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Nov 6, 2015
11/15

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Linfan MAO

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Theory and Practice in Construction Project Bidding & Purchase

Topics: Theory, Practice

A Smarandache multi-space is a union of n different spaces equipped with some different structures for an integer n ≥ 2, which can be both used for discrete or connected spaces, particularly for geometries and spacetimes in theoretical physics. This monograph concentrates on characterizing various multi-spaces including three parts altogether. The first part is on algebraic multi-spaces with structures, such as those of multi-groups, multirings, multi-vector spaces, multi-metric spaces,...

Integral theory on these smoothly combinatorial manifolds are introduced. Some classical results, such as those of Stokes’ theorem and Gauss’ theorem are generalized to smoothly combinatorial manifolds in this paper.

The Scientific Elements is an international book series. This series is devoted to the applications of Smarandache’s notions and to mathematical combinatorics. These are two heartening mathematical theories for sciences and can be applied to many fields. This book selects 12 papers for showing applications of Smarandache's notions, such as those of Smarandache multi-spaces, Smarandache geometries, Neutrosophy, etc. to classical mathematics, theoretical and experimental physics, logic,...

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Sep 20, 2013
09/13

by
Linfan Mao

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For an integer $m\geq 1$, a combinatorial manifold $\widetilde{M}$ is defined to be a geometrical object $\widetilde{M}$ such that for $\forall p\in\widetilde{M}$, there is a local chart $(U_p,\phi_p)$ enable $\phi_p:U_p\to B^{n_{i_1}}\bigcup B^{n_{i_2}}\bigcup...\bigcup B^{n_{i_{s(p)}}}$ with $B^{n_{i_1}}\bigcap B^{n_{i_2}}\bigcap...\bigcap B^{n_{i_{s(p)}}}\not=\emptyset$, where $B^{n_{i_j}}$ is an $n_{i_j}$-ball for integers $1\leq j\leq s(p)\leq m$. Topological and differential structures...

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/math/0612760v1

On a geometrical view, the conception of map geometries is introduced, which is a nice model of the Smarandache geometries, also new kind of and more general intrinsic geometry of surfaces. Some open problems related combinatorial maps with the Riemann geometry and Smarandache geometries are presented.

A Smarandache geometry is a geometry which has at least one Smarandachely denied axiom(1969), i.e., an axiom behaves in at least two different ways within the same space, i.e., validated and invalided, or only invalided but in multiple distinct ways and a Smarandache n-manifold is a nmanifold that support a Smarandache geometry. Iseri provided a construction for Smarandache 2-manifolds by equilateral triangular disks on a plane and a more general way for Smarandache 2-manifolds on surfaces,...

Topological and differential structures such as those of d-pathwise connected, homotopy classes, fundamental d-groups in topology and tangent vector fields, tensor fields, connections, Minkowski norms in differential geometry on these finitely combinatorial manifolds are introduced. Some classical results are generalized to finitely combinatorial manifolds. Euler-Poincare characteristic is discussed and geometrical inclusions in Smarandache geometries for various geometries are also presented...

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May 7, 2021
05/21

by
Linfan Mao (Editor in Chief)

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The International J. Mathematical Combinatorics (ISSN 1937-1055) is a fully refereed international journal, sponsored by the MADIS of Chinese Academy of Sciences and published quarterly comprising 100-150 pages approx. per volume, which publishes original research papers and survey articles in all aspects of Smarandache multi-spaces, Smarandache geometries, mathematical combinatorics, non-Euclidean geometry and topology and their applications to other sciences. Topics in detail to be covered...

Topics: Smarandache geometries, Smarandache curves, graphs, combinatorial maps, topology, differential...

A complex system S consists m components, maybe inconsistence with m ≥ 2, such as those of biological systems or generally, interaction systems and usually, a system with contradictions, which implies that there are no a mathematical subfield applicable.

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Apr 2, 2021
04/21

by
Linfan Mao

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May 3, 2021
05/21

by
Linfan Mao (Editor in Chief)

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The International J. Mathematical Combinatorics (ISSN 1937-1055) is a fully refereed international journal, sponsored by the MADIS of Chinese Academy of Sciences and published quarterly comprising 100-150 pages approx. per volume, which publishes original research papers and survey articles in all aspects of Smarandache multi-spaces, Smarandache geometries, mathematical combinatorics, non-Euclidean geometry and topology and their applications to other sciences. Topics in detail to be covered...

Topics: Smarandache geometries, Smarandache curves, graphs, combinatorial maps, topology, differential...

Combinatorics is a powerful tool for dealing with relations among objectives mushroomed in the past century. However, an more important work for mathematician is to apply combinatorics to other mathematics and other sciences not merely to find combinatorial behavior for objectives. Recently, such research works appeared on journals for mathematics and theoretical physics on cosmos. The main purpose of this paper is to survey these thinking and ideas for mathematics and cosmological physics,...

Parallel lines are very important objects in Euclid plane geometry and its behaviors can be gotten by one’s intuition. But in a planar map geometry, a kind of the Smarandache geometries, the situation is complex since it may contains elliptic or hyperbolic points. This paper concentrates on the behaviors of parallel bundles in planar map geometries, a generalization of parallel lines in plane geometry and obtains characteristics for parallel bundles.

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Apr 25, 2021
04/21

by
Linfan Mao (Editor in Chief)

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The International J. Mathematical Combinatorics (ISSN 1937-1055) is a fully refereed international journal, sponsored by the MADIS of Chinese Academy of Sciences and published quarterly comprising 100-150 pages approx. per volume, which publishes original research papers and survey articles in all aspects of Smarandache multi-spaces, Smarandache geometries, mathematical combinatorics, non-Euclidean geometry and topology and their applications to other sciences. Topics in detail to be covered...

Topics: Smarandache geometries, Smarandache curves, graphs, combinatorial maps, topology, differential...

This book is for students and young scholar, words of a mathematician, also a physicist and an economic scientist to them through by the experience himself and his philosophy. By recalling each of his growth and success steps, i.e., beginning as a construction worker, obtained a certification of undergraduate learn by himself and a doctor’s degree in university, promoting mathematical combinatorics for contradictory system on the reality of things and economic systems, and after then...

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May 7, 2021
05/21

by
Linfan Mao (Editor in Chief)

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The International J. Mathematical Combinatorics (ISSN 1937-1055) is a fully refereed international journal, sponsored by the MADIS of Chinese Academy of Sciences and published quarterly comprising 100-150 pages approx. per volume, which publishes original research papers and survey articles in all aspects of Smarandache multi-spaces, Smarandache geometries, mathematical combinatorics, non-Euclidean geometry and topology and their applications to other sciences. Topics in detail to be covered...

Topics: Smarandache geometries, Smarandache curves, graphs, combinatorial maps, topology, differential...

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Apr 2, 2021
04/21

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Linfan Mao

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Sep 22, 2013
09/13

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Linfan Mao

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A manifold $M^n$ inherits a labeled $n$-dimensional graph $\widetilde{M}[G^L]$ structure consisting of its charts. This structure enables one to characterize fundamental groups of manifolds, classify those of locally compact manifolds with finite non-homotopic loops by that of labeled graphs $G^L$. As a by-product, this approach also concludes that {\it every homotopy $n$-sphere is homeomorphic to the sphere $S^n$ for an integer $n\geq 1$}, particularly, the Perelman's result for $n=3$.

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1004.1231v2

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Apr 2, 2021
04/21

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Linfan Mao

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Sep 23, 2013
09/13

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Linfan Mao

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As we known, the {\it Seifert-Van Kampen theorem} handles fundamental groups of those topological spaces $X=U\cup V$ for open subsets $U, V\subset X$ such that $U\cap V$ is arcwise connected. In this paper, this theorem is generalized to such a case of maybe not arcwise-connected, i.e., there are $C_1$, $C_2$,$..., C_m$ arcwise-connected components in $U\cap V$ for an integer $m\geq 1$, which enables one to find fundamental groups of combinatorial spaces by that of spaces with theirs underlying...

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1006.4071v1

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May 8, 2021
05/21

by
Linfan Mao (Editor in Chief)

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The International J. Mathematical Combinatorics (ISSN 1937-1055) is a fully refereed international journal, sponsored by the MADIS of Chinese Academy of Sciences and published quarterly comprising 100-150 pages approx. per volume, which publishes original research papers and survey articles in all aspects of Smarandache multi-spaces, Smarandache geometries, mathematical combinatorics, non-Euclidean geometry and topology and their applications to other sciences. Topics in detail to be covered...

Topics: Smarandache geometries, Smarandache curves, graphs, combinatorial maps, topology, differential...

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7.0

May 3, 2021
05/21

by
Linfan Mao (Editor in Chief)

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The International J. Mathematical Combinatorics (ISSN 1937-1055) is a fully refereed international journal, sponsored by the MADIS of Chinese Academy of Sciences and published quarterly comprising 100-150 pages approx. per volume, which publishes original research papers and survey articles in all aspects of Smarandache multi-spaces, Smarandache geometries, mathematical combinatorics, non-Euclidean geometry and topology and their applications to other sciences.

Topics: Smarandache geometries, Smarandache curves

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Apr 2, 2021
04/21

by
Linfan Mao

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Apr 2, 2021
04/21

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Linfan Mao

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114

Nov 8, 2015
11/15

by
LINFAN MAO

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A Smarandache multi-space is a union of n different spaces equipped with some different structures for an integer n ≥ 2, which can be used both for discrete or connected spaces, particularly for geometries and spacetimes in theoretical physics.

Topics: theoretical physics, Einstein

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Apr 2, 2021
04/21

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Linfan Mao

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127

Jul 20, 2013
07/13

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Linfan Mao

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A Smarandache multi-space is a union of $n$ different spaces equipped with some different structures for an integer $n\geq 2$, which can be both used for discrete or connected spaces, particularly for geometries and spacetimes in theoretical physics. This paper is the first part on characterizing multi-spaces. Various algebraic multi-spaces with structures such as those of multi-groups, multi-rings, multi-vector spaces, multi-metric spaces, multi-operation systems are discussed and new results...

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/math/0604480v1

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Sep 18, 2013
09/13

by
Linfan Mao

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Combinatorics is a powerful tool for dealing with relations among objectives mushroomed in the past century. However, an more important work for mathematician is to apply combinatorics to other mathematics and other sciences not merely to find combinatorial behavior for objectives. Recently, such research works appeared on journals for mathematics and theoretical physics on cosmos. The main purpose of this paper is to survey these thinking and ideas for mathematics and cosmological physics,...

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/math/0606702v2

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Dec 2, 2021
12/21

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Linfan Mao

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There are no theory on antimatter structure unless the mirror of its normal matter, with the same mass but opposite qualities such as electric charge, spin,· · ·, etc. to its matter counterparts holding with the Standard Model of Particle. In theory, a matter will be immediately annihilated if it meets with its antimatter, leaving nothing unless energy behind, and the amounts of matter with that of antimatter should be created equally in the Big Bang. So, none of us should exist in principle...

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Apr 2, 2021
04/21

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Linfan Mao

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A combinatorial map is a connected topological graph cellularly embedded in a surface. This monograph concentrates on the automorphism group of a map, which is related to the automorphism groups of a Klein surface and a Smarandache manifold, also applied to the enumeration of unrooted maps on orientable and non-orientable surfaces. A number of results for the automorphism groups of maps, Klein surfaces and Smarandache manifolds and the enumeration of unrooted maps underlying a graph on...

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Apr 2, 2021
04/21

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Linfan Mao

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5.0

May 9, 2021
05/21

by
Linfan Mao (Editor in Chief)

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The International J. Mathematical Combinatorics (ISSN 1937-1055) is a fully refereed international journal, sponsored by the MADIS of Chinese Academy of Sciences and published quarterly comprising 100-150 pages approx. per volume, which publishes original research papers and survey articles in all aspects of Smarandache multi-spaces, Smarandache geometries, mathematical combinatorics, non-Euclidean geometry and topology and their applications to other sciences. Topics in detail to be covered...

Topics: Smarandache geometries, Smarandache curves, graphs, combinatorial maps, topology, differential...

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Apr 2, 2021
04/21

by
Linfan Mao

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Nov 20, 2015
11/15

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Linfan Mao

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Applying this result, this paper discusses the →G-flow solutions on Schrodinger equation, Klein-Gordon equation and Dirac equation, i.e., the field equations of particles, bosons or fermions, answers previous questions by ”yes“, and establishes the many world interpretation of quantum mechanics of H. Everett by purely mathematics in logic, i.e., mathematical combinatorics.

Topics: G-flow, equations of particles

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Nov 7, 2015
11/15

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Linfan Mao

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On SMARANDACHE GEOMETRIES & MAP THEORY WITH APPLICATIONS.

Topics: Automorphism groups of maps, surfaces and Smarandache geometries

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Nov 30, 2021
11/21

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Linfan Mao

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There is a bidding law and regulation system in China. For getting or issue a contract, a contractor or an employer should understand all these laws and regulations first and then know how they work. This book contains the main materials of this kind for a construction contract, and contains four chapters. Chapter 1 is a survey of bidding for a construction contact. The laws and regulations for bidding in China are interpreted in this chapter. A Smarandache multi-space model for bidding is...

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Sep 23, 2013
09/13

by
Linfan Mao

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A Smarandache multi-space is a union of $n$ spaces $A_1,A_2,..., A_n$ with some additional conditions holding. Combining Smarandache multi-spaces with classical metric spaces, the conception of multi-metric space is introduced. Some characteristics of a multi-metric space are obtained and Banach's fixed-point theorem is generalized in this paper.

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/math/0510480v1

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5.0

May 3, 2021
05/21

by
Linfan Mao (Editor in Chief)

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The International J. Mathematical Combinatorics (ISSN 1937-1055) is a fully refereed international journal, sponsored by the MADIS of Chinese Academy of Sciences and published quarterly comprising 100-150 pages approx. per volume, which publishes original research papers and survey articles in all aspects of Smarandache multi-spaces, Smarandache geometries, mathematical combinatorics, non-Euclidean geometry and topology and their applications to other sciences. Topics in detail to be covered...

Topics: Smarandache geometries, Smarandache curves, graphs, combinatorial maps, topology, differential...

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Sep 23, 2013
09/13

by
Linfan Mao

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A Smarandache multi-space is a union of $n$ spaces $A_1,A_2,..., A_n$ with some additional conditions holding. Combining Smarandache multi-spaces with rings in classical ring theory, the conception of multi-ring spaces is introduced. Some characteristics of a multi-ring space are obtained in this paper.

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/math/0510478v1

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Nov 8, 2015
11/15

by
LINFAN MAO

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A combinatorial map is a connected topological graph cellularly embedded in a surface. As a linking of combinatorial configuration with the classical mathematics, it fascinates more and more mathematician’s interesting. Its function and role in mathematics are widely accepted by mathematicians today.

Topics: combinatorial map, surface

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Sep 20, 2013
09/13

by
Linfan Mao; Yanpei Liu; Feng Tian

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A map is a connected topological graph cellularly embedded in a surface and a complete map is a cellularly embedded complete graph in a surface. In this paper, all automorphisms of complete maps of order n are determined by permutations on its vertices. Applying a scheme for enumerating maps on surfaces with a given underlying graph, the numbers of unrooted complete maps on orientable or non-orientable surfaces are obtained.

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/math/0607790v1

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Apr 2, 2021
04/21

by
Linfan Mao

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9.0

Apr 30, 2021
04/21

by
Linfan Mao (Editor in Chief)

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The International J. Mathematical Combinatorics (ISSN 1937-1055) is a fully refereed international journal, sponsored by the MADIS of Chinese Academy of Sciences and published quarterly comprising 100-150 pages approx. per volume, which publishes original research papers and survey articles in all aspects of Smarandache multi-spaces, Smarandache geometries, mathematical combinatorics, non-Euclidean geometry and topology and their applications to other sciences. Topics in detail to be covered...

Topics: Smarandache geometries, Smarandache curves, graphs, combinatorial maps, topology

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0.0

Nov 30, 2021
11/21

by
Linfan Mao

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A tendering is a negotiating process for a contract through by a tenderer issuing an invitation, bidders submitting bidding documents and the tenderer accepting a bidding by sending out a notification of award. It is a main measure for completing market economy in China. According to laws and new regulations, rulers and codes new issued, this book introduces fundamental knowledge and techniques in theory and practice for a construction contract by bids, such as those of macro-economic policies,...

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Apr 2, 2021
04/21

by
Linfan Mao

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Sep 20, 2013
09/13

by
Linfan Mao; Yanpei Liu

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A map is a connected topological graph $\Gamma$ cellularly embedded in a surface. In this paper, applying Tutte's algebraic representation of map, new ideas for enumerating non-equivalent orientable or non-orientable maps of graph are presented. By determining automorphisms of maps of Cayley graph $\Gamma={\rm Cay}(G:S)$ with ${\rm Aut} \Gamma\cong G\times H$ on locally, orientable and non-orientable surfaces, formulae for the number of non-equivalent maps of $\Gamma$ on surfaces (orientable,...

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/math/0607791v1

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Apr 2, 2021
04/21

by
Linfan Mao

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68

Nov 20, 2015
11/15

by
Linfan Mao

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A natural behavior is used to characterize by differential equation established on human observations, which is assumed to be on one particle or one field complied with reproducibility. However, the multilateral property of a particle P and the mathematical consistence determine that such an understanding is only local, not the whole reality on P, which leads to a central thesis for knowing the nature, i.e. how to establish a physical equation with a proper interpretation on a thing. As it is...

Topics: human observations, non-solvable equations

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Nov 20, 2015
11/15

by
Linfan MAO

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The main purpose of this paper is to extend Banach spaces on topological graphs with operator actions and show all of these extensions are also Banach space with unique correspondence in elements on linear continuous functionals, which enables one to solve linear functional equations in such extended space, particularly, solve algebraic, differential or integral equations on a topological graph, i.e., find multi-space solutions for equations, for instance, the Einstein’s gravitational...

Topics: Banach space, topological graph, conservation flow, topological graph, differential flow,...