A preliminary simulation model of the search mode of a phased array radar has been developed. The basic components are a search strategy for the radar, an evasion policy for the target, and a simple radar environment. At present there is no attempt at adaptive modification of either component. A particular search strategy has been chosen. There is provision in the simulator to modify the procedure, however. The evasion policy of the target is one of changing course at random times with random...

Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL RESEARCH LAB WASHINGTON DC, *COMPUTER PROGRAMS, *PHASED ARRAYS, *RADAR TARGET...

The fundamental problem of target acquisition is to locate the desired target providing the necessary parameters or coordinates to enable the weapon to fire upon the target with a maximum probability of a hit. It is well known that the weapon itself is not absolutely accurate and that its rounds will fall within some probability distribution. Furthermore it is known that any sensor device, in locating the target will also locate the target to within some probability distribution. It is the...

Topics: DTIC Archive, OKLAHOMA UNIV RESEARCH INST NORMAN, *MATHEMATICAL MODELS, *TARGET ACQUISITION,...

The problem of pointing an instrument on the earth's surface at an object in orbit about the earth was investigated. Necessary expressions were derived for calculating continuously azimuth, elevation, range, and range rate from inputs of instrument site and orbit parameters. An electromechanical orbit computer capable of performing the required mathematical operations is described. Test results are listed for a similar computer used against a typical orbiting body.

Topics: DTIC Archive, MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH LEXINGTON LINCOLN LAB, *ARTIFICIAL SATELLITES, *TRACKING,...

This report presents a comparison of existing angle-only target motion analysis algorithms which have applications in tracking under jamming conditions. Though a number of different algorithms have been proposed for this problem, the particular emphasis in this report is recursive style algorithms which are more suited to airborne applications. In particular, six algorithms are considered, which are derivatives of either the standard or the extended Kalman filter. Four of these algorithms are...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Arulampalam, Sanjeev, ELECTRONICS RESEARCH LAB SALISBURY (AUSTRALIA), *KALMAN...

This thesis investigates the accuracy of a recently proposed passive bearings-only Target Motion Analysis (TMA) procedure. The primary method of analysis is to compare computer generated positions of a Target that is moving with a constant course and speed, with the procedurally derived estimated positions. A computer model was developed which simulated several possible interactions between the Target and Own Ship. Estimated parameters of the Target track were computed using the procedure under...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Cuberos, Bernabe C, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA, *TARGET DETECTION, *TARGET...

The experiment compares the efficiency of two methods of target- indication on a simulated search radar: (1) the present method in which the operator estimates range and bearing with the aid of a bearing cursor and range marks, and makes a verbal report; and (2) an experimental method in which the position of each target is indicated by the use of a pointing device in the hands of the operator. The manual method of indication proved equally accurate in indicating bearing, and more than twice as...

Topics: DTIC Archive, JOHNS HOPKINS UNIV BALTIMORE MD PSYCHOLOGICAL LAB, *RADAR TARGET POSITION SIMULATORS,...

Tests were conducted to measure the relative hit probabilities of several multiple- and single-bullet rifle ammunitions in combatsimulated aimed rifle fire, to use them to compare ammunition effectiveness, and to examine the effects of various parameters, such as range, target-exposure time, TRAINFIRE qualification scores, etc., on the accuracy of aimed rifle fire. Average aiming error for the SALVO II system is 3.1 mils. If ricochet hits are included it is equivalent to 2.8 mils. Ricochet...

Topics: DTIC Archive, FELDMAN, LEON, RESEARCH ANALYSIS CORP MCLEAN VA, *SMALL ARMS, *SMALL ARMS AMMUNITION,...

This report deals with the development and utilization of a maximum likelihood tracking algorithm designed to handle a single diffusion target. The tracker is required to accept or reject each of a sequence of discrete position reports, some of which are false alarms. Average tracking time, E(T), is defined and used to evaluate tracker performance. The effects of tracker memory are examined and a Kalman filter is developed to handle the effects of measurement error. Simulation results are...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Conrad, Robert D, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA, *ALGORITHMS, *DECISION...

The primary goal of this research was to study errors in stadimetric estimation. Earlier workers had hypothesized that differences in angular velocity of stimuli associated with direction of movement resulted in differneces in error between incoming and outgoing stimuli. Therefore, an experiment was performed which investigated differences in range estimation error as a function of three movement rates. The results showed that errors were consistent regardless of rate of movement.

Topics: DTIC Archive, Ton, William H., HUMAN RESOURCES RESEARCH ORGANIZATION ALEXANDRIA VA, *OPTICAL...

The knowledge-based tracker provides the system's knowledge-based controller with: (1) a very accurate prediction of each target's location and kinematics for an ensuing radar dwell, and (2) knowledge of the target's line-of-sight visibility, the competing clutter conditions, and interference at the predicted location so that the optimal radar parameters and space-time adaptive processing algorithm can be applied. The proactive knowledge-based tracker uses information from other sources such as...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Morgan, Charles, ITT SYSTEMS ROME NY, *ALGORITHMS, *RADAR TRACKING, *KNOWLEDGE BASED...

Identifer : Perceptron, IBM 704. Under certain conditions an adaptive data system can be built t determine a solution to the data classification problem, based on samples of input data along with their proper classification. The perceptron and the simpler half-perceptron are machine of this sort, and their principles of operation and simulation on an ibm 704 computer are discussed. Sample problems exhibit the capabilities and limitation of each. The possible role of these machines in sonar...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Pryor, C Nicholas , Jr, NAVAL ORDNANCE LAB WHITE OAK MD, *CLASSIFICATION, *COMPUTER...

The following three tasks are included in Volume I. Gaussian noise added to true range generated by various kinds of simulated trajectories served as 'measurements' which were input to several kinds of Kalman filters. Filter output is compared graphically and by rms deviations. Independent methods were devised for evaluating the accuracy of target state vectors (position, velocity, and acceleration) obtained from a director fire control system. Attempts to find an adequate software correction...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Ryan, Lowell, DAYTON UNIV OH RESEARCH INST, *COMPUTER PROGRAMMING, *FIRE CONTROL...

Analysis and simulation have shown that the detection of targets by pencil-beam radars could be enhanced by using strong surface reflections which are sometimes present. The radar used a beam pointed at the target and a beam pointed at the target reflection on the surface. Transmitting only on the direct beam and simultaneously receiving the direct and reflected beam energy, up to 2. 5 dB improvement in signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) was obtained. During strong reflecting conditions, transmitting...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Cantrell, Ben H, NAVAL RESEARCH LAB WASHINGTON DC, *PENCIL BEAMS, *RADAR BEAMS,...

The report contains program listings and user instructions for an HP-41CV, a Sharp PC-1500 (or TRS-80 PC-2), a Sharp PC-1211 (or TRS-80 PC-1), a Casio FX-702P and a TI-59. The programs implement a bearings-only position estimation procedure. A development for the procedure is included in the report. (Author)

Topics: DTIC Archive, Forrest,R N, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA, *TARGET POSITION INDICATORS,...

It has been assumed that the range gate response in the receiver is triangular for the interim system being simulated on the RFSS. In this memo we compute a more realistic response that is based on the finite IF bandwidth of 20 MHz. We also provide a listing of a subroutine that can be used in the extended target simulation program to compute the range gate response. (Author)

Topics: DTIC Archive, Mitchell,R L, MARK RESOURCES INC MARINA DEL REY CA, *COMPUTER PROGRAM DOCUMENTATION,...

From the experiments performed in this investigation, little was revealed concerning the mechanism responsible for the differences in error between incoming and outgoing targets during range estimation. There is no evidence for a significant relationship between range estimation, accuracy, time estimation (for the intervals used), CFF and perceptual style.

Topics: DTIC Archive, Ton,William H, HUMAN RESOURCES RESEARCH ORGANIZATION ALEXANDRIA VA, *OPTICAL...

From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document. trw :: trw-130 :: TRW-130 Sales Application Record

Topics: data, computer, system, tracking, satellite, application, navigation, orbital, radar, target,...

FM23 10

Topics: firing, target, rifle, caliber, fire, range, targets, squad, position, shots, position sling, fire...

FM23 5 1940

Topics: firing, rifle, target, caliber, fire, trigger, range, targets, squad, sight, operating rod, gas...

The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of providing target location information via head-coupled visual and spatial audio displays presented in adaptive and non-adaptive configurations. Twelve USAF pilots performed a simulated flight task in which they were instructed to maintain flight parameters while searching for ground and air targets. The integration of visual displays with spatial audio cueing enhanced performance efficiency, especially when targets were most difficult...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Tannen, Robert S, AIR FORCE RESEARCH LAB WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH, *TARGET POSITION...

Volume II contains reports on the following tasks. The equations used in the LCOS, TRACER, and ACE algorithms were rewritten such that they could be performed on the MDSC computer. The ACE algorithm was modified for implementation on the ROLM 16/64 computer.

Topics: DTIC Archive, King,Carl, DAYTON UNIV OHIO RESEARCH INST, *COMPUTER PROGRAMMING, *FIRE CONTROL...

The purpose of this report is to make a study of the combined effects of the errors of the height finder and the director on the probability of hitting an airplane. In making this study the conditions most favorable to fire control are assumed; the airplane is assumed to be moving at constant altitude with a constant speed and direction.

Topics: DTIC Archive, Kent, R H, ARMY BALLISTIC RESEARCH LAB ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND MD, *ANTIAIRCRAFT...

An array of sensors is receiving radiation from a source of interest. The source and the array are in closed three dimensional waveguide. The maximum-likelihood estimators of the coordinates of the source are analysed under the assumptions that the noise field is Gaussian, and the source lies on a finite linear manifold spanned by a set of orthogonal functions. These functions are the eigen-functions of the wave operator given the boundary conditions defining the waveguide, and are called...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Hinich,Melvin J, VIRGINIA POLYTECHNIC INST AND STATE UNIV BLACKSBURG, *DETECTORS,...

ISARLAB (Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar Laboratory) is a computer program designed as a research and training tool for those interested in the field of radar imaging. The system runs under MATLAB and is capable of simulating the radar returns from complex targets such as ships and aircraft, and processing these to form high range resolution (HRR) profiles and inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) images. In addition to simulating various radars and targets in realistic scenarios, ISARLAB...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Haywood, Brett, DEFENCE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ORGANISATION CANBERRA (AUSTRALIA),...

A new target acceleration model capable of improving the performance of an airborne aided track system suring periods of tracker sensor failure was investigated. An aided track target prediction algorithm utilizing range and angle rate measurements was modified so that the target state estimates were propagated by integrating the estimated constant, body fixed acceleration. The modified algorithm performance was compared to the original by simulating three target paths. At specified times, all...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Terry,James G, AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OHIO SCHOOL OF...

A dual mode sensor concept for precise target location and identification was investigated by combining an electro optical sensor with a millimeter wave radar sensor. The combined sensor system was tested using corner reflectors, a pick up truck, and a shop van as targets. Targets were located using beam splitting techniques with an accuracy of 1 milliradian during system integration tests and with an accuracy of 1/2 milliradian in azimuth during field tests, representing a 19 to 1 improvement...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Holm,W A, GEORGIA INST OF TECH ATLANTA ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION,...

This document presents both the written and oral versions of a presentation given at the 1977 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, in Hartford, Connecticut, 10 May 1977. The presentation concerned optimum element placement for passive localization. For mathematically tractable assumptions, arrays with a third of their limited elements at each end and the middle of a line are in some sense best for simultaneous range and bearing estimation. Elements in each...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Carter,G Clifford, NAVAL UNDERWATER SYSTEMS CENTER NEW LONDON CONN NEW LONDON LAB,...

From the foregoing description of TRESI, WPP, new sonar development trends, and the compatibility between WPP and TRESI, the following summary statements can be made: the WPP and the TRESI equipment can be mated readily with only minor modifications to the equipments. That is to say, no difficulties in interconnecting the two equipments are expected; and using the transmitted waveform and receiver processing techniques of the WPP, many of the classification clues used by TRESI that describe...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Sebestyen,G S, LITTON SYSTEMS INC WALTHAM MASS INFORMATION SCIENCES LAB, *SONAR SOUND...

For certain assumptions, an analysis of multiple MAD (Magnetic Anomaly Detection) signals results in a reasonable estimate for the localization of a target relative to the MAD platform. This is achieved by using selective approximations to linearize an initially nonlinear problem. The simulation ignores noise and requires an estimate of the magnitude of the target magnetic moment components. Results indicate that the best localization estimates are achieved when the platform is on cardinal...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Bock,W -H, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA, *Magnetic anomaly detection,...

The task faced by the All Range WideBand Channel (ARWBC) operator at ALCOR while trying to detect the presence and location of a target of interest on the RTI display was examined with the aid of digital RTIs produced by a computer simulation. Controlled levels of three degrading factors: (1) background clutter, (2) missed target returns, and (3) an unsteady target track were produced in the simulation RTIs and a subjective judgment made as to which RTIs contained detectable target tracks. In...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Lewis, M. J., MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH LEXINGTON LINCOLN LAB, *RADAR TRACKING,...

A new method to measure the range and position of a space flight during the rendezvous and docking between two spacecraft are presented in this paper. A model is built to demonstrate the scheme experimentally. It is shown that the scheme is practicable.

Topics: DTIC Archive, Xiping, Cai, NATIONAL AIR INTELLIGENCE CENTER WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH, *POSITION...

The integral of the elliptic Gaussian distribution over a centered ellipse may be evaluated after simple preliminary transformations from tables of the circular coverage function. The probable value of the distribution over a centered but randomly oriented ellipse where all orientations are equally probable may be evaluated from an integral involving the circular coverage function.

Topics: DTIC Archive, Waugh, J G, NAVAL ORDNANCE TEST STATION CHINA LAKE CA, *STATISTICAL DISTRIBUTIONS,...

A review is made of the method of time correction in passive ranging. It is concluded that there is little, if any, support for the claims made for the method.

Topics: DTIC Archive, Dobbie, James M, LITTLE (ARTHUR D) INC CAMBRIDGE MA, *ANTISUBMARINE FIRE CONTROL...

This document surveys passive methods for determining the locations of airborne jammers from ground-based radar surveillance sites, and examines the prospects for supporting fully automatic measurements. The performance of these methods when confronted with noise jammers of various levels of sophistication is discussed. The technique are compared in terms of effectiveness and complexity to provide a guide for the design of ECCM subsystems associated with track-while-scan radar surveillance...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Jacobus, R W, MITRE CORP BEDFORD MA, *ANTENNAS, *JAMMING, *TARGET POSITION...

Although the accuracy of the sidefiring AC-130 aircraft is excellent relative to other weapon systems, a detailed error analysis reveals that the pilot is by far the primary source of remaining error. This report concludes that the accuracy of his pointing the aircraft could be dramatically improved if the sight line were aimed automatically. The sight line autopilot is designed to meet this need. The autopilot design accounts for the linearized motions of the sight line as seen in the pilot's...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Parkinson, Bradford W., Wynne, Michael W., Kruczynski, Leonard R., AIR FORCE ACADEMY...

The maximal likelihood estimation of time-of-arrival differences for signals from a single source of target arriving at M or = 2 sensors has been the subject of a large number of papers in recent years. These time differences or delays enable target location. Nearly all previous work has assumed noises which are independent among all sensors. Herein noises are taken to have complex correlation between sensors. A set of nonlinear equations is the unknown delays is derived and possible...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Kirlin,R L, WYOMING UNIV LARAMIE 5 DEPT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING, *Maximum...

This thesis presents a design for a precision angular position control system for use in a proposed multiplexed imager. The control system is designed to rapidly position a disk to within a tolerance of 2.5 microrad. Evaluation during the design phase shows an inherent trade-off between precision angular positioning and allowed angular velocities. Recommendations are provided for improving the time response of the control system. No testing was performed to determine the actual positioning...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Middleton, Mark E., NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA, *IMAGE PROCESSING,...

LOCATER is a computer program used to simulate projectile tracking radar estimation of weapon locations from real or simulated projectile tracking data. A complete mathematical description of the modified point mass trajectory modeling, radar random errors, wind, refraction, multipath and the likelihood estimator is included. Detailed user instruction and samples are covered. A programmer's guide to modification of the 7000 line FORTRAN program is included.

Topics: DTIC Archive, Bayliss, Edward T., MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH LEXINGTON LINCOLN LAB, *COMPUTERIZED...

A production equipment, Serial Number 1 of the Model QHD Scanning Sonar Equipment manufactured by the Raytheon Manufacturing Company, Submarine Signal Division, Waltham, Mass, under contract NObsr-42064, was delivered to this laboratory for tests to determine compliance with references (f) and (g). The equipment was received 20 September 1951. A field change modification unit, the QHD Receiver Storage Scanner, was received 5 May 1952. Engineering evaluation of the equipment (less the...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Elliott, H. H., Jr, NAVAL RESEARCH LAB WASHINGTON DC, *SCANNING SONAR, TEST AND...

This paper examines the use of the extended Kalman filter for estimating various quantities in typical interceptor-target engagements. The extended Kalman filter is used to estimate the relative position of the target, the relative velocity of the target and the vector perpendicular to the target velocity. The target is assumed to be non accelerating. The target is observed via range and bearing measurements and it is assumed that the interceptor's own velocities are known. The performance and...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Ford, Jason J, DEFENCE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ORGANISATION VICTORIA (AUSTRALIA)...

The estimation of the position and velocity of a sonar target moving in a two-dimensional frame is studied in this paper. The estimator is a Kalman filter which processes noisy bearings of the target gathered by the tracker. The case of maneuvering targets is examined a solution using a variable value of the system's noise covariance matrix is studied. Simulation programs in FORTRAN are provided for a simple example and for maneuvering and nonmaneuvering bearings-only targets....

Topics: DTIC Archive, Kourkoulis, Dimitrios, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA, *MOVING TARGETS,...

This report summarizes activities during the eighth quarter of a program sponsored by the U. S. Army Electronics Command (ECOM), directed toward the design of an Environment and Radar Operation Simulator (EROS). In addition some of the analysis results and design decisions are described in detail. Algorithms for estimating the mean and variance of the filter outputs is described. The estimation takes into account the effects of multiplier truncation errors. The mean and variance are expressed...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Cole,S N, Rice,B S, GEORGIA INST OF TECH ATLANTA ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION,...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Vermillion,George M, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA, *COMPUTER PROGRAMS,...

Tools for electromagnetic simulation, such as SPECRAY EM / FERMAT, make RCS and ISAR image computations down to millimetre wavelength possible from the CAD of targets. The higher the frequency is, the greater the influence of the precision and the realism of the CAD models on results are. In millimetre wavelength, whatever the precision of the CAD, the roughness of surface and the flatness of sheets of construction of terrestrial military vehicles cannot be reproduced by the geometry....

Topics: DTIC Archive, Mametsa, H J, OFFICE NATIONAL D'ETUDES ET DE RECHERCHES AEROSPATIALES TOULOUSE...

Estimation of rms target position accuracy for radar is of great importance to radar manufacturers and customers alike. With increasing frequency customers insist on direct measurement with small RCS aircraft on radial flight paths. Too often, however, a colocated precision reference radar is unavailable from which to accurately define the true target flight path. In these cases the total error can be tested in two parts: the bias component can be estimated from static measurements and the...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Deresh, B. A., GENERAL ELECTRIC CO SYRACUSE NY MILITARY ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS OPERATION,...

This report summarizes activities during the sixth quarter of a program sponsored by the U.S. Army Electronics Command (ECOM), directed toward the design of an Environment and Radar Operation Simulator (EROS). The analysis of clutter-simulation digital filters has been directed toward determining the effect of filter parameters on the filter's output statistics. The feedback multipliers control the shape of the spectrum, and formulas are given relating the multiplier values to spectral...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Cole,S N, Clayton,A R, Michelson,R C, Sjoberg,E S, GEORGIA INST OF TECH ATLANTA...

This study was part of an ongoing effort at the Air Force Institute of Technology to design a tracking algorithm for use with the Air Force Weapons Laboratory's high energy laser weapon system. The purpose of this thesis was to take previously developed tracker algorithms and incorporate a multiple model adaptive filter algorithm into the existing structure. This approach was intended to provide adaptive expansion of the effective tracker field of view, which in turn would increase the...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Suizu,R I, AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING,...

This work represents a more general approach to robotic system design than one based on predefined responses in a controlled environment. An implementing of a vision-based robotic tracking system is presented in which target trajectory predictions enable the robot to track and intercept a moving target. A host microcomputer receives target position information from a vision module, predicts the target's trajectory, and issues tracking commands to the robot controlled. Five predictive algorithms...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Hunt,Alison E, CARNEGIE-MELLON UNIV PITTSBURGH PA ROBOTICS INST, *ALGORITHMS,...

This report examined the Army's current plans to meet its aerial scout mission needs. To meet these needs, the Army initiated the Army Helicopter Improvement Program (AHIP) to upgrade existing OH-58 helicopters to an OH-58D configuration. During the past 3 years, the primary role for the OH-58D has changed from being a scout and a target designator for AH-64 attack helicopter units to being assigned to air cavalry units as a scout for ground commanders. The Army Chief of Staff is currently...

Topics: DTIC Archive, GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE WASHINGTON DC NATIONAL SECURITY AND INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS...

Models for the prediction of detection range are evaluated in this report. The contrast available at the eye or the electro-optical sensor is assumed to be the limiting factor. The atmosphere provides a transmission factor for the target-background contrast. A model for the prediction of contrast transmission proposed by Duntley in 1948 is examined. Duntley's work provides an analytic solution based on an equation which relates visibility to air-transmittance along an inclined path, and a table...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Duff, Edward A, AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING,...