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PLAN    OF     THE     WORK 

The  alphabetical  arrangement  facilitates  reference  to  any  particular  country  States  and  fropte 
merged  into  large  national  groups  are,  with  some  exceptions,  treated  under  the  parent  group,  e.g., 
"  British  Empire,"  "  French  Colonial  Empire,"  but  nationalities  of  historic  or  peculiar  interest 
though  not  politically  independent,  such  as  Annam  and  Dahomey,  and  self-governing  dominions, 
like  Canada  and  New  Zealand,  are  individually  dealt  with  in  their  alphabetical  sequence 







ARABIA      See  also  Hejaz, 







Belgian  Congo 

Bohemia  (See  Czecho- 
BOKHARA  [Slovakia) 



Anglo-Egyptian  Sudan 
Ascension  Island 
British  East  Africa 




Egypt  (See  Egypt) 
Mauritius,  etc. 
Nyasaland  Protectorate 
St.  Helena 

Somaliland  Protectorate 
South  Africa 




(See  Rhodesia) 

See  also  South   Africa, 
Union  of 
West  Africa 



Gold  Coast,  Ashanti,  & 
Northern  Territories 

Sierra  Leone 


Zululand  (See  South 

Africa,  Union  ot] 


Canada  (See  Canada) 
Falkland  Islands 
Guiana,  British 
Honduras,  British 
West  Indies 


Aden,     Perim,    Socotra, 
Bahrein  Islands       [Lahei 
Borneo  &  Sarawak 
India  (See  India) 
Straits  Settlements 
Malay  States 



New  Guinea 


Pacific  Islands 

See  also  Australia,  New 
Zealand,    Tasmania 

Channel  Islands 



Central  American   Republic 
(See    Guatemala,   Hon- 
duras,    &    Salvador) 


See  also  Manchuria,  Mon- 
golia, Sin  Kiang,  Tibet 
Cilicia  (See  Syria  &  Cilicia) 

(Bohemia,    Moravia, 
Silesia.   Slovakia 




See  also  Iceland 
Dominican     Republic     (See 
Santo   Domingo) 


Libyan  Desert 


Isle   of   Man 





See  also  Algeria 



French     Congo     (French 

Equatorial    Africa) 

French  Somaliland 
French   West  Africa   & 
the  Sahara 
See  also  Dahomey 

Morocco  (See   Morocco) 
Tunis   (Sec    Tunis) 



French  Guiana 


St.  Pierre  &  Miquelon  Is 

Frecch   India 
French  Indo-China 

See  also  Annam 



New  Caledonia 
New  Hebrides 

Society     Islands,     Tahiti, 
Marquesas,  etc. 







Greenland  (See  Denmark) 







See  also  Burma,  Nepal 

Italian  Dependencies 

Italian  Somaliland 
Tripoli  &  Cyrenaica 
Tientsin  Concession 


See  also  Formosa    Korea 


Kurdistan   (See   Armenia   & 








Mesopotamia   (See    Irak' 




Moravia      (See    Czecho- 

MONTENEGRO  [Slovakia) 



Dutch  East  Indies 
Dutch  "West   Indies 


See  also  Samoan   Is, 







Patagonia   (See   Chile) 






Portuguese  Depen- 
Goa,  Macao,  Timor, 
Cape  Verde  Islands, 
Portuguese  Guinea, 
San  Thome  and 
Principe,  Angola. 




See    also    Azerbaijan, 
Esthonia,  Georgia 

Latvia,  Lithuania 

Siberia.   Ukraine 


Western   Samoa 
Sandwich   Islands   (See 

See   also   Montenegro 

Yakutsk   Republic 
Silesia   (See  Czecho- 
slovakia,        Germany 

Cape  ot  Good  Hope 
Natal   &  Zululand 
Orange  Free  State 
S.W.  Africa  Protectorate 
See  also  British  Empire 
in  Africa 

Spanish   Colonies 

Rio     de      Oro,      Adrar 
Ifni,  Spanish  Guinea 
Fernando    Po, 
Spanish  Morocco 
See  also  Lebanon 


See  also  Sin  Kiang,  Bok- 
hara, Khiva 

See  also  Arabia,  Syria 


U.S.  Territories 
Porto  Rico 
Virgin  Islands 
See    also    Philippine    Is- 
lands, Hawaii,  Samoan 



Yugo-Slavia  (See  Serbia 


of   All    Nations 



a  a 













































Their  Life  Today  and 
the  Story  of  their  Past 

By      Our     Foremost      Writers     of 
Travel     Anthropology    &    History 

Illustrated  with  upwards  of  5000 

Photographs,     numerous     Colour 

Plates,  and    150   Maps 

Edited    by 

T.    A.    Hammerton 


Pages   1-784 

Abyssinia  to  British  Empire 

London  :    THE    AMALGAMATED    PRESS    Limited 































































1    ,- 

*    *' 


Photo:    P.    A.    McCa 


W  m 
t  /re 




See  page  575 


Frontispiece  —Vol-  h 



Introductory  Articles 






Gallery    of    Contributors 

(70  portraits) 
Plan  of  the  Work 


Abyssinia  I.     Herbert   Vivian 

II.     Lord  Edward  Gleichen.  . 
Afghanistan  I.    Sir  Thomas  Holdich  .  . 
II.    R.  W.  Frazer 
M.  Edith  Durham 

H.  T.  Montague  Bell     .  . 
A .  MacCallum  Scott 
Rachel  Humphreys 
Andorra.     Edward  Wright 
Annam  I.     Gabrielle  Vassal 
II.     Edward  Wright 
Arabia   I.     Hamilton  Fyfe 
II.     D.  G.  Hogarth 
Argentina  I.     J.  A.  Hammertmi 

II.      W.  A.  Hirst 
Armenia  I.      Noel  Buxton 

II.     F.  C.  Conybeare 
Australia   I.     Frank  Fox 

II.     Northcote  W.  Thomas 
n  III.     Evans  Lewin 

Austria    I.     Hamilton  Fyfe      .  . 
II.     Geoffrey  Drage    .  . 
Azerbaijan.     Hamilton  Fyfe    .  . 

Dawn  of  National  Life.     Sir  Arthur 

Keith .■  •      vu- 

iii.         Destiny  of  Nations.         W.   Romaine 

vi.  Pater  son  ■ .  ■ .  •  •  •  •   xxv- 









Historical  Chapters 

Belgium   I.      Hamilton  Fyfe 

II.     Emile  Cammaerts 
Belgian  Congo.    Demetrius  C.  Boulger 
Bhutan.     Sir  Thomas  Holdich 
Bokhara.     Sirdar  Ikbal  Ali  Shah 
Bolivia  I.     J.  A.  Hammerton 

II.     C.  R.  Enoch 
Brazil    I.     Hamilton  Fyfe 

II.     Rev.  George  Edmundson  .. 
Spirit   of  the   British   Empire.     Sir 

Sidney  Low 
British  Empire  in  Africa  : 

I.  The  African  and  His  Country 

Sir  Frederick  Lugard 
II    The      Lands      and      Peoples 
Hamilton  Fyfe 

III.  Manners       "  and         Customs. 
Northcote  W.  Thomas 

IV.  Historical  Sir    H.    H. 

British  Empire  in  America  : 

I.  Isles   and   Islanders       A.  E. 
II.   Historical         A.  D.  Innes      .. 








Facing  page 

A.LGERIA  :  Beauty  of  the  Kabyles  .  .  72 
Annam  :  The  Emperor  on  His  Throne  1 28 
Australia  :    Medicine  Man      . .  .  .      3°4 

Bhutan  :    Glory  of  Spiritual   Chief   . .      410 

List  of  Colour  Plates 

British  Empire  in  Africa  : 
Gewgaws  of  Primitive  Society 
Accra  Belle 
The  Forest  Lovers 

Facing  page 

.  .       520 

■  •       578 
.  .       728 

Algerian  Life 

Desert  Tribesmen      ..           ..  81 

Unveiled  Arab  Beauty          ..  82 

Dancing  Girl  of  Biskra          .  .  83 

Arab  Coster    .  .           .  .           .  .  84 

Saharan  Barber          .  .           . .  85 

Minstrel  of  Algeria    .  .           . .  86 

Berber  Mulatto          .  .           .  .  87 

Young  Negress  of  Algiers      . .  88 

Negroes'  Love  of  Noise         .  .  89 

Mosque  of  Biskra       . .           . .  9° 

Old  Sidi  Okba  Street             ..  9' 

Native  Group  bv  Fountain  . .  92 

Girls  of  Northern   Oasis        .  .  93 

Mauresque    Dancing    Woman  94 

Desert  Beauty  in  Camel  Litter  95 

Happy  Negro'  of  Algeria       .  .  96 

Annam  Contrasts 

Imperial  Palace  at  Hue        .  .  137 
H.  M.    Khai  •  Dinh's     Palace 

Courtvard 138 

Emperor's  Private  Cabinet  .  .  139 
Emperor    as    Commander-in- 
Chief              140 

Emperor  in  His  Garden        .  .  141 

State  Palanquin        . .          • .  1A~ 

Emperor  and  Statesmen      . .  H3 

H.M.  Khai-Dinh  Shooting  . .  144 

Moi  Women  Drinking            .  .  145 

Pages  in  Photogravure 

Gossiping  Annamese  Women  146 

Young  Cham  Dandies  ..  r.47 

Women's  Indoor  Garb  .  .  t48 

Moi  Couple  by  Palisade         ..  t40 

Thatched  Cabin  of  Village    ..  rso 

Children  on  Platform  of  Cabin  r^i 

Entrance  to  Pagoda  ..  ..  152 

Australians  Black  and  White 

Rounding  up  a  Herd  .  .  273 

Gathering  Round  Totem  Pole  274 

Working  Snake  Magic  . .  275 

Sacred  Waterfall        . .  . .  276 

Primeval  Man  . ,  ■  -  277 

Savage  Spearmen       .  .  .  .  278 

Gathering  Orchids      .  .  .  .  279 

Warrior  in  All  His  Glory       .  .  280 

Wizard  of  the  Worgaia  ..  28  r 

Tribesmen  of  the  North-West  282 

While  the  Billy  Boils  ..  283 

Australia  in  the  Making        .  .  284 

Australia  as  it  is  Made  .  .  285 

Cross-fertilising  Wheat  ..  286 

Lumbermen  at  Work  .  .  287 

From  Rfverina  to  Yorkshire  288 

Unknown  Bhutan 

Sir  Ugyen  in  National  Dress  417 

Roval  Family  at  Home        . .  418 

Lamas'  Temple  Band  .  .  419 

Tango  Lama  in  His  Monastery  420 

King  and  Councillors              ..  421 

King  and  Lifeguards              ..  422 

Musicians  of  Royal  Band      .  .  423 

Phari  Dzong,  the  Finest  Fort  424 

Court  of  Royal  Palace            ..  425 

In  the  Himalayas       .  .           .  .  426 

Maharaja  and  Councillors    .  .  427 

Steps  to  Fortress  Palace     .  .  428 

Avatar  of  Thaling  in  Cope    .  .  429 

Procession  of  King's  Music    ..  430 

Devil  Dance  of  Castle  Lamas  43t 

Bokhara  Mullah  in  the  Making  432 

Life  in  Nigeria 

Fig-tree  of  Bauchi  Province. .  529 
Meeting  of  Sultans   ..          ..530 

Emir  of  Gombeat  a  Durbar.  .  531 

Hut  of  the  Nupe  Tribe           ..  532 

Fishing  Village            ..           ..  533 

Pack  Oxen  in  a  Market          ,.  534 

Palm-leaf  Mats  in  Market     ..  535 

Sultan  of  Sokoto        . .          . .  536 

Fulani  Girls    .  .           .  .           .  .  537 

Native  Officials  on  Trek        . .  538 

Policeman  Delivering  Message  539 

Nupe  Moslems  at  Festival    .  .  540 

Bowed  in  Prayer        . .          . .  540 

Waiting-room  at  Residence  of 

Chief            541 

Pagts  in   Photogravure  (contd.) 

Nigerian  Builders  at  Work    . 
Dance  of  Kanuri  Women 
Moslem  Robes  at  Nafada      .  . 
Gold  Coast  Types 
Rest  by  the  Way        ,  , 
Cereal  of  Ashanti  Hinterland 
At  Work  Before  Daybreak  .  . 
A  Miller's  Lass 
In  Bridal  Attire  ..  . . 

Gold  Coast  Ladies'   Fashions 
Axim  Girls'  Trim  Turbans    . . 
Bimbuku  Schoolmaster 
Fetish  Woman  in  Vestments 


•  542-3 



Jrummers  of  King  of  Buntuku    60 

I.IL  U111L1H-"  J  •-"     "*-"0 ; 

Buntuku  Chief  and  Wives 
Bound  for  the  Well 
Water-carrier  of  Kintampo  .  . 
Chief  of  Bekwai 
Looms  of  West  Coast  Villagers 
Tributary  King  of  Mapon      -  . 

As     African     Medley 
Dervish  of  the  Sudan^ 
Self-conscious  Swahilis 
Swahili  Darby  and  Joan      .. 
Bundu  Devils'  Secret  Rites  .  . 



Alined    for     Figure    of     the 

Kavirondo  Babies 
Kavirondos'  Noon  Siesta      . . 
Vanity  of  Swahili  Women    . , 
Swahili  Celebrations 
Celebration  of  New  Moon 
King  of  Bunyoro  and  Chiefs     715 
King  of  Gambia         . .  -  -      71° 

King  of  Cameroons  .  .  .  •     7*7 

Nubian  Women,  N.  Sudan  . .      718 
Nubian  Clothing        ..  ..719 

Ferryman  of  Upper  Nile       .  .      720 

Photographs  in   the   Text 

The  Dawn  of  National  Life 

When    London    Supported 

100  Persons  :   Diagram.  . 

Discovery  of  Agriculture  . . 

Age  of   Man  on  the  Earth  : 

Our  Ancestral  Black 
Stone-age  Man  To-day       .  . 
Animals   Most   Nearly    Re- 
lated to  Man 
Gorilla's  Fierce  Aspect 
The  Four  Racial  Stocks  .  . 
Evolution  of  Noses 
Head  as  Racial  Index 
Long-voyage  Ship 

The  Destiny  of  Nations 
Reconstruction  of  Babylon 
Recruiting      the       Ancient 

Slaves       .  .  .  .  ■  ■ 

Sculptured        Record        of 

Code  of  Hammurabi 
Landmark,    Babylonia 
Security   for    Property      .  . 
The  Grave  of   Babylon    .  . 
Soldiers  of  Ancient  Rome.  . 
First   and   Last    Rulers   of 

Holy  Roman  Empire     .  . 
Columbus  and  His  Ship  .  . 
The  "  Mayflower  " 
Making  of  Industrial  Cities 


Slave  Woman  of  the  Border 
Lij   Yasu,   Renegade 
Zauditu,  Fighting  Empress 
Benediction  of  Waters      . . 
Priests'  Ritual  Dancing     .. 
Mane-crowned      Lion-killer 
Issa  Lion-spearer 
Woman  of  Harrar 
Crowd  of  Oily  Heads 
Buttered  Beauty  of  Tigre  .  . 
The  Abulia's  Blessing 
Accused  and  Accuser 
Courtship  Dance  of  Gallas 
Bible  class,    Addis   Abbaba 
Minstrel  Bards  of  Abyssinia 
Hand-loom  Weavers 
Fuzzy  Wuzzi  Woman 
The  Key  to  Rank 
Pounding  OilSeeds 
Giants  of  Nile-land 
Warriors  at  Banquet 
Petty  Abyssinian  Chief 


Soldiers  on  Parade.  . 
Hazara  Sepoy 
Cage  of  Death 
Guardians    of    the   Law    .  . 
Aged  Pathan  Wanderer     .  . 
Afridi  Watcher  of  the  Hills 
Craftsmen  of  Kandahar    .  . 
Coppersmith   Making    Lota 
Bargain-hunting      Baluchis 
Kabul  Crowd 
Seigniors  of    Kabul 
Afghan  Beggar  Spies 
Picturesque  Hillmen 
Beautv  of  Womankind      . . 
Street  "in  Herat 
Sikh  and  His  Falcon 
Busv  Street  in  Ghazni 
Merchant  of  Kabul 







Our    Lady    of 

Afridi  Warriors 
Camels  in  Bolan  Pass 

Dance  of  Girls 
Clan  Dress  of  North  Albania 
Fighting-men  of  the  South 
Preservers     of      Order      in 

Festival    of 

Townsmen  &    Highlanders 
Beauties  of  Scutari 
Girls  of  New  Romany  Strain 
Shepherdess  and  Her  Cot.  . 
Epirote  Girls  of  the  South 
Tusks  of  the  South 
Highland  Black  Watch    .  . 
Substitute  for  Railways    .  . 
Boatmen  on   Lake  Scutari 
Durazzo,  Market  Place      .  . 
Mountain   Ox-waggon 
Market  Place  of  Valona     .  . 
Umbrellas  in   Highlands  ,  . 


Arab  Marabout's  School  .  . 

Prepared  for  Slavery 

Beauty  of   the  Ouled   Nails 

Beauty  of  Biskra 

Street  of  the  Royal  Kasbah 

Moslem    Women    Shopping 

Spahi   Cavalryman 

Berber   Horseman 

Dancers  of  the  Ouled  Nails 

Ouled   Nail's  Dance 

Moorish  Coffee  Tavern 

Tar-brushes    that    Blacken 

Girls  of  the  Ouled  Nails     .. 

Preparing  National  Dish  .  . 

Trousered  Jewess 

Oratory.  Kasbah  Square.  . 

Shawia  Women 

Tuareg  Camel-boy 

Mountain   Ramparts 

Clothiers'  Market  of  Algiers 

Dancers  in  Biskra 

New  Clothes,  Old  Fashions 

Mulatto  Babies  of  Biskra  .  . 

The  New  Mulatto 
Happv  Negro  Children 
Little'  Musicians  of   Biskra 
Negro  Minstrelsy 
Shop  Cave  of  Algeria 
Gateway  of  the  Atlas 
Arts  of  the  Moorish  Cook  .  . 
An  Algerian  Band 
Draughts  in  the  Sahara     . . 
Palm-shaded  Biskra 
Dromedaries  of  the  Desert 


Dancing  in  Sun-lit  Plaza    .  . 

The  Illustrious  Men 

San    Julian,     the    Tobacco 

New   Fashions   in    Dancing 
Mounted  Smuggler -fighters 
Amateur   Smuggler's   Ruse 

Ann  am 

A  Festival  Pantomime      .  . 

Market  Woman  with  Yoke 


Awaiting  the  Fishermen   . . 
















Buffalo  at  Sacrificial  Posts 
Elephant   Dance 
House-building  on  Shore  .  . 
Moi   Chief's    Raised   House 
Malay  Cham  Woman 
Savage    Teaching    Archery 
Reaping  and  Threshing  Rice 
Reaping  Sugar-cane 
Wooden  Cane-mill 
Clarifying  Cane-juice 
Pouring  Syrup  into  Pots  . . 
Drying  Sugar  in  the  Sun    . . 
Moi  Tribe  in  Full  Dress     .  . 
Moi  Village  of  Dankia 
Villagers'   Evening    Dinner 
Moi  Women's  Ear-lobes   .  . 
Concert  of  Savage  Moi      .  . 
Band  of  Moi  Tribesmen     .  . 
Nha  Trang  Ferryboat 
Nha  Trang's  Fishing  Fleet 
Moi   Women   and  Children 
Langbian  Cowboys 
Crossing    a    Flooded    River 
Sin  Against  Tiger-god      .  . 
Tyrant    of    Annam   Village 
Moi  Tribesmen 
Moi  Woman  of  Dankia      . . 
Mois  Pounding  Paddy     . . 
Toe-made  Pottery 
Mandarins  Worshipping    .  . 
Head-knocking     Ceremony 
Road-repairing  by  Women 


Water-carrier  of   Lohaya  .  . 
Camel-breeder    of    Tehama 
Shy  Maid  of  Araby 
Arab  Woman  and  Children 
Nomad  Arabs 
Beduin  Water-carrier 
Asir  Chief  in  Fish   Market 
Prisoner   Before   a    Kadi.. 
Beduins  Striking  Camp  . . 
Hospitality  of   a  Chief     .  . 
Woman  of  Arabia  Felix     . . 
Art  of  Butter-making 
Warrior  v.   Town  Arab    .  . 
Amid  Petra's  Ruins 
Descendants     of     the     Na- 

School  of  S.  Arabia 
Descendant  of  Mahomet 
Red  Sea  Barber's  Shop     .. 
Trading  Quarter  in  Lohaya 


A  Call  in  Pampas 
Gaucho's  Idle  Moments     .  . 
A  Picturesque  Figure 
Skinning  Cattle  on  Pampas 
Agricultural  Show,  Palermo 
Gauchos  Exchanging  Cups 
Riding  Pillion 
Poor  Quarter   of  City 
How    the     Rich     Live    in 

Buenos   Aires 
Immense  Wheels  Used 
Peons  Ready  for  Meal 
Riders  of  the  Plains 
Music,  Mate,  and  Mutton.  . 
Bullock  Wagons 
Within  a  Frigorifico 
Slaughter  on  Ostrich  Farm 
Italian  Colono  Dwelling    .  . 
Silver  Stilettos 
Victims  of  Indian  Raid  . . 






































Photographs  in  the  Text  (contd.) 

Araucanian  Cemetery 
Children  of  the  Gran  Chaco 
Ona  Hunter 
Mother  of  Patagonia 
Vanity  in  the  Silver   Land 
Patag'onian  Indians 
Ona  Indian  Hunters 
Yahgan  Woman     . . 
Patagonian    Burden-bearer 
Gauchos  Dancing 


Drum-and-Flule   Dance    .. 

Refugee  Child  in  Van 

\n  Armenian  Girl-wife 

Devil  Worshipper  of  Mount 

Persian  Borderers.. 

Group  of  Armenians 

Patriarchal  Family  Rule  .  . 

Dervish  of  Mush     .. 

Trying  to  Rebuild  Van  City 

Bread  Line  of  Women 

Armenian  Maids  at  School 

Refugee  Women 

Yezedi  Women 

Martyred  Bishop  of  Zeitun 
Leader      of       the      Oldest 
National  Christian  Church 
Happy  Centre  of  Life 
Robber  Lord  of  Kurdistan 
A  Fighting  Armenian 
Fruit  Pedlars  in  Bitlis 
Defenders  of    Artemid      .  . 
How  the  Children  Trained 
Sword  for  Artemid  Boy    .  . 
Carpet  Manufactory 
Highlanders  of  Old  Type  .  . 


Shepherds  of  the  Riverma 
Sheep  Farmer  of  Monaro.  . 
Sturdy  Australian  Stock   .  . 
Prospector  and  Camel  Team 
Boring  for  Gold 
Goldmining,  W-Australia .  . 
Riders  Shifting  Camp      .  . 
Goldminers'  Camp 
Merinos'  Arsenic  Bath 
Shearing  by  Machinery      .  . 
Sorting  and  Classing  Wool 
Harvesting  at  Coolamon  .  . 
Goldminers'  Camel  Train  . . 

Blackfellow  and  Family    . . 
Black  Maria  .  .  ■  ■ 

Northern  Chiefs  and  a  Gin 
Warriors  Readv  for  Dance 
Gathering  Water-lilies      .  . 
Giants  of  the  North-west  .  . 
Savage  of  Cambridge  Gulf 
Athletes    and    Sea-cows    .  . 
Arunta  Tribesman 
Makka-tira  Fire-making    .  . 
Warramunga  Black 
Sucking    out  Evil  Magic. 
Knocking  out  Girl's  Tooth 
Living  Edible  Bulb  Totem 
Kaitish  Grass-seed  Wizard 
Queensland  Native  Huts.  . 
Gilbert  River  Tribesman  .  . 
Women  of  the  Tropic  Bush 
Women  Mimes 
Warramunga     Man's     Dis- 
Tree-grave  Burial 
End   of    Tree-grave  Period 
Burial  in  Ant  Hill.  . 
Arm-bone  in   Totem   Rites 
Bringing      Arm-bone      to 

Father  of  Dead 
Wailing  Over  the  Relic      .  . 
Preparing  Last  Rites 
Burial  of  the  Arm-bone     .. 
Uniting  the  Dead  with  His 

Snake  Totem 
Ritual  of   Arunta   Ant-pole 
Emu  Totem  Mystery 
Preparing  Corroboree 
Elders  Rehearse  a  Dance.  . 
Totem  Mound  of  the  Snake 
Croeal  of  Roasting 
Releasing   Initiates 

2r  I 
















Aborigines  in  Totem  Attire 
Wheat  Elevator     .. 


Stvrian  Town  Girls 

Old  Tirolese  Costumes 

On  a  Tirolean  Farm 

Girl  of  Carinthian  Border  .  . 

A  Beautv  of  Vienna 

Music  for  Mountain  Dance 

Shooting   Festival   in   Tirol 

Transport  in  Eastern  Alps 

Europe's      Biggest      Brain 

Highlander  at  his  Ease      .  . 
Bohemian  Apple  Woman.  . 
Vienna  Pedlar's  Toys 
Women  Builders  in  Vienna 
Alpine  Peasants'  Play 
Alpine  Lumberjacks 
Fruit-sellers'  Market 


First  Meeting  of  Republican 

Tartars  of  Nij 

Nomad  Tartar  Camelman 
A  Caucasian  Pillion 
Tartar  Road  to  Refinement 
Persian  Fugitives  of  Baku 
Race  Medley,  Elisavetopol 
Baku's  Fire-engine 
Firemen  of  Baku    .. 


Milkwoman  on  Her  Round 
Inspecting  the  Milk 
Flemish  Fisher  of  the  Dunes 
Walloon  Land  Girl 
Artistic  and  Practical 
A  Bruges  Vegetable  Stall  .. 
Medieval    Dress   in    Bruges 
Busy  at  Spinning-wheel    .  . 
A  Profitable  Crop  of  Flax  .  . 
An  Ancient  Home  Industry 
How  Pillow  Lace  is  Made 
Feminine  Employment     .  . 
Busy  Lacemakers  at  Home 
Peasant  of  the  Ardennes  .  . 
Light  Hearts  in  Bruges     .  . 
Milkmaid  in  Dainty  Attire 
Old  Fishwife  of  Flanders  .  . 
Pageant  of  the  Holy  Blood 
Holv   Blood  Procession    .  . 
The'choir  of  Angels 
The  Furnes  Passion  Play  .  . 
Maidens  Telling  the  Rosarv 
Earlv   Hold  of  the  Church 
Home  along   the  Meuse  .  . 
Fishing  in  the  Meuse 
Sabot  Maker    at  His  Door 
Trappists  Making  Hay    .  . 
Girls  at  Coalmines 
Pathos  and  Terror  of  War 
Echoes  of  the  Days  of  War 
Brussels      Women      during 








35  2 





35  7 























Belgian  Congo 

Spearman    and    Battleaxe- 
man  .  .  '•..'• 

Scar-adorned  Congo  Girl  .  . 
Music-making  for  Dance   . . 
Queen  Nenzima 
King  Akondo 

King  Manziga  Avungura  . . 
F'ashion  in  Upper  Congo   .  . 
Loveliest  Village  Maiden  .  . 
Potentate's  Many  Wives  .  . 
Civilized   Chief   and  Wives 
Women    Making    Crockery 
Weavers'  Meeting. . 
Supper   Ready 
Women  Grindng  Corn 
Mongo  Man  and  Wife 
Witch   Doctor 
Beauty   of  the  Harem 
Mangbettu   Hairpins 
Stvle  of  Hairdressing 
Mangbettu    Lip-pm 
Ngombe  Chief's  Scars 
■'  Full  Rasp  "  Scars 
A  Perfect  Congo  Beauty    . . 




Swastika  Scarring 
Mode  of  Execution 
Zande  Spearmen 
Coquetry  and  Grace 
Upper  Congo  Dancers     .  . 
Triumphant  Beautincation 
Most  Famous  Beard 
Zande  Warrior's  Art  .  . 

Artist  with  Primitive  Tool 
Polishing  His  Carven  Work 
Mangbettu  Trumpeter  .  . 
Welle  Pygmv  Hunters  .  . 
Hunters  of  the  Logo  Tribe 
Tribesmen  of  the  Forest  . . 
Danga  of  the  Mangbettu  .  . 
Cannibal  Village  by  Rungu 


Simple  Habits  of  Thimbu 

Tongsa  Palace  Women     .  . 
Maharaja  and  Family 
Bhutan's  Lesser  Potentates 
Tongsa  Lamas  and  Novices 
Himalayan   Aboriginal 


Searchers  after  Wisdom  .  . 
Porch      School      and      Its 

Dervish's   Quilted    Colours 
Desert  Beggar  Woman 
Sarts  of  Caracul  Fur  Market 
Architectural  Splendour    .  . 
Old  Masters  of  Bokhara     .  . 
Camelman  in  the  Registan 
Picturesque  Inn  Courtyard 
Scholars  at  the  Mir  Arab .  . 
Grand  Market   Place 
White-turbaned  Mullahs  .  . 
Prison    in    Palace   Grounds 
Romance  in  Bokhara 


Indians  Keeping  Shop 

Ouichua   Homespun 

Indian  Mothers'  Meeting  .  . 

Quichua  Men  of  Oruro      .  . 

Belle  of  the  Quichua  Tribe 

Type  01  Bolivian  Indian    .. 

Llamas  in  La  Paz 

Aymara     Women 

Chief  of  a  Quichua  Tribe  .  . 

Andine  Homestead 

A  Beehive  for  Drones 

Family  Group  from  Potosi 

Indian  Feast  Day.  . 

Headgear  of  Lake  Titicaca 

Musicians   Ready  for  Pro- 
Chola  of  La  Paz 
Indian  Mother  and  Child  .  . 
Impromptu  Bull-fight 
Where  Mountain  Travellers 


An  Aymara  Feast  Day 
Execution  at  La  Paz 
Gods  That  Have  Gone 
Bolivian  Balsa  of  Reeds     .  . 
Dwelling  of   Ancient  Incas 
"  The  Man  with  the  Hoe  " 
Slight      Agricultural      Ad- 
vance Since  Inca  Era     .  . 
Desaguadero  Fishermen  .  . 
Ancient  Monument  of  Tia- 






45  3 







Tobacco         Plantation 

Labourers           .  .             •  •  478 

Alien  Vendors  of  Alien  Ware  481 

Marines  in   Rio  de  Janeiro  482 

Familiar  Figure  in   Rio    .  .  484 

Offspring  of    Mixed    Breed  485 

Drawing  in  a  Lottery     . .  4»6 

Emigrants    Arriving           . .  4»7 

Feathered  Fowl  for  Sale    .  .  488 
Treasure-seeking  near  Dia- 

mantina  . .          . .          -  ■  489 
Means     of     Livelihood     m 

Amazon      Dist 489 

Photographs  in  the  Text  (contd.) 

Bread    from    Poison   Roots 
Amazon  Indian  Bakehouse 
Powdering   Manioc   Pulp .  . 
Final  Preparation  of  Manioc 
Harvesting    Coffee    Berries 
Preparing  Coffee  Berries. . 
Tapping  Para  Rubber-trees 
Emptying  Basins  of  Latex 
"  Bolacha  "  of  Rubber      . . 
Turning  "  Milk  "  to  Rubber 
Indian  Survivals 
Pastorale  of  Indian  Orpheus 
Dancers  at   Wedding 
Dancers  at  Festival 
Amazonian  Snake  Dance.. 
Brothers   of   Waiwai   Tribe 
Girls  Decorated  for  Dance 
Schoolgirl,    Amazon    Dist. 
Brave  in  Gala  Attire 
Tukano  Indian's  Cigar 
All  in  a  Day's  Work 

British  Empire  in  Africa 
Spreading  Peace    ..  .. 

Emir  of   Katsena 
Devotees  of  Fashion 
Pomp  for  Shehu  of  Bornu 
Heavy  Responsibility 
Awka  Woman's  Head-dress 
Insensibility  to  Pain 
Adorned  for  Marriage 
Porterage  of  Nigeria 
Hausa  Harvest-home 
Earth  for  Walls 
House-building  by  Hand  .  . 
Thatchers    Weaving    Grass 
Thatchers  at  Work 
Shehu  of  Bornu 
Sokoto  Horse  and  Rider  .  . 
Tinfield  of  N.  Nigeria 
Boat-building  up  the  Niger 
Mats  While  You  Wait     . . 
Esa  Village  Beauty 
Hausa  Woman  Trader 
Music-makers  of  Bornu    .  . 
Abbam  Chief's  Ju-ju        . . 
Fishing  on  a  Nigerian  River 
Three  Score  Years  and  Ten 
Victim  of  Desert  Glare     . . 
Nigerian   Head-dress 
Obibio  Shrine  near  Akabe 
Native  Plutocrat's  Tomb. . 
Nigerian    Doctor 
Girls  of  Hausa  Tribe 
Son  of  King  of  Lokoja 
Deference  of  Y'outh  to  Age 
Skirt-dance  at  Fedderi      . . 
Housing  Problem  Solved. . 
Quick  Building 
Mud  Architecture  of  Kano 
"  No.  I,"  Kano 
Home  of  Justice  at   Kano 
Native  Doctor's  Herbs     . . 
An  Emir's  Police 
Last  of  the  Ashanti  Kings 
Corner  of  Kumasi's  Market 
Civilization  in  Accra 
Vanity   in    Krobo  Country 
Black    Psyche's   Mirror     .  . 
Brides  of  the  Volta  Dist. .  . 
Effect  of  Head  Carrying  on 

Modern  Physique 
Gold  Coast  Potter 
Transformation      of      Clay 

into  Pottery 
Polishing  Pottery 
Fanti  Earthenware  Factory 
Ashanti  Burden-bearers    .  . 
Rebeccas  of  the  Gold  Coast 
Gold  Coast  Architecture    .. 
Social  Hour  in  Courtyard . . 
Gold  Coast  Girls'  Pastime 
Houses  Near  Beyin 
Ascent  to  Fanti  Roofs     . . 
The  Faith  of  the  Crescent .  . 
Pot  Making,  Mendi  Dist. . . 
Finishing  Touches 
West  African  Sappers 
Asiatic  Traders'  Mud  Store 
Wheelless  Barrows 
Mandingo  Women-traders 
Shilluk  Town  Belle 
Fondong  Warrior . . 

49  6 




Industry  in  Cameroons    .. 
Latuka  Beauty 
Nile   Valley   Water-carrier 
Sprung  from  Famous  Race 
Bisharin  Shepherdesses   . . 
Mixture  of  Costume 
Sudanese  Youth    .  . 
Hair-dressing  in  Open  Air 
Material  for  Soldiers 
Familiar  on    Sudan  Plains 
Camels  in  Omdurman 
Bisharin      Caravan      Con- 
Light  Craft  on  the  Nile    .  . 
About     to     Cross     Nubian 

Shilluk  Coiffure 
Happiness  Personified 
Children  of  Nubian  Desert 
Children  of  Ethiopia 
Sultan  of  Loka 
Home  in  Bahr-el-Ghazal.  . 
New  Method  of  Transport 
Market-man  in  El-Obeid   .. 
Christian  King  and  Wife.  . 
Moment  of   Doom 
Impersonations  of  Dignity 
Sudanese  Domesticity 
Foumba,  King  of  Kilema 
Family  Contentment 
Cards  in  Kenya  Colony     . . 
Masai  Warriors 
A  Soldier  of  the  King 
Famous  Little  Hunters  . . 
Masai    Women,    S.    Guaso 

A  Personable  Dame 
Masai  Belles 

Scions  of  a  Fighting  Stock 
Swahili  Dhow  in  Harbour 
Human  Pelican 
Mother  and  Child  .. 
Descendants    of    Prophet's 

Girls  Loading  a  Camel    . . 
Arab  Beauty  at  Zanzibar  .  . 
Thoroughfare  of  Zanzibar 
Drying-ground    for    Cloves 
An  Aromatic  Occupation  .  . 
Girl  Convert  to  Christianity 
Slave  to  Fashion  .  . 
"  Ivory  and  Slaves  " 
Returning  from  the  Chase 
Canoeing  on  Bangweolo  .  . 
Bringing      Back       Dinner, 

A  March  Past  at  Kigoma .  . 
Fountain  of  Justice,  Tan- 
March  of  Civilization 
Watuta  Woman 
Christians,  Lake  Nyasa    . . 
A  Minion  of  the  Law 
Savagery's  Blunted  Blade 
Bird's-eye  View  of  Mochudi 
Capital  of  St.  Helena 
Promenade  in    Port    Louis 
Wooden  Puppet  as  Mascot 
Popular  Mendi  Game 
Amusements  near  Benin.. 
Monkeys  Minus  Mischief.. 
Hauling  Home  Hippo  Meat 
Lion-spearers'   Dance 
Locating  Sickness  in  Ankole 
Sacred  Milk  for  Monarch . . 
Gold  Coast  Fetish  Man    .  . 
Ovra  Dancer  in   Regalia .  . 
Invocation  to  Deity 
Deity  of  Fanti  Village      . . 
Guarantee  against  Sickness 
Performers  of  Ceremonial 
Bundus,  Mendiland 
Debutante  returns 
Basuto  Girl-brides 
Coach  of  Massa's  Queen  .. 
Chief  of  Mendiland 
Mercury  of  Mendiland 
A  Sudanese  Sacrifice 
Sudanese  Dancing  Troupe 
Circe  of  the  Sudan . . 
Somali  Gladiators 
Appealing  to  Caesar 
Dancers  of  Zanzibar 

62  i 










Sword-bearer  to  King     . .  699 

Ruanda  Gala  Performance  700 

Soiree  at  Ruanda  Court  . .  7°r 

Swahili  Instruments  .  .  7°2 

Rara  Avis  of  Nyassaland  .  .  7°3 

Drums  of  Magic  Powers  . .  722 

Musicians'    Gourd  Piano..  723 

"  Beauty  "  Dearly  Bought  724 

Ear-lobes  of  the  Kikuyu.  .  725 

Head-dress  of  Masai  Dandy  725 

Masai  Woman's  Rings     . .  725 

Kikuyu  Warrior's  Ear     . .  725 

Discomfort  of  Fashion      .  .  726 

Ankle  Plates  of  Ibo  Woman  727 

Head-dress  of  Swaziland.  .  728 

Ladies  of  Kukuruku         . .  729 

Kikuyu  Warriors  .  .  .  .  73° 

Ladies  of  Tarkwa  .  .  .  .  73* 

Silks  of  the  Aristocracy..  731 

Stages  in  Coiffure-making  732 

Completing  Their  Toilet.  .  733 

Protecting  Cage  for  Indigo  734 

Trade  in  Freetown  .  .  735 

Instruction  in  Nigeria       .  .  736 

Tanganyika  Scholars        .  .  737 

Preparing  for  Carousal    .  .  738 

Reed-built  Native  Village  742 

Rest  on  Village  Green       . .  744 

British  Empire  in  America 

At  Home  in  Guiana  .  .  748 
A  Pleasing  Contrast  .  .  749 
Trafalgar  Square,  Bridge- 
town . .  .  ■  •  ■  75° 
Palm  Avenue,  Bridgetown  751 
Shouldering  Family  Burden  752 
Macusi  Housewife  at  Home  753 
Warraw  Shield  Game  .  .  754 
Taking  the  Count  .  .  .  .  754 
Wapisiana  Shooting  Fish .  .  755 
Guard  at  Kingston,  Jamaica  756 
On  Her  Way  to  Market  .  .  757 
Hours  of  Ease  .  .  .  .  758 
West  Indian  Bungalow  . .  759 
At  the  Well  ..  ..  761 
Tending  Sugar-Canes  . .  762 
Cutters  of  the  Canes  ..  763 
Horse-mill      for      Crushing 

Canes 764 

Windmill  in  Barbados     .  .  765 

Dismantling  Cocoa   tree  .  .  766 

Extracting  Cocoa-seeds    .  .  767 

"  Cocoa  Dance  "  on  Roof .  .  767 

E.  Indians  in   W.  Indies..  768 

Harvesting  the  Banana    .  .  770 

Bananas  Fall  to  the  Knife  771 

Stacked  for  Pack   Animals  772 

Fine  Clusters  of  Fruit      .  .  772 

Hauling  Bananas  by  Tram  773 

Loading  the  Steamship    .  .  773 

Cottage  Life  in  Antigua  . .  774 

Fashion  in   Dominica        .  .  775 

Market  Day  in  St.  George's  776 

Pomp   at  Choiseul  .  .  777 

Coral  and  Human  Comfort  778 

Washerwomen  at  Woik   ..  779 

Procession  in  Castries        ..  780 

List  of  Maps 

Modern   British   and  Ancient 

Roman  Empires    . . 

.      XXXVll 












Argentine   Republic 

.    .          221 





Federal   Republic   of  Austr 

ia          33S 

Hapsburg    and    Austro-Hu 


garian   Empires 






Belgian   Congo 


Independent  State  of  Bhut 

m        410 





United  States  of  Brazil 


British  Empire  in  Africa 


British  Empire  in  America 






Peoples    and    nations     are     words    that     have     been    much    on    tongue 
and   pen   in   recent    years.      Since   the   outbreak   of  the   Great  War 
national    spirit    has    been    more    active    in    the    minds    of    men    than 
at  any   other   time   in   history. 

By  its  very  existence  the  League  of  Nations  recognizes  the  ineluctable 
fact  of  nationalism,  though  an  eminent  statesman,  in  describing  the  spirit 
of  nationalism  as  "  the  curse  of  Europe,"  looks  to  the  League  somehow 
to  abolish  that  spirit,  and  one  of  our  seers,  among  his  after-war  visions, 
has  seen  a  "world  state,"  in  which,  presumably,  national  distinctions  are 
biurred   and   all   humanity   exists   in   some   strange   neutral   tint. 

Survey  of  the   Living  World  To-day 

IN    this   brief  note    we    cannot    discuss    the    merits    of   nationalism    or    the 
"  self-determination    of  small   peoples."      These   matters  are   mentioned 
merely     to     indicate     the    interest     that    has    been    awakened     in     the 
study     of    the     world's    nationalities,    whether     that    be     in     the     hope     of 
making   them   all   pursue    one    ideal    and    conform    to    one    pattern,    or    the 
better    to    understand    how    sharply    they    differ    from    each    other. 

Here  we  are  concerned  with  things  as  they  are,  and  it  is  the  aim 
of  this  work  to  quicken  the  interest  of  the  English-reading  public  in  the 
peoples  of  other  nations,  their  racial  origins,  their  history,  their  manners 
and  customs,  at  a  time  when  the  need  for  such  knowledge  will  not  be 
called  in  question  either  by  those  who  see  in  the  spirit  of  nationalism 
a   good   thing  or   by   those   who   denounce   it  as  a  curse. 

"The  Proper  Study  of  Mankind  is  Man" 
7|  proper  knowledge  of  the  races  of  mankind  that  are  sharing  with  us 
jf  in  the  life  of  the  globe  to-day  is  essential  to  anyone  who  would 
lay  claim  to  be  decently  educated.  It  scarcely  needed  the  Great 
War  to  make  intelligent  persons  understand  how  the  complex  machinery 
of  modern  civilization  has  brought  peoples  of  very  distant  areas  of  the 
earth  into  a  relationship,  the  closeness  of  which  is  often  realized  only 
when   some   temporary    breakdown    in    that   machinery    occurs. 

The  war  at  least  made  plain  to  the  most  unobservant  that  no 
nation  can  live  unto  itself  alone,  and  in  that  degree  it  stimulated  the 
sort    of   study    which    this    work    seeks    to    advance. 


A  New  Picture  of  the  Post-War  World 

IT   was   determined    that   the    task   of  presenting    an    entirely   new    picture 
of   the    post-war     world    in    its    living   actuality     should    be    attempted, 
and,  after  due  consideration,  the  national   unit   was  found  to  offer  the 
most   practical    method    of    treatment.      By    arranging    the    nations   of    the 
world   in   their    alphabetical   order,    rather   than    following   any   geographical 
sequence,   a  pleasing   variety    of  subject    resulted. 

Merely  to  describe  the  peoples  of  all  nations  in  their  habits  as  they 
live,  and  to  illustrate  them  profusely,  did  not  seem  adequate  to  the 
purpose  in  hand;  hence  the  historical  chapters,  in  which  every  nation's 
story  is  briefly  retold  by  skilled  historians. 

Only  Writers  of  Accepted  Authority 

Chat  every  country  in  the  world  should  be  depicted  anew  by  a  writer 
of  accepted  authority  upon  it  was  a  cardinal  condition  of  our  plan. 
At  the  risk  of  being  invidious  in  naming  any  of  the  hundred 
distinguished  writers  whose  contributions  have  helped  to  make 
Peoples  Of  All  Nations  the  unique  authority  it  may  claim  to  be,  the 
names  of  Sir  Frederick  Lugard,  Sir  Valentine  Chirol,  Dr.  Grenfell,  Sir 
Percy  Sykes,  and  Sir  Francis  Younghusband,  so  eminently  identified  as 
these  are  respectively  with  West  Africa,  India,  Labrador,  Persia,  and 
Tibet,  may  be  noted  merely  as  illustrative  of  this  quality  of  our  work. 

Entirely  New  Series  of  Pictorial  Documents 

While  great  pains  have  been  taken  to   ensure  that  our  literary  contents 
shall   be   the    best   that   can   be   produced   by   our    best   writers,   the 
labour    and    expense    involved    on    the    pictorial    side    of  the    work 
exceed    anything  ever  before  attempted   in   a   publication  of  this  kind  ;    for 
it   was   felt   that  the   easily  obtainable    views   of  places  and   racial   types   fell 
much   below   the   standard   aimed  at   here. 

To  bring  together  an  entirely  new  collection  of  photographs  of 
world-wide  interest  meant  a  great  task,  but  a  task  that  has  been  faced, 
and   with   what  success   let   the   pages    that    follow    bear    witness. 

An  Unequalled  Pageant  of  all  Mankind 

Photographers  in  all  parts  of  the  world  have  been  at  work  expressly 
to  enrich  our  pages,  and  several  of  Britain's  finest  experts  in 
camera  craft  have  undertaken  foreign  journeys  exclusively  on  behalf 
of  Peoples  Of  All  Nations.  Each  photograph — and  none  but  direct 
camera  reproductions  of  actual  life  appear — has  some  lesson  to  teach, 
either   in   racial   character,   native    craftsmanship,   or   custom. 

With  comparatively  few  exceptions  the  illustrations  are  printed  here 
for  the  first  time,  and  apart  from  the  interest  and  authority  of  the  literary 
contents,  the  richness  and  variety  of  the  photographic  collection  provide 
a  fascinating  and  unrivalled  pageant  of  living  mankind,  the  study 
of  which   cannot    fail   to   prove    of  high    educational    value. 

LONDON,      E.C.i. 



'ORE  than  one  hundred  writers  of  distinction,  and  some  three  hundred 

representative   of   the    distinguished   group   of   ef<°™S'*™he  *'      of 
historians  whose  original  contributions  stamp  with  authority  the  pages 
Peoples  Of  Am.   Nations 

IlGERNON  ,  ASHNALL  ,  E.  0.  BODLE.  DEMETRIUS  C.  M=    A«™*~«5fc    0Mir^  S Coin 

BOSSES  ssigssi  «S£I  E&SRS  t«S 

British  Empire  in  America    article.    Spirit    of    Franca?        »"«">*«» 

Belgian     poet.       Author, 
Belgium  from  Roman  In- 
vasion   to    Present    Day. 
Writes  history  of  Belgium 


Author,  The  Unveiling  of 

Lhasa.  The  Long  Road  to 

Baghdad.  Describes  life  in 

Irak  (Mesopotamia) 


k^H!  i^SHS:  SSIs 

"■feSSSSS*?'    $&?$$$*  S "SS.a      our  of  China 

W.   H.  DAWSON  SHAW  DESMOND  Sir  GEORGE  j"-"**  «J^  DRAG  ^^JJf™       and 

ffi'Mi'W  i53ESS&5£?£  1-|3«S  HSfe  MMMS: 

£SJ^    eT^ou?^^    ^MM^     Wr^I^tria,  ^        »*-  lire  o,  Austria 


Daughter  of  John  Addillg- 
tonSymonds.  Authontyon 
Switzerland.  Describes 
life  of  that  country 


Moat  widely  travelled  of  Of  the  Oriental  Deptmt., 

Nectar     correspondents.  British  Museum.   Author, 

Writ"     descriptions     of  The  Sayings  of  Confucius. 

British  and  foreign  lands  Outlines    China's  history 


Soldier  and  writer. Author. 

With  the  Mission  to  Mene- 

lek.      Contributes    Abys. 

sinia.  historical 


Supt.  Labrador  Medical 
Mission.  Author,  Auto, 
biography  of  a  Labrador 
Doctor.    Writes  Labrador 


Authorand  critic.  Author, 

"Royal  House  of  Portugal, 

Geneva.    Writes  historical 

Portugal,  Switzerland 


Author, Highways  and  By- 
ways  in  Donegal,  To-day 
and  To-morrow  in  Ireland. 
Outlines  Ireland's  history 

Author  of  The  Argentine 
Through  English  Eyes, etc. 
Describes  Argentina, 
Bolivia,  Chile,    Peru.    etc. 

Times  correspondent  in 
Morocco.  Author, Morocco 
that  Was,  etc.  Writes  his- 
torical article  on  Morocco 


Keeper  of  Ashmolean  Mu- 
seum. Author.  Penetration 
of  Arabia.    Writes  history 
of  Arabia  and  Hejaz 


Soldier     and     geographer. 
Author,  TheGates  of  India, 
etc.      Writes   descriptions 
or   Afghanistan  &  Bhurat: 


Member  Sarawak  Govt. 
State  Council,  ethnologist. 
Author,  Pagan  Tribes  of 
Borneo.    Describes  Borneo 


Professor  of  Chinese,  Ox- 
ford.  Author,  Manchuria, 
Its  People  and  .Recent  His- 
tory.     Writes  Manchuria 


Traveller.       Author.      Al- 
giers, the  Sahara  and  the 
Nile,  Travels  East  of  Suez. 
Tells  story  of  Algeria 


Author  of  Italy  and  the 

Italians,  etc.  Contributes 

our  historical    article  on 


pli^  yW  life*5 

Lt.-Col.  H.   F.   JACOB 

Indian    Army,      Political 

Service.  Author,  Perfumes 

of  Araby.    Writesof  Aden. 

Perim.  and  Socotra 

Prof.   J.   H.   LONGFORD 

Professor  of  Japanese, 
Author  of  many  works  on  Lond.Univ.  Author, Regen- 
Af  rica.  Outlines  history  of  eration  of  Japan.  Writes 
British  Empire  in    Africa        on  Formosa  and  Japan 

Sir  H.  H.  JOHNSTON 

Explorer    and    Writer. 


Author,    The    Governance 
of  England.      Special  con- 
tribution on  The  Spirit  of 
the  British  Empire 


Late  Gov.-GeneralNigeria. 

Author,  Our  East  African 

Empire.  Writes  on  British 

Empire  in  Africa 

Late  Consu  1-General, 
Chinese  Turkistan.  Con- 
tributes our  article  on  Sin 
Kiang  (Chinese Turkistan) 

special    correspondent 
many  lands.    Author,  The 


Author,  Through  Five  Re- 
publics of  South  America. 

Unveiled  East.  Writeshere    Outlines  histories  of  Salva- 

on  Korea,  Siberia,  etc. 

dor  and  other  Republics 

G.  E.  MITTON  (Lady  Scott)  Lord  MORRIS 

Author  of  A  Bachelor  Girl  Premier  of  Newfoundland. 

in    Burma,    etc.      Contri-  1909-1918.    Writer  on  New- 

butes       our       descriptive  foundland.        Contributes 

article  on  Ceylon  Newfoundland,  historical 


IREDERICK  J.   NIVEiN              sir  BERNARD  PARES                    Canon  PARFIT  Prol.  FLINDERS  PETRIE 

■,   -,      Author     of      Maple     Leaf  Professor  of  Russian,  Lon-  Late    chaplain    in    Syria.  Professor  of   Egyptology, 

or   The iSKS  inkussia"    ^ongs  and  many  Canadian  don  Univ.  Author.  Kussia  Author,  Among  the  Druses  University  College    Auth- 

Snrt  article?  on the  Cau-     stories.      Writes  our  des-  and  Reform.     Contributes  of     Lebanon.       Describes  or.     History     of     Egypt, 

casus      Describes ;  Georgia            cription  of  Canada                 the  history  of  Russia                Lebanon  and  Syria  Writes    Egypt,   historical 


B  e  r  1  i  n  correspondent, 
Daily  Mail.  Author  arti- 
cles on  Germany,  etc. 
Writes  Germany,  Prussia 


Well     known       Traveller.  War  correspondent.  Auth. 

Author,  Through  theTTeart  or,    Inner   History  of  the 

of  Patagonia,  etc.    Writes  Balkan  War,  etc.     Contri- 

on    Haiti    and    Patagonia  butes  story  of  Bulgaria 

Late  High  Commissioner 
for  New  Zealand.  Author, 
New  Zealand,  etc.  Des- 
cribes New  Zealand 


Director,  School  of  Orient- 
al Studies.  Author.  The 
Heart  of  Asia.  Sketches 
histories  of  Tibet,  Turkey 


Author,  politician.  Author 

of  Barba'ry,  Through  Fin- 

land,  etc.    Writes  Algeria, 

Finland,  Morocco  Tunis 


Burmese  and  Siamese  civil 

services.  21  years.  Author, 

Burma,  a  Handbook,  etc. 

Describes  Burma 


Afghan  nobleman.    Exam-  Explorer  in  China,    Mon- 

iner  inOrientalLanguages.  golia,  Manchuria.  Author, 

Edinburgh    Univ.     Writes  Fur  and  Feather  in  North 

Bokhara,  Khiva. Turkistan  China.    Writes  Mongolia 


Author, From  the  Crusades 

to  the  French  Revolution, 

etc.    W'rites  our  historical 

sketch  of  France 

Late  Gov.  Straits  Settle- 
ments. Author,  Malay 
Sketches, etc.  WritesMalay 
States. Straits  Settlements 

Sir  PERCY    M.    SYKES 
Author,      Ten      Thousand 
Miles  in  Persia.     Contri- 
butes  historical   and   des. 

criptive  articles  Persia 

Author,  traveller.  Auth- 
or. Denmark  Past  and 
Present.  Writes  outline 
of  Denmark's  history 

Criminologist.     Author, 
South  Sea.  Tarns,  etc.  Con. 
tributes  British  Empire  in 
Australasia    and    Oceania 


Writer,  Traveller.  Author, 

Through  Finland  in  Carts, 

A  Giri's  Ride  in  Iceland. 

Describes  Iceland 


uthor.  On  and  Off  Duty 

in  Annam.    Writes  on  An-    Tunis 
nam      Cambodia.    French     articles,    Al 
Indo-China  zig,  Monac 


AU't'ho  r,     Abyssinia.     Egyptologist.  Author,  The    British  Chaplain  in.  Japan,     Secretary,  History  of  War 

Contributes  Dweller  in  the  Desert, 
'ssinia,  Dan-  Egypt  from  1798  to  1914. 
San  Marino  Describes  life  of  Egypt 

Author,  Houn-    Committee.        Author, 
■ing  in  the  Japanese    History  of  Poland.      Out- 
Describes  Japan  lines  Poland's  history 


Lecturer  and  writer     Author  and  traveller. 
Author,  In  the  Hands  of    Author,  War  and  Diplom- 
the  Senussi.  Writes  article    acy  in  the  Balkans.    Here 
Libyan  Desert  describes  Bulgaria 


Author     of     History     of 

South  Africa,  etc.   Contri. 

butes  historical  article  on 

South  Africa 


Part-author,     The     Great  President,      Eoyal      Geo. 

War,  1914-19.     Writes  here  graphical     Soc.      Author, 

on     French     Empire      in  Heartof  a  Oontinent.India 

Africa,  etc.  and  Tibet.  Describes  Tibet 

PLAN    OF     THE     WORK 


though' not  politically   independent,    such   as   Annam    and    Dahomey    and  self- governing   dominions, 
like  Canada  and  New  Zealand,  are  individually  dealt  with  in  their  alphabetical  sequence 







ARABIA      See  also  Hejaz, 







Belgian  Congo 

Bohemia  {See  Czecho- 
BOKHARA  [Slovakia) 


I.   IN    AFRICA 

Anglo-Egyptian  Sudan 
Ascension  Island 
British  East  Africa 
Egypt  (See  Egypt) 
Mauritius,  etc. 
Nyasaland  Protectorate 
St.  Helena 

Somaliland  Protectorate 
South  Africa 

(See  Rhodesia) 
See  also  South   Africa, 
Union  of 
West  Africa 

Gold  Coast,  Ashanti,  & 
Northern  Territories 
Sierra  Leone 
Zululand  (See  South 

Africa,  Union  oij 


Canada  (See  Canadal 
Falkland  Islands 
Guiana,  British 
Honduras,  British 
West  Indies 


Aden,    Perim,    Socotra, 
Bahrein  Islands      [Lahej 
Borneo  &  Sarawak 
India  (See  India) 
Straits  Settlements 
Malay  States 



New  Guinea 
Pacific  Islands 

See  also  Australia,  New 
Zealand,   Tasmania 

Channel  Islands 



Central  American   Republic 
(See    Guatemala,   Hon- 
duras,    &    Salvador) 


See  also  Manchuria,  Mon- 
golia, Sin  Kiang,  Tibet 
Cilicia  (See  Syria  &  Cilicia) 

(Bohemia,    Moravia, 
Silesia,   Slovakia 




See  also  Iceland 
Dominican     Republic    (See 
Santo  Domingo) 


Libyan  Desert 

Isle  of  Man 


See  also  Algeria 


French     Congo     (French 

Equatorial    Africa) 

French  Somaliland 
French   West  Africa   & 

the  Sahara 
See  also  Dahomey 

Morocco  (See  Morocco) 
Tunis  (Sec    Tunis) 

French  Guiana 
St.  Pierre  &  Miqnelon  Is 

French   India 
French  Indo-China 

See  also  Annam 


New  Caledonia 
New  Hebrides 
Society    Islands,    Tahiti, 
Marquesas    etc. 







Greenland  (See  Denmark) 








See  also  Burma,  Nepal 




Italian  Dependencies 

Italian  Somaliland 
Tripoli  &  Cyrenaica 
Tientsin  Concession 


See  also  Formosa    Korea 


Kurdistan   (See   Armenia   & 









Mesopotamia   (See    Irak' 




Moravia      (See    Czecho- 

MONTENEGRO  [Slovakia) 



Dutch  East  Indies 
Dutch  West  Indies 


See  also  Samoan   Is. 







Patagonia  (See  Chile) 






Portuguese    Depen 
Goa,      Macao,      Timor, 
Cape  Verde   Islands, 
Portuguese     Guinea, 
San  Thome    and 
Principe,         Angola. 




See    also    Azerbaijan, 
Esthonia,  Georgia 

Latvia,  Lithuania 

Siberia,   Ukraine 


Western   Samoa 
Sandwich   Islands   (See 


SERBIA,      CROATIA,       .- 
See  also  Montenegro 

Yakutsk  Republic 
Silesia   (See  Czecho- 
slovakia,        Germany 

Cape  ot  Good  Hope 
Natal   &  Zululand 
Orange  Free  State 
S.W.  Africa  Protectorate 
See  also  British  Empire 
in  Africa 

Spanish   Colonies 

Rio     de     Oro,     Adrar 
Ifni,  Spanish  Guinea 
Fernando    Po, 
Spanish  Morocco 
See  also  Lebanon 


See  also  Sin  Kiang,  Bok- 
hara, Khiva 

See  also  Arabia,  Syria 


U.S.  Territories 
Porto  Rico 
Virgin  Islands 
See    also    Philippine    Is- 
lands, Hawaii,  Samoan 



Yugo-Slavia   (See  Serbia' 



An  Outline  of  Racial  Origins  :  How  Man  Emerged 
from   the   Horde   at  the    Call  of  the  Tribal  Spirit 

By    SIR   ARTHUR   KEITH,   F.R.S.,  F.RCS.,  LL.D. 

'The  Antiquity  oi  Man,"   "Nationality  and  Race,"  etc 

Author  ot 

IF  we  would  seek   for  a  rational  ex- 
planation of  how  mankind  has  been 
fashioned  into  diverse   races,   and 
how    modern    nationalities    have    come 
into  being,  we  must  go  far  beyond  the 
bounds  of  history  m  its  written  form. 
From  the  number   of  early   cemetenes 
and  graves  in   Upper 
Egypt,  we  may  draw 
the     conclusion     that 
some       6,000      years 
before    the    birth    of 
Christ    it    not  earlier, 
a     discovery    had 
already     been     made 
which  was  destined  to 
revolutionise    the 
world     of     mankind. 
This     discovery     was 
the  knowledge  of  agri- 
culture— the  art  which 
made     any     tract     of 
land,    one    which   was 
scarcely    sufficient    to 
sustain    a   single   soul 
by    its    natural    pro- 
duce,     sufficient      to 
carry     a     hundred 
families.     By  this  art 
the       sparsely        dis- 
tributed    natives     of 
the  valley  of  the  Nile 
became,  in  a  tew  generations,  the  teeming 
millions      who     served    the    Pharaohs. 
It  is  the  knowledge  of  agriculture  that 
has  clothed  large  parts  of  the  earth  with 
a  close  carpet  of  humanity. 

To  take  a  modern  example  from  our 
own  homeland,  an  area  in  the  valley  of 
the  Thames  which  could  scarcely  have 
supported  twenty  wandering  families  in 
Neolithic  times  by  its  natural  produce  of 
plant,  fish,  and  game,  now  provides  homes 
for    over   seven   millions  of   Londoners 


The  discovery  and  improvement  of  agri- 
culture have  made  massed  populations 
and  crowded  nationalities  possible,  and 
wrought  a  evolution  in  the  conditions 
of  human  existence.  This  critical  step 
forward  marks  the  close  of  an  ancient 
order  of  things  and  the  dawn  of  our 
modern  world. 

The     discovery     of 
agriculture     coincides 
with    another    impor- 
tant      event  —  the 
beginning  of  the  Neo- 
lithic period,   the  last 
of  man's  many  phases 
of  stone  culture.     Ex- 
perts     are     almost 
unanimous  m  placing 
the  beginning  of  man's 
Neolithic  culture  at  a 
date    some    6,000    or 
7,000  years  before  the 
birth  of  Christ.     Thus 
it  will  be  seen  that  the 
dawn  of   our   modern 
world      of       crowded 
nationalities  is  a  com- 
paratively      recent 
event    in    man's    im- 
mensely long  history. 
It  was  not  until  some 
3,000      years      before 
Christ's  time  that  men  found  out  how 
to  replace  weapons  and  implements  ot 
stone  by  others  wrought  in  metal— first 
in  copper  or  bronze,  and  then  in  iron. 
The  Bronze  and  Iron  Ages  represent  only 
the   latest    pages    of     the    voluminous 
history  of  mankind. 

For  the  anthropologist  there  are  but 
two  well-marked  hases  in  human 
history.  The  first  phase  is  that  ot 
natural  subsistence— an  infinitely  long 
and     monotonous     chapter— stretching 

Photo.    Ritsselt 



The    Dazvn   of  National   Life 

over  a  million  of  -  ears  or  more.  The 
second  is  the  phase  of  artificial  sub- 
sistence— which  we  have  just  seen  to  be 
a  short  chapter— covering  a  period  of 
8,000  years,  or  10,000  at  the  very  utmost. 
This  later  period  has  been  one  crowded 
with  events  which  have  a  critical  bearing 
on   the  present   and   future  welfare  of 



o  Woking 


0  Caterham 


In  prehistoric  times,  before  man  had  discovered  the  great  secret  of 
agriculture,  the  area  uow  covered  by  Greater  London  ^sup- 
port onlv  about  too  individuals.  Its  total  possible  population  at 
that  early  stage  is  shown  by  the  figures  on  the  map.  To-day, 
seven  and  a  half  millions  of  human  beings  are  massed  m  the  atea 

mankind.  It  was  during  this  period 
that  the  actors  in  the  great  drama  of 
humanity  took  up  their  present  places 
on  the  world  stage.  But  when  it  comes 
to  the  understanding  of  racial  and 
nationa-  problems,  the  first  and  long 
natural  phase  of  man's  history  is  by  far 
the  more  important,  foi  it  was  in  this 
period  that  the  existing  races  of  man- 
kind became  differentiated  and  came 
by  their  mental  qualities  and  bodily 
characters.  The  mental  outlook  which 
has  been  inherited  bv  modern  man 
was  shaped  then. 

Fortunately  for  our  present  purpose, 
it  is  stiU  possible  to  study  the  conditions 
of  life  which  prevailed  in  the  world  of 

early  humanity,  when   modern  races  of 
mankind  were  being  fashioned  and  the 
qualities  of  their  brains  and  minds  were 
being  evolved.     No  land  offers  us  such 
advantages  for  our  present  purpose  as 
does  the  continent  of  Australia.     Until 
a  little  over  150  years  ago,  when  Captain 
Cook   arrived    there,    it   was    the   most 
secluded     part     of     the 
earth's  surface,  the  most 
remote  from  the  tides  of 
civilization   which    swept 
the    continents    lying    to 
the  north  of  the  Equator. 
If    a    breeder   were    in 
search     of     a     primitive 
stock  of  humanity,  with 
the  view  of  evolving  from 
it,  by  means  of  artificial 
selection,  breeds  or  races 
comparable   to  the  more 
distinctive    types    of 
modern      mankind — such 
as   the    Negro   of  Africa, 
the  Mongol  of  Asia,  and 
the  Caucasian  of  Europe 
—he  would  select  for  his 
purpose  the  dark-skinned 
natives  of  Australia.  They 
represent  an  old  or  primi- 
tive    type     of      modern 

They     have     many 
Negroid  traits,  some  Mon- 
golian,   some     Caucasian 
features,  and  many  other 
characters  which  may  be 
termed  low  or  primitive.      The  condi- 
tions undei  which  they  spend  their  fives 
represent  a  stage  which  prevailed  in  all 
parts  of  the  world  before  the  art  of  agri- 
culture was  discovered.    At  the  date  of 
Captain  Cook's  arrival  the  native  popu- 
lation of  this  vast  continent— probably 
under  a  quarter  of  a  million  souls— was 
divided  and  subdivided  into  a  myriad  of 
tribal  islets. 

The  manner  of  life  led  within  one  of 
these  islets  we  may  glean  from  the 
recent  and  instructive  researches  of 
Professor  Baldwin  Spencer  and  Mr.  F.  J. 
Gillen  in  Centi  al  and  Northern  Australia. 
We  may  select  the  Warramunga 
tribe,    occupying    a    sharply    delimited 


What  the    Warramunga    Tell  Us «_ 

territory,  equal  in  extent  to  the  com- 
bined areas  of  Yorkshire  and  Lan- 
cashire, situated  almost  in  the  heart  of 
the  continent.  Their  country  is  an  arid 
plain,  covered  by  Mulga  scrub,  crossed 
by  ranges  of  hills,  and  provided  with  no 
natural  frontier  barriers.  So  barren  does 
the  land  seem  to  a  European  visitor  that 
he  is  puzzled  to  know  how  the  natives 
manage  to  obtain  a  livelihood,  for  they 
are  entirely  dependent  on  the  natural 
produce  of  their  arid  plains  and  almost 
waterless  creek- valleys. 

Over  this  country  the  Warramunga 
are  scattered,  divided  into  local  bands  or 
groups,  each  group  confining  its  wander- 
ings to  a  definite  and  recognized  district 
of  the  tribal  territory.  Each  local  group 
is    composed    of    closely    related    indi- 

viduals, the  older  men  serving  as  heads 
or  advisers.    A  common  speech  prevails 
throughout   the  members  of  the  tribe, 
with  a  tendency  to  form  local  dialects. 
Elaborate  ceremonies  bring  local  groups 
together  at  intervals,  and  assist  to  keep 
up    a    community  of    interest    and    of 
organization  throughout  the  whole  tribe. 
The  Warramunga  are  surrounded  by 
five  other  tribes,  each  of  which  has  its 
marches  strictly  delimited.   Each  has  its 
own    tongue ;     in    ceremonies    and    in 
beliefs,  each  tribe  differs  in  detail.     A 
strict  understanding  of  territorial  limits, 
a    decided    difference    in    speech,     and 
slighter   differences   in   customs,   habits, 
beliefs,  and  ceremonies  tend  to  isolate 
neighbouring   tribes.       Marriage    across 
the  tribal  frontier  line  is  rare  ;  organized 

i  mug 


T1J  .-r     uhoks     thf      DAWN     OF     OUR     MODERN     WORLD 

THE     DISCOVERY     THAT     MARKS     THE     DAWN     OFJJ  ^  ^  ^ 

The  discovery  of  agncultee was  tto evea ■« ^^ledge  which  "  has  clothed  large  parts  of 
man  who  discovered  the  «»rf*£ 2«*  S5a^§. %  figeSn  native  seen  above,  whose  agr.culture  is 
XntedToae  iTofTrSxnftlThZ  £  **  ^atly  advanced  beyond  the  prehistory  dtscoverer 

Photo,   J.   R    ft»£*fl«! 

The   Damn   of  National  Life 

Recorded  History-5POOyears  -  including  Iron 
NEOl  ITHIC  AGE  [  and  Bro  n  ze  Ages 

It-  Neanderthal  Man 
Galley  Hill  Man 


Affhodes/an  Man 
§j      (Broken  Hill) 

L.  Heidelberg'  Man 

Piltdown  Man 

:  Pithecanthropus  Man 


Supposed  beginning 

of  the  Age  of  Tools 



This  diagram,  prepared  by  Sir  Arthur  Keith, 
is  based  upon  two  scales  of  time,  one  estimated 
by  the  age  of  geological  deposits  and  the  other 
by  the  evolution  of  human  implements.  Note 
how  brief  a  period  in  comparison  to  the  whole 
is  the  recorded  history  of  man 

warfare  of  tribe  against  tribe  is 
unknown;  but  perpetual  inter-tribal 
vendettas  across  frontier  lines  serve  to 
keep  the  people  of  one  area  separate 
from  those  of  surrounding  areas. 

No  matter  which  part  of  the  Aus- 
tralian continent  we  had  visited  before 
the  arrival  of  the  white  man,  we  should 
have  found  it  divided  up,  each  area 
being  the  circumscribed  homeland  of  a 
local  or  family  group.  We  should  have 
found  that  a  number  of  these  local 
groups  regarded  themselves  as  forming 
part  of  a  natural  community  or  organiza- 
tion to  which  we  may  give  the  name  of 
tribe.  Nowhere  on  the  Australian 
continent  do  we  find  evidence  of  dis- 
turbances wrought  by  the  impact  of 
migratory  or  invading  hordes.  Evolution 
worked  out  its  ends  by  increasing  the 
numbers  and  territory  o+  successful 
tribes  at  the  expense  of  their  less 
vigorous  and  less  prolific  neighbours. 

PHASE    of    lite    that    ended   8,000    years   ago   in 
Europe  bat  is  still  existing  in  Australia 

The  state  of  human  existence  which 
can  still  be  seen  in  Australia  represents 
for  us  the  conditions  of  human  life  in  all 
parts  of  the  world  during  the  long  epoch 
of  man's  natural  or  primitive  subsistence. 
In  Europe  this  phase  began  to  come  to 
an  end  some  8,000  years  ago.  It  was 
amidst  these  primitive  conditions  that 
the  numerous  races  and  breeds  of  modern 
mankind  became  differentiated  from 
each  other.  In  such  conditions,  too, 
extinct  human  forms,  which  we  know 
only  by  the  discovery  of  their  fossilised 
skull  and  bones,  became  evolved. 

It  is  only  when  we  look  deeply  into 
the  problem  of  the  origin  of  modern 
human  races,  and  search  for  the 
machinery  which  Nature  has  employed 
to  bring  them  into  existence,  that  we 
see  the  importance  of  the  factor  of 
isolation.  This  factor  of  isolation  was 
forced  on  Darwin's  attention  when  he 
visited  the  Galapagos  Islands,  and  found 
each  with  its  peculiar  apecies  of  birds 
and  turtle. 

It  was  not  necessary  for  Nature 
to  place  primitive  mankind  on  an 
archipelago    of    islands    scattered   in    a 

How  New  Races  are  Produced    ,_ 

vast  sea  to  secure  the  isolation  of 
human  groups  ;  she  obtained  the  same 
effect  by  creating  and  fixing  ffl  the 
human  brain  that  assemblage  at  in- 
stinctive mental  reactions  that  we^are 
all  familiar  with  a"  tribal  spirit  or 
"  clannishness." 

The  tribal  instinct  is  an  essential 
part  of  Natures  machinery  for  the 
production  of  new  forms  of  humanity— 
new  races  of  mankind. 
Each  isolated  local  group 
or  tribe  is  the  possible 
cradle  of  a  new  race. 
One  tribe  of  Australians 
differs  from  another  and 
neighbouring      tribe     in 

mental  qualities  which  constitute  *e 
tribal  instinct  divide  mankin mto 
groups  or  nations,  and  have  been  an 
essential  factor  m  evolving  the  black 
yellow,  and  white  races  of  mankind 
from  a  common  ancestral  stock. 

In  searching  for  light  on  the  earliest 

stage*  in  human  evolution  help  can  be 

obtained  by  studying  the  animals  most 

nearly  related  to  man.     For  many  years 

we   have   been   familial 

with     three     kinds     of 

living  great  anthropoids, 

the  got  ilia,  chimpanzee, 

and     orang  -  titan  —  so 

distinct"     in      bodily 

characters    and    mental 

stature,  torm  oi  lace,  and 
shape  of  body,  as  well  as 
in  m  mtal  attributes. 

If  the  tribal  spirit, 
which  is  so  deeply 
engrafted  in  human 
nature,  could  be  eradi- 
cated—it that  mental 
quality  which  Professor 
F  H  Geddings,  in  "  The  Principles  ot 
Sociology,"  has  named  "consciousness 
of  kind  "  were  to  be  bred  out  ot  the 
human  brain,  then  the  racial  frontiers 
of  the  world  would  break  down,  and 
mankind  would  mingle  and  become 
reduced  to  a  grey  uniform  mixture 
throughout  the  world.  It  is  the  eve, 
present  reaction  of  the  tribal  spirit 
that  maintains  racial  frontiers.     These 


The  existing  Warramunga  oi 
Australia  represent  the  original 
stock  from  which  the  three  great 
modern  races  have  developed,  as 
suggested   in   the    above    grouping 

qualities  that  they  have 
to  be  set  a  considerable 
distance  apart  m  any 
evolutionary  scheme  of 
classification.  The  orang 
is  native  to  Borneo  and 
Java  ;  the  gorilla  and 
chimpanzee  are  now  con- 
fined to  Africa.  The 
difference  between  these  apes  is  so  great 
that  they  have  to  be  classified  or 
grouped  not  as  separate  species,  but  as 
separate  genera.  In  the  ancient  world 
of  mankind  there  were  wide  gaps  of  a 
similar  kind  between  human  types  : 
some  ot  the  extinct  human  forms,  which 
are  known  from  their  fossil  remains,  were 
so  different  in  structure  from  the  modern 
breeds    of   men,    and  were  marked  off 

The   Dazvn   of  National  Life 

from  each  other  by  such  pronounced 
anatomical  characters,  that  they  have 
to  be  given  separate  specific  or  even 
generic  rank.  They  were  as  far  apart 
in  the  evolutionary  scale  of  the  human 
world  as  the  jackal,  wolf,  dog,  and  fox 
are  in  the  canine  world.  All  the  breeds 
or  races  of  modern  man,  on  the  other 
hand,  are  no  farther  apart  in  the 
evolutionary  scale  than  the  modern 
breed  of  dogs,  such  as  the  bulldog, 
greyhound,  sheep-dog,  and  spaniel. 

SCIENCE,  despite  its  progress,  has  only  recently 
found  new   marcels  of  human  development 

In  the  later  phases  of  the  period  of 
man's  natural  subsistence,  the  ancestral 
stock  of  modern  man  throve,  expanded, 
and  came  gradually  to  occupy  the 
whole  surface  of  the  earth,  ousting  and 
extinguishing  all  the  representatives  of 
competing  and  more  ancient  human 
types.  There  must  have  been  some 
qualities  of  brain  and  body  in  the 
ancestral  stock  of  modern  man  that 
gave  it  a  winning  advantage  over  all  its 
rivals.  As  this  modern  stock  throve 
and  expanded,  broken  up  as  it  must 
have  been  into  scattered,  isolated,  local 
groups,  it  in  turn  underwent  differentia- 
tion and  gave  rise  to  the  various 
human  breeds  or  races  that  carpet 
the  surface  of  the  earth  to-day. 

Breeders  will  agree  that  the  per- 
sistent separation  of  a  primitive  com- 
munity into  local  or  tribal  groups  is 
highly  favourable  to  the  creation  of 
new  races  or  breeds.  But  how  is  it  that 
Negroid  features  have  become  most 
pronounced  in  the  natives  of  tropical 
Africa,  Mongoloid  features  in  the  natives 
of  North-Eastern  Asia,  and  Caucasoid  or 
European  features  in  the  natives  of 
Europe  ? 

In  late  years  Nature  has  unlocked 
some  of  the  secrets  of  her  mechanism 
for  the  production  of  new  forms  of 
man  and  beast.  It  has  been  found 
that  there  exists  in  the  human  body 
just  as  in  that  of  every  vertebrate 
animal,  a  number  of  growth-regulating 
glands,  each  exercising  its  own  peculiar 
effect  on  the  growth  of  body  and  brain 
Two  are  situated  within  the  skull  and 

attached  to  the  brain— the  pituitary 
gland  and  the  pineal  gland.  Another  is 
placed  in  the  neck— the  thyroid  gland. 
A  fourth  is  placed  near  the  kidneys— 
the  adrenal  gland  ;  while  the  fifth,  or 
interstitial  gland,  forms  an  intrinsic 
constituent  of  the  sex  or  seed  glands. 

The  fact  that  removal  of  the  sex 
glands  alters  the  bodily  form  and 
mental  character  of  human  beings  is 
knowledge  of  olden  times.  But  it  is 
only  in  recent  years  that  we  have 
learned  how  the  effect  is  produced. 
We  now  know  that  the  sex  glands  and 
each  of  the  other  glands  just  mentioned 
are  small  but  complex  chemical  labora- 
tories in  which  substances  named 
hormones  are  produced.  These  hormones 
are  passed  in  minute  quantities  into 
the  circulating  blood  and  are  by  this 
means  carried  to  every  member  and 
part  of  the  body,  where  they  exercise  a 
regulating  or  controlling  influence  on 
growth  and  form. 


YSTERIOUS    glands    that    determine    sex    and 
stature  and  shape  new   types  of  human  beings 

Medical  men  are  only  too  familiar 
with  the  disturbances  of  growth  which 
follow  disorderly  action  of  one  or  more 
of  these  glands.  For  instance,  the 
pituitary  "gland  may  assume  an 
abnormal  size,  with  the  result  that  the 
growth  of  the  whole  body  changes. 
A  young  man  or  woman  so  affected 
will  shoot  up  into  a  giant  or  giantess. 
If,  on  the  other  hand,  the  gland  is 
reduced  in  size  or  action,  dwarfism 
results.  We  know,  too,  that  adult 
individuals  who  suffer  from  enlargement 
of  the  pituitary  gland  become  trans- 
formed in  appearance  in  the  course  of 
a  few  years.  Their  faces  become  rugged 
and  long,  their  jaws  big,  and  their 
noses  prominent.  Their  feet,  hands, 
skin,  hair,  and  mental  nature  change, 
so  potent  are  the  hormones  emanating 
from  the  pituitary  gland  in  the  shaping 
of  bodily  characters. 

Medical  men  are  also  familiar  with 
the  growth  effects  which  follow  dis- 
ordered action  of  the  thyroid  gland. 
The  effects  are  different  from — almost 
the  opposite  of — the  effects  which  follow 


Stone  Age  Man   in  the  World  To-day 

,  ,»  habitants  of  the  world  we  can  find  examples  of  man  at  almost  every  stage  of  his 
Among  the  living  inhabitants  01  z ne  »u    u  i  r  existing  Warramunga  tribe  of 

upward  progress  from  the  P1™1^.^1*;0^1 rStoentery  culture  which  prevailed  throughout  the 
Australia  may  be  taken  as  rePresenVnng/^^i^^,re  tad  been  discovered  These  Warramunga  are 
world  before  f^^^^^^TuoTo^^t^Z^s  of  a  small  lump  o!  hard 
making  tools  of  stone    the >  upper  one  chipping  :aphed   from  an  actual  example,  that   may 

quartate,  to  rough  out  an  ^head  bke  1 f^P  ^  The  Warramunga  at  work  in  the  lower 
compare  with  Fig.  2,  of  a  real  P«0™I0™(h  polishing  it  after  more  chipping,  as  m  Figs.  3  and  4, 
photograph  is  carrying  t he  axe-head  a  sta gc  turthc poi    n    g  f^  &  ^  ha£t 

St%Ntftr^^S&  i"  its  origina!  handle,  found  in  Soiway  Moss 
Photos,  Spencer  &  GUlen's  "  Across  Australia,"  Macnntlan  a-  Co.,  Ltd. 




Xne  orang  US. !*  of  Borneo,  jgo  ^a  «<**&.  ^JJ^^^TSS 

of   ^^^f-gfXoltotSylS  'nan  the  modern  breeds  of  dogs 

disturbed  action  ol  the  pituitary  gland. 
If  the  action  of  the  thyroid  is  defective, 
the  face  becomes  short  and  broad,  the 
nose  seems  to  sink  m  at  the  root  and  to 
become  widened  and  flattened.  The  skin 
and  hair  change  in  texture,  the  brain 
becomes  sluggish,  growth  in  stature  is 
diminished  or  even  arrested,  so  that 
dwarfism  results.  Again,  the  adrenal 
glands,  as  well  as  the  thyroid,  may  be  de- 
fective or  altered  in  action.  The  skin  of 
a  fair  person  then  becomes  darkened  by 
the  deposition  within  it  of  pigment.  The 
colour  of  hair  and  skin  can  be  changed. 

m  food,  known  as  vitammes,  can  act  on, 
and  alter,  the  hormone  mechanism 
which  controls  growth  and  determines 
racial  characteristics. 



ORMONES  at  work  and  the  wonders  they  can 
perform     in     the     growth    of    the    human    body 

Thus  we  see  that  there  exists  m  the 
human  body  an  elaborate  mechanism 
for  regulating  its  development  and 
growth.  By  the  free  play  and  inter- 
action of  hormones,  stature  and 
strength  may  be  increased  or  diminished ; 
the  pigmentation  of  the  skin  may  be 
altered  the  texture  and  distribution  of 
hair  changed,  the  facial  features  trans- 
formed mental  nature  and  emotional 
reactions  greatly  modified.  Further,  it 
is  highlv  probable  that  certain  elements 

OST    recent    coins     from    Nature's    wonderful 
mint  and  where   they  circulate 

The    most    recent    human    types    to 
be  found  in  the  world  are  (i)  the  blond 
people  of  North- Western  Europe;     (2) 
the  typical  negro  of  Central  or  Tropical 
Africa  ;      (3)     the    Mongolian    type    of 
North-Eastern    Asia.       These    are    the 
latest     physical     human     coins     issued 
from  Nature's  evolutionary  mint,   and 
to  the  first  only  can  we  give  any  close 
consideration    here.      The   lands    lying 
round  the  Baltic,  which  served  as  the 
cradle  of   the  blond   type,   represent   a 
recent  area  of  habitation,  for  throughout 
the  long  glacial  period  they  lay  deeply 
buried  beneath  a  thick  cap  of  ice. 

We  have  every  reason  to  suppose  that 
the  Nordic  race  "of  North- West  Europe, 
tall  men  with  fair  hair  and  skin,  with 
blue  eyes  and  long  narrow  heads,  are 
the  progeny  of  the  dark-haired  and  long- 
headed Mediterranean  type  of  man  who 
expanded  northwards   as   the   ice-sheet 




Though  largest  of  the  man-like  apes,  this  cr 

himpanzee,  which,  like  the  gorilla,  is  an 

eature  is  not  so  nearly  related  to  the  human  g. 

enus  as  the 

inhabitant  of  Africa 

vanished  Blond  skin  and  hair  are  new 
features,  for  a  dark  skin  is  a  character 
of  primitive  races  of  man  ;  it  is  a 
simian  and  ancient  inheritance. 

We  have  no  apt  name  for  the  racial 
type  found  in  Europe  and  South- West 
Asia    the  best  being  that  proposed  by 
Blumenbach— Caucasian   or   Caucasoid. 
Ever  since  the  dawn  of  written  history, 
one  branch  or  another  of  this  stock  has 
led   the   van  of  civilization.      All   great 
human  inventions  have  been  made  by 
one  or  other   of  its  members-the  art 
of   agriculture,   the  use   of   metals,    the 
application    of    steam    and    electricity, 
the  perpetuation  of  knowledge  by  the 

use   of    written    or    printed   characters. 

How    varied    this    stock    has    become, 

how  active  evolutionary  forces  have  been 

in  its  midst,  is  at  once  realized  when 

we  draw  a  line  across  that  part  of  the 

map  of  the  world  to  which  the  Caucasian 

stock   was   confined   until   the   dawn   of 

the  sixteenth  century.    The  line  extends 

from    Southern    India    to   Scandinavia. 

At  the  European  end  of  this  line  we  find 

the  cradle-land  of  the  blond  man  ;   at  its 

Indian    end    we    find    peoples    showing 

distinct  Australoid  and  Negroid  traits. 

The    population    of    India,    we    shall 

see  has  been  evolved  on  the  great  racial 

watershed   of   the    world.       Within    its 

The  Dawn   of  National  Life 

borders  extend  the  fringes  of  all  the 
four  great  racial  stocks  of  the  world— 
the  primitive  Australoid,  the  Negroid, 
the  Mongoloid,  and  the  Caucasoid. 
India  lies  at  the  j  unction  of  the  four 
great  racial  seas,  hence  the  apparently 
mixed  character  of  her  population. 


OSES    of    all    nations    are    variously    designed 
according  to  racial  areas 

Our  early  acquaintance  with  Biblical 
history  has  unconsciously  led  us  to 
regard  the  peoples  living  between  the 
eastern  end  of  the  Mediterranean  and  the 
western  frontiers  of  India— the  Turk, 
Kurd,  Armenian,  Jew,  Arab,  Persian, 
and  Afghan— as  the  most  ancient  of 
human  races.  When,  however,  we  look 
closely  at  the  physical  characters  of 
these  Eastern  peoples,  particularly  at 
their  facial  features— for  it  is  by  the 
form  and  expression  of  the  face,  by  the 
colour  of  skin  and  texture  of  hair  that 
we  can  best  tell  one  race  from  another— 
we  see  that  in  reality  they  represent 
one  of  the  most  clearly  differentiated 
branches  of  the  Caucasian  stock. 

It  is  on  the  human  nose  that  Nature 
has  wrought  her  latest  evolutionary 
designs.  Among  anthropoids  the  nose 
is  merged  in  the  contour  of  a  snout-like 
face ;  the  primitive  human  nose  is 
wide!  flat,  not  clearly  differentiated 
from'  the  rest  of  the  face.  In  the  typical 
Semitic  face,  and  in  variants  of  this 
type,  we  see  a  racial  characteristic  which 
extends  from  Palestine  to  Egypt.  In 
this  region  of  the  world  the  nose  has 
become  a  sharply  delineated  structure, 
more  so  than  in  any  other  racial  area.  _ 

The    present    headquarters    of    this 
great-nosed  racial  type,  which  may  be 
named    Proto-Semitic,    lies    in    South- 
western Asia.     It  extends  towards  the 
north    and    east    until    it    reaches    the 
frontiers  of  the  Mongolian  stock  beyond 
Afghanistan   in    the    neighbourhood    of 
the  Hindu  Kush.    To  this  Proto-Semitic 
stock  the  Turk  belongs,   not,  as  is  so 
often  believed,  to  the  Mongolian.     We 
can    follow    the    Proto-Semitic      type 
through  Persia  and  Baluchistan.    When 
we   enter   the   Punjab   the   racial   type 
changes;     the    skin    darkens,    but    the 

stature  and  features  are  pronouncedly 
Caucasoid  or  European.     In  India  we 
reach  the  utmost  fringe  of  the  Caucasoid 
type  ;    we  pass  beyond  its  evolutionary 
cradle.    When  we  move  towards  Arabia 
or  Egypt  we  come  among  less  differen- 
tiated   members   of   the   Proto-Semitic 
stock.    In  Arabia,  as  in  Egypt,  we  are 
passing    towards    the    African    cradle- 
lands    and    come    within    the    zone    of 
Hamitic    influence.       The    Arabs    and 
Egyptians  have  been  evolved  on  that 
fringe  of  the  Caucasian  territory  which 
borders  on  Negroid  or  Hamitic  territory. 
The  greater  part  of  Europe,  including 
all    its    central    areas,    is    occupied   by 
peoples  who,    although  differing  in  no 
evident  degree  from  Nordic  and  Medi- 
terranean races  as  regards  facial  features, 
colouring    of    hair    and    skin,    and    in 
stature,   yet   have   a   different   form   of 
skull.      They    are    round  -  headed     or 
brachycephalic,  whereas  the  Nordic  and 
Mediterranean  stocks  are  long  or  narrow 
headed — are  dolichocephalic. 

LONG    heads    and    round    heads,   and  the    distinct 
racial  origins  suggested  by   them 

A  difference  in  head  form  must  not  be 
given    undue    importance    as    a     race 
mark.     At  best    it    serves  in  the  sub- 
division of  a  human  stock  into  races. 
Among   Mongols  we  find    peoples  with 
long  heads,  although  most  divisions  of 
this  stock  have    round   heads.     Among 
Negroid    and  Australoid    peoples    most 
have  long  heads,  only  some  have  round. 
In  the  branches   of    the    Proto-Semitic 
stock    a   round   head   is  the  prevailing 
form,  but  some  branches  are  long-headed 
We    must    not    suppose    that    Central 
Europeans    of    the     round-headed     or 
Alpine     type     are     radically    different 
from    the    other    two   European   stocks 
because  of  their  shape  of  head.    Clearly 
all    Europeans    are     evolved    from     a 
common  ancestral  or   Caucasian  stock. 
In    Mediterranean    and    Nordic    stocks, 
dolichocephaly     is   dominant;    in    the 
Alpine        stock,        brachycephaly      is 

The  Alpine  stock  falls  into  two 
divisions  —  the  fair-haired,  round- 
headed    peoples   occupving    the   greater 

FumhP.   the    Cradle   of  Her  Races_ 


part   of    Russia,    extending    to    Finland 
and  the  Baltic  Provinces  and   sweeping 
right  through  Poland  and  Germany  as 
far    westwards    as    Hanover.     The    fair 
Alpine  people  are  also  known  as  Slavs. 
The  other  division,  darker  in  skin  and 
haii ,  and  even  more  rounded  in  form  of 
skull,   occupy   the   greater  part  of  the 
Balkan  peninsula  and  the  lands  drained 
by  the  Danube  and  Upper  Rhine. 
The  dark-headed  Alpine  stock  also 
extends  into  Northern  Italy  and 
occupies    the    whole    of    Central 

So  far  as  concerns  physical  type 
—and  in  everyday  life  the  distinc- 
tion between  one  human  race  and 
another   can  be  made  only  from 
the  outward   appearance  of   face 
and  body— the  whole  population 
of  modern  Europe,  all  its  nation- 
alities, if  we  except  the  Mongolian 
remnants  in  Northern  Russia,  has 
been  compounded  from  the  foul 
racial  stocks   or   types    just  men- 
tioned—the Mediterranean, 
Nordic,  fair  Alpine  01    Slav,  and 
dark    Alpine— the     French    Celt. 
We  have  no  option  when  we  con- 
clude that  each  of  these  stocks  has 
been     evolved     in     Europe,     for 
nowhere  else  in  the  world  do  we 
find  peoples  or    traces  of  peoples 
that  could  serve  as  ancestral  stocks 
of  modern  Europeans. 

We  must  conclude  that  Europe 
has  been   the   cradle   of  her  own 
racial   types.     But   we   do   know 
that  in  the  last  six  thousand  years 
the  round-headed  stock  has  greatly 
increased  the  original  area  it  held 
in    Europe.      In  late  palaeolithic 
times,  towards  the  end  of  the  Ice 
Age,  we   find   the   first  traces   of 
round-headed  men  m  Western  Europe. 
Until  then  all  the   fossil  remains  found 
in  Western  Europe  are  those  of  long- 
head   racial    types.     The    first    round- 
head invasion  of  Britain  occurred  at  the 
beginning    of    the    Bronze    Age,    some 
two  thousand  years  B.C. 

Up  to  the  time  when  Darwin's  dis- 
coveries and  teaching  began  to  influence 
the  thoughts  of  scientific  men,   it  had 

been  customary  to  trace  the  origin  of 
European  races  to  an  Eastern  or 
Asiatic  source.  The  older  anthro- 
pologists pre-supposed  a  distant  Garden 
of  Eden  in  the  East,  from  which  waves  of 
mankind  issued  to  flow  westwards  over 
a  virgin  Europe.  We  now  know  that 
Europe  has  been  occupied  by  human 
forms    throughout    a    whole    geological 

Withifl  the  borders  of  India  the  four  great  racial  stocks 
of  the  world  find  a  meeting-place.  The  primitive 
Australoid,  the  Negroid,  the  Mongoloid,  and  the 
Caucasoid  are  all  to  be  found  there.  The  types ,  m 
order  are  :  Vedda,  Kader  Forest  man  of  S.  India, 
Bhutia  of  Darjeeling,  and  a  prince  of  Rajputana 

epoch,  long  before  types  had  reached 
their  'present  modern  racial  states  of 
evolution  and  distribution. 

Still,  the  Aryan  theory,  which  held 
that  the  dominant  people  of  Europe 
had  spread  from  a  centre  in  South- 
western Asia,  had  one  advantage.  It 
provided  an  easy  explanation  for  the 
fact  that  ah  the  languages  spoken 
between  Ireland  in  the  West  and  India 

The  Dazvn   of  National  Life 

m  the  East  are  modifications  of  the 
same  ancestral  tongue.  Men  did  not 
then  believe  that  speech  could  spread 
except  by  racial  expansion  and  conquest. 
It  was  supposed  that  blood  and  speech 
must  spread  together. 


lACES    of    man    are    differentiated   in    the   same 
way  as  well-marked  species  of  animals 

The  spread  ot  fashion,  such  as  every- 
one   is    familiar    with    in    the    modern 
woman's     world,     is      no     new     thing. 
Among  the  natives  of  Australia,  living 
in  isolated  groups,  fashion,  custom,  and 
information  can  still  percolate  through 
the  mass.  In  ancient  Europe,  during  the 
Ice    Age,    we    find    fashion    succeeding 
fashion   in   ah   parts   of    the   continent. 
The   most  probable  explanation  of  the 
community  m  origin  of  European  tongues 
is  to  be  found  in  the  rise  and  spread  of 
agriculture.     The  European  peoples  are 
without  doubt  evolutionary  products  of 
their    own    continent,    but   their   civili- 
zation is  certainly  to  be  traced  to  an 
eastern    source— to    lands    occupied    by 
the   Proto-Semitic  stock.     If  we  admit 
that  a  Proto-Semitic  people,  occupying  a 
region  between  the  Tevant  and  India.was 
one  of  the  first  to  master  the  secrets  of 
agriculture    and    that    from    their    land 
this    knowledge—so    revolutionary    and 
potent  m  its  effects— began  to  spread 
in  ever-extending  eddies,  then   we  can 
see  how  a  common  tongue  might  come 
to  be   spread    throughout   a  continent. 
All  the  facts  at  our  disposal  point  to  the 
round-headed  stock  as  the  active  agents 
in  carrying  the  knowledge  of  agriculture 
into     Europe     and     disseminating     it 
throughout  the  continent. 

So  clearly  differentiated  are  the  lour 
chief  types  of  mankind  that,  were  an 
anthropologist  presented  with  a  crowd 
of  men  comprising  individuals  drawn 
from  the  central  cradles  of  the  Australoid, 
the  Negroid,  Mongoloid,  or  Caucasoid 
types,  he  could  separate  the  one  human 
element  from  the  other  without  hesi- 
tation or  mistake.  The  races  have  the 
same  high  degree  of  differentiation 
which  we  find  among  well-marked 
species  among  animals.  We  may  there- 
fore speak  of  such  races  as  specific  races. 

But   suppose   the   same    test   had   to 
be   carried   out   on   a   mixed    company 
drawn  from  the  Mediterranean  area,  the 
Nordic  area,  the  Alpine  area,   and  the 
Proto-Semitic  area,  how  far  would  our 
expert  be  successful  ?    With   three  out 
of  every  ten  individuals  he  would  show 
hesitation  or  probably  make  a  mistake 
about  them.      The    same  thing  would 
happen  if  our  test  company  were  drawn 
from  the  outlving  parts  of  neighbouring 
evolutionary  areas.    Everyone  will  admi  t 
that  the  people  of  Persia,  Spam,  Norway 
and  Poland  must  be  regarded  as  belong- 
ing   to    distinct    races,    but     they    are 
imperfect  races,  because  only  about  70 
to  80  per  cent,  of  their  population  carry 
distinctive  racial    markings.     They   are 
not  fully  differentiated  racial  types. 

Then"  we  come  to  racial  distinctions 
which  depend  almost  entirely  on  tradi- 
tion, speech,  custom,  and  habit.  No 
fitter  example  can  be  chosen  to  illustrate 
this  least  degree  of  racial  distinction  than 
the  British  Celt  and  Saxon.  Nowhere 
have  we  a  better  opportunity  of  com- 
parison of  these  two  racial  types  than 
in  Scotland.  From  earliest  times  the 
Highlanders  have  been  counted  Celts, 
the  Lowlanders  Saxons.  With  nine  out 
of  ten  individuals  in'  a  mixed  company 
the  most  expert  anthropologist  will  be 
unable  to  say,  judging  purely  from 
physical  characters,  whether  he  is  deal- 
ing with  a  Celt  or  a  Saxon. 


HYSICAL     distinctions     among,,    the    pewte    at 
the  British  Isles  mark  them  as      incipient  races 

On  the  streets  of  one  of  our  great  cities 
every  British  nationality  of  Celtic  and 
of  Saxon  origin  is  plentifully  represented 
but  it  is  only  in  exceptional  cases,  and 
usually    guided    by   accidental    circum- 
stances   such   as    accent,    or    dress,    or 
manner,     that     even     an     expert     can 
separate  individuals  of  English,   Welsh, 
Irish   or  Scottish  origin  from  each  other. 
The  degree  of  difference  which  exists 
between  British  people  of  Celtic  and  of 
Saxon  origin  represents  the  initial  stage 
in   the   differentiation   of   races.      Such 
races  should  be  recognized  and  spoken 
of  as  incipient  races.      From   the  poli- 
tician's   point    of    view,    this    incipient 

Evolutions    Wheel  at   High_Speed__ 

stage  in  the  differentiation  ot  a  common 
human  stock  into  different  races  is  of 
the   greatest   importance,    so   persistent 
and  clamorous  is  the  machinery  which 
Nature    employs    for    the    evolution    of 
racial   individuality.      For    the   anthro- 
pologist  it   is   also   significant,   for   the 
incipient  stage  marks  the  first  step  to 
racial    differentiation  ;      the    imperfect 
stage    marks    the    second,     while    the 
specific  stage  marks  the  summation  of 
the  evolutionary  movement.     In  every 
continent  of  the  globe  all  three  stages 

ever  invented,  because  by  its  means  the 
weakest  and  least  equipped  races  of  man- 
kind were  laid  open  to  attack  by  the 
strongest  and  best  equipped.  The  coming 
of   the   long-voyage    ship    brought    the 
advance-guard      of     Western      Europe 
against  the  weak  flanks  of  the  native 
races  of  America,  South  Africa,  Australia, 
and  New  Zealand.   In  the  course  of  three 
centuries   the   racial   aspect   of   a   great 
part  of  the  world  has  been  transformed  ; 
if  no  new  type  has  made  its  appearance, 
many  ancient  human  types  have  been 


ass?  m^^-JS=?SSS 
ttBS---Jsg^gSi£SEh  set-  -  "'  - 

are  plentifully  exemplified,  showing  that 
Nature's  evolutionary  machinery  is  still 
at  work  in  all  parts  of  the  earth. 

At  an  early  point  in  this  account,  the 
revolution  wrought  in  the  evolution  of 
human  races  by  the  discovery  of  agri- 
culture was  emphasised.      Peoples  who 
have  utilised  this  art  to  the  full  have 
been  able  to  increase  their  numbers  one 
hundred-fold  and  more.      Next   in  im- 
portance, as  a  factor  in  the  racial  trans- 
formation    of     the     earth,     come     the 
knowledge  of  navigation  and  the  mastery 
of  the  sea.    The  long-voyage  ship  is  the 
most  powerful  anthropological  weapon 

extinguished.  The  evolutionary  wheel 
has  been  turning  at  a  rate  unpre- 
cedented in  the  history  of  mankind. 

Sea  power  is  no  new  thing.  We  have 
now  the  most  ample  evidence  that  in 
the  second  millennium  B.C.  there  was  a 
busy  traffic  along  the  seas  on  our  western 
British  shores,  linking  South-WestEurope 
to  the  Orkneys  and  to  Norway.  By  this 
route  both  Ireland  and  Wales  received 
from  the  south  important  additions  to 
their  primitive  populations.  By  the 
same  date  the  North  Sea  had  been 
mastered,  for  in  ancient  graves  which 
lie  scattered  in  the  eastern  counties  of 

The  Damn   of  National  Life 

Britain,  we  find  definite  evidence  of 
invaders  from  the  continental  shore- 
lands  of  the  North  Sea.  The  Saxon  and 
Danish  invasions  were  but  earlier  re- 
petitions of  a  series  of  prehistoric  events. 

J  TUMAN  Hybrids,  or  the  interbreeding  or 
il  different    races    and    the    consequences 

At  a  still  earlier  date,  probably  by 
the  beginning  of  the  third  millennium 
B.C.,  the  Mediterranean  had  been  mas- 
tered by  branches  of  the  human  stock 
which  had  peopled  its  shores  since 
prehistoric  times.  Along  all  the  shores 
of  the  Indian  Ocean,  from  the  Cape  of 
Good  Hope  to  Java,  we  find  traces  of 
the  time  when  the  Arabs  held  command 

Most  ot  the  inhabitants  of  Central  Europe  have  round  heads, 
mown  as  brachycephalic,  but  the  Nordic  and  Mediterranean 
stocks  are  long-headed  or  dolichocephalic,  the  two  types 
of  head  are  illustrated  above.  On  the  left,  a  typical  German 
represents  the  round-headed  variety  ;  on  the  right,  a 
Sicilian  vouth  is  an  excellent  example  of  the  long-headed 
Mediterranean  stock 

of  the  eastern  seas.  For  many  a  century 
Chinese  junks  have  hugged  the  shores 
of  Further  India  and  the  Malay  Archi- 
pelago, and  left  numerous  members  of 
their  crews  as  settlers  among  the  native 
coastal  populations.  In  many  instances 
sea  power  has  led  to  the  intermingling 
of  races  and  the  complication  of  racial 
problems.  In  many  cases  it  has  given 
rise  to  hybridisation  .  in  others  to  the 
establishment  of  new  nationalities. 

The  greatest  anthropological  experi- 
ment the  world  has  ever  seen  has  been 
the  annexation  of  the  two  great  con- 
tinents of  America  by  the  natives  of 
Western  Europe.  We  here  find  the 
highest  manifestation  of  sea  power  as  a 

factor  m  racial  evolution.     There  were 
really  two  experiments  in  America — one 
carried    out    by    the    Mediterranean    or 
Iberian  stock  of  South- West  Europe,  the 
other    by   the    Nordic    or    Anglo-Saxon 
stock    of    North-West    Europe.         The 
Iberians    chose    the    richest    and    most 
populous     area     of    America    as    then- 
share — one    which    extended    from    the 
northern    frontier    of    Mexico    to    Cape 
Horn.    The  Iberians  entered  as  warriors 
and    adventurers,    the   greater    number 
selecting  brides  from  the  native  peoples, 
and  thus  a  hybrid  population  arose— one 
which   has   proved  incapable   of  main- 
taining  the   high   civilization    of   either 
parent   race.      The   main   result    of   the 
experiment  has  been  to  extin- 
guish the  racial  nature  of  both 
conquerors      and     conquered, 
and  to  bring  into  existence  a 
cross  -  breed     different      from 
and  inferior   to   either   of  the 
original  races. 

That  part  of  the  continent  oi 
America  which  lies  to  the  north  . 
of    Mexico    became    the    scene 
of    an    experiment    yielding    a 
totally  different  result.     Early 
in  the  seventeenth  century  a 
fringe   of    Anglo-Saxons    had 
established    itself    along    the 
eastern     seaboard     ot     North 
America,  and  in  the  course  of 
three  centuries  this  fringe  had 
extended   right  to  the  western 
seaboard,     extinguishing     the 
native  population  and  establishing  the 
largest    and    most    powerful    European 
nationality    that    the   world    has    seen. 
Anglo-Saxon    ships    carried     not     only 
men  to  the  American  shores,  but  women 
and  children    as  well,   all    the   elements 
which  go  to  build  a  home. 

CONDITIONS   that  are   needed  for   the   establish- 
ing of  a  new  nationality 

They  carried  with  them  a  common 
tradition,  a  common  tongue,  a  common 
ideal— all  the  inherited  instincts  and 
prejudices  which  serve  to  isolate  a  com- 
munity in  a  new  land,  and  to  establish 
a  common  tribal  or  national  spirit. 
The  building  up   of   the  United   States 

The    Making  of _  ^g   American^ 

of     America     exemplifies     for     us     the 
anthropological     conditions     necessary 
for  the  successful  establishment  of  a  new 
nationality.     Mention  has  already  been 
made    of   the    three    degrees    of    racial 
differentiation— the  incipient,  such  as  is 
seen    between    Celt    and    Saxon;    the 
imperfect,  such  as  is  exemplified  by  Jew 
and  Gentile  ;     and  the  specific,  such  as  is 
seen    between    Negro    and    Norseman. 
The    new    Anglo-Saxon    community    m 
America  absorbed  with    ease    elements 
drawn  from  the  nationalities  of  Nortii- 
West  Europe  ;  there  was  and  is  greater 
difficulty    m    assimilating    the    mass    of 
emigrants  drawn  from  Celtic  countries, 
such  as  Ireland,  and  from  Mediterranean 
lands,    such    as    Italy,    because    of    the 
masses   in   which    these   people    arrived 
and    the    isolating     national     spirit     or 
instinct  which  they  brought  with   them. 
The   incipient    racial   barrier    can    be 
broken  down  because  the  progeny  which 
issues  from  the    mixture  of  Saxon  and 
Celt    or     Saxon      and     Italian    is    not 
recognizable  from   the   general   mass   of 
an    "  Anglo-Saxon      community.         I  he 
absorption  of  peoples  who  have  reached 
the     stage     of     imperfect     racial     dif- 
ferentiation      proves      more      difficult, 
because  the  race  antipathy  in  this  case 
is  more  potent,  and  the  progeny  in  the 
first  generation  of  crosses  is  still  notice- 
able in  the  mass  of  the  community. 

The  feeling  which  keeps  these  races 
apart  is   usiU  caUed  a  ;  preiudice 

but  this  deeply-rooted  prejudice  dim ace 

instinct  is  really  an  essential  part  of 
the  evolutionary  machinery  used  by 
Nature  in  the  creation  of  new  specif 
It  is  part  of  the  machinery  which 
Nature  uses  in  isolating  her  evolutionary 
groups.  In  striving  to  maintain  the 
purity  of  its  blood  the  white  race  is 
obeying  one  of  the  instincts  most  deeply 
implanted  in  human  nature. 

■HY     Central    and    South    America    are    lands 
where    half-breeds    abound 


HUE   races   strive  to  maintain  Nature  s  racial 
frontier   against   mingling  with   the   black 

When  it  comes  to  the  absorption  of 
specific    races,    an    insuperable    barrier 
becomes  manifest.     The  result  of  such 
crossing    can    be    detected    after    many 
generations:       the       crossed      progeny 
carries  the  marks  of  its  origin.     At  an 
early  elate  African  natives   were  intro- 
duced   into     America    as    slaves.      The 
mass  of  their  progeny,  numbering  now 
10000,000,     have     lived     among,     yet 
remained  isolated  from,  the  white  com- 
munity. The  white  race  refuses  to  absorb 
the  black  race.     The  white  man  strives 
to    maintain    a    racial     frontier     which 
Nature    had    succeeded   m    establishing 
in     the     course     of    a    long    series    of 
evolutionary  cycles. 

The  Anglo-Saxon  colonisation  of 
North  America  has  led  to  the  establish- 
ment of  two  great,  strong,  and  new 
nationalities,  fashioned  out  of  Western 
European  stocks.  The  national  or 
tribal  spirit  established  by  early 
colonists  has  become  diffused  throughout 
the  length  and  breadth  of  the  United 
States  on  the  one  hand  and  of  Canada 
on  the  other.  The  community  of  that 
part  of  Canada  originally  settled  from 
France  has  succeeded  in  maintaining 
the  feeling  of  a  separate  nationality, 
and  has  thus  remained  semi-isolated  m 
thought  and  deed  from  the  rest  of  the 
Dominion.  Here  we  see  the  incipient 
stage   in   racial  differentiation. 

North  of  the  Mexican  frontier  there 
was  no  struggle  between  the  most 
deeply  implanted  human  instincts— the 
race  instinct  and  the  sex  instinct,  the 
Anglo-Saxon  pioneers  were  surrounded 
by  their  women  and  children;  the 
presence  of  women  safeguards  and 
secures  a  racial  frontier  ;  race  instinct 
finds  its  fullest  expression  m  the  weaker 
sex.  In  her  presence  the  race  instinct 
overpowers  the  sex  instinct. 

It  was  because  the  majority  of  the 
Spaniards  and  Portuguese  left  then 
women  folk  at  home  that  there  is  now 
a  congeries  of  hybrid  nationalities 
extending  from  Mexico  to  the  Argentine. 
For  the  active  manifestation  of  a  race 
sense,  there  must  be  the  shelter  of  a 
settled  community,  made  up  of  women 
as  well  as  of  men'  Unless  these  condi- 
tions be  present  sex  instinct  will  break 
down  the  strongest  racial  barriers.      It 

The  Dazun   of  National  Life 

is  a  remarkable  fact  that  in  every 
instance  in  which  people  of  the  Anglo- 
Saxon  or  Nordic  stock  have  established 
themselves  in  a  new  country,  they  have 
maintained  the  purity  of  their  blood. 
We  need  only  cite  the  United  States, 
Canada,  Australia,  New  Zealand,  and 
South  Africa  as  evidence  of  this  truth. 

nRIMITIVE  Europe   was  a   meshwork    of   tribal 
r  territories  just  as  Australia  is  to-day 

The  early  Portuguese  settlements  along 
the  coasts  of  Africa,  India,  Malaya,  and 
China  have  become  more  native  than 
European  in  composition.     Not  a  single 
settlement   established   in    America   by 
the     Spanish     pioneers     can     now     be 
described    as    Iberian.     Iberian    settle- 
ments   have    ended    in    hybrid     com- 
munities ;       Anglo-Saxon      settlements 
have    ended    in    the    establishment    of 
strong  nationalities.     To  a  large  extent 
the   difference   can   be   ascribed   to  the 
conditions  under  which  the  early  settle- 
ments were  made,  but  not  altogether. 

There  seems  another  factor  at  work— 
a  more  highly  developed  sense  of  race 
difference  in  the  Anglo-Saxon.  The 
physical  characters  which  differentiate 
European  from  African  races  become 
more  marked  as  we  proceed  northwards 
from  the  Mediterranean,  and  find  their 
highest  expression  in  the  blond  stock  of 
North-West  Europe.  With  this  differen- 
tiation of  physical  characters  there  seems 
to  have  also  been  a  heightening  of  the 
sense  of  race  difference 

Race  consciousness  or  instinct,  in  all 
its  degrees— incipient,  imperfect,  and 
specific— is  an  essential  part  of  Nature's 
evolutionary  machinery.  Throughout 
the  Long  twilight  of  the  world  hormones 
and  race  instinct  have  been  silently 
shaping  the  destinies  of  mankind.  These 
evolutionary  forces,  which  have  shaped 
extinct  forms  of  men  into  distinct  species 
and  modern  forms  into  races  or  incipient 
species,  have  been  inherited  in  all  their 
pristine  force  by  the  population  of 
modern  Europe.  It  is  the  strength  of 
this  inheritance  that  can  explain  best 
the  burning  questions  of  nationality. 

The  evolution  of  the  nationalities  of 
modern   Europe   from    small,    scattered 

groups   of   men,    each    drawing    a   sub- 
sistence from  the  natural  produce  of  a 
definite  territory,  is  a  story  which,   as 
yet    can   be   told   in   only   the   baldest 
outline        Within   historical    times    the 
population  of  the  Highlands  of  Scotland 
was  divided  into  clans  or  tribes,   each 
claiming  and  occupying  a  definite  tribal 
territory.    It  is  not  difficult  to  see  how 
such  tribal  groups  could  be  evolved  from 
the  group  arrangement  which  holds  true 
of  all  primitive  peoples.    Every  member 
of  a  tribe  is  imbued  with   a  common 
spirit— a  tribal  spirit— which  leads  him 
to  regard  his  fellows  as  friends  or  kins- 
men to  whom  help  and  sympathy  have 
to  be  extended  ;   every  stranger  he  looks 
upon  as  a  foe,  to  be  suspected,  neglected, 
and  if  possible  suppressed. 

In  the  early  history  of  Greece  and  of 
Rome  we  have  clear  evidence  of  tribes 
and  of  tribal  territories.     The  whole  of 
Europe    was    divided,    just    as    native 
Australia  is  to-day,  into  a  meshwork  of 
tribal  territories.     The  essential  history 
of  Europe  during  the  last  four  thousand 
years  consists  in  the  aggregation  of  small 
tribal  territories  so  as  to  form  larger  and 
larger  units.    By  the  aggregation  of  such 
units  have  been  shaped  the  nationalities 
of  modern  Europe.     In  the  process  of 
unification  the  primitive  tribal  spirit  has 
not  been  annulled.    It  no  doubt  became 
blunted   as   it   was   expanded    to   coyer 
Larger      territories      and     communities. 
Nevertheless,  that  mightiest  of  all  human 
forces — patriotism  or  national  spirit — is 
but  the  generalised  essence  of  the  local 
or   tribal  spirit.      Patriotism  is  part  of 
Natures    ancient    mechanism    for    the 
evolution  of  new  races. 

rWO  kinds  of  national    movements,   building   up 
and  breaking  down,  are  active  in  Europe   to-day 

In  modern  Europe  we  see  two  kinds  of 
national  movements  taking  place. 
Smaller  nationalities  are  being  com- 
pounded into  larger  ;  larger  nationalities 
are  being  broken  up.  We  see  fusion 
taking  place,  and  we  see  disruption. 
Which  is  Nature's  method  ?  All  the 
great  nationalities  of  Europe  have  been 
built  up  by  fusion — Italy,  Spain,  France, 
Great  Britain,  and  Germany.   As  the  last 

Tribal  ^it&^the   Great    \Var_ 


named  is  the  most  recent  and  mo  t 
clearly  understood  case  of  fusion  we 
may  glance  at  the  means  by  which  it 
was  accomplished.  . 

The   nationalities    and   states    which 
were  compounded  to  form  the  German 
Empire  were  derived  from  three  of  the 
human   racial  stocks  of  Europe-Slav 
dark  Alpine,  and  Nordic.    These  stocks 
were  united  or  tribalised  by  the  use  of  a 
common  tongue.    By  war  and  conquest 
the   Empire   surrounded  itself— isolated 
itself— by    a    ring    of    enemies         the 
Germans  carried  their  frontiers  beyond 
the  limits  of  their  speech,  and  sought  to 
make    Danes,    Frenchmen,    and     Poles 
members  of  their  own  nationality,    lhey 
strengthened  theii  national  frontiers  by 

°  -    ^r       1  t J„~        ^  t-       TITO  CtC 

strentiuiciicu.  u^..   — - 

establishing  tariff  barricades  as  well  as 

bv  the  building  of  fortifications.    By  the 
multiplication  of  the  various  means  used 
for  rapid  intercommunication,   such   as 
railways,    roads,    telegraphs,    and    tele- 
phones, they  linked  all  their  tribal  terri- 
tories into  a  united  whole.   Communities 
which   in   primitive    tribal   days   lay    a 
week's    journey     apart    were    brought 
within  a  few  hours'  travel  of  each  other 
Personal       contact       was       established 
throughout  the  population. 

A  national  or  tribal  spirit  was  tostereo. 
m  all  parts  of  the  land  by  an  inspired 
propaganda  carried  on  by  newspapers, 
pamphlets,  books,  societies,  and  univer- 
sities The  mnate  tribal  spirit  of  its 
people  was  roused  to  such  a  pitch  that 
in  the  crisis  of  war  it  held  ';  sixty  millions 
of  people  acted  as  if  they  were  members 

"'""      „_    ...     TUF    MODERN   WEAPONS   OF   ANTHROPOLOGY 

Mthough  the  discovery  of  agriculture  wnf ^  f  eatet ?^ya ge  ship,  which  by  threading  together 

•polent  anthropological  weapon ^ver  invented ^ £e ^8  ^  £  to  transform  in  the  course  oi  three 

tie  dtoost  p^teoi  a^™^,,  0f  a  great  area  of  the  globe 

Photo.   CriU 

Dawn  of  National  Life 

of  a  Highland  clan.  The  creators  of 
modern  Germany  shaped  an  empire  by 
fanning  the  tribal  instincts  of  their 
countrymen— part  of  Nature's  ancient 
evolutionary     machinery.  Modern 

inventions,  "the  printing  press,  the  news- 
paper, the  telegraph,  telephone,  and 
railway,  made  such  applications  possible. 


OW    Nature     spreads     abroad    her     successful 
experiments  in  nationality 

In    all    these    processes    of    national 
fusion,    as    in    the    formation    of    great 
modern  commercial  trusts,  the  anthro- 
pologist    observes     that     the     national 
movement     begins     from     above     and 
works  downwards  through  the  mass  of 
the  people.    The  governing  class,  having 
determined  a  policy,  plays  upon  and  fans 
into    flame    the    tribal    embers    of    the 
papular     mind.       It    is    altogether     a 
different    process    which    brings    about 
national  disruption.     The  secession  of  a 
people    occupying    part    of    a    national 
territory  or  part  of  a  confederation  of 
states  is  the  result  of  a  local  and  popular 
movement,     leavening    the     mass    and 
working  upwards  to  the  governing  class 
Fusion  is  a  movement  springing  from 
the     head,     disruption     a     movement 
springing   from   the  heart.     The  move- 
ment may  not  depend  on  a  difference 
of  race,  but  on  a  difference  in  place  and 
a  divergence  in  interest. 

The  people  of  the  United  States  were 
British,  yet  they  broke  away  from  the 
parent  country.  The  people  of  Norway 
and  Sweden  are  of  the  same  racial  com- 
position ;  they  had  every  worldly 
reason  for  remaining  united,  tor  union 
gave  each  additional  power.  Yet  after 
a  partnership  which  lasted  less  than  a 
century,  they  agreed  to  separate.  In 
this  case  the  movement  came  from 
below  ,  a  tribal  feeling  which  swept 
through  the  people  of  Norway  compelled 
a  disruption. 

It  was  Sir  Francis  Galton  who  first 
observed  that  in  every  local  group  of 
men  or  of  beasts  there  were  two  sets 
of  instinctive  forces  at  work,  one  making 
for  the  unification  or  integration  of  a 
tribe  or  herd,  the  other  ever  waiting  the 
opportunity  to  bring  about  secession  or 

disruption.  So  long  as  the  natura 
produce  of  an  area  answers  the  needs  of 
its  community  the  tribal  spirit  holds 
sway.  When  the  numbers  of  a  herd  or 
tribe  exceed  the  resources,  or  if  its 
members  become  scattered  over  so  wide 
an  area  that  one  section  of  the  tribe 
loses  touch  with  another  section,  then 
Nature  brings  a  totally  different  set  of 
forces  into  operation,  leading  to  division 
and  expansion  of  the  overgrown  tribe. 

Both  integration  and  disruption  are 
parts  of  Nature's  ancient  machinery 
which  she  has. implanted  deeply  in  the 
mental  organization  of  the  human  brain, 
the  machinery  of  instinctive  reactions. 
She  secures  her  evolutionary  cradles  by 
those  tending  to  unification  ;  she 
spreads  abroad  her  successful  experi- 
ments by  the  instinctive  reactions  which 
lead  to  disruption. 

rHE    tribal    spirit    still  at    work    in    the    modern 
world  of  great  nationalities 

Modern  civilization  has  transformed 
the  ancient  world  in  which  Nature, 
undisturbed  by  human  efforts,  shaped 
the  modern  races  of  mankind.  Modern 
man  has  turned  Nature's  small  local 
evolutionary  cradles  into  huge  nationali- 
ties. By  the  use  of  steam  and  electricity 
the  European  has  made  the  population 
of  the  earth  into  a  continuous  sentient 
web.  By  means  of  the  Press,  modern 
man  has  succeeded  in  diffusing  and 
maintaining  a  common  tribal  or  national 
spirit  throughout  the  dense  population 
of  immense  areas. 

The  competition  is  no  longer  between 
local  groups,  but  between  enormous 
aggregations  of  local  units.  The  force  of 
circumstances  has  compelled  local  groups 
to  overcome  their  inherited  tendencies, 
and  by  a  rational  act  of  the  brain  to 
merge  their  tribal  identity  with  that  of 
their  territorial  neighbours.  The  build 
ing  up  of  great  modern  nationalities 
is  only  possible  when  the  intellect  of 
man  takes  control  of  his  instinctive 
tendencies  and  emotional  nature.  At 
present  our  struggle  is  to  adapt  the 
mental  organization  we  have  inherited 
from  an  ancient  world  to  the  needs  of 
the  man-made  world   of   to-day. 

Europe   the    Cradle   of  Her  Races_ 


part   of    Russia,    extending    to    Finland 
and  the  Baltic  Provinces  and   sweeping 
right  through  Poland  and '  Germany  as 
far    westwards    as    Hanover.     The   fair 
Alpine  people  are  also  known  as  Slavs 
The  other  division,  darker  in  skm  and 
haii    and  even  more  rounded  in  form  of 
skull,    occupy   the   greater   part   of   the 
Balkan  peninsula  and  the  lands  drained 
by  the  Danube  and  Upper  Rhine. 
The  dark-headed  Alpine  stock  also 
extends  into  Northern  Italy  and 
occupies    the    whole    of    Central 

So  far  as  concerns  physical  type 
—and  in  everyday  life  the  distinc- 
tion between  one  human  race  and 
another   can  be  made  only  from 
the   outward    appearance   of    face 
and  body— the  whole  population 
of  modern  Europe,  all  its  nation- 
alities, if  we  except  the  Mongolian 
remnants  in  Northern  Russia,  has 
been  compounded  from   the  four 
racial  stocks  or  types    just  men- 
tioned—the Mediterranean, 
Nordic,   fair   Alpine  or    Slav,   and 
dark    Alpine — the     French     Celt. 
We  have  no  option  when  we  con- 
clude that  each  of  these  stocks  has 
been    evolved     in     Europe,     for 
nowhere  else  in  the  world  do  we 
find  peoples  or    traces  of  peoples 
that  could  serve  as  ancestral  stocks 
of  modern  Europeans. 

We  must  conclude  that  Europe 
has   been    the    cradle    of  her  own 
racial    types.     But    we    do    know 
that  in  the  last  six  thousand  years 
the  round-headed  stock  has  greatly 
increased  the  original  area  it  held 
in    Europe.      In  late  palaeolithic 
times,  towards  the  end  of  the  Ice 
Age,  we   find   the   first  traces   of 
round-headed  men  in  Western  Europe. 
Until  then  all  the   fossil  remains  found 
in  Western  Europe  are  those  of  long- 
head   racial    types.     The    first    round- 
head invasion  of  Britain  occurred  at  the 
beginning    of    the    Bronze    Age,    some 
two  thousand  years  B.C.  _ 

Up  to  the  time  when  Darwin  s  dis- 
coveries and  teaching  began  to  influence 
the  thoughts  of  scientific  men,  it  had 

been  customary  to  trace  the  origin  of 
European  races  to  an  Eastern  or 
Asiatic  source.  The  older  anthro- 
pologists pre-supposed  a  distant  Garden 
of  Eden  in  the  East,  from  which  waves  of 
mankind  issued  to  flow  westwards  over 
a  virgin  Europe.  We  now  know  that 
Europe  has  been  occupied  by  human 
forms    throughout    a    whole    geological 


Within  the  borders  of  India  the  four  P^f^^°|? 
of  the  world  find  a  meeting-place.  The  primitive 
Austratoid,  the  Negroid  the  Mongoloid  and  the 
Caucasoid  are  all  to  he  found  there.  The  types ,  in 
order  are  :  Vedda,  Kader  Forest  man  of  S.  India, 
Bhutia  of  Darjeelmg,  and  a  prince  of  Rajputana 

epoch,  long  before  types  had  reached 
their  present  modern  racial  states  of 
evolution  and  distribution. 

Still,  the  Aryan  theory,  which  held 
that  the  dominant  people  of  Europe 
had  spread  from  a  centre  in  South- 
western Asia,  had  one  advantage.  It 
provided  an  easy  explanation  for  the 
fact  that  all  the  languages  spoken 
between  Ireland  in  the  West  and  India 

The  Dawn   of  National  Life 

in  the  East  are  modifications  of  the 
same  ancestral  tongue.  Men  did  not 
then  believe  that  speech  could  spread 
except  by  racial  expansion  and  conquest. 
It  was  supposed  that  blood  and  speech 
must  spread  together. 


,ACES    of    man    are    differentiated   in    the   same 
way  as  well-marked  species  of  animals 

The  spread  ot  fashion,  such  as  every- 
one   is    familiar    with    in    the    modern 
woman's     world,    is     no     new     thing. 
\mong  the  natives  of  Australia,,  living 
in  isolated  groups,  fashion,  custom,  and 
information  can  still  percolate  through 
the  mass.  In  ancient  Europe,  during  the 
Ice    Age,    we    find    fashion    succeeding 
fashion  in  all  parts   of    the  continent. 
The   most  probable  explanation  of  the 
community  in  origin  of  European  tongues 
is  to  be  found  in  the  rise  and  spread  of 
agriculture.     The  European  peoples  are 
without  doubt  evolutionary  products  of 
their    own    continent,    but   their   civili- 
sation is  certainly  to  be  traced  to  an 
eastern   source— to    lands   occupied   by 
the   Proto-Semitic  stock.     If  we  admit 
that  a  Proto-Semitic  people,  occupying  a 
region  between  the  Levant  and  India.was 
one  of  the  first  to  master  the  secrets  of 
agriculture    and    that    from    their    land 
this    knowledge— so    revolutionary    and 
potent  in  its  effects— began  to  spread 
in  ever-extending  eddies,  then    we  can 
see  how  a  common  tongue  might  come 
to  be  spread    throughout   a  continent. 
All  the  facts  at  our  disposal  point  to  the 
round-headed  stock  as  the  active  agents 
in  carrying  the  knowledge  of  agriculture 
into     Europe     and      disseminating     it 
throughout  the  continent. 

So  clearly  differentiated  are  the  lour 
chief  types  of  mankind  that,  were  an 
anthropologist  presented  with  a  crowd 
of  men  comprising  individuals  drawn 
from  the  central  cradles  of  the  Australoid 
the  Negroid,  Mongoloid,  or  Caucasoid 
types  he  could  separate  the  one  human 
element  from  the  other  without  hesi- 
tation or  mistake.  The  races  have  the 
same  high  degree  of  differentiation 
which  we  find  among  well-marked 
species  among  animals.  We  may  there- 
fore speak  of  such  races  as  specific  races. 

But   suppose   the   same   test   had   to 
be   carried   out    on   a   mixed    company 
drawn  from  the  Mediterranean  area,  the 
Nordic  area,   the  Alpine  area,   and  the 
Proto-Semitic  area,  how  far  would  our 
expert  be  successful  ?    With   three  out 
of  every  ten  individuals  he  would  show 
hesitation  or  probably  make  a  mistake 
about   them.      The    same   thing   would 
happen  if  our  test  company  were  drawn 
from  the  outlying  parts  of  neighbouring 
evolutionary  areas.    Everyone  will  admi  t 
that  the  people  of  Persia,  Spam,  Norway, 
and  Poland  must  be  regarded  as  belong- 
ing   to    distinct    races,    but     they    are 
imperfect  races,  because  only  about  70 
to  80  per  cent,  of  their  population  carry 
distinctive  racial    markings.     They   are 
not  fully  differentiated  racial  types. 

Then"  we  come  to  racial  distinctions 
which  depend  almost  entirely  on  tradi- 
tion   speech,  custom,  and   habit.       No 
fitter  example  can  be  chosen  to  illustrate 
this  least  degree  of  racial  distinction  than 
the  British  Celt  and  Saxon.     Nowhere 
have  we   a  better  opportunity  of  com- 
parison of  these    two  racial  types  than 
in  Scotland.      From    earliest  times  the 
Highlanders   have  been    counted   Celts, 
the  Lowlanders  Saxons.     With  nine  out 
of  ten  individuals  in  a  mixed  company 
the  most  expert  anthropologist  will  be 
unable    to    say,    judging    purely    from 
physical  characters,  whether  he  is  deal- 
ing with  a  Celt  or  a  Saxon. 

PHYSICAL     distinctions     among    the    peoples    of 
the  British  Isles  mark  them  as      incipient  races 

On  the  streets  of  one  of  our  great  cities 
every  British  nationality  of  Celtic  and 
of  Saxon  origin  is  plentifully  represented 
but  it  is  only  in  exceptional  cases,  and 
usually    guided    by   accidental    circum- 
stances   such   as    accent,    or    dress,    or 
manner,     that     even     an     expert     can 
separate  individuals  of  English,  Welsh, 
Irish   or  Scottish  origin  from  each  other. 
The  degree  of  difference  which  exists 
between  British  people  of  Celtic  and  of 
Saxon  origin  represents  the  initial  stage 
in   the   differentiation   of   races.      Such 
races  should  be  recognized  and  spoken 
of   as  incipient   races.      From   the  poli- 
tician's   point    of    view,    this    incipient 



stage  in  the  differentiation  ot  a  common 
human  stock  into  different  races  is  o 
the   greatest   importance,   so   persistent 
and  clamorous  is  the  machinery  which 
Nature    employs    for    the    evolution    oi 
racial   individuality.      For   the   anthro- 
pologist  it   is   also   significant,    tor    the 
incipient  stage  marks  the  first  step  to 
racial     differentiation;      the    imperfect 
stage    marks    the    second,     while    the 
specific  stage  marks  the  summation  oi 
the  evolutionary  movement.     In  every 
continent  of  the  globe  all  three  stages 

ever  invented,  because  by  its  means  the 
weakest  and  least  equipped  races  of  man 
kind  were  laid  open  to  attack  by  the 
strongest  and  best  equipped.  The « 
of   the  long-voyage    ship   brought    the 
advance-guard     of     Western      Europe 
against  the  weak  flanks  of  the  native 
races  of  America,  South  Africa,  Australia, 
and  New  Zealand.   In  the  course  of  three 
centuries   the   racial   aspect   of   a  great 
part  of  the  world  has  been  transformed  l 
if  no  new  type  has  made  its  appearance, 
manv  ancient  human  types  have  been 


nationality.  Sir  Arthur  Keith  has  ^^IfZ^ilT^Lov^o^  will  help  to  illustrate  the  pomt 
contribution  to  these  pages,  and  the :  arrangement  of  tta abo« ^g  p  Neanaerthal  Man  are  from 
he  makes  so  effect^Tta  photof  aphs «™^  ^Nateal  History 

are  plentifully  exemplified,  showing  that 
Nature's  evolutionary  machinery  is  still 
at  work  in  all  parts  of  the  earth. 

M  an  early  point  in  this  account,  the 
revolution  wrought  in  the  evolution  of 
human  races  by  the  discovery  of  agri- 
culture was  emphasised.     Peoples  who 
have  utilised  this  art  to  the  full  have 
been  able  to  increase  their  numbers  one 
hundred-fold   and  more.      Next   m  im- 
portance, as  a  factor  in  the  racial  trans- 
formation   of     the     earth,     come    the 
knowledge  of  navigation  and  the  mastery 
of  the  sea.    The  long-vovage  ship  is  the 
most  powerful  anthropological  weapon 

extinguished.  The  evolutionary  wheel 
has  been  turning  at  a  rate  unpre- 
cedented in  the  history  of  mankind. 

Sea  power  is  no  new  thing.    We  have 

now  the  most  ample  evidence  that  in 

the  second  millennium  B.C.  there  was  a 

busy  traffic  along  the  seas  on  our  western 

British  shores,  linking  South-WestEurope 

to  the  Orkneys  and  to  Norway.    By  this 

route  both  Ireland  and  Wales  received 

from  the  south  important  additions  to 

their    primitive    populations.       By    the 

same    date    the    North    Sea    had    been 

mastered,  for  in  ancient  graves  which 

lie  scattered  in  the  eastern  counties  ot 

The  Dawn   of  National  Life 

Britain,  we  find  definite  evidence  of 
invaders  from  the  continental  shore- 
lands  of  the  North  Sea.  The  Saxon  and 
Danish  invasions  were  but  earlier  re- 
petitions of  a  series  of  prehistoric  events. 

r  JVM  Ah  Hybrids,  or  the  interbreeding  oi 
il  different    races    and    the    consequences 

At  a  still  earlier  date,  probably  by 
the  beginning  of  the  third  millennium 
B.C.,  the  Mediterranean  had  been  mas- 
tered by  branches  of  the  human  stock 
which  had  peopled  its  shores  since 
prehistoric  times.  Along  all  the  shores 
of  the  Indian  Ocean,  from  the  Cape  of 
Good  Hope  to  Java,  we  find  traces  of 
the  time  when  the  Arabs  held  command 

Most  of  the  inhabitants  of  Central  Europe  have  round  heads, 
known  as  brachvcephalic,  hut  the  Nordic  and  Mediterranean 
stocks  are  long-headed  or  dolichocephalic.  Ihe  two  types 
of  head  are  illustrated  above.  On  the  left,  a  typical  German 
represents  the  round-headed  variety  .  on  the  right  a 
Sicilian  vouth  is  an  excellent  example  of  the  long-headed 
Mediterranean  stock 

of  the  eastern  seas.  Foi  many  a  century 
Chinese  junks  have  hugged  the  shores 
of  Further  India  and  the  Malay  Archi- 
pelago, and  left  numerous  members  of 
their  crews  as  settlers  among  the  native 
coastal  populations.  In  many  instances 
sea  power  has  led  to  the  intermingling 
of  races  and  the  complication  of  racial 
problems.  In  many  cases  it  has  given 
rise  to  hybridisation  .  in  others  to  the 
establishment  of  new  nationalities. 

The  greatest  anthropological  experi- 
ment the  world  has  ever  seen  has  been 
the  annexation  of  the  two  great  con- 
tinents of  America  by  the  natives  of 
Western  Europe.  We  here  find  the 
highest  manifestation  of  sea  power  as  a 

factor  in  racial  evolution.     There  were 
really  two  experiments  in  America — one 
carried    out    by    the    Mediterranean    or 
Iberian  stock  of  South-West  Europe,  the 
other    by    the    Nordic    or    Anglo-Saxon 
stock    of    North-West    Europe.         The 
Iberians    chose    the    richest    and    most 
populous     area     of    America    as    their 
share — one    which    extended    from    the 
northern    frontier    of    Mexico    to    Cape 
Horn.    The  Iberians  entered  as  warriors 
and    adventurers,    the    greater    number 
selecting  brides  from  the  native  peoples, 
and  thus  a  hybrid  population  arose— one 
which   has   proved   incapable   of   main- 
taining   the    high    civilization    of    either 
parent   race.      The   main   result    of   the 
experiment  has  been  to  extin- 
guish the  racial  nature  of  both 
conquerors     and     conquered, 
and  to  bring  into  existence  a 
cross  -  breed     different      from 
and  inferior   to    either   of  the 
original  races. 

That  part  of  the  continent  o1 
America  which  lies  to  the  north 
of    Mexico    became    the    scene 
of    an    experiment    yielding    a 
totally  different  result.     Early 
in  the  seventeenth  century  a 
fringe   of    Anglo-Saxons    had 
established     itself    along'   the 
-eastern     seaboard     ot     North 
America,  and  in  the  course  of 
three  centuries  this  fringe  had 
extended  tight  to  the  western 
seaboard,     extinguishing     the 
native  population  and   establishing  the 
largest    and    most    powerful    European 
nationality    that    the   world    has    seen. 
Anglo-Saxon    ships    carried     not     only 
men  to  the  American  shores,  but  women 
and  children    as  well,   ail    the    elements 

which  go  to  build  a  home. 

CONDITIONS   that  are   needed  for   the  establish- 
ing of  a  new  nationality 

They  carried  with  them  a  common 
tradition,  a  common  tongue,  a  common 
ideal— all  the  inherited  instincts  and 
prejudices  which  serve  to  rsolate  a  com- 
munity in  a  new  land,  and  to  establish 
a  common  tribal  or  national  spirit. 
The  building  up  of   the  United   States 

The   Making  of  the   American_ 


of     America     exemplifies     for     us     the 
anthropological      conditions      necessary 
for  the  successful  establishment  of  anew 
nationality.     Mention  has  already  been 
made    of    the    three    degrees    of    racial 
differentiation— the  incipient,  such  as  is 
seen    between    Celt    and    Saxon;    the 
imperfect,  such  as  is  exemplified  by  Jew 
and  Gentile  ;     and  the  specific,  such  as  is 
seen    between    Negro    and    Norseman. 
The    new    Anglo-Saxon    community    m 
America  absorbed  with    ease    elements 
drawn  from  the  nationalities  of  Nortn- 
West  Europe  ;   there  was  and  is  greater 
difficulty    in    assimilating   the    mass   ol 
emigrants  drawn  from  Celtic  countries, 
such  as  Ireland,  and  from  Mediterranean 
lands,    such    as    Italy    because    of    the 
masses  in  which   these  people    arrived 
and    the    isolating     national     spirit     or 
instinct  which  they  brought  with   them. 
The    incipient    racial    barrier    can    be 
broken  down  because  the  progeny  which 
issues  from  the    mixture  of  Saxon  and 
Celt     or     Saxon      and    Italian    is    not 
recognizable  from   the  general  mass  of 
an      Anglo-Saxon      community.         the 
absorption  of  peoples  who  have  reached 
the     stage     of     imperfect     racial     dif- 
ferentiation      proves      more      difficult, 
because  the  race  antipathy  m  this  case 
is  more  potent,  and  the  progeny  m  the 
first  generation  of  crosses  is  still  notice- 
able in  the  mass  of  the  community. 


HITE  races   strive  to  maintain  Natures  racial 
frontier   against  mingling  with   the   black 

When  it  comes  to  the  absorption  of 
specific    races,     an    insuperable    barrier 
becomes  manifest.     The  result  of  such 
crossing    can    be    detected    after    many 
generations  :       the       crossed      progeny 
carries  the  marks  of  its  origin.     At  an 
early  date  African  natives    were  intro- 
duced   into     America    as    slaves.      The 
mass  of  their  progeny,  numbering  now 
10000,000,     have     lived     among,     yet 
remained  isolated  from,  the  white  com- 
munity   The  white  race  refuses  to  absorb 
the  black  race.     The  white  man  strives 
to    maintain    a    racial     frontier     which 
Nature   had   succeeded   in   establishing 
in     the     course     of    a    long    series    of 
evolutionary  cycles. 

The  feeling   which  keeps  these   races 
apart  is   usually  called  a   "prqudrce 
but  this  deeply-rooted  prejudice  ortace 
instinct   is  really   an   essential  part   of 
the    evolutionary   machinery   used    by 
Nature  in  the  creation  of  new  species. 
It    is    part    of    the    machinery    which 
Nature  uses  in  isolating  her  evolutionary 
groups.     In    striving    to    maintain    the 
purity   of  its  blood   the   white  race  is 
obeying  one  of  the  instincts  most  deeply 
implanted  in  human  nature. 

TS/HY     Central    and    South    America    are    lands 
W  where    half-breeds    abound 

The  Anglo-Saxon  colonisation  of 
North  America  has  led  to  the  establish- 
ment of  two  great,  strong  and  new 
nationalities,  fashioned  out  of  Western 
European  stocks.  The  national  or 
tribal  spirit  established  by  early 
colonists  has  become  diffused  throughout 
the  length  and  breadth  of  the  United 
States  on  the  one  hand  and  of  Canada 
on  the  other.  The  community  of  that 
part  of  Canada  originally  settled  from 
France  has  succeeded  in  maintaining 
the  feeling  of  a  separate  nationality, 
and  has  thus  remained  semi-isolated  in 
thought  and  deed  from  the  rest  of  the 
Dominion.  Here  we  see  the  incipient 
stage   m   racial   differentiation. 

North  of  the  Mexican  frontier  there 
was  no  struggle  between  the  most 
deeply  implanted  human  instincts—the 
race  instinct  and  the  sex  instinct.  Ihe 
Anglo-Saxon  pioneers  were  surrounded 
by  their  women  and  children  ;  the 
presence  of  women  safeguards  and 
secures  a  racial  frontier  ;  race  instinct 
finds  its  fullest  expression  m  the  weaker 
sex.  In  her  presence  the  race  instinct 
overpowers  the  sex  instinct. 

It  was  because  the  maiorrty  of  the 
Spaniards  and  Portuguese  left  their 
women  folk  at  home  that  there  is  now 
a  congeries  of  hybrid  nationalities 
extending  from  Mexico  to  the  Argentine. 
For  the  active  manifestation  of  a  race 
sense,  there  must  be  the  shelter  of  a 
settled  community,  made  up  of  women 
as  well  as  of  men.  Unless  these  condi- 
tions be  present  sex  instinct  will  break 
down  the  strongest  racial  barriers       It 

The  Dawn   of  National  Life 

is  a  remarkable  fact  that  in  every 
instance  in  which  people  of  the  Anglo- 
Saxon  or  Nordic  stock  have  established 
themselves  in  a  new  country,  they  have 
maintained  the  purity  of  their  blood. 
We  need  only  cite  the  United  States 
Canada,  Australia,  New  Zealand,  and 
South  Africa  as  evidence  of  this  truth. 

PRIMITIVE   Europe   was  a   meshwork    of   tribal 
territories  just  as  Australia  is  to-day 

The  early  Portuguese  settlements  along 
the  coasts  of  Africa,  India,  Malaya,  and 
China  have  become  more  native   than 
European  in  composition.     Not  a  single 
settlement    established   in    America   by 
the     Spanish     pioneers     can     now     be 
described    as    Iberian.     Iberian    settle- 
ments   have    ended    in    hybrid    com- 
munities ;       Anglo-Saxon      settlements 
have    ended    in    the    establishment    of 
strong  nationalities.     To  a  large  extent 
the    difference   can   be   ascribed   to  the 
conditions  under  which  the  early  settle- 
ments were  made,  but  not  altogether. 

There  seems  another  factor  at  work— 
a  more  highly  developed  sense  of  race 
difference  in"  the  Anglo-Saxon.  The 
physical  characters  which  differentiate 
European  from  African  races  become 
more  marked  as  we  proceed  northwards 
from  the  Mediterranean,  and  find  their 
highest  expression  in  the  blond  stock  of 
N  orth- West  Europe .  With  this  differen- 
tiation of  physical  characters  there  seems 
to  have  also  been  a  heightening  of  the 
sense  of  race  difference. 

Race  consciousness  or  instinct,  m  all 

its    degrees — incipient,    imperfect,    and 

specific — is  an  essential  part  of  Nature's 

evolutionary   machinery.       Throughout 

the  long  twilight  of  the  world  hormones 

and    race    instinct    have    been    silently 

shaping  the  destinies  of  mankind.   These 

evolutionary  forces,  which  have  shaped 

extinct  forms  of  men  into  distinct  species 

and  modern  forms  into  races  or  incipient 

species,  have  been  inherited  in  all  their 

pristine    force    by    the    population    of 

modern  Europe.     It  is  the  strength  of 

this  inheritance  that  can  explain   best 

the  burning  questions  of  nationality. 

The  evolution  of  the  nationalities  of 
modern   Europe   from   small,    scattered 

groups   of   men,    each    drawing    a   sub- 
sistence from  the  natural  produce  of  a 
definite  territory,  is  a  story  which,  as 
yet,   can   be   told   in  only   the   baldest 
outline        Within    historical    times    the 
population  of  the  Highlands  of  Scotland 
was  divided  into  clans  or  tribes,  each 
claiming  and  occupying  a  definite  tribal 
territory.    It  is  not  difficult  to  see  how 
such  tribal  groups  could  be  evolved  from 
the  group  arrangement  which  holds  true 
of  all  primitive  peoples.    Every  member 
of  a  tribe  is  imbued  with   a  common 
spirit— a  tribal  spirit— which  leads  him 
to  regard  his  fellows  as  friends  or  kins- 
men to  whom  help  and  sympathy  have 
to  be  extended  ;   every  stranger  he  looks 
upon  as  a  foe,  to  be  suspected,  neglected, 
and  if  possible  suppressed. 

In  the  early  history  of  Greece  and  of 
Rome  we  have  clear  evidence  of  tribes 
and  of  tribal  territories.     The  whole  of 
Europe    was    divided,    just    as    native 
Australia  is  to-day,  into  a  meshwork  of 
tribal  territories.     The  essential  history 
of  Europe  during  the  last  four  thousand 
years  consists  in  the  aggregation  of  small 
tribal  territories  so  as  to  form  larger  and 
larger  units.   By  the  aggregation  of  such 
units  have  been  shaped  the  nationalities 
of  modern  Europe.     In  the  process  of 
unification  the  primitive  tribal  spirit  has 
not  been  annulled.     It  no  doubt  became 
blunted  as   it   was   expanded   to   cover 
Larger      territories      and     communities. 
Nevertheless,  that  mightiest  of  all  human 
forces — patriotism  or  national  spirit — is 
but  the  generalised  essence  of  the  local 
or   tribal  spirit.      Patriotism  is  part  of 
Natures    ancient    mechanism    for    the 
evolution  of  new  races. 

rWO   kinds  of   national    movements,   building   up 
and  breaking  down,  are  active  in  Europe   to-day 

In  modern  Europe  we  see  two  kinds  oi 
national  movements  taking  place. 
Smaller  nationalities  are  being  com- 
pounded into  larger  ;  larger  nationalities 
are  being  broken  up.  We  see  fusion 
taking  place,  and  we  see  disruption. 
Which  is  Nature's  method  ?  All  the 
great  nationalities  of  Europe  have  been 
built  up  by  fusion — Italy,  Spain,  France, 
Great  Britain,  and  Germany.  As  the  last 


r...baj ^hj^J^th^Great    War 

named  is  the  most  recent  and  most 
clearly  understood  case  of  fusion  we 
may  glance  at  the  means  by  which  it 
was  accomplished. 

The    nationalities    and    states    which 
were  compounded  to  form  the  German 
Empire  were  derived  from  three  of  the 
human   racial  stocks  of  E^pe-Slav 
dark  Alpme,  and  Nordic     These  stocks 
were  united  or  tribalised  by  the  use  oi  a 
common  tongue.    By  war  and  conquest 
the    Empire   surrounded  itseli-isolated 
itSelf_by    a    ring    of    enemies         the 
Germans  carried  their  frontiers  beyond 
the  limits  of  their  speech,  and  sought  to 
make    Danes,    Frenchmen,    and     Poles 
members  of  their  own  nationality.  They 
strengthened  then  national  frontiers  by 
establishing  tariff  barricades  as  well  as 

by  the  building  of  fortifications.    By  the 
multiplication  of  the  various  means  used 
for  rapid  intercommunication    such   as 
railways,    roads,    telegraphs,    and   tele 
phones   they  linked  all  their  tribal  terri- 
tieslnto  a'united  whole.   Communities 
which   in   primitive    tribal   days   lav   a 
week's    journey    apart    were    brought 
within  a  few  hours'  travel  of  each  other. 
Personal      contact      was      established 
throughout  the  population. 

A  national  or  tribal  spirit  was  tostereo. 
in  all  parts  of  the  land  by  an  inspired 
propaganda  carried  on  by  newspapers, 
pamphlets,  books,  societies,  and  univer- 
sities The  innate  tribal  spirit  oi  its 
people  was  roused  to  such  a  pitch  that 
in  the  crisis  of  war  it  held  ;  sixty  millions 
of  people  acted  as  if  they  were  members 



~  T~    Al,     T..F    MODERN    WEAPONS    OF    ANTHROPOLOGY 

MOST    POWERFUL   OF    ALL  THE    MODERN    w  ^  rf  ^ 

the  utmost  parts  of  *£"^g%££  aspect  of  a  great  area  of  the  globe 

Photo.  Crtti 


The  Dawn  of  National  Life 

of  a  Highland  clan.  The  creators  of 
modern  Germany  shaped  an  empire  by 
fanning  the  tribal  instincts  of  their 
countrymen— part  of  Nature's  ancient 
evolutionary      machinery.  Modern 

inventions,  the  printing  press,  the  news- 
paper, the  telegraph,  telephone,  arid 
railway,  made  such  applications  possible. 

TJOW    Nature     spreads     abroad    her     successful 
t~i  experiments  in  nationality 

In    al!    these    processes    of    national 
fusion,    as    in    the    formation    of    great 
modern  commercial  trusts,  the  anthro- 
pologist    observes     that     the     national 
movement     begins     from     above     and 
works  downwards  through  the  mass  of 
the  people.    The  governing  class,  having 
determined  a  policy,  plays  upon  and  fans 
into    flame    the    tribal    embers    of    the 
popular      mind.       It    is    altogether      a 
different    process    which    brings    about 
national  disruption.     The  secession  of  a 
people    occupying    part    of    a    national 
territory  or  part  of  a  confederation  of 
states  is  the  result  of  a  local  and  popular 
movement,     leavening    the     mass    and 
working  upwards  to  the  governing  class 
Fusion  is  a  movement  springing  from 
the     head,      disruption     a     movement 
springing   from   the  heart.     The  move- 
ment may  not  depend  on  a  difference 
of  race,  but  on  a  difference  in  place  and 
a  divergence  in  interest. 

The  people  of  the  United  States  were 
British  vet  they  broke  away  from  the 
parent  country.  The  people  of  Norway 
and  Sweden  are  of  the  same  racial  com- 
position ,  they  had  every  worldly 
reason  for  remaining  united,  tor  union 
gave  each  additional  power.  Yet  after 
a  partnership  which  lasted  less  than  a 
century,  they  agreed  to  separate.  In 
this  case  the  movement  came  from 
below  ;  a  tribal  feeling  which  swept 
through  the  people  of  Norway  compelled 
a  disruption. 

It  was  Sir  Francis  Galton  who  first 
observed  that  in  every  local  group  of 
men  or  of  beasts  there  were  two  sets 
of  instinctive  forces  at  work,  one  making 
for  the  unification  or  integration  of  a 
tribe  or  herd,  the  other  ever  waiting  the 
opportunity  to  bring  about  secession  or 

disruption.  So  long  as  the  natural 
produce  of  an  area  answers  the  needs  of 
its  community  the  tribal  spirit  holds 
sway.  When  the  numbers  of  a  herd  or 
tribe  exceed  the  resources,  or  if  its 
members  become  scattered  over  so  wide 
an  area  that  one  section  of  the  tribe 
loses  touch  with  another  section,  then 
Nature  brings  a  totally  different  set  of 
forces  into  operation,  leading  to  division 
and  expansion  of  the  overgrown  tribe. 

Both  integration  and  disruption  are 
parts  of  Nature's  ancient  machinery 
which  she  has  implanted  deeply  in  the 
mental  organization  of  the  human  brain, 
the  machinery  of  instinctive  reactions. 
She  secures  her  evolutionary  cradles  by 
those  tending  to  unification  ;  she 
spreads  abroad  her  successful  experi- 
ments by  the  instinctive  reactions  which 
lead  to  disruption. 

rHE    tribal    spirit    still  at    work    in    the    modern 
world  ot  great  nationalities 

Modern  civilization  has  transformed 
the  ancient  world  in  which  Nature, 
undisturbed  by  human  efforts,  shaped 
the  modern  races  of  mankind.  Modern 
man  has  turned  Nature's  small  local 
evolutionary  cradles  into  huge  nationali- 
ties. By  the  use  of  steam  and  electricity 
the  European  has  made  the  population 
of  the  earth  into  a  continuous  sentient 
web.  By  means  of  the  Press,  modern 
man  has  succeeded  in  diffusing  and 
maintaining  a  common  tribal  or  national 
spirit  throughout  the  dense  population 
of  immense  areas. 

The  competition  is  no  longer  between 
local  groups,  but  between  enormous 
aggregations  of  local  units.  The  force  of 
circumstances  has  compelled  local  groups 
to  overcome  then  inherited  tendencies, 
and  by  a  rational  act  of  the  brain  to 
merge  "their  tribal  identity  with  that  of 
their  territorial  neighbours.  The  build- 
ing up  of  great  modern  nationalities 
is  only  possible  when  the  intellect  of 
man  "takes  control  of  his  instinctive 
tendencies  and  emotional  nature.  At 
present  our  struggle  is  to  adapt  the 
mental  organization  we  have  inherited 
from  an  ancient  world  to  the  needs  of 
the  man-made  world  of   to-day. 



Flourished    &    Decayed   under   Pleasure    OT 


Author  oi  "  The  Nemesis  ol  Nations 

HISTORY  is  like  an  old  play-bill, 
and    the   whole  world  is   the 
scenery,    and    the    vast    stage 
is  never  empty  and  the  curtain  is  never 
rung     down.  "  It     is     true     that     over 
immense  stretches  of  the   earth  there 
lie    the    vestiges    of    derelict    empires. 
But  one  social  structure  rises  on  the 
ruins  of  another.     We  handle  the  coins 
of    old  states,   and  stand  before  their 
wrecked  temples  and  altars,  and  study 
their    living    art    or    then- 
dying   languages,    or  their 
dead    religions    and    laws. 
We  talk  with    the  ghosts 
of  vanished  cities. 

All  is  gone,  but  all  is  in 
motion  again.     An  endless 
procession     of     humanity 
passes  before  us.     Whence 
and  whither  ?      We    know 
not.     But    we    can    ask— 
what    was  the  purpose   of 
those     perished      states? 
What  did  they  do  for  themselves  and 
for  mankind  ?     Their  flags  may  have 
been     only    the    symbols    of    violence 
and  aggression,  and  of   a   selfish  ideal 
of  group  prosperity.     And  perhaps  the 
lesson  of  human  history  is  the  lesson 
of   ever-widening   cooperation,   not   tor 
family    or     tribal     or     even    national 
purposes,  but  on  a  world  scale.  _ 

What,  in  the  first  place,  is  the 
spectacle  that  presents  itself  to  us 
It  is  the  spectacle  of  the  movement  of 
vast  masses  of  human  beings  organized 
in  groups.  We  hear  of  one  great  group 
under  the  name  of  Babylon  another 
under  the  name  of  Persia,  another  under 
?he  name  of  the  Hittites,  still  others 
under  the  names  of  Egypt,  Phoenicia, 
Carthage,   Greece,   and  Rome    and  so 

combination  through  the  medieval  into 
the  modern  world  until  we  arrive  at  the 
surviving  groups  of  to-day,  such  as 
China  and  Japan,  Russia,  France, 
Germany,  Italy,  Great  Britain,  and  the 
United  States. 

No  matter  what  the  form  of  govern- 
ment   happened    to    be,    monarchy    or 
republic,     aristocracy    or     democracy, 
every   State   was    a   coalition,    free    or 
compulsory,  for  the  purposes  of  industry 
and      self-preservation. 
Sometimes     the     coalition 
refused    to    coalesce,    and 
there     was     revolution. 
Sometimes    one    coalition 
came  into  violent  contact 
with  another,  and  there  was 
war.       Wherever  we  look 
we   discover    ferment    and 

All  nations  are  accumula- 
tors for  the  storage  of  social 
energy,    which    eventually 
either  increases  or  decreases  in  volume 
and  the  ever-changing  map  of  the  world 
is  the  indicator  of  the  maximum  or  the 
minimum   pressure   of   national   forces 
The   recent   Peace   of  Versailles,  which 
ended    the    greatest    of    all    the    wars, 
involved  another  re-arrangement  of  the 
map,  and  is  a  proof  that  the  process  of 
expansion  and  contraction  still  goes  on. 
In  other  words,  organized  human  forces, 
like    the   forces   of   Nature,    are   never 
stable,    but    are    undergoing    constant 
transformation,    waxing    and    waning, 
rising  and  falling,  ebbing  and  flowing. 

The  early  peoples  were,  like  ourselves, 
great  human  agglomerations  for  in- 
dustrial purposes,  and  the  thing  that 
really  binds  the  history  of  ages  and  of 
nations   together   is   the   continuity   of 

William  Romaine  Paterson 

SfMS.  t—  "J    =  and  o,  ft.  ^  «*-** 



Th?   Destiny  of  Nations 

combined  activity.  It  is  from  this 
point  of  view  that  we  propose  to  glance 
at  one  or  two  of  those  experiments  m 
the  East  and  in  the  West.  Three  great 
facts  should  emerge  from  our  brief 
study,  and  they  are  these  : 

i  There  has  been  conflict  and  there 
has  been  cooperation  within  the 
national  groups. 

a    There  has  been  conflict  and  there 

has  been  cooperation  between  them 
a    Progress   appears   to   demand   the 

cessation   of  conflict   and  the  increase 

of   cooperation  both  within  the  groups 

and  between  them. 


HEN     Oriental    civilization    was    flourishing, 
Europe  was  peopled  by  savages 

Now,     whereas     in     modern     times 
civilization  has  passed  from  the  West 
to    the    East,    in    ancient    times    the 
current   flowed  from   the  East   to   the 
West        While     great     empires     were 
flourishing    in    Asia,    Europe    lay    un- 
explored and  sunk  in  barbarism.   World 
history    may    be    said    to    begin    with 
Babylon  and  Egypt,  since  the  Aegean 
culture    which    the    Greeks    found    in 
Argos   and  in  Crete  had  come  under 
Egyptian    and    Babylonian    influences. 
At  least  as  early  as  the  third  millennium 
b  c     the  eastern  Mediterranean  peoples 
had  come  into  touch,  both  by  trade  by 
art   and  by  religion,  with  nations  which 
had   already  grown  old  in  North-East 
Africa  and  in  Asia.       While  iron  was 
still  so  rare  in  Greece  that  it  ranked  as 
a  precious  metal  and  was  worn  as  an 
ornament,   rich   and  luxurious  civiliza- 
tions   had    already    bloomed    on    the 
banks  of  the  Tigris,  the  Euphrates,  and 

the  Nile.  , 

But     the     Babylon      which     moved 
the    admiration    and    astonishment    of 
Greek    travellers    was    the    city    which 
Nebuchadrezzar  II    (d.   562   B.C.),   had 
restored  and  renovated  after  the  over- 
throw  of  Assyria.     It  was   during  his 
reign  that  Babylon  reached  the  zenith 
of  her  material  splendour  and  recaptured 
the    power    which,    in    spite    of    many 
fluctuations  of  her  fortunes,  had  made 
her  name  the  most  dreaded  m  the  world 
Her  antiquity  reached  far  back  beyond 

the  beginnings  of  the  historical  record. 
A  very  high  authority  states  that  in 
Babylonian  history  no  date  before 
747  b  c.  can  be  considered  as  absolutely 
fixed  "  But  Babylon  is  mentioned  as 
early  as  3800  B.C.,  and  it  is  likely  that  a 
sanctuary  Babel  or  the  Gate  of  the 
God  "  was  founded  by  the  King  Sargon 

of  Akkad.  . 

It   was    in    the    reign    of    her    King 
Hammurabi  or  Khammurabi  (about  2100 
b  c  )  theAmraphel  mentioned  in  the  four- 
teenth chapter  of  the  Book  of  Genesis, 
that    her    political    and    social    system 
seems  to  have  been  most  firmly  faxed. 
A  great  code  of  law,  the  most   ancient 
in  the  world,  bears  that  king  s  name 
and  its  provisions  afford  us  a  wonderful 
insight  into  Babylonian  customs.       ine 
code  was  discovered  chiselled  on  a  block 
of    diorite     at    Susa     (Persepolis)     by 
De  Morgan  in  1901-1902.      The 'briefest 
study  of  its  paragraphs,  which  in  the 
Eng'ish   version    as   it  appears   in   Mr. 
Tohns'  "  Babylonian  and  Assyrian  Laws, 
Contracts,    and    Letters,"    number    as 
many  as  two  hundred  and  eighty-two, 
enables  us  to  see  that  Babylon  was  a 
highly  organized  and  efficiently  admin- 
istered state.     A  few  extracts  will  bring 
vividly  before  us  the  life  and  labours 
of  the  people. 

r  AWS     wise    and    drastic,    made    by    a    king    in 
L  Babylon   more    than  lour  thousand  years  ago 

"  If  a  man  has  borne  lalse  witness  in  a 
trial  or  has  not  established  the  statement 
he  has  made,  if  that  case  be  a  capital 
trial,   that  man  shall  be  put  to  death. 

(P" Vhe  has  borne  false  witness  in  a  civil 
case,   he  shall  pay  the  damages  m  that 

SU  " 'if  a  1  udge  his  given  a  verdict,  rendered 
a  decision,  granted  a  written  judgement, 
and  afterwards  has  altered  that  judgement 
that  judge  shall  be  prosecuted  for  having 
altered  the  judgement  he  gave  and  shall 
pay  twelve-fold  the  penalty  laid  down 
in  that  judgement.  Further  he  shall  be 
publicly  expelled  from  his  judgement  seat 
and  shall  not  return  nor  take  his  seat 
with  the  judges  at  the  trial."     (Par.  5  ) 

"  If  a  man  has  stolen  a  child  he  shall 
be  put  to  death."      (Par.  14.) 

"If  a  man  has  committed  highway 
robbery  and  has  been  caught,  that  man 
shall  be  put  to  death."     (Par.  22.) 

"WE     TALK    WITH     THE     GHOSTS    OF     VANISH  ED    CITIES^  % 

have  a  vision  rfWty  «^^c°^  Abated  upon  the  best  h.storica!  data 

PJiofo,    Underwood  $■    Underwood 

"  It  a  fire  has  broken  out  in  a  man's 
house,  and  one  who  has  come  to  put .it 
out  has  coveted  the  property  ot  the 
householder  and  appropriated  any  ot  it, 
that  man  shall  be  cast  into  the  selfsame 

"'  If  a  man  without  the  consent  ot  the 
owner  has  cut  down  a  tree  m  an  orchard, 
he  shall  weigh  out  halt  a  mina  of  silver. 

^arif5the  mistress  ot  a  beer -shop  has  not 
accepted  corn  as  the  price  ot  beer,  or  has 
demanded  silver  on  an  excessive  scale 
and  has  made  the  measure  of  beer  less 

than  the  measure  of  corn,  that  beerseller 
shall  be  prosecuted  and  drowned.        (Far. 

108.)  .    ,  .  . 

"  It  a  man  has  married  a  wite  and  a 
disease  has  seized  her,  if  he  is  determined 
to  marry  a  second  wife  he  may  marry 
her  He  shall  not  divorce  the  wife  whom 
the  disease  has  seized.  In  the  home  they 
made  together  she  shall  dwell,  and  he 
shall  maintain  her  as  long  as  he  lives. 
(Par.  148.) 

"If   a   son   shall   strike    his    lather   his 
hands  shall  be  cut  off."     (Par.  195-) 
"  If  a  man  has  hired  an  ox,  and  Uod 






HOW    THE    GBE.T    ««     «"    ™^"    "     -■ 

has  struck  it,  and  it  has  died,  the  man 
that  hired  the  ox  shall  make  affidavit 
and  go  free."      (Par.  248.) 

These  remarkable  statutes  were  in 
force  throughout  the  Babylonian 
Empire  in  the  third  millennium  before 
Christ  and  they  were  enforced  by 
judges,  who,  according  to  the  most 
recent  scholarship,  were  aided  in  their 
task  by  a  body  of  jurymen.  Moreover, 
the  code  from  which  the  extracts  have 
been  taken  was  only  a  compilation  of 
earlier  law. 

SFCURITY    of      life     and      property     were     the 
S    only  of   the    few    in    anctent    Umes 

We   are   thus   brought   face   to   face 
with  a  community  which  in  that  remote 
epoch  enjoyed  the  security  of  property 
and  the  protection  of  life  and  limb.     A 
vast   series   of   clay   tablets  have  been 
discovered    dealing    with    all    kinds    of 
private  contracts,    leases,   sales,   educa- 
tion       ustoms     dues,     marriage     and 
divorce,  banking,  property  in  slaves,  and 
the  tenure  of  land.     "  It  is  startling, 
says  Mr   Johns.  "  to  find  that  much  that 
we  have  thought  distinctively  our  own 
has  really  come  down  to  us  from  that 
great  people  who  ruled  the  land  of  the 

two  streams.  We  need  not  be  ashamed 
of  anything  we  can  trace  back  so  far. 
It  is  from  no  savage  ancestors  that  it 
descends  to  us.  It  bears  the  'hall 
mark'  not  only  of  extreme  antiquity, 
but  of  sterling  worth.  The  people  who 
were  so  highly  educated,  so  deeply 
religious,  so  humane  and  intelligent, 
who  developed  such  just  laws  and  such 
permanent  institutions,  are  not  un- 
profitable acquaintances.  A  right- 
thinking  citizen  of  a  modern  city  would 
probably  feel  more  at  home  in  ancient 
Babylon  than  in  medieval  Europe." 

These  words  contain  historical  truth. 
Nevertheless,  "  a  right-thinking  citizen 
of  a  modern  city"  would  discover  in 
ancient  Babylon  much  that  would 
offend  his  sense  of  justice.  It  he 
examined  the  lower  strata  he  would 
find  a  population  sunk  in  slavery.  For 
Babylon  was,  like  Rome,  one  of  the 
greatest  slave  states  of  antiquity.  The 
superstructure  of  her  power,  her  wealth, 
and  her  luxury  was  based  upon  the 
labour  of  the  servile  class.  The  Code 
of  Hammurabi,  admirable  as  it  is  in 
its  attempt  to  create  order  and  iustice, 
legislates  on  behalf  of   the   two  upper 




BABYLON     MADE     HER     NAME     THE .MOST ■     D gJAP^JN,  £«     WORLD    . 
SpkJd  g-JSS  SSSSMSf  &  ££33  %X  lives  at  the  temble  pnce  of  slavery 

layers  of  society,  the  Amelu,  or  aristo- 
crat and  the  Muskenu,  who  was  the 
representative  of  the  middle  class.  The 
"ardu,"  or  slave,  was  only  a  chattel, 
"  sag  "'  •  he  was  not  a  person,  he  was 
bought  and  sold  like  a  beast  of  burden. 

Now,  a  slave  state  which  lasted  more 
than  three  thousand  years,  and  earned 
on  war   frequently   for   the   purpose   of 
increasing  its  industrial  and  agricultural 
population,    must    have    handled     in- 
calculable   millions    of    human    beings 
who    were    denied    elementary    rights. 
In  other  words,  a  real  nation  had  not 
yet  been  formed,   and  apart  from   the 
many    external   causes   which   brought 
about  the  decline  of  Babylon— the  series 
of  exhausting  wars  between  her  rivals 
and   herself,    and  between  herself   and 
her  own  offspring,  Assyria,  the  growth 
of  other  Powers  like  Media  and  Persia, 
the  loss  of  trade— a  social  cancer  was 
working  from  within.     Her  power  was 
built  on  artificial  foundations. 

Her  industry  and  her  army  were 
recruited  from  a  vast  slave  population 
who  had  no  genuine  interest  m  her 
continuance  and  who,  in  the  moment 
of  danger,  were  ready  to  acclaim  the 
invader     Cyrus    and    Alexander    were 

received  with  shouts  of  joy.  There  was 
no  genuine  cohesion  of  interests  m  a 
state  which  represented  a  mechanical 
and  forced  combination  of  nationals 
who  were  nationals  only  in  name. 

HUE     we    marvel    at    Babylon's    wonders    we 
must   remember   the   /.errors   of  her  slavery 


When,  therefore,  we  read  of  the  glory 
of   Babylon,    of   her    chariots    and   her 
horsemen,     "Babylon,     the    glory     of 
kingdoms,  the  beauty  of  the  Chaldees 
excellency,"  as  Isaiah  described  her,  the 
vast    city    with    hanging    gardens    and 
meadows  and  orchards  within  her  triple 
walls,  her  hundred  gates  of  brass,  her 
busy    quays    on     the     banks     of    the 
Euphrates,  which  ran  through  her  like  a 
diagonal,  her  great  pyramidal  Temple  of 
Bel    the  gorgeous  processions   through 
her'  perfumed   streets,   her   purple   and 
fine  linen,  her  gold  and  precious  stones, 
her  silk  and  wool,  and  all  the  treasures 
of  her   traffic   carried  by   ship   to   the 
mouth  of  her  great  river  or  across  the 
desert  by  caravan — when  we  think  of 
all  the  hypnotism  of  her  luxury,  let  us 
remember  that  in  her  markets  the  price 
of  a  male  slave  was  thirty  shillings,  and 
of     a     female     thirteen     shillings     and 


The    n*xtmv  of  Nations 

sixpence.      Over  her   vast   grave   there 
now  grow  a  few  tamarisks 

Alexander    the    Great    had    felt   the 
spell   of   Babylon,    and   he   decided   to 
make  it  the  capital  of  the  vast  Asiatic- 
European  empire  which  he  had  planned. 
But  it  was  at  Babylon  that  he   died, 
Tune  13   323  b.c.      U  he  had  lived  to 
carrv  oVhis  great  scheme  of  a  fusion 
of  the  peoples  of  Asia  and  Europe  the 
history  of  both  continents  would  have 
been    profoundly    modified.        For    tie 
would   have   rearranged   the   affairs   of 
Greece,    and   assuredly   he  would  have 
passed    on    to    Italy    and   would   have 
succeeded  where   Pyrrhus  tailed  m  the 
attempt  to  subdue  the  West. 

rN  Greece    and    Italy   we    first    see   social •    institu- 
ItionsTat  resemble   those   of  our  own  day 

The    great    political    experiments    of 
the  Greek  states   had,  indeed,   already 
been  made,  and  it  was  well  for  Europe 
that  both  Greece  and  Rome  were  able 
to   evolve   their   political   systems   dis- 
entangled    from     Oriental     and     semi- 
Oriental  influences.    Not  that  the  inter- 
change of  ideas  between  East  and  West 
had  not  been  constant  many  centuries 
before  Alexander  carried  Greek  culture 
as  far  as  India.     Bury  points  out  that 
"  the    backward    condition  of  Western 
as    contrasted  with   Eastern    Greece   ffl 
early    ages    did    not     depend     on    the 
conformation  of  the  coast,  but  on  the 
fact    that    it   faced    away    from    Asia. 
But    the    Asiatic    influences    had    been 
confined  to  the  spheres  of  art,  commerce, 
and   religion.      Egypt,    too    had  made 
many   contributions   to   early   Mediter- 
ranean civilization,  but  she  had  made 
no    new    contribution    to    the    art    of 

It  is  m  the  Greek  and  the  Italian 
peninsulas  that  we  first  recognize  social 
institutions  which,  in  their  essence  are 
akin  to  our  own.  The  dead  weight  of 
Babylonian,  Assyrian,  Persian,  and 
Egyptian  tyrannies  seems  to  be  lifted 
We  are  breathing  a  new  air.  The  gift  of 
ancient  Greece  to  Europe  was  not 
merely  the  gift  of  deep  thought  or 
Jeat  art,  but  the  gift  of  mdividua 
liberty,  although  that  liberty  was  still 

the    apanage    of    a    minority    of    the 

CltThe  fact  that  we  find  ancient  Greece 
split  up  into  more  than  one  hundred 
and  fifty  separate  states,  which  shared 
"the  same  Lial  descent  but  remained 
politically  independent,  is  of  profound 
significance.      For   it   means    that     he 
Greeks,  like  all  Aryan  stocks,  like  the 
Celts    like  the  Irish  of  to-day,   had  a 
passionate    desire    for    self-government 
S  each  of  these  Greek  states  the  political 
education  of  Europe  had  begun.      No 
form   of    government,    and   perhaps   ot 
misgovemment,   known    to-day   is    un- 
represented   m    Hellenic    and    Roman 
history.         Kings     are     succeeded     by 
oligarchies    and    oligarchies    by    demo- 
cracies  in   bewildering   succession     and 
sometimes,   as  in  the  decay  of  Athens 
and  of  Rome,  the  real  power,  although 
disguised,  lav  in  an  ochlocracy,  tor  trie 
day  came  when,  in  order  to  postpone 
the  utter  collapse  of  the  State,  an  idle 
and  corrupt  population  was  kept  quiet 
by  bribes  and  doles. 

The  evolution  of  Greece  and  of  Rome 
was  marked  by  perpetual  unrest  and 
struggle  within  and  without.  Neverthe- 
less amidst  all  the  effervescence, 
alliances  and  counter-alliances,  fratri- 
cidal wars,  defensive  leagues  which 
melted  away  almost  as  soon  as  the 
common  enemy  had  been  overcome 
internal  crises,  agrarian  troubles  party 
and  partisan  strife— amidst  all  this 
political  conflict  the  secrets  of  govern- 
ment were  being  learned. 

fisssL  »%-&««»  ^at 

The  whole  political  future  ot  Europe 
was  being  rehearsed,  and   the  peculiar 
characteristics  of  European  as  opposed 
to  Asiatic  mentality   and   culture  were 
being  formed  and  fostered.    One  of  the 
most  impressive  facts  in  history  is  that 
after  the  long  night  and  nightmare  of 
the   Dark  Ages  and  the  Middle  Ages 
it  was  to  the  spirit  of  the  great  days  ot 
Greece  and  the  great  days  of  Rome  that 
the   men   of   the   Renaissance   returned 
in      their      search      for      moral      and 
intellectual  freedom. 

Our  Debt   to    Ancient   Greece  ^_ 

,  ,Le   discovery    that    success    in 

Offshoots  of  the  same  race  the  Greeks      maoe >  order  depend 

and   the   Romans  founded  to   early      f^& CQmplete\n   identification   of 

communities   on   identical   lines        ine        V  ossible. 

three    great  political  subdivision^ were     mterests       p.  ^  ^ 

the  tribe,  the  clan,  and  the  Phratry-        ^ovextoo£    Greece    this   was   the 
Raman  curia^  local  ^sociation^ed     finally  ov  fa    her_  d    m 

by  certain  religious  rites.    In  both  cases 
we   find    that    the 

voice  of  the  body  of 
free  citizens  makes 
itself    early    heard 
and  obeyed.   There 
is  a"  king"  or  leader 
who    has    likewise 
priestly     functions 
in  his  role  of  inter- 
mediary     between 
the  folk  and  their 
gods.     The  king  is 
supported     by      a 
council,  probably  of 
elder  statesmen.  In 
order  to  carry  out 
any  project  he  must 
obtain  the  consent 
of  the  council.   But 
that  was  not  suffi- 
cient. If  the  people 
duly      assembled 
withheld    their 
approval        the 
project    could    not 
be  realized. 

Here  we  discover, 
as  in  diagram,  the 
main  contour  of 
our  own  political 
institutions.  In 

these  early   states, 
indeed,  representa- 
tive government,  as 
we  know  it,  did  not 
exist.   The  commu- 
nities   were    small. 
Primitive    Athens, 
like  primitive  Rome 
possessed     only     a 
few    square    miles 
of    territory.      The 
entire  body  ot  citi- 
zens sat  in  assembly 
and    passed    legis- 
lation.   But  a  great 
discovery  had  been 


Perhaps  the  most  interesting  piece  oi  engraved 
stone  fnalHheworld  is  this  small  diorite  column 
which  i  now  m  the  Pans  Louvre,  containing 
a  summary  ot  the  astonishing  laws  of  the 
RabXnTan  Empire  under  King  Hammurabi, 
about  2  oo  b  c7  The  king  receiving  the  laws 
from  the   sun  god    is   sculptured   at    the    top 

republican  Rome, 
throughout  the 
many  changes 
which  took  place 
in  her  political 
structure,  we  are 
never  allowed  to 
lose  sight  of  the 
vital  idea  of  public 

It  is  essential  to 
note,  however,  one 
remarkable     c  o  n  - 
trast  in  the  develop- 
ment   of    the    two 
great  sister  nations 
of      classical       an- 
tiquity.     Identical 
in     their     political 
beginnings,  the  one 
wholly    diverged 
from   the  other  on 
a  different  road  of 
evolution.  Whereas 
in  Rome  the  tend- 
ency   was   towards 
cohesion      and 
centralization,     i  n 
Greece      separatist 
influences  remained 
active  till  the  end, 
and    were,   indeed, 
one    of    the    main 
causes  of  her  failure. 
To  put  it  in  another 
way,  in  Greece  the 
movement  was  cen- 
trifugal,   in   Rome 
it  was  centripetal. 
There     was    an 
Athenian  and  even 
a  Spartan  empire, 
and  still    latei    an 
attempt  at  empire 
by  Thebes,  but  m 
each     case     the 
venture  miscarried. 


The  Destiny  of  Nations 

There  was  something  miniature  in  the 
Greek  city  state,  which  was  like  a  cameo, 
in  comparison  with  the  vast  canvas  of 
Rome  Even  within  the  narrow  bound- 
aries of  Greece  the  attempt  at  unity  was 
unrealized  owing  to  the  commercial 
lealousies  of  the  separate  states. 

On  the  other  hand,  Rome,  which  grew 
out  of  the  humble 
nucleus     of     a 
city  that  was  little 
more   than  a   vil- 
lage, allied  herself 
with    sister    com- 
munities, and  by  a 
gradual  process  of 
expansion  and 
absorption   within 
and    without    the 
peninsula  attained 
and  far  surpassed 
the    massive   pro- 
portions    of     the 
empires      of      the 
East,  and  became 
their     territorial 
heir.  In  the  sphere 
of    administration 
and  of  law  Rome 
left    a   far   deeper 
mark  than  Greece 
on    European    in- 
stitutions.     After 
the    Empire    had 
fallen      and      the 
Church  sat  throned 
on  the  ruins  of  the 
imperial     city     it 
was  still  to  pagan 
Rome     that     the 
founders     of     the 
new   European 
states  looked  back 
in    their    attempt 
at    reconstruction. 

On  the  contrary,  the  pokey  of  Rome 
towards  her  colonies  and  subject  states 
was  like  the  policy  of  Great  Britain, 
Tonceived  on  broad  and  generous 
lines  Whenever  possible  she  granted 
autonomy  even  to  a  recent  enemy  as 
Britain  granted  it  to  South  Africa 
almost  as"  soon  as  the  South  African 
War  was  at  an 

The     secret    of 
Rome's    power   of 
absorbing    her 
conquered  peoples 
lay  in  the  skill  with 
which  she  granted 
the     rights     of 
citizenship.    Many 
of   her   proconsuls 
were,     indeed, 
guilty  of  extortion, 
and  the  provinces 
were     drained    of 
their    wealth     for 
the    sake    of    the 
grandees     of     the 
capital.    But  these 
things      happened 
when  the  period  of 
decline  had  already 
begun     in    the 
republic     as     well 
as  in   the  empire. 
There   can   be   no 
doubt     that      the 
duration     of     the 
Roman  state  may 
be  partly  explained 
by  the  far-sighted 
character    of    her 
colonial    policy, 
whereas    the  brief 
brilliance  of  Greece 
may    be    partly- 
attributed   to  less 


Set  up  to  mark  the  extent  of  a  private  individual's 
estate*  is  inscribed  with  certain  texts  which 
refer  verv  clearly  to  the  ownership  of  the  land 
during  the  reigns  of  two  kings,  about  rooo  I i.e. 
This  stone  is  now  among  the  treasures  of  the 
British  Museum,  London 

Athens  might  have  become  the  chief 
agent  in  the  attainment  of  permanent 
unity  among  the  Greek  states,  but  she 
failed  mainly  owing  to  her  restriction 
of  Athenian  citizenship  to  those  who 
could  prove  Athenian  origin.  Moreover, 
her  policv  of  taxation  of  her  dependents 
was  as  little  far-sighted  as  her  system 
of    franchise. 

genius  in  the  science  of  government. 

Various  vices—moral,  political,  and 
economic— attended  the  Greek  decline. 
The  loss  of  productive  power  following 
incessant  and  internecine  strife,  and  a 
startling  fall  in  the  birth-rate— even 
Aristotle  advocated  abortion  in  order  to 
prevent  overgrowth  of  population  in 
the  cities — were  accompanied  by  a  decay 

Republics  without  Liberty 

of  public  spirit  and  by  political  apathy. 
The  racial  suicide  with  which  France 
is  threatened  to-day  was  so  active  in 
Greece  that  in  the  first  century  ad., 
according  to  Plutarch,  the  entire  country 
was  incapable  of  furnishing  even  three 
thousand  infantrymen.  The  free  citizens 
were  enormously  outnumbered  by  the 
slave  population.  It  has  been  calculated 
that  in  the  great  age  of  Athenian 
culture  four-fifths  of  the  population  ol 
Attica  were  slaves. 

Once  more  we  are  face  to  face  with  a 
society  resting  on  artificial  foundations. 
In    the    ancient    republics    liberty    was 
enjoyed  only  at  the  top.  Even  supposing 
the    policy    of    Pericles    regarding    the 
franchise "  had    been    wiser,    and    that 
Athens  had  secured  a  more  permanent 
empire   the  seeds  of  dissolution  already 
lay   sown   in   the   lower   social   strata 
Her  slaves  were  perhaps  happier  than 
the    modern    slaves    in    the    southern 
states  of  the   American   Union  and  m 
Jamaica.    It  is  hard  to  say.    But  many 
case,  and  apart  from  moral  considera- 
tions the  economic  effect  was. ruinous. 

An  idle  minority  of  citizens  were 
living  like  parasites  on  the  labour  of  a 
servile  class.  In  the  fourth  century 
the  best  Greek  minds  pointed  to  moral 
causes  in  explanation  of  the  lassitude 
and  collapse  of  Greece  in  presence -.o\ 
the  virile  invader  from  the  north  lhe 
subjection  to  Macedon  was  only  the 
prelude  to  the  subjection  to  Rome. 

ALL    great  nations    of   history  present    **j*fm 
spectacle  of  growth,   flourishes,  and  decay 

History,  indeed,  appears  to  present 
us  with  an  ever-recurring  cycle  m  the 
life  of  nations. 

The  first  period  is  marked  by  the 
attempt  of  the  early  community  to  hold 
together  amid  surrounding  enemies. 
Fusions  and  alliances  take  place,  and  we 
watch  the  gravitation  of  power  to  one 
centre  rather  than  to  another. 

In  the  second  phase  the  community 
has  accumulated  greater  energy  has 
become  more  aggressive,  and  its  military 
strength  has  become  formidable.  Rivals 
have  been  vanquished  and  absorbed 
The  acquisition  of  territory  has  brought 

ANC,ENT     SECURITY     roj^H^^H^^OPMT^ 

Few  items  among  the  litter  of  Babylonian ^ are  ^^^^f  first  in  50ft  clay  .and  made 
inscribed,  like  all  the  literature  of  that  strange :  aim  v ■     r  division  of    their    father  s 

tne  5a  e  photo   Mansell&Co,         ■-■'     - 

The  Destiny  of  Nations 

wealth,    and    the    choice    of    strategic 
frontiers  has  brought  security.    But  the 
territorial     expansion     has     demanded 
certain   adjustments  in  the  framework 
of  government,  and  there  is  a  tendency 
to  bureaucracy  and  centralization.     A 
consolidation    of    power    and    privilege 
accompanies  the  growing  complexity  of 
the  administrative  system.   The  original 
nucleus  is  now   the  centre  of  a  great 
circumference,   and   the  state  is  at  its 

QUALITIES    in    which    Roman    character    resem- 
bled   the    British    in    days  of  empire    building 

In  the  thud  phase,  prosperity,  wealth, 
and  ease  threaten  to  sap  the  nation's 
vitality  The  people  are  living  upon 
the  capital  of  prestige  and  energy 
created  in  the  past.  Decay  has  set  in,  and 
it  may  be  rapid,  as  in  the  case  of  Greece, 
or  the  state,  as  in  the  case  of  Rome. 
may  suffer  a  long  decline. 

Such  in  rough  outline  appears  to  be 
the  mortal  trajectory  described  by  the 
nations  of  the  ancient  world.     Each  of 
them,  like  an  individual  who  has  done 
his  life's  work  well  or  ill,  passed  away, 
and  the  accumulated  forces  were  dissi- 
pated or  entered  into  new  combinations. 
When  we  look  back  to  the  beginnings  of 
Rome  we  observe1  a  cautious  movement 
in   adagio   and   andante,   but   presently 
there    is    an    acceleration    towards    the 
allegro  and  vivace  of  conquest  in  the 
crescendo    of    empire.     And    there   can 
be   no    crescendo   without   preparation 
In  about  one  hundred  years  Rome  sub- 
dued all  her  enemies  and  became  the 
mistress   of   the   world.     What   massed 
energies  lie  behind  that  single  fact ' 

Those  who  wish  to  study  the  pro- 
longed preparatory  discipline  to  which 
the  Romans  subjected  themselves  for 
their  imperial  task  may  turn  to  the 
pages  of  Mommsen,  and  there  are  the 
pages  of  Gibbon  for  those  who  desire  to 
watch  the  slow  diminuendo  and  finale. 

Here  we  can  only  remind  the  reader 
that  the  territorial  aggrandisement  of 
the  state  was  the  work  of  the  militant 
republic,  and  that  it  was  under  the 
republic  that  the  virtues  generally- 
identified  as  Roman  and  Western  were 

fully    developed.    The    Roman    genius 
for   government  was  trained   and  per- 
fected in  the  internal  conflict  between 
patricians    and    plebs.     How    jealously 
the    latter    guarded   the    sacredness    oi 
public  right  is  seen  in  the  creation  ot  the 
tribunate,    an   institution   unknown   to 
the  Greeks.     The  tribune,  whose  person 
was  inviolate,  was  more  than  a  liaison 
officer  between  the  two  sides.     Later  he 
became   a   factor    in   the   government, 
and  his  duty  was  to  vindicate  the  claims 
of  the  free  citizens 

In  the  search  for  justice  and  fair  play 
(except  towards  the  slaves,  and  yet  even 
in  their  behalf  humaner  legislation  was 
introduced)  the  Roman  character  most 
resembles     the     British.      There    is    a 
certain  massiveness  and  breadth  in  the 
policy   of   both    peoples   which   is   not 
discoverable   elsewhere.     They   are   the 
two    most    successful    colonising    states 
which  history   knows,    and   with   some 
exceptions     their     overseas     policy     is 
remarkably  alike.     Both  posted  pickets 
of  empire  in  every  corner  of  the  world. 
In  the  years  to  be— let  us  say  in  the 
thirtieth  century— it  will  be  impossible 
for    any    student    to    understand    the 
course  of  history  without   a  study   of 
the   rise    and   influence   of   the    British 
Empire.      So  to-day  modern  civilization 
is  unintelligible  to  us  unless  we  know 
something  of  the  contribution  of  Rome. 
The  traces   of  her   activity   are  every- 
where   around    us.     She    was    here    in 
Britain,      and      remained      some     five 

rHE    material  and  intellectual  legacies  ot  Rome 
to  the  modern  world  are  inestimable 

In  Britain,  as  on  the  Continent,  she 
left  not  merely  the  material  remains  of 
her  civilization,  but  the  legacy  of  her 
language  and  her  institutions.  France 
is  full  of  her  relics.  The  fortifications 
of  Nimes,  like  those  of  Chester,  were 
Roman,  and  in  the  building  and 
buttressing  of  her  Constitution,  France, 
even  in  modern  times,  still  borrowed 
from  Rome.  The  system  of  the  pre- 
fecture, whereby  in  the  different  depart- 
ments of  the  state  the  Prefect  (prae- 
fectus)  represents  the  government   was 

■ -~~~  *~~~~  ~  ~z-:::'  "  _...-„,-     m^\a/     conw     A     FEW     TAMARISKS" 

-OVER     HER     VAST     GRAVE     THERE     NOW     GROW     A ^W  j 

DespHe  their  splendour  and  glory    all  the  peat  empires^  the  past     Babylo  ^  J^  * 
EgyptTGreece,  and  Rome-have  dwindled  ™to  dust      1  hough  m     y  ^  ^^  q{         j       d 

liberal    eaeh  of  these  great  states  was    ruthlessly  up  fee  words  of  OUT 

millions,  and  thus  carried  at  its  heart  the  canker  oiu  that  in  her  markets  the  pr  ce  of 

^^E^SSSS&SM©:  °fOBv^"t  grave  there  now  grow  a  few  tamansks 
a  m  "  Photo,  Underwood  &  Vnirrwood 

a  Roman  creation.  And  why  is  Spanish 
a  modern  variant  of  Latin?  Only 
because  very  long  ago  Carthage,  the 
hereditary  enemy  of  the  Romans, 
having  seized  Spain  as  a  base  for  the 
attack  on  Italy  was  checked  in  time. 
For  Rome  marched  into  Spain  over- 
threw  the  invader,  and  annexed  the 
country  (201  B.C.), 

And  yet  the  day  came  when  Rome  s 
immense  activities  ceased  and  when 
her  people  were  overtaken  by  collective 
weariness.  New  forces  were  awake. 
Tn  the  opinion  of  Gibbon,  the  decme 
of  the  Roman  Empire  is  "  the  greatest 

and  most  awful  scene  in  the  history  of 
mankind."  Perhaps  the  fact  which, 
more  than  all  others,  creates  astonish- 
ment is  that  a  people  who  made  a 
contribution  of  such  magnitude  to 
civilization  and  order,  and  who  framed 
the  greatest  system  of  law  which  the 
world  has  known,  fell  before  a  horde  of 

We  cannot  refrain  from  pointing  out 
once  again  that  the  collapse  can  never 
fully  be  explained  without  reference 
to  economic  causes  which,  in  turn,  veil 
causes  of  a  deeper  kind.  The  land 
problem    and   the   slave   problem    were 

closely    connected.     The    great    estates 
(latifundia),  on  which  slave  labour  was 
employed  on   a  vast  scale,  had  fallen 
into    the    hands    of    a    few    magnates. 
Rome   had   conquered   the   world,    but 
degeneration    had    already    set    m    at 
the    centre.       Free    labour,     when    it 
happened     to     exist    at     all,    was    so 
meanly  remunerated   that  it  failed  in 
competition    with    the    slave    market. 
It   has  been  calculated  that  when  the 
free  citizens  of  Rome  numbered  320  ooo 
the -slave  population  reached  nearly  a 

7HE   final  causes  of  the  long  decline  and  chaotic 
fall  of  the  Roman  Empire 

In  and  around  the  capital  alone, 
therefore,  there  existed  an  immense 
and  fatal  disproportion  of  powers  and 
rights  The  creators  of  wealth  were 
themselves  wageless,  and,  while  the 
birth-rate  decreased  in  the  upper,  it 
increased  enormously  in  the  labouring 
class  There  had  been  revolutions  of 
the  slaves,  but  they  had  all  been 
crushed.  The  day  of  the  emancipation 
of  labour  and  of  its  share  in  political 
responsibility  was  still  far  off.  A 
luxurious  minority  living  on  the  fruits 
of  servile  industry  is  not  a  state. 

Lastly,  the  genius  for  administration 
which  had  controlled  so  marvellously 
and  for  so  many  centuries  the  dangerous 
and  subversive  elements  of  which  the 
Roman  world  was  composed,  at  length 
forsook  the  ruling  class,  and  government 
and  governed  alike  went  down  before  the 


The  eras   of  human  history  are  not 
shut  off  from  each  other  by  closed  gates. 
In  the  chaos  which  followed  the  dilapi- 
dation of  the  Roman  Empire  we  already 
descry,     although     dimly,     the     forces 
which  were  to  reconstruct  the  European 
system.     It  is  true  that  the  great  roads 
which  had  connected  Rome  with   her 
dependencies  were  blocked  and  barred, 
and  no  new  traffic,  either  of  commerce 
or  of  the  arts,  passed  over  them.     The 
communities     which,     as     distant     as 
Britain  had  looked  to  Rome  for  military 
support   and   administrative   guidance, 
were  left  isolated  to  fight  for  themselves, 

and     after    a   precarious    existence,    to 
accept  membership  in  alien  nations. 

The  disappearance  of  Rome  had 
caused  far  and  wide  a  political  earth- 
quake, and  its  reverberations  were  felt 
throughout    many    centuries.  the 

Teutonic  destroyers  of  Latin  civilization 
were  themselves  uncivilized,  and 
attempted  to  learn  slowly  methods  of 
government,  compared  with  which  their 
own  tribal  law  and  administration  were 
rude  and  primitive. 

The  period  from  the  fifth  till  the  tenth 
century  is  known  as  the  "  Dark  Ages.' 
The  lines   of   communication  with   the 
older    world    appeared    to    be    wholly 
severed.     Nevertheless,  the  magic  name 
of  Rome  remained,  and  the  barbarians 
expressed  their  awe  in  presence  of  her 
ruin  and  of  the  imperial  task  which  she 
had    accomplished.     Moreover,    out    of 
the  confusion  two  new  Powers  arose— 
the    Holy    Roman    Empire     and    the 
Papacy— and    the    operations    of    the 
former  in  the  secular  and  of  the  latter 
in  the  spiritual  sphere  fill  the  record  of 
what    is    called    the    medieval    period. 
But  the  term  "  Middle  Ages  "  is  really 
a     misnomer.     History     is     an     eyer- 
flowing  stream.     There  are  no  Middle 
Ages.     We    are   now   in    the    twentieth 
century,  and  let  us  ask  in  what  sense  a 
student  in  the  thirtieth  century  will  be 
able  to  understand  the  term   "Middle 
Ages "  ?    To    him    our    own    era    may 
seem     medieval,     and     how     will     he 
designate  the  period  which  is  known  as 
medieval  to  us  ? 

rHE    great    period  of   transition  from  ancient  to 
modern  society  and  the  opposing   forces 

The  truth  is  that  history  cannot  be 
walled  off  in  sections,  for  there  is  a 
constant  overlapping  of  influences. 
Although,  therefore,  we  recognize  the 
arrest  and  stagnation  which  overtook 
European  civilization,  the  loss  of  art 
and  of  law  when  the  power  of  ancient 
Rome  was  withdrawn,  we  prefer  to 
regard  the  entire  period  from  the  fifth 
century  till  the  discovery  of  America 
in  1492  as  the  great  period  of  transition 
from  ancient  to  modern  society.  It  was 
the  period  of  gestation  of  the  forces 

The   Shadow   of  an   Empire 

which    were    in    due    course,   to   create 
the   nations    of   to-day. 

Now,  the  Holy  Roman  Empire  and 
the  Papacv  fought  against  those  forces, 
and  they  both  failed.  Each  of  them, 
now  in  cooperation  and  now  in 
antagonism,  attempted  to  preserve  the 
social  framework  which  had  been  Rome  s 
legacy  to  the  world.  There  was  to  be 
a  kind  of  dual  universal  monarchy,  one 
secular  and  the  other  spiritual,  in  the 
affairs  of  men.  Absolute  uniformity  in 
religion  and  in  state  institutions  was 
the   goal   of   those   two    Powers   which 

1806  when  Francis  II.  of  Austria 
informed  the  Germanic  Diet  that  he 
had  resigned  his  crown  as  Roman 
Emperor.  But  that  Empire  had  been 
a  dream  rather  than  a  reality  from  the 
beginning,  and  its  concord  with  the 
Papacy  was  of  brief  duration. 

Both  Empire  and  Papacy  failed  to 
impose  upon  Europe  that  uniformity  of 
rule  for  which  Dante,  weary  of  the 
world's  confusion,  so  ardently  longed. 
The  ideal,  indeed,  was  not  wanting  in  a 
certain  grandeur,  but,  even  although 
the   temporal   and   the   spiritual   power 

The  World  as  known  to  the  Romans— 
Rom  on  Empire  at  its  greatest  extent    g| 
British  Empire  today  ^3 

and  the  British.      Within  .^V^^in^ta  world  of    modern  knowledge,  though  Rome's 

ssssk  »ffs££5£3?a?  -  --?-  "i,h "  "*,p 

entered  into  partnership  for  the  govern- 
ment of  Europe.  The  pact— if  we  may 
so  name  it — was  consummated  in  a.d. 
800  when  Charlemagne  was  crowned 
Emperor  by  Pope  Leo  III.  in  Rome. 
This  has  been  called  by  Bryce  the 
central  event  of  the  Middle  Ages." 

It  may  be  so,  but  the  Holy  Roman 
Empire  of  Charlemagne  and  his 
successors  was  only  a  shadow  and 
simulacrum  of  the  empire  of  the  Caesars, 
A  wit  declared  that  it  was  neither  Holy, 
nor  Roman,  nor  an  Empire.  It  came  to 
an  end  officially  only  as  late  as  August, 

had  acted  in  unison,  it  was  an  ideal 
impossible  of  realization.  The  dynamic 
forces  which  were  to  awaken  the  modern 
world  were  being  generated  by  national 
groups  under  the  kingship  in  England,  m 
France,  and  even  in  Spain,  although  Spain 
gave  to  the  Holy  Roman  Empire  one  of 
its  greatest  representatives,  Charles  V., 
the  grandson  of  Ferdinand  and  Isabella. 
In  Italy,  too,  when  the  Pope  had  become 
a  monarch,  new  and  yet  old  political 
forces  were  at  work  in  the  republics  like 
Venice,  Florence,  Genoa,  and  Pisa,  who 
were  jealous  of  their  independence. 

The  ruttinv  of  Nations 


The  configuration  of  Europe,  which 
we  ee  to  da!,  was  already  taking  shape 
Tn  the  twelfth  and  thirteenth  centune, 
and  the  centralizing  efforts  of  Empire 
and  Papacy  were  doomed  to  iaiiure. 
The  PW  triumphed  over  the  Empire, 
but  fteU  spiritual  absolutism ^was  m 
turn  impeached,  and  the  Reformation 
destroyed  the  unity  of  Christendom. 

Perhaps  it  is  worth  noting  here  as 
characteristic  of  the  political  instinct  of 
he  English  people,  that  when  Edjri 
III  was  elected  Emperor  of  the  Hol> 
Roman  Empire  (i347).  Parliament  for- 
bade him  to  accept  the  honoun  Another 
English  king,  Henry  VIIL,  became  a 
candidate  (unelected)  for  the  same 
throne  misW  and  that  date  will  serve 

to  remind  us  that  the  forces  of  political 
and  religious  disintegration  were  already 
busy  on   the   Continent.     The  Diet   of 
Worms,  to  which,  by  a  strange  irony, 
Charles    (the    successful    candidate   fm 
the  imperial  throne)  was  compelled  to 
grant  a  safe  conduct  to  Luther,  sat  in 
January,   1521.     The  Reformation  had 
come,   and  it,   too,   arose  out  of  those 
strange  fervent  energies,  which  awoke  in 
the      fourteenth      and      the      fifteenth 
centuries,    and   characterise   the   period 
called  the  Renaissance. 

It  was  once  customary  to  restrict  the 
Renaissance  to  that  revival  of  learning 
which  originated  in  Italy.     But  we  now 
know  that  the  movement  has  a  wider 
and      deeper       significance.        It   was 
accompanied  by  an  expansion,  not  only 
in  the  sphere  of  intellectual,  but  also 
in  the  sphere  of  practical  life.     I  he  re- 
discovery of   the   art   and    poetry   and 
philosophy  of  Greece,  and  the  re-study 
of  the  literature  and  the  law  of  Rome 
mark     indeed,    the    most    momentous 
stage  in  the  history  of  culture. 

The  thrill  of  new  thought  and  new 
emotion,  which  we  find  in  the  works  of 
Da  Vinci  and  Raphael  and  Michelangelo 
in  Velazquez  and  Cervantes  and 
Calderon,  in  Chaucer,  in  Shakespeare, 
and  in  Bacon,  is  felt  far  into  the 
eighteenth    century    and    reappears  m 

Rousseau  and  Voltaire.  For  the 
Renaissance  was  creative  as  w  eU  as 
receptive,    and  looked    to    the    future 

S5S  £  %>& W  -*- 

painting,   it  brought  new  beauty   into 
the  world.  ,         , 

Again,  whatever  value  may  be  at 
tached  to  the  speculative  activities  of 
the  era  of  scholasticism,  mankind  would 
have  remained  stagnant  if  human  think, 
ing  had  been  perpetually  cribbed  and 
calmed  in  theological  formulae.  But 
after  the  long  imprisonment  we  begin 
to  hear  the  last  clanking  of  the jntel- 
[ectual  chains  which  bound  the  Middle 
Ages,  and  the  liberated  spirit  is  pre- 
paring for  fresh  enterprise. 

Moreover,  this  intellectual  resurrection 
was     attended     by     an     advance     m 
practical  discovery  and  invention,     lne 
compass  was  already  waiting  to  be  used 
by  Christopher  Columbus  on  his  voyage 
to  America,  and  the  telescope  was  like- 
wise waiting  to  be  used  by  such  scientific 
innovators  as  Copernicus  {Hp-~ I543) 
and  Galileo  (1564-1642).      The  manu- 
facture of  paper  had  received   a  new 
impetus,    and   the   printing   press— the 
greatest  invention  of  all-was  dissemi- 
nating the  new  knowledge.     The  feudal 
system,  with  its  gangs  of  serfs,  who  had 
replaced  the  earlier  generations  of  slaves, 
received  its  death-blow  from  the  new 
military  weapons  which  the  invention  of 
gunpowder  had  introduced. 

T*HE  fruit  of  the  great  period  of  discovery  which 
Twas  an   outcome  of  the  Renaissance 

AH  was  changing,  like  the  face  of  the 
earth  when   the  efflorescence   of  spring 
covers  the  landscape  which  had  been 
winterbound.     Already  in   i433  Prince 
Henry  the  Navigator,  with  his  Portu- 
guese seamen,   was   exploring   the   At- 
lantic.    Cam  discovered  the  Congo  river 
in  1484-5,  and  Diaz  doubled  the  Cape  of 
Good  Hope  in  1488.     At  two  o'clock  on 
the  morning  of  October  12th,   1492    a 
sailor  on  board  the  Nina,   one   of  the 
ships   of   Columbus,   sighted   land,    and 
on  the  same  morning  Columbus  stepped 
on  shore  at  San  Salvador.     America  had 

THE     SOLDIERS     OF     ROME     WHO     BUILT     UP     HER     EMPIRE 

Photo,  Anderson 

been  discovered.  Vasco  da  Gama  sailed 
from  Lisbon  in  1497,  and  after  a  voyage 
of  eleven  months  anchored  off  the  coast 
of  India  in  May,  149s-  Cort&  was 
marching  through  Mexico  in  1519,  in 
1526  Pizarro  reached  Peru,  and  ten 
years  later  his  lieutenant  Almagro 
conquered  Chile.  The  banners  of  Por- 
tugal and  of  Spain  were  waving  in  India 
and  in  America,  and  the  great  era  of 
European  colonibation  had  begun. 

John  Cabot  sailed  from  Bristol  in  1497, 
and  in  June  of  the  same  year  sighted  Cape 
Breton  Island  and  Nova  Scotia,  and  his 
son  Sebastian  was  cruising  off  Brazil  in 
l526  Jacques  Cartier  reached  New- 
foundland in  1534.  and  two  years  later  he 
discovered  the  St.  Lawrence.  In  the 
third  quarter  of  the  sixteenth  century 
Drake  had  circumnavigated  the  globe 
In  1584  Raleigh  sent  out  the  fleet  which 

founded  Virginia,  and  eleven  years  latei 
he  was  at  Trinidad  and  on  the  Orinoco. 
English  merchants  were  already  settled 
in  India  in  1583,  and  in  1600,  under  a 
charter  granted  by  Queen  Elizabeth,  the 
East  India  Company  was  founded. 

We  have  chosen  these  scattered  facts 

to  indicate  the  stir  and  excitement  which 

they   must   have   caused   in   a   Europe 

which    had    already    grown    old     and 

exhausted  on  the  banks  of  its  own  rivers 

and  the  shores  of  its  own  seas.     Men 

now  knew  that  there  were  other  lands 

and  seas  and  rivers  which  beckoned  the 

spirit   of   adventure   to   advance.     The 

fascination    of    travellers'    tales,    which 

happened  to  be  true,  had  caught  the 

ear  of  Shakespeare,  whose  Prospero  in 

"  The  Tempest  "  makes  Ariel 

"  fetch  dew 

From   the   still-vex'd    Bermoothes." 

The  Bermudas  were  discovered  early  m 
he     sixteenth     century      by     another 
Spaniard,    Juan    Bermudez,    but    they 
became    an    English    possession   betore 
SnXspearediJ.  Although  the  energies 
of  the  Renaissance   awoke  m  our  own 
country  later  than  in  Italy  and  Spam 
Germany    and    France,    it    was    Great 
Britain   that  became  the  chief  gamer, 
by  the  work  of  the  explorers,  m  India 
and    in    America    as    well    as    m the 
islands  of  the  Atlantic  and  the  Pacific. 


HAT    sort    of   Europe    should    we    have    seen 
today  had  there  been  no  Renaissance  ? 

The  most  momentous  fact  of  all  in  this 
period  of  transition  remains  to  be  men- 
tioned The  Mayflower  sailed  from  Ply- 
mouth on  November  nth  (O.S.),  1620, 
and  arrived  in  Massachusetts  in  Decem- 
ber The  impulse  towards  individual  free- 
dom, which  was  the  essence  of  the  Renais- 
sance had  likewise  fired  the  forefathers 
of  the  men  who  were  to  return  to  take 
part  in  the  Great  War,  1914-1918,  which 
revindicated  the  liberties  of  Europe. 

This  brief  reference  to  the  Renaissance 
has  been  necessary  because  the  spirit 
of  that  movement  is  still  alive  m  the 
nations  of  the  modern  world.  In  the 
"  rebirth  "  of  human  energy  for  humane 
as  well  as  for  "  humanistic  "  purposes 
lies  the  hope  of  progress.  The  Renais- 
sance is  never  at  an  end.  Its  message 
was  and  is  that  human  life  is  a  quest 
and  that  the  spirit  of  man  outgrows  all 
barren  formulae.  The  iron  circuit  ot 
the   Middle   Ages   was   broken. 

Let  us  ask  what  sort  of  a  Europe  this 
would    still   be   if    there   had   been   no 
Renaissance.      The     counter-revolution 
engineered  by  all  the  forces  of  absolutism, 
the  Saint  Bartholomews  and  Smithfields, 
the  autos  da  fe  in  Spain,  the  intimidation 
of  the  new  science,  the  vivi-cremation  of 
Giordano    Bruno,    and    the   horrors   of 
religious  persecution  in  the  Netherlands 
all  failed  to  quench  the  new  spirit      it 
we  look  upon  the  Spanish  Armada  of 
i<88  as  embodying  and  leading  to  the 
attack  the  forces  of  absolutism,  secular 
and  spiritual,  we  may  feel  some  decent 
pride  in  the  thought  that  it  was  Britain 
that  shattered  it. 

We  have  mentioned  Babylon  Greeg 
and  Rome  as  representative  state,  wtach 
created  problems  of  empire  that  they 
were  finally  unable  to  solve,  met  rivals 
7n  the  are/a  of  history,  and  f  appea«d. 
This    searching    test    of    the    nations 
however,  is  still  active  and  inexorable 
in   the   modern   world.     We   saw   that 
forces  liberated  in  the  Renaissance  met 
and  defeated  Philip  II.  of  Spam  m< his 
great  attempt  to  re-establish  m  Europe 
the  absolutism  of  the  Hapsburgs  and  of 
the  Papacy.     But  that  was  not  to  be  the 
last  effort  or  the  last  defeat  of   absolu- 
tism     In  the  two  succeeding  centuries 
and    especially    during    the    reign    of 
Louis  XIV.    France  became  formidable 
to  European  liberty,  and  in  spite  of  the 
convulsion   in   1789   she  became  later, 
under   Napoleon,    the   most    aggressive 
Power  in  the  world.     But  she  suffered 
defeat  in  181S.     Russia,  which  created 
a  vast  empire  bv  remorseless  aggression 
and  consolidated  an  absolute  Tsardom, 
is  lying  in  chaos  and  economic  rum  to- 
day     Prussia,  whose  strength  increased 
rapidly    under    Frederick    the    Great, 
survived  her  disaster  in  the  Napoleonic 
wars,  and  in  due  time  placed  herself  at 
the  head  of  the  German  Confederation. 
She    increased    her    territory     at     the 
expense     of     Denmark,    Austria      and 
France    and   became   with   her   federal 
states  the   greatest  military  Power  the 
world    has    known.       But    her    defeat 
came   in    1918,    while   Austria,    which 
had  likewise  survived  the  onslaught  of 
Napoleon,  lies  at  last  dismembered  and 

in  rums. 

ELEMENTAL  forces   that    breed    revolt   in  states 
and  produce  continual  change 

What  is  this  mysterious  law  which 
builds  up  and  then  breaks  down  a 
state?  While  the  great  nations  are 
reaching  their  zenith  the  smaller  exist 
under  their  shadow  in  perpetual  fear  of 
aggression  and  the  loss  of  territorial 
rights.  In  certain  cases,  as  for  instance 
in  the  case  of  Switzerland,  security  can 
be  explained  only  by  the  cynical  fact 
that  for  strategic  reasons  her  surround- 
ing neighbours  found  it  advantageous  to 
guarantee  her  neutrality.    Out  of  this 



/^   '■'?&*■ 

THE     CENTRAL     EVENT     OF     THE     MIDDLE     AGES 

One  of  the  most  interesting  episodes  in  the  history  of  nations  is  that  of  the  Holy  Roman  Empire, 
concerning  which  a  wit  has  said  that  it  was  neither  Holy,  nor  Roman,  nor  was  it  an  Empire,  it  was, 
in  effect,  the  effort  of  kings  and  emperors  for  a  thousand  years  to  carry  on  the  tradition  of  Rome  s 
imperial  power  in  the  interests  chiefly  of  kings  and  emperors,  and  it  began  with  the  crowning  of 
Charlemagne  in  Soo  and  ended  with  the  resignation  as  Roman  Emperor  of  trancis  II.  ot  Austria  m  r  Bob 

Long  conflict  in  which  nations  have  been 
shaped  and  trained  in  Asia  and  in 
Europe,  in  Africa  and  in  the  New  World, 
one  fact  seems  to  emerge  :  like  the  forces 
of  Nature  the  forces  of  human  history  are 
explosive.  The  great  groups  which  we 
call  nations  contain  volcanic  and  inflam- 
mable elements,  the  area  of  combustion 
may  be  narrow  or  wide,  the  moment  of 
ignition  may  be  soon  or  late,  but  at 
last  the  conflagration  bursts.  We  cannot 
doubt  that  there  is  a  close  relation 
between  this  human  unrest  and  the 
failure  of  the  state.  But  since  a  well- 
governed  state  may  succumb  to  a 
more  powerful  neighbour,  the  search 
for  the  moral  causes  of  decline  becomes 
more  difficult. 

We  might  call  the  idea  of  Freedom 
the  high-explosive  of  history,  for,  in 
the  end,  it  has  broken  down  one  after 
another  every  Bastille  of  arbitrary 
power.  Great  as  were  the  indirect  and 
ultimate  political  effects  of  the  Renais- 
sance and  the  Reformation  neither  of 
those  movements  had  a  political  motive 
or  a  political  origin.  It  is  in  the  French 
Revolution  that  we  discover,  not  indeed 
the  earliest,  but  the  most  vehement  and 
dramatic  expression  of  rights.     French 

thinkers  who  preceded  the  Revolution 
had  been  profoundly  impressed  by  the 
events  in  England  in  the  seventeenth 
century  and  especially  by  the  Revolution 
of  1688.  And  the  actual  leaders  of 
the  Revolution  found  inspiration  and 
encouragement  in  the  American 
Declaration  of  Independence  (1776). 


'HE      factor      of     national     disturbance      which 
industry  introduced  to  the   modern  world 

Lafayette  brought  home  from 
America  the  aphorism  that  resistance  is 
a  sacred  duty.  Members  of  the  French 
aristocracy  who  had  crossed  the  ocean 
to  fight  in  the  American  armies  returned 
to  Europe  convinced  of  the  truth  of 
democracy.  But  the  commotion  in 
France  was  unaccompanied  by  the  con- 
structive political  genius  which  created 
federation  in  the  American  Colonies. 
In  France  the  Revolution  signified  the 
transition  from  feudalism  and  abso- 
lutism, but  in  no  other  country  had  the 
break  with  the  past  been  so  convulsive. 

If  the  federal  principle  had  been 
adopted  by  France  there  might  have 
been  no  Napoleon  But  out  of  the 
seismic  chaos  of  the  Revolution  came 
Napoleon,     and     a     new     attempt     at 

European    absolutism    which  ^involved 
Europe   in   a  new   series   of  wars. .m 
other  words,  France  had  missed  a  great 
n Statical  opportunity  and  soon  forgot 
the  great  doctrines  of  "  liberty  equality, 
aud   fraternity "   which  had  been   em- 
blazoned  ob  her  Revolutionary  banner. 
It  was  not  the  labouring  population 
it   waTthe   middle  class  which   gained 
mort  by  the  Revolution.     In  the  Declar- 
£  of  the  Rights  of  Man  the .private 
ownership  of  property  is  not  only, anc 

tiTdSd^  i  ££?£ 


arisen  ihe  conception  that  the  state  is  an 
arisen  me  y '  .       for  the  prlzes 

arena  tor  iree  cou,p  roncerj- 

„f  life      But  it  is  precisely  this  concep 
of  lite,     dul  r  f  modern 

,  vvll        Rank  was  abolished   but  it 

SnSurned,  and  found  *eU  eftowing 

the  new  aristocracy  of  ^th^B^ 

thp    nrotagomsts     or     tne     mv 
begged  toS  the  middle  class.  Robespierre 

wasanavocat,Danton another  Sieyesan 
abbe  Marat  a  doctor,  Fouquier- 1  mviUe 
an  attorney,  Collot  d'Herbois  an  actor, 
and  Saint  Just,  like Xarnille  D^ouhns 

would  have  made  Sieyes  and  Saint  just 

StErdancSehain  fact,  had  been  in  volcanic 
travail  in  order  that  the  bourgeoisie 
mtht  consolidate  their  position  before 
The  new  era  of  modern  industry  which 
would  replace  the  aristocracy  of  land 
by  the  aristocracy  of  capital,  had  set 
in      Moreover,    the    Revolution,    which 



North  Ameucan^contm^  ^^  Anglo_Saxon  both  in  character  and  in  speech 

From  a  model  made  by  Gouldine  &  Co..  Plymouth,  tor  the  Mayflower  tercentenary 

was  to  destroy  all  tyrannies,  ended 
inevitably  in  Napoleon  and  in  militarism, 
in  a  vast  burden  of  debt,  and  in  Waterloo. 
Is  history  then  merely  a  Penelope's  web 
of  which  the  nations  are  the  weavers,  and 
which  is  woven  up  during  one  century 
only  to  be  unwoven  in  the  next  ?  Is  its' 
record  only  a  necrology  of  nations  ? 
And  must  one  generation  accumulate 
abuses  which  the  next  must  sweep  away  ? 
The  great  military  and  economic  effort 
of  France  in  the  seventeenth  century 
was  only  a  preparation  for  the  deeper 
corruption  of  the  succeeding  age  and 
for  the  catastrophe  of  the  Revolution. 
Is  there,  then,  no  finality  in  this  endless 
experiment  of  nations  ? 

Now  from  the  downfall  of  Napoleon 
in  1815  until  the  downfall  of  the  German 
Emperor  and  his  allies  in  1918  there  had 
taken  place  hi  Europe  a  vast  economic 
reconstruction    owing    to    the    use    ot 

steam  and,  later,  of  electricity  tor 
industrial  purposes.  Modern  wealth 
began  to  be  created  by  new  processes  of 
manufacture,  and  the  towns,  as  the 
centres  of  industry,  attracted  the 
country  population  to  the  great  factories. 
These  economic  changes  created  in  all 
nations  social  problems  which  still  await 
solution.  Moreover,  the  new  activities  of 
world  commerce  brought  about  changes 
not  only  within  the  nations,  but  between 
them,  for  there  was  a  struggle  for 
markets  more  intense  than  the  old 
system  of  international  barter  had  ever 
known.  Again,  the  social  status  of  the 
labouring  class  in  one  nation  became  of 
interest  to  the  working  class  in  another, 
and  the  doctrine  of  the  solidarity  of 
labour  throughout  the  civilized  world 
began  to  attract  attention. 

The  social   and   economic  history  of 
che  nineteenth    century  is   mainly    the 


The  Destiny 

^Tthe  struggle  between .Capital 
and  Labour,  not  *  ^^ Measure 
within    less   than   a  hundred   years    n 

remember  that  in  1825  lraae  u« 
wS  not  merely  illegal  but  criminal  and 
was  defined  in  English  law  as      a  con 
spiracy  in  restraint  of  trade.      We  have 
seen   that   ancient  society  VP%*j£ 
fact  that  a  man's  labour  is  his  most 
ScU  property.    K  solved  its  industry 
problem  by  purchasing  slaves.    But  the 
fntroduction  of  the  wage-earning ^class 
who  became  gradually  insistent  on  the 
realization  of  their  own  economic  and 
political    rights,    has    brought    a    new 
factor  of  national  disturbance  into  the 
modern  world. 

Moreover,  in  spite  of  the  dream  of  the 
solidarity  of  labour  everywhere,  the 
industrial  class  of  one  nation  competes 
for  the  world's  markets  with  the  indus- 
trial classes  of  other  nations.  The  task 
of  every  state  is  double  : 

1.  Internally  to  adjust  the  relations 
between  its  own  members,  and 

2.  Externally  to  adjust  its  relations 
with  other  states. 

These  two  problems  are  closely  con- 
nected, and  would  lead  us  into  a 
discussion  of  such  subjects  as  Free 
Trade  and  Protection.  It  is  sufficient 
to  note  that  a  relentless  competition 
takes  place  between  the  great  organized 
national  groups,  and  that  that  com- 
petition very  frequently  leads  to  war. 
For  the  greater  the  extent  of  territory, 
the  greater  the  resources,  and  the  greater 
the  chance  of  economic  superiority.  _ 

The  country  rich  in  coal  and  iron 
and  oil  and  other  raw  materials  will 
secure  supremacy  in  the  field  of  manu- 
facture and  trade.  And  since  economic 
supremacy  is  not  only  a  cause,  but  also  an 
effect  of  military  power,  the  temptation  to 
expand  becomes  irresistible,  especially  if 
the  question  of  over-population  becomes 
pressing.  Here  we  glance  at  he 
supreme  problem  of  the  modern  peoples. 

Tt  is  probable  that  the  historians  of 

feud  between  Germany  and  France  was 
added  the  formidable  industrial  menace 
of    the    most    industrious    people    in 
Europe.     Germany  was  becoming  pre- 
dominant in  Central  Europe  and  else 
where,    and   the   appetite  increases   by 
what   it   feeds    on.      Her   ^dustrialisrn 
financed      her      militarism,      and      her 
militarism   promised   her   industrialism 
new  fields  for  expansion.     A  new  and 
more   insidious    absolutism   threatened 

UBut6' there  had  once  been  another 
Germany  of  "  humanism,"  the  Germany 
of  Lessing  and  Goethe,  the  Schlegels, 
Winckelmann    and    Beethoven  the 

temperamental  change  which  took  place 
in  the  German  people  can  be  traced  to 
the   victories   of   Frederick   the   Great 
Their   educational  system   was   framed 
with  a  view  to  inspiring  the  young  with 
the  Pan-German  ideal  of  a  Deutschland 
victorious  in  every  field  of  human  activ- 
ity     The  German  commercial  became 
only  less   aggressive   than   the  German 
military   battalions.    Germany  was  the 
Assyria  of   the  West,  Assyrian   in   her 
energy    her  ruthlessness,  and  her  pride. 


ERMANYS   downfall  was  dae  to  an  excess  of 
energy  and  abuse  of  it,  not  to  decay 

If  we  count  Luxemburg,  we  find 
that  the  frontiers  of  eight  foreign 
states  surrounded  her.  Thus  compelled 
to  become  a  military  power,  it  was  the 
strategic  weakness  of  her  geographical 
situation  which  transformed  her  into  an 
armed  camp,  and  her  standing  army 
became  a  standing  menace  to  the  rest 

of  Europe. 

As  she  transformed  herself  from  an 
agricultural  to  an  industrial  community 
her  energies  increased  and  sought  an 
outlet  in  all  directions,  and  especially 
towards  the  sea.  The  old  Baltic  trade 
was  insufficient,  and  Germany,  looking 

A  Paradox  of  History 

towards  the  North  Sea  and  the  Atlantic, 
began  to  build  ships.  But  on  the  sea 
she  met  Great  Britain.  Her  military 
engineers  wrought  marvels  with  her 
contracted  sea-board.  The  Kiel  Canal 
strengthened  the  strategic  position, 
because  it  doubled  the  striking  power 
of  the  fleet.  We  hint  at  these  economic 
facts  because  they  must  be  added  to 
the  immediate  causes  of  the  war— the 
strokes  and  counter-strokes  of  a  decep- 
tive diplomacy,  and  the  ambitions  of  a 
group  of  men  leading  and  misleading  a 
group  of  nations. 

History  is  full  of  paradox.  When  the 
mechanical  maelstrom  of  modern  war 
was  let  loose  in  1914  Great  Britain 
became  the  enemy  of  the  Power  with 
whom  she  had  never  had  a  quarrel  and 
the  ally  of  her  own  hereditary  foe.  Let 
us  observe  that  the  downfall  of  the 
German  Empire  cannot  be  explained  by 
the  cycle  of  exhaustion  and  decline. 
Germany  was  reaching  the  zenith  of 
power.  So  great  was  that  power  that 
in  order  to  overthrow  it  the  European 
Allies  required  the  help  of  the  United 
States.  It  was  not  because  Germany 
had  too  little,  but  because  she  had  too 
much  energy,  and  was  about  to  misuse 
it  against  the  liberties  of  the  world,  that 
her  defeat  was  due. 

We  are  now  in  a  position  to  ask  : 
What  has  been  the  role  of  Great  Britain 
in  the  history  of  nations  ?  It  is  a  most 
remarkable  and  significant  fact  that 
four  times  within  four  hundred  years 
and  very  near  the  end  or  beginning  of 
the  centuries  Britain  intervened  de- 
cisively in  European  affairs. 

THE  part  played  by  Great   Britain   during    four 
centuries  in  the  history  of  nations 

We  saw  that  in  1588  she  defeated  the 
absolutism  of  Spain  and  thereby  saved  the 
secular  and  spiritual  liberties  which  the 
Renaissance  and  the  Reformation  had  af- 
firmed. But  again  towards  the  close  of  the 
seventeenth  and  at  the  beginning  of  the 
eighteenth  century  Britain  checked  the 
absolutism  of  France  as  represented  by 
Louis  XIV.,  and  defeated  it  at  Blenheim, 
1704,  Ramillies,  1706,  Oudenarde,  1708, 
Malplaquet,     1709-       At    the    end    of 

the  eighteenth  and  the  beginning  of  the 
nineteenth  centuries  Britain  was  again 
on  the  Continent,  and  defeated  the  new 
absolutism  of  Napoleon  in  1815.  And 
at  the  beginning  of  the  twentieth 
century  in  1914,  in  alliance  with  Belgium 
and  France,  she  became  the  main  agent 
in  the  defeat  of  Germany  in  1918. 

It  is,  indeed,  useless  to  pretend  that 
in  these  interventions  Great  Britain  was 
not  protecting  her  own  interests.  It  is 
no  less  true  that  she  was  protecting  the 
common  liberties  of  mankind. 


R1TISH  Nation,  by  reason  of  its  history,  always 
to  be   found  on  the  side  of  liberty 

The  role  of  equilibrator  seemed  to  be- 
long by  nature  to  a  Power  detached  from 
Europe  and  yet  so  close  to  it.  A  people 
who  had  won  their  Magna  Carta  (1215), 
and  Habeas  Corpus,  and  had  framed 
their  Bill  of  Rights  (1689),  found  them- 
selves instinctively  on  the  side  of  liberty, 
wherever  it  was  imperilled. 

The  record  is  doubtless  stained  by  the 
policy  which  led  to  the  loss  of  the 
American  colonies,  by  certain  events  in 
the  early  administration  of  India,  by 
the  early  struggles  in  Wales,  and  by  the 
long  struggLe  in  Ireland.  But  as 
regards  America,  the  best  minds  of 
the  day  expressed  the  conscience  of 
the  country  in  denunciation  of  the  mis- 
guided government  of  a  German  king. 

"  This  universal  opposition,"  said 
Chatham,  "  to  your  arbitrary  system  of 
taxation,  which  now  pervades  America,  is 
the  same  which  formerly  opposed  loans, 
benevolences,  and  ship-money  in  this 
country,  is  the  same  spirit  which  roused  all 
England  to  action  at  the  Revolution,  and 
which  established,  at  a  remote  era,  your 
liberties,  on  the  basis  of  that  grand 
fundamental  maxim  of  the  Constitution, 
that  no  subject  of  England  shall  be  taxed 
but  by  his  own  consent.  To  maintain 
this  principle  is  the  common  cause  o) 
the  Whigs  on  the  other  side  of  the  Atlantic 
and  on  this.  .  .  .  Resistance  to_your 
acts  was  as  necessary  as  it  was  just." 

These  words,  spoken  in  1775,  express 
the  British  ideal  of  government,  and 
their  spirit  is  the  secret  of  the  Empire. 
It  is  the  verdict  of  impartial  historians 
that  the  vast  overseas  possessions  which 
Great  Britain  won  at  the  expense  of  her 
European  rivals  have  enjoyed  sounder 


gf^emment  than  would  have  been  their 
lot  if  they  had  remaned  in  the _hanas 
of  Spain  Portugal,  and  --of  Franc. 

pent  on  the  Colonies  and  that  the 
arbitrary  taxation  which  Chattiam 
abhorred  should  find  no  place  m  the 
Dependencies  as  it  finds  none  m  the 
Mother  Country. 

THE   triBate  MA  %<>£&•**  Bf  ^  United 
'    States  pays  to  British  ideals 

Perhaps  however,  the  greatest  tribute 
whS  hPas  been  paid  Jp  the ^^ 
sanity  and  1^-  tttStct  that 

wat  no  new  creation,  but  only  vigorously 

thev  are  an  epitome  of  English  history. 
U%  an  Act  which  declares  among  other 

th^!l7t  the  W£*j£S£  °0ff  T^y 


ment  is  illegal.  rro4n  by  pretence 

T  tithin  the  kingdom  in  time  of  peace, 

army  within  me  in^  Parliament, 

unless  it  be  with  consent^  o  Members 

is  against  law      T™* /sctioi 

fines     imposed     nor     cruel     a 
'SfSSSSL  -to!  andtrfeitufes  of 
particPX  persons   before   convrction   are 

^hL^mpretsive     declaration     closes 
with    the    statement    by    Lords    and 
Commons  "  that  they  do  claim,  demand 
anHnsist   upon   all   and   singular   the 
"emL  as  their  undoubted  rights  and 

liberties."     These   principles   were   the 
rift  of  the  Mother  Island  to  the sj .  g 

laxon  world  wte^^S 
and  it  was  in  defence  oi  sucn 
Sat  the  United  States  and  tteBn^ 
Dominions   sent    their   vas* amies 
Europe  during  the  Great  War         __ 
*  If  Pwe  turn  to  Burke  s  speech      On 
Conciliation  with   America      we   shall 
find  the  ideal  of  the .British  Ernp^e 
stated  in  language  which  might  have 
been  uttered  to-day.     "  The  fierce  spirit 
of  liberty,"  says  Burke,  "*■*«£  £ 
the  English  Colonies  probably  than  m 
anv  other  people  of  the  earth      It  is 
S  spirit  oPf  the  English  Constitution 
whicE  infused  through  the  mighty  mass, 
nervades      feeds,     unites,     invigorates, 
Ses  -ery  part  of  the  Empire,  even 

down  to  the  minutest  member. 

Sow   if  we  take  1066  as  the  date  on 
which  the  last  infusion  of  foreign  blood 
Sh  the  Wood  of  the  island  stock  began 
This    country,  has    been    inviokte    for 
almost  one  thousand  years.     Of  all  tne 
European  nations  Britain  alone  during 
that  long  period  has  suffered  no  real 
disaster  ^  the   fabric   of   her   paw*. 
The  blows  from  without  as  we  1  as  from 
within  did  not  break,  they  only  riveted 
The    framework    of    her    freedom.    She 
Scis  in  the  modern  the  place  which 
Rome  held  in  the  ancient  world.  _  J  torn 
the  Great  War  she  has  emerged  with  an 
increase  in  her  vast  territory. 

If  we  reckon  up  the  schedule  of  her 
commitments   throughout   the   earth  it 
is  almost  with  a  sense  of  awe  that  we 
remember  that  her  colossal  expansion 
canTe  traced  from  the  nucleus  of  one 
maU  island.     Even  her  enemies  have 
admitted     that     wherever     the     long 
ra£s    of  her  civilization  has  reached 
t    has    brought    order    and    progress 
Pitt    once    said    "England    has    saved 
herself  by  her  exertions    she  will  save 
Europe    by    her    example.       tfut    ner 
"destiny"  was  on  the   sea,  and  took  her 
far  out  of  Europe  and  linked  with  her 
own  fortunes  those  of  millions  of  human 
beings    of    alien     race     and     speech. 

The  vast  economic  reconstruction  which  took  place  last  century  in  the  era  of  industrial  expansion 
changed  the  face  of  the  world  in  all  regions  where  industry  could  be  made  profitable.  Look  here  at 
Manchester  as  it  is  to-day  in  the  lower  photograph,  with  its  multitude  of  chimneys  befouling  the 
landscape,  and  the  same  scene  as  it  was  presented  one  hundred  and  ninety  years  ago.  The  change 
is  probably  artistically  and  hygienically  for  the  worse,  but  who  shall  say  that  the  industrial  expansion 

■    has  not  immensely  added  to  the  general  comfort  of  mankind  ? 

Napoleon  called  the  British  a  nation 
of  shop-keepers.  But  we  are  also  a 
nation  of  ship-keepers.  Behind  shops 
there  are  workshops.  Ships  and  shops 
— these  have  made  England. 

In  the  preceding  sketch  our  course 
has  been  inevitably  zigzag,  but  we  have 
attempted  to  collect  some  stray  facts 
which  are  of  importance  in  the  dis- 
cussion of  an  immense  subject.     A  few 

thoughts  suggest  themselves  here.  First, 
in  spite  of  the  exhaustion  and  decline 
of  nations,  national  tenacity  is  one  of 
the  outstanding  facts  of  history.  Peoples 
have  been  defeated  and  overthrown, 
nevertheless  they  have  continued  with 
shrunken  power  and  diminished  territory 
to  occupy  the  seats  of  their  forefathers. 
Spain  attempted  to  crush  Holland, 
and      Austria      attempted      to      crush 

their  oppressor      Iter  s  is  d 

even  in  »^  ^  e*fter  the 
Sovran  PWrit  was  supposed 
that  France  would  never  recover  from 
the  blow  but  it  was  French  military 
fenius  which  led  the  Allies  in  the  over- 

"Rut    in  the  second  place,  lex  ui 
that  in  spite  of  this  stubborn  racial 

£  sistenceP  the  actual  political  frame- 
work of  a  nation  is  subject  tosudd^ 
and  often  disastrous  change.  There  are 
foments  in  history  when  nothing  seems 
to  be  so  brittle  as  the  fabric  of  the 
state      We   have    seen   with    our   own 

e4s  the  great  work  of  the  Russian  Tsar 
eyes  u±c  s  seen  the 

Empire  which  Bismarck  created  went 
to  pieces  within  a  few  hours,  its  Emperor 
£SS  a  fugitive,  and  the  dukes  and 
kings  of  its  confederate  states  were 
swept  simultaneously  from  their  throne- 
lets  and  their  thrones.  This  is  tne 
catastrophic  and  seismic  element  m 

elements  were  seized  by  the  framers  <rf 
the  American  Constitution.     That  is 
fact    of    profound    significance,    for    it 
means  that  the  greatest  Power  m    he 
Sew    World    yjfSSlSLa 

the  needs  of  every  people  within  the 
Bntish  Confederation  that  we  find    he 

greatest     promise     ot      tne     &i   v 


Third,  it  has  often  been  asked  how 
long   the   British   Empire   will   endure. 
Sre  is  nothing  to  guide  us,  because  tire 
British    Empire    ^unlike    any    o  ther 
imperial  system  of  the  past.     It  is  not 
ammechanical  combination  held  together 
hv  militarism.     It  is   a  union  of  self 
governing  communities  or  of  communi- 
ties gradually  approaching  self-govern- 
ment   and  sharing  or  learning  to  share 
™„n    Ideal    of    government    and 
JbST  Wetted  tie  Bill  of  Rights 
and    pointed    out    that    its    essential 

•HE  world's  peace  and  the  ^owi^  demand  for 
»    an  international  standard  of  justice 

One  final  question  meets  us.    Na**J 
like    individuals,    compete    with    eacn 
other  and  competition  involves  suffering. 
I  Us  agreed  that  it  is  by  means  of com- 
JttiZ     that    the    character    of    the 
FXXali  developed.     I< ft*-- 
struggle,    character    weakens    and    de 
generates.      And    the    same    law   is    at 
Jork  in  the  case  of  those  great  aggre- 
gates   of    individuals    which    we    call 
nations     If    so,    is    collision     is    war 
Srevitable?     This    question,  which    we     . 
caimSattempt  to  answer  he«  o= 
the  minds  of  those  who  ^  forward 
to  an  international  rivalry  that  shall  be 
Soodless,  and  place  hope  in  a  League  of 

P  We  may  meanwhile  remind  ourselves 
of  a  statement  made  earlier  m  these 
pages-that    the   task  of    all    states 

^To'- regulate  their  own  inner  life, 

alt   To  adjust  their  relations  with  their 

^rieelmg  has  begun  to  demand 
that  justice  shall  be  the  essence  of  both 
sets  of  relations.     There  is  a  saying  o 
he  greatest  of  Greek  thinkers  that    at 
first  the  state  is  created  for  the  sake  o 
mere  life,  but  that  it  continues _  fo ^ 
for  the  sake  of  the  good  life     The  futuie 
of  civilization  will  depend  on  how  tar 
each  nation  will   respect   that   level   of 
good  life  which  other  nations  may  have 

of  All   Nations 


5  i  / 














Their  Life  Today  and 
the  Story  of  their  Past 

By     Our     Foremost     Writers     of 
Travel    Anthropology    &    History 

Illustrated  with  upwards  of  5000 

Photographs,     numerous      Colour 

Plates,  and    150   Maps 


Edited   by 

A.    Hammerton 

Pages  7S5-1568 

British  Empire  to  Dahomey 

Published  at  THE    FLEETWAY  HOUSE   London  E.G. 













































♦  %i 

■     ,■:      :     ■ 



.  t  * 


■■■V  ;■     ' 



See  page  1259 

Frontispiece— Vol.  II 

M<IU  WaiMMWffMfUHB  1. 1| 

■BmHBIHatKk'  ■■_  ■ 




British  Empire  in  Asia  : 

I.  Peoples  and  Places   in  the 
Gulf  of  Aden      Lt.-Col.  H. 
F.  Jacob 
II.  The  Jungle  Folk  of  British 
Borneo.     Charles  Hose 

III.  Hongkong  :        An      Eastern 

Link  of  Empire.  H.  B.  Morse 

IV.  The   Polyglot    Life    of   the 

Straits   Settlements.      Sir 

Frank  Swettenham 
V.  The  Malay  States  and  their 

Tropic     Life.         Sir    Frank 

VI.   Planting  Outposts  of  Empire 

in  the  Eastern  Seas.     De- 

m?triiis  C.  Boulger 
British  Empire  in  Australasia  : 
I.   Island  Life  in  the  Strange 

South     Seas.         Sir     Basil 

II.  How    South    Sea    Islanders 

Came     Under     the     Flag. 

A .   D.   Innes 
British   Empire  in  Europe  : 

I.  To-day    and     Yesterday    in 

the  Channel  Islands.  Edith 

F.   Carey 
II.  Gibraltar  :      The     Western 

Gate    of    Empire.        Major 

C.    W.  J.  Orr 

and  Historical  Chapters 

British  Empire  in  Europe  {contd) 

III.  Malta     and     the     Maltese. 
_o  Prof.  J.  L.  My  res     .. 

'    '  IV.  Cyprus  :    Greek  and  Turk  as 

go,  British    Subjects.        Major 

C.    W.   J.   Orr 
Bulgaria  I.  Ft.   Charles    Woods 

II.   Sir  Reginald  Rankin 
Burma  I.  Sir  George  Scott 

,.       II.  Prof.  E.  H.   Parker 
Cambodia.     Mme.  Gabrielle    Vassal 
Canada  I.   Frederick  J.  Niven 

II.   A.   G.   Bradley 
Ceylon  I.   G.  E.  Milton 
II.   A.   D.   Innes 
Chile  I.  /.  A.  Hammerton     .. 
,,    II.     Ft.  Ftesketh  Prichard 
„  III.    W.  H.  Koebel 
China  I.  Arthur  Corbett-Smith 

II.  Lionel  Giles 
Colombia  I.    /.  A.  Hammerton 

II.   F.   Loraine  Petre 
Costa  Rica  I.  Hamilton  Fyfe 

,,  II.   Percy  F.  Martin 

Cuba  I.   Richard  Curie 

,,    II.  Percy  F.  Martin 
Czechoslovakia  I.   Walter  Jerrold 

,,  II.   C.  Townley-Fullam 

Dahomey.     Frank  R.  Cana  .  . 
















List  of  Colour  Plates 

British   Empire  : 

Asia  :    Iban  of  Borneo 
Australasia  :   Malayta  Chief 

Bulgaria  :    Rustic  Beauty     . . 

Facing  page 




Facing  page 
Canada  :  Free  Rangers  of  the  Prairie  11 64 
China  :  Where  Buddha  Reigns  .  .      1296 

China  :   Actor  Playing  Leading   Ladv     1376 
Czechoslovakia  :      Daughter     of     a 

Colourful  People    .  .  . .  . .      1508 

Peeps   at   Borneo 

Klemantan  Chief     .  .           . .  817 

Kenyan   Girl's  Solo  Dance  818 

Iban  Women's  Dance         .  .  S19 

Sea   Dayak   Family              .  .  820 

Lisum    Women     of    Borneo  821 

Sea  Dayaks  from   Rejang  822 

Iban  Woman  making  Thread  823 

Iban  Method  of  Weaving..  823 

Kenyan   Women  Farmers..  824 

Dandy   Iban  Warriors        ..  825 

Shaping  a   Blow  Pipe         .  .  826 

Boring  the  Hole      ..          ..  827 

Sighting  through  the  Bore. .  828 

Fitting  Cylinder  to  Dart    ..  828 

Collecting  Poison     ..           ..  829 

Heating   the  Sap      .  .           .  .  830 

Men   Hunting  Monkeys      ..  831 

Home  from  the   Kill           . .  832 

By  Reef  and  Palm 

Solomon     Islanders'     Shield 

and  Spear              . .           . .  945 

Papuan  Waterside  Village.  .  946 

Solomon  Island  Group       .  .  947 

Dance  of  Gilbert  Islanders.  .  948 

Ellice  Islanders'  Dance       .  .  949 

Prepossessing  Tongan  Woman  950 

Pages  in  Photogravure 

Tongan  Lady  of  High  Degree  951 
Dandy  of  Rubiana  Lagoon  952 

Father  and  Son  of  Ong  Jong  953 
Solomon  Islanders'  Pan  Pipes  954 
Solomon  Islanders'  Skill  .  .  955 
Horiomu   Ceremony  .  .        956 

Fijian   War-Dance  .  .  .  .        957 

Fishing  on  the  Coral  Reefs  958 

Lovely    Kandanu      .  .  .  .         958 

A   Fijian   Feast         .  .  .  .        959 

Preparing  the  Banquet  .  .  959 
Rounding  the  Mark  Boat  960 

Bulgarians  in  Days  of  Peace 

Bulgarian  Peasant  Woman  1025 

Ready  to  Dance  the  Hon).  .  1026 

Gala  Dress  of  Young  Girl.  .  1027 

Melnik  Freed  from  the  Turk  1028 

Tvpical  Bulgarian  Village..  1028 

Dinners  for  the  Dead         ..  1029 

Moslem  Tombs  at  Dorkovo  1029 

Street  Weavers  of  Dobromiri  1030 

Market  Day  at  Tirnovo      ..  1031 

Gay  Attire  of  Well-to-do..  1032 

In  Quaint   Cambodia 

Cambodian  Musician-dancers  1097 

Supple  Khmer  Dancer        .  .  1098 

Regalia  of  Cambodia's  Ruler  1099 

Colossal  Relic  of  the  Naga.  .  noo-i 

Young   Cambodian   Noble..  1102 

Bejewelled  Cambodian  Lady  1103 

Cambodian  Dancing  Girls..  1104 

In    Western  Canada 

Blackfeet   Chief         ..           ..  1137 

Blackfeet  Reservation         ..  n  38 

Moving  Camp  in  Alberta   ..  1139 

Acres  of   Apple  Trees          ..  1140 

Pear  Trees  in   Bloom          ..  1140 

Rafting-up  in   Columbia     ..  1141 

Raft  of  Logs             ..           ..  1 1 41 

Indian  Chief  of  Saskatchewan  1142 

Stonev   Indian          ..           ..  1143 

Canadian  Mounted  Policeman  1144 

Ceylon   Glimpses 

Pilgrims  at  Kandy's  Temple  1209 

Comely  Sinhalese  Woman..  1210 

Ceylon   Girl's  Pride              ..  1211 

Pavilion  on  Adam's  Peak..  1212 

Priests  and  pilgrims            ..  1212 

The  Temple  at   Kandy       ..  1213 

Tamil  Snake  Charmers      ..  1214 

Cutting  and  Polishing  Gems  1214 

Rock  Veddas  as  Archers   .  .  1215 

Savages  of  Eastern  Ceylon  1216 

Pages   in    Photogravure  (contd.) 

Chilean   Characters 

Estanciero  of  Chile  . .  . .  1265 

Horses  in  the   Andine  Hills  1266 

Estancia   Employees  ..  1266 

Santiago  Street  Scene  ..  1267 

Dancing  the' Cueca  ..  1267 

Araucanian  Cacique  ..  1268 

A   Chilean's  Drink  ..  ..  1269 

Typical  Chilean  Landscape  1270 

Chile's  Orchard  Lands  ..  1271 

The  Topeadura        ..  ..  1272 

Chinese   Life 

A  Tientsin  Street    ..  ..  1321 

Boatmen  on  West  Lake  ..  1322 

In   a   Yang-tse    Gorge  ..  1322 

Chinese  Tilt-cart      ..  ..  1323 

Peking's  Telegraph  Poles  ..  1323 

Chinese  Skipper       ..  ..  1324 

Blind  Musician         .'  ..  1325 

Bride  and  Groom    ..  .-  1326 

Using  the  Chopsticks  ..  1327 

3ritish   Empire   in   Asia 

Correct    Use   of   Jambiah    ..  785 

Somali  Messenger,    x\den    ..  786 

Hindu  Barber   at   Work      ..  787 

Mahomedan  Feast,  Aden   ..  783 

Escort  of   Holy   Carpet       .  .  789 

Festive   Amusements            .  .  79° 

'    Primitive   "  Big-Wheel  "    .  .  791 

Itinerant  Dancers,   Aden    .  .  792 

Somali  Housewife  Smoking  793 

Bodyguard  of  Sultan            .  .  794 

Camels  with  Brushwood     ..  795 

Arab  Treadmill  for  Threshing  795 

Jail-birds  of  Lahej               ..  796 

Jewish  Sweetmeat  Seller    ..  797 

Pipers  of  Lahej       ..          .  ■  79s 

A  Main  Street  of  Lahej       ..  799 

Davaks  off  to  the  Wedding  800 

Sea  Dayak's  Embroidery    ..  Sor 

Klemantan    of    Baram          ..  802 

Pure-bred   Kenyan               ..  802 

Ornaments  of  Pagan  Tribes  803 

Savages  as  Parlementaires.  .  804 
Children    of    Mountain    and 

Forest  .  .  -  -  -  ■  80,5 
Punans  of  the  Jungle  Lands  806 
Beauties  of  Kalabit  Tribe.  .  807 
Kayan  Women  in  Rice  Field  808 
Harvest  Merry-making  ..  809 
Village  Smithy  in  Sarawak  810 
Bellows  from  Palm  Stems.  .  810 
Davaks  and  Cocking-main .  .  811 
Kavan  Wrestlers  ..  ..  811 
Conference  at  Claudetown  .  .  812 
Kavans  Splitting  Rattans.  .  813 
Davak  Belle's  Brass  „  .  814 
Hints  of  Departing  Youth  .  .  815 
Kajaman  Ladv  of  Quality.  .  816 
Proud  of  his  Escutcheon  ..  833 
Divination  from  Birds  .  .  834 
Victors'  Dance  of  Triumph  S35 
Kavan  Long  House  .  .  836 
Klemantan  Apartment  .  .  S37 
Ghastly  Khavan  War  Trophies  838 
Preventive  Measures  of  Ken- 
yans . .  ,  ..  . .  839 
Kenvahs  Consulting  Auspices  840 
Charging  Pig  with  Message  841 
Youthful  Basket  Makers  .  .  842 
Dragon  Boat  Festival  .  .  844 
Able-bodied  Burden  Bearers  846 
Chinese  Punch-and-Judy  .  .  S47 
Chinese  Quarter,  Singapore  848 
Engaging  Malay  Girl  .  .  849 
Wandering  Minstrel,  Malay  S50 
Malay  Group,  Singapore  ..  851 
Female  Impersonator  ..  852 
Little  Maiden  of  Malay  ..  853 
Chinese  Rubber-tapper  ..  854 
Malay  Girl  Workers  ..  .  855 
Workers  on  Rnbber  Estate  856 
Indian  Emigrants  in  Malaya  857 
Among  the  Pepper  Vines.  .  S58 
Champion  Coconut  Trees  859 
Rattan  Drying  Ground  . .  860 
Preparing  Rattans  ..  861 
Shrine  at  Penang  ..  ..  862 
Betel  Nut   Palms     ..           ..  863 

Christian  Bride  of  Hangchow  1327 

The   Younger   Generation  .  .  1328 

Chinese  Scenes 

Gentleman  of  Shanghai      ..  1393 

High  Priest  of  the  Temple. .  1394 

Lama   Turning  Mill               ..  1394 

Burning  Joss-sticks              ..  1395 

Chinese  Sword-swalknver  ..  1396 

Street  Acrobats        ..           ..  i39» 

Monks. of.  PuTo     ..           ..  1397 

Yang-tse  Landmark              ..  1398 

Monastery  of  Kiangsu        ..  1399 

A  Chinese  Grandmother     ..  1400 

Contentment  Incarnate      ..  1401 

Honan  Examination  Hall..  1402 

Lung-hua  Temple,  Shanghai  1403 

Strings   of  Camels   ..           ..  1404 

Camel  Caravan  from  Siberia  1404 

Tea  in  the  Garden              ..  1405 

Orphans   of   Changsha          .  .  1405 

Necropolis  at   Tientsin        . .  1406 

Photographs  in  the   Text 

Fruits  on  their  Wray  to  Market  864 

Sakai  Nose  Pipers                .  .  865 

Gathering  Bread  from  Tree  866 

When  the  Durian  Ripens   .  .  867 

■     Bride   and   Maids      ..            ..  868 

Sarong  Clad  Malav  Girls    . .  869 

Return  of   the  Spoilers       ..  870 

Tilling  the  Soil 871 

Stately  Malay  Dance         .  .  871 

Chinese  Coolies  Tin  Mining  872 

Working  a  Pump  on  Mine..  873 

Tin   Miners   at    Perak            .  .  S73 

Chinese  Method  of  Smelting  874 

Chinese  Women  Tin  Washers  875 

Nurturing  Tapioca  Plant    .  .  876 

Converting  Poisonous  Roots  876 

Sifting  Tapioca  Starch       .  .  877 

Tapioca  in  Finished  State.  .  877 

Wild  Men  of  the   Woods    .  .  878 

Sturdy  Wives  of  Pygmy  Race  879 

Malay  House  on   Piles        ..  880 

Country  Cookhouse              ..  881 

Equipped  for  Chase             .  .  882 

Sakais  of  Malaya    .  .           .  .  883 

Native  Village  on   Piles    .  .  884 

Creek  Dwellers'  Architecture  885 

Collecting  from  Toddy  Palm  886 

Simple  Life  in  Malay  Village  887 

With  Silver  Spoons  in  Mouth  888 

Nuts  for  Sale  in   Kajang    .  .  S93 

British  Empire  in  Australasia 
and   Oceania 

Men's  House,  New  Guinea  .  .  896 

Papuan  Dancer's  Headdress  S97 

On  the  Threshold  of  Manhood  898 

Dukduks  in  Lodge  Dress   ,.  899 

Papuan  Baby's  Cradle        ..  900 

A  "World-wide  Pastime      •. .  901 

Young  Ladies  of   Rigo       .  .  902 

Delegates  to  Conference    ..  9°3 

Trappings  of   Woe  .  .           . .  904 

Orokaiva  Women's  Pipe    ..  905 

Ringleted  Babiri  Bowman.  .  906 

Papuans'    Ceremonial    Dress  907 

Warriors  of  West  New  Guinea  908 
Captain  of  Cannibal  Company      909 

Hempen  Halter  of  Mourning  910 

Dobu  Chief  and  Wife           ..  911 

Headdress,  New  Guinea      ..  912 

Jewelled  Dandv  of  Papua..  912 

Melanesian   Musician            ..  913 

Admiraltv  Island  Village   ..  914 

Melanesian  Sailing  Canoe   .  .  915 

Islanders'  Sacred  Canoe     ..  916 

Making  Palm:  Leaf'  Mats  ..  916 

Admiralty  Islanders             . .  917 

Fish  Trap,  New  Britain       .  .  917 

Pigeon   Dance  on   Marbuiay  918 

Women  of  Rambuzo           .  .  gig 

Dressed  for   a    Dance           .  .  920 

Men  of   Malayta       ..           ..  921 

Idols  of   Ong  Tong  Java.,.  922 

Bowing  Idois  to  Sea           .  .  922 

War-Dance   in   Solomons    .  .  923 

Critical  Moment  in  the  Dance  923 

"  Court  House  "   at  Aola    .  .  924 

House   in    Rubiana    Lagoon  925 

Cemetery  at  Fengtu-hsien.  .  1406 

Street  in    Kiu-kiang              ..  i4°7 

Native  Quarter  of  Hankau  1408 


Carpathian  Wayside  Shrine  1521 
Girl  of  Czechoslovakia  ..  1522 
■  Girl  in  National  Costume..  1523 
Slovak  Mother  at  Work  . .  1524 
Sheepskins  in  a  Market  ..  1525 
Slovak  Mother  and  Child  . .  1526 
Homely  Peasant  Group  ..  1527 
Rnthenians'  Sheepskin  Cos- 
tumes . .  . .  ■  •  1528 
Carpathian  Peasants  ..  1529 
Moravian      and      Slovakian 

Costumes 153° 

Costume-of  Czechoslovak  Girl  153- 

Carpathian  Shepherds         ..  1532 

Saint's  Day  in  Slovak  Village  1533 

A   Ruthenian  Sabbath        ..  1534 

A  Slovak   Yokel       ..           ..  1535 

In  her   Grandam's   Costume  1536 

Hottest  Island  in  Melanesia  925 

Benign    Warrior       .  .           .  .  926 

After  the  Battle      ..           ..  927 

Youths  of  Bnka  Island       .  .  928 

Powder  and  Paint  on  Simbo  929 

Head-Hunters  in  War  Canoe  930 

Spearing  Fish            .  .           .  .  931 

Cages  for  Catching  Fish     .  .  931 

Awaiting    Warriors'   Return  932 

Fishermen  of  Ong  Tong  Java  933 

Profession  of  his  Ancestors  934 

Paddling  her  Own   Canoe..  935 

Salt    Water   Traders              ..  935 

Cemetery  in  Ong  Tong  Java  936 

Image-Carver  and  his   work  937 

Moving  Grove  of  Dancers..  938 

Playground  of  the  Gods     .  .  939 

Contentment  in  Santa  Cruz  940 

Beginning  a  War  Dance    .  .  941 

.  Fijian's  Mop  of  Hair          ..  942 

Fijian   Musician        .  .           .  .  942 

Fijian  Girl  Before  her  Mirror  943 

Fighter  of   Malayta              .  .  944 

Natives   Preparing  Feast    .  .  961 

Evolution  of  South  Sea  Dress  962 

Effects  of  Civilization          . .  963 

Supporters    of    British  Law  964 

Nauru  Police  at  Drill          . .  964 

Costumes  of  Peace  and  War  965 

Ballerina  of  Nauru  Island.  .  966 

Participants  in  Fish  Dance  967 

Chief  of  Friendly  Islanders  968 

Civilization's  Stamp  in  Tonga  969 

.Hauling  Dug-outs  Ashore..  970 

In  the  Shade  of  the  Canoe  971 

Tonga  Girls'  Hand  Orchestra  972 

Chief's  Badge  of  Office      ..  975 

3ritish-  Empire  in  Europe 

Swearing  In  Officials          ..  976 

Guernsey  Milkmaid              .  .  g77 

States  of   Guernsey              ..  978 

1  Frills  and  Flounces             .  .  979 

Harvesting  Sea's  Refuse    ..  980 

Collectors  of  Seawrack        .  .  980 

One  of  Guernsey's  Best      .  .  981 

Potato  Cultivation,  Jersey  982 

Planting    Potatoes  by  Hand  982 

Human    Plough  Team          ..  983 

Potatoes  Packed  for  Export  9S3 

Gathering  Early  Tomatoes  984 

Jersey  Chrysanthemum  Field  984 

Glasshouse'  of  Arum  Lilies  .  .  985 

Narcissi  Growing  in  Guernsey  985 

Charm  of  Channel  Islands. .  986 

Milkmaids  of  Jersey            ..  987 

Milking  Hour,   Jersey         ..  987 

Rock  of  Gibraltar  ..          '..  98§ 

Gate  of  the  Mediterranean  991 

On  Valletta's  Stairways      .,  992 

Proud  of  her  Hood             ..  993 

Little  Black  Riding  Hood.  .  994 

Country  Fair  Sweet  Stall..  995 

Children  Making  Lace        ..  996 

Maltese  Lacemakers            .  .  997 

In  Old-world  Birchicara     ..  998 

Gossips  of   Valletta              .  .  999 

Unique  Religious  Festival..  1000 

Photographs  in  the  Text  (contd.) 

Praise  and  Worship  . .  iooi 

Happy   Young  Cypriots      .  .  1003 

Slippered  Ease  upon  an  Ass  1004 

Greek-Cypriot's   Plough      .  .  1005 

Bringing  Forage  to  Market  1006 


Milk-women  outside  Sofia..  100S 

Beauty    of    the  South  .  .  1009 

Fording  Rivers  near  Sofia.  .  1010 

Country  Cousins  in  Sofia    .  .  1011 

Health  and  Happiness       .  .  1012 

Folk    of    '"'Peasant    State"  1012 

Natives  of   Belogradchik    ..  1013 

Primitive    Baby-carrying    ..  1013 

urientalism  in    Bulgaria     .  .  1014 

Bride's  Floral  Mask  ..  1015 

Radiant  May  Queens  ..  1016 

Oasis  in  the  Desert  ..  1017 

Remnant  of  Ottoman   Rule  1017 

Taste   and    Grace      .  .  .  .  1018 

Bootblack   in    Sofia..  ..  1019 

Rose-gatherers  of  Kazanlik  1020 

Ruinelian    Rose   Farm         .  .  1021 

Rose  Maidens  of  Rumelia  .  .  102  1 

Shoeing  Transport    Ox         .  .  1022 

Gatherers  of  the  Grape      .  .  1023 

Summer   Scene  .  .  .  .  1023 

Dancing  the  Hor6  ..  1034 

Soldiers  and  Civilians  Dance  1035 

The  Village  "  Pope"  ..  1036 

Retreat  of  John  of  Ryl      .  .  1037 

Brethren  of  "  Black  Clergy  "  1038 

Members   of   a   Sisterhood..  1039 


At    Prayers    .  .  _  .  .  ..  1044 

Princess   Nicotine     ..  ..  1045 

"  AWhacking  White  Cheroot"  1046 

Gentlewomanly    Grace  .  .  1046 

Pillars  of   Mirror    Mosaic    .  .  1047 

Middle-class  Burmese  ..  104  8 

Temptation  in  the  Temple  1049 

Chiniom  Champions  .  .  1050 

Burmese     Marionette     Pwe  1051 

A    Pas-de-Quatre      ..  ..  1052 

Business  in  Bhamo  Bazaar  1053 

Old  Age  and  Childhood      .  .  1054 

Hauling  Timber       .  .  .  .  1054 

Taking^Baggage  to  the  Hills  1055 

"  Lads-go-courting  Time  "  1055 

Buddhist   Monastery  ..  10^6 

Initiation   of  a    Ko-yin         ..  1057 

Consecration  of  Pagoda  Spire  1058 

Buddhist  Monastery  School  1059 

Burmese   Fruit   Sellers         .  .  1059 

Order  of  the  Yellow  Robe.  .  1060 

Alms  the  Vehicles  of  Prayer  1061 

i.ahoi    Villagers         .  .  .  .  1062 

Padaung  Women's  Sangfroid  1063 

Padaungs  at   Home  .  .  1064 

Padaung  Village  Life  .  .  1065 

Well-to-do  Padaung  Family  1066 

Speeding  a  Parting  Soul    .  .  1067 

Camera-shy  Bra   Girls         ..  1068 

White   Karen  Women         ..  1069 

Taungyos  of   the  Mvelat    ..  1070 

Dwellers    of    the    Bre    Hills  1071 

Akha   Dancing  Girls  ..  1072 

Soldierly    Little   Women      ..  1073 

Simple  Life  in  Shan  States  1074 

Dance  of  the  Padaungs       .  .  1075 

Water  Festival,  Yawnghwe  1076 

Intha    Watermen      ..  ..  1077 

Yawnghwe   State    Barge     ..  1077 

Intha    Leg-paddlers  ..  1078 

Transport  of  Golden  Images  1079 

Seven  Worthy  Hill  Folk    ..  1080 

Ungainly   Womanhood        ..  10S1 

Three  Taungthu   Graces     .  .  1082 

Tassel-turbaned  Taungthus  1083 

Survivals  of  the  La'hu        ..  1084 

Karen   Bachelors      ..  ..  1085 

Red   Karens  of  the  Hills    ..  1086 

Palaung  Frocks  and  Frills  10S7 

Rehearsing  for    Festival      ..  108S 


Coronation   Ceremonv         ..  1092 

Under  the  State  Umbrella.  .  1094 

Westernised  Cambodian    .  ,  1095 

Head  Mistress  of  Ballet       ..  1096 

An   Easv-going  Garment    ..  1105 

Making  Roval  Resting  Place  1106 

Flonouring  the  late   King   ..  1107 

Venerable  Apostle  of  Buddha 
Bonze's  Grotesque    Pulpit.. 
Pictv  at  a  Buddhist  Shrine 
High   Priest  of  Buddha      .  . 
Up-to-date  Styles 
At  the  Midday  Meal 
Men    of    French  Indo-China 
Hour  of   Recreation 
Cambodian  Dancers 
Fencing   Instructress 
Cambodian  Funeral  Rites.. 
Water  Fete  on  Mekong 
Fisherman's   Home.. 
Corner   of   Cambodia 


On  Trail  in  the  Rockies 
Chief  Solace  of  Red  Indian 
Pulsing  Heart  of  Montreal.  . 
'Market  Day,   Montreal 
Glimpse  of  Winter  Life     .  . 
Montreal's  Ice   Palace 
Variants  of  Norway's  Ski  . . 
Familiar    Winter  Scenes      .  . 
Tobogganing  in   Quebec      .  . 
Ski-ing   on    the  Slopes 
Outdoor    Oven,    Quebec 
French-Canadian  Lumbermen 
Harvest  Time  in  Alberta   . . 
Old   Habitant  of  Quebec  .. 
Sport    on    Rainy   Lake 
In  a  Canadian  Canoe 
Fording  the  Pipestone 
Still  Waters  Run  Deep      .  . 
Gardener  of  British  Columbia 
Out-size  in  Giant  Cabbages 
Tapping  the  Sugar  Maple.  . 
Purifying  the  Maple  Sugar 
Completion  of  Purifying     . . 
From   Small    Beginnings     .  . 
A    "  Building   Bee  " 
Cherry  Pickers  of  Annapolis 
Lords   of    the    Lariat 
Backwoods   Christmas 
Logging   Railway 
Calgarv  Cattle  Dip 
Unloading  the  Herring  Catch 
Collecting  the  Potato  Crop 
Barriers  against  Winter  Snows 
Mountain   Health   Resort  .  , 
Prospector  on  Mountain  Trail 
Tourists'     Pleasure     Ground 
Camp   in    Forest   Park 
Making  a  Portage,  Manitoba 
John  Henry  of  Fort  Garry 
Chief  Ben   Charles 
Old     Stoney     Indians 
Indians   of    the   Yukon 
Dark-hued  Nimrod 
Farewell    to    the  Brave 
Braves  and  Medicine  Men.. 
Burdens  on   Mothers'  Backs 
Blackfeet  Family  at  Home 
Prize  Papooses 
Stoney   Indians  in  Banff   .  . 
Chippeway  Indian  Family.  . 
Patwawantin,  an  Ojibway  .  . 
Kootenay  Indians 
Archers  at  Target  Practice 
Disciple  of  New  Civilization 
Safe  Perch  on  Mother's  Back 
Vancouver  Island  Cradle    .  . 
Comox  Indians'  Totems      .  . 
Regalia  of  Columbian  Indian 
Peaceful  One-time  Savages 
Kinnewankan,  Chief  of  Sioux 
Round    the   Log   Fire 
The  Great  Divide 
Courage  Triumphant 


Tamils'  Tambourine  Dance 
Exorcists  of  Devils 
High  Caste  Tamil  Women.  . 
Dress      of      Kandyan     Chiefs 
Sinhalese  Sportsman 
Tamil    Chicken-Vendor 
Light  but  Sturdy   Craft      .  . 
Commerce    on    the    Kelani .  . 
Grace  in    the   Field 
Trio  of  Tamil  Tea-pickers.  . 
Picking  the  "  Golden  Tip  " 
Planting  the  Tea  Shrub 

1 1 09 
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11 25 

1 1 29 

1 1 30 

1 1 31 
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115  7 
1 1 59 

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1 1 64 
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1 1 74 

1 1 78 

1 1 79 
1 1 8  o 
1 184 



Plucking  the  Raw  Material  1204 

Withering  Green  Tea    Leaf  1205 

Liberating   the  Juices  ..  1205 

Fermentation  Process  . .  1206 

Sifting  the  Tea        .  .  .  .  1206 

Storing  the  Different  Grades  1207 

The   Finished   Article  ..  1207 

Relic  of  Demon  Worship    ..  1208 

Fine  Type  of  the  Moormen  1217 

NativeLife  on  Country  Road  1218 

Village  Scene  .  .  .  .  1219 

The  Old  Order  and  New    ..  1220 

Blithe  Maidenhood  in  Ceylon  1221 

Highland  Beauty  Unadorned  1221 

Beating  Plumbago  .  .  .  .  1222 

Sifting  the  Crushed  Graphite  1222 

Lace-making  ..  ..  1223 

Extracting  Oil  from  Coconuts  1223 

Sinhalese  Caravan  ..  ..  1224 

Slow  Method  of  Travelling  1224 
Sacred  Stone  Effigies          ..    .1225 

Where  Buddha  Sleeps        ..  1225 

Faithful  Followers  of  Buddha  1226 

Fruit  of  the  Jack  Tree        .  .  1227 

Women    Worshippers  ..  1228 

Temple   Elephant     ..  ..  123a 


Santiago's   Promenade        ..  1232 

One  of  the  Carabineros      ..  1233 

Wearing  the  Chilean   Manto  1234 

Street   Deportment   in    Chile  1235 

Returning  from  Church       .  .  1235 

Planting  Memorial  Tree     .  .  1237 

Santiago  Girls  Study  Botany  1237 

Religious   Ceremony  ..  1238 

Army  Review,  Cousino  Park  1239 

Cats'  Meat  Man  in  Santiago  1240 

Smart    and   Soldierly  .  .  1240 

Woman   Tram-conductor    .  .  1241 

Chilean   Officers        .  .  .  .  1242 

Public  Speaking  in  Chile    .  .  1242 

Chilean  Capataz       .  .  .  .  1243 

Water   Transport      .  .  .  .  1243 

Chilean    Nitrate    Field  ..  1244 

After  Blasting  the  Soil      ..  1245 

Working  Nitrate  Crushers..  1246 

Where  Nitrate  is   Boiled    .  .  1247 

Drawing  Caliche  from  Tanks  1248 

"Emptying  Crystallizing  Pans  ±249 

Nitrate  Works  ..  ..  1249 

Sons   of   Chile  .  .  .  .  1251 

Children. of  Mining  Centre.  .  1251 

Bv   Winding  Waters  .  .  1252 

Bringing  the  Harvest  Home  1253 

Four  "-legged  Milk    Carriers..  1254 

Crowded  Docks  of  Valparaiso  1254 

Elevator   in   Valparaiso       .  .  1255 

Carrying  Beer  in  Valparaiso  1256 

A    Valparaiso   Baker  .  .  1257 

Enjoying  the  Open    Air       ..  1258 

Three    Belles    of  Santiago..  1259 

Chilean   "  Arrieros  "  ..  1260 

Taking  up   Meat  Supply    .  .  1261 

Spring  Time  among  Colonists  1262 

Wavside  Calvary     .  .  .  .  1263 

"  Topeaduras  "         .  .  . .  1273 

Ranchero's  al  fresco  Meal..  1274 

Homes    of     Native    Indians  1275 

Readv  for  a   Rodeo  .  .  1276 

Weaving  Winter  Clothing..  1278 

Juan   Fernandez  Island      ..  1279 

Easter    Island  .  .  .  .  1279 

Araucanian  Woman  Weaving     1280 

Araucanian   Woman  ..  1281 

Tehuelche  Indians  .,  .,  1283 

Nimrod  of   the   Pampas       .  .  1284 

Men  of  Large-footed  Tribe. ,  1285 

Chilean  Government  .School  1286 


Temple  of  Heaven,   Peking  1290 

Decorous  Dress  of  a  Lady..  1292 

Dame  of  High  Degree        ,  .  1292 
Victim  of  Cruel  Custom     ..   '  1293 

Emancipated  Young  Lady  1293 

Images  and  Puppets  ..  1294 

Pious   Detachment  ..  1295 

Buddhist   Priest   of   Lin   Yin  X296 
Where  no  Woman  raav  Dwell     1297 

Degenerate    Professors         .  .  1297 

Lama  Priests'  Headdresses  1298 

Venerable  Priest  of  Buddha  1299 

Wafting  his  Prayers  ..  1300 

Photographs  in  the  Text  (contd.) 

Smiling  in  Face  of  Adversity 

Mid-autumn  Festival 

On  China's  Greatest  River 

Beggars'   Floating  Home   . . 

Midday  Meal  on  Yang-tse. . 

Sturdy  River  Boatwoman.. 

Floating  Population 

Off  Chusan  Archipelago     .  . 

Tall  and  Stately  Argosies.. 

On  Gently  Flowing  River.. 

Washtub  of  Hang-chow 

Boatman  of  Yang-tse 

Drawing  Junk   over   Rapids 

A   Ghastly    Record 

Portable  Stocks 

All  Rags  and  Tatters 

Rich  Young  Widow 

Witnesses    Kneeling 

Missionary  School   ,, 

Eastern  Exponent  of  Euclid 

Chinese  Student 

Wedding  Chair  of  Bride    . . 

Chinese  Wedding  Procession 

Matron   of  Tai   Yuen   Fu    .. 

Giving  his  Pet  an  Airing  . . 

Aged  Father    and  Daughter 

Chinese  Beggar 

Washing  Day 

A  Chinese  Venice 

Coiffure  and  Hat   Combined 

Arms  and   the   Man 

Long-haired  Nosu  Lasses  .. 

Nosu  Market  Village 

Their  Son  and  Heir 

Making  Hay 
Juvenile  Land  Girl 

Baby  Boy  of  China 
Village  Schoolboys 
Young  Diogenes  in  his  Tub 
See  what  I've  Found 
Crying  for  the  Moon 
Youthful   Tricksters 
Minding  his   Manners 
Chinese    Boys    with    Sweets 
Deserves  a  Flea  in  his  Ear 
Shrewd  as  the  Winter  Wind 
Village  Patriarch 
Crowded    Street,    Kiu-Kang 
Cantonese  at  Tea 
An  Afternoon  Stroll 
Consulting  Fortune  Teller. , 
Chinese  Chess  Players 
The  Master's  Voice 
Playing  Dominoes 
Feet  of  Chinese  Woman     .  . 
Western  Influence  at  Work 
Dressing  my  Lady's  Hair.. 
Cormorant   Fishing.. 
Chinese  Fisher  Maid 
Angler  among  Water-lilies 
Chusan  Island  Fisherman.. 
Gambling  for  Sweets 
Playing  a   Trio 
Cantonese  at  Cards 
Street  Acrobats 
A  Juggler  of  Swords 
Member  of  the  Miao  Clan.. 
Aborigines  of  Yun-nan 
Strength  and  Endurance    .. 
Out  after  Wild  Fowl 
A  Street  Quack 
A  Chinese  Doctor 
With  Heavy  Tread  and  Slow 
Rich  Man's  Funeral 
Taoist  Priests  at  Funeral     .  . 
Chinese  Funeral  Pageantry 
Pauper  Hurried  to  his  Grave 
To  his  Final  Resting  Place 
Where  Tired  Porters  Rest. . 
Solid  Cash  and  Paper  Money 
The  Opium  Poppy 
Pumping  Water  by  Ox  Power 
Method   of   Irrigation 
Cheerfulness  on  Treadmill.. 
Ploughing  Rice  Fields 
Work  of  Transplantation   . . 
In   the   Rice   Flats 
Hulling   the  Grain 
Grinding  the  Rice 
Sifting   Rice 
Tientsin  Workshop 
Woman  at  the  Wheel 
Weaving  Warp  and  Woof . . 













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Eggs  of  Yesterdav.. 
Carrying  a  Pig  to' Market.  . 
Gathering  Spinach 
Spaghetti  Drying  in  the  Sun 
Barber  in   Peking 
Shoeing  a  Horse 
A  Chinese  Sawmill 
Hawker  of  Flowers 
A  Slump  in  Trade.. 
Trade  is   Looking-up 
Itinerant  Tinker 
Trundling  Cotton 
Donkeys   at  Work 
A  Peking  Cart 
Engine  and  Chauffeur  too 
Muleteers  and  Mule  Litters 
Factory  Girls  off  to  Work. 
China's  Great  Wall 
The  Bell  Tower,  Peking 
The  Great  Black  Way 
Chinese   Farmers 
Haunt  of  Ancient  Peace 
In  a  Shanghai  Tea  Shop 
A  Temple  Gateway 
Traffic's  Busy  Junction 
Oldest   Observatory 
Quiet   Corner 
Commercial   Enterprise 
Peking  Bazaar 
Young  Chinese  Spinster 
Happy  though   Married 
Eating  with  Chopsticks 
Tea-laden   Coolies    . . 
Vendor  of   Oriental  Delight 
Shelling  Peanuts 
Haggling  over   Prices 
Willow  Pattern  Plate 
Chinese  Women  and  Police 
Soothing  Water-pipe 
Clad  in  Cap  and  Gown 


Scene    in    Aviation    Ground 
Refreshing  Fruit  for   All    .  . 
Loading    tip    the  Boats 
Savouries  for   Epicures 
Champion   Chachafruto 
Inspecting  his  Papaw  Tree 
Pleasing  to  Eye  and  Palate 
Mule  Train  with  Coffee  Beans 
Mountain   Plantation 
Earthenware       in        Bogota 
Officials  of  Law^  Courts 
Young  Gardener's  Prize  Fruit 
Stern- Wheeler  near.,Girardot 
Street  in    Rio  Frio 
Resting  by   the   Roadside.. 
Old  Stone  Fountain 
Cathedral    in    Bogota 
in  Santa  Fe  de  Bogota 
Factory  Girl  of  Bogota 
Toreadors  at  St.  Ana 
Where  Colombians  Meet    . . 

Costa    Rica 

Costa  Rican  Schoolboys     . . 

Sunshine  in  her  Heart 

Talamancan  Thatched  House 

Society  Belles  of  San  Jose 

West   Indian  Negroes 

A   Model  Farm 

Working  the  Salt  Mines     . . 

Chosen  of  the  People 

Good  Pull-up  for  Carters   . . 

Slow   but   Sure 

Gathering   Nuts  Wholesale 

Picking  Coffee  Berries 

Indian  Girls  Grinding  Grain 

Delivering  Vegetables 

Patient   Obedience  .. 

Live  Turkeys  for   Sale 

Smiles  and  Contentment    .  , 

Havana   Pedlar 

Cuban  Baker 

Poulterers  at  Tacdn  Market 

Focus  of  Human  Interest.. 

Tending  Tobacco  Plants    . . 

Rolling  Cigars 

Relief  from  Monotony 

Hanging  up  Tobacco 

"  Sleep  of  a  Labouring  Man" 

Ingenuous   Enjoyment 

An  Ever   Open  Door 

Brought  to  a  Quiet  Haven 


138 1 
141 1 

141 3 
1 4i  5 


1 44  r 
145 1 

1 45  6 

1 48 1 
148 1 
1 48  3 

Where  Charity  Reigns 
Cuban  Sponge  Seller 
Science  and  Sugar 
Reducing  Cane  to  Juice 
Cuban  Milkman 
Delivering  the  Milk 
Shrine  of  Pomona  .  . 
Fruit  Merchant's  Stock 
Cuban   Homestead  .  . 
Cuban  Dancing  Girls 
Down  the  Village  Street 
Draper  on  his  Rounds 
Resting-place  of  Columbus 
A  Company  of  Cadets 
Motor-cycle  Policeman 
Emblem  of  Departed  Might 
Evening   Scene  in  San  Luis 


Ruthenians'  Sunday  Morning 
Maid  of  Slovakia 
Sunday     Dress    in    Postyen 
Slovak   National  Dress     '  . . 
Living  Discobolus 
Grand  Parade  of  Sokols     .  . 
March  of  Women  Sokols    . . 
Sokol   Physical  Drill 
Moravian  Country  Couple.  . 
Welcome  Tenants 
Winter  Snows 
Countryfolk  and  Cobbles  .  . 
Ruthenian  Peasants  Hoeing 
Game  of   War 
Jewish  Sweetmeats 
Lusty  Carpathian  Lads 
Marketing  Country  Wares  . . 
Pigs  and   Peasants 
One  of  the  Olden  School    . . 
Model  Village 
Home  for  the  Aged 
Jewish  Children 
Slovak  Bridal  Headdress     . , 
Sunday   Morning  Scene 
Trio  of    Peasant    Women    .  . 
On  her  Way  to  the  Fields 
Rustic  Yeoman  of  Slovakia 
Water-retting   Hemp 
Preparing  the  Fibre 
During  the  Hemp  Harvest 
Bleiching  the  Material 
Hope  of  the  Young  Republic 
Pair  of  Old  Cronies 
Voluminous  Skirt-trousers . . 
Pleasing  Peasant  Types 
Folk-dancing  in  Prague 
Bohemian   Rhapsody 
Burdens  of  Youth   and   Age 
Rich    Feminine   Apparel 
Mountaineer  or  Buccaneer  ? 
Seasoned  Slovak   Veteran  .  . 
Men  in  National  Dress 
Church-going  Peasants 
Pretty  Young  Gentlewoman 
Peasant  Women  of  Trencin 


European   Fashions 
High  Priest  of  Darkness 
Peaceful   Village  Life 
Art  Serves   Religion 
On  the  Great  North  Road 
Dassazourabe   Villagers 
Dancing  the  Tam-tam 
Youthful    Dahomians 
Natives  Making  Palm-oil 

List  of  Maps 

British    Empire  in   Asia 

British  Empire  in  Australasia 

British   Empire  in   Europe 









Costa   Rica 





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|  PEOPLES    OF  | 



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Their  Life  Today  and 

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ej  ;  EJ 


EJ  By     Our     Foremost     Writers    of 

Travel    Anthropology    &    History  ej 



Illustrated  with   upwards  or   5000  EJ 

U  Photographs,      numerous      Colour  ej 

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Edited  by 

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Pages   1569-2352 

I  Danzig  to  France  1 

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PubKshed  at  THE    FLEETWAY   HOUSE   London  E.C. 



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Photo:  E.  N.  »'•  Siarls, 


Stt  page  1682 

Frontispiece  —  Vol  III 



Descriptive  and  Historical  Chapters 

Danzig.  Herbert   Vivian           .  .  . .  1569 

Denmark  I.  Shaw  Desmond  . .  . .  1575 

II.  /.  A.  Brendan  ..  ■■  1619 

Ecuador  I.  Hamilton  Fyfe    .  .  . .  1625 

II.   C.  R.  Enoch        .  .  .  .  1642 

Egypt  I.   Arthur  Weigall         .  .  .  .  1645 

,,      II.   Capt.R.S.Gwatkin-Williams  1731 

,,    III.   W.  F.  Flinders  Petrie  .  .  1743 

England  I.  Hamilton  Fyfe   . .  I757_I973 

II.  A.  D.  Innes       .  .  ■  ■  2001 

Esthonia.  Florence  Farmborough  .  .  2017 

Finland  I.  H.  A.  Milton      ..          .-.  2057 

II.  A.  MacCallum  Scott       ..  2084 

Fiume.  Herbert   Vivian            .  .          .  ■  2°89 

Formosa.  /.  H.  Longford       ..          •  ■  2097 

The  Spirit  of  France.    J.E.C.Bodley  2129 

France  I.   Hamilton  Fyfe        .  .           •  ■  2147 

II.   Winifred  Stephens              ■  ■  2281 

III.  Gabrielle   Vassal  &  Edward 

Wright 2291 

„      IV.  Edward  Wright      «          ...  2346 

List  of  Colour  Plates 

Facing  page 
Denmark  :    Girls  of  Stroma  Island    .  .      1596 
Egypt  :      The    Ever-welcome    Water- 
Seller  1682 

England  :  Fairest  of  Eve's  Daughters     1856 
The  English  Smith  .  .      1928 

Facing  page 

Esthonia  :    An  Esthonian  Bride       . .     2024 

France  :  Flower  of  Normandy  . .     2168 

Fair  Patriot,  Alsace  *-.     2236 

Danish   Life 

Denmark's  Monarch             .  .  1601 

Gathering  in  the  Harvest..  1602 

Zealand's  Lovely  Scenery.  .  1603 

King's  Yacht  in  Regatta   .  .  1604 

White  Sails  of  Yachts        . .  1604 

Street  of  Copenhagen         .  .  1605 

Cottages  of  Hamlet            . .  1606 

Copenhagen's  Theatre         ..  1607 

Girl  in  Eskimo  Costume     . .  1608 

In  Ancient  Egypt 

Great  Pyramid  of  Cheops..  1665 

Inscriptions  at  Medinet  Habu  1666 

Temple   of   Hathor                ..  1667 

Pupils  from  Mission  School  1668 

Cheery  Berberin  Boatmen.  .  r668 

Colossi  of  Memnon              .  .  1669 

Pyramid  of   Khafra             . .  1669 

Temple  of  Amnion               .  .  1670 

Native  Argosies       . .          . .  1671 

Felucca  on  the  Nile           ..  1672 

Modern  Egyptians 

From  the  Mokattam  Heights  1713 

Rickety    Port    Said    Homes  1714 

Booksellers'  Row  of  Cairo.  .  1715 

Arab  Cafe  at   Esneh            .  .  1716 

The  Tent-makers' Bazaar.  .  1717 

Learning's  Ever-open  Door  171 8 

Sunny  Court  of  El-Merdani  1719 

Eastern  Street  Glamour    ..  1720 

Near  the  Wezir   Gate          ..  1721 

Seller  of  Sweet  Herbs        .  .  1722 

Cairo's  Native  Quarter       .  .  1723 

Old  Cairo  Cookshop-keeper  1724 

At  Eventide              .  .           .  .  1725 

Cairo  Cobbler's  Shop          ..  1726 

Turkish  Bazaar       . .          . .  1727 

An  Egyptian  Mother         ..  1728 

Rural  England 

At  Her  Churn          . .          . .  1809 

In  the  Stackyard    . .           . .  1810 

Pause  in  the  Forenoon  Toil  181 1 

Girls  Stooking  Oats             ..  1812 

Pages  in  Photogravure 

Reaper  and  Binder              ..  181 3 

Where  Old  Methods  Prevail  1813 

Village  Cobbler  of  Wigmore  18 14 

A  Shropshire  Lad  .  .           .  .  1815 

Edge  of  Portland  Bill          .  .  1816 

On   North   Devon  Coast     .  .  1817 

In  Quest  of  Tobacco          ..  1818 

Darby  and    Toan      .  .           .  .  1819 

After  a  Day's  Hay-making  1820 

Worcestershire  Connoisseurs  1821 

Village  of  Luccombe          . .  1822 

At  Foot  of  Exmoor           . .  1823 

Fittleworth  in  Sussex         . .  1824 

Scenes  of  London  Life 

On  Ludgate  Hill     . .          . .  1937 

Within  Sound  of  Bow  Bells  1938 

Old  Lady  of  Threadneedle  St.  1939 

Royal  Courts  of  Justice    . .  1940 

Trafalgar  Square     ..           ..  1941 

In   the   Fish   Market             .  .  1942 

At  Covent   Garden               ..  1943 

Staple  Inn    .  .           ..           ..  1944 

Lincoln's   Inn  Fields            . .  1945 

Newspaper  Vendor              ..  1946 

Street  Hawker         .  .          . .  1947 

"  By  your  leave,  please  !  "  1948 

Willing  for  Service              .  .  1949 

Scarlet-coated  Pensioners  . .  1950 

Gateway  to  Citv     ..           ..  I951 

In  Rotten  Row       .  .          . .  1952 

esthonians  in  sunshine  and 

With    Rake  and  Sickle       .  .  2049 

Building  the   Rick  ..           ..  2050 

Hav-makers'   Midday  Meal  2050 

In   Winter  Clothing              ..  2051 

Esthonia's  National  Dress . .  2052 

Finnish  Folk 

Queen  of  Song         ..          ..  2053 

Mussel-fishing  at  Viborg     .  .  2054 

Clearing  the  Ground          . .  2055 

Finnish    Bridge         .  .           .  .  2056 

Formosa's  Hill  Folk 

Atayal  Women         .  .           .  .  2105 

Sleuth-hounds  of  the  Chase  2106 

Atayal  Domestic  Equipment  2107 

Girl  of  Atayal  Tribe           ..  2108 

Young  Atayal  Man              ..  2109 

Formosan  Mountain  Home  2rio 

Formosan  Village    ..          ..  2111 

Hill  Folks'  Watch-tower   ..  2112 

France  To-Day 

Entering  Church      .  .           .  .  2193 

On  Rouen's  Quay  ..          ..  2194 

Milkmaid,  Caudebec-en-Caux  2195 

Costumes  of  Finistere        ..  2196 

Bretons'  Festal  Attire       . .  2197 

Breton  Sabot-maker            . .  2198 

Wielding  the  Distaff           . .  2199 

A  Breton  Baby        ..           ..  2200 

"  His  Onlv  Vice"  .  .           ..  2201 

Carnival  Time          .  .           .  .  2202 

Bv  his  Stone  House           .  .  2203 

Fisherwomen,  Berck-sur-Mer  2204 

Prawn  Fishers,  Dieppe       .  .  2205 

Girl  of   Douarnenez              .  .  2206 

A  Rustic  Spring     . .          . .  2207 

Breton  Crab  Seekers           .  .  2207 

Breton  Washerwomen        . .  2208 

Peasants  of  North  and  South 

Wrinkled  and  Toothless    .  .  2257 

With  Distaff  and  Spindle  2258 

Peasant  of  Auvergne          .  .  2259 

Native  of  Bourbonnais      .  .  2260 

Bourbonnaise  Fashions       .  .  2261 

Fountain  of  Villefranche   .  .  2262 

House-mates  and  Friends  2263 

A  Mild  Flirtation   . .          . .  2264 

Square,   Puget-Theniers      .  .  2265 

Plucking  Oysters,  Arcachon  2266 

Stilts  in  the  Landes           . .  2267 

Wagons  of  Le  Mont  Dole.  .  2268 

Using  Wheelless  Ploughs  . .  226S 

Italian  Frontier  Mark         .  .  2269 

Born  and  Bred  French      .  .  2270 

Marketing  in  Alsace            .  .  2271 

Scouring  her  Linen              .  .  2272 

Photographs  in  the   Text 


Paired  for  Bridal  Dance  ..  1571 

Modern  Danzig  Enterprise. .  1572 

Ancient   Ornament  Doomed  1573 

Jump  for   Herrings  ..  1574 


Argus-eyed   Sentinel  ..  *575 

Cycle  Traffic,  Copenhagen  . .  1576 

Packing  the  Chief  Export.  .  1577 

Copenhagen's  Public  Market  r578 

In   Kongens   Nvtorv  .  .  1579 

Popular  Fish  Market  ..  1581 

Merry  Girl  Graduates  ..  1582 

Members  of   Royal  Ballet..  1583 

Homely  Styles  of  Dress      .  .  1584 

Posy  of  Human  Flowers    ..  1585 
Members  of   Rowing  Club..   .  1586 

Swimming  Contest  ..  1587 

Anglo-Danish  Football       ..  15S8 

On  the  Course  at  Ordrup..  1588 

Sons  of  Vikings       ..  ..  i58q 

Girl  Scouts  Awheel  ..  1589 

Roval   Porcelain   Works      ..  1590 

At 'the  Potter's  Wheel        ..  1591 

Casting  a   Large  Vase         „ .  1592 

Potter   Making  Plates         ..  1592 

Women  Artists  at  Work  ..  1593 

The  Decorative  Touch       ..  1593 

At  Work  in  His  Studio      ..  1594 

In    the   Dipping.  House        ..  1595 

Couple  in  Farecse  Costume  r5g6 

Yeomen  and  Farm.  Girls  ..  i?97 

Celebrating  May-day  ..  1598 

Girls  of   Faroe  Islands"       .  .  1599 

Flower-seller,  Copenhagen..  1600 

Small   Eskimo  Lads  ..  1609 

In  Her  Kitchen       . .  . .  1610 

Eskimo  Hunter  and  Wife..  1611 

Winter  Quarters      ..  ..  1612 

Eskimo   Baby   Buntings     ..  1613 

Umiak  Maimed  by  Women  1614 

Umiaks  and   Kayaks  ..  1-615 

Members  of  a  Settlement   .  .  1616 

Arctic  Seamen  .  .       _    .  .  1617 

Country  Corner  in  Slesvig..  161S 

Jivaro.  Hunter's  Blowpipe. .  1624 

"Celebrating  a  Fiesta  ..  1626 

Ecuadorian  Angels..  ..  1627 

Pichincha  Commanding  Quito  1628 

Sun-heated  Bath  Water      ..  1629 

Burden-bearers  of  Ecuador  1630 

Their  Midday   Meal  ..  1631 

Wisdom  Battens  on  Folly   . .  1632 

"Promising  Native  Students  1633 

Ever-busy  Worker  .  .  1634 

Content  with-Simple  Tools  1634 

Spinsters — Married  and  Single  1635 

Boatloads   of    Bananas         .  .  1636 

Indian  Domesticity  ..  1637 

Going  Out  with  Mother      ..  1638 

In  Native  Homespun  ..  1639 

Study  of  Jivaro  Physique..  1640 

A  Head-hunter         ..  ..  1641 

His   Prized   Possession         ..  1641 

Exchanging  Greetings         ,.  1644 

Devotee  of  Islam    ..  ..  1645 

Dragoman  or   Guide  .  .  1646 

Vendor  of  Sweet  Waters    ..  1646 

Country  Cousins  in  Town,.  1647 

Native"  Omnibus  "  .  .  1647 

Blending  East  with  West..  1648 

Runners  Clearing  the   Road  1649 

Camel  Carriage  of  Cairo     .  .  1649 

"  Good  Donkeys,   Sir  !  "     . .  1650 

By  the  Sacred  Lake  ..  1650 

Trustful   Youth         ..  ,.  1651 

Refreshment  . .  . .  I&$i 

Portable  Marionette  Show. .  1652 

Moslem  Funeral  at  Cairo  1653 

Arab   Funeral   Procession  .  .  1653 

Arab  Wedding  in  Egypt   ..  1654 

Bride's   Cavalcade 

Pilgrimage  to   Mecca 

Display  and  Devotion 

Mahmal  and  Holy  Carpet.. 

Parade  of  the  Mahmal 

Wayside  Cafe-keeper 

Age  Seeking  Youth's  Aid.. 

Cairo  Grocer's  Shop 

Sweet  and   Pensive 

European   Influence 

Young    Life    and     Old    In- 

Hoisting  their   Sail.. 

The  Age  of   Innocence 

First  Lessons  in  Arabic     . . 

Serving-maid  at  Well 

Arab   Tinsmith's  Shop 

Plyng  Needle  and  Thread.  . 

In  a   Village  Street 

Refilling  Goatskins 

In  the  Name  of  Allah 

Sellers  of   Beads 

Moslem    Women   in    Native 

Wearing  the  Face  Veil 

Glimpses        of        Feminine 

"  New   Women  "   in  Cairo 

Students  in  Ancient  Mosque 

Mahomedan  School  at  Esneh 

Small  Girl  Graduates 

Farmers'    Motive   Power     . . 

Fcllabin  Sifting  Grain 

Following  his   Plough 

Ploughing  by  the  Nile 

Irrigation  in   Egypt 

Working  the  Tabut 

Fashioning  Spiral   Pump    . . 

Irrigation         Canal         near 

Winding  his  Twine 

Improvement  on  the  Shaduf 

In  Gizeh's  Cloth  Market    . . 

Market  at  Assuan 

Meat   Market,    Bedrashein.. 

Water-carriers'  Kerosene  Tins 

Replenishing   Goatskins 

Children   of   Karnak 

"  Linked  Sweetness  " 

Peaceful  Scene,  Tel-el- Kebir 

Arab  Sweetmeat  Makers    . . 

Vision  of  Grace  and  Charm 

Nile  Village  Women 

Amid  Marg's  Palm  Groves  . . 

In  an  Egyptian  Rope  walk .  . 

His  Trick  at  the  Wheel      .  . 

Women   Making  Fuel 

Engrossed  in  their  Toil     . . 

Like  a  Saint  in  a-  Shrine    . . 

Egyptian  Wedgwood  at  Work 

A  Bisharm  Couple 
May  .and   December 

Shaggy-haired  Nomads 

Superman  of  Nubian  Desert 
Modern   Cushites 
Girl  Goatherds 
Arab  Dairymaids'  Churn   . . 
Beaded  Beauty  of  Desert.. 
Enigmatic  as  Egypt 
The  Land  above  Kufra     . . 
Women   of   Zouia  Tribe      .  . 
An  Historic   Industry 
Native  Woman  of   Aujila 
Masked  Tebus  of  Jof 
Meeting  the   Faqruns 
Dwellers   of  the   Desert 
A  Senussi  Stronghold 
Mosque    at    Aujila 
Edge  of  Libyan  Desert 
Zouia  Woman  and  Child   . . 
Vice-Governor  of  Senussi   . . 
Hospitable  Seat  of  Learning 
Home  of  the  Zouia  Tribe.. 
Handmaidens  of  the  Dead.  . 
Portico  of  "  Model  "  Theban 

Causeway  to  Cliff  Tomb    . . 
Secret  of  Forty  Centuries.. 
Corner  of  the  Rock  Chamber 
Counting  the  Cattle 



T  67-1 

if  77 
1 6.5  t 




1 69 1 














































Ancient  Carpentry  ..  1748 
Weaving  Establishment  ..  I748 
Miniature  Cattle  ..  ..  1749 
Nobleman's  Slaughterhouse  1749 
In  his  Deck  Cabin  . .  1750 
A  Nile  Travelling-boat  ..  1751 
Granary  of  Ancient  Egypt. .  I751 
Bakers  and  Brewers  ..  I751 
Nautical  Catering  Arrange- 
ments ..  . .  ■■  1752 
Fish  for  Rich  Man's  iable..  1753 

Wessex   Village  Scene         ..  1756 

The  Art  of  Public  Oratory. .  1759 
Where    Roman    Legionaries 

Paced      ..           ..               ..  1761 

Relic  of  a  Dead  Empire    ..  1761 
Descendants     of     Seafaring 

Folk           1765 

"  A  Fine  Hunting  Day  "    .  .  1766 

Otter-hunting,   Wiltshire    ..  1768 

Beagling  in    Kent    ..           ..  1769 

A   Kentish   Garden               ..  tffrt 

Mixed  Doubles  on  River    ..  1772 

Women's   Rowing  Club      ..  1772 

Improving  the  Shining  Hour  1773 

Youth  at  the   Helm            ..  1775 

Schoolgirls  at  Drill              ..  1776 

Royal   Holloway  College    ..  1777 

-The  Library              . .           ..  1777 

Students  of  Cookery           . .  1778 

Domestic  Science  Training  1779 

Motherhood  and   Home      ..  1781 

Knife-grinders,   Dorset        . .  1782 

"  Ride  a  Cock-Horse  "       . .  1782 

Somerset  Children's  Garlands  1783 

Observing  a  Morn  of  May..  1784 

Medieval  "  Hobby-horse  "  . .  1785 

Happiness  in  Sheltered  Cots  1786 

Going  to  School,  Allerford  1787 

Down  Dartmoor  Way         ..  1788 

Clovelly's  Mail  Van             ..  1789 

Cutting  Exmoor  Turf         . .  179° 

Beside  her  Sleeping  Child..  179° 

In   a   Devonshire  Hamlet  ..  179* 

Rolling  the  Devon  Soil      . .  1792 

Outside  the   Lawr  Courts    .  .  1794 
Swearing-in   the  Lord  Chief 

Justice        . .           .  .           . .  1795 

Legal   Luminaries   at   West- 
minster Abbey     ..           ..  1797 

Re-opening  of  Law  Courts  . .  1797 

In   Scarlet  and  Steel           ..  1798 

Old-world  Court  Costume..  1799 

Re-opening  of  Parliament..  1800 

Roll-call  of   Etonians           . .  1802 

The   Famous   Wall  Game  . .  1803 

Eton's  Amateur  Firemen   ..  1804 

Scholars,   Christ's   Hospital  1805 

Off   to   the    Playing  Fields..  1.806 

Harrovians  in  the  "Vaughan"  1807 

Summer  Visitors  to  Oxford  1826 

Mock  Funeral  at  Cambridge  1827 

Historical  Corner,  Oxford..  182S 

The  Cambridge  Backs        .  .  1829 

Eights  Week  at  Oxford      ..  1830 
Oars  and  Cox  of  a  College 

Crew      . .          ..          . .  1831 

Beside  London's   River       . .  1833 

One  of  the  Shoeblack  Brigade  1S34 

Postman  on  his   Round     .  .  1834 

"  Lovely  Carnations  !  "      .  .  1S36 
Pearly  '  King      of      North 

London      .  .           ..           ..  1837 

The  Ice-cream  Merchant    ..  1838 
London  Art  Gallery  for  Man 

in  the  Street        *..           ..  1838 

The  "Swan  Upping  "        ..  1839 
Neighbourliness  at.  Mousehole    1841 

In  the  Cornish   Riviera      . .  1842 

Newlvn's  Narrow  Streets  .  .  1843 

The  Harvest  of  the  Sea      ..  1844 

A  Cornish   Cove       . .           . .  1845 

A  Daffodil   Picker   . .           . .  1845 

Hay  Stacking  in   Kent       ..  1846 

"  Pricking"   the  Sheriffs    ..  1848 

At  the  Ballot  Box..           ..  1849 

Cricket  on  Parliament  Hill  1850 


Photographs  in  the  Text  (contd.) 

Infants'   Musical  Drill         ..  1851 

New  Spirit  in  Education    .  .  1S51 

In  Peter  Pan's  Kingdom   ..  1852 

In  the  Sand  Pit      . .          .  .  1853 

Paddling  in  London  Park.  .  1853 

With  Bucket  and  Spade  , .  1854 

On  Sunny  Sands     . .           .  .  1835 

An  Englishman's  Home     .  .  1857 

Popular  Winter   Pastime   .  .  1858 

Determined  Tackling          ..  1859 

A  "Tussle"  in  Progress    ..  1859 
Champions    at    Play  at 

Wimbledon            . .          . .  i860 

On  a   Badminton  Court     ..  1861 

King  Cricket        1862 

Scotland's  Game  in  England  1864 

Feminine  Devotees  of  Golf  1865 

Helping  the  Donkey             . .  1866 

Arriving  at  Racecourse     ..  1867 

Friendly   Rivalry     ..           ..  1867 

On  Epsom  Downs   . .           . .  1869 

Rounding  Tattenham  Corner  r87o 

"  Over  the  Sticks  "             . .  1S71 

A  Close  Finish         . .           ..  1871 

Lunch  Between  the  Races. .  1873 

"  Crossing  the  Gypsy's  Hand"  1874 

International  Horse  Show.  .  1875 

"  The- Twelfth  "       ..           ..  1877 

A  Decent  Day's  Sport        ..  1877 

Trim  Racing  Yachts           . .  1878 

Strenuous  Work  on  Deck  .  .  1879 

Mending    their  Sails              ..  1881 

A  Hardy  East   Anglian      ,.  1883 

Signing  on  a  New  Mate      . .  1884 

Sons   of  East  Anglia            . ,  1885 

Launching  the  Lifeboat     .  .  18S7 

Signalling  a   Hit       .  .           ..  188S 

"Woodmen   of   Arden "      . .  1889 

Mixed  Team  at  Stoolball  ..  1890 

Beating  the  Bounds            ..  1891 

In  a  Herefordshire  Lane    .  .  1892 

A  Lucton  Cottage..           ..  18.93 

Age  and  Innocence              . .  1894 
Cleanliness    next    to    Godli- 
ness            . .           . .           -  -  1S95 

A  Chat  with  the  Postmaster  1896 

A  Tandem  Team    .  .           .  .  1897 

Early  Spring,  Worcestershire  1898 

A  Worcestershire  Village   .  .  1899 

Modern  English  Troglodytes  1900 

The  Holy  Austin   Rock      ..  1901 

The  Old   Roadmender         .  .  1902 

Day  Dreams  at  the  Door..  1903 

Worcestershire  Yeomen     . .  1904 

Praise  with  a  Merry  Noise  1906 

The   Church's   Influence      . .  1907 

"  Oyez  !    Oyez  !   Oyez  !  "    . .  1908 

Playing  the  Herald's  Part. .  1909 

Naval  Officers  in  Full  Dress  1910 

In   the  Engine-room            ..  1911 
Naval     Stokers     on     Shore 

Leave         . .           . .           . .  1912 

The  Ears  of  the  Navy      ..  19 12 
Gun  Crew  at  Battle  Stations  1913 
On  the  Navigating  Bridge.  .  1914 
Ashore  for  Exercise             . .  19.15 
In  Friendly  Conference      .  .  19:15 
Trooping  the  Colour            .  .  19 16 
Picturesque  Immobility      .  .  1918 
Passing  a  Saluting  Base     . .  1919 
Armoured  Car  and  its  Mam- 
moth Offspring     . .           . .  [$19 

With  Fluttering  Pennants. .  1920 

On   the   March            .  .            ." .  1920 
Bridge-building  in  Times  of 

Peace          .  .           .  .           . .  1921 

Testing  Field  Telephone     .  .  19  21 

Ready  to  Take   Wing         ..  1922 

R.A.F.  Nursing  Staff          .  .  1922 

At  a  R.A.F.  Training  School  1923 
'Plane    that    Outclassed    the 

Gotha         1923 

The  Village   Blacksmith     ..  1924 

Cause  and  Effect    ..          ..  1925 

A  Subject  of  King  Coal     ..  1926 

Fuel  for  England's  Factories  1927 

England's  Jewry     ..          ..  i929 
Ups   and  Downs   on   Hamp- 

stead  Heath           ..           . .  1930 

The  Merry-go-round            ..  1931 

Well-recognized  Authority  1932 

In  Blue  and  Silver 
Homeward  Bound 
Morning  at  a  London  Station 
Links  with  London's  Past. . 
Quaint  Custom  Still  Observed 
Harvesting  the  Potato 
Gathering  up  the  Tubers  .. 
From  Basket  to  Sack 
Making  the  Clamp.. 
A  Gypsies'   Camp 
Professional  Caravanning  . . 
Sabbath-day  Scene 
The  Weekly  Tub    .. 
Gypsy  Life  in  a  Woodland 

Hop-pickers'   Encampment 
Hop-picking  Celebrity 
Stripping  Hops  off  trie  Bine 
Hop-pickers  of   Kent 
Measuring  and  Booking     .. 
An  Al  Fresco  Shave 
Treating  the  "  Moke  " 
On  the.  Road  to  London    , . 
On  her  Daily   Round 
Raggle-taggle  Gypsy  Boy.. 
At  her   Open   Door 
"  What        Every        Woman 

Knows "    . . 
Delicate  Work  :  Shearing  by 


Spring  in  Scilly  Isles 
In  a  Flower-packing  Shed. . 
Narcissus  of  the  Scillies     .  . 
Stalls  at  Pinner  Fair 
Roasting  an  Ox,  Stratford 
Fair   Dav   at  Corbv 
Thatcher  off  to  Work 
Rustic  Jack-of-all-trades    .  . 
Setting  Mole-traps 
Four  of  the  King's  Horses 
A  Sussex   Scene 
Buckinghamshire  Lace- 

At  her  Spinning-wheel 
Lancashire  Mill  Girls 
Scene  at  Yarmouth 
Girl  Guides  in  Camp 
Perfume      and      Profit      at 

Masons  at  Peterborough    .  . 
Outside  the  Ship   Inn 
Leviathans  of  the  Road     .  . 
On  Tyhwald  Hill 
A  Centre  of  Romance 
Gathering  Narcissus  ,. 

In  the  Hay-making  Season 
His   Favourite  Diversion    .  . 
Esthonia's  Hope 
Distinctive  Adornments 
Models  of  Industry 
Old-time  Costumes 
Netting  as  a  Home  Craft.. 
At  her  Spinning-wdieel 
Open-air  Laundry 
Three-legged  Wash-tub 
During  Drill  Display 
Skill  Put  to  the  Test 
Member  of  Flving  Force  .  . 
Constituent      Assembly      in 

Hon:   -oi    Recreation 
Reaping  the  Rye  Harvest.. 
Old,  but  Eager  for  Work  of 

Shearing  Sheep 
Modern  Farmer's  Homestead 
Toiling  in   Rye-field 
Behind  the  Plough 
Peasant  Maidens   of   Petseri 
Five-o'clock  Tea 
Celebrating  a  Birthdav 
At  the  Graveside  of  a  Loved 

Street  Life  in  Dorpat 
Off  for  a  "  Joy  Ride  " 
In  a  Cottage  Courtyard     . . 
Celebrating  a  Marriage 


195  4 


19  61 


1  g  71 










Quiet  Corner  of  Esthonia..  2044 

Market  Dav  in   Reval        . .  2045 

Humble  Country   Folk       . .  2046 

Hale  and  Hearty  Citizen  ..  2047 

Source  that  Never  Fails     .. 
Independence  Won  by  Work 
Carting  Logs  at  Viborg 
Haymaker  and  his  Wain   . . 
White-walled  Market  Booths 
Bread  on  Sale,   Helsingfors 
"  High  Court  of  Parliament  " 
By  the  Lakeside 
At    Work   in    the   Harbour, 

A  Finnish  Logging  Raft    . . 
Busy   Human  Activity 
Shelter  for   the  Well 
"  The  Light  Fantastic  Toe  " 
Finnish  Wedding  Feast 
Peasant's  Cottage  Home    . , 
In  the  Church   Boats 
People's  Corner  in  Viborg. . 
Abo  Cathedral 
Champion  of  Woman's  Cause 
Equal'  Rights  and  Duties  . . 
Morning  Market,  Helsingfors 
The  Ice   King's  Grip 
Craft      for      Shooting      the 

On    a    Finnish    Lake 
Popular  Pastime  of  Finland 
In  the  Playgrounds 
On  their  Allotments 
When  the  World  is  Young 
Favourite  Winter  Pursuit.. 


Main  Street  of  Fiume 
Appeals  to  Patriotism 
"  Who  is  Against  Us  ?  ' 
One  of  the  Arditi   . . 
Flume's  Poet-Dictator 
Lightly-clad  Guards 
Occupation     of     Susak 









Swarthy  Aborigines  ..  2098 

Atayal  Belle  . .  . .  2099 

Mixture  of  Fashions  . .  2099 

Youth  and  Age,  Formosa..  2100 

Party  of  Atayals     ..  ..  2101 

Near  their  Mountain   Home  2102 

Head-Hunter's     Homestead  2103 

Atayal  Family  at  Home    ..  2103 

Tribal  Stamp  of  Debutante  2104 

Young  Atayal  "  Eligible  "  2113 

Fashions  for   All      ..  ..  %xj4 

Forest  Children        ..  ..  2115 

Vonum  Mountain  Savages. .  2116 
Fantastic  Millinery              ..  2116 
Blind  Woman  of  Formosa  . .  2117 
Where  Civilization  is  Banish- 
ing Barbarism      ..          ..  2118 

Natives  of   Kampanzan      ..  2119 

Mission  Chapel  at  Kagi      ..  2120 

Dwellers  of  the  Plains        .  .  2121 
Taihoku's  Substitute  for  the 

Hansom     . .  .  .  . .  2122 

"Tight-rope  Walkers"       ..  2122 

Formosan  Bamboo   Raft    ..  2123 

Aborigines  of  Formosa       ..  2124 

Under  Armed  Protection   .  .  2125 

Draining  off  Camphor  Oil.  .  2126 

Placid  Work  near  Danger..  S127 


Spirit   of  Catholic   Brittany  2128 

Liberty,  Equality,  Fraternity  2133 

Quasimodo's  Lofty   Eyrie..  2136 

Over  the  City  of  Light     ..  213? 

"  Matelots/'  Viliefranche  ..  2141 

Photographs  in  the  Text  (contd.) 

"  Monsieur  le  Maire  " 
Old  Breton  Weaver 
Old  Norman  Fashions 
In  "Quaint  Lisieux  .. 
Fine    Results    from    Simple 

Breton  Musicians 

Out-of-doors  Treatment     . . 

Modern  Breton  Wedding   . . 

Norman  Village  Scene 

Innkeeper's  Welcome 

Gathering  Grapes    .. 

Draining  off  Must  .. 

Laundry  of  Douarnenez     . . 

Splitting  Logs 

In  the  Potato  Fields 

Winnowers  of  the  Grain    . . 

Preparing  Rough  Hemp    . . 

Mourning  their  Friend 

Mourners        Entering       Old 

Humble  Breton  Funeral   . . 

Leaving  Church 

Wedding       Procession       at 

The   Breton  Pardon 

Votive   Offering   at   Ancient 

Bunk-like  Breton  Beds 

Sons  of  the  Soil 

Breton  Mayor  at  Ease 

Vigorous  at  Fourscore 

Breton  Pardon  Amid  Grow- 
ing Corn 

Breton   Cannery 

Netful   of  Silver 

Corner  of  Sardine  Factory . . 

The  Day's  Catch 

Profitable  Use  of  Leisure. . 

Animation  at  Concarneau.. 

Ready  for  the  Cannery 

Preparing  Gala  Attire 


Array  of  Wooden  Shoon  .  . 

Open-air      Oven      used     in 

Gift  of  the  Sea 

On  a  Breton  Farm 

In  a  Potato  Field 

Picturesque  Bridal  Array  , . 

Harvest-time,   Brittany 

In  After  Days 

Question  and  Answer 

Evening  of  his  Days 

In  a  Pottery  Works 

By  the  Well-side     .. 

Pleasant  Sunday  Afternoon 

Ready  for  the  Fete 

When  the  Heart  is  Young  .  . 

Breton  Piper  Playing  a  Solo 

In  their  Sunday  Best 

Gatherers  of  Mussels 

A  Corner  oi  Finistere 

Unprogressive  Brittany 

Hawker  of  Vegetables 

Belles  of  Quimperle 

Dumb  Yoke-fellows 

Nearing  her  Journey's  End 

Women  of  Huelgoat  . . 

Hand-spinning,  Brittany    . .  2223 

Procession  of  Fisherfolk     . .  2224 

Surpliced  Singing  Boys     ..  2225 

Protection  Against  Splashing  2226 
Paying  their  Tribute  to  the 

Virgin  Mother      . .  . .  2227 

Fishwives  Shoreward  Bound  2228 

In  the  Harvest  Field         ..  2229 

In  Pensive  Mood    . .  . .  2230 

Rough  Winding  Paths  . .  2231 
Washing-day      in       Haute- 

Alsace         . .  . .  . .  2232 

Re-union        . ,  . .  . .  2233 

The  Stone  Fountain  . .  2234 

Keeping  a  Fete  Day  . .  2234 

Love's  Old  Story    . .  . .  2235 

Three  Little  Maids  . .  2236 

Blue  Alsatian  Mountains   ..  2237 

Memorial  of   Prowess  , ,  2238 

Arc  de  Triomphe    ..  ..  223S 

Flowers  on  River  Bank    ..  2239 

Blue-bloused  Porter  . .  2240 

Painting  from  the  Life        . .  2241 

Postman  of   Republic  . .  2242 

Happy  Hunting-ground     ..  2243 

Parisian  Outfitter's  ..  2243 

Champs-Ely  sees        .  .  . .  2244 

"  Playground  of  Princes"..  2244 

Place  de  la  Concoide         ..  2245 

Boulevard  Montmartre       , .  2245 

Collecting  Resin      . .  . .  2246 

In  a  Famous  Grotto  .,  2247 

Rehearsing  a  War  Dance..  2248 

Early  Morning  Chat  . .  2249 

Distilling  Lavender  ..  2250 

Gathering  Violets    ..  ..  2251 

Gathering  Orange  Blossoms  2252 

A  Willing  Worker  ..  ..  2253 

Orthez  Cattle  Market         ..  2254 

Defenders  of   Frontiers       . .  2255 

Braving  Winter  Snows      .  .  2256 

Pyrenean  Musicians  ..  2273 

Colour,  Life,  Laughter        ..  2274 

King  Carnival  in  Nice       . .  2275 

Flower  and  Fruit  Market..  2276 

Forcible  Feeding     . .  . .  2277 

Washing  Under  Difficulties  2278 

Domestic  Industry,  Nice   .,  2278 

Live  Stock  for  Sale  ..  2279 

Old  Town  of   Corte  . .  2280 

2r87      French  Equatorial  Africa 

Singing  Death-Dance         ..  2290 

A  Touch  of  Life     . .  . .  2292 

Nomad  Camping  Ground  2293 

An  Aid  to  Beauty..  ..  2294 

Black   Justice,  Senegal        .  .  2295 

Desert  Dignity,  Timbuktu.  .  2295 

Inseparable  Companions    .  .  2296 

To  Speed  the  Guest  , .  2297 

Market  Place,  Timbuktu  . .  2298 

Sons  of  the  Sahara  ..  2299 

Sudanese  Grace        .  .  . .  2300 

Daughter  of  Fulah   Race  . .  2300 

Bana  Native's  Coiffure        . .  2301 

Native  Quarters,  Jibuti      ..  2302 

Girlhood  and  Old  Age       ..  2303 

Aged  Beau  Brummel  ..  2304 

Native,  Duala  District       ..  2305 




















Negro  Music-makers  . .  2305 

Brides  of  Militiamen  ..  2306 

Beauty  Judged  by  Headdress  2307 

Directors  of  Dye  Industry. ,  2308 

Loom  of  New  Guinea        ..  2308 

French  America 

Comeliness  and  Colour       ..  2310 

Fair  Mulatto  Workers        ..  2311 

Capital  of  Martinique  ..  2312 

Negress  Traders      ..  ..  2313 

Licensed  Convicts   ..  ..  2314 

Woman  of  the  People       ..  2315 

A  Dusky  Belle         . ,  ..  2316 

Asiatic  Possessions 

Pagoda  at  Villenour  , .  2318 

Laotian  Girl  . .  . .  2319 

Black  Meos  ..  ..  ..  2320 

White  Meos. .  . .  ..  2320 

Descendants  of  Rulers      . .  2321 

Swaying  Native  Dancers  ..  2322 

Kingdom  of  the  Flirt         . .  2323 

New  Year's  Day  Procession  2324 

Students  of  Hanoi..  ..  2325 

Doyen  of  Tong-king  ..  2326 

Coloured  Cavalry    . .  . .  2327 

Tribute  of  Flowers  ..  2328 

Archery  in  the  Wilds         . .  2329 

French  in  Australasia 

Choric  Dance  ..  ..  2330 

Fashions  in  Hatpins  0 .  2332 

Hebe  of  South  Pacific       . .  2333 

In  Festive  Tahiti    . .  . .  2334 

An  Overseas  Liegeman      . .  2335 

In  Scarlet  and  Silver         . .  2337 

Amphibian   Placidity  ..  2338 

A  Pacific  Paradise..  ..  2338 

Olive-skinned  Eve..  ..  2339 

"  Take  Your  Places  *-*         . .  2339 

An  Easy  Yoke         . .  . .  2340 

Society  Island  Belles  ..  2341 

-      Flower  of  the  Forest  . .  2342 

Cannibal  Flute-player        ..  2343 

Fashions  in  the  New  Hebrides  2344 

Reasonable  Precautions     . .  2345 

List  of  Maps 

Danzig 1569 

Denmark  ..  ..  ..  1620 

Greenland  ..  ..  ..  1621 

Ecuador  . .  . .  . .  1642 

Libya I731 

Egypt 1755 

England  2003 

Esthonia  ..  ..  ..  2017 

Finland 20S5 

Fiume 20S9 

Formosa  . .  ..  . .  2097 

France 2283 

French  Empire  in  Africa         . .  2347 

n  ,,  America     . .  2349 

„  n  Asia  . .  2350 

w  n  Australasia  2352 


of  All   Nations 















Their  Life  Today  and 
the  Story  of  their  Past 

By     Our     Foremost      Writers     of 
Travel    Anthropology    &    History 

Illustrated  with  upwards  of  5000 

Photographs,     numerous     Colour 

Plates,  and    150   Maps 

Edited  by 

J.    A.    Hammerton 

Pages  2353-3120 

Georgia  to  Italy 

Published   at  THE    FLEETWAY    HOUSE    London   E.G. 













—    - 






See  pagt  2992 

Frontispiece  —  Vol.  IV 



j  S; 


fi  ." 

1 1  jot  JLi  Y 

See  page  2992 

Frontispiece— Vol  IV 






Georgia.  Henry   W .  Nevinson 
Germany   I.    William  Harbutt  Dawson 

»       II- 
Greece  I.   Hamilton  Fyfe 

II.   A.  D.  Innes 
Guatemala  I.  F.  H.  Hamilton 

II.  Percy  F.   Martin 
Haiti  I.  H.  Hesketfi  Prichard 

II.  Percy  F.  Martin 
Hawaii.  Richard  Curie 
Hejaz  I.  Edmund  Candler 

„      II.  D.  G.  Hogarth 
Honduras  I.  Percy  F.  Martin 

and  Historical  Chapters 







Hungary  I.  F.  H.  Hamilton 

„         II.  A.  D.  Innes 
Iceland.   R.  Pape  Cowl 
India  I.   Sir  Valentine  Chirol 

,*      II- 
Irak  I.  Edmund  Candler 

,,     II.  A.  D.  Innes 

Ireland  I.  Milton  Kelly 

,,         II.   Stephen  Gwynn     . 

Italy'  I.  Hamilton  Fyfe 
II.  Edward  Hutt-on 
„    III.   L.  J.  S.  Wood 

List  of  Colour  Plates 

Germany  :    Forest  Maiden 
Greece  :   Belles  of  the  Border 
Hungary  :   Peasant  Bridal  Couple  . . 

India  :  Elephant  at  Bengal  Gathering 
Calcutta  Shrine-Keeper 
Ivory  Carver 

Wife  of  a  Gurkha  Fighting  Man 
Fruit  Vender 
Maratha  Warrior 
Arab  Dancing  Horse 

;  page 




India  ;    Nautch  Group 

Indian  Dancing  Women 
Colourful  Group 
Nautch  Girl     .  .  .  .  ■ 

Executioner  of  Rewah 
Men  of  the  Northern  Marches 
Women  of  Kashmir 
Children  of  North  Kashmir . . 
Officers  of  the  Indian  Army. . 


Italy  :  Ragazzi  of  the  Campagna 
Beauty  from  the  Abruzzi 








g  page 

New  Scenes  in   Germany 
Wendish  Girls  of  the  Spree- 

Busy  Market-place  of  Worms 
Lofty  Dome  of  Berlin 
Peasants    of    the    Bavarian 

Stuttgart  Sabbath  Dress     . . 
In   a    Forest   of   Charlotten- 

Nature    Study  by  a  Stream 
Bridal  "  schappel  "  of  Sankt 

Georgien    .  . 
Blickeburg  Bridal  Attire    .. 
Women    of    the    Nordlingen 

Roman      Catholic      Funeral 

Gift  of  the  Bavarian  Bride's 

Girls  of  Sankt  Georgien 
In  a  Village  of  the  Rhine  . . 
Rhenish   Labourer 
St.    Goarshausen's    "  Castle 

Crag  "        . . 

Greeks   of  To-day 

On  the  Summit  of  Parnassus 
Near  the  Tomb  of  Leonidas 
In     the     Fertile     Valley     o£ 

Greek    Villagers  Dancing    . . 
At  the  Village  Oven 
Traditional    Dance    of 

the  Road  to 


240  1 




2  ;i6 

2  49  8 


Khani     or 

Monk  of  S.   George 
On     the     Balcony     of     the 

Monastery    of    S.     George 
Rocks  of  Parnassus 



Pages  in  Photogravure 

Domed  Well  of  Gastouri    . .  2505 

Priests'  Home  at  Zemenon  2506 
Refectory    of    the    Megaspe- 

leon             . .           . .           . .  2507 

Weaving  at  Andritsena       . .  2 508 

In  the  Porch  of  his  Dwelling  2508 
In       the       Cloister      of      S. 

Stephen's  .  .  . .  .,  2509 
Monastery      of      the      Holy 

Trinity        .  .            .  .            .  .  2^09 

Treading  out  the  Grain       . .  2510 

Villagers  of  Zemenon          ..  251:1 

Greek  from    Kastoria           ..  25.1:2 

Magyars  in   Rich  Attire 

Peasant  Lads  of  Mezokovesd  2641 

En  Route  to  Market             .  .  2642 

Women  of  a  Lowland  Village  2643 

Hungarian  Gypsies              ..  2644 

Old  Beggar  of  Hungary       . .  2C45 
Handiwork  of  a  Hungarian 

Housewife              . .           . .  2646 

Unique  but  Effective  Head- 
dress           ..           ..           ..  2647 

Boy  and  Girl  of  Csomor       .  .  2648 

Sturdy  of  Frame      . .           . .  2649 

Lowly  Magyar  Couple         .  .  2650 

Baby's  Embroidered  Bolster  2651 
Headman     of     a      Cowherd 

Station       .  .           .  .           .  .  2652 

Cowherds  of  the  Hortobagy 

Plain           .  .           .  .           .  .  2653 

Dancing  the  Csardas           . .  2654 

Matyok  Peasants     . .           .  .  2655 

Town- bred    Daughters     of 

Hungary    . .           . .           . .  2656 

Italians  of  To-day 

Devout  Fisherfolks'  Wooden 

Shrine         .  .           .  .           .  .  2993 

Scuola  di  San  Marco            ..  2991 

Narrow  Waterway  of  Venice  2995 

Venetian  Vegetable  Merchant 
Starting  on  his  Last  Voyage 
Flower   Girl   of   the   Eternal 


Preservers      of      the      Papal 

Monastery  of  Monte  Oliveto 

In  Aosta  Cathedral 
With  Heart  at  Peace 
Colonnade  of  S.  Peter's 
Roman  of  the  Campagna    .  . 
Roman  Flower-girl 
Rimini's  Triumphal  Arch  .  . 
Campanile  of  Giotto 
Straw-plaiting  in  Fiesole     .  . 

Italian  Harmonies 

In  the  Shadow  of  Mount  Etna 
Sicilian    Grandsire    and    His 

Son's  Son 
Sicilian  Darby  and  Joan     .  . 
In   a   Hospice  for   the   Aged 

Children  of  Sunny  Sicily 
Benedictine     Monks     of 

Sacro  Eremo  of  Camaldoli.  . 
Laundry  Day  in  Omegna   ,  . 
Isle  of  San  Guilio 
By  Lake  Maggiore 
Simple  Scene  on  Maggiore.  . 
The  Garden  of  Lombardy  . , 
The  Glories  of  Como 
Watching  for  Tunny  Fish  . , 
Istrian      Peasants      Chui  ch- 

ward  Bound 
Old  Town  of  San  Remo 
Celebrating   the  Nativity  of 

the  Virgin 
Monks  of  Savoca 



2  999 











Housewife's  Daily  Task      . .  2354 

Where  Women  Work  .  .  2355 

Woman  of  a  Handsom  ■  Ran"  2^6 

Veteran  of  a  Mountain  State  2336 

After  their  Morning  Tub     .  .  2357 
Descendants   of   the   Golden 

Horde         235a 

In  a  Georgian  Glade  .  .  2359 
Replenishing  their  Cellars  .  .  2360 
Fetching  the  Day's  Water. .  2361 
Ploughing  in  the  Caucasus. .  23&1 
Descendant  of  a  Hardy  Race  2362 
Member  of  the  Aristocracy  2303 
Sons  el  the  Mountain  Peas- 
antry .  .  ■■  ■■  2:^>4 
Youth,    Manhood,    and    Old 

Age  .  .  ..  ■■  2365 
Havmaking  in  the  Moun- 
tains ..  ..  ■■  2366 
Ease  and  Luxury  .  .  •  ■  2367 
Riders  of  the  Plains  .  .  2368 
Bred  to  Arms  .  .  •  ■  2369 
Garb  of  his  Ancestors          .  ,  2369 

German v 

Group  of  Peasant  Women.  .  2370 

Two  Little  Maids     .  .  .  ,  2372 

Part  of  the  Daily  Routine. .  2373 

Filigree  Nimbus        . .  .  .  2374 

Homelv  but  Comely             ..  2375 
Baptismal  Procession          . .  2376 
In  the  Bosom  of  her  Family  2377 
Dancing  in  the  Streets          .  .  2378 
Historic    Headgear    of    Ba- 
varian Brides          .  .            .  -  2379 
At  the  Village  Spring           .  .  2380 
Toil-worn       Women       Land 

Workers     ..  ....  2381 

Fantastic    Feminine    Finery  2382 
Gretehen      of       the      Black 

Forest         2383 

Hat  Style  from  Gutach       ..  2384 

Cutting  Turnip  Radishes   . .  2383 

Scene  in  the  Reichstag        .  .  2386 

Outside  the  Reichstag         .  .  2387 

Young  Germania  Passes  By  2388 

Inspection  of  War  Veterans  2389 
Berlin    at    its    Busiest    and 

Best  2390 

In  the  Heart  of  Berlin         .  .  2391 

In  a  Glass  Factory  .  .  -  -  2392 

Working  lor  Humanity       .  .  2393 

Commercial  Activity  .  .  2394 

Leipzig's      Advertisement 

Parade        .  .  . .  •  •  2395 

Adherents  of  King  Carnival  2396 

Secure  in  Mother-love         .  .  2397 

On  the  Road  to  Church      _.  .  2398 
Pleasui  e      Combined      With 

Business     .  .  .  .  ■  ■  2399 

Wendish  Peasant  Funeral..  2399 

In  the  School  of  Nature      .  .  24^8 

At  the  Drawing  Lesson       .  .  2418 

School  in  the  Pine  Forests.  .  2419 
C  h  a  r  1  ot  t  e  11  b  u  r  g    Forest 

School         2419 

Little  Berliners'  Hearty  Ap- 
petite         ..           ..           ■■  2420 
After-dinner  Ta^k    . .           .  .  2420 
Leisurely  Pursuit  of  Learn- 
ing              .  .           ..           ■  ■  2421 
Training    in    Perspective 

Drawing    .  .  .  .  -  ■  2422 

Teaching  Cleanliness  . .  2424 

In   the  Maternity  Ward      .,  2425 

Weighing    Young    Germany  2425 

In  a  Beer  Garden     . .  . .  2426 

Healthy  Homesteads  ..  2427 

Villagers  of  Hesse-Nassau.,  2428 

Old-time  Simplicity  .  .  2429 

Instruction  in  Cheesemaking  2430 

Filling  the  Moulds  .  .  . .  2430 

The  Finished  Cheeses  .  .  2431 

Dry-salting  the  Cheeses      .  .  243r 
Where    Nicest    Accuracy    is 

Needed       . .  .  .  ■  ■  2432 

In    the    Works    at    Siuneus- 

stadt  3433 

Preparing  Tobacco  for  Dry- 
ing ..  -■  •■  2434 

Photographs  in   the    Text 

Hanging  up  the  Leaves  . .  2435 
Peeling  "Osiers  ..  ..  2436 
Osiers  Laid  Out  to  Dry  . .  2436 
Making  Wicker  Chairs  .  .  2437 
Bargaining  for  Baskets  .  .  2437 
Old-fashioned  Rural  Cos- 
tume            •  2438 

Tunsingen  Costumes  .  .  2438 
At  the  Ulm  Festival  .  .  2439 
Before  the  Board  of  Ex- 
aminers . .  - .  • ■  2439 
Peasant  Bride  and  Bride- 
groom .  .  ■  •  ■  ■  2440 
Starched  Sobriety  . .  .  ■  2441 
After  the  Flax  Harvest  .  .  2442 
"  Weave  the  Warp  "  .  .  2442 
In  a  Land  of  Legend  .  .  2443 
Square  in  Munich  .  -  2444 
Main  Street  of  Frankfort  ..  2446 
Corner  of  Dresden  .  .  .  .  2448 
Nuremberg  Market  Place  .  .  2448 
Ulm  Market  Place  ..  ..  2450 
Where  Schiller  Dwelt  .  .  2450 
At  the  Savings  Bank  .  .  2452 
Before  the  Rathaus  . .           .  .  2461 

In.  the  Streets  of  Nauplia    ..  2464 

Musical  Greek  Gypsies        ..  2466 

At  the  Fountain        .  .  .  .  2467 

Captain  of  a  Comitadji  Band  2468 

Youthful  Patriots     .  .  .  .  2469 

Soldiers  of  Picked  Corps     .  .  2470 

Sentry  at  the  Royal  Palace  24.71  Athens.  .  .  .  2472 

Splendid  in  Ruin      ..  ..  2473 

Narrow  Byway  of  Canea    .  .  2474 

Business  Corner  of  Candia .  .  2475 

Hostages  to  Fortune  ..  2476 

Monks  of  the  Greek  Church  2477 

Men  of  Thebes  ..  -.  2478 

Evzonoi  Scouts  on  Patrol  . .  2479 

A  Roast  of  Lamb    .  .  ..  2480 

"  Look       at       the       Pretty 

Camera  "  . .  . .  .  .  2481 

City  of  Athens  .  .  ■  ■  2482 

Dancing  a  Pas  de  Quatre    ..  2483 

At  Patras  Port  .  .  .  .  2484 

The  Village  Laundry  .  .  2485 

Modern  Exquisite    .  .  .  .  2486 

Greeks  of  To-day     .  .  -  .  2487 

Trail  to  the  Sea         .  .  .  .  248S 

Ingenuity  on  the  Road        .  .  2489 

Peasant  at  her  Loom  .  .  2490 

Making  Ready  the  Fields  ..  2491 

Cows  in  the  Corn       .  .  .  .  2492 

Amid  Broad  Acres  .  .  .  .  2492 

When    the    Reapers'    Work 

is  Done       . .  . .  .  ■  2493 

Pitching  the  Corn    . .  ...  2493 

Threshing  with  a  Fork         .  .  2494 

Sifting  and  Winnowing       .  .  2494 

Pretty  Marriage  Custom  ..  2495 
Bright      Plumage      in      the 

Cyciadcs  .  .  .  .  ■  .  2496 
Feminine  Dignity  Personi- 
fied               •  2513 

Glimpse  of  Sunny  Corfu      .  .  2514 

Corfu  Sickle  Shop     ..  .  .  2515 

Greek      Peasant     Lying     in 

State  2516 

"  A  Grazing  Flock  "  .  .  2517 

Macedonian  Manhood  ..  2518 

In  a  Marble  Quarry  .  .  2519 

Pulpit  Among  the  Tornbs  .  .  2520 

Priest  of  a  Fanatical  Sect.  .  2521 
Jewish       Women       at       the 

Kippaw      . .  .  .  .  .  2322 

Hanadji      at      the      Plebrew 

Cemetery  .  .  .  -  .  .  2523 

Relic  of  Moslem  Rule  .  .  2524 

Prosperity  and  Poverty      .  .  252^ 

Dignity  and  Inroudence      .  .  2526 

Peasant  Girls  Make  Merry  .  .  2526 
Industry      in      the      Vardar 

Valley         ..  ..  ■  ■  2527 

Greek  Ceramic  Ware  . .  2528 

Thessaloniah    Women    in 

Gala  Attire  ..  ..  2529 

Sturdy  Fishei  Folk  . .  . .  2530 


Inhabitants    of    the    Coban 

District 2536 

The  Rising  Generation         ..  2538 

Marketing  Indian  Wares   .  .  2539 

Stricken  City  of  Gu  itemala  2540 

Ruins  in  Antigua     ..  .-  2541 

Mule  Train 2542 

Luscious      Fruits      for      the 

Thirsty       ..  .-  -■  2543 

Test  of  Strength        . .  . .  2544 

Woman  with   Avocado      ..  2;45 

Chicle-gum  Collectors'  Camp  2546 

Guatemala  Indian  Villagers  2548 

Monolith  of  Quirigua  . .  2550 

Descendants  of  Maya  Stock  2551 

Mixca  1  Beauty         ..  ..  2553 

Group  of  Coffee-pickers      ..  2554 

Advertisement   and   Display  2558 

Haitian  Folk              . .         '  ..  2560 

Riverside  Laundry  .  .           ■  ■  2561 
Town  Fountain   at   Port  au 

Prince         . .           . .           ■  ■  2562 
Looking     Down     the     Main 

Street         2562 

In  the  Cathedral  Square      ..  2563 

Chatter  and  Commerce       . .  2564 
Principal      Street      in      the 

Capital       . .           .  .           ■  ■  2365 

Threshold  of  Voodoo  Temple  2566 
Laundry    Work    as    a    Peni- 
tential Task    '        .  .           .  .  2567 

"Where  Black  Rules  White"  2568 
Sorting  Coffee  Beans            . .  2569 
Officialdom  in  Uniform       ..  2570 
Ex-President  as  Admiral    .  .  2570 
Architectural  Eyesore     _      ..  2571 
Enjoying  the  ''  Royal  Diver- 
sion "          . .           . .           . .  2572 

Native  Traders         ..           ..  2574 

That  Piccaninny  Smile       ..  2375 

Musicians  and  Dancing  Girls 
Flower- wreathed  Coquetry 
Preparations  for  Gargantuan 

Pounding  Taro  Root 
Hawaiian  Family 
Eating  Pol 
Rider  of  the  Waves 
Diana  Goes  Riding 
Hawaiian  Feast 
Hauling  in  their  Seine 
Eligible  Dancing  Men 
Preliminary  Movement  of  a 

Waiting  their  Turn  to  Dance 
"  Beauty        Fair       in       her 

Flower  "    .  . 
Under  the  Oriel  of  the  West 
Bringing  Ashore  their  Catch 
Two  Dusky  Sirens 
Family  Happiness   . . 


With     Hands     Upraised    in 

Hussein,  First  King  of  Hejaz 
Venders  of  Holy  Water 
Mecca's  Great  Mosque 
Pilgrims      Performing      the 


At  the  "  Durbar  of  God  "  .  . 
Kneading  Dough  for  Bread 
Parade  of  the  Arab  Army  .  . 
Homeward  Bound  from  the 

Well  .  . 

Impenetrably  Veiled 
Pilgrim  Encampment 
Jeddah's  Cnpaved  Streets.  . 
Emir  Feisal's  Bodyguard   .. 
Beduins  Bound  for  the  Town 
Negro  Architecture  in  Hejaz 
Warriors  of  the  Desert 
Deputy  to  the  Emir 
Temporal  Activity  in  Medina 








2  602 



Photographs  in  the  Text  (contd.) 


Smashed  Arches   at   Teguci- 
galpa ..  ..  ..      262c 

Spanning    a    Slumbering 

Stream       . .  . .  . .      2622 

Honduran  Home      . .  . .      2623 

In  a  Town  of  the  Hinterland     2624 
Winding  over  the  Hills       ..      2625 
Fife  Men  in  a  Boat . .  . .      2625 

At  Either  End  of  Four  Gen- 
erations     . .  . .  . .      2626 

Sunday  Market  at  Amapal  1      2627 
Artillery    at    Practice    Man- 
oeuvres     . .           . .           . .  262S 


Aspirants   for   Cupid  s    Fav- 
ours            . .           . .           . .  2632 

Vestal  Virgin  of  Hungary  . .  2633 
Linked  by  Sweet  Symbolism     2634 

Woman  at  the  Well              . .  2635 

Feminine  Confidence            .  .  2636 

After  Church  Service            . .  263/ 

Lord  or  Henchman  ?             .  .  2638 

In  the  Hungarian  Highlands  2638 
Cooperation  in  Jelly-making     2639 
Young     Matron     of     Mez  :- 

kovesd        . .           . .           . .  2640 

Bridal  Pair  from  Sark'z     .  .  2657 
Mending  a  Family  Cauldron  2658 
Vagabond  Sons  of  Hungary  2659 
Moneved  Members  of  Wan- 
dering Tribe          .  .           .  .  2660 

Family  Trio  .  .            .  .            .  .  2661 

Evening    Meal    at    a    Prairie 

Station        .  .            .  .            . .  2662 

Cowherds'  Leisure  Hour     . .  2663 
Geese     of      the      Hortobagy 

Fisherman              .  .           .  .  2664 

Preparations  for  Fishing     .  .  2665 

Home-made  Fishing  Tackle  2666 

Paying  his  Respects             . .  2667 

Budapest's  Flower  Market . .  2668 

Shopping  Day  in  Debreczen  266g 

Brave  Hearts  and  Strong  .  .  2670 

Under  the  Greenwood  Tree  2671 

Hungarian  Pedlar    ..           ..  2672 

Woman  of  Many  Arts          . .  2673 

Religious  Procession             . .  2674 

Representatives  of  the  Army  2675 

Sunday  Morning  Scene        .,  2676 

Two  Strings  to  his  Bow       .  .  2677 

Six  Merry  Schoolboys          . .  2678 

Graceful  Girlhood     .  .            .  .  2679 

"  Ring  a  Ring  o'  Roses  "   .  .  2679 
Goosegirl  Driving  her  Flock  2680 
Ponderous  Wooden  Loom..  2681 
Conservative  Peasants         . .  2682 
Handsome    Peasant    Handi- 
work           . .           . .           . .  2683 

Open-air    Mothers'    Meeting  2688 

Three  Generations   .  .           . .  2688 


Star  of  the  North     .  .           ,  .  2689 

Hair   to  Advantage  Dressed  2690 

Fair  Mother  and   Daughters  269  r 

Acres  of  Codfish       . .          . .  2692 

Where  Nature  Supplies  Hot 

Water         .  .           .  ,           . .  2693 
Anchorage    under    Misty 

Mountains              . .           . .  2694 

Shoreboats   in   the   Harbour  2695 

Winter  in  Reykjavik            . .  2697 

The  Icelanders'  Oven          ..  2697 
Milkmaid    on    her    Morning 

Round        . .           .  .           .  .  2698 

On    the    Rock-walled    Post- 
road            . .           . .           , .  2699 

Bringing  back  their  Hay    ..  2700 

Mail  Caravan             . .           . .  2702 


Buddha's  Holiest  Place       . .  2704 

Trinkets  to  Outwit  Evil      . .  2705 

Insignia  of  their  Calling      .  .  2706 
Men  of  Naga  Tribe  in  War 

Trim           .  .           .  .           .  .  2707 

Veteran  Abor  Archer           . .  2708 

Gravity  and  Wisdom            . .  2709 
Content   with   the   Warmth 

of  the  Sun              .  .           . ,  2710 
Representative  of  Abor  Vil- 
lage            . .           . .           . .  2  7 1 1 

In  the  Abor  Jumde  ..  ..      2712 

Abor  Grace  Undraped         ..      2713 
Simple  Village  Life. .  ..      2714 

ft  iri  Nagas    . .  .  .  .  .      2715 

Arrival  of  the  "  Big  Six  "  .  .      2716 
Smiling  Beauty  of  the  Wilds      2717 
In  Full  Warpaint     .  .  .  .      2718 

Param's  Headman   .  .  . .      2719 

Rough-rider   of   Baluchistan      2720 
Forest  Bowman  of  the  Hills      2721 
How  Hook-swinging  is  Done     2722 
Superstition's  Willi  rw  Victim     2722 
Hook-swinging  in  Madras  .  .      2723 
Winnowing  the  Grain  ..      2724 

Blue-blooded  Son  of  India  . .      2725 
Wayfarers  of  Baluchistan  .  .      2726 
State  Elephants  of  Baroda.  .      2727 
India's  Magic  Mango  Tree.  .      2728 
Charming  the  Folded  Snake     2729 
Privileged    Animal    of    Hin- 
duism . .  . .  . .      2730 

Carrying  Plough  and  Harrow     2731 
Method   of    Irrigation  ..       2731 

Shrine  of  the  Sacred  Cobra      2732 
Masks  and  Trumpets  ..      2733 

Scene  at  the  Burning  Ghats      2734 
Performing  the  Last  Rites. .      2734 
Burning  the  Funeral  Pyre. .      2735 
In  the  Kingdom  of  Shades  .  .      2735 
Bridge  of  Bengal      .  .  . .      2746 

Weighing  Rice  in  Bengal    .  .      2747 
Feasting  off  Banana  Leaves     2747 
In  a  Native  Bazaar.  .  .  .       2748 

Hindu  Laundry        .  .  .  .      2749 

Venerable  Chieftain  of  SInd      2750 
Raising  Water  for  the  Land      2751 
Lured  from  the  Hills  .  .      2752 

Fresh  Vegetables  for  Visitors     2753 
Bombay  D.iek  ..  ..      2754 

Drying-ground  of  an  Odori- 
ferous Industry   ..  ..      2755 

Fishing-nets  on  the  Way  to 

Pickle         ..  ..  ..      2756 

Riding  the  Indian  Waters. .      2757 
Ritualistic  Bathing.  .  . .      2758 

An  Open-air  Bath    .  .  .  .      2758 

Separating  Grain  from  Chaff     2759 
Cleaning  the  Grain  . .  .  .      2759 

Deccan  Jazz  Band  .  .  , .      2760 

Coppersmith  of  Karachi      .  .      2761 
On  the  Steps  of  a  Mosque  . .      2762 
At  the  Feet  of  the  Idol        .  .      2763 
Beauty  of  Udaipur  City      .  .      2764 
Votaress  of  the  Jain  Religion     2765 
Glimpse  of  Animal  Life       .  .      2766 
Strolling  Menagerie. .  . .      2767 

Swift  and  Sinuous  Cruelty. .      2767 
Donkey  and  Dhobi .  .  . .      2768 

Jogging  Along  the  Highway     2768 
Well    -    matched       Carriage 

Camels        .  .  ,  .  .  .      2769 

Out  for  an  Airing     .  .  .  .      2769 

Much-Monaved  Man  of  India     2770 
Pious     Pilgrim     with     Holy 

Water  .  .  .  .  .  .       2771 

Asceticism    Carried    to    Ex- 
tremes        .  .  .  .  . .      2772 

Two  Cheerful  Captives         .  .      2773 
In  Quest  of  Righteousness  .  .       2773 
One  of  a  Company  of  Saints      2774 
Making  a  Merry  Noise         ..      2775 
Woman  Water-Carrier         . .      2776 
Transporting  Barrels  of  Beer      2777 
By  Srinagar's  Turbid  Stream     2778 
Travelling  by  Fkka  .  .  .  .      2779 

State  Barge  of  a  Maharaja  .  .      2780 
Leisured  Beauty  of  Kashmir     278  r 
Toda  Ladies  .  .  .  .  .  ,      2782 

Family  Reunion       .  .  .  .      2783 

Herdsmen  and  Agriculturists     2784 
Members  of  an  International 

Brotherhood  ..  ..      2785 

Pariahs  at  Home       .  .  .  .       2786 

Tamil  Schoolboys     . .  . .      2787 

Where  Charlatanism   Flour- 
ishes ..  ,.  , ,      2788 
Monotonous  Task     . .           .  .      2789 

Fixing  Date  of  Rice  Harvest     2790 
Faithful  Service        . .  . .      2791 

Irrepressible  Mendicity  .  .  2791 
True  Devotion  at  Worship  2792 
Bright-eyed  Dancing  Girls. .      2793 


Great  Mosque  of  Delhi  . .  2794 
Courtyard      of      the      Jama 

.Masjid        2795 

Lingait  Funeral  Ceremonies  2706 
Young  Victims  of  Leprosy. .  2797 
In  Unstable  Equilibrium'  ..  2798 
Poised  upon  a  Living  Arch  . .  2799 
Acrobat's  Balancing  Feat  . .  2800 
Interested  Criticism  of  Ton- 

sorial  Art 2801 

Practising  her  Handicraft  . .       2802 
Sawyers  at  Work     ..           ..      2803 
Happy-go-luckv  Child   Vag- 
rant   2804 

Small    Aspirants    to    Know- 

]edge  2805 

Wanderers  in  the  Himalayas  2806 
Foui  footed  "  Jack-of-a!l- 

Trades  " 2807 

"  Patience  of  the  Labouring 

Ox  "  2807 

Amid  the  Solitudes . .           . .      2808 
Inflated  River-cratt              .  .      2S09 
Punjabi's    Travelling    Com- 
panion         2sI0 

Pahari     Woman    Stone- 
breaker       . .  , .  . ,      28 1 1 
Priestly  Mendicants              ..      2812 
Sociable  Sprites  of  the  Pas- 
Bullocks'  Cumbersome  Bu 

den  28i4 

Ascetics  in  Silent  Meditation  2815 
Returning  from  the  Annual 

Outing 28i6 

Making  Funeral  Pots  .  .       2817 

Asset       to       India's       Rural 

Regions      .  .  .  .  ..       2818 

Mechanism    for    Drawing 

Water         .  .  .  .  .  .      2819 

Religious      Inst  uction      in 

Progress      .  .  ..  .  .       2820 

Cooling  Draught  from  Pun- 
jabi Bhisti  . .  ..      2821 

Ash-smeared  Fakirs  . .      2822 

Following  a  Black  Profession     2823 
Sikh  Priest     .  .  . ,  .  ,       2823 

Worshipping    in    the    Great 

Mosque       .,  ..  ..       2824 

Hardv  Ascetic  at  Benares..  2825 
Saintliness    with    Snake-like 

Halo  2826 

Flindu  Penitents       .  .  .  .      282? 

About  to  Perfoim  the  Dail  ? 

Cult 2827 

Phodong      Lama     and      At- 
tendant     ..  ..  ..      2828 

Lamaist  Priests  of  Sikkim. .      2829 
Oriental  Sage  .  .  .  .       28    o 

Sikkim  Village  Headmen  ..  2831 
Unostentatious  Dignity  ..  2831 
Costumed     for      the      Devil 



Procession  of  Red  Lamas  .  .  2833 

Pomp  and  Circumstance     .  .  2834 

Lep<ha  Factory  Girls           ..  2835 

Family  of  Sikkim  Bhotias  .  .  2836 

Professional  Performe  s      ..  2S37 
Mendicancy  in  the  Name  of 

Vishnu        .  .           .  .           .  .  2838 

Dispensing  Strong  Waters. .  2839 

Pious -Publickv          .  .           . .  2850 

Fakirs  of  India           . .            .  .  2851 

Bare  Feet  and  Red-hot  Cin- 
ders            . .           . .           ..  2851 

Humble  Maha  Dwellin ;      .,  2852 

Low-caste  Indians'  Home  . .  2852 

Potte    at  Work         . .           . .  2853 

Nearing  Completion             . .  285  5 

Sacred  City  of  Hardwar      . .  2855 
Godliness      Dependant      on 

Cleanliness             . .           .  .  2856 

Rive_  Baptism          .  .           .  .  2857 

Hindu  M'ffrims  Forgathered  2858 
Printing  Works  near  Poona  2859 
Girl    Members    of    the    Aris- 
tocracy      . .           . .           . .  2860 

In  a  Lucknow  Bazaar        ..  2861 

"  Creeping  Like  Snail  "       ..  2862 

Indian  Confinement  Hut    ..  2863 

Survivals  of  Prehistoric  Man  2864 

At  Archery  Practice    .-•       . .  2864 

Photographs  in  the  Text  (contd.) 

Group  of  Andamanese 
Enjoying  Dance  and  Song.  . 
Tripping  Toes 
Devotion's      Every      Grace 

A  Job  for  a  Crane 
Hawkers  of  the  Himalayas 
Papier  M&che  Merchant      . . 


By  the  River's  Brim 
An  Arab  Aristocrat 
Amara  Gold  and  Silversmith 
Beating  out  the  Gold 
Jewess  of  Bagdad 
Dark  Eyes  of  Araby 
Dinner  and  Devotion 
Peace  in  a  Backwater 
Drawers  of  Water 
Arab  Shoemakers  of  Bagdad 
Market  bv  the  Mosque 
Their  Lawful  Occasions 
The  Bridge  of  Boats 
A  Bagdad  Bazaar 
Descendants  of  Nomad  Stock 
Beduin  of  the  Inner  Desert 
Deft  Fingers  and  Prehensile 


Paddling  Canoes 

Quaint  Basket  Boats 

Fresh  Fruit  and  Vegetables 

Tinsmith's  Shop 

Bearded  Weaver  of  Bagdad 

Warp  and  Weft 

Outside  a  Cafe 

Caravanserai  of  Kerbela     . . 

Wayside  Barber  of  Irak      . . 

Man  with  Two  Trades 

To  Heights  of  Learning  Bred 

Arabic  Witchery  Unveiled.  . 

In  the  Fast  of  Ramadan      . . 

Carnage    Self  -  wrought     at 


In  a  Grove  of  Date  Palms  . . 
Gathering  the  Fruits  of  the 


Treading  Down  the  Dates  . . 
Activity  on  Ashar  Creek     .  . 
Western  Devices 
Pride  of  Pottery 
Semi-final  Stage 
Earthenware  Factory 
Last  Stage  of  All 
A  Human  Air  Pump 
Floating  Made  Easy 
On  Tigris  Stream 
Professional  Scribe 
Lordly  Indolence 

Barefoot  Beauty 

Ulster  Linen  Factory  Girls 

Off  to  the  Races 

Dail  Eireann 

Ulster's  Cabinet  in  Conclave 

At    the    Ratification   of    the 


Barges  on  the  Liffey 
Blessing  the  Irish  Tricolour 
Shedding  the  Archiepiscopal 

Procession  of  Orangemen  .  . 
Smiling  and  Pensive  Shyness 

Ould  Pat 

With     Petticoat     over     her 

Connemara  Cabin 
Irish    Schoolboys    in    Petti- 
Irish  Jaunting-car 
Burning  Seaweed  for  Kelp. . 
Two  Ragged  Kelp-burners.  . 
Stacking  Sods  of  Peat 
Hauling  Cut  Peat  Home     . . 
When  the  Load  is  Welcome 
An  Old-fashioned  Wheel   . . 
Awaiting  a  Bite 
Waiting  for  the  Doctor 
Maternal  Pride 
Ninety-seven  and  Three     . . 
In  the  Dress  of  the  Straw 

Fishermen  of  Inishmaan    . . 
WThere     Simple     Inventions 













An  Illicit  Still  ..  ..  2953 

Sampling  their  Potheen      ...  2953 
Last     Journey    to    a    Long 

Home         2954 

Young  Ireland  .  .  .  •  2956 
Off  to  Galway  Market  ..  2957 
The  Day's  Work  Done  .  .  2958 
Friendship  and  Contentment  2960 
Little  Pitchers  .  .  .  .  2961 
Six  Little  Pigs  go  to  Market  2962 
Smoking  the  Pipe  of  Re- 
membrance ..  ■•  2964. 
Funeral  Procession  on  Inish- 
maan ...  .  .  •  .  2965 
Coracles  of  West  Ireland  . .  2966 
Home-made  Footgear  .  .  2967 
Wending      her      Homeward 

Way  2968 

Three  Fishers  of  Aran  ..  2972 

Looking  Pleasant     .  .  . .  2974 

Not  so  Old  as  her  Cloak      . .  2976 

Venice,  Oueen  of  the  Adriatic  2978 
Debutante  from  Calabria  .  .  2979 
The  Passing  of  a  Pontiff  of 

Rome         2980 

His  Holiness  Pope  Pius  XI.  2981 
Women  Fascisti  on  Parade  2982 
An  Inspection  of  Patriots  .  .  2982 
Stalwarts  of  the  Police  . .  2983 
Privates  of  the  Bersaglieri . .  2984 
Italian  Dragoons      .  .  .  .      29S5 

Fruitful  Corner  of  the  Plain  2986 
Professional  Letter-writers  2988 
On  a  Road  to  Rome  .  .      2989 

Triumph     Immortalised     in 

Stone  2989 

Oil  and  Wine  Shop  . .  . .      2990 

Workgirls  of  Naples  .  .      2991 

Popular  Open-air  Restaurant    2991 
Grizzled        Fisherman        of 

Salerno       . .  .  .  .  .      2992 

Artless     Neapolitan     Child- 
hood .  .  . .  . .      3009 

Bay  of  Naples  ..  ..      3°i° 

Inexhaustible  Match  of  the 

Neapolitan  .  .  . .      3011 

Garish  Neapolitan  Life       ..      3012 
Mothers'  Meeting     .  .  .  .      3013 

Favourite  Haunt  of  Palermo     3014 
Makers  of  Macaroni  ..      3015 

Inmate  of  the  Certosa  Mon- 
astery        .  .  . .  .  .      3OI6 

Franciscan  Friars     .  .  .  .      3017 

Florentine  Brother  of  Mercy     3018 
Bearing  a  Dead  Brother      ..      3019 
Honouring  the  Holy  Virgin      3020 
Comely  Peasant  Maidens   ..      3021 
On  the  Quayside  of  Palermo     3022 
Day  of   Religious   Rejoicing     3023 
Taormina's  Market  Place  . .      3024 
Business,  Duty,  and  Gossip     3025 
Sicilian  Cottage  Home         ..      3026 
Piping    in     Honour    of    the 

Madonna   .  .  .  .  . .      3027 

Almond  Blossom  in  Sicily  .  .      3028 
Unconventional  Sicily         .  .      3029 
Toy  Beast  of  Burden  . .      3030 

Hirsute  Paying  Guests        . .     3030 
Priestly  Dignity       ..  ..    '3031 

Sicilian  Mountaineer  . .      3032 

Transport  in  Sicily  . .  . .      3033 

The  Evening  Hour  . .  . .      3034 

Story-teller  of  Catania        . .      3035 
Running      Liquid      Sulphur 

into  Moulds  .  .  . .      3036 

Dumping-place   for  Sulphur     3036 
Weighing  Bags  of  Sulphur.  .      3037 
Loading  a  Steamer  ..  ..      3037 

Pulping  Sicilian  Tomatoes  .  .      3038 
Cooking  Tomato  Pulp         .  .      3038 
Sorting  the  Fruit     . .  . .      3039 

Tomato   Sauce  before   Tin- 
ning . .  . .  . .      3039 

Gathering  Fruit  from  Prickly 

Pear  . .  . .  . .      3040 

Hardy  Young  Couple          . .      3041 
Sardinian    Grace    and    Gen- 
tility   3°42 

Sunlight  and  Shade.  .  ,.      3043 

Returning  from  Market       . .      3044 


Glinting  Copper  and  Gleam- 
ing Tin 
Scions  of  a  Sturdy  Stock  . . 
Confidence  and  Affection  .. 
Heart  of  Modern  Venice  . . 
Feeding  the  Feathered  Flock 
Dark-eyed    Daughter    of 

Midday  Refreshment 
Water:front    near    Ducal 

Simple  Folks  of  Burano      . . 
Revered  Industry  of  Murano 
Venetian  Hearse-Boat 
Fragrant  Flowers  for  Sale  . . 
Old  Seaman  of  Capri 
Sugared      Drinks      for      the 

Modena's   Medieval   Master- 

Paduan  Market  Place 

Piazza  delle  Erbe 

Practising  the  Tarantella   .  . 

Nuns  of  Convent  near 

Good  Samaritans  of  the  Alps 

Quayside  of  Trieste 

Glimpse  of  the  Grand  Canal 

Istria's  Historic  Seaport      . . 

Country  Road  near  Pola     . . 

Wayside  Scene  in  Istria 

Istrian  Land  Labourer 

Healthy  Specimens  of 

Braving  the  Boisterous 

Giant  Blocks  of  Marble 

Transporting    Marble    to 
the  Quay 

Fishing-smack  from  Pola  . . 

Waters  of  Lake  Como 

Brightly   Gleaming  Banners 

Goatherds  of  Southern  Italy 

Busv  By-street 

Representatives  of  Slavonic 

Fisher  Folk  of  Naples 

Roadside  Siesta 

Istrian  Piety  and  Propriety 

Bordighera's  Roman  Gate- 

Gossip  in  Old  San  Remo     .  . 

Ruins  of  the  Forum 

Model  Farm  Premises 

Pastorale  Piper  of  Capri      . . 

Italian  Colonies 

The  Waterman's  Knock    . . 
Valour    Enhanced    by    Dis- 
Spiritual  Guides 
Blacks  and  Whites,  in  Con- 
Young  Maids  of  Italy 
Libyan  Dancing  Girl 
From  Tripoli's  Towner 
Modesty     Stealing     to 

Swarthy  Charms 
Helmet  and  Mask    .  . 
Jewish  Nuptials 
Parliament  at  Benghazi 

























List  of  Maps 

Georgia  ..  ■•  ■■  2353 

Germany  . .  ■  -  -  -  2455 

Greece 2533 

Guatemala         ..  ■•  ■■  2555 

Haiti 2573 

Hawaii 2593 

Hejaz 2^15 

Honduras  2630 

Hungary  2685 

Iceland  27°3 

India 286« 

Irak        ■■  *9g 

Ireland 2'^ 

Italy 3ioi 

Libya 3109 

Eritrea  and  Italian  Somahland  3120 

of   All   Nations 


nssusasan@B@i3sana3gui]Bii]g@gi5i!agB|s|Binsi§]Bi§i mmm  ®mm 



























































Their  Life  Today  and 
the  Story  of  their  Past 

By      Our     Foremost 
Travel    Anthropology 

Writers     of 
&    History- 

Illustrated  with  upwards  of  5000 
Photographs,     numerous     Colour 

Plates,  and    150   Maps 


Edited   by 

A.    Hammerton 


Pages   3121-3888 

Japan   to  Oman 





Published  at  THE    FLEETWAY  HOUSE  London  E.C. 









Photo,  G.  P.  Lewis 












See  page  3702 

Frontispiece —  Vol,   V 



Descriptive   and  Historical  Chapters 

Japan    I.    The  Rev.  Walter  Weston 

II.   Joseph  II.  Longford 
Khiva.  Sirdar  IkbcU  Ali  Shah 
Korea  I.   F.  A.  McKenzie      .. 
II.   F.  A.  McKenzie     .  . 
Latvia.      Florence  Farmborough 
Lebanon.      The  Rev.   Dr.   Ewing 
Liberia.     Hamilton  Fyfe 
Liechtenstein.     Edward  Wright 
Lithuania.    Florence  Farmborough 
Luxemburg.     Edward  Wright 
Madagascar.    Walter  D.   Marcuse 
Manchuria.   Sir  Alexander  Hosie 
Mexico   I.      Hamilton   Fyfe     .  . 

II.  C.  R.  Enoch 
Monaco.  Herbert  Vivian 
Mongolia.  Arthur  de  Carle  Sowerby 






Montenegro.      Alexander  Devine      ..  3533 

Morocco  I.     A.  MacCallum  Scott     ..  3561 

II.      W.   B    Harris     ..  .  .  3591 

Nepal.     Percy  Brown  .  .  ■  ■  3597 

The  Netherlands  I.  D.  S.  Meldrum  361 1 

II.  G.  Edmundson  3666 

u  III.  Richard  Curie.  .  3673 

Newfoundland    I.   Hon.    Sir  Patrick 

McGrath  .  .  3741 

II.    Wilfred  T.Grenf ell  3758 

„  III.  Lord  Morris       .  .  3771 

New  Zealand   I.    W.  P ember  Reeves  3777 

II.   A.  D.  Innes  . .  3817 

Nicaragua  I.   Hamilton  Fyfe  ..  3821 

II.   Percy  F.   Martin  .  .  3830 

Norway   I.  A .   MacCallum  Scott       .  .  3833 

II.   J.   A.   Brendan     ..  ..  3877 

Oman.      The  Rev.  Dr.  Ewing    ..  ..  383 

List  of  Colour  Plates 

Facing  page 
Japan  :  Fuji-san's  Eternal  Snow         . .      3169 
New  Year  Greetings  .  .  .  .      3170 

Iris  Garden  of  Horikiri  ..      3 171 

Human  Butterflies  .  .  .  .      3T72 

A  Japanese  Garden  .,  ..      3X73 

Servant  of  Buddha  .  .  .  .      3*74 

Guest  and  Hostess  . .  .  .      3175 

Sisters  of  Japan 3J76 

Latvia  :  Peasant  Broiderers  of  Rucava  3288 
Liechtenstein  :  Peasant  Maid  of  Vaduz  3342 
Mongolia  :  Lady  of  High  Degree      .  .      3520 

Netherlands  :  Pictured  Beauty 
Netherlands,   East  Indies  : 

Balinese  Dancing  Girl 

Native  Chief  of  Bali 

Young  Social   Butterfly    .  . 

Javanese  Man  and   Woman 

Balinese  Couple 

Corner  of  Old  Bali 

Roadside  Scene  in  Bali  .  . 

Flowers  of  the  Malay  Race 
Norway  :  Daughter  of  the  Snowfields 

Facing  page 






In  Liberated  Latvia 

Charming  Lettish  Girl         .  .  3273 

In  Well-Timbered  Latvia  .  .  3274 

Thoroughfare  of  Ludze        .  .  3275 

Lettish  Costumes     .  .  .  .  3276 

Harvesting  the  Fruits  of  the 

Earth  3=77 

Happv  Peasant  Family      . .  3277 

After  "the  Flax  Harvest      .  .  3278 

Engaged  in   a  Prosaic  Task  3279 
First  Parliament  of  the  Free 

State  of  Latvia     .  .  .  .  3280 

In   Lovely   Lebanon 

Fisherman  Uncoiling  net    .  .  3297 

Preparing  for  the  Winter   .  .  3298 

At  the  Old  Village  Fountain  3299 

Sarba's  Bazaar  .  .  .  .  3300 

Druse  Chief's  House  .  .  330T 

In  a  Druse  Village  .  .  .  .  3302 

Vagrants  in  the  Lebanon    ..  3303 

Young  Druse  Bride  .  .  3304 

Through  Madagascar 

Malagasy  Coiffeuse  .  .  3401 

Transplanting  Rice  Plants  3402 

Digging  in  the  Rice  Fields  .  .  3403 

Men  of  the  Bara     .  .  .  .  34°+ 

Malagasy  Fisherfolk  . .  3405 

Members      of      a      Christian 

Congregation         .  .  .  .  34°6 

A  Dance  of  the  Hova         .  .  3407 

Wife  of  a  Chief  of  Mayotte .  .  340S 

Ex-Sultan  of  Grand  Comoro  3409 

Girls  of  the  Tanala.  .  ..  3410 

Pages  in  Photogravure 

The  Once  Dominant  Sakalava  34 11 

Betsimisaraka  Women        .  .  34r2 

Malagasy  Musicians              .  .  3413 

Dance  of  the  Tanala            .  .  3414 

Two  Dancers  Performing  .  .  3414 

Pantomimic  Dance.  .           ..  3415 

Muscular  Dance  Movements  3415 

A  Rest  by  the  Roadside    . .  3416 

Native  Mexico 

Mexican    Caballero..          ..  3481 

An  Inhospitable  Window  .  .  3482 

Peons  of  Mexico       .  .           .  .  3483 

Untrained  Mexican  Musicians  3483 

Tehuana  Woman's  Headgear  3484 

Cactuses  of  Mexico. .           ..  3485 

At  the  Well 3486 

Strong   Young   Waterbearer  3487 

In  Aguas  Calientes..           ..  3488 

Montenegrins  of  To-Day 

King  Nicholas  of  Montenegro  3337 

Open-air  Market  of  Cetigne  3538 

Borne  by  Comrades              .  .  3539 

Slopes  of  Black  Mountain  3540 

Market  of  Cattaro  . .          . .  3540 

Blind  Minstrel  of  Cetigne  ..  3541 

The  Village  of  Kouzenista. .  3542 

Dancing  the  Kolo    .  .           .  .  3543 

Queen  Milena  of  Montenegro  3544 

Netheri-anders  at  Home 

Spinning  at  Hindeloopen   .  .  3625 

Big  Sabots    .  .           .  .           .  .  3626 

Women  of  Volendam           . .  3627 

On  the  Quav  at.  Volendam  .  .  3628 

By  the  Capstan         .  .           . .  3629 

A  Replica  of  Father            .  .  3630 

In  the  Land  of  Windmills .  .  3631 

A  Dutch   Interior    .  .           .  .  3632 

Leeuwarden  Women            ..  3633 

Fishwife  of  Middelburg      . .  3634 

Bargaining  on  Marken         .  .  3^35 

Learning  without  Tears     .  .  3636 

Marken  Islander       .  .           .  .  3637 

Children  of  Staphorst         .  .  3638 

Village  School  at  Volendam  3639 

Classroom  on  Marken  Island  3639 

In  a  Zealand  Church           .  .  3640 

Among  the  Maoris  of  New 

Maori  Matron            .  .           .  .  3809 

Popular    Maori   Amusement  3810 

Communal  Carved  House  ..  38  rr 

Maori  Girl  and  tier  Husband  38r2 

Maori  Romeo  and  Juliet   ..  38r3 

Old  Maori  in  War  Paint      . .  3814 

Maori   Matron           .  .           .  .  3815 

Maori    Chief 3816 


Hardy  Norsemen      .  .            .  .  3849 

Driving  in  the  Stolkiaerre. .  3850 

A  Saetersdal  Home              . .  3850 

Naero  Fjord              .  .           .  .  3851 

A  Norwegian  Cinderella     .  .  3852 

Skaut  of  the  Hardanger  Wife  3853 

High    Hopes    and    Hearts  3§54 

Norwegian   Baptismal   Font  3855 

Girls  of  Hallingdal .  .           ..  3856 

Photographs  in  the   Text 


Ainu  Girl's  Tattooed  Lips.  .  3121 

Widow's  Weeds  in  Hokkaido  3122 

Amu   Aristocrats      ..  ..  3123 

Personable    Ami!    Manhood  3124 

Work  and  Small  Comfort  .  .  3125 

Intelligent   but   Credulous..  3126 

Hirsute  Adornment  .-.  3127 

Tattooed   Lady  at  her  Loom  3128 

Speeding  Winged  Death     .  .  3129 

Riding  Pillion  in  Hokkaido  3130 

Bearded  like  the  Pard         ..  3131 

In  Japan's  Vivid  Capital    .  .  3152 

Little  People  tor  Little  Girls  3133 

A  Japanese  Farewell  .  .  3*34 

Greetings    on    the   Quayside  313S 

Buddhist  Funeral  Procession  3136 

Wayfaring  Votaries  of  Shinto  3137 

Traffic  in  Kyoto       . .  -  .  3I3^ 

Gates  That  Never  Close     .  .  3L39 

In   Memory  of  Other  Years  3140 

Priests  of  Mausoleum  .  .  3I4I 

Abbess  of  Nara         .  .  .  .  3*42 

Raiment  of  BudclhistRitual  3143 

Shrine  of  lyemitsu..  ..  3I44 

Demon  or  PeonyGate  .  .  3145 

Adoration  of  Jizo    ..  ..  3I4G 

Protector  of  AH  Children    .  .  3*47 

Kameido's  Silent  Pool        .  .  3148 

Devotee  of  Buddha  .  .  3^49 

Ancient    Shinto    Symbolism  3150 

Veteran  of  Buddhism  .  .  315* 

Fishing-God  Festival  ..  3152 

Cormorant  Fishing  .  .  . .  3*53 

Shepherd  of  the  Ocean       . .  3*54 

Poling  his  Crait        .  .  .  .  3*55 

Snow-capped  Shirouma       .  .  3X56 

Country  Cousin  in.  Town      .  .  315? 

At  the  Fo_pt  of  Fujiyama      .  .  3L58 

Torii  at  Omiva  .  .  ■  ■  3*59 

Countrv  Children      .  .  .  .  3160 

Under  the  Shady   Bamboos  3161 

Cock  of  the  Walk  from  Kochi  3162 

Huntsmen  of  the  Flida       . .  3*63 

Veteran  Hunter-guide         ..  3l64 

Hunters  of  Crag  and  Glen.  .  3165 

Peasant  of  the  Japanese  Alps  3166 

Village  Mayors  of  Aomori..  3167 

Japanese  Mumming  Birds. .  3168 

Scanning  the  Future  ..  3*77 

Winter  in  Aomori  Prefecture  3r7S 

In  Quest  of  the  Pearl  . .  3*79 

Wielding  the  Hammer        . .  3180 

Coopers  at  Work     .  .  .  .  3*81 

Hoeing  up  the  Rice  Grounds  3r82 

Japanese  Plough      ..  ..  3*82 

Young  Rice 3*83 

Rice  Harvest  . .  .  .  3*83 

Grinding   the   Leaves  of  Tea  3184 

At  their  Favourite  Task     ..  3185 

Painting  Cloisonne  Ware  . .  3186 

Firing  Fnamels        ..  ■•  3l87 

Faience      Fresh     from      the 

Furnace     ..  ..  •  ■  3l8S 

Porcelain  Lanterns..  ..  3189 

Sweet  Strains  ..  ■  ■  3*9° 

String  Duet 3190 

A  Pause  in  the  Performance  3191 

Hat  and  Mask  Combined    . .  3191 

Repairing   a   Silkworm  Tray  3192 

Factory  Hands  Reeling  Silk  3193 

Wedding  Ceremony  ..  3*94 

Arranging    Flowers..  ■•  3*95 

Plaving  "  Fox   and  Geese"  3I95 

Woman's  Aid  .  .  .  .  3*97 

At  Ease  in  the  Inn.  .  .  .  3*98 

Skilled   Makers    of    Melodies  3199 

Mending  the  Walls  of  a  House  3200 

The  Cheering  Cup    .  .  .  .  3201 

Serving  Tea  to  Guests        ..  3202 

Gardener's  Skill        .  .  .  .  3203 

In  his  Best  Bib  and  Tucker  3204 

Artistic  Service  of  a  Repast  3205 
Garden  of  the  Goldfish  Tea- 
house .  .  .  .  ■  ■  3206 
Under  the  Maples  ..  ..  3207 
The  Playmates  of  Stone  .  .  320S 
Miniatures        of        Nature's 

Masterpieces  ..  .  .  3209 

In  a  Temple  Garden  . .  32*0 

Young  Patriots  at  Drill      . .  32 11 
Among       the       Groves       of 

Kamakura  .  -  ■  •      3212 

Spirit  of  the  Mountain 

Portable  Shrine 

Pilgrims  Climbing  Fujiyama 

Suany  Eastern  Smile 

Gilyak  Woman 

Mongol  Maiden 

Shinto  Procession  at  Kyoto 

Imperial  Chariot  on   a  Tour 


Grateful  Sweetness 

Turbaned  Rider  of  the  Desert 

Dark-skinned   Dancing   Boy 

Woman  of  the  Kirghiz 

When  the  Muezzin  Calls    .  . 

Blacksmith  of  the  Tajiks.. 

Khivan     Caravanserai     at 

Drab   Dwellings  of   Khiva 

Watering  the  Sandy  Soil   .  . 

Soviet  Official 

Passing    Puffs 

Patriarch  of  the  Sarts 

A     "  Smooth-faced     Gentle- 
man " 

Neatness  Severely   Plain    .  . 

Little  Son  o'   Mine 

Martial  Dignity 

Crowning  a  Korean  Bride.. 

Juvenile  Drawer  of  Water.  , 

Bowmen  of  the   Guard 
Korean  National  Pastime.. 

In  Preparation  for  a  Family 

In  the  Streets  of  Seoul 

Europeanised   Koreans 

Commercial  Seoul  Quartette 

In    the  Land  of   Hats 

Fresh  Fuel  for  the  Furnaces 

Korean  Porter 

In    the    Village  Smithy 

Seoul  Coppersmith.. 

Monster      Steeds      for      the 
Emperor's  Soul 

Sorrow's  Sympathetic  Shade 

Straw  Shoes  for  Sale 

Unchanged      in      Changing 

My  Lady's  Dress 

Washing-day    in    a    Hillside 

Encouraged  to  their  Labours 
Priestlv  Servitors 

Youth  and  Wrinkled  Age.. 

Specimens    of    the    Hatter's 


Litigants  in  a  Native  Court 

"  Wearing  o'   the  Green  "., 
Survival  of  Ancient  Regalia 
Attractive  Apparel  of  Latvia 
Turning  the  Hay 
Handsome   Rustic  Trio 
Well-earned    Refreshment.  . 
Where  Honey  Spells  Money 
The  Man  with  the  Scythe.  . 
Latvian  Peasant  Homestead 
Latvian  Fishing  Station 
Representatives      of      the 

Ancient  Baits 
Transhipping  Imported  Salt 
In  a  Riga  Porcelain  Factory 
Famous  Songstress  of  Latvia 
Gathering  of  Country  Carts 
Preparing  for  Festival 
Hoisting  their  Country's  Flag 
Lettish  Boys  and  Girls  .  . 
Men  of  the  Liberty  Army.  . 
Laundry      Day      with      the 

Farmer's  Wife 
Exploiting      the      Resinous 


Promoter  of  Industry 

Arduous    Field  Work 
Peaceful  Life  of  the  Druse. . 
Cedars  on  the  Slopes 
Lebanon's  "Glory" 
Amid  the  Mountain  Heights 
Gathering      In      the      Olive 

Rugged  as  his  Native  Hills 
Children's  Springtime  Task 


32 1 S 



32  34 















Golden  Caskets 

Buving    Silk    in    its    Cocoon 

In    a   Silk    Factory 

Simple  Appliances  and  Skil- 
ful Fingers 

Shepherds'  Restful  Leisure 

Smiling  Young   Faces 

Virile  Villagers  of  Lebanon 

Bearers   of  the  Burden 

Proclaiming  Great  Lebanon 
a  State 

"  Remembering        Affliction 
and   Misery  " 

Druse    Muleteers 

Black  Beauty  of  Monrovia . . 

Witch-doctor  in  his  Panoply 

Masks  of  the  Devil  Dancers 

A  Duet  upon  Balafons 

Street  of  a  Liberian   Village 

Dressed  in  their  Sunday  Best 

Liberia's    President 

Picked    Troops   of    Liberia's 

Dusky    Villagers     About     to 

Kru  Hunter  After  Big  Game 

Floating  Bridge 

Women    of    a     Mahomedan 

Vine-dresser  at   Ease 

In  a  Rustic  Shack 

Old  Age  in  Liechtenstein.. 

Hand-carved    Ch  air    in    the 

Mountain    Girlhood 

Pretty    Peasant   Girls 

Libertv-Ioving  Landowners 

Motley  Marketers    .  . 

Awaiting  Relief  Rations    .  . 

After  the  Memorial  Service 

In   Svlvan  Surroundings     .  . 

Humble  Cottage  Home 

Women   Farm-workers 

King  of  the  Pumpkin  Field 

Seamstresses'    Artistry 

Modern    Peasant    Dwelling- 

Weekly  Market  in  Full  Swing 

Absorbed  in  Talmudic  Medi- 

Jewish  Antique  Dealer's  Shop 

Military  Cadets  in  Training 

Welcoming    the    Lithuanian 

When  Jew  and  Gentile  Meet 

Stream    of     Homeless     Hu- 

Girls  in  National  Costume.  . 

Enjoying  Rest  and  Refresh- 

At  the  Grave  of  a  Comrade 

An  Easter  Procession 

Funeral  Train  of  a  Peasant 

President  Opening  an  Exhi- 

Picturesque  Teamster 

Criticising  a  Likely  Deal   .. 

Homely  Tillers  of  the  Soil. . 

At  Home  with  the  Lithuan- 
ian  Peasant 

Corner  of  an  Aerodrome    .  . 

Flying  Officers  of  the  First 

In  a  Luxemburg  Meadow , . 

Guarding  the  Palace  Gate. . 

In  a  Cow  Pasture  of  Gutland 

Setting   Forth   for   the    Hay 

Fruits  of  the.  Hay  Harvest .  . 

Coopers'  Workshop 

Furrows  of  Time's  Ploughing 

Peasant  of  the  Grand  Duchy 

Country  Charms  and  Costume 

Happv     Hearts     in     Black 

Malagasy  Equilibrists 

Hat  Factory  of  Imerina    . . 






332  3 

333 1 




334  1 

334  6 













Photographs  in  the  Text  (cont'd,) 

Wide-spread  Village  Industry 
Weaving  Mats 
Simple  Appliances 
Easy  Work  for  the  Malagasy 
Through    Madagascar's    Up- 
land  Villages 
His  Reverence  Goes  Visiting 
Shaping  the  Clay 
Three  Zafimaniry  Graces    .  . 
Betsileo  Potters  at  Work.. 
Strength  in  Dusky  Tresses  .  . 
Bezanozano  Beauty's  Braids 
How  Malagasy  Ladies  Travel 
Hova  Fashions  in  Coiffure.  . 
Proud  King's  Daughters    . . 
Betsimisaraka  Mother 
Preparing  Crocodile  Skin     .  . 
Helping  Mother  to  Get  Dinner 
Compromise  in   Costume    .  . 
Dignity  of  .Graceful  Drapery 
Woman's  Daily  Task 
Reaping   Rice  in  Imerina.. 
Refreshments  for  Wayfarers 
Music  in  Mournful  Minor  Key 
Sturdy  Southerner 
Launching  Canoes 
Betsileo  Tomb 
Emblems  of   Power 
Symbolism  of  Primitive  Belief 
Indian  Influence  on  Malagasy 

Children  of  the  Sakalava  .  . 
Sons  of  the   Marshes 
Sakalava  Girl  Gaudily  Dight 
Taimoro  Dame  in  Plain  Attire 
Antanosy  Lady  of  Fashion 
Dulcet  Tones  of  the  Valiha 
Armed  Children  of  the  Forests 

Matting    Sails    of    Crowded 

Shading  a  Shaven  Poll 
Over    Dairen's    Long,    Wide 

Mukden's  Main  Street 
Avenue  of  the  Brass  Bazaar 
Overflowing  the  City   Walls 
Wandering  Mountebanks    .  . 
Bruin  Put  Through  His  Paces 
File  of  Laden  Coolies 
Manchurian  Ladies 
Robed    in    the    Raiment    of 

Walking  Miscellany  of  Rags 
Droshky  that  Plies  for  Hire 
Chemists  in   the   Making    . . 
Learning    Western    Embroi- 
Open  Seams  at  Fushun 
Peasant  Mother 
Special  Type  of  Wheel 
Hungus'  Skilled  Accomplish- 
Mukden   Ragamuffins 
Wayside  Stall  in  Dairen     . . 
Feathered  Death 

Grace  and  Keen  Wits 
Dwellers  by  the  Railway    . . 
Strange  Millinery 
Graceful  Tehuanas 
Water     Carrying    in     Three 

Styles         , 

A  Tehuana  Indian  Threshold 
Market    of    an  Indian  Town 
Indian   Festival  Dance 
Poverty     Corner    in    Mexico 
Simple  Cookery 
Washing-day   in    the   Court- 
Street  Scene  in  the  Capital 
Fete-day  in   Mexico  City    .  . 
In  a  Forest  Retreat 
Mestizas  of  Yucatan 
Famous   Fibre-producing 

Cutting  the  Henequen  Leaves 
Trailing  Mahogany 
Itinerant  Peon   Greengrocer 
Caballero  of  the  Plains 
Pedlar  of  Faggoted  Fuel   .  , 
Cordage  in  the  Making       .  . 


330  3 










345  2 
345  3 





Popular  Local  Industry     ..  3469 
Vulture      of      the      Mexican 

Marauders              ..           ..  347° 

"'  Ei    Buen    Tono  "    Factory  3471 
Where    Mestizo   and   Indian 

Meet            . .           . .           . .  3472 

Marketing  Fruits  in 

Tehuantepec           .  .            .  .  3473 

Loaded  Fruit  Canoes           .  .  3473 

Patience    on    a    Water-wheel  3474 

Mountaineer  from  Guanajuato  3475 

Singing  the  "  Song  of  Songs"  3476 

Dustman   going  his   Rounds  3477 

Sunshine  and   Shade          .   .  .  3477 

Speeding  the  Bullet  of  Death  3478 

Among   the   Outlaws            . .  3478 

Fighting  men  of   Mexico     . .  3479 

Practising  a  Pastime          . .  3479 

Baby's  Cosy  Nest   . .           . .  3480 

After     Recklessness     Regret  3489 

In  a  Plaza  de  Toro. .          . .  349° 

Decorating    their    Relatives' 

Graves        .  .           . .           . .  3491 

"  Here  upon  Guard  am  I  !  "  3492 

Playing  a  Mexican  Marimba  3493 

Amid   Nature's   Disorder      .  .  3494 
Architecture      of      Unknown 

Artists        .  .           .  .           .  .  3494 

Site  of  an  Ancient  Mava  Citv  34Q5 

Amid     Mexico's     Antiquities  3  \.q6 

Mule-drawn  Hearse               .  .  3497 
Bearing     a     Brother     to     the 

Grave          .  .            .  .            .  .  349-8 

Peripatetic   Wickerwork      . .  3499 

Live  Birds  for  Sale.  .           .  .  350° 

Guarding  a  Tunnel  Mouth. .  3501 

Pancake-Day  in  Mexico     . .  3502 

Ffouseholders'  Friendly  Plant  3503 

Grand  Plaza  of  Mexico  City  3504 

La  Condamine's  Gay  Streets  3510 
Tree-girt   Terrace   of    Monte 

Carlo          35*2 

Monaco's   Rock-founded  Town35i3 

Racers  of   the  Shallow  Seas  3514 

Honouring  Sacred  Relics   ..  3515 

At   Monte  Carlo   Regatta    ..  3516 

On  the  Casino  Terrace        . .  3517 

On  a  Caravan  Track            ..  3518 
A          W  a  n  d  er  er          A  m  o  n  g 

Wanderers              . .           . .  3520 

Descendant  of  Jenghiz  Khan  3521 

Mongol  Charms        .  .           . .  3522 

Where   the   Glory   is    in    the  3522 

Crowning                .  .           .  .  3522 

Quaint    Freaks    of    Fashion  3523 

Mongol    Princess       .  .            . .  3524 

Prince  of  the  Mongols          .  .  3525 

Official  Amusement               ,  .  3526 

Mother  and  Daughter          .  .  3527 

Among    the    Rank    and    File  3528 

Versed   in    Mysterious    Lore  3529 

Centaur  of  the  Plains            .  .  3530 

Cowboy  of   the  Gobi  Desert  3531 

Soldiers     Marching     out     of 

Cetigne       .  ,           . .           . .  3532 

Bred  in  the  Mountains         .  .  3534 

Heroines  of  a  Warrior    Race  3535 

Beauty  Simply  Adorned    .  .  3536 

Brilliant   Plumage    .  .            .  .  3545 

Montenegrin   Minstrels        . .  3546 

Fearless   of  any  Foe             ..  3547 

Fiee  on    the   Heights             ..  3548 

Lowly  Roois  of  Rieka          .  .  3549 

How  the  News  is  Carried  ..  3549 

Womanhood  in  its  Prime   .  .  3550 

The  Well  of  Niegouchi         .  .  3551 

Among  his  Native  Rocks   .  .  3552 

Enjoying   the   Midday   Meal  3553 

Content  with  a  Horse  to  Ride  3553 

Gentlewomen  of  Cetigne     . .  3554 

Masculine  Vanity    ..          , ,  3555 
King  Nicholas  Acclaimed  at 

Cetigne       ,  .           .  .           .  .  3556 

Procession  of  Mourners       .  .  3557 
Member      of      the      Church 

Militant 3558 

Fashions  for  Men     .  .           .  .  3559 

Mountains  and  Mountaineers  35  59 


Walls  of  a  Moorish  City     ..  3560 
When  the  Warrior  Smiles..  3561 
At  Post-prandial  Ease        ..  3562 
Letter-writing  by  Proxy     . .  3563 
Dingy  Street  in  Mazagan   ..  3564 
Coverings     that     Cloak     In- 
dividuality            . .           . .  3565 

Hooded  Riders  of  the  West  3566 
White        Donkeys'        Negro 

Burdens     .  .            ..            ..  35&7 

Marrakesh   Cobbler's    Booth  3568 

Bv  Special  Appointment    . .  3569 

In  the  Sultan's  Palace        ..  357° 

Court  of  a  Moorish  House    .  .  3571 

Within  the  Walls  of  Mazagan  3572 
Tetuan's     Greeting     to     the 

Sultan        3573 

in  a  Moorish  Bazaar        .  .  3574 
Charms      that      the     Crowd 

Never  See.  .          . .          .  .  3575 

Oriental  Grace  and   Culture  3576 

Policeman  of  Morocco        ..  3577 

At  Tangier  Market  Place   ..  3578 

King  in  the  Realm  of  Jokes  3579 

Moorish  Minister  of  War    .  .  3580 

Chattel  of  the  Human   Mart  3581 

Woman's    Wiles    and    Ways  35S2 

Gateway  to  Fez       ..           ..  3583 

Bearded  Brethren  of  Barbary  3584 

Sweet  Seventeen       .  .           . .  3586 

Misfortunes  of  Serfdom       ..  3587 

In  Straitened  Circumstances  3588 

Water-cariers    on   the  Sands  35S9 

Dilapidated  Buildings  of  Fez  3590 

Masterpieces    in     Execution  3592 

Ranee  of  Nepal         .  .           .  .  359" 

Decorative  Fashions  of  Nepal  3597 

Material  for  Recruiting      .  .  3598 

Imagery  of  Oriental  Artistry  3599 

Bearers    with    their    Dandy  3600 

Folk  of  the  High  Regions..  3601 

Court  Ladies-in- Waiting     . .  3602 

Fined  by  Life             .  .            .  .  3603 

Favoured    Feminine    Adorn- 
ment           . .            . .            .  .  3603 

Native  Life  in  Patau           .  .  36CM 

Among  the  Women  Weavers  3605 

Nepalese  Mother   and    Child  3600 

Street   Market   Scene           ..  3^07 

Craftsman's  Fancy  .  .           .  .  3607 

The  Holiest   Place  in  Nepal  3608 

Corner  of  Khatmandu        ..  3603 
The   Netherlands 

Evergreen    Old    Age              ,.  361 1 

Six   Little  Hollanders          ..  3612 

Game  of  Skill  and  Hazard.  .  3613 

Happy   Circles   of   Laughter  3614 

On    the    Quay    at    Flushing  3615 

Feeding  the  Baby    .  .            . .  3616 

Victim  of  the  Shifting  Sands  3617 

Workers  on  theMarshes       ..  3618 

In  the  Calm  of  the  Country  3618 

Transforming  Watery  Waste  3"6ig 

Brushwood  Foundation       .  .  3619 
Nature's  Own  Sand  Ramparts  3620 

After  Morning  Service       ..  3621 

Fisher's  Cottage  on  Urk     .  .  3622 

Sunlit  Street  of  Middelburg  3623 

Childhood  Enchanting         . .  3624 
Wor  k  s  h  op     of     a     Diamond 

Cutter         .  .           .  .           .  .  3641 

Keeping    Watch    and    Ward  3642 

By    Katwijk's    Strait    Canal  3643 

In  a  House  of  Old  Holland  3644 

By  Leiden  Canal       ..            ..  3645 

Pile-driving    in    Amsterdam  3646 

Keeping  the  Waters  at  Bay  3647 

When  Springtime  Comes    . .  3647 
Sunday    Morning   Conversa* 

tion               . .            .  .            .  .  3648 

Couple  from  Beijerlandlsland    3649 
Topped  by  the  Sunday  Best  3650 
Law  of  the  Klompen           .,  3651 
Church  Parade  in  Volendam  3652 
By-street    in    Scheveningen  3653 
Practised  Idlers  of  Volendam  3654 
Under  the  Lee  of  a  Store  Shed    3655 
On     the    Way    to    Sunday- 
school         .  .           .  .           .  .  3656" 

In  a  Carriage  made  for  Two  3657 

Photographs  in  the  Text  (contd.) 

Old  and  Young  Holland     ..  365S 

Romance  in   Zealand          . .  3659 

Red  Cheese  of  Edam          . .  3660 

Milkmaid's  Canine  Help    . .  3661 

Breakfast  in  the  Netherlands  3661 
Quiet   Corner   of   the   Singel 

Canal          .  .           . .           . .  3662 

Little  Maids  of  Holland     ..  3663 
Zealand    Islander's     Picture 

Gallery       ..           ..           ..  3664 

Walcheren  Mother  and.  Babe  3665 

Among  Grass-grown  Cobbles  3669 
Netherlands   Colonies 

Troupe  of  Juvenile  Players  3672 
Charms  from  Eastern  Java  3673 
Javanese    Metal-worker       .  .  3674 
Dyeing  Hand-painted  Sarongs  3675 
J avan  Coconut  Plantation.  .  3676 
Sorting  Leaves  of  the  Frag- 
rant Weed             . .           . .  3677 

Sorting  Coffee-beans            ..  3678 

Harvesting  Coffee    .  .           . .  3679 

Drying  the  Cocoa  Bean     . .  3680 

Ploughing  Rice          .  ,            .  .  3681 

Planting  Out   Rice..           ..  3682 

Early  Morning  in  the  Fields  3683 

Native  Harvesters   .  .           .  .  3684 

Shapely    Madurese    Maiden- 
hood           . .           . .           . .  3685 

Ceres  of  the  Javan   Paddy- 
fields           . .           . .           . .  3686 

Dryad  of  the  Tangled  Wood- 
lands          . .           . .           . .  3687 

Carrying    the   Juice   of    the 

Rubber  Tree         .  .           .  .  36S8 

Careful  Incisions  in  the  Bark  3689 

Kapok   Fibre            . .          . .  3690 

Bowed      Under     a      Wool]  v 

Burden       .  .            .  .            . ".  3691 

Roadside  Restaurant  in  Java  3692 

Hand-driven  Wooden  Lathe  3694 

Portable  Restaurant  of  Java  3695 
Combination  of  Ancient  and 

Modern       .  .            .  .            .  .  3696 

Masked  Actors  of  the  Topeng  3697 
Scions  of  Native  Aristocracy  3698 
Litigation  in  Jokjokarta     .  .  3699 
Engaged  in  a  Homely  Occu- 
pation        . .           . .           . .  3700 

In  a  Javan  Opium  Den      ..  3701 
Radiant  Refinement  of  High 

Life            .  .          . .          . ,  3702 

Feminine  Loveliness            .  .  3703 

Unstable  Craft  on  Lake  Toba  3714 

Boating  on  Palembang  River  3714 
Pile-built     Hut      of     Pageh 

Island         .  .           .  .           .  .  3715 

Talent    of    an    Inland    Hill 

People        .  .           .  .           .  .  3715 

Tropic  Garden  of  the  Gods.  .  3716 

Sumatran   Beau        ..           ..  3717 

In  a  Balinese  Compound   . .  3718 

Graceful  Drawers  of  W'ater  3719 

Busy  Domesticity  in  Java. .  3720 

Man  and  Wife  of  Bali         .  .  3721 

Intent  on  a  Favourite  Pastime  3722 


Fruitful  Source  of  Bets 
Huge  Ear-rings 
A  Javan   Homestead 
Manufacturing  the  Sarong. . 
A  Bugis  Domain  in  Buton  .  . 
Member   of    an    Industrious 

Trappings    of    a    Brief    Au- 
Accoutred  for  a  Native  Dance    3730 
Dwellers  on  Celebes'  Northern 

Coast  . .  . .  . .      3731 

Home  Life  in  Celebes  . ,  3732 
Archery  for  the  Fisherman  3733 
In  a  New  Guinea  Forest 
Real  Weeds  for  Widows  . . 
Doyen  of  an  Up-river  Tribe 
Piccaninnies      from      Dutch 

New  Guinea 
Blowing  Tinder  into  Flame 
Little  People  of  New  Guinea 
Guiana  Huntsmen's  Arma- 
Home  of  the  Indian's  Wife 

Caribou  Fallen  to  the  Hunter     3740 
Whale-killing  Harpoon       . .      3741 






Cutting   Off   the  Flukes      .. 
Cutting    Up    a    Hump-back 


Ready    to      Deal     With    a 

Hump-back  Whale 
Discharging  a  Cargo  of  Cod 
Unloading  Raw  Seal  Skins 
Bent  Rod  and  Taut  Line  .  . 
Seal  Ships    F'rozen    In 
Feeding   the    Logs    into   the 

Proper   Channels.. 
In   a   Lumber  Camp 
En  Route  for  the  Old  World 
Logging  Crews  at   Work    . . 
In    the  Grinder   Room 
What   Once    were   Towering 

Machine     that     Combines 

Several   Processes 
Amenities  of  Civilization  .  , 
Finishing-room    of    a    Paper 


Canoeing  on  the  Humber    .  . 
Initiates  in   the  Mysteries  of 

Punting  on    the  Ice 
Born   to   the  Chase 
Mother-love  and  Baby  Glee 
Winter  Campaign  in  Labrador 
Afoot  on  the  Atlantic 
Offspring  of   Proud   Eskimo 

Concessions     to     Foreign 

Driving   Eight-in-hand 
Welcome  Interval  of  Rest. . 
Richly  Clad  in  Sealskin 
Boning   Reindeer  Meat 
Camping  Out  for  the  Summer 

Fishing       .  .       >    . , 
Okak   Villager 
Sons  of  an   Icy  Soil 
New  Zealand 

Old  Age  Tastefully  Tattooed 
Loading  Stalks  of  Phormium 
Sorting    Fleece    for    Export 
Homing  Flocks 
Compulsory   Bath 
Living  Sea   of   Wool 
Shearers  on  a  Sheep-run    . . 
Beneath  the  Pile  of  Tarawera 
Whales    on     the    Beach     at 

At  the  Saw's  Last  Stroke.. 
Trunk     that     Dwarfs     both 

Men  and  Tools 
Hauling  Logs  to  the  Sawmill 
Jacking     Logs     on      to     the 

Rattling     along     a      Rough 

Travelling  the  Skipper's  Drive 
Poi    Dancers    at    Whakare- 

In  a  Maori  Village 
Clapping  in  Merry  Unison  . . 
Sturdy  Maori  Soldier 
Timber  Fighting  Tower 
Washing  in  a  Pool. . 
Where  Nature  Provides  Hot 

Maori  Amazon 
Nose  to  Nose  in  Salutation 
Flax  Mat-making  before  her 


Wrinkles   and  Tattooing    . . 

Warmly  Wrapped  in  Flax  . . 

Jovial   Maori 

Maori   Warpaint 

Earth's  Most  Splendid  Savage 

Survivor  of  a   Disappearing 

Feathered     Tresses      Frame 

Smiling  Faces 
Comely  Cloaked  Cooks 
Foreign         Dress  ;         Spoilt 

Wild  and  Flowing  Locks    . . 

Where  the  San  Juan   Flows 
Nicaraguan  Son   of  the  Soil 
Fighting  the  Dreaded  Hook- 



3  744 
374  5 

374  9 




3 -Go 
















Parade  of  Conscripts 
Lessons  in  Growing  Tobacco 
Keeping  a   Religious  Fiesta 
Ancient  Masks  of  Wood   . , 
Lowly   Contentment 
Landing-stage    of     Granada 
Weavers     of     the     Mosquito 
Slow-moving       Wheels       in 


New  Faces  in  Old  Sur- 
Warden  of  Vik,  Hardanger 
Pleasurable  Anticipation  .. 
On  the  Hallingdal  Hills  .. 
In       Christiania's        Market 

Royal  Palace  of  Trondhjem 
Bergen's    Vegetable    Market 
Recording   their  Votes 
Quayside    Scene    at    Bergen 
On    the    Waters  of  Simodal 

Harvesting   Barley 
Drying  Hay  Crops 
Bringing  Home  the  Flay    . . 
All   Hands  to   the  Rakes    . . 
Confidential      Tittle-tattle.  . 
Waylaying       the       Unwary 

Angling  for  Trout 
End  of   a    Satisfactory    Day 
After  the  Day's  Work- 
Negotiating  a  Jump 
Ski-ing  Derbv  of  Norwav   . . 
Small  Folk  of  the  Far  North 
Children    on   Swing-Ladders 
In    the   Mountain    Valley   of 

Inmates     of     an      "  Eagle's 

Nest  " 
How  they  go  to  Church     . . 
Goat-girl  of  the  Sogne  Valley 
Maids  of  Norway     ., 
In  a  Peasant's  Cottage 
In  a  Log  Cabin  of  Oie 
Harbour  of  Aandalsnaes    .  . 
On    the    Road    from    Ulvik 

to  Red 

Childhood   in    the   Cheerless 

Costumes  of  the  North 
Nomadic      People      of      the 

Wilderness  .  .         -  . . 

Dyreskard    Pass 
Family  of  Migratory  Lapps 
After  the  Christening  Service 

Home  from  the  Pilgrimage 
Modesty  Grotesquely  Masked 
Pleasing      Smiles      Disarm 

Packing  Muscat  Dates 
Landward    View  of   Muscat 

hist  of  M 
















Nepal     .. 


Dutch   East  Indies      .. 

Dutch   West   Indies     .. 

Newfoundland  and  Labrador 

New  Zealand 


















35 1 1 


of  All   Nations 











































Their  Life  Today  and 
the  Story  of  their  Past 

By      Our     Foremost 
Travel    Anthropology 

Writers     of 
&    History 

Illustrated  with   upwards  of  5000 

Photographs,     numerous     Colour 

Plates,  and    150   Maps 

Edited  by 

J.   A.   Hammerton 

Pages   3889-4672 

Palestine  to  Sin-Kiang 

Published  at  THE   FLEETWAY  HOUSE  London  E.G. 










































































f   , , 



See  page   3948 

frontispiece —  Vol.    VI 

row  ME  SIX 


Descriptive  and  Historical  Chapters 

Palestine    I.  Herbert  Bentivich         .  .  3SS9 

II.  Leonard  Stein  . .  3951 

Panama  I.  Hamilton  Fyfe      .  .  . .  3957 

II.  Percy  F,  Martin  . .  3966 

Paraguay  I.  H.  F.  Notley    . .  . .  3969 

II.   W.  H.  Koebel  ..  ..  3981 

Persia  I.   Sir  Percy  Sykes     .  .  . .  3985 

.  ,,        II.  Sir  Percy  Sykes     ..  ..  4031 

Peru  I.  G.  M.  Dyott 4039 

,,     II.   C.  R.  Enoch 4077 

Philippine  Islands.     Arnold,   Wright  4081 

Poland  I.   Florence  F armborough     ..  41 13 

II.  Lieut.-CoL  F.  E.  Whitton  4141 
Portugal  I.   Professor  George    Young  4147 

,,  II.   Francis  Gribble  .  .  4195 

III.  Professor  George  Young  4201 
Rhodesia  C.  Lestock  Reid  . .  ..  42 11 
Rumania  I.  Florence  Farmborough  . .  4225 

II.  E.  C.  Davies      . .  . .  4263 

Russia  I.  Hamilton  Fyfe 

n        II.   F.  A.  McKenzie    ., 

III.   Sir  Bernard  Pares 

Salvador  I.  Hamilton  Fyfe  . , 

,,  II.   Percy  F.  Martin 

Samoa.     Frank  Fox 

San  Marino.     Melvill  Allan  Jamieson 

Santo  Domingo  I.  Percy   F.    Martin 

II,  Percy    F.    Martin 

Scotland  I.  Hamilton  Fyfe  .  . 

,,  II.  Sir  George  Douglas 

Serbia  I.  Hamilton  Fyfe 
,,      II.   Anthony  Dell 
,,     III.  Anthony  Dell 
Siam     I.    W.  A.   Graham 
„      II.    \V.  A.  Graham 
Siberia.     Julius  M.  Price 
Sin-Kiang.     Sir  George  Macartney 






List  of  Colour  Plates 

Facing  page 
Palestine  :  Old  Jewry  in  Jerusalem  398S 
Philippines  ;  A  Smile  from  Filipina  4102 
Portugal  :     Southern  Charm  . .      4192 

Rumania  :     Peasant  Maiden  .  -      4256 

Facing  page 
Samoa  :  Samoan  Island  Warrior  . .  4392 
Scotland  :  Music  of  the  Pipes  . .  4512 
Serbia  :   Young  Croatian   Woman    . .      4600 

In  Palestine 

Patriarch  of  Jerusalem       . .  3921 
Moslems   Outside   the  Jaffa 

Gate            . .           . .           . .  3922 

Monks  of   Mar  Saba            ..  3923 

In   a   Shepherds'  Country..  3924 

Harvest-time   in    Samaria..  3925 

Corner  of  Tiberias                . .  3926 

Street  of  Bethlehem            . .  3927 

Water-carrier  of   Bethlehem  392S 

Pretty  Maiden  of  Bethlehem  3929 

Well  of  Cana  of  Galilee      ..  3930 

The  Wall  of  the  Temple    ..  3931 

Damascus  Gate  of  Jerusalem  3932 

Mary's  Well  at  Nazareth  ..  3932 

The  Via  Dolorosa   ..           ..  3933 

Goatherd   of  Kidron  Valley  3934 
At  the  Gate  of  the  Prophets  3935 
Aged    Craftsman    of    Jeru- 
salem         . .          . .  3936 

Peruvian  Indians 

River  Indian  of  the  Montana  4049 

Indian    Mother's   Pride       . .  4050 

Campa  Lady  and  Daughter  4050 

Cashibo   Indians       . .           ..  4051 

To  the  Victor  the  Spoils   . .  4051 

Murato  Indian   Family       ..  4052 

Married  at   Twelve..           ..  4053 

Mountain  Village  of  Peru   , .  4054 

Mist-swept    Andean    Village  4055 

On  a  Trail  in  the  Andes   ..  4056 

Philippine   Tribal  Life 

Oval-faced  Kalinga  Girl    ..  4089 
Kalinga  Chief  and  his  Wife  4090 
Gaily-clad  Musicians            . .  4091 
Ilongot    Woman's    Compen- 
sations       . .           . .           . .  4092 

With  Spear  and  Buckler    . .  4093 

Bride  and  Groom    . .           . .  4094 

Igorot  Dandy            ..           ..  4°95 

Melisande  of  the  Woods     ..  4096 

Pages  in  Photogravure 

In   Portugal 

Descendant  of  the  Moors    ..  4161 

Water-seller  Filling  His  Cask  4162 

Sturdy    Vineyard     Workers  4163 

An   Unstable  Burden  . .  4164 

Carrying   Her   Load  on   Her 

Head  . .  .  .  .  .  4165 

Sons  of  Central  Portugal..  4166 

A  Deal  in   Sardines  . .  4167 

At   the   Fountain      ..  ..  4168 

Small  Urchins  of  Portugal..  4169 

Taking   Her    Pig   to   Market  4170 

Shepherd  and  His  Lass     ..  4171 

Ox-cart   in   Oporto  ..  4172 

Children      of       Vianna      do 

Castello      . .  . .  . .  4173 

Countryman's  Raincoat      ..  4174 

Going   to    Leiria    Market    ..  4175 

Oporto's   Narrow  Ways      ..  4176 

Rustic   Rumanians 

Rumanian   Girl    Reaper      ..  4241 

Fulfilling  a  Double  Task    . .  4242 

In  Sunday  Costume  ..  4243 

Girl  of  the  Carpathians       . .  4244 

Girls  of   Rural   Rumania    . .  4245 

Costumes,  of  the  Dobruja    ..  4246 

Yeoman  Family  of  Rumania  4247 

Peasant     Woman     Spinning  4248 

Samoan   Islanders 

Young  Women  of  Samoa    . .  4401 

Their  Favourite  Beverage..  4402 

Painting  her  Lava  Lava  , .  4403 

Preparing  for    Baking  . .  4403 

Native  Warrior  of  Pago  Pago  4404 

In   Festal  Array       . .  . .  4405 

Samoan   Beauty       . .  . .  4406 

Girl  of  Princely   Origin      ..  4407 

Professional   Orator  ..  4408 

San   Marino 

Castle  of  La   Rocca  ..  4425 

End  of  the  Day's  Work     .  .  4426 

Crests  of  Mount  Titano       ..  4427 

Arch  of    Porta  Franciscana  4428 

Passing  through  the  Gate..  4429 

The  Noble  Guard  . .  . .  4430 

Detachment  of  Fascisti      ..  4431 

Military  and  Civil  Authority  4432 


In  the  Land  of  the  Heather  4481 

Shepherd  of  Scotland         ..  4482 

Crofter  of  Skye         . .  . .  4483 

Launching  Salmon  Cobble.  .  4484 

Hauling  the  Salmon  Net    . .  4485 

Spinning  in  the  Shetlands  . .  4486 

Newhaven  Fishwife  . .  4487 

Baiting  the  Fishing  Lines  . .  44S8 

At  the  Highland  Games      . .  4489 

Salmon  Fishing        . .  . .  4490 

The"  Drifter's  Mascot  ..  4491 

Driving  Flis  Flocks  . .  . .  4492 

Women  of  the  Shetlands    . .  4493 

Shepherd  of  Perthshire       . .  4494 

An  Old  Salt 4495 

Scottish  Peasant  Home       . .  4496 

Girl  of  Yugo-Slavia . .  . .  4577 

Croatian  Matrons     . .  .  .  4578 

A     Bottle     of     Home-made 

Wine  . .  . .  . .  4579 

Kupinovo  Mother  and  Child  4580 
Aged  Serb  on  Way  to  Church  4581 
Costume    of    South     Yugo- 
slavia       ..          ..          -..  4582 

Macedonian  Women  at  the 

Spring_ 45S3 

Macedonian  Peasant  Couple  4584 

Costumes  of  Macedonia       . .  4585 

Cupid  in  Croatia        ..  ..  4586 

Pumpkin  Harvest  in  Croatia  4587 

A  Stirring  Tale  in  Progress. .  4588 

Girls  of  Kupinovo    .  .  . .  4589 

Village  Teacher  of  Serbia    . .  4590 

Croatian    Sabbath    Costume  4591 

On  their  Way  to  Market       . .  4592 

Photographs  in   the    Text 


Coin-decked   Maternity 
Extremes  in  the  Desert 
Armed   Beduiu   Cavalier     .. 
Bearded  Sheik 
Sheiks  and   Effendis 
Bride  and   Bridegroom 
Cheering  Wedding  Guests.. 
Wedding  Crowd 
Jerusalem  Street  Restaurant 
In      the     Greek     Cemetery, 

Jerusalem. . 
Water -sellers      by      Omar's 

Church  of  Holy  Sepulchre.. 
Holv  Week  Ceremony 
Garden  of  Gethsemane 
By    Jerusalem's    Jaffa    Gate 
Hardy  Son  of   Ishmael 
Warren  of  Crumbling  Stone 
Vacob,  the  High  Priest    .. 
Watching     the     Service     of 

Samaritans   Prostrated 
Bearded  Priests  of  Samaria 
Conjugal  Life  in  Samaria  .. 
Salting  the  Sacrifice 
Samaritan   High   Priest 
Barefoot  Urchin  of  Jaffa  .. 
On   Jaffa   Wharf 
Household  of   Jericho 
Jewish  Garden  Suburb 
Haifa's   Market- Place 
Little  Maid  of  Nazareth    .. 
On   Acre   Beach 
Student    of    Talmudic    Lore 
Chief     Rabbi    of     the    Sep- 

In  Communal  Study 
Children's  Corner         by 

Children  of  the  Beduins 
Mud-homes  of   Palestine    . . 
One  of  Beersheba's  Wells  . . 
Peasant  Family  of  Ramallah 
Spreading  Farm  Land 
Tramping  out   the  Grain   . . 
Sifting   the  Grain     .. 
In  the  Valley  of  the  Kidron 
Loading  Camels 
Full  Measure 
Charms  from  Royal  David's 


Ruins     ot     the     House     of 

in   a   Tanner's    Yard 
Dignity  on  a  Donkey 
Yemenite  Goldsmith 


Upon  a  Peak  in  Darien 
Market  on  Panama  Beach.. 
Cayuka  Carrying  Bananas 
Rescue  of  Babes  in  the  Wood 
Locks  on  the  Canal 
Peaceful  Chiefs  of  Darien  . . 
Laundry  Work  at  Colon  .. 
Spiggoty     Women     at     the 

Gentleness  Repaid  by  Trust 
Unsophisticated        Woman- 
hood - 

Interval  of   Leisure.. 

Dressed  for  the  Dance 


Lengua  Woman  of  Paraguay 
Foreman  of  an  Estancia    . . 
Happy  Domesticity 
Strongbow  of  the  Wilds 
Camouflage   in    the   Chase.. 
Hostages  of   Fortune 
Correct    Masculine   Costume 
Hero  of  Melodrama  Realized 
Toba  Dandy  in  Festal  Garb 
Fish-spearman  of  the  Chaco 
Indians  on  Trek 
Making  her  own  String  Bags 


Members  ot  Parliament 

Mahomedan  Mullah 

At   the  Noonday    Prayer    .. 




39  °9 










39  D9 


Venerable   Ismailis  ..  39^7 

Grace  of        Uncultured 

Womanhood         . .  . .  3988 

Lady  of   Rank  ..  .-  3989 

In   a    Kazvin    Bazaar  . .  3990 

In  a   Valley   Village  . .  399° 

Producer     of     Damascened 

Work  399i 

Turcoman  of  Persia  .  .  3992 

Shepherd  of  a  Nomad  Tribe  3992 

Ready  to  Carry  Anything. .  3993 

Caspian  Seaman        .  .  . .  3993 

Shrine  of  the  Sainted  Fatima  3994 

Mosque  of   Fatima   at    Kum  3995 

Falconer   with   Goshawk     . .  399^ 
Art  and  Craft  in  the  Carpet 

World         3997 

Carpet   Merchants  in    Resht  399s 

Theatricals  at  Teheran       . .  3999 

Woman  Pilgrim  of  Persia  . .  4000 

In  Kazvin  Market  Place   ..  4001 

Potter's  Stall  at   Meshed    . .  4002 

Husbanding  the  Grain         ..  40O3 

Primitive   Persian   Mill        . .  4003 

Shrouded  Iranian  Woman  . .  4004 

Taking  an  Afternoon  Siesta  4005 

In    Restricted   Surroundings  4005 

Heavily-laden  Pack-animals  4006 

Practical  Garb  and  Footgear  4007 

Fire  Worshipper  of  Yezd  . .  4°°7 

Sacred  Retreat  in  Mahun  . .  4008 

House  of  a  Shiraz  Magnate  4009 

Beauty  in  Complete  Disguise  4010 

Trio  of   Wedded   Wives      ..  401 1 

Mud-houses   in    the    Making  40*2 

Brick-cutter  at   Work         ..  4013 

Bricklayer  Plying  his  Trade  4013 

Mixing   the  Clav  for   Bricks  4014 

Moulding  the  Plastic  Mud..  4015 

Preparing  a   Primitive   Kiln  4016 

Dismantling  a  Kiln  ..  4°l6 

Burning  the  Sulphur  ..  4OI7 

Crossing  the  Waterless  Lut  4018 

Frankness  and   Freedom    . .  4019 

Women  in  Outdoor  Costume  4020 

In  a  Carpet  Factory  ..  4°2i 

Scene   of    Pastoral    Life      ..  4022 

Two   Itinerant   Musicians  ..  4°23 

Applying  the  Bastinado      . .  4024 

Women  of  Kurdish  Tribes..  4026 

Kurdish  Brigand      . .  . .  4°27 

Inhabitants  of  a  Lur  Village  4028 

In  a  Turcoman  Camp        . .  4°39 

Infidel  of  Persia      . .  . .  4°29 

Palace  of  Shah  Abbas        ..  4030 

Gateway  of  Persia's  Capital  4034 

Teheran   Gate,    Kazvin        ..  4033 


Homestead    on     the     Andes  4038 

Music  in   the  Solitude         . .  4039 

Senators  of   Peru     . .  . .  4040 

Worship  at  Copacabana     ..  4°4I 

Open   to  all   the   Winds      ..  4042 

Chola  Woman   Spinning     . .  4043 

Crossing  a  Stream   by  Cable  4044 

Indians  who  Delve  for  Coal  4045 

Cosy  Cottage  Home  . .  4046 

In  the  Valley  of  the  Pangoa  4047 

Wild  Humanity  on  its  Guard  4057 

Cholas  waiting  Customers  ..  4058 

Pulverising   Wolfram  . .  4°59 

Preparation   of  Tungsten   ..  4059 

Fallen    from  High    Estate..  4060 

Cyclopean   Stairway  ..  4061 

Temple  of  the  Sun,  Cuzco..  4061 
Sicuani  Potters  and  Pottery  4062 
In  Cloak  and  Ringlets  ..  4063 
Water-peddling  in  Cuzco  . .  4064 
Quichua  Wives  and  Mothers  4063 
Thrilling  the  Heart  of  Peru  4066 
Self-satisfied  Vanity  ..  4067 
Proud  of  his  Metal  Spear..  406S 
Out  after  Wild  Fowl  ..  4069 
Delightful  Mode  of  Travel . .  4070 
Pack-trains  at  Chilete  ..  4071 
Shy  Campa  Adolescence  ,.  4072 
Arrowsmith  and  Fletcher..  4072 
Skilled  in  Blowing  Death  ..  4073 
Church  Cloisters  ..  ..  4074 
Identification  Badges  ..  4°75 
Stripes  that  Spell  Danger  ..  4075 
Street  of   Cajamarca            ..      4076 

Philippine   Islands 

Moslem   Fanatic       ..  ..  4080 

Rice-threshing  . .  . .  4082 

Manila's  Bridge  of  Spain    ..  4°s3 

Bevy  of  Kalingas   ..  ..  4084 

Bright-beaded      Adornment  4085 

Woman  of  the  Subuanos  ..  4085 

Ilongot   Forest   Beauty       ..  4o35 

Beads,  Braid,  and  Tattooing  4085 

Kalinga   Blouse  in   Brief    . .  4°8° 

Glittering  Gaudiness  .  .  4086 

Womanhood  of  Benguet     . .  4086 

Wife  of  a  Wild-man  Chief. .  4086 

Coast-dweller  of  Davao  Gulf  4o87 

Bagolo   Warrior  Dandy      - .  4o87 

Fearsome   with   Filed  Teeth  4087 

Mandaya  in  Western  Modes  40S7 

Weary  Women   Porters      ..  4°38 

Trinkets  and  Titivation     . .  4°97 

Patience  on  the  See-saw    . .  4098 
Grass-roofed     Dwellings     of 

Mountain  Village  ..  4°99 
'Twixt  Palm  and  Water  ..  4100 
Clumsy  Igorot  House  Con- 
struction . .  . .  •  ■  4100 
Airy  Manobo  Home  ..  4101 
Voluntary  Vapulation  ..  4102 
Tortured  to  Exhaustion  ..  4XCV5 
Flagellants'  Easter  Penance  4103 
Witchery  among  the  Water- 
pots  ..  ..  ■ •  4io4 
Swart  Tresses  Crown  Bright 

Colours       ..  .  ■  ■  ■  4io5 

Nimble  Collector  of  Tuba..  4106 

Wimpled  Filipina     ..  ..  4IQ7 

War  Dance  of  the  Igorots..  4108 

Weaving  Tasteful  Creations  4109 

Stolidity  and  Pensiveness  . .  4110 

Dark-Featured  Milliners     ..  4**0 

Hanging  out   her   Linen     ..  4111 

Moro  in  Civic   Authority    ..  4111 


Palace  of   the    Polish    Kings  4112 

Gorgeous   Bridal    Headdress  4113 

Portable  Dainties    ..  ..  4114 

Simple    Country     Costumes  4115 

Lusty   Young  Life  ..  ..  4116 

Military  Police  in  Lodz      ..  4117 

In  a  Street  of  Zyrardow    ..  4118 

Jewish   Vegetable  Market..  4IJ9 
Charming       Daughters       of 

Zyrardow  ■    ..  -.  4120 

Small  Sons  of  Israel  ..  4121 

Tillers  of  the  Soil    ..  ..  4*21 

World's  Aliens  at  Home    ..  4122 
Representation         of         the 

Nativity     ..  ..  ■ .  4123 

Polish   Peasant   Bride  ..  4124 

In  Festive  Finery    ..  ..  4125 

In    Fete  Day  Garb  .  .  4126 

A    Popular    Home    Industry  4127 

Hard  Toil  in  the  Fields      ..  4128 

Shy  Beauty  of  Rural  Poland  4129 

Gentile  and  Jew      ..  ..  4X30 

Red   Russian  Workmen      ..  4131 

In  Lowicz  Wool        . .  . .  4I32 

In  an  Oil-producing  Region  4133 

Radiant  Ruthenian  Girlhood  4134 

Coat  of  Many  Colours       ..  4*35 

Homely  but   Artistic  ..  4136 

Gaiety   of   Sunday    Raiment  4137 

Solid  Lowicz   Respectability  4138 

Piper  of  the  Tatras  ..  4*39 

Minstrels   of   the   Mountains  4139 

Village  Band  and   Choir    . .  4140 

Corner  of   the   Rynek  . .  4*43 

Hale  Highlander      ..  ..  4*44 


Fishwives  of  Lisbon  ..      4146 

Southern  Gravity    .  .  .  .      4*47 

Laden  Wine  Boats  of  Oporto  4.148 
Vast   Vats  of  Port  ..  ..      4*49 

Old  and  New  in  Oporto  ..  4*5° 
Baby  Wakes  frora  Slumber  415 1 
On  Oporto's  Ribeira  ..     4I52 

Oporto's  Busy  Quayside  ..  4153 
White  Houses  of  Old  Oporto  4154 
Coimbra's  Courtly  Clerk  ..  4155 
Acrobats  among  the  Oranges  4X56 
Milkmaid    Equilibrists        . .      415? 


Photographs  in  the  Text  (contd.) 

Champions   in   Head   Trans- 
Feminine  Porterage 
Leiria's  Hill  of  the  Angel  . . 
Carven  Calvary 
Happy  Children  of  the  State 
Cowboy      Starting      for      a 

Round-up. . 
Shepherd   of    the    Serra    da 


Childish   Compassion 
Opening  of  Bull-fight 
Stern  Chase  in  the  Bull-  Ring 
Test  of  Human   Mastery    . . 
To  Soothe  the  Bull. . 
Episode   of    Wooden    Horse 
Bulldog  Tactics 
Agriculture    Touched    With 

Ploughwomen  of  the  North 
Stripping  Cork  Trees 
Toil  'mid  Sylvan  Shade      . . 
Morning     Gossip     with     the 

Garnering  the  Millet 
When  the  Wheel  is  Still    . . 
Result  of  the  Building  Laws 
Supplying  Water  for  Clean- 
ing Cod 

Portuguese  Colonies 

Peace  and  Plenty  in  Madeira 
How  My  Lady  Takes  the  Air 
Madeiran  Grace 
Hammock  Travel 
Negro  Nero  in  Full  Panoply 
Plastering  Without  Trowels 
Good  Wine  Needs  no  Bush 
"  Wireless  "  in  tha  Wilds  . . 
Proud  of  a  Quaint  Coiffure 
Celebrants    of    Mystic    Rites 


Joints  of   Giraffe   Meat 
Frontier  Braves 
Likely  Crew  of  Canoe  Bovs 
Successful  Settlers 
Assembled  at  Bulawayo    . . 
Angoni   Spearman    .. 
Drum   and   Bugle   Band 
Physical    Perfection 
Native    Musical    Instrument 
Cfinoes   for   Hunting   Hippo 
In  the  Square  at  Livingstone 
Justice  for  Native  Plaintiffs 
Parklands  of   the  Matoppos 


Highland  Countrv  Dance    . . 

On   Her   Wav   to' the  Fields 

Wedding   Bells 

In  a  Land  of  Contrasts     . . 

Diligent  and  Dainty 

Varieties     of     the     National 

Costumes        Homely        and 

Fine  Rumanian  Needlecraft 

Vanity  Fair  in  Transylvania 

Housewifely  Pride 

Carting  Their  Hay  Crops.. 

Belles  of   Bukovina 

Light-hearted  Vagrants 

Dancing   Bear 

Followers    of    Famous    Mol- 
davian Industry 

Fascination  of  the   Pastoral 

Guardian  of  Sheepfold 

Shepherds  of  Southern  Car- 

Simple  Summer   Shelter     . . 

Rural  Family  Life.. 
■  Three  Generations  of  Rustics 

Old-world   Vinegar   Press   . . 

Soaking   the  Flax 

Stacking   and    Carting    Flax 

Young  Housewife  in  Silistria 

Sorting  the  Maize  Cobs     . . 

Testing  the  Young  Cobs   . . 

Yeoman  Couple  of  Transyl- 




















The  Coronation  at  Bukarest  4258 

Peasants   of   Turnu   Severin  4259 

Marketing   Garden    Produce  4260 

Christmastide  Custom          . .  4261 

Blessing  the  Waters             ..  4262 

Two  Stalwart  Dancers       ..  4264 


Ancient  Citadel  of   Moscow  4268 

Nurse  of  YToung  Russia     ..  4269 
Peasant     on     her     Way     to 

Market       ..           . .           ..  4270 

Groping  for   Light  . .           . .  4271 

Monastery  of  New  Jerusalem  4272 

"  Tsar   Kolokol  "      . .           . .  4^73 

Ornamented  Cannon   of   the 

Kremlin 4273 

Hats  for  Sale            ..           ..  4274 

Peasant  Ice-merchant          ..  4275 

Members  of  Street  Peasantry  4275 

The  Loubianski  Square     . .  4276 

Red  Square  in  Moscow     . .  4277 

Would-be  Workers..           ..  4278 

Old  Smolenski  Ruinok       . .  4278 

Corner  of  Historical  Moscow  4279 

Hawkers  and  Hucksters    . .  4280 
Pedling    Prunes     and    Fruit 

Drinks         .  .            ..            ..  4281 

Ali-round   Handyman          . .  4282 

Where  the  Samovar   Reigns  4282 

One  of  the  Multitude         .  .  4283 

Polisher  of  the  Parquetry..  4283 

Land-proprietor's  Troika  . .  4284 

Home-made  Sieves  for  Sale  4284 

Backbone  of  the  Army      . .  4285 

Where    Country    Folk    Meet  4285 

Novo  Devitchi  Convent     . .  4286 

Soldier  of  the  Greek  Church  4287 

Sacred  Building  of  Moscow  4288 

Cathedral  of  S.  Basil          ..  4289 

Before  a   Holy   Icon             . .  4290 

Monks  of  the'Greek  Church  4291 

An   Importunate  Vagrant..  4292 

Bound  for  a  Distant  Shrine  4292 

Following  the  Priest           . .  4293 

Lonely  Women   Pilgrims    . .  4294 
Penal  Settlement  of  Sinning 

Clergy         4295 

Girl  Workers  of  Moscow    . .  4296 
Kindly      Qualities      Survive 

Stagnation             . .           . .  43°5 

Nevsky   Prospekt     ..           ..  43°6 

Russian  Youth         ..          ..  4308 

Peripatetic  Locksmith        . .  43°9 

Block  Ice  from  the  Neva..  4310 

Cartage  on   the  Towpath  ..  4311 
Age     Hastened     by     Life's 

Bitterness..           ..           ..  43r2 

Interior    of    Greek    Catholic 

Church       . .           , .           ..  4313 
Lapp     Couriers     with     Mur- 
mansk Mail           ..           ..  4314 

Reindeer  Sleighs  near  Arch- 
angel          ..           ..           ..  43I5 

Making  the  Most  of  Things  4316 

Poverty-stricken    Childhood  4317 
Where  Minor  Discomforts  do 

not   Matter             ..           ..  4317 

Baboushka's  Pet     ..          ..  43lS 

At  a  Cottage  Casement      ..  43l8 
Stoicism    of    the    Peasantry  4319 
Coy   Karelian   Childhood    . .  4319 
National    Costume    Compe- 
tition          ..           . .           ..  4320 

Hardy        Tambov        Land- 
women        . .           . .           . .  4321 

Work    of    Cultured    Fingers  4322 

Harvest    Home    in    Tambov  4323 

Harvesting    the     Hay-crops  4324 
Carrying     Gifts      from      the 

Forest         ..           ..           ..  4325 

In   the  Hay-fields  of   Russia  4325 

Surrounded  by  Penury      . .  4326 

Quiverful   of   Thriving    Life  4327 
Headquarters    of     Affection 

and  Hospitality  ..           ..  4327 

Farm  Hands  of    Kazan      . .  4328 

Brawny   Backwoodsman     . .  4329 

Horse  and  Cart  Ferry       . .  4330 

Unloading  Cargo  from  Barge  4331 

Fishermen  of   the  Volga    . .  4332 

Drifting  Down   the  Tide     . .  4334 

Couple  of  the  Peasant  Class  4336 

The  Labourer  in   the  Fields  4337 

Cool  Summer  Quarters  .  .  433& 
Clumsy       but       Serviceable 

Sleigh         4339 

Troopers    of    the    Orenburg 

Cossacks    . .           . .           . .  4340 

Men  of  Traditional  Bravery  4341 

Quaint  Winter  Pastime  ..  4342 
Music-loving  Members  of  the 

Rank  and   File     . .           . .  4343 

Preparing  Rye  Bread  .  .  4344 
One    of     Russia's     Familiar 

Figures       . .           .,           . .  4345 

Tartar  Caravanserai            . .  4346 

On  the  Shores  of  the  Crimea  4347 

Homeless   Russia      . .           . .  4348 

Cleaning  the  Moscow  Streets  435° 

Bolshevists  Make  Merry  ..  435* 
Oratory  from  an  Armoured 

Car              4352 

First  Flag  of  Free  Russia..  4353 

Mock  Execution       ..           ..  4353 

Benefits  of  the  Red  Rule..  4354 

Apostle  of  Destruction       ..  4355 

Comrade  of  the  Communists  4356 

"  Red  Rosa  "  of  Red  Russia  4357 

In  the  Welter  of  Bolshevism  4357 

Russian   Imperial  Jewels    ..  4358 

British    Labour    Delegation  43  59 

Bolshevist  Oratory  ..  4360 
Raw       Revolutionaries       in 

Training    . .           . .           . .  4361 

Crowds  Outside  the  Kremlin  4362 
Seven-piered              Nicholas 

Bridge 437o 


Carting     Water     in     Hogs- 
heads         . .          . .          . .  4376 

Mighty   Plantain   Leaf         . .  4378 
Children   of   the   Forest       . .  4379 
Bullock  Wagons  in  San  Sal- 
vador        . .          . .          . .  4380 

Clearing    the    Rubbish    that 

was  a  Street         ..           ..  43s  * 

Presidential   Procession       ..  4383 
Mestizos  of  the  Cattle  Dis- 
trict           ..          ..          .-  4384 

Housework  Out  of  Doors  ..  4385 

Troops  under   Review         ..  4386 

Marimba's  Muffled  Music.  4387 


Oratory  of  the  Native  Tulaf ale    4390 
Aged        Fingers        Braiding 

Twine         ..           . .           ..  4392 

Samoa's     Main     Home     In- 
dustry        ..           ,.           ..  4393 
Shipbuilding    and    Seaman- 
ship            . .           . .           . .  4394 

Amphibious  Young  Kanakas  4395 
Daughters    of    a    Handsome 

Race           . .           . .           . .  4396 

Maids  of   Honour     . .           . .  4397 

Native  Life  in  Samoa        , .  4358 

Symphony   of   Arms             ..  4399 
Among    the    Pleasure-loving 

Natives      ..           ..           ..  4399 

Warrior's  Formidable 

Weapon      . .           . .           . .  4400 

Girl     Members      of      Island 

Community            . .           . .  4409 

After   the   Coconut    Harvest  4410 
Collecting    Nuts    for    Copra- 
making       . .           . .           . .  441* 

Engaged       in      a      Baseball 

Match         ..           .,           ..  4412 

Bride  and   Bridegroom        ..  44*3 
Residence      of      Well-to-do 

Family       . .           .  .           . .  44*4 

Cloth-making  Without 

Looms        ..          ..          ..  44J4 

Samoan     House      in      Con- 
struction   . .           . .           . ■  44 r5 

San   Marino 

Ascent  from  Suburb  to  Cita- 
del               ..           ..           ..  44l6 

Officials  of  the  Republic  ..  44lS 
I  nf  antry     of     the     Smallest 

Nation         . .            . .            . .  44*9 

Photographs  in  the  Text  (contcL) 

the      Noble 

Gentlemen     of 

Guard         44*9 

Where  Cool  Water  Flows  _. .  4420 
Past  and  Present    Captains 

Regent 4421 

Gate  in   the  City   Wall       ,.  4422 
Stone-cutters  at  the  Quarries  4423 
Captains  Regent  of   the  Re- 
public            4424 

Milk  in  the  Morning  Early  4433 

Unhurried  Occupations      . .  4434 

Ancient  Local  Measurements  4435 

In  a  Strait  Steep  Street   ..  4436 

Santo  Domingo 

Packing  Tobacco     . .           . .  4438 

Carrying  Tobacco   to  Town  4439 
Cradle-land       of        Tobacco 

Plant           4440 

In  a  Cactus  Grove               . .  4441 

Main  Street  of  San  Domingo  4442 

Activity   on   a    River   Bank  4443 

Officers  and   Officials           . .  4444 
Oldest  Stronghold  of  White 

Men             ..           ..           ..  4445 


View  Down  Princes  Street  4448 
Edinburgh's  Mercat  Cross  4450 
John  Knox's  House  ..  4451 
Edwin's  Fortress  . .  . .  4452 
Electing  their  Lord  Rector  4453 
After  the  Election  ..  4453 
At  the  Broomielaw  ..  4454 
ludicial  Dignity  . .  .  •  4455 
Pipers  of  the  Black  Watch  4456 
Men  of  the  Cameron  High- 
landers         4457 

Fertiliser    Supplied    by    the 

Sea              4458 

Grinding   the   Corn   in   Skye  4459 
Making  the  Most  of  a  Fine 

Day             4460 

Skye  Crofter's  Cottage       ..  4462 
Matrons  and  Maidens  of  St. 

Kilda           4463 

Village    Neighbours    of    St. 

Kilda           ,  .           .  .           . .  4464 

Farmers  of   Skye      . .            .  .  44^5 

Discussing   Problems  of   the 

Day            . .     -      . .          . .  4466 

Returning    with    their    Prey  4467 

Dividing  a  Catch  of  Fulmar  4468 

Good    Work    Well    Done    . .  4470 
Cottage  Door  to  World-wide 

Market       . ,           . .           . .  447* 

Women     Workers    in     Kelp 

Industry    . .           . .           . .  4472 

Entrance     to     Lossiemouth 

Harbour     . .           .  .           . .  4474 

Carrying     Home     Loads     of 

Peat           4475 

Hawking  Caller   Herring     . .  4477 
Cobbled  Street  of  Cromarty  4478 
Preparing   Mussels   for    Bait  4479 
Scotland's    Individual    Win- 
ter Game                . .           . .  449& 

Sweeping  the  Powdered  Ice  4499 

Tossing  the  Caber  . .          . .  45°o 

At    the    Aboyne    Highland 

Gathering               ..           ..  4501 

In  the  Land  of  Bagpipes   . .  4502 

Kilties    in    a    Sword    Dance  4503 

The  Highlanders'  Great  Day  4504 

Friendly  Rivalry     . .          . .  4505 

Start     of     a     Day's     Deer- 
stalking      . .            . .            . .  45°6 

Within      Gunshot      of      the 

Quarrv       .  -           .  ■           •  •  45°7 
Fallen     Deer     Dragged      to 

Ridge-path             . .           . .  4508 

Shooting-pony     Bound     for 

Home        4509 

Loch  Coire-an-Lochan  . .  4510 
Her  Lone  Highland  Shieling  4511 
Chat  by  the  Way  ..  ..  4512 
Casting  a  Lure  for  Salmon  4513 
Sheep  Farmer  of  Peebles- 
shire . .  . .  .  •  4514 
Braving  the  Wintry  Winds  4515 
Riding  the  Borough  Bound- 
aries           ..           ..           ..  45i6 

Queen    of    the    Beltane    Fes- 
tival . .  . .  . .  451/ 

Wandering      China-  Mender  4518 

Harvesting  the  Golden  Grain  4519 
Pedigree        Aberdeen- Angus 

Bull  .  .  .  .  .  .  4520 

Sons  of  the  Northern  Soil..  4521 
Practising  the  Gentle  Art.  .  4522 
Salting  Herrings  at  a  Shet- 
land Port               ..           .  .  4523 

Salts  of  the  Scottish   Coast  4524 

Kerbside  Fish  Bar..  ..  4525 

Fisher  Girls  Sorting  a  Cargo  4526 
Drying   Basketfuls    of    Fish- 
ing-line      . .           . ,           . .  4527 
Playing  Marbles      . .          . .  4528 

Gutting     Herrings     of     the 

Autumn  Catch     ,  .           .  .  4529 
Smacksman  of  Moray   Fish- 
ing Village             . .           . .  453o 


Gypsy  Dance  in  Progress..  4544 

Capability    and    Comeliness  4545 
Country   Carnival   in    Lower 

Serbia         . .  . .  . .  4546 

Unostentatious        Dwelling- 
house  .  .  . .  . .  4547 

Wandering  Musicians          .  .  4548 
Making  Agricultural   Imple- 
ments         ..           ..           ..  4549 

Members     of     the     Croatian 

Community  . .  . .  455° 

Classic   Gateway  in   Spalato  4551 
On  the  Road  to  Market    ..  4552 
Farmer's  Warm  Winter  Cos- 
tume          . .           . .          ' . -  4553 

Mahomedan  Greengrocer  of 

Mostar        . .  .  .  . .  4  554 

Display  of  Feminine  Finery  4555 

Horse 'and  Hunter  ..  4556 

Sunday   Toilet  of   Youthful 

Serb  4557 

Dalmatian  Peasant  Girls   .  .  4558 

Gathering  Oranges  ..  4559 

Quenching  their  Thirst      .  .  4560 

Brides  of  Baranya   .,  ..  4561 

Rich  and  Varied  Raiment  .  .  4562 

The  Porta  Pille         ..  ..  4563 

Embroidered  Waistcoats  and 

Aprons       . .           . ,           .  -  4564 
Women  of  Obrenovac          . .  4565 
In  Serajevo's  Bazaar            . .  4566 
Conducting  Friday  Prayer..  4567 
Beauty   Brilliantly   Adorned  4568 
In  Agram's  Vegetable  Mar- 
ket              ..           . .           . .  4569 

Comeliness  and  Charm         .  .  457° 

Matron  and  Maid     . .  . .  4571 

Peasant    Pilgrims    in    Mace- 
donia ..  ..  ..  4572 

Costumes  of  Smilevo  . .  4573 

Rainbow   Hues  of  Southern 

Serbia         ..  ..  ..  4574 

Mahomedan        Maiden        of 

Tetovo       ..  , .  . .  4575 

Costume  of  Uskiib  .  .  .  .  4594 

Sequined  and  Silken  Finery  4595 

Fantastic  Gala  Costumes    . .  4596 
Peasant        Mother        and 

Daughters  . .  . .  4597 

Macedonian      Martha      and 

Mary  . .  .  .  .  .  4598 

Members    of    the    Southern 

Populace   . .  . .  . .  4599 

National  Costumes  of  Mace- 
donia . .  . .  - .  4600 

Lowly  Peasant  Dwelling     . .  46or 

The  Bride  at  the  Spring      .  .  4602 


Phrapatoom's  Immense  Pa- 
goda . .  . .  . .  460S 

Chief  Abbot  of  Siam  . .  4609 

Grass-roofed    Village   Dwel- 
ling ..  ..  ..      4610 

Coronation      Ceremony      in 

Siam  ..  ..  ..      4611 

Captured  Herd  of  Elephants     4612 
"  It     is      Always      Safe      to 

Learn  "  . .  . .      4613 

Conveying   the   Golden    Urn      4614 
White-clad  Palace  Ladies  . .      4615 

Uniforms  Rich  and  Rare  . . 
Representative  of  the  Deitv 
Annual  Harvest  Celebrations 
Cattle-thief  Under  the  Yoke 
Wife  of  a  Petty  Official 
Women  Selling  Betel-nut  . . 
Anointed  for  the  Sacrifice  . . 
Plaving  Pitch  and  Toss 
Coats      Cut      According      to 


Kamoo  Tribesman  from  the 

Actors    in    Conventional 

A  Triumph  of  Posture 
Temple  of  the  Siamese  Faith 
Meos  Damsel  of  the  North. . 


Sunday  in  Siberia 
Two  of  the  Soyot  Tribe 
Settler's  Home 
Yakut  on  the  Trail 
Reindeer    Tungus    of    Wild 

Woman  of  a  Buriat  Tribe  . . 
Karagasse  Couple 
Dinner  Hour  of  the  Soyots  . . 
Crabs  for  Sale 

Pioneer   of   Siberian   Coloni- 
Privileged  Priest 
Members  of  an  Eastern  Tribe 


Dwellers     in     the     Kashgar 


Rocking    Young    Turkistan 

to  Sleep 
Shrine  of   Kashgar's   Royal 

Chantos  Building  a  Bridge.  . 
Smiling  Kirghiz 
Water  Carriers  of  Kashgar  . . 
Amid  Towering  Peaks 
Master  and  Henchman 
Where  the  Eagle  is  Trained 
Studying  the  Koran 
Bound  for   Kashgar   Market 
Tillers  of  the  Fertile  Soil    . , 
Quaint     Guardians     of     the 


Venerable  Magician 
Maternal    Pride   and    Infant 

Townswoman  of  Kashgar   . . 
Head  Cook  and  Butler 
Treatment   for  a   Cutaneous 

Governor-general    and    Staff 
Trio  of  Musicians 
Chinese  Yamen  Runner 
Painted    Porcelain   in   Yark- 


List  of  Maps 






Philippine  Islands 








San  Marino 

Santo  Domingo 


Serbia     , . 























of  All   Nations 



Sea  page  49j7 

P  §1 



Their  Life  Today  and 
the  Story  of  their  Past 

By     Our     Foremost     Writers    of 
Travel    Anthropology    &    History 

Illustrated   with   upwards  of  5000 

Photographs,      numerous      Colour 

Plates,   and    150    Maps 

Edited  by 

J.    A.    Hammerton 


Pages   4673-5436 
Including   General  Index 

South  Africa  to  Wales 

Published  at  THE    FLEET  WAY   HOUSE  London  E.C. 










EJ         , 












Descriptive,  Historical 

South  Africa  I.  Hamilton  Fyfe      .  .  4673 

,,  ,,       II.    XV.    Basil    Worsfold  4707 

Spain   I.   Hamilton  Fyje  ..  ..  4713 

II.  Edward  Wright         .  .  .  .  4765 

,,   III.   W.  Francis  Aitken    .  .  .  .  4771 

Sweden  I.   A.  MacCallum  Scott         '.  .  4777 

II.  J .  A .  Brendon        ..  ..  4810 

Switzerland  I.  Dame  Katharine  Furse  4815 

II.   Francis  Gribble         .  .  4857 

Syria  I.   The  Rev.  W.  Swing  .  .  .  .  4861 

,,      II.  E.  S.  Bouchier  .  .  .  .  4875 

Tasmania.   Frank  Fox  .  .  .  .  4879 

Tibet  I.  Sir  Francis  Younghnsband.  .  4889 

,,      II.  Sir  E.  Denison  Ross  .  .  4919 

Tunis  I.  A.  MacCallum  Scott .  .  ..  4923 

II.  Edward   Wright         .  .  .  .  4965 

Turkey  I.  H.A.Milton  ..  .  .  49C9 

,,        II.   Sir  E.  Denison  Ross        . .  5015 

and  Other  Chapters 
Turkistan.  Sirdar  Ikbal  All  Shah    .. 
The  Ukraine.  Florence   Farmborough 
The  United  States  I.  Hamilton  Fyje 
,,  ,,  II.  Hamilton  Fyje 

III.  A.  D.  Innes. 
Uruguay  I.  L.  E.  Elliott 

II.    W.  H.  Koebel      . . 
Venezuela  I.  L.  E.  Elliott    ..  . 

II.   W.  H.  Koebel    . . 
Wales  I.  Hamilton  Fyje 

II.   A.  D.  Innes 
National     Spirit     in     the     Modern 

World.     J.  A.  R.  Marriott 
Dictionary   of  Races.     Northcote   W 

Distribution     of    Races.      Proj.    G 

Elliot  Smith 
General  Index 














List  of  Colour  Plates 

Spain  :  Beauty  of  Andalusia  .  . 
Wearing  a  Manton  de  Manila 
Gypsy  Girl  of  Granada 
Nocturne  of  Seville 
Courtship  in  Spain 
Gypsy  Girls'  Dance 
Dancers'   Accompanists 
Bright-eyed  Sefiorita 

Switzerland  :    Smiling  Girlhood 

Tunis  :  Tunisian  Rabbi 
Young  Beduin  Mother 
Beduin   Mother    and    Child 
Two  Beduin  Girls 
Blind  Beggar  and  his  Guide 
Arab  Girl  of  Tunis.  . 
Jewish  Rabbi 
Arab  Cameleers      . .  . . 




;  page 

United    States  :     Representative     of 
Siouan  Family 

Indian  Brave 

Son  of  Kiowa  Forebears  . , 

Sioux  Chief  and  Squaw   . . 

Ojibwa  Maiden 

Hopi  Indian 

Native  Justice  of  the   Peace 

Blackfeet  Girls 

Walapai  Squaw 

Navaho   Indian   weaving   Blanket 

Basket- worker    of  Arizona 

Potter  at  Work 

Yuma  Mother  and  Papoose 

Apache  of  New  Mexico    .  . 

Hopi  Snake-dancer 

Chief's  Gift  from  Lincoln 

Wales:  Land  Lassies  in  Country  Lane 

Rural  Sweden 

Leksand  Lassies        ..  ..  4793 

In  the  Village  School  ..  4794 

An  Open-air  Tea-party  ..  4795 

Fiddler  of  Helsingland  .  .  4796 

Dalarne  Woman  at  Work  ..  4797 

Costume  of  Rattvik  .  .  4798 

Costume  of  Leksand  Village  4799 

Lapp  Woman  and  Child  . .  4S00 

Swiss  Alpine  Life 

Alpine  Guides           . .  . .  4841 

An  Alpine  Calvary  ..  ..  4842 

Pages  in  Photogravure 

By      the      Chapel-porch      of 

Winkelmatten       .  .  .  .  4843 

Peasant  of  the  Saas   Valley  4S44 

Lace-making  in  Wengen      .  .  4845 

Sturdy  young  Switzer  . .  4846 

Cowherds  of  Toggenburg    .  .  4847 
Religious       Procession       at 

Kippel 4S48 

Wales  of  To-day 

In  Old  Welsh  Garb  . .  5265 

Washing  Day  in  North  Wales  5266 

Carnarvon  Eisteddfod  .  .  5267 

At  Snowdon's  Base.. 
Welsh   Family 
Cottage  in  the  Mountains 
Picturesque  Procession 
Fishwives  of  Llangwm 
Grandmother      and      grand- 
In  the  Hayneld 
Rustics'  Modern  Modes 
Little  Miss  Wales     . . 
Stately  Old  Dame    . . 
On  a  Peak  of  Snowdon 
Shepherd  of  the  Highlands  . 
Wayside  Fiddler 









South  Africa 

Rickshaw  Man  in  Durban  . . 
Boer  Farmer  and  Family  .  . 
Horsemen     and     Marksmen 

from  Childhood 
Open-air     Market    at    Cape 

Bloemfontein  Market  Square 
Sturdiness  and  Stolidity  . . 
Tillers  of  the  Mealie  Fields .  . 
Trekking  to  a  New  Home 
A  Concerted  Song  and  Dance 
Native  Police  of  South  Africa 
Sturdy  Zulu  Children  . . 
Consulting      Zulu      Medical 

Simple  Zulu  Home 
Coiffure  in  Natal 
Zulu  Builders  at  Work 
Avoidance   of    a    Mother-in- 

Handsome  Zulu  Women      .  . 
Dusky     Citizens     of     South 

Zulu  Warrior 
Snake-like  Coiffure  of  a  Zulu 


Performing  the   War  Dance 
Negroes  Enjoying  a  Rest  by 

the  Way 

De  Beers  Mines  at  Kimberley 
Workers    on    the    Diamond 


Youthful   Native  Sorters   of 

the  Premier  Mine 
Charm   Free  from   Gloss   of 


Sorting  Shed  at  Kimberley 
Children  of  a  Larger  Growth 
Tailings  Wheel  in  Operation 
Collecting  Wattle  Bark 
Cutting  Lump  Sugar 
At  the  Mouth  of  a  Coal  Mine 
Fearsome  Ballet  Dancers    . . 











Photographs  in  the   Text 

Drum  and  Fife  Band  of  San 

Sebastian    .  .  .  .  .  .  475  2 

Well-deserved    Refreshment  4753 
In    the    Cathedral    at    Sala- 
manca       . .          . .          •  ■  4754 

Young  Basque  Reaper         .  .  4755 

Small  Holding  near  Durango  4756 

Sturdy  Spanish  Peasant      .  .  4757 
Hurdano  Women  of  Caceres 

Province     .  .  .  .  ■  ■  4758 

Workers  in  the  Ripe  Fields  4759 
Industry  in  the  Shade  of  the 

Vine  4760 

Reaper  of  Castile      ..  ..  476i 

In  a  Palm  Grove  at  Elche  . .  4762 

Showy  Peasant  Costume      . .  4763 
Washing     their     Linen     at 

Elche  4/64 

Splendid     Ceremonial     Cos- 
tume    4766 

Spanish  Colonies 

At  s  Spring  near  Las  Palmas  4770 

Peasants  of  Teneriffe  .  .  4772 

Modern    Troglodytes    at 

Home  4773 

Market  Place  at  Tetuan      .  .  4774 
Rif       Warrior       of       North 

Morocco     .  .  .  .  ■  •  4775 

Water-sellers  of  Tetuan      . .  4776 


Country    Bull-fight    in    Full 

Market  Queen  in  Old  Madrid 
Visit  to  the  Friar 
Baking  Bread  in  Murcia 
Stout  Picadores 
The  Matador 
Patient  Persistence   in  Life's 

Daily  Round 
A  Moment's  Respite 
On  their  Way  to  Church     .  . 
Regulation  Dress  of  Religious 

Under   the  Tree   of    Know- 
Beauty  in  Earthen  Pots 
Peasant  Girl  of  Murcia 
Gathering    Mulberry    Leaves 

in  Murcia 
Tripping  a  Pas  de  Deux      .  . 
Fruit    Trading    in  Provincial 

Romantic  Method  of  Court- 
Beguiling     a     Quiet      Hour 
Taking      their      Goods      to 

Wrapping  Oranges   for   Ex- 
In  a  Cobbled  Courtyard      .  . 
Bonnie  Basque  Babies  of  the 

Rugged  Features  from  Bis- 
In  the  Tap-room  of  an  Inn 
Fresh  Milk  while  you  Wait 
Sunlit    Corner    of    a    Ronda 

Matured   by    Hardship    and 


Courtyard  of  a  Ronda  House 
Serenade  in  Old  Seville 
Gala  Day  in  Granada 
Fashioning  a  Pair  of  Sandals 
Antique  Basque  Farmhouse 








Peasant  Girl  of  Garpenberg 
Antiquated    Fire    Alarm    of 

In  Traditional  Costume 
In  Stockholm's  Palace  Yard 
Guardians     of     the      King's 

Popular  Winter  Sport 
Ski-running    on    the    Frozen 

Throwing  the  Discus 
Laying  in  Stores  of  Ice 
Prize  Porker  of    the    Litter 
Cottage     Interior     of     Dale 

Swedish  Yeoman's  Dwelling 
Off    for    a    Day's    Work    in 

the  Fields 

Swedish  Peasant  Girls 
Washing      Party      in      Dale 


Old  and  New  Fashions 
Washing    Day   in  the  Land 

of  Dales 
Villagers  from  Leksand 
Bride  and  Bridegroom 
After  a  Day's  Work   in    the 

Costumes   of   a    Picturesque 

Little  Maids  of  Mora 
Three  Girls  of  Dalecarlia     .  . 
Yeoman  Farmer  of  Rattvik 
Outside    a   Native    Kota   in 

Natives     of     the     Land     of 

















In  an  Alpine  Gasthouse      ..  4827 

Summit  of  the -Faulhorn  ..  4828 
Perils  of  Pastoral  Life  in  the 

Alps  4829 

Children  of  Unterschacben  .  .  4830 
Women      of      Champery     in 

Mourning  Garb     ..  ..  4831 

Hay  Harvesting  in    the    En- 

gadine         ..  ...  ..  4832 

By  the  Visp  Torrent  . .  4833 

Mixed      School      at      Unter- 

schachen  . .     . .     . .  4834 

In  a  Ticinese  Cottage  ..  4835 

In  the  Bernese  Oberland  . .  4836 
Home  of   a  Peasant   in    the 

Hasli-Tal 4»37 

Burgher's  Daughters  .  .  4837 

In  a  Swiss  Vineyard  ..  4838 

Vineyard  Worker  of  Hallau  4839 

Song  of  the  Vine       . .  . .  4850 

Famous  Swiss  Industry       . .  48-51 

Fashioning  Artistic  Pottery  4852 
By-industry     of     the     Swiss 

Peasants     . .  . .  .  ■  4853 

In  the  Val  d'Herens  . .  4854 

Cowherd  of  the  Melchtal     .  .  4855 

Mountain  Soldiers  on  Patrol  4836 


Roman  Gateway,  Damascus  4860 

Syrian  Arabs  .  .  .  .  4862 

Armed  Beduin  of  the  Syrian 

Desert  4863 

Cobbled  Lane  of  Antioch  ..  4864 

In  the  Basket-work  Bazaar  4865 

Goldsmith  of  Aleppo  .  .  4866 

Oriental      Splendour      in      a 

Damascus  House  ..  ..  4867 

On  the  Desert  Road  ..  4868 

Patriarch  of  Maronite  Church  4S70 

Laying  the  Dust        .  .  .  .  4871 

Street  Arabs  in  Beirut  .  .  4872 
Bright  Colours   in   a   Beirut 

Alley  4S72 

Mahomedan   Burial    Ground 

of  Damascus  ,,  ..  4874 

Medieval  Berne 
An  Idyll  of  Neuchatel 
Bernese  Grace 
Countryman  of  Appenzell  .  . 
Group  of  Dairy  Workers  of  ■ 

In  an  Alpine  Sanctuary 
"  The  Glacier  Village  " 
Street  Traders  in  Lucerne.  . 
By  the  Roadside  in  Evolena 
Goatherd  of  Mountain  Pas- 
Full  of  Years  and  Experiences 
At   the   Hospice  of  St.   Ber- 
In  the  Depths  of  a  Crevasse 
Calling  the  Cattle  Home     . . 






Felling  a  Woodland  Giant . .  4878 
Gathering    the     Harvest     in 

an  Apple  Orchard  . .     4880 

Grading  Apples  near  Hobart  4881 
Packing  Apples  for  Export  4881 
Rounding  "up     Sheep     near 

Launceston  ..  ..      4882 

Valuing   the  Year's   Clip  at 

Hobart        .  .  .  .  .  .      4884 

Hydraulic  Sluicing  in  a  Tin 

Mine  4886 

Working  a  Tin  Face  . .     4887 

Wood-chopping  Match       . .     4888 


Patrician  Lady  of  Tibet      . .  4889 

Four  Cabinet  Ministers        . .  4890 
Stolid    Sons    and   Daughters 

of  Tibet 4891 

Ladakhi  Visitors  to  Tibet  . .  4892 
Mongol    Pilgrims    to    Tibet's 

Shrines        4893 

Ferry  Boat  on  the  Brahma- 
putra . .  .  .  .  •  4894 
Yak  Drivers  .  .  . .  4895 
Weaving  Strips  of  Cloth  . .  4895 
Deputy  of  the  Dalai  Lama . .  4896 
In  Na-'Chung  Monastery  . .  4897 
Courtyard  of  a  Monastery . .  4898 
Monks'  Gorgeous  Banner  ..  4900 
Monks  of  De-Bung  .  .  .  .  4901 
Competitor       in       Shooting 

Competition          . .          . .  4902 
Archer  -  Musketeer     at    New 

Year  Celebrations              .  .  4903 

Sisters  of  a  Tibetan  Nunnery  4904 

Prostrate  Pilgrim     .  .           .  .  4905 

Tibetan  Devil-dance             .  .  4906 
Image      of      the      Fearsome 

Snake-god 4907 

Photographs  in  the  Text  (contd.) 

Retinue  of  Serving  Maids  . . 
Wonderful  Hairdressing 
Tibetan  Builders  at  Work.. 
An  Audience  with  the  Tashi 

Lamas      who     Train     Little 

Nuns -and  Lay  Sisters 
Magician   in  Full  Dress  and, 

Band  of  Monks 
Street  of  Holy  Lhasa 
Lonely     Anchorite     of     the 

Monolith  in  Lhasa  City 
Aids  to  Priestly  Piety 


Snake-charmer  in  Tunis 

Typical  Beduin  Womanhood 

At  a  Baker's  Shop 

Greengrocer     at     his     Pave- 
ment Stall 

Centaur-like  Spahi 

France's  Iron  Hand 

Representatives  of  Shadowy 

Native  Trooper  of   the  Bey's 

Squadron  of  Spahis 

Market  by  the  Mosque 

Mendicant  Street  Arabs  Out- 
side Mosque 

Vender  of  Nougat 

The  Old  "  New  Gate  M 

Venders      of      Viands       and 

Daughter  of  Ishmael 

Satin-breeched  Daughter  of 

Conservative       Sawyers      of 
Tunis  .  .  , . 

Artists   Hand-painting    Pot- 

A  Game  of  Cards 

.Using  a  Simple  Lathe 

Cobbled  Street  of  Tnnis      .  . 
"Desert    School    by    a  Shadv 

In  the  Souk  el  Aassar 

Holiday  Traffic  on  the  Bvrsa 

Camel-borne   Palanquins"  for 
Arab  Women 

Courtyard  of  a  Drovers'  Inn 

Arab  Dancing  Girls 

Link  with  Immemorial  Past 

Youthful  Donkey  Driver    .  . 

Beduin  Woman  of  Tunis     ,  . 

Quietude  of  the  Mosque 

Womanhood's      Ornamental 

Plucking  Ripe  Fruit  of    the 
Date-palm. . 

Masterpieces    of    Craftsman- 

Decorating     Pottery     with 
Greek   Designs 

"  The  White  City  ".. 

Need  Waiting  on  Charity  .  . 

In  the  Souk  el  Attarine 


Constantinople's         Famous 

Praver  from  the  Minaret    . , 
Methods  of  Ceremonial  Lus- 
Wrappel    in    Contemplation 
In  the  Mosque  of  Ahmed    .  . 
Coffee  at  a  Modest  Caravan- 
Constantinople       Thorough- 
Little  Wayfarers  of  Stamboul 
Acquiring    "Legal    Purity" 
Bridge    Across    the    Golden 

Thoroughfare  leading  to  Pera 
Stamboul  Fruit-selling  Mart 
Shop   in    Stamboul's    Grand 

4908  Offerings  from   the   Faithful 

4909  Leisured  Labour  on  the  Bos- 

4910  porus 
Home  Flitting  by  Water     . , 

49 1 1  Moslem    Funeral    Procession 
in  Stamboul 

4912  Whirling  Dervishes 

4913  Toilers  by  the  Sea 
The  Turkish  Porter .  . 

4914  Oriental  Autolycus  Hawking 

4916  His  Wares 
Private  House  in  Constanti- 

4917  nople 

4918  In  a  Turkish  Market 
4920          Bearers  of  the  Burden 

A  Dish  of  Pilaf  in  the  Open 

At  the  Gate  of  the   Mosque 

4922  of   Suleiman 

4923  "Alms,     for     the     Love    of 

4924  Allah  " 

On  the  Steps  of  the  Mosque 

4925  In  a  Turkish  School 

4926  Schoolboys  in  Mosque  Court- 

4927  yard  

In  the  Street  of  a  Small  Town 

4928  Lady  in  Indoor  Costume     .  . 
Ex-Sultan's  Eunuch 

4929  Passing     Fashions      in      the 

4930  East 

4931  Woman  of  the  People 
Study  and  White. . 

4932  Wayfarers  Outside  a  Coflfee- 

4933  house 

4934  Lady  of  Anatolia 
Courtyard      of      Mosque      of 

4935  Selim  I. 

4936  Festoons  of  Favourite  Weed 
Children  at  Play  in  Ancient 

4945  Marmaras 

Risen  from  the  Ashes 
494G  Children  of  Marmaras 

Turkish   Woman  of  Smvrna 

4946  Laden  with  Riches  from  the 

4947  Plains  and  Slopes 

4947  Israel  Under  the  Crescent  ,. 

4948  Prophet    and   Protagonist  of 


4949  Carriers'  Ancient  Cloaks 

4950  Modern  Girlish  Grace 

495-         TURKISTAN 

4953  Member    of    Princely    House 

4954  of  Hunza 

495  5  Doughty  Turcoman  Warriors 

4956  Sightless    Eyes    that   Foresee 

4957  the'Future 

495^  In  the  Square  of  Samarkand 

Rhythmic  Dance  of  Sarikolis 

4959  Members  of  Pastoral  Tribe  . . 
Nomads    from    the    Steppe- 

4960  land 

Aged  Eastern  Ecclesiastic. 
J96i  Waiting  for  Chance   Custom 

in  Askhabad 

4962  Horse  Market  at  Samarkand 

4963  Loading  up  their  Yaks 

4964  The  Scrimmage 

49^6  Picking  up  the  "Ball  " 

Smiling  Victor  and  His  Prize 
Lovely  Product  of  the  Loom 

4968  Ukraine 

4969  Charming  Ukrainian  Maiden 
Commercial         Corner         of 

4970  Odessa 

4971  On  the  Frozen  Dnieper 

4971  Milkmaids  of    Kiev  on  their 


4972  In  a  Silver  Birch  Glade 
Sellers    of    Dairy  Produce  in 

4973  Kiev  

4974  Priest  and  Monks 

4975  Neighbourly  Greetings 
Ukrainian  Village  Charm   . . 

4976  Wintry       Weather      near      a 

4977  Beautiful  Monastery 

4978  Droshki  for  Hire 

Aged    Jewry  in  a  House  of 
4980  Rest 

4981  United   States 

The  Woolworth  Building    . , 

4982  Interpreters  of  the  Constitu- 

4983  tion 

Presidential         Address        to 

4984  Congress 

49S5  Night    Session    of    Political 

498(3  Convention 

4988  New   York  Pleasure  Seekers 
Choir  Practice  in  S.  Patrick's 

4989  Cathedral,  New  York 
Easter  Sunday  Congregation 

4990  Church      Parade      in      Fifth 
499r  Avenue,  New  York 

4991  Manhattan  Bridge  .. 
'Where   ^Night    Shines    Like 

4992  Noon 

Busiest  Corner  of  New  York 

4993  New  Traffic   Tower    in    New 


4994  Broadway  on  Election  Night 

4995  Parade  of    the  Elks  through 

4996  Los  Angeles 

Clamour  in   "  Paddy's  Mar- 

4997  'ket  " 

.4998  Marketing  in  the  Tenement 

49.99  District 

4999  Two  Little  Piccaninnies      ,  . 
Among  the  Black  Population 

5000  By  the  Suwannee  River 

5001  In    "  Mammie's  "   Sheltering 

5001  Arms 

After  Life's  Duties   .  . 

5002  Ability  Rewarded     .. 

5003  Unfailing  Comfort 
His  115th  Birthdav 

5004  President        Harding       with 

5005  Group  of  Indians 
Applying  the  Branding  Iron 

5006  Oklahoma  Cow-punchers    .  . 

5007  The  Union  Stockyards 
500  i  Mount  Vernon 

5009  Father  Asks  a  Blessing        . , 
End  of  a  Farming  Day 

5010  Hot  Night  in  Chicago 

5012  Practical      Cookery      in       a 

"  University 

5013  An  Old-fashioned  Couple    .. 

5014  Throat  and  Teeth  Inspection 
5019  at  a  Public  School 

Learning  to  Vote 
Learning  the  Oath  of  Allegi- 
Citizens  in  the  Making 
5022  "  Hitting  the  Grit  " 

5024  Moonshiners'  Secret  Still     .  . 
Pouring    Liquor    Down    the 

5025  Drains 

50.26  "  Near  Beer  "  Saloon 

5026  Old-time  Bowery  Saloon     .  . 

5027  In  a  Juvenile  Court . . 
Cbecrful  Obedience  to  Scout 

5027  Law 

5028  Boy      Scouts      Round     their 

Camp  Fire .  . 

5029  Practice  at  Basket-ball 

5030  Girl   Scouts'  Salute  to  "Old 

5031  Glory  " 

5032  Liberty    Greets    the    I  mini  - 

5033  grant 

5034  Testing  Mental    Capacity    of 

5035  Immigrants 
Immigrants  awaiting  Exam- 

In   Hospital  on   Ellis   Island 

5036  Packing  Oranges 
Coloured  Section,  New  York 

5038  Picking  Cotton  in  a  Southern 

5039  Plantation 

San    Francisco's   Chinatown 

5040  Sons  of  China 

5041  In  a  New  York  Fire  Station 
Fighting  Fire  and  Ice  Sirnul- 

5042  taneously 

5043  Rescue     Squad     in     Smoke 

5044  Helmets 

5045  West   Point  Cadets  .. 
Cadets  in  their  Historic  Uni- 

5047  form 

5047  Builders  of  Fantastic  Towers 

Balancing      Feats      on     the 
504S  Giddy  Heights 











5  077 

5.08  2 














51 10 





Photographs  in  the  Text  (contd.) 

Riveting  Girders  on  a  Sky- 
scraper . .  . ■  ■ •  5I27 
Fresh  Supplies  of  Oysters  .  .  5128 
Sardine  Packing  at  San  Diego  5129 
Fishing  the  Rapids  . .  . .  5130 
Bringing  Home  the  Firewood  51 31 
Agricultural    Industry    on    a 

Reservation  ..  •■      5t32 

Land  Labourers       ..  .  ■      5*32 

Drying     Yard     of     Almond 

Orchard 5*53 

On  a  Roadway  in  Ohio        .  .      5134 
Apple-drying  in  Virginia     ..      5135 
Apples  from  a  Country  Or- 
chard   5136 

Gardening  in  a  City  School     51 37 
Harvesting   Tobacco   in  Vir- 
Stripping      the      "  Fragrant 

Weed  " 

Rolling  Cigars 
Making  Silken  Hosiery 
Sorting  Beans 
Scene  on  an  Ice  Field 
Rural  Postal  Service 
Pneumatic  Dispatch 
Letter  Carrier  Delivering  Mail 
Quick  Lunch  Car  on  Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad 
Cab  of  a  Freight  Engine      . . 
Oiling  the  Piston-rods 
Monster  Steam  Shovel 
Rolling  Mill  in  Action 
Titanic  Motor  Tractor 
In  the  Grand  Stand  at  Motor 

Race  Meeting 
Racing  Cars  Lined  Up 
Contest    for    Boxing    Cham- 
American  Football  Match  .  . 
Batsman  and  Catcher 
Where  Society  Takes  Its  Ease 
Enjoying      the      Californian 

Beach  of  Atlantic  City 
Board  Walk,   Atlantic   City 
Conev  Island 
Picnic  Party,  Ozark 
Seaside  Suburb  of  Los  Angeles 
The     Promenade     at     Long 

Robin  Hood  at  Hollywood  . . 
Rehearsal  at  Cinema  Studio 
Open-air  Shop  in  Sitka        ..      5100 
Preserving    Fish    in    the   Far 

North  5l8fi 

Native  Woman  of  Alaska  .  .      5187 
Alaskan's  Quaint  Craft        ..      5187 
Snow    Huts    in    Temporary- 
Village        ..           ■•           ■■      5t8S 
Images  of  Indian  Totems   .  .      5188 
Eskimo  Hunting  Seal           ..      5180 
In  a  Hunter's  Paradise        ..      5189 
Studies  in  Facial  Expression     5190 
Interior  of  Well-built  Hut.  .      5102 
"  The  Stern  Mother— Expe- 
rience "       ..           ■■           ■-      5IQ3 
Papoose  Stands  for  his  Por- 
trait   5194 

Head  Man  of  Indian  Tribe. .  5195 
Indians  Dancing  the  Tango  5196 
Ceremony  of  the  Hopi  Indians  5197 
Tribal    Dance    of    the   Hopi 

Indians        .  .  .  .  ■  •      519S 

Harvest  Festival  Celebrations  5200 
Full  Dress  War  Dance  ..  5201 
Masked  Rain-bringers  of  Ari- 
zona .  .  ■  ■  •-  52°3 
Holiday  in  New  Mexico  . .  5204 
Festival    of     S.    Jerome     at 

Pueblo  de  Taos     ..  ..     5205 


Indian  Domesticity 
Communal  Village  Structure 
The  Art  of  the  Loom 
Shady    Spot    on    a    Sandy 

Tableland  ..  ..      5210 

Learning  How  to  Play  Cat's- 

Cradle  5212 

Of  Proud  Iroquoian  Stock  . .      5213 
Southern  Indian  Brave       ..      52r4 









Plaza  de  la  Independencia.  .  5222 
Healthy  Girlhood     ..           ..  5224 
Montevideo's  Shoe-shine  So- 
ciety          . .          - ■          ■ ■  5225 
Fashionable  Life   at    Pocitos 

Beach           ..           ..           ■■  5226 
Immigrant    Rancher's    Pro- 
perty             5228 

Meat-preserving  Process     . .  5229 

Meat-packing  Factory         .  .  523° 

Portland  Cement  Factory..  5231 

Lassoing  Horses  in  the  Wilds  5232 

Gauchos  near  Fray  Bentos  5234 
Feast-day      Celebrations      of 

Gauchos       . .  .  .  ■ ■  5235 

Remnants    of    a     Primitive 

People        5236 

Country  Ferry  .  .  .  .  5238 

Bathing  Beach  of  Montevideo  5239 
Fiesta  Among  Gauchos  . .  5240 
Survivors  of  the  Old  Charrua 

Ricp  ■  ■       5~4  — 

On  the   Way  to  the  Stock- 
yards .  .  . .  • •      5245 


Pack-Donkeys  in  a  Street  of 

Caracas        5246 

Daughter  of  Latin  America  5248 

Street  in  Caracas      .  .  ,'.  .  5249 

Common  Mode  of    Travel  in 

the  Mountains  . .  . .  5250 
Venezuelan  Water-carrier  ..  5251 
Baskets  in  the  Making  . .  5252 
Balling  Cotton  .  .  . .  5253 
Making  Arrows  . .  . .  5253 
One  of  the  Lake  Dwellers  . .  5254 
Maquiri tare  Women  ..  5254 
Conservatism  in  the  Back- 
woods .  .  .  .  ■  •  5  255 
In  Workaday  Garb  .  .  .  .  5255 
Main  Street  of  Puerto  Cabello  5256 
Lottery  Tickets  for  Sale  .  .  5257 
Cleaning  Orchids  in  a  Tropi- 
cal  Forest  .  .           .  .           ■  .  5259 

Members  of  Gorsedd           ..  5292 

Women  in  National  Dress  .  .  5294 
Preliminary       Assembly      of 

Eisteddfod  .  .  •  .  5295 
Aspirants  for  Bardic  Honours  5296 
Gorsedd  Circle,  Aberystwyth  5298 
Offering  the  Horn  of  Plenty  5299 
Flowers  at  the  Gorsedd  Ser- 
vice                5300 

Presentation     of     Sword    of 

Peace          530I 

Bardic      Procession       near 

Aberystwyth  Castle           .  .  5302 

Bard  Singing  Pennillion      .,  5303 

Druidical  Symbolism           ..  53°4 

Crown  for  the  Bard  .  ,           ..  53°5 

South  Dock  Basin  at  Swansea  53°& 

Water-melon    Market,     Ko- 

prulu           .  .           ■  ■           ■  ■  5312 

Aboriginies  of  America         . .  5326 

Asiatic  Womanhood             .  -  5372 

List  of  Maps 

South  Africa 47o7 

Spain 4765 

Sweden              4s  1 1 

Switzerland 4858 

Syria 4875 

Tasmania           4879 

Tibet       ..           ..           ..           •■  4919 

Tunis 4965 

Turkey  .  .           .  .           ..           •  ■  5<"5 

Turkistan          5023 

Ukraine              . .           .  •           ■  -  5°37 

United  States 5216 

Uruguay            . .          . .          ■  •  5244 

Venezuela           ..           ..           .■  5260 

Wales 0309 

British  Racial  Origins  . .          . .  5374 

Anglo-Saxon  Cession  of  England  5375 

List  of  Colour  Maps 


In  Industrial  Cardiff            .  .  5262 

One  of  Cambria's  Daughters  5263 
Mellow    Age   at    Comfortable 

Ease              5282 

Native  Dress  and  Humour  .  .  5283 

Salmon  Fishermen  at  Bangor  5284 

On  a  Welsh  Estuary             .  .  5285 

In  Upland  Pastures              .  .  5286 
Back    from    the    Fishing    in 

Swansea  Bay          .  .           .  .  5287 
Sawing     Slate      in    Penbrya 

Quarries      . .          . .          •  ■  528S 
In  the  Dinorwic  Slate  Quarry  5289 
Mountaineering  on  Snowdon  5290 
Herald     Bard     from     Mont- 
gomeryshire            .,           ..  5291 

Races  of  the  World 


Europe  {Nations} 


Europe  (Peoples) 


Eastern  Europe  (Peoples) 


Balkan  States  (Peoples) 


Africa  (Nations) 


Africa  (Peoples) 


North     and     Central     Americ. 




South  America  (Peoples) 


Asia  (Nations) 

.      5386 

Asia  (Peoples) 

.      5387 

India  (Peoples) 

.      5388 

i — i 


in  The  Modern    World 

By  J.  A.  R.  MARRIOTT,  M.A.,  M.P. 

Author  of  "The  Remaking  of  Modem  Europe  (1789-1872),"  "The  European  Commonwealth,"  etc. 

This  penetrating  and  illuminating  essay  by  Mr.  J.  A.  R.  Marriott  is  complementary 
to  those  contributed  to  our  first  volume  by  Sir  Arthur  Keith  and  Mr.  Romaine  Paterson. 
The  one  gave  an  outline  of  racial  origins  and  explained  how  man  emerged  from  the 
horde  at  the  call  of  the  tribal  spirit  ;  the  other  showed  how  the  successive  industrial 
agglomerations  of  mankind  that  constituted  the  great  States  of  the  ancient  world  flourished 
and  decayed  under  the  pressure  of  conflict  and  cooperation.  In  the  accompanying 
chapter  Mr.  Marriott  completes  the  survey  by  analysing  the  spirit  of  nationality,  the 
most  potent  and  the  most  elusive  of  the  forces  that  have  moulded  our  modern  polity 

THE  Nalion-State  is  the  typical 
political  product  of  the  modern 
world.  To  the  ancient  world, 
Nations  were  by  no  means  unknown  ; 
nor  were  States.  But  the  State  rarely 
corresponded  with  the  Nation.  The 
characteristic  political  entity  was  some- 
thing either  much  larger  or  much 
smaller  than  the  typical  modern  State  : 
either  an  empire  or  a  city  ;  the  City- 
States  of  Hellas,  for  example  ;  the 
Empires  of  Assyria,  Macedon,  or  Rome. 
The  idea  that  a  State  should  be,  even 
roughly,  coextensive  and  coincident 
with  a  Nation  did  not  enter  the  political 
consciousness  of  mankind  until  towards 
the  end  of  the  eighteenth  century. 
Some  authorities  would  date  the  new 
conception  specifically  from  the  annihi- 
lation of  Poland.  The  partition  of 
Poland  among  its  three  powerful  neigh- 
bours wiped  out  a  State  which  had 
filled  an  imposing  place  in  the  European 
polity  ;  it  served  to  revivify  a  nation. 
That  nation  has  now  achieved  its  am- 
bition in  a  resuscitated  Poland. 

Elusive    Nature    of    Nationality 

Among  the  forces  which  have  gone 
to  the  moulding  of  our  modern  polity, 
that  of  nationality  is  certainly  the  most 
elusive.  It  has  almost  defied  definition. 
Vico  defined  a  nationality  as  "  a  natural 
society  of  men  who  by  unity  of  territory, 
of  origin,  of  custom,  and  of  language,  are 
drawn  into  a  community  of  life  and  of 
social  conscience."  Is  "  unity  of  terri- 
tory "  essential  to  the  idea  of  nationality  ? 

Copyrighted,  1922,  by  The  Amalgamated  Press  (1922), 

Or  even  "  community  of  life  "  ?  If 
so,  we  must  deny  specific  nationality 
to  the  Jews  in  dispersion  or  to  the 
Poles  after  the  partition  of  their  State. 
Is  identity  of  language  essential,  or  of 
religion  ?  If  so,  we  must  deny  the 
existence  of  a  Swiss  nationality,  for 
the  "  Swiss  "  embrace  two,  if  not  three, 
creeds,  and  speak  three,  if  not  four, 
distinct  languages.  And  what  of  the 
"  Americans  "  ? 



a    Collective    Conscience 


we  shall  involve  ourselves 
in  difficulties  if  we  lay  over-much 
emphasis  either  on  religion  or  on  lan- 
guage as  essential  elements.  Yet  in 
the  absence  of  these  it  would  seem 
difficult  to  preserve  nationality  when 
it  is  divorced  from  statehood.  Swiss 
nationality  and  American  nationality 
are  respectively  the  resultant  of  the 
evolution  of  a  Swiss  State  and  of  an 
American  State.  In  other  cases  the 
State  may  be  a  resultant  of  the  idea  of 
common  nationality.  The  Triune  King- 
dom, commonly  designated  Yugo-Slavia, 
and  the  new  Poland  are  apposite 
illustrations  of  the  latter  process.  We 
seem,  therefore,  to  be  almost  driven 
by  exclusions  and  inclusions  to  accept- 
ance of  the  definition  proposed  by 
Professor  Henri  Hauser  of  Dijon  : 
"  Nationality  is  a  matter  of  collective 
conscience,  of  collective  will  to  live.  .  . 
Race,  religion,  language,  all  these  ele- 
ments either  are  or  are  not  factors  in 
nationality  according  to  whether  they 




National  Spirit 

do  or  do  not  enter  into  the  collective 
conscience  by  virtue  thereof."  ("  The 
Principle  of  Nationalities,"   page  7.) 

A  "  collective  conscience."  But  the 
doubt  obtrudes  itself  whether  such  a 
conscience  could  have  been  generated 
without  a  sentimental  or  traditional 
attachment  to  a  territorial  home.  Jewish 
nationality  has  been  sustained  during 
two  thousand  years  of  exile,  mainly, 
no  doubt,  by  devotion  to  a  particular 
creed,  by  wonderful  persistency  of 
blood,  but  not  least  by  collective 
affection  for  the  common  home  of  the 
race  :  "  When  I  forget  thee,  O  Jeru- 
salem." But  for  Zionism  the  modern 
Palestine  would  never  have  been  called 
into  being  by  the  Paris  Conference. 
Similarly  the  Poles  in  dispersion  have 
drawn  their  inspiration  from  the  fact 
that  many  of  their  brethren  have  lived 
on,  though  under  alien  rule,  on  the 
plains  of  the  Vistula. 

Professor   Zimmern's    Definition 

Professor  Zimmern,  then,  would  seem 
to  get  near  to  the  heart  of  the  matter 
when  he  writes  :  "  Nationality  is  more 
than  a  creed  or  a  doctrine,  or  a  code  of 
conduct,  it  is  an  instinctive  attachment  ; 
it  recalls  an  atmosphere  of  precious 
memories,  of  vanished  parents  and 
friends,  of  old  customs,  of  reverence,  of 
home,  and  a  sense  of  the  brief  span  of 
human  life  as  a  link  between  immemorial 
generations  spreading  backwards  and 
forwards.  .  .  It  implies  a  particular 
kind  of  corporate  self-consciousness, 
peculiarly  intimate,  yet  invested  at  the 
same  time  with  a  peculiar  dignity.  . 
and  it  implies,  secondly,  a  country,  an 
actual  strip  of  land  associated  with  the 
nationality,  a  territorial  centre  where 
the  flame  of  nationality  is  kept  alight 
at  the  hearth  fire  of  home."  ("  Nation- 
ality and  Government,"  pages  78,  84.) 

Beginnings    of    the    States    System 

Yet  if  the  idea  of  nationality  be 
elusive,  it  is  plainly  among  the  most 
potent  of  the  formative  forces  of  to-day. 
For  the  evolution  of  the  modern  States 

system  we  must,  however,  go  farther 
back  than  the  genesis  of  the  idea  of 
nationality.  Among  the  great  States 
of  the  modern  world  England  was  three 
hundred  years  ahead  of  the  rest  in  the 
realization  of  its  unity  and  identity. 
The  sense  of  nationality  in  England 
was  due, however,  to  causes,  geographical 
and  political,  which  were  unique  in  their 
operation.  Hardly  was  there  a  king 
of  the  English  before  he  put  forward  a 
claim  to  be  "  alterius  orbis  Imperator  " 
— outside  the  jurisdiction  of  the  Holy 
Roman  Empire,  and,  indeed,  of  the 
Roman  Papacy.  Continental  Europe 
was,  during  the  thousand  years  which 
intervened    between    the    fall    of    the 

Roman  Empire   and  the  disruption  of 

Christendom,  a  quasi-unity  dominated 
in  theory  by  the  conjoint  authority  of 
pope  and  emperor,  and,  in  fact,  unified  by 
common  subjection  in  ecclesiastical 
affairs  to  the  Roman  Primacy,  by  common 
acceptance  in  the  civil  sphere  of  Roman 
law,  and  by  an  all-pervading  and  all- 
powerful  social  system  which  provided 
at  once  a  system  of  land  tenure,  a  nexus 
for  society  and  a  method  of  government. 
The  Empire,  the  Papacy,  and  the  feudal 
system  dominated  the  life  of  the  Middle 
Ages,  and  so  long  as  that  domination 
persisted  there  was  no  room  for  the 
idea  of  nationality,  nor  could  the  modern 
States  system  emerge. 

Evolution    of    the    Nation-State 

The  intellectual,  political,  geographi- 
cal and  ecclesiastical  upheaval  which 
is  compendiously  described  as  "  The 
Renaissance  and  the  Reformation," 
opened  the  door  to  the  emergence  of 
national  Churches  and  the  evolution  of 
the  Nation-State.  Hungary,  Poland, 
and  Bohemia  had  long  enjoyed  the 
dignity  of  statehood.  Among  the  great 
States  of  Western  Europe,  France  was 
(after  England)  the  first  to  achieve 
unity  and  self-conscious  identity.  The 
remarkable  astuteness  of  a  long  suc- 
cession of  kings  of  the  Capet  and  Valois 
dynasties  ;  the  absorption  by  conquest 
or  marriage  of  the  great  feudal  duchies 


in   the   Modern    World 

and  counties  ;  frontiers  well  defined  on 
two  sides  though  highly  debatable  on  a 
third ;  an  administrative  system  ever 
increasing  in  efficiency  as  it  increased  in 
centralisation  ;  the  Hundred  Years  War 
against  the  Angevin  kings  of  England 
and  the  dukes  of  Burgundy — all  these 
played  their  part  in  the  making  of 
modern  France,  and  by  the  end  of  the 
fifteenth  century  France  had  arrived. 

Spain  reached  a  similar  stage  of 
national  evolution  early  in  the  sixteenth 
century.  The  secular  crusade  against 
the  Saracens  was  the  central  fact  in 
the  making  of  Spain,  but  King  Charles 
I.,  otherwise  known  as  the  Emperor 
Charles  V.,  was  the  first  Spanish 
sovereign  to  rule  over  a  united  Spain. 
The  bitter  contest  between  Spain  and 
the  provinces  of  the  Low  Countries 
gave  to  the  seven  northern  provinces 
sufficient  cohesion  and  self -consciousness 
to  entitle  them  to  be  regarded  as  a 
Nation-State  from  the  end  of  the 
sixteenth  century  onwards,  albeit  a 
State  of  a  federal  rather  than  a  unitary 
type.  Differences  of  creed  between 
the  Dutch  and  their  former  rulers  at 
once  fortified  them  during  the  struggle 
for  independence  and  accentuated  the 
sense  of  unity  when  independence  was 
at  last  achieved. 

European   Politics    and   Antagonisms 

Ecclesiastical  antagonisms  contributed 
once  more  to  the  many  disruptive  forces 
which  during  the  Thirty  Years  War 
(1618-48)  dissipated  whatever  of  unity 
Germany  had  derived  from  the  coinci- 
dence of  the  German  kingship  and  the 
Holy  Roman  Empire.  From  the  chaos 
there  emerged  more  than  one  powerful 
State.  First "  Austria,"  conglomerate  in 
itself  and  dynastically  connected  with 
the  Czech  Kingdom  of  Bohemia  and  the 
Magyar  Kingdom  of  Hungary ;  then 
Prussia  ;  but  neither  could  be  described 
with  accuracy  as  a  Nation-State  ;  still 
less  could  the  lesser  German  States, 
such  as  Saxony,  Bavaria,  Baden,  Wiirt- 
temberg,  or  the  Palatinate,  though  all 
were  virtually  independent  sovereignties. 

Portugal  had  meanwhile  (1640)  re- 
gained its  independence,  and  thence- 
forth must  be  counted  as  a  Nation- 
State,  while  the  dissolution  of  the 
Union  of  Calmar  (1523)  permitted 
Sweden  to  take  its  place  as  an  in- 
dependent "  Power,"  and  for  a  brief 
period  (roughly  1600-1721)  to  play  a 
conspicuous  and  influential  part  in 
European  politics.  Thanks,  indeed, 
partly  to  the  vigour  of  her  kings  and 
the  skill  and  discipline  of  her  soldiers, 
in  part  to  the  friendship  which  so  long 
subsisted  between  Stockholm  and  Paris, 
Sweden  occupied  in  the  European 
polity  a  place  far  more  than  com- 
mensurate with  her  permanent  strength 
and  resources. 

Growth    of    Powers   in    Modern    Times 

The  rapid  rise  of  the  Hohenzollern 
power  in  Prussia  and  North  Germany, 
still  more  the  irruption  of  Russia  into 
European  politics  at  the  close  of  the 
seventeenth  century,  brought  to  an 
end  the  brief  ascendancy  of  Sweden. 
Russia,  though  loosely  compacted,  took 
her  place  as  a  Nation-State  in  the  first 
years  of  the  eighteenth  century,  and 
before  the  century  closed  the  American 
continent  had  brought  to  the  birth 
the  first  of  the  Nation-States  in  the  New 

How  far  had  the  idea  of  nationality 
contributed  to  the  establishment  of 
these  Powers  of  the  modern  world  ? 
The  instinctive  avoidance  of  the  word 
"  nations,"  the  substitution  of  the  term 
"  Powers "  would  seem  to  suggest  a 
partial   answer   to   the   question. 

Monarchical   Factor   in    State    Making 

The  motive  force  which  was  on  every 
side  operating  to  produce  a  new  States 
system,  which  found  its  manifestation 
in  the  creation  of  strong,  compact,  homo- 
geneous kingdoms,  was  primarily  dy- 
nastic, or  at  least  monarchical.  France 
was  made  by  a  succession  of  great  kings 
and  great  ministers,  the  apotheosis  of 
the  absolute  monarchy  being  reached 
in  the  brilliant  period  which  culminated 


National  Spirit 

in  the  reign  of  "  Le  Roi  Soleil "  (Louis 
XIV.).  By  the  end  of  the  seventeenth 
century  France  was,  however,  indis- 
putably a  Nation-State.  Richelieu  had 
completed  the  work  of  political  unifica- 
tion, Colbert  had  made  her  one  com- 
mercially and  economically,  yet  the 
social  fissures  were  still  deep.  Not  until 
the  Revolution  did  France  become  a 
social  unity.  In  two  ways  Richelieu 
left  his  work  incomplete.  The  destruc- 
tion of  political  feudalism  served  only 
to  accentuate  the  social  cleavage  be- 
tween class  and  class.  Nor  did  he 
achieve  his  ambition  in  regard  to  the 
rectification  of  the  frontiers  of  France. 

Expansion   of   the   Kingdom   of  France 

According  to  his  political  testament  his 
aim  was  to  identify  modern  France  with 
ancient  Gaul.  His  intervention  in  the 
Thirty  Years  War  wrung  from  the 
Empire  a  formal  acknowledgment  of 
the  cession  of  the  three  Lorraine  bishop- 
rics, Metz,  Toul,  and  Verdun,  annexed 
in  1552,  and,  in  addition,  the  greater 
part  of  the  province  of  Alsace.  For  the 
first  time  modern  France  touched  the 
Rhine.  The  acquisition  of  Franche 
Comte  in  1674  rendered  still  more 
isolated  the  remaining  portions  of 
Lorraine,  but  these  did  not  actually 
fall  into  France  until  1766.  Meanwhile, 
Henri  IV.  had  brought  to  the  Crown  of 
France  the  Kingdom  of  Beam,  or  the 
northern  half  of  Navarre,  and  Louis 
XIV.  finally  rounded  off  the  Pyrenean 
frontier  by  the  acquisition  of  Roussillon 
and  Cerdagne  in  1659. 

Result    of   Territorial   Acquisitions 

By  a  curious  legal  subterfuge — the 
Chambre  des  Reunions — Strasburg  was 
assigned  to  France  in  1683.  Later  in 
the  same  reign  the  north-eastern  frontier 
was  immensely  strengthened  by  the 
acquisition  of  Western  Flanders,  and 
of  a  number  of  strong  fortresses  like 
Lille,  Cambrai,  and  Valenciennes,  which 
virtually  gave  France  the  command  of 
Artois  and  Hainault.     Louis  XIV  never 

dreamt  of  invoking  the  principle  of 
nationality  to  cover  these  territorial 
acquisitions.  The  motive  was  frankly 
strategical,  to  render  France  secure 
against  attack  by  her  neighbours  ;  to 
give  France  a  military  advantage  should 
she  desire  to  take  the  offensive.  Of  the 
doctrine  of  "  nationality  "  there  is  not  a 
hint  ;  yet  the  fact  remains  that  before 
the  process  of  territorial  unification 
began  the  French  were  not  a  nation  ; 
when  it  was  complete  they  unquestion- 
ably were.  Bretons  and  Burgundians, 
Normans,  Angevins  and  Acquitainians 
alike  acknowledged  themselves  to  be 
"  Frenchmen,"  and  found  satisfaction 
and  pride  not  merely  in  common  citizen- 
ship but  in  common  nationality. 

We  pass  from  modern  France  to 
modern  Spain.  The  two  outstanding 
characteristics  of  the  Spaniard — his 
intense  nationalism  and  his  persistent 
provincialism — are  both  attributable  to 
his  prolonged  contest  with  the  Moors. 

Nationalism    Forged    by    Patriotism 

No  people  in  the  world  have  developed 
a  deeper  sense  of  national  individuality 
than  the  Spanish,  yet  between  province 
and  province — notably  between  Castile, 
Aragon,  and  Catalonia — there  are  differ- 
ences of  tradition  and  outlook  which 
political  unification  has  not  availed  to 
eradicate.  Probably  nothing  less  than 
a  secular  crusade  against  an  intruding 
enemy,  alien  in  race  and  alien  in  creed, 
would  have  sufficed  to  weld  Catalans 
and  Castilians,  Aragonese  and  Anda- 
lusians  into  a  united  nation. 

Dutch  nationalism  is  the  product  of 
a  struggle  not  less  fierce  than  that  in 
which  Spanish  nationalism  was  con- 
ceived— on  the  one  hand  a  prolonged 
contest  waged  with  the  elemental  forces 
of  nature  ;  on  the  other  a  brief,  but 
'terrible  struggle  against  the  tyranny, 
ecclesiastical,  economic,  administrative, 
and  political,  of  the  Spanish  rulers  of  the 

Dutch  nationalism  was  forged  in  the 
furnace  of  persecution ;  it  has  been 
sustained  by  the  necessity  for  ceaseless 



in   the  Modern    World 

vigilance  against  the  ambition  of  powerful 
neighbours,  and  against  the  constantly 
threatened   depredations   of   the   sea. 

The  people  who  achieved  so  splendidly 
their  own  liberty  showed  themselves 
curiously  inept  in  dealing,  at  a  critical 
juncture,  with  neighbours  who  might, 
by  tactful  handling,  have  been  con- 
verted  into   fellow-citizens. 

The  idea  of  creating  a  substantial 
buffer  state  between  France  and  Ger- 
many has  commended  itself  for  centuries 
to  the  diplomatists  of  Europe.  In  the 
fifteenth  century  it  seemed  not  unlikely 
that  under  the  Duchy  of  Burgundy  it 
might  prove  effective.  It  was  not  to  be. 
In  the  early  nineteenth  century,  after 
Napoleon  had  demonstrated  afresh  the 
traditional  anxiety  of  France  to  extend 
her  eastern  frontier  to  the  Rhine,  the 
diplomatists  at  Vienna  attempted  to 
achieve  the  same  purpose  by  uniting 
the  southern  provinces  of  the  Low 
Countries  with  the  northern :  the 
"Austrian"  (formerly  the  "Spanish") 
Netherlands  with  those  portions  of  the 
same  low-German  lands  which,  since 
the  end  of  the  sixteenth  century,  had 
been  distinctively  known  as  the  United 

Belgium's   Soul    Born    of   Suffering 

The  project  was  initiated  by  Lord 
Castlereagh,  who  in  this  was  true  to  the 
secular  traditions  of  British  policy. 
He  attempted  by  the  union  of  Holland 
and  Belgium  to  erect  a  stout  barrier 
against  the  aggressions  either  of  French 
or  Germans.  But  the  Dutch  played 
their  cards  badly.  The  Belgians  were 
bitterly  offended  by  the  tactlessness  and 
greed  of  their  Dutch  sovereign,  and  the 
union  lasted  no  more  than  fifteen  years 
(1815-30).  With  the  successful  asser- 
tion of  Belgian  independence,  yet 
another  Nation-State  took  its  place 
in     the    European    polity. 

Hardly,  however,  can  the  inde- 
pendence of  Belgium  be  hailed  as  a 
triumph  for  the  principle  of  nationality. 
Between  the  Flemings  and  Walloons 
there  is  racially  less  in  common  than 

between  those  peoples  and  the  French 
and  the  Germans  respectively.  Yet 
common  citizenship  in  the  Belgian 
State  has  developed  among  the  people 
of  both  races  a  sense  of  a  common 
Belgian  nationality.  The  brutalitv  of 
the  German  conquest  (1914)  quickened 
and  accentuated  a  process  which  other- 
wise might  have  tarried.  Nationality 
matures  rapidly  under  the  heel  of  an 
alien  and  oppressive  ruler.  In  the 
discipline  of  suffering,  Belgium  found 
her  soul. 

Autocracy   versus   Democracy 

Among  the  phenomena  of  European 
history  and  politics  there  is  none  more 
curious  than  the  prolonged  existence 
of  the  "  ramshackle  empire  "  of  the 
Hapsburgs  and  the  survival  of  Switzer- 
land. Between  the  two  political  forma- 
tions there  is  at  once  an  obvious  contrast 
and  a  striking  parallelism.  The  one 
stood  as  a  symbol  of  autocracy  ;  the 
other  is  hailed  as  the  purest  extant 
product  of  unadulterated  democracy ; 
the  one  represents  the  triumph  of 
personal  rule,  and  the  fruit  of  "  personal 
union  "  ;  the  other  is  a  confederacy  of 
free  peoples,  a  union  of  self-governing 
and  jealously  independent  communities. 
Not  less  striking  is  the  parallelism.  Both 
have  fulfilled  a  definite  political  purpose, 
yet  both  are  defiant  of  every  canon  of 
political  science.  If  the  Hapsburg  em- 
peror ruled  over  peoples  of  diverse 
races — Germans,  Czechs,  Poles,  Mag- 
yars, Rumanians,  Italians,  and  Southern 
Slavs — the  Swiss  Confederation  em- 
braces with  impartiality  Frenchmen, 
Germans,  and  Italians.  But  an  out- 
standing difference  remains  to  be  noted. 

Ramshackle    Empire    of    the    Hapsburgs 

The  prolonged  and,  on  the  whole, 
adroit  regime  of  the  Hapsburgs  did 
nothing  to  promote  even  a  pseudo- 
nationality  among  the  various  peoples 
included  in  their  conglomerate  empire. 
These  all  remained  to  the  end  as  distinct 
as  on  the  daj?  when  they  severally 
passed  under  the  rule  of  the  Hapsburgs. 



National  Spirit 

The  Swiss  Confederation  is  equally 
defiant  of  the  community  of  race  and 
of  language,  and  even  more  defiant  of 
community  of  creed  ;  yet  the  Swiss 
are  undeniably  a  nation  ;  the  subjects 
of  the  Hapsburg  empire  never  were. 

Debt    of   the   Nations  to    Napoleon 

The  fact  emerges,  then,  that  the 
force  to  which  so  much  potency  is 
attributed  by  modern  philosophers 
played  an  insignificant  part  in  moulding 
the  fortunes  of  the  European  States. 
Thus  far,  however,  we  have  not  crossed 
— save  to  indicate  the  genesis  of  Belgium 
— the  watershed  of  modern  history. 
The  twenty-six  years  which  elapsed 
between  the  outbreak  of  the  French 
Revolution  and  the  final  overthrow  of 
Napoleon  mark  a  distinct  dividing  line 
between  two  historical  epochs.  The 

French  Revolution  proclaimed  the  prin- 
ciple of  liberty.  Napoleon,  his  ag- 
gressive enterprises,  his  conquests,  his 
occupations,  his  administration,  and 
his  codes  gave  an  unparalleled  impulse 
to  the  development  of  the  idea  of 

Modern  Germany,  modern  Italy,  the 
new  Kingdom  of  the  Southern  Slavs 
owe  to  Napoleon  an  immeasurable  debt. 
Even  the  Swiss  Confederation  owes 
him  something.  The  French  Directory 
had  attempted  to  impose  upon  Switzer- 
land a  unitarian  form  of  government 
wholly  alien  to  her  traditions — the 
Helvetic  Republic  One  and  Indivisible. 

Promotion    of    the    Sense    of    Unity 

The  Swiss  made  it  quickly  and  abun- 
dantly clear  that  despite  some  tendencies 
towards  national  unity  they  repudiated 
the  idea  of  uniformity  ;  Napoleon  re- 
cognized the  fact,  and  in  1803  he  gave 
them  a  new  Constitution  embodied  in 
the  Act  of  Mediation.  That  Act,  though 
replaced  in  1815  by  the  Federal  Pact, 
marked  a  distinct  step  towards  national 
unity  in  Switzerland.  The  degree  of 
progress  attained  during  the  ten  years 
when    Switzerland   was    to   all     intents 

and  purposes  a  tributary  of  the  Napo- 
leonic Empire,  may  be  measured  by 
comparing  the  Federal  Constitution  of 
1848  with  the  loose  Confederation  of 
Cantons  which  alone  existed  down  to  1798 . 

Yugo-Slavia,  too,  owes  a  considerable 
debt  to  Napoleon.  His  occupation  of 
the  Illyrian  provinces  was  due,  of  course, 
to  motives  far  removed  from  any  desire 
to  stimulate  national  self-consciousness. 
But  the  introduction  of  the  French 
codes,  the  regularisation  of  administra- 
tion, the  construction  of  roads,  the 
establishment  of  schools — all  this  tended, 
however  undesignedly,  to  promote 
among  kindred  peoples  a  sense  of  com- 
munity, if  not  of  nationality. 

More  conspicuous  illustrations  of  the 
same  tendency  are  to  be  found  in 
Germany  and  Italy.  In  1789,  Germany 
contained  no  fewer  than  three  hundred 
and  sixty  separate  States  each  claiming 
quasi-sovereign  rights  and  united  only 
by  the  loosest  possible  tie  of  common 
allegiance  to  the  shadowy  survival  still 
known  as  the  Holy  Roman  Empire. 

Disintegration   and    Redistribution 

Among  none  of  these  was  there  any 
real  sense  of  national  cohesion  or  unity. 
There  were  States  powerful  and  petty 
in  Germany,  but  "  Germany  "  did  not 
exist.  The  revolutionary  wars  ac- 
centuated the  disintegration.  The 
armies  of  the  French  Republic  received 
a  cordial  welcome  in  the  Rhine  bishop- 
rics, and  in  other  western  provinces  ; 
nor  was  there  any  protest  when  Prussia 
came  to  terms  with  France  at  Basel 
(1795),  or  when,  two  years  later,  Austria 
followed  suit  at  Campo  Formio.  Both 
treaties  involved  the  cession  of  German 
territory  to  France,  both  betrayed 
complete  callousness  on  the  part  of  the 
two  leading  German  Powers  as  to  the 
fate  of  the  Empire  as  a  whole.  Austria 
and  Prussia  were  alike  intent  only  on 
the  promotion  of  their  own  dynastic 
and  territorial  interests.  The  lesser 
princes  of  the  Empire  were  not  less 
selfish  in  their  particularism,  not  more 
lacking  in  patriotism  than  the  greater. 



in   the  Modern    World 


Napoleon  and  Moreau  brought  Austria 
once  more  to  her  knees  at  Marengo  and 
Hohenlinden  respectively,  1800 ;  and 
by  the  Treaty  of  Luneville  (1801) 
Austria  confirmed  the  cession  of  the 
Rhincland  to  France.  There  then  ensued 
a  ludicrous  and  humiliating  rush  of 
German  princelings  to  Paris,  where  in 
order  to  secure  the  largest  possible 
slice  of  the  booty,  each  for  each,  an 
paid  assiduous  court  to  Talleyrand 
and    his    minions. 

Napoleon's  principles  of  redistribution 
were     few     and     simple— to      penalise 
Austria;  to     cajole     Prussia;  and,    by 
enlarging   and   consolidating   the   terri- 
tories of  the  secondary  States,  to  bind 
them  by  ties  of  interest  and  gratitude 
more    closely    to    France.     Under    the 
Act   of   Mediatisation,   the   States  were 
reduced  from  three  hundred  and  sixty 
to  less  than  half  that  number.     Of  the 
fifty-one  Imperial  cities  only  six  were 
permitted  to  survive.     The  old  Circles 
of  the  Empire  disappeared  and  all  the 
ecclesiastical   States,   except   one,   were 
suppressed.     Prussia  got  a  large  share 
of  the  spoils  ;  so  did  Bavaria,   Baden, 
Wiirttemberg  and  Hesse-Kassel. 

Sovereignty   of    the    German    Princes 

The    Act    of    Mediatisation    marked 
only    a    stage    in    Napoleon's    journey. 

Austria  was  not  yet  completely  crashed 
the  Holy  Roman  Empire  still  survived. 
Before   Napoleon   gave    the   final   push 
to  the  tottering  ruin,  he  prudently  laid 
the  foundations  of  the  new  edifice.     In 
the  autumn  of  1805  he  concluded  treaties 
with  the  client  States— Bavaria,  Baden, 
and  Wiir ttemburg— by  which  they  agreed 
to  furnish,  in  the  forthcoming  campaign, 
contingents    to    the    army    of    France. 
The   Treaty   of   Pressburg    (January   I, 
1806)  provided  that  the  German  princes 
should  enjoy  "  complete  and  undivided 
sovereignty  over  their  own  States,"  and 
thus  were  finally  shattered  the  last  links 
which   bound   the    princes    to    the    old 
Empire.     On  July  17,  1806,  the  Treaty 
of  the  Confederation  of  the  Rhine  was 
signed   in    Paris.     Charles    of    Dalberg, 

Archbishop  of  Regensburg  (Ratisbon) 
and  Arch-Chancellor  of  the  Empire, 
the  Kings  of  Bavaria  and  Wiirttemberg, 
the  Elector  of  Baden,  the  Duke  of  Berg 
and  the  Landgrave  of  Hesse-Darmstadt, 
together  with  nine  minor  princes,  de- 
finitely renounced  their  allegiance  to 
the  Empire,  accepted  the  protection  of 
Napoleon  and  pledged  themselves  to 
support  him  with.  arms. 

End    of   the    Holy   Roman    Empire 

On  August  1  Napoleon— "  the  new 
Charlemagne  "  and  in  verity  Emperor 
of  the  West— announced  that  he  no 
longer  recognized  the  existence  of  the 
"  Germanic  Confederation,"  and  on 
August  6  the  Emperor  Francis,  who 
two  years  earlier  had  assumed  the 
entirely  new  title  of  Emperor  of  Austria, 
renounced  the  title  of  Holy  Roman 
Emperor.  Thus,  after  an  existence  of 
just  one  thousand  years,  that  hoary 
anachronism  came  to  an  end.  But  for 
Napoleon  it  might  still  be  cumbering 
the  earth. 

The  birth  of  the  new  German  State, 
perhaps  the  most  conspicuous  illustra- 
tion of  the  working  of  the  national 
spirit  in  the  modern  world,  was  rendered 
possible  only  by  the  destruction  of  that 
Roman  Empire  which  had  for  centuries 
strangled  the  incipient  national  life  of 
Germany  and  had  arrested  the  evolution 
of  a  Nation- State. 

Colliding    Forces    Spread    Confusion 

Events  now  moved  rapidly.  The 
annihilation  of  the  Prussian  power  at 
Jena  ;  her  humiliation  and  dismember- 
ment'at  Tilsit ;  the  remaking  of  Prussia 
by  Stein  and  Hardenberg,  Scharnhorst 
and  Humboldt  ;  Napoleon's  call  to  the 
Poles  and  the  setting  up  of  the  Duchy 
of  Warsaw ;  the  attack  upon  Spain 
and  the  consequent  reaction  against  the 
tyranny  of  Napoleon  on  nationalist  lines  ; 
the  addresses  of  Fichte  to  the  German 
nation  and  their  response  in  the  War  of 
Liberation  ;  the  overthrow  of  Napoleon's 
military  power  in  the  mighty  battles  of 
1813-14— these  things  seemed  to  presage 


the  early  triumph  of  Nationalism  in 
Germany.  The  hopes  of  the  patriots 
were  doomed  to  disappointment  at 
Vienna,  but  they  were  triumphantly 
realized  in  1870. 

Napoleonic    Reforms    Sweep    Italy 

The  policy  oi  Napoleon  in  Italy  was 
parallel    to    a    great    extent    with    his 
policy   m    Germany.     To    Italy,    as    to 
Germany,  he  went  at  once  as  conqueror 
and  as  liberator.     Italy  at  the  close  of 
the  eighteenth  century  was  even  more 
devoid     of     the    national    spirit     than 
Germany.       Consisting  of  some  fifteen 
separate     States,     dominated    by     the 
Hapsburgs  in  the  north,  by  the  Papacy 
and  its  "  Legations  "  in  the  centre    by 
the   Spanish   Bourbons   in   Naples   and 
bloly,    Italy    had    since    the    sixteenth 
century  been  little  more  than  the  cockpit 
of    Europe.     Deprived    of    civic    inde- 
pendence, ignorant  alike  of  political  and 
social  life,  her  people  lay  for  the  most 
part  under  alien  rule— hopeless,  emotion- 
less and  benumbed.     Napoleon  aroused 
them  from  their  apathy.     He  reduced 
the   political   divisions   of   the   country 
from    fifteen    to    three ;  he    introduced 
the    Code    Napoleon    and    unified    the 
administration  ;  he  expelled  the  Jesuits 
and   initiated   educational   reforms ;  he 
built   bridges   and   made   roads;  above 
all,  he  taught  the  Italians  to  fight,  and 
to  fight   not   as   Venetians,   Lombards 
or  Neapolitans,  but  as  Italians. 

National  Spirit 

impatience  with  the  policy  of  simple 
restoration  and  the  naked  reassertion 
of  the  principle  of  legitimacy. 

In  1830  France  gave  the  signal  for  a 
revolutionary   outburst   which,    in    one 
form    or    another,    was    reproduced    in 
almost    every    country    ol    continental 
Europe     But  these  movements,  though 
hey  achieved  something  for  consthu 
tional    liberty,    did    little    to    promote 
except,  perhaps,  in  Belgium,  the  prin- 
ciple    of    nationality.     Far     otherwise 
was  it  with  the  revolutions  of  1848      In 
most  countries,  if  not  in  all,  a  demand 
was  put  forward  for  an   extension   of 
popular  liberties,  but  the  predominant 
motive    was    unquestionably    national 
It  was  the  alien   character  of  Austrian 
rule  which  inspired  Italians  and  Magyars 
and  Czechs  to  raise  the  flag  of  insurrec- 
tion against  the  Hapsburgs.     It  was  a 
desire  for  national  unity  which  brought 
to   Frankfort   representatives   of   every 
State  in  Germany,  and  led  them  to  offer 
an  Imperial  Crown  to  Frederick  William 
IV.  of  Prussia.    The  offer  was  declined 

European    Reaction   and    Unrest 

In  Italy,   as  in  Germany,   the  diplo- 
matists at   Vienna  attempted   to  wipe 
out  all  traces  of  Napoleon's  work  and 
to  set  back  the  hands  of  the  political 
clock.     It   could   not   be   done.     There 
was   indeed   a   temporary   reaction    to- 
wards separatism  and  autocracy.     Dy- 
nastic influences  were  in  the  ascendant 
at  Vienna;  the  principle  of  legitimacy 
enjoyed  a  temporary  triumph  ;  the  idea 
of  nationality  was  ignored.     The  reac- 
tion, however,  was  not  of  long  duration. 
Within    a    very    few  years   there   were 
on      every      hand      manifestations     of 


Bismarck   and   Prussian    Supremacy 

The   Hohenzollern   sovereign   was  so 
distrustful  of  the  democratic  temper  of 
the  Frankfort  parliament  as  to  postpone 
the  realization  of  German  unity     More- 
over,  he   did  not  want   to  see   Prussia 
merged    in    Germany.     Ten    years    of 
reaction     followed    upon     his     refusal 
Then    Bismarck    got    his    chance.     He 
mistrusted    parliamentary    methods    at 
least    as    much    as    Frederick    William 
IV.  ;  he   believed   that   Germany  must 
be    welded    together    not    by    "parch- 
ments,  votes,   and    speeches,"   but   by 
blood    and    iron  ;  above    all,    he    was 
resolved    that    Prussia    should    not    be 
merged  m  Germany,  but  that,  on  the 
contrary,  Germany  should  be  absorbed 
by  Prussia. 

The  first  step  was  to  exclude  the 
Hapsburgs  with  their  conglomerate 
Empire  from  the  Germanic  body  The 
disputes  about  Schleswig-Holstein  and 
the  ensuing  war  with  Denmark  enabled 
him  to  fix  a  quarrel  upon  Austria  which 


/'//   the  Modern    World 


led  to  the  Seven  Weeks  War,  to  the 
Prussian  victory  at  Sadowa,  to  the 
exclusion  of  Austria  from  Germany, 
and  to  the  break-up  of  the  Bund  which 
ever  since  1815  had  been  powerless  for 
everything  but  mischief.  The  dissolu- 
tion of  the  Bund  was  followed  by  the 
formation  (1867)  of  a  North  German 
Confederation  under  the  presidency  of 
the  King  of  Prussia.  Only  the  States 
north  of  the  Main  were  originally 
members  of  the  new  Confederation, 
which  was  far  more  closely  knit— more 
genuinely  federal  in  character — than 
the  old,  but  provision  was  made  for  the 
admission  of  the  southern  States,  if 
and  when  they  should  desire  it. 

Establishment    o£    the    German    Empire 

How  long  they  might  have  held  aloof 
from  union  with  North  Germany  it  is 
impossible  to  say,  had  not  Napoleon  III. 
played  straight  into  Bismarck's  hands. 
The  ineptitude  of  his  diplomacy  after 
1867  not  only  broke  the  traditional  tie 
between  France,  particularly  Bona- 
partist  France,  and  the  South  German 
States,  but,  in  1870,  flung  them  into  the 
arms  of  Prussia.  When  France  was 
manoeuvred  by  Bismarck  into  a  declara- 
tion of  war  upon  Prussia  the  Hohen- 
zollerns  found  themselves,  for  the  first 
time,  at  the  head  of  a  united  Germany. 
After  the  crushing  defeat  of  the  French 
armies  and  the  humiliating  surrender 
at  Sedan,  Bismarck  had  little  difficulty 
in  converting  the  North  German  Con- 
federation of  1867  into  the  Germanic 
Empire  of  1871,  an  Empire  which 
included  every  State  of  the  Fatherland 
save  only  the  German  part  of  Austria. 

If  the  unification  of  Germany  affords 
the  most  imposing  manifestation  of  the 
national  spirit,  the  unification  of  Italy 
is  the  most  romantic.  Nothing  did  so 
much  as  the  success  of  that  movement 
to  give  popularity  to  the  doctrine  of 
the  rights  of  nationalities.  Many  factors 
contributed  to  that  success :  the  ad- 
ministrative uniformity  of  the  Napo- 
leonic regime,  the  pure-hearted  enthusi- 
asm of  Mazzini,  the  high  statesmanship 

and  brilliant  diplomacy  of  Cavour,  the 
steadfastness  of  the  House  of  Savoy,  the 
romantic  knight-errantry  of  Garibaldi. 

France    Furthers    the    Italian    Cause 

Nor  was  the  cause  of  Italy  unfavoured 
by  external  circumstances  :  the  oat- 
break  of  the  Crimean  War,  the  inter- 
vention of  Sardinia  on  the  side  of  the 
allies,  an  intervention  apparently  for- 
tuitous, but  in  reality  inspired  by  high 
and  far-sighted  statesmanship,  and  the 
opportunity  thus  given  to  and  seized 
by  Cavour  to  put  the  whole  Italian  case 
before  the  diplomatists  assembled  at 
Paris.  At  Paris  Cavour  met  Napoleon 
III.,  and  of  that  meeting  the  pact  of 
Plombieres  was  the  result.  Napoleon 
had  a  real  apprehension  of  the  principle 
of  nationality,  and  his  sympathy  for 
the  Italian  cause  was,  perhaps,  as 
nearly  genuine  and  altruistic  as  any  of 
the  emotions  which  stirred  that  complex 
personality.  The  intervention  of  France 
in  the  Austro-Sardinian  War  of  1859 
was  of  incomparable  service  to  Italy 
at  a  most  critical  juncture  of  her  history. 
Hardly  less  important  to  Italy,  though 
wholly  self-regarding,  was  the  diplomacy 
of  Bismarck.  His  anxiety  to  isolate 
Austria  induced  him  to  offer  Venetia 
to  Victor  Emmanuel,  and  Austria  was 
compelled  by  Sadowa  to  give  it  up. 

Mazzini   Sows    the    Seed    of    Unity 

The  actual  stages  on  the  road  towards 
unity  may  be  rapidly  indicated.  The 
stage  between  the  insurrections  of  1820 
and  the  revolutions  of  1848  was  merely 
preliminary,  though  far  from  unim- 
portant. During  that  period  Mazzini 
sowed  the  seed,  but  he  did  little  to  help 
in  reaping  the  subsequent  harvest. 
The  first  definite  advance  was  registered 
in  i860,  when  the  States  of  Central 
Italy — Modena,  Parma,  Tuscany,  and 
the  Romagna — united  themselves  by 
plebiscite  with  the  new  Kingdom  of 
North  Italy.  The  credit  of  that  achieve- 
ment was  due  almost  wholly  to  Victor 
Emmanuel  and  Cavour,  though  Napo- 
leon's help  was  timely  and  substantial. 


National  Spirit 

It  involved,  however,  the  painful  sacri- 
fice of  Nice  and  Savoy.  But  the 
significant  transference  of  the  Italian 
capital  from  Turin  to  Florence  (1865) 
brought  Italy  a  step  nearer  Rome. 

Garibaldi   and    His    "Thousand" 

The  next  stage— the  union  of  North 
and     South     Italy— was     accomplished 
less    by    diplomacy    than    by    knight- 
errantry.     In    i860    the   Sicilians   were 
encouraged  by  Mazzini  to  revolt  against 
the  tyranny  of  Bombino  (Francis  II.). 
Garibaldi    and    his    "Thousand"    flew 
to    their    assistance    from    Genoa,    and 
within  a  few  weeks  had  made  themselves 
masters  of   the  island   and,   under   the 
unavowed  protection  of  English  guns, 
had  crossed  the  narrow  straits  to  Naples! 
The  Bourbon  power  crumbled  almost 
as  quickly  in  Naples   as  in  Sicily,  but 
after  the  conquest  of  Naples  a  critical 
moment   occurred   when   Garibaldi   de- 
clared that  he  would  annex  the  southern 
kingdoms    to    the    Kingdom   of   North 
Italy  only   when   he   could   confer   the 
gift  upon  Victor  Emmanuel  in  Rome. 

entered  Naples  in  triumph  and  in  amity. 
Unity    was    almost    achieved ;    but    in 
the  two  sides  of  Italy  there  were  still 
two  gaping  wounds.        Austria,   as  we 
have   already  seen,   was   compelled   by 
Bismarck  to  surrender  Venetia  to  Italy 
m   1867,  but   the  Trentino,  with   its 
Italian  population,  was  left  in  Austrian 
hands,  and  there  was  bequeathed  to  the 
future    an    Adriatic   problem    the    per- 
sistence   of    which    cost    Austria    and 
Germany    dear    in    1915.     From    1867 
down  to  the  Treaty  of  Rapallo  in  1920 
the  claim   to  Italia  Irredenta,   the  pas- 
sionate desire  to  unite  to  United  Italy 
these    lands    upon    the    shores    of    the 
Adriatic  which  are  either  predominantly 
Italian  in  population  or,  owing  to  their 
sometime  inclusion   in   the  domains  of 
Venetia,  are  culturally  Italian,  was  the 
most  potent  force  in  the  external  politics 
of  Italy. 

Conflict   Between   Vatican   and   Quirinal 

Diplomacy   and    Knight-Errantry 

Cavour  knew  that  an  advance  upon 
Rome    at     this    moment    might    have 
jeopardised  all  that  had  been  achieved 
m  the  recent  past  as  well  as  the  promise 
of    the    immediate    future.     An    army 
was  hurriedly  dispatched  from  Florence 
with   the  two-fold  object  of  defending 
the  Romagna  against  the  Papal  troops 
and  of  obstructing  the  advance  of  the 
Garibaldians    upon    Rome.     Both    pur- 
poses were  achieved.     On  September  18, 
i860,     the    Sardinian    army    met    and 
routed    the    Papal    troops    at    Castel- 
fidardo,  and  ten   days   later  compelled 
General    Lamoriciere    to    surrender    at 
Ancona.     Their  next  task  was  to  deal 
with      the      Garibaldians.       Garibaldi, 
flushed  with  victory,   was  in  obstinate 
mood,  but  good  sense  prevailed.      Gari- 
baldi abandoned  his  march  upon  Rome, 
laid  the  crown  of  the  two  Sicilies  at  the 
feet  of  his  Sovereign,  and  on  Novem- 
ber 7  Victor  Emmanuel  and  Garibaldi 


Of  problems  which  may  be  regarded 
as    domestic,    undoubtedly    the    most 
difficult  has  been  the  relations  of  the 
new  Italian  Kingdom  and  the  Papacy. 
Both    disputants    command    sympathy 
and    respect.     The    House    of    Savoy 
accurately    interpreted    a    feeling    well- 
nigh   universal   among   the   Italians   of 
the   Risorgimento   in   its   resolution    to 
make  Rome  the  capital  of  United  Italy. 
No  other  capital  was  indeed  conceivable. 
On  the  other  hand  it   is  impossible   to 
ignore  the  strength  of  the  Papal   case. 
For  nearly  two  thousand  years  the  Pope 
had  administered  his  world-empire  from 
the  unassailed  security  of  the   Petrine 
rock.     Was    not    a    base    of    territorial 
independence,  the  possession  of  a  tem- 
poral    sovereignty,     essential     to     the 
international  or  super-national  position 
of  his  spiritual  kingdom  ?     The  House 
of  Savoy  had,  however,  no  choice.     The 
Prussian   attack   upon   France   in   1870 
compelled   Napoleon    to    withdraw    the 
French  garrison  from  Rome,  and  after  a 
feint  of  resistance  from  the  Papal  troops, 
Victor  Emmanuel  occupied  Rome,  and 
the    Pope    became    henceforward    the 

in   the   Modern    World 


"  prisoner  of  the  Vatican."  The  occu- 
pation of  Rome  was  the  crown  of  the 
Italian  Risorgimento ;  it  marked  the 
final  triumph  of  the  most  romantic 
among  the  national  movements  of  the 
nineteenth  century. 

Not  that  romance  was  by  any  means 
absent   from   the   national  movements 
m  the  Near  East.     For  four  hundred 
years    the    Ottoman    Turks    had    been 
encamped  upon  European   soil.     Alien 
in  creed,  in  race,  in  social  custom  and 
political  tradition  from   the  peoples  of 
the  Balkan  peninsula,  they  had  never 
absorbed  nor  even  attempted  to  absorb 
the   indigenous  inhabitants  ;     still  less 
were  they  absorbed  by  them.     But  for 
the   fact   that   they  were   the   votaries 
of  a  religion  inferior  only  to  Christianity 
they  would  probably,  like  the  Teutonic 
conquerors    of    Gaul,    have    yielded    to 
the  claims  of  a  higher  civilization  and 
a  purer  creed.     As  it  was  they  super- 
imposed themselves  (much  as  the  English 
have  done  in  India)  upon  Serbs,  Greeks, 
Bulgars,    and   Rumanians,   neither   ab- 
sorbing them  nor  wiping  them  out.   The 
subjugated    peoples    disappeared    from 
sight,    almost    from   memory,    for   four 
hundred    years ;  but    as    the    tide    of 
Turkish  conquest  receded,  as  the  govern- 
ment of  the  Porte  sank  into  greater  and 
greater    decrepitude,     the      submerged 
peoples    re-emerged. 

Portent    of    the    Greek    Insurrection 

Of  the  principal  nations  in  the  Bal- 
kans, three— the  Serbs,  the  Bulgars,  and 
the  Greeks— could  nourish  and  sustain 
the  sentiment  of  nationality  by  an 
appeal  to  the  memories  of  the  past. 
The  fourth,  the  Rumanians,  proudly 
claimed  descent  from  the  Roman  colony 
planted  by  Trajan  in  Dacia. 

The  insurrection  of  the  Greeks  m 
1821  was  a  portent  in  the  history 
of  the  modern  world.  Not  only  did  it 
challenge  the  Turkish  sovereignty  in 
the  heart  of  the  Empire,  but  it  chal- 
lenged it  definitely  in  the  name  of  a 
new  doctrine,  the  doctrine  that  nation- 
alities, like  individuals,  possess  "  rights." 

If  the  Greeks  had  become  tardily 
conscious  of  this  principle,  the  fact  was 
due  partly  to  the  large  measure  of  local 
autonomy  conceded  by  the  Ottomans 
to  the  conquered  races,  partly  to  the 
classical  revival  of  the  eighteenth  century, 
partly  to  the  stirring  of  stagnant  waters 
by  the  French  Revolution  and  the 
Napoleonic  wars,  but  most  of  all  to  the 
devoted  and  patriotic  labours  of  the 
parish,  priests.  Never  did  any  move- 
ment display  a  more  confused  and 
perplexing  medley  of  brutality  and 
nobility,  of  conspicuous  heroism  and 
consummate  cowardice,  of  pure-minded 
patriotism  and  sordid  individualism,  of 
self-sacrificing  loyalty  and  time-serving 

Victory   for  Freedom   and   Justice 

Yet  who,  as  Mr.  Gladstone  once 
asked,  can  doubt  that  it  was  on 
the  whole  a  "  noble  stroke  struck  for 
freedom  and  for  justice"  ?  But  for  the 
opportune  outbreak  of  war  between 
Russia  and  Turkey,  but  for  the  cordial 
sympathy  of  England  and  France,  but 
for  the  "  untoward  accident  "  of  Nava- 
rino,  the  Greeks  might  have  been  com- 
pelled to  yield ;  their  success  added 
to  the  polity  of  Europe  the  first  of  the 
new  Nation-States. 

The  Danubian  Principalities  owed 
their  emancipation  to  the  Crimean  War, 
and  their  union  to  the  ardour  with 
which  Napoleon  had  espoused  the 
doctrine  of  nationality.  The  official 
acceptance  of  Serbia  and  Bulgaria  as 
virtually  independent  Nation-States  may 
be  dated  from  the  insurrection  move- 
ment of  1875-76,  and  from  the  Treaty 
of  Berlin,  in  which  the  results  of  that 
movement   were   registered. 

Nationality   in   the    Balkans 

The  enduring  significance  of  that  treaty 
consists  not,  as  contemporaries  imagined, 
as  indeed  its  authors  supposed,  in  the 
new  definition  of  the  relations  between 
Russia  and  Turkey  ;  not  in  the  remnant 
of  the  European  domains  of  the  Ottoman 
Empire    snatched    from    the    brink    of 


National  Spirit 

destruction  by  Lord  Beaconsfield,  but 
in  the  new  Nation-States  that  arose 
on  the  ruins  of  that  Empire.  The 
nationality  principle  may  be  as  elusive 
as  you  will,  but  whatever  its  essential 
ingredients  none  can  doubt  that  it  is 
in  the  Balkan  peninsula  that  it  has 
manifested  its  existence  most  clearly 
and  most  unmistakably  demonstrated 
its  force. 

Nationality   in    the    New    World 

Not  least  in  virtue  of  negation.  The 
Balkan  Settlement  left  Crete,  the  "  Great 
Greek  Island  "  under  the  heel  of  the 
Turk  ;  it  left  the  Rumanians  of  Bess- 
arabia in  the  hands  of  Russia,  those  of 
Transylvania  and  the  Bukovina  in  the 
hands  of  Austria,  and  by  Bismarck's 
encouragement  of  the  Drang  nach  Osten 
of  his  Hapsburg  allies,  it  added  the 
southern  Slavs  of  Bosnia  and  the  Herze- 
govina to  the  medley  of  peoples  who 
sulkily  acknowledged  the  rule  of  the 
Emperor  Francis  Joseph.  The  Great 
War  of  1914-18  was  implicit  in  the 
"  settlement  "    of    1878. 

The  nationality  principle  has  demon- 
strated its  potency  in  the  New  World 
no  less  conclusively  than  in  the  old. 
How  far  it  has  been  responsible  for 
moulding  the  destinies  of  the  States 
which  have  arisen  in  South  America 
upon  the  ruins  of  the  empires  of  Portugal 
and  Spain  it  is  difficult  to  decide,  but 
the  Republics  of  Brazil,  Argentina, 
Bolivia,  Chile  and  Mexico,  to  mention 
no  other,  exhibit  many  if  not  all  the 
attributes  of  genuine   Nation-States. 

Evolution    of    the    United   States 

As  to  the  United  States  of  America 
there  is  no  ambiguity.  The  great 
Republic  absorbs  with  astonishing  ease 
and  rapidity  men  of  all  nations,  creeds 
and  tongues,  all  peoples  in  fact,  save 
those  who  are  descended  from  the 
African  negroes  who  first  served  the 
economic  needs  of  the  planters  of  the 
southern  states.  But  for  the  pro- 
longed and  heroic  efforts  put  forth  by 
the  northern  states  in  the  Civil  War 
there    would    now    be    at    least    two 

Nation-States,   if  not  more,  within  the 
area  occupied  by  the  forty-eight  states  of 
the  American  Union  ;  as  it  is,  there  has 
evolved  one  great  Nation-State,  extend- 
ing geographically  from  the  Atlantic  to 
the  Pacific,  from   the  shores  of  the  St. 
Lawrence  to  those  of  the  Gulf  of  Mexico. 
To  the  north  of  the  United  States 
there  is  rapidly  evolving  another  nation, 
whose  position  becomes  day  by  day  less 
ambiguous.     If    there    is    any    lack    of 
definition    in    the    status    of    Canada, 
Australia,  "New  Zealand,  and  the  Union 
of  South  Africa,  it  arises  from  the  fact 
that  as  constituent  states  in  the  British 
Commonwealth    they    present    to    the 
political  analyst  a  wholly  new  type  of 
polity.     The  British  Commonwealth  is 
at  present  something  less  than  a  Bundes- 
staat,    it    is    something    more    than    a 
Staatmbund.     To    which    of    the    two 
forms   it   will   ultimately    adhere   it    is 
premature  to  predict.     On  the  one  hand 
the  Great  Dominions  are  rapidly  develop- 
ing a  sense  of  individual  nationalism. 

Polity   of    the    British    Commonwealth 

They  have  claimed    a   place   in    the 
League    of    Nations     which    is    hardly 
consistent  with  any  semblance  of    im- 
perial connexion  ;    Canada  has  asserted 
her  right  to  separate  diplomatic  repre- 
sentation at  Washington,  and  the  spirit 
of  individualism,  stimulated,  no  doubt, 
by  the  heroic  part  played  by  the  sons 
of  the  Empire  in  the  Great  War,  has  so 
dominated    the    Dominions    that    they 
hesitated  to  accept  the  designation  of 
"  Imperial  Cabinet  "  for  the  meeting  of 
the    Prime      Ministers    lest    it    should 
commit  to  common  executive  action  the 
cabinets     of     the      constituent     states, 
cabinets  which  are,  of  course,  severally 
responsible    to     their    own     Dominion 
legislatures.     On    the    other  hand,   the 
Dominions    are    supremely    and    most 
reasonably  anxious  for  a  voice  in  the 
determination    of     that    foreign    policy 
the  principles  and  the  success  of  which 
are  momentously  significant  to  them. 

Such  a  voice  could  not,  however,  be 
claimed  by,  still  less  be  conceded  to, 



in   the  Modern    World 


any  state  which  did  not  share  the 
common  burden  of  imperial  defence  or 
failed  to  realize  the  responsibilities  as 
well  as  the  privileges  incidental  to 
integral  partnership  in  an  organic  whole. 
The  citizens  of  the  great  Dominions  may 
be  said,  therefore,  to  possess  a  dual 
nationality  as  they  acknowledge  a  two- 
fold allegiance.  Primarily  Canadians, 
.South  Africans,  Australians  and  New 
Zealanders,  as  the  case  may  be,  they 
are  also  British  subjects,  citizens  of  one 
Commonwealth,  subjects  of  one  King. 

The  survey  attempted  in  the  pre- 
ceding pages,  cursory  though  it  neces- 
sarily be,  serves  at  least  to  illustrate  the 
complexity  of  the  conceptions  combined 
in  the  term  Nationality  and  the  diffi- 
culties attendant  upon  precise  definition. 
It  should  serve  also  to  point  a  moral  to 
enforce  a  warning.  Phrases  are  the 
pitfalls  of  the  half -educated,  the  despair 
of  scholarship  and  science.  Formulae 
are  the  refuge  of  the  politician,  but 
anathema  to   the  statesman. 

The    Unit    of    "Self-Determination" 

Nationalities  may  have  "  rights,"  and  it 
may  be  desirable  to  defer  to  the  principle 
of  "self-determination,"  but  the  man 
who  would  penetrate  from  phrases  to 
realities  will  be  curious  to  ascertain  where 
the  sanction  of  those  "  rights  "  may  lie, 
and  what  is  the  precise  unit  which  is 
entitled  to  invoke  the  principle  of  "self- 
determination."  The  latter  question  is 
crucial.  Self-determination  for  Great 
Britain  might,  for  example,  involve  the 
denial  of  the  privilege  to  Scotland  or 
Wales,  self-determination  for  Bavaria 
might  mean  its  denial  to  Germany. 
Everything  turns  upon  the  selection  of 
the  unit.  Professor  Zimmern  goes  so  far 
as  to  affirm  that  "  self-determination  is 
not  a  principle  of  Liberalism  but  of 
Bolshevism."  Without  entering  upon 
a  discussion  so  obviously  apt  to  provoke 
controversy,  it  may  be  said  that  while, 
in  a  general  sense,  the  privilege  or  right 
or  principle  will  be  denied  by  no 
reasonable  man,  the  application  of  it 
in  particular  cases  will  frequently  raise 

difficulties  so  great  as  to  reduce  the 
practical  value  of  the  principle  to  little 
more  than  the  realization  of  an  abstract 

One  question  remains.  The  nation- 
state  is  the  typical  formation  of  the 
modem  world.  Is  it  likely  to  be  a 
permanent  formation  ?  Is  it  the  final 
goal  of  international  evolution,  or  a 
transitory  stage  ?  One  thing  must  be 
said  at  once.  Nationalism  may  make 
for  liberty — it  affords  no  security  for 

The   Ideal   State   Formation 

No  one  who  can  estimate  the 
debt  which  mankind  owes  to  the  city- 
states  of  ancient  Hellas  or  to  the  re- 
publics of  medieval  Italy  will  ever  seek 
to  depreciate  either  the  political  or  the 
cultural  value  of  small  political  com- 
munities. But  the  conditions  under 
which  the  Greek  experiments  were  made 
were  peculiar,  and  the  city-states  neither 
promoted  peace  nor  preserved  their 
own  existence.  To  the. small  nations, 
too,  the  world  owes  a  heavy  debt.  But 
the  small  Nation-State  is  in  the  modern 
world  a  complete  anachronism.  If  it 
survives  it  will  survive  as  an  exotic  in 
ungenial  soil.  The  ideal  formation  is, 
as  Lord  Acton  seems  to  suggest,  the 
coexistence  of  several  Nations  under  the 
same  State. 

Where    Hope    for   the    Future    Lies 

This,  as  he  points  out,  affords 
"  a  test  as  well  as  the  best  security 
of  its  freedom.  It  is  also  one  of 
the  chief  instruments  of  civilization " 
("  Freedom,"  p.  290.).  Happy  is  the 
State  which,  with  contentment  to  each, 
includes  many  Nations ;  and  well  is 
it  for  the  peace  of  the  world  if  there 
be  great  Commonwealths  which  com- 
prehend within  their  ample  borders 
many  self-governing  States.  In  the 
extension  of  the  federal  formation,  with 
due  provision  for  variety  of  detail,  lies 
the  best  hope  for  the  political  future  of 


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ill  HB« 











Slight  figures  with  well  formed  but  not  muscular  limbs,  Mongoloid  features,   long,  dark  hair  evenly 

trimmed,  and  skin  of  red  cinnamon  hue   are   characteristics  of  the  true  or  "  red  "  Carib   Indians. 

The  heart  of  South  America  was  the  cradle  of  their  race.     Aforetime  cannibals,  they  were  settled  in 

Guiana  and  in  the  islands  of  the  Caribbean  Sea  when  Columbus  discovered  the  New  World 

Photo,  Sir  H.  H.  Johnston 





By  Norihcote    W.    Thomas 

Anthropologist  and  Author  of  "Natives  of  Australia,"  etc. 

The  accompanying  dictionary  of  races,  specially  compiled  by  Mr.  Norihcote  Thomas 
lor  Peoples  of  All  Nations,  is  unique.  No  work  of  reference  contains  so  complete 
and  convenient  a  list  of  living  peoples  Within  its  ^^dtstribToZUy^"^ 
amount  of  information  about  the  racial  origins,  ^Ja^%^™ml  supplementary 
„w7  znrial  ruifotn?  of  the  beo-hles  enumerated.     Hut  even  mis  is  meiety  »"Tr  •> 

ZthatembodZTn  Le  whole  worh.    It  is  to  be  consulted  in  conjunction  with  the  ethno- 
graphical maps  and  with  the  General  Index,  which  gives  references  to  the  pages  wherein 
individual  peoples  are  described  and  illustrated 

XN  presenting  this  list  of  the  peoples  now 
inhabiting  the  world  it  is  proper  to 
explain  the  connotation  given  to  the 
differentiating  words  :  Race,  tribe,  family  of 
languages,  language  and  dialect.  Absolute 
scientific  classification  is  virtually  impossible, 
so  closely  interrelated  are  many  of  the  groups 
of  both"  men  and  tongues,  but  for  practical 
purposes  the  following  definitions  hold  good. 

Race  properly  indicates  a  biological  group 
distinguished  by  its  physical  characteristics, 
colour,  hair,  features,  etc.,  and  is  of  pure  blood. 
But  it  is  also  used  (i)  of  modern  groups  of 
mixed  descent  whichby  convergence  have  come 
to  present  a  certain  physical  type,  and  (2)  of 
groups  whose  bond  of  union  is  mainly  cultural 
and  linguistic  and  whose  unity  is  therefore 
largely  due  to  historical  and  political  grounds. 

Tribe  is  a  word  of  very  varied  meanings. 
Two  types  may  be  distinguished  in  India — 
(1)  a  collection  of  families  who  claim  descent 
from  a  common  ancestor,  which  may  be  an 
animal,  and  are  also  to  some  extent  united 
by  the  obligation  of  the  blood  feud  ;  they 
generally  use  a  common  language  and  own  a 
definite  tract  of  country  ;  the  Pathans  of  the 
north-west  border  are  an  example.  (2)  The 
group  that  is  united  by  blood  feud  only  and 
admits  strangers,  as  it  does  not  claim  descent 
from  an  eponymous  ancestor  ;  the  Baluchi  are 
an  example.  Generally  speaking  in  India  the 
tribe  tends  to  pass  into  the  caste,  being 
divided  up  into  an  infinity  of  divisions 
according  to  occupation,  etc.  In  Africa  the 
tribe  is  a  group  of  peoples  speaking  the  same 
language  but  oftenhavingno  common  ruler  and 
no  feeling  of  unity;  it  does  not  act  together  and 
its  members  are  under  no  constraint  not  to 
make  war  upon  each  other. 

Language.  With  regard  to  speech,  indi- 
vidual languages  are  ordinarily  composed  of 
groups  of  related  dialects,  which  are  semi- 
independent  units  with  a  certain  vocabulary 
common  to  them  and  to  the  language  of  which 
they  form  a  part,  but  with  other  words  either 
peculiar  to  themselves  or  used  in  common  with 
a  restricted  group  of  dialects.  The  area  over 
which  a  given  word  is  used  is  rarely  coincident 
with  the  area  covered  by  a  given  dialect,  but  is 
cither  smaller  or  larger.  A  rough  test  of 
whether  a  form  of  speech  is  a  language  or  a 
dialect  is  given  by  ascertaining  whether 
speakers  of  one  dialect  readily  acquire  the 
allied  form,  or  understand  it  when  spoken. 
Where  this  is  not  so,  it  is  really  a  question  of 
distinct  languages.  Thus  English  is  a  group  of 
languages,  each  made  up  of  related  dialects, 
speakers  of  all  dialects  having  in  common  a 
language  more  or  less  distinct  from  all  the 
dialects,  viz.,  standard  English. 

Families  ol  Languages  are  major  groups 
into  which  fall  the  thousands  of  individual 
languages  spoken  on  the  earth.  They  in- 
clude the  following  among  others  :  Australian, 
Austric  =  Indonesian,  Melanesian,  Polynesian, 
Mon-Khmer,  etc.,  with  perhaps,  Indo- 
Chinese,  Dravidian,  Einno-Ugrian,  Indo- 
European  or  Aryan,  Nigritic,  including  Bantu 
and  Sudamc,  Papuan,  etc.  The  aboriginal 
languages  of  America  have  not  yet  been 
finally  classified  into  families,  and  there  are 
many  forms  of  speech,  like  Basque,  which  are 
isolated  and  perhaps  represent  the  remnants 
of  previously  existing  families.  A  language 
is  said  to  belong  to  one  of  these  families  when 
historical  proof  is  given  that  it  is  descended 
from  the  remote  ancestral  form  from  which 
the  whole  family  is   believed   to  come. 

Ababua  or  Babua.  Bantu -speaking 
people  of  the  Welle-Bomo-Kandi  area,  Belgian 
Congo.  The  Ababua  seem  to  include  a 
number  of  distinct  tribes,  such  as  the  Bakete, 
Mobalia,  Mobati,  Bakango,  etc.  At  least  two 
types  are  intermingled,  one  short  headed,  the 
other  long  headed.  The  Ababua  are  _  of 
moderate  height  and  had  a  great  reputation 
for  ferocity,  spread  by  the  Az"ande  chiefs,  who 
purchased  ivory  from  them  at  low  prices  ; 
but  they  do  not  seem  to  be  courageous, 
though  the  men  are  skilful  hunters,  killing 
elephants  with  poisoned  spears.  They  are 
a  merry  people,  and  very  hospitable. 

Abarambo.  Rather  short-headed  people 
of  the  Welle  area,  related  to  the  Madi. 

Abchases.  Section  of  the  so-called  Circas- 
sians of  the  Caucasus,  whose  language,  how- 
ever, is  only  distantly  related  to  Circassian. 
They  are  much  shorter  headed  than  the  other 
Circassians  and,  generally  speaking,  brunette  ; 
a  short  but  strong  folk  with  irregular  features 
and  an  uncivilized  aspect. 

Abor.  Small  hill  tribe  of  the  north-east 
of  the  Brahmaputra  valley,  in  Assam,  closely 
connected  with  the  Miri.  They  speak  a 
language  of  the  north  Assam  branch  of 

Abyssinians  or  Abessinians.  People  of 
Abyssinia,  a  term  without  racial  significance 
and  a  corruption  of  the  word  "  habeshi," 
used   by    Arabs    of    the   mixed    peoples    who 


Dictionary  of  Races 

united  to  form  a  Christian  state.  The  two 
chief  languages  are  Amharic  and  Tigre,  both 
of  Semitic  origin  ;  the  other  languages  are 
Hamitic.  Among  the  tribes  are  the  Abys- 
sinians  in  a  more  restricted  sense,  the  Beja  or 
Bisharin,  the  Hadendoa,  the  Beni  Amer, 
Galla,  Hallenga,  etc.  Two  main  types  seem 
to  be  represented  among  the  population,  one 
negroid  with,  broad  nose,  the  other  Hamitic 
with,  a  skull  of  somewhat  the  same  type  but  a 
narrow  nose.  But  among  the  Galla,  and  still 
more  the  Hadendoa,  is  an  element,  found  in 
ancient  Egypt  and  therefore  presumably 
ancient,  with  a  skull  much  lower  in  proportion 
to  its  length.  Although  the  south  of  Arabia 
is  now  occupied  by  a  short-headed  type  it 
seems  probable  that  the  Hamitic  stock  had 
its  origin  there  and  that  from  Abyssinia  it 
penetrated  into  Upper  Egypt,  where  it 
existed  in  pre-dynastic  times. 

Acawoy.  Tribe  of  Guiana  Indians  speaking 
a  Carib  tongue.  Somewhat  shorter  than  the 
Carib  properly  so-called,  they  are  forest 
dwellers  and,  perhaps  for  that  reason,  feared 
for  their  slyness.  They  build  wall-less  houses, 
and  usually  limit  thenrselves  to  one  wife. 
The  dead  are  buried  in  a  standing  position. 

Achinese.  People  of  Sumatra  who  are 
great  fighters,  depend  on  agriculture  for  their 
subsistence,  and  are  darker  and  taller  than  the 

Adighe.  Indigenous  name  of  the  Circas- 

Aeta.  Negrito  inhabitants  of  the  Philippine 
Islands,  who  live  mainly  in  mountainous 
districts.  The  name  is  often  used  to  mean 
Philippine  negritos  in  general.  The  hair  is 
woolly  and  black,  but,  as  among  the  negroes, 
it  is  sometimes  bleached  on  the  top  to  a 
reddish  tinge  ;  the  skin  is  dark  chocolate, 
sometimes  with  a  reddish  tinge.  There  is  a 
considerable  range  of  stature,  but  the  average 
seems  to  be  about  three  inches  short  of  five 
feet  ;  the  head  is  longer  than  that  of  the 
Andamanese,  but  not  so  long  as  that  of  the 
Semang,  their  nearest  negrito  neighbours. 
The  nose  is  very  broad  compared  with  its 
length,  and  there  is  virtually  no  bridge  to  it. 
The  lips  are  thick  but  not  protruding.  Long 
after  the  arrival  of  the  dominant  Malay 
races,  the  Aeta  were  recognized  as  masters 
of  the  soil.  They  live  mainly  on  game, 
fish  and  forest  products.  In  temperament 
they  are  indolent  and  timid,  but  become 
violent  under  provocation  ;  they  are  described 
as  truthful,  honest,   and  virtuous. 

Afghans.  People  mainly  of  Iranian  stock, 
including  the  Afghans  proper,  Pathans, 
Ghilzais,  Duranis,  Hazaras,  Uzbegs,  Tajiks, 
Aimaks,  etc.,  some  with  Mongolian  elements. 
Their  language  is  called  Pukhtun  in  the 
north,  Pushtun  in  the  south.  They  prefer  to 
call  themselves  Pushtun,  which  means 
mountaineers  ;  the  meaning  of  Afghan  is 
uncertain.  Pathan  is  the  same  word  as 
Pushtun  ;  both  may  be  identical  with  Paktues, 
a  tribe  mentioned  by  Herodotus. 

Afridi.  Pathan  tribe  of  the  Peshawar 
border  of  India,  who  are  divided  into  eight 
principal  clans.  They  are  tall,  spare  and 
exceptionally  well  built,  and  brave,  but 
thoroughly  treacherous,  active  but  intolerant 
of  heat  ;   nominally  Mahomedan,  but  ignorant 

and  superstitious.  A  clan  once  suffered 
under  the  reproach  of  having  no  shrine  at 
which  to  worship  ;  they  induced  a  sainted 
man  of  another  clan  to  come  among  them, 
and  then  murdered  him  to  acquire  in  his 
burial-place  a  sanctuary  of  their  own. 

Ainu.  People  of  Japan  and  south  Sakhalien, 
notable  for  the  profusion  of  their  black  wavy 
hair.  Short  but  strongly  built,  with,  broad 
face  and  nose  and  rather  long  head,  they 
differ  from  all  surrounding  types.  They  have 
been  referred  to  both  the  Alpine  and  the 
Mediterranean  races,  and  supposed  to  be 
allied  to  Russians,  Todas  and  Australian 
aborigines  ;  they  are  said  to  have  occupied  the 
whole  of  Japan  for  nine  centuries,  after 
expelling  a  dwarfish  race,  who  are  known  as 
the  Koro-pok-guru.  They  hold  great  festivals 
in  honour  of  the  bear. 

Akamba.  Bantu-speaking  people  of  East 
Africa,  on  the  eastern  slopes  of  the  high  lands 
south  of  the  Upper  Tana.  They  are  of 
medium  height  with  a  head  somewhat  shorter 
than  usual ;  two  types  of  head  occur,  one 
negroid,  the  other,  common  among  the  chiefs, 
with  a  wider  forehead  and  narrower  jaw  ; 
the  eyes  are  sometimes  oblique.  They  chip 
the  upper  incisors  and  knock  out  the  middle 
lower  incisors.  Proud,  disinclined  to  work 
for  Europeans,  cheerful,  hospitable,  fond  of 
children,  whom  they  spoil  by  indulgence, 
they  are  attached  to  their  homes  and  honest, 
according  to  their  lights  ;  cattle  stealing  was, 
however,  meritorious.  To-day  they  are  peace- 
ful and  harmless,  but  this  is  due  to  fear  of 
consequences.  In  addition  to  the  ordinary 
negro  type,  there  is  a  very  strong,  short- 
headed  element,  amounting  perhaps  to  nearly 
one  third,  which  seems  to  go  back  to  an 
earlier  pygmy  population. 

Akha.  Tribe  of  Burma,  with  coarse,  heavy 
features  and  only  a  vague  general  resemblance 
to  the  more  effeminate  Annamites.  They 
have  noses  with  higher  bridges  than  the 
Mongoloid  people,  and  the  jaw  is  pointed  and 
somewhat  projecting.  All  villages  have  large 
gateways,  usually  two,  to  keep  out  evil 
spirits.  Even  ancestors  are  regarded  as 
malignant,  and  the  west  door  of  the  house  is 
reserved  for  them,  no  stranger  and  no  male 
being  allowed  to  pass,  and  women  only  with 
reverence  and  not  as  a  regular  practice.  They 
are  also  called  Kaw,  and  speak  a  language  of 
the  Lolo  group. 

Ala.  Tribe  of  Achin,  believed  to  be  allied 
to  the  Batta. 

Albanians.  Inhabitants  of  Albania, 
descendants  of  the  Illyrians,  of  whose  language 
they  speak  the  sole  surviving  form.  The 
.  Albanians  are  divided  into  Gheg  (north)  and 
Tosk  (south). 

Aleut.  Branch  of  the  Eskimo.  They 
inhabit  the  Aleutian  Islands  and  part  of 
Alaska.  The  name  seems  to  mean  "  island  "  ; 
they  call  themselves  Unungun.  They  are 
intelligent  compared  with  the  Eskimo,  but 
less  independent.  They  were  originally  war- 
like, but  the  treatment  meted  out  by  the 
Russians  reduced  them  to  a  tenth  of  their 
original  numbers  and  broke  their  spirit, 

Aliures.  Generic  name  given  to  tribes 
of  very  different  types  in  the  Malay  Archi- 
pelago.   In  some  cases — e.g.  in  the  Moluccas — 



Dictionary  of  Races 

they  are  light  coloured  non-Malay  people, 
with  black  straight  hair,  oval  eyes,  and  good 
physique,  and  of  rather  small  stature  ; 
but  the  Banda  people  apply  the  name  to  the 
frizzly-haired  people  of  Ceram,  the  Kei 
Islands,  Tenimber,  etc.,  who  are  presumably 
of  dark  complexion  and  have  some  negrito 
blood.  The  name  does  not  really  mean  more 
than  non-Mahomedan. 

Algonquins.  Linguistic  family  of  North 
America  which  at  present  falls  into  three 
sections— Blackfeet  of  the  west,  Cree-Ojibwa 
of  the  middle-west,  and  Wabanaki  of  the 

Alpine  Race.  Short-headed,  pale  or 
swarthy  stock  composed  of  French,  South 
Germans,  Russians,  some  Albanians,  Armeni- 
ans, Tajiks,  etc.,  and  supposed  to  have 
originated  in  the  Asiatic  plateaux. 

Alunda.  Bantu-speaking  people  of  Angola, 
who  were  ruled  by  the  Mwata  Yamvo  from 
the  seventeenth  century  onwards. 

Amambwe.  Bantu  tribe  of  the  Nyasa- 
Tanganyika  plateau  ;  they  knock  out  the 
two  middle  teeth  of  the  lower  jaw,  it  is  said, 
with  an  axe. 

Amazon  -  Orinoco  Tribes.  Group 
covering  quite  half  the  South  American  con- 
tinent at  one  time,  comprising  four  mam 
language  stocks,  Arawak  and  Canb  in  the 
north-west,  Tupi  and  Tapuya  in  the  south 
and  east.  The  lower  tribes  live  by  hunting, 
fishing,  and  agriculture,  dwell  in  "  long  " 
houses,  wear  little  clothing,  signal  with  drums, 
and  initiate  young  men  by  whipping.  In 
Guiana  is  a  rather  higher  culture  with  weav- 
ing of  cotton  ;  on  the  coast  stone  work  was 
prominent  among  the  Tupi.  The  Tapuya,  on 
the  other  hand,  are  cannibals,  and  stand  low 
in  the  scale  of  culture. 

Ambundu.  Bantu-speaking  people  m  the 
hinterland  of  San  Paul  de  Loanda. 

Amerindians  or  American  Indians. 
The  general  designation  of  all  pre-Columbian 
inhabitants  of  America,  including  sometimes 
the  Eskimo.  Many  tribes  in  North  America 
are  concentrated  on  reservations,  where  much 
of  the  old  life  is  impossible.  Census  records 
for  this  area  give  an  Indian  population  of 
under  400,000,  a  decrease  probably  of  two- 
thirds  since  the  discovery  of  America.  The 
most  important  language  groups  are  :  Atha- 
pascan, Algonquian,  Iroquois,  Siouan,  Sahs- 
han,  and  Shoshone-Nahuatlan  (N.  and  C. 
America)  ;  Arawak,  Carib,  Tupi,  Tapuya, 
Puelche,  and  Tsoneka  (S.  America),  the  total 
numbers  being  56  (6  extinct)  in  N.  America, 
29  in  C.  America,  and  84  in  S.  America. 
Culturally  they  fall,  or  fell,  into  a  number  of 
groups  :  Plains,  Plateau,  Pacific  Coast, 
Eskimo,  Mackenzie,  Eastern  Woods,  South- 
West,  South-East,  Nahua  (N.'and  C.  America), 
Inca,  Guanaco,  Chibcha,  Amazon,  and  Antilles 
(S.  America  and  islands). 

Anatolic  Languages.  Indo-European 
group,  including  Armenian  and  the  extinct 
Phrygian  and  Scythian. 

Andamanese.  Negrito  natives  of  the 
Andaman  Islands,  also  called  Mincopies. 
They  range  in  colour  from  bronze  to  "  sooty 
black  "  and  the  hair,  which  is  very  frizzly, 
seems  like  that  of  the  Bushman,  to  grow  in 
tufts.    They  stand  about  4  ft.  10  in.,  and  are 

well  proportioned  ;  the  nose  is  straight  but 
small  and  deeply  depressed  at  the  root  ;  the 
head  is  small  and  short  in  proportion  to  its 
length.  They  depend  mainly  on  fish  for  food, 
have  no  domestic  animals,  and  do  not  till  the 
soil.  They  can  hardly  be  said  to  wear  clothing, 
though  they  adorn  themselves  with  many 
ornaments.  They  dwell  in  small  huts  which 
are  little  more  than  roofed  spaces,  but  large 
communal  huts  are  also  found  in  which  each 
family  has  its  own  quarters.  There  are 
separate  quarters  for  boys  and  for  girls. 
Their  language  is  remarkable  for  the  number 
of  vowels — twenty-four,  according  to  one 
authority  ;  they  'classify  their  nouns,  and 
there  are  sixteen  forms  of  each  personal 
pronoun,  according  to  the  class  of  noun  on 
which  it  depends. 

Andi.  Caucasian  people,  said  to  be  of 
Jewish  type.  They  speak  an  Avar  language. 
Angoni.  Bantu-speaking  people  of  Zulu 
origin  on  the  west  side  of  Lake  Nyasa,  and 
separated  from  the  lake  by  the  Nyanja. 
They  are  dwellers  in  the  highlands,  4,000  feet 
above  sea-level,  in  an  open,  undulating 
country,  comparatively  treeless  ;  they  are 
not  located  in  permanent  villages,  but  move 
every  two  or  three  years.  They  broke  away 
from  the  Zulus  in  the  time  of  Tshaka  (1820), 
and  in  their  migrations  absorbed  elements 
from  many  tribes  ;  they  are  known  in  places 
as  Mavitu,  Maviti,  Magwangwara,  Wama- 
konde,  and  Ruga-Ruga.  The  name  is  also 
applied  to  the  Anyanja,  conquered  by  the 
Angoni  and  subject  to  their  chiefs.  They  are 
cattle-keepers,  and  work  in  the  fields  is 
usually  left  to  the  junior  wives  ;  the  men's 
place  is  in  the  cattle-fold.  As  conquerors  they 
used  to  send  to  the  Nyanja  for  additional 
wives,  and  chiefs  used  to  have  harems  of 
over   a  hundred. 

Annamese.  People  of  Annam,  who  speak 
a  language  of  the  Tai  group  of  Siamese- 
Chinese  which  has,  however,  been  influenced 
by  some  alien  speech  ;  it  was  formerly 
attributed  to  the  Man-Khmer  family.  The 
Annamese  have  a  broad,  high  forehead,  high 
cheek-bones,  and  small  flat  nose,  rather  thick 
lips,  black  hair,  a  scanty  beard,  and  a  coppery 
complexion.  The  head  is  round  and  the 
features  are  coarse,  with  a  sly  expression. 
They  are  tricky,  arrogant,  and  dishonest, 
hard-hearted,  unsympathetic,  and  grasping. 
The  word  Annam  is  comparatively  modern  ; 
the  Giao-shi  (cross- teed)  are  mentioned  in  the 
legendary  Chinese  annals  of  four  thousand 
years  back.  Some  two  thousand  years  ago 
many  Chinese  emigrants  settled,  and  merging 
with  the  Giao-shi,  formed  the  people  now 
known  as  Annamese.  The  name  of  the  Giao- 
shi  is  given  them  owing  to  the  great  distance 
that  separates  the  big  toe  from  the  others. 

Antaimoro.  Tribe  of  the  extreme  south 
of  Madagascar.  They  are  of  negroid  or  negro 
type,  with  frizzly  hair. 

Antankarana.  Tribe  livingat  thenorthern 
extremity  of  Madagascar,  and  speaking  a 
dialect  with  some  marked  differences. 

Antanosy.  Tribe  of  the  south-central 
part  of  Madagascar. 

Anti.  Arawakan  tribe,  also  known  as 
Campa  who  live  in  the  forests  of  the  Upper 
Ucayali.  They  are  noted  for  their  cannibalism. 




Dictionary  of  Races 

Antilles  Area.  West  India  islands, 
originally  populated  by  Arawaks,  later  over- 
rim  by  Caribs,  whose  culture  was  closely 
allied  to  the  canoe  culture  of  the  Amazon  area. 
Antimerina.  Commonly  known  as  Hova. 
The  dominant  type  in  Madagascar  in  the  last 
century ;  they  are  descendants  of  sixteenth 
century  immigrants. 

Aoulias.  People  of  Nepal,  possibly 
descendants  of  lower  caste  Hindus. 

Apache.  North  American  Indian  tribe 
of  the  south-western  group,  speaking  an 
Athapascan  language,  so  named  probably 
from  a  Zufii  word  meaning  enemy,  in  allusion 
to  their  warlike  character.  They  were 
originally  hunters,  rather  above  medium 
height,  good  talkers,  and  honest  according 
to  their  lights. 

Arabs.  People  of  Arabia,  also  found  in 
north  Africa  and  in  other  parts  of  Asia  as  a 
result  of  movements  in  historic  times.  In 
Iberia,  Central  Asia,  Malaysia,  etc.,  the 
immigrant  Arabs  have  lost  their  native  speech 
or  their  racial  individuality,  or  both.  The 
modern  Arabians  fall  into  two  groups,  the 
mainly  settled  agricultural  people  of  Yemen, 
Hadramaut  and  Oman,  who  count  themselves 
descended  from  Shem,  and  the  northern 
(Beduin)  peoples,  who  look  to  Ishmael  as 
their  father.  But  it  must  be  remembered 
that  large  parts  of  Arabia  are  wholly  un- 
known. The  Beduins  (dwellers  in  the 
desert)  have  long  heads  with  a  short,  fairly 
broad  nose,  seldom  of  the  "  Jewish  "  type  ; 
the  southern  Arabs  are  shorter  and  more 
variable  in  skull  form,  but  predominantly 
short  headed.  The  Himyarites,  who  were 
found  in  Arabia  two  thousand  years  ago,  are 
no  longer  distinguishable  in  their  own  land, 
but  they  are  still  dominant  in  Abyssinia. 

Araucan.  Aborigines  of  Chile,  the 
Puelche  who  moved  down  the  Rio  Negro 
and  came  into  contact  with  the  Pampas 
Indians.  Their  culture  is  that  of  the 
Guanaco  area,  and  resembles  that  of  the 
Plains  Indians  of  North  America.  They  are 
now  mainly  occupied  with  agriculture  and 
stock  breeding.  They  are  of  small  stature 
but  robust,  with  a  short  broad  nose.  In 
character  they  are  proud,  independent, 
brave,   inconstant,   secretive,   and  taciturn. 

Arawak.  Group  of  South  American 
tribes,  formerly  found  in  the  Antilles  also. 
On  the  continent  of  South  America  they 
range  from  the  Upper  Paraguay  river  to  the 
north  of  Venezuela.  Among  the  Arawak 
tribes  are  the  Arawak  proper,  the  Maypure, 
Mojo,  or  Moxo,  Wapisiana,  and  Ipurina. 
They  seem  to  have  had  their  origin  in  East 
Bolivia,  whence  they  spread  along  the  basins 
of  the  Amazon  and  Orinoco.  In  physical 
type  they  do  not  seem  to  differ  much  from 
the  Carib,  who,  in  the  Lesser  Antilles,  had 
killed  off  the  Arawak  men  and  taken  the 
women  to  wife  at  the  time  of  Columbus  ;  in 
the  Greater  Antilles  the  population  was  still 
Arawak.  They  are  a  typical  inland  race, 
however,  and  as  they  early  cultivated  the 
tapioca-plant  (manioc),  their  first  home 
cannot  have  been  in  an  area  subject  to 
periodical  floods. 

Arawak.  Guiana  tribe  speaking  an 
Arawakan     language.     They     are     short     of 

stature  and  light  coloured.  Descent  is 
reckoned  in  the  female  line,  and  a  man  goes  to 
live  with  his  father-in-law  at  marriage.  They 
are  a  cleanly  people  and  have  taken  over 
much  European  culture  ;  they  make  a 
special  kind  of  fibre  hammock  and  much 
pottery.  They  have  a  remarkable  custom 
of  whipping  each  other  as  a  diversion. 

Arecuna.  Carib-speaking  tribe  of  Guiana. 
They  are  a  dark-skinned,  strongly-built 
people  of  warlike  character,  much  dreaded 
by  the  Macusi  ;  as  savannah  people  they 
build  clay  huts  ;  they  use  the  blow-gun, 
which  they  manufacture  for  other  tribes 
from  the  stems  of  a  palm. 

Armenians.  People  of  Asia  Minor  speaking 
an  Indo-European  tongue.  The  head  is 
short  but  the  stature  varies  considerably, 
and  the  name  Anatolian  has  been  given  to  the 
taller  type.  The  skin  is  swarthy  white,  and 
a  peculiarity  of  the  head  is  that  it  is  very  high 
and  much  flattened  at  the  back,  so  that  it 
seems  to  fall  almost  vertically  ;  the  nose  is 
high  and  narrow.  Representatives  of  this 
type  are  to  be  found  in  Persia,  and  among 
Greeks  and  Turks  ;  it  has  been  suggested  that 
they  are  descendants  of  tribes  who  formed 
the  great  Hittite  Empire. 

Armenoid.  The  type  represented  by 

Arunta  or  Aranda.  Tribe  of  Central 
Australia,  ranging  from  the  Macumba  river 
to  the  Macdonnell  Ranges,  which  rise  to  a 
height  of  5,000  ft.  They  have  a  complicated 
social  organization  with  eight  intermarrying 

Aryan.  The  same  as  Indo-European.  It 
is  often  used  erroneously  in  the  form  "  Aryan 
race"  of  the  peoples  who  speak  Aryan  tongues. 
Aryo-Dravidian.  Group,  also  termed 
Hindustani,  of  people  in  the  United  Provinces 
of  India,  Bihar,  Ceylon,  etc.,  with  a  longish 
head  and  a  nose  which  varies  in  shape 
according  to  social  station,  the  upper  ranks 
having  narrow,  the  lower  broad  noses  in 
proportion  to  length.  The  complexion  varies 
from  light  brown  to  black. 

Ashango.  A  Bantu-speaking  tribe  of  the 
Gabun  on  the  Ogowe  and  behind  the  Nkomi- 
Galoa,  French  Equatorial  Africa. 

Ashanti  or  Asanti.  Warlike  people  of 
the  Gold  Coast,  near  kin  of  the  Fanti,  to  the 
north  of  whom  they  live.  The  "  customs  " 
of  the  king  of  Ashanti,  involving  many 
human  sacrifices,  were  formerly  notorious  ; 
one  of  his  chief  possessions  was  the  golden 
stool  or  throne.  Gold  dust  was  in  use  among 
them  when  the  first  European  voyagers 
reached  the  coast  in  the  fifteenth  century  ; 
it  is  probable  that  the  Carthaginians  and 
Egyptians  had  dealings  with  the  coast. 
Beliefs  closely  resembling  those  of  the 
Egyptians  are  held  by  the  Twi  (Fanti- 
Ashanti  tribes)  with  regard  to  reincarnation. 
Assamese- Burmese.  Stock  of  Tibeto- 
Burman  family. 

Assiniboin.  North  American  Indian  tribe 
of  the  Plains  group,  speaking  a  Siouan  language 
and  now  on  reservations  in  Montana.  They 
separated  from  the  Yankton  more  than  three 
hundred  years  ago  near  the  head  waters  of  the 
Mississippi,  and  were  thenceforth  constantly 
at  war  with  the  Dakota,  their  kinsmen.    They 


Dictionary  of  Races 

seldom  cut  their  hair  and  add  false  hair  at 
times  till  the  twist  reaches  the  ground. 

Atayal.  Group  of  savage  tribes  inhabiting 
the  north  of  the  island  of  Formosa.  They 
are  active  and  aggressive  head-hunters,  and 
their  trophies  are  put  on  a  platform  in  the 
open  air.  They  are  certainly  not  of  Mongoloid 
type  and  may  be  primitive  Indonesians. 
They  live  on  millet,  rice,  taro,  and  other 
vegetables,  together  with  the  meat  of  deer 
and  wild  pig  ;  some  of  them  do  not  use  salt. 
A  curious  feature  of  the  marriage  customs  of 
one  section  is  that  a  newly-married  couple 
for  a  few  days  occupy  a  habitation  raised 
twenty  feet  above  the  ground  on  piles. 
Their  religion  is  mainly  ancestor  worship. 

Atyo.  The  Bateke  to  the  north  of  Stanley 
Pool,  in  Belgian  Congo.  Atyo  is  their  own 
native  name  ;    Bateke  means  pygmy. 

Australians.  Aboriginal  population  of 
Australia,  always  very  small  in  numbers  and 
to-day  almost  or  quite  extinct  in  many  places. 
Linguistically,  they  fall  into  two  main  groups, 
one,  with  an  older  and  a  younger  section, 
called  the  Australian  languages,  occupying 
the  southern  part  of  the  continent  ;  the 
other,  perhaps  related  to  the  Papuan  family,  in 
the  north  ;  the  languages  of  the  second 
group  are  very  much  split  up  and  not  neces- 
sarily related  to  each  other.  There  is  a 
considerable  difference  in  skull  shape  that 
corresponds  in  distribution  only  in  part  to 
that  of  languages.  There  may  have  been  a 
negrito  element  present  in  small  numbers 
before  the  Australian  type  arrived,  when 
Torres  Strait  was  still  dry  land.  A  wave  of 
immigrants  of  negroid  type  seems  to  have 
followed,  which  has  left  some  traces  in  the 
hair,  almost  frizzly  in  some  cases,  almost 
straight  in  others  ;  the  stature  varies  from 
5  ft.  2  in.  to  6  ft.  3  in.  in  men.  The  ridges 
over  the  eyes  are  strongly  marked,  and  the 
forehead  has  a  backward  slope  ;  the  nose  is 
broad  and  deep-set  at  the  root.  The 
Australian  seems  to  be  quick  at  learning,  at 
any  rate  in  youth ;  but  he  is  unreflective 
in  the  main  and  tires  quickly  when  he  is 
called  upon  to  undertake  tasks  in  which  he 
has  no  interest.  He  is  on  the  other  hand 
tireless  in  carrying  out  ceremonies,  which 
may  continue  for  days,  associated  in  his  mind 
with  the  multiplication  of  food  stuffs  or  the 
initiation  of  youths.  In  their  natural  state 
the  Australians  are  found  to  be  gentle  and 
good-natured,  indulgent  to  children,  and  kind 
even  to  their  dogs. 

Avars.  Most  important  Lesghian  people 
of  the  Caucasus.  An  Avar  people  migrated 
in  the  sixth  century  to  the  Danube,  but  there 
is  no  evidence  that  this  Sarmatian  people  is 
the  same  as  the  modern  one.  They  are  a  war- 
like folk. 

Awatwa  or  Batwa.  Negro  tribe  living 
in  the  swamps  on  the  Luapula  river,  south  of 
Lake  Bangweolo,  Central  Africa. 

Awemba  or  Babemba.  Bantu  tribe  of 
Rhodesia,  who  mummify  the  corpses  of  their 
chiefs  by  rubbing  them  all  over  with  boiled 
maize  till  the  skin  becomes  dry  and  shrivelled. 
Aymara.  People  of  Bolivia.  The  name 
was  early  applied  to  the  Colla  and  other 
Titicacan  tribes,  but  it  seems  to  belong 
properly  to    peoples,  also  short 

headed  but  entirely  distinct  from  the  Quichua, 
though  some  authorities  assert  that  the  tribes 
are  physically  indistinguishable,  save  that  the 
Aymara  no  longer  deform  the  skull.  In 
burial  customs  they  differed  widely,  the 
Aymara  using  a  square  edifice,  the  Quichua 
an  underground  chamber.  The  Aymara 
Indian  of  to-day  is  a  dweller  in  the  highlands, 
strong  and  muscular,  of  bronzed  complexion  ; 
according  to  some  observers,  the  eyes  have  a 
slant  reminiscent  of  Mongoloid  ancestry. 
They  are  a  reticent  people,  sober  and 
industrious,  except  when  religious  rites  occupy 
attention.  Like  the  Quichua  they  have  a 
primitive  kind  of  weaving  in  which  the  loom 
consists  of  four  stakes  driven  into  the  ground. 
Their  most  important  domesticated  animal 
is  the  llama,  which  serves  as  a  beast  of  burden. 
Though  they  profess  Christianity,  they  still 
hold  to  their  old  gods,  who  are  believed  to 
dwell  in  ice  and  snow. 

Azande.  Important  tribe  or  collection  of 
tribes  of  the  Nile- Welle  watershed,  Central 
Africa,  formerly  known  as  the  Niam-Niam 
from  their-  addiction  to  cannibalism.  The 
skull  is  of  a  medium  type  inclining  to  long, 
and  though  they  have  been  described  as  tall 
they  appear  to  be  in  general  shorter  than  the 
Nilotes  and  also  somewhat  lighter  skinned, 
inclining  to  a  reddish  colour.  They  were 
formerly  a  warlike  people  and  belonged,  to  the 
group  of  tribes  which  made  use  of  the  throwing 
knife,  a  many-pointed  piece  of  iron  which 
probably  had  a  curved  flight. 

Aztecs.  Mexican  tribe  representing  a 
mixture  of  the  ancient  Aztecs  and  Tlascalans. 
Their  houses  are  made  in  three  parts — god 
house,  cooking  house,  and  granary  ;  there  is 
also  a  vapour  bath  house  of  stone.  Idols 
are  built  into  the  granary  as  talismans. 

Baba.  Term  for  a  Malay  of  Chinese 

Babunda.  Bantu-speaking  tribe  of  the 
Kasai-Kwilu  area  of  Central  Africa.  Exceed- 
ingly black  and  a  fine,  stalwart  people  with 
abundance  of  hair  in  the  case  of  men,  they 
are  a  warlike  race  who  are  great  rubber 
traders.  They  do  not  build  villages,  but  live 
in  the  middle  of  their  plantations,  so  that  a 
single  settlement  may  be  a  couple  of  miles 

Babwende.  Bantu-speaking  people  of  the 
Congo,  inhabiting  the  cataract  region. 

Bachama.  Tribe  of  the  northern  provinces 
of  Nigeria,  allied  to  the  Batta,  on  the  Middle 
Benue.  They  speak  a  language  of  the  Benue- 
Chad  group  and  are  said  to  be  cannibals, 
but  there  is  no  evidence  of  it. 

Badaga.  Agricultural  tribe  of  the  Nilgiri 
Hills  of  the  Deccan,  India.  They  speak  a 
Dravidian  language,  said  to  be  allied  to  old 
Kanarese,  and  are  a  long-headed  people  who 
dwell  in  extensive  villages  situated  as  a  rule 
on  a  low  hill,  in  which  ail  the  houses  on  one 
side  of  a  street  are  under  one  continuous  roof. 
The  milk  house  is  very  sacred  and  no  woman 
may  enter  it.  The  women  do  most  of  the 
work  in  the  fields,  and  as  a  reward  get  worse 
food  than  the  male  members  of  the  family. 

Badakshi.  Round-headed  people  of  the 
Upper  Oxus. 

B&djek.  Bantu-speaking  people  of  the 
Kastti,   Central   Africa,   who   came   originally 


Dictionary  of  Races 

from  the  south.  They  are  undersized  and 
dirty,  but  have  a  great  reputation  as  warriors, 
have  no  sense  of  fear,  are  great  elephant 
hunters,  and  do  a  large  trade  in  rubber. 

Baggara.  Arab  tribe  of  Darfur,  Sudan, 
whose  name  means  "  cattle  keepers."  Some 
are  as  dark  as  negroes  but  their  features  are 
fine  and  regular. 

Bagesu.  Cannibal  Bantu-speaking  tribe 
of  the  eastern  slopes  of  Mount  Elgon,  East 
Africa.  They  are  of  medium  height,  with 
broad  noses  that  show  no  bridge.  The  skull 
is  short.  There  is  nothing  repulsive  about 
their  faces,  which  can  even  be  termed  pleasing. 
They  are  now  agricultural,  but  w-ere  probably 
originally  a  cattle-keeping  people. 

Baghirmi.  Sudanic-speaking  tribe  on  the 
south-east  of  Lake  Chad,  North  Central 
Africa.  They  are  tall  and  healthy,  but  the 
women  are  over-stout.  They  hunt  elephants 
on  horseback  with  poisoned  spears. 

Bahurutsc.  Section  of  the  Bechuana, 
of  South  Africa,  also  called  Bakwena.  They 
followed  a  chief  known  as  Mohurutse  and  took 
their  name  from  him. 

Bahutu.  Subject  people  of  Urundi,  East 
Africa,  governed  by  the  Batussi.  They  are 
of  small  stature,  with  legs  disproportionately 
short,  but  the  body  muscular.  They  differ 
from  the  Batussi  in  the  projection  of  the  lower 
part  of  the  face.  In  colour  they  are  of  a 
dark  coffee  tint  with  a  violet  sheen,  but  some 
show  the  reddish  clay  colour  of  a  South 
American  Indian. 

Ba-ila.  Bantu-speaking  people  of  northern 
Rhodesia.  Two  distinct  types  seem  to  be 
found — one  tall  and  finely  made,  with  a  long 
nose  and  thin  nostrils,  generally  speaking 
good-looking  ;  the  other,  short,  heavily  made, 
bull-necked,  with  a  flat  nose.  These  types 
are  not  distributed  according  to  rank.  In 
colour  they  are  chocolate-brown  to  almost 
black,  but  a  new-born  child  is  a  dirty  yellow, 
and  with  hair  also  lighter.  They  knock  out 
six  teeth  in  the  upper  jaw. 

Bajau.  Malayan  people  of  the  west  coast 
of  Borneo. 

Bajabi  or  Bajavi.  Bantu-speaking  tribe 
of  the  Nyanza  and  other  Ogowe  tributaries. 
Bakango.  Welle  tribe  of  Central  Africa, 
allied  to  the  Ababua,  who  seem  to  intermarry 
with  Azande.  They  are  short  in  stature,  fifty 
per  cent,  not  exceeding  5  ft.  4  in.  A  river 
people,  their  diet  is  largely  composed  of  fish. 
Bakhtiari.  Inhabitants  of  Susiana 
(Khuzistan),  Persia,  who  speak  Kurdish 
dialects  and  are  probably  northern  Mongols 
who  have  taken  over  an  Iranian  speech. 

Ba-'Eshi-Hongo.  People  of  the  old 
kingdom  of  Kongo,  who  occupy  a  large  part 
of  the  area  south  of  the  Congo  river  between 
the  Kwango  and  the  sea.  There  is  a  second 
Bakongo  tribe  between  the  Kasai  and  the 
Lulua,  who  are  probably  a  branch  of  the 

Bakuba,  A  branch  of  the  Baluba  people 
of  the  Belgian  Congo. 

Bakulia.  Bantu-speaking  tribe  of  East 
Africa,  to  the  east  of  the  Wageia.  They  were 
at  one  time  called  Wassuba.  They  are  a  tall 
people,  over  5  ft.  7  in.  on  an  average,  and  are 
probably  of  mixed  origin,  with  some  Hamitic 

Bakusu,  (1)  People  of  Yakusu,  Stanley 
Falls  ;  (2)  a  tribe  allied  to  the  Manyema. 
They  are  located  between  the  Middle  Lomami 
and  the  Lualaba  and  are  not  to  be  confused 
with  theBankutu  or  Bakuchu  of  the  Kasai. 
Balali.  Section  of  the  Bateke,  on  the 
north  bank  of  the  Congo,  a  little  east  of  the 
Kenka  river. 

Balangi,  Balengue,  or  Balengie, 
Bantu-speaking  tribe  of  the  coast  of  Spanish 
Guinea,  between  the  Campo  and  Kribi  rivers. 
Balti.  People  of  Tibet,  identified  by  some 
with  the  Dards,  by  others  with  the  Sacae  of 
Herodotus  who  invaded  India  from  the  north 
about  two  thousand  years  ago.  They  are  now 
Moslems  and  speak  Tibetan.  It  is  certain 
that  their  physical  conformation  is  not 
Mongolic,  for  they  have  ringlety  hair,  a  full 
beard,  and  abundant  body  hair,  together 
with  a  long  head  and  straight  eyes,  in  striking 
contrast  with  the  neighbouring  people  of 
Ladakh,  who  are  thoroughly  Mongoloid  in 
appearance.  In  their  country  are  remarkable 
rock  carvings  attributed  by  the  present 
inhabitants  to  a  long-vanished  people.  They 
are  famous  horsemen  and  the  original 
inventors  of  the  game  of  polo. 

Baltic  Languages,  Small  Aryan  group, 
comprising  the  extinct  Old  Prussian,  Lettish, 
and  Lithuanian. 

Baluba.  Warrior  people  of  the  south- 
east of  the  Belgian  Congo.  The  name  is 
also  given  to  mixed  peoples  of  the  Kasai. 
The  name  appears  to  mean  "  wanderers." 
The  western  Baluba  have  been  called 

Balunda  or  Alunda.  Bantu-speaking 
people  south-west  of  Lake  Bangweulu, 
northern  Rhodesia. 

Bambala.  Bantu-speaking  people  of  the 
Kwilu  river,  West  Africa,  also  called  Bushongo. 
They  have  a  curious  custom  of  covering  their 
bodies  with  a  kind  of  reddish  clay.  They 
are  a  cheery,  happy-go-lucky  folk,  much 
given  to  gambling,  by  which  a  man  will  lose, 
not  only  his  wife  and  children  but  even  his 
own  liberty.  In  colour  they  are  a  very 
dark  brown,  but  thick  lips  and  flat  noses  are 
exceptional  ;  the  northern  Bambala  are 
strongly  built,  but  there  is  less  food  in  the 
south  ;  a  lighter  colour  seems  to  go  with  the 
slighter  build  of  the  southern  portion  of  the 
tribe.  Cannibalism  is  of  everyday  occurrence 
among  them  ;  as  a  rule  enemies  and  criminals 
are  the  victims,  but  slaves  may  also  be 
slaughtered.  This  notwithstanding,  they 
are  a  pleasant,  peaceable  folk,  kind  even  to 
their  slaves,  who  are  treated  more  like  children 
than  serfs. 

Banda.  Important  group  of  tribes  in 
French  Central  African  territory  north  of  the 
Ubangi.  Some  of  them  use  lip  disks  of  one 
or  more  inches  in  diameter,  like  the  Yao  of 

Bangala.  Bantu-speaking  people  of  the 
region  between  the  Ubanghi  and  the  Congo 
and  south  of  the  Congo,  including  the  Boloki, 
Mbala  Bolombo,  and  others.  The  name 
seems  to  be  derived  from  the  fact  that  there 
was  a  large  group  settled  at  Mangala  ;  they 
do  not  know  the  name  themselves.  The 
Bangala  language  has  come  to  be  used  as  a 
means  of  inter-com-xmnication  over  a  large 

Dictionary  of  Races 

area.  The  height  varies  considerably,  with 
an  average  of  about  5  ft.  7  in.  ;  there  is  a 
short-headed  element  in  the  tribes  mixed 
with  a  more  important  long-headed  type  ;  a 
certain  number  have  thin  lips.  They  file  four 
or  more  teeth  to  a  point. 

Bankutu.  Cannibal  tribe  of  the  Upper 
Lukenye,  Belgian  Congo.  They  are  a  small 
and  dirty  people,  timid,  treacherous,  ugly, 
sullen,  and  of  unprepossessing  manners. 
They  have,  however,  an  unusually  neat  and 
picturesque  type  of  hut. 

Bantu.  Sub-family  of  African  languages, 
allied  to  Sudanic  in  respect  of  a  large  propor- 
tion of  its  word  roots  and  to  the  semi-Bantu 
portion  of  the  Sudanic  sub-family  in  respect 
also  of  morphology  and  syntax.  The  charac- 
teristic feature  is  that  all  nouns  have  a 
pronominal  prefix,  which  is  repeated  before 
adjectives  or  verbs  to  show  the  concord. 
Bantu-speaking  peoples  of  the  extreme  south 
differ  so  little  in  speech  from  those  of  the 
extreme  north,  that  Zulu  is  intelligible  in 
Cameroon.  The  Bantu  languages  occupy  all 
the  southern  part  of  Africa  from  near  the 
Equator  southwards,  excepting  areas  of 
Hottentot,  Bushman  and  Pygmy  (?)  speech, 
or  such  parts  as  are  now  Europeanised. 
There  is  no  corresponding  Bantu  race  nor 
yet  any  physical  type  of  which  it  can  be  said 
that  it  is  specifically  Bantu,  but  the  term  is 
applied  in  a  narrower  sense  to  tribes  with  a 
strong  Hamitic  element. 

Banyoro,  Tall  and  well-proportioned 
Bantu-speaking  people  of  Uganda,  who 
extract  the  four  lower  incisors.  A  long- 
headed people,  they  are  on  the  whole  honest, 
but  have  the  reputation  of  being  splendid 
liars,  though  this  seems  to  be  due  to  past 
oppression  by  their  chiefs. 

Banziri.  Trading  people  of  the  Ubangi 
river,  Central  Africa.  They  build  beehive 
huts  and  arrange  them  in  two  long^lines,  some- 
times over  a  mile  in  length.  They  are  good 
farmers  and  expert  watermen. 

Bapindi  or  Bapende.  Bantu-speaking 
people  of  the  Kwilu-Kasai  area,  who  are 
expert  weavers.  They  should  not  be  confused 
with  the  Bapindji  or  Babindji. 

Bapuko,  Naka  or  S.  Banoha.  Bantu- 
speaking  tribe  of  Spanish  Guinea,  between  the 
Kribi  and  Nyon  rivers. 

Bara.  Tribe  of  south-central  Madagascar, 
with  the  reputation  of  being  distrustful  and 
churlish ;  they  are  a  Plains  people  and  rela- 
tively   uncivilized. 

Barabra.  Dark-complexioned  tribe  of 
Nubia,  with  long  skulls  and  woolly  hair. 
The  name  is  the  same  as  that  of  the  Berber  ; 
it  is  derived  from  Arabic  and  means 
"  foreigner." 

Barotse.  Conquering  Bantu  tribe  which 
founded  a  great  empire  in  what  is  now 
northern  Rhodesia. 

Barundi.  People  of  East  Africa,  made 
up  of  the  subject  Bahutu  and  the  dominant 
Batussi,  whose  privileged  classes  include  the 

Bassa  or  Gbasa.  Name  of  a  Kru  tribe 
of  Liberia.  There  are  also  tribes  known  as 
Bassa  in  the  northern  provinces  of  Nigeria 
(Bassa  Komo,  Bassa  Nge)   and  in  Cameroon. 

Bashkirs.     Mixed  people   of    Russia,   of 

Mongoloid  type.     The  name  is  said  to  be  of 
Turkish  origin  and  to  mean  "  bee  keepers." 

Basques.  People  of  the  western  Pyrenees, 
partly  in  France,  partly  in  Spain.  They 
speak  a  language  that  is  by  common  consent 
non-Aryan  and  is  generally  regarded  as  a 
survival  of  the  pre-Aryan  languages  of  two  or 
three  thousand  years  ago,  possibly  that  of 
the  people  called  Iberians,  who  occupied 
the  sea-board  of  Gaul  from  the  Rhone  to 
the  Pyrenees,  and  were  originally  resident 
between  the  Ebro  and  the  Pyrenees.  There 
is  a  distinct  Basque  type,  characterised  by  a 
rather  triangular  face,  broad  temples,  and 
long,  pointed  chin,  with  dark  eyes  set  rather 
close,  a  long  thin  nose,  and  dark  hair.  North 
of  the  Pyrenees,  however,  the  skull  seems  to  be 
noticeably  shorter  than  in  the  Spanish 
provinces,  though  the  dividing  line  is  not 
exactly  coincident  with  the  national  boundary. 
The  French  type  has  been  regarded  as  the 
purer.  The  Basques  are  assigned  to  the 
Mediterranean  race,  being  regarded  as  a 
variety  evolved  by  isolation  and  in-breeding. 
Many  suggestions  have  been  made  as  to  the 
affinities  of  the  language,  e  g.  that  it  is  akin  to 
Berber,  Finno-Ugrian  tongues,  Kolarian,  etc., 
without  any  very  clear  evidence  being  forth- 

Basundi.  Bantu-speaking  people  of  the 
north  bank  of  the  Lower  Congo,  who  seem 
to  have  come  from  the  Lower  Kwango. 

Basuto-  Bantu-speaking  people  of  south- 
east Africa,  east  of  the  Orange  river,  where 
they  seem  to  have  arrived  about  a  hundred 
years  ago.  They  are  made  up  of  a  great 
number  of  different  clans  or  tribes.  The 
traditions  of  some  of  them  have  been  inter- 
preted to  mean  that  they  crossed  the  Zambezi 
in  the  eleventh  or  twelfth  century.  They 
preserve  genealogies  of  their  chiefs  going  back 
to  the  sixteenth  century.  Less  than  a 
century  ago  some  of  them  were  still  cannibals  ; 
but  they  took  to  the  practice,  it  appears, 
when  their  flocks  and  herds  had  been  captured 
by  invading  peoples,  who  also  killed  much  of 
the  game. 

Batak.  (1)  The  same  as  Batta,  a  tribe  of 
Sumatra  ;  (2)  a  negrito  tribe  of  Palawan, 
Philippine  Islands.  Described  as  very  shy,  they 
have  long,  kinky  hair,  and  use  the  blow-gun. 

Batetela,  Bantu-speaking  tribe  east  of 
the  Sankuru,  Belgian  Congo,  many  of  them 
much  influenced  by  Arabs  and  Europeans. 
Their  country  is  fertile,  and  abundance  of  food 
has  enabled  them  to  develop  into  a  race  of 
great  stature.  Brave,  hospitable  and  kind- 
hearted,  they  are,  as  a  rule,  dark  in  colour, 
but  some  are  light  yellow. 

Batta.  (1)  Tribe  of  the  Middle  Beuue, 
West  Africa.  They  are  allied  to  the  Bachama. 
and  speak  a  language  of  the  Benue-Chad 
group.  (2)  Sumatran  tribe  of  small  stature 
who  live  mainly  north  of  the  Equator,  also 
called  Batak.  Their  stature  is  about  5ft.  3 in., 
and  the  skull  somewhat  short  ;  the  skin  is 
clear  and  the  face  round,  but  the  cheek-bones 
are  not  prominent ;  the  nose  is  straight  or 
concave,  the  beard  thick  ;  the  hair  is  fine, 
of  black  colour,  with  chestnut  as  a  variant. 
They  are  cannibals,  but  eat  only  enemies 
killed  in  battle,  prisoners  of  war,  and  convicted 
criminals,  never  their  own  relatives. 


Dictionary  of  Races 

Batussi.  Dominant  people  of  Urundi, 
East  Africa,  who  rule  the  Bahutu,  numbering 
about  one  and  a  half  millions,  by  superior 
intelligence.  The  Batussi  are  proud,  quiet 
and  reserved  compared  with  their  subjects, 
and  seldom  say  what  they  think.  They  are 
reputed  to  be  untruthful,  lazy,  and  cowardly, 
leaving  all  work  to  the  subject  people. 
They  are  tall,  some  over  6  ft.  6  in.,  and  no 
grown-up  man  less  than  5  ft.  9  in.  ;  but  they 
are  well  proportioned,  though  the  body  is 
often  slender,  yet  their  hands  are  smaller 
than  those  of  the  average  European.  There 
are  two  types  of  face  among  them,  the  superior, 
with  narrow  nose,  thin  lips,  and  small  mouth  ; 
the  other  more  negroid,  but  oval,  with  small 
but  well-developed  chin.  A  singular  feature 
is  that  the  upper  teeth  often  project  over  the 
lower  ;  the  hair  is,  however,  as  woolly  as  in  the 
ordinary  negro. 

Batwa.  Pygmoid  people  of  TJrundi,  East 
Africa,  who  are,  however,  considerably 
taller  than  the  real  pygmy.  Those  who  have 
taken  to  agriculture  reach  5  ft.  3  in.,  no  doubt 
owing  to  admixture  with  the  Bahutu,  who  are 
themselves  but  little  taller.  They  are  a 
mixture  of  pygmy,  forest  Bantu,  and  inter- 
lake  Bantu  ;  and  some  observers  have 
suggested  the  presence  of  a  long-headed 
Bushman  type.  They  form  not  more  than 
one  per  cent,  of  the  population  of  Urundi, 
and  as  a  pariah  class  are  naturally  driven  to 
trickery  and  slyness.  They  are,  however, 
friendly  with  the  Batussi  and  are  actually  the 
guards  of  the  king  in  Ruanda. 

Bayanzi.  Name  given  to  several  distinct 
African  tribes.  Stanley  gave  this  name  to 
the  Bobangi  (?)  ;  it  appears  to  mean  "  savage  " 
and  is  applied  also  to  some  of  the  Kasai 

Bechuana.  Number  of  tribes  extending 
from  near  the  Zambezi  to  the  Orange  river, 
one  important  section  being  the  Basuto. 
The  name  goes  back  not  more  than  a  hundred 
years,  and  is  not  recognized  by  the  natives 
themselves.  They  are  allied  to  the  Bawenda 
of  the  Transvaal. 

Bej a.  Hamitic  people  of  East  Africa, 
including  the  Ababdeh,  Bisharin,  Hadendoa, 
Halenga,  Beni  Amer.  They  are  essentially 
a  nomadic  and  pastoral  people  though  a  few 
have  taken  to  agriculture. 

Belgians.  See  Netherlands. 
Benga.  Group  of  tribes,  including  the 
Banoho,  Banoko,  or  Malimba,  of  Spanish 
Guinea,  etc.  Some  of  these  tribes  have 
penetrated  south  into  French  territory. 
The  Benga  proper  inhabit  a  narrow  coast 
belt  between  the  Benito  river  and  Corisco 

Bengali.  "  Mongolo-Dravidian  "  inhabit- 
ants of  north-east  India.  The  type  varies 
widely  according  to  social  status,  and  in 
certain  castes,  such  as  the  Brahman,  the 
Alpine  type  is  dominant,  as  it  is  on  the 
southern  slopes  of  the  Himalayas.  They  are  ' 
quick-witted  and  versatile  and  find  scope  for 
their  abilities  in  official  work  and  commerce. 

Berber  or  Libyan.  North  African  peoples 
speaking  either  Arabic  or  Berber,  but  in  the 
main  of  western  Hamitic  stock.  The  Arab 
is  taller  than  the  Berber  and  has  usually  a 
longer   head ;     his    face   is    a   regular    oval, 

while  the  Berber's  is  squarer  and  his  nose 
straight  or  concave  ;  the  Berber  has  also  a 
transverse  depression  on  the  forehead.  The 
Berber  is  essentially  a  highlander,  non- 
nomadic,  and  less  dependent  upon  flocks  and 
herds.  Although  the  Berbers  have  lived 
in  close  contact  with  Arabs  for  a  thousand 
years,  they  do  not  amalgamate  with  them  to 
any  great  extent. 

Betsileo.  Negro  or  negroid  tribe  of 
Madagascar.  They  are  tall,  with  an  average 
height  of  6  ft.  for  men,  large-boned  and 
muscular,  much  darker  than  the  Hova, 
and  differing  from  them  also  in  hair  character, 
which  is  always  crisp  and  woolly.  Apart 
from  negro  slaves,  however,  there  is  little 
reason  to  suspect  an  African  element  in 
Madagascar,  and  the  negro  type  is  probably  of 
Oceanic  origin. 

Betsimisaraka.  Name  often  given  to  the 
people  of  the  east  of  Madagascar  in  general. 
Properly  speaking,  they  are  a  Plains  people 
of  light  complexion  and  straight  hair. 

Bhil.  Tribe  of  the  Central  Provinces  of 
India,  said  to  have  been  at  one  time  the 
ruling  race.  They  now  speak  an  Indo- 
Aryan  language.  It  is  uncertain  whether 
their  original  tongue  was  Munda  or  Dravidian. 
The  jungle  Bhils  are  described  as  active  and 
hardy,  with  high  cheek-bones,  wide  nostrils, 
and  coarse,  almost  negroid,  features  ;  those 
of  the  plains  are  often  well  built  and  tall, 
but  are  clearly  of  mixed  blood.  The  Bhil 
proper  averages  5  ft.  6  in.  in  height,  is  an 
excellent  woodsman  and  huntsman,  and 
Sanskrit  works  call  him  "  lord  of  the  pass  " 
because  the  approach  to  his  land  is  through 
defiles  which  none  could  traverse  without 
his  leave.  The  name  is  said  to  occur  first 
about  a.d.  600,  and  to  be  derived  from  a 
Dravidian  word  for  bow,  the  characteristic 
weapon  of  the  tribe.  The  Bhil  was  at  one 
time  a  professional  thief,  and  became  so, 
perhaps,  through  oppression  by  neighbouring 

Bhutia.  Sanskrit  name  of  the  people  of 
Tibet,  including  the  Bod-pa,  or  Tibetan 
proper,  the  Lepcha,  the  Rong,  etc.  The 
Bod-pa  are  the  southern,  more  or  less  civilized, 
section  who  till  the  land  and  have  Lhasa  as 
their  chief  town.  The  Dru-pa  are  semi- 
nomadic  but  peaceful  tribes  of  the  northern 
plateaux  ;  while  the  Tangut  are  predatory 
tribes  of  the  north-east  borderland,  so  called 
by  the  Mongols,  who,  indeed,  use  the  term 
for  all  Tibetans.  The  typical  Tibetan  is  the 
Dru-pa,  who  have  for  ages  been  isolated 
from  the  alien  peoples  that  surround  them  ; 
they  stand  about  5  ft.  5  in.,  and  are  round 
headed,  with  wavy  hair,  brown  eyes,  a  thick 
but  prominent  nose,  depressed  at  the  root. 
In  complexion  they  vary  from  white  to  dark 
brown,  according  to  exposure,  and  rosy 
cheeks  are  common  among  the  younger 
women.  From  this  description  it  is  clear 
that  the  Indo-Chinese  element  is  not  pure. 
Bicol,  Philippine  tribe  of  mixed  type, 
probably  Proto-Malay  mingled  with  Indo- 
nesian to  a  slight  extent,  and  with  Chinese. 
They  are  predominantly  round  headed,  and 
the  back  of  the  skull  ia  curiously  flattened. 
They  are  a  lively  and  intelligent  people  with 
musical  gifts. 


Dictionary  of  Races 


Bilin.  Pastoral  and  agricultural  people  oJ 
Upper  Nubia,  who  are  also  called  Bogo. 

Binbinga.  Australian  tribe  near  the  south- 
west shore  of  the  Gulf  of  Carpentaria.  Cultur- 
ally they  belong  to  the  same  group  as  the 
interior  tribes,  and  differ  from  the  Mara  and 
Anula  of  the  coast  region. 

Bisaya.  (i)  A  Klemantan  people  of 
Borneo.  (2)  a  Philippine  tribe  on  islands  of 
the  same  name  and  in  Mindanao. 

Bisharin.  Division  of  the  Beja  who  live 
to  the  south  of  the  Ababdeh,  towards  the 
territory  of  Suakin.  They  have  been  modified 
by  some  short-headed  element  that  did  not 
affect  the  tribes  to  the  south  of  them.  They 
are  moderately  short,  slightly  built  people  with 
reddish  brown  skins  tinged  with  black. 
The  hair  is  usually  curly,  but  is  at  times 
wavy.  They  closely  resemble  the  pre- 
dynastic  Egyptians  in  skull  form  and  physical 

Blackfeet  (Siksika).  Tribe  of  American 
Indians  of  the  Plains  group,  which  once  held 
an  area  from  the  Missouri  to  the  Saskatche- 
wan ;  now  on  reservations.  They  speak  an 
Algonquian  tongue,  and  migrated  from  the 
Red  river  to  the  north-west. 

Bobangi.  Bantu-speaking  people  of  the 
Congo,  between  Stanley  Pool  and  Equator- 

Bogo.  Pastoral  and  agricultural  people  of 
Upper  Nubia,  who  call  themselves  Bilin. 

Boloki.  One  of  -the  constituent  tribes 
of  the  Bangala  group  on  the  Congo  and  inter- 
mingled with  the  Bomuna.  They  owned  the 
town  of  Mangala  at  one  time,  whence  the 
name  Bangala. 

Bongo,  Red-brown  people  of  the  south- 
west of  the  Bahr-el-Ghazal,  Sudan.  They 
are  of  medium  height,  with  considerably 
wider  skulls  than  the  Dinka  ;  both  are  said 
to  deform  the  head  soon  after  birth,  but  in 
opposite  directions.  They  are  essentially  an 
agricultural  people  with  no  interest  in  cattle 
rearing.  Their  conical  huts  are  remarkable 
for  the  low  entrances  which  compel  the 
visitor  to  creep  in.  They  are  expert  iron 
workers  and  smelt  ore.  The  women  wear  a 
plug  quite  an  inch  in  diameter  in  the  lower  lip. 
(2)  Another  tribe  in  the  same  area  with  a 
wholly  different  language. 

Bre.  Tribe  of  Burma.  They  speak  a 
dialect  of  Karen,  which  is  assigned  to  the 
Sinitic  group  of  the  Siamese-Chinese  branch 
of  the  Tibeto-Burman  family  of  languages. 

Bubi.  Group  of  Bantu-speaking  tribes  of 
Fernando  Po.  They  are  remarkable  as  the 
sole  example  of  an  African  tribe  still  in  the 
Stone  Age  at  the  time  of  discovery  ;  they  also 
differed  from  other  African  tribes  in  having  no 

Buduma.  Fisherfolk  of  Lake  Chad.  They 
are  tall,  with  high  foreheads  and  blunt  noses. 
They  make  canoes  or  floats  of  bundles  of 
reeds  ten  inches  thick,  which  take  a  month  to 
build,  and  are  propelled  by  men  swimming  or 
wading  behind. 

Bugi.  Maritime  people  of  the  south  of 
Celebes,  who  are  reputed  to  be  very  honest 
traders.  They  have  a  clear  skin,  straight 
black  hair,  a  prominent  nose  and  wide  eyes  ; 
like  the  neighbouring  Macassar  they  seem  to 
have  a  negroid  element  among  them. 

Bulgarians.  Inhabitants  of  Bulgaria,  of 
Ugrian  origin,  with  some  admixture  of  Slavs. 
They  speak  a  Slav  tongue.  They  were  driven 
from  the  south  Russian  steppes  by  the  Huns 
in  the  sixth  century  and  subsequently  crossed 
the  Danube,  but  long  before  this  they  were 
known  to  the  Armenians  as  a  great  people, 
dwelling  to  the  north  far  beyond  the  Caucasus. 
At  the  outset  they  were  a  coarse  and  brutal 
people,  but  have  become  assimilated  to  the 
Caucasian  type  and  merged  in  the  surrounding 
Slav  populations.  They  take  their  name  from 
the  Bulga  (Volga). 

Buriat.  Mongol  tribe  of  the  region  about 
Lake  Baikal.  They  are  yellower  than  the 
Kalmucks  and  have  round  heads,  but  the 
nose  is  narrower  as  a  rule  and  they  are  clearly 
of  mixed  origin,  as  indeed  are  the  Kalmucks, 
but,  unlike  them,  the  Buriats  may  have  a 
Tungus  strain. 

Burmese,  Mongoloid  people  of  Further 
India,  who  have  been  described  as  inter- 
mediate in  type  between  the  Chinese  and  the 
Malay.  They  are  of  yellowish-brown  com- 
plexion, with  black,  lank  hair,  no  beard,  a 
small  but  straight  nose.  They  are  identical 
with  the  people  of  Arakan,  also  known  as 
Mag.  Their  ancestors  came  from  the  north 
some  time  after  600  B.C.,  according  to  some 
authorities  from  the  mountains  of  the  south- 
east of  Tibet,  according  to  others  from  the 
head  waters  of  the  Yang-tse-Kiang.  About 
a  thousand  years  ago  the  Burmese  were  111 
Upper  Burma  and  the  Mon  on  the  lower 
Irawadi ;  some  five  centuries  later  the  Tai 
invasion  forced  the  Burmese  to  unite  with  the 
Mon.  The  Burman  lives  largely  on  rice  and 
drinks  water  ;  he  is  a  Buddhist  in  religion. 
His  temperament  is  bright  and  genial,  but 
he  is  somewhat  indolent.  A  remarkable 
feature  of  Burmese  society  is  its  democratic 
character,  due  perhaps  in  part  to  the  fact 
that  the  priests  have  not  become  a  privileged 
class  ;  for  all,  at  some  period  of  their  lives, 
become  priests.  The  women,  partly  owing 
to  the  freedom  they  enjoy,  are  reputed  to  be 
virtuous,  thrifty  and  intelligent  beyond 
the  common  run  ;  they  have  a  great  capacity 
for  business. 

Bushman  or  Sa  (pi.  San).  A  Hottentot 
name.  Yellow-skinned,  woolly-haired  in- 
habitant of  South  Africa  before  the  arrival  of 
the  Bantu.  He  is  now  confined  to  the  Kala- 
hari and  less  desirable  areas.  His  average 
height  is  about  5  ft.  and  his  short  and  black 
hair  rolls  up  into  little  knots  so  as  to  present 
the  appearance  of  being  distributed  in  clumps. 
The  nose  is  extremely  flat.  The  language  is 
remarkable  for  its  large  use  of  "  clicks," 
sounds  produced  by  drawing  the  breath  111. 
To  the  Bushmen  are  due  the  remarkable  rock 
paintings  in   South  Africa. 

Bushongo.  People  of  the  Kasai,  whose 
traditions  say  they  came  from  the  north, 
possibly  the  Shari  neighbourhood.  A  fine 
race,  with  both  dignity  and  grace  of  manner, 
they  possess  a  remarkable  culture  unlike  that 
of  their  neighbours,  and  have  great  artistic 
gifts.  They  are  not  skilled  as  hunters,  and 
employ  the  pygmy  Batwa  to  procure  such 
game  as  they  need. 

C.  Many  tribal  names  are  spelt  with  a 
C   or   K   alternatively,  in  the   same  way  as 


Dictionary  of  Races 

.  Celt  and  Kelt,  and  if  not  found  under  the 
initial  letter  C  reference  should  be  made  also 
under  the  letter  K. 

Caduveo.  Guaycuru  tribe  of  the  Gran 
Chaco  who  cultivate  the  ground  and  are  noted 
as  expert  weavers  and  potters. 

Cakchiquel.  Tribe  of  Guatemala,  to  the 
south  of  the  Quiche. 

California  Area.  District  occupied  by 
tribes  without  canoes  or  pottery,  living 
largely  on  acorns  and  wild  seeds.  They  are 
often    opprobriously    termed    "  diggers." 

Canelos  or  Quijos.  Important  tribe  of 
Ecuador  on  the  head  waters  of  the  Napo. 

Carib,  Group  of  South  American  tribes 
including  Acawoy,  Bakairi,  Galibi,  Macusi, 
Rucuyen,  etc.  Their  first  home  was  perhaps 
near  the  sources  of  the  Xingu  ;  they  are  to  a 
great  extent  a  fishing  people,  and  in  their 
migrations  followed  the  course  of  rivers  ; 
at  the  time  of  the  discovery  of  America  they 
were  ousting  the  Arawak  in  the  Antilles. 
They  are  essentially  an  upland  people  ;  the 
custom  of  eating  their  male  enemies  was 
widespread  among  them. 

Carib.  Tribe  of  Guiana,  speaking  a 
language  which  has  given  its  name  to  the; 
Carib  group.  Their  proper  name  is  Carinya. 
They  are  rather  dark  in  colour,  taller  than  the 
Arawak  and  of  more  powerful  make,  but 
coarser  in  features.  They  are  famous  as 
warriors,  and  one  result  of  this  was  that  the 
island  Caribs  had  two  distinct  languages  in 
use,  one  used  by  or  to  men,  the  other  by 
women  among  themselves.  The  women 
distort  their  legs  by  cotton  bands  round  the 
ankle  and  disfigure  their  lips  with  pieces  of 
wood  with  sharp  points  turned  outwards ; 
men  wear  crescent-shaped  nose  pieces.  They 
arc  skilful  pot-makers. 

Cashibo,  Tribe  of  Pannoan  stock,  west 
of  the  Ucayali,  whose  own  name  for  them- 
selves is  Carapache,  "  bat." 

Caucasian  Languages.  Four  groups, 
each  with  subdivisions,  maybe  distinguished: 
(i)  Lesghian  with  Avar,  Andi,  Dido,  Lak 
Varkun,  Akusha,  etc.  ;  Udi,  Kurin,  etc.  (2) 
Chechen.  (3)  Cherkess  with  Kabard  and 
Abchase.  (4)  Kartwelian  (Georgian).  In 
addition  to  these  Osset,  an  Indo-European 
language,  is  spoken  there  ;  it  may  be  a 
descendant  of  Scythian  ;  it  is  certainly  not 

Caucasic  or  Caucasian.  General  term 
embracing  Nordic,  Alpine  and  Mediterranean 
stocks.  It  includes  the  peoples  of  the  Old 
World  (with  the  exception  of  the  Chinese, 
Japanese,  and  inhabitants  of  the  Arctic  zone) 
whose  normal  habitat  lies  outside  the  tropics; 
Cayuga,  American  Indian  tribe  of  the, 
Iroquois  confederation.  Some  of  them  re-! 
moved  to  Canada  when  the  American  Revolu-, 
tion  took  place.  \ 

Celtic  Languages.  One  section  of  the 
Italo-Celtic  group  now  in  north-west  Europe. 
It  includes  the  Brythonic  tongues  with  Welsh, 
Breton  and  the  extinct  Cornish,  and  Gadhelic,' 
with  Gaelic,  Erse  and  Manx. 

Celt  or  Kelt.  Term  used  in  a  number 
of  different  and  contradictory  senses  ;  some 
Continental  writers  oppose  Celts  and  Gauls, 
who  also  spoke  a  Celtic  tongue,  supposing 
the    former    to    be  short  headed,   the  latter 

long  headed  ;  archaeologists  attribute  the 
culture  of  the  earlier  and  later  Iron  Ages  to 
the  Celts,  regardless  of  physical  type  and 
language  ;  philologists  speak  of  Celts  when 
they  mean  peoples  whose  language  is  a  branch 
of  the  Italo-Celtic  group.  What  has  hap- 
pened is  that,  as  in  the  case  of  England,  which 
takes  its  name  from  a  single  one  of  the 
conquering  tribes  of  invading  peoples,  the 
word  Celt  has  been  applied  indiscriminately 
both  to  the  original  Celts  and  to  the  peoples 
whom  they  subdued  and  Celticised. 

Cham.  Remnants  of  a  once  powerful 
people  who  dominated  Cochin-China,  Annam 
and  part  of  Cambodia  some  two  thousand  years 
ago  and  were  still  formidable  in  the  days  of 
Marco  Polo.  They  were  determined  foes  of  the 
Khmer  of  Cambodia  and  were  conquered  by 
the  Annamese  at  the  end  of  the  fifteenth 
century.  In  physical  type  they  differ  widely 
from  the  surrounding  people  and  seem  to  be 
of  Austronesian  stock.  They  are  tall,  often 
reaching  5  ft.  8  in.,  and  sturdily  built,  and 
they  vary  in  complexion  from  light  brownish 
red  to  brown,  thus  resembling  many  Indo- 
nesians. They  have  wavy  hair  of  fine  texture 
and  black  or  dark  chestnut  in  colour  ;  the 
face  is  rather  broad,  but  the  nose  is  narrower 
at  the  root  than  is  the  case  with  Annamese  ; 
the  eye  is  large  and  full.  A  singular  feature 
of  their  life  is  that  many  of  them  do  not 
build  their  own  houses,  but  employ  Annamese 
Their  religions  are  a  corrupted  Brahmanism 
and   Mahomedanism. 

Chantos.  People  of  Turkistan  of  mixed 
descent.  Their  features  are  European  rather 
than  Mongoloid.  They  are  occupied  with 
trade  and  agriculture. 

Chargars.  A  Mongol  tribe  in  the  north  of 
the  Chinese  provinces  of  Chih-li  and  Shansi. 

Charruas.  Tribe  of  Uruguay  who  use 
the  bolas,  and  hunt  on  horseback. 

Chechen.  Caucasus  people  of  the  Middle 
Terek,  Assa,  etc.  Their  own  name  is  Nakchi, 
and  their  usual  name  is  taken  from  a  town 
now  destroyed,  the  chief  of  which  subdued 
most  of  the  people.  The  language  is  inde- 
pendent, but  has  elements  in  common  with 
some  of  the  Lesghian  languages.  The 
Chechen  include  the  Kists,  Galgais,  Ingush, 
etc.  They  are  a  good-looking  people,  proud! 
and  very  hospitable. 

Cheremiss.  Finnic  people  inhabiting  the 
Volga  basin.  They  are  divided  into  moun- 
tain and  plain  sections,  of  which  the  former 
is  more  Russianised,  taller  and  stronger. 
The  name  means  "  merchants,"  their  own 
designation  is  Mori.  They  are  a  people 
characterised  by  shortish  heads,  narrow  eyes, 
small  beards  and  flat   noses. 

Cherokee.  Iroquoian  tribe  of  Virginia, 
etc.,  afterwards  in  Indian  territory.  They  are 
one  of  the  Five  Civilized  Tribes,  probably 
30,000  strong. 

Chewsures.  Georgian  people  of  mixed 
origin.  The  type  differs  considerably,  pro- 
bably owing  to  the  intermarriage  of  near 
neighbours.  The  whole  family  takes  ven- 
geance for  the  shedding  of  blood,  and  thus 
arise  family  quarrels  that  hold  different  areas 
apart  for  generations. 

Cheyenne.  Tribe  of  Plains  Indians 
speaking  an  Algonquian  tongue,  They  were 


Dictionary  of  Races 

originally  agricultural,  living  in  a  timber 
country  ;  their  great  rite  was  the  Sun  Dance  ; 
some  thirty  years  ago  they  took  up  the 
modern  Ghost  Dance  religion. 

Chibcha  Area.  District  in  the  north  of 
South  America  inhabited  by  tribes  using 
poisoned  arrows,  hammocks,  fish  poisons, 
etc.,  and  living  in  palisaded  villages.  This 
type  also  extends  some  distance  northwards 
into  Central  America.  Some  of  the  tribes 
of  high  culture  exist  no  longer  ;  but  there 
are  still  highly  organized  groups  in  the  centre 
of  Colombia  surrounded  by  a  ring  of  wilder 
tribes  of  the  same  group. 

Chickasaws.  Muskogian  tribe  now  in 
Oklahoma,  who  seem  to  have  crossed  the 
Mississippi  from  the  west  in  early  times  and 
settled  in  what  is  now  Mississippi  State  in 
pre-Columbian  times. 

Chilkat.  Tlinkit  tribe  of  Alaska,  famous 
for  their  blankets. 

Chin.  Southern  Mongol  people  speaking  a 
Tibeto-Burman  language  of  the  Meithei  sub- 
group. The  Chindwin  valley  is  named  from 
them  ;  they  are  related  to  the  Kachin,  but 
should  not  be  confused  with  them.  Their 
original  home  seems  to  have  been  in  Tibet, 
together  with  the  Kuki-Lushai,  if  we  may 
judge  by  customs,  technology,  and  traditions. 
The  term  Chin  is  said  to  be  a  Burmese  form 
of  Chinese  jin  (men) .  They  have  no  common 
name,  but  call  themselves  Yo  in  the  north, 
Lai  in  the  south,  and  Shu  in  Lower  Burma. 
They  are  a  fine  people,  tall  and  stoutly  built, 
men  of  nearly  6  ft.  being  not  uncommon  ;  in 
some  areas,  however,  goitre  and  leprosy  are 
common.  The  Chin  is  treacherous  in  warfare, 
for  a  man  who  has  killed  many  enemies  goes 
to  the  next  life  with  a  fine  retinue  of  slaves  ; 
but  the  killing  of  a  man  brings  vengeance 
on  the  slayer,  who  himself  becomes  the  slave 
of  the  avenger  in  the  next  world.  The  Chin 
Hills,  according  to  the  Chins  themselves,  are 
formed  of  the  ruins  of  a  tower  they  were 
building  in  order  to  induce  the  moon  to  give 
light  permanently. 

China:  non-Chinese  Peoples  These 
include  Miao-Yao,  Min-chin,  Wa-Palaung, 
Shan-Tai,  Lolo,  Kachin,  and  other  stocks.  The 
Miao  call  themselves  Mhong,  and  are  alleged 
to  belong  to  the  Mon- Khmer  group,  the  con- 
struction of  the  language  being  also  identical. 

Chinese.  Mixed  people  of  far  from  uni- 
form type.  There  is  a  considerable  Manchu 
element  in  the  north  ;  in  the  south  are  the 
tribes  known  collectively  as  Miao-tse.  The 
north  Chinaman  is  fairly  tall,  standing  on 
an  average  5  ft.  7  in.  in  Shantung,  and  the 
round-headed  Alpine  type  is  dominant,  mixed, 
however,  with  a  type  similar  in  respect  of  nose 
and  in  height  of  the  head,  but  much  longer. 
In  the  south-east  the  average  stature  is  about 
three  inches  less  and  the  type  is  less  mixedwith 
long  heads,  but  there  is  also  a  broad-nosed 
element.  Very  little  information  of  a  reliable 
kind  is  available.  The  Chinese  proper  were  some 
thousands  of  years  ago  an  agricultural  people 
in  the  valley  of  the  Wei  river,  surrounded 
by  barbarians  like  the  Hiung-nu.  They  con- 
quered and  absorbed  their  neighbours,  but 
the  Yang-tse  was  their  southern  border  for 
centuries.  The  Chinese  character  is  complex, 
and  cannot  be  summed  up  in  a  few  words. 

He  is  honourable,  especially  in  commerce, 
and  has  the  reputation  of  being  a  liar  only 
because  he  lies  in  a  way  novel  to  the  Westerner  ; 
he  is  not  more  dishonest  than  most  people, 
and  is  accounted  dirty  because  his  ideas  of 
cleanliness  differ  from  ours.  When  he  is 
well  treated  he  is  faithful  and  grateful ;  he 
is  polite  according  to  a  traditional  code  ;  he 
is  temperate.  But  he  is  undoubtedly  cruel ; 
he  is  unkind  to  children,  and,  judged  by 
European  standards,  he  cannot  be  termed 

Chinook.  Pacific  Coast  tribe  north  of  the 
Columbia  river,  now  nearly  extinct.  Their 
language  formed  the  basis  of  the  Chinook 
jargon,  an  Indian  trade  language  used  before 
the  discovery  of  America.  They  flattened 
their  heads  by  pressure  of  a  board  on  a  child's 
head  in  its  cradle. 

Chippewa  or  Chippeway.  Another 
form  of  Ojibwa  or  Ojibway,  an  Algonquin 
tribe,  not  to  be  confused  with  the  Chippe- 
wyan,  an  Athapascan  tribe. 

Chippewyan.  Athapascan  tribe  of 
Canada, not  to  be  confused  with  theChippewa. 

Chiquito.  Bolivian  tribe  or  group  of 
tribes,  belonging  to  the  Tupi  linguistic  family. 
They  were  originally  supposed  to  be  dwarfs, 
because  their  huts  had  low  doorways  and 
they  left  them  untenanted  when  the  country 
was  first  invaded.  They  are  peaceful  and 
industrious,  manufacturing  sugar  in  copper 
boilers  of  their  own  making.  Their  language 
is  said  to  have  no  numerals  beyond  one. 
They  are  of  olive  complexion  with  an  average 
height  of  5  ft.  6  in.  ;  their  heads  are  round, 
but  the  cheek-bones  do  not  project,  and  the 
eyes  are  horizontal.  They  are  good  natured, 
sociable,  hospitable,  and  lazy. 

Chiriguano,  Bolivian  tribe,  perhaps  the 
same  as  Camba,  also  found  in  the  east  of  the 
Gran  Chaco,  speaking  a  language  of  the 
Guarani  group.  They  are  of  yellowish-red 
complexion,  of  rather  small  stature,  with 
round  heads  and  small  nostrils. 

Chitrali,  Round-headed  people  on  the 
south  of  the  Hindu  Kush.  They  are,  perhaps, 
descendants  of  an  Alpine  people  who  occupied 
the  western  plateaux  in  Neolithic  and  early 
Bronze  times. 

Choctaw.  Important  Muskogian  tribe 
formerly  on  the  Mississippi.  The  name  by 
which  "they  are  known  may  be  from  the 
Spanish  "  chato,"  flat,  from  their  custom  of 
flattening  their  heads.  They  were  noted  for 
agriculture  and  waged  war  in  the  main  only 
for  purposes  of  defence.  It  was  their  Custom 
to  clean  the  bones  of  the  dead  (old  men 
removing  the  flesh  with  their  finger-nails) 
and  deposit  them  in  boxes  or  baskets  in  their 
"  bone-houses." 

Cholo,  Chola.  Local  name  of  half-breed 
Indians  of  Bolivia. 

Cholones.  South  American  tribe  on  the 
left  bank  of  the  Hualaga. 

Chontal.  Indian  tribe  of  Nicaragua  and 
Mexico,  often  called  Popoluca,  a  Nahuatl 
word  meaning  "  stranger." 

Chorotegas.  Indian  tribes  of  Nicaragua 
and  Mexico,  who  formerly  spoke  Mangue,  a 
language  allied  to  Chiapanec. 

Chukchi.  Palaeo-Siberian  tribe  occupying 
the    extreme    north-east    of    Siberia.     There 


Dictionary  of  Races 

are  two  main  groups.  One  possesses 
numerous  herds  of  reindeer  that  pasture  on 
the  tundra  but  are  neither  milked  nor  used 
for  transport,  being  bred  for  food  and  trade 
The  other  group  is  dependent  on  fishing. 
As  the  pasturage  is  poor,  herders  of  reindeer 
lead  a  very  nomadic  life  ;  in  summer  the 
reindeer  go  up  into  the  hills.  The  Chukchi 
are  said  to  have  warred  with  the  aboriginal 
tribe  known  as  Onkilon  and  gradually  mingled 
with  the  survivors.  It  is  the  custom  among 
them  for  old  people  to  be  killed  with  much 

Chuvash.  Finnic  people  of  the  Kazan 
area.  Of  short  stature,  they  have  undergone 
Tartar  influence.  In  character  they  are  hard- 
working and  economical  even  to  parsimony, 
excellent  at  agriculture  compared  with  the 
Cheremiss,  but  naturally  timid  and  indisposed 
either  to  commerce  or  manual  labour. 

Circassians   or   Cherkcss.        Name    of 
uncertain  origin  and   meaning,   applied   to  a 
Caucasus  people  who  call  themselves  Adighe. 
They   seem   to   be  of   mixed   origin,    as   their 
heads    are    of    medium    length    with     some 
twenty  per  cent,  long  headed  and  about  the 
same  of  round-headed  folk.      They  are  a  tall, 
slender    people,    but    well    built    with    broad 
shoulders,  and  are  noted  as  horsemen.     The 
women  are  famous  beauties  with  black  eyes  ; 
after  marriage  they  are  kept  closely  confined! 
The  Circassian  has  been  described  as  warlike 
fearless     and    hospitable,    but    thievish    and 
treacherous  ;    they  are  disinclined  to  labour. 
A  stranger  who  comes  to  a  place  selects  a  host, 
who   may  be   known  to   him  only  by   name' 
but  is  thenceforth  responsible  for  his  safety! 
Coast   Tribes,     Indians    of    the    North 
Pacific   coast.     They   are    dependent   en    the 
sea   for   food  ;     make   large   dug-out   canoes  ; 
have  totem  poles  ;    cook  with  hot  stones  in 
boxes  and  baskets  ;    use  armour  and  wooden 
helmets   but   no   shields.     They  live  in  large 
square  houses  of  wood,  which  is  also  worked 
for   many    other   purposes  ;     they    believe    in 
guardian  spirits.     The  "  potlatch  "  is  a  com- 
plicated system  of  gifts  on  a  loan  and  credit 
system,  which  have  to  be  returned  at  a  later 
date,  the  most  valuable  articles  being  blankets 
and  certain  copper  plates. 

Comanche.  Plains  tribe  speaking  a 
Shoshoman  tongue.  They  formerly  lived  in 
Wyoming ;  they  warred  for  centuries  with 
the  Spaniards  and  were  bitter  enemies  of  the 
Texans,  who  seized  their  hunting-grounds. 

Cossacks,  Disappearing  Russian  type, 
formerly  falling  into  two  groups,  the  Zaparog 
of  Little  Russia  and  the  Don  Cossacks.  War 
was  their  original  occupation,  but  to-day 
they  are  a  separate  people  only  in  the  Caucasus. 
Cree.  Indians  of  the  Mackenzie  group, 
speaking  an  Algonquian  tongue.  They  were 
honest  in  everything  but  trade,  hospitable, 
and  generous  ;  they  are  closely  related  to  the 
Ojibwa  or  Chippewa. 

Croats.  South  Slavonic  people  allied  to 
the  Serbs.  The  name  is  identical  with 
Khorvat,  the  form  of  the  name  used  in 
Hungary,  and  means  "  highlands,"  being  in 
fact  the  same  word  as  Carpathians. 

Crow.  American  Indian  tribe  of  the 
Plains  group.  They  speak  a  Siouan  language 
and  are  an  offshoot  of  the  Hidatsa. 

Cushite.  Group  of  East  African  tribes. 
I  hey  include  the  High  Cushite  (mountain 
dwellers)  or  Agao,  and  the  Low  Cushite 
including  the  Galla,  Somali  andAfar-Saho. 

Cuyono.  Philippine  tribe.  Of  yellow  skin 
but  somewhat  negroid  head  character  ;  they 
have  deep  brown  eyes,  prominent  cheek-bones 
and  straight  black  hair  with  a  tendency  to 
wave.  The  big  toe  is  widely  separated  from 
the  others  and  abnormally  large. 

Czechs.  The  inhabitants  of  the  north-west 
part  of  Czechoslovaki  a,  known  as  Bohemia  be- 
fore the  Great  War.  In  prehistoric  times  there 
were    considerable    changes    of  type   in  this 
area  ;    at  the  end  of  the  Old  Stone  Age  the 
population  was  influenced  by  a  round-headed 
element  coming  probably  from  the  east;   in 
the  Neolithic  period,  however,  this  influence 
cannot   be   traced  ;    there  are  practically  no  - 
short   skulls,  so  far   as  has  been  discovered. 
When  metals  were  introduced  the  population 
remained    long  headed,    but    the    proportion 
of    skulls    high    in  proportion  to  the  length 
was  greater  than  before,  that  is  to  say  there 
was    a    Mediterranean    element.       With   the 
coming  of  iron  the  short-headed  Alpine  type 
was  largely  increased.     They  were  the  repre- 
sentatives of  the  Slavs  of  to-day,  it  may  be  ; 
but  there  was  another  swing  of  the  pendulum 
and   fifteen   hundred   years  or  more  ago  the 
long-headed     peoples    got    the    upper    hand 
again  and  in  their  graves  the  objects  are  of 
undoubted     Slavic    origin  ;     but    singularly 
enough  there  is  a  distinct  difference  of  type 
between   males   and  females,  and  the  latter 
have   shorter    heads.       At    the    present    day  i 
the    Czechs    are   of    the    Alpine   type,    short 
headed    and    dark,    above   medium    stature, 
though    not    so    tall    as    the    people    of    the  . 
plains    of   Germany    to   the    north   of  them 
For    earlier    periods    the    facts    are    of    un- 
certain interpretation. 

Dafla.  Himalayan  tribe,  also  called 
Banghin,  who  subsist  by  hunting. 

Dakota  or  Sioux.  "Plains  tribe  which 
lived  south-west  of  Lake  Superior.  They 
now  number  about  30,000  and  represented 
the  best  type  of  Indian. 

Danakil  or  Afar.  Hamitic  tribe  of  the 
and  coastlands  between  Abyssinia  and  the 
sea.  Physically  they  resemble  the  Somali 
but  are  less  Arabised. 

Danes.  Inhabitants  of  Denmark,  whose 
language  may  be  regarded  as  the  same  as 
Norwegian.  There  is  every  reason  to  suppose 
that  Denmark  was  not  inhabited  till  Neolithic 
times.  It  seems  likely  that  the  early  short 
heads  are  the  same  people  as  we  find  in'France 
and  Britain,  who  must  have  passed  along 
the  North  Sea  coasts  ;  in  the  Iron  Age  these 
folk  had  almost  disappeared  and  the  long 
heads,  i.e.  Nordics  of  the  German  plain, 
were  in  force.  At  a  later  period  great 
changes  occurred  which  have  left  little  trace 
in  history.  We  read  of  the  Cimbri  leaving 
Denmark  as  a  result  of  inundations,  and 
being  finally  wiped  out  in  north  Italy  by 
the  Romans  after  a  sanguinary  career  ;  we 
know  that  later  the  Jutes  came  to  the  shores 
of  England  and  formed  an  element  in  the 
present  population,  while  other  Baltic  peoples 
streamed  in  other  directions  over  Europe  ; 
but  we  do  not  know  what  happened  in  their 


Dictionary  of  Races 

fatherland.  One-third  of  the  children  of 
to-day  seem  to  have  light  eyes  and  hair, 
and  it  seems  that  tallness  goes  with  fair 
coloration,  but  in  parts  of  the  country 
there  is  a  round-headed,  fair  type,  not  very 
tall,  side  by  side  with  a  taller,  dark  type. 

Dard.  People  of  north-west  India.  Their 
language,  also  called  Pisacha,  is  ranked  as  a 
branch  of  the  Indo-European  languages. 

Dard  Group.  Languages  spoken  in  Kash- 
mir and  the  country  to  the  north  and  east. 

Daurians.  Tungus  tribe  of  the  east  and 
outer  Mongolia,  at  the  present  day  inhabiting 
the  valley  of  the  Nonui. 

Delaware  or  Lenape,  Formerly  the 
most  important  Algonquian  confederacy, 
originally  in  the  basin  of  the  Delaware  river, 
U.S.A.  Other  tribes  accorded  them  the  title 
of  "  grandfather,"  in  recognition  of  their 

Dene  or  Tinneh.  North  American  Indian 
tribe  of  the  Mackenzie  group,  speaking  an 
Athapascan  language.  They  are  dependent 
for  food  on  the  caribou  and  use  snares  and 
nets  made  of  bark  fibre  ;  their  baskets  of 
spruce  root  are  food  vessels  used  in  cooking 
with  hot  stones.  They  strike  fire  with  iron 
pyrites.  The  house  characteristic  of  this 
area  is  the  lean-to. 

Dialect.  See  Language  (p.  5327). 
Dinka,  Arabic  form  of  the  name  of  a 
collection  of  independent  tribes  stretching 
from  about  five  degrees  south  of  Khartum  to 
less  than  two  degrees  north  of  Gondokoro 
and  extending  many  miles  to  the  west  in 
Bahr-el-Ghazal.  They  call  themselves  Jieng 
or  Jenge  ;  they  are  independent  of  each  other 
and  have  never  recognized  a  supreme  chief. 
They  are  tall  and  very  long  headed,  but  differ 
considerably  from  each  other  in  physique,  due 
in  part  perhaps  to  differences  in  food.  The 
cattle-owning  Dinka  are  far  better  off  than 
the  poorer  tribes  who  have  no  cattle  and 
hardly  cultivate  the  ground,  but  depend 
largely  upon  fishing  and  hippopotamus 
hunting.  The  last-named  tribes  live  in  the 
marshes  near  the  Sudd,  and  their  villages, 
dirty  and  evil-smelling,  rise  little  above  the 
level  of  the  reed-covered  surface  of  the 
country.  The  cattle-owning  Dinka  call  them 
all  Tain.  Other  tribes  are  Agar,  Bor,  Shish 
and  Aliab.  The  Dinka  who  own  cattle  look 
down  on  the  Shilluk. 

Diola.  Sudanic-speaking  people  near  the 
mouth  of  the  Gambia.  They  speak  a  Semi- 
Bantu   language. 

Dravidian  Languages.  Principal  lan- 
guages of  South  India,  with  Brahui,  spoken 
in  Baluchistan,  Malto  in  Bengal,  etc.  Three 
groups  are  distinguished  :  Dravida  with 
Kanarese,  Kota,  Toda,  Tulu,  Tamil,  and 
Malayalam  ;  Andhra  with  Telugu,  and  inter- 
mediate with  Kurukh,  Malto,  Gondi,  etc. 

Dravidian.  General  term  for  the  short 
dark  peoples  of  South  India.  Physically  they 
are  indistinguishable  from  the  inhabitants  of 
northern  India  in  many  cases.  Two  varieties 
have  been  distinguished,  one  with  a  broad  nose, 
the  other  with  a  narrow  nose.  On  the  whole 
the  term  seems  to  be  used  on  a  linguistic  base. 
Druses.  People  of  Lebanon  and  Anti- 
Lebanon,  They  are  of  very  mixed  origin, 
spep.k  Arable,  «C»d  am  officially  M^homedaas, 

though  their  creed  contains  many  hetero- 
geneous elements.  They  are  of  the  non- 
Semitic   type   termed   Armenoid. 

Dualla.  Important  people  of  Cameroon 
who  speak  a  Bantu  language. 

Durani  Afghan,  Agricultural  population 
of  west  and  south  Afghanistan. 

Dusun.  Borneo  tribe.  They  are  probably 
of  mixed  origin,  but  tending  towards  the  long- 
headed Indonesian  type.  They  are  cultiva- 
tors of  the  soil,  an  amiable  people  but  given 
to  head-hunting. 

Dutch.     See  Netherlands. 

Dzungars,  Dzungans  or  Dungans. 
Western  Mongol  or  Turko-Tartar  people  of  the 
Hi  valley.  They  are  Mahomedans,  but 
follow  a  Chinese  mode  of  life. 

Edo  or  Bini.  People  of  Benin  and  the 
surrounding  country,  formerly  celebrated  as 
the  seat  of  a  powerful  kingdom,  which  in  the 
seventeenth  century  extended  its  power  as 
far  as  the  Gold  Coast.  Benin  was  notorious 
for  its  human  sacrifices ;  the  king  was 
surrounded  by  an  elaborate  hierarchy  of 
functionaries,  and  traced  his  descent  to 
a  Yoruba  who  founded  the  royal  line 
about  seven  hundred  and  twenty  years 
ago,  taking  the  place  of  a  native  line  of  kings 
whose  successors  still  remain  in  Benin  and 
enjoy  certain  privileges.  The  Edo  speak  a 
language  of  the  Lower  Niger  group  allied  to 
Ewe,  the  language  of  Togoland,  and  to 
Kukuruku.  In  character  they  are  a  brave 
and  proud  people,  and  their  chiefs  regarded 
themselves  as  better  than  Europeans  ;  they 
are,  however,  less  open  and  more  grasping 
than  some  of  their  neighbours.  Their  houses 
have  no  real  roof,  each  room  having  an  open 
space  in  the  middle,  so  that  in  bad  weather 
there  is  no  refuge  from  the  rain. 

Egyptians,  Inhabitants  of  Egypt.  From 
the  earliest  period,  seven  thousand  years  ago, 
the  population  has  been  mixed,  Hamitic  ele- 
ments being  mingled  with  two  broad-nosed 
types.  Two  thousand  yearslater  the  long-headed 
Mediterranean  type  began  to  take  the  place 
of  what  is  regarded  as  the  Hamitic  type,  and 
they  became  supreme  in  the  eighteen  centuries 
before  the  Roman  empire  ;  at  the  same  time 
the  round-headed  Alpines  assumed  a  position 
of  importance.  The  population  is  still  pre- 
dominantly long  headed,  but  there  are 
differences  according  to  provinces ;  above 
Assiut  the  Mahomedans  are  mostly  long 
headed  and  broad  nosed,  and  below  it,  in 
the  Delta,  the  Alpine  and  Mediterranean 
types   found   in    Europe   predominate. 

Ekoi.  Bantu-speaking  people  of  Nigeria, 
beyond  the  Cross  river. 

Eskimo  or  Innuit.  Inhabitants  of  the 
extreme  north  of  America.  They  are  of 
medium  stature  with  high  and  comparatively 
long  heads  and  eyes  of  Mongoloid  character. 
They  are  peaceful,  cheerful  and  honest.  In 
winter  they  live  in  earth  or  snow  huts  ;  the 
kayak  is  the  man's  boat,  and  is  covered  with 
skin  except  where  the  occupant  sits ;  the 
umiak  is  a  woman's  open  skin  boat.  In 
language,  culture  and  physique  the  Eskimo 
differ  from  all  other  aborigines  of  America, 
but  it  seems  likely  that  they  are  of  Asiatic 
Origin  i  it  is  probable  that  they  formerly 
extended  *"  <°*v  stmth  as  Ksv#  England. 


Dictionary  of  Races 

English.  Name  originally  applied  to  the 
Anglo-Saxon  invaders  of  Britain,  then  to  the 
compound    of   Anglo-Saxon    and    Dane,    and 
finally,    not  long  after  the  Norman  conquest, 
to  the  people  formed  of  the  Norman  and  pre- 
Norman    population.     Many    different    types 
are  represented,  some  of  which,  as  in  Tyncdale 
or    Cornwall,     attain    great    prominence    in 
certain  areas.     For  pre-Roman  times  there  is 
little     certainty,     but    at    present    there    is 
nothing   to   show  that   any   elements   of  the 
population  can  be  referred  to  races  resident 
in  the  British  Isles  before   12000  B.C.       The 
foundation  of  the  English  people  seems  to  be 
the  agricultural  and  pastoral  race  with  long 
high     skulls,     known     as     river-bed     people. 
The  Long  Barrow  people  were  of  much  the 
same  type  and  may  or  may  not  have  been 
immigrants     from     north-west     Europe.     A 
broad-headed     people,     perhaps     from     east 
Europe,    succeeded   them,   tall   and   strongly- 
built,  found  more  especially  in  south  Britain, 
whereas,    e.g.    near    Aberdeen,    the    type    is 
squat    and   bullet   headed. 

In  the  Bronze  Age  came  a  dark,  broad- 
headed  people,  seen  especially  in  Cornwall 
and  Wales,  which  reached  the  islands  in  quest 
of  gold.  Then  came  a  long-headed  people  who 
introduced  bronze  axes — they  were  perhaps 
leaders  of  a  round-headed  peasantry — and 
are  on  the  whole  confined  to  east  England. 
They  perhaps  brought  with  them  the  Gaelic 
language,  and  represent  the  origin  of  the 
original  tall,  fair,  rather  long-headed  aristoc- 
racy. They  seem  to  have  come  from  the 
Hungarian  plain.  The  long-headed,  fair 
people  may  have  brought  the  speech  of  Wales 
and  Cornwall  when  they  introduced  iron ; 
they  were  followed  a  few  hundred  years  later 
by  the  Belgae,  who  came  two  centuries  before 
Caesar  from  north-east  Gaul ;  they  were  tall, 
fair,  and  rather  broad  headed. 

When  the  Roman  legionaries  came  they 
left  the  rural  parts  to  the  older  peoples  ; 
there  is  no  evidence  to  show  that  they  had 
much  influence  on  the  racial  type  ;  more 
important  may  have  been  the  exportation  of 
soldiers  and  slaves  to  Rome,  and  the  emigra- 
tion from  south-west  Britain  to  Brittany 
(Armorica).  From  Ireland  came  fair-haired 
people,  whose  descendants  are  still  to  be  seen 
in  mid-Cardigan.  After  the  leaving  of  the 
Romans,  Germanic  peoples  descended  on  the 
shores  of  Britain.  Jutes,  Angles,  and  Saxons 
on  the  east  coast  ;  Norsemen  on  the  Hebrides 
and  down  the  Irish  Sea ;  then  came  the 
Danes.  All  these  invaders  were  probably 
long  headed  and  fair. 

The  last  invasion  to  introduce  a  fresh  strain 
was  that  of  the  Normans,  but  craftsmen  like 
the  Flemings  were  introduced — near  Norwich 
and  in  Pembrokeshire — by  Anglo-Norman 
kings,  while  in  medieval  times  trade  brought 
to  Kent  many  a  broad-headed  Frenchman  ; 
Germans  from  the  Hanse  towns  settled  in 
London  ;  Jews  came  from  many  parts,  Hugue- 
nots driven  out  by  persecution  added  to  the 
mixture  of  peoples  ;  and  in  later  times  have 
come  both  Germans  and  east  Europeans  to 
fuse  with  natives  in  two  or  three  generations. 
A  hundred  years  ago  provincial  peculiarities 
were  more  marked,  for  men  wandered  little, 
save  in  centres  of  trade.  To-day  the  Norsemen, 

Celts,  and  earlier  types  of  the  north  and  west 
are  rapidly  blending  with  the  more  cosmo- 
politan and  Anglo-Saxon  types  of  the  south- 
east. The  so-called  "  Anglo-Saxon  race  "  is 
not  defined  by  differences  of  breed  or  origin, 
but  in  the  main  by  differences  of  culture 
(language,  political  institutions,  educational 
ideals,  etc.).  Even  where  racial  types  persist 
in  Britain,  they  indicate,  not  the  existence 
of  separate  breeds,  held  asunder  since  a  far- 
distant  past,  but  the  handing  on,  from 
generation  to  generation,  of  groups  of  associ- 
ated characters  which  persist  in  spite  of 
intermarriage  with  people  of  other  inheritance. 
Esths  or  Esthonians.  Finno-Ugrian 
people  of  the  Baltic.  They  are  now  assimi- 
lated in  type  to  European  peoples. 

Ethiopians  in  the  Main.  Name  given  to 
the  eastern  Hamites,  of  whom  the  Galla  are 
typical  representatives.  They  are  rather  tall, 
with  long  heads  and  a  prominent  straight, 
narrow  nose.  The  hair  type  is  frizzly,  interme- 
diate between  the  woolly  hair  of  the  negro  and 
the  curly  hair  of  the  Arab.  They  are  of  slender 
build,  with   long,    well-developed   limbs. 

Euscara.  Indigenous  name  of  the  Basques. 
They  are  divided  into  Guipuscoan,  Labourdin, 
Souletin,    and  other  groups. 

Ewe.  Tribe  of  southern  Togoland.  They 
speak  a  language  closely  akin  to  that  of 
Benin  City,  and  were  suzerains  of  the  coast 
area  in  the  seventeenth  century.  There  is  a 
short-headed  type  intermingled  with  the 
normal  long-headed  negroid  which  probably 
indicates  an  earlier  pygmy  population  ;  cases 
of  apparently  normal  persons  have  also  been 
observed  whose  height  did  not  exceed  that 
of  a  pygmy.  They  believe  that  each  man  has 
an  aklama  or  genius  ;  in  this  word  there  is 
reproduced  the  Egyptian  ka,  which  was 
probably  carried  to  West  Africa  by  wandering 
traders  in  the  search  for  gold. 

Falasha.  Division  of  the  Hamitic  peoples 
of  Abyssinia,  termed  collectively  Agao. 
They  claim  to  be  descended  from  Jews  who 
came  from  Judea  with  the  Queen  of  Sheba, 
and  practise  Jewish  rites  ;  but  there  is  no 
reason  for  regarding  them  as  Jews  by  descent. 
They  have  broad  faces,  with  high  cheek- 
bones, straight  hair,  and  yellowish  com- 

Fang,  Pangwe,  Pahouin.  Large  group 
of  Bantu-speaking  tribes  in  the  area  between 
the  Ogowe  and  the  Sanaga.  The  main  mass  of 
the  people  belongs  to  an  older  stock,  upon 
whom  another  people  descended  from  the 
north-east,  and  two  types  are  distinguishable, 
one  with  a  broader  skull,  short  face,  flat  nose, 
and  thick  lips  ;  the  others  with  a  narrower, 
higher  skull,  longer  face,  high  bridge  to  nose, 
European-like  jaw  and  lips.  The  first  type, 
of  dark  chocolate  brown  hue,  is  more 
numerous  ;  the  colour  of  the  other  type  is 
light,  almost  reddish. 

Fanti.  Negro  tribe  of  the  Gold  Coast, 
nearly  related  to  the  Ashanti  or  Asanti  ; 
it  is  probable  that  both  have  come  down 
from  the  north.  The  Fanti  language  has  been 
swallowing  up  the  Guang  language,  spoken 
on  the  coast  less  than  a  century  ago.  On  the 
coast  they  are  expert  canoe  men,  and  employ 
themselves  in  fishing  ;  inland,  they  cultivate 
the  ground.     They  are  less  warlike  than  the 


Dictionary  of  Races 

Ashanti,  but  probably  the  most  intelligent 
of  all  negro  peoples  ;  "they  are  clever  traders 
and  often  well  educated. 

Fijians,  People  on  the  eastern  edge  of  the 
Melanesian  area.  Mainly  long  headed,  they 
have  undergone  considerable  admixture  with 
Polynesians.  They  were  originally  very  war- 
like, but  their  character  is  gentle,  and  even 
timid,  courteous,   and  anxious  to  please. 

Finnic  Tribes.  In  addition  to  the  Finns 
properly  so-called,  there  are  a  number  of 
allied  tribes  to  the  east  of  them.  The  northern 
group  comprises  the  Zyrian,  Permiak,  and 
Votyak,  who  range  as  far  north  as  Arch- 
angel ;  the  southern  group,  from  Kazan 
southwards  on  both  sides  of  the  Volga, 
comprise  the  Cheremiss,  Mordvin,  and 
Chuvash.  The  latter,  however,  speak  a  Turko- 
Tartar  tongue. 

Finns.  People  of  Finno-Ugrian  stock 
which  arrived  in  Europe  from  Central  Asia 
comparatively  late.  The  Finns  of  to-day  are 
allied  to  the  Esthonians,  Livonians  (now 
nearly  extinct),  and  Lapps,  though  the  Finns 
are  Europeanised  in  type.  They  are  divided 
into  two  sections  geographically,  the  Kare- 
lians  and  Tavastians. 

Finno-Ugrians.  Group  including  from 
the  genetic  standpoint  Finns,  Esthonians,  Liv- 
landers,  Magyars,  all  of  whom  have  ceased  to 
be  typical  in  respect  of  appearance  ;  Bul- 
garians, who  have  also  adopted  a  Slavonic 
tongue  ;  and  typical  Ugrians,  like  Cheremiss, 
Samoyed,  Votyak,  and  Lapp.  Generally 
speaking,  the  typical  Ugrian  has  a  yellowish- 
white  skin  and  straight  black  or  yellow  hair  ; 
he  is  not  tall,  and  may  (as  in  the  case  of  the 
Lapp)  only  just  exceed  5  ft.  in  height ;  his 
nose  is  straight  or  concave,  his  head  long  or 
medium,  but  there  are  exceptions. 

Five  Civilized  Tribes.  Term  for  the 
American  Indian  tribes  :  Cherokee,  Chicka- 
saw, Choctaw,  Creek,  and  Seminole.  They 
maintained  their  own  system  of  government 
in  Indian  Territory,  now  Oklahoma. 

Flemings.  Population  of  the  north  of 
Belgium.  The  people  of  the  plain  of  Flanders 
are  a  tall  people,  and  this  feature  is  more 
noticeable  the  farther  north  one  goes  ;  the 
head  is  between  long  and  short,  a  medium 
type,  but  becomes  longer  towards  the  north 
and  blondness  also  increases  in  the  same 
direction.  This  type  is  commonly  called 
Nordic,  and  corresponds  to  that  of  the  Franks 
who  were  in  southern  Belgium  in  the  sixth 
or  seventh  century. 

Flemish.  Teutonic  language  of  the  Low 
German  group.  More  than  one  dialect  is 
spoken  in  the  north  of  Belgium,  and  is  not 
very  different  from  Dutch.  The  speakers  of 
it  are  known  as  Flemings. 

Fon.     Ewe-speaking  people  of  Dahomey. 

French,  Inhabitants  of  medieval  and 
modern  France.  They  take  their  name  from 
the  invading  Franks  of  the  fifth  century.  In 
the  last  fifty  years  many  remains  of  human 
beings  of  a  very  early  type  have  been  found 
in  France,  especially  the  south,  where  they 
dwelt  in  the  cold  period  at  the  end  of  the 
Early  Palaeolithic  Age.  They  were  followed 
by  men  of  entirely  different  types,  some  of 
whom  may  have  come  from  Africa,  others 
across   Central   Europe,    perhaps   from   south 

Russia  ;  but  as  long  as  they  subsisted  by 
hunting  the  population  was  never  very 
numerous.  With  the  coming  of  agriculture 
in  the  more  temperate  climate  of  the  New 
Stone  Age  man  grew  in  numbers  and  more 
waves  of  invaders,  some  long  headed,  some 
round  headed,  drifted  into  Gaul,  as  the 
country  came  to  be  called  in  the  centuries 
before  the  Roman  conquest. 

Two  thousand  years  ago  the  inhabitants 
of  Gaul  were  almost  all  short  headed  ;  but 
then  long-headed  Nordic  peoples  began  to 
move  across  the  Rhine  ;  the  Cimbri  came, 
it  is  said,  from  the  north  of  Denmark,  and, 
after  ravaging  France,  penetrated  into  Italy, 
only  to  be  destroyed  by  the  Romans.  Roman 
rule  left  few  traces  on  the  type  of  the  natives, 
and,  as  it  weakened,  more  Germanic  tribes 
streamed  across  the  Rhine — Franks,  Goths, 
Burgundians,  etc. — and  put  an  end  to  Roman 
power.  The  Teutonic  element  thus  intro- 
duced ruled  the  land  for  a  time,  but  was 
then  swallowed  up  in  what  became  the 
French  nation,  just  as  were  the  Northmen 
of  a  later  date. 

The  Frenchman  of  to-day  is,  in  the  main, 
round  headed,  but  there  is  a  broad  band  of 
longer  headed  people  running  through  Paris, 
and,  as  among  the  upper  classes  in  England, 
the  higher  in  the  social  scale  a  family  stands, 
the  greater  its  tendency  to  long  headedness. 
It  has  sometimes  been  said  paradoxically 
that  France  is  more  Teutonic  than  Germany  ; 
taking  it  all  in  all,  though  the  Alpine 
peoples  of  central  Europe  are  dominant  in 
France,  they  are  so  to  a  less  extent  than  in 
Germany  and  Austria. 

With  such  mixed  blood  it  is  not  surprising 
that  the  French  character  varies  even  more 
than  the  plrysical  type.  The  Gascon  is 
proverbially  loquacious  and  boastful,  the 
Norman  cautious  and  slow  to  act,  the  Breton 
fanatically  religious  and  somewhat  remote 
from  the  population  of  the  rest  of  France. 
The  Burgundian  is  quick  and  enterprising  ; 
the  Basque,  if  he  has  a  special  character, 
pliant  and  versatile,  while  the  native  of 
Touraine  is  even-tempered  and  intelligent. 
The  inhabitant  of  the  south  differs  in  tem- 
perament from  the  men  of  the  colder  north. 

Fula.  Ordinary  form  of  the  name  of  a 
people  who  call  themselves  Fulbe  (sing.  Pulo) . 
They  are  also  called  Filani  (Hausa),  Peulhs 
(French),  Fellatah,  etc.  The  proper  name 
of  the  language  is  Fulfulde.  The  Fula  are 
found  over  a  wide  area  from  the  Gambia 
to  Darfur,  usually  in  the  form  of  scattered 
communities,  without  any  tribal  organization. 
They  fall  into  two  sections  :  cattle  Fula, 
wandering  herdsmen,  for  the  most  part  non- 
Mahomedan,  who  have  preserved  in  many 
places  a  purer  type  ;  and  house  Fula,  all 
Mahomedans,  who  have  intermarried  with 
negro  tribes.  The  pure  Fula  has  straight 
hair,  a  swarthy  white  or  light  bronze  skin, 
aquiline  profile  and  high  cheek-bones  and  thin 
lips  ;  he  is  unmistakably  non-negro,  and  it 
seems  probable  that  he  is  an  immigrant  from 
Asia  who  has  adopted  and  modified  a  negro 
language.  Historical  records  show  the  Fula 
as  migrating  from  west  to  east  ;  but  there 
is  little  doubt  that  they  originally  came  from 
the  eastern  part  of  Africa,  the  reflux  beginning 


Dictionary  of  Races 

when  they  reached  the  Atlantic  coast.  In 
recent  times  the  Fula  penetrated  Hausaland, 
Bornu,  and  Adamaua,  establishing  themselves 
as  a  ruling  class  ;  their  advance  was  checked 
by  the  Yoruba,  Sura,  Tangale,  etc.,  in  different 
areas.  The  Fula  language  has  sometimes 
been  attributed  to  the  Hamitic  family,  but  it 
forms  a  type  by  itself,  though  it  has  influ- 
enced some  neighbouring  negro  tongues.  A 
language  of  Fula  type  has  been  regarded  as 
one  of  the  elements  that  went  to  form  the 
Bantu  family,  but  little  evidence  has  been 
produced  to  support  the  theory. 

Funj.  Nilotic  people  of  Sennar,  in  the 
Sudan.  They  are  somewhat  lighter  than  the 
Shilluk,  who  have  thin  legs  and  a  somewhat 
shorter  head  than  other  Nilotes.  They  are 
mainly  agricultural,  but  own  some  cattle. 
They  founded  a  kingdom  about  five  hundred 
years  ago  which  disappeared  in  1786. 
Their  name  is  a  Shilluk  word  which  probably 
means  "  stranger." 

Ga  or  Accra.  Small  negro  tribe  of  the 
Gold  Coast.  They  speak  a  language  distinct 
from  the  neighbouring  Fanti  and  Ewe. 

Galego.  Language  of  Galicia  in  the  north- 
west of  Spain.  It  is  more  nearly  allied  to 
Portuguese  than  to  Spanish. 

Galla.  Hamitic  tribe  of  Abyssinia  and 
north-east  Africa,  also  known  as  Oromo. 
In  pre-Mahomedan  times  they  seem  to  have 
occupied  the  southern  shore  of  the  Gulf  of 
Aden,  and  were  pushed  by  the  Somali  into 
the  Abyssinian  highlands.  They  seem  to 
represent  the  purest  Ethiopian  type.  Of 
Galla  descent  are,  perhaps,  the  pastoral 
Ba-Hima  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Victoria 
Nyanza,  who  dominated  the  Bantu  tribes 
of  that  area. 

Garo  or  Garrow.  People  on  the  west 
of  the  Khasi,  in  Assam.  They  are  Mongo- 
loid, and  speak  a  Tibeto-Burman  language 
of  the  Bodo  type.  A  short,  wiry  people 
of  pleasing  character,  they  are  honest 
and  fairly  truthful,  but  not  notable  for 
cleanliness.  They  are  not  very  industrious, 
but  they  live  in  a  fertile  land  where  hard 
work  is  not  necessary.  They  squander  their 
grain  resources  in  brewing  rice  beer,  but 
are  generally  quiet  and  law-abiding. 

Georgians.  European  name  of  a  people 
that  call  themselves  Karthli,  and  live- chiefly 
to  the  south  of  the  Caucasus.  They  have 
been  grouped  into  five  sections  :  Lazes, 
Mingrelians,  Imeretians,  Gurians,  and  Gru- 
sinians,  or  Georgians  proper.  With  the 
Chewsures,  Tush,  Pschaw,  Swanetes,  etc., 
they  are  branches  of  the  Karthaline  people, 
which  broke  up  in  the  fourteenth  century. 
Generally  speaking,  they  have  black  eyes  and 
hair,  long,  aquiline  noses  and  rounded  faces. 
They  are  an  open-hearted,  cheerful,  and 
sociable  people,  hospitable,  sincere,  and  of  a 
martial  nature,  but  unpractical  and  indis- 
posed to  regular  work.  They  are  not  intellec- 
tual, though  some  of  their  poets  were  notable. 
Germans.  (1)  Inhabitants  of  Germany, 
(2)  the  German-speaking  peoples  of  Germany 
and  Austria.  In  the  Old  Stone  Age  we 
find  in  Germany,  first,  the  extinct  Neanderthal 
type,  and  at  a  later  period  more  than  one 
kind  of  both  long  and  round  headed  peoples. 
But  when  we  come  to  the  more  immediate 


ancestors    of    the    population    of    the    early 
historic  period,   we  find,   in  the  New  Stone 
Age,   the  long  skull  was   everywhere  in  the 
majority   and    no    well    marked    short   types, 
which    were,     however,     very    prominent    in 
France    and    the    Netherlands.     These    long 
heads  were  not,  however,  of  the  Nordic  type, 
but    rather   negroid,    with   broad    noses,    and 
we  must  not  look  to  them  as  the  important 
element  in  the  later  long  heads  whose  migra- 
tions at  the  decline  of  the  power  of  Rome  had 
so  much  influence  on  the  history  of  Europe. 
With   the    knowledge    of    metals    the    type 
changed,  the  Mediterranean  long  head  coming 
to  the  fore  in  the  south-east,  the  Alpine  type 
in   the   south-west.     Nothing   of    note    seems 
to  have  occurred  in  the  Early  Iron  Age  but 
in   the   La   Tene,    or   Later   Iron   Age,    south 
Germany  became  almost  purely  Alpine.     Two 
long-headed  types,  one  coming  from  the  south, 
the  other  from  the  east,   seem  to  have  com- 
bined  at  this  period  to  produce   the   Nordic 
type,  tall,  blond,  and  long  headed,  which  is 
for    Teutonic    writers    the    typical    Germanic 
people.     When  the  historic  period  began,  the 
long    heads     (Germanic     and    Slav)     started 
southwards    and   south-westwards  ;     and   the 
end  of  these  migrations  did  not  come  till  the 
ninth  century.     The  so-called  "  Row  Graves  " 
(Reihengraber)    of   this   period   are   regarded 
as    the    remains    of    these    wandering    tribes, 
which  changed  the  prevailing  type  of  south 
Germany  from  the  Alpine  to  the  long-headed 
Nordic,    and   still   persisted   for   another   five 
hundred  years,  though  the  women  remained 
preponderantly  Alpine  in  type.      It  does  not 
follow  that  all  the  people  of  Germany  were 
Teutonic  ;     for    a    Slav    (Wend)     element    is 
found  as  far  as  Mecklenburg  ;    indeed,  some 
of  the  river  names  of  Holstcin  are  Slavonic. 
The  four  hundred  years  that  followed  the 
twelfth  century  saw  an  enormous  change  in 
the  type  of  south  Germany  ;    the  long  head 
was  reduced  to   about  one  per  cent,   of  the 
population,  and   more   than   eighty  per  cent, 
were    pure    short    heads.     The    same    change 
has  taken  place  in  much  of  north  Germany, 
and  the  modern  Prussian  differs  little  from 
the  Bavarian.     The  great  mass  of  the  popu- 
lation  of   Germany   is   not   physically  distin- 
guishable from  the  people  of  Switzerland,  or 
even  of  northern  France  ;    even  in  Westphalia 
the  average  index  of  head  breadth  to  length  is 
80,  which  is  the  lower  limit  of  short  headed- 
ness.      On  the  other  hand,  the  fair  types  are 
in  a  majority,   though  there  is  a  large  dark 
element  in  the  south. 

Only  in  the  north,  more  especially  in  the 
north-west,  does  the  traditional  German  type 
survive.  The  tall,  blond  Teuton  has  been 
almost  everywhere  submerged  by  the  Alpine 
types  of  the  mountains  of  central  Europe 
and  the  plains  of  Eastern  Europe  ;  no  one 
has  yet  given  an  explanation  in  detail  of  how 
the  change  came  about. 

Germanic  or  Teutonic  Languages.  One 
of  the  chief  groups  of  Aryan  languages  of 
West  Europe.  There  are  three  main  divi- 
sions :  High  German  (Old,  Middle,  New)  ; 
Low  German,  with  the  extinct  Gothic,  Saxon, 
Dutch,  and  Frisian,  together  with  English  ; 
and  Scandinavian  with  Swedish,  Norwegian, 
and  Danish,  and  Icelandic, 

Dictionary  of  Races 

Ghilza  or  Hhilji,  Tribe  of  the  east  of 
Afghanistan,  probably  of  Turki  stock. 

Uilyaks.  Tribe  of  unknown  racial  affini- 
ties of  the  north  of  Sakhalien.  They  are  below 
middle  height,  squarely  built,  broad  headed 
dark,  and  short  legged.  Their  chief  occu- 
pation is  fishing. 

Gola.  Tribe  on  the  borders  of  Sierra 
Leone  and  Liberia,  as  to  which  very  little 
is  known.  They  speak  a  language  that 
appears  to  belong  to  the  semi-Bantu  group,  but 
does  not  seem  to  be  of  the  same  type  as  the 
languages  of  the  Coast  group  in  its  immediate 

Greeks.  Inhabitants  of  modern  Greece, 
who  speak  a  language  of  the  Hellenic  branch 
of  Aryan.  For  lack  of  data  the  ancient 
history  of  Greece  is  shrouded  in  almost  com- 
plete mystery.  At  the  beginning  of  the 
historic  period  came  the  Dorian  invasion, 
perhaps  of  an  Alpine  type,  which  probably 
exists  in  our  own  day  in  a  very  pure  form  in 
the  middle  of  the  three  peninsulas  of  the 
Peloponnesus.  It  seems  clear  that  the 
historical  peoples  of  Greece,  Achaeans, 
Argives,  Dorians,  Ionians,  etc.,  arrived  as 
independent,  often  hostile  bands,  and  we  are 
not  entitled  to  assume  from  the  fact  that 
they  all  spoke  Greek  in  the  historic  period 
that  they  were  of  one  common  stock.  It 
seems  probable  that  at  the  highest  develop- 
ment of  Greek  civilization  the  upper  classes 
were  long  headed,  the  peasants  round  headed. 
Of  the  modern  population  not  much  more 
can  be  said  than  that  they  are  predominantly 
round  headed  and  dark,  with  smooth,  oval 
faces,  rather  narrow  and  high.  On  the  whole 
the  western  area  seems  to  be  of  a  purer  type 
than  the  eastern. 

Grusinianscr  Groussians.  Chief  people 
of  the  Georgian  group  residing  on  the  east  of 
the  Suram  Mountains,  Caucasus. 

Guanaco  Area.  District  stretching  from 
Cape  Horn  to  Bolivia.  It  is  inhabited  by 
tribes  in  the  main  non-agricultural  and 
nomadic.  Like  the  Plains  tribes  of  North 
America,  they  took  to  the  horse  and  quickly 
adapted  their  life  to  it,  becoming  hunters  of 
wild  cattle  instead  of  the  guanaco,  a  wild 
form  of  the  llama. 

Guarani.  People  of  Paraguay  and  South 
Brazil.  They  are  probably  of  much  the  same 
type  as  the  Guaycuru  and  speak  a  Tupi- 
Guarani  tongue. 

Guaycuru.  Paraguayan  tribe  of  mixed 
type  like  the  Guarani.  They  seem  to  be  in 
the  main  round  headed  with  high  skulls  and 
broad  noses,  but  there  is  also  a  long-headed, 
narrow-nosed  type. 

Gurians.  Georgian  people  of  the  Suram 
Mountains,  Caucasus. 

Gurkha.  Dominant  tribe  of  Nepal.  The 
name  is  used,  as  a  rule,  in  a  vague  sense  to 
include  such  tribes  as  Khas,  Gurung,  and 
Mangar,  from  which  British-Indian  regiments 
are  largely  recruited.  According  to  one 
authority  they  are  of  Tibetan  origin  ;  but 
their  adopted  language,  Pahan,  shows 
evidence  of  affinities  in  other  directions. 

Gypsies.  Nomadic  people  scattered 
throughout  the  world,  but  located  mainly  in  the 
Balkans,  where  they  appeared  probably  from 
north-west  India,  some  nine  hundred  years  ago, 

and  spread  over  the  rest  of  Europe  about  four 
hundred  years  later.  Norway  and  Sweden" 
alone  are  said  to  have  no  gypsies.  In  India  the 
Banjars  and  Nats  are  identified  with  them  ; 
in  Persia  and  Turkistan  the  Luli  and  Mazang  ; 
in  Syria  the  Chingane,  a  name  clearly  cognate 
with  the  European  Tzigane,  Zigeuner.  They 
seem  to  diverge  widely  in  physical  type  and 
approximate  to  the  characters  of  the  sur- 
rounding population.  The  gypsies  are 
probably  everywhere  more  or  less  of  the  same 
pursuits  and  mental  disposition  ;  they  mend 
pots,  deal  in  horses,  or  steal  them,  making 
an  honest  living  when  circumstances  debar 
them  from  an  easier  mode  of  life.  But  their 
existence  is  modified  by  their  environment. 
In  England  there  are  only  small  bands,  for 
there  is  seldom  suitable  camping  ground  for 
great  agglomerations  of  nomads  whose 
presence,  even  in  small  numbers,  is  not 
always  welcomed  by  the  sedentary  inhabi- 
tants. But  in  Russia,  before  the  Great  War, 
this  wandering  folk  would  be  found  moving 
about  the  country  in  battalions,  thousands 
going  to  form  a  single  group. 

Haida.  Coast  tribe  of  British  Columbia. 
They  are  great  carvers,  and  their  huts  and 
totem  posts  are  famous,  the  latter  sometimes 
fifty  feet  high.  The  dead  were  sometimes 
placed  in  boxes  on  carved  poles. 

Hakka.  Chinese  people  in  the  hills  of 
Kwantung.  They  emigrated  from  Honan  in 
the  fourth  and  ninth  centuries,  and  their 
language  stands  somewhat  apart. 

Hamites.  Non-negro  inhabitants  of  north 
and  east  Africa,  sometimes  called  Ethiopians. 
They  include  Galla,  Somali,  Masai  (eastern 
or  Kushitic),  Berbers,  Tuareg  (western  or 
Libyan),  and  the  extinct  Guanches  of  the 
Canary  Islands.  Some  authorities  add  the 
Hottentots,  who  are  perhaps  an  Hamitic 
cross,  and  the  Fula  or  Fulani.  There  is  a 
Hamitic  aristocracy  in  some  of  the  Bantu- 
speaking  tribes.  If  all  the  peoples  mentioned 
above  be  included,  no  definition  of  the 
Hamitic  type  can  be  given,  save  in  the  most 
general  terms,  for  the  hair  varies  from  frizzly 
(but  not  woolly)  to  kinky  (but  not  quite 
straight),  and  their  complexion  from  reddish- 
brown  to  swarthy  white.  The  languages  have 
not  been  shown  to  be  related.  The  Hamites 
differ  from  the  negro  in  their  thin  lips,  straight 
or  arched  nose,  and  suggestion  of  kinship  with 
European  races. 

Hanak.  Czechs  who  live  in  the  valleys  of 
Bohemia,  Moravia,  and  north  Hungary. 

Hare.  Athapascan  tribe  of  the  north-west 
of  Canada. 

Hausa,  A  numerous  people  of  the 
northern  provinces  of  Nigeria,  who  have 
spread,  as  traders,  far  beyond  their  tribal 
limits.  Their  language,  which  seems  to  have 
been  deeply  influenced  by  Hamitic  forms  of 
speech,  is  a  means  of  intercommunication 
over  a  wide  area.  They  are  moderately  tall 
and  usually  very  black,  but  some  observers 
declare  that  their  hair  is  less  woolly  and  their 
lips  not  so  thick  as  in  the  true  negro.  It 
seems  probable  that  there  has  been  a  con- 
siderable non-negro  element,  perhaps  long 
before  historic  Arab  movements,  which 
certainly  came  from  the  east.  The  Hausa  is 
an  excellent  farmer,  but  seldom  herds  cattle. 


Dictionary  of  Races 

as  that  is  the  occupation  of  the  Fula  or 
Fulani  ;  he  is  also  an  excellent  soldier,  while 
as  a  carrier  he  is  powerful  and  shows  great 
endurance.  Where  there  is  an  admixture 
of  Fula  blood,  he  is  less  disposed  to  labour, 
but  gains  in  enterprise  and  intelligence  ;  he 
also  shows  administrative  gifts  and  a  power 
of  command.  The  Hausa  language  has 
acquired  its  importance  because  it  is  not  only 
simple  in  grammar,  with  few  difficult  sounds, 
but  also  because  the  vocabulary  is  large,  and 
it  readily  admits  of  the  introduction  of  foreign 
terms  ;  to  the  European  it  presents  more 
resemblance  to  a  European  tongue  than  any 
other  negro  language. 

Hazara.  Turki  people  of  Afghanistan, 
who  claim  Mongol  descent,  though  they  now 
speak  Persian.  They  are  Mongol  Tartars 
who  have  lost  their  Mongol  speech,  but 
retain  their  characteristics ;  they  are  a 
simple-minded  people,  poor  and  hardy  and 
reputed  faithful  and  industrious. 

Hidatsa  or  Minitaree.  North  American 
tribe  of  the  Siouan  stock,  at  one  time  closely 
allied  to  the  Crows.  Their  great  ceremony 
was  the  Sun  Dance. 

Himyarite.  Inhabitants  of  southern 
Arabia.  Some  are  found  in  Abyssinia,  and 
it  is  probable  that  migrations  of  this  sort  have 
been  in  progress  since  prehistoric  times. 

Hindus.  Believers  in  Hinduism.  The  term 
is  also  used  as  a  general  name  for  the  people 
of  Bengal,  who  fall  into  seven  main  sections, 
beginning  with  Brahmans  and  Rajputs  and 
ending  with  unclean  castes  like  the  Dombs. 

Hoklo.  People  resident  on  the  south-east 
coast  of  China. 

Hopi  or  Moqui.  American  Indians  of  the 
south-west  group,  speaking  a  Shoshonian 
tongue.  Agriculture  is  their  principal  in- 
dustry ;  they  are  skilled  in  weaving,  dyeing, 
etc.,  devote  much  time  to  rain  ceremonies, 
and  their  villages,  known  as  pueblos,  consist 
of  stone  or  adobe  houses. 

Horak,  Czechs  who  live  in  the  uplands  of 
Bohemia,  Moravia,  and  north  Hungary. 

Hottentots.  South  African  people  with 
bodily  characteristics  resembling  those  of  the 
Bushmen,  but  taller.  Like  the  speech  of  the 
Bushmen,  their  language  contains  clicks,  and 
it  is  probable  that  their  presence  is  due  to  the 
fact  that  the  Hottentot  is  a  cross  between 
the  Bushman  and  some  other  type.  The 
Hottentot  are  often  called  NamaorKhoikhoin. 
Hova.  Highest  class  of  the  Madagascar 
tribe  whose  proper  name  is  Antimerina. 

Huichol.  Mexican  people  to  the  east  of 
the  Cora  or  Nayarit,  to  whom  they  are  allied. 
The  name  is  a  Spanish  corruption  of  Vishalika, 
the  healers,  which  is  their  own  name,  from 
the  fact  that  they  have  a  great  reputation  as 
doctors.  They  are  a  light  chocolate  brown 
in  colour,  quick  witted,  with  much  self 
esteem,  but  they  are  confirmed  liars,  and 
very  cunning,  wholly  without  personal  courage 
and  very  emotional. 

Hungarians  (see  also  Magyars).  The 
inhabitants  of  Hungary,  who  speak  a  Finno- 
Ugrian  tongue,  but  so  modified  in  physical 
type  as  to  be  quite  Europeanised.  We  have 
very  little  information  as  to  the  early  popu- 
lation of  the  Hungarian  plains,  and  it  is 
certain    that    the    essential    period    for    the 

understanding  of  the  present  conditions  is 
that  of  the  "  Volkerwanderungen  "  from  the 
third  century  onwards.  In  550  the  Hunagars 
advanced  from  the  Urals  to  the  Volga  and 
reached  the  Danube  some  two  hundred  years 
later  ;  with  the  aid  of  other  Turki  tribes  like 
the  Magyar  they  dominated  the  Slavs,  who, 
like  the  Goths  and  other  Teutonic  tribes,  had 
raided  and  partly  settled  in  the  south-east  of 
Europe,  while  the  Huns  and  Avars  had  simply 
swept  through,  leaving  no  permanent  traces, 
so  far  as  can  be  seen.  At  any  rate,  with  the 
foundation  of  the  kingdom  of  Hungary 
towards  the  end  of  the  ninth  century  the 
remains  of  these  Mongolo-Turki  peoples  who 
had  come  to  south-east  Europe  in  the  pre- 
ceding four  centuries  were  absorbed. 

At  this  time  the  Hunagars  were  horsemen, 
skilled  from  childhood  in  the  use  of  javelin 
and  bow  ;  the  period  of  lawless  raids,  which 
took  them  as  far  west  as  Burgundy  and 
Alsace,  came  to  an  end  with  the  conversion 
of  Stephen  to  Christianity.  When  the 
Hunagars  came  in  contact  with  the  Slavs  the 
latter  were,  in  the  main,  long  headed,  though 
to-day  they  are  of  the  Alpine  type,  as  were, 
in  all  probability,  the  Hunagars  themselves. 
At  the  present  day  the  Hungarian  seems  to  be 
like  the  Slav  of  the  same  short-headed  type  ; 
in  stature  he  is  tall  in  the  eastern  area  of  the 
Szeklers,  where  the  average  is  just  under 
5  ft.  9  in.  The  complexion  varies,  but 
is,  in  general,  dark  ;  but  blue  eyes  are  more 
common  than  one  would  expect  in  a  region 
so  far  to  the  south. 

Huron.  French  name  of  an  Iroquois 
tribe  allied  to  the  Algonquins  against  the 
Iroquois  in  early  times.  They  formerly  num- 
bered about  20,000,  but  are  now  almost 
extinct.  They  wrapped  the  dead  in  furs 
and  packed  them  in  bark  before  putting 
them  on  a  platform  ;  every  eight  or  ten  years 
the  remains  were  collected  and  buried  in  a 
common  grave. 

Iberian.  (1)  The  prehistoric  inhabitants  of 
south-west  Europe  ;  (2)  a  synonym  some- 
times used  for  Georgian. 

Ibibio.  Negro  tribe  of  south-east  Nigeria, 
of  the  same  stock  as  the  more  cultured  Efik 
of  Calabar.  They  represent  a  comparatively 
low  type.  The  language  appears  to  be  of  the 
Ibo  stock,  but  either  of  an  older  type  or  more 
influenced  by  foreign  elements. 

Ibo.  Negro  tribe  numbering  some  four 
million,  of  whom  a  small  proportion  are  on 
the  west  bank  of  the  Lower  Niger,  not  far 
above  the  delta,  and  the  remainder  on  the 
east  bank  as  far  as  the  Cross  river.  They 
are  strongly  built  and  were  formerly  exported 
as  slaves  in  large  numbers.  They  speak  a 
language  of  the  Lower  Niger  group,  which 
was  probably  imposed  on  them  by  a  con- 
quering people,  perhaps  the  Nri  of  Aguku, 
coming  from  the  north-east.  They  are  almost 
entirely  agricultural,  but  certain  towns  are 
composed  of  blacksmiths,  doctors,  etc.,  and 
the  father  hands  on  his  knowledge  to  his  son. 
They  make  use  of  an  extraordinary  kind  of 
face  scarring,  the  whole  of  the  features  being 
ridged  in  the  case  of  certain  men  with  parallel 
lines  running  obliquely.  They  are  an  open- 
hearted  people,  of  generous  disposition,  hard- 
working   and   naturally   peaceful.     In    many 

Dictionary  of  J^aces 

parts   they   have   no   tribal   chiefs   and   each 
quarter  of  a  town  is  an  independent  unit. 

Icelanders.  Scandinavian  folk  settled  in 
Iceland  more  than  a  thousand  years  ago. 
They  speak  an  archaic  form  of  language  of  the 
Scandinavian  branch  of  the  Teutonic  family. 
Igabo.  Sobo  tribe  on  the  east  of  the  Niger. 
Igara.  Tribe  of  the  east  bank  of  the  Niger 
below  the  Benue.  They  speak  a  language 
allied  to  Yoruba,  but  are  politically  indepen- 
dent of  them. 

Igorot.  Head-hunting  tribe  of  the 
Philippines.  They  are  excellent  agriculturists 
and  irrigate,  in  places,  the  whole  face  of  a 
mountain.  They  are  usually  a  light  yellowish- 
brown  with  flat  noses,  are  short  in  stature, 
and  probably  mixed  with  negritos.  Their 
tradition  is  that  they  came  from  the  south, 
but  they  are  probably  of  mixed  origin,  as 
their  head  shape  varies  from  very  long  to 
almost  circular,  the  nose  from  "broad  to 
narrow,  and  the  skin  from  light  brown  to 
bronze  with  saffron  undertones.  Among  the 
tribes  are  Tinguian  or  Itneg,  Bunayan, 
Nilapan,  Ifugao,  or  Mayoyet,  etc. 

Ijo.  Tribe  of  the  Niger  delta.  They  are 
of  strong  build  and  differ  a  good  deal  in 
appearance  from  the  surrounding  people. 
They  speak  a  language  of  the  Middle  Zone 
with  some  affinities  to  semi-Bantu,  and 
make  distinctions  in  the  gender  of  nouns, 
quite  contrary  to  the  usage  of  Sudanic 
languages.  They  are  essentially  a  river 
people  who  formerly  made  much  money  as 
purveyors  of  slaves  to  white  exporters  and 
are  still  important  as  middlemen  in  the 
palm  oil  business. 

Ilongote.  Philippine  tribe.  They  are  of 
small  stature  but  powerful  build,  with  straight 
hair  but  frizzly  beard  ;  their  eyes  are  dark 
brown  and  so  is  the  skin,  but  with  a  yellowish 
tinge  ;  the  nose  is  well  shaped,  but  rather 
broad  at  the  base.  Before  a  man  can  marry 
he  must  produce  a  head,  which  after  nine 
days  is  buried  below  the  bride's  future  home. 
Imeretians.  Georgian  people  on  the 
Middle  and  Upper  Rion.  They  are,  with  the 
Gurians,  the  best-looking  of  all  the  peoples 
of  the  Caucasus.  Their  faces  are  described 
as  noble,  with  large,  dark  brown  eyes,  regular 
eyebrows,  fine  beards,  and  thick,  dark  brown 
hair.  Their  hands  and  feet  are  remarkable 
for  their  small  size.  In  character  they  do  not 
differ  from  the  Grusinians. 

Inca.  Tribe  of  Bolivia  near  the  Rio 
Apurimac.  They  are  of  Ouichua  stock  and 
speech.  The  Inca  were  formerly  the  dominant 
tribe  of  Peru,  possibly  the  descendants  of  the 
builders  of  Tiahuanaco,  at  the  south  end  of 
Take  Titicaca,  the  earliest  known  centre  of 
culture  in  that  area.  There  are  Inca  Indians 
in  the  Putumayo  valley,  probably  descended 
from  the  ancient  Inca,  the  rulers  -of  Peru  at 
the  time  of  the  Spanish  conquest.  They  have 
long  black  hair,  which  is  tied,  sometimes 
with  the  inner  bark  of  a  tree,  above  the  ears. 
Their  principal  food  is  maize,  which  is  first 
scalded  in  great  earthen  pots  and  then  chewed 
by  the  family ;  after  being  mixed  with 
unchewed  maize,  the  mass  is  allowed  to 
ferment  and  used  as  required.  They  use  blow- 
guns  obtained  through  middlemen  from  the 
River  Napo  Indians. 

D  Si- 


Inca  Area,  District  with  many  culture 
variations  with  the  Quichua  and  "Aymara, 
as  dominant  tribes.  The  upland  tribes  are 
sedentary  and  agricultural  with  temples  and 
organized  priesthoods.  The  tribes  are  largely- 
agricultural  and  use  irrigation  ;  the  llama  was 
domesticated  in  pre-European  times. 

Indie  Languages  (Aryan  Group).  It 
comprises  two  main  divisions  :  the  extinct 
Sanskrit  and  Vedic  ;  and  Prakrit  with,  first, 
Pali  ;  secondly  Bengali,  Punjabi,  Gujarati, 
Hindustani,  Marathi,  Uriya,  Sindhi,  Kashmiri, 
Naipali,  and  Pushtu  (Afghan)  ;  and  thirdly, 
Romani  or  Gypsy  languages. 

Indo-Afghan.  Race  to  which  are  assigned 
the  Afghans,  and  some  higher  castes  of  India. 
Indo-  Aryan  Languages.  Branch  of  the 
Aryan  group  of  Indo-European  languages 
spoken  in  India.  It  includes  Outer,  Mediate, 
and  Inner  Sub-branches,  the  Outer  branch 
including  Assamese,  Bengali,  Oriya,  Bihari, 
Marathi,  Sindhi,  and  Lahnda  ;  the  Mediate 
including  the  Eastern  Hindi  language  ;  and 
the  Inner  branch  two  groups — Central,  with 
Western  Hindi,  Punjabi,  Gujarati,  Bhili,  etc., 
and   Pahari,  with   Khas-Kura  or  Nepalese. 

Indo-Aryan.  Group  of  peoples  in  the 
Punjab.  They  include  Rajputs,  Khatri,  and 
Jats,  who  in  all  but  colour  closely  resemble 
Europeans  and  show  little  difference  between 
higher  and  lower  classes  of  the  population. 
Their  characteristics  are  tall  stature,  fair 
complexion,  plentiful  hair  on  the  face,  long 
head,  and  narrow,  prominent  nose. 

Indo-European  Family  of  Languages. 
Speech  of  the  greater  part  of  Europe  and  part 
of  Asia.  The  main  groups  are  Iranian  (Persia) , 
Sanskrit  and  Prakrit  (India)  ;  Greek  ;  Italo- 
Celtic  (Latin,  etc.,  and  Romance  languages  ; 
Gaelic  Welsh,  etc.);  Germanic  (Germany,  Scan- 
dinavia, British  Isles,  etc.);  Baltic  (Lithuanian 
and  Lettish)  ;  and  Slavonic  (Russian,  Polish, 
Czech,  Serb,  etc.);  Albanian  ;  Armenian.  These 
languages  are  also  termed  Indo-Germanic 
(in  Germany)  or  Aryan.  The  term  Aryan 
race  has  no  intelligible  meaning  at  the  present 
day.  It  is  an  error  to  regard  Indo-European, 
the  primitive  speech  which  was  the  mother 
of  the  family  of  languages,  as  primitive 
in  any  other  sense  than  that  it  preceded  the 
origin  of  the  individual  groups.  It  originated 
in  a  form  of  speech  poor  in  inflexions  and  may 
perhaps  form  a  larger  unity  with  Semitic, 
Caucasic,  Finno-Ugrian  and  some  Mediter- 
ranean tongues  like  Basque. 

Indonesians.  Inhabitants  of  the  East 
Indian  Archipelago  and  (in  a  few  cases)  of 
Further  India.  The  hair  is  black  and  wavy, 
and  the  skin  yellow  or  light  brown.  The  skull 
is  medium,  but  was  probably  longer  at  one 
time  before  the  coming  of  the  short-headed 
Proto-Malayan  stock  almost  everywhere 
mingled  with  them.  With  the  Indonesians 
are  classed  the  Dyaks,  Batta,  etc.  Physically 
they  are  classed  with  the  Oceanic  Mongols  ; 
their  languages,  with  Melanesian  and 
Polynesian,  make  up  the  Austronesian  family, 
which  is  again  part  of  a  larger  unity,  formed 
by  the  addition  of  Mon-Khmer  and  some 
Central  Indian  tongues. 

Ingush.  People  of  the  Caucasus.  Belong- 
ing to  the  Chechen  group,  they  have  the 
reputation  of  being  inveterate  thieves 


Dictionary  of  Races 

Ipurina.     South  American  tribe  of  warlike 
character  on  the  Purus  river. 

Iranian  Languages.  Branch  of  Indo- 
European  languages.  It  includes  Persian 
in  one  group,  and  Pushtu  (Afghan),  Baluchi 
and  Ghalcha  in  another. 

Irish.  Population  of  Ireland  with  the 
exception  of  the  descendants  of  English  and 
Lowland  Scots  who  began  to  arrive  in  the 
twelfth  century.  Little  is  known  of  the 
earlier  peoples,  but  it  seems  probable  that 
the  mass  of  the  population  is  pre-Celtic. 
The  Goidels  (or  Scots)  entered  Ireland  through 
the  Dublin  coastal  gap  and  later  there  came 
into  Leinster,  according  to  Rhys,  some  of 
the  Brythons  who  imposed  their  tongue 
upon  Wales.  At  a  later  period  Goidels 
flowed  back  into  Wales.  There  is  also  a 
Viking  element  in  the  population  which 
founded  among  other  towns  Dublin,  Limerick 
and  Waterford. 

Iroquois,  Group  of  American  Indian 
tribes  of  the  east  woodlands.  They  comprise 
the  Five  Nations  (Oneida,  Mohawk,  etc.) 
and  are  allied  to  the  Huron,  Cherokee,  etc. 
The  Iroquois  were  bitter  enemies  of  the 
French  ;  kinship  is  reckoned  through  females, 
who  also  nominate  the  chiefs.  The  Iroquois 
seem  to  be  increasing  in  numbers,  but  are 
concentrated  on  reservations. 

Irula,  Dark-skinned  tribe  of  the  Nilgiri 
Hills  of  southern  India.  They  speak  a 
corrupt  form  of  Tamil,  till  the  ground  very 
roughly,  and  depend  a  good  deal  on  the  sale 
of  forest  products  for  the  purchase  of  grain 
for  seed  or  food. 

Italians.     Inhabitants  of  Italy,  who  speak 
a    language    of    the    Romance    sub-group    of 
Italo-Celtic    languages.     It    is    not    till    the 
coming   of  metal   that  we   can  say  that  the 
population  was  of  mixed  types,  long  headed 
north    of    the    Apennines,    round    headed    in 
the   south.     It   seems   likely   that   the   popu- 
lation  at   that   time,    both   in   the   peninsula 
and   in    Sicily   and    Sardinia,    was    chiefly   of 
Mediterranean   type,   with   survivals   of  older 
long-headed    elements,    and     that    a    round- 
headed  type  was  filtering  down  from  central 
Europe   or   coming  by  sea  from  the  eastern 
Mediterranean,    leaving    colonies    behind    on 
their  way  to  Spai  n  and  perhaps  the  British  Isles 
In    the    Bronze     Age     the     same     round- 
headed   immigration   went   on   by   land     and 
we  find  in  the  Iron  Age  another  type'  long 
headed   with   a  high   skull,   which  was   also 
prominent  in  the  valley  of  the  Danube      At 
the  beginning  of  the  historic  period  we  find 
the   Etruscans   with   a   non-native   type   pre- 
dominant ;     the   early   Romans   were   hardly 
less  mixed  than  the  Etruscans  ;   in  both  cases 
singularly  enough,  the  sexes  differ  considerably 
in    type.      In    the    next    four    centuries    the 
Koman    type    changed    completely,    and    we 
find  them  mainly  Alpine,  though  the  women 
show    a    characteristic    which    had    been    in 
earlier  times  that  of  men,  the  long  high  skull 
This    change    was    due   in    the    main    to    the 
absorption  of  the  subject  peoples. 

Cis- Alpine  Gaul,  invaded  by  Gauls  in  the 
fifth  century  B.C.,  was  conquered  two  hundred 
years  later,  and  had  in  the  meantime  no  doubt 
become  round  headed  in  type.  In  the  latef 
days  of  Rome  came  legionaries  from  Spain 

Gaul,  the  Danube,  etc.,  and  then  the  barbarian 
invaders— Goths,    Lombards,    Huns,    and    so 
on — who  were  in  the  main  long  headed       \ 
small   series   of   skulls  in   the   eighth  century 
has  long  types  to  the  extent  of  forty  per  cent 
but  six  hundred  years   later   this  'had   fallen 
to    about   one-third,    and    that   is    about   the 
proportion  at  the  present  day.      In  our  own 
time   the  Alpine   type   is   dominant,    and   the 
Mediterranean  negligible  in  the  north  of  Italy 
Trom  measurements  of  recruits  it  is  clear 
that    in    modern    Italy    long   heads    are   rare 
save  in   the   extreme  south  and  in   Sardinia 
In   stature   we  find   tallness   associated   with 
short    heads,    shortness    on    the    other    hand 
with  long  heads  ;    dark  complexion  is  found 
everywhere,    but   where   the   head   is   longest 
blond     or     even     mixed     types     are     almost 
wholly    absent.       Of    the    immigrant    Goths 
and    Lombards    barely    a    trace    is    found— 
the  tendency  towards  blondness  and  tallness 
in  the  valley  of  the  Po. 

«. Itaflic,  Languages.     Southern  member  of 
the     Italo-Celtic     group     comprising     Latin 
Umbnan,  Oscan,   and  other  extinct  tongues' 
and  the  Romance  languages  of  to-day. 
Ittu.      Galla  dialect  spoken  in  Harrar 
Jagatai  Languages.      Group    of    Turko- 
iartar  languages.    It  includes  Uigur,  the  most 
classical    Turkish    speech;     Roman,     Jagatai 
proper,  Usbeg,  Turcoman,  and  Kazan     Uigur 
inscriptions  going  back  to  the  seventh  century 
are    found    on    the    burial    mounds    of     the 
Yenisei  valley.      In  the  time  of  Edward   I 
the  Mongol   Khans   of  Persia   sent   letters  in 
the  Uigur  character,  the  object  of  which  was 
to  arrange  an  offensive  alliance  with  England 
against   the  Saracens. 

Jakun.     Mixed     people    of     the      Malay 
Peninsula,    especially    the    southern    portion 
I  robably  blended  more  or  less  with  Semang 
and   Sakai,   they   are   of  Malayan   type   with 
round    heads,    dark,    coppery    skin,  "straight 
smooth  hair,  thick,  flat,  short  nose,  and  eves 
that  show  little  tendency  to  obliquity      The 
Malay  divide  them  into  Hill  and  Sea  jakun 
of  whom  the  former  practise  agriculture. 
Jambi.     Malayan  tribe  of  Sumatra. 
Jambo.      People  of  Abyssinia  who  live  on 
the  Sobat. 

Japanese.     Main  mass  of  the  population 
of  Japan,  the  Amu  and  Gilyak  being  excluded 
The  native  of  Japan  is  decidedly  short,  with  a 
fair   or   yellowish   skin   and   at   times   a   rosy 
tinge  ;  wavy  or  curly  hair  occurs,  though  it 
is  usually  black.     In  head  shape  they  appear 
to  be  m  the  main  of  Alpine  type,  but  in  some 
areas  long  heads  are  in  a  majority      In  the 
north   and    north-east  early    Neolithic    types 
are    recognized    by    some    observers        There 
seems   to   be   a   considerable  Manchu-Korean 
element,  tall  and  slender,  with  oblique  eyes 
aquiline  nose,   and  chin  somewhat  receding  : 
the  Mongol  element,    on  the   other  hand     is 
strongly  built,  with  a  broader  face  and  more 
prominent  cheek-bones  ;  the  nose  is  flat  and 
(the :  mouth  wide.  A  Malayan  type  has  also  been 
distinguished,  small  of  stature,  with  well-knit 
frame,    short   nose   and  projecting   chin   and 
jaws.     The   language   is   unclassified. 

Jat  or  Jut.  People  of  north-west  India 
who  seem  to  have  conquered  the  Indus 
Valley  in  prehistoric  times. 


Dictionary  of  Traces 

Javanese.  People  of  the  middle  third  of 
Java,  They  are  flanked  on  the  east  by  the 
Madurese  ;  on  the  west  by  the  Sundanese, 
from  whom  they  differ  but  little  in  type! 
They  have  lightish  skins  and  straight  or 
slightly  wavy  hair  ;  their  stature  is  greater 
than  that  of  the  Sundanese  but  they  are  below 
middle  height.  It  seems  likely  that  they 
are  round  headed,  but  deformation  of  the 
skull  is  common  ;  the  nose  is  usually  narrow. 
Jefe.  Variant  form  of  Ewe. 
Jekri  or  Shekri.  River  tribe  of  Nigeria. 
They  speak  a  tongue  allied  to  Yoruba. 

Jews.  Term  properly  applied  to  the 
children  of  Judah,  but  long  since  applied  to 
the  whole  people  of  Palestine  before  the  dis- 
persion but  after  the  disappearance  of  the 
Ten  Tribes  of  Israel.  The  Jews  are  now  a 
people  without  a  country  ;  the  traditional  view 
is  that  they  are  a  true  Semitic  people  who  have 
preserved  their  purity  of  blood,  but  detailed 
investigation  into  physical  types  has  made  this 
extremely  doubtful.  The  majority  of  Euro- 
pean Jews  are  found  in  central  and  eastern 
Europe,  and  constitute  the  Ashkenazim  branch ; 
the  Sephardim,  who  are  Spanish  and  Portuguese 
Jews  driven  out  five  hundred  years  ago  to 
other  countries,  regard  themselves  as  a  sort  of 
aristocracy.  In  England  the  Jew  has  a  head 
of  medium  type,  neither  long  nor  short ;  in 
north  Italy  he  is  short  headed  ;  so,  too,  are 
the  Spanioli  of  Bosnia,  though  perhaps  twenty 
per  cent,  of  long  heads  are  mixed  with  them.  The 
Spanioli  of  Constantinople  and  Jerusalem,  on  the 
other  hand,  are  mainly  long  headed,  though 
there  is  only  a  small  majority.  The  last-named 
type  is  the  one  that  corresponds  to  the  type  of 
the  Arab,  who  is  certainly  a  true  Semite. 

As  a  general  rule  the  Jew  comes  to  resemble 
the  type  of  the  surrounding  people  ;  competent 
authorities  consider  that  the  Sephardim  were 
originally  long  headed,  but  by  intermarriage, 
partly  perhaps  in  Spain,  but  as  a  rule,  since 
their  expulsion,  have  been  Alpinised  in  type. 
The  peculiar  nose  which  is  commonly  called 
"  Jewish,"  is  found  in  about  one-third  of  the 
Sephardim.  When  we  consider  the  Ashkenazim 
we  find  that  they  are  by  a  great  maj  ority  short 
headed.with  a  narrow  nose.  In  addition  to  these 
two  groups,  there  were  Jews  in  the  Caucasus, 
Syria,  central  Asia,  etc.,  dating  as  far  back 
as  the  dispersion  of  the  Jews  under  the  Roman 
empire  and  even  further.  The  Grusinian  and 
Mountain  Jews  of  the  Caucasus  are  both  short 
headed,  with  very  few  blonds,  differing  in  this 
respect  from  the  Ashkenazim.  There  are  some 
grounds  for  suspecting  the  presence  of  a 
Kirghiz  type  among  them.  In  Samarkand 
and  Bokhara  are  Jews  of  mixed  descent,  and 
here  "  Semitic  "  noses  are  rare  ;  in  Damascus 
the  Jew  is  longer  in  the  head  and  the  "  Semitic  " 
nose   more   frequent. 

Generally  speaking  the  western  Asiatic  Jews 
agree  in  type  with  the  Ashkenazim.  In  south 
Persia,  Arabia,  north  Africa,  etc.,  are  other 
groups  of  jews,  many  of  them  of  old  standing  ; 
those  of  Persia  and  Mesopotamia  show  the 
long  heads  and  are  equal  in  numbers  to  the 
Alpine  types,  and  the  "  Jewish  "  nose  is  found 
in  Mesopotamia  in  more  than  half  the  subjects. 
At  Yemen,  where  they  are  more  than  anywhere 
else  an  isolated  group,  four-fifths  have  long 
heads  and  narrow  noses,  while  the  surrounding 

Araby  are  now  short  headed.  In  north  Africa 
the  Jews  are  again  extremely  like  their  neigh- 
bours, and  what  is  of  more  importance,  they 
have  among  them  a  type,  probably  derived 
from  the  Berbers,  who  were  at  one  time  con- 
verted in  numbers,  with  round  heads  and  broad 
noses.  If,  therefore,  there  are  two  such  diverse 
types,  one  long  the  other  broad  headed,  among 
the  different  groups  of  Jews,  which  is  to  be 
called  the  true  one  ? 

How  is  the  existence  of  the  other  type  to  be 
explained  ?  It  seems  likely  that  the  great 
majority  of  the  Jews  of  to-day  had  their  origin 
not  in  the  types  indigenous  in  Arabia  and 
ancient  Palestine,  but  in  the  uplands  of 
Armenia,  where  are  found  descendants  of  short- 
headed  people  like  the  Hittites,  who  also 
resemble  the  modern  Jew  in  type  of  nose  ;  the 
Hebrews  may  even  have  undergone  a  certain 
amount  of  mixture  with  this  type  in  the  early 
days  of  their  occupation  of  Palestine.  Another 
important  element  in  the  type  of  the  Ashkena- 
zim was  derived,  it  is  suggested,  from  the 
Turki-speakmg  Khazars,  converted  to  Judaism 
in  the  eighth  century,  and  were  crushed  and 
scattered  two  centuries  later  by  the  Slavs. 
They  were  a  cultured,  commercial,  well- 
organized  people,  who  made  their  influence 
felt  in  the  heart  of  what  is  now  Russia.  They 
and  the  Jews  metamorphosed  by  centuries  of 
contact  with  short-headed  peoples  are  in  all 
probability  the  origin  of  the  mass  of  East 
European    Jews. 

Jivaro.  Tribe  of  the  head  waters  of  the 
Amazon.  They  are  remarkable  for  the  custom 
of  drying  the  heads  of  enemies  till  the  skin, 
still  covered  with  hair,  is  reduced  to  the  size 
of  a  small  orange.  They  are  described  as 
brave,  amiable  and  faithful  in  character,  and 
great   lovers   of   freedom. 

Jukun.  Sudanic-speaking  tribe  south  of 
the  Benue.  They  are  also  known  as  Kororofa. 
Their  ancient  law  was  that  a  king  might  reign 
only  two  years,  and  even  during  that  period 
if  he  fell  ill  or  sneezed  or  coughed,  he  was  at 
once  put  to  death. 

Ka  or  Hha,  Hill  tribe  of  Siam,  speaking  a 
Mon-Khmer  language.  They  are  long  headed 
and  probably  akin  to  the  cave  dwellers,  perhaps 
of  Neolithic  age,  of  Tong-king,  and  also  to  the 
people  who  left  the  shell  heaps  by  the  Great 
Lake   of  Cambodia, 

Kababish.  Richest  and  most  powerful 
Arab  tribe  of  the  Anglo-Egyptian   Sudan. 

Kabardians.  Mahomedan  people  of  the 
Caucasus.  They  form  the  western  section  of 
the  Circassians,  but  differ  from  them  in  many 
respects  ;  they  claim  to  have  come  from 
Arabia,  and  use  Arabic  characters  in  writing 
their  Circassian  language.  Their  faces  are 
oval,  with  fine  features,  and  they  are  accounted 
the  most  refined  of  the  people  of  the  Caucasus. 
Kabiri.  People  north  of  the  estuary  of  the 
Fly  river,  New  Guinea.  They  are  also  called 
Girara.  They  are  head-hunters,  and  in  their 
ceremonies  wooden  figures  of  crocodiles  play 
an  important  part. 

Kabyle.  Term  often  applied  without  very 
definite  sense  to  the  Berbers  of  Algeria.  Some 
belong  to  the  Djerba  type,  some  to  the  Elles 
type,  the  latter  being  longer  headed,  with  broad 
face.  They  are  Mahomedans.  The  name 
seems  to  mean  no  more  than  tribe. 


Dictionary  of  Races 

Kachari.  Group  of  Assamese  tribes  It 
includes  Mech,  Garo,  etc.  They  are  of  Mongo- 
loid type,  with  almond-shaped  eyes,  stand 
mentally  much  below  their  Hindu  neighbours, 
and  are  very  clannish  and  exceedingly  obstinate.' 
Kachin.  South  Mongoloid  people,  speaking 
an  Assamese-Burmese  tongue  and  living  on  the 
head  waters  of  the  Irawadi.  They  are  also 
called  Kakhyen,  but  their  own  name  for  them- 
selves is  Chingpaw,  i.e.  men.  Kachin  is  an 
opprobrious  Burmese  name  and  Singpho  the 
Annamesc  form  of  Chingpaw.  They  stretch 
from  the  eastern  Himalayas  into  Yunnan, 
and  at  least  two  well-marked  types  exist ; 
firstly,  the  true  Singpho  or  Chingpaw,  with  short 
round  head,  low  forehead,  oblique  eyes,  and 
broad  nose,  who  has  disproportionately  short 
legs  ;  secondly,  a  people  of  more  Caucasic  type, 
some  of  whom  have  fair  skins  and  large,  lustrous 
eyes.  In  temperament  they  are  pugnacious 
and  vindictive. 

Kadayan.  Klemantan  people  of  Borneo. 
Kafirs,  (i)  Tribes  of  north-east  Afghanis- 
tan who  are  supposed  to  be  descendants  of  the 
old  Indian  population  that  refused  to  embrace 
Islam  in  the  tenth  century  ;  they  include  the 
Katirs,  the  Kam,  the  Wai,  etc.  '  They  are  of 
fine  physique,  but  lightly  built  and  usually  of 
only  medium  height.  As  a  rule  they  are  good- 
looking,  but  looks  vary  with  social  position. 
They  are  fond  of  intrigue,  inquisitive,  jealous, 
grasping,  fond  of  blackmailing,  great  liars,  and 
great  haters  ;  but  they  are  lovers  of  freedom, 
dignified,  polite,  hospitable,  brave,  loyal  to 
each  other  and  affectionate  in  family  relation- 
ships, tolerant  in  religion  and  sociable.  Their 
idea  of  a  good  man  is  one  who  has  shown 
himself  a  successful  murderer,  a  good  hillman, 
ready  to  quarrel,  and  a  lover  of  women! 
(2)   The    Bantu   tribes   of    Natal. 

Kaitish.  Tribe  of  Central  Australia.  They 
are  located  round  Barrow  Creek,  with  customs 
that  closely  resemble  those  of  the  Arunta. 

Kaizak.  Turkic  people  living  in  the  north- 
east of  the  Aral-Caspian  basin  and  closely 
connected  with  the  Kirghiz.  Their  sub- 
divisions are  complicated  and  they  classify 
themselves  according  to  "  horde,"  tribe,  clan, 
sub-clan,  etc.,  often  distinguished  by  'crests 
and  war  cries.  They  are  chiefly  nomadic 
cattle  and  horse-breeders  ;  as  they  leave  their 
stock  on  the  pasture  for  a  whole  year,  they 
change  the  ground  annually,  but  of  late 
years  they  have  taken  to  laying  in  stores  of 
winter  fodder.  They  have  permanent  houses 
and  make  use  of  irrigation  canals.  They  bury 
their  dead  in  substantial  structures  of  wood, 
clay  and  brick,  and  are  perhaps  to  be  reckoned 
as  akin  to  the  builders  of  the  burial  mounds 
known  as  kurgans. 

Kalabit.  One  of  the  Borneo  tribes  known 
collectively  as  Kalamantan.  They  practise 
a  kind  of  irrigation. 

Kalamantan.  Group  of  Borneo  tribes 
of  a  type  mainly  Indonesian,  i.e.  long  headed. 
They  cultivate  the  soil,  whereas  the  jungle 
tribes,  such  as  Bakatan,  are  nomadic  hunters. 
Kalkadoon.  Australian  tribe  of  east 

Kamchadal  or  Itelmes.  Palaeo-Siberian 
tribe  of  the  southern  part  of  the  Kamchatka 
peninsula.  They  have  given  up  their  language 
and  taken  over  a  good  deal  from  the  Russians, 

Kamilaroi.  Group  of  Australian  tribes 
of  the  north  of  New  South  Wales.  They 
speak  a  Neo-Australian  tongue  and  are 
divided  into  four  intermarrying  classes. 

Kanaka.  Polynesian  word  meaning  man, 
applied  by  French  writers  to  all  South  Sea 
islanders.  In  a  restricted  sense  it  refers  to 
the  natives  of  New  Caledonia  and  the  Loyalty 
Group,  who  are,  apart  from  a  few  stray 
Polynesian  colonies,  typical  Melanesians,  very 
long  headed,  with  massive  jaws  which  often 
contain  supplementary  molars.  Their  colour 
is  a  rich  chocolate,  often  with  a  purplish 
tinge.  The  average  height  is  about  5  ft.  4  in. 
Kanarese.  Dravidian  language  of  south 
India.  It  is  spoken  in  Mysore  and  the  south- 
east of  Bombay. 

Kanembu.  Tribe  of  the  northern  provinces 
of  Nigeria,  south-west  of  Lake  Chad  in  the 
old  empire  of  Bornu,  allied  to  the  Mobber, 
Kanuri,^  etc.  The  name  means  "man  of 
Kanem."  Speaking  a  Sudanic  language  of 
the  Chad  group,  they  are  a  fine  people,  and 
prosper  as  farmers  and  traders  ;  they  have 
a  monopoly  of  the  salt  trade  as  middlemen 
to  the  Buduma,  who  produce  it. 

Kanuri.  Tribe  to  the  south-west  of  Lake 
Chad.  They  speak  a  Sudanic  language  of 
the  Chad  group,  much  influenced  by  Hamitic 
forms  of  speech.  They  are  just  over  medium 
height  and  the  skin  colour  is,  as  a  rule,  dark 
or  very  dark.  The  Kanuri  is  of  virtually 
unmixed  negroid  type,  resembling  in  this 
the  Nilotes.  They  are  tall  and  good-looking, 
courteous  to  people  of  their  own  race,  but 
despising  the  Hausa  as  a  labourer. 

Karagas,  Turkic  tribe  of  the  eastern 
(Altaian)   group. 

Kara-Halpac  (Black Caps).  Turkic  group 
of  the  Amu-Daria  district.  To  the  extent 
of  half  the  population  they  are  settled  agri- 
culturists, the  others  being  nomad  cattle- 
breeders.  The  remnant  of  the  Chuz  Turks 
remained  in  Russia  when  the  others  were 
driven  over  the  Danube  and  later  returned 
to  Asia.  The  language  of  this  people  is 
closely  related  to  that  of  the  western  Turks, 
as  a  result  of  their  belonging  to  the  stream 
of  Turks  which  moved  westwards  some  ten 
centuries  ago. 

Karamundi.  Native  tribe,  now  almost 
extinct,  of  South  Australia. 

Karaya.  Indian  tribe  on  the  Araguaya 
river  of  Brazil  They  are  of  medium  height 
with  long  and  high  skulls,  and  wavy  black 
hair  with  a  reddish  sheen.  They  speak  a 
language  of  uncertain  affinities.  The  speech 
of  men  and  women  is  different,  the  latter 
being  perhaps  an  older  form. 

Karelians.  Eastern  Finns,  so  named 
from  their  own  term  Kariailaset,  cowherds. 
They  have  come  to  resemble  the  surrounding 
Russians  in  speech  and  customs  ;  they  are 
tall  and  slim,  with  regular  features,  grey  eyes, 
and  chestnut  hair. 

Karen,  Southern  Mongoloid  people  who 
compose  a  large  part  of  the  population  of 
Burma,  and  are  also  found  in  the  west  of  Siam 
It  was  at  one  time  supposed  that  their  original 
home  was  in  Turkistan  ;  their  own  account 
is  that  they  came  from  Yunnan  in  the  fifth 
century,  probably  forced  down  by  the  Tai  ; 
it  is  probable  that  they  were  later  comers  than 


Dictionary   of  Races 

the  Mon.  They  are  related  to  the  Kuki-Naga 
peoples.  There  are  two  types,  known  as 
Red  and  White.  They  are  a  short,  sturdy 
race  with  straight  black  or  brownish  hair 
and  light  or  yellowish-brown  complexion 
They  have  no  name  for  themselves  beyond 
designations  of  groups,  such  as  Sgaw  or  Pwo. 
They  were  probably  driven  from  China  by  the 
Tai  and  claim  to  have  settled  in  Ava  ;  about 
fifteen  hundred  years  ago  they  moved  south- 
wards. The  White  Karen  are  of  squarer, 
heavier  build  than  the  Burmese  and  more 
stolid  ;  they  are  also  dirty  and  drunken  but 
truthful  ;  they  seem  to  be  of  a  suspicious 
disposition  and  devoid  of  humour.  The  Red 
Karens  are  small  but  wiry  ;  their  faces  are 
broad  and  reddish-brown,  and  though  their 
heads  are  long,  their  eyes  are  apt  to  be 
oblique.  Their  marriage  laws  are  so  strict 
that  old  bachelors  and  spinsters  are  frequent 
owing  to  the  lack  of  suitable  matches. 

Kashgais.  Tribe  of  southern  Persia,  of 
Turkish  origin. 

Havirondo.  Two  tribes  of  East  Africa. 
One,  also  called  Jaluo,  has  a  Sudanic  lan- 
guage ;  the  other,  called  Bantu  Kavirondo, 
speaks  a  language  called  Lu-Masaba. 

Kay  an.  Member  of  the  dominant  group 
of  Borneo  tribes.  They  are  rather  short  in 
stature,  with  somewhat  broad  heads.  They 
are  agriculturists,  and  clear  the  low  hills 
that  flank  the  tributaries  of  large  rivers, 
leaving  a  few  scattered  trees  standing.  Their 
headmen  have  undisputed  sway,  but  as  a 
people  they  are  rather  turbulent. 

Kayapo.  Tribe  of  Brazil  on  the  west  bank 
of  the  Araguaya.  They  have  roundish  heads, 
are  light  brown  in  colour,  have  slightly  oblique 
eyes  and  black  hair,  which  is  wavy  only  when 
very  long. 

Kazikumuk.  Lesghian  tribe  of  the  Cau- 
casus whose  own  name  is  Lak.  They  are 
also  called  Ghazi  on  account  of  their  having 
been  the  first  converts  to  Islam  in  that  area. 
Kei  Islanders.  Population  made  up  of 
Malay  and  aboriginal  elements,  the  latter 
with  frizzly  hair.  They  are  divided  into 
three  classes  :  Melmel  (nobles),  Rinrin  (sub- 
jects), and  Iri  (slaves),  and  the  latter  are  the 
frizzly-haired  element. 

Kenyan..  One  of  the  dominant  tribes  of 
Borneo,  perhaps  the  most  advanced.  They 
smelt  iron  and  make  good  steel  blades  and 
spear  heads,  using  two  bellows  in  a  form 
widely  spread  in  Malaysia. 

Kha.  Word,  meaning  man,  applied  to 
many  tribes  of  Indo-China,  e.g.  the  Moi, 
who  are  called  Penong  by  the  Khmer.  There 
seem  to  be  two  types  of  Kha  tribes,  the  short 
headed,  possibly  connected  with  the  Cham, 
and  the  primitive  tribes,  who  are  long  headed, 
with  high,  rounded,  narrow  foreheads,  straight 
eyes  and  hair,  and  a  clear  skin. 

Khalkas.  Tribe  of  lower  Mongolia,  form- 
ing part  of  the  eastern  Mongol  group.  They 
are  of  yellowish  complexion,  and  somewhat 
shorter  than  the  allied  Buriats. 

Khasi,  People  of  the  Khasi  hills  in  Assam, 
who  speak  a  Mon-Khmer  language.  They 
are  of  a  brown  colour,  varying  in  shade  from 
light  to  dark  according  to  the  elevation  ;  the 
head  is  medium  in  length  and  the  eyes  are 
black  or  brown      They  are  short  in  stature, 

but  exceedingly  muscular  ;  they  will  carry 
a  load  of  80  lb.  by  means  of  a  head-band  for 
a  distance  of  thirty  miles  in  a  day.  They 
are  cheerful  in  disposition  and  more  indus- 
trious than  the  Assamese  ;  unlike  many 
primitive  peoples,  they  have  an  appreciation 
of  nature  and  will  sit  in  contemplation  in 
the  woods.  They  are  given  to  gambling,  and 
are  not  remarkable  for  truthfulness. 

Khmer.      People   speaking   a  Mon-Khmer 
tongue    and    inhabiting    Cambodia,    parts    of 
Siam  and  the  south  of  Cochin-China.     Before 
the   coming  of  the  Annamese  they  occupied 
a  still  larger  area.     They  are  a  tall,  round- 
headed    people,    but    their    eyes    are    seldom 
oblique  and  their  hair  is  often  wavy  ;    some 
observers  have,   therefore,   pronounced   them 
to    be    "  Aryan,"    i.e.    Caucasian,    in    every 
characteristic.     Their  tradition  is   that  they 
came  from  India  and  both  physical  type  and 
language  lend  support  to  this  tradition.    In  the 
earlier  centuries  the  Chams  were  their  mortal 
enemies  ;     about    a    thousand    years     ago  .  a 
mythical  ruler,  Yacovarman,  who  could  slay 
elephants   without  weapons,   built   the   great 
city  of  Angkor,  which  covered  five  square  miles. 
The    Khmer  are    well    grown    and    muscular, 
with  large  dark  eyes  ;    they  seem  to  represent 
to-day   the    lower   classes    of   the   population 
that  built  the  great  cities.     They  are  a  cere- 
monious   and    hospitable    people,    but    never 
allow  a  stranger  to  take  up  his  abode  in  their 
houses  ;      in  family  life  they  are  gentle  and 
affectionate  ;   the  peasant  population  is  hard- 
working, but  in  other  parts  the  Khmer  are  apt 
to     be     apathetic     and     thoughtless.     They 
prefer  to  live  in  the  plains,  and  their  houses 
are   built   on   piles,    of   one    storey   only,    for 
native    custom   forbids    them    to    live    under 
anyone    else.     Their    official   religion    is    Sin- 
halese Buddhism. 

Khond  or  Kondh.  Dravidian  tribe  of 
the  Orissa  Hills,  India.  Known  also  as 
Gonds,  they  are  a  bold  and  proud  mountain 
peasantry  who,  till  recently,  would  engage  in 
no  kind  of  manual  labour,  except  in  their  own 
fields.  They  burn  the  forest,  cultivate  rice 
on  the  patch  for  three  years,  and  then  move 
on,  leaving  it  for  a  period  that  may  be  as 
much  as  thirty  years  to  lie  fallow.  They  are 
keen  hunters,  and  a  sambar  once  wounded 
has  little  chance  of  escape,  as  they  follow  it 
as  though  insensible  to  fatigue.  The  men 
drink  palm  wine  to  excess,  but  the  women 
are  abstemious.  The  Khond  were  given  to 
human  sacrifice  at  one  time  in  order  to  secure 
good  crops,  but  a  ram  is  now  substituted  for 
the  human  victim.  They  were  also  given  to 
female  infanticide,  one  reason  given  being 
that  woman,  as  a  mischief-maker,  is  better 
out  of  the  world.  A  curious  feature  of  the 
language  is  that  they  count  by  twelves  instead 
of  by  tens. 

Kikuyu  or  Akikuyu.  People  of  East 
Africa  who  live  in  the  highlands  west  of 
Mount  Kenya.  The  name  may  perhaps  mean 
"  people  of  the  country  of  figs  "  ;  the  language 
is  closely  related  to  Akamba.  When  they 
entered  the  country  they  found  in  it  the  Asi 
(Akieki),  or  Wandorobo,  and  the  Agumba,  a 
pygmy  people.  The  men  stand  about  5  ft.  4  in., 
the  women  considerably  less.  But  they  are 
strong   and   muscular  ;     they   carry   loads   on 


Dictionary  of  Races 

the  back.  They  are  naturally  honest,  intelli- 
gent and  truthful,  polite  in  intercourse  and 
kind  to  children  ;  but  they  are  hospitable 
only  to  clansmen  or  near  relatives,  and  will 
stand  by  and  see  a  man  starve  to  death  if 
nothing  is  to  be  gained  by  saving  his  life. 

Kiowa.  Amerindian  tribe  that  once  re- 
sided on  the  Missouri  and  later  on  the 
Arkansas.  Their  language  forms  a  distinct 
linguistic  stock,  but  they  were  never  very 
numerous.  With  the  Kiowa  proper  were 
associated  the  Kiowa  Apache,  an  Athapascan 
tribe  identical  in  culture  but  with  a  language 
of  their  own. 

Kipchaks.  Of  these  people  the  western 
group  formed  the  Golden  Horde  in  the 
thirteenth  century ;  the  eastern  were  the 
White  Horde. 

Hirei  or  Hermit.  Turanian  Turks  of 
north-west  Mongolia,  also  called  Kirei- 
Kirghiz.  They  were  Nestorian  Christians  for 
a  few  centuries,  when  Prester  John  is  said  to 
have  lived  among  them,  but  have  now  em- 
braced Mahomedanism.  They  are  nomadic 

Kirghiz  or  Khirghiz.     Name  given  to  the 
Turanian  Turk  people,  but  often  used  of  the 
Kaizak,    who    belong   to   the   Iranian   Turkic 
group.     The  name  seems  to  be  derived  from 
kir,  meaning  cultivated  field,  for  the  Kirghiz 
originally  tilled  the  earth,   at  least  from  the 
sixth     century     onwards  ;      but     when     the 
Russians  came  to  the  Upper  Yenisei  many  of 
them  were  forced  south,  where  they  became 
a  pastoral  people.     Even  now  some  hunt  and 
cultivate  the  ground.     Only  those  who  have 
migrated    most    often    have    adopted    "  horse 
culture,"  by  which  is  meant  that  they  use  the 
animal    for    transport,    food,    and    clothing ; 
for  heavy  draught  work,  however,  they  prefer 
the    dromedary.      The    Russians    call    them 
Eastern  (Burnt),  Black  (Kara),  or  Mountain 
Kirghiz.      They    are    comparatively   isolated 
from  other  Turkic  tribes.     Many  sections  of 
them  are  named  from  famous  Mongol  chiefs, 
and    there    is    probably    a    strain    of   Mongol 
blood,    which    is    indeed    evident    from    the 
features.       The    cheek-bones   are   prominent, 
the    eyes    oblique,     and    the    complexion    is 
yellowish-brown,  but  they  are  generally  sup- 
posed to   have   preserved   the   original   Turki 
type.      Of    two    sections    the    Kara    Kirghiz 
live  in  the    uplands    and    the    Kazak  in  the 
lowlands.     The  true  name  seems  to  be  Kazak 
(riders),    which   we    know   best    in    the    form 
Cossack,   for  they  were   originally  freelances. 
The  word  Kirghiz   is   used    of   the  uplanders 
by  the  Kazak.     They  claim  descent  from  a 
legendary  Kirghiz-beg. 

Kists.  Chechen  people  of  the  Caucasus. 
Mahomedan  in  religion,  they  have  much  in 
common  with  the  Chewsures,  but  were  at  one 
time  their  enemies.  They  practise  the  blood 
feud,  unknown  to  other  Chechen  peoples. 
They  are  slenderer  than  their  neighbours, 
more  cleanly  and  more  industrious,  but 
notorious  horse  thieves. 

Kiwai.  People  of  the  Lower  Fly  river, 
New  Guinea.  They  speak  a  Papuan  tongue 
and  are  great  cultivators  of  the  sago  palm 
and  the  banana.  The  island  is  all  mud,  and, 
as  a  result  perhaps,  the  Kiwai  man  is  gloomy 
in  the  extreme  ;   one  observer  records  having 

been  there  a  whole  week  without  hearing  a 
single  laugh. 

Klemantan.  See  Kalamantan, 
Kohistani.  People  of  Kohistan,  North- 
west Frontier  of  India.  They  are  also  called 
Tajiks.  There  are  other  areas  with  the  same 
name,  one  north  of  the  Hindu  Kush,  another 
in  Baluchistan. 

Koli.  Caste  or  tribe  of  west  India, 
formerly  notorious  thieves. 

Kombe  or  Ngumbi.  Bantu-speaking 
tribe  on  the  coast  of  Spanish  Guinea,  between 
the  Benito  and  Campo  rivers. 

Konde.  (i)  The  same  as  Wa-Nkonde  ; 
(2)  the  Makonde  of  the  Msalu  river,  Portu- 
guese East  Africa. 

Konjara.  Tribe  of  Darfur,  Central  Africa, 
of  somewhat  uncertain  position.  Some 
observers  have  described  them  as  an  olive- 
skmned  people  of  Berber  appearance  ;  others 
declare  them  to  be  dark  complexioned,  of 
irregular  features  and  middle  height. 

Kootenay  or  Kutenai.  Tribe  of  British 
Columbia  whose  proper  name  is  Kutonaqa. 
Their  language  forms  a  linguistic  stock  by 
itself,  and  they  are  also  remarkable  for  a  bark 
canoe  of  unusual  type,  which  has  some 
resemblance  to  one  used  on  the  Amur.  They 
are  a  river  and  lake  people,  but  have  taken  to 
horses.  They  are  moral,  kindly  and  hos- 
pitable, little  given  to  drink,  intelligent  and 
artistic.  They  are,  however,  great  gamblers. 
One  section  of  the  tribe  was  noted  for  the 
watertight  baskets  which  they  manufactured. 
Korean.  People  of  Korea.  They  are  of 
uncertain  affinities  and  differ  in  appearance 
from  both  Chinese  and  Japanese.  They  have 
high  cheek-bones,  a  flatfish  nose,  thin  lips 
and  stand  about  5  ft.  4  in.  There  appear  to  be 
two  well-marked  types,  one  of  Mongoloid 
appearance,  with  short  nose,  flat  at  the  root, 
oblique  eyes  and  yellow  skin  ;  the  other  of  a 
bearded  European  type. 

Korinchi.  Tribe  of  Malay  stock.  They 
inhabit  the  mountainous  region  near  Padang. 
Koryak.  Palaeo-Siberian  tribe  living  in 
and  near  Kamchatka.  Most  of  them  are 
dependent  for  subsistence  on  herds  of  reindeer, 
but  some  subsist  by  fishing. 

Kota.  Artisan  tribe  of  the  Nilgiri  Hills  of 
south  India. 

Kotoko.  Tall  Sudanic  people  south  of 
Lake  Chad.  They  use  boats  made  of  pieces 
of  wood  sewn  together. 

Khwesi  or  Kpwese.  Tribe  of  Liberia. 
They  speak  a  language  of  the  Mandingo  group. 
Kredj  or  Kredy.  Broad-headed  people 
of  the  Bahr-el-Ghazal  district.  They  are 
somewhat  below  average  height,  with  thick 
lips  and  wide  mouths  ;  the  upper  incisors  are 
filed  to  a  point  or  cut  away.  They  are  coppery- 
red  in  colour,  clumsily  built,  and  unintelligent. 
Krobo.  Twi  people  of  the  Gold  Coast. 
Kru.  Negro  people  of  the  coast  and 
hinterland  of  Liberia.  They  speak  a  language 
of  a  type  very  unlike  the  ordinary  Sudanic 
tribe.  They  are  famous  as  canoe  men  and 
sailors,  and  are  recognizable  by  a  blue  line 
down  the  forehead.  The  name  comes  from 
the  Krao  tribe  of  this  group. 

Kubu.  Nomadic  tribe  of  Sumatra.  They 
are  on  an  average  about  5  ft.  3  in.  in 
height,  and  have  longish  heads,  slightly  more 


Dictionary  of  Traces 

elongated  than  the  Batta.  They  are  of  a  rich 
olive-brown  tint  and  the  hair  is  inclined  to 
curl.  They  are  possibly  of  Malay  affinities, 
but  pre-Dra vidian  relationships  are  on  the 
whole  more  likely. 

Kuanyama.  Bantu-speaking  tribe  of 
southern  Angola  and  northern  Damaraland. 

Ilubiri.  Ivew  Guinea  tribe  of  the  neigh- 
bourhood of  Cape  Nelson. 

Kui.  Proper  name  of  the  people  usually 
called  Khonds. 

Kunama.  Sudanic-speaking  tribe  of  south- 
west Eritrea.  They  are  divided  into  a  great 
number  of  small  tribes. 

Kurds.  Tall  people  of  Asia  Minor  and  the 
uplands  of  Armenia,  often  with  fair  hair  and 
blue  eyes.     They  speak  an  Iranian  tongue. 

Kurumba,  Wild  tribe  of  the  Nilgiri  Hills 
of  south  India.  They  are  identified  with  the 
Pallavas,  who  were  a  powerful  people  of  south 
India  in  the  seventh  century.  The  civilized 
section  is  known  as  Uru  or  Kuruba.  The 
wild  people  build  their  huts  of  mud  and  wattle 
and  depend  largely  on  jungle  produce  for 
subsistence.  They  are  gifted  with  extra- 
ordinary powers  of  vision  in  matters  that 
come  within  their  experience,  such  as  the 
search  for  honey,  but  are  not  keener  sighted 
in  ordinary  matters  than  the  average 

Lacandon.  Tribe  of  Central  America, 
allied  to  the  Maya  of  Guatemala.  Their  heads 
are  somewhat  shorter  and  the  skin  colour  is 
lighter ;  they  are  also  more  honest  and 
truthful.  They  carry  loads  by  means  of  a 
band  over  the  forehead,  which  produces  a 
flattening  of  the  skull.  They  speak  a  Maya 
language  and  live  by  agriculture,  hunting, 
and  fishing. 

Ladakhi.  People  of  Ladakh.  Of  southern 
Mongol  type,  they  are,  however,  decidedly 
more  long  headed  than  the  typical  southern 
Mongol.  The  same  type  is  also  found  in  the 
south  of  China. 

Lahu.  Burma  tribe  of  the  Lolo  group. 
They  have  much  more  of  a  nose  than  most 
Tibeto-Burmans,  and  have  straight-set  eyes. 
The  national  arm  is  the  crossbow,  and  they 
use  aconite  as  a  poison  for  the  bolts.  They 
also  have  a  kind  of  reed  mouth  organ,  with 
pipes  from  i  ft.  to  3  ft.  in  length,  which  the 
men  play  on  their  way  to  and  from  market. 

Lampong.  People  of  Sumatra.  They  are 
of  mixed  origin,  with  Indonesian,  Javanese, 
and  Kubu  elements  in  their  blood.  They 
claim  descent  from  the  Menangkabau  Malays. 
Languedoc,  Language  of  south  France. 
It  has  four  main  divisions  :  Gascon,  Pro- 
vencal, Rhodonian,  and  Catalan.  The  last- 
named  is  found  at  Roussillon  in  France, 
Catalonia  and  Valencia  in  Spain,  the  Balearic 
Islands,  and  a  point  on  the  west  coast  of 

Languedoil.  Language  of  north  France. 
It  embraces  both  literary  French  and  many 
provincial  dialects,  and  Walloon,  the  tongue 
of  south  Belgium.  The  southern  boundary 
runs  from  the  Gironde  past  Angouleme, 
Lyons,  the  Jura,  terminating  in  Fribourg 
(Switzerland).  It  includes  Malmedy,  in  the 
German  Republic,  and  parts  of  Luxemburg. 

Laos.  Siamese  tribe  of  the  Tai  or  Thai 
group.      They   are   round  headed   and   short, 

with  yellowish  skin  and  straight  black  hair. 
The  eye  usually  shows  the  Mongoloid  fold, 
and  the  nose  is  often  broad. 

Lapps,  Finno-Ugrian  people  of  Norway, 
Sweden,  Finland  and  Russia.  In  historic 
times  they  extended  much  farther  south  than 
they  do  at  the  present  day,  and  may  at  one 
time  have  occupied  a  large  part  of  the '  area 
of  Scandinavia  and  north-west  Russia.  They 
are  predominantly  Mongoloid  in  type,  but 
there  are  Alpine  folk  in  considerable  numbers, 
who  differ  from  the  first-mentioned  type  in 
both  the  height  of  the  skull  and  the  relatively 
narrow  nose.  'They  are  on  an  average  about 
5  ft.  in  height.  The  Russian  Lapp  shows  a 
considerable  amount  of  variation  as  regards 
both  the  shape  of  his  head  and  his  pigmenta- 
tion. The  Scandinavian  Lapp  is  the  purest 
representative  of  the  Mongoloid  type  in  the 
world.  One  of  the  few  nomadic  peoples  of 
Europe,  the  Lapps  are  not  improbably  a 
branch  of  the  Permian  Finns  who  reached 
north  Russia  before  the  Finns  took  up  their 
station  in  Finland.  They  are  nominally 
Christians,  but  the  old  pagan  deities  still 
subsist.  At  one  time  Lapland  witches 
attained  fame  even  in  England,  but  shaman- 
istic  rites  have  long  ceased. 

Latuka.  Nilotic  tribe.  They  are  found 
some  sixty  miles  east  of  Gondokoro  and  north 
of  the  Bari. 

Lazes.  Caucasus  people  of  Georgian  stock 
who  call  themselves  Tsan.  They  are  of 
slender  and  graceful  build  and  very  active  ; 
their  faces  are  regular,  but  somewhat  severe 
in  expression  they  are  regarded  as  the 
purest  type  of   Georgians. 

Lengua.  Tribe  of  the  Paraguayan  Chaco. 
They  speak  a  language  of  the  Arawak  group, 
sometimes  called  Nu-Arawak. 

Lepcha.  Nickname,  meaning  "  vile 
speakers,"  given  to  a  tribe  whose  real  name 
is  Rong.  They  live  in  Sikkim  and  speak  a 
Tibeto-Himalayan  language. 

Lesghians.  Caucasus  people  of  Daghestan, 
Transcaucasia.  They  are  of  mixed  origin. 
The  name  is  a  Tartar  form  of  Leki,  the  term 
applied  to  them  by  the  Grusinians.  The 
languages  fall  into  four  main  groups  :  Dargwa, 
Avar,  Kurin  and  Lakic,  or  Kasi-Kumish. 

Lishaw  or  Lisu.  Burma  tribe  of  the  Lolo 
group.     It  is  also  known  as  Yawyin. 

Lolo.  Tribe  of  south  China.  They  are 
allied  to  many  other  peoples  of  Indo-China 
and  speak  a  language  of  the  Tibeto-Burman 
group.  They  are  of  middle  height  but  mus- 
cular, with  narrow  foreheads,  square  faces, 
horizontal  eyebrows,  black  eyes  and  coppery 
complexion.  More  than  one  observer  has 
remarked  upon  their  resemblance  to  European 
gypsies.  The  women  are  often  taller  than  the 
men.  They  live  at  high  altitudes,  side  by 
side  with  Meo  tribes  and  above  the  Man  ; 
but  they  have  a  tradition  of  residence  in  a 
valley  where  they  cultivate  rice  by  irrigation. 
They  live  in  pile  huts  in  which,  on  account  of 
taboos  to  be  observed  by  women,  there  are 
always  two  fireplaces.  They  are  pleasant  but 
indolent,  and  do  not  differ  widely  in  character 
from  the  Meo. 

Lur.  Mahomedan  tribe  of  Persia.  They 
speak  a  language  allied  to  Kurd  and  are 
divided  into  clans  which  bear  animal  names. 


Dictionary  of  Races 

Lusatian.     Another  name  for  the  Wend. 

Macassar.  Tribe  of  the  southern  peninsula' 
of  Celebes.  In  colour  less  coppery  than  the. 
Malays,  they  are  a  mixed  people  with  a  negroid 
element,  but  somewhat  taller  and  lighter  in 
colour  than  the  Toala.  They  are  said  to 
press  the  noses  of  their  children  in  order  to 
flatten  them. 

Mackenzie  Area.  The  north-west 
portion  of  Canada,  inhabited  by  Athapascan 
and  Algonquian  tribes,  dependent  on  thei 
caribou  (American  reindeer)  for  food.  They 
use  birch-bark  canoes,  toboggans,  and  skin 
or  birch-covered  tents,  but  make  no  pottery 
and  do  no  weaving. 

Macusi.  Guiana  tribe  of  Carib  speech, 
closely  allied  to  Arecuna.  They  are  darker 
than  Caribs,  taller,  slighter,  and  better  made  ; 
they  seem  to  be  somewhat  timid,  and  dread 
their  hereditary  foes,  the  Arecuna.  They  live 
on  the  savannahs  and  build  houses  with  thick 
mud  walls,  but  also  use  pile  huts.  As  a 
weapon  they  use  the  blow-gun.  They  make 
hammocks  and  the  famous  curare  poison. 

Madurese.  Inhabitants  of  east  Java,  of 
much  the  same  type  as  the  Javanese  proper. 

Mafulu.  New  Guinea  tribe,  also  called 
Mambule.  They  are  mixed  with  pygmy 
blood,  and  probably  influenced  by  immigrant 
Melanesians.  They  live  on  the  Upper  St. 
Joseph  river. 

Magyar.  Finno-Ugrian  tribe  which  came 
from  the  eastern  frontier  of  the  south  Russian 
steppes  in  the  tenth  century,  and,  joining  the 
related  Hunagar  (Hungarians),  displaced  the 
Slavs,  who  till  then  had  probably  been  the 
main  element  of  the  population  of  the 
plains  of  Hungary. 

Mahafaly.  Warlike  tribe  living  in  the 
south  of  Madagascar. 

Mahmund  or  Mohmand.  Outlying! 
tribe  of  Afghanistan.  They  talk  Afghan  and 
recognize  the  Ameer  as  their  spiritual  head. 
They  are  practically  independent,  but  are  in 
reality  much  more  Afghan  than  the  majority 
of   the   peoples   of  Afghanistan. 

Makaraka.  Sudanic  tribe  allied  to  the 
Azande.  They  are  of  ruddy-brown  com- 
plexion, of  smallish  stature,  but  well  pro- 
portioned and  muscular.  The  cheek-bones 
are  rather  high  and  the  forehead  is  low,  but 
they  are  on  the  whole  a  pleasant-lookingpeople. 

Makololo.  Branch  of  the  Basuto.  They 
migrated  northwards  about  a  century  ago  and 
reduced  the  Barotse  to  servitude  ;  the  Barotse 
revolted  subsequently  and  wiped  out  the, 
Makololo  almost  to  the  last  man.  The  Barotse 
took  over  the  language  of  their  conquerors, 
and  the  speech  still  survives  though  the  tribe 
has  vanished. 

Makonde.     See  Konde. 

Makua,  Bantu  tribe  of  Mozambique, 
Their  language  resembles  Sechuana  in  some 
important  particulars.  The  Anguru  or  Alolo 
of  British  Central  Africa  are  of  the  same 
stock.  They  file  the  four  upper  front  teeth 
to  a  point. 

Malay.  Oceanic  Mongoloid  people  of  late 
origin,  found  in  the  Malay  Peninsula,  Sumatra, 
Borneo,  etc.  The  name  has  been  extended  to 
the  other  Oceanic  Mongoloids  who  preceded 
them  ;  these,  however,  do  not  term  them- 
selves   Malays.       The    Malays    proper    were 

originally  an  obscure  tribe  of  Sumatra  whose 
migrations  date  back  less  than  eight  hundred 
years,  a  century  before  they  were  converted 
to  Mahomedanism,  which  all  Malays  now  pro- 
fess. They  call  themselves  Orang-Malayu, 
and  their  language  is  a  much  simplified  form 
of  the  Austronesian  tongue  spoken  by  the 
Malayan  or  Proto-Malayan  peoples  who  pre- 
ceded them  and  are  now  intermingled  with 
them.  In  character  they  are  easy-going, 
indolent  and  taciturn,  but  wily  and  unreliable, 
and  great  gamblers  ;  they  are,  however, 
notable  for  patriotism,  respect  for  law,  and, 
among  the  upper  classes,  for  courtesy,  and  are 
very  ceremonious.  Outside  the  peninsula  the 
most  important  Malay  peoples  are  the  Menang- 
kabau  and  Lampong  of  Sumatra.  The  Malay 
is  essentially  a  cultivator  of  the  fields. 

Malayalam.  Dravidian  language  of  south 

Malayan.  Pre-Malay  peoples  of  the  East 
Indies.  Of  Oceanic  Mongol  stock,  they  fall 
into  two  groups  :  (i)  the  Orang  Benua,  Men 
of  the  Soil,  rude  aborigines  like  the  Jakun  of 
the  Malay  Peninsula,  numerous  also  in  the 
interior  of  the  Philippines,  Celebes,  Borneo, 
etc.,  and  also  forming  the  population  of 
Madagascar  for  the  most  part  ;  (2)  the 
cultured  Mahomedan  tribes  forming  large 
communities  with  flourishing  industries,  like 
the  Achinese,  Bugi,  Tagalog,  Javanese 
and  Madurese. 

Maltese.  Inhabitants  of  Malta  who  are 
cosmopolitan  in  the  coast  areas  ;  dwellers  in 
the  interior  have  been  regarded  as  descendants 
of  the  Phoenicians ;  but  little  is  really  known. 

Malto.  Dravidian  language  spoken  by  the 
Maler  tribe  of  the  Rajmahal  Hills,  Bengal. 

Man.  Word  meaning  properly  "  bar- 
barian," applied  by  the  Chinese  to  the  non- 
Chinese  peoples  of  the  southern  frontiers.  In 
Tong-king  a  single  tribe  is  thus  designated, 
which  seems  to  be  of  Mongoloid  type,  with 
oblique  eyes  ;  the  women  are  much  shorter 
than  the  men.  They  speak  a  language  in 
which  tones  are  important. 

Manchu.  People  of  Manchuria.  They 
speak  a  Tungusic  language  related  to  others 
in  the  Amur  basin.  They  seem  to  be,  without 
exception,  short  headed  ;  but  it  is  uncertain 
whether  they  practise  deformation.  The  skin 
colour  is  yellowish,  the  eyes  are  dark  and 
usually  Mongoloid.  They  are  comparatively 
short  in  stature. 

Mandan.  Tribe  of  Plains  Indians  speaking 
a  Siouan  tongue,  which  formerly  lived  near 
the  Upper  Mississippi.  Their  huts  were  of  logs 
covered  with  clay,  and  the  village  was 
defended  by  a  strong  palisade. 

Mandars.  Tribe  of  west  central  Celebes, 
living  on  the  coast  ;  they  are  of  the  light 
Malay  type. 

Mandaya.  Philippine  tribe  which  appears 
to  be  of  the  same  round-headed  type  as  the 
mass  of  the  population  of  the  islands  south- 
east of  the  Asiatic  continent.  The  women  are 
noted  for  the  fairness  of  their  complexions 
and  are  often  carried  off  as  wives  by 
Mahomedan  tribes. 

Mandingo.  Large  group  of  tribes  of  the 
•western  Sudan.  Numbering  several  million 
'in  all,  they  are  also  called  Mande.  There  are 
iseveral  score  of  tribes  who  range  from  near 


Dictionary  of  Races 

the  mouth  of  the  Gambia  to  the  Middle  Niger 
and  from  the  coast  of  Sierra  Leone  to  the 
Upper  Niger.  Many  of  them  are  Mahomedans. 
They  include  the  Susu,  Bambara,  Vei,  Kpelle, 
Yalunka,  Boko  or  Busa,  Khassonke,  etc.  The 
original  Mandingo  came  to  the  Niger  about  a 
thousand  years  ago,  probably  from  the  east, 
andfounded  a  great  empire  on  the  Upper  Niger. 
They  seem  to  vary  a  good  deal  in  type,  some 
being  very  black,  others  fairly  light ;  some 
have  hair  that  is  long  and  frizzly,  others  the 
short,  woolly  hair  of  the  negro.  Their  average 
height  has  been  put  at  5  ft.  8  in.,  and  they 
are  more  slender  in  many  cases  than  negro 
tribes  in  general.  The  nose  is  typically  negro. 
Mangbettu,  Tribe  of  the  Upper  Welle, 
first  described  by  Schweinfurth.  They  have 
an  aristocracy,  probably  of  Hamitic  origin, 
with  pale  olive-brown  complexion,  high- 
bridged  noses,  though  the  nostrils  are  some- 
what broad,  and  abundant  beards.  They 
appear  to  be  intelligent  and  reliable  ;  they  are 
brave  and  skilful  warriors,  with  comparatively 
highly  developed  industries.  The  lower  classes 
are  probably  of  mixed  origin  ;  their  skulls  are 
relatively  broader  than  those  of  the  Azande. 
The  skin,  where  it  is  not  exposed  to  the  sun, 
is  described  as  of  a  clear  bronze  colour,  and 
the  hands  are  almost  white.  The  hair  is  in 
some  cases  brown  or  reddish.  They  are  said 
to  lengthen  the  heads  of  children  by  bands  of 
bark,  but  this  does  not  agree  with  the  informa- 
tion as  to  head  shape.  The  Mangbettu  speak 
a  non-Bantu  language. 

Manjia,  Sudanic-speaking  group  of 
peoples  in  French  Congo.  They  are  of  tall 
stature  with  medium  or  short  heads.  They 
sharpen  the  upper  teeth  to  a  point.  They 
cultivate  the  earth  and,  though  apt  to  greet 
a  stranger  with  a  shower  of  arrows,  are  on 
the  whole  quiet  and  peaceable.  They  are 
cannibals  and  seem  to  do  a  good  deal  of 
fighting  among  themselves. 

Manobo.  Indonesian  tribe  of  the  Philip- 
pines. There  are  two  distinct  types  :  one 
tall,  with  a  high  forehead,  aquiline  nose, 
slightly  frizzly  hair,  and  clear  skin  recalling 
the  Polynesian  ;  the  other  brown  skinned, 
shorter,  with  a  straight  nose. 

Manx.  Celtic  language  of  the  Isle  of  Man, 
allied  to  Erse  and  Gaelic. 

Maori.  Pre-European  inhabitants  of 
New  Zealand.  Traditionally  they  are  made 
up  of  two  groups  :  an  older"  aboriginal 
stratum,  identical  with  the  Moriori  of  the 
Chatham  Islands  ;  and  the  immigrants  who 
came  to  New  Zealand  a  few  hundred  years 
before  the  discovery  of  the  islands  by 
European  navigators,  probably  in  the  thir- 
teenth or  fourteenth  centuries.  According  to 
the  native  account,  the  last-named  people 
came  from  the  Cook  and  Society  Islands,  and 
when  white  men  first  saw  the  islands  the  later 
comers  formed  the  great  majority  of  the 
population,  especially  in  the  North  Island. 
It  is  not  clear  whether  they  absorbed  the 
older  stratum  or  exterminated  it.  Exactly 
where  the  aboriginal  stratum  hailed  from 
cannot  be  determined  at  present.  It  does  not 
seem  to  have  been  Melanesian,  for  not  only  is 
the  long-headed  Melanesian  element  more 
prominent  in  the  North  Island,  especially  in 
the  northern  peninsula,  but  the  type  of  native 

in  the  South  Island  agrees  with  that  of  the 
Moriori,  who  left  New  Zealand  some  time 
before  the  coming  of  the  invaders  from 
Polynesia,  and  in  the  South  Island  there  is 
only  a  very  small  majority  of  long-headed 
people,  the  rest  being  of  the  Alpine  type. 
Even  the  long-headed  people  of  the  South 
Island  are  unlike  Melanesians,  for  their  noses 
are  not  broad  ;  on  the  other  hand,  they  seem 
to  resemble  an  important  part  of  the  popu- 
lation of  western  New  Guinea  and  of  western 
Polynesia.  The  Alpine  type  not  improbably 
passed  through  Micronesia  on  its  way  and 
reached  the  Marquesas,  but  hardly  affected 
the  Cook  and  Society  Islands.  They  were, 
however,  more  daring  navigators,  and  though 
there  is  little  evidence  that  they  were  at  all 
numerous  among  the  people  who  fared  south- 
ward to  New  Zealand,  it  is  perhaps  to  their 
adventurous  spirit  that  the  inception  of  the 
voyage  was  due. 

Maratha.  Fighting  caste  among  the 
Marathi-speaking  people  of  India.  As  a  rule 
they  are  middle-sized  and  regular  featured, 
and  as  a  class  simple,  frank,  courteous  and, 
when  kindly  treated,  trustful.  They  are  fond 
of  show  and  proud  of  their  former  greatness. 
They  occupy  themselves  with  husbandry  and 
as  servants  of  the  state,  but  never  keep  shops. 
The  women  seldom  leave  the  house  and  in 
well-to-do  families  have  much  leisure,  as 
they  neither  cook  nor  look  after  the  house. 
It  is  a  costly  matter  to  get  a  husband  for  a 
daughter,  and  the  higher  the  father's  position 
the  more  expensive  it  is,  so  that  girls  of  high 
families  remain  unmarried  after  they  come  of 
age  and  have  to  take  husbands  not  of  their 
own  social  position. 

Marathi.  Language  of  the  southern  branch 
of  Indo-Aryan  languages,  spoken  in  Bombay 
and  the  Central  Provinces  of  India. 

Maronites.  Christian  sect  to  the  north  of 
Lebanon.  By  their  isolation  in  the  moun- 
tains and  their  refusal  to  intermarry  with 
Mahomedan  or  Druse  neighbours,  they  have 
preserved  their  Armenoid  type  with  great 
purity.  They  have  extremely  high  skulls,  so 
flattened  behind  as  to  look  as  though  arti- 
ficially deformed,  which,  however,  is  certainly 
not  the  case. 

Marquesas  Islanders.  Polynesian  people 
of  an  aberrant  type  whose  heads  have  been 
broadened,  perhaps  by  admixture  with  a 
Proto-Malay  stock.  It  has  been  supposed 
that  the  Polynesian  migration  reached  the 
islands  between  a.d.  650  and  700. 

Masaba.  Language  spoken  by  the 
Bantu  Kavirondo. 

Masai.  Hamitic  people  of  East  Africa. 
They  are  of  tall,  slender  build,  and  their  skin 
colour  varies  from  chocolate  to  dark  brown. 
The  head  is  long  and  relatively  high,  and 
appears  rather  small  ;  occasionally  oblique 
eyes  are  seen.  Thick  lips  are  the  exception  and 
earn  a  special  name,  Lebeleb,  for  their 
possessors.  The  Masai  woman  carries  on  her 
neck  and  upper  and  lower  arms  many  pounds 
of  copper  wire.  The  lobe  of  the  ear  is  distended 
to  admit  the  insertion  of  a  large  wooden  plug. 
The  Masai  have  been  supposed  to  be  descended 
from  the  Jews,  but  there  is  no  evidence  of  this. 
The  Masai  is  proud  of  his  race,  regards  his 
immediate  relatives  with  affection,  and  in  the 


Dictionary  of  Races 

days  of  slavery  would  offer  all  his  savings  to 
free  one  of  them.  He  despises  all  kinds  of 
work,  for  his  true  calling  is  to  be  a  warrior. 
There  are  two  sections,  one  of  which  keeps 
cattle,  while  the  other  depends  on  agriculture  ; 
the  former  build  low,  continuous  flat  huts, 
which  are  plastered  with  mud,  while  the  tillers 
of  the  ground  use  a  round  hut  with  a  conical 
grass  roof,  and  live  in  their  villages  per- 
manently, the  others  being  semi-nomadic. 
Though  the  Masai  is  familiar  with  the  use 
of  weapons  of  war,  he  is  not  a  great  hunter, 
and  kills  only  such  game  as  he  regards 
as  akin  to  his  cattle  ;  he  also  abstains  from, 
the  use  of  fish. 

Mashona,  Peaceful  tribe  of  south-east 
Africa.  They  are  often  confused  with  the 
Makalaka  or  Makalanga,  with  whom  they 
were  to  some  extent  mingled.  They  seem 
to  have  crossed  the  Zambezi  in  the  eighteenth 
century,  but  their  origin  is  obscure.  The 
ruins  of  Zimbabwe  are  in  Mashonaland,  but 
there  is  no  reason  for  connecting  the  Mashona 
with  them.  The  name,  given  by  the  Matabele, 
means  "  baboons,"  and  refers  to  their  habit 
of  building  their  villages  among  the  rocks. 

Mashukolumbwe.  Bantu-speaking  peo- 
ple of  Rhodesia,  north-east  of  the  Barotse, 
remarkable  for  a  conical  style  of  hairdressing. 
Massim.  People  of  the  Trobriand  Islands, 
New  Guinea.  They  have  been  influenced  by 
Melanesians,  bury  their  dead,  but  dig  up  the 
bones  after  a  time  and  use  their,  as  lime  pots, 
spatulas,  etc. 

Matabele  or  Amandebele.  Tribe  of 
Zulu  origin,  also  called  Abakwa-Zulu.  They 
originated  from  the  followers  of  Moselekatse, 
who  fled  northwards  from  the  anger  of 
Tshaka.  They  lost  their  independence  at  the 
end  of  the  nineteenth  century. 

Maya.  Short-headed  people  of  Guatemala, 
once  the  possessors  of  a  great  culture.  They 
are  of  short  stature  with  broad  shoulders. 
The  lower  part  of  the  face  is  somewhat  pro- 
jecting ;  in  colour  they  are  a  dark  golden 
brown.  They  are  hospitable  and  generous, 
but  noted  for  lying. 

Mbundu.  Name  of  two  distinct  languages, 
one  in  south  Angola  (Umbundu),  the  other  in 
north  Angola  (Kimbundu). 

Mediterranean  Race.  Most  southerly 
of  the  three  types  into  which  Europeans  of  the 
present  day  'have  been  divided.  They  are 
commonly  supposed  to  have  originated  in 
Africa,  where  the  Hamites  are  the  modern 
representatives  of  the  ancestral  stock.  Out- 
lying members  are  the  Indonesians,  Dra- 
vidians,  and  Semites.  The  skull  is  long,  and 
the  hair  dark  and  curly  or  ringlety,  the 
beard  full ;  skin  colour  varies  from  white  to 
brown  or  blackish  ;  the  nose  is  usually  large 
and  narrow.  In  temperament  Mediterranean 
man  is  quick-witted,  excitable,  and  impulsive, 
but  not  always  quite  reliable. 

Meithei.  Dominant  people  of  Manipur. 
They  speak  a  Tibeto-Burman  language  of  the 
Kuki-Chin  type.  Some  are  described  as 
Mongolian,  others  as  Caucasian  in  features. 
It  is  not  uncommon  to  meet  among  girls 
a  type  with  brownish  black  hair,  brown  eyes, 
fair  complexions,  straight  noses,  and  rosy 
cheeks.  Although  the  face  is  described  as 
Mongolian,    the    Meithei    are    in    some    eases 

distinctly  long  headed,  while  others  show  a 
head  of  medium  type.  They  are  mainly 
agricultural  in  their  pursuits,  but  also  trade, 
and  it  is  to  women  that  such  work  is  entrusted. 
They  have  bazaars  at  convenient  places  by 
the  roadside,  where  cloth,  fish,  etc.,  are  sold. 
Women  are  comparatively  uneducated,  owing 
to  the  circulation  of  a  fiction  that  there  is  a 
scarcity  of  women  in  England,  whither 
educated  Meitheis  would  be  shipped  off. 

Melanesian.  Oceanic  negro  of  the  Western 
Pacific.  The  physical  type  varies  considerably, 
and  some  non-negro  element  must  be  present. 
The  hair  is  at  times  curly  or  merely  wavy, 
and  the  skin  lighter  than  that  of  Papuans, 
chocolate,  or  even  copper-coloured.  Stature 
ranges  from  less  than  5  ft.  to  nearly  6  ft. 
The  skull  is  usually  long,  but  is  in  places  very 
short.  The  Melanesians  include  natives  of 
the  Solomon  Islands,  New  Caledonia,  the 
New  Hebrides,  Fiji,  etc. 

Menangkabau  Malays.  True  Malays 
resident  in  the  south-west  highlands  of 
Sumatra.  They  are  Mahomedans,  and  prob- 
ably recent  immigrants,  rather  short  in 
stature,  and  yellowish  brown  in  colour,  with 
black  straight  hair  and  at  times  the  Mongo- 
loid eye.  They  are  physically  not  unlike  the 
Chinese  of  Fukien. 

Mendi.  People  of  the  east  of  Sierra  Leone. 
They  speak  an  aberrant  language  of  the  Man- 
dingo  group,  and  in  physique  are  of  medium 
stature,  but  strongly  'built.  They  make 
excellent  carriers  and  hammock  boys,  are  of  a 
merry,  light-hearted  disposition,  and  are 
celebrated  for  their  great  secret  society,  Porro. 
The  Mendi  are  probably  the  modern  repre- 
sentatives of  the  Mane  or  Sumba,  who 
invaded  Sierra  Leone  by  sea  about  the 
beginning  of  the  sixteenth  century,  after 
having  spent  ten  years  on  the  way.  They 
probablyniarried  women  of  Mandingo  speech, 
but  transmitted  to  their  children  a  number 
of  words  of  non-Mandingo  origin.  It  is  not 
known  where  they  came  from.  They  were 
deadly  foes  of  the  Temne  tribe  who  dwelt 
to  the  west  of  them. 

Mentawei  Islanders.  People  who  live 
off  the  coast  of  the  Malay  Peninsula,  Their 
affinities  are  somewhat  uncertain,  but  their 
own  tradition  says  they  came  from  Sumatra. 
They  are  described  as  yellowish  brown  with 
a  tinge  of  red  ;  one  observer  attributes  to 
them  light  eyes. 

Meo.  Annamese  pronunciation  of  a  word 
pronounced  Miao-tse  by  the  Chinese.  The 
Meo  call  themselves  Mung,  and  say  they  came 
to  Tong-king  from  China.  They  are  short,  with 
a  relatively  long  body,  have  straight  black 
hair,  brown  eyes,  complexion  almost  white 
when  it  is  not  bronzed  by  exposure,  and  a 
straight  nose.  They  are  industrious  and 
intelligent,  fond  of  independence,  brave  and 
open.  Maize  is  the  chief  food,  but  they  eat 
rice  when  land  suitable  for  its  cultivation  is 
available.  Unlike  many  primitive  peoples, 
they  do  not  live  in  perpetual  dread  of  evil 
spirits,  and  are  held  by  neighbouring  tribes  to 
be  regardless  of  dangers  because  they  can 
turn  into  wild  beasts. 

Mexican.  Name  applied  both  to  the 
European  inhabitants  of  Mexico  and  to  the 
descendants  of  the  Aztecs  who  had  dominated 


Dictionary  of  Races 

the  country  for  some  three  hundred  years 
when  the  European  conquerors  overthrew 

Micronesian.     Population  of  the  Gilbert, 

Marshall,  Caroline,  and  Marianne  Islands. 
They  may  be  regarded  as  Polynesians 
influenced  by  later  migrations  from  the  main- 
land of  Asia  and  perhaps  by  an  earlier  stock 
of  Papuan  origin.  They  appear  to  be  rather 
shorter  than  typical  Polynesians,  but  have 
longer  heads. 

Mikir.  People  of  Assam  who  call  them- 
selves Arleng,  the  name  Mikir  being  given  by 
the  Assamese.  They  are  not  a  tall  people, 
though  they  are  taller  than  the  Khasi  ;  the 
head  is  longish  and  the  nose  flat.  They  speak 
a  Tibeto-Burman  language  intermediate  in 
type  between  Bodo  and  Kuki-Chin.  They 
seem  to  be  homogeneous  in  type,  owing, 
perhaps,  to  their  exogamous  customs  produc- 
ing mter-mixture  between  the  different 
divisions.  They  differ  from  other  hill  tribes 
in  their  peaceable  character  which  has  earned 
for  them,  for  at  least  two  centuries,  the 
reputation   of   being   good   subjects. 

Minahassa.  Malayo-Polynesian  tribe  of 
Celebes.  They  are  strongly  built,  of  medium 
height,  with  light  brown  skin  of  reddish  tinge. 
Girls  have  red  cheeks  and  lips,  but  in  men  the 
lips  have  a  violet  sheen.  The  eyes  are  brown, 
the  hair  is  black  and  coarse,  the  nose  broad, 
and  the  eye  shows  the  Mongoloid  fold.  They 
were  great  head-hunters,  but  are  now 

Mingrelians.  Georgian  people  in  the 
basin  of  the  Eton,  who  are  probably  des- 
cended from  the  Colchians  mentioned  by 
Greek  geographers.  They  are  ignorant,  lazy, 
and  unenterprising,  but  strong  and  good- 
humoured.  Many  of  them  become  porters 
in  the  towns. 

Mishmi.  People  of  the  northern  frontier 
of  Assam,  divided  into  Midu,  Mithun,  Taying, 
and  Miju.  They  speak  a  Tibeto-Burman 
language  of  the  north  Assam  type. 

Mittu.  Tribe  of  the  area'  of  the  Sudan 
between  the  Rohl  and  Roah  rivers,  bordering 
on  the  Dinka  in  the  north  and  the,  Azande 
in  the  south.  They  are  dark  coloured  and 
physically  weak.  The  women  pierce  and 
insert  wooden  plugs  in  both  upper  and  lower 

Mixes.  Tribe  of  Mexico.  They  live  in  the 
uplands,  weave  cloth  in  the  pre-Columbian 
method  of  long  strips,  and  make  suspension 
bridges  of  lianas. 

Mixtecs.  Intellectual  and  progressive 
tribe  of  Mexico.  They  carry  baskets  with  a 

Mohawk.  Most  easterly  Iroquois  tribe  of 
American  Indians.  They  were  twice  nearly 
exterminated  by  the  Algonquins,  with  whom 
they  fought ;  then  they  obtained  guns  from 
the  Dutch,  and  for  fifty  years  played  a  great 
part  in  the  Iroquois  league.  Then  their 
numbers  declined  rapidly. 

Mohegan  or  Mohican.  Algonquian  tribe 
of  New  England.  Treacherous  warriors, 
they  fortified  hill-tops  with  palisades  and 
stockaded  their  villages,  the  houses  of  which 
were  often  180  ft.  long  by  20  ft.  wide. 

Moi.  Tribe  of  Indo-China.  Of  rather 
small  stature,   they   are   mostly  long  headed 

with  straight-set  eyes,  and  therefore  not 
Mongoloid  in  their  affinities.  Their  skin  is 
described  as  reddish  ;  the  nostrils  and  mouth 
are  disproportionately  large,  and  they  are 
said  to  file  their  teeth  ;  hence  they  are  or 
were  reputed  to  be  cannibals.  Some 
authorities  describe  them  as  timid,  others  as 
brave  ;  they  are  indolent,  simple,  and 
confiding  and  lead  a  nomadic  life. 

Mojo.  Indian  tribe  of  Bolivia.  They  are 
an  agricultural  people,  quiet,  and  well- 

Mombutto.  Tribe  of  the  Kibali  river, 
Nile-Welle  watershed,  not  to  be  confused 
with  the  Mangbettu.  They  are  strongly-built 
dwellers  in  the  hills,  with  broad  faces,  blunt 
noses,  and  thick  lips  ;  they  file  the  upper  teeth. 
Mongo.  Bantu-speaking  tribe  of  the  great 
bend  of  the  Congo,  south  of  the  Bangala. 
Sometimes  regarded  as  a  Balolo  sub-tribe, 
they  differ  a  good  deal  in  type,  some  being 
described  as  a  fine  virile  race  of  a  high  order 
of  intelligence,  while  others  are  termed 
weakly,  lean,  and  insignificant-looking.  They 
were  at  one  time  notable  traders  and  manu- 
factured a  kind  of  black  pottery  that  was  in 
great  request. 

Mongol.  Group  of  tribes  that  includes 
the  Kalmuck  and  Buriat.  A  wide  extension 
is  given  to  the  terms  Mongol  and  Mongoloid, 
but  properly  speaking  the  type  is  confined 
to  a  narrow  area  along  the  northern  border 
of  the  Mongolian  plateau.  The  Mongols 
leapt  into  prominence  in  the  Middle  Ages 
for  a  brief  period  under  Jenghiz  Khan,  but 
their  part  in  the  racial  history  of  Asia  is 
obscure.  The  word  "mong"  means  brave. 
The  head  is  round  and  low  and  the  nose 
broad,  but  even  among  the  Kalmuck  there  is 
a  type  with  a  narrow  nose. 

Mongoloid.  (1)  Stock  with  two  main 
branches  (a)  Mongolo-Tartar,  or  Mongols 
proper,  including  Sharra,  Kalmuck,  and 
Buriat  ;  (b)  Tibeto-Indo-Chinese,  including 
the  bulk  of  the  populations  of  Further  India, 
Indo-China,  Himalayan  peoples,  Chinese  and 
Tibetans  ;  a  sub-branch  of  Oceanic  Mongols 
includes  the  peoples  called  better  Proto-Malay 
from  whom  the  present  Malay  are  derived.  The 
term  Mongol  was  originally  applied  to  nomads 
recruited  from  Turki  and  other  tribes  ;  it 
now  often  means  all  Asiatics  with  round 
heads  and  straight  hair.  They  have  a 
yellowish  skin,  and  often  oblique  eyes.  They 
are  usually  short,  and  though  the  cheek- 
bones are  prominent  the  face  generally  is  fiat. 
The  plateau  of  Central  Asia  may  be  regarded 
as  their  centre  of  origin.  (2)  Group  of  people 
in  India,  Nepal,  Assam,  and  Burma,  of  which' 
the  Kanet,  Lepcha,  Limbu,  Murmi,  Bodo, 
and  the  Burmese  are  representatives.  They 
are  short,  with  dark  complexions,  tinged  with 
yellow  ;  the  hair  is  scanty,  the  head  broad, 
with  characteristic  flat  "face  and  oblique 

Mongolo  -  Dravidian.  Group,  also 
termed  Bengali,  found  in  Bengal  and  Orissa. 
In  it  are  Tibeto-Burman  elements  mingled 
with  Caucasian.  The  complexion  is  dark 
and  the  head  noticeably  broad. 

Mon-Khmer  Languages.  Group  of 
tongues  spoken  in  south-east  Asia.  They  are 
allied  on  the  one  side  to  the  Munda  languages 


Dictionary  of  Races 

of  India,  on  the  other  to  Polynesian, 
Melanesian,  etc.,  and,  more  distantly  to  the 
Indo-Chinese  languages.  The  group  includes 
the  languages  of  the  Mekong ;  Mon,  also 
called  Talaing  or  Peguan,  Annamese,  etc  ; 
Khmer  or  Cambodian  ;  Palaung  -  Wa, 
Chindwin,  etc.  ;  and  Khasi,  including 
Synteng,  War,  etc. 

Montagnais.  French  name  for  an 
Algonquian-speaking  tribe  of  the  Mackenzie 
Group.  Roaming  from  the  south  of  Labrador 
nearly  to  the  St.  Lawrence,  they  are  a  timid 
people,  but  were  inveterate  foes  of  the 

Montenegrins.  Serbo-Croat  people,  whose 
name  is  derived  from  the  Black  Mountain, 
where  they  dwell. 

Monumbo.  Papuan  -  speaking  people. 
They  live  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Pots- 
damhafen,  in  what  was  formerly  German 
New  Guinea. 

Mop  la  or  Mappilla.  Hybrid  Mahome- 
dan  people  of  the  western  coast  of  south 
India.  Their  numbers  are  increasing  by  the 
conversion  of  the  lower  caste  natives.  On 
the  coast  they  are  traders,  in  the  interior 
cultivators  ;  prosperous  and  successful  in 
both.  The  head  is  of  curious  shape  like  a 
coconut,  with  high  forehead  and  pointed 
crown,  made  more  conspicuous  by  their 
custom  of  shaving  the  head.  They  are 
enterprising  and  industrious  ;  some  enlist 
in  the  army  and  prove  themselves  hardy  and 
courageous.  They  appear  to  be  unusually 
fertile  ;  there  is  a  case  on  record  of  a  Mopla 
with  seven  wives,  each  of  whom  had  presented 
him  with  seven  sons,  not  to  speak  of  a  large 
consignment  of  daughters. 

Moqui.  Synonym  of  Hopi,  derived  from 
some  foreign  tongue. 

Mordoff.     Language  of  the  Mordvins. 

Mordvin.  Finnic  people  of  the  Volga 
basin  who  long  maintained  their  pagan 
religion.  They  are  short  headed  and  of 
medium  stature,  with  hair  that  is  chestnut 
or  black,  but  never  red  ;  the  eyes  are  often 
blue  and  sometimes  oblique,  and  the  face  oval. 
They  are  a  hard-working,  thrifty  people, 
among  whom  the  father  has  comparatively 
little  power  over  his  children. 

Moriori.  Inhabitants  of  the  Chatham 
Islands,  eastward  of  New  Zealand.  They 
emigrated  thither  from  New  Zealand  six  or 
seven  hundred  years  ago,  and  are  a  people  of 
mixed  type  with  long  and  short-headed 
elements  in  about  equal  numbers.  It  is  quite 
likely  that  the  long-headed  group  represents 
a  Caucasian  element,  for  it  is  generally 
agreed  that  a  people  of  this  type  was  promi- 
nent in  India  some  thousands  of  years  ago, 
and  India  or  Further  India  is  the  natural 
jumping-off  place  for  those  who  went  forth 
into  the  watery  wastes  of  Oceania.  The 
short-headed  people  are  of  the  same  type  as 
was  prominent  in  the  western  part  of 
Polynesia  and  must  have  come  from  there  ; 
passing,  probably,  through  Micronesia  on 
their  way  from  the  Asiatic  continent  to 
western  Polynesia. 

Moros.  Round-headed  Philippine  people 
of  Mindanao  and  the  Sulu  Archipelago,  so 
called  by  the  Spaniards  because  of  their  dark 
complexion.     They  are  below  medium  height, 

but  are  taller  than  the  Ifugao,  Igorot,  etc.  ; 
the  type  resembles  that  of  the  Menankabau 
Malay  of  Sumatra.  They  are  said  to  be  the 
most  faithful  and  intelligent  people  of  the 
Philippines.  Their  real  name  is  Magindano. 
Mosquito.  Properly  Miskito,  an  Indian 
tribe  of  the  eastern  shore  of  Nicaragua. 

Mossi.  Tribe  of  the  Volta  group  in  the 
great  bend  of  the  Niger.  The  language  is 
called  Mole. 

Mpongwe.  Bantu-speaking  people  of  the 
Gabun  area,  not  to  be  confused  with  the 
Pangwe,  the  name  they  apply  to  the  Fang 
of  the  same  neighbourhood.  The  language  of 
the  Mpongwe  is  allied  to  that  of  the  Galoa. 
Their  real  name  seems  to  be  Abuka. 

Mumuye.  Fula  name  of  a  tribe  of  the 
northern  provinces  of  Nigeria,  which  calls 
itself  Fungun  or  Zagum.  They  are  allied 
to  the  Waka,  Yakoko,  Zinna,  etc.,  all  of  them 
south  of  the  Benue  river.  They  are  an 
agricultural  people,  whose  staple  food  is 
yams,  but  cattle  are  also  kept,  though  they 
give  no  milk.  They  put  a  stone  over  the 
grave,  without  filling  it  in  and  later  remove 
the  skull  and  carry  it  in  a  pot  to  its  resting- 
place  in  the  village.  They  speak  a  language 
of  the  Adamaua  group. 

Munda  Languages.  Group  of  languages 
of  Hindustan  shown  to  be  related  to  the 
Mon-Khmer  and  Austronesian  families.  It 
includes  Mundari,  Ho,  Santal,  Kurku,  etc., 
and  was  at  one  time  called  Kolarian. 

Mundrucu.  South  American  tribe  of  the 

Munshi.  Tribe  of  the  northern  provinces 
of  Nigeria,  south  of  the  Benue,  whose  proper 
name  appears  to  be  Tivi.  Said  to  number 
about  350,000,  they  speak  a  semi-Bantu 
language  of  the  Nigerian  group,  are  of 
medium  stature  but  muscular,  unusually 
black  in  colour,  and  the  men  grow  beards 
of  some  length,  which  they  plait  into  three 
or  more  strands.  They  use  hollow  wooden 
drums  for  sending  messages.  They  are  a 
warlike  tribe,  hostile  to  the  white  man,  and 
excellent  hunters  and  farmers.  They  are 
confirmed  cannibals,  but  by  no  means 
repulsive  in  appearance. 

Murut.  Tribe  of  the  Kalamantan  group, 
Borneo.  They  live  in  long  communal  houses 
built  on  the  banks  of  rivers,  and  are  mainly 
long  headed,  but  there  is  a  considerable 
brachycephalic  element. 

Muskogee.  Group  of  tribes  in  the  south- 
east of  the  United  States,  including 
Choctaw,  Creeks,  etc.,  who  were  transferred 
to  Oklahoma  ;  they  seem  to  be  mostly  round- 
headed,  but  the  nose  varies  in  breadth. 

Mwamba.  Language  of  the  Bawanda  of 
British  Central  Africa,  nearly  related  to 
the  Nkonde. 

Naga.  Number  of  tribes  of  the  hill 
country  south  of  the  Brahmaputra,  including 
the  Angami,  Lhota,  Ao,  Sema  Naga,  etc. 
The  languages  are  of  the  Assamese-Burmese 
type.  The  skull  is  of  medium  length  and 
the  average  varies  for  the  different  tribes, 
the  Kezami  Naga  being  quite  long  headed. 
He  is  tall,  from  5  ft.  9  in.  to  6  ft.,  and  has 
great  powers  of  endurance,  carrying  a  60  lb. 
load  with  ease  with  a  forehead  shng.  The 
facial   type   varies   from   one   with   flattened 


Dictionary  of  Races 

nose  and  oblique  eyes  to  one  with  almost 
Caucasian  traits  ;  the  eye  is  brown,  the  hair 
reddish  in  childhood,  but  always  black  in 
later  life,  is  wavy  or  even  curly.  The  skin  is 
fair  and  ruddy  cheeks  may  be  seen,  accom- 
panied at  times  by  freckles.  The  people  are 
intelligent  and  readily  assimilate  novelties 
such  as  vaccination ;  but  they  are  in  no 
hurry  to  adopt  new  manners  from  love  of 
novelty.  They  are  independent,  frank, 
honest,  hospitable,  genial,  and  very  loyal, 
but  given  to  exaggeration. 

Nago.      See  Yoruba. 

Nahua  Area.  District  of  Central 
America  inhabited  by  tribes  descended  from 
the  Maya,  Aztec,  and  other  peoples  civilized 
before  the  discovery  of  America.  They  had 
extensive  agriculture  (maize,  beans,  etc.), 
spun  fine  cotton,  used  large  canoes,  picture 
writing,  etc.  Their  descendants  fall  far  short 
of  the  old  standard,  for  the  Maya  culture  was 
confined  to  the  priests,  and,  with  the  Aztec 
culture,  passed  into  oblivion  at  the  Spanish 

Nandi.  East  African  people  living  near 
Mount  Elgon.  Of  apparently  mixed  origin 
and  related  to  the  Masai,  Turkana,  etc., 
with  negro,  Masai,  and  pygmy  elements, 
possibly  also  Galla,  they  are  said  to  be  nearly 
related  in  language  to  the  Bari.  They  are 
hardy  mountaineers  and  skilful  warriors  who 
refused  access  to  strangers  ;  but  they  cannot 
have  resided  in  their  present  country  for 
many  generations,  for  before  them  came  an 
agricultural  people  who  made  use  of  irriga- 
tion. They  were  probably  hunters  originally, 
but  they  have  taken  to  cultivating  the  ground  ; 
men  clear  the  land  and  then  all  the  work 
is  done  by  women.  The  chief  occupation  of 
the  men  and  big  boys  is  cattle  herding,  and 
the  bulk  of  the  stock  live  on  the  pastures 
away  from  their  owners'  homes.  The  Nandi 
are  classed  with  the  Niloto-Hamitic  tribes, 
but  are  in  physical  type  much  nearer  the 

Napo.  Geographical  designation  for  many 
distinct  tribes  of  the  River  Napo,  such  as  the 
Orejones,  who  take  their  name  from  the  large 
wooden  studs  worn  in  their  ears.  There  are 
no  individual  houses  in  this  area  ;  one  large 
circular  dwelling,  ten  yards  high  and  sixty 
yards  or  more  in  circumference,  lodges  the 
whole  group,  which  moves  on  to  another 
residence  when,  after  two  or  three  years,  the 
old  one  becomes  ruinous. 

Nascopies  or  Nascapees.  Algonquian 
tribe  of  Labrador,  who  call  themselves  Nane- 
not,  "  true  men."  Their  accepted  name  is  a 
term  of  reproach  applied  by  the  Montagnais. 

Natchez.  Muskogian  tribe  of  the  Lower 
Mississippi  who  worshipped  the  sun. 

Nayar.  Originally  a  member  of  a 
military  body,  but  now  of  a  caste  including 
a  number  of  occupations  on  the  Malabar 
coast  of  south  India.  They  are  said  to 
have  practised  polyandry  until  within  recent 
times,  but  though  marriage  is  still  dissoluble 
at  will  and  descent  is  reckoned  through  the 
mother,  a  woman  is  now  restricted  to  one 
husband.  As  a  class  the  Nayars  are  the  best 
educated  and  most  advanced  of  all  com- 
munities in  Malabar,  and  are  the  equals  in- 
tellectually of  the  Brahmans  of  the  east  coast. 

Negrillo.  Woolly-haired  pygmy  of  the 
equatorial  forests  of  Africa.  The  skin 
colour  is  reddish  or  yellowish  brown  and  the 
hair  rusty  brown,  sometimes  very  dark. 
In  stature  they  vary  from  4  ft.  4  in.  to  4  ft. 
9  in.  ;  unlike  the  typical  negro,  they  have 
thin  lips.  They  are  nomadic  hunters  without 
domestic  animals  and  rely  on  exchange  with 
negro  tribes  for  agricultural  products. 

Negrito.  Term  covering  the  pygmy 
woolly-haired  black  peoples  outside  Africa, 
such  as  the  Andamanese,  Semang,  Aetas. 
In  stature  they  fall  short  of  5  ft.,  and  the 
skin  colour  varies  from  sooty  to  dark  chocolate 
brown.  The  head  is  medium  or  round,  and 
it  is  not  uncommon  to  find  the  nose  much 
sunken  at  the  root,  a  feature  shared  with 
many  Australian  aborigines. 

Negro.  Dark  -  skinned,  woolly  -  haired 
inhabitants  of  west  and  central  Africa, 
including  the  negro  proper,  the  Nilote,  and 
Bantu-speaking  peoples.  The  hair  is  almost 
invariably  black,  but  red  hair  is  found 
sporadically  ;  the  skin  colour  is  never  quite 
black,  but  varies  from  dark  chocolate  to 
yellowish-brown  within  the  same  tribe  ; 
the  height  varies,  but  probably  the  average 
is  about  5  ft.  4  in.  The  head  is  generally 
long,  but  in  many  tribes  there  is  an  admixture 
of  a  round-headed  type.  Some  of  the  Bantu 
tribes  are  pastoral,  but  the  West  African 
negro  depends  on  agriculture,  though  he 
keeps  goats,  sheep,  fowls,  and  sometimes 
cattle  ;  near  important  rivers  fish  is  largely 
used  as  food.  Under  European  influence 
the  negro  is  often  lazy,  but  in  unsophisticated 
tribes  he  does  not  shirk  the  laborious  tasks 
of  agriculture  where  the  only  tool  is  a  hoe. 

Neo-Siberians.  Tribes  of  central  Asiatic 
origin  that  have  been  resident  in  Siberia 
so  long  and  have  become  so  hybridised  as  to 
call  for  a  generic  name.  They  include  tribes 
formerly  called  Ural-Altaian  or  Turanian 
as  well  as  Finnic  tribes  like  the  Ostyak 
(in  part)  and  the  Vogul,  the  Samoyeds, 
Mongolic,  and  Tungusic  tribes,  and  some 
Turkic,  the  most  important  being  the  Yakut. 
There  is,  however,  considerable  diversity 
of  physical  type. 

Netherlands  or  Low  Countries. 
Kingdoms  of  Holland  and  Belgium,  in  which 
are  spoken  Frisian,  Dutch,  Flemish,  and 
Walloon.  The  population  falls  into  two 
sections  :  one,  inhabiting  the  Ardennes 
plateau  and  some  of  the  coastal  parts  of 
Holland,  is  markedly  short  headed  and  dark  ; 
those  of  the  plains  of  Flanders  and  most  of 
Holland,  on  the  other  hand,  are  longer- 
headed  and  fair  in  type  ;  but  even  in  Friesland 
there  are  quite  a  number  of  round-headed 
folk  of  the  same  type  as  we  find  on  the  coast 
of  Scotland  and  southern  Norway,  who  differ 
from  the  central  European  round  heads  in 
having  a  head  that  is  low  in  proportion  to 
its  length.  This  type  seems  to  have  persisted 
since  Neolithic  times,  more  than  four  thousand 
years  ago.  They  were,  however,  probably 
reinforced  at  the  time  of  the  great  tribal 
migrations  of  the  sixth  century  by  central 
Europeans  of  another  type.  At  this  period 
there  were  quite  a  number  of  Frankish  long 
heads  in  south  Belgium  as  well  as  in  Friesland  ; 
a    different    type    predominated    among   the 


Dictionary  of  Races 

women,  who  were  of  the  type  of  folk  that 
lived  in  the  Belgian  uplands  in  the  Iron  Age  ; 
no  doubt  the  invaders  did  not  hesitate  to 
kill  off  the  males  and  take  the  females  as 
wives.  This  Teutonic  invasion  produced 
little  lasting  effect  in  the  south  of  Belgium  ; 
farther  north,  in  the  open  lowlands,  both 
the  physical  type  and  the  language  give 
evidence  of  the  invasion  ;  in  the  Dutch 
coastal  regions  the  type  has  been  less  affected, 
but  the  language  is  the  same  as  that  of  the 
rest  of  the  country. 

Newars.  People  of  Nepal.  They  are  of 
mixed  origin,  with  possibly  Mongol  and  south 
Indian  relationships.  Their  language,  which 
resembles  Tibetan,  is  called  Gubhaijius. 

Ngombe.  Bantu-speaking  people  of  the 
central  Congo,  with  probably  some  admixture 
of  pygmy  blood.  The  word  means,  perhaps, 
"  bush  people." 

Nigerian  Semi-Bantu.  Group  of 
Sudanic  languages,  apparently  of  considerable 
size,  including  Kamuku,  Kamberi,  Yeskwa, 
Munshi,  etc. 

Nilotic  Languages.  Of  these  there  are 
two  groups  ;  the  Niloto-Hamitic  and  the 
Niloto-Sudanic,  the  latter  forming  a  sub- 
group of  the  eastern  Sudanic  languages. 

Niloto-Sudanic  Languages.  Group  of 
the  eastern  Sudanic  languages.  It  includes 
Mittu,  Madi,  Abukaya,  Luba,  Wira,  Lendu, 
Moru  ;  the  Shilluk  stock  ;  Dinka  and  Nuer. 
Nordic  Race.  Fair,  long-headed  race, 
possibly  of  comparatively  recent  origin, 
whose  typical  representatives  are  found  in 
north  Europe,  e.g.  Scandinavians.  With 
this  race  have  also  been  classed  Thracians, 
Kurds,  Afghans,  some  Persians,  Dards,  etc. 
The  complexion  is  ruddy  and  the  eyes  are 
often  blue  ;  in  stature  Nordic  man  surpasses 
the  Mediterraneans  and  Alpines.  Tempera- 
mentally he  differs  widely  from  the  other 
two  races  ;  in  Europe  he  is  steadfast,  ener- 
getic, reliable,  and  somewhat  stolid. 

Norwegians.  Inhabitants  of  Norway,  who 
speak  a  language  of  the  Scandinavian  section 
of  Teutonic.  We  know  little  of  changes  in 
the  population  of  Norway,  but  history  tells 
of  the  exploits  of  the  Vikings  or  Norsemen 
who  raided  and  sometimes  invaded  the  lands 
that  offered  promise  of  plunder,  including  the 
British  Isles,  France,  and  more  remote  shores. 
Norsemen  colonised  Iceland  and  settled 
colonists  on  the  inhospitable  coasts  of  Green- 
land, and  there  is  reason  to  suppose  that 
they  sailed  south  of  Labrador  and  landed  in 
New  England  not  long  after  without,  however, 
effecting  any  permanent  lodgment.  In  me- 
dieval times  and  in  our  own  days  Norway, 
the  west  coast  excepted,  represents  one  of  the 
chief  centres  of  the  Nordic  race,  characterised 
by  tall  stature,  a  fair  complexion,  and  a  long 
head.  If  the  Viking  was  a  typical  Nordic 
man,  it  seems  as  if  the  type  has  changed  in 
the  last  thousand  years,  as  it  has  over  the 
greater  part  of  Europe. 

Nosu.  People  of  south-west  China, 
probably  a  Lolo  tribe. 

Nuaroak,  Group  of  South  American 
tribes  usually  called  Arawak. 

Nuba.  Mixed  people  of  Kordofan.  Three 
types  are  readily  distinguishable,  negro, 
Hamitic,   and  Bantoid    (i.e.,   one   resembling 

in  appearance  the  north-eastern  Bantu  of 
Uganda).  They  lie  west  of  the  true  Nilotes 
and  have  a  considerable  short-headed  element, 
but  the  decrease  in  stature  that  might 
accompany  this  is  counter-balanced  by  the 
Hamitic  element. 

Nupe.  Tribe  of  the  Middle  Niger.  Formerly 
they  were  notorious  slave-raiders.  Their 
language  gives  its  name  to  a  group  of  negro 
languages,  including  Gbari,  Jukun,  Igbirra. 
Nyanja,  Anyanja  or  Mang'anja. 
People  of  Nyasaland.  Related  to  the  Maka- 
langa,  they  are  of  medium  stature,  with  long 
heads.  There  is  much  difference  between 
river  and  hill  people,  the  latter  being  of 
poorer  physique,  while  the  so-called  Angoni 
of  the  Upper  Shire,  really  conquered  Anyanja, 
are  small,  wiry  men,  usually  rather  dark. 

Nyika  or  Wanyika.  Group  of  tribes 
in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  Tana  river, 
including  the  Wagiriama,  the  Wadigo,  etc. 
The  name  is  also  applied  to  a  quite  distinct 
group  north-west  of  Nyasa.  The  word  "nyika" 
means  wilderness. 

Ojibwa  or  Chippewa.  Large  American- 
Indian  tribe  of  Algonquian  speech.  They 
were  formerly  located  near  Lakes  Huron  and 
Superior,  and  still  number  30,000.  They 
were  expert  canoemen  and  lived  largely  on 
fish  ;  their  wigwams  were  of  birch  bark  or 
grass  mats  ;  they  believed  in  manito,  objects 
endowed  with  a  mysterious  power,  and 
regarded  dreams  as  revelations. 

Ona.  Branch  of  the  Patagonian  Tehuelche, 
or  Chuelche,  now  resident  in  the  east  of  Tierra 
del  Fuego. 

Oneida.  Tribe  of  the  Iroquois  confedera- 
tion, formerly  resident  in  New  York,  where  a 
few  hundred  of  them  are  still  to  be  found. 
In  olden  times  they  were  reputed  to  be 
cruel,  cunning,  and  prone  to  bloodshed. 

Onondaga.  Important  Iroquois  tribe  for- 
merly resident  in  New  York,  where  a  few  still 
remain.  There  are  nine  clans  in  Canada  on 
Grand  River  reserve,  which  they  received 
in  recognition  of  their  support  of  the  British 
in  the  war  of  1812-14. 

Orang  Bukit  or  Land  People.  Generic 
term  for  the  ruder  inland  pre-Malayan  peoples 
of  the  Malay  Peninsula,  Borneo,  etc. 

Orang  Barat.  Aborigines  of  Billiton, 
Dutch  East  Indies.  They  are,  perhaps,  akin 
to  the  Battas. 

Orang  Ulu,  Malay  name  of  a  wild  tribe 
of  Sumatra,  who  live  on  anything  that  comes 
to  hand  and  do  not  practise  agriculture. 

Orang  Sekah,  Malayan  boat  people  of 

Orejone.      See  Napo. 

Oriya.  Language  of  Orissa,  allied  to 
Bengali,  Bihari,  and  Assamese. 

Ossetes.  Foreign  name  of  a  people  of 
the  Caucasus  who  call  themselves  Iroi,  Tualt, 
and  Digor,  without  any  common  appellation 
for  the  whole  people.  The  language  is  Indo- 
European,  but  not  Iranian,  and  is  not  related 
to  that  of  any  other  Caucasus  people. 
Blond  hair  and  blue  eyes  are  common 
among  them,  and  they  salute  by  removing 
the  hat — a  form  not  practised  by  any 
other  Caucasus  people.  The  men  are  tail 
and  strong,  but  leave  all  work  to  the 
women.     The  head  is  shortish,  and  they  seem 


Dictionary  of  Races 

to  be  of  mixed  origin  ;  some  have  Mongoloid 
eyes,  but  they  are,  as  a  rule,  blond  with  some 
blue  eyes.  They  are  physically  inferior  to 
other  Caucasus  peoples,  but  dominated  them 
by  force  of  character.  They  were  at  one 
time  notorious  for  brigandage. 

Ostyak.  (i)  Palaeo-Siberian  tribe  on  the 
lower  Yenisei;  (2)  Finno-Ugrian  tribeof  theObi. 

Otomi.  People  of  Mexico.  There  are  two 
distinct  types,  one  tall,  yellow,  with  oblique 
eyes  ;  the  other  small,  dark,  with  straight 
eyes,  which  are  specially  common  among 
women.  Men  wear  pigtails.  They  use  two 
kinds  of  granary,  one  on  posts,  the  other 
with  sticks  in  cobwork.  They  are  a  somewhat 
stupid  people  and  despised  accordingly. 

Ottawa.  Algonquian  tribe  noted  as 
traders,  whence  their  name.  They  were 
originally  a  rude  people,  and  went  unclothed, 
but  when  they  took  to  agriculture  they  became 
more  civilized. 

Ova-Herero.  Tribe  of  south-west  Africa, 
speaking  Bantu.  They  are  known  to  the 
Hottentot  tribes  as  Damara. 

Ovambo  or  Ovampo.  Bantu-speaking 
tribe  of  Damaraland. 

Padaung.  People  of  Burma.  They  are 
remarkable  for  the  amount  of  brass  wire 
worn  as  ornaments  by  the  women  ;  they 
begin  with  five  coils,  as  thick  as  the  little 
finger,  on  the  neck,  and  add  more  as  the 
neck  stretches,  till  as  many  as  twenty-one 
are  reached  weighing  80  lb. 

Pahari.  Language  of  the  lower  Hima- 
layas, Indo-Aryan  of  the  Inner  sub-Branch. 
It  includes  Khas-Kura  or  Nepalese,  etc.  The 
people  seem  to  be  descended  from  the  Khasa 
of  Pliny  and  other  ancient  writers.  The 
Khasa  hailed  from  central  Asia,  and  were 
related  to  the  Pisacha  or  cannibals  of  Indian 
writers  ;  the  Gurjara  joined  the  Khasa  some 
thirteen  hundred  years  ago  and  influenced 
the  language,  which  is  allied  to  Rajasthani. 

Paiwan.  Group  of  uncivilized  tribes  of 
the  extreme  south  of  Formosa.  In  their  ears 
they  wear  a  circular  piece  of  wood  about 
an  inch  in  diameter  ;  they  were  once  great 
head-hunters  and  preserve  their  trophies  in 
stone  boxes  specially  made  for  the  purpose. 

Palaco- Siberian.  Group  name  of  the 
most  ancient  Siberian  stock.  Formerly  called 
Palaeasiatic,  they  include  the  Chukchi, 
Koryak,  Kamchadal,  Ainu,  Gilyak,  Eskimo, 
and  other  peoples.  It  was  formerly  an 
accepted  view  that  they  represent  ancient 
peoples  driven  back  by  later  comers  to  the 
north-east  of  the  continent  ;  but  there  are 
grounds  for  arguing  that  they  are  related 
physically  and  culturally  with  the  natives  of 
north-west  America,  probably  in  respect  of 
language  also,  and  that  they  represent  a 
recent  backwash,  not  the  primitive  stock 
from  which  the  American  tribes  issued.  It 
must,  however,  be  noted  that  the  group  seems 
to  contain  elements  of  very  diverse  origins, 
for  while  the  Eskimo  are  very  long  headed, 
the  Gilyak  and  other  tribes  are  round  headed. 
Generally  speaking,  they  are  peoples  with 
flat  faces,  prominent  cheek-bones,  oblique 
eyes,  yellowish-brown  colour,  lank  hair,  and 
sparse  beard. 

Palaung.  People  of  Burma.  Speaking  a 
Mon-Khmer   tongue   and   allied    to    the    Wa, 

they  live  on  the  Upper  and  Middle  Mekong. 
They  are  a  peaceable  and  industrious  but 
uncouth  and  hypocritical  people,  short  and 
sturdily  built,  with  fair  skins  and  eyes,  grey 
or  light  brown  being  not  uncommon.  They 
have  no  facial  resemblance  to  the  Mon. 

Papuans.  Inhabitants  of  New  Guinea 
other  than  recent  Melanesian  immigrants  and 
pygmies,  together  with  the  Louisiade  Islanders, 
and  many  Malaysian  islands  westwards  from 
New  Guinea  as  far  as  Flores.  True  Papuans 
appear  to  be  dominant  in  the  Aru  group  and 
perhaps  in  Flores  ;  a  hybrid  type  in  Timor, 
the  Kei  group,  Ceram,  etc.  The  hair  is  black, 
frizzly  and  mop-like,  but  the  beard  is  scanty 
or  absent ;  the  skin  is  deep  chocolate-brown. 
There  is  a  wide  range  in  stature,  and  the  skull 
is  also  variable,  extremely  long  or,  in  areas 
of  mixture,  short.  In  temperament  the 
Papuan  is  excitable  and  imaginative  ;  he  is 
not  unintelligent.  Although  he  reckons  as 
an  Oceanic  negro,  it  must  be  remembered 
that  his  nose  is  large,  straight,  and  generally 
aquiline,  but  blunt  and  with  wide  nostrils  ; 
it  therefore  departs  considerably  from  the 
type  of  negro  nose  found  in  Africa. 

Papuasian.  General  term  for  Oceanic 
negroes,  including  both  Papuan  and  Mela- 
nesian, together  with  negritos  and  Tasmanians. 
Papuo-Melanesian.  Name  given  to  the 
mixed  peoples  of  the  eastern  peninsula  of 
New  Guinea  and  the  islands  beyond,  who 
have  been  influenced  by  a  relatively  late 
Melanesian  backwash.  They  are  smaller  and 
lighter-coloured  than  the  true  Papuan.  The 
head  is  not  so  high,  but  brow  ridges  are  more 
prominent,  while  the  forehead  is  usually 
rounded  and  not  retreating.  Skin  colour 
varies  from  light  yellow  to  dark  bronze,  and 
for  some  obscure  reason  the  lightest'shades  are 
always  found  among  the  women.  The  nose 
is  generally  smaller  than  in  the  Papuan,  who 
has  what  is  often  called  the  Jewish  type — 
long,  stout,  and  arched. 

Parsee.  Originally  a  synonym  for  Persian 
but  now  the  name  of  a  religious  sect,  wor- 
shippers of  the  sun. 

Pasuma.  Sumatran  tribe  south  of  the 
Korinchi.  They  have,  perhaps,  been  subjected 
to  Javanese  influence. 

Pawnee.  Tribe  of  Plains  Indians  speaking 
a  Caddoan  tongue  who  dressed  the  scalp- 
lock  with  grease  and  fat  so  that  it  stood  up 
like  a  horn,  whence  their  name.  Religious 
rites,  including  human  sacrifice,  were  observed 
in  connexion  with  the  cultivation  of  maize, 
and  the  morning  and  evening  star  were 
important  in  their  beliefs, 

Pepo  or  Pepowan.  Name  applied  by 
the  Chinese  to  the  uncivilized  tribes  of  the 
western  plains  of  Formosa. 

Permiak.  Eastern  Finnic  tribe  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  Perm.  They  were  originally 
on  the  Arctic  seaboard,  where  Samoyed  have 
now  replaced  them,  for  King  Alfred  speaks  of 
Beorma,  the  Biarmians  of  the  Norsemen. 
They  are  now  much  mixed  with  Russians. 

Pigmies.  Alternative  spelling  of  Pygmies 

Pisacha.  Non-Sanskritic  Indo-Aryan  lan- 

Plains  Indians.  Group  of  American 
tribes,    originally   dependent   largely   on   the 


Dictionary   of  Races 

bison  for  food  and  clothing.  Famous  as 
workers  in  skins,  they  lacked  basketry  and 
pottery.  They  had  their  habitat  in  the  plains 
west  of  the  Mississippi.  They  took  to  the 
horse  in  historic  times.  The  typical  dwelling 
was  the  tipi,  a  tripod  of  poles  covered  with 
birch-bark  or  bison  skin.  Canoes  were  un- 
known, and  they  did  not  fish.  The  Sun  Dance 
was  a  famous  ceremony. 

Plateau  Tribes.      Indians  living  in  the 
interior  of  British  Columbia.    They  make  grea- 
use  of  salmon,  deer,  roots,  and  berries  as  food 
their   winter    houses    are    half    underground 
highly  developed  basketry,   but  no  pottery 
clothing  usually  of  deerskin,  with  skin  caps 
for  men,  basket  caps  for  women.     The  dog  is 
used  as  a  pack  animal,  but  canoes  are  of  little 

Poles.  Inhabitants  of  Poland,  speaking  a 
language  of  the  western  sub-group  of  Slavonic 
languages.  It  is  a  matter  of  dispute  what 
the  original  Slav  type  was.  The  matter  is 
complicated  by  the  fact  that  by  the  fifteenth 
century  Poland  was  occupied  by  a  people 
as  round  headed  as  that  of  Russia.  In  the 
present  day  there  is  in  Poland  a  predominance 
of  round  heads  with  a  strong  element  of 
people  with  heads  of  medium  length  in  the 
north  and  north-west,  where  is  found  also 
the  darker  type  ;  difference  of  stature  goes 
in  general  with  difference  in  social  status,  the 
peasant  being  short.  In  the  Pinsk  marshes 
is  found  a  type  with  straight,  light  yellow, 
or  flaxen  hair  with  blue  eyes,  square  cut 
face,  and  nose  frequently  turned  up.  This 
has  been  regarded  as  a  distinct  race  by  some 

Polynesian.  Mixed  stock  speaking  Austro- 
nesian  tongues,  often  with  an  underlying 
Melanesian  stratum.  It  has  been  supposed 
that  the  Proto-Polynesian  stock  was  Indo- 
nesian mixed  with  Proto-Malayan,  and, 
drifting  into  the  western  Pacific,  it  imposed 
on  the  Oceanic  negroes  now  known  as  Mela- 
nesians  their  language  and  some  elements  of 
culture.  Later  migrations  colonised  the  east 
Pacific,  possibly  from  Samoa.  The  typical 
Polynesian  is  tall,  with  a  head  usually  long 
or  medium,  black  straight  or  wavy  hair,  and 
light  brown  complexion.  They  are  capable 
seamen,  but  the  huge  canoes  of  former  times 
are  no  longer  in  use.  They  are  on  the  whole 
indolent  save  where,  as  in  the  case  of  the 
Maori,  the  climate  has  favoured  a  more 
energetic  type.  They  are  dependent  in  most 
cases  on  agriculture.  An  analysis  of  their 
culture  shows  that  more  than  one  stream  of 
migration  has  gone  to  make  up  the  popu- 
lation of  these  scattered  islets. 

Portuguese.  Inhabitants  of  Portugal 
who  speak,  together  with  the  Galego  of  north- 
west Spain,  a  tongue  belonging  to  the  Romance 
sub-group  of  European  languages.  In  general 
the  population  of  Portugal  is  composed  of  the 
same  elements  as  that  of  Spain,  but  the 
average  skull  is  considerably  longer,  as  there 
seem  to  be  no  pockets  of  round  heads  ;  the 
type  is,  however,  by  no  means  uniform,  as  a 
negroid  skull  is  found  in  mountainous  areas. 
Prakrit.  Non-Sanskritic  language  of  the 
Iudo-Aryan  group,  including  Bengali,  Hindi, 
and  Hindustani,  Punjabi,  Gujarati,  Marathi, 
Oriya,  Sindhi,  etc. 

Pre-Dravidian.  Name  given  to  certain 
jungle  tribes  of  India,  the  Sakai  of  Malaysia, 
the  main  element  in  the  Australian  aborigines, 
the  Toala,  of  Celebes,  etc.  The  hair  is  wavy 
or  curly  and  usually  black,  the  skin  colour 
dark  brown,  the  skull  very  long  (Vedda)  or 
rather  broad  (Toala).  As  a  rule  these  tribes 
have  not  advanced  to  the  point  of  becoming 
cultivators  of  the   ground. 

Pschaws.  Georgian  people,  taller  and 
slenderer  than  the  Grusinian  and  darkish  in 
complexion,  but  often  with  grey  or  blue 
eyes.  The  face  is  rather  sharp,  but  they 
are  a  dignified  people,  though  lively  in 

Punan.  Mild,  unwarlike  jungle  tribe  of 
Borneo,  not  unlike  the  Ukit. 

Punjabi.  Indo-Aryan  tongue,  spoken 
by  the  Sikhs  and  others. 

Pygmies.  Negrillo  of  central  Africa  and 
the  negrito  of  the  Malay  Peninsula,  New 
Guinea,  etc.  It  seems  certain  that  these 
people  are  of  mixed  origin,  for  there  is  great 
variation  in  the  physical  characters  of 
negritos.  The  negrito  element  among  the 
Mafulu  of  New  Guinea  is  dark  sooty  brown 
in  complexion,  while  the  Tapiro  are  at  times 
yellow ;  the  hair  of  the  former  is  usually 
brown  or  black,  but  sometimes  so  light  that 
it  would  not  be  termed  dark  in  Europe. 
The  negrillo  group  is  imperfectly  known  and 
scattered  among  Central  African  Bantu- 
speaking  tribes  ;  they  are  of  very  primitive 
culture,  and  depend  wholly  on  hunting,  but 
obtain  other  products  by  exchange  from 
surrounding  tribes,  whose  languages  they 
usually  speak.  They  are  of  very  short  stature, 
from  4  ft.  3  in.  upwards,  and  differ  from  the 
negro  in  having  a  reddish-yellow  skin  and 
somewhat  hairy  body.  Their  noses  are  flat, 
but  the  skull  is  mainly  of  non-negroid  type, 
being  distinctly  short,  though  in  some  groups 
long  heads  are  in  a  majority,  and  it  seems 
probable  that  there  are  in  reality  two  pygmy 
types.  It  is  probable  that  they  are  pre-negro, 
but  practically  nothing  is  known  of  a  real 
pygmy  language.  They  do  not  appear  to  be 
related  to  the  Bushman,  and  differ  from  him 
especially  in  the  strong  projection  of  the 
lower  part  of  the  face. 

Quiche.  Tribe  of  the  centre  of  Guatemala. 
They  are  rather  below  middle  size,  of  yellow 
brown  to  copper  in  colour,  with  round  full 
faces  of  mild  expression.  The  eyes  are  black 
and  small,  with  the  outer  angle  turned 
upwards  ;  the  head  is  described  as  slightly 
conical.     They  are  essentially  agricultural. 

Quichua.  Indian  tribe  of  Bolivia.  They 
were  ruled  at  the  time  of  the  discovery  of 
America  by  the  Inca,  whose  dominion  spread 
over  a  wide  area  in  Ecuador,  Peru,  Chile,  etc. 
They  are  a  short  thick-set  people,  with  heads 
of  a  rather  striking  shape,  due  to  the  custom 
of  deforming  them,  which  is  still  practised  as  it 
was  in  the  days  of  the  Inca.  They  are  some- 
times called  Charca  and  are  readily  dis- 
tinguished according  to  some  authorities 
from  the  Aymara,  as  their  features  are  less 
rugged  and  their  character  is  gentle  and  more 
submissive.  In  Potosi  they  still  dress  as 
they  did  in  the  days  of  the  Spanish  conquest. 
They  build  huts  of  a  distinctive  character, 
grouped   by   fours,   with  a  wall   surrounding 



Dictionary  of  Races 

each  group.  They  are  of  a  rich  olive  brown, 
neither  coppery  nor  yellow,  heavily  built,  with 
broad  shoulders  and  have  large  lungs,  owing 
to  the  altitude  at  which  they  live.  The  head 
is  long,  compressed  at  the  side  with  a  bulging 
but  somewhat  retreating  forehead.  The  face 
is  large,  round  rather  than  oval,  the  nose 
long  and  aquiline  and  the  chin  short.  Their 
faces  are  serious  and  rather  sad  ;  they  are 
sociable,  obedient,  industrious  and  discreet, 
not  to  say  secretive,  of  a  hospitable  nature 
and   good  to  their  children. 

Quitu.  Older  of  the  two  principal 
tribes  of  Ecuador,  perhaps  of  Quichua  origin. 

Rajput.  Tribe  or  caste  of  north  India, 
which  claims  to  represent  the  Kshatriya  of 
classical  tradition.  The  pure-blooded  Rajput 
delights  in  endless  genealogies  and  ranks 
mankind  according  to  descent ;  he  has  an 
exaggerated  idea  of  the  importance  of 
ceremonial  purity  and  a  passion  for  field 
sports.  Although  they  are  supposed  to  be 
of  one  blood,  the  group  seems  to  include 
many  whose  only  title  is  the  possession  of 
land.  But  an  infinity  of  social  distinctions 
limits  the  choice  of  a  wife  ;  a  man  may  not 
give  his  daughter  in  marriage  to  a  man  of  a 
sept  that  stands  lower  than  his  own,  and 
endeavours  to  marry  her  above  her  own 
position,  but  a  man  of  a  higher  sept  may  take 
a  wife  from  a  lower  one  ;  the  result  of  this  is  a 
superfluity  of  women  in  the  higher  septs 
which  enormously  increases  the  expense  of 
finding  a  husband  and  encourages  infanticide. 
In  religion  they  are  Hindus  and  employ  Brah- 
mans  for  religious  and  ceremonial  purposes. 

Romansch.  Dialect  of  the  Upper  Inn  and 
Upper   Rhine,    spoken  in   the   Engadine. 

Romance  Languages.  Tongues  derived 
from  Latin,  including  Languedoil  (north 
French),  Languedoc-Catalan  (southFrench  and 
eastern  Spanish),  Spanish,  Portuguese-Galego, 
Italian,  Romansch-Ladino  and  Rumanian. 

Ronga,  Tribe  of  south-east  Africa,  some- 
times called  Tonga. 

Ruanda  or  Waruanda.  One  of  the  four 
privileged  classes  of  the  Batussi,  not  to  be 
confused  with  the  Warundi. 

Rumanian.  Inhabitants  of  Rumania,  who 
speak  a  language  of  the  Romance  sub-group 
of  Italo-Celtic  tongues  and  claim  descent  from 
the  Roman  colonists  of  Dacia.  If  that 
account  of  their  origin  is  the  true  one  they 
have  been  subject  to  great  vicissitudes,  for 
the  Goths  and  Mongolo-Turki  peoples  no  less 
than  the  Slavs  swept  clean  the  area  now 
occupied  by  Rumanian-speaking  peoples,  who 
must  have  been  driven  southwards  and  then 
at  the  break-up  of  the  Eastern  Empire  forced 
northwards  again  to  their  former  seat.  The 
language  has  a  somewhat  composite  character. 
Moreover,  they  seem  to  have  been  at  the 
outset  nomadic  in  their  tendencies — a  strange 
life  for  the  descendants  of  Roman  colonists. 
At  present,  therefore,  their  early  history  is 
shrouded  in  mystery.  There  is  little  informa- 
tion as  to  the  physical  characteristics  of  this 
people  either  for  early  or  later  times  ;  they 
seem  to  be  of  the  Alpine  type  in  Moldavia, 
but  this  feature  diminishes  in  the  mountainous 
area  of  Transylvania  and  in  Wallachia. 

Rumanian.  Language  of  the  Rumanians 
and  of  the  Armani  (Aramani,  i.e.,  Romans) 

of  Macedonia,  who  are  nicknamed  Tsintsars 
and  Kutz-Vlachs.  It  is  fundamentally  Neo- 
Latin,  but  embodies  Albanian  and  Slav 

Russians.  The  great  mass  of  the  popu- 
lation of  Russia,  with  the  exception  of  the 
Finno-Ugrian  peoples.  The  Russian  language 
belongs  to  the  Slavonic  group  of  Aryan 
speech.  Russians  fall  into  three  main  groups, 
all  of  which  are  of  the  Alpine  type  :  Great 
Russians  in  the  north,  east,  and  centre  ; 
Little  Russians,  also  called  Ukrainians  or 
Ruthenians,  in  the  south  ;  and  White 
Russians  in  the  west.  The  name  Ruthenian 
is  chiefly  applied  to  the  Slav  of  Galicia  and 
the  Bukovina,  of  whom  the  names  Gorales, 
Huzules,  etc.,  are  also  used.  It  seems  likely 
that  in  the  north  of  Russia,  at  any  rate,  the 
Lapp  preceded  the  Finn  and  the  Finn  came 
before  the  Slav,  whose  expansion  can  be 
dated  to  the  period  between  the  sixth  and 
twelfth  centuries. 

The  people  of  Russia  were,  a  thousand 
years  ago,  in  the  main  dolichocephalic  or  long 
headed  ;  in  a  few  centuries  there  was  a  com- 
plete transformation  and  round  heads  were 
everywhere  in  a  large  majority  ;  yet  no  one 
can  say  how  this  revolutionary  change  came 
about.  It  is  even  a  matter  of  dispute  whether 
the  original  Slavic  type  was  long  or  round 
headed.  For  two  hundred  years  the  Tartar 
held  the  land  in  subjection  ;  and  the  Tartar 
is  of  Mongoloid  type,  round  headed  ;  perhaps 
he  may  have  had  something  to  do  with  the 
change  ;  but,  unfortunately  for  this  guess, 
the  Mongoloid  type  hardly  appears  at  all  in 
the  north  and  central  Slavs.  The  Tartar 
theory  may,  however,  hold  good  for  the 
Ukraine,  for  in  Kiev  the  round-headed  type, 
some  time  after  the  sixth  century,  changed 
from  the  Alpine  type  to  the  Mongoloid  type 
plus  another  constant  element. 

At  the  present  day  in  Russia  the  people  are 
mostly  round  headed  ;  but  in  the  Volga-Don 
area  the  head  is  of  a  middle  type  ;  this  seems 
to  point  to  Finnic  influence,  by  intermarriage 
with  Cheremiss,  Mordvin,  etc.  A  second 
similar  area  is  that  of  the  White  Russians  and 
most  of  Poland.  Light  eyes,  especially  towards 
the  Baltic,  are  more  numerous  than  dark ;  dark 
hair,  on  the  other  hand,  is  more  frequent  and 
darkness  increases  towards  the  south. 

Ruthencs  or  Ruthenians.  Slav  people 
identical  with  the  Ukrainians  or  Little 

Sailau.  Ruling  class  of  the  Lushai, 
whose  name  was  at  first  used  as  that  of  the 
whole   people. 

Sakai  or  Senoi.  Jungle  people  of  the 
Malay  Peninsula,  assigned  to  the  Pre- 
Dravidian  stock.  They  stand  about  5  ft. 
and  have  wavy  hair,  black  with  a  reddish 
tinge,  a  broadish  face  and  head,  and  a  low, 
broad  nose.  They  are  largely  nomadic  and 
practise  only  a  very  primitive  kind  of 
agriculture,  with  the  digging  stick  as  their 
usual  implement.  As  a  refuge  from  wild 
beasts  they  sometimes  build  their  huts  in 
trees,  but  they  also  make  square  huts  on  the 
ground.  As  clothing  they  had  formerly  a 
garment  of  bark  cloth,  and,  like  the  Semang, 
they  make  fringed  girdles  of  a  black  thread- 
like  fungus.      They   use   the   blow-gun,   but 



Dictionary  of  Races 

have  no  canoes.  Much  of  their  food  consists 
of  jungle  products.  They  appear  to  have 
only   family   property. 

Sakalava,  Tribe  of  western  Madagascar. 
The  name  is  taken  from  a  small  tribe  of 
conquerors  that  lived  on  the  River  Sakalava. 
The  Sakalava  of  to-day  are  made  up  of  a 
number  of  different  tribes  and  are  regarded 
as  falling  into  only  two  sub-tribes.  They  are 
dark-skinned,  with  long,  frizzly  hair,  live  on 
the  plains  in  a  relatively  warm  climate,  and 
are  more  dependent  on  manioc  than  on  rice. 

Salish.  Tribe  of  Plateau  Indians  in 
British  Columbia.  They  are  often  known 
as  Flatheads  because,  unlike  surrounding 
peoples,  they  left  their  heads  flat  on  top. 
War,  slavery  and  the  potlatch  (a  ceremonial 
distribution  of  gifts)  were  regular  institutions 
among  them. 

Samaritans.  Predominantly  long-headed 
people  of  Samaria.  They  are  tall  of  stature 
and  show  a  large  proportion  of  ' '  Semitic  ' ' 
noses.  In  the  hinterland  of  Palestine  is 
found  a  strongly  round-headed  type,  from 
which  it  is  clear  that  they  are  of  mixed  origin. 
Samoyed.  Neo-Siberian  tribe  of  the  Arctic 
regions  on  both  sides  of  the  Urals.  They  and 
the  Lapps,  who  are  akin  to  them,  are  the  only 
true  nomads  to  be  found  in  Europe.  The}' 
are  a  sociable  and  laughter-loving  people,  of 
short  stature  and  Mongoloid  appearance. 
A  Ugrian  people,  their  name  is  a  compound 
of  suoma,  a  word  of  doubtful  meaning,  which 
enters  into  the  name  of  the  Finns  (Suoma- 
laiset).  Their  centre  of  origin  was  on  the 
head  waters  of  the  Yenisei,  whence  they 
drifted  northwards  to  the  Arctic  Ocean,  and 
then  westwards  into  Russia.  They  are  a 
pastoral  people  with  herds  of  domesticated 
reindeer  on  whose  milk  and  flesh  they  live. 

Santali.  Dialect  of  Kherwali,  one  of 
the  Munda  languages  which  form  part  of  the 
Austric  family  and  are  remotely  allied  to 
Mon-Khmer,  Polynesian,  etc.,  and  still  more 
remotely  to  the  Indo-Chinese  languages. 

Sara.  Important  tribe  near  the  Shari  in 
the  French  Congo  territory.  They  have 
receding  foreheads,  long,  rather  pointed  noses 
and  small  eyes.  They  are  a  timid  people  who 
were  much  raided  by  Baghirmi,  but  are  good 
and  industrious  farmers,  men  and  women 
working  together  in  the  fields.  They  are 
called  Kurdi  by  the  Baghirmi. 

Sarcee  or  Sarsi.  American-Indian  tribe 
of  the  Athapascan  stock  whose  name  is  said 
to  be  derived  from  Siksika  "  sa  arsi,"  not  good. 
They  were  associated  with  this  tribe  at  a 
remote  period  and  their  culture  has  been 
modified  accordingly. 

Sarts.  Mixed  people  of  Turkistan.  In 
them  are  combined  Iranian  and  Turkic 
elements,  namely,  the  Tajiks  and  the 
Uzbegs  ;  in  physical  type  they  resemble  the 
former.  They  are  successful  cultivators  of 
the  earth,  but  their  main  occupation  is 
commerce.  They  are  Sunnite  Mahomedans, 
and  keep  their  women  more  strictly  secluded 
than  any  other  Turkic  tribe.  Their  educational 
standard  is  not  very  high,  and  their  idea  of 
the  world  is  that  it  is  a  plain  surrounded  by 
mountains.  The  name  Sart  is  sometimes 
applied  to  the  settled  Kirghiz.  The  Sarts  of 
Kuija  are  known  as  Taranchi. 

Sasak.  Aboriginal  inhabitants  of  Lomboft, 
Sunda  Islands,  which  they  call  Sasak.  They 
are  Mahomedans,  and  quite  distinct  from  the 
Hindu  Balinese  who  conquered  them  early  in 
the  nineteenth  century. 

Scots  or  Scotch.  In  a  general  sense, 
the  inhabitants  of  Scotland,  almost  Scandi- 
navian in  the  far  north,  the  Gaelic-speaking 
but  probably  pre-Celtic  Highlander  in  the 
centre,  and  the  Lowland  Scot,  probably 
Teutonic  in  the  main.  The  prehistoric  Picts 
of  Galloway  were  overrun  by  a  people  known 
as  Scots,  who  arrived  from  Ireland  in  historic 
times  and  established  the  Gaelic  realm  of 
Argyll.  Other  Picts,  possibly  different  from 
those  of  Galloway,  as  they  were  red-haired, 
inhabited  Buchan  and  the  country  to  the 
south.  A  portion  of  the  British  kingdom  of 
Strathclyde  and  of  the  Angle  realm  of 
Bernicia  passed  into  the  power  of  Scotland 
in  the  time  of  William  Rufus  ;  but  it  is  by  no 
means  clear  how  the  mass  of  the  population 
was  made  up  at  that  time.  The  English 
language  spread  gradually  into  Strathclyde 
and  northward  as  far  as  Buchan. 

Scythian.  Supposed  element  in  the 
population  of  India.  It  has  been  suggested 
that  they  were  "  Turanians,"  Iranians,  Slavs, 
Germans,  Mongols,  etc.  ;  the  name  seems  to 
indicate  a  political  unit  of  very  mixed  origin. 
Scytho-Dravidian.  Group  of  western 
India,  including  the  Maratha  Brahmans, 
Kunbi,  and  Coorgs.  They  are  of  medium 
stature,  fair  complexion,  and  broad  head. 
It  has  been  objected  that  the  name  of  the 
group  is  ill-chosen,  as  there  is  insufficient 
evidence  of  Scythian  immigration  ;  moreover, 
the  name  Scythian  does  not  bear  a  strictly 
defined  meaning. 

Sea  Dyak  or  Iban.  Proto-Malay  people, 
originally  resident  in  Sarawak,  whence  they 
have  spread  inland.  As  the  Malays  proper 
must  have  reached  Borneo  some  five  centuries 
ago,  it  seems  that  the  Iban  migration  is 
earlier  than  this.  They  are  short  and  have 
broader  heads  than  other  tribes,  and  their 
darker  complexion  contrasts  with  the  cinna- 
mon shade  of  the  inland  tribes,  with  whom 
they  share  their  typical  long  black,  slightly 
wavy  hair.  They  prefer  low  land,  and  grow 
swamp  rice,  but  also  .cultivate  maize,  sugar- 
cane, etc.  They  are  essentially  agricultural, 
but  as  a  former  coast  people  devoted  to 
raiding  ;  they  are  warlike  and  addicted  to 
head-hunting,  and  the  Malay  pirates  gained 
their  assistance  by  assigning  to  them  as  their 
share  of  the  booty  the  heads  of  the  slain. 

Selling.  Sea  gypsies  of  Mergui,  on  the 
south  coast  of  Burma,  also  called  Mawken. 
Their  language  is  supposed  to  be  an  archaic 
type  of  Indonesian.  They  spend  their  whole 
life  upon  the  sea,  living  in  dug-outs  from 
18  ft.  to  30  ft.  long,  with  a  freeboard  of 
2  ft.  or  3  ft.  only.  They  live  largely  on  fish, 
but  exchange  some  of  their  produce  for  rice. 
During  the  heavy  rains  they  go  ashore  and 
camp  in  temporary  huts,  but  seldom  stay 
more  than  a  week  in  one  spot. 

Semang,  Negrito  people  of  the  Malay 
Peninsula,  also  known  as  Pangan,  Udai,  Mandi, 
etc.  The  hair  is  short,  black,  and  woolly,  and 
the  skin  colour  dark  chocolate  brown  approxi- 
mating to  a  glossy  black,   at  times  with   a 


Dictionary   of  Races 

reddish  tinge.  They  seem  to  stand  about 
5  ft.  high.  The  nose  is  short  and  flattened, 
remarkable  for  its  great  breadth,  which  is 
indeed  greater  than  the  length  in  some  cases. 
The  lips  are  thick  and  the  cheek-bones  are 
broad.  They  are  a  nomadic  people,  living  by 
collecting  wild  fruits  and  by  hunting  ;  very 
often  they  remain  no  more  than  three  days 
in  a  place,  but  a  few  have  taken  to  agricul- 
ture. They  have  no  canoes,  but  drift  down 
stream  on  rafts  in  case  of  need.  Their  faculties 
are  developed  mainly  in  the  direction  of  the 
search  for  food  and  escape  from  their  enemies  ; 
if  they  are  hard  pressed  they  will,  it  is  said, 
stretch  rattan  ropes  from  branch  to  branch 
and  pass  over  them  when  the  distance  is  too 
great  for  a  leap. 

Semi-Bantu.  Section  of  Sudanic  languages 
which  come  near  to  Bantu  in  respect  of 
syntax,  but  differ  from  it  in  the  roots  with 
■which  its  vocabulary  is  connected.  It  uses 
either  prefixes  or  suffixes,  where  Bantu  uses 
prefixes  alone.  It  includes  the  following 
groups  :  Coast  and  Senegal,  Volta,  Togoland, 
and  Nigerian,  and  the  Adamaua  group  of 
pre-Semi-Bantu  also  belongs  to  it.  The  Semi- 
Bantu  languages  stretch  in  a  broad  band, 
generally  speaking,  between  the  West  Sudanic 
and  the  Central  zones. 

Semite.  Term  that  is  to-day  almost 
synonymous  with  Arab,  but  is  commonly 
applied  to  the  Jews,  who  are,  however,  a 
mixed  people.  The  typical  Semite  has  a  long 
head  and  a  narrow,  straight  nose,  with  jet- 
black  hair  and  regular  features.  From  their 
original  home  in  south-west  Asia  they  have 
wandered  both  eastwards  and  westwards, 
especially  into  north  Africa,  where  they  found 
a  kindred  people,  the  Hamite. 

Seneca.  North  American  tribe  whose 
name  means  "  place  of  the  stone,"  an  angli- 
cised atom  from  the  Dutch  of  the  Mohegan 
form  of  the  Iroquois  name,  Oneida.  The 
Iroquois  tribes  were  second  to  none  in  states- 
manship and  military  organization  ;  cruel  in 
war  they  burnt  alive  the  women  and  infant 
prisoners  ;  they  were,  however,  normally  kind 
and  affectionate,  full  of  sympathy  for  kinsmen 
in  distress  ;  their  wars  were  primarily  to  secure 
their  independence,  and  the  Iroquois  league 
was  formed  to  prevent  shedding  of  kindred 
blood  and  to  promote  peace.  They  were 
sedentary  and  agricultural,  but  built  strong 
wooden  castles  of  logs  for  defence. 

Senuio.  Important  group  of  tribes,  also 
known  as  Siena,  south-west  of  the.  Volta 
group  in  the  hinterland  of  Ivory  Coast. 

Serbs.  South  Slavonic  people  which  crossed 
the  Danube  from  the  Carpathian  lands  some 
twelve  hundred  years  ago.  Included  were 
also  some  Sorb  (Wend)  tribes  from  the  Elbe, 
and  on  the  Lower  Danube  were  the  Severenses 
or  seven  nations,  also  Slavs,  so  that  the  whole 
of  the  area  from  the  Danube  to  the  Mediter- 
ranean— some  parts  of  Albania  and  districts 
near  Constantinople  excepted  —  became 
Slavonic.     The  Serbs  are  allied  to  the  Croats. 

Seri.  American  Indian  tribe  of  the  Cali- 
fornian  coast,  whose  own  name  for  themselves 
is  Kun-kaak,  or  Kmike.  They  are  of  splendid 
physique,  the  men  standing  about  6  ft.  on  an 
average,  and  the  women  5  ft.  9  in.  In  colour 
they  are  bronze-black,  and  the  hair  jet-black 

and  long,  growing  tawny  towards  the  tips. 
They  are  habitual  rovers  of  incredible  fleet- 
ness,  outstripping  a  horseman,  even  when 
they  are  laden  with  looted  meat,  and  are 
accustomed  to  chase  birds  on  the  wing. 
They  have  practically  no  tools,  preferring 
teeth  and  nails.  They  are  even  more  hostile 
to  other  Indians  than  to  white  men. 

Shan.  Southern  Mongol  people  of  Burma, 
China,  etc.  They  speak  a  Siamese-Chinese 
language  of  the  Tai  group ;  Tai  is,  in  fact,  the 
Shan  name  for  themselves,  and  means"  noble," 
or  "  f  ree . "  They  first  appear  in  history  in  Yun- 
nan, south- west'China,  and  two  thousand  years 
ago  they  began  to  enter  Burma  in  small 
numbers ;  some  five  hundred  years  later  they 
peopled  the  Shan  States,  to  be  forced  west- 
wards in  the  thirteenth  century  by  the 
Mongols.  They  are  generally  of  finer  physique 
than  either  the  Chinese  or  the  Siamese,  and 
lighter  in  colour  than  the  latter.  The  head  is 
finer  than  that  of  the  Chinese,  with  horizontal, 
dark  eyes  and  straight  nose,  with  an  expres- 
sion recalling  rather  a  Caucasian  than  a 
Mongolic  people.  They  have  everywhere  kept 
their  language  comparatively  unchanged  ;  it 
contains  less  than  2,000  monosyllabic  words, 
but  each  such  word  is  modified  by  musical 
tones  in  such  a  way  that  the  vocabulary  is 
multiplied  by  five.  They  have  four  different 
kinds  of  writing,  due  to  remote  Hindu 
influence  by  Brahman  and  Buddhist  mission- 
aries, and  this,  too,  has  contributed  to 
preserve  their  language  from  change.  It  is 
possible  that  there  is  a  considerable  Shan 
element  both  in  the  Chinese  people  and  in 
the  language.  They  are  usually  fairer  than 
the  Siamese  and  Burmese,  and  rather  taller  ; 
the  nose  is  small,  rather  than  flat.  In  character 
they  are  mild  and  good-humoured,  ven^ 
abstemious  as  regards  both  alcohol  and 
tobacco.  Like  the  Burmese,  they  tattoo,  and 
probably  borrowed  the  custom  from  their 
neighbours.  They  are  generous  and  hospitable, 
and  if  a  house  door  is  open,  visitors  may  enter 
without  being  considered  rude.  They  are 
often  great  gamblers,  and  will  play  for  houses 
and  children,  or  even  the  girl  they  are  to 
marry  ;  but  it  does  not  follow  that  she  has 
to  marry  the  other  man  if  she  is  lost  to  her 
original   owner. 

Shawia.  Berber  tribe  of  the  Aures  high- 
lands. These  "  Pastors  "  form  numerous 
sub-tribes,  all  of  which  are  said  to  claim 
Roman  descent,  and  some  still  call  themselves 
Rumaniya.  A  few  Latin  words  like  kerrush 
(quercus)  still  survive  in  their  language. 
They  belong  to  the  Berber  sub-group  known 
as  Djerba,  characterised  by  short  stature  and 
roundish  head. 

Shawnee.  Algonquian  tribe  that  seems  to 
have  wandered  far  but  was  probably  resident 
near  the  Ohio  in  the  sixteenth  century. 

Shilh.  Berber  people  of  Morocco,  who 
include  the  Rifi  or  Riff. 

Shilluk.  Tall,  very  long-headed  negroid 
people.  They  live  on  the  west  bank  of  the 
Nile  from  Kaka,  in  the  north,  to  Lake  No 
in  the  south,  and  also  on  the  east  bank  and 
the  Sobat.  They  have,  as  a  rule,  coarse 
features  and  broad  noses,  but  in  the  families 
of  chiefs  it  is  possible  to  find  men  with  shapely 
features  and  thin  lips,  who  may  represent  a 


Dictionary   of  Races 

conquering  Hamitic  stock.  The  Hamitic 
element  in  the  Shilluk  is  at  a  maximum 
compared  with  the  other  Nilotes.  Their 
territory  is  entirely  grass  land,  and  they  are 
a  cattle  people  who  often  do  not  grow  enough 
dura,  to  provide  for  their  dense  population. 
Their  kings,  who  were  regarded  as  divine, 
were  killed  as  soon  as  they  began  to  show 
signs  of  old  age  or  ill  health.  They  are  allied 
to  the  Acholi  or  Gang  and  to  the  Lango  of 
Uganda ;  it  seems  likely  that  their  cradle 
land  lay  to  the  south  of  their  present  habitat. 
They  call  themselves  Choi,  which  seems 
to  mean  "  black."  The  average  height 
of  the  men  is  5  ft.  10  in.,  and  they  have  a 
curious  habit  of  standing  on  one  leg  with  the 
sole  of  the  other  foot  on  the  knee  ;  they  are 
lean,  rather  narrow-shouldered,  and  excellent 
runners.  The  nose  is  usually  flat  ;  they 
remove  the  lower  teeth.  They  are  a  proud 
people,  who  feel  dislike  and  even  contempt  for 
foreigners,  but  they  are  also  frank  and  open- 
minded,  brave  in  war,  by  no  means  idle,  with 
plenty  of  intelligence. 

Shilluk  Group.  Number  of  Nilotic  tribes 
speaking  languages  allied  to  Shilluk,  such  as 
Anywak,  Jur,  Beri,  Gang,  or  Acholi,  Nyifwa, 
Lango,  Alur,  and  Chopi. 

Shoshone.  Tribe  of  American  Plateau 
Indians.  Originally  hunters,  who  did  not 
cultivate  the  soil,'  they  are  allied  to  the 
Comanche.  Some  of  this  tribe  hunted  the 
buffalo,  but  others  depended  on  fish,  roots, 
and  seeds.  They  formerly  occupied 

Shuwa.  Pastoral  people  of  Arab  origin 
settled  to  the  south-west  of  Lake  Chad. 
The  name  is  probably  from  an  Abyssinian 
word  sha  or  shoa,  meaning  pastoral.  They 
are  known  to  have  been  in  Wadai  five  hundred 
years  ago,  and  four  sections  reached  Bornu 
a  hundred  years  later,  but  these  inter- 
married with  the  natives  and  are  now  merged 
with  them.  The  present  Shuwa  arrived  not 
much  more  than  a  hundred  years  ago.  They 
are  slight  in  figure,  of  fair  complexion  and 
warlike  disposition,  but  intermingled  with 
them  are  many  of  more  negroid  appearance, 
probably  the  descendants  of  slaves,  who  are 
born  free. 

Siak.  Malayan  tribe  of  Sumatra. 
Siamese.  Tai  people  of  Indo-China,  who 
received  their  culture  from  India  through  the 
Khmers  of  Cambodia.  They  are  a  good  deal 
mixed  with  neighbouring  peoples,  bat  have 
a  distinct  type  of  their  own,  with  narrow 
foreheads  but  broad  faces  and  thick  lips  ; 
the  hair  is  black  and  coarse,  but  not  thick. 
They  are  reputed  to  be  gentle  and  charitable, 
of  a  happy,  timid,  thoughtless,  and  rather 
childish  disposition ;  they  are  uneducated, 
judged  by  Western  standards,  and  their  daily 
life  is  full  of  irrational  rites  and  beliefs  grafted 
upon  the  Buddhism  in  which  they  profess  to 
believe.  They  have  a  great  horror  of 
shouting  and  quarrelling. 

Siamese-Chinese  Languages.  Stock 
of  Tibeto-Burman. 

Siberian  Tartars.  Mass  of  Turanian- 
Turkic  peoples  of  different  origins.  Most  of 
them  call  themselves  Tuba,  as  do  the  northern 
Uriankhai,  but  the  term  is  a  vague  one. 
The  Russians  give  the  name  Chern  or  Black 

Forest  Tartars  to  the  people  who  call  them- 
selves Iish  Kysi,  who  are  also  termed  Altaians. 
They  are  sedentary  in  any  neighbourhood 
where  they  can  practise  agriculture  ;  their 
religion  is  Shamanism. 

Siberian  Turks.  Two  groups  of  Turanian 
peoples,  the  Yakut  in  the  east  and  a  con- 
glomerate known  as  Siberian  Tartars  north 
of  the  Sayan  mountains. 

Sihanaka.  Tribe  of  the  west  of  Mada- 
gascar. They  were  conquered  by  the  Hova 
in  the  last  century,  when  idols  were  introduced 
by  the  invaders.  Living  m  country  which  is 
largely  marsh,  they  are  fishers  and  cattle- 
keepers,  and  reputed  to  be  lazy ;  some  of 
them  in  the  rains,  when  the  water  rose  inside 
the  house,  would  build  a  raft  inside  which 
rose  with  them  as  the  flood  increased. 

Sikh.  Indian  Plains  caste,  with  a  religion 
allied  to  Hinduism,  which  has  its  centre  at 
Amritsar.  They  are  usually  Jats,  an  agricul- 
tural folk  of  fine  physique,  resolute,  obedient, 
and  self-respecting.  The  Sikhs  provide  some 
of  the  finest  native  soldiers  in  India,  the  pro- 
fession of  arms  being  hereditary  with  them, 
and  they  are  lovers  of  games  and  athletics. 

Sindhi.  Language  of  the  Punjab,  allied 
to  Lahnda.  It  belongs  to  the  north-west 
branch  of  the   Indo-Aryan   languages. 

Sinhalese.      Natives     of     Ceylon      other 
than    Veddas.      They    began   to     come    from 
the  mainland  in  the  sixth  century  B.c. 
Siwash.      Indian  tribe  of  Vancouver  I. 
Slavonic  Languages.   One  of  the  chief 
groups  of  Aryan  tongues.     It  comprises  three 
sections  ;    eastern,   including   Great   Russian. 
Little  Russian  (Ukrainian  or  Ruthenian),  and 
White     Russian  ;    western,     with     Polabian, 
Wend,      Czech      (Bohemian),      and      Polish  ; 
southern,  with  Serb,  Slovene,  and  Bulgarian. 
Slovaks.      Western    Slav    people.      They 
formerly  formed  part  of  the  Austrian  Empire, 
but  are  now  an  element  of  Czechoslovakia. 

Slovenes.  Yugo-Slav  people  of  Carniola, 
north  of  the  Croats.  The  name  is  perhaps 
derived  from  slovo,  speech,  meaning  the 
people  who  understand  each  other. 

Sobo.  Group  of  Edo  tribes  formerly 
subject  to  Benin.  They  live  in  the  creek 
system  of  the  Niger  delta,  but  usually  away 
from  the  immediate  neighbourhood  "of  the 
water,  which  is  occupied  by  Shekri  or  Jekri,  a 
tribe  allied  to  the  Yoruba. 

Somali.  Name  given  to  an  Hamitic  tribe 
of  the  eastern  horn  of  Africa,  said  to  be 
derived. from  the  words  :  so  trial,  fetch  milk. 
They  themselves  distinguish  two  peoples  in 
their  land,  the  Asha  or  true  Somali,  with  two 
great  divisions,  both  claiming  descent  from 
certain  noble  Arab  families,  and  the  Hawiya, 
who  are  reckoned  as  pagans,  but  this  dis- 
tinction is  religious,  not  racial.  Some  of  the 
groups  are  said  to  be  Semitic  in  type,  though 
it  is  not  clear  what  is  meant  ;  the  type  is 
very  variable  owing  to  Arab  and  negro  blood. 
The  hair  is  ringlety  and  not  so  thick  as  that 
of  the  Abyssinian  and  Galla  ;  it  is  at  times 
quite  straight  ;  the  forehead  is  rounded  and 
prominent,  the  nose  straight  as  a  rule,  the 
head  fairly  long.  Intellectually  and  morally, 
they  stand  lower  than  the  Galla,  owing  to  the 
greater  influence  of  Arabs  and  Abyssiniahs. 
Sorb.     Alternative  term  for  Wend  (q.v.). 


Dictionary  of  Races 

South  -  western  Tribes.  Group  of 
American  Indian  tribes  characterised  by 
dependence  on  agriculture,  the  use  of 
masonry,    the    loom,    pottery,    etc.  They 

domesticated  the  turkey,  use  a  grinding- 
stone  instead  of  a  mortar,  and  men,  not 
women,  cultivate  the  ground  and  weave 
cloth.     Their  pottery  is  decorated  in  colour. 

Soyot.  Turko-Tartar  people  of  the  Sayan- 
Altai  border  country,  probably  no  more  than 
a  sub-tribe  of  the  Uriankhai. 

Spaniards.  Inhabitants  of  Spain,  "who, 
as  a  rule,  speak  Spanish  but  use  Galego,  a 
form  of  Portuguese  in  Galicia,  and  Catalan, 
allied  to  Provencal  or  southern  French,  in 
Valencia  and  Catalonia,  while  the  non-Aryan 
Basque  is  spoken  in  the  western  Pyrenees. 
We  know  but  little  of  the  earlier  population 
of  the  peninsula.  In  the  Neolithic  period 
the  skull  was  everywhere  predominantly  long. 
In  the  Early  Bronze  Age  the  population  of 
Granada  was  very  mixed  in  type.  It  is 
probable  that  a  long  skulled  type  had  reached 
southern  Spain  from  Africa.  In  the  early 
metal  ages  there  came  by  sea  to  Huelva  and 
other  mines  people  of  an  Alpine  type,  lured 
by  the  mineral  wealth  ;  others  came  in  from 
France  at  the  end  of  the  fourth  century  B.C., 
when  Celtic  speech  seems  to  have  been  intro- 
duced ;  their  union  with  the  earlier  Iberians 
originated  the  so-called  Celtiberians.  Before 
this  time  the  Carthaginians  had  settlements, 
Cadiz  being  one  of  the  chief,  but  it  does  not 
follow  that  they  affected  the  racial  type. 

It  is  uncertain  how  far  the  Roman  domina- 
tion brought  about  any  change,  but  when, 
in  the  fifth  century,  the  flood  of  invasion 
from  central  Europe  swept  over  the  peninsula, 
the  Nordic  types  included  under  the  names 
Vandals,  Goths,  Suevi,  etc.,  cannot  have  left 
the  type  unchanged,  at  any  rate  in  the  north 
and  north-west.  In  the  south  the  eighth 
century  saw  the  coming  of  Berbers  and 
related  peoples  from  north  Africa,  who  added 
other  long-headed  types.  At  the  present  day 
the  Spaniard  is,  in  the  main,  long  headed, 
except  in  Huelva  on  the  Gulf  of  Cadiz  and 
in  Cantabria  from  Corunna  eastwards.  The 
Spaniard  is  prevailingly  and  strongly  brunette 
in  complexion  but  fairer  types  occur  also, 
especially  in  the  north-west. 

Stoney  Indians,     Same  as  Assiniboin. 

Subuano  or  Sub&no.  Indonesian  tribe 
of   the  Philippines  (Mindanao). 

Sudanic  Languages.  Tongues  of  negro 
Africa  other  than  Bantu.  They  fall  into  two 
main  divisions  :  Semi-Bantu,  which  classifies 
its  nouns  by  means  of  prefixes  or  suffixes 
according  to  no  rule  clearly  defined  at  the 
present  time,  but  which  must  have  been 
originally  connected  with  the  meaning,  one 
class  being  assigned  to  human  beings,  another 
to  liquids,  etc.  The  second  group,  held 
together  by  community  in  word  roots,  has  no 
well-defined  type  of  syntax  ;  its  members  are 
often  far  nearer  Hamitic  forms  of  speech  than 
to  other  Sudanic  languages  ;  in  its  most 
extreme  form  the  Sudanic  language  is 
isolating  and  almost  monosyllabic. 

Suk.  People  of  eastern  Africa  allied  to  the 
Nandi  and  Turkana,  but  of  composite  origin 
with  at  least  two  different  elements.  The 
name  is  said  to  be  a  Masai  word  ;    they  call 

themselves  Pokwut.  They  fall  into  two 
sections,  pastoral  and  agricultural,  the  former 
in  the  Kerio  valley,  the  latter  on  the  Elgeyo 
escarpment.  They  have  been  much  influenced 
by  the  Nandi.  Unlike  the  Turkana  they  do 
not  seem  to  be  very  fertile,  and  children  are 
often  sickly.  They  are  unintelligent,  but 
honest,  vain  and  exceptionally  generous. 
The  men  wear  no  clothing  at  all  and  the  women 
very  little.  In  addition  to  the  Hamitic 
element,  they  seem  to  have,  like  the  Akamba, 
a  short-headed  type,  which  must  represent 
the  remnants  of  a  pygmy  stock. 

Sundanese.  Inhabitants  of  West  Java, 
of  much  the  same  type  as  the  Javanese  proper, 
but  slightly  shorter. 

Swahili.  Bantu-speaking  people  of  east 
Africa  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Zanzibar, 
whose  tongue  has  become  the  commercial 
language  of  much  of  east  Africa.  The  word 
properly  means  "  coast  people,"  and  connotes 
descendants  of  Arab  settlers  by  native  women 
of  various  tribes,  chiefly  Bantu.  There  is  no 
uniform  Swahili  type  ;  complexion  and  features 
vary  indefinitely,  even  in  one  and  the  same 
family,  one  having  woolly  hair,  another  silky, 
straight  hair.  The  Bantu  groundwork  of 
the  language  seems  to  have  been  Pokomo, 
but  Arabic  has  largely  contributed  to  its 
vocabulary  ;  both  sounds  and  grammar  are 
much  simplified  compared  with  ordinary 
Bantu  tongues. 

Swanetians.  One  of  the  smaller  Georgian 
peoples,  whose  history  goes  back  thousands 
of  years.  There  seem  to  be  two  types,  one 
blond  and  light-eyed  with  a  longish  face, 
the  other  darker  with  a  broader  face.  They 
differ  from  other  Georgians  in  build  and 
character,  being  less  good-looking  and  appear- 
ing rude  and  sly. 

Swazi  or  Waswazi.  Section  of  the 
south-eastern  Bantu-speaking  peoples,  closely 
related  to  the  Zulu.  They  are  often  termed 
Kafirs,  or  Kaffirs,  from  an  Arabic  word 
meaning  ,(  unbeliever." 

Swedes.  Inhabitant  of  Sweden,  speaking 
a  tongue  of  the  Scandinavian  section  of 
Teutonic  languages.  From  early  Swedish 
graves  we  get  both  long  and  short  skulls,  the 
latter  of  Alpine  type,  but  the  long  skulls  are 
some  of  the  Mediterranean  type,  some,  on 
the  other  hand,  lower  in  proportion  to  the 
height,  these  being  the  two  elements  from 
which  the  Nordic  race  has  apparently  been 
compounded.  In  Neolithic  times  we  find 
relatively  large  numbers  of  Alpine  and 
Mediterranean  folk  who  are,  curiously  enough, 
less  conspicuous  in  the  Danish  islands  ;  it 
has  been  suggested  that  they  came  to  Sweden 
by  sea  from  the  British  Isles.  With  the 
coming  of  the  Iron  Age  these  types  are  dis- 
placed by  a  long-headed  people  with  broad 
noses,  which  were  at  an  earlier  period  promi- 
nent in  Mecklenburg.  As  in  the  case  of  Den- 
mark we  have  little  information  on  which  to 
go  for  the  next  two  thousand  years.  In  our 
own  day  the  area  north  and  west  of  Stockholm 
is  one  of  the  great  reservoirs  of  the  fair, 
long-headed,  tall  Nordic  type  ;  in  southern 
Sweden  long  headed  and  round  headed  folk 
are  about  equal  in  numbers,  and  a  darker 
complexion  and  hair  usually  goes  with  the 
shorter  head.     In  the  north  of  Sweden  there 


Dictionary  of  Races 

is  a  strong  Lapp  element  which  no  doubt 
goes  back  to  very  early  times. 

Swiss.  Inhabitants  of  Switzerland, 
who  speak  as  their  mother  tongue  either 
German,  French,  Italian,  or  Romansch.  They 
are  short  in  stature  and  usually  dark,  but 
there  are  blonds  in  the  open  country  between 
the  Jura  and  the  Alps.  They  are  probably 
everywhere  round  headed,  as  they  were  from 
the  twelfth  to  the  seventeenth  centuries. 

Tagal.  Tall,  strong  tribe  of  Borneo  of 
predominantly  Indonesian  type. 

Tagalog,  Philippine  tribe  of  the  neigh- 
bourhood of  Manilla. 

Tagbanua,  Tribe  of  the  Calamianes 
Islands  in  the  Philippines.  They  are  short, 
with  abnormally  long  legs,  black,  frizzly  or 
wavy  hair,  and  short,  flat  nose.  They  are  a 
docile  and  timid  people,  but  excellent  workers. 

Tai  or  Thai.  Large  group  of  tribes  of 
south  China  and  Indo-China,  who  speak 
Siamese-Chinese  languages.  If  we  except  a 
few  unclassed  remnants  of  tribes,  and  perhaps 
the  Lolo,  they  seem  to  be  the  earliest  traceable 
inhabitants,  and  began  to  move  down  from  the 
Yang-Tse  valley  four  thousand  years  ago.  The 
largest  tribe  is  known  as  Tho  ;  they  are  of 
moderate  height,  with  about  5  ft.  7  in.  as  a 
maximum  ;  their  hair  is  long  and  coarse,  black 
to  rusty  in  colour,  the  skin  yellow,  more  or 
less  deeply  bronzed  according  to  exposure. 
Their  eyes  are  somewhat  Mongoloid,  but  in 
the  projection  of  the  jaw  and  lower  part  of 
the  face  they  present  a  feature  incompatible 
with  pure  Mongoloid  descent  and  suggestive 
of  negrito  influence.  In  youth  the  Tho  is 
quick  to  learn,  but  in  later  life  he  becomes 
sluggish  and  lazy,  a  result  due  in  part  to  the 
use  of  a  special  kind  of  tobacco.  They  live 
in  pile  huts. 

Tajik.  Tali,  round-headed  people  of  the 
east  of  Persia.  They  are  mainly  sedentary 
and  agricultural,  and  divided  into  hill  and 
lowland  groups  ;  the  former  are  called  Persivan 
("  of  Persian  speech  ")  or  Dikhan  ("peasants"), 
while  the  latter  are  a  Persianised  people  who 
originally  spoke  Galchic.  The  Tajik  are 
probably  the  Dadicae  of  Herodotus ;  it  is 
possible  that  they  are  mentioned  by  Ptolemy. 
They  are  tall  and  brown  or  white,  with  ruddy 
cheeks,  black  or  chestnut  hair,  fair  eyes,  long, 
well-shaped  nose,  and  oval  face. 

Talamanca.  Tribe  of  Costa  Rica,  speak- 
ing a  Chibcha  tongue. 

Tamil.  Language  of  the  Dravidian  family, 
spoken  in  the  south  of  India  and  the  north  of 
Ceylon.  Some  Tamil-speaking  castes  appear 
to  be  long  headed  like  the  Palli,  Parayan,  and 
Vellalla,  while  in  others  the  round-headed 
type  almost  predominates.  It  is  the  oldest, 
richest,  and  most  highly-organized  of 
Dravidian  tongues  ;  the  literary  form  is 
called  Shen  (perfect)  and  the  colloquial  Kodum 
(rude) .  Both  Tamil  and  Dravidian  are 
corruptions  of  Dranida. 

Tanala.  Madagascar  tribe  of  negroid 
type  who  live  in  dense  forests,  whence  their 
name.  Arab  origin  has  been  attributed  to 
their  chiefs,  but  they  do  not  differ  in  physical 
type  from  their  subjects. 

Tangut.  Peoples  of  south-west  China  of 
several  different  types,  some  Mongoloid, 
some  non-Mongoloid. 

Tapiro.  Negrito  people  of  New  Guinea, 
living  at  the  source  of  the  Mimika  river. 
They  are  lighter  in  skin  colour  than  the 
surrounding  Papuans,  some  being  almost 
yellow,  and  thus  differ  widely  from  other 
negrito  peoples.  In  stature  they  range  from 
5  ft.  to  5  ft.  4  in.,  and  the  skull  is  very  variable 
in  shape,  a  sign,  as  a  rule,  of  mixed  blood  ; 
the  nose,  too,  is  very  variable  in  its  propor- 
tions. Their  pile  dwellings  are  copied  from 
those  of  their  neighbours. 

Tarahumare.  Tribe  of  Mexico  who  live 
in  the  mountainous  area  of  the  north.  They 
are  of  a  light  chocolate  brown  colour,  and 
powerfully  built. 

Taranchi  or  Hi  -  Tartars.  Turkic 
people  who  migrated  to  Russian  Turkistan 
when  Kulja  passed  under  Chinese  rule.  They 
are  close  kinsmen  of  the  Sarts,  but  give  their 
women  more  freedom  and  are  chiefly 
agricultural  in  pursuits.  They  are  among  the 
least  Turkic  of  all  Iranian  Turks,  and  are  now 
strongly  Persianised.  They  are  probably 
descendants  of  the  old  Uigur  of  eastern 
Turkistan  and  overlaid  an  originally  Caucasian 
population  with  a  culture  of  Perso-Hellenic 

Tarasco.  Tribe  of  Mechoacan,  Mexico, 
who  call  themselves  Purepecha.  They  are 
a  brave  and  upright  people  in  their  natural 
state,  but  easily  offended  and  unmanage- 
able in  their  fury.  With  strangers  they  are 
reserved  and  suspicious,  but  kind  and 
hospitable  to  each  other.  The  women  delight 
in  ornaments  of  all  sorts  ;  they  carry  a  child 
slung  between  their  shoulders.  The  Tarascans 
make  lacquer  at  Uruapan  by  cutting  out  the 
wood  in  the  required  shape  and  laying  the 
lacquer  on  with  the  finger. 

Tartar  or  Tatar.  Term  originally  applied 
to  a  central  Asiatic  people  now  extinct. 
It  has  been  transferred  to  the  Western  people 
known  as  Turks,  and  is  applied  collectively 
to  the  Turkish  tribes  intermixed  with  Mongols 
who  have  perhaps  a  strain  of  the  old  Tartar 
blood  in  them. 

Tartar  Languages.  Group  of  Turko- 
Tartar,  including  Kirghiz,  Bashkir,  Nogai, 
Kuman,  Karachai,  Kara-Kalpak,  Meshcherak, 
and  Siberian. 

Tassnanian.  Extinct  natives  of  Tasmania, 
related  in  certain  directions  to  the  negrito 
but  not  of  pygmy  stature.  Half-breed 
descendants  of  the  Tasmanians  survived  the 
last  pure  bred  native,  who  died  in  1877,  and 
preserve  to  our  own  day  in  their  descendants 
at  times  an  almost  pure  type  of  this  isolated 
and  primitive  people. 

Tavastians.  Western  Finns,  who  call 
themselves  Hemelaiset  (lake  people).  They 
have  rather  broad,  heavy  frames,  small  and 
oblique  blue  or  grey  eyes,  towy  hair,  and  white 
complexions,  without  the  ruddiness  of  the 
Germanic  peoples.  In  temperament  they  are 
honest,  but  somewhat  vindictive  and  sluggish. 

Teda.  Negroid  people  of  the  Sahara, 
north  of  Lake  Chad  in  the  Tibesti  Range. 
They  are  practically  the  same  as  the  Tibu 
and  are  related  to  the  Kanuri,  speaking  a 
language  of  the  same  group.  They  are  the 
Garamantes  of  classical  authors.  Mixed  with 
the  large  negro  factor  is  a  short-headed 
element  which  may  represent  an  earlier  pygmy 


Dictionary  of  Races 

element.  Though  they  are  very  black,  they 
are  non-negroid  in  respect  of  hair  character, 
which  is  wavy  or  curly  ;  their  noses  also  are 
aquiline,  and  the  lower  part  of  the  face  does 
not  project, 

Tehuana.  Zapotec  tribe  of  Mexico, 
dwelling  in  Tehuantepcc. 

Tehuelche.  Natives  of  Patagonia,  re- 
nowned for  their  great  stature,  ranging  from 
5  ft.  8  in.  to  6  ft.  They  subsist  mainly  on 
the  flesh  of  the  guanaco,  but  also  eat  horse 
flesh ;  they  cultivate  no  vegetables.  Their 
dwellings  are  leather  or  brushwood,  and  their 
characteristic  weapons  are  lasso  and  bolas. 
The  dead  were  buried  in  a  sitting  posture. 

Telugu.  Language  of  south  India.  It  is 
spoken  in  the  mam  by  Dravidians  under 
middle  height  with  very  dark  skins  and  wavy 
or  curly  hair.  Some  appear  to  be  long 
headed,"  but  there  are  others  with  a  strong, 
short-headed   element. 

Tcmne.  Negro  people  of  Sierra  Leone. 
They  speak  a  language  of  the  coast  group 
which  has  many  words  resembling  those  of 
Bantu  languages  geographically  remote. 
They  are  a  fairly  tall  people,  lighter  in  colour 
than  the  Mendi  and  allied  to  the  Landuman 
and  Baga.  They  were  one  of  the  first  tribes 
with  whom  Europeans  came  in  contact  and  a 
detailed  account  of  their  religion  has  come 
down  to  us  from  the  beginning  of  the  sixteenth 
century.  They  live  mainly  on  rice  ;  their 
villages  are  exceedingly  small,  five  hundred 
being  a  population  of  unusual  size. 

Tenggerese.  Mountain  people  of  east 
Java  who  differ  from  the  Javanese  in  having 
long  heads  and  broad  noses,  with  wavy  or  even 
curly  hair.  They  are  perhaps  descended,  at 
least  in  part,  from  south  Indian  immigrants 
of  the  seventh  and  later  centuries. 

Thonga.  Bantu-speaking  people  of  Portu- 
guese East  Africa,  on  the  Limpopo  river  ; 
they  are  also  called  Gwamba. 

Tibetan.  A  feature  of  the  social  organiza- 
tion of  Tibet  is  polyandry  ;  a  woman  is  taken 
to  wife  by  the  eldest  brother  of  a  family,  but 
he  shares  her  with  a  number  of  other  men 
who  may  be  but  are  not  necessarily  brothers. 
This  seems  to  be  a  result  of  the  struggle  for 
existence,  making  it  necessary  to  limit  the 
increase  of  population  ;  it  must,  however,  be 
remembered  that  the  poor  pastoral  nomads 
of  the  northern  steppes  practise  monogamy. 
The  essential  element  in  Tibetan  religion  is 
subjection  to  the  priest  or  lama  ;  lamaism  has 
been  imposed  upon  a  form  of  Buddhism,  and 
Buddhism  itself  is  only  a  veneer  upon  more 
primitive  pagan  creeds.  Tibetan  worship  is 
a  mechanical  system  with  the  prayer-wheel  as 
its  main  characteristic,  the  object  of  which 
is  to  baffle  the  evil  spirits  that  belay  man 
on  every  side.  The  Tibetan  had  been  des- 
cribed as  knavish,  treacherous  and  sub- 
servient or  tyrannous  according  to  circum- 
stances ;  but  other  observers  display  him 
as  kind-hearted,  affectionate  and  law- 
abiding.      See   Bhotia,    Balti,    Horsok,   etc. 

Tibeto-Burman  Languages.  Sub-family 
with  three  branches  —  Tibeto  -  Himalayan, 
Assamese-Burmese  and  Assamese-Chinese. 

Tibeto-Himalayan  Languages.  Stock 
of  Tibeto-Burman.  It  includes  Tibetan, 
Himalayan,  north  Assam,  Bodo,  Kaga,  Kuki- 

Chin,  Meithei,  and  Kachin,  through  which  a: 
double  line  of  relationship  between  Tibetan 
and  Burmese  can  be  traced. 

Tiki -Tike.  Pygmy  tribe  of  the  Upper 
Ituri,  between  the  Congo  and  the  Nile,  the 
name  being  probably  identical  with  that 
of  the  Atyo,  usually  known  as  Ba-Teke. 
They  are  nomadic  and  obtain  from  the 
Mangbettu  or  Momvu  fruits,  weapons  and 
bark  cloth  in  exchange  for  game.  They  live 
in  the  shelter  of  rocks. 

Tinguian  or  Itneg.  Pagan  mountain 
tribe  of  north  Luzon.  They  are  head- 
hunters  and  cultivate  rice. 

Tlinkit.  (i)  American-Indian  tribe  of  the 
west  coast  of  Alaska.  They  are  a  tall,  round- 
headed  people  of  a  pale-brown  or  yellowish 
colour,  and,  like  the  Haida,  famous  for  the 
totem  posts  erected  in  front  of  their  huts. 
(2)  Group  of  tribes,  also  known  as  Kalosh 
or  Kolush,  on  the  islands  and  coast  of 
north-west  America.  They  depend  largely 
on  the  sea  for  subsistence,  but  are  also 
hunters.  They  are  skilled  in  canoe  building, 
in  the  working  of  stone,  and  in  the  making  of 
blankets,  etc. 

Toba.  Tribe  of  Bolivia,  between  the  Pilco- 
mayo  and  the  Bermejo.  They  are  tall  and  a 
little  darker  than  the  Chiriguano.  They 
depend  entirely  on  hunting  and  fishing. 

Toda.  Small  tribe  of  the  Nilgiri  Hills. 
They  speak  a  Dravidian  language,  and  are  of 
rather  more  than  medium  height,  well  pro- 
portioned and  stalwart,  with  a  narrow  nose, 
regular  features  and  an  extraordinary  amount 
of  hair.  The  women  are  somewhat  lighter 
in  colour  than  the  men,  and  are  said  to  be  of 
a  warm  copper  hue.  In  the  case  of  the  great 
majority  the  skull  is  long  or  very  long.  The 
most  important  element  in  their  life  is  the 
buffalo,  which  is  tended  by  men  ;  women 
are  excluded  from  the  dairy  and  even  from 
the  paths  assigned  for  certain  purposes  such 
as  the  approach  to  the  dairy  for  the  man  who 
goes  to  feed  or  milk  the  buffaloes.  A  woman 
has  more  than  one  husband,  and  they  are 
often  brothers  ;  the  one  who  performs  a 
certain  ceremony  with  a  bow  and  arrow  about 
two  months  before  the  child  is  born  becomes 
the  father  for  all  legal  and  social  purposes,  of 
that  child.  In  olden  days  it  was  the  custom 
of  the  Toda  tribe  to  kill  female  children,  and 
it  is  to  this  that  their  marriage  custom  is  no 
doubt  due. 

Tomak.  Bulgarians  who  have  embraced 

Tomutes.  Turkish  people  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood of  Khiva. 

Tonga.  Bantu-speaking  people  who  live 
to  the  west  of  Lake  Nyasa.  There  is  another 
people  of  the  same  name  near  Inhambane  on 
the  coast. 

Tongkingese.  Peoples  of  Tong-king  fall 
into  two  groups,  Annamese  in  the  south,  and 
a  congeries  of  tribes  in  the  north,  including 
Tai,  Man,  Meo,  Lolo,  and  the  ancient 

Topa.  Name  given  to  the  Portuguese  of 

Toraja.  Wild  tribe  of  Celebes.  They  are 
of  varying  complexion,  some  yellow-brown, 
others  brown-black,  and  the  hair  is  sometimes 
wavy  ;     as  the  nose  is  broad  and  flat  it  is 



Dictionary  of  Races 

possible  that  there  is  a  Mongoloid  element 
superimposed  on  an  aboriginal  strain.  They 
are  described  as  simple,  truthful,  honourable 
and  hospitable,  patient  in  suffering,  and 
grateful  for  kindness. 

Tsu.  Formosan  tribe  of  the  south 
central  mountains.  They  were  formerly 
head-hunters  and  still  preserve  the  skulls  in 
the  communal  house  known  as  Khuva,  which 
serves  as  a  sleeping  house  for  the  young  men. 
They  are  of  a  non-Mongoloid  type,  with  long, 
straight  hair  and  straight  eyes  ;  the  lips  are 
thin  ;    they  knock  out  some  of  their  teeth. 

Tuareg.  Saharan  people  of  Berber  stock, 
known  to  the  Hausa  under  the  name  of 
Asbenawa  from  the  Asben  oasis,  which  they 
invaded  in  1515.  Their  own  name  for  them- 
selves seems  to  be  Imoshak,  and  their  language 
is  Tamoshak.  There  is  a  considerable  negroid 
element  in  the  lower  ranks  of  the  population, 
but  the  Tuareg,  who  dominate  the  western 
and  central  Sahara,  differ  from  the  northern 
Berbers  chiefly  in  respect  of  stature,  which  is 
extremely  tall  ;  in  this  they  resemble  the 
Nilotes  and  some  of  the  Chad  tribes. 

Tugeri  or  Kaia-Kaia,  New  Guinea 
people  noted  for  their  head-hunting  pro- 

Tukano.  Tribe  of  the  Amazon  area,  who 
are  deadly  foes  of  the  Desana.  A  typical 
Tukano  is  round  headed,  with  eyes  usually 
horizontal  and  a  good-humoured  expression  ; 
the  nose  is  broad  with  wide  nostrils  and  the 
hair  wavy  and  sometimes  almost  curly.  Fish- 
ing is  the  chief  occupation  of  the  men,  and  the 
women  cultivate  the  fields.  They  have  an 
assembly  house  in  which  men  and  women  take 
their  meals,  but  at  different  times.  In  many 
places  animal  food  is  hardly  used,  but  they 
are  great  frog  eaters.  Their  language  belongs 
to  the  Betoya  group. 

Tungus.  Neo-Siberian  tribes  allied  to  the 
Goldi,  Manchu,  Orochon,  etc.  They  seem 
variable  in  type,  being  shorter  and  more 
predominantly  round  headed  in  the  south  ; 
the  hair  is  straight  ;  the  eyes  are  often 
without  the  Mongoloid  fold.  They  are 
probably  the  same  as  the  Tung-hu,  of  Chinese 
annals.  The  type  has  been  described  as 
essentially  Mongolic,  with  some  admixture 
of  Turki  characters,  but  little  reliable  informa- 
tion is  available.  They  are  daring  hunters, 
cheerful  even  in  the  deepest  misery,  of  gentle 
manners,  proud  and  upright,  obliging  without 
being  servile.  They  are  for  the  most  part 

Turanian.  Term  used  linguistically  as 
an  equivalent  to  Ural-Altaic  ;  but  also 
applied  in  an  ethnological  sense.  The  name 
Turan  is  Asiatic  ;  Tura  is  mentioned  in  the 
Avesta,  the  sacred  book  of  the  Old  Persians, 
where  Tuirya  is  used  of  the  countries  now 
called  Turanian,  the  people  of  which  were 
enemies  of  Airya.  Turan  is  one  of  the  names 
applied  to  what  is  also  called  Tartary,  though 
it  is  not  known  to  the  Asiatic  Turks.  Some 
philologists  have  spoken  of  a  South  Turanian 
group  of  languages,  meaning  thereby  Tamulic, 
Malayic,  etc. 

Turcomans-.  Turki  peoples  of  Bokhara, 
Khiva,  and  Persia  together  with  a  small 
number  in  the  Caucasus.  In  religion  they 
are     all     Mahomedans  ;      linguistically     they 

belong  to  the  Jagatai  division.  A  large 
number  are  still  nomadic  horse  breeders  ; 
they  are  forbidden  to  marry  outside  their 
own  people,  and,  as  there  are  more  men  than 
women,  there  are  large  numbers  of  bachelors, 
in  some  places  they  number  twenty-seven 
per  cent,  of  the  population.  In  culture  as 
well  as  physique  they  may  be  reckoned  with 
the  Iranians. 

Turkana.  People  of  east  Africa  on  the 
west  of  Lake  Rudolf.  They  are  reputed 
to  be  the  tallest  of  the  human  race.  In  one 
district  they  are  said  to  average  7  ft.  in  height  ; 
the  allied  Suk  do  not  exceed  6  ft.  6  in.  They 
depend  for  sustenance  upon  fish  to  some 
extent,  but  are  mainly  a  pastoral  people. 
They  seem  to  come  near  the  Nilotic  negroes 
in  physical  type  ;  their  language  is  classified 
as  Niloto-Hamitic.  They  have  a  smaller 
non-negro  element  than  the  Masai  or  even 
the  Baganda. 

Turki.  People  of  central  Asia.  Their 
stature  is  above  the  average,  and  they  have 
a  very  round  head,  elongated  oval  face,  eyes 
non-Mongoloid  but  with  an  external  fold  in 
the  eyelid  ;  thick  lips,  somewhat  prominent 
nose.  They  are  essentially  nomadic  ;  the 
Turk  who  takes  to  agriculture  has  been 
deeply  modified  by  inter-mixture. 

Turki  or  Turko-Tartar  Languages. 
Of  these  there  are  three  groups  :  Jagatai, 
Tatar,  Turkish ;  the  two  former  are  more 
closely  related  to  each  other  than  to  the  third. 

Turkic  Tribes.  Group  including  Yakut, 
Kirghiz,  Uzbeg,  Turcoman,  etc.  They  are 
of  medium  stature  and  yellowish-white  com- 
plexion, with  short  high  head,  elongated  oval 
face,  straight  and  rather  prominent  nose. 
Probably  they  are  allied  to  the  Ugrian  peoples.    ■ 

Turkish  Language.  Speech  of  the 
western  Turks,  consisting  of  the  following 
groups  :  Derbent,  Azerbaijan,  Crimean,  Ana- 
tolian, and  Rumelian,  the  last  two  consti- 
tuting Osmanli. 

Turko-Iranian.  Group  including  Baluchi, 
Brahui,  and  Afghan,  a  broad-headed  people 
with  abundant  hair  and  fair  complexion. 

Turko-Tartars  (Russia).  The  following 
tribes  come  under  this  head  :  Kazan  Tartars, 
Tartars  of  the  Crimea  and  Taurida,  Kirghiz, 
Nogai  of  Stavropol  near  the  Caspian,  Bashkir 
of  Orenburg.  It  is  possible  that  the  Bashkir 
were  originally  a  Finnic  tribe  who  were  later 

Turks.  This  people  may  probably  be  identi- 
fied with  the  Tu-kiu,  whose  name  is  mentioned 
in  the  sixth  century;  but  three  thousand  years 
ago  the  Hiung-nu  mentioned  by  the  Chinese  as 
their  neighbours  on  the  north-west  must  have 
been  their  ancestors.  When  the  Great  Wall 
of  China  was  built  more  than  two  thousand 
years  ago  these  Hiung-nu  had  to  turn 
westwards.  Soon  after  this  most  of  the 
Turkic  tribes  of  central  Asia  were  united 
under  the  Hun-mi  Empire  ;  it  is  probable 
that  Hiung-nu  and  Hun-nu  are  the  same. 
They  were  probably  the  Huns  of  some 
centuries  later  who  were  on  the  Volga  in 
a.d.  275,  and  ravaged  Europe  in  the  fifth 
century  ;  another  section  advanced  on  India 
in  the  following  century.  The  Hun-nu,  who 
moved  westwards,  had  as  their  chief  element 
the    On-Uigur.     The   Togus    Uigur   remained 


Dictionary  of  Races 

in  Asia,  and  were  subdued  for  a  time  by  the 
Tu-kiu,  afterwards  assuming  the  leadership 

Tuscarora  (hemp  gatherers).  Important 
confederation  of  Iroquois  tribes  of  North 
Carolina.  The  Tuscarora,  in  New  York,  are 
still  governed  by  chiefs,  who  are,  however,  no 
longer  responsible  to  the  clan.  Like  other 
Iroquois,  they  traced  descent  in  the  female 
line  and  had  also  women  chiefs.  In  olden 
times  they  stuck  prisoners  full  of  small 
splinters  and  set  them  gradually  on  fire.  They 
were  passionately  fond  of  gaming. 

Tush.  Georgian  people,  mainly  on  the 
north  of  the  Caucasus. 

Twi,  Agni-Twi,  Tshi  or  Otyi.  Group 
of  tribes  of  the  Gold  and  Ivory  Coasts.  They 
speak  allied  languages  which  show  some  signs 
of  having  been  taken  over  by  non-negroes. 
It  is  probable  that  they  came  from  the  east. 

Tynjur.  Name  of  a  people  of  Nubia, 
and  also  of  a  section  of  Shuwa  Arabs  south- 
west of  Lake  Chad,  who  are,  however,  possibly 
not  of  Arab  descent  at  all,  though  they  speak 
Arabic.  Tradition  says  that  they  came  from 
Tunis,  and  they  say  that  their  forefathers 
were  once  rulers  of  Wadai. 

Ukit.  Tribe  of  nomadic  hunters  in  Borneo. 
They  are  a  slender,  pale-skinned  people, 
grouped  in  small  communities,  who  live  on 
what  they  can  find  in  the  jungle,  and  barter 
from  friendly  settled  people  iron  implements, 
etc.,  in  return  for  rubber  and  camphor. 

Uled  Nail  or  Oulcd  Nail.  Aures  tribe 
of  Berbers. 

Ural-Altaic  Languages.  Family  the 
existence  of  which  is  not  universally  accepted, 
including  Mongol,  Finno-Ugrian,  Turkish, 
Manchu,  and  Samoyed. 

Urdu.  Form  of  Hindi  that  uses  many 
Persian  words  and  Persian  script. 

Uriankhai  or  Uriangut.  Turanian  Turks 
near  the  Sayan  mountains.  They  are 
sometimes  called  Soyot,  but  the  northern 
section  call  themselves  Tuba.  They  seem 
to  be  a  mixed  people  with  much  Mongol 
blood,  but  some  authorities  have  classed  them 
as  Samoyed  mixed  with  Turks.  Thev  are 
the  most  successful  reindeer  breeders  known  ; 
some  depend  on  hunting  and  fishing.  They 
breed  horse,  yak,  and  reindeer  for  draught 
purposes  in  a  way  that  suggests  a  combination 
of  Mongol,  Turk,  and  Tungus. 

Uzbegs.  Turkic  people  of  Samarkand, 
Bokhara,  etc.,  allied  to  the  Kipchak  of 
Ferghana.  The  Uzbegs  are  the  ruling  class 
of  their  land,  occupying  the  same  position 
as  the  Osmanli  farther  west.  They  seem  to 
take  their  name  from  Uzbeg  Khan  of  the 
Golden  Horde  of  the  fourteenth  century,  and 
are  a  mixture  of  Turkic,  Iranian,  and  Mongol 
with  some  predominance  of  the  former 
element.  They  are  exchanging  nomad  life 
for  a  sedentary  one,  and  their  customary  law 
is  being  replaced  by  written  law.  Though 
they  make  use  of  clay  and  wood  houses,  their 
old  felt  tents  are  still  to  be  seen,  especially 
in  summer.  They  seem  to  have  much  in 
common  with  the  Kazaks  or  Kazak- Kirghiz. 
They  are  probably  peoples  who  escaped  from 
Turkic  rule  in  the  thirteenth  century  to  go 
back  to  a  nomadic  life  ;  this  drove  them  to 
constant  war  with  the  Mongols,  who  possessed 

the  steppes  before  them.  There  is  a  proverb, 
"  Where  the  hoof  of  the  Kataghan's  horse 
arrives,  there  the  dead  find  no  grave  cloth  and 
the  living  no  home."  The  Kataghan  are  a 
tribe  of  Uzbegs. 

Vai.  Tribe  of  the  Mandingo  group  on  the 
coast  of  Liberia  and  Sierra  Leone.  Thev 
possess  their  own  system  of  writing,  invented 
in  the  nineteenth  century  by  a  native.  They 
are  of  the  usual  Mandingo  type,  but  have  a 
rather  larger,  short-headed  element  ;  m 
stature  they  are  rather  shorter  ;  it  is  probable 
that  they  are  mixed  with  tribes  who  previously 
occupied  the  coast  area. 

Vedda.  Primitive  tribe  of  Ceylon,  classed 
with  the  pre-Dravidians.  They  stand  about 
5  ft.  high,  and  have  wavy,  sometimes  almost 
curly  hair  ;  the  skin  colour  varies  enormously 
from  yellowish  brown  to  deep  brown-black. 
The  head  is  long  and  narrow,  and  the  nose 
only  moderately  broad,  depressed  at  the  root, 
and  never  really  flattened.  All  trace  of  their 
original  language  has  been  lost.  They  adopted, 
in  the  first  place,  a  primitive  form  of  Sinhalese 
which,  by  paraphrases,  was  transformed  into 
a  kind  of  secret  language,  and  now  the 
archaic  words  are  being  replaced  by  modern 
Sinhalese.  They  are  divided  into  wild  Vedda, 
living  in  caves,  village  Vedda,  and  coast 
Vedda,  the  two  latter  having  undergone 
considerable  foreign  influence.  The  coast 
Vedda  speak  of  themselves  as  Verda. 
In  temperament  they  are  grave  but  happy, 
honest  and  hospitable  ;  their  only  weapon  is 
the  bow  and  arrow,  and  the  iron-tipped 
arrow  is  their  only  tool.  The  language  is 
Sinhali,  borrowed  from  their  Tamil  neighbours, 
but  it  is  strongly  modified  ;  they  have  only 
one  word  to  express  number,  and  do  their 
counting  with  sticks.  Hunting,  honey,  and 
the  cult  of  the  dead  are  the  three  most 
important  things  for  the  Vedda,  but  the 
wilder  sections  put  their  dead  in  caves  and 
simply  abandon  them. 

Visayan,  or  Bisayan.  Philippine  tribe 
called  Pintados  by  the  Spaniards,  from  their 
custom  of  body-painting.  They  are  probably 
of  the  prevailing  round-headed  type. 

Vlach,  Wallach  or  Wallachian. 
People  of  Wallachia.  The  word  has  been 
derived,  without  much  evidence,  from  the 
same  root  as  Wales,  Walloon,  etc.,  as  applied 
to  Celtic  peoples  by  Slavs  and  Germans. 
There  are  also  Vlachs  in  the  population  of 

Voguls.  Ostyak  name  of  a  people  who 
call  themselves  Manzi.  They  are  a  Ugrian 
people,  closely  related  to  the  Ostyaks,  of 
small  stature  and  longish  heads,  with  long, 
blond  hair  and  grey  or  blue  eyes,  flat  noses 
and  round  faces.  They  are  a  hunting 
people,  melancholy,  timid,  and  indolent  in 

Volta  Languages.  Group  of  languages  of 
the  Semi-Bantu  zone,  spoken  in  the  northern 
territories  of  the  Gold  Coast  and  French  Niger 
territory,  including  Mole  or  Mossi,  Grunshi, 
Dagomba,  etc.  They  fall  into  a  number  of 
sub-groups,  and  differ  from  the  major  type 
of  Semi-Bantu  tongues  in  using  a  suffix 
instead  of  a  prefix  in  the  noun  classes. 

Vonum.  Group  of  uncivilized  tribes  in  the 
mountains   of  central    Formosa,    where   they 

Dictionary  of  Races 

often  live  at  great  elevations.  They  were 
formerly  head-hunters  ;  women  carry  burdens 
on  their  backs  with  a  band  over  the  head. 
Mongoloid  traits  are  not  conspicuous,  and  it  is 
possible  that  they  are  primitive  Indonesians. 

Votyak.  Eastern  Finnic  tribe  which  left  the 
Urals  about  fifteen  hundred  years  ago  for  their 
present  home  between  the  rivers  Kama  and 
Viatka.  They  are  chiefly  heathen,  and 
worship  Inmar,  god  of  heaven,  to  whom  they 
still  offer,  it  is  said,  human  sacrifices.  They 
are  of  short  stature,  with  blue  or  grey  eyes, 
a  straight  nose,  and  blond  or  red  hair.  They 
are  not  robust. 

Wa  or  Vu.  People  of  Burma,  some  of 
whom  are  head-hunters,  speaking  a  Mon- 
Khmer  language.  They  are  short  and  broad, 
with  bullet  heads,  square  faces,  and  heavy 
jaws.  The  nose  is  on  the  whole  prominent  and 
very  broad  in  the  nostrils  ;  the  eyes  are  round 
and  well  opened,  and  the  complexion  is  dark 
in  the  case  of  the  wild  Wa.  They  surround 
their  villages  with  a  rampart  6  ft.  or  8  ft.  high, 
with  a  ditch  outside  and  a  tunnel  entrance. 
In  character  they  are  brave,  energetic,  and 
industrious,  especially  in  cultivating  the  soil  ; 
beans  are  the  staple  food. 

Wabanaki.  North-eastern  section  of  Algon- 
quins,  including"  Passamaquoddy,  Penobscot, 
Abenaki,  Micmac,  and  Delaware  or  Lenape. 

Wadigo.  One  of  the  so-called  Nyika  tribes 
of  the  hinterland  of  Mombasa,  related  to  the 
Wagiriama,  etc.,  and  speaking  a  Bantu 
language.  They  are  a  shortish  people,  some 
men  not  exceeding  5  ft.  2  in.,  and  it  is  clear 
from  the  variation  in  head  shape  that  there  is 
a  distinct  pygmy  element  among  them. 

Wags  n  3a  or  Baganda.  Inhabitants 
of  Uganda.  The  form  Waganda  is  of  Swahili 
origin.  They  vary  greatly  in  features  and 
build,  some  being  thoroughly  negro  in  type, 
others  with  faces  that  have  been  compared 
to  those  of  Romans  ;  some  stand  over  6  ft., 
others  barely  5  ft.  ;  the  upper  classes  have 
silkier  hair,  but  it  is  black  and  woolly  in  all  ; 
the  complexion  varies  from  copper- colour  to 
jet-black.  They  have  been  called  the  most 
advanced  of  Bantu-speaking  tribes,  are 
careful  of  their  appearance  and  of  their 
homes,  courteous  in  manner,  and  hospitable 
to  guests.  Unlike  other  Bantu-speaking 
peoples  of  eastern  equatorial  Africa,  they 
neither  knock  out  teeth  nor  mutilate  their 
person  in  any  way  ;  they  do  not  even  pierce 
their  ear-lobes.  They  are  divided  into  a  great 
number  of  clans,  which  appear  to  differ  from 
each  other  in  build  or  in  features,  so  that  it  is 
possible  to  distinguish  at  sight  members  of 
certain  clans,  though  they  have  been  inter- 
marrying for  ages.  The  Uganda  house  differs 
in  type  from  that  of  any  other  people  of 
negro  Africa,  with  its  lofty  roof  and  vast 
framework  of  palm  midribs  or  sticks  extending 
right  down  to  the  ground,  with  openings  cut 
away  to  serve  the  purpose  of  doors  in  front 
and  back. 

Wageia.  Bantu-speaking  people  of  the 
south-east  shore  of  Victoria  Nyanza.  They 
are  remarkable  for  their  finely  developed 
figures,  and  appear  to  have  a  Nilotic  element 
in  their  blood.  The  men  go  completely  naked, 
but  wear  large  straw  hats  with  great  tufts  of 
feathers  in  them. 

Wahabi  or  Wahhabl.  Mahomedan 
community  of  Nejd,  named  after  Abd  el 
Wahhab.  They  have  representatives  in 
Mesopotamia,   India,   and  Africa. 

Wahehe.  Mixed  people  of  Uhehe,  East 
Africa.  They  are  composed  of  the  remnants 
of  tribes  conquered  in  the  nineteenth  century 
by  the  Wahehe  proper.  Tall,  with  regular 
features  of  non-negroid  noses  and  strikingly 
light  complexion,  they  are  brave  and  terrible 
warriors,  and  take  their  name  from  their 
war-cry,  "  Hehe,  he,  he  !  "  Burton  saw  a 
tribe  whom  he  calls  Wahehe,  but  they  do  not 
appear  to  be  the  same. 

Wahima.  Negroid  people  of  Uganda. 
Usually  tall  and  long  headed,  with  small 
hands  and  feet,  they  have  sometimes  almost 
European  features  and  differ  from  the  average 
negro  tribe  in  the  length  of  the  neck,  but 
their  hair  is  hardly  distinguishable  from  that 
of  the  pure  negro.  They  are  the  aristocracy 
of  Unyoro,  the  cattle  herdsmen  of  Uganda. 
The  form  Bahima  is  more  correct  than 
Wahima,  Wa  being  the  Swahili  form  of  the 
plural  prefix. 

Walloon.  (1)  Number  of  dialects  of  north 
French,  spoken  in  the  southern  part  of 
Belgium  ;  (2)  the  name  of  the  people  who 
speak  Walloon.  There  is  a  Walloon  element 
in  the  population  of  Kent.  The  people  of  the 
Ardennes  plateau  are  just  under  medium 
stature,  dark  complexioned,  and  on  the 
whole  short  headed  ;  the  same  type,  but 
with  a  more  pronounced  shortness  of  head, 
is  found  in  some  of  the  coastal  provinces  of 
Holland  ;  even  in  Friesland  the  same  type 
is  found.  The  earliest  remains,  of  the  Old 
Stone  Age,  show  a  long-headed  people,  who 
were  replaced  in  the  Neolithic  period  by  a 
short-headed  people  which  does  not  seem 
to  have  been  identical  with  the  Alpine  stock 
of  central  Europe.  Belgium  thus  formed  a 
notable  contrast  to  both  France  and  the 
British  Isles,  and  it  seems  likely  that  this 
stock  explains  the  head  shape  of  the  people 
of  the  Ardennes. 

Wambutte.  Pygmy  tribe  of  the  Ituri 
Forest,   Belgian  Congo. 

Wandorobo  or  Andorobo,  Nomadic 
people  of  the  Masai  country,  who  have 
attached  themselves  to  the  latter  as  helots. 
They  speak  a  dialect  of  Nandi,  but  their 
physical  type  shows  them  to  be  of  very 
mixed  descent.  They  tend  towards  short 
stature,  and  in  facial  type  some  seem  to 
resemble  Bushmen,  whose  kinsmen  they  may 
be.  Their  name  is  Masai,  and  means  "  poor." 
They  call  themselves  Asa. 

Wankonde  or  Nkonde.  Bantu-speak- 
ing people  at  the  north  end  of  Lake 
Nyasa,  whose  name  seems  to  mean  "  people 
of  the  plain."  They  include  the  Awakukwe, 
Awawiwa,  and  other  tribes.  They  assert 
themselves  to  be  nearly  related  to  the 
Wamaraba  near  the  coast.  They  are  very 
dark  and  usually  tall,  but  there  seems  to  be 
a  tendency  to  bowleggedness  among  them. 
They  lead  an  easy  life,  and  both  men  and 
women  are  said  to  be  comparatively  good- 
looking.  They  are  cheerful,  harmless,  and 
intelligent,  but  superficial  and  unreliable. 
They  cannot  be  called  lazy,  though  they  are 
indisposed  to  exert  themselves  for  gain. 



Dictionary  of  Races 

Wanyamwezi.  Tribe  of  Uganda  made 
famous  by  the  travels  of  Livingstone.  The 
name  means  "  children  of  the  moon." 
^  Wapisiana.  Savannah-dwelling  tribe  of 
Guiana,  speaking  an  Arawak  language.  They 
are  taller  than  most  tribes,  with  refined 
features.  They  are  great  traders,  and  in 
their  canoes  they  use  a  peculiar  form  of 
paddle  with  perfectly  circular  blades. 

Wapokomo.  Bantu-speaking  tribe  of  the 
Tana  valley  in  the  north-east  of  British  East 
Africa.  They  are  cultivators  of  the  soil  and 
also  hunters  and  fishermen  ;  they  seem  to  be 
related  to  the  Wasanye,  for  both  tribes  bury 
their  dead  in  the  forest  instead  of  following 
the  usual  Bantu  custom.  They  seem  to  be  of 
mixed  origin,  and  even  in  the  same  family 
children  vary  in  colour  from  black  to  "  red." 

Warramunga.  Central  Australian  tribe 
living  in  the  Murchison  Range.  Both  men 
and  women  are  considerably  taller  than  in 
the  Arunta  tribe  to  the  south.  A  feature  of 
their  customs  is  the  practice  of  pulling  out 
the  hair  on  the  forehead  and  upper  lip. 

Warrau  or  Warraw.  Coast  people  of 
Guiana,  forming  an  independent  linguistic 
group;  they  are  short  and,  though  thick  set, 
their  muscular  development  is  not  great.  They 
lived  in  the  mud  and  were  essentially  a  dirty 
people.  They  practise  plurality  both  of 
wives  and  husbands.  They  were  the  great 
canoe  builders  and  formerly  lived  in  pile 
dwellings  and  even  now,  after  their  removal 
to  higher  ground,  the  old  custom  is  kept  up. 

Wasania  or  Wasanye.  Tribe  of  British 
East  Africa.  Though  possibly  not  allied  to  the 
Pokomo,  they  have  some  customs  in  common 
with  them,  they  live  on  the  middle  Tana  and 
support  themselves  by  hunting  and  fishing. 

Watuta.      Name  of  the  Angoni  (q.v.). 

Waunga.  Negro  tribe  of  the  swamps 
south-east  of  Lake  Bangweolo,  Central  Africa. 

Wayao  or  Yao.  Finely  built  Bantu- 
speakmg  tribe  of  Rhodesia  and  British 
Central  Africa.  Their  original  home  was  in 
the  Unango  mountains.  They  are  a  tall 
people,  with  heads  that  seem  round  com- 
pared with  the  Anyanja. 

Waziba  or  Baziba.  Bantu-speaking 
people  of  the  west  shore  of  Victoria  Nyanza. 
They  are  industrious,  good  humoured,  and 
happy,  of  remarkably  good  physique,  and 
simple  in  their  requirements.  They  wear  a 
curious  costume  of  fibre  threads  and  are  also 
remarkable  for  their  method  of  burying  their 
chiefs,  who  are  placed  standing  in  a  deep 
narrow  pit,  with  the  head  peeping  above 
ground.  The  head  is  watched  by  sentries 
for  two  months  and  then  pushed  down  into 
the  earth.  Unlike  most  negro  peoples,  they 
care  little  for  music  and  dancing.  In  olden 
days  no  man  was  allowed  to  wear  a  beard. 

Wazir  or  Waziri.  Mahomedan  people 
on  the  frontier  of  Afghanistan.  Living  in 
wild  and  inaccessible  country  and  giving 
continual  trouble,  they  have  plenty  of  cattle, 
but  cultivate  only  strips  of  soil  along  their 
mountain  streams.  They  are  related  to  the 
Afridi,  and  belong  to  the  Pathan  group  who 
talk  Pushtu. 

Welsh.  Inhabitants  of  Wales  descended 
from  Welsh-speaking  ancestors.  In  the  moor- 
Jlarjds   sue   find   dark,    long-headed   people,    of 

average  stature  and  ruddy  complexion.  In 
parts  of  south  Wales  is  found  a  powerfully- 
built  stock,  with  broad  heads  and  faces, 
square  jaws,  and  dark  complexion  ;  another 
type,  dark,  bullet  headed,  and  thick-set  is 
found  in  the  Montgomeryshire  valleys. 
Finally,  there  is  a  fairer  type  found  in 
Pembrokeshire,  on  the  borders  much  taller 
than  the  other  types,  and  a  darker  variety 
along  the  cleft  from  Bala  to  Towyn.  In 
general,  however,  there  is  not  so  much  racial 
difference  between  England  and  Wales  as  is 
commonly  supposed.  The  Welsh  language 
does  not  date  back  more  than  some  two 
thousand  five  hundred  j^ears.     See  English. 

Wends.  Slav  people  of  the  Lausitz  in 
Germany.  They  have  been  sometimes  con- 
fused with  the  Veneti  ;  their  name  has  not 
been  explained,  but  it  has  been  suggested 
that  they  inherited  it  from  the  Venedi,  who 
were  on  the  Vistula  some  time  before  the 
Christian  era.  They  are  also  termed  Polabs, 
from  po,  by  ;    Labe,  Elbe. 

Wepsian.  Language  spoken  on  Lake 
Onega,  in  the  government  of  Olonets  and 
elsewhere.  They  are  called  Chuds  by  the 
Russians,  and  further  south  Chuhars,  but 
these  are  used  of  various  Finnic  peoples. 
Wepsian  is  a  name  taken  from  the  Novgorod 
people  of  this  language.  They  leave  agricul- 
ture to  the  women  and  children  ;  some  men 
occupy  themselves  with  fishing,  but  they  are 
by  preference  journeymen  masons.  Their 
life  is  exceedingly  primitive  ;  the  whisk  is 
used  in  the  place  of  the  churn,  which  is  un- 
known ;  there  are  no  spinning  wheels,  and 
the  canoes  are  dug-outs  propelled  by  a  single 
oar.  The  word  Chud  applied  by  the  Slavs  to 
the  Finns  is  said  to  mean  giant  as  well,  and 
we  may  perhaps  see  in  them  the  tall  people 
who  in  the  Norse  Eddas  are  called  Jbtuns. 

Worgaia.  Australian  tribe  of  the  Central 
Group,  located  to  the  east  of  the  Warramunga. 

Wyandot,      Synonym  for  Huron. 

Yakut.  Turkic  tribe  of  eastern  Siberia. 
They  are  dependent  on  the  reindeer,  but  have 
to  supplement  this  means  of  subsistence  by 
fishing,  etc.,  as  their  pasture  area  is  limited. 

Yami.  Inhabitants  of  a  small  island  south- 
east of  Formosa.  Described  as  a  mixed 
people  with  some  Malayan  elements,  they 
do  not  stand  more  than  5  ft.  2  in.,  and  are 
yellowish-brown  in  complexion.  Some  are 
of  Malayan  type,  others  show  negrito  traits, 
but  the  hair  is  not  frizzled.  Their  boats  are 
said ,  to  have  a  close  resemblance  to  those  of 
the  Solomon  Islands,  and  this  suggests  some 
strain  akin  to  the  people  who  imposed  on  the 
inhabitants  of  Melanesia  the  language  of 
Indonesian  origin  spoken  to-day.  The  head 
varies  from  very  round  to  very  long. 

Yaqui.  Important  section  of  the  Cahita 
tribe  which  dwelt  on  both  banks  of  the  Lower 
Yaqui,  Mexico.  They  belonged  to  the  Pima 
family  and  were  allied  to  the  Maya,  though 
the  two  tribes  were  not  on  good  terms.  They 
seem  to  be  an  industrious  people  and  are 
employed  as  farm  labourers  and  sailors  ; 
the}'  are  good  pearl  divers  ;  on  the  other 
hand,  they  are  given  to  alcohol,  gambling, 
and  stealing.  In  1903  they  numbered  about 
20,000  ;  their  present  numbers  are  unknown, 
as  in  1906-7  the  Mexican  government  planned 


Dictionary  of  Races 

to  deal  drastically  with  the  hostile  Yaqui  and 
deported  thousands  of  them  to  Yucatan  and 
Tehuantepec,  where  a  changed  environment 
is  likely  to  have  affected  the  deportees. 

Yezidi.  Short-headed  people  of  western 
Kurdistan.  Often  with  stra'ght  hair,  much 
hair  on  the  face,  a  very  short  high  head, 
swarthy  white  skin  and  a  narrow,  generally 
aquiline  nose,  they  are  allied  to  the  Kurd's 
and  are  noted  for  their  devil  worship  and 
their  cult  of  the  peacock. 

Yao,  Wayao  or  Ajawa.  People  of 
Nyasa  who  originally  lived  nearer  the  coast 
but  were  driven  away  by  tribes  coming  from 
the  north.  They  are  of  better  physique  than 
their  Anyanja  neighbours,  but  vary  con- 
siderably in  height,  some  being  over  6  ft. 
They  have  a  great  reputation  as  strong 
carriers.  The  women  wear  a  ring  in  the 
upper  lip,  a  custom  borrowed  from  the 
Anyanja,  who  have  now  given  it  up. 

Yolof,  Jolof  or  Woloi.  Sudanic- 
speaking  people  of  western  Africa  between  the 
Senegal  and  the  Gambia.  They  are  tall  and 
extremely  black,  but  very  good-looking. 

Yoruba.  Originally  the  name  of  a  single 
tribe  of  an  allied  group,  to  all  of  which  the 
name  is  now  applied  ;  Egba,  Jebu,  etc.,  are 
sub-divisions.  They  extend  from  the  sea  coast 
to  the  Middle  Niger  and  differ  from  sur- 
rounding tribes  in  their  tall  stature  and 
comparatively  slender  build.  Thev  number 
about  2,000,000  and  are  great  traders.  The 
Yoruba  country  is  remarkable  for  its  large 
towns,  some  of  which  are  said  to  have  nearly 
250,000  inhabitants,  and  for  the  absence  of 
dialects  in  the  language.  They  have  tribal 
heirlooms  in  the  shape  of  bronzes  that  can  be 
shown  to  be  two  thousand  five  hundred  years 
old.  Secret  societies  play  a  very  important 
part  in  their  life.  They  are  also  known  as 
Nago  or  Aku. 

Yuracare.  South  American  Indian  tribe 
to  the  south  of  the  Moxos.  Their  name 
means  "  white  "  ;  they  are  of  light  colour 
with  a  yellowish  tinge,  of  tall  stature  with  an 
average  of  5  ft.  6  in.,  oval  faces,  and  small 
horizontal  eyes. 

Zapotec.  Mexican  tribe  which,  at  the 
time  of  the  Spanish  conquest,  occupied  the 
present  state  of  Oaxaca  on  the  Pacific  side. 
They  are,  as  a  rule,  markedly  short  headed. 

Zulu  or  Amazulu.  Bantu-speaking 
people  of  south-east  Africa.  Arriving  in 
their  present  location  at  a  comparatively 
recent  date,  coming  from  the  north,  they 
developed  some  marked  peculiarities  of 
language.  The  Zulu  were  an  exceedingly 
warlike  people  of  splendid  physique.  At 
the  end  of  the  eighteenth  century  they  were 
a  small  tribe,  which  was  united  by  a  famous 
chief  named  Tshaka  with  the  Abatetwa,  and 
soon  turned  into  a  people  organized  for  war. 
Tshaka  drove  the  Basuto  into  their  mountain 

Zunl.  Pueblo  tribe  of  the  south-west 
area  of  North  America. 

2yrians,  Finnic  people  of  moderate 
stature,  with  round  heads,  straight  noses, 
and  blond  or  chestnut  hair.  They  are  of 
strong  and  graceful  build  and  have  the 
reputation  of  being  skilful  and  unscrupulous 

■   .-            ■                    .-■:-.  ■■■  .  ■■■.  ~.v  ■  ■■    ■■■■■: 





As  the  Caribs  shown  in  page  5326  may  be  re- 
garded as  perhaps  the  finest  type  surviving  of 
the  old  American  strain,  so  the  Bugis  of  the 
island  of  Celebes  now  represent  the  Malayan 
stock  at  its  best 
Photo,  S.  P.  Lewis 



By  Professor   G.   Elliot    Smith,    F.R.S. 

The  ethnographic  atlas  to  which  this  article  serves  as  an  introduction  has  been  edited 
and  revised  by  Professor  G.  Elliot  Smith,  F.R.S. ,  with  the  assistance  of  Dr.  Charles 
Hose,  to  enable  the  reader  to  see  at  a  glance  the  disposition  and  boundaries  of  the  nations 
and  the  distribution  of  the  various  branches  of  the  human  family.  As  many  ethnographic 
problems  still  await  solution  and  many  races  are  mingled,  the  delimitation  cannot  be 
absolute  ;  bat  this  atlas  and  Mr.  Northcote  W.  Thomas's  Dictionary  of  the  world's 
races  together  form  the  handiest  and  most  comprehensive  conspectus  of  the  peoples 
of  all  nations  ever  compiled. 

IT  is  impossible  to  represent  upon  a 
map  the  exact  geographical  distri- 
bution of  the  members  of  the 
different  human  races  with  even  an 
approximation  to  accuracy.  For  there 
has  been  racial  admixture  in  every 
region  of  the  world ;  and  in  most 
regions,  especially  of  Europe,  Asia,  and 
America,  the  mingling  of  people  of 
different  racial  origins  has  been  so  wide- 
spread that,  in  the  case  of  any  individual, 
only  rarely  is  it  possible  to  state  that  he 
belongs  wholly  to  a  definite  race. 

Hence,  in  the  maps  that  are  submitted 
here,  racial  boundaries  are  shown  in 
Africa  and  some  of  the  outlying  areas 
in  Asia  and  America ;  whereas  in 
Europe  and  the  greater  part  of  Asia 
and  America  the  distributions  are  based 
mainly  on  language,  and  in  some  cases 
on  more  or  less  arbitrary  political  sub- 

Racial    Distribution    and    Language 

Ireland  affords  an  example  of  the 
latter.  So  far  as  the  racial  ingredients 
of  its  population  are  concerned,  Ireland 
should  not  be  differentiated  from  Britain. 
Then,  again,  the  vast  majority  of  its 
people  use  the  English  language,  so 
that,  if  chief  importance  is  assigned  to 
the  linguistic  factor  in  plotting  out  the 
distributions,  only  certain  very  limited 
areas  in  the  west  where  Erse  is  spoken 
should  be  distinguished  from  the  English- 
speaking  area  which  forms  the  bulk  of 
the  island. 

In  the  map,  however,  neither  racial 
nor  linguistic  considerations  are  given 
chief  consideration,  but  the  political 
subdivision  into  Northern  Ireland  and 

the  Free  State  is  roughly  indicated. 
There  is  a  certain  measure  of  justification 
for  this  procedure,  as  it  emphasises  the 
essential  kinship  of  the  people  of  Ulster 
with  the  southern  Scottish  population. 
The  population  of  Europe,  to  which 
the  misleading  name  "  Caucasian  "  is 
sometimes  applied,  is  composed  mainly 
of  three  races ;  and  although  it  is 
improbable  that  any  of  these  three 
originated  in  Europe,  the  distinctive 
names  Nordic,  Alpine,  and  Mediter- 
ranean, usually  applied  to  them,  refer  to 
their  geographical  location  in  Europe. 

Ancient    Nordic    Colonies 

The  range  of  each  of  these  races, 
however,  extends  far  beyond  the  limits 
of  Europe.  The  Nordic  race  is  cha- 
racterised by  fair  hair  and  blue  eyes, 
and  is  found  in  its  purest  form  in 
Norway,  but  it  is  also  the  obtrusive 
ingredient  in  a  large  part  of  the  popu- 
lation of  the  British  Isles,  Northern 
Europe,  and  certain  regions  of  north- 
western Asia  ;  but  ancient  colonies  of 
this  race  are  found  in  most  parts  of 
Europe  and  the  northern  and  western 
parts  of  Asia,  as  well  as  in  North  Africa  ; 
and  in  modern  times  a  large  part  of  the 
European  populations  of  North  America, 
Australia,  and  New  Zealand  belongs  to 
this  race. 

The  Mediterranean  race  has  occupied 
the  coasts  of  the  Mediterranean  Sea, 
European,  Asiatic,  and  African,  since 
prehistoric  times,  but  it  also  enters 
largely  into  the  composition  of  the 
population  of  western  Europe  and  the 
British  Isles  and  is  the  main  element  in 
the  Iberian  and  Italian  peninsulas.    But 




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Distribution  of  Races 

it  is  also  the  chief  ingredient  in  the 
population  of  northern  and  north-eastern 
Africa,  of 'Arabia,  southern  Persia,  and 
the  so-called  Dravidian  people  of  India, 
while,  with  considerable  admixture,  it  is 
also  found  in  Indonesia  and  Polynesia. 

Alpine  and    Mongol   Races 

The  Alpine  race  is  found  not  only  in 
the    region    of    the    Alps,    Switzerland, 
Savoy,  northern  Italy,  Tyrol,  etc.,  but 
also    in    southern    Germany,    Brittany, 
the    Balkan    Peninsula,    Russia,    Asia 
Minor,   Syria,  Turkistan,   etc.  ;    and  as 
an  element  in  the  mixed  population  of 
most  parts  of  Europe,   Polynesia,   and 
America    (both    ancient    and    modern). 
The  Turkic  people,   which  used  to  be 
included  in  the  Mongolian  race,  really 
belongs  to  the  Alpine  race,   and  such 
Mongolian  traits  as  individual  members 
of  this  people  reveal  are  the  result  of 
intermingling  with  Mongols. 

The  Mongol  race  includes  the  Chinese, 
Tibetans,   Gurkhas,   the  Burmese,   Sia- 
mese, Annamese,  Malays,  the  Mongols, 
Manchus,  Koreans,  Japanese,  and  such 
Siberian  tribes  as  the  Tunguses,  Kam- 
chadals,  Koryaks,  Chukchis,  and  Yuka- 
ghirs  ;   but  the  Yakuts,  Ostyaks,  Samo- 
yedes!    Finns,    Lapps,    Kirghiz,  Uzbegs, 
Turcomans,  Turks,   Bulgars,   and  Mag- 
yars, in  spite  of  frequent  admixture  of 
Mongolian  blood,  really  belong  to  the 
Turki  branch  of  the  Alpine  race.     The 
American  Indians  were  derived  from  a 
primitive  branch  of  the  Mongolian  race 
with  a  not  inconsiderable  admixture  of 
Alpine  (Turkic)  blood. 

Colour    Schemes   of    the    Maps 

In  the  map  of  Asia  the  regions  occupied 
by  the  Tamils  in  southern  India  and 
Ceylon,  and  the  Telugus,  Gonds,  and 
Santals  in  India,  are  represented  as  a 
uniform  dark  sepia  colour  called  in  the 
key  Dravidian.  The  chief  ingredient  of 
the  people  who  speak  the  Dravidian 
language  in  India  (and  the  same  tongue 
is  spoken  by  the  Brahuis  in  Baluchistan) 
belongs  to  the  so-called  Mediterranean 
race  intermingled  with  a  minority  of 

Proto-Australians  and  negroes.  The 
Proto-Australian  element  predominates 
in  some  of  the  jungle  tribes  of 
southern  India,  in  the  Veddas  of 
Ceylon,  and  in  some  of  the  peoples  ot 
the  Malay  Archipelago  ;  but  the  abo- 
riginal population  of  Australia  includes 
the  vast  majority  of  this  most  primitive 
race  of  the  human  family. 

The  black  population  of  southern 
India,  however,  probably  contains  a 
definite  strain  of  negro  blood,  of  both 
the  pygmy  and  taller  varieties.  For 
the  negroid  population  of  Melanesia, 
New  Guinea,  the  Philippines  (Aetas), 
Malava  (Semangs),  and  the  Andaman 
Islands  perhaps  made  their  way  from 
Equatorial  Africa,  the  probable  home 
of  the  race,  to  these  eastern  centres 
of  colonisation. 

Africa,  Asia,  and  America 
The  distribution  of  the  different  tribes 
of  the  negro  race  is  shown  in  the  map 
of  Africa.  The  areas  occupied  by  the 
pygmies  (Akkas,  Bambutes,  andBatwas) 
are  shown  in  brown,  and  by  the  more 
specialised  pygmy  negroids  (Bushmen 
and  Hottentots)  in  a  lighter  shade  of 
brown.  The  domain  of  the  taller 
negroes  is  shown  in  green,  the  Sudanese 
negroes  as  a  band  (coloured  light  green) 
from  West  Africa  to  the  Nile,  and  the 
Bantus  farther  south  (from  the  Welle 
River  north  of  the  Equator  to  the 
Transvaal  and  Natal). 

It  is  not  known  for  certain  when 
America  was  first  colonised,  but  it  is 
commonly  assumed  that  when  Europe 
was  in  the  Neolithic  phase  of  culture, 
possibly  not  more  than  three  thousand 
years  ago,  people  belonging  to  a  Proto- 
Mongol  strain  mixed  to  some  extent 
with  Proto-Alpines,  crossed  the  Bering 
Strait  from  the  north-eastern  extremity 
of  Asia  to  reach  America,  and  in  course 
of  time  occupied  the  whole  continent 
from  Alaska  to  Cape  Horn.  The 
Eskimos  represent  another  branch  of 
the  Mongol  race,  who  spread  through- 
out the  greater  part  of  the  fringe  of  the 
Arctic,  including  America. 



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Specially  Compi/ed  by  Monica   Gillies 

i he  appended  general  index  in  ih» 

been  so  planned  as  to  afford  in° tat    T"  V°l"mes  °f 

or  raee   is   to   h„.    flT™ fS"** '  "Mence  to  the  -ha 

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Aden,  boundaries,  894 
Aaland  Islands,  2087  —British  acquisition,  894 

Aandalsnaes,  3870  — buildings,  787 

Abahdeh,  tribe,  1709-10  —camels,  795 

Abacus,  use,  Russia,  1280   432(5  —captured  by  Turks,  5018 

Abbas,  Shah,  4030  4033  —climate,  786 

Abbasid  Caliphs,  2920    292]    3887  ->o-f    —commerce,  794,  894 

.  4877,  5018  '  ~a-1,  3887'  39M.  -Keith  Falconer  hospital,  794 

Ahd^rmader'  ameer  of  Mascara,  iii  2347 
AhLn ^onmf?-   sul*an,   3593 
WV™'  H.,  5007,  5020-21 
Abdu  ah  ibn  Ibad,  3882,  3887 
Abdullah  Sahabi,  L738 
Ab-dur-Rahman  Khan,  ameer,  44 
Aberdeen,  4458,  452  :  -•:>, 
Aberdeen-Angus  cattle,  4520 
Aberdeenshire,  gathering,  4501 

liiS 7S  c,astle' 5298- 5302 

aETs&M  LOk0)a'  508 

Abomey,  1559,  1562,  1567 

Aboosryah,  camel-breeder   171 

Mats,  character  and  customs,  2716  ?>719 

—elder  teaching  shooting,  2708  '" 

—equipment,  2712  K'^""° 

— raft  on  river,  2711 

-types,  2709,  2713,  2716-17,  2719 

Abou  Yakoub,  sultan,  3593 

Aboyne,  gathering,  4501 

Abrazzi,  peasant  girl,  facing  3040 

— dulse  of  the,  3120 

Absecon  Beach,  5176   5178 

Abu  Mohammed,  tribe,  2885 

Abuna,  10 

Abyssinia,  accused  and  accuser   1 1 

— area,  21  ' 

— army,  18,  21 

—Church,  10 

—commerce,  21 

—communications,  21 

—dancing  priests,  5 

— government,  21 

—history,  19-21,  3106,  3115 

— industries,  21 

— map,  18 

— money,  21 

— origin  of  name,  19 

—passport  regulations   2 

— population,  21 

— products,  21 

—provinces,  21 

—railway  to  Jibuti,  2302   2304-7 

—religion,  4,  10,  12 

— rivers,  3 

— towns,  21 

Abyssinians,  lion-killer   6 

— slaves,  9 

— superstitions,  14 

— types,  1-20 

Acajutla,  4377 

Accra,  577,  facing  578,  601 

Achaia,  woman,  726  7?7 

Achill  Island,  2952,  2968 

Achinese,  3694,  3696 

Ackawois,  760 

Ackte,  Aiuo,  Finnish  singer  "053 

Acre  (Palestine),  3919,  3920,  3954 

Acre,  territory,  477  ' 

Act  ol  Union  (1707),  4541 

Adam,  Mount,  West  Falkland    776 

Adam's  Bridge,  2736 

Adam's  Peak,  Ceylon,  1200,  1212 

Adana,  239,  5007 

Addis  Abbaba,  1,4  9,  21 

Adelaide,  252,  289,  314,  315 

Aden,  Al  Aidrus  mosque,  793 

—area  and  population,  894 

— bazaars,  793 

— Ithor  Maksar,  794 
—leased  by  Gt.  Britain,  192 
— Mahomedan  feast,  788-90 
—people,  types,  786-99 
—threshing  "  jowari,"  795 
— women  dancers   792 
Adler,  Victor,  322 
Admiralty  Is.,  914,  917,  919-20 

^MM'18"*1  SWe:  311B 

Adrian  I.,  Pope,  3100 

Adrian  IV.,  Pope,  4810 

Adnanople,  5012,  5016 

—mosque  of  Selim  I.,  4993,  5004 

—peace  of,  4605 

Aeroplanes,  1922-23 

Afghanistan,  area,  45 

—army,  22,  25,  45 

— commerce,  45 

—communications  45 

— description,  28 

— government,  45 

—and  Great  War,  4035 

— history,  43-45 

India  defence  scheme   44 
— industries,  45 
—language,  38 
— map,  44 
— money,  45 
— northern  boundary,  44 
—origin  of  name,  23' 
— population,  45 
— products,  40,  45 
— provinces,   45 
—relationship  witli  India  40 
—  rivers,  29 
— routes  to  India,  40 
— scenery,  32 
— towns,  45 

Afghans,  beggar  spies,  33 
-  -characteristics,    23 
-government  officials,  32 
-origin,  23,  38 
types,  22-41 
Afo,  691 

AiriEiv3prHanh'  52^7f7-    s»  *»  Anglo- 
Jigjptian         Sudan,         Basutolaml 

CtawSSFfc  °ai%?0n'  ^Ma, 
Gold  Coast,  Kenya,  Nigeria,  Yvasa- 
land,      Rhodesia,       Sierra  '   Leone 

SSS&ft  ^iA«».  ■1-zilZ; 


Uganda,  Zanzibar 


D  30 

-ancestor  worship,  726 

-area,  746 
— birth  customs,  729 

-constitution,  746 

-extent,  577 

-funeral  customs,  675 

-government,  746 

-history,  739 

-interests  developed,  741 

-map,  741 

-marriage  customs,  676-88 

-native  children,  735 
—native  children's  games,  691 
-native  customs,  673 
-native  dancing,  691 
-native  markets,  724 
-native  occupations,  566,  734 
—native  reincarnation  belief,  726 


■as,    in 

Africa,  native  religion   702 
—native  secret  societies,  704 
— native  superstition,  691 
—people,  types,  514-738 
—periods  of  time,  726 

-population,  577 

-products,  578 
—village  industries,  566 

r'S-  SrMs$  Ba8t     Be*  Kenya  Colony 

—British  exploration,  743    745  ' 

—British  stations,  517 

— areafm' 746 admini  Nation,  743 

—early  British  trade,  739 

— forest  belt,  579 

— houses,  722 
:  —marriage  forms,  684 

— oil-palm,  586 

—population,  746 

—products,  746 

Africa,  French  colonies,  2291-309      Set 
Mnca,  french  colonics,  map,  2347 

Hon   235?    Elluatorial.    administra- 
— area,  2301,  2351 

-cannibalism,  2303-4 
— description,  2301 
— history,  2349 
—ma]),  2347 
— native  woman,  2295 
— products,  2351 
— pygmies,     2301 
— population,  2301 
—tribes,  2301-4  - 

-"rea,]23e5l'h  W°St'  atlmiui3t™ion,  2351 

—commerce,  2296,  2299 

— desert  railways,  2297 

—irrigation,  2297 

—history,  2348-50 

—map,  2345 

— Moslems,  2299 

—native  court  of  justice,  2295 

— population,  2351 

— products,  2351 

— salt  trade,  2296 

—tribes,  2291-99,  5327 

Africa,  German  development   746 

~"°  TcSorT'    ^     &*   Ta«ka 
—German  South- West   746 
—Germany's  lost  colonies,  745 
Africa,  Italian  colonies,  3109-190        Sep 
.&     libya'     aild    «****£ 
Africa,  Portuguese  colonies,  420"-9       <&,„ 
Angola,     Azores,      Cape     Verde     I 
Madeira,     Mozambique,    Principe  I  '. 
af,l„      Thomas  !■•  and  St.  Vincent 1 
Africa,  races,  5373.  5376 
Africa   Spanish  colonies,  4765 
Afrldl,  types,  27,  41,  2819-21,  2845 
Afrikander,      Bywoners,"  4684-85 
—character,  4682-85      ' 
-division  of  land,  customs,  4684-85 
-growth  of  race,  4679 
— horsemanship,  4675 
—languages,  4879-82 
— large  families,  4674  4684 
— marksmanship,  4675 
—on  trek,  4680 
—types,  4674-78 
Afrikander  Bond,  4710 
Aga  Khan,  5028 
Agadir,  2225,  2349   3561 
Agaja  Dosu  king  of  Dahomey,  1560 
Agbede,  girl,  673 
Agincourt,  battle  of  (1415),  2005,  2282 


General  Index 

Agra,  2862 

Agram  (Zagreb),  45G9,  4598,  4600 

Agriculture,     discovers',     vii,     ix.      See 

under  particular  countries. 
Aguaruna  Indians,  4064,  4067-68 
Aguas  Calientes,  3488 
Ahmad  ibn  Sa'id,  388S 
Ahmadabad,  2801-3 

Ahmed  Khan,  ameer  of  Afghanistan,  43 
Ahr,  river,  2387 
Ahwaz,  3992 
Aigues-Mortes,  2180 

Aimaks,  45 

Ainus,  archer,  3129 

— bear-hunting,    3124-26 

---beliefs  and  ceremonies,  3126 

—Dr.  Batchelor's  work  among,  3124-26 

— cannibalism,  3126 

—characteristics,  3121,  3123,  3124 

—dress,  3123,  3130 

— drunkenness,  3123 

—hairiness,  3122,  3123,  3127 

— house,  3125 

—hunting,  3129 

— man  with  bear  head,  3126 

—man  and  woman  on  horseback,  3130 

—in  Sakhalien  Island,  3208 

—subjugation,  3121,  3123-24,  3218 

—survivors  in  Hokkaido,  3121-22 

—tattooed  girl,  3121,  3128 

—types,  3121-31 

—use  of  bow  and  arrow,  3122,  3129 

—widow,  3122 

—women,  3123,  3125 

Aird's  Moss,  4541 

Aissouwa,  3585 

Aix-Ia-Chapelle,  2454,  2458 

—Peace  of  (1748),  3670 

Ajaccio,  2280 

Ajanta,  cave  paintings,  2785-88 

Akaban,  2609,  2610,  2613 

Akabe.  tomb  near,  564 

Akano,  514 

Akbar,  2874 

Akerman,  4263 

Akha,  tribe,  1055,  1061,  1081 

Akhalkalaki,  2353 

Akhnaton  (Amenhotcp  IV.),  1752-53,3952 

Akidas,  651 

Akkad,  2917 

Akkas,  5376 

Aklama,  728 

Akondo,  Mangbettu,  king,  384 

Alabama,  the,  5220 

Alai  mountains,  433 

Alajuela,  1469 

Alaksan  valley.  Georgia,  2353,  2354 

Alamut,  4006 

Alans,  4766 

Alarcos,  battle  of  (1195),  4766 

Alario,  Goth  leader,  2454 

Alaska,  area,  5053-55   5191,  5221 

—ceded  to  U.S.A.,   5191 

—description,  5189,  5191,  5221 

— Eskimo  fishing,  5187 

— Eskimo  huts,  5188 

— government,  5221 

— hunter,  5189 

— Indian  huts,  5192 

— Indian  totems,  5188 

—population,  5186,  5191,  5221 

—preserving  fish,  5186 

—seal-fishing,  5187,  5189 

—towns,  5186,  5191 

Alava,  4756,  4767 

Albania,  area,  63 

— commerce,  63 

— communications,  63 

— domestic  occupations,  53 

—education,  58,  63 

— government,  63 

—history,  58,  61-63 

—industries,  48,  49,  63 

—language,  53 

— map,  61 

---policemen,  49 

— population,  63 

—products,  59 

—reconstruction,  58 

—religion,  47,  49,  50,  63 

— scenery,  59 

— towns,  63 

Albanian  League,  62 

Albanians,  customs,  52 

Agr— Ame 

Albanians,  origin,  47,  61 

— superstition,  52 

— types,  46-62 

Albany,  settlers,  4708 

Albert,  archduke  of  Austria,  377,  3667 

Albert,  lake,  565 

Albert  Edward,  lake,  565 

Alberta,  1139,  1147 

Albertus  Magnus,  2451 

Albrecht  II.,  of  Austria,  2457 

Albuquerque,  4197 

Alcacer-Kebir,  battle  of  (1578),  4197 

Alcazar,  4776 

Alcobasa,  4149 

Alderney.  island.  977,  986 

Alemanni,    2378,    2454,    2455.     See   also 

Alemtejo,  4188,  4190,  4191 
Aleppo,  4862,  4866,  4877 
Aleuts,  5191 

Alexander   the    Great,   xxx,    1732,    1754, 
2365,     2873,    2020,     3953,     4031-32 
4875,  5028,  5030,  5033 
Alexander  VI.,  Pope,  4771 
Alexander  I.  (Russia),  4144,  4368-69 
Alexander  II.  (Russia),  4321,  4369-71 
Alexander  III.  (Russia),  4371 
Alexander  II.  (Scotland),  4532 
Alexander  III.  (Scotland),  4532 
Alexander  (Serbia),  4561,  4606 
Alexandretta,  4861 
Alexandria,  1682,  1695,  1705,  1732 
Alexandropol,  245,  2353 
Alfalfa.     See  Esparto  grass 
Alfred  the  Great,  1760 
Alfuro,  3685,  3701 
Alg-arve,  4195 

Algeciras  Conference  (1906),  3561,  3595 
Algeria,  army,  111 
— commerce,  111 
— communications,  111 
— divisions,  111 
— development,  98,  2347 
— French  recaptured  deserters,  2273 
-government,  111,  2347,  4957,  4983 
■history,  109-111,  2346-47 
industries,  111 
-map,     110 
mosques,  78 
-oases,  97 
— population,  2186,  2347 
— products,  102,  111 
—railway  to  Lake  Chad,  2300 
-religion,  78 
■tin-mining,  554 
-towns,  111 
— woman's  realm,  75 
Algerians,  girl  in  camel  litter,  95 
— invasion  of  Egypt,  1754 
— Moorish  cook,  105 
—types,  65-106 
Algiers,  65,  109,  110,  4929,  4945 
— clothiers'  market,  98 
— harem  women  shopping,  69 
— houses,  66,  73 
— Kasbah,  68,  72 
— Kattaroudjie,  77 
— natives  by  fountain,  92 
—occupied  by  French,  111,  2287,  2346 
— shops,  66 
— Sidi  Okba  street,  91 
—Turkish  acquisition,  5018 
Algonquins,  3741,  3763,  5081,  5202,  5206-7 
Ali,  4013,  4032 
Ali  of  Tepelen,  pasha,  62 
Alicante  (prov.),  4762,  4764 
Alicante  (town),  4763 
Aljubarrota,  4195 
Alkmaar,  3623 
Allada,  kingdom,  1560 
Allahabad,  2855,  2860 
Allaverdi,  festival,  2367 
Allerton,  1787 
Almirante  Islands,  745 
Almohades,  3593 
Almond  production,  5133 
Almoravides,  3593 
Alor  Star,  805 
Alora,  4739-40 
Alose,  demi-god,  704 
Alost,  379 

Alphabet,  Chinese,  1368 
—Cyrillic,  4593,  4599,  4603 
— Further  Indian  group,  4626 

Alphabet,  Greek,  1746 

Alphonso  XII.,  4768 

Alphonso  XIII.,  4754,  4768-69 

Alpine  race,  5376 

Alps,  Alpini  as  soldiers,  3084-87 

— avalanches   and  landslides,  4829,  4838 

— climbers  on  Faulhom,  4828 

— climbing,  4849 

— Dinaric,  4594,  4601 

— guide  in  crevasse,  4826 

— guides,  4841 

— Julian,  3078 

—monks  of    St.  Bernard's  hospice,  3079 

—Southern,  3805 

—Swiss  soldiers  on  patrol,  4856 

— village  scene,  3020 

Alsace-Lorraine,  area,  2289 

—fete  day,  2234 

— German  rule,  2288 

—girls,  2236,  2270,  and  facing  2286 

— laundry  work,  2232,  2233 

— national  costumes,  2234,  2236 

— population,  2289 

— portion  secured  by  France,  2458-59,  5316 

— position  in  German  Empire,  2379 

— products,  2234 

— religion,  2144 

— restored  to  France,  2461-62 

— returned  soldier,  2233 

— soldier  and  fiancee,  2235 

— village  scene,  2234 

— women  marketing,  2271 

— women  at  well,  2237 

Altai  mountains,  3519,  4649 

Altenburg,  2426 

Alves,  Dr.  Bodrigues,  513 

"  Amadis  de  Gaul,"  4177 

Amadeo  I.  (Spain),  4768 

Amager  Island,  horsemen,  1598 

Amambwe,  4223 

Amapala,  2621,  2627 

— Conference  (1907),  4389 

Amara,  2885,  2890,  2895,  2907 

Amarapura,  1091 

Amata  tree,  4379 

Amazon    Indians.     See     Indians     under 

Brazil  and  Peru 
Amazon,  river,  492,  513,  4077 
Ambato,  1643 
Amber,  3267-68,  3355 
Amboyna,  massacre  (1623),  890 
Ambryn  Island,  937,  939 
Amedzowe,  728 

America,     British,     749-84.        See     also 
Bermudas,    British   Guiana,    British 
Honduras,    Falkland    Islands,    and 
W  est  Indian  Islands 
America,  area,  784 
— constitution,  784 
—evolution  of  Nation-States,  5324 
— government,  784 
-history,  781-84 
-languages,  5327 
— map,  783 

— people,  types,  748-80 
— population,  784 
— settlements,  517,  1185 
America,  discoveries  by  Columbus,  4771 
America,      French      colonies,      2309-17 
2346,  2349.    See  Guadeloupe,  French 
Guiana,  Martinique,    and   St.  Pierre 
and  Miquclon  Islands 
— North,  Anglo-Saxon   colonisation,   xxi 
— origin  of  aborigines,  3505 
— racial  evolution,  xx,  5373.  5370 
American  Colonisation  Society,  3325,  33?9 
Americans,  ancestry,  5051-52,  5072,  5090 
— attitude  towards  Europe,  5103-5 
— attitude  towards  money,  5072 
— attitude  towards  war,  5097-102 
— cleanliness,  5109-13 
— character,   5065-66,   5072,   5078,   5081 

5088-91,  5105-6,  5115-17 
— conditions  of  life,  5107-13 
— culture,  5141-42 
— customs,  5113 

— desire  for  uniformitv,  5065,  5072-77 
— divorce,  5127 
-dress,  5077,  5113 
—Four  Hundred,  5140 
— humour,  5117 
— idealism,  5097.  5102 
— names,  5117 
— racial  problems,  5051-52 


Ame— Arg 

Americans,  relations  with  English    5103 

—society,  5122-25,  5140-41 
— travel,  5127-55 
—women,  5119-27 
Ammanford,  5271,  5299 
Amorites,  3951 
Amoy,  890,  1431 

Amritsar,  disturbances  (1919),  2880 
—Durbar  Sahib,  2823,  2830 
— home  of  Sikhism,  2823,  2829-30 
—Sikh  priest,  2823 
Amsterdam,  description,  3656-57 
— diamond-workers,  3641,  3657 
—Mint  tower,  3662 
— pile-driving,  3646 
— Singel  canal,  3662 

Amu-Daria,  river,  3225,  3232,  3234,  5024 
Amur,  river,  3431,  3432,  3436,  4647 
Ananda,  efflgv  at  Polonnarua,  1225 
Anatolia,  5003,  5014,  5021 
Anatom,  2344 
Anazeh,  tribe,  2885,  2908 
Ancestor  worship,  Africa,  726 
—China,  1293 

— Japan,3137,  3139,3141,  3148,3150,3224 
—Korea,  3242 

Ancon,  Treaty  of  (1883),  4079 
Ancrum  Moor,  battle  of,  4538 
Andalusia,  4766,  4767 
— character  of  people,  4742 
— courtship  methods,  4736 
— dancing,  4734 
— houses,  4736 
— woman,  4721 
Andaman  Islands,  2750-54 
— dancers,  2866 
—natives,  2864,  2865,  2866 
— penal  settlement,  2754 
— products,  2754 
— races,  5376 
Andes,  the,  Ecuador,  1642 
— homestead,  4038,  4046 
— pack-train,  4055 
—Peru,  4077 
—statue  of  Christ,  223 
—trail,  4056 

"  Andine  People,"  475,  4073 
Andorra,  area,  113 
— army,  119 
— capital,  115 
— government,  115 
— history,  113 
— industries,  115 
—Illustrious  Men,  114,  115 
— Parliament  House,  115 
— population,  113 
— procurator-general,  114,  115 
— smuggling,  115,  119 
Andorrans,  dancing,  112,  117 
— mounted  guards,  118 
Andrada,  Jose  Bonifacio  d',  511 
Andriana,  3392 
Angara,  river,  4644 
Angkor  Thorn,  1095,  1096,  1100,  1105 
Angkor  Vat,  1096,  1105,  1108 
Angles,  1758,  1760,  1765,  2001,  2454 
Anglo-Egyptian  Sadan,  525,  743,  1729 
— area,  631,  748,  747 
— climate,  564 
—dances,  694,  695 

—natives,  types,  618-38,  705,  718,  719 
— population,  632,  747 
— products,  747 
—railways,  3109,  3114 
— surface,  631 
— towns,  747 
Angola  (Portuguese  West  Africa),  colony 

founded,  4208 
— communications,  4208 
—development,  4204-6,  4208 
— discovery,  4196 
—map,  4195 
— minerals,  4208 
—native  tvpes,  4208,  4209 
—ports,  4208 
Angonis,  653,  703,  4215 
Angora,  5013-14,  5021 
—battle  of  (1402),  5017 
Angrivarii,  2454 
Anguilla,  island,  784 

Animism,  2321,  2755-57,  2766,  2881,  4743 
Ankober,  21 

General  Index 

Ankole,  679,  722 

Ankoli,  king  of,  528 
Annam,  area,  169 
— commerce,  169 
— education,  126 
—emperor,  128,  139,  140-44 
—festival  of  the.  Tet,  125,  128 
—fishing  sampans,  157 
— government,  169 
— history,  167-69 
— house  building,  126 
— industries,  169 
— mandarins  worshipping,  166 
— map,  167 
— money,  169 
— polygamy,  128 
—population,  121,  169 
-pottery,  165 
-products,  169 
— religion,  127 
— rice  cultivation,  126,  130 
— sugar  industry,  131,  132,  133 
— towns,  169 
—tribes,  2327-28 
Annamese,  121,  148,  5376 
— festival  actors,  120 
— men  carrying  dead  tiger,  161 
— occupations,  123 
— open-air  dinner,  136 
— soldiers,  2327 
— superstition,  127 
— trap-fishing,  122 
— types,  120-68 
— women  carrying  pig,  160 
— women  in  ferry,  156 
Annapolis  (2\"ova  Scotia),  orchards,  1125 
Annapolis  (U.S.A.),  5082 
Ansgar,  Saint,  4810 
Anshantien,  mines,  Liau-tung,  3212 
Antananarivo,  3383 
Antankarana,  woman,  3421 
Antanosy,  types,  3417,  3426 
Anthropoids,  xi,  xix 
Antigua,  774,  784 
Antigna  Guatemala,  ruins,  2541 
Antimerina.     See  Hova  tribe 
Antioeh,  4861,  4864,  4875,  4876 
Antioehus  the  Great,  3953 
Antipater,  3953 
Antofagasta,  1289 
Ants,  272 

Antnng,  3430,  3445,  3447 
Antwerp,  367,  379 
Anupshahr,  bathing  festival,  2858 
Anuradhapura,  Bo-tree,  1199 
Anzaes,  252 
Aola,  court  house,  924 
Aomori,  3167,  3178 
Aosta,  3001,  3045,  3047 
Apache,  5150,  5205,  5209,  5211 
Apia,  4391,  4409-11 
— hurricane  (1889),  4392-93 
Appenzell,  4817,  4818,  4857 
Apples,  British  Columbia,  1140 
— Tasmanian,  4879,  4880,  4881 
—U.S.A.,  5135-36 
Appomattox,  5220 

Approuague,  convict  settlement,  2314 
Aquidaban,  battle  (1870),  512,  3983 
Arabia,  area,  193 
— barber's  shop,  189 
— castles  of  Hadhramaut,  182 
— communications,  193 
— description,  176 
— deserts,  2595,  2605 
— divisions,  193 
— history,  191-93,  2616-19 
— inaccessibility,  2595 
— independent  principalities,  193 
— legitimism,  191 
— oases,  2595 
— open-air  school,  185 
— population,  193 
—products,  176,  188,  193 
— religions,  ancient,  2616 
Arabian  desert,  1710 
Arabs,  Algerian,  65-106 
— Algerian  Biskra  children,  103 
— Algerian  boys  playing  draughts,  106 
— Algerian  costermonger,  84 
— Arabia,  children  in  "  big  wheel,"  791 
— Arabia,  customs,  172 
-Arabia,  dislike  of  Christians,  183 
Arabia,  dress,  188 

!  — Arabia,  food,  188 

Arabs,  Arabia,  hospitality,  186 

— Arabia,  language,  186 

— Arabia,  medical  treatment,  188 

— Arabia,  preparing  guest  coffee,  179 

— Arabia,  religion,  171,  183 

— Arabia,  types,  170-90 

— Bokhara,  442 

— card-playing,  4947 

— centralised  organization,  2908 

— conquest  of  Persia,  4032 

—dress,  2896 

—Dutch  West  Indies,  3696 

—Egypt,  1644-1753 

—Egypt,  cemetery,  1706 

—Egypt,  children,  1697 

— invasion  of  Egypt,  1754 

— invasion  of  Palestine,  3954 

—Irak,  types,  2883-919 

— Italian  Somaliland,  3120 

— Lahej,  type,  785 
-Lebanon,  3314 
■-Libya,  3110,  3117 

— in  Madagascar,  3398 

— merchant  of  Bethlehem,  3950 

— Morocco,  3575 

—Mozambique,  8,  4209 

— of  Oman,  3885-86 

— numerous  dialects,  2603 

—Palestine,  customs,  3937-39 

— Palestine,  festivals,  3939-47 

— Palestine,  types,  3892,  3894-98 

— Palestine,  villages,  3920-37 

— proverb,  3561 

—Saba  (Sheba),  4211 

— soldiers  in  Mecca,  2602 

—Sudan,  638 

—Syria,  4862,  4869-70 

—Tunis,  child,  4942 

— Tunis,  dancing  girls,  4954 

— Tunis,  women  in  palanquins,  4952 

— warfare  with  Berbers,  2296 

—weavers  of  Bagdad,  2902,  2903 

— women  and  medicine,  188 

— Zanzibar  woman,  656 

Arafat,  Mount,  2599,  2611 

Aragon,  4754,  4767 

Aran  Islands,  customs,  2964 

— fishermen,  2972 

— fishermen  with  curraghs,  2950 

— funeral,  2965 

— kelp-burning,  2938-39 

— pampootie,  2967 

Ararat,  Mount,  225,  227,  233 

Araucanian  cemetery,  211 

Araucanians,  1245-46 

— government  school,  1286 

—types,  1268,  1278,  1280,  1281,  5235 

— warfare  with  Chile,  1287 

Arawaks,  748,  760,  3724,  3730 

Arcachon,  oyster  production,  2266 

Archangel,  4315,  4349,  4366 

Archery,  Ainu,  3129 

— Belgian,  359 

— Canadian  Indian,  1177 

—Ceylon,  1215 

—England,  1888,  1889,  2004,  4505 

—French  Indo-China,  2329 

— Korea,  3242 

— Manchuria,  3448 

—Scotland,  4505 

Archibong  II.,  king  of  Gambia,  716 

Archipelago  of  the  Saints,  2313 

Architecture.   See  under  each  country 

Arcot,  2317 

Arctic  Circle,  4792 

Ardahan,  2353 

Arditi,  2092,  2095 

Arecuna,  761 

Argentina,  agriculture,  207 

— architecture,  203 

— area,  223 

— army,  223 

— bullock  wagons,  206 

— commerce,  223 

— constitution,  223 

— dairy  farming,  208 

— description,  210 

— education,  211 

— estancias,  204 

— frigoriflco,  206 

— Gauchos.     See  that  title 

— government,  223 

—history,  221-23,  4078,  5243 

— immigration,  208 


General  Index 

Argentina,  Indians,  213-19 

— industries,  223 

— Italian  casucha,  208 

— literature,  200 

—locust  plague,  218 

— map,  221 

— money,  223 

— navy,  223 

— newspapers,  200 

— ostrich  farm,  207 

—pampas,  210 

— population,  223 

— products,  219,  223 

— Russian  Jews,  213 

— sheep  breeding,  210 

— stock  breeding,  195,  205 

— towns,  223 

— vineyards,  215 

Argentines,  estancieros,  195 

— family  life,  203 

— patriotism,  200 

— superstition,  211 

—types,  194-220 

Argyrokastrou  (Argyrokastra),  63 

Arica,  Chilean  acquisition,  1288 

Arizona,   5147,    5151,   5167,    5198,  5203 

Armenia,  agriculture,  227 
— animal  sacrifice,  231 
— boundaries,  245 
— boy  "  soldiers,"  240,  241 
— carpet-making,  239,  242 
— climate,  225 
— education,  230 
— evangelisation,  244 
— extent,  225,  245 
— government,  245 
— history,  243-45 
— industries,  245 
—kingdom  founded,  4877 
— language,  243 
— literature,  244 
— map,  243 

— "  Millet  i  Armeni,"  245 
— monasteries,  230,  2553 
— Mother  Church,  244 
— patriarch,  235 
— population,  245 
—printing,  238 
— products,  228,  245 
— religion,  231 

— Russian  annexation,  225,  245 
— Turkish,  225 
Armenians,  in  Bagdad  during  Great  War 

— Bokhara,  442 
— character,  245 
— deportations,  240 
— fondness  of  music,  236 
— marriage  customs,  235,  4975 
— massacres,  240,  5007 
— men,  226 
— men  dancing,  224 
— origin,  243 
— refugees,  232,  233 
—Turkey,  4974-75 
— types,  224-44 
— women,  226 
Armorican  bagpipe,  2212 
Arras,  League  of  (1579),  3667 
Arsacid  dynasty,  244 
Arthur,  king,  5307 
Aruba,  island,  3723,  3734 
Aruntas,  269,  295,  304,  306-7 
Aruwimi  forest,  553 
Aryan  language,  5327 
Aryan  theory,  xvii 
Aryans,  2453,  2734,  2822,  2869-70,  2873 

Arya-Somaj  movement,  2822-23 
Arzila,  3593 
Asahina,  Dr.,  3245 
Asbestos,  Quebec,  1175 
Ascension,  660-61,  745,  747 
Ascot,  1872-73 
Ashanti,  616,  621-22 
— See  also  Gold  Coast 
Ashantis,  620 

Ashburnham  Treaty  (1842),  5219 
Ashio,  copper  mines,  3168 
Ashtabula,  5164 

Ashtishat,  cluireh  of  Armenia,  244 
Ashurnazirpal,  sculpture,  xxix     • 
Asia,   British    Empire  in,   785-896, 

Asia.     See  also  Aden,   Bahrein    Island, 
Borneo,  Hongkong,  Malay  States,  and 
Straits  Settlements 
— area,  894 

— first  English  factory,  890 
— government,  894 
—history,  889-94 
— map,  891 

—people,  types,  785-893 
— population,  894 
—races,  5373,  5376 
— stations,  517 

Asia,  French  colonies,  2317-331 
Asia,  French  colonies,   map,   2350.     Sec 
Annam,     Cambodia,     Cochin-China 
French      Indo-China,      Kwangchow 
Wan,  Laos,  and  Tons-king 
Asir,  176,  193 
Askari,  customs,  3116-18 
—regiment,  chaplains  of,  3111 
—trooper,  3110 
Askhabad,  5029 
Askov,  high  school,  1609 
Asmara,  3118-19 
Asoka,  emperor,  1229,  2863,  2873 
Assab,  3115 
Assam,  2710,  2840 
Assassins,  3987,  4873 
Assuan,  Arab  cemetery,  1706 
— Bisharin  camp,  1706,  1709,  1711 
—climate,  1709-11 
—dam,  1707,  1729 
-market,  1694 
-nomads'  settlement,  1708 
-water-carriers,  1696 
Assyria,  xxviii,  2918-20,  3953,  4875 
Aston-under-Hill,  1821 
Astrakhan,  4365 
Asuncion,  3979,  3981 
Atahualpa,  emperor,  1642,  4076,  4078 
Atayals,  customs,  2102 
— domestic  equipment,  2107 
—head  hunting,  2101,  2103 
— hunters,  with  weapons,  2106 
— tattooed,  2099,  2104,  2113 
—types,  2099-109 
Atbara,  river,  631 
Athens,  Acropolis,  2482,  2491 
— description,  2491-520 
— general  view,  2482 
— primitive,  xxxi 
— sentry  outside  palace,  2471 
— temple  of  Zeus,  2473 
— Theseum,  The,  2472 
Athieme,  tam-tam  dancers,  1566 
Athos,  Mi,  2364 
Atlantic,  cable,  2433,  3773 
Atlantic  City,  5140,  5176,  5178 
Atlas  Mts.,  80,  2291,  2297,  3308 
Attila,  2454 
Atyo,  tribe,  2303 

Auckland  (yew  Zealand),  3<798,  3806 
—Island,  3792,  3819 
Augilmin,  2296 
Augsburg,  2447 
—Peace  of  (1555),  2458 
Aujila,  1734,  1738 
Aures,  mountains,  97 
Aurungzebe,  emperor,  2821,  2860 
Austerlitz,  battle  of  (1805),  2287,  4368 
Austral  (Tnbuai)  Islands,  2333,  2351 
Australasia,  897-975 
—births  and  deaths,  968 
— climate,  961 
— communications,  971 
— diseases,  962 
— French  colonies,  2351-52 
— history,  973-74 
— industries,  963 
— native  types,  896-975 
— Pacific  Islands  map,  973 
— products,  963 
Australia,    aborigines,     viii,     xiii      247 

259-311,  4883-85,  5376 
— aborigines,  corroboree,  297,  306  307 
— aborigines,  death  rites,  305,  311 
-aborigines,  food,  295,  298 
-aborigines,  funerals,  299-303,  305 
—aborigines,  marriage  customs,  310 
— aborigines,  rites,  298,  304 
— aborigines,  tribal  initiation,  298, 309  310 
— area,  247,  315 
— army,  315 
— British  settlers,  248,  313 

Arg— Aus 

Australia,  camping-out,  265 

—city  life,  263,  269 

— claimed  as  British,  973 

— climate,  inland,  269 

— coloured  immigration  bar,  269 

— commerce,  315 

— constitution,  315 

— convict  settlement,  313 

—cross-fertilising  pollen,  286 

— discovery,  312 

—Dominion  status,  5324-25 

—drought  (1895-1901),  315 

—drovers  preparing  tea,  283 

— early  colonists,  248 

— early,  description,  312 

— evolution,  247 

— exploration  difficulties,  249 

— farmstead,  285 

— fauna,  269-72 

— federation  of  colonies,  315 

— flora,  272 

— gathering  water-lilies,  264 

— gold  discovery,  252,  314 

— gold  mining,  250,  251,  253 

—government,  292,  315 

—history,  312-15 

— horse,  type,  249 

— horse  racing,  265 

— industries,  266,  315 

— interior  exploration,  314 

— language,  5327 

—loyalty  to  Great  Britain,  292 

— lumbermen,  287 

— mallee  scrub,  289 

—map,  313 

— navy,  315 

— origin  of  name,  312 

— picnics,  265 

— political  inventions,  258 

—population,  247,  315 

— prime  ministers,  263 

—products,  292,  315 

— public  holidays,  263 

—rabbit  plague,  267,  269 

— races,  5373 

— Blverina  district,  289 

— rivers,  289 

— rounding  up  stock,  273 

— screw-pine  jungle,  279 

— seacows,  268 

— spear-fishing,  277 

— states,  289,  315 

— station  homesteads,  266 

— strange  immigrants,  258 

— surf-bathing,  265 

— tableland,  249 

— towns,  315 

— tree-barking,  258 

— tribal  areas,  x 

— wheat  storing,  314 

— wheat  stripping,  256 

— WOOl  industry,  288,  289 

Australian  Ballot,  258 

Australians,  Anzacs,  252 

— back-country  ethics,  260 

— character,  258,  263 

— description,  247 

— dress,  263 

— ex-soldier  settlers,  284 

— hospitality,  260 

—lack  of  social  distinctions,  263 

— pastimes,  265 

— squatters,  252 

— "  sundowners,"  266 

— tea-drinking,  265 

Australoid,  type,  xi,  xvii 

Austria,  Anti  Seinitism,  322 

— area,  341 

— army,  323,  324,  341 

— arts  and  crafts  schools,  330 

— care  of  children,  330 

—Christian  Socialists,  322 

— commerce,  341 

— constitution,  341 

— country  inns,  332 

—effects  of  Great  War,  324 

— farmers,  318,  332 

— forests,  4801 

— German  ascendancv,  319 

— government,  317,  327,  341 

—history,  337-41,  5315-21 

— hotels,  332 

— industries,  341 

— lost  products,  324 



Aus— Bat 

Austria,  manhood  suffrage,  323 

—  maps,  338,  339 
—mine-fields,  324 
— money,  341 

— museums,  333 
— navv,  -341 

-  -nobility,  323 
—oil-fields,  324 

— origin  of  name,  337 

— population,  341 

—press,  328 

—priests,  333 

— produce,  341 

— relations  with  Poland,  4145 

—religion,  333 

— sale  of  newspapers,  328 

— Social  Democrats,  322 

— technical  education,  330 

—territorial  changes  (1526-1918),  340 

— territorial  losses,  324,  341 

— tourist  industry,  332 

— towns,  341 

—war  (1866)    2383,  2460,  3104-5 

—war  with  Serbia  (1876),  4266-07 

Austrians,  cafe  life,  330 

—character,  317,  319 

— dress,  324 

— middle  class,  318 

—peasants,  318.  333 

—types,  316-36 

Austric,  5327 

"  Auto  da  Fama,"  4182 
Auvergne,  peasants,  2258,  22o9 

Avars,  4263,  4363,  4603 

Avatar  of  Thaling,  429 

Aveiro,  4196 

Avignon,  2287,  3102 

Avlona.     See  Valona 

Avocados,  1435,  2545 

Avrons,  religious  festival,  3089 

Awardel,  1736 

Awata-yaki  pottery,  Kyoto,  3188 

*twatwa,  tribe,  4221 

Awemba,  tribe,  4221-23 

Awka,  527,  677 

Axe,  stone,  xiii 

Axim,  girls,  599 

Axolotls,  3473 

Axum,  21 

Ayacucho,  battle,  475,  476,  4079 

Aye-aye,  3386 

Ayer  Irani,  temple,  862 

Aymara,  449,  4045,  4078 

—festival,  468 

— types,  456,  470 

Ayuthia,  4611,  4631,  4632 

Azerbaijan,  constituted  republic,  245 

— fire  worship,  347 

— first  Moslem  republic,  343 

— foundation,  343 

— map,  343 

—oil-fields,  347 

— parliament,  342 

— products,  348 

— types  of  people.  342-49 

Azores,  2346,  4196,  4200,  4206-7 

Azov  (town),  4367,  5018 

Aztecs,- calendar-stone,  3504-3505 

— civilization,  3449,  3505 

— comparison  with  Maya,  3500 

— conquest  by  Spanish,  3505-6 


Baalbek,  3305,  3321,  4862,  4870 

Babar,  4033 

Babiris,  type,  906 

Babuas,  400 

Babunda,  401 

Babylon,  xxvi,  xxvii 

— boundary  stone,  xxxii 

— brick-making,  4014 

— capture  by  Cyrus,  4031 

— code  of  law,  xxvi,  xxxi 

— contract  records,  xxxiii 

— excavations,  2894 

—history,  2918-20,  3951,  3953 

— ruins  of  palace,  xxvii 

— site  xxxy 

— slavery,  xxviii 

Baeka,  the,  4607 

Badagas,  2760-61,  2784 

Badakshan,  33 

Baden,  2378,  2385,  2426,  2459-60  : 

— agriculture,  2444 

General  Index 

Baden,  forests,  ^445 

—hats,  2427 

—industries,  2392-93 

— legends,  2432 

— mineral  spas,  2445 

— products,  2444 

— religion,  2444 

— representation,  2444 

— towns,  2444-45 

Badjoks,  402 

Badminton,  1861 

Badrmath,  2839 

Bagandas,  64:3,  645,  683,  729 

Bagdad,  Arab  boys  on  river,  2898 

— bazaar,  2895 

—Caliphate,  2920-21,  3954,  4877 

—capture  by  Turks  (1534),  5018 

— description,  2895-98 

— drawers  of  water,  2890 

— importance  of  position,  2891-94 

— pottery  workers,  2915 

—sacked",  4033 

—scene,  2882,  2892,  2893 

— shoemakers,  2891 

—weaver,  2902,  2903 

Baggaras,  639 

Baghmati,  river,  3598,  3608 

Bagirmi,  2304 

Bagolo,  tribe,  types,  4087 

Bagpipe,  Breton  players,  2151,  2212,  2213 

— Georgian  plaver,  2359 

—Scottish,  facing  4512 

Bahamas,  752,  784 

Bahia,  508,  510,  513 

Bahia  Blanca,  214,  223 

Bahima,  527,  643,  673 

Bahrein  Islands,  799,  894,  895 

Bahr-el-Ghazal,  river,  631 

Baiame,  god,  304 

Baie  d'Along,  Tong-king,  2326 

Baigu,  5032.  5033,  5034 

Baikal,  lake,  3522,  4643 

Baja,  customs,  2632,  2634 

Baians,  3701 

Bakhtiari,  2896 

Bakonde,  tribe,  4221 

Bakongos,  383,  385 

Baku  (province),  343 

—(town),  347,  4036 

— fire-brigade,  349 

— massacres  (1905),  344 

—oil  district,  347-48,  2354 

— Persian  refugees,  347 

Bakuendas,  384 

Bakwiri,  2305 

Bakussus,  405 

Balafon,    Liberian    musical    instrument, 

Balali,  tribe,  2303 

Balaton,  lake,  2649,  2666 

Balboa,  3956,  4771 

Balearic  Islands,  4767,  4773,  4776 

Balengues,  4775 

Balhash,  lake,  4650 

Balholm,  3847 

Bali,  area,  3693 

— carved  gateway,  3718 

—chief,  3706 

— cock-fighting,  3722-3723 

—dancing  girls,  3627,  3705 

— mountains  and  volcanoes,  3693 

—natives,    3685,   3693,    3702,  3707,  3709 
3711,  3721 

— population,  3693 

—religion,  3693,  3696,  3721 

—shrine,  3716 

— water-drawer,  3719 

Balkan  League,  4606 

Balkans,  the,  nationalism,  5323-24 

Balkan  Wars  (1912-13),  1042,  2535,  3555 
4267,  4606 

Balkh,  36 

Ballarat,  315 

Balsa,  471,  474 

Balsam.  Peruvian,  4377-78 

Balsimos,  4378 

Baltic  Sea,  coast  lagoons,  2372 

— coast  villages,  2449 

—islands,  2371,  4783-85 

Balubas,  402 

Baluchis,  30,  2817,  2818,  5327 

Baluchistan,  beggar  musicians,  2726 

— horseman,  2720 

— Southern,  chieftain's  son,  2725 


Balunda,  tribe,  422] 

Bambala,  401 

Bamberg,  2447 

Bambutes,  5376 

Banat,  the,  4240,  4260,  4007 

Banca,  island,  3693 

Bander  Abbas,  3993,  4000 

Banff,  1160,  1173 

Bangalas,  400 

Bangalore,  2770 

Bangkok,  4613-17,  4632  : 

— ceremonial  at  palace,  4616 

— Chulalongkorn  University,  4613 

—population,  4609,  4033 

—schools,  4617-23 

— swung  festival,  4618-19 

Bangor,  5284 

Bangweolo,  lake,  662,  4221 

Banjaras,  family  on  journey,  2768 

Banjermasin,  British  factory,  892 

Banks.  Sir  Joseph,  313 

Bankutus,  403 

Bannockburn,  battle  (1314),  2004,  4635 

Bantam,  English  factory,  890 

Bantus,  646,  651,  4674,  5376 

— invasions  of  Rhodesia,  4212 

—language,  674,  5327 

— of  Portuguese  Congo,  4205 

— Rhodesia,  tribes,  4219-21 

—tribes,  2303,  4689,  4775 

— warriors,  4212 

Banyoros.    See  Wanyoros 

Bapendi,  403 
.    kos,  4774 

Bara,  3390,  3404 

Barabara,  1691 

Barakoa,  656 

Barambos,  400 

Baranya,  4561 

Barbados,  752,  765,  781,  782,  784 

Barbarossa,  Heyradin,  109 

Barbarossa,  Horuk,  109,  4967 

Barbary.     See  Algeria 

Barbuda,  island,  784 

Barcelona,  4759,  4763 

Barisans,  mountains,  3695 

Barna  (Ireland),  peasants,  29-41 

Baroda,  2727,  2803 

Barotse,  tribe,  4216,  4221 

Barranquilla,  1450,  1455 

Barrie,  Sir  J.  M.,  4499 

Barriers  Treaty  (1715),  378 

Barrios,  Justo  Rufino,  2537,  2555-56,  4388 

Barros,  2096 

Bascmas,  614 

Baseball,    4412,  5118-19,    5172 

Basel,  Peace  of  (1499),  338 

—Treaty  of  (1798),  5318 

Basket-ball,  5105 

Basket  making,  Brazil,  489 

—Hongkong,  842 

— Madagd 

—Poland,  4127 

— Waiomgomo  Indians,  5252 

Basket  work,  Philippine  Islands,  4109 

Basques,  agriculturists,  4755,  4756 

—dances,  2248,  4743 

— education,  4755 

— faithful  to  customs,  4751 

—farm,  4751,  4756 

— former  political  freedom,  4767 

— girl  pilgrim  to  Lourdes,  2247 

— government,  4755 

—language,  4743,  4750,  5327 

— name,  4756 

—origin,  uncertain,  2248,  4756,  4765 

— types,  4741 

Basra,  2883,  2897,  2912 

Bass,  George,  313,  4883 

Basu  Fondong,  king,  717 

Basundi,  tribe,  383,  2303 

Basutoland,  635,  669,  740,  747,  4700 

Basutos,  654,  689,  4700,  4707 

Bata,  4775 

Batak,  massacre  (1876),  1042 

Bataks,  tribe,  3685,  3715 

Batalha,  4149 

Batatelas,  405 

Batavia,  3673,  3674 

Batchelor,  Dr.  John,  3124 

Batekas,  385 

Bathurst  (Gambia),  630 

Battambang,  1093,  4633 

Battek,  3675 

General  Index 

Batwas,  5378 

Batum,  2353,  5020 

Bauehi,  emir  of,  539 

Baudin,  French  explorer,  313 

Bavaria,  2379,  2383,  2385.  2400,  2463 

— agriculture,  2445,  2447 

— beer,  2445 

— customs,  2432 

— dress,  2426,  243!) 

— duchy  acquired  by  Austria,  337 

—headdress  of  peasants,  2374,  2379 

—history,  2454-60 

— houses,  2424 

—industries,  2392,  2445 

— literature,  2447 

—marriages,  2379,  2412,  2429 

—peasants,  2385,  2404,  2410,  2447 

— population,  2445 

— relations  with  Prussia,  2445 

— religion,  2445 

—representation,  2444 

— towns,  7447 

— wickerwork  factory,  2437 

Baxar,  battle  of  (1764),  2875 

Bayanzi,  400 

Bayazid,  sultan,  4033,  5016-17 

Baylen,  4768 

Beagling,  1759 

Bean  cannery,  U.S.A.,  5154 

Beans,  Colombian,  1435 

Beam,  5316 

Bears,  jerforming,  2767,  2810,  3435,  4238 

Beating  the  bounds,  1891 

Bechuanaland,  654,  740,  747,  4700 

Beddgelert,  5270 

Bedrashein,  meat  market,  1695 

Beduins,  Beja,  1710 

— camel-breeding,  177 

— changing  camp,  178 

—characteristics,  1710,  2604 

— customs,  2884 

— dependence   on   friendly   towns,    2903 

— donkev-breeding,  3320 
—Egypt,     1645 

— Egypt,  guides  to  Pyramids,  1709 
— Egypt,  occupations,  1710-11 
—Egypt,  tribes,  1710-11 
— girl  of  Cvrenaica,  3116 
— Hejaz,  2603-5 
—horseman,  3891,  4863 
—Irak,  2883,  2884,  2896 
— Lebanon,  3314 
— man  on  donkey,  3904 
— music,  186 
—Oman,  3886,  3888 

—Palestine,  3892,  3894,  3904,  3920,  3939 
—travelling  to  Akabah,   2610 
—tribes,  2885 

—Tunis,  1923,  4936-40,  4957 
—types,  2613,  2883,  2896,  3939 
— water-carrier,  175 
— women  making  butter,  181 
— warfare  with  Berbers,  2291 
Bee-keeping,  Latvia,  3272,  3282 
Beersheba.     See  Bir-es-Saba 
Beethoven,  L.  van,  2461 
Bekazin,  king,  1567 
Beijerland  Island,  peasants,  3649 
Beirut,  3321,  4862,  4871,  4876 
— commerce,  4872 
— European  quarter,  4872 
— population,  3321 
— street,  4872 
Beja  Beduits,  1710 
Beia-Nubia,  633 
Bejas,  633 
Bekivai,  chief,  606 
Bekka,  3321 

Bekwai,  king's  sword-bearer,  699 
Belem,  4149 

Belem  do  Para.    See  Para 
Belep  Islands,  2344 
Belfast,  Orangemen,  2930 
Belfort,  2288 

Belgian  Congo,  administration,  381,  409 
—area,  382s  409 
— cannibalism,  407,  408 
—chief  with  wives,  388,  389 
— commerce,  409 
— communications,  381,  409 
— dancing  women,  398,  399 
— defence  force,  409 
— divisions,  409 

Belgian  Congo,  Industries,  409 

— map,  409 

— mock  execution,  396 

— money,  409 

—natives,  380-408 

—population,  382,  409 

—pottery,  390 

— products,  409 

— secret  societies,  407 

— towns,  409 

—tribes,  382-405 

— weaving,  390 

— witch  doctors,  406 

— women  grinding  corn,  391 

Belgians,  amusements,  359 

— canal  workers,  369 

—character,  351,  352,  364 

—culture,  373 

— language,  352 

—meals,  369 

— origin,  375 

— peasants,  358,  359 

— religion,  352 

—social  life,  359 

Belgium,  agriculture,  363 

— angling  in  river  Meuse,  370 

— army,  379 

— art,  373 

— bread  ration  queue,  377 

—Catholic  Party,  362 

—child  labour,  356,  360 

—children  in  church,  368,  369 

—Church,  363 

— coal  mining,  360 

— commerce,  379 

— communications,  379 

— constitution,  379 

— divisions,  379 

— dock  system,  367 

— education,  356 

— electoral  reforms,  362 

— government,  379 

—history,  375-79,  5317,  5320 

—independence,  353,  367,  378 

—industries,  368,  379 

— kings,  378 

— land  ownership,  364 

— literature,  373 

—map,  376 

— milk  supply,  350 

—national  evolution,  5317,  5320 

— newspapers,  373 

—nineteenth  century  development,  353 

— origin  of  provinces,  375 

— pageant  of  the  Holy  Blood,  364 

— population  density,  378 

— priesthood,  362 

— products,  360,  379 

— religious  ceremonies,  364,  365,  366 

—strikes,  361 

— territorial  acquisitions,  379 

— territorial  losses,  378 

—union  with  Holland,  378,  3670 

— war  refugees,  374 

— wars,  375 

Belgola,  Mysore,  great  idol,  2763 

Belgrade,  4576,  4599,  4603,  4604 

Belgrano,  patriot,  222 

Beiisario  Porras,  president,  3967 

Belize,  784 

Bellagio,  religious  festival,  3071 

Belogradchik,  natives,  1013 

Bellum,  Tigris  river  boat,  2898 

Belvoir,  the,  1766 

Ben  Charles,  chief,  1166 

Ben  Nevis,  4543 

Benadir,  3119 

Benares,  2839,  2855,  2856,  2857,  2860 

Bendigo,  315 

Benedict  XV.,  Pope,  2980 

Benedictine  monks,  3062 

Bengal,  agriculture,  2840 

— character  of  people,  2840-54 

— climate,  2840 

—education,  2840,  2849-54 

—elephant  at  festival,  2737 

—footbridge,  2746 

— language,  2840 

— native  bazaar,  2748 

— natives  weighing  rice,  2747 

— population,  2840 

—products,  2840 

— question  of  division,  2879 

— village  natives  at  a  meal,  2747 


Bat— Bhu 

Bengas,  4774 

Benghazi,  3111,  3112,  3114,  3119 

Beni-Lam,  tribe,  2885-88 

Benin,  birth  customs,  688 

Benis,  588 

Benue,  river,  533,  561 

Beothiks,  3741-42 

Berbera,  648 

Berberines,  1691,  1752 

Berbers,  Algerian,  65-106,  2347 

— ancestors  of  Moors,  1739 

— Beraber,  3574 

— "  Bir  "  (water  supplies),  1733,  1734-3 

—boatmen,  1668 

—character,  1733-34,  2296-97,  3110 

—food,  1734 

—half-breeds,  2297-99,  2303 

—history,  2291,  3593 

— language,  4756 

—physique,  1733,  2291-94 

— religion,  1739 

— Rif,  3574,  4775 

— shepherds,  2296 

— Shilluh,  3574 

— subjugation  by  Romans,  3591 

—tribes,  2291,  2304 

—Tunis,  4924,  4965 

— veiled  women,  3117 

—warfare,  1734,  2296 

— women,  position,  2294-96 

Berchtold  V.,  4857 

Berck-sur-Mer,  prawn  fishers,  2204 

Bergen,  3838,  3840,  3848-47 

Bering  Strait,  3505,  5376 

Berlin,  2449 

— cathedral  and  Lustgarten,  2403 

— children  at  church  festival,  2388 

— children  in  park,  2420 

— industries,  2393 

— Institute  for  Cancer  Research,  3293 

— Leipzigerstrassc,  2390 

— peasant  selling  wicker-work,  2437 

— Potsdamerplatz,  2391 

—Reichstag,  2386,  2387 

— school,  children's  toilet,  2424 

— savings  bank,  2452 

— Enter  den  Linden,  2390 

Berlin  Conference  (1885),  2349 

—Congress  (1878),  245,  1042,  2014 

—Treaty  (1878),  62,  3552,  4371,  5020-21, 

Bermudas,  769,  775,  778,  781-82,  784 
Berrnudez,  lake  (Venezuela),  5257 
Bernadotte,  marshal,  3880,  4813 
Berne,  canton,  4816,  4857-58 
— pottery,  4852 
— wood  carving,  4853 
Berne  (town),  4814-15-16 
Berwick,  riding  the  bounds,  4516 
Beshir  Omar  esh-Shehab,  3317 
Bessarabia,  4240,  4266,  4267 
Betel,  nuts,  863,  4622 
Bethany,  reputed  house  of  Lazarus,  394.V 
Bethesda  (Wales),  5288 
Bethlehem,  Arab  merchant,  3950 
— Christian  community,  3920 
—Church  of  the  Nativity,  3946 
— departure  of  a  caravan,  3946 
—girl,  3929 
— population,  3950 
—street,  3927 
— water-carrier,  3928 
Betsileo,  3390-91-92,  3419,  3421-23.      See 

also  Malagasy 
Betsimisaraka,  characteristics,  3395 
— dead  placed  in  coffins,  3421 
—houses,  3400 
— marriage  customs,  3417 
—types,  3384,  3395,  3412 
— woman's  dress,  3397.     See  Malagasy 
Beyin,  town,  houses  near,  591 
Bezanozano.  women,  3392 
Bhamo,  1053,  1091 

Bhatgaon,  tmiMmgs,  S5y.!,  3'-07.  3610 
Bhils,  2721 
Bhotias,  2836 

Bhutan,  Deb  Raja,  facing  410,  413 
— devil  dance  of  lamas,  431 
— Bharm  Raja,  412 
— fortress  palace,  428 
— government,  412 
—history,  414,  4921 
— king  with  councillors,  421 
— king  with  family,  413,  417 


Bhu— Bou 

General  Index 

Bnutan,  king  with  lifeguards,  422 
—king,  with  his  people,  427 
— king's  palace,  425 
—king's  private  band,  423 
-map,  410 
-ministers,  414 
x   Paro  Penlop,  414 
peoples,  2840 

political  value,  410 
■products,  412 
-religion,  413,  416,  419 
—rivers,  415 
—routes  from  India,  410 
— routes  to  Tibet,  411 
— Tongsa  lamas,  415 
—trade,  411 
— vegetation,  410 
Bhutias,  xvii,  418 
— origin,  411 
—types,  411-31 
Bihar  ani  Orissa,  2854,  2860 
Bijapur,  2788 
Bikaner,  2815-16 

Bikol,  4098  B.„ 

Bikram,  rajah  (Vikvci.-oiiiya),  28(3 

Bill  oi  Rishts  (1689),  xlv.,  xlvi 

Billiton,  Wand,  3693-94 

Biltong,  5229 

Bimbuku,  schoolmaster,  600 

Binbingas,  295 

BiihDrah,  169  .    „r1  ,„„  ,«,,, 

B:niou  (Breton  bagpipe),  2151,  2212,  2*13 

Birchicara,  street  in,  99S 

B  rd  oi  paradise,  272 

Bj-es-Saba  (Beersheba),  3920,  3941 

B' rs&y   4472 

Birth  Customs,  African  natives,  688,  729 

—India,  2863 

—Peruvian  Indians,  40/2 

— Siam,  4617 

—Syria,  4869 

Biiayas,  802 

Biscay,  4742,  4743,  47o6 

Biiharin,  near  Assuan,  1/06,  1/09,  1711 

— ;aravan  conductors,  627 

— girl  goatherds,  1710 

— occupations,  1711 

—types,  620,  621,  632,  1706,  1709 

Biskra,  77 

— Arab  children,  103 

— dancing  girls,  99 

— mosque,  90 

— mulatto  children,  100 

— negro  children,  102 

— scene,  107 

— shepherds,  105 

Bismarck,'  Prince  Otto  von,  2350,  2449 

2460-62,  5320-21,  5324 
—Archipelago.     See  Papuan  Islands 
Bison.  5209 
Bitlis,  239,  245 
Bitumen,  wells,  Irak,  2899 
Biornson,  Bjornstjernc,  3872-/0 
Black  Forest,  baptismal  procession,  23,6 
— character  of  peasants,  2380 
— dialects.  2445 
—flax,  2443 
—girls  at  spring,  2330 
—headdress,  2370,  2374,  2382   2384 
— neasants,  types,  2370-84,  2408,  2413 
'    —  "schapp.-:,"  2382,  2408 

— straw-plaiting,  2413 

—wedding,  2375,  2382 

— women  workers,  2373 

Black  Sea,  4349 

Black  Watch,  4456  11RflTO 

Blackfeet    Indians,    113/,    1138,    1169-/2 
5063-4,  5201,  5209 

Blackheatb,  4520 

Blacksmith,  Awka,  677 

— England,  1924,  facing  1928 

—Japan,  3180 

— Korea,  3251 

—Tajik,  3231 

Blaxland,  Gregory,  314 

Bloenvfontein,  4677,  4691 
-Conference  (1899),  4710 

—Convention  (1854),  4708 

liow-mnls!    450,    502,    826-32.    835,    883 

Blue  Mts.,  Australia,  249 

Blue  Nile,  river,  631 

Blyden,  Dr.  Wilmot,  3329 

Bo-Tree,  1199 

Boat,  ancient  Egyptian,  1750,  1752,  1/53 

—Ceylon,  1201 

— Samoan,  4393,  4394 

— Tigris  river,  2898 

Boat-building,  Nigeria,  886 

Bobrikoff,  general,  2085 

Boca  del  Toro,  1458,  3968 

Bochnia,  salt  mines,  4134 

Body,  human,  xiv 

Boers.     See  Afrikander 

Bogdo.     Hutuktu.    See  under  Mongolia 

Bogle,  George,  415 

Bogomils,  4576 

Bogota,  1434,  1455 

—cathedral,  1447 

— climate,  1441 

— earthenware  market,  1439 

—factory  girl,  1449 

— fountain  near,  1452 

—fruit  stall,  1433 

yiew  1 448 

Bogue  Forts,  destruction  (1841),  891 

Bohemia,  agriculture,  1512 

— Church,  1555 

—costumes,  1507,  1509 

—folk-dancing,  1547 

— geographical  position,  339 

—history,  340, 1553-57,  5314-15 

— industries,  1512 

—influence  of  Hus,  1556 

—kingdom  (1204),  339 

— musicians,  1548 

— religious  wars  (1415-36),  339 

— sokols,  1517 

-university,  1501 
— village  homes,  1512 
Bohemians.     See  Czechs 
Boiling  Lake,  Dominica,  750 
Bokhara,  agriculture,  447 
—Ark,  433 
— army,  442 
— boundaries,  433 
— dentistry,  446 
— education,  434,  435 
— fauna,  446 
—food,  446 
— government,  440 
— independence,  440 
—Jews,  3906 
— languages,  442, 
—map,  433 
— Mir  Arab,  444 
-mullahs,  432,  446 
-pastimes,  446 

-prison  in  palace  grounds,  4*/ 
-products,  447 
-religion,  442 
—silk  industry,  448 
— Turkistan  boundary,  5033 
—types  of  people,  432-48,  5023 
— wars  with  Khiva,  3225 
—Young  TJzbeg  party,  440 
Bokhara  (town),  description,  433 
— inn  courtyard,  443 
— metal-workers,  434 
— JAegistau,  445 
—scenes,  438,  439,  448 
Bolan  Pass,  camel  cavalcade,  42 
Bolas,  5240 
Boleadores,  1284 
Bolivar,    Simon,   476,    1453,    3966,    40 

5252-4,  5260 
Bolivia,  army,  470,  477 
—balsas,  471,  474 
—bull-fight,  466 
— commerce,  477 
— communications,  477 
— constitution,  477 
— description,  475 
— divisions,  477 
— education,  449 
— forced  labour,  454 
— government,  477 
—history,  475-77 
—Indians,  449-65,  470-74 
—industries,  477 
—map,  475 

—military  execution,  4fa9 
— minerals,  459,  477 
— money,  477 
—mountain  inn,  46/ 

Bolivia,  music,  470 
— Paraguay,  frontier, 
-pastimes,  470 
-people,  types,  450-74 
-ploughing,  473 
-population,  449,  475 
-priests,  458 
— prison  life,  458 
—products,  472,  477 
—religion,  450,  461-2,  468 
—ruling  class,  455 
—towns,  477 
Boloki,  400 

Bolshevists.     See  under  Bussia 
Boma,  409  . 

Bombay,  British  acquisition,  890,  4197 
—description,  2798-801 
— fishing  smack,  2757 
—Duck,  2754-55,  2756-57 
Bona,  97 

Bonaire.     See  Buen  Aire 
Bonaparte,  Joseph,  4768 
Bonaparte,  Napoleon.     See  Napoleon  I. 
Bongos,  637 
Bonivard,  4858 
Bonn,  market  place,  2461 
Bon-Po,  religion,  4901,  4919 
Bontoe,  4098 

Book  of  Rites,  Chinese,  1354 
Booth,  General  William,  1910,  1912 
Bopora,  3336 
Bordighera,  3096 
Borgund,  Stave  church,  3864 
Borinage,  360,  379 
Boris  I.  (Bulgaria),  1040 
Boris  III.  (Bulgaria),  1040,  1043 
Boris  Godunov,  4366 
Borjom,  2354 
Borkum,  island,  2371 
Borneo,  area,  801 
—British  North,  895 
— Chinese  population,  3701 
— configuration,  801 
— communications,  833 
— description,  3696 
—fauna,  802 

—first  British  factories,  892 
—head-taking,  839 
— : Kehs,  3701 

— natives,  customs,  834,  840 
—natives,  daily  life,  815 
— natives  dress,  813 
— natives,  houses,  836-38 
—natives,  population,  806 
— natives,  superstition,  834,  840 
—people,  types,  800-41 
—prevention  of  disease,  839,  841 
—products,  813,  833 
—trade  and  mining,  3701 
—tribes,  806,  3685,  3696-701 
— war  dance,  816 
— warfare  methods,  835 
Bornu,  545,  614 
—dancing  women,  542,  543 
—market  scenes,  534,  535 
— Shehu  of,  524,  530,  552 
Boro  Budur,  ruins,  Java,  3677 
Boroalgassu,  3581 
Borodino,  battle  of  (1812),  4266 
Bosnia  and  Herzegovina,  340,  4371,  43/3 
—description,  4593,  5494-90 
—folklore,  4594 
— "  guslari,"  4594 
'9   — handicrafts,  4595 
—history,  4606-7,  5021 
— industries,  4595 
—Jews,  4576 
— laud  tenure,  4593 
— language,  4593 
— Mahomedans,  4576-93,  4607 
— music.  4594 

— national  costumes,  4593-94 
— products,  4595 
—religions,  4576,  4593 
— superstition,  4594 
—Turkish  rule,  4576,  4604 
Bosporus,  4982 
Boston  (U.S.A.),  5141-42 
Bothwell,  earl  of,  4539 
Bothwell  Brig,  4541 
Bougie,  97  . 

Boulogne,    festival  of    the  Virgin,  2224, 

12225  2227 
— fisherf oik,  2229 


General  Index 

Boulog-ie,  prawn  fishers,  2228 

—railway  porter,  2240 

Bourbon,  House  of,  2287-88,  3102-3.  4788 

Bourbon  Island.     See  Bennion 

Bourbonnais,  peasant  women,  2260,  2261 

Bouvines,  battle  of  (1214),  2282 

Bovianders,  761 

Bowls,  4520 

Boxing,  2142,  5172 

Boy  Scouts,  Denmark,  1589 

— England,  1949 

—India,  2785 

— Latvia,  3292,  3293 

—U.S.A.,  5103,  5104 

Boyaca,  battle  (1819),  1453 

Braehyoephalic,  xvi,  xx 

Braddon,  Sir  Edward,  4883 

Bradford  Peverell,  1756,  1820 

Braemar,  gathering,  4502  4504 

Braeriaoh,  4510 

Brahma,  Hindu  god,  2870 

Brahmaputra,  river,  2840 

Brahmins  (Bralimans),  caste,  2870-71 

— Cfntpawan,  2795 

—instruction  of  children,  2820 

—laws    and    customs,     2714-22 

— of  Maharashtra,  2789-91 
— Nambudri,  2714-22   2756 
— tj'pes,  2812 
— at  worship,  2792 
Brahmo-Somaj  movement,  2823 
Brahms,  J„  2443 
Brahuis,  2724,  2804,  5376 
Braila,  4263 

Brandenburg,  2396,  2434  3435 
Bratislava,  1540,  1548,  1557 
Brazil,  army,  513 
—climate,  479 
—coffee  industry,  494,  495 
—commerce,  513 

—constitutions,  504,  511,  512   513 
— discovery,  510,  4196 
—education,  479,  483,  508 
— forests,  483 
— gambling,  486 
—government,  503,  510,  513 
—history,  510-13,  4202,  5239,  2543 
—immigrants,  487,  504 
—Indian  question,  502 
—Indians,  480,  487-509 
— industries,  513 
— insects,  502 
— language,  479 
—manioc  preparations,  490-93 
—map,  511 

—marines  marching  in  Rio,  482 
— minerals,  505 
— monarchy,  503 
— music,  487 
—National  Library,  506 
— native  labour,  480 
' — navy,  513 
—newspapers,  507 
—nuts,  493 
—population,  504 
—products,  479,  480,  493,  509,  513 
— railways,  483 
—religion,  487 
—rubber  industry,  496,  497 
— states,  513 
— stock  rearing,  480,  505 
— theatres,  507 
— towns,  513 
—villages,  505 

— war  with  Paraguav,  512,  3982 
— yellow  fever,  503 
Brazilians,  character,  483 
— dress,  485 

—festival  dancers,  500,  501,  503 
—food,  486,  505,  5225 
—marriage  customs,  491 
—types,  478-509 
Bre,  1055,  1068,  1071,  1080 
Breadfruit,  drying  the  pulp,  4403 
Breakspear,  Nicholas,  4810 
Bremen,  2372,  2384,  2393,  2449 
Brest-Litovsk,    Treaty    of    (1918),    90">0 

Bretons,  biniou  players,  2151,  221?  2213 
—costumes,  2153,  2202,  2211    ■>■>& 
— customs,  2168 
— dancing,  gavotte,  2212 
—education,  2211 

Bretons,  embroiderer  at  work,  2180 
— festival,  2197 
— fisherman,  2201 
— funeral,  2162,  2163,  2164 
— houses,  2203 
—innkeeper,  2155 

—marriage,  2152,  2153,  2167,  2185   2189 
—mayor,  2171  ' 

— men's  dress,  2217 
—Pardon,  2167,  2173 
—religious  feeling,  2164,  2165,  2221 
—spinning,  2199,  2223 
— Sunday  leisure,  2210 
—types,  2147,  2151-55,  2160-2223    "931 
— weaver,  2147 
— woman  knitting,  2177 
—women  workers  in  fields,  2160 
-W0™1  J$^f2™   sariiQe   industry 

Brick-making,  4012-15,  4098 
Bridgetown,  750,  751,  784 
Brienz,  4853 
Brisbane,  292,  315 
Brisbane,  Sir  Thomas,  314 
o7sc    Bntarmia  Coppermine,  1175 
27»6,  British  Columbia,  1140,  1175,  1191 

British   Commonwealth  of-  Nations,  523 
5324-25  ' 

British    Empire.     See   England,    Ireland 
Scotland    and    Wales,    also    Africa' 
America,  Asia,  Australasia,  Europe 
—Colonial  Laws,  Validity  Act,  521 
— colonies,  as  commercial  agents   517 
—conquest  of  Canada,  520 
— defensive  measures,  518 
—Dominions'  independence,  522 
—Dominions  and  Nationalism,  5324-25 
— early  colonists,  516 
—endowments  of  colonies,  521 
— federation  movement,  522 
—growth  from  private  enterprise,  516 
—Indian  administration.  520 
— map,  xxxvii 
— policy,  xxxiv 
— possible  duration,  xlviii 
— War  Cabinet,  522 
British  Kaflraria,  4708 
British  North  America.     See  Canada 
British  races,  origins,  maps,  5374-75 
British  Somaliland.  See  Somaliland,  Brit 
British  South  Africa  Com-any,  4213  4710 
Britons,  ancient,  1757,  2001,  5307  ' 
Brittany,  agriculture,  2185 
— annexation  to  French  crown   2281 
—churches,  2128,  2165 
— cider  cart,  2183 
— crab  seekers,  2207 
— farm,  2169,  2184 
— festival,  2202 
—fishing  industry,  2178,  2179 

-  -galettes  (flat  cakes),  2183 
-gathering  seaweed,  2184 

—harvest,  2160,  2186 

—laundry  work,  2158,  2208 

—open-air  oven,  2183 

—pottery,  2190 

—recruits  for  navy,  2141 

— sabot-making,  2181,  2182,  2198 

—  sardine  industry,  2174-76  2206 
—shrine,  2168,  2207 
Brno,  1557 

Brock,  Sir  Isaac,  1187-88 
Brocken,  the,  2449 
Bronze  Age,  3951 
Brooke,  Sir  J.,  892 
Broseley,  1969 

Bruce,  liobert,  2004,  4465,  4534-36 
Bruges,  351,  375,  379 
—belfry,  376 

—procession  of  the  Holy  Blood,  365   366 
— scene,  355  ,--.,.,. 

—vegetable  stall,  354 

Brunei,  802,  895 

Brunswick,  2383,  2384,  2398,  2426 

Brusa,  5003-4  5016 

Brussels,  351,  367,  379 

Bsherreh,  cedar  grove,  3305 

B'abis,  4775 

Bucaramanga,  1455 

Biickeburg,  bride,  2409 

Buckinghamshire,  lace-makin"   1986 

Budapest,  2668,  2676-81 

Buddha,  effigy  at  Polonnarua,  1225 

—image,     French     Tndo-Obina,     2328 


Buddha,   Japanese   girl  before  image  of. 

— statue  at  Kamakura,  3212 

Buddh-Gaya,  2704,  2860 

Buddhism,  Bhutan,  facing  410  2840 

—Burma,  initiation  of  ko-yin,  'l057 

—Burma,  monastery,  1056 

-Burma,  monastery  school  class   105>» 

^Xdi^ii^™'  107e'  M* 

-Cambodia,  priest,  1111 

—cave  paintings,  Ajanta,  2785-88 
— Ceylon,  festivals,  1198   1199 

=Cmn°a"'lP3of™S'  ^  ***  122(5 
—China,  introduced  into,  1428 
— Chinese  monk,  1295 
—Chinese  priests,  1296-1300 
—conflict  with  Hinduism,  2873 
—consumption  of  meat,  3167 
— devil  worship,  2733 
— Himalayan  monasteries,  2837 
— Japan,  ceremony,  3131 
— Japan,  devotee,  3174 
— Japan,  funeral,  3136 
-Japan,  introduction  in,  3134  3143   3017 
-Japan,  temples  and  nunneries.  3142 
— Korea,  3242 

—Living  Buddhas,  Tibet,  4913-16 
—lotus,  the  sacred  flower,  3200 
—Mongolia,  3529,  4650 
— origin,  2873 
— pavilion  in  Honan,  1412 
—priests,  1394,  1395,  3143,  3151   3214 
—priests  and  temple,  Korea   3259 
—service  for  souls  of  bullocks,  3133 
— Slam,  4609,  4623,  4624   4630 
— Siberia,  4640,  4647 
-Sikkim,  2840 

-Sinhalese  worshippers,  1228 
-Sin-Kiaug,  4650,  4672 
-tea.  introduced  in  Japan  by,  3184  320-' 
-Tibet,  4889,  4913-16,  4919 
— See  also  Lamas 
Buen  Aire  (Bonaire),  3723   3734 
Buenos  Aires,  221,  222   2?3 
—agricultural  show  at  Palermo   191 
—climate,  214,  5233 
— conventillo,  202 
—mixture  of  nationalities,  213 
—situation,  213 
-villa,  203 

Buffalo  Bear,  chief,  5060,  5084 
Buggalow,  Arab  boat,  2898 
Bugis,  characteristics,  3701-2   3728 
—origin,  3685 
— religion,  3702 
— types,  3727,  3728 
Building-bee,  1150 
Bujebas,  4774 
Buka  Islands,  types,  928 
Bukarest,  girls,  4258 
—Treaty  (1812),  5018 
—Treaty  (1913),  1043,  4606 
—Treaty  (1918),  1043 
Bukovma,  340,  4240,  4249,  4"67    5040 
—peasants,  4236  ' 

Bulawayo,  4214,  4217,  4218 
Bulb-growing,  Holland,  3624,  3647 
Bulgaria,  agriculture,  1033 
— area,  1043 
— army,  1043 
— "  black  clergy,"  1038 
— bootblack,  1019 
— bride  in  floral  mask,  1015 
— climate,  1018 
— commerce,  1043 
— communications,  1022 
—constitution,  1024,  1013 
— description,  1014 
— domestic  animals,  1036 
—education,  1033,  1043 
— farming,  1023 
— fiuna,  1036 
— forests,  1038 

—girls  by  a  well,  1012,  facing  1016 
— government,  1024,  1043 
— grape  gatherers,  1023 
—Great  War  (1914-18),  1043 
—history,  1040-43,  4371,  4(06,  5253 
— Horo  dance,  1026,  1034,  1035 
— independence,  1042,  4373 
—industries,  1038,  1043 
— language,  1010 




Bui — Can 

Bulgaria*  map,  1041 

—market  day  at  Tiruovo,  1031 

—men  fording  river,  1010 

— Moslem  graveyard,  1029 

— mountains,  1016 

— national  evolution,  5323 

—nuns,  1039 

— population,  1043 

—products,  1033,  1043 

— property  censorship,  1035 

—religion,  1024,  1043 

— rivers,  1018 

—rose  industry,  1020,  1021,  103d 

— sericulture,  1035 

— shoeing  ox,  1022 

—towns,  1043 

— village  priest,  1030 

— village  view,  1028 

— weaving,  1030 

Bulgarians,  atrocities,  1042,  5020 

—costumes,  1014,  1016 

— disposition,  1010 

— funeral  custom,  1029 

—origin,  1009,  1040,  5376 

— pastimes,  1011 

— Rumania,  market  gardeners,  42o3 

— social  equality,  1024 

—types,  1008-39 

— women  carrying  bahies,  1013 

Ball-fight,  Bolivia,  466 

—Mexico,  3490 

—Peru,  4066 

—Portugal,  4177,  4181,  4184-87 

—Spain,  4712,  4716-17 

Bollocks,  service  for  souls,  Japan,  3133 

"  Bundanis,"  2871 

Bindi,  2814-15 

Bondu,  687,  688,  708 

B  intuku,  602,  603 

Bmyoro,  king,  637,  638,  639 

— king,  with  chiefs,  715 

— king's  sacred  milk,  679 

— new  moon  ceremony,  714 

Burano,  lace-making,  3052 

Burgas,  1043 

Burgundians,  2454,  4857 

Burgundy,  2282 

Burial  customs.     See  luneral  customs. 

Buriats,  3522,  4636,  4640 

Burma,  area,  1045,  1091 

— army,  1091 

— bazaars,  1065 

—Buddhists,  1056-57,  105_9 

— climatic  conditions,  1045 

— chinlon  players,  1050 

— commerce,  1091 

— constitution,  1091 

— education,  1091 

—elephants  at  work,  1054,  1055 

—fruit  sellers,  1059 

— gamester  with  dice  board,  1049 

— government,  1091 

—history,  1089-91,  4631,  4632 

— language,  1089 

—map,  1090 

— marionette  pwe,  1051 

. — members  of  monastic  order,  1060 

—music,  1087 

_,,  ,  K  1058,  1073 

i  igdawn,  1076,  1078,  1079 
—population,  1054,  1091 
— pravers  in  the  Stive  Dagon,  1044 
—products,  1052,  1091 
— railwav,  1091 
—religion,  1075,  1091 
— rice  cultivation,  1052 
—royal  catafalque,  1106,  1107 
—towns,  1091 
—types,  1044-1088 
—variety  of  races,  1058,  5376 
■ — vegetation,  1046 . 
— village  cottage,  1074 
— Young  Burma  party,  1075 
Burmans,  1052 
—art,  1081 
—customs,  1055,  1076 
— dress,  1061 
— funeral  customs,  1067 
Burmese  War  (1824-25),  1045 
Burnes,  Sir  Alexander,  43 
Burns,  Robert,  4480,  4498,  4513 
Buru,  island,  3704 
Burton,  Sir  Richard,  2597-604 
Buseima,  1735,  1739,  1741 

General  Index 

Bushat,  pasha,  62 

Bushido,  3191 

Bushire,  3993-4000 

Bushmen,  African,  558,  654,  4674,  53/6 

Bushongos,  402  _ 

Buton,  island,  house  on  piles,  3*27 

Butter,  Beduiu  women  making,  181 

—making,  Egypt,  1711 

— packing  in  Denmark,  1577 

Buxa,  410 

Byzantine  art,  4313 

Byzantine  Empire,  4876,  5016 

Caber,  tossing,  4500 
Cabot,  John,  781,  889,  3741,  3771 
—Sebastian,  3981,  5215 
Cabral,  Pedro  Alvarez,  510 
Caceres,  4712,  4758 
Cachiauelj,  the,  2547 
Caciaue,  Araucanian,  1268 
Cactus,  1270,  318.3,  3503,  4441 
Cadwaladr,  king,  5295,  5307 
Cairo,  1682,  1690.  1691,  170a 
-bead  sellers,  1681 
-Blue  Mosque,  1721 
-booksellers'  row,  1715 
-camel  carriage,  1649 
-camel-drivers,  1651 
-carpenter,  1703 
-carts  with  passengers,  1647 
-cookshop,  1724 
-dervish  in  courtyard,  1645 
— dragoman,  1646 
—funeral,  1653 
-girl  at  well,  1675 
-grain  boats,  1671 
-grocert  shop,  1661 
—herb-seller,  1722 
— men  playing  draughts,  1725 
— military  display,  1657 
— mission  school  pupils,  1668 
— Moslem  students,  1684 
—mosque  of  El-Merdani,  168-1,  1719 
— mosque  of  El-Muayyad,  1720 
— pilgrimage  to  Mecca,  1656,  1691-95 
— pottery-shop,  1704 
— runners  waving  wands,  1649 
—scenes,  1648,  1720,  1723 
— shoemaker,  1726 
— sweet  water  vender,  1646 
—tailor's  shop,  1677 
— tentmakers'  bazaar,  1717 
—  tinsmiths,  1676 
— Turkish  bazaar,  1727 
— university  of  El-Azhar,  169a,  1718 
— veiled  women,  1682,  1633 
view,  1713 

-water  seller,  facing  1682 
— wayside  cafe,  1660 
— woman  and  child,  1728 
Caithness,  4526 
Cajamarca,  4076 
"  Calabashing,"  567 
Calabria,  peasant  girl,  2979 
Calais,  2004,  2005,  2282 
Calcutta,  burning  ghats,  scenes,  2734 
— commerce,  2849 
— cow  in  street,  2730 
— development,  2840-49 
—Kali  Temple,  2738 
— lama  procession,  2733 
— population,  2840 
— university,  2849-54 
Calgary,  1156,  1193 
Cali,  1455 

California,  almond  production,  5133 
— camping  party,  5174 
—ceded  to  U.S.A.,  4772,  51.69,  5219 
— character  of  people,  5159 
— crdtivation,  5161 
—fruit-growing,  5112,  5135 
— goldflelds,  3966 
— I.W.W.  training  school,  5233 
— Indian  tribes,  5213 
— mining,  3501 
— orange-packing,  5112 
— pearl  fisheries,  3501 
— railway  interests,  5056 
— sardine  industry,  5129 
— Spanish  influences,  5051,  5159 
Calliope,  H.M.S.,  4392-93 
Calmar,  Union  of  (1397),  1619,  3880,  4810 
Caltanisset.a,  sulphur  mines.  3037 


Calusare  (Calusheri),  dance,  4259,  4202 

Calvin,  John,  2283 

Calvinism,  4469-73,  4538 

Camagiiey,  1499 

Camaldoli,  monk  of,  3063 

Cambodia,  annexed  by  Trance,  2350,  4633 

— area,  2352 

—bonze,  1108,  1109,  1111,  1118 

— coronation  ceremony,  1092 

— education,  1106 

— fencing  instructress,  1115 

—festivals,  1115,  1117 

— fishermen's  home,  1118 

— Trench  protection,  1095 

—funeral  customs,  1107,  1116 

— heir-apparent,  1094 

— house  on  piles,  1119 

— industries,  2331 

— king's  residence,  1110 

—map,  1093 

— marriage  customs,  1118-19 

— mistress  of  the  ballet,  1096 

—music,  1110,  1113 

—population,  1095,  2352 

—products,  2352 

— pupils  of  monastery  school,  1113 

—religion,  1111,  1115 

— school  of  ballet  dancing,  1095 

— Siamese  protectorate,  4632 

Cambodians,  dress,  1105 

—family  life,  1118 

— living  conditions,  1111 

— mid-day  meal,  1112 

—origin,  2327,  4631 

— prayers  before  shrine,  1110 

—tribes,  1110 

—types,  1092-1119 

Cambray,  League  of,  3102 

Cambridge  "  Backs,"  1827,  1829 

Cambyses,  1732,  4875 

Camels,  42,  177,  181,  629,  1651 

— Australia,  257 

— bearing  palanquins,  4952 

— and  buffalo  in  harness,  1686 

—caravan,  1404,  1730,  4991 

—Cyprus,  1006 

— India,  in  harness,  2769 

— litter,  Algerian  beauty  in,  95 

—Oman,  3887 

—Palestine,  3890 

— ploughing,  Egypt,  1687 

— on  quav  at  Omdurman,  620 

— Sah,-  .'desert,  2292 

— Tuaiej,  chiefs  on,  2295 

— Tunis,  4944 

Cameroon,  re-division  after  Great    War, 

234  9,  2350 
— mts.,  565,  579 
Cameroon,  British,  578,  616-17,  717,  746, 

Cameroon,  French,  746,  2301,  2304,  2305 

See  Africa,  French  Equatorial 
Camoens,  4188-89 
Campa  Indians,  4064,  4067 
—types,  4050,  4069,  4072 
Campbell  Island,  3792 
Camperdown,  battle  of  (1797),  2012 
Camphor,  industry,  Formosa,  2102,  212a, 

2126,  2127 
Campo  Formio,  treaty  of  (1797),  2459,  5318 
Cana,  3930 

Canaanites,  3951,  3952 
Canada,  agriculture,  1164 
— air  force,  1193 
— area,  1193 
— army,  1193 
—and  Boer  War,  1192 
— boundary  question,  5219 
— British  immigration,  1188 
— building-bee,  1150 
— cattle  branding,  1152 
— ceded  to  Britain,  781 
— ctierrv  pickers,  1151 
— Chinese,  1136 
—Chinook,  1160 
— climate,  1160 
— coal  lands,  1175 
— commerce,  1191,  1193 
— communications,  1191,  1193,  5130 
— constitution,  1193 
— department  stores,  1156 
— diverse  nationa  ities,  1125,  1145 
— Dominion  established,  1191 
— Doukhobors,  1120 

General  Index 

Canada,  education,  1131,  1193 
— fauna,  1178 
— fisheries,  1166 
— fishing  party  in  canoe,  1131 
— foreign  vote,  1145 
—forestry  department,  1166 
—fur  trading,  1175,  1176 
■ — Galicians,  1130 
—game  hunting,  1178 
— games,  4520 
— gasolene  ferries,  1156 
— gold-mining,  1172 
.  — government,  1193,  2014 
—Great  Iiividc,  1189 
—and  Great  War  (1914-18),  1192 
—history,  1185-93 

—Indians,  1137-39,  1142-43,  1148-55 
— Indians,  babies  in  cradles,  1172,  1173 
— Indians,  reservation,  1138 
— Indians,  types,  1137-83 
—industries,  1165,  1178,  1193 
— Irish-Americans,  1191 
— Italians,  1130 
—Lower,  1187,  1188 
—lumbering,  1131,  1141,  1155,  1165 
— map,  1187 

— Maritime  Provinces,  1189 
— Mennonites,  1126 
—minerals,  1122,  1175,  1192 
— modern  conveniences,  1156 
— Mormons,  1136 
— mounted  police,  1125 
— nationalism,  growth,  5324 
—navy,  1193 

— open-air  bread  baking,  1130 
— pack-horse,  1120 
— party  fording  river,  1135 
— pastures  of  the  plains,  1157 
— pear  trees,  1140 
— plank  house,  1150 
—population,  1189,  1192,  1193 
— potato  gathering,  1158 
— products,  1193 
— prospector,  1161,  1169 
— provinces,  1121,  1193 
— racial  differences,  1136 
— radishes,  1146 
—railways,  1130,  1159,  1193 
— Reading  Camp  Association,  1131 
—religion,  1164,  1193 
— Ruthenians,  1126 
— salmon  canneries,  1167 
— Scandinavians,  1145 
—Scots,  4476 

— sectarian  difficulties,  1136 
— seigneuries,  1185 
— ski-ing,  1129 
— steamer  services,  1159 
— tapping  sugar  maple,  1148 
— toboganning,  1128 
—towns,  1181,  1193 
— travellers  round  camp  fire,  1184 
—  United  Empire  Loyalists,  1186 
—Upper,  1187,  1188 
—wheat,  1165,  1192 
Canadian  Fur  Auction  Sales  Co.,  1176 
Canadian    Mounted    Police.     See    Royal 

Canadian  Mounted  Police 
Canadian  Pacific  Railway,  1191,  5130 
Canadians,  1125,  1145 
—types,  1120-84 
Canary  Islands,  2346,  4196,  4765,  4770-73 

Canberra,  315 
Candia  Island.     See  Crete 
Candia  (town),  2475 
Canea,  street  scene,  2474 
Canelos,  1625 
Cangue,  criminal  in,  1311 
Cannibalism,  Ainus,  3126 
— French  Equatorial  Africa,  2290,  2303-4 
—Maoris,  3806,  3817 
— New  Caledonia,  2340,  2341,  2351 
— New  Guinea,  3713 
— North  American  Indians,  5206-7 
— Peruvian  Indians,  4051,  4065-67,  4073 
— South  Sea  Is.,  920 
Canning,  Stratford,  5018,  5020 
Canoes,  Canada,  1134 
— Ceylon,  1200 
— Inthas  propelling,  1077 
— Malagasy,  3418 
— Melanesian,  915 
— Peruvian  Indian,  4049 


Canoes,  sacred,  Duke  of  York  Island,  916 

— sailing,  Fiji,  960 

— Samoan,  4393 

—Solomon  Islands,  930,  932,  935 

— Sumatra,  3714 

—Tonga  Islands,  970,  971 

— Zambezi  River,  4219 

Canton,  84,3,  890,  1334,  1431 

Canute  (Knut),  1619,  1760,  2001,  3880 

Capa,  1284 

Cape-to-Cairo  Railway,  4220 

Cape  of  Good  Hope,  British  Colony  (1808) 
740,  4707 

— coal,  4705 

—commerce  (1806),  4707 

—description,  4686,  4691 

— discovery,  4707 

— Dutch  colonisation,  4707 

— Dutch  population,  4679 

— government,  4708,  4709 

—Great  Boer  Trek,  4703 

—history,  4707-11 

— Malays,  4678 

— natives,  suffrage,  4674 

— population  (1806),  4707 

— slavery  abolished,  4708 

Cape  Town,  740,  4673,  4074,  4676,  4686 

Cape  Verde  Islands,  4196,  4207 

Capet,  Hugh  (King  of  France),  2281 

Capri,  island  of,  3025,  3056,  3104 

Carabobo,  5260 

Caracas,  5249,  5254-56 

—earthquake  (1812),  5249 

— house  of  Bolivar,  5252-54 

—houses,  5248,  5249 

— railway  from  La  Guayra,  5247-4S 

—street,  5246,  5249 

Caractacus,  5307 

Caras,  1642 

Caratasca,  lagoon,  Honduras,  2621 

Cardiff,  5262,  5300,  5301,  5302 

Card-playing,  origin,  4947 

Cards,  Chinese  plaving,  1356 

Carham,  battle  of  (1018),  4531 

Caribou,  Newfoundland,  3740 

Caribs,  760,  2312 

—customs,  2624,  3724 

—descendants,  2622,  3961,  5253,  5326 

Carinthia,  320,  332,  334,  4601,  4607 

Carlist  Wars,  4768 

Carlos  I.,  king  of  Portugal,  4198 

"  Carmen  Sylva,"  4231 

Carnarvon,  5267,  5295,  5297,  5300 

Carnegie,  Andrew,  4507 

Carol  I.,  king  of  Rumania,  4231,  4266 

Caroline  Islands,  3215,  4772 

Carpathian  Mts.,  4244,  4249-50,  4363 

Carpet  industry,  Armenia,  239,  242 

—China,  1377 

— Persia,  3997,  3998,  4021 

— Turkistan,  5035 

Carrara,  marble  quarries,  3088 

Cartagena,  1449,  1450,  1455 

Cartago,  1458,  1468,  1469 

Carthage,  3099,  4925,  4934,  4936 

— Byrsa,  4951,  4958 

—destroyed,  4924,  4965 

—founded,  4924,  4965 

— modern  excavations,  4958-63 

Carthaginian  Empire,  4765,  4924,  4965 

Carupans,  5258 

Casa  Blanca,  3582,  3595 

Cascaes,  4160 

Cashibo  Indians,  4051 

Caspian  Sea,  3993,  4000,  4036 

Cassava.     See  Manioc 

Casseros,  battle  (1852),  222 

Castile,  4754,  4761,  4765 

— agriculture,  4759 

— history,  4767 

—scene,  4760 

—speech,  4760 

Castillos,  5227 

Castries,  church  ceremonv,  780 

Castriotis,  George.     See  Skanderbeg 

Castro,  Cipriano,  5248,  5261 

Catalonia,  4742,  4766 

—people,  4742,  4757-59 

— union  with  Aragon,  4754,  4767 

"  Catamaran,"  Formosan,  2123 

Catania,  3035,  3037,  3062 

Cateau-Cambresis,  Treaty  of  (1559),  3102 

Catechu,  4704 

Cathay,  1089 


Catherine  of  Braganza,  3594,  C197 

Catherine  II.,  empress,  4144,  4368 

Catseye,  1220 

Cattaro,  ceded  to  Austria,  3551 

— dancers,  3543 

— mail  car,  3548 

— market,  3540 

— mountaineers  on  guard,  3559 

—Gulf  of,  340 

Cattle,  branding,  Canada,  1152 

— Buddhist  ideas  regarding,  3167 

—dipping,  Calgary,  1156 

Caucasoid,  xv,  xvii,  xix 

— features,  xii 

— type,  xi 

Caucasus  Mts.,  military  road,  2359,  236-! 

— ploughing  in,  2361 

— poverty  of  peasants,  2367 

—village,  2366 

Caudebee-en-Caux,  peasant  girl,  2195 

Caupolioan,  1245 

Cavagnari,  Sir  Louis,  44 

Cavendish,  Thomas,  889 

Cavour,  3103-5,  5321,  5322 

Cawnpore,  2862,  2877 

Cayenne,  capital,   French  Guiana,   2313, 
2315.     See  Guiana,  French 

Cayman  Islands,  784 

Cayugas,  1153 

Cayuka,  Panama,  3958 

Cedars,  3305,  3308,  3309 

Celebes,  dancers,  3730 

—fauna,  3704 

— languages,  3701 

— manufacturing  a  sarong,  3726 

—native  house,  3726,  3732 
-native  types,  3731 

— rivers,  3704 

— sultan  under  pvong,  3729 

—tribes,  3685,  3701,  3728 

Celman,  president,  223 

Celts,  characteristics,  1757-58,  1763,  5305 

— French,  xvii,  2147 

— literature,  2947 

—types,    1757-58,    2001,    2923,    2924-25, 

2378,  2451,  4449,  4765,  5263,  5307 
Central    American    Confederation,    3830 

4388,  4389 
Central  American  Court  of  Justice,  1468, 

Central  American  Pedagogical   Institute 

Ceram,  3885,  3704,  3733 
Cerdagne,  5316 
Cernavoda,  4249 

Certosa  di  Val  d'Ema,  3002,  3016 
Cervera,  admiral,  1498 
Cetigne,  bishops  of,  3547-50 
— market,  3538 
— schools,  3555 

— soldiers  acclaiming  king,  3556 
— street  musician,  3541 
— women,  3554 
Cetywayo,  4684,  4709 
Ceuta,  4196 

Ceylon,  aborigines,  1229 
— ancient  name,  1230 
— area,  1231 
— army  and  police,  1231 
— chicken  vender,  1199 
— climate,  1195 
— commerce,  1231 
— constitution,  1231 
— devil-dancers,  1195,  1197,  1208 
— education,  1231 
—fauna,  1208 
—fireflies,  1217 
—fisheries,  1227 
— fishing  skiffs,  1200 
—flora,  1220 

— government,  1195,  1231 
—history,  1229-31 
— industries,  1231 
— jack  tree,  1227 
— lace-making,  1223 
— map,  1229 
— pearl-fishing,  1217 
— people.  See  Moormen,  Sinhalese,  Tamils 

-pilgrimage  places,  1200 
plumbago  industry,  1220,  1222 

-population,  1231 

■precious  stones,  1217 
— produce  boats,  1201 
—products,  1208,  1231 

Gey — Chi 

Ceylon,  railways,  1231 

—religion,  1198,  1229,  1231 

—religious  festival,  1198,  1199,  1201 

— snake-charmers,  1198 

— tambourine  dance,  1194 

—tea  industry,  1202-07 

—towns,  1231 

—vehicles,  1224 

—village,  1219,  1227 

—water  storage  tanks,  1195 

Chabins,  2313 

Chacabuco,  battle  (1818),  1287 

Chachafruto,  1435 

Chad,  lake,  545,  579,  2300,  2304 

Chadscha-Ili,  3236 

Chagtai,  442 

Chaldeans,  2920 

Chaldiron,  battle  of  (1514),  5017 

Cham,  121,  129,  2327,  2328 

—boys,  147 

— dress,  130 

— expert  poisoners,  153 

— marriage  customs,  129 

— prophetesses,  131 

— religion,  129 

— turbaned  woman,  128 

Chambord,  2159 

Chamonix,  2278 

Champagne,  vineyard,  2253 

Champlain,  explorer,  2346 

Chancellor's  expedition  (Archangel),  4366 

Chandernagore,  2317-19 

Chandragiri,  pass  of,  3601 

Ch'ang-an,  1426,  1428 

Changaz,  the,  3225 

Chang  Pai  Shan,  rots.,  3430,  3431 

Changsha,  orphans,  1405 

Chang-sha-fu,  1431 

Channel  Islands,  976-80,  1007 
— people,  types,  976-87 

Chantos,  4651,  4659,  4667 

— building  a  bridge,  4652 

— character,  4667 

—dress,  4660 

— marriage,  4671 

— origin,  4667 

Chapala,  lake,  3503 

Chargars,  3520 

Charkhar,  tribe,  4650 

Charlemagne,  xxxvii,  xli,  2281,  2456,  3100 

Charleroi,  361,  379 

Charles,  emperor  of  Bohemia,  339   • 

Charles  the  Bold,  376,  3666 

Charles  I.  (Kngland),  2009,  4539-40 

Charles  II.  (England),  2010,  4197,  4540 

Charles  VIII.  (France),  2281,  2282,  3102 

Charles  IX.  (France),  2283 

Charles  X.  (France),  2287,  2340 

Charles  IV.,  emperor,  2458 

Charles   V.,   emperor,   xxxviii,  376,  2458, 
3102,  3666,  3378,  4767,  4967,  5315 

Charles  VI.,  emperor,  3669,  3670 

Charles  IX.  (Sweden),  4812 

Charles  XII.  (Sweden),  4813 

Charles     Edward    Stuart    (Young     Pre- 
tender), 4542 

Charlotte,  empress  of  Mexico,  3503,  3508 

Charlottenburg,      school      for      delicate 
children,  2406,  2419 

Chargui,  5229 

Charrua,  5223,  5237-39,  5242-43 

Chateau  d'Oex,  4855 

Chatham  (England),  3668 

—Island,  3787-92,  3819 

—Earl  of  (Win.  Pitt),  2011 

Chauci,  2454 

Chavchavadze,  Prince  Ilia,  2300 

Cheeses,  24i'0-31,  3660 

Cheetah,  trained  for  hunting,  India,  2767 

Chefoo,  3445 

Che-kiang,  schoolboys,  1340 

Chekkom,  2329 

Chemulpo  (Jinsen),  3245,  3255,  3265 

Cheops  (Khufu),  1665,  1747 

Cherry,  industry,  Canada,  1151 

Cherusci,  tribe,  2453,  2454 

Chesapeake  Bay,  5215 

Chess,  Chinese  playing,  1348 

Chester,  1759,  5307 

Chesterfield  Is.,  2344 

Cheyenne  Indians,  5209 

Ch'i  State  (China),  1424 

Chiapas,  3499 

General  Index 

Chicago,  5175-77,  5183 

—Packing- Town,  5082,  5177 

— sleeping  out  in  heat,  5090 

— stockyards,  5087 

Ch'ien  Lung,  emperor,  1430 

Chile,  area,  1289 

—army,  1240,  1242,  1289 

—bullock  team,  1253 

— cactus  growths,  1270 

— carabinero,  1233 

—Church,  1244 

—climate,  1233,  1261 

— coal  industry,  1259 

— commerce,  1289 

— communications,  1289 

— Conquistadores,  1245 

— constitution,  1289 

— copper  industry,  1258 

— dancing,  1267 

—death  rate,  1246 

— disease  epidemics,  1250 

— economic  outlook,  1264 

—education,  1237,  1250,  1289 

— estancia  life,  1260 

—extent,  1233 

—farmsteads,  1236,  1262 

—flora,  1236 

—food,  1263,  5255 

—forests,  1277 

—fruit  culture,  1236 

— German  settlers,  1277 

— government,  1289 

—history,  1287-89,  4767,  4771 

— hoisting  cattle  aboard,  1261 

—horses,  1254,  1266 

—independence,  1287,  4078,  4772 

—Indians,  1246,  1275,  1278-80 

— industries,  1289 

— infant  mortality,  1250 

— manto,  1234,  1244 

—map,  1287 

— military  review,  1239 

— minerals,  1250 

—navy,  1289 

—nitrate  industry,  1244-49,  1250 

— Patagonian  Indians,  1282-85 

— planting  memorial  tree,  1237 

—poncho,  1260 

—population,  1233,  1289 

—products,  1260,  1289 

— railways,  1258 

—religion,  1238,  1244,  1289 

—rodeo,  1276 

— school  for  Araucanlans,  1286 

— sheep  rearing,  1282 

—towns,  1289 

— valley  scene,  1252 

— water  transport,  1243 

— wayside  calvary,  1263 

— woman  tram  conductor,  1241 

Chileans,  character,  1233 

—hospitality,  1260 

— origin,  1245 

—types,  1233-86 

— women,  1236 

— working  class,  1263 

Chilete,  pack-train,  4071 

Chilkat,  tribe,  5190 

Chilian,  1289 

Chillon,  castle  of,  4858 

Chimborazo,  volcano,  1642 

Chimpanzee,  xi,  xiv 

Chin  (Burma),  1054 

Chin  (state,  China),  1424 

Chin  (feudal  state,  China),  1424 

Chin,  dynasty,  1427 

China,  acrobats,  1396 

—afforestation,  1391 

— agriculture,  1388 

— architecture,  1392 

—area,  1431 

— army,  1431 

—art,  1409 

— boatmen  eating  meal,  1304 

— Book  of  Bites,  1354 

—Buddhism,  1301,  1426 

— chain  of  responsibility,  1385 

—child  in  barrel,  1341 

—cobbler,  1384 

— colour  symbolism,  1409 

— commerce,  1431 

—communications,  1347,  1388,  1431 

—Confucianism,  1300,  1426 

—constitution,  1431 


China,  coolie  labourer,  1360 

— currency,  1376,  1431 

— democracy's  failure,  1386 

— disease,  1370 

—doctors,  1368 

— drama,  1417 

— drying  spaghetti,  1381 

—education,  1315,  1317,  1329,  1368,  1431 

— egg  transport,  1380 

— famines,  1345 

— farmers,  1411 

— farrier  shoeing  horse,  1382 

— female  infanticide,  1360 

— fengshui,  1296 

— festive  party  in  boat,  1302 

— feudal  system,  1423 

— financial  chaos,  1377 

— fire-arm  type,  1335 

—first  British  factory,  890 

— first  use  of  tea,  1427 

— fishing  with  cormorants,  1352 

—fishing  craft,  1322 

—floods,  1345 

—flower  pedlar,  1383 

—fortune-teller,  1368 

—government,  1379,  1431 

— gramophone  school  lesson,  1349 

—Grand  Canal,  1388 

—Great  Wall,  1390,  1409,  3530 

—history,  1423-31 

—houseboats,  1304,  1305 

— image  stalls,  1294 

— industries,  1431 

—junk,  1307,  1310 

— lack  of  sanitation,  1370 

— lake-side  residence,  1333 

— language,  1376 

— literature,  1413 

— Mahomedanism,  1301 

— man  airing  pet  bird,  1329 

—map,  1423 

— minerals,  1392 

— monastery,  facing,  1296 

—mule-litters,  1389 

— music,  1417 

— navy,  1431 

— new  alphabet,  1368 

— Nosu  market  village,  1336 

—paddy-field,  1373 

—Pai  Tai,  1409 

— painting,  1409 

— pea-nut  vender,  1422 

— ploughing  method,  1 372 

—population,  1306,  1431 

—post  office,  1388 

— poverty  of  people,  1378 

— prisons,  1346 

—products,  1391,  1431 

—provinces,  1291,  1431 

— provincial  governor,  1385 

— punishments,  1345 

—religion,  1293,  1431 

— republic  established,  1291 

— republican  party,  1385 

—relations  with  Tibet,  4920-21 

— revenue,  1378 

— rice  industry,  1372-75 

— rivers,  1431 

—sawmill,  1383 

— science,  1392 

— spinach-gathering,  1381 

— "  squeeze,"  1378 

—street  barber,  1382 

—Taoism,  1301,  1426 

— taxation,  1378 

— tea  introduced  into  Japan,  3163,  3184 

— temple  gateway,  1414 

—tilt-cart,  1323 

—tinker,  1385 

— Toba  Tartars,  1427 

— towns,  1431 

—treaty  with  Japan  (1915),  3212 

— Tu  Chiins,  1385 

—war  with  Japan  (1894-95),  3221,  3222, 
3265,  3447 

—war  with  Mongolia,  3521-22,  3524 

— washing  day,  1332 

— waterwavs,  1388 

—water-wells,  1370,  1371 

—wheelbarrows,  1388,  1389 

— willow  pattern  plate,  1424 

— witnesses  in  law  court,  1314 

— women  tak'ng  tea,  1346 

Chinchu,  river,  416 

General  Index 

Chi — Cop 

Chinese,  1291 

— actor  as  leading  lady,  facing  1376 

— ancestor-worship,  1293 

— in  Canada,  1136 

— card  playing,  1356 

— charact.  r,  1316,  1320,  1334,  1345,  1392 

— coiffures  of  Nosu  girls,  1334 

— comparison  with  Manchus,  3438     ' 

— dread  of  rain,  1334 

—dress,  1366 

—in  Dutch  West  Indies,  3696 

— "  face,"  1306 

—filial  piety,  1293 

—funeral  customs,  1362-65,  1367,  1372 

— gambling  for  sweets,  1355 

—home  life,  1360 

—life  in  boats,  1329 

—in  Manchuria,  3438,  3444 

—marriage,  1318-19,  1326-27,  1358 

—origin,  1423,  5376 

— patriotism,  1350 

—in  Philippine  Is.,  4082,  4083,  4099 

— playing  chess,  1348 

— punishments,  1345 

—of  Reunion  I.,  2307 

— in  Samoa,  4415 

— Siam,  4609,  4617,  4624 

— social  characteristics,  1308 

—South  Sea  Is.,  944 

— superstition,  1368 

— sword  swallower,  1396 

—types,  1292-1429 

— woman's  feet,  1 350 

— women  playing  dominoes,  1349 

— women's  position,  1352