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International Journal of Agricultural 
Science and Research (UASR) 

ISSN(P): 2250-0057; ISSN(E): 2321-0087 
Vol. 7, Issue 2, Apr 2017, 261-266 
© TJPRC Pvt. Ltd. 

PERFORMANCE OF ORGANIC MANURES, INORGANIC FERTILIZER AND 
PLANT DENSITY OF YIELD AND QUALITY OF RADISH 

PRIYNKA KUMARI JAT, S.P. SINGH, SAJANA DEVI, PRAKASH MAHALA & MANOJ KUMAR 

ROLANIYA 

S. K. N. College of Agriculture, S. K. N. Agriculture University, Jobner, Rajasthan, India 

ABSTRACT 

A field experiment was conducted during rabi season of 2014-15 on sandy loam soil to “Effect of organic, 
inorganic fertilizers and plant densities on performance of radish (Raphanus sativas L.)”. The experiment consisted three 
treatment of organic manures (control, VC @ 5 t/ha and FYM @ 15 t/ha), three treatment of inorganic manures (control, 
50% RDF of NPK and 100% RDF of NPK) and two treatment of plant densities (20 x 10 cm and 30 x 10 cm), thereby 
making eighteen treatment combinations tested in randomized block design with three replications. Results indicated that 
application of vermicompost @ 5 t/ha and 100% RDF of NPK significantly higher yield attributes, yield and quality of 
radish over control, FYM @ 15 t/ha and control, 50% RDF of NPK, respectively. The result also indicated the plant 
spacing 30x10 cm significantly higher the yield attributes, yield and quality of radish over plant spacing 20x10 cm. 
However, TSS unchanged under different organic manures and plant densities. 

KEYWORDS: FYM, NPK, Plant Density, Radish, RDF, Quality, Vermicompost and Yield 

Received: Jan 24, 2017; Accepted: Feb 25, 2017; Published: Mar 08, 2017; Paper Id.: IJASRAPR201736 

INTRODUCTION 

Radish ( Raphanus sativas L.) is one of the most popular root crop of rabi season and is widely acclaimed 
for its excellent nutritive and medicinal values. It belongs to family Cruciferae and it has (2n= 1 8) chromosomes. It 
is popular in both tropical and temperate countries. The radish leaves are rich in minerals and vitamin A (5 IU) and 
vitamin C (15 mg) and are roots rich in potassium (138 mg) and calcium (50 mg). The edible part of radish is 
modified root which develops form both primary root and hypocotyls. The pungency in radish is due to the 
presence of volatile isothiocynates. 

FYM being rich in organic matter is required for supplementing the nutrients provided through other 
manure. The organic manure not only provides nutrients to plants but also improves the soil texture by binding 
effect to soil aggregates. Organic manure increases CEC, water holding capacity and phosphate availability of the 
soil, besides improving the fertilizer use efficiency and microbial population of soil; it reduces nitrogen loss due to 
slow release of nutrients. Vermicompost is a slow releasing & organic manure which have most of the macro as 
well as micro nutrients in chelated form and fulfill the nutrients requirement of plant for longer period. 
Vermicompost helps in reducing C:N ratio, increasing humic acid content, cation exchange capacity and water 
soluble carbohydrates. It also contains biologically active substances such as plant growth regulators. 

The balanced fertilization in radish is important factor to boost yield attributes. Availability of nitrogen is 
important for growing plant as it is major indispensable constituent of protein and nucleic acid. An adequate 
supply of nitrogen is associated with vigorous vegetative growth and more efficient use of available inputs, finally 



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Original Article 



262 Priynka Kumari Jat, S.P. Singh, Sajana Devi, 

Prakash Mahala & Manoj Kumar Rolaniya 

leading to higher productivity. The application of nitrogen with different doses increases plant growth and yield of radish. 


Phosphorus is transfer of energy within the plant system and is involved in its various metabolic activities; 
Phosphorus has its beneficial effect on early root development, plant growth, yield and quality (Balai, 1974). Phosphorus 
plays a key role in the formation of energy bound phosphate (ADP and ATP). 

Potassium imparts vigour and disease resistance to the plant and plays an important role in crop productivity. It 
functions as an activator of numerous enzymes like pyruvic kinase activity, thus plays important role in. It is always 
involved in the movement of carbohydrate, therefore, accumulation of carbohydrates and soluble nitrogen compound 
points towards diminishing protein synthesis in case of potassium deficiency. There are evidences of direct involvement of 
potassium in photosynthesis and its involvement in leaf tissues metabolic activities of chloroplast. It regulates transpiration 
through opening and closing of the stomata by affecting activities of guard cells. 

Optimum plant population is also another important aspect of crop production; wider plant spacing not only leads 
to excessive vegetative growth but also accelerates the evaporative losses of water from the bare ground. On the other 
hand, the struggle for existence increases with increasing plant population because of severe competition for light, water 
and nutrients. 

MATERIALS AND METHODS 

A field experiment was conducted during rabi season of 2014-15 at Department of Horticulture, College of 
Agriculture, Jobner, in a randomized block design with three replications. The soil was loamy sand in texture, alkaline in 
reaction (pH 8.1), low in organic carbon (0.16 %), low available nitrogen (130 kg/ha), medium available phosphorus 
(15.1 kg P2O5/ ha) and medium in potassium (140 kg K 2 0/ha) content. The experiment consisted three treatment of organic 
manures (control, VC @ 5 t/ha and FYM @ 15 t/ha), three treatment of inorganic manures (control, 50% RDF of NPK and 
100% RDF of NPK) and two treatment of plant densities (20 x 10 cm and 30 x 10 cm), thereby, making eighteen treatment 
combinations. Fertilizers were applied as per treatment through Urea, SSP and MOP at the time of sowing as basal dose 
and split application of urea at top dressing. The radish cv. ‘Pusa Rashmi’ was sown on 8 th September 2014 using seed rate 
of 10 kg/ha with a row spacing of 20x10 cm and 30x10 cm. The 6-10 days interval irrigations was applied during growing 
season. Intercultural operations viz., thinning, hoeing and weeding were followed after 20 days of sowing to maintain 
recommended spacing and weed control. Two hand weeding during growing period and harvest maturing in 50 to 55 days 
after sowing and observations on tagged plants were recorded. 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 
Yield Attributes and Yield 
Organic Manures 

Results indicated that application of vermicompost @ 5 t/ha significantly higher length of root, diameter of root, 
fresh weight of root and yield of radish over control and FYM @ 15 t/ha (Table 1). Vermicompost, might have increased 
the efficiency of added chemical fertilizers in the soil, activities of nitrogen fixing bacteria and increased rate of 
humification which enhances the availability of both native and added nutrients in soil resulting in increase yield attributes 
and yield of radish (Oliveira et al., 2001). However, the application of FYM @ 15 t/ha significantly increased the root to 
shoot ratio and remained at par with vermicompost @ 5 t/ha over control. FYM also function as a source of energy for soil 
micro flora which bring transformation of inorganic nutrients present in soil or applied in the form of fertilizers in readily 


Impact Factor (JCC): 4.8136 


NAAS Rating: 4.13 



Performance of Organic Manures, Inorganic Fertilizer and Plant Density of Yield and Quality of Radish 


263 


utilizable form by growing plants (Yawalker et al., 2007 and Choudhary et al., 2007). 

Inorganic Manures 

The results further indicated that application of 100% RDF of NPK significantly higher the length of root, 
diameter of root, fresh weight of root and yield of radish over control and 50% RDF of NPK (Table 1). The application of 
100% recommended dose of N and P favoured the metabolic and auxin activites in plants and ultimately resulted in 
increased weight of root (Kumar, 2004). However, the application of 50% RDF of NPK significantly increased the root to 
shoot ratio and remained at par with 100% RDF of NPK over control. 

Plant Density 

The plant spacing 30x10 cm significantly super over plant spacing 20x10 cm in case of plant length of root, 
diameter of root, fresh weight of root and yield of radish (Table 1). The beneficial effect of spacing on yield attributes and 
yield might be due to enhanced supply of macro and micro nutrients during entire growing season. Growth of plants 
becomes more intense with an increase in the competition for light; however, as the competition for light increases further, 
an individual plant’s growth rate become very low because of the shading effects. Similar result was finding of Khatun et 
al. (2011) and La vanya et. al. (2014). However, plant spacing 20x10 cm significantly increased the root to shoot ratio and 
remained at par with plant spacing 30x10 cm. 

Effect on Quality Parameters 
Organic Manures 

Application of vermicompost @ 5 t/ha significantly higher ascorbic acid, nitrogen content in root and leaves over 
control and FYM @15 t/ha (Table 2). The increased photosynthetic efficiency and nutrient concentration in plants seems 
to be major factor responsible for higher NPK content of root under the influence of vermicompost application 
(Choudhary, 2006 and Gupta, 2011). However, total soluble solid (TSS) unchanged under different organic manures. 
Application of FYM might have improved chemical and biological properties of soil and enabled plant roots in better 
utilization of nutrients by crop. The protein content in root infact is a manifestation of root nitrogen content. The similar 
result was findings of Yadav et al. (2006), Garhwal et al. (2007). 

Inorganic Manures 

The results indicated that the application of 100% RDF of NPK significantly higher the ascorbic acid, total 
soluble solid (TSS), nitrogen content in root and leaves over control and 50% RDF of NPK (Table 2). The quality 
attributes were found superior under higher level of N and P ( 100% RDF of NPK) then control and lower level (50% RDF 
of NPK). Similar result was Evers (1989). 

Plant Density 

The results further indicated that plant spacing 30x10 cm significantly higher ascorbic acid, nitrogen content in 
root and leaves with compare to plant spacing 20x10 cm (Table 2). This enhancement might be due to better moisture 
holding capacity, supply of micronutrients and availability of major nutrients in soil due to favourable conditions created 
by spacing. The wider spacing of 30 x 10 cm showed significant superiority over other spacing for all these growth 
characters, result was findings of Preeti et al. (2009), Grabowska et al. (2009) and Lavanya et al. (2012). Similar However, 
TSS unchanged under different spacing of plant. 


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264 


Priynka Kumari Jat, S.P. Singh, Sajana Devi, 
Prakash Mahala <6 Manoj Kumar Rolaniya 


CONCLUSIONS 

On the basis of the results obtained in the present investigation, it may be concluded that application of 
vermicompost 5 t/ha and 100 % RDF of NPK and plant spacing 30x10 cm may be considered as best treatment in terms of 
yield and quality of radish. 

REFERENCES 

1. Balai, R. P. 2002. Response of mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilzeck) to phosphorus and bacterial culture in loamy sand. 
M.Sc. ( Ag) Thesis, Submitted to Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner. 

2. Choudliary, R. and Mukherjee, S. 2007. Effect of fertility levels and biofertilizers on growth and yield of vegetables pea 
(Pisumn sativum L.). M.Sc. (Ag.) Thesis, submitted to Swami Keshwanand Rajasthan Agricultural University, Campus-Jobner. 

3. Choudliary, R. S., Das, A., Patnaik, U. S. and Das, P. 2006. Organic farming for vegetable production using vermi-compost 
and FYM in Kokriguda watershed of Orissa. Indian Journal of Soil Conservation, 31 (2): 203-206. 

4. Evers, A. M. 1989. The role fertilization practices on the yield and cpiality of carrot (Daucus carota L.). Journal Agriculture 
Science in Finland, 16 (4): 325-360. 

5. Garhwal, O. P„ Fageria, M. S. and Mukherjee, S. 2007. Integrated nitrogen management in okra ( Abe/moschus esculentus 
(L.) Moench) hybrids. Haryana Journal of Horticultural Sciences, 36(1 &2): 129-130. 

6. Grabowska, A., Kunicki, E. and Libik, A. 2009. The effects of different methods of cultivation and plant spacing on the 
chemical composition of broccoli heads. Folia Horticulturae, 21(2):25-34. 

7. Gupta, A. K., Ray, B., Singh, M. P. and Upadhyaya, V. 2011. Effect of fertilizers and vermicompsot and growth, yield and 
biochemical changes in Abelmoschus esculentus. Plant Archives, 11 (1): 285-287. 

8. Khatun, K., Saha, S. R. and Mostarin, T. 2011. Growth and yield of broccoli as influenced by plant spacing. International 
Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Technology ; 7(12):7-12. 

9. Kumar, R. D. 2004. Effect of NPK and vermicompost on growth and yield of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrvtis L.) 
cv. Pusa katki. M.Sc. (Ag.) Thesis, Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner, Campus-Jonber. 

10. Lavanya, A. V. N., Sudha, V. P., Reddy, S. S. and Chaitanya, K. 2014. Effect of sowing dates and spacing on growth and root 
yield of radish cv. Pusa chetki. Plant Archives, 4: 619-623. 

11. Preeti, S., Srivastava, B. K, Singh, M. P. and Singh, P. K. 2009. Effect of date of planting and spacing on the performance of 
broccoli. Indian Journal of Horticulture, 66(1 ):137-140. 14. 

12. Yadav, P., Singh, P. and Yadav, R. L. 2006. Effect of organic manures and nitrogen levels on growth, yield and quality of okra. 
Indian Journal of Horticulture, 63 (2): 215-217. 

13. Yalwalker, K. S., Agrwal, J. P. and Bokde, S. 2007. Manures and fertilizer- Agri- Horticultural Publishing House, Nagpur, 
490010, India. 


Impact Factor (JCC): 4.8136 


NAAS Rating: 4.13 



Performance of Organic Manures, Inorganic Fertilizer and Plant Density of Yield and Quality of Radish 


265 


APPENDICES 


Table 1: Effect of Organic Manures, Inorganic Manures and Plant Density on Yield Attributes and Yield of Radish 


Treatments 

Length of Root 
(cm) 

Diameter of Root 
(cm) 

Fresh weight of 
Root (g) 

Root: Shoot Ratio 

Yield (q/ha) 

Organic Manures 

Mo: Control 

21.30 

3.13 

139 

1.93 

167 

Mi: Vermicompost '® 5 t ha 

30.18 

4.31 

200 

2.28 

232 

M 2 :FYM ® 15 tha 

27.07 

3.43 

193 

2.35 

215 

SEm + 

0.85 

0.30 

2.02 

0.11 

1.88 

CD (P= 0.05) 

2.43 

0.86 

5.78 

0.31 

5.37 

Inorganic Manures 

Fo: Control 

20.36 

2.67 

141 

1.93 

167 

Fi: 50% RDF of NPK 

27.84 

3.66 

193 

2.36 

220 

F : : 100% RDF of NPK 

30.35 

4.54 

199 

2.26 

227 

SEm + 

0.85 

0.30 

2.02 

0.11 

1.88 

CD (P= 0.05) 

2.43 

0.86 

5.78 

0.31 

5.37 

Plant Density 

SI: (20 x 10 cm) 

22.15 

3.15 

175 

2.26 

192 

S2: (30 x 10 cm) 

30.22 

4.10 

180 

2.10 

217 

SEm + 

0.69 

0.25 

1.65 

0.09 

1.53 

CD (P= 0.05) 

1.98 

0.70 

4.72 

0.25 

4.39 


Table 2: Effect of Organic Manures, Inorganic Manures and Plant Density on Quality of Radish 


Treatments 

Ascorbic acid 
(mg/lOOg) 

TSS 

(%) 

Nitrogen content (%) 

Root Leaves 

Organic Manures 

M 0 : Control 

8.88 

5.79 

1.08 

2.21 

Mp Vermicompost @ 5 t/ha 

12.52 

6.55 

2.15 

3.39 

M 2 :FYM @ 15 t/ha 

10.59 

6.08 

1.57 

2.61 

SEm + 

0.56 

0.38 

0.18 

0.25 

CD (P= 0.05) 

1.59 

NS 

0.51 

0.72 

Inorganic Manures 

F 0 : Control 

9.03 

4.76 

0.96 

1.97 

Fi: 50% RDF of NPK 

10.66 

6.25 

1.66 

2.75 

F 2 : 100% RDF of NPK 

12.31 

7.41 

2.18 

3.48 

SEm + 

0.56 

0.38 

0.18 

0.25 

CD (P= 0.05) 

1.59 

1.08 

0.51 

0.72 

Plant Density 

SI: (20 x 10 cm) 

9.85 

6.00 

1.15 

2.35 

S2: (30 x 10 cm) 

11.48 

6.28 

2.05 

3.12 

SEm + 

0.45 

0.31 

0.15 

0.21 

CD (P= 0.05) 

1.30 

NS 

0.42 

0.59 


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