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International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) 

Volume: 3 | Issue: 3 | Mar-Apr 2019 Available Online: e-ISSN: 2456 - 6470 

All Terrain Offensive and Defensive Robot 

Dr. M. Sampath Kumar 1 , Anchal Mohanty 2 , Meghana Beesu 2 , E. Sai Kiran 2 

Dissociate Professor, 2 B.Tech Student 

^Department of Mechanical Engineering, Guru Nanak Institute of Technology, 
WAffliated to JNTUH, Hyderabad, India 

How to cite this paper: Dr. M. Sampath 
Kumar | Anchal Mohanty | Meghana 
Beesu | E. Sai Kiran "All Terrain 
Offensive and Defensive Robot" 
Published in International Journal of 
Trend in Scientific Research and 
(ijtsrd}, ISSN: 2456- 
6470, Volume-3 | 

Issue-3, April 2019, 
pp.1438-1440, URL: 
https: //www.ijtsrd.c 




Generally, various risky tasks or certain difficult operations cannot be done 
completely by humans and thus there is need for change in present era. As 
robots play vital roles in different fields of industries, medical, colleges, home 
appliances, military and defence, thus robots can be good and effective option for 
such difficult purposes. The proposed work is to develop an ah terrain robot 
prototype. The robots which are presently in the market works on simple 
terrains while this project claims to make a prototype which can work on plain 
surfaces as well as rough surfaces such as forests, hilly and rocky areas. This 
project presents a offensive and defensive robot which uses different 
technologies like Arduino, Android Application, Bluetooth module and Laser 
Module. It develops a low voltage power supply, low cost and wireless robot 
prototype which is controlled using microcontroller and android application. 

Copyright © 2019 by authorfs] and 
International Journal of Trend in 
Scientific Research and Development 
Journal. This is an Open Access article 
distributed under 

KEYWORDS: Microcontroller, Arduino, Android Application, Bluetooth module and 
Laser Module 

the terms of the 
Creative Commons 
Attribution License (CC BY 4.0] 



Robotics is the branch of technology that deals with the 
design, construction, operation and application of robots, as 
well as computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, 
and information processing. These technologies deal with 
automated machines that can take the place of humans in 
appearance, behavior, and/or cognition. Many of today’s 
robots are inspired by nature contributing to the field of bio¬ 
inspired robotics. 

Robots have become a subject of great interest now-a-days. In 
our imagination, a robot is a machine that looks like a human 
being. Robots are in fact, defined as man-made mechanical 
devices that can move by themselves, whose motion must be 
modeled, planned, sensed, actuated and controlled, and 
whose motion behavior can be influenced by "programming". 

The concept of creating machines that can operate 
autonomously dates back to classical times, but research into 
the functionality and potential uses of robots did not grow 

substantially until the 20 ^ century. Throughout history, 
robotics has been often seen to mimic human behavior, and 
often manage tasks in similar fashion. Today, robotics is a 
rapidly growing field, as technological advances continue, 
research, design, and building new robots do jobs that are 
hazardous to people such as defusing bombs, mines and 
exploring shipwrecks. 

As strange as it might seem, there really is no standard 
definition for a robot. However, there are some essential 
characteristics that a robot must have and this might help you 
to decide what is and what is not a robot is. It will help you to 
decide what features you will need to build into a machine 
before it can count as a robot. 

A robot has these essential characteristics: 

> Sensing: First of all your robot would have to be able to 
sense itssurroundings. it would do this in ways that are 
not dissimilar to the way that you sense your 
surroundings. Giving your robot sensors [eyes], touch 
and pressure sensors [hands] taste sensors (tongue] 
will give your robot awareness of its environment. 

> Movement: A robot needs to be able to move around its 
environment. Whether rolling on wheels, walking on legs 
or propelling by thrusters a robot needs to be able to 
move. To count as a robot either the whole robot moves, 
like the sojourner or just parts of the robot moves, like 
the Canada arm. 

> Energy: A robot needs to be able power itself. A robot 
might be solar powered, electrically powered, battery 
powered. The way your robot gets its energy will 
depend on what your robot needs to do. 

> Intelligence: A robot needs some kind of "smarts."This 
is where programming enters the pictures. A 

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International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development [IJTSRD) @ elSSN: 2456-6470 

programmer is the person who gives the robot its 
‘smarts.’ The robot will have to have some way to 
receive the program so that it knows what it is to do. 

It is a system that contains sensors, control systems, 
manipulators, power supplies and software all working 
together to perform a task Designing, building, programming 
and testing a robot is combination of physics, mechanical 
engineering, electrical engineering, structural engineering, 
mathematics and computing. In some cases biology, medicine, 
chemistry might also be involved. A study of robotics means 
that students are actively engaged with all of these disciplines 
in a deeply problem-posing, problem-solving environment. 

ISSAC ASIMOV popularized the term Robotics. Asimov is a 
visionary who envisioned in the 1930’s the position brain for 
controlling robots. He invented three laws of robotics: 

^ A robot may not harm a human through action or 
inaction, allow human to come to harm. 

^ A robot must obey the orders given by human beings; 

expect such when orders conflict with the first law. 

^ A robot must protect its own existence as long as it does 
not conflict with first or second laws. 


Prototype robot which can navigate in very rough terrain, 
ascend and descend staircase as well as sloping surface and 
cross ditches. The robot is made up of six differentially 
steered wheels and some passive mechanism, making it 
suitable to cross long ditches and landscape undulation. 
Static stability of the developed robot have been carried out 
analytically and navigation capability of the robot is 
observed through simulation in different environment, 
separately. Description of embedded system of the robot has 
also been presented and experimental validation has been 
made along with some details on obstacle avoidance. Finally 
the limitations of the robot have been explored with their 
possible reasons. [1] 

Most of the military organization now takes the help of 
robots to carry out many risky jobs that cannot be done by 
the soldier. These robots used in military are usually 
employed with the integrated system, including video 
screens, sensors, gripper and cameras. The military robots 
also have different shapes according to the purposes of each 
robot. Here the new system is proposed with the help of low 
power Zigbee wireless sensor network to trace out the 
intruders [unknown persons) and the robot will take the 
necessary action automatically. Thus the proposed system, 
an Intelligent Unmanned Robot [IUR] using Zigbee saves 
human live and reduces manual error in defence side. This is 
specially designed robotic system to save human life and 
protect the country from enemies. [2] 

Modern approach for surveillance at remote and border 
areas using multifunctional robot based on current IOT used 
in defence and military applications. This robotic vehicle has 
ability to substitute the solider at border area t provide 
surveillance. The robotic vehicle works both as 
autonomous and manually controlled vehicle using internet 
communication medium. This multisensory robot used to 
detect presence of enemy capture it in camera and give the 
live streaming to the authorized person Surveillance is 
major role. This paper presents a smart surveillance robot 
for military application by using Raspberry Pi for security 
purpose. An field Raspberry pi sends a wireless command 

which is received by Authorized person on web Page and 
accordingly robot moves. [3] 


Robotic arm based robots were stationary. Previously used 
military robots were designed only for a single terrain track 
purpose and they did not have any kind of robotic arm. 


This project is divided into modules forbetterunderstanding 
of the circuit. The modules include Arduino UNO 
Microcontroller board, Motor driver, Servo motor, laser and 
an Wireless A\V Camera. The coding is done in Arduino 

Microcontroller is the heart of this project which controls the 
robot. Robot moves according to the input controls given by 
the microcontroller. Our proposed system All Terrain 
Offensive and Defensive robot uses Arduino UNO 
[microcontroller Atmega 328), DC motor drivers and Servo 
motor driver which drive the DC motors and servo motor 
respectively, Laser module to target and an Robotic Arm to 
pick up and drop bombs which is monitored by camera and 
the whole system is controlled via Bluetooth according to the 
commands given by the user. 


The figure below illustrates the overall control function of 
the system. The system is directly installed beside the 
conventional electrical switches on the wall. The strong light 
beam from the LASER gun which can either harm the target 
or just produce a spot to detect the target, an Robotic Arm to 
pick up and drop bombs which is monitored by camera and 
the whole system is controlled via Bluetooth according to the 
commands given by the user. Every component is connected 
to the Arduino such as Motor drivers, Servo motor driver, 
Laser module, Wireless A\V Camera and Bluetooth module 
which mainly controls the Robot direction. 


With the development of technologies especially in robotic 
technology, robots are predominant in many of the 
applications. Some of those are of highly risky type and 
hazardous areas. Military and battle field applications are 
now growing their usage of robots in some crucial and 
complicated tasks. Before going to the details about Robots 
with Laser gun, let us have quick understanding of LASER as 
a weapon. 

A LASER [Light Amplification by Simulation Emission) beam 
is actually a uni-directional strongly focused light unlike the 
one from a simple bulb. It consists of synchronized troughs 
and crests, i.e. the waves do not interfere with each other. 
This produces a strong focused light of very high power of 
the order of 1000 to 1 million times greater than a typical 

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International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD] @ elSSN: 2456-6470 

bulb light. It is device that controls the emission and 
absorption of the photons by pumping sufficient amounts of 
energy. In this, source of photons are amplified into a beam 
of light. The wave length of these lasers are varies into 
different spectrum like visible, infrared and ultraviolet. 

Principle behind the LASER revolves around three things; 
those are absorption, spontaneous emission and stimulated 
emission. An adequate amount of energy from the photon is 
interacts with the atom, causing the atom to jump from 
lower energy state to higher energy state. This atom is fall 
back to the lower energy state by emitting a photon called as 
spontaneous emission. In stimulated emission is the release 
of energy from the atom by artificial means, so the photon 
interacts with the excited atom, has the same energy and 
polarization as the incident photon. 

The robot while moving in the required direction shoots 
strong light beam from the LASER gun which can either 
harm the target or just produce a spot to detect the target. 
The LASER needs to be driven by some energy source. In a 
simple prototype design using a basic LASER pen, the device 
is driven by a transistor acting as a switch. The transistor 
receives low logic signal from the microcontroller and is in 
off condition, making the LASER module directly connected 
to the 5 V power supply. 

A robotic arm is a type of mechanical arm, usually 
programmable, with similar functions to a human arm; the 
arm may be the sum total of the mechanism or may be part 
of a more complex robot. The links of such a manipulator are 
connected by joints allowing either rotational motion (such 
as in an articulated robot] or translational (linear] 
displacement. The links of the manipulator can be 
considered to form a kinematic chain. The terminus of the 
kinematic chain of the manipulator is called the end 
effector, and it is analogous to the human hand. A typical 
robotic arm is made up of seven metal segments, joined by 
six joints. The computer controls the robot by rotating 
individual step motors connected to each joint. For difficult, 
dangerous tasks, a specialist in remote handling technology, 
has developed the disarming robot. The all-terrain mobile 
robot on caterpillar treads is controlled wirelessly via radio. 
Lead gel batteries provide it with power, which makes it 
completely independent. Because of the low center of 
gravity, the manipulator arm can lift up to 66 lbs securely. It 
is used for disposal of bombs in this project. 


8.1 Conclusion: 

The proposed robot has scope of widespread industrial, 
defense and home applications. It can be used to analyze the 
environment of a coal mine without any human intervention. 
It can also be employed in a hostage situation to pin point 
the exact location of terrorists with the help of LASER 
module, saving many lives during rescue mission. Various 
advantages of this system are its range of operation up to 
100m, secure data transfer can be done with the help of 
Bluetooth Module and Android Application. Entire project 
will help in Military and Defense operations such as human 
detection, distance measurement, obstacle detection and 
also due to their bug like wheels it can travel in all terrains. 

8.2 Future Scope: 

The Arduino used can be replaced by powerful regulatory 
circuits which are more efficient than Arduino UNO. The 
components used in our projects are confined to particular 
distance. The range can be increased by adapting new 
technologies byusingArdunio Lily Pad, Mega, Leonardo and 
there is a wireless communication of Zigbee, Wi-Fi, etc. 
Weapon system can be advanced in this robot. This also can 
be made into Automatic robot by improvising the GPS 
system and Artificial Intelligence. 

The Laser module to target and a Robotic Arm to pickup and 
drop bombs which is monitored by camera and the whole 
system is controlled via Bluetooth according to the 
commands given by the user. 

Figure 2: final prototype of the project 

6.1 Advantages and Applications of ATR: 

> Good traction 

> All terrain Robot with weight growth potential 

> Low power consumption 

> Wireless control 


[1] Debesh Pradhan , Jishnu Sen and Nirmal Baran Hui 
"Design And Development Of An Automated All-Terrain 
Wheeled Robot", India, September 2013, ISSN: 2287- 
4976, Volume: 1. 


> Military operations 

> Surveillance along Line of Control 

> Picking up and dropping bombs (disposal] 

> A laser gun for defense purpose can also be used for a 


The All Terrain Offensive and Defensive Robot was 
successfully executed. The system was successfully 
implemented to move the robot left, right, forward, 
backward or stay in the same position. 

[2] Vidyashree H, Chaithra K B, Umesh S, Nagamayuri B S 
"All Terrain Robotic Vehicle With Robotic Arm For 
Dangerous Object Disposal" India, 2018 , ISSN: 0976- 
5697, VOLUME: 9. 

[3] M. Prem Kumar, "Unmanned Multi-Functional Robot 
Using Zigbee Adopter Network For Defense 
Application", India, January 2013, ISSN: 2278 - 1323, 
Volume 2, Issue 1. 




@ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID - IJTSRD23370 | Volume - 3 | Issue - 3 | Mar-Apr 2019 

Page: 1440