Skip to main content
Internet Archive's 25th Anniversary Logo

Full text of "Commodore C64 Manual: Acrojet (1985)(Microprose Software)"

See other formats


yU£RD PROSE 

SIMULATION • SOFTWARE 

2, Market Place, Tetbury, Gloucestershire GL8 8DA 
Tel:(0666)54326 

Fax:(0666)54331 Tlx:43422MPS UK G 



TECHNICAL O A I C QR 
ORDER NO. 0"MJ"O"O*J 



30 SEPT 1985 
CHANGE 1 




THE ADVANCED FLIGHT SIMULATOR 

OPERATIONS MANUAL 



jQ BD-5J 




OPERATIONS 
MANUAL 



Copyright ©1985 by MicroProse Software 

120 Lakefront Drive, Hunt Valley, MD 21030 

(301) 667-1151 

Commodore 64, Atari, Apple and IBM are registered trademarks of Commodore Business Machinal Inc., Atari Inc., Apple 
Computers Inc. and Intamatlonal Business Machines Inc. 



Dear Friend, 

Aerobatic flying is a pilot's ultimate challenge. In Aerojet we're sharing with 
you some of the excitement, thrills, and split-second action of real aerobatic flying. 

Don't be dismayed if you crash your Aerojet frequently. It's a high-strung and 
unforgiving aircraft. The key to successful aerobatics is to practice the maneuvers 
cautiously, safely, carefully, and with plenty of altitude. Only then can you attempt 
them at low altitude. 

Aerobatic flying is a thrilling and dangerous sport that doesn 't get the attention 
it deserves. We urge you to go watch a real event, see the planes overhead, and talk 
to the pilots and ground crews. You'll appreciate and enjoy Aerojet that much 
more. 

This simulation is dedicated to sport, aerobatic and stunt pilots everywhere in 
the world. We want to bring you the excitement they feel every time they climb into 
the cockpit for a competition or just plain flying fun! 

Although no real pentathlon or decathlon for sport aviation currently exists, 
continued promotion of sport aviation and aerobatics may produce such a competi- 
tion in the future. In the meantime, although this simulation aims at realism, please 
don't attempt any of the maneuvers depicted here in a real aircraft! Aerobatic pilots 
have years of training and experience. Only the best would attempt in real life the 
maneuvers depicted in this product — low altitude aerobatics is extremely 
dangerous, with no leeway for human error or mechanical breakdown. 

Most of all we want you to have fun. We've had fun making this product, and 
look forward to competing with you in the excitement of an Aerojet competition. 
Good Loops to You !! 

William F. Denman, Jr., 

and the staff of MICROPROSE 



GETTING A QUICK START 

You can get airborne in your AcroJet simulator quickly by following the appropriate 
loading instructions, reviewing the cockpit layout found in the centerfold, and 
reading through the description on aircraft controls, on pages 8-11. Also see the 
centerfold cockpit layout on pages 20-21 . 1 nstructions for basic takeoff and landing 
techniques can be found right after the controls section. 

Be sure to unlock your plane's controls when requested! The lock colors and 
appropriate lock codes are listed in alphabetical order throughout this manual. See 
page 6 for details. 



INTRODUCTION 

Flying is a sport for hundreds of thousands of Americans today. Light planes are 
reasonably inexpensive when bought "off the lot", and downright cheap if you build 
them yourself from a kit. Every weekend around the nation pilots converge on small 
airfields to fly for pleasure, in informal competitions, to conventions, or at formal 
compeitions sponsored by the EAA and IAC. 

This program lets you enjoy a simulation of sport flying. You can experience all 
the thrills of flying, even perform your own aerobatics. Better yet, you're flying the 
BD-5J "AcroJet", one of the few sport jets in existence. This plane is fast, maneuv- 
erable, very small, and very tricky. To fly one in real life you'd need years of training 
and experience. Here at MicroProse we wanted to let more people enjoy the thrill of 
sport flying in truly "hot" planes. The only answer was a computer simulation of the 
BD-5J. 

Sport flying has numerous competitions, formal and informal. In keeping with 
the spirit of the BD-5J, we've presented ten aerobatic "events" that would test the 
mettle of any pilot. Fly any five for a "Pentathlon", or all ten for a grueling "Decath- 
lon". Also included is an "unlimited" event where you can decide what pilots will 
perform, and judge them on it. This "human judging" of performance is the stand- 
ard for international competition today. 

We at MicroProse enjoy the challenges and hair-raising performance of the 
AcroJet. We know you will too, as you fly it from your living room! Have fun and 
good flying to you! 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Introduction 3 

Loading 4 

Startup Options 4 

AcroJet Controls 8 

AcroJet Cockpit Indicators 10 

BD-5J Cockpit Layout (Centerfold) 20 

Basic Maneuvers 12 

Aerodynamics & Basic Flight 14 

Aerobatic Flying 18 

AcroJet Competition Events 22 

BD-5J AcroJet Design 33 

Sport Aviation 37 




LOADING ACROJET 
INTO YOUR COMPUTER 

Commodore C64 

1. Attach ONEjoystickatPort#2. Do NOT leave a joystick in port #1 (a joystick 
in port #1 can scramble your controls!). 

2. Turn on your computer (if it's already on, remove any disks and cartridges, 
turn it off, then turn it on again). If you have a C-128, hold down the Shift and 
Commodore keys when you turn on your computer (this places it in C-64 mode). 
Next turn on your disk drive. WARNING: do not leave a disk in the drive when you 
are turning your computer off and on — your disk could be damaged! 

3. Insert the disk in the disk drive and type the following: 

LOAD "*",8,1 
and press RETURN. The program will automatically begin loading. DO NOT touch 
the disk drive or turn off power while the program is loading. About a minute later 
the program will finish loading and the disk drive light will go off. Press any key to 
begin. 



STARTUP OPTIONS 

Aerojet has a large variety of aerobatic events, options, and pre-flight checkout 
steps. However, in every case you can advance quickly to the next option by 
pressing the fire button on the control stick. In addition, the following special 
controls are useful: 

RUNSTOP RESTORE Restart: If you hold down the RUN STOP key, and then 
press the RESTORE key, the entire program restarts fresh from memory (no disk 
loading!). All entries are forgotten except new Hall of Fame records (see WGSP Hall 
of Fame below for details on clearing that). 

Title and Credits 

When Aerojet begins loading, you will see a colorful title screen. 

Press Any Key: When loading is finished (light on the disk drive goes out), 
pressing any key will advance you to the WGSP Hall of Fame. 

Automatic Demonstration: If you do not press a key, the demonstration starts 
automatically. Pressing any key during the demonstration returns you to the title 
screen. 

WGSP Hall of Fame 

The World's Greatest Sport Pilot (WGSP) Hall of Fame posts scoring records 
for the top Pentathlon and Decathlon flyers, as well as best scores in single events. 
Press Any Key (except CTRL c) to leave this screen and continue. 



CTRL c Reset: If you hold down the CTRL key and press the C key, all names 
and scores are cleared from the WGSP Hall of Fame. You have "cleared the record 
books" and are ready to start fresh. 

Pilot Registration 

Here you register for an event by selecting either the Decathlon (all ten events), 
the Pentathlon (any five events), a single event, or an "Unlimited" event (a single 
event where you control the activity, time limit, and judging). 

Control Stick Up/Down moves the highlight cursor up and down the screen. 
The competition currently selected (Decathlon, Pentathlon, Single Event, or Unlim- 
ited) is indicated by a "*". 

Control Stick Left/Right changes the highlighted selection. 

Type to Enter Your Name: When you're finished press RETURN once. Each 
name is limited to eight characters, including blank spaces. 

Control Stick Fire Button exits the screen. Don't press it until you're done 
making selections! 

Unlimited Event Selection 

This screen only appears if you have selected an "unlimited" event. 

Control Stick Up/Down moves the highlight cursor up and down the screen. 

Control Stick Left/Right changes/erases the highlighted selection. 

Event Name: You can type up to 20 characters, including blank spaces. When 
you're finished press RETURN once. 

Adjust Difficulty Factor: You can adjust the difficulty rating for the event with 
the control stick, or by typing a new value. Difficulty factors range from 1 .0 (for the 
easiest event) to 3.0 (for the hardest). Type the appropriate digits in the highlighted 
space. 

Timed vs Untimed: If you select a timed event, the time it takes to complete the 
event becomes an important part of the score. If you select an untimed event, the 
judge's opinion is a large part of your score. 

Course Layout: You can select any course by number. 

Course 1 and 2 -four pylons (NE, SE, NW, SW); Courses 3 and 4 -two ribbon 
gates side by side SW of the airfield; Course 5 - two ribbon gates east and west of 
the airfield; Course 6 -three ribbon gates NE, SE, and W of the airfield; Course 7 
-one ribbon gate west of the airfield; Course 8 -landing field only; Course 9 -two 
ribbon gates east and west of the airfield. 

Control Stick Fire Button exits the screen. Don't press it until you're done 
making selections! 



Event Selection 

Here you can review or select the events in the competition. If you are flying the 
Pentathlon, select any five events. If you are flying the Decathlon, you must fly all 
ten. If you select fewer, other events will be selected for you. 

The arrows on the sides indicate events selected, the highlight cursor can be 
moved up and down to select/deselect different events. 

Control Stick Up/Down moves the highlight cursor up and down the screen. 

Control Stick Left/Right selects or removes an event. You can also select an 
event by typing its number (type for event 10, + for item 1 1 — the normal defaults) 



IMPORTANT: You must de-select an event (move cursor to it and flip joystick 
left or right) before selecting a new event. 

Flight Clearance 

Now you are ready to fly. You can select the level of weather difficulty and jet 
performance. The greater the overall difficulty you select, the higher you can score. 

Control Stick Up/Down moves the highlight cursor up and down the screen. 

Control Stick Left/Right changes/erases the highlighted selection. 

Difficulty: You can select four different levels of wind conditions. The lowest 
level is intended for novices, it allows you to roll on and off the runway without 
damage, and to fly through pylons without damage. 

Jet Performance: You can select four different levels of aircraft performance. 
At the highest level controls are realistically sensitive, at lower levels the controls 
have less sensitivity, giving you more time to perceive mistakes and correct them. 

The higher the weather and performance factors, the more challenging the 
game, and the more points you are awarded for that event. 

Ground or Airborne Start: Ground start means every event begins at takeoff 
and ends at landing. Airborne start means that all events start airborne, and all 
events but landing competitions can be finished airborne. Airborne starts allow 
beginners to try events without having to master takeoffs and landings. However, in 
addition to appropriate score adjustments for an airborne start, an extra 1 2% points 
penalty applies whenever you use an airborne start. 

F3 - See Standings: If you press F3, you can view the competition standings so 
far. Pressing any key returns you to flight clearance. 

F5 - See Hall of Fame: If you press F5, you can view the "record books". 
Pressing any key returns you to flight clearance. 

Control Stick Fire Button exits the screen and begins your flight (once the 
controls are unlocked, see below). Don't press it until you're done making selec- 
tions! 



Digital Controls Lock 

IMPORTANT: You must unlock the controls! 

Your Aerojet has a sophisticated microelectronic controls lock. The lock 
will display a color (the color appears as a text message in most versions). 
YOU MUST RESPOND WITH THE CORRECT THREE-DIGIT LOCK CODE. 
These lock codes are listed alphabetically at the bottom of various pages 
throughout this manual. 

Find the correct code, type the three digits, and press RETURN. If you do 
not enter the correct code, your AcroJet will not perform correctly. 

For example, your AcroJet may display the lock color "Burgundy". You 
find the page that lists "Lock Color: Burgundy" at the bottom, and read 
across to find the code — it's 025. You type the digits 0, 2 and 5 in that order 
and press RETURN. Your AcroJet is now unlocked and fully functional. 

Remember, codes are at the bottom of the page. You must match the 
color with the proper code number. Otherwise, your AcroJet will not perform 
correctly. 

Control Stick Fire Button exits the screen. Don't press it until you're 
positive you have the correct lock code. 



Lock Color Code: Azure 



Unlock Code 459 



Unlimited Judging 

When each pilot finishes an unlimited event, the contestant's performance can 
be judged, just like real aerobatics. Contestants can judge each other, or a separate 
judge (or panel of judges) can watch all the contestants, each select a score, and 
then input their average score (real events use a panel of judges). 

Type judging score: The judges give a score between 1 .0 and 9.9. The lowest 
score 1.0, the highest 9.9. 

If an event is not judged, enter 9.9 for each contestant. 

If an event was timed and judged, do NOT judge the contestant's time. Com- 
parative times are automatically included in scoring of all timed events. Judging is 
based purely on the quality of performance, never on duration. 

Control Stick Fire Button exits the screen. Don't press it until you're sure the 
judging score is correct. 



Scoring Recap 

This appears after every contestant's flight, and shows the score for that event 
(including judging, if it was an unlimited event). If the competition is over, pressing 
any key will display the final standings. Otherwise, you have three options: 

F5 - See Hall of Fame: This allows you to view the "record books". After viewing 
the Hall of Fame, pressing any key will return you to flight clearance. 

Control Stick Fire Button press exits the screen. Press it when you're done. 



Competition Standings 

Here you can see the scores for all contestants in all events. This is particularly 
useful in the Pentathlon and Decathlon. Each contestant's scores are in separate 
columns. The contestant who just finished flying has his column highlighted. 

In addition to contestant scores, at the far right you can see the scores of Major 
Bill. These are scores of a real USAF Fighter Pilot, to give you a point of reference 
and comparison. 

If the competition is over, pressing any key displays the WGSP Hall of Fame. 
Did you get into the record books one of the World's Greatest Sport Pilots? 

F5 - See Hall of Fame: This allows you to view the "record books". If the 
competition is over, this is the next screen anyway. 

Control Stick Fire Button exits the screen. Press it when you're done. 



Summary of Startup & Scoring Controls 

Control Stick Up/Down: Moves highlight cursor up and down the screen. 

Control Stick Left/Right: Selects/erases highlighted option. 

Typing: Used to enter names or numbers in highlighted areas, finish the entry 
by pressing RETURN. 

F3: View current Competition Standings; press Control Stick Fire Button to 
return. 

F5: View WGSP Hall of Fame; press Control Stick Fire Button to return. 

Control Stick Fire button: Accept all inputs as correct and continue. 

CTRL C: Clears WGSP Hall of Fame (only available on that screen.) 

RUNSTOP RESTORE: Erases all selections and restarts. 



Lock Color Code: Beige 



Unlock Code 741 



ACROJET FLYING CONTROLS 




Rudder 



Elevator 



Aileron 



AcroJet Controls 

Control Stick Forward: Dive. This lowers the elevators, which pushes the tail of 
your plane upward. In normal flight this results in a dive. 

Control Stick Back: Climb. This raises the elevators, which pushes the tail of 
your plane downward. In normal flight this results in a climb. 

Control Stick Left or Right: Bank. This deflects the ailerons, causing your plane 
to bank and turn in the appropriate direction. 

Control Stick Button: Slip. Pressing the control stick button while you push the 
stick left or right banks the plane with "opposite rudder". The result can be is a faster 
descent while you continue flying forward, or straight nose tracking during an 
aileron roll. 

Viewing. The W,A,S and Z keys change your viewing direction. "W" shows the 
normal forward view, "A" shows the view to the left of the plane, "S" the view to the 
right, and "Z" the view to the rear. 

0-9: Throttle. Press to completely close your throttle, which turns off the 
engine. Press 1 through 9 to set your throttle, from lowest power (1 ) to highest (9). 
Higher power causes your plane to fly faster, but be careful your engine doesn't 
overheat (exceed an EGT reading of 700° C). 

F: Flaps. Press F to change your flaps settings. Flaps can be either up (0°), 
partly lowered (20°), or completely lowered (40°). In general, flaps add lift and 
permit slower landing speeds. 

L: Landing Gear. Press L to raise and lower your landing gear. Landing gear 
must be lowered for a safe landing, and raised for safe flying. 

B: Landing Gear Brakes. Press B to brake your landing gear wheels. This slows 
you on the runway. This is especially valuable if you land too fast, or too far down 
the runway. 

Spade Bar: Speed Brakes. Press the space bar to extend and retract your speed 
brakes. When speed brakes are extended your airspeed slows significantly. 

F1: Engine/Weather CRT. Press F1 to switch the left CRT between engine 
readout and weather information. 



Software Controls 

CTRL R: Hold down CTRL and press R to end the competition. 

CTRL V: Volume Control - hold down CTRL and press V to turn the sound on 

and off. 

RUNSTOP RESTORE: Hold down RUNSTOP and press RESTORE to reset 
the entire program to the start again (all records are blanked). 



JO 
O 

c 
o 
O 



CO 

o 

>» 

a> 



O CD 

H 



^LL 




^ - 




^ > 









ACROJET COCKPIT INDICATORS 

A detailed diagram of the AcroJet cockpit layout appears in the centerfold of this 
manual. 

Outside View 

The forward view shows the famous Thunderbird "in the slot" 3-D perspective 
— as if you were flying directly behind the AcroJet. The left, right, and rearward 
views show the terrain to the left, right and rear of the AcroJet, respectively. 

When your AcroJet loops, it flies "over the top" and changes direction. At the 
very top the screen flashes white and your view shifts to a position behind the 
plane's new direction. Remember, the screen flashes white when the view shifts. 

Engine/Weather CRT 

This display can be toggled between engine data and weather data. The key to 
press is indicated at the bottom of the CRT (the Change Prompt). 

Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT): Indicates in degrees centigrade the temper- 
ature of your jet engine exhaust. Temperatures over 650° C are dangerous, and 
should never be maintained for more than 5 minutes. A temperature over 700° C or 
more will damage your engine. 

Engine Power: Indicates the percentage of engine thrust power. This changes 
with your throttle setting. A reading of 0% means the engine is off. 

Speed Brakes: "S. BRAKE" indicates that speed brakes are slowing the plane. 

Fuel Remaining: Number of gallons of fuel remaining on board. Your AcroJet 
has a fuel capacity of 50 gallons, and uses 38 gallons per hour at cruising speed. 
Fuel consumption varies considerably with your throttle setting. 

Wind: Direction the wind is blowing from, as a compass heading. On the 
following line the wind speed is given in knots (1 kt = 1.136 mph). 

Ceil: Altitude of the lowest clouds, above which the ground becomes invisible. 

Vis: Maximum horizontal visibility underneath the ceiling. 

Clock: This real-time clock shows your flight time in hours, minutes, and 
seconds. 

CRT Change Prompt: This indicates what key to press to change the CRT 
between engine readouts and weather information. 

Landing Gear 

Landing Gear Brakes Indicator: This shows red when the landing gear brakes 
are on, green when the brakes are off. 

Landing Gear Indicators: The upper indicators are lighted when the landing 
gear is up, the lower indicators are lighted when the landing gear is down. 

Central Dashboard 

Altimeter: This indicates your plane's altitude above sealevel. The small hand 
indicates altitude in thousands of feet, the large hand indicates altitude in hundreds 
of feet. 



Lock Color Code: Burgundy 



Unlock Code 025 



10 



VVI (Vertical Velocity Indicator): This indicates the rate of altitude change, in 
thousands of feet per minute. The upper half of the indicator shows a positive 
vertical velocity (plane is gaining altitude), the bottom half shows a negative vertical 
velocity (plane is losing altitude). For example, a readyina of .5 on the bottom part 
of the indicator means your plane is losing altitude at 500 feet per minute. 

Airspeed Indicator: This shows the airspeed in miles per hour. Redline air- 
speed is 346 mph (a higher airspeed causes uncontrolled flight, as your controls are 
stalled and ineffective). 

Flaps Indicator: This shows whether flaps are up (0°), half lowered (20°), or 
fully lowered (40° ). Planes normally fly with flaps up because speeds over 1 10 mph 
can damage extended flaps. 

Magnetic Compass: This indicates the direction you are flying. 

Compass Heading Indicator: This also indicates the direction of flight, but with 
greater precision. A heading of 0/360 is North, 90 is East, 180 is South, and 270 is 
West. 

TO (Airfield Beacon Heading): This readout shows the compass heading to fly 
to reach the airfield. Turning and flying the heading indicated takes you directly to 
the airfield. This instrument is not available in some versions of AcroJet. 

Aerobatics CRT 

This computerized display dynamically updates a map of the event and your 
position, as well as elapsed time. 

Course Map: This is a miniature map of the event, showing the pylons, ribbons 
and airstrip. The dotted line indicates the course you should fly, the flashing dot 
indicates your current position. If you are outside of the aerobatics area the flashing 
dot for your position becomes inaccurate. 

Event Timer: The minutes and seconds clock beneath the map shows the time 
elapsed in the event. 




Lock Color Code: Crimson 



Unlock Code 817 



11 




BASIC MANEUVERS 
Climbing & Diving 

Nose Down by pushing forward on the control stick. Your AcroJet will start to 
dive because the elevators are angled downward, pushing the tail up. 

Nose Up by pulling back on the control stick ("backpressure"). Your AcroJet 
will start to climb because the elevators are angled upward, pushing the tail down. 

Turning 

Bank Left by pushing the stick left. Your AcroJet will begin a left turn. Ailerons 
and rudders are automatically coordinated at your control stick. 

Bank Right by pushing the stick right. Your AcroJet will bank into a right turn. 
Ailerons and rudders are automatically coordinated at your control stick. 

Slips & Rolls 

Slips allow you to lose altitude faster. Normally this requires careful use of 
rudder and ailerons. Your AcroJet control stick button automatically balances 
rudders and ailerons in "uncoordinated flight", making slips easy to perform. 

Slip Left by pressing the joystick button while pushing the stick left. Your 
AcroJet rolls left and begins losing altitude. 

Slip Right by pressing the joystick button while pushing the stick right. Your 
AcroJet rolls right and begins losing altitude. 

Rolls also use "uncoordinated flight" techniques. To roll with your nose track- 
ing straight ahead, press the joystick button while pushing the stick either right or 
left. To maintain level flight while rolling you need to adjust your angle of attack (see 
the section on Aerodynamics for details). 

An Easy Takeoff 

First warm up your engine by setting minimum thrust (press 1). Next, make 
sure you have plenty of runway straight ahead. If you don't, taxi at low speed to the 
end of the runway and turn around. Keep your taxi speed under 25mph, otherwise a 
turn while taxiing may cause your wingtip to lift. This results in a "ground loop" and 
crashes the plane. 

Now begin your takeoff by setting "half flaps" (press F once — your flaps 
indicator should read 20°). Next open the throttle to maximum (press 9). Release 
the landing gear brakes (press B) and your AcroJet begins moving down the 
runway. Watch your airspeed indicator. When it reaches 65 mph "rotate" your 
nosewheel up off the ground with a brief pull on the stick. At 75 mph you can take 
off: pull back on the stick briefly to start climbing. Once you're a few hundred feet 
off the ground raise your landing gear (press L) and raise your flaps to 0° (press F 
twice). 

When you've reached the altitude you wish, push the stick forward until the 
plane levels out and the VVI (Vertical Velocity Indicator) reads zero (0). Reduce 
your throttle to cruising power (press 6). 



Lock Color Code: Emerald 



Unlock Code 356 



12 



An Easy Landing 

Landing is much harder than takeoff. The following is a simple landing 
approach suitable for beginners: 

First, set up for a "Final" approach by flying northward toward the runway. Fly 
at 750' and 100 mph speed with half flaps (flaps at 20°) and landing gear down. Now 
begin your gliding descent, which is flown at a 3-5° angle downward at85mph. Cut 
your engine power by setting the throttle to 3 or 4 (press that key) and push the stick 
forward just a TINY bit. Control your descent by adjusting your throttle — more 
power will slow the descent, less power will increase your descent. You may find the 
speed brakes useful (press the space bar). The most common mistake when 
landing is constant fiddling with the joystick — the plane will fly itself if you let it! 

As you get over the runway at low altitude level out and cut your speed further. 
Your goal is to touchdown the two rear wheels at 75 mph and nearly zero descent 
velocity. Hitting the runway with a descent velocity greater than .5 thousand 
feet/minute (.5 down on your VVI) can cause damage or a crash. Once you've 
touched down cut the power (if you haven't already) and hit the landing gear brakes 
(press B). 




Lock Color Code: Flame 



Unlock Code 283 



13 




AERODYNAMICS & BASIC FLIGHT 

This discussion of aerodynamics and flight is deliberately simplified to help a 
beginning aviator grasp the essentials of flight. The details of flight physics have a 
many other factors involved. To this day scientists debate aspects of flight and 
aerodynamics. 

Staying Airborne 

Lift: Your BD-5J defies gravity and flies because enough air is passing across 
the wings to create a pressure differential between the air above the wing (low 
pressure) and the air beneath the wing (high pressure). The high pressure beneath 
the wing forces the plane upwards ("lifts" the plane), keeping you airborne. 



Thrust 




Drag 



Gravity 




High Pressure 



Lock Color Code: Gold 



Unlock Code 992 



14 



Pitch: This common term refers to the angle your plane points up or down, 
relative to level flight. A plane diving has pitch down of 1° to 90°; climbing it has a 
pitch up of 1° to 90°. To change your pitch, simply push the stick forward or pull it 
back. 

Angle of Attack: Air flows over the wings because you're moving forward. The 
faster you travel, the greater the airflow, and the greater the lift. This means that a 
plane at high speeds generates more lift, while a plane moving at lower speeds 
generates less lift. Therefore, to maintain level flight a pilot needs to make fine 
adjustments to the amount of lift generated. He does this by tilting the wings slightly 
upward or downward in relation to the direction of flight. This "tilt" is termed the 
"angle of attack." 



Angle of 
Attack 



Flight 
Path 




At slow speeds a pilot uses a large angle of attack to maintain level flight. At 
high speeds a pilot uses a small angle of attack. When flying your Aerojet, if the 
plane appears to be flying level but the VVI indicates you are gaining or losing 
altitude, you need to adjust your angle of attack. Briefly push the stick forward or 
back (i.e., pitch down or up) to change your angle of attack. 

Turning 

Aircraft turns are greatly misunderstood. Turns are NOT accomplished with 
the rudder. Instead, the ailerons are used to tilt the wings left or right. The lifting 
force of the wings is now working sideways as well as straight down. The sideways 
component of the force is the primary cause of the turn. Therefore, the further you 
bank the wings, the tighter you turn. However, the further you bank, the less lift you 
generate. Therefore, to make a tight turn without losing altitude you need to add 
some "backpressure" (pull back on the stick). 

Pilots sometimes use a small amount of rudder during turns for fine adjust- 
ments. However, rudder without ailerons simply slews the plane sideways without 
changing direction. Your AcroJet controls have simplified the aileron-rudder coor- 
dination problem by automatically including fine rudder corrections under compu- 
ter control. These are proportional to the degree of bank you demand. 

Slips: Do not confuse banking turns with slips. In a slip "opposite rudder" 
counteracts the turning force of the bank, causing the plane to continue going 
forward. Pressing the control stick button produces this "uncoordinated"' flight 
(rudder and ailerons are no longer coordinated for a banking turn). However, the 
banked wings still result in less lift. Therefore, the plane loses altitude faster — the 
steeper you slip, the greater your rate of descent. 



Lock Color Code: Indigo 



Unlock Code 538 



15 



Lift force 

turning 

aircraft 



Lift force 
opposing 
gravity 




Lift force 



GENTLE BANK 
(Wide Turn) 




Lift force 

turning 

aircraft 

STEEP BANK 
(Narrow Turn) 



Takeoffs 

Getting off the ground is simple: go fast enough to generate lifting force with 
your wings. Adding extra lift with a positive (upwards) angle of attack helps a lot, as 
do half flaps (20°). 

In your Aerojet with tricycle landing gear (i.e., three wheels) you "rotate" your 
nose about 5° upwards at 65mph. This tilts your wings upward, creating a favorable 
angle of attack. At 70mph to 75mph (depending on flaps setting) you have enough 
lift to become airborne. The nose can be safely pointed further upward (normally to 
10°). 

Raise your landing gear immediately after takeoff. The AcroJet has a particu- 
larly nasty instability when it's landing gear are down — get them up as fast as you 
can. Note that if you turn during takeoff you climb more slowly, since a banking 
plane generates less lift. 

Landings 

A safe landing is much more complex than a safe takeoff. A standard landing 
approach for a small airstrip has three phases: the "downwind" leg, the "base" leg, 
and the "final". 

The "downwind" leg allows you to look out the side of the aircraft toward the 
airstrip and align yourself. It also gives you a chance to reach the proper altitude 
and speed (if you're flying an airport landing pattern you should already be at the 
correct altitude and speed). In your AcroJet a standard landing pattern for a small 
airfield starts with a "downwind" leg at 1,000' altitude and at 125 mph. A 
conservative "downwind" leg should put you a considerable distance to the side of 
the airport (giving you a nice, long base leg). Traditionally you set half flaps (lower 
them to 20° ) and lower you r landing gear at the end of the downwind leg. However, 
due to the AcroJet's gear-down instability, you may wish to wait until final before 
lowering the landing gear. 

Start your "base" leg with a 90° turn toward the airport. On this leg you'll cut 
your speed to 100 mph and descend to 750'. When you're almost perpendicular to 
the airport (look to the left to check your position) it's time to turn another 90° onto 
the final. 

On the "final" line up on the runway, pitch down onto a 3° to 5° glide descent, 
and lower your speed to 85mph. Using your speed brakes to reduce speed is a good 



Lock Color Code: Jade 



Unlock Code 464 



16 



idea (retracting the brakes again will give you instant acceleration, should you need 
it). Once on the glide path use the throttle to adjust your rate of descent. 

Touchdown speed should be 75 mph with the standard 20° flap setting. A 
no-flaps landing has a touchdown speed of 80mph, while a full 40° flaps landing 
(useful when landing over obstacles, or in a short distance) should be at 70 mph. 
Vertical velocity downward in excess of 500 ft/min (.5 on the VVI gauge) risks 
damage to the plane, and velocity downward in excess of 850 ft/min almost 
invariably causes a crash. When landing, touch down the two rear wheels first," then 
the nose wheel. A three point-landing tends to cause skipping and hopping 
(porpoising) down the runway! 

This slow, high altitude approach is the safest way to land. Altitude is a valuable 
commodity that insures your flying safety. If you have too much altitude, you can 
always use a slip downward. If things go badly, increase throttle and climb back up 
to 1000' for another downwind leg. 

Low altitude landings are much more dangerous. It's easy to come in too slow 
or too low, and therefore need more throttle on the final to keep your speed or 
altitude. This is very dangerous - if your engine failed, you wouldn't be able to get 
the necessary speed or altitude, resulting in a crash short of the runway! 
Furthermore, remember that any power increase will close (turn off) speed brakes. 

Flaps must be used carefully during takeoff and landing. First, extending flaps 
when flying over 110 mph can damage them - don't use them at maneuvering 
speeds! Half (20°) flaps with a fairly small angle of attack add lift, and can be 
valuable whenever you're flying slow and fairly level (such as during a takeoff or 
landing). Full (40°) flaps add even more lift, but impose significant extra drag. Your 
plane tends to "ballon" upward, then slow and drop again. 




Brake to stop 
Touchdown 
Spot Line 



Lock Color Code: Lavender 



Unlock Code 170 



17 




AEROBATIC FLYING 



Aerobatic flying is the ultimate test of skill, courage and concentration for today's 
sport aviation pilot. An aerobatic pilot needs extensive knowledge of aeronautics, a 
precise grasp of his aircraft's capabilities, and the capacity to coordinate and 
control the plane while bombarded with a mass of confusing information from 
instruments, eyes, and his body. 

As an aerobatic pilot you must combine the basic flight maneuvers of climbing, 
diving and turning in complex patterns while maintaining precise control of your 
plane. The fundamental skill required is the "crosscheck". 

Crosscheck is the ability to receive, digest and respond to all incoming 
information. It is the feedback loop that enables you to make the.right control 
adjustment (such as changing airspeed, altitude, attitude, etc.) to accomplish the 
desired result. 

For example, straight and level flight at a prescribed airspeed requires you to 
look outside to visually see your pitch up or down, then to crosscheck to attitude 
indicator, airspeed indicator, vertical velocity indicator and altimeter to confirm 
your current situation. You may then change throttle setting and/or pitch (i.e., dive 
or climb), and crosscheck to observe the results. Novice pilots vary one control at a 
time, then crosscheck. 

Aerobatic flying demands that the pilot understand how different controls 
interact. The pilot is often making changes with a variety of controls before he 
crosschecks - because he understands how effects combine. For example, in the 
straight and level flight, a novice might find himself too slow and increase airspeed. 
However, the increased speed might cause the plane to slowly climb, which he 
notices afterward as a slightly positive VVI and slowly increasing value on the 
altimeter. The pilot then pitches down slightly to correct this tendancy. An 
aerobatic pilot would both increase airspeed and adjust pitch, then crosscheck. 

Mastery of basic flying, development of good habits, and lots of practice and 
experience are all ingredients for successful aerobatic flying. 

Basic Aerobatic Maneuvers 

Over 8000 aerobatic maneuvers are recognized in the world of sport flying. 
However, most of these are variations and refinements of three basic maneuvers: 
rolls, loops, and turns. Solid skill and precise control of these is needed to compete 
successfully in the AcroJet Decathlon. 

Aileron Roll: This is a 360° roll right or left: the plane finishes in the same 
attitude it started. To perform this maneuver you push the stick fully to the right or 
left. To maintain a constant heading, hold the fire button down to simulate a 
coordinated, unloaded roll. Since this can result in altitude loss on the BD-5J, you 
should start the roll with 10° to 20° pitch up, to provide a rate of climb sufficient to 
compensate for the roll's altitude loss. After rolling about 330° , you should prepare 
to center the wings level to the horizon. 

Loop: This is the basic "over the top" maneuver. The plane's nose is raised to 
vertical and past it, resulting in inverted flight in the opposite direction. Then the 



Lock Color Code: Lemon 



Unlock Code 076 



18 



plane flies a downward arc, returning to the position where it started. Since a loop 
begins with a climb to vertical, it must be started with sufficient speed — in your 
AcroJet at least 200 mph, preferably 250 mph to 300 mph. 

In the first part of the loop you can simply "honk back" on the stick to start your 
nose up. However, it is wise to extend this stage somewhat and gain extra altitude 
upward, since you'll be coming down the other side of the loop very fast! Do this by 
releasing the stick momentarily at 40° pitch, then start pulling back after you have 
gained a sufficiently safe altitude (but don't let you're speed fall too low, otherwise 
you could stall at the top of the loop). As you approach the top of the loop release 
the stick a little to prevent an inverted stall. 

Once you're over the top and coming backdown pull back hard, early, to get a 
majority of the turn finished quickly, then pull lightly as needed to control the 
altitude of your final pullout. Notice that the back side of the loop includes a long, 
arcing power dive — this can happen very fast, and cost you lots of altitude. 
The most common error in looping is simply holding the stick back, with no 
adjustments for speed reduction and insufficient altitude at the top. The most fatal 
error is underestimating altitude loss coming down the back side of the loop. 

Begin learning loops by flying large, high ones. Work hard to finish your loop at 
the same altitude and heading you started. Next, you can gradually narrow the 
diameter until you're flying tight "Tiger Fighter Pilot" loops. Finally, you can 
practice loops starting and ending at low altitude — the most dangerous of all. 

Immelmann Turn: This turn, originally conceived by a WWI German fighter 
pilot, is a half loop followed by a half roll. The maneuver begins with the upside of 
the loop, flown until you are flying level and inverted, on a heading 180° from your 
starting direction. Next you roll either right or left 180° back to level flight. 
Depending on the tightness of the loop, an Immelman will add about 1 500' to 2000' 
to your altitude. 

Split-S Turn: This turn is the downside counterpart of the Immelmann. You 
start with a half roll to inverted position, then perform the downside of the loop until 
you are flying level on a heading 180° from your starting direction. You will lose 
considerable altitude during this maneuver. 




Lock Color Code: Magenta 



Unlock Code 205 



19 



BD-5J ACROJET COCKPIT LAYOUT 




Exhaust Gas Temperature 

Engine Power 

Speed Brakes 

Fuel Remaining 

Clock 

CRT Change Prompt 



Landing Gear Brakes 
Landing Gear Up/Down 



Outside 3-D View 
Your Aircraft 

Flaps Indicator 

Ball Compass 
Compass Heading 

Airstrip Direction Indicator 

Event Course Display 
Event Timer 



VVI: Vertical 
Velocity Indicator 



Airspeed Indicator 



20 



21 




ACROJET COMPETITION EVENTS 

All AcroJet competitions are timed. Serious competitors should select a ground 
start. The clock starts when their aircraft crosses the spot line on the runway. It 
stops when the aircraft stops on the ground again. A landing must include crossing 
the spot line on the airstrip, going from south to north. This means all landings are 
headwind landings (landing from north to south results in a tailwind landing, since 
the prevailing winds are from the north). 

A good competitor plans a quick route from takeoff to the event, and another 
route from the event's endpoint to landing. Many of the events leave you at low 
altitude travelling fast. Therefore, you may wish to end with a short, steep climb 
before flying the "final" to touchdown. This helps reduce speed and line up for a 
good approach. Unfortunately, it also takes a little extra time (but not as much as 
approaching the runway too fast for landing, and therefore being forced to go 
around again!). 

Airborne Starts: Less ambitious flyers are allowed to start an event airborne. 
You begin at 250' flying over the airstrip. When the plane crosses the spot line on the 
strip (a split second later) the timer begins. When the event is finished, flying over 
the spot line again from south to rrorth ends the event. Since the spot line is a small 
and difficult target, fly low and use the plane shadow as an aid in crossing the spot 
line. 

Landing Events: Landing events (spot landing and simulated flame-out) 
always require you to finish on the ground, even if you start airborne. In addition 
you are scored on how close you come to the spot line. 

Checkpoints: Each event has a number of "checkpoints" you must pass to 
successfully complete it. Each checkpoint is listed in the requirements section for 
the event. In the air you'll see the edge of the screen flash blue briefly each time you 
complete a checkpoint. 

Missed Checkpoints: You must pass the checkpoints in proper order. If you 
miss a checkpoint, you can come around and try it again, continuing the event from 
there. 

Crashes: If you crash during an event, you get a small partial score for the 
checkpoints you passed. However, this amount is so small that you're always better 
serve by flying a little more cautiously and completing the event. If you crash in the 
Pentathlon or Decathlon, you are allowed to fly the remaining events. In real life, of 
course, the damage to the aircraft and pilot could prohibit any further competition. 

IMPORTANT NOTE: The airstrip diagram on the cockpit map is much larger 
than the real airstrip for legibility reasons. When flying by the cockpit map, guide 
yourself by the CENTER spotline of the airstrip, NOT the edges. 



Lock Color Code: Maroon 



Unlock Code 751 



22 



Pylon Race 

Difficulty Factor: 1.0. 

Requirements: After leaving the airstrip, the contestant must pass outside of 
the pylons in order: SE pylon first, then SW pylon, NW pylon, NE pylon, and finally 
the SE pylon again; then the contestant must return to the airstrip. 

Remarks: This event is a pure air-race. To be successful, you must plan how to 
fly the minimum distance at the maximum speed. This means turning as close to the 
pylons as possible, and flying very low to the ground (gaining altitude costs both 
time and speed). Pilots typically fly this entire event with full throttle. Be sure to 
watch your EGT — if the temperature passes 700° you'll lose your engine! Just 
before this happens a good pilot will cut his throttle (to 7) briefly to cool the engine, 
then apply full throttle again. 



PYLON RACE 



NW 




SW 



Returning to Airstrip 



Coming from Airstrip 



**»*, Begin Circuit 

End"""- 

Circuit 



Lock Color Code: Olive 



Unlock Code 428 



23 



Slalom Race 

Difficulty Factor: 1.5. 

Requirements: After leaving the airstrip, the contestant must fly around the 
pylons from north to south in order: NW first, then NE, SW, SE, and NW again; then 
the contestant must return to the airstrip. 

Remarks: This event is another air-race, but requires much more practice. It's 
easy to pass the wrong side of a pylon, or become disoriented by a tight turn and fly 
to the wrong pylon. If you miss a pylon, you can always circle around and pass it 
correctly, then continue. Good competitors plan their heading for each leg of the 
flight before the event. 



SLALOM RACE 

Coming from Airstrip Circuit^/ Circuit 



End Begin 




SW 



Lock Color Code: Ocher 



Unlock Code 847 



24 



Ribbon Cut 

Difficulty Factor: 1.7. 

Requirements: After leaving the airstrip, the contestant must cut both 3" 
ribbons; then the contestant must return to the airstrip. Ribbons need not be cut in 
any particular order, nor from any specific direction. 

Remarks: This is a traditional and famous event. It requires precise low-level 
flying to reach the right altitude for the cut while plotting a course that avoids 
crashing into a pole. The secret to this event is planning which direction to 
approach the ribbon, the turn between the cuts, and how to land quickly after the 
final cut. 



RIBBON CUT 

(Can be flown in either direction) 

(Ribbons can be cut in any order) 




Ribbons 



Lock Color Code: Peach 



Unlock Code 384 



25 



Inverted Ribbon Cut 

Difficulty Factor: 2.4. 

Requirements: After leaving the airstrip, the contestant must cut both 3" 
ribbons while flying inverted; then the contestant must return to the airstrip. 
Ribbons need not be cut in any particular order, nor from any specific direction. 

Remarks: This event seems the same as the regular ribbon cut, but appear- 
ances are deceiving. Inverted flying presents a special challenge. Pitch control 
movements (climbing and diving) are reversed. Once competitors master inverted 
flying, times at the ribbon even out. Success then comes to the pilot who best 
manages the normal-inverted transitions quickly. There is more than one way to get 
quickly from takeoff to inverted flight, and then from inverted flight to landing. 



INVERTED RIBBON CUT 

(Can be flown in either direction) 




Ribbon Roll 

Difficulty Factor: 2.2. 

Requirements: After leaving the airstrip, the contestant must pass under one 
gate in level flight, perform a complete 360° roll, and pass under the other gate in 
level flight; then the contestant must return to the airstrip. Gates can be passed in 
either direction. 

Remarks: This is an extremely difficult event because between the gates you 
must climb slightly to permit a safe aileron roll, then drop down again to pass the 
second gate. Flying the event slowly gives you more time to manage your roll and 
diving to the second gate, but flying too slowly can be fatal during the roll itself. 




RIBBON ROLL 

(Can be flown in either direction) 



Lock Color Code: Rose 



Unlock Code 162 



26 



Under Ribbon Race 

Difficulty Factor: 2 0. 

Requirements: After leaving the airstrip, the contestant must pass under the 
three gates in proper order: first the NE gate from east to west, then the W gate from 
west to east, and finally the SE gate from east to west; then the contestant must 
return to the airstrip. The contestant must pass UNDER the gate ribbon - cutting the 
ribbon is an unsuccessful pass. 

Remarks: This is the toughest AcroJet competition air race, since the desire to 
turn tightly through the gates must be tempered with the low altitude flown and the 
danger of a wingtip catching the ribbon if you pass through the gate with a steep 
bank. Success comes with finishing your turns before the gates, which means 
flying a longer straight-path between gates. Some contestants have experimented 
with half-loops instead of conventional turns, since it is entirely legal to fly the gates 
inverted. 



UNDER RIBBON RACE 



Coming 

from 

Airstrip 




Returning 
to Airstrip 



Lock Color Code: Scarlet 



Unlock Code 630 



27 



Loop 

Difficulty Factor: 2.5. 

Requirements: After leaving the airstrip, the contestant must fly through the 
gate, do a loop over the gate, and fly through the gate again; then the contestant 
must return to the airstrip. 

Remarks: Normally sport pilots perform loops starting at 10,000', so they have 
room for error. Before attempting this event at competition levels, practice loops at 
a higher altitude, and master looping back to the same altitude. See the section on 
aerobatic flying for a detailed discussion of how to control a loop, including how to 
use joystick backpressure properly. 

Survival and success in this event requires precise altitude control. Your safety 
margin can be increased by making the initial gate pass at more than 250 mph, and 
then climb to a very high altitude (5,000' or more) on the upside of the loop. Before 
you begin the downside turn extend the loop outward while flying inverted (i.e., 
don't drop the nose too fast), this will give you plenty of room after you come 
around to line up on the gate for the final pass. Later you can work on narrowing the 
size of the loop and improving your time. 



LOOP 

(Can be flown in either direction) 



Upside 



Downside 




Lock Color Code: Sienna 



Unlock Code 974 



28 



Spot Landing 

Difficulty Factor: 1.8. 

Requirements: After leaving the airstrip, the contestant must climb to at least 
2,000', and land again on the airstrip from south to north. Scoring is based on where 
the wheels touch the runway. In a perfect score the wheels first touch at the spot 
line. There is a points penalty for first touching further north, and a double penalty 
for first touching further south. Note that the plane will invariably roll after the touch 
point, as it brakes to a stop. The final stopping point has NO effect on the score, 
provided the plane remains on the runway. 

Remarks: This event requires precise control of a landing from 2,000', nothing 
more. Refresh your memory of landing techniques, described on page 16 and 17. 



SPOT LANDING 



Climb 
to 2000' 



Downwind 
Leg 



Base 
Leg 




Touchdown 



Lock Color Code: Tangerine 



Unlock Code 913 



29 



Cuban Eight 

Difficulty Factor: 3.0. 

Requirements: After leaving the airstrip, the contestant must fly west through 
the west gate, half loop to cross above the gate, half roll on the descent to fly 
through the east gate, half loop to cross above that gate, and conclude with a half 
roll to fly west through the west gate again; then the contestant must return to the 
airstrip. 

Remarks: This very difficult aerobatic maneuver requires absolute mastery of 
loops. As in a normal loop, descend through the first gate at high speed. After 
passing the gate you may wish to continue level for a distance before starting the 
loop. Once you're inverted at the top of the loop only drop the nose 10° to 20° 
toward the downside and begin your roll as you descend toward the second gate. 
Repeat the process after passing the second gate: again, level flight after passing 
the gate but before you start the second loop, can be valuable. Once you've 
mastered the event with wide loops you can work on beginning them sooner after 
you pass a gate. 



CUBAN EIGHT 

(Must fly in the specified directions) 




Lock Color Code: Turquoise 



Unlock Code 290 



30 



Flameout Landing 

Difficulty Factor: 2.0. 

Requirements: After leaving the airstrip, the contestant must climb to at least 
2000', set the engine to idle (press 0) while over the airstrip heading north, and 
glide to a landing on the airstrip. Landing requirements and scoring are the same as 
the Spot Landing, except that any use of the engine after it is turned off results in a 
very low score. 

Remarks: An unpowered landing is similar to a regular landing. The point 2000' 
heading north over the airstrip is termed the "High Key". From here you spiral down 
180° to the "Low Key" position. Low Key is normally about 1000' altitude, from 
which you make another 180° "Base Turn" toward the runway and land. 

You control your altitude loss from High Key to Low Key by the width of your 
turn - the wider the turn, the longer it takes fo reach the low key, and the more 
altitude you will lose. 

The simulated flame-out (SFO) is more than just an aerobatic event — it's also 
an important skill for any sport pilot. During a pilot's flying career, it is quite likely 
that he will suffer an engine failure and need this skill to put his aircraft down safely 
in the nearest field or roadway. 



FLAME-OUT LANDING 



Engine off 
at 2000' 
over airstrip 




Lock Color Code: Umber 



Unlock Code 578 



31 



The Unlimited 

This event allows you to select your own course from the six available (see 
pg. 5). You decide what race or aerobatic maneuvers are required. You may want to 
sketch the event so everyone understands what's involved. 

This means you can decide what aerobatics and/or racing paths are required. 
You decide the difficulty factor for the event too (select a value betwen 1 .0 and 3.0, 
inclusive). The event can be timed or untimed, as you wish. 

In real aerobatic competitons judges decide how well a pilot performed his 
maneuvers. In the unlimited you and your friends can judge each other, rating 
performance on a scale from 1 .0 (the lowest possible score) to 9.9 (a perfect score). 
In an event that is timed but not judged, always give contestants a judging score of 
9.9. Note that an event can be both timed and judged if you wish. 

If you start an unlimited event airborne, any time you cross the spot line from 
south to north during the event, it will immediately end. Therefore, we recommend 
you do not begin unlimited events airborne, but instead on the ground. 

Scoring 

In all events a pilot is awarded a small consolation score for flying it correctly 
and finishing intact. You get a higher score for completing more difficult events. 
Additional bonuses are added for flying in more difficult weather conditions, and 
flying with more realistic aircraft performance. However, the dominant factor going 
into a high score (are the crucial factor when all other things are equal) is time. 
There are, of course, exceptions. 

In the landing events (Spot Landing and Flame-out Landing) distance between 
the touchdown point and the spot line is critical to your score. Every inch counts 
here. 

In the unlimited event with judging, the opinion of the judges can have a very 
significant effect, especially if the event is not timed. In a timed and judged event, 
the timer is slightly more important than the judges' decision. 

Finally, in any event flown from an airborne start, time scores are adjusted for 
the starting and ending conditions. In addition, pilots flying from an airborne start 
suffer an extra penalty to their score. 

If you crash or land without completing the event you score a small amount. If 
you fly the event wrong you can keep trying until you do it correctly. The only 
penalty is time lost. However, keep an eye on your fuel —the BD-5J consumes fuel 
like an Arab Sheik! 

The WGSP Pentathlon and Decathlon 

The WGSP (World's Greatest Sport Pilot) AcroJet competition is a sum of'any 
five events (the Pentathlon) or all ten events (the Decathlon). Since event scores are 
adjusted for difficulty, flying the more difficult events can result in the highest 
Pentathlon score. 

Major Bill 

In addition to scores for the contestants, a score for "Major Bill" also appears. 
Major Bill is a U.S. Air Force Academy graduate and a real U.S. Air Force fighter 
pilot, as well as being the President of MicroProse. Naturally, he loves MicroProse 
flight simulators and is happy to fly with you anytime. The scores you see represent 
his better performances in each event. How do you stack up against someone with 
3000+ hours in hot military aircraft? 



Lock Color Code: Violet 



Unlock Code 024 



32 




THE BD-5J ACROJET DESIGN 
The BD-5J Design 

The BD-5J is a very small, very fast, very high performance plane well suited to 
aerobatic and stunt flying. It is probably the smallest, least expensive aerobatic jet 
in the world. It is certainly a very demanding and dangerous plane to fly — 
recreational flyers beware! 

The BD-5 was designed by Jim Bedeof Bede Aircraft during 1971 and 1972 as 
an ultralight self-powered glider. The original powered design featured a small prop 
in the tail that could push the aircraft up to 21 2 mph. The plane was sold in kit form 
to flying enthusiasts. Although hundreds of kits were sold, about 40 have been 
completed and taken to the air. 

The BD-5J is a jet-powered variant that first flew in 1973. It retains the famous 
"bullet" fuselage and retractable tricycle landing gear of the prop version. The 
wings were redesigned to hold a 50-gallon fuel tank for the turbojet, and strength- 
ened to handle the greater weight of the jet version. 

The BD-5J with its 220-lb thrust powerplant has an absolute maximum air- 
speed of 346 mph (controls lock in an uncontrolable dive at any higher speeds), 
stalls at 66 mph and climbs 3,2007minute. The maximum ceiling is 30,000', but 
above 10,000' you'll need oxygen. 

The BD-5 design is not a forgiving one. At least 24 accidents or incidents 
involving the aircraft are known, including seven fatal crashes. Of course, with 
kit-built versions, it is possible the fault lay in the construction, rather than the 
design. However takeoffs, landings, and low speed flying require particularly 
careful control of this temperamental and "high strung" thoroughbred. 

Bede Aircraft is no longer in business making BD-5 kits. However, the fame and 
popularity of the design are so great that another firm is working on making the 
BD-5 available once more. 

The BD-5 J Pilot: A Special Breed 

The BD-5J is an extraordinarily small, fast, responsive and aigle plane. One of 
the world's premier aerobatic pilots, Corkey Fornof, owns and uses it for TV and 
movie stunt flying, and in various airshows. 

Your BD-5J is a plane for the ultimate grandstander. Standing on the ground in 
the "flight line" it attracts lots of attention. As a BD-5J pilot you'll be at the center of 
every hanger bull session! Just getting airborne and landing again requires plenty 
of care and skill — the BD-5 is a killer if not handled correctly. At altitude this 
jet-powered bullet can streak past traditional prop-powered biplanes and mono- 
planes. Performing aerobatics in the BD-5J tests the mettle of the best pilots. Its size 
and maneuverability allows a top pilot to perform difficult and precise maneuvers 
such as a 16 point roll, or a vertical roll and tailslide. In fact, the BD-5J may be the 
only jet in the world performing these aerobatics! 

Perhaps the most memorable use of the BD-5J was by James Bond (007) to 
attack and destroy a secret installation at an airplane hanger — by flying inside the 
hanger with a BD-5J! This bit of daring-do was portrayed in the movie Octopussy, 



Lock Color Code: Viridian 



Unlock Code 757 



33 



with Corkey at the controls. In fact, the BD-5J is an excellent choice for a clandes- 
tine "quick strike": it is tiny, very maneuverable and very fast. Unfortunately, the 50 
gallon fuel tank allows only one to two hours flying time. Fortunately, such a small 
plane can land on a third of a mile of flat roadway for quick refueling. Then again, 
the secret agent needs to be an exceptional pilot to handle the BD-5J as well as 
Corkey Fornof! 



BD-5J AcroJet Specifications 

Dimensions: 

Length: 14' 9" 

Wingspan: 17' 0" 

Height: 6' 1" 

Weight Empty: 430 lbs 

Maximum Gross Weight: 950 lbs 

Fuel Capacity: 50 gallons 

Powerplant: 

TRS-18 Ames Industrial Turbojet 

Thrust: 220 lbs 

Redline Exhaust Gas Temperature: 700° F 

Weight: 75 lbs 

Fuel Consumption: 38 gallons per hour at cruising speed 

Performance: 

Cruising Speed at 12,000': 233 mph 

Full Performance Airspeed: 301 mph 

Redline Airspeed: 346 mph 

Maximum Endurance: 2 hours, 15 minutes 

Stall Speed (flaps up): 66 mph 

Stall Speed (full flaps): 55 mph 

Takeoff & Landing Performance: 

Nosewheel liftoff: 65 mph 
Landing Pattern: 125 mph 
Final Approach: 100 mph 
Touchdown (flaps up): 80 mph 
Touchdown (20° flaps): 75 mph 
Touchdown (40° flaps): 70 mph 



Lock Color Code: White 



Unlock Code 681 



34 





38 00" — 




35 




A typical secret agent beside his BD-5J camoflaged as an air-show craft. 



36 




SPORT AVIATION 
Yesterday 

Daring individualism has been the hallmark of flying from the first powered 
flight at Kitty Hawk on December 1 7, 1 903. Early aviators were often designers and 
mechanics as well as pilots. Structure and power plant were adjusted minutes 
before take-off. Flying was a profession for death-defying grandstanders and 
showmen, not unlike a circus. In 1914 Lincoln Beachey could be hired by fairs and 
cities to fly one loop for $500, plus $200 more for each additional loop he could 
perform. Beachey himself was killed a year later when his wings collapsed during a 
Split-S maneuver over San Francisco Bay. Pilots didn't have parachutes then. 

World War I gave aircraft a practical purpose, but the tradition of aerobatic 
flying continued afterward with the 1920's barnstormers. This was fueled by the 
availability of war-trained pilots and war-surplus aircraft. Meanwhile, aircraft 
design was advancing by leaps and bounds. The boasts of designers and manufac- 
turers inspired two types of racing: closed-circuit pylon races, and long cross- 
country or transcontinental races and challenges. The most famous were the 
Schneider Trophy for the fastest seaplane, and the Thompson Trophy for land- 
planes. Famous racing flyers such as Roscoe Turner were household words and 
front-page news. Hundreds of thousands of spectators turned out to see air races, 
their interest peaked by all too common crashes. In fact, the mortality rate was so 
high that in 1939 even the indefatigable Turner retired. 

During World War II aerobatic flying again became a deadly game, now 
performed with high-speed monoplanes powered by giant 2000+ horsepower 
engines at speeds between 350 and 450 mph. In fact the late-war fighters now 
represent the apex of high-performance prop plane design. Those designs are 
rebuilt or copied today by "warbird" enthusiasts. After WWII surplus planes were 
again cheap — so cheap that many ordinary people could afford them. The number 
of trained flyers was also huge, and many wanted to keep flying. The result is an 
entire new generation of build-them-yourseif airplane kits, low cost powered and 
unpowered designs, and a variety of low-cost factory-built products. 

Today 

Modern "barnstormers" still exist, flying in airshows around the USA, and not 
infrequently performing stunts for TV and movie production. They don't crash as 
much, and are actually rather modest fellows, so you don't hear about them often. 
Frank Tallman and Corkey Fornof are well-regarded men of this breed. Mr. Fornof 
flies a BD-5J frequently, although he's flown over 140 other planes during his 
career. 

Meanwhile at small airfields around the world private citizens purchase planes 
or build their own, and then fly them for pleasure. It is possible to buy a small aircraft 
or powered glider for the price of a good car, or to buy one in kit form for the price of 
a good motorcycle. In the USA sport flyers gather and communicate through the 
EAA (Experimental Aircraft Association). The EAA has divisions for antique and 
classic aircraft, "warbirds"from WWII, modern ultralight craft, and the IAC (Interna- 



37 



tional Aerobatic Club). In August the EAA holds it's annual convention in Oshkosh, 
Wisconsin, with hundreds of thousands driving and flying in from around the 
nation. 

The IAC division of the EAA has chapters throughout the USA, and many of 
these sponsor local aerobatic competitions. Competitions are typically in four 
divisions, so that flyers of equivalent abilities can compete. In 1967 Count Aresti of 
Spain created a system for rating the difficulty of various aerobatic maneuvers. In 
competition flyers perform routines composed of these maneuvers, and are judged 
on their skill and precision. 

Air races are still held in the USA, the most famous being the races in Reno, 
Nevada. The race has categories for various types of aircraft. The "unlimited" class 
of prop planes is the best known and most visible, especially since many of the 
planes are modified WWII fighters. 

Every two years an international competition of aerobatic flyers occurs 
among five-man and five-woman teams from each nation. The 1984 World Cham- 
pionship held in Bekescsaba, Hungary was won by Petr Jimus of Czechoslovakia 
(men's division) and Khalide Makagonova of the USSA (woman's division). How- 
ever, the US men's team had the highest total score, and the US women's team had 
the second highest total. The next world championship wil be in Cranfield, Eng- 
land, during August of 1986. The US National Competition to select the American 
team is in Sherman/Denison, Texas during September of 1985. 

Competitive aerobatic flying is a small and often ignored sport, but probably 
the most demanding to them all —especially given it's high safety record (aerobatic 
flyers sense that a poor safety record would rapidly doom the sport!). Stunt pilot 
Frank Tallman's remarks on aerobatic flying are worth pondering: ". . .for me to get 
in and do an international course of aerobatics in the Chipmunk or a Pitts — forget 
it." The Pitts Specials and Chipmunks are prop planes. Nobody thought to ask 
Frank what he thought about flying a 15' long aerobatic jet through ribbon gates! 

More about Sport Aviation 

To learn more about sport aviation and aerobatics, we suggest that you 
become a member of the EAA and IAC. Write to the Experimental Aircraft Associa- 
tion, Wittman Airfield, Oshkosh, Wl, 54903-2591. Membership entitles you to their 
monthly magazines "Sport Aviation" (EAA) and "Sport Aerobatics" (IAC) respec- 
tively. Detailed schedules of conventions and competitions are published regularly, 
along with many interesting articles and advertisements. 



38 




39 



DEDICATION 

This simulation is dedicated to sport aviators and 
aerobatic pilots everywhere. 

CREDITS 

DESIGN & PROGRAMMING: 

William F. Denman, Jr. 
with Edward N. Hill, Jr. 

ART & COMPUTER GRAPHICS: 

Michael Haire 

BD-5J TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE & PHOTOGRAPHS: 

J.W. "Corkey" Fornof and Bearcat Enterprises Inc. 
(Houma, Louisiana) 

STUNTS: 

Wild Bill Stealey 

DOCUMENTATION: 

Arnold Hendrick 

PLAYTESTING: 

Guy Watkins, Jay Trotta, John Harris, Silas Warner 



Software Authors! 

MicroProse is always searching for new people and products, to bring you the 

most challenging and fun products. If you're creating quality simulation 

software, and/or are an expert in 6502, 8086 or 68000 programming, call or write 

us! We'd like to get you on our team and make you a MicroProse partner! 



COPYRIGHT NOTICE 

COPYRIGHT »1985 BY MICROPROSE SOFTWARE INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Tbis manual and the computer 
programs and audiovisuals on the accompanying floppy disks, which are described by this manual, are copyrighted and 
contain proprietary information belonging to MICROPROSE SOFTWARE, INC. No one may give or sell copies of this manual 
or the accompanying disks or of listings of the programs on the disks to any person or institution, except as provided for by 
the written agreement with MICROPROSE SOFTWARE. INC. No one may copy, photocopy, reproduce, translate this manual 
or reduce it to machine readable form, in whole or in part, without the prior written consent of MICROPROSE SOFTWARE, 
INC. Any person/persons reproducing any portion of this program, in any media, for any reason, shall be guilty of Copyright 
Violation, and shall be subject to civil liability at the discretion of the copyright holder. 

WARRANTY AND LIABILITY 

Neither MICROPROSE SOFTWARE. INC., nor any dealer or distributor makesany warranty, express or implied, with respect 
to this manual, the disk or any related item, their quality, performance, merchantability, or fitness for any purpose. It is the 
responsibility solely of the purchaser to determine the suitability of the products for any purpose. To the original purchaser 
only, MICROPROSE SOFTWARE, INC. warrants the media to be free from defects in material for 90 days. If during that 
period a detect should occur, the software may be returned to MICROPROSE SOFTWARE, who will replace the media at no 
charge. If at any time after the initial 90 day period your media becomes defective, the media may be returned to 
MICROPROSE SOFTWARE for replacement at a $10 service charge. To ensure identification the original purchaser must 
complete and mail the Registration/Warranty card enclosed in this product In no case will MICROPROSE SOFTWARE, INC. 
be held liable for direct, indirect or incidental damages resulting from any defect or omission in the manual, or other related 
items and processes, including, but not limited to. any interruption of service, loss of business, anticipated profit, or other 
consequential damages. 

AIICRO PROSE 

SIMULATION • SOFTWARE 

2, Market Place, Tetbury, Gloucestershire GL8 8DA 

Tel:(0666)54326 

Fax:(0666)54331 Tlx:43422MPS UK G