, high school, training, Swedish, synthesis, literature, fiction
The report presents a research program, the purpose of which is to study (1) the development of the individual's self-cognition and competence in handling interpersonal relations, (2) the individual's sensitivity in observing the course of an event and ability to develop flexible strategies of behaviour in interactions with others. A model for the simulation of interactive behaviour is outlined. The model is based on three behavioural principles and has guided the preliminary construction of a...
Topics: behaviour simulation, model development, interaction strategies, test results
This report suggests a new approach to quantification of the relationships within a whole sentence and presents a system for the analysis of concepts by data processing (ANACONDA). The psychological model for ANACONDA is outlined and a first measure building up concepts with an empirical root is discussed. Panel assessments have been used for quantification resulting in high reliability scores. By means of cluster analysis the empirical materials concerning researchers' views of scientific...
Topics: psycholinguistics, concept formation, cognition, interview data, psychometrics, regression analysis
This report presents and motivates the theoretical frame of reference and choice of research strategies and methods in a project on research planning. It contains (1) a theoretical model and (2) empirical data concerning the initial phase of the research process. A model, based on principles of general systems theory and a psychology of information, is described and the design of an interview study and its realization is reported. Problems of data processing and data analysis are discussed. A...
Topics: research problems, structuring, perception evaluation, policy, descriptive statistics, general...
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Inger Bierschenk
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Language processing can hardly be discussed without a statement of the fundamentals on which the instrumentation rests. The models and their operationalisation express the linguist's starting-points, more or less conscious, when he faces the phenomenon of language. A commonly accepted position in linguistics is that language is a set of culturally transmitted conventions. The language describing these conventions is called a linguistic model when it forms some systematics. To linguists this...
Topics: agent function, Kantian schema, AaO-model, perspective control, empirical validity
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Bernhard Bierschenk
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The significance of a quote of the Gothic King Athaulf resides not in its physical reality, but in its hypothetical mental share, which can be approach on the basis of the Agent-action-Objective [AaO] paradigm. By analysing the quote of the King, important conclusions can be drawn of its significance for present-day politics. However, the explanations can be given only through an account of what is in the links of the corresponding textual expression. Therefore, its underlying intention and...
Topics: German, tribes, Gothic, European, limits, migration, competition, Roman, Empire, strategy,...
L ooking with a holistic perspective at a Bellman Song means considering a certain kind of energy investment. Lest its underlying cause can be established, it would be unlikely to detect changes that will affect the conceptual configuration of a song. A geometric point of view on magnitude and direction needs to be calculated and presented in the form of Potential Energy Surfaces (PES). Especially PES graphs are much more than just depictions of rhythms. Their unfolding is manifesting the...
Topics: bellman, song, energy investment, state attractions, poetry, AaO mechanisms, bi-componential...
An experimental study was carried out at the Malmö School of Education in 1969 and 1970 for the purpose of studying the effects on the self-assessment of student teachers of, firstly, externally mediated self-confrontation processes (via closed-circuit television and video-recording), and secondly, dyadic confrontation processes (in the form of traditional tutoring). Detailed reports on the background, design and result of the experiment have been presented in Swedish. The present report gives...
Topics: microteaching, self-assessment, external, mediation, self-confrontation, CCTV, VR, dyadic...
In behavioural science research verbal expressions are analysed with various methods and techniques. However, in order to describe the relations within an entire sentence quantitatively with the aid of multivariate statistical procedures, ANACONDA has been developed. This acronym implies the notion of a method for the Analysis of Concepts by means of Data Processing.
Topics: psychometrics, content analysis, semantic differentials
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Inger Bierschenk
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The present chapter is written mainly as a tutorial for those researchers who try to get out something essential from peoplesâ way of reasoning and behaving and who suppose that this is expressed in their spoken and written language. Fundamental to the method presented here is that it gives a synthesis of the perspective that a text producer gives to a text in the moment of its evolvement. Since a perspective cannot be developed within single clauses and sentences but in the co-operation...
Topics: concept of text, agent as function, depth of text, perspective borders, graphical sentence,...
This monograph contains a description and discussion of self-assessment data obtained from student teachers, who have participated in a self-confrontation experiment. The measurement scale: Assessment and Evaluation Schedule, has been especially devised for this experiment. The report includes a discussion of validity and reliability problems. The self-assessment data have been analysed by means of ANOVA which has been carried out in 3 steps: (1) analysis of the structure of the F-tests, (2)...
Topics: Self-confrontation, teacher, training, experiment, micro-lesson, self-assessment, Anova
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
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This article presents and discusses a model for analyzing abstract invariant relationships between concepts and conceptualizations, linguistically expressed in generalized descriptions (scientific titles) of information processing. The model assumes conceptual information to be directly picked up by means of prepositions distinguishing intention from orientation. The precise organizing functions of prepositions have led to the construction of an algorithm which makes possible a generalized...
Topics: intermediate language, AaO paradigm, structure, concept, recognition, prepositions, algorithmic
An attempt to modify perception and evaluation of student teachers with the aid of self-confrontation mediated with video recordings on one hand and conventional tutoring on the other is the subject of this report. Background to the experiment, a detailed description of the layout and a presentation of the measuring instruments are given together with evaluation of the internal and external validity of the taken approach. The report provides basic data for the doctoral thesis...
Topics: self-confrontation, teacher training, tutoring, cctv, micro-lessons, video-recording, experimental...
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Inger Bierschenk
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Abstract   This article presents five text analyses produced with Perspective Text Analysis (PTA/Vertex), founded on the Action-action-Objective paradigm, which Immanuel Kant once proposed in theory and which today is operational. After a terminological discussion about style in writing, the term proposed is textual gait . Thereafter five lectures are presented with the following contents: The first lecture, which introduces the application of the method PTA/Vertex, addresses the problem of...
Topics: Text typology, PES-graphs, Perspective Text Analysis, PTA/Vertex, writing styles, biokinematics,...
In a self-confrontation experiment, student teachers have been put through an extensive test battery containing personality tests, cognitive tests and attitude tests. In this report an analysis is presented of the influence of personality on the student teachers' perception and evaluation during confrontation with their own video-recorded micro-lessons. Using a number of multivariate models for data analysis, prediction problems and relations between the content of different groups of variables...
Topics: teacher training experiment, CCTV, muliple regression, re-assessment, longitudinal, perceptual...
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
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An early poem by Tomas Tranströmer, “Sammanhang” (Connectedness) from the collection 17 poems (1954) has been studied. With the Agent-action-Objective [AaO] model and the associated procedures of Perspective Text Analysis (PTA/ Vertex), an approach is presented for discovering the interior of modern poetry. The study describes how the articulatory side interacts with its non-articulatory side for imaging an interior landscape in the form of energy flows and fusions. Through the technique,...
Topics: Swedish poetry, literary analysis, language geometry, AaO formalism, non-linear analysis, angular...
This report describes the development and application of the idea of microteaching in research and education. It presents a cybernetic model for a systematic and controlled study of the way in which the individual makes use of different feedback devices for self-control and self-direction. The model is applied in an examination of an extremely comprehensive collection of research literature. The result of the investigation is studied with regard to its significance for a person's ability to...
Topics: cybernetic model, microsettings, experiments, teacher education
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Inger Bierschenk
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The aim of this article is to make a distinction between qualification and competence. Although academic institutions, organisations, companies, and schools are focussing upon competence development as the natural answer to new technical and societal demands, no one has succeeded in providing a satisfactory operational definition of âcompetenceâ. A dictionary search has shown that different areas of science and humanities conceive of competence from an analytical point of view, which, in...
Topics: competence, testing, educational materials, educational goals, surface concepts, structural...
Title in English: “Studies in student teachers’ language use in teaching situations”. Subtitle: “Experiments in analyzing stereotypic expressions by three different measures”. When student teachers by videotape technology have been confronted with their own teaching at two teaching sessions to assess their language use, it has been shown that they have done very well in their estimation of themselves. As the “objective” measure educational experts were used. The differences in...
Topics: language use, verbal performance, experiment, educational experts, panel assessments,...
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Jytte Bang & Ole Elstrup Rasmussen
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On the basis of a dialogue between two students engaged in solving a problem, it is argued that the students differ in their problem-solving capabilities, that is, they reduce the complexity of the situation in different ways. It is also argued that the students do not exhibit the same form of competence. In other words, they make sense of the complex situation in different ways. Further, it is maintained that existing theories are able to explain different aspects of the problem-solving...
Topics: problem solving, learning, competence, control, achievement
In behavioural science research verbal expressions are analysed with various methods and techniques. However, in order to describe the relations within an entire sentence quantitatively with the aid of multivariate statistical procedures, ANACONDA has been developed. This acronym implies the notion of a method for the Analysis of Concepts by means of Data Processing. A Swedish Semantic Dictionary Base for (570) Adjectives and (880) Verbs is presented here at archive.org with the identifier...
Topics: computerized data processing, concept formation, content analysis, cognition, psychometrics,...
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Bernhard Bierschenk & Barbara Marker
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This paper describes differences between the capacity of Swedish and Danish students to attain life quality. This was carried out by examining the level of competence in four different groups of Swedish and Danish students, and is based on the hypothesis that the possession of competence is a premise for the development of life quality. Competence means the ability to make sense in complex situations; more concretely it is the quality on the basis of which the individual activates his or her...
Topics: life quality (LQ), competence, adaptation, model society, factor analysis, ANOVA
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The report presents a descriptive study of the educational system in Sweden with special emphasis on the upper level of the comprehensive school. An attempt is made to survey the goals and the realisation of the goals in the practical school situation. Thereby, the focus has been directed upon the attempts being made to adapt the school to the demands of a quickly developing modern society.
Topics: school reform, descriptive study, comprehensive school, Sweden, comparative eduction, curriculum,...
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Bernhard Bierschenk
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Abstract   The Proof on Kant’s proposition on respect requires the processing of textual movement pattern as a holistic property. Since this involves a means for looking at Kant’s energy investment into movement cycles, a stepping function must be applied in the materialisation of strings of graphemes. In departing from the biophysical hypothesis that the Agent-action-Objective AaO principle takes account of reversibly synthesizing rotary mechanisms, it is suggested that one or more...
Topics: Kant, proof, AaO-principle, energy surfaces, intention, orientation, root, necessity
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Inger Bierschenk
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This article connects to the present day awareness of educators at all levels that the methods for measurement and testing of knowledge have to be reconsidered and modernised. For it is not the definition of knowledge that has changed since the 1968 student revolution; what has changed is how it is valued. Moreover, the general opinion among educators is that knowledge is the result of the student’s analytical ability. Therefore, the tasks of examination are mostly of the analytical kind....
Topics: teaching device, examination, criterion-related, degree, difficulty, aspiration level, conceptual...
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Inger Bierschenk
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Three of the most prominent First Ladies in the world, Brigitte Macron, Peng Liyuan, and Melania Trump are in focus of the present study. Its aim was to examine in detail their external and internal style by means of a short statement they have made about education. Perspective Text Analysis (PTA/Vertex) is the method applied, whose capacity is to lay bare the flow dynamics of a text as well as its structural dynamics. The study gave insights into the first ladies’ style of approaching...
Topics: First Lady, Brigitte Macron, Peng Liyuan, Melania Trump, Perspective Text Analysis (PTA), Energy...
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Inger Bierschenk
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This paper takes up one model that has been basic for language-based computer systems. With this background, one primary computer application will be examined. The aim is to illustrate some problems in taking advantage of a theory developed in one field when constructing a linguistic representation in another.
Topics: computational linguistics, cognitive science, phrase structure, grammar, computer understanding
This report presents the psycholinguistic model underlying the development of a method for a computer-based content analysis, called ANACONDA. A program-flow diagram for the construction of concepts illustrates basic steps in the Semantic Differential Technique. Some metric properties of the scales applied are discussed. The empirical approach of scaling linguistic elements (adjectives and verbs), which are taken out of context, are described. The results of the scaling procedures are given...
Topics: content analysis, Osgood, semantic differentials, discriminant functions, similarity analysis
On the Path from Frame to Schema is a publication that contains references and abstracts from five decades in the social sciences. It first appeared in 2006 as a non-numbered Supplement edition in the journal Kognitionsvetenskaplig forskning - Cognitive Science Research (0281-9864). It contains a review of a long term research commitment, which has taken place mainly in Sweden. The review concerns a number of researchers and departments, which over the years have been involved and contributed...
Topics: social science, grant-supported, empirical studies, statistical analysis, knowability, bibliography
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Inger Bierschenk
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  The study reported examines a portion of the short story The Killers by Ernest Hemingway as to its concentration of hot and cold areas. The method applied is Perspective Text Analysis (PTA/Vertex), which is based on the AaO paradigm and on string rotations in language. It represents a text as the energy landscapes of Agents (A) and Objectives (O). The study uses a graph program that displays two-dimensional contours of the internal landscapes of text as if seen with a thermographic camera....
Topics: Translation, language geometry, Perspective text analysis, angular articulation, non-linear...
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
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The present chapter is written mainly as a tutorial for those researchers who try to get out something essential from peoplesâ way of reasoning and behaving and who suppose that this is expressed in their spoken and written language. Fundamental to the method presented here is that it gives a synthesis of the perspective that a text producer gives to a text in the moment of its evolvement. Since a perspective cannot be developed within single clauses and sentences but in the co-operation...
Topics: text, concept, agent function, depth, perspective borders, graphical sentence, functional clause,...
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Inger Bierschenk
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This article is focusing on the notion that the design of a civilization is perceivable to its citizens only to the degree that they have the cognitive instruments to judge it properly. With the purpose to clarify how two Swedish female adolescents comprehend the information structure of a utopian society, their written responses to Huxley’s Brave New World are studied. The method used for the analysis is Perspective Text Analysis (PTA/Vertex), which is founded on the Agent-action-Objective...
Topics: authenticity, AaO-axiom, functional text geometry, perspective text analysis (PTA), textual...
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Bernhard Bierschenk
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This report presents a system for the simulation of interactive behaviour strategies. The system has been constructed on the basis of a psycho-ecological model. The core of this system is an action-oriented behaviour simulation. The reliability of the information mediating variables, which have been built into the system, has been calculated. These are the association, structure and process paradigms. Furthermore, some explorative results from an adaptive simulation of behaviour are given...
Topics: behaviour simulation, system analysis, event, action, mediating variables
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
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The report presents a descriptive study of the educational system in Sweden with special emphasis on the upper level of the comprehensive school. An attempt is made to survey the goals and the realisation of the goals in the practical school situation. Thereby, the focus has been directed upon the attempts being made to adapt the school to the demands of a quickly developing modern society.
Topics: comprehensive school, reform, goals, teaching examples, educational content
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
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This report presents a system for simulation of interactive behaviour strategies. The system has been constructed on the basis of a psycho-ecological model. The basic unit is an event. Each event has been concretised by means of closed circuit television and video recording techniques and anchored in three basic paradigms of behavioural science, namely the paradigms of association, structure and process. The report shows that the structure of properties that is typical for the paradigms has an...
Topics: simulation, strategies, teacher training, behaviour change, closed circuit television
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Bernhard Bierschenk & Inger Bierschenk
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Content analysis based on frequency distributions differs from impressionistic analysis and interpretations of written or spoken text. This type of analysis is objective insofar as it requires an explicit analysis procedure and a formalised analysis. Objectification means that a person transfers certain typical human functions to objects, i.e., tools, and that machines are developed that can carry out functions that were originally subjective. In this respect the development of a Computer-based...
Topics: regression analysis, scaling, psycho-linguistics, concept formation, panel studies
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Bernhard Bierschenk
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Practicable methods for a thorough, reliable and valid analysis of content are fundamental for the behavioural scientist who is working with sets of verbal data. This report presents principles and methodological suggestions of data collections and data analyses. Problems of reliability and validity are discussed in connection with given examples. Methods and techniques for computer-based content analyses are also introduced. Finally some international trends in the methodological development...
Topics: concept, formation, psycho-linguistics, scaling, description, statistics, regression, verbal data
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
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This report gives an account of some problems, connected with factor analytic data processing. The presentation is of a non-technical kind and concentrated on the description of data processing on several levels. Furthermore, the features of the models of analysis are described, however without an attempt to provide a more systematic and complete presentation. For a more thorough study, the complexity of the subject would require a type of disposition provided in Child, D. (1970). The...
Topics: theoretical constructions, data levels, multiple classifications, samples, error analysis, error...
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Bernhard Bierschenk
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Based on the typical tasks required in ability testing, a general conclusion drawn in the international research literature is that intelligence is not different from e.g. McClelland's achievement testing. To many psychologists this means that the concept of competence is insignificant and that intelligence as well as related aptitude tests are sufficient in the assessment of performance. Further, it is generally assumed that the intelligence quotient (IQ) constitutes a measure of cognitive...
Topics: behavioural foundation, IQ, assortive mating, filter, unfolding competence, text production,...
Three approaches towards theory building in the behavioural science are described. It is pointed out that model construction requires general theoretical concepts, which are well defined. The presentation aims to clarify what is meant by the (1) association, (2) structure, and (3) process model. The models have been the starting point for the development of a simulator of interactive behaviour (SIR).
Topics: behavioural science models, principles, clarification, concepts
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Bernhard Bierschenk & Inger Bierschenk
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An ecologically oriented theory of in­formation synthesis is presented in this paper. A model for the analysis of intentionality and orientation as expressed in natural language is put forward. The thesis is that knowledge is the result of an active inquiring agent (knower). His cognition rests on the extraction and abstraction  of invariants. It is a mark of mentality that the knower always conceives the meaning of object-event relation­ships. Some of the assumptions for this approach are...
Topics: AaO system, knower, information synthesis, agent function, perspective control, visual cliff
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
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This thematic overview presents some studies on the validation and verification of Perspective Text Analysis (PTA). The first section, containing the validation part, provides evidence for the hypothesis about the capacity of PTA to reflect specificity of ecologically specified observations in text production. The following section presents verification studies within various contexts and focuses on individual prerequisites and constraints that are at work when a person is put in a situation in...
Topics: validation, study, laboratory, context, verification, longitudinal, experiment, learning
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Bernhard Bierschenk
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 The present discussion serves the explanation of the Carolingian steps taken to transform Germanic Barbarism into Western European Civilization. Instrumental is the inscription, engraved into the Shield of Roland of Bremen. Although covered by textual surface properties, its conceptual space is approachable on the basis of the (AaO) axiom. Since corresponding state attractors make up geometric landscapes, they are building up their own unique development of micro structures. A treatment of...
Topics: Perspective Text Analysis, PTA-Vertex, text geometry, Carolingians, barbarism Western European...
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Inger Bierschenk
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Abstract  The article reports on a study whose focus is on a mainly American mentality that has been brought to the fore through the kind of movements that stigmatise sexual relations. Women’s resistance and revenge as functioning witchcraft against men’s factual or fictive  abuse has been discussed by a female American author in the light of cases concerning men in power positions. A minor portion of her article was analysed with Perspective Text Analysis (PTA/Vertex), which is based on...
Topics: defamation, abuse, witchcraft, witch hunt, metoo, misogyny, human rights, women's rights, natural...