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INFANTRY HEAVY 

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111 Wmg&L PAMPHLET No:; 24 


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AND TRAINING 






>4es Small Atm Trainings Volume L Pamphlet Na.^7, 
1 m 1944 (Codfc No, 7227) 



By Coe/imamt of the Army Council 

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MHS 

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The War Ooice, 
20fA August, Is>Si«,. 













iii 

CONTENTS 


CHAPTER 10.—GUN DRILL page 

Introductory notes. \ 

Lesson 48.^ Layout and inspection of carrier stores ... ... ... 2 

Lesson 49/ Preliminaries to gun drill ..4 

Lesson 50.' Action and cease firing from the carrier. ... 7 

Lesson 51.' Clear gun and stand clear. 10 

Lesson 52. Laying and firing. \\ 

Lesson 53. Consistency of tap. J3 

Lesson 54. Traversing and swinging traverse. . .. 15 

Lesson 55. Application of direct fire orders ... ... ... ... 17 

Lesson 56. Controlled corrections, indirect (elevation) . 19 

Lesson 57. Controlled corrections, indirect (direction) . 20 

Lesson 58. Emergency action. 22 

Lesson 59. Prepare for carrier action. 23 

Lesson 60. Tests of elementary training . 25 


30 

30 

32 

33 
35 
37 


CHAPTER 11.—ADVANCED MACHINE GUN HANDLING 

Introductory notes. 

Lesson 61. Man-handling of loads—short carry 

Lesson 62. Mounting the gun on exposed ground. 

Lesson 63. Mounting the gun on uneven ground ., 

Lesson 64. Bringing the gun into action making use of cover 
Lesson 65. Bringing the carrier into a hull-down position. 

CHAPTER 12.—VISUAL TRAINING 

Introductory notes. 39 

Lesson 66. Indication and recognition . 40 

Lesson 67. Observation of fire and ranging. 44 

CHAPTER 13.—SECTION DRILL 

Lesson 68. Dismounted action and cease firing . 48 

Lesson 69. Carrier action . 51 

Lesson 70. Fire discipline . 52 

Lesson 71. Replacement of breakages . 54 

Lesson 72. Obscuration of the target. 55 

Lesson 73. Changing from direct fire to night firing and vice versa ... 57 

Lesson 74. Relief of guns by night . 59 


Lesson 75. 
Lesson 76. 
Lesson 77. 
Lesson 78. 
Lesson 79. 
Lesson 80. 
Lesson 81. 
Lesson 82. 
2037—1 


CHAPTER 14.—INDIRECT FIRE DRILL 

Introductory notes. 60 

Mount gun and cease firing . 62 

Paralleling ... 64 

Obtaining direction and elevation . 66 

Application of indirect fire orders . 67 

Fire control charts. 70 

Changing from indirect fire to night firing and vice versa 71 

Coming into action by night and cease firing . 72 

Obtaining direction and elevation by night . 74 













PAGE 


IV 


Lesson 83. 

Lesson 84. 

Lesson 85. 

Lesson 86 . 

Lesson 87. 

Lesson 88 . 

Lesson 89. 

Lesson 90. 

Lesson 91. 

Lesson 92. 

APPENDICES 


Appendix II MMG range courses and safety precautions. 114 

„ III MMG skill-at-arms—conditions of qualification ... 131 

„ IV Loading carriers. 139 

„ V Manhandling of loads—long carry . 141 

PLATE LIST OF PLATES 

6. Gun on emergency mounting .facing 6 

7. Mounting the tripod .facing 6 

8. Mounting the gun. facing 6 

9. Sitting position . facing 6 

10. Mounting the gun in the lowest position.facing 32 

11. Gun mounted in the lowest position .facing 32 

12. Gun mounted behind low cover. ...facing 32 

13. Firing through a hedgerow .facing 32 

Diagrammatic layout of Carrier Platoon:— 

14. Two MMG sections—Direct fire—dismounted action ... 80 

15. Two MMG sections—Direct fire—carrier action. 82 

Diagrammatic layout of Machine Gun Platoon:— 

16. Indirect fire . 83 

17. Section layout . .. ••• ••• 103 

18. Diagrammatic layout of the digging plan of a section position 104 

19. MMG emplacement . 105 

20. Carrier, man-pack, GS . .. 143 

ABBREVIATIONS 

The following abbreviations are used in this pamphlet:— 

DP ... Drill pattern. 

IA ... Immediate action. 

MMG Medium machine gun. 

MPI... Mean point of impact. 

OP ... Observation post. 

RAP Regimental aid post. 

RV ... Rendezvous. 

QE ... Quadrant elevation. 


CHAPTER 15—BATTLE PROCEDURE 


Introductory notes. . 76 

Reconnaissance of platoon and section areas ... ... 76 

Occupation of platoon position direct fire, dismounted 

action by day . ... . 84 

Modifications for direct fire, carrier action . 90 

Modifications for indirect fire . 90 

Modifications for reorganization. 92 

Modifications for defence ... 98 

Inspection of a section area in defence. 101 

Modifications for the occupation of a position by night 

when a daylight reconnaissance can be made ... 105 j 

Modifications for relief in the line . 108 

Modifications for withdrawal . 109 


1 


v 

GLOSSARY OF TERMS USED IN THIS PAMPHLET 
Angle of sight 

The angle contained between the line of sight and the horizontal plane. 
The angle is said to be plus when the target is above the horizontal plane 
and minus when the target is below it. 

Crest clearance angle 

The angle by which the barrel must be raised above the line of sight to 
the crest to ensure that all the bullets will clear the crest. 


Deflection 

A lateral displacement of the lines of any, or all, guns. 

Direct fire 

When the gun is laid directly on the target by means of the backsight 
and foresight. 


Fixed line 

A term denoting that measures have been taken for maintaining 
elevation and direction in darkness etc, to ensure that fire will fall on the 
pre-arranged area of ground. 

Flanking fire 

Fire applied across the front of a locality occupied by own troops, or, 
if they are advancing, at an angle to their line of advance. 


(■round angle 

The angle contained between the line of sight to the target and the line 
of sight to own troops when using overhead fire. 

Group commander 

An officer or NCO commanding two or more machine gun sections. 
Indirect fire 

When a gun is laid to hit a given target by other means than by laying 
on it direct. 


Line of fire 

The direction of the target from the gun. 

Minimum clearance 

A term used to denote the minimum height of the centre bullet of the 
>* - I" above the heads of our own troops for the latter to be safe. 





Near limit of arc 

The nearest line across the arc of fire on which fire may be required. 

Overhead fire 

Fire passing over the heads of our own troops. 

Pivot gun 

The gun used as a basis for calculation. 

Quadrant angle 

The angle which the axis of the barrel makes with the horizontal plane. 
Quadrant elevation 

The quadrant angle expressed in terms of a range and an angle of sight. 
Registering 

The recording of the direction and elevation necessary to hit any given 
target as found by ranging. 

Safety angle for flanking fire 

The minimum lateral angle by which fire must clear own troops for 
them to be safe. 

Safety angle for overhead fire 

The minimum angle which must be included between the axis of the 
barrel and the line of sight to own troops to ensure their safety under over¬ 
head fire. 

Tangent angle 

The angle which the axis of the barrel makes with the line of sight 


Zero line ^ 

A line of reference on which all guns are parallel and from which 
switches are measured. 


RESTRICTED 


Infantry Training 

VOLUME II 

INFANTRY HEAVY WEAPONS 

PAMP HL ET No. 24 

The Medium Machine Gun 
Part II—Drills and Training 

CHAPTER 10 

GUN DRILL 

INTRODUCTORY NOTES 

Aim 

1. To teach the soldier his duties in handling the weapon as a member 
of a gun team. 

Instructors notes 

2 . During gun drill, the gun will be mounted in the sitting position, but 
il>c instructor must emphasize that on active service and during the later 
stages of training, the tripod will always be adjusted to suit the ground and 
cover available. 

3. All orders are shown in thick type throughout this part of the pamphlet. 

4- When the instructor wishes to explain, demonstrate or criticize, he 
'a ill first order “ Rest 99 to allow the gun number to relax. On this order, 
ilie No. 1 will knock down the tangent sight. Before the drill is resumed 
la will ensure that the gun numbers adopt the correct position and are 
alert and ready for any order. This will be done by ordering “ Position,” 
u ” cn > u the sights had previously been knocked down, the No. 1 will raise 
them. 

\ The instructor must insist on a high standard of drill throughout and 
■ ‘ e that the gun numbers remain still and in their correct position on the 
completion of any movement. 

(k Although all lessons of gun drill are written for coming into action 
i mm the carrier, if carriers are not available it will be possible to bring 
tin* guns into action from the ground. The stores should be laid out on 
the ground as follows:— 

I he tripod on the left, with the legs to the rear, and the dial sight close 
to it. 

1 lie gun, with the muzzle forward, condenser tube attached and 
a pure parts case placed two paces to the right of the tripod. 

1 wo liners, the condenser can and the aiming post two paces to the 
right of the gun, with the condenser can on the right. 



2 


3 


The position of the gun numbers and the words of command will be 
given as for the carrier. 

On the command “ Mount ” the gun numbers will kneel by their 
respective stores. Nos. 1 and 2 will put on the dial sight and spare 
parts case, with the strap over the right shoulder and the case hanging 
on the left side. 

7. Whenever possible in gun drill as many guns as are available should 
be used to give maximum squad practice. 

Safety precautions 

8. On all occasions when the gun and drill cartridges are used for in¬ 
structional purposes, the instructor will carry out the following safety 
precautions. 

(a) Inspect all locks to ensure that the striker does not protrude 
through the firing pin hole. 

(b) Inspect all ammunition to ensure that all cartridges are drill. 

9. When service stores are used, (a) above does not apply. 

Lesson 48—LAYOUT AND INSPECTION OF CARRIER STORES 
A INSTRUCTOR’S NOTES 

Aim 

1. To familiarize the soldier with the layout of a MG carrier and with 
the fittings peculiar to MGs. 

2. To teach the responsibility for the checking and inspection of the 
main items of equipment in the MG carrier. 

Class and instructors 

3. Squads under squad instructors around the left side of the carrier. 
Periods 

4. One 45-minute period. 

Stores 

5. One gun carrier complete with gun drill stores, ie f gun, tripod, corn, 
denser can and tube, dial sight, aiming post spare parts case, three liners, 
belt and drill cartridges. 

Preparation 

6. The gun should be mounted on the carrier and the stores in their 
correct position—one liner being in the gun rack and two in the right side 
racks. 

B CONDUCT OF LESSON 

Approach 

7. Give the aim of the lesson ( see paras 1 and 2). Point out the layout 
of the gun stores in the carrier and the positions of the gun numbers. 
The driver and No. 1 sit in the front compartments, the No. 2 in the left 
side, and the No. 3 in the right side rear compartments. 


The Carrier mounting fitting 

8 . Show that the carrier mounting fitting consists of a socket fitted to 
the engine cowling into which can be fitted the emergency mounting or 
the crosshead of the tripod. 

The emergency mounting 

9 . State that the emergency mounting is provided for the engagement 
of opportunity targets up to 600 yards. 

10. Point out the following features of the mounting:— 

(a) The all round traverse. 

(b) The pins to secure the gun to the mounting. 

(c) The travelling stay. 

(d) The shoulder piece with which elevation and direction of the gun 
can be controlled. 

(e) The depression stop, to prevent bullets striking the inside of the 
carrier. 

(f) The rack for the liner on the gun mounting. 

(g) The condenser tube fitted to the mounting through which the 
steam escapes into an auxiliary condenser can in the carrier fitted 
under No. 2 seat. 

(h) The traversing clamp. This will never be tightened when the gun 
is on the emergency mounting. 

(j) The ease with which the gun can be removed from the mounting 
and the mounting can be removed from the socket. 

The Crosshead mounting 

11. Remove the emergency mounting and place the tripod crosshead and 
gun on the fitting. 

12. Tell the squad that the crosshead mounting is used when engaging 
i target from a carrier in a hull down position. It may be used for engaging 
targets at all machine gun ranges. Show the following features:— 

(a) The socket on the carrier is designed to fit the pivot of the crosshead. 

(b) By tightening the traversing clamp a fixed and steady mounting is 
obtained. 

(c) The condenser tube is inserted in the ground condenser can. 

Maintenance of the emergency mounting and fitting 

13. State that the pivot and socket will be cleaned and oiled daily to 
lii event rust forming from the steam. The hinge, nuts and bolts of the 
mounting will be kept oiled and free from grit. The following points 
should be examined periodically:— 

(a) Condenser tube. 

(b) Feathers on joint pins. 

(c) Chains. 

(a) Travelling stay. 

(e) Traversing clamp. 


4 


14. Question the squad. 

15. Tell the squads that the serviceability of stores and equipment is the 
responsibility of the senior member in each carrier. Frequent inspection 
will be made to ensure that all stores are complete and in good order; an 
inspection will invariably be made as soon as is practicable after coming 
out of action. 

16. Explain the responsibility of each member of the gun team:— 

(a) The No. 1 will inspect:— 

(i) The tripod—to see that the elevating and crosshead joint 
pins are properly in position and turned down, both elevating 
screws equally exposed, traversing clamp adjusted to suit 
No. 1, crosshead over the rear leg, direction dial secure, and 
all three legs together and clamped securely. 

(ii) Dial sight—to ensure that all dials and drums are at zero and 
that it is not damaged. 

(iii) The ground mounting condenser tube—for serviceability. 

(b) The No. 2 will inspect:— 

(i) The gun—to see that the muzzle attachment and blast 
deflector are correctly fitted, the front cover locked, the sliding 
shutter open, the lock in the gun and the T fixing pin screwed 
home and vertical. 

(ii) The spare parts case. 

(iii) The carrier condenser can—to ensure that it is secure and 
filled. 

He will report “ Gun correct ” or otherwise to the No. 1. 

(c) The No. 3 will inspect:— 

(i) The carrier mounting—to ensure that the traversing clamp 
is loosened, the condenser tube securely attached, the cross¬ 
head and elevating joint pins properly in position and turned 
down, that there is a liner in the rack of the gun mounting, 
that the travelling stay can be easily released, and that the 
emergency mounting works freely. 

(ii) The ground condenser can—to ensure that the can is filled, 
the cap screwed into position and the filler secure. 

He will report “ Mounting correct ” or otherwise to the No. 1. 

17. Question the squad. 

Conclusion 

18. Questions to and from the squad. 

19. Sum up main points. 


Aim 


Lesson 49—PRELIMINARIES TO GUN DRILL 
A INSTRUCTOR’S NOTES 


1. To teach the soldier preliminaries to gun drills and the technique of 
mounting and dismounting the tripod. 


5 


( lass and instructors 

2. Squads under squad instructors, in single rank on a flank of the carrier. 

Periods 

3. One 45-minute period. 

Stores 

4. One gun carrier complete with drill stores. Gun, tripod, condenser 
mbc and can, dial sight in case, spare parts case, aiming post, three liners 

■ omplete with belts and drill cartridges. 

B CONDUCT OF LESSON 

Preliminaries 

5. Safety precautions. 

Approach 

6. Give the aim as laid down in para 1. 

“ Fall In ” 

7. Detail a No. 1,2, 3 and Dvr and state that on the command “ Fall In ” 
the gun numbers will double to their respective positions facing to the 
1 1 out, as shown in the Fig 6 below. On arrival at these positions they 
will stand at attention and, taking their time from No. 1, will number, 
.ind then stand at ease. 



i 3 


Fig 6 


8. Practice the squad in “ Fall In.” 

" < hnnge Round 99 

Explain that if at any time the instruct<|^ishes to change the Nos. 
Im will order “ Change round.” On that coispiand the detachment will 
i » clockwise around the carrier; the No. 1 becomes the driver, the driver 


6 


[ To face page 6 


becomes No. 3, the No. 3 becomes the No. 2 and the No. 2 becomes the 
No. 1. On completion of the movement the detachment will re-number 
again taking the time from No. 1. 

10. Practice the squad in “ Fall In ” and “ Change Round.” 

11. Detail a detachment, order “ Fall In,” and state that on the order 
“ Mount ” the No. 1 will repeat the order, and all Nos. will get into the 
carrier in their respective positions and remain still; No. 1 for the purpose 
of control will remain standing. 

12. Order “ Mount.” 

13. Tell the squad that on the order “ Dismount ” the No. 1 will repeat 
the order, all numbers will dismount and stand at ease in their respective 
positions by the carrier. 

14. Order “ Dismount.” 

15. Practise the squad in “ Mount” and “ Dismount.” 

16. Questions from the squad. 

MOUNTING THE TRIPOD 

Preparation 

17. The instructor will remove the tripod from the carrier and place it 
on the ground in front of the carrier and move the squad in a semi-circle 
around the tripod. 

Approach 

18. Tell the squad that you are now going to teach them the technique 
of mounting and dismounting the tripod. 

Mounting the tripod 

19. Demonstrate slowly and explain that the No. 1 stands astride the 
tripod, loosens the jamming handles simultaneously and grasps the cross¬ 
head as far forward as possible with both hands, the thumbs being down > 
the front of the crosshead. He will then swing the tripod upwards and 
forward to open the two front legs, and with the three legs resting on the 
ground, he will raise the socket until it is upright. To assist this, and to i 
ensure that the mounting is upright, the No. 1 should assume a half sitting 
position with the elbows supported on the inside of the thighs, and keeping 
the socket steady with his left hand, he will tighten both jamming handles j 
with his right hand. A final pressure will now be exerted on the jamming 
handles, and the No. 1 will sit down behind the tripod and remove the 
crosshead and elevating joint pins with the left and right hands respectively, 
and hold them. 

Dismounting the tripod 

20. Demonstrate slowly and explain that the No. 1 will replace the two 
pins and turn the handles down to prevent them falling out, jump to his , 
feet and stand astride the tripod. He will loosen both jamming handles 
simultaneously, allowing the tripod to collapse on the ground. 



Plate 6 —Gun on emergency mounting. 



Plate 7— 
Mounting the 
tripod 









Standing on the left of the tripod he will grasp the crosshead with 
both hands, and with a sharp forward and upward movement allow the 
i a., front legs to fold under, at the same time taking a pace forward and 
placing the tripod on the ground. He will then sink down on to his right 
knee and tighten both jamming handles. 

Practice 

I. Practise the squad in mounting and dismounting the tripod slowly. 

( (inclusion 

22. Questions from the squad. 

23. Further practice, quickening up all movements. 

24. Sum up progress made. 

Lesson 50—ACTION AND CEASE FIRING FROM THE 
CARRIER 

A INSTRUCTOR’S NOTES 

Aim 

1. To teach the duties of the various members of the gun team in coming 
into action from the carrier, and to cease firing. 

< lass and instructors 

2. Squads under squad instructors assembled in single rank on one 
Hank of the carrier. 

Periods 

3. One 45-minute period. 

Stores 

4. One gun carrier complete with drill stores. 

Prcpa ration 

All stores loaded on the carrier, and if the ground is wet, ground- 
*1 licet s should be placed on the gun position. Lesson 35 must have been 
taught before this lesson. 

B CONDUCT OF LESSON 

Preliminaries 
(< Safety precautions. 

Approach T 

(iivc the aim of the lesson (see para 1 above). 







8 


“ Action ” 

8 . Detail a gun team, order “ Fall In ” and “ Mount.” Indicate with a 
gun flag a gun position a few yards in front of the carrier and the direction 
in which the gun is to be mounted. 

9. Order the Nos. 2, and 3 to rest and look on. Tell the No. 1 that he is 
to carry out the following actions as they are detailed. On the command 
“ Dismounted Action,” the No. 1 will repeat the order, dismount from 
the carrier and sling the dial sight case over his right shoulder, remove the 
tripod, double forward to the position indicated and mount the tripod as 
already taught. 

10. Order “ Dismounted Action.” 

11. Order Nos. 1 and 3 to rest and look on. Explain, with the No. 2 
practising, the duties of the No. 2 on the command “ Dismounted Action.” 
He will disconnect the carrier condenser tube and attach the ground mount¬ 
ing condenser tube. He will remove the crosshead and elevating joint pins 
and take the gun off the emergency mounting, placing it muzzle to the 
rear diagonally across the rear comer of the armour. He will then sling 
the spare parts case over his right shoulder and dismount from the carrier. 
Demonstrate the method by which No. 2 will carry the gun forward to the 
tripod. He will grasp the gun with his left hand on the right traversing 
handle and his arm over the barrel casing controlling the condenser tube 
and pick up the gun. Tell the No. 2 to pick up the gun as shown and 
double forward to the right side of the tripod with the traversing handles to 
the front, arriving at about the time that the No. 1 is removing the pins. 
Explain with the No. 2 practising that on arrival he will swing to his left 
so that the traversing handles are at the rear, sink down on to his left knee, 
place the gun on the tripod supporting the barrel casing on his right thigh, 
and with his right hand will insert the crosshead joint pin, which he will 
take from the No. 1, finally turning the handle down. He will retain his 
hold with his left hand on the right traversing handle until the pin is home. 
No. 1 will assist by gripping the left traversing handle with his left hand, 
and when No. 2 has inserted the crosshead joint pin, he will insert the 
elevating joint pin. No. 2 will then lie down on the right of the gun facing 
towards it, keeping as close as possible to the No. 1, his head in line with, 
but below the level of the feedblock. 

12. Detail the additional duties of the No. 1. He will level the gun by 
means of the elevating wheel, tap the gun to see that the traversing clamp 
is reasonably tight, and take up the correct sitting position looking straight 
to his front. 

13. Order the Nos. 1 and 2 to rest and look on. Explain with the No. 3 
practising that the No. 3 will carry out the following duties on receipt of 
the command “ Dismounted Action.” He will dismount from the carrier, 
remove the condenser can, aiming post and two liners from the right side 
rack. He will double forward to a point in rear of the gun position and 
will rip open and press down the lids of the liners, and will unscrew, but 
not completely so, the cap of the condenser can. He will double forward 
to the right side of the gun, with the liners in his left hand and the con¬ 
denser can in his right, arriving just as the No. 2 lies down. He will place 


9 


I tie condenser can near the tripod, and the ammunition liners within easy 
u iu h of the No. 2. He will remove the cap of the condenser can, double 
ku k to a suitable position in rear and lie down, keeping the aiming post 
with him. 

14. Detail the additional duties of the No. 1 and 2. Explain that the 
No. 2 will place the liners in line with the feedblock, No. 1 and 2 will load 
11 ic gun, and No. 2 will insert the condenser tube in the can making sure 

ini the end of the tube is below the level of the water. 

“ ( case Firing.” 

15. Tell the squad that on the order “ Cease Firing ” Nos. 1 and 2 will 
unload the gun, and No. 2 will push the liners to the right. The No. 3 will 
double forward to the gun, and remove the condenser tube from the con¬ 
denser can, seize the liners in his left hand and the condenser can in his 
i nr lit. He will then double back a few paces to the rear, place the stores 
on the ground, screw up the cap on the condenser can, replace them on the 
■ .m ier, mount and take up his original position, reconditioning the stores 
if necessary. 

The No. 2 will jump to his feet and after No. 1 has removed the pins, 
i n the gun off the tripod and grasp the free end of the condenser tube to 
pi event it trailing on the ground. He will then double to the carrier, place 
Mm juin diagonally on the rear corner, mount and replace the stores in their 
unginal positions, reconditioning them if necessary. 

No. 1 will act as already taught, and replace his stores on the carrier, 
mount and recondition them if necessary. 

16. Order “ Cease firing.” 

I c am practice. 

1 I xcrcise the squad in the duties of Nos. 1, 2 and 3 in “ Action” 
,iml “ Cease Firing ” as a team. When the gun is in action the instructor 
should discuss:— 

(a) The actions of the No. 1, 2, and 3 and their final positions. 

(b) Whether the tripod is mounted with reference to the direction 

indicated. 

(c) Whether the gun is level and the crosshead is over the rear leg. 

(J) Whether the socket is upright and over the spot indicated. 

(c) Whether the traversing clamp is too loose. 

I /) Whether the elevating and crosshead joint pins are home and 
locked. 

(ft) Whether the jamming handles are really tight. 
h i Whether the ammunition liners are in line and close to the feed- 
block, the condenser can in position, the tube inserted and the 
gun correctly loaded. 

Mount mid dismount gun 

i State that if at any time the gun is not to be loaded, the order given 

ill. “ Mount Gun,” and the actions of the gun team will be the same 
v Mi iin- exception that the gun will not be loaded. 


10 


Correcting a leaning mounting 

19. Detail a gun team and order “ Dismounted Action.” When the gun 
is in action adjust the mounting so that it is leaning. 

20. Explain with Nos. 1 and 2 practising, that to correct a leaning mount¬ 
ing, the No. 1 will order the No. 2 to push or pull the gun according to 
which way the gun is leaning. The No. 2 will grasp the feedblock and act 
as ordered, while the No. 1 will adjust the appropriate tripod leg. State 
that a leaning mounting must be corrected automatically directly it is 
noticed. 

21. Practice will be obtained in correcting leaning mountings during the 
normal practice of “ Action ” and “ Cease Firing.” 

Conclusion 

22. Questions from the squad. 

23. Further practice quickening up all movements. 

24. Sum up main points. 


Lesson 51— CLEAR GUN AND STAND CLEAR 
A INSTRUCTOR’S NOTES 

Aim 

1. To teach certain drills required in connection with safety precautions 
and range work. 

Class and instructors 

2. Squads under squad instructors, assembled in single rank on one 
flank of the stores. 

Periods 

3. One 45-minute period. 

Stores 

4. One gun carrier complete with drill stores. 

Preparation 

5. Stores loaded on the carrier, and if wet, ground sheets should be 
placed on the gun position. 

B CONDUCT OF LESSON 

Preliminaries 

6. Safety precautions. 

Approach 

7. Detail a gun team and order “ Fall In,” “ Mount ” and “ Mount 
Gun.” State the aim of the lesson. (,see para 1). 


11 


• ( liar Gun ” 

()rdcr the No. 1 to fall out, the instructor taking his place and demon- 
,u. thill on the order, “ Clear Gun,” the No. 1 will pull the crank handle 
,,tn the roller, raise the rear cover, remove the lock from the lock guides 
,i case the crank handle forward on to the check lever, allowing the lock 
I,, ,rst on the hinge of the rear cover. He will then report “ No. ... Gun 
i V.ir.” 

Demonstrate that on the order “ Lock In Cover Down ” the No. 1 
will hold the lock with his left hand, pull back the crank handle onto the 
i. il. i with his right hand and, easing the crank handle slightly forward, 
Kinothei the lock into the lock guides with his left hand. He will then close 
,I„. u .u cover, release the crank handle and press the thumbpiece. 

Id Tell the squad that if the order “ Load ” is given when the gun is 
i .. ” the No. 1 will place the lock back in the gun, close the rear cover 
and load. 

i i Practise the squad in “ Clear Gun,” “ Lock in Cover Down,” and 
i ” Note: If the gun is loaded, “ Clear Gun ” will be preceded by 
M Unload.” 

“ Stand Clear.” 

i \ Explain that if the order “ Stand Clear ” is given, the gun team will 
lump to its feet and stand at ease behind the gun—the No. 3 in the rear. 
m ilial sight box and spare parts case will be left on the gun position. 

1 t. 'Icll the squad that if the order “ Take Post ” is given when the gun 
mounted, the gun team will adopt their original positions at the gun. 
i he No. 1 and 2 will sling the dial sight box and spare parts case over their 
In millers and the No. 1 will retest the clamp. 

I I. Practise the squad in “Take Post” and “Stand Clear.” 

( om lusion 

1 s. Questions from the squad, 
i Further practice in any drill which requires it. 


Aim 

|. 


Lesson 52— LAYING AND FIRING 
A INSTRUCTOR’S NOTES 

I o teach the soldier how to lay and fire the gun. 


To teach the soldier how to apply controlled corrections in direct fire. 


< I t mid instructors 

i Nnuads under squad instructors. Squad standing in a semi-circle in 
tr.tr of gun. 


Period* 

i <)nr Tv minute period. Instruction in aiming must have been given 
before this lesson. 


12 


Stores 

5. Gun carrier complete with drill stores and in addition landscape or 
natural targets. 

Preparation 

6 . Stores should be loaded on the carrier and if a landscape target is 
used, it should be erected in a suitable position just in front of the gun 
position. If wet, groundsheets should be placed on the gun positions. 

7. The targets selected by the instructor must be simple, as the aim is 
to teach accurate handling and not recognition of targets. 


B CONDUCT OF LESSON 

Preliminaries 

8 . Safety precautions. 

Approach 

9. Detail a gun team and order “ Fall In,” “ Mount ” and “ Dismounted 
Action.” When the gun is in action order the gun team to fall out. 

10. Give the aim of the lesson (see para 1 ). 

11. Point out a few simple targets to be used during the lesson. 

12. State that when the section commander orders the range to the guns, 
he will use the following terminology:— 

700—Seven hundred. 

1,000—One thousand. 

1,050—One owe fifty. 

1,409—One four hundred. 

1,550—One five fifty. 

2,000—Two thousand. 

2,300—Two three hundred. 

2,350—Two three fifty. 

Adjusting the sights and laying the gun 

13. The instructor will take post as No. 1, one of the squad acting as No. 
2, and will demonstrate that on the range being ordered the No. 1 will raise 
the tangent sight with the left hand and set the slide. When the indication 
followed by the command “ Lay ” is given, he will tap the gun until the 
correct direction is obtained and elevate or depress it until the aim is 
correct. Confirm that when tapping the gun or turning the handwheel, 
the No. 1 will maintain control of the gun by keeping the disengaged hand 
on the traversing handle. 

14. Tell the squad that when No. 1 has a correct aim he will shout “ On ” 
and raise the safety catch. The No. 2 will then raise his left hand in line 
with the No. l’s shoulder as a signal to the fire controller. 

15. State that if the No. 1 fails at any time to understand or hear an 
order, he will call “ Again.” 


13 


16. Practise the squad. 

I sc* of the clamp 

17. The instructor should take post as No. 1 with one of the squad 
. nn k as the No. 2. Explain to the No. 2 that on the order 44 Clamp Two,” 

• will loosen the clamp and on the order “Tighten ” he will tighten it. 

I >» monsirate that if a large change of direction is necessary, the No. 1 will 
oulci 44 Clamp Two ” and when the clamp is loose swing the gun round 
t<> the general direction of the target. He will then order “ Tighten ” and 
shen the clamp is tight test it and lay on the target. 

IH Practise the squad in large changes of direction. 

I ire ” and “ Go on ” 

1 «> I ell the squad that on the order “ Fire ” or “ Go on ” the No. 2 
ill lower his left hand and repeat the order. The No. 1 will press the 
tlmmbpiece home, keeping his eyes on the target to observe the fire effect, 
ilu No. 1 will press and release the thumbpiece as taught in Lesson 2 
checking his aim from time to time. 

'* Slop ” 

’<). State that on the order “ Stop ” the No. 2 will repeat it to the No. 1, 
•.ho will release pressure on the thumbpiece and safety catch. The No. 1 
ill then check his aim and relay the gun if necessary. 

’ I. Practise the squad in 44 Fire,” 44 Stop ” and 44 Go On.” The in- 
ii ik tor should occasionally knock the gun or turn the wheel while No. 1 
i 11 ring to practice the No. 1 in relaying when “ Stop ” is ordered. 

’ State that during firing on the order 44 Stop, Up (or Down)—Hundred 
(in titty) “ Go On,” the No. 1 will adjust his sights accordingly, relay and 
continue firing. 

If the correction is not followed by the order 44 Go On ” the No. 1 
ill icport 44 On ” and await the order to fire. 

\ Practise the squad in controlled corrections. 

< (inclusion 

l Questions from the squad. 

further practice in the whole process of coming into action and 
engaging a target. 

2f» Sum up main points. 



i In icach the soldier to develop a consistent tap so that the line of 
■ ii is displaced 15 minutes each time the gun is tapped. 


14 


15 


Class and instructors 

2. Squads under squad instructors, assembled in single rank on one 
flank of the stores. 

Periods 

3. One 45-minute period. 

Stores 

4. Gun carrier complete with drill stores and MG target. (Small Arms 
Training, Vol V, 1945, Fig 38). 

Preparation 

5. Stores loaded on the carrier, and if wet, groundsheets should be 
placed on the gun positions. 


B CONDUCT OF LESSON 

Preliminaries 

6. Safety precautions. 

Approach 

7. Detail a gun team, order “ Fall In,” “ Mount ” and “Dismounted 
Action.” When the gun is in action order the gun team to fall out. 

8. Give the aim of the lesson (see para 1), and state that the methods of 
engaging all types of machine gun targets depend on the fact that the No. 1 
can bring bursts of fire down 15 minutes of angle apart. It is therefore 
essential that every man can tap his gun consistently through 15 minutes. 

Consistency of tap 

9. Tell the squad that the first stage is to develop a consistent tap with 
both hands. Place the dial sight on the gun and then demonstrate a con¬ 
sistent tap with both hands. 

10. Practise the squad until all of them can tap consistently. The 
instructor must not move onto the next stage until he is satisfied that they 
can do so. 

11. The instructor should bring out the following points:— 

(a) When tapping with either hand the gun must be held correctly 
with the other hand and the safety catch kept raised. 

(b) The eyes must be directed to the front to observe fire. 

Adjusting the clamp 

12. Place out the MG target 25 yards from the gun. State that the 
next stage is to adjust the clamp so that the tap consistently displaces the 
line of sight 15 minutes. Point out that the distance between the bulls on 
the target is equivalent to 15 minutes. 


i * Demonstrate that the clamp is tightened as much as possible by the 
1 behind the gun. By trial and error, he adjusts his tap until he dis¬ 
co ns the strength of tap required to displace the line of sight from one 
bill! to the next. The strength of tap should be ascertained for each hand. 

i ! Practise the squad. When each man has found the strength of tap 
11 i ucd, the instructor should impress on him that he must get the feel 
i Hut tap and remember it. 

i V l oll the squad that the No. 1 can test his clamp in the field by measur¬ 
ing utl' with hand angles two points which are one degree apart. By laying 

... point and tapping four taps towards the other, he should reach the 

ic mhI point if the clamp is correctly adjusted. 

k>. Practise the squad. 

1 upping test 

|7. A method of testing the squad for correct tapping is given below:— 

(a) The instructor will give the No. 1:— 

(i) A suitable range. 

(ii) An indication to a bull in the horizontal row. 

(iii) The direction in which he is to tap. 

(iv) The order to “ Lay ” 

(b) The instructor will explain to the No. 1 that, on the order “ Fire ” 
he will fire a burst, release the thumbpiece, tap the gun and fire 
again. He will continue this procedure until “ Stop ” is ordered. 
The No. 1 will be told that, for this lesson only, he will not check 
his aim on the order “ Stop ” nor relay between bursts. 

(c) The instructor will order “ Fire ” and, after a suitable number 
of taps, “ Stop.” He will then check the aim and discuss the No. 
l’s tapping. 

( (inclusion 

is. Questions from the squad. 

19. Further practice for backward men. 

?0. Sum up main points. 

Lesson 54— TRAVERSING AND SWINGING TRAVERSE 
A INSTRUCTOR’S NOTES 

Aim 

1. To teach the soldier to combine consistent tapping with corrections 

for elevation. 

1 To teach the soldier how to fire a swinging traverse. 

< hiss and instructors 

t. Squads under squad instructors, assembled in single rank on one 
il.mk of the stores. 


16 


Periods 

4. One 45-minute period. 

Stores 

5. Gun carrier, complete with drill stores and MG target. (Small Arms 
Training, Vol V, 1945, Fig 38). 

Preparation 

6 . Stores loaded on the carrier. If wet, groundsheets should be placed 
on the gun positions. 


B CONDUCT OF LESSON 

Preliminaries 

7. Safety precautions. 

Revision 

8 . Detail a gun team, order “ Fall In,” “ Mount,” and “ Dismounted 
Action.” Practise the squad in Lesson 53. 

Approach 

9. Give the aims of the lesson (see paras 1 and 2 above). 

Traversing 

10. State that the No. 1 will on occasion have to engage a target that is 
oblique as opposed to horizontal. 

11. Detail a No. 1 and get him to lay on the centre bull of the oblique j 
rows of bulls. Warn him that on the order “ Fire,” he will carry on exactly 
as taught in the last lesson, but that this time he will re-lay the gun on to the 
bull immediately above or below the point to which the tap has carried it, 
after each tap. 

12. Practise the squad in tapping and re-laying for elevation. Get the 
squad to criticize the consistency of tap of each No. 1. 

Swinging traverse 

13. Explain that this method of traversing is only employed against 
targets at close ranges when the normal method of traversing is likely to 
be too slow. 

14. Demonstrate that the clamp is loosened slightly. The gun is laid 
on one end of the target and, when the thumbpiece is pressed, it is swung 
slowly to the right or left. To do this with control, the upper part of the body 
is left rigid and the gun swung by the weight of the body rather than by 
moving the forearms. 

15. The technique of firing a swinging traverse cannot be well attained 
without using live ammunition as the recoil helps in moving the gun. The 
squad should therefore be practised in firing a swinging traverse on the 
range when the opportunity arises. 


17 


< i mu I union 

I r» Questions from the squad. 

I /. Sum up main points. 

I i on 55— APPLICATION OF DIRECT FIRE ORDERS 
A INSTRUCTOR’S NOTES 

Aim 

! in teach the soldier how to act on the various parts of a direct fire 
Order. 

U%% and instructors 

/ Squads under squad instructors. The squad should be in single rank 
U iniul and between the two guns. 

I’rrUKl* 

i I wo 45-minute periods. Lesson 68 must have been taught before 
linn lesson. 

Mores 

i I wo gun carriers complete with drill stores, portable blackboard, 
ill .H and landscape or natural targets. 

Pm* partitions 

l Ik instructor should select targets of various types and decide on 
fin i - 1 before the lesson begins. The guns should be mounted 6-8 yards 
•I n i l acing the arc. If wet, groundsheets should be placed on the gun 

|k»itions. 

B CONDUCT OF LESSON 

Prrllmlmiries 

(< Safety precautions. 

/ I n i.iiI two gun teams, order “ Fall In,” “ Mount,” and “ Dismounted 
\.ii"ii.” Organize the arc of fire and order the gun teams to fall out. 

H < .isc the aim of the lesson (see para 1). 

Approach 

0 i mg the blackboard, show the sequence of a direct fire order:— 

(n J Designation. 

i (> Uangc (including wind allowance if necessary). 

Indication of the target, 
i./' Method of fire. 

(f) Lay. 

1 1 i Sale wind allowance. 

- Kate of fire. 

(h) Order to fire. 









18 


Types of targets 

10. With the blackboard, explain the various types of static MG targets:— 

(a) Point target . A target that appears to the naked eye to have no 

appreciable width. 

(b) Traversing target. A target that appears to the naked eye to have 

width. The difference in range to each end must not exceed 
50 yards. 

(c) Depth target. A target with a difference in range to each end of 

more than 50 yards. It may or may not have width. 

11. Indicate one or two targets and question the squad as to what type 
they are. 

Point targets 

12. Detail a No. 1 and 2 for each gun and order “ Fall In ” and “ Take 
Post.” Divide the rest of the squad into two groups, one behind each gun. 

13. State that a Point target is always engaged with right and left two- 
taps to make sure that the target is hit. Explain how the No. 1 applies 
“ Right and left two taps.” ( see Lesson 96). 

14. Explain that the side wind allowance is ordered in taps up to one 
degree. If the allowance is of one degree or more, it is given in degrees. 1 

15. Give a fire order onto a Point target, explaining the duties of No. 1 
at each stage of the order:— 

Order. Action of No. 1. 

(a) Designation. 

(b) Range. 

(c) Indication. 

(d) Right and left two taps, Lay 


(e) Wind right (or left) 
.taps. 

or 

Wind right (or left) 
.degrees. 


Becomes fully alert to receive the 
fire order. 

Raises the tangent sight and sets 
the slide. 

Follows the indication and locates 
the target. 

This order indicates to the No. 1 
that he must engage the target with 
right and left two taps. The No. 1 
grasps the traversing handles cor¬ 
rectly, raises the safety catch and 
reports “ On.” 

Taps the number of taps ordered 
and looking through the sights, 
picks up the new point of aim.l 
Reports “ On.” 

With the aid of handangles picks 
up the new point of aim, relays 
and reports “ On.” 


19 


(f) Rate of fire. (i) If “ Rapid ” is ordered, he 

then prepares to fire rapid. 

(ii) If none is mentioned, he then 
knows that normal fire is re¬ 
quired. 

(g) “ Fire.” Presses the thumbpiece. Taps 

right and left two taps, checking 
his aim whenever he has tapped 
onto the point of aim. 

. State that the No. 2 must at all times be prepared to take over as 
i He must therefore know the range on the gun, the target and wind 

vance. 

. Practise the squad in engaging Point targets. After each target is 
l, get the rest of the squad to criticize the action of No. 1 and No. 2. 

versing targets 

I \plain the method of engaging a traversing target. ( see Lesson 99). 

1 State that on the order “ Traversing Lay,” the No. 1 will lay on the 
te of the target, raise the safety catch and report “On.” Emphasize 
vs hen firing, the line of sight is re-aligned after each tap. 

1 Pr actise the squad in engaging traversing targets. 

fh targets 

i i \ plain the method of engaging a depth target, (see Lesson 100). 

l ell the squad that the method of fire will be either “ Halfway up, 
i a ml left two taps, Lay,” or “ Traversing Lay,” depending on whether 
t. n get has width or not. On either order, the No. 1 will lay half way 
ilie target, raise the safety catch and report “On.” When firing, if 
illway up, right and left two taps Lay,” has been ordered, the No. 1 
maintain his point of aim halfway up throughout. If “Traversing 
is ordered, the No. 1 will realign his point of aim onto the target 
i each tap. 

Pi aetise the squad in engaging depth targets of both types, 
icltision 

i (Questions to and from the squad. 

ll \ mpic practice will be required to ensure that the squad can respond 
ucl> and rapidly to fire orders. 

I I X IN 56—CONTROLLED CORRECTIONS, INDIRECT 
(ELEVATION) 

A INSTRUCTOR’S NOTES 

tdi the soldier to apply corrections for elevation to the dial 




20 


21 


Class and instructors 

2. Squads under squad instructors assembled in single rank on the left 
of the gun. 

Periods 

3. One 45-minute period. Lessons 36, 38, 40 and 41 should have been 
taught before this lesson. 

Stores 

4. Gun carrier complete with drill stores. 

Preparation 

5. Detail a gun team and get the gun into action; when the gun is in action 
fall out the gun team, attach the dial sight, and plant the aiming post cor¬ 
rectly. Set a suitable range on the range drum, level the bubble and adjust 
the lensatic sight onto the aiming post. 

B CONDUCT OF LESSON 

Approach 

6. Give the aim of the lesson (see para 1 above). 

7. The instructor should take post as No. 1 and explain that the gun is 
already laid to engage a target. He should then order “ Fire.” 

Controlled corrections (Elevation) 

8. Demonstrate that on the order “ Stop, Up (or Down)...Hun¬ 

dred (or Fifty),” the No. 1 will adjust the range drum as ordered. He will 
then elevate or depress the gun by turning the handwheel until the bubble 
is central and adjust the lensatic sight onto the aiming post. He will then 
report “ On.” 

9. Practise the squad in controlled corrections, using two guns if available. 
Conclusion 

10. Questions from the squad. 

11. Further practice for backward men. 

12. Sum up main points. 

Lesson 57—CONTROLLED CORRECTIONS, INDIRECT 
(DIRECTION) 

A INSTRUCTOR’S NOTES 

Aim 

1. To teach the soldier to apply corrections for direction to the dialsight. 
Class and instructors 

2. Squads under squad instructors assembled in single rank on the left 
of the gun. 


I'crUxt* 

» One 45-minute period. 

Alare* 

i Gun carrier complete with drill stores. 

I*r« partition 

V I > tail a gun team, and get the gun into action. When the gun is in 
mi, i.til out the gun team, attach the dial sight and plant the aiming post 

Epn tls Set a suitable range on the range drum and a switch on the 
B ft t ion drums of the dial sight. Level the bubble and adjust the lensatic 
• n to the aiming post. 

B CONDUCT OF LESSON 

ApfNfoiich 

[ 6 < «ivc the aim of the lesson (see para 1). 

/ Mu- instructor should take post as No. 1 and explain that the gun is 
•I .i*1n laid to engage a target. 

< mmi miled corrections (direction) 

H state: that normally a correction for direction is given as a new direction 
»l i i left of zero. When correc.ing on the observed strike of the bullets, 
|Ik>v r\er, the group commander may give the corrections as a cumulative 
iHtlcr. 

V (>ulcr“ Fire ” and demonstrate that on the order “ Stop.... 

a. ires .minutes, Right (or left) of zero,” the No. 1 will set the 

uieh on the dial and deflection drums without reference to the reading 
Alrr ids <m the sight. He will then tap the gun until the lensatic sight is 
|l I an the aiming post, re-level the bubble and report “ On ” 

10 Practise the squad. 

11 I >t monstrate that if the order was “ Stop, Right (or left). 

«* s .minutes,” the No. 1 would add the amount to the reading 

OH tin appropriate deflection drum and carry on as already taught. 

\ : Practise the squad. 

(Wm linns for direction and elevation 

Ij. state that occasionally a correction may be necessary for both 
tflffttinn and elevation. 

11 I >rim nistrate that on the order “ Stop Right (or left).degrees 

minutes, Up (or down).hundred,” the No. 1 will set his 

j 0*1 i. i a *t n r d i ngly and tap the gun until the lensatic sight is on the aiming 
mkh( H< ill then re-level the bubble check again for direction and report 

l# Ow •• 

; I). Pi a* tisc the squad in corrections for direction and elevation. 










22 


23 


Conclusion 

16. Questions from the squad. 

17. Further practice for backward men. 

18. Sum up main points. 

Note 

19. The instructor must ensure that the squad reach a high standard of 
handling the dial sight before teaching Indirect Fire Drill. 


Lesson 58—EMERGENCY ACTION 
A INSTRUCTOR’S NOTES 

Aim 

1. To teach the gun team how to engage opportunity targets when on the 
carrier. 

2. To teach the signals used for the control of carriers. 

I 

Class and instructors 

3. Squads under squad instructors. If possible all squads should work 
in the same area controlled by a supervising officer. Carrier drivers are 
required for this lesson. 

Periods 

4. One 45-minute period. 

Stores 

5. Gun carrier complete with drill stores. 

Preparation 

6. Four or five men will be required to represent targets. They should' 
be concealed around the training area and instructed to stand up in the 
open when signalled to do so by the supervising officer. The supervising 
officer should arrange a system of signals. 


B CONDUCT OF LESSON 

Approach 

7. Give the aim of the lesson (see para 1 above). 

Emergency action 

8. Detail a gun team, order “ Fall In ” and “ Mount ” and explain that 
whenever the carrier is on the move, each gun number is responsible for 
watching a certain arc. No. 1 will watch the front and Nos. 2 and 3 their 
own flanks and the rear. If any member of the gun team sees a target 
within his arc, he will report “ Target front ” “ Target left,” “ Target 
right,” or “ Target rear,” the direction being in relation to the carrier itself. 


'> \iatc that when a target is reported, the No. 1 will order “ Stop ” 

i" loll the gun team to carry out the following actions as they are 
iU tailed 

Hi*- No. 2 will release the emergency mounting, lower the travelling 
•lay 11 a I | i s the gun to the number who is best placed to engage the target. 
Th« inn vs ill then take the gun, load and fire. When the target has been 
•W .1.1 k* will unload and order “ Drive on ” The No. 2 will then connect 
the gun to the travelling stay. 


i i I mphasize the following points:— 

I’he gun will not be loaded while travelling. If the belt has been 
partly used, it will be passed through the feedblock to assist in 
quick loading. . 

/» The gun number who sees the target must be prepared to indicate 
it to the firer. 

Personnel not firing will keep below the armour, but will be pre¬ 
pared to help in maintaining the gun in action. 

,/ When the gun is on the emergency mounting, the traversing clamp 
must always be loose. 

i Piactise the squad in engaging targets, first with the carrier moving 
i l . and then with the carrier at speed. 


( nr 

| 

MU 


rler signals 

Slate that these signals are used to control carriers on the move. 


i I 


__ o ___ The 

nr. signals are the minimum required to ensure control. Additional 
can be added if required for particular circumstances, 
instrate these signals:— 

44 Close on me” Yellow flag flown. 

“ f ollow me ” Yellow and green flags flown. 

44 Stop ” Red flag flown. 

41 Deploy ” Green flag waved from side to side. 

Ml signals will be acknowledged by each carrier. 

Piactise the squad in identifying signals. 


omlusion 

i * ( niostions to and from the squad. 


Lesson 59—PREPARE FOR CARRIER ACTION 
A INSTRUCTOR’S NOTES 

Aim 

i i. teach the gun team to prepare the carrier for carrier action. 


< |««« iiml Instructors 

2. S i i.i*l > under squad instructors, assembled in single rank on one 
|Unl' * ■ i tlu* carrier. Carrier drivers will be required. 



24 


Periods 

3. One 45-minute period. 

Stores 

4. One gun carrier complete with drill stores. 

Preparation 

5. All stores correctly placed in the carrier. 

B CONDUCT OF LESSON 

Preliminaries 

6. Safety precautions. 

Approach 

7. Give the aim of the lesson (see para 1 above). State that the drill to 
be taught is used when it is necessary to change from the emergency 
mounting to the crosshead mounting before coming into action in a hull 
down position. 

“ Prepare for carrier action 99 

8. Detail a gun team and order 44 Fall in ” and 44 Mount ” 

9. The instructor should now detail the drill and order the gun numbers 
to carry it out stage by stage. Tell the squad that when the No. 1 is informed 
that carrier action is to be employed he will order 44 Carrier Action ” 

The No. 1 will then:— 

(a) Disconnect the carrier condenser tube from the gun. . 

(b) Remove the crosshead from the tripod and place it in the carrier 
socket with the elevating gear to the gear. 

(c) When the gun has been mounted, attach the ground mounting 
condenser tube. 

The No. 2 will:— 

(a) Remove the crosshead and elevating joint pins. 

(b) Dismount the gun, place it, muzzle forward, on the left side of the 
engine cowling. 

(c) Mount the gun on the crosshead and insert the pins. 

(d) Swing the gun round until it points over the rear right corner of 
the carrier. 

The No. 3 will:— 

(a) Remove the liner from the emergency mounting. 

(b) Lower the travelling stay and remove the emergency mounting, 
placing it across the rear of the engine cowling. 

(c) Tighten the traversing clamp, when the gun has been swung 
around. 

(d) Prepare a belt of ammunition. 

(e) Unscrew the cap of the condenser can and insert the ground 
mounting condenser tube. 


25 


10. Tell the squad that the gun team will automatically change back to 
i hr emergency mounting after 44 Cease firing ” is ordered. The actions of 
i u paring for carrier action are simply reversed. 

11. Practise the squad in preparing for carrier action with the carrier, 
fttationary. 

1 / Practise the squad with the carrier on the move first slowly and 
then at speed. 

( (inclusion 

13. Questions from the squad. 

14. Sum up main points. 


Lesson 60—TESTS OF ELEMENTARY TRAINING 

Aim 

!. The following tests have been devised to assist officers in testing the 
i Hu iency of their men in elementary training. It is important that these 
!.->ts should not be considered solely as competitions against time, for 
11 though speed is necessary, accuracy is the first essential. No man should 
therefore be passed as efficient unless all the points are correctly carried 
nut. even though he may complete them in the standard time. Men who, 

I II 1st passing the tests for accuracy slightly exceed the standard time, should 
i • tested again before being put back for further instruction. 

Notes for testing officers 

The tests will be carried out in strict accordance with the detailed 
instructions given under the appropriate lessons, for unless the smallest 
details are insisted upon, the time limit will not be applicable. In carrying 
nut tests time can be saved if the first detachment complete Tests 1 to 4 
4 .uisccutively; the remainder can be carried out as convenient. 

hit should be noted in Tests 1, 2, 3 and 4 that numbers are being tested 
in their own particular duties as No. 1 or No. 2 , and the tests should not 
i m* i rrai ded as a test of the No. 1 only. Therefore, a man is not considered 
have passed these tests until he has passed in the duties of both numbers. 

i It is essential for each man to have passed all tests before proceeding 
nil the machine gun course. 

• I he conditions of the test will be carefully explained before the test 
U-t'.'ns, including the time allowed, and when the time allowance begins 
.uni finishes. A timekeeper will be appointed. A stop watch should be 
u*cd if available. 

Stoics required:—As laid down in the appropriate lessons. DP 
guns must be used for Tests 9, 10 and 11. In no circumstances 
will service guns be used. 







1 










30 


31 


CHAPTER 11 

ADVANCED MACHINE GUN HANDLING 
INTRODUCTORY NOTES 

1. The lessons contained in this chapter provide an essential link bet wee 
gun drill and field training. In that, the soldier is taught to adopt the dril 
he has already learnt to active service conditions, and to combine fieldcra 
with speed and accuracy in handling the gun. 

2. These lessons should normally be taught to the soldier after he h 
passed the tests of elementary training. 

3. During these lessons all stores should be at service weights. 


Lesson 61—MANHANDLING OF LOADS—SHORT CARRY I 
A INSTRUCTOR’S NOTES 

Aim 

1. To show the soldier various methods of carrying machine gun stor 
into action or crawling with them across exposed ground. 

Class and instructors 

2. Squads under squad instructors. 

Periods 

3. One 45-minute period. 

Stores 

4. Gun, tripod, condenser can and tube, dialsight, spare parts case an 
six liners. 

Preparation 

5. All stores will be at service weights, ie, barrel casing filled and line 
weighted with stones etc. 

Dress and equipment 

6 . Battle order. Stens and rifles. 


B. CONDUCT OF LESSON 

Approach 

7. Give the aim of the lesson {see para 1 above). On occasions it may t 
necessary for the gun team to carry the gun and stores across expose 
ground. Any comfortable method may be adopted, provided it does nc 
damage stores and does not give away to the enemy the fact that a machiij 
guri is coming into action. The methods given below are suggested. 


flip**! 

* 1 K-inonstrate that the tripod can be carried, walking or doubling, 
M ' under the arm or in front of the body. It can also be carried on 
m i .ick with the front leg over each shoulder. In this case, a liner can 
m mg over each front leg. 

I ■' Demonstrate that when crawling, the tripod can be dragged along by 
m ir leg. Care must be taken not to damage the dial. 

[ i <' Practise the squad. 

I gun 

I 11 Show the methods of carrying the gun when walking or doubling. 
I he carried across the body with the barrel casing on the right forearm 

m\ ith the left hand gripping the traversing handle and the free end of 
Ei"! ulenser tube. Alternatively it can be carried at the short trail grasping 
m ■ losshead bracket with the right hand. 

[ 1 Demonstrate that when crawling, the No. 2 can lie on his right side 
M ilie weight of his body supported by his right arm, and with the right 
birr bent. He can rest the breech casing on his right thigh and hold the 
■ rl casing with his left arm. He can then crawl forward using his right 
B and left leg. The sliding shutter will be closed. 

i 1 Practise squad. 

Mints and condenser can 

III State that for short distances the maximum load is two liners and 
p . ondenser can, or four liners. They may be carried with two liners in 
m hand and two liners or the condenser can in the other. A further 
fc <ltod is to pass a strap or rope through the handles of the liners and 
■•m! them over the shoulder. 

I 1 Demonstrate a convenient method of crawling. The handle of a 
u i may be hung over the toe of each boot. The No. 3 can then crawl 
m i. side pulling the condenser can with one hand and the liners with his 
m t Another method is for the No. 3 to push the liners and condenser can 
p iid in front of himself. 

I i < Practise squad, 
wo man load 

i State that if it is required to move a gun which has already been 
><" mted to a new position a short distance away, it can be done by two 


With the aid of one of the squad demonstrate that the stores are 

by the No. 1 with the right hand on the rear'legand his left hand holding 
two liners on the left front leg. 

by the No. 2 with his left hand on the right front leg and the condenser 
an in his right hand. Before moving the gun in this fashion, it must 
tie unloaded. 





32 


[ To face page 32 


19. Again with the aid of one of the squad demonstrate that the g 
when mounted can be dragged along by the No. 1 and 2 crawling and gras 
ing the front legs. 

20. Practise the squad in two-man loads. * 

Conclusion 

21. Questions from the squad. 

22. Sum up main points. 


Lesson 62— MOUNTING THE GUN ON EXPOSED GROUNDS 
A INSTRUCTOR’S NOTES 


Aim 


1, To teach the soldier how to mount the gun in the lowest position. 


Class and instructors 

2. Squads under squad instructors. 


Periods 

3. One 45-minute period. 



I Mate 10—Mounting the gun in the lowest service position. 


Stores 

4. Gun, tripod, condenser can and tube, dial sight, spare parts a 
and two liners. 


Preparation 

5. All stores will be at service weights. 

B CONDUCT OF LESSON 

Approach 

6 . Give the aim of the lesson (see para 1 above). State that the mountii 
used during drills is not always the most suitable under active service co 
ditions, owing to the necessity for concealment and the unevenness of tj 
ground. 

7. Demonstrate the method of adjusting the tripod to the lowest positiq 
The No. 1 keeping himself as low as possible, and lying on the left of 1 
tripod, will loosen the front legs, and by leaning the tripod first to one si 
and then the other, will open the legs until all three are flat on the groui 
Then, holding the rear leg on the ground with the inside of his right kn 
he will loosen the jamming handle of the rear leg and close the rear leg 
the socket by pulling the socket to the rear. He will then move the socl 
one tooth on the rear leg clutch plates and tighten the rear leg jammi 
handle. Next the front legs are brought upwards and to the rear ai 
tightened over the rear leg. 

8 . Recondition the tripod and practise the squad in setting it for tl 
lowest position. 



Plate No. 11 —Gun mounted in lowest service position. 






wmm 


% v 


33 


iMoont gun,” Duties of the No 1 

t i M'lain with the No. 1 practising, that when “Mount gun ” is 
■f >1. he will adjust the tripod as in para 7 and will then crawl forward 
mh -iw tripod on his right to the gun position, and lying on his left side 
M«i! iclcase the front legs and raise the socket until it is upright, and 
pt lamp up the front legs. Finally he will remove the elevating and 
id joint pins, and remain lying on his left side with his head to the 

Bfll, 

II" < >rdcr No. 1 to rest and detail a No. 2. 
pi <mi gun,” Duties of No 2 

■I i -plain with the No. 2 practising, that he will close the sliding 
Kb and crawl forward with the gun, timing himself to arrive at the 
Hi" 'ii when No. 1 has mounted the tripod. He will then open the sliding 
■1 and, assisted by the No. 1, place the gun on the tripod. The No. 1 
11 it the crosshead joint pin and the No. 2 the elevating joint pin. 

0 I will then swing round, keeping as low as possible, and lie on his 
tk Mill his legs to the front, right leg crossed over the left, and the No. 2 
I hr i >n his right side supporting the No. 1 in the back with his right thigh 

■ i i the neck with his left knee. 

M int gun,” Duties of No 3 

|2 State that the No. 3 will act as in gun drill, except that he will crawl, 

■ 'in behind the Nos. 1 and 2, he will pass his kit to the No. 2 to put 

■ i i non, and will then crawl away to a position in rear. 

1) i Mail a No. 3 to carry out his duties in “ Mount gun.” 
pfatiount gun” 

14, Ml the squad that on the order “Dismount gun” the gun can 
mm be dragged back on the tripod by the No. 1 and 2 and dismounted 
Kt »«>vcr, or the gun can be removed by the No. 2 and the tripod dragged 
Ek the No. 1. The No. 3 will act as in gun drill except that he will 
nil. 

|S < hder “ Dismount gun ” 

■ft, i i .u iise the squad in mounting and dismounting the gun in the 
Mil position. 

pm lotion 

17 • hu stions from the squad. 

IO . i miher practice if necessary. 

IP, Sum up main points. 


■jib3—MOUNTING THE GIJN ON UNEVEN GROUND 

A INSTRUCTOR’S NOTES 

■I 

L ! n .k'h the soldier how to mount the gun on sloping ground and 
■nl -i nous types of cover. 




Ground 


11. Explain and demonstrate and then practise the squad in mounting 
he gun in the following positions:— 

(a) On the side of a slope. 

(b) On the top of a narrow bank—with the aim of obtaining maximum 
command. 

(c) On the side of a bank with the barrel casing just clearing the top. 

(d) In a hedgerow. 

(e) In a shell hole or similar depression. 


( (inclusion 

12. Questions from the squad. 

13. Sum up main points (see para 9). 


Lesson 64-BRINGING THE GUN INTO ACTION MAKING 
USE OF COVER 
A INSTRUCTOR’S NOTES 

Aim 

1 To teach the gun team how to bring the gun into action with the 
minimum exposure to enemy observation and the maximum cover from lire. 


Class and instructors 

2. Squads under squad instructors. 


Periods 

3. One 45-minute period. 


Dress and equipment 
7. Battle order with stens and rifles. 


Stores 

4 . Gun, tripod, condenser can and tube, dial sight, spare parts case and 
six liners, one gun flag. 


Preparation 

5. The instructor must decide on:— 

(a) An arc of fire and a target. 

(b) The gun position. 

(c) The ground from which the enemy can observe the gun position. 

(d) The section rendezvous. 

Ground 

6 . An area of broken ground is required for this lesson. 


4. Gun, tripod, condenser can and tube, dial sight, spare parts ca 
and two liners. 


5. An area of rough broken ground should be selected for this lesson! 


B CONDUCT OF LESSON 

Approach 

6 . Give the aim of the lesson {see para 1 above). 

Mounting the gun on uneven ground 

7. Mount the tripod correctly on a piece of uneven ground. Withdra 
it and place it on level ground, so that the squad can see how the legs coulJ 
be adjusted beforehand to suit the ground on which the gun is to be mounted 

8 . Select another piece of ground and mount the tripod behind cov|e' 
with the legs set to fit the ground. Then move the tripod into position ami 
make final adjustments to correct the mounting. 

9. Point out that when the gun is mounted the following conditions mud 
be fulfilled:— 

(a) The mounting must be as low as possible consistent with obtainim 
a view of the arc of fire and the target. 

(b) The position of the rear leg is governed by the shape of the ground 
irrespective of the direction in which the gun has to fire. Whd 
mounted on a steep slope the rear leg should be pointing down 
the slope. 

(c) The socket must be mounted upright, and over the spot indicated 

(d) The shoes only, and not the legs, must be bearing on the ground 
(The entrenching tool may be used to remove any obstruction; 

(e) The ground supporting each shoe must be sufficiently firm I 
ensure that the shoes do not slip during firing. 

(f) No part of the tripod must interfere with the elevating wheel, I 
covering the arc of fire. 

(g) The gun numbers must adopt positions which conform with th 
ground and avoid unnecessary exposure. 

10 . Practise the squad in mounting the gun on uneven ground. 


Class and instructors 
2. Squads under squad instructors. 


Periods 

3. One 45-minute period. 


Stores 



36 


B CONDUCT OF LESSON 

Approach 

8 . Give the aim of the lesson (see para 1 above). 

9. Explain the normal method by which a section commander bring 
his guns into action:— 

The section is led to the section RV by the senior No. 1. There, it i 
met by the section commander’s driver mechanic who orders “ Dis 
mounted action 99 and directs the Nos. 1 up to the section commander 
The section commander signals up both Nos. 1 and indicates eacl 
gun position and the direction in which the guns will point. If th< 
guns arrive in the section area at different times, he gives orders to 
each No. 1 in turn. The section commander then controls the highei 
numbers coming into action. When the guns are mounted, hi 
organizes the arc of fire and gives a fire order. 

10 . Stress that good team work within the section is essential. It is onlj 
when all members of the section work in complete harmony with th( 
section commander and with each other that a high degree of efficiency is 
obtained. 


Bring the gun into action 

11. Paint a very simple tactical picture, for example:— 

“ The enemy are holding the high ground there. Our troops are held 
up there and there. The section has been ordered to support an 
attack by covering fire onto there.” 

12 . Detail a gun team and send them to the section RV. Send the remain* 
mg members of the squad to a position in the relative direction of the enem] 
to observe and report all movements seen. Despatch one of the squac 
back to the RV to order “ Dismounted action ” and send up the No. 1. 

13. The instructor will act as section commander and control the gun 
team getting into action. When they are in action, he will organize the 
arc of fire and engage the target. 

14. Call in the spare members of the squad and let them inspect the gun 
position. Describe how the gun team got into action, and get the observers 
to report on what they saw. 


15. Discuss the positions of the various gun numbers as follows:—- ! 

No. 1—With regard to concealment and freedom of action. 

No. 2 With regard to concealment, ability to observe the section 
commander’s signals and ability to carry out his duties at the gun. 
No. 3 With regard to concealment, local protection and ability to 
maintain ammunition supply. 

16. Fall out the gun team and discuss:— 

(a) The move forward of the gun numbers with regard to concealment 
and speed. 

(b) The method of mounting the gun. 

(e) The suitability of the mounting for the gun position. 

(a) The ability of the gun to do its task. 

(e) The position of the stores at the gun. 

(f) How the gun position can be improved by digging and camouflage. 


37 

i Practise the squad in coming into action on various types of 
I "iind. 

' Stress that six unused liners must always be maintained in the gun 
t'oMtion. 

< mulusion 

i ' Questions from the squad. 

’<). Sum up main points. 

Lesson 65— BRINGING THE CARRIER INTO A 
HULL-DOWN POSITION 
A INSTRUCTOR’S NOTES 

Aim 

i To teach the gun team how to bring a carrier into action in a hull- 
0 «»v\n position. 

* 1 • s and instructors 

Squads under squad instructors. Carrier drivers are required for this 

k "it. 

Periods 

1 One 45-minute period. 

Ntorcs 

i One gun carrier complete with drill stores. One gun flag. 

Prcpo ration 

I he instructor must select:— 

(a) A target. 

I b) The carrier position. 

< i The position of the enemy, 
i J) A section RV. 

l ^ ^ £un flag should be placed out to indicate the approximate carrier 

|***t i mu. 

< riKind 

/ A suitable area for a hull-down position must be chosen. 

Ann . .iiid equipment 
* Hattie order. 

B CONDUCT OF LESSON 

m *i* mu 

Ml. I > tail a gun team, and order “ Prepare for Carrier Action ” When 
■P gin lias been prepared, order the gun team to fall out. 









38 


Approach 

10 Give the aim of the lesson (see para 1 above), and state that carrier] 
action is normally employed when there is only one target to engage, when 
speed into action is essential and when the ground is suitable. 


Hull-down position 

11. The instructor should represent No. 1 and control the driver while 1 
he backs the carrier into a hull-down position. Let the squad view this and 
point out:— 

(a) That the gun can engage the target. 

(b) That only the barrel casing and the No. l’s head are exposed abov< 
the crest. 

(c) That the right rear corner of the carrier is facing the target. 

This ensures that the No. 1 is in a comfortable position to fire thi 
gun and gives the No. 1 the maximum protection from fire. 


Coming into action 

12. Explain the normal method by which the section commander brings 
his carrier into action:— 

He selects the approximate carrier positions and marks these with gur 
flags. The section is brought up to the section RV by the senior No 1 
and prepares for carrier action on the move up. On arrival at tnj 
section RV, the section commander’s driver meets the No. s 1 and 
directs them up to the section commander on foot. 

The section commander tells the No.’s 1:— 

(a) The target. 

(b) Estimated range. 

(c) Approximate carrier positions. 

The No’s 1 then double back to the position where they intend tc 
turn their carriers and signal them up. When the earner arrives th 
No. 1 turns it round and mounts. The No. 3 dismounts, doubles ol 
and lies down facing a flank. The No. 1 then, by signals and orders I 
his driver, backs his carrier towards the gun flag. When doing thi 
he observes his target at gun height and orders the driver to sto| 
when correct hull-down position is reached. 

13. Detail a gun team and order “Fall in” and “Mount” Ordej 
them to change back to the emergency mounting send the gun team baf 
to the section RV, and tell the No. 1 to order “ Prepare for Carrier Action ^ 


14 Send one of the squad as section commander’s driver to order u 
the No. 1 on foot. The instructor will then represent the section con 
mander and control the gun team coming into action. When they are i 
action, he should order “ Load ” and engage the target. 


39 


15 Let the remainder of the squad view the carrier position. Fall out the 
ii team and get the squad to discuss and criticize their actions. Particular 
1 *• ntion should be paid to the following points:— 

(a) The selection of the position for turning the carrier. 

(b) The control of the carrier by the No. 1 and the reactions of the 
driver. 

(c) Whether the position is hull-down and whether the gun can do its 
task. 

16. Practise the squad in coming into carrier action. 

( (inclusion 

17. Questions from the squad. 

18. Sum up the sequence of coming into action. 


CHAPTER 12 
VISUAL TRAINING 
INTRODUCTORY NOTES 

system of training 

1. The methods taught in Infantry Training Pamphlet No. 2, Fieldcraft 
( \ll Arms), Chapter I must be the groundwork of the machine-gunner’s 

isual training. Owing to the fact that machine guns are fired at longer 
i.mgcs than other small arms and to the closer grouping of the weapon, 
> veil minor inaccuracies in indication and recognition may result in the 
i • u get being missed. Further, it is often necessary to fire machine guns 
muler conditions in which any inaccuracy might endanger our own troops, 
l or these reasons, the methods taught in Infantry Training Pamphlet No. 2 
.i i c amplified here. 

standard of training 

2. The following standard of training must be reached:— 

(a) Officers, NCOs and rangetakers must be capable of:— 

(i) Organizing an arc of fire. 

(ii) Using range-cards. 

(iii) A high standard of indication. 

(iv) Issuing fire orders. 

(v) Judging distances up to 2,000 yards. 

(b) Gun numbers must be capable of:— 

(i) Recognizing rapidly and accurately any target indicated. 

(ii) Indication of simple targets. 

(iii) Applying fire orders. 

(iv) Judging distances up to 1,000 yards. 

Imlicntion and recognition 

The method of teaching indication and recognition and the organiza- 
i M of an arc of fire, to officers, NCOs and rangetakers is given in Lesson 
• - of this pamphlet. 










40 


The method of teaching recognition and simple indication to gun numbers 
will be found in Infantry Training Pamphlet No. 2, Lesson 2. 

It should be noted that the fingers-breadth and hand-span method is 
not sufficiently accurate for machine gun fire control and is replaced by 
the degree measurement method. 

All gun numbers must know how to measure degrees by hand angles 
and should check their own personal hand angles at frequent intervals. 

Instruction in recognition must only be given by NCOs who have 
reached a high standard in indication. 

Judging distance 

5. The method of teaching judging distance is given in Infantry Train¬ 
ing Pamphlet No. 2, Lessons 4, 5 and 6. 

6. Officers, NCOs and rangetakers should be required to pass the 
following test:— 

(a) Judge the distance to two objects, both between 600 and 1,000 yards 

(b) Key range two objects not more than 1,000 yards away and not 
more than 300 yards from a known range. 

(c) Key range two objects between 1,500 and 2,000 yards but not more 
than 300 yards from known ranges. 

For test (a) the error should not exceed 50 yards. 

„ „ (b) „ „ „ „ „ 100 yards. 

„ „ (c) „ „ „ „ „ 150 yards. 

Five out of the six ranges must be within the permissible error. 

7. Gun numbers should be required to pass tests (a) and (b) only. 
Three out of the four ranges must be within the permissible error. 

Fire orders 

8. The method of teaching the issue of fire orders is given in Lesson 97 
of this pamphlet. 

9. The method of teaching the application of fire orders is given in 
Lesson 55 of this pamphlet. 


Lesson 66— INDICATION AND RECOGNITION 
A INSTRUCTOR’S NOTES 


1. To teach how to indicate and recognize targets accurately and rapidly. 

2. To teach how to organize an arc of fire. 


Class and instructors 

3. The lecture should be given by an officer to a class not exceeding 30. 
The practical period should be taught by squad instructors. 


41 


Periods 

4. One 45-minute lecture. 

One 45-minute period for practice. 

Stores 

staff ^° r * eCtUre: ^ ac kboard and chalks, landscape target and pointer 

For practical period:—Gun, tripod, director, pointer staff and hand- 
angle scale. 

Preparation 

6. For lecture:—Draw diagrams to illustrate clock ray, use of reference 
points and auxiliary reference points and degree measurement. Draw 
right ana left of arc and near limit on landscape target. 

For practical period:—Gun and tripod mounted. Select suitable 
targets and reference points. 

Equipment 

7. Class to have binoculars. 


B CONDUCT OF LESSON 

Approach 

8 * j Gi y e I* 1 ? aim ? f the lesson and emphasize the importance of a high 
standard of indication and recognition in machine gun fire control. 

Organization of the arc of fire 

9; ? tate t?iat an arc of fi re 1S an area of ground over which it is desired 
that the guns can bring fire to bear from a given position. 

th » lai \ dsca P e target, explain that the arc is defined by a 
Right of a , rc .j and „ a , * of . arc ” which ar e imaginary lines passing 
through easily identified objects in the landscape on the right and left of 
the arc. 

r Musing the landscape target, explain that on occasion a “Near 
hnut is indicated. This implies that only the ground beyond this line 
and within the arc need be considered. 

12. Ensure that the class know what reference points are. State that 
reference points will be given short definite names by which they can be 
rapidly recognized by all gun members. 

Reference points should not be on the right or left of arc the near 
limit nor the sky-line. 

13. Demonstrate on the landscape target how to organize an arc of fire 
It is usually done as follows:— 

“ Look to your front. 

Half right a large wood—right edge, Right of arc. 

Half left a prominent red house—Left edge, Left of Arc. 

Near Limit—the river running across the front. 


42 


Reference points:— 

Centre of arc—a church—right bottom corner known as CHURCH. 
Quarter left, two poplars—right poplar known as POPLAR. 

Preliminaries to indication 

14. Tell the squad that the fire controller, before indicating a target, 
will decide on:— 

(a) What he is going to call it, ie, what the target looks like to the 
naked eye. A fence may look like a dark strip, a red house in the 
distance may look black. 

(b) The simplest, quickest and most certain method of indication. 

Direct indication 

15. State that whenever possible, the gun itself should be laid on the 
target to be indicated. If the situation allows it, this is the most efficient 
method of indication. 

Alternatively an instrument such as a director or pointer staff may be 
used. If the object to be indicated is unmistakeable, the approximate right, 
centre or left of arc can be of great assistance to denote a general direction. 

eg, “ Right of arc—white house.” 

“ Centre of arc—bright yellow patch.” 


Reference and auxiliary reference points 

16. Show how to indicate targets using reference points. State that 
auxiliary reference points may be used in conjunction with reference Points, 
to indicate difficult targets. They should be easily recognizable and should 
be close to the target to be engaged. 

17. Tell the squad that the last target may be used as an auxiliary reference 
point if it is near to the new target. 


Reference; 

Point 



Fig 7 



Clock ray method 

18. Make sure that the class are conversant with the clock ray method 
(see Infantry Training Pamphlet No. 2, Lesson 2). 

Degree measurement 

19. Explain that the distance in degrees from a reference point or auxiliary 
reference point to the target may be of great assistance in indicating a 
difficult target. The distance in degrees can be measured with the graticules 
of the binoculars or by hand angles by the fire controller, but the gun 
numbers can only measure by hand angles. Individual hand angles should 
he determined in all service positions, ie, standing, sitting or lying down. 


Auxiliary Reference 
Point 


Targets with width 

20. State that when indicating a target with width, the words “ Right 
limit ” and “ Left limit 55 will be used to indicate the extent of the target. 

Example 


Reference 

Point 


Left 

Limit 




44 


45 


Depth targets 

21. Tell the squad that with depth targets, the “ Near end 99 and “ Far 
end ” are indicated in a similar manner to that show r n in para 20. 

Failure to recognize the target 

23. State that if the No. 1 fails to recognize the target, he will report 
“ Again ” The fire controller must then decide whether the No. 1 did not 
hear the order or whether he failed to understand it. If the fire controller 
considers the No. 1 failed to understand the indication, he must indicate 
the target again by a different method. 

23. Questions from the class. 

24. Sum up main points. 

Practice 

25. Check the hand angles of the squad in all positions with a prepared 
scale. 

26. Practise the squad in organizing an arc of fire. Detail a No. 1 and 
2 to take post. 

27. Lay the director on a simple target and let the remainder of the 
squad view it. 

28. When the squad have decided on their indication, order one of the 
squad to indicate the target. The No. 1 will lay the gun according to the 
indication. 

29. Check the aim and discuss the indication given. 

30. Practise the squad as above with all types of targets. The targets 
selected should be such as to employ the various methods of indication. 

Conclusion 

31. Questions from the squad. 

32. Sum up main points and discuss progress. 


Lesson 67—OBSERVATION OF FIRE AND RANGING 
A INSTRUCTOR’S NOTES 

Aim 

1. To teach how to observe the strike of the bullets and then to correct 
the fire onto the target. 

Class and instructor 

2. This lesson should be taught to all ranks before firing Part III—MMG 
course. Class preferably not larger than 30 under an instructor. 

Periods 

3. One 45-minute lecture. 


Nuircs 

i Blackboard and chalk, 
reparation 

[ Draw the diagrams given in the text of the lesson on the blackboard. 
B CONDUCT OF LESSON 

Approach 

[ o. Give the aim of the lesson (see para 1 above). State that observation 
M lire means the estimation, by the strike of the bullets, of the position of 
Kc beaten zone in reference to the target. Ranging means the correction 
elevation and direction tequired to lay the beaten zone on the target. 

I 7. Tell the class that observation of fire and ranging are normally carried 
Lii by the fire controller. In heavy fighting, where the unit control may 
ik down, control by the firer will become necessary. Except in favour- 
(ii circumstances little reliance can be placed on observation by the firer 
It ranges over 800 yards. Although the rangetaker and fire controller are 
kimarily responsible for observing fire, all numbers should report strike 
m and when they see it. 

< observation of fire 
. Explain:— 

The possibility of observation of strike will depend on a variety of 
factors of which the following are the most important:— 

(a) The nature of the soil around the target. Sand, dry plough, 
water, short scrub, chalk subsoil and any powdery surface gener¬ 
ally give good results, but damp ground, long grass, rocky country 
(except at short ranges) and undergrowth make observation more 
difficult. 

(b) Visibility as affected by light, mist or mirage. 

(c) The position of the sun; when the sun is low it is easier to pick 
up strike than when it is high. 

(d) Wind: A high wind tends to blow away the dust caused by the 
strike before it can be observed. 

(e) The range to the target. 

I T The action of the enemy will often indicate whether fire effect is 
King obtained, eg, cessation of enemy fire. It should be realized that, 
m battle, the smoke and dust caused by artillery and mortar fire will often 
Impede accurate observation. In addition, if other units are engaging 
target, it is not easy to identify the strike of one’s own guns; an 
appreciation of the time of flight of the bullets will help the fire controller 
Eo identify the strike of his guns. 

I 10. It is a fundamental principle in observation of fire only to accept 
it lormation that is definite or certain, and not to act on what is uncertain 
|nt no more than probable. Thus, before any deduction can be made 
- tiding the exact position of a beaten zone with reference to the target, 
it is necessary to decide whether only a small portion of it is falling on 
the ground, which gives observation of strike, and, if so what portion of it. 


46 


47 


In Fig 10 below, strike is observed on a sandy patch below the targi 
I his may be the bottom of a beaten zone falling on the target or it may bl 
the top of a beaten zone falling short of the target. 


' \ 

I ^ TAflftfcT 



1 ) 
l ) 

\ I 

V l 


11. In the engagement of targeB 
with width or depth, the beaten zonB 
of the guns of the fire units are distrl 
buted over the target according to thJ 
method of fire employed. 


In these circumstances it is nof 
possible always to determine that fui 
fire effect has been obtained, owing i 
the difficulty of checking each indivi^ 
dual beaten zone. 

12. It may sometimes happen t 
an area of ground close to the target 
specially suitable for observation. 

In these circumstances it may resi 
in quicker and more economical fii 
effect to direct the fire on to this ar< 
in the first instance, correcting it on ti 
the target as soon as strike has b< 
observed. 

This method should not be adopt 
where the element of surprise fire 
required. 

13. Stress that when observing foi 
strike, it is best to search an area] 
around the target systematically, rathei 
than look at the target. 


Fig 10 14.£Questions to and from the clasjl 

Ranging 
15. Explain:— 

It is required to bring the centres of the beaten zones into their corre 
positions on the target as soon as possible after the first burst. Th 
task may entail corrections for elevation, or for direction, or boti 
The general principles to be observed are:— 

(a) Only correct when it is certain that full fire effect is not beinj 
obtained. 

(b) When making corrections, unless the correction required ca 
be determined accurately, over estimate rather than under estimate, 
always provided that the safety of our own troops allows it. 

It should be appreciated, that when the target is on rising ground, the 
tendency will be to underestimate the corrections required. Where 
there is no guide to the amount of correction required, the fire 
controller should attempt to bracket the target, rather than cree 
towards it by a series of inadequate corrections. 

(c) Corrections will always be given by the fire controller excepw 
when gun control has been ordered. 


ructions for line 

State that observation of machine gun fire is usually carried out 
,, a position near the guns. Corrections can therefore be measured 
itelv with binoculars or hand angles. 

n ctiops for elevation 

It is rarely possible to estimate the exact amount by which the 
- ii zone is falling over or short of the target. When the whole of a 
u n zone is seen, it will give a useful guide to the amount of correction 
i ssary, as the length of beaten zones can be found in the range tables, 
example, it might be estimaled that the distance between the centre of 
icn zone and the target is twice the length of the beaten zone seen. 


placed OP 

When the observer is well to a flank of the guns, it must be appre- 
n d that bullets which are falling over or short will appear to be falling 
iii or left, of the target. In these circumstances, to ascertain the actual 
i ilion of the beaten zone with reference to the target, it is necessary to 
itiulise the line guns-target and judge accordingly (see Fig 11 below). 


Strike 

An 


> 


/ / 
/ / 

/ / 

/ / 

/ / 

/ Z 
/ / 

/ / 

/ / 

/ ' 

/ / 


(!j Observer 


Target 


Guns 


Fig 11 


48 


49 


Reporting strike 

19. State that strike will be reported to the fire-controller as follows 
“ Strike on target ” 

“ No strike ” 

“ Strike 100 yards short ” 

“ Strike 2 degrees left ” 

Strike 2 degrees right and 100 yards high/’ 

20. Questions to and from the class on ranging. 

Practice 

21. With the limited amount of ammunition available for trai 

prac .ice in observation of fire and ranging cannot normally be carrie 
separately. Every opportunity should therefore be taken 'to practice 
controllers, gun numbers and especially range-takers whenever firing 
live ammunition. s 




Conclusion 

22. Questions from the class. 

23. Sum up main points. 


CHAPTER 13 
SECTION DRILL 

Lesson 68— DISMOUNTED ACTION AND CEASE FIRING 

.. A INSTRUCTOR’S NOTES 

Aim 

cease T firing aCh ^ personnel of the section to come into action and 

2. To teach the soldier the machine gun field signals. i 

1 

Class and instructors 

3. Squads under squad instructors, assembled in single rank on i 

flank between the two carriers and the section position. I 

Periods 

4. One 45-minute period. 


5. Section drill stores, ie, two carriers complete with guns, trioods c 
nfrf Sei K CanS anc ^ tubes ’ dla Jjsights, spare parts cases, six liners per gun’sp, 
parts box, aiming post. Belts with drill cartridges, and two gun flags 


I gnition 

\ 1 lie two carriers will be drawn up side by side and about 15 yards 
ft The spare parts box will be laid out in between the two earners, 
tenting its position on the section commander’s carrier. 

«.nn stores should be loaded on the carriers, and the gun flags planted 
HI 15 yards apart and 15 yards in front of the carriers. If w'et, ground- 
p | should be placed out on the gun positions. 

B CONDUCT OF LESSON 

■ntinaries 

I ‘vifety precautions, 
launch 

I (iive the aim of the lesson (.see paras 1 and 2 above). 
m signals 

I Demonstrate the following field signals to the squad:— 
m(a) Senior NCO ... Right arm at angle of 45 

degrees from the side. 

I (b) All NCOs to re- (a) above repeated several 
report . times 


c) More ammunition Right arm extended hori- 
required. zontally 


J) Carriers to come Right arm at angle of 45 

forward. degrees from the side and 

left arm extended horizon¬ 
tally to the right of the body 

(e) Water required ... Right arm at angle of 45 

degrees above the horizon¬ 
tal and left arm extended 
horizontally to the left of 
the body 

(f) Action ... ... Both arms fully extended 

raised from the side to a 
position level with the 
shoulders and lowered again 
—repeated several times 
rapidly 


(g) Cease firing ... Arm swung in circular 
motion in front of the body 



>n? >^o 









50 


51 


(h) Prepare to fire ... Hand raised above the 
shoulder 


(j) Fire . Hand cut away to side 


(k) Stop 


Arm waved horizontally 
across the body 


10. Practise the squad in recognizing the signals. 



“ Cease firing ” 

18 Tell the squad that when the section commander receives the order 
to cease firing, he will signal for the carriers to come forward and then 
older “Cease firing” 

19. Explain that all numbers will act as in Lesson 50. In addition the 
respective Nos. 3 will replace the spare parts box and assist the drivers 
in reloading any unused ammunition. 

The drivers will bring forward their vehicles, double to the gun position 
and bring back any ammunition left by the Nos. 3. 

20. Order “ Cease firing 99 


21. Practise the squad in “Dismounted action” and ‘‘Cease firing ” 
If there are any surplus members of the squad, they should be detailed to 
watch and be prepared to criticize each gun team. 

Discuss with the squad after each practice. 


“ Dismounted action ” I 

11 Tell the squad that the position of the carriers represents the seefi CL 
RV, where the section wall be met. by the section commander s drivB 
who will order “Dismounted action ” and direct the Nos. 1 up to tfl 
section commander, represented by the instructor. 

12 Detail two gun teams and drivers and a section commander’s driveil 
order “ Fall in ” and “ Mount ” The section commander s driver will fa 
in in front of the instructor, who should stand midway between the gu 
positions. 

13. Explain that on the order “ Dismounted action,” the gun teams w 
act as in Lesson 50. 

14. Tell the section commander’s driver to order “ Dismoimted actioi 
As the Nos 1 arrive on the position, the section commander should india 
the gun positions and the direction in which the guns are to point. ■ 

15 When the guns are in action with two liners each as in Lesson 
explain that the drivers of the gun carriers will remove all necessary stofr 
and ammunition from the carrier and double forward with them to 
convenient position for the Nos. 3. Six liners per gun will always be remove 
from the carriers unless otherwise ordered. When the drivers have biou$ 
up the remainder of the ammunition the Nos. 3 will take toward t| 
more liners to the gun position. In addition the No. 3 of the odd sut 
Sm (No 1 No 3 or No. 5 gun) will carry forward the spare paj 
box to his position. The Nos. 3 will then take up positions inThe rear at 
to the outer flanks of the positions, keeping two liners with them, ■ 
Nos. 3 of the odd sub-sections also having the aiming post, 

16. Order the drivers and Nos. 3 to carry on. 

17 State that the section commander’s driver should now lead 
vehicles back to the vehicle position, where they would camouflage tf 
and then take up a position to watch for signals from the section area 

This will not be necessary in section drill. 


Conclusion 

22. Questions to and from the squad. 

23. Further practice if required. 

24. Sum up main points. 


Lesson 69—CARRIER ACTION 
A INSTRUCTOR’S NOTES 

Aim 

1. To practise the section in coming into a hull-down position. 

Class and instructors 

2. Squads under squad instructors, assembled in single rank on the 
(lank between the two carriers and the section position. 

Carrier drivers are required for this lesson. 

Periods 

3. One 45-minute period. 

Stores 

4. Two carriers complete with section drill stores. 

Preparation 

5. The instructor must select :— 

(a) A target. 

(b) The two carrier positions. 

(c) The position of the enemy. 

(d) The section RV. 

6. Gun flags should be placed out to indicate the approximate gun 

position. 



52 


53 


B CONDUCT OF LESSON 

Approach 

7. Give the aim of the lesson (see para 1 above). State that no new teach! 
ings or drill are taught in this lesson. The lesson is intended to follow fronll 
Lesson 65 by practising with two carriers forming a section. 

Revision 

8. Revise, by question and answer, the drill for occupying a hull-down 
position (see Lesson 65). 

Carrier action 

9. Paint a simple tactical picture. 

Detail two gun teams and a section commander’s driver. 

10. Order “ Fall in ” and “ Mount ” Send the section back to the 
section RV, ordering them to prepare for carrier action. 

11. Despatch the section commander’s driver back to the section RV 
to send the Nos. 1 up on foot. 

12. The section should now occupy the position. 

13. Fall out the gun teams and discuss the occupation. 

Conclusion 

14. Questions from the squad. 

15. Further practice if time allows. 

16. Sum up main points. 

Lesson 70— FIRE DISCIPLINE 
A INSTRUCTOR’S NOTES 

Aim 

1. To practise the section in coming into action and engaging targets. 1 
Class and instructors 

2. Squads under squad instructors, assembled in single rank on the! 
flank between the two carriers and the section position. 

Periods 

3. One 45-minute period. 

Stores 

4. Two carriers complete with section drill stores. If no natural landscape! 
available, landscape targets can be used, preferably one for each gun. 


Preparation 

5. The two carriers will be drawn up side by side and and about 15 yards 
apart. The spare parts box will be laid out in between the two carriers, 
representing its position on the section commander’s carrier. Gun stores 
should be loaded on the carriers, and the gun flags planted about 15 yards 
apart, and 15 yards in front of the carriers. If landscape targets arc being 
used they should be placed just in front of the gun flags. 


B CONDUCT OF LESSON 

Preliminaries 

6. Safety precautions. 


Approach 

7. Give the aim of the lesson (see para 1 above). Explain that this lesson 
consists of practice in the whole operation of coming into action and 
engaging a target. It is, in fact, a combination of Lessons 70 and 55. 

l ire discipline 

8. Detail two gun teams and drivers and a section commander’s driver* 

i der “ Fall in ” and “ Mount ” 

9. Exercise the section in “ Dismounted action.*’ 

10. Leave the Nos. 1 and 2 at the guns and order the remainder to join 
the spectators. 

11. Organize the arc of fire. The instructor should take post as the section 
»ommander on the left of the guns. 

12. Split the spectators into two groups, one behind each gun. Order 
the spectators to watch, and be prepared to criticize the actions of the Nos. 

I and 2 and to check aims. 

13. Engage one or two targets. Discuss the actions of Nos. 1 and 2. 

14. Exercise the section in “ Cease firing.” 

15. Practise the squad in coming into action and engaging all types of 
target, including allowances for side winds. 

16. When a satisfactory standard has been reached, exercise the section 
with the section commander on the right of the guns. Signals should then 
he passed on by a No. 3 acting as a connecting link. 


< '(inclusion 

17. Questions from the squad. 

18. Sum up main points. 




54 


Lesson 71 — REPLACEMENT OF BREAKAGES 
A INSTRUCTOR'S NOTES 

Aim 

1. To teach the gun teams the drill for replacing parts that are broken. 
Class and instructors 

2. Squads under squad instructors, assembled in single rank on the 
flank between the two carriers and the section position. 

Periods 

3. One 45-minuie period. 

Stores 1 

4. Two carriers complete with section drill stores. 

If no natural landscape is available, landscape targets can be used, 
preferably one for each gun. 

Preparation I 

* The two carriers will be drawn up side by side and about 15 yards 
apart. The spare parts box will be laid out in between the two carriers, 
representing its position on the section commander s carriei. Gun stores 
should be loaded on the carriers and the gun flags planted about 15 yards 
apart 15 yards in front of the carriers. If landscape targets are being used 
they should be placed just in front of the gun flags. 


B CONDUCT OF LESSON 

Preliminaries 

6. Safety precautions. 


Approach 

7. Give the aim of the lesson (see para 1 above). 

8. Detail two gun teams and a section commander’s driver, order 4 Fal 
in,’’ “ Mount,” “ Dismounted action ” 


9. Engage a target, order “ Rest ” and move the squad to one gun. 




Replacement of breakages 

10. Explain the system of replacing breakages:— 

(a) Where the spare part required is carried in the spare parts casi 
The No. 2 replaces the broken part from the spare parts case, 
the lock is broken, he calls up the No. 3 and hands it together wi 
the wallet to him. The No. 3 carries out the necessary repair a 
returns the lock and wallet to the No. 2. 

(b) Where the spare part required is not in the spare parts case. 

Tlie No. 2 calls for the spare part from the spare parts bo*- 1 
No. 3 takes the spare part from the box and gives it to the No. 




55 


11. State that:— 

(a) All broken parts must be retained in the spare pans box for 
examination. 

(b) The No. 1 is responsible for seeing that the correct supply of 
spare parts is maintained. 

(c) As spare parts are used up from the spare parts case, they must 
be replaced from the spare parts box. 

12. Practise the squad in replacing breakages. The instructor can do 
this by engaging a target and exercising the Nos. 1 in stoppages caused by 
breakages. 

Example: —4th position, 2nd phase, caused by a broken firing pin. 

Special stoppage caused by a broken feedblock. 

Conclusion 

13. Questions to and from the squad. 

14. Sum up main points. 


Lesson 72—OBSCURATION OF THE TARGET 
A INSTRUCTOR’S NOTES 

Aim 

1. To teach the section the arrangements necessary to enable it to con¬ 
tinue engaging a target which is likely to become obscured. 

Class and instructors 

2. Squads under squad instructors, assembled in single rank on the 
flank between the two carriers and the section position. 

Periods 

3. One 45-minute period. 

Stores 

4. Section drill stores, /V, two carriers complete with guns, tripods, con¬ 
denser cans and tubes, dial sights, spare parts cases, six liners per gun, 
spare parts box, aiming post, belts with drill cartridges, two gun flags. 
If no natural landscape available, landscape targets can be used, preferably 
one for each gun. 

Preparation 

5. The two carriers will be drawn up side by side and about 15 yards 
apart. The spare parts box will be laid out in between the two carriers, 
representing its position on the section commander’s carrier. Gun stores 
should be loaded on the carriers, and the gun flags planted about 15 yards 
apart, 15 yards in front ol the carriers. If w 7 et groundsheets should be 
placed out on the gun positions. If landscape targets are used they should 
be placed just in front of the gun flags. 














56 

B CONDUCT OF LESSON 

Preliminaries 

6. Safety precautions. 

7. Detail two gun teams and drivers, and a section commander’s driver. 
Order “ Fall in,” 44 Mount” and “ Dismounted action 99 Engage a target. 
Order 44 Rest ” and order the drivers to join the spectators. 

Revision 

8. Revise Lesson 42 by question and answer. 

Approach 

9. Give the aim of the lesson (see para 1 above). Tell the squad that there 
are two drills required, one when the obscuration is likely to be of short 
duration (eg, temporary smoke screen), and one when the obscuration is 
likely to last some time (eg, fog rising or prolonged artillery concentration 
on the target). 

Temporary obscuration 

10. State that, when the target is likely to be obscured for a short time, 
the section commander will order 44 Stop ” and “ Pick up aiming mark 99 

11. Explain that on that order the No. 1 will:— 

(a) Re-lay on the target. 

(b) Lower the tangent sight. 

(c) Record the QE. 

(d) Pick up an aiming mark with the lensatic sight. Any clearly 
defined object at a short range from the gun will do. 

12. Order 44 Position ” 44 Fire ” and practise the Nos. 1. 

13. Explain that the No. 2 will:— 

(a) Set the tripod dial at zero. 

(b) Note the aiming mark. 

(c) Note the reading on the angle of sight drum. 

14. Practise the Nos. 2. 

15. Explain that when the target can again be seen, the section com¬ 
mander will order 44 Stop 99 44 Remove dial sights 99 The Nos. 1 will do as 
ordered, and the section commander will then give the necessary orders to 
continue firing by direct means. 

16. Practise the squad in temporary obscuration. 

Prolonged obscuration 

17. State that when the target is likely to be obscured for a long time, 
and provided sufficient warning is obtained, the section commander will 
order:— 

“ Stop,” 44 Unload,” 44 Clear gun,” 44 Out aiming post ” 


57 

18. Explain that on the order 44 Out aiming post 99 : — 

(a) The No. 1 will close the rear cover, place on the dial sight record 
the QE and align the lensatic sight on the aiming post. 

(b) The No. 2 will set the tripod dial at zero and note the angle of sight. 

(c) The No. 3 of the odd sub-section will put out the aiming post 
centrally about 15 yards in front of the guns. 

19. Order 44 Go-on ” and then 44 Stop,” 44 Unload,” 44 Clear guns,” 
Lt Out aiming post ” When the Nos. 1 have aligned their lensatic sights 
order 44 Load ” and 44 Go-on ” 

20. Explain that when the target can again be seen, the Nos. 1 will act 
on the section commander’s orders as in para 15. When the aiming post 
is in use it will be left out in front of the guns until 44 Cease firing ” is 
ordered, when ” Clear gun ” will be ordered before 44 Cease firing ” 

21. Order 44 Stop ”— 44 Remove dial sights ” 


Conclusion 

22. Practise the squad in prolonged obscuration. 

23. Questions to and from the squad. 

24. Sum up main points. 


Lesson 73— CHANGING FROM DIRECT FIRE TO NIGHT 
FIRING AND VICE VERSA 

A INSTRUCTOR’S NOTES 

Aim 

1. To teach the section the preparations required to enable the guns to 
continue engaging a target by night. 

2. To teach the section how to change back to direct fire at daylight. 
Class and instructors 

3. Squads under squad instructors, assembled on one flank of the gun 
position. 

Periods 

4. One 45-minute period. 

Stores 

5. Two carriers complete with section drill stores, aiming lamp and 
three hand lamps. 

Preparation 

6. Stores and carriers laid out for section drill. Aiming lamp and hand 
lamps with the stores representing the section commander’s carrier. 




58 

B CONDUCT OF LESSON 

Preliminaries 

7. Safety precautions. 

Approach 

8. Give the aim of the lesson (see para 1 above). 

9. Detail a section and get it into action. State that it will soon be getting 
dark and that the section is required to engage a target during the night. 

Changing to night firing 

10. State that the section commander will lay the guns on the target 
and send back No. 3 of the odd sub-section to bring up the night firing 
stores. Send the No. 3 to fetch the aiming lamp and three hand lamps. 

11. Tell the squad that the section commander will then order “ Prepare 
for night firing ” 

Explain that on that order, the No. 1 will lower the tangent sight and 
record the QE. The No. 2 will zero the tripod dial. The No. 3 of the 
odd sub-section will hand one lamp to the section commander and one 
to the other No. 3. Both Nos. 3 will then take post on the left of their guns 
ready to assist their Nos. 1. 

12. Order “ Prepare for night firing ” 

13. Order “Unload,” “Clear gun” 

14. Explain that the section commander will order “ Out aiming lamp ” 
and on that order:— 

(a) Nos. 1 will close the rear cover. 

(b) No. 3 of the odd sub-section will put out the aiming post, place 
on the lamp, secure the box, attach the line to the switch and 
bring the reel back to the section commander. 

(c) Nos. 1 will then align their lensatic sights on the aiming lamp. 

15. Order “ Out aiming lamp ” 

16. Tell the squad that the guns are now laid to engage the target by night 
and that, at the appropriate time, the section commander will order 
“ Load ” and “ Fire ” 

Return to direct fire 

17. Explain that when dav breaks, the section commander will order:— 
“ Prepare for direct fire,” “ Unload,” “ Clear guns,” “ Remove dial 

sights,” “ In aiming lamp ” 

The Nos. 1 will unload, clear guns and zero and remove dial sights.: 
The No. 3 of the odd sub-section will bring in the aiming lamp and box, 
re-wind the line and replace it in the box, and collect the hand lamps. When 
an opportunity arises, he will return the night firing stores to the carrier. 

18. Practise the squad in changing over to night firing and back to direct 
fire. 


59 


( inclusion 

19. Questions to and from the squad. 

20. Sum up main points. 


Aim 


Lesson 74-RELIEF OF GUNS BY NIGHT 
A INSTRUCTOR’S NOTES 


1. To teach the method of relieving a section in action by night. 


Class and instructors 

2. Squads under squad instructors. 


Periods 

3. One 45-minute period. This Lesson is best taught initially in daylight. 
I ater, practice should be given in darkness. 

Stores 

4. Two guns, tripods, dial sights, condenser cans and tubes, aiming 
post and aiming lamp. Two hand lamps, eight liners and one set of night 
line pegs. 

Preparation 

5. One gun will be in position, dial attached and laid on its fixed line, 
lensatic sight adjusted on the aiming lamp, by means of the deflection 
drums. The other set of gun stores should be laid out a few yards in rear. 


B CONDUCT OF LESSON 

Preliminaries 

6. Safety precautions. 

Approach 

7. Give the aim of the lesson (see para 1 above). Tell the squad that on 
occasion a section which is in action may be relieved by another section. 
Such relief will normally take place at night, when guns are laid on fixed 
lines. The relief of each gun is carried out separately to ensure that one 
gun is always in action. The section commander will indicate which gun 
is to be relieved first, but the actual relief of the gun is the responsibility 
of the Nos. 1 as the section commanders will be occupied in handing and 
taking over stores, information and orders. 

8. State that, in this lesson, the relief of one gun only will be considered. 
The relief of the other gun would take exactly the same form. 

Relief of guns 

9. Detail a No. 1, 2 and 3 for each gun. Explain, using the members of 
the squad. 



60 


10. The No. 1 of the outgoing gun will check to make sure he is on his | 
fixed line. The angle on the deflection drums and the QE will be noted by 
the No. 1 of the incoming gun, who will set his dial sight accordingly. 

11. The No. 3 of the outgoing gun will remove the ammunition and 
condenser can to a flank. 

12. The No. 1 of the outgoing gun will take off* his dial sight and, with 
the aid of the No. 2, remove the gun and crosshead from the tripod, taking 
care not to disturb the tripod. 

The No. 1 then places a gun peg and collar under the tripod so that 
the cross on the collar coincides with the cross-wires at the bottom of the 
tripod. The No. 3 will assist by shining a shaded lamp on the collar. If 
the tripod has no cross-wires, the ribs inside the socket must be used as a 
guide. 

The No. 1 of the outgoing gun will then remove his tripod without I 
disturbing the gun peg and collar. 

13. The No. 1 of the incoming gun will remove the cross-head and 
mount the tripod accurately over the collar. He will then stamp in the! 
legs and ensure that the crosswires coincide with the cross on the collar.* 
He will replace the cross-head and tighten the traversing clamp. The 
Nos. 2 and 3 will mount the gun and bring up the gun stores. 

14. The No. 1 of the incoming gun will put on his dial sight, checking! 
that it registers the correct readings, and tap the gun until the lensatic 
sight is aligned on the aiming lamp. The gun is now laid for direction. V 
When the bubble is levelled it will be laid for elevation. He will then half I 
load and press the thumbpiece. 

15. When both guns of the section are laid for elevation and direction, I 
the aiming lamp will be removed. The relieving section will then put! 
out its own aiming lamp. The Nos. 1 will then align their lensatic sights I 
on the aiming lamp using the deflection drums and taking care not to J 
disturb the guns. The angle of switch and the QE will be noted on a piece I 
of paper to be kept in the dial sight boxes. 

16. Practise the squad in reliefs by night, one gun relieving the other. 1 
The instructor can test the accuracy of the relief by checking the laying of j 
the gun with the tangent sight. 

Conclusion 

17. Questions to and from the squad. 

18. Sum up main points. 


CHAPTER 14 
INDIRECT FIRE DRILL 

INTRODUCTORY NOTES 

Organization 

1. In indirect fire, the fire of four guns is required in order to engage J 
targets effectively. Two of the machine gun sections of the machine gun I 
platoon therefore work together as the machine gun group under an officer 1 


61 

I or NCO of the machine gun platoon who is referred to as the group com- 
I mander. 

I Class and instructors 

2. In all indirect fire lessons, three instructors are required to teach and 
I upervise the actions of the gun numbers. One will act as instructor and 
I «roup commander. The other two will act as senior and junior section 
I commanders and will also assist in supervising the work of the gun numbers. 

3. The instructor should normally stand at least 30 yards in front of the 
I guns. Both he and the senior section commander should use megaphones. 

I Senior and junior section commanders 

4. Throughout this chapter, duties are allotted specifically to the senior 
I and junior section commanders. The senior section commander will be 
I i n charge of the gun line and is responsible for transmitting the orders of the 
I woup commander to the guns. The junior section commander will gener- 
I illy assist in supervising the gun line and transmit the signals of the senior 
I cction commander to the guns. 

5. At the beginning of each drill, the section commanders will fall in in 
I front of the centre of the gun line facing the instructor. The instructor 
I will then give the following information to them:— 

(a) The direction in which the guns are to be mounted. 

(b) The number of liners to be off-loaded. 

(c) The v.ehicle position. 

I The senior section commander will then double to a position in the centre 
I of the gun line and extend his right arm in the direction in which the guns 
I ire to point. The junior section commander will signal up the carriers. 
I As they arrive, he will direct them to their respective gun flags and pass 
I on the information in (b) and (c) above. He should not allow the carriers 
I to halt while passing on this information. 

6. When the guns are in action the section commanders will take post 
I on the flanks of the gun line and kneel on one knee—senior section com- 
I mander on the flank of No. 1 gun, junior section commander on the flank 

of No. 4 gun. 

7. Section commanders will acknowledge all orders by raising their 
hands. If a repetition is required they will keep their hands raised. The 

I senior section commander will repeat back all orders to the group com¬ 
mander. 

8. Before each drill, the gun line will be prepared as follows:— 

(a) Gun positions marked:— 


No. 1 gun . 

. Red flag 

No. 2 gun . 

. White flag 

No. 3 gun . 

. Blue flag 

No. 4 gun .. 

. Yellow flag 


3—3027 



63 


62 

These flags will be 15 yards apart laterally and will be staggered. No. 
gun will always be on the right. 

(b) The four gun carriers to be used will be formed up about 1C 
yards to the flank and rear of the position. 

(c) A vehicle position will be selected in rear of the position. 

Practice 

9. As proficiency is obtained, the drills should be practised making u; 
of cover. Particular attention should be paid to avoid the exposure ( 
personnel and vehicles on the crest line. 


Lesson 75—“ MOUNT GUN ” AND “ CEASE FIRING ” 

A INSTRUCTOR’S NOTES 

Aim 

1. To teach the drill for coming into action in indirect fire and ceaj 
firing. 

Class and instructors 

2. Three instructors and a squad of at least 12 and preferably not moi 
than 24. Carrier drivers will be required. The squad should be assemblf 
in two ranks in front of the gun line. 

Periods 

3. One 45-minute period. 

Stores 

4. Four carriers complete with drill stores, four gun flags and tw 
megaphones. 

Preparation 

5. See Introductory Notes. 

B CONDUCT OF LESSON 

Preliminaries 

6. Safety precautions. 

Approach 

7. Give the aim of the lesson ( see para 1 above). Explain paras 1, 2, 4, 
and 8 of the Introductory Notes. 

“ Mount gun ” 

8. Detail four gun teams and order “ Fall-in ” and “ Mount ” Sei 
the spectators to one flank of the gun line. 

9. Issue orders to section commanders. When the carriers arrive behin 
their gun flags, order the gun teams to remain still. 


10. State that when the carriers arrive at the gun flags, the Nos. 1 will 
filler “For indirect fire—Mount gun” The Nos. 1 will dismount, sling 
•in dial sight box over their right shoulders and double forward to their 
iun flags with the tripods. They will mount the tripods over the gun 
flags and with the exception of No. 1 of No. 1 gun, stamp the legs in. When 
iIk guns are mounted, they will place on their dial sights. 

11. Order the Nos. 1 to carry on. 

12. State that the Nos. 2 and 3 will act as in section drill. The Nos. 3 
of Nos. 1 and 3 guns have the additional duty of planting the aiming posts 
«cntrally between 1 and 2 guns and 3 and 4 guns. 

13. Order the Nos. 2 and 3 to carry on. 

14. Tell the squad that the drivers assist in off-loading the ammunition 
•» in section drill. When their carriers are unloaded they drive off to the 
vehicle position ordered. 

15. Order the drivers to carry on. 

16. Order “ Stand clear 99 and fall in the squad in the centre of the gun 

line. 

" Cease firing 99 

17. Explain that when the senior section commander receives “Cease 
firing 9 - from the group commander, he will acknowledge it. He will then 
ngnal the carriers forward. The drivers will bring their carriers to a 
position in rear of their respective guns. 

I 18. Detail fresh gun teams and order “Fall-in,” “Take post” and 
Load ” 

19. Signal “ Cease firing ” 

I 20. State that as the carriers are on the way up, the senior section com¬ 
mander will order:—“Unload,” “Clear guns,” “Remove dial sights” 
The Nos. 1 will act as in gun drill, reporting their guns clear in order. 
I ell the senior section commander to carry on. 

21. Explain that as soon as the senior section commander sees that all 
ilia 1-sights are in their boxes, he will order “ Cease firing ” All gun 
numbers will then act as in section drill. The Nos. 3 will collect their aiming 
posts and the section commanders will collect the gun flags and zero posts. 

22. Tell the senior section commander to order “ Cease firing ” 

23. Practise the squad in “ Mount gun ” and “ Cease firing.” 

( (inclusion 

24. Questions from the squad. 

25. Further practice to increase speed. 

26. Sum up main points. 




65 


64 

Lesson 76— PARALLELING 
A INSTRUCTOR’S NOTES 

Aim 

1. To teach the drill of putting the guns on parallel lines for indirect fir( 
Class and instructors 

2. Three instructors and a squad of at least 12 and preferably not mor 
than 24. Carrier drivers will be required. The squad should be assemble* 
in two ranks in front of the gun line. 

Periods 

3. One 45-minute period. 

Stores 

4. Four carriers complete with drill stores, four gun flags, two mega 
phones, and two zero posts. 

Preparation 

5. See Introductory Notes. . The two zero posts will be planted in lin 
with No. 1 gun flag. 


B CONDUCT OF LESSON 

Preliminaries 

6. Safety precautions. 

Revision 

7. Revise by question and answer Lesson 40. 

Approach 

8. Give the aim of the lesson (see para 1 above). State that in indirect 
fire the lines of fire of the four guns are made and kept parallel. The group 
commander can thus give one switch for the four guns instead of separat 
switches for each gun. 

9. Detail four gun teams, order 44 Fall-in ” and 44 Mount ” Bring th 
guns into action and then fall out all except Nos. 1 and 2 of No. 1 gut 
Assemble the squad in the rear of No. 1 gun. 

Placing No. 1 gun on its zero line 

10. State that when the guns are mounted, Nos. 1 will ensure that th 
dial and deflection drums of the dial sight are at zero and the lensatic sigh 
locked. 

11. Explain that directly No. 1 gun is mounted, the No. 1 and 2 will 
align the gun on the zero posts as in Lesson 38. They will then stamp in 
the tripod and recheck the line of sight. No. 1 gun is now said to be on it* 
zero line. 


12. Practise the No. 1 and 2 in aligning the lensatic sight on the zero 

posts. 

Paralleling 

13. Explain that the senior section commander will check that No. 1 
run is correctly aligned and then lay the lensatic sight, by means of the 
• leflection drums, on the lensatic sight of each gun in turn, starting with 
No. 4 gun. The angles to each gun will be read from the front pointer of 
the dial sight and will be ordered to each gun in turn in the following 
manner. The senior section commander will order “Zero lines — 

“ No 4 left — degrees — minutes 

“ No. 3 left — degrees — minutes.” 

“ No. 2 left — degrees — minutes.” 

14. Order the gun teams to 44 Fall in ” and 4 4 Take post ” The senior 
ection commander will then measure and call out the angles. Tell the 
squad that when the angle for their gun is called out, the Nos. 1 and 2 will 
act as in Lesson 40. 

The junior section commander will acknowledge each angle in turn 
.ind move to each gun, checking and supervising the placing on of the 
.witches. 

( becking for parallelism 

15. Explain:— 

When all the guns are laid, the junior section commander will check 
tor parallelism. Beginning with No. 1 gun, he will double down the gun 
line, kneeling behind each gun about 15 yards in rear and glancing along 
the barrel casing. He should then notice if any gun is not on parallel 
lines. Should any gun appear not to be parallel he will report 44 No — 
run not on parallel lines.” If all guns are parallel he will take post on the 
Hank of No. 4 gun. 

16. Tell the junior section commander to check for parallelism. 

17. When the senior section commander has given out the angle for 
No. 2 gun, he will return all drums and dials to zero and check that the 
line of sight of No. 1 gun is still on the zero posts. 

18. The No. 1 of No. 1 gun will unlock and adjust his lensatic sight 
onto the aiming post. No. 2 will zero the tripod dial. 

Reporting on zero lines 

19. State that the senior section commander will now report 44 Guns on 
zero lines ” to the group commander. On this order, No. 3 of No. 1 gun 
will double out and bring in the zero posts, placing them near No. 1 gun. 

20. Tell the senior section commander to report on zero lines. 

21. Questions from the squad. 

22. Order 44 Load,” followed by 44 Cease firing ” 



67 


66 

’3. Prepare the gun position again and practise coming into action 
and paralleling. 

Conclusion 

24. Questions from the squad. 

25. Sum up main points and progress made. 


Lesson 77 —OBTAINING DIRECTION AND ELEVATION 
A INSTRUCTOR’S NOTES 

Aim 

1. To teach the drill of placing direction and elevation on the guns in 
indirect fire. 

2. To teach the drill for ensuring that guns will clear the crest. 

Class and instructors 

3. Three instructors and a squad of at least 12 and preferably not more 
than 24. Carrier drivers will be required. The squad should be assembled 
in two ranks in front of the gun line. 

Periods 

4. One 45-minute period. 

Stores 

5. Four carriers complete with drill stores, two zero posts, four gun 
flags and two megaphones. 

Preparation 

6. See Introductory Notes. The two zero posts will be planted in lin 
with No. 1 gun flag. 

B. CONDUCT OF LESSON 

Preliminaries 

7. Safety precautions. 

Revision 

8. Revise by question and answer Lessons 41 and 57. 

Approach 

9. Give the aim of the lesson (see paras 1 and 2 above). 

10. Detail four gun teams, order “ Fall in ” and “ Mount ” Bring the 
group into action and parallel the guns. 

11. Order Nos. 3 and drivers to join the spectators and split up th< 
spectators behind each gun. 


< '( lining direction 

12. State that direction will be ordered in the following manner:— 

M All.degrees.minutes right (or left) of zero ” The Nos. 1 

»ill act as in Lesson 57. 

I 13. Order a switch right or left of zero, 
obtaining elevation 

[ 14. Tell the squad that elevation will be given out in the following 

»m inner:—“ All.hundred (or fifty) plus (or minus).degrees. 

minutes ” Or more rarely: “ Nos. 1 and 2 guns—hundred (or fifty) plus 

< r minus).degrees.minutes” “Nos. 3 and 4 guns—hundred 

nr fifty) plus (or minus).degrees.minutes” Nos. 1 will act 

a', in Lesson 41. 

| 15. Order a suitable elevation. 

< becking crest clearance 

16. State that it is the duty of the senior section commander to ensure 
(hat Nos. 1 check for crest clearance. 

The senior commander estimates the range to the crest and adds 
.’00 yards. Using this range, when the guns have been laid for elevation 
the senior section commander will order:— 

“ Check for crest clearance with sights at.” 

The Nos. 1 will then set their tangent sights at the range ordered and 
m/c if the line of sight through the backsight and foresight clears the crest, 
if it does not, they will report to the senior section commander:— 

“ No.gun does not clear crest ” 

The senior section commander will then report to the group commander:— 
“ Guns ready to load ” 

1 le will also report if any gun will not clear the crest. 

17. Senior section commander should now order the checking of crest 
clearance. 

18. Order “ Load ” 

19. Order “ Cease firing ” and then practise the squad in coming into 
action, paralleling, obtaining direction and elevation, and checking crest 
clearance. 

Conclusion 

20. Questions from the squad. 

21. Sum up main points and discuss progress made. 


Lesson 78—APPLICATION OF INDIRECT FIRE ORDERS 
A INSTRUCTOR’S NOTES 

Aim 

1. To teach the squad how to apply the method of fire and to teach the 
method of reporting “ On ” 

2. To practise the squad in controlled corrections (indirect). 















68 


Class and instructors 

3. Three instructors and a squad of at least 12 and preferably not more I 
than 24. Carrier drivers will be required. The squad should be assembled] I 
in two ranks in front of the gun line. 

Periods 

4. One 45-minute period. 

Stores 

5. Four carriers complete with drill stores, two zero posts, four gun 
flags and two megaphones. 

Preparation 

6. See Introductory Notes. The two zero posts will be planted in line 
with No. 1 gun flag. 

B CONDUCT OF LESSON 

Preliminaries 

7. Safety precautions. 

Approach 

8. Give the aim of the lesson {see paras 1 and 2 above). 

9. Detail four gun teams, order 44 Fall in ” and 44 Mount ” 

10. Bring the guns into action. When the guns have been paralleled, 
order the Nos. 3 and drivers to join the spectators and split up the spectators 
behind the four guns. 

11. Give a switch and elevation and order 44 Load ” 

Taps 

12. State that in indirect fire, the number of taps to be employed will be| 
ordered by the group commander. It will never be more than four or less 
than one. The guns will tap as they do by sections, ie , No. 1 and 3 guns tap 
first to the right. No. 2 and No. 4 guns tap first to the left. 

13. Tell the squad that on the command 44 Right and left—taps,” Nos. 1 
will report 44 On ” Nos. 2 and the junior section commander will indicate 
that the guns are ready to fire by raising their hands. Similarly, whem 
the guns have reported 44 On,” the senior section commander will indicate 
the fact to the group commander by raising his hand. 

14. State that on the order or signal 44 Fire ” the section commanders! 
will lower their hands. Taking their time from the junior section com-1 
mander, the Nos. 2 will shout 44 Fire ” and lower their hands. On the 
order or signal 44 Stop ” this will be repeated by section commanders and 
Nos. 2. 

15. Exercise the squad in reporting 44 On,” 44 Fire ” and 44 Stop ” 


69 


Indirect fire control signals 

16. Fall the squad in in the centre of the gun line and demonstrate the 
following signals:— 

(a) Up 50 yards. Both arms raised at angle 

of 45 degrees from the head. 


(b) Down 50 yards. Both arms raised at angle of 
45 degrees from the side. 


(c) Right 30 minutes. Right arms horizontal and 
left arm at 45 degrees above 
it to the right. 


(d) Left 30 minutes. Right arm raised at angle of 
45 degrees from the head 
and left arm at 45 degrees 
from the side. 

Repeating the above signals implies a corresponding increase in the 
correction, eg, (a) repeated three times means “ Up 150 yards.” 

17. Practise the squad in recognizing these signals. 

18. Order 44 Fall in ” and 44 Take post ” 

Controlled corrections 

19. State that corrections for elevation will be ordered or signalled as 
follows:— 44 Stop,” “All, up (or down)—hundred (or fifty),” 44 Go on” 

The senior section commander will acknowledge and repeat back 
the orders or signals and will then pass on the corrections verbally to the 
Nos. 1. He will not order 44 Go on,” but will order 44 Fire ” when all 
guns have reported 44 On ” Nos. 1 will act as in Lesson 56. 

20. Stress that whenever a downward correction is ordered. Nos. 1 will 
automatically recheck for crest clearance before reporting 44 On ” 

21. Explain that corrections for direction are given in a similar manner. 
Nos. 1 will act as in Lesson 57. 

22. Practise the squad in applying controlled corrections. 

Checking direction and elevation 

23. Tell the squad that, during firing, the senior section commander will 
periodically check the direction and elevation on the guns by calling 


> 7 ^ >J6 » 








70 


71 


“(heck direction and elevation; you should now read.degrees. 

minutes right (or left) of zero and.hundred (or fifty) plus (or minus) 

.degrees.minutes.” Nos. 1 will then check that they have the 

readings on their dial sights. 

Conclusion 

24. Questions from the squad. 

25. Further practice in the whole process of coming into action and 
engaging a target. 

26. Sum up main points and discuss progress made. 


Lesson 79—FIRE CONTROL CHARTS 
A INSTRUCTOR’S NOTES 

Aim 

1. To accustom the soldier to the means of controlling a programme 
shoot by means of a fire control chart. 

Class and instructors 

2. Three instructors and a squad of at least 12 and preferably not more 
than 24. Carrier drivers will be required. The squad should be assembled 
in two ranks in front of the gun line. 

Periods 

3. One 45-minute period. 

Stores 

4. Four carriers complete with drill stores, two zero posts, four gun 
flags and two megaphones. Three prepared fire control charts and three 
watches. 

Preparation 

5. See Introductory Notes. The two zero posts will be planted in line 
with the No. 1 gun flag. The instructor must prepare three fire control 
charts for use during the lesson. 

B CONDUCT OF LESSON 

Preliminaries 

6. Safety precautions. 

Approach 

7. Give the aim of the lesson (see para 1 above). Explain that during 
long programme shoots, it will often be necessary to use fire control charts. 
When the guns have been paralleled, the group commander will call for 
section commanders and issue a fire control chart to each and synchronise 
watches. These charts contain the necessary data for each section, while that 
used by the group commander contains the data for all four guns. When 
using fire control charts, section commanders will supervise the work of 
their own sections. By night, section commanders will give orders to each 
gun in turn in order to avoid unnecessary noise. 


8. Detail four gun teams, order “ Fall in ” and “ Mount ” 

9. Bring the guns into action and have them paralleled. 

Fire control charts 

10. Order “ Prepare for Task I ” 

Section commanders should now order:— 

“ All.degrees.minutes right (or left) of zero ” 

“All.hundred (or fifty) plus (or minus).degrees.minutes 99 

The switch and elevation is obtained from the fire control chart. They 
should then order “ Load,” “ Right and left taps ” and “ Rest ” The 
section commanders report that their sections are ready to fire. 

11. At the time laid down on the chart, the group commander orders 
“ Fire.” The rates of fire and lifts shown in the fire control chart are 
controlled by the section commanders. 

Conclusion 

12. Questions from the squad. 

13. Sum up main points and discuss progress made. 

Lesson 80—CHANGING FROM INDIRECT FIRE TO NIGHT 
FIRING AND VICE VERSA 

A INSTRUCTOR’S NOTES 

Aim 

1. To teach the drill of changing from indirect fire to night firing and 
for changing back to indirect fire again. 

Class and instructors 

2. Three instructors and a squad of at least 12 and preferably not more 
than 24. Carrier drivers will be required. The squad should be assembled 
in two ranks in front of the gun line. 

Periods 

3. One 45-minute period. 

Stores 

4. Four carriers complete with gun stores, four gun flags, two zero posts, 
two megaphones, two aiming lamps. 

Preparation 

5. Two zero posts planted in line with No. 1 gun and gun flags in 
position. 

B CONDUCT OF LESSON 

Preliminaries 

6. Safety precautions. 

7. Give the aim of the lesson. 












72 


X. Detail four gun teams, order “ Fall in ” and “ Mount ” 

9. Order “ Stop ” Split up the spectators, including Nos. 3 and drivers, 
behind each gun. 

Changing to night firing 

10. Explain that the change-over will only entail the following duties:— 
The Nos. 1 will relay on the aiming post “ Unload,” “ Clear guns ” will 
be ordered and, after the Nos. 3 have attached the aiming lamp, Nos. 1 
will align the lensatic sight on to the lamp. 

11. Practise changing over to night firing. 

Changing back to indirect fire 

12. Explain that to change from night firing to indirect fire, the Nos. 1 
will check their aims on the aiming lamp, “ Unload,” “ Clear guns,” will 
be ordered the Nos. 3 will remove the lamps from the aiming posts and the 
Nos. 1 will then re-align their lensatic sights on to the aiming posts. 

13. Practice the squad in changing back to indirect fire. 

Conclusion 

14. Questions to and from the squad. 

15. Further practice as necessary. 

16. Sum up main points. 

Lesson 81— COMING INTO ACTION AND CEASE 
FIRING BY NIGHT 

A INSTRUCTOR’S NOTES 

Aim 

1. To teach the drill of coming into action by night and of cease firing. 
Class and instructors 

2. Three instructors and a squad of at least 12 and preferably not more 
than 24. The squad should be assembled in two ranks in the centre of the 
gun line. 

Periods 

3. One 45-minute period by day. 

Stores 

4. Four carriers complete with gun stores, four gun flags, four zero 
posts, four direction pegs, seven hand lamps, and two aiming lamps. 


Preparation 

5. See Introductory Notes. One direction peg and one zero post should 
be planted in line with each gun flag. Carriers should be drawn up a 
suitable distance in rear of their respective gun flags. 


73 

B CONDUCT OF LESSON 

Preliminaries 

6. Safety precautions. 

Approach 

7. Give the aim of the lesson ( see para 1 above). Explain that machine 
gun groups can come into action and engage targets by night if there has 
been sufficient time in daylight for the group commander to obtain the 
data required to hit the target and to peg the position. 

8. Although this lesson is taught in daylight, noise should be reduced 
to a minimum and gun numbers should not double. 

“ Prepare for night firing 99 

9. State that the loads will be allocated by the section commanders 
before the group arrives at the point where stores are to be off-loaded. 

10. Explain that at the off-loading point, section commanders will 
order “ Prepare for night firing 99 Gun teams will then unload the stores 
as already detailed and sections will fall in, in file, in front of the carrier. 
Each section commander will check to see that all necessary stores have 
been off-loaded and then lead his section forward to a position in rear of 
his gun flags. Each section commander will call up his Nos. 1 and show 
them their gun flag, the direction of the rear leg of the tripod and the 
direction of the zero post and direction peg. 

11. Section commanders should now order “ Prepare for night firing ” 
and act as in para 10 above. 

Coming into action 

12. Explain that Nos. 1 will order quietly “ No. ... gun for night firing, 
mount gun ” On that order, Nos. 1 and 2 will mount their gun over the 
gun flag. The shoes of the tripod will not be stamped in, and the dial 
sight will be attached to the gun. Nos. 3, when called up by Nos. 1, will 
bring all the ammunition up to the gun and position themselves on the 
left of the gun ready to assist the No. 1. In addition, the Nos. 3 of the 
odd sub-section will bring up the aiming post and lamp. All the Nos. 3 
will take over a hand lamp from their Nos. 1. 

13. Order the Nos. 1 to get their guns mounted. 

14. Order “ Stand clear 99 and fall the squad in in the centre of the gun 
line. 

“ Cease firing ” 

15. State that when the group commander orders “ Cease firing,” the 
section commanders will order:— 

“ Unload,” “ Clear guns,” “ Remove dial sights,” “ In aiming 
lamps 99 

All gun numbers will act as in Lesson 75. 


16. Order “ Fall in,” “ Take post,” and “ Load ” 



17. Order “ Cease firing 99 

18. Tell the squad that the section commanders will now order “ Cease 
firing 99 The guns will be dismounted and the section commanders will 
fall in their sections and check stores. The section commander is respons¬ 
ible for the flags, pegs and zero posts. The section will then move back 
to the carriers, replace stores and mount. Each No. 1 will report to the 
section commander when his carrier is ready to move off. 

19. Tell the section commanders to order “ Cease firing ” 

Conclusion 

20. Questions from the squad. 

21. Further practise if necessary. 

22. Sum up main points. 


Lesson 82— OBTAININC DIRECTION AND ELEVATION 
BY NIGHT 

A INSTRUCTOR’S NOTES 

Aim 

1. To teach the method of placing guns on zero lines and of laying them 
to hit the target by night. 

Class and instructors 

2. Three instructors and a squad of at least 12 and preferably not more 
than 24. The squad should be assembled in two ranks in the centre of 
the gun line. 

Periods 

3. One 45-minute period by day. Lesson 81 and 82 should be practised 
as one operation by night when an adequate standard has been reached 
by day. 

Stores 

4. Four carriers complete with gun stores, four gun flags, four zero 
posts, four direction pegs, seven hand lamps and two aiming lamps, three 
prepared fire control charts. 

Preparation 

5. See Introductory Notes. One direction peg and one zero post should 
be planted in line with each gun flag. Carriers should be drawn up a 
suitable distance in rear of their respective gun flags. 


B CONDUCT OF LESSON 

Preliminaries 

6. Safety precautions. 


75 


Approach 

7. Give the aim of the lesson (see para 1 above). 

8. Detail four gun teams, order “ Fall in,” and “ Mount ” and bring 
the guns into action for night firing. 

9. Fall out all except Nos. 1, 2, and 3 of No. 1 gun and move squad to 
the rear of the gun. 

Placing guns on Zero lines 

10. State that the zero line for each gun has been pegged in daylight by 
the group commander. 

11. Demonstrate that the section commander will take the No, 3 of the 
odd sub-section, complete with aiming lamp and post* to the direction peg. 
He will tell the No. 3 to place the aiming lamp behind the direction peg 
and switch it on, so that the peg is outlined against the lamp. He will then 
go back to the gun and order:—“ No 1 gun, zero line 99 

12. On this order, the No. 1 will ensure that the dial and deflection 
drums are at zero, and the lensatic sight latched. Assisted by the No. 2, 
he will move the gun until the line of sight through the lensatic sight is 
aligned on the zero post and aiming lamp. He will then order the legs to 
be stamped in, re-check the aim and order the No. 2 to zero the tripod dial. 

The No. 3 of the even sub-section will assist the No. 1 by shining a 
hand lamp on to the front of the lensatic sight. 

When the No. 1 is satisfied that he has a correct aim, he will report “ No. 
1 gun, correct,” to the section commander. 

13. Tell the squad that the section commander will then repeat the 
process with his other gun. When both guns are on their zero lines, he 
will collect the zero posts, and return to his position in between his two 
guns. The No. 3 of the odd sub-section will plant the aiming post, put on 
the aiming lamp and unreel the fine back to the section commander. 
When the lamp is switched on, both Nos. 1 will free-wheel their lensatic 
sights on to it. The Nos. 3 will take up their positions on the left of their 
guns. 

14. Order “ Take post ” and practice the squad in laying the guns on 
zero lines. 

Direction and elevation 

15. State that the direction and elevation are given from fire control 
charts which are always used at night. Issue the charts and order “ Prepare 
for Task 1 99 The procedure is now as in Lesson 81. 

Conclusion 

16. Questions from the squad. 

17. Further practice if time allows. 

18. Sum up main points. 



76 


77 


CHAPTER 15 
BATTLE PROCEDURE 

INTRODUCTORY NOTES 

1. Machine gun fire will normally be required as part of a co-ordinated 
fire plan. The preliminary arrangements to bring sections into action, 
therefore, will usually be made by the machine gun platoon commander. 

In the event of a section being placed under command of a rifle com¬ 
pany commander, the section commander will be responsible for the 
deployment of his section in accordance with the rifle company commander’s 
requirements. 

2. The following lessons are designed to teach battle procedure for 
every role in which machine guns are likely to be employed. Machine 
guns may either be employed as single sections under command of rifle 
companies or as two or more sections under command of the machine 
gun platoon commander or second-in-command. 

3. In order to avoid having two procedures for each role, ie f one for a 
single section, and one for two or more sections, these procedures are based 
on two sections under the command of the platoon commander. It should 
not be assumed however that this is necessarily the normal method of 
employment. Machine gun sections will as frequently be employed singly 
and section commanders must be trained to undertake the additional 
duties entailed when operating independently. 

4. The following procedures give roles for the platoon commander 
and platoon 2 IC but do not give any special roles to the platoon sergeant. 
The role of the platoon sergeant will be mainly administrative but he must 
be trained and able to take over the duties of the platoon 2 IC if necessary. 

5. The normal fire unit is the section. Under certain circumstances 
however ( eg , defence where fields of fire are restricted to 500-600 yards or 
less), it may be necessary to sight guns singly. There is no separate battle 
procedure in this event. Guns should be placed under the direct command 
of the rifle company or platoon commander in whose area they are sited 
and owing to the limited fire effect of single guns will be suitable only to 
assist in the immediate company fire plan. 

The section commander, in these circumstances, may assist the rifle 
company or platoon commander in the siting of the guns, but will not be 
able to exercise any control over their fire. 


Lesson 83—RECONNAISSANCE OF PLATOON AND 
SECTION AREAS 

1. The platoon area will be selected by the platoon commander, who 
will satisfy himself that the task can be carried out from that area. The 
detailed reconnaissance will normally be the platoon commander’s 
responsibility. However, the time factor may make it necessary for him 
to decentralize this responsibility, in some measure, to section commanders. 


2. The platoon reconnaissance group. 

This will normally consist of:— 

Platoon commander’s carrier. 

Platoon commander. 

2 driver operators. 

Driver mechanic. 

Platoon orderly (motor cycle). 

Each section commander’s carrier. 

Section commander. 

Rangetaker. 

Section commander’s driver mechanic. 

Section commander’s driver operator. 

This may entail the use of up to four vehicles and a motor cycle, and 
a ill necessitate very careful control by the platoon commander. Under 
‘ rtain circumstances a smaller number of vehicles may have to be taken. 
However, it should be borne in mind that this may seriously impede the 
mobility of the section commanders, consequently affecting the speed 
u ith which the platoon comes into action. 

3. The reconnaissance of a platoon area must be carefully planned, and, 
m this connection, the following points must receive consideration. 

(a) Time plan .—The thoroughness with which an area can be recon¬ 
noitred will depend to a great extent on the time available. Thus, 
as shown in the battle procedure duties (Lesson 84), a time plan 
must be made, which will include a certain time to be allotted 
to the reconnaissance. 

(b) Reconnaissance plan .—Before carrying out a particular recon¬ 
naissance, careful consideration must be given to the actual ground 
as a whole. From this, and with due consideration to the time 
available, and enemy observation, a plan will be devised for 
movement during the reconnaissance. 

(c) Dismounted or carrier action .—The universal carrier is mobile 
across country. It affords little protection against any form of 
amour piercing bullet, and it is vulnerable to plunging fire. It 
should, therefore, be used primarily as a means of conveying the 
gun from place to place, and in no circumstances must it be 
employed as an armoured fighting vehicle. 

(i) Dismounted action .—Guns will normally be fired from positions 
on the ground, as far greater concealment and protection 
can be obtained. 

(ii) Carrier action .—When the ground is suitable and speed into 
and out of action is a primary consideration, it may be desir¬ 
able to fire the guns from the carriers in “ hull down ” positions. 
In this case, the crosshead mounting may be used, or, at short 
range, the emergency mounting. It should be realized that a 
carrier cannot cover an arc of fire from a hull-down position. 


78 


79 




(d) Direct fire or indirect fire . 

(i) Direct fire.— This is the normal type of fire employed as it i| 
the more simple, more effective and more flexible means <1 
engaging targets. 

(ii) Indirect ./zr<?.—Indirect fire positions provide good conceal¬ 
ment for the gun line from ground observation but limit 
flexibility and prevent short range targets from being engaged. 
This type of fire is particularly suited for harassing tasks by 
day or night, or when cover and concealment are scarce. 

4. Direct fire positions—Dismounted action. 

(a) The platoon commander reconnoitres the platoon area and 
decides on the following:— 

Section areas and section rendezvous. 

Platoon observation post. 

Platoon headquarters. 

Position for vehicles. 

Local protection—Brens, 3.5-inch RL and 2-inch mortar. 
Position from which to give out his orders. 

The following are the requirements of:— 

(i) Section areas:— 

Suitability for the task. 

Ability to observe the movement of own troops. 

Covered approaches. 

Concealment for guns. 

Safety for own troops. 

Approximately 100 yards—300 yards apart. 

The means of communication at the disposal of the platoon com¬ 
mander for directing the fire of his platoon is the 31 set, telephone (if 
carried) orderly or signal. This imposes almost no limitations, but, as I 
guide, it is considered that for control, sections should not be further apart 
than about 300 yards, and, to minimize the chances of more than one 
section being neutralized by enemy fire at the same time, not closer togethe 
than 100 yards. 

(ii) Section RVs:— 

As near the section areas as possible. 

Covered approach for vehicles. 

Easily recognizable points. 

(iii) Platoon OP:— 

Good command of the arcs of fire. 

Ability to observe positions, and movement of own troops. 

Cover from fire and enemy observation, both from grounc 
and air. 


(iii) Platoon OP:—(Continued) 

Covered approach. 

Accommodation for the required number of men. 

Whenever possible, sited near one section commander’s 
control post. This will enable the platoon commander to 
give fire direction orders to one section by voice. 

(iv) Positions for vehicles:— 

Either grouped together in one platoon position or separate 
as section vehicle positions behind the section areas. The 
course adopted will naturally be dependent on the situation. 
Cover from fire and enemy observation, both from ground 
and air. 

(v) Local protection. 

The Brens are primarily for the defence of the vehicle positions. 
The 3.5-inch RLs will be sited where the need for them is 
greatest. 

(vi) Position from which to give out his orders:— 

This should, if possible, be in one of the section areas, and 
at a point from which the whole arc of fire can be seen. 

(b) The section commander reconnoitres the section area and decides 
on the following:— 

Two gun positions. 

Control post. 

Organization of the arcs of fire. 

The following are the requirements of:— 

(i) Gun positions:— 

Suitability for task. 

Cover from fire and enemy observation, both from ground 
and air. 

Ability to observe positions, and movement of own troops. 
Covered approach. 

Distance apart approximately 10-20 yards. 

(ii) Control post:— 

Good command of the arc of fire. 

Ability to observe positions and movement of own troops. 
Cover from fire and enemy observation, both from ground 
and air. 

Covered approach. 

Accommodation for the required number of men. 

Sufficient concealment to enable fire control signals to be 
made. 

Within voice control and preferably to the left of the guns. 

(iii) Organization of the arc of fire:— 

This will be carried out as shown in Chapter 12, Lesson 66. 








V3«v noiams \ crsi ! dO noolvij l i 2 «N 


80 





14—DIAGRAMMATIC LAYOUT OF CARRIER PLATOON (TWO MMG SECS) 




81 


(c) Communications .—The communications which can be used 
within the platoon when direct fire, dismounted action is being 
employed are as follows:— 

31 set between platoon OP and each section area. 

Telephone as an alternative to the 31 set if fine equipment is 
carried. 

31 set to battalion headquarters. 

88 set to rifle company. (The 88 sets in the platoon are NOT 
for internal communication). 


5. Direct fire positions.—Carrier action. 

(a) Should the platoon commander decide to use carrier action, he 
will carry out his reconnaissance in the same manner as shown 
for dismounted action with the following modifications:— 

Section areas:— 

To contain suitable “ hull-down ” positions. 

To have cover from observation from any part of the enemy 
position, not only from the target area. 

To have suitable background. 

Every effort to be made to avoid clearly defined crests and 
skylines. 

(b) The section commander will reconnoitre his area as for dismounted 
action with the following modifications:— 

2 approximate carrier positions. 

Control post. 

The following are the requirements of:— 

(i) Carrier positions:— 

Suitable for the task. 

Chosen from gun height, when the gun is mounted on the 
carrier. 

Easy “ run in.” 

(1) Gun flags will be placed in the ground to indicate the 
approximate carrier positions). 

(ii) Control post:— 

This may be on the ground as in dismounted action or on 
the section commander’s carrier. 

(c) Communications :—As speed into and out of action is the main 
consideration when employing direct fire—carrier action, it is 
not normal to lay any line communications. 


S IL Indirect fire.—If the platoon commander decides to employ indirect 
< ■ lie he will reconnoitre the platoon area and decide on the following:— 

^ S Gun position. 

Platoon OP. 

Vehicle position. 

Position from which to give out orders. 
















83 


The following are the requirements of:— 

(i) The gun position:—As near the top of the crest as possible, 
consistent with concealment and safety. 

To afford sufficient cover for the carriers to move up to 
within 10 yards of the gun flags, and for the gun numbers to 
remain concealed when standing in the carriers. 

(ii) The platoon OP :—Good command of any particular target 
given and the arc of fire. 

Ability to observe positions, and movement, of own troops. 
As close to the gun position as possible to ensure accuracy 
and not more than 200 yards in front of or behind the guns, 
nor displaced more than 50 yards to a flank. 

(iii) The vehicle position :—This will conform to the requirements 
enumerated in Para 4 sub para (a) (iv). 



Plate 16—DIAGRAMMATIC LAYOUT OF MACHINE GUN 
PLATOON INDIRECT FIRE 

















Lesson 84—THE OCCUPATION OF A PLATOON POSITION 
DIRECT FIRE—DISMOUNTED ACTION—BY DAY 

1. The following are the duties of various personnel of the platoon, 
from the time that the platoon commander receives the warning ordci 
from the battalion commander until the platoon is in action. 

2. The platoon commander. 

(a) On receipt of the warning order, he will:— 

(i) Send the platoon orderly to collect the platoon 2 IC and the 
“ R ” group or call them on the platoon 31 set net. 

(ii) Study the message carefully, and consider the planning. 

(iii) Pass on the contents of the warning order to the platoon 
2 IC and “ R ” group ordering the former to lead the platoon 
to the RV given in the warning order, while he leads the 
“ R ” group to the “ R ” group RV. 

(b) On meeting the battalion commander at the “ R ” group RV hi 
will ask two questions:— 

(i) “ Can I move my platoon further forward at this stage, if so, 
where?” 

It will save a great deal of time if the platoon can be moved 
as far forward as possible, as early as possible. 

(ii) “ Can I have section commanders up to listen to orders ? j 
This will ensure that section commanders obtain sufficient 
information to enable them to carry out their tasks even if 
the platoon commander becomes an early casualty. The 
number of section commanders, if any, allowed forward bv 
the battalion commander will naturally depend on the ground, 
the enemy fire and the number of “ R ” group present. 

(c) On completion of the battalion commander’s orders the platoon 
commander must appreciate the situation and evolve a time plan 
on the following lines:— 

Time available 35 minutes. 

Appreciate the situation, make time plan, and 

write message to platoon 2 IC 5 mins. 

After hearing my orders, section commanders 

will require 15 mins. 

Mv orders will take 5 mins. 


Total 25 mins. 


Therefore:—Time left for my recce 10 mins. 

(d) Platoon commander will send a message to the platoon 2 IC 
including:— 

Brief information. 

Platoon role. 

Orders to move the platoon to an RV as near the platoon area 
as possible (incl. route if necessary). 

Time by which platoon has to be in action. 

His own actions and whereabouts. 



This message will be sent by means of the platoon orderly, who, after 
delivering the message will return to the platoon commander, at the same 
time leading the platoon to its RV, if practicable. The route to be taken 
by the platoon orderly will be carefully explained to him. 

(e) The platoon commander will now move with his “ R ” group to 
his platoon area, where he will put his “ R ” group under cover, 
make his reconnaissance plan (Lesson 83 para 3 sub-para (b)) 
and carry out his reconnaissance. 

He will reconnoitre for and decide on:— 

Section area and RVs. 

Arcs of fire, targets and initial safety problems. 

Position for platoon OP. 

Position for vehicles. 

Siting of the Brens and 3.5-inch RLs. 

Position from which to give out orders. 

(Details of this reconnaissance are as shown in Lesson 83, para 
4 (a)(i). 

(f) On completion of his reconnaissance, he will issue orders to his 
section commanders, which will include as many of the following 
points as may be necessary:— 

Orientation on the ground and map. 

Information. 

Enemy. 

Own troops. 

Intention. 

Method. 

Direct fire—Dismounted action. 

Each section. 

Area. 

RV. 

All sections. 

Arcs of fire. 

Targets and timings. 

Ammunition for various tasks. 

Factors affecting safety. 

Vehicle position. 

Subsequent role. 

Administration. 

RAP. 

Replenishment etc. 

Intercommunication. 

Telephone requirements. 

Position of platoon OP. 

Position of platoon HQ. 

Rifle company HQ (if nearby). 

Battalion HQ. 

Success signals (codewords, light-signals, and from where 
the latter will go up). 

Synchronise watches. 

H hour.hrs. 

Any questions No. 1 section? 

No. 2 section? 



86 


(g) He will move to the platoon RV with his platoon orderly, where 
the platoon 2IC and Nos. 1 will be waiting to receive orders. His 
orders will contain:— 

Information. 

Enemy \ 

> Very briefly. 

Own troops J 
Intention. 

Method. 

Direct fire—Dismounted action. 

Each section:— 

Area. 

RV (route if necessary). 

Ammunition. 

Time by which guns have to be in action. 

Any questions? 

(Nos. 1 will now move off). 

Additional orders for the platoon 2 IC. 

Position of platoon HQ. 

Position of platoon OP. 

Vehicle position. 

Local protection (3.5-inch RL and Brens). 

Replenishment of ammunition. 

Any questions? 

(h) He will now move to the platoon OP, and at the most convenient 
time during that move, give orders to the driver operators in¬ 
cluding:— 

Position of platoon OP. 

Position of platoon HQ. 

Position for carrier. 

Position for 88 set and 31 set. 

Position for rear link 31 set. 

Information re—telephone layout. 

(j) On completion of these orders, he will occupy the platoon OP 
and, when all sections have reported “ In Action,” will report 
the platoon “ In Action ” to battalion HQ, together with the loca¬ 
tion of platoon OP in code (This will generally be done by wireless). 

(k) As soon as possible, he will pass on full information to the platoon 
2 IC at the OP. 

(l) In action, the platoon commander will:— 

(i) Keep in touch with the tactical situation, and carry out 
reconnaissance when necessary. 

(ii) Issue fire direction orders as required. 

(iii) Keep in touch with battalion HQ and if necessary direct with 
any rifle company HQ, 

(iv) Pass on all available information to the section commanders 
and platoon 2 IC. 


> 


87 


3. The platoon 2 IC (or platoon sergeant). 

(a) Having received the contents of the battalion commander’s 
warning order, he will:— 

(i) Pass on brief information to Nos. 1. 

(ii) Lead the platoon to the RV ordered by the platoon com¬ 
mander. 

(iii) Supervise the order of march, local protection and the dis¬ 
persion and camouflage of the carriers both on the move and 
at the RV. 

(iv) Arrange for the Nos. 1 to move to him quickly when sig¬ 
nalled. 

(b) On receipt of the written message delivered by the platoon orderly, 
he will:— 

(i) Carry out the same procedure as shown above. 

(ii) Arrange for a final check of stores. 

( c) On receipt of verbal orders from the platoon commander, he will:— 

(i) Supervise the dispersal and concealment of the carriers. 

(ii) Arrange for the siting of the rear link 31 set. 

(iii) Arrange for the siting of the 3.5-inch RLs, Brens, 2-inch mortar, 
and alarm posts for the drivers. 

(iv) Arrange for the replenishment of ammunition etc, to the 
sections. 

(v) Report to the platoon commander for full information at the 
platoon OP. 

(vi) Be prepared to take over the command of the platoon in the 
event of the platoon commander becoming a casualty, or 
going out on liaison. 

(vii) Be prepared, if necessary, to return to platoon HQ which 
will be near battalion HQ. 

4. The section commander. 

(a) He will move forward with the platoon “ R ” group to the “ R ” 
group RV and organize the local protection of the “ R ” group. 

(b) While the platoon commander is receiving orders, he will arrange 
for him to be kept under observation. 

(c) On completion of the battalion commander’s orders, he will 
ensure that the platoon commander is kept under observation 
when doing his reconnaissance, pass on as much information as 
possible to the remainder of the “ R ” group and study the map 
and ground. 

(d) On completion of platoon commander’s orders (para 2(f)), the 
section commander will consider the time available, and move to 
his area in his carrier with his “ R ” group. 

(e) On arrival, he will place his carrier under cover, move forward 
on foot with the rangetaker and driver mechanic, and make his 
reconnaissance plan. 






(f) He will give orders to his driver mechanic which will include:— 

(i) Area in which he is going to reconnoitre. 

(ii) Position forward of which the carriers must not come. 

(iii) Any necessary orders to be passed on to the Nos. 1 when they 
arrive. 

(iv) Position for vehicles. 

The driver mechanic will now be sent to the section RV to await j 
the arrival of the Nos. 1. 

(g) He will give orders to his rangetaker including:— 

(i) Arc of fire. 

(ii) Points to which he requires ranges. 

(iii) Time available. 

(iv) Orders to make out a range card if there is sufficient time. 

(v) Probable position of the section control post. 

(h) He will give orders to his driver operator including:— 

(i) The unloading of the 31 set. 

(ii) The position of the section control post. 

(iii) Netting the 88 set, if necessary, on a rifle company net. 

(J) The section commander will now make his reconnaissance of the 
section area. He will reconnoitre for and decide on:— 

2 gun positions. 

Section control post. 

Organization of the arc of fire. 

(Details of this reconnaissance are as shown in Lesson 83, para 4(b) ) 

(k) When the section arrives in the section area, the section com¬ 
mander will get his guns into action as follows:— 

He signals up both Nos. 1 and indicates each gun position and 
the direction in which the guns are required to point, or, if the 
guns arrive in the section area at different times, he will signal 
up each No. 1 in turn. He will then control the higher numbers 
coming into action. 

(l) As soon as the guns are mounted, and covering their arcs of fire 
he will send a No. 3 to the platoon OP to report the section “ In < 
Action,” or he will report over the 31 set. 

(m) He will then organize the arc of fire and as soon as possible will 
pass on full information to the section and arrange for the local 
protection of his section area. 

(n) In action, the section commander will:— 

(i) Control the fire of his section. 

(ii) Locate and engage targets within his arc. 

(iii) Solve safety problems as they arise. 

(iv) Make arrangements to continue firing in the event of the 
target becoming obscured. 

(v) Keep in contact with the platoon commander. 

(vi) Pass on full information to the section. 


89 



5. The section commander’s driver mechanic. 

On receipt of his orders from the section commander he will:— 

(a) Move to the section RV to await the arrival of the Nos. 1. 

(b) Pass on any orders to the Nos. 1. 

(c) Direct the section up to the section commander. 

(d) Unload the spare parts box. 

(e) After all the necessary stores have been removed from the section 
carriers, he will lead them back to the vehicle position. 

6. The Nos. 1. 

(a) On receipt of the platoon commander’s orders at the platoon 
RV, they will:— 

(i) Move back to their carriers. 

(ii) Senior Nos. 1 lead their sections to their section RVs. 

(iii) On arrival, contact the section commander’s driver mechanic 
and obtain all the available information. 

(iv) Move to the section area and contact the section commander. 

(b) On receipt of initial orders from the section commanders, they 
will:— 

(i) Mount their guns in the required position and direction. 

(ii) Be prepared to receive detailed orders from the section 
commanders. 


7. The No. 3 of the even sub-section. 

Besides the normal duties as laid down in section drill, the additional 
duties are as follows in the event of line equipment being carried:— 

(a) On receipt of the necessary orders from his section commander, 
he will:— 

(i) Move to the platoon OP to report the section in action taking 
with him the drum of cable and cable-laying apparatus 
and reconnoitering the best and most covered route for 
laying the line. 

(ii) Report the section “ In Action,” secure the end of the wire 
at the platoon OP, lay line back to his section control post, 
and connect up the telephone. 

(b) On “ Cease Firing,” he will wind in the cable and replace the tele¬ 
phone equipment on the section commander’s carrier. 

8. The platoon commander’s driver operators. 

On receipt of orders from the platoon commander, they will.— 

(i) Unload the 31 and 88 sets in the area of the platoon OP. 

(ii) The carrier will then move to the vehicle position. 


9. Throughout the battle procedure the 15-cwt truck is not taken into 
account. It is intended primarily as an administrative vehicle and as such 
will more often than not be at the platoon HQ, or battalion “ B ” echelon. 




90 


Lesson 85—MODIFICATIONS FOR DIRECT FIRE 
CARRIER ACTION 

1. The battle procedure duties of the platoon, when carrier action 
is to be employed, are similar to those enumerated in Lesson 84 with the 
following modifications:— 

2. The platoon commander. 

His reconnaissance must be carried out as shown in Lesson 83, para 
5(a). 

3. The section commander. 

(a) His reconnaissance must be carried out in accordance with Lesson 
83, para 5(b). 

(b) On completion of his reconnaissance, he will give brief orders to 
the Nos. 1 who will have dismounted and moved forward from 
their carriers. These orders will contain:— 

(i) Target and range if known. 

(ii) Approximate carrier position. 

(c) He will position his own carrier so that he can control the fire of 
his section, or, if he decides to control from the ground, he will 
occupy his control post. 

(d) He will give out his fire order, and carry out his normal battle 
procedure duties, as shown in Lesson 84. 

4. The Nos. 1 and the section commander’s driver mechanic. 

Act as shown in Lesson 69. 


Lesson 86—MODIFICATIONS FOR INDIRECT FIRE 

1. When it has been decided to occupy an indirect position, there will be 
certain special modifications to the battle drill duties shown in Lesson 84. 

2. The platoon commander. 

(a) On arrival in his area, he will:— 

(i) Place his “ R ” group under cover and make his recce plan. 
(Lesson 83, para 3 (b) ). 

(ii) Order a driver mechanic to collect the indirect fire equipment 
(1) director, zero posts, gun flags from the carriers. 

(iii) Give orders to one of the rangetakers including:— 

Arc of fire. 

Points to which he requires ranges. 

Time available. 

Orders to make out a range card, if there is sufficient time. 
Probable position of the OP. 

(iv) Carry out his reconnaissance as shown in Lesson 83, para 6. 


(b) On completion of his reconnaissance as shown in Lesson 
para 6. 

(i) Give orders to the section commanders, and the platoon 2IC 
if he has arrived on the position. 

These orders will include the same items as for direct fire, 
with the exception of the method paragraph, which will be 
as follows:— 

Method. 

Indirect fire. 

Tasks and timings. 

No. 1 gun position. 

(This should be flagged by the platoon commander on his 
recce). 

Direction of zero line of pivot gun. 

Ammunition required. 

Vehicle position. 

Arrangements for local protection. 

(ii) Give the normal orders to the driver operators. 

(iii) Move to his OP and obtain the necessary data to engage the 
targets. This will include:— 

Ranges. 

Angles of sight. 

Angular width of targets. 

Safety of own troops. 

(iv) Give out his fire order and control the fire of his platoon. 
This is normally done by 31 set or telephone, although voice 
control is better if the distance is not too great. 

(v) If the platoon 2 IC was not present at the platoon commander’s 
orders, the platoon commander will give him full orders from 
the OP as early as possible, with particular reference to:— 

Vehicle position. 

Local protection. 

Ammunition supply. 

3. The senior section commander. 

(a) On completion of orders from the platoon commander, he will:— 

(i) Align the posts for the pivot gun. 

(ii) Flag the gun positions as ordered by the platoon commander. 

(iii) Parallel the guns on their zero lines. 

(iv) Calculate the MQA, report it to the platoon commander, 
ensure the guns clear the crest, and pass on full information 
to his section. 

(v) Take up a position by the pivot gun and relay orders from the 
platoon commander to the guns. 

(b) On “ Cease Firing,” he will:— 

Return his gun flags and zero posts to his carrier. 





92 


4. The junior section commander. 

(a) On receipt of orders from the platoon commander, he will:— 

(i) Assist the senior section commander in preparing the gun 
position. 

(ii) Meet the platoon at the RV and direct the gun carriers as 
near as possible to their gun flags, informing the Nos. 1 that 
it is indirect fire and number of liners required, and indicate 
the vehicle position to the drivers. 

(iii) Take up a position on the gun line opposite the senior section 
commander, repeat and acknowledge all signals and orders, 
and pass on full information to his section. 

(b) On “ Cease Firing ” he will:— 

Return his gun flags and zero posts to his carrier. 

5. The platoon 2 IC. 

On receipt of orders from the platoon commander, he will carry out 
his normal duties as in Lesson 84, para 3(c). 


Lesson 87—MODIFICATIONS FOR REORGANIZATION 

1. General. The battle procedure duties in the reorganization will 
vary according to circumstances which can be summarized as follows:— 

(a) The time the pioneer platoon or the REs will take to gap or bridge 
an obstacle, natural or otherwise, which will prevent vehicles from 
moving on to the objective. 

(The movement of vehicles on to a captured objective is of primary 
importance and strict control of traffic is necessary, especially 
when an obstacle has to be negotiated. All transport that is 
required for reorganization purposes, is, therefore, organized into 
“ F ” echelons. For details regarding the movement of “ F ” 
echelon transport see Infantry Training Memorandum No. 5 
1945—). 

(b) The amount of information about the objective that can be obtained 
from patrols, air photographs, intelligence reports, distant recon¬ 
naissance and map appreciation. 

(c) Whether the attack is to be by day or night. In this respect, it will 
usually be found that, if the obstacle is of any size, the attack 
will have to be carried out by night. 


Phase I—The Initial preparation 

2. The battle procedure duties for the reorganization remain the same as 
shown in Lesson 84 until the completion of the battalion commander’s 
orders. They are then modified as follows:— 


93 


(a) The platoon commander . 

(i) On completion of the battalion commander’s orders, he will 
consider the planning and send off, to the platoon 2 IC, a 
message containing:— 

Brief information. 

Intention. 

Platoon RV and route (if necessary). 

All NCOs less one No. 1 per section to come forward to 
an RV for orders. 

Own actions and whereabouts. 

This message will be sent off by wireless or by means of the 
platoon orderly, who will, if practicable, lead the platoon 
and NCOs to their respective RVs. 

(ii) The battalion commander’s orders will have contained the 
following:— 

Information. 

Enemy / as much as possible 

Own troops \ on the ground. 

Intention. 

Method. 

Battalion attack plan. 

Battalion reorganization plan. 

Administration. 

RAP. 

Intercommunication. 

Position of battalion HQ on the objective. 

Success signals. 

H hour.hrs. 

(iii) The reorganization plan will contain the task for the machine 
gun platoon. The platoon commander will then consider the 
siting of the section positions on the objective. 

This can be done either from air photographs, the map, or by 
distant recce. 

Should it be impossible to site the platoon without close 
reconnaissance of the ground, the platoon commander will 
have to contact the battalion commander on the objective, 
and the decision will have to be made there. 

However, if the reorganization is to be carried out in darkness, 
the section positions must be chosen before the move forward 
from all the information available, because no satisfactory 
reconnaissance can normally be carried out until first light 
the following day, and it is essential for the guns to be in 
position as soon as possible after the rifle companies have 
reached their objectives. 

(v) He will also discuss with the battalion commander the move 
forward of his platoon on to the objective vide para 3 below. 

4—2037 






94 



(v) If it has been possible to decide on the rifle company in 
which the platoon will be sited, he will contact the company 
commander and discuss with him the following points:— 

Company reorganization plan. 

Position of company headquarters on the objective. 
Machine gun tasks and the positions from which he thinks) 
the sections will be able to carry them out. He will also 
arrange for his driver operator to net his 88 set on the j 
rifle company net. 

(vi) He will contact the “ F ” echelon commander, and obtain 
from him the following information:— 

Location of the “ F ” echelon RV. 

Order of march. 

Serial numbers. 

Time of assembly. 

Gap or bridge to be used, or the route. 

Battalion dispersal point on the objective. 

(vii) He will rejoin his “ O ” group and give out his orders, and, 
assuming that it has been possible to decide on the approximate 
section areas and that the platoon will move forward on to the 
objective in the battalion “ F ” echelon, they will include:— 

Information. 

Enemy. 

Own troops . 

The rifle company areas or area in which 
the sections will operate. 

Battalion attack plan. 

Battalion reorganization plan. 

Any relevant rifle company reorganization plan. 
Intention. 

Method. 

“ F ” echelon RV and time of assembly. 

Order of march (both of “ F ” echelon and platoon) 
Serial numbers. 

Route and gap. 

Battalion dispersal point. 

Platoon RV on the objective (if necessary). 
Approximate section areas if known. 

Tasks (with compass bearing of centre of arc or 
fixed lines). 

Vehicle position. 

Administration. 

Battalion RAP. 

Intercommunication. 

Approximate platoon OP on the objective if known. 
Approximate platoon HQ on the objective if known. ! 
Battalion HQ on the objective. 

Success signals. 

Synchronize watches. 

H hour.hrs. 

Any questions? 


95 


(viii) On completion of these orders, he will return to the platoon 
and pass on the full information. However, if time is short, 
this duty may have to be delegated to the NCOs. 

(ix) At the appropriate time he will lead the platoon to the “ F ” 
echelon RV and form up in accordance with the orders of 
the “ F ” echelon commander or, if stores are going to be 
manhandled on to the objective, then he will lead the platoon 
to the battalion assembly area. 

(b) The platoon 2 IC. 

On receipt of the written message from the platoon commander, 
he will:— 

(a) Pass on brief information to the Nos. 1. 

(b) Order a check of stores and digging tools. 

(c) Arrange for sandbags to be filled. 

(d) If necessary, lead the platoon to the RV given in the message. 

(e) Take forward in his jeep the senior Nos. 1 to the platoon 
commander’s RV for orders. 

(f) On completion of platoon commander’s orders, return to the 
platoon and pass on the information if necessary. 

(g) Move to the “ F ” echelon RV or the battalion assembly area 
at the appropriate time. 

Phase II —The move on to the objective 

3. This will be governed by the time taken to gap or bridge, for vehicles, 
any obstacles which may be in existence, and whether the attack will be 
carried out by day or by night. 

(a) Plan A .—By day, when there is either no obstacle or an obstacle 
which can quickly be gapped or bridged for vehicles:— 

The platoon under these circumstances will be under the control 
of the “ F ” echelon commander. It will form up and move to 
a battalion dispersal point on the objective in accordance with 
his orders. It will be normal for the platoon to travel within the 
“ F ” echelon, but, under special circumstances, such as the 
absence of obstacles, it will be possible for the platoon to 
move forward outside the “ F ” echelon following a route laid 
down by the “ F ” echelon commander. 

It is essential for the platoon “ R ” group to arrive on the objective 
as far ahead of the platoon as possible. By doing this the platoon 
commander will have a small amount of time in which to make 
any necessary reconnaissance before the platoon arrives. When 
travelling within the 46 F ” echelon, this is done by having the 
“ R ” group and the platoon as two separate serials, the “ R ” 
group having the highest priority it is possible to obtain. On 
arrival on the objective the platoon commander will move straight 
away with his “ R ” group to his area, while the platoon under 
the platoon 2 IC will remain at the battalion dispersal point or, 
if ordered, will move to a platoon RV. 





96 




(b) Plan B .—By day, when there is an obstacle which will not be 
quickly gapped or bridged for vehicles. 

Under this circumstance, it will be necessary for the platoon to 
move on to the objective on foot, stores being manhandled. The 
vehicles will remain behind under command of the platoon sergeant 
and will move forward with the “ F ” echelon as soon as possible. 
Again it is essential for the “ R ” group to arrive on the objective 
as far ahead of the remainder of the platoon as possible, therefore, 
it will move on foot near tactical battalion HQ. The platoon will 
move under command of the platoon 2 IC in rear of the reserve 
rifle companies and because of this, the “ R ” group will have to be 
smaller and might consist of platoon commander, one section 
commander, one rangetaker and the platoon orderly. (If this plan 
is adopted, careful preparation must be made beforehand). The 
platoon should be informed of the long carry as soon as possible, 
to enable the loads to be prepared. Only the essential stores should 
be carried, and these should, as far as possible, be carried either ] 
in the man’s large pack or on the GS man pack carrier. Under 
certain circumstances the platoon commander may allot higher 
numbers from other sections to assist with the carrying of stores 
or assistance may be given from reserve rifle company. 

(c) Plan C .—By night, when there may or may not be an obstacle. 

As previously explained, in this situation the planning will have 
to be done entirely from air photos, maps and distant recce, as no 
satisfactory reconnaissance can normally be carried out until first I 
light on the following day. 

The platoon will normally be led forward in one body by the] 
platoon commander, either in the “ F ” echelon or on foot, depend-} 
ing on whether there is an obstacle or not, and when there is anj 
obstacle, on how long it will take to gap or bridge that obstacle 
for vehicles. However, if conditions of bright or artificial moon¬ 
light exist, a machine gun “ R ” group may be sent ahead at the 
discretion of the battalion commander. 

(According to which one of the three plans is adopted, so the 
platoon commander will carry out the particular stage in the 
battle procedure). 


Phase III—The procedure on the objective 

4. This will be governed almost entirely by the amount of information 
available about the objective, and whether the reorganization is to be 
carried out in daylight or darkness. 

(a) Procedure A .—By day, when it has been possible to decide in 
which company areas the platoon will be sited and the full “ R ” 
group is available. 

The platoon commander on arrival on the objective, will:— 

(i) Contact battalion HQ by wireless and ascertain whether the 
rifle companies have reached their objectives; if so, he will 
move to his area. 

(ii) Make a quick appreciation and reconnaissance. 


97 


(iii) Give the following confirmatory orders to the section com¬ 
manders:— 

Section areas and RVs. 

Arcs of fire and temporary fixed lines. 

Vehicle positions, if required. 

Platoon GP. 

Platoon HQ. 

(iv) Move to the platoon RV or the battalion dispersal point and 
give confirmatory orders to the Nos. 1 and platoon 2 IC as 
follows:— 

Section areas and RVs. 

Routes. 

Additional orders for the platoon 2 IC. 

Platoon OP. 

Platoon HQ. 

Vehicle position. 

(v) Give the normal orders to the driver operators. 

(vi) Report the platoon in action, together with the location of 
platoon headquarters in code. 

(vii) Carry out liason with rifle company or companies in whose 
areas the platoon is sited. This must be a quick liason, its 
object being to warn them of the section areas and arcs of fire. 

(viii) Contact the battalion commander and discuss:— 

The latest information. 

Any necessity for resiting the sections in different company 

areas. 

The linking up of communications. 

(ix) Carry out a thorough reconnaissance of the company area 
or areas in which it has been decided to resite the sections, 
contacting the company commanders concerned, and con¬ 
sidering the following:— 

Resiting of sections. 

Fixed lines. 

Mines. 

Wiring. 

Digging. 

Communications. 

(x) Return to the platoon and carry out any necessary resiting. 
In some cases, if the battalion area is under observation, the 
movement of the sections cannot be carried out until after 
dark. 

(xi) Issue orders to the driver operators concerning any additional 
communications required with the companies. 

(xii) Pass on full information. 

The battle procedures for the remainder of the platoon are the 
same as shown in Lesson 84, but every effort must be made to 
occupy as quickly as possible, and digging must commence 
immediately. 








98 


/(b) Procedure B .—By day, when it has not been possible to decide 
on the siting of the platoon before the move forward. 


The platoon commander, on arrival on the objective will:— 

(i) Contact battalion HQ, ascertain whether the rifle companies 
have reached their objectives, and obtain the latest informa- 
tion. 

(ii) Locate his task on the ground, and decide on the most 
..... suita ble company area or areas from which to carry it out. 
(m) Send the platoon orderly to lead up the platoon from the 

battalion dispersal point. 

(iv) Move to the rifle company area he has selected and carry out 
the duties as shown in para 4(a) (iii) to (xii). 

The remainder of the platoon will carry out the normal duties 
for the occupation of a position by day. 


(c) Procedure C .—By night. The platoon commander will:— 

(i) Contact battalion HQ by wireless as soon as he arrives on 
the objective. He will ascertain whether the rifle companies 
have reached their objectives and whether the platoon may 
move forward to its area. 

(ii) Leave the platoon under the command of the platoon 2IC 
while he leads the section and platoon OP personnel to their 
areas. (On certain occasions, it may be possible for the 
platoon 2 IC to lead one section into position). 

(iii) Peg out the fixed lines for the guns on arrival in the section 
areas. He will do this as shown in Lesson 107. 


(iv) Give orders to the driver operators. 

(v) Carry out quick liaison with the rifle company commanders.! 

(vi) Contact battalion HQ to obtain the latest information. 

(vii) Carry out detailed liaison with the rifle company commanders.! 
(viii) Return to his sections and pass on the full information to them.] 

(ix) Inspect the section areas at first light and confirm their tasks.! 

(x) Contact the battalion commander and consider any necessary! 

resiting of the sections. I 

Phase IV —The co-ordination of the machine gun fire task 

5. The machine gun fire plan will normally be on a battalion level, 
liius, the platoon commander should keep this foremost in his mind when 
siting his sections. At the same time, he should try to co-ordinate the 
battalion task allotted to him with any tasks desired by the rifle company 
commanders. J 


Lesson 88— MODIFICATIONS FOR DEFENCE 


1. The battle procedure duties shown below apply to the occasion when 1 
it is desired to occupy two or more section positions—direct fire. Should 
it be required to occupy an indirect platoon position, the same general! 
principles will apply. 


99 


NOTE.—If the time is short the platoon commander may delegate the 
reconnaissance of one or even two section areas to the platoon 
2 IC. In this case the pormal duties of the platoon 2 IC will be 
undertaken by the platoon sergeant. 

2. The platoon commander. 

His duties are the same as in battle procedure (Lesson 84) until he 
has made his time plan; then they will be modified as follows: He will: 

(a) Write a normal message to the platoon 2 IC except that it will 
include orders for all NCOs less one No. 1 per section to come 
to an RV for orders. This message will be sent off by the platoon 
orderly who, if possible, will lead the platoon and NCOs to their 
respective RVs. 

(b) Move to his area with “ R ” group, place it under cover and make 
his reconnaissance plan. 

(c) Reconnoitre the area allotted to him for the following items: 

(i) Exact gun positions and control posts. 

(ii) Section RVs. 

(iii) Platoon HQ. 

(iv) Platoon OP. , . 

(v) Vehicle position (dependant on battalion commander s orders.) 

(vi) Arrangements for local protection. 

(vii) Position from which to give out orders. 

(d) On completion of his reconnaissance, give out orders to all NCOs 
less the Nos. 1 left with the platoon. They will include:— 

Information. 

Enemy . . . , 

Own troops .(As much information as he 

knows at this stage about 
own troops near section 
areas and near where fixed 
lines will fall). 

Intention. 

Method. 

Direct fire.—Dismounted action. 

Each section:— 

Area and RV. 

Task or tasks. 

Arc of fire. 

Approximate area for temporary fixed line. 

All sections.— 

Rate of fire on fixed lines. 

Reservation of ammunition for particular tasks. 
Digging. 

Arrangements for vehicles. 

Local protection (3.5-inch RLs, 2-inch mortar, Brens, 
and rifles). 

Orders as to when to open fire. 





100 


101 


Administration. 

RAP. 

Intercommunication. 

Battalion HQ. 

Platoon HQ. 

Platoon OP. 

SOS signal (if known). 

Synchronize watches. 

Be in action by.hrs. 

Any questions? 

(e) Move to each section area in turn to point out to the section com¬ 
manders their exact gun positions and control posts, and to con¬ 
firm their tasks on the ground. 

(f) Return to the platoon OP and give orders to the driver operators 
including:— 

31 set. 

88 set. 

Telephones. 

(g) Satisfy himself that the platoon is in action and report the fact 
to battalion HQ together with the location of platoon HQ in 
code. 

(h) Hand over the platoon to the platoon 2 IC and carry out liaison 
with the companies near the platoon area and near where the 
fixed lines are to fall. He will find out from where the SOS signal 
will go up, and discuss the co-ordination of digging, wiring, 
mining and communications. As he returns to the platoon, he 
will inspect the section positions from the enemy’s point of view., 

(j) Give out further orders to the platoon 2 IC and section commanders 
including:— 

(i) Detailed disposition of own troops. 

(ii) Areas for permanent fixed lines. 

(iii) Area from which the SOS signal will go up. < 

(iv) Location of neighbouring HQ. 

(v) Digging plan. 

(k) Give orders to the driver operators concerning extra communica¬ 
tions that may be required with the rifle companies. 

(l) Organize the digging of the platoon OP and carry out any further 
liaison and reconnaissance which may be necessary for alternative 
positions. 

4. The platoon 2 IC or sergeant. 

On receipt of the message from the platoon commander he will:— 

(a) Pass on brief information to the Nos. 1. 

(b) Lead the platoon to the RV given in the message, and then take 
forward the senior Nos. 1 to the platoon commander’s RV for 
orders. 


(c) On completion of orders, return to the platoon with the Nos. 1. 

(d) Establish platoon HQ. 

(e) Arrange for the carriers to be sent to the vehicle position under 
command of the platoon sergeant (if available). 

(f) Arrange for [the siting of the 3.5-inch RLs, Brens and 2-inch 
mortars. 

(g) Supervise the digging of the platoon HQ and the OP. 

(h) If necessary, carry out local liaison. 

5. The section commander. 

In addition to the normal duties for the occupation of a position by day 
(Lesson 84), he will:— 

(a) Order the rangetaker to make out a range card. 

(b) Order the guns to be mounted to the flank of the permanent 
positions to enable digging to be carried out, and arrange for them 
to be laid on temporary fixed lines until the permanent fixed lines 
are decided upon. 

(c) See that all stores are removed from the carriers and send the 
carriers to the platoon sergeant at platoon HQ. 

(d) Arrange for guns and stores to be concealed until they can be dug 
in. 

(e) Organize:— 

(i) Sentries and duty roster. 

(ii) Alarm signal. 

(iii) Positions for the higher numbers on receipt of the alarm 
signal or at “ Stand To.” 

(iv) Action to be taken on receipt of the SOS signal. 

(f) Pass on full information to the section. 

(g) Having received further orders from the platoon commander, he 
will organize the permanent fixed lines, the digging of the per¬ 
manent position, and pass on full information to the section. 

(h) If necessary, carry out local liaison. 

6. The senior Nos. 1. 

In addition to their normal duties they will be responsible for leading 
their respective sections from the platoon RV to the section areas. 

Lesson 89—THE INSPECTION OF A SECTION AREA 
IN DEFENCE 

1. The following are some of the points that a platoon commander will 
check when he inspects a section position in defence. The list is not com¬ 
prehensive and must be regarded only as a guide. 

(a) Is the section commander “In the picture”? 

(i) Does he know the latest information about the enemy? 

(ii) Own troops. 

Does he know their positions? 

Has he made contact with those nearest? 

Has he full information about patrols? 

Has he arranged for protection by neighbouring troops 
where necessary. 

Does he know position of nearest HQ and RAP? 








102 


(b) Section personnel. 

(i) Has all information been passed on to every man—especially 
regarding SOS? 

(ii) Does everyone know his action on alarm signal. 

(iii) Are all administrative instructions fully understood—-includ¬ 
ing sanitary arrangements? 

(iv) Do neighbouring troops know whereabouts of lines of fire 
and fixed lines, and have arrangements been made to prevent 
their crossing them? 

(v) Does everybody know position of platoon HQ, platoon OP, 
and necessary routes to them? 

(c) The task. 

(i) Arc. 

Can both guns cover the arc? 

Organization of arc. 

Range cards; areas in which it is unsafe to fire marked in. 

(ii) Fixed line. 

Location and safety. 

Aiming posts planted and lensatic sight adjusted. 
Deflection drums and direction dial at correct settings. 
Range and angle of sight left on respective drums and 
recorded. 

Aiming lamps ready for use. 

(d) Stores. 

(i) Everything off the carriers. 

(ii) All ammunition handy for the guns and dug in. 

(iii) Spare parts cases complete. 

(iv) Oil in traversing handles. 

(v) Stores not required at guns concealed in convenient and 
tidy dumps and dug in. 

(vi) Water; condenser cans full and source of supply recon¬ 
noitred. 

(vii) Cases, cans oil, complete. 

(viii) Spare parts box; all breakages replaced. 

(ix) Telephones in good order. 

(e) Readiness. 

(i) Sentry (or sentries) posted; gas detectors, binoculars, com¬ 
pass, notebook and pencil. 

(ii) Duty rosters for sentries and digging made out. 

(iii) Digging properly organized and in progress or completed. 

(iv) Guns camouflaged as necessary. 

(v) Guns half loaded and thumb-piece pressed. 

(vi) SOS and place from which it will be sent up. 

(vii) Alarm signal and “ Stand-to ” position. 

(viii) Routine times for “ Stand-to.” 

(ix) All round defence. 

2. Diagrams of section layout. 








Diaqbakikiatic Lanout Of The Dtcqtsjq Plan Or A Section Position. 


105 




Plate 19—Medium machine gun emplacement. 


Lesson 90—MODIFICATION FOR THE OCCUPATION OF A 
POSITION BY NIGHT, WHEN A DAYLIGHT 
RECONNAISSANCE CAN BE MADE 

Platoon position—indirect fire 
1. The platoon commander or platoon 2 IC. 

( a ) p n receipt of the warning order from the battalion commander 
he will proceed with his normal “ R ” group (Lesson 83, para 2) 
to the battalion commander’s RV for orders. However, should the 
platoon be heavily committed, the following minimum “ R ” 
group will suffice:— 

Platoon commander or platoon 2 IC. 

1 Rangetaker. 

1 Private. 

Platoon orderly. 

The essential stores required are as follows:— 

Director. 

2 gun flags \ 

2 zero posts I per section. 

2 direction pegs ^ 

White tape. 

Compass. 








106 


107 


(Note: Except where stated, it is assumed throughout this lesson that 
the normal “ R ” group is available). 

(b) On completion of the battalion commander’s orders, he will:— 

(1) Make his time plan, which may take the following form:— 

Time available before it is dark 1 hour 30 mins. 

Appreciate the situation, make time plan and 
write message to platoon 2 IC or platoon 

commander . 

Time for “ R ” group to move to area 
Reconnaissance and pegging the position ... 

Orders to “ R ” group. 

Spare . 


5 mins. 
10 mins. 
60 mins. 
10 mins. 
5 mins. 


1 hr. 30 mins. 


(It is essential for the platoon commander to allow himself at least 
one hour’s daylight in his platoon area to complete the pegging of the 
position and the collection of the necessary data). 


(ii) Send off a message to the platoon giving:— 

Brief information. 

Platoon role. 

Time for the move of the platoon from its present position. 
Platoon RV and route, if necessary. 

His own actions and whereabouts. 

This message will be conveyed by wireless or by the platoon 
orderly, who will return to the platoon commander. 

(iii) Move with his “ R ” group to the platoon area which' has 
been allotted, and make his reconnaissance plan. 

(iv) Give orders to one of the rangetakers. 

(v) Carry out his reconnaissance and decide on as many of the 
following items as may be necessary:— 

Gun position, and the placing out of the pegs on parallel 
lines. 

Direction of the zero line for the pivot gun. 

Rendezvous for the platoon as near as possible to the gun 
position, bearing in mind the noise of carrier movement 
by night. 

Route from RV to the gun position. 

Position for platoon OP and HQ if the platoon is to remain 
in action during the following day. 

Position for vehicles. 

Local protection. 

(vi) Peg and tape the position and collect the necessary data, 
assisted by the section commanders. 


(vii) Give out orders to the “ R ” group containing as many of the 
following points as are necessary:— 

Information. 

Enemy . 

Own troops. 

Intention. 

Method. 

Indirect fire. 

Gun position. 

Platoon RV. - 
Vehicle position. 

Local protection. 

Concealment and digging. 

Sentries. 

Administration. 

Intercommunication. 

Platoon OP and HQ if necessary. 

Battalion and rifle company HQ. 

Synchronize watches. 

H hour.hrs. 

Any questions ? 

(viii) Post the rangetakers to act as sentries on the pegs. In addition 
it may be possible for them to prepare the gun positions. 

(ix) Effect liaison with the neighbouring rifle companies. 

(x) Return to the platoon with the “ R ” group less the range- 
takers. 

(xi) Prepare the fire control charts and explain them. 

(xii) Issue orders to the platoon. 

(c) On carrying out the occupation, he will:— 

(i) Lead the platoon to the platoon RV on carrier, and order 
section commanders to prepare for night firing. 

(ii) Lead the platoon from the RV to the gun position on foot. 

(iii) If the section commanders were not present on the daylight 
reconnaissance point out to them the gun flags and direction 
for the guns to be mounted. (Sections will now occupy as in 
section drill night firing). 

(iv) Move to the rear and centre of the gun position, make the 
necessary corrections for climatic conditions to the fire control 
charts, and issue them to the section commanders. 

(v) Direct the fire of the platoon. 

Section positions—direct fire 

_ U®**® are certain modifications to the battle procedure shown above 

should the platoon be required to occupy direct fire positions by night. 






108 


They are as follows:— 

2. The platoon commander or platoon 2 IC. 

Having moved to his area with his “ R ” group he will:— 

(a) Make his reconnaissance plan and carry out a reconnaissance for:— 

Section areas and RVs. 

Gun positions and control posts. 

Arcs of fire and fixed lines. 

Platoon OP and HQ. 

Platoon RY. 

Vehicle position. 

(b) Give orders to the “ R ” group as shown in Lesson 84, para 2(f ), 
including fixed lines. 

(c) Visit each area in turn, give orders to the rangetaker, peg the 
positions, and collect the necessary data. (If time is short, the 
platoon commander may have to delegate the pegging of one 
position to the senior section commander). 

(d) The remainder of the platoon commander’s duties conform with 
those shewn above for a platoon position indirect fire. 

3. During the occupation, the duties of various personnel are as follows:—• 

(a) On arrival at the RV, section commanders will lead their sections 
to the gun positions and get them into action. 

(b) If the section commanders were not present during the reconnais¬ 
sance, the platoon commander, or the platoon 2 IC if he recon¬ 
noitred the position, will take forward one section to its gun 
position, and point out the gun flags and direction pegs to the 
section commander. He will then return to the RV and do the 
same for the other sections. 

(c) Communications will be laid out as normal. 

(d) When necessary, the platoon sergeant will supervise the collection 
of the vehicles and take them to the pre-arranged place. 


Lesson 91— MODIFICATIONS FOR RELIEFS IN THE LINE 

1. The relief of one unit by another is probably the most common 
operation carried out in the line. It is an operation normally accomplished 
by night. Therefore, to ensure success and to avoid confusion, it is essential 
to make detailed plans based on a preliminary daylight reconnaissance. 

2. Daylight reconnaissance .—An advance party will be sent to the area 
to be taken over and it will be responsible for all preliminary daylight 
reconnaissance. It is desirable for this advance party to be identical with 
the normal “ R ” group but very seldom will the situation allow this. The 
platoon commander should endeavour to command the advance party, 
but again this may not be possible and the platoon 2 IC or sergeant will 
probably be put in charge. Other personnel should be the platoon orderly 
and a man from each section. This is the smallest advance party that 
can work with any degree of efficiency. 


3. The duties of the advance party. 

The advance party commander will obtain information as follows: 

(a) Complete dispositions of the enemy and own troops, enemy 

! habits, patrols, danger spots etc. 

(b) The disposition of the whole platoon area including alternative 
positions. 

■(c) Runners routes and communications plan. 

(d) The arc of fire, fixed lines and SOS signals. 

(e) Take over range cards and information on maps. 

(f) Feeding and sanitary arrangements. 

(g) Evacuation of casualities. 

(h) Alarm signals. 

In addition to the above, he will, if necessary to facilitate the relief, 
take compass bearings, pace distances and lay tape. 

He will then pass on information to the remainder of the advance party 
and show them the layout of the platoon area detailing two men to act as 
guides for the sections from the pre-arranged RV to the gun positions; 
these guides should be helped by members of the outgoing platoon. 

4. The relief. 

(a) While the relief is being carried out, both platoons will “ Stand 
To.” 

(b) The advance party will meet the incoming platoon at the pre¬ 
arranged RV. 

(c) Guides found by the outgoing platoon and, if available, duplicated 
by the incoming platoon, will guide their respective sections into 
position. 

(d) Full communication must be ensured before the relief is complete. 

(e) Should an emergency situation develop during the relief, the 
commander of the outgoing platoon or section will take command. 

(f) Absolute silence throughout the operation is essential. 

(For details regarding the relief of guns see Lesson 74). 

Lesson 92—MODIFICATIONS FOR THE WITHDRAWAL 

1. General— The duties laid down in this lesson refer to the occasion 
when the withdrawal has been premeditated and the situation allows a 
comprehensive reconnaissance to be made of the next position in rear. 

In other circumstances a platoon may have to occupy, at short notice, 
a series of intermediate positions. The platoon commander and section 
commanders, may, therefore, have little or no opportunity for any detailed 
reconnaissance and must act in accordance with the immediate needs of 
the situation. 




110 


111 


The preparation for the withdrawal from the present position 

hj he Ptooon commander.—On receipt of the warning order that a 
withdrawal is to take place, he will:— 

(a) fo platoon HQ the SeCti ° ns and order the “ R ” group to report 

The “ R ” group will normally consist of:— 

(i) When the platoon is liable to be in contact with the enemy:_ 

Platoon 2 IC or platoon sergeant. 

1 rangetaker from one section. 

1 man from each of the other sections. 

Platoon orderly. 

(ii) When the platoon is not liable to be in contact with the j 
enemy:— 

Platoon commander or platoon 2 IC, remainder of the 
normal platoon “ R ” group. 

(N u te ;'~ For 1 the remain< 3er of this lesson, it is assumed! 
that the platoon is already in action, and that the mini¬ 
mum R group only is available). 


(b) Give orders to “ R ” group including:— 

Brief information. 

Intention. 

Method, RV, time and route to meet the battalion “ R ” 
group commander (normally battalion 2 IC). 
Instructions to reconnoitre the new platoon area, and to 
send back information to the platoon bv means of wireless 
or the platoon orderly. 

This party, with the exception of the platoon orderly, 
will travel in the platoon 2 IC jeep and trailer or platoon 
commander s carrier. Sufficient tools should be taken to 
enable the reconnaissance party to make hasty emplace¬ 
ments or to improve the existing cover, together with the 
director, gun nags, zero posts and direction pegs. 

(c) Carry out liaison with the rifle company commander under whose 
command the platoon will be for the final withdrawal (if applicable). 

(d) Reconnoitre for and decide on:— 

(i) Platoon RV in rear of the position. 

(ii) Route for sections and platoon HQ to the RV. 

(iii) Route to battalion or company RV. 

(iv) The method of withdrawal. 

(v) How the order for the final withdrawal will be given. 

C^i) Time for the withdrawal of telephones etc, if laid. 

(e) Arrange for the carriers to move forward to the Sections RVs at 
the appropriate time. 


i 


(f) Issue orders to section commanders as follows:— 

Information. 

Own troops.times of withdrawal. 

Intention. 

Method. 

Method of withdrawal. 

Timings and routes. 

Platoon RV on present position. 

Battalion or company RV on present position. 

The method by which the order to withdraw will 
reach the section commanders. 

Commence thinning out at...hrs. 

Platoon HQ will withdraw at.hrs. 

Orders re LMGs and 3.5-in RLs. 

Battalion RV and platoon RV on new position and 
route. (If this is known at this stage). 

Position of the platoon commander during the with¬ 
drawal. (Usually with the last section out of action). 

Intercommunication. 

Synchronize watches. 

Any questions? 

(g) Move to platoon HQ and arrange for its withdrawal. 

3. The section commander. —On receipt of orders concerning the with¬ 
drawal, he will:— 

(a) Ensure that the route to the platoon RV is reconnoitred. 

(b) Make arrangements for the removal of any surplus store*' the 
carriers when the time for thinning out arrives. 

(c) Decide on his plan for the withdrawal. 

(d) Pass on full information to all ranks. 

The reconnaissance of the new position 

4. The platoon 2IC. 

(a) On receipt of orders from the battalion vcond in command on 
the new position, he will:— 

(i) Make his time plan. 

(ii) Carry out a detailed reconnaissance for:— 

Section areas and RV*. 

Gun positions and .ontrol posts. 

Arcs of fire and fixed 1 nes. 

Platoon OP and HQ. 

Platoon RV. 

Routes from the plpioon RV to the section areas. 

Vehicle position. „ . ._„ 

(If it is required 1 j use indirect fire or carrier action, then 
slight modificatif ns will be necessary to the reconnaissance). 








112 


113 


(iii) Send off a message to the platoon commander by wireless or 
by means of the platoon orderly, containing:— 

Very brief information about own troops. 

Intention. 

Method. 

Section areas. 

Platoon RV. 

(All map references should be in code, and every effort 
shouM be made to keep the message as short as possible 
If time is very limited then the only essential is the platoon 
RV). 

(iv) Give orders to the “ R ” group. These orders should be as 
shown in para 4 (a) (ii) above and should be noted down 
on paper. 

(v) Give the normal orders to the rangetaker from each section 
area in turn. Then point out the gun positions, pegging 
them as he does so. 

Note— If it is anticipated that section areas are likely to be 
widely separated or that there will be very little daylight left 
for reconnaissance all rangetakers should be taken in the “R” 
group. 

(vi) Leave the rangetaker and the other man to prepare the gun 
positions, and to act as sentries on the gun pegs. 

(vii) Carry out liaison with the neighbouring recce parties. 

(viii) Prepare and dig the platoon OP. 

(ix) Move to the platoon RV to await the arrival of the platoon. 

(b) If platoon 2 IC found from his time plan that little time was 

duties as ff^ows he wU1 modify his battle Procedure 

(i) As soon as possible, make a general appreciation and give 

orders to the rangetaker or rangetakers to prepare range cards j 
tor all sections. |l 

(ii) Carry out a quick recce for routes to and from the platoon 

(iii) Send a message to the platoon commander by the platoon 
orderly if time permits. 

(iv) Carry out his detailed reconnaissance, and the other battle 
procedures enumerated in sub-para (a) above. 

The withdrawal 

^Z he platoon co ™™ander .—When the time for withdrawal arrives, he 

(a) Ensure that the order to withdraw reaches the section commanders. 

(b) Satisfy himself that the withdrawal has been carried out. 

(c) Take charge of the platoon at the platoon RV and lead it to the 

new position. 


6. The section commander .— 

(a) When the time for thinning out arrives, he will:— 

(i) Order the carriers to be brought up from the section RV as 
close as possible to the gun position. 

(ii) Order Nos. 3 and the drivers to take any unnecessary stores 
back to the carriers. 

(b) When the time to vacate the position arrives, he will:— 

(i) Order the guns and remaining stores to be taken back and 
loaded on to the carriers. 

(ii) Lead the carriers back to the platoon RV. 

(c) When the withdrawal is by night, he will:— 

(i) Ensure that carriers are not brought up so close to the position 
as to jeopardize safety through noise. 

(ii) Allow sufficient time for the unnecessary stores to be taken 
quietly to the carriers. 


D —The occupation of the new position 

7. The platoon 2 IC.— On arrival of the platoon at the platoon RV, he 
'will:— 

(a) Contact the platoon commander and personally lead into position 
one section and the platoon OP, while his driver and orderly lead 
in the other sections. 

(b) Give orders to the driver operators re 31 set and 88 set and the 
position of the platoon commander’s carrier. 

(c) Pass on full information to the section commanders and the 
platoon commander, taking the latter over the complete layout 
of the platoon. 

(d) Hand over the platoon to the platoon commander when the 
occupation has been completed. 

8. The sentries .—On arrival of their sections, they will:— 

(a) Contact the section commanders and lead the sections to the gun 
positions. 

(b) Pass on brief information to the section commanders (gun positions, 
control posts, direction pegs, zero posts, 1st target etc). 

(c) Assist the section commanders in getting the guns into action. 

(d) Pass on full information to the section commanders. 

(e) If necessary, lead the vehicles back to the vehicle position, and 
report to the platoon 2 IC or platoon sergeant for further orders. 



114 


115 


APPENDIX II 

MMG RANGE COURSES AND SAFETY PRECAUTIONS 
General 

™s appendix contains the instructions essential for firing the Vickers 
^ C ^ n «r GU o n and should be read in conjunction with Small Arms Training 
Voi V, War Supplement, Small Arms Ranges Layout, Safety and Equipment 


2. Range Practices 1 to 9 will be fired during the training of recruits and 
thereafter such practices as may be required for further training as cir¬ 
cumstances permit and ammunition allows. 

3. Subject to the soldier passing tests of Elementary Training Nos 1-11 , 
as laid down in Lesson 60 he will be practised in Parts III and IV and also | 
be eligible to be tested in the Skill-at-Arms practices as laid down in 
Appendix III. 


Preliminary training 

4. The training value obtained from firing with ball ammunition will 
depend on the thoroughness with which preliminary training has been 
carried out. 

Particular attention is directed to the following:— 

(d) Tests of elementary training .—Range practices are a waste of time 
and ammunition unless those taking part have reached a certain 
standard of efficiency. 

The tests of elementary training give the required standard. They 
are designed to:— 

(i) Ensure that men have reached an efficient standard before 
they begin range practices. 

(ii) Prevent any detail of elementary training being over-looked. 

A record of the results of individual tests will be kept by company f 

commanders and inspected periodically. *1 

t H important that teaching should not be confused with testing, f 
i n „ tiie , t< ? rmer > m . en a . re instructed by explanation and demonstration, I 
followed by execution; in the latter, men are questioned or ordered to carry 
out a certain test, after due warning, without assistance, and they either 
P“«- are . P u f back for further instruction. The conditions of each test 
will be explained to individuals before it is carried out. 

Supervision 

5. An officer will normally supervise the firing point at all times, but in 
exceptional circumstances where no officer is available, commanding 
officers may give authority for supervision by warrant officers, or, if they 

ar ^ n °i a y. ailabIe N by quallfied NCOS not below the rank of sergeant. Duties 
in the butts may be carried out by NCOs. 


The supervising officer, warrant officer or NCO is responsible that 
range standing orders, particularly with regard to safety, are complied with. 


Field firing 

6. Exercises with ball ammunition on the field firing range are the 
culmination of weapon training. The field firing range provides conditions 
most nearly akin to war and all shooting on other ranges will be regarded 
merely as a means to obtain efficiency in this final test. 

Officers responsible will visit the range and prepare the practices, 
having regard to the lessons to be taught, target facilities, safety precautions 
and ammunition available. The value of the exercise will depend on sound 
preparation, clear explanation to those taking part, and a well-conducted 
criticism at the conclusion. Simple problems should be designed so that 
all actions of the fire unit are such as would be possible and likely m war. 

Officers or non-commissioned officers will be detailed to each fire 
unit to watch its action and act as umpires, they should conform to the 
movements of the section. They will be responsible to the officer superin¬ 
tending for safety precautions, but, apart from ensuring that these are 
observed, they will not interfere with the actions of firers or leaders. 

Times taken to pick up a target and bring it under effective fire should 
be recorded and the number of hits obtained also checked. 

At the conclusion, a conference will be held. The officers or NCOs 
who accompanied each sub-unit as umpires should deal with detailed 
points. The superintending officer, after obtaining the necessary information 
from the butts and from the umpires, should explain the enemy action, 
comment on the means taken to combat it, and bring out the main lessons 
of the exercise. 

Exercises should be restricted to sections and platoons. 


Safety precautions 
All ranges . 

(a) Firing will not take place until the danger flags are hoisted and 
look out men posted according to the bye-laws and standing 
orders. 

(b) A red danger flag will be hoisted at the butts as a warning to cease 
fire. The flag will be kept up until the whole of the butt party is 
under cover. No one will leave the butts until the cessation of fire 
has been notified from the firing point. When cessation of fire is 
required, the superintending officer at the firing point will normally 
give the order. 

(c) A red flag will be hoisted at the firing point when no firing is 
taking place. It will always be hoisted when the danger flag is 
flying at the butts. 







(d) No one, except the firers, the instructors and the officers on duty, 
will be allowed on the firing point. 

(e) If firing is suspended during a practice, or whenever the danger 
flag is hoisted at the butts, locks of machine guns will be removed 
from the lock guides (guns clear). 

(f) No one will be in front of the feed block when the gun is firing. 

(g) After firing, live rounds will be separated from empty cases and 
collected, under the orders of the superintending officer. 

(h) An officer will inspect all guns and equipment before they are 
removed from the firing point, to ensure that they are unloaded 
and that the men are not in possession of ammunition. A further 
inspection will take place before the company or party leaves the 
range, and AF B 159A will be completed. 

(j) Repairs and replacements will not be carried out until a gun is 
clear. No one except the gun numbers authorized to be on the 
firing point by the conditions of the practice will be permitted to 
touch the gun without permission when a stoppage occurs. 

(k) No guns will be loaded without orders from the superintending 
officer. 

(l) Drill cartridges will not be taken on the range, except for use in 
stoppage practices. In this case the drill cartridges will be taken 
to and from the range under the orders of the company etc, com¬ 
mander. 


8. 30 -yards range. 

(a) No more than four machine guns will be fired at the same time on 
the standard 30 yards range. 

(b) During the firing of machine gun practices, the superintending i 
officer may make special arrangements to call those waiting to fire 
up to a position from which they can hear the instruction and 
criticism, but even then they must be at least five yards in rear of 
the firer. 

(c) No target will be placed within four feet of the sides of the bullet 
catcher. 

(d) Representative targets will be placed at the bottom of the bullet 
catcher. 

(e) Landscape targets will be placed so that the skyscreen is at the 
bottom of the bullet catcher and the picture below it. 

(f) Steel plates and moving targets are not allowed on a 30-yards 
range. 


TO BE FIRED ON THE 30-YARDS RANGE 

Note .—The practices in Part I should be fired practice by practice as the appropriate stage of training is reached. 


117 






119 




angle of sight drum; the lensatic sight 
will be aligned on the aiming lamp 

(vi) The order “ Fire ” will be given 

(vii) The gun will be knocked off its alignment 
by the instructor as each stoppage occurs 





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DETAILS OF MMG TARGETS 


122 





sections of 8 ft. Centre sections each 8 ft long and 

section coloured grey. placed in sockets in stop butts 

Flank sections white 








124 


PARTS III AND IV 

FIRE CONTROL AND TACTICAL EXERCISES 
WITH AMMUNITION 

GENERAL 

1. If time and ammunition are available the Parts III and IV of the 
medium machine gun course should be fired. 

2. Field firing ranges will always be scarce, and it is essential that the 
time spent upon them is not wasted. 

Very careful previous reconnaissance by the commanders concerned 
is therefore necessary. 

Dress 

3. Battle order will be worn by all ranks taking part in Parts III and IV. 


PART ffl 

Aim 

4. The aims of this part are:— 

(a) To practise fire unit commanders and their understudies in obtain¬ 
ing fire effect rapidly, by direct and indirect means, by day and 
by night, and in making corrections from observation of strike. 

(b) To exercise the personnel in section and platoon drill, fire discipline, 
and the maintenance of the guns in action. 

(c) To practise rangetakers in taking ranges and in observation of fire, f 

(d) To cultivate team work in the fire units. 

(e) If time and ammunition allow to stage demonstrations of fire 
control, beaten zones etc. 

General 

5. In sub-allotting the available ammunition, consideration will be 
given to the following:— 

(a) The machine gun is primarily a direct fire weapon. Therefore 
the bulk of the ammunition will be allotted to direct fire exercises. 

(b) A high average standard of efficiency is to be aimed at, and not the 
training of a few experts. Consequently every potential fire unit 
commander should be exercised, and the Numbers 1 and 2 at the 
guns frequently changed over. 

(c) The ammunition available may not be sufficient for the platoon 
to carry out all the methods of indirect fire. 

When firing indirect it may be necessary, owing to shortage of 
ammunition, to fire with the two flank guns of a platoon only 
though the whole of the drill should be carried out by the centre \ 
guns. 



\ \ \ 


125 


(d) The value to be obtained from the exercises is greatly increased if 
the fire controller is able to observe the strike of the bullets. 
Observer and tracer ammunition, when available, are a useful 
guide as to whether or not fire effect has been obtained. 

(e) Continued repetition of Part III exercises will not produce results 
in proportion to the expenditure of ammunition, especially in 
conditions where observation of strike is not possible. 

Once the NCOs and men have been exercised in fire control and 
fire discipline in accordance with these notes, further ammunition 
available for Part III is best expended in exercises on a competition 
basis. 

(f) Demonstrations in methods of file control, trajectories, beaten 
zones, safety limits, etc, are a valuable means of teaching the 
characteristics of the weapon. Such demonstrations require a 
proportion of tracer ammunition. If tracer ammunition is scarce, 
priority should be given to fire control exercises and not to 
demonstrations. 

(g) Every effort will be made to produce conditions resembling, as far 
as possible, those of active service. Where departure from service 
positions is unavoidable the reasons must be fully explained to those 
under instruction to prevent false lessons from being learnt. 

(h) Some of the exercises should begin with the guns on the carriers 
at the RV, so that the fire unit can be practised in the procedure 
for coming into and out of action. 

(j) It is suggested that as many as possible of the following should be 
exercised as fire controllers:— 

Direct fire .—Five per section, ie, section commander. Nos. 
1 and two others (preferably to include the rangetaker). 

Indirect fire .—Two per platoon, ie, platoon commander and 
platoon sergeant. 


Procedure 

6. Before the day of firing. 

(a) The platoon commander carries out a reconnaissance, and selects 
firing areas to be used by the platoon for direct and indirect fire. 

(b) The platoon commander decides on the targets to be engaged by 
each fire controller and the stage from which each exercise will 
begin. Targets should be selected mainly in areas which are 
likely to give observation of strike, and should vary in shape and 
range to bring out the various methods of fire. 

Each exercise will be designed to bring out a definite lesson. 

(c) Two range cards will be prepared for each firing area, one for use 
by the officer conducting the exercise and the other for the fire 
controller, when it is desired that he shall commence the exercise 
with a range card already prepared. 


5—2037 





126 


7. On the day of firing—Direct fire 

(a) The platoon commander describes the arc of fire, safety arrange¬ 
ments, etc. All personnel to be exercised as fire controllers then 
assemble under the platoon commander and the remainder of the 
platoon under the platoon sergeant. 

(b) As far as possible the personnel of each section should be exercised 
together. Each fire controller should work with his own range- 
taker, though all rangetakers of the platoon should be exercised 
in observation of fire. 

(c) The platoon commander selects the fire controller to be exercised, 
and indicates by means of a director the target to be engaged. The 
fire controller then proceeds to engage the target, his actions and 
orders being watched and heard by the other fire controllers. At 
the conclusion of the exercise the platoon commander discusses 
and comments on the action and orders of the fire controller. 
It may sometimes be advisable to stop the exercise temporarily to 
discuss certain points. 

(d) At the same time the platoon sergeant details the necessary gun 
numbers, who are frequently and systematically changed to ensure 
that they are all exercised. Throughout the exercise he takes 
charge of the spare gun numbers with whom he discusses, and 
comments on, the action of those actually manning the guns. 

8. On the days of firing—Indirect fire . 

(a) The procedure for exercising the platoon in indirect fire is the 
same as for direct fire as detailed in para 7 above. 

(b) All rangetakers not actually being exercised assemble under a 
qualified instructor and practise observation of fire. 


PART IV 

Aim 

9. The aims of Part IV are:— 

(a) To practise the carrying out of tactical machine gun roles using 
ammunition. 

(b) To provide platoon commanders with a means of testing the 
standard of field duties, fire control, fire discipline and drill 
reached by their sections. 

10. Part TV is the final stage of platoon training. 

The number of exercises which can be usefully carried out is limited 
only by the amount of ammunition available or by the time for which a 
field firing range can be allotted. 


127 

11. The phases of the battle which may be practised include the follow¬ 
ing:— 

(a) Attack—covering fire, consolidation and flank protection. 

(b) Defence. 

(c) Withdrawal. 

(d) Any special form of warfare for which the unit is training, eg. 

Mountain warfare. 

Desert warfare. 

Static warfare (harassing and counter-preparation tasks and 
the firing of barrages). 

All exercises should be directed by the platoon commander. 

Framing the exercises 

12. An early reconnaissance of the area allotted should be carried out 
by the platoon commander. Each exercise will be based on a simple 
tactical situation. 

13. The practical work of all schemes should open with the issue of the 
machine gun platoon commander’s orders at the place at which they 
would be given out in war. 

Range safety precautions and the safety of other troops taking part 
must always be borne in mind. The scheme should be so framed that the 
restrictions on the choice of tactical positions, imposed by these considera¬ 
tions, are reduced to a minimum. 

14. If facilities exist it is most desirable that all sections in defence should 
dig in, be concealed, a detailed inspection of the position made, and shoot¬ 
ing carried out on targets within the arc and on fixed lines. 

15 Although the officer framing the exercise cannot normally order 
the occupation of direct or indirect positions, situations can be created 
which will influence the platoon commander to adopt whichever is desired. 

Conduct of the exercises 

16 Before the exercise begins, the opening narrative should be ex¬ 
plained to all ranks taking part. Any assumed locations and movements 
of enemy and our own troops should be explained thioughout the 
exercise. For purpose of co-operation, it may be desirable to represent 
headquarters of our own troops. 

17. Special attention will be paid to the following subjects: 

(a) Reconnaissance and issue of orders by platoon and section com¬ 
manders. 

(b) Fire direction, fire control and fire discipline. 

(c.) Section and platoon drill. 

(d) Care and concealment of guns, personnel, stores and vehicles 
during all phases. 

(e) Ammunition supply. 

(f) Tactical handling, driving and concealment of vehicles. 


/ 

128 

18. Where range facilities exist, it may be possible for a platoon com¬ 
mander to exercise all the sections of his platoon within a complete 
machine gun platoon plan. Such exercises must be timed and arranged 
so as to ensure:— 

(a) The safety of all sections taking part. 

(b) That the platoon commander or an assistant director is present 
with each section during its reconnaissance, occupation, and 
engagement of targets. 

19. It may be found valuable for a number of exercises to be rehearsed 
before the sections carry them out with ammunition. 

When range facilities allow a variety of different exercises to be staged, 
sections should act as spectators during any exercise which they themselves 
are not to carry out. 

20. In order to produce conditions resembling as far as possible those 
of active service, problems dealing with or caused by, the following should 
be introduced occasionally:— 

Casualties, protection from gas, the safety of our own troops, firing 
from camouflaged covering, ammunition supply, and administration. 

21. Indirect fire and night shooting necessitating reconnaissance by 
day should be practised. In such cases the reconnaissance, as well as the 
shooting, must be carried out under active service conditions. 

22. Among the targets selected for engagement should be screens camou¬ 
flaged or hidden behind natural objects such as bushes, so that the amount 
of fire effect may be discovered. 


Supervision of the exercises 

23. One officer or NCO will be detailed to watch the action of, and hear 
the orders issued by, the platoon and each section commander taking 
part in the exercise. 

24. One NCO will be detailed to watch the actions of the personnel of I 
each section, other than the commander. 

25. These officers and NCOs will also be responsible to the officer 
superintending for safety precautions, but, apart from ensuring that these 
are observed, they will not interfere with the actions of the commanders 
or sections whom they are watching. 

26. If possible, officers and non-commissioned officers, detailed for 
supervision should be taken over the ground by the directing officer the 
day before the scheme takes place, so that they may be fully conversant 
with the probable actions of the commanders taking part. 

27. At the conclusion of each exercise the directing officer should hold 
a short conference on the ground. All commanders, superintending 
officers and NCOs should be present. All points which require reference 
to the ground should then be discussed. 


129 



USE OF LANDSCAPE TARGETS AND HARMONIZED 
SIGHTS 
(30 yard ranges) 

1 Landscape targets. The frame for these is 10 feet long and 5 feet 
high. Landscapes in sheets, 5 feet by 2 feet, are pasted on to the lower 
portion leaving 3 feet of blank sky-screen above to receive the shots. 

The sky-screen should be of brown paper, in order to render the 
bullet holes invisible to the firers. 

2. Harmonization of sights. In firing at landscape targets, weapons 
should be given extra elevation, to ensure that the bullets will strike the 
blank sky-screen, even if the aim is taken at an object at the bottom of the 
landscape; this extra elevation necessitates the weapons being harmonized 
in order that they all shoot to the same height above the point aimed at. 










130 

Harmonization is carried out as follows:— 

Put aiming marks at intervals of about 12 inches on a horizontal line 
at the bottom of the blank sky-screen. (See Fig. 2). 

Draw two horizontal lines 26 inches and 28 inches above the 
aiming marks. These lines must be visible from the firing point. Set 
the sights to i,400 yards. The weapons should then be fired, aim 
being taken at the aiming marks, and the sights adjusted until every 
gun places the shots between the two lines. 

The elevation for every weapon harmonized should be entered on the 
elevation board in each 30 yard range. 


3. Apparatus and method of scoring:— 

(*) C°!} cent J' ated target. A measuring rod 27 inches long is required. 
When fire has been concentrated on any point on the landscape 
target, the rod is held vertically, the bottom of it on the point of 
aim. A mark is then made on the blank sky-screen at the top of 
the rod, and -§• inches to the right; this mark shows where the 
centre of the group should be. 

For competitions, two concentric wire rectangles, 5 inches by 
4 inches and 2^- inches by 2 inches will be used to determine the 
score. The centre of the rectangle is placed on the mark with 
the longest sides of the rectangle vertical; every shot in the inner 
rectangle counts two points; every shot in the remainder of the 
larger rectangle counts one point. 

(b) Distributed target. When fire has been distributed between two 
points on the landscape, a mark is made 27 inches vertically and 
f inches to the right above each, as already described; these two 
marks are joined by a line parallel to that along which fire has been 
distributed. 

This line is then produced lj inches beyond the marks at either 
end. A line li inches above and another 1* inches below are 
drawn parallel to the first line. The ends of these are joined by 
vertical lines passing 1£ inches outside the two marks (see Fig II). j 
The extra 1^- inches at each end is to allow for the width of the 
cone of fire of the section. 

All shots in the rectangle count one point each to the total score 
of the section; any shot in a rectangle over and above the number 
ordered will not count. Shots on the dividing lines count in one 
rectangle only. 

(c) A miniature replica of the landscape target in use should be 
available on the firing point. The instructor will mark by means 
ot pins the position or the extent of the target on the replica The 
fire controller having identified the target on the landscape, will 
give the section a fire control order. 

The fire controller should give his indication from a firing 
position in the section, without further reference to the replica. 


131 

APPENDIX IH 

MMG SKILL-AT-ARMS—CONDITIONS OF QUALIFICATION 
General 

1. Before a NCO or man becomes eligible to undergo the MMG Test 
he must:— 

(a) Be a fully trained machine gunner. 

(b) Have recently passed Tests of Elementary Training Nos. 1 to 11 
inclusive, as laid down in Lesson 60. 

2. The MMG test will consist of :-7 

(a) Part I—The Fire Discipline test. 

(b) Part II—Tests to be fired on open range at 600 yards or on the 
30 yards range. 

3. All personnel who qualify will be eligible for “star pay for the 
subsequent 12 months, at the end of which period they must qualify again. 

4. The tests will be conducted by an officer, fully qualified as a medium 
machine gun instructor, who will, whenever possible, be from a umt other 
than the one undergoing the tests. 

5. Battle order as laid down for the unit will be worn for the tests. 

6 Should a stoppage occur during a times test in Part II due to defective 
mechanism or faulty ammunition, sufficient time to remedy the stoppage 
will be allowed. 

MMG SKILL-AT-ARMS TEST 
PART I—FIRE DISCIPLINE (without ammunition) 

Aim 

7. To test the man, as No. 1 of a gun in a direct fire unit, in:— 

(a) Recognition of the correct target and of the correct point of aim 
on the target. 

(b) Correct method of applying fire according to the method of fire 
ordered. 

(c) Quick and accurate re-laying on order “ Stop ” 

Description 

8. The practices will be carried out in the open country, and when this 
is not feasible a landscape target will be used. It comprises three tests, 
ie, the engagement of one point and two traversing targets. 

Preliminary arrangements 

9. Equipment required: guns and tripods. 





132 


10. Any suitable number of fire units (2 guns) may be emploved simul¬ 
taneously provided that the fire controller can be heard. Guns mav be 
placed close together for the purpose of the tests, and should be arranged 
in pairs. The following are required to conduct the test:— 

One supervising officer for each pair of fire units (total 4 guns). 

A fire controller (officer or senior NCO). 

One testing NCO for each gun, who should rehearse their duties 
beforehand. 

11. No. 1 will take post and be informed whether his gun represents No. 
1 or No. 2 gun of the fire unit. He will test his clamp, assisted if necessary 
by the testing NCO. (Nos. 2 are not required). 

12. The fire controller will place himself where all Nos. 1 can hear him 
and will describe the arc of fire and reference points. 

Method of conducting 

13. The fire controller will give fire orders to engage the following_at 

least two of the indications should require aids:— 

A point target. A linear target having the same range to each end. 
An oblique target having a different range to each end. 

He will use no signals throughout the fire order. The order to “ Fire ” 
etc, will be given verbally in each fire order, fictitious or actual ranges being 
included. 

14. During the execution of each fire order, the testing NCO will check 
the No. 1 of his gun as follows:— 

(a) When the fire controller orders “ Lay,” he will check the aim and 
note whether No. 1 has recognized the correct target and laid 
on the correct portion of the target according to the nature of the 
fire order. 

(b) When the order “ Fire ” is given, he will notice whether No. 1 
traverses correctly, ie, in correct direction, checking aim, etc. 

(c) When the order “ Stop ” is given, he will check the aim of No. 1 
to see if he has relaid on his original point of aim (irrespective of 
whether the original aim was the correct one or not). 

In each of the above the No. 1 will be either right or wrong and the 
testing NCO will record accordingly. 

Note.—The supervising officer, at his discretion, will check the decisions 
of the testing NCOs. He will not allow No. 1 to call for a repeat 
of the indication unless, in his opinion, the indication has been at 
fault. 

Scoring 

15. The standard will be assessed by the following deductions:— 

For each case of incorrect recognition. 3 points 

For each case of incorrect laying . 1 point 

For each case of incorrect traversing. 1 point 

For each case of not re-laying. ] point 

Standard 

16. Standard A. Not more than a total of 2 points deducted. 

Standard B. Not more than a total of 4 points deducted. 

Standard C. More than a total of 4 points deducted. 










134 


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138 

17. Classification 

Classification will be as follows:—For each test a standard A, B or C 
will be allotted according to the number of points obtained. Towards 
classification an award of:— 

A counts 10 points 
B counts 5 points 
C counts No points 

There are seven tests: H.P.S.—70 points 
Qualifying standard: 55 points. 


18. Scoring Template—25 yards range 

(a) The template is designed to allow for:— 

(i) The displacement of the sight in relation to the barrel. 

(ii) The aim being laid at the lowest central portion of the aiming 
mark. 


5 " 




(b) To use the template:— 

(i) Tests 1 and 2—Calculate the distance the correction given 
will alter the line of sight from the original point of aim. 




♦ 


139 

This distance can be calculated as follows:— 

(a) Elevation—By comparing the T.A. and converting to 
inches (see (b) below). 

(b) Line.—15 minutes = 4 inches at 25 yards. 

Mark this point and then place the template arrow on it. 
(ii) Test 3.—Place the arrow of the template on the point of aim. 

APPENDIX IV—LOADING CARRIERS 

A INSTRUCTOR’S NOTES 

Aim 

1. To teach the soldier to load the various vehicles in the machine gun 
platoon. 

Class and instructors 

2. Squads should work under their squad instructors, but be controlled 
by a supervising officer. 

Periods 

3. One 45-minute period. 

Stores 

4. Platoon commander’s carrier, 2 IC’s jeep and trailer, section com¬ 
mander’s carrier and gun carrier. Complete stores as per G.1098 for each 
vehicle. 

Preparation 

5. The vehicles should be drawn up in line and loaded beforehand. 
Blackboards, if available, should be prepared showing the list of stores 
carried in each type of vehicle. 

B CONDUCT OF LESSON 

Approach 

6. Give the aim of the lesson (see para 1 above). Explain that there is 
no fixed drill for loading, but that it is the duty of the senior number in 
each vehicle to ensure that the stores are complete and loaded in such a 
manner that they will not become damaged. 

Loading vehicle 

7. Squads should move to each vehicle in turn. Squad instructors should 
explain what personnel ride in the vehicles, where their personal arms are 
carried and the stores loaded. 

8. The squads should be practised in loading each type of vehicle. 

9. Personnel and their personal weapons are distributed as follows:— 

Platoon commander’s carrier. 

2 IC’s jeep and trailer. 

Each section commander’s carrier. 

Each gun carrier. 

Motor cycle. 



/. The following stores are carried in each type of vehicle:— 


Stores 

(a) 

Platoon 

commander’s 

carrier 

(b) 

Platoon 2 IC 
jeep and 
trailer 
(c) 

Each 

section 

commander’s 

carrier 

(d) 

Each 

gun 

carrier 

(e) 

Vickers .303-inch MG 

_’ 

_ 

— 

1 

Tripod . 

— 

— 

— 

1 

Dial sight (in case) ... 

— 

— 

— 

1 

Condenser can 

— 

— 

1 

2 

Condenser tube 

— 

— 

— 

1 

Spare parts case 

— 

— 

— 

1 

Spare parts box 

— 

— 

1 

— 

Aiming post. 

— 

— 

— 

1 

Aiming lamp... 

— 

— 

— 

1 

Spare barrel. 

— 

— 

— 

1 

Cleaning rod. 

— 

— 

— 

1 

Case, cans oil 

— 

1 

1 

— 

Zero posts . 

— 

— 

2 

— 

Instrument box 

1 

1 

— 

— 

Director No. 9 (incase) 

1 

1 

1 

— 

Stand, director 

1 

1 

1 

— 

Rangefinder (in case) 

— 

— 

1 

— 

Megaphone. 

1 

1 

1 

— 

“ Spider ” . 

— 

— 

— 

1 

Belts SAA Mk 8Z ... 

12 

12 

18 

19 

Rifles. 

3 

1 

3 

4 

Machine carbines ... 

— 

2 

1 

— 

Magazines, machine 
carbines . 


16 

8 

_ 

Pistols .38-inch 

1 

1 

— 

— 

Bren LMG . 

1 

— 

1 

— 

Boxes Bren, magazine 

1 

— 

1 

— 

3.5-in. RL . 

— 

— 

1 

— 

3.5-in. RL . 

— 

— 

6 

— 

Pistols, signal. 

1 

1 

1 

— 

Cartridges, illuminat¬ 
ing . 

6 

6 

6 

— 

Cartridges, signal, red 

6 

6 

6 

— 

Cartridges, signal, 
green. 

6 

6 

6 

— 

Grenades 

— 

12 

— 

— 

No. 31 set complete... 

2 

1 

1 

— 

No. 88 set complete... 

1 

1 

1 

— 

Entrenching tools 

1 

1 

2 

1 

Hack saw . 

-— 

— 

1 

— 

Matchet . 

— 

— 

1 

— 

Wire cutters. 

— 

— 

1 

— 

Picks ... . ... 

1 

1 

1 

1 


Each 


Stores 

(a) 

Platoon 

Stores 

carrier 

(b) 

Platoon 2 IC 
commander’s 
trailer 
(c) 

section 
jeep and 
carrier 
(d) 

Each 

gun 

carrier 

(e) 

Shovels . 

1 

1 

1 

1 

Axes, hand . 

— 

1 

1 

— 

Nets, camouflage 25 ft. 
x 12 ft. 

1 

_ 

1 

1 

Nets, camouflage 14 ft. 
x 14 ft. 


■ 1 


1 

Cooker No. 2 

1 

1 

1 

1 

First aid box. 

1 

1 

1 

1 

Packs . 

5 

3 

4 

4 

Blankets 

5 

3 

4 

4 


Conclusion 

11. Questions from the squad. 

12. Sum up main items in each vehicle. 


APPENDIX V 

MANHANDLING OF LOADS—LONG CARRY 

The following are suggested maximum loads for a long carry. These 
loads are based on the use of the GS manpack carrier and a maximum load 
of 70 lb each man. Detailed loads and weights will of course vary according 
to circumstances such as the distance to be carried, country and nature of 
operation. 

It must be realised however that it will seldom be possible to carry 
enough ammunition within the section to make the operation practical 
and that assistance in carrying ammunition will normally be necessary. 

Detailed maximum loads;— 

Section commander . 

Director (in case). 

Stand, director. 

88 set. 

2 liners—SAA* 

1 pr binoculars 

1 pr wire cutters. 

Rangetaker. 

Rangefinder in canvas case. 

2 liners SAA* 

6—2037 







Driver operator . 
31 set. 


No. 1 
Tripod 
Dial sight 
1 liner SAA* 


No. 2 

Gun 

Condenser tube 
Spare parts case 
1 liner SAA* 


No. 3 

Condenser can 
2 liners SAA 


*The above loading allows for the section carrying a total of 12 belts SAA 
(ie, 6 belts per gun) but will greatly reduce the speed and mobility of the 
section. If carrying parties are available only the No. 3 need carry any 
ammunition within the section. 

For the method of attaching the gun and tripod on a GS manpack 
carrier see Plate 20. 


2037 Wt8682/9413 30M. 12/51 B&MLtd. Gp 531 


143