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114

Nov 8, 2015
11/15

by
LINFAN MAO

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A Smarandache multi-space is a union of n different spaces equipped with some different structures for an integer n ≥ 2, which can be used both for discrete or connected spaces, particularly for geometries and spacetimes in theoretical physics.

Topics: theoretical physics, Einstein

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160

Nov 8, 2015
11/15

by
LINFAN MAO

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A combinatorial map is a connected topological graph cellularly embedded in a surface. As a linking of combinatorial configuration with the classical mathematics, it fascinates more and more mathematician’s interesting. Its function and role in mathematics are widely accepted by mathematicians today.

Topics: combinatorial map, surface

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91

Nov 26, 2015
11/15

by
Linfan MAO

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The universality of contradiction implies that the reality of a thing is only hold on observation with level dependent on the observer standing out or in and lead respectively to solvable equation or non-solvable equations on that thing for human beings.

Topics: action flows, non-solvable systems

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86

Nov 20, 2015
11/15

by
Linfan MAO

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As a powerful technique for holding relations in things, combinatorics has experienced rapidly development in the past century, particularly, enumeration of configurations, combinatorial design and graph theory. However, the main objective for mathematics is to bring about a quantitative analysis for other sciences, which implies a natural question on combinatorics.

Topics: CC conjecture, Smarandache system, GL-system, non-solvable system of equations

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780

Nov 6, 2015
11/15

by
Linfan MAO

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Theory and Practice in Construction Project Bidding & Purchase

Topics: Theory, Practice

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66

Nov 20, 2015
11/15

by
Linfan MAO

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The main purpose of this paper is to extend Banach spaces on topological graphs with operator actions and show all of these extensions are also Banach space with unique correspondence in elements on linear continuous functionals, which enables one to solve linear functional equations in such extended space, particularly, solve algebraic, differential or integral equations on a topological graph, i.e., find multi-space solutions for equations, for instance, the Einstein’s gravitational...

Topics: Banach space, topological graph, conservation flow, topological graph, differential flow,...

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7.0

Apr 2, 2021
04/21

by
Linfan Mao

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9.0

Apr 2, 2021
04/21

by
Linfan Mao

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83

Nov 20, 2015
11/15

by
Linfan Mao

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Applying this result, this paper discusses the →G-flow solutions on Schrodinger equation, Klein-Gordon equation and Dirac equation, i.e., the field equations of particles, bosons or fermions, answers previous questions by ”yes“, and establishes the many world interpretation of quantum mechanics of H. Everett by purely mathematics in logic, i.e., mathematical combinatorics.

Topics: G-flow, equations of particles

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112

Nov 7, 2015
11/15

by
Linfan Mao

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On SMARANDACHE GEOMETRIES & MAP THEORY WITH APPLICATIONS.

Topics: Automorphism groups of maps, surfaces and Smarandache geometries

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0.0

Nov 30, 2021
11/21

by
Linfan Mao

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There is a bidding law and regulation system in China. For getting or issue a contract, a contractor or an employer should understand all these laws and regulations first and then know how they work. This book contains the main materials of this kind for a construction contract, and contains four chapters. Chapter 1 is a survey of bidding for a construction contact. The laws and regulations for bidding in China are interpreted in this chapter. A Smarandache multi-space model for bidding is...

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3.0

Apr 2, 2021
04/21

by
Linfan Mao

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10.0

Apr 2, 2021
04/21

by
Linfan Mao

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117

Jul 20, 2013
07/13

by
Linfan Mao

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A Smarandache multi-space is a union of $n$ different spaces equipped with some different structures for an integer $n\geq 2$, which can be both used for discrete or connected spaces, particularly for geometries and spacetimes in theoretical physics. This is the 4th part of multi-spaces considering applications of multi-spaces to theoretical physics, including the relativity theory, the M-theory and the cosmology. Multi-space models for $p$-branes and cosmos are constructed and some questions...

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/math/0604483v1

Parallel lines are very important objects in Euclid plane geometry and its behaviors can be gotten by one’s intuition. But in a planar map geometry, a kind of the Smarandache geometries, the situation is complex since it may contains elliptic or hyperbolic points. This paper concentrates on the behaviors of parallel bundles in planar map geometries, a generalization of parallel lines in plane geometry and obtains characteristics for parallel bundles.

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Sep 18, 2013
09/13

by
Linfan Mao

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A tendering is a negotiating process for a contract through by a tenderer issuing an invitation, bidders submitting bidding documents and the tenderer accepting a bidding by sending out a notification of award. As a useful way of purchasing, there are many norms and rulers for it in the purchasing guides of the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank, $...$, also in contract conditions of various consultant associations. In China, there is a law and regulation system for tendering and bidding....

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/math/0605495v1

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Apr 2, 2021
04/21

by
Linfan Mao

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5.0

Apr 3, 2021
04/21

by
Linfan Mao

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8.0

Apr 2, 2021
04/21

by
Linfan Mao

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Papers on Extending Homomorphism Theorem to Multi-Systems, A Double Cryptography Using the Smarandache Keedwell Cross Inverse Quasigroup, the Time-like Curves of Constant Breadth in Minkowski 3-Space, Actions of Multi-groups on Finite Sets, and other topics.

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Apr 2, 2021
04/21

by
Linfan Mao

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4.0

Apr 2, 2021
04/21

by
Linfan Mao

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49

Sep 19, 2013
09/13

by
Linfan Mao

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A Smarandache geometry is a geometry which has at least one Smarandachely denied axiom(1969), i.e., an axiom behaves in at least two different ways within the same space, i.e., validated and invalided, or only invalided but in multiple distinct ways and a Smarandache n-manifold is a n-manifold that support a Smarandache geometry. Iseri provided a construction for Smarandache 2-manifolds by equilateral triangular disks on a plane and a more general way for Smarandache 2-manifolds on surfaces,...

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/math/0610307v1

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Apr 2, 2021
04/21

by
Linfan Mao

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58

Sep 20, 2013
09/13

by
Linfan Mao

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Parallel lines are very important objects in Euclid plane geometry and its behaviors can be gotten by one's intuition. But in a planar map geometry, a kind of the Smarandache geometries, the sutation is complex since it may contains elliptic or hyperbolic points. This paper concentrates on the behavior of parallel bundles, a generazation of parallel lines in plane geometry and obtains characteristics for for parallel bundles.

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/math/0506386v1

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112

Sep 23, 2013
09/13

by
Linfan Mao

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A Smarandache multi-space is a union of $n$ spaces $A_1,A_2,..., A_n$ with some additional conditions holding. Combining classical of a group with Smarandache multi-spaces, the conception of a multi-group space is introduced in this paper, which is a generalization of the classical algebraic structures, such as the group, filed, body, $...$, etc.. Similar to groups, some characteristics of a multi-group space are obtained in this paper.

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/math/0510427v1

This book is for students and young scholar, words of a mathematician, also a physicist and an economic scientist to them through by the experience himself and his philosophy. By recalling each of his growth and success steps, i.e., beginning as a construction worker, obtained a certification of undergraduate learn by himself and a doctor’s degree in university, promoting mathematical combinatorics for contradictory system on the reality of things and economic systems, and after then...

A Smarandache geometry is a geometry which has at least one Smarandachely denied axiom(1969), i.e., an axiom behaves in at least two different ways within the same space, i.e., validated and invalided, or only invalided but in multiple distinct ways and a Smarandache n-manifold is a nmanifold that support a Smarandache geometry. Iseri provided a construction for Smarandache 2-manifolds by equilateral triangular disks on a plane and a more general way for Smarandache 2-manifolds on surfaces,...

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11

Apr 2, 2021
04/21

by
Linfan Mao

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0.0

Nov 30, 2021
11/21

by
Linfan Mao

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This book is for young students, words of one mathematician, also being a physicist and an engineer to young students. By recalling each of his growth and success steps, beginning as a construction worker, obtained a certification of undergraduate learn by himself and a doctor’s degree in university, after then continuously overlooking these obtained achievements, raising new scientific objectives in mathematics and physics by Smarandache’s notion and combinatorial principle for his...

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Apr 2, 2021
04/21

by
Linfan Mao

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37

Sep 19, 2013
09/13

by
Linfan Mao

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For an integer $m\geq 1$, a combinatorial manifold $\widetilde{M}$ is defined to be a geometrical object $\widetilde{M}$ such that for $\forall p\in\widetilde{M}$, there is a local chart $(U_p,\phi_p)$ enable $\phi_p:U_p\to B^{n_{i_1}}\bigcup B^{n_{i_2}}\bigcup...\bigcup B^{n_{i_{s(p)}}}$ with $B^{n_{i_1}}\bigcap B^{n_{i_2}}\bigcap...\bigcap B^{n_{i_{s(p)}}}\not=\emptyset$, where $B^{n_{i_j}}$ is an $n_{i_j}$-ball for integers $1\leq j\leq s(p)\leq m$. Integral theory on these smoothly...

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/math/0703400v1

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Apr 2, 2021
04/21

by
Linfan Mao

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6.0

Apr 2, 2021
04/21

by
Linfan Mao

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7.0

Apr 2, 2021
04/21

by
Linfan Mao

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59

Jul 20, 2013
07/13

by
Linfan Mao

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A Smarandache multi-space is a union of $n$ different spaces equipped with some different structures for an integer $n\geq 2$, which can be both used for discrete or connected spaces, particularly for geometries and spacetimes in theoretical physics. This is the third part on multi-spaces concertrating on Smarandache geometries, including those of map geometries, planar map geometries and pseudo-plane geometries. In where, the Finsler geometry, particularly the Riemann geometry appears as a...

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/math/0604482v1

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Apr 2, 2021
04/21

by
Linfan Mao

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87

Jul 20, 2013
07/13

by
Linfan Mao

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A Smarandache multi-space is a union of $n$ different spaces equipped with some different structures for an integer $n\geq 2$, which can be both used for discrete or connected spaces, particularly for geometries and spacetimes in theoretical physics. This is second part on multi-spaces. Many conceptions in graphs are generalized by Smarandache's notion, such as multi-voltage graphs, Cayley graphs of a finite multi-group,multi-embedding of a graph in an $n$-manifold, graph phase, $...$, etc.....

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/math/0604481v1

A Smarandache multi-space is a union of n different spaces equipped with some different structures for an integer n ≥ 2, which can be both used for discrete or connected spaces, particularly for geometries and spacetimes in theoretical physics. This monograph concentrates on characterizing various multi-spaces including three parts altogether. The first part is on algebraic multi-spaces with structures, such as those of multi-groups, multirings, multi-vector spaces, multi-metric spaces,...

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63

Sep 22, 2013
09/13

by
Linfan Mao

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A manifold $M^n$ inherits a labeled $n$-dimensional graph $\widetilde{M}[G^L]$ structure consisting of its charts. This structure enables one to characterize fundamental groups of manifolds, classify those of locally compact manifolds with finite non-homotopic loops by that of labeled graphs $G^L$. As a by-product, this approach also concludes that {\it every homotopy $n$-sphere is homeomorphic to the sphere $S^n$ for an integer $n\geq 1$}, particularly, the Perelman's result for $n=3$.

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1004.1231v2

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Apr 2, 2021
04/21

by
Linfan Mao

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Sep 23, 2013
09/13

by
Linfan Mao

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As we known, the {\it Seifert-Van Kampen theorem} handles fundamental groups of those topological spaces $X=U\cup V$ for open subsets $U, V\subset X$ such that $U\cap V$ is arcwise connected. In this paper, this theorem is generalized to such a case of maybe not arcwise-connected, i.e., there are $C_1$, $C_2$,$..., C_m$ arcwise-connected components in $U\cap V$ for an integer $m\geq 1$, which enables one to find fundamental groups of combinatorial spaces by that of spaces with theirs underlying...

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1006.4071v1

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Apr 2, 2021
04/21

by
Linfan Mao

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Apr 2, 2021
04/21

by
Linfan Mao

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9.0

Apr 2, 2021
04/21

by
Linfan Mao

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127

Jul 20, 2013
07/13

by
Linfan Mao

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A Smarandache multi-space is a union of $n$ different spaces equipped with some different structures for an integer $n\geq 2$, which can be both used for discrete or connected spaces, particularly for geometries and spacetimes in theoretical physics. This paper is the first part on characterizing multi-spaces. Various algebraic multi-spaces with structures such as those of multi-groups, multi-rings, multi-vector spaces, multi-metric spaces, multi-operation systems are discussed and new results...

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/math/0604480v1

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Sep 18, 2013
09/13

by
Linfan Mao

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Combinatorics is a powerful tool for dealing with relations among objectives mushroomed in the past century. However, an more important work for mathematician is to apply combinatorics to other mathematics and other sciences not merely to find combinatorial behavior for objectives. Recently, such research works appeared on journals for mathematics and theoretical physics on cosmos. The main purpose of this paper is to survey these thinking and ideas for mathematics and cosmological physics,...

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/math/0606702v2

Topological and differential structures such as those of d-pathwise connected, homotopy classes, fundamental d-groups in topology and tangent vector fields, tensor fields, connections, Minkowski norms in differential geometry on these finitely combinatorial manifolds are introduced. Some classical results are generalized to finitely combinatorial manifolds. Euler-Poincare characteristic is discussed and geometrical inclusions in Smarandache geometries for various geometries are also presented...

Integral theory on these smoothly combinatorial manifolds are introduced. Some classical results, such as those of Stokes’ theorem and Gauss’ theorem are generalized to smoothly combinatorial manifolds in this paper.

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0.0

Dec 2, 2021
12/21

by
Linfan Mao

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There are no theory on antimatter structure unless the mirror of its normal matter, with the same mass but opposite qualities such as electric charge, spin,· · ·, etc. to its matter counterparts holding with the Standard Model of Particle. In theory, a matter will be immediately annihilated if it meets with its antimatter, leaving nothing unless energy behind, and the amounts of matter with that of antimatter should be created equally in the Big Bang. So, none of us should exist in principle...

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Sep 23, 2013
09/13

by
Linfan Mao

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A Smarandache multi-space is a union of $n$ spaces $A_1,A_2,..., A_n$ with some additional conditions holding. Combining Smarandache multi-spaces with classical metric spaces, the conception of multi-metric space is introduced. Some characteristics of a multi-metric space are obtained and Banach's fixed-point theorem is generalized in this paper.

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/math/0510480v1