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International Journal of Trend in Scientific 
Research and Development (IJTSRD) 
International Open Access Journal 



♦. 

ISSN No: 2456 - 6470 | www.ijtsrd.com | Volume - 2 | Issue - 2 


♦ 

♦ 


Security System for Car using CAN Protocol 


Poonam Bedarkar 

Department of Electronics Engineering, 
Kavikulguru Institute of Technology and Science 
Ramtek, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India 


ABSTRACT 

The design consist of a central "Airbag control 
unif'(ACU) controls a number of related sensors 
within the vehicle like accelerometers, impact 
sensors, wheel speed sensors, gyroscopes, brake 
pressure sensors, and seat occupancy sensors. When 
the requisite 'threshold' has been reached or exceeded, 
the airbag control unit will trigger the ignition of a gas 
generator propellant to rapidly inflate a nylon fabric 
bag. The inflated airbag reduces the deceleration 
experienced by the passenger during the crash through 
the process of venting gas out of small vent holes in a 
controlled manner absorbing the energy of the 
occupant impacting the bag. CAN is a serial 
communication protocol. The CAN bus may be 
used in vehicles to connect engine control unit 
and transmission , or (on a different bus) to connect 
the door locks , climate control , seat control. 

Keywords: CAN Bus protocol, MEMS, 

Microcontroller, MPLAB software 

1. INTRODUCTION 

Since the early 1940's, automakers have continually 
improved their vehicles' technology by integrating 
an increasing amount of electronic components. 

As technology progressed, the vehicles became more 
complex as electronic components replaced 
mechanical systems and provided additional 
comforts, convenience, and safety features. 

Up until the release of CAN Bus, vehicles contained 
enormous amounts of wiring which was necessary to 
interconnect all of the various electronic components. 


Atul Halmare 

Information Technology Department 
Kavikulguru Institute of Technology and Science 
Ramtek, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India 



Fig 1.1: Control area network 


Due to the vast amount of wiring, an aftermarket 
installation requires the installer not only to 
understand how the integrated systems communicate 
with each other, but also requires numerous 
connections to be made throughout the vehicle. To 
make matters worse, the vehicle wiring differs 
between vehicle years, makes, and even models. 

As a result, installers need to be highly 
knowledgeable and perform intensive labor for the 
most trivial after market equipment or the installation 
shop experiences countless hours of lost time on 
troubleshooting and sometimes even expensive claims 
for damaged OEM equipment. 

An airbag is part of a vehicle's safety restraint system, 
a flexible envelope designed for rapid inflation in an 
automobile collision, to prevent vehicle occupants 
from striking hard interior objects such as steering 
wheels. It is considered a "passive" safety component 
not requiring any input or action from the user, rather 
than an "active" component — such as a seat belt, 


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International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470 


which requires fastening. "Airbag control unit"(ACU) 
has a number of related sensors inside the vehicle 
such as accelerometers, impact sensors, wheel speed 
sensors, gyroscopes, brake pressure sensors, and seat 
occupancy sensors. 


In this project there would be two sections Nodel and 
Node2. The Nodel part would contain the MEMS 
sensors. The sensor output would be connected to the 
PIC microcontroller. The PIC would be connected to 
the CAN transceiver. 



Fig 1.2: The deployed air bag in car 

2. SYSTEM MODEL 
2.1 Designed System 


3GDE L 


>OUI 2 



Fig. 2.1.1: Block diagram 


The Node2 would contain the graphics LCD would 
display the sensor values. The Node2 would also be 
connected to the relay which will control the pump. 
Whenever the sensor data will exceed the set valve 
the will be send on the CAN bus and will trigger the 
relay and on the pump. 


2.2 CAN PROTOCOL OVERVIEW: 

CAN mean Controller Area Network. CAN is an 
asynchronous serial communication protocol. Multi - 
master concept: CSMA/ CA (Carrier Sense Multiple 
Access / Collision Avoidance), Message priority. 


NO*l 




H(xl* J 


He* 4 



Fig 2.2.1: Bus Topology 
2.2.1BEFORE CAN BUS: 


In this there are two nodes. The one node is connected 
to the accelerometer and keypad. The other node 
would be connected to the relay. The PIC 
microcontroller would be used for the Node 1 and 
Node two. The MCP2551 transceiver would be used 
as CAN transceiver. The two nodes would be 
connected on the CAN bus. 




Fig 2.1.2: CAN Transmission 


Fig 2.2.2: Before CAN Bus 

Due to the vast amount of wiring, an after market 
installation requires the installer not only to 
understand how the integrated systems communicate 
with each other, but also requires numerous 
connections to be made throughout the vehicle. To 
make matters worse, the vehicle wiring differs 
between vehicle years, makes, and even models. As a 


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International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470 


result, installers need to be highly knowledgeable and 
perform intensive labor for the most trivial after 
market equipment or the installation shop experiences 
countless hours of lost time on troubleshooting. 

2 .2.2 AFTER CAN BUS: 


By reducing the vehicles wiring by 2km, the vehicles 
overall weight was significantly reduced by at least 
50kg and using only half the connectors. For the first 
time, each of the vehicles systems and sensors were 
able to communicate at very high speeds (25kbps - 
1Mbps) on a single or dual-wire communication line 
as opposed to the previous multi-wire looms. 
However, the introduction of CAN Bus also increased 
the vehicles complexity and made after market 
installations even more difficult and in many cases 
impossible to perform. 



Fig 2.2.3: After CAN Bus 


2.2.3 CAN LAYERS: 


/ 1 : 

7. Application layer 

Specified by users 

(OSEK/VDX, J1939. CANOptn, DeviceNet, etc.) 

6. 

... (empty) 

3. 



2. Data link layer 

LLC (Logic Link Control) 

Accept, filtering, Overload notif., etc. 


1 * 

MAC (Medium Access Control) 

Data encap/decap, Frames, Access, etc 


Bosch 

specification 


PLS (Physical Signalling) 

Bit encod/decod, Bit timing. Sync. 

. 1 

1! 

t 

1. Physical layer 

PMA (Physical Medium Attachment) 

Driver/ receiver characteristics 

< 


MDI (Medium Dependent Interface) 

Connectors 

T 


standard 


Table 2.2.4: CAN Layers 


2.3 PIC Peripheral Interface controller 



Fig 2.3.1: Applications of PIC 

PIC 18F4685 is 40 pin Enhanced Flash 
Microcontrollers with ECA Technology, 10-Bit A/D 
and nano Watt Technology designated with an “F” in 
the part number (such as PIC18F2685), accommodate 
an operating VDD range of 4.2V to 5.5V. 

2.4 Airbag Systems in Automobiles: 

An airbag is part of a vehicle's safety restraint system, 
a flexible envelope designed for rapid inflation in an 
automobile collision, to prevent vehicle occupants 
from striking hard interior objects such as steering 
wheels. It is considered a "passive" safety component 
not requiring any input or action from the user, rather 
than an "active" component — such as a seat belt, 
which requires fastening. 

2.4.1 Airbag Inflation 

When the frontal part of airbags deployed, a signal 
will be sent to the inflator unit within the control unit 
of airbag system. An igniter will start with a rapid 
chemical reaction generating primarily nitrogen gas 
(N 2 ) which will fill the airbag making it to deploy 
through the module cover. 



Fig 2.4.1: Inflation of airbag 


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International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470 


2.5 MEMS 

Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is the 
integration of mechanical elements, sensors, actuators, 
and electronics on a common silicon substrate through 
micro fabrication technology. While the electronics 
are fabricated using integrated circuit (IC) process 
sequences (e.g., CMOS, Bipolar, or BICMOS 
processes), the micromechanical components are 
fabricated using compatible "micromachining" 
processes that selectively etch away parts of the 
silicon wafer or add new structural layers to form the 
mechanical and electromechanical devices. 

3. IMPLEMENTATION 

3.1 MPLAB: 

MPLAB IDE is a software program that runs on a PC 
to develop applications for Microchip 
microcontrollers. It is Integrated Development 
Environment (IDE) as it provides a single integrated 
“environment” for developing a code for embedded 
microcontrollers. Embedded systems development 
and how MPLAB IDE is used. 

MPLAB (IDE) is a free and integrated toolset for 
developing embedded applications like Microchip's 
and microcontrollers. MPLAB IDE runs as a 32-bit 
application on MS Windows®, is easy to use and 
includes a host of free software components for fast 
application development and super-charged 
debugging. MPLAB IDE is unified graphical user 
interface for additional Microchip and third party 
software and hardware development tools. Moving 
between tools is a snap, and upgrading from the free 
software simulator to hardware debug and 
programming tools is done in a flash as MPLAB has 
the same user interface for all tools. 

3.2 MPLAB IDE FEATURES: 

A] Flexible customizable programmer's text 
editor: 

1 Fully integrated debugging with right mouse click 
menus for breakpoints, trace and editor functions. 

2 Tabbed editor option or separate source windows. 

3 Recordable macros. 

4 Context sensitive color highlighting for assembly, 
C and BASIC code readability. 

5 Mouse over variable to instantly evaluate the 
contents of variables and registers. 


6 Set breakpoints and trace points directly in editor 
to instantly make changes and evaluate their 
effects. 

7 Graphical project manager. 

8 Version control support for MS Source Safe, 
CVS, PVCS, Subversion. 



Fig 3.2.1: MPLAB software view 
4. Conclusion 

CAN uses its bandwidth efficiently and the 
access to the Bus is organized according to the 
priorities of the individual modules. The successor 
of the CAN Bus will be Flex ray, which has in 
addition Time -and Frequency- Mux capabilities. 
But CAN will coexist for at least the next one 
or two decade. Therefore it is very suitable for 
applications where real-time capabilities are needed. 

6. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 

We sincerely like to thank all the people who have 
directly and indirectly encouraged us and helped us 
in working out our research. Also a big thank to 
K.I.T.S. College from where we got complete 
support. 

7. REFERENCES 

[1] Huaqun Guo, lun lie Ang, and Yongdong Wu, 
“Extracting Controller Area Network Data for 
Reliable Car Communication”, (2010 February) 

[2] Heffeman D. & Leen G., “ICT based research at 
Limerick contributes to automotive 'drive-by- 
wire’ technology”, (2008 September). 

[3] Kumar, M. A.Verma and A. Srividya, Response 
Time “Modeling of Controller Area Network 
(CAN). Distributed Computing and Networking, 


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International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470 


Lecture Notes in Computer Science Volume 5408, 
p 163-174, 2009. 

[4] Tindell, K., A. Bums, and A.J. Wellings, 
Calculating controller area network (CAN) 
message response times. Control Engineering 
Practice, 3(8): p. 1163-1169, 2005. 

[5] Li, M., Design of Embedded Remote Temperature 
Monitoring System based on Advanced RISC 
Machine. Electrotechnics Electric, 06, p. 273, 
2009. 

[6] Prodanov, W., M. Valle, and R. Buzas, A 
controller area network bus transceiver behavioral 
model for network design and simulation. IEEE 
Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 56(9): p. 
3762-377, 2009. 

[7] ISO (1993). Road Vehicles: Interchange of Digital 
Information: Controller Area Network (CAN) for 
High Speed Communication. ISO 11898:1993. 

[8] B.Gmbh, “CAN specification” vol 1 Version 2.0, 
1991. 

[9] Microchip Technology, Inc. (2007). PIC 
18F2455/2550/4455/4550 Data Sheet. 


[10] Manjunath, T K N Maheswari, Andrews Samraj, 
Sharmila, Chidaravalli (2013) “Locking and 
Unlocking of Theft Vehicles, Using CAN”, 
Proceedings of 2013 International Conference on 
Green High Performance Computing, March 2013 

[11] R. Ramani, S. Valarmathy, N.Suthanthira, 
Vanitha, S.Selvaraju (2013). “Vehicle Tracking 
and Locking System Based on GSM and GPS” 
I.J. Intelligent Systems and Applications, 2013, 
09, pp 86-93, August 2013 

[12] Vinoth Kumar Sadagopan Upendran Rajendran 
Albert Joe Francis (2011)” Antitheft control 
System Design Using Embedded System,’’IEEE, 
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[13] B.G. Nagaraja, Ravi Rayappa, M Mahesh, 
Chandrasekhar M Patil, Dr. T.C. 
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[14] Ruchita J. Shah, Anuradha P. Gharge, “GSM 
Based Car Security System”, International Journal 
of Engineering and Innovative Technology, 
Volume 2, Issue 4, pp 203-206,October 2012 


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