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FM 23-5 



WAR DEPARTMENT 



BASIC FIELD MANUAL 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER 



.30, Ml 

'/o Jo/y 



U S. ARMY MILITARY HISTORY INSTITUTE 
CARLISLE BARRACKS. PA 17013-5006 




/> 

\ \ - 

FM 23-5 

*c i 

BASIC FIELD MANUAL 

U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 

Changes 1 WAR DEPARTMENT, 

No. 1 J Washington, November 15, 1941. 

FM 23-5, July 20, 1940, is changed as follows : 

■ 34. Immediate Action. 

* * * * * 

6. Procedure. — (1) Rifle fails to fire.- — With the palm up 
and using the little finger, pull operating rod to the rear. 
Release operating rod, and if operating handle goes fully home, 
aim and fire. To avoid injury in case of a hangfire, the hand 
is so held that no portion of the palm or wrist can be struck 
by the operating rod in its rapid rearward movement. 

(2) Bolt cannot be locked. — If after following the procedure 
prescribed in (1) above, the bolt cannot go completely for- 
ward and lock, again pull operating handle to the rear. Check 
for a battered round, dirt, or obstruction on the face of the bolt, 
in the chamber, or in the locking lug recess. Discard the 
battered round ; remove the obst ruction. Reload, aim, and fire. 

(3) Bolt locks but rifle again fails to fire. — If after procedure 
prescribed in (1) above the rifle continues to fail to fire, again 
pull operating handle to the rear. If no cartridge is ejected, 
reduce obstruction in clip by pressing and rotating the upper 
cartridges. Reload, aim, and fire. 

(4) Rifle fails to feed. — Keep rifle in action by manually 
working operating handle. A detailed examination for the 
malfunction may be made later when time permits. 

c. The above procedure of immediate action will almost in- 
variably keep the rifle in action. In case this immediate 
action is not successful, a more detailed examination for the 
possible malfunctions listed in paragraph 35e may be made as 
circumstances permit. 

[A. G. 062.11 (10-10-40).] (C 1, Nov. 15, 1941.) 



♦These changes supersede section II, Training Circular No. 5, section I, 
paragraph 1, and so much of paragraph 2 as pertains to FM 23-5, section II, 
Training Circular No. 8, War Department, 1940; and paragraph 1, section II, 
Training Circular No. 60, War Department, 1941. 

429057° — 41 



r\ ■ 



V\A / ' 



/I 




BASIC FIELD MANUAL 

■ 64. Course A. — a. Instruction practice. — Tables I and II are 
rescinded and table IV and parts of table VII will be fired 
twice. 

***** 

b. Record practice. 



Table IX.— Rapid fire 



Range j 
(yards) 


Time 

(seconds) 


Shots 


Target 


Position 


Sling 










200 


60 


16 


D 


Sitting from standing 


Loop or hasty. 


* 




* 




* * 


* 



[A. G. 062.11 (9—28-40) (8-13-41).] (C 1, Nov. 15, 1941.) 

■ 65. Course B. — a. Instruction practice. — Tables I and II are 
rescinded and table IV and parts of table V will be fired twice. 
***** 
b. Record practice. 

***** 



Table VIII— Rapid fire 



Range 

(yards) 


Time 

(seconds) 


Shots | 


Target 


Position 


Sling 


200 


60 


16 


D 




Loop or 
hasty. 
Do. 


200 


60 


16 


D 










* 




* 




* * 


* 



[A. G. 062.11 (9-28-40) (8-13-41).] (C 1, Nov. 15, 1941.) 

■ 66. Course C. — a. Instruction practice. — Tables I and II are 
rescinded and table III and parts of table IV will be fired 

***** 

[A. G. 062.11 (8-13-41).] (C 1, Nov. 15, 1941.) 

■ 141. Assault Fire. — A ssault fire is that fire delivered by a 
unit during its assault on a hostile position. Riflemen with 
bayonets fixed and taking full advantage of existing cover, 
such as tanks, boulders, trees, walls, and mounds, advance 



2 




U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 

rapidly toward the enemy and fire as they advance at areas 
known or believed to be occupied by hostile personnel. Such 
fire is usually delivered from the standing position and is 
executed at a rapid rate. 

[A. G. 062.11 (10— IS— 41).] (C 1, Nov. 15, 1941 .) ' 

By order of the Secretary of War: 

G. C. MARSHALL, 

Chief of Staff. 

Official : 

E. S. ADAMS, 

Major General. 

The Adjutant General. 



3 



u. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 18*1 




FM 23-5 

C 2 

BASIC FIELD MANUAL 

TJ. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 

Changes f ' WAR DEPARTMENT, 

No. 2 1 Washington, January 30, 1942. 

FM 23-5, July 20, 1940, is changed as follows: 

M 10. In Gakkison and Camp. 

# * * * * <« * 

6. The bore of the rifle will always be cleaned by inserting a 
cleaning rod into the muzzle end. The cleaning rod specified in 
SNL B-21 is of sufficient length to permit cleaning of the bore 
without damage to the follower or face of bolt. If a longer rod 
is used, the follower and face of holt must be protected. Numer- 
ous methods have been devised and found satisfactory. The 
simplest method is to block the follower and cover face of bolt 
with a piece of cloth stuffed into the receiver. To clean the 
bore, assemble a cloth patch to the cleaning rod, and insert the 
rod into the bore at the muzzle end. Move it forward and 
backward several times and replace with a new patch. Repeat 
until a patch comes out clean. When issue patches are not 
available, patches should be cut to approximately 2Vz inches 
square to permit their being forced through the bore without 
bending the cleaning rod. Then saturate a patch with the 
oil currently issued for lubrication and preservation of small 
arms and push it through the bore. If the above cleaner is 
not available, water may be used. The bore must be thor- 
oughly dried with dry patches before it is oiled. 

Caution: In cleaning the bore, care must be taken not to foul 
the cleaning patch in the gas port. 

o. To clean the screw heads and crevices, use a small cleaning 
brush or small stick. To clean the metal surfaces, wipe with a 
dry cloth to remove moisture, perspiration, and dirt, then wipe 
with a cloth containing a smail quantity of the oil provided 
with the gun. This protective film will be maintained at all 
times. To clean the outer surfaces of the rifle, wipe off the dirt 
with a slightly oiled cloth and clean with a soft dry one. 
******* 

[A. G. 062.11 (10-22-41).] <C 2, Jan. 30, 1942.) 



441020°— 42- 



■1 




BASIC FIELD MANUAL 



0 11. Preparatory to Firing. — Before firing, take the follow- 
ing steps to insure efficient functioning of the rifle: 

a. Dismount main groups. 

b. Clean the bore. Do not oil the chamber. 

c. Remove any carbon on the gas cylinder screw and piston 

head^ 

d. Thoroughly clean and lightly oil all metal parts with the 
oil provided with the gun. Do not use grease. Be sure to 
apply a thin coating of oil to the following working parts : , 

(1) Bolt lugs (locking and operating). 

(2) Bolt guides. 

(3) Cocking cam on bolt. 

(4) Compensating spring. 

(5) Contact surfaces of barrel and operating rod. 

(6) Operating rod cam. 

(7) Operating rod guide groove in receiver. 

(8) Operating rod spring. 

e. Assemble rifle and rub all outer surfaces with a lightly 
oiled rag to remove dust. 

[A. G. 062.11 (10-22-41).] (C 2, Jan. 30, 1942.) 

E 12. After Firing. — 

******* 

a. Immediate cleaning after firing, or as soon as possible . — 
Hold the rifle, bottom side up, so that no cleaner or cleaning 
solution will enter the gas port. Run several patches saturated 
with cleaner, rifle bore, through the bore. If cleaner, rifle 
bore, is not available, water may be used ; warm water is good, 
but warm, soapy water is better. Remove the patch section 
from the M3 cleaning rod and substitute the cleaning brush ; 
run the cleaning rod with cleaning brush assembled back and 
forth through the bore several times. Care should be used to 
insure that the brush goes all the way through the bore before 
the direction is reversed. Remove the brush and run several 
patches saturated with cleaner or with water through the bore, 
removing them from the breech end. Follow this by dry patches 
until the patches come out clean and dry. Then examine the 
bore carefully for cleanliness. If it is not free of all residue, 
repeat the cleaning process; if no residue is present saturate 



2 




BASIC FIELD MANUAL 



a patch in oil and push it through the bore, holding the rifle top 
side up, so that some of the oil will flow into the gas port. 

Caution: In cleaning the bore, care must be taken not to foul 
the cleaning patch in the gas port. 

b. Complete cleaning. — Complete cleaning should be accom- 
plished as soon as possible after the cleaning described in a 
above. If the rifle is to be fired the next day proceed as in 
paragraph H. If the rifle is not to be fired in the next few days, 
repeat the procedure outlined in a above for 3 days. In addi- 
tion, the following instructions will be observed : 

(1) Cham ber. — Saturate a cleaning patch with cleaner, rifle 
bore, or with water, in order to dissolve any primer fouling 
in the chamber. Insert the cleaning patch deep into the slot 
of the chamber cleaning tool. Lay the tool * * * to permit 
neat entry into the chamber. This insures cleaning the full 
length of the chamber, prevents the patch from being crushed 
down to the lower end of the tool, and eliminates the danger of 
causing rings in the chamber by exposed portions of the clean- 
ing tool. Clean by twisting the patch-covered tool in the cham- 
ber. Dry the chamber with dry patches on the cleaning tool. 
Inspect the' chamber visually and by inserting the little 
finger into the chamber and twisting it. If no discoloration 
shows on the finger, oil the chamber lightly. This oil should 
be removed before firing. 

(2) Oas cylinder and gas cylinder plug or gas cylinder lock 
screw . — Carbon will accumulate due to firing. The frequency 
of carbon removal is a factor peculiar to individual rifles. Ex- 
cess deposits of carbon in the rifle manifest themselves by slug- 
gishness in action and failure to feed. 

(а) Spline type. — To remove accumulated deposits of carbon 
from the gas cylinder, remove the lock screw and scrape out 
the carbon, using the screw driver blade of the combination 
tool. The gas cylinder lock may be removed and the lock screw 
reinserted in the gas cylinder and threaded in enough to break 
loose the carbon. The inside of the gas cylinder should be thor- 
oughly wiped clean and oiled at the conclusion of firing. 

(б) Screw-on type. — Scrape the carbon from the exposed sur- 
face of the front of the gas cylinder and gas cylinder plug and 
piston head after extensive firing. Clean the gas cylinder plug 



3 




BASIC FIELD MANUAL 



and the grooves in the gas cylinder to insure correct seating of 
the plug. A sharp blade instrument, similar to a mess kit knife, 
should be used to remove the carbon from the gas cylinder plug 
and piston head. 

(c) Both types . — If firing is contemplated the next day, 
tip the muzzle down, place a few drops of oil into the gas 
cylinder between the piston and the walls of the cylinder, 
and operate the rod by hand a few times. Wipe clean the ex- 
terior of the gas cylinder, the operating rod, and the front 
sight, and oil lightly. If no firing is contemplated in the 
next week or two remove the operating rod and the gas 
cylinder lock screw (or gas cylinder plug) leaving the cylin- 
der open at both ends. Clean the cylinder with a rod and 
patches in exactly the same manner as the bore is cleaned. 
Hold the rifle so that no water will get into the gas port. 
Do not remove the gas cylinder for cleaning. Clean the piston 
head and rod with cleaner or with water and dry thoroughly. 
Oil the rod and the cylinder before reassembling. Carbon 
may be removed at this time. If abrasive cloth is used, care 
should be taken that the corners of the plug (or lock screw) 
or piston head are not rounded. 

(3) Exterior surfaces. — Wipe off the exterior of the rifle with 
a dry cloth to remove dampness, dirt, and perspiration. Wipe 
all metal surfaces with the lubricating oil provided with the 
gun. Oil the stock and hand guards with raw linseed oil, and 
oil the sling with neat's-foot oil. 

(4) The face of the bolt should be cleaned with a wet patch, 
dried, and lightly oiled. 

[A. G. 062.11 (10-22-41).] (C 2, Jan. 30, 1942.) 

H 13. On the Range or in the Field. — The rifle must be kept 
clean, free from dirt, and properly lubricated. To obtain its 
maximum efficiency the following points must be observed : 
******* 

d. If the rifle gives indications of lack of lubrication and ex- 
cessive friction, apply additional oil to the parts listed in 
paragraph lid. Excessive friction exists if the empty cases 
are being ejected to the right rear, and oil should be applied at 
the first opportunity, as failures to feed and eject will occur if 
the condition is not' corrected. 



4 





BASIC FIELD MANUAL 



e. Keep a light coating of oil on all metal parts. 

******* 
g. In general, it should not be necessary to remove any of the 
parts of the rifle in the field for cleaning except the trigger 
housing group and the gas cylinder plug. However, if the mech- 
anism becomes very dirty the rifle may be disassembled into its 
three main groups for the necessary cleaning and lubricating. 
***** * * 

[A. G. 062.11 (10-22-41).] (C 2, Jan. 30, 1942.) 

B 14. Preparation for Storage. — a. Oil provided with the gun 
will protect polished surfaces, the bore, and the chamber for a 
period of 1 to 2 weeks, dependent on the climate and storage 
conditions. During such periods, however, they should be in- 
spected daily and cleaned and reoiled as often as necessary 
to keep them properly protected against corrosion. For 
longer periods of time, rifles will be protected with compound, 
rust-preventive, light. 

6. Compound, rust-preventive, light, is a semisolid material. 
It is efficient for preserving the polished surfaces, the bore, and 
the chamber for a period of approximately 1 year, dependent 
on climatic and storage conditions. 

c. The rifles should be cleaned and prepared with particular 
care. The bore, all parts of the mechanism, and the exterior 
of the rifles should be thoroughly cleaned and then dried com- 
pletely with rags. In damp climates, particular care must be 
taken to see that the rags are dry. After drying a metal part, 
the bare hands should not touch that part. All metal parts 
should then be coated with rust-preventive compound. Applica- 
tion of the rust-preventive compound to the bore of the rifle is 
best done by dipping the cleaning brush in the compound and 
running it through the bore two or three times. Before placing 
the rifle * * * which causes the weapon to rust. 

[A. G. 062.11 (10-22-41).] <C 2, Jan. 30, 1942.) 

11 15. Cleaning of Rifles as Received from Storage. — a. Rifles 
which have been stored in accordance with paragraph 14 will 
be coated with light rust-preventive compound. Rifles received 
from ordnance storage will, in general, be coated with heavy 



5 




BASIC FIELD MANUAL 



rust-preventive compound. Use a light oil * * * instructions 
contained in paragraph 11. 

******* 

b. Dry-cleaning solvent is a noncorrosive petroleum distillate 
used for removing grease, oil, and wax. It is generally applied 
with rag swabs to large parts and as a bath for small parts. The 
surfaces * * * and discolor rubber. 

[A. G. 002.11 (10-22-41).] (C2, Jan. 30. 1942.) 

By Order of the Secretary of War : 

G. C. MARSHALL, 

Chief of Staff. 

Official : 

E. S. ADAMS, 

Major General, 

The Adjutant General. 



6 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE! 1942 




FM 23-5 



BASIC FIELD MANUAL 

U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER 
.30, Ml 



Prepared under direction of the 
Chief of Infantry 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
WASHINGTON : 1940 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C. 



Price 30 cents 





WAR DEPARTMENT, 
Washington, July 20, 1940. 

FM 23-5, Basic Field Manual, U. S. Rifle, Caliber .30, Ml, 
is published for the information and guidance of all con- 
cerned. 

[A. G. 062.11 (4-5-40).] 

By order of the Secretary of War: 

G. C. MARSHALL, 

Chief of Staff. 

Official: 

E. S. ADAMS, 

Major General, 

The Adjutant General. 



n 





TABLE OP CONTENTS 



Chapter 1. Mechanical Training. Paragraphs Page 

Section I. General 1-3 1 

II. Disassembly and assembly 4-9 1 

III. Care and cleaning 10-15 19 

IV. Functioning 16-19 25 

/ V. Operation 20-31 31 

VI. Immediate action and stoppages. 32-35 35 

VII. Spare parts and accessories 36-38 39 

Vin. Instruments 39 41 

IX. Ammunition 40-46 45 

Chapter 2. Marksmanship; Known-Distance 
Targets. 

Section I. General 47-54 49 

II. Preparatory marksmanship train- 

ing 55-62 52 

III. Qualification courses 63-67 93 

IV. Range practice 68-72 101 

V. Equipment; known-distance tar- 

gets and ranges, and range pre- 
cautions 73-76 121 

VI. Small-bore practice 77-80 131 

Chapter 3. Marksmanship; Moving Ground Tar- 
gets. 

Section I. General 81-82 136 

n. Moving vehicles 83-85 137 

HI. Moving personnel 86-87 138 

IV. Moving targets and ranges, and 

range precautions 88-89 139 

Chapter 4. Marksmanship; Air Targets. 

Section I. Nature of air targets for rifle 90-91 142 

II. Technique of fire 92-96 142 

III. Marksmanship training 97-101 146 

IV. Miniature range practice 102-105 156 

V. Towed-target firing 106-110 159 

VI. Ranges, targets, and equipment.. 111-116 163 

Chapter 5. Technique op Rifle Fire. 

Section I. General 117-119 174 

II. Range estimation 120-124 175 

III. Target designation 125-131 179 

IV. Rifle fire and its effect 132-138 186 

V. Application of fire 139-146 189 

VI. Landscape-target firing 147-154 195 

VII. Field-target firing 155-157 202 

VIU. Fire exercises 158-160 205 

Chapter 6. Advice to Instructors. • 

Section I. General 161 209 

II. Mechanical training 162 209 

III. Marksmanship; known - distance 

targets 163—178 210 

IV. Marksmanship; air targets 179-183 227 

V. Technique of fire 184^190 232 

Index 237 



III 




FM 23-5 



BASIC FIELD MANUAL 

TJ. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 

(The matter contained herein supersedes chapter 1A, part one, 
Basic Field Manual, volume III, January 3, 1938.) 

CHAPTER 1 

MECHANICAL TRAINING 

Paragraphs 



Section I. General 1-3 

II. Disassembly and assembly 4r-9 

III. Care and cleaning 10-15 

IV. Functioning 16-19 

V. Operation 20-31 

VI. Immediate action and stoppages 32-35 

VII. Spare parts and accessories 36-38 

VIII. Instruments 39 

IX. Ammunition 40-46 



Section I 
GENERAL 

■ 1. Object. — This chapter is designed to give the soldier 
training that will insure his ability to maintain the rifle and 
keep it in operation. 

■ 2. Description op Rifle. — The U. S. rifle, caliber .30, Ml, is 
a self-loading shoulder weapon. (See fig. 1.) It is gas oper- 
ated, clip fed, and air cooled. It weighs approximately 9 
pounds and the bayonet an additional pound. The ammuni- 
tion is loaded in clips of eight rounds. Bandoleers of ammu- 
nition for this rifle have six pockets with a total of 40 rounds 
and weigh 3*A pounds each. 

■ 3. Firepower. — The principal characteristic of the weapon 
is its mechanical operation which enables the individual rifle- 
man or group of riflemen to deliver a large volume of accurate 
fire upon any designated point or area within range. 

Section II 

DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY 

■ 4. When Taken Up. — T his training will be taken up as 
soon as practicable after the soldier receives his rifle. In 
any case it will be completed before any firing is done with 
the rifle by the individual. Instruction in the care and 
cleaning of the rifle will also be covered. 



1 




HAND GUARD 




REAR HAND GUARD BAND 

Figure 1. — U. S. rifle, caliber .30, Ml. 




U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



5-8 



■ 5. Organization. — In the company* or platoon, all enlisted 
men are combined in one or more groups under their officers 
or selected noncommissioned officers as instructors. Other 
noncommissioned officers supervise the work as directed. 
Corporals supervise the work of their squads. 

■ 6. Care To Be Exercised. — a. The rifle can be readily 
disassembled and assembled without applying force. Such 
practice is prohibited. 

b. The piece will not be disassembled or assembled against 
time as this serves no useful purpose and results in burring 
and damaging the parts. Instruction, blindfolded, may be 
given to men who have passed their tests in mechanical 
training. In all work in disassembling the rifle the men 
will be taught to lay the parts out on a smooth, clean sur- 
face in the proper sequence for assembling. 

■ 7. Nomenclature. — The names of the parts to which refer- 
ence is made in mechanical training are readily learned as 
this training progresses. Instructors will therefore take care 
to name the parts clearly and correctly in their work. A 
sufficient knowledge of the nomenclature of the rifle is 
gained by the soldier during the instruction in mechanical 
training. 

■ 8. Disassembling. — a. General. — (1) Authorized disassem- 
bly by the soldier is limited to that required for proper care 
and maintenance of the rifle. Further disassembly will 
generally be done under the supervision of an officer or 
ordnance personnel. The individual soldier usually will be 
prohibited from — 

(a) Disassembling the stock group. 

(b) Disassembling the follower assembly. 

(e) Disassembling the rear sight. 

(d) Removing the clip latch. 

(e) Disassembling the trigger housing group. 

(/) Removing the gas cylinder lock. 

(2) The front sight will not be dismounted at other than 
properly equipped Ordnance establishments. 

•The term "company” as used in this manual includes troop, 
battery, or similar organization. 



3 




8 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER ,30, Ml 



(3) The gas cylinder will not be disassembled from the 
rifle except by Ordnance personnel, 

b. Sequence. — (1) The disassembly of the rifle authorized 
to be performed by the soldier without supervision is per- 
formed in the following sequence: 

(a) Dismounting three main, groups. 

1. Remove trigger housing group. 

2. Separate stock group from barrel and receiver 

group. 

(b) Disassembling barrel and receiver group. 

1. Remove follower rod with compensating spring 

attached. 

2. Remove compensating spring from follower rod. 

3. Remove operating rod spring. 

4. Remove follower arm pin. 

5. Remove bullet guide, follower arm, and operating 

rod catch assembly. 

6. Remove follower with slide attached. 

7. Remove operating rod. 

8. Remove bolt assembly. 

(c) Disassembling bolt assembly. 

1. Remove extractor. 

2. Remove extractor spring and plunger. 

3. Remove ejector with ejector spring attached. 

4. Remove firing pin. 

(2) Disassembly of the following parts, generally pro- 
hibited for the individual soldier, is performed in the fol- 
lowing sequence: 

(a) Removing clip latch. 

1. Remove clip latch pin. 

2. Remove clip latch with clip latch spring attached. 

(b) Disassembling trigger housing group. 

1. Close and latch trigger guard. 

2. Pull trigger. 

3. Remove trigger pin. 

4. Remove trigger assembly. 

5. Remove hammer spring housing, hammer spring, 

and hammer spring plunger. 

6. Remove hammer pin. 

7. Remove hammer. 



4 




LOCK. GAS CYLINDER 




V. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, MI 



8 . Remove safety. 

9 . Remove trigger guard. 

10 . Remove clip ejector. 

(c) Removing gas cylinder lock. 

1 . Remove gas cylinder lock screw. 

2. Remove gas cylinder lock. 



8 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 




c. Method . — The following detailed explanation of the 
method of disassembling the rifle is furnished as an aid to 
instructors: 

(1) Three main groups . — Grasp rifle with left hand so that 
base of trigger housing is included in grip of fingers. (See 
fig. 3.) Place butt of rifle against left thigh. Grasp rear 
portion of trigger guard with thumb and forefinger of 
right hand and exert sufficient downward pressure to un- 
latch trigger guard from trigger housing. Then swing 



trigger guard away from trigger housing to extreme opened 
position as shown in figure 3. Pull out trigger housing 
group. Place this group on a smooth, clean surface. Grasp 
rifle over rear sight with left hand, muzzle down and barrel 
to left. (See fig. 4.) Strike and grasp small of stock with 
right hand so as to separate stock group from barrel and 
receiver group as shown in figure 4. 

<2) Barrel and receiver group. — (a) Place group on a 
smooth surface, barrel down and muzzle to the left. Grasp 



6 




XT. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



8 




follower rod with left thumb and forefinger at knurled por- 
tion and disengage it from follower arm by pressure toward 
muzzle. Withdraw follower rod (with compensating spring 
attached) to the right. (See fig. 6.) If necessary, remove 
compensating spring from follower rod by grasping com- 
pensating spring with left hand and twisting follower 
rod toward body with right hand, exerting a slight pull to 
the right. Withdraw operating 



(6) Drift follower arm pin from its seat by starting it 
with the point of a bullet (or with drift of combination 
tool) held in right hand and applied on side of receiver 
farthest from body. Pull out pin from near side with left 
hand. Grasp bullet guide, follower arm, and operating rod 
catch assembly and pull to the left until these parts are dis- 
engaged. Lift out and separate these three parts. Do not 
remove accelerator from operating rod catch assembly as 
accelerator pin is riveted in its seat. Lift out follower with 



7 



8 



0. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 




8 



Figure 5. — Three main groups, U. S. rifle, caliber ,30, MI. 














IT. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 




8 



IT. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 




follower slide attached. Do not separate follower from 
follower slide. 

(c) Grasp barrel and receiver assembly with left hand 
and operating rod handle with right hand as shown in figure 
7. Move operating rod slowly to the rear, pulling operating 
rod handle upward and away from receiver. This will disen- 
gage operating rod from bolt when lug on operating rod slides 
up into dismount notch of operating rod guide groove in 



receiver. When operating rod is thus disengaged remove it 
with a downward and rearward movement. 

Note. — The operating rod has been intentionally bent. Do not 
attempt to straighten it. 

( d ) Grasp bolt by operating lug, slide it from rear to front, 
and lift it up and out to the right front with a slight rotary 
motion. (See fig. 8.) 

(3) Bolt assembly . — Grasp bolt in left hand, holding firing 
pin in place with little finger, extractor to right, front end up. 



10 




Figure 9. 



ejector spring attached. (Separate only when necessary.) 
Remove firing pin from rear of bolt. 

(4) Rear sight. — (a) Turn barrel and receiver up. Lower 
aperture as far as it will go, noting reading on elevating knob 
and record it for use in assembling. (This reading should be 
approximately 100 yards.) 

(b) Using combination tool, unscrew rear sight nut from 
right side of rear sight. Unscrew windage knob, taking care 
that rear sight nut lock assembly which is Inside windage 
knob does not become lost. Remove nut lock and nut lock 
spring from windage knob. 



tr. s. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



thumb on front end of bolt to prevent ejector from flying out. 
(See fig. 9.) Insert point of a bullet or screwdriver blade of 
combination tool between lower edge of extractor and car- 
tridge seat flange on bolt and pry extractor out until ejector 
snaps out against thumb. Extreme care must be exercised 
that ejector is held by thumb during this operation as ejector 
spring is compressed sufficiently to inflict injury if released. 
Remove extractor. Remove extractor spring and plunger. 
(Separate only when necessary.) Remove ejector with 







8 



TJ. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, MI 



(c) With a screwdriver remove rear sight elevating knob 
screw from left side of rear sight. Remove rear sight elevat- 
ing knob. Pull out rear sight elevating pinion from left side 
of receiver. Grasp aperture and pull upward about V 2 inch, 
place thumb under top of aperture and push forward to 
remove rear sight cover, rear sight base, and aperture. 
Separate. 

(5) Clip latch . — Place receiver on its right side with barrel 
to the left. Press clip latch with left thumb to relieve tension 
of clip latch spring, then drift out and remove clip latch pin, 
starting it toward muzzle with point of a bullet or drift of 
combination tool. Lift out clip latch with clip latch spring 
attached. 

(6) Trigger housing group. — (a) The trigger housing group 
being removed, close and latch trigger guard. Release 
hammer to the fired position. Hold group in right hand, 
with right thumb on sear, forefinger pulling back on trigger, 
base of trigger housing braced against a firm support, and 
press on sear with right thumb to relieve tension on trigger 
pin. Start trigger pin from its seat with a drift held in 
left hand, then remove it. Release pressure of right thumb 
and forefinger gradually, permitting hammer spring to ex- 
tend to its full length, at the same time steadying hammer 
spring housing with fingers of left hand. (See fig. 10.) Re- 
move trigger assembly (do not remove sear pin or sear). 
Remove hammer spring housing, hammer spring, and ham- 
mer spring plunger, and separate these parts. Push out 
hammer pin from left side and remove hammer. Remove 
safety by pressing its top away from left side of trigger 
housing until stud snaps out of its seat, and lift it from 
its slot in trigger housing. 

(b) Hold trigger housing in left hand, base of trigger 
housing down and away from body. Swing trigger guard 
to open position with right hand. Slide trigger guard 
toward body until hammer stop is opposite center of safety 
slot. Rotate trigger guard to right and upward with right 
hand until hammer stop clears edge of trigger housing. 
Remove trigger guard. 

(c) Hold trigger housing in left hand, right side down, 
rear end resting on a solid surface. Insert point of a bullet 



12 




r. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



8 




or combination tool in the dismounting hole in left side 
of housing and push out clip ejector. 

(7) Gas cylinder. — (a) There are now in existence two 
types of gas cylinder and front sight assemblies for the Ml 
rifle. In the newer or spline type the barrel protrudes be- 
yond the gas cylinder, and the front sight screw enters from 
the front and is sealed to prevent tampering. In the older 
or screw-on type the barrel does not protrude and the front 
sight screw enters from the side. 



(b) In order to prevent undue wear, insure proper mainte- 
nance of gas port adjustment, and avoid improper assembly, 
the gas cylinder assembly should not be removed except when 
necessary to replace the front hand guard assembly. Before 
such removal be sure the operating rod has been removed. 
To remove the gas cylinder, proceed as follows: 

1. Spline type . — Unscrew gas cylinder lock screw using 
combination tool. Unscrew gas cylinder lock. 
Tap gas cylinder lightly toward muzzle to remove 
240321° — 40 2 13 




8-9 II. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 

it from barrel. The front sight will not be dis- 
mounted from the gas cylinder assembly. Do not 
attempt to adjust the front sight. 

2. Screw-on type. — Remove front sight screw and lift 
out front sight. Unscrew gas cylinder assembly 
from barrel. 

d. Disassembly of certain parts prohibited . — The repair 
or replacement of the following parts pertains to the Ord- 
nance Department and their disassesmbly will not be effected 
within Infantry organizations: the trigger and sear assem- 
bly; the operating rod catch and accelerator assembly; the 
front sight; the gas cylinder. 

■ 9. Assembling. — a. The rifle and its component groups are 
assembled in the reverse order of their disassembly as given 
in paragraph 8 b. The following detailed explanation of the 
method of assembling the rifle is furnished as an aid to 
instructors : 

(1) Gas cylinder lock. — Replace gas cylinder lock and gas 
cylinder lock screw. 

(2) Trigger housing group.— (a) Place clip ejector in po- 
sition in trigger housing with short arm up, tip of long arm 
in its slot in vertical front face of housing, and loop against 
its stud on left side of trigger housing. Hold trigger hous- 
ing with its left side down, rear end to the right. With right 
thumb hold loop of clip ejector against its stud; with fore- 
finger of left hand hold long arm of clip ejector up in its 
slot in front face of trigger housing. With left thumb pry 
toward body on center of long arm of clip ejector, thereby 
seating it. 

(b) Hold trigger housing in left hand, top up, forward end 
to front. Hold trigger guard in right hand, winged section 
pointing to the left. Place winged sections astride bottom 
of trigger housing, hammer stop over safety slot. Rotate 
trigger guard downward, then slide it forward into position. 

(c) Replace safety so that its thumb piece passes through 
slot in both trigger guard and bottom of housing and its 
stud is snapped into its seat in side plate of trigger housing. 
Push thumb piece forward to ready position. Insert hammer 
loosely in cocked position. Aline pin hole in hammer with 
pin holes in trigger housing and trigger guard. Insert ham- 



14 






U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, MI 



mer pin from the right. Swing hammer to the fired posi- 
tion. Place trigger housing on a smooth surface, base of 
trigger housing down and to the left. Assemble hammer 
spring housing, hammer spring, and hammer spring plunger 
into one Unit. Place plunger in its seat against hammer, 
making sure that open side of hammer spring housing is 
toward safety, and hold assembled parts in a raised posi- 
tion with left thumb and forefinger. With right hand insert 
trigger into trigger slot so that notch at curved rear surface 
finger piece bears against rear of slot in trigger housing. 
Arrange parts together so that bottom shoulder of hammer 



spring housing rests in notch just below and forward of 
trigger pin hole and the two wings of hammer spring hous- 
ing straddle sear pin. (See fig. 11.) Push down with left 
thumb on top of rear end of hammer spring housing. (See 
fig. 12.) At the same time pull trigger rearward with right 
forefinger and push forward on sear with right thumb, thus 
compressing hammer spring and bringing trigger pin hole 
into alinement with holes in trigger housing. Hold this 
alinement with right hand bracing base of trigger housing 
against a firm surface. With left hand insert trigger pin 



15 



9 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 




up to its head. Seat head of trigger pin fully while oscil- 
lating trigger assembly with right hand. 

(3) Clip latch . — Place clip latch with clip latch spring at- 
tached in position on left side of receiver and start clip latch 
pin in from the front. Press rear end of clip latch to relieve 
tension of clip latch spring and push clip latch pin fully 
home. (Protrusion of pin head will result in a damaged 
stock.) 



(4) Rear sight . — Insert front lip of rear sight cover in slot 
at forward end of recess in receiver. Spring rear lip into its 
slot by pressing forward on rear surface. Insert forward end 
of rear sight base in opening in rear sight cover. Press it 
forward into position and slide rear sight base to the rear. 
Insert aperture in slot opening in rear sight base. Slide aper- 
ture to its extreme forward position. Holding rear sight 
base forward against rear sight cover, insert elevating pinion 
through left side of receiver, taking care that it meshes with 



16 




U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



9 



segment on aperture. Insert windage knob through right side 
of receiver and screw into rear sight base until zero mark on 
rear sight base registers with center line of windage scale on 
receiver. Assemble rear sight nut lock spring and nut lock 
and place them in position in windage knob around threaded 
end of elevating pinion, flange of nut lock outside, taking care 
that flat cut on elevating pinion is alined with flat on nut lock. 
Using combination tool, screw rear sight nut onto elevating 
pinion until tension desired on both elevating knob and wind- 
age knob is obtained. (If nut is screwed too tight, knobs be- 
come locked and cannot be turned.) Lower aperture as far 
as it will go by turning elevating pinion. Replace elevating 
knob and rotate it to position noted before disassembling 
(approximately 100 yards) . Holding it in this position replace 
elevating knob screws and tighten. 

(5) Bolt assembly. — Insert firing pin into bolt, making sure 
that tang enters slot in rear of bolt. Grasp bolt in left hand, 
top up, extractor recess to right, holding firing pin in place 
with little finger. Insert ejector with ejector spring attached. 
Insert extractor spring and plunger. Set stud of extractor into 
its hole in the bolt without forcing it against ejector spring. 
Place drift of combination tool in left groove of bolt with 
ejector in cut on face of tool. Press down on combination 
tool so as to compress ejector spring and aline ejector, then 
with thumb of left hand push extractor in until extractor 
plunger is seated. This operation should be performed only 
with the combination tool. 

(6) Barrel and receiver group. — (a) Incline barrel and 
receiver assembly at an angle of approximately 45°, sights 
up and muzzle up and to the front. Hold bolt by right 
locking lug so that front end of bolt is slightly above and to 
the right of its extreme forward position in receiver. In- 
sert rear end in its bearing on bridge of receiver rotating it 
in a counterclockwise direction sufficiently to permit tang of 
firing pin to clear top of bridge. Then guide left locking 
lug of bolt into its groove at a point just to rear of lug on 
left side of receiver, and right locking lug onto its bearing 
in receiver, and slide bolt back to its extreme rear position. 

(b) Turn barrel and receiver assembly in left hand until 
barrel is down. With right hand grasp operating rod at 



17 




9 



TJ. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



handle. Hold handle up and insert piston head into gas 
cylinder about % of an inch, making sure that operating 
rod handle is to the left of receiver. Hold barrel and re- 
ceiver assembly in left hand and rotate it to the right until 
barrel is uppermost. With right hand, adjust operating rod 
so that camming recess on its rear end fits over operating 
lug of bolt. Press operator rod forward and downward until 
the bolt is seated in its forward position. 

(c) Place barrel and receiver assembly on a smooth sur- 
face, barrel down and muzzle to the left. Replace follower 
(with follower slide attached) so that its guide ribs fit into 
their grooves in receiver, square hole in follower to the right. 
Follower slide will rest on bottom surface of bolt when fol- 
lower is in position correctly. 

( d ) With left hand replace bullet guide so that shoulders 
of bullet guide fit in their slots in receiver and hole in 
projecting lug Is In line with holes in receiver. 

(e) With left hand replace follower arm by passing its 
studded end through slot in bullet guide and inserting studs 
in their grooves in front end of follower. Place forked end 
of follower arm in position astride projecting lug on bullet 
guide with the pin holes in alinement. Insert rear arm of 
operating rod catch through clearance cut in bullet guide, 
making sure that its rear end is underneath forward stud on 
clip latch which projects into receiver opening. Aline holes 
in operating rod catch, follower arm, and bullet guide with 
those in receiver. Insert follower arm pin in side of receiver 
which is toward body and press pin home. 

(/) If separated, insert operating rod spring into operating 
rod. Assemble follower rod and compensating spring by 
grasping spring in left hand and inserting follower rod with 
right hand, twisting two together so that compensating 
spring is fully seated on follower rod. Grasp knurled portion 
of the follower rod with thumb and forefinger of left hand, 
forked end to right, hump down. Insert left end of follower 
rod into operating rod spring, push to left and seat forked end 
against studs on follower arm. Hump on follower rod must 
be in slot in operating rod catch. 

(7) Three main groups. — Insert U-shaped flange of stock 
ferrule in its seat in lower band. Pivoting about this point. 



18 




U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, MI 



9-10 



guide and press barrel and receiver group into position in 
stock. Insert trigger housing group, with trigger guard in its 
open position, into opening in stock. Press it into position 
and close and latch trigger guard. 

b. Test the assembly as follows: Pull back and hold oper- 
ating handle to its rearmost position: press down on follower 
and allow bolt to go fully home; set safety in its rearmost 
position; pull trigger; hammer should not fall; set safety in 
its foremost position: pull trigger; hammer should, fall. 

Section III 

CARE AND CLEANING 

■ 10. In Garrison and Camp. — a. Care and cleaning in gar- 
rison and camp include the care of the rifle necessary to pre- 
serve its condition and appearance during the periods when 
no firing is being done. Rifles in the hands of troops should 
be inspected daily to insure proper condition and cleanliness. 
Training schedules should allow proper time for cleaning 
rifles on each day when rifles are used in training. 

b. The bore of the rifle will always be cleaned with a clean- 
ing rod from the muzzle. The cleaning rod specified in SNL 
B-21 is of sufficient length to permit cleaning of the bore 
without damage to the follower or face of bolt. If a longer 
rod is used the follower and face of bolt must be protected. 
Numerous methods have been devised and found satisfactory. 
The simplest method is to block the follower and cover face 
of bolt with a piece of cloth stuffed into the receiver. To 
clean the bore, assemble a cloth patch to the cleaning rod. 
Insert the rod into the bore at the muzzle and move it for- 
ward and back several times, and remove the patch. CAU- 
TION: In cleaning the bore, care must be taken not to foul 
the cleaning patch in the gas port. Repeat until several suc- 
cessive patches come out absolutely clean. Saturate a patch 
in sperm oil and push it through the bore, holding the rifle, 
top up, so that some sperm oil will flow into the gas port. 

Note. — S perm oil should be used when available. When not 
available, motor oil, weight 20, or any light grade machine oil 
may be used in an emergency. Aircraft lubrication oil is not a 
good preservative. 



19 




10-11 



TJ. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, MI 



c. To clean the screw heads and crevices, use a small 
cleaning brush or small stick. To clean the metal surfaces, 
wipe with a dry cloth to remove moisture, perspiration, and 
dirt, then wipe with a cloth containing a small quantity 
of sperm oil. This protective film will be maintained at all 
times. To clean the outer surfaces of the rifle, wipe off the 
dirt with a lightly oiled cloth and clean with a soft dry 
one. 

d. After cleaning and protecting the rifle as described 
above, place it in the gun rack without covering and with- 
out a plug in the muzzle or bore. Muzzle covers, gun covers, 
rack covers, and plugs must not be used because they cause 
sweating and promote rust. However, when squad rooms 
are being swept, the gun racks may be covered to protect 
the rifles from dust. Covers must be removed after the 
rooms have been swept. 

■ 11. Preparatory to Firing. — a. The care and cleaning of 
the rifle preparatory to firing differs from the procedure 
prescribed in paragraph 10 in that lubricating grease 
(U. S. A. Spec. SXS77) is substituted for oil on many of 
the moving parts of the weapon. The grease is now issued 
in a collapsible tube. To apply the grease, rub a small 
quantity on a corner of a cleaning patch and apply it to the 
parts. Avoid excess quantities. 

b. The following procedure will be observed to assure effi- 
cient functioning of the rifle: 

(1) Dismount main groups. 

(2) Clean and oil the bore very lightly. Do not oil the 
chamber. 

(3) Remove any carbon on the gas cylinder plug and 
piston head. 

(4) Thoroughly clean and lightly oil all metal parts. In 
cold weather use aircraft lubrication oil. In hot weather 
use sperm oil. 

(5) Apply a thin, uniform coating of lubricating grease 
to the parts listed below: 

(a) Bolt lugs (locking and operating) . 

(b) Bolt guides. 

(c) Cocking cam on bolt. 

(d) Compensating spring. 



20 




tT. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 11-12 

(e) Contact surfaces of barrel and operating rod. 

(/) Operating rod cam. 

(gf) Operating rod guide groove in receiver. 

(h) Operating rod spring. 

CAUTION: Do not apply lubricating grease to the follower 
slide or the under surface of the bolt, as the introduction 
of grease into the chamber may lead to the generation of 
excessive pressure. 

(6) Assemble rifle and rub all outer surfaces with a lightly 
oiled rag to remove dust. 

■ 12. After Firing. — The bores of all rifles must be thor- 
oughly cleaned by the evening of the day on which they 
are fired. They should be cleaned in the same manner 
for the next 3 days. CAUTION: Under no circumstances 
will metal fouling solution be used in this rifle. 

a. Immediate cleaning after firing, or as soon as possible . — 
Hold the rifle, bottom side up, so that no water will enter the 
gas port. Run. several wet patches through bore. For this 
purpose water must be used; warm water is good, but warm, 
soapy water is better. Remove the patch section from the 
M3 cleaning rod and substitute the cleaning brush therefor; 
run the cleaning rod with brush assembled back and forth 
through the bore several times. Care should be used to insure 
that the brush goes all the way through the bore before 
the direction is reversed. Remove the brush and run several 
wet patches through the bore, removing them from the 
breech end. Follow this by dry patches until the patches 
come out clean and dry. Saturate a patch in sperm oil and 
push it through the bore, holding the rifle, top side up, so 
that some of the oil will flow into the gas port. Caution: 
In cleaning the bore, care must be taken not to foul the 
cleaning patch in the gas port. 

b. Complete cleaning. — This cleaning should be done as 
soon as possible after that described in a above. If the rifle 
is to be fired the next day proceed as in paragraph 11. If 
the rifle is not to be fired in the next few days repeat pro- 
cedure in a above for 3 days. In addition, the following 
instructions will be observed: 

(1) Chamber. — Insert the cleaning patch deep into the slot 
of the chamber cleaning tool. Lay the tool with patch into 



21 




12 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



the palm of the left hand, close the left hand over the tool, 
and give the' tool about three turns to the right. This will 
cause the patch to be neatly wrapped around the tool and 
will cover all its metal surfaces. A slight pressure with the 
forefinger of the left hand, while turning the tool, will twist 
the end of the patch much like the finished end of a hand- 
rolled cigarette, causing the patch to be sufficiently secured to 
the tool to permit neat entry into the chamber. This insures 
cleaning the full length of the chamber, prevents the patch 
from being crushed down to the lower end of the tool, and 
eliminates the danger of causing rings in the chamber by 
exposed portions of the cleaning tool. Clean by twisting the 
tool with patch in the chamber. 

(2) Gas cylinder and gas cylinder plug . — Carbon will ac- 
cumulate due to firing. The frequency of carbon removal is a 
factor peculiar to individual rifles. Excess deposits of carbon 
in the rifle manifest themselves by sluggishness in action and 
failure to feed. 

(a) Spline type . — To remove accumulated deposits of car- 
bon from the gas cylinder, remove the lock screw and remove 
carbon, using the screwdriver blade of the combination tool. 
The gas cylinder lock may be removed and the lock screw 
reinserted in the gas cylinder and threaded in enough to 
break loose the carbon. The inside of the gas cylinder should 
be thoroughly wiped clean and oiled at the conclusion of fir- 
ing. (A few drops of oil placed between the rear gas cylinder 
lug and the operating rod, with the muzzle tipped down, will 
be sufficient if firing is contemplated on the next day. Hand 
operate the rod through a few cycles to distribute the oil 
properly.) The exterior finish should be cleaned and lightly 
oiled. The sight should be kept free of dust and dirt. 

(b) Screw-on type . — Scrape the carbon from the exposed 
surface of the front of the gas cylinder and gas cylinder plug 
and piston head after extensive firing. Clean the gas cylinder 
plug and the grooves in the gas cylinder to insure correct 
seating of the plug. The frequency of this cleaning depends 
on the amount of firing. A sharp blade instrument, similar 
to a mess kit knife, should be used to remove the carbon from 
the gas cylinder plug and piston head. If an abrasive cloth 
is used care should be taken that the corners of the plug or 



22 




U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER ,30, Ml 



12-14 



piston head are not rounded. Do not remove the gas cyl- 
inder for cleaning. The gas cylinder is cleaned by using the 
cleaning rod and a patch in the same manner that the bore 
is cleaned. 

(3) Exterior surfaces. — Wipe off the exterior of the rifle 
with a dry cloth to remove dampness, dirt, and perspiration. 
Wipe all metal surfaces with sperm oil, the stock and hand- 
guards with raw linseed oil, and the sling with neat’s-foot 
oil. 

■ 13. On the Range or in the Field.— The rifle must be 
kept clean and free from dirt and properly lubricated with 
lubricating grease. To obtain its maximum efficiency the 
following points must be observed: 

a. Never fire a rifle with any dust, dirt, mud, or snow in 
the bore. 

b. Keep the chamber clean and free from oil and dirt. 

c. Never leave a patch, plug, or other obstruction in the 
chamber or bore. Neglect of this precaution may result in 
serious injury. 

d. If the rifle gives indications of lack of lubrication and 
excessive friction, apply additional lubricating grease to the 
parts listed in paragraph 11 a (5). Excessive friction exists 
if the empty cases are being ejected to the right rear, and 
grease should be applied at the first opportunity as failures 
to feed and eject will occur if the condition is not corrected. 

e. Keep a light coating of oil on all other metal parts. 

f. Remove the carbon from the gas cylinder plug and the 
piston head when necessary. 

g. In general it should not be necessary to remove any of 
the parts of the rifle in the field for cleaning except the 
trigger housing group and the gas cylinder plug. However, 
if the mechanism becomes very dirty the rifle may be dis- 
assembled into its three main groups and the necessary 
cleaning and lubricating accomplished. 

h. During range firing, a selected and qualified man 
should be placed in charge of the cleaning of rifles at the 
cleaning racks or tables. 

■ 14. Preparation for Storage. — a. Sperm oil is the most 
suitable oil for preserving the mechanism of rifles. This oil 



23 





14-15 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



is efficient for preserving the polished surfaces, the bore, and 
the chamber for a period of from 2 to 6 weeks, dependent on 
the climatic and storage conditions. 

b. Rust preventive compound, medium, is a semisolid ma- 
terial. This compound is efficient for preserving the polished 
surfaces, the bore, and the chamber for a period of 1 year or 
less, dependent on the climatic and storage condition. 

c. The rifles should be cleaned and prepared with particu- 
lar care. The bore, all parts of the mechanism, and the ex- 
terior of the rifles should be thoroughly cleaned and then 
dried completely with rags. In damp climates, particular 
care must be taken to see that the rags are dry. After dry- 
ing a metal part, the bare hands should not touch that part. 
All metal parts should then be coated either with sperm oil 
or rust-preventive compound, depending on the length of 
storage. (See a and b above) . Application of the rust-pre- 
ventive compound to the bore of the rifle is best done by 
dipping the cleaning brush in rust-preventive compound and 
running it through the bore two or three times. Before plac- 
ing the rifle in the packing chest see that the bolt is in its 
forward position and that the firing pin is released. Then, 
handling the rifle by the stock and hand guard only, it 
should be placed in the packing chest, the wooden supports 
at the butt and muzzle having previously been painted with 
rust-preventive compound. Under no circumstances should 
a rifle be placed in storage contained in a cloth or other 
cover or with a plug in the bore. Such articles collect mois- 
ture which causes the weapon to rust. 

■ 15. Cleaning of Rifles as Received Prom Storage. — a. 
Rifles which have been stored in accordance with paragraph 
14 will be coated with either sperm oil or medium rust pre- 
ventive compound. Rifles received from ordnance storage 
will, in general, be coated with heavy rust preventive com- 
pound. Use a light oil or dry cleaning solvent to remove 
all traces of the compound or oil, particular care being taken 
that all recesses in which springs or plungers operate are 
cleaned thoroughly. After using the dry cleaning solvent 
make sure it is completely removed from all parts. Then 
follow instructions contained in paragraph 10. If the rifle 



24 




U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



15-19 



is to be fired immediately, follow instructions contained in 
paragraph 11. 

Note. — Failure to clean the firing pin and the recess In the bolt 
In which It operates may result In gun failure at normal tempera- 
tures, and will most certainly result in serious malfunctions If 
the rifles are operated in low temperature areas, as rust preventive 
compound and other foreign matter will cause the lubricating oil 
to congeal or frost on the mechanism. 

b. Dry cleaning solvent is a petroleum distillate, of low 
inflammability and noncorrosive, used for removing grease. 
It is generally applied with rag swabs to large parts and as 
a bath for small parts. The surfaces must be thoroughly 
dried immediately after removal of the solvent. To avoid 
leaving finger marks, which are ordinarily acid and induce 
corrosion, gloves should be worn by persons handling parts 
after such cleaning. Dry cleaning solvent will attack and 
discolor rubber. 

Section IV 
FUNCTIONING 

■ 16. Object. — This section is designed to provide a non- 
technical description of the functioning of the rifle. The 
object of instruction in this subject should be to lead the 
soldier to an understanding of the simple functioning of 
his weapon without emphasis on memorizing the matter of 
the text. 

■ 17. When Taken Up. — I nstruction in functioning will be 
taken up after instruction in the disassembly, assembly, care 
and cleaning of the rifle. 

■ 18. Use of Dummy Cartridges. — The corrugated type of 
dummy cartridge (cal. .30, M1906) may be used for instruc- 
tion in functioning. The use of the slotted type of dummy 
cartridge (range, cal. .30, Ml) is prohibited. Special care 
must be exercised in the use of dummy cartridges that they 
do not introduce dirt or grit into the chamber of the rifle. 

■ 19. Description of Cycle. — a . Rearward movement . — (1) 
When the rifle is loaded and the bolt closed, the hammer 
spring is compressed and the trigger lugs are engaged in the 
hammer hooks, holding the hammer in the cocked position. 
If pressure is then applied to the trigger, the trigger lugs are 



25 




19 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



disengaged from the hammer hooks, and the released hammer, 
actuated by the hammer spring, rotates about the hammer pin 
and strikes the firing pin which transmits the blow to the 
primer of the cartridge. (See fig. 13.) The bolt, however, 





U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



19 



must be fully rotated to its locked position before this action 
can take place as the tang of the firing pin is blocked by the 
bridge of the receiver except when this tang is alined with the 
slot in the bridge. Moreover, until the bolt is rotated to its 
locked position, the hammer is prevented from striking the 
firing pin by the bolt camming lug striking the cam surface 
cut into the rear face of the bolt. (The bolt camming lug 
projects from the face of the hammer.) The shape of this 
cam surface is such that the bolt will be fully closed by a 
positive cam action when the hammer is released. In ad- 
dition the safety must be in its foremost position so that it 
does not block the hammer and trigger. 

(2) When the bullet passes the gas port some of the gas 
passes through it into the cylinder, where it strikes the 
piston end of the operating rod with sufficient force to drive 
the operating rod to the rear and compress the operating rod 
and compensating springs. 

(3) The initial movement of the operating rod to the rear 
for about inch, is independent of the bolt mechanism, the 
operating lug merely sliding in the straight section of the 
recess in the operating rod. The cam surface of this recess 
then comes in contact with the operating lug and cams it up, 
rotating the bolt counterclockwise and disengaging the lock- 
ing lugs on the bolt from the corresponding recesses in the 
receiver. This delay between the initial movement of the op- 
erating rod and the unlocking of the bolt permits the bullet to 
leave the muzzle, thus relieving the pressure in the barrel 
before the bolt is opened. The rotation of the bolt also cams 
the hammer back from the firing pin and withdraws the 
firing pin point into the bolt. 

(4) As the operating rod continues its movement to the 
rear it carries the bolt which slides along the receiver. 
The empty cartridge case is withdrawn from the chamber by 
the extractor. (See fig. 14.) When the mouth of the empty 
cartridge case clears the breech, the ejector, which is con- 
tinually pressing on the base of the cartridge, ejects the empty 
case to the right front through the action of the compressed 
ejector spring. The rear end of the bolt forces the hammer 
back and rides over it, thus compressing the hammer spring, 
and finally comes to rest near the rear end of the receiver. 



27 




19 



TJ. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



With the bolt at its extreme rearward position the magazine 
is uncovered. The follower, actuated by the follower arm 
and the follower rod which transmit pressure from the oper- 
ating rod spring and the compensating spring, then forces 
the cartridges upward in the clip so that the top cartridge 




PIECE HAS BEEN FIRED. 




AND EJECTED. CUP IS BEING EJECTED. 

Figure 14. — Rearward movement. 

lies in the path of the bolt. The rearward movement of the 
operating rod terminates when the rear end of its broad 
curved section contacts the front face of the receiver. 

b. Forward movement. — (1) As the bolt moves forward, 
actuated by the compressed operating rod and compensating 
springs, the lower front face of the bolt comes in contact 



28 



17. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



19 




with the base of the top cartridge and slides it forward into 
the chamber. The hammer, under pressure from the ham- 
mer spring, rides on the bottom of the bolt and tends to 
follow it, but is caught and held by the trigger lugs which 
engage the hammer hooks, if the pressure on the trigger 
has been released. (See fig. 15.) If, however, the pressure 
on the trigger has not been released, that is, if the trigger is 
held back after firing, the sear will engage the rear hammer 
hooks. (See fig. 16.) Subsequent release of the trigger dis- 
engages the sear from the hammer which then slides into 
engagement with the trigger lugs. 



Figure 15. — Trigger housing group assembly with hammer in 
cocked position. 

(2) When the bolt approaches its forward position, the 
rim of the cartridge is engaged by the extractor and the 
base of the cartridge forces the ejector into the bolt thus 
compressing the ejector spring. The operating lug is 
cammed downward by the rear surface of the cam recess in 
the operating rod, and in this manner the operating rod 
rotates the bolt clockwise to engage the locking lugs in the 
receiver. This section locks the bolt. The operating rod 
then continues to move forward for about s Ae inch until the 
rear end of the straight section of the recess in the operat- 
ing rod contacts the operating lug on the bolt. The com- 
240321” — 40 3 29 




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TM* AKAA TO HSAVKHT AUTOMATIC MAINO OK 
TNK FIMCW IF AASSSUAK IS MAINTAIMSO ON 
TM! TNIOOKN 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



pensating spring prevents the hooks on the follower rod from 
being disengaged from the follower arm during the forward 
movement. The rifle is then ready to be fired again. The 
cycle described above is repeated each time the trigger is 
squeezed except for the last round in the clip. 

c. Automatic ejection of empty cartridge clip . — When the 
last round of a clip is fired, the operations of unlocking and 
opening the bolt and extracting and ejecting the empty case 
are accomplished as already described. The bolt clears the 
top of the receiver in its movement to the rear, and since 



Figure 16. — Trigger housing group assembly with hammer hooks 
engaging the sear to prevent automatic firing. 

the clip is empty the follower is pushed up to its extreme 
top position by the action of the follower arm, follower rod, 
compensating spring, and operating rod spring. The posi- 
tion of the follower rod under these conditions is such that 
it cams the forward end of the operating rod catch upward 
to engage the notch in the operating rod. At the same 
time the rear arm of the operating rod catch pivots about 
the follower arm pin and forces down the stud on the front 
end of the clip latch, thus rotating the clip latch and disen- 



30 




U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



19-23 



gaging it from, the clip. Thereupon the empty clip is 
ejected by the clip ejector. (See fig. 14.) With the oper- 
ating rod held to the rear by the operating rod catch, and 
the receiver empty, a loaded clip may be inserted without 
delay and firing resumed. 

d. Automatic release of operating rod catch . — The auto- 
matic release of the operating rod catch, which allows the 
bolt to close when a loaded clip is inserted in the receiver, 
is accomplished in the following manner: When the loaded 
clip is forced down in the receiver it depresses the follower. 
As the follower nears the bottom of the receiver, the front 
end of the follower arm contacts and rotates the accelerator. 
The accelerator, in rotating about its pin in the operating 
rod catch, bears on a lug on the bullet guide and forces 
down the front end of the operating rod catch, thus releas- 
ing the operating rod. The operating rod is then moved 
forward by the pressure of the operating rod and com- 
pensating springs. At the same time the rear arm of the 
operating rod catch swings upward and releases the stud 
on the front end of the clip latch. The clip latch then 
rotates under the pressure of its spring, the rear lug of the 
clip latch moving inward to engage the notch in the clip 
and retain the clip in the magazine. 

Section V 
OPERATION 

■ 20. Object. — This section is designed to give the soldier 
that instruction necessary for the operation of the rifle. 

■ 21. When Taken Up. — The operation of the rifle will be 
taken up at any convenient time after instruction in care 
and cleaning has been completed. 

■ 22. Use of Dummy Cartridges. — As prescribed in para- 
graph 18. 

■ 23. To Load Cartridge Clip. — Insert eight rounds in the 
cartridge clip so that the base of each cartridge is close to 
the rear wall of the clip and the inner rib of the clip en- 
gages the extractor groove in the cartridge. It is immaterial 
whether the uppermost cartridge of the loaded clip is on the 



31 




23-25 U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 

left or right side as the follower slide adjusts itself for either 
loading. Experience shows, however, that for ease in insert- 
ing the clip the soldier prefers to have the uppermost 
cartridge on the right side of the clip. 

■ 24. To Load Rifle. — a. The operation of loading is per- 
formed with the piece locked, i. e., with the safety of the 
piece in its rearmost position except in sustained firing. 
Hold the rifle at the balance in the left hand. With the 
forefinger of the right hand, pull the operating rod handle 
smartly to the rear until the operating rod is caught by the 
operating rod catch. With the right hand take a fully 
loaded clip and place it on top of the follower. Place the 
right side of the right hand against the operating rod 
handle and with the thumb of the right hand press the 
clip down into the receiver until it engages the clip latch. 
Swing the thumb to the right so as to clear the bolt in its 
forward movement and release the operating rod handle. 
The closing of the bolt may be assisted by a push forward 
on the operating rod handle with the heel of the right 
hand. The technique of loading the rifle properly is readily 
acquired after performing the operation a few times with 
dummy cartridges in accordance with these instructions. 

b. The loading and reloading of the rifle without hurried 
movements and consequent fumbling will be demonstrated 
and taught to all men under instruction. 

■ 25. To Unload Rifle. — a. To unload a cartridge from 
the chamber, hook the right thumb over the operating rod 
handle, pull and hold the operating rod in the extreme rear 
position, thus extracting and ejecting the round. 

b. To remove the loaded clip from the receiver, hold the 
rifle with the right hand, thumb on operating rod handle, 
fingers around the trigger guard. Place the fingers of the 
left hand over the receiver and press in on the clip latch 
with the left thumb. The clip will then be ejected upward 
from the receiver and into the left hand. (See fig. 17.) 
CAUTION: Do not allow the bolt to move forward during 
the operation as it will push the top cartridge forward and 
prevent normal ejection of the clip. 

c. To close the bolt on an empty chamber and retain the 
loaded clip in the receiver, press down on the top cartridge 



32 




25-26 







Figure 17. — To unload. 



force the operating rod handle slightly to the rear, depress 
the follower with the right thumb, and permit the bolt to 
ride forward about 1 inch over the follower. Then remove 
the thumb from the follower, release the operating rod 
handle and push forward on the operating rod handle with 
the heel of the hand to be certain that the bolt is com- 
pletely closed. No type of ammunition will be loaded into 
the receiver except in full clips. 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



in the clip and allow the bolt to slide forward, making sure 
that it is fully closed. 

■ 26. To Operate Rifle as Single Loader. — The receiver 
being empty, pull the operating rod to the rear until it is 
caught by the operating rod catch. With the right hand, 
place one round in the chamber, seating it in place with the 
thumb. With the right side of the right hand against the 
operating rod handle and the fingers extended and joined, 



33 



27-31 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



■ 27. To Fire Rifle. — Squeeze the trigger for each shot. 
When the eighth shot has been fired, the empty clip is auto- 
matically ejected and the bolt remains open. 

■ 28. To Set Rifle at Safe. — The loaded rifle will be kept 
locked until the moment for firing. To make this adjust- 
ment set the safety in its rearmost position inside the trigger 
guard. In this position the trigger cannot be pulled as the 
upper end of the trigger is blocked from disengaging from 
the hammer hooks, and the hammer is held in the cocked 
position by the hook on the safety being engaged with the 
lug on the left side of the hammer. The rifle may be loaded 
and operated by hand when locked but cannot be fired. To 
unlock the rifle set the safety in its foremost position. 

H 29. To Adjust Rear Sight. — The rear sight is adjusted for 
range by turning the elevating knob on the left side. This 
knob has numbered graduations for 200, 400, 600, 800, 1,000, 
and 1,200 yards of range and index lines between these grad- 
uations for 100, 300, 500, 700, 900, and 1,100 yards. Adjust- 
ment for Windage is made by turning the windage knob 
on the right. Each windage graduation represents an angu- 
lar adjustment of 4 minutes. Both elevating and windage 
knobs are provided with “clicks” which represent approxi- 
mately 1 minute of angle or 1 inch on the target for each 
100 yards of range. Arrows on the knobs indicate the direc- 
tion in which to turn them to secure corresponding changes 
in the point of impact of the bullet. Rotation of the elevat- 
ing knob may be eased by forcing the knob outward (away 
from receiver) while turning. 

■ 30. Safety Precautions. — The soldier must be impressed 
with the fact that while any cartridges remain in the receiver, 
after a round has been fired, the rifle is ready to fire. The 
gun is safe only when it is “cleared”; in other words, the 
gun is never knovm to be safe when the bolt is closed. 

■ 31. To Clear Rifle. — o. To clear rifle, pull the operating 
rod fully to the rear, extracting and ejecting the cartridge 
from the chamber. Remove the clip from the magazine 
as described in paragraph 25 and leave the bolt open. 

b. In range firing, whenever firing ceases, execute clear 
rifle as prescribed above. 



34 





U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



32-35 



Section VI 

IMMEDIATE ACTION AND STOPPAGES 

■ 32. Object. — This section is designed to provide necessary 

instruction in the related subjects of immediate action and 
stop pages, 

■ 33. When Taken Up. — Instruction in immediate action and 
stoppages will be completed before any firing is done by 
the individual. 

■ 34. Immediate Action. — a. General. — Immediate action is 
the unhesitating application of a probable remedy for a stop- 
page. Immediate action deals with the method of reducing 
stoppages and not the cause. It is taught as an unhesitating 
manual operation to be applied to reduce stoppages without 
detailed consideration of their causes. 

b. Procedure. — (1) If the loaded rifle fails to fire when 
the trigger is pulled, count to “20” to allow for a hang fire, 
and then pull the operating handle to its rearmost position 
ejecting the round. Release the operating handle and if 
the bolt goes fully home aim and fire. 

(2) If the bolt cannot be fully locked in a above, pull the 
operating rod handle to the rear. Check for a battered 
round, dirt, or obstruction on the face of the bolt, in the 
chamber, or in the locking lug recess. Discard the battered 
round; remove the obstruction. Reload, aim, and fire. 

(3) The rifle fires but fails to feed. Keep the rifle in 
action by working the operating rod handle as it is still an 
effective combat weapon. A detailed examination for the 
malfunction may be made later when time permits. 

(4) The above procedure of immediate action will almost 
invariably keep the rifle in action. In case this immediate 
action is not successful, a more detailed examination for the 
possible malfunctions listed in paragraph 35e may be made 
as circumstances permit. 

■ 35. Stoppages. — a. General. — While immediate action and 
stoppages are closely related as to subject matter, the former 
is treated separately to emphasize Its importance as an auto- 
matic and definite procedure to be applied to overcome stop- 
pages. Proper care of the rifle before, during, and after 
firing will usually eliminate stoppages. Stoppages which 



35 




35 



IT. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



cannot be remedied by the application of immediate action 
can best be eliminated if the soldier has an understanding of 
the functioning of the weapon and the causes of stoppages. 

b. Failure to fire. — (1) Causes. — Failures to fire are 
generally caused by — 

(a) Defective ammunition. 

(b) Defective firing pin. 

(c) Bolt not fully closed when hammer strikes firing pin. 

(2) Action. — (a) If the primer of a round is deeply in- 
dented, the round is defective. Discard the round. If the 
primer is not indented or but very lightly indented, the firing 
pin may be short or broken or the bolt may not have been 
fully closed. Check for dirt or some obstruction which does 
not permit the bolt to lock fully. Remove the obstruction. If 
the rifle is clean and lubricated, check the firing pin. Replace 
it if defective. 

(b) Removal of a broken firing pin. — If the piece fails to 
fire and the operating handle cannot be moved to the rear by 
a sharp blow with the heel of the hand, the firing pin may 
be broken, and having come out of its seat in the bolt it may 
have become wedged between the rear of the bolt and the top 
of the receiver. Remove the trigger housing. Generally the 
firing pin will fall out. If it does not fall out, separate the 
barrel and receiver group from the stock group and remove 
the firing pin. If the trigger housing cannot be removed 
easily, do not force it out of its recess. The firing pin is 
caught under the lug on the left of the hammer. Open the 
trigger guard as far as it will open without force. Turn the 
rifle, barrel down, and shake it, at the same time oscillating 
the trigger guard until the trigger housing can be removed. 
Remove the firing pin as indicated above. 

c. Failure to feed . — (1) Types. — Failures to feed are caused 
by failure of the bolt to go far enough to the rear to pick up 
a new round. A failure to feed may have any one of a num- 
ber of causes. It will generally result in one of the following 
types of stoppages: 

(a) Those in which the bolt fails to go fully home. 

(b) Those in which the bolt does go fully home. 

(2) Action to reduce stoppage of the first type. — Stoppages 
of the first type may be caused by a battered round, dirt in the 



36 




tJ. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



35 



locking recesses, an obstruction on the face of the bolt, a dirty 
chamber, or a ruptured cartridge case part of which remains 
in the chamber. Remove the battered round, dirt, or other 
obstruction ; clean the chamber ; or remove the ruptured car- 
tridge case as the case may be. Occasionally this stoppage 
may be caused by a clip which has lost its spring tension and 
does not hold the cartridge firmly in line. When this occurs, 
the cartridge will be found “cocked” in the gun with the nose 
of the bullet one side or the other of the entrance to the 
chamber. Remove the round; remove the clip and discard it. 

(3) Action to reduce stoppage of the second, type . — 
Occasionally, when a stoppage of the second type occurs, 
the spent case is not ejected but is re-fed back into the 
chamber. This condition is caused by lack of lubrication, ex- 
cessive friction of the moving parts, or lack of sufficient gas 
pressure due to the formation of carbon in the gas port. In 
any case the bolt has not moved far enough to the rear to 
permit proper functioning. The conditions are remedied by 
removing all carbon and thoroughly lubricating all parts as 
prescribed in paragraphs 10 to 15, inclusive. 

d. Failure to extract..- — (1) Causes — Failures to extract 
are generally caused by — 

(a) Extremely dirty chamber. 

(b) Extremely dirty ammunition. 

(c) Improper assembly of the rifle, i. e„ failure to replace 
the extractor plunger and spring. 

(d) Cartridge case chambered in a hot barrel. 

(e) Broken extractor. 

(2) Action. — (a) When a failure to extract occurs, the 
bolt may be found fully locked with a spent case in the 
chamber. Generally, most failures to extract can be reme- 
died by pushing the operating rod fully forward and then 
pulling it smartly to the rear. If this does not remove the 
case, use the combination tool or cleaning rod. 

(b) Sometimes the empty case will be left in the chamber, 
the extractor ripping through the base of the cartridge. 
When this occurs the bolt generally will attempt to feed a 
fresh cartridge into the chamber. It will then be necessary 
to remove this round before the spent case can be removed. 

(c) Where a dirty chamber or dirty ammunition is indi- 
cated, clean the chamber and discard or clean very dirty 

37 





35 TJ. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 

ammunition. Faulty assembly or a broken extractor will 
cause recurring failures to extract. Replace missing or 
broken parts. 

e. Table of stoppages . — The following table may be found 
of value. It includes the stoppages outlined above and others 
that have not been covered but which may occur infre- 
quently. 



TABLE OF STOPPAGES 


Malfunction 


Cause 


Correction by the soldier 


Clip jumps out on seventh 
round. 


Bent follower rod 


Replace. 


Failure to extract.. 


(1) Dirty or rough cham- 

ber. 

(2) Restricted gas port 


(1) Clean chamber. 

(2) Clean gas port. 


Failure to feed 


(1) Dirty or rough cham- 

ber. 

(2) Restricted gas port. 

(3) Dirty rifle or improp- 

erly lubricated. 

(4) Bent clip 

(5) Ruptured cartridge 

case in chamber. 


(1) Clean chamber. 

(2) Clean gas port. 

(3) Clean rifle and lubri- 

cate. 

(4) Replace clip. 

(5) Remove ruptured car- 

tridge case. 


Fires automatically 


Sear broken or remains in 
open position. 


Replace trigger assembly 
or hammer spring hous- 
ing. 


Safety releases when pres- 
sure is applied on trigger. 


Round heel on safety, or 
broken safety. 


Replace safety. 


Pull on trigger does not 
release hammer. 


(1) DefOTmed hammer or 

trigger or worn trig- 
ger pin. 

(2) Trigger strikes trigger 

housing. 


(1) Replace defective part. 

(2) Turn in to ordnance. 


Hammer releases but gun 
does not fire. 


(1) Bolt not all way 

seated. 

(2) Defective ammuni- 

tion. 

(3) Broken firing pin 


(1) Clean and lubricate. 

(2) Discard round. 

(3) Replace. 


Rear sight elevation jumps. 


Loose rear sight nut.. 


Tighten. 


Creep in trigger 


Burs on trigger or hammer 
lugs. 


Turn in to ordnance. 



38 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, MI 



35-37 



f. Other stoppages . — In the event of stoppages that are 
not mentioned above and that cannot be reduced, the rifle 
should be turned in for examination and repair. 

Section VTI 

SPARE PARTS AND ACCESSORIES 

■ 36. Spare Parts. — a. The parts of any rifle will in time 
become unserviceable through breakage or wear resulting 
from continuous usage, and for this reason spare parts are 
supplied. These are extra parts provided with the rifle for 
replacement of the parts most likely to fail ; for use in mak- 
ing minor repairs; and in general care of the rifle. They 
should be kept clean and lightly oiled to prevent rust. Sets 
of spare parts should be kept complete at all times. When- 
ever a spare part is taken to replace a defective part in the 
rifle, the defective part should be repaired or a new one sub- 
stituted in the spare part set as soon as possible. Parts that 
are carried complete should at all times be correctly as- 
sembled and ready for immediate insertion in the rifle. The 
allowance of spare parts is prescribed for the rifle in SNL 
B-21. 

b. With the exception of replacements with the spare 
parts mentioned in a above, repairs or alterations to the rifle 
by using organizations are prohibited. 

■ 37. Appendages.— Appendages are items not required for 
use in the operation of the major equipment but are used 
attached to or in connection with such equipment. For the 
rifle they consist of the bayonet, M1905, and bayonet scab- 
bard, M1910. 

a. Bayonet . — The bayonet is a blade sharpened along the 
entire lower edge and partly along the top edge. The bayonet 
guard is constructed so as to fasten the bayonet securely to 
the rifle or its scabbard. Wooden assemblies on both sides 
of the tang provide a grip for use as a hand weapon. 

b. Bayonet scabbard . — The scabbard, shaped to receive 
the bayonet, consists of a fabric-covered body with a leather 
reinforce at its tip which contains a drain hole. The scab- 
bard is held to the belt of the soldier by two hooks. 



39 




38 



tT. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 

■ 38. Accessories. — a. General. — Accessories include the 
tools required for assembling and disassembling and for the 
cleaning of the rifle; also the gun sling, spare parts con- 
tainers, covers, arm locker, etc. Accessories should not be 
used for purposes other than those for which they are 
intended, and when not in use they should be stored in the 
places or receptacles provided for them. There are a num- 
ber of accessories, the names or general characteristics of 
which indicate their uses or application. Therefore, detailed 
descriptions or methods of the uses of such items are not 
outlined herein. However, accessories of a special nature or 
those which have special uses are described in b to h below. 

b. Arm locker and rack. — The arm locker and the arm 
rack are used to store or stack rifles and pistols to prevent 
mishandling or pilfering. 

c. Barrel reflector. — This is a small, box-shaped device 
having a short tube which slips into the chamber of the 
rifle barrel. It also has a mirror and an opening through 
which the reflection of the bore is obtained. The condition 
of the rifle bore may thereby be readily determined. 

d. Brush and thong. — The brush and thong are used for 
cleaning the bore of the rifle. The case is partitioned so 
that one end contains the oil and oil dropper and the other 
holds the tip, weight, thong, and brush. 

e. Cleaning rod, M3, and cleaning brush, M2. — The clean- 
ing rod, M3, has a handle at one end and is threaded at the 
other end to receive the patch section or the brush. This 
rod is of the correct length to prevent damaging the fol- 
lower or the face of the bolt. The cleaning brush, M2, is 
used to clean the bore of the rifle. 

/. Combination tool. — This tool consists of three parts — 
the chamber-cleaning tool, the handle, and the screw-driver 
blade. The slot in the chamber -cleaning tool is for attach- 
ment of a cleaning patch. The movable screw-driver blade 
is used for the gas cylinder plug screw and various other 
screws, while the notched blade of the handle is used on the 
rear sight nut. The small cylindrical projection is used to 
drift out pins. It is also used in conjunction with the 
V-shaped groove cut into the face of the handle to assemble 
the extractor and ejector. The curved undercut lug or 



40 




U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER ,30, Ml 



38-39 



hook, commonly called the hand extractor, Is used to extract 
a cartridge case after firing if the extractor should fail to 
extract the case. 

g. Gun sling . — The gun sling, fastened to the loops of the 
rifle, is adjusted to suit the particular soldier using it. The 
sling consists of a long and short strap, either of which may 
be lengthened or shortened as desired. 

h. Ruptured cartridge extractor . — The ruptured cartridge 
extractor has the* general form of a caliber .30 cartridge. 
It consists of three parts — the spindle, the head, and the 
sleeve. To use the ruptured cartridge extractor, the car- 
tridge clip and live cartridges must be removed from the 
rifle. The ruptured cartridge extractor is then inserted 
through the ruptured opening of the case and pushed for- 
ward into the chamber. The bolt is let forward without 
excessive shock so that the extractor of the rifle engages the 
head of the ruptured cartridge extractor. As the operating 
rod is drawn back, the ruptured cartridge extractor holding 
the cartridge on its sleeve is extracted. 

Section VIII 
INSTRUMENTS 

■ 39. Field Glass, Type EE. — The field glass, type EE (fig. 
18), complete, consists of the field glass with its carrying 
case. 

a. Description. — (1) The field glass consists of two com- 
pact prismatic telescopes (5) pivoted about a common hinge 
(4) which permits adjustment for interpupillary distances. 
A scale (3), graduated every 2 millimeters from 56 to 74, 
permits the observer rapidly to set the telescope to suit his eye 
distance when the spacing of his eyes is known. The 
eyepiece (1) can be focused independently for each eye by 
screwing in or out. Each is provided with a diopter scale 
(2) for rapid setting when the observer knows the correction 
for his eye. The zero graduations indicate the settings for 
normal eyes. 

(2) The left telescope is fitted with a glass reticle (fig. 
19 ® and © ) upon which are etched a vertical mil scale, a 
horizontal mil scale, and on field glasses of older manufacture 



41 




39 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 




42 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



39 



a stadia graduated similarly to the sight leal graduation on 
the service rifle, but inverted. 

b. Use . — The field glass is used for observations and the 
measurement of small horizontal and vertical angles in mils. 
The vertical stadia scale (inverted sight leaf) is used to pick 
up auxiliary aiming marks in direct laying and to determine 
troop safety for overhead fire. 

c. Preliminary adjustments; inter pupillary distances . — To 
adjust the glass so that the eyepieces are the same distance 
apart as the pupils of the observer’s eyes, point the glass at 
the sky and open or close the hinged joint until the field 
of view ceases to be two overlapping circles and appears to be 
one sharply defined circle. Note the reading on the scale 
(3), which indicates the spacing of the observer’s eyes. 
The similar setting of any other field glass will then accom- 
modate his eyes. 

d. Focus of the eyepiece . — Look through the glasses, both 
eyes open, at an object several hundred yards away. Place 
the hand over the front of one telescope and screw the eye- 
piece of the other in or out until the object is sharply de- 
fined. Repeat this operation for the other eye and note the 
reading on the diopter scale. The similar setting of any other 
field glass will accommodate the eyes. 

e. Operation. — (1) In using the glass it should be held in 
both hands and pressed lightly to the eyes so as to keep the 
relation with the eyes constant without transmitting tremors 
from the body. The bent thumbs should fit into the outer 
edges of the eye sockets in such a manner as to prevent light 
from entering in rear of the eyepieces. When possible it is 
best to use a rest for the glass or elbows. 

(2) The mil scales are seen when looking through the glass, 
and by superimposing them upon the required objects the 
horizontal and vertical angles may be read between these 
objects. 

/. Care . — The field glass is a rugged, serviceable instrument 
but should not be abused or roughly handled. 



43 




V . S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



40-42 



Section IX 
AMMUNITION 

■ 40. General. — The information in this section pertaining to 
the several types of cartridges authorized for use in the U. S. 
rifle, caliber .30, Ml, includes description, means of identifi- 
cation, care, use, and ballistic data. 

■ 41. Classification. — a. (1) Based upon use, the principal 
classifications of ammunition for this rifle are — 

(a) Ball — for use against personnel and light materiel tar- 
gets. 

(b) Tracer — for observation of Are and incendiary purposes. 

(c) Armor-piercing — for use against armored vehicles, con- 
crete shelters, and similar bullet-resisting targets. 

(2) The following types are similar to ball, except for the 
following: 

(a) Armor-piercing is painted black for >4 inch from the 
point. 

(b) Traceris painted red for y 4 inch from point. 

b. (1) Other types provided for special purposes are — 

(a) Guard — for guard purposes (gallery practice car- 
tridges also used for this purpose) . 

(b) Blank — for simulated fire, signaling, and salute. 

(e) Dummy — for training. 

(2) For guard and blank ammunition the chamber pres- 
sure is insufficient to operate self-loading mechanism. Sin- 
gle shots may be fired by pulling back the operating rod 
handle to extract the fired cartridge case. 

■ 42. Lot Number. — When ammunition is manufactured, 
an ammunition lot number is assigned which becomes an 
essential part of the marking in accordance with specifica- 
tions. This lot number is marked on all packing containers 
and the identification card inclosed in each packing box. 
It is required for all purposes of record, including grading 
and use, reports on condition, functioning, and accidents, in 
which the ammunition might be involved. Those lots only 
of grades appropriate for the weapon will be fired. Since 
it is impracticable to mark the ammunition lot number on 
each individual cartridge, every effort should be made to 



240321 



45 





42-44 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



maintain the ammunition lot number with the cartridges 
once the cartridges are removed from their original packing. 
Cartridges which have been removed from the original pack- 
ing and for which the ammunition lot number has been 
lost are placed in grade 3. It is therefore obvious that when 
cartridges are removed from their original packings they 
should be so marked that the ammunition lot number is 
preserved. 

■ 43. Grade. — Current grades of all existing lots of small 
arms ammunition are established by the Chief of Ordnance 
and are published in Ordnance Field Service Bulletin No. 
3-5. No lot other than that appropriate to the weapon will 
be fired. Color bands painted on the sides and ends of the 
packing boxes further identify the various types of ammu- 
nition. The following color bands are used to identify 
cartridges : 



Armor-piercing Blue on yellow. 

Ball Red. 

Blank Blue. 

Dummy Green. 

Gallery practice Brown. 

Guard Orange. 

Tracer : Green on yellow. 

■ 44. Care, Handling, and Preservation. — a. Small arms 
ammunition is not dangerous to handle. Care, however, 
must be observed to keep the boxes from becoming broken 
or damaged. All broken boxes must be immediately re- 
paired, and careful attention should be given that all mark- 
ings are transferred to the new parts of the box. The metal 
liner should be air tested and sealed if equipment for this 
work is available. 

b. Ammunition boxes should not be opened until the am- 
munition is required for use. Ammunition removed from the 
airtight container, particularly in damp climates, is apt to 
corrode, thereby causing the ammunition to become un- 
serviceable. 

c. The ammunition should be protected from mud, sand, 
dirt, and water. If it gets wet or dirty, wipe it off at once, 
light corrosion, if it forms on cartridges, should be wiped 



46 




U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



44-46 



off. However, cartridges should not be polished to make 
them look better or brighter. 

d. No caliber .30 ammunition, other than blanks, will be 
fired until it has been positively identified by ammunition 
lot number and grade. 




ORD - 13 805 



® Ball, M2. 




OR.D. — 1 3806 



© Blank, M1909. 

Figure 20. — Cartridges, caliber .30. 

■ 45. Cartridge, Ball, Caliber .30, M2 and Ml. — The ap- 
proximate maximum range for the M2 cartridge is 3,450 
yards, while for the Ml it is 5,500 yards. The M2 type is 
standard. 

■ 46. Precautions in Firing Blank Ammunition. — a. It is 
dangerous to fire rifles loaded with blank cartridges at per- 



47 











46 



IT. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, MI 



sonnel representing an enemy at distances of less than 20 
yards as the wad or paper cup may fail to break up. 

b. Misfires in which the primer explodes but fails to ignite 
the powder charge may prove dangerous when blank am- 
munition is being fired. In this type of misfire, some of the 
powder may be blown into the bore of the weapon. A series 
of such rounds in which the powder fails to ignite due to 
moisture or other causes will result in an accumulation of 
powder sufficient to cause serious damage when ignited by 
a normal cartridge. When misfires are encountered in blank 
ammunition in excess of 5 percent, the firing of the lot will 
be suspended and reported to the Chief of Ordnance. 



48 





CHAPTER 2 



MARKSMANSHIP; KNOWN-DISTANCE TARGETS 

Paragraphs 



Section I. General 47-54 

II. Preparatory marksmanship training 55-62 

III. Qualification courses 63-67 

IV. Range practice 1 68-72 1 

V. Equipment; known-distance targets and ranges, 

and range precautions 73-76 

VI. Small-bore practice 77^-80 



Section I 
GENERAL 

■ 47. Purpose. — The purpose of this chapter is to provide a 
thorough and uniform method of training individuals to 
be good rifle shots and of testing their proficiency in firing 
at known-distance targets. 

■ 48. Necessity for Training. — a. Without proper training 
a man instinctively does the wrong thing in firing the rifle. 
He gives the trigger a sudden pressure which causes flinching. 
However, if he is thoroughly instructed and drilled in the 
mechanism of correct shooting, and is then carefully and 
properly coached when he begins firing, he rapidly acquires 
correct shooting habits. It is much easier to develop into 
an excellent shot a man who has never fired a rifle than it 
is to correct the errors of a man who has done a good deal 
of shooting under improper supervision. 

b. Rifle firing is a mechanical operation which anyone who 
is physically and mentally fit to be a soldier can learn to 
do well if properly instructed. The methods of instruction 
are the same as those used in teaching any mechanical op- 
eration. The training is divided into steps which must be 
taught in proper sequence. The soldier is carefully coached 
and is corrected whenever he starts to make a mistake. 



49 




49-51 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, MI 



■ 49. Fundamentals. — To become a good rifle shot the sol- 
dier must be thoroughly trained in the following essentials 
of good shooting: 

a. Correct sighting and aiming. 

b. Correct positions. 

c. Correct trigger squeeze. 

d. Correct application of rapid-fire principles. 

e. Knowledge of proper sight adjustments. 

■ 50. Phases of Training. — a. Marksmanship training is 
divided into the following phases: 

(1) Preparatory marksmanship training. 

(2) Range practice. 

b. No individual should be given range practice until he 
has had a thorough course in preparatory training. 

c. The soldier should be proficient in mechanical training 
and related subjects before he receives instruction in marks- 
manship training. 

d. Every man who is to fire on the range will be put 
through the entire preparatory course. No distinction will 
be made between recruits and men who have had range 
practice, regardless of their previous qualification. Some 
part of the preparatory instruction may have escaped them 
in previous years; it is certain that some of it has been for- 
gotten, and in any case it will be helpful to go over it again 
and refresh the mind on the subject. 

e. When necessary and when time permits, all of the non- 
commissioned officers of the unit should be put through a 
course of instruction and required to pass a rigid test before 
the period of preparatory training for the unit begins. 

H 51. Practice Seasons. — a. Regular. — (1) Under ordinary 
conditions the regular practice season for the Regular Army 
will cover a period of about 3 weeks for each organization. 
A period of not more than 1 week is devoted to preparatory 
exercises and 2 weeks to range practice. When unforeseen 
circumstances are such as to cause a delay during the period 
of instruction, the time may be extended by the post 
commander. 

(2) The regular practice season for units of the National 
Guard and the Organized Reserves will be of such duration 



50 




U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



51-54 



and ordered at such times as may be best suited for effective 
training. 

(3) Under no conditions will any man be given range prac- 
tice until he has had a thorough course in the preparatory 
exercises. 

b. Supplementary . — Supplementary practice is not neces- 
sary when the regular practice season has been efficiently con- 
ducted, except in cases where a large number of unqualified 
men join the organization after the regular practice season. 
The supplementary practice season is usually placed as late 
in the fall as is consistent with efficient instruction. How- 
ever, this practice may be held at any time when circum- 
stances make it advisable. 

■ 52. Continuous Practice. — Rifle practice is not limited to 
a particular season. Subject to ammunition allowances, 
commanding officers will adopt such measures as may be 
necessary to maintain a high state of excellence in rifle firing 
throughout the year. The particular measures adopted will 
depend upon the facilities near the post or station. The 
measures taken may provide for competitions between indi- 
viduals or organizations or the encouragement of small-bore 
rifle teams. 

■ 53. Recruit Instruction. — As part of their recruit train- 
ing, all recruits armed with the rifle will be thoroughly in- 
structed in mechanical training and the fundamental ele- 
ments of rifle marksmanship — sighting and aiming, positions, 
trigger squeeze, and rapid fire. They will be given a final 
examination and should fire one of the small-bore qualifica- 
tion courses outlined in paragraph 80. Instruction in rifle 
marksmanship will commence with the initial instruction of 
the recruit and will continue throughout the period of recruit 
training. 

■ 54. Leaders and Commanders; Duties and Equipment. — a. 
Duties. — (1) Squad leader. — (a) Organizes the work in his 
squad so that each man is occupied during the preparatory 
period in the prescribed form of training for target practice. 

(b) Examines each man in his squad at the end of the 
training on each preparatory step and assigns him a mark 
in the proper place on the blank form showing state of 
training. 



51 




54-55 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



(c) Sees that each man takes proper care of his rifle and 
that he cleans it at the end of each day’s firing. 

( d ) Enforces correct aiming, position, and trigger squeeze 
when fire is simulated in drills and maneuvers. 

(2) Platoon leader. — Supervises and directs the squad 
leader in training his squad; personally checks each man in 
his platoon on the points enumerated in the blank form; and 
examines each man along the lines outlined in paragraph 62. 

(3) Company commander. — Requires the prescribed meth- 
ods of instruction and coaching to be carried out carefully 
and in detail; supervises and directs the squad and platoon 
leader; in companies of less than 60 men, performs the 
duties prescribed in (2) above for platoon leaders. 

(4) Battalion commander. — Requires the officers and non- 
commissioned officers to be familiar with and understand 
the prescribed methods of instruction and coaching; super- 
vises the instruction within his battalion and requires the 
companies to follow out the preparatory exercises and meth- 
ods of coaching carefully and in detail. 

b. Equipment . — All equipment used in the preparatory 
exercises must be accurately and carefully made. One of the 
objects of these exercises is to cultivate a sense of exactness 
and carefulness in the minds of the men undergoing instruc- 
tion. They cannot be exact with inexact instruments, and 
they will not be careful when working with equipment that 
looks carelessly made (pars. 73 and 166) . 

Section II 

PREPARATORY MARKSMANSHIP TRAINING 

■ 55. General. — a. The purpose of preparatory marksman- 
ship training is to teach the soldier the essentials of good 
shooting, and to develop fixed and correct shooting habits 
before he undertakes range practice. 

b. Preparatory marksmanship training is divided into six 
steps, as follows, and should be concentrated in the period of 
time allotted: 

(1) Sighting and aiming exercises. 

(2) Position exercises. 

(3) Trigger-squeeze exercises. 

(4) Rapid-fire exercises. 



52 




TT. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



55 



(5) Instruction in the effect of wind, sight changes, and use 
of the score book. 

(6) Examination of men before starting range practice. 

c. The first four steps listed above are given in the sequence 
listed; each succeeding step involves the use of technique 
learned in preceding steps. Instruction in the effect of wind, 
sight changes, and the use of the score book is not a training 
step that need be given in any particular sequence, but will be 
given before the examination which is the final step prior to 
range practice; these subjects can be taught indoors during 
inclement weather. 

d. Each of the first four steps starts with a lecture by the 
instructor to the assembled group. This talk includes a 
demonstration by a squad which the instructor puts through 
the exercises that are to constitute the day’s work. He shows 
exactly how to do the exercises that are to be taken up and 
explains why they are done and their application to rifle 
shooting. He shows how the squad leader organizes the work 
so that no men are idle, and how they coach each other when 
they are not under instruction by an officer or noncommis- 
sioned officer. These talks and demonstrations are an essen- 
tial part of the training. If properly given they awaken the 
interest and enthusiasm of the whole command for the work 
and give an exact knowledge of how each step is to be carried 
on — something that men cannot get from reading a descrip- 
tion no matter how accurate and detailed that description 
may be. The instructor who gives these talks and demon- 
strations may be the platoon leader of his platoon, the com- 
manding officer of his unit, or he may be a specially qualified 
officer who has been detailed as officer in charge of rifle in- 
struction. The instructors who apply the demonstrated exer- 
cises to the men of the command are the officers and non- 
commissioned officers of the units undergoing instruction. 

e. The instruction must be thorough and it must be indi- 
vidual. Each man must understand every point and be able 
to explain each one in his own words. Each man must be 
brought to as high a state of proficiency on all of the enumer- 
ated points as the time allotted for preparatory work will 
permit. The company commander will carefully supervise 
the work. He should pick out men at random through the 



53 




55 



TT. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



different platoons from time to time and put them through 
a test to see if the instruction is thorough and is progressing 
satisfactorily. 

/. The following blank form should be kept by each squad 
leader and by each platoon leader independently of the squad 
leader. This blank form shows at a glance how much each 
man knows about each point. 




METHOD OF MARKING 





X 




X 






X 


Fair: 




Good: 




X 


Excellent: 


X 














X 



g. Interest and enthusiasm must be sustained and every- 
thing possible should be done to stimulate them. As soon as 
these exercises deteriorate into a perfunctory performance 
of physical exercise they do more harm than good. 

h. Careful attention will be paid to the essential points as 
shown in the form of questions and answers in paragraph 62. 
This will be consulted by the instructor during each step 
of the preparatory work. Each man should be tested thor- 
oughly before he is allowed to Are. 

i. During the preparatory exercises, whenever a man is in 
a firing position, the coach and pupil system is used. The 
men are grouped in pairs and take turns in coaching each 
other. The man undergoing instruction is called the pupil. 



54 





U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



55-57 



The man giving instruction is called the coach. When the 
men of a pair change places the pupil becomes the coach 
and the coach becomes the pupil. 

j. Correct shooting habits should be acquired during the 
preparatory training period. All errors must be noted, 
brought to the attention of the pupil, and corrective action 
taken. Each individual must be impressed with the impor- 
tance of exactness in every detail. For example, there is no 
such thing as an aim that is about right ; it is either perfect 
or it is incorrect. 

k. Equipment used in the preparatory training is listed in 
paragraph 73. 

l. Practice dummy ammunition only will be used during 
the preparatory training. The corrugated type of dummy 
cartridges only will be used on the firing line. 

■ 56. Blackening the Sights. — In all preparatory exercises 
involving aiming and in all range firing, both sights of the 
rifle should be blackened. Befpre blackening, the sights 
should be cleaned and all traces of oil removed. The black- 
ening is done by holding each sight for a few seconds in the 
point of a small flame which is of such a naure that a uni- 
form coating of lampblack will be deposited on the metal. 
Materials commonly used for this purpose are carbide lamp, 
cylinder or carbide gas, kerosene lamp, candles, small pine 
sticks, and shoe paste. Carbide gas from a cylinder or a 
lamp is the most satisfactory of the materials named. 

■ 57. First Step: Sighting and Aiming (fig. 21). — a. First 
exercise. — The instructor shows a sighting bar to his group 
and explains its use as follows: 

(1) The front and rear sights on the sighting bar repre- 
sent enlarged rifle sights. 

(2) The sighting bar is used in the first sighting and aim- 
ing exercise because with it small errors can be seen easily 
and explained to the pupil. 

— (3) The eyepiece requires the pupil to place his eye in 
such position that he sees the sights in exactly the same 
alinement as seen by the coach. 

(4) There is no eyepiece on the rifle, but the pupil learns 
by use of the sighting bar how to aline the sights properly 
when using the rifle. 



55 




57 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



(5) The removable target attached to the end of the 
sighting bar is a simple method of readily alining the sights 
on a bull’s-eye. 

(6) The instructor explains the peep sight to the as- 
sembled group, showing each man the illustrations of a 
correct sight alinement (fig. 22) . 

(7) The instructor adjusts the sights of the sighting bar 
with the target removed to illustrate a correct alinement 
of the sights. Each man of the assembled group looks 
through the eyepiece at the sight adjustment. 

(8) He adjusts the sights of the sighting bar with va- 
rious small errors in sight alinement and has each man 
of the assembled group endeavor to detect the error. 

(9) The instructor describes a correct aim, showing the 
illustration to each man. He explains that the top of 



TARGET 

H 




Figure 21.— Sighting bar. 



the front sight is seen through the middle of the circle and 
just touches the bottom of the bull’s-eye, so that all the 
bull’s-eye can be clearly seen (fig. 22) . 

(10) The eye should be focused on the bull’s-eye in aim- 
ing, and the instructor assures himself, by questioning the 
men, that each understands what is meant by focusing the 
eye on the bull’s-eye. 

(11) The instructor adjusts the sights of the sighting bar 
and the removable target so as to illustrate a correct aim 
and requires each man of the group to look through the 
eyepiece to observe the correct aim. 

(12) He adjusts the sights and the removable target of the 
sighting bar so as to illustrate various small errors and re- 
quires each man in the group to attempt to detect the error. 



56 




57 



TJ. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



(13) The exercise described above having been completed 
by the squad leader or other instructor, the men are placed 
in pairs and repeat the exercise by the coach-and-pupil 
method. 

(14) As soon as the pupil is considered proficient in the 
first sighting and aiming exercise, he is put through the sec- 
ond and third sighting and aiming exercises by the in- 
structor. Such pupils are then placed in pairs to instruct 
each other in these two exercises by the coach-and-pupil 
method. 

b. Second exercise. — (1) A rifle with sights blackened is 
placed in a rifle rest and pointed at a blank sheet of paper 
mounted on a box (fig. 23) . Without touching rifle or rifle 
rest, the coach takes the position illustrated and looks 
through the sights. The coach directs the marker by com- 
mand or improvised signal to move the small disk until the 
bottom of the bull’s-eye is in correct alinement with the 
sights (flg. 22) and then commands: HOLD, to the marker. 
The coach moves away from the rifle and directs the pupil 
to look through the sights in order to observe the correct 
aim. 

(2) The marker moves the disk out of alinement. The 
pupil takes position and directs the marker to move the 
disk until the bottom of the bull's-eye is in correct aline- 
ment with the sights. The coach then looks through the 
sights to see if the alinement is correct. 

(3) The coach alines the sights on the bull’s-eye with 
various slight errors to determine whether or not the pupil 
can detect them. 

c. Third exercise. — (1) The object of this exercise is to 
show the importance of uniform and correct aiming and 
to instill into the mind a sense of exactness. At 50 feet 
and with a small bull’s-eye a good group of three marks 
can be covered by the unsharpened end of a lead pencil. 
(Pig. 24.) 

(2) This exercise is conducted as follows: The rifle with 
the sights blackened is placed in a rifle rest and pointed at 
a blank sheet of paper mounted on a box. The pupil takes 
the position illustrated and looks through the sights with- 
out touching the rifle or rifle rest. The pupil directs the 



58 






TJ. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 57 

marker, by command or improvised signal, to move the disk 
until the bottom of the bull’s-eye is in correct alinement 
with the sights, and then commands: HOLD, to the marker. 
The coach then looks through the sights to see if the aline- 
ment is correct. Then without saying anything to the 
pupil, he commands: MARK, to the marker. The marker 



Figure 23.— Position for second sighting and aiming exercise. 

without moving the disk makes a dot on the paper with a 
sharp-pointed pencil inserted through the hole in the center 
of the bull’s-eye. The marker then moves the disk to 
change the alinement. The pupil and coach, without touch- 
ing the rifle or rifle rest, repeat this operation until three 
dots, numbered 1, 2, 3, respectively, have been made. These 
dots then outline the shot group and the pupil’s name is 



59 




57 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 




written under it. The size and shape of the shot group 
will be discussed and the errors pointed out. This exercise 
will be repeated until proficiency is attained. 

(3) This exercise should also be held during the period of 
the preparatory training at 200 yards on a 10-inch movable 
bull’s-eye (fig. 24), and if time permits at 500 yards on a 
20-inch movable bull’s-eye. These exercises teach the men 
to aim accurately at a bull’s-eye the outlines of which are 
indistinct. If the exercise is properly handled it helps greatly 
to sustain interest in the work. At 200 yards a man should 
to make a shot group that can be covered with a silver 



Figure 24. — Position for third sighting and aiming exercise at 
long ranges. 

dollar, and at 500 yards with the small (3-inch) sighting 
disk. 

(4) Tissue paper may be used to copy off each pupil’s shot 
group at long range. The name of the pupil is written on the 
tissue paper under the shot group he made. These tracings 
are sent back to the firing line so that the pupil can see what 
he has done. 

(5) The third sighting and aiming exercise, especially the 
long range shot group work, may be carried on during the 



60 







TT. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



57-58 



time devoted to the second and third preparatory steps. The 
purpose of continuing these exercises is to bring backward 
men up to the proper state of proficiency and to assist in 
keeping the men interested. 

(6) Competition between the individuals of a squad to see 
which can make the smallest shot group is of value in creating 
interest in this exercise. 

■ 58. Second Step: Positions. — a. General . — Instruction in 
positions includes the use of the gun sling, taking up the 
slack in the trigger, holding the breath while aiming, aiming, 
and the use of the aiming device. 

b. Gun sling. — (1) The gun sling properly adjusted is of 
great assistance in shooting in that it helps to steady the rifle. 
Each man will be assisted by the instructor in securing the 
correct adjustment for his sling. In a firing position the sling 
should be adjusted to give firm support without discomfort 
to the soldier. The gun sling is readjusted for drill purposes 
by means of the lower loop without changing the adjustment 
of the upper loop. 

(2) There are two authorized adjustments, the loop sling 
and the hasty sling. The hasty sling is more rapidly ad- 
justed than the loop sling, but it gives less support in posi- 
tions other than the standing position. 

(a) Loop adjustment (fig. 25). 

1. Loosen the lower loop. 

2. Insert the left arm through upper loop from right 

to left, so that the upper loop is near the shoulder 
and well above the biceps muscle. 

3. Pull the keepers and hook close against the arm to 

keep the upper loop in place. 

4. Move the left hand over the top of the sling and 

grasp the rifle near the stock ferrule swivel so as 
to cause the sling to lie smoothly along the hand 
and wrist. The lower loop, not used in this ad- 
justment, should be so loose as to prevent any 
pull upon it. Neither end will be removed from 
either swivel. 



240321° — 40- 



-5 



61 




U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



58 



(b) Hasty sling adjustment. 

1. Loosen the lower loop. 

2. Grasp the rifle just in rear of the stock ferrule 

swivel with the left hand and grasp the small of 
the stock with the right hand. 

3. Throw the sling to the left and catch it above the 

elbow and high on the arm. 

4. Remove the left hand from the rifle, pass the left 

hand under the sling, then over the sling and re- 
grasp the rifle with the left hand so as to cause 
the sling to lie along the hand and wrist. The 
sling may be given one-half turn to the left and 
then adjusted. This twisting causes the sling to 
lie smoothly along the hand and wrist. 

c. Taking up slack . — The first movement of the trigger 
which takes place when light pressure is applied is called 
"taking up the slack.” It is part of the position exercise be- 
cause this play must be taken up by the finger as soon as the 
correct position is assumed and before careful aiming is 
begun. The entire amount of slack in the trigger is taken 
up by one positive movement of the finger. 

d. Holding breath. — (1) Holding the breath in the proper 
manner while aiming is very important. It will be found 
that a large proportion of men in any group undergoing in- 
struction in rifle practice do not know how to hold the breath 
in the proper manner. Each man must be carefully in- 
structed and tested on this point. The correct manner of 
holding the breath must be practiced at all times during posi- 
tion and trigger-squeeze exercises and whenever firing or 
simulating fire. 

(2) To hold the breath properly draw into the lungs a 
little more air than is used in an ordinary breath. Let out 
a little of this air and stop the remainder by closing the 
throat so that the air remaining in the lungs will press 
against the closed throat. Do not hold the breath with the 
throat open or by the muscular action of the diaphragm as 
if attempting to draw in more air. The important point is to 
be comfortable and steady while aiming and squeezing the 
trigger. 



63 




58 



XT. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



e. Aiming . — The rifle is carefully aimed at a target each 
time a firing position is assumed. The aiming device may 
be used by the coach to check the aim. 

/. General rules far positions . — The general rules which 
follow are common to the prone, sitting, kneeling, and stand- 
ing positions. The axact details of a position for any par- 
ticular individual will depend on the conformation of the 
man. 

(1) To assume any position, except the prone position, half 
face to the right and then assume the position. 

(2) Upon assuming any position there is some point to 
which the rifle points naturally and without effort. If this 
point is not the center of the target, the whole body must 
be shifted so as to bring the rifle into proper alinement. 
Otherwise the firer will be firing under a strain because he 
will be pulling the rifle toward the target by muscular effort 
for each shot. 

(3) The right hand grasps the small of the stock. The 
right thumb may be either over the small of the stock Or on 
top of the stock; it should not be placed alongside the stock. 

(4) The left hand is against or near the stock ferrule 
swivel, wrist straight, rifle placed in the crotch formed by 
the thumb and index finger and resting on the heel of the 
hand. 

(5) The left elbow will be as nearly under the rifle as it 
can be placed without appreciable effort. 

(6) Ordinarily the second joint of the index finger con- 
tacts the trigger. The first joint may be used by men the 
length of whose arm or the size of whose hand is such as to 
make it difficult to reach the trigger with the second joint, 
or to whom the first joint of the finger seems more natural 
and comfortable. 

(7) The cheek is pressed firmly against the stock and 
placed as far forward as possible without strain to bring the 
eye near the rear sight. 

(8) The butt of the rifle is held firmly against the shoulder. 

(9) The rifle should not be canted. 

(10) Left-handed men who have difficulty with the right- 
hand position will be allowed to use the left-hand position. 



64 




U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



58 



g. Prone position (fig. 26) . — (1) In assuming the prone 
position the body should lie at an angle of about 45 degrees 
to the line of aim with the spine straight. The exact angle 
of the body to the line of aim will depend upon the conforma- 
tion of the firer. The legs should be well apart, the inside of 
the feet fiat on the ground, or as nearly so as can be attained 
without strain. Elbows should be well under the body so as 
to raise the chest off the ground. The right hand grasps 
the small of the stock. The left hand should be near the 
stock ferrule swivel, as far forward as is comfortable and 
convenient for the individual firer, wrist straight, rifle placed 
in the crotch formed by the thumb and index finger and 
resting on the heel of the hand. The cheek should be firmly 
pressed against the stock with the eye as close to rear sight 
as is possible, without straining the neck muscles. The sling 
should be just sufficiently tight to offer support, but not so 
tight as to have a tendency to pull the left elbow to the left. 
The' right thumb may be over the small of the stock or on 
top of the stock; it should not be placed alongside the stock. 

(2) The exact details of the position will vary, depending 
upon the conformation of the individual firer. However, the 
firer must secure a position that will not be changed by the 
recoil of the weapon. When the correct position has been 
attained it will be found that upon discharge the muzzle will 
move slightly up and very slightly to the right, and that it 
will then settle back close to the original aiming point. 

h. Sandbag rest position. — (1) The sandbag rest position 
conforms in every detail to the normal prone position de- 
scribed above, with the addition of a sandbag which supports 
the left forearm, wrist, and hand. 

(2) The bag is a little more than half full and tied near the 
top so as to leave considerable free space above the sand. 

(3) It is important that the sandbag be high enough to 
permit the taking of the normal prone position. The natural 
tendency is to have a low rest and to be very fiat on the 
ground with the elbows spread apart. This is a faulty posi- 
tion which causes lower scores than if no rest at all were used. 
The sandbag when properly adjusted is a great help. When 
if. is not properly adjusted it is a handicap. 



65 




TJ. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 




Figure 26. — Prone position. 



58 



(4) The sandbag rest position is used in the first stages of 
a pupil’s training, not to teach steadiness of holding but to 
teach the correct trigger squeeze. By using the sandbag the 
slight unsteadiness of the hold is avoided, and the temptation 
to try to snap in the shot at the instant the sights touch the 



bull’s-eye, an action which causes all poor shooting, is elim- 
inated. 

(5) The coach will adjust the sandbag as follows: 

(a) Have the pupil assume the prone position and aim at 
the target. 

(b) Set the sandbag on its bottom and arrange the sand- 
bag so that it is slightly higher than the back of the pupil’s 
left hand. 



66 




tT. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



58 



(c) Facing the pupil, straddle the rifle barrel, and slide the 
sandbag against the pupil’s left forearm, so that the narrow 
side of the bag supports his forearm and wrists and the back 
of his hand rests on top. 

(d) Lower the sandbag to the proper height by pounding 
it with the hand. 

i. Sitting position (fig. 27). — (1) The firer sits half-faced to 
the right; feet well apart and well braced on the heels which 
are dug slightly into the ground; body leaning well forward 
from the hips with back straight; both arms resting inside 




Figure 27. — Sitting position. 



the legs and well supported ; cheek pressed firmly against the 
stock and placed as far forward as possible without straining; 
left hand near the stock ferrule swivel, wrist straight, rifle 
placed in the crotch formed by the thumb and index finger 
and resting on the heel of the hand. 

(2) The sitting position is used in the field when firing 
from ground that slopes downward to the front. In prac- 
ticing this position the feet may be slightly lower than the 
ground upon which the pupil sits. Sitting on a low sandbag 
is authorized. 



67 





58 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



(3) In the event the conformation of a man is such that 
he cannot assume the prescribed normal position, such 
changes as may be necessary to secure a steady, comfort- 
able position are authorized. 

j. Kneeling position (fig. 28) . — The firer kneels half -faced 
to the right on the right knee, sitting on the right heel; 
the left knee bent so that the left lower leg is vertical (as 
seen from the front) ; left arm well under the rifle and 
resting on the left knee with the point of the elbow beyond 
the kneecap; right elbow above or at the height of the 




shoulder; cheek rests firmly against the stock and is placed 
as far forward as possible without strain. Sitting on the 
side of the foot instead of the heel is authorized. 

fc. Standing position (fig. 29) . — The firer stands half- 
faced to the right; feet from 1 foot to 2 feet apart; body erect 
and well-balanced; left elbow well under the rifle; left hand 
in front of the balance, wrist straight, rifle placed in the 
crotch formed by the thumb and index finger and resting 
on the heel of the hand; butt of the piece high up on the 



68 




P. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



58 



shoulder and firmly held; right elbow approximately at the 
height of the shoulder; cheek pressed against the stock and 
placed as far forward as possible without strain. A position 
with the left hand against or under the trigger guard and 
v/ith the left upper arm supported against the body is not 
a practical field position and is prohibited. 

1. Procedure in conducting position exercises. — (1) Small 
bull’s-eyes are used as aiming points. These bull’s-eyes 




should be placed at a range of 1,000 inches and at different 
heights so that in aiming from various positions the rifle 
will be nearly horizontal, or standard known-distance tar- 
gets may be installed at distances used on the known-dis- 
tance range. 

(2) Before taking up each phase of the position exercise 
the instructor assembles his squad or group and — 



69 




58-59 U. S. MFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 

(а) Shows them the proper method of blackening the 
front and rear sights of the rifle and has each pupil blacken 
his sights. 

(5) Explains and demonstrates the hasty sling adjust- 
ment and assists each pupil to adjust his sling. He explains 
the loop sling adjustment and assists each pupil to adjust 
his sling. 

(c) Explains and demonstrates the proper manner of 
taking up the slack and has each pupil practice it. 

(d) Explains and demonstrates the proper manner of 
holding the breath and has each pupil practice it. 

(e) Explains and demonstrates the use of the aiming 
device. 

(/) Explains the general rules which apply to all posi- 
tions. 

(S') Explains and demonstrates the different positions. 

(3) Following explanations and demonstrations the in- 
struction becomes individual by the coach-and-pupil method. 
Each pupil, after seeing that his sights are blackened, adjusts 
his sling, takes position, takes up the slack, aims carefully, 
and holds his breath while aiming. As soon as his aim be- 
comes unsteady the exercise ceases. After a short rest the 
pupil repeats the exercise without further command. The 
trigger is not squeezed in the position exercises. Exercises 
are conducted in all positions. 

m. Duties of the coach. — In the position exercises the coach 
sees that — 

(1) The sights are blackened. 

(2) The gun sling is properly adjusted, is tight enough 
to give support, and is high up on the arm. 

(3) The proper position is taken. 

(4) The slack is taken up promptly. 

(5) The pupil aims. 

(б) The breath is held while aiming. 

The coach checks the pupil’s manner of holding his breath 
by watching his back. The pupil’s arm may be checked 
occasionally by means of the aiming device. 

■ 59. Third Step : Trigger Squeeze. — a. Importance of trigger 
squeeze . — (1) The most important item in rifle shooting is to 
squeeze the trigger in such a way as to Are the rifle without 



70 




TJ. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



59 



affecting the aim. Misses and poor shots are due to spoil- 
ing the aim just before the discharge takes place. This is 
done by jerking the trigger and flinching. The trigger must 
be squeezed so steadily that the firer cannot know the instant 
the piece will be fired. If a man squeezes the trigger so 
steadily that he cannot know when the discharge will take 
place, he does not spoil his aim and he will not flinch, be- 
cause he does not know when to flinch. 

(2) No good shot attempts to discharge the piece in- 
stantly upon alining his sights on the mark. He holds his 
aim as accurately alined on the mark as possible and main- 
tains a steadily increasing pressure upon the trigger until 
the shot is fired. This method of squeezing the trigger 
must be carried out in all simulated firing or the value of 
the practice is lost. 

(3) There is only one correct method of squeezing the 
trigger — a steady increase of pressure so that the firer does 
not know when the explosion will take place. 

(4) Expert shots are men who through training have 
learned to increase the pressure only when the sights are in 
correct alinement with the bull’s-eye. When the sights be- 
come slightly out of alinement, they hold what they have 
with the finger and only continue the increase of pressure 
when the sights again become properly alined. 

(5) The difference between poor shots and good shots is 
measured in their ability to squeeze the trigger properly. 
Any man with fair eyesight and strength can aline the sights 
on the target and hold them there for an appreciable length 
of time. When he has acquired sufficient will power and 
self-control to forget that there is to be an explosion and 
a shock, and squeezes the trigger with a steady increase of 
pressure until the rifle is fired, he has become a good shot, 
and not until then. This squeeze of the trigger applies to 
rapid fire as well as slow fire. The increase of pressure is 
faster in rapid fire, but the process is the same. 

b. Calling the shot . — The pupils must always notice where 
the sights are pointed at the instant the rifle is fired, and 
call out at once where he thinks the bullet will hit. Shots 
are called even when simulating fire at a mark, so as to 
acquire the habit and to develop a closer hold. No man can 



71 




59 U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER ,30, Ml 

become a good shot until he is able to call his shot before 
it is marked. Inability to call a shot indicates the firer did 
not know where the sights were pointing at the time the 
rifle was fired; in other words, he shut his eyes first and 
fired afterward. 

c. Procedure in conducting trigger-squeeze exercises . — (1) 

(a) The instructor explains to the assembled squad or group 
the importance of correct trigger squeeze. He assures him- 
self by questions that each pupil understands what is meant 
by a steady increase of pressure; that is, that the increase is 
only applied when the aim is correct and then by a steady 
increase and not by a sudden pressure. The instructor ex- 
plains the necessity for calling the shot. The above points 
having been explained the instruction becomes individual by 
the coach-and-pupil method supervised by the instructor. 

(b) The pupil is first taught the trigger squeeze in the 
prone position with the sandbag rest. In this position he can 
hold steadily and has not the temptation to snap the shot 
the instant the front sight touches the bull’s-eye, as he has 
in a less steady position. After he has learned the principles 
of correct trigger squeeze with the sandbag rest, he is in- 
structed in the other positions, but during the first half of 
this period he is not allowed to squeeze the trigger except in 
the prone position, first with, and then without, the sandbag 
rest. 

(c) A great deal of trigger-squeeze exercise is necessary, 
but it must be carefully watched and coached. Trigger- 
squeeze exercise that is not along the right lines is worse 
than none. 

<d) Soldiers should not be allowed to simulate fire until 
they have been thoroughly instructed in trigger squeeze, and 
then in all drills and field exercises where fire is simulated 
they should be cautioned to aim at definite objects and to 
carry out the correct principles of aiming, squeezing the 
trigger, and calling the shot. 

(2) The instruction is individual by the coach-and-pupil 
method. Aiming targets similar to those mentioned for the 
position exercises are used. The exercise is conducted at 
will in a manner as outlined for the position exercise. 



72 




U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



59-60 



d. Duties of the coach. — In the trigger-squeeze exercises 
the coach insures that — 

(1) The sights are blackened. 

(2) The gun sling is properly adjusted, is tight enough to 
give support, and is high up on the arm. 

(3) The proper position is taken. 

(4) The slack is taken up promptly. 

(5) The pupil aims, checking occasionally by means of the 
aiming device. 

(6) The breath is held while aiming. He checks the 
breathing by watching the back of the pupil. 

(7) The trigger is squeezed properly. 

(8) The pupil calls the shot. 

■ 60. Fourth Step: Rapid Fire. — a. General. — All the points 
learned in slow fire are carried out in rapid fire. Careful 
coaching is essential to insure that the eye is kept on the tar- 
get during the firing of each clip of cartridges, that the aim 
is correct, and that the trigger is squeezed correctly for each 
shot. 

b. Timing . — A most important element in rapid fire is the 
development of correct timing in firing. Correct timing in 
firing will vary from about 5 seconds per shot for the begin- 
ner to about 2 seconds per shot for the experienced man. 
The development of proper timing in firing rests mainly on 
the correct position of the firer. The firer’s position is not 
correct unless the sights return automatically to the aiming 
point after each shot is fired. As soon as the sights come 
back on the aiming point the firer concentrates on the sight 
picture and squeezes the trigger quickly. This is repeated for 
each shot. 

Through training, accurate fire becomes more and more 
rapid until the ability to fire 25 or more accurate shots per 
minute is acquired. 

(1) In timing exercises the instructor first assembles his 
group and explains and demonstrates — 

(а) The importance of correct position. 

(б) The importance of correct aiming and keeping the 
eye on the target while firing. 

(c) How the coach promptly presses back the operating 
handle with a sharp motion to cock the piece and then 



73 





for the purpose of instruction in the sequence of the move- 
ment. After this sequence is learned the position will be 
taken as one motion. 

1. Being at the ready, sling adjusted, points selected 

at which right and left elbows are to rest when 
in the prone position, and the point on the 
ground just below the butt of the rifle when in 
the firing position marked, the rifle grasped with 
the left hand just below the lower band and the 
right hand at the heel of the stock, bend both 
knees to the ground. 

2. Place the butt of the rifle on the ground at the point 

marked. 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



releases the pressure to permit the operating handle to go 
forward. (See fig. 30.) 

id) Correct trigger squeeze. 

(e) What is meant by correct timing. 

(/) How speed in timing is gradually increased as skill is 
acquired, until an approximate rate of 2 seconds per shot is 
attained. 

(2) Following the above explanation and demonstration 
by the instructor, timing exercises using the coach-and- 
pupil method will be given in all positions except standing. 

c. Taking positions rapidly. — (1) Prone position. — (a) 
First method . — The movement is described by the numbers 



74 





XT. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, MI 



60 



3. Place the left elbow on the ground, 

4. Place the butt of the rifle against the right shoulder 

with the right hand, at the same time spreading 
the feet apart. 

5. Grasp the small of the stock with the right hand 

and place the right elbow on the ground. 

(b) Skirmisher’s method. — The movement is described by 
the numbers for the purpose of instruction in the sequence 
of movement. After this sequence is learned the position will 
be taken as one motion. These movements will bring the firer 
into his normal position with the rifle pointing at the target. 
Care should be taken to place the butt of the rifle on the 
ground without jar and to place the elbows on the ground 
in the same manner. With practice this position can be as- 
sumed very rapidly and without shock. When properly done 
the feet will still be sliding into position when the rifle is 
being placed on the shoulder, and the left elbow will come 
to the ground at almost the same time that the backward 
movement of the body is completed. 

1. Being at the ready, sling adjusted, points selected 

at which right and left elbows are to rest when 
in the prone position, throw the right foot well 
back and bend the left knee as low as possible, 
placing the butt of the rifle on the ground 4 or 5 
inches to the left and slightly in front of the spot 
where the right elbow is to rest. The grip of the 
rifle is retained with both hands. 

2. Place the right elbow on the ground. 

3. Place the left leg back near the right one, feet apart, 

and slide well back while lying on the belly. 

4. Take the butt of the rifle off the ground and place 

it against the right shoulder. 

5. Lower the left elbow to the ground. 

(c) Other methods authorized. — Other methods of assum- 
ing the prone position may be used. 

(2) Rushing. — (a) Rushes are not used in the rifle marks- 
manship course, but may be practiced in preparation 
for field firing. Being in the prone position with the rifle 
locked and unloaded, loop sling adjusted on the left arm, 
the command is: 1. prepare to rush, 2. UP. At the com- 



75 




TJ. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



60 



mand prepare to rush draw the arms in until the hands are 
opposite the chin, elbows down and away from the body. At 
the command up — 

1. Raise the body by straightening the arms. 

2. Shift the weight of the body to the right leg and 

arm and bring the left leg forward with the knee 
fully bent. 

3. Spring up and run forward. Grasp the rifle with 

both hands, left hand just below the lower band 
and the right hand at the small of the stock. 

(b) Upon arrival at a firing point — 

1. Advance the left foot, turning it across the front 

of the body. 

2. Drop forward on the outside of the left knee and at 

the same time extend the rifle, grasped in both 
hands and held vertically, so that the butt strikes 
the ground at full arm’s length directly in front 
of the left knee. 

3. Pivoting on the left knee and the butt of the rifle, 

roll forward onto the left elbow and left side. 

4. Simulate loading and with the right hand place the 

butt of the rifle on the right shoulder, and set the 
safety in its forward position. 

5. Grasp the small of the stock with the right hand 

and place the right elbow on the ground. 

(c) If the hasty sling is used it will be necessary to modify 
the steps in taking the prone position described in (b) 3 and 
4 above, respectively, as follows: 

1. Pivoting on the left knee and the butt of the rifle, 

roll forward on the right elbow and right side. 

2. Throw the sling to the left and catch it above the 

elbow and high on the arm. Remove the left hand 
from the rifle, pass the left hand under the sling 
and then over the sling, and regrasp the rifle just 
below the lower band with the left hand. Place 
the left elbow on ground. 

(3) Sitting position. — (a) To assume the sitting position 
rapidly, break the fall by placing the right hand on the 
ground slightly to the right rear of the spot on which to sit. 



240321 ° — 40 - 



-o 



77 




60 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



(b) In practicing for range firing, first sit down and aim 
at the target in the normal sitting position. Then mark the 
position of the heels and the spot on which to sit. Then 
at the command ready on the firing line, stand with the 
heels in the places made for them. As the target appears, 
sit down on the spot marked, breaking the fall with the right 
hand, grasp the small of the stock with the right hand, and 
assume the aiming position. 

(4) Kneeling position. 

(a) 1. From standing . — First kneel and aim at the target 

in the normal kneeling position. Then mark the 
position of the feet and the right knee. At the 
command ready on the firing line, stand with the 
feet in the places marked for them. As the target 
appears, kneel with the right knee on the spot 
marked, place the butt of the rifle on the shoulder 
with the right hand, grasp the small of the stock 
with the right hand and assume the aiming 
position. 

2. Alter a rush. — Upon arrival at the firing point, 
kneel on the right knee; with the right hand place 
the butt of the rifle against the right shoulder and 
set the safety in its forward position. Grasp the 
small of the stock with the right hand and assume 
the aiming position. 

(b) Other methods authorized. — Other methods of assum- 
ing the kneeling position may be used. 

(c) Practice required. — Taking positions rapidly from the 
standing position and after a run should be practiced at will 
using the coach-and-pupil system. 

d. Reloading rifle. — (1) During the reloading, the rifle is 
held firmly with the left hand, with the butt of the rifle down, 
to facilitate the insertion of the clip. Reloading should be 
accomplished with a confident movement of the right hand 
in taking the clip from the belt and placing it on top of the 
follower. With the tip of the forefinger of the right hand 
on the floor plate, and with the thumb of the right hand on 
top of the clip near the rear, the clip is pressed down into 
the receiver until it engages the clip latch. The thumb is 
swung to the right so as to clear the bolt in its forward 



78 




U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



60 



movement and the operating rod handle is released. The 
closing of the bolt may be assisted by a push forward on the 
operating rod handle with the heel of the right hand. 

(2) Reloading the rifle without hurried movements and 
consequent fumbling should be practiced at will in the prone, 
sitting, and kneeling positions, using practice dummy cart- 
ridges, until the desired skill is acquired. 

e. Procedure in conducting rapid-fire exercises . — After the 
pupil has become properly trained in timing, taking posi- 
tions rapidly, and reloading, he is given additional practice 
in all of these points by rapid-fire exercises. The group under 
instruction is paired off, coach and pupil, and placed on line. 
Pull-sized targets are placed at 200 and 300 yards from the 
men under instruction, with some simple arrangement per- 
mitting the target to be exposed to view for the prescribed 
period of time. Rapid-fire exercises may be conducted at 
shorter ranges using targets proportionately reduced in size. 
Sights are set to correspond to the range being used. The 
commands and procedure are exactly the same as rapid fire 
on the rifle range except that practice dummy cartridges are 
used. For example, the pupil stands with sights properly set 
and blackened, sling adjusted on his arm, and with two clips 
of practice dummy cartridges in his belt. The instructor, 
after announcing the range and the position to be used, 
commands: 1 . with dummy cartridges, lock and load; 2. ready 

ON THE RIGHT; 3. READY ON THE LEFT; 4. READY ON THE FIRING 
line; 5. CEASE FIRING; 6. UNLOAD. At the first com- 
mand the rifles are locked and loaded. At the fourth com- 
mand the safety on all rifles is set in the forward position. 
When the target is exposed, pupils take position rapidly and 
simultate firing 16 rounds, reloading from the belt. Ac- 
curacy must not be sacrificed for rapidity. Upon completion 
of the exercise any cartridges remaining in the rifle are re- 
moved and the bolts left open. During simulated firing the 
soldier should never take his eye from the target except to 
reload. He should count his shots as he fires in order to 
know when the receiver is empty and thus avoid the loss of 
time incident to the effort of pulling the operating rod handle 
to the rear until the operating rod is caught by the operating 



79 




60-61 



V. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



rod catch. The exercise is conducted from the standing posi- 
tion to the prone, sitting, and kneeling positions. 

/. Duties of the coach . — In a rapid-fire exercise the coach 
insures that — 

(1) The sights are set for the ranges designated and are 
blackened. 

(2) The gun sling is properly adjusted. 

(3) The correct position is taken. 

(4) The slack is taken up promptly. 

(5) The breath is held while aiming. 

(6) The trigger is squeezed properly. 

(7) Each time the pupil squeezes the trigger he promptly 
presses back the operating rod handle with a sharp motion 
ejecting the dummy cartridge and then releases the pressure 
to permit the operating rod handle to go forward. 

(8) The eye is kept on the target, the elbows kept in 
place, and the butt of the rifle kept to the shoulder. 

(9) The rifle is reloaded quickly and without fumbling. 

■ 61. Fifth Step: Effect of Wind; Sight Changes; Use of 
Score Book. — a. Wind. — (1) In firing at 600 yards or under, 
the effect of the weather conditions (except that of the wind) 
on the bullet can be disregarded. The influence of wind 
must be carefully studied. 

(2) The horizontal clock system is used in describing the 
direction of the wind. The firing point is considered the 
center of the clock and the target is at 12 o’clock. A 3 
o’clock wind comes directly from the right. A 6 o’clock 
wind comes straight from the rear. A 9 o’clock wind comes 
directly from the left. A wind that is constantly changing 
its direction back and forth is called a “fishtail wind.” 

(3) The force of the wind is described in miles per hour. 
The force of the wind is estimated by throwing up light, dry 
grass, dust, or light paper and watching how fast it travels, 
by observing the danger flags, and by the mirage. In gen- 
eral- a light breeze is a 5 to 8 mile wind; a fairly strong 
breeze is a 10 to 12 mile wind. Wind blowing 20 miles an 
hour is very strong. 

(4) Wind from either side blows the bullet out of its path. 
This must be allowed for by moving the rear sight toward 
the wind by means of the wind gage. The worst kind of a 



80 




TJ. S. RIFLE, CALIBER ,30, Ml 



61 



wind in which to shoot is a fishtail wind at 12 or 6 o’clock. 
The amount the bullet will be blown from its path depends 
on the force and direction of the wind and on the distance 
to the target. 

(5) The amount of windage to allow for the first shot is 
shown in the wind-gage diagram in the score book. One 
“click” of the windage knob is taken for each Quarter point 
of windage shown in the diagram. It can be found approxi- 
mately by applying the wind rule. 

(6) After the first shot is marked, the correction neces- 
sary in windage is found by referring to the ruled targets in 
the score book showing the windage correction for each 
range. Windage corrections can also be estimated by ap- 
plying the wind-gage rule given in c below. 

b. Wind rule. — (1) The range (expressed in hundreds of 
yards) multiplied by the velocity of the wind and divided by 
10 equals the number of quarter points or clicks to allow 
for a 3 o’clock or 9 o’clock wind. 

Example: At 500 yards the wind is blowing 8 miles per 
5X8 

hour at 3 o’clock; equals 4 clicks or 1 point of windage. 

10 

The sight should have 4 clicks or 1 point of right windage 
for the first shot. 

(2) As the direction of the wind gets nearer and nearer 
to 12 or 6 o’clock the amount of windage necessary becomes 
less and less. Winds 1 hour away from 3 and 9 o’clock 
require only slightly less windage. Winds 1 hour away from 
12 and 6 o’clock require almost half as much windage as 
3 or 9 o’clock winds. 

(3) Winds that are at 12 o’clock require no windage, but 
it is a very rare thing to have a steady wind from either 12 
or 6 o’clock. Strong winds from 12 o’clock tend to retard 
the bullet a little and from 6 o’clock to accelerate it, but the 
amount is so slight that a correction in elevation is very 
seldom necessary. At the most this allowance is very small. 

c. Wind-gage rule . — One click of the windage knob moves 
the strike of the bullet 1 inch on the target for each 100 
yards of range. Bight windage moves the strike of the bullet 
to the right and left windage moves it to the left as shown 
by the arrow and letters on the windage knob. 



81 




61 



TJ. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



d. Mirage. — (1) Heat waves that can be seen near the 
ground are called “mirage.” The direction in which these 
waves are blowing and their speed are watched by good 
riflemen in judging the direction and velocity of the wind. 
The mirage is of assistance in judging the wind principally 
on bright days when there is a light, variable breeze. 

(2) In a moderate wind the waves seem to race across the 
range and to lie close to the ground. In a light wind the 
waves do not lie so close to the ground and appear to move 
more slowly. In strong winds the mirage cannot be seen. 

(3) When there is no wind or when the wind is at 12 or 
6 o’clock the mirage seems to boil. The boiling of the mirage 
signifies that the wind is changing direction. The firer 
should wait until the mirage begins a steady flow from one 
side or the other before firing. 

(4) Mirage can be seen much better with a field glass or 
telescope than with the eye alone. 

e. Elevation ride . — One click of the elevating knob moves 
the strike of the bullet 1 inch on the target for each 100 
yards of range. The strike of the bullet is moved up or 
down as shown by the arrow and words on the knob. 

f. Light. — (1) Light has no effect on the bullet but does 
affect the aim. The effect of changes of light is very slight 
with most riflemen. The correction for variations in light 
does not exceed one click in elevation at any range. The 
effect of changes of light is not uniform in its effect upon 
the aim of all riflemen. 

(2) As a general rule men unconsciously aim a little lower 
in a poor light than in good light and consequently need 
more elevation when the light is poor. This lowering of the 
aim is due to the fact that the outline of the bull’s-eye is not 
distinct in a poor light; therefore men cannot hold as close 
to the bull’s-eye and still be sure of their aim. As a rule 
poor lights exist on dark days when there is a haze in the 
air; on very bright, warm days when there is a decided 
mirage; and when the sun is back of the target. The best 
light for shooting is when the sky is uniformly overcast and 
there is sufficient light to see the target clearly. 

(3) Sunlight from one side has the same effect with most 
men as wind from that side. This is because the side of the 



82 




IT. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



61 



front sight toward the sun is more clearly defined and un- 
consciously held under the center of the bull’s-eye. Such 
holding places the bullet on the opposite side of the bull’s-eye 
from the sun. The allowance of windage for sunlight varies 
from zero to almost two clicks or one-half a point. In mak- 
ing this allowance the sight is moved toward the sun. 

g. Zero of a rifle . — (1) The zero of a rifle for each range 
is the point at which the rear sight must be placed for both 
elevation and windage in order to hit the center of the bull’s- 
eye on a normal day when there is no wind. This zero may 
not conform to the marks on the elevating knob and the 
wind gage. The zero of any one rifle may differ with different 
men, owing to the difference in their way of holding the rifle 
or of aiming. 

(2) Each man must determine the zero of his own rifle for 
each range. He does this by studying the data which he has 
written in his score book concerning sight settings, sight 
changes, light, and the direction and velocity of the wind. 
The zero of a rifle is best ascertained on a day with an over- 
cast sky when there is no wind. Having learned the zero 
of his rifle, the rifleman computes all his windage and eleva- 
tion allowances for the first shot from this zero and not from 
the zero marked on the rifle sight unless the two correspond. 

h. Shooting up or down hill . — In shooting either up or down 
hill, less elevation is needed than when shooting on the level. 
The steeper the hill the less elevation is needed, so that when 
firing vertically up or down no elevation at all is needed, no 
matter how distant the target. Slight slopes that may be 
found on target ranges have no appreciable effect upon the 
elevation used and require no correction. 

i. Sight-setting and sight-changing exercises. — In these 
exercises the instructor uses the full-sized A, B, and D targets, 
with spotters to indicate the position of the hits. 

(1) Procedure . — The instructor assembles his squad or 
group, each pupil having his rifle, score book, and pencil, and 
conducts the exercise as follows: 

(a) Points out the windage knob and the wind gage and 
explains that each line or division on the wind gage repre- 
sents one point of windage or four clicks on the windage knob. 



83 




61 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



(b) Points out the graduations on the elevating knob and 
explains that the numbered line represents that range in 100 
yards and the unnumbered line between the even-numbered 
lines represents the odd-numbered range in 100 yards, i. e., 
the line between 2 and 4 represents the 300-yard range. 

(c) Explains the effect of wind and cautions the class to 
disregard all atmospheric influences except wind. 

(d) Explains the wind-gage diagram in the score book. 

(e) Reads over and explains the wind rule, wind-gage rule, 
and the elevation rule. By asking questions he assures him- 
self that these rules are understood. 

(/) Explains the vertical lines on the model targets in 
the score book and assures himself that each man under- 
stands the use of this diagram. 

(g) Shows the pupils how to draw the windage lines for 
each range on the blank targets of the score book upon 
which they are to plot their shots during range firing. 

(ft) The above points having been explained to the assem- 
bled group, the pupils are placed in pairs. The instructor 
tests the ability of the members of the class to set the 
sights for the first shot by use of the wind rule or the wind- 
gage diagram. Every time the sights are set each pupil 
examines the sight of the pupil paired with him and tells 
the instructor, when called upon, the sight setting used. 

(1) Instructor tests ability to change sights intelligently 
after first shot by referring to the model target. 

(2) Examples of sight-setting exercises. 

(a) “You are at 500 yards and estimate the wind to be 10 
miles at 3 o’clock; set your sights for the first shot. Jones, 
what does Smith’s sight read? Robinson, what should the 
sight read? Each man whose teammate did not set his 
sight at 114 points or 5 clicks right windage hold up his 
hand.” The instructor, by questions and explanations, as- 
sists the men who have made mistakes. 

(b) “You are at 600 yards and estimate the wind to be 
10 miles at 9 o’clock; set your sights for the first shot. Sup- 
pose you fired and the spotter marked the hit here (placing 
a spotter in the 4 space near the bull’s-eye, at 3 o’clock) , 
and you were sure your hold and trigger squeeze were good; 
change your sights to bring the next shot into the center of 



84 




U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



61 



the bull’s-eye. Johnson, what does William’s sight read? 
Snider, what should the sight read? Each man whose team- 
mate did not have his sight set at 2 points or 8 clicks left 
windage hold up his hand.” The instructor assists those 
men who have made decided errors. Differences of less than 
Vt point or 1 click are matters of opinion in applying the 
rules and are unimportant. 

(3) Windage and elevation. — (a) The Instructor gives a 
number of examples with the wind at different angles and 
velocities and at the various ranges until the class thor- 
oughly understands the use of the wind gage. 

(b) Following the instruction in the use of the wind gage, 
the instructor puts the class through similar exercises which 
require changes in elevation. 

(c) The instructor gives a number of examples which re- 
quire changes in both windage and elevation until the prin- 
ciples of sight changing are well understood by the class. 

(d) Assume the zero of the rifles to be away from the 
normal both as to windage and elevation and repeat the 
exercises. 

(4) Examples of other sight-setting exercises. 

(a) “Set your sight at 600 yards plus 1 click with V/ 2 points, 
or 6 clicks, of left windage. Suppose you fire four shots hit- 
ting here (place four spotters in the bull’s-eye), and your 
fifth shot goes here (place spotter on 3 space at 11 o’clock). 
Jones, what are you going to do now? Jenkins, what are 
you going to do? You should not do anything to the sight. 
It is practically certain that you squeezed the trigger im- 
properly and flinched. Not even a very sudden and violent 
change in the weather or light could cause nearly that much 
of a difference. Don’t try to correct your own faults by 
changing the sights around. 

(b) “For your first score in rapid fire at 200 yards you have 
set your sight at the same elevation and windage that you 
used in slow fire. Suppose this to be 200 yards in elevation 
and zero windage and your group goes here (putting 8 spot- 
ters low and to the left). Set your sight to bring the next 
score into the figure. Miller, what does Wright’s sight 
read?” 

(5) Variations in sight settings . — A group in rapid fire 
should strike the same place as in slow fire. Rapid-fire 

85 




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XT. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



groups that vary in position from slow-fire groups are due 
to imperfect trigger squeeze in rapid fire, and consequently 
these groups are more scattered. Men should endeavor to 
squeeze the trigger so that the rapid-fire sight settings will 
be the same. But if there is a constant variation in the 
two sight settings, each man should note it in his score book 
and set his sight in rapid fire so as to make the groups count 
as much as possible. Groups that are scattered all over the 
target cannot be corrected by changing the sight. 

j. Use of score book. — (1) Each man must keep a score 
book in which he records not only the value of the hits but 
the location of each hit, the sight setting and sight changes, 
the force and direction of wind, the kind of light, the hour, 
the date, and such other data as may be of use in the fu- 
ture. Spaces for these notes are provided on the score sheets 
of the score book. 

(2) The use of the score book on the range is important 
for the following reasons: 

(a) The plotting of the shots shows the firer the location 
of his group. 

(b) The wind-gage diagram indicates the windage to take 
for the first shot. The model target shows by means of ver- 
tical lines the change in windage necessary to place the 
group in the center of the target. By reference to model 
“dimensions to scale of A, B, and D targets” on page 16, 
W. D., A. G. O. Form No. 82 (Individual Score Book), and 
applying the elevation rule, the change in elevation neces- 
sary to place the group in the center of the target may be 
computed. 

(c) Plotting the shots and recording the data as to light , 
and wind help the soldier to learn the zero of his rifle. 

(d) The data written down as to sight settings and weather 
conditions while firing at any range are of great assistance in 
setting the sight correctly when again firing at that range. 
Where a number of scores have been fired and recorded, the 
firer should get his sight settings from previous scores fired 
on days that were similar as to light and wind. 

(3) The score book will be kept personally by the man 
firing. The coach assists him when necessary to decide what 
to write down, but the coach will neither plot the shots nor 
enter any data. 



86 




V. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



61 



k. Score-book exercises . — The squad or larger group is 
assembled in front of a full-sized B target, each man with 
score book, pencil, and rifle. The class is divided into pairs. 
Each man acts as coach for the other man of his pair. 

(1) The instructor states the light and weather conditions 
and the range. He then indicates 8 successive shots on 
the target by means of a spotter and requires each man to 
plot each shot as it is indicated, write down the data given 
from time to time, and make the actual sight settings and 
corrections on his rifle. Weather and light conditions as- 
sumed by the instructor and changes announced during the 
exercise should be such as are likely to occur on the rifle 
range. 

(2) The pupils are told by the instructor to open their 
score books at the first blank page and plot the shots and 
write in the data as given to them. They are further in- 
structed to write lightly so that erasures may be made, allow- 
ing the same page to be reused. The example as given will 
be substantially as follows: 

(a) “You are at 600 yards on the rifle range. You are 
getting ready to fire a slow-flre score. There is bright sun- 
light. The wind varies from 8 to 12 miles an hour in velocity 
and from 1 to 3 o’clock in direction. When you are in posi- 
tion ready to fire the first shot, the wind seems steady at 3 
o’clock and blowing about 8 miles an hour. Write in your 
data and set your sights. Jones, where has Robinson set his 
sight? Williams, where has Smith set his sight? You should 
have 1% points, or 5 clicks, of right windage. 

(b) “You fire your first shot and the spotter marks it here 
(put spotter a close 4 at 7 o’clock). Decide what you are 
going to do and set your sights. Dodd, what does McLean’s 
sight read? You should have moved your sight about Va 
point, or one click, to the right and increased your elevation 
one click. 

(c) “Your second shot goes here (spotter near center of 
bull’s-eye) ; your third shot goes here (spotter in bull’s-eye 
near the top) ; your fourth shot goes here (spotter in bull’s- 
eye near the bottom) ; your fifth shot goes here (close 4 at 
9 o’clock) . The wind seems to be a little stronger, but you 
are not sure. Your hold was all right. Johnson, what are 
you going to do? I would take half the correction called for 



87 




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U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



by the model target. Set your sight accordingly. You should 
have about 1% points, or 7 clicks, of right windage now. 
Your sixth shot goes here (a bull’s-eye near the edge at 3 
o’clock). Malone, what are you going to do? The four on 
the fifth shot must have been due to an error in aim or trigger 
squeeze, so put your sight back to where it was before (IV 2 
points or 6 clicks) . 

(d) “Before you fire your seventh shot you notice that the 
wind has shifted to about 1 o’clock but still blowing the same 
rate. Wilson, where has Simpson set his sight now? Bil- 
lings, what does the book say about a 1 o’clock wind? You 
need almost half as much windage as for a 3 o’clock wind. 
You should now have % point or 3 clicks of right windage. 
Set your sight there. 

(e) “Your next shot goes here (a wide 4 at 6 o’clock). 
Collins, what correction has Brown made for his eighth shot? 
You should have made no change in your sight. Your wind- 
age is apparently correct and there has been no change in the 
conditions. Your low shot was due to a poor aim or a poor 
trigger squeeze. Do not try to correct your personal errors by 
moving your sight around. Your eighth and last shot goes 
here (bull’s-eye). Write in your notes and exchange books 
with your teammate. Smith, has Williams plotted all the 
shots correctly? Read the notes he has written in his book.” 

(3) The instructor corrects errors and mistaken ideas and 
makes a note of the pupils needing additional instruction. 

■ 62. Sixth Step: Examination of Men Before Starting 
Range Practice. — (The answers given herein are merely ex- 
amples. Men should be required to explain them in their 
own words.) 

Q. What is this (drawing a circle on the ground or on 
paper) ? — A. A circle. 

Q. Where is the center of it? — A. Here (pointing to the 
center) . 

Q. Suppose that circle represents a peep sight through 
which you are looking and that you are told to bring the top 
of the front sight to the center of it ; where would the top of 
the front sight be? — A. Here (pointing to the center of the 
circle) . 



88 




U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



62 



Q. Make a mark in the circle to represent the front sight 
Make a small circle to represent the bull’s-eye. Is the bull’s- 
eye in the center of the peep sight? — A. No; tl^ bottom edge 
of it is in the center. 

Q. Why? — A. Because the top of the front sight is in the 
center and just touches the bottom edge of the bull’s-eye. 

Q. Should the front sight be held up into the bottom of the 
bull’s-eye? — A. No; it just touches the bottom edge of the 
bull’s-eye, so that all of the bull’s-eye can still be clearly 
seen. 

Q. What is this (indicating sighting bar)? — A. Sighting 
bar. 

Q. What is it for? — A. To teach me how to aim. 

Q. Why is it better than a rifle for this purpose? — A. Be- 
cause the sights on it are much larger, and slight errors can 
be more easily seen and pointed out. 

Q. What does this represent? — A. The front sight. 

Q. And this?— A. The rear sight. 

Q. What is this? — A'. The eyepiece. 

Q. What is the eyepiece for? — A. To cause me to place my 
eye in such a position as to see the sights in the same aline- 
ment as that set by the coach. 

Q. Is there any eyepiece on the rifle? — A. No; I learn by 
the sighting bar how the sights look when properly alined, and 
I must hold my head so as to see the sights the same way when 
aiming a rifle. 

Q. How do you hold your head steadily in this position 
when aiming a rifle? — A. By resting my cheek firmly against 
the side of the stock. 

Q. Where do you focus your eye when aiming a rifle? — A. 
On the bull’s-eye. 

Q. Tell me what is wrong with these sights. (The in- 
structor now adjusts the sights of the bar, making various 
slight errors — first, to show the correct and incorrect ad- 
justments of the sights; and then with the sights properly 
adjusted he sights on the small bull’s-eye to demonstrate 
correct and incorrect adjustments, requiring the men to point 
out any errors.) 

Q. Now take this sighting bar and adjust the sights prop- 
erly. (Verified by the instructor.) 



89 




62 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER ,30, Ml 



Q. Now that the sights are properly adjusted, have the 
small bull’s-eye moved until the sights are properly aimed 
at it. „ 

Q. How do you breathe while aiming? — A. Alter I get my 
sights lined up on the bull’s-eye, I draw in a little more than 
an ordinary breath and let out a little, and hold the re- 
mainder while aiming and squeezing the trigger. 

Q. Take the prone position, aim and simulate firing a shot 
at that mark. (The instructor must assure himself that the 
man knows how to hold his breath properly while aiming. 
Many men have great difficulty in learning to do this cor- 
rectly.) 

Q. What is this? — A. An aiming device. 

Q. What is it used for? — A. To show the instructor how 
a man is aiming. 

Q. Now I will take this rifle, and with the aid of the sand- 
bag rest to hold the rifle steady I will aim at the bull’s-eye, 
and you will watch the sights through the aiming device 
and tell me when my aim is right and when it is wrong, 
and what the error is when wrong. (The instructor now 
aims so as to illustrate the common faults, and the man 
must observe and call attention to them.) 

Q. I will now simulate firing at a bull’s-eye a few times 
and you will watch through the aiming device and call where 
the shots would have hit. 

Q. Now take this rifle and using the sandbag rest aim at 
the bull’s-eye, and I will watch you through the aiming de- 
vice. (The instructor satisfies himself that the man under- 
stands sighting and aiming, and requires him to simulate 
firing a few times and to call his shots.) 

Q. I will take the rifle and assume the kneeling, sitting, 
and prone positions, and position with sandbag rest, and 
you will tell me whether the position is correct or incorrect 
in each case. (The gun sling is adjusted in all these tests.) 

Q. Take this rifle and show me your kneeling, sitting, and 
prone positions, and prone position with sandbag rest. 

Q. Now show me how you take the sitting and prone 
positions rapidly from standing position. 



90 




tr. S. RIFLE, CALIBER . 30 , Ml 



62 



Q. How do you squeeze the trigger? — A. I squeeze the trig- 
ger with such a steady increase of pressure that I do not 
know just when the rifle will go off. 

Q. What do you know while you are squeezing the trig- 
ger? — A. I know that the sights are lined upon the bull’s- 
eye. 

Q. If the sights are slightly out of alinement, what do you 
do? — A. I hold the pressure I have on the trigger and only 
resume the increase of pressure when the sights become lined 
upon the bull’s-eye again. 

Q. If you do this, can your shot be a bad one? — A. No. 

Q. Why? — A. Because I cannot flinch, for I do not know 
when to flinch, and the sights will always be lined up with 
the bull’s-eye, when the rifle goes off, because I never increase 
the pressure on the trigger, except when they are properly 
lined up. 

Q. Is It necessary to take a long time to press the trigger 
in this way? — A. No. The method of squeezing the trigger is 
slow at first but rapidity is developed by practice. 

Q. How do you squeeze the trigger in rapid fire? — A. I 
squeeze it the same way as in slow fire, with such a steady 
increase of pressure as not to know when the rifle will fire. 

Q. In rapid fire how do you gain time so as not to be com- 
pelled to hurry in aiming and squeezing the trigger? — A. I gain 
time by taking the position rapidly and by keeping my eye on 
the target. 

Q. How does keeping your eye on the target help you to 
gain time? — A. A man who looks away from his target loses 
time in finding his own target again. 

Q. Now, show me how you load a clip of service ammuni- 
tion into the receiver. 

Q. Is it important to get into the correct position before 
beginning to shoot in rapid fire? — A. Yes; even though it 
takes more time, I should always get into the correct position 
before beginning to shoot. 

Q. What is meant by calling the shot? — A. To say where 
you think the bullet hit as soon as you shoot and before the 
shot is marked. 

Q. How can you do this? — A. By noticing exactly where 
the sights point when the rifle goes off. 



91 




62 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



Q. If a man cannot call his shot properly, what does it usu- 
ally indicate? — A. That he did not squeeze the trigger prop- 
erly and did not know where the sights pointed at the time 
the rifle went off. 

Q. What is this? — A. A score book. 

Q. What are these lines for (indicating the vertical lines 
on the model target) ? — A. To show the amount of change in 
windage necessary to bring the shot to the middle line. 

Q. If a shot hits here (indicating), what change in your 
sight would you make to bring the next shot to the center of 
the bull’s-eye? 

Q. What effect does moving your rear sight have on the 
shot? — A. It moves it in the same direction as the rear sight 
moves. 

Q. If you want to make a shot hit higher, what do you 
do? — A. I increase my elevation. 

Q. If you want to make your shots hit more to the right, 
what do you do? — A. I move my rear sight to the right. 

Q. If you move your rear sight 1 point or 4 clicks, of 
windage, how much will it move the point struck by the 
bullet?— A. Four inches for each 100 yards of range. 

Q. Explain what you mean by that. 

Q. I will place this spotter on this target (full size 500- 
yard target) to represent a shot properly fired by you at 
500 yards With zero windage and sight set at 500 yards. 
Take your rifle and move your sight to bring the next shot 
to the center of the bull’s-eye. (Instructor now tests in 
various ways the man’s ability to make proper sight cor- 
rections.) 

Q. What are the three principal uses of the score book? — 
A. To show me where my shot group is located, to indicate 
how much change in the sight is necessary to move a shot 
or group of shots to the center of the target, and to make 
a record of the sight settings of my rifle for the different 
ranges under various weather conditions so that I will know 
where to set my sight when starting to shoot at each range 
under different weather conditions. 

Q. Tell me what effect different light and weather condi- 
tions have on a man’s shooting. 



92 





tJ. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



62-64 



<3. In firing at ranges up to and including 600 yards, what 
is the only weather condition for which you make sight cor- 
rections? — A. Wind. 

<3. What three things do you do in cleaning the bore of a 
rifle after it has been fired? — A. I first remove the powder 
fouling from the bore. I then dry the bore thoroughly of 
the liquid used in removing the fouling. After this is done 
I oil the bore to protect it from rust. 

<3. How do you remove the powder fouling from the 
bore? — A. By swabbing it thoroughly with cleaning patches 
saturated with water. 

<3. How do you dry the bore? — A. By running clean 
patches through the bore until it is thoroughly dry. 

<3. How do you protect the bore from rust? — A. By swab- 
bing it thoroughly with a cleaning patch saturated with oil. 

Section HI 

QUALIFICATION COURSES 

■ 63. General. — a. See AR 775-10 for information as to who 
will fire the several courses, individual classification, quali- 
fication, ammunition allowances, etc. 

b. The amount of instruction practice is not limited to 
that prescribed in the following tables. Such additional 
practice as time and ammunition allowance permit may be 
given. 

■ 64. Course A. — a. Instruction practice. 



Table I . — Slow fire 



Range 
(inches) ; 


Time 


Shots 


Target 


Position 


Sling 


1,000 


No limit... 


4 


A 1,000-inch 


Prone. Sandbag optional- 


Loop. 


1,000 




4 






Do. 










1,000 




4 






Loop or 
hasty. 










o o 
8 8 




4 






Do. 




4 






| Hasty. 











240321° — 40 7 



93 




64 



R. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



Table II. — Rapid fire 



Range 
(inches) 1 


Time 

(seconds) 


Shots 


Target 


Position 


Sling 


1, .000 
1, 000 


30. 


8 


D 1,000-inch 




Loop. 


30 


8 


...do.- 


Sitting or kneeling from 
standing. 










hasty. 



Table III. — Slow fire 



Range 

(yards) 


Time 


Shots 


Target 


Position 


Sling 


200 




4 


A 


Prone. Sandbag optional. 


Loop. 

Do. 


300 




4 


A 


500 




4 j 


B 




Do. 
















Table IV.- 


—Slow fire 




Range 

(yards) 


Time 


Shots 


Target 


Position 


Sling 


200 




4 


A 




Loop. 

Do. 


300 




4 


A 




500 | 




8 


B 




Do. 









Table V. — Slow fire 



Range 

(yards); 


Time 


Shots 

1 


Target 


Position 


Sling 


200 




4 


A.... 




Loop or 
hasty. 
Do. 
Hasty. 


200 




4 






200 j 




4 















94 





U. S. RIFEE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



64 



Table VI. — Rapid fire 



Range 

(yards) 


Time 

(seconds) 


Shots 


Target 


Position 


Sling 


200 


60 


16 


D--.‘ - 


Kneeling from standing, . j 


Loop or 
hasty. 


300 


65 


16 


D 


Prone from standing \ 


Loop. 



Table VII . — Rapid fire 



Range 

(yards) 


Time 

(seconds) 


Shots 


Target 


Position 


Sling 


200 


60 


16 


D 


Sitting from standing 


Loop or 


300 


65 


16 


D-_ 


hasty. 

Loop. 









b. Record practice. 

Table VIII . — Slow fire 



Range 

(yards) 


Time 


Shots 


Target 


Position 


Sling 


200 

200 

200 

500 


No limit. _ 


4 


A 




Hasty. 


4 


A 






4 






hasty. 

Do. 




8 


B. ... 




Loop. 











Table IX . — Rapid fire 



Range 

(yards) 


Time 

(seconds) 


Shots 


Target 


Position 


Sling 


300 


60. 


16 


D 


Sitting from standing 


Loop or 












hasty. 



95 




64-65 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



Table X. — Rapid fire 



Range 

(yards) 


Time 

(seconds) 


Shots 


Target 


Position 


Sling 


200 


60 


16 


D 


Kneeling from standing. _ 


Loop or 
hasty. 


300 


65 


16 


D - 

^ PH 


Prone from standing ... . 

1 


Loop. 



■ 65. Course B. — a. Instruction practice. 



Table I. — Slow fire 



Range 

(inches) 


Time 


Shots 


Target 


Position 


Sling 


1,000 


No limit. _ 


4 


A, 1,000-inch 


Prone. Sandbag optional. 


Loop. 


1,000 




4 






Do. 


l’ooo 




4 
















hasty. 


1,000 




4 






Do. 


1, 000 




4 






Hasty. 













Table n 


. — Rapid fire 


Range 

(inches) 


Time 

(seconds) 


Shots 


Target 


Position 


Sling 


1,000 
1, 000 


30 


8 

8 


D, 1,000-inch 

do 




Loop. 
Loop or 
hasty. 


30 


Sitting from standing 





Table in. — Slow fire 



Range 
(yards) i 


Time 


Shots 


Target 


Position 


Sling 


200 


No limit. _ 


4 


A 


Prone. Sandbag optional. 




300 




4 


A 




Do. 













96 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



65 



Table IV. — Slow fire 



Range 

(yards) 


Time 


Shots 


Target 


Position 


Sling 


300 




4 ' 


A. ^ 




Loop or 
hasty. 
Do. 


300 






A 




200 




4 


A _ 




Hasty. 











Table V. — Rapid, fire 



Range 

(yards) 


Time 

(seconds) 


Shots 

1 


Target 


Position 


Sling 


200 


60. ... 


16 


D 


Kneeling from standing - . 


Loop or 
hasty. 


300 


65 


16 


D 


Prone from standing 


Loop. 



Table VI . — Rapid fire 



Range 

(yards) 


Time 

(seconds) 


Shots 


Target 


Position 


Sling 




60.... 


16 


D 


Sitting from standing- 


Loop or 
hasty. 








65 .. 


16 


D 




Loop. 


1 







b. Record practice. 



Table VII. — Slow fire 



Range 

(yards) 


Time 

(seconds) 


Shots 


Target 


Position 


Sling 


200 

200 

200 


No limit. _ 


4 

4 

4 


A ... 




Hasty. 
Loop or 
hasty. 
Do. 


A ... 






A . 























97 








65-66 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, MI 



Table VIII. — Rapid fire 



Range 

(yards) 


Time 

(seconds) 


Shots 


Target 


Position 


Sling 


200 


60 


16 


D 




Loop or 








300 


60 


16 


! D_ 


Kneeling from standing. 


Do. 







Table IX. — Rapid fire 



Range 

(yards) 


Time 

(seconds) 


Shots 


Target 


Position 


Sling 


300 


65 


16 1 


D 


Prone from standing 


Loop. 


■ 66. Course C. — a. Instruction practice. 

Table I. — Slow fire 


Range 

(inches) 


Time 


Shots 


Target 




Position 


Sling 


1,000... 

1,000. 


No limit. . 


4 

4 

4 

4 

4 


A 1,000-inch. 





Prone, sandbag optional.. 


Loop. 

Do. 

Loop or 
hasty. 
Do. 
Hasty. 


1,000- 










1,000... 

1,000. 


do 


















1 





Table II. — Rapid fire 



Range 

(inches) 


Time 

(seconds) 


Shots 


Target 


Position 


Sling 


c 

c 

c 


30 


8 








1,000... 


30 


8 


do 


Sitting or kneeling from 


Loop or 
















U. S, RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 66 



Table III. — Slow fire 



Range 

(yards) 


Time 


Shots 


Target 


Position 


Sling 


200 


No limit.. 


4 


A, 


Prone. Sandbag optional-; 


Loop. 


200 




4 


A _ 




Do. 
























hasty. 


200 


do... 


4 


A 




Do. 


200 




4 


A 




Hasty. 













Table IV. — Rapid fire 



Range 
(yards) 1 


Time 

(seconds) 


Shots 


Target 


Position 


Sling 


200 


60 


16 


D 


Kneeling from standing 


Loop or 
hasty. 
Loop. 


\ 

200 


55 


16 


D 











b. Record practice. 



Table V. — Slow fire 



Range 

(yards) 


Time 


Shots 


Target 


Position 


Sling 


200 

200 

200 


No limit. . 


4 

4 i 
4 


A 




Loop or 
hasty. 
Do. 
Hasty. 


A 






A 










Table VI. — Rapid fire 


Range 

(yards) 


Time 

(seconds) 


Shots 


Target 


Position 


Sling 










Kneeling from standing.. 
Prone from standing 




200 

200 


60 

55 


16 

16 


D 

D 


Loop or 
hasty. 
Loop. 



99 




67 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



■ 67. Course D. — a. Instruction practice. 

Table I. — Slow fire 



Range 

(inches) 


Time 


Shots 


Target 


Position 


Sling 














1,000 
1, 000 
1, 000 

1, 000 
1,000 


No limit. _ 


8 

8 

8 

8 

8 


A 1,000-inch 

do 


Prone. Sandbag optional - 


Loop. 

Do. 

Loop or 
hasty. 
Do. 
Hasty. 






...do 


do 

















Table II . — Rapid fire 



Range 

(inches) 


Time 

(seconds) 


Shots 


Target 


Position 


Sling 




30 


8 






Loop. 
Loop or 
hasty. 
Loop. 






8 












30 


8 




Kneeling from standing-- 




1 






b. Record practice. 














Table III 


. — Slow fire 




Range 

(inches) 


Time 


Shots 


Target 


Position 


Sling 


1,000- 




4 






Loop or 
hasty. 


1,000--. 

l,000-_- 




4 












4 






Loop or 
hasty. 











100 




U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, MI 



67-68 



Table IV . — Rapid fire 



Range 

(inches) 


Time j 
(seconds) ! 


Shots 


Target 


Position 


Sling 


1,000--- 


30 


8 


D 1, 000-inch 


Sitting from standing. . . _ 


Loop or 
hasty. 


1,000--- 


30 — 


8 






Loop. 

; 









Section IV 



RANGE PRACTICE 

■ 68. General. — a. Phases . — Range practice is initiated im- 
mediately after completion of the preparatory training. 
Range practice is divided into two parts, instruction practice 
and record practice. 

b. Sequence of practice . — The practice season opens with 
instruction practice. Each person will complete instruction 
practice before he proceeds with record practice. When rec- 
ord practice is once begun by an individual it is completed 
before any other practice is permitted by him. As a rule, 
record practice will not be fired by any rifleman on the same 
day that he fires any part of instruction practice. However, 
when the time allotted to range practice is very limited, the 
officer in charge of firing may authorize record firing on the 
same day. Instruction practice and record practice will not 
be conducted simultaneously except on ranges where the fir- 
ing points are in echelon or where the two types of practice 
are conducted on different parts of the same range. 

c. Range personnel. — (1) Officer in charge of firing . — An 
officer in charge of firing will be designated by the responsible 
commander. It is desirable that he be the senior officer of 
the largest organization occupying the range. The officer in 
charge of firing or his deputy will be present during all firing 
and will be in charge of the practice and safety precautions 
on the range. 

(2) Range officer . — The range officer is appointed by the 
post commander and is responsible to the latter for maintain- 
ing and assigning ranges, designating danger zones, and 
closing roads leading into danger zones. The range officer 



101 




68-69 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



makes timely arrangements for material and labor to place 
the ranges in proper condition for range practice. He directs 
and supervises all necessary repairs to shelters, butts, targets, 
firing points, and telephone lines. He provides for the safety 
of the markers, and when necessary he provides range guards 
and instructs them in the methods to be used for the protec- 
tion of life and property within the danger area. He assists 
the officer in charge of firing by using the means necessary 
to provide efficient service from the maintenance personnel 
of the ranges. 

(3) Range noncommissioned officer . — A noncommissioned 
officer and such assistants as the post commander may deem 
necessary will be detailed permanently during the range prac- 
tice season as assistant to the range officer. He is responsible 
to the range officer that the target-pit equipment is kept in a 
serviceable condition; that the desired targets are ready for 
use at the appointed time; and that all target and pit details 
are provided with the proper flags, marking disks, pasters, 
and spotters. 

(4) Pit details . — Commanders of organizations firing will 
provide such detail of officers, noncommissioned officers, and 
privates as may be necessary to supervise, operate, mark, and 
score the targets used by their respective organizations. 

d. Uniform . — The uniform to be worn during instruction 
practice and record practice will be prescribed by the com- 
manding officer. 

e. Pads . — Men should be required to wear pads on the 
shoulder and, if the ground is hard, on the elbows for the first 
3 or 4 days at least. A pad can easily be improvised by put- 
ting a pair of woolen socks under the shirt so as to protect 
the shoulder and the upper muscles of the arm. After a few 
days of firing, the muscles become hardened so that the pads 
are not essential. (See par. 72 a(10>.) 

/. Cartridge belt . — The cartridge belt will be worn during 
instruction practice and record firing. 

■ 69. Safety Precautions. — a. Safety precautions for observ- 
ance by troops are self-contained and complete in this 
manual. Reference to AR 750-10 is necessary for range 
officers, the officer in charge of firing, and the commander 
responsible for the location of ranges and the conduct of 



102 




U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



69 



firing thereon. All officers and men who are to fire or who 
are concerned with range practice will be familiarized with 
the safety precautions in t> below before firing is commenced. 

b. (1) Danger flags will be displayed at prominent posi- 
tions on the range during firing. Do not fire unless such flags 
are displayed. 

(2) Upon arrival at the range the rifles of an organization 
will be inspected by the officers to see that chambers and 
barrels are free from obstruction and that all bolts are 
opened. 

(3) Consider every rifle to be loaded until it is examined 
and found to be unloaded. Never trust your memory as to its 
condition in this respect. 

(4) When the bolt is closed, never point the rifle in any 
direction where an accidental discharge may cause harm. 

(5) Firing will not begin on any range until the officer in 
charge of firing has ascertained that the range is clear and 
has given the commands load and commence firing. 

(6) At least one officer will be present at all firing. 

(7) All rifles on the range except those in use on the firing 
line will be clear with bolts open at all times. (See par. 31.) 

(8) No rifle will be removed from the firing line until an 
officer or specially selected noncommissioned officer has in- 
spected it to see that it is clear and the bolt open. 

(9) No person will be allowed in front of the firing line 
for any purpose until directed by an officer who has ordered 
all rifles to be cleared and ascertained that the order has 
been carried out. 

(10) All firing will immediately cease and the safety of 
each rifle set in its rear position (or the rifles cleared if 
ordered) at the command cease firing. 

(11) Cartridges will not be left chambered in hot barrels. 

(12) All loading and unloading will be executed on the 
firing line with the muzzles directed toward the targets. 
Rifles will never be loaded in rear of the firing line. 

(13) Care should be taken to avoid undue exposure of 
ammunition to the direct rays of the sun. This creates 
hazardous chamber pressures. 

(14) Never grease or oil the ammunition or the walls of 
the rifle chamber. 



103 




69-70 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



(15) See that the ammunition is clean and dry. Examine 
all live and all dummy cartridges. Turn in all live or 
dummy cartridges with loose bullets or which appear to be 
otherwise defective. 

(16) Never fire a rifle with any rust preventive compound, 
cleaning patch, dust, dirt, mud, snow, or other obstruction 
in the bore. To do so may burst the barrel. 

(17) Before leaving the range, all rifles and belts will be 
inspected by an officer to see that they do not contain 
ammunition; and men in ranks will be questioned as to 
whether they have any ammunition in their possession. 

(18) See AR 45-30 for regulations covering report of acci- 
dent involving ordnance materiel. 

■ 70. Instruction Practice. — Instruction practice repre- 
sents the application with service ammunition of the prin- 
ciples taught in the preparatory training. The instruction 
practice outlined for each course described in paragraphs 
64 to 67, inclusive, is designed to serve as a guide only. 
Within authorized ammunition allowances the number of 
shots to be fired at each range is discretionary with the or- 
ganization commander. 

a. Zeroing the rifle . — Each rifle will be “zeroed” for the 
1,000-inch range. Each rifle will also be “zeroed” for 200, 
300, and 500 yards during the instruction practice provided 
for these ranges. Each man will keep a record of these 
zeroes in his score book. 

(1) For 1,000-inch range. — (a) The target for the 1,000- 
inch range is so devised that when aim is accurately taken 
at 6 o’clock on a black bull’s-eye, the center of a shot group 
should be in the center of the same bull’s-eye. 

(b) To zero the rifle for this target take a steady aim in 
the prone position at 6 o’clock on the black bull’s-eye. The 
first shot is fired with a sight setting of 200 yards’ elevation 
and zero windage. Corrections in elevation and windage to 
bring subsequent shots into the center of the black bull’s- 
eye are set in clicks by the elevating and windage knobs. 
Such corrections are applied after every two or more shots 
under the direction of an instructor. If the visibility of the 
shot groups is limited, the instructor, after taking necessary 
safety precautions, may move along the line of targets and 



104 




TJ. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 70 

announce the corrections to the coaches in terms of clicks. 
One click equals approximately % inch on the target on 
the 1,000 -inch range. 

(2) For known-distance ranges . — The position of the spot- 
ters on the target will permit the necessary corrections in 
elevation and windage to be computed by the elevating and 
windage rules. They are then applied as clicks to the sight. 
These sight settings should be made under the supervision of 
an instructor or experienced coach after groups of two or 
more shots are fired. 

(a) At 200 yards. 

1. Set the elevation at 15 clicks up from the lowest ele- 

vation to which the elevating knob can be turned; 
set the windage at 0 in the normal manner. Fire 
a group of two or more shots and apply corrections 
in elevation and windage to bring the center of the 
next shot group or groups into the center of the 
black bull’s-eye 5 inches above its bottom. Do not 
change the sight setting which obtains this result. 

2. Being careful not to disturb the above sight setting, 

loosen the screw in the elevating knob with the 
screw-driver blade of the combination tool. Pull 
the elevating knob away from the receiver until its 
teeth are completely disengaged and then set the 
200-yard mark on the drum exactly opposite the 
index line on the sight base, 

3. Tighten the screw. The rifle now has its sight set 

exactly at 200 yards’ elevation and is also correctly 
zeroed for 200 yards in elevation. Record the 
windage correction in the scorebook. Unless the 
rifle is subjected to especially hard usage, the sight 
setting of exactly 200 will in future be the zero ele- 
vation for that range. Minor adjustments in ele- 
vation to compensate for light on different days 
may be applied as clicks. These should be recorded 
in the scorebook. 

(b) At other ranges . — Once the rifle has been zeroed for 
200 yards as described in (a) above, it is easily zeroed for the 
other ranges as follows: Set the elevation at the desired range 
in the manner prescribed in paragraph 29. Set the windage 



105 




70 



r. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



at 0. Fire a group of two or more shots. Then apply correc- 
tion in clicks of elevation and windage to bring the center of 
the shot group into the center of the target. Record these 
corrections in the seorebook as the zero for that range. 

b. Use of dummy cartridges . — The corrugated type of 
dummy cartridges (M1906) only may be used in range prac- 
tice. When ammunition must be conserved, a proportion of 
the corrugated type dummies may be included in clips with 
live ammunition. 

c. Slow fire . — The first few shots fired on the range by be- 
ginners should be slow Are from the prone position, following 
this, slow fire from other positions is conducted. The sand- 
bag rest is used at the beginning of the course, not to teach 
steadiness of hold but to facilitate instruction in the proper 
method of squeezing the trigger. The sandbag assures such 
a steady hold that the temptation of the beginner to snap in 
his shot at the instant the sight touches or drifts past the 
bull’s-eye, which is the cause of nearly all poor shooting, is 
eliminated. With the sandbag rest, the sights can be held 
fixed at the bottom of the bull’s-eye while the firer squeezes 
the trigger with such a steady pressure as not to know exactly 
when the rifle will fire, which is the basis of all good shooting. 
The habit of the correct trigger squeeze having been acquired 
by firing with a sandbag rest will in all probability be re- 
tained while firing prone and in the more unsteady positions — 
sitting, kneeling, and standing. 

d. Coaching. — (1) General . — During instruction practice 
the soldier works under the supervision of a coach. This does 
not mean that each man must have an experienced shot 
beside him. Any man of intelligence who has been properly 
instructed in the preparatory work and who has been given 
instruction in coaching methods can be used with good results 
and should be used when more experienced shots are not 
available. It is good practice to have expert coaches in charge 
of one or more targets, usually on a flank, to which particu- 
larly difficult pupils are sent for special coaching.. Great 
patience should be exercised by the coach so as not to excite 
or confuse the firer. 

(2) Position of coach .— On the firing line the coach should 
take a position similar to that of the man who is firing prone. 



106 




U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, MI 



70 



sitting, kneeling, or standing — so as to be able to watch his 
trigger finger and his eye. 

(3) Watching the eye. — Errors in trigger squeeze, which 
are the most serious and the hardest to correct, can be de- 
tected by watching the pupil’s eye. If his eye can be seen 
to close as the rifle goes off, it is because he knew when it 
was going off and consequently was not squeezing the trigger 
properly. The explosion and the shock will cause a man to 
wink, but this wink cannot be seen, due to the sudden move- 
ment of the head that takes place at the same time. If the 
firer can be seen to wink it is because he winked first and 
jerked the trigger afterward. 

(4) Use of dummy cartridges in slow fire. — If the pupil is 
seen to be flinching, or if he is doing poor or mediocre shoot- 




Fictjre 32. — Position of the coach. 



ing, the coach first checks his aim by the aiming device. 
Having assured himself that the pupil is aiming correctly, the 
coach has him turn his head aside while he, the coach, puts 
in a cartridge and shoves the bolt home. Occasionally the 
coach loads in a dummy cartridge instead of a live one with- 
out letting the pupil know what he has done. Then the 
flinch, indicated by the shoulder being shoved forward at 
the same time that the trigger is pressed, will be evident even 
to the firer himself. The coach then proves to him by squeez- 
ing the trigger a few times, as explained in (5) below, that 
his poor shooting is due to faulty trigger squeeze. 

(5) Coach squeezing the trigger. — (a) To squeeze the trigger 
for the firer, the coach lies with his right elbow on the ground 
to steady his hand, places his thumb against the trigger and 
his first finger against the back of the trigger guard. In 



107 





70 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



this way he can apply pressure to the trigger by a pinching 
action of his thumb and first finger. 

(b) The coach then watches the firef’s back, and between 
5 and 10 seconds after the firer begins to hold his breath he 
applies enough pressure to discharge the piece. Shots fired 
in this way are almost always accurately placed. After dis- 
charging the piece a few times, the coach lets the firer try 
a few shots alone to see if he can press the trigger the same 
way the coach pressed it so as not to know just when the 
rifle will go off. Sometimes it is necessary to repeat this 
exercise, but the majority of beginners can be permanently 
cured of the tendency to flinch by a few minutes of this kind 
of coaching. Old shots who are fiinchers require more time 
and patience. 

(6) Duties of coach in slow fire. — (a) The coach observes 
the pupil carefully and corrects all errors. He pays particular 
attention to see — 

1. That the sights are blackened and that they are 

set at the correct range. 

2. That the ammunition is free from dirt. 

3. That the pupil has the correct position, gun sling 

properly adjusted, body at the proper angle, 
elbows correctly placed, and cheek resting firmly 
against the stock. 

4. That the receiver is loaded with a clip in the cor- 

rect manner. 

5. That the slack is taken up promptly. 

6. Whether or not the pupil flinches (by watching 

his eye). 

7. That the pupil calls his shot each time he fires. 

8. That the pupil keeps his score book correctly. 

9. That the pupil is holding his breath properly (by 

watching his back occasionally) . 

10. That the aiming is correct (by watching through 
the aiming device occasionally). 

(b) When necessary, the coach applies the coaching 
methods described in (4) and (5) above. 

e. Rapid fire. — (1) During rapid fire the tendency to jerk 
the trigger is increased. This tendency must be corrected 
before it becomes a fixed habit. Before firing ball ammu- 



108 




U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



70-71 



nition it is advisable to have each order simulate a score 
of rapid fire using dummy cartridges. 

(2) The duties of the coach in rapid fire are to observe 
the pupil carefully and correct all errors. He pays particular 
attention to see — 

( a ) That the sights are blackened and that they are set 
at the proper range. 

(b) That the gun sling is properly adjusted. 

(c) That the pupil assumes the correct position. 

(d) That he takes up the slack promptly. 

(e) Whether or not the pupil flinches (by watching his 
eye) . 

(/) That he reloads the receiver with a clip properly and 
quickly. 

(3) These operations follow each other, and the coach 
can watch each in turn. The coach will also at times watch 
the pupil’s back to see if he holds his breath while firing 
each shot. 

(4) Any lack of smooth and proper timing in firing indi- 
cates that the preparatory training has not been sufficient, 
and additional preparatory rapid-fire practice will be given. 

/. Exceptions to record practice procedure. — Procedure 
prescribed in paragraph 71 for record practice is applicable 
to instruction practice with the following exceptions: 

(1) Scores are not required to be kept in the pits. 

(2) Only such officers and noncommissioned officers are 
on duty in the pit as are necessary to preserve order and 
insure efficient pit service. 

(3) The manner in which the scores are kept on the 
firing line is discretionary with the organization commander. 

■ 71. Record Practice. — a. General. — (1) The purpose of 
record practice is to test the soldier’s skill as a rifleman and 
to determine his qualification. The qualification courses are 
prescribed in paragraphs 64 to 67, inclusive. 

(2) The sequence in which the scores are fired in record 
practice is discretionary with the officer in charge of firing. 

(3) Whenever practicable during record practice such 
officers as may be required for duty in the pit will be de- 
tailed from troops not firing. 



240321 ° — 40 - 



-8 



109 




71 



II. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



b. Organization of firing line. — (1) The firing line will be 
organized so as to insure the safe and orderly conduct of 
the firing and to facilitate supervision by the officer in 
charge and his assistants. The distances specified in (2) 
below will be used as a guide for firing not involving skir- 
mish runs, and may be modified at the discretion of the 
officer in charge of firing to meet local conditions and to 
provide for skirmish runs. 

(2) (a) Scorers stationed in rear of the firing line and 
close to the soldier being scored. 

(b) Telephone operators 5 yards in rear of the firing line. 

(c) Ready line, i. e., next order on each target awaiting 
turn to fire, 10 yards in rear of the line of telephone oper- 
ators. 

id) Rifle rests and cleaning rack 10 yards in rear of the 
starting line. 

(3) Individuals who are to fire will be assigned targets and 
the order in which they will take turn in firing the several 
scores, i. e„ 1st order, 2d order, etc. 

e. Pit details . — The details for the supervision, operation, 
marking, and scoring of targets during record practice con- 
sist of officers, noncommissioned officers, and privates, as 
follows: 

(1) One commissioned officer assigned to each two targets. 
When it is impracticable to detail one officer to each two tar- 
gets in the pit, an officer will be assigned to supervise the 
marking and scoring of not to exceed four targets. In this 
case the pit scores will be kept by the noncommissioned officer 
in charge of each target who will sign the score card. The 
officer will take up and sign each score card as soon as a 
complete score is recorded. 

(2) One noncommissioned officer assigned to each target to 
direct and supervise the markers. This noncommissioned 
officer will be selected from an organization other than the 
one firing on the target which he supervises. If this is not 
possible the officer assigned to the target will exercise special 
care to insure correct scoring. 

(3) One or two privates assigned to operate and mark each 
target. These privates may be selected from the organization 
firing on the target to which they are assigned. 



110 




TJ. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



71 



d. Score cards and scoring. — (1) Duplicate score cards will 
be kept, one at the firing point and one in the pit. These 
cards will be of different colors. The cards at the firing point 
will bear the date, the firer’s name, the number of the target, 
and the order of firing. The pit card will not show the firer’s 
name but will bear the date, the number of the target, and 
the order of firing. 

(2) Entries on all score cards will be made in ink or with 
indelible pencil. No alteration or correction will be made on 
the card except by the organization commander, who will 
initial each alteration or correction made. 

(3) The scores at each firing point will be kept by a non- 
commissioned officer of some organization other than that 
firing on the target to which he is assigned. If this is not 
possible company officers will exercise special care to insure 
correct scoring. As soon as a score is completed, the score 
card will be signed by the scorer, taken up and signed by 
the officer supervising the scoring, and turned over to the 
organization commander. Except when required for enter- 
ing new scores on the range, score cards will be retained in 
the personal possession of the organization commander. 

(4) In the pit the officer keeps the scores for the targets to 
which he is assigned. As soon as a score is completed he 
signs the score card. He turns these cards over to the organ- 
ization commander at the end of the day’s firing. The 
organization commander will check the pit records against 
the firing line records; in case of discrepancy between the 
two the pit record governs. 

(5) Upon completion of record firing and after the qualifi- 
cation order is issued, the pit score cards of each man will be 
attached to his official score card kept at the firing point. 
These cards will be kept available for inspection among the 
company records for 1 year and then destroyed. 

e. Marking. — (1) Slow fire. — (a) The value of the shot is 
indicated as follows: 

1. A bull’s-eye, with a white disk. 

2. A four, with a red disk. 

3. A three, with a black and white disk. 

4. A two, with a black disk. 



Ill 




71 



V. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, MI 



5. A miss, or a ricochet hit, by waving a red flag across 
the front of the target. 

(b) The exact location of the hit is indicated by placing in 
the shot hole a spotter of size appropriate to the distance 
from the firing point. The center of the marking disk is 
placed over the spotter in signaling hits. No spotters are 
required on 1,000-inch ranges. 

(2) Rapid fire on target D. — (a) The same disks are used 
to indicate the value of hits as in slow fire. 

(b) Spotters are placed in the shot holes before the target 
is run up for marking. 

(c) The marking begins with the hits of highest value, the 
center of the disk being placed over the spotter, then swung 
off the target and back again to the next spotter, care being 
taken each time to show only the face of the disk indicating 
the value of the shot being marked. The marking will be 
slow enough to avoid confusing the scorer at the firing point. 
When one spotter covers more than one shot hole, the disk is 
placed over it the required number of times. Misses and 
ricochet hits are indicated by slowly waving the red flag 
across the face of the target one time for each miss or 
ricochet hit. 

/. Procedure. — (1) Slow fire. — (a) On the firing line. 

1. One person only will be assigned to a target in each 

order. 

2. The scorer, as the value of each shot is signaled, an- 

nounces in a tone sufficiently loud to be heard by 
the firer the name of the firer, the number of the 
shot, and the value of the hit, and records the 
value of the hit on the score card of the indi- 
vidual who is firing. 

3. Whenever a target is marked without the individual 

assigned to that target having fired, as will occur 
when someone fires on the wrong target, the 
scorer will notify the officer in charge, who will 
notify the officer assigned to that target in the pit 
to disregard the shot. This precaution is neces- 
sary to prevent errors in the pit record. 

4. When an individual fires on the wrong target, he 

will not be scored a miss until the target to which 



112 




TJ. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



71 



he is assigned has been pulled dov'n and the miss 
signaled from the pit. 

5. If the target is not half masked at the completion 
of a score on that target, or if it is half masked at 
the wrong time, the officer in charge of that firing 
point will adjust the matter at once over the tele- 
phone. This precaution is necessary to prevent 
the error from being carried on through the scores 
that follow. 

(b) In the pit. 

1. The target is withdrawn and marked after each 

shot, except that on 1,000-inch ranges the tar- 
gets are marked and removed after each 4 or 8 
shots and replaced with new targets. 

2. When a shot is fired at a target it is pulled down. 

The noncommissioned officer makes a pencil mark 
across the shot hole and indicates the location of 
the hit to the officer. The officer announces its 
value and records it on the score card. A spot- 
ter is then placed in the shot hole. The previous 
shot hole, if any, is pasted, and the target is run 
up and marked. The noncommissioned officer 
supervises the marking of each shot. The officer 
also exercises general supervision over the mark- 
ing. 

3. When the pit score card indicates that a score has 

been completed, the target is half masked for 
about 30 seconds as a signal for such completion 
to the firing line. At the end of the 30 seconds 
the target is pulled fully down, the spotter re- 
moved, the shot hole pasted, and the target run 
up for the beginning of a new score. 

4. When a target frame is used as a counterweight for 

a double sliding target, the blank side of such 
frame will be toward the firing line. 

(2) Rapid fire on target D . — (a) On the firing line. 

1. One person only will be assigned to a target in each 
order. The loop or hasty sling as required may 
be adjusted on the arm prior to the start of the 
exercise. 



113 




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TJ. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



2. When all is ready in the pit, a red flag is displayed 

at the center target. At that signal the officer in 
charge of the firing line commands: LOAD. The 
rifles are locked and loaded. 

3. The officer in charge of the firing line then calls 

so that all may hear, “Ready on the right? Ready 
on the left?” Anyone who is not ready calls out, 
“Not ready on, No. — .” 

4. All being ready on the firing line, the officer in 

charge commands: READY ON THE FIRING 
LINE. Rifles are unlocked and the position of 
ready assumed. The telephone orderly notifies 
the pit, “Ready on the firing line.” 

5. The flag at the center target is waved and then 

withdrawn. Five seconds after the flag is with- 
drawn the targets appear, remain fully exposed 
for the prescribed period of time, and are then 
withdrawn. The firer takes the prescribed posi- 
tion as soon as the targets appear, and fires or 
attempts to Are 16 shots, reloading with a full 
clip taken from the belt. If any individual fails 
to fire at all, he will be given another opportunity 
to fire, but if he fires any shots the score must 
stand as his record. He will not be permitted to 
repeat his score on the claim that he was not 
ready. (See also par. 72a (21) and (23).) 

6. As soon as the targets are withdrawn the officer in 

charge commands: UNLOAD. All unfired car- 
tridges are removed from the rifle and the bolts 
are left open. The men remain in position on the 
firing line until they are ordered off by the 
officer in charge. 

7. As each shot is signaled from the pits it is announced 

by the scorer at the firing line. A score of 16 shots 
is announced as follows as each shot is marked: 
“Target 22; 1 five, 2 fives, 3 fives, 4 fives, 5 fives, 
6 fives, 7 fives; 1 four, 2 fours, 3 fours, 4 fours, 5 
fours, 6 fours; 1 two, 2 twos; 1 miss.” The scorer 
notes these values on a pad and watches the target 
as he calls the shot. After marking is finished he 



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U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



71 



counts the number of shots marked, and if it is 
more or less than 16 calls “Re-mark No. — If 
16 shots have been marked, he then enters the 
value of each hit and their total value on the 
soldier’s score card. 

(b) In the pit. 

1. The time is regulated in the pit by the officer in 

charge. 

2. When all is ready in the pit the targets are fully 

withdrawn and a red flag is displayed at the center 
target. 

3. When the message is received that the firing line is 

ready, the red flag at the center target is waved 
and withdrawn and the command ready is given 
to the pit details. 

4. Five seconds after the red flag is withdrawn, the 

targets are run up by command or signal, left 
fully exposed for the prescribed period of time, 
and then withdrawn. 

5. The officers in the pit examine each of their targets in 

turn, announce the score, and record it on the pit 
score card. Spotters are then placed in the shot 
holes and the targets run up and marked. The 
noncommissioned officer supervises the marking of 
each shot. The officer exercises general super- 
vision over the marking. 

6. The targets are left up for about 1 minute after 

being marked and are then withdrawn, pasted, 
and made ready for another score. They may be 
left up until ordered pasted by the officer in charge 
of the firing line. 

7. If more than 16 hits are found on any target it will 

not be marked unless all of the hits have the 
same value. The officer in charge of the firing 
line will be notified of the fact by telephone. 

(3) Rapid fire on, target D (rifle) 1,000-inch range. — (a) 
When the 1,000-inch range has a target pit, proceed as fol- 
lows: Rapid fire from standing position to prone, sitting, and 
kneeling will be conducted in the same manner as prescribed 



115 




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U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



lor target D, except that the miniature targets will be re- 
moved and replaced with new targets after marking. 

(b) When the 1,000-inch range has no target pit, the fol- 
lowing will govern: 

1. If the targets are covered by a curtain which can be 

opened to expose the face of the target and closed 
again to conceal it, or if the targets operate on a 
pivot, the rapid fire will be conducted as closely 
as practicable in conformity with the method in 
(a) above. 

2. If the targets are exposed all the time, rapid fire 

from standing to prone, kneeling, and sitting will 
be conducted by the officer in charge, who com- 
mands: 1. LIE DOWN (KNEEL OR SIT DOWN), 2. 

COMMENCE FIRING, 3. CEASE FIRING. Time 
is taken from the first command. 

3. After the command unload, and when all unfired 

cartridges are removed from the rifle and the 
bolts are open, the officer in charge will direct 
the target detail to mark, remove, and replace 
the targets. 

g. Use of telephones. — (1) Telephones will be used for 
official communications only. 

(2) No one will ask over the telephone for information as 
to the name or organization of any person firing on any 
particular target, and no information of this nature will 
be transmitted. 

(3) The following expressions will be used over the tele- 
phone in the cases enumerated: 

(a) When a shot has been fired and the target has not 
been withdrawn from the firing position, “Mark No. — .” 

(b) When a shot has been fired and the target with- 
drawn from the firing position but not marked, “Disk 
No. — 

(c) When the target has been withdrawn from the firing 
position and marked, but the value of the shot has not been 
understood, “Redisk No. — .” 

(d) When the firing line Is ready for rapid fire, “Ready 
on the firing line.” 



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U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



71-72 



(e) When a shot is marked on a target and the person 
assigned thereto has not fired, “Disregard the last shot on 
No. — 

■ 72. Rules Governing Record Practice. — a. Miscellane- 
ous. — (1) Identity of flrer to be unknown to personnel in 
pit. — Officers and men in the pit should not know who is 
firing on any particular target, and will not attempt to ob- 
tain this information; likewise, other officers and men will 
not transmit such information to personnel in the pit. 

(2) Coaching prohibited. — Coaching of any nature, after 
the firer takes his place on the firing point, is prohibited. 
No person will render or attempt to render the firer any 
assistance whatever while he is taking his position or after 
he has taken his position at the firing point. Each firer 
must observe the location of his own hits as indicated by 
the marking disk or spotters. 

(3) Use of instruments. — (a) The use of field glasses, 
telescopes, and sight-setting instruments is authorized and 
encouraged. 

(i>) The use of instruments or devices for determining the 
force and direction of the wind is prohibited during record 
practice. 

(4) Shelter for firer. — Sheds or shelter for the firer will 
not be permitted on any range. 

(5) Restrictions as to rifle. — Troops will use the rifle with 
which they are armed. The rifle will be used as issued by 
the Ordnance Department. The use of additional appli- 
ances such as temporary shades for the sights, spirit levels, 
and orthoptic eyepieces is prohibited. The sights may be 
blackened. Small arms and appliances issued by the Ord- 
nance Department for test and report will not be used for 
determining classification. 

(6) Trigger pull. — The trigger pull will be at least 3 
pounds and before record firing will be tested (with the 
barrel vertical) by an officer. 

(7) Ammunition. — The amunition used will be the service 
cartridge as issued by the Ordnance Department unless the 
use of other ammunition is authorized. 

(8) Cleaning. — Cleaning will be permitted only between 
scores. 



117 




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U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



(9) Use of gun sling. — The gun sling will be used in con- 
nection with one arm only. For the purpose of adjustment 
for shooting, neither end will be removed from either sling 
swivel. No knot will be tied in the sling and the sling itself 
will neither be added to nor modified in any manner. The 
sling may be adjusted (secured) to the arm prior to the 
start of the exercise. 

(10) Pads and gloves. — (a) Pads of moderate size and 
thickness may be worn on either shoulder, on both elbows, 
and on either upper arm. Pads of such size, thickness, or 
construction as to form artificial support for the rifle are 
prohibited. Shoulder pads so designed by means of exces- 
sive size or thickness, quilting, rolls, ridges, or other devices 
as to aid materially in retaining the rifle butt in the firing 
position against the shoulder are prohibited. The use of a 
hook, small roll, or ridge on the sleeve of the shooting coat 
or shirt to keep the sling in place on the arm is prohibited. 

(b) A glove may be worn on either hand, provided it is 
not used to form an artificial support for the rifle. 

(11) Loading pieces. — Pieces will not be loaded except by 
command or until position for firing has been taken. 

(12) Warming err fouling shots. — No warming or fouling 
shots will be allowed. 

(13) Action in case of disabled rifle. — Should a breakage 
occur, the rifle will be repaired or a different rifle substituted. 
If a different rifle is substituted the firer will be allowed to 
zero the substituted rifle and then refire the exercise. 

(14) Shots cutting the edge of bull’s-eye or line. — Any shot 
cutting the edge of the figure or bull’s-eye will be signaled 
and recorded as a hit in the figure or the bull’s-eye. Because 
the limiting line of such division of the target is the outer edge 
of the line separating it from the exterior division, a shot 
touching this line will be signaled and recorded as a hit in 
the higher division. 

(15) Slow- fire score interrupted. — If a slow-fire score is 
interrupted through no fault of the person firing, the unfired 
shots necessary to complete the score will be fired at the first 
opportunity thereafter. (See also (13) above.) 

(16) Misses. — In all firing, before any miss is signaled, the 
target will be withdrawn from the firing position and care- 

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U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, MI 



72 



fully examined by an officer, if an officer is on duty in the pit. 
Whenever the target is run up and a miss is signaled, it will 
be presumed that this examination has been thoroughly made. 
No challenge of the value signaled will be entertained or 
resignaling of the shot allowed. 

(17) Accidental discharge. — All shots fired by the soldier 
after he has taken his place at the firing point (and it is his 
turn to fire, the target being ready) will be considered in his 
score even if his piece was not directed toward the target or 
is accidentally discharged. 

(18) Firing on wrong targets. — Shots fired upon the wrong 
target will be entered as a miss upon the score of the man fir- 
ing, no matter what the value of the hit upon the wrong target 
may be. In rapid fire the soldier at fault is credited with only 
such hits as he may have made on his own target. 

(19) Two shots on same target. — In slow fire, if two shots 
strike a target at the same time or nearly the same time both 
will be signaled; if one of these shots was fired from the 
firing point assigned to that target, the hit having the highest 
of the two values signaled will be entered on the soldier’s score 
and no record made of the other hit. 

(20) Withdrawing target prematurely.— In slow fire, if the 
target is withdrawn from the firing position just as the shot 
is fired, the scorer at that firing point will at once report the 
fact to the officer in charge of the scoring on that target. 
That officer will investigate to see if the case is as represented. 
Being satisfied that such is the case, he will direct that the 
shot be not considered and that the man fire another shot. 

(21) Stoppages in rapid fire. — (a) In the event of a stop- 
page during rapid fire, the officer in charge of firing or one of 
his assistants will investigate the cause and will render all 
decisions on stoppages. 

(b) If the stoppage is manifestly due to failure on the 
part of the firer, he will not be allowed to complete the exer- 
cise. In such case only that part of the exercise which was 
fired will be scored. 

(c) When a stoppage occurs which was not the fault of 
the firer, time and ammunition permitting, the complete 
score will be refired. If sufficient time and ammunition are 
not available, the incompleted record target may be reex- 



119 




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U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



posed on a time basis of 3 seconds for each shot remaining 
to be fired. Five seconds for reloading a clip will be given. 
In no case will the soldier be given any information with 
reference to the location of his previous hits on the ineom- 
pleted target until the score is completed. 

(d) If during the firing of a rapid-fire score the rifle be- 
comes disabled from causes other than a stoppage through 
no fault of the firer, the target will not be marked and the 
score refired. 

(22) Unfired cartridges in rapid fire. — Each unfired car- 
tridge will be recorded as a miss. In case the number of hits 
marked exceeds the number of rounds fired, the soldier firing 
on that target will be credited with the hits of highest value 
corresponding to the number of rounds fired. 

(23) More than 16 hits in rapid fire. — When a target has 
more than 16 hits in rapid fire, the target will not be 
marked, and the soldier firing on that target will repeat his 
score; except when all the hits on target D or on target D 
(rifle) 1,000-inch range have the same value, the target will 
be marked and he will be given that value for each shot 
fired by him. 

b. For course D 1,000-inch range. — The following special 
provisions apply only to record practice for course D which 
is fired on the 1,000-inch range: 

(1) So much of the foregoing regulations for record prac- 
tice (o above and par. 71) as can be applied will be followed. 
Procedure of firing on the type of 1,000-inch range which is 
equipped with pits and movable targets, as well as for firing 
on the type of 1,000-inch range which is not so equipped, 
will be found in paragraph 71/ (4) . 

(2) When the record practice is fired on 1,000-inch ranges 
not equipped with pits and movable targets the following 
rules will apply: 

(a) Sufficient assistants will be detailed from companies 
other than the ones firing to assist the officer in charge. 
Prom the assistants, officers will be detailed as scorers at the 
rate of one for every four targets. 

(b) The officers detailed as assistants will aid the officer 
in charge in every way possible. They will — 

1. Note deductions for penalties and report same to 
the scorer. 



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U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



72-73 



2. Note the time out for stoppages and inspect to 

determine whether the stoppage was due to any 

fault of the soldier. 

3. Superintend the firing of rounds remaining from 

stoppages not the fault of the firer. 

(c) Assistants detailed as scorers will — 

1. Count the bullet holes in each target and report 

any that have more than the prescribed number. 

2. Score the targets in accordance with the provisions 

of (4) below. 

(3) (a) When a stoppage occurs that cannot be cleared 
by pulling back the operating handle and releasing it, the 
firer will call, “Time.” The officer in charge of firing or an 
assistant will note the time left to complete the exercise. 
The stoppage will be reduced. The firer will load and com- 
plete the firing on command from the officer in charge who 
will allow the remaining time. In cases where the exact 
time remaining was not determined by the officer in charge, 
the firer will be allowed 3 seconds per round for the remaining 
rounds. 

(b) If the stoppage is manifestly the fault of the firer, no 
time will be allowed to complete the exercise and only that 
part of the exercise which was fired will be scored. 

(c) Should a breakage occur, the gun will be repaired or a 
different rifle substituted. If a different rifle is substituted, 
the firer will be allowed to determine the zero of the sub- 
stituted rifle. He will then complete the exercise. 

(4) Target A (rifle) 1,000-inch range and target D (rifle) 
1,000-inch range are scored in accordance with the require- 
ments for record firing for targets A and D. 

Section V 

EQUIPMENT; KNOWN -DISTANCE TARGETS, RANGES, 
AND RANGE PRECAUTIONS 

■ 73. Equipment. — a. Preparatory marksmanship training . — 
(1) General. — The use during preparatory marksmanship 
training of complicated apparatus which cannot be readily 
improvised from materials at hand is prohibited. The simple 
apparatus described below is ample for all purposes. 



121 




73 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



(2) For each four men. 

1 Sighting bar, complete. 

1 rifle rest. 

1 small sighting disk. 

2 small aiming targets (targets A and D (rifle), 
1,000-inch range, are suitable). 

^ 1 10-inch sighting disk. 

1 small box, approximately the size of an ammuni- 
tion box. 

1 frame covered with blank paper for long-range 
shot groups. 

2 sandbags. 

1 pencil. 

32 rounds corrugated type practice dummy cart- 
ridges. 

4 score books (one per man) . 

1 form showing state of training (par. 55/) . 
Material for blackening sights. 

(3) For general use. 

1 rapid-fire target with curtain for each three 
squads. 

1 each A, B, and D targets on frames for scorebook 
exercises. 

Cleaning and preserving materials. 

(4) Preparation. — (a) Sighting bar. 

1. Provide a bar of wood about 1 by 2 inches and 4*/2 

feet long. Cut two thin slots 1 inch deep across 
the edge. Place one slot f>y 2 inches from the 
end and the other 26 inches from the same end 
of the bar (fig. 33 ©). 

2. Make a front sight of thin metal \ 2 by 3 inches 

bent in the shape of an L and tack it to the 
edge of the bar between the two slots and V 2 inch 
from the slot nearest the end (fig. 33 ® (d) 
and ( g ) ) . Have the leg of the L project above 
the bar y 2 to % of an inch (fig. 33 ®). 

3. Make an eyepiece from a piece of tin or zinc 3 by 

7 inches (fig. 33 © (c), (/) , and ( h ) ) . Cut along 
the dotted lines to form a shape shown in figure. 
Tack this eyepiece to the end of the bar farthest 



122 




IT. S. RIFLE, CALIBER ,30, Ml 



73 



from the slots so that the top of the eyepiece 
extends 1 inch above the top of the bar (fig. 
33 ®). Make a round hole 0.03 inch in diameter 
in the middle of the eyepiece Vz inch above the 
bar. 

4. Make a peep rear sight of thin metal or cardboard 

3 by 3 inches and cut a round hole % inch in 
diameter in its center (fig. 33 © (i>) ) . 

5. Cut a piece of thin metal or cardboard 3 by 3 inches, 

painted .white, and have a black bull’s-eye x h inch 
in diameter painted or pasted on the center (fig. 
33 ©(a)). 

6. Place two pieces of tin 1 inch wide and 3 inches 

long in each slot. Fold the loose ends away from 
each other and tack them to the sides of the bar 
(fig. 33 ©). 

7. Blacken the eyepiece, the front sight, the rear sight, 

and the top of the bar. 

(b) Rifle rest. — An empty ammunition box or any other 
well-made box of suitable size, with notches cut in the ends 
to fit the rifle closely, makes a good rifle rest. The rifle is 
placed in these notches with the trigger guard close to and 
outside of one end. The sling is loosened and pulled to one 
side. The box is half filled with earth or sand to make it 
more stationary. 

(c) Sighting disks. — Sighting disks are of three sizes. The 
disk to be used at a distance of 50 feet is about 3 inches in 
diameter. The disk is made of tin or cardboard and mounted 
on a handle as shown in figure 34. The bull’s-eye will be 
mounted on a background of clean white paper. The disks 
to be used at 200 and 500 yards are, respectively, 10 and 20 
inches in diameter. These disks are painted black and 
mounted on white handles which are 4 or 5 feet long. All 
bull’s-eyes will be black and circular and will have a hole in 
the center large enough to admit the point of a pencil. 

b. Range equipment. — (1) At firing point. 

Cleaning racks. 

Scorers’ tables. 

Field glasses (one per target) . 

Score cards. 



123 




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U. S, RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



Target 

j Front Sight painted black 



Roar Sight-Peep orOpen 

/ painted black 




@ Vuboden Bar 
painted PlacK 



Eyepiece 
polled blach 






I ®r1 
r 5{ -r 
p dLx 



© Top VieLU 



-20%*- 



* 



-aa n - 



Side View 



0 




Targe f 

(O) 


Peep^Sight 


Front Sight 
1 


1 1 

Open Sight 


(di 

FoldeaT Shape 

&=» 

&> 


re> 



© Construction 



Eyepiece 

r3H 



(Cl 

Fold on dotted lines 






Hole '/d n from 7 bp Center 



Figure 33. — Construction of sighting bar. 

Wooden bar — 1 by 2 inches by 4 feet 6 inches (approximate). 
Eyepiece — Thin metal, 3 by 7 inches; hole, 0.03-inch diameter. 

Rear sight — Thin metal or cardboard, 3 by 3 inches; hole in center, 
%-inch diameter. 

Front sight — Thin metal, y 2 by 3 inches, bent L shape. 

Target — Thin metal or cardboard, 3 by 3 inches, painted white — 
Black bull’s-eye, %-inch diameter in center. 

Slits — 1 inch deep, may be lined with thin metal strips. 



124 




73-74 



TL S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, MI 



Score board. 

Cleaning and preserving materials. 

Material for blackening sights. 

Score books. 

Indelible pencils. 

Containers for empty cartridge cases. 

Telephones. 

(2) In pit. 

Pit record cards. 

Indelible pencils. 

Telephones. 

Ten 3 -inch spotters per target. 

One 6-inch spotter per target. 

. One red flag per target. 

Marking disks. 

Pasters. 

Paste. 

■ 74. Targets. — The specifications for marksmanship tar- 
gets, together with the value of hits in their divisions, are as 
follows: 

a. Target A, the short-range target, used for 200 and 300 
yards, is a rectangle 6 feet high, 4 feet wide, black circular 
bull’s-eye, 10 inches in diameter, value of hit, 5: center ring, 
26 inches in diameter, value of hit, 4; inner ring, 46 inches 
in diameter, value of hit, 3; outer, remainder of target, value 
of hit, 2. 

b. Target B, the midrange target, used for 500 yards, is a 
square 6 feet on a side, black circular bull’s-eye, 20 inches in 
diameter; center ring, 37 inches in diameter; inner ring, 53 
inches in diameter; outer, remainder of target. Value of 
hits, same as on target A. 

c. Target D, the rapid-fire target, is a square 6 feet on a 
side and has in its middle a black silhouette representing 
a soldier in the prone position. Value of hits in the figure, 
5; in the space immediately outside the figure, 4; in the 
space immediately outside the 4 space, 3; remainder of 
target, 2. 

d. Target A (rifle) 1,000-inch range and target D (rifle) 
1,000-inch range are a reduction of targets A and D, re- 
spectively, from 200 yards to 1,000 inches. Values of the 



126 




U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



74-75 



hits on the reduced targets are the same as for targets 
A and D. 

■ 75. Known-Distance Target Ranges. — a. General . — There 
are two classes of ranges: class A ranges, which are more 
or less limited in extent and are equipped for known-dis- 
tance practice; and class B ranges, which are of extended 
area and diversified terrain and are used for field targets. 
The following subparagraphs refer to class A ranges only. 

b. Rules for selection . — As the nature and extent of the 
ground available for target practice and also the general 
climatic conditions are often widely dissimilar for different 
military posts, it is not possible to prescribe any particular 
rules governing the selection of ranges, but only to express 
certain general conditions to which ranges should be made 
to conform. In view of the range and penetration of the 
bullet of the United States rifle, caliber .30, it will be found 
necessary in the case of many posts to have target practice 
conducted at a distance of several miles from the post, a 
condition which necessitates the establishment of a camp 
on or near the range. The target practice can then be 
conducted without the interference of post duties. 

c. Security necessary . — For posts situated in the thickly 
settled localities where the extent of the military reserva- 
tion is limited, the first condition to be fulfilled is that of 
security for those living or laboring near or passing by the 
range. This requirement can be secured for class A ranges 
by selecting ground where a natural butt is available, or by 
making an artificial butt sufficiently extensive to stop wild 
shots. See paragraph Id, AR 750-10, for information con- 
cerning danger areas. 

d. Direction . — If possible, a range should be so located 
that the firing is toward or slightly to the east of north. 
Such location gives a good light on the face of the targets 
during the greater part of the day. However, security and 
suitable ground are more important than direction. 

e. Ground. — Smooth, level ground or ground with only a 
very moderate slope is best adapted for a range. The tar- 
gets should be on the same level with the firer or only 
slightly above him. Firing downhill should be avoided. 



127 




75 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



/. Size . — The size of the range is determined by its plan 
and by the number of troops that will fire over it at a 
time. There are two general plans used in range construc- 
tion: one with a single target pit and firing points for each 
range; the other with firing points on one continuous line, 
the target pits for the various ranges being in echelon. The 
latter type requires more ground and is less suitable for 
training troops. 

g. 1,000-inch range . — There are two classes of 1,000-inch 
ranges, those requiring a danger area behind the backstop 
and those which do not. Where possible, open 1,000-inch 
ranges requiring no danger area behind backstop for use 
in cities should be so sited that sparsely settled territory is 
behind the backstop and so located that the range will 
not be a noise nuisance; 1,000-inch ranges requiring a dan- 
ger area behind backstop must meet the same security 
requirements as class A ranges. 

h. Principles governing construction. — (1) Intervals be- 
tween targets . — To reduce to a minimum the amount of labor 
required in preparing the range, the targets should be no 
farther apart than is necessary to obviate the probability 
of a shot being fired on the wrong target. As a general 
rule, the intervals between targets are equal to the width 
of the targets themselves; that is, at short and midrange, 
6 feet; at long range, 12 feet. Where the necessity exists 
for as many targets as possible in a limited space, this in- 
terval may be reduced one-half without materially affecting 
the value of the instruction. 

(2) Protection for markers. — (a) On all ranges, protection 
must be provided for the pit details. This is done by exca- 
vating a pit for the targets or by constructing a parapet in 
front of them, or by a combination of these methods. 

(b) Where there are several targets in a row, the shelter 
should be continuous. It must be high enough to protect 
the markers. The parapet may be of earth, with a timber 
or concrete revetment, of sufficient thickness to stop bullets, 
and from IV 2 to 8 feet high above the ground or platform 
on which the markers stand. 

(3) Artificial butts . — If an artificial butt is constructed 
as a bullet stop, it should be of earth not less than 30 feet 



128 




U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



75 



high and with a slope of not less than 45°. It should be 
extended about 5 yards beyond the outside targets and 
should be placed as close behind the targets as possible. The 
slopes should be sodded. 

(4) Hills as butts . — A natural hill to form an effective 
butt should have a slope of not less than 45°; if originally 
more gradual, it should be cut into steps, the face of each 
step having that slope. As a temporary expedient, the face 
of the hill may be plowed perpendicularly to the range, but 
as the bullets soon cut down the furrows this measure must 
be frequently repeated to prevent the danger of ricochet. 

(5) Numbering of targets. — Each target should be desig- 
nated by a number. The numbers for ranges up to 600 yards 
should be at least 6 feet in height and should be painted black 
on a white background. Arabic numerals of the size suggested 
will always be quickly recognized. They should be placed on 
the butt behind each target or on the parapet in front, and 
not so far above or below as to prevent the firer seeing the 
number when aiming at the target. 

(6) Measuring the range. — The range should be carefully 
measured and marked with stakes at the firing points in front 
of each target. These stakes should be about 12 inches above 
the ground and painted white. They should have in black 
figures the number of the corresponding target and its dis- 
tance. Particular care should be taken that each stake thus 
placed is parallel to the face of its own target. 

(7) Ranges parallel. — The different ranges for the same 
distance should all be parallel so that similar conditions with 
respect to wind and light may exist. It is not essential, how- 
ever, that the ranges employed for long-distance shooting 
should be parallel to those used for the ordinary company 
practice. 

(8) Firing mounds. — If it becomes necessary to raise a 
firing point on account of low ground, a low mound of earth 
no higher than absolutely required should be made. The 
mound should be level, sodded, and not less than 12 feet 
square. If the entire firing line is raised, the firing mound 
should be level, sodded, and not less than 12 feet wide on top. 

(9) Pit shed. — A small house or shed should be built in or 
near the target pit, in which the marking disks, signal flags, 



129 




75 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



and spare parts of the target frames for making immediate 
repairs should be stored. It should be sufficiently large to 
afford a shelter for the markers in case of a sudden storm. 

(10) Danger signals. — A socket for the staff of the danger 
signals should be placed on the markers’ shelter in front of 
each target, so inclined that the flag will always fall clear of 
the staff and be readily seen. This flag will always be dis- 
played when the target is in place and not in use. In addi- 
tion to the danger signals at the targets, a scarlet streamer 
will be displayed from a prominent point on all ranges and 
at all times during firing, to warn passers-by when firing is in 
progress. These signals will not be placed in such a position 
as to serve as streamers for judging wind on the range. 
They should be placed on the roads or on the crest of the 
hill where they can plainly be seen by those passing. 

(11) Range house. — On large ranges where competitive 
firing is held, a house containing a storeroom and several 
office rooms should be erected in some central place off the 
range but in its immediate vicinity. Such facilities as will 
enable visitors to witness the firing satisfactorily should also 
be provided. 

(12) Telephone service. — Ranges should be equipped with a 
telephone system connecting the target pit with each firing 
point, the range house, and the post. The number of tele- 
phones should not be less than one to each ten targets. 

(13) Electric bells . — On large ranges the installation for 
each five targets of an electric bell that can be controlled 
from a central point in the pit adds materially to the celerity 
and uniformity of target manipulation for rapid fire. 

(14) Covered ways between pits. — Where the pits are in 
echelon, covered ways or tunnels should be provided between 
the various pits. This construction will allow the pit details 
to be shifted with safety without interrupting the firing. 

(15) 1,000-inch range. — An open 1,000-inch range requir- 
ing no danger area behind backstop must meet the follow- 
ing minimum requirements: 

(a) Vertical bulletproof backstop and wing walls (natural 
or artificial) not less than 30 feet high. Wing walls must 
cover at least 15° on each flank. In case of artificial wing 



130 




U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



75-79 



walls, they should be set at an angle of 15° with the backstop 
toward the firing points. 

(b) Ricochet pit in front of firing points providing at least 
a 4° slope downward from the normal line of fire from a 
prone position and extending to within 30 feet of the back- 
stop and wing walls. If a vertical cliff or wall over 40 feet 
high is available, no ricochet pit need be provided. 

■ 76. Range Precautions.— S ee AR 750-10. 

Section VI 

SMALL-BORE PRACTICE 

■ 77. Object. — The object of small-bore practice is to pro- 
vide a form of marksmanship training with the caliber .22 
rifle and ammunition which represents the application of the 
principles taught in the preparatory exercises. Small-bore 
practice provides an excellent means of improving the shoot- 
ing of organizations and sustaining interest in marksman- 
ship throughout the year. The firing of this course enables 
the company commander to visualize the state of training of 
his command and to concentrate his efforts on the training 
of those who are most deficient. 

■ 78. value. — The chief value of small-bore practice lies in 
the fact that it is convenient, interest sustaining, and eco- 
nomical. It does not have the full value of caliber .30 prac- 
tice because of the absence of recoil, but on account of its 
convenience and saving in the cost of ammunition organiza- 
tion commanders will find that small-bore practice is a 
valuable step in marksmanship training. 

■ 79. Continuous Small-Bore Practice. — Small-bore prac- 
tice may be carried on throughout the year, subject to such 
limitations as may be imposed by the allowance of ammuni- 
tion. All persons who have never been properly instructed in 
shooting methods prescribed herein will be given a thorough 
course of preparatory instruction before being permitted to 
fire on the small-bore range. Adi small-bore practice will be 
properly organized and supervised in accordance with the 
methods of instruction as prescribed in this manual. 



131 




.80 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, MI 



■ 80. Courses. — a. When ammunition allowances, time, and 
available facilities permit, organizations may fire one of the 
small-bore courses outlined below: 

(1) Course E. — (a) Instruction practice. 

1. Short range. 



Table I. — Slow lire (to zero rifle) 



Range 

(feet) 


Time 


Shots 


Targets 


Position 


Sling 


50 


No limit - - 


5 


SB-A-2 


Prone or prone with sand- 


Loop. 










bag. 




50 




5 


SB-A-2 




Do. 


50 




5 


SB-A-2 




Do. 


50 


...do 


5 


1 SB-A-2 


Standing 


Hasty. 



Table II. — Slow fire 



Range 

(feet) 


Time 


Shots 


Targets 


Position 


Sling 


50 




10 


SB-A-2 




Hasty. 

Loop. 

Do. 


50 




10 


SB- A-3 




50 




10 


SB-B-5 











Table III . — Rapid fire 



Range i 
(feet) : 


Time 

(seconds) 


Shots 


Targets 


Position 


Sling 


50 ' 


60 


10 ' 


SB-D-2.... 




Loop. 

Do. 


50 : 


70 


10 | 


SB-D-3 











Note. — W hen desired, tables I, II, and III may be tired at 1,000 
inches by substituting target A, 1,000-inch, for targets SB-A-2 
and A-3; and target B, 1,000-inch, for target SB-B-5; and target 
D, 1,000-inch, for targets SB-D-2 and D-3. 



132 





U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



80 



2. Intermediate range. 



Table IV. — Slow fire 



Range 

(yards) 


Time 


Shots 


Targets 


Position 


Sling 














50 

50 

50 


No limit. _ 
do 


10 

10 

10 


! SB-50 yards, A 
target. 

do 

SB-50 yards, D 
target. 


Prone 

5 kneeling; 5 sitting 


Loop. 

Do. 

Do. 






Table V. — Rapid fire 


Range 

(yards) 

50 

50 

50 


Time 

(seconds) 


Shots 


Targets 


Position i 

i 


Sling 


65, 

70. . 


10 

10 

10 


SB-50 yards, D 
target. 


Standing to prone 


Loop. 

Do. 

Do. 


70 


do 


Standing to kneeling 



Note. — The firing Included in tables IV and V is optional. If 
no 50-yard range is available, tables IV and V will be fired at 100 
yards on the SB-100 yards D target. This note applies only to the 
E course. 

3. Long range. 



Table VI. — Slow fire 



Range 

(yards) 


Time 


Shots 


Targets 


Position 


Sling 


100 i 


No limit __ 


10 


SB-100 yards, A 


Prone 


Loop. 








target. 






100 




10 


do 




Do. 


100 




10 






Do. 








target. 







133 




80 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



Table VII. — Rapid fire 



Range ; 
(yards) 


Time 

(seconds) 


Shots 


Targets 


Position 


Sling 


100 


80__ 


10 


Sb-100 yards, D 


Standing to prone 


Loop. 


100 


80. 


10 






Do. 









(b) Record practice. 

Table VIII . — Slow fire 



Range 

(yards) 


Time 


Shots 


Targets 


Position 


Sling 


100 


No limit.. 


10 


l 

SB-100 yards, 
A target. 


Prone 


Loop. 


100 


do 


10 


SB-200 yards, 
A target. 


5 sitting, 5 kneeling 


Do. 



Table IX.— Rapid fire 



Range 

(yards) 


Time 
(seconds) ; 


Shots 


Targets 


Position 


Sling 


100 


80- 


10 


SB-100 yards, 
D target. 




Loop. 

Do. 


100 


80_ 


10 











(2) Course F. — (a) Instruction practice — short range . — 
Fire tables I, II, and III of course E. 

Table X. — Rapid fire 



Range 

(feet) 


Time 

(seconds) 


Shots 


Targets 


Position 












50 

50 


65 


10 

10 


SB-D-3 




70 













134 





TJ. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, MI 



80 



(b) Record practice. 

Table XI . — Slow fire 



Bange 

(feet) 


Time 


Shots 


Targets 


Position 


Sling 














50 
50 1 


No limit— 


10 

10 


SB-A-3 




Loop. 

Do. 


SB-B-5 











Table XII . — Rapid fire 



Bange 

(feet) 


Time 

(seconds) 


Shots 


Targets 


Position 


Sling 


50 
50 i 


65 


10 

10 


SB-D-3 




Loop. 

Do. 


70 













b. Qualification scores for these courses, which are indic- 
ative of the proficiency attained, are as follows: 



Course 


Possible 

score 


Expert 


Sharp- 

shooter 


Marks- 

man 


Unqualified 


E 


200 


180 


160 


130 




F 


200 


180 


160 


130 


Less than 130. 





135 




CHAPTER 3 



MARKSMANSHIP; MOVING GROUND TARGETS 

Paragraphs 

Section I. General 81-82 

IX. Moving vehicles 83-85 

III. Moving personnel 86-87 

IV. Moving targets and ranges, and range precau- 
tions 88-89 

Section I 
GENERAL 

■ 81. Employment. — Rifle units will be trained to fire at 
moving targets such as tanks, armored vehicles, trucks, and 
personnel at appropriate ranges. Rifle Are may be employed 
to repulse or harass unarmored vehicles and motorized 
troops. To this end rifle units must be trained in the 
technique of such Are. 

■ 82. Fundamentals. — The fundamentals of shooting as pre- 
sented in this chapter apply to firing at moving targets. In 
applying these fundamentals the firer must adjust his aim and 
trigger squeeze to conform to the movement of the target. 

a. Effective range . — While under ideal conditions moving 
targets may be engaged at ranges above 600 yards, effective 
results beyond that range are considered to be exceptional. 
For this reason training in the technique of fire is normally 
limited to ranges of 600 yards or less. 

b. Sights to be used . — Moving targets are seldom exposed 
for long periods and can be expected to move at maximum 
speed during periods of exposure. Accurate correction of 
sight setting is often impracticable, therefore instruction in 
technique should favor the use of the battle sight setting of 
300 yards. Corrections for range are made by adjustment of 
the aiming point on the target. 

c. Leads. — Targets which cross the line of sight at any 
angle are classified as crossing targets. In firing at such 
targets the firer must aim ahead of the target so that the 
paths of the target and bullet will meet. The distance ahead 



136 





U. S. RIFLE. CALIBER .30, MJ 



82-84 



of the target is called the “lead.” Targets which approach di- 
rectly towards the firer or recede directly from the firer will 
for all practical purposes require no lead. 

Section II 

MOVING VEHICLES 

■ 83. Determination and Application of Leads. — a. The 
lead necessary to hit a moving vehicle is dependent upon 
the speed of the target, the range to the target, and the di- 
rection of movement with respect to the line of sight. Moving 
at 10 miles an hour, a vehicle moves approximately its own 
length of 5 yards in 1 second. A rifle bullet moves 400 yards 
in about V 2 second and 600 yards in about 1 second. There- 
fore to hit a vehicle moving at 10 miles an hour at ranges 
of 400 yards and 600 yards, the leads should be 2V 2 yards and 
5 yards, respectively. At a speed of 20 miles an hour the 
leads should be 5 yards and 10 yards, respectively. 

b. Leads are applied by using the length of the target as 
it appears to the firer as the unit of measure. This elimi- 
nates the necessity for corrections due to the angle at which 
the target crosses the line of sight, because the more acute 
the angle the smaller the target appears and the less lateral 
speed it attains. 

c. The following lead table is furnished as a guide: 



TARGET LENGTHS 



Miles per 


400 yards 


400-600 


hour 


or less 


yards 


10 


H 


1 


20 


1 


2 



■ 84. Technique of Fire. — The following technique is sug- 
gested for firing at rapidly moving targets, using battle sight 
setting of 300 yards. 

a. Approaching or receding targets . — The firer holds his 
aim on the center of such target and squeezes off his shot. 

b. Crossing targets.— (1) At ranges less than 500 yards, 
the firer alines his sights on the bottom of the target at 



137 





84-86 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



its rearmost point and swings straight across it to the esti- 
mated lead. The rifle is kept swinging and the shot squeezed 
off as the proper lead is reached. 

(2) At ranges of 500 yards or more, the firer proceeds 
as in (1) above except that he swings his point of aim across 
the top of the target. 

c. Fire is executed as rapidly as proper aiming will permit. 

■ 85. Place in Training. — The technique of firing at moving 
vehicles with service ammunition properly follows individual 
training in known-distance firing. When time and ammu- 
nition allowances permit, 1,000-inch and caliber .22 firing 
may be added as preliminary instruction. 

SECTION III 

MOVING PERSONNEL 

■ 86. Technique. — a. Sight to be used . — Under field condi- 
tions, moving personnel presents a fleeting target and one 
more difficult to hit than a moving vehicle. This fact makes 
the use of an accurate sight setting desirable for greater 
accuracy. However, the use of battle sight setting of 300 
yards may be necessary when targets appear suddenly, al- 
lowing no time for sight adjustment. It is therefore desir- 
able that the individual rifleman be trained in the employ- 
ment of both sights in this type of firing. 

b. Method of aiming . — An elaborate system of calculating 
leads is neither necessary nor desirable. The following 
general rule forms the basis for estimating the proper leads. 
When firing at a man walking across or at right angles to 
the line of fire, the points of aiming at the various ranges 
are as follows: 

(1) At 100 yards, aim at forward half of body. 

(2) At 200 yards, aim at forward edge of body. 

(3) At 300 yards, lead him one-half the width of his 
body. 

(4) At 400 yards, lead him the width of his body. 
Proficiency in this type of firing depends largely upon the 
amount of time devoted to it by the individual in the prac- 
tice of aiming, squeezing the trigger, and leading with 
appropriate speed. 



138 




U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, MI 



87-88 



■ 87. Place in Training. — As in the case of practice in firing 
at moving vehicles, instruction in this type of firing should 
follow instruction in known-distance firing and should im- 
mediately precede the training of the squad in technique of 
fire when practicable. 

Section I V 

MOVING TARGETS AND RANGES AND RANGE 
PRECAUTIONS 

■ 88. Moving Targets and Ranges. — a. Firing at moving 
vehicles. — (1) Target . — A sled of the type shown in figure 
35 has proved to be the most satisfactory kind of target. 
It has the advantage of a low center of gravity which pre- 
vents upsetting on rough ground and in making changes of 
direction. The sled shown in the figure is 5 ] / 2 by 3V 2 by 4’/ 2 
feet high and weighs only 45 pounds. Figure 36 shows a 
similar sled covered with target cloth. 

(2) Towing . — For towing the target a Mi-inch rope has 
been found satisfactory, the power being furnished by a iy 2 - 
ton truck. The pulley shown in figure 36 is simply a chan- 
nel wheel bolted to a short length of 2 -inch board. This 
board is staked to the ground at a point where a change of 
direction of the target is desired. The knot shown in the 
figure should be 10 or 12 feet from the sled, depending on 
the speed at which the target is to be run. At faster speeds 
the knot must be at a greater distance from the sled to 
prevent the increased momentum of the sled from over- 
running the pulley. 

(3) Set-up. — With 500 yards of rope, a set-up as shown 
in figure 37 can be made. This set-up is only one of many 
possible to make with 500 yards of rope. Accidents incident 
to wrong laying may be prevented by keeping just in rear 
of the gun a safety officer whose duty is to see that the 
barrel is kept pointed in a direction not too near the truck. 
The essential elements in training a gun squad to fire at 
moving targets are much practice for the observer in esti- 
mating angular speeds and for the gunner in laying on a 
target in motion, and for everybody, speed. 

b. Firing at moving personnel . — Any class A range is 
suitable for this purpose. E targets on sticks carried by men 
walking in the pits are sufficient. 



139 




U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



89 



■ 89. Range Precautions. — For general range precautions 
Including danger areas, see AR 750-10. In addition to the 
individual safety precautions prescribed in chapter 2, the 
following precautions will be observed: 

a. Firing at moving targets will not be permitted on any 
range until the safety angles have been carefully checked 




'• Gun 

Figure 37. — Set-up for towing a target. 

and markers have been placed so as to define clearly the 
right and left limits of fire. 

b. Personnel of trucks towing moving targets will operate 
at such distance from the line of fire as to be protected 
not only from direct hits but from ricochets. 

c. Trucks replacing targets on the course or personnel 
effecting repairs will be equipped with red flags. 



240321° — 40 



■10 



141 




CHAPTER 4 



MARKSMANSHIP; AIR TARGETS 

Paragraphs 



Section I. Nature of air targets for rifle 90- 91 

II. Technique of fire 92- 96 

III. Marksmanship training 97-101 

IV. Miniature range practice 102-105 

V. Towed-target firing 106-110 

VI. Ranges, targets, and equipment 111-116 



Section I 

NATURE OP AIR TARGETS FOR RIFLE 

II 90. Air Targets Suitable For Rifle Fire. — Combat arms 
take the necessary measures for their own immediate pro- 
tection against low-flying hostile aircraft. Therefore all 
troops must be fully trained and imbued with the determina- 
tion to protect themselves against hostile aerial attacks with- 
out reliance upon other arms. All low-flying hostile air- 
planes are suitable targets for rifle fire. These targets con- 
sist of aircraft on. reconnoitering missions, maneuvering to 
take photographs, spotting for artillery, diving or hedge- 
hopping to attack ground troops and installations. 

■ 91. Classification of Air Targets. — From the point of 
view of the rifleman, air targets may be classified as — 

a. Overhead — those which pass over or nearly over the 
rifleman; or nonoverhead — those which do not pass over or 
nearly over the rifleman. Either of these types may be flying 
at a constant altitude or may be decreasing or gaining in 
altitude. 

b. Direct diving — those which dive directly toward a rifle- 
man; or direct climbing — those which climb directly away 
from a rifleman. 

Section II 

TECHNIQUE OF FIRE 

■ 92. General. — Airplanes which are suitable targets for rifle 
fire present very fleeting targets. They must be engaged 



142 




U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 92-94 

promptly by all available weapons. Riflemen must be taught 
a simple method of firing on hostile low-flying airplanes. 
This section on the technique of fire deals entirely with actual 
fire on hostile planes. Details of antiaircraft marksmanship 
training are contained in sections in, IV, and V. 

■ 93. Leads. — a. General. — In order to hit a target, such as 
an airplane in flight, it is necessary to aim an appropriate 
distance ahead of it and on its projected path of flight so 
that the target and the bullet will meet. This distance ahead 
of the airplane is called “lead.” A lead must be applied in 
all firing except when the target is at extremely close range 
(100 feet), when it is diving directly at the firer, or flying 
directly from him. 

b. Determination of leads. — (1) The lead necessary to en- 
gage any target depends upon — 

(a) The speed of the target. 

(b) The range of the target. 

(c) The time of flight of the bullet. 

( d ) The direction of flight of the target with respect to 
the line of fire. 

(2) When a target appears, it is impossible for riflemen or 
leaders of rifle units to consider all of the factors contained 
in (1) above and compute accurately the lead required for 
firing. Therefore leads are computed and placed in lead 
tables for use of leaders in training their units. (See par. 
183 c.) 

c. Application of leads. — Although leads are originally 
computed in feet or yards, they are given in lead tables as 
target lengths. It is very difficult for a rifleman to estimate 
with any degree of accuracy, a lead such as 40 or 50 yards 
at ranges from 600 to 100 yards. Therefore, the length of 
the target as it appears to the firer is used as the unit of 
measure for applying leads. The rifleman is trained to apply 
the length of the target, as it appears to him, along the pro- 
jected path of the target to determine the aiming point for 
each shot. The number of times he applies this unit of 
measure will be announced in a fire order or as explained 
in paragraph 95. 

■ 94. Target Designation. — a. Aerial target designation may 
be given as routine training in training areas long before the 



143 




94-95 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



area of probable hostile air attack is reached. Aerial targets 
for a single unit will be clearly visible and few in number. 

b. Attacking aviation will usually fly in a V-shaped forma- 
tion of three airplanes each or will operate individually. 
When all the Are of a rifle unit is directed at one airplane 
of a V-shaped formation, the normal dispersion will result 
in effective interdiction of the remaining airplanes of the 
formation. Therefore the normal method of target designa- 
tion is to assign each of the three airplanes to an element 
of the rifle platoon during the training period. For example, 
the first squad is assigned the leading airplane; the second 
squad the right airplane; and the third squad the left air- 
plane. In case less than three planes attack, the units not 
having a target assigned Are on the leading airplane. The 
assignment is not changed except under unusual cir- 
cumstances. 

c. The normal assignment of a target extends from its 
initial appearance until it passes beyond range. The unit 
leader seeing a succession of groups of hostile airplanes will 
cause his unit to cease fire at one group in time to bring 
fire on the following groups as they approach within 
effective range. 

■ 95. Fire Distribution. — a. The fire of rifle units must be 
distributed along the path of flight of the target as long as 
the target is within effective range. This is done as follows: 

(1) For all targets except direct diving or direct climbing, 
aim and fire each shot with four target-length leads. 

(2) For all direct diving or direct climbing targets, aim 
and fire each shot at the target. 

b. This method of fire distribution is based upon the fact 
that as the target is approaching or receding the range and 
the leads are constantly changing. The lead used is the 
average of all leads necessary to engage a target between 
the extreme effective range of 600 yards and a minimum 
range of 0 yards. 

c. The target considered in determining the lead of four 
target lengths is a 30-foot airplane. In using this method for 
towed-target firing, the lead will have to be changed in 
accordance with the length of the sleeve target. (See par. 
183 c.) 



144 




U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



95-96 



d. It is impracticable for men to estimate airplane speeds 
with any degree of accuracy; therefore the speed of present 
day attack ships which is approximately 200 miles per hour 
is used. For speeds considerably greater or less than 200 miles 
per hour the lead should be changed proportionately. The 
speed of the target may be slightly more or less than 200 
miles an hour; however, the lead is computed on approximate 
data, and the lead estimates of all riflemen are approxima- 
tions at best. Experience has shown that this method of 
distribution gives results equal to or better than more accurate 
and more complicated methods. 

e. Other methods of Are distribution may be used by unit 
commanders in training their units. Examples are given in 
section IV, chapter 6. 

■ 96. Delivery of Fire. — a. Range . — (1) The maximum 
effective range of rifle fire at air targets is approximately 600 
yards. However, riflemen should take the firing position as 
soon as possible after receiving the warning of the approach 
of hostile airplanes and track the target until it comes within 
range. 

(2) Training in estimating ranges of air targets is con- 
ducted by having individuals observe airplanes flying at 
known ranges. The individual bases his estimate on the 
appearance of the airplane at key ranges. The following data 
showing ranges and parts of airplane visible at those ranges 
are based on an 0-46 airplane: 

Range (yards) 



General outline 1,000 

Wheels, rudder, wing struts, tail skid 700 

Antenna and small projections from fuselage — 500 

Symbols, numbers, and letters 200 

b. Rate of fire . — The rate of fire at aerial targets is about 



the same as the rapid-fire rate at ground targets. Every- 
thing must be done to increase the rate of fire without 
affecting its accuracy. Repeated tests have proved that rifle 
fire delivered faster than is consistent with proper aim and 
trigger squeeze results in waste of ammunition. Each shot 
must be aimed and squeezed. A well-trained rifleman can 
fire one shot in about 2 seconds. A faster rate is possible if 



145 




96-97 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



the rifleman does not aim and squeeze the trigger. This 
should not be permitted. 

e. Sight used. — No attempt should be made to use the peep 
sight. Fire by sighting over the top of the rear sight and 
front sight. It is impossible to use the peep sight and see the 
target while aiming at the estimated lead. 

d. Accuracy of fire. — Firing in time of peace indicates 
that the antiaircraft fire of trained riflemen is effective and 
should cause substantial losses to hostile air units. 

e. Effect of caliber .30 fire on the airplane. — (1) There 
are various degrees of possible damage to an airplane from 
rifle fire. Hits upon the cylinder walls and other important 
working parts are likely to stop an engine immediately. A 
hit through the metal propeller is also serious since it throws 
the engine out of balance. Unless the bombs carried by the 
airplane are bulletproof, hits by armor-piercing small-arms 
bullets will detonate them. Of course the pilot is especially 
vulnerable. 

(2) There are also many lesser ways in which fire can 
damage an airplane. Holes through the crankcase may 
cause the oil to drain out and the engine to “freeze” before 
the airplane returns to friendly territory. Hits of any kind, 
in fact, require varying degrees of repair, if they do not 
cause the destruction of the airplane. 

’ Section III 

MARKSMANSHIP TRAINING 

■ 97. Instruction. — a. Object. — The object of antiaircraft 
marksmanship instruction is to train the rifleman in the 
technique of firing at rapidly moving aerial targets. 

b. Basis. — (1) Prior to instruction in antiaircraft marks- 
manship, the soldier should have completed a course of 
training in rifle marksmanship and thereby acquired the 
fundamentals of good shooting. To become a good antiair- 
craft marksman, he must be able to apply the fundamentals 
of target practice to firing at rapidly moving targets and to 
perform the following operations with accuracy and pre- 
cision : 

(a) Apply the length of the target as a unit of measure 
in measuring the required lead. 



146 




U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



97-98 



(b) Aline the sights of the rifle on the required lead rapidly. 

(c) Swing the rifle with a smooth, uniform motion so 
as to maintain the aim on the required lead while getting off 
the shot. 

(d) Properly apply the trigger squeeze so as to fire in a 
minimum of time and without disturbing the aim. 

(2) The correct performance of the foregoing operations 
combined into one continuous, smooth motion when firing 
in any direction at rapidly moving aerial targets is the basis 
for the course of training outlined herein. 

c. Sequence of training. — Antiaircraft rifle marksmanship 
is divided into preparatory exercises, miniature range prac- 
tice, and towed-target firing. 

d. Personnel to receive training. — All personnel of units 
whose primary weapon is the rifle should receive antiaircraft 
marksmanship training consistent with the time available and 
ammunition allowances. 

■ 98. Preparatory Exercises. — a. General . — (1) Descrip- 
tion . — The preparatory exercises are designed to teach the 
soldier the correct method of doing each of the fundamentals 
of antiaircraft rifle marksmanship and to drill him therein 
until the correct procedure becomes a fixed habit. In addi- 
tion to a brief explanation of the technique of antiaircraft 
rifle fire, the preparatory exercises consist of the following 
three distinct steps which should be completed on each of 
the targets described hereafter prior to firing on those 
targets: 

(a) Position exercise. 

(b) Aiming and leading exercise. 

(c) Trigger-squeeze exercise. 

(2) Methods. — A conference by the instructor should pre- 
cede each exercise. This conference should include an ex- 
planation of the necessity of the exercise and demonstra- 
tions by the instructor and a qualified squad. In order to 
awaken interest and to stimulate the soldier’s enthusiasm, 
the preliminary instruction should be individual and thor- 
ough. Each man should understand and be able to explain 
each point. 

(3) Coaching. — During all preparatory exercises and minia- 
ture range firing when a man is in a firing position he should 



147 




98 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



have a coach whose duty it is to watch him and to point out 
his errors. For this purpose the soldiers should be grouped 
in pairs and take turns in acting as coach and pupil. Unit 
leaders are the instructors and should supervise and prompt 
the coaches. 




® Nonoverhead target. 




© Overhead target. 

Figure 38. — Organization for training. 



b. Organisation . — With the targets and target range de- 
scribed hereinafter (see pars. Ill to 116, incl.), a group of 32 
men per target is the most economical training unit. For 
the preparatory exercises this will permit 16 men to perform 



148 






IT. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



98-99 



the exercises on each type of target while the remaining 16 
men act as coaches. (See fig. 38.) Each group should com- 
plete all preparatory training and instruction firing on its 
assigned target. Groups should then change places. The 
preparatory training and instruction firing should then be 
undertaken on the new type of target. This procedure 
should be followed until each man of each group has com- 
pleted his instruction on each of the four types of targets. 

■ 99. First Step: Position Exercises. — a. General. — The 
positions used in antiaircraft firing are those which can be 
assumed rapidly, afford the maximum flexibility to the body 
for manipulation of the rifle, and do not require undue ex- 
posure of the firer. These positions will usually be either 
kneeling or standing. The kneeling position best meets the 
requirements listed above as it is less vulnerable than the 
standing position. 

b. Firing positions. — (1) Antiaircraft firing positions dif- 
fer from those used in ground target firing in that — 

(a) The sling is not used. 

. (b) The arms are not supported but move freely in any 
direction with the body. 

(c) The hands grasp the piece firmly, the left hand near 
the lower band. 

(d) The butt of the rifle is pressed firmly against the 
shoulder with the right hand, and the cheek is pressed 
against the stock. 

(e) In the kneeling position the buttock does not rest on 
the heel, and the left foot is well advanced to the left front. 
The weight is slightly forward. (See fig. 39.) 

(2) The positions must be such that the rifle, the body 
from the waist up, the arms, and the head are as one fixed 
unit. 

(3) When leading a target the rifle must be swung with 
a smooth, uniform motion. This is accomplished by pivot- 
ing the body at the waist. There should be no independent 
movement of the arms, shoulders, head, or the rifle. 

(4) The instructor explains and demonstrates the posi- 
tion, and points out that if the rifle is pulled or pushed in 
the desired direction by means of the left hand and arm 
the rifle will move with a jerky motion, thereby increasing 



149 













; '-' v -:- ; . , 

#> 1 , * 

'mt'.^Ski 





TJ. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



99-100 



the possibility of jerking the trigger, or the front sight may 
be pulled or pushed out of alinement with the rear sight 
and the eye. 

(5) Position exercises should be conducted so that the 
soldier will become proficient in assuming positions rapidly 
for firing at hostile aircraft moving in any direction. 

■ 100. Second Step: Aiming and Leading Exercises. — a. Pur- 
pose . — The purpose of the aiming and leading exercise is to 
teach the correct method of aiming and to develop skill in 
swinging the rifle with a smooth, uniform motion so as to 
maintain the aim on aerial targets. 

b. Method. — (1) In the case of the groups assigned to the 
nonoverhead targets, the pupils In the standing ready position 
are placed in one line at about l'/ 2 -yards’ interval, 500 inches 
from and facing the assigned target. The coaches take posi- 
tions that enable them to observe the pupil. The commands 
for the exercise are: 1 . aiming and leading exercise, 2. one 
(TWO OR THREE) TARGET-LENGTH LEADS, 3. TARGETS. At the 

command targets, the targets are operated at a speed of from 
15 to 20 feet per second; the pupils assume the kneeling firing 
position rapidly, aline the sights on the spotter indicating 
the proper lead, and take up the slack in the trigger; then 
swing the rifle with a smooth, uniform motion by pivoting 
the body at the waist, and maintain the aim on the proper 
lead during the travel of the target. The operation is repeated 
as the target is moved in the opposite direction. The exercise 
is continued until the target has been moved four times in 
each direction. The coach and pupil then change places, 
and the exercise is continued until all men have acquired some 
skill in aiming and leading with one, two, and three target- 
length leads, both from right to left and left to right. 

(2) In the case of the group assigned to the overhead 
target, the line is formed perpendicular to and facing the line 
of flight of the target. The procedure is the same except that 
one or two target-length leads only are used. (See fig. 40 
for targets used.) 

c. Importance of correct position . — The importance of cor- 
rect position and of swinging the rifle with a smooth, uni- 
form motion by pivoting the body at the waist should be 
constantly emphasized. 



151 





.52 



4 a" 






tr. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



100-101 



d. Duties of the coach. — In the aiming and leading exer- 
cise the coach insures that the — 

(1) Proper position is taken. 

(2) Slack is taken up promptly and firmly. 

(3) Rifle is swung with a smooth motion. 

(4) Rifle is swung by pivoting the body at the waist. 

(5) Arms, shoulders, rifle, and head move as a unit with 
the rifle. 

■ 101. Third Step: Trigger-Squeeze Exercises. — a. Impor- 
tance. — (1) Correct trigger squeeze is the most, important 
operation to be performed in firing the rifle. The rifleman 
should be trained to squeeze the trigger exactly as when 
firing rapid Are at stationary targets except that the rifle is 
kept in motion during the trigger squeeze, the firing of the 
shot, and momentarily after the firing of the shot. 

(2) In firing at a rapidly moving target, the untrained 
man has a tendency to permit the rifle to come to rest 
momentarily while applying the final squeeze. This results 
in the shot passing behind the target. Another fault of the 
untrained man is that of pulling the trigger quickly the in- 
stant the aim is on the required lead. This causes the flrer 
to flinch because he knows when the cartridge will be 
discharged. 

(3) Unless men are trained to apply pressure on the trig- 
ger so that they cannot know the exact instant the cartridge 
will be discharged, all other training will have been a waste 
of time. 

(4) Due to the short period of time during which the 
usual aerial target will be within effective range, Are should 
be opened as soon as possible and delivered at as rapid a 
rate as possible consistent with accuracy. The trigger 
should therefore be squeezed aggressively and decisively. 
Once started, the squeeze should be continued until the 
cartridge is fired. 

(5) Skill in squeezing the trigger properly when firing 
at rapidly moving targets is difficult to acquire. Although 
men will have had training in trigger squeeze during their 
course in stationary target marksmanship, firing at rapidly 
moving targets introduces certain additional elements which 
must be overcome before skill is acquired. The greater part 



153 




101 



TJ. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



of the time allotted to preparatory exercises should there- 
fore be devoted to trigger-squeeze exercises. 

b. Object . — The object of the trigger-squeeze exercises is 
to train the rifleman to apply pressure on the trigger while 
keeping the rifle in motion, to develop a decisive trigger 
squeeze so that fire can be opened in a minimum of time 
without loss of accuracy, and to train him to follow through 
with the shot. 

c. Method. — (1) Trigger-squeeze exercises are conducted 
in a manner similar to the aiming and leading exercises. 
The targets used are also the same except that the spotters 
indicating the lead are removed. (See fig. 41.) If the 
spotters indicating the lead are left on the target they will 
cause an increased tendency of the pupil to pull the trigger 
quickly the instant the aim is on the spotter, thereby defeat- 
ing the purpose of the exercises. 

(2) The pupils in the standing ready position are placed 
in one line at about IV 2 yards’ interval, 50(Vinches from and 
facing the assigned nonoverhead target. The coaches take 
position so they can observe the pupil. The commands for 
the exercise are: 1 . simulate load, 2. trigger-squeeze exer- 
cise, 3. one (two or three) target-length leads, 4. TAR- 
GETS. At the command targets, the targets are operated 
at the proper speed; the pupils rapidly assume the kneeling 
firing position, take up the slack in the trigger, mentally 
apply the target length as a unit of measure in measuring 
the lead announced in the order; direct the aim on that 
point; and, by swinging the rifle in the manner taught and 
practiced in the aiming and leading exercise, maintain the 
aim at the proper lead, at the same time applying a con- 
stantly increasing pressure on the trigger until the hammer 
is released. The aim and pressure on the trigger are main- 
tained during the entire length of travel of the target regard- 
less of the time of release of the hammer. The importance 
of following through with the shot cannot be too strongly 
emphasized. It is only by this means that men will develop 
the habit of keeping their rifle in motion during the entire 
process of firing. All of these steps are performed as one 
continuous operation. The exercise consists of squeezing 
the trigger each time the target moves across the front. 



154 




101-102 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



The exercise consists of four passages of the target in each 
direction. The coach and pupil then change places, and 
the work is continued until all men have become proficient 
in squeezing the trigger correctly, using various target- 
length leads. 

(3) The procedure for overhead trigger-squeeze exercise 
is the same except that the line is formed perpendicular to 
and facing the flight of the target and one or two target- 
length leads only are used. 

d. Duties of the coach. — In the trigger-squeeze exercise the 
coach sees that the — 

(1) Proper position is taken. 

(2) Slack is taken up promptly and firmly. 

(3) Rifle is swung with a smooth, uniform motion. 

(4) Rifle is swung by pivoting the body at the waist. 

(5) Arms, shoulders, rifle, and head move as a unit as the 
rifle is swung. 

(6) Pressure on the trigger is applied promptly, decisively, 
and continuously. 

(7) Eye is kept open and does not blink at the instant the 
hammer falls. 

(8) Muzzle does not jerk coincident with the release of the 
hammer. 

(9) Pupil continues the aim and trigger pressure during the 
entire length of travel of the target. 

Section IV 

MINIATURE RANGE PRACTICE 

■ 102. General. — a. Miniature range practice is divided into 
two parts, instruction firing and group firing. There is no 
record firing. 

b. All firing is on moving targets on the 500-inch range. A 
suggested arrangement of the range is given in paragraph 
112. Provision is made for simultaneous firing by separate 
groups on the horizontal, the diving, the climbing, and the 
overhead targets. 

c. The course should first be fired with the caliber .22 rifle 
after which, if ammunition and danger area will permit, the 
United States rifle, caliber .30, Ml, may be used. 

d. All rifles should be targeted before range practice starts. 



156 




U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



103-104 



■ 103. Safety Precautions. — a. The safety precautions given 
in paragraph 69 are applicable to this firing and will be 
observed. 

b. If firers are permitted to go forward to inspect their 
targets, rifles will be left on the firing line. 

c. Target operators will remain behind the protective wall 
except when ordered to leave by the officer in charge of the 
target which they are operating. 

d. If the caliber .22 rifle is used, the bolt will not be forced 
home if difficulty in feeding is experienced. Attempting to 
force the bolt home may result in igniting a rim fired 
cartridge before the cartridge is chambered. 

■ 104. Instruction Firing. — a. General. — (1) The purpose of 
instruction firing is to provide a means of applying the 
principles taught in the preparatory exercises to actual firing. 

(2) During instruction firing, the soldier works under the 
supervision of a coach. 

(3) As a group completes the preparatory training on a 
target, instruction firing should be taken up on that target 
and completed before the group moves to another target. 

(4) Instruction firing consists of that indicated in table I. 

b. Procedure. — (1) As the instruction firing on each type 

of target follows immediately after the preparatory exercises 
on that target, the organization of the training unit for firing 
should be the same as that given in paragraph 98b. 

(2) The front rank of each group is formed on the firing 
line in the kneeling firing position. The rear rank acts as 
coaches. 

(3) One-half of the front rank of the group fires while the 
remaining front rank men simulate firing. 

(4) Silhouettes are assigned to each individual firer. For 
example, the four silhouettes on the right of the targets are 
assigned the first four men on the right of the line ; the four 
silhouettes on the left of the targets are assigned the next 
four men. Silhouettes for the men simulating firing are as- 
signed in the same manner, i. e., the right four are assigned 
silhouettes on the right of the target and the left four are 
assigned silhouettes on the left of the target. 

(5) The officer in charge of the target commands: 1. load, 
2. ONE (TWO OR THREE) TARGET-LENGTH LEADS, 3. TARGETS. 



240321 ° — 40 - 



■11 



157 




104-105 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



At the command targets, the targets are operated at the 
proper speed. Men assigned silhouettes on the right half of 
the nonoverhead targets mentally apply the target length as 
a unit of measure in measuring the lead announced. They 
direct their aim on that point and while maintaining the 
aim squeeze the trigger until the shot is fired. They con- 
tinue to maintain the aim during the entire length of travel 
of the target regardless of the time the shot was fired. They 
fire one shot each time the target crosses from their left to 
right. The men assigned silhouettes on the left half of the 
same targets aim and fire one shot in the same manner as 
explained above each time the target crosses from their right 
to left. 

(6) Men assigned silhouettes on the overhead target fire 
one round each time the target is run in the approaching 
direction in exactly the same manner as explained above. 

(7) Four rounds constitute a score. After each string of 
four rounds, targets are scored and shot holes penciled. 

(8) One point is awarded for each hit in the silhouette 
when using one target-length lead or in the proper scoring 
space when using more than one target-length lead. 

(9) Half groups alternate firing and simulating firing. 

(10) When front rank men have fired two scores, one score 
as the target moved in each direction, they change places 
with the men in the rear rank. They coach the rear rank 
men who become the firers. 

(11) This procedure is followed until all men of the group 
have performed the required firing at that target. 

(12) Upon completion of the firing prescribed in table I 
for any one type of target, the group moves to another type 
target and continues until all have completed the instruction 
firing. 

(13) Modifications of the above method of firing to meet 
local conditions are authorized. 

B 105. Group Firing. — a. General. — (1) Group firing is the 
final phase of antiaircraft marksmanship training on the 
miniature range. 

(2) It provides for competitions and illustrates the effec- 
tiveness of the combined fire of a number of riflemen. 



158 




U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



105-106 




(3) Group firing should not be undertaken until the pre- 
paratory training and instruction firing have been completed. 

b. Procedure. — (1) Two silhouettes, one to be fired upon as 
the target moves from left to right and one to be fired upon 
as the target moves in the opposite direction, are assigned to 
each squad or similar group. 

(2) Each man of the front rank, then each man in the rear 
rank, fires four rounds at each silhouette as the target moves 
in the appropriate direction. 

(3) Targets are not scored until completion of the firing 
of the entire squad or group. 

c. Scoring . — A value of 1 is given each hit on the silhouette. 

Section V 

TOWED-TARGET FIRING 

■ 106. General. — a. Towed-target firing is the final phase 
of rifle antiaircraft marksmanship. It is conducted on the 
towed-target range described in paragraph 113. 

b. It consists of firing with caliber .30 ball or tracer am- 
munition at a sleeve target at various ranges and on varied 
courses. 

c. Towed-target courses prescribed herein are guides which 
may be modified. Safety measures and ammunition require- 
ments restrict the length of the course. Safety measures also 
prevent the adoption of courses such as those on which the 



159 




106-108 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



target, moving at a low altitude, is receding from or diving 
at the firing line. 

d. Towed-target firing will follow miniature range instruc- 



tion firing. If, due to lack of facilities, a unit is unable to 
conduct miniature range firing, it may be permitted to con- 
duct towed-target firing providing antiaircraft marksman- 
ship preparatory training has been completed. 

■ 107. Courses To Be Fired. — Units authorized to fire will 
fire one or more of the courses enumerated in table II. 



Table II. — Courses to be fired 



Course 

No. 


Type of flight 


Altitude of 
target 


Horizontal range 
of course (yards) 1 


Speed 


i 


Nonoverhead— 


Minimum con- 


Minimum, 100; 


Maximum 




horizontal 


sistent with 


maximum de- 


possible. 




(parallel to fir- 


safety. 


pends on width 






ing line from 




of danger area of 






left to right). 




range. 






2 














horizontal 
(parallel to fir- 
ing line from 
right to left). 










3 


Overhead (per- 
pendicular to 
firing line). 














Minimum 


cord- 

ance 

with 












Maximum 


safety 

pre- 

cau- 

tions. 




4 








-.-do 




courses 1, 2, 




courses 1 


2, and 




and 3. 




3. 







Re- 

marks 



See fig. 
53. 



Do. 



See fig. 
54. 



See fig. 
. 55. 



1 The horizontal distance from the firing point directly under the target. 



The maximum slant range for all courses should not ex- 
ceed 600 yards. 

■ 108. Safety Precautions. — a. Towed-target firing will be 
conducted with due regard for the safety of the pilot of the 



160 




U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



108-109 



towing airplane, the personnel engaged in the firing, and all 
spectators. 

b. All firing must be controlled by suitable signals or 
commands, commence firing and cease firing must be given 
in such a manner as to be understood clearly and promptly 
by everyone engaged in firing. 

c. The signals and commands tor commence firing and 
cease firing will be given at such time as to prevent any bul- 
lets from falling outside the danger area. 

d. For all overhead flights, the signal or command for 
commence firing will not be given until the towing plane has 
reached a point 50 yards or less (measured horizontally on 
the ground) from the firing line, and there is no danger of 
bullets striking the plane. The signal or command for cease 
firing will be given before the sleeve target is 100 yards 
(measured horizontally on the ground) in advance of the 
firing line, so there is no danger of bullets dropping outside 
the firing area. 

e. Whenever a towing cable breaks and the towing airplane 
is on a course which passes near the firing point, all per- 
sonnel in that vicinity will be warned to lie fiat on the ground 
until danger from the loose cable and the release is passed. 

/. No rifle will be pointed at or near the towing airplane. 
All tracking will be on the towed target. Muzzles will be 
depressed during loading. 

g. At least two safety officers will be designated to assist 
the officer in charge of firing in carrying out safety 
precautions. 

h. Firing will be permitted only when the smaller angle in 
space between the gun-target line and the tow line is greater 
than 45°. 

i. An Air Corps officer should be at the firing point during 
an organization’s initial practice for the season for the pur- 
pose of giving supplemental instruction and checking the 
safety measures taken. 

j. Additional safety precautions are covered in AR 750-10. 

■ 109. Procedure of Firing. — a. The men to fire take the 
antiaircraft kneeling firing position on the firing line with at 
least IVz yards between men. 



161 




109 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



b. The officer in charge of firing takes position in rear of 
the center of the firing line. 

c. Safety officers take position at either flank of the firing 
line. 

d. As the towing airplane approaches the left (right) side 
of the danger area, the officer in charge of firing gives the 
command: 1. (so many) rounds, load, 2. sleeve target ap- 
proaching from the left (right). Each rifleman locks and 
loads his piece. 

e. As the towed target approaches the danger area, the 
officer in charge of firing commands: 3. four target-length 
leads. (See par. 183 c.) At this preparatory command, each 
rifleman unlocks his piece, aims by swinging through the 
sleeve to the announced lead, pivoting at the waist, and main- 
tains his estimated lead. 

/. In firing at crossing targets, the safety officer stationed 
at the end of the firing line, opposite to the target’s approach, 
signals or commands commence firing when the sleeve target 
has completely crossed the line marking the firing area. The 
officer in charge of firing and such assistants as he desires 
repeat the command or signal to insure that all firers 
hear it. Each rifleman squeezes the trigger until the first 
shot is fired. He then continues rapidly to reload, re-aim, 
and fire until the command or signal cease firing is given. 
The safety officer at the end of the firing point opposite to the 
target’s departure observes the flight of the sleeve target dur- 
ing the firing. When he observes that the sleeve is about to 
leave the danger area he signals or commands cease firing. 
The officer in charge of firing and his assistants repeat the 
command or signal to insure that all firers hear it. 

g. In firing at overhead targets, the same procedure is 
followed except that the officer in charge of firing, from his 
position behind the center of the firing line, determines when 
firing commences and ceases. He gives the command or 
signal to commence firing when the towing plane is 50 yards 
or less in advance of the firing line and gives cease firing 
before the sleeve is 100 yards in advance of the firing line. 
(See par. 108.) 



162 




U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



110-112 



■ 110. Scoring. — a. The number of hits is found by dividing 
the number of holes in the target by two. An odd hole is 
counted as a hit. 

b. The hit percentage is obtained by dividing the number 
of hits as obtained in a above by the total number of rounds 
fired at the target. 

Section VI 

RANGES, TARGETS, AND EQUIPMENT 

■ 111. Range Officer. — A range officer is appointed well in 
advance of range practice. His chief duties are — 

a. To make timely estimates for material and labor to 
place the range in proper condition for firing. 

b. To supervise and direct the repairs and alterations to 
installations. 

c. Where safety demands, to instruct and supervise range 
guards. 

■ 112. Miniature Range. — a. The miniature range consists 
of — 

(1) One horizontal target (fig. 42®). 

(2) One double climbing and diving target (fig. 42 ® ) . 

(3) One overhead target (fig. 42 ® ) . 

b. A suggested arrangement of the targets is shown in 
figure 43. 

c. For details of range apparatus, see figures 45 to 50, 
inclusive. 

d. (1) The danger area required is dependent upon the 
type of ammunition. (See AR 750-10 for size and shape.) 

(2) The miniature range may be laid out in the same man- 
ner as described in paragraph 113 c. Care must be taken 
to insure that the firing line and targets are placed so that 
no fire will fall outside of the danger area. 

e. If the organization for training is as suggested in para- 
graph 98 b, the following equipment is necessary: 

64 caliber .22 rifles (if available) . 

4 aiming and leading targets (fig. 40) . (Each of 
these targets consists of a piece of beaverboard 
on which the silhouettes are pasted.) 



163 




U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



112-113 



6 instruction firing targets per range (fig. 41). 
(These targets are the same as the aiming and 
leading targets except that the spotters are elimi- 
nated.) 

1 score card per man. 



CLIMBING-DIVING 



HORIZONTAL 



FI RING 
POINT 



FIRING 

POINT 



Figure 43. — Arrangement of targets. 
INDIVIDUAL SCORE CARD 
ANTIAIRCRAFT RIFLE MARKSMANSHIP 

Date , 19 



Name 



Target 


1 TL lead 


2 TL lead 


3 TL lead 


Rounds 

fired 


Hits 


Per- 

cent 


Rounds^ 

fired 


Hits 


Per- 

cent 


Rounds 

fired 


Hits 


Per- 

cent 


Horizontal 




















Climbing— 




















Diving 




















Overhead . 




















Total 









































■ 113. Towed-Target Range. — a. In selecting the location of 
a towed-target range the danger area is the chief considera- 
tion. (See AR 750-10.) 



165 




113-115 



TJ. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



b. The firing point should accommodate at least 50 men in 
line with a 114-yard interval between men. A level strip of 
ground, preferably on a hill, 75 yards long and 2 yards wide 
is suitable. A firing point similar to the firing point of a 
class A rifle range may be built. 

c. (1) After the towed-target range has been selected, the 
firing point, limits of fire, and danger area should be plotted 
on a map or sketch of the area. 

(2) Prom this map or sketch, the range is then laid out 

on the ground. First, each end of the firing point is marked 
by a large stake. The right and left limits of fire are then 
each marked by a post. Each post is placed at the maxi- 
mum distance at which it will be plainly visible from the fir- 
ing point. When these distances have been determined, the 
posts are located in azimuth by the following method: To 

locate the post marking the left limit of fire, an aiming 
circle or other angle-measuring instrument is set up at the 
right end stake of the firing point. It is then oriented and 
laid on an azimuth which, by reference to the map or 
sketch, is known to be the farthest to the left that the rifle 
at the right end of the firing point can safely be fired. The 
post marking the right limit of fire is similarly located with 
the instrument ‘set up at the left end stake of the firing 
point. (See fig. 44.) 

(3) Direction guides for the towing airplane to follow 
should, within the limits of fire, be distinctly marked on the 
ground for each course. White targets or strips of cloth 
placed flat on the ground about 30 feet apart are suitable. 

■ 114. Towed Targets. — a. Type and source. — The targets 
used in towed-target firing are sleeve targets furnished by 
the Air Corps unit assigned the towing mission. They are 
returned to the Air Corps unit after they have been scored. 

b. Towline . — The towing line will be not less than 600 
yards long. 

■ 115. Instructions to Pilots for Towing Missions. — a. 
Towed-target firing requires the closest cooperation between 
the pilot of the towing airplane and the officer in charge of 
firing. Decisions affecting the safety of the plane rest with 
Air Corps personnel. 



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TJ. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



115 



b. The air mission for towed-target firing should be spe- 
cifically stated. The commanding officer requesting airplanes 
for towed-target firing should furnish, in writing, to the Air 
Corps unit commander concerned the following information: 

(1) Place of firing. 

(2) Date and hour of firing. 

(3) Number of missions to be flown; altitude, course, speed, 
and number of runs for each. 

(4) Ground signals to be used. 




Figure 44. — Towed-target range showing firing point and limits of 
fire. Dotted lines show danger area. 



(5) Map of the area with the firing line, angle of Are, 
danger area, course of each mission, and location of the 
grounds for dropping targets and messages plotted thereon. 
An alternate dropping ground should be designated when 
practicable, and either or both dropping grounds are subject 
to approval by the pilot. 

(6) Length of the towline, within limits established by 
the Air Corps, and subject to approval of the pilot. 

(7) Number of sleeve targets required. 



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U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



c. Whenever practicable to do so, the officer in charge of 
the firing will discuss with the pilot the detailed arrange- 
ments mentioned in b above. This discussion should take 
place on the towed-target range where the various range 
features can be pointed out to the pilot. The courses over 
which the airplane is to be flown should be distinguished 
on the ground (within the angle of fire) . Machine-gun 
targets placed flat on the ground about 30 feet apart or 
strips of target cloth are practicable for this purpose on 
some courses. On others a terrain feature such as a beach 
line may be used. 

■ 116. Signals. — a. Direct radio communication is the most 
effective means by which the officer in charge of towed- 
target firing and the pilot of the towing plane maintain con- 



tact with each other. Even though radio is being used, 
panels should be available in case radio communication fails. 

b. For signaling from the ground to the pilot, any method 
agreed upon by the officer in charge of firing and the pilot 
of the towing airplane may be used. The panel signals gen- 
erally used are as follows: 

Stand by 0 0 2. 

Ready fire 0 0 0. 

Repeat run No. 1 0 9 1. 

Repeat run No. 2 0 9 2. 

Repeat run No. 3 0 9 3. 

Repeat course 0 9 4. 

Mission complete Pick up panels. 



e. The pilot may also communicate with the officer in 



charge of firing by dropped messages or by rocking his 



wings. 



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IT. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



116 




Figure 49. — Rear view of climbing and diving target. 



171 






[2 




tr. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



116 




Figure 52. — Course No. 3. Firing takes place when target is on 
shaded portion. Fire is opened when towing airplane is 50 yards 
or less from firing point. 




Figure 53. — Course No. 4. Heavy lines indicate when towed-target 
is fired upon. 



240321° — 40- 



■12 



173 




CHAPTER 5 

TECHNIQUE OP RIFLE FIRE 

Paragraphs 



Section I. General 117-1191 

II. Range estimation 120-124 

III. Target designation 125-131 

IV Rifle fire and its effect 132-138 

V. Application of fire 139-146 

VI. Landscape-target firing 147-154 

VII. Field-target firing 155-157 

VIII. Fire exercises 158-160 



Section I 
GENERAL 

■ 117. Definitions. — a. The training of riflemen for combat 
is progressive in nature and includes three phases. The first 
phase is individual training and comprises such allied subjects 
as rifle marksmanship, extended order, drill and combat 
signals, and certain elements of scouting and patrolling. The 
second phase is called “technique of fire” and is team train- 
ing consisting of instruction in the application and control 
of the collective fire of rifle fire units. In the third phase 
the individual and team training learned in the first and sec- 
ond phases are combined with tactical training. This chapter 
deals with the second phase of training. 

b. Collective fire is the combined fire of a group of in- 
dividuals. 

c. A fire unit is one whose fire in battle is under the immedi- 
ate and effective control of its leader. The usual rifle fire 
unit is the squad. 

■ 118. Importance of Rifle Fire. — Effective rifle fire is an 
element which may determine the issue of battle. Collective 
fire is most effective when it is the product of teamwork. 
Training in the technique of fire as set forth in this chapter 
is designed to train rifle squads to act as efficient and depend- 
able teams in the application and control of collective fire. 

■ 119. Scope. — a. This training is conducted without regard 
to tactical considerations. However the application of this 



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U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



119-121 



training to tactical situations should be kept in mind. Instruc- 
tion is progressive and is divided into six consecutive steps. 
Each step includes some or all of the technique learned in 
previous steps. The steps are as follows: 

(1) Range estimation. 

(2) Target designation. 

(3) Rifle Are and its effect. 

(4) Application of fire. 

(5) Landscape-target firing. 

(6) Field-target firing. 

b. A 13-week training schedule for mobilization should 
include about 30 hours for this instruction. 

c. It is not essential that perfection be reached in each 
step before proceeding to the next step; it is better that 
such a standard be attained by repetition, applying in the 
steps that follow everything that has been learned. How- 
ever, each step should be understood before proceeding to 
the next. The instructor explains each step in detail. He 
then makes plain its relation to the subject as a whole. 
This is followed by a demonstration which in turn is ex- 
plained by the instructor. The troops then practice the 
principles and methods previously explained and demon- 
strated. Exercises pertaining to each step are hereinafter 
described in detail. They can be used for demonstrations 
and instructional practice. Some of them can be used to 
test fire units, thus introducing the desirable element of 
competition. These exercises may be changed to conform to 
local conditions. 

Section II 

RANGE ESTIMATION 

■ 120. Importance. — In battle, ranges are seldom known in 
advance, so that the effectiveness of fire depends in large 
measure upon the accuracy of range estimation. 

■ 121. Methods. — Of the various methods of estimating 
ranges, only the following are considered in instruction in 
the technique of rifle fire: 

a. Use of tracer bullets. 

b. Observation of fire. 

c. Estimation by eye. 



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U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



■ 122. Use of Tracer Bullets. — When the range to a target 
is being estimated by the use of tracer bullets, the scout or 
leader first estimates the range by eye, fires a tracer bullet, 
corrects the sight setting according to the strike of the 
bullet, and continues to fire and correct the sight setting 
until a tracer appears to strike the target. The estimator 
then announces the correct range after due consideration 
of the zero of his rifle. 

■ 123. Observation of Fire. — This method can be used when 
the ground is dry and the strike of the bullets is indicated. 
The same procedure is followed as in determining the range 
by tracer bullets. The following points must be taken into 
consideration : 

a. Dust will appear slightly above the striking point of the 
bullet. 

b. If observing from the firing point, dust will appear on 
the side toward which the wind is blowing. 

c. If observing from a point on the flank, shots which pass 
over the objective will appear to strike on the side toward 
which the observer is posted; those which fall short, toward 
the opposite side. 

■ 124. Estimation by Eye. — a. Necessity for training. — The 
usual method of estimating ranges in combat is estimation 
by eye. Untrained men make an average error of 15 percent 
of the range when estimating by eye. Hence a definite sys- 
tem of range estimation, coupled with frequent practice on 
varied terrain, is essential to success with this method. 

b. Unit of measure method. — (1) Ranges less than 500 
yards are measured by applying a mental unit of measure 
100 yards long. Thorough familiarity with the 100-yard 
unit and with its appearance on varied terrain and at dif- 
ferent distances is necessary if the soldier is to apply it 
accurately. 

(2) Ranges greater than 500 yards are estimated by se- 
lecting a point halfway to the target and applying the unit 
of measure to this halfway point, and doubling the result. 

(3) The average of a number of estimates by different 
men will generally be more accurate than a single estimate. 
This variation of the suggested method is used when time 



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U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



124 



permits by taking the average of the estimates of members 
of the squad or specially qualified men. 

c. Appearance of objects. — In some cases much of the 
ground between the observer and the target will be hidden 
from view, and the application of the unit of measure will 
be impossible. In such cases the range is estimated by the 
appearance of objects. Whenever the appearance of objects 
is used as a basis for range estimation, the observer must 
make allowance for the following effects: 

(1) Objects seem nearer — 

(a) When the object is in a bright light. 

(b) When the color of the object contrasts sharply with 
the color of the background. 

(c) When looking over water, snow, or a uniform surface 
like a wheat field. 

(d) When looking downward from a height. 

(e) In the clear atmosphere of high altitudes. 

(/) When looking over a depression most of which is 
hidden. 

(2) Objects seem more distant — 

(a) When looking over a depression most of which is 
visible. 

(b) When there is a poor light, or fog. 

(c) When only a small part of the object can be seen. 

(d) When looking from low ground upward toward higher 
ground. 

d. Exercises . — (1) No. 1. — (o) Purpose. — To familiarize 
the soldier with the unit of measure — 100 yards. 

(b) Method. — The unit of measure, 100 yards, is previously 
staked out over varied ground, using markers that will be 
visible up to 500 yards. The men are required to become 
thoroughly familiar with the appearance of the unit of meas- 
ure from the prone, kneeling, and standing positions at 
various ranges. They do this by moving away from and in 
prolongation of the lines staked out and studying the ap- 
pearance of the unit from distances of 100, 200, 300, and 
400 yards. 

(2) No. 2 . — (a) Purpose. — To illustrate the application of 
the unit of measure. 



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124 



TJ. S. RIFLE, CALIBER ,30, Ml 



(b) Method. 

1. Ranges up to 900 yards are measured accurately 

and marked at every 100 yards by large markers 
or target frames, each bearing a number to indi- 
cate its range. Men undergoing instruction are 
then placed about 25 yards to one side of the pro- 
longed line of markers and directed to place a 
hat or other object before their eyes so as to ex- 
clude from view all of the markers. They are 
then directed to apply the unit of measure five 
times along a straight line parallel to the line 
of markers. When they have selected the final 
point, the eye cover is removed and the estima- 
tions of the successive 100-yard points and the 
final point are checked against the markers. 
Accuracy is gained by repeating the exercise. 

2. Ranges greater than 500 yards are then considered. 

With the markers concealed from view, men esti- 
mate the ranges to points which are obviously 
over 500 yards distant and a little to one side 
of the line of markers. As soon as they have 
announced each range, they remove their eye 
covers and check the range to the target and to 
the halfway point by means of the markers. 
Prone, sitting or kneeling, and standing positions 
are used during this exercise. 

(3) No. 3. — (a) Purpose . — To give practice in range esti- 
mation. 

(b) Method . — Prom a suitable point, ranges are previously 
measured to objects within 1,000 yards. The men are re- 
quired to estimate the ranges to the various objects as they 
are pointed out by the instructor, writing their estimates 
upon paper previously issued. At least one-half of the esti- 
mates are made from the prone or sitting positions. Thirty 
seconds are allowed for each estimate. When all ranges have 
been estimated, the papefs are collected and the true ranges 
announced to the class. To create interest, individual esti- 
mates and squad averages may be posted on bulletin boards. 



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TJ. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



125-128 



Section III 

TARGET DESIGNATION 

■ 125. Importance. — Target designation is a vital element in 
technique of fire. Battlefield targets are generally so in- 
distinct that leaders and troops must be able to designate 
their location and extent. Enemy troops will usually be so 
well-concealed that the location of most individuals of the 
hostile unit will not be visible. To cover such a target, squad 
leaders must be able to designate the area in which hostile 
troops are located, and members of the squad must be trained 
to place a heavy fire on the designated area even though 
no specific targets are visible. 

■ 126. Topographical Terms. — Prior to instruction in target 
designation, riflemen should understand the topographical 
terms normally employed in designating targets; for example, 
crest, military crest, hill, cut, ridge, bluff, fill, ravine, cross- 
roads, road junction, road center, road fork, skyline, etc. 

■ 127. Methods. — a. The following methods are used to 
designate targets: 

(1) Tracer bullets. 

(2) Pointing. 

(3) Oral description. 

(4) A combination of any or all of the methods in (1), 
(2), and (3) above. 

5. Troops should be trained in all the methods. The 
method used should be the one best suited to the conditions 
existing at time of the appearance of the target. The sim- 
plest form of target designation is the most effective. 

■ 128. Tracer Bullets. — a. The use of tracer bullets is a 
quick and sure method of designating an obscure battlefield 
target. Their use is invariable when scouts or other members 
of the squad are already under fire, when the squad is de- 
ployed and separated and out of^ voice range of the leader, 
or when cover is scarce and pointing or other movement will 
expose personnel to hostile fire. Their use, however, has 
limitations for they may disclose the position of the firer to 
the enemy; further, the effect of a sudden burst of fire is 



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128-130 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



lessened by preceding it with tracers. Tracer bullets are also 
the most accurate method of indicating the flanks of an 
obscure target. 

b. To designate a point target by this method, the scout or 
leader announces, “Range 500, watch my tracer,” and fires 
a tracer at the target. The flanks are indicated by firing 
tracer bullets at each flank, announcing each such shot as 
“Left flank, right flank.” Any range correction obtained by 
tracer firing should be announced. 

■ 129. Pointing. — Targets may be pointed out either with the 
arm or the rifle. Pointing may be supplemented by oral 
description. To use the rifle for this purpose, it is canted to 
the right and aimed at the target. The head is then straight- 
ened up without moving the rifle. A soldier standing behind 
looks through the sights and locates the target. If time per- 
mits, a bayonet can be stuck in the ground as a rest for a 
rifle aimed at the target. In pointing, the range is always 
announced. Usually some supplementary description will be 
necessary. 

■ 130. Oral Description. — a. Use . — Oral description is often 
used by leaders to designate targets to their units. Battle- 
field conditions will rarely permit the leader to designate a 
target direct to all members of his unit by this method. For 
this reason either pointing or tracers are frequently used in 
combination with oral description. 

b. Elements of oral target designation . — The elements of 
oral target designation are — 

(1) Range. 

(2) Direction. 

(3) Description of target. 

These elements are always given in the above sequence with 
a slight pause between each element. An exception to this 
rule occurs when the target is expected to be visible for a 
short time only. In this case the target is pointed out as 
quickly as possible; for example, such an oral target designa- 
tion might be, “Those men” (Pig. 54) . When the range is 
announced, men immediately set their sights before looking 
for the target. 

c. Direction.— ’The terms “front” (left, right) and “flank” 
(left, right) may be used to Indicate the general direction of 

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130 



IT. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



the target. When necessary, the direction is fixed more ac- 
curately by methods described hereafter. 

d. Simple description. — When the target is plainly visible 
or at an easily recognized point as illustrated in figure 54, a 
simple description is used; for example (target at A) : 

Range: 425. 

Left front. 

Sniper at base of dead tree. 

e. Reference point. — When the target is indistinct or in- 
visible and is not located at some prominent point, the di- 
rection of the target is indicated by the use of a reference 
point. This is an object, preferably a prominent one, by ref- 
erence to which the location of other points may be deter- 
mined. In selecting a reference point, care must be taken 
that another similar object is not mistaken for the one in- 
tended. A reference point on a line with the target and be- 
yond it will give greater accuracy than one between the 
observer and the target. For brevity a reference point is 
called “Reference.” 

(1) When reference point is on line with target. — The de- 
scription takes the following form (target at B) : 

Range: 450. 

Reference: church spire. 

Target : machine gun in edge of woods. 

It will be noted that the range announced is that to the target 
and not to the reference point. When the word “reference” 
is used the word “target” is also used to differentiate between 
the two objects. Another example follows (target at C) : 

Range: 350. 

Left front. 

Reference: black stump. 

Target: sniper on far side of road. 

(2) When reference point is not on line with target. — (a) 
In this, it is necessary to indicate the distance to the right or 
left of the reference point at which the target is located. This 
distance is measured in units called “fingers.” (See par. 
131b.) Suppose the hand is held so that left edge of a finger 
is on line with the reference point and it is found that the 
right edge of that same finger is in line with the target, the 
target is then one finger width to the right of the reference 



182 





V. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



130 



point and it is announced as “Right, one finger.” If two 
fingers can be applied to the lateral interval between the ref- 
erence point and target, the target is “Right, two fingers.” 
The following examples illustrate this method: 

(Target at D) — 

Range: 600- 

Reference: church spire; right, two fingers. 

Target: group of enemy in shell hole near crest. 
(Target at E) — 

Range: 425. 

Left front. 

Reference: dead tree; right, one and one-half fingers. 
Target: sniper in edge of woods. 

(Target at P) — 

Range: 450. 

Reference: church spire; left, one-half finger. 

Target: machine gun in corner of woods. 

(b) The width or extent of targets is also measured in 
fingers (target G to H) : 

Range: 425. 

Reference: church spire; left, two fingers. 

Target: enemy groups in edge of woods extending left, 
two fingers. 

(3) Successive reference paints . — These may be used in- 
stead of finger measurements from one reference point 
(target at I) : 

Range: 500. 

Reference: church spire; to the right and at a shorter 
range, group of three trees; to the right and at the 
same range. 

Target: machine gun at left end of mound of earth. 

(4) Combination of successive reference points and 
sights . — Example (target at K> : 

Range: 600. 

Reference: church spire; to the left and at a shorter 
range, lone tree; left one sight and at the same 
range. 

Target: machine gun in clump of brush. 

/. Variations . — If one end of a target is considerably 
nearer than the other, the average range is announced since 



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U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



dispersion will cover the target. Battlefield conditions will 
impose many practical substitutions and combinations of 
methods in target designation. Frequently the squad leader 
will be able to designate the target to only one or two 
members of Ills squad. Therefore, each member of the 
squad must be taught to assist in designating the targets to* 
other members of the squad team. At times the entire 
target designation will be furnished by the scouts to other 
members of the squad as they arrive in the vicinity. For- 
mal, long-winded oral target designation will often confuse 
more than help. 

■ 131. Exercises. — a. No. 1. — (1) Purpose. — To afford prac- 
tice in target designation by means of tracer bullets. 

(2) Method. — (a) On a class A or class B range a con- 
cealed target representing a machine gun is placed near a 
pit or other bullet-proof shelter. About 500 yards in front 
of the target a firing position suitable for a squad is se- 
lected. The location of the target will be visible from the 
firing position, but the target itself may be invisible due to 
its concealment. This concealment should have a natural 
appearance in order not to attract attention. 

(b) The squad is deployed along the firing position, and 
all except the scouts are then faced to the rear. 

(c) The scouts take the prone position and are told that 
the waving of a red flag to their front will represent the 
firing and smoke from the machine gun. 

(d) A man stationed in the pit waves a flag in front of 
the target for about 30 seconds and retires to the protection 
of the pit. 

(e) The squad is faced to the front and men take the 
prone position. Rifles are loaded while locked, the scouts 
using tracer ammunition and the remainder of the squad 
ball cartridges. 

(/) The scouts point out the target by firing tracers and 
announce the range, which is passed orally from man to 
man. 

( g ) As soon as each man understands the location of the 
target he opens fire with the proper sight setting. 

(ft) The instructor causes firing to cease shortly after all 
the men are firing. 



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TJ. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



131 



(z) Noncommissioned officers do not participate in the 
fire. Squad leaders move about freely behind their men 
and observe the firing. The second in command assists the 
squad, leader. 

(}) After firing ceases, sight settings are checked by the 
squad leader and the target is examined or the hits are 
signaled to the squad. 

b. No. 2. — (1) Purpose . — To teach the use of fingers for 
lateral measurement. 

(2) Method. — (a) A number of short vertical lines 1 foot 
apart are plainly marked on a wall or other vertical surface. 
At a distance of 20 feet from the wall a testing line is drawn 
or marked out by stakes. The instructor explains that the 
vertical lines are one finger (50 mils) apart when measured 
from the testing line and are used for the purpose of deter- 
mining the correct distance from the eye to the fingers, so 
that each finger covers the space between one of the vertical 
lines and the next line to the right or left. 

(b) The instructor then explains and demonstrates the 
use of fingers in lateral measurement. First he holds his 
hand, with palm to rear and fingers pointing upward, at 
such distance from his eye that each finger will cover the 
space between one vertical line and the next line to the right 
or left. Then he lowers his hand to his side without chang- 
ing the angle of the wrist or elbow and notes the exact 
point at which the hand strikes the body. Thereafter when 
measuring with the fingers he first places his hand at this 
point and raises his arm to the front without changing the 
angle of the wrist or elbow. His hand will then be in the 
correct position for measuring fingers. The men then deter- 
mine the proper distance of fingers from the eye as explained 
by the instructor. 

(c) Practice in lateral measurement using fingers is given, 
using convenient objects within view. 

c. No. 3. — (1) Purpose . — To afford practice in target desig- 
nation by pointing with the rifle. 

(2) Method. — (a) The squad is formed faced to the rear. 
The instructor then points out the target to the squad leader, 
who takes the kneeling or prone position, estimates the range, 
adjusts his sight, alines his sights on the target, and then 
calls “Ready.” 



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U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



(b) The members of the squad then move in turn to a 
position directly behind the squad leader and look through 
the sights until they have located the target. The range is 
given orally by the squad leader to each individual. 

(c) As; soon as each man has located the target he moves 
to the right or left of the squad leader, sets his sight, places 
his rifle on a bayonet rest or sandbag, and alines his sights 
on the target. 

(d) The instructor, assisted by the squad leader, verifies 
the sight setting and the alinement of the sights of each 
rifle. 

d. No. 4. — (1) Purpose . — To afford practice in target desig- 
nation by oral description. 

(2) Method. — (a) The squad is deployed faced to the rear. 
The squad leader is at the firing point, where sandbags or 
bayonet rests have been provided for each rifle. 

(b) At a prearranged signal the target is indicated by the 
display of a flag. When the squad leader states that he 
understands the position of the target, the flag is withdrawn. 

(c) The squad is then brought to the firing point, placed in 
the prone position, and each man is required to set his sight, 
use the sandbag or bayonet rest, and sight his rifle on the 
target according to the oral description of the squad leader. 
The squad leader gives his target designation from the prone 
position. 

(d) The squad leader’s designation is checked from the 
ground. The men are required to leave their rifles on the 
rests, properly pointed, until checked by the instructor or 
squad leader. 

Section IV 

RIFLE FIRE AND ITS EFFECT 

■ 132. Trajectory. — a. Nature. — The trajectory is the path 
followed by a bullet in its flight through the air. The bullet 
leaves the rifle at a speed of 2,700 feet per second. Because of 
this great speed the trajectory at short ranges is almost 
straight or flat. 

b. Danger space. — The space between the rifle and the tar- 
get in which the trajectory does not rise above a man of 
average height is called the “danger space.” The trajectory 



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XJ. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



132-136 



for a range of 700 yards does not rise above 68 inches. There- 
fore, it is said that the danger space for that range is con- 
tinuous between the muzzle of the gun and the target. For 
ranges greater than 700 yards, the bullet rises above the 
height of a man standing, so that only parts of the space 
between the gun and the target are danger spaces. (Fig. 55.) 

■ 133. Dispersion. — Because of differences in ammunition, 
aiming, holding, and wind effects, a number of bullets fired 
from a rifle at a target are subject to slight dispersion. The 
trajectories of those bullets form an imaginary cone-shaped 
figure called the “cone of dispersion.” 

■ 134. Shot Groups. — When the cone of dispersion strikes 
a vertical target it forms a pattern called a “vertical shot 
group.” A shot group formed on a horizontal target is called 
a “horizontal shot group.” Due to the flatness of the tra- 
jectory, horizontal shot groups on level ground vary in length 
from 100 to 400 yards, depending upon the range. 

■ 135. Beaten Zone. — The beaten zone is the area on the 
ground struck by the bullets forming a cone of dispersion. 
When the ground is level, the beaten zone is also a horizontal 
shot group. The slope of the ground has great effect on the 
shape and size of the beaten zone. Rising ground shortens 
the beaten zone. Ground that slopes downward and in the 
approximate curve of the trajectories will greatly lengthen 
the beaten zone. Falling ground with greater slope than the 
trajectory will escape fire and is said to be in defilade. 

■ 136. Classes of Fire. — a. Fire as regards direction is 
classified as follows: 

(1) Frontal. — Fire delivered on the enemy from his front. 

(2) Flanking. — Fire delivered on the enemy from his flank. 

b. Fire as regards trajectory is classified as follows: 

(1) Grazing. — Fire approximately parallel to the ground 
and close enough thereto to strike an object of a given height. 
The average height of a man is usually taken as the 
determining factor. 

(2) Plunging. — Plunging fire is fire in which the angle 
of fall of the bullets with reference to the slope of the 
ground is such that the danger space is practically confined 
to the beaten zone and the length of the beaten zone is 



187 




136 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 




188 



Figure 55. — Trajectory diagram (vertical scale is 20 times horizontal scale) . 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 136-139 

materially lessened. Fires delivered from high ground on 
ground lying approximately at right angles to the cone of 
fire, or against ground rising abruptly to the front with 
respect to the position of the rifle, are examples of plunging 
fire. As the range increases, fire becomes increasingly plung- 
ing because the angle of fall of the bullets becomes greater. 

(3) Overhead. — Fire delivered over the heads of friendly 
troops. 

c. Comparison. — Flanking fire is more effective than frontal 
fire. Grazing fire is more effective than plunging fire, be- 
cause the beaten zone is much longer. Overhead fire with 
the rifle is unusual and may be employed only when the 
ground affords protection to the friendly troops. 

■ 137. Effect of Fire. — By making use of cover and of the 
supporting fires of the artillery, mortars, and machine guns, 
rifle units will get as near the enemy as possible without 
opening fire. Normally this should be at ranges less than 
600 yards. A ricochet is effective if it strikes a man soon 
after it leaves the ground. Rifle fire is effective and should 
be used against low-flying planes. The effect of fire on 
moving targets is covered in chapters 3 and 4. Even though 
hits can no longer be made, fire may be continued when 
the moral effect is sufficient to keep the enemy under cover 
and render his fire ineffective. When opposing forces are 
entrenched and neither side is trying to advance, fire for 
moral effect alone is of no value. 

■ 138. Exercise. — a. Purpose. — To show trajectories. 

b. Method. — The unit under instruction watches the firing 
of a few tracer bullets at targets whose ranges are an- 
nounced. Ranges of 300, 600, and 800 yards are suitable 
selections. The flatness of the trajectories is called to the 
attention of the men. 

Section V 

APPLICATION OF FIRE 

■ 139. General. — a. Means of action. — Rifle units have two 
general means of action, fire and movement. They fight by 
combining these two means of action. Fire and movement 
are combined in the combat action of the squad and larger 



240321 °— 40 - 



■13 



189 




139-140 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



units. The application of fire by such units is essential to 
their success. 

b. Application, of fire. — (1) In attack. — The squad and 
smaller groups must be trained to place a large volume of 
accurate fire upon probable enemy locations and indistinct 
or concealed targets such as enemy machine guns or small 
groups. The squad and smaller groups must be trained to 
apply such fire quickly upon the order or signal of its leader 
and in appropriate circumstances to apply it without such 
order. 

(2) In defense. — In defense, the fire of a small rifle unit 
such as a squad is delivered by small groups and individuals 
from positions which they must hold. They are placed to se- 
cure good fields of fire and to take advantage of cover and 
concealment. 

c. Requirements of position. — In the occupation of a fir- 
ing position, the location of squads in the platoon area should 
be made with due regard to the following requirements. 
When these requirements conflict, it is the duty of leaders to 
weigh the importance of each and make the best dispositions 
possible under the conditions. 

(1) Good field of fire to the front. 

(2) Use of cover and concealment. 

(3) An indefinite and inconspicuous formation which will 
suit the terrain and be hard to see. 

(4) Control of fire by unit leader. 

■ 140. Concentrated and Distributed Fire. — The size and 
nature of the target presented may call for the firepower of 
the entire group or only certain parts. The fire of a group 
must necessarily be either concentrated or distributed fire. 

a. Concentrated fire. — Concentrated fire is fire directed at 
a single point. This fire has great effect but only at a single 
point. Machine guns and other automatic weapons are exam- 
ples of suitable targets for concentrated fire. 

b. Distributed fire. — (1) Distributed fire is fire distributed 
in width for the purpose of keeping all parts of the target 
under effective fire. It is habitually used on targets having 
any considerable width. 

(2) The method of fire distribution employed by a squad 
is as follows: Each rifleman fires his first shot on that portion 



190 




U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 140-143 

of the target corresponding generally to his position in the 
squad. He then distributes his remaining shots to the right 
and left of his first shot, covering that part of the target on 
which he can deliver accurate fire without having to change 
position. The amount of target each rifleman can cover will 
depend upon the range and the position of the firer. In some 
cases each rifleman will be able to cover the entire target 
with accurate fire. Fire is not limited to points known to 
contain an enemy; on the contrary, riflemen space their shots 
so that no portion of the target remains unmolested. This 
method of fire distribution is employed without command. It 
enables squad leaders to distribute the fire of their units 
so as to cause the entire target to be kept under fire. (See 
fig. 56.) 

(3) If a squad is employing this method of fire distribution 
and other targets appear, the squad leader announces such 
changes in the fire distribution as are necessary. 

(4) If engaging the same target, all squads of the platoon 
distribute fire in the same manner. 

■ 141. Assault Fire. — Assault fire is fire delivered by the unit 
while advancing at a walk. Riflemen halt individually and 
aim and fire standing. They go forward a few steps, halt, 
and fire again. They load while advancing. Men equipped 
with bayonets fix them before taking up the assault fire. 

■ 142. Rate of Fire. — The soldier fires at the rate of fire most 
effective under existing conditions. To exceed this rate is a 
waste of ammunition. 

■ 143. Fire Discipline. — a. Fire discipline implies the care- 
ful observance of the instructions relative to the use of the 
rifle in combat and exact execution of the orders of the 
leader. When fire discipline is good, men fight as they have 
been trained to fight and obey orders promptly and care- 
fully; they resist and overcome the influence of danger, ex- 
citement, and confusion. Fire discipline is necessary for 
proper control by leaders, and upon this control depend team- 
work and effectiveness of the collective fire of the unit. The 
training necessary to insure good fire discipline cannot be 
completed during the brief period devoted to technique of 
fire. Training in fire discipline starts with the soldier’s first 



191 




U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



143-144 



drill and continues throughout his military training. Any 
drill or exercise which develops alertness and the habit of 
obedience or other soldierly qualities will aid in developing 
the character essential to fire discipline. 

b. Fire discipline is maintained by leaders chiefly by their 
example of coolness and courage. Replacement of casualties 
is an element of fire discipline which keeps the unit working 
as a team in spite of losses. If any group of individuals find 
themselves without a leader, it is essential that one of them 
assume leadership of the group and carry out its mission or 
attach it to the nearest organized unit. An individual sepa- 
rated from his squad fights on his own initiative only when he 
has reason to believe that his single effort will accomplish 
some important result. Otherwise he reports to the nearest 
leader at once. 

c. Fire discipline in the squad is the responsibility of the 
squad leader; he is assisted by the second-in-command. The 
position of the squad leader during the fire fight will be where 
he can best control his squad. The second-in-command will 
be where he can best assist the squad leader. 

■ 144. Fire Control. — a. General . — Fire control pertains to 
the squad or smaller group. Its application to the platoon as 
a whole will be exceptional. Fire control consists of the 
initiation and supervision of the fire of the squad or smaller 
group by its leader. By initiating such fire on order or signal 
the full effect of surprise can be secured. On the other hand 
the irregular formations adopted for an advance will often 
render such action impracticable. In such case fire must be 
opened and maintained on the initiative of individuals as 
circumstances require. In any case the leader of the squad 
or smaller group must supervise and seek to control the fire 
of his men so that it is directed and maintained at suitable 
targets. All must understand that controlled fire is always 
the most effective. 

b. How exercised . — Squad leaders, assisted by their seconds- 
in-command, exercise fire control by means of orders, com- 
mands, and signals. The signals most frequently used are — 
Signals for range. 

Commence firing. 

Fire faster. 



193 




144-145 U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 

Fire slower. 

Fire at will. 

Cease firing. 

Are you ready? 

I am ready. 

Fix bayonets (if appropriate) . 

■ 145. Fire Orders. — a. Purpose . — The leader of a rifle fire 
unit or group of riflemen having made a decision to fire on 
a target must give certain instructions as to how the target 
is to be engaged. The instructions by which the fire of a 
squad is directed and controlled form the fire order. 

b. Basic elements . — A fire order contains three basic ele- 
ments, which are announced or implied in every case. Only 
such elements or parts thereof will be included as are essen- 
tial. The sequence is always as follows: 

Target-designation element. 

Fire-distribution element. 

Fire-control element. 

(1) Target-designation element . — The target may be des- 
ignated by any one or a combination of the prescribed meth- 
ods. (See pars. 125 to 131, incl.) 

(2) Fire-distribution element . — The fire-distribution ele- 
ment is normally omitted from the fire order to fire units. 
The method of fire distribution described in paragraph 140b 
is employed habitually in the absence of instructions to the 
contrary. When necessary, the fire-distribution element in- 
cludes the subdivision of the target. For example — 

(a) A squad leader desires to engage two machine-gun 
nests; the distribution element of his order might be as indi- 
cated by the italic words below : 

Range: 500. 

Front. 

Machine gun at base of lone pine. 

Cooper , Emerson, Crane, Hines, Jones, your target. 

Range: 500. 

Left flank. 

Machine gun at base of haystack. 

Brown, Smith, Turner, Howard, Stone, your target. 

(b) The squad leader may engage two targets by placing 
half of the squad under the command of the assistant squad 



194 




U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



145-147 



leader and directing him to engage one target, while he 
engages the other target with the other half of the squad. 

(3) Fire-control element . — The fire-control element nor- 
mally consists initially of merely the command or signal 
commence firing or fire at will. It may include the num- 
ber of rounds. Other fire-control elements are — 

at my signal (followed by hand signal). 

EIGHT ROUNDS, COMMENCE FIRING, 0 Y FIRE AT WILL. 

c. Example . — An example of a complete fire order follows: 

(1) Target-designation element. 

(Range) Range: 600. 

(Direction) Reference: right edge of lone 

building; right, one finger. 

(Description of target) Target: group of enemy. 

(2) Fire-distribution element. — (Implied.) 

(3) Fire-control element. — commence firing or fire at 
will. 

■ 146. Duties of Leaders. — The following summary of du- 
ties of leaders relates only to their duties in the technique 
of fire: 

a. Squad leader . — (1) Carries out orders of platoon leader. 

(2) Selects firing positions for squad. 

(3) Designates targets and issues fire orders. 

(4) Controls fire of squad. 

(5) Maintains fire discipline. 

(6) Observes targets and effect of fire. 

b. Second-in-command. — (1) Carries out orders of squad 
leader. 

(2) Assists squad leader to maintain fire discipline. 

(3) Assumes command of squad in absence of squad leader. 

(4) Participates in firing when the fire of his rifle is con- 
sidered more important than other assistance to the squad 
leader. 

Section VI 

LANDSCAPE-TARGET FIRING 

■ 147. Scope and Importance. — a. After satisfactory prog- 
ress has been made in the preceding steps, the soldier may 
be given practice in the application of those lessons by 
firing at landscape targets. 



195 




147-150 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



b. The advantages of this training are as follows: 

(1) The immediate supervision over all members of the 
firing unit made possible by their close proximity. The in- 
struction is therefore more individual than would be other- 
wise possible. 

(2) The accessibility and nature of the targets permit the 
application and effect of the fire to be shown in a mini- 
mum of time. 

(3) This form of instruction lends itself to indoor train- 
ing when lack of facilities or weather conditions make it 
desirable. 

c. In circumstances where there is a choice between 
landscape-target firing as covered in this section and field- 
target firing as covered in section VII, the latter is to be 
preferred. Firing at landscape targets is therefore not re- 
quired as a part of training. 

■ 148. Description of Target. — A landscape target is a 
panoramic picture of a landscape and is of such size that all 
or nearly all of the salient features will be recognizable at 
a distance of 1,000 inches. The standard target is the 
series A target of five sheets in black and white. 

■ 149. Weapons To Be Used. — Firing at landscape targets 
should be with caliber .22 rifles, preferably, the M1922M2 
equipped with the Lyman receiver sight. When a sufficient 
number of those rifles are not available, the caliber .30 Ml 
rifles may be used. 

■ 150. Preparation of Targets. — a. Mounting. — (1) The tar- 
get sheets are mounted on frames made of 1- by 2-inch 
dressed lumber, with knee braces at the corners. The 
frames for the target sheets are 24 by 60 inches. These 
frames are covered with target cloth which is tacked to the 
edges. 

(2) The target sheets are mounted as follows: Dampen 
the cloth with a thin coat of flour paste and let it dry for 
about an hour; apply a coat of paste similarly to the back 
of the paper sheet and let it dry about an hour; apply a 
second coat of paste to the back of the paper and mount 
it on the cloth; smooth out wrinkles, using a wet brush or 
sponge, and work from the center to the edges. The frame 



196 




U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



150 



must be placed on some surface which will prevent the 
cloth from sagging when the paper is pressed on it. A 
form for this purpose can easily be constructed. It must be 
of the same thickness as the lumber from which the frames 
are built, and must have approximately the same dimen- 
sions as the aperture of the target frame. 

b. Target frames . — Panels mounted as described above are 
set in a vertical frame consisting of posts (about 4 by 4 
inches) of sufficient height, placed upright in the ground, 
5 feet from center to center, with horizontal pieces of 2 by 
4 inches to support the panels, braced to insure stability. 
The panels are supported by cleats and dowels in order to 
allow for easy removal. 

c. Range indicators . — In order to make all elements of tar- 
get designation complete, assumed ranges must be used on 
landscape targets. Small cards on which are painted appro- 
priate numbers representing yards of range are tacked along 
one or both edges of a series of panels. The flrers must be 
cautioned that the range announced in any target designa- 
tion is for the sole purpose of designating the target, and 
that the sight setting necessary to zero their rifles must not 
be changed. 

d. Direction cards . — In order to provide the direction ele- 
ment in oral target designation, small cards on which are 
painted Front, Bight front, Left front, Bight flank, Left flank 
are tacked above the appropriate panels of the landscape 
series. 

e. Scoring devices. — (1) A squad may be brought up to the 
target and there view the results of its firing. Scoring the 
exercises will tend to create competition between squads and 
will enable the instructor to grade their relative proficiency. 
A scoring device conforming in size to the 50- and 75-percent 
shot groups to be expected of average shots firing at 1,000 
inches and at reduced ranges can easily be made from wire, 
or a better one may be prepared by imprinting a scoring 
diagram on a sheet of transparent celluloid. The scoring 
space is outlined on the target in pencil before the target is 
shown to squad leaders. This procedure prevents any mis- 
understanding of squad leaders as to the limits of the desig- 



197 




150-151 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



nated target. Upon completion of firing, the entire squad is 
shown the target and the results of the firing. 

(2) While shot groups are in the form of a vertical ellipse, 
the 50- and 75-percent zones should be shown by the devices 
as rectangles. This is for convenience in their preparation. 
For a distance of 1,000 inches, the 50-percent zone is a rec- 
tangle 2>/ 2 inches high by 2 inches wide; the 75-percent 
rectangle is 5 inches high by 4 inches wide. For a distance 
of 50 feet, the 50-percent zone is a rectangle 1 % inches high 
by 1.2 inches wide; the 75-percent rectangle is 3 inches high 
by 2.4 inches wide. The target is at the center of the inner 
rectangle or 50-percent zone. 

(3) For a linear target, such as a small area over which 
the riflemen will distribute their fire, the 50-percent zone 
is formed by two lines drawn parallel to the longer axis of 
the target (area) and with the target midway between those 
lines. For a distance of 1,000 inches the lines should be 2M> 
inches apart; for a distance of 50 feet the lines should be 
lVs inches apart. Two additional lines, similarly drawn, 
form the 75-percent zone. For a distance of 1,000 inches 
the lines should be 5 inches apart; for a distance of 50 feet 
the lines should be 3 inches apart. The width of the zones 
will vary according to the size of the target selected. For 
a distance of 1,000 inches the zones extend 1 inch beyond 
each end of the target; for a distance of 50 feet the zones 
extend 0.6 inch beyond each end of the target. The zones 
are then divided into a convenient number of equal parts, 
the number depending on the length (width) of the target 
and the number of men firing. This is done in order to give 
a score for distribution of shots fired on a linear target (see 
par. 153b) . 

■ 151. Zeroing-in of Rifles. — a. It will be necessary to 
zero-in the rifles used before firing exercises on the landscape 
target. A blank target with a row of ten 1-inch-square black 
pasters about 6 inches from and parallel with the bottom edge 
of the target should be prepared and used for this purpose. 
In all firing for zeroing-in, sandbag rests are used. 

b. The procedure in detail is as follows: 

(1) The sights of the rifles are blackened. 



198 




TJ. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



151-152 



(2) The squad Is deployed on the firing points; the squad 
leader takes the proper position in rear of the squad. 

(3) The instructor causes each firer to set his sights at zero 
elevation and zero windage, or 200 yards and zero windage 
for the caliber .30 Ml rifle, and checks each sight. 

(4) Each man is assigned the particular small black paster 
which corresponds to his position in the squad as his aiming 
point. 

(5) Three rounds are issued to each man on the firing point 
to be loaded and fired singly at the command of the instructor. 

(6) Each man fires three shots at his spotter at the com- 
mand THREE ROUNDS, COMMENCE FIRING. 

(7) The instructor commands: CLEAR RIFLES. The 
squad leader checks to see that this is done. 

(8) The instructor and squad leader inspect the target and, 
based upon the location of the center of impact of the re- 
sultant shot group, give each man the necessary correction 
for his next shot; as for the caliber .22 rifle, “Up 1 minute, 
right y 2 point;" or for the caliber .30 Ml rifle, “Up 3 clicks, 
left 1 click.” 

(9) The firing continues as outlined above until all rifles 
are zeroed-in, that is, until each man has hit his aiming 
point. 

c. For a caliber .22 rifle with the Lyman receiver sight, at 
a distance of 1,000 inches, a change of 5 minutes in elevation 
will move the strike of the bullet about 1 54 inches. A change 
of one point of windage moves the strike about 154 inches. 
At a distance of 50 feet, a change of 6 minutes in elevation 
will move the strike of the bullet about 1 inch, and a change 
of one point of windage, about % inch. For the caliber .30 
Ml rifle, at a distance of 1,000 inches, changes of 1 click in 
elevation and 1 click of windage move the strike of the bul- 
let about 54 inch in each direction. At a distance of 50 
feet, a change of 1 click in elevation and 1 click of windage 
will move the strike of the bullet about Ye inch in each 
direction. 

■ 152. Firing Procedure. — The sequence of events in con- 
ducting firing exercises is as follows : 

a. All members of the squad except the squad leader face 
to the rear. 



199 




152-154 



r. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



b. The instructor takes the squad leader to the panels and 
points out the target to him. 

c. They return to the firing point; the squad leader takes 
charge of the squad and causes the men to resume their 
firing positions. 

d. The squad leader gives the command load, cautioning, 
“ — rounds per rifleman only.” If less than eight rounds are 
to be fired with the caliber .30 Ml rifle, cartridges will be 
loaded singly. 

e. The squad leader designates the target orally. Refer- 
ence to panels to indicate direction should not be allowed in 
the designation. To complete the fire order, the squad leader 
adds: COMMENCE FIRING. 

/. When the squad has completed firing, the squad leader 
commands; CEASE FIRING, CLEAR RIFLES. The squad 
then examines the target. The target panel is scored and 
marked with the squad number. 

g. The instructor holds a short critique after each exercise. 

■ 153. Scoring. — a. Concentrated fire ■ — In concentrated fire, 
the sum of the value of the hits within the two zones is the 
score for the exercise. For convenience of scoring and com- 
parison, 100 is fixed as the maximum score. Any method of 
scoring and of distribution of ammunition among members 
of the squad may be used. The following examples based 
on firing 50 rounds are given as suggested methods: 

(1) Value of each hit in 50-percent zone, 2. 

(2) Value of each hit in 75-percent zone, 1. 

b. Distributed fire. — A method of scoring for distributed 
fire of the squad on a target of width is as follows: 

(1) Value of each hit in 50-percent zone, 2. 

(2) Value of each hit in 75-percent zone, 1. 

(3) Value of each distribution space (if target is divided 
into 10 equal spaces) , 10. 

(4) The score for distribution plus the value of all hits, 
divided by two is the score for the exercise. 

■ 154. Exercises. — a. (1) No. 1. — (a) Purpose. — To teach tar- 
get designation and to show the effect of concentrated fire. 

(b) Method. — The squad leader employs the fire of his 
squad at one point target indicated to him by the instructor. 



200 





TJ. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



154 



(2) No. 2. — (a) Purpose . — To teach target designation and 
the division of the squad fire on two points of concentration. 

(b) Method . — The instructor indicates two point targets 
to the squad leader giving the nature of each. The squad 
leader applies the Are of his squad on the two targets in the 
proportions directed by the instructor. The scoring will be 
as for concentrated fire on each target, the several scores 
being combined in totals for the score of the exercise. 

(3) No. 3. — (a) Purpose . — To teach target designation and 
fire control in diverting part of the fire of the squad to a 
suddenly appearing target. 

(b) Method . — The instructor indicates a point target to 
the squad leader. After firing has commenced, the instruc- 
tor indicates and gives the nature of a new target to a 
flank. The squad leader applies the fire of his squad to 
the first target. When the second target is indicated, he 
shifts the fire of the number of riflemen, as directed by the 
instructor, from the first to the second target. 

(4) No. 4. — (a) Purpose . — To teach the application of fire 
on an enemy group marching in formation, the fire control 
necessary to obtain fire for surprise effect, and to show the 
effect of fire on troops in formation. 

(b) Method . — The instructor indicates to the squad leader 
a target that represents a small group of the enemy march- 
ing in approach march formation, formation for patrol, or 
the like; the enemy not being aware of the presence of the 
squad. The squad leader applies the fire of his squad; his 
instructions must result in the simultaneous opening of fire 
of all weapons and the distribution of fire over the entire 
target. The assignment of half the number of riflemen to 
fire at the rear half of the target, and the remaining rifle- 
men at the forward half, is a satisfactory method of dis- 
tributing fire over such target. 

b. The second-in-command of the squad will be given in- 
struction and practice in the same type of exercises as out- 
lined in a above. 



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155-156 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



Section VII 

FIELD-TARGET FIRING 

■ 155. Scope of Training. — The training in this phase is 
similar to that given the soldier in landscape-target firing, 
but with the added features of the use of cover, range esti- 
mation, firing the caliber Ml rifle with ball ammunition at 
field targets at unknown ranges, and fire control under more 
difficult conditions. Training must be progressive, the sol- 
dier first being given an opportunity to fire at more or less 
exposed targets, followed by fire at targets which are con- 
cealed from view but exposed to fire. Individuals should 
preferably receive this training in the squad or in smaller 
groups. 

■ 156. Terrain, Targets, and Ranges. — a. Terrain . — (1) The 
availability of ground and considerations for safety deter- 
mine the selection of terrain for field firing ranges. Where 
possible, varied ground suitable for the employment of all 
weapons of the rifle company will be selected. It is a great 
advantage from the instructional standpoint to use ground 
that is unfamiliar to the unit to be trained. 

(2) In the absence of other facilities, the known-distance 
ranges can be used by arranging the exercises so that they 
will begin off the range and require the delivery of fire on 
the range and in a safe direction. 

b. Targets. — (1) Targets may be improvised from avail- 
able material or they may be obtained from the Ordnance 
Department. 

(2) With the field targets furnished by the Ordnance De- 
partment a stationary target may be represented by E or F 
targets placed on staves and driven in the ground. 

(3) A surprise target that can appear and disappear may 
be made by using either E or F targets fastened to an 
I-beam and operated by a man in a pit. 

(4) A movable field target may be made by fastening 
E or F targets to a sled. 

(5) In the field, targets should be placed in locations that 
would be used by an intelligent enemy. They should not be 
prominently exposed nor in a regular line. The exposure 
of targets kept out of sight at the beginning of an exercise 



202 




U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



156 



may be indicated by the firing of blank ammunition or the 
operation of other noise or smoke-producing equipment in 
the vicinity of the target when it does appear. In platoon 
problems, targets may be placed so as to be visible with field 
glasses, but entirely invisible to the naked eye so that skill 
is necessary in designating the target and adjusting the fire. 

(6) The appearance of the targets from the firing line 
will depend a great deal upon the direction of the sun, the 
background of the targets, and the angle at which the targets 
are placed. These factors should be taken into consideration 
when placing the targets for any particular exercise. 

c. Ranges. — (1) Shelter. — (a) Ranges for field firing ex- 
ercises can be efficiently operated without an elaborate sys- 
tem of shelters and dugouts. Simple pits to accommodate 
the target operators are sufficient. 

(b) Every effort should be made to avoid altering the 
natural appearance of the terrain when locating and con- 
structing pits. 

<c 1 When targets are placed in the rear or to one side 
of the pits, the likelihood of ricochets falling into the pit is 
minimized. 

(2) Safety. — (a) In general the safety precautions used 
at known-distance ranges apply with equal force to instruc- 
tion in firing at any field target (see AR 750-10). Safety 
of personnel is of primary Importance in conducting exer- 
cises which require the firing of ball ammunition. To this 
end, exercises should be drawn to conform to the state of 
training of the units concerned. 

(b) The officer in charge of an exercise is responsible for 
the safety of the firing; it is his duty to initiate and enforce 
such precautions as he deems necessary under existing con- 
ditions. No other officer can modify his instructions without 
assuming the responsibility for the safety of the firing. 

(c) Firing will not start until it has been ascertained that 
the range is clear, pit details are not exposed, and all safety 
precautions complied with. Upon completion of firing, the 
officer in charge will cause all rifles to be unloaded, in- 
spected, and ammunition collected. 

(d) During the firing of exercises, rifles will be pointed 
in the direction of the target at all times. Special vigilance 



203 




156-157 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



is required to enforce this rule while men are using a clean- 
ing rod to remove any obstruction from the chamber. 

(e) Special precautions should be taken to insure that 
the range is clear before ammunition is issued. 

(/) Upon completion of the day’s firing, rifles and belts 
should be inspected by an officer to insure that no ammuni- 
tion remains in the possession of the men returning to camp 
or barracks. 

■ 157. General Considerations. — a. Progressive training . — 
The inclusion of the training in moving from an approach 
march formation or place of concealment to firing positions 
is, primarily, to teach the soldier the proper use of cover and 
selection of firing positions, and to combine the technique 
of applying and controlling collective fire with scouting and 
patrolling and other prerequisite allied subjects. 

b. Firing positions and representation of enemy. — In -bat- 
tle a unit is not deployed with individuals abreast and at 
regular intervals apart. Hie selection of individual and 
group positions is governed by the field of fire, cover or con- 
cealment while firing, cover of approach to those positions, 
fire control, and nature of target. The representation of 
the enemy will conform to irregular battle formations. 

c. Use of cover. — (1) The use of available cover is impor- 
tant for two reasons. The man who neglects the use of 
cover will be seen and hit. His squad not only loses the fire 
effect of one rifle, but its position is unnecessarily disclosed 
and other casualties may follow. 

(2) The individual use of cover and concealment is taught 
in FTil 21-45 (now published as ch. 9, BFM, vol. I). In 
training in firing at field targets the principles are the 
same. 

(3) In seeking cover in a firing position, men may move 
a few yards in any direction, but they must not be allowed 
to bunch together behind concealment which does not afford 
protection from fire. They avoid positions which will mask 
the fire of others or cause their own fire to be dangerous to 
other men of their unit. 

d. Marksmanship applied . — (1) The principles of rifle 
marksmanship are followed in this training insofar as they 
fit the conditions. 



204 




U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



157-158 



(2) These principles should be applied to the technique of 
fire and to combat in a common-sense way. It should be 
appreciated that the conditions encountered in combat sit- 
uations will differ from those found on the target range. On 
the target range the soldier is expressly prohibited from rest- 
ing his rifle against an unauthorized rest while firing. In 
this phase of training and in battle the soldier takes advan- 
tage of trees, rocks, or any other rest which will make his 
fire more accurate. The positions prescribed in rifle marks- 
manship are used whenever the ground will permit, but on 
rough ground it is often necessary to modify them in order 
to get a comfortable and steady position. The loop sling is 
preferable except — 

(a) In the standing position. 

(b) When the situation requires readiness for immediate 
use of the bayonet. 

(c) In emergencies demanding immediate fire without time 
for adjustment of the loop sling. 

e. Use of the battle sight. — The battle sight is a sight set- 
ting of 300 yards. It is used on targets from 0 to 600 yards 
when time is lacking for setting the sight or in firing at mov- 
ing targets. By keeping the sight habitually set at 300 yards 
when not in use, the soldier has the sight set for emergencies. 

Section VIII 
FIRE EXERCISES 

■ 158. General. — a. Exercises for firing at field targets should 
be suitable to the actual terrain upon which they are con- 
ducted. One or more exercises will be fired with the gas 
mask adjusted. 

b. Each exercise should be initiated by a unit either — 

(1) Already deployed in a firing position; 

(2) Halted in approach march formation or in a place of 
concealment with scouts present in formation, the unit either 
acting alone or as part of a larger force; or 

(3) Advancfhg in approach march formation with scouts 
out. 

c. (1) In the first case each man should be in a selected 
firing position, special attention being paid to individual cover 
and concealment. 

240321° — 40 14 205 




158-160 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



(2) In the second case squad leaders conduct their squads 
forward by covered routes and send the riflemen to their 
firing positions by individual directions. Occupation of the 
initial firing position of a unit is done with the minimum of 
exposure. 

(3) In the third case the advance of the scouts must be 
checked by assumed enemy fire when they are in the vicinity 
of a suitable location for a firing position for the squad; 
otherwise, to insure the safety of the personnel taking part 
in the exercise, they may have to be withdrawn from the 
exercise before firing is begun by the squad. 

■ 159. Critique. — At the completion of the firing of any exer- 
cise the instructor should conduct a critique of that exercise 
with the firing unit. A suggested form for such a critique is 
as follows: 

a. Purpose of the exercise. 

b. Orders of squad leaders. 

c. Approach and occupation of the firing position (indi- 
vidual concealment and cover). 

d. Action of individuals. 

e. Rate of fire. 

1. Fire control. 

g. Effect of the fire (upon completion of firing, the range 
being clear, the targets are scored) . 

■ 160. Exercises. — a. No. 1. — (1) Purpose . — Practice in fire 
orders, application of the fire of a squad in position, fire con- 
trol, proper individual concealment in the occupation of the 
firing position. 

(2) Method. — Enemy represented by one group of targets 
exposed to fire but partially concealed from view; requiring a 
simple fire order. Squad leader is shown the targets (per- 
sonnel with flag) and safety limits for firing position of the 
squad. When the squad leader fully understands the location 
and nature of the target and the instructor informs him that 
the range is clear, he will load ball ammunition, give the fire 
order, and fire the problem. The range should be estimated 
by eye and the target designated by oral description. 

b. No. 2. — (1) Purpose . — Practice in fire orders, application 
of the fire of a rifle squad on a linear target, fire control, 



206 




U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



160 



proper deployment and Individual concealment in the occu- 
pation of the firing position, engagement of a surprise target. 

(2) Method . — Silhouette targets, representing an enemy 
squad deployed in a firing position, are partially concealed 
from view but exposed to fire. A screen behind the targets 
is marked with distribution spaces to give squad credit for 
the shots that did not hit the targets but which would have 
had an effect on an enemy. Squad is in rear of the firing 
position; squad leader (scouts) is shown the linear target 
(by flag) and then conducts squad forward and disposes it 
in a concealed firing position. When squad leader is told 
the range is clear he will engage the target with fire. A 
surprise target, well to the flank of the first target, repre- 
senting an enemy machine gun, appears shortly after the 
squad has engaged the linear target. The squad leader is 
told the amount of fire to shift to the surprise target. In 
addition to the suggested form of critique in paragraph 159, 
proper distribution of the fire of a rifle squad on a linear 
target and the engagement of the surprise target should be 
discussed. 

c. No. 3. — (1) Purpose . — Practice in target designation by 
scouts with tracer ammunition and in teaching how to 
approach and assume a firing position for a squad. 

(2) Method . — The squad is marching in approach march 
formation with both scouts well in advance. When the scouts 
reach the firing position they observe the targets representing 
an enemy group about 400 yards to their front. They deter- 
mine the range by firing on the target with tracer bullets. 
The squad leader conducts his squad forward, establishes the 
men in firing positions, and engages the targets with the 
proper class of fire after the targets have been designated by 
the scouts by the use of tracers. Special attention is paid to 
the use of cover and concealment by all men while moving 
up and during the selection and occupation of positions. 

d. No. 4. — (1) Purpose . — Practice in firing at moving 
targets. 

(2) Method . — Riflemen fire individually at targets carried 
on long sticks by men in the pits of a class A range. The 
men in the pits are each assigned a space, the width of about 
five regular range-target spaces, in which they walk continu- 



207 




160 



IT. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



ously back and forth. By whistle signal, targets are exposed 
to the firing line for 5 seconds and then concealed for 5 
seconds. Targets are exposed once for each shot to be fired. 
On the firing line one man is assigned to each target. Ranges 
of 200 or 300 yards are best suited for this class of firing. 

e. No. 5. — (1) Purpose . — Practice in the application of rifle 
fire over a small area in which an enemy is concealed. 

(2) Method . — Targets are placed within a small area 
exposed to fire but concealed from view. The squad is directed 
to search that area with fire. Fire is distributed throughout 
the length and breadth of the area using a rapid rate of fire. 



208 




CHAPTER 6 



ADVICE TO INSTRUCTORS 

Paragraphs 



Section I. General 161 

II. Mechanical training 162 

III. Marksmanship; known-distance targets 163-178 

IV. Marksmanship; air targets 179-183 

V. Technique of fire 184-190 



Section I 
GENERAL 

■ 161. Purpose. — The provisions of this chapter are to be 
accepted as a guide and will not be considered as having 
the force of regulations. They are particularly applicable to 
emergency conditions when large bodies of troops are being 
trained under officers and noncommissioned officers who are 
not thoroughly familiar with approved training methods. 

Section II 

MECHANICAL TRAINING 

■ 162. Conduct of Training, — a. As a general rule instruc- 
tion is so conducted as to insure the uniform progress of the 
unit. 

b. The instructor briefly explains the subject to be taken 
up and demonstrates it himself or with a trained assistant. 

c. The instructor then causes one man in each squad or 
subgroup to perform the step while he again explains it. 

d. The instructor next causes all members of the squads or 
subgroups to perform the step, checked by their non- 
commissioned officers. This is continued until all men are 
proficient in the particular operation, or until those whose 
progress is slow have been placed under special instructors. 

e. Subsequent steps are taken up in like manner during 
the instruction period. 



209 




163-165 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



Section III 

MARKSMANSHIP; KNOWN-DISTANCE TARGETS 

■ 163. General. — a. Training is preferably organized and 
conducted as outlined in paragraphs 54 and 55. Officers 
should generally be considered as the instructors of their 
units. As only one step is taken up at a time, and as each 
step begins with a lecture and a demonstration showing ex- 
actly what to do, the trainees, although not previously in- 
structed, can carry on the work under the supervision of the 
instructor. 

b. It is advisable that battalions or smaller units be re- 
lieved from routine garrison duty" during 1 the period of 
preparatory marksmanship training and range practice. 

■ 164. Place of Assembly for Lectures. — Any small ravine 
or cup-shaped area makes a good amphitheater for giving 
the lecture in case no suitable building is available. 

■ 165. Assistant Instructors. — a. It is advantageous to 
have all officers and as many noncommissioned officers as 
possible trained in advance in the prescribed methods of 
instruction. When units are undergoing marksmanship 
training for the first time, this is not always practicable nor 
is it absolutely necessary. A good instructor can give a clear 
idea of how to carry on the work in his lecture and demon- 
stration preceding each step. In the supervision of the work 
following the demonstration, he can correct any mistaken 
ideas or misinterpretations. 

b. When an officer in charge of rifle instruction (see par. 
55 d) is conducting successive organizations through target 
practice, it is advisable to attach to the first organization 
taking the course officers and noncommissioned officers of the 
companies that are to follow for the period of preparatory 
work and for a few days of range firing. These act as assist- 
ant instructors when their own companies take up the work. 
Such assistants are particularly useful when one group is 
firing on the range and another is going through the prepara- 
tory exercises, both under the supervision of one instructor. 



210 




U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



166-169 



■ 166. Equipment. — The instructor should personally inspect 
the equipment for the preparatory exercises before the train- 
ing begins. A set of model equipment should be prepared 
in advance by the instructor for the information and guid- 
ance of the organization about to take up the preparatory 
work. The sighting bars must be made as described, and 
the hole representing the peep sight must be absolutely cir- 
cular. If the sights are made of tin the holes should be 
bored by a drill. Good rear sights can be made for the 
sighting bars by using cardboard and cutting the holes with 
a punch for cutting wads for 10-gage shotgun shells. Bull’s- 
eyes painted on a white disk are not satisfactory. Bull’s-eyes 
cut out of black paper with a shotgun-wad cutter and pasted 
on white paper make satisfactory aiming points either to 
paste on the face of the disk or to use in position and trigger- 
squeeze exercises, when small gallery targets are not available 
for this purpose. 

■ 167. Inspection of Rifles.— No man is required to fire 
With an unserviceable or inaccurate rifle. All rifles should 
be carefully inspected far enough in advance of the period 
of training to permit organization commanders to replace 
all inaccurate or defective rifles. Rifles having badly pitted 
barrels are not accurate and should not be used. 

■ 168. Ammunition. — The best ammunition available should 
be reserved for record firing, and the men should have a 
chance to learn their sight settings with that ammunition 
before record practice begins. Ammunition of different 
makes and of different lots should not be used indiscrimi- 
nately. 

■ 169. Organization of Work. — a. In preparatory fram- 
ing. — (1) The field upon which the preparatory work is 
to be given should be selected in advance and a section of 
it assigned to each organization. The equipment and appa- 
ratus for the work should be on the ground and in place 
before the morning lecture is given, so that each organization 
can move to its place and begin work immediately and with- 
out confusion. 

(2) Each company should be organized in two lines facing 
away from each other. In this way the officers and other 



211 




169 



TJ. S, RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



instructors, whose position is normally between the lines, 
have all of their squads under close supervision. In figure 
57 the groups represented consist of 8 men each. 

(3) The arrangement of the equipment is as follows: 

(a) On each line are placed the sighting bars and rifle 
rests at sufficient intervals to permit efficient work. 

200 yd aiming targets 

d] HU □ □ 1 



Aiming ±— 

boxes. — » i 

Rifle f — f — 1 

Rests — ► 


14— 

□ 

Group 

OD 

Center line. 


•14 M 14 

□ 

Group 

CD 

One-half 


□"] I 

or 


ED 


company on each side 

nn m 


ml 




Group 


Group 


^ t ■ 

s 

1 


□ 


□ 


□ 


q 

200 yds- 


□ 


mu 


1 — l 


cn 



Figure 57. — Portion of field laid out for sighting and aiming 

exercises. 



(b) Fifty feet from each line is placed a line of small 
boxes with blank paper tacked on one side, one box and 
one small sighting disk to each rifle rest. 

(c) Two hundred yards from each line is placed a line 
of frames suitable for 200-yard shot group exercises, one 



212 




TJ. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



169 



frame to each squad. These frames have blank paper 
tacked or pasted on, the front. A 10-inch sighting disk is 
placed with each frame. Machine-gun targets, make accept- 
able frames for this work. 

(4) In position, trigger-squeeze, and rapid-fire exercises 
targets should be placed at 1,000 inches and 200 yards. The 
groups represented in figure 58 consist of 8 men each. 

(5) When sufficient level ground is not available for the 
above arrangement, the organizations will have to vary from 

“D” Targets 

200 yds 

1000-inch Targets 
1000 " 

“Firing Line” 

25 yds 

Tape Line, Start of 25 yd. Rush 
Center Rifle Racks 
Tape line, start of 25 yd rush. 
25 Yds. 

"Firing line” 

1000 " 

1000-inch Targets 
200 Yds. 

"D" Targets 

Figure 58. — Portion of field laid out for position, trigger squeeze, 
and rapid fire exercises. 

it in some particulars. It will usually be found, however, 
that all of the work except the long-range shot group work 
can be carried on in two lines. 

b. In range practice. — (1) The range work should be so 
organized that there is a minimum of lost time on the part 
of each man. Long periods of inactivity while awaiting a 
turn on the firing line should be avoided. For this reason 
the number of men on the range should be accommodated to 
the number of targets available. 

(2) As a general rule six men per target are about the 
maximum and four men per target the minimum for effi- 
cient handling. 




213 




169-170 



TJ. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



(3) Subject to ammunition allowances the following method 
of carrying on range practice has been found to produce 
uniformly excellent results when the full allowance of time 
is devoted to the training: 

(a) Firing is begun by a group consisting of approximately 
half of each organization. This group is made up of those 
proved to be the best by the examination on preparatory 
work and those known to be good shots. The men who are 
not included in this first group make up all fatigue details 
and undergo additional preparatory training. 

(b) At the completion of instruction practice, all of the 
first group, except those few who have not been shooting 
well, fire for record. 

(c) When the first group has completed firing, the second 
group, made up of those who have not fired and those who 
were rejected from the first group, begin their firing. The 
men who have completed record firing perform all fatigue. 

(d) At the completion of instruction practice, all of this 
second group who have been shooting well and have a very 
good chance to qualify fire for record. 

(e) During the remainder of the allotted time the efforts 
of the officers and noncommissioned officers are concentrated 
on the men who were not ready to fire for record with the 
second group. This last group complete firing for record 
by the end of the allotted time for range practice. 

(4) When range facilities are such that the entire organi- 
zation can fire at one time without having more than four or, 
at the most, six men per target, the same general scheme 
as that outlined above may be applied. The details of such 
plan are as follows: 

(a) Firing is begun with ali of the men of the organization 
taking part. 

(£>) At the completion of instruction practice, all except 
those who have not been shooting well fire for record. 

(c) The efforts of the instructors are concentrated on the 
remainder of the organization for the rest of the allotted 
time. 

■ 170. Stoppage Due to Faulty Position. — Occasionally, 
stoppages have been experienced because the firer grasps the 
rifle with his left hand in such a manner as to cause pressure 



214 





U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



170-171 



on the operating rod with the fingers of the left hand. This 
prevents the bolt from moving far enough to the rear to 
permit proper feeding. Correction of the flrer’s position and 
loosening the grasp on the rifle with the fingers of the left 
hand will prevent recurrence. Instructors should explain 
the possibility of such a manually caused stoppage during in- 
struction in the position exercises. This type of stoppage is 
rarely experienced in firing and is easily and positively pre- 
vented by correct position. 

■ 171. Model Schedules. — The following schedules are sug- 
gested as guides for a course in preparatory marksmanship: 
a. Preparatory training — lecture and demonstration. 

Hours 
AM PM 



FIRST DAY 



First Step : Sighting and Aiming Exercise 

First sighting and aiming evercise 

Sight blackening and second sighting and aim- 
ing exercise 

Third sighting and aiming exercise 

Continuation of first three exercises to include 

long range shot group exercises 

Safety precautions 

SECOND DAY 

Second Step: Position Exercises 

Oun sling adjustment; trigger slack; holding the 

breath; general rules for positions 

Position exercise: 

Prone, including sandbag rest 

Sitting 

Kneeling 

Standing 

Third Step: Trigger-Squeeze Exercises 

Prone with and without sandbag 

Sitting 

Kneeling 

Standing 

THIRD DAY 



1 

1 

1 

1 



1 

% 



2 

1 



V4 

l 




Assuming positions rapidly 

Practical work assuming positions rapidly. 

Fourth Step: Rapid Fire Exercises 

Timing : 

Prone 

Sitting 

Kneeling 

Standing to prone 

Standing to sitting 

Standing to kneeling 

General review 




~2 



% 



Vt 




215 




171-172 



TJ. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



FOURTH DAY 

Fifth Step 

Score-book exercise 

Review trigger-squeeze exercises in all positions 

Review timing exercises in all positions 

Review rapid-fire exercises 

Examination of all men by platoon leaders in all 
preparatory subjects and exercises 1 



% 

% 



1 

l'/ 2 



1% 



iy 2 



1 Lack of proficiency disclosed by examination will be corrected 
at once by additional instruction. 

Note. — T he preparatory exercises are the same for all courses. 

b- Range practice . — The schedule of firing should be based 
upon a maximum of six men per target. The instruction 
practice firing outlined in paragraph 64 for each course is 
meant to serve as a guide. The amount of practice firing to 
be given and the number of shots to be fired at each range 
will be such as to secure the maximum training in conformity 
with conditions and the ammunition allowance. 

■ 172. Lectures and Demonstrations. — a. The lectures at 
the beginning of each step are an important part of the 
instructional methods. The lectures may be given to the 
assembled command or group undergoing preparatory rifle 
training up to and including a regiment or body of recruits 
of similar size. However, when a battalion takes up rifle 
training the talks and demonstrations as a rule are made by 
the captain or a lieutenant of each company. It is not 
necessary that they be expert shots. 

b. The notes on lectures which follow are to be used merely 
as a guide. The points which experience has shown to be the 
ones which usually require elucidation and demonstration are 
placed in side headings in italics. The notes which follow 
each heading are merely to assist the instructor in preparing 
his lecture. The lecturer should know in advance what he 
is going to say on the subject. Under no circumstances will he 
read over to a class the outlines for lectures contained herein, 
nor will he read a lecture prepared by himself. During the 
lecture the headlines in italics made out by himself serve 
as a guide as to the order in which the subjects are to be 
discussed. If he cannot talk interestingly and instructively 
on each subject without further reference to notes, he should 
not give the lectures at all. 



216 




U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



172-173 



c. It is important to show the men undergoing instruction, 
by explanation and demonstration, just how to go through the 
exercises and to tell them why they are given these exercises. 

■ 173. First Lecture: Sighting and Aiming. — a. The class is 
assembled in a building or natural amphitheater in the open 
where all can hear the instructor and see the demonstrations. 

b. The following equipment is necessary: 

1 sighting bar. 

1 rifle rest. 

1 rifle. 

1 small sighting disk. 

1 long range sighting disk. 

1 small box. 

Material for blackening sights. 

c. The following subjects are the ones usually discussed 
in the first lecture: 

(1) Value of knowing how to shoot. — (a) The rifle is the 
principal weapon of the Infantry in war. Expertness in its 
use gives the individual confidence and a higher morale. 

(b) Individual proficiency increases the efficiency of In- 
fantry as a whole. 

(c) Rifle firing is good sport. 

(2) Object of target practice. — (a) To teach men how to 
shoot. 

(b) To show them how to teach others. 

(c) To train future instructors. 

(3) Training to shoot well. — (a) Any man can be taught 
to shoot well. Shooting is a purely mechanical operation 
which can be taught to anyone physically fit to be a soldier. 

(b) It requires no inborn talent such as to play a violin 
or paint a picture. 

(c) There are only a few simple things to do to shoot 
well, but these things must be done in a manner exactly 
right. If they are done in a manner only approximately 
right, the results will be poor. 

(4) Method of instruction. — (a) The method of instruc- 
tion is the same as in teaching any mechanical operation. 

(b) The instruction is divided into steps. The man is 
taught each step and practices it before going to the next 



217 




173 



TJ. S. RIFLE. CALIBER .30, Ml 



step. When he has been taught all of the steps he is taken 
to the rifle range to apply what he has learned. 

(c) If he has been properly taught the various prepara- 
tory steps, he will do good shooting from the very beginning 
of range practice. 

(d) Explain coach-and-pupil method; why used. 

(5) Reflecting attitude of instructor. — If the instructor is 
interested, enthusiastic, and energetic, the men will be the 
same. If the instructor (squad or platoon leader) is inat- 
tentive, careless, and bored, the men will be the same and 
the scores will be low. 

(6) Examination of men on preparatory work. — Each man 
is examined in the preparatory work before going to the 
range. An outline of this examination is given in para- 
graph 62. 

(7) Method of marking blank form. — Explain blank form 
(par. 55/) . Explain marking system by the use of a black- 
board if available. 

(8) Five essentials to good shooting. — (a) Correct sight- 
ing and aiming. 

(b) Correct position. 

(c) Correct trigger squeeze. 

id) Correct application of rapid-fire principles. 

<e) Knowledge of proper sight adjustments. 

(9) Today’s work. — First step, sighting and aiming. 

(10) Demonstration of first sighting -and-uiming exer- 
cise. — Have a squad on stage or platform and show just how 
this exercise is carried on. 

(11) Blackening the sights. — Explain why and demonstrate 
how this is done. 

(12) Demonstration of second sighting-and-aiming exer- 
cise. — Assume that some of the squad have qualified in the 
first exercise. Put these men through the second sighting- 
and-aiming exercise and show just how it is done. 

(13) Demonstration of third sighting-and-aiming exer- 
cise. — (a) Assume that some of th'e squad have qualified in 
the second sighting-and-aiming exercise. Put these men 
through the third sighting-and-aiming exercise and show 
just how it is done. 



218 





U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



173-174 



(b) Show how the squad is organized by the coach-and- 
pupil method so as to keep each man busy all the time. 

(14) Long-range shot group work. — Show the class the 
disk for 200 -yard shot group work. Explain how this work 
is carried on and why. Show some simple system of signals 
that may be used. 

(15) Final word. — (a) Start keeping your blank form today. 

(b) Organize your work so that all men are busy at all 

times. 

(16) Are there any questions? 

(17) Next lecture will be (State hour and 

place.) 

■ 174. Second Lecture: Position. — a. The following equip- 
ment is necessary for the demonstrations in this lecture: 

1 rifle with sling. 

1 sandbag. 

1 box with small aiming target. 

1 aiming device. 

b. The following subjects are the ones usually discussed in 
the second lecture: 

(1) Importance of each step.— (.a) Each step includes all 
that has preceded. 

(b) Each step must be thoroughly learned and practiced 
or the instruction will not be a success. 

(2) Necessity for correct positions. — No excellent shot 
varies from the normal positions. Pew men with poor posi- 
tions are even fair shots. Pew men with good positions are 
poor shots. Instruction in positions involve correct aiming. 

(3) Gun sling. — Demonstrate both of the gun-sling adjust- 
ments and explain why they are used and when each is used. 

(4) Taking up slack. — Show the class the slack on the 
trigger. Explain why it is taken up in the position exercises. 
(Cannot begin to squeeze the trigger until the slack has 
been taken up.) 

(5) Holding breath. — Explain the correct manner of hold- 
ing the breath and have the class practice it a few times. 
Explain how the coach observes the pupils’ breathing by 
watching their backs. 

(6) Aiming device. — Show how it is placed on the rifle 
and how it is used. 



219 




174 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



(7) Position of thumb. — May be either over the stock or 
on top of the stock but never along the side of the stock. 
Explain why. 

(8) Joints of finger. — Trigger may be pressed with first 
or second joint; second joint preferable when it can be done 
conveniently. 

(9) Prone position. — (a) Demonstrate correct prone posi- 
tion, calling attention to the elements which go to make 
up a correct prone position; gun sling properly adjusted, 
body at the correct angle, legs spread well apart, position of 
the butt on the shoulder, position of the hands on the rifle, 
position of cheek against the stock, position of elbows. 

(b) Mention the usual faults which occur in prone 
position. 

(c) Demonstrate the correct position again. 

(10) Sandbag rest position. — (a) Demonstrate in the 
same manner as described above for prone position. 

(b) Demonstrate coach adjusting sandbag to the pupil. 

(11) Sitting position. — Demonstrate in the same manner 
as described above for the prone position. 

(12) Kneeling position. — Demonstrate in the same manner 
as described above for the prone position. 

(13) Standing position.- — Demonstrate in the same manner 
as described above for the prone position. 

(14) Today’s work; position exercises. — (a) Demonstrate 
the duties of a coach in a position exercise, calling attention 
to each item. 

(b) Demonstrate the position of the coach. Always 
placed so that he can watch the pupil’s finger and eye. 

(c) Place a squad on an elevated platform and show how 
the squad leader organizes it by employing the coach-and- 
pupil method so as to keep every man occupied. 

( d ) Continue the long-range triangle work today. 

(15) Do not squeeze trigger today. — Take up the slack in 
these exercises but do not squeeze the trigger. 

(16) Keep blank forms up-to-date. — Examine each man 
in the squad at the end of the day’s work and assign him 
a mark. 

(17) Are there any questions? 

(18) Next lecture will be (State 

hour and place.) 



220 





U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



175 



■ 175. Third Lecture: Trigger Squeeze. — a. The following 
equipment is necessary for the demonstration: 

1 rifle with sling. 

1 aiming device. 

1 sandbag. 

1 box with small aiming target . 

b. The following subjects are the ones usually discussed 
in the third lecture: 

(1) Trigger squeeze most important . — Read paragraph 59. 
Explain that there is only one correct method of squeezing 
the trigger — a steady increase of pressure so that the firer 
does not know when the explosion will take place. Em- 
phasize the fact that this method of squeezing the trigger 
secures good results and must be applied in rapid fire. 
Explain that in slow fire at stationary targets the expert 
shot learns to increase the pressure on his trigger only when 
the sights are in correct alinement on the target. When 
the sights become slightly out of alinement, he holds what he 
has with the finger and only continues the increase of pres- 
sure when the sights again become properly alined. 

(2) Sandbag rest . — Explain why it is used in trigger-squeeze 
exercise. 

(3) Machine rest example . — Lay the rifle on a table point- 
ing down the room and toward an imaginary target; assume 
that it is in a machine rest which runs on a track parallel 
to the line of targets; assume that you fire a shot which hits 
the left edge of a 36-inch bull’s-eye, 1,000 yards away; then 
move the rifle 36 inches to the right on the table as if it 
were sliding along the parallel track and assume that an- 
other shot is fired. Where does it hit? Answer: The right 
edge of the bull’s-eye. Move the rifle backward and for- 
ward between these two positions and assume a shot is fired 
anytime while it is moving. Where will it hit? Answer: 
In the bull’s-eye. Now assume that you hold the butt of 
the rifle still and move the muzzle a fraction of an inch. 
Where will it hit? Answer: It will miss the whole target. 
It hits the target when the whole rifle moves but misses it 
when only one end moves. 

(4) Pulsations of body . — The natural movements of the 
body and its pulsations produce more or less parallel move- 



240321 • — 40 - 



15 



221 




175 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, MI 



ment of the rifle. Very often men who are apparently very 
unsteady make good scores. You thus see that if you squeeze 
the trigger so as not to know when the rifle will go off, 
the shot is displaced only by the amount of the parallel 
movement and will be a good one. But if you give the 
trigger a sudden jerk you deflect one end of the rifle, and 
the shot will be a poor one. 

(5) Aim and hold. — Any man can easily learn to hold a 
good aim for 15 to 20 seconds, which is a much longer period 
than is necessary to Are a well-aimed shot. Poor shots are 
usually the men who spoil their aim when they fire the 
rifles. 

(6) Coach squeezing trigger . — (a) The fact that when 
the coach squeezes the trigger for the firer the shot is almost 
invariably a good one proves that poor shooting is princi- 
pally due to errors in the trigger squeeze. 

(b) It is not necessary for the coach to watch the sights 
through the aiming device. By watching the flrer’s back 
he knows when the firer is aiming and then presses steadily 
on the trigger. Demonstrate how it is done. 

(7) When rifle goes off before man is ready. — Often a 
man who has been doing poor shooting will state upon firing 
a shot, “I cannot call that shot. It went off before I was 
ready.” Almost invariably these shots are well-placed. His 
poor shooting has been caused by “getting ready” for them. 

(8) Calling shot . — Explain calling the shot and why it is 
done. 

(9) Today’s iwrk; trigger-squeeze exercise. — (a) Demon- 
strate the duties of a coach in a trigger-squeeze exercise by 
calling attention to each item. 

(b) The work is carried on as in position exercises with the 
squeezing of the trigger added. 

(c) Practice only in the prone position this morning, first 
with then without the sandbag. 

(d) Finish up the making of long-range shot group work 
today. 

(10) Keep blank form up to date. — Examine each man in 
the squad at the end of the day’s work and assign him a 
mark. 



222 




U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



175-176 



(11) Final word. — Do not let yourselves become bored with 
this work. It is easy to learn, but it takes a lot of practice 
to train the muscles and to get in the habit of doing the right 
thing without thinking. 

(12) Are there any questions? 

(13) Next lecture will be (State 

hour and place.) 

■ 176. Fourth Lecture: Rapid Fire. — a. The following equip- 
ment is necessary for the demonstrations: 

1 rifle with gun sling. 

2 clips of corrugated-type dummy cartridges. 

b. The following subjects are the ones usually discussed in 
the fourth lecture: 

(1) Rapid fire true test of good shot. — -Superiority of fire 
in battle depends on the ability to deliver rapid and accurate 
fire. Both are required and are obtained by careful training. 

(2) Trigger squeeze same as in slow fire. 

(3) Meaning of rapid fire. — -Rapid fire is merely continuous 
file. The rapidity comes from the development of timing in 
firing, reloading the clips into the receiver smoothly, and 
keeping the eye on the target. 

(4) Keeping eye on target. — Explain the advantages of this 
and how it gains time. 

(5) Application in war. — Explain the advantage of keeping 
the eye on the target in combat. 

(6) Timing exercise. — (a) Explain timing in rapid fire. 

(b) Demonstrate timing. 

(7) Operation of bolt in rapid-fire exercise. — Show how the 
coach presses the operating handle with a sharp motion, and 
then releases the pressure to permit the operating handle to 
go forward each time the pupil squeezes the trigger in the 
prone, sitting, and in the kneeling positions. Call attention 
to the details in each case. 

(8) Necessity for rapid-fire practice. — (a) A natural 
rhythm in firing on the part of a soldier materially increases 
his rapid-fire scores and his efficiency in battle. 

(b) Practice in loading clips of cartridges into the receiver 
also is necessary. 



223 




176-177 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



(9) Assuming positions rapidly. — (a) The prone position 
can be assumed and an aimed shot fired more rapidly than 
from any other position. 

(b) Application in combat. 

(c) Demonstrate rapid-fire exercise, standing to prone, 
standing to kneeling, and standing to sitting, first by the 
numbers and then as one smooth movement. 

(d) Even if it takes a few seconds longer get into the cor- 
rect position before starting to shoot. 

(10) Today’s work; rapid-fire exercise. — (a) Explain how 
exercises are to be carried on. 

(b) Demonstrate the duties of a coach in a rapid-fire exer- 
cise, calling attention to each item. 

(c) First period today will be given to rapid fire timing 
exercise and it will be repeated in short periods from time 
to time until each man is proficient. 

(11) Keep blank forms up to date. — Examine each man in 
the squad at the end of the day’s work and assign him a 
mark. 

(12) Are there any questions? 

(13) Next lecture will be (State 

hour and place.) 

■ 177. Fifth Lecture: Effect of Wind and Light; Sight 
Changes; Score Book. — a. This part of the preparatory in- 
struction can be given on any day in which the weather forces 
the work to be done indoors. If no bad weather occurs, this 
work should follow rapid-fire Instruction. 

b. The following equipment is necessary for the demon- 
strations : 

(1) One A, B, and D target for each range at which each 
of these targets is to be used in range practice. These targets 
to be mounted on a frame and marked with the proper wind- 
age and elevation lines. 

(2) Eight spotters that can readily be stuck into the target. 

(3) Each man to have his rifle and a score book. 

c. The following subjects are the ones usually discussed 
in the fifth lecture : 

(1) Targets. — (a) Explain the divisions on the target and 
give the dimensions of each. 



224 




IT. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



177-178 



(b) Call attention to windage and elevation lines. Have 
class compare them with diagram in the score book. Explain 
why lines are farther apart as the range increases. 

(2) Weather conditions. — All weather conditions disre- 
garded except wind. 

(3) Wind. — (a) Explain how the direction of the wind is 
described. 

(b) Explain how the velocity of the wind is estimated. 

(c) Explain the effect of wind. Effect increases with dis- 
tance from target. 

(4) Windage for first shot. — Show windage diagram in 
W. D., A. G. O. Form No. 82 (Individual Score Book), and 
explain its use. 

(5) Wind-gage rule. — State rule and explain it. 

(6) Elevation rule. — State rule and explain it. 

(7) Light. — Explain effect. 

(8) Mirage. — Tell what it is and how it assists riflemen. 

(9) Shooting up or dorm hill. — (a) Explain the effect on 
elevation. 

(b) Remember this rule when shooting at hostile airplane. 

(10) Scorebook. — (a) Explain the uses of scorebook on 
range. 

(b) Have class open scorebooks and explain items of 
keeping a score point by point. 

(11) Exercises. — Give the class a number of small prob- 
lems as a demonstration as to how the day’s work is to be 
carried on. 

(12) Today’s work. — (a) Study and practice in sight set- 
ting, sight changing, and the use of scorebook. Squad lead- 
ers and other instructors will work up problems for their 
groups. Coach-and-pupil method is also used in which the 
coach states the conditions for the pupil. 

(b) Additional practice in the exercises of the preceding 
days and rapid-fire exercises. 

(13) Are there any questions? 

(14) Next lecture will be (State 

hour and place.) 

■ 178. Sixth Lecture: Range Practice. — Tnis lecture and 
demonstration should immediately precede range firing. If 



225 




178 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, MI 



the class is not too large, it should be given on a firing point 
of the rifle range. 

a. The following equipment is necessary for the demon- 
strations : 

1 rifle with gun sling. 

1 sandbag. 

1 aiming device. 

Material for blackening sight. 

Corrugated-type dummy cartridges (par. 18). 

b. The following subjects are the ones usually discussed 
in the sixth lecture: 

(1) Preparatory work applied. — Range practice is carried 
on practically the same as a trigger-squeeze exercise except 
that ball cartridges are used. 

(2) Coaching. — Coach watches the man not the target. 
Coach does not keep the score for the pupil. Pupil must 
make his own entries in his scorebook. Coach sees that he 
does this. 

(3) Officers and noncommissioned officers. — (a) Supervise 
and prompt the men acting as coaches. 

(b) Personally coach pupils who are having difficulty in 
making good scores. 

(4) Spotters. — (a) Use in both slow and rapid fire. 

(b) If a spotter near the edge of the bull’s-eye bothers the 
pupil in aiming, it may be removed before he fires again. 

(5) Sandbag rest. — (a) Explain why it may be used in 
special cases. 

(b) Demonstrate a coach adjusting the sandbag to a pupil 
who requires special instruction. 

(6) Watching the eye. — Explain how this indicates 
whether or not the pupil is squeezing the trigger properly. 

(7) Position of coach. — Demonstrate in each one of the 
positions. 

(8) Demonstration of coaching in slow fire. — (a) Place a 
man on the firing point and show just what a coach does by 
calling attention to each item. See paragraph 70 d (6) . 

(b) Demonstrate the use of the aiming device. 

(c) Demonstrate the use of dummy cartridges in slow fire. 

(d) Demonstrate coach squeezing the trigger for pupil. 

(9) Demonstration of coaching in rapid fire. — Same proce- 
dure as in paragraph 70 e. 



226 




U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, MI 



178-180 



(10) Use of corrugated type dummy cartridges in rapid 
fire. — Show how dummy cartridges are mixed with service 
cartridges for rapid-fire training and explain why this is done. 

(11) Read final precautions for slow fire. — See paragraphs 
69 and 70. 

Section IV 

MARKSMANSHIP; AIR TARGETS 

■ 179. Preliminary Preparation. — a. The officer in charge of 
rifle antiaircraft training should be thoroughly familiar with 
the subject; should have detailed sufficient officers as assistant 
instructors; and should train the assistant instructors and a 
demonstration group before the first training period. 

b. He should inspect the range and equipment in sufficient 
time prior to the first training period to permit correction 
of deficiencies. 

■ 180. Description of Miniature Range. — a. Targets .- — (1) 
Horizontal. — This target is designed to represent a sleeve 
target towed by an airplane flying parallel to the firing point. 

(2) Double diving and climbing. — This target is in two 
sections. The right section is designed to represent a sleeve 
target towed so as to pass obliquely across the front of the 
firing line in the manner of an airplane diving, if run from 
left to right, or climbing, if run from right to left. The left 
section is the same but represents an airplane diving from 
right to left and climbing from left to right. 

(3) Overhead. — This target is designed to represent a sleeve 
target towed by an airplane which is approaching the firing 
line and will pass overhead, or when run in the opposite 
direction represents an airplane that has passed over the 
firing line. 

b. Size and speed of silhouette. — The black silhouette is a 
representation at 500 inches of a 15-foot sleeve at a range of 
330 yards. It is 7.5 inches long. The speed of the silhouette 
should be between 15 and 20 feet per second- This speed 
represents that of an airplane flying between 150 and 200 
miles per hour at a range of 200 yards. The size and speed 
of the silhouette are based upon the time of flight of the 
caliber .22 bullet for 500 inches. This time of flight is approxi- 
mately 0.04 second. When the target is moving at a speed 



227 




180-182 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



of 15 feet or 180 inches per second, it will move 180X.04 or 
7.2 inches. Therefore in order to hit the silhouette, the aim 
must be directed approximately one silhouette length in front 
of it. If two or three target-length (silhouette lengths) 
leads are used, the shot will hit in the appropriate scoring 
spaces. This does not hold equally true on the overhead 
target. If the shot is fired when the range is less than 500 
inches from the firer, the lead necessary will be less than 
one target length. 

■ 181. Preparatory Exercises. — a. A method of conducting 
the preparatory exercises is given in paragraph 98. 

b. Each assistant instructor is assigned a target and con- 
ducts the preparatory training and firing of all groups on 
his target. 

c. In preparatory training coach and pupil should change 
places frequently. 

d. Forty-five minutes at each type of target should be 
sufficient to train each soldier in the preparatory exercises. 

e. A detail of one noncommissioned officer and four or 
six men should be provided to operate each type of target. 

■ 182. Miniature Range Firing.- — a. (1) Caliber .22 rifle . — 
(a) The rifle should have the open sight. 

(6) Two magazines for each caliber .22 rifle should be 
provided. 

(c) Ammunition should be available immediately in rear 
of the firing line at each type of target. 

(d) Coaches should load magazines as they become empty. 

(e) Scorers should be detailed for each type of target. 
After each score is fired, they score the target. They call off 
the number of hits made on each silhouette and pencil the 
shot holes. The coaches enter the scores on the firer’s score 
card. 

(/) A platform permitting the scorer to score the target 
should be provided for each type of target. 

(g) To stimulate interest, the instruction can be concluded 
with a competition between individuals, squads, or training 
groups. 

( h ) If available, targets as shown in figure 59 may be used 
on nonoverhead targets for group firing or competitions. Only 
one target-length lead may be used in firing on this target. 



228 




tT. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



182 



( t ) Considerable supervision Is required in order to main- 
tain target operation at the proper speed. This speed is 
necessary because the lead is based upon a speed of from 
15 to 20 feet per second. 

(?) Safety precautions must be constantly observed. 

(2) Caliber .30 Ml rifle . — If the size of the danger area 
permits, the caliber .30 rifle may be fired on the miniature 



-!2iV 




—iii'C- 

Figure 59. 



range. Such firing may be conducted in the same manner 
as with the caliber .22 rifle with the following exceptions: 
(a) Sight over the top of the rear sight and front sight. 
<b) The lead necessary to hit the black silhouette is ap- 
proximately 2.5 inches. This is due to the difference in the 
time of flight of the caliber .30 and caliber .22 bullets for 
500 inches. The time of flight of the caliber .30 bullet for 



229 




182-183 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



500 inches is 0.015 second. When the target is operated at 
the speed of 15 or 20 feet per second, the silhouette will 
move approximately 2.5 inches during the time of flight of 
the bullet. 

b. In sighting over the top of the rear sight and front 
sight, the line of aim is lower than the trajectory of the 
bullet. Therefore it will be necessary to aim low in order 
to hit the silhouette. 

c. Men must be constantly cautioned to keep the weight 
of the body forward. 

d. Preparatory exercises using the caliber .30 rifle should 
precede firing that weapon. These exercises are conducted 
as explained for the caliber .22 rifle. 

e. The interval between individuals on the firing line 
should be increased. This may be accomplished by placing 
only one-half the group on the firing line at one time. 

■ 183. Towed-Target Firing. — a. Range organization. — (1) 
Individual firing at a towed target being impracticable, all 
firing is done by a unit of such size that its fire can be 
readily controlled and directed. The platoon is the most 
convenient unit for such firing. 

(2) An ammunition line should be established 10 yards in 
rear of the firing line. Small tables at the rate of one 
per ten men in a firing group are desirable. 

(3) Immediately in rear of the ammunition line the ready 
line should be established. 

(4) The first platoon or similar group to fire is deployed 
along the ready line with each individual in rear of his 
place on the firing line. Other platoons or similar groups 
are similarly deployed in a series of lines in rear of the 
first unit to fire. 

(5) Upon command of the officer in charge, the group 
on the ready line moves forward to the firing line securing 
ammunition en route; other groups close up. 

(6) Upon completion of firing by one group it moves off 
the firing line, passing around the flanks of the ready line 
so as not to interfere with the group moving forward. 

(7) An ammunition detail sufficient to issue ammunition 
to groups as they move forward to the firing line and collect 
unfired ammunition from the group which just completed 



230 




U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



183 



firing should be provided. These two operations should be 
performed simultaneously. Unfired ammunition is delivered 
to the statistical officer. 

(8) The officer in charge should have at least three assist- 
ants — two safety officers and one statistical officer. 

b. Ammunition. — (1) Ball or tracer ammunition may be 
used. Tracer ammunition is useful to show the groups wait- 
ing to fire the size and density of the cone of fire delivered 
by the firing group. 

(2) Tracer ammunition will assist the officer in charge in 
verifying the lead announced in the fire order. It also pro- 
vides a means of checking the ftrer’s estimate of the lead 
ordered. 

c. Technique of fire. — (1) Leads. — (a) The lead used in 
the technique of fire described in paragraph 95a (1) is the 
average of two theoretical extremes. For example: If the 
maximum slant range to a passing airplane is 600 yards and 
the minimum slant range is 300 yards, the lead used would 
be that required for a slant range of 450 yards. Fire is de- 
livered with one fixed lead in order to simplify the pro- 
cedure. Experience indicates such a techique is readily 
taught and that it is effective. 

(b) The lead table given below may be helpful. It is 
based upon a 15-foot sleeve towed at 200 miles per hour 
and caliber .30 M2 ammunition. 



Lead 

Slant range : required 

100 2 

200 5 

300 8 

400 11 

500 14 

600 18 



(2) Methods . — (a) Normal . — The normal method of fire 
distribution is given in chapter 4. This method will be taught 
in towed-target range practice. If time and ammunition al- 
lowances permit, other methods may also be taught. 

(b) Variable lead. 

1. Using this method the individual rifleman fires each 
shot with a different lead. The maximum lead is 



231 




183-184 



TJ. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



used as the target enters and leaves the firing 
area. The minimum lead is used when the target 
is directly opposite the firing line. Example : Three 
rounds are to be fired as the sleeve target passes 
across the front of the firing line. The first round 
is fired shortly after the target enters the firing 
area; the second round is fired when the target is 
near the center of the firing area; the third shot 
is fired shortly before the sleeve leaves the firing 
area. The fire order given by the officer in charge 

is; 1. SLEEVE TARGET APPROACHING FROM THE LEFT 
(RIGHT), 2. 3 ROUNDS LOAD, 3. 14-8-14 TARGET-LENGTH 

leads, 4. COMMENCE FIRING. In this example it 
is expected that the three shots will be fired at 
slant ranges of approximately 500 yards, 300 yards, 
and 500 yards, respectively. 

2. This method has given good results but is more diffi- 
cult to apply than the normal method. 

(3) Precautions . — Safety precautions as given in para- 
graph 108 must be rigidly enforced. This requires constant 
supervision by the officer in charge. 

(4) Record . — The results of all towed-target firing should 
be recorded and analyzed. The statistical officer should 
record the total number of rounds fired and the hits obtained 
on each target. If the number of hits falls below the number 
expected, the reason should be sought and explained to 
the men. On the other hand when results are satisfactory 
the men should be impressed with the value of rifle antiair- 
craft fire. 

Section V 

TECHNIQUE OF FIRE 

■ 184. General. — The instructor should secure necessary 
equipment, inspect ranges, and detail and train necessary 
assistants, including demonstration units, prior to the first 
period of instruction. Instructors should use their initiative 
in arranging additional exercises in the application of the 
principles herein contained. It should be explained to 
trainees how the exercises used illustrate the principles in the 
technique of fire. Good work in the conduct of the exercises 



232 




U. S. RIPLE, CALIBER .3 0, Ml 



184-185 



os well as errors should be called to the attention of all 
trainees. 

■ 185. Range Estimation. — a. A number of ranges to promi- 
nent points on the terrain should be measured so that a few 
minutes of each period can be devoted to range estimation. 

b. Range cards as shown below will be of assistance in 
figuring percentage of errors. 

RANGE ESTIMATION 



Name 

Company. 
Squad 



Num- 

ber 


Esti- 

mate 


Cor- 

rect 


% 


Remarks 


Num- 

ber 


Esti- 

mate 


Cor- 

rect 


% 


Remarks 


1 










21 










2 










22 










3 










23 










4 








_ 


24 
















185 



TJ. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



TABLE FOR COMPUTING ERRORS IN RANGE 
ESTIMATION 



Range in 
yards 


Error in yards 


5 


10 


15 


20 


25 


30 | 35 | 40 


45 


50 | 100 


250 


2 


4 


6 


8 


10 


12 


14 


16 


18 


20 


40 


275 


2 


4 


* 5 


8 


6 


11 


13 


15 


16 | 18 | 36 


300 


2 


3 


5 


7 1 


8 


10 


12 


13 


15 j 17 | 33 


330 


2 


3 


5 


6 1 


8 


9 


il 


12 


14 


15 


30 


350 


1 


3 


4 


0 1 


7 


9 


10 


11 


13 


14 


29 


380 


1 


3 


4 


ft 


7 


8 


9 


11 


12 


13 


26 


400 


l 


3 


4 


5 


6 


8 


9 


10 


11 


13 


25 


420 


1 


2 


4 


5 1 


6 


7 


8 


10 


11 


12 


24 


440 


1 


2 


3 


4 1 


6 


7 


8 ! 9 


10 


11 


23 


460 


1 


2 


3 


4 1 


5 


7 


8 1 9 


10 


11 


22 


480 


1 


2 


3 


4 1 


5 


6 


7 


3 


9 


10 


21 


500 


1 


2 


3 


1* 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


20 


520 


1 


2 


3 


4 ! 


5 


B 


7 


8 


9 


10 


19 




1 


2 


3 


4 l 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


19 


560 


1 


2 


3 


4 i 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


18 


580 


1 


2 


3 


3 ! 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


17 


600 


1 


2 


3 


3 i 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


8 


17 


620 


1 


2 


2 


3 1 


4 


5 


5 


6 


7 


8 


IS 


640 


1 


2 


2 


3 i 


4 


5 


* 


6 


7 


8 


16 


660 


1 


2 


2 


3 1 


4 


5 


5 


6 


7 


8 


15 


680 


1 


1 


2 


3 1 


4 


4 


5 


c 


7 


8 


15 


700 


1 


1 


2 


3 1 


3 j 4 


5 


6 


6 


7 


14 


720 


1 


1 


2 


3 i 


3 | 4 


5 


6 


6 


7 


14 


740 


1 


1 


2 


3 | 


3 


4 


5 


6 


6 


7 


14 


760 


0 


1 | 2 


3 i 


3 


4 


5 


5 


6 


7 


13 


780 


0 


1 


2 


3 ! 


3 


4 


4 


5 


6 


6 | 13 


800 


0 


1 


2 


3 i 


3 


4 


4 | 5 


6 


fi | 13 


850 


0 


1 


2 


2 | 3 


3 


4 | 5 


5 


6 | 12 


900 


0 


1 


2 


2 1 


3 


3 


■*> 

-U 

04 


6 1 11 


950 


0 


1 


2 


2 | 3 


3 


4 


4 


5 


5 | 11 


1,000 


0 


1 


2 


2 ' 


3 


3 


4 


4 


5 


5 | 10 



Note --E xample cf the use of this table: Suppose the correct range to be 695 yards 
and the estimated range to be 635. The “error in estimate” is consequently 60 yards. 
Select two “errors in estimate” in the 700-yard space (the nearest to the correct 
range given in the table) whose sum is 60 yards, as 50 and 10. Add the percentages 
shown thereunder, and the result will be approximately your error. In this case: 



7 plus 1*8% 

234 















TJ. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, Ml 



186-190 



■ 186. Target Designation. — a. The major portion of the 
time devoted to target designation should be spent on oral 
description. Simple designations should be required at 
first. This instruction should not be confined to the land- 
scape panels. 

b. An explanation should be made to the trainees as to 
why an angle of 50 mils will be subtended by 1 foot at 20 
feet. 

■ 187. Rifle Fire and Its Effect. — This step of instruction 
can best be covered by the use of a blackboard and several 
riflemen firing tracer bullets to demonstrate the trajectory, 
danger space, dispersion, classes of fire, etc. 

■ 188. Application of Fire. — a. Sufficient time and explana- 
tion should be devoted to the method of fire distribution to 
insure that all men fully understand it and can explain it in 
their own words. 

b. A demonstration squad simulating firing should suffice 
to show the technique employed in assault fire. 

■ 189. Landscape-Target Firing. — a. An explanation and 
demonstration will be necessary to show the technique and 
procedure of zeroing rifles and the firing of exercises on the 
landscape targets. 

b. Units should be given practical work in writing fire 
orders for targets on the landscape panels prior to their 
firing of any exercises. 

■ 190. Field-Target Firing. — a. The most difficult factor 
in the preparation of problems for field firing is the selec- 
tion of the terrain which complies with the safety regula- 
tions contained in AR 750-10. A drawing should be made 
on a map showing all safety angles, target positions, etc. 

b. The appearance of the ordinary prone or kneeling sil- 
houette depends a great deal upon the direction of the sun. 
the background of the targets, and the angle at which the 
targets are placed. The effect of solidity can be obtained 
by using two figures placed at right angles to one another. 
The effect of fire distribution on a linear target can be 
determined by using a screen of E targets nailed end to end ; 
the screen should be located so as not to disclose the posi- 
tion of concealed targets. 



235 




190 



U. S. RIFLE, CALIBER .30, MI 



c. Maximum use should be made of the available terrain 
to permit the firing of as many squads from one firing 
position at one time as is possible. This firing should be 
controlled from a central position. Telephone communica- 
tion between the firing point and the pits will facilitate 
this instruction. During this type of training, individuals 
and units should approach and occupy their firing positions 
with due regard to cover and concealment, after which 
men are rearranged on the firing position according to the 
requirements of safety. 

d. When sufficient time and ammunition are available 
platoon exercises should be conducted. 



236 




INDEX 



Paragraph 

Accessories 38 

Adjust rear sight 29 

Advice to instructors 161 

Aiming : 

First lecture „ 173 

First step 57 

Aiming and leading exercises (second step) 100 

Air target marksmanship, preliminary training 179 

Air targets: 

Classification 91 

Suitable for rifle fire 90 

Ammunition 40, 168 

Care, handling, and preservation 44 

Cartridge, ball, caliber .30 45 

Classification 41 

Grade 43 

Lot number 42 

Precautions In firing blank 46 

Appendages 37 

Application: 

Fire 139, 188 

Leads ; 83 

Assault fire 141 

Assembling 9 

Assistant instructors 165 

Basic principles, fire at moving targets 82 

Beaten zone 135 

Blackening sights 56 

Bullets, tracer 128 

Use — - 122 

Care and cleaning of rifle: 

After firing 12 

In garrison and camp 10 

On range or in field 13 

Preparatory to: 

Firing 11 

Storage 14 

When received from storage 15 

Care in assembling and disassembling 6 

Care of ammunition 44 

Cartridge, ball, caliber .30 45 

Cartridge clip, to load 23 

Cartridges, dummy 18 

Classes of fire 136 

Classification : 

Air targets 91 

Ammunition 41 

Clear rifle 31 

Commanders, duties and equipment 54 

240321 ° — 40 16 237 



Page 

40 

34 

209 

217 

55 

151 

227 

142 

142 

45,211 

46 

47 

45 

46 
45 

47 
39 

189, 235 
137 
191 
14 

210 

136 

187 

55 

179 

176 



21 

19 
23 

20 

23 

24 
3 

46 

47 
31 

25 
187 

142 

45 

34 

51 




INDEX 



Paragraph 

Concentrated fire 140 

Conduct of mechanical training 162 

Continuous rifle practice 52 

Continuous small-bore practice 79 

Control of fire 144 

Courses : 

A, B, C, and D 64-67 

For small-bore practice 80 

To be fired 107 

Critique 159 

Cycle, description 19 

Definitions 117 

Delivery of fire 96 

Demonstrations 172 

Description : 

Cycle 19 

Landscape target 148 

Miniature range 180 

Rifle ! 2 

Targets, oral 130 

Designation, target 94, 186 

Determination of leads 83 

Disassembling 8 

Discipline, fire 143 

Dispersion 133 

Distributed fire : 140 

Distribution of fire 95 

Dummy cartridges, use 18 

Duties: 

Commanders 54 

Leaders 54, 146 

Effect of : 

Fire 137 

Rifle fire 187 

Wind (fifth step) 61 

Wind and light (fifth lecture) 177 

Employment of rifle units 81 

Equipment 166 

Markmanship training 73 

Of leaders and commanders 54 

Estimation by eye 124 

Examination of men before starting range practice 

(sixth step) 62 

Exercises 131, 138, 154, 160 

Aiming and leading (second step) 100 

Fire 158, 160 

Position (first step) 99 

Preparatory 98, 181 

Trigger squeeze (third step) 101 

Field glass, type EE 39 

Field target firing 190 

General considerations 157 

Scope of training 155 

Terrain, targets, and ranges 156 



Page 

190 

209 

51 

131 
193 

93-100 

132 
160 
206 

25 

174 

145 



25 

196 

227 

1 

180 
143, 235 
137 
3 
191 
187 
190 
144 
25 

51 

51, 195 



189 

235 

80 

224 

136 

211 

121 

51 

176 

88 

184, 189, 
200, 206 
151 
205, 206 
149 
147, 228 
153 
41 
235 
204 
202 
202 



238 




INDEX 



Fifth lecture; effect of wind and light, sight 

changes, score book 

Fifth step; effect of wind, sight changes, score book. 
Fire ; 

Application 139, 

Assault 

Classes 

Concentrated and distributed 

Control 

Delivery 

Discipline 

Distribution 

Effect 

Exercises 158, 

Observation 

Orders 

Rate 

Rifle 

Importance 

Technique 84, 92, 

At moving personnel 

Place In training 

Firepower 

Firing; 

Care and cleaning of rifle— 

After 

Preparatory to 

Field target 

Group 

Instruction 



Towed-target 106, 

First lecture; sighting and aiming 

First step; 

Position exercises 

Sighting and aiming 

Fourth lecture; rapid fire 

Fourth step; rapid fire 

Functioning of rifle, instruction in 16, 17 

Fundamentals of markmanship training 49 

Grade of ammunition 

Group firing 



graph 


Page 


177 


224 


61 


80 


188 


189, 235 


141 


191 


136 


187 


140 


190 


144 


193 


96 


145 


143 


191 


95 


144 


137 


189 


160 


205, 206 


123 


176 


145 


194 


142 


191 


27 


34 


118 


174 


184 


137, 142, 




232 


86 


138 


85 


138 


3 


1 


12 


21 


11 


20 


190 


235 


105 


158 


104 


157 


189 


235 


182 


228 


152 


161, 199 


183 


159, 230 


173 


217 



99 

57 

176 

60 



43 

105 



Handling of ammunition- 



44 



149 

55 

223 

73 

25,25 

50 

46 

158 

46 



Immediate action 34 ^ ^ '3:5- 

Instruction in 32, 33 35,35 

Importance of: 

Landscape target firing 147 195 

Range estimation 120 175 

Rifle Are 118 174 

Target designation 125 179 



239 





INDEX 



Paragraph Page 

Inspection of rifles 167 211 

Instruction : 

Firing 104 157 

Markmanship training 97 146 

Practice 70 104 

Recruit 53 51 

Functioning of rifle 16, 17 25, 25 

Immediate action 32, 33 35, 35 

Operation of rifle 20, 21 31,31 

Instructions to pilots for towing missions 115 166 

Instructors : 

Advice to 161 209 

Assistant 165 210 

Known-distance target 163 210 

Ranges 75 127 

Training 163 210 

Landscape target firing 189 235 

Scope and importance 147 195 

Weapons to be used 149 196 

Landscape targets, preparation 150 196 

Leaders : 

Duties 54, 146 51, 195 

Equipment 54 51 

Leads 93 143 

Determination and application 83 137 

Lectures 172-178 216 

Place of assembly for 164 210 

Load: 

Cartridge clip 23 31 

Rifle 24 32 

Lot number of ammunition 42 45 

Marksmanship training: 

Fundamentals 49 50 

Instruction in 97 146 

Necessity for 48 49 

Phases 50 50 

Practice seasons 51 50 

Preparatory 55 52 

Purpose 47 49 

Mechanical training, conduct 162 209 

Methods : 

Range estimation 121 175 

Target designation 127 179 

Miniature range 112 163 

Description 180 227 

Firing 182 228 

Practice 102 156 

Model schedules 171 215 

Moving personnel, fire at 86, 87 138, 139 

Moving targets and ranges 88 139 

Necessity for marksmanship training 48 49 

Nomenclature 7 3 



240 




INDEX 



Paragraph 

Object of small-bore practice 77 

Observation of fire 123 

Operate rifle as single loader 26 

Operation of rifle, instruction in 20, 21 

Oral description of targets 130 

Orders, fire 145 

Organization: 

Enlisted men 5 

Work 169 

Phases of marksmanship training 50 

Pointing, targets 129 

Position (second lecture) 174 

Position exercises (first step) 99 

Positions (second step) 58 

Practice seasons 51 

Precautions: 

In firing blank ammunition 46 

Range 89 

Safety - 30, 69, 103, 108 

Preliminary preparation, air target marksmanship. 179 

Preparation of landscape, targets 150 

Preparatory exercises 98, 181 

Preparatory marksmanship training 55 

Preservation of ammunition 44 

Procedure of firing 109, 152 

Qualification courses A, B, C, and D 64-67 

Range : 

Estimation 185 

Importance 120 

Methods 121 

Officer 111 

Miniature 112 

Practice 68 

Examination of men before starting (sixth 

step) 62 

Miniature 102 

Sixth lecture 178 

Precautions 89 

Towed-target 113 

Ranges 156 

Moving 88 

Rapid fire: 

Fourth lecture 176 

Fourth step 60 

Rate of fire 142 

Rear sight, to adjust 29 

Record practice 71 

Rules governing 72 

Recruit instruction 53 



Page 

131 

176 

33 

31,31 

180 

194 

3 

211 

50 

180 

219 

149 

61 

50 

47 
141 
34, 102, 
157, 160 
227 
196 
147, 228 
56 
46 

161, 199 
93 



233 

175 

175 

163 

163 

68 

88 

156 

225 

141 

165 

202 

139 

222 

73 

191 

34 

109 

117 

51 



241 




INDEX 



Paragraph Page 

Care and cleaning 10-15 19 

Description 2 1 

Functioning, instruction in 16, 17 25, 25 

Operation, instruction in 20, 21 31, 31 

To clear 31 34 

To fire 1 27 34 

To load 24 32 

To operate as single loader 26 33 

To set at safe 28 34 

To unload 25 32 

Rifle fire: 

Air targets suitable for 90 142 

Effect 187 235 

Importance 118 174 

Scope of training 119 174 

Rifle practice, continuous 52 51 

Rifles : 

Inspection 167 211 

Zeroing-in 151 198 

Safety precautions 30, 69, 103, 108 34, 102, 

157, 160 

Schedules, model 171 215 

Scope of training: 

Field target firing 155 202 

Landscape target firing 147 195 

Rifle fire 119 174 

Score book: 

Fifth lecture 177 224 

Use of (fifth step) 61 80 

Scoring 110, 153 163, 200 

Second lecture; position 174 219 

Second step: 

Aiming and leading exercisesJ 100 151 

Positions 58 61 

Set rifle at safe 28 34 

Shot groups 134 187 

Sight changes: 

Fifth lecture 177 224 

Fifth step 61 80 

Sighting and aiming (first step) 57 55 

Sighting and aiming (first lecture) 173 217 

Sights, blackening 56 55 

Signals 116 168 

Sixth lecture; range practice 178 226 

Sixth step; examination of men before starting 

range practice 62 88 

Small-bore practice: 

Continuous 79 131 

Courses 80 132 

Object 77 131 

Value i 78 131 

Spare parts 36 39 

Stoppage due to faulty position 170 214 



242 




INDEX 



Paragraph Page 

Stoppages 35 35 

Instruction in 32, 33 35, 35 

Storage, cleaning of rifle before and after 14, 15 23, 24 

Target : 

Designation 94, 186 143,235 

Importance 125 179 

Methods 127 179 

Landscape : 

Description 148 196 

Preparation 150 196 

Ranges, known-distance 75 127 

Targets 74, 156 126, 202 

Moving 88 139 

Towed 114 166 

Technique of Are 84, 92, 184 137, 142, 

232 

At moving personnel 86 138 

Place in training 85, 87 138, 139 

Terrain 156 202 

Third lecture; trigger squeeze 175 221 

Third step; trigger squeeze 59 70 

Exercises 101 153 

Topographical terms 126 179 

Towed-target : 

Firing — 106, 183 159,230 

Range 113 165 

Towed targets 114 166 

Towing missions, instructions to pilots for 115 166 

Tracer bullets 128 179 

Use 122 176 

Training: 

Marksmanship 47-50 49-50 

Mechanical, conduct 162 209 

Object 1 1 

Preparatory 55 52 

When taken up 4 1 

Trajectory 132 186 

Trigger squeeze: 

Third lecture 175 221 

Third step 59 70 

Exercises 101 153 

Unload rifle 25 32 

Use: 

Dummy cartridges 18 25 

Tracer bullets 122 176 

Value of small-bore practice 78 131 

Weapons to be used, fire at landscape target 149 196 

Wind, effect of (fifth step) 61 80 

Wind and light, effect of (fifth lecture) 177 224 

Work, organization of 169 211 

Zeroing-in of rifles 151 198 

Zone, beaten 135 187 

o 

243