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International Journal of Agricultural 
Science and Research (IJASR) 

ISSN (P): 2250-0057; ISSN (E): 2321-0087 
Vol. 6, Issue 4, Aug 2016, 19-28 
© TJPRC Pvt. Ltd 

CARBONISATION OF MARKING NUT SHELL (SEMECARPUS ANACARDIUM) 

PRITI P LAD, BHAGYASHREE N PATIL & SUCHITA V GUPTA 

Department of Agriculture Process Engineering, DR. PDKV Akola, India 

ABSTRACT 

The proximate and ultimate analysis of marking nut shell, deoiled shell and traditionally deoiled shell was 
carried out by using muffle furnace. The proximate analysis viz. moisture content, volatile matter, ash content and fixed 
carbon content and also ultimate analysis viz. carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen content of various samples were 
analysed. Moisture content of the MNS was 2.484 % and for MN deoiled shell and traditionally deoiled shell was found 
to be zero percent. The volatile matter present in the MNS, marking nut deoiled shell and marking nut traditional deoiled 
shell sample was found to be 85.093%, 54.521% and 81.737% respectively. Ash content in the MNS, marking nut deoiled 
shell and marking nut traditional deoiled sample was found to be 4.35%, 34.82% and 10.89% respectively. 
The fixed carbon percentage in the MNS, marking nut deoiled shell and marking nut traditional deoiled shell sample 
was found to be 8.074%, 10.64% and 7.37% respectively. 

KEYWORDS: Marking Nut Shell, Deoiled Shell 



TRANS 

STELLAR 

•Journal Publications • Research Consultancy 



Received: Jun 01, 2016; Accepted: Jun 10, 2016; Published: Jun 29, 2016; Paper Id.: IJASRAUG20165 

INTRODUCTION 

The Scientific name of marking nut is Semecarpus anacardium L belonging to the family Anacardiaceae . 
It is known as bhallatak or Bhilwa in India and also called “marking nut” by Europeans, because it was used by 
washermen to mark cloth and clothing before washing, as it imparted a water insoluble mark to the cloth. It is also 
known as kerbeeja in Kannada and bibba in Marathi. Marking nut is very important fruit in concern with its 
utilization in ayurvedic medicines and industries. In Maharashtra production of marking nut is about 1600 
tons/year, in Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Orissa it is about 700 tons (Kubade and Phirake, 1990). It is a 
rich source of phenols, biflavonoids, phenolic compounds, bhilawanols, minerals, vitamins and amino acids, 
which show various medicinal properties. Traditionally, marking nut used for marking lines, manufacture of 
varnishes lacquers, enamels and paints. It is also used for water proofing textile fabrics, imparting lather finish to 
cloth, paper boards and card boards, in production of insecticides, antiseptics, termite repellents and moth proofing 
agents, in synthetic detergents, herbicides and fire proofing plastics. Also it can be used to cure esophagus and 
mouth cancer, leprosy and sciatica, against the bacterial infections etc. (Majumdar et al 2008). 

REVIEW OF LITERATURE 

Ganesh and Das (2003) studied for the product distribution in a packed bed vacuum pyrolysis unit of 
cashew nut shell (CNS). The proximate and ultimate analysis of cashew nut shell and CN deoiled shell were 
determined. The moisture content found as 10.43%. The volatile matter found as 69.31 and 58.00% for cashew nut 
shell and doiled shell. 


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Original Article 



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Priti P Lad, Bhagyashree N Patil & Suchita V Gupta 


Sanger et al (2011) reported that cashew nut shell (CNS) was utilized for carbonization in developed prototype 
kiln. Prototype kiln was evaluated with direct and indirect methods and characteristics of CNS and CNS char were 
determined by proximate and ultimate analysis. The maximum CNS temperatures obtained inside the kiln during direct and 
indirect method was recorded as 452. 2°C and 458. 8°C respectively. Maximum oil percentage, charcoal percentage and ash 
percentage in direct method were observed as 21.1 %,21.04 % and 3.34 %respectively whereas 23.8 %, 18.3 %and 
1.27 %in indirect method respectively. Hydrogen content in CNS was found about 6 to 7 %and nitrogen content in CNS 
was found about 0.70 to 0.75 %. Oxygen content in CNS was observed about 29 to31 %. Carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen 
content of the CNS char were observed in the range of 73 to76 %, 4 to 5 % and 1 to 2 %respectively. It was found that 
nitrogen content has increased in CNS char after the carbonization of CNS. Oxygen content in the CNS char gets reduced 
tol3 to 14 %, which was comparatively very less than CNS. It was observed that indirect method is more suitable for 
carbonization than direct method for obtaining higher calorific value char and maximum fixed carbon percentage as found 
in cashew nut shell char as 60 per cent. 

Akpabio (2012) studied the proximate composition, mineral elements, anti-nutrients (toxicants) and lipid 
characteristics were determined for almond (Terminalia catappa) seeds. The results obtained showed the proximate 
composition of 25.23% moisture; 5.00% ash; 32.73% lipid; 33.66% crude fibre; 3.11% crude protein; 25.47% carbohydrate 
and caloric value 534.200 kcal. Mineral elements determined were P, Na, K, Fe, Mg and Ca, while the anti-nutrients 
evaluated were hydrogen cyanide, oxalate and tannin. Almond seed oil was also characterized. 

Francis (2012) reported that this work is on the possibility of producing bio-lubricant with soybean seeds as a case 
study. Solvent extraction process using normal hexane was used. Proximate properties such as moisture, volatile matter, 
ash, fixed carbon content. The percentages of the moisture, volatile matter, ash, and fixed carbon content in the soybean 
seed are 7.95, 72.27, 6.08 and 13.70%. 

MATERIAL AND METHODS 


The marking nut shell was selected as a major raw material for the carbonization process. The carbonization of 
marking nut shell was carried out in muffle furnace. The shell was utilized for conducting experimentation at Department 
of Agricultural Process Engineering, Dr. PDKV and Akola. The proximate and ultimate analysis of marking nut shell was 
carried out to find out the fuel properties. 

Determination of Crude Oil in Marking Nut Shell by Soxhlet Method 

The crude oil was determined using Soxhlet apparatus by adopting the method suggested by Thimmaiah, (1999). 


Weight 2-3 g of dried marking nut shell sample in a thimble (prepared from whatman No.l filter paper) and place 
it in a Soxhlet apparatus. Connect a dry pre-weighted solvent flask (‘a’, g) beneath the apparatus and the required volume 
of solvent (Petroleum ether, b.p. 60-80 °C or ethyl ether or hexane) and connect to condenser. Adjust the heating rate to 
give a condensation rate of 2-3 drops and extract for 16 h. Remove the thimble and retain ether from the apparatus. 
Evaporate the excess ether from the solvent flask on a hot water bath and dry the flask at 105 °C for 30 min. Cool the flask 
in desiccators and weigh (‘b\ g) 


Crude oil content 


(b-a) 

Weight of sample (g) 


x 100 


1 


Impact Factor (JCC): 4.8136 


NAAS Rating: 3.53 



Carbonisation of Marking Nut Shell (Semecarpus Anacardium) 


21 


Determination of Proximate and Ultimate Analysis of Marking Nut Shell (MNS) 

The proximate and ultimate analysis of marking nut shell was carried out by using muffle furnace. 

Proximate Analysis of Marking Nut Shell (MNS) 

The moisture content, volatile matter, ash content and fixed carbon content of marking nut shell were calculated 
under the proximate analysis. 

Determination of Moisture Content 

About lg of finely powdered air-dried sample was weighed in a crucible. The crucible was placed inside an 
electric hot air-oven, maintained at 105-110 °C. The crucible was allowed to remain in oven for 1 hour and then taken out 
(with the help of a pair of tongs), cooled in desiccators and weighed. Loss in weight was reported as moisture content 
(on percentage basis) (Jain and Jain, 2001). 

Percentage of moisture (% w. b) = loss m weight x 100 2 

weight of sample taken 

Determination of Volatile Matter 

Volatile matter was determined by keeping the dried sample of marking nut shell left in a crucible is then covered 
with a lid an place in an electric furnace (muffle furnace) maintained at 925 + 20 °C the crucible is taken out of the oven 
after 7 minutes of heating. The crucible is cooled first in air, then inside a dessicator and weighed again. Loss in weight 
was reported as volatile matter on percentage basis (Jain and Jain, 2001). 

~ . r , . . . loss in weight due to remove in volatile matter . An „ 

Percentage of volatile matter = x 100 3 

weight of sample taken 

Determination of Ash Content 

The residual sample in the crucible was then heated without lid in a muffle furnace at 750 n C for half an hour 
(ASTMD- 3174). The crucible was then taken out, cooled first in air, then kept in desiccators and weighed. Heating, 
cooling and weighing was repeated, till a constant weight was obtained. The residue was reported as ash on percentage- 
basis (Jain and Jain, 2001). 

„ . r i Wt. of ash left „ „ „ . 

Percentage of ash = x 100 4 

weight of sample taken 

Determination of Fixed Carbon 

The fixed carbon in percentage was calculated by difference (Jain and Jain, 2001). 

Fixed carbon (%) = 100 — percentage of (moisture content + volatile matter + ash) 5 

Ultimate Analysis of Marking Nut Shell (MNS) 

Carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen content of marking nut shell were found out under the ultimate analysis. 
The ultimate analysis is helpful in calculating heat balances in any process in which shell is used as fuel. Using the values 
of proximate analysis, ultimate analysis of MNS was calculated by using the following formulae. 

Determination of Carbon Content 

Carbon content of the sample was calculated on the basis of following formula (Sanger et al, 2011), 


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Priti P Lad, Bhagyashree N Patil & Suchita V Gupta 


Carbon content (%) = 0.97FC + 0.7 (VM - 0.1A) - M(0.6 - 0.01M) 6 

Determination of Hydrogen Content 

Hydrogen content of the sample was calculated on the basis of following formula (Sanger et al, 201 1), 

Hydrogen content (%) = 0.036FC + 0.086(VM - 0.01A) - 0.0035M 2 (10.02M) 7 

Determination of Nitrogen Content 

Nitrogen content of the sample was calculated on the basis of following formula (Sanger et al, 2011), 

Nitrogen content (%) = 2.10 — 0.020VM 8 

Determination of Oxygen Content 

Oxygen content of the sample was calculated theoretically by difference on the basis of the following formula 
(Sanger et al, 201 1), 

Oxygen content (%) = 100 — percentageof (C + H + N + Ash) 9 

Where, 

FC = fixed carbon, % 

A = ash, % 

VM = volatile matter, % 

M = moisture, % 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 

Marking nut shell is waste product obtained during deshelling of marking nut kernels and is utilized as a substitute 
to wood fuel. The oil content in marking nut shell was found in the range of 21.40 to 21.88%. Similar results were 
observed for jatropha curcas (Joshi et al 2011, Umaru and Aberuagba, 2012, Emil et al 2009), date seeds 
(Boukouada and Yousfi, 2009), for castor seed (Mgudu et al 2012), for cashew nut (Bello et al 2013, Akbar et al 2009). 
The ultimate and proximate analysis of marking nut shell were determined and presented. 

Proximate Analysis of Marking Nut Shell (MNS) 

Proximate analysis of marking nut shell MNS, marking nut deoiled shell and marking nut traditionally deoiled 
shell for determination of moisture content, volatile matter, ash content and fixed carbon was carried out. 
The results of proximate analysis are shown in figure 4.1 to figure 4.4 respectively. 

It was observed that moisture content of the marking nut shell was 2.484 % and for marking nut deoiled shell and 
traditionally deoiled shell. It was found to be zero percent due to heating (figure 4.1). 

The moisture in shell evaporates during the burning of shell and it takes some amount of liberated heat in the form 
of latent heat of evaporation, therefore, moisture lowers. Moreover, it quenches the fire in the furnace. Hence, lesser the 
moisture content, better the quality of shell as a fuel. However, presence of moisture, upto 10%, produces a more uniform 
fuel-bed and less of “fly-ash”. (Jain and Jain, 2001) 


Impact Factor (JCC): 4.8136 


NAAS Rating: 3.53 



Carbonisation of Marking Nut Shell (Semecarpus Anacardium) 


23 


The volatile matter observed as 85.093%, 54.521% and 81.737% for marking nut shell, marking nut deoiled shell 
and traditionally deoiled shell respectively (figure 4.2). The volatile matter present in marking nut shell was found to be 
more in percentage than traditionally deoiled shell and deoiled shell. 

The ash content in the MNS, marking nut deoiled shell and marking nut traditionally deoiled sample was found to 
be in the range of 3.704 to 4.373%, 32.42 to 34.76% and 10.68 to 11.32%, respectively shown in figure 4.3. The average 
value for ash content in the MNS, marking nut deoiled shell and marking nut traditionally deoiled sample was found 
4.35%, 34.82% and 10.89%, respectively. The ash content in marking nut deoiled shell increases due to removal of 
moisture content and volatile matter. The ash present in marking nut shell (MNS) is less than traditionally deoiled shell and 
then deoiled shell. 

The fixed carbon percentage in the MNS, marking nut deoiled shell and marking nut traditional deoiled shell 
sample was found to be in the range of 7.477 to 8.411%, 9.709 to 11.54% and 6.796 to 7.767% respectively (Figure 4.4). 
The fixed carbon percentage in the MNS, marking nut deoiled shell and marking nut traditionally deoiled shell sample was 
found as 8.074%, 10.64% and 7.37%, respectively. From the figure 4.4, it was observed that marking nut deoiled shell has 
high fixed carbon than marking nut shell sample and marking nut traditionally deoiled shell sample. 

Similar results were reported for cashew nut shell (Sanger et al 2011), almond seed (Akpabio, 2012), soya bean 
(Francis, 2012) and cashew nut shell (Ganesh and Das, 2003). 

4.2 Ultimate Analysis of Marking Nut Shell (MNS) 

The ultimate analysis of MNS, marking nut deoiled shell and marking nut traditionally deoiled shell was carried 
out in order to determine its carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen percentage. The results of ultimate analysis of MNS, 
marking nut deoiled shell and marking nut traditionally deoiled shell are shown graphically in figure 4.5 to 4.8. 

The carbon content in the MNS, marking nut deoiled shell and marking nut traditional deoiled shell sample was 
found to be in the range of 65.028 to 65.991%, 44.214 to 48.214% and 63.321 to 63.874% respectively (figure 4.5). 
The average value of carbon content in the MNS, marking nut deoiled shell and marking nut traditional deoiled shell 
sample was found to be 65.602%, 46.049% and 63.602%, respectively. 

The hydrogen content in the MNS, marking nut deoiled shell and marking nut traditional deoiled shell sample was 
found to be in the range of 7.47 to 7.612%, 4.624 to 5.035% and 7.152 to 7.25% respectively (figure 4.6). The average 
value of hydrogen content in the MNS, marking nut deoiled shell and marking nut traditional deoiled shell sample was 
found to be 7.55%, 4.772% and 7.201%, respectively. 

Greater the percentage of carbon and hydrogen, better the fuel in quality and calorific value. Hence, hydrogen is 
mostly associated with the volatile matter and hence it affects the use to which the fuel id put. Hence, marking nut 
traditional deoiled shell and marking nut shell has greater percentage of carbon and hydrogen than deoiled shell. 

The nitrogen content in the MNS, marking nut deoiled shell and marking nut traditional deoiled shell sample was 
found to be in the range of 0.38 to 0.418%, 0.954 to 1.042% and 0.45 to 0.477% respectively (figure 4.7). The average 
value of nitrogen content in the MNS, marking nut deoiled shell and marking nut traditional deoiled shell sample was 
found to be 0.398%, 1.01% and 0.465%, respectively. 

Nitrogen has no calorific value and hence, its presence in fuel is undesirable. Thus, good quality fuel should have 


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Priti P Lad, Bhagyashree N Patil & Suchita V Gupta 


very little nitrogen content. Hence, marking nut shell and marking nut traditionally deoiled shell has less percentage of 
nitrogen than deoiled shell. 

Similarly, from the figure 4.8, the oxygen content in the MNS, marking nut deoiled shell and marking nut 
traditional deoiled shell sample was found to be in the range of 21.344 to 22.544%, 13.002 to 13.758% and 17.729 to 
18.009%, respectively. The oxygen content in the MNS, marking nut deoiled shell and marking nut traditional deoiled shell 
sample was found to be 21.618%, 13.3325 and 17.838%, respectively. 

Oxygen content decreases the calorific value of coal. High oxygen content are characterized by high inherent 
moisture, low calorific value and low coking power. Moreover, oxygen is in combined form with hydrogen in fuel and 
thus, hydrogen available for combustion is lesser than actual one. An increase in 1% oxygen content decreases the calorific 
value by about 1.7% and hence the oxygen is undesirable. Thus, a good quality coal should have low percentage of oxygen 
(Jain and Jain 2001). 

CONCLUSIONS 

It was observed that maximum fixed carbon percentage found in cashew nut shell char as 10.64 per cent. Moisture 
content of the MNS was 2.484 % and for MN deoiled shell and traditionally deoiled shell was found to be zero percent. 
The volatile matter present in the MNS, marking nut deoiled shell and marking nut traditional deoiled shell sample was 
found to be 85.093%, 54.521% and 81.737% respectively. Ash content in the MNS, marking nut deoiled shell and marking 
nut traditional deoiled sample was found to be 4.35%, 34.82% and 10.89% respectively. The fixed carbon percentage in the 
MNS, marking nut deoiled shell and marking nut traditional deoiled shell sample was found to be 8.074%, 10.64% and 
7.37% respectively. 

REFERENCES 

1. Akbar E, Yaakob Z, Kamarudin SK, Ismail M, and Salmon J, (2009) Characteristic and composition of jatropha curcas oil 
seed from malaysi and its potential as biodiesel feedstock, European Journal of Scientific Research, 29(3):396-403. 

2. Akpabio UD, (2012) Evaluation of proximate composition, mineral element and anti- nutrient in almond (Terminaliacatappa) 
seeds. Advances in Applied Science Research, 3 (4):2247-2252. 

3. Bello El, Akinola AO. Out F, and Owoyemi TJ, (2013) Fuel and physiochemical properties of cashew 
(Anarcardium Occidentale) nut oil, its biodiesel and blends with diesel. British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, 
3(4): 1055-1069. 

4. Boukouada, M, and M. Yousfi, (2009) phytochemical study of date seeds lipids of three fruits (phoenix dactylifera l) produced 
in ouarglaregion. Annales de la Faculte des Sciences et Sciences del’ngenieur, vol.l (3). 

5. Francis UO. (2012) Extraction and characterization of soybean oil based bio-lubricant.AU Journal of Technology, 15(4): 
260-264. 

6. Ganesh A, and Das P, (2003) Bio-oil from pyrolysis of cashew nut shell - a near fuel. Biomass and Bioenergy. 25:113-117. 

7. Jain PC, and Jain M, (2001) A Textbook of Engineering Chemistry. Dhanpat Rai Publishing Company Pvt LTD, 
Pg, No. 66-69. 

8. Joshi A, Singhal P, and Bachheti RK, (2011) Physicochemical characterization of seed oil of jatropha curcas collected from 
dehradun ( Uttarakhand) India. International Journal of Applied Biology and Pharmaceutical Technology, volume: 2. 


Impact Factor (JCC): 4.8136 


NAAS Rating: 3.53 



Carbonisation of Marking Nut Shell (Semecarpus Anacardium) 


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9. Kubade AB, and Phirake PS, (1990) Study of decortication and oil extraction of marking-nut. Annual report of department of 
A. P. E., Collage ofagril. engg. P.K.V., Akola B 34-38. 

10. Mgudu L, Muzenda E, Kabuba J, and Belaid M, (2012) Microwave - assisted extraction of castor oil, International 
Conference on Nanotechnology and Chemical Engineering ( ICNCS'2012 ) December 21-22, 2012 Bangkok (Thailand) 47. 

11. Mujumdar SH, Chakraborthy GS, and Kulkami KS, (2008) Medicinal potentials of semecarpus anacardium nut - a review. 
Journal of Herbal Medicine and Toxicology, 2(2): 9-13. 

12. Sanger SH, Mohod AG, Khandetode YP, Shrirame HY, and Deshmukh AS (2011) Study of carbonization for cashew nut shell. 
Research Journal of Chemical Sciences, 1(2): 43-55. 

13. Thimmaiah SK (1999). Standard methods of biochemical analysis. Kalyani publication. 49-60, 278-279. 

14. Umaru M and Aberuagba F (2012) Characteristics of a Typical Nigerian Jatropha curcas oil seeds for biodiesel production. 
Research Journal of Chemical Sciences, 2(10): 7-12. 

APPENDICES 


■ Moisture content in shell 

■ Moisture content in deoiled shell 

■ moisture content in traditionally deoiled shell 


3 n 



12 3 

Replication 


Figure 4.1: Percent Moisture Content in Marking Nut Shell, 
Deoiled Shell and Traditionally Deoiled Shell 


■ V olatile matter present in shell 

■ Volatile matterpresent in deoiled shell 

■ Volatile matterpresent in traditionally deoiled shell 



12 3 

Replication 


Figure 4.2: Percent Volatile Matter Present in Marking Nut Shell, 
Deoiled Shell and Traditionally Deoiled Shell 


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Priti P Lad, Bhagyashree N Patil & Suchita V Gupta 


■ Ash content in shell 

■ Ash content in deoiled shell 

■ Ash content in traditionally deoiled shell 


40 i 



12 3 

Replication 


Figure 4.3: Percent Ash Content in Marking Nut Shell, 
Deoiled Shell and Traditionally Deoiled Shell 

■ F.C. content in shell 

■ F.C. content in deoiled shell 



12 3 

Replication 


Figure 4.4: Percent Fixed Carbon Content in Marking Nut Shell, 
Deoiled Shell and Traditionally Deoiled Shell 


■ Carbon content in shell 

■ Carbon content in deoiled shell 

■ Carbon contentin traditionally deoiled shell 



12 3 

Replication 


Figure 4.5: Percent Carbon Content in Marking Nut Shell, 
Deoiled Shell and Traditionally Deoiled Shell 


Impact Factor (JCC): 4.8136 


NAAS Rating: 3.53 


Carbonisation of Marking Nut Shell (Semecarpus Anacardium) 


27 


■ Hydrogen content in shell 

■ Hydrogen content in deoiled shell 

■ Hydrogen content in traditionally deoiled shell 

ii 

12 3 

Replication 

Figure 4.6: Percent Hydrogen Content in Marking Nut Shell, 
Deoiled Shell and Traditionally Deoiled Shell 



■ Nitrogen content in shell 

■ Nitrogen content in deoiled shell 

■ Nitrogen content in traditionally deoiled shell 



12 3 

Replication 


Figure 4.7: Percent Nitrogen Content in Marking Nut Shell, 
Deoiled Shell and Traditionally Deoiled Shell 


■ Oxygen content in shell 

■ Oxygen content in deoiled shell 

■ Oxygen content in traditionally deoiled shell 



Replication 


Figure 4.8: Percent Oxygen Content in Marking Nut Shell, 
Deoiled Shell and Traditionally Deoiled Shell 


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