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International Journal of Educational 
Science and Research (UESR) 

ISSN(P): 2249-6947; ISSN(E): 2249-8052 
Vol. 6, Issue 1, Feb 2016, 59-78 
© TJPRC Pvt. Ltd. 



TRANS 

STELLAR 

•Journal Publications • Research Consultancy 


SCHOOL PRACTICES IN PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT, ITS EXPECTED 
RESULTS & BARRIERS IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS 

ALICIA V. LLAMAS 1 & ARIEL P. TUAZON 2 

1 Faculty Member, University of Perpetual Help System DALTA - Calamba, Laguna, Philippines 
2 Faculty Member, PUP Sto Tomas Branch, Batangas, Philippines 

ABSTRACT 

Children are, by nature, inquisitive. Driven by their appetite to learn, they explore and thirst for knowledge. As 
students, the parents are their initial teachers as they are the ones who provide them answers to their first questions. It 
follows then that parental involvement is an essential component in the teaching-learning process, and therefore, 
requires school to engage and collaborate with parents to improve school success. The problem in this study, therefore, 
was to identify various ways schools involve parents in their children’s education. The study was participated in by 
nineteen public secondary school heads, sixty parents, and one hundred teachers in the DepEd Division of Calamba City 
in the province of Laguna. Applied statistical treatments included simple mean and Pearson correlation. 

It was found that the public secondary schools observe parental involvement school practices. As a whole, 
expected results of parental involvement are manifested and the respondents neither agree nor disagree on the existence 
of barriers in schools’ initiatives to involve parents in the school affairs. Observance of parental involvement school 
practices is significantly related to the manifestation of its positive results on students, parents and teachers. These imply 
that the schools are effective in eliciting the involvement of the parents in school programs and activities. The barriers in 
parental in volvement are not so serious for the schools to get alarmed. But still, addressing these barriers will bring more 
benefits to the schools and families. 

KEYWORDS: Parental Involvement, School Practices, Parenting Skills, School Volunteering, School-Community 
Collaboration 


Received: Jan 13, 2016; Accepted: Jan 27, 2016; Published: Feb 01, 2015; Paper Id.: IJESRFEB20168 

INTRODUCTION 

Children are, by nature, inquisitive. Driven by their appetite to learn, they explore and thirst for 
knowledge. As students, the parents are their initial teachers as they are the ones who provide them answers to 
their first questions. It has been known that a love for learning is an acquired taste, not an instinctive preference. It 
is formed in childhood, and the students’ taste for learning is developed under the proper guidance of their parents 
who are directly responsible for shaping and cultivating that taste. As they grow up, parents instinctively pray for 
the success of their children throughout their education and life endeavors. For this vision to become a reality it is 
vital that parents continue to participate in their children’s learning experiences at home and at school. 

In this regard, Hoover-Dempsey et al. (2005) acknowledged that parental involvement is a vital issue in 
the educational process and therefore requires school to engage and collaborate with parents to improve school 
success. It is not about parent involvement as such, but about parents who are not involved yet, or who are not 
involved in the right way, but can get really well-involved if they accommodate invitations from school. Others 


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Alicia V. Llamas & Ariel P. Tuazon 


may perceive parental involvement merely as chaperoning field trips or signing homework folders. It is more than that. 
Parental involvement refers to a variety of parental behaviors that directly or indirectly influence children’s cognitive 
development and school achievement which include attending parent-teacher conferences, being a member of a PTA, 
volunteering in school, helping in the classroom, helping with homework, discussing school activities with the child, 
monitoring child’s school progress, encouraging and rewarding good grades, reading with the child, contacting the school 
in case of problems, monitoring the child’s out-of-school activities, and talking regularly with the child. Apparently, 
parental involvement refer to parent behaviors related to the child’s schooling that can be observed as manifestations of 
their commitment to their child’s educational affairs. This means that a parent who shows these behaviors in a larger 
extent, can be regarded as more highly involved than a parent who shows these behaviors in a lesser degree (Bakker & 
Dennesen, 2007). Enlisting parents' involvement provides the school heads and teachers with a valuable support system - 
creating a team that is working for each child's success. 

Many studies on parental involvement assert that when parents become involved, academic achievement 
increases, school satisfaction builds up, and there is a successful school setting (Che, 2010). The study may benefit the 
schools, parents, and the community seeking to enhance parental school involvement. School heads may see different types 
of parental involvement not currently practiced in their schools. When implemented, these factors may enhance students’ 
satisfaction and positive attitudes towards learning; uplift teachers’ morale as parents develop greater appreciation of the 
challenges they are facing in the classroom; and improve the understanding of the parents themselves of the school 
curriculum and activities. Parents will be more comfortable with the quality of education their children are receiving, and 
consequently, families will become more willing to support children’s learning and, thus, the school gets a better reputation 
from the community. 

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY 

The Framework of Parental Involvement developed by Epstein (1995) provides the theoretical constructs for the 
study. The framework enables educators to develop effective programs designed to bring school, family and community 
together in a positive manner. Using the structure as a guide is the key to educating pupils and supporting families (Hatter, 
2014). Components of the said framework include parenting, communicating, volunteering, learning at home, decision 
making, and collaborating with community. Each type produces unique gains for pupils, contributes to effective programs, 
and fosters school success. Gains for pupils, according to Epstein (2002), are greatest when parents participate in activities 
in each of these types of involvement. 

The school is expected to assume the prominent part of initiating the task of directly involving parents in their 
children’s learning. School heads and teachers may support positive parenting by respecting and affirming the strengths 
and skills needed by parents to fulfil their role. To facilitate such scheme, a set of effectively designed forms of school-to- 
home and home-to-school communications about school programs and students’ progress must be established. Parental 
involvement may also be realized through school recruitment and organization of parent volunteers in school projects and 
activities, and likewise, parents’ creation of home environments to support the children as students. The school provides 
information and ideas to families about how to help students at home with homework and other curriculum-related 
activities, decisions, and planning. It may also involve parents in its decisions and develop parent leaders. Furthermore, the 
school may also identify and integrate resources and services from the community to strengthen school programs, family 
practices, and student learning & development. 


Impact Factor (JCC): 4.3912 


NAAS Rating: 2.72 



School Practices in Parental Involvement, Its Expected 
Results & Barriers in Public Secondary Schools 

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 


61 


The problem in this study was not only primarily to identify various ways schools involve parents but to verify the 
manifestation of its expected results and barriers as well. Specifically, the study aimed to answer the following questions: 

• To what extent, do public secondary schools in the Department of Education (DepEd) Division of Calamba City 
involve parents along the following dimensions: 

o Promotion of parenting skills 

o School communication to parents 

o Promotion of parental volunteering 

o Assistance to parents’ involvement in student learning at home 
o Participation of parents in school decision making 
o Collaborating with community 

• How do the respondents agree on the manifestations of expected results of parental involvement school practices 
on students, parents, and teachers? 

• Is there a significant relationship between parental involvement school practices and manifestation of its expected 
results? 

• What is the level of agreement of respondents on the existence of barriers in parental involvement? 

METHOD AND MATERIALS 

The descriptive research design fits well into this study. According to Ariola (2006), descriptive research seeks to 
find answers to questions through analysis of variable relationship. The method is best to use in the investigation and 
interpretation of the data gathered in a study concerned with conditions of relationship that exist, practices that prevail, 
beliefs and processes that are going on, effects that are being felt, or trends that are developing. The current study involves 
the collection of data, description and analyses of school practices in parental involvement, its expected results and barriers 
in a basic education setting. Nineteen public secondary school heads, sixty parents, and one hundred teachers in the DepEd 
Division of Calamba City in the province of Laguna participated in the investigation. The use of multiple informants 
contribute to triangulation of assessments of parental involvement. The main data-gathering instrument was a researcher- 
made questionnaire which was validated with the assistance of three authorities in the field of Education. As to the 
statistical treatments, simple mean and Pearson Correlation were utilized. 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 

Parental Involvement School Practices 

Parents are a child's life support system (Michigan Department of Education, 2004). The most important support a 
child can receive comes from home. From making sure that students arrive at school rested, fed, and ready to learn, to 
setting high learning expectations and nurturing self-esteem, parents sustain their children's learning. When the school 
recognizes parent roles and responsibilities, it communicates a clear message to parents that they are an important part in 
maintaining a high-quality education for their children. 


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Table 1.1: School Promotion of Parenting Skills 


Sl.No 

Indicators 
The School ... 

M 

VI 

1 . 

Facilitates communication of the importance of positive relationships between 
parents and their children in the latter’s learning 

4.42 

o 

2. 

Links parents to programs and resources within the community that provide support 
services to families 

4.08 

o 

3. 

Reaches out to all families, not just those who attend parent meetings 

4.13 

0 

4. 

Establishes policies that support and respect family responsibilities, recognizing the 
variety of parenting traditions and practices within the community's cultural and 
religious diversity 

4.06 

0 

5. 

Provides an accessible family information and resource center to support parents 
and families with training, resources, and other services geared toward children’s 
learning 

3.74 

0 

6. 

Encourages school personnel to demonstrate respect for families and the family's 
primary role in the rearing of children to become responsible adults 

4.34 

o 


General Assessment (GA) 

4.13 

o 


Legend: 4.50 - 5.00, Highly Observed (HO); 3.50 - 4.49, Observed (O); 2.50 - 3.49, Moderately Observed 
(MO); 1.50 - 2.49, Slightly Observed (SO); 1.00 - 1.49, Not Observed (NO); M = Mean Assessment; VI = Verbal 
Interpretation 

In general, the public secondary schools in the Division of Calamba City promote parenting skills (GA = 4.13) 
(see Table 1.1). They communicate to the parents the importance of their relationship with their children in the latter’s 
learning (M = 4.42). With the assistance of the schools, families are provided with support services through school 
programs and resources within the community (M = 4.08). Schools likewise reach out to all families, not just those who 
attend the parent meetings (M = 4.13). To support and respect family responsibilities, school policies that recognize the 
variety of parenting traditions and practices within the community’s cultural and religious diversity are established (M = 
4.06). The schools also provide an accessible family information and resource center to support parents and families with 
training, resources, and other services geared toward children’s learning (M = 3.74). Furthermore, the school heads 
encourage teachers to demonstrate respect for families and the family’s primary role in the rearing of children to become 
responsible adults (M = 3.34). The results of the inquiry on promotion of parenting skills suggest that the schools 
essentially equip the parents with information that enhance their parenting skills and institute programs and policies geared 
towards such endeavor. 

The above scenario augurs well with the advices of Hatter (2014). Accordingly, schools can offer support and 
assistance to parents to ensure that they can create positive home environments that enable students to thrive and grow as 
learners. Educators can also encourage parents to promote family literacy by spending time reading with children and 
setting a positive example of reading which often inspires a love of reading in children. Assisting parents to build a strong 
home environment helps pupils develop respect for parents and positive personal values. 


Impact Factor (JCC): 4.3912 


NAAS Rating: 2.72 




School Practices in Parental Involvement, Its Expected 
Results & Barriers in Public Secondary Schools 


63 


Table 1.2: School Communication to Parents 


Sl.No. 

Indicators 
The School ... 

M 

VI 

1 . 

Holds conferences at least twice a year with follow-ups as needed and at times when 
parents can attend 

4.46 

o 

2. 

Encourages immediate contact between parents and teachers when concerns arise 

4.41 

o 

3. 

Provides a school notebook/diary that gives the parent instructions for facilitating 
homework and incomplete schoolwork 

3.24 

MO 

4. 

Asks the teachers to communicate with parents regarding positive student behaviour and 
achievement not just regarding misbehaviour or failure 

4.40 

O 

5. 

Advises the teachers to distribute student work for parental comment and review on a 
regular basis 

3.75 

O 

6. 

Requires report cards and regular progress reports be sent, or given, to parents 

4.42 

o 

7. 

Urges teachers to schedule a home visit to all children during the year 

4.17 

o 

8. 

Provides parents with clear information on class level achievement expectations, school 
activities, school policies, discipline procedures, assessment tools, and school goals 

4.37 

o 


General Assessment (GA) 

4.15 

0 


Legend: 4.50 - 5.00, Highly Observed (HO); 3.50 - 4.49, Observed (O); 2.50 - 3.49, Moderately Observed 
(MO); 1.50 - 2.49, Slightly Observed (SO); 1.00 - 1.49, Not Observed (NO); M = Mean Assessment; VI = Verbal 
Interpretation 

Communication is the foundation of a solid partnership. When parents and educators communicate effectively, 
positive relationships develop, problems are more easily solved, and students make greater progress. Table 1.2 shows that, 
as a whole, the public secondary schools in the Division of Calamba City are practicing two-way communication with 
parents (GA = 4.15). Direct communication between school and parents exist through holding of conferences at least twice 
a year (M = 4.46). At the end of every periodic grading period, teachers in public elementary schools customarily hold 
meetings with the parents during card giving (M = 4.42) and notices are sent to parents when their children do not attend 
classes. Likewise, home visits are conducted (M = 4.17) when misbehaviors occur and the parents are notified. The schools 
encourage such communication immediately when concerns arise (M = 4.41) especially in feeding the parents not only of 
misbehaviors but also positive pupil conduct and achievement (M = 4.40). Likewise, the schools provide information on 
student achievement expectations, activities, policies, discipline procedures, assessments, and school goals (M = 4.37). 
However, it was found that there are only a handful of teachers who require students to allocate a notebook (M = 3.24) 
where school information, homework instructions and incomplete schoolwork remind parents. 

Two types of communication exist, according to The Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (2006). These 
two types include one-way and two-way communication. In one-way communication, the school disseminates information 
to parents on how they can help their children at home. This type of communication enlists newsletters and informational 
fliers. The two-way communication is considered much more interactive and perceived as a partnership between the school 
and families. These include surveys and questionnaires structured to collect informational data pertaining to students. 

Too often, according to Michigan Department of Education (2004), school communication is one-way without the 
chance to exchange ideas and share perceptions. Even parent-teacher conferences can be one-way if the goal is merely 
reporting student progress. Partnering requires give-and-take conversation, goal setting for the future, and regular follow- 
up interactions. Hatter (2014) explained that two-way communication between the school and the home is vital to pupil 
success. Schools should encourage parents to attend at least one parent-teacher conference during the school year and 


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parents need the opportunity to communicate concerns and issues with educators. 

In a stark contrast, Hanke (2006) pointed out that lack of parental involvement may be due to lack of helpful 
information to parents. Emails, phone, letters, newsletters and personal contacts can be made by schools to reach out to 
parents. If schools communicate with parents regularly and consistently using the various means, the gap between school 
and parental involvement will be reduced. 


Table 1.3: School Promotion of Parental Volunteering 


Sl.No. 

Indicators 
The School ... 

M 

VI 

1 . 

Surveys parents regarding their interests, talents, and availability for possible 
voluntary involvement in school programs and activities 

3.84 

0 

2. 

Ensures that parents who are unable to volunteer in the school building are given the 
options for helping in other ways, e.g. information dissemination, outsourcing, etc 

3.84 

0 

3. 

Organizes an easy, accessible program, like feeding program, for utilizing parent 
volunteers, providing ample instructions on volunteer procedures, guidelines and 
protocol 

3.97 

0 

4. 

Develops a system for contacting all parents to assist the school as the year 
progresses 

4.12 

0 

5. 

Designs opportunities for those with limited time and resources to participate in 
school activities by addressing transportation, work schedule needs, and so forth 

3.74 

0 

6. 

Shows appreciation for parents' participation, and value their diverse contributions 

4.28 

0 

7. 

Ensures that volunteer activities by parents are meaningful and built on volunteer 
interests and abilities 

4.15 

0 

8. 

Capitalizes on the expertise and skills of individual parent in the delegation of 
functions in school programs and activities 

3.99 

o 


General Assessment (GA) 

3.99 

0 


Legend: 4.50 - 5.00, Highly Observed (HO); 3.50 - 4.49, Observed (O); 2.50 - 3.49, Moderately Observed 
(MO); 1.50 - 2.49, Slightly Observed (SO); 1.00 - 1.49, Not Observed (NO); M = Mean Assessment; VI = Verbal 
Interpretation 

Parents are welcome in the school, and their support and assistance are sought. When parents volunteer, both 
families and schools reap benefits that come with it. Volunteers express greater confidence in the schools where they have 
opportunities to participate regularly. Consequently, they provide much needed support to educators and administrators 
already taxed in their attempts to meet academic goals and student needs. With a general assessment rating of 3.99, the 
public secondary schools in the DepEd Division of Calamba City are observed actively involving the parents in 
volunteering works in school activities and programs as shown in Table 1.3. These volunteering spirit can be seen in 
schools especially during the start of the school year in Brigada Eskwela. For their assistance, the schools show 
appreciation (M = 4.28). However, for those who are unable to physically volunteer in schools, options for helping in other 
ways like information dissemination and fundraising are considered (M = 3.84). 

The schools perceptively see the benefits in tapping the expertise and skills of the parents (M = 3.99), thus, they 
conduct surveys on these matters (M = 3.84) and design a system for contacting the parents (M = 4.12). School programs 
like feeding and deworming seek assistance and approval of the parents. The schools organizes programs for parent 
volunteers that provide ample instructions, procedures, guidelines and protocol (M = 3.97) on volunteering works and 
ensure the parents that the activities are meaningful and built on their interests and abilities (M = 4.15). 

Involving parents in children’s education, according to Hatter (2014), typically has positive results. Teachers 


Impact Factor (JCC): 4.3912 


NAAS Rating: 2.72 




School Practices in Parental Involvement, Its Expected 65 

Results & Barriers in Public Secondary Schools 

might solicit parent volunteers to help in the classroom with special projects, class field trips or other supportive roles. 
Parents can be a gold mine of talents and skills, which can help educators significantly in the process of teaching 
youngsters. If educators poll parents at the beginning of the school year to learn their knowledge and abilities, as well as 
availability, everyone can benefit from parental volunteerism. 

Although there are many parents for whom volunteering during school hours is not possible, according to 
Michigan Department of Education (2004), creative solutions like before- or after-school "drop-in" programs or "at home" 
support activities provide opportunities for parents to offer their assistance as well. An effective school stretches its 
resources by encouraging parents to volunteer. 


Table 1.4: School Assistance to Parents’ Involvement in Student Learning at Home 


Sl.No. 

Indicators 
The School ... 

M 

VI 

1 . 

Encourages the teachers to inform parents of the expectations for students in 
each subject at each grade level 

4.41 

o 

2. 

Advises the teachers to provide information regarding how parents can foster 
learning at home, give appropriate assistance, monitor homework, and give 
feedback to teachers 

4.12 

o 

3. 

Urges the teachers to regularly assign interactive homework that will require 
students to discuss and interact with their parents about what they are learning 
in class 

3.93 

o 

4. 

Sponsors workshops or distribute information to assist parents in 
understanding how students can improve skills, get help when needed, meet 
class expectations, and perform well on assessments 

3.65 

o 

5. 

Recommends to teachers to assist parents in developing or planning a 
personalized education plan for their children 

3.81 

o 


General Assessment (GA) 

3.98 

o 


Legend: 4.50 - 5.00, Highly Observed (HO); 3.50 - 4.49, Observed (O); 2.50 - 3.49, Moderately Observed 
(MO); 1.50 - 2.49, Slightly Observed (SO); 1.00 - 1.49, Not Observed (NO); M = Mean Assessment; VI = Verbal 
Interpretation 

In general, the public secondary schools in the Division of Calamba City assist parents in helping their children 
learn at home (GA = 3.98) as shown in Table 1.4. They see to it that the parents are involved in their children’s studies by 
informing parents of the learning expectations (M = 4.41); providing information on how they facilitate learning at home 
(M = 4.12); and assigning homework where parents’ interaction is needed (M = 3.93). These are usually tackled in PTA 
meetings. From time to time, seminars and workshops are held to inform parents on important issues like bullying, 
information in understanding how pupils can improve skills, get help when needed, meet class expectations and perform 
well on assessments (3.65). Moreover, the school heads recommend to their teachers to assist parents in developing a 
personalized education plan for their children (M = 3.81). These findings indicate that the school heads and teachers view 
parents as partners in facilitating children’s learning and assist them acquire skills and information in creating a home 
environment conducive to learning. 

In relation to this, the Michigan Department of Education (2004) asserted that the vast majority of parents are 
willing to assist their students in learning but are not sure what assistance is most helpful and appropriate. Helping parents 
connect to their children's learning enables parents to communicate in powerful ways that they value what their children 
achieve. When they are treated as partners and given relevant information by people with whom they are comfortable with. 


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parents put into practice the involvement strategies they already know are effective, but have been hesitant to utilize. 
Moreover, parent effectiveness is further enhanced when the school provides orientation/training and opportunities for 
parents to learn effective ways to support their child’s educational needs including information about how parents can 
support student behaviors such as punctuality and regular attendance that are closely tied to student success in school. 

In the same vein. Moles (2000) explained that although many parents may not be certain how to help their 
children with assignments, with guidance and support from teachers they can become actively involved in home learning 
activities, have an opportunity to teach, be models, and guide their children. Furthermore, Hatter (2014) emphasized that 
students need a positive environment for home learning. Educators can help parents learn how to supervise homework, set 
up an effective place for pupils to work, communicate expectations for homework and support kids as they work on school 
work at home. Students often develop a more positive attitude about homework and improve test scores with an effective 
home learning environment. 


Table 1.5: Participation of Parents in School Decision Making 


Sl.No. 

Indicators 
The School ... 

M 

VI 

1 . 

Seeks and encourages parental participation in decision-making that affects 
students 

4.13 

o 

2. 

Encourages the formation of PTA and/or other parent groups to identify and 
respond to issues of interest to parents 

4.41 

o 

3. 

Includes parents on all decision-making and advisory committees, and ensure 
adequate training for such areas as policy, budget, school reform initiatives, 
safety, and personnel 

3.95 

o 

4. 

Enables parents to participate as partners when setting school goals, 
developing or evaluating programs and policies, or responding to performance 
data 

4.04 

o 

5. 

Treats parental concerns with respect and demonstrate genuine interest in 
developing solutions 

4.23 

0 

6. 

Provides training for teachers and parents on collaborative partnering and 
shared decision making 

4.04 

o 


General Assessment (GA) 

4.13 

o 


Legend: 4.50 - 5.00, Highly Observed (HO); 3.50 - 4.49, Observed (O); 2.50 - 3.49, Moderately Observed 
(MO); 1.50 - 2.49, Slightly Observed (SO); 1.00 - 1.49, Not Observed (NO); M = Mean Assessment; VI = Verbal 
Interpretation 

As can be seen in Table 1.5, the schools, altogether, involve parents in school decision making (GA = 4.13). They 
do these by seeking their participation in decisions that affect students (M = 4.13); by forming parent organization that 
aims to identify and respond to issues of interest to parents (M = 4.41); and by including parents on advisory committees 
that tackle such areas as policy budget, school reform initiatives, and safety (M = 3.95) and in setting school goals, 
evaluating programs, and in responding to performance data (M = 4.04). When there are school projects, the PTA is tapped 
to assist the teachers and school administrators. In these endeavors, the school treats parental concerns with respect and 
demonstrate genuine interest in developing solutions to school problems (M = 4.23). To elicit noteworthy parental 
participation in decision making, the schools provide trainings on collaborative partnering and shared decision making (M 
= 4.04). It can be deduced from the above-mentioned findings that the participating public secondary schools accommodate 
the parents’ ideas, opinions and suggestions in their decision and policy making processes. 


Impact Factor (JCC): 4.3912 


NAAS Rating: 2.72 




School Practices in Parental Involvement, Its Expected 
Results & Barriers in Public Secondary Schools 


67 


In this regard, the Michigan Department of Education (2004) noted that schools where parents are involved in 
decision making and advocacy have higher levels of student achievement and greater public support. Schools and programs 
that actively enlist parent participation communicate that parents are valued as full partners in the education of their 
children. Parents and teachers depend on shared authority in decision-making systems to foster parental trust, public 
confidence, and mutual support of each other's efforts in helping students succeed. The involvement of parents is crucial in 
collaborative decision-making processes on issues from curriculum, to discipline policies and over-all school reform 
measures. 

In addition. Hatter (2014) explained that parents involved in school decisions and activities can play a vital role in 
achieving goals that help students. Parent organizations spearhead fundraising that benefit the school and the students. 
Parental committees can be instrumental in school improvements that revitalize and focus energy on students. This type of 
parental involvement helps students to benefit by seeing a parental role in school decision-making and helps parents to 
advocate more effectively for student benefits. 


Table 1.6: Parental Involvement School Practices in Collaborating with Community 


Sl.No. 

Indicators 
The School ... 

M 

VI 

1 . 

Distributes information to parents regarding cultural, recreational, 
academic, health, social, and other resources that serve families within the 
community 

3.89 

o 

2. 

Develops partnerships with local business and service groups to advance 
student learning and assist schools and families 

3.81 

o 

3. 

Fosters student and family participation in community service 

3.96 

o 

4. 

Collaborates with community agencies to provide family support services 
and adult learning opportunities, enabling parents to fully participate in 
activities that support education 

3.92 

o 


General Assessment (GA) 

3.89 

o 


Legend: 4.50 - 5.00, Highly Observed (HO); 3.50 - 4.49, Observed (O); 2.50 - 3.49, Moderately Observed 
(MO); 1.50 - 2.49, Slightly Observed (SO); 1.00 - 1.49, Not Observed (NO); M = Mean Assessment; VI = Verbal 
Interpretation 

As shown in Table 1.6, the schools, in general, collaborate with the community in involving the parents in their 
children’s learning (GA = 3.89). They establish linkages with local business and service groups (M = 3.81) and with 
community agencies (M = 3.92) that advance student learning. They provide parents with information on cultural, 
recreational, academic, health, social and other resources available to families within the community (M = 3.89). In return, 
the schools encourage students and family participation in community service (M = 3.96). 

Hatter (2014) explained that schools can work cooperatively with communities for activities that strengthen and 
develop strong students. Recreational, cultural and athletic programs can provide important opportunities for students. 
Schools can promote and endorse these community activities to show parents the value and importance of these programs. 
Students receive expanded exposure to different experiences and opportunities, which could assist them with choices in 
future education and careers. These views are given consideration in the DepEd Division of Calamba City. 

The Michigan Department of Education (2004) further added that they may work together in order to promote and 
effectively increase educational opportunities for children. When schools and communities form partnerships, both make 
gains that outpace what either entity could accomplish on its own. Providing all students with equal access to quality 


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Alicia V. Llamas & Ariel P. Tuazon 


education is a primary goal. It is vital that all partners, i.e. parents, educators, businesses and communities, have the 
opportunity to provide input and offer resources to meet this goal. Developing cooperative efforts and providing access to 
resources will ensure improved academic achievement for all students, as well as quality schools. 

Expected Results of Parental Involvement 

The next concern of the study is to determine if the expected results of parental involvement on pupils, parents 
and teachers are realized. As can be seen in Table 2.1 below, school heads, teachers and parents consistently agree on the 
manifestation of expected results of parental involvement on students (GA = 4.08). 


Table 2.1: Manifestation of Expected Results of Parental Involvement on Students 


SI.No. 

Indicators 

Through their Parents, the Students .... 

M 

VI 

1 . 

Attain awareness of own progress and of actions needed to maintain or 
improve grades 

4.11 

A 

2. 

Gain understanding of school policies on behaviour, attendance, and other 
areas of student conduct 

4.20 

A 

3. 

Develop positive personal qualities, habits, beliefs, and values as taught by 
family 

4.11 

A 

4. 

Make good or improved attendance 

4.16 

A 

5. 

Achieve homework completion 

3.93 

A 

6. 

Acquire positive attitude toward schoolwork 

3.97 

A 

7. 

Realize increased learning of skills that receive tutoring or attention from 
parents 

3.91 

A 

8. 

Get understanding that student rights are protected 

4.26 

A 


General Assessment (GA) 

4.08 

A 


Legend: 4.50 - 5.00, Strongly Agree (SA); 3.50 - 4.49, Agree (A); 2.50 - 3.49, Neutral (N); 1.50 - 2.49, 
Disagree (D); 1.00 - 1.49, Strongly Disagree (SD); M = Mean Assessment; VI = Verbal Interpretation 

They noted positive behavioral and attitudinal changes on the students, namely, developed positive personal 
qualities and values taught by family (M = 4.11); improved attendance (M = 4.16); completed homework (M = 3.93); and 
acquired positive attitude toward schoolwork (M = 3.97). Through their parents, the students get to know school policies 
(M = 4.20); attain awareness of own progress and of actions needed to improve grades (M = 4.11); and acquire 
understanding that student rights are protected (M = 4.26). Moreover, increased learning of skills received from parents’ 
tutoring is realized (M = 3.91). All of these findings indicate that the students greatly benefited from parental involvement 
in terms of academic achievement, self-awareness, better attitudes, and improved personal qualities. 

In this regard, Sapungan & Sapungan (2014) exemplify the fact that parents’ involvement in their child’s learning 
process offers many opportunities for success - improvements on child’s morale, attitude, and academic achievement 
across all subject areas, behavior and social adjustment. Furthermore, Pinantoan (2013) pointed out that the influence of 
parental involvement on a student’s academic success should not be underestimated. The article stressed that the 
importance of support system that a student gets from home is equally important as his brain power, work ethics and 
genetics which all work in the accomplishment of his goal in life. 

A report conducted by the National School Public Relations Association (2006) showed that enhanced parental 
involvement leads to better academic performance, better attendance, and improved behavior at home and school. On the 
other hand, an article On Target: Family Involvement (2000) explained that research on K-12 schools have linked parental 


Impact Factor (JCC): 4.3912 


NAAS Rating: 2.72 




School Practices in Parental Involvement, Its Expected 69 

Results & Barriers in Public Secondary Schools 

involvement to student outcomes including increased achievement in test results, a decrease in dropout rate, improved 
attendance and student behavior, improved parent teacher relations, greater commitment to schoolwork, and improved 
attitude toward school. 

Furthermore, Russell & Reece (2000) reported that an increase in parental involvement leads to an increase in 
academic achievement, better classroom behavior and conduct, greater self-esteem, increased motivation and attitude 
towards school, low rate of absenteeism, increased school satisfaction, and increased school climate. 

According to Che (2010), children whose parents are involved show greater social and emotional development. 
And parental involvement more likely results in increased achievement in test results, low rate of absenteeism, decrease in 
dropout rate, improved attendance and student behavior, improved parent-teacher relations, greater commitment to 
schoolwork, greater self-esteem, and improved attitude toward school. 


Table 2.2: Manifestation of Expected Results of Parental Involvement on Parents 


Sl.No. 

INDICATORS 
The Parents ... 

M 

VI 

1 . 

Gain understanding of school programs and policies 

4.23 

A 

2. 

Do monitoring and attain awareness of child's progress 

4.03 

A 

3. 

Respond effectively to students' problems 

3.95 

A 

4. 

Interact with teachers and establish ease of communication with school 
and teachers 

4.05 

A 

5. 

Reach understanding of and confidence about parenting, child and 
adolescent development, and changes in home conditions for learning as 
children proceed through school 

3.86 

A 

6. 

Achieve awareness of own and others' challenges as parents 

3.82 

A 

7. 

Gain the feeling of support from school and other parents 

3.89 

A 

8. 

Attain knowledge of how to support, encourage, and help pupil at home 

3.89 

A 

9. 

Develop self-confidence about ability to work in school and with 
children 

3.87 

A 

10. 

Achieve gains in specific skills of volunteer work 

3.79 

A 

11. 

Reach awareness of parents' voices in school decisions 

3.87 

A 

12. 

Accomplish interactions with other families in community activities 

3.75 

A 


General Assessment (GA) 

3.92 

A 


Legend: 4.50 - 5.00, Strongly Agree (SA); 3.50 - 4.49, Agree (A); 2.50 - 3.49, Neutral (N); 1.50 - 2.49, 
Disagree (D); 1.00 - 1.49, Strongly Disagree (SD); M = Mean Assessment; VI = Verbal Interpretation 

As a whole, expected results of parental involvement on parents are manifested (GA = 3.92) as shown in Table 
2.2. The parents gain deeper insights and awareness on parenting, child and adolescent development and home learning 
(3.86); on own and others’ challenges as parents (3.82); on parents’ voices in school decisions (3.87); on school programs 
and policies (4.23); on how to support, encourage and help students at home (3.89); and on self-confidence in working in 
school and with children (3.87). Such understandings are utilized by the parents to accomplish interactions with other 
families in community activities (3.75); to gain the feeling of support from school and other parents (3.89); to interact with 
teachers and establish ease of communication with school and teachers (4.05); to respond effectively to student’ problems 
(3.95); and to do monitoring and attain awareness of child’s progress (4.03). 

The findings above denote that, with parental involvement in school, the parents are able to acquire skills in 
creating a learning environment for their children, establish commendable relations with the school and other families, and 


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70 


Alicia V. Llamas & Ariel P. Tuazon 


gain self-awareness & confidence. These are supported by the statements of Michigan Department of Education (2004). 
Accordingly, when parents receive frequent and effective communication from the school, their involvement increases, 
their overall evaluation of educators improves, and their attitudes toward the school are more positive. Allen & Daly 
(2002) likewise suggested that parental involvement benefits the parents. By becoming involved in their children's 
education, parents gain better understanding of the school curriculum and activities. This makes parents more comfortable 
with the quality of education their children are receiving. 


Table 2.3: Manifestation of Expected Results of Parental Involvement on Teachers 


Sl.No. 

INDICATORS 
The Teachers ... 

M 

VI 

1 . 

Attain increased and diversified use of communications with families and 
awareness of own ability to communicate clearly 

4.18 

A 

2. 

Gain appreciation for and use of parent network for communications 

4.07 

A 

3. 

Develop ability to elicit and understand family views on children's 
programs and progress 

4.12 

A 

4. 

Acquire awareness of own skills to share information on child development 

4.14 

A 

5. 

Achieve better design of homework assignments 

4.07 

A 

6. 

Develop respect for family time 

4.13 

A 

7. 

Obtain satisfaction with family involvement and support 

4.13 

A 

8. 

Gain readiness to involve families in new ways, including those who do not 
volunteer at school 

4.06 

A 

9. 

Attain awareness of parents' talents and interests in school and children 

4.10 

A 


General Assessment (GA) 

4.11 

A 


Legend: 4.50 - 5.00, Strongly Agree (SA); 3.50 - 4.49, Agree (A); 2.50 - 3.49, Neutral (N); 1.50 - 2.49, 
Disagree (D); 1.00 - 1.49, Strongly Disagree (SD); M = Mean Assessment; VI = Verbal Interpretation 

Table 2.3 below shows that there is a general agreement among respondents on the manifestation of expected 
results of parental involvement on teachers (GA = 4.11). The teachers benefit from parental involvement through 
developed ability to elicit family views on children’s programs and progress (M = 4.12); acquired awareness of own skills 
to share information on child development (M = 4.14); achieved better design of homework (M = 4.07); attained awareness 
of parents’ talents and interests (M = 4.10); and gained readiness to involve families in new ways (M = 4.06). 

With parental involvement, the teachers gain appreciation for and use of parent network for communications (M = 
4.07); attain increased use of communications with families and awareness of ability to communicate clearly (M = 4.18); 
develop respect for family time (M = 4.13); and obtain satisfaction with family involvement and support (M = 4.13). 

From the above findings, the researcher was able to come up with the following implications. The teachers gain 
benefits from parental involvement in terms of improved skills in interacting with parents, better communication ability, 
and enhanced self-awareness. In relation to this, through parental involvement, according to NCLB (2001), teachers’ 
morale are improved as parents develop greater appreciation of the challenges they are facing in the classroom. 

Teachers become aware of who the students are when they communicate with parents, and through that, they are 
able to develop individual teaching styles to meet the students’ needs (Che, 2010). Moreover, parents become more 
supportive and engage in their children’s schooling when two-way communication is established by the school. When 
parents are involved, teachers may build high expectations for students, and high expectations for parents’ opinions on 
their ability to help their children at home. 


Impact Factor (JCC): 4.3912 


NAAS Rating: 2.72 




School Practices in Parental Involvement, Its Expected 
Results & Barriers in Public Secondary Schools 

School Practices in Parental Involvement as Related to Manifestation of Its Expected Results 


71 


Another concern of the study is to determine, if there exists, relationship between school observance of practices 
in parental involvement and manifestation of its expected results to students, parents and teachers. The following table 
shows the results of the investigation. 


Table 3: Correlations of Parental Involvement School Practices and Manifestation of Its Results 


Paired Variables 

Pearson r 

p- Value 

Decision 

Remarks 

Parental Involvement School Practices 
and Manifestation of Student Results 

0.677 

0.000 

Reject Ho 

With Significant 
Relationship 

Parental Involvement School Practices 
and Manifestation of Parent Results 

0.731 

0.000 

Reject Ho 

With Significant 
Relationship 

Parental Involvement School Practices 
and Manifestation of Teacher Results 

0.767 

0.000 

Reject Ho 

With Significant 
Relationship 


Test Used: Pearson Product-Moment Correlation 

Table 3 shows that all analyses resulted in high positive correlation levels. Significant relationships are 
established between parental involvement school practices and teacher results (r = 0.767); between parental involvement 
school practices and parent results (r = 0.731); and between parental involvement school practices and student results (r = 
0.677). It can be concluded that, in general, the school observance of practices in parental involvement is significantly 
related to manifestations of its expected results to pupils, parents and teachers. These simply imply that the schools in the 
Division of Calamba City are successful in involving the parents in its programs and activities inasmuch as their expected 
outcomes for the students, parents and teachers manifested. The more the school observes the practices in parental 
involvement, the more it can be expected that positive results in students, parents and teachers manifest. In this regard, the 
schools are viewed effective in this aspect. 

As expounded by Che (2010), a sustained mutual collaboration, support, and participation of school and parents 
are required for a successful school-family partnerships and children's learning. Although the success of school-family 
partnerships is difficult to reach, it is important to note that the benefits to children and their educational success depends 
on hard work required to sustain such associations. 

Barriers in Parental Involvement 

It is also the intent of the investigation to reveal barriers in the observance of parental involvement school 
practices. Information on these matters can be seen in the table given below. 


Table 4: Level of Agreement of Respondents on the Barriers on Parental Involvement 


Sl.No. 

Indicators 

M 

VI 

1 . 

Parents have no enough time to devote to every child especially in families with 
more than one child. 

3.51 

A 

2. 

Parents feel that as children have been at school all day, they need time for 
relaxation. 

3.38 

N 

3. 

Children resist homework/educational activities in favour of playing/going out 
with their friends/ watching TV etc. 

3.46 

N 

4. 

Parents feel they lack knowledge of the subject areas making it difficult for them 
to help with homework. 

3.50 

A 

5. 

Parents have hesitation to teach their children because of their lack of skills about 
teaching methodology. 

3.40 

N 


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Alicia V. Llamas & Ariel P. Tuazon 


Table 4: Contd., 

6. 

At primary school level, parents are aware that their presence in the child's school 
or classroom could make it difficult for their child to learn to be independent from 
them. 

3.41 

N 

7. 

There is a fear that their children would be embarrassed to see their parent(s) at 
school or that they could be teased or bullied as a result of it within their peer 
group. 

3.35 

N 

8. 

Parents feel that active involvement and assistance is beyond the call of duty. It is 
seen as the responsibility of the school and the teachers to educate their children 
during the hours that their children are at school. 

3.12 

N 

9. 

Parents are simply not aware of where their help is required because the school 
has not advertised the opportunities adequately. 

2.90 

N 

10. 

Parents are eager to be active participants at the school, helping in the classroom 
and playground, yet the chances to actually do so are few and far between at the 
particular school attended by their child. 

2.85 

N 

11. 

Teachers are not as welcoming as they could be and do not encourage parents to 
be more involved. There is a sense amongst parents that some teachers are too 
busy and would rather parents do not interfere. 

2.82 

N 

12. 

Parents feel that they are not the right type of person to be on a committee of PTA 
or School Board and that they are unable to identify with the other members. 

3.00 

N 

13. 

13. There is a sense that the PTA and/or School Board are dominated by some 
people. Parents are aware that in some areas the same people are re-elected year 
after year, and this leads to an assumption that the committee is not willing to 
accept new members. 

2.95 

N 

14. 

Parents feel very intimidated by the thought of involving themselves in these 
formal bodies because they believe that they would be required to stand up and 
speak in front of other people. They also feel that they do not have the skills or 
knowledge required to be able to contribute usefully. 

3.06 

N 

15. 

Parents feel that there is no point in attending PTA meetings to voice an opinion 
as they feel that the committee members have already made their decision and 
their suggestions would not be taken into account. 

3.01 

N 

16. 

Parents perceive such meetings to be of little interest to them and to be overly 
formal in structure, that is, too formal and boring. 

2.93 

N 


Overall Assessment (OA) 

3.17 

N 


Legend: 4.50 - 5.00. Strongly Agree (SA); 3.50 - 4.49, Agree (A); 2.50 - 3.49, Neutral (N); 1.50 - 2.49, 
Disagree (D); 1.00 - 1.49, Strongly Disagree (SD); M = Mean Assessment; VI = Verbal Interpretation 

Table 4 shows that, as a whole, the respondents neither agree nor disagree (i.e. neutral) on the existence of barriers 
in schools’ initiatives to involve parents in the school affairs as can be deduced from an overall assessment rating of 3.17. 
However, only two barriers elicit agreement on their existence. Parents have no enough time to devote to every child 
especially in families with more than one child (M = 3.51). They likewise feel they lack knowledge of the subject areas 
making it difficult for them to help with homework M = 3.50). These barriers exist, however, minimally in the schools 
under study. As a whole, barriers to parental involvement school practices are considered not so serious for the schools to 
get alarmed. But still, addressing these barriers will bring more benefits to the schools. 

In relation to this, the U.S. Department of Education (2004) suggested that strategies for overcoming barriers to 
parental involvement in schools include overcoming time and resource constraints, providing information and training to 
parents and school staff, restructuring schools to support family involvement, bridging school-family differences, getting 
external supports for partnerships, meeting families' basic needs, providing flexible times and places for parental 
involvement, and helping staff communication with parents. 

Meanwhile, Reenay and Vivian (2007) explained that even though the invention of new technologies has made it 


Impact Factor (JCC): 4.3912 


NAAS Rating: 2.72 




School Practices in Parental Involvement, Its Expected 73 

Results & Barriers in Public Secondary Schools 

easier for schools to reach out to parents through emails, cell phones and internet websites, the use of traditional methods 
in communication such as home visit and teacher-parent conference have been found to be effective ways for schools to 
communicate with parents, but this have been limited in use by schools because of time constraints. 

However, Padgett (2006) suggested some ideas to help schools and families work collaboratively. These include 
creating a formal policy including specific goals for parents and teachers working together, identifying barriers that are 
specific to the schools and locality, assessing, evaluating and improving the current programs, and involving the 
community at large. 

CONCLUSIONS 

The following are the conclusions drawn by the researchers based on the findings of the study: 

• The public secondary schools effectively elicit the involvement of parents primarily aimed at facilitating their 
children’s learning as well as securing their active participation in school programs and activities. They essentially 
equip the parents with information that enhance their parenting skills and institute programs and policies geared 
towards such endeavor. A two-way sharing of information exists vital to student success, and the schools 
effectively create a healthy volunteering spirit among parents. School heads and teachers view parents as partners 
in their children’s education and assist them in acquiring skills and knowledge in creating a home environment 
conducive to learning. Furthermore, the participating public secondary schools accommodate parents’ ideas, 
opinions and suggestions in their decision and policy making processes. Parents, school and community 
collaborate that redounds to enhancement of student outcomes, strengthening of families and school 
improvements. 

• The schools’ observance of parental involvement practices ensues positive results to students, parents and 
teachers. The students greatly benefited from parental involvement in terms of academic achievement, self- 
awareness, better attitudes, and improved personal qualities whereas parents acquire sufficient skills in creating a 
learning environment for their children, establish commendable relations with the school and other families, and 
develop self-confidence. The teachers, on the other hand, gain benefits from parental involvement in terms of 
improved skills in interacting with parents, better communication ability, and enhanced self-awareness 

• Observance of parental involvement school practices is significantly related to the manifestation of its positive 
results to students, parents and teachers. The more the school performs practices in parental involvement, the 
more it can be expected that positive results to students, parents and teachers manifest 

• Most of the known barriers in parental involvement literature do not manifest in public secondary schools under 
study. In general, these barriers in parental involvement are considered not so serious for the schools to get 
alarmed. But still, addressing these barriers will bring more benefits to the schools and families. 

RECOMMENDATIONS 

In the light of the afore-cited findings and conclusions of the study, the researchers are hereby recommending the 
following: 

Proper dissemination of information can be further established through posting of notices, calendar of activities, 


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Alicia V. Llamas & Ariel P. Tuazon 


programs and projects in bulletin boards easily accessible to all. A website can be created so that even busy parents can be 
notified of the school events at their homes far from school. With the use of these media, the parents can be informed that 
their opinions and suggestions are appreciated and be given attention by the school. 

Communicate to parents that the school values their presence. The school should provide a hospitable 
environment with the use of signage to welcome and guide them to designated spaces. Such scheme encourages parents to 
intimately interact with teachers. Teachers, on the other hand, should show willingness to talk to parents by answering their 
queries and accommodate their requests as their time allow them to do so. If the request cannot be possibly accommodate, 
then they may say no in polite way. 

The school may regularly sponsor seminar-workshops that bring families and teachers together. They will learn 
what their children are studying and what projects they may participate in as well as teaching methodologies that they can 
apply at home. This can be integrated in the orientation program at the beginning of each school year. 

An early volunteer preparation at the start of the school year may also be done and assign a teacher and a parent as 
volunteer coordinators for this matter. They may create a logbook of the names of the parents together with their addresses 
and numbers they can be contacted to, occupation, and individual skills and talents. Their functions are to coordinate the 
yearly volunteering activities and charting of schedules; disseminate policies, guidelines and procedures on volunteering 
activities; and survey parents and teachers on what ways the parents can get involved into. 

The school may seek external supports from non-governmental organizations, government agencies, and private 
individuals for school-family partnerships. They may offer financial and/or material assistance for experiential learning 
activities and related parental involvement programs as well as support for the professional development activities of 
teachers equipping them the skills to effectively communicate and get the parents involvement in school. 

The school may use school organization like PTA as a venue where opinions and suggestions of the parents can 
be elicited. It can be a source of parents’ ideas school administrators may consider in their policy and decision making. 
Furthermore, it can be a mouthpiece for parents to air their impressions about the school. In this regard, the school should 
provide clear guidelines on how their sentiments on school policies, programs and activities can be aired to ensure meeting 
run smoothly. 

The school is encouraged to conduct surveys on parental involvement that enquires on the parents’ opinions and 
impressions, teachers’ attitudes and beliefs, and ways and means by which teacher-parent collaboration can be 
strengthened. Analyze the different views of the different respondent groups and come up with a program that will address 
the identified barriers to school practices in parental involvement. 

To inspire the students, parents, and teachers on the benefits gained in parental involvement, the school may set a 
program that recognizes the remarkable achievements made by students as the results of parental support, the contributions 
made by parents to school, and selfless services and assistance of the teachers to parents. A plaque or certificate of 
appreciation or a token can be given. 

Several communication strategies may address the barriers posed by long distances between homes and schools 
and by the limited time that busy parents have for communicating with school. Seek the parents’ suggestions on how to 
facilitate school-family communication between teachers and families despite of their busy schedules. Accommodate their 
requests and inspire them to initiate the communication. The school may also create a website that provides information on 


Impact Factor (JCC): 4.3912 


NAAS Rating: 2.72 



School Practices in Parental Involvement, Its Expected 75 

Results & Barriers in Public Secondary Schools 

how families can help students with their homework and on other matters that need the attention of the parents. 

A Family Day can be held with a purpose of bringing the families and teachers together with the school heads. 
Teachers get to know the parents in an informal way. It can be a venue where negative impressions among participants can 
be resolved; team-building activities can be conducted; and educational goals can be set and strategies can be devised for 
accomplishing these goals. 

Lastly, school organizations that include parents like PTA should be further supported and strengthened by the 
school. Issues that divide the organization should be resolved through meaningful dialogue, transparency and utmost 
cooperation by everyone. This can be attained through proper crafting of policies, guidelines and procedures before any 
activity, engagement, meeting, transaction and conflict resolution will be done. 

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Impact Factor (JCC): 4.3912 


NAAS Rating: 2.72 


School Practices in Parental Involvement, Its Expected 
Results & Barriers in Public Secondary Schools 


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