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FAA-P-8000-3 
AFS400 1096 
DOT-VNTSC-FAA-96-18 



GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM 

A GUIDE FOR THE APPROVAL OF 
GPS RECEIVER INSTALLATION AND OPERATION 



DISTRIBUTION 


Approved for relecise; 

Unlimited 

r^'****'Oct^er i996 


PRODUCED BY 

SATELLITE OPERATIONAL IMPLEMENTATION TEAM 

FOR 

FLIGHT STANDARDS SERVICE 
FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION 
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION 



NOTICE 


This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the 
Department of Transportation in the interest of information 
exchange. The United States Government assumes no 
liability for its contents or use thereof. 


NOTICE 

The United States Government does not endorse products or 
manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein 
solely because they are considered essential to the objective 
of this report. 





REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 



1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 

2. REPORT DATE 

October 1996 

3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED 

Final Report 

April 1995 • June 1996 

4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 

Global Positioning System: A Guide for the Approval of GPS 
Receiver Installation and Operation 

5. FUNDING NUMBERS 

A6313/FA61K 

6. AUTHOR(S) 

M. Wright* 


7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NANE(S} AW> ADDRESS(ES} 

U.S. Department of Transportation 

Research and Special Programs Administration 

John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center 

Cambridge, MA 02142 

8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION 
REPORT NUMBER 

DOT-VNTSC-FAA-96-18 

9. SPONSORING/HONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESSCES) 

U.S. Department of Transportation 

Federal Aviation Administration 

Flight Standards Service 

Washington, DC 20591 

10. SPONSORING/MONITORING 

AGENCY REPORT NUMBER 

FAA-P-8000-3 

AFS 400 1096 

11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES ‘Monterey Technologies, Inc. 

1143G Executive Circle under contrect to: 

eery. NC 27511 

Battelle Heinorial Institute 

505 Columbus Avenue 

Colunbus. OH 43201 

12a. OISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT 



12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 

This document is available tc 

> the public through the National 


Technical Information Service 

1 , Springfield, VA 22161 




13. ABSTRACT (Maxinun 200 words) 

This guide is designed to assist Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Aviation Safety 
Inspectors (ASIs) in evaluating new Global Positioning Systems (GPS) Installations and 
operations. Because there are many documents providing information, regulations, and 
guidelines for various types of GPS approvals, this guide has been created to provide 
one source for most FAA GPS approvals. This document contains aids such as flow 
charts and checklists to provide Principal Operations Inspectors (POIs) and Principal 
Avionics Inspectors (PAIs) with a consistent process for performing approvals. In 
addition, the relevant excerpts from regulation documents are included In references 
so inspectors will rarely need separate sources of information. This document will be 
updated periodically to maintain currency. 


one QtrAUTY inspected. 


14. SUBJECT TERMS 

global positioning system (GPS), differential GPS, 
airworthiness, operations 


OF REPORT 
Unclassified 



18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 

19. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 

20. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 

OF THIS PAGE 

OF ABSTRACT 


Unclassified 

Unclassified 



19970306 019 































ACKNOWLEDGMENT 


This document was designed as a guide for aviation safety inspectors 
approving Global Positioning System (GPS) installations and operators. 
This document is submitted by Monterey Technologies, Inc. under a 
contract with Battelle (Subcontract No. 87929-2(477302)). Dr. Michael 
McCauley served as the program manager for Monterey Technologies, 
Inc. Mr. Donald Eldredge served as the program manager for Battelle. 
The contributions and support of Dr. McCauley and Mr. Eldredge are 
greatly appreciated by the author. 

This project is part of a continuing effort at the John A. Volpe National 
Transportation Systems Center (Volpe Center) to implement human 
factors principles in the creation of tools such as this guide for the 
Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in GPS applications. Dr. M. 
Stephen Huntley directed this project for the Volpe Center; his 
direction and support in this effort were invaluable. 

Finally, this effort would not have been possible without the 
cooperation of aviation safety inspectors in the field. Special thanks are 
extended to Tom Kieffaber, Joe Walker, Tom Kuhlman, Jacques 
Lonchambon, Tony Wasson, Don Divine, Doug Badgett and Gene 
Williams. The author also appreciates the input and support provided 
by members of the Satellite Operations Implementation Team including 
Harry Hunt, Don Streeter, Tom Glista, and others. 



METRIC/ENGLISH CONVERSION FACTORS 

ENGLISH TO METRIC 

METRIC TO ENGLISH 

LENGTH (APPROXIMATE) 

LENGTH (APPROXIMATE) 

1 inch (in) = 2.5 cenDmetere (cm) 

1 foot (ft) = 30 centimeters (cm) 

1 yard (yd) = 0.9 meter (m) 

1 mile (mi) = 1.6 idlometers (km) 

1 millimeter (mm) = 0.04 inch (in) 

1 centimeter (cm) = 0.4 inch (in) 

1 meter (m) = 3.3 feet (ft) 

1 meter (m) = 1.1 yards (yd) 

1 kilometer (km) = 0.6 mile (mi) 

AREA (APPROXIMATE) 

AREA (APPROXIMATE) 

1 square inch (sq in, in2) = 6.5 square centimeters (cm2) 

1 square toot (sq ft, ft2) = o.09 square meter (m2) 

1 square yard (sq yd, yd2) = 0.8 square meter (m2) 

1 square mile (sq mi. mi2) = 2,6 square kilometers (km2) 

1 acre = 0,4 hectare (ha) = 4,000 square meters (m2) 

1 square cenlimeler (cm2) = o.16 square inch (sq in, in2) 

1 square meter (m2) = 1.2 square yards (sq yd, yd2) 

1 square kilometer (km2) = 0.4 square mile (sq mi, mi2) 
10,000 square meters (m2) = 1 hectare (ha) = 2.5 acres 

MASS - WEIGHT (approximate) 

MASS - WEIGHT (approximate) 

1 ounce (oz) = ,28 grams (gm) 

1 pound (lb) = .45 kilogram (kg) 

1 shon ton = 2,000 pounds (lb) = 0.9 tonne (t) 

1 gram (gm) = 0.036 ounce (oz) 

1 kilogram (kg) = 2.2 pounds (lb) 

1 tonne (1) = 1.000 kilograms (kg) =1.1 short tons 

VOLUME (APPROXIMATE) 

VOLUME (APPROXIMATE) 

1 teaspoon (tsp) = 5 milliliters (ml) 

1 tablespoon (tbsp) = 15 milliliters (ml) 

1 fluid ounce (fl oz) = 30 milliliters (ml) 

1 cup (c) = 0.24 liter (1) 

1 pint (pt) = 0.47 liter (1) 

1 quart (qt) = 0.96 liter (1) 

1 gallon (gal) c 3.8 liters (1) 

1 cutwc loot (cu ft. 1(2) c 0.03 cubic meter (m^) 

1 cubic yard (cu yd. yd^) = 0 76 cube meter (m^) 

1 milliliter (ml) = 0.03 fluid ounce (fl oz) 

1 liter (1) = 2,1 pints (pt) 

1 liter (1) = 1.06 quarts (ql) 

1 liter (1) = 0.26 gallon (gal) 

1 cubic meter (m^) = 36 cubic feet (cu fl, ft^) 

1 cubic meter (m3) = 1.3 cubic yards (cu yd, yd3) 

TEMPERATURE (exact) 

TEMPERATURE (EXACT) 

“C=5/9('F • 32) 

'F=9/5(°C) + 32 

QUICK INCH-CENTIMETER LENGTH CONVERSION 

INCHES 0 1 2 

i , 1 . 1 

3 4 5 

1 1-' !-1 1 *-1 1-*—1~ 

* ' T ‘ ' 1 1 

CENTIMETERS 0 1 2 3 4 5 

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 

QUICK FAHRENHEIT-CELSIUS TEMPERATURE CONVERSION 

^ • 40 * - 22 * - 4 * 14 * 32 * 50 “ 68 " 

86* 104*^ 122* 140* 158* 176* 194* 212* 

•c - 40 ' X- -20^ -to* O' 10' 20' 

30* 40* 5Cr 60* 70“ 80* 90* 100* 


For more •xaci trxJ or omer conv«rtion laciors. SM NIST Misceliar^eous PuWcaHon 286, Unns o( Weights and 
Measures Price S2 50 SO Cataioo No Ci3 1 0286 


UpcMM 




















TABLE OF CONTENTS 


1.0 INTRODUCTION.1-1 

1.1 How to Use this Document.1-3 

1.2 Global Positioning System (GPS) Basics.1-4 

1.2.1 System Description.1-4 

1.2.2 System Performance.1-5 

1.2.3 Differential GPS.1-6 

1.3 GPS Receivers and Equipment Classification.1-7 

1.4 Frequently Asked Questions.1-10 

2.0 APPROVAL PROCESS AND PRACTICES.2-1 

. 2.1 General Approval Process.2-1 

2.1.1 Description.2-1 

2.1.2 Approval Process Flow Diagram.2-3 

2.2 Differences in Approvals and Practices.2-7 

2.2.1 Federal Aviation Regulation Part Differences .2-7 

2.2.2 Initial Versus Follow-on Airworthiness 

Approvals .2-7 

2.2.3 VFR, IFR, and Nonprecision Approaches.2-8 

2.2.4 Multi-sensor GPS Receivers.2-9 

2.2.5 Special Use - Not for Navigation.2-9 

2.2.6 Portable GPS Receivers.2-10 

2.2.7 Area of Operations.2-10 

2.2.8 Primary Means Versus Supplemental Means 

Navigation.2-11 

2.2.9 Differential GPS Airborne Receivers for Special 

Use Applications.2-12 

2.2.10 Special Category I Instrument Approaches ...2-12 

3.0 AIRWORTHINESS APPROVAL.3-1 

3.1 Required Proposal Documents.3-3 

3.2 Determine Method of Approval.3-6 

3.3 Airworthiness Approval via TC or STC Process.3-9 

3.4 Airworthiness Field Approval.3-10 

3.4.1 Detailed Analysis of Proposal.3-10 

3.4.2 Conformity Inspection.3-15 

3.4.3 Field Airworthiness Approval.3-20 

3.5 Continuing GPS Airworthiness.3-22 


V 































4.0 OPERATIONS APPROVAL/VALIDATION.4-1 

4.1 General Operations Requirements.4-3 

4.2 Required Proposal Documents/Validation Test Plan .4-8 

4.3 Detailed Analysis of Proposal.4-11 

4.4 Demonstrationy Validation Testing.4-17 

4.5 Issuing the Operations Approval.4-22 

4.5.1 Updating Operations Specifications.4-22 

4.5.2 Operations Manuals, Approach Procedures 

and MEL Approval.4-39 

4.5.3 Training Program Approval.4-40 

4.6 Continuing GPS Operations Evaluation.4-41 


LIST OF TABLES 


Table Page 


1.3.1 IFR GPS Equipment Classification 

from TSO-C129.1-8 

1.3.2 GPS and DGPS Uses, Required Equipment, 

and Required FAA Approval.1-9 

2.1.1 General Process for Approval or Acceptance 

Applied to GPS Approvals.2-2 

3.2.1 Determine Method of Approval.3-7 

4.5.1 Operations Specification Issuance Instructions for 
En Route Authorization for Use of GPS for 

Class I Navigation.4-23 

4.5.2 Operations Specification Issuance Instructions for 
En Route Authorization for Use of GPS for 

Class II Navigation.4-25 

4.5.3 Operations Specification Issuance Instructions 

for En Route Authorization for Use of GPS as 
Primary Means for Class II Navigation.4-32 

4.5.4 Operations Specifications Issuance Instructions 

for Use of GPS to Conduct Nonprecision 
Approach Procedures.4-35 

APPROVAL PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM 

GPS Airworthiness Approval Process.2-3 

GPS Operations Approval Process.2-5 


VI 






















CHECKLISTS 


A Airworthiness 

A1 Required Documents.3-4 

A2 Detailed Analysis.3-11 

A3 Conformity Inspection.3-16 

O Operations 

01 General Operations Requirements.4-4 

02 Required Documents.4-9 

03 Detailed Analysis.4-12 

04 Demonstration/Validation Test.4-18 

REFERENCES 

A Airworthiness 

A1 FAA Order 8300.10.AM 

A2 Advisory Circular 20-138 .A2-1 

A3 Advisory Circular 20-130A (Draft).A3* 1 

A4 FAA Order 8300.10 Appendix 3, 

FSAW94-32A .A4-1 

A5 FAA Order 8300.10 Appendix 4, 

FSAW 94-41 A5.1 

A6 FAA Human Factors and Operations 
Checklist For Standalone GPS Receivers 

(TSOC129A1).A6.1 

A7 FAA Order 8400.11.A7-1 

O Operations 

01 FAA Order 8400.10 .01*1 

02 FAA Order 8400.10 Appendix 3, 

HEAT 95-02 . 02*1 

03 FAA Order 8400.10 Appendix 3, 

HEAT 95-03.03*1 

04 FAA Order 8400.10 Appendix 4, 

HEAT 95-09.04*1 

05 FAA Order 8400.10 Appendix 3, 

FSAT 94-04 .05*1 

06 FAA Order 8400.11.06*1 

07 Advisory Circular 90-94. 07*1 

08 FAA Notice N8110.60.08*1 

09 Code of Federal Regulations (Formerly Federal 
Aviation Regulations) Part 121 and Part 135 ...09*1 


vii 

























ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS 

A&P 

Airframe and Power Plant 

AC 

Advisory Circular 

ACO 

Aircraft Certification Office 

AFM 

aircraft flight manual 

ASI 

Aviation Safety Inspector 

GDI 

course deviation indicator 

CDL 

configuration deviation list 

CEPAC 

Central East Pacific (Airspace) 

CFR 

Code of Federal Regulations 

CHDO 

Certificate-Holding District Office 

DER 

designated engineering representative 

DGPS 

differential global positioning system 

DME 

distance measuring equipment 

DOD 

Department of Defense 

DOT 

Department of Transportation 

FAA 

Federal Aviation Administration 

FAR 

Federal Aviation Regulation 

FDE 

fault detection and exclusion 

FIR 

Flight Information Region 

FMS 

Flight Management System 

FSAS 

Flight Standards Automation System 

FSAT 

Flight Standards Information Bulletin for Air Transportation 

FSAW 

Flight Standards Information Bulletin for Airworthiness 

FSDO 

Flight Standards District Office 

FTE 

Flight Technical Error 

GPS 

global positioning system 

HBAT 

Flight Standards Handbook Bulletin for Air Transportation 

HSI 

horizontal situation indicator 

lAP 

instrument approach procedure 

ICAO 

International Civil Aviation Organization 

IFR 

instrument flight rules 

ILS 

instrument landing system 

IMC 

instrument meteorological conditions 

INS 

Inertial Navigation System 

LAAS 

local area augmentation systems 

EDA 

Localizer-type Directional Aid 

LOA 

letter of authorization 

LOG 

localizer 

MAA 

maximum authorized altitude 

MEA 

minimum en route altitude 

MEL 

minimum equipment list 


viii 



MCS 

master control station 

MLS 

microwave landing system 

MMEL 

master minimum equipment list 

MNPS 

Minimum Navigation Performance Specification 

MS 

multi-sensor 

MU 

magnetic unreliability 

NAS 

National Airspace System 

NAT 

North Atlantic Track 

NAVAID 

navigational aid 

NDB 

nondirectional beacon 

NM 

nautical mile 

NOPAC 

North Pacific 

OpSpecs 

operations specifications 

OPSS 

operations specifications subsystem 

PAI 

Principal Avionics Inspector 

PMI 

Principal Maintenance Inspector 

POI 

Principal Operations Inspector 

PPS 

precise positioning service 

PTRS 

program tracking & reporting subsystem 

RAIM 

receiver autonomous integrity monitoring 

SCAT-I 

Special Category I 

SDF 

simplified directional facility 

SPAR 

Special Federal Aviation Regulation 

SPS 

standard positioning service 

STC 

Supplemental Type Certificate 

TC 

Type Certificate 

TSO 

Technical Standard Order 

US NAS 

United States National Airspace System 

VFR 

visual flight rules 

VOR 

very high frequency omni-directional range 

WAAS 

wide area augmentation systems 


IX 




1.0 INTRODUCTION 


This guide is designed to assist FAA Aviation Safety Inspectors (ASIs) 
in their evaluation of Global Positioning Systems (GPS) installations 
and operations. Because there are many documents providing 
information, regulations, and guidelines for various types of GPS 
approvals, this document has been created to provide one source for 
most FAA GPS approvals. This document contains aids such as flow 
charts and checklists to provide Principal Operations Inspectors (POIs) 
and Principal Avionics Inspectors (PAIs) with a consistent process for 
performing approvals. In addition, the relevant excerpts from 
regulatory documents and advisory material are included in the 
references so that inspectors have immediate access to the basis for 
design requirements and guidelines without the need for carrying the 
bulky parent reference material. It should be fully appreciated that the 
material presented is incomplete. It is assumed that the person using 
this material has read the complete version of the orders. Important 
details regarding the use or policies covering the application of the 
information in the excerpts may be available only in the complete 
reference from which the excerpts were taken. This document will be 
updated periodically to maintain currency. 

The contents of this document do not reflect changes in requirements 
that are specified or allowed by Special Federal Aviation Regulations 
(SFARS). The document contents were current as of October 26, 1995, 
Changes in requirements and procedures occurring after that date are 
not included herein. Questions concerning this document should be 
directed to: Hank Cabler, AFS-4(X), (202) 267-3752. 

Chapter 1 of this document is an introduction to GPS. It contains a 
description of the basics of the global positioning system, TSO-C129 
GPS equipment classifications, descriptions of differential GPS 
(DGPS), including both wide area augmentation systems (WAAS) and 
local area augmentation systems (LAAS); an explanation of the current 
and expected future policies on special Category I instrument 
approaches using DGPS; and some frequently asked questions on GPS 
approval. 

Chapter 2 of this document provides a description of the general GPS 
approval process and a flow diagram displaying the steps in both the 
airworthiness and the operations approval process. Chapter 2 also 
describes the major differences between the different types of GPS 
approvals including: 


1-1 


(1) FAR Part differences, 

(2) initial vs. follow-on, 

(3) VFR vs. IFR with or without nonprecision approaches, 

(4) multi-sensor GPS equipment, 

(5) special (not for navigation) use, 

(6) portable GPS equipment, 

(7) areas of operation/Class II navigation, 

(8) primary vs. supplemental means of navigation, 

(9) differential GPS, and 

(10) special Category I instrument approaches. 

Chapter 3 contains the procedures and checklists required for 
performing GPS airworthiness approvals. Chapter 3 provides the 
information needed for determining when a field approval is possible. 

A detailed description of the process required for field approval, 
including checklists for each of the major phases of the approval 
process, is also provided. This guide covers only approvals that can be 
completed via field approval by PAIs (generally follow-on approvals). 

Chapter 4 contains procedures and checklists for performing GPS 
operations approvals. General operations requirements are listed for all 
operators using GPS. Specific approval requirements and 
recommendations are provided for Part 121, 125 and 135 operators. 

Finally, references A and O contain relevant excerpts from FAA Orders 
and Advisory Circulars. 


1-2 



1.1 HOW TO USE THIS DOCUMENT 


This document is designed to provide information that can be easily 
accessed at different levels of detail. Inspectors who are new to GPS 
should read chapter 1. Inspectors who are familiar with GPS but 
uncertain about various FAA rules and regulations concerning different 
GPS equipment and approvals may want to review tables 1.3.1 and 
1.3.2 in chapter 1. 

The flow diagrams in chapter 2 provide a quick overview of the 
approval process for airworthiness and operations approvals. These 
diagrams should be reviewed the first time through a GPS approval. 

Chapter 3 is specifically for airworthiness (avionics or maintenance) 
inspectors, and chapter 4 is designed for operations inspectors. The 
steps in these chapters should be followed for each approval. 

Checklists are provided for each phase of the approval. The checklists 
indicate which items are required and which items are recommended for 
the various types of approvals. 

Throughout the document there are references to the applicable FAA 
documents. The relevant excerpts of these documents are provided in 
the references if more information is needed. The references are 
identified as bold numbers (e.g., (1)) in the text of the document or 
within checklists. These bold numbers are cross referenced to reference 
page numbers and item numbers at the end of each section. For 
example, (1) in the text of the chapter will be cross-referenced at the 
end of the chapter as: 

(1) pp. A2. (4, 9, 12); 7c(2)(i), 8c(2)(i), Ic. 

This indicates that the reference information can be found in reference 2 
on page A2'4, item 7c(2)(i), page A2-9, item 8c(2)(i), and on page 
A2*12, item Ic. 

As inspectors become familiar with the GPS approval process, they 
should be able to use only the checklists to ensure that they follow all 
the required procedures for each GPS approval. 


1-3 



1,2 GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS) BASICS 


1.2.1 System Description 

The Navstar Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite-based 
radionavigation system deployed and operated by the Department of 
Defense (DOD). GPS was originally developed as a military system. 

It is subject to limitations imposed by the DOD for national security 
reasons. However, the DOD and the Department of Transportation 
(DOT) have undertaken a cooperative effort to make GPS available for 
use as an integral part of the civil radionavigation system. 

GPS consists of three functional segments - space, control, and user. 
The space segment is a constellation of 24 satellites - 21 active and 
three spares. The satellites orbit the earth at an altitude of about 
10,900 nautical miles with four satellites in each of six different 
orbital planes. This constellation guarantees that at least four satellites 
will be in view (greater than 5 degrees above the horizon with respect 
to the user) anywhere in the world, at any time. 

The control segment controls satellite operations. A Master Control 
Station (MCS) is located at Falcon Air Force Base in Colorado. A 
worldwide network of five signal monitoring stations and three uplink 
ground.antennas complete the control segment. Monitor stations 
collect and send GPS navigation signal data to the MCS for evaluation 
and determination of required corrections. Corrections to satellite 
atomic clocks or orbital parameters are relayed to the satellites from 
the ground antennas. Other satellite subsystems including power, 
thermal balance, and attitude are also monitored by the MCS. 

The user segment is the GPS receiver that receives data from the 
satellite to compute position. GPS compares the time it takes to 
receive radio signals from satellites to compute position. Data from 
four satellites are needed to solve an equation with four unknowns - 
latitude, longitude, altitude, and time. The time computation is 
required due to receiver clock error. 


1-4 



1.2.2 System Performance 

Important GPS performance characteristics are accuracy and integrity. 
Accuracy refers to the degree of conformity of a GPS calculation to the 
true value. Government policy defines two levels of GPS accuracy; 1) 
Precise Positioning Service (PPS) for military use and 2) Standard 
Positioning Service (SPS) for civil use. A process called selective 
availability is used to degrade the GPS signal for SPS. PPS is 
available only to DOD and other authorized users and is denied to 
nonauthorized users through cryptography. The DOD guarantees a 
SPS peacetime signal accuracy of 100 meters with a 95% probability 
(95% of the time) and 300 meters with a 99.99% probability for 
latitude and longitude. Altitude (above mean sea level) can be 
determined to within 140 meters with 95% probability. Only under 
dire circumstances and by decision of the President, will the SPS 
accuracy be degraded beyond these values. 

Even with selective availability, GPS accuracy is much greater than 
any other en route navigation system. The benefits of GPS due to this 
increased accuracy are great. In the future, GPS will allow reduced 
separation en route, optimized routes and shorter flight paths, and 
improved access to remote airports that do not support radionavigation 
by aids such as VOR. However, GPS accuracy is not great enough for 
precision approach and departure (and would not be even if selective 
availability were turned off). A correction to GPS known as 
differential GPS (DGPS) may provide lateral and vertical accuracy of 
around 5-10 meters and may be developed to allow for precision 
approach and departure. DGPS is discussed further in the following 
section. 

Integrity refers to the ability of the system to provide timely warnings 
to users when GPS data should not be used. Users must remain aware 
of the integrity of the GPS data. Since four satellites are required for 
operation of the GPS, users must know if they are not accessing four 
satellites or if a satellite is not operational. 


1-5 


There are several ways a user can monitor the integrity of the GPS 
data. One method is for the pilot to continuously monitor and compare 
data from a second navigation source. A second method is known as 
receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM). Using RAIM, the 
receiver monitors its own integrity and alerts the user if integrity is 
lost. However, RAIM requires five operational satellites . A third 
method is automatic monitoring through the use of other navigation 
sources or perhaps differential ground stations (see section 1.3). 

Flight management systems may be designed to be equivalent to 
RAIM using other methods to monitor integrity and alert users when 
integrity is lost. The FAA requires one of these three methods to be 
implemented in operations of GPS. For IFR use, the FAA currently 
requires automatic integrity monitoring -- either RAIM or RAIM 
equivalent. 

1.2.3 Differential GPS 

Differential techniques may be applied to GPS to achieve substantial 
improvements in position accuracy and to provide integrity 
information (which should eliminate RAIM requirements in the 
future). DGPS uses information obtained from a land-based receiver 
at a surveyed site to determine and transmit corrections to users. 

DGPS systems have three basic components: 1) a land-based receiver 
that monitors and collects satellite data and compares the data with 
known survey position data, 2) a method of transmitting corrections 
determined at the site (or at a central control station) to users, and 3) 
user equipment that has hardware and software necessary to receive 
and apply the corrections to information received from GPS satellites. 

There are several methods of transmitting DGPS data to users. Data 
can be transmitted over a fairly small geographic area (up to about 150 
miles) or over a broad geographic area (beyond 150 miles). DGPS 
systems that transmit data over a fairly small area are known as local 
area augmentation systems (LAAS). LAAS data is normally 
transmitted from a ground-based site (such as an airport). DGPS 
systems that transmit over a broad area are referred to as wide area 
augmentation systems (WAAS). WAAS broadcasts can be transmitted 
via satellite to cover an area that is nearly hemispheric. 

The accuracy of DGPS systems is dependent on the distance from the 
user to the reference site. An aircraft 1 mile from the reference site 
may expect an accuracy of 3 to 5 meters. The required accuracy for a 
Category I precision landing is 17.1 meters horizontal and 4.1 


1-6 



meters vertical. As of 1996, DGPS is not approved for use by the 
general public as a navigation aid. A few DGPS ground stations have 
been built. Research on the use of DGPS is continuing and public use 
is expected to be allowed in the future. The FAA does allow approval 
of DGPS for special Category I instrument approaches on a case by 
case basis, generally for research and development purposes. 

1.3 GPS RECEIVERS AND EQUIPMENT CLASSIFICATION 

Several different types of GPS receivers are available to the aviation 
public and allowed for different aviation applications. Handheld or 
portable GPS receivers may be used as a supplement to VFR only. 
Airworthiness approval is required for anything that is structurally 
mounted to the aircraft, including antennas for portable GPS receivers. 

Panel mounted GPS receivers that use only GPS data and provide their 
own data display are often referred to as stand-alone GPS receivers. 
GPS receivers also may be integrated within a multi-sensor navigation 
unit or within a flight management system (FMS) and they may be 
coupled with an autopilot. Any of these types of equipment may be 
approved for VFR and IFR (oceanic, en route, terminal, and non- 
precision approach) if they meet specified performance criteria. 
Operations approval, as well as airworthiness approval, is required for 
air carrier IFR operations and for some general aviation long-range IFR 
operations. 

TSO-C129 specifies the performance criteria that must be met for the 
above equipment if it will be used for IFR. Table 1.3.1 provides the 
equipment classification given by TSO-C129. GPS receivers should be 
approved with the appropriate TSO-C129 class before airworthiness 
and operations approval is given. 

All equipment that will be used for IFR must have RAIM or a system 
monitoring function that is equivalent to RAIM. IFR approvals also 
require an approved and operational alternate navigation system 
appropriate for the route flown. 

Some GPS receivers are capable of operating as either GPS receivers or 
DGPS receivers. DGPS receivers can be approved for installation for 
certain special use applications, such as agricultural spraying, aerial 
firefighting, search and rescue, aerial photography, etc. Under special 
circumstances, mainly for research and development purposes, DGPS 
may be approved for IFR including special Category I precision 
instrument approaches. 


1-7 



Table 1.3.1 - IFR GPS Equipment Classification From 
TSO-C129 


GPS IFR EQUIPMENT CLASSES/CATEGORIES (TSO-C129) 


Integrity function: 

Approved for use in: 

Equipment 

Class 

RAIM 

Integrated 

Navigation 

System 

RAIM 

Equivalent 

Oceanic, En 
Route, and 
Terminal 

Non- 

Precision 

Approach 

Class A - GPS sensor and navigation capability 
(stand-alone receiver) 

A1 

yes 


yes 

yes 

A2 

yes 


yes 

no 

Class B - GPS sensor data to an integrated navigation 
system (i.e., FMS, multi-sensor, navigation system, etc.) 

B1 

yes 


yes 

yes 

B2 

yes 



no 

B3 


yes 

yes 

nmn 

B4 


yes 

yes 


Class C - GPS sensor data to integrated navigati 
(as in Class B) which provide enhanced guidar 
autopilot, or flight director, to reduce flight tc 
errors 

on system 
ice to an 

‘chnical 

Cl 

yes 


yes 

yes 

C2 

yes 


yes 

no 

1^^ 


yes 

yes 

yes 

■■ 


yes 

yes 

no 


Table 1.3.2 summarizes the allowable GPS uses, approval 
requirements, and equipment requirements. 


1-8 

































Table 1.3.2 - GPS and DGPS Uses, Required Equipment, 
and Required FAA Approval 


GPS and DGPS 
Uses 

Equipment Required 

Approval 

Required 

Special Use, Not for 
Navigation 

Any GPS or DGPS receiver 
(for portable/handhelds - see 
section 2.2.6) 

Airworthiness 

VFR 

Any GPS receiver (for 
portable/handhelds - see 
section 2.2.6) 

Airworthiness 

IFRPart91,137 
(En Route, 

Terminal, Oceanic) 

Panel mounted stand-alone or 
Multi-sensor GPS receiver, 
any TSO-C129 Class 

Airworthiness 

IFR Part91, 137 
(special use 
airspace, primary 
means) 

Panel mounted stand-alone or 
Multi-sensor GPS receiver, 
any TSO-C129 Class 

Airworthiness 

Operations 

IFR Part 91, 137 

(Nonprecision 

approach) 

Panel mounted stand-alone or 
Multi-sensor GPS receiver, 
TSO-C129 Class A1,B1,B3, 
C1,C3 

Airworthiness 

IFR Part 121,125, 

135 (Oceanic, En 
Route, Terminal) 

Panel mounted stand-alone or 
Multi-sensor GPS receiver, 
any TSO-C129 Class 

Airworthiness 

Operations 

IFR Part 121, 125, 

135 (Nonprecision 
approach) 

Panel mounted stand-alone or 
Multi-sensor GPS receiver, 
TSO-C 129 ClassAl,Bl,B3, 
C1,C3 

Airworthiness 

Operations 

Category I Precision 
Approaches 

Special DGPS receivers (not 
for public use) 

Must be 
approved by 
division 

Note: IFR ooerations generally reauire alternate navigation systems 

appropriate to the route flown. See questions 6 and 7 on pages 
1-11 to 1-12 for details. 


1-9 
























1.4 FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS 


1. What is a follow-on approval? How do / know if a GPS 
installation can he field approved? 

A follow-on approval refers to an approval of a GPS installation 
that is based on data (normally a TC or an STC) from a previous 
installation of the same GPS receiver. The aircraft make and 
model does not have to be the same as the aircraft from the original 
approval if the installation is similar. 

Generally, an installation can be field approved if it is a follow-on 
approval. However, there are some exceptions. Answer the 
questions in section 3.2 (page 3-6) to determine whether any 
specific installation can be field approved. 

2. When is a GPS installation considered a minor alteration and 
when is it considered a major alteration? 

Persons wishing to obtain original airworthiness certification of a 
GPS installation shall obtain approval by TC or STC. “VFR use 
only” follow-on approvals for GPS are considered major unless the 
installer has determined and can show that the installation of the 
GPS navigation equipment, including the antenna installation, does 
not impact the certificated properties of the aircraft design, i.e., 
does not meet the definition of a major alteration per FAR 1. IFR 
GPS installations are major alterations requiring an FA A Form 
337. 

3. What are the flight test requirements for GPS field approvals? 
When can the flight test be performed by the owner, operator, or 
repair shop and when is an FAA designated representative 
required? 

VFR installations will be functionally ground and flight checked 
(results will be recorded) to ensure correct operation and accuracy, 
in VFR conditions, by an appropriately FAA-certificated person or 
repair station, or an appropriately rated pilot. 

IFR installations will be functionally ground and operationally 
flight checked, in VFR conditions, to verify proper functioning of 
all equipment installed by the repair station. Ground and flight 
tests will be conducted by an appropriately FAA-certificated 
person or repair station or by an appropriately rated pilot. The 

1-10 



results will be recorded. Both installations will be checked to 
ensure that the equipment and its installation satisfies all 
interference immunity requirements and that mutual compatibility 
with other equipment and systems is maintained. 

4. What are the currency requirements for operators using GPS for 
IFR? 

Except for the normal currency requirements, there are no specific 
requirements for Part 91 or Part 137 operators using GPS for IFR. 

For Part 121, 125, and 135 operators, the pilot in command must 
complete a proficiency check using GPS every 6 months. To be 
used for nonprecision approach, pilot in command must perform a 
proficiency check on GPS approaches every 6 months. GPS can be 
used to replace another nonprecision approach navigation system 
but not vice versa. Both pilots must be current in their 
qualifications using GPS for a crew to complete a GPS 
nonprecision approach. 

5. WhaPs the difference between TSO-C-129 class B( ) approved 
equipment and TSO-C129 class C() equipment? 

TSO-C129 class B and class C equipment both provide data to an 
integrated navigation system. The difference is that class C 
equipment also provides enhanced guidance to an autopilot or 
flight director to reduce flight technical error. 

6. What alternate navigation equipment is required if GPS is to be 
used for IFR? 

For en route and nonprecision approach navigation, at least one 
alternate navigation system that is appropriate (FAA approved) to 
the route being flown must be installed and operational on the 
aircraft. In addition, for Part 121 and Part 135 operators, the 
navigation equipment requirements of FARs 121.349 and 135.165 
must be met. For example, air carriers may be approved for GPS 
nonprecision approaches if they are equipped with two operational 
VORs in addition to the GPS equipment. 


Ml 



For long-range navigation, an alternate navigation system that is 
different from GPS (e.g., INS or Omega) is required unless the 
operator is approved for use of GPS as primary means Class II 
navigation. Operators may be approved for single GPS or dual 
GPS as the “primary means” of navigation depending on the 
desired area of operations. For Part 121, 125, and 135 operators, 
this approval must be specified in their OpSpecs. Part 91 and 137 
operators are required to have an FAA letter of authorization for 
use of GPS as primary means long-range navigation. See section 
2.2.8 (p. 2-11) for more details on approval of GPS as primary 
means Class II navigation. 

7. When will DGPS be available for use in IFR? Will operators be 
able to use DGPS for precision approaches? 

DGPS is currently available for use in IFR, however not to the 
general public. The installation and the use of DGPS for IFR in the 
domestic U.S. require special approval that must be completed at 
the regional airways facility. DGPS also can be approved for use 
in Special Category I Instrument Approaches. FAA Order 8400.11 
describes the requirements for these approvals. References A7 and 
06 to this guide list the responsibilities of POIs and PAIs in these 
approvals. 

8. What type of instrument approaches may be flown using GPS 
and what are the airport ground-based equipment requirements? 

Unless special approval has been given to fly SCAT-I approaches 
using DGPS, only nonprecision approaches may be flown. A three 
phase GPS “overlay” program has been implemented to allow GPS 
instrument approaches. The first phase has been completed and is 
no longer applicable. 

The second phase of the “overlay” program allows operators to use 
GPS to overlay nonprecision approaches (excluding LOC, LDA, or 
SDF procedures). If an operator is using another nonprecision 
approach procedure and using GPS to overlay that procedure, the 
ground-based navigation equipment at the destination airport must 
be operational at the time the approach is flown. Ground-based 
navigation equipment needed to navigate to, and land at, an 
alternate airport also must be operational. 


1-12 



The third phase of the GPS approach “overlay” program involves 
the development of new lAPs that either combine GPS with other 
nonprecision approaches or are strictly for GPS use. These lAPs 
will have GPS in the title. If an operator is flying one of these 
approaches, the destination airport is not required to have 
operational ground-based equipment for the approach. However, 
ground-based navigation equipment needed to safely navigate to, 
and land at, an alternate airport is still required. 

FAA approval for nonprecision approaches using GPS is limited to 
U.S. NAS unless specific authorization has been given for foreign 
airspace. 



2.0 


APPROVAL PROCESS AND PRACTICES 


This section describes the process that should be followed by POIs and 
PAIs in the approval of GPS receiver installation and operation. The 
general approval process is described and a flow diagram is provided to 
clarify the steps in the process. There will be differences in the process 
depending on the type of approval given. These differences are 
described in section 2.2. 

2.1 GENERAL APPROVAL PROCESS 

2.1.1 Description 

The approval of the installation and operation of GPS should follow the 
same general five phase process described in the airworthiness 
inspector’s handbook, FAA Order 8300.10, and in the operations 
inspector’s handbook, FAA Order 8400.10. The application of this 
five-phase process to GPS installations is shown in table 2.1.1. 

Section 2.1.2 presents a process flow diagram that provides detail 
beyond the five phase process that is specific to the approval of GPS 
installations and operations. The process is separated into 
airworthiness approval and operations approval. Some applicants may 
initiate the process through their operations inspector (probably Part 
121 or Part 135 operators) while other applicants will initiate the 
process through their airworthiness inspector (probably Part 91 and Part 
135 small operators). 

The flow diagram provides a high level view of the approval process 
and should be used in conlunction with the detailed information 
provided in chanters 3 and 4 . The steps in the process are general 
and may not apply to special situations or approvals. Bold numbers 
placed next to the steps in the flow diagram indicate the section of this 
document that describes the step in more detail. 


2-1 


Table 2.1.1 - General Process for Approval or Acceptance 
Applied to GPS Approvals 



Airworthiness 

Operations 

Phase One 

Receive request from 
applicant for approval 
of GPS installation 

Receive request from 
applicant for approval 
of GPS operations 

Phase Two 

Inform applicant of 
required proposal 
documents. Check 
proposal for 
completeness. 

Inform applicant of 
required proposal 
documents/validation 
test plan. Check for 
completeness. 

Phase Three 

Analyze installation 
proposal documents for 
initial approval 

Analyze operations 
proposal for initial 
approval 

Phase Four 

Conformity inspection 
of installation 

Demonstration of 
capability to conduct 
GPS operations 

Phase Five 

Sign off on flight 
manual supplement 
and on Form 337 or 
other field approval 
document 

Update Operational 
Specifications, sign 
off on training 
program 


2-2 




2.1.2 Approval Process Flow Diagram 


GPS AIRWORTHINESS APPROVAL PROCESS 



2-3 











Receive installation 
test/inspection results 
from the applicant. 


Conduct conformity 
inspection (evaluate 
data, may include 
physical inspection) 


3.4.2 

Checklist A3, p. 3-16 


Is the installation 
airworthy? 


Document deficiencies 
and feed back to the 
applicant to correct and 
resubmit (or deny 
approval). 


Approve the installation 
(sign off on the flight 
manual supplement and 
the field approval). 


Make entry in Program 
Tracking and Reporting 
Subsystem (PTRS). 


2-4 







GPS OPERATIONS APPROVAL PROCESS 


Receive request for 
approval (letter of 
request). 



Detailed analysis of 
proposal. 


Coordinate with PAI/PMI 
to begin airworthiness 
process 


4.1 

No operations approval 
is necessary. Provide 
applicant with general 
operational requirements 
information (Checklist 
01, p.4-4). 


4.2 

Checklist 02, p. 4-9J 


4.3 

Checklist 03, p. 4-12^ 



Document deficiencies 
and feed back to the 
>1 applicant to correct and 
resubmit (or deny 
request). 


Continued on p. 2-6 


2-5 







GPS OPERATIONS APPROVAL PROCESS (Cont’d) 



2-6 




2.2 DIFFERENCES IN APPROVALS AND PRACTICES 

2.2.1 Federal Aviation Regulation Part Differences 

Airworthiness approval is consistent across different Federal Aviation 
Regulation (FAR) Parts. There are differences in airworthiness 
approval depending on the types of operations and the systems used 
(described below) but there are no differences specific to FAR Part 
categories. 

Operations approval of GPS equipment is slightly different across FAR 
Parts. The main difference is that operations approval is not required 
for Part 91 or Part 137 operations (unless the operations are for MNPS 
airspace or for primary means Class II operations). Part 91 and Part 
137 operators are, however, required to meet GPS operations 
requirements in their use of GPS. So, while inspectors dealing with 
Part 91 and Part 137 operators (airworthiness or operations) do not 
need to approve the operational use of the systems, they may want to 
recommend that the operators read the relevant FAA documents. 
Checklist 01 (page 4-4) provides a list of the general GPS operations 
requirements. 

In general, the operations approval requirements are the same for Part 
121, 125 and Part 135 operators. The operations approval requirements 
are provided in detail in chapter 4. 

2.2.2 Initial Versus Follow-on Airworthiness Approvals 

Much of the FAA regulation documentation on GPS airworthiness 
approvals distinguishes between initial and follow-on approvals. An 
initial approval is the first airworthiness approval for a given GPS make 
and model. Except for GPS installations that will not be used for 
navigation (special use), initial airworthiness approvals (both VFR and 
IFR) must be completed by the TC or STC process and are completed 
at the ACO level. This guide does not cover initial airworthiness 
approvals. 

Follow-on approvals are approvals of the same make and model GPS 
equipment on another aircraft using data from the original installation. 
The make and model of the aircraft may be different if the installation is 
similar. For a follow-on approval, the GPS hardware must be the same 
as the equipment from the original system. The GPS software and 
sensor mix must also be the same as the original system for field 


2-7 




approval without engineering assistance. In some cases, where the 
software or sensor mix differences are minor, the installation may be 
considered a follow-on installation, however, ASIs should consult their 
ACO before completing a field approval in these situations. 

Most follow-on approvals may be completed by field approvals. This 
guide covers field approvals only. Table 3.2.1 in section 3.2 
(p. 3-7) may be used to determine specifically whether a field approval 
is possible and if engineering or ACO contact is necessary. 

2.2.3 VFR, IFR, and Nonprecision Approaches 

GPS airworthiness approvals differ for VFR and IFR use. In general, 
there are more stringent airworthiness requirements for IFR use than for 
VFR use. The checklists in chapter 3 identify the differences in the 
specific approval requirements with a “V” to indicate a VFR item and 
an “I” to indicate an IFR item. 

Operations approvals also are different depending on whether a system 
is for VFR use, for IFR use to include nonprecision approaches, or for 
IFR use without nonprecision approaches. First, there is no 
requirement for operations approval for VFR use of GPS systems. 
Second, the operations approval requirements for IFR approvals is 
slightly different depending on whether the approval is to include non¬ 
precision approach capabilities. The TSO-C129 equipment class 
requirements are different as are training and check ride requirements. 
The checklists in chapter 4 specify the requirements that are unique to 
approvals that include nonprecision approach capabilities. 


2-8 



2.2.4 Multi-sensor GPS Receivers 

There are two types of GPS equipment - stand-alone GPS and multi¬ 
sensor GPS. Multi-sensor GPS equipment receives input from more 
than one navigation sensor, such as Loran and GPS. The general 
requirements for airworthiness and operations approval of GPS 
equipment is similar for both stand-alone and multi-sensor equipment. 
However, there are a few additional airworthiness requirements for 
multi-sensor equipment. 

Since multi-sensor installations may be more complex, the likelihood 
that an airworthiness field inspection can be completed for a follow-on 
installation is higher for stand-alone systems than for multi-sensor 
systems. This difference is taken into account in table 3.2.1 in section 
3.2 for determining the method of airworthiness approval. 

The TSO-C129 classifications also are different for multi-sensor 
equipment than for stand-alone GPS equipment. Specific airworthiness 
requirements that are unique to multi-sensor systems are described 
within the checklist items in chapter 3. With multi-sensor systems, 
aviation safety inspectors should pay close attention to issues such as 
effects on other equipment, pilot workload, autopilot coupling, and 
equipment operating environment. 

2.2.5 Special Use - Not for Navigation 

A special category of approval for GPS equipment is “Special Use - 
Not for Navigation.” Systems that are installed for special use (e.g., 
agricultural uses, search and rescue, etc.) that will not be used for 
aircraft navigation do not require operations approval and have less 
strict airworthiness approval requirements. The differences in 
airworthiness requirements for special use systems are noted in the 
checklists in chapter 3 with an “S”. PAIs evaluating GPS installations 
for special use should ensure that the flight test includes performance of 
maneuvers that will normally be undertaken while the GPS is in use. 


2-9 


2.2.6 Portable GPS Receivers 

Portable GPS receivers are becoming more common, especially in 
general aviation aircraft. Anyone using a portable hand-held GPS 
receiver is governed by FAR Section 91.21 which deals with portable 
electronic devices on aircraft. GPS yoke-mounted holders normally sold 
with the portable GPS receiver are not to interfere with the operation of 
the control of the aircraft or block the vision to primary instruments. A 
permanent, exterior GPS antenna can be installed with acceptable data. 

2.2.7 Area of Operations 

Class I operations are operations that occur within the operational 
service volume of ICAO standard airway navigation facilities (VOR, 
VOR/DME, NDB). Aircraft must be within one hour of a ground based 
NAVAID. Class II operations are operations that occur outside of the 
ICAO standard airways. There are several special navigation areas of 
operation within Class II airspace that require specific operations 
approval. 

An operator requesting approval to use GPS may also want to expand 
the area of operations. In this situation, ASIs will have to approve the 
expansion in the area of operations in addition to approving the use of 
GPS. The details of these additional steps are not provided in this 
guide. 

The main difference between approval to use GPS for Class I versus 
Class II airspace is the requirement for alternate navigation systems. 

The requirement is that the alternate be appropriate to the route flown. 
Class I GPS operations (en route and terminal) always require an 
approved alternate (different from GPS) appropriate to the route flown. 
Generally, Class II operations require an alternate long range system 
different from GPS (approved by the FAA). For example, the aircraft 
may operate with one GPS and one other FAA approved long-range 
navigation system such as INS or Omega. However, GPS can be 
approved for “primary means” Class II navigation using either dual 
GPS or single GPS as the only long-range navigation system. This 
approval requires evaluation of special fault detection and exclusion 
(FDE) systems and prediction programs. This issue is discussed in more 
detail in the following section. 

Another difference between operations approval for Class I versus 
Class II airspace is that approvals for Class II require validation flights 
as part of the validation testing/demonstration while Class I approvals 
do not. Details are provided in section 4.4. 


2-10 



2.2.8 Primary Means Versus Supplemental Means Navigation 

Using GPS as the “primary means” of navigation refers to the use of 
either single or dual GPS as the navigation equipment that provides the 
only means (other than dead reckoning) of satisfying the levels of 
accuracy and integrity of a particular area, route, procedure or 
operation. While GPS may not meet full availability and continuity of 
service requirements for an area, safety is achieved by limiting flights to 
specific time periods and through appropriate procedural restrictions. 

FAA documentation states that GPS may be approved for use as a 
supplemental means of navigation (but not as primary means) for most 
IFR operations. This does not mean that operators can’t use GPS as 
their main navigation system or that they must always be monitoring a 
different navigation system. Rather, it means that there must be a 
different alternate navigation system appropriate to the route flown that 
is installed and operational in the aircraft. Specific requirements about 
when and how this alternate navigation system must be used are 
described in Checklist 01 (p. 4-4) on general operations requirements. 

The only exception to this is for IFR en route long-range navigation in 
Class II airspace. If operators are approved for use of GPS as primary 
means of Class II navigation, a different alternate navigation system 
appropriate to the route flown is iiot required, long-range navigation in 
Class II airspace may be completed with dual GPS. In addition, long- 
range navigation may be completed with single GPS in certain areas of 
operation (Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Atlantic Ocean West of 
MNPS airspace, and/or special contingency routes in MNPS airspace) 
if operations approval has been given. 

There are differences in both airworthiness and operations approval if 
an operator desires approval to operate GPS as primary means in Class 
II airspace. In this situation, the GPS system must meet extra 
requirements for detecting satellite problems and excluding them from 
the navigation solution. GPS operators must have a prediction program 
that predicts both satellite outages that will affect navigation and 
satellite outages that will affect the receivers ability to detect and 
exclude faults. Equipment to be used in this manner requires 
coordination with the ACQ for airworthiness approval . Operations 
approval also requires extra steps. The checklists in chapter 4 identify 
these requirements and make reference to the details described in 
references 04 and 09. 


2-11 



For air carriers, the requirements described for both Class I and Class II 
operations do not preclude the requirements called out in FAR 135.165 
and FAR 121.349 which require two independent receivers for 
navigation and a marker beacon receiver. These requirements also must 
be met (though the alternate may be the same receivers that meet these 
requirements (e.g., VOR)). 

2.2.9 Differential GPS Airborne Receivers for Special Use 
Applications 

Currently, DGPS, as described in section 1.3, can be approved by ASIs 
for special use applications. These types of installations are considered 
nonessential and for special use, therefore, the criteria for equipment 
performance is to be determined by the GPS/DGPS equipment 
manufacturers. The flight crews are not to predicate navigation on the 
GPS/DGPS equipment. GPS/DGPS receivers and optional features, 
such as data logging, must be installed in accordance with FAA- 
approved data. 

2.2.10 Special Category I Instrument Approaches 

Special Category I (SCAT-I) Precision Approaches are specially 
authorized approaches made to MLS/ILS Category I minima (300’) 
using DGPS. FAA Order 8400.11 lists the requirements for IFR 
approval of DGPS SCAT I approaches. If an FSDO receives a request 
for an operator to conduct SCAT-I approaches, the request should be 
forwarded to Flight Standards Technical Programs Division (AFS-400) 
through the regional flight standards division. In addition, there are 
responsibilities for the POI and PAI in the SCAT-I approval process. 
These requirements are not covered in this document but are provided 
in FAA Order 8400.11 (references A7 and 06). As approvals for 
SCAT-I operations using DGPS become more common, changes to this 
document will integrate these requirements into the checklists provided 
in chapters 3 and 4. 


2-12 



3.0 AIRWORTHINESS APPROVAL 


This chapter covers the requirements for the, airworthiness approval of 
GPS. Three checklists and one decision table are provided for the 
airworthiness approval process. 

The checklists are coded with capital letters (I, V) to indicate required 
items and lower-case italicized letters (i, v, to indicate recommended 
items. As a conservative approach, inspectors should include all of the 
items in the approval process. This is especially true for the first 
follow-on approval of a GPS unit by a given repair shop. 

Important; The applicant must complete all items in the checklists. 
The “recommended” category is provided so that an inspector with a 
high degree of confidence in an applicant can choose whether or not to 
review each item. For example, flight test procedures are recommended 
as part of the initial data package. This means the inspector can choose 
whether or not to request flight test procedures from the applicant 
before providing initial approval to complete the installation. This does 
not mean that a flight test is optional - a flight test is required, whether 
or not the inspector reviews the procedures. 

There are five main sections associated with the airworthiness approval: 

1) Section 3.1 covers the required proposal documents or data. 

This section corresponds to Phase 11 of the FAA 8300.10 
airworthiness approval process (pp. Al*2-10, Vol 1 Ch. 3). 

2) Section 3.2 includes a decision table to help the airworthiness 
inspector determine whether the inspection can be completed as 
a field approval (with or without coordination with the AGO) or 
if it must be completed as a TC or STC by the AGO. 

3) Section 3.3 covers the steps that should be taken if a TG or STG 
is required. 

4) If the approval can be completed via field approval, section 3.4 
covers the remainder of the airworthiness field approval process. 
• Section 3.4.1 covers the detailed proposal analysis that 

corresponds to Phase III of the FAA 8300.10 approval 
process. 


3-1 



• Section 3.4.2 covers the conformity inspection (corresponds 
to Phase IV of the FAA 8300.10 approval process). 

• Section 3.4.3 covers the actual approval of the installation 
(corresponds to Phase V of the FAA 8300.10 approval 
process). 

5) Finally, section 3.5 provides requirements for ensuring 
continued airworthiness of GPS installations. 


3-2 


3.1 REQUIRED PROPOSAL DOCUMENTS 

Purpose : 

Provide applicant with a list of required installation data. Verify 

receipt of all required data in the installation proposal package 

(5). 

Procedure: 

A) Review the following checklist to determine what proposal 
data will be needed for the given airworthiness approval 
scenario. 

B) Inform applicant of required proposal documents or data. 

C) Verify that the received proposal package contains all of the 
required data by checking off the items in the checklist. 

D) Document deficiencies and inform the applicant if the 
package is incomplete. 

E) Deny the request for approval if the applicant fails to provide 
the required information. 

F) Continue with section 3.2 when the package is complete. 


3-3 



3.1 CHECKLIST A1 - REQUIRED DOCUMENTS 


I Required for IFR installations 

i Recommended for IFR (especially first follow-on of a type GPS 
by a particular repair shop) 

V Required for VFR installations 

V Recommended for VFR (especially first follow-on) 

s Recommended for special use (not for navigation) systems 


r 

Req’d 

Proposal Documents 

Date 

Rec’d 

■ 

■ 

Copy of STC or TC from originally 
approved aircraft (1) 


■ 

■1 

Sample (or copy of original approved) 
flight manual supplement (1) 


3 

1 

Sample (or copy of original) flight 
manual supplement if multiple naviga¬ 
tion sources, composite roll steering, or 
unusual limitations (1) 


■ 


Verification of equipment TSO-C129 
approval status (including antenna, soft¬ 
ware, autopilot, integration, etc.)(l) 


5 

I 

GPS environment specifications as 
provided by the manufacturer (maxi¬ 
mum operating speed, temperature, 
pressure, etc.) (1, 2) 


6 

i, V 

Environment specifications for pro¬ 
posed GPS installation location as pro¬ 
vided by the installer (maximum air¬ 
craft speed, temperatures, and 
pressures, etc.) (1, 2) 


7 


Installation drawings (inch antenna) (2) 


8 

BB 

Proposed cockpit layout of the 
installation (2) 


9 

m 

Structural analysis of proposed 
installation, including antenna (2) 


10 


Flight test program (3) 


11 

■ 

Wiring diagrams, descriptive wiring 
routing (2) 


12 

iy V 

Data flow diagram (recommended for 
multi-sensor VFR installations) (2) 


13 

s 

Ground test procedures (4) 

























3.1 REQUIRED PROPOSAL DOCUMENTS 
Requirements: 

(1) pp. A2. (4, 9,12); 7c(2)(i), 8c(2)(i), App. 1 Ic 

pp. A3. (9, 17-18,22, 24); 8c(2)(i), 9c(2)(iv), App. 1 2c, 3d 
pp. A4. (2, 5,6); IB, 4H, 5B 

(2) pp. A2.(3,6-7, 13); 7c(l)(ii), 8c(l)(ii), App. 1 2b 

pp. A3. (4-6, 11-14,23-24); 8c(l)(ii), 9c(l)(ii), App. 1 3b-c 
pp. A5.3; 6 

(3) pp. A2. (3-4, 8-9, 10-11); 7c(l)(iv),8c(l)(iv)F,J, 8c(2)(iv) 
pp. A3. (7-8, 14-16,18-21); 8c(l)(iv), 9c(l)(iv)K, 9c(2)(vii) 
pp. A4. (5, 6,6-7); 4F-G, 5B, 6B 

(4) pp.A5.2;4A 
Guidelines: 

(5) p. Al.(4-6, 10-12); Vol. 1 Ch. 3 33, Vol. 2 Ch. 1 5 


3-5 


3.2 DETERMINE METHOD OF APPROVAL 


Purpose : 

Determine whether airworthiness approval can be completed 
through field approval (with or without engineering assistance) or 
if a TC or STC is required. 

Procedure : 

A) Use table 3,2.1 on the following page to determine which of 
the following methods of approval will be used. A 
preliminary data analysis may have to be completed before 
you can answer all of the questions in the table. 

1. TC/STC - Approvals must be completed via TC or STC, 
continue with section 3.3. 

2. ACO - Approvals require engineering assistance. 
Contact your ACO, then skip to section 3.4 and continue 
with the approval. Flight tests may require the ACO or 
an authorized test pilot designated engineering 
representative (DER). 

3. Field Approval - A field approval can be completed. 

The installer can conduct the required flight tests. Go to 
section 3.4. 

4. None - Approval can be completed via FAA Form 337 
and approved data (airplane flight manual or flight 
manual supplement) without an ASTs signature in block 
3 of FAA Form 337. The approval does not require the 
field approval process. 


3-6 



3.2 DETERMINE METHOD OF APPROVAL 
Table 3.2.1 - Determine Method of Approval 


# 

Question 

If YES 

If NO 

1 

Is the approval a duplicate of an 
STC for the same equipment on 
the same model/type aircraft?(l) 

None 

Continue 

2 

Is the approval for special use 
(not for navigation)? (2) 

Field 

Approval 

Continue 

■ 

Is this the first approval for this 
type of GPS equipment? (3) 

TC/STC 

Continue 

m 

Is the approval for VFR use? 

go to #14 

Continue 

5 

Is this approval for primary 
means oceanic and remote? (4) 

AGO 

Continue 

6 

Is this a multi-sensor approval? 

Continue 


7 

Is the approval for TSO-C129 
Class C() equipment? (5) 

TC/STC 

Continue 

8 

Is the amount, type, or mix of 
sensors different from previous 
approvals? (6) 

ACO 

Continue 

9 

If an autopilot/flight director will 
be integrated with the GPS, is 
the autopilot or aircraft model 
and series different from 
previous approvals? (6) 

ACO 

Continue 

10 

Does the approval require 
changes to software affecting 
navigation, integrity, or the 
availability of functions? (6) 

TC/STC 

Continue 

11 

Is the cross-track deviation 
display outside of the pilot’s 
primary field of view? (6) 

ACO 

Continue 

12 

Are any GPS controls outside of 
easy reach of the pilot? (6) 

ACO 

Continue 

13 

Are any GPS annunciators out¬ 
side of the pilot’s normal field of 
view? (6) 

ACO 

Continue 

14 

Does the installation require a 
high degree of integration with 
the aircraft system? (6) 

ACO 

Continue 

15 

Are you uncomfortable with any 
part of the installation? (6) 

ACO 

Field 

Approval 


3-7 



















































3.2 DETERMINE METHOD OF APPROVAL 
Requirements: 

(1) p. A4‘2-3; lA, 1C 
p. 04.3; 5B 

p, 08.7; 6d 

(2) pp.A5.2;3 

(3) pp. A2.(2,5-6);7a,8a 
pp. A3. (8-9, 10); 8c(2), 9a 
p. A4. (4, 5,6); 4A, 5A, 6A 
p. 04.3; 5A 

p. 08.6; 6b 

(4) p. A4.7-8;8A 
p. 04.3; 5A,B 
p. 08.6-7; 6 

(5) p. A3.10-ll;9a(3) 

(6) pp. A2.(2,6);7a(2),8a(2) 

pp. A3. (8-9,10, 17, 23); 8c(2), 9a(2), 9c(2)(i-iii), App. 1 3a(2) 


3-8 



3.3 AIRWORTHINESS APPROVAL VIA TC OR STC 
PROCESS 

Purpose: 

If approval can not be completed via field approval, inspectors 
may assist the applicant with the TC or STC process and should 
track the results of the process. 

Procedure: 


A) Assist applicant with TC or STC approval request by helping 
them contact the appropriate aircraft certification office 
(ACO). 

B) Review TC or STC when complete. 

Note : Although no approval by the PAI or PMI is required 
for a TC or STC, the inspectors should be aware of the GPS 
installation. The inspectors may want to review the TC or 
STC for the considerations outlined in sections 3.4.1 and 
3.4.2. 

C) Coordinate with POI to begin operations approval (see 
chapter 4). 


3-9 


3.4 AIRWORTHINESS FIELD APPROVAL 


3.4.1 Detailed Analysis of Proposal 


Purpose : 

Analyze proposal package provided by applicant to assess the 

airworthiness of the proposed installation (9). 

Procedure: 

A) Analyze the proposal package in accordance with checklist 
A2. The depth of the analysis will depend on the particular 
approval situation and should be determined by the PAL 

B) Document any deficiencies in the proposal data and feed the 
information back to the applicant to correct and resubmit. 

C) Provide initial approval for the applicant to install the GPS 
equipment if the data are complete and indicate that the 
installation will be airworthy. 


3-10 


3.4.1 CHECKLIST A2 - DETAILED ANALYSIS 


I Required for IFR installations 

i Recommended for IFR (especially first follow-on of a type GPS 
by a particular repair shop) 

V Required for VFR installations 

V Recommended for VFR (especially first follow-on) 

s Recommended for special use (not for navigation) systems 


# 

Rea’d 

Proposal Data Analysis 

Pass 

1 

i,v 

TC/STC (1) 

a) Current for antenna, software, 
autopilot/flight director interface, 
system integration, etc. 

b) Indicates that equipment satisfies 
accuracy and ground test 
requirements 


2 

I 

TSO - C129 approval appropriate to 
desired operations (1) 


3 

h V 

Sample approved flight manual 
supplement includes: (2) 

a) Equipment operating limits 

b) Emergency/abnormal operations 

c) Normal procedures for GPS and 
interfaced equipment 

d) General description of GPS or 
reference to a pilot’s guide 


4 

i, V 

GPS environmental specification 
appropriate to aircraft environment 
(1, 3) 

a) Maximum speed 

b) Temperature, altitude, pressure 


5 

i, V 

Antenna installation (3) 

a) Isolated from other antennas 

b) Free from shadowing by aircraft 
structures 




Continued... 



3-11 




3.4.1 CHECKLIST A2 - DETAILED ANALYSIS (Continued) 


# 

m 


H 

6 

i, V, s 

Cockpit layout (3) 

a) Controls (accessible and visible) 

b) Displays and annunciators (within 
normal view - CDI, HSI within 
primary field of view for IFR) 

c) Circuit breakers (labeled and 
accessible) 

d) Switching arrangement 


1 

1, V 

Structural analysis (equipment and 
antenna) (3) 

a) Mounting 

b) Dynamics 

c) Crash load requirements 


m 

i 

Wiring diagrams and routing (3) 


m 

i, V 

Data flow diagram (recommended for 
multi-sensor VFR installations) (3) 

■ 



Electrical load analysis (3) 



i 

For aircraft approved for flight into 

icing, the antenna is resistant to ice 
buildup (4) 



■ 

Cockpit layout will include a placard 
stating “GPS (or Navigation or Flight 
Management System) limited to VFR 
use only” (5) 



s 

Cockpit layout will include a placard 
stating “GPS/DGPS not to be used for 
navigation” (6) 




Continued... 



3-12 











3.4.1 CHECKLIST A2 - DETAILED ANALYSIS (Continued) 


# 

Rea’d 

Proposal Data Analysis 

Pass 

14 

i, V 

Flight test procedures include: (7,10) 

a) Overall system function (covering 
all modes of multi-sensor systems) 

b) Steering response (if coupled to 
autopilot) 

c) Interference (either to or from other 
equipment) (see ref.) 

d) Accessibility of controls 

e) Visibility of displays, controls, 
annunciators 


15 

I 

Flight test procedures include: (7,10) 

a) Effects of failure 

b) GPS parameters on cockpit 
instruments 

c) Effects of switching and transfer 
functions 

d) Continuity of navigation in turns 
(360° left and right at 30° bank) 

e) Cross track error, flight technical 
error 

f) Instrument approaches (if approval 
includes approach, at least three) 






16 

s 

Flight test procedures include evaluation 
of aircraft performance through speed 
ranges and maneuvers normally 
conducted during specific application of 
GPS (8,10) 


17 

s 

Ground test procedures (8) 



3-13 

























3.4.1 Detailed Analysis of Proposal 


Requirements: 

(1) pp.A2.(4,9);7c(2)(i),8c(2)(i) 

pp. A3. (9, 17-18); 8c(2)(i), 9c(2)(iv) 
pp. A4. (2, 4-5); IB, 4E 

(2) pp. A2. (12, 13, 14-21); App.l Ic, App. 1 2c, App. 2 

pp. A3. (9, 17-18,22,24,25-32); 8c(2)(i), 9c(2)(iv), App.l 
2c, App.l 3d, App. 2 
pp. A4. (2-3,7); 1A-C,7A-B 


(3) pp. A2. (3,6-8,13); 7c(l)(ii), 8c(l)(ii), App. 1 2b 

pp. A3. (4-6,11-14,23-24); 8c(l)(ii), 9c(l)(ii), App. 1 3b-c 
pp. A5.3; 6 

(4) pp.A3. ll;9b(7) 

(5) pp.A2.3;7c(l)(ii)(D) 
pp. A3.4; 8c(l)(ii)(E) 
pp. A4.4; 4D 

(6) pp.A5.3-4; 7 

(7) pp. A2. (3-4,9,10-11); 7c(l)(iv), 8c(l)(iv)F, J, 8c(2)(iv) 
pp. A3. (7-8, 14-16, 18-21); 8c(l)(iv), 9c(l)(iv)K, 9c(2)(vii) 
pp. A4. (5,6, 6-7); 4F-G, 5B, 6B 

(8) p. A5. (2, 3); 4A, 5 


Guidelines: 

(9) pp. Al.(6-7,10-13); Vol. 1 Ch. 3 35, Vol. 2 Ch. 1 5 

(10) pp. A6.2-17; Ch. 2 


3-14 


3.4.2 Conformity Inspection 


Purpose: 

Conduct a conformity inspection of the GPS installation to ensure 
that the equipment was installed as described in the proposal 
package and meets the requirements of the flight test (8). 

Procedure: 


A) Inspect the GPS installation in accordance with checklist A3. 
The inspector may choose to inspect data only or may conduct 
a physical inspection of the aircraft. The depth of the 
conformity inspection will be dependent on the particular 
approval situation and should be determined by the PAL 

B) Document any deficiencies found during the inspection and 
feed back the information to the applicant to correct and 
resubmit. 

C) Continue with section 3.4.3 to approve the airworthiness of the 
installation if the results of the inspection indicate that the 
installation is airworthy. 




3.4.2 CHECKLIST A3 - CONFORMITY INSPECTION 


I Required for IFR installations 

i Recommended for IFR (especially first follow-on of a type GPS 
by a particular repair shop) 

V Required for VFR installations 

V Recommended for VFR (especially first follow-on) 

s Recommended for special use (not for navigation) systems 



Req’d 

Inspection Items 

Pass 

1 

i,v 

Form 337 (or other field approval 
document) indicates that installation was 
completed in accordance with accepted 
procedures and a functional flight test 
was conducted in accordance with AC 
20-138 (1) 


2 

i,v 

Limitations of flight manual supplement 
not different from limitations from 
original approved flight manual 
supplement (required for VFR if system 
includes multiple navigation sources, 
composite roll steering, or unusual 
limitations and operating procedures) (1) 


3 

I, V 

Flight manual supplement includes (2) 

a) Equipment operating limits 

b) Emergency/abnormal operations 

c) Normal procedure for GPS and 
interfaced equipment 

d) General description of GPS or 
reference to a pilot’s guide 






4 

i, V 

General function (3) 

a) GPS equipment functioning properly 


5 

1 

Interference (3) 

a) GPS equipment does not interfere 
with other equipment 

b) Other equipment does not interfere 
with GPS equipment (check 
harmonic interference from VHF 
transmitters - see (3) for frequencies) 






Continued... 



3-16 



















3.4.2 CHECKLIST A3 - CONFORMITY INSPECTION 


# 

Req’d 

Inspection Items 

Pass 

6 


Cockpit layout (4) 

a) Controls (within reach) 

b) Displays and annunciators (within 
normal view - GDI, HSI within 
primary field of view for IFR) 

c) Circuit breakers (labeled and 
accessible) 

d) Switching arrangement 

e) Matches description in flight 
manual supplement 







7 

i,v 

Antenna installation structurally sound 
(4) 

■ 

8 

i, V 

Flight test - review results of (data) or 

ride along (3, 9) 

a) Overall system functioning properly 
(all modes of multi-sensor systems) 

b) Accurate (over five known locations 

c) Steering response good (if coupled 
to autopilot) 

d) No interference (either to or from 
other equipment) 

e) Accessible controls 

0 Visible displays, controls, 
annunciators 










Continued... 



3-17 












.2 CHECKLIST A3 - CONFORMITY INSPECTION 


9 I i 


Inspection Items 


Flight test - review results of (data) or 

ride along (3, 9) 

a) Effects of failure are as expected 

b) GPS parameters displayed correctly 
on cockpit instruments 

c) Effects of switching and transfer 
functions as expected 

d) Continuous navigation through 
turns 

e) Cross track error and flight 
technical error within limits (flight 
technical error less than 1.0 NM for 
en route and approach transition, 
less than 0.25 NM for approach) 

f) Instrument approaches performed 
correct! 



Results of flight test - use of GPS does 
not interfere with aircraft or pilot 
performance (5, 9) 


Cockpit layout includes a placard 
stating “GPS (or Navigation or Flight 
Management System) limited to VFR 
use only” for VFR installations (6) 


Cockpit layout includes a placard 
stating “GPS/DGPS not for navigation” 
(7) 


Wiring within accepted standards (4) 


Results of ground test (review data or 
watch testing) (5) 




3-18 













3.4.2 Conformity Inspection 
Requirements: 


( 1 ) pp.A2.(4-5,9);7c(2)(i),8c(2)(i) 
pp. A3. (9, 17-18); 8c(2)(i), 9c(2)(iv) 
pp. A4. (2, 4-5); IB, 4E 

(2) pp. A2. (12, 13, 14-21); App.l Ic, App. 1 2c, App. 2 

pp. A3. (9, 17-18,22,24, 25-32); 8c(2)(i), 9c(2)(iv), App.l 
2c, App.l 3d, App. 2 

(3) pp. A2. (3-5, 8-9,10-11); 7c(l)(iv), 8c(l)(iv)F,J, 8c(2)(iv) 
pp. A3. (7-8, 14-16, 18-21); 8c(l)(iv), 9c(l)(iv)K, 9c(2)(vii) 
pp. A4. (5,6,6-7,9-10); 4F-G, 5B, 6B, 10 

( 4 ) pp. A2. (3,6-8,13); 7c(l)(ii), 8c(l)(ii), App. 1 2b 

pp. A3. (4-6, 11-14,23-24); 8c(l)(ii), 9c(l)(ii), App. 1 3b-c 
pp. A5.3; 6 

(5) p. A5. (2, 3); 4A, 5. 

(6) pp. A2.3; 7c(l)(ii)(D) 
pp. A3.4; 8c(l)(ii)(E) 
pp. A4.4; 4D 

(7) pp.A5.3-4; 7 


Guidelines: 

(8) pp. Al.(8-9, 10-13); Vol. 1 Ch. 3 37, Vol. 2 Ch. 1 5 

(9) pp. A6.2-17; Ch. 2 


3-19 



3.4.3 Field Airworthiness Approval 


Purpose: 

Finalize the airworthiness approval for the GPS equipment (4). 
Procedure: 


A) Sign off on the new flight manual supplement (generally IFR 
only, but may be required for VFR) (1). 

B) Sign off on the FAA form 337 (or other field approval 
document) (1). 

C) Make entry in the program tracking and reporting subsystem 
(PTRS). Fill out the “NATIONAL USE” block of FAA Form 
8000-36 with the letters “GPS” and a description of the type 
of GPS activity accomplished in the “Comment Text” 
Column (2). 

D) If the approval is for a special use, not for navigation system 
and the inspector determines that the data are capable of 
being used for other similar make and model operations, the 
inspector may authorize Block 3 of Form 337 for duplication 
for similar make and model aircraft (3). 


3-20 



3.4.3 Airworthiness Approval 
Requirements: 

(1) pp. A4. (2, 6, 7); lA-B, 5B, 7A-B 


(2) p. A4.8;9 

(3) pp.A5.3;6 
Guidelines: 

(4) pp. Al*(9-10, 10-13); Vol.l Ch.3 39, Vol.2 Ch.l 5 


3-21 



3.5 CONTINUING GPS AIRWORTHINESS 


Purpose: 

Ensure continued airworthiness of the newly installed GPS 
system. 

Procedure: 


A) For Part 121, 125 and 135 operations, coordinate with the 
POI to ensure that the operator’s maintenance program covers 
the following (1): 

1. Manuals, policies and procedures incorporate the GPS 
manufacturer’s instructions for continued airworthiness 
of the GPS equipment. 

2. As applicable, revisions to the MMEL, MEL, CDL 
and/or dispatch deviation procedures include the GPS 
equipment. 

3. Service difficulties with the GPS equipment are reported 
in accordance with FAR 121 and 135. 

B) Periodically, survey operator and/or repair shop activities to 
ensure continued GPS airworthiness. Review inspection 
reports, service reports, maintenance records, incident and 
accident reports, and other relevant information for potential 
GPS airworthiness problems. 


Requirements: 
(1) p.02.6;5F 


3-22 



4.0 OPERATIONS APPROVAIWALIDATION 


Operations approval is not required for special (not for navigation) 
use, for VFR use, or for Part 91 or 137 use (except in MNPS airspace 
or for use as “primary means” Class II navigation) of GPS. Operators 
requesting approval or information for operations that do not require 
operations approval may be provided with the General Operations 
requirements listed in the following section (section 4.1). 

Operations approval is required for Part 91 or 137 use if the approval 
is for operations in special use (MNPS) airspace or for use of GPS as 
“primary means” for Class II navigation. This approval is usually in 
the form of a Letter of Authorization (LOA). Guidance on these 
approvals is not included in the current release of this document, but 
will be included in the next revision. POIs are referred to FA A Order 
8700.1 chapter 222 for more information. 

Operations approval (and validation testing) is required for IFR use of 
GPS by Part 121, 125, and 135 operators. Validation testing may be 
completed without validation flights unless the approval is for 
operations in Class II or special use airspace. Validation flights are 
required for operations in Class II or special use airspace by any FAR 
Part operators. This chapter steps through the process for POIs to 
conduct operations approval/validation testing for the use of GPS. 

There are four checklists included in this chapter: 

(1) General Operations Requirements 

(2) Required Proposal Documents/Validation Test Plan 

(3) Detailed Analysis of Proposal 

(4) Demonstration/Validation Test 

The checklists are coded with letters in the left hand column to 
indicate requirements for different types of approvals (e.g., approvals 
for non-precision approach use or long range use). In addition, the 
checklists are coded with capital letters to indicate required items and 
lower-case italicized letters to indicate recommended items. As a 
conservative approach, inspectors should include each of the items in 
the approval process. The recommended category is provided because 
it is recognized that some inspection items may be difficult for 
inspectors and costly for operators. If necessary, inspectors may use 
other means (such as observing simulator tests to observe GPS 
operations) to evaluate recommended items. 


4-1 




There are six main sections in this chapter: 

i) Section 4.1 provides a checklist of general operations 
requirements for the use of GPS. ASIs should ensure that 
applicants are aware of, and are operating in compliance 
with, these requirements. 

ii) Section 4.2 is the first step in the approval process for an ASI. 
It provides a list of required proposal documents/validation 
test items. It corresponds to Phase II in the general approval 
process, training approval process, and validation test process 
listed in FAA Order 8400.10 Operations Inspector’s 
Handbook (reference 01, pp. 01 •2-33). 

iii) Section 4.3 provides a checklist of items that should be 
evaluated in a detailed analysis of the proposal. This step 
corresponds to Phase III in the 8400.10 operations approval 
process. 

iv) Section 4.4 is a list of demonstration (validation test) items 
(corresponds to Phase IV in the 8400.10 approval process). 

v) Section 4.5 provides details of completing the final operations 
approval (corresponds to Phase V in the 8400.10 approval 
process). 

vi) Finally, section 4.6 provides information on ensuring 
continued safe operations using GPS. 



4.1 GENERAL OPERATIONS REQUIREMENTS 


Purpose: 

Provide a list of general operations requirements to all operators 

planning to use GPS equipment. 

Procedure: 

A) Use this list to familiarize yourself and to provide information 
to operators on general GPS operations requirements. 

B) For operators that do not require operations approval, no 
further action is required. 

C) For operators that do require operations approval, continue 
with section 4.3. 


4-3 



4.1 CHECKLIST 01 - GENERAL OPERATIONS 
REQUIREMENTS 


V Required for VFR use 
I Required for IFR use 

N Additional requirements for IFR nonprecision approach 
L Additional requirements for IFR Class II (long-range) navigation 
P Additional requirements for GPS as “primary means” of IFR 
Class II navigation 


# 

Req’d 



1 

v,i 

GPS system is FAA approved for 
airworthiness (see chapter 3) (1) 

■ 

2 

V,I 

GPS equipment and TSO-C129 approval 
status appropriate for desired operations 
(see tables 1.3.1 and 1.3.2) (1) 

■ 

3 

1 

Aircraft equipped with approved and 
operational alternate appropriate to 
operations (2) 


4 

I 

Ground-based en route facilities for 
destination and alternate available and 
operational (3) 


5 

I 

Equipment has RAIM or RAIM 
equivalent capabilities (required by TSO- 
C129 approval class) (1) 


6 

P 

Equipment has approved FDE and FDE 
prediction program (4) 


7 

I 

Pilots review NOTAMs prior to flight for 
potential satellite outages (5) 

■ 

8 

I 

If RAIM capabilities lost during flight, 
pilot actively monitors alternate (6) 

■ 

9 

I 

If RAIM capabilities predicted to be lost, 
pilots rely on other approved equipment 
or cancel or delay flight (6) 


10 

I 

GPS operations conducted in accordance 
with approved flight manual or flight 
manual supplement (7) 


11 

P 

Flight manual supplement includes 
statement requiring FDE prediction 
program (7) 




Continued... 



4-4 




4.1 CHECKLIST 01 - GENERAL OPERATIONS 
REQUIREMENTS _ 


# 

Rea’d 

General Operations Requirements 

12 

I 

Flight plan includes appropriate suffix 
(usually/G - RNAV) (8) 

13 

I 

Air carrier and commercial operators 
meet provisions of OpSpecs (9) 

14 

■ 

Operations in special use (MNPS) 
airspace and/or “primary means” 
operations approved via Letter of 
Authorization (LOA) or OpSpecs (9) 

15 

L 

Class II operations not approved for 
“primary means” may be conducted with 
a single GPS with RAIM (TSO-C129 
Class A1, A2, B1, B2, C1, C2) and a 
different approved long range system 
(e.g., INS or Omega) unless approved 
for “primary means” (10) 

16 

P 

Class II operations approved for 
“primary means” may be conducted with 
dual GPS with RAIM (TSO-C129 Class 
Al, A2,B1,B2,C1,C2) (10) 

17 

P 

Class II operations approved for single 
GPS “primary means” (restricted areas) 
may be conducted with single GPS with 
RAIM (TSO-C129 Class Al, A2, Bl, 
B2,C1,C2) (10) 

18 

P 

Prediction program is used before 
departure to demonstrate (11): 

a) No outages in capability to navigate 

b) Maximum duration of loss of 
capability to detect faults (e.g., 
duration of RAIM not available) 
less than time to exit protected 
airspace at 35 NM/h cross track 

19 

P 

For navigation or integrity failures 
during flight (11), 

a) If GPS displays loss of navigation, 
pilot begins dead reckoning and 
reports to ATC and flight following 
Continued... 


4-5 





















4.1 CHECKLIST 01 - GENERAL OPERATIONS 
REQUIREMENTS 




General Operations Requirements 

Pass 

19 

P 

b) If capability to detect faults lost 
(RAIM not available), verify 
navigation integrity with last verified 
position and report to ATC 

c) If satellite fails, monitor position 
uncertainty - over 10 NM, use dead 
reckoning and report to ATC 




Equipment must be approved to TSO- 

C129 Class Al, Bl, B3, Cl, or C3 (1) 


21 

N 

Approach to be flown is retrievable from 
the GPS equipment database (12) 

■ 

22 

N 

Overlay instrument approach procedures 
to be flown are (12): 

a) Nonprecision 

b) Do not include LOG, LDA, or SDF 
procedures 

c) In U.S. NAS (unless otherwise 
authorized) 





23 

N 

Air carriers comply with FAR 121.349 
and 135.165 -- e.g., two VORs and 
operational ground NAVAIDs positioned 
to continue to alternate and land (13) 


24 

N 

Alternate airport has approved, 
operational, and available lAP (not GPS 
or Loran) that can be flown with aircraft- 
installed equipment (14) 


25 

N 

For approach procedures without GPS in 
the title (“overlay” procedures), ground- 
based alternate equipment is installed 
and operational at the destination and at 
alternate airport(s) (14) 




For approach procedures with GPS in the 

title, ground-based alternate equipment is 
installed and operational at alternate 
airport(s) (14) 



4-6 
















4.1 GENERAL OPERATIONS REQUIREMENTS 


Requirements: 

(1) pp. 02. (3-4,7); 5A(a), 8A-B 
pp. 04.3; 5A-B 

p. 07.6-8; Section 1 4 
p. 08.6; 6a 

(2) pp.02.(7,8);8E, 10 
p. 04.2; 1 

p. 08.2; 1 

(3) p. 02.7-8; 9 

(4) p. 04.4-5; 6D(1) 

pp. 08.(2-5,7-15) ;4-5, App. 
1-4 

(5) pp. 05.3; 3F 

p. 07.17; Section 3 2c 

(6) pp. 02.(7,7, 8,9); 8C, 8E, 

10, IID 
p. 05.2; 3C 
p. 07.17; Section 3 2d 

(7) p. 04.3; 5C 
p. 05.2; 3D 

( 8 ) p. 02-7; 8D 
p. 05.2; 3E 

p. 07.18; Section 3 2e 

(9) p. 02.6; 7 
p. 04.9; 9 

pp. 05.(3, 3-4); 3G, 4 

(10) p. 02.8; 10 

p. 04.2; 1 
pp. 05.3-4; 4 

p. 08.2; 1 


(11) pp. 04.(4-6); 6D-E 

(12) pp. 02.(8, 9); llA-B, 12A-B 
pp. 05.3-4; 4-5 

pp. 07.(4-6, 9-16); Section 1 
3e-g, Section 2 

(13) p. 02.10; 13 

(14) p. 02.(9,10); 12, 14 
p. 05.4-5; 6B-C 

pp. 07.4-6; Section 1 3e-g 


4-7 




4.2 REQUIRED PROPOSAL DOCUMENTSA'ALIDATION 

TEST PLAN 

Purpose : 

Provide applicant with a list of required data for operations 

approval. Verify receipt of all required data in the proposal 

package (9). 

Procedure : 

A) Review the following checklist and determine what proposal 
data will be required for the given operations approval 
scenario. 

B) Inform applicant of required proposal documents or data. 

C) Open a PTRS record (10). 

D) Verify that the received proposal package contains all of the 
required data using checklist 02. 

E) Inform the applicant of discrepancies and ask them to submit 
the missing information if the proposal is incomplete. 

F) Write a letter denying the request for approval for GPS 
operations if the operator refuses to correct the deficiencies. 

G) Continue with section 4.3 when the proposal package is 
complete. 


4-8 



4.2 CHECKLIST 02 - REQUIRED DOCUMENTS 

I Required for IFR use 

N Additional requirements for IFR nonprecision approach use 
L Additional requirements for long-range (Class II) navigation 


# 

Rea’d 

Proposal Documents 

Date 

Rec’d 



Letter of Request (1, 9) 

a) Make and model GPS 

b) TSO-C129 classification 

c) Airworthiness approval status 

d) Desired type of operations (e.g., 

IFR, nonprecision approach) 

e) Desired area of operations 

f) Verification of alternate navigation 
equipment and compliance with 

FAR 121.349 and 135.165 










Sample (or copy of original approved) 
flight manual supplement (2) 


1 


Proposed crew training program (3) 

a) Facilities 

b) Schedule 

c) Syllabus/outline for both classroom 
and practical training 

d) Courseware 






1 


Proposed crew qualification program(3) 

a) Initial qualification procedures 

b) Recurrent qualification procedures 

c) Initial and recurrent schedule 



. 



Manuals and procedures to be used (4) 

1. Pre-flight procedures 

2. General operating manual/ 
procedures 

3. Outage/emergency procedures 





B 

DH 

Validation program (5,10) 


D 

QUI 

Validation test flight plans (6,10) 


B 

DHI 

Maintenance program (7) 


1 

■ 

If applicable, special GPS lAPs 
(coordinate with regional flight 
procedures branch and AFS-400) (8) 



4-9 












4.2 REQUIRED PROPOSAL DOCUMENTS 
Requirements: 

(1) pp. 02.(3, 3-4); 4A,5A(a) 
p. 04-3; 5A-B 

(2) p. 04.3 5C 

(3) pp. 01.13-19; Vol.3Ch.2 315-321 
pp. 02.4-5; 5Ba-d 

p. 04.4; 6B-C 

(4) pp. 02. (4, 5,7); 5A(b), 5B(e), 8C 
pp. 04. (4-6); 6D-E 

(5) pp. 02.(3,5,6); 2D, 5E, 7A 

(6) pp. 04.7-9; 8 

(7) p. 02.6; 5F 

(8) p. 05.5; 6C 
Guidelines: 

(9) pp. 01.2-6; Vol.l Ch.4 205-209 

(10) pp. 01.30-36; Vol.3 Ch.9 1565-1573 and 1655-1667 


4-10 



4.3 DETAILED ANALYSIS OF PROPOSAL 


Purpose : 

Analyze proposal package provided by applicant to determine 
whether the proposed operations changes will provide for 
operations using GPS equivalent to the current level of safety (12). 

Procedure: 

A) Analyze the proposal package in accordance with checklist 
03. The depth of the analysis will depend on the particular 
approval situation and should be determined by the POI. 

B) Consult the appropriate references for additional approval 
requirements if the analysis indicates that the operator is 
requesting approval for operations that are beyond their 
current approvals using other navigation systems (for 
example, expanding IFR operations to include nonprecision 
approach or expanding areas of operation to include Class II, 
etc.). 

C) Document any deficiencies in the proposal data and provide 
feedback to the applicant to correct and resubmit. 

b) Write a letter denying the request for approval for GPS 

operations and for initial approval of the training program if 
the operator refuses to correct the deficiencies. 

E) Provide initial approval for the applicant to begin 
implementation of the training program if the data are 
complete and acceptable (12). This approval requires a letter 
with an expiration date of no greater than 2 years beyond the 
date of the initial approval. The letter should include: 

• Identification of the approved curriculum including page 
numbers and revision control dates 

• A statement indicating that initial approval is granted 
including the effective and expiration dates 

• Any specific conditions affecting the initial approval 

• A request for advance notice of training schedules 


4-11 




4.3 CHECKLIST 03 - DETAILED ANALYSIS 


I Required for IFR use 

N Additional requirements for nonprecision approach use 
L Additional requirements for long-range (Class II) navigation 
P Additional requirements for “primary means” Class II navigation 


# 

Req’d 

Proposal Data Analysis 

Pass 

1 

I 

Airworthiness approval complete (1) 


2 

I 

Equipment is TSO-C129 approved, any 
Class (2) 


3 

N 

Equipment is TSO-C129 approved to 
Class Al,Bl,B3,Cl,or C3 (2) 

■ 

4 

L 

Equipment is TSO-C129 approved to 
Class A1, A2, B1, B2, C1, or C2 (2) 


5 

I 

Operator complies with FAR 121.349 
and 135.165, aircraft equipped with 
alternate navigation system approved 
for IFR en route (3) 

1 

1 

N 

Aircraft equipped with alternate 
navigation system approved for non¬ 
precision approaches (3) 

■ 

1 

■ 

Aircraft equipped with alternate long- 
range navigation system (e.g., Omega, 
INS) (not required for “primary means” 
approvals) (3) 


8 

P 

For primary means oceanic and remote 
(4), 

a) FAA navigation specialist contacted 

b) Fault detection and exclusion 
(FDE) program approved 

c) Pre-departure FDE prediction 
program approved 





9 

I 

If area or type of operations is beyond 
current approvals with other navigation 
systems, additional requirements 
reviewed (see B. on previous page) 




Continued... 



4-12 
















CHECKLIST 03 - DETAILED ANALYSIS 



Proposal Data Analysis 

Pass 

Training program covers (5) 


a) Principals of GPS navigation 


b) GPS equipment operations 


i) Software use 


ii) Hardware operation and 


interface with other equipment 


iii) Database updating procedures 


iv) Limitations of GPS equipment 


c) Pre-departure procedures 


d) Standard en route procedures 


e) Emergency/contingency procedures 


f) Maintenance and dispatch 


procedures 


g) Contents of OpSpecs 



Training program covers use of GPS as 
primary means of navigation for long 
range and use of fault detection and 
evaluation (FDE) prediction program 
( 6 ): 

a) Pre-departure procedures 

b) En route procedures 


Training program includes practical 
training (in flight, in a simulator, or 
with GPS equipment in simulation 
mode) (5) 


Training schedule includes adequate 
hours to cover topics and for crew to 
pass a written exam and proficiency 
check (5) 


Continued... 




4-13 























CHECKLIST 03 - DETAILED ANALYSIS 




Proposal Data Analysis 


Qualification program proficiency check 

(7) 

a) In flight or in approved simulator 

b) Covers all requested operations 

c) Consistent with qualification 
required for ILS, VOR/DME, 
RNAV and multi-sensor RNAV/ 
FMS 

d) If approval includes special GPS 
approach procedures (e.g., steep 
descent), covers similar approaches 


Qualification program includes recurrent 
training/qualification (7) 

a) In flight or in approved simulator 

b) Pilot in command performs GPS 
nroficiencv check everv 6 months 


Recurrent qualification program (7) 

a) Pilot in command performs GPS 
approach proficiency check every 6 
months 

b) GPS may substitute for another non 
precision approach but not vice 
versa 

c) Unless both pilots are qualified, 
crew cannot perform a GPS 
anoroach in IMG 


Manuals, policies, procedures (8) 

a) Updated to be consistent with GPS 
manufacturer’s recommendations 

b) Include outage procedures 

c) Include pre-departure procedures 

d) Include instructions for continued 
airworthiness 


Continued... 



4-14 













4.3 


CHECKLIST 03 - DETAILED ANALYSIS 


# 

Rea’d 

Proposal Data Analysis 

Pass 

18 

I 

Maintenance Program (9) 

a) Includes GPS manufacturers 
requirements for maintenance and 
continued maintenance 

b) Covers revisions to MMEL, MEL, 
CDL, and dispatch deviation for 

GPS as applicable 

c) Service difficulties reported in 
accordance with FARs 121 and 135 




Validation program ensures GPS system 
is accurate and reliable (10,12) 

■ 

20 

L 

Validation test flight plans include: (11, 
12) 

a) At least one flight observed by ASI 

b) Dispatch procedures will 
demonstrate Class II navigation in 
area where operations are intended 

c) Adequate duration to demonstrate 

i) Knowledge of dispatch 
requirements 

ii) Capability to navigate with 

GPS 

iii) Normal and non-normal 
procedures 

d) For operator without previous Class 

II experience, at least one non¬ 
revenue (except cargo) flight in 

Class II area where it plans to 
operate 

e) For operator with previous Class II 
experience, at least one flight in 
either: 

i) Class I to simulate Class II 
(may be revenue) or 

ii) Class II (nonrevenue except 
cargo) 

f) For NAT/MNPS airspace, pass 
performance data in AC 120-33 



4-15 

















4.3 DETAILED ANALYSIS OF PROPOSAL 


Requirements: 

(1) pp. 02.3-4; 5A(a) 
p. 04.3; 5A-B 

(2) p. 02.6-7; 8A-B 
p. 05.2; 3A 

p. A4.9-10; 10 

(3) pp. 02. (7, 8, 10); 8E, 10,13 
pp. 05.(2, 3-4); 3B, 4 

pp. 09. (2-4, 5-6); 121.347-121.349. 135.165 

(4) pp. 04.(3-4,4-6); 6A, 6D-E 

pp. 08. (2-5,7-15); 4-5, App. 1-4 


(5) pp. 02.4-5; 5B(a)-(c) 
p. 04.4; 6B-C 

(6) pp, 04.4-6; 6B-E 

(7) pp,02.(4,5);5B(a),(c)-(d) 
p. 04.4; 6C 

pp. 09. (4-5, 6-8); 121.441,135.297 

(8) pp.02.(4,7);5A(b)-(c),8C 
p. 04.4; 6B 

(9) pp. 02. (4,6); 5A(b)-(d), 5F 

(10) p. 02.5; 5E 
pp. 04.7-9; 7, 8 

(11) pp. 04.7-9; 7, 8 
Guidelines: 

(12) pp. 01.(6-7.19-24, 32-33, 33-36); Vol.l Ch.4 211, Vol,3 Ch.2 

327-333, Vol.3 Ch.9 1569,1655-1667 


4-16 



4.4 DEMONSTRATIONA^ALIDATION TESTING 


Purpose: 

Evaluate operator’s demonstration of the capability to conduct safe 

operations using GPS navigation (7). 

Procedure: 

A) Ensure that the operator has adequately demonstrated its 
capability to conduct safe GPS operations using checklist 04 
on the following pages. In general, these items are 
verifications that the operator is conducting training, 
qualification, and operations in the manner described in the 
proposal package. 

B) Document any deficiencies in the operator’s performance. 

C) Provide feedback to the applicant to correct any deficiencies in 
the operator’s performance if identified. Reevaluate new data 
in accordance with section 4.3 and reevaluate the 
demonstration in accordance with this section if necessary. 

D) Write a letter denying the request for approval for GPS 
operations if the operator refuses to correct the deficiencies. If 
applicable, write a letter withdrawing the initial approval of 
the GPS training program. 

E) Indicate that the operator has adequately demonstrated its 
capability to operate using GPS navigation and continue with 
section 4.5 to approve the operator’s use of GPS if the data are 
complete. 


4-17 




4.4 CHECKLIST 04 - DEMONSTRATIONA^ALIDATION 
TEST 


Required for IFR use 
Recommended for IFR use 

Additional requirements for nonprecision approach use 
Additional recommendations for nonprecision approach use 
Additional requirements for long-range (Class II) navigation 
Additional requirements for “primary means” Class II navigation 



Observe initial training sessions and 
evaluate (7) 

a) Curriculum outline 

b) Courseware 

c) Instructional delivery methods 

d) Training environment 

e) Training hours 

f) Practical (hands on) training 

g) Testing and checking (including 


Observe training program and verify 
coverage of topics in proposal: (1) 

a) Principals of GPS navigation 

b) GPS equipment operations 

i) Software use 

ii) Hardware operation and 
interface with other equipment 

iii) Database updating procedures 

iv) Limitations of GPS equipment 

c) Pre-departure procedures 

d) Standard en route procedures 

e) Emergency/contingency procedures 

f) Maintenance and dispatch 
procedures 

) Contents of OpSpecs 




4-18 








4.4 CHECKLIST 04 - DEMONSTRATIONA^ALIDATION 
TEST 


# 

Rea’d 

Proposal Documents 

Pass 

3 

P 

Observe training program and verify 
coverage of use of GPS as primary 
means of navigation for long-range 
navigation (2) 



I 

Observe initial qualification 
proficiency checks and verify the 
following: (3) 

a) In flight or in approved simulator 

b) Covers all requested operations 

c) Consistent with qualification 
required for ILS, VOR/DME, 
RNAV and multi-sensor RNAV/ 
FMS 

d) If applicable, includes any special 
GPS approach procedures 






5 

i 

Observe recurrent qualification 
program and verify pilot in command 
performs GPS proficiency check every 

6 months (3) 


6 

n 

! Observe recurrent qualification 
program and verify both pilots perform 
GPS proficiency check every 6 months 
(3) 


7 

i 

Survey operator activities to ensure 
that they are performing GPS 
operations in accordance with 
approved manuals policies and 
procedures(4) 


8 

i 

Verify that operator is conducting a 
validation program to ensure that the 
GPS is accurate and reliable (5) 




Continued... 



4-19 










4.4 CHECKLIST 04 - DEMONSTRATIONA^ALIDATION 
TEST 


# 

Req’d 

Proposal Documents 

Pass 

9 

L 

Ride on at least one validation test flight 
and verify: (6) 

a) Dispatch procedures demonstrate 
Class II navigation area where 
operations are intended 

b) Demonstrates knowledge of 
dispatch requirements 

c) Demonstrates capability to navigate 
with GPS 

d) Demonstrates normal and non¬ 
normal procedures 

e) For operator without previous Class 

II experience, flight must be non¬ 
revenue (except cargo) in Class II 
area of planned operation 

f) For operator with previous Class II 
experience, flight must be either: 

i) Class I to simulate Class II 
(may be revenue) or 

ii) Class II (nonrevenue except 
cargo) 


10 


Validation flight includes both pre¬ 
departure and en route procedures for 
FDE prediction program (6) 


11 

i 

Ride on a flight in which the operator is 
conducting GPS operations and evaluate 
operator’s capability to navigate using 
GPS. 


I 2 ” 

n 

Ride on a flight in which the operator is 
conducting GPS operations and evaluate 
operator’s capability to conduct non¬ 
precision approaches using GPS. 



4-20 







4.4 DEMONSTRATIONA^ALIDATION TESTING 


Requirements: 

(1) pp. 024-5; 5B(a)-(c) 
p. 044;6B.C 

(2) pp. 04.4-6; 6C-E 

(3) pp. 02.(4, 5); 5B(a), (c)-(d) 
p. 04.4; 6C 

pp. 09. (4-5, 6-8); 121.441, 135.297 

(4) pp.02.(4,7);5A(b)-(c),8C 
p. 04.4; 6B 

(5) p. 02.5; 5E 
pp. 04.7-9; 7, 8 

(6) pp. 04.7-9; 7, 8 
Guidelines: 

(7) pp. Ol. (7-9, 24-27, 33,34-36); Vol.l Ch.4 213, Vol.3 Ch.2 
335-337, Vol.3 Ch.9 1571, 1665-1667 


4-21 



4.5 ISSUING THE OPERATIONS APPROVAL 


4.5.1 Updating Operations Specifications 


Purpose: 

Update the operator’s Operations Specifications (OpSpecs) to 
allow them to begin operations using GPS for navigation (1). 

Procedure: 


A) Verify that the operator has passed the items in checklists 03 
and 04 and has demonstrated their capability to conduct safe 
operations using GPS. 

Note: The POI may choose to update the OpSpecs to allow 

the operator to begin GPS operations before final 
training approval has been given. However, if the 
operator does not receive final training approval 
before the expiration of the initial training approval, 
the POI will have to remove GPS operations from 
the operator’s OpSpecs. 

B) Follow the steps in the following tables to update the 
operator’s OpSpecs for the following operations: 

• Class I en route authorization - Table 4.5.1 (page 4-23) 

( 2 ) 

• Class II en route authorization - Table 4.5.2 (page 4-25) 

(3) 

• Class II en route authorization for GPS as primary means 
- Table 4.5.3 (page 4-32) (4) 

• Nonprecision approach authorization - Table 4.5.4 (page 
4-35) (5) 


4-22 



4.5.1 Updating Operations Specifications 


Table 4.5.1 Operations Specification Issuance Instructions for En 
Route Authorization for Use of GPS for Class I 
Navigation 

CE Class I en route authorization 

RNAV Additional requirement if existing avionics installation does 
not include RNAV capability 

PCA Additional requirement if Class I navigation is authorized In 
Class A airspace (PCA) 


# 

Req’d 

Class I En Route (2) 

1 

CE 

Log on to the subject operator’s OpSpecs in the 
Flight Standards Automation Subsystem 
(FSAS), Operations Specifications Subsystem 
(OPSS). 

2 

RNAV 

Mark the Operations Specification checklist to 
check the appropriate block (paragraph B34 
requires 6b or 12c and 5q to be checked; 
paragraph B35 requires 4a and [4c or 6b] and 

5p to be checked) 

3 

CE 

Using the “Additional Text” feature for 
paragraph B31, insert the following new 
subparagraph at the beginning of the 
“Additional Text” section: 

''The operator may use approved GPS 
navigation equipment as a supplement to ICAO 
standard navigation equipment while 
conducting Class 1 navigation,” 

4 

CE 

Change the signature block of paragraph B31 to 
reflect the Effective Date anticipated for 
paragraph approval. Change the Amendment 
Number field to reflect the next sequential 
number. 

5 

CE 

Using the “Additional Text” feature for 
paragraph B34a, insert the aircraft model, and 
the make and model of the GPS receiver. 



Continued... 


4-23 






4.5.1 Updating Operations Specifications 


# 

Req’d 

Class I En Route (2) 

6 

CE 

Change the signature block of paragraph B34 
to reflect the Effective Date anticipated for 
paragraph approval. Change the Amendment 
Number field to reflect the next sequential 
number. 

1 

PCA 

In paragraph B35a, insert the aircraft make 
and GPS receiver make and model in the 
existing table. 

8 

CE 

In paragraph B50, access the Limitations, 
Provisions, and Reference Paragraphs section 
for the specific areas authorized, and insert 
paragraph B35 adjacent to the existing 
referenced paragraphs. Class I navigation 
using GPS shall be authorized only for the 

U.S. NAS unless authorized by the 
appropriate sovereign state. If RNAV 
equipment (other than GPS) is authorized in a 
foreign state(s), paragraph B50 shall contain a 
limitation to prohibit the use of GPS for Class 

I navigation in a foreign state(s). 

9 

CE 

Change the signature block of paragraph B50 
to reflect the Effective Date anticipated for 
paragraph approval. Change the Amendment 
Number field to reflect the next sequential 
number. 

10 

CE 

Print paragraph B31, B34, B35 and B50, as 
appropriate, in final form. 

11 

CE 

Present the documents to the operator for 
acceptance, and recover the existing 
documents 


4-24 









4.5.1 Updating Operations Specifications 

Table 4.5.2 Operations Specification Issuance Instructions for En 
Route Authorization for Use of GPS for Class II 
Navigation 

CUE Class II en route authorization 

CEP AC Additional steps to include CEP AC airspace 

NOP AC Additional steps to include NOPAC airspace 

MNPS Additional steps to include MNPS airspace 

MU Additional steps to include Areas of Magnetic Unreliability 


# 

Req’d 

Class II En Route (3) 

1 

CUE 

Log on to the operator’s OpSpecs in the 

Flight Standards Automation Subsystem 
(FSAS), Operations Specifications Subsystem 
(OPSS). 

2 


Mark the Operations Specification checklist 
to check the appropriate block. Paragraph 

B36 requires question 4c and (5n or 5o) to be 
checked, as appropriate. 

3 

CUE 

In paragraph B36, subparagraph a(l), insert 
the aircraft make and GPS receiver make and 
model 

1 

CUE 

Change the signature block of paragraph B36 
to reflect the Effective Date anticipated for 
paragraph approval. Change the Amendment 
Number to reflect the next sequential number 

5 

CUE 

Print paragraph B36. 

6 

CEPAC 

Mark the Operations Specification checklist 
to check the appropriate block. Paragraph 

B37 requires question 4a and 4c; and, 5n or 

5o; and, 51 to be checked, as appropriate. 

7 

CEPAC 

Change the signature block of paragraph B37 
to reflect the Effective Date anticipated for 
paragraph approval. Change the amendment 
Number to reflect the next sequential number. 



Continued... 


4-25 


4.5.1 Updating Operations Specifications 


# 

Req’d 

Class II En Route (3) 

8 

CEPAC 

Print paragraph B37 in final form. The 
purpose for issuance of paragraph B37 using 
the OPSS software is to make a permanent 
record of the issuance in the national data 
base. The computer generated page will be 
discarded and be replaced as described below. 

9 

CEPAC 

Manually update the table of contents 

Revision Page to include, 

3 7. Operations In Central East Pacific 
(CEPAC) Airspace - Authorization And 
Limitations 

* = Authorized in A4'' 

10 

CEPAC 

Fill in Paragraph B37 (Revision) page: 

“537. Operations in Central East Pacific 
(CEPAC) Composite Airspace (05111195). The 



certificate holder is authorized to conduct 
operations in Central East Pacific (CEPAC) 
airspace (between the State of Hawaii and the 
48 contiguous states) where composite 
separation is applied by ATC, provided the 
provisions of this paragraph are met. The 
certificate holder shall not conduct any other 
operations in this airspace under these 
operations specifications, 
a. Reauired Navigation Capabilities. The 
certificate holder shall not takeoff an 
airplane for flight within CEPAC airspace, 
where composite separation is applied by 
ATC, unless at least one of the following 
navigation capabilities is available and 
operational: 

(1) Two independent approved Inertial 
navigation systems. 

(2) Two independent approved Omega 
navigation systems. 



Continued... 


4-26 


4.5.1 Updating Operations Specifications 


# 

Req’d 

Class II En Route (3) 

10 

CEPAC 

...continued 

(3) An approved redundant navigation 
capability consisting of an independent 
Inertial navigation system and an 
independent Omega navigation system. 

(4) An approved Doppler radar 
navigation system and either an 
approved Inertial navigation system or 
an approved Omega navigation system 

(5) An approved redundant navigation 
capacity consisting of an independent 
Global Positioning System (GPS) and 
either an independent Inertial 

Navigation SystemIInertial Reference 
System or an Independent Omega 
navigation system.” 

11 

NOPAC 

Mark the Operations Specification checklist 
to check the appropriate block. Paragraph 

B38 requires question 4c and 5n, or 5o and 

5m to be checked, as appropriate. 

12 

NOPAC 

Change the signature block of paragraph 

B38 to reflect the Effective Date anticipated 
for paragraph approval. Change the 
Amendment Number to reflect the next 
sequential number. 

13 

NOPAC 

Print paragraph B38 in final form. The 
purpose for issuance of paragraph B38 using 
the OPSS software is to make a permanent 
record of the issuance in the national data 
base. The computer generated page will be 
discarded and be replaced as described 
below. 

14 

NOPAC 

Manually update the table of contents 

Revision Page to include 
"*38.0perations In North Pacific (NOPAC) 
Airspace 

* = Authorized in A4” 



Continued... 


4-27 


4.5.1 Updating Operations Specifications 


# ReqM Class II En Route (3) _ 

15 NOP AC Fill in Paragraph B38 (Revision) page to 

include: 

‘'B38. Operations in North Pacific (NOPAC) 
Airspace (05111195) . The certificate holder is 
authorized to conduct North Pacific {NOPAC) 
operations within the area of operation 
authorized in subparagraph a., provided any 
operation within this area meets the 
provisions of this paragraph. The certificate 
holder shall not conduct any other operation 
within this area of operation under these 
operations specifications. 

a. Authorized Area of Operation . The area 
of operation authorized by this paragraph 
lies within the Anchorage and Tokyo FIR’s. 
The southern lateral boundary of this area 
is 100 NM south of the southernmost route 
where composite separation is applied, and 
the northern lateral boundary is the 
northern boundaries of the Anchorage and 
Tokyo fir’s. The vertical boundaries 
include the airspace between the MEA and 
the MAA. 

b. Airborne Weather Radar 
Limitations!Procedures . The certificate 
holder shall not takeoff for flight within this 
area of operation unless airborne weather 
radar approved for ground mapping, is 
installed and operational. The certificate 
holder shall use the radar on a full-time 
basis for monitoring navigational system 
accuracy and weather avoidance while 
operating within this area. 


Continued... 


4-28 




4.5.1 Updating Operations Specifications 


# ReqM 
15 NOPAC 


Class 11 En Route (3) ___ 

c. Required Navieation and Capabilities . 
The certificate holder shall not takeoff for 
flight within the authorized area of 
operation unless at least the following 
navigation capabilities are available and 
operational. 


(1) For all flights at FL 280 or above, 
at least one of the following: 

(a) Two independent approved 
Inertial navigation systems. 

(b) Two independent approved 
Omega navigation systems. 

(c) An approved redundant 
navigation capability consisting of an 
independent Inertial navigation 
system and an independent Omega 
navigation system. 

(d) An approved Doppler radar 
navigation system and either an 
approved Inertial navigation system 
or an approved Omega navigation 
system. 

(e) An approved redundant 
navigation capacity consisting of an 
independent Global Positioning 
System (GPS) and either an 
independent Inertial Navigation 

System!Inertial Reference System or 
an independent Omega Navigation 
System. 

(2) For all flights at FL 270 and below, 
either of the following conditions must 
be met: 

(a) The equipment specified in 
subparagraph c.(I) above is installed 
and operational. 


Continued... 


4-29 


4.5.1 Updating Operations Specifications 


# 

Req’d 

Class II En Route (3) 

15 

NOPAC 

...continued 

(b) A flight navigator is used with the 
required navigation equipment 
specified in paragraph B36b,(J)(a) or 
B36b.(l)(b). 



d. Special Routing Limitations. For West 
bound flights transitioning to North Pacific 
routes designated R-220 and R-580, the 
certificate holder shall accomplish all 
transitions to these routes via the published 
oceanic transition routes or published 
airways." 

16 

MNPS 

Mark the Operations Specification checklist to 
check the appropriate block. Paragraph B39 
requires question 4a and 4c checked; 5k 
checked and 5n or 5o checked, as appropriate. 

17 

MNPS 

Change the signature block of paragraph B39 
to reflect the Effective Date anticipated for 
paragraph approval. Change the Amendment 
Number to reflect the next sequential number. 

18 

MNPS 

If unrestricted routing is to be authorized, in 
paragraph B39, subparagraph c, insert the 
aircraft make, GPS receiver make and model 
and the make and model of the second long- 
range navigation system. 

19 

MNPS 

If restricted routing over special contingency 
routings (Blue Spruce Routes) with a single 

GPS is to be authorized, in paragraph B39, 
subparagraph d, insert the aircraft make, and 
GPS receiver make and model. 

20 

MNPS 

Print paragraph B39 in final form 

21 

MU 

Using the “Additional Text” feature for 
paragraph B40, insert aircraft makes, make 
and model of the GPS receiver, and the make 
and model of the second long-range 
navigation system, in the navigation 
equipment table. 



Continued... 


4-30 


4.5.1 Updating Operations Specifications 


# 


Class II En Route (3) 

1 


Change the signature block of paragraph B40 
to reflect the Effective Date anticipated for 
paragraph approval. Change the Amendment 
Number to reflect the next sequential number. 

H 

esishh 

Print paragraph B40 in final form. 

24 

CUE 

\ 

Present the documents to the operator for 
acceptance and recover the existing 
documents. 







4.5.1 Updating Operations Specifications 

Table 4.5.3 Operations Specification Issuance Instructions for En 
Route Authorization for Use of GPS as Primary 
Means for Class II Navigation 

PRIM Authorization for dual GPS as primary means of Class II en 
route navigation 

SING Additional steps to include use of single GPS as primary 
means of Class II navigation (may only be issued for 
operations in the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and the 
Atlantic Ocean west of MNPS airspace) 

MNPS Additional steps to include MNPS airspace 

MU Additional steps to include Areas of Magnetic Unreliability 


# 

Req’d 

Primary Means Class II En Route (4) 

1 

PRIM 

Log on to the operator’s OpSpecs in the 

Flight Standards Automation Subsystem 
(FSAS), Operations Specifications 

Subsystem (OPSS). 

2 

PRIM 

Mark the Operations Specification checklist 
to check the appropriate block. Paragraph 

B36 requires question 4c and (5n or 5o) to 
be checked, as appropriate. 

3 

PRIM 

In paragraph B36, subparagraph a(l), insert 
the aircraft make and the makes and models 
of the GPS receivers. 

4 

PRIM 

Change the signature block of paragraph 

B36 to reflect the Effective Date anticipated 
for paragraph approval. Change the 
Amendment Number to reflect the next 
sequential number. 

5 

PRIM 

Print paragraph B36. 



Continued... 


4-32 




4.5.1 Updating Operations Specifications 


# 

Req’d 

Primary Means Class II En Route (4) 

6 

SING 

In paragraph B50, access the Limitations, 
Provisions, and Reference Paragraphs section 
for the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, 

Atlantic Ocean West of MNPS airspace, 
and/or special contingency routes in MNPS 
airspace, as applicable, and enter the 
following statement adjacent to the existing 
referenced paragraphs: 

“Class II navigation with the approved single 
GPS listed in paragraph B36(l) is limited to 
this specific geographic area.” 

7 

SING 

Change the signature block of paragraph B50 
to reflect the Effective Date anticipated for 
paragraph approval. Change the Amendment 
Number to reflect the next sequential number. 

8 

SING 

Print paragraph B50 in final form. 

9 

MNPS 

If unrestricted routing is to be authorized, 
mark the Operation Specification checklist to 
check the appropriate block. Paragraph B39 
requires question 4a and 4c, checked, 5k 
checked and 5n or 5o checked as appropriate. 

10 

MNPS 

Change the signature block of paragraph B39 
to reflect the Effective Date anticipated for 
paragraph approval. Change the Amendment 
Number to reflect the next sequential number. 

11 

MNPS 

If unrestricted routing is to be authorized, in 
paragraph B39, subparagraph c, insert the 
aircraft make and the makes and models of 
the GPS receivers. 

NOTE: Normally operators receiving 
authorization under paragraph B39c should 
also receive authorization in paragraph B39d 
for ferry and contingency purposes. 

12 

MNPS 

If restricted routing over special contingency 
routing is to be authorized, in paragraph B39, 
subparagraph d, insert the aircraft make and 
the makes and models of the GPS receivers. 

13 

MNPS 

Print paragraph B39 in final form. 



Continued... 


4-33 






4.5.1 Updating Operations Specifications 


# 

Req’d 

Primary Means Class II En Route (4) 

14 

MU 

Using the “Additional Text” feature for 
paragraph B40, insert the aircraft makes and 
models of GPS receivers in the navigation 
equipment table. 

15 

MU 

Change the signature block of paragraph B40 
to reflect the Effective Date anticipated for 
paragraph approval. Change the Amendment 
Number to reflect the next sequential number. 

16 

MU 

Print paragraph B40 in final form. 

17 

PRIM 

Present the documents to the operator for 
acceptance, and recover the existing 
documents. 


4-34 




4.5.1 Updating Operations Specifications 

Table 4.5.4 Operations Specifications Issuance Instructions for 
Use of GPS to Conduct Nonprecision Instrument 
Approach Procedures 

NP Nonprecision Approach authorization 
RNAV Additional requirement if RNAV approaches using GPS are 
authorized 

SIAP Additional requirement if special instrument approach 
procedures are authorized 


# 

Req’d 

Nonprecision Approach (5) 

1 

NP 

Verify Class I en route authorization has been 
issued in accordance with table 4.5.1 

2 

NP 

Log on to the subject operator’s OpSpecs in the 
Flight Standards Automation Subsystem 
(FSAS), Operations Specifications Subsystem 
(OPSS). 

3 

NP 

Using the “Additional Text” feature for 
paragraph C52 (paragraph HI02 for rotorcraft), 
insert the following new subparagraph “c” at the 
beginning of the “Additional Text” section: 

“C. GPS nonprecision approach procedure 
authorization. The certificate holder is 
authorized to conduct VOR, VORIDME, NDB, 
and NDBIDME instrument approach operations 
using the approved GPS equipment listed in 
paragraph B34 or B35. The certificate holder 
shall not conduct GPS instrument approach 
operations unless authorized by these operations 
specifications. Approaches using GPS are 
subject to the following limitations: 



(1) The airborne GPS navigation 
equipment used must be approved and 
current for IFR operations, including 
nonprecision approaches, and the GPS 
constellation and the required airborne 
equipment must be providing the levels of 
accuracy, continuity of function and 
integrity required for that operation. 

Continued... 


4-35 


4.5.1 Updating Operations Specifications 


# 

Req’d 

Nonprecision Approach (5) 

3 


...continued 

(2) The flight crew must have successfully 
completed the certificate holders 
approved training program curriculum 
segrhents for GPS operations; and the 
pilot in command must be checked for 
competency by a authorized check airman 
or FAA inspector for instrument approach 
operations using GPS in each aircraft 
type and GPS combination. 

1 


(3) During the initial 6 months of 
operation with a particular aircraft type 
and GPS combination, the certificate 
holder shall not use IFR approach and 
landing minimums,for that particular 
aircraft and GPS combination, lower than 
200feet and 112 statute mile above the 
lowest MDA and visibility!RVR minimums 
authorized for instrument approaches and 
landings at that airport using GPS.” 

4 

CE 

Change the signature block of paragraph C52 
(H102 for rotorcraft) to reflect the Effective 

Date anticipated for paragraph approval. 

Change the Amendment Number field to 
reflect the next sequential number. 

5 

CE 

Print paragraph C52 (HI02 for rotorcraft) in 
final form. 

6 

RNAV 

Change the signature block of paragraph C63 
(HI 12 for rotorcraft) to reflect the Effective 

Date anticipated for paragraph approval. 

Change the Amendment Number field to 
reflect the next sequential number. 

7 

RNAV 

In paragraph C63 (HI 12 for rotorcraft), insert 
the aircraft make, and the make and model of 
GPS receiver. 



Continued... 


4-36 



4.5.1 Updating Operations Specifications 


# 

Req’d 

Nonprecision Approach (5) 

8 

RNAV 

Print paragraph C63 (H112 for rotorcraft) in 
final form. 

9 

SIAP 

Change the signature block of paragraph C64 
(HI 13 for rotorcraft) to reflect the Effective 

Date anticipated for paragraph approval. 

Change the Amendment Number field to 
reflect the next sequential number. 

10 

SIAP 

In paragraph C64e (HI 13e for rotorcraft), 
insert the specific Special Terminal Instrument 
Approach Procedure authorized. 

11 

SIAP 

Print paragraph C64 (HI 13 for rotorcraft) in 
final form. 

12 1 

NP 

Present the documents to the operator for 
acceptance, and recover the existing 
documents. 







4.5.1 Updating Operations Specifications 
Requirements: 

(1) pp. Ol. (9-10,11-12); Vol.l Ch.4215, Vol.3 Ch.l 261-265 

(2) pp, 03.2-4; 1 

(3) pp. 03. (4-11,16-19); 2-8, Samples 

(4) pp.04.9-12; App. 1 

(5) pp. 03.11-15; 9 


4-38 



4.5.2 Operations Manuals, Approach Procedures And MEL 
Approval 


Purpose: 

Coordinate with the appropriate FAA branches to approve 
manuals, approach procedures, and MEL changes as needed. 

Procedure: 


A) Verify that the operator’s manuals have been revised in 
accordance with checklist 03 (consistent with GPS 
manufacturer’s recommendations, include outage, pre¬ 
departure, and continued airworthiness instructions). 

B) For those manuals that require FAA approval, enter the 
effective date and sign under the words “FAA-approved” on 
the page control sheets (or on every page if there are no page 
control sheets) (1). 

C) If the GPS operations approval included special instrument 
approach procedures, coordinate with your regional Flight 
Standards Division and AFS-400 to approve the special 
instrument approach procedures. 

D) Coordinate with the flight operations evaluation board to 
approve any changes to the MEL for the operator. 

Guidelines: 

(1) pp. 01 *27-29; 339 


4-39 


4.5.3 Training Program Approval 


Purpose: 

Approve operator’s training program (1). 

Procedure: 

A) Verify that the operator has passed the items in checklists 03 
and 04 dealing with the crew training and qualification 
program for the use of GPS. 

Note: The evaluation of the training program may continue 

as long as the POI determines necessary up to the 
expiration date given on the initial approval letter. 

If the POI chooses to validate recurrent qualification 
before giving final approval, he will have to observe 
the program for at least 6 months. 

B) Stamp, date and sign either a list of effective pages for the 
training curriculum or each page in the curriculum. 

C) Transmit the approved training curriculum to the operator 
with a signed final letter of approval. 

Guidelines: 

(1) pp. 01.27-29; 339 


4-40 



4.6 CONTINUING GPS OPERATIONS EVALUATION 


Purpose: 

Ensure that the operator maintains continued safe operations using 

GPS navigation. 

Procedure: 

A) Periodically, survey operator activities to ensure continued 
safe GPS operations. Review inspection reports, incident and 
accident reports, exam results, proficiency check results and 
other relevant information for potential GPS operations 
problems. 

B) Coordinate with the PAI to ensure that the operator’s 
maintenance program covers the following (2): 

1. Manuals, policies and procedures incorporate the GPS 
manufacturer’s instructions for continued airworthiness of 
the GPS equipment. 

2. As applicable, revisions to the MMEL, MEL, CDL and/or 
dispatch deviation procedures include the GPS equipment. 

3. Service difficulties with the GPS equipment are reported 
in accordance with FAR 121 and 135. 


Guidelines: 

(1) pp. 01.25-27; 337 

(2) p. 02.6; 5F 


4-41 


REFERENCE A1 
FAA ORDER 8300.10 
Airworthiness Inspector’s Handbook 


AM 


CAUTION!! Please be aware that the materials in the following 
section are excerpts. It is assumed that the person using this 
material has read the complete parent document. Important details 
regarding the use of or policies covering the application of this 
information may be available only in the complete document from 
which the excerpts were taken. 


VOLUME 1. CHAPTER 3. THE GENERAL PROCESS FOR 

APPROVAL OR ACCEPTANCE 

29. GENERAL 

A. Generic Process. The general process for approval or acceptance 
of certain operations, programs, documents, procedures, 
methods, or systems is an orderly method used by flight standard 
inspectors to ensure such items meet regulatory standards and 
provide for safe operating practices. It is a generic process that 
can be applied to many types of approval or acceptance tasks. 
The process generally consists of five related “phases”. The 
process can result in approving or not approving, accepting or 
not accepting an applicant’s proposal. It is important for an 
inspector to understand that the process described in this section 
is not all-inclusive, but rather a tool to be used with good 
judgment in conducting day-to-day duties and responsibilities. 

B. Understanding the Process. It is essential for the inspector to 
understand that any process described in this handbook may 
result in a decision to approve or accept a proposal. This process, 
combined with job task procedures, is used to assist in making 
both positive or negative determinations. 

C. Process Supplementing Task Procedures. This general process 
applies to many tasks described throughout this handbook. The 
general process supplements the procedures outlined in each 
task. 

31. PHASE ONE. The first phase is initiated when an applicant for a 
certificate, an operator, a person, an aviation interest, or the FAA 
inquires about or states a need for a change in some aspect of an 
aviation activity. 

A. Applicant Initiation. The person or operator conveys to the FAA 
a need which is related to the operation. This “need” may be a 
requirement for FAA approval or acceptance. For example, an 

A1.2 



operator may need, want, or be required to have a Minimum 
Equipment List (MEL) change. The operator initiates the process 
by inquiring about the correct procedures to receive approval 
from the FAA for the change. During initial inquiries it is 
important for the FAA and the operator to become familiar with 
the subject matter. If, for example, an operator requests an 
operational approval, the inspector must: 

• Become thoroughly familiar with existing FAA policy and 
approval requirements 

• Become familiar with the appropriate technical material 

• Accurately assess the character and scope of the proposal 

• Determine if a demonstration is required 

• Determine the need for any coordination requirements 

• Ensure the operator has a clear understanding of the 
minimum requirements which constitute an acceptable 
submission 

• Determine the date the operator intends to implement the 
proposal 

B. FAA Initiation. Phase one may also be initiated when the FAA 
conveys to the operator or person a requirement related to the 
operation that must be approved or accepted. The principal 
inspector should act in an advisory capacity to the operator 
during the preparation of the submission. Such advice may 
include the following: 

• The need for a deviation, authorization, waiver, or exemption 

• The need for required demonstrations 

• Clarification of Federal Aviation Regulations or handbook 
information 

• Sources of specific technical information 

• Acceptable standards for submission 


A1.3 


C. Responsibility for Development of Submission. An element 
common to either an operator or an FAA-initiated action is the 
effort expended by the operator in preparing or developing a 
submission to be evaluated by the FAA. However, it is essential 
(particularly in phase one) for the operator to have a clear 
understanding that although the inspector may provide advice 
and guidance, the development of the final product submitted to 
the FAA is solely the responsibility of the operator. 

D. Applicant-FAA Communication. In phase one, the inspector must 
ensure the operator clearly understands the form, content, and 
documents required for the submission to be acceptable to the 
FAA. The operator must be informed of the benefits of 
submitting required documents as early as possible. The operator 
also must be made aware of its responsibility to advise the FAA, 
in a timely manner, of any significant changes in the proposal. 

E. Phase One Illustration 

(1) Phase one of the process is illustrated as follows: 

• Operator makes inquiry or request to FAA 
-OR- 

• FAA requires operator to take an action 

(2) During phase one the following actions should occur: 

• FAA and operator develop an understanding of subject 
area 

• Operator understands form, content, and documents 
required for acceptable submission 

33.PHASE TWO. Phase two begins when the operator formally 
submits a proposal for FAA evaluation. The request may be 
submitted in a variety of ways, e.g., registered mail, hand-carried, 
etc. 

A. Initial Action. The inspector’s initial action, in phase two, is to 
review the operator’s submission to ensure that the proposal is 
clearly defined and that the documentation specified in phase one 
has been provided. Furthermore, the required information must 
A1.4 


be complete and detailed enough to permit a thorough evaluation 
of the operator’s capability and competence to fully satisfy the 
applicable regulations, national policy, and safe operating 
practices. Phase two does not include a detailed operational and 
technical evaluation or analysis of the submitted information (see 
phase three). However, in phase two the submission must be 
examined to assess the completeness of the required information. 

B. Submission Unsatisfactory. If the operator’s submission is not 
complete or the quality is obviously unacceptable, it must be 
immediately returned, with an explanation of the deficiencies, 
before any further review and evaluation is conducted. 

(1) Normally, an unacceptable submission should be returned 
with a written explanation of the reasons for its return. 

(2) In many complex cases, a meeting with the operator’s key 
personnel may be necessary to resolve issues and agree on a 
mutually acceptable solution. If mutual agreements cannot be 
reached, the inspector must terminate the meeting, inform the 
operator that the submission is unacceptable, and return the 
submission. 

(3) If all parties are able to reach agreement on measures to 
correct omissions or deficiencies, and the principal inspectors 
(operations, maintenance, and avionics, if applicable) 
determine that the submission is acceptable, the operator is 
informed, and phase three begins. 

C. Status Reports. It is important for the inspector involved to keep 
the operator advised of the status of the proposal. If the inspector 
takes no other action, or if the submission is deficient and not 
returned in a timely manner, the applicant may assume the FAA 
has tacitly accepted the submission and is continuing with the 
process. Timeliness of action depends on the situation as well as 
inspector judgment and is discussed in sections of this handbook 
pertaining to the subject matter. 

D. Phase Two Illustration 

(1) Phase two of the process is illustrated as follows: 


A1.5 



• Operator submits proposal 

• FAA makes initial examination of the documents for 
completeness with respect to requirements established in 
phase one 

(2) As a result of phase two: 

• FAA accepts submitted proposal 
-OR- 

• FAA returns submitted proposal 
35. PHASE THREE 

A. Detailed Analysis. Phase three is the FAA’s detailed analysis, 
review, and evaluation of the operator’s proposal. These actions 
may take place entirely within a field office, at the site of 
operations, or at both facilities. In phase three the FAA 
evaluation is focused on the form, content, and technical quality 
of the submitted proposal to determine that the information: 

• Is not contrary to any applicable Federal Aviation Regulations 

• Is not contrary to the direction provided in this handbook or 

other safety related documents 

• Provides for safe operation practices 

B. Evaluation Criteria. Criteria for evaluation of the formal 
submission is found in the applicable chapters of this handbook. 
The inspector must ensure that the documents adequately 
establish the operator’s capability and competence to conduct 
operations safely in accordance with the submitted proposal. 

C. Addressing Deficiencies. During phase three the FAA inspector 
must address any deficiencies in the submitted material in a 
timely manner before proceeding to subsequent phases. 
Discussion with the operator may be sufficient to resolve certain 
discrepancies or questions or to obtain additional information. It 
may be necessary to return certain portions of the submission to 


A1.6 



the operator for specific changes. However, when an inspector 
determines that, for specific reasons, the material is 
unacceptable, the inspector must return the submission to the 
operator with an explanation and immediately terminate the 
process. If the results of the evaluation are acceptable and a 
demonstration is necessary, the inspector may need to grant 
some form of conditional, initial, or provisional approval to the 
proposal before continuing with the process. 

D. Phase Four Planning. An important aspect of phase three is for 
FAA inspectors to begin planning the conduct of phase four. 
While evaluating the operator’s formal submission, inspectors 
should begin to formulate plans to observe and evaluate the 
operator’s ability to perform. These plans must be finalized 
before the actual demonstrations. 

E. Phase Three Illustration 

(1) Phase three is illustrated as follows; 

• FAA evaluates the formal submission for compliance 
with the Federal Aviation Regulations, compliance with 
the direction provided in this handbook, and compliance 
with other safety-related documents and safe operating 
practices 

• When results of FAA evaluation are unsatisfactory, 
return submission to the operator for correction and/or 
terminate the phase 

• Begin planning of phase four (if required) 

(2) As a result of phase three, the following actions should be 
taken: 

• When results of FAA evaluation are satisfactory, proceed 
with phase four (if a demonstration is required) and if 
appropriate, grant conditional approval or acceptance 

-OR- 

• Proceed to phase five if demonstration is not required 


A1.7 


37. PHASE FOUR 


A. Observation and Evaluation of Demonstration. Phase four is an 
operational evaluation of the operator’s ability to function in 
accordance with the proposal evaluated in phase three. Usually 
these demonstrations are required by regulation. Some 
examples include training programs, emergency evacuation 
demonstration, external load class operational tests, and non¬ 
destructive inspection tests. 

B. Evaluation Criteria. Criteria and procedures for evaluating an 
operator’s demonstrated ability are described in applicable 
chapters of this handbook. 

C. Handling Discrepancies. The inspector must plan for the 
conduct and observation of the demonstration to include such 
things as participants, evaluation criteria, and sequence of 
events. During these demonstrations it is normal for minor 
discrepancies to occur. Discrepancies can often be resolved 
during the demonstration by obtaining commitments from 
responsible company officials. 

(1) The inspector responsible for overseeing a demonstration 
must evaluate each discrepancy in terms of its overall impact 
on the operator’s ability and competence to conduct the 
proposed operation. 

(2) The inspector must stop the demonstration in phase four 
when deficiencies or unacceptable levels of competency are 
observed. The inspector must identify the phase of the 
general process to which the applicant must return or decide 
to terminate the process entirely. For example, if an 
emergency evacuation demonstration is unsatisfactory 
because of equipment failure (a slide fails to inflate), it may 
be appropriate to require the operator to reenter the process 
at phase four and conduct another demonstration. However, 
if the demonstration is unacceptable because crew members 
were unable to perform their assigned duties, it may be 
appropriate to advise the operator that the process is 
terminated and a new proposal should be submitted. 

C. Acceptable Demonstration. If the FAA evaluation of the 
operator’s demonstrated ability is acceptable, the process 

AU8 



continues. An operator will not, under any circumstances, be 
authorized or otherwise approved to conduct any particular 
operation until all airworthiness and operations requirements 
are met and the operator is clearly capable of conducting a safe 
operation in compliance with FAA regulations and safe 
operating practices. 

D. Phase Four Illustration 

(1) Phase four of the process is illustrated as follows: 

• FAA observes the demonstration 

• Operator demonstrates ability 

(2) As a result of phase four: 

• Demonstration is satisfactory 
-OR- 

• Demonstration is unsatisfactory 
39. PHASE FIVE 

A. Approval or Acceptance. In phase five, the FAA approves or 
accepts the operator’s proposal. If the proposal is not approved 
or accepted, the operator is notified in phase three or four. 

B. Indicating Approval. Approval is granted by letter, a stamp of 
approval, the issuance of operations specifications, or some 
other official means of conveying approval. Each chapter of 
Volume II which discusses a requirement for approval provides 
specific guidance concerning approval procedures and 
documentation. 

C. Acceptances. Other proposals, submissions, or requests not 
requiring specific FAA approval but required to be submitted to 
the FAA are items that are presented for acceptance. 

Acceptance of an operator’s proposal may be accomplished by 
various means including a letter, verbal acceptance, or by taking 
no action, which indicates there is no FAA objection to the 
proposal. Methods and procedures used to accept operator 

A1.9 


proposals or submissions, when appropriate, are discussed in 
the applicable chapters of this handbook, 

D, Conditional Approval or Acceptance. Sometimes FAA approval 
or acceptance of an operator’s proposal may be conditional in 
nature. For example, a training program may be initially 
approved, provided the simulator to be used in that program 
receive approval from the National Simulator Evaluation Team. 

E. Phase Five Illustration 

(1) Phase five is illustrated as follows 

• FAA approves submission 
-OR- 

• FAA accepts submission 

VOLUME 2. CHAPTER 1. PERFORM FIELD APPROVAL OF 
MAJOR REPAIRS AND MAJOR ALTERATIONS 

3. OBJECTIVE. This chapter provides guidance in determining the 
category of a repair or alteration and ensuring that the aircraft can 
be returned to service in accordance with approved technical data, 

5. GENERAL 

A. Definitions 

(1) Major alteration: An alteration not listed in the aircraft, 
aircraft engine, or propeller specifications that: 

• Might appreciably affect weight, balance, structural 
strength, performance, powerplant operation, flight 
characteristics, or other qualities affecting airworthiness 

• Is not done according to accepted practices or cannot be 
done by elementary operations 


AMO 


(2) Major repair: A repair that: 

• If improperly done, might appreciably affect weight, 
balance, structural strength, performance, powerplant 
operation, flight characteristics, or other qualities 
affecting airworthiness 

• Is not done according to accepted practices or cannot be 
done by elementary operations 

(3) Minor alteration: Any alteration that is not classified as a 
major alteration. 

(4) Minor repair: Any repair that is not classified as a major 
repair. 

(5) Field approval: An approval by an authorized inspector of a 
major repair or major alteration that is accomplished by: 

• Examination of data only - one aircraft 

• Physical inspection, demonstration, testing, etc. - one 
aircraft 

• Examination of data only - duplication of identical 
aircraft 

(6) Data: Information that supports and/or describes the 
alteration or repair, including the following: 

• Drawings, sketches, and/or photographs 

• Stress analysis 

• Engineering Orders 

• Operating limitations 

(7) Approved data: Data used to approve major repairs and 
major alterations, including the following: 

• Type Certificate Data Sheets 


AMI 


• Supplemental Type Certificates (STCs) 

• Airworthiness Directives 

• Manufacturer’s FA A approved data 

• Designated Engineering Representative (DER) approved 
data 

• Designated Alteration Station (DAS) approved data 
developed for alterations performed by that station only 

B. Inspector Qualifications. The inspector must be authorized, 
experienced, and/or trained with the methods, techniques, and 
materials involved in the major repair/major alteration. 

C. Inspector Responsibilities. The inspector must be able to 
determine that, by granting a field approval, the affected 
product can reasonably be expected to result in safe operation 
and conform to regulatory requirements. If the inspector is not 
thoroughly familiar with all aspects of the alteration or repair or 
has any doubt about the expected airworthiness, approval or 
denial will not be given until the necessary assistance has been 
acquired. 

D. Data Requirements and Coordination 

(1) The source of data presented by an operator is strictly the 
operator’s responsibility. Inspectors should not obtain nor 
provide data for the operator’s use. Source, cost and other 
matters concerning an operator’s acquisition of data, 
presented as part of an alteration approval action, should not 
be questioned. 

(2) Acceptable data that may be used on an individual basis to 
obtain approval are: 

• FAA Advisory Circulars (e.g.. Advisory Circulars 43.13- 
lAand 43.13-2A) 

• Manufacturer’s technical information (e.g., manuals, 
bulletins, kits, etc.) 

AM2 



• Mil Specs 

• FAA Field Approvals 

E. Designated Engineering Representatives (DER). If an 

appropriately rated Designated Engineering Representative is 
employed by the operator, the inspector should coordinate with 
the operator. 

(1) The Designated Engineering Representative may be limited 
to technical areas that do not fully cover the entire project. 
Any area not covered by this approval must be reevaluated 
by the FAA. 

(2) The Designated Engineering Representative should not be 
permitted to make any determination as to which inspections 
are necessary for the pertinent alteration or repair, since this 
activity is outside the scope of the DER’s authorization. 

(3) Designated Engineering Representatives do not have 
authority, by virtue of their delegation, to: 

• Grant field approvals or otherwise “sign off’ an FAA 
Form 337 in any way 

• Issue Supplemental Type Certificates 

• Grant data approvals by signing log books or other 
similar documents 

7. REQUIRED ENGINEERING APPROVAL 

A. Many alterations that are commonly called major alterations are 
actually major design changes and will require a Supplemental 
Type Certificate. Previously unapproved major changes to 
structural strength, reliability, and operational characteristics 
affect the airworthiness of the product and therefore require 
engineering approval. Typical major alterations in this category 
include the following: 


A1.13 


(13) Changes that do not conform to the minimum standards 
established in a Technical Standard Order under which a 
particular aircraft component or appliance is manufactured 

(14) Modifications to approved type (TSO or CAATC) radio 
communications and navigational equipment that may 
adversely affect reliability or airworthiness, such as: 

• Changes that deviate from the vacuum tube or 
semiconductor manufacturer’s operation limitations 

• Any changes to IF frequency 

• Extension of receiver frequency range above or below the 
manufacturer’s extreme design limits 

• Major changes to the basic design of low approach aids 

• Changes that deviate from the design environmental 
performance 

(16) Changes in aircraft flight manuals and/or manual 
information in the form of placards or markings 

B. Engineering assistance and advice should be requested when 
working in areas that include: 

• Application of Technical Standard Orders to specific 
installations 

• Alternative means for complying with Airworthiness 
Directives 

• Any change to a required aircraft instrument system 

• Any other complex special process that if not properly 
performed could have an adverse effect on the integrity of the 
product 

C. Requests for engineering evaluation/assistance and/or approval 
of non-Designated Engineering Representative approved data 
for field approvals should be made by the inspector, not the 
operator. 


AM4 



D. When the alteration or repair data file is forwarded to 
engineering for review, a memorandum of transmittal must 
accompany the file. When necessary, the transmittal will 
provide pertinent and detailed information not contained in the 
submitted data, such as the airworthiness inspector’s 
recommendations, viewpoints, and specific requests for advice. 

E. When engineering assistance is requested for field approval 
purposes, the inspector who will complete the field approval 
will normally be expected to coordinate and implement the 
assistance requested by engineering. 

F. The inspector should be aware that the data approved by FAA 
engineering may not cover all the steps and procedures needed 
to accomplish the alteration or repair. A Field Approval by the 
inspector may be required for the completion of the task. 

9. FLIGHT TEST AND OPERATION CHECK REQUIREMENTS 

A. An alteration or repair requiring a change to a flight manual or 
operation limitation must be coordinated with the appropriate 
engineering office. 

B. Avionics alterations requiring flight manual supplement or 
operations limitations changes must be coordinated with the 
Aircraft Certification Office. 

C. Any alteration or repair that may have appreciably changed the 
aircraft flight characteristics or substantially affected its 
operation in flight will be operationally checked in accordance 
with FAR § 91.167 and the results recorded on the aircraft 
records. 

D. If an operational check is unsatisfactory as a result of using 
approved data, additional data must be developed by the 
operator. 


AM5 


11. FAA FORM 337, MAJOR REPAIR AND ALTERATION 


A. Data Approval 

(1) Data approval issued for one aircraft is applicable to only 
the aircraft described in Block 1 of FAA Form 337. This 
data cannot automatically be used as approved data for other 
aircraft. The data may be used only with the approval of the 
local office as the basis for obtaining approval on other 
aircraft. 

(2) Data approval issued for duplication of identical aircraft 
may be used as approved data only when the identical 
alteration is performed on an aircraft of identical make, 
model, and series by the original modifier. 

(3) When the alteration has been performed by persons other 
than the original modifier, this data may be used as the basis 
for obtaining approval on other aircraft. 

B. Approval for return to service (Block 7 of FAA Form 337) by a 
Flight Standards airworthiness inspector will be performed only 
when the operator’s designated person(s) is not available. 

Section 2 Procedures 

5. PROCEDURES 

A. Review Operator Submitted Data. Inspectors must determine 
that the data supplied is complete enough to proceed with 
evaluation of proposed alteration or repair. 

(1) The inspector must review and evaluate the following: 

(a) A formal application submitted on one of the following: 

• FAA Form 337 complete in duplicate 

• Other administrative forms used by a manufacturer 
or operator that are acceptable to the Administrator 


A1.16 



(b) Data that may include, but is not limited to, the 
following: 

• Detailed description of the proposed alteration or 
repair 

• Detailed design standards such as methods, sketches, 
drawings, stress analyses, photographs, electrical 
load analyses, etc. 

• Testing procedures or methods to meet certification 
and/or operating rules, such as flammability, carbon 
monoxide, and noise requirements 

(c) The description of proposed alteration or repair to ensure 
that it correctly and accurately describes the alteration or 
repair. 

(d) Detailed design standards, to ensure that the operator has 
considered all applicable design standards and has 
analyses to substantiate the findings in this regard. The 
standards must consider at least the following: 

• The structural requirements that may be affected by 
the alteration or repair 

• Any hazards that may affect the aircraft or its 
occupants 

• Weight and balance computations 

• Operating limitations 

• Any other factors affecting safety or airworthiness 

(e) Test procedures, to ensure that they include all tests 
necessary to substantiate that the alteration or repair 
meets applicable certification requirements and are 
appropriate to the alteration or repair. 

(2) If data is not complete, the operator must supply any 
additional information needed. 


AM7 



B. Evaluate Proposal. To determine compatibility with the current 
aircraft configuration, make a preliminary evaluation of the 
proposed alteration or repair and an inspection of the aircraft, 
as required. Accomplish at least the following, as applicable: 

(1) Review aircraft records for previous alterations and repairs 
that may have an affect on the proposed alteration or repair 

(2) Review maintenance and inspection procedures to determine 
that the alteration or repair is referenced 

(3) Inspect aircraft for the following: 

• Previous alterations or repairs that may not have been 
recorded 

• Compatibility of previous alterations or repairs with 
intended alterations or repairs 

(4) If a determination is made that the proposed alteration is 
beyond the scope of a field approval, advise the operator that 
FAA engineering evaluation is necessary. Assistance to the 
operator will include; 

• Furnishing an application for Type Certificate, 
Production Certificate, or Supplemental Type Certificate, 
as applicable 

• Furnishing FAA Form 8110-12 (0MB 2120-0031) 

• Advising that supporting data must be attached 

(5) If the inspector determines that assistance from engineering 
is needed for approving a major repair, the inspector will 
contact FAA engineering. Coordination with the operator 
will include: 

• Requesting that the operator provide all supporting data 

• Cautioning against proceeding with the repairs prior to 
receiving engineering approval 


AMS 


C. Evaluate Alteration or Repair After Data Approval or 
Acceptance. The inspector will schedule a conformity inspection 
with the operator to verify workmanship and compliance to 
accepted or approved data. 

(1) The inspection must account for activities during and after 
the alteration or repair process. This includes but is not 
limited to the following: 

• Witnessing that loading requirements are properly 
accomplished 

• Operational tests and checks 

• Any other techniques or methods as deemed necessary 

(2) If, during the conformity inspection, it is determined that the 
operator cannot comply with the data submitted, the operator 
must revise the data accordingly. 

(3) When an operator’s data is “data approved only,” check the 
operator’s workmanship, conformity, and compliance with 
the alteration or repair as part of normal surveillance. 

D. Review the Approval for Return to Service. The aircraft must be 
approved for return to service by a person authorized by FAR § 
43.7 by completing block 7 of FAA Form 337 and making a 
maintenance record entry. 

7. TASK OUTCOMES 

A. File PTRS Transmittal Form 

B, Completion of this task can result in the approval of data, 
alteration, or repair by an FAA inspector. This approval will be 
recorded by entering the appropriate statement in Block 3 of 
FAA Form 337 and identify the district office, the approval date, 
and the signature of the inspector. When recording approvals, the 
inspector will use one of the following statements: 


A1.19 


(1) Approval by Examination of Data Only - One Aircraft: 

• “The data identified herein complies with the applicable 
airworthiness requirements and is approved for the above 
described aircraft, subject to conformity inspection by a 
person authorized in FAR 43.7.” 

(2) Approval by Physical Inspection, Demonstration, Testing, 
etc. - One Aircraft: 

• “The alteration or repair identified herein complies with 
the applicable airworthiness requirements and is 
approved for the above described aircraft, subject to 
conformity inspection by a person authorized in FAR 
Part 43, Section 43.7.” 

(3) Approval by Examination of Data Only - Duplication of 
Identical Aircraft: 

• “The alteration identified herein complies with the 
applicable airworthiness requirement and is approved for 
duplication on identical aircraft make, model, and altered 
configuration when accomplished by the original 
modifier.” 


A 1*20 



REFERENCE A2 


ADVISORY CIRCULAR 20-138 

Airworthiness Approval of Global Positioning System 
(GPS) Navigation Equipment for Use as a VFR and IFR 
Supplemental Navigation System 


A2»l 


CAUTION!! Please be aware that the materials in the following 
section are excerpts. It is assumed that the person using this 
material has read the complete parent document. Important details 
regarding the use of or policies covering the application of this 
information may be available only in the complete document from 
which the excerpts were taken. 


7. AIRWORTHINESS CRITERIA FOR GPS INSTALLATIONS 
USED AS A SUPPLEMENTAL NAVIGATION SYSTEM 
LIMITED TO VISUAL FLIGHT RULES (VFR) ONLY 


a. Application Process . Operators wishing to obtain approval of 
Class A() GPS equipment limited to VFR use only may do so via 
the type certificate (TC), supplemental type certificate (STC), or, 
for equipment previously approved via the TC or STC process, 
data approved by the FAA (responsible Flight Standards District 
Office) on FAA Form 337, Major Repair and Alteration. The 
approval for return to service must be signed by one of the 
entities noted in 14 CFR part 43; i.e., repair station, 
manufacturer, holder of an inspection authorization, etc. 

(1) The initial (first-time airworthiness approval) certification of 
a GPS navigation system should be accomplished via the TC 
or STC approval process. 

(2) Subsequent (follow-on) installations of the same GPS 
navigation system (hardware and software) in other aircraft 
are approved using a less extensive evaluation process since 
the basic engineering design of the GPS equipment has 
already been evaluated. Approval of follow-on installations 
may be accomplished via the TC, STC, or FAA Form 337 
process. The extent of required evaluations depends upon the 
degree of integration of the GPS system with other aircraft 
systems, the similarity between the initial and follow-on 
aircraft models, and other changes that may have been 
incorporated in the GPS navigation system. The decision to 
allow an applicant to use FAA approved engineering data in 
support of an FAA Form 337 approval is left to the field 
inspector’s judgment. The FAA Airworthiness Inspector’s 
Handbook (FAA Order 8300.10) provides guidance 
applicable to GPS equipment installations. 


A2‘2 


c. VFR Airworthiness Approval 


(1) First-Time VFR Airworthiness Approval Criteria (for a 

Particular type of GPS Equipment) 

(ii) Aircraft Installation Data Evaluation . Normally the 
manufacturer of the GPS equipment will provide an 
aircraft as a test bed for the first-time installation 
approval. This approval will serve as a basis for 
subsequent installation approvals regardless of aircraft 
type or model. The following assessments are made: 

(A) Review of the equipment installation in the aircraft. 

(B) Verification that the GPS equipment is appropriate 
to the aircraft environment in which it is installed. 

(C) Verification that the installation of the GPS 
equipment, including antenna, is sufficient to meet 
all structural mounting, dynamic, and emergency 
landing loads appropriate to the aircraft. 

(D) Verification that a placard stating “GPS limited to 
VFR use only” is installed in clear view of and 
readable by the pilot. 

(E) Verification that the GPS equipment installation 
does not interfere with the normal operation of 
other equipment installed in the aircraft. 

(iv) Flight Test Evaluations . Flight tests are conducted to 
verify proper operation and accuracy of the GPS 
equipment as installed in the aircraft. Flight tests should 
include at least the following: 

NOTE: Required flight evaluations for the first-time 
airworthiness approval of a particular GPS system are 
accomplished by the cognizant Aircraft Certification 
Office (ACO) unless specific tests are delegated by the 
ACO to a flight test pilot designated engineering 
representative (DER). 


A2.3 



(A) Evaluation of installed GPS navigation system to 
verify that it is functioning properly, safely, and 
operates in accordance with the manufacturer’s 
specifications. 

(B) Evaluation of steering response while the autopilot 
and/or flight director is coupled to the GPS 
equipment during a variety of different track and 
mode changes. All available display sensitivities 
should be evaluated. 

(C) Evaluation to verify the GPS installation does not 
adversely affect other onboard equipment (this test 
may be partially accomplished as a ground test). 

(D) [Requirement cancelled in guidance memorandum 
dated 5/24/96.] 

(E) Evaluation of the accessibility of all controls 
pertaining to the GPS installation. 

(F) Evaluation of the visibility of the controls, displays, 
and annunciators relating to the GPS installation 
during day and night lighting conditions. No 
distracting cockpit glare or reflections may be 
introduced and all controls must be illuminated for 
identification and ease of use. Night lighting shall 
be consistent with other cockpit lighting. 

(2) Follow-On VFR Airworthiness Installation Approvals . This type 
of approval refers to installation approvals in any model or type 
of aircraft after a first-time airworthiness approval of the 
particular GPS equipment has been issued via the TC or STC 
process. Follow-on approvals may use the first time 
airworthiness approval as a basis for installation approval. The 
applicant or installing agency requesting a follow-on GPS 
equipment installation limited to VFR use should: 

(i) Unless otherwise provided, contact either the manufacturer or 
organization responsible for obtaining the first time 
airworthiness approval of the GPS equipment in order to: 


A2.4 



(A) Obtain a sample airplane or rotorcraft flight manual 
supplement (or supplemental flight manual), if 
required for the aircraft. 

(B) Obtain verification of the equipment approval status, 
including antenna, software, autopilot/flight director 
interface, system integration requirements, etc. 

(C) Verify that the maximum operating speed for which 
the GPS equipment is qualified is compatible with the 
maximum expected ground speed of the aircraft. 

(ii) Conduct a similar data evaluation as outlined in paragraph 
7c(l)(ii) of this AC. 

(iii) Conduct a functional flight evaluation covering the items 
specified in paragraph 7c(l)(iv) of this AC. 

NOTE: Required flight evaluations for follow-on equipment 
installations approved via the FAA Form 337 process may be 
conducted by the installer. 

8. AIRWORTHINESS CRITERIA FOR GPS INSTALLATIONS 
USED AS A SUPPLEMENTAL NAVIGATION SYSTEM 
UNDER INSTRUMENT FLIGHT RULES (IFR) . 

a. Application Process . Operators wishing to obtain approval of 
Class A 0 GPS equipment for IFR operations may do so via the 
type certificate (TC) or supplemental type certificate (STC) 
process. For equipment produced under TSO-C129 authorization 
that has previously obtained initial installation approval via the 
TC or STC process, approval may also be obtained via data 
approved by the FAA (responsible Flight Standards District 
Office) on FAA Form 337. The approval for return to service 
must be signed by one of the entities noted in 14 CFR part 43; 
i.e., repair station, manufacturer, holder of an inspection 
authorization, etc. 

(l)The initial (first-time airworthiness approval) certification of 
a GPS navigation or sensor system requires extensive 
engineering and flight test evaluations and must be 
accomplished via the TC or STC approval process. 


A2.5 


(2) Subsequent (follow-on) installations of the same GPS 

navigation system (hardware and software) in other aircraft 
are approved using a less extensive evaluation process since 
the basic engineering design of the GPS equipment has 
already been evaluated. Approval of follow-on installations 
may be accomplished via the TC, STC, of FAA Form 337 
process. The extent of required evaluations depends upon 
the degree of integration of the GPS system with other 
aircraft systems, the similarity between the initial and 
follow-on aircraft models, and other changes that may have 
been incorporated in the GPS navigation system. The 
decision to allow an applicant to use FAA approved 
engineering data in support of an FAA Form 337 approval is 
left to the field inspector’s judgment. The FAA 
Airworthiness Inspector’s Handbook (FAA Order 8300.10) 
provides guidance applicable to GPS equipment 
installations. Changes to software accomplishing navigation, 
integrity, or availability functions or significant changes to 
operating limitations cannot be accomplished using the FAA 
form 337 process. 

c. IFR Airworthiness Approval. 

(1) First-Time IFR Airworthiness Approval (for a Particular 
Type of GPS Equipment) 

(ii) Aircraft Installation Data Evaluation . Normally the 
manufacturer of the GPS equipment will provide an 
aircraft as a test bed for the first time installation approval. 
This approval will serve as a basis for subsequent 
installation approvals regardless of aircraft type or model. 
The following assessments are to be made: 

(A) Review of installation drawings, wiring diagrams, 
and descriptive wiring routing. 

' (B) Evaluation of the cockpit layout of the installed 

equipment with emphasis on equipment controls, 
applicable circuit breakers (labels and 
accessibility), switching arrangement, and related 
indicators, displays, annunciators, etc. 


A2.6 



(C) Analysis of a data flow diagram in order to review 
which equipment provides what data to which other 
equipment. 

(D) Review of a structural analysis of the equipment 
installation, including antenna, in order to ascertain 
whether structural mounting, dynamic, and crash 
load requirements are satisfied. 

(E) Review of an electrical load analysis in order to 
verify that the total electrical load requirements are 
within the capabilities of the aircraft’s electrical 
generating system. Determine that the supplied 
electrical power is consistent with applicable 
equipment reliability requirements. 

(F) Verification that the aircraft environment in which 
the GPS equipment is installed is appropriate to the 
environmental categories (or criteria) in 
RTCA/DO-160C to which the equipment has been 
tested. 

(G) Evaluation of the antenna installation. It is 
important that the antenna be one that is approved 
for the particular type of GPS equipment installed. 
A critical aspect of any GPS installation is the 
installation of the antenna. Adequate isolation must 
be provided between the GPS antenna and any 
other transmitting antenna(s) installed on the 
aircraft. Shadowing by aircraft structure can 
adversely affect the operation of the GPS 
equipment. Typically, a GPS antenna is located 
forward of the wings on the top of the fuselage to 
minimize effects of the wings, tail, etc. during 
aircraft maneuvering. For installations on 
helicopters, the effects of the rotor blades on 
antenna performance must be considered. 

NOTE: The GPS signal is typically below the value 
of the background noise. Electrical noise in the 
vicinity of the antenna can adversely affect the 
performance of the system. Antenna installation in 
close proximity to traffic alert and collision 
avoidance system (TCAS), satellite communication 


A2.7 


(SATCOM), and other transmitting antennas 
(particularly “L” band) should be carefully 
evaluated for potential mutual interference. 


(iv) Flight Test Evaluations. 

(F) Evaluation to determine satisfactory 

electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) between the 
GPS installation and other onboard equipment (this 
test may be partially accomplished as a ground test) 

NOTE 1: Particular attention should be given to 
other “L” band equipment, such as TCAS or 
SATCOM equipment, VHF transmissions on the 
frequencies stated in paragraph 8b6(iii) of this AC, 
high frequency (HF) communications systems, and 
other transmitting equipment (ACARS, AFIS, 
Flightfone, etc.). 

NOTE 2: Installation instructions for each GPS 
receiver installation shall include the requirement 
for verification of adequate isolation from the 
interference of VHF communication transceivers. 
These tests shall be conducted on the completed 
GPS installation by tuning each VHF transmitter to 
the frequencies listed below and transmitting for a 
period of 20 seconds while observing the signal 
status of each satellite being received. Degradation 
of individually received satellite signals below a 
point where navigation is no longer possible is not 
accepted and will require that additional isolation 
measures (low pass or notch filters installed at the 
output of the VHF transmitter, additional spacing 
between the VHF transmitter and the GPS antenna, 
replacement of the VHF transmitter with a unit 
having no excessive harmonic emissions, etc.), be 
included in the aircraft installation. Reevaluation of 
installed VHF transceiver performance is not 
necessary if the filter insertion loss is 2 dB or less. 
The following VHF frequencies shall be evaluated: 


A2.8 



121.150 MHz 
121.175 MHz 
121.200 MHz- 


131.250 MHz 
131.275 MHz 
131.300 MHz 


Please use proper radio regulations when 
conducting this test. 

(J) [Requirements deleted in guidance memorandum 
dated 5/24/96.] 

(2) Follow-On IFR Airworthiness Installation Approvals . This 
type of approval refers to installation approvals after a first 
time airworthiness approval of the particular GPS equipment 
has been issued. Follow-on approvals may use the first time 
airworthiness approval, which was either a TC or an STC, as 
a basis for installation approval. 

(i) Unless otherwise provided, contact either the 
manufacturer or organization responsible for obtaining the 
first time airworthiness approval of the GPS equipment in 
order to: 

(A) Obtain a sample airplane or rotorcraft flight manual 
supplement (or supplemental flight manual, if 
appropriate). 

(B) Obtain verification of the equipment approval 
status, including antenna, software, autopilot/flight 
director interface, system integration requirements, 
etc. 

(C) Discuss any problem areas and seek assistance in 
their solution. 

(D) Verify that the design maximum operating speed 
for the GPS equipment is compatible with the 
maximum expected ground speed of the aircraft. 

(ii) If the aircraft is approved for flight in known icing 
conditions, verify the suitability of the antenna installation 
in accordance with the guidance specified in paragraph 
8b(7) of this AC. 


A2.9 


(iii) Conduct a data evaluation similar to that outlined in 

paragraph 8c(l)(ii) of this AC. 

(iv) Conduct a functional flight evaluation covering the 

following items: 

(A) Overall operation of the installed GPS equipment, 
including interface with other equipment in the 
aircraft. 

(B) The effect(s) of GPS equipment failure (open 
circuit breaker), including autopilot/flight director 
response, if applicable. 

(C) If interfaced with an autopilot and/or flight director, 
steering response while the autopilot and/or flight 
director is coupled to the GPS equipment. 

(D) Displayed GPS navigation parameters on all 
interfaced cockpit instruments. 

(E) The effect(s), if any, of switching and transfer 
functions, including electrical bus switching, 
pertaining to the GPS installation. 

(F) Evaluation to determine satisfactory EMC between 
the GPS installation and other equipment as 
specified in paragraph 8c(l)(iv)(F) of this AC. 

NOTE: Verification of adequate isolation from 
harmonic interference of VHF communication 
transceivers is required for installation of GPS 
navigation equipment in each individual aircraft. 
This test should be repeated if a VHF transceiver is 
replaced or added, or if a new or replacement VHF 
communications antenna is installed. 

(G) Accessibility and visibility (day and night 
conditions) of all controls pertaining to the GPS 
installation. 

(H) Validate GPS accuracy in each operating mode as 
specified in paragraph 8c(l)(iv)(J) of this AC. 


A2.10 



(I) Verify continuity of navigation data during 360 
degree left and right turns at 30 degrees of bank. 

(J) Monitor displayed cross-track error during en 
route, and, if applicable, approach transition and 
approach operations to verify FTE is less than 1.0 
nmi (en route and approach transition) and 0.25 
nmi (approach), both with and without use of the 
autopilot and flight director (if installed). 

(K) For equipment approved for approach, conduct at 
least three published instrument approaches 
(retrieved from the data base) to verify proper 
operation of the equipment in the approach 
environment. 

NOTE : Required flight evaluations will be 
conducted by the cognizant Aircraft Certification 
Office (ACO) or, when authorized, by a flight test 
pilot designated engineering representative (DER) 
in accordance with the procedures used by the 
cognizant ACO. Depending upon the level of 
similarity between the initial and follow-on 
installations, including aircraft type, the ACO may 
accept flight evaluations conducted by the installer. 


APPENDIX 1. PROCEDURES FOR OBTAINING FAA APPROVAL 
FOR IFR/VFR OPERATIONS BY FAA FORM 337 FOR FOLLOW- 
ON GPS EQUIPMENT INSTALLATIONS 

1. FOLLOW-ON GPS EQUIPMENT INSTALLATIONS LIMITED 
TO VFR USE ONLY . Approval of follow-on GPS equipment 
installations limited to VFR use only (where the initial approval was 
accomplished using the TC or STC process) are normally obtained 
using FAA Form 337 approved by the responsible Flight Standards 
District Office (FSDO). Such installations can usually be approved 
for return to service by one of the entities noted in 14 CFR part 43; 
i.e., repair station, manufacturer, holder of an inspection 
authorization, etc., provided the installation: 

a. General Installation Methods . Conforms to the acceptable 
methods, techniques, and practices contained in AC 43.13-1 A, 
Acceptable Methods, Techniques and Practices - Aircraft 


A2.11 


Inspection and Repair, and AC 43.13-2A, Acceptable Methods, 
Techniques, and Practices - Aircraft Alterations, 

b. Installation Criteria . The installation criteria should be in 
accordance with the criteria specified in paragraph 7c(l)(ii) of 
this AC. A certification from the manufacturer to confirm that 
the en route/terminal accuracy requirements of paragraph 6 and 
ground accuracy test requirements of paragraph 7c(l)(iii) have 
been met should be provided. This certification can be 
accomplished by reference to the first time TC/STC approval. 

NOTE: Limited test data may be required to verify/demonstrate 
that the applicable requirements have been satisfied. 

c. Aircraft Flight Manual Supplement/Placardts) . Except for those 
installations where placards adequately address required 
limitations, an airplane or rotorcraft flight manual supplement (or 
supplemental flight manual) prepared by the applicant and 
containing at least the following information must be presented 
for FAA approval. The proposed flight manual supplement (or 
supplemental flight manual) is submitted for approval along with 
the other data associated with the installation. 

(1) Equipment operating limitations. 

(2) Emergency/abnormal operating procedures (if applicable). 

(3) Normal procedures for operating the GPS system and any 
interfaced equipment. (May be provided in a pilot’s guide 
that is referenced in the flight manual supplement.) 

(4) General description of system (or reference to a pilot’s guide 
that provides an equipment description). 

d. Functional Flight Evaluation . A functional flight evaluation 
covering the items listed in paragraph 7c(l)(iv) of this AC is 
accomplished by the installer. The results of this evaluation are 
included with the data provided to the FSDO. 

2. FOLLOW-ON GPS EQUIPMENT INSTALLATIONS FOR IFR 
USE . Approval of follow-on GPS installations for IFR use (where 
the initial approval was accomplished using the TC or STC process) 
may be obtained using an FAA Form 337 approved by the 
responsible FSDO. 


A2-12 



a. Data Submitted by the Applicant. Alteration data for the 
equipment installation is submitted with a properly executed 
FAA Form 337 and a certification from the manufacturer to 
confirm that the accuracy requirements of paragraph 6a and 
ground accuracy test requirements or paragraph 8c(l)(iii) of this 
AC and system performance specifications of TSO-C129 have 
been met. (This certification can be accomplished by reference to 
TSO-C120 approval and the original TC/STC approval.) The 
FAA Form 337, along with all required data pertaining to the 
installations, should be submitted to the responsible FSDO. 

b. Additional Data That May be Required . If required by the FSDO 
(or an ACO consulting with the FSDO when reviewing the 
data/conducting necessary tests requested by the FSDO) 
approving the technical data/installation, the applicant may also 
be required to furnish a copy of the equipment date (for 
equipment not produced under TSO-C129 authorization), 
manufacturer’s operating and installation instructions, fault 
analysis for installation, installation details and/or photographs, 
structural substantiation, system wiring diagrams, and ground 
test evaluation results. 

c. Aircraft Flight Manual Supplement . An airplane or rotorcraft 
flight manual supplement (or supplemental flight manual) 
prepared by the applicant and containing at least the following 
information must be presented for FAA approval. The proposed 
flight manual supplement (or supplemental flight manual) is 
prepared using the guidance contained in appendix 2 and 
submitted to the FSDO. 

(1) Equipment operating limitations. 

(2) Emergency/abnormal operating procedures. 

(3) Normal procedures for operating the GPS system and any 
interfaced equipment. (May be provided in a pilot’s guide 
that is referenced in the flight manual supplement.) 

(4) General description of system (or reference to a pilot’s guide 
that provides an equipment description), 

d. Functional Flight Evaluation . A functional flight evaluation 
covering the items listed in paragraph 8c(2)(iv) is accomplished. 


A2.13 


If the criteria specified in appendix 1, paragraph 2a(2) above is 
satisfied, the installer conducts the flight evaluation. In situations 
where additional FAA evaluation is necessary, required flight 
evaluations will be conducted by the cognizant ACO or, when 
authorized, by a flight test pilot designated engineering 
representative (DER) in accordance with the procedures used by 
the ACO. 

APPENDIX 2. SAMPLE AIRPLANE FLIGHT MANUAL 

SUPPLEMENT (FAA Form 337 Approval Process) . 

1. The following sample Airplane Flight Manual Supplement (AFMS) 
is provided as an example of the format to be used and information 
to be included when preparing required supplements. An AFMS 
must follow the organization of the flight manual being 
supplemented. 


A2.14 


FIGURE 1. SAMPLE AIRPLANE FLIGHT MANUAL 
SUPPLEMENT 

Installation Center/Repair Station 
123 Fourth Street 
System 

Any town, USA 

FAA APPROVED AIRPLANE FLIGHT MANUAL SUPPLEMENT 
ABC MODEL XXX GPS NAVIGATION SYSTEM 

AIRPLANE MAKE:_ 

AIRPLANE MODEL:_ 

AIRPLANE SERIAL NO.:_ 

REGISTRATION NO.:_ 

This document must be carried in the airplane at all times. It describes 
the operating procedures for the ABC Model XXX GPS navigation 
system when it has been installed in accordance with <manufacturer's 
installation manual number and date> and FAA Form 337 dated 
Kinsert date>. 

For airplanes with and FAA Approved Airplane Flight Manual, this 
document serves as the FAA Approved ABC Model XXX GPS Flight 
Manual Supplement. For airplanes that do not have an approved flight 
manual, this document serves as the FAA Approved ABC Model XXX 
GPS Supplemental Flight Manual. 

The information contained herein supplements or supersedes the basic 
Airplane Flight Manual dated <insert date> only in those areas listed 
herein. For limitations, procedures, and performance information not 
contained in this document, consult the basic Airplane Flight Manual. 

FAA APPROVED 


Model XXX GPS 
Navigation 


Title 

Office 

Federal Aviation Administration 
City, State 


A2.15 


FIGURE 1. SAMPLE AIRPLANE FLIGHT MANUAL 
SUPPLEMENT (continued! 

Installation Center/Repair Station Model XXX GPS 

123 Fourth Street Navigation 

System 

Any town, USA 

Table of Contents 

Section . Page 

1 General.<> 

2 Limitations.<> 

3 Emergency/Abnormal Procedures.<> 

4 Normal Procedures.<> 

5 Performance.<> 

6 Weight and Balance.<> 

7 System Description.<> 

FAA Approved 
Date;_ 


Page <> of <> 











FIGURE 1. SAMPLE AIRPLANE FLIGHT MANUAL 

SUPPLEMENT (continued! 

Installation Center/Repair Station 

123 Fourth Street 

System 

Anytown, USA 

SECTION 1 - GENERAL 

1. <Provide a very brief (Le., one paragraph) general description of 
the GPS navigation system installed in the aircraft> 

2. Provided the ABC Model XXX GPS navigation system is receiving 
adequate usable signals, it has been demonstrated capable of and has 
been shown to meet the accuracy specifications of: 

VFR/IFR en route oceanic and remote, en route domestic, terminal, 
and instrument approach (GPS, Loran-C, VOR, VOR-DME, 
TACAN, NDB, NDB-DME, RNAV) operation {specify operations, 
i.e., en route oceanic and remote, en route domestic, terminal, 
instrument approach, etc., as applicable to the particular 
approval) within the U.S. National Airspace System, North Atlantic 
Minimum Navigation Performance Specification (MNPS) Airspace 
and latitudes bounded by <> North and <> South using the WGS-84 
(or NAD 83) coordinate reference datum in accordance with the 
criteria of AC 20-XXX, AC 91-49, AC 120-33, and <list additional 
applicable ACs>. Satellite navigation data is based upon use of only 
the global positioning system (GPS) operated by the United States. 

SECTION 2 - LIMITATIONS 

1. The ABC Model XXX GPS Pilot’s Guide, P/N <insertpart 

number>, dated <insert date> (or later appropriate revision) must be 
immediately available to the flight crew whenever navigation is 
predicated on the use of the system. The software status stated in the 
Pilot’s Guide must match that displayed on the equipment. 


Model XXX GPS 
Navigation 


FAA Approved Page <> of <> 

Date:_. 


A2.17 


FIGURE 1. SAMPLE AIRPLANE FLIGHT MANUAL 
SUPPLEMENT (continued) 

Installation Center/Repair Station 
123 Fourth Street 
System 

Anytown, USA 

2. The system must utilize software version <insert version 
identification>. 

3. IFR en route and terminal navigation is prohibited unless the pilot 
verifies the currency of the data base or verifies each selected 
waypoint for accuracy by reference to current approved data. 

4. Instrument approaches must be accomplished in accordance with 
approved instrument approach procedures that are retrieved from the 
GPS equipment data base. The GPS equipment data base must 
incorporate the current update cycle. 

(a) Instrument approaches must be conducted in the approach mode 
and RAIM must be available at the Final Approach Fix. 

(b) Accomplishment of ILS, LOG, LOC-BC, LDA, SDF, and MLS 
approaches are not authorized. 

(c) When an alternate airport is required by the applicable operating 
rules, it must be served by an approach based on other than GPS 
or Loran-C navigation, the aircraft must have operational 
equipment capable of using that navigation aid, and the required 
navigation aid must be operational. 

5. The aircraft must have other approved navigation equipment 
installed and operating appropriate to the route of flight. 

6. <Specijy any airspace limitations that may be applicable to systems 
that do not provide for coordinate reference system conversions of 
the displayed navigation information for airspace that is not 
referenced to the WGS-84 or NAD-83 geodetic datums> 

FAA Approved Page <> of <> 

Date:_ 


Model XXX GPS 
Navigation 


A2.18 



FIGURE 1. SAMPLE AIRPLANE FLIGHT MANUAL 
SUPPLEMENT (continued) 


Installation Center/Repair Station Model XXX GPS 

123 Fourth Street Navigation System 

Anytown, USA 

7. <Specify any additional limitations applicable to the particular 
installations 

SECTION 3 - EMERGENCY/ABNORMAL PROCEDURES 

EMERGENCY PROCEDURES 
No Change 

ABNORMAL PROCEDURES 


1. If ABC Model XXX GPS navigation information is not available or 
invalid, utilize remaining operational navigation equipment as 
required. 

2. If “RAIM NOT AVAILABLE” message is displayed, continue to 
navigation using the GPS equipment or revert to an alternate means 
of navigation appropriate to the route and phase of flight. When 
continuing to use GPS navigation, position must be verified every 
15 minutes using another IFR-approved navigation system. 


SECTION 4 - NORMAL PROCEDURES 


NOTE: Transmission on VHF communication frequencies 121.150, 
121.175, 121.200, 131.250, 131.275, and 31.300 MHz may adversely 
affect reception of the GPS signal. Transmissions in excess of 
approximately 15 seconds may result in loss of GPS signal reception. 
Navigation will be restored within 5 seconds after the completion of the 
transmission. 

1. Normal operating procedures are outlined in the ABC Model XXX 
GPS Pilot’s Guide, P/N <insertpart number>, dated <insert date> 
(or later appropriate revision). 

FAA Approved Page <> of <> 

Date:_ 


A2.19 



FIGURE 1. SAMPLE AIRPLANE FLIGHT MANUAL 
SUPPLEMENT (continued^ 


Installation Center/Repair Station Model XXX GPS 

123 Fourth Street Navigation System 

Any town, USA 

2. <Describe approach mode sequencing and signal RAIM prediction 
capability.> 

3. System Annunciators 

a. Waypoint - <describe each annunciator> 

b. Message - <describe each annunciator> 

c. Approach - <describe each annunciator> 

d. <describe any other annunciators> 

4. System Switches 

a. Nav/GPS - <describe switch use andfunction> 

b. RMI Switch - <describe switch use andfunction> 

c. <describe any other switches> 

5. <\\sp\?iy <describe the pilof s GPS display(s)> 

6. Flight Director/Autopilot Coupled Operation <describe the 
procedures for coupling GPS to the flight director and!or autopilot 
system(s)> 

1. <include any other normal operating procedures necessary> 
SECTION 5 - PERFORMANCE 


No Change 


FAA Approved Page <> of <> 

Date:_ 


A2-20 


FIGURE L SAMPLE AIRPLANE FLIGHT MANUAL 
SUPPLEMENT (continued) 


Installation Center/Repair Station Model XXX GPS 

123 Fourth Street Navigation 

System 

SECTION 6 - WEIGHT AND BALANCE 


<Refer to revised weight and balance date, if applicable> 

SECTION 7 - SYSTEM DESCRIPTION 

<Provide a brief description of the system, its operation, installation, 
eto 


FAA Approved Page <> of <> 

Date:_ 


A2.21 


REFERENCE A3 


ADVISORY CIRCULAR 20-130A 
(Draft) 

Airworthiness Approval of Navigation or Flight 
Management Systems Integrating Multiple Navigation 

Sensors 


CAUTION!! Please be aware that the materials in the following 
section are excerpts. It is assumed that the person using this 
material has read the complete parent document. Important details 
regarding the use of or policies covering the application of this 
information may be available only in the complete document from 
which the excerpts were taken. 


7. SYSTEM ACCURACY . 

a. 2D Accuracy Requirements (95 percent probability). 

(1) For equipment incorporating a Class B() of C() GPS sensor, the 
total position fixing error of the airborne multi-sensor equipment 
shall be equal to or less than that shown in Table 2 when GPS 
data is used in the position/navigation computation: 


Table 2. 2D Accuracy Requirements, Equipment Incorporating 
Class B() or C() GPS Sensor 


Error 

Type 

Oceanic 

and 

remote 

(nmi) 

En Route 
Domestic 
(nmi) 

Terminal 

(nmi) 

Non- 
Precision 
Approach 
* (nmi) 

Position 

Fixing 

Error** 

0.124 

0.124 

0.124 

0.0560 

CDI 

Centering 

*** 

0.2 

0.2 

0.2 

0.01 


* Non-precision approach criteria only applies to equipment 
incorporating a Class Bl, B3, Cl, or C3 GPS sensor. 

** Equipment error assumes an average GPS HDOP of 1.5, GPS 
equipment waypoint input resolution of 0.01 minute, and output 
resolution of 0.01 minute for approach and 0.1 minute otherwise. 

*** The maximum difference between the displayed cross track 
deviation and the computed cross track deviation. 

(2) For equipment not incorporating a GPS sensor (or when GPS 
data is not used in a system including a GPS sensor), the total 


A3.2 

















position fixing error of the airborne multi-sensor equipment shall 
be equal to or less than that shown in Table 3: 

Table 3. 2D Accuracy Requirements, Equipment 
Not Incorporating a GPS Sensor 


Error Type 

Oceanic 

and 

remote 

(nmi) 

En Route 
(Domestic) 
(nmi) 

Terminal 

(nmi) 

Non- 

Precision 

Approach 

(nmi) 

Position 

Fixing 

Error* 

12.0 

2.8 

1.7 

0.3 (0.5 if 
navigation 
data 
derived 
from a 
single 
collocated 
VOR/DME 
station) 

CDI 

Centering ** 

0.2 

0.2 

0.2 

0.1 


* Equipment error assumes a multi-sensor equipment waypoint 
input resolution of 0.01 minute, and output resolution of 0.01 
minute for approach and 0.1 minute otherwise. 

** The maximum difference between the displayed cross track 
deviation and the computed cross track deviation. 

8. AIRWORTHINESS CRITERIA FOR NAVIGATION AND 
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS INTEGRATING 
MULTIPLE NAVIGATION SENSORS LIMITED TO VISUAL 
FLIGHT RULES (VFRI ONLY 

a. Application Process . Persons wishing to use a navigation or flight 
management system integrating multiple navigation sensors for 
operations limited to VFR only may obtain approval of the installation 
by Type Certificate (TC), Supplemental Type Certificate (STC) or data 
approved by the FAA (responsible Flight Standards District Office) on 
FAA Form 337 (Major Repair and Alteration). The approval for return 
to service must be signed by one of the entities noted in 14 CFR part 
43; i.e., repair station, manufacturer, holder of an inspection 
authorization, etc. 


A3.3 










c. VFR Airworthiness Approval 

(1) First-Time VFR Airworthiness Approval (for a Particular Type 
of Multi-Sensor Navigation of Flight Management System) 

(ii) Aircraft Installation Data Evaluation . Normally the 

manufacturer of the multi-sensor equipment will provide an 
aircraft as a test bed for the first time installation approval. 
This approval will serve as a basis for subsequent approvals, 
regardless of aircraft type or model. The following 
assessments are made: 

(A) Review of the equipment installation in the aircraft. 

(B) Verification that the multi-sensor equipment is 
appropriate to the environment in which it was 
installed. 

(C) Analysis of a data flow diagram in order to review 
which equipment provides what data to which other 
equipment. 

(D) Verification that the installation of the GPS 
equipment, including antenna, is sufficient to meet all 
structural mounting, dynamic, and emergency landing 
loads appropriate to the aircraft category. 

(E) Verification that a placard stating “XXX Navigation 
(or Flight Management) System limited to VFR use 
only” is installed in clear view of and readily readable 
by the pilot. 

(F) Verification that the multi-sensor equipment does not 
interfere with the normal operation of other 
equipment installed in the aircraft. 

(G) Evaluation of the antenna installation. A critical 
aspect of many multi^sensor equipment installations is 
the installation of the antenna(e). It is important that 
the antenna for each sensor be one that is approved 
for the particular type (make and model) sensor 
installed. 


A3.4 



(1) Adequate isolation must be provided between the 
GPS antenna and any other transmitting 
antenna(s) installed on the aircraft. Shadowing by 
aircraft structure can adversely affect the operation 
of GPS equipment. Typically, a GPS antenna is 
located forward of the wings on the top of the 
fuselage to minimize effects of the wings, tail, etc. 
during aircraft maneuvering. Installations on 
helicopters must consider the effects of the rotor 
blades on antenna performance. 

NOTE: The GPS signal is typically below the 
value of the background noise. Electrical noise in 
the vicinity of the antenna can adversely affect the 
performance of the system. Antenna installation in 
close proximity to Traffic Alert and Collision 
Avoidance System (TCAS), satellite 
communication (SATCOM), and other 
transmitting antennae (particularly “L” band) 
should be carefully evaluated for potential mutual 
interference. Inter modulation effects are possible 
between multiple channel SATCOM installations 
and GPS. Harmonic interference from VHP 
transmissions on 121.150, 121.175, 121.200, 
131.250, 131.275, and 131.300 MHz may 
adversely affect reception of the GPS signal if less 
than 100 dB isolation is provided. 

(2) “E” field antennas (whip, plate, or blade type) are 
typically used with Loran-C sensors and many 
Omega/VLF sensors. Precipitation static has an 
adverse effect upon the signal receiving capability 
of this type of antenna. The adverse effects of P- 
static can be minimized by use of the proper 
antenna type and location, by proper installation of 
high-quality static dischargers, and by proper 
bonding of airframe surfaces. The manufacturer’s 
installation or maintenance manual usually 
describes acceptable “E” field antenna installation 
practices. Each aircraft should be subjected to a 
careful ohmic survey of electrical airframe 
bonding (an electrical bonding limit of 10 
milliohms is considered acceptable). P-static 


A3.5 




protection is a required part of the system 
installation and must be maintained for proper 
system operation. 

(3) “H” field antennas (loop type) are typically used 
with Omega/VLF sensors. The signal receiving 
quality of this type of antenna is adversely affected 
by aircraft electrical skin currents, particularly by 
400 Hz ac. P-static has no appreciable effect on an 
“H” field antenna, and its effects are usually not 
observed. A procedure called skin mapping is 
normally employed to determine a good mounting 
location for “H” field antennas. It should be noted 
that shifting major aircraft electrical components 
to different locations within the aircraft or 
installing new equipment subsequent to antenna 
installation may render a previously determined 
skin map location unsuitable. A simple test to 
verify the effectiveness of an “H” field antenna 
installation located by skin mapping is to park the 
aircraft away from any external electrical noise 
source. Then, using only the aircraft’s battery, and 
with all other electrical equipment off, activate the 
multi-sensor equipment and record signal-to-noise 
values (or quality factors) for all receivable 
stations of the appropriate sensor. Repeat this 
process of recording signal-to-noise values (or 
quality factors) with engine(s) running and all 
electrical/electronic equipment operating on 
aircraft power. If the antenna installation is 
satisfactory, there should not be any significant 
degradation in signal reception. 

(iii) Ground Test Evaluations . For multi-sensor equipment 

incorporating a Class B() of C() GPS sensor, static ground tests 
are conducted to verify the installed GPS equipment 
configuration (including antenna) provides position data 
meeting the accuracy criteria specified in paragraph 8a(l) of 
this AC. These tests shall cover a continuous period of 24 hours 
with a maximum sample interval of five minutes. 


A3.6 



NOTE: The 24-hour ground accuracy test may be performed on 
the aircraft or by use of a representative mock-up configuration. 
If a mock-up test fixture is used, the entire installed GPS 
equipment configuration, including antenna, must consist of the 
hardware to be used in the installation and be representative of 
the installed system configuration. 

(iv) Flight Test Evaluations . Flight tests are conducted to verify 
proper operation and accuracy of the multi-sensor equipment as 
installed in the aircraft. Flight tests should include at least the 
following: 

NOTE: Required flight evaluations for the first-time 
airworthiness approval of particular multi-sensor equipment are 
accomplished by the cognizant Aircraft Certification Office 
unless specific tests are delegated by the ACO to a flight test 
pilot designated engineering representative (DER). 

(A) Evaluation of installed multi-sensor equipment to verify 
that it is functioning properly, safely, and operates in 
accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications. 

(B) Evaluation of steering response while autopilot and/or 
flight director is coupled to the multi-sensor equipment 
during a variety of different track and mode changes. 
Additionally, all available display sensitivities shall be 
evaluated. 

(C) Evaluation to verify the multi-sensor equipment 
installation does not adversely affect other onboard 
equipment (this test may be partially accomplished as a 
ground test). 

(D) Evaluation of the accessibility of all controls pertaining to 
the multi-sensor equipment installation. 

(E) Evaluation of the visibility of the controls, displays, and 
annunciators relating to the multi-sensor equipment 
installation during day and night lighting conditions. No 
distracting cockpit glare or reflections may be introduced, 
and all controls must be illuminated for identification and 
ease of use. Night lighting shall be consistent with other 
cockpit lighting. 


A3.7 


(F) Demonstrate multi-sensor equipment navigational 
performance (including, as applicable to the sensors 
integrated in the system, Loran-C chain 
selection/switching, adequate P-static protection, etc.) 
has not been adversely affected by the installation in the 
aircraft. 

(G) Validate multi-sensor equipment navigational accuracy 
in each operating mode. In addition to overall system 
navigation performance, particular test requirements for 
navigational accuracy will vary depending upon the 
particular sensors integrated in the multi-sensor 
equipment and whether sensor accuracy performance 
data has previously been obtained. 

(1) GPS sensor accuracy should be verified in each 
operating mode by at least 5 low altitude over flights 
of one or more surveyed locations (ensure survey 
point coordinates are relative to WGS-84 or NAD- 
83). An acceptable method of conducting this 
accuracy demonstration is to accomplish low altitude 
(less than 100 feet AGL) overflight of a runway 
threshold and record the GPS position as the aircraft 
crosses the threshold. The system accuracy is the 
distance between the coordinate position determined 
by the GPS and the coordinate position of the 
surveyed location (runway threshold). Runway 
threshold coordinates may be obtained from the 
airport operator. If coordinate data conversion to 
WGS-84/NAD-83 is necessary, contact the National 
Flight Data Center at (202)267-9277. 

(2) Follow-On VFR Airworthiness Installation Approvals . This 
type of approval refers to installation approvals in any model or 
type of aircraft after a first time airworthiness approval of the 
particular multi-sensor equipment has been issued. Follow-on 
approvals may use the first time airworthiness approval, which 
was either a TC or an STC, as a basis for installation approval. 
Follow-on installation approvals may be accomplished by TC, 
STC, or data approved on FAA Form 337. Flight Standards 
District Offices (FSDOs) receiving an application for field 
approval of a multi-sensor equipment on FAA Form 337 must 


A3.8 




coordinate with the cognizant Aircraft Certification Office 
(ACO) for review of installation data, accomplishment of any 
necessary flight tests and evaluations, and approval of the 
required flight manual supplement. The applicant or installing 
agency requesting a follow-on multi-sensor equipment 
installation utilizing this method of data approval should: 

(i) Unless otherwise provided, contact either the manufacturer 
or organization responsible for obtaining the first time 
airworthiness approval of the multi-sensor equipment in 
order to: 

(A) Obtain a sample airplane or rotorcraft flight manual 
supplement (or supplemental flight manual, if 
appropriate), if required by the installation. 

(B) Obtain verification of the equipment approval status, 
including antenna, software, autopilot/flight director 
interface, and system integration requirements, etc. 

(C) Discuss any problem areas and seek assistance in their 
solution. 

(D) Verify that the maximum operating speed for which 
the multi-sensor equipment is qualified is compatible 
with the maximum expected ground speed of the 
aircraft. 

(ii) Conduct a similar data evaluation as outlined in paragraph 
8c(l)(ii) of this AC. 

(iii) Conduct a functional flight evaluation covering the items 
listed in paragraph 8c(l)(iv) of this AC. 

NOTE: Required flight evaluations for follow-on equipment 
installations approved via the Form 337 process may be 
conducted by the installer. 


A3.9 


9. AIRWORTHINESS CRITERIA FOR NAVIGATION AND 
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS INTEGRATING 
MULTIPLE NAVIGATION SENSORS USED UNDER 
INSTRUMENT FLIGHT RULES HER) 


a. A pplication Process . Persons wishing to obtain approval of multi¬ 
sensor equipment integrating any combination of GPS, 
Omega/VLF, Loran-C, VOR/DME, Multiple DME, or INS/IRS 
sensors for IFR operations may do so via the Type Certificate (TC) 
or Supplemental Type Certificate (STC) process. For equipment 
produced under TSO-Cl 15b authorization that has previously 
obtained initial installation approval via the TC or STC process, 
approval may also be obtained via data approved by the FAA 
(responsible Flight Standards District Office) on FAA Form 337 
(Major Repair and Alteration). The approval for return to service 
must be signed by one of the entities noted in 14 CFR part 43; i.e., 
repair stations, manufacturer, holder of an inspection 
authorization, etc. Procedures for VFR only airworthiness approval 
are detailed in paragraph 8 of this AC. 

(1) The initial (first-time airworthiness approval) certification of 
multi-sensor equipment requires extensive engineering and 
flight test evaluations and must be accomplished via the TC or 
STC approval process. 

(2) Subsequent (follow-on) installations of the same navigation or 
flight management system (hardware and software) in other 
aircraft are approved using a less extensive engineering and 
flight test evaluation. Approval of follow-on installations may 
be accomplished via the TC, STC, of FAA Form 337 process. 
The extent of required evaluations depends upon the degree of 
integration of the navigation system with other aircraft systems 
and/or other changes that may have been incorporated in the 
multi-sensor equipment. Changes to software accomplishing 
navigation, integrity or availability functions; changes in the 
number, type, or mix of sensors integrated in the system; 
changes to/addition of approved operating areas; or significant 
changes to operating limitations cannot be accomplished using 
the FAA Form 337 process and must use TC or STC 
procedures. 

(3) Approval of multi-sensor equipment integrating a Class C() 
GPS sensor with any other combination of sensors for IFR 


A3.10 




operations must use the TC or STC process. Because of the 
unique enhanced display and system integration requirements 
applicable to this integration of sensors and displays, 
appropriate test requirements and procedures must be 
determined based upon the particular application. 

b. Airworthiness Considerations 


(7) Anti-Ice Protection. If the aircraft in which the multi-sensor 
equipment is installed is approved for flight into known icing 
conditions, any antennae must have anti-ice protection or be 
found not to be susceptible to ice buildup. Alternatively, if the 
equipment can be shown to operate satisfactorily when the 
antenna is subject to icing, then anti-ice protection is not 
required. (The effect of ice accumulation on the antenna, if 
any, can be found in the manufacturer’s installation 
instructions.) 

c. IFR Airworthiness Approval 

(1) First-Time IFR Airworthiness Approval (for a Particular Type 
of Multi-sensor Navigation or Flight Management System) 

(ii) Aircraft Installation Data Evaluation . Normally the 

manufacturer of the multi-sensor equipment will provide an 
aircraft as a test bed for the first time installation approval. 
This approval will serve as a basis for subsequent 
installation approvals, regardless of aircraft type or model. 
The following assessments are to be made: 

(A) Review of installation drawings, wiring diagrams, and 
descriptive wiring routing. 

(B) Evaluation of the cockpit layout of the installed 
equipment with emphasis on equipment controls, 
applicable circuit breakers (labels and accessibility), 
switching arrangement, and related indicators, 
displays, annunciators, etc. 

(C) Analysis of a data flow diagram in order to review 
which equipment provides what data to which other 
equipment. 


A3»ll 




(D) Review of a structural analysis of the equipment 
installation, including antenna(e), in order to 
ascertain whether structural mounting, dynamic, and 
crash load requirements are satisfied. 

(E) Review of an electrical load analysis in order to verify 
that the total electrical load requirements are within 
the capabilities of the aircraft’s electrical generating 
system. Determine that the supplied electrical power 
is consistent with applicable equipment reliability 
requirements. 

(F) Verification that the aircraft environment in which 
the multi-sensor equipment is installed is appropriate 
to the environmental categories (or criteria) to which 
the equipment has been tested. 

(G) Evaluation of the antenna installation. A critical 
aspect of many multi-sensor equipment installations is 
the installation of the antenna(e). It is important that 
the antenna for each sensor is approved for the 
particular type (make and model) sensor installed. 

(1) Adequate isolation must be provided between a 
GPS antenna and any other transmitting 
antenna(s) installed on the aircraft. Shadowing by 
aircraft structure can adversely affect the operation 
of GPS equipment. Typically, a GPS antenna is 
located forward of the wings on the top of the 
fuselage to minimize effects of the wings, tail, etc. 
during aircraft maneuvering. Installations on 
helicopters must consider the effects of the rotor 
blades on antenna performance. 

NOTE: The GPS signal is typically below the 
value of the background noise. Electrical noise in 
the vicinity of the antenna can adversely affect the 
performance of the system. Antenna installation in 
close proximity to traffic alert and collision 
avoidance system (TCAS), satellite 
communication (SATCOM), and other 
transmitting antennas (particularly “L” band) 


A3.12 



should be carefully evaluated for potential mutual 
interference. 

(2) “E” field antennas (whip, plate, or blade type) are 
typically used with Loran-C sensors and many 
Omega/VLF sensors. Precipitation static has an 
adverse effect upon the signal receiving capability 
of this type of antenna, The adverse effects of P- 
static can be minimized by use of the proper 
antenna type and location, by proper installation of 
high-quality static dischargers, and by proper 
bonding of airframe surfaces. The manufacturer’s 
installation or maintenance manual usually 
describes acceptable “E” field antenna installation 
practices. Each aircraft should be subjected to a 
careful ohmic survey or electrical airframe 
bonding (an electrical bonding limit of 10 
milliohms is considered acceptable). P-static 
protection is a required part of the system 
installation and must be maintained for proper 
system operation. 

(3) “H” field antennas (loop type) are typically used 
with Omega/VLF sensors. The signal receiving 
quality of this type of antenna is adversely affected 
by aircraft electrical skin currents, particularly by 
400 Hz ac. P-static has no appreciable effect on an 
“H” field antenna, and its effects are usually not 
observed. A procedure called skin mapping is 
normally employed to determine a good mounting 
location for “H” field antennas. It should be noted 
that shifting major aircraft electrical components 
to different locations within the aircraft or 
installing new equipment subsequent to antenna 
installation may render a previously determined 
skin map location unsuitable. A simple test to 
verify the effectiveness of an “H” field antenna 
installation located by skin mapping is to park the 
aircraft away from any external electrical noise 
source. Then, using only the aircraft’s battery, and 
with all other electrical equipment off, activate the 
multi-sensor equipment and record signal-to-noise 
values (or quality factors) for all receivable 


A3.13 



stations of the appropriate sensor. Repeat this 
process of recording signal-to-noise values (or 
quality factors) with engine(s) running and all 
electrical/electronic equipment operating on 
aircraft power. If the antenna installation is 
satisfactory, there should not be any significant 
degradation in signal reception. 

(iv) Flight Test Evaluations. 

(K) Validate multi-sensor equipment navigational 
accuracy in each operating mode. In addition to 
overall system navigation performance, particular test 
requirements for navigational accuracy will vary 
depending upon the particular sensors integrated in 
the multi-sensor equipment and whether sensor 
accuracy performance data has previously been 
obtained. The performance of each navigation sensor 
should be evaluated separately and in combination 
with other sensors as applicable. 

(1) GPS sensor accuracy should be verified in each 
operating mode by at least 5 low altitude over 
flights of one or more surveyed locations (ensure 
survey point coordinates are relative to WGS-84). 
An acceptable method of conducting this accuracy 
demonstration is to accomplish low altitude (less 
then 100 feet AGL) overflight of a runway 
threshold and record the GPS position as the 
aircraft crosses the threshold. The system accuracy 
is the distance between the coordinate position 
determined by the GPS and the coordinate position 
from the surveyed location (runway threshold). 
Runway threshold coordinates may be obtained 
from the airport operator. If coordinate data 
conversion to WGS-84/NAD-83 is necessary, 
contact the National Flight Data Center at (202) 
267-9277. 

(2) Initial certification for systems including an 
Omega/VLF sensor that has not previously been 
certified shall be based upon a demonstration of 
system accuracy by recording (at not less than 15- 


A3-14 



minute intervals) the Omega/VLF sensor position 
and comparing it to the actual position during 
evaluation flights representative of the area in 
which approval is desired. Suitable accuracy and 
navigation capability must be demonstrated using 
Omega only. Recorded data should include 
sufficient signal parameters and sensor 
performance data to provide a clear indication of 
satisfactory sensor performance. The particular 
flight paths should be selected based upon an 
analysis of critical signal characteristics, station 
geometry, aircraft movement, time of day, etc. The 
system should demonstrate its ability to re-acquire 
Omega/VLF signals after power interruptions of 
less than seven minutes and more than seven 
minutes, as well as areas of marginal performance. 
It should demonstrate its ability to detect 
inadequate navigation capability, poor signal 
quality, etc. 

(3) Initial certification for systems including a Loran- 
C sensor that has not previously been certified 
shall be based upon a demonstration of system 
accuracy by recording (at not less than 15 minute 
intervals) the Loran-C sensor position and 
comparing it to the actual position during 
evaluation flights representative of the area in 
which approval is desired. Recorded data should 
include sufficient signal parameters and sensor 
performance data to provide a clear indication of 
satisfactory sensor performance. The particular 
flight paths should be selected based upon an 
analysis of critical signal characteristics, station 
geometry, chain/station selection criteria, known 
poor signal areas, aircraft movement, seasonal 
effects (i.e., snow pack vs. trees, water vs. ice, 
etc.), time of day, etc. The system should 
demonstrate its ability to re-acquire the Loran-C 
signal following momentary signal interruptions 
and prolonged (more than 5 minutes) inflight 
power failure, etc. 


A3.15 


(4) Initial certification for systems including a 
VOR/DME or multiple (scanning) DME sensor 
that has not been previously certified shall be 
based upon a demonstration of system accuracy by 
recording (at not greater than 15 minute intervals) 
the VOR/DME and/or DME/DME sensor position 
and comparing it to the actual position during 
evaluation flights representative of the area in 
which approval is desired. Recorded data should 
include sufficient signal parameters and sensor 
performance data to provide a clear indication of 
satisfactory sensor performance. The particular 
flight paths should be selected based upon an 
analysis of critical signal characteristics, station 
geometry, signal coverage (including limited 
station availability with acceptable range), aircraft 
movements, etc. The system should demonstrate 
its ability to detect poor signal conditions, 
inadequate navigation capability, operations 
outside approved operating areas, recovery from 
inflight power failure, etc. 

(5) Initial certification for systems including an 
inertial navigation system (INS) or inertial 
reference unit (IRU) that has not been previously 
certified shall be based upon a demonstration of 
system accuracy by recording (at not greater than 
15 minutes intervals) the INS/IRU sensor position 
and comparing it to the actual position during 
evaluation flights representative of the area in 
which approval is desired. Recorded data should 
include sufficient sensor performance parameters 
to provide a clear indication of satisfactory sensor 
performance and drift rates. The system should 
demonstrate its ability to detect inadequate 
navigation capability, operations outside approved 
operating areas, recovery from power failure, 
reinitialization in flight, alignment in limiting 
areas, etc. 


A3.16 



(2) Follow-On IFR Airworthiness Installation Approvals . This type 
of approval refers to installation approvals in any model or type 
of aircraft after a first time airworthiness approval of the 
particular multi-sensor equipment has been issued. Follow-on 
approvals may use the first time airworthiness approval, which 
was either a TC or an STC, as a basis for installation approval. 
Follow-on installation approvals may be accomplished by TC, 
STC, or data approved on FA A Form 337. 

(i) For multi-sensor equipment limited to en route and terminal 
operations only, the Flight Standards District Office (FSDO) 
may approve the installation without consulting the Aircraft 
Certification Office (ACO) unless the responsible inspector 
is not familiar with the installation approval criteria 
established in this AC or has other questions related to the 
installation. 

(ii) For multi-sensor equipment approved for instrument 
approaches, the FSDO may approve the installation without 
consulting the ACO provided: 

(A) There is not autopilot/flight director interface or the 
autopilot/flight director and aircraft model and series 
are identical to a previously approved installation. 

(B) An external cross-track deviation display (CDI, HSI, 
etc.) is located in the pilot’s primary field of view. 

(C) All GPS equipment controls are located within easy 
reach of the pilot with the least practicable deviation 
from the pilot’s normal position. 

(D) Required GPS annunciators are located within the 
pilot’s normal field of view when looking forward 
along the flight path, including the center radio stack. 

(iii) For GPS equipment installations where the criteria of 
9c(2)(i) or (ii) of this AC are not satisfied, the FSDO should 
contact the ACO for assistance in completing any necessary 
evaluation(s) prior to approval. 

(iv) Unless otherwise provided, contact either the manufacturer 
or organization responsible for obtaining the first time 


A3.17 



airworthiness approval of the multi-sensor equipment in 
order to: 

(A) Obtain a sample airplane or rotorcraft flight manual 
supplement (or supplemental flight manual, if 
appropriate). 

(B) Obtain verification of the equipment approval status, 
including antenna, software, autopilot/flight director 
interface, and system integration requirements, etc. 

(C) Discuss any problem areas and seek assistance in their 
solution. 

(D) Verify that the maximum operating speed for which 
the multi-sensor equipment is qualified is compatible 
with the maximum expected ground speed of the 
aircraft. 

(v) If the aircraft is approved for flight in known icing 
conditions, verify the suitability of the antenna installation 
in accordance with the guidance specified in paragraph 
8b(7) of this AC. 

(vi) Conduct a similar data evaluation as outlined in paragraph 
9c(l)(ii) of this AC. 

(vii) Conduct a functional flight evaluation covering at least the 
following items: 

NOTE : Required flight evaluations for follow-on equipment 
installations may be conducted by the installer if the criteria 
specified in paragraph 8c(2)(i) or (ii) of this AC are met. In 
other circumstances, required flight evaluations will be 
conducted by the cognizant Aircraft Certification Office 
(ACO) or, when authorized, by a flight test pilot designated 
engineering representative (DER) in accordance with the 
procedures used by the cognizant ACO. 

(A) Evaluation of all operating modes of the multi-sensor 
equipment. Particular attention should be given to 
mode switching and transition requirements 


A3.18 


associated with the approach mode for equipment 
incorporating Class Bl, B3, Cl, and C3 GPS sensors. 

(B) Evaluation of the interface (function) of other 
equipment connected to the multi-sensor equipment. 

(C) Review of various failure modes and associated 
annunciations, such as loss of electrical power, loss of 
signal reception, equipment failure, individual sensor 
failure, autopilot/flight director response to system 
flags, etc. 

(D) Evaluation of steering response while autopilot and/or 
flight director is coupled to the multi-sensor 
equipment during a variety of different track and 
mode changes. This evaluation shall include, as 
applicable, transition from en route to approach 
transition to approach modes and vice-versa. 
Additionally, all available display sensitivities shall 
be evaluated. 

(E) Evaluation if displayed multi-sensor equipment 
parameters on interfaced cockpit instruments such as 
HSI, CDI, distance display, electronic flight 
instruments system (EFIS), moving maps, fuel 
management systems, etc. 

(F) Assessment of all switching and transfer functions, 
including electrical bus switching, pertaining to the 
multi-sensor equipment installation. 

(G) Evaluation to determine satisfactory electromagnetic 
compatibility (EMC) between the multi-sensor 
equipment installation and other onboard equipment 
(this test may be partially accomplished as a ground 
test). 

NOTE 1; For systems incorporating a GPS sensor, 
particular attention should be given to other “L” band 
equipment, such as TCAS or SATCOM equipment, 
VHF transmissions on the frequencies stated in 
paragraph 9a(2) of this AC, high frequency (HF) 


A3.19 


communications systems, and other transmitting 
equipment (ACARS, APIS, Flightfone, etc.)- 


NOTE 2; Installation instructions for each GPS 
receiver installation shall include the requirement for 
verification of adequate isolation from the harmonic 
interference of VHP communication transceivers. 
These tests shall be conducted on the completed GPS 
installation by tuning each VHP transmitter to the 
frequencies listed below for a period of 20 seconds 
while observing the signal status of each satellite 
being received. Degradation of individually received 
satellite signals below a point where navigation is no 
longer possible is not acceptable and will require that 
additional isolation measures (low pass or notch 
filters installed at the output of the VHP transmitter, 
additional spacing between the VHP transmitter and 
the GPS antenna, replacement of the VPIF transmitter 
with a unit having no excessive harmonic emissions, 
etc.) be included in the aircraft installation. 
Reevaluation of installed VHP transceiver 
performance is not necessary if the filter insertion loss 
is 2 dB or less. The following VPIF frequencies shall 
be evaluated: 

121.150 MHz 131.250 MHz 

121.175 MHz 131.275 MHz 

121.200 MHz 131.300 MHz 

(H) Evaluation of the accessibility and visibility of all 
controls pertaining to the multi-sensor equipment 
installation. 

(I) Validate multi-sensor equipment navigational 
accuracy in each operating mode, as described in 
paragraph 9c(l)(iv)(K) of this AC. 

(J) Verify continuity of navigation data during normal 
aircraft maneuvering, including holding patterns and 
turns at up to at least 30 degrees of bank for one 
minute. 


A3.20 


(K) Monitor displayed cross-track error to verify that 
flight technical error (FTE) is less than 2.0 nmi for en 
route, 1.0 nmi for terminal (approach transition), and 
0.25 nmi (for equipment using GPS data) or 0.5 nmi 
(for equipment not using GPS data) for approach 
operating modes, both with and without autopilot 
and/or flight director, as applicable. 

(L) For equipment including an approach mode, conduct 
at least three published instrument approaches 
(retrieved from the database) to verify the proper 
operation of the equipment in the approach 
environment. 

APPENDIX 1. PROCEDURES FOR OBTAINING FA A APPROVAL 

OF FOLLOW-ON MULTI-SENSOR EQUIPMENT 

INSTALLATIONS FOR IFR/VFR OPERATIONS BY FAA FORM 

337 

2. FOLLOW-ON MULTI-SENSOR EQUIPMENT 

INSTALLATIONS LIMITED TO VFR USE ONLY . Approval of 
follow-on multi-sensor equipment installations limited to VFR use 
only (where the initial approval was accomplished using the TC or 
STC process) are normally obtained using FAA Form 337 
approved by the responsible Flight Standards District Office 
(FSDO). Such installations can usually be approved for return to 
service by one of the entities noted in 14 CFR part 43; i.e., repair 
station, manufacturer, holder of an inspection authorization, etc., 
provided the installation: 

a. General Installation Methods . Conforms to the acceptable methods, 
techniques, and practices contained in AC 43.13-1 A, Acceptable 
Methods, Techniques and Practices - Aircraft Inspection and 
Repair, and AC 43.13-2A, Acceptable Methods, Techniques, and 
Practices - Aircraft Alterations. 

b. Installation Criteria . Is in accordance with the criteria specified in 
paragraph 7c(2) of this AC. A certification from the manufacturer 
to confirm that the en route/terminal accuracy requirements or 
paragraph 6 and ground accuracy test requirements of paragraph 
7c(l)(ii) have been met should be provided. This certification can 
be accomplished by reference to the first time TC/STC approval. 


A3.21 




NOTE : Limited test data may be required to verify/demonstrate 
that the applicable requirements have been satisfied. 

c. Aircraft Flight Manual Supplement/Placardfs) . Except for those 
installations where placards adequately address required 
limitations, an airplane or rotorcraft flight manual supplement (or 
supplemental flight manual) prepared by the applicant and 
containing at least the following information must be presented for 
FAA approval. The proposed flight manual supplement (or 
supplemental flight manual) is submitted to the FSDO for approval 
along with the other data associated with the installation. 

(1) Equipment operating limitations. 

(2) Emergency/abnormal operating procedures (if applicable). 

(3) Normal procedures for operating the multi-sensor equipment 
and any interfaced equipment. (May be provided in a pilot’s 
guide that is referenced in the flight manual supplement.) 

(4) General description of system (or reference to a pilot’s guide 
that provides an equipment description). 

NOTE: The FAA inspector will evaluate and sign the flight 
manual supplement (or supplemental flight manual) presented 
by the applicant as part of a field approval. Generally, FAA 
inspectors should have sufficient understanding of the AFM or 
RFM to approve a supplement for the multi-sensor equipment 
installation without need for assistance from the AGO. 
However, if assistance is needed the inspector should request it 
early in the program. 

d. Functional Flight Evaluation. A functional flight evaluation 
covering the items listed in paragraph 7c(2)(iii) is accomplished by 
the installer. The results of this evaluation are included in the data 
provided to the FSDO. 

3. FOLLOW-ON MULTI-SENSOR EQUIPMENT 

INSTALLATIONS FOR IFR USE. Approval of follow-on multi¬ 
sensor equipment installations for IFR use (where the initial 
approval was accomplished using the TC or STC process) may be 
obtained using an FAA Form 337 approved by the responsible 
Flight Standards District Office. 


A3.22 




a. Approval Process. 


(1) Multi-sensor equipment installations limited to en route and 
terminal operations only are normally approved by the FSDO 
without consulting the Aircraft Certification Office (ACO). In 
cases where the responsible inspector is not familiar with the 
installation approval criteria established in this AC or has other 
questions related to the installation, consultation with the ACO 
may be necessary. 

(2) Multi-sensor equipment installations approved for non¬ 
precision instrument approaches may be approved by the FSDO 
without consulting the ACO provided: 

(i) There is no autopilot/flight director interface or the 
autopilot/flight director and aircraft model and series are 
identical to a previously approved installation; 

(ii) An external CDI or HSI that displays multi-sensor 
equipment cross-track deviation information is located in the 
pilot’s primary field of view; 

(iii) All multi-sensor equipment controls are located within easy 
reach of the pilot with the leas practicable deviation from the 
pilot’s normal position; and 

(iv) All required multi-sensor equipment annunciators are 
located within the pilot’s normal field of view when looking 
forward along the flight path, including the center panel 
radio stack. 

(3) If the above criteria is not satisfied, the FSDO inspector should 
contact the ACO for assistance in completing any necessary 
evaluation(s) prior to approval. 

b. Data Submitted by the Applicant. Alteration data specified in 
paragraph 8c(2)(v) for the equipment installation is submitted with 
a properly executed FAA Form 337, and a certification from the 
manufacturer to confirm that the accuracy requirements of 
paragraph 7a and ground accuracy test requirements of paragraph 
8c(l) (iii) of this AC and system performance specifications of 
TSO-Cl 15a have been met. (This certification can be 


A3.23 


accomplished by reference to TSO-Cl 15a or b approval and the 
original TC/STC approval.) The FAA Form 337, along with all 
required data pertaining to the installation, should be submitted to 
the responsible FSDO. 

c. Additional Data Which May be Required. If required by the FSDO 
(or an AGO when consulting with the FSDO when reviewing the 
data/conducting necessary tests requested by the FSDO) approving 
the technical data/installation, the applicant may also be required 
to furnish a copy of the equipment data (for equipment not 
produced under TSO-Cl 15a or b authorization), manufacturer’s 
operating and installation instructions, fault analysis for 
installation, installation details and/or photographs, structural 
substantiation, system wiring diagrams and ground test evaluation 
results. 

d. Aircraft Flight Manual Supplement . An airplane or rotorcraft flight 
manual supplement (or supplemental flight manual) prepared by 
the applicant and containing at least the following information 
must be presented for FAA approval. The proposed flight manual 
supplement (or supplemental flight manual) is prepared using the 
guidance contained in Appendix 2 and submitted to the FSDO. 

(1) Equipment operating limitations. 

(2) Emergency/abnormal operating procedures (if applicable). 

(3) Normal procedures for operating the multi-sensor equipment 
and any interfaced equipment. (May be provided in a pilot’s 
guide that is referenced in the flight manual supplement.) 

(4) General description of system (or reference to a pilot’s guide 
that provides an equipment description). 

NOTE: The FAA inspector will evaluate and sign the flight 
manual supplement (or supplemental flight manual) presented by 
the applicant as part of a field approval. Generally, FAA 
inspectors should have sufficient understanding of the AFM or 
RFM to approve a supplement for the multi-sensor equipment 
installation without need for assistance from the AGO. However, if 
assistance is needed the inspector should request it early in the 
program. 

e. Functional Flight Evaluation. A functional flight evaluation 
covering the items listed in paragraph 8c(2)(vi) is accomplished. If 
the criteria specified in paragraph 3a(2) above is satisfied, the 


A3.24 




installer conducts the flight evaluation. In situations where 
additional FAA evaluation is necessary, required flight evaluations 
will be conducted by the cognizant ACO or, when authorized, by a 
Flight Test Pilot Designated Engineering Representative (DER) in 
accordance with the procedures used by the ACO. 

APPENDIX 2. SAMPLE AIRPLANE FLIGHT MANUAL 
SUPPLEMENT(FAA Form 337 Approval Process) . 

1. The following sample Airplane Flight Manual Supplement 
(AFMS) is provided as an example of the format to be used and 
information to be included when preparing required supplements. An 
AFMS must follow the organization of the flight manual being 
supplemented. 


A3.25 



FIGURE 1, SAMPLE AIRPLANE FLIGHT MANUAL 
SUPPLEMENT 


Installation Center/Repair Station Model XXX Multi-Sensor 

123 Fourth Street Navigation System 

Anytown, USA 

FAA APPROVED AIRPLANE FLIGHT MANUAL SUPPLEMENT 
ABC MODEL XXX MULTI-SENSOR NAVIGATION SYSTEM 

AIRPLANE MAKE: 

AIRPLANE MODEL: 

AIRPLANE SERIAL NO.: 

REGISTRATION NO.: 

This document must be carried in the airplane at all times. It describes 
the operating procedures for the ABC Model XXX Multi-Sensor 
navigation system when it has been installed in accordance with 
<manufacturer’s installation manual number and date> and FAA 
Form 337 dated <insert date>. 

For airplanes with and FAA Approved Airplane Flight Manual, this 
document serves as the FAA Approved ABC Model XXX Multi- 
Sensor navigation system Flight Manual Supplement. For airplanes 
that do not have an approved flight manual, this document serves as 
the FAA Approved ABC Model XXX Multi-Sensor navigation system 
Supplemental Flight Manual. 

The information contained herein supplements or supersedes the basic 
Airplane Flight Manual dated <insert date> only in those areas listed 
herein. For limitations, procedures, and performance information not 
contained in this document, consult the basic Airplane Flight Manual. 

FAA APPROVED 


Manager, Flight Test Branch 
XXX Aircraft Certification Office 
Federal Aviation Administration 
City, State 


A3-26 


FIGURE 1 ■ SAMPLE AIRPLANE FLIGHT MANUAL 
SUPPLEMENT (continued) 


Installation Center/Repair Station Model XXX Multi-Sensor 

123 Fourth Street Navigation System 

Any town, USA 


Table of Contents 

Section . Page 

1 General.<> 

2 Limitations.<> 

3 Emergency/Abnormal Procedures.<> 

4 Normal Procedures.<> 

5 Performance.<> 

6 Weight and Balance.<> 

7 System Description.<> 


FAA Approved 

DATE:_ Page <> 

of <> 


A3.27 











FIGURE 1. SAMPLE AIRPLANE FLIGHT MANUAL 
SUPPLEMENT (continued) 


Installation Center/Repair Station Model XXX Multi-Sensor 

123 Fourth Street Navigation System 

Anytown, USA 

SECTION 1 - GENERAL 


1. <Provide a very brief (i.e., one paragraph) general description of 
the multi-sensor navigation system installed in the aircraft.> 

2. Provided the ABC Model XXX multi-sensor navigation system is 
receiving adequate usable signals, it has been demonstrated capable 
of and has been shown to meet the accuracy specifications of: 

VFR/IFR en route oceanic and remote, en route domestic, terminal, 
and instrument approach (GPS, Loran-C, VOR, VOR-DME, 
TACAN, NDB, NDB-DME, RNAV) operation {specify operations, 
i.e., en route oceanic and remote, en route domestic, terminal, 
instrument approach, etc., as applicable to the particular 
approval.) within the U.S. National Airspace System, North 
Atlantic Minimum Navigation Performance Specification (MNPS) 
Airspace and latitudes bounded by <> North and <> South using 
the WGS-84 (or NAD 83) coordinate reference datum in 
accordance with the criteria of AC 20-130A, AC 91-49, AC 120- 
33, and <list additional applicable ACs>. Satellite navigation data 
is based upon use of only the Global Positioning System (GPS) 
operated by the United States. 

SECTION 2 - LIMITATIONS 


1. The ABC Model XXX Multi-Sensor Navigation System Pilot’s 
Guide, P/N <insert part number>, dated <insert date> (or later 
appropriate revision) must be immediately available to the flight 
crew whenever navigation is predicated on the use of the 

FAA Approved 

DATE:_ Page <> 

of <> 


A3.28 





FIGURE 1. SAMPLE AIRPLANE FLIGHT MANUAL 
SUPPLEMENT (continued^ 


Installation Center/Repair Station Model XXX Multi-Sensor 

123 Fourth Street Navigation System 

Anytown, USA 

system. The software status stated in the Pilot’s Guide must match 
that displayed on the equipment. 

2. The system must utilize software version <insert version 
identification>. 

3. IFR en route and terminal navigation is prohibited unless the pilot 
verifies the currency of the database or verifies each selected 
waypoint for accuracy by reference to current approved data. 

4. Instrument approaches must be accomplished in accordance with 
approved instrument approach procedures that are retrieved from 
the multi-sensor equipment database. The multi-sensor equipment 
data base must incorporate the current update cycle. 

(a) Instrument approaches must be conducted in the approach mode 
and GPS integrity monitoring (for systems incorporating a GPS 
sensor) must be available at the Final Approach Fix. 

(b) Accomplishment of ILS, LOG, LOC-BC, LDA, SDF, and MLS 
approaches are not authorized. 

FAA Approved 

DATE:_ Page <> 

of <> 


A3.29 



HGURE 1. SAMPLE AIRPLANE FLIGHT MANUAL 
SUPPLEMENT (continued) 


Installation Center/Repair Station Model XXX Multi-Sensor 

123 Fourth Street Navigation System 

Anytown, USA 

(c) When an alternate airport is required by the applicable 

operating rules, it must be served by an approach based on other 
than GPS or Loran-C navigation, the aircraft must have 
operational equipment capable of using that navigation aid, and 
the required navigation aid must be operational. 

5. The aircraft must have other approved navigation equipment 
installed and operating appropriate to the route of flight. 

6. <Specify any airspace limitations that may be applicable to 
systems that do not provide for coordinate reference system 
conversions of the displayed navigation information for airspace 
that is not referenced to the WGS-84 or NAD-83 geodetic datums.> 

7. <Specify any additional limitations applicable to the particular 
installations 

SECTION 3 - EMERGENCY/ABNQRMAL PROCEDURES 

EMERGENCY PROCEDURES 


No Change 

ABNORMAL PROCEDURES 

1. If ABC Model XXX multi-sensor equipment navigation 
information is not available or invalid, utilize remaining 
operational navigation equipment as required. 

2. If “GPS INTEGRITY NOT AVAILABLE” message is displayed, 
continued navigation using the GPS equipment or reversion to an 
alternate means of navigation appropriate to the 

FAA Approved 

DATE:_ Page <> 

of <> 


A3.30 




FIGURE 1. SAMPLE AIRPLANE FLIGHT MANUAL 
SUPPLEMENT (continued^ 


Installation Center/Repair Station Model XXX Multi-Sensor 
123 Fourth Street Navigation System 

Anytown, USA 

route and phase of flight is necessary. When continuing to use GPS 
navigation, position must be verified every 15 minutes using another 
IFR-approved navigation system. 

SECTION 4 - NORMAL PROCEDURES 


NOTE: Transmission on VHF communication frequencies 121.150, 
121.175, 121.200, 131.250,131.275, and 131.300 MHz may adversely 
affect reception of the GPS signal. Transmissions in excess of 
approximately 15 seconds may result in loss of GPS signal reception. 
Navigation will be restored within 5 seconds after the completion of the 
transmission. 

1. Normal operating procedures are outlined in the ABC Model XXX 
Multi-Sensor Equipment Pilot’s Guide, P/N <insert part number>, 
dated <insert date> (or later appropriate revision. 

2. <Describe approach mode sequencing and signal integrity 
capability.> 

3. System Annunciators 

a. Waypoint - <describe each annunciator> 

b. Message - <describe each annunciator> 

c. Approach - <describe each annunciator> 

d. <describe any other annunciators> 

FAA Approved 

DATE:_ Page <> 

of <> 


A3.31 


FIGURE 1. SAMPLE AIRPLANE FLIGHT MANUAL 
SUPPLEMENT (continued) 


Installation Center/Repair Station Model XXX Multi-Sensor 
123 Fourth Street Navigation System 

Any town, USA 

4. System Switches 

a. Nav/FMS - <describe switch use andfunction> 

b. RMI Switch - <describe switch use andfunction> 

c. <describe any other switches> 

5. Pilot’s display <describe the pilot*s multi-sensor navigation data 
display {s)> 

6. Flight Director/Autopilot Coupled Operation <describe the 
procedures for coupling multi-sensor equipment navigation 
information to the flight director and!or autopilot system(s)> 

1. <include any other normal operating procedures necessary> 

SECTION 5 - PERFORMANCE 


No Change 

SECTION 6 - WEIGHT AND BALANCE 


<Refer to revised weight and balance data, if applicable> 
SECTION 7 - SYSTEM DESCRIPTION 


<Provide a brief description of the system, its operation, installation 
eto 

FAA Approved 

DATE:_ Page <> 

of <> 


A3.32 




REFERENCE A4 


FAA ORDER 8300.10 
APPENDIX 4, FSAW 94-32A 

Installation and Approval Procedures of Global 
Positioning System (GPS) Equipment Used for 
Supplemental Navigation for En Route, Terminal, and 
Nonprecision Approaches 


A4.1 



CAUTION!! Please be aware that the materials in the following 
section are excerpts. It is assumed that the person using this 
material has read the complete parent document. Important details 
regarding the use of or policies covering the application of this 
information may be available only in the complete document from 
which the excerpts were taken. 


1. PURPOSE. This document was amended/updated to provide 
handbook guidance on the installation and approval of GPS navigation 
equipment used for “supplemental” navigation and “primary means” for 
Oceanic/Remote Operations. Please note that GPS equipment may be 
field approved, via the field approval process, for use as a supplemental 
means of navigation in the following manner, unless subsequent, 
superseding policy dictates otherwise: 

A. When the installation duplicates a previously Supplemental Type 
Certificate (STC) approved installation of the SAME 
EQUIPMENT on SAME MODEL and TYPE aircraft then Block 
3 need not be signed. Installation requires an FAA Form 337 (with 
approved data) for proper documentation. (Original Aircraft Flight 
Manual/Aircraft Flight Manual Supplement (AFM/AFMS) is 
considered part of the installation approval and reflects current 
configuration.) 

B. When it consists of the SAME EQUIPMENT that was approved by 
a Type Certificate (TC) or STC installed in a DIFFERENT 
MODEL and TYPE aircraft, and the installation is similar to the 
initial TC or STC. Block 3 of FAA Form 337 must be signed by 
an FAA Airworthiness Safety Inspector(ASI). An Airplane or 
Rotorcraft Flight Manual Supplement (AFMS/RFMS) or 
Supplemental AFM will be considered part of the installation 
approval. An operational check in accordance with FAR Section 
91.407 (para (a) or (b) as it applies to the alteration) may be 
performed and documented on an FAA Form 337. Minor 
deviations to the original TC or STC will be documented on the 
FAA Form 337. 

C. For installations for primary means of navigation for 
Oceanic/Remote Operations only, no field approval process is 
required if the installation duplicates a previously STC approved 
installation of the SAME EQUIPMENT on SAME 
MAKE/MODEL aircraft. The AFMS/RFMS for the original STC 
must include specific mention of satisfying GPS primary means 

A4.2 


requirements. An AFMS/RFMS or Supplemental AFM will be 
considered part of the installation. Paragraph 8 contains additional 
information regarding the approval process of GPS as a primary 
means of navigation. 

D. Present guidance does not identify the requirement for equipment 
to be qualified and approved under Parts Manufacturer Approval 
(PMA), Replacement and Modification Parts. Recent experience 
has indicated a need to emphasize that GPS navigation equipment 
must meet the requirements of FAR section 21.303. 

E. If such equipment has been issued a "multiple” STC so that a PMA 
could be awarded, the PMA is usually aircraft eligibility restricted 
to a specific type certification basis or type approval to one make 
or model of aircraft. This restriction should not prevent the 
installation of GPS or Multi-Sensor navigation equipment into 
aircraft for which such equipment can be shown to meet applicable 
environmental qualifications and aircraft compatibility and, 
therefore, can be field approved. 

2. BACKGROUND. GPS navigation equipment can be approved to 
provide supplemental navigation under Visual Flight Rules (VFR) and 
Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) within oceanic en route, domestic en 
route, terminal area, and nonprecision instrument approach (except 
localized, localizer directional aid and simplified directional facility 
operations). GPS navigation equipment can also be approved to 
provide primary means of navigation for oceanic/remote operations, 
provided additional criteria are met. Paragraph 8 contains additional 
information regarding the approval of GPS as a primary means of 
navigation. 

3. DEFINITIONS: 

A. GPS Navigation Equipment. GPS navigation equipment not 
combined with other navigation sensors or navigation systems. 

GPS navigation equipment may use altimeter aiding and/or 
augmented GPS signals, and provide navigation information to 
various compatible displays. 

B. Multi-Sensor Navigation System. A Multi-Sensor Navigation 
System that computes and/or displays a blended or independent 
position derived from two or more sensors (for example, GPS, 
Loran-C, VOR/DME, DME/DME, INS/IRS/IRU Omega, etc.) 
which provide independent positions. Such systems, based upon 

A4.3 


Loran-C, VOR/DME, DME/DME, Omega, INS/IRS/IRU, etc., 
which compute and display position, may be approved for IFR to 
monitor or "cross-check" GPS position. If GPS meets the 
requirements of and is certified to TSO-C129, Class Bl/Cl or 
B2/C2, GPS may be used as the only sensor within a Multi-Sensor 
Navigation System. 

4. GPS INSTALLATIONS LIMITED TO VFR USE ONLY. 

A. Persons wishing to obtain original airworthiness certification of a 
GPS installation limited to VFR use only shall obtain approval of 
the installation by TC or STC. "Follow-on" field approvals can be 
obtained after an original TC or STC has been awarded. 

B. The Aircraft Engineering Division, AIR-100, has stipulated that 
"follow-on" VFR GPS installations for supplemental navigation are 
major. If the installer has determined and can show that the 
installation of the GPS navigation equipment, including the antenna 
installation, does not impact the certificated properties of the 
aircraft type design, this would permit the installation of the 
equipment to be declared as a minor alteration. 

C. It is the responsibility of the person(s) performing the alterations to 
ensure that the equipment and its installation satisfies all 
interference immunity requirements and that mutual compatibility 
with other equipment and systems is maintained. The person(s) 
must show evidence that such tests and/or analysis were 
satisfactorily conducted to ensure interference immunity and 
mutual compatibility. 

D. A placard stating "GPS not approved for IFR" must be installed in 
clear view of and readable by the pilot-in-command. Such placard 
must be identified on the FAA Form 337 for purposes of reviewing 
and field approving the installation of the placard. 

E. The above installations intended for "VFR use only" do not require 
that the GPS equipment comply with TSO-C129, but accuracy 
should be demonstrated as described in AC 20-138, "Airworthiness 
Approval of Global Positioning System Navigation Equipment for 
Use as a VFR and IFR Supplemental Navigation System." The 
GPS equipment should be installed according to the instructions 
and limitations provided by the manufacturer of the equipment. 
Another acceptable method, technique and practice such as AC 
43.13-2A, Acceptable Methods, Techniques, and Practices - 

A4-4 



Aircraft Alterations, as amended, may be used, if relevant and not 
contrary to the approved data or the original STC, as a basis for 
consideration by the FA A for approval. 

F. Functional ground and flight check to ensure correct operation and 
accuracy will be conducted and recorded, in VFR conditions, by an 
appropriate FAA certificated person, repair station, or an 
appropriately rated pilot. A flight check is not required if a GPS 
VFR installation is made in a manner similar to one which has been 
previously demonstrated in another approved alterations within a 
similar aircraft. The approval for return to service must be signed 
by one of the entities noted in FAR Part 43; i.e., repair station, 
holder of an inspections authorization, etc. 

G. The GPS navigation equipment may be coupled to an autopilot 
and/or flight director system if a deviation or steering input that is 
compatible with the autopilot/flight director system is provided. 
Approvals of this type of interface will require a flight functional 
check to verify proper functioning of the equipment installed to 
demonstrate performance using en route, terminal area, and non¬ 
precision approach cross-track deviation sensitivity selections 
available to the pilot. 

H. For installations which are complex in nature as prescribed in 
paragraph 4,C. and that incorporate multiple navigation sources, 
and/or which employ composite roll steering; and/or need to 
identify necessary limitations and operating procedures, and FAA 
approved AFMS/RFMS or Supplemental AFM will be required 
and made readily available to the flight crew. 

5. INSTALLATIONS OF GPS NAVIGATION EQUIPMENT FOR 

USE USER IFR. 

A. The airworthiness certification of a GPS Navigation Equipment 
shall be according to requirements specified in Aircraft 
Certification Order 8110.4, Type Certifications, or other acceptable 
means to show compliance for those approved units not meeting 
the requirements of TSO-C129, Airborne Supplemental Navigation 
Equipment Using the Global Positioning System. Person(s) 
wishing to obtain original approval of a GPS Navigation System 
for IFR shall do so through the TC or STC process for en route, 
terminal and for nonprecision approach operations, as described in 
AC 20-138. 


A4.5 


B. An ASI can field approve installation data when the alteration is 
based on the original TC or STC approval and the installation 
data (e.g., installation drawings, parts list, installation wiring 
diagrams, etc.), and a copy of original FAA approved 
AFMS/RFMS is available for review. An AFMS/RFMS or 
Supplemental AFM will be required and must contain all pertinent 
details of the originally approved AFMS/RFMS or Supplemental 
AFM. A functional ground and operational flight test must be 
conducted, in VFR conditions, to verify proper functioning of all 
equipment installed by the alteration and will need to be recorded 
on the FAA Form 337. The approval for return to service must be 
signed by one of the entities noted in FAR Part 43; i.e. repair 
station, holder of an inspection authorization, etc. 

C. Installations of GPS navigation equipment, approved for en route, 
terminal area and nonprecision approach use, may be approved by 
an avionics ASI without consulting the Aircraft Certification Office 
(AGO) provided the following conditions have been met: review 
of the steering response while autopilot and /or flight director is 
coupled to the GPS equipment during a variety of different track 
and mode changes; the external cross-track deviation display (GDI, 
ESI, EHSI, etc.) is located within the pilot's primary field-of-view; 
all GPS controls are located within easy reach of the pilot and 
required GPS equipment annunciators must be located within the 
primary field-of-view. 

6. INSTALLATION OF MULTI-SENSOR NAVIGATION 

EQUIPMENT FOR USE UNDER IFR. 

A. A person(s) wishing to obtain original airworthiness certification of 
a Multi-Sensor Navigation (or Flight Management) Equipment for 
use under IFR, that integrates any combination of GPS, 
Omega/VLF, Loran-C, VOR/DME, DME/DME, or INS/IRU 
sensors must do so under the TC or STC process with appropriate 
multi-sensors TSO requirements. Nonprecision approach approval 
may be granted if sensors used for approach operations were 
evaluated and approved under the TC or STC process as described 
in AC 20-BOA, "Airworthiness Approval of Navigation or Flight 
Management Systems Integrating Multiple Navigation Sensors." 

B. Field approvals can reference the first-time airworthiness approval, 
which was obtained by a TC or an STC, as a basis for installation 
approval if the previously approved data (e.g., 

installation drawings, parts list, installation wiring diagrams, etc.) 

A4-6 



are available for review. Several makes and models of GPS 
sensors that do not meet the requirements of TSO-C129, but may 
have been awarded PMA, have been approved for use under IFR 
conditions by the STC process. Therefore, these sensor may be 
candidates for field approval. An AFMS/RFMS or Supplemental 
AFM will be required and must contain all pertinent details of the 
originally approved AFMS/RFMS or Supplemental AFM. A 
functional ground and operational flight check will be conducted, 
in VFR conditions, to verify GPS sensor and other sensor accuracy 
and proper functioning of all equipment installed. Results of these 
tests will need to be recorded on FAA Form 337. 

7. AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUALS. 

A. An approved AFMS/RFMS or Supplemental AFM for aircraft 
without an FAA-approved flight manual, should be prepared on the 
basis of compatibility, format specific to the aircraft, and 
applicability with previously approved AFMS/RFMS or 
Supplemental AFM's. Each approved AFMS/RFMS must include 
all provisions pertaining to the system's normal operations, either 
directly or by reference, and all appropriate operating limitations, 
emergency/abnormal procedures, and performance details. See 
Appendix 11 of AC 20-130A or AC 20-130A or AC 20-138 for 
examples. 

B. Approval of AFMS involving GPS and Multi-Sensor Navigation 
Systems may be performed by the avionics ASI's for VFR and IFR. 
The AFMS/RFMS or Supplemental AFM must contain the same 
pertinent details as the AFMS approved under the original TC or 
STC. ASI's are to ensure when reviewing and AFMS/RFMS or 
Supplemental AFM that all limitations covered are the same as in 
the original FAA-approved AFM or RFM by reference and by 
format. Also ensure that the system switches, annunciators, 
displays and flight director/autopilot and instruments are 
compatible with the aircraft being modified in this configuration. 

8. GPS INSTALLATIONS FOR PRIMARY MEANS FOR OCEANIC 

AND REMOTE OPERATIONS. 

A. Person(s) wishing to obtain original installation approval shall do 
so through the TC or STC process as required for GPS systems for 
use under IFR. If the GPS equipment for primary use for oceanic 


A4.7 


and remote operations has not received its approval by the TC or 
STC process, then the GPS equipment or aircraft manufacturer 
must obtain a TSO-C129A authorization (Class A1, A2, B1, B2, 
Cl, C2) from the cognizant ACO. The FA A Form 337 or other 
form acceptable to the Administrator will be used for installations 
that duplicate the original installation under an existing TC or STC 
of the SAME EQUIPMENT on the SAME MODEL and TYPE. 
The desired performance requirements would be satisfied during 
the original TC or STC process. Follow-on field approvals as 
described for supplemental GPS installations are not permitted for 
GPS installations for primary means for oceanic and remote 
operations. 

B. The person(s) seeking operational approval would apply to the 
appropriate Flight Standards District Office(FSDO) for 
authorization to use the GPS system(s) or GPS-based multi-sensor 
navigation system for the intended operation (e.g., use of GPS in 
place of Omega or Inertial Navigation System for Class II 
navigation, or use of GPS/FMS for a particular oceanic/remote 
route). Intentional operational procedures must be identified in the 
AFMS or Supplemental AFM. 

C. The principal avionics inspector will review the applicant's 
airworthiness approval and maintenance procedures to ensure that 
the installed equipment has been incorporated into the applicant's 
airworthiness program depending on the owner/operator's type of 
operation. Following an acceptable review, the principal 
operations inspector will issue the appropriate operations 
specifications or letter of authorization. 

9. FAA FORM 8000-36, PROGRAM TRACKING AND 
REPORTING SUBSYSTEM DATA SHEET. Avionics ASI's 
responsible for reviewing data for all future GPS installations are 
requested to fill out the "National Use" block by inserting the letters 
"GPS" and a brief description of the type of GPS activity accomplished 
in the "Comment Text" column. 


A4-8 



10. TSO-C129 GPS CLASS DESIGNATORS. 


Class 

Stand 

Multi- 

R AIM R AIM 

En Terminal 

Nonprec. 


Alone 

Sensor 


Equiv. 

Route 


Approach 

A1 

X 


X 


X 

X 

X 

A2 

X 


X 


X 

X 


B1 


X 

X 


X 

X 

X 

B2 


X 

X 


X 

X 


B3 


X 


X 

X 

X 

X 

B4 


X 


X 

X 

X 


Cl 


X 

X 


X 

X 

X 

C2 


X 

X 


X 

X 


C3 


X 


X 

X 

X 

X 

C4 


X 


X 

X 

X 



Class A - GPS sensor and navigation capability 

Class B - GPS sensor data to an integrated navigation system (e.g., 
FMS, multi-sensor navigation system, etc.) 

Class C - GPS sensor data to an integrated navigation management 
system (as in Class B) which provides enhanced guidance to an 
autopilot or flight director to reduce flight technical errors. This does 
not necessarily apply only to Part 121 air carriers. 

Note 1: Any changes not approved by TC or STC to software (other 
than navigation databases) which affect navigation, integrity, or 
availability functions; changes in the quantity, type, or mix of sensors 
integrated within the system; changes to or in addition of operating 
areas; or significant changes to operating limitations cannot be field 
approved until consultation with the ACO has been done to determine if 
an other STC is required. Discussions, recommendations, or decision 
by tbe ACO will be made part of the inspector's approval process 
records. 

Note 2: Installation instructions for each GPS navigation equipment 
and Multi-Sensor Navigation System shall include the requirement for 
verification of adequate isolation from harmonic interference possibly 
caused by VHP transmitters. Tests shall be conducted by tuning each 
VHP transmitter to the frequencies listed below and transmitting for 
20 seconds while observing the signal status of each or all satellites 
actively being received. Degradation of individually received or all 


A4.9 


satellite signals below a point where navigation using GPS is no longer 
possible will not be acceptable for use under IFR and will require that 
additional isolation or filter techniques be included in the aircraft 
installation. Proper radio procedures must be observed when 
performing harmonic interference tests. 


121.125 MHz 
121.150 MHz 
121.175 MHz 
121.200 MHz 
121.225 MHz 
121.250 MHz 


131.200 MHz 
131.225 MHz 
131.250 MHz 
131.275 MHz 
131.300 MHz 
131.325 MHz 
131.350 MHz 


11. INQUIRIES. This FSIB was developed by AFS-350, Avionics 
Branch. 


For questions or comments regarding this FSIB, contact AFS-350 at 
(202)267-3812. 

12. EXPIRATION. This FSIB will expire on 10-30-96. 


A4.10 




REFERENCE A5 


FAA ORDER 8300.10 
APPENDIX 4, FSAW 94-41 

Global Positioning System/Differential Global 
Positioning System Special Use Applications 


EFFECTIVE DATE: 


08-19-94 


1. PURPOSE. This FSIB provides guidance to Federal Aviation 
Administration (FAA) inspectors concerning Global Positioning 
System (GPS)/Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) to be 
installed in aircraft used in special applications. 

2. BACKGROUND. 

A. GPS/DGPS technology has been made available for aircraft 
used in specialized applications, such as agricultural, aerial 
photography, mapping, fire fighting, search and rescue, etc. The 
only purpose of these installations is for the accurate sighting of 
the aircraft. These types of installations are considered non- 
essential and for special purpose use, therefore, the criteria for 
equipment performance is to be determined by the GPS/DGPS 
equipment manufacturers. The flight crews are not to predicate 
navigation on the GPS/DGPS equipment. 

B. FAA inspectors presented with a request for approval of 
installation data should consider the following during the data 
approval process: 

3. INSTALLATION. GPS/DGPS and optional features, such as data 
logging, must be installed in accordance with approved data. 
Approved data may be obtained by Type Certification (TC), 
Supplemental Type Certification (STC), or through the field 
approval process by the FAA Form 337. 

4. FIELD APPROVALS. 

A. Installers requesting field approvals and inspectors evaluating 
the data package must ensure that all information and/or 
referenced documents fully describe how the AIRCRAFT has 
been modified. The data package will include the installation, 
post-installation, and ground and flight tests. For example, 
references to Advisory Circular AC 43.13-1A and/or 43.13-2A 
and/or equivalent manufacturer’s manuals must be specific and 
directly relevant. 

B. Should the data not support any part of the installation, post¬ 
installation, and ground and flight tests, the installer could use 
the services of a Designated Engineering Representative or an 


A5.2 




FAA Aircraft Certification Office to obtain approval for the 
data in question. 

5. THE FLIGHT TEST. The aerodynamic flight test for externally 
mounted equipment may be conducted by the installer or operator 
in accordance with data provided by the GPS/DGPS manufacturer. 
The flight test shall evaluate the aircraft performance throughout 
the speed ranges and maneuvers normally conducted during the 
specific application. The signature of the person performing the 
flight test, the date of the flight test, and the certificate number of 
the person who performed the flight test shall be documented on 
the FAA Form 337. 

6. EVALUATION OF DATA. Inspectors are encouraged to examine 
data packages and to perform a conformity inspection in sufficient 
detail to establish confidence in the installing agency’s ability to 
accurately duplicate the initial installation. If the inspector 
determines that the data is capable of being used for other similar 
make and model installations, then the inspector should authorize 
Block 3 of the FAA Form 337 for duplication for similar make and 
model aircraft. For those GPS systems that have been a part of a 
TC or STC, follow-on approvals may be implemented on similar 
aircraft. Care should be taken to ensure that any limitations 
included in the TC or STC are implemented into the follow-on 
approval. 

7. BLOCK 8. Block 8 of the FAA Form 337 shall include a record 
entry outlining the post-installation ground test and flight test 
results. Duplication of previous approved data for an identical 
installation in a similar make and model aircraft is authorized, 
provided the submitted FAA Form 337 contains a reference in 
Block 8 identifying the FAA Form 337 it is basing its approval on. 
A copy also must accompany the FAA Form 337. These similar 
installations are limited to the same installer. Block 8 of FAA Form 
337 must also contain the statement that the aircraft has been 
placarded “GPS/DGPS not to be used for navigation.” This 
required placard must be placed in plain view of the pilot in the 
cockpit. 

NOTE: In the event the data package is insufficient to determine 
compliance with the Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR), the 
inspector will return FAA Form 337 with a statement describing 
the reason for the rejection to the installer. The inspector will also 


A5.3 



send a copy of the rejected FA A Form 337 with a statement 
describing the reason for rejection to the owner/operator of the 
aircraft. 

8. ACTION. None. 

9. INQUIRIES. This FSIB was developed by AFS-300. Direct any 
questions or comments to AFS-350 at (202)267-8203. 

10. EXPIRATION DATA. This FSIB will expire on August 30, 1995. 

/S/ Frederick J. Leonelli 


A54 



REFERENCE A6 


FAA HUMAN FACTORS AND OPERATIONS 
CHECKLIST FOR STANDALONE GPS RECEIVERS 
(TSO C129 Al) 


CAUTION!! Please be aware that the materials in the following 
section are excerpts. It is assumed that the person using this 
material has read the complete parent document. Important details 
regarding the use of or policies covering the application of this 
information may be available only in the complete document from 
which the excerpts were taken. 


2.1 DEPARTURE 

2.1.1 Flight Plan Entry & RAIM Check 
Purpose : 

To evaluate procedures required for flight plan entry & RAIM check. 

Test Procedure : 

While on ground: 

1. Enter a 9 waypoint flight plan (4, 6, 8) 

2. Conduct RAIM check for ETA (5) 

Evaluation Considerations : 

A) Control easy to access and identify (7) 

• Reach distance 

• Identification of controls and control operation 

• Visibility of displays when using controls 

B) Control use sequence requires minimal reliance on memory & 
promotes error free operation (1, 2,3, 6,7) 

• Number and combination of controls used 

• Number of control actions required 

• Probability of data entry errors 

• Ease of error detection 

• Ease of error recovery 

• Pilot knowledge of what to do next 

C) Display output (6, 7) 

• Readability with acceptable change in body position (3) 

• Messages understandable 


A6-2 


2.2 EN ROUTE 


2.2.1 Flight Plan Review & Modification 
Purpose : 

Evaluate ease of reviewing and modifying a flight plan while in 
flight. 

Test Procedure : 

Fly several consecutive legs in the flight plan. While flying to a 
waypoint in the flight plan: 

1. Review legs or segments of the flight plan (8) 

2. Obtain distance, bearing & name of the active waypoint (8) 

3. Change two consecutive intermediate waypoints (8) 

Evaluation Considerations : 

A) Operation of waypoint sequencing (6) 

B) Accessibility of flight critical information 

C) Display readability (4, 5, 7) 

D) Ease of locating waypoints in database (1, 2, 4, 7) 

E) Clarity of waypoint categories 

W) Workload: (7) 

• Adequate situational awareness 

• Minimal mental effort 

• Minimal number of control actions 


A6.3 





2.2 EN ROUTE 


2.2.2 Tracking Accuracy 
Purpose : 

To evaluate ease of course intercept and tracking accuracy (with and 
without autopilot). 

Test Procedure : 

Perform the following both with and without the autopilot: 

1. Intercept a segment & fly to a waypoint in flight plan (4) 

Evaluation Considerations : 

A) Utility of track angle error information and GDI for course 
intercept (2) 

B) Effort required to maintain FTE at less than 1.0 nm (5) 

C) Ability to intercept route segment (6) 

D) Ability to adjust GDI sensitivity in flight (3) 


A6.4 



2.2 EN ROUTE 


2.2.3 Waypoint Sequencing & Turn Anticipation 
Purpose : 

To evaluate waypoint sequencing procedure, associated display 
indications, and turn anticipation. 

Test Procedure : 

While in flight plan mode, fly to a waypoint and: 

• Fly to the left and right of a ‘fly by’ waypoint at the intersection 
of two flight plan segments defining a 90° turn. (7) 

This will require the following passes by the “corner” 
waypoint: 

• Fly a course parallel with the approaching en route 
segment with the GDI nearly pegged to the outside (left of 
course) and follow turn anticipation advisory 

• Repeat with GDI nearly pegged to the inside (right of 
course) 

• Repeat with GDI on center line 

• Repeat with GDI on center line using autopilot 

Evaluation Gonsiderations 

A) Waypoint alert visibility (7) 

B) Turn anticipation facilitates smooth transition to next segment 
using not more than a standard rate turn (1, 6) 

G) Information provided to pilot by GDI and message display not 
misleading (4) 

D) Waypoint sequencing consistent and facilitates accurate 
tracking of airway (2, 3, 6,7) 

E) Verify full scale deflection of GDI =/-5.0 nm (3) 

F) Verify resolution of crosstrack error at least 0.10 nm (3) 


A6.5 


2.2 EN ROUTE 


2.2.4 Electromagnetic Compatibility 
Purpose : 

Determine use of selective radio frequencies on GPS operations. 
Note: Reevaluation of installed VHP transceiver performance is 
not necessary if the filter insertion loss is 2 dB or less. 

Test Procedure : 

Fly direct to a waypoint: 

1. While en route, tune each of the following frequencies for at 
least 20 seconds & activate mike repeatedly (1) 

121.150 MHz. 131.250 MHz 

121.175 MHz. 131.275 MHz 

121.200 MHz.131.300 MHz 

Evaluation Considerations ; 

A) Influence on: (2, 3) 

GDI indication 
Display quality 
Digital cross track error 
Distance to waypoint 
Alerts and warnings 

B) Influence on satellite HDOP value Sat: (2, 3) 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 


A6»6 






2.2 EN ROUTE 


2 . 2.5 Display Quality Evaluation 
Purpose : 

Evaluate influences of sunlight on display readability. 

Test Procedures : 

Exit flight plan & fly direct to waypoints which will position the 
aircraft in each of the following orientations: (3, 6) 

• Directly into the sun 

• With the sunlight shining across the display from a side window 
Evaluation Considerations : 

A) Readability of symbols, letters, numbers, and graphics (7) 

B) Visibility of GDI display (6, 7) 

C) Range of brightness adjustment ( 2 , 7) 

• Manual adjustment 

• Automatic adjustment 

D) Display location (1) 

E) Visibility of alerts & warnings (4, 5) 

F) Color discriminability 


A6.7 



2.3 TRANSITION 


2.3.1 Approach Transition 
Purpose : 

To evaluate receiver functions involved in transition from en route 
to approach mode. 

Test Procedure : 

1. Approach terminal area while in flight plan mode, from beyond 
30 miles from the airport 

2. Select an lAF for an appropriate procedure which includes a 
course reversal & fly to the lAF 

During this procedure : (2) 

• Observe terminal area alert 

• Enable approach mode 

• Request RAIM check (6) 

Evaluation Considerations : 

A) Clarity of lAF options (1) 

B) Ability to select one lAF option (1) 

C) Action required to select approach mode (2, 4) 

D) Smoothness of changes in CDI sensitivity (3) 

E) Ease of understanding status of receiver mode (5) 

F) Understandability of displayed messages 

G) Approach enable alert 

• At a radial distance of 30 nm from the destination airport 
(not distance along the flight plan route) (2, 5) 

H) Barometric pressure alert (5, 7) 

• Informs the pilot of the need to manually insert the 
barometric pressure setting (unless the automatic altitude 
input utilizes barometric corrected altitude data). (2) 


A6.8 



2.4 APPROACH 


2.4.1 Nonprecision Approach With A Procedure Turn 
Purpose : 

To check receiver operations involved in transitioning from initial 
approach fix to final approach fix when a procedure turn is required. 

Test Procedure : 

Fly from lAF, where lAF is on the airport or coincident with the FAF, 
fly the procedure turn, and fly inbound to the missed approach point. 

Evaluation Considerations : 

A) Course guidance outbound & inbound (5) 

B) Message displays readable & understandable 

C) Receiver mode status indicator (7) 

D) Transitions between terminal & approach mode (8) 

E) Waypoint sequencing & timing of waypoint alerts (4) 

F) Procedures required to enable a course reversal procedure (5) 

G) Access to ground speed, distance, XTE, bearing & track angle 
error information (1, 2, 3) 

H) CDI sensitivity changes smooth, and at appropriate locations (6) 

I) Information on active waypoint (2) 

J) Operation consistent with pilot expectations 

K) Sensitivity change alert (7) 

• At a distance of 3 nm inbound to the final approach fix an 
annunciation shall indicate that a change will occur in the 
sensitivity of the analog CDI. 

L) Approach enable alert shall be repeated (7) 

• At 3nm from the FAF if the approach mode was not 
previously activated. 

W) Workload: (9,10) 

• Pilot situational awareness 

• Mental effort 

• Number of control actions required 


A6.9 


2.5 MISSED APPROACH 


2.5.1 Missed Approach With Course Reversal Back To The FAF 
Purpose : 

Evaluate receiver function when missed approach requires a course 
reversal back to FAF using “DIRECT TO” function to enable course 
guidance to the hold point. 

Test Procedure : (8) 

1. Activate the “DIRECT TO” button while flying the runway 
heading, reverse course and follow CDI guidance to the FAF 

2. Fly the published hold at the FAF using the OBS function to select 
inbound leg to the hold waypoint. 

Evaluation Considerations : 

A) Receiver shift out of automatic waypoint sequencing at the 
MAP (5) 

B) Positive course guidance provided as an extension of the 
inbound track and distance from the MAP until manual 
selection of the next waypoint (5) 

C) Actions required to return to the FAF (5) 

D) OBS function use for the holding pattern (4) 

E) Missed approach holding waypoint as “fly over” waypoint (1, 2) 

F) Course guidance to the FAF (2) 

G) Sensitivity change for the missed approach (6) 

W) Workload (7, 9) 

• Pilot situational awareness 

• Mental effort 

• Number of control actions required 

• Frequency of reference to receiver display required 


A6.10 





2.5 MISSED APPROACH 


2.5.2 Missed Approach With A Heading To Intercept A Bearing To 
A Waypoint 


Evaluate receiver operations when intercepting a bearing to a 
holding point using the OBS function. 


Test Procedure : 

1. Fly the center line extension & select the bearing to the waypoint 
using the OBS function. 

2. Intercept the course and fly to the hold point. 


Evaluation Considerations : 

A) Use of OBS function for course to hold waypoint (2) 


B) The readability of the OBS setting (2) 


C) Turn anticipation at point of intercept for course change to hold 
point ( 1 ) 


W) Workload: (3) 

• Pilot situational awareness & mental effort 

• Number of control actions required 

• Required reference to receiver display 


A6.11 


2.6 AUTOPILOT 


2.6.1 Autopilot Integration With GPS Receiver 
Purpose : 

To evaluate the function of the GPS receiver when used with an 
autopilot during en route, terminal, and approach operations. 


Test Procedure : 

1. Couple the GPS receiver to the autopilot (4) 

2. Fly the following: (1, 5) 

• Transition from en route to fly an approach 

• Fly a missed approach & hold 

Evaluation Considerations : 

A) Course tracking smoothness & precision (2) 

B) Performance: (1) 

• Direct to operations 

• Turn anticipation 

• Course reversals 

• Waypoint sequencing 

C) Adequacy of information necessary for pilot situations 
awareness regarding system status & operation. 

D) Operation consistent with pilot expectations 

W) Workload (3) 

• Mental effort required 

• Number of control actions required 

• Required reference to receiver display 


A6.12 



2.7 GPS ACCURACY 

2.7.1 Verification Of GPS Accuracy 

Purpose : 

Verify the GPS accuracy over a surveyed position on the ground. 
Test Procedure : 

1. In the en route, terminal, and approach modes : (1) 

• Conduct at least 5 low altitude (<100 ft AGL) passes of one or 
more surveyed locations (survey location data must be in either 
the WGS-84 or NAD-83 coordinate datum; e.g., waypoint at 
the runway threshold). (3) 

• Push the “save position” button that will record Lat/Lon when 
the aircraft crosses the designated location and compare with 
known survey coordinates. 

Evaluation Considerations : 

A) Recorded Lat/Lon measurements (1) 


Box Mode: 

En Route 

Terminal 

Approach 

Accuracy 

Required 

0.124 nm 

0.124 nm 

0.056 nm 

Known 

Lat/Lon 




Recorded 

Lat/Lon 

1 




2 




3 




4 




5 





A6.13 











2.8 MOVING MAPS 

2.8.1 Moving Map Appearance 
Purpose : 

To evaluate the appearance of the moving map display in flight. 
Observe the appearance of the map in en route and approach modes 
during straight flight and during changes in heading and course. 

Test Procedure : 

Examine the appearance of the moving map display during straight 
flight and heading changes. 

Evaluation Considerations : 

A) Apparent readability of display (1) 

B) Appearance of small symbols and fine lines during map 
movement (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) 

C) Clarity of location and heading of aircraft symbol on plan & 
profile views (1, 2, 4, 5) 

D) Map scale appropriate and clear (1) 

E) Map update rate appropriate for en route and terminal 
operations (1, 7) 


A6.14 



2.9 ALARMS & ALERTS 


2.9.1 Types Of Alarms & Alerts 
Purpose : 

To ensure that alarms & alerts activate appropriately. (1) 

Evaluation Considerations : 

Each of the following alarms & alerts shall be “timely” (shall take 
place within the specified time to alarm for the phase of flight in 
progress) and shall be as follows: 

A) A navigation warning flag shall be displayed on the navigation 

display in the following cases: (2, 3) 

• The absence of power required for the navigation function. 

• Loss of navigation function 

• Inadequate or invalid navigation data in the approach mode 
detected in accordance with RTCA-DO-208 

• The loss of the RAIM detection function in the approach 
mode at the final approach fix. 

• Loss of the RAIM detection function in the approach mode, 
after passing the final approach fix. (Only if the RAIM 
detection function is lost for more than 5 minutes.) 

B) RAIM alerts (1, 2, 3) 

• When RAIM is not available, inadequate navigation data due 
to poor space vehicle geometry such that the probability that 
navigation error exceeds the position integrity performance 
requirements in RTCA/DO-208 is greater than or equal to 
0.5 

• The RAIM function detects a position error that exceeds the 
GPS position integrity performance requirements in 
RTCA/DO-208 

• Loss of the RAIM function 

• Predicted unavailability of the RAIM detection function 

• When operating in the approach mode without RAIM and 
navigation performance is degraded because HDOP exceeds 
4.0 


A6-15 


2.9 ALARMS & ALERTS 


2.9.2 Discriminating Alerts 
Purpose : 

To ensure that each alert can discriminated from each other and 
from background noise. (1) 

Test Procedure : 

For each alert evaluate the following: 

Evaluation Considerations : 

A) Ability of alert to get pilot’s attention 

B) Ease of discriminating alert from background 

C) Ease of discriminating critical alerts from other alerts 

D) Clarity of alert messages 

E) Alert contribution to “noisy” cockpit 
• Distraction 

F) Effort to deactivate alert 

G) Alert reminders if alert turned off and situation not reconciled 


A6-16 



2.9 ALARMS & ALERTS 


2.9.3 Auditory Quality Of Alerts 
Purpose : 

To ensure that auditory alarms are appropriate. (1) 

Test Procedures : 

For each alarm & alert evaluate the following: 

Evaluation Considerations : 

A) Clarity of alarms 

• Loudness 

• Pitch 

• Duration 

B) Synthetic or natural speech quality & intelligibility in terms of: 

• Speech rate 

• Accent/dialect 

• Gender 

• Distinguishable from controllers 

C) Length of auditory alarm 

• Minimal distraction 

• Minimal amount of attention to extract message 


A6.17 




REFERENCE A7 


FAA ORDER 8400.11 

IFR Approval for Differential Global Positioning 
System (DGPS) Special Category I Instrument 
Approaches Using Private Ground Facilities 


CAUTION!! Please be aware that the materials in the following 
section are excerpts. It is assumed that the person using this 
material has read the complete parent document. Important details 
regarding the use of or policies covering the application of this 
information may be available only in the complete document from 
which the excerpts were taken. 


CHAPTER 4. RESPONSIBILITIES AND PROCEDURES 

4-1. ACTIONS, RESPONSIBILITIES, AND PROCEDURES 

All special privately owned ground installations and all airborne 
installations used to conduct DGPS instrument approach operations 
shall be evaluated and approved in accordance with the interim national 
criteria contained in this order. Special private use DGPS ground 
installations shall be approved, if the requirements of this order are met, 
for use by U.S. and qualified foreign flag operators to fly DGPS 
instrument approaches. The responsibilities of AVR, the Associate 
Administrator for Airway Facilities (AAF), and Associate 
Administrator for Aviation Standards (AVS) organizations and the 
actions necessary to initially implement special private use DGPS 
instrument approach operations are as specified herein. 

a. Until national criteria for routine approval of DGPS Category I 
instrument approach operations is established, all requests to 
establish a DGPS Category I instrument approach operation, or 
approve an operator to conduct these instrument approaches, shall 
be forwarded to the Flight Standards’ Technical Programs 
Division, AFS-400 through the regional Flight Standards Division. 

e. DGPS Ground Facility Evaluations. The regional Airway 
Facilities Divisions are responsible for evaluating DGPS ground 
facilities in the United States. The evaluation criteria for facilities 
in the United States is specified in this order. The evaluation 
process for these facilities are specified in FAA Order 6700.20A 
and the RTCA DGNSS MASPS. AFS is responsible for evaluating 
DGPS ground facilities outside the United States. The 
FSDO/CHDO/CMO office shall designate an avionics specialist to 
evaluate and recommend approval or disapproval (if justified) of 
the special private use DGPS ground facilities outside the United 
States and operated by the owner/operator (air carrier/Part 91). 
Results of the evaluation shall be forwarded to AFS-400 for their 


A7-2 



final concurrence through the regional Flight Standards Division. 
Avionics inspectors may consult Aircraft Certification or Airways 
Facilities personnel at their option for their assistance in addressing 
any concerns or problems resulting from the evaluation. Any 
deviations requested for the DGPS ground station will be 
forwarded to AFS-400 for their review and final concurrence. 

h. Evaluation and Approval. Upon receiving an initial request from 
an operator to conduct DGPS Category I operations, the Certificate 
Holding District Office (CHDO) or FSDO shall assure that the 
operator is provided sufficient information to comply with the 
requirements of this order. The following evaluation and approval 
procedures should be followed: 

(1) Coordination. Coordination with AFS-400 and the regional 
Flight Procedures Branch should begin concurrently with the 
beginning of approval activity. After receiving an operator’s 
request, the CHDO or FSDO shall, as soon as possible, initiate 
coordination with the regional Flight Procedures Branch in 
order that they may determine the procedural requirements and 
coordinate flight inspection schedules. AFS-400 shall also be 
notified through the regional Flight Standards Division. The 
CHDO or FSDO is responsible for the coordination process 
specified for Special Instrument Approach Procedures in FAA 
Orders 8260.19 and 8400.10. 

(2) Type Acceptance. The Associate Administrator for Airway 
Facilities, AAF-1, is the type acceptance approval authority for 
LDGPS ground facilities in the United States. 

(3) Airborne System Evaluation. The responsible Aircraft 
Certification Office (ACO), in coordination with the 
appropriate Aircraft Evaluation Group (AEG), shall assure that 
the airborne equipment performs its intended function and 
meets the requirements of the RTCA DGNSS MASPS and this 
order for DGPS Category I instrument approach operations. 
This airworthiness certification does not constitute authority 
for an operator to conduct DGPS operations. 

(4) Ground System Evaluation. For DGPS ground facilities in 
the United States, the responsible regional Airway Facilities 
Division shall assure that the ground station equipment is 
properly installed, performs its intended function, and meets 
all applicable provisions of this order and the RTCA DGNSS 

A7-3 



MASPS. Successful completion of the ground system 
evaluation is required prior to commissioning flight inspection. 
For DGPS ground facilities outside the United States, AFS- 
400 is responsible for final concurrence. 

(5) Evaluation. The CHDO or FSDO shall assure that the 
airborne system to be used has been properly approved as 
specified in lAW Chapter 7, Section 1 (h) and Chapter 8, 
Paragraph 1(a) of this order and that maintenance and 
operating manuals, schedules, and record keeping programs 
have been established. 

(6) Initial Authorization. When the requirements of this order 
are met, and following coordination with the regional Flight 
Standards Division and concurrence from AFS-400, the 
CHDO for the air carrier or the FSDO assigned the FAR Part 
91 operator is authorized to issue approval (through operations 
specifications or Letter of Authorization) for the operator to 
conduct IFR DGPS Special Instrument Approach Procedures. 

(7) Continuing Compliance. For DGPS ground facilities in the 
United States, the responsible regional Airway Facilities 
Division shall perform the required periodic facility technical 
inspections, and assure that the sponsor complies with the 
Operations and Maintenance Manual (OMM) and the 
Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) for operation of DGPS 
ground installation. For DGPS ground facilities outside the 
United States, the CHDO or FSDO shall assure that the 
sponsor initially complies and continues to comply with the 
requirements of Chapters 6 and 9 of this order. The sponsor’s 
approval to use a particular DGPS ground facility to conduct 
DGPS operations shall be withdrawn if there is evidence of 
noncompliance. 

(8) Annual Review. DGPS Category I instrument approach 
authorizations for all FAR Part 91 operators shall be renewed 
on an annual basis. 


A7-4 



CHAPTER 7. AIRBORNE SYSTEMS 


7-1. AIRBORNE SYSTEMS 

The following is a listing of criteria that shall be used to determine the 
acceptability of airborne systems for DGPS Category I instrument 
approach operations. Testing activities will be coordinated with other 
FAA organizations to assure efficient use of flight time. 

a. General DGPS Criteria. Until national criteria for routine field 
approval of DGPS installations have been established, approvals 
for airborne DGPS equipment installations shall be made by the 
Type Certificate (TC) or Supplemental Type Certificate (STC) 
process through the cognizant ACO and AEG. Acceptable total 
system performance (including sensor accuracy, equipment 
operation, integrity, crew interface, etc.) shall be demonstrated by a 
combination of approved bench, ground, and flight tests. Airborne 
equipment shall meet applicable requirements specified in RTCA 
DGNSS MASPS, FAA TSO-C129 (except equipment designated 
Category D by the RTCA DGNSS MASPS), AC 20-138, AC 20- 
130A, or equivalent criteria. The Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) or 
AFM Supplement should state that the DGPS installation meeting 
the criteria of this order. 

NOTE: When receiving DGPS information RAIM should not be 
used. 

h. Differential GPS Capability. It shall be demonstrated that the 
airborne equipment is protected from using data transmitted by 
differential stations which are not compatible with the avionics 
design. This is normally done by comparing the station 
identification received from the ground with the station 
identifications associated with the instrunient approach selected 
from the data base. The following criteria shall also be met: 

(1) Interoperability. Interoperability shall be demonstrated 
between the facilities, facility types, and the differential 
correction methods that the applicant intends to use. 
Information from all other facilities not compatible with the 
airborne system shall be rejected. 

(2) Simultaneous Use Demonstration. Simultaneous use of 
multiple DGPS ground facilities shall be demonstrated if it is 


A7-5 



permitted by the avionics design, even if operational usage of 
this feature is not intended. Simultaneous use of multiple 
DGPS facilities is prohibited during the FAS or the MAS or 
DGPS Category I instrument approach. 

(3) Station Identiflcation. Station selection methods and methods 
to positively identify any ground station(s) used shall be 
established. The system shall compaie the station 
identification received from the ground with the station 
identification associated with the instrument approach selected 
from the database, and automatically determine that the proper 
facility is being used. Pilot action should not be required to 
properly identify the facility or to preclude the system from 
using improper information. In the future, the system may be 
required to either determine the level of service available and 
advise the crew, or advise the crew if the selected operation 
cannot be performed. 

(4) Coordinate Datum. DGPS corrections should always be 
based on use of the coordinate frame used to determine the 
ground differential stations “survey” location and the pertinent 
TCWP. This is to remove any possibility of reference datum 
differences which would introduce additional errors. All data 
shall be based on World Geodetic System WGS-84 
coordinates. 


A7.6 




REFERENCE 01 
FAA ORDER 8400.10 

Air Transportation Operations Inspector’s Handbook 


OM 



CAUTION!! Please be aware that the materials in the following 
section are excerpts. It is assumed that the person using this 
material has read the complete parent document. Important details 
regarding the use of or policies covering the application of this 
information may be available only in the complete document from 
which the excerpts were taken. 


VOLUME 1. GENERAL CONCEPTS, DIRECTION, 

GUIDANCE, AND DEFINITIONS 

CHAPTER 4. GENERAL DIRECTION, GUIDANCE, AND 
PROCEDURES 

SECTION 6. THE GENERAL PROCESS FOR APPROVAL OR 
ACCEPTANCE 

205. GENERAL. 

A. The general process of approval or acceptance of certain 
operations, programs, documents, procedures, methods, or 
systems is an orderly method used by Flight Standards inspectors 
to ensure that such items meet regulatory standards and provide 
for safe operating practices. It is a modular, generic process that 
can be applied to many types of approval or acceptance tasks. The 
process consists of five distinct yet related phases and can result 
in approving or not approving, accepting or not accepting an 
operator’s proposal. It is important for an inspector to understand 
that the process described in this section is not all-inclusive, but 
rather a tool to be used with good judgment in conducting day-to- 
day duties and responsibilities. 

B. This section provides direction and guidance for understanding 
and applying this process. The logic diagram (figure 1.4.6.1.TBD) 
should be used for reference while reviewing the process. 

FYI: It is essential for the inspector to understand that 
this process may result in a decision to not approve or 
not accept an operator's proposal. The process 
described is used to assist in making either positive or 
negative determinations. 

C. This general process applies to many tasks described throughout 
this handbook. Each chapter or section describing an approval or 


01.2 



acceptance task supplements the general process by outlining 
specific task requirements for each phase. For example, the 
specific items or actions required of the Federal Aviation 
Administration (FAA) and the operator for each phase of the 
process concerning proving tests are delineated in volume 3, 
chapter 9. The five phases of the operational approval or 
acceptance process are as follows: 

207. PHASE ONE. The first phase starts when an operator, a person, 
an aviation interest, or the FAA inquires about or states a need for a 
change in some aspect of an aviation activity. Phase one is initiated by 
the following two possible actions: 

A. A person or operator conveys to the FAA a need that is related to 
its operation. This “need” may be a requirement for FAA approval 
or acceptance. For example, an operator may need, want, or be 
required to have a minimum equipment list (MEL) change. The 
operator initiates the process by inquiring about the correct 
procedures to receive approval from the FAA for the change. 
During initial inquiries, it is important for the FAA and the 
operator to become familiar with the subject matter. If, for 
example, an operator requests an operational approval, the 
inspector must take the following actions: 

• Become thoroughly familiar with existing FAA policy and 
approval requirements 

• Become familiar with the appropriate technical material 

• Accurately assess the character and scope of the proposal 

• Determine if a demonstration is required 

• Determine the need for any coordination requirements 

• Ensure that the operator has a clear understanding of the 
minimum requirements that constitute an acceptable 
submission 

• Determine the date the operator intends to implement the 
proposal 


01*3 


B. Phase one may also begin when the FAA conveys to the operator 
or person a requirement related to its operation which must be 
approved or accepted. For example, a principal inspector may 
require an operator to publish, in the company aircraft operating 
manual, information on low-speed buffet. The operator 
mustresearch and understand that subject area before submitting a 
proposal to the FAA for evaluation. The principal inspector 
should act in an advisory capacity to the operator during the 
preparation of the submission. Such advice may include the 
following: 

• The necessity for a deviation, authorization, waiver, or 
exemption 

• The necessity for required demonstrations 

• Clarification of Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) or 
handbook information 

• Sources of specific technical information 

• Acceptable standards for submission 

C. The common element, regardless of whether an action is initiated 
by an operator or the FAA, is the effort expended by the operator. 

NOTE: It is essential (particularly in phase one) for the 
operator to have a clear understanding that, although the 
inspector may provide advice and guidance to the company, 
the development of the final product submitted to the FAA is 
solely the responsibility of the operator. 

D. In phase one, the inspector must ensure that the operator clearly 
understands the form, content, and documents required for the 
submission to be acceptable to the FAA. The operator must be 
informed of the need and benefits of submitting required 
documents as early as possible and of its responsibility to advise 
the FAA, in a timely manner, of any significant changes in the 
proposal. Phase one of the process is illustrated as follows: 

• Operator makes inquiry or request to FAA 

-OR- 


014 



• FAA requires operator to take an action 

• FAA and operator develop understanding of subject area 

• Operator understands form, content, and documents required 
for acceptable submission 

209. PHASE TWO. Phase two begins when the operator formally 
submits a proposal for FAA evaluation. The request may be submitted 
in a variety of ways. The inspector’s first action, in phase two, is to 
review the operator’s submission to ensure that the proposal is clearly 
defined, and the documentation specified in phase one has been 
provided. The required information must be complete and detailed 
enough to permit a thorough evaluation of the operator’s capability and 
competence to fully satisfy the applicable regulations, national policy, 
and safe operating practices. Phase two does not include a detailed 
operational and technical evaluation or analysis of the submitted 
information (see phase three). However, in phase two the submission 
must be examined in sufficient detail to assess the completeness of the 
required information. If the operator’s submission is not complete or the 
quality is obviously unacceptable, it must be immediately returned with 
an explanation of the deficiencies, before any further review and 
evaluation is conducted. Normally, unacceptable submissions should 
be returned with a written explanation of the reasons for its return. In 
many complex cases, a meeting with the operator and its key personnel 
may be necessary to resolve issues and agree on a mutually acceptable 
solution. If mutual agreements cannot be reached, the inspector must 
terminate the meeting, inform the operator that the submission is 
unacceptable, and return the submission. If all parties are able to reach 
agreement on measures to correct omissions or deficiencies, and the 
principal inspectors (operations, airworthiness, and avionics, if 
applicable) determine that the submission is acceptable, the operator 
will be so informed and phase three begins. Phase two of the process is 
illustrated as follows: 

• Operator submits proposal 

• FAA makes initial examination of the documents for 
completeness with respect to requirements established in phase 
one 

• FAA returns submitted proposal 


01-5 


-OR- 


• FAA accepts submitted proposal 

NOTE: It is important for the inspector involved to keep the 
operator advised of the status of its proposal. If the inspector takes 
no other action, or if the submission is deficient and not returned in 
a timely manner, the applicant may assume that the FAA has 
tacitly accepted the submission and is continuing with the process. 
Timeliness of action depends on the situation as well as inspector 
judgment and is discussed in pertinent sections of this handbook. 

211. PHASE THREE. 

A. Phase three is the FAA’s detailed analysis, review, and evaluation 
of the operator’s proposal. These actions may take place entirely 
within a field office, at the site of operations, or at both facilities. 
In phase three the FAA evaluation is focused on the form, content, 
and technical quality of the submitted proposal to determine that 
the information in the proposal meets the following criteria: 

• Is not contrary to any applicable FAR 

• Is not contrary to the direction provided in this handbook or 
other safety-related documents 

• Provides for safe operating practices 

B. Criteria for evaluating the formal submission is found in the 
applicable chapters of this handbook. The inspector must ensure 
that the documents adequately establish the operator’s capability 
and competence to safely conduct operations in accordance with 
the submitted proposal. 

C. During phase three the FAA inspector must, in a timely manner, 
address any deficiencies in the submitted material before 
proceeding to subsequent phases. Discussion with the operator 
may be sufficient to resolve certain discrepancies or questions, or 
to obtain additional information. It may be necessary to return 
certain sections of the submission to the operator for specific 
changes. However, when an inspector determines that, for specific 
reasons, the material is grossly deficient or unacceptable, the 
inspector must return the entire submission to the operator with an 

01-6 



appropriate explanation, and immediately terminate this phase. If 
the results of the evaluation are acceptable and a demonstration 
requirement exists, the inspector may need to grant some form of 
conditional, initial, or provisional approval to the proposal before 
continuing with the process. 

D. An important aspect of phase three is for FAA inspectors to begin 
planning the conduct of phase four. While evaluating the 
operator’s formal submission, inspectors should begin to 
formulate plans to observe and evaluate the operator’s ability to 
perform. These plans must be finalized before the actual 
demonstrations. Phase three is illustrated as follows: 

• FAA evaluates the formal submission for compliance with 
FAR, compliance with the direction provided in this 
handbook, other safety-related documents and safe operating 
practices 

• When results of FAA evaluation are unsatisfactory, return 
submission to the operator for correction and/or terminate the 
phase 

• Begin planning phase four (if required) 

• When results of FAA evaluation are satisfactory, proceed with 
phase four (if demonstration required) and if appropriate, grant 
conditional approval or acceptance 

-OR- 

• Proceed to phase five if demonstration not required 

213. PHASE FOUR. 

A. In phase four the FAA finalizes plans to observe and evaluate the 
operator’s demonstration of its ability to perform in accordance 
with the procedures, guidelines, and parameters described in the 
formal proposal. Phase four is an operational evaluation of the 
operator’s ability to function in accordance with the proposal 
evaluated in phase three. Usually, these demonstrations 
arerequired by regulation, and some examples include the 
following: 


01-7 


Training programs 


• Proving tests 

• Emergency evacuation demonstration 

• All-weather terminal operations 

• Air navigation operations 

B. Criteria and procedures for evaluating an operator’s demonstrated 
ability are described in applicable chapters of this handbook. The 
inspector must plan for the conduct and observation of the 
demonstration to include such factors as participants, evaluation 
criteria, and sequence of events. During these demonstrations it is 
normal for minor discrepancies to occur. Discrepancies can often 
be resolved during the demonstration by obtaining commitments 
from responsible company officials. The inspector responsible for 
overseeing a demonstration must evaluate each discrepancy in 
terms of its overall impact on the operator’s ability and 
competence to conduct the proposed operation. The inspector 
must stop the demonstration in phase four when gross deficiencies 
or unacceptable levels of performance are observed. The inspector 
must identify the phase of the general process for approval or 
acceptance to which the applicant must return, or decide to 
terminate the process entirely when it is clear that continuation 
would not result in approval or acceptance. For example, if an 
emergency evacuation demonstration is unsatisfactory due to 
equipment failure (a slide fails to inflate) it may be appropriate to 
require the operator to reenter the process at phase four and 
conduct another demonstration. If the demonstration is 
unacceptable because crewmembers were unable to perform their 
assigned duties, it may be appropriate to advise the operator that 
the process is terminated pending review and evaluation of the 
operator’s emergency training program, and that the operator may 
need to reenter the process at phase two (that is, submit a new 
proposal). 

C. If the FAA evaluation of the operator’s demonstrated ability is 
acceptable, the process continues. Phase four of the process is 
illustrated as follows: 


01-8 



• FAA plans for the conduct and observation of the 
demonstration 

• Operator demonstrates ability 

• Demonstration unsatisfactory 
-OR- 

• Demonstration satisfactory 

NOTE: An operator shall not, under any circumstances, be 
authorized or otherwise approved to conduct any particular 
operation until all airworthiness and operations requirements are 
met and the operator is clearly capable of conducting a safe 
operation in compliance with FAA regulations and safe operating 
practices. 

215. PHASE FIVE. 

A. In phase five the FAA approves or accepts the operator’s 
proposal. If the proposal is not approved or accepted, the operator 
is notified in phase three or four. 

B. Approval is granted by letter, by a stamp of approval, by the 
issuance of operations specifications, or by some other official 
means of conveying approval. Each section of this handbook that 
discusses a requirement for approval provides specific guidance 
concerning approval procedures and documentation. The 
following are examples of approvals granted by the FAA: 

• All-weather terminal operations 

• Training programs 

• MEL 

• Cockpit checklist 

• Company Aircraft Operating Manual (limitations, 
performance, and operating procedures) 

• Air navigation operations 


01.9 


C. Other proposals, submissions, or requests not requiring specific 
FAA approval but required to be submitted to the FAA are items 
that are presented for acceptance. Acceptance of an operator’s 
proposal may be accomplished by various means, including a 
letter, verbal acceptance, or by taking no action, which indicates 
there is no FAA objection to the proposal. Methods and 
procedures used to accept operation proposals or submissions, 
when appropriate, are discussed in the applicable chapters of this 
handbook. Phase five is illustrated as follows: 

• FAA approves submission 
-OR- 

• FAA accepts submission 

FYI: Sometimes FAA approval or acceptance of an 
operator's proposal may be conditional in nature. For 
example, a training program may be initially approved 
provided that the flight simulator to be used in that 
program receives approval from the National Simulator 
Evaluation Team. 

217. SUMMARY OF PROCESS. The general operational approval 
or acceptance process, as described, is referenced throughout this 
handbook (in terms of the five phases) with the specific task 
requirements for each applicable Job function. It is important for the 
inspector to understand the modular concepts inherent in the process, 
the overall interrelationship of the phases, and that this general process 
is not all-inclusive, but a tool to be used in the inspector’s day-to-day 
duties and responsibilities. The logic diagram in figure 1.4.6.1. (TBD) 
is intended to clarify this general process. 


OMO 



VOLUME 3. AIR OPERATOR TECHNICAL 
ADMINISTRATION 


CHAPTER I. OPERATIONS SPECIFICATIONS 

SECTION 7. AMENDMENT, SURRENDER, AND SUSPENSION 
OF OPERATIONS SPECIFICATIONS 

261. APPLICABILITY. FAR 121.79 and FAR 135.17 specify that 
operation specifications (OpSpecs) can be amended as a result of an 
operator’s request or because the FA A determines that safety in air 
transportation or air commerce (in the case of a commercial operator) is 
affected and the change is in the public interest. In addition, an 
operator’s OpSpecs may be amended by the FA A due to a change in the 
operator’s operating environment. This section contains direction and 
guidance to be used by principal inspectors for the amendment, 
surrender, and suspension of OpSpecs for Part 121 and Part 135 air 
carriers and commercial operators (see volume 2, chapter 4 of this 
handbook for information on the processing of Part 129 foreign flag air 
carrier OpSpecs). 

263. AMENDMENT PROCESS USING AUTOMATED 
OPSPECS. Regardless of who initiates the amendment of an operator’s 
OpSpecs, the automation process involves the same basic procedures. 
The amendment of the OpSpecs may involve the principal inspector 
doing any of the following: entering new data to the Vital Information 
System (VIS), changing the OpSpecs checklist, changing the 
worksheets, or changing only an OpSpecs paragraph. When making 
such changes using the automated OpSpecs, principal inspectors should 
use the procedures that follow. 

A. Entry of New Data to VIS. If new VIS data is required, the 
principal inspector must obtain the new data from the computer 
along with a copy of the current checklist. If new VIS data is not 
required, then the principal inspector must obtain a copy of the 
current checklist or, if neither the VIS nor the checklist have to be 
changed, then the principal inspector must obtain a set of 
worksheets for any affected paragraphs. 

B. Changing OpSpecs Checklist. When the OpSpecs checklist must 
be changed, the principal inspector should enter or delete the 
appropriate statements and should also generate a set of 
worksheets for the affected paragraphs. 


01*11 



C. Changing Worksheets. The principal inspector should change the 
worksheets (whether obtained from the input of VIS or the 
checklist, or from the computer) by making appropriate selections 
and entering user-specific information. The principal inspector 
should then generate a draft set of the affected OpSpecs 
paragraphs. 

D. Changing a Standard OpSpecs Paragraph. When Washington 
Headquarters changes a standard OpSpecs paragraph, the VIS 
data entry guide, checklists, and worksheets do not have to be 
changed; only the amended standard paragraph must be changed 
and a new page issued. In most cases, however, any change to an 
OpSpecs paragraph will require that the principal inspector make 
a corresponding change to the worksheets. 

265. AMENDMENT OF OPSPECS. When amending OpSpecs, a 
principal inspector should take into account the extent and complexity 
of the amendment. If the amendment is uncomplicated and involves 
only one or two paragraphs, then it may be practical to print only the 
affected paragraphs. If the amendment is extensive and involves 
entering VIS data or changing the checklist and worksheets (such as 
when an operator upgrades from Part 135 operations to Part 121 
operations), then the principal inspector should generate a complete set 
of OpSpecs, The principal inspector should review the draft set of 
OpSpecs with the operator and, if necessary, make any corrections and 
resolve any conflicts. After the final corrections are made, the principal 
inspector should print and issue two sets of the amended OpSpecs to the 
applicant; one set for the applicant’s review and files, and one set for 
receipt and return. An amendment may be initiated either at the 
operator’s request or by FAA initiation. The procedures for these two 
methods of initiating an amendment as follows: 


01.12 




VOLUME 3. AIR OPERATOR TECHNICAL 
ADMINISTRATION 


CHAPTER 2. TRAINING PROGRAMS AND AIRMAN 
QUALIFICATIONS 

SECTION 2. TRAINING APPROVAL PROCESS 
311. GENERAL. 

A. Training curriculum approvals follow the five-phase general 
process for approval or acceptance described in volume 1, chapter 
4, section 6. The basic steps of this process must be followed. 

Each phase, however, may be adjusted to accommodate existing 
circumstances. Depending on the complexity of the operator’s 
request and the availability of FAA resources, the approval 
process may be accomplished in only a few days, or the process 
may last many months. The approval process applies to each 
operator requesting approval of a new curriculum or a revision to 
a currently approved curriculum. Inherent in the approval process 
is the FAA’s responsibility to deny approval of any training which 
does not meet regulatory requirements or which has been found 
deficient. Training curriculums which have been granted approval 
and later found either to be in conflict with regulatory 
requirements or to be ineffective, must be appropriately modified 
by the operator, or FAA approval must be withdrawn. This section 
establishes procedures for granting approval or withdrawing 
approval of all or part of a training curriculum. When appropriate, 
job aids have been developed to assist inspectors in the approval 
process of curriculum segments. These job aids are discussed in 
subsequent sections of this chapter. 

315. INITIATING THE APPROVAL PROCESS - PHASE ONE. 

A. The training approval process can be initiated by either the 
operator or the FAA as follows: 

(1) Operator Initiated. The operator informs the FAA that it is 
planning to establish a new training curriculum or to change an 
existing curriculum. 


01-13 


{2)FAA Initiated. The FAA informs an operator that revisions to 
its training program are required based on recently acquired 
information relative to training techniques, aviation 
technology, aircraft operational history, operator performance, 
or regulatory changes. 

B. When a proposal is initiated by the operator, one of the first steps 
the POI or certification project manager (CPM) should take is to 
obtain the following basic information: 

• Type of operation 

• Type of equipment to be operated 

• Geographic areas of operation 

• Proposed training schedules 

• Proposed date of revenue operations 

• Proposed contract training, if any 

• Type of simulator to be used, if any 

• Facilities to be used 

317. FAA INVOLVEMENT IN PHASE ONE. 

A. Early in the process, the FAA and the operator should establish, 
through discussion, a common understanding of both the 
regulatory training requirements and the direction and guidance 
provided in this handbook. The POI or CPM and the operator 
must examine the entire operation to ensure that any training 
necessitated by operational requirements, authorizations, or 
limitations (such as those in the operations specifications, 
minimum equipment lists, deviations, and exemptions), is 
included in the operator’s training curriculums. The training 
program is the area most affected by operational changes. The 
POI should review all general requirements in the regulations and 
in this handbook that apply to the proposed operation. The 
POI should be aware of changes to the information initially 
provided by the operator. The POI should discuss with the 


01.14 




operator the sequence and timing of events which occur in the 
development and the granting of initial and final approval of a 
training curriculum. If the operator’s proposal involves complex 
operations (such as long-range navigation or polar navigation 
operations), the POI must consult appropriate sections of this 
handbook and other relevant documents and be prepared to advise 
the operator during this phase. In such a case, the POI should also 
determine whether assistance from an FAA specialist is necessary. 

B. An FAA inspector should be prepared to provide advice to an 
operator during training curriculum development. During phase 
one, the operator must be informed of the procedure for 
requesting initial approval and of the types of additional 
supporting information which the POI will require the operator to 
submit. An inspector should be prepared to provide advice and 
guidance to the operator on the following: 

• The general format and content of curriculums, curriculum 
segments, training modules, and flight maneuvers and 
procedures documents 

• Courseware 

• Facilities 

• Qualifications of instructor personnel 

• Other areas of the operator’s proposed training program 

319. REQUESTS FOR INITIAL APPROVAL - PHASE TWO. 

A. Phase two begins when the operator submits its training proposal 
in writing, for initial approval, to the FAA. The operator is 
required to submit to the FAA an outline of each curriculum or 
curriculum segment and any additional relevant supporting 
information requested by the POI. These outlines, any additional 
supporting information, and a letter must be submitted to the 
FAA. This letter should request FAA approval of the training 
curriculum. Two copies of each curriculum or curriculum segment 
outline should be forwarded along with the letter of request to the 
FAA. 


01.15 


B. Each operator must submit its own specific curriculum segment 
outlines appropriate for its type of aircraft and kinds of 
operations. These outlines may differ from one operator to 
another and from one category of training to another in terms of 
format, detail, and presentation. Each curriculum should be easy 
to revise and should contain a method for controlling revisions, 
such as a revision numbering system. Curriculums for different 
duty positions are specifically identified and any differences in 
instruction are specified for each duty position. Each curriculum 
and curriculum segment outline must include the following 
information: 

• Operator’s name 

• Type of aircraft 

• Duty position 

• Title of curriculum and/or curriculum segment including the 
category of training 

• Consecutive page numbers 

• Page revision control dates and revision numbers 

C. Each curriculum and curriculum segment must also include the 
following items, as appropriate: 

• Prerequisites prescribed by the FARs or required by the 
operator for enrollment in the curriculum 

• Statements of objectives of the entire curriculum and a 
statement of the objective of each curriculum segment 

• A list of each training device, mockup, system trainer, 
procedures trainer, simulator, and other training aids which 
require FAA approval (The curriculum may contain references 
to other documents in which the approved devices, simulators, 
and aids, are listed.) 

• Descriptions or pictorial displays of normal, abnormal, and 
emergency maneuvers and procedures which are intended for 
use in the curriculum, when appropriate. (These descriptions 

OM6 



or pictorial displays, when grouped together, are commonly 
referred to as the flight maneuvers and procedures document. 
The operator may choose to present detailed descriptions and 
pictorial displays of flight maneuvers and procedures in other 
manuals. For example, the flight maneuvers and procedures 
document may be described in an aircraft operating manual. 
However, as a required part of the training curriculum, it must 
either be submitted as part of the curriculum or be 
appropriately referenced in the curriculum.) 

• An outline of each training module within each curriculum 
segment (Each module should contain sufficient detail to 
ensure that the main features of the principal elements or 
events will be addressed during instruction.) 

• Training hours which will be applied to each curriculum 
segment and the total curriculum 

• The checking and qualification modules of the qualification 
curriculum segment used to determine successful course 
completion, including any FAR qualification requirements for 
crewmembers or dispatchers to serve in Part 121 or Part 135 
operations (such as initial operating experience, line checks, 
operating familiarization) 

321. ADDITIONAL RELEVANT SUPPORTING 
INFORMATION - PHASE TWO. As specified in FAR 121.405(a)(2) 
and FAR 135.325(a)(2), an operator must submit any additional 
relevant supporting information requested by the POI. This information 
is that additional information the POI finds necessary for determining 
whether the proposed training program is feasible and adequately 
supported. It is information which would be difficult to include in a 
curriculum outline format. The type and amount of supporting 
information needed will vary depending on the type of training, aircraft 
types to be operated, and kinds of operations. The POI must determine 
the appropriate types of supporting information to be required. This 
should be limited to only that information critical to the determination 
of the proposed training program’s acceptability. The following list of 
types of relevant supporting information is not all-inclusive, but 
includes information that is typical. 

A. A description of facilities is appropriate if the POI is unfamiliar 
with the facilities, or if the facilities are not readily available for 
examination. 


OM7 


B. A list of ground and flight instructors and their qualifications may 
be requested. This infonnation is particularly important if the 
operator intends to use contract instructors. The POI should 
determine whether the proposed instructors meet regulatory 
requirements and if they are qualified to conduct training. 

C. A detailed description of each flight simulator and training device 
is appropriate when the simulator or training device is not readily 
available for the POI’s examination. This detailed description is 
particularly important when the operator intends to contract for a 
specific flight simulator or training device. This description 
should provide sufficiently detailed information to enable the POI 
to determine whether the training and checking to be conducted is 
appropriate for the level of the flight simulator or training device 
to be used. 

D. A detailed description of minimum student qualifications and 
enrollment prerequisites is appropriate when such prerequisites 
are not described in detail in the curriculum. Examples of these 
prerequisites which may need to be detailed as supporting 
information include: type of airman certificate, aircraft type 
qualifications, previous training programs, minimum flight hours, 
experience with other Part 121 or Part 135 operators, and recency 
of experience. This description may be useful to the POI when 
determining whether the proposed amount of detail outlined in 
training modules and the proposed training hours are adequate. 

E. Copies of training forms and records to be used for recording 
student progress and the completion of training may be required. 
This ensures the operator has planned for the FAR recordkeeping 
requirements. This type of supporting information shall be 
required of applicants for an air operator certificate. It may also 
be required of operators with any significant revision to existing 
training programs. These forms, records, or computer transmittal 
worksheets must be designed so that attendance and course- 
completion information is recorded and retrievable for verifying 
regulatory compliance. 


01-18 



F. Supporting information may include samples of courseware, such 
as lesson plans and instructor guides. Descriptions of other types 
of courseware, such as home study, computer-based instruction, 
and line oriented flight training (LOFT) scenarios, should be in 
enough detail to provide an understanding of how the training will 
be administered and of the proposed instructional delivery 
method. This information should describe the instructor-student 
interaction and indicate methods for measuring student learning. 

323. INITIAL REVIEW OF REQUESTS FOR APPROVAL - 
PHASE TWO. In phase two the POI must review the submitted 
training curriculum and supporting information for completeness, 
general content, and overall quality. A detailed examination of the 
documents is not required during phase two. If, after initial review, the 
submission appears to be complete and of acceptable quality, or if the 
deficiencies are immediately brought to the operator’s attention and can 
be quickly resolved, the POI may begin the phase three in-depth review. 
If the submission is determined to be incomplete or obviously 
unacceptable, the approval process is terminated and the POI must 
immediately return the documents (preferably within 5 working days) 
with an explanation of the deficiencies. The documents must be 
immediately returned, so the operator will not erroneously assume the 
POI is continuing the process to the next phase. The approval process 
can be resumed when the revised training curriculum or curriculum 
segment is resubmitted. 

327. IN-DEPTH REVIEW OF SUBMITTED CURRICULUMS - 
PHASE THREE. 

A. Phase three is initiated when the FAA begins a detailed analysis 
and evaluation of a training curriculum or curriculum segment. 

The purpose of this phase is to determine the acceptability of 
training curriculums for initial approval. This phase ends either 
with the initial approval or with the rejection of all or part of the 
training curriculum. To complete an evaluation in a timely manner 
the POI may need to involve other FAA personnel early in this 
phase. Certain specialists or offices may be required to participate 
in the approval process as follows: 

• The principal security inspector (PSI) should be involved in 
security and hazardous materials training issues. 


OM9 


• Various aviation safety inspector specialists should be 
involved when appropriate. For example, navigation 
specialists should be involved with evaluating special 
navigation operations. 

• The POI may need to contact the Flight Standardization Board 
(FSB) and the Flight Operations Evaluation Board (FOEB) for 
information on training recommendations and minimum 
equipment list procedures. See volume 8 (TBD). 

• The POFs district office manager and certain regional 
headquarters personnel may need to be involved with locating 
and directing additional FAA resources to accomplish the 
approval process. 

• Washington headquarters may be requested to provide 
assistance with obtaining training quotas for selected 
inspectors or with obtaining information concerning 
exemptions. 

B. Before granting initial approval for a specific curriculum or 
curriculum segment, the POI must ensure that the following 
evaluations are accomplished: 

(1) A side-by-side examination of the curriculum outline with the 
appropriate regulations and with the direction provided in this 
handbook must be performed. This examination is to ensure 
that training will be given in at least the required subjects and 
in-flight training maneuvers. It should also ensure that 
appropriate training will be given on safe operating practices. 

(2) An examination of the courseware developed or being 
developed by the operator must be performed. This review 
should include a sampling of available courseware such as 
lesson plans, audiovisual programs, flight maneuvers and 
procedures documents, and student handouts. The courseware 
must be consistent with each curriculum and curriculum 
segment outline. From this review, the POI should be able to 
determine whether the operator is capable of developing and 
producing effective training courseware. 


01-20 



(3) An inspection of training facilities, training devices, and 
instructional aids (which will be used to support the training) 
must be performed if the POI is not familiar with the 
operator’s training program capabilities. 

(4) The training hours specified in each curriculum segment 
outline must be evaluated. An inspector should not attempt to 
measure the quality or sufficiency of training by the number of 
training hours alone. This can only be determined by direct 
observation of training and testing (or checking) in progress, 
or by examination of surveillance and investigation reports. 
The specified training hours must be realistic, however, in 
terms of the amount of time it will take to accomplish the 
training outlined in the curriculum segment so as to achieve 
the stated training objectives. During the examination of 
courseware, an inspector should note the times allotted by the 
operator for each training module. These times should be 
realistic in terms of the complexity of the individual training 
modules. The number of training hours for any particular 
curriculum segment depends upon many factors. Some of the 
primary factors are as follows: 

• The aircraft family in which the specific aircraft belongs 

• Complexity of the specific aircraft 

• Complexity of the type of operation 

• Amount of detail that needs to be covered 

• The experience and knowledge level of the students 

• Efficiency and sophistication of the operator’s entire 
training program (including items such as instructor 
proficiency, training aids, facilities, courseware, and the 
operator’s experience with the aircraft) 

C. If, after completing these evaluations, the POI determines that the 
curriculum or curriculum segment is satisfactory and adequately 
supported, and that the training hours are realistic, initial approval 
should be granted. Sometimes a portion of the submittal may 
appear to be satisfactory. However, if that portion is dependent 
upon another undeveloped portion or another unsatisfactory 


01-21 


portion, initial approval must be withheld. For example, a PIC 
BE-100 initial equipment, flight training curriculum segment is 
satisfactory but related training modules within the initial 
equipment ground training curriculum segment are unsatisfactory. 
In such a case, it may be inappropriate to grant initial approval to 
the initial equipment flight training curriculum segment until the 
ground training curriculum segment is determined to be 
satisfactory. 

D. During phase three of the approval process, the POI must 
establish priorities to ensure that, if appropriate, the granting or 
initial approval, is not unnecessarily delayed. These priorities 
should assure that deficiencies are resolved so that initial approval 
can be granted before the operator’s planned starting date for 
training. 

329. EXPIRATION DATES FOR INITIAL APPROVALS. When 
the POI determines that a training curriculum or curriculum segment 
should be initially approved, the POI must also determine an 
appropriate expiration date for the initial approval. The expiration date 
is important throughout phase four of the approval process. FAR 
121.401(a)(1) and FAR 135.323(a)(1) require the operator to obtain 
final approval of training curriculums. The expiration date provides an 
incentive to the operator for refining all aspects of the program to 
assure that this regulatory requirement is met. The expiration date also 
provides the POI with a time frame with which to plan evaluation 
activities for determining the effectiveness of the training. The 
expiration date assigned to an initially approved training curriculum 
must not exceed 24 months from the date of initial approval. The 
expiration date of initial approval may be reduced by the POI if it is 
apparent that a 24-month time frame will unnecessarily delay final 
approval. The POI should be aware that shortening the initial approval 
expiration date will commit him to completing the final approval phase 
within the shorter time period. The POI may grant final approval any 
time before the expiration date. Except when unforeseen circumstances 
preclude an adequate evaluation of training effectiveness, an extension 
to the initial approval expiration date should not be permitted. A new 
expiration date, however, may be established for a curriculum segment 
when there are significant revisions to an initially-approved curriculum 
segment. 


01-22 



331. METHOD OF GRANTING INITIAL APPROVAL. 


A. Initial approval is granted by letter. Sample letters granting initial 
approval are included at the end of this paragraph (figures 3.2.2.1 
and 3.2.2.2). The initial approval letter must include at least the 
following information: 

• Specific identification of the curriculums and/or curriculum 
segments initially approved, including page numbers and 
revision control dates 

• A statement that initial approval is granted, including the 
effective and expiration dates 

• Any specific conditions affecting the initial approval, if 
applicable 

• A request for advance notice of training schedules so that 
training may be evaluated in accordance with FAR 121.405 or 
FAR 135.325, as appropriate 

• If the POI is authorizing a reduction in the programmed hours 
specified by Part 121, a statement concerning the basis for 
reduction 

B. An initial approval letter serves as the primary record of 
curriculum or curriculum segment pages that are currently 
effective. In the past, initial approval was stamped on each page 
of a curriculum. Although this method is no longer necessary, the 
POI and each operator may agree to use the method to account for 
revisions to training documents. If this method is used, the stamp 
must clearly indicate initial approval and the expiration date. 
Other acceptable methods include a list of effective curriculum or 
curriculum segment pages, or pages with a preprinted signature 
and date blocks. 

C. The original pages of the curriculum or curriculum segment shall 
be returned to the operator with the transmittal letter. These 
documents should be retained by the operator as an official 
record. A copy of the training curriculum or curriculum segment, 
with a copy of the transmittal letter granting initial approval 
attached, shall be maintained on file in the CHDO by the POI 
during the period that the initial approval is valid. The POI shall 


01.23 


also maintain on file with the curriculum all additional relevant 
supporting information. 

333. METHOD OF DENYING INITIAL APPROVAL. If the POI 

determines that initial approval of a proposed training curriculum or 
curriculum segment must be denied, the operator shall be notified in 
writing of the reasons for denial. This letter must contain an 
identification of the deficient areas of the training curriculum and a 
statement that initial approval is denied. It is not necessary that each 
minor deficiency which resulted in the denial be identified, however the 
major deficiencies should be outlined in the letter. It is the operator’s 
responsibility to redevelop or correct the deficient area before 
resubmission to the FAA. A copy of the denial letter and a copy of the 
proposed training curriculum or curriculum segment shall be kept on 
file in the CHDO. Figure 3.2.2.3 is a sample letter of a denial of initial 
approval. 

335. EVALUATING INITIALLY-APPROVED TRAINING 
CURRICULUMS - PHASE FOUR. 

A. Phase four begins when the operator starts training under the 
initially-approved curriculum. This phase should provide the 
operator with adequate time to test the program and the flexibility 
to adjust the program during FAA evaluation. The POI must 
require an operator to provide ongoing schedules of all training 
and checking to be accomplished under an initially-approved 
training curriculum. The POI must closely monitor training 
conducted under initial approval. Whenever possible, the first 
session of training conducted under initial approval should be 
monitored by the POI or a qualified operations inspector. An FAA 
inspector does not need to observe every training session. A 
sufficient sampling of the training sessions, however, should be 
observed as a basis for a realistic evaluation. Inspectors qualified 
in the type aircraft, and other individuals knowledgeable of the 
curriculum subject matter, should assist in evaluating the training. 
During training under initial approval, the operator is expected to 
evaluate and appropriately adjust training methods as needed. 
Often adjustments can be made by changing courseware and 
instructional delivery without (or with only minor) revisions to the 
initially approved curriculum. Conversely, it may be necessary for 
the operator to substantially change the curriculum which may 
require another initial approval action by the POI before the 
changes can be put into effect. Sometimes proposed revisions may 
be transmitted to the POI just before the initial approval 

01*24 



expiration date. If the change is significant, the POI may need to 
establish a different expiration date for the curriculum segment, or 
for the revised portions, to allow adequate time for a proper 
evaluation. 

B. During phase four, the operator must demonstrate the ability to 
effectively train crewmembers and dispatchers. Each deficiency 
identified during the evaluation of training conducted under an 
initially approved curriculum must be discussed with the operator. 
If the deficiencies are significant, they must be documented and 
kept on file. In most cases, when the cause of a deficiency has 
been accurately identified, the operator will make the necessary 
changes to correct the deficiency to obtain final approval. Each 
significant deficiency which has been accurately identified must 
be immediately corrected. If an operator does not take appropriate 
corrective action, the POI shall advise the operator in writing that 
initial approval is withdrawn. See paragraph 343. 

337. ELEMENTS AVAILABLE FOR EVALUATING TRAINING 
- PHASE FOUR. The POI must develop a plan for systematically 
evaluating training given under the initially approved training 
curriculum. This plan should remain in effect throughout the initial 
approval period. There are five elements which can be evaluated when 
assessing the overall effectiveness of training programs. These five 
elements are: curriculum segment outlines, courseware, instructional 
delivery methods and training environment, testing and checking, and 
surveillance and investigation of operator activities. These elements are 
interrelated, however, each can be separately evaluated. See table 
3.2.2.1 for a summary of the five elements. 

A. Before evaluating a training program, an inspector must become 
familiar with the contents of the curriculums or curriculum 
segments to be evaluated. This preparation is essential if an 
inspector is to determine whether an operator has developed an 
effective course of instruction from its initially approved training 
curriculum. 

B. Direct examination of courseware includes reviewing materials 
such as lesson plans, workbooks, or flight instructor guides. The 
inspector must determine whether the courseware is consistent 
with the curriculum or curriculum segment and that it has been 
organized to facilitate effective instructional delivery. Courseware 
is usually the training program element which is most adaptable to 


01.25 


revision or refinement. Inspectors must review at least a sampling 
of the courseware. 

C. Direct observation of instructional delivery includes surveillance 
of training methods, such as instructor lectures, computer-based 
instruction presentations, and inflight instruction. Effective 
learning can only occur when an instructor is organized, prepared, 
and properly uses the courseware and various training aids. The 
inspector must determine that the instructional delivery is 
consistent with the courseware. For example, the inspector should 
note whether the instructor teaches the topics specified in the 
lesson plan. Training aids and devices should function as intended 
during the instructional delivery. In addition, during training, the 
inspector should be sensitive to the type of questions being asked 
by students and should identify the reasons for any excessive 
repetition. These conditions may indicate ineffective instructional 
delivery or courseware. The inspector must also determine if the 
instructional environment is conducive to learning. Distractions 
which adversely affect instructional delivery, such as excessive 
temperatures, extraneous noises, poor lighting, cramped 
classrooms or workspaces, are deficiencies because they interfere 
with learning. 

D. Direct observation of testing and checking is an effective method 
for determining whether learning has occurred. Examining the 
results of tests, such as oral or written tests or flight checks, 
provides a quantifiable method for measuring training 
effectiveness. The POI must examine and determine the causal 
factors of significant failure trends. 

E. Direct observation of training and checking in progress is an 
effective method of evaluating training. Sometimes the 
opportunity for direct observation, however, will be limited. In 
such cases, the POI will have to rely more on his evaluation of 
other sources of information such as reports of surveillance and 
investigations. Results of inspection reports, incident or accident 
reports, enforcement actions, and other relevant information about 
the operator’s performance should be reviewed by the POI for 
indications of training effectiveness. The POI must establish 
methods to evaluate these sources of information for trends that 
may develop while training is being conducted under initial 
approval. For example, repeated reports of deficiencies such as 
excessive taxi speed, navigation deviations, incomplete briefings, 
or incorrect use of the checklists, may be traceable to a lack of 

01-26 



specific training or ineffective training. Such information may 
provide indications that revisions or refinements are needed for a 
curriculum segment and/or training modules. 


TABLE 3.2.2.1 ELEMENTS FOR TRAINING EVALUATION 



ELEMENTS AVAILABLE FOR EVALUATING 
TRAINING 

CURRICULUM 

SEGMENT 

OUTLINES 

Curriculum segment outlines contain the specific 
training modules and the amount of the time allocated 
for the curriculum segment, the modules must be 
consistent with regulatory requirements and safe 
operating practices. This element requires direct 
examination. 

COURSEWARE 

Courseware converts curriculum outline information 
into usable instructional material, Courseware must be 
consistent with the curriculum outline and be 
organized to permit effective instructional delivery. It 
is readily adaptable to adjustments and refinement by 
the operator. This element usually requires direct 
examination. 

INSTRUCTIONAL 
DELIVERY 
METHODS AND 
TRAINING 
ENVIRONMENT 

Instructional delivery methods are used to convey 
information to the student. Effective learning is 
maximized if the instructional delivery adheres to and 
properly uses the courseware. The training 
environment should be conducive to effective 
learning. This element requires direct observation. 

TESTING AND | 

CHECKING i 

Testing and checking is a method for determining 
whether learning has occurred. Testing and checking 
standards are used to determine that a desired level of 
knowledge and skill has been acquired. Testing and 
checking also measures the effectiveness of 
courseware and instructional delivery. This element 
requires direct observation. It can be supplemented by 
examining operating records of tests and checks. 

SURVEILLANCE 

AND 

INVESTIGATION 
OF OPERATOR 
ACTIVITIES 

Surveillance and investigations produce information 
about an operator’s overall performance. A high rate 
of satisfactory performance usually indicates a strong, 
effective training program. Repeated unsatisfactory 
performances can often be traced to deficiencies in a 
training program. This element requires the 
examination and analysis of surveillance and 
investigative reports. 


339. METHOD FOR GRANTING FINAL APPROVAL - PHASE 
FIVE. This phase involves the granting of final approval of an 
operator’s training curriculum. Based on the results of the evaluation, 
the POI must determine whether to grant or deny final approval of a 
training curriculum. This determination must be made before the 
expiration date of the initial approval. If the POI decides not to grant 
final approval, the procedures outlined in paragraph 343 shall be 


01-27 











followed. If the POI decides that final approval should be granted, the 
following procedures apply: 

A. Programs that Contain a List of Effective Pages. Although the 
method presently stated in this handbook may still be used in the 
approval process (that is, stamping each page), another procedure 
may also be used. Final approval of the training curriculum can be 
granted and documented by the POI on the List of Effective 
Pages. This means that the FAA has given final approval of every 
page of the operator’s training curriculum, as listed on that page, 
but only one FAA approval block must be completed and signed. 

(1) The stamped page that documents final approval of the 
training curriculum and/or curriculum segment shall be 
stamped for approval, dated, and signed by the POI. The 
approval stamp that appears on the page should be a facsimile 
of the stamp that appears in this paragraph. 

(2) The original curriculum and/or curriculum segment must 
contain the one page that documents FAA approval on the List 
of Effective Pages. The curriculum and/or curriculum segment 
must be transmitted to the operator with an approval letter 
signed by the POI in accordance with handbook guidance. 

B. Programs that do not Contain a List of Effective Pages. The 
original and a copy of each page of the training curriculum and/or 
curriculum segment shall be stamped for approval, dated, and 
signed by the POI. The approval stamp shall appear on each page 
and be a facsimile of the following stamp: 


FAA FINAL APPROVAL 

OFFICE DESIGNATOR:_ 

EFFECTIVE 

DATE:_ 

NAME:_ 

SIGNATURE: 


01.28 






C. The original stamped curriculum or curriculum segment must be 
transmitted to the operator with an approval letter signed by the 
POL This letter must specifically identify the curriculum or 
curriculum segment; contain a statement that final approval is 
granted; and provide the effective date of approval. This letter 
must also state that final approval shall remain in effect until 
otherwise notified by the FAA that a revision is necessary in 
accordance with FAR § 121.405(e) or FAR § 135.325(d), 
provided the operator continues to train in accordance with the 
approved curriculum. If the POI is authorizing a reduction in the 
programmed hours specified by FAR Part 121, the letter must 
contain a statement concerning the basis for reduction. A copy of 
the stamped curriculum or curriculum segment, and a copy of the 
approval letter must be kept on file in the CHDO. Figures 3.2.2.4. 
and 3.2.2.5. are sample letters of final approval. 

VOLUME 3. AIR OPERATOR TECHNICAL 
ADMINISTRATION 

CHAPTER 9. PROVING AND VALIDATION TESTS 
SECTION L BACKGROUND 

1551. GENERAL. Parts 121 and 135 of the Federal Aviation 
Regulations (FAR) required the Administrator of the Federal Aviation 
Administration (FAA) to evaluate each applicant’s ability to conduct 
operations safely and in accordance with the applicable regulations 
before issuing an operating certificate to the applicant. The FAR also 
require the Administrator to determine that a certificate holder is 
capable of conducting operations safely and in compliance with 
applicable regulatory standards before authorizing the certificate holder 
to serve an area or route. The structured methods used by the FAA to 
determine an applicant’s capabilities are proving and validation tests. 
This chapter contains direction and guidance to be used by inspectors 
for conducting these tests. 

NOTE: The term, “applicant,” as used in this chapter, means either 
a candidate applying for an operating certificate or a certificate 
holder requesting additional operating authority. 

1555. VALIDATION TESTS. FAR 121.93, 121.113, and 
135.13(a)(2) require an applicant to demonstrate the capability to 
conduct operations over proposed routes or areas in compliance with 
regulatory requirements before being granted FAA authority to conduct 

01.29 



these operations. The FAA requires the applicant to successfully 
complete validation testing in the following circumstances: (1) before 
being authorized to add any areas of operation beyond the 48 
contiguous states to operations specifications (OpSpecs) paragraph B50 
and, (2) before being issued any of the OpSpecs paragraphs listed in 
figures 3.9.8.1. through 3.9.8.3. that authorize special means of 
navigation. Though proving and validation tests satisfy different 
requirements, both test may be conducted simultaneously when 
appropriate. 

SECTION 2. THE PROVING AND VALIDATION TEST 
PROCESS 

1565. PHASE ONE. Phase one of the proving and validation test 
process begins when an applicant requests authorization from the FAA 
to conduct an operation for which proving or validation is required. The 
term, “applicant,” as used in this section, means either a candidate 
applying for an operating certificate or a certificate holder requesting 
additional operating authority. When applicant’s request requires 
proving or validation, the following steps apply: 

NOTE: A general purpose job aid is included as figure 3.9.2.I., 
which may be adapted to proving or validation tests, as required. 
The proving and validation test process follows the general outline 
of the five-phase approval process that is described in volume 1, 
chapter 4, section 6. 

A. FAA Test Team. The Certificate Management Office (CMO) 
manager or Flight Standards District Office (FSDO) manager (in 
absence of a CMO manager) shall organize a test team. 

(1) Team Leader. The team leader should normally be one of the 
principal inspectors assigned to the applicant and shall be 
responsible for the conduct, coordination, and evaluation of 
the test. In addition, the team leader will be the spokesperson 
for the Administrator on all matters pertaining to the test. 

(2) Team Personnel. The FAA test team should include the 
following personnel, as required: 

• The team leader 

• All assigned principal inspectors 


01-30 



• An aviation safety inspector (ASI) (operations) qualified 
on the equipment 

• ASI’s (maintenance and avionics) trained on the installed 
equipment 

• A cabin safety specialist when, in Part 121, aircraft of 10 
or more passenger seats are involved; or, in Part 135, 
when aircraft of 20 or more passenger seats are involved 
(If a cabin safety specialist is not available, the team 
should include an ASI with experience in cabin safety 
issues.) 

• A representative from the Civil Aviation Security Field 
Office (CASFO) 

(3) Familiarization. All members of the FAA inspection team 
must become familiar with the pertinent parts of the 
applicant’s general operations manual (GOM), procedures, 
and policies. 

NOTE: If qualified inspectors are not available within the CMO or 
FSDO, the manager must request assistance from the Regional 
Flight Standards Division (RFSD). 

B. Preliminary Coordination. The FAA test team and the applicant 
must reach a common understanding of what the applicant must 
do, what role the FAA will play, and what reports and documents 
must be prepared during the testing process. Both the test team 
and the applicant must research applicable regulatory and 
advisory material. If the test concerns any of the operations listed 
in figure 3.9.8.1., then the test team should consult an FAA 
navigation specialist early in phase one at either of the two 
following locations: San Francisco (SFO) International Field 
Office (IFO) at (415) 876-2765 or New York (NYC) FSDO-15 at 
(718) 553-1848. The navigation specialist can provide advice on 
testing requirements. Test team leaders involved in validations 
that require special performance authorizations or special 
operational authorizations shall consult the operations section of 
AFS-510 at (703) 661-0333 (see paragraph 1657 of this volume). 

C. Program Tracking and Reporting Subsystem (PTRS) Entry. When 
the test team is formed, the team leader shall ensure that a PTRS 


01*31 



record is opened for the applicant. This PTRS entry will remain 
open until the team completes its assignment. The record number 
of this entry shall be entered in the “Miscellaneous” field in all 
subsequent PTRS entries associated with the project. This 
procedure will create a complete record of proving and validation 
and will eliminate the need for a manually written report. (See 
section 6 of this chapter for step-by-step instructions for 
developing the PTRS record.) 

1567. PHASE TWO. Phase two is initiated when the applicant 
submits the test plan to the FAA for evaluation. During this phase, the 
team leader must ensure that the plan is complete and in an acceptable 
format before a thorough review and analysis can be conducted. 

1569. PHASE THREE. Phase three is initiated when the team starts 
an in-depth review and analysis of the applicant’s test plan for 
regulatory compliance, safe operating practices, logic of sequence, and 
other areas (such as training programs, crew and dispatcher 
qualifications, acceptable participants, and schedules). During this 
phase, the FAA must plan to coordinate its activities with the 
demonstrations that the applicant will conduct during phase four. 

A. Team Leader. The team leader’s responsibilities include the 
following: 


• Notifying the RFSD of proving flight dates, times, and 
locations (The RFSD shall notify other RFSD’s affected by 
the proposed proving flights and any resulting scheduled 
operations proposed by the applicant.) 

• Assigning appropriate sections of the test plan to inspectors or 
specialists for review and comment. 

• Coordinating with the office of aviation security (as 
necessary) to obtain security inspector assistance for 
evaluating specific areas, such as hazardous materials and 
passenger screening. 

• Ensuring that administrative requirements such as visas and 
diplomatic clearances are obtained in a timely manner. 

B. Team Members. Team members are responsible for performing 
assigned tasks, keeping the team leader informed of all actions, 


01.32 



and ensuring that the team leader concurs with all agreements 
made with the applicant. In addition, team members are 
responsible for recording each activity accurately and completely 
in the PTRS and placing the assigned number in the 
“Miscellaneous” field. 

1571. PHASE FOUR. Phase four is the major phase of the test 
process. For proving flights, the applicant will conduct the en route 
flight segment and the maintenance test portion of the proving plan. In 
the case of validation tests, the applicant will conduct specific 
operations to collect data for either validation or FAA observation 
purposes. Phase four is concluded when the test team is satisfied that all 
test objectives have been achieved or that the applicant is unable to 
complete them satisfactorily. Before concluding phase four, the team 
leader shall obtain the concurrence of the CMO/FSDO manager and the 
RFSD. 

1573. PHASE FIVE, Phase five is accomplished after the successful 
completion or termination of the proving or validation tests. In this 
phase, the FAA team either grants approval and issues the appropriate 
operations specifications (OpSpecs) or sends a letter of disapproval to 
the applicant. In either case, the team leader’s final action is to 
complete the report by closing the original PTRS record that was 
opened in phase one (see section 6). 

SECTION 8. VALIDATION TEST REQUIREMENTS 

1655. GENERAL. This section contains guidance to be used by 
managers and inspectors for conducting validation tests. This guidance 
supplements the general guidance of section 2 and the reporting 
guidance of section 6 of this chapter. 

A. Regulatory Background. Various regulations, such as FAR 

121.93, 121.113, and 135.13(a)(2), require applicants to show the 
capability to conduct specific line operations safely and in 
compliance with regulatory requirements. One process by which 
an applicant demonstrates this capability to the FAA has come to 
be known as validation testing. 


01.33 



NOTE: The term, “applicant,” as used in this section, means either 
a candidate applying for an operating certificate or a certificate 
holder requesting additional operating authority. 

(2) Validation Testing. The FAR do not require an applicant to 
conduct actual flights when flights are not necessary for safety, 
considering the availability of adequate facilities and of able 
personnel to conduct the operation. Validation flights are 
expensive for the FAA and for the applicant. Inspectors 
should, therefore, avoid requiring applicants to conduct flights 
when they are not required. This section contains guidelines 
for teams to use in making this determination. In the interest of 
standardized treatment. Regional Flight Standards Divisions 
(RFSD) shall concur with team recommendations before teams 
deviate from the guidelines of this section. 

(3) Areas of Emphasis. When the FAA conducts validation testing 
with or without an actual flight, an in-depth review is 
conducted of the applicable portions of the applicant’s 
proposed procedures (especially flight following), training 
programs, manuals, facilities, and maintenance programs. 

1665. PLANNING THE VALIDATION TESTS. An applicant that 
is required to conduct a validation test must develop and submit a test 
plan. The plan and test objectives must be specifically tailored to the 
situation. TTie following guidelines should be followed by the FAA 
team and the applicant in planning validation tests: 

A. Form and Content of the Test Plan. The variety of operational 
situations and requirements that determine the make-up of 
validation tests makes it impossible to specify the form and 
content for each validation test plan. Regulations; AC’s; specific 
instructions in this handbook; FAA Order 8300.10, Airworthiness 
Inspector’s Handbook; and other official sources have been 
developed to assist the applicant and FAA inspectors in 
determining the necessity of validation testing and the planning of 
validation tests. In many situations, these documents contain 
specific procedures that must be followed or that provide 
acceptable methods that an applicant can use to acquire a special 
authorization. 


01.34 



B. FAA Test Team and Applicant Coordination. The applicant and 
test team must agree on the form and content of the test plan, and 
they must establish mutual understandings of test objectives, the 
degree of demonstration required, and the criteria to be met. 
During development of the plan, the applicant should be 
encouraged to coordinate with and confer frequently with the 
FAA team concerning the make-up of the validation tests and the 
methods to be used in conducting them. 

C. Operational Demonstrations. Most validation tests will require 
some form of operational demonstration. When operational 
demonstrations are required, the validation test plan must include 
a schedule for those demonstrations. 

D. Determining Number of Flight Flours. A required number of 
hours for a validation flight is not specified by regulation and 
must be determined on a case-by-case basis. When the test 
objectives can be adequately met, the test team may reduce flight 
hours to zero. 

E. Revisions to Applicant Documents and Training Program. Most 
special authorizations require revisions to the applicant’s 
checklists, minimum equipment lists (MEL), general operations 
manual (GOM), general maintenance manual (GMM), and 
training program. These revisions should be submitted with the 
validation test plan for FAA review and approval or acceptance, 
as appropriate. 

F. Amendment to OpSpecs. All special authorizations require an 
amendment to the OpSpecs; the applicant should apply for the 
amendment at the same time the validation plan is submitted. 

1667. AREAS EVALUATED ON VALIDATION TESTS OR 
FLIGHTS. The types of activities and items that need to be inspected 
and evaluated on validation tests or flights vary with the type of 
authorization requested by the applicant. ITie following list provides 
example of activities and items requiring inspection and evaluation. 

• Flight crew training (and flight attendant training, if applicable) 

• Operations manual information and crew procedures 

• Checklists and MEL’s 


01.35 


• Maintenance manual information and maintenance program 

• Equipment certifications and installation approvals 

• Reliability and accuracy of applicable operational and maintenance 
records 

• Operational flight control and company communication capabilities 

• Flight crew competency in use of equipment, procedures, and 
techniques 

• Coordination procedures between the flight crew, maintenance 
personnel, and other ground personnel 

VOLUME 4. AIRCRAFT EQUIPMENT AND OPERATIONAL 
AUTHORIZATIONS 

CHAPTER 1. AIR NAVIGATION AND COMMUNICATIONS 

SECTION 5. SPECIAL NAVIGATION AREAS OF OPERATION 

161, SPECIAL AREAS WHERE REDUNDANT LONG-RANGE 
NAVIGATION SYSTEMS ARE USUALLY NOT REQUIRED. 

Certain special areas have been identified where long-range navigation 
can be conducted with a single long-range navigation system. 

A. Concept. The provisions of the FAR related to Class II navigation 
do not specifically require redundant or dual long-range 
navigation systems. The primary Class II navigation requirements 
are related to the level of navigational perfonnance necessary for 
the control of air traffic. The objective of requirements for 
redundant navigational systems is to permit the flight to continue 
to navigate to the degree of accuracy necessary for the control of 
air traffic in the event a failure occurs in the navigational system 
being used. 

(1) In certain situations. Class II navigation can be safely 

conducted using ICAO standard NAVAIDs supplemented by 


01.36 



dead reckoning. See section 4. Operations can also be safely 
conducted in much larger areas using a combination of 
redundant ICAO standard NAVAIDs and a single, long-range 
navigation system. The basic concept for these operations 
considers the availability of ICAO standard NAVAIDs, the 
lateral separation minimums applied by ATC (the navigational 
performance required), the length of the route or route 
segment, the complexity of the route structure, and the density 
of the air traffic. 

(2) When the long-range navigation segment of the route flown is 
relatively short (several hours), the ATC lateral separation 
minimums are large (usually 90 NM or more), and the upper 
air winds are relatively stable, single long-range navigation 
systems may be adequate. The primary concern related to the 
use of single long-range navigation systems is preserving the 
ability to navigate to the degree of accuracy required for the 
control of air traffic following a failure in the long-range 
navigation system. Historically, the required navigational 
performance (following such failures) has been provided by 
the use of dead reckoning and ICAO standard NAVAIDs. 
Since dead reckoning is much less accurate than using a long- 
range navigation system, the period of time that dead 
reckoning must be used is the most critical factor. Operational 
experience and analysis has shown that turbojet operations can 
be safely conducted (within special areas described in this 
paragraph) with an approved, single long-range navigation 
system and the redundant means of using ICAO standard 
NAVAIDs. 

B. Special Provisions for the Western Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean 
Sea, and Gulf of Mexico. The unique nature of the Western 
Atlantic Ocean, the Caribbean Sea, and the Gulf of Mexico 
permits operations with turbine-powered airplanes and certain 
offshore helicopter operations to be safely conducted with a single 
approved long-range system. Approval of the use of a single long- 
range system. Approval of the use of a single long-range 
navigation system is granted by entering a note in the limitations, 
provisions, and reference paragraphs column of paragraph B50 of 
the operations specifications. The note should indicate that a 
single system (specify the system make) is authorized. The areas 
of operation where these operations may be authorized in 
paragraph B50 of the operations specifications are as follows: 


01.37 


The Gulf of Mexico 


• The Caribbean Sea 

• The North Atlantic Ocean west of the western boundary of 
NAT/MNPS airspace and west of a line from 27 degrees 
N/60W to 10 degrees N/55W 

C. Special Provisions for Certain Routes in NATIMNPS Airspace, 
Special contingency routes have been established in limited 
portions of NAT/MNPS airspace where aircraft equipped to use 
standard ICAO NAVAIDs can operate with a single long-range 
navigation system. These routes are specified in the International 
Flight Information Manual (IFIM). Operations over these routes 
can be authorized provided the operator shows that the long-range 
navigation system/aircraft combination used and the operational 
procedures used meets NAT/MNPS requirements (AC 120-33). 
The approval is granted in accordance with paragraph B39(d) of 
the operations specifications and by adding that area of en route 
operation to paragraph B50 of the standard specifications. 

D. Other Special Areas. Inspectors shall not authorize operations 
with single long-range navigation systems in any other areas of 
operation without the review and concurrence of AFS-200. When 
a request to operate with single long-range navigation systems in 
areas not described in this paragraph is received, inspectors shall 
request assistance from one of the agency’s navigation specialists. 
If the responsible inspector and the navigation specialist 
determine that the proposed operation can be safely conducted, a 
request for review and concurrence should be forwarded, through 
regional office, to AFS-200. AFS-200 will provide national 
direction and guidance for evaluating and approving or denying 
the proposed operation. 


01.38 


REFERENCE 02 


FAA ORDER 8400.10 
APPENDIX 3 HEAT 95-02 

Guidelines for Obtaining Operational Approval 
for the Use of Global Positioning System (GPS) 
in the Conduct of Air Carrier Operations; 

Announcement of the Availability of 
GPS Operations Specifications (OpSpecs) 



CAUTION!! Please be aware that the materials in the following 
section are excerpts. It is assumed that the person using this 
material has read the complete parent document. Important details 
regarding the use of or policies covering the application of this 
information may be available only in the complete document from 
which the excerpts were taken. 


1. PURPOSE. This bulletin describes the steps an operator must follow 
to obtain operational approval for the use of GPS in the conduct of its 
en route and terminal operations under FAR Parts 121 and 135. 
Terminal operations discussed herein do not include the approval of 
Differential GPS (DGPS) approaches. 

2. PROCESS. 

A. Any GPS operation by U.S. air carrier and commercial 
operators under FAR Part 121 or 135 or by foreign air carriers 
under FAR Part 129 must be approved in accordance with the 
guidance contained in FAA Order 8400.10, “Air 
Transportation Operations Inspector’s Handbook,” Volume 3, 
Chapter 1, and this HB AT. 

B. Foreign Air Carriers conducting operations under FAR Part 
129 shall not conduct GPS operations in the U.S. until 
operations specifications (OpSpecs) are developed under FAR 
Part 129, Appendix A, authorizing GPS operations. Prior to 
issuing these OpSpecs, principal operations inspectors (POI) 
should review written documentation provided by the 
operator’s State civil aviation authority certifying that the GPS 
equipment, training, and operating procedures are equivalent 
to the requirements contained herein. 

C. When operational approval has been granted for the use of 
GPS in the [information missing in original], the appropriate 
OpSpecs paragraphs shall be issued to the operator which 
specify the GPS operations that the operator is authorized to 
conduct. All airworthiness approvals for GPS installations 
must be granted through the Type Certificate (TC) or 
Supplemental Type Certificate (STC) process. The operational 
suitability of the GPS airborne equipment must be 
demonstrated in accordance with the criteria in this HBAT. 


02.2 



D. Each certificate holder must demonstrate its ability to conduct 
the type of GPS operations requested in accordance with this 
HBAT and FAA Order 8400.10, Volume 3, Chapter 9, 
“Proving and Validation Tests. “This demonstration is 
required to aid in the assessment of the operator’s training 
program and validate the performance of the GPS equipment 
used. Inspectors are advised that these requirements are for 
validation testing , not necessarily validation flights, and that 
proving tests are not required for operational use of GPS. 
Specific GPS background information and approval 
procedures follow: 

4. APPROVAL TO CONDUCT GPS AREA/LONG RANGE 
NAVIGATION OPERATIONS AND NONPRECISION 
INSTRUMENT APPROACH PROCEDURES. 

A. To obtain approval to conduct GPS IFR operations, the 
operator must make application in accordance with FAA Order 
8400.10, Volume 3, Chapter 9, “Proving and Validation 
Tests”; revise its manuals, procedures and checklists; and alter 
the flight training curriculums to include segments on GPS 
operations. 

B. The discussion in the following paragraphs provides specific 
direction and guidance related to GPS and is to be used in 
conjunction with existing area/long-range navigation guidance 
and nonprecision instrument approach guidance contained in 
FAA Order 8400.10, Volume 4, Chapter 1, “Air Navigation.” 
These conditions must be specified in the operator’s OpSpecs. 

5. APPLICATION. The applicant must show that it has the ability to 
safely conduct GPS operations. The application must also provide 
documentation for the following items. 

A. Documentation must be provided which validates approval of 
the installed GPS airborne receiver in accordance with AC 20- 
138, and AC 20-130, as appropriate. When it has been 
established that the airborne system has been certified for the 
appropriate GPS IFR operations, the following criteria should 
be used to determine the operational suitability of airborne 
systems for GPS IFR operations in air carrier operations. 

(a) The operator must ensure that the equipment is properly 
installed and maintained. No special requirements, other 

02.3 



than the standard practices currently applicable to 
navigation or landing systems have been identified that 
are unique to GPS; e.g., Airworthiness Directives, Service 
Bulletins. 

(b) The operator’s manuals, policies, and procedures as 
described in FAA Order 8400.10, Volume 3, Chapter 15, 
“Manuals, Procedures, and Checklists” must incorporate 
the manufacturer’s instructions for continuing 
airworthiness of the applicable GPS system. 

(c) Revisions should be made to the operator’s minimum 
equipment list (MEL) and operations and maintenance 
procedures to incorporate the GPS/DGPS equipment. 

(d) FAR Parts 121 and 135 operators must ensure that service 
difficulties are reported in accordance with approved 
procedures under FAR Parts 121 and 135. FAR Part 125 
operators must include GPS service difficulty reporting 
procedures in the manual required be FAR Section 
125.73(f). 

B. The applicant must document the proposed pilot training and 
qualification program. This program must address at least the 
following training and qualification requirements. 

(a) Crew training and qualification for GPS instrument 
approach operations should be consistent with the 
qualifications required for the use of ILS, VOR/DME, 
RNAV, and multi-sensor RNAV flight management 
system (FMS) systems in FAA Order 8400,10, Volume 3, 
Chapter 2, “Training Programs and Airman 
Qualifications,” AC 120-53, and FAR Parts 61,91, 121, 
125,129, 135, and SFAR No. 58. Although these 
standards do not specifically address GPS systems, the 
principles are equivalent and these criteria can be used to 
evaluate crew knowledge, procedures, checking, and 
recency of experience until other criteria are available. No 
special crew qualification requirements, other than those 
necessary for RNAV and ILS instrument approach 
qualification are currently specified for GPS approaches, 

(b) Ground training must assure that each flight crew member 
has the knowledge required for the GPS procedures to be 

02.4 



flown. FAR Parts 121 and 135 operators must 
successfully complete the approved training curriculum 
segment for GPS operations, as applicable. 

The ground training should include at least the following 
subjects: 

• The principles of GPS navigation; 

• Hardware operation and interface with other navigation 
equipment; 

• Software use; 

• Human factors issues e.g. displays, charts, and 
approach plates; 

• The limitations of the GPS equipment; and 

• The specific operating techniques and procedures to be 
used with the GPS equipment, including maintenance 
and dispatch procedures, and the contents of the 
OpSpecs, 

(c) Initial qualification, recurrent qualification, and 
requalification flight training, must assure that each flight 
crew member has the skills and abilities necessary to 
safely conduct the proposed operations. Flight crew 
members must successfully complete that operator’s 
approved flight training program for GPS. 

(d) GPS instrument approaches may be credited for other 
equivalent types of required approaches; e.g., 
nonprecision approaches. However the demonstration of 
any other nonprecision approaches may not be credited 
toward the OpSpecs requirement to demonstrate at least 
one nonprecision approach utilizing GPS during the 
competency check required by 135.297 and 
121.441(a)(1). 

(e) Operators must provide written procedures in their 
manuals which are specific for their GPS operations. The 
manuals must be consistent with manufacturer’s 
recommended procedures for the use of the installed GPS 
equipment. 

E. The operator must provide a validation program that ensures 
the GPS airborne system is operationally accurate and reliable. 


02*5 


F. The operator must incorporate into its maintenance program 
the GPS manufacturer’s requirements for maintenance, and 
instructions for continued maintenance. 

6. POLICY. POIs must evaluate and authorize their operators who 
intend to conduct GPS domestic en route, oceanic, and terminal IFR 
operations, including nonprecision lAPs in accordance with FAA 
Order 8400.10 and the direction and guidance contained in this 
HBAT. These authorizations are specified in the operator’s OpSpecs. 
Coordination with the principal avionics inspector (PAI) is essential 
to ensure that the airborne system has been approved for the 
requested IFR operation. Acceptable equipment will either meet the 
requirements of TSO C-120 or be approved as part of the type 
certificate or supplemental type certificate process. PAIs must ensure 
that the equipment is installed and maintained in accordance with 
appropriate airworthiness requirements. U.S. operators and qualified 
foreign flag operators may be authorized to conduct GPS EFR 
operations if the requirements in this guidance are met. 

7. OPERATIONS SPECIFICATIONS-FAR Parts 121,125,129 
and 135 Operators: 

A. To obtain approval, each operator must demonstrate its ability 
to conduct the type of GPS operations requested. All 
evaluations and approvals must be accomplished in 
accordance with this guidance. Operators should apply to their 
Certificate Holding District Office (CHDO) for original 
issuance or amendment of their OpSpecs authorizing GPS 
operations. 

B. OpSpecs paragraphs B31 through B35, as appropriate, must be 
amended to authorize Class I and II en route navigation within 
the NAS, Class II Oceanic Navigation, Terminal area IFR 
operations, and specific nonprecision lAPs. POIs must ensure 
that the OpSpecs paragraphs listed in FSAT 95-XX entitled, 
“Operations Specifications (OpSpecs) Revisions: Global 
Positioning System (GPS),” are changed to properly authorize 
an operator’s GPS operations. 

8. IFR EN ROUTE OPERATIONS - U.S. Domestic And Oceanic 
Navigation: GPS equipment can be used to conduct IFR operations 
in the U.S. NAS when conducting en route and terminal Class I or 
Class II; and oceanic Class II navigation, if the provisions and 


02.6 




limitations of this HBAT are met. This approval permits the use of 
GPS in a manner that is consistent with current navigation 
requirements, provided there is compliance with the following 
restrictions: 

A. The GPS navigation equipment used must meet TSO C-129. 
The installation must be made in accordance with the latest 
Flight Standards Policy concerning GPS follow-on or 
approved as part of the TC, STC, or required navigation 
performance. 

B. The basic GPS signal integrity for these operations must be 
provided by receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM) 
or by an equivalent method approved by the Aircraft 
Certification Office. 

C. Procedures must be established for use in the event that 
significant GPS navigation outages occur. In situations where 
GPS signal outages occur or are predicted, the flight must rely 
on other approved navigation equipment, delay departure, or 
cancel the flight. 

D. Aircraft navigating by GPS are considered to be RNAV- 
equipped aircraft. Therefore, the appropriate equipment suffix, 
i.e., “/R” or “/G”, must be included in the ATC flight plan. 

E. Aircraft using GPS equipment under IFR must be equipped 
with an approved and operational alternate means of 
navigation appropriate to the route to be flown, i.e.. Omega, 
INS/IRS, Loran-C, VOR, etc. Active monitoring of the 
alternate navigation equipment is required unless the 
installation uses RAIM for integrity monitoring. For systems 
with RAIM, active monitoring of the alternate navigation 
equipment is required when the RAIM capability of the GPS 
equipment is lost. 

9. Domestic (U,S. Only) En Route Operations. For GPS domestic 
en route and terminal IFR operations, the VOR, DME, TACAN, 
and/or NDB equipment necessary to receive the ground-based 
facilities appropriate for the route to the destination airport and any 
required alternate airport must be installed in the aircraft and 


02-1 


operational. The ground-based NAVAIDS that defined those routes 
must also be operational. 

10. Oceanic En Route (Class II Navigation). Aircraft using GPS 
equipment under IFR must be equipped with and the crew must be 
trained in the use of an approved alternate means of navigation 
appropriate for the intended route to be flown. Outside of the 
national airspace system, GPS may be used as an LRNS. On those 
routes requiring two LRNS, a GPS installation with TSO C-129 
approval and operational RAIM capability, may be used to replace 
or supplement one of the other approved means of LRNS, such as 
one unit of a dual INS or one unit of a dual Omega system. On 
those routes and for those operations approved for use of a single 
LRNS, a GPS unit which provides RAIM capability may be used 
as the LRNS. Active monitoring of the alternate equipment is only 
required when the RAIM capability is lost. GPS may not be 
approved for use in other countries unless authorized by the FAA 
Administrator and the appropriate sovereign state. 

11. Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAP). GPS 
equipment approved under TSO C-129 for nonprecision 
approaches, can be used to fly (TERPS, Chapter 15), RNAV 
instrument approach procedures. Under certain constraints, these 
systems can also be used to fly any VOR, VOR/DME, NDB, and 
NDB/DME nonprecision instrument approach based upon criteria 
in U.S. TERPS or ICAO PANS-OPS. The general approval to use 
GPS to fly instrument approaches is initially limited to the U.S. 
NAS. The use of GPS in any other airspace must be expressly 
authorized by the Administrator and by the appropriate sovereign 
authority. 

A. The Department of Defense (DOD) currently uses a technique 
called Selective Availability (SA) to intentionally degrade the 
GPS accuracy provided to civil users. As a result, systems do 
not have the accuracy and integrity necessary to fly ELS, LOG, 
LDA, or SDF approaches unless additional means, such as 
differential corrections, are used to counteract its effects. 

B. Several airborne systems calculate glide path information from 
barometric data. Since barometric information can, in certain 
environmental extremes, be less accurate that ILS glideslope 
information, the initial implementation of GPS lAPs does not 
provide a credit for vertical guidance. 


02*8 



C. Single thread GPS navigation equipment (e.g., a GPS 
navigation system installation where any single failure could 
result in a loss of GPS navigation) operations may not 
predicate the obstacle assessment area or landing minima on 
GPS missed approach guidance. The obstacle assessment area 
and minima for these operations will be based on no course 
guidance or, when available, other approved navigation aids, 
as appropriate. 

D. The basic GPS signal integrity for the nonprecision approach 
“overlay” program must be provided by receiver autonomous 
integrity monitor (RAIM) or another FAA-approved means of 
determining satellite status. If RAIM is unavailable, active 
monitoring of the underlying NAVAIDs is required. 

12. Operational Requirements: In accordance with the “overlay 
program” GPS can be used as the primary IFR flight guidance 
during a nonprecision instrument approach without actively 
monitoring the underlying NAVAID(s) which define the approach 
being used if the following provisions and limitations must are met: 

A. The ground-based NAVAID(s) required for the published 
approach must be operating and the user avionics for the 
approach must be installed and operational but need not be 
operating during the approach if RAIM provides integrity for 
the approach navigation data. For systems that do not use 
RAIM for integrity, the ground-based NAVAID(s) and the 
airborne avionics needed to provide the equivalent integrity 
must be installed, operating, and monitored during the 
approach. 

B. An approach cannot be flown unless that instrument approach 
waypoints are retrieved from a current avionics database. The 
GPS equipment must store the location of all waypoints, 
intersections, and/or navigation aids required to define the 
approach and present them in the order as depicted on the 
published nonprecision instrument approach procedure chart. 
Approaches must be flown in accordance with the FAA- 
approved flight manual or flight manual supplement. 


02.9 


13. Compliance with FAR Sections 121.349 and 135.165. Air 
carriers may be authorized to use single GPS navigation equipment 
as a navigation system for nonprecision approaches if the aircraft is 
equipped with two VOR receivers, and ground NAVAIDs are 
positioned such that the flight can continue safely to a suitable 
alternate airport by means of VOR NAVAIDs and complete an 
approach using the remaining airplane avionics system. 

14. Alternate Airport Requirements: Any required alternate airport 
must have an approved instmment approach procedure, other than 
GPS or Loran-C, which is anticipated to be operational at the 
estimated arrival time. The ground-based facilities which support 
these approaches must also be operational. 

15. INQUIRIES. Any questions concerning the information in this 
FSIB should be directed to AFS-200, at (202) 267-7579. 

16. EXPIRATION DATE. This HBAT will remain in effect until the 
information contained herein is published as a part of a scheduled 
handbook change. 

David R. Harrington 


02.10 


REFERENCE 03 


FAA ORDER 8400.10 
APPENDIX 3 HEAT 95-03 

Operations Specifications (OpSpecs) Revision: 
Global Positioning Systems (GPS) 


03-1 


CAUTION!! Please be aware that the materials in the following 
section are excerpts. It is assumed that the person using this 
material has read the complete parent document. Important details 
regarding the use of or policies covering the application of this 
information may be available only in the complete document from 
which the excerpts were taken. 


OPERATIONS SPECIFICATIONS ISSUANCE INSTRUCTIONS 
FOR OPERATORS AUTHORIZED TO USE GLOBAL 
POSITIONING SYSTEMS (GPS) 

Principal operations inspectors having certificate management 
responsibilities for operators authorized to use GPS shall amend the 
operators’ OpSpecs using the following instructions: 

1. Issuance of En Route Authorization for Use of GPS for Class I 

Navigation . 

a. If the existing aircraft avionics installation does not include area 

navigation (RNAV) capability: 

(1) Log on to the subject operator’s OpSpecs in the Flight 
Standards Automation Subsystem (FSAS), Operations 
Specifications Subsystem (OPSS). 

(2) Mark the Operations Specification checklist to check the 
appropriate block (paragraph B34 requires 6b or 12c and 5q to 
be checked; paragraph B35 requires 4a and [4c or 6b] and 5p 
to be checked). 

(3) Proceed to instructions in paragraph lb(2) through lb(9), 
below. 

b. If the existing aircraft avionics installation does include RNAV 

capability: 

(1) Log on to the subject operator’s OpSpecs in the Flight 
Standards Automation Subsystem (FSAS), Operations 
Specifications Subsystem (OPSS). 

(2) Using the “Additional Text” feature for paragraph B31, insert 
the following new subparagraph at the beginning of the 
“Additional Text” section: 


03.2 



^THE OPERATOR MAY USE APPROVED GPS 
NAVIGATION EQUIPMENT AS A SUPPLEMENT TO 
ICAO STANDARD NAVIGATION EQUIPMENT WHILE 
CONDUCTING CLASS I NAVIGATION.” 

(3) Change the signature block of paragraph B31 to reflect the 
Effective Date anticipated for paragraph approval. Change the 
Amendment Number field to reflect the next sequential 
number. 

(4) Using the “Additional Text” feature for paragraph B34a, insert 
the aircraft model, and the make and model of the GPS 
receiver. 

(5) Change the signature block of paragraph B34 to reflect the 
Effective Date anticipated for paragraph approval. Change the 
Amendment Number field to reflect the next sequential 
number. 

(6) If Class I navigation is authorized In Class A airspace (PCA) 
then, in paragraph B35a, insert the aircraft make, and make 
and model of GPS receiver in the existing table. 

(7) In paragraph B50, access the Limitations, Provisions, and 
limitations Paragraphs section for the specific areas 
authorized, and insert paragraph B35 adjacent to the existing 
referenced paragraphs. 

NOTE: CLASS I NAVIGATION USING GPS SHALL 
ONLY BE AUTHORIZED IN THE U.S. NATIONAL 
AIRSPACE SYSTEM (NAS) UNLESS AUTHORIZED BY 
THE APPROPRIATE SOVEREIGN STATE. IF RNAV 
EQUIPMENT (OTHER THAN GPS) IS AUTHORIZED IN 
A FOREIGN STATE(S), PARAGRAPH B50 SHALL 
CONTAIN A LIMITATION TO PROHIBIT THE USE OF 
GPS FOR CLASS I NAVIGATION IN A FOREIGN 
STATE(S). 

(8) Change the signature block of paragraph B50 to reflect the 
Effective Date anticipated for paragraph approval. Change the 
Amendment Number field to reflect the next sequential 
number. 


03.3 


(9) Print paragraph B31, B34, B35 and B50, as appropriate, in 
final form. 

Present the documents to the operator for acceptance, and 
recover the existing documents. 

2. Issuance of En Route Authorization for Use of only a Single GPS 

for Class 11 Navigation . 

NOTE: 

This authorization may only be issued for operations in the 

Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic Ocean west of 

MNPS airspace. 

a. Log on to the subject operator’s OpSpecs in the Flight Standards 
Automation Subsystem (FSAS), Operations Specifications 
Subsystem (OPSS). 

b. Mark the Operations Specification checklist to check the 
appropriate block. Paragraph B36 requires question 4c and (5n or 
5o) to be checked, as appropriate. 

c. In paragraph B36, subparagraph a(l), insert the aircraft make, 
make and model of GPS receiver. 

d. Change the signature block of paragraph B36 to reflect the 
Effective Date anticipated for paragraph approval. Change the 
Amendment Number field to reflect the next sequential number. 

e. In paragraph B50, access the Limitations, Provisions, and 
limitations Paragraphs, section for the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of 
Mexico, and/or Atlantic Ocean West of MNPS airspace, as 
applicable, and enter the following statement adjacent to the 
existing referenced paragraphs: 

“CLASS II NAVIGATION WITH THE APPROVED SINGLE 
GPS LISTED IN PARAGRAPH B36(l) IS LIMITED TO THIS 
SPECIFIC GEOGRAPHIC AREA.” 

f. Change the signature block of paragraph B50 to reflect the 
Effective Date anticipated for paragraph approval. Change the 
Amendment Number field to reflect the next sequential number. 

g. Print paragraph B36 and B50 in final form. 

034 


Present the documents to the operator for acceptance, and recover 
the existing documents. 

3. Issuance of En Route Authorization for Use of GPS and A 
Second Long-Range Navigation System for Class II Navigation . 

a. Log on to the subject operator’s OpSpecs in the Flight Standards 
Automation Subsystem (FSAS), Operations Specifications 
Subsystem (OPSS). 

b. Mark the Operations Specification checklist to check the 
appropriate block. Paragraph B36 requires question 4c and (5n or 
5o) to be checked, as appropriate. 

c. In paragraph B36, subparagraph a(l), insert the aircraft make, 
make and model of GPS receiver and the make and model of the 
second long-range navigation system. 

d. Change the signature block of paragraph B36 to reflect the 
Effective Date anticipated for paragraph approval. Change the 
Amendment Number field to reflect the next sequential number. 

e. Print paragraph B36 in final form. 

Present the documents to the operator for acceptance, and recover 
the existing documents. 

4. Issuance of En Route Authorization for Use of GPS in Central 
East Pacific (CEPAC) Airspace, and Not in Northern Pacific 
(NOPAC) Airspace. 

NOTE: 

This authorization may only be issued if en route authorization 
for use of GPS and a second long-range navigation system for 
Class II navigation (OpsSpecs paragraph B36) has been issued as 
described in paragraph 3 of these instructions. 

a. Log on to the subject operator’s OpSpecs in the Flight Standards 
Automation Subsystem (FSAS), Operations Specifications 
Subsystem (OPSS). 

b. Mark the Operations Specification checklist to check the 
appropriate block. Paragraph B37 requires question 4a and 4c; and, 
5n or 5o; and, 51 to be checked, as appropriate. 


03.5 


c. Change the signature block of paragraph B37 to reflect the 
Effective Date anticipated for paragraph approval. Change the 
amendment Number field to reflect the next sequential number. 

d. Print paragraph B37 in final form. 

NOTE: THE PURPOSE FOR ISSUANCE OF PARAGRAPH B37 
USING THE OPSS SOFTWARE IS TO MAKE A PERMANENT 
RECORD OF ITS ISSUANCE IN THE NATIONAL DATA 
BASE. THE COMPUTER GENERATED PAGE WILL BE 
DISCARDED AND BE REPLACED AS DESCRIBED BELOW: 

NOTE: REFERENCES TO PLATES IN THIS BULLETIN 
REFER TO THE OPERATIONS SPECIFICATIONS 
TEMPLATES CONTAINED IN THE ATTACHED MS WORD 
2.0 FILE. 

e. Select from the attached replacement operations specifications 
pages the appropriate paragraph revisions to be issued. 

f. The selection made should include the Table of Contents (revision) 
page, PLATE 2. 

g. Fill by word processor or typewriter the spaces at the bottom of the 
Table of Contents (revision) page with the same information 
provided at the bottom of the printed OPSS Table of Contents page 
obtained in step '‘c” above. Enter the effective dates for the 
paragraph, in the space provided in the Effective Date column. 
Insert the Table of Contents (Revision) page behind the Table of 
Contents page generated by the OPSS. 

h. Find the Paragraph B37 (Revision) page, PLATE 5, in the 
attachments and fill in the information needed in the blanks 
provided. The Effective Date and Amendment Number should be 
the same as indicated on the B37 page generated by the OPSS. 
Insert the Paragraph B37 (Revision) page in place of, and discard 
the B37 page generated by the OPSS. 

Present the documents to the operator for acceptance, and recover the 
existing documents. 


03.6 


5. Issuance of En Route Authorization for Use of GPS in Northern 
Pacific (NOPAC) Airspace, and Not in CEPAC Airspace . 


NOTE: THIS AUTHORIZATION MAY ONLY BE ISSUED IF 
EN ROUTE AUTHORIZATION FOR USE OF GPS AND A 
SECOND LONG-RANGE NAVIGATION SYSTEM (OTHER 
THAN GPS) FOR CLASS II NAVIGATION HAS BEEN 
ISSUED AS DESCRIBED IN PARAGRAPH 3 OF THESE 
INSTRUCTIONS. 

NOTE: THE PURPOSE FOR ISSUANCE OF PARAGRAPH B38 
USING THE OPSS SOFTWARE IS TO MAKE A PERMANENT 
RECORD OF ITS ISSUANCE IN THE NATIONAL DATA BASE. 
THE COMPUTER GENERATED PAGE WILL BE DISCARDED 
AND BE REPLACED AS DESCRIBED BELOW: 

NOTE: REFERENCES TO PLATES IN THIS BULLETIN REFER 
TO THE OPERATIONS SPECIFICATIONS TEMPLATES 
CONTAINED IN THE ATTACHED MS WORD 2.0 FILE. 

a. Log on to the subject operator’s OpSpecs in the Flight Standards 
Automation Subsystem (FSAS), Operations Specifications 
Subsystem (OPSS). 


b.Mark the Operations Specification checklist to check the 
appropriate block. Paragraph B38 requires question 4c and 5n, or 
5o and 5m to be checked, as appropriate. 


c. Change the signature block of paragraph B38 to reflect the 
Effective Date anticipated for paragraph approval. Change the 
Amendment Number field to reflect the next sequential number. 

d. Print paragraph B38 in final form. 


e. Select from the attachments of this bulletin the appropriate 
revisions to be issued. 


f. Select from the attached replacement operations specifications 
pages the appropriate paragraph revisions to be issued. 

g. The selection made should include the Table of Contents (revision) 
page, PLATE 4. 


03*7 



h. Fill by word processor or typewriter the spaces at the bottom of the 
Table of Contents (revision) page with the same information 
provided at the bottom of the printed OPSS Table of Contents page 
obtained in step “c” above. Enter the effective dates for the 
paragraph, in the space provided in the Effective Date column. 
Insert the Table of Contents (Revision) page behind the Table of 
Contents page generated by the OPSS. 

i. Find the Paragraph B38 (Revision) page, PLATES 6 and 7, in the 
attachments, and fill in the information needed in the blanks 
provided. The Effective Date and the Amendment Number should 
be the same as indicated on the B38 page generated by the OPSS. 
Insert the Paragraph B38 (Revision) page in place of, and discard 
the B38 page generated by the OPSS. 

Present the documents to the operator for acceptance, and recover the 
existing documents. 

6. Issuance of En Route Authorization for Use of GPS in CEPAC 
Airspace and NOP AC Airspace . 

NOTE: 

This authorization may only be issued if en route authorization 
for use of GPS and a second long range navigation system (other 
than GPS) for Class II navigation has been issued as described in 
paragraph 3 of these instructions. 

a. Log on to the subject operator’s OpSpecs in the Flight Standards 
Automation Subsystem (FSAS), Operations Specifications 
Subsystem (OPSS). 

b. Change the signature blocks of paragraph B37 and B38 to reflect 
the Effective Date anticipated for paragraph approval. Change the 
Amendment Number fields to reflect the next sequential number. 

c. Print paragraph B37 and B38 in final form. 

d. Select from the attachments of this bulletin the appropriate 
revisions to be issued. 

e. The selection made should include the Table of Contents 
(revision) page, PLATE 1. Fill by typewriter the spaces at the 
bottom of the Table of Contents (revision) page with the same 


03.8 


information provided at the bottom of the printed OPSS Table of 
Contents page obtained in step “c” above. Enter the effective dates 
for the paragraph, in the space provided in the Effective Date 
column. Insert the Table of Contents (Revision) page behind the 
Table of Contents page generated by the OPSS. 

f. Find the Paragraph B37 and B38 (Revision) pages, PLATES 5, 6, 
and 7, in the attachments, and fill in the information needed in the 
blanks provided. The Effective Dates and Amendment Numbers 
should be the same as indicated on the B37 and B38 pages 
generated by the OPSS. Insert the Paragraph B37 and B38 
(Revision) pages in place of, and discard the B37 and B38 pages 
generated by the OPSS. 

7. Issuance of En Route Authorization for Use of GPS in Northern 
Atlantic Minimum Navigation Performance Standards (MNPS) 
Airspace . 

NOTE: 

This authorization may only be issued if en route authorization 
for use of GPS and a second long-range navigation system (other 
than GPS) for Class II navigation has been issued as described in 
paragraph 3 of these instructions. 

a. If unrestricted routing is to be authorized: 

1 .Log on to the subject operator’s OpSpecs in the Flight Standards 
Automation Subsystem (FSAS), Operations Specifications 
Subsystem (OPSS). 

2. Mark the Operations Specification checklist to check the 
appropriate block. Paragraph B39 requires question 4a and 4c 
checked; 5k checked and 5n or 5o checked, as appropriate. 

3. Change the signature block of paragraph B39 to reflect the 
Effective Date anticipated for paragraph approval. Change the 
Amendment Number field to reflect the next sequential number. 

4.In paragraph B39, subparagraph c, insert the aircraft make; make 
and model of GPS receiver and the make and model of the 
second long-range navigation system. 


03-9 






NOTE: 

Normally operators receiving authorization under Paragraph 
B39c should also receive authorization in Paragraph B39d for 
ferry and contingency purposes. 

b. If restricted routing over special contingency routings (Blue Spruce 
Routes) with a single GPS is to be authorized: 

1. Log on to the subject operator’s OpSpecs in the Flight Standards 
Automation Subsystem (FSAS), Operations Specifications 
Subsystem (OPSS). 

2. Change the signature block of paragraph B39 to reflect the 
Effective Date anticipated for paragraph approval. Change the 
Amendment Number field to reflect the next sequential number. 

3. In paragraph B39, subparagraph d, insert the aircraft make, and 
the make and model of GPS receiver. 

c. Print paragraph B39 in final form. 

Present the documents to the operator for acceptance, and recover the 
existing documents. 

8. Issuance of En Route Authorization for Use of GPS in Areas of 
Magnetic Unreliability . 

a. Log on to the subject operator’s OpSpecs in the Flight Standards 
Automation Subsystem (FSAS), Operations Specifications 
Subsystem (OPSS). 

b. Using the “Additional Text” feature for paragraph B40, insert 
aircraft makes, make and model of the GPS receiver, and the make 
and model of the second long-range navigation system, in the 
navigation equipment table: 

c. Change the signature block of paragraph B40 to reflect the 
Effective Date anticipated for paragraph approval. Change the 
Amendment Number field to reflect the next sequential number. 

d. Print paragraph B40 in final form. 


03.10 


Present the documents to the operator for acceptance, and recover the 
existing documents. 

9. Issuance of Authorization for Use of GPS to Conduct 
Nonprecision Instrument Approach Procedures 

NOTE: 

This authorization may only be issued if en route authorization 
for use of GPS for Class I navigation has been issued as 
described in paragraph 1 of these instructions. 

NOTE: 

GPS navigation systems listed in operations specifications for 
Nonprecision Instrument Approach approval must be approved 
under TSO C129, classes Al, Bl, B3, Cl, or C3. 

a. For airplanes, when RNAV and special terminal instrument 
approaches are not authorized: 

1. Log on to the subject operator’s OpSpecs in the Flight Standards 
Automation Subsystem (FSAS), Operations Specifications 
Subsystem (OPSS). 

2. Using the “Additional Text” feature for paragraph C52, insert 
the following new subparagraph “c” at the beginning of the 
“Additional Text” section: 

“c. GPS NONPRECISION APPROACH PROCEDURE 
AUTHORIZATION . THE CERTIFICATE HOLDER IS 
AUTHORIZED TO CONDUCT VOR, VOR/DME, NDB, AND 
NDB/DME INSTRUMENT APPROACH OPERATIONS 
USING THE APPROVED GPS EQUIPMENT LISTED IN 
PARAGRAPH B34 OR B35. THE CERTIFICATE HOLDER 
SHALL NOT CONDUCT GPS INSTRUMENT APPROACH 
OPERATIONS UNLESS AUTHORIZED BY THESE 
OPERATIONS SPECIFICATIONS. APPROACHES USING 
GPS ARE SUBJECT TO THE FOLLOWING LIMITATIONS: 

(1) THE AIRBORNE GPS NAVIGATION EQUIPMENT 
USED MUST BE APPROVED AND CURRENT FOR IFR 
OPERATIONS, INCLUDING NONPRECISION 
APPROACHES, AND THE GPS CONSTELLATION AND 
THE REQUIRED AIRBORNE EQUIPMENT MUST BE 
PROVIDING THE LEVELS OF ACCURACY, 


03.11 



CONTINUITY OF FUNCTION AND INTEGRITY 
REQUIRED FOR THAT OPERATION. 

(2) THE FLIGHT CREW MUST HAVE SUCCESSFULLY 
COMPLETED THE CERTIFICATE HOLDERS APPROVED 
TRAINING PROGRAM CURRICULUM SEGMENTS FOR 
GPS OPERATIONS; AND THE PILOT IN COMMAND 
MUST BE CHECKED FOR COMPETENCY BY A 
AUTHORIZED CHECK AIRMAN OR FAA INSPECTOR 
FOR INSTRUMENT APPROACH OPERATIONS USING 
GPS IN EACH AIRCRAFT TYPE AND GPS 
COMBINATION. 

(3) DURING THE INITIAL 6 MONTHS OF OPERATION 
WITH A PARTICULAR AIRCRAFT TYPE AND GPS 
COMBINATION, THE CERTIFICATE HOLDER SHALL 
NOT USE IFR APPROACH AND LANDING MINIMUMS, 
FOR THAT PARTICULAR AIRCRAFT AND GPS 
COMBINATION, LOWER THAN 200 FEET AND 1/2 
STATUE MILE ABOVE THE LOWEST MDA AND 
VISIBILITY/RVR MINIMUMS AUTHORIZED FOR 
INSTRUMENT APPROACHES AND LANDINGS AT 
THAT AIRPORT USING GPS.” 


3.Change the signature block of paragraph C52 to reflect the 
Effective Date anticipated for paragraph approval. Change the 
Amendment Number field to reflect the next sequential 
number. 


4. Print paragraph C52 in final form. 

Present the documents to the operator for acceptance, and recover the 
existing documents. 

B. For airplanes, if RNAV approaches using GPS are authorized: 

1 .Comply with the instructions set forth in paragraph 8a of this 
HBAT. 


2. Change the signature block of paragraph C63 to reflect the 
Effective Date anticipated for paragraph approval. Change the 
Amendment Number field to reflect the next sequential 
number. 


03-12 



3.In paragraph C63, insert the aircraft make, and the make and 
model of GPS receiver. 

4. Print paragraph C63 in final form. 

Present the documents to the operator for acceptance, and recover the 
existing documents. 

c. For airplanes, if special terminal instrument approach procedures 
using GPS are authorized: 

1. Comply with the instructions set forth in paragraph 8a of this 
document. 

2. Change the signature block of paragraph C64 to reflect the 
Effective Date anticipated for paragraph approval. Change the 
Amendment Number field to reflect the next sequential number. 

3. In paragraph C64e, insert the specific Special Terminal 
Instrument Approach Procedure authorized. 

4. Print paragraph C64 in final form. 

Present the documents to the operator for acceptance, and recover the 
existing documents. 

d. For rotorcraft, when RNAV and special terminal instrument 
approaches are not authorized: 

1. Log on to the subject operator’s OpSpecs in the Flight Standards 
Automation Subsystem (FSAS), Operations Specifications 
Subsystem (OPSS). 

2. Using the “Additional Text” feature for paragraph H102, insert 
the following new subparagraph “c” at the beginning of the 
“Additional Text” section: 

“c. GPS NONPRECISION APPROACH PROCEDURE 
AUTHORIZATION . THE CERTIFICATE HOLDER IS 
AUTHORIZED TO CONDUCT VOR, VOR/DME, NDB, AND 
NDB/DME INSTRUMENT APPROACH OPERATIONS USING 
THE APPROVED GPS EQUIPMENT LISTED IN PARAGRAPH 
B34 OR B35. THE CERTIFICATE HOLDER SHALL NOT 
CONDUCT GPS INSTRUMENT APPROACH OPERATIONS 


03.13 



UNLESS AUTHORIZED BY THESE OPERATIONS 
SPECIFICATIONS. APPROACHES USING GPS ARE 
SUBJECT TO THE FOLLOWING LIMITATIONS: 

(1) THE AIRBORNE GPS NAVIGATION EQUIPMENT 
USED MUST BE APPROVED AND CURRENT FOR IFR 
OPERATIONS, INCLUDING NONPRECISION 
APPROACHES, AND THE GPS CONSTELLATION AND 
THE REQUIRED AIRBORNE EQUIPMENT MUST BE 
PROVIDING THE LEVELS OF ACCURACY, CONTINUITY 
OF FUNCTION AND INTEGRITY REQUIRED FOR THAT 
OPERATION. 

(2) THE FLIGHT CREW MUST HAVE SUCCESSFULLY 
COMPLETED THE CERTIFICATE HOLDERS APPROVED 
TRAINING PROGRAM CURRICULUM SEGMENTS FOR 
GPS OPERATIONS; AND THE PILOT IN COMMAND 
MUST BE CHECKED FOR COMPETENCY BY A 
AUTHORIZED CHECK AIRMAN OR FAA INSPECTOR FOR 
INSTRUMENT APPROACH OPERATIONS USING GPS IN 
EACH AIRCRAFT TYPE AND GPS COMBINATION. 

(3) DURING THE INITIAL 6 MONTHS OF OPERATION 
WITH A PARTICULAR AIRCRAFT TYPE AND GPS 
SYSTEM OR MODEL COMBINATION, THE CERTIFICATE 
HOLDER SHALL NOT USE IFR APPROACH AND 
LANDING MINIMUMS, FOR THAT PARTICULAR 
AIRCRAFT SYSTEM COMBINATION, LOWER THAN 200 
FEET AND 1/2 STATUE MILE ABOVE THE LOWEST MDA 
AND VISIBILITY/RVR MINIMUMS AUTHORIZED FOR 
INSTRUMENT APPROACHES AND LANDINGS AT THAT 
AIRPORT USING GPS.” 

3. Change the signature block of paragraph H102 to reflect the 
Effective Date anticipated for paragraph approval. Change the 
Amendment Number field to reflect the next sequential number. 


4. Print paragraph H102 in final form. 

Present the documents to the operator for acceptance, and recover the 
existing documents. 

e.For rotorcraft, if RNAV approaches using GPS are authorized: 


03.14 



1. Comply with the instructions set forth in paragraph 8d of this 
HBAT. 

2. Change the signature block of paragraph HI 12 to reflect the 
Effective Date anticipated for paragraph approval. Change the 
Amendment Number field to reflect the next sequential number. 

3. In paragraph H112, insert the aircraft make, and the make and 
model of GPS receiver. 

4. Print paragraph HI 12 in final form. 

Present the documents to the operator for acceptance, and recover the 
existing documents. 


f. For rotorcraft, if special terminal instrument approach procedures 
using GPS are authorized: 

1. Comply with the instructions set forth in paragraph 8d of this 
document. 

2. Change the signature block of paragraph H113 to reflect the 
Effective Date anticipated for paragraph approval. Change the 
Amendment Number field to reflect the next sequential number. 

3. In paragraph HI 13e, insert the specific Special Terminal 
Instrument Approach Procedure authorized. 

4. Print paragraph HI 13 in final form. 

Present the documents to the operator for acceptance, and recover the 
existing documents. 

End of Instructions. 

U.S. Department of Transportation Operations Specifications 

Federal Aviation Administration 
Form Approved 
0MB No. 2120-00028 


03.15 


TABLE OF CONTENTS (Revision) 

PART B, EN ROUTE AUTHORIZATIONS, LIMITATIONS AND 
PROCEDURES 


HQ CONTROL EFFECTIVE 

DATE DATE 


*37.0PERATI0NS IN CENTRAL 

EAST PACIFIC (CEPAC) 05/11/95. 
AIRSPACE-AUTHORIZATIONS 
AND LIMITATIONS 

*38.0PERATI0NS IN NORTH 

PACIFIC (NOPAC) AIRSPACE 05/11/95. 


*=Authorized in A4 


TABLE OF CONTENTS (Revision) 

PART B, EN ROUTE AUTHORIZATIONS, LIMITATIONS AND 
PROCEDURES 


HQ CONTROL EFFECTIVE 
DATE DATE 


37. OPERATIONS IN CENTRAL 
EAST PACIFIC (CEPAC) 05/11/95 
AIRSPACE-AUTHORIZATIONS 
AND LIMITATIONS 


*=Authorized in A4 



TABLE OF CONTENTS (Revision) 

PART B, EN ROUTE AUTHORIZATIONS, LIMITATIONS AND 
PROCEDURES 


HQ CONTROL EFFECTIVE 
DATE DATE 


*38.0PERATI0NS IN NORTH PACIFIC 
(NOPAC) AIRSPACE 05/11/95_ 


Authorized in A4 


B37. Operations in Central East Pacific (CEPAC) Composite Airspace 
(05/11/95) . The certificate holder is authorized to conduct 
operations in Central East Pacific (CEPAC) airspace (between 
the State of Hawaii and the 48 contiguous states) where 
composite separation is applied by ATC, provided the provisions 
of this paragraph are met. The certificate holder shall not 
conduct any other operations in this airspace under these 
operations specifications. 

a. Required Navigation Capabilities . The certificate holder shall 
not takeoff an airplane for flight within CEPAC airspace, where 
composite separation is applied by ATC, unless at least one of 
the following navigation capabilities is available and operational: 

(1) Two independent approved Inertial navigation systems. 

(2) Two independent approved Omega navigation systems. 

(3) An approved redundant navigation capability consisting of 
an independent Inertial navigation system and an 
independent Omega navigation system. 

(4) An approved Doppler radar navigation system and either an 
approved Inertial navigation system or an approved Omega 
navigation system. 


03.17 



(5) An approved redundant navigation capacity consisting of an 
independent Global Positioning System (GPS) and either an 
independent Inertial Navigation System/Inertial Reference 
System or an Independent Omega navigation system. 


B38. Operations in North Pacific (NOPAC) Airspace (05/11/95) . The 
certificate holder is authorized to conduct North Pacific 
(NOPAC) operations within the area of operation authorized in 
subparagraph a., provided any operation within this area meets 
the provisions of this paragraph. The certificate holder shall not 
conduct any other operation within this area of operation under 
these operations specifications. 

a. Authorized Area of Operation . The area of operation authorized 
by this paragraph lies within the Anchorage and Tokyo FIR’s. 
The southern lateral boundary of this area is 100 NM south of 
the southernmost route where composite separation is applied, 
and the northern lateral boundary is the northern boundaries of 
the Anchorage and Tokyo FIR’s. The vertical boundaries include 
the airspace between the MEA and the MAA. 

b. Airborne Weather Radar Limitations/Procedures . The certificate 
holder shall not takeoff for flight within this area of operation 
unless airborne weather radar approved for ground mapping, is 
installed and operational. The certificate holder shall us the radar 
on a full time basis for monitoring navigational system accuracy 
and weather avoidance while operating within this area. 

c. Required Navigation and Capabilities . The certificate holder 
shall not takeoff for flight within the authorized area of operation 
unless at least the following navigation capabilities are available 
and operational. 

(1) For all flights at FL 280 or above, at least one of the 
following: 

(a) Two independent approved Inertial navigation systems. 


03-18 



(b) Two independent approved Omega navigation systems. 

(c) An approved redundant navigation capability consisting of 
an independent Inertial navigation system and an 
independent Omega navigation system. 

(d) An approved Doppler radar navigation system and either 
an approved Inertial navigation system or an approved 
Omega navigation system. 

(e) An approved redundant navigation capacity consisting of 
an independent Global Positioning System (GPS) and 
either an independent Inertial Navigation System/Inertial 
Reference System or an independent Omega Navigation 
System. 

(2) For all flights at FL 270 and below, either of the following 
conditions must be met: 

(a) The equipment specified in subparagraph c.(l) above is 
installed and operational. 

(b) A flight navigator is used with the required navigation 
equipment specified in paragraph B36b.{l)(a) or 
B36b.(l)(b). 

d. Special Routing Limitations . For westbound flights transitioning 
to North Pacific routes designated R-220 and R-580, the 
certificate holder shall accomplish all transitions to these routes 
via the published oceanic transition routes or published airways. 


03.19 


REFERENCE 04 


FAA ORDER 8400.10 
APPENDIX 4 HBAT 95-09 

Guidelines for Operational Approval of Global 
Positioning System (GPS) to Provide the Primary 
Means of Class II Navigation in Oceanic and Remote 
Areas of Operation 


04*1 


CAUTION!! Please be aware that the materials in the following 
section are excerpts. It is assumed that the person using this 
material has read the complete parent document. Important details 
regarding the use of or policies covering the application of this 
information may be available only in the complete document from 
which the excerpts were taken. 


1. PURPOSE. The purpose of this bulletin is to provide interim 
guidance to principal operations inspectors in granting operational 
approval of GPS to provide primary means of Class II navigation 
in oceanic and remote areas including North Atlantic Minimum 
Navigation Performance Specification (MNPS) airspace. 

2. BACKGROUND. The approval of GPS to provide the primary 
means of Class II Navigation requires equipment approval, 
installation approval, and operational approval. This HBAT 
provide inspectors with information on the performance standards, 
procedures, and operational restrictions for using the GPS as a 
primary means of Class II navigation and guidance in the process 
to be used in granting operational approvals for the use of GPS. 

4. DEFINITIONS. 

A. Primary Means of Navigation - Navigation equipment which 
provides the only required means on the aircraft of satisfying 
the necessary levels of accuracy, integrity, and availability for 
a particular area, route, procedure or operation. 

B. Class II Navigation - Any en route flight operation or portion 
of an en route operation (irrespective of the means of 
navigation) which takes place outside (beyond) the designated 
Operational Service Volume of ICAO standard airway 
navigation facilities (VOR, VOR/DME, NDB). 

C. Fault Detection and Exclusion (FDE) - Capability of GPS to: 

(1) detect a satellite failure which affects navigation; and 

(2) automatically exclude that satellite from the navigation 
solution. 

D. Algorithm - A step-by-step procedure for solving a problem. 


04-2 



5. GPS EQUIPMENT APPROVAL AND INSTALLATION. The 
POI must determine that the GPS equipment is approved and 
installed in accordance with the following. 

A. GPS EQUIPMENT APPROVAL. The equipment must be 
approved by the FAA Aircraft Certification Office (ACO) in 
accordance with Advisory Circular (AC) 20-138, 
Airworthiness Approval of Global Positioning System (GPS) 
Navigation Equipment For Use As A VFR And IFR 
Supplemental Navigation System; or AC 20-130, 
Airworthiness Approval of Multi Sensor Navigation Systems 
for use in the U.S. National Airspace System (NAS) and 
Alaska; and Notice N8110,57, GPS As A Primary Means of 
Navigation For Oceanic/Remote Operations. 

B. INSTALLATION. The applicant must obtain initial 
installation approval of GPS equipment for primary use on a 
specific make and model aircraft via the Type Certificate (TC) 
or the Supplemental Type Certificate (STC) certification 
process. The FAA Form 337 or forms acceptable to the 
Administrator for those operators with acceptable engineering 
organization will be used for the installation of the same GPS 
equipment in the same make/model aircraft provided the data 
developed for the initial certification is used. 

C. AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SUPPLEMENT (AFMS). 
Once the installation has been approved, the AFMS must be 
updated to state: “The _____ GPS equipment as installed has 
been found to comply with the requirements for GPS primary 
means of Class II navigation in oceanic and remote airspace, 

when used in conjunction with the ___ prediction program. 

This does not constitute operational approval.” Detailed 
requirements for AFMS content are contained in FAA Notice 
N8110.57. 

6. OPERATIONAL APPROVAL. The POI must use the following 
guidance in granting operational approval. 

A. TECHNICAL/OPERATIONAL ASSISTANCE: POIs should 
contact one of the FAA Navigation Specialists to obtain 
assistance. The contacts are: 

(1) David Maloy: New York City Flight Standards District 
Office (NYC.FSDO); phone (516) 228-8033 (ext. 229); and 

04.3 


(2) Anderson Davie: San Francisco International Field Office 
(SFO.IFO); phone (415) 876-2771. 

B. TRAINING AND MANUALS: (Reference: FAR Part 121, 
Subpart N, and FAA Order 8400.10, Volume 3, Chapter 2). 
Crew training must be modified to include modules that ensure 
crews are familiar with navigation equipment operations, data 
base updating procedures, pre-departure procedures, standard en 
route procedures, and contingency procedures. 

C. CREW QUALIFICATION: (Reference: FAR Part 121, Subpart 
O, and FAA Order 8400.10, Volume 3, Chapter 2). The required 
flight crew must have received training in the use of dual GPS as 
the only means of long-range navigation when completing 
PIC/SIC Initial New Hire and Initial Equipment Flight Training 
or when completing the latest Recurrent Training. 

D. PRE-DEPARTURE PROCEDURES. POFs must ensure that the 
following policies and procedures are incorporated into pilot and 
where appropriate, dispatcher training/qualification programs 
and manuals: 

(1) FDE AVAILABILITY PREDICTION PROGRAM. All 
operators conducting GPS primary means of Class II 
navigation in oceanic/remote areas under FAR Parts 91, 

121,125 and 135 must utilize an FAA-approved FDE 
prediction program for the installed GPS equipment that is 
capable of predicting, prior to departure, the maximum 
outage duration of the loss of fault exclusion, the loss of 
fault detection, and the loss of navigation function for flight 
on a specified route. The “specified route of flight” is 
defined by a series of waypoints (to include the route to any 
required alternates) with the time specified by a velocity or 
series of velocities. Since specific ground speeds may not be 
maintained, the pre-departure prediction must be performed 
for the range of expected ground speeds. This FDE 
prediction program must use the same FDE algorithm that is 
employed by the installed GPS equipment and must be 
developed using an acceptable software development 
methodology (e.g., RTCA/DO-178B). The FDE prediction 
program must provide the capability to designate manually 
satellites that are scheduled to be unavailable in order to 
perform the prediction accurately. The FDE prediction 
program will be evaluated as part of the navigation 

04.4 



system’s installation approval. The requirements for the 
FDE prediction algorithm can be found in FAA Notice 
N8110.57. 

(2) OPERATIONAL CONTROL RESTRICTIONS: 

(i) Any predicted satellite outages that affect the capability 
of GPS equipment to provide the navigation function on 
the specified route of flight requires that the flight be 
canceled, delayed, or rerouted. (See paragraph 5D(3)). 

(ii) If the fault exclusion capability outage (exclusion of a 
malfunctioning satellite) exceeds the acceptable duration 
on the specified route of flight, the flight must be 
canceled, delayed, or rerouted. (See paragraph 5D(4)). 

(3) DETERMINATION OF THE CAPABILITY TO 
NAVIGATE. Prior to departure, the operator must use the 
FDE prediction program to demonstrate that there are no 
outages in the capability to navigate on the specified route 
of flight (the FDE prediction program determines whether 
the GPS constellation is robust enough to provide a 
navigation solution for the specified route of flight). 

(4) DETERMINATION OF AVAILABILITY OF 
EXCLUSION. Once navigation function is assured (the 
equipment can navigate on the specified route of flight), the 
operator must use the FDE prediction program to 
demonstrate that the maximum outage of the capability of 
the equipment to provide fault exclusion for the specified 
route of flight does not exceed the acceptable duration 
(fault exclusion is the ability to exclude a failed satellite 
from the navigation solution). The acceptable duration (in 
minutes) is equal to the time it would take to exit the 
protected airspace (one-half the lateral separation 
minimum) assuming a 35-nautical mile per hour cross¬ 
track navigation system error growth rate when starting 
from the center of the route. For example, a 60-nautical 
mile lateral separation minimum yields 51 minutes 
acceptable duration (30 nautical miles divided by 35 
nautical miles per hour). If the fault exclusion outage 
exceeds the acceptable duration, the flight must be 
canceled, delayed, or rerouted. 


04-5 



E. EN ROUTE PROCEDURES. POIs must ensure that the 
following policies and procedures are incorporated into pilot 
and where appropriate, dispatcher training/qualification 
programs, and manuals: 

(1) DEGRADED NAVIGATION CAPABILITY. If the GPS 
displays a loss of navigation function alert, the pilot 
should immediately begin using dead reckoning 
procedures until GPS navigation is regained. The pilot 
will report degraded navigation capability to Air Traffic 
Control (ATC) in accordance with FAR Section 91.187. 
Additionally, flight crew members operating under FAR 
Part 121 will notify the appropriate dispatch or flight 
following facility of any degraded navigation capability 
in accordance with the air carrier’s FAA approved 
procedures. 

(2) SATELLITE FAULT DETECTION OUTAGE. If the 
GPS displays an indication of a fault detection function 
outage (Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring 
(RAIM) is not available), navigation integrity must be 
provided by comparing the GPS position with a position 
computed by extrapolating the last verified position with 
true airspeed, heading, and estimated winds. If the 
positions do not agree to within 10 nautical miles, the 
pilot should immediately begin using dead reckoning 
procedures until the exclusion function or navigation 
integrity is regained and report degraded navigation 
capability to ATC in accordance with FAR Section 
91.187. 

(3) FAULT DETECTION ALERT. If the GPS displays a 
fault detection alert (failed satellite), the pilot may choose 
to continue to operate using the GPS-generated position 
if the current estimate of position uncertainty displayed 
on the GPS from the FDE algorithm is actively 
monitored. If this number exceeds 10 nautical miles or is 
to available, the pilot should immediately begin using 
dead reckoning procedures until the failed satellite is 
excluded and report degraded navigation capability to 
ATC in accordance with FAR Section 91.187. 


04.6 


7. APPROVAL FOR OPERATION IN NORTH ATLANTIC 
MINIMUM NAVIGATION PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS 
AIRSPACE. 

A. Until further notice, the Pass/Fail graphs contained in AC 120- 
33 should be used to confirm the operator’s capability to meet 
the requirements of FAR Section 91.705. The FAA Navigation 
Specialists will provide guidance on process and procedures for 
the Pass/Fail graphs and aid the POI in determining whether 
Figure 2 or Figure 3 should be utilized. The operator is not 
required to collect navigation performance data in NAT MNPS 
AIRSPACE to apply to the Pass/Fail graphs. 

8. VALIDATION TESTS. 

A. GENERAL. Validation Tests are required. Such tests may 
consist of a single flight or series of flights. The following 
references are provided: 

(1) FAR Sections 121.93, 121.113, 135.13(a)(2). 

(2) FAA Order 8400.10: 

(i) Volume 3, Chapter 9, Section 8 

(ii) Volume 4, Chapter 1, Section 2 

B. PROGRAM/DOCUMENT EVALUATION. As an element of 
the evaluation process, the POI should ensure that operator 
training programs and manuals contain the policies and 
procedures detailed in paragraph 5 of this HB AT. (See FAA 
Order 8400.10, Volume 4, Chapter 1, Section 2). 

C. TECHNICAL SUPPORT. It is recommended that, whenever 
possible, one of the FAA Navigation Specialists participate in 
the validation of operator programs and procedures for use of 
GPS as the primary means of Class II navigation. 

D. FLIGHT(S) REQUIRED FOR VALIDATION TESTS. 

(1) GENERAL. The following is intended to provide broad 
guidance for the development of GPS/Class II navigation 
validation tests. The POI should consider each application 

04-7 


on its own merit and apply judgment when developing 
validation test requirements. The POI should communicate 
the objective, duration and number of validation test flights 
required to the operator during Phase One of the approval 
process (see FA A Order 8400.10, Volume 4, Chapter 1, 
Section 2). 

(2) OPERATOR WITHOUT PREVIOUS CLASS II 
NAVIGATION EXPERIENCE. If an operator is requesting 
approval to conduct Class II Navigation with GPS, but has 
no previous experience in conducting Class II navigation, 
then the operator must conduct at least one flight in the 
Class II area of navigation where it intends to operate. This 
flight must be conducted as a non-revenue operation with 
the exception that cargo may be carried. 

(3) OPERATOR WITH PREVIOUS CLASS II NAVIGATION 
EXPERIENCE. If an operator is requesting approval to 
conduct Class II Navigation with an aircraft/GPS 
equipment combination with which it has not previously 
conducted Class II operations, the operator should be 
required to conduct a validation test flight(s). If the 
flight(s) is conducted in a Class I navigation area to 
simulate operation in a Class II Navigation area, then the 
flight(s) may be conducted in revenue operations. If the 
flight is conducted in a Class II Navigation area, then it 
must be conducted as a non-revenue flight with the 
exception that cargo may be carried. 

(4) CONDITIONS OF VALIDATION TEST FLIGHTS. The 
following conditions apply to validation test flights: 

(i) At least one flight should be observed by an FAA 
aviation safety inspector. 

(ii) Dispatch procedures must be demonstrated for the 
Class II Navigation area(s) where operations are 
intended to be conducted. 

(iii) The flight(s) should be of adequate duration for the 
pilots to demonstrate knowledge of dispatch 
requirements, capability to navigate with the system, 
and to perform normal and non-normal procedures. 


04-8 


(5) POLICY DEVIATIONS. Requests to deviate from this 
policy should be forwarded to AFS-430, FAA National 
Headquarters, Washington, DC, for consideration. 

9. ISSUANCE OF OPERATION SPECIFICATIONS: Operation 
specifications authorizing flight in Class II airspace using GPS as 
the only means of Long-Range Navigation must be issued or 
modified, as appropriate, prior to any air carrier operations being 
conducted in the Class II airspace. The operation specification 
paragraphs must be issued as indicated in Appendix 1 to this 
HEAT. 

10. INQUIRIES. This HEAT was developed jointly be AFS-200 and 
AFS-400. Any questions or comments concerning the information 
in this bulletin should be directed to AFS-200 at (202) 267-7579 
or AFS-400 at (202) 267-3734. 

11. EXPIRATION. This HEAT will expire when incorporated into 
FAA Order 8400.10. 


/s/ 

David R. Harrington 
Appendix 1 

1. Issuance of En Route Authorization for Use of only a Single GPS for 
Class II Navigation. 

Note: This authorization may only be issued for operations in the 
Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, the Atlantic Ocean west of MNPS 
airspace, and for Special Contingency Routes in MNPS airspace. 

a. Log on to the subject’s Operation Specifications (OpSpecs) in the 
Flight Standards Automation Subsystem (FSAS), Operation 
Specifications Subsystem (OPSS). 

b. Mark the Operation Specification checklist to check the 
appropriate block. Paragraph B36 requires Question 4c and (5n or 
5o) to be checked, as appropriate. 


04.9 



c. In paragraph B36, subparagraph a(l), insert the aircraft make, 
make, and model of GPS receiver. 

d. Change the signature block of paragraph B36 to reflect the 
Effective Date anticipated for paragraph approval. Change the 
Amendment Number field to reflect the next sequential number. 

e. In paragraph B50, access the Limitations, Provisions, and 
Reference Paragraphs, for the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, 
Atlantic Ocean West of MNPS airspace, and/or for Special 
Contingency Routes in MNPS airspace, as applicable, and enter 
the following statement adjacent to the existing referenced 
paragraphs: 

“CLASS II NAVIGATION WITH THE APPROVED SINGLE 
GPS LISTED IN PARAGRAPH B36(l) IS LIMITED TO THIS 
SPECIFIC GEOGRAPHIC AREA.” 

f. Change the signature block of paragraph B50 to reflect the 
Effective Date anticipated for paragraph approval. Change the 
Amendment Number to reflect the next sequential number. 

g. Print paragraphs B36 and B50 in final form. 

h. Present the documents to the operator for acceptance, and recover 
the existing documents. 

2. Issuance of En Route Authorization for Use of a Dual GPS System 

as the Only Long-Range System for Class II Navigation. 

a. Log on to the subject’s OpSpecs in the Flight Standards 
Automation Subsystem (FSAS), Operation Specifications 
Subsystem (OPSS). 

b. Mark the Operation Specifications checklist to check the 
appropriate block. Paragraph B36 requires Question 4c and (5n or 
5o) to be checked, as appropriate. 

c. In paragraph B36, subparagraph a(l), insert the aircraft make and 
the makes and models of GPS receivers. 


04.10 



d. Change the signature block of paragraph B36 to reflect the 
Effective Date anticipated for paragraph approval. Change the 
Amendment Number field to reflect the next sequential number. 

e. Print paragraph B36 in final form. 

f. Present the documents to the operator for acceptance, and recover 
the existing documents. 

3. Issuance of En Route Authorization for Use of GPS in North 
Atlantic Minimum Navigation Performance Standards (MNPS) 
Airspace. 

Note: This authorization may only be used if en route authorization for 
use of dual GPS for Class II Navigation has been issued as described 
in paragraph 2 of these instructions. 

a. If unrestricted routing is to be authorized: 

(1) Log on to the subject’s OpSpecs in the Flight Standards 
Automation Subsystem (FSAS), Operation Specifications 
Subsystem (OPSS). 

(2) Mark the Operation Specification checklist to check the 
appropriate block. Paragraph B39 requires question 4a and 
4c, checked, 5k checked and 5n or 5o checked, as 
appropriate. 

(3) Change the signature block of paragraph B39 to reflect the 
Effective Date anticipated for paragraph approval. Change 
the Amendment Number field to reflect the next sequential 
number. 

(4) In paragraph B39, subparagraph c, insert the aircraft make 
and the makes and models of both GPS receivers. 

Note: Normally operators receiving authorization under paragraph 
B39c should also receive authorization in paragraph B39d for ferry 
and contingency purposes. 


04*11 


b.If restricted routing over special contingency routing: 

(1) Log on to the subject’s OpSpecs in the Flight Standards 
Automation Subsystem (FSAS), Operation Specifications 
Subsystem (OPSS). 

(2) Change the signature block of paragraph B39 to reflect the 
Effective Date anticipated for paragraph approval. Change 
the Amendment Number field to reflect the next sequential 
number. 

(3) In paragraph B39, subparagraph d, insert the aircraft make, 
and the make and model of GPS receiver. 

(4) Print paragraph B39 in final form. 

(5) Present the documents to the operator for acceptance, and 
recover the existing documents. 

4. Issuance of En Route Authorization for Use of GPS in Areas of 

Magnetic Unreliability. 

a. Log on to the subject’s OpSpecs in the Flight Standards 
Automation Subsystem (FSAS), Operation Specifications 
Subsystem (OPSS). 

b. Using the “Additional Text” feature for paragraph B40, insert the 
aircraft make and the makes and models of GPS receivers in the 
navigation equipment table. 

c. Change the signature block of paragraph B40 to reflect the 
Effective Date anticipated for paragraph approval. Change the 
Amendment Number field to reflect the next sequential number. 

d. Print paragraph B40 in final form. 

e. Present the documents to the operator for acceptance, and recover 
the existing documents. 


04.12 



REFERENCE 05 


FAA ORDER 8400.10 
APPENDIX 3 FSAT 94-04 

Certification of the Operational Use 
of the U.S. Navstar Global Positioning 
System (GPS) 


05.1 


CAUTION!! Please be aware that the materials in the following 
section are excerpts. It is assumed that the person using this 
material has read the complete parent document. Important details 
regarding the use of or policies covering the application of this 
information may be available only in the complete document from 
which the excerpts were taken. 


3. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS. Authorization to conduct any GPS 

operation under IFR requires the following: 

A. The GPS avionics equipment used must be approved in 
accordance with the requirements specified in technical 
standards order (TSO) C-129, or equivalent, and the installation 
must be made in accordance with Notice 8110.47 or 8110.48, the 
equivalent advisory circular or the Flight Standards/Aircraft 
Certification (AFS/AIR) joint guidance memorandum dated July 
20,1992. Equipment approved to TSO C-115A does not meet 
the requirements of TSO C-129. 

B. Aircraft using GPS equipment under IFR must be equipped with 
an approved and operational alternate means of navigation 
appropriate to the flight. Active monitoring of the alternative 
navigation equipment is not required if the installation uses 
receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM) for integrity 
monitoring. 

For these systems, active monitoring by the flight crews is only 
required when the RAIM capability of the GPS equipment is 
lost. 

C. Pilots must be aware of the procedures to be used in the event 
that the loss of RAIM capability is predicted to occur. When the 
loss of RAIM capability is predicted, a pilot must rely on the 
other approved equipment, delay the departure of the flight, or 
cancel the flight. 

D. The GPS operation must be conducted in accordance with the 
FAA-approved aircraft flight manual (AFM) or flight manual 
supplement (if required). 

E. Aircraft navigation under IFR by GPS is considered to be area 
navigation (RNAV), therefore, the appropriate equipment suffix 
(/R) must be included in the air traffic control (ATC) flight plan. 

05.2 



F. Prior to any GPS IFR operation, the pilot should review the 
appropriate NOT AMs. NOT AMs will be issued to announce 
outages for specific GPS satellites. Pilots may obtain these 
NOTAMs from Flight Service Station (FSS) briefs upon request. 

G. Air carrier and commercial operators conducting GPS IFR 
operations shall meet the appropriate provisions of their 
approved operations specifications (OpSpecs). Instructions for 
issuance of OpSpecs authorizing use of GPS will be issued in a 
forthcoming bulletin. 

4. GPS OPERATIONS. Provided the general requirements of this 
bulletin are met, GPS IFR operations in oceanic areas can be 
conducted as soon as the proper avionics systems are installed. 
Operations in special use air space (for example, MNPS) require 
either a letter of authorization (LOA) or OpSpecs authorizing a flight 
into and within that airspace using GPS equipment. A GPS 
installation with TSO C-129 authorization in class Al, A2, Bl, B2, 
Cl, or C2 may be used to replace or supplement one of the other 
approved means of long-range navigation, such as one unit of dual 
INS or one unit of dual Omega system. A single GPS installation 
with these classes of equipment that provides RAIM for integrity 
monitoring may also be used on short oceanic routes which have only 
required one means of long-range navigation. 

Provided the general requirements of this bulletin are met, GPS 
domestic en route and terminal IFR operations can be conducted as 
soon as the proper avionics systems are installed. The avionics 
necessary to receive all of the ground-based facilities appropriate for 
the route to the destination airport and any required alternate airport 
must be installed and operational. The ground-based facilities 
necessary for these routes must also be operational. 

The GPS Approach Overlay Program permits pilots to use GPS 
avionics under IFR for flying existing nonprecision instrument 
approach procedures, except localizer (LOG), localizer directional 
aid (LDA) and simplified directional facility (SDF) procedures. In 
the future, stand along GPS approaches will be developed and 
introduced into the National Airspace System (NAS). 

GPS IFR approach operations can be conducted in accordance with 
Phase I, Phase II, or Phase III of the GPS Approach Overlay 
Program, as appropriate, as soon as the proper avionics systems are 
installed and the following requirements are met. This general 

05.3 


approval to use GPS to fly instrument approaches is limited to U.S. 
airspace. The use of GPS in any other airspace must be expressly 
authorized by the Administrator. GPS instrument approachoperations 
outside the United States must also be authorized by the appropriate 
sovereign authority. 

5. EQUIPMENT AND DATABASE REQUIREMENTS. 
Authorization to fly approaches under IFR using GPS avionics 
systems requires the following: 

A. That the GPS avionics in use have TSO-C129 authorization in 
class Al, Bl, B3, Cl, or C3 (classes are defined in FA A Order 
8700.1, Chapter 222, Change 10), and 

B. The specific approach procedure to be flown must be retrievable 
from the airborne navigation database associated with the TSO 
C-129 equipment. 

NOTE: GPS avionics systems installed and operated in accordance 
with the AFS/AIR guidance dated July 20,1992 are not approved for 
“overlay” program phase II or III. 

6. PHASES OF THE APPROACH OVERLAY PROGRAM. In 

each of the following phases, any required alternate airport must have 
an approved instrument approach procedure that is anticipated to be 
operational and available at the estimated time of arrival. This 
approved instrument approach procedure must be one other than a 
GPS or Loran-C procedure. 

A. PHASE I. Under Phase I, GPS avionics can be used as the IFR 
flight guidance system for approaches as long as the ground- 
based navaids required by the published procedure are 
operational and actively monitored while conducting the 
approach. Approach clearances must be requested and approved 
using the published title of the existing approach procedure such 
as “VOR Rwy 24.” 

B. PHASE II. Under Phase II, effective 2/17/94, GPS avionics can 
be used as the IFR flight guidance system for an approach 
without actively monitoring the ground-based navaids that define 
the approach. However, the ground-based navaids must be 
operational. In addition, the related avionics must be installed 
and operational but need not be turned-on during the approach. 


05-4 


Approaches must be requested and approved using the published 
title of the existing approach procedure, such as “VOR Rwy 24.” 

C. PHASE III. Phase III begins when FAR Part 97 instrument 
approach procedures are retitled “GPS of VOR Rwy 24.” When 
this phase begins, ground-based navaids are not required to be 
operational and the associated aircraft avionics need not be 
installed, operational, tumed-on, or monitored. GPS approaches 
will be requested and approved using the GPS title, such as 
“GPS Rwy 24.” Pending the FAA’s publication of FAR Part 97 
GPS approaches, stand-alone GPS approaches will be developed 
and authorized on a case-by-case basis. 

7. INQUIRIES. Questions concerning this bulletin may be directed to 
James J. Growling, Jr., AFS-430, at (202) 267-8452. 

8. EXPIRATION DATE. This bulletin will remain in effect until 
canceled by this office. 


/s/ 

Edgar C. Fell 


05.5 



REFERENCE 06 


FAA ORDER 8400.11 


IFR Approval for 

Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) 
Special Category I Instrument Approaches Using 
Private Ground Facilities 


06.1 


CAUTION!! Please be aware that the materials in the following 
section are excerpts. It is assumed that the person using this 
material has read the complete parent document. Important details 
regarding the use of or policies covering the application of this 
information may be available only in the complete document from 
which the excerpts were taken. 


CHAPTER 4. RESPONSIBILITIES AND PROCEDURES 

4-1. ACTIONS, RESPONSIBILITIES, AND PROCEDURES 

All special privately owned ground installations and all airborne 
installations used to conduct DGPS instrument approach operations 
shall be evaluated and approved in accordance with the interim national 
criteria contained in this order. Special private use DGPS ground 
installations shall be approved, if the requirements of this order are met, 
for use by U.S. and qualified foreign flag operators to fly DGPS 
instrument approaches. The responsibilities of AVR, the Associate 
Administrator for Airway Facilities (AAF), and Associate 
Administrator for Aviation Standards (AVS) organizations and the 
actions necessary to initially implement special private use DGPS 
instrument approach operations are as specified herein. 

a. Until national criteria for routine approval of DGPS Category I 
instrument approach operations is established, all requests to 
establish a DGPS Category I instrument approach operation, or 
approve an operator to conduct these instrument approaches, shall 
be forwarded to the Flight Standards’ Technical Programs 
Division, AFS-400 through the regional Flight Standai'ds Division. 

e. DGPS Ground Facility Evaluations. The regional Airway 
Facilities Divisions are responsible for evaluating DGPS ground 
facilities in the United States. The evaluation criteria for facilities 
in the United States is specified in this order. The evaluation 
process for these facilities are specified in FAA Order 6700.20A 
and the RTCA DGNSS MASPS. APS is responsible for evaluating 
DGPS ground facilities outside the United States. The Principal 
Avionics Inspector for the air carrier or the FSDO assigned the 
FAR Part 91 operator shall designate an avionics specialist to 
evaluate and recommend approval of the special private use DGPS 
ground facilities outside the United States. Results of the facility 
evaluation shall be forwarded to AFS-400 through the regional 


06.2 


Flight Standards Division. During the evaluation of DGPS ground 
facilities outside the United States, inspectors may consult with 
FAA Aircraft Certification, Flight Standards’ Aircraft Evaluation, 
or Airway Facilities’ personnel at their option. Any deviations from 
the DGPS Operational Service Volume requirements specified in 
Appendix 4 of this order shall be approved by AFS-400. 

h.Evaluation and Approval. Upon receiving an initial request from 
an operator to conduct DGPS Category I operations, the Certificate 
Holding District Office (CHDO) or FSDO shall assure that the 
operator is provided sufficient information to comply with the 
requirements of this order. The following evaluation and approval 
procedures should be followed: 

(1) Coordination. Coordination with AFS-400 and the regional 
Flight Procedures Branch should begin concurrently with the 
beginning of approval activity. After receiving an operator’s 
request, the CHDO or FSDO shall, as soon as possible, initiate 
coordination with the regional Flight Procedures Branch in 
order that they may determine the procedural requirements and 
coordinate flight inspection schedules. AFS-400 shall also be 
notified through the regional Flight Standards Division. The 
CHDO or FSDO is responsible for the coordination process 
specified for Special Instrument Approach Procedures in FAA 
Orders 8260.19 and 8400.10. 

(2) Type Acceptance. The Associate Administrator for Airway 
Facilities, AAF-1, is the type acceptance approval authority for 
LDGPS ground facilities in the United States. 

(3) Airborne System Evaluation. The responsible Aircraft 
Certification Office (ACO), in coordination with the 
appropriate Aircraft Evaluation Group (AEG), shall assure that 
the airborne equipment performs its intended function and 
meets the requirements of the RTCA DGNSS MASPS and this 
order for DGPS Category I instrument approach operations. 
This airworthiness certification does not constitute authority 
for an operator to conduct DGPS operations. 

(4) Ground System Evaluation. For DGPS ground facilities in 
the United States, the responsible regional Airway Facilities 
Division shall assure that the ground station equipment is 
properly installed, performs its intended function, and meets 
all applicable provisions of this order and the RTCA DGNSS 

06.3 



MASPS. Successful completion of the ground system 
evaluation is required prior to commissioning flight inspection. 
For DGPS ground facilities outside the United States, AFS is 
responsible for this evaluation. 

(5) Evaluation. The CHDO or FSDO shall assure that the DGPS 
ground facility and the airborne system to be used have been 
properly approved lAW Chapter 7, Section 1 (h) and Chapter 
8, Paragraph 1(a) of this order and that maintenance and 
operating manuals, schedules, and record keeping programs 
have been established, 

(7) Continuing Compliance. For DGPS ground facilities in the 
United States, the responsible regional Airway Facilities 
Division shall perform the required periodic facility technical 
inspections, and assure that the sponsor complies with the 
Operations and Maintenance Manual (OMM) and the 
Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) for operation of DGPS 
ground installation. For DGPS ground facilities outside the 
United States, the CHDO or FSDO shall assure that the 
sponsor initially complies and continues to comply with the 
requirements of Chapters 6 and 9 of this order. The sponsor’s 
approval to use a particular DGPS ground facility to conduct 
DGPS operations shall be withdrawn if there is evidence of 
noncompliance. 

CHAPTER 8. APPROVAL OF DGPS SPECIAL CATEGORY I 
OPERATIONS 

8-1. APPROVAL TO CONDUCT DGPS SPECIAL CATEGORY I 
INSTRUMENT APPROACHES 

The authority for a civil operator to use an FAA approved special 
private use DGPS ground facility to conduct DGPS instrument 
approaches shall be obtained from AFS. Approval to use a special 
private use DGPS ground installation is only issued to persons 
operating under FAR Part 91,121, 125,129, or 135. 

a. Application. To obtain approval to conduct DGPS Category I 
Special Instrument Approach Procedures, air carriers or FAR Part 
91 operators shall submit to the CHDO or the assigned FSDO, 
respectively, a letter of application. The application shall 


06.4 


document the operators ability to safely conduct DGPS Category I 
operations. The application shall also provide documentation for 
the following items: 

(1) Avionics. Documentation shall be provided which validates 
approval of the installed DGPS airborne system in accordance 
with AC 20-138 and AC 20-130A, Chapter 7 of this order, and 
other applicable airworthiness criteria established for DGPS 
Special Category I instrument approach operations. Specific 
airborne equipment availability requirements are not necessary 
for DGPS Special Category I instrument approach operations 
as long as the aircraft has die capability to continue the flight 
to any required alternate airport in the event of DGPS failure 
or service interruption. The applicant shall, however, perform 
an analysis using the data obtained in Chapter 5 or 6, as 
applicable, to demonstrate that 95% system availability 
(excluding the availability of avionics; i.e., assuming avionics 
availability of 100%) over a 24-hour continuous period is 
achieved. This analysis shall be performed for every location 
for which a DGPS Special Category I operation is intended. If 
this DGPS availability level of 95% is not met, the applicant 
shall demonstrate that the methods to be used to predict system 
unavailability and to notify the flight crew will result in an 
unpredicted unavailability of no more than 5%. Information 
regarding predicted unavailability shall be provided to the 
flight crew as required in Chapter 8 of this order. 

(2) Initial Installation and Continued Airworthiness. The 
operator shall assure that the airborne equipment is installed 
and maintained. Also, the operator shall present evidence that 
the DGPS ground facility to be used is properly installed, 
maintained, and FA A approved for the operation to be 
conducted. No special requirements unique to GPS/DGPS, 
other than the standard practices currently applicable to 
navigation or landing systems, have been identified. 

(a) The operator’s manuals, policies, and procedures shall 
incorporate the manufacturer’s instructions for initial 
installation (TC/STC) and Instructions for Continued 
Airworthiness, or equivalent criteria, for the applicable 
GPS/DGPS airborne system. 

(b) Revisions should be made to the Master Minimum 
Equipment List (MMEL), Minimum Equipment List 

06-5 



(MEL), Maintenance Review Board (MRB), 
Configuration Deviation List (CDL), and dispatch 
deviation procedures to incorporate the GPS/DGPS 
equipment, as appropriate. 

Pilot Training and Qualification. The application shall 
document the proposed pilot training and qualification 
program. This program shall address at least the following 
training and qualification requirements: 

(a) Crew training and qualification for DGPS Category I 
instrument approach operations should be consistent with 
the qualifications required for the use of ILS, VOR/DME, 
RNAV, and multi-sensor RNAV (FMS) systems in FAA 
Orders 8400.10 and 8700.1, FAA AC 120-53, and FAR 
Parts 61,91,121,125,129, and 135, and Special Federal 
Aviation Regulation (SFAR) 58. Although these standards 
do not specifically address DGPS systems, the principles 
are appropriate for DGPS operations and the criteria can 
be used to evaluate crew knowledge, procedures, 
checking, and recency or experience, until other criteria 
are available. No special crew qualification requirements, 
other than those necessary for RNAV and ILS instrument 
approach qualification, are currently specified for DGPS 
Category I approaches. 

(b) Ground training shall assure that each flight crew member 
has the knowledge required for the DGPS Special 
Instrument Approach Procedures to be flown. FAR Part 
121, 125, and 135 operators shall successfully complete 
an FAA approved training curriculum segment for DGPS 
Category I operations, as applicable. The ground training 
should include at least the following subjects: principles 
of DGPS navigation; limitations of the DGPS equipment; 
specific operating techniques and procedures to be used 
with the equipment, including accuracy checks; and 
contents of the operations specifications. Field Inspector 
information and guidance will be made available on the 
Flight Standards Information Board pending updated 
guidance being included in future revisions of the 
inspector handbooks. 

(c) Initial qualification, continuing qualification, and 
requalification flight training shall assure that each flight 

06.6 


crew member has the knowledge, skills, and abilities 
necessary to safely conduct the proposed operations. 

Flight crew members of all FAR 121, 125, 129, and 135 
operators shall successfully complete the operator’s 
approved DGPS Category I flight training program, as 
appropriate. 

(d) Accomplishment of DGPS instrument approaches may be 
credited for recency of experience, if proper approval is 
obtained, for other equivalent types of required 
approaches. DGPS Category I approaches may be 
substituted for precision approaches. 

(4) Operational Procedures. The operator shall establish 
operational procedures which are compatible with its DGPS 
Category I capabilities and limitations. 

(a) “Before Departure Procedures” should specify how a crew 
will determine that the required DGPS approaches can be 
conducted at the takeoff airport (for an emergency return) 
and at the destination airport. A means shall be provided 
to evaluate, prior to departure, the airplane’s capability to 
execute the planned operation. Procedures shall be 
established which prohibit the use of an airport as a 
required alternate airport if the only suitable instrument 
approach at that airport is a DGPS approach or a Loran-C. 

(b) A procedure shall be established for the flight crew (and 
dispatcher, if applicable) to determine, prior to departure 
and inflight, that all required DGPS approaches will be 
available at the destination airport. 

(5) Maintenance Program. An acceptable maintenance program, 
documented in the operator’s maintenance manual, shall be 
provided for the DGPS airborne system. Selected minimum 
contents of this manual are provided in Appendix 2 of this 
order. 

(6) Accuracy and Reliability Data. Sufficient 
operational/maintenance data will be collected to evaluate that 
the DGPS airborne system is operationally accurate and 
reliable. 


06.7 


(7) Obstacle and Airport Data. If the runway is not currently 
served by an instrument approach, the operator may also be 
required to provide the charts, airport layout plans, and other 
data required to perform obstruction clearance studies and 
formulate the Instrument Approach Procedure. 

b. FAR Part 91 Operations. FAR Part 91 operators shall obtain a 
Letter of Authorization prior to conducting any DGPS special 
instrument approach operation. This Letter of Authorization shall 
specify the applicable DGPS Authorizations, Privileges, 
Limitations, and any required training and procedures. It shall also 
list the specific DGPS Special Instrument Approach Procedures 
authorized. The letter of application for this authorization should 
be submitted to the assigned FSDO. 

(1) To obtain approval to fly DGPS Special Category I instrument 
approach operations, each applicant shall demonstrate, during 
a special practical test, the ability to conduct the type(s) of 
DGPS instrument approach(es) requested. All DGPS 
evaluations and approvals shall be accomplished in accordance 
with this order. The DGPS authorization for all FAR Part 91 
operators shall be renewed on an annual basis. 

c. FAR Part 121,125,129, and 135 Operators. To obtain approval, 
each operator shall demonstrate its ability to conduct the type(s) of 
DGPS operations requested for each aircraft type and DGPS 
equipment type used. This demonstration is required to assess the 
operator’s training program and validate the performance of the 
DGPS equipment used. All evaluations and approvals shall be 
accomplished in accordance with this order. These operators 
should apply to the CHDO for original issuance or amendment to 
specifications authorizing DGPS Category I operations, as 
applicable. 

The Automated Operations Specification Program and checklist 
does not facilitate including GPS and DGPS Category I 
instrument approaches operations in operations specification’s 
paragraphs C52 for aircraft and HI02 for rotorcraft. A new 
paragraph. Number C52-1 or H102-1, as appropriate, shall be 
added. Paragraphs C64e for aircraft and HI 14e for rotorcraft shall 
also be amended to include the specific Special Instrument 
Approach Procedures that are authorized to be conducted using 
DGPS. Until the Automated Operations Specification Program and 
checklist are changed to specifically address GPS and DGPS 

06.8 


operations, the following shall be added as paragraph C52-1 or 
paragraph H102-1, as applicable: 

“The operator is authorized to conduct, in accordance with the 
authorizations, provisions, and limitations in these operations 
specifications, the following additional instrument approach 
operations. The certificate holder shall not conduct any other GPS 
or DGPS instrument approach operations under these operations 
specifications. 

a. The certificate holder is authorized to use GPS to conduct VOR, 
VOR/DME, NDB, and NDB/DME instrument approach 
operations. 

b. The certificate holder is authorized to conduct DGPS Category I 
instrument approach operations.” 

d. Approval. The approval and any necessary limitations, conditions, 
and procedures are specified in operations specification or a Letter 
of Authorization issued to the operator, as appropriate. DGPS 
instrument approach operations are limited to those airports and 
runways on the national AFS-400 approved list. Therefore, 
approvals for a particular operator to conduct DGPS Category I 
operations are limited to those airports and runways and the 
aircraft/avionics types on the approved list. Processing and final 
approval of DGPS Special Category I Instrument Approach 
Procedures shall be coordinated with AFS-400 in accordance with 
this order and FA A Order 8260.19. Upon determining that the 
applicant meets the requirements of this order, and with the 
concurrence of AFS-400 and the regional Flight Standards 
Division, the FSDO or CHDO is authorized to issue the following: 

(1) Letter of Authorization. A Letter of Authorization can be 
issued to FAR Part 91 operators. A sample Letter of 
Authorization is provided in Appendix 3 of this order. 

(2) Operations Specifications. Operations specification can be 
issued to FAR Parts 121, 125,129, and 135 operators. The 
operations specifications approval shall be issued in 
accordance with FAA Orders 8400.10, Volume IV, Chapter 2, 
Sections 1 through 4, and 8410.1 A, Chapters 4 and 8, 
paragraph 190. 


06-9 


REFERENCE 07 


ADVISORY CIRCULAR 90-94 


Guidelines for Using Global Positioning System 
Equipment for IFR En Route and Terminal Operations 
and For Nonprecision Instrument Approaches in the 
U.S. National Airspace System 


07.1 


SECTION 1. GENERAL. 


1. BACKGROUND. 

Satellite navigation systems provide global navigation that fully meets 
the civil aviation requirements for use as the primary means of 
navigation. Developments in satellite technology and its use for 
aircraft navigation are such that it may be expected that several 
satellite navigation systems will evolve in the future, each with its own 
unique characteristics. The International Civil Aviation Organization 
(ICAO) has adopted "Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)" as 
an umbrella term to identify any satellite navigation system where the 
user performs onboard position determination from satellite 
information. When this Advisory Circular (AC) was written, only two 
systems had filed with the International Frequency Registration Board 
(IFRB): the Global Positioning System (GPS) developed by the United 
States and the Global Orbiting Navigation Satellite System 
(GLONASS) now under development by the Federation of Russia. 

This AC provides guidance for the use of satellite navigation in the 
U.S. National Airspace System (NAS) and oceanic navigation. The 
terminology and guidelines are limited to the U.S. developed GPS 
technology. This document does not address the use of other GNSS 
systems in the U.S. NAS, nor the use of GPS in other civil aviation 
authority airspace. 

2. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION. 

GPS consists of three distinct functional elements: space, control, and 
user. GPS utilizes range measurements from the satellites to 
determine a position anywhere in the world. 

a. The space element consists of 24 Navstar satellites. This group of 
satellites is called a constellation. The satellites are in six orbital 
planes (with four in each plane) at about 11,000 miles above the 
earth. At least four satellites are in view at all times. The GPS 
constellation broadcasts a pseudo-random code timing signal and 
data message that the airborne equipment processes to obtain 
satellite position and status data. By knowing the precise location 
of each satellite and precisely matching timing with the atomic 
clocks on the satellites, the airborne receiver can accurately 
measure the time each signal takes to arrive at the receiver and, 
therefore, determine aircraft position. 


07.2 



b. The control element consists of a network of GPS monitoring and 
control stations that ensure the accuracy of satellite positions and 
their clocks. In its present form, it has five monitoring stations, 
three ground antennas, and a master control station. 

/■ 

c. The user element consists of antennas and receiver-processors 
onboard the aircraft that provide positioning, velocity, and precise 
timing to the user. 

d. A minimum of three satellites must be in view to determine 
lateral guidance (2D position). Four satellites must be in view to 
provide both lateral and vertical guidance (3D position). 

3. GPS IN THE NATIONAL AIRSPACE SYSTEM (NAS) 

a. General. GPS Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) operations for en 
route (oceanic and domestic), terminal, and nonprecision 
approach phases of flight can be conducted when GPS avionics 
approved for IFR are installed in the aircraft. This equipment 
should be installed in accordance with AC 20-138 and the 
provisions of the applicable Approved Flight Manual (AFM) or 
Flight Manual supplement should be met. The required integrity 
for these operations is provided by Receiver Autonomous Integrity 
Monitoring (RAIM), or an equivalent method. For air carrier 
operations, operations specification approval is required to use 
GPS. 

b. Oceanic En Route. Aircraft using GPS equipment under IFR 
must be equipped with an approved and operational alternate 
means of navigation (such as VOR, NDB, or an approved long 
range navigation system such as Loran or Omega) appropriate for 
the intended route to be flown. Active monitoring (cross 
checking) of the alternate equipment is not necessary for 
installations which use RAIM for integrity monitoring. For these 
systems, active monitoring by the flight crew is only required 
when the RAIM capability is lost. 

Note: Outside of the National Airspace System (NAS), GPS may 
be used as a Long Range Navigation System (LRNS). On those 
routes requiring two long range navigation systems, a GPS 
installation with TSO C-129 authorization in Class Al, A2, Bl, 
B2, Cl, or C2 may be used to replace or supplement one of the 
other approved means of LRNS's, such as one unit of a dual INS 


07.3 


or one unit of a dual Omega system. On those routes requiring a 
single LRNS, a GPS unit which provides for integrity monitoring 
may be used as the LRNS and active monitoring of the alternate 
equipment is only required when the RAIM capability is lost. 

GPS may not be approved in other countries. Pilots should ensure 
that GPS is authorized by the appropriate sovereign state prior to 
its use within that state. 

c. Domestic En Route. The aircraft must also have navigational 
equipment installed and operational that can receive the ground- 
based facilities required for the route to the destination airport and 
any required alternate. The ground-based facilities necessary for 
these routes must also be operational. These ground-based 
systems do not have to be actively used to monitor the GPS 
avionics unless RAIM failure occurs. Within the contiguous 
United States, Alaska, Hawaii, and surrounding coastal waters, 
this requirement may be met with an operational independent 
VOR, NDB, TACAN, or Loran-C receiver in addition to the GPS 
system for IFR operation. 

Note: GPS may not be approved for IFR use in other countries. 
Pilots should ensure that GPS is authorized by the appropriate 
sovereign state prior to its use. 

d. Terminal. GPS IFR operations for the terminal phases of flight. 
Standard Instrument Departures (SIDs), and Standard Terminal 
Arrival Routes (STARs) should be conducted the same as existing 
RNAV procedures dictate. The aircraft also must have 
navigational equipment installed and operational that can receive 
all the ground-based facilities appropriate to the route of flight. 
The ground-based facilities necessary for these routes must also be 
operational; however, they do not have to be actively used to 
monitor the GPS avionics unless the RAIM fails. 

e. Approach Overlay Program. To accelerate the availability of 
instrument approach procedures to be flown using certified GPS 
equipment, the FAA developed the GPS Approach Overlay 
Program. This program allows pilots to use GPS equipment to fly 
existing VOR, VOR/DME, NDB, NDB/DME, TACAN, and 
RNAV nonprecision instrument approach procedures. The 
approach overlay program is limited to U.S. airspace. GPS 
instrument approach operations outside the U.S. must be 
authorized by the appropriate sovereign state. The purpose of the 


07.4 


approach overlay program is to permit pilots to transition from 
ground-based to satellite-based navigation technology for 
instrument approaches. GPS equipment may be used to fly all 
nonprecision instrument approach procedures that are retrieved 
from a database, except localizer, localizer directional aid (LDA), 
and simplified directional facility (SDF) approach procedures. 

Any required alternate airport must have an approved instrument 
approach procedure, other than GPS or Loran-C, which is 
anticipated to be operational at the estimated time of arrival. The 
approach overlay program consists of three phases. Each phase 
has specific provisions and limitations as presented below. 

(1) Phase I. This phase ended in February 1994, the date when 
the FAA declared GPS operational for civil operations. 

(2) Phase II. This phase began on February 17, 1994 when the 
FAA declared the system suitable for civil operations. 
Certified GPS equipment can be used as the primary IFR 
flight guidance to fly an overlay to an existing nonprecision 
approach without actively monitoring the applicable 
NAVAID(s) which define the approach being used. 
However, the underlying ground-based NAVAID(s) 
required for the published approach must be operational 
and the associated avionics must be installed and 
operational. The avionics need not be operating during the 
approach if RAIM is providing integrity. Pilots can tell 
that Phase II applies because ’’GPS" is not included in the 
title of the approach. 

(3) Phase III. Phase III began April 28, 1994, when the first 
instrument approach procedures were published to include 
"or GPS" in the title of the published approach procedure. 
Neither the aircraft traditional avionics nor the underlying 
ground station NAVAID(s) need be installed, operational, 
or monitored to fly the nonprecision approaches at the 
destination airport. For GPS systems that do not use RAIM 
for integrity, the ground-based NAVAID(s) and the 
airborne avionics that provide the equivalent integrity must 
be installed and operating during the approach. For any 
required alternate airport, the traditional ground-based and 
airborne navigational equipment that defines the 
instrument approach procedure and route to the alternate 
must be installed and operational. 


07.5 



f. GPS Stand-Alone Approaches. Stand alone nonprecision 
approaches, which are not overlaid on an existing approach, are 
the next step beyond the overlay program. The first stand-alone 
GPS approaches were published on July 21, 1994. The airborne 
and ground-based NAVAID requirements are the same for GPS 
stand alone approaches as for Phase III overlay approaches. 

g. Overlay and Stand-Alone Approaches. There will continue to be 
a mixture of nonprecision Phase II, Phase III, and GPS stand¬ 
alone approaches in the U.S. NAS for some time. Most 
nonprecision instrument approach procedures in the U.S. (except 
localizer, LDA, and SDF) are available under Phase II of the 
overlay program. Eventually, these approaches may become 
Phase III approaches as they change to include "or GPS" in their 
titles. Additionally, the FAA will continue to develop and 
authorize stand alone GPS approaches. 

4. GPS EQUIPMENT CLASSES A(), B(). AND C(). 

GPS equipment is categorized into the following classes: 

a. Class A(). Equipment incorporating both the GPS sensor and 
navigating capability. This equipment incorporates Receiver 
Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM). Class A1 equipment 
includes en route, terminal, and nonprecision approach (except 
localizer, localizer directional aid (LDA), and simplified 
directional facility (SDF)) navigation capability. Class A2 
equipment includes en route and terminal navigation capability 
only. 

b. Class B(). Equipment consisting of a GPS sensor that provides 
data to an integrated navigation system (i.e., flight management 
system, multi-sensor navigation system, etc.). Class B1 
equipment includes RAIM and provides en route, terminal, and 
nonprecision approach (except localizer, LDA, and SDF) 
capability. Class B2 equipment includes RAIM and provides en 
route and terminal capability only. Class B3 equipment requires 
the integrated navigation system to provide a level of GPS 
integrity equivalent to RAIM and provides en route, terminal, and 
nonprecision approach (except localizer, LDA, and SDF) 
capability. Class B4 equipment requires the integrated navigation 


07.6 


system to provide a level of GPS integrity equivalent to RAIM and 
provides en route and terminal capability only. 

c. Class C(). Equipment consisting of a GPS sensor that provides 
data to an integrated navigation system (i.e., flight management 
system, multi-sensor navigation system, etc.) which provides 
enhanced guidance to an autopilot or flight director in order to 
reduce flight technical errors Class Cl equipment includes RAIM 
and provides en route, terminal, and nonprecision approach (except 
localizer, LDA, and SDF) capability. Class C2 equipment includes 
RAIM and provides en route and terminal capability only. Class C3 
equipment requires the integrated navigation system to provide a 
level of GPS integrity equivalent to RAIM and provides en route, 
terminal, and nonprecision approach (except localizer, LDA, and 
SDF) capability. Class C4 equipment requires the integrated 
navigation system to provide a level of GPS integrity equivalent to 
RAIM and provides en route and terminal capability only. 


07.7 



Figure 1. GPS Equipment Classes 
5. GPS SYSTEM ACCURACY/ERRORS. 


GPS equipment determines its position by precise measurement of the 
distance from selected satellites in the system, and the satellites' 
known location. Accuracy measurements are affected by satellite 
geometry which multiplies the effect of other errors in the system, 
slight inaccuracies in the satellite clocks, receiver processing, signal 
reflections, and predictions of current satellite position that are 
transmitted to the receiver in the satellite data message. 


07*8 


































a. Selective Availability (SA). A method by which the DOD can 
artificially create errors in the signals from the satellites. This 
feature is designed to deny a potential enemy the use of precise 
GPS positioning data. This is the largest source of error in the 
GPS system. When SA is active, the DOD guarantees that the 
horizontal position accuracy will not be degraded beyond 100 
meters (328 feet) 95 percent of the time and 300 meters (984 feet) 
99.99 percent of the time. 

b. Reducing Errors. The accuracy of GPS position data can be 
affected by equipment and the satellite geometry being received. 
Many of these errors can be reduced or eliminated with 
mathematics and sophisticated modeling provided by the airborne 
receiver. Other sources of error cannot be corrected. 


SECTION 2. AIRBORNE NAVIGATION DATABASES. 

1. REQUIREMENT FOR A DATABASE. 

To conduct IFR operations using GPS equipment to navigate in the 
U.S. NAS and oceanic airspace, the aircraft GPS equipment must 
include an updatable navigation database. That database will support 
en route and terminal operations; or en route, terminal, and 
nonprecision instrument approach (except localizer, EDA, and SDF) 
operations. 

a. Geographic Area of Content. Airborne navigation databases 
contain data covering the geographic areas where GPS navigation 
systems have been certified for IFR use. Data may cover large 
geographic areas or small user-defined areas within the U.S. NAS 
and related oceanic areas. 

b. Database Description. GPS airborne navigation databases are 
provided initially by the receiver manufacturer and updated by the 
manufacturer or a designated data agency. The databases contain 
records of location information by latitude and longitude to a 
resolution of 0.01 minutes or better for the area(s) in which IFR 
operations are approved. The database is user selectable which 
allows the pilot to make specific selections during flight 
operations to support navigational needs. The database may also 


07.9 


be user defined in that the information is tailored to the 
requirements of a user. 

Note: Manual entry/update of data in the navigation database shall 
not be possible. (This requirement does not prevent the storage of 
"user-defined data" within the equipment.) 

c. Update of Data. Waypoint information is provided and 
maintained by the National Flight Data Center (NFDC). The data 
is typically updated at regular intervals such as the internationally 
agreed upon Aeronautical Information Regulation and Control 
(AIRAC) cycle of every 28 days. 

d. Geodetic Reference Datum. The GPS equipment derives position 
information referenced to the World Geodetic System of 1984 
(WGS-84). Databases produced for use in the contiguous United 
States, Alaska, and Hawaii contain coordinates of location 
information referenced to the North American Datum of 1983 
(NAD 83). For this Advisory Circular, coordinates of locations 
referenced to NAD 83 are compatible with the coordinates of the 
same locations referenced to WGS-84. 

2. EN ROUTE (OCEANIC AND DOMESTIC) AND TERMINAL 
NAVIGATION. 

Navigation databases supporting GPS equipment certified for en route 
(including en route oceanic and en route domestic) and terminal 
operations contain, as a minimum, all airports, VORs, VORTACs, 
NDBs, and all named waypoints and intersections shown on en route 
and terminal area charts, SIDs, and STARs. The databases 
incorporate information from the geographic areas of the contiguous 
United States, Alaska, Hawaii, and surrounding coastal waters 
including waypoints and intersections for oceanic flight between the 
United States and Hawaii. For oceanic flights outside the NAS, user 
selectable data is available for most GPS receivers. 

a. In the terminal area, the database will include waypoints for SIDs 
and STARs as well as other flight operations from the beginning 
of a departure to the en route structure or from an en route fix to 
the beginning of an approach procedure. 

b. All named waypoints are identified with a five-letter alpha 
character name provided by the NFDC. Waypoints unnamed by 


07.10 


the NFDC, such as a DME fix, are assigned a coded name in the 
database (refer to the sample approach plates in appendix 1). 

c. Waypoint latitude and longitude coordinates are typically 
displayed in degrees, minutes, and tenths of minutes or 
hundredths of minutes. However, this may vary between 
equipment manufacturers. 

3. INSTRUMENT APPROACH PROCEDURE NAVIGATION. 

In addition to the data which supports en route and terminal 
operations, a navigation database that supports GPS overlay 
nonprecision instrument approaches (except localizer, EDA, and SDF) 
contains coordinates for the waypoints, fixes, and NAVAIDs published 
in FAR Part 97, Standard Instrument Approach Procedures. Special 
instrument approach procedure data may be included at the request of 
those operators authorized to use the procedures. Data for approach 
procedures into military airports also may be included if the 
procedures are available, and authorized for civil operations. In 
addition, all waypoints to support GPS stand alone approaches are also 
contained in the database. 

4. THE GPS APPROACH OVERLAY PROGRAM. 

The navigation database coding should not change during any phase of 
the GPS Approach Overlay Program, except for modifications 
necessary to support changing rules and/or technology. Approaches 
coded into the database are limited to U.S. airspace. Approaches for 
other airspace will not be included until authorized by the FAA as well 
as the appropriate sovereign authority. Whether or not an approach is 
included in the database depends on its codability and flyability using 
GPS equipment. Therefore, FAR Part 97, military, and special 
approaches are classified into codable and non-codable nonprecision 
instrument approaches. 

Note: An aircraft is not authorized to fly any IFR approach using 
GPS unless that instrument approach procedure is retrievable frorn 
the navigation database. 

a. Codable Approach Procedures. The navigation database contains 
latitude and longitude coordinates for waypoints, fixes, and 
NAVAIDs for those FAR Part 97 civil use, and military, 
nonprecision approaches considered codable for database purposes 


07.11 


and considered safe to fly by the FAA using normal piloting 
techniques. Special approaches may be included at authorized 
user request. 

b. Non-Codable Approach Procedures. Certain FAR Part 97 
nonprecision instrument approaches as well as some military and 
special procedures may present an unresolvable coding situation 
relating to database or equipment interface constraints. An 
approach may be determined to be not codable or not flyable by 
the regulatory agency having jurisdiction (FAA), by the database 
coding agency, or by the manufacturer of the navigation 
equipment. In addition, some procedures may, in the opinion of 
the FAA, present a potential safety hazard to normal piloting 
techniques using GPS equipment. These procedures will not be 
included in navigation databases. Approach procedures that are 
omitted from the database can not be legally flown using GPS 
navigation equipment. 

c. Waypoints. As a minimum, the GPS Approach Overlay Program 
requires that the databases contain waypoints representing the 
lAF, FAF, MAP, and the missed approach holding point for each 
VOR, VOR/DME, NDB, NDB/DME, TACAN, and RNAV 
nonprecision instrument approach procedure. Intermediate Fixes 
(IFs) and all named fixes are also included. All waypoints are 
displayed in the same sequence as they are presented on the 
published nonprecision instrument approach procedure charts. 

Note: User modification or entry of data associated with published 
instrument approach procedures is not possible, and not 
authorized. 

(1) Waypoint data utilized in nonprecision instrument approach 
procedures is stored by name or ident, and latitude and 
longitude. The waypoints are not designated in terms of 
bearing (or radial) and distance to/from a reference location. 

(2) Waypoints that define the MAP and Missed Approach 
Holding Point (MAHWP) are always coded as "fly over." This 
type of waypoint requires the aircraft to pass directly over it. 

(3) When turn anticipation is expected at an lAF or other 
waypoint the waypoint is coded as "fly by." 


07.12 


d. Waypoint Names Coded in the Navigation Database. Flying an 
FAR Part 97 or military nonprecision instrument approach 
procedure using GPS equipment should be transparent to air 
traffic control. Therefore, if a pilot has a clearance for the 
VOR/DME to runway 35, the same track is flown whether using 
GPS equipment or VOR and DME equipment. Therefore, 
waypoints coded in the navigation database reflect exactly those 
names appearing on the instrument approach procedure. For 
example, if an lAF or other fix is assigned a pronounceable five- 
letter alpha character name, it will be the same name coded in the 
database, the name which will appear on the avionics display, the 
name appearing on a chart, and the name verbally used by ATC. 

If no five character name is published for the approach waypoint 
or fix, it will normally be coded with a database identifier. A pilot 
must associate the coded name appearing on the display with the 
position shown on the chart. However, these coded names may 
not be known or used by ATC. 

(1) Initial Approach Waypoint. 

(i) If the lAF is a named waypoint or fix, then the same 
name is used for the lAF waypoint in the database. If the 
lAF is a NAVAID, the lAF waypoint is coded with the 
NAVAID identifier. 

(ii) A database identifier is provided for an unnamed lAF. 

(iii) When an lAF is the beginning of a DME arc segment, 
the lAF is often unnamed, but is marked by a radial 
intersecting the arc. In these cases, the unnamed lAF 
waypoint is coded in the database to represent the 
beginning of the DME arc. An example of one method 
of identifying the beginning of the arc is shown in the 
Lake Charles, LA chart example in appendix 1. 

(2) Turning points in the Initial Segment. An initial segment 
may incorporate a named or unnamed turn point to intercept 
a course. 

(i) In some cases, a waypoint may be established at a turn 
point where a dead reckoning heading intersects the 
course. This waypoint is coded into the waypoint 

07.13 


sequence for GPS navigation, but may not be named on a 
chart. 

(ii) A turn point may be defined by the intersection of two 
NAVAID radials or bearings. In this case, a waypoint 
name appears in the sequence. 

(3) Intermediate Waypoint. If the IF is a named waypoint or fix, 
then the same name is used for the IF waypoint in the 
database. If the IF is a NAVAID, the IF waypoint is coded 
with the NAVAID identifier. An unnamed IF is assigned a 
database identifier. 

(4) Final Approach Waypoint. 

(i) Procedures With a Final Approach Fix (FAF). If the 
FAF is a named waypoint or fix, the same name is used 
for the FAF waypoint in the database sequence. If the 
FAF is a NAVAID, the waypoint is coded with the 
NAVAID identifier in the waypoint sequence. An 
unnamed FAF, such as a DME fix, is coded with a 
descriptive FAF waypoint related to the NAVAID 
providing final approach course guidance. It also 
appears in the waypoint sequence. 

(ii) Procedures Without a Final Approach Fix. Procedures 
without a FAF and without a stepdown fix have a Sensor 
FAF waypoint coded in the database at least 4 nm to the 
MAP waypoint. (The MAP, in this case, is always 
located at the NAVAID facility.) A Sensor FAF is a final 
approach waypoint created and added to the database 
sequence of waypoints to support GPS navigation of an 
FAA published, no-FAF, nonprecision instrument 
approach procedure. The coded name or Sensor FAF 
appears in the waypoint sequence. If a stepdown fix 
exists on the published procedure and it is greater than 2 
nm to the MAP, the stepdown fix is coded in the database 
as the Sensor FAF waypoint for the waypoint sequence. 

If a stepdown fix distance is 2 nm or less to the MAP, a 
Sensor FAF waypoint is coded at least 4 nm to the MAP. 

(5) Missed Approach Waypoint. When a missed approach point 
is located at the NAVAID, the MAP waypoint is coded in the 


07.14 



sequence at the NAVAID position using the NAVAID 
identifier. When the missed approach is initiated near the 
runway threshold (timed approach) or at a specified DME 
distance from a NAVAID, a MAP waypoint is created and 
coded in the database (see approach plates in appendix 1). 

(6) Missed Approach Holding Points. Missed approach holding 
points are normally at a NAVAID or named fix. Therefore, 
the NAVAID identifier or the fix name is coded in the 
database as the missed approach holding waypoint and 
appears in the waypoint sequence. 

(7) Waypoints and Fixes not Coded for the GPS Approach 
Overlay Program. A Visual Descent Point (VDP) is a fix 
appearing on some published nonprecision approach 
procedures that is not included in the sequence of waypoints. 
Pilots are expected to use normal piloting techniques for 
beginning the visual descent. In addition, unnamed stepdown 
fixes in the final approach segment will not be coded in the 
waypoint sequence unless the stepdown fix is used as a Sensor 
FAF on a no-FAF procedure. 

e. Approach Selection Process/Menu Sluing. Pilots normally 
retrieve instrument approach procedures from the database 
through a menu selection process. An example of a menu 
selection is included in the Pilot Operations/Procedures section of 
this AC. No manual waypoint loading will be required or allowed, 
although some pilot action is required during certain segments of 
the approach. 

Note: This process may vary from one avionics manufacturer to 
another; therefore, pilots must be thoroughly familiar with the 
FAA Approved Flight Manual or Flight Manual supplement. 

f. Waypoint Sequence. The sequence of waypoints in the database 
and those displayed by the equipment will consist of, as a 
minimum, waypoints representing the selected lAF and its 
associated IFs (when applicable), FAF, MAP, and the MAHWP. 

g. Relationship of Avionics Displayed Waypoints to Charted Data. 
The GPS Approach Overlay Program waypoints contained in the 
database represent the waypoints, fixes, NAVAIDs, and other 
points portrayed on a published approach procedure beginning at 


07.15 


the initial approach fix. Certain unnamed points and fixes 
appearing on a chart are assigned a database identifier. There is 
no requirement to furnish charts with these database identifiers; 
however, charting agencies may incorporate them at their 
discretion. 

Note: Database identifiers should not be used for pilot/controller 
communications and flight planning. 

h. Differences Between Displayed and Charted Navigation 
Information. There may be slight differences between the 
navigation information portrayed on the chart and the GPS 
navigation display. Course differences will occur due to an 
equipment manufacturer's application of magnetic variation. 
Distance differences will occur due to the mismatch between GPS 
ATD values and the DME values published on underlying 
procedures. 

5. THE GPS STAND ALONE APPROACH. 

A sequence of waypoints defining the point to point track to be flown 
will be coded in the database including the initial approach waypoint, 
intermediate waypoint, final approach waypoint, missed approach 
waypoint, missed approach turning waypoint, and missed approach 
holding waypoint. All waypoints, except a missed approach waypoint 
at the runway threshold, will be named with a five-letter alpha 
character name. Missed approach waypoints at the threshold will be 
assigned a database identifier. The sequence of waypoints appearing 
in the display should be identical to the waypoint sequence appearing 
on an associated approach chart. 


SECTION 3. PILOT OPERATIONS/PROCEDURES. 

1. APPLICABILITY. 

a. The guidance provided in this AC applies to instrument rated 
pilots using GPS and operating under Federal Aviation 
Regulations (FAR) Part 91. 

b. Pilots conducting GPS IFR operations under FAR Parts 121, 129, 
and 135 should meet the appropriate provisions of their approved 
operations specifications. 


07.16 



2. PREFLIGHT. 


a. General. All GPS IFR operations should be conducted in 
accordance with the FAA Approved Flight Manual (AFM) or 
Flight Manual Supplement. Prior to an IFR flight using GPS, the 
pilot should ensure that the GPS equipment and the installation 
are approved and certified for the intended IFR operation. The 
equipment should be operated in accordance with the provisions 
of the applicable AFM. All pilots must be thoroughly familiar 
with the GPS equipment installed in the aircraft and its 
limitations. 

b. GPS Receivers. The pilot should follow the specific start-up and 
self-test procedures for the GPS receiver as outlined in the FAA 
AFM or Flight Manual Supplement. 

c. NOTAMs. Prior to any GPS IFR operation, the pilot should 
review the appropriate NOTAMs. NOTAMs will be issued to 
announce outages for specific GPS satellite vehicles, by pseudo 
random noise (PRN) number and satellite vehicle number (SVN). 
GPS NOTAMs are issued under the identifier "GPS". Pilots may 
obtain GPS NOTAM information by request to the FSS briefer or 
by requesting NOTAMS, using the identifier "GPS", through the 
Direct User Access Terminal System (DUATS). Pilots should 
review the NOTAMs for the underlying approach procedure. 
When executing a Phase II approach, pilots should ensure the 
ground-based facilities upon which the approach is based are 
operational. If an approach is not authorized due to an 
inoperative navigation facility, the associated Phase II GPS 
approach is not authorized. 

d. The pilot must select the appropriate airport(s), run way/approach 
procedure, and initial approach fix on the aircraft's GPS receiver 
to determine RAIM integrity for that approach. Air Traffic 
Control specialists are not provided any information about the 
operational integrity of the system. This is especially important 
when the pilot has been "Cleared for the Approach." Procedures 
should be established by the pilot in the event that GPS navigation 
outages are predicted or occur. In these situations, the pilot 
should rely on other approved equipment, delay departure, or 
cancel the flight. 


07.17 



e. Aircraft that are navigating by GPS are considered to be RNAV- 
equipped aircraft and the appropriate equipment suffix should be 
included in the Air Traffic Control (ATC) flight plan. Most GPS 
equipment would file as a /R. Users should consult the latest 
edition of the Airmen's Information Manual (AIM) for the proper 
equipment suffix. If the GPS avionics becomes inoperative, the 
pilot should advise ATC and amend the equipment suffix. 

3. EN ROUTE OCEANIC. 

Oceanic operation is defined as that phase of flight between the 
departure and arrival terminal phases with an extended flight path 
over oceanic areas. In addition to the criteria outlined in paragraph 
3.b.(l), the aircraft should be equipped with other approved means of 
navigation appropriate for the intended route of flight, such as INS or 
Omega. This navigation equipment must be operational, but it does 
not have to be actively monitored unless the RAIM capability of the 
system fails. The purpose of the backup system is to ensure that the 
flight has the capability to continue to the destination if something 
unforeseen occurs to the GPS constellation. 


4. EN ROUTE DOMESTIC AND TERMINAL. 

Domestic en route operations are defined as that phase of flight 
between departure and arrival terminal phases, with departure and 
arrival points within the U.S. NAS. Terminal area operations include 
those flight phases conducted on charted Standard Instrument 
Departures (SIDs), on Standard Terminal Arrival Routes (STARs), or 
during other flight operations between the last en route fix/waypoint 
and an initial approach fix/waypoint. In addition to the criteria 
outlined in paragraph 3.b.(l), the following criteria applies: 

a. Other navigation equipment should be installed and operational to 
receive the intended ground-based facilities which define the route 
to be flown to the destination and any required alternate. 

b. Ground-based facilities which define these routes must also be 
operational. 

c. Aircraft should be equipped with an approved and operational 
alternate means of navigation appropriate to the route being 


07*18 


flown. This navigation equipment must be operational, but it does 
not have to be actively monitored unless the RAIM capability of 
the system fails. The purpose of these backup systems is to ensure 
that the aircraft can continue to the destination if something 
unforeseen occurs to the avionics or GPS constellation. 

5. OVERLAY APPROACH. 

In order to accelerate the availability of nonprecision instrument 
approach procedures that can be flown using certified GPS equipment, 
the FAA has authorized the GPS Approach Overlay Program. This 
program allows pilots to use GPS equipment to fly existing VOR, 
VOR/DME, NDB, NDB/DME, and RNAV nonprecision instrument 
approach procedures. The purpose of this program is to permit pilots 
to transition from ground-based to satellite-based navigation 
technology for instrument approaches. Approach operations are 
defined as that phase of flight from the Initial Approach Fix (lAF) to 
the Missed Approach Point (MAP) when flying an established 
nonprecision procedure. The approaches to be flown with GPS must 
be retrieved from the avionics database. (Refer to Section 2, "Airborne 
Navigation Databases" for a more detailed description of the required 
database.) GPS equipment may be used to fly all codable nonprecision 
instrument approach procedures, except localizer (LOG), localizer 
directional aid (LDA), and simplified directional facility (SDF) 
approach procedures. Any required alternate airport should have an 
approved instrument approach procedure (other than GPS or LORAN- 
C) which is anticipated to be operational at the estimated time of 
arrival. The program has progressed through three phases. Each 
phase has specific provisions and limitations. 

a. Phase I. This phase ended in February 1994 when the FAA 
declared GPS operational for civil operations. 

b. Phase II. This phase began on February 17, 1994 when the FAA 
declared the system suitable for civil IFR operations. GPS 
equipment can be used as the primary IFR flight guidance during 
a nonprecision approach without actively monitoring the 
applicable NAVAID(s) which define the approach being used. 
However, the traditional ground-based NAVAID(s) required for 
the published approach and alternate should be operational and 
the associated avionics should be installed and operational. The 
avionics need not be operating during the approach if RAIM 
provides integrity for the approach. Equipment that does not use 


07.19 


RAIM for approach integrity is required to use ground-based 
NAVAIDs and operational airborne avionics. The approach 
should be requested and approved by its published name, such as 
"NDB Runway 24," "VOR Runway 24." Modification of the 
published instrument approach name is not required for Phase 11. 

c. Phase III (After Name Modification). Phase III requires 
modification of the instrument approach procedure name to 
include "or GPS" in the title of the published approach procedure. 
Neither the aircraft traditional avionics nor the ground station 
NAVAID(s) need be operational or monitored to fly nonprecision 
approaches at the destination airport if RAIM is providing 
integrity for the approach. For systems that do not use RAIM for 
approach integrity the ground-based NAVAIDs and operational 
airborne avionics needed to provide RAIM equivalency should be 
installed and operational. For any required alternate airport, the 
ground-based and airborne navigational equipment that defines 
the instrument approach procedure and route to the alternate 
should be installed and operational. The Phase III published 
approach will include the underlying NAVAID and GPS in the 
title; however, the type of approach must be specifically requested 
and approved. For example, when electing to use GPS for the 
"VOR or GPS RWY 24" approach, the approach should be 
requested and approved as "GPS RWY 24". When electing to use 
the VOR for the approach, the approach should be requested and 
approved as "VOR RWY 24". 

d. Additional criteria for all Phases. For all phases of the Approach 
Overlay Program, civil aircraft are not authorized to use GPS to 
fly any segment of any instrument approach under IFR weather 
conditions unless the following criteria are met: 

(1) The GPS avionics used to fly any nonprecision instrument 
approach must be certified to TSO Cl29 or equivalent 
criteria. The installation in the aircraft should be in 
accordance with AC 20-138 and the provisions of the 
applicable Approved Flight Manual (AFM) or Flight Manual 
supplement should be met. 

(2) The airborne navigation database should contain all 
waypoints for the published nonprecision approaches to be 
flown. The use of non-differential GPS equipment is not 
authorized for LOC, LDA, and SDF approaches. 


07.20 


(3) The approach cannot be flown unless that instrument 
approach is retrievable from the avionics database. Some 
approach procedures are not included in the database due to 
safety reasons or non-codability. It is the responsibility of the 
pilot to determine if the intended approach procedure is in the 
database. 

(4) The GPS avionics should store all waypoints depicted in the 
approach to be flown, and present them in the same as the 
published nonprecision instmment approach procedure chart. 

(5) Approaches must be flown in accordance with the FAA AFM 
or Flight Manual Supplement and the procedure depicted on 
the appropriate instrument approach chart. 

(6) Any required alternate airport should have an approved 
instrument approach procedure, other than GPS or Loran-C, 
which is anticipated to be operational at the estimated arrival 
time. The aircraft should have the appropriate avionics 
installed and operational to receive the navigational aids. 

The pilot is responsible for checking NOTAMs to determine 
the operational status of the alternate airport navigational 
aids. 

(7) The general approval to use GPS to fly overlay instrument 
approaches is initially limited to the U.S. National Airspace 
System (NAS). GPS instrument approach operations outside 
the United States also should be authorized by the appropriate 
sovereign authority. 

(8) Procedures should be established by the pilot in the event that 
GPS outages occur. In these situations, the pilot should rely 
on other approved equipment, delay departure, or discontinue 
IFR operations. 

6. PILOT OPERATIONS. 

a. Usually, flying a GPS overlay nonprecision instrument approach 
procedure is identical to a traditional approach. The differences 
include the navigational information displayed on the GPS 
equipment and the terminology used to describe some of the 
features. Flying the GPS stand-alone approach is normally point 


07.21 


to point navigation and independent of any ground-based 
NAVAIDs. Appendix I contains sample charts with a brief 
explanation of how pilot operations are affected by the GPS 
approach operations. Appendix 2 contains a glossary with 
definitions to some of the unique terminology of GPS approaches. 

(1) Straight line (TO-TO) flight from waypoint to waypoint, as 
sequenced in the database, does not assure compliance with 
the published approach procedure. Should differences 
between the approach chart and database arise, the published 
approach chart, supplemented by NOTAMs, holds 
precedence. 

(2) Pilots should be aware that when flying a GPS overlay 
approach, a charted track defined by a VOR may differ 
slightly from the course to be flown as indicated by the GPS 
avionics. All magnetic tracks defined by a VOR radial are 
determined by the application of a VOR station variation; 
however, GPS operations use an algorithm to apply the 
current local magnetic variation. Therefore, a difference 
between the charted course and the GPS display may occur. 
Either method of navigation, VOR or GPS, should produce 
the same desired ground track. 

b. Selecting the Approach. 

(1) To begin the overlay or stand-alone approach, the pilot must 
first select the appropriate airport, runway/approach 
procedure, and initial approach fix. 

Note: The actual procedures, for making these selections, may 
vary from one avionics manufacturer to another; therefore, 
the pilot must be thoroughly familiar with the avionics 
manufacturer specifications. 

(2) Pilots must arm (enable) approach mode prior to the lAF. 

This enables the equipment GDI sensitivity to increase from 5 
nm either side of centerline to 1 nm at the appropriate time. 
Where the lAF is beyond the 30 mile point, GDI sensitivity 
will not change until the aircraft reaches 30 miles. Where the 
lAF is at or inside the 30 mile point, GDI sensitivity change 
will occur at the time approach mode is armed. Should the 
pilot fail to arm approach mode prior to the lAF, the 


07.22 



equipment will provide an aural and/or visual alarm to warn 
the pilot to do so. Should the pilot ignore the warning and 
fail to arm approach mode, the equipment will provide a 2nd 
and final warning at approximately 3 nm from the FAF. If 
the pilot yet fails again to arm approach mode, the equipment 
will flag and GPS navigation guidance will not be provided 
beyond the FAF. The specific method by which the GPS 
equipment provides these warnings is up to the manufacturer, 
and is explained in the Flight Manual Supplement. 

(3) The equipment will automatically present the waypoints from 
the initial approach fix to the missed approach holding point. 
An example of the selection process that a pilot should make 
and the automatic presentation of waypoints is shown in 
figure 2 which was taken from the Lake Charles, Louisiana 
overlay approach chart in appendix 1. The example is for 
illustration purposes only. 

(4) At the MAP, the equipment will not automatically sequence 
to the next required waypoint; therefore, the pilot must 
manually sequence the GPS equipment to the next waypoint. 

(5) With Radar Vectors (RV), the pilot may be required to 
manually select the next waypoint so that GPS is correctly 
using the appropriate database points and associated flight 
paths. 

. Initial Approach Segment. The following are some of the unique 

characteristics a pilot should be aware of during the initial 

approach segment of a nonprecision GPS approach. 

(1) Arc Procedures. Arc procedures will only be encountered 
with overlay approaches. The method for navigating on arcs 
may vary with the manufacturer and pilots should use the 
procedures specified in the applicable AFM. It is not 
uncommon for an aircraft to be vectored onto the arc by ATC 
at a point other than the lAF for the arc. In these cases, the 
pilot should manually sequence the waypoints to the arc 
segment of the approach. 

(2) Course Reversal Procedure. When performing a course 
reversal, such as a procedure turn or holding pattern in lieu of 
a procedure turn, the GPS equipment provides the capability 

07.23 


for the pilot to change from the automatic waypoint 
sequencing to manual. The course reversal is flown using 
normal piloting techniques. The reversal and the return to 
automatic sequencing should be completed when established 
inbound on the final approach course to, but outside of the 
active waypoint. 

Note; The method or procedure used to switch the equipment 
from automatic sequencing to manual may vary between 
manufacturers. Pilots should use the procedure specified in 
the applicable AFM. 

(3) Turn Points in the Initial Segment. In some cases, a turn 
point is incorporated in the initial approach segment. Note: It 
is important to recognize that the turn point may be either a 
named or coded waypoint. 

d. Intermediate Approach Segment. If an Intermediate Fix (IF) or 
waypoint is part of the instrument approach procedure, it is 
included in the database and is used the same as in a ground- 
based procedure. 

e. Final Approach Segment. The following are some of the unique 
characteristics a pilot should be aware of during the final 
approach segment of a nonprecision GPS approach. 

(1) Final Approach Fix (FAF) - Overlay Approach. In the 

Approach Overlay Program, the GPS equipment may display 
a FAF waypoint not depicted on the approach chart. 
Procedures without a FAF and without a stepdown fix have a 
sensor FAF waypoint coded in the database. This sensor FAF 
waypoint is at least 4 nm to the MAP waypoint. In this case, 
the MAP waypoint is always located at the NAVAID facility. 
If a stepdown fix exists on the published procedure that is 
greater than 2 nm to the MAP, the stepdown fix becomes the 
sensor FAF waypoint. If a stepdown fix is 2 nm or less to the 
MAP, a sensor FAF waypoint is established 4 nm to the 
MAP. The sensor FAF is necessary to transition the display 
sensitivity on the GPS equipment from terminal to approach 
sensitivity. During communications with ATC, the pilot 
should make position reports based on charted positions, not 
the display on the GPS equipment, since the controller does 


07*24 


not have access to this information. Examples of these 
situations are shown in the sample charts in appendix 1. 

(2) Final Approach Waypoint - GPS Stand-Alone Approach. 

The final approach waypoint for a GPS stand alone approach 
will be a standard named waypoint normally located 5 
nautical miles from the runway end. 

(3) Course Sensitivity. The Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) 
sensitivity related to GPS equipment varies with the mode of 
operation. In the en route phase, prior to the execution of the 
instrument approach, the display sensitivity full-scale 
deflection is 5 nm either side of centerline. 

(i) Upon activation of the approach mode, the display 
sensitivity transitions from a full scale deflection of 5 nm 
to 1 nm either side of centerline. 

(ii) At a distance of 2 nm inbound to the FAF waypoint, the 
display sensitivity begins to transition to a full scale 
deflection of 0.3 nautical miles either side of centerline. 
Some GPS avionics may provide an angular display 
between the FAF and MAP that approximates the course 
sensitivity of the localizer portion of an ILS. 

(iii) When navigation to the missed approach holding point is 
activated, the display sensitivity transitions to provide a 
full-scale deflection of 1 nautical mile either side of 
centerline. 

(4) Stepdown Fixes. A stepdown fix is flown in the same manner 
as a ground-based approach. Stepdown fixes on overlay 
approaches will not be identified with a waypoint unless it is 
named by the FAA. An unnamed stepdown fix will not 
appear in the database sequence of waypoints. Pilots should 
be aware that the distance readout in the GPS display equates 
to the distance-to-go to the active waypoint. If the stepdown 
fix has not been assigned a waypoint name in the database 
(for overlay approach stepdown fixes), the distance-to-go 
readout may not correspond to the DME distance of the 
stepdown fix shown on the published approach chart. The 
pilot should monitor the along track distance (ATD) to the 
MAP to identify the stepdown fix. For stand alone GPS 


07.25 


procedures, any required stepdown fixes prior to the missed 
approach waypoint will be identified by along track distances. 

Note: An approach fix identified by a DME will not be 
displayed on the GPS receiver unless there is a published 
name assigned to the DME fix. If the fix is not assigned a 
waypoint name, the distance-to-go (ATD) displayed on the 
GPS receiver may not agree with the approach chart DME 
reference distance. 

f. Missed Approach Segment. The following are some of the unique 
characteristics a pilot should be aware of during the missed 
approach segment of a nonprecision GPS approach. 

(1) Missed Approach Point (MAP). The MAP waypoint on an 
overlay approach may be located at the runway threshold, the 
underlying facility, or at a specified distance from the runway 
or facility. There may be a difference between the along track 
countdown to the waypoint in the GPS equipment and the 
DME distance from a facility shown on the chart. Pilots need 
to take into account any differences when interpreting the 
distance shown in the GPS display against the charted values. 

(2) Manual Activation of Missed Approach Function. After 
passing the missed approach point, the GPS equipment will 
not automatically sequence to the missed approach holding 
waypoint. When initiating a missed approach the pilot, upon 
passing the MAP, should manually sequence the GPS 
equipment to the next active waypoint. This may not 
necessarily be a missed approach holding waypoint, but may 
be a turn waypoint en route to the missed approach holding 
waypoint. The missed approach should be flown as charted 
using the same piloting techniques as a traditional missed 
approach. 


07.26 



REFERENCE 08 

FAA NOTICE N8110.60 

GPS as a Primary Means of Navigation for 
Oceanic/Remote Operations 


08.1 


1. PURPOSE. This notice proposes interim guidance for approving 
the installation of global positioning system (GPS) equipment to be 
used as a primary means of navigation for oceanic/remote operations 
(including minimum navigation performance specifications (MNPS) 
airspace). To clarify terminology, this guidance adopts the term 
“primary means of navigation” as opposed to “sole means of 
navigation” to identify navigation equipment which provides the 
only required means on the aircraft of satisfying the necessary level 
of accuracy, integrity, continuity and availability for a particular 
area, route, procedure or operation. The failure of a primary means 
of navigation may require reversion to a non-normal means of 
navigation (e.g., dead reckoning). Examples of systems which can 
provide a primary means of navigation include: very high frequency 
omnidirectional range (VOR) for domestic en route, terminal, and 
nonprecision approach where it is available; VOR/distance 
measuring equipment (DME) for domestic en route above flight 
level 240, terminal, and nonprecision approach where it is available; 
Omega for oceanic operation; and inertial navigation systems (INS) 
for oceanic operation. The GPS installations which revert to 
another long-range navigator, such as Omega or INS, need not 
apply for GPS primary means approval; they may utilize GPS under 
supplemental Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) approval. 

2. DISTRIBUTION. This notice is distributed to the branch level in 
Washington headquarters. Aircraft Certification Service, section 
level in all Aircraft Certification Directorates; and maximum 
distribution in all the Aircraft Certification Offices (ACO), with 
limited distribution in the General Aviation District Offices, Air 
Carrier District Offices, Flight Standards District Offices, and 
Aeronautical Quality Assurance Field Offices. 

3. CANCELLATION. Notice 8110.57, GPS as a Primary Means of 
Navigation for Oceanic/Remote Operations, dated 7/7/95 is 
canceled. 

4. PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS. The following requirements 
must be met by the GPS equipment, in addition to the performance 
requirements of RTCA/DO-208, Minimum Operational 
Performance Standards for Airborne Supplemental Navigation 
Equipment Using Global Positioning System, as modified by 
Technical Standards Order (TSO)-C129, The approval process for 
evaluating compliance to these requirements is discussed in 
paragraph 6. 


08.2 



a. The GPS equipment must be capable of detecting and excluding a 
GPS satellite failure by means of a fault detection and exclusion 
(FDE) algorithm including receiver autonomous integrity 
monitoring (RAIM) for detection. The exclusion of a satellite 
failure must be automatic, thus pilot action is not permitted to 
accomplish exclusion. The specific requirements of the exclusion 
function can be found in appendix 1. 

b. In addition to FDE, the equipment must use an acceptable means 
to detect and exclude from the navigation solution, any satellite 
which is being tracked that experiences a failure which causes a 
pseudorange step function. The requirements for detection and 
exclusion of a pseudorange step function can be found in appendix 
2 . 

c. The GPS equipment must exclude, without pilot action, any 
satellite designated unhealthy by any of the GPS navigation data. 
The satellite must be excluded within 5 minutes of the designation 
as unhealthy by the satellite. See appendix 3 for specific 
requirements on what portions of the GPS navigation data shall be 
used to determine GPS health. 

d. If a GPS satellite failure results in loss of GPS navigation (due to 
the failure to exclude or a hard satellite failure which results in an 
inadequate number of satellites), an appropriate indication (TSO- 
C129, paragraphs (a)(3)(xiii)lc, (a)(4)(iv)10, and (a)(5)(iv)9) of 
the failure must be provided to the aircraft crew. 

e. The equipment must provide, upon request, an indication of the 
current estimate of position uncertainty in terms of nautical miles. 
This estimate must be based on measurement inconsistency and 
must bound the true error with high confidence (approximately 
99.9 percent). It is related to the test statistic calculated as part of 
FDE. This estimate will not be available if there are only four 
measurements available (because there is no redundancy). This 
output is intended to be used to provide information about the 
approximate magnitude of a potential positioning failure, when 
the horizontal integrity limit (HIL) exceeds the alert limit or when 
a positioning failure has been detected and not excluded. 

f. The loss of the long-range navigation function must be 
demonstrated to be improbable according to Advisory Circular 

08.3 


(AC) 23.1309-1 A, Equipment, Systems, and Installations in Part 
23 Airplanes, or AC 25.1309-1 A, System Design Analysis. For 
many oceanic/remote operations, this requirement must be met by 
equipping the aircraft with at least two (or more) independent 
(i.e,, dual control display unit, dual GPS antenna, dual power 
sources, dual GPS sensors, etc.) navigation systems with a mean 
time between failures of at least 1000 hours each (for dual 
equipage). 

g. A prediction program is required to support operational departure 
restrictions. See appendix 4 for specific requirements for this 
program. 

5. DESIRED PERFORMANCE, In addition to the required features 
described above, it is recommended that the GPS equipment provide 
the following features. These features increase the versatility and 
availability of the GPS receiver and may facilitate obtaining future 
operational benefits. 

a. The installed GPS equipment should be capable of acquiring and 
tracking satellites above a threshold that is at or below the horizon 
(no mask angle) in the oceanic/remote mode. However, the 
introduction of this capability also incurs a requirement to provide 
an automatic and/or manual method of switching between the 
oceanic/remote mode of operation (lower mask angle) and the 
standard mode of operation. If the selection is manual, the 
selected value must be continuously displayed to the flight crew 
and must not inhibit the required automatic changes specified in 
TSO-C129. 

b. The GPS equipment should provide an oceanic/remote mode of 
operation in which the alert limit for RAIM, as defined in 
RTCA/DO-208, can be increased up to 4 nautical miles (nm) to 
improve FDE availability. Care must be taken in the design of the 
crew annunciations so that there is a clear distinction between loss 
of FDE availability and loss of navigation (this may be due to a 
detected satellite failure that cannot be excluded.) The time-to- 
alert in the oceanic/remote mode of operation can be greater than 
30 seconds, but shall not exceed 5 minutes. 

c. The GPS equipment should also continue to process the FDE 
algorithm when the internal HIL exceeds the alert limit in order to 
provide some level of integrity monitoring; any detected failure 

084 




should be annunciated even if the HIL exceeds 4 nm. When the 
HIL is greater than 4 nm, the equipment must enunciate that 
integrity monitoring is inadequate (TSO-C129 paragraphs 
(a)(3)(xiii)2a, (a)(4)(iv)10, and (a)(5)(iv)9). 

d. During normal operation, the equipment should be capable of 
computing and displaying the current wind speed and wind 
direction. 

e. The GPS equipment should have the capability to accept forecast 
wind conditions at waypoints along a route in order to improve 
estimated time of arrival performance. 

f. The navigation system should include an automatic dead 
reckoning (DR) navigation mode that becomes active when GPS 
navigation capability is lost. The system, if provided, must 
include electronic inputs of true airspeed, altitude, and stabilized 
heading for use in generating the DR position. The system should 
use calculated winds from the last valid GPS data and incorporate 
the ability for the crew to input forecast winds. The system should 
be demonstrated to be capable of navigation with drift rates of no 
more than 14 nm per hour (assuming no wind changes). 

g. If the system provides a DR mode, then it should automatically 
revert to the dead reckoning mode when a GPS navigation 
solution cannot be provided, and should provide an alert to the 
pilot. The system should also allow the pilot to select DR when 
FDE has detected a satellite failure and the failure cannot be 
excluded. An indication that the system has reverted to dead 
reckoning mode must be continuously provided to the aircraft 
crew if the mode is provided. The dead reckoning mode of the 
GPS equipment shall retain the capability to couple with the flight 
guidance system (autopilot / flight director), if provided, and 
should not disconnect when switching between GPS and dead 
reckoning modes. The GPS equipment must automatically revert 
to normal navigation as soon as a navigation solution can be 
provided. Both transitions must be clearly annunciated (GPS to 
DR and DR to GPS). 


08.5 



6. APPROVAL PROCESS. 


a. The GPS equipment manufacturer or aircraft manufacturer 
obtains aTSO-C129 authorization (Class Al, A2, Bl, B2, Cl, or 
C2) from the cognizant Aircraft Certification Office (ACO). The 
manufacturer may also demonstrate compliance with the 
requirements in paragraph 4 of this notice and any of the 
additional functions specified in paragraph 5. The FDE 
prediction capability defined in appendix 4 must also be evaluated 
to comply with the requirements in appendix 4 and to accurately 
predict the availability of the FDE algorithm. In this case, the 
aircraft certification office engineer should issue a separate letter 
of design approval, stating that the appliance (including part 
number) and software prediction program (including revision 
number) has been found to comply with this notice. It is assumed 
that the appliance will be manufactured under a TSO 
authorization (TSOA). Alternatively, the applicant must 
demonstrate that the performance requirements of TSO-C129 are 
met as part of the installation approval. 

b. The applicant obtains installation approval of the GPS navigation 
system via the amended Type Certificate (TC) or Supplemental 
Type Certificate (STC) certification process. An acceptable 
means of compliance to determine airworthiness can be found in 
AC 20-138, Airworthiness Approval of Global Positioning System 
(GPS) Navigation Equipment for Use as a VFR and IFR 
Supplemental Navigation System, or AC 20-130A, Airworthiness 
Approval of Navigation or Flight Management Systems (FMS) 
Integrating Multiple Navigation Sensors. 

(1) If the manufacturer has previously obtained a TSOA and 
obtained a letter of design approval as described in paragraph 
6a of this notice, no additional testing is required beyond AC 
20-138 or AC 20-130A. 

(2) If the manufacturer has not obtained a TSOA or letter of 
design approval as described in paragraph 6a of this notice, 
then the applicant must demonstrate compliance with the 
requirements in paragraph 4 of this notice and any of the 
additional functions specified in paragraph 5. The FDE 
prediction capability defined in appendix 4 must also be 
evaluated to comply with the requirements in appendix 4 and 
to accurately predict the availability of the FDE algorithm. 

08.6 


c. Once the installation has been approved, the aircraft flight manual 
supplement (AFMS) must be updated to state : “The XXX GPS 
equipment as installed has been found to comply with the 
requirements for GPS primary means of navigation in oceanic and 
remote airspace, when used in conjunction with the XXX 
prediction program. This does not constitute an operational 
approval.” Appropriate operational procedures assumed for 
aircraft certification, as well as procedures for operating any 
additional features (such as dead reckoning) must be identified in 
the AFMS. These procedures must include the use of the FDE 
prediction algorithms. 

d. The FAA Form 337, Major Alteration or Repair, process may be 
used for follow-on installations of the same navigation system for 
which there is a TC or STC in the same model aircraft and the 
engineering data developed for the initial certification is used to 
accomplish the follow on installation approval. 

e. The applicant should be aware that an operational approval must 
be obtained before conducting Class II navigation 
(remote/oceanic). Applicants should contact the appropriate 
Flight Standards District Office to seek approval. 

John K. McGrath, Manager, Aircraft Engineering Division 

APPENDIX 1. REQUIREMENTS FOR FAULT DETECTION 
AND EXCLUSION 

1. INTRODUCTION. GPS equipment shall have a fault detection and 
exclusion (FDE) capability that utilizes GPS measurements to provide 
independent integrity monitoring. The detection function refers to the 
capability to detect a satellite failure which affects navigation, while 
the exclusion function refers to the capability to exclude one or more 
failed satellites from the solution and prevent a satellite failure from 
affecting navigation. The FDE algorithm must meet the following 
requirements under the standard assumptions of GPS performance 
specified in paragraph 4 of this appendix. The detection and exclusion 
functions must be accomplished without pilot interaction. The FDE 
algorithm must be aided by barometric altimetry measurements, as 
required by TSO-C129. Additional augmentations (such as clock 
aiding) are not precluded. 


08*7 


2. DEFINITIONS. In order to assist in the interpretation of these 

definitions, figure 1 shows a fault tree relating the FDE events to 

each other for a snapshot in time. Wrong exclusion is not possible, 

since there is no real failure to incorrectly exclude. 

Figure 1. FDE Event Tree (snapshot in time) 

a. Alert. An alert is defined to be an indication that is provided by 
the GPS equipment that the navigation performance achieved by 
the equipment is not acceptable. The conditions for this alert are 
defined below. Note that an alert refers only to those indications 
that are provided by the sensor, and does not refer to any internal 
processing associated with the FDE algorithm. 

b. Horizontal Alert Limits. The horizontal alert limit for 
oceanic/remote navigation mode is defined to be at least 2 nm, but 
shall not exceed 4 nm. RTCA/DO-208 specifies a limit of 2 nm, 
but a higher limit of 4 nm increases availability and is adequate 
for oceanic/remote operation (see paragraph 5b of this notice). 

c. Time-to-Alert. The time-to-alert for oceanic/remote navigation 
mode is defined to be at least 30 seconds, but shall not exceed 5 
minutes. RTCA/DO-208 specifies a time-to-alert of 30 seconds, 
but a higher time-to-alert of 5 minutes increases availability and is 
adequate for oceanic/remote operation (see paragraph 5b of this 
notice). 

d. Positioning Failure. A positioning failure is defined to occur 
whenever the difference between the true position and the output 
position exceeds the applicable horizontal alert limit. 

e. Missed Detection. A missed detection is defined to occur when a 
positioning failure is not detected (internal to the FDE algorithm). 

f. False Detection. A false detection is defined to occur when a 
positioning failure does not exist, but a failure is detected (internal 
to the FDE algorithm). 

g. Wrong Exclusion. A wrong exclusion is defined to occur when a 
positioning failure is detected and the positioning failure still 
exists, but is undetected after exclusion, resulting in a missed 
alert. 


08.8 


h. Missed Alert. Positioning failures which are not annunciated (as an 
alert) within the time-to-alert are defined to be missed alerts. Both 
missed detection and wrong exclusion conditions are missed alerts. 

i. False Alert. A false alert is defined as the indication of a 
positioning failure when a positioning failure has not occurred. 

NOTE: The term, false alert, refers to actual alerts that are issued 
by the GPS equipment. 

j. Horizontal Integrity Limit. The horizontal integrity limit (HIL) is 
the radius of a circle in the horizontal plane, with its center being at 
the indicated position, which describes the region which is assured 
to contain the true position. It is the horizontal region for which 
the missed alert and false alert requirements can be met. It is only 
a function of the satellite and user geometry and the expected error 
characteristics: it is not affected by actual measurements. 

Therefore, this value is predictable. 

k. Availability of Detection. The detection function is defined to be 
available when the constellation of satellites provides a geometry 
for which the missed alert and false alert requirements can be met 
on all satellites for the alert limit and time-to-alert. When the 
constellation is inadequate to meet these requirements (paragraphs 
3a and 3b of this appendix), the fault detection function is defined 
to be unavailable. Thus the availability of detection for a specific 
time, location, and constellation is defined to be the product of 
satellite-specific terms, as follows: 

N 

Detection Availability == II D(i), where 

i=l 

N = number of satellites used in the sensor, 

D(i) = 1, if Pr(detection given ith satellite failed) > 99.9% 
and Pr(false alert) < 0.002/hour 
D(i) = 0, if Pr(detection given ith satellite failed) < 99.9% 
or Pr(false alert) > 0.002/hour. 

NOTE: For a given geometry and navigation mode, the detection 
function is either available or unavailable. The detection function 
is expected to operate whenever sufficient measurement 
redundancy exists, even when the probability of missed alert cannot 
be assured for the alert limit. Therefore, it may operate when the 


08.9 


missed detection rate is greater than required for the alert limit, but 
the false alert rate must continue to meet requirements. 

l. Failed Exclusion. A failed exclusion is defined to occur when a 
true satellite failure is detected and the detection condition is not 
eliminated within the time-to-alert (from the onset of the 
positioning failure). A failed exclusion results in an annunciation 
of a detected satellite failure. A failed exclusion does not imply 
that the exclusion must be correct, only that it eliminates the 
detection condition and therefore prevents an indication of loss of 
integrity monitoring. The probability of false exclusion is included 
in the probability of missed alert. In addition, failed exclusion of 
false internal detections are not included, because they are included 
in the false alert rate. 

m. Availability of Exclusion. The exclusion function is defined to be 
available when the constellation of satellites provides a geometry 
for which the FDE algorithm can meet the failed exclusion 
requirement, and prevent the indication of a positioning failure or a 
loss of integrity monitoring function. Therefore, exclusion must 
occur before the duration of a positioning failure exceeds the time- 
to-alert, and the detection function as defined above must be 
available after exclusion. Note that for a given geometry and a 
given failed satellite, the success of the exclusion function to 
prevent an alert condition (duration of positioning failure exceeds 
time-to-alert) may be probabilistic. For example: given a particular 
exclusion algorithm, a satellite geometry, and a failed satellite, the 
algorithm could have a 99 percent probability of successfully 
preventing a warning condition. However, the exclusion function 
is only defined to be available if the probability of excluding a 
satellite and preventing an alert (given a satellite failure has 
occurred and has been detected) satisfies the failed exclusion 
requirement. Thus the availability of exclusion for a specific time, 
location, and constellation is defined to be: 

N 

Exclusion Availability = U E(i), where 

i=l 

N == number of satellites used in the sensor, 

E(i) = 1, if Pr(failed exclusion) < 10'^ given ith satellite failed, 


08*10 


E(i) = 0, if Pr(failed exclusion) > 10'^ given ith satellite failed. 


NOTE: For a given geometry and navigation mode, the exclusion 
function is either available or unavailable. The exclusion function 
is expected to operate whenever sufficient measurement 
redundancy exists, regardless of whether or not it is "available" by 
the definition above. Therefore, it may operate when the missed 
detection rate is greater than required for the appropriate alert 
limit, but the false alert rate must continue to meet requirements. 

3. FDE REQUIREMENTS 

a. Missed Alert Probability. The probability of missed alert shall be 
less than or equal to 0.001 for every geometry and every 
navigation mode. If this requirement is not met for a given 
geometry, then the detection function is defined to be unavailable 
for that geometry (see paragraph 2k of this appendix). This 
requirement is on the missed alert rate external to the GPS 
equipment. When related to the internal algorithm, it includes 
both probabilities of missed detection and false exclusion. 

b. False Alert Probability. The probability of false alert shall be less 
than or equal to 0.002/hour. If this requirement is not met for a 
given geometry, then the detection function is defined to be 
unavailable for that geometry (see paragraph 2m of this 
appendix). Note that a false alert rate of 10-5 is more consistent 
with the requirement for loss of navigation. This requirement is 
relaxed to the RTCA/DO~208 requirement for oceanic operations, 
since the duration of the false alert will be short. This 
requirement is on the false alert rate external to the GPS 
equipment. When related to the internal algorithm, it includes 
both probabilities of false detection and the failure to exclude the 
false detection. 

c. Failed Exclusion Probability. The probability of failed exclusion 
shall be less than or equal to 10-3 for every geometry and every 
navigation mode for which exclusion is implemented. Exclusion 
must be implemented for the oceanic mode. If this requirement is 
not met for a given geometry, then the exclusion function is 
defined to be unavailable for that geometry (see paragraph 2m). 
This requirement is on the alert rate external to the GPS 
equipment due to failed exclusion. It is equivalent to the 


08.11 



probability that a positioning failure is annunciated when a GPS 
satellite failure occurs and is detected internally. 

For some algorithms, this probability may be zero in that 
exclusion is always conducted when a failure is detected. 
However, note that such an algorithm must also meet the missed 
detection requirement above, which includes the probability of 
false exclusion. 

4. GPS STANDARD ASSUMPTIONS. 

a. Selective Availability. Selective Availability (SA) shall be 
modeled as the sum of (1) a second-order Gauss-Markov process 
with an auto-correlation time of 120 seconds and a standard 
deviation of 23 m, and (2) a random constant with normal 
distribution, a mean of zero and a standard deviation of 23 m. 

The SA processes on all satellites are to be statistically 
independent. When modeling a single independent SA sample 
(for a single snapshot or for samples greater than 2 minutes 
apart), SA can be modeled by a Gaussian random variable with a 
mean of zero and a standard deviation of 30.5 m. Note that any 
additional errors must be added to this model, yielding a typical 
value of 33 m. 

b. Satellite Failure. The probability of a satellite integrity failure is 
10-4 per hour for the GPS position solution (based on 3 satellite 
major service failures/year/constellation, assuming 8 satellites in 
view). A satellite integrity failure is defined to be a failure that 
can contribute to a hazardously misleading situation. For the 
purpose of testing, a slow-ramp failure of 5 meters/second may be 
used as described in RTCA/DO-208, paragraph 2.5.2.5.2.2. 

APPENDIX 2. STEP DETECTOR REQUIREMENTS 

l.STEP DETECTOR. 

a. The equipment shall detect a pseudorange step error greater than 
1000 meters, including steps which cause loss of lock for less than 10 
seconds. A pseudorange step is defined to be a sudden change in the 
measured distance to a satellite. It can be written as: 


08-12 


PRsTEP = I PRpREDICTED “ P^MEASURED > 

where PRpredicted is the predicted pseudorange at the time of 
measurement, based on previous measurements, and PRmeasured 
is the pseudorange at the time of the measurement. 

b. If a pseudorange step is detected for a satellite, that satellite shall 
be excluded from use in the navigation algorithm until its 
integrity can be verified through fault detection (RAIM). The 
manufacturer is free to choose any method to calculate the 
predicted pseudorange. However, any method used should 
properly take into account satellite movement and aircraft 
dynamics up to a groundspeed of 750 knots (kts) and accelerations 
up to 14.7 meters/second/second (1.5 g's). 

APPENDIX 3. REQUIREMENTS FOR USING GPS 

NAVIGATION DATA 

1. In addition to monitoring by using FDE and the step detector, the 
GPS equipment shall monitor the GPS navigation data to detect any 
of the following conditions within 5 minutes of the onset of the 
condition. Any satellite which meets any of the following criteria 
shall not be used for navigation for the duration of the condition. 

a. Ephemeris health word in subframe 2 or 3 set to the "not healthy" 
state. 

b. Failure of parity on 3 successive words. 

c. User range accuracy (URA) of 128 meters or more. 

d. Bit 18 of the hand-over word (HOW) set to 1. 

e. Default navigation data is being sent (alternate O's and I's). 

f. Navigation data is all I's (could inadvertently cause all satellites 
to be declared unhealthy). 

g. Mismatching issue of data ephemeris (lODE) and issue of data 
clock (lODC). 


08.13 


APPENDIX 4. REQUIREMENTS FOR FDE PREDICTION 
ALGORITHM 


1. A prediction program is required to support the operational 
requirement for a pre-departure outage check. This prediction 
program can be provided on any processing platform (in the GPS 
equipment or not), but it must employ an identical FDE algorithm as 
the one that is utilized in the GPS equipment. 

2. The prediction program must have the capability to manually 
designate GPS satellites which will be out of service during the 
operation. This will include GPS satellites scheduled to go out of 
service for maintenance, as well as satellites already out of service 
(if the program does not have access to that information directly 
through a GPS receiver and the almanac data). 

3. The prediction program must have the capability for the operator to 
designate a route, defined by a series of waypoints. It must also 
allow for designation of a departure time and expected ground 
speeds. Since specific ground speeds may not be maintained, this 
pre-flight check will have to be performed for a range of ground 
speeds (expected ground speed ±100 kts in 20 kt increments). 
Finally, it must allow for the entry of the route spacing (centerline to 
centerline) on the intended oceanic/remote route. This information 
will be used to determine the maximum length of an outage on the 
intended route. 

4. For the route that is specified, the program must determine and 
output a bound for the outage durations specified below. This bound 
must be accurate for the complete range of flight times/speeds as 
described in paragraph 3 of this appendix. Note that this 
requirement is not intended to imply that the equipment must 
always compute these parameters in real time. This information 
may be precompiled and available via a look-up table within the 
equipment. For example, if the maximum worldwide outage with 
24 satellites operating were 30 minutes, then the equipment could 
use that information as a conservative bound of the actual 
performance. Another example is the reduction in the velocity 
variation computation; if the applicant only computes the boundary 
conditions, and can prove that the conditions which are evaluated 
truly are the boundary conditions, then no additional calculations 
would be necessary. 


08.14 


a. The maximum outage duration of the loss of fault exclusion to 
within 5 minutes. An outage of exclusion is defined to occur 
when the exclusion function is unavailable (as defined in 
paragraph 2m of appendix 1). 

b. The maximum outage duration of the capability to navigate 
(provide a position solution) to within 5 minutes. 

5. If the maximum outage of exclusion (in hours) is greater than half 
the route spacing (in nm) divided by 35 or there is an outage of the 
ability to navigate, the program shall indicate that the operation 
should not be conducted. 

6. This program can be used by the operator for planning purposes, 
and will be used prior to departure to determine if GPS has 
sufficient availability to conduct the operation. 


08-15 



REFERENCE 09 

CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS (FORMERLY 
FEDERAL AVIATION REGULATIONS) 

PART 121 AND PART 135 


09-1 



CAUTION!! Please be aware that the materials in the following 
section are excerpts. It is assumed that the person using this 
material has read the complete parent document. Important details 
regarding the use of or policies covering the application of this 
information may be available only in the complete document from 
which the excerpts were taken. 


121.347 RADIO EQUIPMENT FOR OPERATIONS UNDER VFR 

OVER ROUTES NAVIGATED BY PILOTAGE. 

(a) No person may operate an airplane under VFR over routes that can 
be navigated by pilotage, unless it is equipped with the radio 
equipment necessary under normal operating conditions to fulfill 
the following: 

(1) Communicate with at least one appropriate ground station from 
any point on the route. 

(2) Communicate with appropriate traffic control facilities from any 
point within the lateral boundaries of the surface areas of Class 
B, Class C, Class D, or Class E airspace designed for an airport 
in which flights are intended. 

(3) Receive meteorological information from any point en route by 
either of two independent systems. One of the means provided 
to comply with this subparagraph may be used to comply with 
paragraphs (a)(1) and (2) of this section. 

(b) No person may operate an airplane at night under VFR over routes 
than can be navigated by pilotage unless that airplane is equipped 
with the radio equipment necessary under normal operating 
conditions to fulfill the functions specified in paragraph (a) of this 
section and to receive radio navigational signals applicable to the 
route flown, except that a marker beacon receiver or ILS receiver is 
not required. 


09-2 


121.349 RADIO EQUIPMENT FOR OPERATIONS UNDER VFR 

OVER ROUTES NOT NAVIGATED BY PILOTAGE OR FOR 

OPERATIONS UNDER IFR OR OVER-THE-TOP. 

(a) No person may operate an airplane under VFR over routes that 
cannot be navigated by pilotage or for operations conducted under 
IFR or over-the-top, unless the airplane is equipped with that radio 
equipment necessary under normal operating conditions to fulfill 
the functions specified in 121.347(a) and to receive satisfactorily 
by either of two independent systems radio navigational signals 
from all primary en route and approach navigational facilities 
intended to be used. However, only one marker beacon receiver 
providing visual and aural signals and one ILS receiver need be 
provided. Equipment provided to receive signals en route may be 
used to receive signals on approach, if it is capable of receiving 
both signals. 

(b) In the case of operation over routes on which navigation is based 
on low-frequency radio range or automatic direction finding, only 
one low-frequency radio range or ADF receiver need be installed if 
the airplane is equipped with two VOR receivers, and VOR 
navigational aids are so located and the airplane is so fueled that, in 
the case of failure of the low-frequency radio range receiver or 
ADF receiver, the flight may proceed safely to a suitable airport, 
by means of VOR aids, and complete an instrument approach by 
use of the remaining airplane radio system. 

(c) Whenever VOR navigational receivers are required by paragraph 
(a) or (b) of this section, at least one approved distance measuring 
equipment unit (DME) capable of receiving and indicating distance 
information from VORTAC facilities must be installed on each 
airplane when operated in the 50 states and the District of 
Columbia. 

(d) If the distance measuring equipment (DME) becomes inoperative 
en route, the pilot shall notify ATC of that failure as soon as it 
occurs. 

(e) No person may operate an airplane haaving a passenger seat 
configureation of 10 to 30 seats, excluding each crew member seat, 
and a payload of 7,500 pounds or less under IFR or in extended 
overwater operations unless it has, in addition to any other equired 
radio communications and nagvigation equipment appropriate to 
the facilities to be used which are capable of transmitting to, and 

09-3 


receiving from, at any place on the route to be flown, at most one 
ground facility, two microphones, and two headsets or one headset 
and one speaker. 

121.441 PROFICIENCY CHECKS. 

(a) No certificate holder may use any person nor may any person serve 
as a required pilot flight crew member unless that person has 
satisfactorily completed either a proficiency check, or an approved 
simulator course of training under 121.409 as follows: 

(1) For a pilot in command, a proficiency check within the preceding 
12 calendar months and, in addition, within the preceding 6 calendar 
months, either a proficiency check or the simulator training. 

(2) For all other pilots- 

(i) Within the preceding 24 calendar months either a proficiency 
check or the line-oriented simulator training course under 
121.409; and 

(ii) Within the preceding 12 calendar months, either a proficiency 
check or any simulator training course under 121.409. 

The satisfactory completion of a type rating flight check under 
61.157 of this chapter satisfies the requirement for a proficiency 
check. 

(b) Except as provided in paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section, a 
proficiency check must meet the following requirements: 

(1) It must include at least the procedures and maneuvers set forth in 
appendix F to this part unless otherwise specifically provided in 
that appendix. 

(2) It must be given by the Administrator or a pilot check airman. 

(c) An approved airplane simulator or other appropriate training 
device may used in the conduct of a proficiency check as provided 
in appendix F to this part. 

(d) A person giving a proficiency check may, in his discretion, waive 
any of the maneuvers or procedures for which a specific waiver 
authority is set forth in appendix F to this part if- 

(1) The Administrator has not specifically required the particular 
maneuver or procedure to be performed; 

09-4 


(2) The pilot being checked is, at the time of the check, employed by 
a certificate holder as a pilot; 

(3) The pilot being checked is currently qualified for operations 
under this part in the particular type airplane and flight crew 
member position or has, within the preceding six calendar 
months, satisfactorily completed an approved training program 
for the particular type airplane. 

(e) If the pilot being checked fails any of the required maneuvers, the 
person giving the proficiency check may give additional training to 
the pilot during the course of the proficiency check. In addition to 
repeating the maneuvers failed, the person giving the proficiency 
check may require the pilot being checked to repeat any other 
maneuvers he finds are necessary to determine the pilot’s 
proficiency. If the pilot being checked is unable to demonstrate 
satisfactory performance to the person conducting the check, the 
certificate holder may not use him nor may he serve in operations 
under this part until he has satisfactorily completed a proficiency 
check. 

However, the entire proficiency check (other than the initial 
second-in-command proficiency check) required by this section 
may be conducted in an approved visual simulator if the pilot being 
checked accomplishes at least two landings in the appropriate 
airplane during a line check or other check conducted by a pilot 
check airman (a pilot-in command may observe and certify the 
satisfactory accomplishment of these landings by a second-in- 
command). If a pilot proficiency check is conducted in accordance 
with this paragraph, the next required proficiency check for that 
pilot must be conducted in the same manner, or in accordance with 
appendix F of this part, or a course of training in an airplane visual 
simulator under 121.409 may be substituted therefor. 


135.165 RADIO AND NAVIGATIONAL EQUIPMENT: 

EXTENDED OVER WATER OR IFR OPERATIONS. 

(a) No person may operate a turbojet airplane having a passenger 

seating configuration, excluding any pilot seat, of 10 seats or more, 
or a multi-engine airplane in a commuter operation, as defined in 
part 119 of this chapter, under IFR or in extended overwater 
operations unless it has at least the following radio communications 
and navigational equipment appropriate to the facilities to be used 


09.5 


which are capable of transmitting to, and receiving from, at any 
place on the route to be flown, at least one ground facility: 

(1) Two transmitters, (2) two microphones, (3) two headsets or one 
headset and one speaker, (4) a marker beacon receiver, (5) two 
independent receivers for navigation, and (6) two independent receivers 
for communications. 

(b) No person may operate an aircraft other than that specified in 
paragraph (a) of this section, under IFR or in extended overwater 
operations unless it has at least the following radio communication 
and navigational equipment appropriate to the facilities to be used 
and which are capable of transmitting to, and receiving from, at any 
place on the route, at least one ground facility: 

(1) a transmitter, (2) two microphones, (3) two headsets or one 
headset and one speaker, (4) a marker beacon receiver, (5) two 
independent receivers for navigation, (6) two independent 
receivers for communications, and (7) for extended overwater 
operations only, an additional transmitter. 

(c) For the purpose of paragraphs (a)(5), (a)(6), (b)(5), and (b)(6) of 
this section, a receiver is independent if the function of any part of 
it does not depend on the functioning of any part of another 
receiver. However, a receiver that can receive both 
communications and navigational signals may be used in place of a 
separate communications receiver and separate navigational signal 
receiver. 

135.297 PILOT IN COMMAND: INSTRUMENT PROFICIENCY 
CHECK REQUIREMENTS 

(a) No certificate holder may use a pilot, nor may any person serve, as 
a pilot in command of an aircraft under IFR unless, since the 
beginning of the sixth calendar month before that service, that pilot 
has passed an instrument proficiency check under this section 
administered by the Administrator or an authorized check pilot. 

(b) No pilot may use any type of precision instrument approach 
procedure under IFR unless, since the beginning of the sixth 
calendar month before that use, the pilot has satisfactorily 
demonstrated that type of approach procedure. No pilot may use 
any type of nonprecision approach procedure under IFR unless, 
since the beginning of the sixth calendar month before that use, the 
pilot has satisfactorily demonstrated either that type approach 
procedure or any other two different types of nonprecision 

09-6 


approach procedures. The instrument approach procedure or 
procedures must include at least one straight-in approach, one 
circling approach, and one missed approach. Each type of approach 
procedure demonstrated must be conducted to published minimums 
for that procedure. 

(c) The instrument proficiency check required by paragraph (a) of this 
section consists of an oral or written equipment test and a flight 
check under simulated or actual IFR conditions. The equipment test 
includes questions on emergency procedures, engine operation, 
fuel and lubrication systems, power settings, stall speeds, best 
engine-out speed, propeller and supercharger operations, and 
hydraulic, mechanical, and electrical systems, as appropriate. The 
flight check includes navigation by instruments, recovery from 
simulated emergencies, and standard instrument approaches 
involving navigational facilities which that pilot is to be authorized 
to use. Each pilot taking the instrument proficiency check must 
show that standard of competence required by § 135.293(d). 

(1) The instrument proficiency check must — 

(1) For a pilot in command of an airplane under § 135.243(a), 
include the procedures and maneuvers for an airline transport pilot 
certificate in the particular type of airplane, if appropriate; and 

(ii) For a pilot in command of an airplane or helicopter under § 
135.243(c), include the procedures and maneuvers for a commercial 
pilot certificate with an instrument rating and, if required, for the 
appropriate type rating. 

(2) The instrument proficiency check must be given by an 
authorized check airman or by the Administrator. 

(d) If the pilot in command is assigned to pilot only one type of 
aircraft, that pilot must take the instrument proficiency check 
required by paragraph (a) of this section in that type of aircraft. 

(e) If the pilot in command is assigned to pilot more than one type 
of aircraft, that pilot must take the instrument proficiency check 
required by paragraph (a) of this section in each type of aircraft to 
which that pilot is assigned, in rotation, but not more than one flight 
check during each period described in paragraph (a) of this section. 

(f) If the pilot in command is assigned to pilot both single-engine 
and multiengine aircraft, that pilot must initially take the instrument 
proficiency check required by paragraph (a) of this section in a 
multiengine aircraft, and each succeeding check alternately in single¬ 
engine and multiengine aircraft, but not more than one flight check 
during each period described in paragraph (a) of this section. 

Portions of a required flight check may be given in an aircraft 

09-7 


simulator or other appropriate training device, if approved by the 
Administrator. 

(g) If the pilot in command is authorized to use an autopilot system 
in place of a second in command, that pilot must show, during the 
required instrument proficiency check, that the pilot is able (without a 
second in command) both with and without using the autopilot 
to — 

(1) Conduct instrument operations competently; and 

(2) Properly conduct air-ground communications and comply with 
complex air traffic control instructions. 

(3) Each pilot taking the autopilot check must show that, while 
using the autopilot, the airplane can be operated as proficiently as it 
would be if a second in command were present to handle air-ground 
communications and air traffic control instructions. The autopilot 
check need only be demonstrated once very twelve calendar months 
during the instrument proficiency check required under paragraph (a) of 
this section. 


09.8