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International Journal of Mechanical and Production 
Engineering Research and Development (IJMPERD) 

ISSN (P): 2249-6890; ISSN (E): 2249-8001 
Vol. 8, Issue 3, Jun 2018, 603-614 
© TJPRC Pvt. Ltd 

EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF PERFORMANCE OF AIR-CONDITIONING 
COMPRESSOR DUE TO AL 2 0 3 NANOPARTICLES IN 
LUBRICATING OIL 

NERUSU NARENDRA 1 & K. V. NARASIMHA RAO 2 

l M. Tech. Student, Department of Mechanical Engineering, KLEF (Koneru Lakshmaiah Education Foundation), 
Vaddeswaram, Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh, India 
2 Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, KLEF (Koneru Lakshmaiah Education Foundation), 
Vaddeswaram, Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh, India 

ABSTRACT 

Nanoparticles are being widely used in recent years, due to their advantages. Addition of nanoparticles leads to 
significant change in thermal properties of a fluid. A new engineering medium, called nanofluid attracted a wide range of 
researchers on many cooling processes in engineering applications, which are prepared by dispersing nanoparticles or 
nanotubes in a host fluid. Recently, many researchers used nanoparticles in refrigeration and air conditioning systems, 
because of significant improvement in heat transfer capability to enhance the efficiency of refrigeration and air 
conditioning systems. In this paper, the thermal conductivities of Al 2 0 3 and Ti0 2 nanofluids at different volume 
concentrations were calculated theoretically, and reported that both nanofluids thermal conductivities increases with 
increase in particle volume concentration, and Ti0 2 nanofluids has grater thermal conductivity over Al 2 0 3 nanofluids. 
The performance test of domestic air conditioning rotary compressor was done experimentally, by using Al 2 0 3 
nanoparticles combined with mineral based lubricating oil (Suniso-4gs oil) and reported that increase in EER is just 0.13% 
and COP is improved up to 3.8% when Al 2 0 3 Nanolubricant is replaced with lubricating oil. So, further experimentation is 
required with higher concentrations of nanoparticles with smaller sizes of Nano particles, and suitable combinations of 
nanoparticles are also needed. The refrigerant used in this process is R410a, which is sold under the trademark names of 
Suva 410a, Forane 410a, Puron, Ecofluor R410, Genetron R410a, AZ-20, which is a zeotropic but near azeotropic mixture 
of difluoromethane (CH2F2, called R-32) and pentafluoroethane (CHF2CF3, called R-125), also said to be a high 
pressure compressors refrigerant. 

KEYWORDS: Air conditioning compressor, Aluminium oxide (Al 2 0 3 ) nanoparticles, Nanorefrigerant, Refrigerant 410a, 
Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) 



TRANS 

STELLAR 

•Journal Publications • Research Consultancy 


Received: Apr 17, 2018; Accepted: May 07, 2018; Published: May 23, 2018; Paper Id.: IJMPERD JUN201865 

NOMENCLATURE 

a - Particle volume fraction (m 3 ) 

ASTM - American society for testing and materials 
CH2F2 - difluoromethane 
CHF2CF3 - pentafluoroethane 
COP - Coefficient of performance 


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EER - Energy Efficiency Ratio 
HLB - Hydrophile- Lipophile Balance 
K - Thermal conductivity (W/m K) 

Keff - Effective thermal conductivity of nanofluid 
Kf - Thermal conductivity of fluid 
K p - Thermal conductivity of nanoparticle 
ODP - Ozone depleting potential 
ppm - parts per million 
R410a - Refrigerant 410a 
UUT - Unit under Test 
V p - Volume of the nanoparticle 
Vf - Volume of the fluid 
INTRODUCTION 

A compressor is the most important and often the costliest component (typically 30 to 40% of total cost) of any 
refrigeration system. Compressor is also known as “heart” of any refrigeration system. The function of a compressor is to 
continuously draw the refrigerant vapor from the evaporator, so that low pressure and low temperature can be maintained 
in the evaporator. The task of the compressor is to raise the pressure of the refrigerant to a level, at which it can condense 
by rejecting heat to the cooling medium in the condenser. In today’s Indian market, most of the air conditioner brands are 
employing reciprocating compressor whereas there are some brands, which are using rotary compressors. For continuous 
operation, rotary compressor would be a good idea. For all small systems meant to be used at house or a small office or a 
shop, then reciprocating air compressors seem to be a good option. Reciprocating compressors are maintained at low 
pressures and hence cause little or no maintenance problems. However, rotary air conditioning compressors have certain 
difficulties with regard to maintenance. 

In traditional air conditioning system, there will be certain amount of lubricating oil that is carried away by the 
refrigerant in the compressor. So, certain amount of lubricating oil circulates along with the refrigerant in the air 
conditioning circuit. If the solubility of lubricating oil in the refrigerant is low, there is a danger of accumulation of 
lubricating oil in the condenser. If the solubility of lubricating oil in the refrigerant is high, refrigerant washes away all the 
lubricating oil in the compressor and there is a danger of increasing high temperature, which could damage the parts of the 
compressor and functioning. The literature survey reveals that any base fluid combined with nanoparticles (ABO3) will 
result in better heat transfer performance than any other traditional heat transfer fluids. Then, this nanolubricant (suniso 4gs 
oil + AkO j) used in the air conditioning rotary compressor will give better performance than ordinary lubricant and helps 
to improve the efficiency of compressor and air conditioning system. Nanoparticles added to the lubricating oil clog the 
internal surfaces; thereby decrease the sliding friction between the surfaces. Clogging of the surface also found to decrease 
the nucleate boiling heat transfer characteristics. Addition of Nanoparticles also found to enhance the critical heat flux of 
the refrigerant. 


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Literature studies show that Thermal conductivity of Nanofluid is greater than that of base fluid. Also viscosity of 
Nanofluid is greater than that of the base fluid. These are the prime uses of Nanoparticles. Nanoparticles also have certain 
disadvantages. There is a danger of sedimentation of Nanoparticles in compressor, if it is not dispersed properly in the oil. 
The refrigerant used in the air conditioning setup that is used for testing is R-410a. 

The refrigerant 410a, sold under the trademarked names of Suva 410a, Forane 410a, Puron, Ecofluor R410, 
Genetron R410a and AZ-20 is a zeotropic, but near azeotropic mixture of difluoromethane (CH2F2, called R-32) and 
pentafluoroethane (CHF2CF3, called R-125), which is used as a refrigerant in air conditioning applications. R-410a 
cylinders are colored pink. It can operate at higher pressures than traditional refrigerants. Also, the ozone depletion 
potential (ODP) of R410a is zero, which suggests that it is environmental friendly. Narendra and Narasimha Rao (2018) 
have recently published a review paper in this area and they reported that A1 2 0 3 nanoparticles combined with suniso oils 
give better performance than ordinary lubricating oils used in refrigeration and air conditioning compressors. 

LITERATURE OVERVIEW 

China Srinivasa and Srinivas Rao [2016] they have done the experimental investigation and reported that 
Compressor performance tests indicate that EER is increased 0.1%, when Ti0 2 Nanoparticles are mixed with Mineral oil, 
and 1.5% decreased when A1 2 0 3 nanoparticles are used. Spectroscopic analysis of nanoparticles added to lubricant oil 
shows that sediments start forming on the 7th day indicating that, Nano particles are not fairly well dispersed in the base 
fluid. Surfactants may be added to enhance the dispersal level. Thermal conductivity of Nanofluids (Ti0 2 , A1 2 0 3 
Nanoparticles added to Mineral oil) is greater than that of the base fluid. 

Papade and Wale [2015] they have done the experimental study on the performance parameters of an air 
conditioner system with nanolubricant, and they concluded that R134a refrigerant and POE oil mixture with A1 2 0 3 
nanoparticles worked normally, and COP of the air conditioning system increased up to 14% when the conventional POE 
oil is replaced with nanorefrigerant. Also, the power consumption of the compressor reduces nearly by 20%, when the 
nanolubricant is used instead of conventional POE oil. 

Cherng-Yuan Lin el al. [2011] prepared the A1 2 0 3 nanofluid with a surfactant with a Hydrophile- Lipophile 
Balance (HLB) value of 12 and found that, it had the lowest nanoparticles precipitation rate. The nanofluids prepared with 
both a dispersant and a surfactant had the lowest thermal conductivity. The thermal conductivity decreased with storage 
time for all of the A1 2 0 3 nanofluids. An increase in operating temperature leads to an increase in the thermal conductivity 
of A1 2 0 3 nanofluids. 

Mahbubul et al. [2013] investigated the flow boiling heat transfer coefficient and frictional pressure drop 
characteristics of Al 2 0 3 /R141b nanorefrigerants. This study reported that volume fractions have significant effects over 
heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of nanorefrigerant. Due to significant enhancement of boiling heat transfer 
coefficient, nanorefrigerants could be implemented in refrigeration systems, but an optimum particle volume fraction is 
needed to avoid the high pressure drop as well as pumping power. It is noteworthy that, there could be some unknown 
effects on the compressor performance of the refrigeration or air conditioning system. 

Hatwar and Rripalani [2014] have performed experiments related to the heat transfer enhancement by using oxide 
form nanofluids such as CuO, A1 2 0 3 , Ti0 2 and ZnO. Amongst these, A1 2 0 3 and CuO are frequently used due to the ease of 
suspension in the base fluid. The use of proper ultrasonic mixer is essential for the uniform mixing of the nanoparticles. 


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Proper care has to be taken while handling the nanoparticles in order to avoid oxidation. The use of nanofluid with higher 
concentrations provides considerably higher thermal performance for all the values of Reynolds number. The authors 
concluded that: (i). the higher the nanoparticles weight fraction, the more will be the rate of heat transfer enhancement, (ii). 
The heat transfer rate is directly proportional to Nusselt and Peclet numbers of the fluid, (iii). The fine grade of 
nanoparticles increases the surface area which results in increase in the heat transfer rate, (iv). Nanofluid stability and its 
production cost are major factors that hinder the commercialization of the nanofluids and (v). There has been considerable 
pressure drop by the use of nanofluid, but it can be overcome to some extent by using extremely fine powder (less than 20 
nm). By solving these challenges, it is expected that nanofluids can make substantial impact as coolant in heat exchanging 
devices. 

Dilip Kumar and Ayyappa [2016] proposed A1 2 0 3 nano-oil as a promising lubricant to enhance the performance 
of vapour compression refrigeration compressor. The stability of AI 2 O 3 nanoparticles in the oil is investigated 
experimentally. It was reported that the nanoparticles steadily suspended in the mineral oil at a stationary condition for 
long period of time. The application of nano-oil with specific concentrations of 1.5%, 1.7% and 1.9% (by mass fraction) 
were added in the compressor oil. The vapour compression refrigeration system (VCRS) performance with the 
nanoparticles was then investigated using energy consumption tests. The results show the COP of system was improved by 
19.14%, 21.6% and 11.22% respectively, when the nano-oil was used instead of pure oil. 

Yimin Xuan and Qiang Li [1999] concluded that the preparation method of nanofluids has been developed and 
they are prepared directly by mixing Nano-phase powders and base fluids, which reveals the possibility of practical 
application of the nanofluid. The nanofluid shows great potential in enhancing the heat transfer process. One reason is that, 
the suspended ultra-fine particles remarkably increase the thermal conductivity of the nanofluid. The volume fraction, 
shape, dimensions and properties of the nanoparticles affect the thermal conductivity of nanofluids. They also mentioned 
the alternative expressions for calculating the effective thermal conductivity of solid + liquid mixtures theoretically, which 
was introduced by Wasp at 1977. They used hot-wire method to measure the thermal conductivity of nanofluids. 
The measurement results illustrate that, the thermal conductivity of nanofluids remarkably increases with the volume 
fraction of ultra-fine particles. 

For the water + Cu nanoparticles suspension, for example, the ratio of the thermal conductivity of the nanofluid to 
that of the base liquid varies from 1.24 to 1.78, if the volume fraction of the ultra-fine particles increases from 2.5% to 
7.5%. 

Saidur et al. [2010] they have written a review paper and their survey says that, Ti0 2 nanoparticles mixed with 
mineral oil works normally in refrigerator and improves the performance of the refrigerator and saves the 26.1% energy 
with 0.1% mass fraction of Ti0 2 nanoparticles combined with mineral oil. Also concluded that, the mineral lubricant with 
A1203 nanoparticles (0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 wt %) was used to investigate the lubrication and heat transfer performance. 
Results indicated that the 60% R134a and 0.1 wt% A1203 nanoparticles provided optimal performance. Under these 
conditions, the power consumption was reduced by about 2.4%, and the coefficient of performance was increased by 4.4%. 

Sendil Kumar et. al. [2012] has conducted the performance tests for 150 gm. of pure R134a system, which is 
treated as the basis for comparison with other test results. Nano A1203-R134a with 0.2% concentration was fed to the 
experimental setup, and the tests were conducted under the same conditions. In order to obtain repeatability, each test was 
run for 3 to 4 times. A performance test was also conducted with charge mass of the order of 150 gm, 180 gm and 200 gm. 


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Experimental Evaluation of Performance of Air-Conditioning Compressor 607 

Due to AI 2 O 3 Nanoparticles in Lubricating Oil 

Addition of Nano A1203 into the refrigerant shows improvement in the COP of the refrigeration system. Use of 
Nanorefrigerant reduces the length of capillary tube and is cost effective. His results also indicate that The COP of the 
system increases with increase in capillary tube length and the Maximum COP of 3.5 are achieved for a capillary length of 
10.5 m. The Discharge pressure increases with time and attains a maximum value and then decreases. The Maximum 
discharge pressure is obtained for charge mass of 150 gm. The suction pressure decreases initially and then increases with 
time. Suction pressure is found to be less for a charge mass of 150 gm. 

Fei Duan (2012) he says that thermal conductivity, viscosity, and surface tension of the A1203 water-based 
nanofluids were measured. It is found the thermal conductivity increases significantly with the nanoparticle volume 
fraction. With an increase of temperature, the thermal conductivity increases for a certain volume concentration of 
nanofluids, but the viscosity decreases. The size of nanoparticle also influences the thermal conductivity of nanofluid. 
He also reported that viscosity increases as the concentration increases at room temperature. At the volume concentrations 
of 5%, the viscosity has an increment of 60%. 

PREPARATION OF NANOLUBRICANT BY TWO-STEP METHOD: 

Nanofluids are prepared by using Two-step method, which is the most widely used method. In this method, 
nanoparticles are first produced as dry powders by chemical or physical methods. Soon after, the Nano-sized powder will 
be dispersed into lubricating oil in the second processing step with the help of intensive magnetic force agitation and 
ultrasonic agitation. Figure 1 depicts the schematic of magnetic stirrer and magnetic beads. 



Figure 1: Magnetic Stirrer, Lubricating oil with Nanoparticles 
is Placed in a beaker on the Stirrer 
With a Magnetic Bead in it 

Two-step method is the most economic method to produce Nanofluids in large scale, because Nano-powder 
synthesis techniques have already been scaled up to industrial production levels. 

SPECIFICATIONS OF NANOLUBRICANT USED IN 
THIS EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE: 

The Amount of lubricating oil (suniso 4gs oil) used for this experiment is 750 ml and the amount of A1 2 0 3 
nanoparticles used is 10 grams. Properties of suniso-4gs oil are tabulated below: 


Table 1: Properties of Suniso-4gs oil 


S. No. 

Property 

Quantity 

1 

Density (at 20°C) 

916 kg/m 3 

2 

Colour (ASTM) 

L1.0 

3 

Viscosity (40°C) 

54.9 mm 2 /s 

4 

Viscosity (100°C) 

54.9 mm 2 /s 


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Table 1: Contd., 

5 

Flash Point 

OO 

OO 

O 

n 

6 

Pour Point 

-35 U C 

7 

Aniline Point 

79.8°C 

8 

Water content 

20 ppm 

9 

Floe Point 

-46 U C 

10 

Thermal conductivity (at 20 U C) 

0.162 W/m.K 


METHODS TO ENHANCE THE STABILITY OF NANOFLUIDS 

Surfactants used in the Nanofluids are also called dispersants. The stability of nanofluids can be enhanced by 
adding dispersants in the two-phase systems. Dispersants can markedly affect the surface characteristics of a system in 
small quantity. Dispersant consists of a hydrophobic tail portion, usually a long-chain hydrocarbon and a hydrophilic polar 
head group. Dispersants are employed to increase the contact of two materials, sometimes known as wettability. In a two- 
phase system, a dispersant tends to locate at the interface of the two phases, where it introduces a degree of continuity 
between the Nanoparticles and base fluids. 

When the base fluid of Nano fluids is polar solvent, water-soluble surfactants should be selected; otherwise, oil 
soluble ones are to be selected. 

THEORETICAL THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY ANALYSIS OF NANOFLUID: 

From the literature survey, it is clear that nanofluids exhibit superior heat transfer characteristics than 
conventional heat transfer fluids. One of the reasons for better performance is that the suspended particles remarkably 
increase the thermal conductivity of nanofluids. The thermal conductivity of AFO3 based nanofluid is strongly dependent 
on the nanoparticle volume fraction and volume concentration. So far, it has been an unsolved problem to develop a 
sophisticated theory to predict thermal conductivity of nanofluids, although there exist some semi-empirical correlations to 
calculate the apparent conductivity of two-phase mixture. The alternative expression for calculating the effective thermal 
conductivity of solid + liquid mixtures was introduced by Wasp in 1977 [Fei Duan (2012)]. 

K ff _ k p + 2k f -2a(k f -k p ) 
k f k p + 2k f +a{k f —k p ^ 

Where, K e(r is effective thermal conductivity of nanofluid, K p is thermal conductivity of nanoparticle; Kfis thermal 
conductivity of fluid and a is particle volume fraction. 


The theoretical calculation for effective thermal conductivity of AFO3 based nanofluid clearly shows the increase 
in thermal conductivity by increasing the volume fraction and volume concentration of nanoparticles in lubricating oil. 
Table 2 shows the results of thermal conductivity estimated at different particle volume concentrations. 


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609 


Table 2: Thermal Conductivities of Nanofluid (ALO 3 + Lubricating oil) 
at different Volume Fractions 


SI. 

No. 

Amount of 

Nanoparticles in 750 ml 
of Lubricating oil (gm) 

Volume 

Concentration 

(%) 

Volume 
Fraction (a) 
[m 3 ] 

Thermal Conductivity 
of A1 2 0 3 Fluid 
(W/m K) 

1 

5 

0.66 

0.0156 

0.16437 

2 

10 

1.31 

0.0313 

0.17739 

3 

15 

1.96 

0.0469 

0.19192 

4 

20 

2.5 

0.0626 

0.20788 

5 

25 

3.22 

0.0779 

0.22556 


The thermal conductivities of TiCL nanofluid are also calculated and are compared with ATO 3 nanofluid, which 
shows TiCT has greater thermal conductivity than ALO 3 nanofluid. Graph 1 depicts the thermal conductivities of nanofluid 
across different volume concentrations. 



Graph 1: Thermal Conductivity Graph where the Values on X-axis 
Denote the Volume Concentration of Nanoparticles and 
the Values on Y-Axis Denote Thermal Conductivities 
in Watt per Meter Kelvin. 

PERFORMANCE TEST ON AIR CONDITIONING COMPRESSOR SET-UP 

The Nanolubricant prepared above is tested in the compressor of air-conditioning test facility in M/s 
TECUMSEH, Hyderabad. The equipment is run till steady state is reached or heat balance is attained. The refrigerant used 
is R-410a. Apparatus are available to maintain the same temperature all over the room. Thermocouples are provided to 
ensure the required conditions are maintained in the test setup. Experimental set-up is also provided to measure the power 
input to the compressor, net cooling capacity and temperatures at different places in the conditioned space. Figure 2 shows 
the circuit diagram of experimental setup of air conditioning system. 


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DASH BOARD 

Treto c 

0.00 | 


0.00 

Desuperheater 

“■ ■ r J 




7:31PM 


Figure 2: Line Diagram of Experimental Air Conditioning System 


Test Procedure 

The following guidelines are provided while conducting the experimental work. 

• Machine to be tested is selected and inspected according to the sampling, receiving check list. 

• If the machine is in satisfactory condition, i. e. without any damage and improper functioning, it is installed in the 
facility and installation check-list is followed. 

• Power supplies of test room, 2 TR chillers and computer software are switched ON. 

• Lab view software is initialised on the computer. 

• For the test conditions to be followed, TEST REQUEST is to be referred. Following procedure should be 
followed for conducting cooling capacity test. 



Figure 3: Experimental Air Conditioning Compressor Setup 


The purpose of the test is to determine the magnitude of following functions: 

• Net Cooling capacity, 

• Net power input to compressor. 


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Experimental Evaluation of Performance of Air-Conditioning Compressor 
Due to AI 2 O 3 Nanoparticles in Lubricating Oil 


611 


The Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) is calculated from above determined parameters, and from this EER value, 
the improvement in coefficient of performance (COP) is determined using. 

COP = EER * 0.293 



Figure 4: Compressor Test Cabin 


• Calorimetric test conditions are selected (27°C/ 19°C, 35°C / 24°C) for the unitary air conditioner (IS - 1391 Part 
1) and (27°C/ 19°C, 35°C / —) for split air conditioner (IS - 1391 Part 2). 

• UUT (Unit under Test) is switched ON. 

• Fan speed should be highest and the total unit is in cooling mode, temperature is set to minimum set point. 

• System is allowed to be stabilized for the above mentioned test conditions. 

• Test unit is run for 4 hours under the stabilized condition and the values obtained are recorded. 

• Test data is compared with the declared values. 

• For the test unit to qualify the cooling capacity test, cooling capacity of the unit should not be less than that of the 
90% of the declared value and power consumption of the unit should not be more than 110% of the declared 
value. 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 

• As shown in the results, the Thermal conductivity of lubricating oil mixed with Nanoparticles is found to be 
greater than that of the base lubricating oil, and also thermal conductivity increases with particle volume fraction 
and volume concentration. This result agrees with that of the results obtained in the literature. 

• The following table shows the experimental results of Compressor performance tests, when AEO3 Nanoparticles 
are mixed with suniso 4gs-oil and individual suniso oil. 


Table 3: Experimental results of Compressor Performance Test 


Test Measurements 

Suniso 4gs-oil 

Suniso oil + A1 2 0 3 

Set Value 

Pressure 

Bar (A) 

Bar (A) 

Bar (A) 

Suction pressure 

9.9336 

9.9382 

9.954 

Discharge pressure 

33.846 

33.862 

33.86 

Cal. Out pressure 

9.908 

9.912 


Temperatures 

°C 

°C 

°C 

Return gas temperature 

35 

35 

35 

Compressor chamber ambient 

34.9 

35 

35 

Cal. Out temperature 

35.1 

35 

35 


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Refrigeration Results 

Compressor power (watts) 

2329.72 

2304.18 

2320 

Compressor current (Amp) 

10.79 

10.772 

11.5 

Cooling capacity (watts) 

6721.90 

6756.29 

6862.17 

Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) 

2.80 

2.93 

2.95 


Compressor performance tests indicate that increase in EER is just 0.13%, when A1 2 0 3 nanoparticles are mixed 
with lubricating oil, which is not very significant. So, further experimentation is required with higher concentrations of 
nanoparticles and suitable combinations of nanoparticles are also needed. Surfactants can also be added to the Nanofluids 
and EER verified. 

CONCLUSIONS 

• Thermal conductivity of Nanoparticles mixed in lubricating oil is found to be greater than that of the base 
lubricating oil, and also thermal conductivity increases with particle volume concentration and Ti0 2 nanofluids 
has better thermal conductivity than A1 2 0 3 nanofluids. This result agrees with that of the results available in the 
literature and there is a need for more experimental investigations on thermal conductivity of nanofluids. 

• The reproducibility of the air conditioning test facility was cross-checked by repeating the test results for each 
case two times. Results show that by using individual suniso 4gs oil, the Energy Efficiency Ratio is 2.8 and by 
using A1 2 0 3 nanoparticles combined with suniso 4gs oil the EER value is 2.93. This amounts to an increase in 
EER value of 0.13%. The COP improved by 3.8%, which is not very significant, considering the significant 
additional expenditure for augmenting the lubricating oil with nanoparticles. For better performance, further 
experimentation is needed with suitable lubricating oils and nanoparticles. The nanoparticles concentration has to 
be increased and more tests have to be conducted. 

• The thermal conductivity of Ti0 2 nanofluid is higher than that of A1 2 0 3 nanofluid. It can be presumed that the 
same experiment with Ti0 2 nanoparticles gives better performance than A1 2 0 3 nanofluid. 

• Cost of nanoparticles is very high. This is the major drawback of nanoparticles usage is very low in industrial 

level. 

SCOPE OF FUTURE WORK 

• Investigating the same work with different nanoparticles combined with different fluid combinations, and finding 
out the suitable fluid combination for better compressor performance. 

• Finding out the suitable surfactants added to the lubricating oil to reduce the sedimentation problem. 

• The enhancement of fundamental properties of nanofluids such as specific heat, density and viscosity is not yet 
well established experimentally. Hence, experimental researches are needed to determine these properties. 

REFERENCES 

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