Recent advances in genome editing have quickly turned ideas thought restricted to science fiction into reality such as custom synthetic organisms and designer babies. These technologies rely on the fidelity of the genetic code, which translates nucleotides into proteins. The underlying mechanism of translation is well understood where triplets of nucleotides, known as codons, are recognized by transfer RNAs with complementally nucleotide triplets. These transfer RNAs carry one of twenty amino acids which are then added to the growing protein chain by the ribosome. However, relatively little work has examined how a transfer RNA that recognizes a certain codon always carries the correct amino acid. The rules that determine which amino acid a transfer RNA carries have been termed the second genetic code. I have developed a computational method based on information theory that can elucidate the second genetic code from genomic sequences. Interestingly, the second genetic code is highly variable between organisms unlike the genetic code which is relatively static. I will present how my method cracks the second genetic code and how the variability of the second genetic code can be exploited to develop new treatments to combat bacterial infections and parasites, create targeted bio-controls to combat invasive species, and expand the genetic code to incorporate exotic amino acids.