Skip to main content

Full text of "The aldermen of Cripplegate Ward from A.D. 1276 to A.D. 1900 : together with some account of the office of alderman, alderman's deputy and common councilman of the city of London"

See other formats

The Aldermen 
OF Crippleg;^te 

with an account of the 

Office op Mlderm^n 

of the 

City op London. 






WIl.IJAM i.IiORGli'S SON> Ltp 


89 Park Street, Bristol 

TiLuh's. East & "Blades, 

Trill fi-rs. 

2^, t/}bcluiirb Lain', London, E.C, 


FROM A.D. 1276 TO A.D. I9OO. 

5 <i^ 

< N 

" i2 

■< ^ 


z ® 

b " 

'- o 




FROM A.D. 1276 TO A.D. 1900. 





COM I'll. ED BV 


Deputy for Cripplegate AVard Without. 

Aiilhof of '' TIic Church and Parisli of Si. Giles IVilhoitt Cripplcgalc^'^ and 
" The Guildhall of Ihe Cily of London.''^ 

i|n ;ii: ii iX< 

i iS' 

Printed for Private Distriijution. 





Preface ------- i 

List of Authorities ------ v 

The Aldermen of Cripplegate Ward - - - i 

Chronological List of Do. - - - - S 

Biographical Notes of Do. - - _ g 

The Aldermen's Deputies - - - - - 109 

Cripplegate Ward and its Common Councilmen 127 

The Aldermen of the City of London - - - 137 

Qualification of - - - - - 14^ 

Nomination of - - - - • - - 148 

Election of - - - - - - 154 

Duties of - - - - - - - 164 

To Reside in the City - - - - " ^73 

Punishment for Refusing Office by - - - 177 

Punishment and Dismissal of - - - 182 

Discharge from Office of - - - - 186 

Removal and Translation of - - - 192 

The Common Council - - - - - -207 

Miscellaneous Extracts - - - - - 227 

Alphabetical List of the Aldermen of Cripplegate Ward 237 

Index ....--'- 241 


UNTIL the present time no complete list has been published of the 
names of citizens, who have been appointed, or elected to the 
honourable and important ofHce of Alderman, of any of the ^Vards of 
the City of London. Of the attempts hitherto made in this direction, 
the best known is that of the late Mr. B. B. Orridge, a member of 
the Common Council for the Ward of Cheap, who in 1867, included 
in his admirable work " T/ie Citizens of London and their Rulers" 
biographical notes of a few of the Aldermen of his ward. 

In reading Mr. Orridge's book it suggested itself to the writer, that 
a list of the names, and short biographies of the Aldermen of the AVard 
of Cripplegate, would be of interest, not only to the inhabitants of that 
Ward, but possibly to those of the other City Wards, and it is to be 
li?5ped that the example thus set, may be followed by members of other 
wards, so that in course of time, a complete list and biography of the 
Aldermen of the City may be made available to the student of national, 
as well as municipal history. It is certain that the publication of further 
volumes, would be of great public civic service, and would assist to 
drive home the fact to the citizen of to-day (who is unfortunately, 
usually indifferent to such matters), the great part that our Lord 
Mayors and Aldermen have had, in shaping and influencing the 
affairs not only of the City of London, but of the nation at large. 

Although the raison d''etre of this compilation was to give an account 
of the Aldermen of Cripplegate (of whom we have a record extending 


ii P^-eface. 

over six hundred years), yet the lengthy search among the Corporation 
Records, necessary for its production, revealed so much that is of 
interest concerning the quaHfications, elections, etc., of Aldermen, not 
hitherto published, that it has been thought desirable to include some 
of the more important extracts from the Records, as an appendix to 
this volume, and also to give an account of the Aldermen's Deputies, 
and of Common Councilmen, obtained chiefly from the same sources. 

For the use and assistance of others who may think of setting 
about the compilation of a similar work, the full titles of the printed 
books consulted, and to which references are made in the text, are 
given, the greater part being accessible to the reader in that great 
storehouse of books relating to the City of London — the (iuildhall 
Library. Other information than that contained in these printed books, 
is to be found in the series of Husting Rolls, Letter Books, Repertories 
and Journals in the custody of the Town Clerk. 

It is not pretended that all possible sources of information 
respecting the Aldermen of Cripplegate have been investigated ; all that 
can be said is, that a fairly diligent search has failed to procure further 
material information than is here given. In all chronological references, 
the (iregorian or New Style (reckoning the year to commence on the 
ist January, instead of the 25th March) has been adopted throughout. 
Individual Aldermen are mentioned by the title which they held at 
the date of their election or of the circumstance under narration — as 
in the case of the present Alderman of Cripplegate, Sir Henry Edmund 
Knight, Knt., who at the time of his election, had not received the 
honour of Knighthood. 

The year of the election of a Lord Mayor or of a Sheriff should 
be carefully noted ; as it frequently happened that the more important 
events of a Mayoralty or of a Shrievalty occurred in the year folk^wing 
the date given of the election. The dates of the election of Sheriffs 
are chiefly taken from Mr. Orridge's book above referred to. 

In connection with the searches that have been made in the many 
original MSS. and printed books in the possession of the Corporation, 

Preface. iii 

I very gratefully tender my thanks to those gentlemen who have 
materially assisted me by their invaluable aid and advice, first amongst 
whom, I would mention Dr. Reginald R. Sharpe, Records Clerk in the 
Office of the Town Clerk, and whose volumes, The Calendar of Wills, 
and London and the Kingdom, have been found invaluable, and from 
which I have largely quoted. 

In the Guildhall Library much attention was afforded me by the 
Librarian, Mr. Charles ^^'elch, F.S.A., whose lives of the Lord Mayors 
in the Dictionary of National Biography, have given me information 
respecting some of the Aldermen of Cripplegate. I am also indebted 
to the senior Sub-Librarian, Mr. I'.. M. Horrujo, and the other officials of 
the Library, for the attention they have given, in my searches in the large 
collection of London books which the Library contains. 

I have also to acknowledge the receipt of much valuable informa- 
tion from the Clerks of many of the Livery Companies and the Royal 
Hospitals, especially from Sir John Watney, F.S.A. (Mercers'), Sir ^\■altcr 
Prideaux (Coldsmiths'), and Sir Owen Roberts, M.A. (Clothworkers'). 
To the Rev. .\. B. Heaven, M.A., late Head Master of Preston 
Ciranmiar School (who for many years has made the i)ersonal history of 
the Aldermen of the City of London a special study), I am indebted for 
much valuable advice and assistance, and particularly for some of the 
details and numerical tables in connection with the removal of Alder- 
men, as given in the chapter devoted to that subject ; and also for the 
kindness he has displayed, in placing his numerous manuscript notes 
respecting the Aldermen, at my disposal. 

In the preparation of this book my original intention was to issue 
a small edition for private distribution, but on further considering the 
matter, and upon showing the result of my labours to Cripplegate 
friends, I was led to believe that a larger issue might possibly be desired. 
The idea then suggested itself to me, of assisting the funds of the 
Metropolitan Dispensary (an old Cripplegate Institution), of which I am 
the Honorary Treasurer. For this purpose I requested the Committee 
of Management to accept for the purposes of sale, a moiety of a larger 
edition than had at first been contemplated. This they have been 

iv Preface. 

pleased to do, and it is to be hoped that many of those who 
daily frequent the ^^'ard of Cripplegate for business purposes, may 
become possessed of the book, and by a perusal of it, be led to take 
an interest in the affairs of the A\'ard. They will at the same time 
have the satisfaction of knowing that they have assisted the funds of 
one of the most deserving Institutions in the City of London. 

In commending this work to my friends in the \Vard of Cripplegate, 
I would say, that the time spent in compiling the information con- 
tained in the present volume has not been inconsiderable, but they 
can well understand that the work could never have been undertaken 
and accomphshed, except as a labour of love. The only recompense 
that I desire for my labour, and which I trust to obtain, is the approval 
and goodwill of my fellow citizens, and especially of ni}- many friends 
in the ^^'ard. 

J. J. B. 

Chapel Works, 

Moor Lane, Cripplegate. 

December Jisi, igoo. 


Barber Surgeons' Company. Svc Young, S, 

Calendar of Wills. See Husting Wills. 

Catalogue of Tombs of London. I'ayne Fisher. Rcprim. I1JS5. 

Chronicles of the Mayors and Sheriffs of London, .\.l>. 1188 lu a.d. 1274. 
Translated from llic urit;inal Latin and .\nL;l<)-X<)rnian uf the ''''Liber dc 
Antiquis Lkciibus" in the {xjsscssion of the Corpuration of the City of London, 
by H. T. Riley, M.A. 1863. 

Clode, C. M. Tlic early History of the Guild of Merchant Taylors, with notes of 
the lives of some of its eminent members. 1888. 

Cromwelliana. A chronolo<jical detail of events in which Oliver Cromwell was 
engaged from the year 1642 to his death, 165S. Westminster, 1810. 

Dictionary of National Biography. 63 \'ol. 1885- 1900. 

East India Company, Minutes of. 

Fifteenth Century Chronicles. Three fifteenth-century chronicles. lidiled by 
James Gairdner. 18S0. [Camden Society, New Series, Vol. XXVIIL] 

Foss, E. Biographia Juridica. A Biographical Dictionary of the Judges of England 
from the Conquest to the present time. 1S70. 

Gentleman's Magazine. 

Goldsmiths' Company. See Prideaux, Sir W, S. 

Gregory's Chronicles. The historical collection of a citizen of London in the 
fifteenth century. Chronicles of William Gregory, Skinner. Edited by James 
Gairdner, 1876. [Camden Society, New Series, Vol. XVIL] 

Hazlitt, W. C» The Livery Companies of the City of London. 1892. 

vi List of Authorities. 

Herbert, W. History of the Twelve Great Livery Companies of London. 1S87. 

Husting Wills. Calendar of Wills proved and enrolled in the Court of Husting, 
London, a.d. 1258 to a.d. 1688, preserved among the archives of the 
Corporation of the City of London at the Guildhall. Edited by Reginald 
R. Sharpe, D.C.L., Records Clerk in the otiice of the Town Clerk of the 
City of London. 2 Vol. 1889-90. 

Ironmongers' Company. See Nicholl, J. 

Journals. See Letter Books, 

Kearsley, G. London Register, containing lists of Lord Mayors, Sheriffs, 
Aldermen, etc., from 1660. Published 1787. 

Le Neve, J. Monumenta Anglicana, being inscriptions on the monuments of several 
eminent persons deceased in or since the year 1600 to the end of the year 1 7 18. 
5 Vol. 1717-19- 

Le Neve, P. Pedigrees of the Knights made by King Charles II, King James II, 
King William III, Queen Mary, King William alone, and Queen Anne. 
Edited by George W. Marshall, LL.D. 1873. [Harleian Society. Vol 8.] 

Letter Books preserved among the archives of the Corporation of the City of London 
at the Guildhall. The series is being edited by Reginald R. Sharpe, D.C.L. , 
Records Clerk in the office of the Town Clerk of London. 

They derive their title from being marked with a distinctive letter, commencing 
with "A" and through the alphabet to " Z." with two odd volumes marked 
respectively "iSic." and "A B," and again from "A A" to " AZ." In point 
of time they extend from the early years of the reign of Edward I almost to the 
close of the reign of James II. The series comprise just fifty volumes. Books 
A and B have been published (1899-1900), C and D are in the printer's hands. 
The early Letter- Books, and the '■'■Journals'^ until 15 17, 8 Hen. VIII, Jor. 
Merfyn, No. II, contain the entries of the proceedings both of the Courts of 
Aldermen and of the Courts of Common Council, together ; after which time 
all the proceedings of the Courts of Aldermen are in books called " Repertories P 
denoted by the names of the successive mayors, and by iiiiiiibers ; — and those 
of the Common Council in books called ^'' Journals,^' similarly denoted. 

Liber Albus, or White Book of the City of London, compiled a.d. 1419 by John 
Carpenter, Common Clerk. Translated from the original Latin antl Anglo- 
Norman by H. T. Riley, M.A. 1861. 

London and the Kingdom. See Sharpe, R. R. 

Luttrell, N. A brief Historical Relation of State Affairs from Sejitember, 167S, to 
April, 1714. 6 Vol. 1857. 

Machyn, H, Diary, 1550 to 1563. Edited by J. G. Nichols, E.S.A. 1848. 
[Camden Society, 42.] 

List of Authorities. vii 

Maitland, W. History of London from its foundation to the present time. New 
edition by the Rev. J. Entick, M.A. 2 \'ol. 1775. 

Mercers' Company. See Watney, J. 

Merchant Taylors' Company. See Clode, C. M. 

Metcalfe, W. C. A liook of Knighls I'.annerct, Knights of the B.ith, and Knitjhts 
Jiachclor. 1885. 

Nicholl, J. Some account of the Wdisliipful Company of Ironmongers. Second 
edition. 1866. 

Notes and Queries. 100 \'ol. 1849-1900. 

Orridge. The Citizens of London and their Rulers. 1867. (The dates of the 
election of Sheriffs are chiefly taken from this book.) 

Overall, W. H. Some account of the Ward of N'intry and the \'intners' Company. 

Pepys' Diary. The Diary of Samuel Pepys, M.A., F. R.S. Edited, with 
additions, l)y Henry P.. Wheatley, F.S.A. 10 \'ol. 1893-99. 

Prideaux, Sir W. S. Memorials of the (Goldsmiths' Company, l^eing gleanings 
from their Records between the years 1335 and 181 5. 1896. 

Pulling, A. Treatise on the laws, customs and regulations of the City and Port of 
London, 1842. 

Remembrancia. Analytical Index to the series of Records known as the 
Kemembrancia, preserved among the Archives of the City of London, A.D. 
1 579-1664. [Edited by W. H. Overall, Librarian, and H. C. Overall, Town 
Clerk's office.] 1878. 

These records consist of a series of nine volumes, embracing the period from 
1579 (21st Elizabeth) to 1664 (l6th Charles II), and contain copies of the 
correspondence between the Sovereigns, their Ministers, the Privy Council, 
the Lord Mayors, Courts of Aldermen and Common Council, upon matters 
relating to the Government of the City, etc. 

Repertories. See notes under Letter Books. 

Riley, H. T. Memorials of London and London Life in the thirteenth, fourteenth, 
and fifteenth centuries. 186S. 

Rymer's Foedera. Syllabus (in English) of the documents relating to England 
and other Kingdoms contained in the collection known as *' Rymer's Fcedera." 
3 Vols. 1869-85. 

viii List of Aitfkorifies. 

Sharpe, R. R, London and the Kingdom, a history derived mainly from the 
Archives at Guildhall in the custody of the Corporation of the City of London. 
3 Vol. 1894-1895. 

Smyth's Obituary, The obituary of Richard Smyth, Secondary of the Poultry 
Counter, London ; being a catalogue of all such persons as he knew in their 
life. Extending from a.d. 1627 to a.d. 1674. Edited by Sir Henry Ellis, 
K.H. 1849. [Camden Society, 44.] 

Stocketit J. J. Manuscript biographical collections relating to the Aldermen of the 
City of London. Guildhall Library, MS. 533. 

Stow, J. Survey of London. Edited by John Strype, M. A. 2 Vols. 1720. 

Stowe Manuscripts, British Museum. 

Vintners* Company. See Overall, W. H. 

Watney, J, Some account of the Hospital of St. Thomas of Aeon in the Cheap, 
London, and of the Plate of the Mercers' Company. 1892. 

Weever, J, Ancient Funerall Monuments within the United Monarchic of Great 
Britaine, Ireland and the islands adjacent. 1631. 

Young, S. The Annals of the Barber Surgeons of London. 1890. 


ox THE 


Various writers mention the names of " Altwold," of " Jakell," and 
" William de Haverhill '' as probably having been aldermen of Cripple- 
gate in the early part of the thirteenth century, but of this no proof 
seems forthcoming. It is also probable that Laurence de Frowyck was 
alderman about the middle of the same century, but the Corporation 
Records make no definite mention of an alderman of the Ward prior to 
Henry de Frow)ck. The knowledge we possess of the first twelve of 
the aldermen, from Henry de Frowyck, 1276, to John de Mitford, 1365, 
is derived from their names appearing as witnesses (as alderman of the 
ward) to deeds enrolled in the Court of Husting, or from being men- 
tioned in the Letter Books as having been present at various civic 
meetings or ceremonials. 

Early in 1276 we find mention made of "the Ward of Henry de 
Frowyk within the Gate" {i.e., Cripplegate) : and ten years later {circ. 
1285), he figures in the earliest list of aldermen extant in the City's 
Records, as alderman of the same ward {Calendar of Letter Book A, 
pp. 209, 226). The first recorded election of an alderman of the ward 
is that of John Maryns, and occurs in 1375, from which date, with one 
or two exceptions, the exact dates of appointment and the avoidance of 
the office are duly recorded. 

In what manner Maryns was elected we are left to conjecture. He 
may have been elected to the office for life, as probably were his pre- 
decessors, but he evidently was forced to retire in consequence of a 
new order made in 1377, when the Mayor issued his precept for the 
men of each ^^'a^d to meet on Saturday, the 7 March, and elect an 
alderman other than the sitting alderman, and to have the name of the 
alderman so elected, endorsed on the Bill at the Guildhall, on the Feast 
of S. Gregory next, at 8 o'clock at the latest, under penalty. In obedience 
to this precept the "good men" of the Ward of Cripplegate elected 
Robert Lucas. During the next ten years, five different aldermen were 
elected, the election taking place yearly on the 12 March. During the 

2 The Aldermen of Ci'ipplegate Ward. 

early part of this period (until 1385), no man served two years in 
succession as alderman of the ward. Hence we find several men who 
had been aldermen of Cripplegate, sitting as aldermen of other wards, 
when not qualified to sit for Cripplegate. 

Under an order of the King (1394) to the effect that aldermen should 
cease to be elected yearly, but remain aldermen unless discharged for 
reasonable cause, WiUiam Evote was elected by the "freemen inhabitants 
Alderman of Crepulgate," and became the first alderman of Cripplegate 
elected for life. Evote held the office until 1402, when he either re- 
signed or died, and John Wodecok was elected in his place. Soon after, 
the " freemen inhabitants " were deprived of the right they had hitherto 
exercised of directly electing their alderman, for we find that in 1402 an 
order was made by the Mayor and Aldermen, that in future the inhabi- 
tants were merely to nominate four men from whom the Court of Aldermen 
should select one to be alderman. This order was re-affirmed in 1420, 
and under these conditions all the aldermen of Cripplegate were elected, 
up to, and including Sir William Stewart, who was elected 31 July, 1711. 
In September of that year an Act of Common Council was passed for 
the nomination of two persons only, followed in 17 14 by another Act (an 
abstract of which is given on page 159). Sir John Williams was elected 
in 1723, and became the first alderman of Cripplegate who was directly 
elected under the new Act by the freemen inhabitants of the ward. 

It will be noted that in 1291 John de Banquell removed from 
Cripplegate to Dowgate, and that, from the time of the aldermanry of 
John Botiller, 1423, to that of Thomas Fowle, 1686, frequent mention 
is made of aldermen removing to or from Cripplegate. During the period 
mentioned, seven aldermen of Cripplegate had previously been aldermen 
of other wards, and sixteen removed from Cripplegate to become alder- 
men of other wards. John Botiller, 1423, was the first, and Sir Richard 
Chiverton, 1663, the last to remove from another ward to Cripplegate. 
John Stokton, 1470 (at that time Mayor), was the first, and Thomas Fowle, 
1687, the last to remove from Cripplegate to another ward. 

Early in 1479 it was ordained by the civic fathers that no alderman 
should relinquish his ward until he had served two years {Journal 8, 
fo. 192). This order seems to have been strictly kept in Cripplegate, as 
for example, Christopher Pack was elected alderman of Cripplegate, 
10 October, 1647, and 2 October, 1649, ^"^'^s nominated and elected 
alderman of Cornhill, but not having served the full term of two years, 
was disqualified from accepting the new appointment, and remained 
in Cripplegate. From the large number of removals of aldermen 
from Cripplegate, the ward would at first sight appear to have been 

The Aldermen of Cripp legate Ward. 3 

unpopular, but by a reference to the removal of aldermen from other 
wards, this does not seem to have been the case, as in most other 
wards the removals were quite as numerous as from Cripplegate, the 
principal exceptions being the Wards of Cheap and Lime Street, which 
which seem to have been favourite wards.' The cause of the desire to 
remove is not apparent ; upon a vacancy occurring in any ward, the 
Mayor had the prerogative of removing to that ward, as in the case of 
John Stokton, who removed from Cripplegate to Castle Baynard or Lime 
Street, 14 December, 1470, soon after entering upon his Mayoralty. 

Another notable feature is, that many men who were elected alder- 
men of Cripplegate Ward, paid a fine rather than serve the office. The 
first case was that of John Hudson, "Upholder'' {i.e., Upholsterer), 
6 April, 1624, followed a week later by Thomas Overman, Leatherseller ; 
the first paid a fine of ^500, and the second, one of ^700. The next 
case was that of William Methold, Skinner, 1647, who paid the great 
sum of ^800 sooner than occupy the position; then in 1657 came 
Samuel Langham, (}rocer, and seven others, paying between them the sum 
of ;^3,246. The total amount of fines levied this year from the whole 
of the wards was about ^'9,000. In October, 1658, Samuel Lewis was 
elected and sworn, but declining to serve, paid a fine of ^500 and 20 
marks, and was then excused taking upon himself the office. This 
is the last instance in Cripplegate, of a citizen being elected against 
his will, and on the order of the Court of Aldermen, paying a fine 
to be excused serving the office. It will be seen that the unwilling- 
ness to take the office of alderman of Cripplegate, as in other wards, 
first took place during the early years of the reign of Charles I, 
and it is probable that both Hudson and Overman were nominated at 
the instigation of the Court party, and elected by the same party in the 
Court of Aldermen for the special purpose of punishing them for some 
public action of theirs. The same can probably be said respecting the 
eight men who were fined in 1657, but at this time the Cromwellian party 
were in power, and those fa\"ouring the Royalists were punished ; but, 
however this may be, it is also probable that in 1657, wealthy men, 
whom it was known would not serve (many of whom were Masters of 
the various Livery Companies), were nominated for the office, for the 
express purpose of raising money to meet the deficiencies in the City's 

(i) In 250 years, Cheap Ward had two, and Lime Street Ward, three removals, 
one of the latter being to Bridge Without Ward. In the same time twenty Aldermen 
removed to Cheap and twenty-one to Lime Street. 

4 The Alde7'77te7t of Cripp legate Ward. 

exchequer, caused by the many demands that had been made upon it by 
Parliament, for the support of the army, or for equipping and maintaining 
its own train bands. In the year 165 1, as much as ^30,000 was raised by 
fines upon newly elected aldermen. In several cases a special sum of 20 
marks is mentioned as part of the fine, which was given to the Ministers of 
Newgate and other prisons. These fines were levied by right of an old 
custom mentioned by John Carpenter, the learned Common Clerk, in 
his Lihcr Albiis, Riley's translation, p. 35, compiled 141 9, in which he 
states: "And if- the person [an alderman] elected, after he has been 
admitted, shall refuse to accept or undertake such charge, by custom of 
the City he shall lose his freedom ; and he is not to be re-admitted to 
the same without making a notable fine and ransom." 

Although Nicholas Cooke, who was elected an alderman in 1657, was 
discharged on the payment of a fine, after holding the office a few days, we 
find him, strangely enough, recorded ten years later in the minute books 
of his Livery Company as "Alderman Cooke." Another similar case is that 
of Robert White, chosen alderman the same year and shortly afterwards 
discharged, who is also described in the minute books of his Company as 
"Alderman White." Possibly other cases may be found in the records of 
the various Livery Companies, and some explanation may be forthcoming. 

The Corporation Records give no clue respecting the particular 
building in which the nominations were made (from 1402 to 17 11) of 
the four men, whose names the Mayor duly reported to the Court of 
Aldermen as having been nominated for alderman, by the freemen 
inhabitants of Cripplegate Ward. The formal returns merely commence by 
stating thus : " His Lordship sitting lately in the Ward of Cripplegate." But 
from the time that the electors directly chose a single person to be their 
alderman (the first being Sir John Williams), the place of election is duly 
recorded. The elections of Sir John Williams, in 1 7 23, and of John Blach- 
ford, 1 743, are mentioned as having taken place "at the Parish Church of 
St. Giles, Cripplegate, London;" that of John Cartwright, 1759, and Sir 
James Esdaile, 1767, "at Cripplegate Church;" of William Staines, 1793, 
Matthew Wood, 1807, and Thomas Challis, 1843, "at the Parish Church 
of St. Giles, Cripplegate;" and of Henry Edmund Knight, 1874, "at Lady 
Holies Girls' School Room." As the vestry room of the church was of 
small dimensions, and the room in the Quest House attached to the 
church, in which ward and parish business has until recently, been con- 
ducted for generations, is still smaller, it would seem that the elections took 
place in the church itself, and one can imagine the disturbance of its 
sacred quietude by the tumultuous gatherings during the election and the 
six weeks scrutiny, prior to the election of Sir John Williams. 




Date when 

fikst mentioned. 

1276 - - - - 

1286 - - - - 

1292 - - - - 

1307 - - - - 

I3I4 - - - - 

(Thomas de Ley 
-^Zl"^ - - . - 
1334 - - - - 

1336 - - - - 

1337 - - - - 
1343 - - - - 

1347 - - - - 

1348 - - - - 
1365 - - - - 

Date of Election. 


Aug. 31 
Mar. 12 

Name. I.ivekv Company. Sheriff. Mayor. 

Henry de Frowyck - - Pepperer - - - 1274 - - 

John de Banquell - - - - - - 

Walter de Fynchyngfeld Gold.smith - 

John de \V^ynde.sore -------- - - - - 

Elia.s de Suffolk - - - Goldsmith 

're was probably Alderman some time between these dates.) 
Robert le Bret - - - Goldsmith - - - - - - 

John de Hyngeston - - Gold.smith - - 1334 - - 

Henry de Seccheford - - - - 

Richard Costantyn - - Draper - - - 1321 - - 
William de Pontefract - - - - - - - 1338 - - 

Richard de Basing.stoke Goldsmith - - 1347 - - 
Simon de Worstede - - Mercer - - - . . . . 

John de Mitford - - - Draper - - - 1364 - - 

John Maryns ---------- -- -- 

Robert Lucas - - - - Goldsmith - - - - - - 

Robert Warbulton -------- -- -- 

John Maryns ----- 

Robert Warbulton -------- - - - - 

Robert Lucas - - - - Goldsmith - - - - - - 

Thomas Carleton - - Broderer - - - - - - - 

Robert Warbulton -------- - - - - 

Adam Bamme - - - Goldsmith - - 1382 XJvc^ 

B 2 

) The Aldermen of Ci'ipplegate Ward. 

Date of Election. Name. Livery Company. Sheriff. Mayor. 

1385. Mar. 12 Robert Warbulton -------- - - - - 

1386. ,, „ Robert Warbulton -------- -- -- 

1387. „ ,, Adam Bamme - - - Goldsmith - - - - - - 

1388. „ ,, John Loveye - - - - Mercer - - - 1389 - - 

1389. ,, „ John Loveye - - - - Mercer - - - - - - - 

1390- » >> John Loveye - - - - Mercer - - - - - - - 

1391. „ ,, John Loveye - - - - Mercer - - - - - - - 

1392. (No record of an election, but probably John Loveye.) 

1393. Mar. 12 John Loveye - - - - Mercer ----- " " 
1394- )) )) William Evote - - - Draper - - - 1400 - - 
1402. {..ot'^kTo^n) John Wodecok - - - Mercer - - - 1397 1405 
1408. {notlTo^vn) Walter Cottone - - - Mercer - - - 141 1 - - 
141 7. Jan. — Thomas Aleyn - - - Mercer - - - 1414 - - 
1423. June — John Botiller - - - - Mercer - - - 1419 - - 
142-?. Oct. s William Estfield - - - Mercer - - - 1422 -j "* ^ 
1446. May 27 William Cantelowe - - Mercer - - - 1448 - - 
1 46 1. Nov. — John Stokton - - - - Mercer - - - 1467 1470 
1470. Dec. 14 Humphrey Hayford - - Goldsmith - - 1467 1477 
1473. J^b' 16 Edmund Shaa - - - Goldsmith - - 1474 1482 
1485. Nov. 7 Ralph Tilney - - - - Grocer - - - 1488 - - 
1487. Mar. 14 William Lsaack - - - Draper - - - 1488 - - 

1499. Apr. 9 Thomas Wyndout - - Mercer - - - 1497 - - 

1500. July 16 William Browne - - - Mercer - - - 1491 1507 
1504. May 7 William Stede - - - Grocer - - - 1500 - - 
1506. Oct. 16 Christopher Hawes - - Mercer - - - 1503 - - 
1508. Dec. 5 Thomas Exmewe - - Goldsmith - - 1508 151 7 
1529. Mar. 2 William Forman - - - Haberdasher- - 1533 1538 
1547. ,, 3 Augustine Hynde - - Clothworker - - 1550 - - 
1554. Aug. 30 John Whyte - - - - Grocer- - - - 1556 1563 
1558. Mar. 31 Alexander Avenon - - Ironmonger - - 1561 1569 
11566. Dec. 17 Rowland Hayward - - Clothworker- - ii;6^ M57° 

1571. Nov. 6 John Braunche - - Draper - - - 1571 1580 

1586. Oct. 28 William Elkyn - - - Mercer - - - 1586 - - 

1588. April I John Catcher - - - - Pewterer - - - 1587 - - 

1596. July 27 Thomas Skinner - - - Clothworker - - 1587 1596 

1597. Feb. 10 Robert Hampson - - Merchant-Taylor 1598 - - 

The Aldermen of Cripplegate Ward. 7 

Date OF Election. N' Livery Company. Sheriff. Mayor. 

1602. June 22 John Swynnerton - - Merchant-Taylor 1602 1612 

1617. Feb. 19 William Holliday - - Mercer - - - 161 7 - - 

1624. April 6 John Hudson- - - - Upholder- - - - - - - 

1624. ,, 13 Thomas Overman - - Leatherseller - ----- 

1624. ,, 20 Rowland Heylin - - - Ironmonger - - 1624 

1632. Mar. 13 Samuel Cranmer - - - Brewer - - - 1631 - - 

1640. Nov. 10 John Towse - - - - Cirocer - - - 1640 

1645. June 17 Samuel Avery- - - - Merchant-Taylor 1647 - - 

1647. Sept. 23 ^Villiam Methold - - - Skinner - - 

1647. Oct. 10 Christopher Pack - - Draper - - - 1649 1654 

1653. Sept. 27 Tempest Milner - - - Merchant- Taylor 1656 - - 

1657. May 12 Samuel Langham - - Orocer - - - - - - - 

1657. June II John Heather - - - Grocer - - - - - - - 

1657. ,, 24 Thomas Bromsall - - Draper 

1657. Aug. II Henry Hodges - - - I>)er - 

1657. ,, 20 Robert White - - - - Leatherseller - 

1657. Sept. 8 William Wormwell - - \'intner - - - - - - - 

1657. Oct. 6 Nicholas Cooke - - - Innholder 

1657. ,, 23 Davy Davyson - - - Grocer - - - - - - - 

1657. Nov. 24 Walter Bigg - - - - Merchant-Taylor 1653 - - 

1658. Oct. 26 Samuel Lewis- - - - Merchant-Taylor - - - - 
1658. Dec. 7 John Robinson - - - Clothworker - - 1657 1662 
1663. Oct. I Richard Chiverton - - Skinner - - - 1650 1657 

1667. Mar. 12 \Villiam Duncombe - - Mercer - - 

1668. Feb. 13 John Forth - - - - Brewer - - - 1668 - - 
1676. June 15 Sir John LethieuUier - Barber-Surgeon- 1674 - - 
1676. July 4 Sir John Shorter - - - Goldsmith - - 1675 1687 


1683. Oct. 16* Sir Benjamin Bathurst ------ 

1686. May. 4* Thomas Fowle - - - Goldsmith - - 1686 - - 

1687. July if Sir Jeremy Sambrooke ------- - - - - 

1687. „ 7t William Delawood - - - - 

1687. Aug. 6t Sir John Shorter - - - Goldsmith - - 1675 1687 

* Dates on which the Royal Commissioob were read in the Court of Aldermen 

J Dates on which the Royal Commissions were issued ; these three are preserved in the 
archives of the Corporation. 

The Aldermen of Cripplegate Ward. 

Date of Election. 


Livery Company. 


. Mayor. 


Oct. 9 

Sir Thomas Stampe - - 

Draper - - - 




July 31 

A\"illiam Stewart - - - 

Barber-Surgeon - 




June 20 

Sir John Williams - - 

Mercer - - - 




May 9 

John Blachford - - - 

Goldsmith - - 




Sept. 29 

John Cartwright - - - 

Fishmonger - - 


- - 


Feb. 6 

Sir James Esdaile - - 

Cooper - - - 




April 10 

^^'illiam Staines - - - 

Carpenter - - - 




Sept. 14 

Matthew \\'ood - - - 

Fishmonger - - 






Oct. 6 

Thomas Challis - - - 

Butcher - - - 



Aug. 31 

Henry Edmund Knight 

Spectacle Maker 



Biographical Noths 


Thh aldermen of cripplegate Ward. 


He first appears as an Alderman of Cripplegate in 1276, and is 
again named as Alderman of that \\'ard in the earliest list {circ. 1285) 
extant in the City's Records. 

He was appointed Custos or Warden for tlic King in the year 
1 27 1 and served as Sheriff in 1274. 

'i'he occasion of his appointment as Custos was as follows : — 
"Upon the Feast of Saint Martin (11 November), the members of the 
King's Council, seeing that it would be of no use to any further delay 
this matter [the election of Mayor], called before them the Aldermen, as 
well as ^\'alter ( Herevy) and his adherents, and said to them—" His Lord- 
ship the King wishes to preserve all your liberties unimpaired; and as you 
cannot unanimously agree to the election of the same person as Mayor, 
it is liis will, that both Walter Herevy and Phillip le Taillur shall be re- 
moved from the Mayoralty, and that you shall have a Warden from among 
ourselves—' who for me may keep the City in my behalf, and in that of 
Edward my son.' And immediately thereupon, Henry de Frowick was 
made Warden of the City, to keep the same until the Feast of Saint 
Hilary (13 January) next ensuing; but at whatever hour the citizens 
should be willing unanimously to agree upon the same person for 
Mayor, they were to present him to his lordship the King ; and the 
King, removing Henry from the Wardenship of the City, would willingly 
admit him to the Mayoralty."' 

His Will- was enrolled in 1286, on Monday next before the Feast 
of S. Dunstan [19 May], and is to this effect : — 

To 'Isabella his wife rents in the parishes of S. Dunstan towards 
the Tower and S. Matthew in Fridaystrate. To John his son rents 

(I) Chronicles of the Mayors and Sheriffs of London, p. 157. 
(2) Calendar of Wills. Vol. i, p. 76. (3) Daughter of Thomas de Durham. 

10 The Alder men of Cripplegate Ward. 

before the gate of S. Martin le Grand in the parish of S. Michael. To 
Reginald his son houses in Melkstrate and Yvilane, and a garden in the 
parish of S. Giles, with four adjacent houses. To \\'illiam and Stephen 
his sons shops in Eldefistrate, parish of S. Vedast. To Thomas his son 
a shop and rents in Westchep ; and to Anketin his son rents in the 
parish of S. Agnes. To Johanna, Rosamund and Johannetta his 
daughters, shops and rents in Eldefistrate and elsewhere in the parish 
of S. Vedast, and at the Red Cross. 

In the reign of Henry III the conduit in Newgate Street was built 
at the charges of Henry Frowyck and Sir Henry Basynges.' 

A grandson of Henry de Frowyck was one of the " three pious citi- 
zens " who in the year 1356 gave considerable property for the endowment 
of a chantry in the Guildhall Chapel ; another descendant in the person 
of Sir Henry Frowyck, Mercer, Alderman of Bassishaw Ward (elected 17 
July, 1424), was Mayor 1435 and again in 1444, and was one of the four 
members for the City in the Parliaments of 1422, 1423, 1437, 1447, 1450. 
-V monument was erected in the Guildhall Chapel to his memory in 1460." 

In the year 1246 Laurence de Frowyck was one of the Sheriffs, 
and during his year of office " the citizens of London took Queen- 
Hythe, they paying a yearly rent of fifty pounds to Earl Richard, and 
sixty shillings to the Sick of St. Giles's without London.'"' From this 
entry it is fair to presume that the Sheriff had some connection with 
the parish of St. Giles's, Cripplegate, wherein was a Hospital for the 
sick, and that being so, he possibly may have been Alderman of the 
AVard and a relative of Henry de Frowyck. 

Henry de Frowyck was son of Thomas de Frow)-ck of Old Ford, 

In the Calendar of Letter Book A, (p. 194), the following appears : — 
Sheriffs of London, 1274. 
Pledges of Henry de Frowyck. 

f Gregory de Rokesle,^ 
( Reginald de Kantebregge,' 
Sworn to pay the term of the City and preserve its liberties. 
Henry de Frowyck was buried in Grey Friars Church. 

(l) /"oss' Biographia Juridica. p. 283. (2) Slow. 

(3) Chronicles of the Mayors and Sheriffs, p. 13. 

(4) Gregory de Kokesle was one of the richest goldsmiths of the day, and served 
the office of Mayor in 1275 and the six following years, and part of 1285. 

(5) Little is known of Reginald de Cantebrigge : hut he appears to have died 
liefore 1284. Hiist. Roll. 14 (210). The " ferm of the City "' proljably refers to the sum 
of ^300/6-; anniDu paid to the Crown by the City for the Sheriffwick of Middlesex, or 
perhaps (as Mr. Horace Round insists) for the Sheriffwick of London and Middlesex. 

The Aldermen of Cripplegate Ward. 1 1 


The City's Records afford us but scanty information of John de 
Banquell or Batquell, as the name is variously recorded, beyond the fact 
that at one time he filled the office of " Common Clerk " (or as we 
should say, at the present day, " Town Clerk ") of the City. His City 
residence or " mansion house " appears to have been in close proximity 
to the Guildhall. In 1286, and again in 1293, we find certain deeds in 
the Court of Husting, conveying to him divers tenements in that locality 
which the City had previously acquired from Sir Roger de Clifford. 
The property thus conveyed became famous in the cloth trade for many 
centuries as Blackwell Hall. The origin of the Alderman's family name 
is one of conjecture, but there appears good reason for supposing that 
his family originally hailed from Bakewell, in Derbyshire. On the other 
hand, a writer on Jewish history favours the belief that " Bakewell " Hall 
(as it was sometimes spelt) was once a public building of the London 
Jews, and is " probably a corruption of Bathwell Hall, the bathing place 
or Mikveh of the Jewesses, where they used to perform the ritual 
lavations prescribed by Rabbinic law.'' ' However this may be. Black- 
well Hall continued to be the great city emporium for foreign cloth down 
to the present century, the building being eventually removed in 1820 to 
make room for the erection of various law courts. 

Banquell appears to ha\ e succeeded Henry de Frowyck as Alderman 
of Cripplegatc on the decease of the latter in or about the year 1 286,' 
and to have continued alderman of that ward until his removal to 
Dowgate in 1291 in succession to Gregory de Rokesle, who died on the 
13 July of that year.^ 

That Banquell enjoyed the confidence of the King no less than 
that of his fellow citizens is evinced by the fact that in 1296 he was 
selected as escort to Cardinal Albano on his journey to Scotland to 
negotiate with Edward I a truce with France,' and two years later was 
one of those specially commissioned by the same King to see that his 
ordinances made for safeguarding the city were strictly observed.* He 
met his death in 1 308 by the fall of a wall whilst witnessing the Coro- 
nation of Edward II in ^\'estminster Abbey.* 

(1) See The London Jewry, i2go — a lecture delivered at the Anglo-Jewish 
Historical Exhibition, Royal AUjert Hall, 5 May, 1887, by Joseph Jacobs, B.A. 

(2) His will was proved in the Court of Husting in May, 12S6.— Calendar of 
IVills, Vol. I, p. 76. 

(■i) Dictionary of National Biography. (4) Calendar, Letter Book B. p. 239. 
(5) WWcy'^ Memorials, pp. 35, 36. (6) Chron. ^(/. / ^S"^ //(Rolls Series), i, 153. 

1 2 The Alder7nen of Cidpp legate Ward. 


He is first mentioned as Alderman in 1292,' his name also appears 
in the list of the Aldermen for 1293/ and is many times men- 
tioned as Alderman between this date and 1307. He does not seem to 
have served the office of Sheriff, but he appears to have been one of the 
sureties of Robert de Cantebrugge, who was one of the Sheriffs, 1284. 
His death occurred previous to 13 10. 

He early took part in City work, as we find his name appearing circ. 
1285 as one of the two "reputable men sworn of every Ward to consult 
with the Aldermen on Common Affairs of the City of London " for the 
^Vard of Cripplegate.^ His is the first known instance of a member of 
the " Common Council " afterwards attaining the position of Alderman 
of Cripplegate. He was one of the two members of Parliament for 
London in i298,Mn 1299,' and again in 1304-5. The Parliament of 

1298 met at York, 25 May, and sat probably for a few days only, that of 

1299 was summoned to Westminster, and that of 1304-5 sat at West- 
minster, from 22 January to 21 March. 

Walter de Fynchingfeld was one of six chosen in 1306, on the 
direction of the King (Edward I), by the Aldermen and Citizens, to 
superintend the affairs of the City on the occasion when John le Blount, 
the Mayor, was made knight in company with Edward, the eldest son of 
the King, and a number of others, previous to the mission to Scotland 
to put down the rebellion of Bruce." The mayor, with the other new 
knights, probably accompanied the King. Fynchingfeld himself had 
previously travelled to Scotland in 1299 with Henry le Galeys and Elias 
Russel to treat with the King for a confirmation of the City's Charter, 
and other weighty matters affecting the City.' 

His son Walter, described as Walter de Fynchingfeld the younger, 
married a daughter of Henry de Frowyck. Another son, "Albric," 
devised a plot of land towards the maintenance of the fabric of St. 
Giles' Church, circa 13 10. 

(i) Hiist. Roll. 21 (48). (4) London and the Kingdom. \o\. 3, p. 473. 

(2) Letter Book C. fol. 6. (5) Letter Book C. fo. 28. 

{1) Cal. Letter Book A. p. 210. (fo) Letter Book C. fo. 88. 

(7) Cat. Letter Book B. p. 74. 

The Aldermen of Cripplegate Ward. 13 


He is first mentioned as Alderman in 1307.' 

All that can be found respecting the above Alderman, is contained in 
the WilP of his brother AVilliam (1332), in which certain rents in the 
lane of S. Nicholas de Candelwykestrete, in the parish of S. Nicholas 
Hacoun are to be devoted to chantries in the church of S. Leonard, for 
the good of the testator's soul and the souls of Idonia his wife, his 
father and mother, and John his brother; and other rents without 
Crepelgatc in the Parish of S. Giles to be devoted to the maintenance 
of wax in the same church and to charitable uses. 

His Livery Company cannot be traced. 


Only occasional references are made to this Alderman in the Hust- 
ing Rolls — these occurring between 13 14 and 1322. These references 
are of only a slight nature, just sufficient to fix the time during which 
he held the office. In 131 7 we find him described as Alderman of 
" Wodestrete," that street at the time being the most important 
street in the Ward. An interesting list of Aldermen appears in a 
general ward assessment for the purpose of raising a talliage levied 
for the King, anno 13 Edward H [.\.d. 1319-20],^ and amongst these 
Aldermen, occurs the name of Elias de Suffolk, who is described as 
Alderman of "Crepelgatc" and "Crepelgate Extra," thus showing that, 
even at this early date, the area of the AN'ard was contained both within 
and without the City walls, as at the present day. 

Elias de Suffolk was probably succeeded in the Aldermanry by 
Thomas de Leyre, but this is not clear. In 1331, one Thomas de 
Leyre makes a bequest of one hundred shillings to the New Hospital 
within Cripplegate, and other slight references point to the probability of 
his being Alderman of the Ward. 

(i) Hustiiig Roll, (36) 30. 

(2) Calendar of Wills. Vol. I, p. 373. 

(3) Letter Book E. fo. 104b. 

14 The Alder)7ie)i of Cripplegate Ward. 

ROBERT LE BRET. Goldsmith. 

He is first mentioned as an Alderman in 1331. 

The following is an abstract of his ^Vill ' : — 

" Bret (Robert le), goldsmith. His tenement in Melkstrete in the 
parish of S. I>aurence in the Jewry to be sold to pay his debts and to 
fulfil his testament. To Agnes his daughter his shop in the Gold- 
smithery in the parish of S. Matthew de Fridaystrete. Dated London, 
\\'ednesday next after the Feast of Commemoration of Souls [2 Nov.] 
A.D. 1334." 


Sheriff 1334. 

He is first mentioned as an Alderman 1334." 

Sheriff 1334, with Walter Turke, who was Mayor 13 so. 

The same name also appears in the first recognised list of the 
Common Council, as one of the six members for Cripplegate, 1347. 
This was probably a son of the Alderman, and of whose ^^'ill an abstract 
is here given'' :— 

" Hyngeston (John de), goldsmith. — The residue of debts due to 
him to be divided into three parts, whereof one part is to be devoted 
to the good of his soul, the second part to go to Isabella his wife, and 
the third to his children. To Simon his son in tail a tenement in 
Wodestret which he purchased of the executor of Henry atte More, 
provided that his own debts shall have been satisfied by the pa)-ment 
of what is due to him ; remainder to William his son in tail ; 
remainder to his infant en ventre sa mere ; remainder over. The 
said Isabella and Simon de Worstede [who was then Alderman of 
Cripplegate] appointed guardians of Gilbert Bordeyn, his kinsman, and 
of Johanna, sister of the said Gilbert, until they shall come of age. 
Dated at Wodestrete, Palm Sunday [5 April], a.d. 1349." 

(1) Calendar of Wills. Vol. I, p. 410. 

(2) Hust. Roll, 62 (27) (37). 

(3) Calendar of IVills. \'ul. I, p. 594. 

The Aldermen of Cripplegate ]]^ard. 15 


He is first mentioned as Alderman (of Aldersgate \\'ard) in 1320/ 
and from time to time is also mentioned as one of the Aldermen of 
the above or other \\'ards, until 1336, when we find him Alderman of 

He was appointed Chamberlain in October, 1328, in succession 
to Andre\v Horn/ the executors of the late Chamberlain rendering their 
account in August of the following year as follows : — 

" To all the faithful in C'hrist to whom these present letters shall 
come, John de Cirantham, Mayor, the Aldermen, and the other citizens 
of the City of London, greeting in the Lord. Whereas, Sir William 
Horn, Rector of the Church of Retherhethe, John atte Vyne, and 
Master John de Ix)ndon, Notary, executors of the Will of Andrew Horn, 
late our Chamberlain of the Guildhall of London, being lawfully called 
before us to render account for the same Andrew . . . Whereupon, 
after computing all things that ought to be computed, as well for the 
receipts as the expenditure of the said Andrew . . . and which are set 
forth in the roll of his receipts and expenses, had been by him faithfully 
expended on the business of the said city. -And in like manner, the 
said executors did deliver up all the different things to the ("hamber of 
the CiuildhuU aforesaid pertaining, which the said .Vndrew had held 
in his charge, unto Henry de Seccheford, the present Chamberlain, by 
indenture between them and the same Henry made, as in the same 
indenture is more fully contained." ^ 

The last mention of Seccheford, as Chamberlain, is in 1335, 
hut he probably retained the office, together with that of Alderman 
of Cripplegate, until his death in 1337. The following is an interesting 
extract taken from Letter Book E, fo. 232.' "Moneys expended by 
Henry de Seccheford, Chamberlain of the (luildhall of London, the 
account being rendered in the month of July, a.d. 1332, in the sixth 
year of the reign of King Edward, after the Conquest the Third ; — The 
said Henry renders account . . . Also for 25/. 7^. 5^/. paid for divers 
presents sent to Sir Geoffrey Lescrope, John de Eltham, brother of the 
present King, and then Guardian of England, Master Henry de 

(i) Letter Book E. fo. 104b. (3) K\\ey'% Mentoriats. pp. 176-7. 

(2) Id. fo. 189. (4) Jet. pp. 185-186. 

1 6 The Aldermen of Cripplegate Ward. 

Clifford, deputy of the Chancellor, and the Bishop of Norwich, as set 
forth in four sums in the Roll of Particulars. . . . Also, for 
lo/. 19^-. (id. paid to Sir Simon de Swanlond, late Mayor, for expenses 
incurred for the City at the Coronation of our Lady Phillipa, Queen 
of England, in the third year of our Lord the King now reigning, 
etc., as set forth in the particulars in the Roll of Expenses. Sum 
total of all expenses, 258/. 8x. short by one halfpenny." 

His Will was enrolled' on Monday after the Feast of St. Martin 
[11 November], a.d. 1339. 

"To Amy his daughter, a nun in the Church of S. Elena, an annual 
rent in the parish of S. Alban de Wodestrete for life ; remainder to 
Henry his son. His tenements in the parishes of S. Michael le Quern 
and S. Leonard in S. Vedast Lane to be devoted for the space of ten 
years after his decease to the maintenance of chantries for the good of 
his soul and the souls of Isolda and Matilda his wives, and to payment 
of his debts. Tenements and rents in the parishes of S. Agnes within 
Aldrichesgate, S. Nicholas Shambles, S. Margaret in Fridaystrete, etc., 
to be sold by his executors, and one hundred marks of the proceeds to 
be given to Matilda his daughter for her marriage, provided she marry 
with the consent of Alice her mother. All his tenements not sold to 
remain to Henry his son in tail. Dated Tuesday next after the Feast 
of S. Bartholomew [24 Aug.], a.d. 1337." 

'•'"Whereupon came the aforesaid Alice, widow of the testator, arid put 
her claim as to dower of the tenements devised for sale." 

He was one of the two members of Parliament for the City in 
1323-4, 1325, 1326-7 and 1336.- All the Parliaments of which 
Seccheford was a member met at Westminster, that of 1323-4, from 
23 February to 18 March; 1325, from 18 November to 5 December; 
1326-7, from 7 January to 9 March; 1336, from 11 to 20 March, and 
afterwards at Nottingham, it, to 26 September in the same year. 

His Livery Company cannot be traced. 

He was probably a Brewer in the parish of St. Michael le Quern. 

(i) Calendar of Wills. Vol. I, p. 435. 

(2) Loudon and the Kingdom. \'ol. Ill, pp. 474, 475. 

The Aldermen of Cripplegate Ward. 1 7 


Sheriff 1321. 

He is first found as the Alderman of Bassishaw Ward in 1320.' 
The first mention of him as Alderman of Cripplegate Ward is in 1337." 

His Will, dated 6 January, 1342, orders that he "be buried in the 
church of S. Mary de Aldermanbury. To John his son he bequeaths 
ten pounds of silver . . . also two goblets of silver made after the fashion 
of glass ; a silver water-vessel ; two plain goblets, enamelled at the 
bottom, with covers, one enamel being of S. John the Baptist and 
another of S. Thomas the Martyr ; also a sapphire of value, a silver ring 
with precious stone, and a horn of ivory ; together with all his stock, 
crops, etc. in his manor of Hovydene" [Co. Suffolk?]. He also makes 
other becjuests.' 


Sheriff 1338. 
The first mention of him as Alderman [of Cripplegate ?] is in 1343. 
He seems to have been translated from Bishopsgate. 
His Livery Company cannot be traced. 


Sheriff 1347. 

He was probably Alderman the same )ear that he served the office 
of Sheriff 

The following is an abstract of his Will, by which it will be 
seen lie had a great interest in the Ward : — " I'o Richard, son of 
John de Culdeford, his godson, he leaves his tenement wherein he 
lived in the parish of S. Michael de W'odestrete. To Thomas his son 
he devises {inter alia) a brewery in the parish of S. Alban de ^^'odestrete, 
and another brewery called ' le Horssho ' in the same parish ; also tene- 
ments in the parishes of S. Mary Magdalen de Melkstrete, S. Peter de 
Wodestret, S. Peter de Cornhull, and S. Mathew de Frydaystrete, subject 
to the payment of an annuity of forty shillings to Amy his daughter. 
His tenements in the parish of S. Laurence Jewry to be devoted to the 
maintenance of chantries in the church of S. Michael de Wodstret. . . . 

Dated London, Friday the Feast of Apostles Philip and James 
[i May], A.D. 1349." ' 

(l) Letter Book E. fo. 104b. (2) Hiisting Roll. 64(55). 

(3) Calendar of Wills. \\A. I, p. 4S2. (4) Id. \n\. I, p. 567. 

1 8 The Aldermen of Cripplegate Ward. 


His name appears as one of the six representatives of Cripplegate 
in the Court of Common Council, in the list of 1347.^ 

He was probably elected alderman in 1348, on the death of 
Richard de Basingstoke, whose Will was proved as before stated. He 
is frequently mentioned as one of the Aldermen almost up to the 
date of his Will,- which is dated 1364 and enrolled 1366, in which he 
is described as Alderman. 

By his Will he orders that he shall be buried in the church of 
S. Alban de Wodestret, near to the tomb of his children. He bequeaths 
to his wife tenements in the parishes of .S. Alban de Wodestret, and 
S. Alphege, charged with the maintenance of a chantry in the chapel of 
S. Mary in the church of .S. i\lban. 

By the Will' (a.d. 1349) of John de Hyngeston {see page 14), he 
was appointed one of the guardians of the testator's kinsmen. 


Sheriff 1364. 

He is mentioned as Alderman of Cripplegate in 1368, and as being 
present at the election of William Walworth and Robert (iaytone as 
Sheriffs 1370,^ but was probably elected in 1365. 

In his Will^ he orders that he "be buried in the chancel of the 
church of S. Mary Magdalen in Milkstrete, and bequeaths to Johanna 
his wife all his lands and tenements in the City of London and suburbs 
for life . . . remainder to the rector and parishioners of the Church 
of S. Mary aforesaid, for the maintenance of chantries for the good of 
his soul, the souls of Johanna his wife, John his son, Juliana his daughter, 
and others . . . Bequests to the Fraternity of S. John the Baptist of the 
Guild of Tailors ... to various orders of friars, and to the church of 
S. Mary aforesaid ... To Henry Padyngton he leaves a grypeshey 
[cup made of a vulture's (?) egg] garnished with silver gilt, and to John, 
son of the same, seven silver goddeffes [goblets]. Dated London, 
31 July, A.D. 1375." 

(i) KxX&y's Memorials, p. Iv. (3) Calendar of ll'i/Zs. Vol. I, p. 594. 

(2) Calendar of Wills. Vol. II, pp. 95-6. (4) l^Wt^^ Memorials, p. 345 
{'^) Calendar of Wills. Vol. II, p. 181. 

The Aldermen of Cripplegate Ward. 19 

Elected 31 August, 1375. 

The following is a translation of the first record of an election of an 
Alderman of Cripplegate,' by the inhabitants of the ward : — 

" Friday, viz. : — the last day of August the 49th year of the reign 
of King Edward the Third. John Maryns was elected Alderman of 
the Ward of Crepulgate by good men of the same Ward and was pre- 
sented to the Mayor and admitted and sworn to faithfully perform the 
things appertaining to his office." 

He is mentioned as being present on the first day of August, 1376, 
with the Mayor, eleven of the Aldermen and "an immense number of 
the Commonalty, when there was added to the Common Seal of the 
City of London, in their presence, a certain sign called a " mo/ei" and 
the same stands, or is placed, in a small port, which is in the same Seal 
beneath the feet of St. Paul." * 

He remained in office until March, 1377, when the first of the 
Annual Elections took place, at which (in consequence of the new 
order forbidding re-election until after the interval of a year) he was 

He is not heard of again as alderman, and probably died in 1381, 
when we find the Will of John Maryns, apothecary, in which he leaves 
to John, his son, " the reversion of tenements in the parish of S. Giles 
without Crepulgate in tail."^ 

His Livery Company cannot be traced. 

ROBERT LUCAS. Goldsmith. 

Presented and Sworn 12 March, 1377*' 
This election was the first in Cripplegate under a Precept by the 
Mayor (51 Edward HI, a.d. 1377) that all Aldermen should vacate 
their offices and should not be re-elected. 

The Will of Robert Lucas^ is dated 2 September, 1382, and orders 
that he is "to be buried in the Monastery of Westminster;" and he 

{\) Letter Book H. fo. 2i. {i) Calendar of Wills. Vol. II, p. 248. 

(2) Riley's Memorials, p. 400. (4) Letter Book H. fo. 58. 

(5) Calendar of Wills. Vol. II, p. 230. 

20 The Aldermen of Cripplegate Ward. 

devises to " Margaret his wife a life interest in his dwelling-house in the 
parish of S. Michael in Hoggenlane ; remainder in trust for sale for 
pious uses for the good of his soul, the souls of Isabella his former 
wife and others." 

Stow also says that : " He bequeathed to the Fabric of the church 
of S. Michael Wood Street ^40, to buy two copes to serve in the said 
church ten Marks, and also to the Monastery of Westminster ^20.'" 


Presented and Sworn 2 March, 1387.' 
The following is an abstract of his WilV dated 11 June, 1387: — 

" Makes his testament as to those tenements in the City of 
London which formerly belonged to John Aubrey, and of which he had 
been enfeoffed jointly with others. His share in the said tenements he 
leaves to William Parker and Dionisius Lopham until such time as his 
executors have been repaid the sum of eighty pounds disbursed by him 
in various ways on behalf of the said John Aubrey, after which his said 
share is to be surrendered to his joint feoffees to carry out the terms of 
John Aubrey's will." 

His Livery Company cannot be traced. 

Presented and Sworn for the second time 12 March, 1379/ 

Presented and Sworn for the second time 12 March, 1380,'' 


Presented and Sworn for the second time 12 March, 1381/ 

(i) But this is not found in the Will as proved and enrolled in the Husting 
Roll III (56), as above quoted. 

(2) Letter Book H. fo. 84. (4) Letter Book H. fo. 106. 

(3) Calendar of Wills. Vol. II, p. 262. (5) Id., fo. 121b. (6) Id., fo. 132. 

The Aldermen of Cripples^ate W^ard. 2 i 


Presented and Sworn 12 March, 1382. 

We find him as Alderman of Coleman Street Ward in 1388.' 

He was one of the four members of Parliament for London 
which sat at Westminster from 6 to 24 October, 1382. 

The following is an extract from his Will,' and can be taken as a 
good example of a Will of an Alderman of the period : — 

" Monday next after F. of SS. Perpetua and Felicitas [7 March], 

"Carleton (Thomas) 'brouderer.' — To be buried in S. John the 
Baptist's Chapel within the north gate of S. Paul's. To the Master of 
the Fraternity of S. John the Baptist, London, its four wardens, and 
their successors he leaves a rent charge on his tenements in the parish 
of S. Alban in Wodstrete at the corner of Adelane, for the maintenance 
of a chantry in the aforesaid chapel ; in default the said rent to go to the 
Mayor, Aldermen, and Commonalty of the City for the same purpose. 
Bequests also of a vestment of blue silk, namely, a chasuble with white 
amice, stole, phanon, girdle, together with two frontals, two curtains, 
two towels, a cushion for supporting a book, a chalice with corporas 
and cover, two cruets, a bell, and 3. paxbred o( silver to ser\e in the said 
chapel. Five marks to be expended upon a marble slab to put over his 
place of burial, having his shield of arms worked in /aton in the middle 
of a cross and a record of the day of his decease. To Johanna his 
wife he leaves all his tenements, rents, etc., and a tenement called ' le 
lyon on the hope,' with shops, etc., in Wodestrete in the parish of S. 
Alphege, for life, unless the same has to be sold to discharge his debts ; 
remainder to Agnes his daughter in tail ; remainder in trust for sale for 
pious and charitable uses. Bequests also to the churches of S. Peter 
de Wodstrete in Chepe and S. Alban in Wodstrete; to Emma his 
mother, William his brother, Marion his wife's sister, and others. 
To the aforesaid chantry he further leaves in reversion two books, viz., 
a Bible (unam bibletecam) and a Legend of Saints. Dated 2 5 December, 
A.D. 1382." 

(I) Letter Book H. fo. 140. (2) Id. fo. 226. 

(3) Calendar of Wills. Vol. II, pp. 272-3. 

C 2 

22 The Aldermen of Cripplegate Ward. 


Elected for the third time 12 March, 1383.' 

He was elected for Bassishaw Ward in the following year. 

ADAM BAMME. Goldsmith. 

Presented and Sworn 12 March, 1384. 
Sheriff 1382. Mayor 1390, and again 1396. 

Adam Bamme was a candidate for the Mayoralty in 1389, being 
strongly supported by the Goldsmiths, the Mercers, and the Drapers, but 
the majority of the citizens voted for William Venour, a Grocer.^ He 
served the office of Third Warden of the Goldsmiths' Company in 1373, 
and that of Prime Warden, or Upper Warden as the office was then 
called, in 1377/ 

He was also one of the four Members of Parliament for London 
which met at Cambridge, and sat from 9 September to 17 October, 
1388, and the following extract from Letter Book H (Norman-French) 
fo. 245,^ respecting the payment of the Members of Parliament for 
the City, is interesting : — 

"Expenses incurred in attending Parliament at Cauntebrigge by 
Adam Bamme, Henry Vanner, William Tonge and John Clenhond. 

" In the first place, — for timber and carpentry, tilers, and daubers, 
in preparing the house for their lodging, as well the chambers as the 
hall, buttery, kitchen, and stables for the horses ; and for making stoles 
axid fourmes throughout, and for carting out the rubbish, such house being 
quite ruinous : as also, for payment made to the good man of the house, 
for the said lodging, ^6 95. 

" Also, — for cloth bought for napery, for canvas, doser and costers 
for the hall, of striped worstede ; and for all other utensils, many in 
number, that pertain unto the hall, kitchen, pantry, and buttery ; save 
and except vessels of pewter only, which were bought by the Chamber- 
lain of the Guildhall, ^6 i (ys. Zd. 

"Also for firewood, charcoal, /<?r/"and segge, ^^5 13^. Also, for the 
hire of horses and for hay and oats, and for straw for the beds, as well as 
for litter for the horses; and for horse shoeing, ;2^ 1 2 \^s. ^d. . . . Also, — 

(I) Letter Book H. fo. 163. (2) Id. fo. 174. 

(3) Londo)i a)id the KingdoDi. Vol. I, p. 239. 

(4) MS. Records of the Goldsmiths' Company. 

(5) \X\\&f% Memorials, pp. 511, 512. 

The Aldermen of Cripp legate Waj'd. 23 

for expenses incurred by the aforesaid Bamme, Vanner, etc., and their 
servants in riding on horseback to Cauntebrigge, and back ; and for 
carriage of their wine, and all their harness thither and back, — jQ"] \6s. 8d. 
Also, for two pipes of red wine taken thither from London, and for 
other wine bought at Cauntebrigge, — j£g 2s. Also, for vestments for 
them and their servants, arrayed in like suit, — ^22 15^. Also, — 
expended at Cauntebrigge throughout the time of the Parliament, on 
bread, ale, flesh-meat, fish, candles, sauce, the lauender, and in gifts to 
the minstrels of the King, and of other lords : together with divers 
other outlays made, — £,2^^ ^s. <^d. 

" Also, — for payments made to their officials, such as steward, butler, 
cook, and others ; and to vadlets helping in the kitchen, and elsewhere, 
£^ 13^.4^. Sum total, ^112 7^." 

The above extract shows that Members of Parliament for the City 
at this period had all their expenses paid in connection with fulfilling 
the duties of their office. It also gives a luminous idea of the cost 
and style of living in the fourteenth century. 

In addition to the expenses of the Members being paid, they also 
had certain allowances by way of "duties," "fees," or "wages" for 
their attendance in Parliament, besides gowns, robes or liveries for 
themselves and their servants. Adam Bamme no doubt enjoyed all the 
above-mentioned perquisites in the way of gowns, etc., and in addition 
received the fee or wage of two shillings a day to which he was entitled 
as a burgess. 

Stow writes : "Adam Bamme, goldsmith, mayor 1391, in a great 
dearth, procured corn from parts beyond the seas to be brought hither 
in such abundance as sufficed to serve the city, and the countries near 
adjoining ; to the furtherance of which good work he took out of the 
orphans' chest in the Guildhall two thousand marks to buy the said corn, 
and each alderman laid out twenty pounds to the like purpose." 

He died in his second Mayoralty, 6 June, 1397, Richard Whitington 
taking his place for the remainder of the term, by order of the King, and 
also succeeding him as Alderman of Lime Street Ward. Whitington 
was elected by the citizens in the usual form in the following year. 

Adam Bamme was buried in the Church of St. George, Botolph 
Lane. His son Richard held the Manor of Tillingham, Kent, in 1432. 

24 The Aldermen of Cripplegate Ward. 


Presented and Sworn for the fourth time 12 March, 1385»' 


Presented and Sworn for the fifth time 12 March, 1386/ 


Elected for the second time 12 March, 1387.^ 

At the end of his year of office he migrated to Cheap. 

Adam Bamme's record is rather remarkable. He served the office 
of Alderman of Aldersgate Ward in 1382, Cripplegate Ward 1384 and 
1387, Cheap Ward 1388, 1389, 1390 and 1391, Lime Street Ward from 
1393 until his death in 1397. 


Presented and Sworn 12 March, 1388.^ 

Sheriff 1389. 

He was one of the four Members of Parliament for London*^ in 

the Parliament which sat at Westminster from 12 November to 

3 December, 1390, and Member for Middlesex in that which sat at 

Gloucester, 20 October to 2 December, 1407. 


Presented and Sworn for the second time 12 March, 1389.' 


Presented and Sworn for the third time 12 March, 1390.*' 

(i) Letter Book H. fo. 189b. (2) Id., fo. 200. {3) Id., fo. 215. 

(4) In the list of M.P's in the Bkie Book the name is spelt " Loveneye." 
(5) Letter Book H. fo. 226. 

(6) London and the Kingdom. Vol. Ill, p. 478. Letter Book H, fo. 253. 

On fo. 255 William More is given in place of John Loveye. 

(7) Letter Book H. fo. 240. (8) Id., fo. 248b. 

The Aldermen of Cripplegate Ward. 25 


Presented and Sworn for the fourth time 12 March, 1391.' 


In this year the King's Commission sat at Eton, co. Bucks ; 
the Mayor, Sheriffs and Aldermen were convicted of several mis- 
carriages, and the liberty of the City (by the judgment of the Court) 
seized into the King's hands. The King, by the advice of his Council 
at Windsor, "constituted Baldwyn Radington, Mayor, in the room of 
John Hynde"; two other Sheriffs and twenty-four Aldermen, to hold 
during the King's pleasure." It may be taken as certain, though no 
official record of his election is extant, that John Loveye was again 
Alderman of the \\'ard this year. He was present as an Alderman on 
St. Edward's Day (13 October), when William Staundon was elected 


Presented and Sworn for the sixth time 12 March, 1393.' 


Presented and Sworn 12 March, 1394. 

He is mentioned as Sheriff in 1400, and as one of the Aldermen 
present at the first election of Richard Whitington as Mayor, 1397 ;^ he 
was also present as an Alderman of another A\'ard (Coleman Street), 
when Whitington was elected Sheriff in 1392," and in this same year he 
was chosen one of the Auditors of the Accounts.*^ 

He was the first of the Aldermen of Cripplegate who, by the order 
of King Richard II, 1393,' were " not to be removed without good and 
reasonable cause"; he retained his office until 1402, when he either 
resigned or died, John Wodecok being elected in his place. 

i^\) Letter Book H. fo. 258. (4) Riley's J/cwwYaA. p. 546. 

(2) Maitland. p. 180. (5) Id. p. 533. 

(3) Letter Book H. fo. 279b. (6) Id. p. 534. 

(7) Letter Book H. fo. 291. 

26 The Aldermen of Cripplegate Ward. 


Sheriff 1397. Mayor 1405. 

He was one of the four Wardens of the Mercers' Company in 1398 
and again in 1408. 

He is mentioned as one of the Sheriffs present at the first election 
of Whitington as Mayor, 1397.' He was then in all probability Alder- 
man of Coleman Street Ward, although proof of this is wanting. He 
served the ofiice of Mayor 1405, and it was previous to presiding in 
that capacity at the election of his successor {Whitington, for his 
third term of office) that the first religious service previous to the 
election of Mayor of which we have any account took place. The 
account of the proceedings in connection with this is interesting, and 
is as follows': — 

" On Wednesday, the Feast of the Translation of St. Edward the 
King and Confessor [13 October] in the 8th year, etc. [of the reign of 
Henry IV], John Wodecok, Mayor of the City of London, considering 
that upon the same day he and all the Aldermen of the said city and 
as many as possible of the wealthier and more substantial Commoners 
of the same city, ought to meet at the Guildhall, as the usage is, to 
elect a new Mayor for the ensuing year, ordered that a Mass of the 
Holy Spirit should be celebrated, with solemn music, in the Chapel 
annexed to the said Guildhall ; to the end that the same Commonalty, 
by the grace of the Holy Spirit, might be able peacefully and amicably 
to nominate two able and proper persons to be Mayor of the said city 
for the ensuing year, by favour of the clemency of Our Saviour, according 
to the customs of the said city. 

Which Mass having in the said Chapel been solemnly celebrated, 
there being present thereat the said John Wodecok, the Mayor, John 
Prestone, Recorder, Nicholas Wottone and Geoffrey Broke, Sheriffs, 
the Prior of the Holy Trinity, John Hadlee, William Staundone, Richard 
Whytyngtone, Drew Barentyn, Thomas KnoUes, John Shadworth, 
William Askham, William Bramptone, John Warner, William Walderne, 
William Venour, Robert Chychely, Thomas Fauconer, Thomas Polle, 

(i) Riley's Memorials, p. 546. (2) Id. p. 565. 

The Aldermen of Cripplegate Ward. 27 

William Louthe, William Crowmere, Henry Bartone and Henry Pount- 
freyt, Aldermen, and many reputable Commoners of the City aforesaid ; 
the same Mayor, Recorder, Sheriffs, Aldermen and Commoners, entered 
the Guildhall, where the precept of the said Mayor and Aldermen, as 
the cause of the said congregation was becomingly set forth and 
declared by the said Recorder to the Commoners aforesaid ; to the end 
that such Commoners should nominate unto the said Mayor and 
Aldermen, such able and proper persons as had before filled the office 
of Sheriff in the City aforesaid ; it being for the said Commoners to take 
no care which one of the persons so to be nominated should be chosen 
by the Mayor and Aldermen to be Mayor for the ensuing year. \\'hich 
being done, the said Mayor, Recorder, Sheriffs and Aldermen, went up 
into the Chamber of the Mayor's Court, within the Guildhall aforesaid, 
there to await the nomination of such two persons. 

Whereupon, the Commoners peacefully and amicably, without any 
clamour or discussion, did becomingly nominate Richard Whytyngtone, 
Mercer, and Drew Barentyn, goldsmith, through John Westone, Com- 
mon Countor of the said city, and presented the same. 

And hereupon, the Mayor and Aldermen, with closed doors in 
the said Chamber chose Richard Whytyngtone aforesaid, by guidance 
of the Holy Spirit, to be Mayor of the City for the ensuing year ; after 
which, the Mayor and Aldermen coming down from the Chamber into 
the Hall, to the Commoners there assembled, as the custom is, notified 
by the Recorder unto the same Commoners, how that, by Divine 
inspiration, the lot had fallen upon the said Richard Whytyngtone, as 
above stated. 

And further, the said Commoners unanimously entreated the 
Mayor and Aldermen, that they would ordain that in every future year, 
on the day of the Translation of St. Edward, a Mass of the Holy Spirit, 
for the reasons before stated should be celebrated, before the election of 
Mayor, in the Chapel aforesaid. And hereupon the Mayor and Alder- 
men, considering the entreaty of the said Commoners to be fair, 
reasonable, and consonant with right, and especially to the glory and 
laud of God, and to the honour of the said city, by assent and consent 
of the said Commoners, did ordain and decree that every year in future 
a solemn Mass with music shall be celebrated in presence of the 
Mayor and Aldermen ; the same Mass, by ordinance of the Chamberlain 
for the time being, to be solemnly chaunted by the finest singers in the 
Chapel aforesaid, and upon that Feast." 

28 The Aldermen of Cripplegate Ward. 

John Wodecok seems to have died possessed of considerable 
property. In his Will he directs that he shall be "buried in 
the church of S. Alban in Wodestrete," and makes many bequests 
to the same church, and " for the maintenance of divers chantries 
therein for the good of his soul, the souls of William his father, 
Johanna his mother, and others. Bequests to the churches of S, Mary 
Magdalen de Mylkstrete, S. Michael de Bassyngeshawe," and others, 
and to various hospitals and orders of friars ; to the nuns in the house 
called le Menoresse without Algate, the nuns of the houses of S. John 
de Clerkenwell, Halywell, S. Elena within Bisshopesgate, and S. 
Katherine near the Tower, "to prisoners in Newgate and Ludgate, 
the Flete, Marshalsea, and King's Bench, etc. His funeral to be con- 
ducted without pomp ; leaves fifty pounds for its expenses . 
To Felicia his wife, by way of dower and her reasonable part, he 
leaves two thousand marks sterling, and all utensils, ustilments, linen 
and woollen cloths, etc., appertaining to his house, together with 
certain chargeours, platers, silver saucers, a silver pouderbox, etc. . . . 
also his lands, tenements and rents in the parish of S. Alban de 
Wodestrete . . . To John and William his sons, Johanna and Philippa 
his daughters, he leaves two thousand marks sterling, to be divided 
among them," and to the above named sons, his estates and manors in 
Kent, Surrey and Essex. This Will was dated 29 November, 1408, and 
proved 24 February, 141 3.' 

In his year of office "great abuses were now committed in the 
River Thames by Fishermen and others, in erecting great numbers of 
Wears, in the said River, which proved not only defective to the young 
fry, but also greatly endamaged the Navigation thereof.; for the 
remedying of which Sir John Woodcock, the Mayor, caused all the 
said Wears from Stanes to the river Medway, to be destroyed and the 
Nets burnt, which proceeding occasioned a great controversy at Law 
between Thomas, Archbishop of Canterbury, &:c., and the Mayor and 
citizens of London ; when at last, by virtue of the City Charter, it was 
adjudged in their favour. "- 

Stow writes : "A monument in St. Alban, Wood Street." 

(i) Calendar of Wills. Vol. II, p. 397-9. 
(2) Maitland. Vol. I, pp. 184-5. 

The Alderme7i of Cripplegate Ward. 29 


He IS mentioned as Sheriff 141 1, and as one of the Aldermen 
present at the election of Nicholas Wottone,' as Mayor, 141 5, and 
proceeding with the other Aldermen and " an immense number of the 
Commonalty," on foot to Westminster, and having first made devout 
thanksgiving, with due solemnity in the Minster there, for the joyous 
news that had then arrived (the victory of Agincourt), the said Nicholas 
Wottone was by the said Aldermen and Commonalty presented before 
the Barons of the Exchequer of our Lord the King, at Westminster, 
admitted and sworn. 

One of the four Wardens of the Mercers' Company, 141 5. 

He was discharged from his office of alderman through infirmity on 
the Morrow of S. Katherine (Nov. 25), 4 Henry V [1416].* 


Probably elected January, I417. 

Sheriff 1414. 

He is mentioned as being present as an Alderman at the election 
of Richard Whitington to his fourth Mayoralty, 1419.' 

He was one of the four Wardens of the Mercers' Company in 
1404, 1416, and again in 1422. 

The following is an abstract of his Will,' dated London, 8 July, 
A.i). 1437: — "Monday next before the Feast of St. Alphege, Bishop 
[19 April] 1448. To be buried according to directions contained in 
another will. To the perpetual vicar of the church of S. Laurence in the 
Old Jewry, and to the Wardens of the Fraternity and Light of the 
Holy Cross called ' Rodelight,' and of the lights of S. Katherine and 
S. Anne in the said church, he leaves certain shops near Sopereslane in 
the parish of S. Pancras for the maintenance of a chantry at the altar of 
Holy Cross in the aforesaid church for the good of his soul, the souls 
of Margery his wife and the brethren and sisters of the fraternity afore- 
said. In case of default made the shops to go over to the Master of 
the House or Church of S. Thomas the Martyr, called 'de Aeon,' for 
like purposes ; remainder, in case of default, to the relief of the poor of 
the Ward of Chepe on the occasion of a tax or talliage being levied on 
the King's behalf." 

(1) \\\\^^''^ Memorials, p. 620. {2) Jourual i . fo. 4b (City's Recurds). 

(3) Riley's Memorials, p. 676. 
(4) Calendar of Wills. Vol. II, pp. l\\-\<). 

30 The Aldermen of Cripp legate Ward. 


Probably elected June, 1423. 
Sheriff 1419. 
Elected to Farringdon Ward Within, i June, 1420, and remained 
there till his election to Cripplegate. 

He was one of the four Members of ParHament for London in 
141 7, and is described in the Blue Book as John Botiller, Junior, 
Mercer. This Parliament met in the November of that year at 
Westminster, and sat till 17 December. 

One of the four Wardens of the Mercers' Company, 141 6. 
He died in 1423, and was buried in S. Peter's, Cheap. ^ 


Sworn 5 October, 1423,* 

Sheriff 1422. Lord Mayor 1429, and again in 1437. 

He was made a Knight of the Bath in his second Mayoralty. 

One of the four Wardens of the Mercers' Company, 1425, in 1429, 
and again in 1441. 

He lived in Aldermanbury, and was a public-spirited citizen. Stow 
writes : — " In this Aldermanbury street be divers fair houses on both 
the sides, meet for merchants or men of worship, and in the midst 
thereof is a fair conduit, made at the charges of William Eastfield, 
sometime Maior, who took order, as well for water to be conveyed from 
Teyborne, and for the building of this Conduit, not far distant from his 
dwelling House, as also for a Standard of sweet water to be erected in 
Fleet street, all which was done by his executors." 

Stow further writes : — " Sir William Eastfield, Knight of the Bath, 
Alderman and Maior 1438 [1437-8], a great Benefactor to that Church 
[St. Mary Aldermanbury], lies buried under a fair monument ; he also 
builded their Steeple, changed their old Bells into five tuneable Bells, 
and gave one hundred pounds to other Works of that Church. Moreover, 
he caused the Conduit in Aldermanbury, which he had begun, to be per- 
formed at his Charges, and Water to be conveyed by Pipes of Lead from 

(i) In the following year, John Botiller, "Draper," was Sheritil', but what 
relation, if any, to the " Mercer," does not appear. 

(2) Stocken MSS. (t^) Journal 2. fo. 9b. 

The Aldermen of Cripp legate Ward. 31 

Teyborne to Fleet street, as I have said ; and also from High Eery to the 
parish of St. Giles without Cripplegate, where the Inhabitants of those 
parts incastellated the same in sufficient Cisterns." This conduit was 
situated near the triangular space by Red Cross Street, White Cross 
Street, and St. Giles' Church. 

Estfield was Mayor when Henry VI was crowned, which was not 
till the eighth year of his reign (a.d. 1429). His claim to serve the 
King on that occasion in his official capacity, and to receive for his fee 
a gold cup and ewer, is entered in the City's Records as having been 
duly made by the mouth of the Recorder, according to the liberties and 
customs of the City.' There is evidence to carry back this custom to 
the Coronation of Richard I, the earliest Coronation of which any 
detailed account is preserved, and the service then claimed and per- 
formed by the citizens of London was called at that time an "antient 

The following lengthy abstract from the last of Estfield's two 
Wills* is here given as a fair example of the Wills of wealthy men 
of the period. It is dated London, 15 March, a.d. 1445, ^"<i enrolled 
Monday next after the Feast of S. Mathias, Apostle [24 February], 

" Estfeld (William), Knt., citizen and mercer, and Alderman of 
the City of London. — Testament touching his movables. To be 
l)uried in the Church of S. Mary de Aldermanbury. Directions as 
to funeral, which is to be conducted without display. The torches used 
at his funeral to be afterwards distributed among various churches. 
Bequests to the poor of the parishes of S. Mary de Aldermanbury, 
S. Peter near Powliswharf, S. Mary Somerset, S. Benedict at Powlis- 
wharf, and S. Laurence in the Jewry ; to the vicar and chaplains of the 
church of Tikhill [Yorkshire, of which county he was a native], the 
chaplain of the chapel in the castle of Tikhill, and the poor of the 
parish ; to the inmates of divers hospitals and prisons ; the lepers in 
and near London ; the various orders of friars in London, the friars of 
Hicchyn and Tikhill ; the nuns of Burnham near Wyndesore, Ankerwyk, 
Roughsparre, Blakbergh, co. Norfolk, Higham, co. Kent, the nuns 
of Huntyngdon and Feveresham ; also to his apprentices, servants, 
and others. For the repair and maintenance of the bridge at "W'allyng- 
ford he leaves forty shillings, and divers sums to the churches of 

(i) Letter Booh A', fo. 70. (2) Calendar of Wills. Vol. II, pp. 509-11. 

32 The Aldermen of Cripplegate Ward. 

Gedeleston, Greneford, and Wotton. To the poor-box of the Mercers 
of London twenty pounds, and other sums to the chaplains of the Art 
of Mercery, the beadle of the art, and for a breakfast to be given 
to the apprentices to the art that they may pray for his soul. The 
gold cup and ewer which he received when he attended as Mayor 
at the coronation of the lord the King he leaves to John Bohun, son 
of Margaret his daughter, and in default of an heir of the body of the 
said John the same is to go to Humphrey Bohun, brother of the said 
John, and again in default of an heir the cup and ewer are to be sold, 
and five silver chalices to be bought out of the proceeds and given to 
churches in the country that require them. Leaves a cask of red 
Gascony wine or its value to the Abbey of S. Alban, the Priory, Christ 
Church, Canterbury, the House of the Salutation of the Blessed Mary 
of the Carthusian Order near London, the Priory of Walsyngham, and 
the Convent of Sapwell, he being a capitular brother of each of the said 
houses. Among other bequests he leaves one hundred pounds for the 
repair of highways between London and Hoddesdon. To Humphrey 
Bohun his son-in-law he leaves the coler of gold given to him by the 
King and silver vessels to the value of one hundred marks. Another 
coler of gold set with precious stones and pearls is to be offered at 
the shrine of the Virgin Mary at Walsyngham, whilst an ouche of gold 
set with precious stones and pearls is to be similarly offered at le Shryne 
of S. Thomas of Canterbury. His personal apparel of silk and gold, 
as well as that of Alice his late wife, to be converted into vestments 
for churches. Bequests for sermons to be preached at S. Paul's 
Cross and in the pulpit at the Hospital of S. Mary without Bisshopesgate, 
and also to clerks of the universities of Oxford and Cambridge coming 
to London to preach the word of God, so that his soul be had in 
remembrance by them. The Bishop of Lincoln, to whom he leaves his 
large Portifory and a silver-gilt cup, appointed one of his executors." 

William Estfield was one of the four Members of Parliament for 
London, 1431, and again in 1442. 

Both these Parliaments sat at Westminster, that of 1431 from 
1 2th January to 20th March, and that of 1442 from 25th January to 
27 th March. 

As one of the Members of Parliament for London in this year, 
Estfield must have conformed to the new ordinance as to a Member's 
expenses made in 1429. Dr. Sharpe, in London and the Kingdom, 

The Aldermen of Cripplegate Ward. 33 

Vol. I, pp. 273-4,' says : " Members of parliament representing the City 
of London had hitherto been allowed a certain amount of cloth and fur 
trimming at the City's expense, wherewith to dress themselves and their 
personal attendants in a manner suitable to the position they held. 
Those who had from time to time been elected members appear to have 
abused this privilege — where a yard had been given, they had literally 
taken an ell — -and it was now thought to be high time to take steps to 
check the abuse in future. Accordingly it was ordained by the mayor 
and aldermen on the 12th August of this year [1429], and the ordinance 
met with the approval of the commoners on the 29th day of the same 
month, that for the future no alderman elected to attend parliament 
should take out of the chamber or of the commonalty more than ten 
yards for gown and cloak, at 15^. the yard, and loo^-. for fur if the 
alderman had already served as mayor [Estfield served the office of 
Mayor this same year], otherwise he was to have no more than five marks. 
Commoners were to be content with five yards of cloth and 335'. \d. for 
fur. Each alderman, moreover, was to be allowed eight yards of cloth 
at 28 pence a yard for two personal attendants, and each commoner four 
yards of the same for one attendant, if the parliament was sitting in 
London or the neighbourhood, and eight yards for two attendants if 
parliament was sitting in some more remote place ' as was formerly 
ordained during the mayoralty of John Michell ' (1424-5)." 

He was son of William Estfield, of Tickhill, Yorkshire, and 
was buried, as directed by his Will, in the Church of S. Mary, 

He evidently died soon after the date of his last Will (15 March, 
1445), as his successor was appointed two months later. 

(i) A very interesting account of the mode of election of Members of Parliament 
for the City of London, and their expenses, together with a list of the Members for 
the City from a.d. 1284, is given by Dr. Sharpe in Vol. 3, Appendix B, of the above 

34 The Aldermen of Cripplegate Ward. 


Elected 27 May, 1446. 

Sheriff 1448. 

He was one of the " Knightes of the Bathe made at the Tower of 
London before the coronation of Kinge Edward the Fourthe.'" [1461] 

One of the four Wardens of the Mercers' Company, 1432, 1446, 
1450, 1456, and again in 1463. 

The following translation, extracted from the Journal,- is given as 
showing the mode of election at this period, the procedure being that 
four names were to be submitted to the Court of Aldermen on the 
nomination of the Commonalty or Freemen of the Ward, from which 
number, the Court of Aldermen selected one to be Alderman. 

Friday, 27 May, 1446. 
Mayor, Recorder, Frowick, Gedney, Pattesle, Chalton, Wandesford, 
Olney, Coumbes, Norman, Wifold, Horn, Derby, Canynges, Feldyng, 
Scot, Gregory, Forster, Wetenhale, Sutton.^ 

" Item, the same day there are nominated by the Commonalty of 
the Ward of Crepulgate the four persons underwritten, that one of them 
may be elected by the said Mayor and Aldermen into the Aldermanry 
of the Ward aforesaid, viz. : — 

Thomas Beaumond ] Of whom by the said Mayor and Aldermen 

^Matthew Philip f the aforesaid William Cantelowe was elected 

William Cantelowe ( into the Aldermanry of the Ward afore- 

fWilliam Dere ) said, no one dissenting, «&:c." 

Cantelowe was one of the four Members of Parliament for London 
in 1453, and again in 1455. The Parliament of 1453 met at Reading, and 
sat from 6 March, 1452-3, to 12 November, 1453 (three Sessions) and 
(prorogued to) Westminster 11 February to 16 March, 1454, in all four 

\\) ^lQiC2i\{€s Book of Knighis. p. 3. {2) Journal 4. fo. 129. 

(3) The names given are those of the Aldermen who were present at the election 
of Cantelowe. In the original entry in the Journal (a facsimile of which is given 
as a frontispiece to this book), it will be seen that the letter C (for Cantelowe) is placed 
over the name of every Alderman except one, who probably did not wish to vote. 

* Philip was afterwards Alderman of Aldersgate Ward, and Mayor, 1463. 

f Dere was afterwards Alderman of Dowgate Ward. 

The Alder7iien of Cripplegate Ward. 35 

Sessions, an unusually lengthy Parliament for the times. Four hundred 
days' expenses were allowed. That of 1455 sat at Westminster, from 
July, 1455, to 25 February, T456 (three Sessions). 

Although he held the office of Alderman fifteen years after he was 
elected for Cripplegate, he did not serve the office of Mayor, being 
"discharged" in October 1461, on the score of old age and infirmity. 

" He appears in his time to have had financial dealings with the 
crown, on one occasion conveying money over sea for bringing Queen 
Margaret to England, and on another supplying gunpowder to the castle 
of Cherbourg, when it was in the hands of the English. He is thought 
by some to be identical with the William Cantelowe who afterwards (in 
1464) captured Henry VI in a wood in the north of England;" but the 
known date of his death precludes this idea. One of the frequent and 
sudden outbreaks against the 'merchant stranger' took place in 1456, 
when the young Mercers of the City rose against the Lombards and 
subjected them to very rough treatment. Cantelowe, a Mercer, was sent 
for by the King, who was at Coventry, and " promptly committed to 
Dudley Castle for safe keeping, as having been implicated in the attack 
on the houses of the Italian Merchants.'" The following account of 
this is published by the Camden Society': — 

"This yere [34 Henry \T] was a grete horlynge be twene the 
mercers and Lombardes ; and then the kynge helde his Counsell at 
Coventre. And Cauntelowe, mercer and alderman, was sent ffore to 
come a fifor the kynges Counsell ; and as sone as he came he was a rested 
by the kynges commaundement, and the Baron of Dodley had him in 
kepinge in the Castell of Dudley for the mater a for wretyn." 

An inscription on a monument in S. Mary Magdalen, Milk Street, 
read as follows : — ^" Here lieth also buried in this Church Sir William 
Cantlow Knight and Sheriffe of London in the yeare 1448, who died 
in the yeare 1462."'' 

The same authority says " an ancient Familie of great repute in 
many places of this Kingdome.'' 

This Alderman came from Faversham, Kent. 

(1) London and the Kingdom. \o\. I., p. 292. 

(2) Three Fifteenth-Century Chronicles. Camd. Soc. (N.S., No. 28), p. 70. 

(3) Weei-er. p. 695. 

7,6 The Alder77ien of Cripp legate JVard. 


Elected November, 1461* 

Sheriff i^G^* Lord Mayor 1470, 

He removed from Cripplegate to Lime Street Ward on 14 
December, 1470." 

One of the four Wardens of the Mercers' Company, 1454, 1458, 
and again in 1469. 

He was elected Sheriff 20 June, 1467, in the place of Thomas 
Brice, and only held the office until the next usual annual election of 
Sheriffs, on St. Matthew's day (21 September). 

During the time that he was Mayor, the Wars of the Roses came 
to an end by the victory of Edward Duke of York, over the Lancastrians 
at Tewkesbury. Stokton, Hke most of the other Aldermen, preferred 
Edward on the throne, licentious and extravagant as he was, to an 
imbecile like Henry. On Henry's restoration he fell ill or, as Fabyan 
(a brother Alderman) puts it, feigned sickness and took to his bed, and 
Alderman Cooke (who had been Mayor in 1462, and was a strong Lan- 
castrian) assumed the duties of the Mayoralty,'' but later on Stokton was 
rewarded for his astuteness as, before his term of office came to an end, 
he, with ten of the Aldermen, were all made Knights in the field by 
Edward IV, for their good service done to him in resisting the bastard 
Falconbridge. The City's doughty Recorder was soon afterwards raised 
to be Baron of the Exchequer. ' 

He came from Bratot, Co. Lincoln. 

He was buried in St. Pancras, Soper Lane, and his Will proved 
in 1473. 

( 1 ) Journal 6. fo. 79b. 

(2) The Record slates that he was elected to the Ward of Lime Street in place of 
John Crake discharged. This may be a scribe's error, as John Croke appears to have 

been at the time Alderman of Castle Baynard Ward. 

(3) Londoti and the Kingdom. Vol. I, p. 313. 

(4) Herbert. Vol. I. p. 250. 

The Aldermen of Cripplegate Ward. 'i>l 


Elected 14 December, 1470. 
Sheriff 1467. Lord Mayor 1477. 

Knighted in his Mayoralty.' 

He was Alderman of Langbourn Ward from 18 July, 1464, till 
9 December, 1468, when by the King's (Edward IV) mandate he was 
ordered to be discharged and "to be released for ever from serving the 
office of Alderman," but as the following translation from the -Journal 
shows he was elected^by the Court of Aldermen, after that body had thrice 
rejected the nominations of persons sent up by Cripplegate Ward. 

14 December, 49 Henry VI [a.d. 1470]. 

" On that day Humfrey Hayford who was lately discharged from 
the office of Alderman by precept of Edward late King of England, is 
elected Alderman of the Ward of Cripplegate loco John Stokton, by the 
Mayor and Aldermen inasmuch as the election made by the Ward has 
been thrice rejected." 

In 1468, we find him impeached with others of treason.^ "That 
yere were meny men a pechyd of treson, both of the cytte and of othyr 
townys. Of the cytte Thomas Coke, knyght and aldyrman, and John 
Plummer, knyght and aldyrman, but the kyng gave hem bothe pardon. 

"And Umfray Hayforde, the Scheryffe of London, was a pechyd 
and loste hys cloke for the same mater; and many moo of the cytte loste 
moche goode for suche maters." 

Removed to Lime Street Ward 4 June, 1473,^ of which he remained 
Alderman till early in 1480, when probably he died. 

He was evidently a person of importance in the Goldsmiths' Com- 
pany, being third Warden in 1448, Prime Warden in 1452 and again in 
1457, second Warden in 1461, Prime Warden again in 1465 and 1467, 
and third Warden in 1474. On this occasion he is for the first time 
styled "Alderman."'' 

He was also an eminent member of the Mercers' Company. 

Son of Roger Hayford, of Stratford-le-Bow, Essex," and was buried 
in the Church of St. Edmund, Lombard Street.' 

(I) Metcalfe, p. 223. {z) Journal 8. fo. 2. 

(3) Gregory's Chronicles. (Cam. Soc. N.S., No. 17), p. 237. 

{i,) Journal 8. fo. 51b. (5) MS. Records of the Goldsmiths' Company. 

(6) Herbert. Vol. 2, p. 200. (7) Stocken MSS. 

D 2 

38 The Alder7ften of Cripplegate Ward. 

EDMUND SHAA» Goldsmith. 

Elected 16 July, 1473.' 

Sheriff 1474. Lord Mayor 1482. 

He was son of John Shaa of Dukinfield, co. Chester. 

Knighted in his Mayoralty.- 

He removed to Cheap, 24 October, 1485,'' on the death, from the 
" sweating sickness," of the Alderman of that Ward, Sir Thomas Hill, 
(who served with Shaa as Sheriff, 1474), at that time Mayor. "Hill died 
in the year of the death of King Edward V, and of the accession of 
Richard HI, and Shaa's brother (Dr. Shaw) preached a notorious sermon 
at S. Paul's Cross, in which he inveighed against the character of the late 
King, and endeavoured to excite the feeling of the citizens in favour of 
the Duke of Gloucester, as successor to the Crown. The Mayor himself 
had commercial dealings in his capacity of Goldsmith, with Gloucester, 
and was doubtless ready to give political support to one, who had also 
honoured him by making him a member of the Privy Council." 

"On 25 June, 1483, two days after the execution of Hastings and 
the arrest of Jane Shore, Richard was waited on by his creature 
Buckingham, the Lord Mayor (Edmund Shaa) of London and a 
body of the Citizens, who having been previously suborned by the 
Protector's agents, clamorously insisted on his investing himself with 
the supreme power." 

He was fourth Warden of the Goldsmiths' Company in 1466, 
third Warden in 1467, and Prime Warden in 1476, when he is for the 
first time styled " Alderman."^ 

From Stow we learn that at his decease he appointed his executors, 
" with the cost of four hundred marks, and the stuff of the old gate, 
called Cripplesgate, to build the same gate a new, which was performed 
and done in the year 1491."'^ 

Shaa directed his executors to purchase and convey to the 
Goldsmiths' Company certain property whereout to pay an annual 
quit rent of ^17 to support for ever the salary (^10) of a Priest 
cunning in grammar and able to teach it in the Parish of Stockport- 
cum-Chester alias Stockport. The remaining ^^7 the Testator directed 
to be applied to certain superstitious uses. The payments for supersti- 
tious uses were discontinued in the reign of Edward VI, and the rights 

{\) Journal 8. fo. 51b. (2) Metcalfe, p. 223. 

(2,) Journal g. fo. Qih. (4) MS. Records of the Goldsmiths' 

(5) Stow. Company. 

The Aldermen of Cripplegate Ward. 39 

of the Crown in respect of such superstitious uses were subsequently 
released to the Company by a private Act of Parhament passed in the 
fourth year of the reign of James I, and were, by Letters Patent, subse- 
quently granted to the Company by the same King. 

The annual payment of ;^io was made by the Company to the 
Master of Stockport School until about the year 1830, when the 
Company, having acquired some adjoining land at their own expense, 
greatly improved the school house and buildings, and added largely to 
the stipends of the Masters, making the School free. 

In i860 the Company, with the consent of the Charity Com- 
missioners, transferred the School to the Mayor of Stockport and 
twelve other persons, who were appointed Trustees of the Charity, and 
they settled upon the School out of their private corporate funds an 
endowment of ;^2go per annum over and above the f^^o payable 
under Shaa's \N'ills.' 

Richard III made Shaa a Privy Councillor." He appears to have 
lived in Foster Lane, where, and in the neighbouring West Chepe, the 
goldsmiths kept their shops. 

In the Memorials of the Goldsmiths' Company^ we read : — " Ex- 
penses of trumpets to go to Westminster with Master Shaa, Sheriff; of 
hats, tS:c., for the minstrels, and of a cup given to Shaa." 

He died 20 April, 148S, and was buried in the hospital church of 
St. Thomas of Aeon, where he founded a chantry for the souls of his 
wife Juliana, his son Hugh, and others. This trust, with many singular 
injunctions attached, he placed under the charge of the Mercers' 


Elected 7 November, 1485.' 

Sheriff 1488. 

Removed to Castle Baynard Ward 13 March, 1487,' and resigned 
the Aldermanry of that Ward 10 October, 1499. 

He was Master of the Grocers' Company in the years i486, 1489, 
1490, 1494 and 1498. 

He died in 1503, and was buried in the Church of St. Thomas 
of Acon.^ 

(i) MS. Records of the Goldsmiths' Company. [i,) Journal g. fo. 91b. 

(2) Diet. Nat. Biography. Vol. 51, p. 434. (5) Id., 9. fo. 143. 

(3) Vol. I, p. 25. (6) Watney. p. 174. 

40 The A/dertnen of Cripplegate IVat'd. 


Elected 14 March, mSj,' 
Sheriff 1488. 

Removed to Coleman Street Ward 14 March, 1499," and remained 
there till 10 October, 1503, when he was exonerated upon his declaring 
that the whole of his property, inclusive of "sperate"^ debts did not 
extend to ^1,000. 

Of what Livery Company he was a member, cannot be traced. 

He died 10 September, 1508, and was buried in St. Dunstan's in 
the East. 

Although Alderman for sixteen years, he never served the office of 
Lord Mayor. 


Elected 9 April, 1499.' 

Sheriff 1497. 

M.P, for London in the Parliament that sat at Greenwich, 
January, 1497. 

He was apprenticed to Sir Henry Colet, Lord Mayor, i486 (father 
of Dean Colet, the founder of the celebrated St. Paul's School), and was 
admitted to the Freedom of the Mercers' Company in 1475, Warden 
1492, and Master in 1499, and was a notable benefactor to the 

He probably died some time in 1503, as on 18 December of that 
year we find that " John Styles and Thomas Baldry, Mercers, Executors 
of the Testament of Thomas Wyndoute, Alderman and Mercer of 
London, brought in to the Wardens a standing cup, gilt, of the gift of 
the said Thomas Wyndoute, which was shewed openly in the Court. '"^ 

He was buried at St. Antholin's, Watling Street. 

{\) Journal g. fo. 143. {2) Repertory I. fo. 49. 

(3) /.£., "hopeful," in contradistinction to "desperate" or "hopeless." 
{^) Journal 10. fo. 153b. (5) Watney. p. 179. (6) Ibid. 

The Aldermen of Cripp legate Ward. 41 


Elected 16 July, 1500.' 

Sheriff 1491. Lord Mayor 1507. 

Removed to Lime Street Ward 13 April, 1504,' and remained 
there till his death, 22 March, 1508. 

One of the four W^ardens of the Mercers' Company in i486, 1497, 
and again in 1504. 

Received the honour of knighthood at London Bridge 1489. 

He died in his mayoralty, and so, singularly enough, did his 
cousin and namesake Sir William Browne, Alderman of Cordwainer 
Ward, and Lord Mayor 15 13. 

There has been some confusion as to the identity of these two 
William Brownes, but by the Will of the Alderman of Cripplegate the 
relationship seems clear. The AVill was dated 20 March, 1507, and 
proved 6 June, 1508, and in it lie describes himself as "William 
Browne the elder, Citizen and Alderman of the Citie of London," and 
desires to be buried in the parish church of Our Lady in Aldermanbury. 
He makes bequests, among others, to "my cozyn William Browne, 
Alderman, Sonne of Sir John Browne, Kt." ^ 

The family came from Oakham, co. Rutland, and seem to have 
settled in Cripplegate. Sir William Browne, the Alderman of Cripple- 
gate, was buried in the church of St. Mary, Aldermanbury, according to 
his expressed wish. The above-mentioned Sir John Browne was Master 
of the Mercers' Company, 1450, and Alderman, first of Farringdon 
Within Ward; elected 22 September, 1470; Lord Mayor 1480; removed 
to Cheap 9 June, 1488. Died i January, 1497-8, and was buried in 
the church of St. Mary Magdalen, Wood Street. 

His cousin, Sir William Browne, remained Alderman of Cordwainer 
Ward from 11 November, 1505, till his death, June, 1514, in which 
year he was one of the four Wardens of the Mercers' Company. He 
founded a chantry in the hospital church of St. Thomas of Aeon, 
where he was buried. 

(i) Journal 10. fo. 191b. (2) Id. fo. 307b. 

(3) Notes and Queries, yih Series. Vol. V., .p. 152. 

42 The Aldermen of Cripplegate Ward. 


Elected 7 May, 1504.' 
Sheriff 1500. 
Master of the Grocers' Company, 1502, and again in 1506. 
Died 1506/ and was buried in St. Magnus. 


Elected 16 October, 1506.^ 
Sheriff 1503. 

One of the four ^Vardens of the Mercers' Company, 1506. 

For some imaginary crime he was imprisoned by the King, and 
being a timorous man, soon died from excess of grief. 

He was buried in the Church of St. Alban, Wood Street, where the 
following inscription was on his monument : Pray for the soul of 
Christopher Hawes, Mercer and Alderman, of London, and Merchant 
of the Staple. Dyed 15 October, Anno. Dom. 1508.* 

THOMAS EXMEWE. Goldsmith. 

Elected 5 December, 1508.' 
Sheriff 1508. Lord Mayor 1517. 

Son of Richard Exmewe, of Ruthin, Flintshire.'^ 
He was third Warden of the Goldsmiths' Company in 1492, Prime 
Warden in 15 14, when he is described as "Alderman," and again in 1520.' 
He was Knighted during his Mayoralty. The * Records of the 
Court of Aldermen state that Thomas Exmewe, Mayor, was created a 
Knight at the Bishop of Winchester's Palace on Saturday the feast of 
St. Cuthbert, 9 Henry VHI [15 17]. 

The following is extracted from his \\'ill,^ dated 17 December, 1528, 
and proved on Monday the Feast of S. Faith, Virgin [6 Oct.], 1533 : — 

"To John Hardy, Alderman of London [Aldersgate], and Master 
of the Guild or Fraternity of S. Katherine of the Craft of Haberdashers 

{\) Journal 10. fo. 311b. (5) Repertory 2. fo. 53b. 

(2) Stocken MSS. (6) Herbert. Vol. II. p. 200. 

(3) Repertory 2. fo. 16. (7) MS. Records of the Goldsmiths' Company. 

(4) Stow. (8) Repertory 3. fo. 200. 

(9) Calendar of Wills. Vol. II, pp. 636-7. 

The Aldeiniien of Cripp legate Ward. 43 

of the City of London, and wardens of the same, a certain tenement of 
which he had become solely seised in Hogenlane in the parish of 
S. Michael in ^^^ood Street, charged with the observance of an obit 
for the souls of John Mathewe, late Yeoman of the Chamber to 
King Henry VII, citizen and baker of London, Katherine, wife of 
the same, and others, with distribution of sums of money, &c., in 
manner as directed. In case of default the property is to go over to the 
Master and Wardens of the Craft and Fellowship of Whytte Bakers of 
London under like conditions, with further remainder to the parson and 
churchwardens of the church of S. Michael aforesaid." 

Exmewe's name appears in the following interesting entry which 
relates to the devise to the Goldsmiths' Company by Sir Edmund Shaa 
of certain property subject to a charge for specific purposes, and which 
shows that the Company were not very eager to accept the Trust which 
they foresaw might prove onerous : — 

"The lande to be receyved of Dame Julyan Shaa, and of the 
executors of Sir Edmund Shaa.'' 

"Also at a sembly holden the V''' day of November the saide 
yere atte Goldesmythes Halle, it was agreed and accorded by the 
iiij Wardeyns, Sir Hugh Bryce, aldreman, Adys, Kelke, Sayles, 
Bellamy, Bulkeley, Sudbery, Clement, Pyke, Harryson, Exniewe, 
Tyrry, Ryce, Flynt, Ferby, Moldesdale, Marchall, Lowthe, Johnson, 
Jolyf, Lubbyshed, Assheley, Sampton, Randolf and Pannttey, and 
all thei grannted atte the request of Thomas Ryche, mercer, in 
the name of the said Dame Julyan and alle thexcutours of Sir 
Edmunde Shaa that if the Crafte of Goldsmythes might have 
XLli of land clere towards the vacacion and reparacions of XVII li 
of annuite yerely to be paide aftyr the wille and testament of the 
said Sir Edmunde Shaa that then the said Feleship shulde take of 
the said executours the said lande.'" 

" He made the water conduit in London ^Vall by Moorgate. "^ 

He died in 1529, and was buried in the Church of S. Mary 
Magdalen, Milk Street. 

(i) MS. Records of the Goldsmiths' Company. 
(2) Herbert. Vol. II, p. 200. 

44 ^^2^' Aldermen of Cripp legate Ward. 

WILLIAM FORMAN. Haberdasher. 

Elected 2 March, 1529/ 

Sheriff 1533. Lord Mayor 1538. 

Son of William Forman, of Gainsborough, Lincolnshire. 

Knighted 18 October, 1537.' 

He was one of the four Members for London in the Parliament of 
1545, being elected in February, 1546, in the place of Alderman 
Roche, who had been committed to prison. This Parliament met at 
Westminster, and sat from 23 November, 1545, to 31 January, 1547, 
and although a comparatively lengthy one, had but two Sessions, from 
23 November to 24 December, 1545, and 14 January, 1547, until dis- 
solved by the King's death, 31 January following. 

Forman did not hold the position long, as we find that in con- 
sequence of "being unable to attend Parliament through illness," Sir 
Richard Gresham was elected in his place 10 November in the 
same year. 

Musters of the Citizens were frequent in the reign of Henry the 
Eighth and Queen Elizabeth. An account of the muster of the Citizens 
on the 8th of May, 1539, the 31st of Henry the Eighth, is given at 
length in \he Journal 14, fo. 164-168. "They marched from Mile End 
to Whitehall, and from thence to Leadenhall, Wyllyam fforman, knyght 
& lorde mayer of the Cytye yn bryght harnes whereof the curass the 
maynsers gaunteletts & all other ptes were gylt upon the crests & 
bordures And ov* that he had a cote of blak velvett w^ a ryche cross 
embroderyd & a great massy chayne of golde abowte hys necke And on 
his head a cappe of blacke velvett w' a ryche Juell; he had a goodly 
Jenett rychely trapped, w' embrodery of golde sette upon crymsyn 
velvett, aboute hym attendyd iiij fote men all appelled w*^ whyte satten 
hose & all puffed oute with whyte sarcenet." 

He died 13 January, 1547, and was buried in the Church of 
St. George, Botolph Lane, where a monument was erected to his 

(i) Repertory 8. fo. 24. (2) Stocken MSS. 

(3) Catalogue of Tombs, p. 36. 

The Aldermen of Cripp legate Ward. 45 

AUGUSTINE HYNDE. Clothworker, 

Elected 3 March, 1547.' 

Sheriff 1550« 

Elected for Farringdon Ward Without 13 April, 1546. He refused 
to accept office, and was committed to Newgate by the Court of 
Aldermen, and his windows and shops were ordered to be closed. 
After two days' imprisonment he altered his mind and was duly sworn 
into office 15 April. 

On the same day the Court of Aldermen resolved that for divers 
reasonable considerations " hath thys day lovyngly grantyd (as moche 
as in theym ys) that he shall be clerely respyted and dyscharged " from 
the shrievalty for "thre hole yeres" and to have until Whitsuntide to 
provide his apparel, &c.^ 

As will be noted, he afterwards duly served the office of Sheriff. 

His widow married Sir John Lyon, Kt., Alderman of Queenhithe 
Ward, who was elected i March, 1547, and died 1564, and who had 
been co-Sheriff with Hynde in 1550. 

He was Master of the Clothworkers' Company 1545. 

By his Will dated 23 June, 1554, he gave (inter alia) to the Cloth- 
workers' Company, the sum of ^100 upon condition to lend the same 
to four young men of the Company, jQ2'^ to each for three years 
upon good security. In the year 1569, Lady Lyon also gave to the 
Company the sum of jQ2o for "loan money." 

He died 10 August, 1554, and was buried in the Parish Church of 
St. Peter Cheap, at the South-West corner of Wood Street, in Farringdon 
Ward Within, where a monument was erected to his memory, with the 
following inscription : — 

" Here under this Stone lieth Buried the Body of Augustine Hinde, 
Clothworker, Alderman, and late Sheriffe of London. Who deceased 
the tenth day of August, Anno Domini, 1554. 

" Here also lieth Dame Elizabeth his Wife, by whom he had issue 
foure Sons and two Daughters. Which Dame Elizabeth deceased the 
12 day of July, An. Dom. 1569. 

" God grant us all such Race to run 
To end in Christ as they have done."^ 

{\) Repertory II. fo. 313. (2) /</. fos. 254-255. (3) Stow. 

46 The Aldermen of Cripplegate Ward. 

JOHN WHYTE. Grocer. 

Elected 30 August, 1554'' 

Sheriff 1556. Lord Mayor 1563* 

Knighted in his Mayoralty." Son of Robert Whyte, of Farnham, 
Surrey, and brother of John Whyte, Bishop of Winchester, who was 
committed to the Tower in April, 1559, and upon being released in 
July of the same year, was allowed to repair to his brother's house. 
Machyn in his Diary says : "this being an instance (to which there are 
many parallels) of two brothers bearing the same Christian name." 

Removed to Broad Street Ward 29 March, 1558,^ and to Cornhill 
Ward 27 February, 1567,^ remaining there until his death, 9 June, 
1573. He was President of Bridewell and Bethlehem Hospitals from 
1568 till 1573. 

He was Master of the Grocers' Company, 1560, and Member 
of Parliament for London, 1571. 

His first wife, Sibell, was sister of Sir Thomas Whyte, the eminent 
Merchant Taylor (Lord Mayor, 1553), who founded Merchant Taylors' 
School and St. John's College, Oxford. 

His Mayoralty occurred during one of the great plague years (there 
were 1,163 burials in St. Giles', Cripplegate, in that year) and no feast 
was held on Lord Mayor's Day in consequence. 

Stow states : " The great frost and Thames over-frozen this year." 

The following concerning Sir John Whyte, and his beard and bonnet 
is interesting : " Syr Thomas Lodge, beynge Mayr of London, ware a beard, 
and was y^ fyrst that (beynge Mayr of London,) ever ware eny, y'' whiche 
was thowght to mayny people very straynge to leve y" cumly aunsyent 
custom of shavynge theyr beards ; nevartheles he ware y*" comly auncient 
bonet with iiij cornars as all othar his predysesowrs had done before hym. 
. . . But y^ next yere afftar Ser John Whit, beynge mayre, ware bothe a 
longe beard and allso a rownd cape that wayed not iiij ouncis, whiche 
semyd to all men, in consyderation of y*" auncient bonyt, to be very 
uncomly." '" 

He was buried at South Wanborough, Hants, where there was a 
monumental inscription to his memory. 

(i) Repertory I J. Pari I, fo. 195. (2) Metcalfe, p. 118. 

(3) Repertory 14, fo. 19b. (4) Repertory 16, fo. 16b. 

(5) T/irce Fifteenth Century CJironiclcs. pp. 1 27-8. 

The Aldermen of Cripplegate Ward. 47 


Elected 31 March, 1558.' 

Sheriff 1561. Lord Mayor 1569. 

He was son of Robert Avenon, of King's Norton, \\'orcestershire,- 
and was knighted at Somerset House during his Mayoralty.^ 

Removed to Farringdon Within \\'ard 12 December, 1566,^ and to 
Bread Street Ward 27 May, 1578.' 

President of Bridewell and Bethlehem Hospitals from 1573 till his 
death in 1580, and Treasurer of S. Bartholomew's for the year 1555-6. 
He was Master of the Ironmongers' Company eight times between 1559 
and i578.'" 

On his accession to office as Lord Mayor, he was presented to the 
Lieutenant of the Tower at the outer gate, by writ, 18 October.' 

"His first wife Elizabeth died 7 July, 1570, but he was not incon- 
solable, for we find by the Registers of Allhallow's Bread Street that 
within a few days of the close of his Mayoralty he married again. 
The entry runs: — 'Anno 1570, October 22, was married Sir Alexander 
Avenon, Lord Mayor and Mistress Blundon, widow, by license within 
his own house.' ' Mistress Blundon's ' first husband was Hugh Methwold, 
Mercer, and her second John Blundon, also a Mercer. She died 
21 November, 1574. Sir Alexander married a third time to Agnes 
Sampto, who probably survived him.^ 

The following are extracts taken from the History oj the Iron- 
mofigers' Company. The first refers to the burial of his first wife, and 
the second and third to the duty cast upon the Livery Companies of 
the City, of raising men for service under the Crown. 

"1570. It is agreed that Robert (ioodyng and Giles Carton shalbe 
stewards for the buryall dynnar of the Lady Maris of London, which 
dynnar to be kept at hir buriall daye, viz. the xvij. of Julye, at oure hall, 
and the Lord Mayor, Sir Alexander Avenon, gave to the same dynner 
the somme of .syxe pounds, thirteen shillings, and foure pence."* 

(l) Repertory 14. fo. 20I). [z] History of the IrouDiongers' Coinpauy. p. 51S. 

(3) Metcalfe, p. 124. (4) Repertory 16. fo. 147I). (5) Repertory ig. fo. 34b. 

(6) History of the IrotiDiougers'' Company, p. 518. (7) Re>?iembtancia. y>- ^,12. 

(8) History of the lron?)iongers' Company, pp. 518-19. (9) IJ., p. 98. 

48 The Aldermen of Cripp legate Ward. 

We find amongst "the parcelles of plate that was layd to plege the 
xxij day of May, in the xxxvi"" yere of the reygne of our souraynge lord 
King Henry the viii"' when the Company ffound xiiij men in harnes to 
goe over the see w"' the kyngs army in to France, that was iiij bowmen 
and x byll men, w"' all ther — that is to say, howsse, dubletts, cotts, hatts 
of blew and red, aff the Duke of Norfolk's facyon," a cup that had been 
a present from Sir Alexander Avenon. It is described as follows : — 

" A standyng gylt cvp with a coii, wayng xxv vncs. at iij"" the vnc. 
graven w"' a rose and peulyo"', sma v''.'" 

With other Aldermen and the Liverymen of the various Companies, 
he had to do his share in carrying out the precept of the Lord Mayor 
in which he set forth " Her Majesty's [Elizabeth's] pleasure to have 
three thousand ' able and well ppared menn for the defence of the relme 
uppon any ymonynent occasion,' and commanding them to provide one 
hundred and ten of that number, ' apt, able, and of honest behavour, 
Ixxij to be furneshed w"' shott, a caluy'', flask, toche, murryn, sword, a 
dagg'^, and a pound of powder,' and to be of those that were by a former 
order trained by the Company at their charges. 'And xxviii. the residue 
to be sufificently furnished for armid pikes, w"" corslett, pike, sword, and 
dagg'', to be in redines by the xxxj of the pnt Feb'y, by viij of the clock 
in the morning.' "- 

Three of the Aldermen, amongst whom was Sir Alexander Avenon, 
had to " fynde twoo men a-pece." 

He kept his Mayoralty at a house in the parish of All Hallows, 
Bread Street. 

His daughter married Thomas Starkey, who was afterwards Alder- 
man of Bridge Without and Cordwainer Wards successively. 

His son and heir married Clare, daughter of Sir James Harvey, 
Lord Mayor in 1581. The marriage appears to have been the subject 
of considerable correspondence between the Lord Mayor and Aldermen 
and the Lords of the Council.^ 

He died in 1580, and was buried at St. Peter's at the Cross, 

(l) History of the Ironmongers^ Coinpaiiy. p. 63. (2) Id. p. 104. 

(3) Rei)ieiiil>rancia. pp. 312-14. 

"The Aldermen of Cj'ipplegate Ward. 49 

ROWLAND HAYWARD, Clothworker, 

Elected 17 December, 1566.' 
Sheriff 1563. Lord Mayor 1570 and 1591. 

He was son of George Hayward, of Bridgnorth, co. Salop. 

Elected Alderman of Farringdon Ward Without 19 Septem- 
ber, 1560.'' 

Removed to Queenhithe Ward 26 September, 1564,^ to Cripplegate 
1566, Lord Mayor 1570, in which year he was knighted;^ he removed 
from Cripplegate to Lime Street Ward 23 October, 1571,^ remaining 
there until his death, 5 December, 1593. He served the office of Lord 
Mayor a second time, during September and October of the year 1591, 
upon the decease of Sir John Allot. 

He was one of the four Members of Parliament for London elected 
in 1572. This Parliament met at Westminster, and sat from 8 May, 
1572, to 24 April, 1583, but there were four Sessions only in the eleven 
years. The Journals of the House of Commons mark him out as a 
Member of exceptional ability and distinction. He was prominent on 
the Joint Committee of the Lords and Commons appointed to consider 
what was to be done with Mary Queen of Scots ; and equally so on the 
Commons' Committee for granting a subsidy, and on the numerous 
Committees dealing with various branches of trade. 

On February 17, 1572, a commission was entrusted to "sir 
John White and sir Rolande Heywarde, aldermen of London, Thomas 
Wilson, master of the court of requests, David Lewys, chief judge of the 
admiralty court, and seven others, to ascertain what English property 
has been arrested in Spain since Dec. 28, 1568.'"' 

Master of the Clothworkers' Company in 1559, and one ot the 
twelve citizens appointed to attend as assistants to the Chief Butler at 
the coronation of Queen Mary, 1553, and of Queen Elizabeth in 1558. 

He resided in Philip Lane, London Wall, adjoining to St. Alphage 
Church, being the site of Elsynge Spittle, which was conveyed to him 
for the sum of ^700 by Margery, daughter of Lord ^Villiams and wife 
of Lord Norrys. 

(l) Repertory ib. fo. 150b. (2) Repertory 14. to. 378b. 

(3) Repertory ij. fo. 376b. (4) Metcalfe, p. 125. 

(5) Repertoty ij. fo. 216. (6) Syllabus of Rytners Ftedera. \'ol. 2, p. 807. 

50 The Aldermen of Cripplegate Ward. 

In 1560 he was possessed of the Manor of Over Seile in Leicester- 
shire, also in 1561 of the Manor of Appleby Parva, in the same 
county. In 1574 he held the Manor of Cheyneys Court, Chart Sutton, 
Kent. In 1583 the Manor of Hackney was conveyed to him, and in 
1596 was disposed of by his executors to the Countess of Oxford. Queen 
Elizabeth held her Court and stayed at his house, at Hackney, on her 
way to Theobalds, in 1587. 

In his first Mayoralty Queen Elizabeth opened the Royal Exchange 
(on the 22 January, 157 1). "The Queens Majesty, accompanied with 
her Nobility, came to Sir Thomas Gresham's in Bishopsgate Street, 
where she dined, and after returning through Cornhill entered the 
' Burse,' which place she caused by an Herald to be proclaimed the 
Royal Exchange." 

He was elected President of St. Bartholomew's Hospital 30 August, 
1572, and retained the office till his death. At a meeting of the whole 
of the Governors of the Royal Hospitals, held at Christ's Hospital in 
1587, he was elected "Comptroller General of Hospitals." This 
appointment appears to have been confirmed by the Court of Aldermen. 
His daughter Joan married Sir John Thynne of Longleat (ancestor of 
the Marquis of Bath), her mother was a daughter of Sir Richard 
Gresham, Mayor 1537, and sister of Sir Thomas Gresham. 

When he relinquished the office of Lord Mayor the second time, 
although he must have been a very old man, he still continued most 
active as a magistrate, right up to the date of his death, which occurred 
at his Manor House at Hackney, 5 December, 1593. 

By his Will he requested " that his sinful carcase might be buried 
where his executors should think most convenient," and they chose the 
Church of St. Alphage, London Wall, which benefited considerably 
under his Will. 

vStow says there is a very good monument on the south wall of the 
Choir of St. Alphage with the inscription : — " Here lieth the body of Sir 
Rowland Hayward, Knight, twice Lord Maior of this City of London, 
and living an Alderman the space of thirty yeres; and (at his death) the 
ancientest Alderman in the said City. He lived beloved of all good 
Men, and died (in great Credit and Reputation) the fifth day of December 
Ann. Dom. 1593, and the 36 yere of our Soveraigne Lady Queene 
Elizabeth. He had two vertuous \\'ives, and by them many happy 
children." This monument is still to be seen in the church. 

The Aldei'men of Cripplegate Ward. 51 


Elected 6 November, 1571.' 
Sheriff 1571. Lord Mayor 1580. 

Knighted in his Mayoralty,^ 5 February, 1581. 

He seems to have been a prominent Citizen, and was " marked " 
against his wish as one of the coming Aldermen, and to avoid this 
unwished for honour he possibly appealed to the Queen to protect him, 
which she did, as would appear by the following entry in the Records 
of the Court of Common Council : — '' 

"Tuesday, 11 April. [12 Elizabeth.] 

" Item at this Courte the Quenes Ma''"^ Lres addressed unto the 
same in the favor of John Braunche, Cyttizen and drap. of this Cytty 
of London, to be clerely and whoUey discharged of and from the sevall 
offices of Aldermanship and Shervaltye of the same Cyttie, was openly 
and distinctly redd, after the redinge and dellbte debate in t of the 
contents whereof the said Courte wolde in no wise agree thereunto." 

The Queen's letter is dated 16 March, 1570, and requests that he 
may be discharged "in suche sorte that ffrome hensfourthe he be not 
electyd." Nevertheless, when the Aldermanry of Cripplegate became 
vacant by the translation of Rowland Hayward to Lime Street Ward 
Braunche was one of four nominated by the Freemen of Cripplegate to 
the Court of Aldermen — who elected him Alderman of that Ward. He 
seems to have reconciled himself to the position, duly serving the office 
of Sheriff and Lord Mayor as stated above. 

It seems that on entering upon his mayoralty the usual dinner 
was not given, for which omission he was called to account, as on the 
30 October, 1580, a letter was received from the Lords of the Council 
addressed to the Lord Mayor and Aldermen, "desiring to know why the 
ancient and honourable Feast of the Lord Mayor had been omitted, 
without permission or allowance of the Privy Council, and directing that 
some person well instructed should be sent to attend the Council, and 
explain the cause."* To which the Lord Mayor replied the following day, 
that the " Feast had been omitted, not on account of any sparing, but 
lest, through the feeble state of his health, he should not be able to bear 
the pain requisite. The day being a fish day, which could not be 

(i) Repertory ij. fo. 224. (2) Metcalfe, p. 134. 

(3) [oiirnal ig. fo. 239b. (4) ReDiemhrancia. p. 205. 

52 The A/dermen of Cripplegate Ward. 

altered, if the Feast had been holden pubHcly, it must have been either 
with offence to the laws and orders in force, in respect of diet, or with 
great dishonour to the State, for lack of seemly provision. He intended 
to invite them on some more convenient day. It had not been usual to 
obtain permission of Her Majesty or the Council to omit the Feast.'" 

Braunche petitioned to be discharged from his Aldermanry, which 
the Court of Aldermen granted 20 October, 1586. 

The entry in the Repertory '' is as follows : — 

"Thursday 20th October. [28 Elizabeth.] 

" Item this daye Sr. John Braunche, Knighte, Alderman of this 
Cyttye came psonallye into this Courte and made his earnest suite that 
in respect of his age, weakenes, and other infirmityes of bodye whereby 
he is unable to supplye the place of an Aldreman declaringe hymselfe 
bownd in conscience to yelde up his place. That yt wolde please thys 
Courte to accepte and allowe of hys surrender and gyvynge over the 
roome and place of Alderman of ye Warde of Creplegate whereof he is 
nowe Alderman, and of the roome and place of Alderman within this 
Cyttie for ever, of whyche request this Courte after due consideracon 
had, did very well allowe and accepte of; And thereupon have ordered 
that the righte honorable the Lorde Maior shall forthwith procede to 
the eleccon of an Alderman of the same Warde of Creplegate in the 
place of the said Sr. John Braunche." 

In Metcalfe's Book of Knights we read that " S"" John Braunche, 
Maior of London, was dubbed knight at Westm. on Shrove Sonday 
the fifte day of February 1580 " (old style). 

He resided in Nicholas Lane, and was son of John Braunche, 
draper, of London, and grandson of John Braunche, of Laynham, 
Suffolk.'' He died 24 July, 1588, aged seventy-three, and was buried 
in S. Mary Abchurch,^ where a monument was erected to his memory. 

Note. — An interesting account of an assault made upon Braunche, by Sir Thomas 
Lodge, Alderman of Cheap Ward, will be found in the chapter devoted to an account 
of the punishments for insulting aldermen. 

(1) Remcmbrancia. p. 2o6. (3) Herbert. Vol. I, p. 437. 

(2) Repertory 21. fo. 345b. (4) Catalogue of To»il'S. p. I4. 

The Alderme7i of Cripp legate Ward. 53 


Elected 28 October, 1586.' 

Sheriff 1586. 

Removed to Dowgate Ward 28 March, 1588.' 

By his Will, dated 22 August, 1592,^ he gave to the Mercers' 
Company a bason and ewer, parcel gilt, with his arms on it, weighing 
83 oz., and a little gilt standing cup weighing 15 oz. He was Warden 
of the Company in 1582, Master in 1586 and 1592. By his Will he 
also gave ^i^ioo to the Company to be lent to two young freemen, the 
interest to be paid to the poor almsmen of the College founded by 
Sir Richard Whittington, besides bequeathing ;!^8oo to Christ's 
Hospital for charitable purposes, and jQdo to the Universities of 
Oxford and Cambridge. 

His widow married Thomas Owen, Justice of the Court of Common 

He died 31 October, 1593, in his seventieth year, and was buried 
in St. Michael's, Queenhithe. 

JOHN CATCHER. Pewterer. 

Elected 1 April, 1588.' 

Sheriff 1587. 

He was elected Sheriff 26 July, 1587, and served the office with 
Thomas Skinner, Lord Mayor, 1596. 

In 1596 he appears to have been in financial difficulties, which 
necessitated his discharge from the Aldermanry. 

On the 24 June, 1596, the Court of Aldermen appointed a 
Committee to confer with him touching his place of Alderman, and 
report their opinions. In the meantime he seems to have presented 
a petition to the Court setting forth his financial diffculties, and on 
23 July, as appears by the following extract, he was discharged: — 

" Item This daie M"" Ketcher . Aldran of the Ward of Creple- 
gate for sondry respects to this Co'te well known And likewise 

{\) Repertory 21. fo. 353. {2) Id. fo. 540. (3) Watney. p. 200. 

(4) Repertory 21. fo. 541. 

E 2 

54 The Aldermen of Cripp legate Ward. 

at his own earnest [request] made to this Co'te did surrender and 
yeld upp to this Co''te his said roome and place of an Alderman 
w''^in this Citty, of w'^^ surrender this Co''te did accepte. And 
thereupp yt is ordred y' y^ lord Maior shall forthw'!' procead to the 
nomynacon of an Alderman in the said warde of Creplegate in the 
place of the said M' Ketcher.'" 

On 27 July his successor, Thomas Skinner, was translated from 
Bishopsgate to Cripplegate Ward. 

His petition, which was referred to a Committee for consideration, 
is not set out in the Repertory, but from the Committee's Report pre- 
sented to the Court on the 9 August,^ the following particulars are 
obtained: — "Whereas Mr. 'Katcher' in his petition declares the losses 
and inconvenyence to have happened unto him by undertaking the 
office of Shrievalty, by w*^'' namely he obiecteth the losse of his trade, 
a losse happened unto him by reason of an escape oute of Newgate 
and charges growing hereby a fyne assessed uppon him in the Starr 
Chamber and xxx weekes imprisonm' for the same. As also the 
ordinary exp'ture of that place in that year of 88 fell hevily and 
extraordinarily uppon him to the increase of his losse," he also 
stated that a loan of ;^3oo had formerly been promised him and had 
not been granted. 

In consideration of his allegations the Committee now recom- 
mended the said loan should be granted to him, and also a lease of 
the " Stockes " for thirty years. The Court readily agreed to the 
Report, and referred the same to the City Lands Committee for 
performance accordingly. 

He lived in Lothbury, in the house that had formerly belonged to 
the Abbots of St. Albans, 

He died in 1602, and was buried in the Church of St. Peter 
le Poer. 

(l) Repertory 2j. fos. 548, S6ib. (2) /</. fos. 563b, 566. 

The Aldermen of Cripp legate Ward. 55 

THOMAS SKINNER. Clothworker. 

Elected 27 July. 1596.^ 
Sheriff 1587. Lord Mayor 1596. 

He was son of John Skinner, of Saffron Waldron, and married 
Blanche, daughter of William Watson, merchant to Queen Elizabeth. 

He was Sheriff, conjointly with John Catcher, and succeeded him 
in the Aldermanry of Cripplegate on the latter being discharged. 
He removed from Bishopsgate, where he had been elected 28 Sep- 
tember, 1587.- 

Master of the Clothworkers' Company, 1584. 

Shortly after the month of November, 1588, Alderman Skinner was 
detained in custody for disobedience to an Order of the Queen in 
Council, and was suspected to be one of those that upon retirement out 
of the City, or some other cause, refused to contribute what was allotted 
him towards Her Majesty's Loan from the City. 

The Queen (Elizabeth) interfered with the ordinary course of elec- 
tion of Lord Mayor as will be seen by a " Letter (dated ist Sept., 1596) 
from the Aldermen to Mr. Alderman Skinner informing him of her 
Majesty's desire that Mr. Alderman Billingsley should not be elected to 
the office of Lord Mayor for the following year, and requesting him to re- 
pair to London not later than the 7 th or 9th of September to confer with 
them touching his election to that office," which he accordingly did, and 
was elected Lord Mayor, but died on the 30 December of the same year. 
The following is a verbatim copy of this quaint letter^ : — 


It is not vnknowen vnto yo" what message hath been delivered vnto us from y^ 
Q. Ma''° toutching y'^ omission of M' Alderman BiHingsley not to bee elected to y'= 
place of Maio'' for this year following and what paines wee have taken to prevent the 
same as a thing inconvenient and very preiudiciall not only to yo'^self but to this whole 
Cytie Whearin having vsed all our best means for hir highnes satisfaction & the 
reteyning of o'' auncient coustoom in electing of him who is next in succession aswell 
by soom other of the LL: of y*^ Counsell as by the speciall and earnest solicitacon of 
y'= right honourable the L: High Treasurer who having moved hir highnes at divers 
times & specially of late w"> the assistance of our very good L: the L: Keeper of the 
great Seal in very honourable and earnest manner and fynding hir Mat'<= to be fully 
resolved to hould on hir pourpose for his pretermission and greatly offended that shee 
should bee farther importuned hearabout as his Lp. now lately hath signified vnto vs 
wee thought very meet to acquaint yo"" hearwithall to whom yt matter doth specially 
concern beeing y« next w"'out all contradiction to supply that place whearin as wee 
hope yo"' will take in good part o^ Brotherly care & earnest endevour to have satisfied 
hir highnes (if it might have been) and to prevent this bourden that in due order & of 
very necessitie is to light vpon yo"', soe wee dought not but yo'"' wilbee carefull to 
prepare yo''self to bee well fournished of all such necessaries as y<= place requireth to 
y* contentment of y^ Q. Ma''*^ & hir honourable Counsell, yo'' own credit & y*' hono"^ 

(i) Repertory 23. fo. 562. (2) Kepcrtoty 21. fo. 471b. 

(3) RemeDibrancia II. 165. 

56 The Aldermen of Cripplegate IVard. 

of this Cytie for W^^ cause wee ar very earnestlie to intreat yo'"' to repaier hither with 
all convenient speed that yo"' male bee hear with vs by y'^ 7"' daie or 9"' at the farthest 
of this moneth of September that wee male conferr & deliberate w"' yo" toutching y'^ 
proceeding in this your election. And hearof wee intreat yo"' by no means to faile, 
from London the first of Sept. 1596. 

Vo"^ loving bretheren & assured good friends 
To o'' very loving friend and Brother etc. 
M'' Alderman Skynner. 

During Skinner's year of office the City was threatened with a famine. 
The citizens generally w'ere in a poverty-stricken state, so much so that 
many who had been well off had to considerably reduce their expendi- 
ture, whilst others had to relinquish their trades and break up their 
households; and although wheat was offered at a very moderate price, 
many were too poor to purchase any. 

At this time the Queen appHed to the City to provide ten ships 
for the public service, a war with Spain in the Netherlands being 
then proceeding. Earlier in the year the Queen had made demands 
upon the Londoners for soldiers to assist her to reinforce the town 
of Flushing, which as usual had been complied with, but the demand 
for ships at the close of the year had to be refused. The City's reply 
to the Queen's Council set forth the utter inability of the citizens, 
however willing they might be, to supply more ships. "They had 
already expended on sea service alone, and irrespective of their dis- 
bursements in 1588 [Armada year] no less a sum than 100,000 marks 
within the last few years, so that the Lords of the Council would see 
that the citizens had not been wanting in good will and affection 
towards that service." The City was in debt to the extent of ^14,000, 
and so were quite unable to assist the Queen. 

He left by Will to the Clothworkers' Company the sum of ^20 for 
a dinner after attending his funeral, and to the several Hospitals in and 
about London ;£i2o to be equally divided among them. He was also 
a liberal benefactor to Emmanuel College, Cambridge. 

Stow says that he was buried in the Church of St. Mary ALagdalen, 
Milk Street, and that a handsome monument erected to his memory bore 
the following inscription : — " Here lieth y^ Corpes of Thomas Skynner 
late Citizen & Alderman of Londo, borne at Saffron Walden in Essex 
who in the 65 yeare of his age & on the 30 day of Decebr A° Dm 1596 
being then Lo Mayor of this Citye deptd this Life leaving behinde him 
3 Sonnes & 3 daughters." 

Two of his sons, John and Thomas, were knighted on the corona- 
tion of James I, at Whitehall, 23 July, 1603.' 

(i) Metcalfe, p. 147. 

The Aldermen of Cripp legate Ward. 57 

ROBERT HAMPSON. Merchant -Taylor. 

Elected 10 February, 1597,' 

Sheriff 1598, 

Removed to Dowgate Ward 19 June, 1602.^ 

Knighted by James I at Whitehall, 26 July, 1603.^ Warden of the 
Merchant Taylors' Company, 1588, and again in 1594. 

Elected Treasurer of St. Bartholomew's Hospital 20 September, 
1596, resigning his office upon becoming Alderman. In the year 
1607 the Hospital received a legacy of ^20 under his Will. 

He was one of eight prominent Merchant Taylors who at a 
meeting of citizens, 22 September, 1599, held at Founders' Hall, under 
the presidency of the Lord Mayor (Sir Stephen Soame), supported the 
project of establishing a company to trade with the East Indies — 
himself subscribing ;^3oo — the full title of the company being The 
Governors and Company of Merchants Trading with the East Indies, 
afterwards generally known as the East India Company.' 

In the Memorials of the Merchant Taylors' Company, p. 539, there 
is the following quaint entry in connection with Robert Hampson's 
election as Sheriff: — "Mr. Robert Hampson, a worP" member of the 
Societie, doth presently supply the roome of one of the Sheriffs of this 
Cytty for the present year, by a note lately received from the Yeldhall, 
under the hand of one of my Lord Mayor's clerks. The Merchantailors 
Company are to provide for the Lord Mayor's feaste, as followeth viz : — 
Sixteene psons to sitt at Mr Sheriff's table, viz: the third table. Six 
psons to welcome guests. Two to attend the kitchen. Tenn of the 
comliest young men of the yeomanry to attend the lo:dresser for 
carrying of meate and lynnen and plate to the Judges. Remember 
to gyve knowledge to the tenn wayters that there is noe breakfast 
(pvided for them at the feaste." 

He died 2 May, 1607, aged sixty-nine, and was buried in the 
Church of St. Mary-at-Hill. He was the ancestor of the Hampsons 
of Buckinghamshire. 

(i) Repertory 24. fo. 31. (2) Repertory 2^. fo. 410b. 

(3) Metcalfe, p. 151. 
(4) History 0'^ the Merchant Taylors^ Company, Part I, p. 255. 

58 The Aldermen of Cripp legate Wai'd. 

JOHN SWYNNERTON. Merchant-Taylor. 

Elected 22 June, 1602/ 

Sheriff 1602, Lord Mayor 161 2* 

Son of John Swynnerton, of Oswestry, Salop, and was born about 
1566; he travelled in Spain in his youth, and was Farmer of the impost 
on wines, on or before 1594, a post from which he acquired vast 
profits; was M.P. for Petersfield, 1601, and for East Grinstead, 

Knighted at Whitehall, 26 July, 1603.^ 

He resided in the same house (in Aldermanbury) in which Sir 
William Estfield (Mayor 1429 and 1437) lived and died. 

When Master of the Merchant Taylors' Company, he entertained 
James I and his Queen, at a cost to the Company of ;i^ 1,061 5^. \d. 
It was for this entertainment, that Dr. John Bull (Music Lecturer of 
Gresham College) wrote the National Anthem (God save the King), 
July 16, 1607. 

The pageant, entitled "Troia Nova Triumphans," written by 
Thomas Dekker, was performed on his accession to office as Mayor, 
on which occasion he entertained the Count Palatine, afterwards hus- 
band of the Princess Elizabeth, daughter of James I, and presented 
him, in the name of the City, with a bason and ewer, gilt, weighing 
234 ozs. 3 grs. ; and a pair of "dansk Potts, chased and cheseld," 
weighing 513^ ozs. \ gr., "having the armes of the City and the wordes 
Civitas London engraved thereon in divers places. 

The pageant performed at the opening of the New River during 
his Mayoralty was written by Thomas Middleton, the well-known 
dramatist, and referred to the great work then just completed, the 
New River, or as it was called, " The Running Streame, from Amwell 
Head into the Cisterne neere Islington." A namesake of the dramatist 
succeeded Swynnerton as Lord Mayor. 

He was Master of the Merchant Taylors' Company, 1606, 
and was one of the founders of the East India Company, subscribing 
for that purpose ^300 at the meeting held at Founders' Hall, 
22 September, 1599. 

(i) Repertory 2S. fo. 411. (2) Metcalfe, p. 151. 

The Aldermen of Cripp legate Ward. 59 

On the trained bands being divided into four regiments in 1616, 
Sir John Swinnerton was given the. command of one. 

In his Will he is described as of Stanway Hall, Essex, which he 
devised to his eldest son. 

He left a rent charge of 2s. i \d. arising out of an estate near 
Colchester to the parish of S. Alphage, Cripplegate, to be distributed to 
the poor in bread every Sabbath day. 

Died 8 December, 161 6, and was buried in the church of St. Mary, 


Elected 19 February, 1617.' 

Sheriff 1617. 

He was one of the Committee of the East India Company 16 15, 
16 18, 161 9, and Governor 1620 till his death, 14 March, 1624, aged 
fifty-eight years. 

He was nephew of Sir Leonard HoUiday, Mayor 1605, and built 
Corsham House, Wiltshire, and endowed an Alms House there. 

Warden of the Mercers' Company in 1606, and Master 161 7, 
and again in 1624. 

By his Will, dated 16 December, 1623, he gave ^200 to the 
Company to be lent, free of interest, to two young freemen. He also 
gave to the Company ^50 to provide a funeral dinner. From the 
second Warden's accounts for the year 1623-4, it appears that a dinner 
was provided at the Hall on the 18 March, 1623, costing ^27 85-. 3^/., 
and that with the remainder of the ^50 were purchased three nests of 
wine bowls, which were sold in 1642.- 

He was buried in S. Lawrence Jewry. ^ 

JOHN HUDSON.^ Upholder. 

Elected 6 April, 1624/ 

Discharged 8 April upon the payment of a fine of ^500. 

(l) Repertory 33. fo. 60. (2 and 3) Watney. p. 207. 

(4) His name was thus spelt in the entry of his election, but is afterwards found 
in the Repertory as "Hodgson." 

{z,) Repertory 3S. fo. 95b. 

6o The Aldermen of Cripp legate Ward. 

THOMAS OVERMAN. Leatherseller, 

Elected 13 April, 1624. 

Discharged upon the payment of a fine of ^700. 

The following is the report of the Lord Mayor as to the election 
and the petition of Overman (on the same day) for " discharge." 
"Court of Aldermen. Tuesday 13 April, 1624. 

"Item this daie the right honorable the Tord Maior made report 
unto this Court, that his Lordshipp sittinge this daie in the Ward of 
Cripplegate for the noiacon of an Aldran in place of John Hodgson 
Esqre late sworne Aldran of that Warde. The Inhabitants thereof 
did nomiate Thomas Overman, Leatherseller, *Marke Snellinge, 
Woodmonger, *Henrye Pratt, Merchantaylor, and *Morris Abbutt, 
drap. Of which noiacon this Court did accept and allowe. And 
this Court pceeding to eleccon by scrutenye according to antient 
Custome, the said Thomas Overman was by this Courte, elected 
Aldran of the said Warde of Cripplegate, and being sent for was 
here sworne for the due execucon of the same place. And also 
tooke the Oath of supermacie and oth of Alleagiance. And after- 
wardes at the humble request of the said Thomas Overman, and for 
certaine reasons this Court thereunto moveinge, It is ordered by this 
Court that the said Thomas Overman shalbe discharged and this 
Court doth discharge him of the said place of Aldran of the said 
Warde of Cripplegate, and of all other wardes within this Cittie for 
ever hereafter. And doe promise upon his peticon to move the Coinon 
Councell to discharge him also from the Office of Sherivaltye of this 
Cittie of London and Countie of Midd. for ever hearafter. And the said 
Thomas Overman did here in open Court Condesend to scale one 
obligacon for payement of ^700 in manner foUowinge, (That is to say) 
one hundred poundes in hand and the rest by CC/ a yere yeerely, untill 
the whole some bee fullye paid. And it is Ordered by this Court, that 
the Lord Maior maye pceed for the noiacon of an other Aldran in place 
of the said Thomas Overman.'" 

In the Minute Books of the Leathersellers' Company, under date 
II June, 1624, the following entry appears: — "Mr. Thomas Overman 
late Alderman of this City was chosen to be Master." 

* Each of these men were afterwards elected aldermen of other wards. Abbutt 
was knighted in 1625, Alderman of Bridge Without Ward 1626 to 163 1, and of 
Coleman Street Ward, 1636, until his death in 1643. Sheriff, 1637, Lord Mayor, 1638. 
(i) Repertory 38. fo. 104. 

The Alder men of Cripplegate Ward. 


{From a painting in Ironmongers' Halt.) 

ROWLAND HEYLIN. Ironmonger. 

Elected 20 April, 1624.' 

Sheriff 1624. 

He was born in 1562, and was a descendant of an ancient family at 
Pentreheylyn, of Llandysilio, co. Montgomeryshire, whose members were 
hereditary cupbearers (as the name signifies) to the Princes of Powys.' 

He was allowed to resign his office 2 March, 1632. 

Munday (in his 1633 edition of Stow) writes: "Alderman Heylin 
charitably and nobly at his own cost, at the beginning of King Charles 
reign, caused the Welsh Bible to be printed in a more portable bulk, 
being previously only printed in a large volume for the use of churches. 
He also caused the book, called the Practice of Piety ^ to be printed in 
Welsh, for the use of the Welsh people, and a Welsh or British Dictionary 
to be made and published for the help of those that were minded to 
understand that ancient language." 

He was a great benefactor to the town of Shrewsbury. 

Master of the Ironmongers' Company in 16 14, and again in 1625.'^ 
He resided in the Parish of St. Alban, Wood Street. 

(i) Repertory jS. fo. 109b. {2) Diet. Nat. Biography. Vol. 26, p. 323. 
(3) History of tlie Iro)imo>igers' Company, p. 560. 

62 The Aldermen of Ci'ipp legate Ward. 

On his election as Sheriff, his Company presented him with a sum 
of money "towards the trimming of his house, and the loane of such 
plate as he may want." 

"By his Will, bearing date 5 September, 1629, he bequeathed to the 
Ironmongers' Company ^Cz^o, ^1°° thereof to be laid out in some 
land or tenement, and the profits to be bestowed yearly on a dinner for 
so many of the brethren of the Company as should come to the sermon 
which is usually made on the 5 of November in thankful remem- 
brance of that great deliverance from that hellish device and powder 
plot of the Papists, the other ;!^200 to remain on stock to be lent 
out freely to four young men of the Company, to each man jP^^o for 
four years, they giving good security to the Master and Wardens for 
repayment at the end of the four years, and so to remain. He also 
gave to the Company, for a dinner or otherwise, as they should see 
good, ;^2o."' He died in 1637. 


Elected 13 March, 1632/ 

Sheriff 1631. 

He was born at Alcester, co. Warwick, 1575, and was the last male 
heir of the eldest of Archbishop Cranmer's sons. A great London 
brewer. His daughter married Sir Anthony Chester, Bart., and his 
son, Caesar Cranmer, was knighted by Charles H. 

The following is an extract from his Will, dated 5 September, 1640. 

" In the name of God. I Samuell Cranmer, Cittizen and Alderman 
of London, weake in bodie but stronge of faithe " . . . " My bodie I 
committ to the earth whereof it is made to be buried in the parishe 
church of Astwood Burie in the Countie of Bucks, in such decent and 
Christianlike manner as unto my loving wife shalbe thought fitt." 

" Item I give to the poore of the parishe of Alcester in the Countie 
of Warwick wherein I was borne the sum of ;^io." 

He was Master of the Brewers' Company, 1631. 

Died 5 October, 1640, and was buried at Astwood, as directed by 
his Will. 

(l) History of the lronmon::;crs' Company, p. 560. (2) Repertory 46. fo. 133b. 

The Aldermen of Cripplegate Ward. 63 

JOHN TOWSE. Grocer. 

Elected 10 November, 1640/ 
Sheriff 1640. 
He died at Hampstead, 28 May, 1645,- and was buried at 
St. Mary Cole Abbey. 

SAMUEL AVERY. Merchant -Taylor. 

Elected 17 June, 1645.'' 

Sheriff 1647. 

Samuel Avery was third son of Dudley Avery, of Streatley, co. 

Removed to Bassishaw Ward 16 September, 1647.' Discharged 
15 September, 1653. In 1645 he was elected Assistant and Master of 
the Merchant-Taylors' Company on the same day. An interesting entry 
in the Memorials of (he Merchant-Taylors' Company (p. 556) runs as 
follows : — 

" It is ordered and desired that Alderman Avery (and others) doe 
meet together at such times as they shall think fitt, and consider of some 
way to discharge the great and growing debts of the Company, either by 
petition to the Parliament to pay the great sums of money owing by the 
State or as they may advise, or by any other course or remedy which 
they consider best to be pursued for the good of the Company." 

He was one of the four Members for the City, 1654. Governor of 
the Company of Merchant Adventurers, 1654. Treasurer of Sequestra- 
tions, 1643. 

His nephew, William Avery, was Town Clerk, 1666-71, and died 
9 February, 1672. Smyth, in his Oln'tuary, says "buried privately," 
i.e., without the public display that was so customary at the time. 


Elected 23 September, 1647." 
Discharged 5 October upon the payment of a fine of ;^8oo. 
He was one of the Committee of the East India Company, 1640, 
and Deputy-Governor from July in that year till his death, which 
occurred some time between i December, 1652, and 6 July, 1653. 

(1) Repertory S£. to. 5. (4) Stocken MSS. 

(2) Smyth's (9Z'//«arj'. p. 22. (5) Repertory ^S. Part 2, fo. 170. 

(3) Repertory ^j. Part 2, fo. 143b. (6) Repertories ^8. Part 2, fo. 172b. 59. fo. i. 

64 The Aldermen of Cripplegate Ward. 

{From a print taken from the original painting: ) 


Elected 10 October, 1647.^ 
Sheriff 1649. Lord Mayor 1654. 

He was son of Thomas Pack, of Kettering, Northamptonshire, by 
Catherine his wife, and was born about 1593.' He seems to have been 
apprenticed to one John Kendrick, who died in 1624, and left him a 
legacy of ;£ioo. Pack married a kinswoman of his master, and set up 
in business in the woollen trade on his own account, and soon amassed 
a large fortune. 

His wealth, ability and zeal for the parliamentary cause, soon 
brought him extensive employment. In 1646, by an ordinance of 
Parliament, he was appointed a trustee for applying the Bishop's lands 
to the use of the Commonweath. 

Knighted by Cromwell at AMiitehall, 20 September, 1655.^ 

Master of the Drapers' Company 1648, and was one of the Com- 
mittee of the East India Company from 10 December, 1657, till 5 July, 
1659, and a Governor of the Company of Merchant Adventurers. 

(l) Repertory ^g. fos. 9b., 13. (2) Diet. Nat. Biography. Vol. 43, p. 28 

(3) Metcalfe, p. 205. 

The Aldermen of Cripp legate JFard. 65 

President of Bridewell and Bethlehem Hospitals from 1649 until 
1669. The minute referring to this election runs as follows : — 

9 November, 1649. 
This Court was principally appointed & kept for the election of the 
President of this Hospital, in the place «S: stead of Sir John WoUaston, 
Knt. & Aid", The last President here having been formerly a Governor 
of Christ's Hospital & lately elected President there, &: was pleased to 
accept the same. Wherefore this Court proceeding to their election, & 
M"". Aid". Penington, M"". Aid". Atkins, M"". Aid". Andrews, M"". Aid". 
Fooke, M--. Aid". Kendricke, M-". Aid". Cullum, W. Aid". Edmonds, M^ 
Aid". Avery, M--. Aid". Vynor, M--. Aid". Packe, & M"". Aid". Noel being 
nominated thereunto for one of them to be elected President of this 
Hospital, whereof the said M"". Aid". Packe and AP. Aid". Noell being 
only here present, & going forth of the court into the great Hall, it 
appeareth evidently & plainly that the said M^ Aid". Packe is duly 
elected & chosen President of this Hospital, who with M"". Aid". Noell 
being intreated by M''. Treasurer, M"". Hancock, M"". Lisle, Mr. Pease, 
M*". Jones & divers other Governors to go into the Court, & the said 
IVP. Aid". Packe being acquainted with the said election, desired to 
accept of the same place & was pleased so to do. 

On the 2 October, 1649, he was elected Alderman of Cornhill 
Ward but, at the request of the inhabitants, declined to leave Cripple- 
gate ^^'ard. 

The following is the entry in the Repertory'^ referring to this. 

"Court of Aldermen, Tuesday, 9th October, 1649 : — • 

" Item, Whereas Mr. Alderman Pack (being nominate amongest 
others by the Inhabitants of the Ward of Cornhill for Alderman of the 
said Ward) did lately declare his acceptance of the said nominacon, and 
by consent of this Court did remoove from ye ^^'ard of Cripplegate 
(wherof hee was before Alderman) to the said ward of Cornhill. Now 
upon the humble Petition of the Coirion Councelmen of ye Ward of 
Cripplegate, in behalfe of themselves and the rest of the Inhabitants of 
the same Ward expressing their great desire to have Mr. Alderman Packe 
still continued Alderman of their said Ward, And for as much as it 
appears that ye said Mr. Aldenfi Packe hath not bene fully two yeares 
Alderifi of ye said Ward of Cripplegate ; himselfe alsoe now declareing 

(i) Repertory ^g. fo. 505b. 

66 The Alder77ten of Cripp legate Ward. 

his willingness to abide in the said Ward of Cripplegate, Notwithstand- 
ing his acceptance of the s*^ new Eleccon. This Court doth hereby 
annull their form'' pceedings upon ye sd nominacon. And pceeded to 
election by Scruteny according to antient Custome. and did thereby 
elect Thomas Noel goldsmith ... to be Alderman of Cornhill 
[etc. etc.]." 

He remained Alderman of Cripplegate until 22 September, 1653, 
when he removed to the Ward of Bassishaw.' 

We find him, 24 June, 1647, appointed, together with Alderman 
Warner and Colonel Player, as representatives of the City "to go to 
Fairfax and the army and remain with them until further orders." - In 
this appointment he is described as "Deputy Pack"; probably the 
Alderman's Deputy of the ward of Cripplegate Without. He was 
shortly afterwards elected the Alderman of Cripplegate. 

In 1649 he was one of the Commissioners of Customs. In 1654 
he was one of the treasurers (with Alderman Vyner, of Langbourn Ward) 
of the fund collected for the relief of the protestants in Piedmont, and 
in the same year, when Lord Mayor, he was thanked (with the rest of 
the Militia Commissioners of London) by the Protector, upon the 
advice of the Council of State, " for their forwardness in execution of 
their trust." In 1655 he was a Member of the Council of State, and 
held under it the position of Admiralty Commissioner, and in the same 
year was chosen, with others, to meet the Committee of Council to 
consider the proposals of Manasseh Ben-Israel on behalf of the Jews, 
who soon after were allowed to return to England. In January, 1656, 
Cromwell and his Council proposed to send Pack, with Whitelocke, on 
an extraordinary embassy to the King of Sweden. On 11 May, 1656, 
he lent ^4,000 to the State to pay the wages of the fleet, lately returned 
into port. 

He was one of the four members for the City in Cromwell's third 
and last ParHament (1656), and on 23 February, 1657, he brought 
forward his famous "remonstrance," or as it is sometimes called 
"petition and advice," desiring the Protector to assume the kingly 
dignity and to restore the House of Lords. As is well known, Cromwell 
declined the first proposal, saying, "I cannot undertake this government 
with the title of King, and that is mine answer to this great and 
weighty business." The rest of the terms he accepted. 

(l) Repertory 62. fo. 386b. (2) Loudon and the Kingdom. Vol. II, pp. 248-9. 

The Aldermen of Cripplegatc JVard. 67 

For his services to the Commonwealth, and more particularly as 
the prime mover in the restoration of the second House, he, with 
another Alderman (Tichborne), was made a Member of it (1658); at 
the same time retaining his position as Alderman, but the new Lords 
obtained no right of precedency over their brother Aldermen. In 
Marcli, 1658, he was made, with Sir Thomas Vyner — his old colleague 
in the Piedmont Relief Fund — treasurer of the fund for the relief of 
protestant exiles from Poland and Bohemia. He is described (4 Novem- 
ber, 1658) as "Christopher Lord Packe.'" At the Restoration, although 
he signed a declaration (5 June, 1660), together with the Lord Mayor, 
one of the Sheriffs, and ten other Aldermen, of "their acceptance of His 
Majesty's free and general pardon, engaging, by God's assistance, to con- 
tinue His Majesty's loyal and obedient subjects," he was included with 
sixteen others who were to be disqualified from holding in future any 
public office or employment (the Act of Oblivion), under penalty of being 
excepted from the act of pardon. Pack was accordingly, with six other 
Commonwealth Mayors, removed from the ofiice of .Vlderman ; his last 
attendance being on 7 August, 1660. He was succeeded as Alderman 
of Bassishaw by the great Royalist and Merchant Taylor, Sir Abraham 
Reynardson. After his retirement from office he spent the remainder 
of his life at his mansion at Cotes, adjoining Prestwold, Leicestershire. 

He was thrice married, first to Jane, daughter of Thomas Newman, 
of Newbury; secondly to Anne, eldest daughter of Simon Edwards ; and 
thirdly to Elizabeth, widow of Alderman Herring, of Castle Baynard 
Ward. He had no issue by his first and third wives, but by his second 
wife, who died in 1657, he had two sons, Christopher and Simon, and 
three daughters, Anne, Mary, and Susanna. Pack's youngest son, Simon, 
settled in Westmeath, Ireland. 

Christopher Pack died 27 May, 1682, and was buried in Prestwold 
Church, Leicestershire, where there is a fine monument to his memory. 
The Latin inscription states that he was about eighty-four years old 
at his death. 

Note. — The account of Pack's work for the State has been chiefly taken from the 
Calendar of State Papers, and his life from the Dictionary of National Biography. 

The portrait of Pack is reproduced from the engraving by Basire, and published 
l)y J. Nichols, 1800, in his History of Leicestershire, which was taken from an original 
painting by Cornelius Janssens still in the possession of the family. It represents him 
in his official robes of Lord Mayor, with laced band and tassels, and laced ruffles turned 
over the sleeve of his gown. 

(i) Repertory 66. fo. 142 (147). 

68 The Aldermen of Cripp legate Ward. 

TEMPEST MILNER. Merchant-Taylon 

Elected 27 September, 1653.' 

Sheriff 1656, 

Removed to Candlewick Ward 5 May, 1657,- and was discharged 

from that Aldermanry 5 May, 1662, the Commissioners appointed 

by the King removing him with another Alderman (William Love of 

Portsoken Ward) as having been "faulty in the late troubles." 

The King appointed William Turner in his place, as " a person 
of well known fidelity." 

Master of the Merchant-Taylors' Company, 1655. 


Elected 12 May, 1657.^ 

Discharged on the payment of a fine of ^420. 

He was one of the Wardens of the Grocers' Company, 1649. 

It it probable that he was a relation of Sir John Langham, Sheriff, 
1642 — who was also a Grocer — and who with Sir John Gayre, Mayor in 
1646, and with Sir Abraham Reynardson, Mayor in 1648, was sent to 
the Tower by Cromwell for refusing to publish the Act for the 
exheredation of the Royal House. 

The following extract from the Repertory'' on his petition for 
discharge from the position of Alderman, to which he was unwillingly 
elected, can be taken as an example of the entries respecting the seven 
following Aldermen, who were elected, sworn, and paid a fine to be 

Court of Aldermen. Thursday, 28th May, 1657. 

"This day Samuel Langham Esq lately elected Aldran of the ward 
of Cripplegate made his humble Request' unto this Court to be dis- 
charged of the said place submitting himself unto this Court for a fine. 
Whereupon it is Ordered that if within fourteene dayes now next ensewing 
he shall pay into the Chamber of London to the use of the Maior and 
Coialty and Citizens of the said Citie the sume of CCCC' and xx'' more 
towards maintenance of Ministers for the prisons of this Citie, according to 
a late Act of Coiiion Councill in that behalfe This Court doth discharge 

(i) Repcrto)y 62. fos. 390I1, 396. (3) Repertory 6^. fo. 1 06b. 

(2) Repertory 6§. fo. 103b. (4) Id. fo. Il6b. 

The Aldei^men of Cripplegate Ward. 69 

him the said Samuel of and from the place of Aldran of the said Ward 
and of all other Wards of this Citie for ever hereafter, and will recomend 
him to the Comon Councill to be discharged from being Eligible to the 
office of Sherriffe." 


Elected 11 June, 1657.' 
Discharged 13 June on the payment of a fine of ^420. 


Elected 24 June, 1657.' 
Discharged 6 August on the payment of a fine of ^420. 


Elected 11 August, 1657.* 

Discharged the same day on the payment of a fine of ^200 and 
** 20 markes." 

He took up his Freedom of the Dyers' Company 18 November, 
1652, but does not appear to have been elected to the Court. 

ROBERT WHITE. Leatherseller. 

Elected 20 August, 1657.' 

Discharged 25 August on payment of a fine of ^420. 

He was apprenticed (in 1625) to Thomas Overman, who had the 
year before been elected Alderman of Cripplegate and paid a fine rather 
than serve the office. 

Robert White was Master of the Leathersellers' Company in 
1659-60, and was described in the Minute Books of the Company as 
" Alderman," and he was so described when attending the Court of the 
Company, 7 December, 1660,^ but on 15 October, 1661, he is described 
as Robert White, Esq. 

{\) Repertory 63. fo. 130b. {z) Id. fo. 136. (3) /(/. fo. 167. {^) Id. fo. 168. 

(5) He was only Alderman until the fine was paid and his successor appointed, 
so that he could not have been properly described as " Alderman " in 1660 or 1661. 

F 2 

70 The Aldermen of Cripplegate Ward. 


Elected 8 September, 1657*' 
Discharged 15 September upon payment of a fine of ;^5oo and 
20 marks. 

He was Master of the Vintners' Company, 1658/ 


Elected 6 October, 1657.^ 

Discharged 13 October on payment of a fine of ^^420. 

In July, 1 64 1, in pursuance of the Lord Mayor's precept, a return 
was given (inter alia) of such persons as had filled the office of Master 
of the Company of Innholders, in which the name of " Nicholas Cooke " 

In the books of the Innholders' Company he is described as Nicholas 
Cooke, " of the parish of St. Edmunds in Lombard Street in the Ward 
of Langbourne." 

He was Master of the Company, 1634. During his Mastership the 
Arms of the Company were granted. 

In 1665 he presented the Company with a Silver Cup weighing 
29 ozs. 14 dwts. 

Cooke was a sufferer by the Great Fire. The minutes in the books 
of the Company (2 April; 1667) state, that after a view of the houses in 
Coleman Street demised to Nicholas Cooke, Esq., is taken, the Master 
and Wardens, calling together such of the Assistants of the said Com- 
pany as they shall think fit, they do go to Mr. ' Alderman ' Cooke at his 
house in Greenwich and make agreement with him touching the re- 
building of the said houses. Cooke seems willing to rebuild for on 
31 May, 1667, we find it ordered that "Mr. 'Alderman' Cooke be en- 
couraged to rebuild the said house in Coleman Street, which was blown 
up at the time of the late fire, and he shall have a Lease for the term of 
60 years to begin from the Annunciation of the Virgin Mary last past, 
at and under the yearly rent of Ten pounds the first payment to be made 
upon Michaelmas Day which shall be in the year of our Lord 1668 

(1) Repertory 6^. fos. 175b, i8ob. 

(2) History of the Vintners' Company, p. 122, where his name is spelt " Wormell."' 

(3) Repertory 6$. fos. 192, 199. 

The Alder7nen of C^'ipplegate Ward. 71 


Elected 23 October, 1657.' 
Discharged 27 October, on payment of a fine of ;!^42o. 

WALTER BIGG. Merchant-Taylor. 

Elected 24 November, 1657.' 

Sheriff 1653. 

Elected for Castle Baynard Ward 6 September, 1653,^ subsequently 
removing to Cripplegate \\'ard on the above date. 

Discharged 19 October, 1658, "by reason of infirmity," without 
payment of a fine. 

Master of the Merchant-Taylors' Company, 1654. By his AVill he 
bequeathed to the Company certain property in St. Giles-in-the-Fields, 
the annual income of which is directed by way of a scheme of the 
Charity Commissioners to the payment of four poor freemen of the 
Company, who each received j£,\2 per annum. The residue is applied 
to the payment of certain other poor freemen, or the Widows, or Orphan 
daughters of such freemen, all of whom are called " Bigg's Pensioners." 

He was a native of, and M.P. for, the Town of Wallingford, Berk- 
shire, and dying 5 August, 1659 (aged fifty-three), was buried there.' 

SAMUEL LEWIS. Merchant-Taylon 

Elected 26 October, 1658.' 

Discharged 18 November on payment of a fine of ;!£^5oo and 
20 marks. 

Admitted to the Freedom of the Merchant-Taylors' Company, 
2 September, 1657, 

(i) The record of his election {Repertory 65, fo. 204b) gives Lime Street as the 
Ward to which he was elected, evidently a scribe's error. 

(2) Repertory 66. fo. II. (3) Repertory 62. fo. 377. 

(4) Stocken MSS. (5) Repertory 66. fos. 139b, 142b. 

72 The Aldermen of Cripp legate Ward. 

JOHN ROBINSON. Clothworker. 

Elected 7 December, 1658.' 

Sheriff 1657. Lord Mayor 1662. 

He was elder son of William Robinson, D.D., Archdeacon of 
Nottingham in 1635, a Prebendary of St. David's and Westminster, 
Rector of Bingham, in Nottinghamshire, and Rector of Long ^\Tiatton, 
in Leicestershire, and nephew of Archbishop Laud, by Sarah his wife 
(daughter of William Bainbrigge, of Lockington, in Leicestershire, Esq.), 
by whom he had two sons, viz., John and Henr)', Rector of Long 
Whatton, who was deprived of his living during the Commonwealth, but 
lived to be restored. 

He removed from Dowgate Ward, where he was elected 18 
December, 1655,- to Cripplegate, and afterwards to Tower Ward 
22 September, 1663.^ 

One of the four Members of Parliament for the City 1 660-1 661, and 
Member for Rye 1 661-1679. Colonel of the Green Regiment of the 
London Militia from December 24, 1659, until his death. 

He was President of the Honourable Artillery Company from 
5 July, 1660, till his death, and was one of the Committee of the East 
India Company 1660, 1667, 1668, 1674, 1675, 1677. 

He had been a promoter of the King's Restoration, and in return 
for his services he was knighted at Canterbury, May 26, 1660, and 
created a baronet in June the same year, and after his entertainment of 
Charles and his Queen in 1663, received an augmentation of arms.^ 

The pageant performed by his Company at his inauguration as 
Lord Mayor was entitled "London's Triumph." King Charles II and 
his Queen, the Queen's mother, and the Duke and Duchess of York, 
dined with him at Clothworkers' Hall (where he kept his Mayoralty), on 
the 23 June, 1663.' The London Gazette of April 23 to 26, 1666, contains 
an account of the trial of certain persons for high treason for conspiring 
to kill him and other officers of the Tower, and to fire the City. As a 
Member of the Restoration Parliament for the City, 1 660-1 661, the sum 
of ;^37 4i". od. is recorded in the Chamberlain's accounts as being paid 
to him for his attendance as a " burgess " for the City. 

(l) Repertory 66. fo. l6l. (2) Repertory 64. fo. 32b. 

(3) Repertory 6g. fo. 199b. (4) Loiuion and the Kingdom. Vol. II, p. 401. 

(5) Ilazlitl's City Livery Companies, p. 338. 

The Alderme7i of Cripp legate Ward. J 2) 

He was full of his own self-importance. Pepys calls him ''a talking, 
bragging, buffle-headed fellow,'" boasting of his powers over his brother 
Aldermen, but nevertheless attentive to the wants of the City. This 
latter commendation seems to be well borne out by the following tract 
published during his Mayoralty, intituled "The Ancient Honours of the 
City of London recovered by the noble Sir John Robinson, Knight 
and Baronet, Lord Mayor for the year 1662-3, in the true English and 
manlike exercise of ^Vrestling, Archery, Sword and Dagger ; with the 
speeches of Mr. William Smith, master of the Game, and Clerk of the 
Market, upon this solemn occasion. Intermitted twenty-four years 
since Garway was Mayor." - 

In the Gentleman^ s Magazine of November, 1769, under the head- 
ing of " The Character of the Lord Mayor of London, and the whole 
Court of Aldermen, as it was drawn and presented to his Majesty King 
Charles II soon after the Restoration, now first printed," occurs the 
following : 

" Sir John Robinson hath been most industrious in the civill govern- 
ment of the Cittie, watchfuU to prevent any thing that might reflect any 
prejudice or dishonour upon the King's government, happy in dispatch 
of business to the great contentment of the people."^ 

He was Master of the Clothworkers' Company, 1656. 

Married Anne, daughter of Sir George ^\■hitmore, of Barnes, 
in Surrey, Knt., by whom he had several children, amongst whom 
were — i. Sir William Robinson, Knt., born 16 December, 1654, who 
travelled five years abroad in France, Italy, Egypt, and Palestine, and 
died before his father, 16 February, 1678. 2. Sir John, his successor, 
and 3. Sir James, successor to his brother. 

Appointed on the 25 June, 1660, Lieutenant of the Tower of 
London, being the first who held that Office after His Majesty's 
Restoration, and continued in the chief command of the fortress 
with a salary of ;!^i,ooo per annum, until about the year 1678, when 
James, Earl of Northampton, was made Constable. 

Died in 1679, aged sixty-five, and was buried at Nuneham 
Courtenay, in Oxfordshire. 

Will proved 24 February, 1680, and 25 October, 1683. 

(i) Pepys Diary, 17 March, 1665. (2) Herbert. Vol. ii, p. 660. 

(3) The characters of Richard Chiverton, 1663, and John Forth, 1668, are given 
in the same article — see particulars under their respective names. The originals are 
contained in the Stowe MSS. at the British Museum, and were written about 1672. 


The Aldermen of Crippkgate Ward. 

(From a print in the GuiiJ/iall Library, published by S. W'oodburn, 1S14.) 


Elected i October, 1663.' 

Sheriff 1650. Lord Mayor 1657. 

He was second son of Henry Chiverton, of Trehouse, Cornwall, 
and the first of that county who became Mayor of London. 

Before being elected for Cripplegate he was successively Alderman 
of Portsoken Ward (19 July, 1649)," Dowgate Ward (17 September, 
1652),^ and Cordwainer AVard (11 December, 1655),' and on 5 March, 
1666-7, accepted the sinecure Aldermanry of Bridge Ward Without,'' re- 
maining there until he died in 1679. 

He served the office of Mayor before being elected Alderman of 
Cripplegate. He attended at Whitehall, October 15, and was presented 
to Cromwell. We read that "Alderman Chiverton, Lord Mayor Elect 
of the City of London, for the year ensuing, was by the Recorder and 
Aldermen presented to His Highness, in the usual manner, for 
approbation and His Highness approved of the said election." ''He was 
Mayor at the time of Cromwell's death, and his name appears first on 
the list of the Privy Council who proclaimed Richard Cromwell, 
Protector. We read that " so pleased was Cromwell with the City at 

(i) Repertory 6g. fo. 205b. 

(2) Repertory 59. fo. 460. 

(3) Repertory 62. fo. 1S9. 

(4) Repertory 64. fo. 27b. 

(5) Repertory ys. fo. 71b. 

(6) Crom~vellia)ia. pp. 169. 176. 

The Aldermen of Cripplegate Ward. 75 

the critical period of 1658 that he conferred the honour of Knighthood 
on the Mayor (Richard Chiverton) and upon John Ireton (who suc- 
ceeded Chiverton in the Mayoralty), a brother of Henry Ireton his own 
son in law.'" In May of this year there was an attempt at a royalist 
emeute in the City, which the authorities prevented, and in July the 
Mayor (Chiverton), Aldermen and Sheriffs, with the City's Recorder, 
Sir Lislebone Long, waited on the Lord Protector to congratulate him 
upon "the deliverance of his person, the city and the whole nation" 
from the designs of the late conspiracy.^ Chiverton was again knighted 
by Charles II at Whitehall, 12 October, 1663. 

In the Gentleman' s Magazine of November, 1769 {see note, p. 73), 
Chiverton is mentioned as "old, capable of doeing neither much 
goode nor hurt, in the summer he seldom appears in the City," and 
he is also mentioned with John Forth and two other Aldermen 
"who have not lived in London, nor built houses for themselves 
since the fire, they have neither encouraged the building of the 
cittie, nor have they any great interest among the inhabitants, being 
strangers to them. The King is advised to command them to 
come forthwith and inhabite among the cittizens, or else lay downe 
their gownes as by doing so the King and government will be delivered 
of three or four evil persons." 

He was elected President of St. Bartholomew's Hospital, 8 
February, 1660, and in the books of the Hospital, under date 
15 December, 1675, the following minute respecting his resignation 
of the office appears : — 

" Whereas Sir Richard Chiverton, Knight, declaring his age and 
indisposition of body and his great imperfection for want of his hearing, 
that he could not so well hear or understand the motion and debate 
of the Court ; thereupon he thought fit to make his resignation of the 
place to be any longer President, and desired the Governors to elect a 
person as they thought fit. Whereupon the Court being sensitive of the 
great care and pains Sir Richard had taken for many years in the affairs 
of the Hospital, It was therefore unanimously agreed to give him 
thanks, which was accordingly done and performed by Sir Thomas 

In 1659 he gave the Hospital the sum of ^10, and by his AVill, 
which was proved in 1679, he left it a Legacy of ^100. 

(i) Crouiwelliana. p. 171. (2) /(/. p. 174. 

76 The Alder7nen of Cripp legate Ward. 

He was the last Alderman of Cripplegate to remove from or to 
another elective Ward, and was also the first and, up to the present time 
the last. Alderman of Cripplegate who has accepted the Aldermanry 
of Bridge Without. 

He lived in Clerkenwell and there died; he was four years old 
in 1620.' 


Elected 12 March, 1667." 

Buncombe was elected upon Richard Chiverton going to Bridge 
Without, but after having caused the Court of Aldermen several months' 
annoyance through his obstinacy in not taking up the duties of his 
office, he was discharged as "unworthy." Previous to his discharge the 
following entry occurs in the Records of the Court of Aldermen'' : — 
Tuesday, 21 January 1668. 

" This day Willm. Buncombe Esq Aldran of the Ward of Cripplegate 
having withdrawne and wholly absented himselfe from the Buty of his 
said place and office, ever since the 14th day of May last past and so 
still continuing to the disservice of his Mat>', great hindrance and 
damage to the publiqe Affaires, in manifest Contempt of this Court and 
Governm' of the Citty, and contrary to his severall oathes taken at his 
admission into the freedome of this Citty and eleccon to the said office. 
Is now fined at £'' to be forthwith levyed and paid by and upon the said 
Will"^ Buncombe to his Ma'"^ use for his said Contempt and offence. 

" And it is ordered by this Court that the said fine shall be estreated 
into the Excheq"" in case the said Mr Buncombe shall not pay downe 
the same into the Hands of the Sheriffes within eight dayes now next 

The entry concerning his discharge is dated 11 February, 1668, 
and runs as follows : -- ^ 

"This Court (of Aldermen) taking into consideracon his long 
absence and being well informed of sundry Judgm'^ and Execucons for 
Bebt obteyned against him and severall other matters scandalous and 
disgracefuU in his conversation . . . doth . . . dismiss and discharge 
him as a person unfitt and unworthy." 

He was admitted to the Freedom of the Mercers' Company in 
1636, but did not serve any office. 

(i) Le Neve's Knights, pp. 176-177. 
(2) Repertory 72. fos. 78, 84. {3) Repertory 73. fo. 53. (4) /(/. fo. 75. 

The Alder ?}ie 71 of Cripp legate Ward. J J 

JOHN FORTH. Brewer. 

Elected 13 February, 1668.' 
Sheriff 1668. 

After serving eight years, he was discharged 8 June, 1676. 

He was elected Assistant of the Brewers' Company, 30 July, 1668, 
and Master, 18 August following. 

Under date 16 February, 1669, an entry appears in the Minute 
Books of the Brewers' Company as follows : — " This day the Court did 
consider of making a present to our Master from the Company he being 
Sheriffe of London, as hath been formerly done to others in the like 
case, and it is ordered by the Court that our Master Sheriffe Forthe be 
presented with 100 Markes from the Company towards his cellar." 

In the Gentlejna7{ s Magazine of November, 1769,- the following 
reference to this Alderman (together with other Aldermen) appears : — 

" He is a hasty passionate person, no lover of the Church of 
England ; and he makes it his business to misrepresent those who are 
so. It is concluded by very many, that his loyalty consists much in his 
excise farms and the profits he makes by them. He rarely sees the 
inside of a church, and therefore it cannot be said how he behaves 
himself there. He hath a consecrated chapel in his own house, but that 
is all the conformity that it hath, a nonconformist and a brewer 
officiating there, when he is at leisure on Sundays to hear. He is a 
man of no reputation for keeping his word." 

He had a brother "Dannett," who was Alderman of Cheap (from 
20 July, 1668, until 8 June, 1676) Sheriff 1670, and Master of the 
Brewers' Company, 1670. He is described in the Gentleman^ s Magazine 
(1769) as a person who hath much more command of his passions than 
his brother; hath a greater care of his word and a man of greater abilities 
in business, but as to church affairs of the same principles with his 

Both brothers were discharged from their Aldermanries on the same 
day. The following entry occurs in Repertory 81, fo. 210b : — 
Thursday, 8 June 1676. 

" Upon a letter received from Danett Foorth Alderman of Cheap 
and John Foorth Alderman of Cripplegate requiring to be discharged 
for reasons signified They are freely dismissed." 

(l) Repertory jj. fos. 77, 8ib. (2) See Note. p. 73. 

yS The Aldermen of Cripp legate Ward. 


Elected 15 June, i676,' 

Sheriff 1674. 

Knighted 29 October, 1674, in his Shrievahy. 

Lethieullier was elected Alderman very much against his wish, the 
following entries in the Repertory' clearly show his importunity to be 
discharged : — 

" 20 June, 1676. — Sir John Lethieullier was sworn in, and he then 
made an earnest request to this Court to be discharged of the said place 
AUedging many urgent reasons to incline this Court thereunto. Never- 
theless this Court did agree and Resolve not to discharge the said Sr. 
John Lethieullier from the said Place at this time." 

"22 June, 1676. — Sir John Lethieullier "did again earnestly renew 
his desires" . . . "Whereupon this Court again taking the same into 
consideration, Did for good reasons now declared, not think fit to dis- 
charge him from the said place." 

"Tuesday, 27 June, 1676. — At the Earnest and importunate desires 
of Sr. John Lethieullier, Knt. and Alderman of the Ward of Cripplegate 
now Repeated unto this Court for his discharge from the said place, 
Offering many reasons for that purpose. This Court did think fit freely 
and Lovingly to discharge him from being Alderman of the said Ward 
and of all other Wards of this City hereafter. Upon his promise and 
Ingagement now made unto this Court, That if after the Expiration of 
Seven years from henceforth, he shall be again Elected to be an Alder- 
man of this City, he will then take the said Office upon him if he shall 
then be in fitting circumstances and duly qualified for the same." 

He was born in 1633,^ and was descended from the Le Thieulliers, 
an old Protestant family in the Low Countries. He was apprenticed to 
Sir John Frederick (Lord Mayor, 1661). Sir John Lethieullier was a 
free brother of the Company of the Society of Merchant Adventurers of 
England, and of the Society of Merchants of London Trading to the 
Levant Seas and the East Indies. 

In the London Directory of 1677, he is mentioned as carrying on 
business in Mark Lane. Master of the Barber Surgeons' Company, 1676. 

He died 4 Jan., 1 7 19, aged eighty-six. Buried in Greenwich Church. 

(i) Repei-tojy 8r. fo. 214b. (2) Id. fos. 221, 224, 230. 

(3) Aunals of the Barber Surs;eons. p. 556. 

The Aldermen of C^'ipplegate Ward. 79 


Elected 4 July, 1676.' 

Sheriff 1675. Lord Mayor 1687. 

He was the second son of John Shorter, of Staines, and was born 
in 1625, lived at Southwark, married Isabella, daughter of John Birkett, 
" of Croistath, Boroughdale, Cumb." (probably Crosthwaite, Borowdale). 
He had a son, John Shorter, of Bybrook, in Kent, who was born in 
1660, married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Erasmus Phihpps, Bart., and 
by her had three sons and two daughters ; John Shorter, of London, 
Erasmus Shorter, Arthur Shorter, Catherine Shorter, who married Sir 
Robert Walpole, K.G., and was mother of Horace Walpole, and 
Charlotte Shorter, who married Francis Seymour-Conway, Lord Conway, 
ancestor of the present Lord Hertford.' 

Knighted at Guildhall 29 October, 1675. 

He was Prime Warden of the Goldsmiths' Company in 1676, and 
President of Bridewell and Bethlehem Hospitals from October, until 
his death. 

In 1 68 1, he, with another Alderman (Thomas Gold), who had 
been his colleague in the Shrievalty, both of the Whig party, was 
nominated for the office of Lord Mayor in opposition to Sir John 
Moore, a Tory and a favourite of the Court party, but failed in securing 
election. The numbers for were: Moore 1,831, Shorter 1,591, Gold 
1,523.' Luttrell calls him a great Presbyterian "who has kist the Kings 
hand to be Lord Mayor of the City." Evelyn writes of him : " An 
Anabaptist, a very odd ignorant person, a mechanic, I think." ' 

On 9 May, 1681, his name, together with the Lord Mayor and seven 
other Aldermen, was omitted from the Commission of Lieutenancy.^ 
In December, 1682, he fell foul of Charles II for attending a conventicle 
at Pinmakers' Hall, and the Court of Aldermen received orders to 
remove him from his Aldermanry, and in October, 1683, Sir Benjamin 
Bathurst was appointed in his place on the nomination of the King. 
On 6 August, 1687, he was restored to his Aldermanry and to his rank 
of precedence by commission from the King (James II) and by the same 
usurped authority he became Lord Mayor. '' A Clause was inserted in 
the Royal Patent that he was to have "whom he pleased to preach 

(l) Repertoiy 81. fos. 238, 240b. (2) Notes and Queries, 26 July, 1884. 

(3) London and the Kingdom. Vol. II, p. 476. 

(4) Diary. Vol. I, p. 643. (5) Ltittrell. Vol. I, p. ?,t,. 
(6) London and the Kingdom. \o\. II, pp. 523-4. 

8o The Aldermen of Cripplegate Ward. 

before him." The customary banquet on Lord Mayor's Day in the 
Guildhall was attended by the King and Queen, the Queen Dowager, 
their Royal Highnesses the Prince and Princess of Denmark, and the 
Court, together with the Pope's Nuncio, who was associated with other 
foreign visitors. Luttrell' says: (October 24) "Sir John Shorter being 
of the Goldsmiths Company the Company are making great preparation 
against the Show," and on the 29th he says -"the 29th was the anniversary 
of the Lord Mayors Show, the new one, Sir John Shorter, now entring on 
his office, the shew was splendid, and the entertainment great, according 
to custome his Majestic with the Prince of Denmark did the Citty the 
honour to dine with them at Guildhall. The Streets were new gravell'd 
all that morning on one side of the way, from Charing Crosse to the Citty 
for his Majesties passage. His Majestic was well satisfied with the 
whole entertainment." 

During Shorter's year of office the City was in a state of great 
unrest, the trial of the seven Bishops took place, and the agitation took 
form, which resulted in the invitation to the Prince of Orange and the 
abdication of James H, just previous to which, however, the King 
restored the City's Charter, which had been in his hand for six years, 
during which time the citizens were deprived of their privilege of electing 
their Lord Mayors, Aldermen and Common Councilmen, but Shorter 
did not live to see this restoration, for on 27 August, 1688, he fell from 
his horse, and died on 4 September following. The accident is thus 
recorded: "The lord mayor. Sir John Shorter, gott a fall from his 
horse in proclaiming the fair at Smithfield ; he is very ill with 
it, haveing gott a feavour."^ His lordship had a piece of helpless 
comfort brought him before he died, which was that a corn meter's place 
and the common cryer were fallen void the same day which were worth 
to him, or rather his executors, ;^3,ooo. He had called on the 
Keeper of Newgate on his return from proclaiming Bartholomew Fair, in 
accordance with the old custom, to partake of a ' cool tankard of wine, 
nutmeg & sugar.' After he had drank, the lid of the vessel fell with so 
much force that the horse started and threw him. 

(The custom thus described was discontinued in the Mayoralty of 
another of Cripplegate's Aldermen, Sir Matthew Wood, 181 7.) 

Luttrell writes, " about 1 1 in the morning the Lord Mayor dyed 
of a feavour ; and some Aldermen went down to Windsor to ac(]uaint the 

(I) Diary, Vol. I, p. 417. (2) /(/. p. 418. (3) Id. p. 458. 

The Aldermen of Cripplcgate Ward. 8i 

King with it, and to have a commission to act." This was done by order 
of the Court of Aldermen. The entry in the Repertory is as follows :— 

Special Court held in the Justice Hall, Old Bailey 
31st August 1688. 
" This Court considering my Lord Maior's sicknes and the small 
hopes of his recovery, Doth order in case of his death That the 4 Senior 
Aldren now in Town vizt. Sr Peter Daniel, Sr Wm Gostlin Mr Aldran 
Mawson & Sr Wm Ashurst or any three of them with Mr Townclerke 
doe imediatly wait on his Mat^ at Windsor to give him an Account of 
his LoPP^ death, and desire his Ma''^^ appointmt of another Lord Maior. 
And in default of any of the said Aldermen, That the next Senior Aldran 
in or about the Town have notice to go in their roomes. And one or 
more coaches (as there shall be occasion) to be provided for them. 

" And it is further ordered that Mr Sheriffes with Mr Townclerke 
do forthwith repair to his Ma"*""" chief Minister of State in towne and 
actiuaint him with my IvOrd Maior's condition.'" 

Sir John Shorter was sixty-four years of age at the time of his death, 
and was buried in St. Saviours, Southwark. 

Upon reference to the London Directory of 1677, it will be seen 
that Sir John Shorter was living at the time of his death at Bankside. 


Appointed by Royal Commission, 16 October, 1683, 

He held the office until the Accession of James H, and was again 
re-appointed by Royal Commission, 9 February, 1685, 

He was one of the Committee of the East India Company, 1684- 
1698, Deputy Governor, 1 686-1 688, 1 695-1 696, Governor, 1 688-1 690. 

Knighted at Whitehall, 17 January, 1681. 

He was evidently a Court favourite, for he was for many years 
Treasurer to the Princess of Denmark, and was Cofferer of her house- 
hold from her accession to the throne, in 1702, till his death. 

The following is interesting as showing the freedom (?) of voting at 
Parliamentary elections at this time.' 

(l) Repertory g^. fo. 106. (2) Luitrell. Vol. Ill, p. 537. 

82 The Aldermen of Cripplegate Ward. 

"Oct. 15, 1695. The Princesse of Denmark has ordered Sir Benjamin 
Bathurst to acquaint all her servants that it is her desire that they vote for 
Sir Stephen Fox and Mr Montague to be members for ^Vestminster," 

Sir Benjamin Bathurst was father of the first Earl Bathurst. His 
Livery Company cannot be traced, probably he was not a member 
of one. 

He died 27 April, 1704, and at that time was the Tory member for 
Romney. He was previously M.P. for Beeralston, 1685 -1687. 

THOMAS FOWLE. Goldsmith. 

Appointed by Royal Commission, 4 May, i686. 

Sheriff 1686. 

Removed to Vintry Ward i July, 1687, by the appointment of the 
King, and discharged in September of the same year, he was afterwards 
(15 December, 1691) elected in ordinary form Alderman of that Ward.^ 

Knighted 26 September, 1686, during his Shrievalty. 

After his discharge from the Aldermanry of Vintry Ward he was 
elected (November, 1688) one of the Common Councilman for Farring- 
don Without Ward. 

Whig M.P. for Devizes from March until December, 1690, when 
he was unseated. 

Thomas Fowle does not appear to have served any office in his 
Company, but by his Will, dated the 30 July, 1691, he gave to the 
Company ;^io to be distributed amongst five poor Widows.- 

LuttrelP writes, 25 September, 1686: — "His Majestic hath con- 
ferred the honour of knighthood on Thomas Fowle Esq, Goldsmith and 
Alderman of London and hath appointed Sir Thomas Rawlinson and 
he, to be Sheriffs of London and Middlesex for the year ensuing." 

These Sheriffs were not long in the King's favour, for we find that 
on 25 September in the following year that "The two late sheriffs of 
London, Sir Thomas Rawlinson and Sir Thomas Fowlis are removed 
from being Aldermen of London ; and the two new sherifs Sir Basil 
Firebrasse and Sir John Parsons, were sworn accordingly on the 29th."^ 

Sir Thomas Fowle died of apoplexy at his house in Fleet Street, 
where he carried on the business of a goldsmith, 11 November, 1692." 

{\) Repertory g6. fo. 72. (2) MS. Records of the Goldsmiths' Company. 

(3) Luttrell. Vol. I, p. 385. (4) Id. p. 414. (5) Luttrcll. Vol. II, p. 614. 

The Aldermen of Cripplegate Ward. 83 


Appointed by Royal Commission, 1 July, 1687. 

Discharged by Royal Commission upon payment of a fine of ;£,^2o. 
On 16 August, 1694, he was chosen one of fifteen persons to prepare 
l)ye-la\vs for the "new bank" (Bank of England).' 

In Le Neve's Knights, p. 361, we read: "S"" Jeremiah Sambrooke, 
Merchant of London, Knighted on board y*^ Earle of Barkley's Ship 
3T Jan 168 1." 

He was a noted merchant, and left his estate to his son, who 
married a daughter of the Lord Keeper." 

He was one of the Committee of the East India Company, 1678- 
1687, 1695-1698, Deputy-Governor 1683-1684.'' 

Probably not a member of a Livery Company. 

One of his daughters married Sir Humphrey Edwm, Lord Mayor, 
i<')i;7. He hatl a house by tlie (luildhall, and "died suddenly in his 
garden 27 April, 1705,'' ' presumably at I'klmonton, Middlesex, as we 
find that he was buried in Edmonton Church. 


Appointed by Royal Commission, 7 July, 1687. 

Unlike the three preceding Aldermen, who were appointed by Royal 
Commission, he was first nominated by the Court of Aldermen, 5 July, 
1687, and submitted for the King's approbation. The King fjuickly 
approved the nomination, for at this time he was thinking about restoring 
the Charter, and thus obtaining the favour of the Citizens, in view of 
looming troubles ; but Delawood does not seem to have been sworn in, 
nor to have attended a Court of Aldermen. On the 6 August a 
further Royal Commission was issued transferring him to Bassishaw 
Ward, evidently to make room for Sir John Shorter, who was re-consti- 
tuted Alderman of Cripplegate by the same Commission, and who was 
sworn in on the 10 August. Delawood was immediately afterwards 
discharged, Edward Underbill being sworn Alderman of Bassishaw in 
his room on the 16 August. 

He was probably not a member of a Livery Company. 

(i) Luttrell. Vol. Ill, p. 357. (2) Id. Vol. V, p. 545. 

(3) Minutes of East Inrlia Company. (4) Le Neve's J/(?;/7/w^«/(7, Vol. I\^ p. 106. 

84 The Aldermen of Cripp legate Ward. 


Elected 9 October, 1688.' 

Sheriff 1676, Lord Mayor 1691. 

Son of Richard Stanipe, of Reading, co. Berks. 

Knighted at Guildhall in his Shrievalty, 31 October, 1676.- 

Master of the Drapers Company, 1692. 

On the death of Sir John Chapman, Lord Mayor in March, 1689, 
Sir Thomas Stampe, Sir Thomas Pilkington, and two others were 
nominated for the Mayoralty, Stampe receiving 1,975 votes, and 
Pilkington 1,973, but the Court of Aldermen elected Pilkington,^ who 
was Lord Mayor for the remainder of the year and was re-elected for 
the two following years ; Stampe attaining the Mayoralty in 1691. This 
election also was stoutly contested ; again four candidates were nominated 
on Michaelmas Day, two were put up by the Church party. Sir Jonathan 
Raymond and Sir Samuel Dashwood, and for the Whigs Sir Thomas 
Stampe and Alderman Fleet. The poll gave the following result :— 
Stampe 2,191, Fleet 2,113, Raymond 1,956, Dashwood 1,881. On the 
1 3 October the Court of Aldermen met, and chose Sir Thomas Stampe. 
In March, 1700, he fought Fleet, who was now supported by the Tories, 
for a vacant seat in Parliament for the City, but was beaten by a majority 
of 283.^ Early in the same year that he was elected Alderman of Cripple- 
gate, he was appointed to command one (the yellow) of the six regiments 
of the Trained Bands.'' On 28 March, 1690, the new commission 
of Lieutenancy was opened, and " they turned out five of the old 
Colonells of the City trained Bands, but they continued Sir Thomas 
Stampe still in,'"' but at its meeting on 11 July, 1702, the Court of 
Lieutenancy " turned out the six old colonells, amongst whom was Sir 
Thomas Stampe."^ His address is given in the "London Directory," 
published in 1677, as Basinghall Street. 

He died at Springfield Flail, Essex, 25 July, 171 1.'' For 
some years previous to his death he was " Father " of the Court 
of Aldermen. 

(i) Repertory g^. fo. 6b. 
(2) Le Neve's A'/w^f^A, p. 310. (3) Londonaud the Kingdom. \'i)l. II, p. 547. 

(4) Ltittrell. Vol. \, p. 29. (5) Luttrell. Vol. I, p. 517. 

(6) Luttrell. Vol. II, p. 25. (7) Luttrell. Vol. V, p. 193. 

(8) Le Neve's Alonuiueuta Aitqli'caiia. Vol. IV, p. 232. 

The Aide inn en of Cripplegate ]]^ard. 85 

WILLIAM STEWART. Barber-Surgeon. 

Elected 31 July, 171 ij 

Sheriff 171 u Lord Mayor 1721. 

He was elected President of St. Bartholomew's Hospital 10 Septem- 
ber, 1 7 12, and held the position till his death in 1723, and was one 
of the I )irectors of the East India Company. In politics he was a Tory. 

Knighted with John Cass, his fellow Sheriff, and Samuel Clarke, 
at St. James' Palace, on presenting a loyal address of the City, 
14 June, 1 712. 

The following entry, extracted from the Records of the Court of 
Aldermen, is given for the purpose of showing the mode of election of 
an Alderman up to that date, and is interesting as being the last one 
conducted "according to ancient custom" (from a.d. 1402) at an 
election of an Alderman of Oipplegate.' 

" Court of Aldermen, 31 July 17 11. 

"This day The Right Honob'^ The Lord Mayor made report to 
this Court, That his Lordship sitting lately in the ^^'ard of Cripplegate 
to take the Nomination of the Inhabitants of the said Ward, Freemen 
of this City, for an Alderman thereof in the Room and Stead of Sr 
Thomas Stampe, Knt. Lately deceased, the said inhabitants did 
Nominate S"" Francis Child and Sr William Withers Knts and Aldermen, 
\\'illiam Stewart Esq, Citizen and Barber Surgeon one of the Sheriffes 
Elect and William Edmonds, Citizen and Weaver of which nomination 
this Court did Accept and Allow, And S"" Francis Child and Sr \\'illiam 
\Mthers refusing to Remove, I'his ("ourt proceeded to Election by 
Scrutiny according to ancient Custom, and did elect the said William 
Stewart to be Alderman of the said Ward, who being forthwith sent for 
appeared in this Court, and was here Sworn for the due Execution of 
the said Place, And also took the Oaths and made and subscribed the 
Declaration and took and subscribed the Oath of Abjuration, according 
to the several Laws made for those Purposes." 

In the Annals of the Barber Surgeons' Company, p. 562, are the 
following entries : — 

(1) Repertory ii^. o. 310. 

(2) All Act of Common Council was passed 20 September, 171 1, by which two 
persons only, were to be nominated to the Court of Aldermen, instead of four. 
The only other election of an Alderman after Stewart's, under the old manner 
of electing, was that of Gerard Conyers, for the Ward of Broad Street ; the Ward- 
mote was held previous to the parsing of the Act, although for some reason, he was 
not sworn until 4 December in the same year. 

G 2 

86 The Aldermen of Cripp legate Ward. 

"Sir William Stewart was admitted to the freedom 22"'' July, 1686, 
by redemption." As will be seen he was translated to the Goldsmiths' 

" 2ist July 1 720. The Master acquainted the Court that S"" ^^'illiam 
Stewart K^ and Alderman of the City of London a Freeman of this 
Company being the senior Alderman under the Chair of this City except 
one Did make at his request to this Court That he might be translated 
from this Company to the Company of Goldsmiths forasmuch as it was 
required by the Custom of London That he should be free of one of the 
first twelve Companys of this City before he could be put in elecciin 
to be Lord Mayor.'" 

Sir ^^'illiam Stewart appears to have been a man of considerable 
importance. He was made free of the Company of Goldsmiths on the 
27 July, 1720, and was elected Prime Warden on the 3Tst. 

On the occasion of his Mayoralty, the Goldsmiths' Company 
decided, although he was only a Member of their body by translation, 
to show him all accustomed civility, and they offered him the use of 
the Hall for his year of office at the rent of ^130. 

The Wardens were desired by the Court at the same time to 
ascertain from the Lord Mayor elect, what he was prepared to pay 
towards the expense of a Show and, after some deliberation, Sir William 
Stewart replied ;^6o. The Company, it is expressly stated, were at 
that tmie not in a pecuniary position to bear the expense of a Show, but 
nevertheless it would seem, from the following interesting account 
taken from the Memorials of the Goldsmiths' Company, that a brave 
show was made by the Company : — 

"Monday, y^ xxx'*^ October, 1721. — This being Lord ^Layor's 
Day the Ffoot Marshall drew up the Arm Bearers and Banner Bearers in 
their blew gowns and capps, being 5 2 in number, who were followed by 
the Companies almesmen ; and then came the Gent. Ushers in velvet (or 
black) coats and gilt chains, the Budge Bachelors in {Ma7ik in MS.) gowns, 
and the Rich Bachelors in {blank in JA9.) gowns : after whom came 
the New Livery, and the rest of the Company, the youngest going 
foremost ; and so waited on Sir \Vm. Stewart, Knight, Lord Ma}"or, 
at Drapers' Hall (the Drapers' Company dining at Cioldsmiths' Hall 
which could not be got ready for his Lordshipp), and from Drapers' 
Hall this Company preceded his Lordshipp to the 'Three Cranes' 
where they took barge, went to Westminster, relanded at Blackfriars, 
returned to Drapers' Hall, and from thence went to the 'Home' 
Tavern, in Ffleet Street, to dinner; at which place the Rich Bachelors, 
Budge Bachelors, and Gent. Ushers, were before treated while the 
Company were on the water. "- 

(i) Annals of the Barber Surgeons, p. 562. 

(2) Mentorials of the Goldsmiths'' Company, p. 20I. 

The Aldermen of Cripplegate ]Vard. 87 

His Will is dated 28 March, 1723, and by it he bequeaths various 
legacies of ;^2,ooo each to nephews and nieces, and sundry other 
smaller legacies to friends and servants, ^700 to St. Bartholomew's, 
and ^100 each to St. Thomas', Christ's, and Bethlehem Hospitals. 
^50 to the London AVorkhouse.' ^500 to his Housekeeper. 

He died at his house in Mark Lane, 29 April, 1723, aged seventh- 
nine. His corpse was carried, preceded by a hundred boys of Christ's 
Hospital and fifty boys belonging to the London AN'orkhousc, each with 
a wax taper in his hand, and was interred at Cuildhall Chapel, 7 May 

A tablet was placed in the Guildhall Chapel to his nieniorN, 
which was removed some time before its tiemulition, to the Church of 
St. Lawrence Jewry. 


Elected 20 June, 1723/ 
Sheriff 1729. Lord Mayor 1735, 

He was Master of the Mercers' Company, 1723. 
Director of the South Sea Company and Tory M.P. for Aldeburgh, 


He received the honour of knighthood at Kensington, 23 June, 
1713,' together with Samuel Ongley and Christopher Desbouverie (a 
fellow Mercer), they being Directors of the South Sea Company. 

An exciting contest took place for the Aldermanic representation of 
the ^Vard, between Sir John \\'illiams and one Felix Feast, who had been 
Sir William Stewart's Deputy for Cripplegate Without from 1 7 1 8 until the 
Alderman's death. The Wardmote for the election was held i May and 
was not finally closed until the 20 June following — during this time both 
^^'illiams and Feast were also candidates for the Shrievalty — and very 
strong and bitter opposition seems to have been displayed one to the 
other, arising probably from the fact that they were political opponents 
— \\'illiams being a Tory and Feast a Whig. Williams was eventually 
elected Alderman, but Feast and his co-candidate were duly elected 
Sheriffs, on Midsummer day ; the number of votes being, as stated by 
Mr. E. Falkingham, the representative of Sir Richard Hopkins and 

( 1 ) The London Workhouse was situated in Moor Lane, within his Ward. 

(2) Aiiiiah of the Barber Surgeons, p. 562. 

(3) Repertory 12^. fo. 417. (4) London Gauife. 

88 The Aldermen of Cripplegate Ward. 

Mr. Feast at the counting of the votes, as Hopkins, 3,248; Feast, 3,244; 
Lockwood, 3,191 ; Wilhams, 3,188. Previously to this, Mr. Sheriff 
Parsons (who at the election of \\'illiams for Alderman was said to have 
"awed the scrutineers"' in Williams" favour) declared the number of 
votes as follows: — Lockwood, 3,185: Williams, 3,181; Hopkins, 3,152 : 
Feast, 3,149. Richard Lockwood, who stood as colleague with Williams, 
was then one of the Tory Members for the City. Sir Richard Hopkins 
was afterwards Alderman of Lime Street Ward and ^^'hig Member for 
the City 1724 to 1727. 

On the death of Feast in February, 1724, Williams again became 
a candidate for the Shrievalty, but was again defeated, this time by 
Sir Edward Bellamy, Fishmonger. The first result of the poll was: 
Williams, 3,557; Bellamy, 3,102; but upon a scrutiny the numbers 
were considerably reduced, especially in the case of Williams — the 
numbers on scrutiny being: Bellamy, 2,868; WiUiams, 2,850. 

The election of Sir John Williams as Alderman of Cripplegate is 
interesting in several ways. His predecessor's (Stewart) election was 
the last under the old mode of election that had been in use for more than 
three hundred years, by which the Court of Aldermen elected one from 
four names submitted to them, by the freemen inhabitants of a Ward. 

In 1 7 14, an Act of Common Council altered the mode of 
election, to one that was in use previous to 1402, by which the inhabi- 
tants of a Ward directly elected one man to be their .\lderman, as it 
remains to this day. 

Probably the novelty of the change in the mode of election, had 
something to do with the excitement that took place, and kept the A\'ard 
in a state of turmoil for nearly eight weeks. At any rate, the election is 
noteworthy, as being the only contested election, for an Alderman in 
Cripplegate under this new mode of election. 

This unique position, warrants the following length)- (but abridged) 
account of the proceedings of the election of Sir John \\'illiams — First, 
in order, is the report to the Court of Aldermen, as to the proceedings 
at the Wardmote held on the i May, 1723, by the Attorney or Assessor 
attending the Lord Mayor, who as usual presided : — 

"Att a ^Vardmote held before the Right Honourable Sr Gerard 
Conyers, Knight, Lord Mayor of the City of London, on A\^ednesday 
the first day of May, One thousand seaven hundred and Twenty three, 
at the Parish Church of St. Giles's Cripplegate, London, for the Eleceiin 
of an Aldi'an for the said ^Vard, in the Room of Sir \\'illiam Stewart, 
Knight, deceased. 

The Aldermen of Crippkgate Ward. 89 

" The candidates or persons put in Nomination were (vizt) 
ffelix ifeast Esq, Citizen and Brewer, 
Mr. Deputy William Patten,' Citizen and Grocer, and 
Sir John Williams, Knight, Citizen and Mercer. 

Who being severally put up. His Lordship declared. That, by View of 

hands, the Eleccon to have fallen on ffelix ffeast Esq. 

" But a Poll being demanded on the behalf of Sir John Williams, 

By Charles Smith, Citizen and Girdler of London. 

William Warner, Citizen and Weaver of London. 

Thomas Bell, Citizen and Cooper of London. 

Roger Broome, Citizen and fframeworker Knitter of 
London and 

John Buscoe,' Citizen and Vintner of London. 
His Lordship granted the same; which began to be taken the same day. 
And from thence adjourned it to Thursday the Second day of May, 
aforesaid. And the same being compleated at two of the Clock the 
same day, The Books were shut up. Upon the Close and Casting up 
thereof, it appeared to his Lordship, That by the Majority of Votes the 
Eleccon was likewise fallen on ffelix ffeast Esq." 

The Lord Mayor in his statement does not give the majority for Feast, 
but Feast in his petition gives the numbers as: Feast 623, Williams 597. 

'* Whereupon a Scrutiny was the same day demanded, on the behalfe 

of Sir John Williams Knight by 

William Giggs, Citizen and Cordweyner of London. 

Edward ffrye. Citizen and Bricklayer of London. 

Daniell Bonner, Citizen and Merchant-Taylor of London, 

Charles Smith, Citizen and Girdler of London. 

\Vhich being likewise granted by his Lordship: the Scrutineers to 

manage the same, were as follows (Vizt) 

" On the part of ffelix ffeast Esq 

Mr. Charles Hartley, Staconer. 

Mr. Samel Wright, Weaver. 

Mr. Samuel vScott, Salter. 

Mr. Humphrey Gregory, AVeaver. 

Mr. Thos. Jackson, Draper. 

Mr. David Jones, Apothecary. 

(i) raUcn had been ihe lale Alderman's Deputy fur the Inner Ward. 

90 The Aldei'uien of Cripplegate Ward. 

" On the part of Sr. John WilHams, Knight. 
Mr. Thos. Bell, Cooper. 
Mr. Roger Broome, fframework knitter. 
Mr. Wm. Giggs, Cordweyner. 
Mr. Charles Duke, Goldsmith. 
Mr. Joseph Tucker, Wyerdrawer. 
Mr. Daniel Bonner, Mercht. Taylor. 

"After which Appointment of Scrutineers, the said Court was by his 
Lorp. adjourned to ^^'ednesday the twenty second day of May aforesaid. 

" When being met His Lordship entred upon, and proceeded in, 
the said Scrutiny and afterwards adjourned to ffriday, the twenty fourth 
day of May aforesaid. 

" When being again met, the said Scrutiny was renewed, and his 
Lordship further adjourned the said Court, to Saturday the twenty-fifth 
day of the same Month. 

" When meeting again, the said Scrutiny was reassumed and 
afterwards his Loi'p. further adjourned the said Court, to Monday 
the twenty seventh day of May aforesaid. 

" When being likewise again met. His Lordship reentered upon the 
said Scrutiny and afterwards adjourned it, to Thursday the thirtieth day 
of the same Month. 

" When being again met, the Scrutiny was also renewed, and after- 
wards adjourned to ffriday, the thirty first day of May aforesaid. 

" When meeting again the said Scrutiny was likewise renewed 
and thoroughly gone thro'. But some Doubts remaining, as to tlie 
Qualificacon of some of the pollers as were Quered in the Books on the 
Scrutiny, His Lordship had a Case prepared and ready drawn of all 
such Pollers aforesaid, which was read to both Candidates p'sent. And 
his Lordship then acquainted them That he was desirous to have the 
opinions of Mr Recorder and Mr. Comon Serjeant thereon, before his 
Lordship would give his Determinacon in the said Eleccon, if they 
would then approve of the said Case as stated and read to them, which 
they unanimously approved of and agreed to ; Thereupon his Lordship 
thought fit, further to adjourne the said Court to Wednesday the twelfth 
day of June thence following. 

"When being again met his Lordship was pleased to actjuaint tlie 
Candidates and Electors, at the said Court, That he luid nul received 

7^/ic AldciDicii of Crif^pleoale ]\^ard. 91 

the Opinions of Mr Recorder and Mr Conlon Serjeant on the aforesaid 
Case, And therefore his Lordship further adjourned the said Court to 
Thursday, the twentieth day of June aforesaid. 

" AVhen being again hkewise met His Lordship declared, That after 
a full Hearing at the said several adjournements and Strict Examination 
made and after the Scrutiny was finished, His Lordship reced a Peticiin 
of ffelix ffeast Esq, with two Affidavits thereunto annexed, and severall 
other Affidavits, touching the said Scrutiny, wherein it is Suggested that 
Sir John Williams, threatened one of Mr ffeast's Scrutineers, with an Action 
of Ten thousand pounds. And that he, the said Sir John Williams took 
upon him to menace and threaten the rest of the Scrutineers for Mr 
ffeast, with liringing of great and heavy Actions against them; while they 
were in the Execucon of their Duty, and not doing or saying anything 
inconsistent therewith ; which, as it is apprehended, so intimidated and 
terrified the said Mr ffeasts Scrutineers from giving their proper Objec- 
cons and reasons, in such manner as they could have done. 

" There are other AUegacons in the said Peticon, besides these 
much to the same effect. To which said Peticon and Affidavits Relacon 
being had, will fully and at large appear to this Honourable Court. 

" His Lordship further declared That he had likewise received 
severall Affidavits to confront the said Peticon of ffelix ffeast Esq, and 
Justifie Sir John ^Villiams in his dropping some words, as contained in 
the said Peticon of and Affidavits on the behalfe of ffelix ffeast Escj, 
against the said Mr ffeast's Scrutineers. Relacon being likewise had to 
the said Affidavits will more fully and at large appears to this Court. 

" And his Lordship likewise declared in the said Court of Wardmote 
that the Reason of thus acquainting him, was, That he would lay the 
said Peticon and Affidavits on both sides, and the Matter of Fact before 
this Honourable Court, to do and determine as to this Court may seem 
just and equitable. 

" But his Lorp was of an Opinion as the Scrutiny stood. That Sir 
John ^\'illiams had the Majority of good Voices for Aldran for the said 
Ward, in the Room of Sir William Stewart, Knight, deceased. And there- 
upon the said Court of AVardmote was dismissed according to forme. 

" Edward Peirce 

" Attorney attending his Lordship." 
The Order of the Proceedings before the Court of Aldermen is 
entered in the Repertory as follows (abridged) : — • 

92 The Alde7'uien of Cripplegate Ward. 

Tuesday, 2 July 1723. 

" The Ld Mayor delivered in his Report of the election &c. of 
Alderman of the Ward of Cripplegate, Within and Without, The con- 
sideration whereof is adjourned till next Tuesday.^ 

Tuesday, 9th July 1723. 
" This day the Report made by the Rt. Honoble. The Lord Mayor 
touching the late Election of an Alderman for the Ward of Cripplegate, 
Within and Without, in the Room of Sr. William Stewart, Knt. lately 
deced was taken into Consideration and the Petition of Felix Feast Esq 
was Read and the Affidavits of Mr Henry Lowth, Mr Nathaniel Phillips 
and Mr. Humphry Gregory, annexed to the said Petition, were likewise 
Read. And the Affidavit of Mr. Thomas Bell, Mr. Daniel Bonner and 
Mr. vSamuel Hoyle were also Read, and the further Consideration thereof 
is Adjourned till Tuesday next, and Notice is to be given to both the said 
Candidates, and in the mean time Mr. Town Clerk is to Search Prece- 
dents to see what hath been done on any such occasion.- 

Tuesday, 16 July 1723. 
"This Court proceeded to consider of the late election &c. . . . 
and Felix Feast Esq. presented a Petition to this Court complaining 
(among other things) that several of his Scrutineers were so menaced 
and Threatened by Sr John Williams and awed by Humphrey Parsons 
Esq. one of the Sheriffes of this City, That they were Intimidated, 
Terrified, and Discouraged in the proceeding on the said Scrutiny 
That they did not make the Objections proper to be made, to such as 
were illegal pollers on the part of Sr John Williams nor offer what was 
proper to be offered to Maintain the Right of such Pollers as had 
Polled for the said Mr Feast, as had good right to Poll at that Election, 
which together with the Affidavits of Samuel ^^'right, David Jones, and 
Daniel Booth, to Prove the Allegations thereof, were severally Read, in 
the presence of the said Mr. Feast, who then withdrew. And Sr John 
A\'illiams being called in was by Order of this Court Acquainted by 
Mr. Recorder of the several proceeding of this Court relating to the said 
Election, and the said Petition, and Affidavits, before mentioned all 
which were now again Read in his presence, who then withdrew. 
Whereupon this Court doth adjourn the further Consideration thereof 
till next Tuesday when they will proceed to the further Consideration 

(1) Kepcrtory 1:27. fol. 370. (2) Id. fol. 394. 

The Alder men of C7Hpplegate W^ard. 93 

thereof and Examin such ^\'itnesses on Oath, Viva Voce, as shall be 

produced by either of the said Parties, as to the point of Menacing and 

Threatning the Scrutineers, only For this Court doth Resolve not to 

Intermeddle with any other matter relating to the said Election than to 

the Threats and Menaces Complained of in the said Petition. And it is 

ordered in the meantime That each of the said Parties may have Copies 

(if they think fit) of the said Petition and Affidavits, or of such of them 

as they shall think necessary. And Sr John \\'illiams being called in was 

Acquainted therewith, but Mr Feast being gon, it was Ordered he should 

be informed thereof.' 

Tuesday, 23 July 1723. 

"The Court proceeded to consider t^x. &c. . . . And .S"" John 
\\'illiams and Felix Feast Esq were severally called in and the Return 
of the Right Honoble. The Lord Mayor of the said election was Read, 
as likeAvise the Petition of Felix Feast Esq, which was read at the last 
Court, complaining of several Menaces and Threats used by S"" John 
^^■ illiams to the said M'' Feast's Scrutineers, was now read again, together 
with the several Affidavits referred to by the same and several A\"itnesses 
were Examined on Oath on the part of the said AP Feast, after which 
several Affidavits were read, and several Witnesses examined on Oath 
on the behalf of S' John Williams. And after Hearing all the said 
Parties and their Evidence they withdrew. Whereupon (after some 
debate) This Court came to the following Resolutions, vizt : 

"Resolved: That it appears to this Court That unjustifyable Menaces 
were used by S'' John ^\'illiams upon the Scrutiny of the said election. 

" Resolved : 'lliat the said Scrutiny was not affected by the saici 
Menaces, so as to Turn the said Election in favour of M"" Feast. 

" And it appearing by his Lordship's return That S'' John ^\'illianls, 
Knight, Citizen and Mercer had a Majority of good Voices for Alder- 
man for the said ^Vard, It was Resolved that tl*i said S"" John Williams 
should be called in and Sworn, And he being called in accordingly. Did 
appear and was here sworn for the due Execution of the said Office, and 
also Took and Subscribed the Oaths and made and Subscribed the De- 
claration according to the .several Laws made for those purposes." - 

Sir John ^^'illiams was Alderman of the Ward for twenty years. He 
was a Turkey Merchant, and lived in Norfolk Street, Strand. He died 
7th May, 1743.' 

(i) Ripcrloiy i3y. ful. 402. (2) hi. fo. 416. 

(3) Kearsley's London Register of Alayors. 


The Aldermen of Cripplegate ]Vard. 

(Frciii a Jty'uit taken from the original J'niiitiii^ o/' n 
group of Aldermen, in Goldsmiths Hall.) 


Elected 9 May, 1743.' 

Sheriff 1745. Lord Mayor (23 May, 1750). 

In 1745, great difficulty was experienced in getting men willing to 
serve the Shrievalty, and it was not until 9 July that Blachford was 
elected vSheriff, having as his colleague, Alderman Cokayne, of Cornhill 
■Ward. Fourth Warden of the Goldsmiths' Company in 1737, third 
Warden in 1740 and again in 1741, second Warden in 1742, and Prime 
Warden in 1744.' 

He was elected Lord Mayor on the death of Sir Samuel Pennant, 
Alderman of Bishopsgate, who with another Alderman, two Judges, and 
many other persons, felfa victim to the gaol distemi)er. John Blachford 
finished the year, but was not re-elected. 

He was elected President of St. Bartholomew's Hospital, 8 February, 
1754, and retained the office until his death. 

As an enthusiastic Jacobite it was unfortunate that he should have 
been one of the Sheriffs at the execution of Lords Kilmarnock and 
Balmerino on 18 August, 1746.^ 

(1) h'rf-t-rlory i^j. fo. 244. 
(2) Records of Ihe Goldsniith:^' Company. (j) Sluckcn MSS. 

The Aldcrwcn of Cripplegatc Ward. 95 

He presented to his Company (in 1752) a portrait of himself and 
five other Members of the Goldsmiths' Company (styled a Conversation 
piece), in a group, who are supposed to be drinking the health of the 
King "over the water." ' 

In the Memorials of the Coldsmiths' Company,- the following 
entry appears in connection with this picture :— 

" 20 February, 1752. — Mr. Alderman Blachford acquaints the Court 
that he has caused his picture, together with those of Mr. Alderman 
Ironside [Cordwainer], Sir Henry Marshall [Farringdon Within], Mr. 
Alderman Henn [Aldersgate], Mr. Alderman Alsop [Coleman Street], antl 
Mr. Alderman Rawlinson [liroad Street], to l)e drawn as a Conversation 
Piece, which he desires tlie Company to acce[)t ; whereupon it is moved 
and seconded that the thanks of this Court be given to Mr. Alderman 
Blachford, as well for the many favours by him heretofore shown to 
the Company, as for this very agreeable present ; and, the question being 
put, the thanks of the Court are unanimously voted to him for the same." 

As will be noticed the (ioldsmiths' Company were well represented 
in the Court of Aldermen at this time, no less than six of their number 
being Members of that body. 

John Hlacliibrd died 25 September, 1759. 


Elected 29 September, 1759.' 

Sheriff 1761. 

Knighted on Lord Mayor's Day, on the occasion of King Ceorge 

III and his (^ueen honouring the Cuildhall Banquet with their presence. 

The pageant in the streets on Lord Mayor's Day was a memorable one, 

the l-'ish mongers' Company paying honour to Cartwright, by an allegorical 

display — comprising a statue of St. Peter, a dolphin, two mermaids, 

and two sea horses. 

He was elected on the Court of the Fishmongers' Compan\', 
8 I'ebruary, 1754, but never served the office of Prime Warden. 

Resigned on account of ill health (3 February, 1767) without serving 
the office of Lord Mayor. He died 29 August, 1772. 

(i) See note under portrait. (2) \'ol. II, pp. 243-4. 

(3) Repertory i6j. fo, 399. 


The Aldenueii of Cripplcg-atc ]]^ard. 

(From a print />ul<lislicd Ijgs, taken/roin tlii' flri'^iiia! painthis: 
by Sir Joshua Reynolds.) 


Elected 6 February, 1767.' 

Sheriff 1766. Lord Mayor 1777. 

He was son of Peter Esdaile, of the Parish of St. Luke, Middlesex, 
and carried on the business of an accoutrement maker, in Bunhill Row. 
He was a great print collector. His fourth son, William, was a noted 
banker, the senior partner in Esdaile, Hammet & Co., 21, Lombard 
Street. He came from Clreat (iains, Essex. 

In 1766, there was a difficulty in obtaining Sheriffs, and eventually 
Esdaile was elected on 4 September. His colleague in the Shrievalty 
was Sir Robert Darling," who from 1768 till his death in 1770 was 
lulmund Burke's c-ollt-aguc in the re])resentation of Wi'iidoNir in 

Knighted in Ins Shrievalty (28 October) on the occasion of the 
presentation of an address by the Corporation to the 'I'hrom-. 

(1) Repertory 171. fo. 1 86. 

(2) ( )n 24 June, ConqiK'st jcuu-s and William KfNUolils, wi'it' I'K'cicd, and 011 
bcin^ discliargcd, Robert Darliiit; and riiillip Sli-jilicns, were elected 24 July, and as 
Stephens did nnl appear In i;i\c lii^ bond, Msdaib- was ehosen. 

The Aldei'nicn of Cripplegate Ward. 97 

On being sworn into office as Lord Mayor, the Lord Chancellor 
said : " His Majesty highly approves of the choice made by the City of 
London" and added for himself: "What pleasure the citizens must feel 
on a return of that dignity, peace and tranquillity which had been lost 
and disturbed for many years past " and hoped " matters would return 
to the old channel." This referred to the estrangement between the 
King and the City from the time of Beckford's " remonstrance." 

In his year of office the country was at war with the American 
Colonies and on the 15 January, 1778, he laid a plan before the King for 
opening a subscription " to raise land and sea forces," but the Common 
Council the next day resolved that '' to give any countenance, or to be 
in any way instrumental in continuing the present war with the Colonies 
will reflect dishonour on humanity." Next day, however, the proposed 
subscription was opened at the London Tavern, and ^,14,000 was sub- 
scribed for enlisting men for service in the war. How different was this 
to the reception of the proposition of the Lord Mayor in 1899, when the 
quasi colony of the Transvaal declared war against this country — when, 
feeling the justice of the country's cause (which it did not in 1778), 
the Common Council voted ^25,000 towards assisting a fund to equip 
1,000 volunteers for service in South Africa — 1,500 volunteers being 
raised, equipped and sent out within four weeks ; the corps being 
known as the City Imperial Volunteers. Over ^100,000 was 
subscribed by the Citizens. 

Later on, Esdaile refused to put to the Common Hall a 
resolution of thanks to the four City Members in Parliament for their 
opposition to "a weak and wicked administration," recommending them 
also to continue their best endeavours to prosecute them to shame and 
punishment. The Common Council on 19 November gave instructions 
to their representatives (all Members of the Court) to make strenuous 
efforts to prevent the loss of our Colonies, and the " shame and distress 
of this unhappy country." 

Esdaile does not appear to have served any office in the Coopers' 

He was Colonel of the Green Regiment of the London Militia 
from 1763 to 1789, when the distinction of colours was abolished, and 
continued to be one of the Colonels of the Militia till his death, 
which occurred at his residence in Bunhill Row, 6 April, 1793,' his 
successor in the Aldermanry being elected only four days after. 

(i) Gentleiiiaii s Alaoazive, 1793. p. 380. 


The Alderfuen of Cripplegatc Jf^ard. 

. J^ 


(Fni/u a piint taken /torn a painting by Sir William Beccliey 
in Carpenters' Hall.) 


Elected lo April, 1793»' 

Sheriff 1796. Lord Mayor 1800. 

Knighted in his Shrievalty (26 October) on the occasion of 
attending, with his brother Sheriff (Stephen Langston), and the Lord 
Mayor (Brook Watson), to present an address to the King, expressing the 
satisfaction of the City at hearing that an envoy was to be sent to Paris 
to negotiate for peace. 

Master of the Carpenters' Company, 1793, and on the death of the 
Master in 1799, served for the remainder of his term. 

The following is an abbreviated extract from the Eiiropcan Maga- 
zine for November, 1807 : — 

"The late Sir ^\'illiam Staines whose memory it is our ardent wish 
to transmit to posterity, was one who by a firm reliance in Providence, 
seconded by the unremitted efforts of his own industry and supported 
by the most undeviating integrity, raised himself to the height of Civic 
honour. He was born of humble parents early in 1731, probably in 
St. George's, Southwark, and was apprenticed to a mason in the (Jity, 
but after serving part of his time, ran away to sea and made a voyage to 

(i) Repertory I c)7. fo. 167. 

The Aldermen of Cripplegate Ward. 99 

Portugal, but on his return the ship was captured by the French, and 
after several months' captivity, he was exchanged with other prisoners. 
He returned home deeply penitent for his misconduct in leaving his 
Master, who took him back into his service, Staines serving him as 
apprentice, not only for the length of his legal term, but also for the 
period in which he had been absent. He commenced business on his 
own account as a Mason and Builder, in Philip Lane, Cripplegate, his 
business gradually grew, and eventually he was in a position to undertake 
the erection of public buildings, and amongst other works the repairing 
and relaying the streets, with what was then termed 'Scotch pavement.' 
His position still improving, he built himself a large house in Barbican 
in which place he had long resided, and soon after (in 1784), such was 
the esteem in which he was held by his fellow Citizens, that they 
elected him one of their four representatives in the Common Council 
for the AV^ard of Cripplegate Without. He was appointed the Alder- 
man's Deputy in 1791, and on the death of Sir James Esdaile, he 
was elected Alderman of the ^^'ard, being then in his 63rd year. 
He was Lord Mayor in 1800. 'In all these situations his strength of mmd 
and innate integrity, while they reflected the highest honour upon his 
abilities, afforded the greatest satisfaction to his constituents and were 
of the utmcst advantage to the public' \w 1786 he carried into effect 
a benevolent design, that he had long contemplated, of building and 
endowing nine almshouses. These were built in Jacobs Well Passage, 
Barbican," and in 1866 were removed to Tottenham. 

Staines entered upon his year of office as Lord Mayor, on the day 
that Nelson arrived in London, after the battle of the Nile, and who 
joined the procession on its return from \\'estminster. So popular was 
Staines that his carriage was dragged by the populace from Blackfriars 
Bridge to the Guildhall. Nelson took part in the feast, and the same 
night received a sword of honour, that had been voted him, by the 
Corporation. It is said that five thousand ladies and gentlemen were 
present : and the scene was one of great enthusiasm. During his year 
of office, on the first day of the nineteenth century, the Union of Great 
Britain and Ireland was celebrated by the ringing of all the Church 
bells in the City. In consequence of the long continued war with 
France, provisions were very dear, especially flour, concerning which a 
Royal proclamation was issued, recommending the use of other pro- 
visions than flour, the reduction of the use of flour in every household 
by one third, and the restriction of one loaf to each person per week. 

loo The Aldermen of Cripplegate JJ^ard. 

Staines had a troublesome year of ofifice, riots frequently occurring, 
but at the close, the preliminaries of peace with France having been 
signed, rejoicings and illumination ushered out the year. Of Sir ^^'illiam 
Staines there are many curious stories, amongst others, some concerning 
his penchant for his pipe. He seldom rode out without a well-charged 
pipe, and when he alighted, it was handed to his coachman to keep it 
going until his master's return. Staines was fond of simple social habits 
and neighbourly society, and would relate over his pipe and glass the 
following anecdote : — " When he was at work as a bricklayer, at a 
parsonage house at Uxbridge, the parson's wife told him, to his astonish- 
ment, she had a dream that he would wear a gold chain and be Lord 
]Mayor of London. The same dream again occurred to the lady, and 
was told him." He finished his work at the house and left, probably 
thinking but little of the matter, but this incident may possibly have 
been an incentive to him to attempt to rise in life. The parson lived 
to be Chaplain to Staines when Lord Mayor. 

The Vestry of St. Giles, Cripplegate, showed their gratitude for some 
of his earlier services thus : — 

" 20 March, 1792, Ordered — That a very handsome silver Tobacco 
box and stopper be made and presented to Mr Deputy William Staines, 
with a suitable inscription as a reward for his service done to the Parish, 
and the two Churchwardens and Mr Clarke and Mr Browning be a 
Committee for seeing the same done in a proper manner." 

In 1803 he left his house in Barbican, and resided at Clapham, 
where he died 10 September, 1807, aged seventy-six years. 

He was so much respected, that his funeral was attended by the 
Lord Mayor and most of his brother Aldermen, and by all the authorities 
of the ^^^ard and Parish with which he had been so long connected. 

He was buried in the Churchyard of St. Giles, Cripplegate. In the 
Church there is a handsome monument to his memory. 

The AldcTinen of Cripplegate Ward. 



^Ki^v ' ^4^^B^^»^^^^^^^^^wB 






/•■;■,'/// a /Tint fiubUsheii hy lioy<ie/l , 1S17, taken froiii f/u 
fiictu) e painted by Lady Bell.) 

MATTHEW WOOD. Fishmonger. 

Elected 14 September, 1807,' 

Sheriff 1809. Lord Mayor 1815 and 1816. 

He was born at Tiverton in 1768 and, after receiving his education 
in the famous Blundell's Free Grammar School in that town, was 
apprenticed to a druggist. At the age of twenty-two he came to 
London, and in 1801 estabHshed himself in business in Cripplegate as 
a Hop Merchant. Li 1802 he was placed at the head of the poll as one 
of the four Common Councilmen for the Ward of Cripplegate Without. 

On 29 Sept., 1807, the Lord Mayor reported the election of Matthew 
Wood (who was then absent in Ireland) to the Court of Aldermen, which 
resolved that "This Court doth grant him further time to make his 
appearance to take upon him the said office." Wood attended 27 October, 
and was duly sworn in. 

Prime Warden of the Fishmongers' Company, 1834, and at that 
time was described as residing at Highbury Place, Highbury. 

Eight years after his election as Alderman, he was elected to the 
Mayoralty, in which he distinguished himself by his unrivalled energy 

(i) Reperto)y 211. fo. 459. 

I02 The Aldermen of Cripplegate Ward. 

and ability as a Magistrate. The critical state of the country in 1816, 
the great scarcity and consequent dullness and dissatisfaction, rendered 
it important that a firm man should be chosen as Chief Magistrate 
of the City, and for the first time for several hundred years, the Civic 
Chair was filled during two consecutive terms of office by the same 
individual. This confidence in Wood was not misplaced, for soon after 
(3 December, 1816) the commencement of his second year of office a 
series of riots had taken place in various parts of the country. In 
agricultural districts ricks had been fired, and in manufacturing towns 
machinery had been wantonly destroyed. In December a riot known 
as the " Spa Fields Riot " broke out, but was repressed without much 
difficulty — thanks to the courage of the Lord Mayor.' 

During Wood's second Mayoralty, in 18 17, he was returned to 
Parliament as representative of the City of London, without any oppo- 
sition. He sat in ten consecutive Parliaments, extending over a 
period of twenty-five years, and headed the poll in the contests of 
1818, 1820, 1835, and 1837. Upon the decease of George III, in the 
year 1820, Wood was applied to by Queen Caroline (then abroad) for 
advice. Being fully persuaded of her innocence, with that straightfor- 
ward decision and hatred of oppression which distinguished him through 
life, he at once exhorted her to face her accusers by returning to England, 
and with consistent firmness, regardless of the attacks of a portion of 
the Press, he stood by her cause to the end. 

Theodore Hook wrote a bitter satire on Alderman Wood's espousal 
of the Queen's cause, entitled, "An Essay towards the History of 
Whittington," but satire though it be, the following verses that occur in 
it were undoubtedly true : — 

" Serche England round, naye all the erthe. 
Itte mychtelie would trouble you, 
To find a manne so ryche in worthe, 
As honeste Matthew W. 

He's notte the manne to doe you wronge, 

Nor wythe false speeches trouble you, 
\Vhyle beef grows fatte, and beer grows strong, 

Long lyfe to Matthew W." 

(i) The account of Wood's conduct in the early suppression of the riot, which 
might have led to a repetition of the anarchy that prevailed in the Gordon Riots of 
1780, is given in full in Loyidon and the Kingdom, Vol. Ill, pp. 299 to 305. The 
Gentleman^ s Magazine oi November, 1843, furnishes the greater part of the information 
respecting Wood's career as here given. 

The Aldermen of Cripp legate Ward. 103 

On the occasion of Her Majesty, Queen Victoria, honouring the 
Corporation by her presence at dinner at the Guildhall, 9 November, 
1837, Alderman Wood was informed by Lord John Russell of Her 
Majesty's intention to confer on him the dignity of a Baronetcy. He 
had acted as trustee in the management of the affairs of Her Majesty's 
father, the Duke of Kent, and it was owing to his recommendation that 
the Duke and Duchess returned to England from Brussels, in order that 
their eldest child might be born a Briton He was a Radical Reformer 
during his whole career, his votes being given in favour of Free Trade, 
Reform of Parliament, Vote by Ballot, Emancipation of the Roman 
Catholics, and other Liberal measures of Reform. As a Magistrate he 
was firm and upright, yet kind and indulgent to the poor and distressed. 
He was highly esteemed as a man of the utmost strictness and honour in 
all his transactions. 

He married Maria, daughter of John Page, a surgeon, of 
Woodbridge, co. Suffolk, and left three sons — John Page, who was in 
Holy Orders, and succeeded him in the Baronetcy ; William Page, and 
Western. His second son, William Page Wood, after filling successively 
the offices of Solicitor-General, Vice-Chancellor, and Lord Justice of 
Appeal, became Lord High Chancellor in Mr. Gladstone's first Ministry, 
and was raised to the Peerage, with the title of Lord Hatherley, derived 
from an estate in Gloucestershire, left to Sir Matthew by a namesake, 
" Jemmy " Wood, the Banker, it is said through the instrumentality of 
a lady relative, in gratitude to Sir Matthew Wood for his conduct in 
defending Queen Caroline. 

The third son, AVestern ^^'ood, represented the City of London 
from July, 1861, till his death in 1863, having been elected (after a 
close contest, in which he defeated the then Lord Mayor, William 
Cubitt) to fill the vacancy caused by the elevation of Lord John Russell 
to the Peerage. On his death Mr. Goschen succeeded him, entering 
Parliament then for the first time. 

The eldest son, the Rev. Sir John Page Wood, died in 1866. He 
had three sons, the youngest of whom is Sir Henry Evelyn Wood, 
K.C.B., V.C., whose distinguished services are well known. He entered 
the Royal Navy in 1852, and served with the Naval Brigade in the 
Crimea, where he was wounded; he entered the Army in 1855. His 
Victoria Cross was gained for conspicuous bravery during the Indian 

Sir Matthew Wood died 25 September, 1843, aged seventy-five. 


The Aldermen of Cripp legate Ward. 

(From a painting in Butchers' Hall.) 


Elected 6 October, 1843.' 
Sheriff 1846. Lord Mayor 1852. 

He was born in Fore Street, Cripplegate, where his father 
(Churchwarden of the Parish of St. Giles, Cripplegate, in 1804) was 
in business. An obituary notice in The Times Newspaper, 22 August, 
1874, runs as follows: — "Throughout his term of office he took a 
leading part in encouraging the formation of schools of art, and other 
educational matters. For many years he carried on business in Finsbury 
and Bermondsey as a Hide Merchant, and for some time (1852-57) 
represented Finsbury in the House of Commons, his colleague being 
Thomas Slingsby Buncombe [Tom. Buncombe]. He was known as a 
painstaking Magistrate and was highly respected in the Corporation." 

Master of the Butchers' Company, 1839. 

Entering into the Mayoralty when the body of the great Buke of 
Wellington was lying in state awaiting burial, the usual Procession to 
^\^estminster was dispensed with, and the Banquet postponed. 

He was a Liberal in politics. 

Buring his year of office Billingsgate Fish Market was constructed. 

At the time of his death (20 August, 1874) which occurred in his 
eighty-first year, he was Father of the Court of Aldermen, 
(i) Repertory 247. fo. 379. 

The Aldermen of Cripp legate JJ'^ard. 


HENRY EDMUND KNIGHT. Spectacle Maker. 

Elected 31 August, 1874.' 

Sheriff 1875. Lord Mayor 1882. 

Born 25 March, 1833. The youngest son of John W'iUiam Knight, 
of Marylebone and St. Albans. He was educated at the City of London 
School, and was Captain of the School on leaving. He commenced 
his business life with Messrs. Brettle &: Co., of Wood Street, in 1849, 
and on his own account, in 1857: elected to the Common Council for 
Cripplegate Within on St. Thomas's Day, 1867, and soon took an active 
part in the work of the Court. He was Chairman of the City of London 
School Committee in 1869, being the first pupil of the School to attain 
that position, and at the time of his election as alderman, was Chairman 
of the Improvement Committee of the Commissioners of Sewers. 

He served the office of Sheriff with Edgar Breffitt, who was elected 
alderman of Cheap Ward by the Court of Aldermen, after it had thrice 
rejected the return by the ward of Sir John Bennett. The Sheriffs in 
his Mayoralty were Joseph Savory and Polydore de Keyser. 

He was the last Lord Mayor to be sworn in at the Royal Courts at 
Westminster. His year of office was eventful. Amongst the chief func- 
tions that he attended as Lord Mayor was the opening of the new Law 

( I ) Repertory 2yS. fo. 278. 

io6 The Aldermen of Cripplegate Ward. 

Courts in the Strand by Her Majesty the Queen, and similar ceremonies 
at the new City of London School on the Thames Embankment, and 
the City of London College, in \Miite Street, Cripplegate, by T.R.H. the 
Prince and Princess of A\ ales ; the opening of the Birkbeck Institute by 
H.R.H. the Uuke of Albany, and the dedication to the use of the public 
by the Corporation, of Burnham Beeches and Coulsdon Commons. Chief 
amongst the many brilliant gatherings of the Mayoralty, was the presen- 
tation on 1 1 April of an address enclosed in a gold box, to General the 
Right Hon. Lord Wolseley, C.C.B. (who had already received the 
Freedom of the City, 22 October, 1874), and the Freedom of the City 
together with a Sword of Honour, to Admiral the Right Hon. Lord 
Alcester, G.C.B., as a recognition of the able and gallant services 
rendered by them in Egypt. The ceremony in Guildhall was fol- 
lowed by a splendici banquet at the Mansion House, given in their 
honour, which was attended by the officers of the Navy and Army 
who had taken part in the Egyptian Campaign, who were then in 
England. The Prince of ^^'ales and several members of the Royal 
Family, and six Cabinet Ministers, honoured the occasion with their 
presence, after which the Lady Mayoress held a reception, at which 
over two thousand guests were present. 

Relief funds were opened in aid of the sufferers from a disastrous 
fire in Jamaica, an earthquake in Ischia, and severe gales in the 
Western Isles and Highlands of Scotland, large sums being collected, 
and relief given. 

During his year of office the atrocious murders of Lord Frederick 
(Cavendish and Mr. Burke were consummated in Dublin, and at the time 
when a feeling of horror ran strong through the community, Sir Henry 
was waited upon by a deputation of Irishmen (some of whom had 
recently taken part in a meeting at the Farringdon Memorial Hall, at 
which the dreadful crime was spoken of with favour), requesting him to 
open a fund for the relief of the Irish people, who were said to be 
suffering great privations. Whilst sympathising with the people in their 
distress, he voiced the sentiments and feelings of the citizens, by strongly 
denouncing, not only the authors of the outrage, but all those, who by 
their public action appeared to encourage them, and refused to open 
the suggested fund, l)ut promised to do everything in his power to 
promote the prosperity of the country. He soon after inaugurated and 
warmly supported an Exhibition of Irish Lace, held in the Mansion 
House, which was attended by T.R.H. the Prince and Princess of 

The Aldermen of Cripplegate Ward. 107 

Wales and several other Members of the Royal Family, which was 
highly successful in promoting the native industry of Ireland. His 
action in the matter gave great satisfaction to the Government, and to 
the country at large. 

During his year of office, a Royal Commission held an enquiry as 
to the administration of the Funds of the Livery Companies. Sir Henry 
Knight took advantage of his position, to inform the public of the 
admirable work that these (iuilds were carrying on, both in the cause of 
Education and of Charit)-, and it was not a little owing to his advocacy 
and determined attitude in the matter, that influential public men were 
led to see the injustice that would be done, if the property of the Guilds 
was confiscated. Eventual!) the threatened danger was averted. 

Sir Henry Knight is prominent amongst his brethren of the Court 
of Aldermen in upholding the various ceremonies and traditional usages 
of the City, considering, that most of these usages possess more signifi- 
cance than is apparent to a superficial observer, and urges the claim for 
their retention, on the grounds that they may become of serious im- 
portance, and that the continued observance of them, will materially 
assist in sustaining the veneration and respect in which the Corporation 
deserves to be held. 

He was knighted at Osborne, 31 December, 1883. He has been 
Chairman of all the Committees of the Court of Aldermen, and is now 
Chairman of the (ieneral Purposes Committee. 

At the time of his election as Alderman, he was a member of the 
Spectacle Makers' Company, but on the 8 January, 1887, was translated 
to the Fishmongers' Company. 

Sir Henry has lieen twice married, and has a numerous family. 
During his Mayoralty one of his daughters was married in St. Paul's 
Cathedral, by the Archbishop of Canterbury ; this being the only 
marriage besides one other, celebrated in the Cathedral for the past 
120 years. 

His city address is 75, Aldermanbury, and his residences are 41, 
Hill Street, Mayfair, and Stain Hill Park, Hampton, Middlesex. 


An account of the office of an "Alderman's Deputy," taken from 
the Corporation and other Records, appropriately follows the Biogra- 
phical Notes concerning the Aldermen. The references here given, are 
intended to, as far as possible, illustrate the origin of the office, and the 
position a deputy occupied in his ward, and as this work is intended 
to be chiefly devoted to the ward of Cripplegate, special mention is 
naturally made of the deputies of that ward. 

As will be noted, the office of deputy is of considerable antiquity, 

for \vc find that Shakespeare, writing at the end of the sixteenth century, 

evidently believed that the office of an alderman's deputy was in 

existence two centuries before his time, for in the first part of Henry IV, 

Act 3, Scene 3, he refers to "the deputy's wife," and in the second part 

of the same play, Act 2, Scene 4, occurs the following, the scene being 

laid in a room in the Boar's Head Tavern, Eastcheap : — 

Host. Tilly-fally, Sir John, never tell me; your ancient swaggerer comes not in 
my doors. I was before Master Tisick, the deputy, the other day : and, as he said 
to me, — it was no longer ago than Wednesday last, — "Neighbour Quickly," says 
he; — Master Dumb, our minister, was by then ;—" Neighbour Quickly," says he, 
"receive those that are civil ; for," saith he; "you are in an ill name"; — now he 
said so, I can tell whereupon ; "for," says he, " you are an honest woman, and well 
thought on ; therefore take heed what guests you receive; Receive," says he, "no 
swaggering companions " — There comes none here ; — you would bless you to hear 
what he said : no, I'll no swaggerers. 

The earliest definite record that at present can be traced of an 
alderman appointing a person to execute the duties of his office, and 
therefore presumably appointing one, who is now described as an alder- 
man's deputy, is found in the Corporation Records, and is as follows : — 

14 June, 3 Henry VI [a.d. 1425]. The same day Robert Tatersall desired 
that Thomas Ayer, draper, should occupy the office of aldermanry, &c., of the said 
Robert, &c., so long as the said Robert should happen to be out of the town. — 
Journal 2, fo. 44b. Latin. 

This appointment seems to have been of short duration, for on 

20 July following, we find this entry : — 

The same day, Robert Tatersall, alderman appointed and put in his place John 
Whateley, mercer, &c., in his aldermanry of Bread SixQ^i.— Journal 2, fo. 48b. 

These entries in the. Journals seem to indicate that by permission of 
the Court of Aldermen, an alderman could appoint a deputy to execute 

I lo The Aldermen s Deputies. 

the whole of the duties of an aldermanry. It must, however, be 
remembered that at this period an alderman did not hold the position 
of a Justice of the Peace ; the appointment of the senior aldermen as 
Justices not taking place until 26 Oct., 23 Henry VI [a.d. 1444]. 

Later in the same century a similar appointment of a deputy seems 

to have been made as follows : — 

15 Dec, 18 Edward IV [a.d. 1478]. Robert Tate admitted to occupy [his place ?J 
in the stead and name of John Tate, alderman, &c., on account of the imbecility 
and infirmity of the said John, &.C.— Journal <?, fo. 190. 

Although Robert Tate was infirm, he probably was a junior 
Alderman. He did not serve the office of Mayor. 

Another reference to a deputy found in the records, occurs 31 

August, 1527 [19 Henry VIII], and as will be seen, is in connection 

with the election, or rather the selection, of common councilmen. 

For some years previous to this time, elections of Common Councilmen 

had been carried out in a very irregular manner, and fresh orders were 

now made ; that portion referring to the deputies' duties runs as follows, 

and is taken from Letter Book O, fo. 47 : — 

"Therefore it is thought expedient that from henceforth be recited in every 
commission that shall be given to the aldermen against Saint Thomas's day before 
Christmas, that every alderman in his ward, with his deputy do appoint and name 
two of the most wisest circumspect persons within his ward to be of the Common 
Council, and they four to name and appoint the residue of the most politic and wisest 
persons, such a number as in every ward of old time hath been accustomed." 

The next reference contained in the records is found in Repertory 

10, fo. 96b, 24th April, 1539 [30 Henry VIII]. The entry is as follows: — 

At thys co'^te ys agreed that Humfrey Pakyngton, mercer, shall at the costs and 
charges of Peter Starky deputye to Mr. Monoux, Ald'man [Bassishaw Ward] E.xercyse 
the Rome of the said Starky. 

Notwithstanding this order Peter Starky was not removed from his 

position, for on 24 March in the following year, we find the following 

entry : — 

Itm yt ys agreyd that for asmoche as there ys moche evyll and vycyous 
rule maynteyned w'in the \\'arde of Byssyshawe wherof Mr. Monoux ys nowe 
Alderman that there shalbe a Pre devysed to the seyd Mr. Monoux to adv'tyse hym 
Iherof, And to requyre hys help for the reformacon therof. And to apoynt summe 
other deputye there bycause Mr. Starkye ys so aged, &c. — Rep. 10. fo. 201. 

In the Order of Hospitalls (1557), there is a reference to " The 
Alderman of the Warde or his Deputie." Another reference to a Deputy 
is found in Archbishop Parker's Correspondence {Parker Society Ed"' 
page 276). Sayer, the Deputy of the Ward of Cripplegate Without, 

The Aldermen s Deputies. iii 

backed up Robert Crowley, the Vicar of St. Giles', in the dispute as to 
the use of the surplice in the Church, for we read that the " Clerks " in 
attendance at a funeral came to the Church "dressed in their habits," and 
attempted to enter, but were prevented by the Vicar and the Deputy. 

Archbishop Parker reported the matter to Sir William Cecil, 
"Secretary to the Queen's Majesty," 4 April, 1566, as follows: — "The 
deputy seemeth to be an honest man, yet peradventure too much leaning 
from the surplice ; he protested that he threatened the singing men to 
set them fast by the feet [in the stocks] if they would break the peace. 
By his tale there was a fond uproar among them, but the singing men 
shrank away and they then fell to quietness with shrewd stomachs." 

The Deputy was proceeded against for his action in the matter, and 
was bound over in ;;^ioo to keep the peace. 

In the parish register of St. Giles, Cripplegate, we find an entry in 
1591 of the death of "John Hilliare, Goldsmith, deputie." He was 
churchwarden of St. Giles in 1556. 

The following entry is found in the Corporation Records, 17 March, 
1602 : — 

Item yt is ordred that Richard Sharpe, waxechandeler deputye of the Ward of 
Tower under Mr. Aldr'an WaUs shall for dyvers causes this Corte espially moving be 
removed from the place of Deputy there. And that ye sayde Mr. Watts shall chose 
another to serve in his place. — Kep. 26, part I, fo. n6b. 

A monument is to be seen in St. Giles' Church, in memory of 
Edward Harvist, who is described as " Citizen and Brew^er of London, 
Alderman's Deputie of this Parish and one of His Majesties Gunners." 
He was buried in the church in 161 1. 

In a play entitled " Eastward Ho," written by Ben Jonson, Marston 
and Shirley, in the year 1605, and which is founded expressly on City 
manners and customs, the following dialogue occurs between a trades- 
man and his son-in-law, who had lately been his apprentice (Act 4, 
Scene i) : — 

— Touchstone. I la ! Golding. Goldiiig. It hath pleased the worshipful 
commoners of the city tt> take me one i' their number at presentation of the inquest. 
And the alderman of the ward, wherein I dwell, to appoint me his deputy 
— Touchstone. How ? Goldiug. In which place I have had an oath ministered me 
since I went. — Touchstone. Now, my dear and happy son, let me kiss thy new 
worship, and a little boast mine own happiness in thee. _ What a fortune was it 
(or rather my judgment indeed) for me first to see that in his disposition, which 
a whole city so conspires to second ! Ta'en into the Livery of his Company the first 
day of his freedom ! Now (not a week married) chosen commoner and alderman's 
deputy in a day ! Nought but the reward of a thrifty course. The wonder of his 
time ! Well, I will honour Master Alderman for this act (as l)ecomes me), and shall 
think the better of the Common Council's wisdom and worship while I live. 

112 The Aldermeits Deputies. 

In 1637 the office of deputy was thought to be of sufficient 

importance, for the Privy Council to order that "no deputies were to 

depart out of the city except other deputies were put in their 

places" {jRep. jz, 251b), and again in 1640, the following appears in 

the records : — 

8"' September, 1640. Item it is thought fitt and soe ordered by this Co'^t that 
in regard of the great danger y' may arise vnto this Citlie in these times of trouble all 
the Aldren shall abide here in Towne and y' p'cepts be forthwith directed to ev'^y 
Aldren to comaund his deputy the Captaine & CoiTion Councell within his Ward not 
to dept out of Towne without licence of y<^ lo: Maio"' but ev^y one of them to continue 
and reside at their sev^all hibilac'bns. And alsoe y' Precepts be likewise directed to 
certifie the Lord Maio'' by Saturday next y'= names of all the hable men as well English 
as Strangers from Eighteene years to fifiie within this Cittie and Lib'^ties thereof. — 
Repertory ^^, fo. 282b. 

During the two following centuries, many entries are to be found in 
the vestry minute books, and the churchwardens' accounts of the parish 
of St. Giles Without Cripplegate, concerning various deputies of the 
ward (the ward and parish of St. Giles, Cripplegate are co-terminous), 
and there can be no doubt, that the similar books of other city 
parishes would reveal many names, and possibly give some information 
respecting the duties and the position of the deputies at this period, 
which would be of interest at the present time. 

The names of the following Deputies of the ward of Cripplegate 
Without, appear in the above-mentioned books of St. Giles. 

Mention has already been made of Sayer, 1566, John Hilliare, 
1591, Edward Harvist, 161 1; other names are Robert Allison, 1591, 
Robert Newman, 1598, William Streaton, 16 10, Robert Maynwaring, 
1648, Charles Mynne, 1652, Ralph Tasker, 1662, and also the names 
contained on page 115 ; of these particular mention may be made, of 
Christopher Pack, Deputy 1647, John Cliffe, Deputy in 1670, Augustin 
Newbold, Deputy 1679, and of Felix Feast, Deputy 1718. 

Mention of Deputy Pack is made on page 64. 

John Cliffe (Deputy 1670), had been Churchwarden of St. Giles in 
1 66 1, and seems to have been dilatory in settling the accounts of his 
wardenship, at the same time, holdiiig and refusing to deliver leases, 
deeds, and writings that had been placed in his charge. He may have 
advanced money out of his own pocket, for church and parish expenses, 
as was often the practice at this period in Cripplegate, and may have 
taken this means of recouping himself. Both the ward and parish were 

The Aldermen s Deputies. 113 

at this time in a constant state of turmoil and petty quarrels, and Cliffe 
was probably an honest and straightforward man, who was worried 
and baited by his fellow vestrymen. The matter seems to have been 
allowed to drop until he was appointed by the Alderman (Forth) as his 
Deputy, nine years later. The malcontents of the vestry seem to have 
then revived the matter, and also to have called him to account for 
withholding money received for fines from persons refusing to serve 
parochial ofifices. Complaint was made to the Court of Aldermen in 
May, 1672, and in June of the same year the Vestry ordered a petition 
" to be made ready to the Lord Mayor and Council of Aldermen " on 
the subject, which was taken into consideration by the Court. The 
entry concerning this in the Corporation Records is as follows : — 

Tuesday, 12"' Nov. 1672. 
Whereas on the 14"' ilay of May last upon complaint and proofe made unto this 
Courte That M^ John Cliffe Deputy of the Ward of Cripplogate without had unduly 
received of .severall persons divers sumes of money as fines for their discharge both 
from Parochiall & Ward offices & disposed of the said fines at his pleasure w"' out 
rendring thereof any account which practise this Court conceiving illegall & unjustifia- 
ble did then Order that the said Deputy should forthwith restore againe all such 
monies as he had received for fines of pochiall oftices to the severall persons of whom 
he had received them soe injuriously & should forthw"' render an account of the fines 
reced for ward ofifices to all the Comon Councell men of the said Ward. And 
whereas afterwards on the 15"' of October last upon proofe made unto this Court That 
the said Deputy had (notwithstanding the said order) not only obstinately refused to 
performe the same but did still presume to continue his former illegall practise without 
respect to this Court or their orders and did alsoe refuse to appeare before this Court. 
This Court did then order that an informacon should be preferred against the said 
Deputy & prosecuted in the utter Court by M''. Common Serjeant for his disfranchise- 
ment And that the said M^ Cliffe should from thence forth forbeare to Act or 
Intermeddle as Deputy of the said Ward The execution of which said last order was 
afterwards on the 22'"' day of the said month of October at the request of the Aldfan 
of the said Ward suspended by this Court for three weekes and a day appointed for 
the said Deputy to make his defence before this Court. Now this day the said Deputy 
Cliffe appearinge with his Councell tS: informing the Court that he could not repay the 
said monies as aforesaid by him received to the persons of whom he had reced the 
same in regard he had disposed thertof for the use of the said pish before the said 
order of this Court made the said I4"> day of May last. Th's Court doth notwith- 
standing adhere to the said order & agree that the same shall be still observed by the 
said Deputy Cliffe & he repay unto the particular persons the severall suriies of money 
which he hath reced of them as aforesaid. Upon performance whereof this Court 
will make such further order touching the matters aforesaid as shall be agreeable to 
Equity and Justice. (^Repertory jS, fo. 6b.) 

By this, it will be seen that the Deputy justifies himself by stating 
that he had disposed of the money " for the good of the Parish," which 
was most probably the case. As we find that he continued Deputy until 
1675, he evidently satisfied the Court of Aldermen, and was allowed to 

114 The Aldermen s Deputies. 

retain his position. By the above extract from the Records it will be 
seen that the Court of Aldermen had full power to remove a Deputy 
from his position, and did this, by way of disfranchisement. 

Augustin Newbold (Deputy 1679) put the finishing touch to Richard 
Smyth's well known obituary as follows : — "Mar. 26, 1675. Friday, old 
Mr. Richard Smith my honoured friend aged 85 years dyed and was 
buried in Cripplegate Church on ye i^' of April following, he was ye 
collector of the aforesaid Catalogue and of many excellent Books, he 
was a just man and of good report and worthy of imitation." 

Felix Feast (Deputy, 17 18), was appointed Deputy by Sir William 
Stewart J but upon the alderman's death in 1723 he contested the vacancy 
for alderman of Cripplegate with Sir John Williams, who, upon being 
elected, appointed Richard Farrington as his Deputy for the Ward 

Felix Feast was a prominent Member of the Brewers' Company, 
and in the Minute Book of the Company the following appears : — 

" 14 August 1 7 16 — For Midle Warden were nominated Mr. Feast 
and Mr. Mayo, and Mr. Feast was chose, and being acquainted thereof 
was excused serving that office upon the payment of ^^7 \os. od. for a fine. 
Afterwards he was put up for Upper Warden and chose and was also 
excused serving that office upon the payment of ;^7 \os. od. more. 

" For Master; Mr. Feast and Mr. Mayo was put up in nomination 
when the choice fell on Felix Feast Esq. 

"On the 13 August 1717, he was chosen Master for another year 
and on the 9th August, 1723 he was named and chosen Master, he 
being one of the Sheriffs elect for the City of London and Middlesex. 

He was knighted in his Shrievalty, but did not long enjoy his 
honours, as we find that he died on the 24 February, 1724, his death 
being reported to the Court of his Company on the 13 March following. 

Since the year 1668, the returns made by the aldermen of the 
names and qualifications of persons elected to the Common Council at 
the various wardmotes, have been received by the Town Clerk, 
and carefully preserved in the archives at Guildhall. From 1668 to 
17 10, the names of the deputies appointed by the aldermen, are 
only occasionally given. 

The Aldermen s Deputies. 

1 1 


Laurence Dyer. 


1 69 1 

Samuel Wing. 



John Egleton. 



Edmond Skinner. 



Thomas Foxall. 



WilHam Patten. 



Thomas Elton. 



Robert Molineux. 



Henry Probyn. 



John Moore. 



fHenry A\'hite. 



William Clifford. 

1 888 


Henry White. 

1 890 




Thomas Vallance. 
AN'illiam Kerl. 
Leonard Willshire. 
John Obadiah Jaques. 
Henry Smith. 
Francis Bennoch. 
James Hoole. 
Herbert Lloyd. 
John Parker. 
Benjamin Spilsbury. 
A\ illiam Brass. 
^\'illiam Braham. 
1890 ;{ Robert Hargreaves Rogers. 

t Henry White was elected Common Councilman in 1771, appointed Deputy 
1776, hut was not re-appointed the two following years ; again appointed in 1798, thus 
acting as Deputy for the exceptionally long |)eriod of 32 years. 
+ Sheriff 1897, and Knighted in his Shrievalty. 

The abo\e arc the only names obtainable from the Corporation's 
Records, but search in the parish books of the four Churches that stood 
in tlie Inner Ward, might probably supply the names and information 
respecting many other deputies of this ward, that are not otherwise to 

be found. 

1661 1670 *John Cliffe. 

1675 Humphrey Jones. 

1679 *Augustine Newbold. 

1682 *David Wythers. 

1683 *^^'illiam Newberry. 
1686 John Fearne. 
1690 *[Thomas] Rawlinson. 
1693 *Thomas Emes. 
1 706 Roger Boston. 
1709 *Richard Blowing. 
171 1 William Edmunds. 

Felix Feast.' 
Richard Farrington. 
John Wallington, 
Edward Farmer, 
John Jones, 
James Bonner. 
Robert French. 
William Staines." 



1 7 18 



Robert Clarke. 


Thomas Simmonds. 


Samuel Lake. 


Matthew Wood.' 



Thomas Dolley. 


Joseph Daker. 


John Pullen. 


Edwin Alderman. 


John Atkinson. 


Richard Dixon. 



Francis Sadler. 



George Meadwa)-. 



John Johnson. 


Septimus Read. 



John Pickering. 



David Smith. 



Henry William Nind, 



James Harvey. 



John James Baddeley, 

The date in the margin in italics is that in which the Deputy served the office of 
Senior Churchwarden of St. Giles, Cripplegate. It would seem that during the last 
sixty years the oftice of Churchwarden has been a stepping-stone to the office of 
Common Councilman, and eventually, in some cases, to that of Deputy. 

(i) Sheriff. 1723. 
(2) Sheriff, 1796, Lord Mayor, 1800. (3) Sheriff. 1809, Lord Mayor, 1815-16. 

ii6 The Aldermen s Deputies. 

The hiatus in the Records of the Corporation in the foregoing hst of 
the names of the deputies of the Outer Ward, is suppHed from entries in 
the minute books of the vestry, or the account books of the church- 
wardens of the Parish of St. Giles Without, Cripplegate. In the above 
Hst the names marked with an asterisk are those found in these books, 
all others are either contained in the Corporation Pocket Books, or are 
to be found in the returns mentioned on page 114. In each case the date 
given is that in which first mention of the name appears as Deputy. 


While the appointment of deputies seems to have been always 
with the individual alderman of a ward, the Court of Aldermen 
evidently held control over their conduct, and when, as in the cases 
above quoted, their rule was weak or bad, or their character indifferent, 
the Court had power to remove them from office, and order the alder- 
man of the ward to appoint others in their places. Until the year 1 7 1 2, 
apparently, appointments were made quite irrespective of the person 
appointed being a member of the Common Council or not. The deputy 
mentioned in 1527 {see page no) as assisting his alderman in selecting 
common councilmen, was certainl}' not a member of the Common 
Council, and in Stow's time (circa 1598), it is plainly evident that none 
of the deputies were of the Common Council, for in giving the number 
of the representatives of the different wards, he invariably does so in 
the following manner. Taking Cripplegate as an example, he says : 
" The ward hath an alderman and his deputy within the gate, common 
council eight, without the gate it hath also a deputy, common council 
two." By this it is clear that he did nc^t look upon the deputy as one of 
the Common Council, and as we know that at the time Cripplegate had 
ten representatives for the two wards, the deputies were clearly not 
counted in Stow's enumeration of the councilmen. 

It is probable that the same system of appointment continued for 
many years after Stow's time, and it was only in the latter half of the 
seventeenth century, that some of the aldermen began to appoint men 
as their dej)uties who had been duly elected to the Common Council. 
This will account for the halting information as to the names of the 
deputies contained in the lists preserved in the Town Clerk's office 
(which commence in 1668), up to the time when, by the Act of Common 
Council, the aldermen were compelled to appoint persons who were ot 
the Common Council, and none other, 

TJie A Idcnucn s Deputies. 117 

The following is an abstract tVom the Act, which is dated 6 1 )ecember, 
1 7 1 2 : — 

And whereas several of the Aldermen of the said City that now are. have 
a]i]-)ointed persons to be their Deputies, who are not of the Cf)miTion Council, whereby 
great inconveniences do many limes happen : 15e it therefore en^icted by the authority 
aforesaid, that all and every such Deputy and Deputies shall, at the Feast of St. 
Thomas the Apostle next ensuing, be removed and absolutely discharged from their 
several places of Deputies ; and that from and after the said Keast, no Alderman of 
the said City, shall at any time or times, nominate or appoint any person to be his 
Deputy, but such as shall be of the Common Council t)f the said City, for that Ward 
whereof he is Alderman, and that every nomination, election or a|)pointmenl of any 
other person shall be void to all intents and purposes whatsoever, any law, custom or 
usage of the saifl City to the contrary thereof in any wise notwithstanding. And be it 
also enacted, that no Common Councilman, so lo be nominated and appointed as 
aforesaid, shall continue in the said place of office of Dejiuly any lonj;er than for the 
lime that he shall be and remain of the Common Council oi the said City, for the Ward 
wherein he was Dei)uty. And that upon his removal from, or not being chosen of the 
Common Council for that Ward, for any succeeding year, every such nomination and 
aiipointmenl to be De|iut)-, shall W void : And in >ucii case ever}- Alderman shall 
nominate and ajipoint some other pirsdu being of the C'onimon Council of the said 
City, for the Ward whereof he is .Alderman, to be his DepiUv. in his room and stead. 

It will he noted that the above .\ct does not comi)el an alderman 
to appoint a deputy to assist him in his chities, btit only insi.sts that 
shotild he do so, the person so appointed must be a duly elected common 
councilman of his ward. There have been several instances in modern 
times of an alderman withholding the appointment of his deputy. 

Although it is usual for an alderman to a|)point the senior common 
councilman of his ward, as his deputy, as one having the longest 
experience, it by no means follows that this is an in\arial)le rule. As 
instances of this, are the extreme cases of the appointment of John 
Hampton Hale (by Sir Sills John (libbons, alderman of Castle Barnard 
^^'ard) in 1872, he being the junior, but one, of the C'ommon Council 
of the ^^'ard. He, however, resigned the office very shortly after. No 
deputy was sub-setpiently appointed throughout the year, until St. 
Thomas' Day, when the alderman re-appointed Frederick Farrar, who 
had previously been deputy for sixteen years. Another case is that of 
the late Samuel Elliott Atkins, who was appointed by Mr. Alderman 
Carter, of Cornhill A\'ard, as his deputy, on the day of his first election to 
the Common Council (in 1865), and who held the [)Osition until his death 
in 1 898. Somewhat similar cases have occurred in this and other wards in 
very recent times, so that it will be seen that the appointment or non 
appointment of, and the choice of a deputy, is entirely and wholly in 
the hands of an alderman ; but in connection with the appointment it 
may be said, that the above-mentioned case in Castle Baynard is one 

1 1 8 The Aldermeris Deputies. 

of the very few instances on record in recent times, of an alderman 
refusing to re-appoint the same person as his deputy on St. Thomas' 
Day, for the ensuing year. 

Upon the election of a new alderman, one of his first acts after 
being received by the Court of Aldermen, and sworn in, is to appoint 
his deputy, and in the great majority of cases, and unless for very 
special reasons to the contrary, the deputy appointed by the previous 
alderman is chosen. 


There seems to be no possibility of definitely ascertaining the 
duties of an alderman's deputy in olden times, but it is fairly certain that 
his position was of a far more public character, and his responsibilities 
far greater than at present — for as an alderman "ruled his ward" 
in reality, very considerable powers devolved upon his deputy in 
assisting him to do so. We may be assured, that not the least of his 
duties were, to take care that peace was kept among the oftentimes 
unruly citizens and their apprentices. 

The quotation from Shakespeare (page 109), clearly indicates that 
the deputy was supposed to be holding and presiding over some kind of 
court, held for the regulation of the affairs of the ward, and in this case 
was settling some matter connected with Dame Quickly's Tavern ; and 
this same easy and fatherly treatment and advice seems to have been 
continued until the early part of the present century, and even possibly 
until the time when various Acts of Parliament- -including the Police 
Act of 1839 and several Acts of Common Council — materially curtailed 
the powers he exercised as his alderman's deputy. One of his duties 
consisted in mustering the \Vatch, which until nearly the middle of the 
eighteenth century assembled at the city gates. 

The extract taken from the Records respecting the "'evyll and 
vycyous rule" in Bassishaw \\'ard in 1539 would seem to show the 
importance of the office ; and according to the strong and wise rule of 
an alderman, carried out by his deputy, so was peace and good conduct 
maintained among the inhabitants. The minutes of the Vestry of the 
Parish of St. Giles, Cripplegate, no doubt in common with the minutes 
of the other parish vestries in the city, clearly show that quite up to the 
end of the last century, and indeed in some cases, well into this, the 
deputy qua deputy was a most important personage, who was consulted 

The Aldermen s Deputies. 119 

upon and gave orders respecting many important ward and parish 
affairs (see Cliffe's case, page 113). In the early part of the present 
century, the deputies had the charge of the annually elected constables, 
(the "Charleys"), and the most zealous of them made the round of their 
ward at night, to see that the constables were performing their duty. 

A deputy's duties at the present day, are shortly as follows : — 

In the absence of the alderman, to preside over wardmotes (except 
the one held for the election of officers on St. Thomas' Uay), and of 
meetings held ft)r recommending or otherwise of publicans' licenses to 
the licensing magistrates, and of all other meetings of members of the 
common councilmen of his ward, called for the settlement of ward 
matters. He can also execute all other ward duties of his alderman, 
amongst which are to see that the rates levied by the Corporation, and 
the Troph)- Tax (which is levied by order of the Court of Lieutenancy 
of the City) are duly collected, and to act as treasurer of the money 
raised for the payment of (and to pay) ward officers, and the expenses 
connected with the holding of \\'ard-Motes, Ward Meetings, and other 
Local purposes connected therewith. He is ex officio a member of the 
Police Committee of the Corporation, of which an Alderman is invaria- 
bly the Chairman : by custom a Deputy is chosen the Deputy Chairman 
of the Committee. (This is the only Committee of the Corporation in 
which a Deputy Chairman is recognized.) 

His position as a member of the Committee is a remnant of his 
authority over the Watch. 

l]y virtue of his office, he is one of Her Majesty's Lieutenants of 
the City. 

I 20 The Deputies of Cripplegate Ward, igoo. 


Deputy of the Ward Within. 

He was first electfd to the Common Council on St. Thomas' 
Day, 1886, and appointed the Alderman's Deputy (on the death of 
William Braham) June, 1890. Chairman of the Music Committee, 
1891, Deputy Governor of the Irish Society, 1894, and Chairman of 
the Improvements and Finance Committee, Public Health Department, 
1900. Overseer of St. Mary, Aldermanbury, 1887, and Churchwarden, 
1890, in which year he presented a drinking fountain to the Parish. 
He has been a Governor of Christ's Hospital since 1897. 

He contested the Shrievalty in the year 1895. The names of the 

candidates and the number of votes polled are as follows : — 

John I'ound, Alderman - l,lOl. | John Robert Cooper - 1,053. 
Robert Ilargreaves Rogers, Deputy - i,ooS. 

In the following year De{)uty Rogers again fought for the position, 

and as will be seen, was returned by a large majority, in some extent 

due to the fact, that the members of the Livery objected to return two 

Aldermen, when there was a suitable Commoner Candidate before them. 

The numbers were : — 

Robert ITargreaves Rogers, Dep. - 1,714. | James Thompson Ritchie, Aid. - 7S7. 
Walter Vaughan Morgan, Alderman - 304. 

NN'ith his brother Sheriff (Alderman Ritchie), he received the honour 

of Knighthood at Osborne, 18 August, 1897 ; being the Diamond Jubilee 

Year of the Queen's reign. 

The Deputies of Cripplegate Wan/, igoo. i2l 


Deputy of the Ward Without. 

First elected to the Common Council 4 March, 1886, and appointed 
ihc Alderman's Deputy (on the death of James Harvey) 13 April, 
1899. He has been Chairman of the following Committees of the 
Corporation: — Gresham, 1889; Library and Art Gallery, 1894; Bridge 
House Estates, 1895; Jubilee (Works), 1897; City Lands, 1898 (with 
the title of Chief Commoner) ; during his year of office as Chairman 
of this Committee, the long pending negotiations with Her Majesty's 
Government relative to the acquisition of Newgate Ciaol and the re- 
building of the Sessions House, in the Old Bailey, were brought to a 
successful issue, leaving the Corporation free to proceed with the 
erection of a suitable building, the designs for which have been approved 
by the Court of Common Council. Early in the present year he was 
specially added to the Committee to assist in the furtherance of 
the work. 

In the Parish of St. Giles Without Cripplegate, he has been Hon. 
Treasurer of the Metropolitan Dispensary (Cripplegate) since 1887 : a 
Governor of Lady Holies' Girls' School (at the present time Deputy- 
Chairman), and of the Separate Gift Estates — now the Cripplegate 
Foundation — since 1888. He was Overseer in 1885 and Churchwarden 
in 1887. A Governor of St. Bartholomew's Hospital since 1895, and 
is a Trustee of the Mitchell City of London Charity. 


Richard Lambert J ones. 

Takiii Jioiii nil Oil J^aintiii^ /lunging in thi Hoard Room 
of the Cripplcgate Insiitute. 


Althou^^h Richard Lambert Jones was neither Alderman, or Deputy 
of Cripplegate, the work that he did for the City and the ward, fully 
justifies his name being included among other worthy citizens mentioned 
in this book. He was elected Common Councilman for Cripplegate 
Without, in the year 1819, and continued to represent the ward until his 
retirement in 1851. To him belongs the great honour of moving in the 
Court of Common Council (8 April, 1824), "That it be referred to a 
Special Committee to enquire and examine into the best mode of 
arranging and carrying into effect, in the Guildhall, a Library of all 
matters relating to this City, the Borough of Southwark anci the County 
of Middlesex." 

The motion was carried, and resulted in the establishment of the 
present splendid library of over 100,000 volumes. He was Chairman 
of the Library Committee for nineteen years, and greatly assisted the 
development of the institution. In the earlier part of the time he 
occupied this position, he was also Chairman of the Bridge House 
Estates Committee as well as of the Special Committee appointed by the 
Corporation for the re-building of London Bridge, and as such, held a 
most onerous and responsible post. The foundation stone of the Bridge 
was laid 15 June, 1825, by the Lord Mayor, John (larratt. After many 

Richard Lainheri Jones. 1 1}, 

and delicate negotiations with the Ciovernnient, (chiefly in connection 
with the approaches to the Bridge, and in which he personally received 
the uniform assistance of the great Duke of Wellington) the undertaking 
was completed, and opened i August, 1831, by King ^\"illiam \\\ who 
was accompanied by Queen Adelaide. At the completion of the 
ceremon)-, a dejeuner was served in a marquee erected on the Bridge, 
during which the King did Jones the great honour of asking him to 
take a glass of champagne with him. 

N\hen the work connected with the Bridge was finally completed, 
the members of the Committee over which he had presided for 
more than eight years, presented him at their own expense, with 
a rich service of silver i)late, as a mark of their approval of his 
conduct as Chairman. 

Truly has Richard Lambert Jones been described, as a "giant for 
public work," for, not content with what he had accomplished in 
founding the Guildhall Library, and in presiding over the deliberations 
of the committee entrusted with the great undertaking of building 
London Bridge, he, upon the destruction of the Royal Exchange by 
fire, 10 January, 1838, accepted the position — to which he was 
unanimously elected — of Chairman of the joint committee of the 
Corporation and the Mercers' Company, upon which bodies rested the 
responsibility of re-erecting the Exchange. 

The foundation stone was laid by the late Prince Consort, 17 
January, 1842. In his reminiscences, Jones writes: "As in the case ot 
laying the foundation stone of London Bridge, a splendid banquet was 
given in the evening by the Lord Mayor at the Mansion House, at 
which his Royal Highness the Prince Consort was present. I had the 
honour of sitting opposite the Duke of Wellington, and was the only 
person with whom His Grace took wine at dinner, a circumstance which 
gave rise to some comment, and was afterwards mentioned by the Lord 
Mayor at the Court of Aldermen." The Common Council thanked 
the joint committee over which he presided for " the admirable 
arrangements made for the accommodation of the Corporation.'' At 
this time he was still Chairman of the London Bridge Committee, and 
presented a report to the Common Council, recommending the con- 
struction of a viaduct for avoiding the steep declivities of Holborn Hill. 
This work was afterwards carried out, and is now known as the 
Holborn Viaduct. 

1 24 Richa7'd Lambert Jones. 

On 28 October, 1844, the Royal Exchange was opened by 
Her Majesty the Queen, who was accompanied by the Prince Consort. 
Lambert Jones, as Chairman of the Committee, took a prominent part 
in the day's proceedings, and had the honour of kissing the Queen's 
hand, and was informed by Her Majesty and the Prince Consort on 
leaving the building that "they had been greatly pleased and much 
gratified at the reception which had been given them." The reception 
of the Queen and Prince Consort has been cleverly depicted upon one of 
the panels in the Ambulatory of the Exchange by R. W . Macbeth, A.R.A. 
The Chairman is seen standing on the right hand of the picture. The 
painting was the gift of Mr. Deputy .Snowden, of Farringdon \\'ithin 
^^'ard, Chairman of the Gresham Committee, 1891, and is one of a 
series that is now being presented by other generous and public- 
spirited citizens. 

He was Chairman of the Committee for nine years, and at the 
close of its labours was thanked by " the (irand Committee of the 
Royal Exchange, the City and Gresham Committees held on Gresham 
affairs," for his " truly valuable services as Chairman." The magnitude 
of the work over which he, as Chairman, presided, will be best under- 
stood by the following figures : — London Bridge with its approaches 
(exclusive of a contribution from the Treasury), cost ^1,505,153. The 
Royal Exchange, including enlarging the site, cost ;^398,578. 

During the time the building of the Exchange was proceeding, 
another important matter was taken into consideration by the same 
committee, viz., providing suitable accommodation for the Gresham 
Professors, who, until the time of this fire, had delivered their lectures 
in one of the rooms in the Royal Exchange. In 1843 "^ building 
was erected at the corner of Basinghall Street and (iresham Street 
(then known as Cateaton Street) — and named Gresham College — at a 
cost of nearly ^10,000. 

In 1846, the Lord Mayor (Alderman Johnson) convened a public 
meeting at the Mansion House, " to consider the propriety of taking 
some steps to present Richard Lambert Jones with a testimonial, in 
con.sideration of the public services which he had rendered, especially 
in connection with the improvements of the metropolis." A committee 
was formed of which the .A.lderman of Cripplegate A\'ard was a member, 
and a considerable sum was subscribed — with a portion of which his 
bust in marble, by "Kehnes" was executed, and which now adorns the 

Richard Lavibert Jones. 


Old Council Chamber in Guildhall. A gold medal was struck by " Wyon," 
the obverse bearing a portrait of Jones in bold relief, and on the reverse 
the following inscription: — "Presented by his grateful fellow citizens, to 
commemorate exertions by which the City of London was improved and 
art encouraged, health and conveniences promoted.'' The remainder 
of the fund was invested to found a scholarship, to be called the 
" Lambert Jones Scholarship in the City of London School.'' He also 
received a flattering vote of thanks from the Cripplegate Without Ward- 
mote, held 21 I)eceml)er. 1846 ; and the Vestry of St. (liles, Cripplegate, 
requested him to sit for a portrait, to be hung in the Vestry Room, at 
the (^)uest House. The portrait was painted by V. H. Dixsee, and a 
copy made and presented to Mrs. Jones. A reproduction of the portrait 
here mentioned, is shown at the head of these notes. 

He lived for many years at Highbury, in North London, and died 
16 August, 1863, in the 8ist year of his age. 

Truly a man whom (Cripplegate may well hold in remembrance. 



CKIPl'LEGATK. ( Fioin a print published in Jj6r.) 

In 1244 the oiij^inal gale became ruinous, and was relniill al the expense of the 
Brewers of London, many of whom carried on business in the district. In 1488 Sir 
Edmund Shaa, Alderman of Cripplegate Ward, bequeathed money for its repair, 
which was carried out in 1490. During the Mayoralty of Sir John Robinson, in 
1663, who was another Alderman of Cripplegate Ward, it was again repaired and 
a foot postern made in one of the towers. The gate was removed in 1760. (The 
above view is from within tlie walls.) 


The name of this ward is undoubtedly taken from the name given 
to the gate or postern in the City Wall, leading to the north, which was 
probably in existence for many years before the City was formally 
divided into its twenty-five wards, and received their respective names. 

The generally accepted origin of tlie name of Crij^plegate, is, that 
cripples wt- re in the habit of congregating at that gate, for the purpose of 
begging from [)ersons passing through, but one can hardly i)e expected 
to believe that beggars solicited alms at one gate, more than at any 
other of the City gates. 'I'he historian Stow, seems to have started this 
derivation of the name, and many succeeding writers have blindly followed 
him, but the most reasonable, and more correct, if less interesting origin 
is, that given by the late Rev. \V. I )enton, who writes: "' The etvmology 
must be sought elsewhere. Cripplegate was a postern gate leading to the 
Barbican, while this watch-tower in advance of the Citv walls was 
fortified. The road between the j)ostern and the Barbican or 'burgh- 
kenning' ran necessarily between two low walls, most likelv of earth, 
which formed what in fortification, would be described as a covered wa\-. 
The name in Anglo-Saxon would be 'Crepel,' 'Cryfele' or 'Crypele," 
a den, or pas.sage under ground, a burrow {mcains subt>'rraueus) and 
'geat' a gate, street or way. (O. Sax.. ,i,77/, a liole : Cerm., i::,asse, a 
thoroughfare, narrow road. See Bosworth's Anglo Sax. Diet.) This is 
confirmed by the occurrence of the name in Domesday B(K)k, where in 
the Wiltshire portion we read, 'To ^^'ansdyke, thence forth bv the dvke 
to Crypelgeat.' "' I'his derivation seems to be further confirmed, by 
the way the name was usually spelt in early times, for we find in the 
Husting Rolls, circa 1272- 1310, and in various other records for two 
centuries later, the name variously spelt, as follows : Crepelegate, Crepel- 
gate, Crepelgat, Creplegate and Crepulgate. 

The name by which the gate was known was no doubt given to 
that portion of the City, that we now know as Cripplegate \\ithin, many 
years before the district outside the walls contained more than a sparse 

128 Cripplegate JVa7'd and its Com?? ion Councilmen. 

population, but the ward seems to have been known as the ward within 
and without the gate, at least as early as the year 1276, for in that year 
we find mention made of the ward tvithin the gate, evidently implying 
that a portion of the ward was situated without the gate. The entry as 
contained in Letter Book A. fo. 134b, is as follows : 

The Ward of Henry de Fro'wyk Within the Gate. 

Monday the Feast of St. Hillary [13 Jan.], 4 Edward I [a.d. 1276], came John 
Ballard, "armerer," to the Guildhall and acknowledged himself indebted to Symon 
Godard, pepperer, in the sum of 15,*'., or in lieu thereof to give him a coat of mail of 
the same value. 

In respect to the men sent to Guildhall, or as we should .say at the 
present day, "to represent" the ward, we find in 1285 [Letter Book A, 
fo. 116) an entry in the records, under the heading of "The names 
of reputable men sworn of every ^^'ard to consult with the Aldermen 
on Common Affairs of the City of London," in which the names of 
^^■alterus de Finchingfeud (afterwards alderman) and Thomas de Stanes 
as representing the ward of " Crepelgate," are given. 

In 1 31 7 [11 Edward II] we find five men from the ward of 
Cripplegate attending at the (Tuildhall, with other "good men of 
the Commonalty of the City," viz., Richard Constantyn, John de 
Winton, William Joy, Andrew Cortoys, and Roger Lespit. — Letter 
Book E, fo. 66 b. 

In 1320 [13 Edward II], Letter-Book E, fi)l. 104b, we find the 
ward described as "Crepelgate" and "Crepelgate Extra," thus still 
more clearly showing, that the ward extended outside the city walls. 

In 1347 [21 Edward III] amongst the names of persons "chosen 
in their respective wards to come to the Cuildhall of London, when 
they should be warned thereto, to treat of business touching the City " 
for the Ward of "Crepelgate," were Richard Goldbetre, John de 
Hyngestone, Simon de Worstede, William Payn, Adam ^^'alpol and 
William le Chaloner. — Letter Book E, fo. 136b. 

In 1383 [7 Richard II] Cripplegate was still represented by four 
members. Maitland (p. 181) says "that in 1393, Cripplegate ^^'ithout 
was not a separate ward but only a ' Liberty ' or part of the former 
[the ward within], under one alderman as at present." 

There is a rough list of the Common Council, in the City's 
Records, in 1459 {Letter Book D), when Cripplegate appears to have 
ten members, but at what period the four additional men were added 
to the six mentioned in 1383 cannot be ascertained. 

Cripple(^ate IVard and its Commo7i Councilmen. 1 29 

About the year 1549 [Edward VI] we find that Cripplegate still had 
ten representatives. These were returned by the still undivided ward, 
but twenty years later, from the following extract from the records, the 
ward seems to have been divided into two, for both representative and 
administrative purposes, and two of the ten members, were allotted to 
the ward without. The entry is as follows : — 

Court of Aldermen, Thurs., 31 Mar., 11 Eliz. [1569.]— ItnP this daye it was 
agreed that from hensforthe ij p^cepls shalbe made to thaldran of the Ward of 
Creplegate at suche tyme as p^cepts be made furthe to my mrs thaldren (that is lo 
saye) thone for Creplegate \V"'in and another for Creplegate W'out and the like to 
he made to the Aldran of the Ward of ffarington Without. — Kt'p. 16, fo. 464. 

It is certain that the ward was so divided before the close of the 
sixteenth century, for Stow, writing in 1598, .says: "without the gate it 
hath an Alderman, his deputy, and common council two." The City's 
records are silent in respect to the addition of two more representatives 
for the ward without, who were added some time before 1675, thus 
making four in all, at which number it remained for the next 150 years. 

Four more members were added in 1826. This was the result of 
an agitation that had been carried on by the freemen inhabitants of the 
W'ard Without for several years previously, and is interesting as showing 
the persistence with which the Ward pursued its claims for additional 
representation. A committee was appointed at the wardmote held on 
St. Thomas' Day, 1820, and a petition ordered to be prepared and 
presented by them, to the Court of Common Council, praying the 
Court " that the A\'ards of Cripplegate \\'ithin and AN'ithout should be 
united in the election of Common Councilmen in like manner as 
the Wards of Hishopsgate Within and \\'ithout, and Aldersgate ^\■ithin 
and Without, or otherwise to equalise the representation." The ^^'ard 
Within objected to this, and petitioned the Court, on 25 January in the 
following year, praying it " to reject any applicaticjn that may be made 
on the part of the inhabitants of Cripplegate Without, having for its 
object an encroachment on the elective rights of Cripplegate ^^'ithin.■' 
This petition was ordered to lie on the table, but on the presentation 
of the petition of the Ward Without, 2 June, 182 1, both petitions were 
referred to the Committee for General Purposes. By the 17 May, 1822, 
the Committee had not reported, and possibly with the idea of urging on 
the matter, we fiiid, on the above date, the freemen inhabitants of the 
^\'ard Within petitioning that "the Wards Within and Without be united 
in the wardmote for election of ward officers." On the 6 June following, 

130 Cj'ipplegate U^ai'd and its Common Conncilnicn. 

other inhabitants of Cripplegate Within petitioned against the above 
petition. The Committee reported 31 October, 1822 : — In their report 
they state that " they were attended by the respective petitioners, as also 
by William BoUand, Esq., as Counsel for the inhabitants of the ^^'ard of 
Cripplegate Within," and " that they had directed the Town Clerk and 
the City's Solicitor to search the Records of the City relative to the 
appointment of Common Councilmen for the respective wards, and 
whether any additions or alterations, and what, have been made therein 
from time to time, and whether anything appears in the said Records to 
warrant the Court comjih-ing with the prayer of the petition of the ^^'ard 
of Cripplegate ^Vithout ; and they were also ordered to enquire and 
report, "whether the elections of Common Councilmen and other Ward 
Ofificers, for the ^Vards of Cripplegate ^^'ithin and ^^'ithout, have ever 
been made by one Wardmote, and if so, how they have since been 
divided."' The ofificers having delivered in their report, the Committee 
reported to the Court that " it will not be advisable nor expedient for 
the Court to decrease the number of Common Councilmen sent by any 
ward of this City for the purpose of increasing the number of Common 
Councilmen to be sent by any other ward." The Court then adjourned 
the consideration of the report. 

The freemen inhabitants of the ^^'ard Without were not satisfied 
with the Committee's Report or the adjournment of the question by the 
Court, for we find, 19 December in the same year, a petition from the 
" Committee " of the Ward \\' ithout against the Report of the General 
Purposes Committee, and the report was sent back to the Committee, 
for further consideration. This they did, and again instructed the 
Town Clerk and the City Solicitor to make further searches in the 
City's Records, for the purpose of ascertaining whether the ^^'ards of 
Cripplegate Within and ^^'ithout, had ever been one AA'ard, and one 
Wardmote held for the election of ofificers ; and also, whether the 
Court of Common Council had power to increase the number of 
Common Councilmen for any Ward. The following is an extract 
from their report, delivered in December, 1823: — "We find that in 
13 Edward II, the Wards are there described as 'Cripplegate' and 
' Cripplegate Extra,' and subsequently as ' Cripplegate Within ' and 
' Cripplegate Without.' That the wards locally situate partly within 
and partly without the walls, but within the liberties of the City, 
viz., between the ^Valls and the Barrs, as Aldersgate and Bishopsgate, 
were not in ancient times distinguished as Wards ^^'ithin, and Without 

CHpplegate Ward and its Conwion Coiincilvien. 131 

the City, but that the Ward of Cripplegate, subsequent to the 13th 
Edward II, and the Ward of Farringdon subsequent to the 17th 
Richard II, were so distinguished." 

The officers further reported that two distinct Courts of Wardmote 
appear to have been always held, one for the AVard of Cripplegate 
Within, and the other for the Ward of Cripplegate Without, at each of 
which distinct inquests and ward officers are chosen. (The order for 
two precepts in 1569 {see p. 129) had evidently escaped their attention). 

The officers were again ordered to make further searches, and 
report as to the power of the Court to increase the number of mem- 
bers. This they did, and cited cases where the numbers had been 
increased, and added " We are therefore, led to conclude that the right 
exists in the Court of Common Council to make an addition to the 
number of Common Councilmen for such Wards as they may deem 
expedient, so that the whole number of Common Councilmen does not 
exceed Two Hundred and Fifty, inasmuch as a Common Council to 
consist of a number of citizens not exceeding Two Hundred and Fifty, is 
claimed by the pleadings on the part of the City in the proceedings on 
the Quo ]Var7-anto in the 34th year of the reign of King Charles II. 
[a.d. 1682], wherein the Mayor and Commonalty and Citizens, by way 
of rejoynder to the replication of the then Attorney General, alledge as 
follows: — "And the said Mayor and Commonalty and Citizens of the 
City of London further say, that the Citizens and Freemen of the City 
aforesaid, on the aforesaid 17th day of September, in the 26th year 
aforesaid, and always were and are now very numerous, to wit. 
Fifty Thousand Men and more, and that within the .said City of 
London, to wit, at the aforesaid Parish of St. Michael Bassishaw [in 
which parish the Guildhall is partly situated], from time to the contrary 
whereof the memory of man has not existed, there was a Common 
Council of the said City, from time to time as often as was necessary 
within the said City assembled, consisting of the Mayor and Aldermen 
of the said City for the time being, and of certain citizens being Freemen 
of that City, not exceeding the number of Two Hundred and Fifty 
persons of the Citizens and Freemen of the City aforesaid, annually 
elected to be of that Common Council, the which Citizens so elected in 
this Common Council are called the Commons of the City of London." 

They further stated, that, "apprehending it to be of the utmost 
importance that the question as to the right and the extent of it 

132 Cripp legate Ward and its Conimon Cotmcilmen. 

should receive the sanction of high legal authority previous to any 
measures being adopted upon the subject, we respectfully submit to the 
consideration of this Worshipful Committee the necessity and propriety 
of advising with Mr. Recorder and Mr. Common Sergeant thereon." 
This latter report of the officers was dated 20 October, 1824, and on 24 
February in the following year Mr. Recorder (Newman Knowlys), and 
Mr. Common Sergeant (Thomas Denman), gave their opinion as 
follows :— " We are of opinion that it appears by the exercise of the 
power of increasing the number of the Common Council from time to 
time, that such power exists in that body. And we think they are 
bound by their pleading on the Quo Warranto Information in the reign 
of Charles II not to exceed the entire number of two hundred and fifty." 

On 8 December in the same year (1825), the petition of the Com- 
mittee appointed at the Wardmote of Cripplegate Without, on St. 
Thomas' Day, 1820, for increase of the number of representatives, was 
read in Court, and on the 19th, the same was considered and again 
adjourned. On 19 January, 1826, a petition was presented by freemen 
inhabitant householders against the petition of the Committee of the 
Ward, they stating that the Committee was not a proper one, and that 
they were satisfied with the number of representatives. 

This was followed by a petition of the " Committee '" of the ^\'ard 
against the above petition, and both were referred to the General 
Purposes Committee, who reported to the Court on 26 October follow- 
ing, that " no evidence had been adduced before us, upon which 
we could feel justified in recommending any increase to be made 
in the number of Representatives in the Common Council for the Ward 
of Cripplegate A\'ithout." However, an amendment was moved to the 
report as follows : — " That the wish of the Freemen Householders of the 
Ward of Cripplegate ^\'ithout, so frequently expressed in their petitions, 
be acceded to, and that the number of their representatives in this 
Court be for the future eight instead of four." This was carried, and 
it was again referred to the Committee for (General Purposes " to 
consider and report the best mode of carrying the Resolution into 
effect ; and if it should appear to be requisite to be by an Act of this 
Court, that they do prepare and bring in a Bill accordingly." 

This was done, and a Bill was brought in and read a first and 
second time on 6 November, and a third time and passed on 30 
November, 1826. On the following St. Thomas' Day, 1826, eight 
representatives were returned to the Court of Common Council. 

Cripp legate Ward and its Common Council^nen. 133 

The following list gives the names, Livery Company (if of any), and 
the date of first election of the present representatives of the Ward : — 


Sir Robert Hargreaves Rogers - (L) Loriner - . . 1886 

Dep. (1890). 

Richard Stapley - - - (L) (iold and Silver Wire Drawer 1887 

George Briggs - - - (L) Girdler - - - 1897 

William Oatley - - - Painter Stainer (1,) Harber 1898 

Alexander Tillie - - - A Freeman - - - 1899 

Thomas Henry Wye - - (L) Haberdasher- - - 1899 

Joseph Messenger - - - A Freeman - - . 1899 

Alfred Edward Palmer - - A Freeman - - - 1899 
C/i?/'/^— Charles Walter Sawbridge, 68, Aldermanbury. 


John Jas. Baddeley, Dep. (1899) (L) Framework Knitter - 1886 

Francis McCarthy - - - (L) Loriner - - - 1887 

Alfred Double - - - (L) Basket Maker - - 1887 

James Patrick Mclntyre - - (L) Weaver - - - 1894 

George Thomas Sirrell Tranter - (L) Loriner - . - 1894 

James Westerby - - - A Freeman - - - 1899 

Henry Vialou - - - - A Freeman - - - 1899 

James Lake - - - - (L) Loriner- . . . 1900 
C/erk — Robert Pearce, Cripplegate Institute, Golden Lane. 
The letter L denotes thai the member is a Liveryman of his Company. 

In the early part of the present century the inhabitants of the 
Ward Without were particularly energetic in the cause of reform. We 
find the Freemen inhabitants of the ward, at the Court of Wardmote, 
held on St. Thomas' Day, 1824, petitioning the (^ourt of Common 
Council, as follows : — 

" T/ie humble Petition of the Freemen hihabitants of the JVard 
of Cripplegate without, London, 
" Sheweth, 

" That your Petitioners are Freemen of the City of London and 
Inhabitants of the \\'ard of Cripplegate without^ who from the most 
ancient time were entitled to vote for Representatives in Parliament for 
the City of London. That this right has been most sacredly confirmed 
to them by eighteen Kings, in between thirty and forty different Charters, 
all of which have been most unalterably fixed by the Statute of 2d 
William and Mary, cap. 8. 

K 2 

134 Cripplegate Ward and its Common Cotmcilmen. 

" That your Petitioners are convinced that those Charters have been 
obtained, by purchase, by conquest, or by valuable services, and that 
therefore they are as much the lawful inheritors of those rights, as any 
possessors of freehold property that has been obtained either by purchase 
or by inheritance : that therefore no person can lawfully deprive them of 
those rights that have been thus dearly purchased, and have been so 
repeatedly most solemnly confirmed to them by so many Kings. 

" That notwithstanding these most solemn contracts and sacred ties 
of the Legislature, some persons did procure a Bill to pass in Parliament 
in 1725, declaring that the right of voting for Members of Parliament, 
&c. should be only in the Livery of the different Companies, and there- 
fore your Petitioners who are not Liverymen are not suffered to exercise 
their unalienable birthright of voting for the Representatives in Parlia- 
ment for the City of Londofi. 

" That your Petitioners consider thus to be debarred from exercising 
their ancient right of voting for Members of Parliament, is a standing 
reflection on their characters, particularly so while the householders of 
the City of Westminster and the Borough of Southwark continue to 
enjoy their ancient right of voting for such Members : and your 
Petitioners hope they will continue for ever to enjoy such rights perfectly 
agreeing with Magna Charta and the Bill of Rights. 

" Your Petitioners therefore pray your Honourable Court im- 
mediately to procure a Bill to be brought into Parliament, to repeal the 
disqualifying clauses against your Electors and Petitioners the Freemen 
of London." As is well known, the object of the Petition was attained 
by the Reform Bill of 1832. 

Li 1848, the Common Councilmen of the Ward, and the inhabitants 
generally were called upon to take their share in the old time "Watch and 
Ward," for at the time of the anticipated Chartist riots, we find that on 
the 7 April in that year a meeting of the Alderman and the Common 
Councilmen of Cripplegate ward without, was held at the Quest House, 
in obedience to the request of the Lord Mayor, that special constables 
should be sworn in immediately " to aid and assist in keeping the peace 
within this City." A similar meeting was held in the ward within at the 
" Ward Within Committee Room, Sion College Gardens, London Wall." 
Twelve hundred special constables were sworn in the inner ward, and 

Cripplegate Ward and its Common Councilmen. 135 

eight hundred in the outer. The Common Councilmen were given the 
command of certain numbers of these, and each placed in charge of a 
district in the ward. 

Special constables were again sworn in On 31 December, 1S67, by 
Alderman Challis. This seems to be the last occasion on which the 
inhabitants of a ward, were called upon to be sworn in, as constables, 
within their own ward. As an instance of the survival of the duty cast 
upon the wards of raising men to serve in the train bands, and which is 
still done in the indirect way by payment of the Trophy Rate, we find 
by the Ward Books that on 2 September, 1852, "Her Majesty's 
Commissioners of Lieutenancy requested the ^^'ard within to raise 22 
men, and the ^^'ard without, 18 men, for the Royal London Militia." 

Great changes have taken place both in the Inner and Outer Wards 
of Cripplegate during the last half century, and it will be seen that by 
the number of special constables enrolled in 1848, that the wards 
at that time must have been densely populated. The resident house- 
holders of the Inner \\'ard have for the most part long since vanished, 
whilst the resident population of the Outer Ward, which in 1851 
amounted to over 14,000, is now about 1,000. The old mansions and 
dwelling houses in both wards have been razed and warehouses and 
factories erected in their stead. A day census was taken by order of 
the Corporation, 27 April. 1891. The number of persons engaged in 
business in Cripplegate ^^'ard was as follows : — 


Number of Principals - - - - 1,117 

„ Males employed over 15 - 8,563 

Females „ „ - 3,451 

„ Children under 15 - - 354 




Number of Principals - - - . 


,, Males employed over 15 




„ Children under 15 




A similar census is ordered to be taken in April, 1901, and it is 
believed that the numbers will be found to have largely increased. 


The following account of tht Aldermen, and the various ordinances 
made at different times, from about the third quarter of the thirteenth 
century, in connection with their qualification, nomination, election, 
duties, removal, etc., will materially assist in explaining the position 
of the Aldermen of Cripplegate Ward, and therefore justifies its in- 
clusion here. 

It is probable that no definite account of the origin of the Office of 
Alderman, or of the body known as the Court of Aldermen can ever 
be written, for unlike the prosaic and arbitrary creations by Acts of 
Parliament, of the Aldermen of County Councils, Boroughs, and Towns 
in modern times, the office of the Aldermen of the City of London came 
into existence by a process of natural growth and development, created 
by the necessities of the times. "Aldermen," we are told (FuUvig, 
p. 26), "are mentioned in the reign of Henry II [1154-1189] as 
presiding over the district guilds, and in the reign of Henry III [1216- 
1272] aldermanries had become a common term for a ciWc district 
having its own local government, and comprised within a leet jurisdiction 
as well in London as in other cities, and were then a property in fee 
and hereditary." This was, however, an usurpation upon the ancient 
rights of the citizens, for in an ancient ^LS. book in the possession of 
the Corporation {De Antiquis Legiluis, fo. 63b), we find an account of an 
election of aldermen having taken place as early as a.d. i 200. In that year, 
so runs the record : — ^"were chosen five and twenty of the more discreet 
men of the City, and sworn to take counsel on behalf of the City together 
with the Mayor." Although this is the first mention of discreet citizens 
being called together to assist the mayor, it is exceedingly probable that 
the chief men of the City, the owners of the " sokes " or '• wards," or the 
presidents of the district guilds, were in the habit of meeting together in 
conference when the good of the City required. 


8 T/ie Alderuieu of the City of London. 

In early times both mayor and aldermen were often arbitrarily 
removed by the king. A case occurred in 1257, when "new aldermen 
were elected by the wards in the room of those who had been 

In 141 9, John Carpenter, the learned Common Clerk, or Town 
Clerk of the City, finished his great work, the Liber Albus, and in it we 
find a description of the ideal alderman. He writes: (Riley's Translation, 
p. 29), "If we look to the etymology of the word 'alderman,' the more 
aged were so called. For aide in Saxon means 'old,' and alder is our word 
'older,' and hence, as the judgment is most vigorous in persons of more 
mature years, the dignitary who among the Romans was known as Consul 
or Senator., among us is called ' Alderman.' And yet, in the case of 
Aldermen, maturity of mind is to be considered rather than of body, and 
gravity of manners in preference to length of years : hence it is that in the 
ancient Laws of King Cnut and other kings in Saxon times, the person 
styled 'Alderman,' is now called 'Judge' and 'Justiciar,' as set forth in 
the Liber Custuniarian. Yet in several other laws of Saint Edward, the 
personages who are now styled ' Justiciars ' were called lagetnanni, from 
the Saxon Inge, which corresponds with the Latin lex or ' law,' the 
lagemannus being a 'man of law,' such as we now call a 'lawyer,' or 
more correctly a ' legislator.' These Aldermen too, in respect of name 
as well as dignity, it is evident were anciently called Barones. For it 
is matter of experience that even since the year of our Lord, 1350 at the 
sepulture of Aldermen the ancient custom of interment with baronial 
honours was observed; for in the church where the Alderman was about 
to be buried, a person appeared upon a caparisoned horse, arrayed in 
the armour of the deceased, bearing a banner in his hand, and carrying 
upon him his shield, helmet and the rest of his arms, along with the 
banner, as is still the usage at the sepulture of lords of Baronial rank. . 
. . " Indeed, no person was accepted as Alderman unless he was free 
from deformity in body, wise and discreet in mind, rich, honest, trust- 
worthy, free, and on no account of low or servile condition; lest perchance 
the disgrace or opprobrium that might be reflected upon him by reason 
of his birth, might have the additional effect of casting a slur upon the 
other Aldermen and the whole city as well." 

The following extracts, taken from the records, of ordinances made 
by the Court of Aldermen, for the purpose of safeguarding the honour 
and dignity of its own body, and of civic institutions generally, clearly 
show that the Court of Aldermen has always had that same high ideal 

The Aldevmen of the City of London. 139 

of the duties of the Court, and of each individual member of it, as was 
in the mind of the learned Common Clerk of the City when he 
compiled his book, detailing the duties and responsibilities of the 
Mayor, Aldermen and Common Councilmen as existing from time 
immemorial, by the custom of the City he loved so well. 

It is very remarkable that the modes of election of Aldermen, of 
Mayor, and of the members of the Common Council, the boundaries of 
the various wards, and the general administration of the City of London, 
have stood almost unaltered for six centuries, during which time, every 
ancient Corporation in the kingdom has been altered and reformed 
out of all knowledge, whilst the Throne itself. Parliament, the 
Courts of Law, and nearly every other Listitution, not only of this 
country but on the Continent of Europe, have been subjected to vast 
changes, and indeed, in many cases have been revolutionized. 

In reference to the survival of our Civic Institutions beyond the 
oldest of the Courts of Law (the Court of Exchequer, which was 
practically abolished in 1884), Lord Chief Baron Kelly said, ''although 
long threatened by many enemies in many quarters with what may have 
been termed reform, the Corporation has survived a Court, which after 
an existence of eight hundred years has passed away." 

There must have been something inherently sound and good in the 
constitution of the City's institutions, (anomalous as they may have been, 
and in the minds of some, still are) to have withstood the attacks that 
have been made upon, them by jealous and unscrupulous enemies. 
The ancient rulers of our city acted in keeping with their faith in adopt- 
ing for the City's motto, Domine Dirige Nos. God has indeed directed 
and protected us, and has assisted the City Fathers to steer clear of 
many dangers that have from time to time environed them, and to 
weather many an apparently overwhelming storm. The citizen of to-day 
may well be proud of the great fights his ancestors have made in defence 
of the City's rights and privileges, the knowledge of which, must incite 
him also, to stoutly withstand any attempt that may be made, to 
hastily change or break the continuity of the City's mode of government, 
its ceremonials and traditions. 

Much has been written and said at various times in favour of 
the periodical election of aldermen. It will be noted that from 1377 
to 1394 the aldermen were annually elected, although prior to 1385 
they were not eligible to sit for the same ward two years in succession, 
but after these few years of trial, the citizens saw the inconveniences 

140 The Aide mien of the City of London. 

of the system, and by statute 17 Richard II, it was altered to its 
original state, viz., an election for life, as it remains to the present day. 
We, ourselves, no doubt, would even to a greater extent than our 
forefathers, find out the inconveniences of a periodical election of 
aldermen. It must be remembered that an alderman of the present 
day, is a Justice holding special powers, which would never be 
entrusted to him were he removable at the popular will. Moreover, an 
alderman, periodically elected, could not act so impartially as he does 
under the present system, owing to the precarious tenure of his office. 

The arguments that have been advanced in favour of the periodical 
election of the aldermen, may seem reasonable and fair to those who 
do not know, or appreciate the altogether unique position of an 
alderman of the City of London. Not only is the latter the only 
directly elected magistrate in the country, but he also holds an office 
that has come down in unbroken succession for over seven hundred years. 

To be elected alderman of a City ward, a man must usually have 
carried on a successful business in his ward for many years, and at the 
time of his election, must be worth at least thirty thousand pounds. In 
most cases he will have gained an intimate knowledge of the procedure 
of municipal business, as a member of the Common Council for the same 
ward as that of which he aspires to be alderman. (The present Lord 
Mayor, Mr. Alderman Frank Green, is an example of this, having 
served thirteen yeiirs on the " floor of the Court " before being elected 
Alderman of his Ward). By this means, and by slow degrees, he gains 
the confidence of his neighbours, who, in their turn, are ready to confer 
on him the highest gift in their power, viz., the appointment to an office 
for life, from which he cannot be removed, except for just and reason- 
able cause. The confidence thus acquired has seldom been misplaced, 
so that in exceedingly few cases can it be said, that the electors have 
regretted their choice. It is true that, in some few instances, aldermen 
have held their position when incapacitated from advanced age and 
infirmity, from properly fulfilling the duties of their ofiice, and so 
occasionally stopping the way of someone in their ward, willing and 
desirous to take upon himself the responsibilities of the position, 
but the cases have been very few, and even if they were frequent, 
should not in the eyes of those who love the City and its traditions, 
urge them to attempt to alter an arrangement, that has worked on 
the whole, so well for the true interests of the City. 

The Aldermen of the City of London. 141 

It will be noted that the following ehapters treat in regular sequence 
of an alderman's position — ^first his qualifications for office, then the 
modes of nominations and elections at various periods, his duties, 
privileges, punishment, removal and dismissal, etc. 


The Court of Aldermen has been from the very earliest times, 
exceedingly jealous of the dignity of the Court, and from time to time has 
made special ordinances, guarding against the inclusion in its body of 
unworthy and unsuitable persons. One of the earliest orders concern- 
ing the election of aldermen, states that they must be "good and 
discreet men, who in morals and in temporal goods are fit to be a judge 
and alderman, and most fit to support the honours and burthens of the 
city." The following extract from the Records, will show that the 
citizens took great care, that no foreigners should be qualified to 
attain the position. 

16 Oct. I Henry V [a.d. 1413]. By the advice, consent, and discretion of llie 
.Mayor and Aldermen of the City of London it was ordained and established that no 
one in future shall be an Alderman of the said City unless he be born within the realm 
of England and his father be English. Latin. — {Letter Book /, fo. 126.) 

On the 17 January, 1626, one Gedean de Lawne, apothecary, on 
the nomination of the Ward of Dowgate, was elected Alderman, but 
on it being pointed out that he was '' borne at Reames in France," and 
upon the King's request on his behalf, he was discharged. 

Many ordinances were made from time to time, by which entry 
into the Court was rendered impossible, except to men of the highest 
character, who were possessed of a fair share of " temporal goods ; " 
in fact, the responsibilities, the danger, and the expense of the office 
became in time, so great, that men endeavoured to shirk the honour of 
election, and among other modes of escaping, assumed apparent poverty, 
and took advantage of an order made 9 Edward IV [a.d. 1469], that no 
one should be an alderman of any ward, unless he had goods and hopeful 
debts to the value of ;!^ 1,000, and if anyone so elected should swear 
that he was not worth that sum he was to be discharged. — Letter 
Book Z, fo. 64b. 

By reason of this ordinance, Stephen Fabyan, who had been elected 
alderman, and imprisoned in Newgate for not taking office, was dis- 
charged. — Journal 7, fo. J98. 

142 The Aldermen of the City of London. 

William Isaack, successively Alderman of Cripplegate and Coleman 
Street Wards, was also exonerated on this account 10 October, 1503, 
after having been alderman for more than sixteen years. 

In course of time a mean advantage was taken of the order, and 
wealthy men drove the figurative coach and four through it, from the fact 
that land was not strictly considered to be goods, so that those desirous 
of getting out of their obligations to serve civic offices, bought land and 
houses, thus rendermg the order of no effect. In 1525, it was found 
necessary to issue the following order : — 

17 Henry VIII [a.d. 1525]. " Where that the xxix daye of July, the ix yerc of the 
reigne of kyng Edward the iiij"' yt was agreed and decreed by the maire and aldremen 
than beynge, that noo freeman from thensforth shulde by admytted in the rowme of 
an alderman of eny warde within the liberties of this citie, but yf his goodes, catalls, 
and detts sperate shulde extend to the value of oon thousand pounds ; And if and 
when it hapenyd eny man withyn the said citie to be chosen alderman of any warde 
of the said citie, yf he wold swere without fraude or male engyne that all his goods, 
catalls, and detts sperate extended not to the veray value of oon thousande pounde, 
he shulde by his said othe be discharged, as by the said acte and ordynance in the 
boke of L fol. 64, more playnly apperith : Soo it is that the maire and aldermen 
nowe beynge well considerynge that nowe of late dyvers and many of the substanciall 
citezeins of this citie, litell or noo thyng regardynge theyr othes which they toke and 
made when that they were first admytted into the liberties of this citie, wherein, 
amongs other articles, oon spccyall article is conteyned that they shulde be contributory 
to all manner charges wythin this citie, as somons, wacches, contribucions, tasks, 
tallages, lotte and scotte, as in the said othe more playnely is conteyned at large, 
have bestowed and employed grete parts of their substances in byinge and purchasynge 
of landes and tenements, oonly and to thentent that they wolde not take upon them 
the said office and rowme of aldreiiian, whan they or eny of theym shulde be alotted 
therunto, not onely to the greate displeasure of Almighty God, but also to the grete 
detryment and hurte of the liberties of this citie, whereby that not onely this 
courte but also the wardes of this citie shoulde be destitute of aldremen yf it shulde 
soo contynewe : For reformacion whereof yt ys nowe agreed, graunted, and by 
the saide maire and aldremen nowe beynge fully decreed, that from hensforth, 
yf eny citezein of this citie, beynge of substaunce in lands or tenements by hym or any 
other to his use bought or purchased to be solde, and in goods, catalls, and detts 
sperate to the veray value of two thousandis marks, and happen to be chosen aldreman 
of any ward within this citie, that then he shall take uppon hym the same, onlesse 
that he, without fraude, disceyte, or male engyne, will swere upon the holly evangelies 
that he is not of the said value of ij thousand marke in goodis, catalls, detts sperate, 
and lands or tenements bought and purchased to be solJe. And if he will swere as 
is aforesaid, that then he to be by his othe for that tyme discharged. 

" The Othe. — Ye shall swere that all your goods, catalls, detts sperat. and landes 
or tenements by you or any other to your use bowght and purchassyd, extend not yn 
all to the sume of MM. marks, and this othe you make without fraude, dysceyte, or 
male engyne, as God you help and all seynts, and by that boke." — (Repertory 7, 
fo. 45b. Letter Book N. fo. 287b. ) 

By an Act of Common Council passed 9 August, 9 Anne [a.d. 

1 7 10], the qualification of an Alderman was fixed at ;i^i 5,000, and 

The Aldei-men of the City of London. 143 

the fine for refusal to take office at ^^500. The same Act made orders 

concerning the election and discharge of Aldermen, and the prevention 

of expenses at elections. The following is an abstract concerning this : — 

" That if any person free of this city who then was or thereafter should be chosen 
an alderman of any of the wards within this city or liberties thereof, according to the 
custom of the said city, will voluntarily take his corporal oath before the lord mayor 
and greater part of the aldermen, in open court of the said lord mayor and aldermen for 
the time being, that at the time of his said election he was not of the value of fifteen 
thousand pounds in lands, goods, and sperate debts . . . then such person shall be 
and is hereby discharged and exempted of and from the said election . . . That if 
any person free of this city should be thereafter duly chosen or elected alderman of 
any of the wards of this city, according to the custom of the said city . . . and should 
not personally appear before the court of lord mayor and aldermen for the time being 
at the next court, and then and there take upon him the office and charge of alderman 
of the said city, and of the ward whereof he should be chosen alderman ... or shall 
openly declare his refusal to take upon him the said office, every such person so 
neglecting or refusing to appear or so declaring his refusal to take upon him the said 
office . . . shall forfeit the sum of five hundred pounds . . . to the use of the 
mayor and commonalty and citizens, unless he should be duly discharged for want 
or defect of ability in wealth . . . and in case any person shall be so discharged, or 
incur the forfeiture aforesaid, the lord mayor for the time being shall, within four 
days then next ensuing, cause a wardmote to be duly summoned and holden, and 
the inhabitants of that ward of which such person was so chosen alderman, shall and 
may proceed to a new nomination according to the custom of the said city." 

This Act was followed by another a century later, in which the 
qualification was fixed at ^30,000, and the fine for refusing to take 
ofifice remaining at the same amount as by the Act of 17 10. The 
following are abstracts of the Act of 181 2 : — 

17th April, 52 George III [a.d. 1S12]. " An act for repealing an act of common 
council made the 9th day of August 1 7 10, entituled, 'An act concerning the election 
and discharge of aldermen of this city, and to prevent expences at such elections,' and 
for making other provisions in lieu thereof. 

And enacts that if any person, free of this city, who now is, or hereafter shall be, 
elected an alderman of any of the wards within this city or liberties thereof, according 
to the custom of the said city, will voluntarily take his corporal oath, before the lord 
mayor, and greater part of the aldermen in open court of the said lord mayor and 
aldermen for the time being, that at the time of his said election he was not of the 
value of thirty thousand pounds in lands, goods, and sperate debts, and do likewise 
bring with him six other citizens, freemen of the same city, of good credit and 
reputation, who shall likewise voluntarily testify' upon their corporal oaths, that in their 
consciences they do believe that the said person so elected alderman hath deposed and 
sworn truly concerning his value as is aforesaid, then, and in every such case, such 
person shall be, and he is hereby, discharged and exempt of and from the said 

It also enacts that any person hereafter elected alderman neglecting to attend, or 
declaring his refusal to take upon him the office, ' ' shall forfeit the sum of five 
hundred pounds of lawful money of Great Britain to the use of the mayor, commonalty 
and citizens, unless he shall be duly discharged of the said office of alderman 
for want or defect of aVjility in wealth upon oath taken as is aforesaid : and in case 

144 The Aldermen of the City of London, 

any person shall be discharged of the said office upon his oath for insufficiency of 
estate as aforesaid, or incur the forfeiture aforesaid, the lord mayor for the time being 
shall, within eight days then next ensuing, (Sundays excepted,) cause a wardmote to 
be duly summoned and holden, and the inhabitants of that ward of which such person 
was so elected alderman, being freemen of the city and householders paying scot and 
bearing lot within the said ward, shall and may proceed to a new election according to 
the custom of the said city. 

In addition to the qualifications before stated, it was necessary, 
until about the middle of the seventeenth century, that an alderman 
should belong to one of the principal I.ivery Companies, or as they were 
called in early times, Craft Guilds or '* Mysterys." The great power 
exercised by these Companies in early times in procuring the election 
of members of their body, as aldermen, is shown by the many ordinances 
made by the Court of Aldermen for the purpose of excluding from that 
body all who belonged to the inferior Companies, and as will be seen 
from the following extracts, a person once elected alderman, either had 
to pay a heavy fine, to be excused serving the ofifice, or leave his 
parent Company and get himself transferred to one of the twelve great 

It would seem that some time prior to 1441, an ordinance had 
been made, restricting the number of aldermen belonging to any one 
Mystery, for we find an entry in the Journal as follows : 

May, 19 Henry VI [a.d. 1441]. — Declaracio. It seems to the Aldermen that 
the communication formerly held touching the number of Aldermen belonging to one 
mistery is not reasonaljle because contrary to their expressed oath and moreover 
because the communication, if it became an ordinance, would restrict the Aldermen to 
one person ; it is not therefore displeasing that it should be made an ordinance. — 
Lathi. (Jor. 3, fo. 861). ) 

This was soon followed by another ordinance defining the number 
that might be elected. 

25 Feb. 24 Henry VI [a.d. 1446]. — It was agreed that in future there shall 
not Ije elected more than six Aldermen of one art and mistery, etc., provided there 
be other persons of other misteries within the City aforesaid sufficiently able. Lathi. — 
{Jor. 4, fo. 118.) 

In 1503 four persons were named by the inhabitants of Alders- 
gate Ward, for one to be elected alderman ; the first one named was 
elected by the Court of Mayor and Aldermen, and ordered immediately 
to transfer himself into another mystery, he being an "Armorer." 
Rep. 7, fos. 143b (184b.) 

As will be seen by the fijllowing extracts from the Repertory^ the 
Court of Aldermen was very peremptory in the demand that a duly 
elected alderman should transfer himself: 

The Aldermen of the City of London. 145 

5 Nov. 13 Henry VIII [a.d. 1521]. "At thys Court came Raufe Dodnier 
Briier which now lately was by the Mayer and Aldermen electe to be Alderman of 
the Warde of Quenehythe in stede and place of Master Wylkynsone late decessed 
And yt was declared un to hym that he shulde chose of oone of thees misteres 
folowyng That is to say Mercers Grocers Drapers Fysshemongers Goldsmythys 
Skynners Habberdasshers and Iremongers and to be Translated from the said 
mistere of Bruers unto oone of the said misterys And forasmoche as he Refused thys 
to doo he ys by thauctorite of thys Court conimytted to the custodie of Master Breton 
oone of the Shyreffes whiche Master Shireff hadd streightly in comandement that he 
shuld suffer none of hys company to speke w' hym.'" — {Rep. 4, fo. 99.) 

16 May, 15 Henry VIII [a.d. 1523J. — Four persons were named 
by inhabitants of Farringdon Without, and one being elected by the 
Court, he refused to acce{)t it, and was by them committed to Newgate; 
he afterwards, on the same day, chose his translation to the Mercers' 
Company, and there being six aldermen of that Company, he was 
directed to select another ; he then begged to be translated to the 
Haberdashers', which was granted him and he was then sworn. — 
Repertory 6, fo. 36. 

John Tolos, clothworker, who was elected alderman of Tower 
Ward, 15 January, 29 Henry VIII [a.d. 1538], was committed to 
Newgate for refusing office and for disobedience (possibly for refusing 
to change his Company). The case is interesting, as on the 24th of the 
same month we find the following curious entry, which gives the probable 
date of the inclusion of the Clothworkers' Company in the twelve 
principal Livery Companies or Misteries : — ■ 

John Tolos clothworker who afore was elect Alderman of the warde of the 
Tower was sworne and toke upon hym the sayd offyce accordynglye and at the 
humble Request and Petycon of the sayd Mr. Tolos and the Mr. and Wardeins of 
Clotheworkers yt ys agreed that in consyderacon that the sayd companye ys nowe one 
of the xij hedde companyes of london And for that that they have promysed 
faythfullye thys Courte that they woU and shalbe at all tymes redy to do there dutyes 
accordynglye as they be bounde to doo for the hono"^ and coinon welth of thys Cylye 
The sayd Mr. Tolos shall styil contynue in and w"' hys sayd companye of Clothworkers 
w"'out Alteracon or Translacon in to any other mysterye. And also the good wyll of 
thys courte ys graunted to hym that he shall have respyit iij yeres for exercysynge 
of the offyce of Shryvaltye. — Letter Book P, fo. 139. 

On the 23 April, 5 Edward \l [a.d. 155 i], Thomas Curtes, 
Pewterer, was elected Alderman of Farringdon ^^'ithin ^^'ard {Repertory 
12, part 2, fo. 328), and as will be seen by the following entries in the 
Repertory, he most obstinately refused to leave his parent company (the 
Pewterers), and be translated to one of the twelve great companies, but 
the Court of Aldermen were equally obstinate and determined, that the 

146 The Aldermen of the City of London. 

unwritten law respecting the usual transfer should not be broken; the 
dispute occupied four years, but Curtes had to bow to the inevitable, 
and eventually was duly translated to the Fishmongers' Company. 

The following selections from the many entries in connection with 
the above case, give a luminous idea of the course of procedure in 
bringing an unwilling alderman to a right state of mind : — 

Tuesday, 9 October, i and 2 Philip and Mary [a.d. 1554]. — Itiii this daye it was 
orderyd and agryed that Mr. Alderman Curtes who by no gentle and earneste 
requeste and yswasyon of this courte will agre to chaunge his copye and to be 
translated to one of the xij head copanies accordynge to the auncyet laudable lawe vse 
and custome ot this Cytie shalbe after this day sequestryd from the comynge eny more 
hither to this Courte before this daye thre wekes and that he do then make vnto the 
said Courte a fPcyse answer whyther he will chaunge his Cople or not at his pyll. — 
Repertory ij, part i, fo. 212. 

Tuesday, 8 January, i and 2 Philip and Mary [a.ii. 1555]. — Itm this day Mr. 
Thomas Curtes Alderman for his wylfull styfenes and disobedyence dyv'^selie shewyd to 
my Lorde Mayer and the hole courte and namelye for that that he very obstynatelie 
and wylfullye neyther regardynge his othe & duetie towardes the Cytye or the honor 
worship and wealihe of the same or yet eny thyng relentynge or gevynge place to the 
manyfolde very gentle and brotherlye mocyons pswasyons and requests of the saide 
Lorde Mayer & Aldren to hym div'^se and sundrye tymes heretofore gevyn and made 
did vtteriye refuse and denye to chaunge his copye of the pewterers whereof he was 
ffree to one of the xij head and pryncypall copanyes of this Cytie was comyttyd to 
warde in Newgate there to remayne till he obedyetelie shalbe cotentyd tc stonde to 
the order of this courte for and cocernynge the p'mysses accordynge to the good 
Auncyete and laudable laws ordenances and customes of the saide Cytie and it was 
orderyd that the Kea| er of the saide Gayle shoulde not pmytte or suffer eny of the 
saide ffelowshyppe of the pewterers to speake w"' hyme durynge the tyme of his 
imp'sonmCte there. — Repertory rj, part I, fo. 245b. 

Thursday, 10 January, i and 2 Philip and Mary [a.d. 1555]- — Itm Henry Clerck 
[& others] who made sute unto this Courte in the favo"^ of Mr. Curtes Alderman nowe 
for his mysdemeano'' towardes this Courte remaynynge in Warde were wyllyd to 
forbeare the speakynge w"^ the said Mr. Curtes tyll they shall have further knowlerge 
of my Lorde Mayres pleasure therein forasmoche as it was p'^vtelie orderyd that the 
Chaunceler of London shall this afternone furste speake w"' hyme. — Repertory ij, 
part I, fo. 247. 

Saturday, 12 January, I and 2 Philip and Mary [a d. 1555]. — At this Courte the 
fyne of Mr. Thomas Curtes Alderman for his cotemptyous and disobedyete mys- 
demeano'' towardes the hole courte was pvtelie assessyd at m' m'rks and he nev'^iheles 
comyttyd to warde ageync. 

Itin Mr. Piowes, Mr. Gresham, Mr. Hyll and Mr. Recorder were assignyd to 
declare unto my Lorde Chancelo^ and my Lorde Treasorer this after none the conty- 
newance of the frowardenes of Mr. Curies Alderman. . . . — Repertory ij, part 1, 
fo. 248. 

On Tuesday, 15 January of the same year (1555), Alderman Curtes 
agreed to change his Company, but it will be seen from the following 
extracts that he was still obstinate, and only endeavouring to gain time, 
and so put off the evil day. — Repertory 7j, part i, fo. 249b. 

The Alderjiien of the City of London. 147 

Tuesday, 3 September, 2 and 3 Philip and Mary [a.d. 1555]. — At this Courte 
Mr. Thomas Curtes Alderman declaryd to the saide courte that he was cotentyd to 
departe froin the ffealowshippe of the pewterers whereof he was free and to be 
tr^nslatyd and set over to the copany of the clotheworkers and he agryed to cause the 
wardeyns of the same copany shortely to repayre hither and to declare to the courte 
here whyther they be crC)tentyd to receyve hyme in to theire copany or not. — Repertory 
/J, part 2, fo. 316b. 

Tuesday, 19 November, 2 and 3 Philip asd Mary [a.d 1555]. — Itm Mr. Alder- 
man Curtes hathe the nexte Courte daye to shewe certaynely unto thys Courte whate 
Company he wyll be tnslated unto and not to delay the Courte eny further lor the 
(leclaracon and fynyshynge thereof. — Repertory ij, part 2, fo. 345. 

Thursday, 13 February, 2 and 3 Philip and Mary [a.d. 1556]. — Itiri it was agrj-ed 
here the nexte Courte daye shall take order w"' Mr. Alderman Curtes for chaunginge 
his copie and occupacon w"' oute eny further delay. — Repertory ij, part 2, fo. 370. 

Thursday, 26 March, 2 and 3 Philip and Mary [A.D. 1556]. — Itm it was agryed 
that a fynall order shall^e taken the nexte Courte daye w"' Mr. Curtes Aldermane for his 
departure frome th'occupacon of the pewterers to one of the .\ij head Copanyes of this 
Cytye. — Repertory ij, part 2, fo. 381b. 

On 14 April it was ordered that it be no longer deferred than "till 
next court day," and on the i6th Mr. Ctirtes was to have "till this day 
3 week" to be transferred. — Repertory ij, part 2, fos. 384b and 387. 

As will be noted by the concluding extract, his parent Company gave 

their assent to his translation, and the Fishmongers' Company agreed 

to accept him as one of their body, under certain conditions. 

Tuesday, 22 September, 3 and 4 Philip and Mary [a.d. 1556]. — Itm this day the 
Mr. and Wardens of the ffealowshijipe of the Pewterers gave theire assente to the Courte 
here for the tr'nslacon and settynge ov''' by the same Courte of Mr. Curtes, Alder- 
man frome theire fealowshippe to the Copanye of the Fyshemongers who have agryed 
as is appearethe at the Courte here holden 15 instant Septembris to receyve hyme 
accordyngely And as towchynge theire requeste for the steynge of the said Mr. 
Curtes from the takynge of any app"ntice from hensfurthe the Courte agreyd to be 
advysed thereof. — Repertory ij, part 2, fo. 430b. 

Thomas Curtes (or Curteis) was Sheriff 1546. Lord Mayor 1557. 

Although the necessity of a person elected as alderman becoming 
a member of one of the twelve great Livery Companies, passed away 
during the latter half of the sixteenth century, it seems that it was 
necessary for many years afterwards, that he should be a member of 
one of the twelve before he could be elected Lord Mayor, ^^'e find 
Stephen Soame, Lord Mayor elect in 1598, translated in that year from 
the Girdlers' Company to the Grocers', and Sir William Stewart (elected 
alderman of Cripplegate Ward in 171 1, a Freeman of the Barber 
Surgeons' Company), translated to the Goldsmiths' Company the year 
before he became Lord Mayor. In 1703, Sir John Parsons was allowed 
to take office, although a member of one of the minor Companies 
(Brewers), but the rule continued to be observed until 1742, when a 
Cooper was elected Lord Mayor, followed by another Brewer in 1748. 

148 The Aldermen 0/ the City of London. 

At the present day, the only quaUfication required of an alderman 
is, that he should be an able and sufficient citizen, and a Freeman of 
the City. No qualification as to residence or carrying on business 
within a ward is now necessary, but in exceedingly few cases is an 
alderman elected from outside his ward, or unconnected with a Livery 


The reader will see in the following pages, by the description of the 
modes of electing aldermen, that until the year 1397, each ward directly 
elected its own alderman. In that year, however, an Act of Common 
Council was passed, enacting that " two at least to be nominafed, one of 
whom must be fit to be a judge and an alderman." — Letter Book H, fo. 314. 

The names of the two persons thus nominated were to be submitted 
to the Court of Aldermen, for the election of one. In 1402 the number 
of names so to be submitted was increased to four ; the order runs as 
follows : — 

3 Henry W [1402]. On the twentieth clay of September, in the third year of 
the reign of King Henry the Fourth, after the Conquest, it was agreed and ordained 
by the Mayor and Aldermen that in the elections of Aldermen henceforth to be made, 
four of the better and more sutificient citizens of the City should be nominated and 
chosen, of whom the one most fit to support the honours and charges of the City 
should, according to the discretions and sound consciences of the Mayor and Aldermen 
for the time being, be admitted and sworn to execute that office as is more fully con- 
tained in the ordinance thereof lately made in the time of Richard Whytt}nigton as 
appeareth in Liber H, fo. 314. {Latin.) — Letter Book I, fo. i6b. 

One of the earliest entries concerning the rejection of the 
nomination of a ward by the Court of Aldermen occurs on 24 
July, 1444 [22 Henry VI], when four persons were nominated by 
the Commonalty of Bridge Ward that one might be elected by the 
Mayor and Aldermen, the alderman of the ward ; but because 
each of the persons did not seem sufficient to sustain the burthens 
of the office according to the award and judgment of the Mayor 
and Aldermen, they rejected the nomination pursuant to ancient 
custom, and a new nomination was to be made within fifteen days. — 
Journal 4, fo. 51 (36). 

Again, three years later, a nomination was rejected for the same 
reasons that are given in the previous case, which seem to have been 
the chief reasons that actuated the Court during the whole of the time 
it held the power, i.e., the exclusion of unworthy and impecunious 
members. The entry in the Journal runs as follows ; — 

The Aldermen of the City of London. 149 

22 February, 26 Henry \'I [1448]. Four persons presented by the Commonalty 
of Lime Street Ward, and because it seemed to the Court that not any of the persons 
is fit for the office, a new election to be proceeded in according to ancient custom.^ 
Journal 4. fo. 225b. 

Apart from the unsuitability of a person by reason of insufficient 
means, or of indifferent character, other matters were taken into considera- 
tion, before accepting the nominations of the inhabitants of a ward ; for 
instance, a ward sometimes attempted to evade an order made in 1480 
{see page 158) "that two aldermen and two commoners should be 
nominated" by including as one of the two aldermen, an alderman who 
had not served two years in his ward — which he was required to do 
before removing — or by nominating fewer or more persons than four, 
or nominating one who was not a freeman. These and other instances 
are contained in the following abstracts : — 

2 July, 14 Henry \'II [a.d. 1499]. — "four jjersons were nominated 
by the inhabitants of Bridge Ward, that one be elected alderman ; 
which bill seemed to the Court of Mayor and Aldermen insufficient," 
— Rep. /, fo. 52 (93). — On the 9th of same month "four other 
persons were nominated by the inhabitants of that ward, and the bill 
[again] seemed to the Court of Mayor and Aldermen insufficient." — 
Rep. 7, fo. 53b (94b). 

10 May, 17 Henry VHI [a.d. 1525]. — An alderman and three 
commoners nominated by the inhabitants of Billingsgate Ward, but 
because it seemed to the Court that the nomination was insuffi- 
cient, and that not every one of them is sufficient in goods, etc., 
the nomination was rejected, and the Mayor to proceed to a new 
election. — Rep. 7, fo. 39b. 

In the same year a nomination was rejected because five persons 
were presented : see the follo\\nng entry : — 

30 May ly Henry VIII [A.n. 1525]. — The lord ' Joininus ) Mayor, .Master 
Lamberd, Alderman, Master Pargetter [salter] master Fermour grocer [and] Master 
Xycholls, nominated by the inhabitants of the Ward of Quenehythe that one of them 
may be elected by the Mayor and Aldermen as Alderman of that ward loco Nicholas 
Lamberd late Alderman there and who was lately translated from that Ward to the 
Ward of Byllingesgate according to his prerogative And because the said five persons 
were nominated where only four should have been nominated according to the ancient 
laws and customs of the City. Therefore the lord Mayor proceeds de nozv in the said 
Ward of Quenehythe. — Latin. (l\ff>. 7. fo. 43b. Letter Book N. fo. 284.) 

Two days after, the ward made another nomination, " and because 
not every of the four persons named was sufficient and able to 

L 2 

I so The Aldermen of the City of London. 

support the charges and costs of the office, the nomination was con- 
sidered insufficient and not vaUd, and rejected, and the Mayor was 
ordered to proceed anew to election in the ward." — Rep. 7, fo. 44. 

In 1547, a similar case occurred in Cripplegate Ward ; Sir William 
Forman, the Alderman of that ward, died 13 January in that year, and 
to fill the vacancy, the ward nominated four persons ; but because one 
of them was not of sufficient " Substance," the nomination of the whole 
four was rejected ; the entry in the record in reference to this is given in 
full, and is as follows : — 

10 February, i Edward VI [a.d. i 547]. — Itm this day my lorde mayer 
reported to the Court here that the inhitants of the ^^'arde of Creplegate 
had noTate «&: appoynted | Roland Hyll knyght & M"" Hynde Alderman 
& Nicholas Spakeman habd & John lyon gro8 before his lordship syttyng 
there for the eleccon of a newe Alderman for the seyd Warde in the 
stede of f \\'yllin Forman knyght late Alderman of the same Warde 
nowe depted unto the ificye of Almyghty God, upon whose soul Jesu 
have iflcye, that this Court Accordyng to the Auncyent lawes & customes 
of this Citie shulde by scrutynye electe & chuse one of theym the seyd 
foure psones to be Alderman of the seyd Warde. ^^'hich noiacon & 
eleccon was accordyng to the seyd lawes adiuged insuffycient & reject 
by this Court for that the seyd Spakeman was deiried not to be of 
substance mete for the seyd rome. — Rep. 11, fo. 335 (311). 

30 January, 37 Elizabeth [a.d. 1595]. — The nomination of four 
persons by the inhabitants of Lime Street Ward for disorderly proceeding 
utterly rejected, and the Lord Mayor ordered to proceed to a new 
nomination. — Rep. 2J, fo. 347b. 

Another cause for the rejection of a nomination is indicated in the 
following : — 

21 April 3 James I [a.d. 1605]. — The nomination of John Robinson, 
mercer, with three others, for the Aldermanry of the Ward of Farringdon 
Without, rejected by the Mayor and Aldermen, he being principal 
Searcher at His Majesty's Custom House and therefore exempted from 
being an alderman by Act of Parliament. The nomination was adjudged 
" insufficient " and as such rejected, because " by the ancient usages and 
customs of this City in every nomination and choice of an alderman in 
any ward within the same, where an alderman is wanting, if at that time 
it shall be thought in the judgment of the Lord Mayor and Court of 

The Aldermen of the City of London. 151 

Aldermen, that all the said persons so nominated, or any one of them be 
insufificient for any respect for the place of an alderman, or shall not be 
capable or eligible thereunto, that then every such nomination shall be 
void, and the Lord Mayor to proceed to a new nomination." — {Letter 
Book CC, fo. 78.) 

I March, 17 Charles I [a.d. 1642]. — The inhabitants of Vintry Ward 
having nominated three aldermen and one commoner, for that 
one alderman would not remove, and another could not accept it 
till he had continued alderman of his ward two whole years, viz., John 
Towse, Alderman of Cripplegate, elected 10 November, 1640, and that 
the third was but lately chosen, and that the commoner being free of the 
Grocers, of which Company there were already six aldermen, was 
adjudged by the Court to be utterly insufficient, and the lord mayor 
directed to proceed to a new nomination. — Rep. jj, fo. 381. 

14 August, 19 Charles II [a.d. 1667]. — The inhabitants of Vintry 
^\'ard having nominated two aldermen with two others, and because it did 
not appear that one of the latter (Richard Mountney) was a freeman of 
the City, the Court rejected the nomination as insufficient, and directed 
the lord mayor to proceed to a new nomination. — jReJ>. 72, fo. 157. 

19 September, 19 Charles II [a.d. 1667]. — -The lord mayor, an 
alderman, and two commoners, being nominated by the inhabitants 
of Bread Street Ward, the nomination, for the unfitness of the com- 
moners, especially one of them (John Hawkyns) " being a person 
of noe qualification worthy the place and dignity of an alderman,'" 
was by the Court rejected as utterly insufficient, and the lord mayor 
directed to proceed to the ward for another nomination in his room 
and stead. — jReJ>. /2, fo. 190. 

It will be seen that the Court of Aldermen held and used dis- 
cretionary powers as to the reception of nominations. From this time 
onward many instances occur, after the nominations of a ward had 
been three times rejected, of the Court electing a person from the whole 
body of citizens, and this continued after the abandonment of the system 
of nomination by the ward and the return in 17 14 to the "ancient 
manner " of electing an alderman. Although this power of veto, and 
election of an alderman has many times been strongly attacked, the 
power still remains with the Court of Aldermen, who have several times 
during the present century exercised their right, to the generally 
acknowledged benefit of the citizens, and the honour of their body. 

152 The Aldeynicn of the City of London. 

A few cases are here given, in which this power of electing an 
alderman from the general body of citizens was exercised, after the Court 
had three times rejected the nomination or election by a ward. 

In 1463, after the nomination of four persons had been three times 
rejected, and six weeks having passed, the Court of Aldermen chose 
Nicholas Marshall, ironmonger, from four persons put up for election. — 
Journal'/', fo. 41b. 

In 1470, the nominations made by Cripplegate Ward having been 
three times rejected, Humphrey Hayford "• lately discharged alderman 
by precept of the late King (Edward), was elected alderman by the 
mayor and aldermen." — -Joiirna/ S, fo. 2. 

In 1483 four persons were named by the Mayor and x\ldermen 
that one might be elected alderman of Aldersgate ^Vard, because the 
election by the men of that ward was three times rejected, and John 
Mathew (the first named) tA<icttt(\.—Jotirfiat 8, fo, 273. 

25 February, 5 Henry VII [1490]. — John Mathewe, alderman, dis- 
charged by the Mayor and Aldermen from Bridge ^^'ard, where he was 
alderman, and elected by them alderman of Bassishaw \\'ard, '* for that 
the Mayor had been three times in that ward for holding the election of 
an alderman, and the inhabitants of the ward could in no wise agree 
among themselves concerning such election." — Jour/ial (p, fo. 244b. 

29 August, 19 Henry \'II [1503]. — The Mayor and Aldermen 
having three times rejected the nominations made by the inhabitants of 
Bishopsgate Ward for certain causes them moving, they, according to 
the antient custom of the city in like cases, proceeded to the election of 
an alderman to be chosen at large " of the hole bodye of citezyns, after 
their discrescions, consciences, and wisdom, most hable for the same 
weighty rowme, and chose Thomas Kneysworth, fishmonger, by the 
number of most voices.'" — Jie/>. /, fo. 138b. 

October, 25 Henry VHI [1533]. — An alderman and three com- 
moners being nominated by Broad Street A\'ard, "• the bill was rejected 
by the Court and because the Mayor had thrice gone to the ward, and 
the nomination was thrice rejected, therefore to the Court belongs the 
election of an alderman, according to custom." — Rep. g, fo. 28. 

18 November, 21 Charles II [1669]. — The lord mayor, an alder- 
man, and two commoners being nominated by the inhabitants of Broad 
Street \\'ard, the Court again, for the third time, rejected the nomination 
as insufficient, because Jolm Moore, Esq., grocer, who had each time 

The Ahicrjiicn of the City of London. 153 

been presented, had been formerly discharged of the place of alderman, 
and appointed the next Court " to consider of electing out of the body of 
the city a fit and able person to be alderman, according to the custom." 
^Villiam Salmon was subsequently elected by the Court. — Rep. 75, 
fos. 17, 22b. 

Many other cases might be cited in support of the predominant 
authority of the Court of Alderman; that known as " Scales' case " being 
the leading case on the subject. The outline of this much-contested 
election, and of the various legal proceedings thereon is here given, as 
contained in the "Ceremonial Book" (1864. Ed., pp. 144-5). 

In 1831, Mr. Michael .Scales was elected alderman for the Ward of Portsoken, 
and was returned to the Court of Aldermen ; but petitions from some of the electors 
were presented against him on the ground of his ineligibility ; and. after several 
hearings, a motion to swear him in was negatived. Upon which Mr. Scales applied to 
the Court of King's Bench for a Mandamus, to which the Lord Mayor and Aldermen 
made a return that Mr. Scales was not a sufficient freeman of the city, and that he 
was not a fit and proper person to support the dignity and discharge the duties of an 
alderman, and that therefore they did not admit and swear him. This return was 
held sufficient. 

Upon this an action was brought by Mr. Scales for a false return ; and during 
the pendency of that action a fresh election took place. Mr. Scales was again elected 
by a majority over the other candidate, ^Ir. Hughes. The Lord Mayor returned 
Mr. Scales to the Court of .\ldermen, but the Court swore in Mr. Hughes; upon 
which proceedings in Quo warranto were instituted by Mr. Scales against 
Mr. Hughes, who disclaimed, and judgment of ouster was entered. Mr. Scales 
then applied a second time for a Mandamus ; a rule Nisi for which was granted, the 
action being stayed in the meantime : this rule was subsequently made absolute. 
The Lord Mayor and Aldermen made a return essentially the same as before, whicli 
was argued ; and eventually there was judgment for the defendants, Mr. Scales being 
allowed to proceed in the action against the former return. 

In the course of the next year (1833) a third election took place in consequence 
of the disclaimer of Mr. Hughes. Mr. Scales was again elected by a large majority, 
Mr. Thomas Johnson being next to him in number of votes ; whereupon the Court 
of Aldermen, according to ancient custom, after this third return of Mr. Scales, 
named Mr. Johnson as alderman, and swore him in. In the ensuing term a Quo 
-varraiito was applied for on behalf of Mr. .Scales, and granted, against Mr. Johnson ; 
the issues upon which were tried at Guildhall before Lord Denman and a special jury, 
on Saturday, December 20th, 1834. A verdict was directed for the defendants ; 
a bill of exceptions was tendered to the judge's ruling, which came on for argument 
before the Court of Exchequer Chanil^er, June 2d, 1836, and Lord Denman's ruling 
was affirmed. Against this judgment Mr. Scales appealed to the House of Lords, 
who, on February 19th, 1839, without hearing the counsel for Mr. Johnson, gave 
final judgment in the latter's favour, affirming the legality of the rejection of Mr. Scales, 
and the right of absolute nomination by the Court of Aldermen, after the third 
return of a person adjudged by them to be ineligible, according to the customs of 
the City of London. 

It should be stated that, during the course of these proceedings, the action 
against the return to the first Mandamus was brought to an end, the court having 
directed that the traverse to the return should be taken otf the file. 

154 ^'/^^" -^ /^''^vv/^tv^ of the City of London. 

It will be seen that the Court of Aldermen exercised their right of 
veto, by electing Thomas Johnson, who Wi\s duly sworn in, and acted as 
an alderman throughout all the subsequent proceedings in the Law 
Courts, serving as Sheriff in 1838, and Lord ^hlyor in 1840. 

In 1877, Sir John Bennett (who had served as Sheriff in 1871-2), was 
elected Alderman of the ^Vard of Cheap, and was refused admission by 
the Court of Aldermen. He was afterwards elected a second and a third 
time, and on each occasion refused admission : the Court then elected 
(according to ancient custom) Edgar Breffitt (Sheriff 1875), who filled the 
office until his death in 1882. 


In early times, and probably until nearly the end of the thirteenth 
century, the aldermen obtained their position from the fact of holding 
sokes or estates in the City, and so having a kind of proprietary riglit 
over the A\'ards. Thus, for instance, we find Cripplegate Ward described 
in 1276 as the ward of Henry de Frowyk. Nevertheless, some kind of 
election undoubtedly took place as early as the year 1200, for we read 
that " this year was elected twenty-five of the most discreet citizens and 
sworn to consult for the city, together with the Mayor." — {De Antiquis 
Legibiis. 63b.) 

The citizens thus elected were probably aldermen, the number 
corresponding to the number of the wards in the City. Again, in 
1257, new aldermen were elected by the wards in the room of those 
who had been deposed. 

In 1293 [21 Edward I] the election in each ward seems to have 
been in the hands of a few, "the richer and the wiser." The entry con- 
cerning this is as follows : — 

The whole commonalty being assembled in the presence of John ie Bretun, 
the warden, that is to say, from every ward the richer and the wiser, the individuals 
from each ward severally elected to themselves aldermen, freely of their good will, and 
with their full consent ; and the same aldermen so elected they presented to the said 
warden in this manner, viz. : that all matters which the said aldermen, of their council 
and discretion, with the warden and their superior for the time being, should make 
and ordain for the government of the city and keeping the peace, should be firmly 
observed ; and for other provisions touching the commonweal of the city, they shall 
hold stable and firm, without challenge or gainsay ; and also each ward elected to 
itself an alderman, for whom, as to his acts touching the city and state of the same, 
they will be responsible. — {Letter Book C. fo. 6.) 

The names of the aldermen so elected are given in the same 
Letter Book, Walter de Fynchingfeld, of Cripplegate, being among them. 

The Alder men of the City of London. 155 

At this time it will be noted that the City was in the hands of the King, 
who appointed a custos or warden in the place of the Mayor. An order 
made 8 June, 1319 [12 Edward II], to the effect that the aldermen were 
to be removed from year to year on St. Gregory's Day and not re-elected, 
and others to be chosen by the ward {Liber Cusiumarum, Rolls series. 
Vol. I, p. 269), does not seem to have been acted upon, or if acted upon, 
soon fell into desuetude. No further ordinance respecting the election 
of aldermen seems to have been made until the year 1377, when the 
aldermen were ordered to be elected annually (under this order Robert 
Lucas was elected in Cripplegate, see page 19). The entry is as 
follows : — 

SI Edward III. Precept (bille) for the men of each Ward to meet on Saturday 
the 7th March and elect an Alderman other than the sitting Alderman, and to have 
the name of the Alderman so elected endorsed on the Bill at the Guildhall on the 
Feast of St. Gregory next at 8 o'clock at the latest under penalty. French. — {Letter 
Book H, fo. 58.) 

This precept seems to have been the occasion of the following 
ordinance made on Friday, 6 March, 51 Edward III [a.d. 1377], with 
the assent of the mayor, aldermen and divers representatives from 
certain of the Livery Companies to the effect that aldermen removed 
for good and reasonable cause shall not be open for re-election ; but that 
those who go out of office on St. Gregory's day, and have not miscon- 
ducted themselves may be re-elected after the interval of one year. 
{Letter Book IL, fo. 58b.) The matter was evidently considered im- 
portant, for quite a large number of the members of the chief Livery 
Companies were appointed to confer with the mayor, etc. The Com- 
panies represented were the Mercers, Grocers, Drapers, Fishmongers, 
Vintners, Skinners and Tailors, who each sent six representatives, and 
the Saddlers, Haberdashers, Girdlers, Chandlers and Cordwainers, who 
each sent four, and the Armourers, who sent two representatives. 

In 1384 the rule was modified so as to allow an alderman to be 
re-elected for his ward at the expiration of his year of oftice, without any 
interval {Letter Book LL^ fo. 173). " Warbulton " and " Loveye " were 
thus elected under the above modification {see page 24). 

The aldermen were annually elected under the above ordinances 
until the year 1394, but during the early time of these annual elections, 
viz., from 1377 to 1382, they seem to have been elected at different 
times prior to being sworn in on 12 March. This necessitated an order 
to regulate the date of election. The order is as follows : — 

156 The Aldermen of the City of London. 

II Dec. 6 Richard II [1382]. No aldermen shall be chosen within any ward 
in the city henceforth before the Feast of the Purification of our Lady [2 February] 
but that it be well lawful for every ward to choose their alderman between the said 
Feast and the Feast of Saint Gregory [12 March] then next following, when it shall 
please them, so that at all times the names of those elected be returned to the mayor for 
the time being before the Feast of Saint Gregory, to the end that they be at the Guild- 
hall the same Feast to take their charge. French. — {Letter Book H, fo. 160.) 

The ordinance respecting annual elections was repealed by tlic 
King in 1394, the new order being as follows : — 

6 March 17 Richard [1394]. Richard, by the grace of God, King of England 
and of France and Lord of Ireland, to our dear and well-beloved, the Mayor, Sheriffs, 
Aldermen, and other good people of our City of London, greeting. Whereas, we, by 
the assent of our ancient of our council and your request, have ordained and granted, 
that the ward of Farringdon, within our said city ; and without, should be chosen 
henceforth two aldermen ; and have also by the same assent ordained, for the honour 
and greater increase of the good government of our said city, that they who should be 
chosen aldermen of our same city, should not be removed out of their offices during 
their lives, unless for just, reasonable, and notable cause ; and that ye shall cause to 
be chosen the same aldermen as well of such as now are in that state as of others ; 
Therefore we will and command you, that at this next election by you to be made of 
the same aldermen, ye cause to be chosen such aldermen as are the most sufficient, 
discreet and loyal, who best know will and can profit the honour and good government 
of our said city ; not willing, for certain causes which hereunto move us and our said 
council, that the aldermen thus by you chosen, should meddle with their office of 
alderman before that ye have certified unto us their names, and that ye should know 
our will therein. Given under our privy seal at Westminster, the sixth day of Marcli, 
the seventeenth of our reign. 

By virtue of w hich letter the underwritten aldermen were chosen and afterwards 
presented to our lord the king at Shene, and by the same our lord the king admitted and 
accepted. French — {Letter Book H^ fo. 291.) 

Under this order \\'illiam Evote was elected alderman of Cripple- 
gate Ward, 12 March, 1394. 

The King affirmed the above order on the i8th of March following. 
The entry runs as follows : — 

18 March, 17 Richard II [a.d. 1394]. Whereas it was ordained and granted i)y 
King Edward great grandfather, and also by the King grandfather of the King who 
now is, that the aldermen of the City of London should cease and be removed from 
their said office every year at the feast of Saint Gregory, and that they should not be 
re-elected the year next following, but that another sufficient person of the said city 
should be every year chosen anew, and put in the offices aforesaid. Nevertheless our 
said lord the King, for certain causes him especially moving, and likewise for the 
better government of his said city in time to come, willith and hath ordained, by the 
advice and assent of his council in this present parliament, that henceforth the alder- 
men of the said city shall not be put out or removed from the said office of aldermanry 
at the said feast of Saint Gregory, nor any other time of the year without honest or 
reasonable cause, nor any others chosen or put in their places, but remain from year 
to year in their said office, until they be removed for just and reasonable cause, as 
above, notwithstanding the ordinances above mentioned. — {Letter Book H. fo. 291.) 

The Aldermen of the City of London. 157 

No attempt seems to have been made to disturb the ordinances 
thus enacted respecting an election of an alderman for life, until three 
hundred years later. It may have been that, as in the case of Cripple- 
gate, the vacancies for the position of alderman were of such common 
occurrence, that no one anxious for the honour had long to wait, and 
it may also be said that the duties, responsibilities and dangers of the 
office stopped many men from wishing to undertake it. 

This Act of King Richard II was followed in 1397 by an order of 
the Mayor, aldermen and commonalty, which took away the right of 
the wards of directly electing their aldermen, only allowing a ward to 
nominate two persons of whom the Mayor and Aldermen were to choose 
one to be alderman. The order runs as follows : — 

]5e it remembered, that on the ist day of August in the 2ist year of the 
reign of King Richard the Second [a.d. 1397], in order to avoid the less dissen- 
sions and perils which have oftentimes heretofore happened in divers wards of the 
city, by the captious, partial and improvident election of the aldermen of the same, 
it is agreed and ordained by the mayor, aldermen, and commoners of the said city, that 
henceforth, in all such elections of aldermen, two, at the least, good and discreel men, 
l)oth of whom in moral and temporal good be fit to be a judge and alderman, of the 
aforesaid city shall be peaceatjly and quietly elected by the good men of such ward as 
may happen to be without an alderman of the said city for the time being, so that 
either of the same men, whom the mayor and aldermen shall agree to be admitted and 
sworn to execute well and faithfully the office of such aldermanry. Latin. — {Letter 
Book H, fo. 314. 

For some reason not explained, the number of men nominated by 
the wards was not considered sufficient, for five years later, viz., in 1402, 
the following order was made : — 

The 20lh day of September the 3rd year of the reign of King Henry I\' 
[a.d. 1402] it was agreed and ordained by the Mayor and Aldermen that in elections 
of Aldermen to be made in future there shall be nominated and elected four of the 
more approved and discreet citizens of the City whereof one, the most fit for supporting 
the honours and burdens of the City according to the discretion and sound consciences 
of the Mayor and Aldermen for the time being shall be admitted and sworn to exercise 
that office as is more fully contained in the ordinance herein lately made in the time 
of Richard Whityngtone as appears in Letter Book H. fo. 314. The above approved 
by the Common Council 23 Nov. 4 Henry IV [a.d. 1402]. Latin. — {Letter Book /, 
fos. 1 6b. 17b.) 

It would appear that the above order of 1402 had been evaded or 
allowed to fall into desuetude, for in the year 1420, it was deemed 
expedient to issue a new order in the following terms : — 

10 Oct. 8 Henry V [a.d. 1420] it was agreed and ordained by the Mayor and 
Aldermen that for the future in elections of Aldermen four sufficient and capable men 
for undertaking that office shall be nominated and presented &c. Latin. — {I^etter 
Book /, fo. 249.) 

158 The Alder men of the City of London. 

In 1448 a vacancy occurred in Lime Street Ward. The King 
interfered with the ordinary course of election. Four persons were 
nominated and presented to the Mayor and Aldermen by the common- 
alty of Lime Street Ward for the election of alderman, but in con- 
sideration of royal letters addressed to them, the Mayor and Aldermen 
elected Philip Malpas (the Court favourite) to be alderman of the ward, 
" so that his admission be in nowise held as an example to expel the 
Mayor and Aldermen in future from their liberty to elect any alderman 
whomsoever." — {Jor. 4, fo. 230b.) 

In 1480 the following order was made to correct an abuse that 
seems to have sprung up of nominating four aldermen and thus 
depriving commoners of their right of nomination : — 

Be it remembered that on the 7th Nov. 20 Edward W [a.d. 1480] it was agreed 
by John Broune the Mayor and the Aldermen of the City that for the future in elections 
of Aldermen by the Wards, there shall be presented by the inhabitants of the Wards 
only two Aldermen if it happen that any Aldermen be presented, and if they present 
more than two Aldermen with two Commoners in such elections, that their election 
and presentation be void, &c. Latin. — [Letter Book L. fo. 157. Cf. for. 8. fo. 234b.) 

The above order was generally, but not always acted upon, the 
Court of Aldermen apparently waiving any objection they might have 
had, in respect of departures from the order. 

No alteration in the above-mentioned practice of electing aldermen 
took place until the commencement of the eighteenth century, when the 
citizens seem to have aroused themselves from the lethargy into which 
they had been plunged by the arbitrary proceedings under the celebrated 
quo warranto of Charles II, and James II. They were then seeking a 
reform in the details of the city's government. 

It may be noted that during the time of the suspension of the 
Charter, aldermen were nominated by the King, although sometimes, 
previously recommended by the Court of Aldermen. 

In 1711 a return was made to the practice of nominating two 
persons only, for presentation to the Court of Aldermen, one to be an 
alderman and the other a commoner. The Common Council passed 
an Act on the 20 September in that year repealing the ordinance 
of the 20 September, 3 Henry IV [a.d. 1402], and enacting in lieu 
thereof, that : — 

"In all elections of aldermen of this city there shall be named, elected and 
presented to the court of lord mayor and aldermen for the time being, by the 

The Aldermen of the City of London. i 59 

hoviseholders of that ward which shall be destitute of an alderman, being freemen 
of the said city, and paying scot and bearing lot, two persons, and no more, 
viz., one alderman, and one able and sufficient citizen and freeman of this city not 
being an alderman : which alderman may remove to, accept, and take such ward, in 
which case there shall be a wardmote holden, and the like nomination and presentment 
made by the inhabitants of the ward within four days next ensuing. And in case the 
alderman so nominated and presented should be absent, or declare his refiisal to 
remove, in every such case the other person nominated and returned with the said 
alderman, shall by the said court of lord mayor and aldermen, be accepted, admitted 
and sworn.'" 

Another Act in the following year [a.d. 171 2] prescribes the modes 
to be adopted in cases of polls and scrutinies in the nominations and 
elections of aldermen and common councilmen. (The .scrutiny at the 
election of Sir John \\'illiams for Cripplegate was taken under this Act.) 

The most important change in the mode of electing aldermen since 
the end of the fourteenth century, was effected by the Act of 13 Anne 
[.\.D. I 7 14] which wasentituled "An Act for reviving the ancient manner 
of electing aldermen." It repeals all — 

"Acts and ordinances of common council, so far only as they or any of them 
oblige and require the inhabitants of the several wards in election of aldermen, to 
nominate, elect, and present more than one person to the said court of lord mayor and 

And enacts that : 

" For reviving the said ancient custom, and restoring to the said inhabitants 
their ancient rights and privileges of choosing one person only to be their alderman, 
that from henceforth, in all elections of aldermen of the said city, at a wardmote 
to be holden for that purpose within the time and by the laws of the said 
city limited for holding the same, there shall lie elected according to the said 
ancient custom, by the householders of that ward which shall be void of an alderman, 
being freemen of the said city, and Jiaying scot and bearing lot, only one able and 
sufficient citizen and freeman (A the said city, not being an alderman, which person so 
elected shall be returned by the lord mayor or other person duly authorized to hold 
such wardmote, to the said court of lord mayor and aldermen, within the time for 
that purpose by the laws of the said city limited and appointed, and shall be by them 
admitted and sworn well and truly to execute the said office of alderman." 

In 1 81 2 an Act of Common Council was passed regulating the 
election of aldermen, and ordering that a wardmote should be held 
within eight days (Sundays excepted) next after the death or resignation 
of an alderman, but by an Act repealing this, i AVilliam IV [.-^.d. 1831], 
the time was extended to fourteen days (Sundays excepted). 

Since this time no material alteration has been made in the mode 
of electing, or in the procedure attending the same, although on many 
occasions, attempts have been made to do so, the most serious of which, 
was made by the inhabitants of the Ward of Cripplegate Without, who 

i6o The Aldermen of the City of London. 

petitioned the Court of Common Council on the 21st February, 1833, 
in relation to the election of aldermen, etc. After five years' struggle 
this ward had (in 1826), succeeded in obtaining from the Court, the 
right to elect four additional representatives, and there was at that time 
and for many years after, an active reforming and radical spirit in the 
ward. The action could hardly have been taken for the purpose of 
ousting their own alderman (Matthew ^^'ood) from his position, for he 
was most popular, and a reformer of reformers. However, the fact 
remains that the Ward of Cripplegate AMthout urged their petition on 
the Court, the chief points of which were that the proceedings of the 
Court of Aldermen should be carried on in open Court, and that the 
aldermen of the City should be elected periodically, and hold office for 
a fixed period, but be qualified for re-election. A special committee was 
appointed by the Court, which heard the petitioners— their spokesmen, 
Mr. Dillon and Mr. Newell, being heard at length. The whole matter 
was referred by that Committee to a special sub-committee, who were 
ordered to search the records of the City and " report all such evidence 
as they may be able to obtain illustrative of the origin, nature and 
duties of the office of alderman, and of the Court of Aldermen, the 
alterations which have taken place therein from time to time, and the 
authorities under which such changes have been made." The committee 
took great pains in the matter, and obtained a large amount of valuable 
information from the archives of the Corporation, and duly reported 
to the Court in March of the following year (1834). 

In their report, the Committee made various recommendations, 
amongst which were : — that open court should be in the discretion of 
the Court of Aldermen; that the election of aldermen should not be in 
the hands of the freemen only of the ward, but that "all persons within 
each ward capable of voting for Members of Parliament for the City 
of London under the Act of Parliament of the 2 ^^'llliam IV, cap. 45, 
intituled An Act to amend the Representation of the People in Eno/aud 
and IVa/es (the great Reform Act) shall have votes in the election of 
aldermen, and should be made compellable to serve all ward and 
corporate offices. That the aldermen should be continued for life 
subject to the following restrictions, viz., bankruptcy, insolvency, 
arrangement with creditors by deed of composition or taking benefit 
of the Act, conviction of fraud or other misdemeanour by the verdict 
of a jury ; absence for a given time without leave of the court, and 

The Aldermen of the City of London. i6i 

general imbecility. That no person should be elected an alderman 
unless he possessed a qualification, such qualification to be ten thousand 
pounds ; and the party to be excused, or to vacate his seat, on 
swearing he is not worth fifteen thousand pounds. 

At the same time the Committee reported " That it is expedient 
to amend the representation of the citizens of London in Common 
Council, by adapting the same to the existing state of the population, 
property and municipal taxation of the various wards of the City.'' (In 
1840, this recommendation was carried out.) It will be seen that the 
report on the whole was moderate and reasonable, the position of the 
aldermen remaining untouched. The report was taken into con- 
sideration by the Court of Common Council exactly a twelvemonth 
after, viz., 28 March, 1835, whereupon a motion was made that "The 
present aldermen be continued, and all future aldermen be elected fcjr 
life " (with the restrictions above noted), to which an amendment was 
moved: "That all aldermen hereafter to be chosen should be subjected to 
periodical re-election by their constituents."' And on the question Deing 
put, the Lord Mayor declared the same to be carried in the affirmative ; 
and a division being demanded and granted, there appeared — 

/•(?;■ ///(• Affirmative. For the Negative. 

I Lord Mayor, 
o Aldermen. 9 Aldermen. 

61 Commoners. 26 Commoners. 

2 Tellers. 2 Tellers. 

Majority for the Affirmative ... ... 25 

W'hereupon the same was resolved in the Affirmative. 

Motion : " That the period of such re-elections be once in every 
seven years." — Agreed to. 

Resolved and Ordered : "That the Town Clerk do communicate to 
the Municipal Corporation Inquiry Commissioners, the Resolutions 
agreed to this day." 

As is well known, the Municipal Corporation Commissioners 
reported in 1837 that every other municipal body in England and Wales 
required reform, but that the Corporation of London needed no 
reformation at the hands of Parliament; and so the resolution of the 
Court of Common Council, in connection with the periodical election oj 
aldermen, came to nothing. 

1 62 The Aldermen of the City of London. 

On the 24 February, 1854, a committee of the whole Court of Com- 
mon Council reported {inter alia), that the election of the aldermen 
by the ward should be without veto and that the election should be 
for life. On the report coming on for discussion, the first item was 
agreed to, but in the latter an amendment was moved to strike out the 
words " for life " and insert " once in every year." This was negatived 
on a division — affirmative 30 ; negative 49. 

In a Bill which the Corporation introduced into Parliament through 
Sir Robert Walter Carden, in 1857, the following clause appeared: — "It 
shall be lawful for the Common Council at any time, upon a requisition 
in writing, signed by a majority of the electors of any ward, to remove 
from office, if they shall so think fit, the Alderman then representing 
such ward, and every vacancy to be occasioned by the removal of an 
Alderman from office as aforesaid shall be supplied as the same would 
be if such Alderman had died instead of having been so removed." 
This Bill was withdrawn. 

John Carpenter, writing in 1419 {Liber Alhus, Riley's transla- 
tion, page 35), says : — " Upon the election of an alderman, it is the 
custom for the Mayor to proceed to the ward that is vacant, and, 
at the place where the wardmote of such ward is usually held, to 
cause to be summoned before him by the bedel all the freemen who 
inhabit such ward, with a view to filling up the vacancy." 

Very little alteration has been made in the procedure in the election 
of an alderman, from the time Liber Albus was written ; for within 
fourteen days of the death or resignation of an alderman, the lord 
mayor issues his precept for a wardmote, to be held for the 
election of a successor, and on the day appointed attends the 
wardmote in state, ^^'hen the wardmote is opened the lord mayor, who 
is attended by his legal assessor (the City Solicitor), calls for nominatioi>s, 
and should there be more than one person nominated, takes a show of 
hands, and declares the election to have fallen upon the one he judges 
to have the greatest show. Should a poll be demanded, he orders it to 
take place on the following day. The poll is taken by ballot, and all 
those whose names are on the Ward Lists are entitled to vote. On the 
declaration of the poll the lord mayor informs those present that the 
result will be reported to the Court of Aldermen. This is done in due 
course by the City Solicitor. 

"When the alderman chosen by the ward is to be sworn into 
office, which cannot be until after seven days from his election [////V 

The Aldeinnen of the City of London. 163 

interval is alloived to give an opportunity for enquiry to be made as 
to the fitness and qualification of tlie party rtturned\ he attends at 
Guildhall a quarter of an hour before the time for which the court 
is summoned, and waits in an adjoining room, with those who are 
to present him, until summoned to the court by the common crier, 
who precedes him with the mace." 

"The City Solicitor (as the Lord Mayor's Attorney) reads the 
return to the precept for the election. Upon which the question is 
put that the alderman be called in and sworn, which being carried, 
the common crier acquaints him accordingly. The alderman is then 
presented to the Court by some of the principal inhabitants of the 
ward for which he is elected, one of whom usually addresses the 
Court at the bar on the occasion. Upon the presentation being made 
they retire."' 

" The alderman elect appears in full dress in his livery gown, and 
after having made and subscribed the declaration required by Act of 
Parliament, is sworn into office, he is then clothed with the violet gown, 
the whole Court being in their scarlet gowns, and the sword-bearer presents 
him to the lord mayor and aldermen, according to seniority, who each 
take him by the hand ; he is then conducted to his seat, and the officers 
in succession congratulate him. The lord mayor takes him home in his 
state coach, and on a subsequent occasion entertains him and the 
other members of the Court of Aldermen at dinner."' 

From a peru.sal of the preceding extracts from the City's Records 
of the various modes of electing aldermen of the City of London during 
the last six hundred years, it will be seen that the alterations made from 
time to time have been comparatively insignificant, and that for nearly 
the whole of that time the composition of the constituency making the 
election, viz., the freemen of the wards '' paying scot and bearing lot," 
was unaltered. It will also be noted that it was only in quite recent times 
(1867) that an alteration was made in the constituency, by the abolition 
of the necessity of a voter being a freeman. From the fact of 
his being required to be rated as a householder (to the e/:tent of 
;£\o per annum), and also being liable to serve ward and parish offices, 
and on juries, he still retains the old qualification of " paying scot and 
bearing lot," 


164 The Aldermen of the City of London. 

A perusal of the following series of extracts taken from the 
Corporation records, will clearly show how important, responsible and 
incessant, were the duties of an alderman, more particularly in the 
thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. During the three following 
centuries, the growth of order amongst all classes, rendered the position 
less martial in its character, but each of these centuries brought with it, 
new and varied dangers and responsibilities. In the sixteenth century, 
the records contain numberless examples of orders that were given to 
the aldermen, to raise men for the prosecution of wars on the continent. 
The seventeenth century was perhaps the most troublous period of all. 
The Rebellion against the arbitrary measures pursued by Charles I, 
rendered it necessary for the aldermen to take up a decided position for 
King or Parliament. The Commonwealth brought the aldermen and 
citizens a little respite from their troubles, but the tyrannical proceedings 
of Charles II under the celebrated quo warranto rendered the execution 
of the duty of an alderman of that period by no means enviable. A 
great improvement, however, in an alderman's position, took place in the 
following two centuries, so that it no longer became necessary to force 
a citizen to take upon himself the duties of the office under pains and 
penalties for refusal. Of late years the electors have seldom been without 
candidates wishful for the privilege of undertaking the duty. 

As before stated one of the most important part of the alderman's 
duties was to keep the peace within his ward, " The watch, then a very 
efficacious military force, was under his command, and he bore his 
banner and arms as a baron. The ward was under his government and 
personal inspection ; he kept a roll of the inhal)itants, containing their 
names, dwellings, places of abode and trades, he regulated inns and 
other places of public resort, tried weights and measures, held the views 
of frank-pledge, and enquiring after suspected persons, superintended 
the cleansing of the highways and water courses, and in short, had the 
constant superintendence of the police of the district.'' {Pulling, p. 29.) 
An equally onerous duty was cast upon him, in defending the city from 
any possible attack from without, and for several centuries elaborate 
precautions were taken to effect these objects. At the close of the 
reign of Edward I [a.d. 1307] we find an ordinance to the effect 
that " Eveiy alderman shall have three horses for keeping the peace, and 
that watch should be kept each night by the aldermen and men of the 

The Aldermen of the City of London. 165 

wards on horseback." {Letter Book C. fo. 90b.) The following order, 
issued in 132 1, will give an instructive idea of the aldermen's duties in 
keeping the peace, and may be taken as the general orders in force 
during the fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth centuries. 

14 Edward II [a.d. 1321].— "The manner in which the safe-keeping of the 
City ought to be performed. — 

That is to say: — that the Mayor and Aldermen shall be properly armed, in 
manner as pertains to them and all their household. And that every Alderman shall 
cause to assemble in his Ward, in such place as he shall think best, the most proved 
and most wise men of his Ward : and that they, to prevent perils that may arise to the 
City — the which may God forbid — shall survey all the hostels of the Ward, in which 
they understand any strangers or suspected persons to be lodged ; and that they shall 
enjoin such manner of hostelers and herbergeours, that they shall not harbour or 
receive any persons whomsoever, if they will not be answerable for their deeds and 
their trespasses, if in any way they offend. 

jVnd that every Alderman, in his own Ward, shall cause all those of the Ward to 
be assessed to arms ; that so they may be armed according as their condition demands, 
for maintaining the peace of our Lord the King, and saving and preserving the same 
in the said city. 

And that all the Gates of the City shall be well guarded by day and by night ; 
that is to say, every gate by day, by 12 men, strong and vigorous, and well instructed, 
and well armed ; so as to overlook those entering and going forth, if perchance any 
one be suspected of coming to do mischief to the City ; and by night, by 24 men ; 
so that those who keep ward by day, come at sunrise, and remain until sunset ; and 
those who keep watch at night, come at sunset, and remain until sunrise. And that 
the bedels of the Wards of those who are summoned to keep ward, shall be there 
ready with the names of those upon whom they have made summons, before the 
Aldermen of their Wards. 

And that every Alderman shall come there at the hour aforesaid, to see that 
those who are summoned to keep ward are strong and powerful men, and well and 
sufficiently armed. 

And that every night all the great gates shall be closed at sunset by the Warders 
thereunto assigned ; that is to say, by two of the loyal and most powerful men of all 
the Ward, and sworn thereunto ; and that the wickets of the gates shall be kept open 
until curfew rung out at St. Martin's le Grand ; and that then, all the wickets shall be 
closed, for all the night through, that so no one enter until Prime rung at .St. Thomas 
of Aeon : and then all the wickets shall be opened until sunrise, at which time the 
great gates shall be first opened. 

And that above the gates, and upon the walls between the gates of the city, 
there shall be placed sufficient people for watch and ward, that so no men-at-arms or 
other persons approach the walls or the gates, for doing mischief to the city. And if 
any one shall approach there in manner aforesaid, then the horn is to be sounded, that 
the nearest guards may be warned to come to such spot in defence of the City. 

And that those who are assigned to a certain guard, shall not, for any noise, for 
any cry, or for any affray, elsewhere in the City, in any manner depart from their 
guard ; unless by the Mayor or by the Aldermen they be commanded so to do. 

And that every night there shall be ordained 200 men, well armed, or more, 
according as need demands, to go throughout the City to keep the peace, and to aid 
those who keep watch at the gates, if need be. 

M 2 

t66 The Aldcr^nen of the City of London. 

And thai no ship or boat shall moor or lie to at night, elsewhere than in the hythes 
of Billyngesgate and Queen Hythe, from sunset, namely, to sunrise. And that two 
good and strong boats shall be provided on the Thames at night, with armed men, on 
the one side of London Bridge, towards the West, and two boats on the other side, 
towards the East ; so as to guard the water by night, and watch that no one may enter 
this part of the City to do mischief ; and, if they see peril, to warn the people of those 
Wards which are keeping guard upon the water." — Latin ami Noniian-Frencii. 
{Letter Book E. fo. 119b.) Riley's Memorials, pp. 143, 144. 

The aldermen were not only required to protect their own wards 

from outside attack, but at times (as for instance in 1377) were ordered 

to protect the shipping on the Thames. The following is a portion of 

the extract referring to this : — 

I Richard II [a.d. 1377] .... "that every day and night four Aldermen, from 
noon to noon, should be on board the said shipping, having with them at least 100 
men-at-arms of their Wards, besides archers ; and then on the next day, other four 
Aldermen, with the men of their Wards, and so on in rotation, to the Feast of St. 
Michael, in the order there written. Which Aldermen, with their people, in case the 
enemy should come to set fire to the shipping and invade the City, were to keep them 
in check, until succour from the City should reach them and the ships, in greater 
force." Also, — it was ordered on the same day, that certain arbalesters should be hir(^d 
by the City, and receive wages to remain continually in the outer ships. . . . All 
such ships being moored between Le Redeclif and London Bridge. — Latin. {Letter 
Booii H. fo. 73b.) Riley's Memorials, p. 410. 

Special orders were also given to the aldermen in respect to the 
Watch on certain occasions, notably on the Eves of Feast days, as the 
following orders will show : — 

Order for Setting the Watch in the City on the Eves of the Nativity of St. John 
the Baptist and of St. Peter and St. Paul. 

I Richard II [a.d. 1378]. — We do command you that together with the good 
men of your Ward, you be well and sufficiently armed, arrayed in red and white, 
particoloured, over your armour, to keep the watch on the Eves of the Nativity of 
St. John [24 June], and of St. Peter and St. Paul [29 June], next to come, in manner 
as done heretofore, for the honour of the City, and for keeping the peace ; and this 
you are not to omit, on the perils that attend the same, and as you would' save the 
honour of the City. 

And upon this, by advice of the Mayor and Aldermen the said Watch was made 
as follows ; that is to say, — all the Aldermen, with the good men of their Wards, 
assembled in Smythefeld on the Eve of St. John, arrayed as aforesaid, and from 
thence passed through the City, first the Aldermen, and then the men of their Wards, as 
follows, — Eirst, — the Wards of Tower, Billyngesgate, Aldgate, Lymstret ; with 
cressets, the lances while, powdered with red stars. Secondly, —the Wards of Bridge, 
Candelwykslret, Dougale, Walbroke ; with lances all red. Thirdly, — Bisshopesgate, 
Langebourne, Cornhulle, Bradstrcl ; with white lances, environed, that is to say, 
wreathed with red. Fourthly, — Farndonc, Castle Baynard, Aldrichesgate ; with 
lilack lances, powdered with white stars. Fifthly, — Chepe, Crepulgate, Colmanstret, 
Bassyeshawe ; with lances all white. Sixthly, — Bredstret, Queen Hythe, Vintry, 
and Cordevvanerstret ; with lances. {The description abruptly closes here. \ — Latin and 
Norman-Frrnch. (Letter Book H. fo. 79b.) Riley's Memoiials, p. 419. 

The Aldermen of the City of London. 167 

2 Richard II [a.d. 1379]. — "We do command you for the honour of the Lord 
the King and of the City, that you order sufficient men of your Ward to be armed 
with bacinel and gauntlets of plates, and with an axe in hand, arrayed in red and 
white, for watch on the night of St. John next to coiiie, with the Mayor and 
Aldermen of the City. And that you be at Smethefeld, yourself arrayed in the said 
colours, with the said men so arrayed, on the Eve of St. John aforesaid, at nine of the 
clock, with three or four iron cressets burning. And this thing you are not to omit, 
as you do have the honour of the City at heart." — Nor/>iaii-Fteiieh. {.Letter Book H. 
fo. III.) Riley's J/tfw^;7rtA-, p. 433. 

7 Henry IV [a.d. 1405].- — We do command and charge you . . . . " that you do 
order good and sufficient watch of folks, properly armed and arrayed, to be kept in your 
Ward every night during this scjlemn Feast of Christmas ; going always, and passing, 
through all the streets and lanes in your said Ward, in manner as heretofore has been 
wont to be done. And that no persons shall go in the said City, or in the suburbs 
thereof, with visors or false faces, on the pain that awaits the same. And that on the 
outside of every house that is upon the high streets and lanes of the said City, every 
night during the solemn Feast aforesaid, a lantern shall be hung, witli a lighted 
candle therein, the same to burn so long as it may last ; on pain of paying four pence 
to the Chamber of the Guildhall, every time that default in such light be made. And 
tliis you are in no manner to omit. Written at London, under the Seal of our 
Mayoralty, the 13th day of December, in tlie 7th year of the reign of our most dread 
Lord, King Henry, now reigning." — Norman- French. {.Letter Book L. fo. 47.) 
Riley's Memorials, p. 561. 

In 1418, it was ordered "that the Aldernuin of every Ward that 

lies without the gates should, immediately after the procession ended on 

the Eve of the Apostles Peter and Paul, enter his Ward and keep watch 

there, until 3 of the clock ; and that every Gate of the City shall b,e shut 

at 10 of the clock and opened at 6." — Latin. ly Journal i, fo. 47.) 

Riley's Memorials, p. 662. 

Henry \'I [a.d. 1446]. — The same day it was agreed that all the aldermen should 
again keep watches for another twelve nights by turn as before, etc., and that the 
Mayor should commence again this night. — Latin. {Journal 4, fo. 129.)* 

The following instances of the duty cast upon the aldermen of 
raising men at various times^for military purposes — are taken from 
Vol. I of Dr. Sharpe's ''^ Londoti and l/ie Kingdom." 

In the case of the peasants' revolt under Wat Tyler in 1381, orders 
were given to each alderman to provide men-at-arms and archers to 
guard the City's gates, and to see that no armed person entered the City, 
except those who declared on oath they were about to join the King's 
expedition against the rebels. 

In 1386 orders were given to the aldermen of the City to assemble 
the men of their several wards, to see that they were suitably armed 
according to their rank and estate, and to make a return of the same in 
due course. 

* See the fourth and fifth lines of the frontispiece of this book. 

1 68 The Alder men of the City of London. 

In 1417 each alderman was ordered to instruct the constables of 
his ward to go their rounds and warn all soldiers they might come 
across, to vacate the City and set out in the King's service {i.e., in the 
war that Henry V was then waging in France). 

Again, we find that in 1460 each alderman was ordered to make 
enquiry as to the number of strangers residing in his ward, and the 
reasons for their being in the City. 

At the time of the Pilgrimage of Cirace, in October, 1536, the 
various Livery Companies were called upon to furnish men for the 
service of the King [Henry VHI], and upon Sir Ralph Warren 
succeeding to the mayoralty, " it was resolved that each member of the 
Court should provide at his own cost and charges, twenty able men, fully 
equipped, \n case of any emergency that might arise, whilst the Com- 
panies were again called upon to hold their men in readiness." 

On the occasion of the war with France in 1544, the City was 
ordered to raise and send a force of five hundred men to Boulogne, 
and the Court of Aldermen agreed that each of their number should 
on the Saturday night make the round of his ward, and select " fift}', 
forty, twenty or ten " tall and comely men who should be warned in 
the king's name to appear the next morning before seven o'clock at the 
CJuildhall. In the following year, in connection with the same war, 
the Lord Chancellor paid a visit to the City and sat in Guildhall, and 
charged each alderman to call before him every person in his ward 
who was worth ^40 and upwards, so that a subsidy in aid of the war 
should be collected. 

And lastly, in 1625, the aldermen again had the duty cast upon them 
of acting as a "press gang," for on the occasion of the attempted recovery 
of the Palatinate by the King (James I), the City were called upon to 
provide one thousand men. The mayor issued a precept to the aldermen 
of each ward to seize in their beds or otherwise, all able-bodied men, and 
especially "all tapsters, ostlers, chamberlains, vagrants, idle and suspected 
persons," and to convey them to Leadenhall or Bridewell. 

The liabilities of an alderman did not end here. In 15 13, when 
the City was suffering under a scarcity of wheat, each alderman was 
called upon to contribute a sum of ;^5 towards alleviating the distress 
which prevailed. 

As will be seen by the following extracts, it was the duty of an 
alderman to visit and " goe over " his ward weekly, and not the least 

The Aldermen of the City of London. 169 

of his work in performing this duty was to see that such small sanitary 
regulations as were in force at the time were duly observed. Many 
entries in the Records are to be found enforcing this duty on the 

5 November, 2 Elizabeth [A.D. 1560.] — Item yt was orderyd and agreyd by the 
cCte here this daye that every one of my maysters thaldremen that nowe arr and 
hereafter Aldremen of this cyttye shall from hensforlhe, wekely uppon the mondaye 
goe over and puse in his owne pson Ijeinge w'in the cyttye and in healthe his hole 
warde, and puse examyn and dylygently consider the estate and ordre of the same 
warde, and then and there without delaye ^)vyde and take ordre and dyreccon for the 
reformacon and amendement of all suche mysorders and defaults as they shall then 
and there fynde that they of their owne aucthorylye maye laufuly reforme and redresse 
and for the resydue that they shall not be hable to reforme without the ayde of this 
coUe that they with all convenyenl spede shall make Relacon of the same to the sayd 
co''te that spedy rcmydye maye be in due order of the lawe pvydyd for the same. 
And yt was also orderyd by the co-^te that precepts shall forthw' be made out to every 
one of my maysters thaldremen for the due exccucOn of this present order and decree, 
& dyvers artyclcs concernynge the cOen weale and good order of this cyttye to be 
delyveryd to every of them w' the sayde precepts. — Letter Book T, fo. 13b. 

5 October, 16 Elizabeth [a.d. 1574]. Itm it was agreed by this Court that 
everye of my masters thaldermen shall every Frydaye weeklye from hencefurth by 
hymselfe in his psone, or eels by his deputye, if he be sick, viewe and oversee his 
and their severall wardes, to the entent such abuses as are daylye therin, maye be 
amended and reformed, and especiallye concerninge the ceassinge of the plague. — 
Litter Book X, fo. 337b. 

It will be noted in the preceding extract that the plague was rife ; 
as indeed the City was scarcely ever free from it, and the aldermen, 
individually and collectively, had little respite from their work in 
attempting to stay the infection. 

30 Jan., 26 Elizabeth [a.d. 1584].— Itm yt ys orderyd that precepts be 
dyrcctred to every of th'aldren of thys Cyttye requiringe them that betweene thys and 
the xix"' dale of flebruaryc next they reforme all suche abuses and dysorderds as are 
presented in the Indentures by the Wardmote inquests of theyre Wards And such 
abuses as they themselves cannot reforme that then that take order with everye 
person soe presented parsonallye to appeare heare in thys Courte on the sayde 
xix daye of ffebruarye to th'end thys Courte maye pceede thearein as shall 
apprtayne. — Repertory 21, fo. 24. 

Early in the reign of Queen Elizabeth it became the duty of 
those aldermen who were justices to settle the several rates of wages 
paid to artificers, and later on we find in the Repertory {14, fo. 194,) 
under date 22 April, 1574, an order for the Lord Mayor, the Recorder, 
and the aldermen of the "gray cloke" to be in attendance on "Satterday 
in thafternone" for the assessment of servants' wages "according to the 

170 The Aldermen of the City of London. 

Troublesome and unpleasant as some of the foregoing duties were, 
none was more so (especially to those aldermen possessed of a strong 
religious feeling) than the duty imposed upon them in 1554, \vhen 
each alderman was ordered to call before him all the householders 
of his ward, both rich and poor, on Wednesday, 1 7 March, at six o'clock 
in the morning, and strictly charge them, that they, their wives, their 
children and servants, behave themselves in all things, and more 
especially in matters of religion, following the example of the Queen ■ 
[Mary] herself. 

Recompense for unpleasant duties was occasionally made to the 
aldermen, by the granting of special privileges over their fellow citizens, 
as witness the following : — 

3 and 4 Philip and Mary [a.d. 1556].— At this courte il was agryed, liial whenso- 
ever and as often hereafter as any howse belonginge to this cytye mete or convenyente 
for an alderman to dwell in or inhabite hymeself, shall happen to be voyde, then and 
so often it shalbe lawful to any of my masters the aldremen to be suetors to this howse 
for the same, and that they shall have the prefermente of every such howse as they 
shall thinck to be meate for theyme ; and that no other person shall have at any time 
hereafter any lease of any suche howse, if it shall please any of my said masters the 
aldermen for the time beyinge to have the <iA.w\tt.— Repertory 13, pan 2, 452b. 

An alderman's duty in his ward during the seventeenth century, is 

well summed up in the following extract from the Repertory under 

date January, 1631 : — 

" Item. That better and more speedy reformacon may be had of the abuses and 
oftences committed within this city, and presented by the wardemote inquest of the 
several! wards within the same, it is thought fltt and soe ordered by this court, that 
every alderman with his wardemote inquest shall once a month, at the least, set in his 
warde, and examine the severall abuse, misdemeanours which are now presented to 
them the same, and according to his best judgment and discression take order for 
redresse therein. And for such offences as shall appear of a higher nature, and unde- 
terminable in his said wardmote inquest ; the same to be delivered in writing unto the 
lowne clerke of this citty, that by him bills of indictments or informacons may be 
drawne according to the nature of the severall oftences to th"end the oftenders may be 
proceeded against at the sessions, and punished as by the lawes and statutes of this 
realme is ordeyed and appoynted." — Repertory ^j, fo. 84. 

Until the Police Act of 1839, an alderman sat in his own ward and 
dealt with cases occurring in the ward in a similar manner as above 

Amongst the aldermen's many duties, not the least was that of 
regulating the doings of the various Livery Companies. In a letter 
written 7 April, 1620, by the Recorder and certain of the " Ancientest 
Aldermen" to the Attorney-General in reference to a dispute between 

The AldevDicn of the City of London. 171 

the White and Brown Bakers — the Court of Aldermen are described as 
" The common fathers of all Companies of London, to whom in such 
cases all Freemen were by oath bound to resort." — Ronenibnincia^ p. 102. 

The duties of an alderman of the City of London at the present 
day, are multifarious, and of a most responsible character ; the most 
important probably being those attached to his position as a Justice of 
the Peace. 

This privilege was first bestowed upon some of the aldermen 
by letters patent dated 26 October, 23 Henry VI [1444], whereby the 
Mayor and Recorder for the time being, and all the aldermen who had 
served the office of mayor, and those who should thereafter serve the 
said office, were created Justices of the Peace, so long as they remained 
aldermen. This privilege was confirmed by the Charters of 2 Edward 
IV [1462], 4 Edward VI [1550J, and 6 James I [1608]. An extension 
of the Charter was made 18 October, 14 Charles I [1638] to the 
following effect : — " The mayor, recorder, aixl aldermen who had been, 
or should thereafter be, mayors, and the three senior aldermen who had 
not been mayors, were constituted and appointed justices of the peace;" 
and in the Charter of 28 July 4 William and Mary [1692] it was further 
extended by adding " six other aldermen who have not served the office 
of mayor beyond the three other next the mayoralty as justices." Lastly, 
by the Charter 25 August, 15 George II [1741], on the petition of the 
mayor and aldermen, all the aldermen were constituted Justices of the 
Peace, whether they had passed the chair or not. 

Very extensive powers have been conferred upon the aldermen as 
Justices, under various statutes. By 43 Elizabeth [1601], cap. 2, sec. 8, 
every alderman may within his ward, execute such duties under the Act, 
as are appointed and allowed by the Act to be done and executed by one 
or two Justices of the Peace of any County ; and under the Summary 
Jurisdiction Act, 1848, an alderman has the power, when sitting at either 
of the City Justice Rooms, to do alone (in the absence of any express 
enactment to the contrary) any act which, by any Statute (past or future) 
is directed to be done by more than one Justice, and by the Summary 
Jurisdiction Act, 1879, ^''' alderman sitting in a Court at which he is 
authorized by law to do alone any act authorized to be done by more 
than one Justice, shall be deemed to be a Court of Summary Jurisdiction 
consisting of two or more Justices, and also to be a Court of Summary 
Jurisdiction sitting in a Petty Sessional Court House. In addition to 

172 The Aldermen of the City of London. 

the daily sittings of Justices at the Mansion House and Guildhall Justice 
Rooms, a Magistrate sits twice a week in one of the Courts at Guildhall, 
for the purpose of hearing Summones taken out by the police for 
offences under the City Police Act, 1839, the Metropolitan Streets 
Acts, 1867 and 1868, the Hackney Carriage, and other Acts. The 
aldermen as Justices administer the Licensing Acts. The Court of 
Aldermen appoint a number of their body as Visiting Justices of H.M. 
Prisons of Newgate and HoUoway. 

Every alderman is, ex officio^ a Governor of the Royal Hospitals, 
viz., St. Bartholomew's, Christ's, Bridewell and Bethlem, and St. 
Thomas'. Under the City Police Act, 1839, the approval of at least 
three aldermen is required to any orders or regulations framed by the 
Commissioners of City Police for the general government of the Police 
Force. Other duties under this Act devolve upon each alderman, in 
connection with the making of rates in his particular ward. The re- 
maining duties of the aldermen consist (chiefly) in each taking his share 
in the representation of the Court of Aldermen upon various bodies 
in which the Corporation is entitled to be represented, such as The Irish 
Society, Queen Anne's Bounty, The Honourable Artillery Company, 
Sir John Morden's Charity, Sir John Soane's Museum, City and Guilds 
Institute, United Westminster School, Emanuel Hospital, Wilson's 
Charity, Aske's Charity, The Thames and Lee Conservancies, etc. 

In accordance with a very ancient custom, if an alderman is 
one of the two senior or four junior aldermen, it is his duty to 
meet Her Majesty's Judges at St. Paul's Cathedral, on the first 
Sunday in Trinity Sittings. 

In addition to being members of the various Committees of the 
Court of Aldermen, a certain number of aldermen are allotted to every 
Committee of the Court of Common Council. The presence of, at 
least, two aldermen, in addition to the Lord Mayor, or his locum tenefis, 
is required, for the proper formation of a Court of Common Council ; 
whilst at least thirteen are required to be present to constitute a duly 
formed Court of Aldermen. 

By courtesy and by long custom, the senior alderman present, has 
the privilege of seconding a motion made in the Court of Common 
Council, by a commoner (usually the " Chief Commoner "), for the 
presentation of the Freedom of the City, or of addresses to Royal or 
distinguished personages. 

The Alderuien of the City of London. 173 

The aldermen, in respect of their public duties within the city, 
have several privileges and exemptions, such as to be free from offices 
and serving on juries. It was enacted, 23 Henry VI [a.d. 1444], that — 

The aldermen, so long as they are aldermen, and bear the burthens of office, not 
to be put, without the City, on assizes, juries, attaints, recognizances, or inquests, nor 
made collectors of tenths, fifteenths, taxes, talliages, or other burthens, acquittances 
or imposts whatsoever, without the City, to be granted or given to the king, his heirs 
and successors. 

The exemption at the present day is claimed under the charter of 
2 Edward IV [1462], and has been allowed by the judges, the charter 
itself having in some cases been produced. Cases occurred of aldermen 
being summoned on juries outside the City in 1828, 1830, 1837, 1841, 
1844 and 1845, i'"" ^^f^\'\ of which, they were excused by the judges. 
.See Ceremonial Book^ 1864 Ed., p. xix. 

All the aldermen are Justices of Oyer and Terminer, and, as such, are 
named in the Commission for holding the Old Bailey Sessions. 


In the turbulent times of the latter part of the middle ages, it was 

imperative that those in authority should always be in evidence, and 

ready at any moment to assert their authority. Exhortations to this 

effect, were from time to time sent out by the reigning king, and the 

following may be taken as a good example of one of those sent by 

Henry V in 141 7. 

Henry by the Grace of Cod King of England and France and lord of Ireland 
to our very dear and much beloved Mayor of our City of London greeting. Whereas 
by our letters under our seal lately directed to you and the Aldermen of this our City we 
have written to put you to as much care and diligence as you shall know and are capa- 
ble of in the preservation of the peace within our said City : nevertheless, as we are 
informed, divers Aldermen of our said City are at present absent from it whose counsel 
and assistance might avail and profit much towards the preservation of the said peace. 
We therefore desire, command and charge you to cause your letters to be addressed to 
each one of the Aldermen so absent from our said City charging him straitly on our 
behalf therein to return to our said City and reside there in order to strengthen you 
and administer counsel and assistance in all that appertains to the preservation of the 
said peace and the good government of our said City according to the effect and pur- 
port of our aforesaid letters. Given under our privy Seal at Westminster the 1 2th 
day of August in the 5th year of our reign. French. — (^Letter Book I, fo. 198.) 

The Court of Aldermen itself, kept a tight hand upon its members, 
recalling them from the country for the protection of the City whenever 
circumstances seemed to demand their presence. Thus, in 1485, John 
Ward, Alderman of Dowgate, was ordered by the Court of Aldermen to 

174 T^^^^ Aldermen of the City of London. 

return with his family and reside in the City under a penalty of ;^ 500. — 
{Journal g, fo. 78b.) It may be that the alderman was merely "out 
of town," but it is possible that he was absenting himself, so that he 
might not have to take part in the struggle between King Richard III 
(who was being supported by the Mayor and Aldermen) and the 
Earl of Richmond. 

When trouble was expected in the City in the summer of 1549, 
the Mayor and Aldermen supported the young King, Edward VI^ 
riding with him, we are told, from Southwark to Charing Cross, where 
the aldermen took their leave, the King saluting them and " putting of 
his capp to everie of them." On such occasions all the aldermen 
were expected to attend ; some, however, were noticed to be absent, 
and as rebellion was rampant in the eastern counties (commonly called 
Kets rebellion), and it was necessary that everyone in the City should 
be ready to cope with it, the aldermen and chief commoners were 
ordered home. The following is the order : — 

5 August, 3 Edward VI [1549J. " Item yt is agreid that all the Aldermen and 
chief Comers of this Cytie nowe Ijeing owte of this Cytie be all w"' all spede sent for 
to Repayre home into the Cytie & that their s'vnts have in comaundem' to send their 
'W^ worde that they furthw"' come to this Cytie vpon their pylls." — Letter Book A\ 
fo. 32. 

On the death of King Edward VI, trouble was again in the air. 
The Lady Jane Grey was being brought forward in opposition to Mary, 
the rightful heir to the crown ; the citizens viewed the matter with 
intense interest, and again the Mayor was called upon to summon the 
aldermen to their posts of duty. The entry runs as follows : — 

II July, I Mary* [1553]. " Att this Corte it was agreed that my Lorde Mayer 
shuld wryte to all my masters th'aldermen nowe beinge owte of the Cytie to repaire 
home to the said Cytie wythe spede for the safe custodie and good governaunce 
thereof. — {Repertory ij, part I. fo. 65b.) 

\\"e find, 12 Charles I [1637], an order of the Privy Council for 
no alderman to depart out of the City except by leave of the Court 
of Lord Mayor and Aldermen, nor any deputies to depart out of the 
City except other deputies be put in their places; and the Lord Mayor 
and aldermen not to give leave to aldermen, but so as there may be 
thirteen aldermen (the Mayor and Sheriffs being therein comprised) 

* Note. — Mary was not proclaimed (j)ueen until the 19 July. The Lady Jane 
had been proclaimed (^ueen on the loth, but the Mayor took no part in the ceremony. 
There were Courts of Aldermen held on the I3lh and l8th of July, the regnal year 
being entered in the Repertory as anno priiiio Jane, hwK Jane was subsetjucnlly erased 
and Marie substituted. 

The Aldermen of the City of London. 175 

continually residing in the City, and later in the same year we find the 
Court of Aldermen (probably for some specially urgent reason) granting 
leave of absence to Alderman Fenn for two months, and to Alderman 
Harrison for fourteen days. — {Repertory 57, fos. 251b, 255.) 

In 1649 a further order was passed for all the aldermen not having 
dwellings in London, forthwith to provide them within the walls, and 
none to dwell without the walls, without license, and that not to extend 
beyond the liberties. — [Repertory jg, fo. 513b.) 

Eight years after the (Ireat Fire, viz., in September, 1674, large 
areas of the City were still unbuilt upon, and the aldermen, amongst 
others (see the case of Nicholas Cooke, p. 70), were chary of expending 
money in rebuilding their homes that had been destroyed, many 
probably living, as did Cooke, in their country houses, only occasionally 
visiting the City, to the great loss of good government. It there- 
fore became necessary to take some stringent steps to enforce their 
return, and the following Act of Common Council was passed on the 
17 September, 1674. 

26 Charles II. [1674]. " Forasmuch as great mischief and inconveniences have 
already happened to this citty and to the government thereof hy reason of the many 
houses that, since the late dreadfull conflagration, which have been commodiously 
built, continue desolate and uninhabited, and that diverse large tofts of ground 
remaine still in their own ruines unbuilt ; and whereas diverse of the aldermen and 
magistrates of this citty, who by the duty of their said office ought to reside and 
inhabitt within this citty or the liberties thereof, doe, notwithstanding frequent 
inlimacions to the contrary, continually reside and inhabitt in the countrey, and 
lherel)y doe not only neglect the duty of their said office, but exempt themselves from 
l)eing lyalile to bearc their just proporcion of the many taxes, impositions, and other 
the great charges that the citlizens and other the inhabitants of this citty are forced l<j 
pay and beare, liy reason of which many cittizens and others are diverted from 
returning to dwell and inhabite within this citty, and the present inhabitants thereof 
greatly dissatisfyed and discouraged : and whereas diverse of the aldermen and 
magistrates of this citty have, in former limes, for being negligent of their duty, and 
being continually resident in the country, been displaced, disfranchised, and others 
grieviously fined, examples whereof are frequently mencioned in the ancient bookes 
and records of this citty : But to the end that such of the aldermen and magistrates of 
this citty who doe not continually dwell and inhabitt in the country with their families, 
and who are earnestly desired and intreated by this court to come, dwell, and inhabitt 
within this citty or the liberties thereof, may, in case of a refusall, be left without any 
further pretences or excuses. Be it enacted, by the right honourable the lord major, 
aldermen, and commons in this common councell assembled, that every person that 
now is, or hereafter shall be, an alderman of this citty, that shall not, within three 
months next after the makeing and publishing this act, or within three months next 
after his being chosen and takeing upon him that office, come and inhabite with his 
familye within this citty or the liberties thereof, as an housekeeper, and not as a lodger 
or sorjourner, every such alderman shall forfeit the sum of 500/. 

I ']6 The Aldermen of the City of London. 

And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, that noe alderman of this 
city that shall not within six months next after the makeing and publishing of this act, 
or within six months next after his being chosen to and takeing upon him that office, 
coma and inhabitt with his familye within this citty or the liberties thereof, as a 
housekeep, and not as a lodger or sorjourner, shall hereafter be eligible to the office of 
lord major of this citty : and ever}- such alderman that shall not so come and inhabitt 
with his familye within this citty or liberties thereof, is hereby made absolutely in- 
capeable of the office of lord major ; and if any person that now is, or hereafter shall 
be, an alderman of this citty, shall be so obstinate and refractory to the government of 
this citty, as that he and his family doe not come and inhabitt within this citty or the 
liberties thereof as a housekeeper, and not as a lodger or sorjourner, within nine 
months next after the makeing and publishing of this act, or within nine months next 
after he shall be chosen to. and shall take upon him that office, Be it enacted by the 
authority aforesaid, that every such alderman that shall not within nine months next 
after the makeing and publishing of this act, or within nine months next after he shall 
be chosen to and shall take upon him that office, be an inhabitant within this citty or the 
liberties thereof with his family as a housekeeper, and not as a lodger or sorjourner, in 
case he shall have then borne the office of sherriffe, shall be absolutely disfranchised 
from the freedome and liberties of this citty, and is hereby made and declared in- 
capable of being eligible to any place or office of trust or profit perteyning to the 
freedome of this citty ; and that they shall be proceeded against, in order to have their 
disfranchisement according to the ancient laws, customes, and usages of this citty, in 
cases of disfranchisements." {Journal 48, fo. 90b.) 

This Act was the subject of dispute between the Courts of Alder- 
men and Common Council. The aldermen endeavoured to get the 
same rescinded, although it cannot be doubted they were fully conscious 
of the evils of their own non-residence in the City, for on 1 7 November, 
they themselves passed an order for all the aldermen to come and 
inhabit in the City before the following Easter under the utmost penalty 
of the Court. 

The aldermen, however, seem to have been slow in taking up their 
residence in the City, notwithstanding the above order, for on 1 1 January,' 
1 68 1, a letter was directed to be sent to Sir William Hooker, who con- 
tinued to reside at Greenwich, to come and attend his duty in the 
Court of Aldermen and in his ward. 

At the present day it is the custom of an alderman to obtain leave 
of the Court of Aldermen prior to being absent for any length of time. 
There are several instances during the last few years in which leave of 
absence of three and six months has been granted, on the application 
of aldermen, on the grounds of ill-health. 

The Alde7'men of the City of London. 177 


As will be noted in the biography of the Aldermen of Cripplegate 
Ward, the Court of Aldermen was very firm in its determination, that a 
man once nominated, and elected by the Court, as alderman of a ward, 
should properly serve the office, or pay a heavy fine, or undergo 
imprisonment in Newgate, this latter punishment soon bringing an 
unwilling alderman to a right state of mind. The imprisonment of 
Augustine Hynde, of Cripplegate Ward (1547), is a case in point. 

The amount of the fines varied very considerably, and no par- 
ticular system or principle seems to have been acted upon : the sum 
levied was seldom below ^loo, but usually ;;^40o, and in some few 
cases, as much as p^8oo was required to be paid before a discharge 
was granted, but these amounts usually also exonerated the person elected 
alderman, from being elected to the Shrievalty ; the Court of Aldermen 
promising to move the Court of Common Council to discharge him 
from the " office of Sherivaltye of this Cittie of London, and Countie 
of Midd. for ever hearafter." 

On 3 December, 1656, an Act of Common Council was passed, 
enacting among other things, in addition to the fine for discharge : — 

"that noe Aldran of this Cilty now in being nor other person that hereafter 
shall be an Alderman of the same who shall at any time hereafter desire to be dis- 
charged from that office vppon his fifine in that behalfe shall be discharged from the 
same vnlesse hee shall first pay into the Chamber of London the siunme of twenty 
markes . . . towards the maintenance of the said ministers [viz., /'reaching 
Ministers of Newgate, Ludgate and the two Compters] "—y<7//r;7rt/ ^/^, fo 144. 

The account of the imprisonment of John C.edeney, for refusing 

the office of alderman, contains within itself the general procedure 

taken by the Court of Aldermen upon a citizen refusing to serve, and is 

worthy of being repeated here /// iwfenso, as set out in Riley's Memorials, 

pp. 601-603 : — 

2 Henry \\ [a. D. 141 5]. — -Forasmuch as a laudable custom which has hitherto 
pre%ailed in the City of London, has so prescribed and ordained, that the inhabitants 
of each of the Wards of the said city are at liberty to elect an Alderman whensoever 
they need one, to rule them in their own Ward ; provided always, that the person so 
elected is presented to the Mayor and Aldermen, for the time being, and by them is 
deemed worthy to be admitted and approved. — And w'hereas, on the third day of 
January, in the 2nd year of the reign of King Henry etc., one Ralph Lobenhar.i, late 
Alderman of the Ward of Farndone Without, having voluntarily resigned the aile of 
that Ward, the inhabitants of the Ward thereupon, according to the usual custom, met 
together at the usual place within the Ward, for the purpose of electing an Alderman 
thereof, and there unanimously chose one John Gedeney, citizen and draper, to hold 
the office of Alderman of the Ward aforesaid, and presented such choice to Thomas 

178 The Alder77ien of the City of London. 

Fauconer, the then Mayor, and the Alderman, in the chamber of the Guildhall ; the 
said Mayor and Aldermen, holding such election to be good and ratified, confirmed the 
same, and admitted the said John to the ofiice, and approved of him as sufiicient unto 
the same, and deserving thereof, as well as to worldly goods as to the requisite 
discreetness. After which, the said Mayor and Aldermen commanded John Pickard, 
Common serjeant-at-arms of the said city, whose especial office it is, according to 
custom, to attend to the performance of duties and services of that nature, to warn the 
said John Gedeney to appear before the Mayor and Aldermen on the 1 7th day of 
Januar}- then next ensuing, to take the oath, and to do such other things as upon him 
on behalf of the Court should then be enjoined. 

By virtue of which warning, the said John Gedeney appeared before the Mayor 
and Aldermen, in the Chamber aforesaid, and after the reason for his being so 
summoned had been first stated to him, precept was given to him forthwith to take his 
seat there in Court, that he might take the oath that pertains unto the office and 
rank of Alderman. Whereupon, the same John Gedeney, after first setting forth his 
excuses on the ground of his inability, and his insufficiency for the office, wholly 
refused to accept it ; upon which, he was informed by the Court that he could not 
refuse this office, to which, as being a fit person, he was admitted by the Court, 
without breach of his freedom, and of the oath which by him, when he was admitted 
to the freedom of the City, had been made ; and this the more especially, as every 
freeman is bound to be a partaker in Lot, which is liability to hold office, and in Scot, 
which means contribution to taxes and other charges, by reason of such oath. 

But all and singular the matters before stated notwithstanding, he altogether 
refused to accept the office, like a person who was utterly obdurate. And hereupon, 
the matter having been considered by the Mayor and Aldermen, because that it 
appeared to them that if any one, when elected to such office, should be at liberty at 
his own will and pleasure to refuse the post, and pass it by, not improbably the City 
before long would be left destitute, as it were, of all rule and governance whatsoever ; 
the same John Gedeney was by the said Mayor and Aldermen committed to prison, 
there to remain until the Court should be better advised what to do as to the matters 
aforesaid. And in the meantime, precept was given to the Sheriffs of London to shut 
up the shops and houses of the same John Gedeney, and to sequestrate his goods and 
chattels, until the Court should be better advised thereon. 

And afterwards, on the i8th day [probably January], through the mediation of 
many reputable men of the said city, who intervened, word being brought that the 
same John Gedeney was willing, if the Court should think proper, to undertake the 
duties of the office aforesaid ; he was therefore brought here on that day liefore the 
Mayor and Aldermen, and, having first obtained dispensation for breath of his oath 
made by him when he was admitted to the freedom of the City, he was admitted and 
sworn, as the usage is. — Latin. [Letter Book I. fol. 157.) 

John Gedeney afterwards became Sheriff in 141 7, and Mayor in 
1427, and again in 1447. He did penance for marrying a widow, who 
had made a vow of chastity. 

Stephen Fabyan, draper, was elected Alderman of Bridge A\'ard on 
the 30 July, 1468, and upon declining to serve was committed to 
Newgate, but was the next day released. The following is the order : 

30 July 8 Ed-cvard IV \_\.\^. 1468]. 
Memorandum to the effect that on the alx)ve day .Stephen Fabyan, draper, was 

presented by the inhabitants of the Ward of Bridge together with others, according 


The Alderuien of the City of London. 179 

the custom, in order that one of them might be elected Alderman of the Ward ; that 
the said Stephen was elected by the Mayor and Aldermen, and that as he refused to 
take the oath of office he was committed to Newgate until he could obtain favour and 
that afterwards viz: on the 31st July next ensuing he was released, being found 
insufficient.— Za//;;. (^Lettei Book L. fo. 58b.) 

In July, 1469, he appears to have been again elected, this time for 
the Ward of Bishopsgate, and was again committed {Letter Book L, 
fo. 64b). He was afterwards discharged upon taking oath that he was 
not worth ^1,000, that sum having, a few days later, been fixed as the 
qualification. The order runs as follows : — 

Be it remembered that on the 29th July 9 Edward IV [a.d. 1469] it was agreed 
by the Mayor and certain Aldermen that no one for the future should Vje admitted 
Alderman of any Ward within the City unless his goods and chattels and hopeful debts 
amount in value to 1000" And if in the future it shall happen that any be elected 
Alderman within the said City for any ward of the same, and he be willing to swear 
that his goods, chattels and hopeful debts do not amount in value to 1000'' he shall be 
exonerated. By reason of which ordinance, Stephen Fabyan lately elected Alderman 
for the Ward of Bishopsgate and committed to Newgate for refusing to accept office 
was discharged from the office of Alderman because he honestly swore that his goods, 
chattels and hopeful debts did not amount to the value of 1000''. — Latin. {Letter 
Book L. fo. 64b.) 

In December, 1536, one Henry Hamcottes or Amcotts, a Fish- 
monger, was elected Alderman of Billingsgate Ward. On refusing to 
take the office, he was fined ^40, and eventually the Sheriffs were 
directed to shut up his shops until he "woU doo hys duetye." He held 
out until the following April, when he was brought before the Court of 
Aldermen, and still declining to serve, was committed to Newgate. 
This soon brought him to change his mind, for a week later he appeared 
before the Court, and took the oath as required. He afterwards duly 
served the offices of Sheriff (1542) and Mayor (1548) and received the 
honour of knighthood. 

The following are the entries concerning this matter : 

g Jan. 2S Henry VLIL [a.d. 1537]. 

xVt this Corte it ys agreed that letters from [i-Zr] Master Henry Hamcottes 
fysshmonger shalbe made commandyng hym upon his othe to be here upon tuysday 
next commyng to abyde suche order as shalbe takyn yn that behalf. ^(AV/^/Y^^^' 9, 
fo. 233b.) 

16 Jan. 2S Henry VIII [a.d. 1537]. 

Item that a letter be made to Master Henr}^ Hamcottes lately elected Alderman 
of the Warde of Byllyngesgate that he upon payne of 40'' all excuses layed aparte 
be here upon tuysday next commyng to here what order shalbe takyn yn that 
matter and that the same be conveyed to hym by an officer of thys Cytye at the 
costes of thys Cytye. — (/(/. fo. 235b.) 

i8o The Aldermen of the City of London. 

I Feb. 28 Henry VIII [A.D. 1537]. 
Item that the Shyreffes of London shytteyn the shoppes and howses of Master 
Henry Hamcottes stokfisshmonger and sequester hys goodes and catalles and kepe 
them under sequestracion after the custome of thys Cytye tyll he woll doo hys duetye 
accordyng to the lawe yn the booke of J. fo. 157°.* — {Id. fo. 239.) 

6th Feb. 2S Henry VIII [a.d. 1537]. 
Item it ys agreed and commaunded that Master Shryeffes shall enclose the howse 
and shoppes of Master Henry Hamcottes lately elect Alderman of Byllyngesgate and 
wolle not take upon hym alljeit that he hath had dyverse gentyl monycions as well by 
letters as otherwise yet he wolle not doo hys duetye contrary to hys othe wherfore it ys 
agreed that the order takyn yn that byhalf in case semblable yn the booke of J. fo. 157 
shalbe duely observyd. — {Id. fo. 239b.) 

10 April 28 Henry VIII [A.D. 1537]. 
At thys Corte Master Henry Hamcottes fysshmonger late elect Alderman 
of the Warde of Byllyngesgate [fo.] 230 and bycause (after dyverse lawes of 
thys Cytye Redde to hym and dyverse gentyll exhortacions gyven to hym yn 
this Corte, yet the sayd Master Hamcottes wolde not be obedyent to doo hys 
duety accordyng to hys othe whiche he acceptyd and tooke at suche tyme as he was 
fyrst admytted ynto the libertyes of thys [Cytye] ) ys commytted to prison of Newgate 
there to remayn tyl it be otherwyse orderd by thys Corte and then refused to take hys 
othe accordyng to the law therof made [j/V.]. — {Id. fo. 246.) 

N.B. — Reference in margin to Letter Books I. fo. 157 ; L. fos. 58, 64 ; and 
N. fo. 287. 

I J April 28 Henry VIII [a.d. 1537]. 
Item Master Henry Hamcottes fyshmonger lately elect Alderman of the Warde 
of Byllyngesgate toke hys othe to be Alderman and hath libertye for the space of three 
yeres after Mighelmasse next comyng for thexercysyng of the Shryvaltye of London and 
also hath Respyte for the exercysyng of the office of Alderman tyll i^ days afore 
Christmasse next fonunyng. — ^Id. fo. 247.) 

The substance of an entry concerning another case of refusing 
office is as follows : — 

21 April I Edward VI [a.d. 1547].— At this Court John "Wysshe" 
or " Usshe," founder, lately elected Alderman of the \V^aVd of Aldgate 
and committed to Newgate for refusing office was at the most earnest 
suit of himself and friends discharged for insufficiency of substance from 
the offices of Alderman and Sheriff for ever, he paying for the said dis- 
charge 300 marks in manner specified and entering into a bond for 
200 marks at the time of the payment of the first instalment. — 
Letter Book Q, fo. 198b. 

On 28 June, 1627, one John Chamberlain was admitted and sworn 
as alderman of the ward of Billingsgate, and " took upon himself the 
care and governance of the aforesaid ward, and of the men dwelling 

* Touching ihe imprisonment of John Oedney for refusing to serve .is Alderm.^n in 1415. 

The Aldennen of the City of London. 


within the ward aforesaid," but in consequence of his refusal and neglect 
to take up the duties of his ofifice, was on the 7 January in the 
following year, fined in the sum of ^300, and in default of payment 
was committed to Newgate, where he remained until the following May. 
The King [Charles I] interfered on his behalf as follows : — 

"Charles by the grace of God, of England, Scotland, France, and Ireland 
King, Defender of the Faith, &c., to the Mayor, aldermen and sheriffs of London, 
greeting. We command that you have before us at Westminster, on Saturday next 
after three weeks from Easter, the body of John Chamberlain, Esquire, who is said to 
be detained in the prison under your custody, together with the cause of his being 
detained (l)y whatever name the said John be therein charged), to do and receive those 
things which our Court aforesaid shall then and there happen to ordain in their behalf. 
And this do you in nowise omit on the peril incident thereto ; and have you there this 
writ Witness. N. Hide, at Westminster on the 7th day of May in the fourth year of 
our reign." — Translation. Journal jg, fo. 340. 

The judgment of the Court of King's Bench upheld the action of 
the Court of Mayor and Aldermen, for we find : — 

II November, 4 Charles I, 1628. John Chamberlain, lately 
removed by the Court from the office of alderman, came there and 
made submission, according to the direction of the judge of the King's 
bench ; whereupon the Court, on the entreaty and mediation of the 
judges, remitted his offence, and agreed to accept 100 marks, which he 
was to pay into the chamber forthwith, together with 6s. 8d. to the 
sword-bearer, to the common crier, 40s., and 3.?. 4^'. to his man, being 
their fees on his admission as an alderman. ^ — Repe7-tory 4J, fo. 13b. 

Sir John Langham, who was elected i February, 1642, was 
committed to Newgate, for refusing to take the oath of Alderman for 
Portsoken Ward, and seems to have remained in prison until 12 May 
following, when he was sworn in. {J^ep. 55, fos. 355, 424b.) 

Samuel Warner was elected for Coleman Street A\'ard 1 2 January, 
1643, and on refusing to serve was committed to Newgate, but the next 
day appeared and was sworn in. {Rep. ^6, fos. 91, 93b.) 

There are other instances during the seventeenth century of com- 
mittals to prison for refusing office, these were of rarer occurrence 
during its later years, and the practice appears to have entirely ceased 
before the century closed. 

N 2 

1 82 The Aldermen of the City of London. 


From the earliest times the Court of Aldermen has not been 
chary in punishing members of its own body, for offences against the 
dignity of the Court, or any of its individual members. Many instances 
occur in the Journals and Repertories concerning these proceedings. 
A few cases are here given : — 

20 Edward III [a.d. 1346]. — Every alderman not attending on the 
feasts of the translation of Saint Simon and Jude, was ordered to pay 
20/. to the use of the Commonalty. — Letter Book F, fo. 237 b. 

In April, 1376, three aldermen were charged with malversation. 
Richard Lyons, of Broad Street ^^'ard, was convicted with Lord Latimer 
of embezzling the king's revenue, and sentenced to imprisonment and 
forfeiture of goods. Adam de Bury, of Langbourne Ward, who had 
twice served the office of Mayor, was charged with appropriating money 
subscribed for the ransom of the French king, and fled to Flanders to 
avoid trial ; whilst John Pecche, of \\'albrook Ward, was convicted of 
an extortionate exercise of a monopoly of sweet wine, and his patent 
annulled. All these aldermen were deposed from their aldermanries by 
order of an assembly of citizens composed of representatives from the 
various guilds and not from the wards. — Letter Book H, fo. 45b. 

The Court of Aldermen evidently strictly maintained its unwritten 
sumptuary laws, and punished those who did not obey them. The 
following extract refers to an alderman sentenced to find a dinner for 
the mayor and other a^ldermen, for having no lining to his cloak : — 

5 Richard II. [a.d. 1382.] — " Whereas the Mayor and Aldermen, with common 
assent, had agreed that all the Aldermen of London, for the dignity of the said city, 
should be arrayed upon the Feast of Pentecost, in the 5th year etc., in cloaks of green 
lined with green taffata, or tarlaryn, under a penalty, at the discretion of the Mayor 
and the other Aldermen, so arrayed, to be assessed ; — on Monday, the same Feast, when 
the said Mayor and Aldermen went to the Church of St. Peter on Cornhille, to go in 
procession from thence through the City, according to the ancient custom, to the 
Church of St. Paul, John Sely, the Alderman of Walbrok, appeared there in a cloak 
that was single and without a lining, contrary to the Ordinance and assent aforesaid. 
Whereupon, by advice of the Mayor and other Aldermen, it was then adjudged, and 
assented to, that the said Mayor and other Aldermen should dine with the same John 
at his house, and that, at the proper cost of the said John, on the Thursday following ; 
and further, the said John was to line his cloak in manner aforesaid ; and so it was 
done. And this judgment shall extend to all other Aldermen, hereafter to come, 
without sparing any one, if any person among them shall act contrary to the Ordinance 
aforesaid." — Norman French. (^Letter-Book H, fo. 146.) 

13 January, 39 Henry VI [a.d. 1461]. — -Thomas Canyng[es], 
Alderman of Aldgatc from 19 October, 1445, for his contumacy was 

The Aldermen of the City of London. i8 


fined p£^4o and discharged from the Aldermanry of Aldgate, and in case 
he refused to pay he was to be proceeded against to the loss of his 
freedom. — Journal 6, fo. 286. 

4 July, 8 Edward W [a.d. 1468]. — Sir John Plomer or Plumer 
(Sheriff a.d. 1459), accused of high treason, having taken sanctuary at 
Westminster, was discharged from Bridge Wsixd.—Jotinial 7, fo. 175. 

Sir John Plomer had served as Alderman of Farringdon Without, 
from 7 December, 1464, until his removal to Bridge i April. 1465. 

15 September, 10 Edward IV [a.d. 1470]. — John Lambert, who 
was elected Alderman of Farringdon Within, 10 December, 1460, 
Sheriff the same year, was discharged for disobedience, and fined 500 
marks for his contempt. —y<?;/^«rt'/ 7, fo. 221. 

9 March. 18 Henry \'II [a.d. 1503]. — At this Court it was resoh'cd by the Mayor 
and Aldermen that James Wilfort, Alderman [Aldgate], on account of contumelious 
words by the same James openly spoken in full Court to the same Mayor and 
Aldermen be for the future prohibited from coming to the Court aforesaid until the 
Court shall otherwise advise. — Translation. Repertory /, fo. 129 (170). 

20 March. 5 Henry VHI [a.d. 15 14]. — At this Court it is agreed that Mr. Worley, 
Alderman (Broad Street), as wele for his departer at the last Court the which deparler 
is thought by this Co''t wilful! as for di\"s words by hym to his iifelawshipp hadd 
conc'^nyng an acte made by this Court shall bryng in to the same Court xl //. And to 
stonde & obey such direccon & jugement in this l)ehalf as shall be made by this 
Court. — Repertory 2, {o. 175. 

On 28 March the following entry appears : 

At this Court it is decreed that Mr. Worley, Aldfan, shall brynge in to this 
Court at the next Court day xx li. and to stonde & obey such direccon as this Court 
shall take of & upon cerlein words by hym hadde to hys felaushipp of goldsmythes 
conc'^nyng a cert' acte made by this Court. — Repertory 2, fo. 174b. 

The following is a case in which Sir Laurence Aylmer (Sheriff 
A.D. 1 50 1, Lord Mayor during a part of 1508), was dismissed, he being 
in the " Gaol of Ludgate " owing " great sums of money." 

12 July, 16 Henry VHI [a.d. 1524]. — Forasmuch as that it is evidently known 
lo this Court that Sir Laurence Aylmer, Knight and Alderman of the Ward of Wal- 
brook is indebted in divers and great sums of money and for part of ihem standeih 
under paid and thereupon hath by longer time in Execution in the Gaol of Ludgate 
& there remainelh Prisoner for the same Whereby not only the said Ward hath been 
destitute by all the said time of an Alderman but also the Court hath been often times 
deceived and hindered by reason of his absence to the great prejudice hurt and 
hindrance of the same For which consideration and divers others this Court moving 
It is agreed and decreed by this Court that the s<i Sir Laurence shall be amoved and 
from henceforth clearly dismissed from the room of Alderman & that my Lord Mayor 
shall in all goodly haste proceed to the nomination of another Alderman in the stead 
and place of the said Sir Laurence. (Abridged.)— AV/tWi^/j 6, fo. 112b (ii8b. ) 

184 The Aldernicii of the City of London. 

A serious case occurred in 1531, when Stephen Pecock, (Sheriff 
1526; Lord Mayor 1532), who had served some time in the Court 
(having been elected Alderman of Farringdon Without, 21 July, 1524, 
removed to Queenhithe, 12 April, 1526, and to Farringdon Within, 
25 February, 1535, where he remained until his death in 1536), brought 
his "//>■ C takes of Aldreman ship" into Court, saying that he would no 
longer be alderman and was commanded to pay a fine of ^ 40 for 
his wilfulness and contempt. Some time after he was found to be 
disclosing the business of the Court, when the Court passed the 
following resolution : — 

5 March, 25 Henry VIII [a.u. 1534]. -At ihys corte it ys agreed that Mr. Pecok, 
Alderman, for that he hath disclosed the counsayll of this bowse contrary to warnyng 
gyven yn that behalf shall pay xxs. — {Kfp. g, fo. 48.) 

Sir John Mundy, who was alderman successively of Queenhithe and 
Bread Street from 15 March, 15 13, till his death in 1537, and was Lord 
Mayor in 1522, was committed to prison for disobedience. 

27 Nov., 25 Henry VIII [a.d. 1533]. — Item at thys Corte Sir John Mundy 
Knyght and Alderman for hys disobedyence to my lorde the Mayer and my maisters 
ihaldermen ys commytled to Warde. — {Kcp. 9. fo. 36b.) 

On 14 October, 36 Henry VIII [a.d. 1544], Ralph AUeyn, Alder- 
man (jf (Queenhithe A\'ard, for being absent at the election of Lord Mayor 
that year, was fined and paid ^20 for the offence, but on 14 January, 
1546, the Court for " certeyn reasonable consyderaciins " ordered that 
the same should be redelivered to him. — Rep ri, fos. 112, 257b. 

The following is an entry respecting James Altham, Alderman of 
Aldersgate, who was Sheriff a.d. 1557. 

24 July, 3 Elizabeth [a.u. 1561]. — Itm this day the fyne of Mr. Aid. Altham for 
his contemptuous disobedyence in not oljservynge the order of this court here takyn 
the viij"' of this p'^'sent July was taxed and set at one C marks of curraunt money of 
Knglond to be levyed of his goods and cattails to the vse of the coyaltie of this cytie 
And yt was also agreyd that there shalbe a h^e ernestly wrytten vnto him in the name 
of this house to be here the next court day at his further pill. — Kepei-tory 14, fo. 513b. 

On the 31 July following it was resolved that the order agreed 
upon at the preceding Court concerning his discharge {sic) should be 
resolutely ratified, and on i August Edmund Gylbert was elected 
alderman in his place. 

31 August, 44 Elizabeth [a.d. 1602]. — Sir Richard Martin (Sheriff 
1581 ; Lord Mayor 1589 and 1594, serving for part of a year, in both 
cases on the occasion of a Mayor dying), Alderman of Bread Street 
W'ard, was dismissed frc^m office [because of financial difficulties]. — 
Repertory 26 ( i ), fo. 1 8b. 

The Aldermen of the City of London. 185 

On the following St. Thomas' Day he persisted in presiding 
at the Wardmote in a violet gown as though he was still alderman. 
The Lord Mayor, having been sent for, committed him to the custody 
of the sheriff. He was afterwards discharged by the aldermen, as he was 
required at the Mint on the Queen's business, being an officer there. 
He was fined ^500. — Repertory 26 (/), fos. 73-77. 

2 May, 19 Charles I [a.d. 1643]. — Sir A\'illiani Acton, Alderman of 
Aldersgate ^\'ard, having been absent from his duties a long time, was 
removed and discharged. — Repertory ^6, fo. 164. 

Sir William Acton was Sheriff in 1628 ; he was passed over when his 
turn came to be Lord Mayor, and his immediate junior (Edmund 
Wright) elected. 

2 May, 19 Charles I [a.d. 1643]. — Sir (ieorge Whitmore and Sir 
Henry (iarroway [Carway] having been committed, it was agreed that 
they "shalbe discharged of theyre said places of Aldrcn, And the 
Court dothe hereby discharge them of and from the said places of 
Aldri'n of this Cittie for ever hereafter." — Repertory 56, fo. i66b. 

The following is a case in which the Alderman possessed no 

dwelling becoming the "State and Dignity of a Magistrate." 

30 April, 1657. — Forasmuch as it appeareth unto this Court that Nichas licrroa 
Merchant Taylor who was lately elected & sworne Alderman of the Ward of Candle- 
wickc hath noe family nor dwelling other than an obscure Lodging and doth in other 
things refuse himself those sober accommodacons i\; conveniences of life that become 
an ordinary ^; Coinon Condicon much less the state & Dignity of a Magistrate & 
being sev^ll tymes admonished thereof doth still pretend inability to live & mainteyne 
himselfe in better sort & fashion Besides the s'' Nichas Herron yielding^ noe 
Appearance of a Mind and Understanding meete for a Public Office <N; desiring to be 
dismissed This Court doth thinke titt that he be dismissed and doth dismisse and 
discharge the s'' Nichas Herron of and from the s'' place of Alderman as unworthy & 
unfitl to continue the same And doth Order that my Lord Mayor forthwith repair 
into the s'' Ward of Candlewicke for noiacon of another Aldran in his roome i^ stead. 
— Repertory dj. fo. loob. 

II February, 20 Charles H [a.d. 1668]. — ^^'illiam Duncombe, 

Alderman of Cripplegate ^^'ard, for being in debt and scandalous and 

disgraceful in his conversation, was dismissed "as a person unfit and 

unworthy." — Repertory /j, fos. 53, 75. 

In October, 1693, Sir William Ashurst entered into office as Lord 
Mayor. He seems to have been unpopular with his brother aldermen, 
for on the feast of SS. Simon and Jude (28 Oct.), when the usual court 
was held for swearing in the new Lord Mayor, no less than ten alder- 
men absented themselves. Whether this was intended for a studied 

1 86 The Aldermen of the City of London. 

insult or was the result of mere negligence does not appear. But 
however that may be, the Court of Aldermen marked its sense of their 
conduct by fining six of the delinquents loo marks a-piece, whilst it 
took time to consider the case of the other four, they being members of 
parliament. — {London and the Kingdom. Vol. II, pp. 573, 574-) 

The last entry found in the records of the dismissal of an alderman 
is that concerning Alderman ^Vooldridge, of Bridge ^^'ard Within, who 
having got into financial difficulties ; on the petition of the inhabitants 
of his Ward, was on 25 February, 1783, "amoved, dismissed and 

By the Act of 17 Richard II, Cap. xi, an alderman was liable to be 
"amoved " from his office "for just and reasonable cause." 

The following is a section of the Act of Parliament under which 
aldermen are now liable to dismissal from office. 

Under Section 9 of 12 and 13 Vict., Cap. xciv, any person holding 
the office of alderman who declares himself, or is declared, bankrupt or 
insolvent, or applies to take, or takes, the benefit of any Act for the 
relief of insolvent debtors, or makes any composition with his creditors, 
or absents himself from his duty for more than six consecutive months 
(unless prevented by illness or other reasonable cause), or is convicted 
of fraud, or of any crime, thereupon immediately becomes disqualified, 
and ceases to hold the office of an alderman ; and the Court of Mayor 
and Aldermen is bound to, forthwith, adjudge the office to be vacant. 

Of late years, when necessity has arisen for desiring that an 
alderman should resign his gown, public opinion and the influence of 
the C^ourt have been found sufficient to impose upon any alderman the 
necessity of doing so. An instance of this occurred a few years since, 
when, in deference to the opinion of his colleagues, an alderman (who 
had passed the Chair) resigned his position. 

i)ISChar(;e of aldermen. 

As will be seen by previous extracts, it was at all times very 
difficult and expensive for a man once elected as an alderman of a 
Wdjd. to relinquish his office, and even after many years' faithful service, 
the Court of Aldermen seems to have taken great care that an alderman 
should not resign his position, except by payment of a fine. It may 
be, that it was found necessary to make the expense of retirement 

The A hie mien of the City of London. 187 

almost prohibitive, so as to prevent men from shirking their responsi- 
bilities ; but nevertheless, old age and infirmity seem to have been 
very hardly treated in the " good old times." An early case is recorded 
in effect as follows : — 

" On Wednesday, the loih day of July, in the fifth year of the reign of King 
Edward the Fourth [a. n. 1465] [present] The Mayor, Recorder, Ilulyn, Lee, Cook, 
Taillour, Basset, Stoklon, Costantyn, Tate, Edward, James, Bromer." 

It was resolved by the Mayor and Aldermen that Nicholas 
Marshall, who is so much afflicted with great infirmities that he has 
not for some time past and still is not able to come to the Court, nor 
is it probable that he will be able to come in future, shall be released 
from performing in future the office of Alderman, and from all other 
offices within the City contrary to his wish. And that the Mayor shall 
have power to treat and communicate with the said Nicholas Marshall 
concerning the payment of a fine, at the discretion of the said Ma) or, 
for discharge of the said Nicholas. 

" And note that the Mayor on the 15th day of the present montli, 
brought 20/. sterling for a fine paid by the said Nicholas Marshall, 
in which the said sum of 20I. there were forty half nobles called 
.salews." — Jon ma/ 7, fo. loi. 

The following extract concerning Sir Henry Colet— the father of 
Dean Colet, the Founder of St. Paul's School, comes under a different 
category to the case of Nicholas Marshall, but it still clearly shows that 
an alderman was not lightly exonerated from the duties of his office. 

15 February, 21 Edward IV. [a.d. 14S2I. "On that day it was considered 
for divers causes moving the Mayor and Aldermen that Henry Colet be exonerated 
from the office of Alderman for that he resides continuously without the City, and 
for this favour conceded to him Ijy the said Mayor and Aldermen, he has voluntarily 
agreed lo expend 200 marks upon the repair of the cross in /<- Chcpc, etc." — 
Latin.— Journal S. fo. 267. 

The following is an interesting case of an alderman endeavouring 
to get himself discharged from the offices of Alderman and Mayor upon 
his being elected for the second time to the latter office. 

George Monoux, draper. Alderman of the \\'ard of Bassishaw, was 
re-elected Mayor in 1523 (previously serving the office of Sheriff 1509 
and Mayor in 151 4), and on the 1 5 October following, it was necessary 
to address a letter to him to take upon himself the office. On the 28 
October, he was ordered three times by the Court of Common Council, 
to appear and take the oath of office, and on his failing to do so, he was 

1 88 The Aldermen of the City of London. 

fined ^i,ooo. And on the 6 May the next year, he petitioned to be 

discharged from both die offices of Lord Mayor and Alderman on the 

following terms : — 

1524, 6th May. 16 Henry VIII. "Memorandum, that where at the courte of 
the maire and aldremen, holden in the inner chaml:)er of the Guihald the vj daye of 
May, the xvj yere of the reigne of Kyng Henry viij, Maister Monoux, alderman, 
exhibited to my saide lorde maire and his bretherne a Bill of Supplication, theftecte 
whereof is, that forasmoche as he is aged and fel)le yn his lymes, by reason whereof he 
cannot doo his office duetie to thys citie accordyng to his othe, and in consideracion 
that heretofore he hath borne the charges of offices of this citie, for those and other 
causes and consideracions by hym alledged hi the said bill, he mekely and lowly 
requyreth and praieth my said lord maire and his bretherne that it may please theym 
that he myght be dysmyssed of the ronie of aldermanshippe, ana that for the same 
dysmyssynge he wolde appoynte that, after the decesse of hym and my lady his wiffe, 
his brewhous, next unto the brigge hous in Southwark, with thappurtenances by hym 
nowe lettyn but for xx marc by yere, whiche hous, as he saith, was wont heretofore to 
be letten for xxiiij" by yere, shall remayne to this citie for ever to the advauncement 
of the common weale of the same, yelding yerely and perpetually xx^ out of the same 
brewhous to the maister and wardeyns of Drapers to be disposed accordynge to the 
last wille, and that upon the goodnes of my saide lorde maire and his bretherne 
to hym showed in the premisses, and havynge their lawfull favours and kyndnes 
in tyme comynge, he entendeth by the grace of God to appoynte further benefyts 
for the weale of this citie, and also, in the ende of the said bill, he maketh request 
that the decree made ageinst hym in the Guihall uppon Symonds and Judis daye 
last past, may be revoked and admitted, forasmoche as declareth there that in him 
was noon offence, ne lawe broken nor disobeyed ; which bill or supplicacion distynctly 
and openly redde to and before my saide lord maire and his brethern in the presence of 
the said Mr. Mt)noux, beynge than desired to departe, departed the hous for a season ; 
and in the meane tyme the said maire and his brethern, with great diligens, not onely 
examyned and resoned the contents of the said bille, but also they called to their re- 
membraunce the greate gravitie, politicjue w isdome, and other good qualities which by 
longe experience and good prouf they perfightly knewe to be in the said Maister Monoux. 
And after many reasons thereof amongs theym, with greate deliberacion made and 
debated, they holly and lovyngely, withoute any maner discrepaunce or contradiccion, 
considerynge his age and impotencie of his lymmes, and other premissis, concluded, 
as moche as in theym was, that if the said M. Monoux wold be content to gyve nowe 
immediatly the said brewhous with thappurtuances to this citie, and to make it sure to 
thuse of the maire and commonaltie of the same as by the lerned counsell of the same 
citie shalbe advysed, and not charge the same brewhous with the saide yerely rent 
charge xx^, that than as moche as in theym is, they wold dispence with the said 
Mr. Monoux, that hereafter he shold not eftsones be chosen mayre of this citie, nor 
bere the charges of the same. And also they aggreed that the said decree made 
agaynst hym upon the said Symond and Jud^ daye shalbe admitted ; and over that he 
contynewynge still aldreman .durynge his lyffe, they be content to dispence with hym 
of his dayly attendaunce and comynge to this courte, notwithstandynge any sumaunce 
or warnying to hym or at his hous geven to the contrary, except it be of his owne good 
mynde whan he feleth hymselff disposed and hable to come, excepte also at suche 
tymes whan urgent necessitie shalbe concernynge the kyngs buysynesses or the weale 
of this citie, at whiche tymes the saide Mr. Monoux beynge within this citie, or within 
a dales journey of the same, and beynge hable to ryde or goo, shall, upon due 
warnynge, repaire and come to this courte in as spedy manner as he can, there to give 
liis Ijcst advice and counsell, all other excuses laide aparte : upcjn the whiche aggrea- 

The A/derinen of the City of London. 189 

ment the said Mr. Monoiix was called agene into the said comte, and than and there 
the said aggrement was shewed unto hym, and the said Maister Monoux beynge there- 
unto somewhat confermable, declared furtherly hys niynde in that behalffe to my said 
lord maire and his bretherne on this wise, sayinge, that forasmoche as they were con- 
tent to dispence with hym in suche maner and forme as is on their behalffe afore re- 
hersed, he wold be content that the said brewhous, with thappurtenances, should be 
made sure to thuse of the maire and commonaltie of this citie, and they and their 
successours to take the issues and profyts thereof from and after the ffeast of the 
natyvitie of our Lorde God nexte comynge, for ever disposyng yerely and perpeteually 
xx^ thereof by the chambleyn of this citie for the tyme beynge, or by the brigge 
maisters of the same, at the choyse of the said maire and his bretherne, for the soule 
helth of the said Mr. Monoux, accordynge to his testament and last wille, thereof to 
be declared, to thentent that hereafter it shulde not be had in oblyvyon how and from 
whome the sayde brewhous came to this citie. And my saide lord maire and his 
bretherne considerynge the good conformitye of the said M. Monoux, and that his 
mynde and entent in that behalffe is good and reasonable, havynge also special 1 trust 
and confidence in the contynewaunce ol the good and benyficiall niynde that he bereth 
and hereafter will here lowarde the further avauncement of the common weale of this 
citie, with their hole mynds voyc^ lovyngly assented to the said latter graunte, niynde, 
and entent of the said Maister Monoux, and thereuppon my saide lorde maire and all 
his bretherne the aldermen with one assent aggreed and decreed, and also com- 
maunded that the saide graunte and aggreament shulde here be entred of recorde for a 
perpetualle reniembraunce. 

"And nowe at this cunimon counsel!, holden on Salerdaye the wiij daye of 
July, the xvj yere of the reigne of king Henry the viij, the matter as is aforesaid was 
redde and well understond. And forasmoche as the said Mr. Monoux, aldreman, 
hath graunted to the maire and commonaltie of this citie, to thuse of the said common- 
altie, his said brewhouse, with thappurtenances and implements belongjiige to the 
same, and hath waraunted the same to be of the yerely value of xx marks, above all 
charges and reprises, uppon condicon that x^ parcell of the rente shall yerely and 
perpetually be distributed and disposed in coolys to and amongs the pore people in the 
warde of Bassishawe of London for the weale of the soule of the said Maister Monoux, 
accordynge to his last wille. It is therefore by thauctoritie of this common counsell 
agreed and fully decreed, that the said Mr. Monoux. for his saide good gifte, shalbe 
discharged and disoenced withall, accordynge to the agrenient aforesaid," <.\;c. — Letter 
Book N, fo. 265b. Journal 12, fos. 287, 288. 

As will have been seen by the above, his request was agreed to by 
the Common Council ; but does not appear to have been carried into 
effect, as we find an entry in the City Records to the effect that the 
Mayor would not give his assent thereto. Eventually, the matter was 
settled by his entering into an agreement, on similar conditions as given 
in the above extract, to continue to be an alderman of the City, and the 
City undertaking to release him from the mayoralty again, and giving 
him leave to absent himself from certain of his aldermanic duties, except 
when specially called upon to fulfil them. 

He continued alderman until he resigned in 1541, seventeen years 
after he had described himself as " aged and feble yn his lymes." 

190 The Aldermen of the City of London. 

The following are given as examples of discharges in the i6th and 
17th centuries. The first is one in which the Common Council ratified 
the decision of the Court of Aldermen to discharge one John Brown 
from his office of Alderman, and excusing him from being called upon 
to serve other offices which are enumerated in the extract, on his 
presenting to the Mayor and Commonalty, " standynge potts of silver." 

Court of Aldermen, 13th November, 18 Henry VIII. [A.D. /jsd.] 

At this Co'te yt is agreed that M' Brown Aldremen at his specyall Request & 
desire made by M'' Spencer Aldf and others on his behalff to be discharged of 
the Rowme of Aldreman shalbe clerely discharged of the same, ffor the whiche he 
hathe gevyn to the Chanibr ij grete standynge potts of Sylver and gylte whiche nowc 
be in the Custodye of the Chamberleyn.— Z,i?/'/'t';- />w/- 0, fo. 19. 

Co>n/non Council, loth December, iS Henry VIII. [.I. I). ij2b.\ 

Itm at the humble sute of ^[' John Broun Alderman of the Warde of t'far" infra 
which hathe long tyme laboured in grete & contynuell sekenes of his body and yet so 
contynueth that by reason of the same that he ys so very impotent & feble of his body 
that he can not ne may not exercise the seyd Rowme nor yet eny other Wherfor he 
ys nowe by th"auctoritc of this Coen Counsell from hensforth clerely discharged aswell 
of the seyd Rowme of Aldreman, the Sheryffwyke, Mayraltie, Chambleyn, Bryge 
Masf, Auditor of the Chamb' and of the Bryge, As of all other hedde Othces w"'in 
this Citie, tfor the whiche he hathe nowe Geven to the Mayre & Colaltie of this 
Citie ij Grete Standyng potts of SyK" weying unces which were nowe openly 
in this Courte shewed, And thereuppon delyv'^ed to the Custodic & kepyng of the 
Chamberleyn.— y(?«r//a/ /^, fo. 366. 

The following cases seem to show that aged and unfortunate 
aldermen still had but little consideration shown them by their brethren 
of the Court of Aldermen. 

Discharge of John .Sadler, Alderman of Coleman Street Ward. 

16 February, 37 Henry VIII [a.d. 1546]. Item at the lulble sute & petycon 
of Mr. John Sadler Alderman & for dyv'^^se & meny Reasonable consideracons & 
causes movynge the CCte & namely for & in consideracon of contynuall syknes & 
dyseases wherw"' he of a longe season hath beyn & yet is dayly trobled & afflcted & 
also for & in respecte of hys losses of meny & sundry greate & notable sumes of money 
aswell by the seas as by evyll detto's yt ys assentyd & agreid that he truely con- 
tentynge «.\: paying to the hands of the Chambleyn to the use of the Coialtye of this 
Cytie w"'in one moneth nowe nexte insuinge C mrks stel shalbe clerely exon'^ate & 
dyscharged of his seid Rome & offyce of Aldermanship for ev>.— Letter Booh Q, 
fo. 161I). 

Discharge of Henry Goodyere, Alder/nan of Portsoken Ward. 

5 July> 3 Edward VI [a.d. 1549]. At this courte it is agreyd that mocon 
shalbe made to the coen counsell here to be holden upon Thyrseday next for the utter 
discharge of Mr. Goodere Alderman from the office of Shrevealtie of this & of the 
Shere of Midd. for ever for the whiche iV for the dischargyng also of hym from his 

The Aldermen of the City of London. 191 

Aldermanshyp he is contentyd to gyve the Citie C li Whereunto this courte forcerten 
consideracons did assent & p'myse to helpe hym forewarde ^\' the coen counsellto the 
best of their power. — Repertory t2, pt. i, fo. 102. 

II July, 3 Edw. VI [a.d. 1549]. Itm at this Court yt is pfytely agreyd 
graunted establysshed and enacted by the Lorde Mayer Ald''men & coen counsayll 
assemblyd and by aucthorytie of the same that Mr. Henry Goodere AkUman in con- 
syderacon of his gratt age wekenes and debylytie both of his bodye sight & other 
senses shall upon his humble & hartye request and sute here made this daye & for 
such reasonable and competent fyne as y'= said lorde mayre & Ald'men shall hereafter 
tax & assesse upon him from hensforth be clerely & utterly exon'^atyd acquytt & dis- 
charged out & from his said Rome of Aldi^manship & also of i\; from the Offyce & 
rome of the shrevealtye of the Cytie of London iV of the countie of Midd. for ever and 
nev'^more be elygible to eyther of the same oHyct^.— Journal 16, fo. 20. 

Discharge of David Woodroffe, Alderman of Bishopsgate Ward. 

5 January, 2 Elizabeth [a. D. 1560.] Itm yt was this day lovyngly graunted 
and agreyd by the hole Court here for certeyne verye good causes and consyderacons 
espyally movynge the same and namely for and in consyderacon of the great and 
contynuall dysease and wekenes of bodye of M'' Davyd Woodrof Alderman that he 
gevynge to the use of the coyaltie of this Cytie Cli shalbe clerely dyscharged of his 
Cloke and rome of Aldermanship of the said Cytie for ever. — Repertory 14, fo. 271. 

In addition to the above class of cases, there are many cases of 
men who were discharged, and excused further service without payment of 
a fine, but especially strong reasons had to be given by an alderman 
wishing to be relieved of his duties before the Court would consent. 
We find, among other reasons, the following: — " being in foreign parts," 
"being sick, deaf, and blind," for "various infirmities," for "losses 
beyond the sea and otherwise," "age and debility," for "deafness and 
other infirmities," "being in debt and confined to Newgate"; there 
are also several hundred cases of those discharged on the payment of a 
fine on the day of election or within a few days after, as is mentioned 
on page 177. It was the custom of the City not to discharge one so 
elected to be an alderman, without his first being sworn into oftice, as 
was the case when Sir Baptist Hicks (who it was known would not be 
called upon to serve) was elected to the Aldermanry of the Ward of 
Bread Street, 12 November, 161 1, when upon taking the oath, "according 
to auncyent order," upon the King's request, he was discharged. 

Towards the latter half of the seventeenth century it became usual 
for those aldermen who were desirous of being relieved of their 
aldermanries and who had served any length of time, to be allowed to 
surrender or resign their ofiice, without a fine, as obtains at the present 

192 The Aldermen of the City of London. 


From the earliest time of which we have any definite record 
concerning the aldermen, it appears to have been their practice to 
occasionally remove, or be translated from one ward to another. The 
records are silent as to the origin of the custom, but it seems to have 
been one of the recognised rights, or as it was called, "the prerogative 
of an alderman " to do so. One of the earliest recorded instances of 
this, is that of John de Banquell, who in the year 1291 {see p. 11) 
removed from Cripplegate to Dowgate A\'ard. During the next four 
centuries, nearly four hundred of such removals are recorded. 

Upon a vacancy for alderman occurring in any ward, the inhabitants 
usually nominated two aldermen (of whom one was frequently the 
Mayor) and two commoners, for the election of one of them by the 
Court of Aldermen ; and it was the prerogative of one of the aldermen 
to remove to the vacant ward, as did John Stokton, who removed 
from Cripplegate to Lime Street ^^'ard in the year of his Mayoralty, 
1470. The following cases are given as instances of the form of pro- 
cedure in the removal of an alderman from one ward to another during 
the 14th, 15th, 1 6th and 17th centuries. 

49 Edward III [a.d. 1375]. — William de Halden, Alderman of 
Cheap Ward, surrendered his office, and on the same day was elected 
Alderman of Lime Street Ward, "by the good men of that Ward," and 
was admitted and sworn, and we find that Adam Stable surrendered 
Coleman Street Ward and was elected Alderman of Cheap ^Vard, in 
place of Halden. — Letter Book H, fo. iq. 

17 October, 1 Henry VII [a.d. 1485]. 

Richard Gardyner ' v 1 1 1 Persons nominated by the Inhabitants of the 

Henry Colet 1 ' t ermen. ( ^^.^^^^ ^^ Bassishaw, that one of thein l)e 

William Capell Draper. , ^^^^^^ ^^ alderman of the Ward aforesai<l 

1 homas Shelley Mercer. ' . , , r ,>• . 1 t^ , .,, 

in the stead of Kichard Rawson late Alder- 
man there. Of whom the said Richard Gardyner was according to his prerogative 
chosen Alderman of the Ward aforesaid. — [Translation.] Journal g, fo. 91. 

19 February, 15 Elizabeth [a.d. 1573]. — Itm this day my Lord Maio'did declare 
and report to this Court that his Lordshipp had taken the nominacon and election of 
an Alderman in the Ward of Langbourne in place of S' William Chester knyght now 
by this Court displaced for divers causes moving the same. In w<^'' eleccon was noiated 
to be an Alderman of that Ward, M' Langley, M' Ramsey Alderm, M' Garrat Goore 
& M' Anthony Gamage cominers w*^'' mencon this Court dyd alow of and by cause 
M' Alderman Langley by his prerogative might chaung his ward dyd requere to Inwc 

The Aldennen of the City of London. 193 

the same & be admytted therunto w'^'' was graunted to him by this Court And therupo 
it is ordered that my lord maio'' shall goe to a new eleccon in Quenehith Ward of an 
Alderman there. — Repertory ij, fo. 445b. 

8 July, 17 James I [a.d. 1619].— Item this daye the right ho'"'" the Lord Maio', 
[Sir Sebastian Harvey] made report to this Court that his Lopp sitting this daye in the 
Warde of Cheape for the nominacon of an Alderman in place of S"' Stephen Soame, 
knight deceased late Alderman there, the Inhabitants did nominate his Lopi', M' 
Richard Piot Aldran, M"" Hugh Hamersley haberdasher, Sherife of the Cittie of 
London and M'' Richard Deane skynner, Sherife elect of the same Cittye, of which 
noiacon this Court did accept & allowe. And thereupon the Lord Maio'' by vertue of 
his precedencye made choise to be Aldran of that Warde, And it is therefore ordered 
that his Loi'i' shall proceede for the noiacon of an Alderman in the Ward of Billings- 
gate where his Loi' was Alderman. — Repertory J4, fo. 174I). 

I Oct. 1663. This day the right hono''''^ the Lord Maior [Sir John Robinson] 
made report unto this Court that his Loi'p sitting of late in the Ward of Cripplegate 
for the noiacon of an Aldran in place of his Loi'pp lately removed. The Inhabitants 
thereof did noiate M'' Alderman Chiverton, S"^ Thomas Aleyn K' & Bar', Thomas 
Bonfoy Dyer and Nicholas Bonfoy Clothworker, Of which noiacon this Court did 
accept and allow. And thereupon M"' Aldran Chiverton declared his consent to 
remove from y'- ward of Cordweyner whereof hee is now Aldran to the said Ward of 
Cripplegate, It is therefore Ordered that my Lord Mayor proceed to the noiacon of 
an Aldran in the Ward of Cordweyner in place of the said M"^ Aid. Chiverton. — 
Repertory 6g, fo. 205b. 

I'^ailing either of the aldermen consenting to remove, the Court 

of Aldermen elected one of the commoners. An instance of this is 

the case of the election of John Braunche as alderman of Cripplegate, 

in 1571:— 

6 November, 13 Elizabeth [a.d. 1571]. — Itm this dale my lord Maio"" declared to 
this Courte that he haith sitten in Creplegate Warde for the eleccon of an Alderman 
of that Warde in stede & place of .S'' Rowland Hayward knight late lorde Maio' of this 
citie late Alderman of that warde & now Aldran of lymestrete warde. And that 
th'inhabitants of the same warde have noTated M'' John Langley Alderman, M'' James 
Bacon Alderman, M' John Braunche drap one of the Sheriffs of this citie <!v: M'' 
Anthony Cage Salter that one of them by this Courte should be elected Alderman of 
that Warde, W^'' noiacon this Courte did allowe and for that the said M'' Langley iv: 
M"" Bacon who were to have there choyse of that Warde by p'rogative did refuse the 
same This Courte p'ceded to th'elleccon of one of the said two Comyn'^s to be Alder- 
man of the said Ward & by scrutany elected the said Mr. John Branche to be Alder- 
man of the said Warde, who willinglie toke the same upon hym & was sworne for the 
execucon thereof accordinglie. — Repertory ij, fo. 224. 

No restriction whatever seems to have been placed upon the 
removal of aldermen from one ward to another until the year 
1479, when it became necessary to prevent an abuse of the 
prerogative, by a custom having grown up of aldermen very fre- 
quently removing from their wards. 

A few instances may be mentioned of this abuse : Richard Rawson, 
who was elected for Farringdon Waxd Without on 17 May, 1476, and 

194 '^^^^ Aldermen of the City of London. 

removed to Aldersgate ^\'ard on 8 November of the same year. — 
Journal 8, fo. 130b, 143b. George Irlond, elected for Aldgate Ward, 
January, 1461, removed to Cordwainer Ward, March in the same 
year. — Journal 6, fo. 287, 14. Henry Colet, elected for Farringdon 
Without Ward, 15 November, 1476, removed to Bassishaw Ward, 
28 August, 1478. — Journal 8, fo. 144, 175b. 

The following is a translation of the order made to prevent this : — 

19 January, 18 Edward IV [1479]. — Itei/i, the same day it was agreed that 
thenceforth that any Alderman to lie elected to his Aldermanry of any Ward of 
this City shall remain Alderman of the Ward for two years at least if he shall so long 
live, and throughout that time he shall not relinquish his Ward &c. — {Jor. S. fo. 192.) 

This order was not always strictly obeyed, for it evidently became 
necessary to re-affirm it, with stringent provisions in regard to 
Farringdon Without and Bridge Without Wards (which, as will be 
seen from the list given below were the most unpopular wards), as we 
find that Farringdon Without was a great offender in this respect, many 
of its aldermen removing under the two years, hence the following ; 
which is an abstract of an order made in 1550 : — 

2 Sept. 4 Edward VI [a.d. 1550]. — It was ordained that the Act 14 Jan. \sic'\ 18 
Edward IV concerning the time of two years that every Alderman shall remain in a 
Ward before removing to another, shall be justly observed and kept as a law for ever ; 
and further, that the Aldermen of the Wards of Farringdon Without and Bridge With- 
out for the time being and to come should remain Aldermen of those Wards for the 
space of 3 whole years before they shall be permitted to remove. — English. {Letter 
Book R, fo. 90b.) 

Notwithstanding this order, there are many instances of its non- 
observance. In 1649, however, we find that in the case of Christopher 
Pack, Alderman of Cripplegate, who had been for barely two years 
alderman of that ward when he removed to Cornhill, on the petition of 
the Common Councilmen of Cripplegate the former proceedings were 
annulled, as he " hath not bene fully two yeares " alderman of the ward. 
From this time until 17 14, when a return was made to the "ancient 
custom " of electing aldermen, there seem to have been but two cases 
of the order having been infringed (with the exception of three or four 
instances of such removals by Royal Commission, during the sus- 
pension of the Charter; 1683-1688), viz., Anthony Bateman, who was 
elected Alderman of Farringdon A\'ithout, 22 September, 1657, and 
removed to Dowgate, 13 September, 1659, and Sir Thomas Bludworth, 
who was nominated Alderman of Portsoken Ward, 16 June, 1662, by 
the King, and removed to Aldersgate Ward, 18 December, 1663. 

The Aldermen of the City of London. 195 

The last removal from one ward to another, if we except the 

removals under Royal Commissions during the surrender of the City's 

Charter, and the removals to Bridge Ward Without, was that of Sir 

Robert Hanson, who removed from Bassishaw Ward to Farringdon 

Without Ward on the ist April, 1680 (in the Mayoralty of Sir Robert 

Clayton), when : — 

The Right Hon'^'«= the Lord Mayor now made Report that his Lo''pp sitting 
this day in the Ward of ffaringdon without for the noiacon of an Aldran of the said 
Ward in the room of S'' Thomas Davies late Knt & Aldran deced The Inhabitants 
did nominate his Loi'pp. S"^ Robt Hanson Kn' & Aldran S' Rich'' How Knt fifishmonger 
& Richard Hawkins Citizen Grocer, Of which Noiacon this Court did accept and 
allow. Whereupon his Lo''pp refusing to remove S' Robt. Hanson declared his 
Consent to remove from the Ward of Bassishaw whereof hee is now Aldran to the 
said Ward of ffaringdon without Whereupon his Lo'pp is to repaire to the Warde of 
Bassishaw for the Nominacon of an Aldran of the said Ward in the Roome of the 
said S'' Rob Hanson. — Repertory Sj, fo. ii8. 

On the restoration of the Charter in 1688, some of James II's alder- 
men who had to vacate their positions, owing to the reinstating of those 
still surviving who had been ousted by the (]uo n<arra>ito proceedings, 
were either immediately or shortly afterwards elected to fill vacancies 
caused by the death.s, in the interim, of some of the ejected aldermen. 
Thus Sir William Ciostlyn, who vacated Candlewick, was elected for 
Castle Baynard ; Sir ^^'illiam Ashurst, who vacated Bread Street, was 
elected for Billingsgate ; Sir Humphrey Edwin, who vacated Tower, 
was elected for Cheap in the course of the same month, returning 
to Tower in the following year ; Sir John Parsons, who vacated Port- 
•soken, was elected for Bassishaw some months later. Other aldermen 
who had been dismissed by James H during the suspension of the 
Charter, were also chosen to fill vacancies at the same time, Sir 
Samuel Dashwood and Sir Benjamin Thorogood, who had been turned 
out of the Aldermanries of Cheap and Farringdon Within, being now 
elected for Aldgate and Lime Street respectively, and in 1696 and 1700 
Sir Thomas Rawlinson, who had been dismissed from Farringdon 
Without, and Sir Charles Buncombe, who had been dismissed from 
Broad Street, were elected for Castle Baynard and Bridge Within 

There are many instances of aldermen removing to and serving for 
three or more different wards ; and during the period of annual elections, 
1 37 7-1 394, there are twelve cases. In two of these the aldermen sat 
for four constituencies each, viz., Nicholas 'I'wyford (Coleman Street, 
Farringdon, Lime Street, Aldersgate) ; Adam Bamme (Aldersgate, 

196 The Aldermen of the City of London. 

Cripplegate, Cheap, Lime Street) ; while Henry Vanner was alderman of 
five (Queenhithe, Cordwainer, Vintry, Aldersgate, and Cornhill). Since 
the discontinuance of annual elections, there have been 57 instances 
of aldermen representing three wards, 10 four, and i five. These 
last are : — 

Sir Richard Chiverton (Portsoken, Dowgate, Cordwainer, Cripplegate, 
Bridge Without). 

Sir Simon Eyre (Walbrook, Broad Street, Cornhill, Langbourn). 

Sir William Taillour (Farringdon A\'ithout, Dowgate, Queenhithe, Cheap). 

*Sir Henry Colet (Farringdon AVithout, Bassishaw, Castle Baynard, 

Sir Martin Bowes (Aldgate, Castle Baynard, Farringdon Within, Lang- 

Sir ^^'illiam Chester (Farringdon Without, Billingsgate, Bassishaw, Lang- 

Sir Rowland Hay ward (Farringdon ^Vithout, Queenhithe, Cripplegate, 
Lime Street). 

Sir George Barne (Bridge Without, Tower, Langbourn, Bassishaw). 

Sir John Harte (Farringdon Without, Queenhithe, Cornhill, Lime Street). 

Sir William Cokayne (Farringdon Without, Castle Baynard, Lime Street, 
Broad Street). 

Sir John WoUaston (Farringdon Without, Dowgate, Aldersgate, Bridge 

The aldermen of Cripplegate, who served for three wards in 
addition to those mentioned above (Adam Bamme, Sir Richard 
Chiverton, and Sir Rowland Hayward) were Sir Humphrey Hayford 
(Langbourn, Cripplegate, Lime Street) ; Sir John Whyte (Cripplegate, 
Broad Street, Cornhill) ; Sir Alexander Avenon (Cripplegate, Farringdon 
Within, Bread Street) ; and Sir John Robinson (Dowgate, Cripplegate, 

Cripplegate was less affected by removals than the majority of the 
wards ; the total number of removals to and from it is 26, which number it 
shares with Cornhill, Portsoken, and Queenhithe. Seven wards (Bridge 
Within, Cordwainer, Aldgate, Bread Street, Candlewick, Cheap, and 
Vintry) have a smaller number, the remaining 15 exceeding it. Five 
wards (Aldgate, Bishopsgate, Farringdon Within, Farringdon ^^'ithout, 

* Note. There was an interval between Sir Henry Colet's withdrawal from 
Bassishaw and his election for Castle Baynard. 

The Aldermen of the City of London. 197 

and Portsoken), have fewer removals to them ; and 2 (Castle Baynard 
and Vintry) the same number, ; 19 have more. Seventeen wards have 
fewer removals from them, and 7 (Aldersgate, Bishopsgate, Castle 
Baynard, Dowgate, Farringdon Within, Farringdon Without, and 
Portsoken) more ; Bread Street has the same number. The number 
of removals (391 in all) since the discontinuance of annual elections 
in 1393 is shown by the following table : — 






Aldersgate - - - 



Cordwainer - - 


- 5 

Aldgate - - - 

7 - 

■ 15 

Cornhill - - - 



Bassishaw - - - 


- 3 

Cripplegate - - 


- 18 

Billingsgate - - 


- 15 

Dowgate - - - 



Bishopsgate - - 



Farringdon \\'ithin 


- 24 

Bread Street - - 



Farringdon ^^'ithou 

^ 3 


Bridge Within 



Langbourn - - 


1 1 

Bridge Without - 



Lime Street 



Broad Street - - 



Portsoken - 


- 24 

Candlewick - - 



Queenhithe - - 



Castle Baynard - 


- 31 

Tower - - - - 



Cheap - - - - 



Vintry - - - - 



Coleman Street - 



^^'al brook - - - 



The above figures give the number of direct removals fr07n one ward 
to another ; cases ivhere an interval occurred betiveen the vacation of the 
ward by its alderman and his election for another (e.g., Sir Henry Colef., 
mentioned above, and some of the alder?nen superseded by the restoration 
oj the Charter in 168S) are not included. 

From the foregoing list of removals, it would seem that Bassishaw 
was the most congenial ward, possibly on account of its small dimension?, 
and because it contained within its boundaries the greater portion of the 
Guildhall, where all the City's business was carried on. There were 
28 removals to and only 3 from it, the last of which was to Bridge 
Without. Next to Bassishaw, come ^^'albrook (24 to and 10 from), 
Lime Street (22 to and 5 from), Langbourn (22 to and 11 from), and 
Cheap (20 to and 4 from).* 

For some reason (possibly from the unwieldy size of the ward) 
Farringdon ^^'ithout appears to have been the ward which aldermen 

* So that in addition to Cheap and Lime Street, as mentioned on page 3, 
Bassishaw and Langbourn must be classed as favourite wards. 

O 2 

198 The Aldermen of the City of London. 

were most anxious to quit. Of the 1 1 aldermen of whose changes 
details are given above, no less than 7 began their peregrinations from 
that starting point, and altogether as many as 47 aldermen left it for 
other wards, and only 3 migrated to it, of whom two were in compara- 
tively early times, viz., 1483 and 1503. 

To Portsoken — the Aldermanry of which was held by the Prior of 
Holy Trinity, Aldgate, until the dissolution of the Monasteries, after 
which, Henry Averell, goldsmith, was elected 24 January, 1538, (in place 
of the last Prior, Nicholas Hancock,) there were only 2 removals, while 
24 left it for other wards. 

In addition to the removals of aldermen from one of the ancient 
City \\^ards to another, the removals to and from the "Ward of Bridge 
Without call for special notice. The facts respecting the institution 
of the Ward itself are shortly as follows : — 

The City was granted jurisdiction over what was known as the 
"Town of Southwark" by Letters Patent, 6 March, 1327 [i Edward 
HI], and in consequence of controversies respecting the " Liberties 
and Franchises," etc., other Letters Patent were granted, 9 Novem- 
ber, 1462 [2 Edward IV]. On 23 April, 1550, a Charter was granted 
by the King (Edward VI) which enacted inter alia that all persons 
inhabiting the town, borough, parishes and precincts of certain Manors 
in Southwark, should thenceforth be in the order, government and 
correction of the Lord Mayor and officers of the City of London, and 
their deputies for the time being. 

Although the above-mentioned district was never constituted a 
City ward, and no precept was ever addressed to it for the election 
of Common Councilmen to represent it, yet soon after the Charter was 
granted, viz., 12 May, 1550, the Court of Aldermen "thought it very 
expedient to chose and apoynt Sir John Aylife, knyght, and Barber 
Surgeon of London, to occupie and exercyse the rome and office of 
an Alderman within the Borough of Suthewerke," and on the 28 May 
following he was nominated, elected and chosen by the Court of Alder- 
men to be Alderman of Bridge Ward Without, "albeyt that hytherto 
there hathe not ben eny suche Warde or Alderman w'in this Citie." 

On 31 July in the same year [a.d. 1550], an Act of Common 
Council was passed enacting that four persons, being freemen of the 

The Aldermen of the City of London. 199 

City, and resident either within the City or the Borough of Southwark, 
should from time to time, as occasion might require, be nominated^ 
elected and appoi7ited by the inhabitants of the said Borough, and that the 
Lord Mayor should present to the next Court of Aldermen, the names 
of the four persons so selected, and that the I^ord Mayor and Aldermen 
should elect one by way of scrutiny, to be an Alderman of the City and 
to be called the Alderman of Bridge Ward \\'ithout. 

Notwithstanding the Act of Common Council of 1550, on the very 
first vacancy occurring in the representation of the \\'ard, the Court of 
Aldermen, on 14 November, 1553, after the Alderman, Sir John Aylife, 
had been translated to the Ward of Dowgate, appointed ^\'illiam 
Harper, being one out of four persons nominated by the Court of 
Aldermen, to be Alderman of the ^^'ard of Bridge Without. On 
12 November, 1556, ^^"illiam Harper was, in consequence of the death 
of Sir John Aylife, and "in accordance with his privilege," translated 
to the Ward of Dowgate {Repertory JJ (2), fo. 448b), and Ralph 
Grenaway, one of four persons nominated by the Court of Alderfnen, 
was elected as Alderman of Bridge ^^'ithout. 

By these two elections, carried out entirely by the Court of Alder- 
men, it will be seen that the Act of Common Council of 1550 was 
never acted upon, because it was not thought to be " mete or con- 
venyent " to the Lord Mayor and Aldermen, and because the Act had 
"not at any time ben observyd or put in execution." A further Act was 
passed in 1558, repealing the Act of 1550, and enacting that in future 
vacancies, the aldermen should at a full Court, among themselves, 
nominate and appoint four good, discreet, sufficient and meet citizens, 
and from them, in their ancient and accustomed manner, choose one by 
scrutiny to be Alderman of the Ward, and on 21 June following, John 
Cooper, Fishmonger, was elected in the following manner : — 

Itm this day John Cowper fyshemonger, Hufrey Baskerfeld and John Hare 
m'cers and Edward Banks hab'd were noyated by this Courte and put in the eleccon 
for the choyse and eleccon of an Alderman of the Warde of the brydge w'^oute 
nowe beynge voyde of an Alderman by reason of the deathe of Mr. Raphe 
Greneway late Alderman of the same Warde accordynge to the teno"" forme and 
effecte of th'acte of Coen Counsell here establyshed and made the w-j"' day of 
this p'sent June for & Concernyng the man"' and order of th'eleccon of th'alderman 
of the said Warde at all tymes from thensforewarde of the W^'" four Coyers so 
noyated and apoyntyd the said Courte furthew"^ by Scruteny dyd electa and 
chose accordynge to the Teno'' of the said Acte the above namyd M' Cowp 
Alderman of the said Warde who was furthew"^ at this p'sent Courte sworne for the 
due execucon of the said Rome and ofifyce accordingely. — Repertoiy 14, fo. 40b. 

200 The Alder Die 11 of the City of London. 

From the date of the election of John Cowper until 1711, the 
elections of aldermen of this ward were carried out in the same manner, 
except that a practice sprung up of electing and translating aldermen 
of other wards to the Bridge Without Ward, an innovation introduced 
in 1635, upon the removal of the then alderman of that ward to the 
Ward of Candlewick. The entry in the Records runs as follows : — 

At the request of Mr. Aldian Cambell to remove from the Ward of ftariiigdon 
\v'''out to the said Ward of Bridge \v"'in {sic) this Court was pleased to put in noiacon 
ihe said Mr. Aldran Cambell and Mr. Thomas Soame and by scruteny according 
to auntient custome the said Mr. Aldran Cambell was chosen Ald'ran of the said 
Warde of Bridge W"'out. — Repertory 4g, fo. 277b. 

There had been five such elections and removals to this Ward 
between the years 1635 and 1711, besides two removals by Royal 
Commission during the suspension of the Charter. 

On 20 September, 1711, another Act of Common Council was 
passed, repealing the Act of 1558, and enacting that, in future vacan- 
cies in the Ward of Bridge Without, the senior alderman for the 
time being, who had been Mayor, should, at his free will and pleasure, 
remove to and accept the ward, and in case of his refusal the next 
senior, and so on ; but that if none of the aldermen above the chair 
should accept the said ward, then a Common Council should be 
summoned to elect any fit and able person, being a Freeman as alder- 
man of the said ward, who should be at liberty to remove therefrom, 
and take any other ward to which he might be elected. (There has 
been no instance of such appointment by the Common Council.) 

From 1 7 16 until the present time a senior alderman willing to 
accept the transfer has removed to this ward as successive vacancies 
have arisen. There have been 27 such removals since that date, 
previous to which, aldermen had been transferred to Bridge ^^'ithout 
on only seven occasions, including those removed under Royal Com- 
mission, the earliest being, as mentioned above, in 1635, ^^'^'^ ""' ^^^^ 
period between the institution of the Aldermanry in 1550 and that date 
(1635), there were fourteen removals from it to other wards; none such 
having taken place since. 

By an Act of Common Council, 12 May, 1725, the time within 
which the senior alderman should elect to remove to the said ward on a 
vacancy arising, was ordered to be in ten days, and in case of his refusal, 
the other senior aldermen were to decide at the following Court. In case 
of all the aldermen refusing to serve, then a Court of Common Council 
is to be summoned to elect and choose an alderman for the ^^'ard, as 
directed by the Act of 1 7 1 1. 

The Aldermen of the City of London. 201 

The mode of appointing the alderman of Bridge Ward Without 
remains the same to the present day, as the Act of 1714 (see page 159) 
expressly omitted to alter the Act of 171 1, as regards the procedure, 
in the event of all the aldermen refusing to transfer to the Ward of 
Bridge Without. 

During the eighteenth century and the first half of the nineteenth, 
the aldermanry of Bridge Without was generally accepted by the senior 
alderman for the time being, or by the second or third in seniority, but 
during the last half-century, considerable un^villingness has been mani- 
fested on the part of the aldermen who have long represented other 
wards, to sever their connection with them by migrating to another. 

At the first election after 171 1 (that of 17 16), the senior alderman, 
Sir William Ashurst (Billingsgate), declined to remove, and the ^^'ard of 
Bridge Without was accepted by the second in official seniority. Sir 
Thomas Abney (Vintry). Sir John Parsons (Bassishaw), was senior 
by original election to both these, and by continuous service to 
Abney, but he ranked below them, as having served the Mayoralty 
later. At the three succeeding vacancies, which occurred in 1722, 
1725, J 733, the senior alderman in each case (who represented 
Aldersgate, AValbrook, and Cheap respectively) removed to Bridge 
Without. In 1735, Sir Charles Peers (Tower), then senior alderman, 
preferred to retain his old ward, and the second on the list. Sir Gerard 
Conyers (Broad Street), removed. In 1737, the transfer was again 
accepted by the senior. Sir John Eyles (Vintry). In 1745, the senior 
alderman by length of service. Sir Harcourt Master (Coleman Street), 
had not passed the chair (for which he had been disqualified by Act of 
Parliament on account of having been one of the South Sea Directors 
at the period of the great "bubble" of 1720), and therefore ranked 
below those of his juniors who had filled the office of Lord Mayor. 
He was, moreover, now at the point of death, and died on the day after 
the election. The two senior aldermen in rank. Sir Robert Baylis 
(Bread Street) and Sir William Billers (Cordwainer) did not accept the 
transfer, and consequently Bridge Without fell to the fourth in actual 
(third in nominal) seniority, Sir Edward Bellamy (Billingsgate). 

The next vacancies occurred in 1749 and 1750, on each of which 
occasions the senior alderman removed, leaving Candlewick and Dowgate 

In 1758, it happened that the two actual seniors. Sir Joseph 
Hankey (Langbourn) and \\'illiam Baker (Bassishaw) had neither 

202 The Aldermen of the City of London. 

passed the Chair nor served as Sheriff, and the senior alderman 
who had been Lord Mayor, Sir Robert Ladbroke, removed from 
Castle Baynard to Bridge ^^'ithout. 

From this time till 185 1, each vacancy as it occurred was filled by 
the senior alderman, viz.: in 1773, 1785, 1804, 1821, 1829, February, 
1835, and December, 1835, the wards successively vacated by the trans- 
ferred aldermen being Coleman Street, Portsoken, Lime Street, Tower, 
Bishopsgate, Bread Street, Bassishaw. 

In 1 85 1, the senior alderman, who was Lord Mayor so far back as 
1828, ^Villiam Thompson (Cheap) declined to remove, and the next in 
order. Sir John Key (Langbourn) accepted the transfer to Bridge Without. 

In 1853, the ward of Bridge Without fell to the sixth alderman 
on the list. Colonel Samuel Wilson (Castle Baynard), having been declined 
by William Thompson again, and by Sir Peter Laurie (Aldgate), Charles 
Farebrother (Lime Street), William Taylor Copeland (Bishopsgate), and 
Thomas Kelly (Farringdon Within). 

The next vacancy was not till March, 187 1, Colonel Wilson, who 
then resigned his gown, having survived all his seniors. On this 
occasion the four senior aldermen. Sir James I^uke (Farringdon Without), 
Sir John Musgrove (Broad Street), Thomas Challis (Cripplegate), and 
Thomas Sidney (Billingsgate), preferred to retain their old wards, and 
the fifth in order. Sir Francis Moon (Portsoken) removed to Bridge 
Without. He died in October the same year, when the same four, and the 
two next below them. Sir David Salomons (Cordwainer) and Thomas 
Quested Finnis (Tower) refused to remove, and the vacancy was filled by 
the transfer of the seventh in order, Sir Robert Walter Carden (Dowgate), 
who held the aldermanry of Bridge AMthout for over sixteen years, and 
died in January, 1888, having survived all his seniors, except Alderman 
T. Sidney, who had resigned his gown in 1880. At the election of 1888 
no less than seven aldermen declined to remove, these being Sir \\'illiani 
Lawrence (Bread Street), Sir Benjamin Phillips (Farringdon ^^'ithin), 
Sir Thomas Gabriel (Vintry), Sir James C. Lawrence (Walbrook), Sir 
Thomas Dakin (Candlewack), Sir Andrew Lusk (Aldgate), and David 
H. Stone (Bassishaw) ; the ward of Bridge Without accordingly fell to 
the eighth alderman in seniority, W. J. Richmond Cotton (Lime Street) — 
now Sir Richmond, who resigned on being appointed Chamberlain 
of the City in 1892. 

The Aldermen of the City of London. 203 

At the election which followed (1892), Sir William Lawrence and 
Sir J. C. Lawrence, then the two senior aldermen, again preferred to 
remain in their old wards, and Sir A. Lusk, then third in seniority, who 
had declined in 1888, accepted removal. He resigned his gown in 1895, 
and Sir W. Lawrence then consented to take Bridge Without, and on his 
death in April, 1897, his brother, Sir James, succeeded him, but died 
less than five weeks afterwards. 

At the election in June, 1897, five aldermen refused to leave their 
own wards, viz.. Sir J. Whittaker Ellis (Broad Street), Sir Henry Knight 
(Cripplegate), Sir Reginald Hanson (Billingsgate), Sir Joseph Savory 
(Langbourn), and Sir David Evans (Castle Baynard) ; the sixth in order, 
Sir Stuart Knill (Bridge Within), was accordingly transferred (when his 
son .succeeded him as alderman of Bridge Within). On Sir S. Knill's 
death, 19 November, 1898, the ward was again declined by Sir J. \\. 
Ellis, Sir H. Knight, and Sir R. Hanson, and was accepted by Sir J. 
vSavory, who is the present alderman of Bridge Without. 

The removals to Bridge Without (thirty-four in all, including those 
by Royal Commission during the suspension of the Charter) have been 
fairly evenly distributed amongst the different wards. Three were from 
Lime Street ; two each from Aldersgate, Aldgate, Billingsgate, Bread 
Street, Broad Street, Castle Baynard, Dowgate, Langbourn, Portsoken, 
Vintry, Walbrook ; and one each from Bassishaw, Bishopsgate, Bridge 
Within, Candlewick, Cheap, Coleman Street, Cripplegate, Farringdon 
Without, and Tower. There have been no translations from Cord- 
wainer, Cornhill, Farringdon Within and Queenhithe. Of these last, no 
alderman of Cornhill or Queenhithe has been of sufficient seniority since 
the Act of 171 1, to get an opportunity of removing to Bridge Without : 
two aldermen of Cordwainer (Sir William Billers and Sir David 
Salomons) and one of Farringdon Within (Thomas Kelly) declined to 
accept removal when it was in their power to do so. 

It will be noted that the present alderman of Cripplegate (Sir H. 
Knight) and his immediate predecessor (Thomas Challis) are amongst 
those who have preferred to remain in their original wards. 


The Aldermen of the City of London. 


Every ward has had at least one contested election for alderman 
except Aldersgate, which ward is also the only one which has not been 
vacated by resignation during the period. The following table will 
furnish the number of contests and the years in which they took place 
from the year 17 14, when a return was made to the " ancient manner" 
of the wards directly electing aldermen, instead of nofninating four 
persons to the Court of Aldermen. 

Aldersgate - - 


Aldgate - - - 


4 - ( 

1746, 1767, 1775, 1835). 

Bassishaw - - 


3 " ' 

i739> 1835, 1890). 

Billingsgate- - 


4 - 

1723, 1778, 1799, 1880). 

Bishopsgate- - 



1829, 1889). 

Bread Street - 


4 - ( 

1719- 1797, 1843, 1855). 

Bridge Within - 


5 - ( 

1727, 1774, 1776, 1821, 1885). 

Broad Street - 


4 - 

'i735> 1741, 1769, 1831). 

Candlewick - - 




Castle Baynard 


4 - ( 

1722, 1796, 1875, 1884). 

*Cheap - - - 


8 - ( 

i733> 17393 1809, 1858, June, 1877, 
1877, Oct., 1877, 1896). 

Aug , 

Coleman Street 


3 " ( 

1718, 1773, 1808). 

Cordwainer - - 


5 " ( 

1774, 1781, 1873, 1875, 1885). 

Cornhill - - - 


I - ( 


Cripplegate - - 


I - ( 


Dowgate - - 




Farringdon Withi 



'i737> 1779)- 

Farringdon Without 


(1769, 1798, 1882). 



4 - ( 

1728, 1795, 1823, 1863). ' 

Lime Street 


5 - < 

1724. 1736, 1746, 1752, 1772). 

*Portsoken - - 


9 - ( 

1785, 1798, Feb., 1831, Dec, 1831, 
1844, 1871, 1883, 1891). 


Queenhithe - - 


5 " 

.1772, 1784, 1821, 1854, 1897). 

Tower - - - 


5 - 

(1737, i75o> i775> 1883, 1891). 

Vintry - - - 


3 - ( 

1774, 1826, 1827). 

Walbrook - - 


4 - < 

'1725, 1758, 1766, i860). 

* In Portsoken and in Cheap there were three successive elections to fill one vacancy. 

In the former of these wards Michael Scales was three times returned at the head 
of the poll, viz. : in February, 1831, December, 1831, and June, 1833, being on each 
occasion rejected by the Court of Aldermen. {See page 153.) 

In Cheap Ward, .Sir John Bennett was returned at the elections of June, August, 
and October, 1877, ^nd was rejected after each return. 

The Aldermen of the City of Lofidon. 205 

The following table shows the way in which the various 
been created for Aldermanries of the various wards since 
of the Charter in 1688:— 

vacancies have 
the restoration 


Aldersgate - - 14 

*Aldgate - - - 18 

Bassishaw - - 15 

Billingsgate 14 

Bishopsgate - 13 

Bread Street - 13 

Bridge ^\'ithin - 19 

Bridge ^\"ithoul 30 

Broad Street - 14 

( landlewick 1 2 

Castle Baynard iS 


*Cheap - - - 
(Joleman Street 
Cornhill - - - 
Crii)plegate- - 
I )owgate - - 
Karringdon ^\''n. i 
Farringdon \\"t. 
Langbourn - - 
Lime Street 

*Portsoken - - 
Tower - - - 
Vintry - - - 
W^al brook - - 




1 1 





1 2 
I 1 




■> -> 






I 2 










Removal to 
Kesig- another Ward, 
nation, except Bridge 

421 260 









by the 

Court of 













* Two persons who were elected for Cheap and Portsoken respectively, were rejected 
by the Court of Aldermen, and Sir David Salomons, who was chosen successively for 
Aldgate and Portsoken, declined to take the oath which required a profession of the 
Christian religion. The longest tenure of office by an Alderman at this period was that 
of Sir Watkin Lewes, who was Alderman of Lime Street for over 32 years, and then of 
Bridge Without for 16 ; the longest in a single ward, that of Sir William Lawrence, 
who was Alderman of Bread Street for nearly 40 years before his removal to Bridge 


It may not be thought out of place, to follow the account of the 
Aldermen, by a short history of the Common Council and the changes 
that have taken place in the representation of the wards during the last 
six hundred years. It may be premised, that the Common Council 
was not originally the formally constituted body that it is at the present 
day. The earlier councils consisted, as we are told, of the " wiser 
and more discreet " men of the wards, chosen and summoned to Guild- 
hall, as special emergencies in public matters arose, and it was only 
towards the close of the thirteenth century, that, upon the necessity of 
meeting becoming more frequent, the council began to take shape as a 
legislative and executive body ; annually elected from the wards or by 
the Craft Guilds, but subject to the jurisdiction of the aldermen. 

The following few notes and abstracts from the Records are 
interesting and instructive, and will help to give, at least, a general idea 
of the development of the Court of Common Council from mediaeval 
times to the present ; the selection,, and, in later times, the election of its 
members ; its composition ; and the work it undertakes and carries out 
at the present day. First, we may note the early hour of meeting. 

In 1354 (28 Edward III) "It was ordained and agreed that hence- 
forward, when the aldermen and other citizens of the city of London 
shall be summoned to be at the Guildhall of London for arduous 
afifairs touching the commonalty of the said city, and shall not come 
there by the first hour struck at St. Paul's they shall be amerced at 
two shiUings to the use of Commonalty of London." {Letter Book 
G, fo. 19.) 

At the period the Guilds or " Mysterys " appointed their own 
members to the Common Council (viz., in 1376), the oath of a Com- 
mon Councilman was as follows : — 

Ye shall swear that ye shall come readily when ye shall be 
summoned for common council of the city, if ye have not lawful and 
reasonable excuse ; and good and lawful counsel shall ye give ac- 
cordmg to your knowledge and ability; and for no favour shall ye 
maintain any private profit against the common profit of the city, saving 

2o8 The Common Council. 

to every Mystery its reasonable usages ; and when ye shall be there 
come, ye shall not depart without reasonable cause or leave of the 
Mayor, or before the Mayor and his Companions depart. {^Letter 
Book H, fo. 46 b.) 

The following is a precept of the Lord Mayor for the holding of 
a Wardmote in the middle of the fifteenth century : — 

We charge and comaunde you that as sone as ye may goodly after the sight 
of this p^sent Warant ye do holde your Wardemote And that ye have afore us at our 
genall Courte to be holden in the Guyldhalle the moneday next after the feste of 
Epiphanye next coiiiyng all the defautes that shall be p'^sented afore you by enquest in 
the seid Wardemote And we wol that the seid enquest have power and auctoritee 
and stonde in effect by an hole yeer to enquere and p'^sent all suche defaultes as shall be 
founde withyn your Warde as often tymes as shall be thought to you expedient and 
nedefuU And if it happe eny of the seid enquest to die or departe oute of your seide 
Warde Withyn the yere that thanne in stede and place of hym or of hem so dying or 
departyng'' ye do chose an able psone or psonns to enquere and p'^sent with that other 
in maner and fourme aboveseid And that then ye have afore us the names of alle them 
of your seid Warde that come not to your seid Wardemote if they be duely warned to 
that ende that we may do purvey and ordeigne due redresse and punysshement of 
them as the cas shall requyre Setth also and ordeyneth that duryng the solempne 
feste of Cristemasse next coiriyng covenable watche be kept and lanternes light be 
nyghtertale in man'^e accustumed And that noo man goo be nyghtertale withoute lite 
or viserd on the perell that longeth therto. Purveyth furthermore by the advise of the 
worthyest men of all yo"" warde [taiH^ in margin] of the moste sufficient men of good and 
wysest of discrecion to be for your seid Warde of the comyn counsell of this Citee for 
the yere next suyng And certeyn other honest psones to be yo"^ constables and 
scavageours and a comyn bedell Doth chese eke in the seid Wardemote a Rakyer to 
make clene the stretys and lanes of your seid Warde And we wol and gunte by this 
{Psent Warant that the seid constables shuU haue full power and auctorite to distreyn 
for the salary and quarterage of the seid bedell and raker as often as it shall be 
behynde unpaied Wretyn at london under the seall of our office of mairalte of xij day 
of decembi^ the furste yere of the reign of kyng Edward the iiij. — Liber Dutithont, 
fo. 124. 

It is uncertain when the election of Common Councilmen first 
took place on St. Thomas' Day — but in 15 17 the- practice was 
mentioned as an "old custom;" although it is certain that, in early 
times, and probably until the end of the sixteenth century, an election, as 
understood in these times, seldom took place; there was rather what may 
be called the selection of Common Councilmen. As stated above, in 1376 
the Mysterys sent men of their own body to represent them. In 1383, 
when the privilege was taken away from the Mysterys and again given 
to the wards, we find the Mayor and Aldermen selecting men to attend 
the Common Council, for in Letter Book If, fo. 235, we find the 
following : — 

" In the presence of the mayor, sheriffs, and twelve aldermen, it 
was assented by them that as there had been great controversy among 

The Common Council. 209 

the good people of the city, on right of the common council, some 
wishing it to be made by people from the mysteries, and others by 
people from the wards, for appeasing and putting an end to which, it 
was ordained that at such time as the mayor and aldermen in time to 
come have business, and are engaged to summon other good people of 
the said city to the common council thereof, the mayor, in the presence 
of twelve aldermen at the least, shall elect certain persons from each 
ward, according as the ward is great or small, so many as shall seem to 
them necessary and meet for the time, and those so elected he shall 
cause to be summoned to the said council, having no regard of what 
mystery they may be." 

The election of Common Councilmen during the fifteenth century 
seems to have been conducted in a very loose manner, as the necessity 
of the following order will show : — 

16 December, 3 Edward IV [a.d. 1463]. "At a common council 
it was resolved that the aldermen in their wardmotes observe the form 
limited in their commissions, and that they do not elect more persons 
to be of the common council than are assigned to their commissions." 
— -Journal 7, fo. 54 b. 

It will be seen by the following extract that the election or selec- 
tion of Common Councilmen on St. Thomas' Day was spoken of as an 
old custom in the early part of the sixteenth century : — 

28 September, 9 Henry VIII [a.d. 1517]. Itm yt ys agreed that ev'y Alder- 
man in his Warard yerly uppon Seynt Thomas Day in ther Court of Wardemote shall 
swere suche psones as shalbe chosen of the Coen Councell accordyng to the olde 
custome. — Letter Book N, fo. 53b. 

In 1527, an effort was made to ensure the proceedings of the 
Common Council being carried on in a proper and businesslike 
manner, and for this purpose a committee was appointed, consisting of 
26 persons, selected from the Mercers', Grocers', Drapers', (Goldsmiths', 
Skinners', Haberdashers', and Merchant-Taylors' Companies — who were 
ordered to sit every Wednesday, "for the matters concernyng the 
coen weale of the Citie of London." They reported in due course, and 
a portion of their Report runs as follows :— 

" Also for an order more convenient to be had for the manner of 
your common council within this city ; forasmuch as authority is given, 
as ye know, unto the mayor and citizens of this city by our com- 
mon charter, and by authority thereof, to make laws, so that they be 

2IO The Covnnon Coitncil. 

consonant to reason, the which so made are of no less strength than acts 
of the high court of parUament, it were of a good congruens, having 
this high Hberty and large pre-eminence, that albeit afore time not using 
the same with due and perfect order, as ensample at sight plainly is 
perceived, the which is the court of parliament, that most wisely, most 
indifferently, and with high discretion time out of mind is and hath 
been used to prosecute and to follow the same like order in the courts 
of the common council of this city, were most laudable and most in- 
different way, which prudent order is, that no cause or matter shall there 
pass to be authorised by parliament before the king and the lords above, 
or before the commons beneath, always it is used the said causes to be 
read in sundry particular days, as well before the king and the lords as 
before the commons ; and on every such cause or causes be passed as 
a firm law to be in strength, then not only the king our sovereign lord 
and all the noble lords of his realm take such deliberation but also the 
common house taketh like deliberation in reasoning and debating the 
same causes, whereby the said causes and matters do not suddenly and 
unadvisedly pass, nor they determine nor make answer in the same, 
without deep knowledge and clear understanding, by great deliberation 
and good counsel had in the same, as it is to be feared often and many 
times in the common councils of this city doth and is contrary used, to 
the hurt of the whole common wealth of the same, that for the most 
part the said commons do give sentence yea or nay at the first opening 
of matters which they never heard of before ; the which is neither 
laudable or reasonable so to do : wherefore it is thought very reasonable 
and requisite that the commons of the said common council may be 
used in their assemblies, in their weighty causes for the common wealth 
of the same city, like and according unto the common house of the 
high court of parliament as they use for the common wealth of this realm 
in their assemblies ; which is very laudable and commendable so as to 
be observed. Et hoc pro secundo. 

" And that four times in the year the common council shall assemble 
by ordinary custom, although there be no matter purposed for the same ; 
to say every quarter one day, conveniently, according to an act made by 
the said common council the first year of king Richard the Second. 

" Forasmuch as your said suppliants think the abovesaid order 
good and sufficient, concerning the manner and usage of your common 
councils, it may please your lordship and masterships that a new order 

The Covimon Conncil. 2 1 1 

may be had in choosing of them who shall exercise the same otherwise 
then before this time hath been used ; for it is thought that the politic 
governance of this city next unto the mayor and his brethren resteth in 
such like persons, wherefore of reason they ought to be of the most 
sage, wise, discreet, and men of best consequence and experience that 
within this city may be found, and none other to be in that room 
admitted. Therefore it is thought expedient that from henceforth be 
recited in every commission that shall be given to the aldermen against 
Saint Thomas's day before Christmas, that every alderman in his ward, 
with his deputy do appoint and name two of the most wisest circumspect 
persons within his ward to be of the common council, and they 4 to 
name and appoint the residue of the most politic and wisest persons, 
such a number as in every ward of old time hath been accustomed, and 
their names to be entered on the backside of every indenture of the 
inquests of wardmote, and so to be presented like and according as of 
ancient custom hath been used ; and so if this be well regarded and 
may take effect, as it is intended and meant, we think verily it shall 
avoid many enormities that before times hath happened, and to be a 
special cause of increase of the common wealth of this city and the 
citizens of the same." — Letter Book O, fo. 47 seq. 

A few years later, viz., in January, 1537, the wardmote of 
Walbrook, desiring to have their free election of Common Council, were 
answered by the Court of Aldermen, that the election appertained to the 
alderman, and not to the wardmote inquest, and to be confirmed by 
them. — Repertory g, fo. 233. 

Some time towards the end of the sixteenth century, the wardmote 
seems to have regained or obtained the right of directly electing the 
representatives of the ward, but the elections were still carried out in 
a most irregular manner; it frequently happened that more persons 
were returned than the ward had a right to send. The following cases 
in the Wards of Bread Street and Broad Street, in the seventeenth 
century, show that this irregularity still continued : — ■ 

ID January, 6 Charles I [a.d. 1631]. — Special Court of Aldermen, 
Item : Forasmuch as this court was now informed by Sir Martin 
Lumley, knt, alderman of the ward of Bread street, that Robert Gray and 
John Goodwin are chosen and presented by the wardmote inquest cf 
that ward, in their indenture of presentments, to be common councilmen, 
above the number appointed by precept in that behalf directed from the 

2 12 The Common Council , 

lord mayor, which are not approved of and sworn by the said alderman ; 
it is thought fit, and so ordered by this court, that the said Gray and 
Goodwin shall for that cause be struck out of the said indenture. And 
it is also ordered, upon the like information given unto the court by Mr. 
Alderman Moulson, that Isaac Jones and John Woodall, who are like- 
wise chosen and presented by the wardmote inquest of the ward of 
Broad street, whereof he is alderman, to be two of the common council, 
exceeding their commission in that behalf, the said Isaac Jones and 
John Woodall, being not allowed of and sworn by the said alderman, 
shall also be struck out of the said indenture. — Repertory 45^ fo. 73b. 

9 January, 7 Charles I [a.d. 1632]. — Special Court of Aldermen. 
Item Forasmuch as the wardmote inquest of Bread street have pre- 
sented in their indenture twelve common councilmen where there ought 
to be but ten, and that Thomas Hussey and Robert Gray, certified to 
be two of the said common councilmen, were elected contrary to the 
commission directed to Sir Martin Lumley, knight, alderman of that 
ward, for which cause he justly excepted against them, and refused to 
give them the oath of a common councilman ; it is thought fit, and so 
ordered by this court, that the said Hussey and Gray, so unduly chosen, 
shall be struck out of the said indenture. — Repertory 46, fo. 54. 

8 January, 8 Charles I [a.d. 1633]. — Item Forasmuch as the 
wardmote inquest of Bread street have presented in their indenture the 
names of twelve common councilmen where there ought to be but ten, 
and that George Melhuish and Henry Plompton, certified to be two of 
the common councilmen, were elected contrary to the commission 
directed to Sir Martin Lumley, knt., alderman of that ward, for which 
cause he justly excepted against them ; it is thought fit, and so ordered 
by this court, that the said Melhuish and Plompton, so unduly chosen, 
shall be struck out of the said indenture. — Repertory 47, fo. 83b. 

In 1642 the Court of Aldermen appointed a Committee to examine 
respecting elections of Common Council and other officers ; the antient 
method used ; what course is most fit for the more orderly and quiet 
making of these elections ; what number is fit for every ward ; and 
the ways and means to make every precinct equal in all the wards. — 
Repertory ^6, fo. 72. 

As showing the power of the Court of Aldermen over the 
Common Council during the seventeenth century, the following ab- 
stracts are given : — 

The Common Council. 2 i 3 

In 161 8, 12 June [16 James I], and again in 1669, an order was 
made by the Court of Aldermen That before a Common Council be 
holden, a Court of Aldermen should be kept for deliberating and con- 
cluding of all matters to be named or propounded ; and no matter to 
be offered to the Common Council that had not been first debated and 
thought necessary and convenient, by a full Court of Aldermen or a 
special committee. — Repertory 33, fo. 322. 

I October, 15 Charles II [a.d. 1663]. — An order was made for 
common councils to be appointed (as before the late troubles was 
accustomed), by order of the court of aldermen ; that the times and 
occasions of calling the same being understood, all the aldermen may 
the more certainly attend, and be the better prepared for the matters 
there to be handled and debated. — Repertory 6g, fo.- 208b. 

At this period the Common Council seem to have met at ten 
o'clock in the morning. 

21 February, 25 Charles II [a.d. 1674], — A committee was appointed 
to consider of frequent holding Common Councils and the usages for 
calling, holding, and dissolving those Courts. — Journal 48, fo. 24. 

By a perusal of the above abstracts respecting the Common 
Council and the election of its Members, it will be seen that there was 
great uncertainty on the part of the Aldermen as to the number of 
representatives a Ward was entitled to send to the Court of Common 
Council; the numbers seem to have constantly varied, only being 
definitely settled toward the middle of the eighteenth century. But, 
although the numbers of the Common Council constantly changed, it is 
a remarkable fact that the number, the boundaries, and area of the wards 
have remained practically without change from time immemorial, the 
only alterations being, the dividing into two, of the Wards of 
Farringdon and Cripplegate respectively. In 1393, Farringdon was 
thus divided into two wards (within and without the walls), with an 
alderman presiding over each. Cripplegate was also divided in the 
same manner in later times, and from the entry in the Repertory as 
given on page 129, it would seem to have been in 1569. In the case 
of Cripplegate, one alderman presides over the two wards, each of which, 
however, separately elects its Common Councilmen. 

The wards thus remaining of the same area, and with the same 
boundaries as originally settled, the only changes to note are the altera- 
tions that have taken place from time to time in their relative importance, 

p 2 

214 ^^^ Common Cotmcil. 

as shown by the number of representatives sent to the Court of Common 
Council by each. In 1285, we find the names of the "40 good men of 
all the wards sworn to consult with the aldermen on the common affairs 
of the City." 

In 131 7 (11 Edward II), we have the names of seventy-two of the 
"good men of the Commonalty of the City assembled before the Mayor 
and Aldermen at the Guildhall " {Letter Book E, fo. 66b) ; but these 
names are only of the men from the Wards of Vintry, Bread Street, 
Cripplegate, Farringdon, Aldersgate, Queenhithe, and Coleman Street 
— all these were wards west of Walbrook. The names of the remaining 
men would appear to be given, but no information respecting the wards 
they represented. 

In 1322 [16 Edward II], forty-eight men were elected. Two of 
each to be elected by the men of the same ward, so that they ordain 
and dispose of the whole Commonalty ; and whatsoever they shall do on 
behalf of the Commonalty, the Commonalty shall hold firm and stable, 
that the labour of the Commonalty may in future be lessened. — Letter 
Book E, fo. 141b. 

In 1347 [21 Edward III], Each alderman in his wardmote had to 
cause eight, six or four of the best men thereof, as the ward was large or 
small, to attend at the Guildhall when summoned, touching the arduous 
business of the City. — Letter Book F, fo. 136b. 

The City originally seems to have been divided into wards east 
and west of the Wall-brook, and are thus described in the list of 1347. 

The following were the wards east of Walbrook, with the number 
of their representatives :— [21 Edward III] — Aldgate, six; Billingsgate, 
six ; Bishopsgate, six ; Bridge, six ; Broad Street, five ; Candlewick, six ; 
Cornhill, six ; Dowgate, six ; Langbourn, six ; Lime Street, two ; 
Portsoken, six ; Tower, six ; Walbrook, six. 

West of Walbrook. — Aldersgate, four; Bassishaw, six; Bread Street, 
four ; Castle Baynard, five ; Cheap, six ; Coleman Street, six ; Cord- 
wainer, six ; Cripplegate, six ; Farringdon, six ; Queenhithe, six ; 
Vintry, five. 

These numbers give seventy-three members for the thirteen wards 
East, and sixty for the eleven wards West of Walbrook (133 in all) — the 
eastern portion being thus specially favoured, as the area covered by the 
thirteen wards in the east was far smaller than that of the thirteen 
on the west — but this probably can be accounted for by the fact that 

The Conwion Council. 215 

the eastern portion of the city was the most ancient, and in early 
times was more fully populated than the west, which filled and 
developed at a later period. The representation of the wards gradually 
became proportionate to the growing importance of the western part 
of the City, until, as at the present time, the thirteen eastern wards 
have ninety-eight representatives, and the twelve to the west one 
hundred and eight. 

Then followed the short time when the misteries or craft guilds 
appointed the members of the Common Council. This was done in the 
first instance in 1351 [25 Edward III], by the following companies, who 
appointed in varying numbers as follows : — Mercers and Fishmongers, 
six each; Grocers, five; Drapers, Goldsmiths, Woollen Woolmen, Skin- 
ners, Salters, Taylors, Cordwainers and Butchers, four each ; Vintners, 
three ; and Ironmongers two each, or fifty-four in all. — Letter Book F, 
fo. 206. 

In 1376 [50 Edward III], an ordinance was made by the mayor 
and aldermen, with the assent of the whole commons, to the effect: — 
that the misteries should select men with whom they were content, and 
none other should come to the elections of mayors and sheriffs ; that 
they should return the names of the parties chosen to the new mayor ; 
that the greater misteries should not elect more than six, the lesser four, 
and the least two, who were to remain in the office of Council for the 
ensuing year, and if anything were ordained by the mayor and aldermen 
touching the commons, without the assent of the greater part of them, 
or at least of the twelve most sufficient misteries, it should be held for 
nothing {Letter Book H, fo. 46b.). Forty-seven misteries nominated 
156 members. 

In 1383 the right of election reverted to the ^^'ards. By an ordi- 
nance of the mayor, aldermen and an immense commonalty, the aldermen 
were charged within fifteen days after the Feast of St. Gregory, in each 
year, to assemble and choose four of the most sufficient persons in the 
wards to be of the Common Council for the year ensuing, and to present 
them to the mayor, who should accept them and see that they took the 
oath prescribed ; provided that he should not receive in any instance 
more than eight persons of the same mistery, although more than eight 
of one mistery should be presented and chosen. It will be noted that, 
although the election had again fallen to the wards, it was feared that the 
misteries or craft guilds might obtain undue numbers of representatives. 

2i6 The Coniuiou Council. 

'l"he numbt;i- of persons sent by any one mistery was therefore limited. The 
number elected under the above ordinance was ninety-six, distributed 
among the wards as follows : — Bridge, Cheap, Cordwainer, Cripplegate 
^Vithin and Without, Farringdon \Mthin and A\'ithout, six each ; Alders- 
gate, Billingsgate, Bishopsgate, Bread Street, Broad Street, Candlewick, 
Castle Baynard, Cornhill, Uowgate, Langbourn, Queenhithe, Tower, 
Vintry and Walbrook, four each ; Aldgate, Bassishaw, Coleman Street, 
Lime Street, and Portsoken, two each. — Letter Book B, fo. 173. 

There is a rough Ust of the Common Council in the City's Records, 
in 1459, which has been subjected to so many additions, corrections, 
and alterations, that no definite information as to the number of Com- 
mon Councilmen, and their respective wards, can be extracted from it. 

In 1534 [25 Henry VIII], it was agreed that Cornhill should have 
six persons to be of the Common Council for the year following. 

About 1549 [Edward VI], the total number of members appears 
to have amounted to one hundred and eighty-seven, but how or when 
the increase took place from the ninety-six members in 1383 we have no 
means of ascertaining. (A note of these alterations was probably made 
in the almost undecipherable list of 1459, mentioned above.) The 
numbers were much more unevenly distributed in the wards than in 
1383. Bridge Ward may especially be mentioned, which had eleven 
. members added. The number of members for the various wards w^as 
as follows : — Bridge, seventeen ; Cheap, eleven ; BiUingsgate, Bread 
Street, Cripplegate — then undivided — and Farringdon Within, each 
having ten ; Broad Street, Candlewick, Cordwainer, Uowgate, 
Langbourn, Tower, Vintry, and ^Valbrook, eight each ; Farringdon 
AMthout, seven ; Bishopsgate, Castle Baynard, Cornhill, and Queenhithe, 
six each ; and Aldersgate, Aldgate, Bassishaw, Coleman Street, Lime 
Street, and Portsoken, four each. (See Minutes of Common Council, 
23 January^ 1S40.) 

Stow, in his Survey written in 1598, states that the number of 
Common Councilmen of the different wards were as follows : — Aldgate, 
six ; BiUingsgate, six ; Bishopsgate (number not given) ; Bridge, sixteen ; 
Broad Street, ten ; Candlewick, eight ; Cornhill, six ; Dowgate, nine ; 
Langbourn, eight ; Lime Street, four ; Portsoken, eight ; Tower, eight ; 
Walbrook, eleven; Aldersgate, five; Bassishaw, four; Bread Street, ten; 
Castle Baynard, nine; Cheaj), eleven; Coleman Street, four; Cordwainer, 
eight ; Cripplegate Within, eight ; Queenhithe, six ; Vintry, nine ; 

The Common Council. 217 

Cripplegate Without, two ; Farringdon AVithin, twelve ; and Farring- 
don Without, sixteen members ; these last being apportioned to 
three separate parishes, viz., St. Bride's, eight ; St. Andrew's, two ; 
St. Sepulchre's, six ; he mentions the wards throughout the city as being 
east and west of AValbrook, and places them in the same order in which 
they were placed in the list of 1347. In addition to the number of 
Common Councilmen, the same authority mentions aldermen and 
deputies, but these latter were not members of the Common Council 
{see page 116). It will be seen by the above list, that the total number 
of members, as given by Stow, was two hundred and two, and taking 
Bishopsgate as having the same number as in 1549, there were two 
hundred and eight in all. 

At various times additions were made to the numbers of some of 
ihc Wards. In 1639, both Aldgate and Aldersgate had an addition of 
two, making six each. Some time between 1549 and 1639, Farringdon 
AVithout had four members added, and in the latter year five more, 
making sixteen in all, a number which the aldermen stated they had 
formerly sent. Portsoken had one added in 1641, ("on the information 
of the alderman that the business of the city and the ward could n<jt 
be so well performed by reason of there being only four") making 
five. Aldersgate, in 1643, obtained two more ("in regard of the 
greatness of the ward "), one to be chosen for within the gate, 
and the other without, making eight in all. Coleman Street seems 
to have lost two of the four members mentioned in 1549, but in 1645 
had four added, making six in all. In 1652, the number for Cheap 
was reduced to eleven, but in 1654 one was regained, making twelve in 
all. In 1656, Tower had four added, making twelve in all. These were 
added by Act of Common Council, on the remonstrance and petition of 
the inhabitants, showing that as "the ward consisted of twelve large pre- 
cincts, its affairs could not be so well acted, the condition of its inhabitants 
known, nor assessments so equally rated, as would be if there 
was one Common Councilman for each precinct." In 1736-7 Farringdon 
AVithin had two added, making seventeen in all. These seem to have been 
added on the petition of the inhabitants of Blackfriars Precinct, which 
stated that " The Precinct contained three hundred and twenty houses 
and has no Common Council, so that the affairs of the Precinct 
cannot be so well transacted, the conditions of its inhabitants known, 
nor the assessments so equally rated as would be if there were two 
Common Councilmen added." 

2i8 The Common Council. 

The district mentioned was of course part of Farringdon Within 
A\'ard, but as in olden times (and as still is the practice in some of the 
A\'ards) the Precincts nominated members at the Wardmotes, and ex- 
pected their nominees to be returned. It would seem that the other 
portions of the Ward, held an undue share of the representation. 

Between 1549 and 1675, it is very difficult to fix the total number 
of the members. But we know from the lists of the Common Council- 
men preserved in the Town Clerk's Office, that by the latter year, the 
number had increased to 234. In 1679, we find the numbers to have 
been 238, and this appears to have fallen to 233 in 1688. Between 
1689 and 1737, there were 234, and in 1738, we find 236, and this 
seems to be the number annually elected for nearly a century from this 
date. In 1826, by an Act of Common Council, upon the petition of the 
Freemen inhabitant householders, Cripplegate Ward Without had an 
addition of four members, making the total number of the Common 
Council, 240, who were distributed in the Wards, as follows : — Far- 
ringdon \\'ithin, seventeen ; Farringdon Without, sixteen : Bridge, 
fifteen ; Bishopsgate, fourteen ; Bread Street, Cheap, and Tower, twelve 
each ; Billingsgate, Broad Street, Castle Baynard, and Langbourn, ten 
each ; Vintry, nine ; Aldersgate, Candlewick, Cordwainer, Cripplegate 
Within, Cripplegate Without, Dowgate, and ^^'albrook, eight each ; 
Aldgate, Coleman Street, Cornhill and Queenhithe, six each ; Port- 
soken, five ; Bassishaw and Lime Street, four each. 

During the latter part of the eighteenth century, the hour of 
meeting of the Court of Common Council varied from 11 to 12 o'clock 
noon. In 1798 some attempts were made to fix the hour at 5 o'clock 
in the evening. 

In 1840 it was thought desirable to reduce the total number of 
Common Councilmen, and to more equally apportion the members to 
the different wards ; in this adjustment, the same proportion of members 
for the wards east and west of A\'albrook was continued, as in the list of 
1826. The alteration was made by an Act of Common Council, 
8 May, 1840 [3 Victoria] entituled : "An Act for altering and amending 
the Representation of the Citizens of London, and the Liberties thereof 
in Common Council." The Act commences as follows : — 

" Whereas, from time whereof the memory of man runneth not to 
the contrary, there hath existed, and still doth exist, within the City of 
London a Common Council, consisting of the Mayor and Aldermen of 
the said City, and certain Citizens being Freemen of the said City, 

The Co7nnion Council. 219 

annually elected to be of the same Council, and called the Commons of 
the said City : — And whereas, under and by virtue of the ancient 
Charters, Ordinances, Statutes, and Customs of the said City, the power 
of appointing and regulating the number of Citizens to be from time to 
time elected of the same Common Council hath, from time whereof the 
memory of man runneth not to the contrary, belonged, and still of right 
doth belong, to the Mayor, Aldermen and Commons of the said City." 

The right to determine the number of Members of the Common 
Council was granted under the Charter of Edward III [1341], em- 
powering the citizens " to amend customs which, in course of time, 
should have been found hard or defective." The Act goes on to state 
that the number of Common Councilmen annually elected for the 
several wards is unequal, and " does not bear a fair proportion to the 
relative number of inhabitants and the amount of rateable property in 
each respective ward " ; it then enacts the different numbers that each 
ward should elect, as follows : — Farringdon Without, sixteen ; Bishops- 
gate and Farringdon \\'ithin, fourteen each ; Bread Street, Bridge, 
Billingsgate, Broad Street, Cheap, Coleman Street, Cripplegate Within, 
Cripplegate A\'ithout, Tower, Langbourn, Castle Baynard, Aldersgate, 
Aldgate, and Portsoken, eight each ; Dowgate, Candlewick, Cordwainer, 
Cornhill, Queenhithe, Vintry, and Walbrook, six each ; and the Wards of 
Bassishaw and Lime Street four each — two hundred and six members 
in all. The number of members for the various wards, as given above 
and settled by the Act of 1840, remains the same at the present day. 

In 1854 the Court of Common Council discussed proposals (and 
divisions were taken), for reducing the number of members returned by 
the wards, and after futile attempts to reduce the number to one hun- 
dred and twenty, and afterwards to one hundred and sixty, the matter 
was allowed to drop. In 1857 the Corporation introduced a Bill in 
Parliament, under the title of " London Corporation Bill," after having 
been passed by the Court of Common Council — amongst its clauses were 
provisions for reducing the number of wards to twenty, and the number 
of Common Councilmen to one hundred and fifty. The Bill was read a 
first time, 8 February, 1858, but was ultimately withdrawn. Since 
that time, several attempts have been made by various Governments to 
"reform" the Corporation, but, as is well known, all have failed. 

The following is a short account of the Court of Common Council 
and its duties at the present day : — 

2 20 The Conwion Council. 

The Court of Common Council, the full style of which is " The 
Mayor, Aldermen, and Commons of the City of London in Common 
Council assembled," consists of the Lord Mayor, twenty-five other 
Aldermen, and two hundred and six Commoners, making a total 
of two hundred and thirty-two. 

The Lord Mayor, or, in his unavoidable absence, his Locum Te/ie/is, 
takes the Chair at all Meetings. 

By custom, a duly constituted Court consists of forty mem- 
bers or upwards, of whom one must be the Lord Mayor (or 
his Locum Tene/is), and two, at least, must be aldermen. Should 
attention be called to the fact that fewer than forty members are 
present, the division bell is rung for three minutes, and. if at the 
end of that time forty members are not in their places, a count-out 
takes place, and the Court adjourns. 

It is the prerogative of the Lord Mayor to call a Court at any time 
and for any purpose ; he also fixes the hour for commencing the 
business of the ordinary fortnightly meetings of the Court. Lord 
Mayors have usually studied the wishes and convenience of the members 
of the Court as to the time of meeting, as was the case at the last 
alteration of the accustomed hour, when in 1886, the Lord Mayor (John 
Staples) ascertained the wishes of the members by taking a show of 
hands for different hours, and, by a large majority, one o'clock in the 
afternoon was decided upon. Successive Lord Mayors have followed 
the custom of calling the Court at that hour. 

The proceedings of the Court are entered in the Journals, which 
have been regularly kept by the Town Clerk since the year 141 6. 
Minutes of the proceedings, when printed, are sent to every member, 
and the correctness of this record is, under the standing orders, the 
first question at the following Court. 

The City Seal is especially protected by the following Regulations: — 

It is only to be affixed in open Court, after formal Resolution. The 
keys are different and three in number, kept respectively by the Lord 
Mayor, the Chamberlain (as representing the Court of Aldermen), and the 
Comptroller, or Vice-Chamberlain (as the Representative of the Court 
of Common Council) ; and the Seal is only affixed to a document after 
the same has been examined and signed by one of the Law Officers of 
the Corporation. 

The Coninion Council. 221 

The work of the Common Council is chiefly carried on by means 
of a number of Committees, which are entrusted with certain powers, 
but which are required to report to the Court on all important matters, 
receiving its sanction before putting the same into execution. Among 
other matters, all lettings of property must be submitted to the Court for 
approval. The composition and formation of these Committees is as 
follows : — 

Every Committee (with the exception of two or three, which will 
be specially mentioned) consists of six Aldermen and 29 Commoners ; 
the first named are nominated by the Court of Aldermen and the 
Commoners by the members f(jr the 25 ^\'ards (or sides of Wards), each 
nominating one of their number to the Court of Common Council, 
which usually confirms such nominations. Subject to annual re-election 
on St. Thomas' Day, each member serves for four years, and cannot 
continue longer to be a member of the same Committee unless with the 
consent of all his colleagues in his Ward, and also with the approbation 
of the Court. This rule acts most beneficially, ensuring as it does, that, 
by passing from one committee to another, members obtain a general 
knowledge of all branches of Corporation work. A chairman is elected 
at the first meeting of the Committee in each year and acts for the year, 
and only in most exceptional cases is the term extended, but he remains 
(as late Chairman) a member of the Committee for another year. 

The work of the Committees may be conveniently divided under 
five heads : (i) Estates and Management ; (2) Educational; (3) Open 
Spaces; (4) Administration; (5) Public Health Department. The Com- 
mittees in charge of each section under these heads are as follows : — 

Under the first head — The City Lands, Bridge House Estates, the 
Irish Society, Coal and Corn and Finance, Law and City Courts, 
Officers and Clerks, and General Purposes. 

Under the second head — The Gresham, Library and Art Gallery, 
City of London Schools, Music, and Orphan School. 

Under the thiid head — Epping Forest, West Ham Park, and Coal 
and Corn and Finance. 

Under the fourth head — Markets, Police, County Purposes, Port of 
London Sanitary ; and under the fifth head — Improvements and 
Finance, Streets, Sanitary and Accounts. 

A Visiting Committee is also appointed for the management of the 
City of London Lunatic Asylum, at Stone, near Dartford, Kent. 

22 2 The Common CounciL 

The Corporation is the Port Sanitary Authority for the Port of 
London, under the PubUc Health Act, 1875 (3^ and 39 Vic, cap. 54), 
and the Public Health (London) Act, 1891 (54 and 55 Vic, cap. 76); 
and entrusts its work to the Por( Sanitary Committee. 

The Court of Common Council makes the following appoint- 
ments : — 

Twelve Governors to each of the Royal Hospitals, namely : — 

St. Bartholomew's Hospital ; 

St. Thomas's Hospital ; 

Bridewell and Bethlem Hospitals ; and 

Christ's Hospital. 

Two Aldermen and four Commoners to serve on the Thames 
Conservancy Board. 

One Member to serve on the Lee Conservancy Board. 

A Manager of Aske's Charity, Hoxton. 

Four Trustees of the Mitchell City of London Charity. 

One Member (associated with the City Solicitor) to the Municipal 
Corporations' Association. 

Four Members of the Governing Body created by the Central 
Scheme made under the provisions of the City of London Parochial 
Charities Act, 1883 (46 and 47 Vic, cap. 36). 

Six Aldermen and twelve Commoners on the Board of Governors 
of the City and Guilds Institute for the advancement of Technical 
Education. One Alderman and two Commoners on the Council, and 
two Members on the Executive Committee, of the same. 

The Corporation is Patron of the following Livings:— 

St. Peter-upon-Cornhill. 

St. Margaret Pattens (alternately with the Crown). 

St. James, Dukes Place, and St. Catherine Cree (alternately 

with Magdalen College, Cambridge). 
St. Bartholomew, Bethnal Green. 
St. Mark, Victoria Docks. 
St. Peter, Bethnal Green. 
St. Mark, Clerkenwell, and 
St. Cyprian's, Lewisham (two turns in every three). 

The Common Council. 223 

The Court of Common Council (the Corporation being the Market 
Authority for London) controls the Corporation Markets; and also London 
Bridge, Southwark Bridge, Blackfriars Bridge, and the new Tower Bridge. 

This Court has the exclusive power of conferring the honorary 
freedom of the City, and of voting Corporate addresses to Royal and 
other distinguished personages. The majority of the City offices are in 
the gift of the Common Council, or its various Committees. 

In order to be eligible as a representative on the Common Council 
one must (first) be a Freeman of the City, and householder in the ward he 
seeks to represent, in other words, a person who being free of the City 
is rated for a house, paying scot and bearing lot. This is the ancient 
custumal qualification. Or (secondly) he must be a Freeman of the 
City and must occupy premises to the value of ^10 per annum in the 
ward he desires to represent, and must be on the annual Register of 
Parliamentary voters for the City of London, in respect to such premises; 
this is the statutory qualification. The qualifications of the electors are 
the same as those required in the candidates, except that the elector 
need not now be a Freeman of the City. 

The City of London is divided into twenty-five wards of unequal size ; 
Bassishaw, the smallest, has four representatives, and Farringdon Without, 
the largest, sixteen. Every Common Councilman ceases to hold office at 
midnight on the 20 December, and next day — St. Thomas's Day — the 
annual elections are held at the various Wardmotes which are summoned 
by precept of the Lord Mayor in accordance with the provisions of the 
Acts of Common Council 9 Henry VHI [a.d, 1517], and 8 May, 1840. 

The regulations for holding the wardmotes on St. Thomas' Day 
and the proceedings thereat, are as follows:- — -The alderman of the ward, 
or, in his unavoidable absence, the Lord Mayor, presides on this day. 
The wardmote, in each of the respective wards, being the same Court, 
is held in one uniform manner, and with one uniform course of 
proceeding. A week before the wardmote, a summons is left by the 
Beadle (who is a ward officer annually elected) with every inhabitant of 
the ward, requiring his attendance at the wardmote. 

At the time appointed for the opening of the wardmote, the Beadle 
makes the following proclamation : — 

" Oyez, Oyez, Oyez, All manner of persons who have anything to 
do at this court of wardmote for the ward of . . . holden here this day 

2 24 The Common Council . 

before the Worshipful (or Right Worshipful) . . . alderman of the said 
ward draw near and give your attendance. ( iod save the Queen. 

"All persons here present are commanded to keep silence whilst 
the precept is read on pain of imprisonment." 

The Lord Mayor's precept, which runs as follows, is then read : — 

"We charge and command you that upon St. Thotnas^s day the 
Apostle next coming you do hold your Wardmote, and that you have 
afore us at the (ieneral Court of Wardmote, to be holden at Guildhall 
the Monday next after the Feast of the Epiphany next coming, your 
return to this Precept ; except as hereinafter provided in respect of the 
return to be made of the names of the persons chosen to be of the 
Common Council of this City. 

" And that you cause to be chosen men, of the most sufficient 

and discreet men of your said Ward, to be for your said Ward of the 
Common Council of this City for the year ensuing, according to the 
custom in that behalf yearly used. 

"And also, that you do cause the said persons so elected, to make 
and subscribe a Declaration before you, and in your presence, in 
accordance with the provisions, etc., of the Promissory Oaths Act, 1868, 
the tenor of which 1 )eclaration is in your Wardmote Book. 

" And that you do make a return to the Town Clerk of this City 
of the names of the persons elected to be of the Common Council ; 
such return to be signed and deUvered at the time and in the manner 
prescribed by an Act of Common Council of the loth day of December, 
1857, together with a certificate of the names of all such elected 
Common Councilmen as shall not have made the said Declaration 
at your Wardmote. 

" And that also, in the said Wardmote, you cause to be chosen 
other person to be Beadle , according to the custom 
yearly used in that behalf. 

" Also, that you keep a Roll ot the names, surnames, professions, 
and trades of all persons occupying within your Ward, wherein the place 
of their occupation is to be specially noted, by street, lane, or alley. 

" And also, that you cause the Beadle within your ^^''ard from time 
to time to certify unto you the name, surname, profession, and trade of 
every person who shall be newly come to occupy within the ^^'ard, 

The Co?nmon Council. 


whereby you may make and keep your Roll perfect : and that you 
cause the said Beadle to that purpose to make and keep a perfect 
Roll in like manner. 

" Also, that no person keep any Public-house within your Ward 
that is not licensed at the Sessions, according to the statutes ; and that 
such Publicans do observe all the laws now in force for the regulation 
and good government of the several Public-houses within this City. 

" Also, that you have a special care of keeping the peace and good 
order during your Wardmote, and if any oftend herein, you fine or 
punish him or them according to law. 

" You are hereby enjoined to cause this Precept to be read at 
your Wardmote. 

"And whereas it has been customary to return the Names of the 
Common Councilmen without inserting the Companies of which they 
are free, by which some inconveniences have arisen : you are hereby 
required for the future to cause to be inserted in your Wardmote 
Indenture the Company of which each respective Common Councilman 
is a member : or, if a Freeman only, so state it. 

'" Dated at Guildhall, London, under the Seal of the office of 
Mayoralty of the said City, the day of in the 

year of the reign of our Sovereign Lady Victoria, by the 
grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland 
Queen, Defender of the Faith, and in the year of our Lord ." * 

The precept having been read, the election then proceeds of 
persons to serve in the Common Council. If a poll be demanded, the 
City of London Ballot Act, 1SS7, 50 and 51 \"\c, cap. 13, an Act 
promoted by the Corporation, defines the course of proceeding. 

In addition to the duty of electing Common Councilmen, a Beadle 
is elected (in some wards two), the alderman appoints his deputy and 
the ward clerk, the deputy submits the ward accounts for approval, and 
the estimate for the coming year's expenses, which done, the assembled 
citizens discuss ward and city matters, and if thought necessary pass 
resolutions thereon. The Wardmote is formally closed by the Beadle in 
the following manner : — 

* In Portsoken Ward, until 1S94, the precept ordered that an Inquest Jury 
should lie appointed for special purposes peculiar to the ward. 

2 26 The Com 111 on Council. 

" Oyez, Oyez, Oyez, All ye good men of the Ward of . . . sum- 
moned here to this Wardmote, may depart hence and give your 
attendance when again summoned, and hereof fail not. God save 
the Queen." 

By this custom of annual election, which has taken place from 
time immemorial, and the broadness of the electoral franchise, the 
Common Council is constituted the most democratic public body in 
the kingdom, and its strength is undoubtedly due to the fact, that it is 
thus ''broad based upon the people's will." 

Under the City of London (Various Powers) Act, 1900 (63 and 64 
Vic, cap. 228, sec. 59), a member can vacate his position at any time, 
by giving formal notice to the Town Clerk. Previously, it was necessary 
that he should absent himself from all meetings of the Court or its 
Committees for six months. 


In the search for material for the compilation of this book, many 
curious and interesting entries were discovered in some of the early 
Repertories and Letter Books. A few of these which are more intimately 
connected with the subject in hand are here given. They deal with such 
miscellaneous matters as the introduction of the Ballot Box — with its 
" yea " and " nay," its white " pese " and black — in the elections of the 
Mayor and Aldermen and on other occasions of "gravitie"; the setting 
of the time for the Court of Aldermen to sit and rise according to the 
season of the year ; the salutary restriction of the number of speeches 
permitted a member of the Court on any one subject of debate, to three, 
" unless upon especiall cause with leave of the Court " ; the punishment 
meted out to various citizens for insults offered to aldermen of their 
respective wards ; and lastly the stringent regulations as to the various 
articles of apparel of the Aldermen — their cloaks, gowns, boots, and 
chains — when sitting in Court, or taking their walks abroad. 

It will be noted that the aldermen of the " grey cloke " are often 

mentioned. It would seem that a grey cloak was the distinctive attire 

of the aldermen who had passed the chair ; these, until the year 1638, 

being the only aldermen who were justices. 

19 September, 17 Henry VIII [1525]. — Yt ys agreed that in all matPs con- 
cernyng aswell the Eleccon ofthe Mayre for the tyme beying, Eleccon of eny 
Aldreman & of all other mafs which afore this tyme have been used to be wrytten & 
tryed by the wey of scrutynye shall nowe from hensforth be tryed & used by the 
newe Gylte box brought in to this Court by M' Chambleyn Wheruppon ys been 
wrytten the Words ye nay pvided that the ordre shall contynewe for this yere oonely 
And aff that as this Court shall be content or discontent uppon the pvewe thereof. — 
Repertory 7, fo. 56b (42b). 

3 December, 24 Henry \'ni [1532]. — Also at this Court it is aggreed & 
decreed that in ev'^y matier of gravitie which shall passe or not passe by this Co'^te the 
box shall be brought in to the same And by puttyng in of the white pese or blak the 
matier to take effecte or not effecte in avoydyng of displeasur. — Repertory 8, 
o. 263. 

6 September. 1642. — Item it is thourt fitt & so ordered by this Co' that from 
henceforth the balloting Box shalbee used in this Court as formerly to declare theyr 
opinions and resolucons in speciall matte"^ to be expounded. — Repertory ^6, fo. 15. 

2 28 Miscellaneous Extracts. 

8 November, 33 Henry VIII [a.d. 1541]. — Itth yt is fully enacted & agreed 
by the consent of this hole Coiirte that my lorde maire & all my maisft the Aldren 
of this Cytie for the tyme being at all tymes herafter upon their usuall Court dayes 
w'in the said Cytie fro Mychelmas unto o"' ladie day in lent shall resorte & repaire 
hither for the same Courts to be kepte by ix of the clok And fro o'^ ladie day in lent 
untyll Mychelmas by viii of the clok in the forenone of ev'ye of the same courte dayes 
here to contynue untyll xj of the clok & then ev^ye of theim to depte at his pleasure. — 
Letter Book (?, fo. 41. Repertory 10, fo. 228b. 

3 November, 37 Henry VIII [a.d. 1545.]. — Item at this CoHe yt is fully & 
Resolutelye condescended enacted «& agreid by the same hole coUe that my lorde mayer 
& all my maisters th'aldren of this Cytie for the tyme beinge shall alwayes from 
hensforward come & Repayre hither for the kepynge of the same Co''te upon the usuall 
dayes therof at viij of the clok in the mornynge & then begynninge the same CoUe 
to sylt untyll xj of the clok at the seid Co''te & then ev'^ye of theym to depte att 
his pleasure wythoute blame. — Letter Book Q, fo. 150. 

12 May, 1663. — It is ordered and sett downe for a rule to bee hereafter duly 
observed in this Court That no member of the same shall speake above thrice upon 
debate of any one business, unlesse upon especiall cause with leave of the Court. — 
Repertory 6g, fo. 128b. 

On 7 November, 1676, it was ordered that the above order be " observed more 

16 July, 1669. — It is thought fitt & ordered by this Court as a rule to bee 
observed for the future That a Court of Aldren shall bee held the day next before every 
Coinon Counsell & that all bills Reports & matters to be preferred to that Coihon 
Councell shall bee brought to such Court of Aldermen to bee read pused and 
considered That nothing may bee moved or passed without due preparacon and 
Advice. — Repertory 74, fo. 223b. 

The following orders respecting dinners given by aldermen on St. 
Thomas' Day, seem to indicate that provisions were very scarce in both 
the reigns of Henry VIII and Elizabeth — or may it possibly have been 
that the aldermen passed the order to save themselves the annual 
expense of " sumptuous dyners ? " 

25 August, 26 Henry VIII [a.d. 1534]. — Where afore this tyme Th'ald''men of 
this Citie have used to make costely and sumptuous dyners at their sev^^all howses to 
the Wardemote enquest & Comon Counsayll of their sev'^all Wardes yerely upon 
Seint Thomas day th'appostell afore Christmas by reason whereof vitaills at the 
said feast of Christmas than ymedyatly approchyng at hande were wounte 
to be veray scante and hard to come by w'yn this Citie. In consideraCon 
whereof It ys by the full assent and agreament of this Co''te orderd and agreed And 
also for a lawe established at all tymes hereaff fermely to be obs'^ved & kept, That 
ev'^y Alderman of this Citie nowe beyng And they that shalbe here after made 
Alderman of the same Citie shall yerely upon the daye of Seint Thomas aforesaid 
ymediatly after the charge gyven to the wardemote enquest delyv-" unto unto his or 
their deputies yf he or they be ther p'sent — And yn their Absens to the foreman of the 
said wardemote enquest xxs st'linge the same twenty shillyngs to be applyed and 
Ijestowed towarde the charge of their household And the same xxs to be paide for 
and yn full satisfaccon of all rewarde to be gyven to the Wardmote enquest at the 
delyv'^e of their Indentures or at any other tyme upon payne of forfayture of fy ve 

Miscellaneous Extracts. 229 

pounds sterlinge to be paide to the use of this Citie by ev^y Alderman offending 
contrary to the teno' of this ordynaunce. And it is further ordered that noo Alderman 
of this Citie for the tyme beyng shall fromhensforth make any moo dyn'^s at their 
howses to the Wardemote enquests upon Seint Thomas daye aforesaide as afore this 
tyme hath bene accustomed upon lyke penaltie and forfaitur tobe paide as aforesaid. 
— Letter Book F, fo. 45 b. Repertory g, fo. 71. 

16 December, 15 Elizabeth [a.d. 1572I. Itm it was ordered that no Alderman 
shall make anye Jynner for the inhabytants of his Warde on S' Thomas daye contrarye 
to the acte of comen Counsell in that behalfe pvyded uppon the payne in the same act 
\ymy{\.QA.— Letter Book X, fo. 189. Repertory ly, fo. 419b. 

In early times the Aldermen had the power of summoning the 
reputable men of their Ward before them, to consult and advise them 
on matters touching the good of the city; the summons to attend was 
sent by the hands of the Ward Beadle, just as it is sent at the present 
day. In the year 1388 John ^^'alcote, the Alderman of Walbrook, 
ordered his beadle to go to the house of one Robert Staffertone and— 

" Request him to meet the said Alderman at the Church of St. Swithun in 
Candelwykstret, where he and many other reputable men had met together. . . . And the 
same bedel, going to the house of Robert Staffertone, requested him in the name of his 
master to attend, who thereupon made answer that he had nothing whatever to say to 
him, and that he would not come to him ; whereupon the bedel again asked him to 
come to the said Alderman ; to which he made reply, that he wished the Alderman him- 
self had come to him, and he might then have kissed his rearward ; and so he altogether 
refused to appear before the said Alderman. Upon which the bedel returned to his 
master, and informed him of the answer that had been given by the same Robert 
Staffertone, whereupon the Alderman thinking that he had used these words unadvisably 
and without thought, again sent the said bedel to him, but he still continued rebellious 
—and for the unbecoming words he had uttered the Mayor sent the said Robert 
Staffertone to prison."—/.,?//',?;- Book H. fo. 224. (Za/m.)— Riley's translation. 

Robert Staffertone was afterwards brought before the Mayor and 
Aldermen and confessed to his rebelliousness, and to having uttered 
the words before mentioned. 

" Wherefore conference having been held upon the matters aforesaid, seeing that 
the said words were expressly uttered as well in disparagement of our Lord the King, 
as to the scandal and dishonour of the Mayor, Sheriffs, Aldermen, and all the officers 
of the said city, and especially of such an officer as an Alderman, who represents the 
judicial status in the same ; and also, because that every freeman of the said city, when 
admitted to the said freedom, has been sworn that he will pay due obedience to the 
Mayor, Sheriffs, Aldermen, and all other officers thereof, for the time being etc. : it was 
adjudged that he, the said Robert Staffertone, should be imprisoned in Newgate for 
the next forty days unless he should find increased favour etc." 

The Alderman of the Ward personally entreated the Mayor and 

other Aldermen to show favour to Staffertone, which they did by 

ordering that — 

" He should be committed to prison until the morrow, namely Palm Sunday ; and 
on the same Sunday should be taken from the prison to his house aforesaid, and from 

Q 2 

230 Miscellaneous Extracts. 

the same house, between the eighth and ninth hour, before dinner, with his head 
uncovered, and attended by an officer of the City, should carry a Hghted wax candle, 
weighing two pounds, through Walbrok, Bokeleresbury, and so by the Conduit and 
Chepe, to S. Laurence Lane in the Old Jewry, and along that lane to the Chapel of the 
Guildhall aforesaid, and there make offering of the said wax candle — which done all 
further imprisonment was to be remitted to him, and forgiven." 

In the same year another case occurred, amusing in its way and 
worthy of being given in extenso — • 

"William Wottone, Alderman of the Ward of Douegate, on Saturday, the Eve 
of Pentecost, went to the Shambles of S. Nicholas in London, and seeing divers pieces 
of meat lying for sale at the shambles there of Richard Bole, butcher, asked the said 
Richard, at what price he sold the same, to which, he made answer, that 4 shillings 
was the price, \\Tiereupon the Alderman said, that the meat was too dear ; to which 
the said Richard made reply : — ' I do verily believe that the meat is too dear for thee ; 
who I suppose, never Vjought so much meat as that for thine own use' And thereupon, 
the said Richard immediately observing that William aforesaid was wearing a hood 
of the Alderman's pattern, and so knowing thereby that he was an Alderman, he 
further said to him : ' Art thou an Alderman ? ' to which the other answered : ' Yea ; 
why askest thou?' whereupon he said : ' It is a good thing for thee and thy fellows, 
the Aldermen, to be so wise and wary, who make but light of riding on the pavement, 
as some among ye have been doing.' For which words so uttered, upon the plaint made 
by the Alderman aforesaid the said Richard, by precept of the Mayor was committed 
to the prison of Newgate.' Afterwards, the same Richard was brought into the Chamber 
of the Guildhall and confessing, put himself upon the favour of the Court, who ordered 
that he be imprisoned in Newgate for half a year, and that on leaving prison, ' with his 
head uncovered, and bare legs and feet, he should carry in his hand a wax torch, 
weighing one pound, and lighted, from Newgate through the Shambles aforesaid, and 
so straight through Chepe, as far as S. Laurence Lane, and through that lane to the 
Chapel of the Guildhall' and there make offering of the same." Letter Book H, 
fo. 226. {Latin) — Riley's translation. 

The following is a sixteenth century extract : — 

Butler, Mayor, 8 Henry VIII [a.d. 151 7]. " fforasmoche as Richard Hampton 
Sherman of his owne confession ys laufuUy atteynt afore the Mayer & Aldremen in the 
Inn'^Chamb for that he hathe spoken disuse sedicons schlaunderous & obpbrious words 
of Maister Milborn Aldremen in Rebuke & Repche of the sam'e Maister Milborn 
contr^y to his othe & obedience &c. Therefore yt ys adiuged by this Court that the 
seid Hampton shalbe hadde from this place to the Gaole of Newgate ther to Remayn 
by the space of xl dayes to be acompted from the day of his ffirst Comyssion to the 
seid Gaole And Aff that uppon the next Market day aff the seid xl dayes The seid 
Hampton being barehed barelegged & bare feete w' a ceduUe uppon his brest 
hav}'ng thees Words, for Slaundro^ & Sedicious Words spoken of an Aldreman, to be 
hade from Newgate w' a tap of waxe in his hand of a ft of his owne coost. And so 
thourgh oute all Chepe & to Seynt Anthonyes the well w' ij boketts to lendenhall & so 
doun CornehuU & thourgh Seynt Laurence lane & to the Chapell of the Guyldhall & 
there to offer up the seid tap And afl"^ this the seid Imp'sonem* of xl dayes was 
Remytted forasmoch as the said Hampton humbly uppon his knees submytted hym to 
this Court and also to Maister Milburn requiryng the seid Court to instaunce the seid 
Masf Milburn to pdon & forgeve hym the same offens Then pmyttyng that duryng 
hys lyfte he wold well behave hym agenst the seyd Maisf Milburn and theruppon yt 
was farther considered by this Court that the seid Hampton shuld make a Recognic'^ 
as here aft'folowyth." [Here follows the recognizance.] — {Letter Book N, fo. 25b.) 

Miscellaneous Extracts. 


The following case is that of an assault upon the Alderman of 
Cripplegate by one who had been the Alderman of Cheap Ward : — 

8 November, 1576. — " Itm Sr. Thomas Lodge knighte for that he this pse.. 
day did unadvisedlye give unto Mr. John Braunche Alderman of this Cittye a blowe 
on the face, nere unto the utter Courte of the Guildhall of this Cittye, was by the 
Courte here this daye commytted to Newgate, for the said offence there to remaine 
untyll this Courte shall take furder order not onlye for his deliverye but also for his 
further fyne and punishment, as this Courte shall thinke meete for his said offence." 

1607. [21 Jan.] — ^John Read for indecent speeches and behaviour towards the 
Alderman of Cripplegate ward, in Court of wardmote, was dismissed by the Court of 
aldermen, to be of the Common Council, and a new one to be chosen in his stead. — 
Rep. 28, fo. 149. 

19 .September 1620. " Item. John Eldertield [and others] for stopping S"' 
I'rauncis Jones [an alderman] his Coach in the streete and for assaulting his coachman 
were by this Courte comitted to the Gaole of Newgate there to remaine till other 
order be taken for their enlargem'^" — Repertory 34, fo. 553. 

Pulling, in his Laivs and Customs (p. 31), says that : "Anciently it 
was considered that if anyone spoke opprobriously of an alderman, he 
might be punished for the contempt by imprisonment, and if a freeman, 
might be disfranchised ; but this was declared not to be legal, although 
such conduct may still be punished by fine, provided, it is presumed, 
that the offence related to the alderman in his official capacity." 


29 November, 35 Henry VIII [A.D. 1543]. — Item yt is this daye for dyv'^se 
Reasonable mete & convenyente Consyderacons & causes movynge the co'te accorded 
& agreid by the same that abwell ev'^ye of my maisters th'aldren that nowe be which 
heretofore hath beyn Mayer & all those that herafter shalbe Mayers of this Cytie as 
all & ev'^ye other Aldfan of the same Cytie w'^'' nowe are or herafter shalbe knights 
shall were their Cheynes of golde about their necks outwardly w"'owte the colo''s of 
their gounes And that they or enye of theym shall not at eny tyme from hensefor- 
ward goo abrode into this Cytie outc of the Compas of the sev'^all pishes where they 
nowe dwell & hereafter shall dwell but that ev'^ye of theym shall have ij savants at the 
leste weytinge upon hym upon payne of forfeyture of vj^ viij'' for ev'^ye offence in this 
behalf to be paied furthw"' upon the demaunde therof to the hands of the Chambleyn 
of the seid Cytie for the tyme being withoute pdon or dyspensacbn to the use of the 
Coialtye of the seid Cytie. And that e'^y Aldr'an that now is or that herafter shalbe 
Aldfan of the Cytie aforseid shall not depte owte of the p'^cyncte of the pishe where he 
now dwellyth or herafter shall dwell into eny other ptes of this Cytie but that he shall 
were his Typpet of velvett openly aboute his neck & have one s'^vante at the leste 
weyting upon hym upon the payn above Remembryd for ev'^ye suche suche his offence 
the same forfeyture to be payed and imployed in man'' & forme before rehersed. — 
Letter Book Q, fo. 94b. Repertory 11, fo. 14b. 

28 November, 3 Elizabeth [a.d. 1560]. — Item yt was this daye orderyd enactyd 
and agreyd that th'acte of this CoUe made the [blank] of November in the tyme of the 
mayraltye of the right woShipfull S'' Wyllyam Howyer knyght towchinge my maisters 
th'aldrenien of this Cyttye for and concernynge the wearynge of their cheynes of golde 

232 Miscella7ieoiis Extracts. 

and Typytts of velvytt and hav)nge s^vaunts waytynge upon them when they doo goe 
abrode in the Cyttye for and after the firste daye of Decemb nowe next comynge be 
duly obs^ved and putte in execucon accordynge to the true teno'' therof And over that 
yt was also orderyd and decreyd by the saide Co'^te here this day that whensoever 
twoo or three of my said maysters th'aldren that nowe are or that hereafter shalbe 
Aldren of the sayd Cyttye shalbe appoyntyd and sent together to the co'te or to evy 
of the quenes highnes moste honorable counsayll for or about th'afiayres or busynes of 
the sayd cyttye, that then in every suche case every of them the said Aldren so to be 
appoynted and sent shall use and behave themself accordynge to the forme and effecte 
of the said former acte, And further that none of my said maysters th'aldremen that 
nowe are or hereafter shalbe Aldremen of the sayd Cyttye being in good healthe of 
bodye shall sturre or goe abrode in the daye tyme oute of the precyncte of the parishe 
where he nowe dwellyth or that he shall hereafter dwell in any nyght gowne w' a 
playne back, and also that all and every of the said Aldremen that nowe are or that 
hereafter shalbe Aldremen of the sayd Cyttye shall alweys from hensforthe uppon 
payne of incurrynge into the penaltyes of the sayde former acte mencyonyd for every 
of the said offences accordynge to the true meanyng of the said former acte uppon 
Christemas daye, Easter daye and uppon all the residue of the pryncypall feest dayes 
use and weare their skarlytt gownes when they doe goe to their yishe churches to 
heare dyvyne s^vyce and noe gowne or gownes of clothe of eny other colo'' uppon lyke 
payne. — Letter Book T, fo. 14. Repertory i^, fo. 417. 

29 September, 38 Henry VIII [a.d. 1596J.— Item yt is also agreid that all my 
Maisters the Aldermens wyfes shall from hensforthe upon Mychaelmas daye go in 
their Scarlett gownes & not in enye other colour. — Letter Book Q, fo. i86b. 

27 February, 1610. — Item whereas an aunciente kinde of habite and ornament 
doth pticulerly belonge, and hath usually bene appropriated to such Aldermen as have 
bene Lord Maiors of this Cittie and theire Ladies, to be by them worne on certen 
festivall daies, as likewise an other different habile to such Aldermen as have not 
attayned to that height of aucthoritie and governement and theire wyves Which 
severall kinds of habite have noi of late yeres bene used and worne, in that peculier 
and distinct forme and manner as hath bene accustomed. This Courte therefore have 
ordered and thought good, that the right ho : the Lord Maio'^ calling unto his D' such 
Aldermen as he shall ihinck fytt shall and may consider and determyne of such orders 
and customes of habite and ornament as they in theire wisdomes shall thinck meete to be 
worne and observed by the Aldermen and theire wyves as aforesaid in theire severall 
kinds and according to their severall places and callings. — Repertory sg, fo. i8ob. 

28 October, 1631. — Item this daie diverse thinges were sagely propounded unto 
this Court by a grave Senator of the same tendinge much to the preservacon of the 
dignilie and gravitie of the Magistracie within this Cittie, and of this Court in the 
observacon of theire antient habites, and the good and laudable Orders of this Court 
made for the better government thereof. Whereupon by and w"' a generall good 
likeinge of this Court It was ordered as followeth. That is to say, 

I. — That noe Alderman shall from henceforth come into this Court and sitt in 
Councell with his Cloake or in his boates without speciall leave of this Court first 
obtayned nor shall move or speake in any cause with his hatt on or sittinge upon pane 
of Six shillings eight pence for everie tyme soe offendinge. 

2. — That noe Alderman shall from henceforth come upon the Royall Exchange 
duringe the tyme of Exchange in his Cloake or in his bootes but in his Aldermans 
gowne, And if hee be a Gray Cloake then alsoe with his chayne thereby to be knowne 
from others. 

Miscellaneous Extracts. 233 

3. — That all and everie the Aldermens & Sheriffs wifes shall from henceforth 
upon the Lord Maiors dale at Easter to the Spittle Sermons and at all other solempne 
and publique meetinges within this Cittie, festivall dales and tymes when theye shalbe 
invited to the Lord Maiors or Sheriffes shall weare theirehoode and other theire grave 
and Comlye vestments. — Repertory 4j, fo. 569. 

20 January, 1642. — Item this day this Court was mooved in the behalf of S' 
William Acton kn' and Barronett for and concerning his place of precedency amongst 
the Aldren who by antitjuity and according to his ranck should have undergone and 
taken upon him the honour and charge of the place of Maioraltie of this Cittie before 
S"' Edmond Wright kn' and Aldran if he had beene thereunto elected by the Comons 
of this Cittie for the deciding and clearing of which Question it is resolved and agreed 
by this Court y' he the saiil Sir William Acton ought to take his place and rancke 
within this Cittie and elsewhere when he attends upon any occasion as an Aldran am^' 
other his Brethren next after the youngest Aldran of the Gray cloakes and before any 
of the Calaber Cloakes according to his rancke and degree and not otherwise. — 
Repertory ^j, fo. 345. 

16 June, 1646.— Item It is agreed and soe ordered by this Court that from henceforth 
noe Alderman shall walke in the streetes w>''in this City w"'out a man attending upon 
him, unlesse it be upon some sudden and earnest occasion. — Repertory j8, fo. 140b. 

27 February, 1649. — Item It is ordered by this Court that the Aldermen which 
shall hereafter bee invited to the funerall of an Aldran or the wife of an Aldran, and 
shall not have morning Gownes given them shall from henceforth weare their violett 
gownes att such funeralls and to the funerall of any Comoner their blacke Gownes and 
not to goe & attend the Corpes in their Cloakes as of late hath bin w%e(\.— Repertory 
59^ fo- 352. 

10 November, 1657.— It is thought fitt and Ordered by this Court that hereafter 
when anie of the Aldren of this Cittie shalbe upon anie publique occasion or meetinge 
with the Companies whereof they are free they shall weire their \'iolett Gownes for 
the distinction and dignitie of their place cS: office exceptinge at such solempnities 
when they have used to goe habited in Scarlett. — Repertory 66, fo. 3. 

12 January, 1658.— Some question beinge moved touchinge the Habitts of the 
Aldren at ffuneralls. It is now agreed & Ordered that hereafter att ffuneralls w"'in this 
Cittie & Libties where anie Aldren shalbe p'sent. they shall (if they be not mourners) 
goe habited in their Violett Gownes for more decency and distinction of their place 
& degree. — Repertory 66, fo. 23b. 

19 November, 1668.— This Court considering of w' importance it is to y" Gov'" 
to maintaine thoses formes of state & gravity w^'' have been antiently observed 
amongst ye Aldren of this City, did now, for reviving thereof in one pticular of late 
times discontinued, agree cS: order y' none of my M'^ the Aldren shall henceforth goe 
to theire Parish Churches within y«= City & libties but in their Gownes according to 
an order of y<= Court of y<= 28"' of November 3'' Eliz. 1561 and other former orders in 
that behalfe. — Repertory 7^, lo. isb. 

12 January, 1669. This Court doth conceive it comely & convenient & 
accordingly order that my Maisters y'^ Aldren shall goe habited in their violett 
Gounds at all times hereafter when they or any of them attend any ffunerall (where 
they are not mourners) within this City & XihiiQS.— Repertory 74, fo. 55. 

2 34 The Election of Mayor, 


Until 1376 the Mayor for the time being was elected by the 
Aldermen and Sheriffs conjointly with the " whole Commonalty," or 
with a deputation from the various wards. In that year an Ordinance 
was passed transferring the right of election to members selected 
by the Rulers of the Guilds, their number varying according to the 
status of each Guild. This mode of election continued until 1384, 
when it was placed in the hands of the Common Council and " other 
men of the wards thereunto summoned." In 1467 the Guilds were 
again to the fore, the election being ordered to be made by the 
Common Council, the Master and Wardens of each Mistery coming 
in their livery, and by "other good men specially summoned"; and 
the Livery continued to play an important part in each election until 
1 65 1, when an x^ct of Common Council again placed the right of 
election in the hands of the Aldermen and Common Council. 

Notwithstanding this Act, however, we find the Livery, a few years 
later, again exercising the right of election, and for a long time after- 
wards much friction continued to exist between the Guilds and the 
Wards, until the rights of the Livery were established by an Act of 
Parliament a.d. 1725 (11 Geo. I.). 

The day of election of Mayor has been altered at various times. 
Formerly the election took place on the Feast of St. Simon and St. Jude 
(28 October). In 1346, it was changed to the Feast of the Translation 
of Edward the Confessor (13 October). Twenty years later, an order 
was made to revert to the old custom ; but this order was soon ignored, 
and the election, until the year 1546, took place on the 13 October, 
when the election was ordered to take place thenceforth on Michaelmas 
iJay. This date has remained unchanged to the present time. 

There is only one case on record of a Major not being an alderman ; 
— Nicholas Brembre was elected in 1383, and at that time was not 
alderman of any ward, although in the previous year and again in the 
year following his election, he is recorded as Alderman of Bread Street 
Ward. — Letter Book H^ fos. 140, 163, 174. 

An order was made in 1383 [7 Richard II] "That no person shall 
from henceforth be Mayor in the said city, if he have not first been Sheriff 
of the said city, to the end that he may be tried in governance and bounty 
before he attains such estate of the Mayoralty." — Liber Albus, fo. 241b. 

The Election of Sheriffs. 


Although it is commonly supposed that no citizen has occupied 
the Mayoralty Chair without having previously served as Sheriff, the 
following list proves that supposition to be erroneous. 

John le Blund - - - Mayor 1 301-130 7. 

Nicholas de Farndone - ,, 130S, 1313, i3::o, 1323. 

John de Wengrave - - ,, 1 316, 131 7, 13 18. 

Richard de Betoigne - ,, 1326. 

Simon de Swanlond - - „ 1329. 

John Pulteney - - - „ 1330, 1331, 1333, 1336. 

Adam Fraunceis 

^OD^5 ^ODO- 

Sir John Eyles - - - „ 1687 (appointed by James II). 


Until the commencement of the 14th century, the Sheriffs were 
elected by the Mayor, Aldermen, and the " Commonalty " of the City. 
In 1 30 1, an attempt was made to restrict the number of electors to 
twelve representatives of each AN'ard, but this, like other subsequent 
attempts, proved unsuccessful. In 1347, is met with, for the first time, 
a new method of procedure. In that year, one of the Sheriffs was 
elected by the Mayor, and the other by the Commonalty, and this 
prerogative of the Mayor for the time being, to elect one of the Sheriffs 
continued to be exercised with few, if any, exceptions, down to 163S. 
From J 642 to 1651, the Mayor's claim to elect a Sheriff was always 
contested. For the year 1652, and for some years afterwards, the 
Mayor neither nominated nor elected a Sheriff; but, in 1662, when he 
would have elected one Bludworth as Sheriff, the Commonalty claimed 
their right, although they accepted the Mayor's nominee. The preroga- 
tive thus claimed by the Mayor, although frequently challenged, was 
exercised for the most part by subsequent Mayors down to 1674, when 
exception was taken to \Mlliam Roberts, whom the Mayor had forjnally 
nominated (according to a custom which is said to have arisen in the time 
of Elizabeth) by drinking to him at a public banquet. In the following 
year, and for some years later, the Mayor exercised his prerogative of 
electing one of the Sheriffs without opposition. 

In 1703, an Act was passed declaring the right of election of 
Sheriffs to be in the Liverymen of the several Companies of the City in 
Common Hall assembled ; and further, that it should be lawful for the 
Lord Mayor for the time being, from and after the 14 April until the 
14 June in every year, to nominate in the presence of the Aldermen a tit 
and able person being a freeman, to serve as Sheriff: and in the event 

236 The Election of Sheriffs. 

of refusal, to nominate another. By an Act of 1748 the Lord Mayor 
might continue to nominate in this manner to the extent of nine persons 
in the whole. And thus the elections of Sheriffs for London and 
Middlesex were carried on (with but slight modifications) until 1878, 
when by an Act of Common Council, all Acts, Orders, and Ordinances 
regulating or enforcing the nomination or election to the Shrievalty were 
repealed, and it was declared (inter alia) — that the right of election to 
the office of Sheriff should vest in the Liverymen of the several Com- 
panies of the City, in Common Hall assembled. And further, that 
between the 14th day of March and the 14th day of May in every year, 
the Lord Mayor should, in the Court of Aldermen, nominate one or 
more Freeman or Freemen of the City (not exceeding three in the whole) 
to be publicly put in nomination for the Shrievalty, to the Liverymen in 
Common Hall assembled, such nomination to remain in force for five 
years. Every Alderman who has not served the office of Sheriff is, 
ipso facto, in nomination for the office, in priority to any other person, 
and it is competent for any two members of the Common Hall to 
nominate any Freeman of the City of London to the said office. 

By the Local Government Act, 1888, the right to elect a Sheriff of 
Middlesex was taken out of the hands of the citizens of London, to 
whom it had been expressly granted by various Charters, 

The day of election of Sheriffs has varied from time to time. \\\ 
the 13th century the election commonly took place on or about 
Michaelmas Day. During the first half of the next century it occasion- 
ally took place on St. Matthew's Day [2 1 September] but more often 
on Michaelmas Eve ; whilst in the latter half of the century and for 
many years afterwards the Sheriffs were elected on St. Matthew's Day, 
and presented in the King's Exchequer on or about Michaelmas Day. 
In the reign of Henry VHI, the day of election appears to have been 
changed to the i August, the Feast of St. Peter ad Vincula, and this 
continued to be the date of election down to 1585, when an Act was 
passed (27 May, 27 Eliz.) enacting (inter alia) that the elections of 
Sheriffs should thenceforth take place on the 24 June, as they are at the 
present day. 

The Sheriffs are described in Liber Albiis (fol. iib.) as the "eyes 
of the Mayor," ever on the watch, and taking their share of the anxieties 
which the said Mayor, as being but one individual, would be insufficient 
to encounter. 





Aleyn, Thomas - - - 
Avenon, Alexander 

Avery, Samuel - - - 

Bamme, Adam - - - 

Banquell, John de - - 

Basingstoke, Richard de 
Bathurst, Sir Benjamin - 

Bigg, Walter - - - - 

Blachford, John - - - 

Botiller, John - - - 

Braunche, John - - - 

Bret, Robert le - - - 

Bromsall, Thomas - - 

Browne, Sir William - 
Cantelowe, William 

Carleton, Thomas - - 

Cartwright, John - - 

Catcher, John - - - 

Challis, Thomas - - 

Chiverton, Sir Richard - 

Cooke, Nicholas - - 
Costantyn, Richard 

Cottone, Walter - - 

Livery Company. 

Mercer - - - 

Ironmonger - 
Goldsmith - - 

Dale Elected, or 
first mentioned. 



Goldsmith - - 

Mercer - - - 

Draper - - - 

Goldsmith - - 

Draper - - - 

Mercer - - - 

Mercer - - - 

Broderer - - 

Fishmonger - 

Pewterer - - 

Butcher - - 

Skinner - - 
Innholder - 

Draper - - - 

— Jan., 
31 Mar., 
17 June, 
12 Mar., 

16 Oct., 
24 Nov., 

9 ^lay, 
— June, 

6 Nov., 

24 June, 

16 July, 

27 May, 

12 Mar., 

29 Sept., 

I April, 

6 Oct., 

I Oct., 

6 Oct., 



558 { 







Regnal Vear. 

4 Henry V) 

4 and 5 Philip 
and Mary) 

21 Charles I) 

7 Richard II) 

14 Edward I) 
21 Edw. Ill) 
35 Charles II) 
Com'n wealth) 
16 George II) 

I Henry \T) 
13 Elizabeth) 

5 Edward III) 

15 Henry VII) 
24 Henry VI) 
5 Richard II) 
33 George II) 
30 Elizabeth) 

7 Victoria) 
15 Charles II) 

II Edw. Ill) 
— Henry IV) 


The Aldermen of Cripplegate IJ^ard. 


Liverj- Company. 

jjate i-viectea, or 

first mentioned. 

Regnal Year. 

Cranmer, Samuel - - 

Brewer - - - 


Mar., ] 

[632 ( 

7 Charles I) 

Davyson, Davy - - - 

Grocer - - - 



[657 ( 


Delawood, 'William- - 


July, ] 

687 ( 

3 James H) 

Duncombe, William - 

Mercer - - - 


Mar., 1 

1667 ( 

19 Charles H) 

Elkyn, William - - - 

Mercer - - - 

28 Oct., 


[28 Elizabeth) 

Esdaile, Sir James - - 

Cooper - - - 

6 Feb., 


J George HI) 

Estfield, ^\^illiam - - 

Mercer - - - 




[2 Henry VI) 

Evote, William - - - 

Draper - - - 


Mar., ] 

394 ( 

17 Richard II) 

Exmewe, Thomas - - 

Goldsmith - - 




24 Henry VII) 

Forman, A\'illiam - - 

Haberdasher - 




20 Hen. VIII) 

Forth, John - - - - 

Brewer - - - 


Feb., ] 

668 ( 

20 Charles II) 

Fowle, Thomas - - - 

Goldsmith - - 



[686 ( 

2 James II) 

Frowyck, Henry de 

Pepperer - - 


- - ) 

276 ( 

5 Edward I) 

Fynchingfeld, A\'alter de 

Goldsmith - - 


- - ] 

292 ( 

20 Edward I) 

Hampson, Robert - - 



Feb., ] 

597 ( 

39 Elizabeth) 

Hawes, Christopher 

Mercer - - - 

16 Oct., ] 

506 ( 

22 Henry VII) 

Hayford, Humphry 

Goldsmith - - 


Dec, ] 

470 ( 

49 Henry VI) 

Hayward, Rowland - - 

Cloth worker - 




9 Elizabeth) 

Heather, John - - - 

Grocer - - - 





Heylin, Rowland - - 

Ironmonger - 




22 James I) 

Hodges, Henry - - - 

Dyer - - - 

1 1 


:657 ( 


Holliday, William - - 

Mercer - - - 




^14 James I) 

Hudson, John - - - 

Upholder - - 




22 James I) 

Hynde, Augustine - - 

Clothworker - 



'547 ( 

[1 Edward Xl) 

Hyngeston, John de - 

Goldsmith - - 


- - ] 

334 ( 

8 Edward III) 

Isaack, A\'illiam - - - 



1487 < 

2 Henry VII) 

Knight, Henry Edmund 

Spect'cle Mak"r 




38 Victoria) 

Langham, Samuel - - 

(irocer - - - 



657 ( 


LethieuUier, Sir John - 

Barber Surgeon 




28 Charles II) 

Lewis, Samuel - - - 


26 Oct., 

[658 ( 


Loveye, John - - - 

Mercer - - - 



.388 < 

II Richard II) 

Lucas, Robert - - - 

Goldsmith - - 



[377 ( 

51 Edw. Ill) 

Maryns, John - - - 




49 Edw. Ill) 

Methold, William - - 

Skinner - - 


Sept., 1 

647 ( 

23 Charles I) 

Milner, Tempest - - 



Sept., ] 

653 ( 


Mitford, John de - - 

Draper - - - 


- - ] 

368 ( 

39 Edw. HI) 

Overman, Thomas - - 

Leatherseller - 


April, 1 

624 ( 

22 James I) 

Pack, Christopher - - 

Draper - - - 


Oct., ] 

647 ( 

2 7, Charles I) 

The Alderme7i of Cripp legate lizard. 



Livery Company. 

Uate Jilected, or 
first mentioned. 

Regnal Year. 

Pnnfpfrnpt" \Villir>m c\t^ - 


;i7 Edw. Ill) 

X WilL^ll (Xl.y tj ' » lillcllll \X\Z 

- _ - 

Robinson, John - - 

Clothworker - 

7 Dec, 



Sambrooke, Sir Jeremy 

^ July. 


(3 James II) 

Seccheford, Henry de - 

- - - 


'10 Edw. Ill) 

Shaa, Edmund - - - 

Goldsmith - - 

16 July, 


,13 Edw. IV) 

Shorter, Sir John - - 

Goldsmith - - 

4 July, 


(28 Charles II) 

Skinner, Thomas - - 

Clothworker - 

27 July, 


38 Elizabeth) 

Staines, ^Villiam - - 

Carpenter - - 

ID April, 

'793 < 

33 George III) 

Stampe, Sir Thomas - 

Draper - - - 

9 Oct., 


^4 James II) 

Stede, WilUam - - - 

Grocer - - - 

7 May, 


,19 Henry VI I) 

Stewart, WilHam - - 

Barber Surgeon 

31 July, 

711 ( 

10 Anne) 

Stokton, John - - - 

Mercer - - - 

— Nov., 


(i Edward IV) 

Suffolk, Ehas de - - 

Goldsmith - - 

- . - 


7 Edward II) 

Swynnerton, John - 


22 June, 


(44 Elizabeth) 

Tilney, Ralph - - - 

Grocer - - - 

7 Nov., 


i Henry VII) 

Towse, John - - - 

Grocer - - - 

10 Nov., 


^16 Charles I) 

Warbulton, Robert - - 

12 Mar., ] 

378 ( 

I Richard II) 

White, Robert - - - 

Leatherseller - 

20 Aug., ] 

657 ( 


Whyte, John - - - 

Grocer - - - 

30 Aug., 1 

554 [ * 

I and 2 Philip 
and Mary) 

WiUiams, Sir John - - 

Mercer - - - 

20 June, 

723 ( 

9 George I) 

Wodecok, John - - 

Mercer - - - 

- - - ] 


'3 Henry IV) 

\Vood, Matthew - - 

Fishmonger - 

14 Sept., ] 

807 ( 

47 George III) 

Wormwell, WilUam 

Vintner - - 

8 Sept., 1 

657 ( 


Worstede, Simon de - 

Mercer - 

- - - ] 

348 ( 

22 Edw. Ill) 

Wyndout Thomas - - 

Mercer - - - 

9 April, ] 

499 ( 

14 Hen. VII) 

Wyndsore, John de 

- - - ] 

307 ( 

I Edward II) 


Abbutt, Morns, bo. 

Abney, Sir Thos., 201. 

Acton, Sir William, 185, 233. 

Alderman, Edwin, deputy. ii5- 

Aldermanbury, conduit in, 30. 

Aldermen, annual elections of, i, 
19, 139. 155; election of, for life, 
2, 25, 140, 156; remove from one 
ward 'to another, 2, 192 ; fines for 
discharge of, 3,4, 177; committal of, 
to Newgate, 45, I45> '77; discharges 
of, 53, 59, 60, 63, 68, 69, 70, 71. 
77, 78, 79, 82, 83, 141, 142,. 186- 
191 ; dismissal of, 76 ; origin of 
office of, 137; qualification of, 141, 
142, 143 ; to belong to one of the 
principal companies, 144 ; "ot more 
than six of one company, 144, 151 ! 
committal of, for refusing to change 
their companies, 145; two persons to 
be nominated in elections of ; in- 
creased to four, 148, 157 ; nominations 
for. rejected by the Court of, 148-154 : 
to be two years in one ward before 
removing to another, 149, 151, '94; 
manner of election of, 154-^59; 
two aldermen and two commoners 
to be nominated in elections of, 158 ; 
two persons only to be nominated, 
id., directly elected by the Wards, 
159 ; attempts at reform in elections 
of, 159-161 ; swearing in of, 162; 
created Justices of the Peace, 171 ; 
exempt from Juries, 173 ; to reside 
in the City, 173-176, 187; punish- 
ment for refusing office of, 177-181 ; 
punishment and power of dismissal 
of, 182 ; •' iij clokes of aldremanship, 
184 ; power of removal of, from one 
ward to another, 192-203 ; of Port- 
soken and Bridge Without, 198; 
table of contested elections in the 
several wards, 204; table of va- 
cancies, &c., in the several wards, 
205 ; early use of ballot box in court 
of, 227 ; not'to speak more than three 

times in court, 227, 228; hours of 
meeting of court of, id. ; punishment 
for slandering, 229; punishment for 
assaulting, 231 ; official dress of, 163, 
169, 184, 227, 231-233. 
and see Holy Trinity, Priors of. 
Aldermen : — 

Abbutt, Morris, 60. 
Abney, Sir Thomas, 201. 
Acton, Sir William, 185, 233. 
Aleyn, Thomas, 29. 
AUeyn, Ralph, 184. 
Allot, Sir John, 49. 
Alsop, Robert, 95. 
Altham, James, 184. 
" Altwold," I. 

Ashurst, Sir William, 195, 201. 
Avenon, Sir Alexander, 47, 196. 
Averell, Henry, 198. 
Avery, Samuel, 63. 
Aylife, Sir John, 198. 
Aylmer, Sir Laurence, 183. 
Bacon, James, 193. 
Baker, William, 201. 
Bamme, Adam, 22, 24, 195, 196. 
Banquell, John de, 2, 11, 192. 
Barne, Sir George, 196. 
Basingstoke, Richard de. 17, 18. 
Bateman, Anthony, 194- 

Bathurst, Sir Benjamin, 79, 81. 

Baylis, Sir Robert, 201. 

Bellamy, Sir Edward, 201. 

Benn, William, 95. 

Bigg, Walter, 71. 

Billers, Sir William, 201, 203. 

Billingsley, Sir Henry, 55. 

Blachford, John, 4, 94- 

Bludworth, Sir Thomas, 194. 

Botiller, John, 2, 30. 

Bowes, Sir Martin, 196. 

Braunche, Sir John, 51, 193, 231. 

Breffitt, Edgar, 105, 154- 

Bret, Robert le, 14. 

Bromsall, Thomas, 69. 

Brown, John, 190. 

Browne, Sir John, 41. 



Aldermen — continued. 

Browne, Sir William, the elder, 


Sir William, 41. 

Bury, Adam de, 182. 
Cambell, Robert, 200. 
Cantelowe, William, 34. 
Canynges, Thomas, 182. 
Garden, Sir Robert Walter, 202. 
Carleton, Thomas, 21. 
Carter, John, 117. 
Cartwright, John, 4, 95. 
Catcher, John, 53, 55. 
Challis, Thomas, 4, 104, 135, 

202, 203. 
Chamberlain, John, 180. 
Chester, Sir William, 192, 196. 
Chiverton, Sir Richard, 2, 73;;, 

74, 193, 196. 
Cokayne, Francis, 94. 

Sir William, 196. 

Colet, Sir Henry, 40, 187, 194, 

196, 197. 
Conyers, Sir Gerard, 85, 201. 
Cooke, Nicholas, 4, 70, 175. 
Cooke, Coke, Sir Thomas, 36, 

Copeland, William Taylor, 202. 
Costantyn, Richard, 17, 128. 
Cotton, Sir W. J. Richmond, 

Cottone, Walter, 29. 
Cowper, John, 199, 200. 
Cranmer, Samuel, 62. 
Croke, John, 36;/. 
Curtes, Thomas, 145. 
Dakin, Sir Thomas, 202. 
Dashwood, Sir Samuel, 195. 
Davies, Sir Thomas, 195. 
Divyson, Davy, 71. 
Delawood, William, 83. 
Dere, William, 34. 
Dodmer, Raufe, 145. 
Duke, Sir James, 202. 
Duncombe, Sir Charles, 195. 

■ William, 76, 185. 

Edwin, Sir Humphrey, 195. 
Elkyn, William, 53. 
Ellis, Sir J. Whittaker, 203. 
Esdaile, Sir James, 4, 96, 99. 
Estfield, Sir'William, 30, 58. 
Evans, Sir David, 203. 
Evote, William, 2, 25, 156. 
Exmewe, Sir Thomas, 42. 
Eyles, Sir John, 201. 
Eyre, Sir Simon, 196. 
Fabyan, Stephen, 141, 178. 
Farebrother, Charles, 202. 
Fenn, Richard, 175. 
Finnis, Thomas Quested, 202. 
Forman, Sir William, 44, 150. 
Forth, "Dannett," 77. 

John, 73;/, 75, 77, 113, 

Fowle, Sir Thomas, 2, 82. 
Frowyck, Henry de. i. 9. 11. 12. 

Sir Henry, 10. 

Laurence de, i. 

Fynchingfeld, Walter de, 12, 

Gabriel, Sir Thomas, 202. 
Gardyner, Richard, 192. 
Gedeney, John, 177. 
Gibbons, Sir Sills John, 117. 
Goodyere, Henry, 190. 
Gostlyn, Sir William, 195. 
Green, Frank, 140. 
Grenaway, Ralph, 199. 
Gresham, Sir Richard, 44, 50. 
Gylbert, Edmund. 184. 
Halden, William de, 192. 
Hamcottes, Henry, 179. 
Hampson, Sir Robert, 57. 
Hankey, Sir Joseph, 201. 
Hanson, Sir Reginald, 203. 

Sir Robert, 195. 

Hardy. John, 42. 
Harrison. Gilbert, 175. 
Harvey, Sir Sebastian, 193. 
Haverhill, William de, i. 
Hawes, Christopher, 42. 

Hay ford, Sir Humphry, 37, 152, 

Hay ward. Sir Rowland, 49, 51, 

193, 196. 
Heather, John, 69. 
Herring, Nlichael, 67. 
Herron, Nicholas, 185. 
Heylin, Rowland, 61. 
Hicks, Sir Baptist, 191. 
Hill, Sir Thomas, 38. 
Hodges, Henry, 69. 
Holliday, William, 59. 
Hooker, Sir William, 176. 
Hopkins, Sir Richard, 88. 
Hudson, John, 3, 59, 60. 
Hyll, Sir Roland, 150. 
Hynde, Augustine, 45, 150, 177. 
Hyngeston, John de, 14, 18, 

Irlond, George, 194. 
Ironside, Edward, 95. 
Isaack, William. 40, 142. 
Jervys, Richard, 191. 
Johnson, Thomas, 153, 154. 
Jones, Sir Frauncis, 231. 
Kelly, Thomas, 202, 203. 
Kneysworth, Thomas, 152. 
Knight, Sir Henry E.. 4. 105.203. 
Knill, Sir John, 203. 

Sir Stuart, 203. 

Ladbroke, Sir Robert, 201. 
Lamberd, Nicholas, 149. 
Lambert, John, 183. 
Langham, Sir John, 68, 181. 
— — Samuel, 3, 68. 



Aldermen — con/imted. 

liangley, John, 192, 193. 
Laurie, Sir Peter, 202. 
Lawne, Gedean de, 141. 
Lawrence, Sir James Clarke, 

202, 203. 

Sir William, 202, 203, 205. 

Lethieullier, Sir John, 78. 
Lewes, Sir Watkin, 205. 
Lewis, Samuel, 3, 71. 
Leyre, Thomas de, 13. 
Lobenham, Ralph, 177. 
Lodge, Sir Thomas, 46, 52;/. 231. 
Love, William, 68. 
Loveye, John, 24, 25. 
Lucas, Robert, i, 19, 20, 155. 
Lumley, Sir Martin, 211, 212. 
Lusk. Sir Andrew, 202. 
Lyon. Sir John, 45. 
Lyons, Richard, 182. 
Malpas, I'hilip, 158. 
Marshall, Sir Henry, 95. 

Nicholas, 187. 

Martin, Sir Richard, 184. 
Maryns, John, i, 19, 20. 
Master, Sir Ilarcourt, 201, 
Mathew, John, 152. 
Methold, "William, 3, 63. 
Milburn, [ohn, 229. 
Milner, Tempest, 68. 
Mitford, John de, I, 18. 
Monoux, (ieorge, no, 187. 
Moon, Sir Francis, 202. 
Moulson, Thomas, 212. 
Mundy, Sir John, 184. 
MusgTOve, Sir John, 202. 
Noel, Thomas, 66. 
Overman, Thomas, 3, 60, 69. 
Pack, Sir Christopher, 2, 64, 194. 
Parsons, Sir John, 82, 147, 195, 

Pecche, John, 182. 
Pecock, Stephen, 184. 
Peers, Sir Charles, 201. 
Pennant, Sir Sanmel, 94. 
Philip, Matthew, 34. 
Phillips, Sir Benjamin, 202. 
Piot, Richard, 193. 
Plomer, or Plumer, Sir John, 

37, 183. 
Pontefract, William de, 17. 
Ramsey, Thomas, 192. 
Rawlinson, Sir Thomas. 82, 


Thomas, 95. 

Rawson, Richard, 192, 193. 
Reynardson, Sir Abraham, 67, 

Roche, William, 44. 
Rokesle, Cregory de, 10, 11. 
Robinson, Sir John, 72, 126, 

193, 196. 
Sadler, John, 190. 

Salamons, Sir David, 202, 203, 

Salmon, William, 153. 
Sambrooke, Sir Jeremy, 83. 
Savory, Sir Joseph, 105, 203. 
Seccheford," Henry de, 15. 
Shaa, Sir Kdmund, 38, 43, 126. 
Shorter, Sir John, 79, 83. 
Sidney, Thomas, 202. 
Skinner, Sir Thomas, 53, 54, 55. 
Soame, Sir Stephen, 57, 147, 

Spencer, James, 190. 
Stable, Adam, 192. 
Staines, Sir William, 4, 98, 100. 
Stampe, Sir Thomas, 84, 85. 
Staples, John, 220. 
Stark ey," Thomas, 48. 
Stede, William, 42. 
Stewart, Sir William, 2, 85, 87, 

114. 147- 
Stokton, John, 2, 3, 36, T,y, 192. 
Stone, David Henry, 202. 
Suffolk, Klias de, 13. 
Swynnerton, Sir John, 58. 
Taillour, Sir William, 196. 
Tate, John, no. 
Tatersall, Robert, 109. 
Thompson, William, 202. 
Thorogood. Sir Benjamin, 19s. 
Tichborne, Robert, 67. 
Tilney, Ralph, 39. 
Tolos, John, 145. 
Towse, John, 63, 151. 
Turner, ^Villiam, 68. 
Twyford, Nicholas, 195. 
Underbill, Edward, 83. 
Vanner, Henry, 196. 
Vyner, Thomas, 66. 
Walcote, John, 229. 
Warbulton, Robert, 20, 22, 24. 
Ward, John, 173. 
Warner, Samuel, 181. 
Watts, John, ni. 
White, Robert, 4, 69. 
Whitmore, Sir George, 73, 185. 
Whyte, Sir John, 46, 196. 
Wilfort, James, 183. 
Williams, Sir [ohn, 2, 4, S-j, 

"4, 159- 
Wilson, Colonel, 202. 
Wodecok, John, 2, 25, 26. 
Wollaston," Sir John, 196. 
Wood, Sir Matthew, 2, 4, 80, 

loi, 160. 
Woodroffe, David, 191. 
Wooldridge, Thomas, 186. 
Worley, Henry, 183. 
Wormwell, ^Villiam, 70. 
Worstede, Simon de, 14, 18. 

Wottone, William, 230. 
Wright, Sir Edmond, 233. 



Aldermen — continued. 

Wylkynsone, John, 145. 
Wyndesore, John de, 13 
Wyndout, Thomas, 40. 
Wysshe, or Usshe, John, 180. 
Aldersg-ate Ward, 129, 130, 144; 
removal of alderman to and from, 
197 ; table of aldermanic vacancies 
in, 205 ; number of Common Coun- 
cilmen of, 214, 216, 217, 218, 219. 

Aldermen of: — 

Acton, Sir William, 185, 233. 
Altham, James, 184. 
Bamme, Adam, 22. 24, 195. 196. 
Benn, William, 95. 
Bludworth, Sir Thomas, 194. 
Gylbert, Edmund, 184. 
Hardy, John, 42. 
Mathew, John, 152. 
Philip, Matthew, 34. 
Rawson, Richard, 192, 193, 194. 
Twyford, Nicholas, 195 
Vanner, Henry, 196. 
Wollaston, Sir John, 196. 

Aldgate Ward, removal of alderman 
to and from, 196, 197; contested 
elections for aldermen in, 204 ; table 
of aldermanic vacancies in, 205 ; 
number of Common Councilmen of, 
214, 216, 217, 218, 219. 

Aldermen of: — 

Bowes, Sir Martin, 196. 
Dashwood, Sir Samuel, 195. 
Irlond, George, 194. 
Laurie, Sir Peter, 202. 
Lusk, Sir Andrew, 202. 
Wilfort, James, 183. 
Wysshe "or Usshe, John, iSo. 

Aleyn, Thomas, 29. 

■ Sir Thomas, 193. 

AUeyn, Ralph, alderman, fined for 
being absent from election of Lord 
Mayor, 184. 

Allot, Sir John, Mayor, death of, 49. 

Alsop, Robert, 95. 

Altham, James, alderman, fined for 
disobedience, 1S4. 

"Altwold," probably alderman of 
Cripplegate, i. 

Amcotts, Henry, see Hamcottes. 

Armourers' Company, alderman 
to be translated from, 144. 

Ashurst, Sir William, 185, 195, 201. 

Atkins, Samuel Elliott, his appoint- 
ment as Deputy of Cornhill Ward, 117. 

Atkinson, John, deputy, 115. 

Aubrey, John, 20. 

Avenon, Sir Alexander, 47, 196. 

Averell, Henry, 198. 

Avery, Samuel, 63. 

William, Town Clerk, nephew of. 


Ayer, Thomas, draper, 109. 

Aylife, Sir John, first alderman of 
Bridge Ward Without, 198 ; trans- 
lated to Dowgate Ward, 199. 

Aylmer, Sir Laurence, dismissed 
from his aldermanry, 183. 

Bacon, James, 193. 

Baddeley, John James, Deputy of 

Cripplegate Without, 115, 121, 133. 
Baker, William, 201. 
Ballot Box, early use of, in Court of 

Aldermen, 227. 
Bamme, Adam, 22, 24, 195, 196. 
Banks, Edward, haberdasher, 199. 
Banquell, John de, 2, 11, 192. 
Barber Surgeons' Company, an 

alderman translated from, 87, 147- 

Master of, Lethieullier, Sir 

John, 78. 

Barne, Sir George, 196. 

Bartholomew Fair, 80. 

Basingstoke, Richard de, 17, 18. 

Baskerfeld, Humfrey, mercer, 199. 

Bassishaw Ward, removal of alder- 
men to and from, 197 ; contested 
elections for aldermen in, 204 ; table 
of aldermanic vacancies in, 205 ; 
number of Common Councilmen for, 
214, 216, 218, 219, 223. 

Aldermen of: — 

Avery, Samuel, 6t^. 
Baker, William, 201. 
Barne. Sir George, 196. 
Chester, Sir William, 192, 196. 
Colet, Sir Henry, 40, 187, 194, 

196, 197. 

Costantyn, Richard, 17. 

Delawood, William, 83. 

Frowyck, Sir Henry, 10. 

Gardyner, Richard, 192. 

Hanson, Sir Robert, 195. 

Jervys, Richard, 191. 

Mathewe, John, 152. 

Monoux, George, no, 187. 

Pack, Sir Christopher, 66, 194. 

Parsons, Sir John, 82, 147, 195, 

Rawson, Richard, 192, 193. 

Reynardson, Sir Abraham, 67, 

Stone, David Henry, 202. 

Underbill, Edward, 83. 

Warbulton, Robert, 20, 22, 24. 
Bateman, Anthony, 194. 
Bathurst, Sir Benjamin, 79, 81. 
Baylis, Sir Robert, 201. 
Bellamy, Sir Edward, 88, 201. 
Benn, William, 95. 
Bennett, Sir John, refused admission 
to the Court of Aldermen, 105, 154, 204 
Bennoch, Francis, 115. 
Betoine, Richard de, mayor who had 
not been sheriff, 235. 



Bi&gr» Walter, 71. 
Billers, Sir William, 201, 203. 
Billingsgate Ward, nomination 
Ijy, for alderman rejected, 149 ; re- 
moval of aldermen to and from, 197 ; 
contested elections for aldermen in, 
204 ; table of aldermanic vacancies 
in, 205 ; number of Common Council- 
men for, 214, 216, 218, 219. 

Aldermen of: — 

Ashurst, Sir William, 195, 201. 
Bellamy, Sir Edward, 88, 201. 
Chamberlain, fohn, 180. 
Chester, Sir Wi"iiiam, 196. 
Hamcottes, Iknry, 179. 
Hanson, Sir Reginald, 203. 
Harvey, Sir Sebastian, 193. 
Lamberd, Nicholas, 149. 
Sidney, Thomas, 202. 
Billingsley, Sir Henry, 55. 
Bishopsgate Ward, 129, 130 ; 
removal of aldermen to and from, 
196, 197 ; contested elections for 
aldermen in, 204 ; table of aider- 
manic vacancies in, 205 ; number of 
Common Councilmen for, 214, 216, 
218, 219. 

Aldermen of: — 

Copeland, William Taylor, 202. 
Fabyan, Stephen, 141, 178. 
Kneysworth, Thomas, 152. 
Pennant, Sir Samuel, 94. 
Pontefract, William de, 17. 
Skinner, Sir Thomas, 53, 54, 55. 
Woodroffe, David, 191. 

Blachford, John, 4, 94. 

Blackwell Hall, 11. 

Blount, orBlund, Sir John le, mayor 

who liad not been sheriff, 12, 235. 
Blowing, Richard, deputy, 115. 
Bludworth, Sir Thomas, 194. 
Bonfoy, Nicholas, cloth worker, 193. 

Tliomas, dyer, 193. 

Bonner, Daniel, 89, 90. 

James, deputy, 115. 

Botiller, John, 2, 30. 

junior, 30. 

Bowes, Sir Martin, 196. 
Bowyer, Sir William, 231. 
Braham, William, deputy, 115. 
Bras3, William, deputy, 115. 
Braunche, Sir John, 51, 193, 231. 
Bread Street "Ward, nominations 

by, for aldermen rejected, 151 ; re- 
moval of aldermen to and from, 196, 
197 ; contested elections for alder- 
men in, 204 ; table of aldermanic 
vacancies in, 205 ; number of Com- 
mon Councilmen for, 211, 212, 214, 
216, 218, 219. 

Aldermen of: — 

Ashurst, Sir William, 195, 201. 
Avenon, Sir Alexander, 47, 196. 

Baylis, Sir Robert, 201. 
Hicks, Sir Baptist, 191. 
Lawrence, Sir William, 202, 

203, 205. 
Lumley, Sir Martin, 211, 212. 
Martin, Sir Richard, 184. 
Mundy, Sir John, 184, 
Tatersall, Robert, 109. 
Brefifitt, Edgar, 105, 154. 
Brerabre, Nicholas, mayor who was 

not an alderman, 234. 
Bret, Roliert le, 14. 
Brewers' Company, Masters of: 
Cranmer, Samuel, 62. 
Forth, |ohn, 77. 
Brice, Thonias, Sheriff, 36. 
Bridge Ward, nominations by, for 
aldermen rejected, 148, 149 ; removal 
of aldermen to and from, 196, 197 ; 
contested elections for aldermen in, 
204 ; table of aldermanic \acancies 
in, 205 ; number of Common Council- 
men for, 214, 216, 218, 219. 

Aldermen of: — 

Buncombe, Sir Charles, 195. 
Fabyan, Stephen, 141, 17S. 
Knill, Sir John, 203. 

Sir Stuart, 203. 

Mathewe, John, 152. 
Plomer, Plumer, Sir John, 37, 

I S3. 
Wooldridge, Thomas, 186. 
Bridge Ward Without, aldermen 
of, to i)e three years alderman, before 
removing to another, 194 ; reuKn-al 
of aldermen to and from, 197 ; mode 
of election of, 198-203 ; translation 
of aldermen to and from, 200-205. 

Aldermen of: — 

Abbutt, .Morris, 60. 
Abney, Sir Thomas, 201. 
Aylife, Sir John, 198. 
Barne, Sir George, 196. 
Bellamy, Sir Edward, 201. 
Cambell, Robert, 200. 
Carden, Sir Robert Walter, 202. 
Chiverton, Sir Richard, 2, 73;/, 

74, I93> 196. 
Conyers, Sir Gerard, 85, 201. 
Cotton, Sir W. J. Richmond, 

Cowper, John, 199, 200. 
Eyles, Sir John, 201. 
Grenaway, Ralph, 199. 
Harper, William, 199. 
Key, Sir John, 202. 
Knill, Sir Stuart, 203. 
Ladbroke, Sir Robert, 201. 
Lawrence, Sir James Clarke, 
202, 203. 

Sir William, 202, 203, 205. 

Lewes, Sir Watkin, 205. 
Lusk, Sir Andrew, 202. 

R 2 



Bridge Ward Without, Alder- 
men of — continued. 

Moon, Sir Francis, 202. 

Savory, Sir Joseph, 105, 203. 

Starkey, Thomas, 48. 

Wilson, Colonel, 202. 

Wollaston, Sir John, 196. 
Briggs, George, Common Councilman 

of Cripplegate, 133. 
Broad Street Ward, nominations 
for aldermen by, rejected, 152 ; re- 
moval of aldermen to and from, 197 ; 
contested elections for aldermen in, 
204 ; table of aldermanic vacancies 
in, 205 ; number of Common Council- 
men for, 214, 216, 218, 219. 

Aldermen of: — 

Cokayne, Sir William, 196. 
Conyers, Sir Gerard, 85, 201. 
Buncombe, Sir Charles, 195. 
Ellis, Sir J. Whittaker, 203. 
Eyre, Sir Simon, 196. 
Lyons, Richard, 182. 
Musgrove, Sir John, 202. 
Rawlinson, Thomas, 95. 
Salmon, William, 153. 
Whyte, Sir John, 46, 196. 
Worley, Henry, 183. 

Bromsall, Thomas, 69. 

Brown, John, discharged from civic 

offices, 190. 
Brown bakers, 171. 
Browne, Sir John, 41. 

Sir William, Alderman of Cord- 

wainer, 41. 

Sir William, the elder. Alderman 

of Cripplegate, 41. 

Bury, Adam de, 182. 

Cage, Anthony, Salter, 193. 

Cambell, Robert, 200. 

Candle wick Ward, removal of 
aldermen to and from, 196, 197 ; 
contested elections for aldermen in, 
204 ; table of aldermanic vacancies 
in, 205 ; number of Common Council- 
men for, 214, 216, 218, 219. 

Aldermen of: — 

Dakin, Sir Thomas, 202. 
Gostlyn, Sir William, 195. 
Herron, Nicholas, 185. 
Milner, Tempest, 68. 
Turner, William, 68. 

Cantebregge, Kantebregge, 
Cantebrugge, Reginald de, 10. 

Robert de, Sheriff, 12. 

Cantelowe, William, 34. 
Canynges, Thomas, dimissed from 

his aldermanry, 182. 
Capell, William, draper, 192. 
Garden, Sir Robert Walter, 202. 
Carpenter, John, Common Clerk, 


Carleton, Thomas, 21. 

Carpenters' Company, Master 

Staines, Sir William, 98. 

Carter, John, 117. 

Cartwright, John, 4, 95. 

Cass, Sir John, Sheriff, 85. 

Castle Baynard Ward, removal of 
aldermen to and from, 196, 197 ; 
contested elections for aldermen in, 
204 ; table of aldermanic vacancies 
in, 205 ; number of Common Council- 
men for, 214, 216, 218, 219. 

Aldermen of: — 

Bigg, Walter, 71. 
Bowes, Sir Martin, 196. 
Cokayne, Sir William, 196. 
Colet, Sir Henry, 40, 1S7, 194, 

196, 197. 
Croke, John, 36«. 
Evans, Sir David, 203. 
Gibbons, Sir Sills John, 117. 
Gostlyn, Sir William, 195. 
Herring, Michael, 67. 
Ladbroke, Sir Robert, 201. 
Rawlinson, Sir Thomas, 82. 195. 
Tilney, Ralph, 39. 
Wilson, Colonel Samuel, 202. 
Catcher, John, 53, 55. 
Challis, Thomas, 4, 104, 135, 202, 

Chaioner, William de, 128. 
Chamberlain, John, committal of, 
for refusing the office of alderman, 
Chapman, Sir John, Lord Mayor, 

death of, 84. 
Cheap, or Chepe, Ward, bequests to 
poor of, 29 ; the Court of Aldermen 
refuse to accept Sir John Bennett as 
alderman of, 154, 204; removal of 
aldermen to and from, 196, 197 ; 
contested elections for aldermen in, 
204 ; table of aldermanic vacancies 
in, 205 ; number of Common Coun- 
cilmen for, 214, 216, 217, 218, 219. 

Aldermen of: — 

Bamme, Adam, 22, 24, 195, 196. 
Breffitt, Edgar, 105, 154. 
Browne, Sir John, 41. 
Dashwood, Sir Samuel, 195. 
Edwin, Sir Humphrey, 195. 
Forth, " Dannett," 77. 
Halden, William de, 192. 
Harvey, Sir Sebastian, 193. 
Hill, Sir Thomas, 38. 
liOdge, Sir Thomas, 46, 52, 231. 
Shaa, Sir Edmund, 38, 43, 126. 
Soame, Sir Stephen, 57, 147, 

Stable, Adam, 192. 
Taillour, Sir William, 196. 
Thompson, William, 202. 



Chester, Sir William, displaced from 

his aldermanry, 192, 196. 
Chiverton, Sir Richard, 2, 73;;, 74, 

193, 196. 
City of London School, Lambert 

Jones Scholarship in the, 125. 
Clarke, Samuel, 85. 
Clifte, John, deputy, 112, 115. 
Clifford, Sir Roger de, li. 
Clothworkers' Company, bequests 

to, 45, 56 ; made one of the principal 

Companies, 145. 

Masters of: — 

Hayward, Sir Rowland, 49. 
Hynde, Augustine, 45. 
Robinson, Sir John, jt,. 
Skinner, Sir Thomas, 55. 

Cokayne, Francis, 94. 

Sir William, 196. 

Coleman Street Ward, removal of 
aldermen to and from, 197 ; contested 
electi<jns for aldermen in, 204 ; table 
of aldermanic vacancies in, 205 ; 
nuud)er of Common Councilmen for, 
214, 216, 217, 218, 219. 

Aldermen of: — 

Abbvitt, Morris, 60. 
Alsop, Robert, 95. 
Carleton, Thomas, 21. 
Evote, William, 2, 25, 156. 
Isaack, William, 40, 142. 
Master, Sir llarcourt, 201. 
Sadler, John, 190. 
Stable, Adam, 192. 
Twyford, Nicholas, 195. 
Warner, Samuel, 181. 
Wodecok, John, 2, 25, 26. 

Colet, Sir Henry, 40, 187, 194, 196, 

Common Council, the, ofCnpple- 
gale. 128 ; total number of, 131. 217, 
218, 219; account of, 207-226; 
chosen by the guilds, 207, 215 ; 
elected by the wards, id. : an early 
oath of a Common Councilman, 207 ; 
early precept for election of, 20S ; 
the day of election of, 208, 209, 215, 
223 ; Court of Aldermen held before, 
213, 228; hour of meeting, 207, 
213, 218, 220; number of, more 
equally divided among the wards, 
218, 219; the work of, 220-223; 
precept for election of, 224 ; a 
Common Councilman dismissed for 
misbehaviour, 231. 

Companies, City, aldermen to be- 
long to one of the principal, 144 ; 
not more than six aldermen to be of 
one company, id. ; translation of 
aldermen from the minor to the prin- 
cipal, 144-148 ; the Clothworkers' 
included in the principal, 145 ; the 
Common Council chosen by the, 215 ; 

the mayor and sherifis elected by the 

Livery, 234. 
Conyers, Sir Gerard, 85, 201. 
Cooke, Nicholas, 4, 70, 175. 
Cooke, or Coke, Sir Thomas, 36, 


Copeland, William Taylor, 202. 

Cordwainer Ward, removal of 
aldermen to and from, 196, 197 ; 
contested elections for aldermen in, 
204 ; table of aldermanic vacancies 
in, 205 ; number of Common Council- 
men for, 214, 216, 218, 219. 

Aldermen of: — 

Billers, Sir William, 202, 204. 
Browne, Sir William, 41. 
Chiverton, Sir Richard, 2, 73//, 

75, 193, 196. 

Irlond, Ceorge, 194. 

Ironside, Edward, 95. 

Salomons, Sir David, 202, 203. 

Starkey, Thomas, 48. 

Vanner, Henry, 196. 
Cornhill Ward, removal of aldermen 
to and from. 196, 197 ; contested 
elections for aldermen in, 204 ; table 
of aldermanic vacancies in, 205 ; 
number of Common Councilmen for, 
214, 216, 218, 219. 

Aldermen of: — 

Carter, John, 117. 
Cokayne, Francis, 94. 

Colet, Sir Henry, 40, 187, 194, 

196, 197. 
Eyre, Sir Simon, 196. 
Harte, Sir John, 196. 
Noel, Thomas, 66. 
Pack, Sir Christopher. 2. 65. 194. 
Vanner, Henry, 196. 
Whyte, Sir John, 46, 196. 
Coronation, see under Mayor. 
Cortoys, Andrew, 128. 
Costantyn, Richard, 17, 128. 
Cotton, Sir W. J. Richmond, 202. 
Cottone, Walter, 29. 
Cowper, John, 199, 200. 
Cranmer, Samuel, 62. 
" Crepelgate," 13, 128. 
" Crepelgate Extra," 13, 128. 
Cripplegate, rebuilt, 38 ; print of, 
126; repaired by the Brewers, 126; 
etymology of, 127. 
Cripplegate Ward, first Common 
Councilmen for, becoming alderman 
of, 12; chronological list of aldermen 
of, 5 ; aldermen of, elected by the 
Court of Aldermen, 37, 152 ; divided 
into two, 129, 213; Common Coun- 
cil of, 128, 214, 216; nominations 
for aldermen by, rejected, 150; re- 
moval of aldermen to and from, 2, 
197 ; contested elections for alder- 
men in, 204 ; table of aldermanic 



Cripplegate "Ward — con/inuei/. 
vacancies in, 205 ; alphabetical list 

t'f, 237. 

Aldermen of: — 

Aleyn, Thomas, 29. 

" Altwold," 1. 

Avenon, Sir Alexander, 47, 196. 

Avery, Samuel, 63. 

Bamme, Adam, 22, 24. 195, 196. 

Banquell, John de, 2, 11, 192. 

Basingstoke, Richard de, 17, 

Bathurst, Sir Benjamin, 79, Si. 
Bigg-, Walter, 71. 
Blachford, John, 4, 94. 
Botillev, John, 2, 30. 
Braunche, Sir John, 51, 193. 231. 
Bret, Robert le, 14. 
Bromsall, Thomas, 69. 
Browne, Sir William, the elder, 

Cantelowe, William, 34. 
Carleton, Thomas, 21. 
Cartwright, John, 4, 95. 
Catcher, Jolin, 53, 55. 
Challis, Thomas, 4, 104, 135, 

202, 203. 
Chiverton, Sir Richard, 2, 73;/, 

74. 193, 196. 
Cooke, Nicholas, 4, 70, 175. 
Costantyn, Richard, 17, 128. 
Cottone, Walter, 29. 
Cranmer, Samuel, 62. 
Davy son, Davy, 71. 
Delawood, William, S3. 
Buncombe, William, 76, 1S5. 
Elkyn, William, 53. 
Esdaile, Sir James, 4, 96, 99. 
Estfield, Sir'William, 30, 58. 
Evote, William, 2, 25, 156. 
Exmewe, Sir Thomas, 42. 
Forman, Sir William, 44, 150. 
Forth, John, 73;/, 75, 77, 113. 
Fowle, Sir Thomas, 2, 82. 
Frowyck, Henry de, i. 9. 11. 12. 

Laurence de, I. 

Fynchingleld, Walter de, 12, 

Hampson, Sir Robert, 57. 
Haverhill, William de, i. 
Hawes. Christopher, 42. 
Hayford, Sir Humphry, ^iJ. 152. 

Hay ward, Sir Rowland, 49, 51, 

193, 196. 
Heather, John, 69. 
Heylin, Rowland, 61. 
Hodges, Henry, 69. 
Holliday, William, 59. 
Hudson, John, 3, 59, 60. 
Hynde, Augustine, 45, 150, 177. 
Hyngestone, John de, 14, 18, 


Isaack, William, 40, 142. 

Knight, Sir Henry, 4, 105, 203. 

"Jakell," I. 

Langham, .Samuel, 3, 68. 

Lethieullier, Sir John, 78. 

Lewis, Samuel, 3, 71. 

Ley re, Thomas de, 13. 

Loveye, John, 24, 25. 

Lucas, Robert, i, 19, 20, 155. 

Maryns, lohn, i, 19, 20. 

Methold," William, 3, 63. 

Milner, Tempest, 68. 

Mitford, John de, i, 18. 

Overman, Thomas, 3, 60, 69. 

Pack, Sir Christopher, 2, 64, 194. 

Pontefract, William de, 17. 

Robinson, Sir John, 72, 126, 
193, 196. 

Sambrooke, Sir Jeremy, 83. 

Seccheford, Henr)- de, 15. 

Shaa, Sir Edmund, 38, 43, 126. 

Shorter, Sir John, 79, 83. 

Skinner, Sir Thomas, 53, 54, 55. 

Staines, Sir William, 4, 98, 100. 

Stampe, Sir Thomas, 84, 85. 

Stede, William, 42. 

Stewart, Sir William, 2, 85, 87, 
114. 147. 

Stokton, Tohn, 2, 3, 36. 37, 192. 

Suffolk, Klias de, 13. 

Swynnerton, Sir John, 58. 

Tilney, Ralph, 39. 

Towse, John, 63. 151. 

Warbulton, Robert, 20, 22, 24. 

White, Robert, 4, 69. 

Whyte, Sir John, 46, 196. 

"Williams, Sir John, 2, 4, So, 
114, 159. 

"Wodecok, John, 2, 25, 26. 

"Wood, Sir Matthew, 4, So, loi, 

"Wormwell, William, 70. 

Worsteds, Simon de. 14, 18, 

Wyndesore, John de, 13. 

Wyndout, Thomas, 40. 
Cripplegate Ward Within, 
Deputies of, iii, 112, 114, 115; 
when created, 129 ; Common Coun- 
cilmen of, id. ; number of Common 
Councilmen for, 217, 21S, 219. 
Cripplegate Ward Without, 
Deputies of, iii, 112, 114, 115; 
when created, 129 ; Common Coun- 
cilmen of, id. ; addition to Common 
Council of, 129-132; efforts for re- 
form by inhabitants of, 133 ; special 
constables sworn in, 134 ; population 
of, 135 ; numl)er of Common Coun- 
cilmen for, 217, 218, 219. 
Croke, John, i6n. 

Crowley, Robert, Vicar of St. Giles", 
Cripplegate, in. 



Curtes, Thomas, Alderman, committal 
of, 145. 

Daker, Joseph, Deputy, 115. 

Dakin, Sir Thomas, 202. 

Darling-, Sir Robert, Sheriff, 96. 

Dashwood, Sir Samuel, 195. 

Davies, Sir Thomas, 195. 

Davyson, Davy, 71. 

Deane, Richard, skinner, 193. 

Delawood, William, 83. 

Deputies, early mention of, 109 ; 
misconduct of, no, 112; dismissal 
of, 1 1 1 ; not to depart from the City. 
112; of Cripplegate Wards, 112, 
115; appointment of, 116; to be 
members of Common Council, 116 ; 
duties of, 118. 

Dere, W'illiam, 34. 

Dinners, prohibited on St. Thomas' 
Day, 22,S. 

Dixon, Richard, Deputy. 115. 

Dodmer, Raufe, 145. 

DoUey, Thomas, Deputy, 115. 

Double, Alfred, Common Councilman 
of Cripplegate, 133. 

Dowgate Ward, removal of alder- 
man to and from, 197; table of con- 
tested elections of aldermen in, 204 ; 
table of aldermanic vacancies in, 206; 
number of Common Councilmen for, 
214, 216, 21S, 219. 

Aldermen of : — 

Aylife, Sir John, 199. 
Banquell, John de, 2, 11, 192. 
Bateman, Anthony, 194. 
Garden, Sir Robert Walter, 202. 
Chiverton, Sir Richard, 2, 73//, 

74, 193, 196. 

Dere, William, 34. 

Elkyn, William, 53. 

Hampson, Sir Robert, 57. 

Harper, William, 199. 

Lawne, Gedean de, 141. 

Robinson, Sir John, 72, 126, 
193, 196. 

Rokesle, Gregory de, 11. 

Taillour, Sir William, 196. 

Ward, John, 173. 

WoUaston, Sir John, 196. 

Wottone, William, 230. 
Drapers' Company, Master of: — 

Pack, Sir Christopher, 64. 
Duke, Sir James, 202. 
Duncombe, Sir Charles, 195. 

Thomas Slingsby, M.P. for Fins- 
bury, 104. 

William, 76, 185. 

Dyer, Laurence, Deputy of Cripple- 
gate, 115. 

Edmunds, William, De]uUy, 115. 
Edwin, Sir Humphrey, 83, 195. 

Egleton, John, 115. 
"Eldefistrate," 10. 
Elkyn, William, 53. 
Ellis, Sir J. Whittaker, 203. 
Elton, Thomas, Deputy, 115. 
Ernes, Thomas, Deputy, 115. 
Esdaile, .Sir James, 4, 96, 99. 
Estfield, Sir William, 30, 58. 
Evans, Sir David, 203. 
Evote, William, 2, 25, 156. 
Exmewe, Sir Thomas, 42. 
Eyles, .Sir John, 201 ; mayor who had 

nut been sheriff, 234. 
Eyre, Sir Simon, 196. 

Fabyan, Stephen, 141, 178. 
Farebrother, Charles, 202. 
Farmer, Edward, Deputy, 115. 
Farndone, Nicholas de, mayor who 

had not been sheriff, 235. 
Farrar, Frederick, his appointment 

as Deputy of Castle Baynard Ward, 

Farringdon Ward, divided into two 

wards, 214; number of Common 

Councilmen for, 214, 216. 

Alderman of: — 

Twyford, Xicholas, 195. 

Farringdon Ward Within, re- 
moval of aldermen to and from, 197; 
table of contested elections of alder- 
men in, 204 ; table of aldermanic 
vacancies in, 205 ; number of Com- 
mon Councilmen for, 217, 2x8, 223. 
Aldermen of: — 

Avenon, Sir Alexander, 47, 196. 

Botiller, John, 30. 

Bowes, Sir Martin, 196. 

Brown, John, 19c. 

Browne, Sir John, 41. 

Curtes, Thomas, 145. 

Kelly, Thomas. 202, 203. 

Lambert, John, 183. 

Marshall, Sir Henry, 95. 

Pecock, Stephen, 184. 

Phillips, .Sir Benjamin, 202. 

Thorogood, Sir Benjamin, 195. 
Farringdon Ward Without, nom- 
ination of inhabitants for aldermen, 
rejected, 150; to be aldermen ihree 
years before removing. 194 ; removal 
of aldermen to and from, 196, 197 ; 
contested elections of aldermen in, 
204 ; table of aldermanic vacancies 
in, 205; number of Common Council- 
men for, 217. 218. 

Aldermen of: — 

Bateman, Anthony, 194. 
Cambell, Robert, 2co. 
Chester, Sir William, 196. 
Cokayne, Sir William, 196. 
Colet, Sir Henry, 40, 187, 194, 

196, 197. 



Farring-don Ward Without, 
Aldermen oi.— continued. 
Davies, Sir Thomas, 195. 
Duke, Sir James, 202. 
Gedeney, John, 177. 
Hanson, Sir Robert, 195. 
Harte, Sir John, 196. 
Hay ward, Sir Rowland, 49, 51, 

193, 196. 
Hynde, Augustine, 45, 150, 177. 
Lobenham, Ralph, 177. 
Pecock, Stephen, 184. 
Plomer, Plumer, Sir John, n, 

Rawlinson, Sir Thomas, 82, 


Rawson, Richard, 192, 193. 

Taillour, Sir William, 196. 

Wollaston, Sir John, 196. 
Farrington, Richard, Deputy, 115. 
Fearne, John, Deputy, 115. 
Feast, Sir Felix, Deputy, 87, 112, 

114, 115. 
Fenn, Richard, 1715. 
Finching-feud , Walterus de, 128. 

and sec Fynchingfeld. 

Finnis, Thomas Quested, 202. 
Firebrasse, Sir Basil, 82. 
Fishmongers' Company, alder- 
men translated to, 107, 146, 147. 

Prime Wardens of : — 

Cartwright, John, 95. 
Wood, Sir Matthew, loi. 

Forman, Sir William, 44, 150. 
Forth, •■ Dannett," 77. 
— - John, T^:,, 75. 77, 113. 
Fowle, Sir Thomas, 2, 82. 
Foxall, Thomas, deputy. 115. 
Frauaceip, Adam, mayor who had 

not been sheriff', 235. 
Frederick, Sir John, Lord Mayor. 78. 
French, Robert, deputy, 115. 
Frowyck, Henry de, i, 9, 11, 12. 

Ward of, i, 128, 154. 

Sir Henry, 10. 

Laurence de, probably alderman 

of Cripplegate, i. 

sheriff, 10. 

Fynchingfeld, Albric, 12. 

Walter de, 12, 154. 

the younger, 12. 

and see Finchingfeud. 

Gabriel, Sir Thomas, 202. 
Galeys, Henry le, 12. 
Gamage, Anthony, 192. 
Gardyner, Richard, 192. 
Garway, or Garroway, Sir Henry, 
discharged from his aldermanry, 185. 
Gayre, Sir John, mayor, 68. 
Gaytone, Robert, sheriff, 18. 
Gedeney, John, 177. 
Gibbons, Sir Sills fuhn, 117. 

Girdlei's' Company, Stephen Soame. 
lord mayor elect, translated from, to 
the Grocers, 147. 

Gold, Thomas, 79. 

Goldbetre, Richard, 128. 

Goldsmiths' Company, bequests 
to, 38 ; Sir William Stewart trans- 
lated to, 147. 

Prime Wardens of: 

Bamme, Adam, 22. 
Blachford, John, 94. 
Exmewe, Sir Thomas, 42. 
Hayford, Sir Humphry, 37. 
Shaa, Sir Edmund, 38. 
Shorter, Sir John, 79. 
Stewart, Sir' William, 86. 

Goodwin, John, 211, 212. 
Goodyere,'or Goodere, Henry, dis- 
charged from his aldermanry, 190. 
Goore, Garrat, 192. 
Gostlyn, Sir William, 195. 
Grantham, John de, mayor, 15. 
Gray, Robert, 211, 212. 
Green, Frank, lord mayor, 140. 
Grenaway, Ralph, 199. 
Gresham, Sir Richard, 44. 50. 

Sir Thomas, 50. 

Gresham College, 124. 
Grocers' Company, Masters of : — 

Stede, William, 42. 

Tilney, Ralj^h, 39. 

Whyte, Sir John, 46. 

Warden of: — 

Langham, Samuel, 68. 

Guildhall Chapel, bequests to, 10. 
Guildhall Library, revived by R. 
L. Jones, 122. 

Haberdashers' Company, Ijeipiest 
to, 43 ; alderman translated to, 145. 

Master of :— 

Hardy, John, 42. 

Halden,^ William de, 192. 

Hale, John Hampton, his appoint- 
ment as deputy of Castle Eaynard 
Ward, 117. 

Hamcottes, or Amcotts, Henry, 
committal of, for refusing the office 
of alderman, 179. 

Hamersley, Hugh, sheriff, 193. 

Hampson, Sir Robert, 57. 

Hampton, Richard, punishment of, 
for slandering an alderman, 230. 

Hancock, Nicholas, prior of Holy 
Trinity, alderman of Portsoken, 198. 

Hankey, Sir Joseph, 201. 

Hanson, Sir Reginald, 203. 

Sir Robert, 195. 

Hardy, John, 42. 
Hare, John, mercer, 199. 
Harper, William, 199. 
Harrison, Gilbert, 175. 
Harvey, Sir James, Lord .ALiyor, 48. 



Harvey, James, deputy, 115. 

Sir Sebastian, Lord Mayor, 193. 

Harvist, Edward, deputy, iii, 112. 
Haverhill, William de, i. 
Hawes, Christopher, 42. 
Hawkins, Richard, grocer, 195. 
Hayford, Sir Humphry, 37, 152. 196. 
Hayward, Sir Rowland, 49, 51, 193, 

Heather, John, 69. 
Herevy, \Valter, removed from the 

mayoralty, 9. 
Herring, Michael, 67. 

Elizabeth, widow of, 67. 

Herron, Nicholas, dismissed from his 

aldermanry, 185. 
Heylin, Rowland, 61. 
Hicks, Sir Baptist, 191. 
Hiil, Sir Thomas, 38. 
Hilhare, John, deputy, iii, 112. 
Hodg-es, ilenry, 69. 
Hodgson, John, see Hudson. 
Holborn Viaduct Improvement, 

Holliday, Sir Leonard, mayor, 59. 

William, 59. 

Holy Trinity, priors of, alderman 

(if I'ortMikcn Ward, 198. 
Hancock, Nicholas, prior of, 

alderman, 198. 
Hooker, Sir William, 176. 
Hoole, James, deputy, 1 15. 
Hopkins, Sir Richard, 88. 
Horn, Andrew, chamberlain, 15. 
Horssho," brewery called " le, in 

parish of St. Alban " de Wodeslrete." 

How, Sir Richard, Knight, 195. 
Hudson, or Hodgson, John, 3, 59, 

Hussey, Thomas, 212. 
Hyll, Sir Roland, 150. 
Hynde, Augustine, 45, 150, 177. 

John, 25. 

Hyngeston, John de, 14, 18, 128. 

Innholders' Company, Master 

of: — 
Cooke, Nicholas, 70. 
Ireton, Henry, 75. 
Irlond, George, 194. 
Ironmongers' Company, bequests 

to, 62. 

Masters of : — 

Avenon, Sir Alexander, 47. 
Heylin, Rowland, 61. 

Ironside, Edward, 95. 
Isaack, William, 40, 142. 

" Jakell," alderman of Cripplegate, i. 
Jaques, John Obadiah, deputy, 115. 
Jervys, Richard, discharged from his 
aldermanry on fine, 191. 

Johnson, John, 115. 

Thomas, 153, 154- 

Jones, Sir Erauncis, 231. 

Humphrey, deputy, 115. 

• Isaac, 212. 

John, deputy, 115. 

— — Richard Lambert, biography of, 

Joy, William, 128. 

Kelly, Thomas, 202, 203. 
Kerl, William, deputy, 115. 
Keyser, I'olydore de, sherift", 105. 
Kneysworth, Thomas, fishmonger, 

Knight, Sir Henry Edmund, 4, 105, 

Knill, Sir John, 203. 

Sir Stuart, 203. 

Ladbroke, Sir Robert, 202. 
Lake, James, Common Councilman of 
Cripplegate, 133. 

Samuel, deputy, 115. 

Lamberd, Nicholas, 149. 
Lambert, John, discharged from his 

aldermanry for disobedience, 183. 
Langbourn "Ward, removal of ald- 
ermen to and from, 197 ; table of 
contested elections of aldermen in, 
204 ; table of aldermanic vacancies 
in, 205 ; number of Common Coun- 
cilmen of, 214, 216, 218, 219. 

Aldermen of: — 

Barne, Sir George, 196. 
Bowes, Sir Martin, 196. 
Bury, Adam de, 182. 
Chester, Sir William, 192, 196. 
Eyre, Sir Simon, 196. 
Hankey, Sir Joseph, 201. 
Hayford, Sir Humphry. 37, 152, 

Langley, John, 192, 193. 
Savory, Sir Joseph, 105, 203. 
Vyner, Thomas, 66. 
Langham, Sir John, 68, 181. 

Samuel, 3, 68. 

Langley, John, 192, 193. 
Laurie, Sir Peter, 202. 
Lawne, Gedean de, 141. 
Lawrence, Sir James Clarke, 202, 


Sir William, 202. 203, 205. 

Leathersellers' Company, Mas- 
ter of: — 

White, Robert, 69. 

Lespit, Roger, 128. 

Lethieullier, Sir John, 78. 

Lewes, Sir Watkin, 205. 

Lewis, Samuel, 3, 71. 

Leyre, Thomas de, 13. 

Lime Street Ward, nominations of, 
for aldermen rejected by the Court 



Liime Street "Ward — continued. 
of Aldermen, 149, 150; removal of 
aldermen to and from, 197 ; con- 
tested elections of aldermen in, 204 ; 
table of aldermanic vacancies in, 205 ; 
number of Common Councilmen for, 
214. 216. 218, 219. 

Aldermen of: — 

Barame, Adam. 22. 24. 195, 196. 
Browne, Sir William, the elder, 


Cokayne, Sir William, 196. 

Cotton, W. T- Richmond, 202. 

Farebrother, Charles, 202. 

Halden, William de, 192. 

Harte, Sir John. 196. 

Hayford, Sir Humphry, iJ, 152, 

Hayward, Sir Rowland, 49, 51, 
193. 196. 

Hopkins, Sir Richard, 88. 

Lewes, Sir Watkin, 205. 

Malpas, Philip, 158. 

Stokton. John, 2, 3, 36, n, 192. 

Thorogood, Sir Benjamin, 195. 

Twyford, Nicholas, 195. 
Lloyd, Herbert, deputy, 115. 
Lobenham, Ralph, 177. 
Lodge, Sir Thomas, 46, 52 ; assault 

on Sir John Braunche, 52//, 231. 
London Bridge, rebuilding of, 122. 
London Wall, water conduit in, 43. 
Long, Sir Lisleborne. Recorder, 75. 
Lord Mayor, see Mayor. 
Love. William, 68. 
Loveye, John, 24, 25. 
Lucas, Robert, i, 19, 20, 155. 
Lumley, Sir Martin, 211, 212. 
Lusk, Sir Andrew, 203. 
Lyon, John, grocer, 150. 

Sir John, 45. 

Lyon on the hope," tenement 

called " le, 21. 
Lyons, Richard, 182. 

McCarthy, Francis, Common Coun- 
cilman of Cripplegate, 133. 

Mclntyre, James Patrick, Common 
Councilman of Cripplegate, 133. 

Malpas, Philip. 158. 

Marshall, Sir Henr}-, 95. 

■ Nicholas, 187. 

Martin, Sir Richard, dismissed from 
his aldermanr}-, 184 ; fined, 185. 

Maryns, John, i, 19, 20. 

Master, Sir Harcourt, disqualified 
from being mayor, 201. 

Mathewe, John, 152. 

Maynwaring, Robert, deputy, 112. 

Mayor, expenses of, at the coronation 
of Queen Phillipa, 17 ; service pre- 
ceding election of, 26 ; William Est- 
field, mayor, attends coronation of 

Henry VI, 31 ; mode of election of, 
234 ; list of, who have not been 
sheriflfs, id. ; one not being alderman, 
iti. : the mayor's prerogative to elect 
one of the sheriffs, 235. 

Meadway, George, deputy, 115. 

Melhuish, George, 212. 

'* Melkstrate," 10, 14. 

Mercers' Company, bequests to, 

3-- 4''. S?)^ 59- 

Masters of: — 

Browne, .Sir John, 41. 
Elkyn, William, 53. 
Holliday, William, 59. 
Wjlliam?, Sir John, 87. 
Wyndout, Thomas, 40. 

- Wardens of :— 
Aleyn, Thomas, 29. 
Botiller, John, 30. 
Browne, Sir William, 41. 
Browne, .Sir William, the elder, 

Cantelowe, Wdham, 34. 
Cotton, Walter, 29. 
Estfield, Sir William, 30. 
Hawes, Christopher, 42. 
Stokton, John, 36. 
Wodecok, John. 26. 
Merchant Taylors' Company, 
bequests t(j, 71. 

Masters of: — 

Avery, .Samuel, 63. 
Biarg, Walter. 71. 
Milner, Tempest, 68. 
Swynnerton, Sir John, 58. 

Warden of: — 

Hampson, Sir Robert, 57. 

Messenger, Joseph, Common Coun- 
cilman of Cripplegate, 133. 

Methold, William, 3, 63. 

Michell, John, mayor, 33. 

Milburn. John, 230. 

Milner, Tempest, 68. 

Mitford, 'John de, i, 18. 

Molineux, Robert, deputy, 115. 

Monotix, George, his deputy, no; 
re-elected mayor, 187 ; fined for re- 
fusing office, 188 ; is excused serving, 

Moon, Sir Francis, 202. 

Moore, John, deputy, 115. 

John, grocer, 152. 

• .Sir John, elected mayor, 79. 

Moulson, Thomas, 212. 
Mundy, Sir John, committal of, 184. 
Musgrove, Sir John, 202. 
Mynne, Charles, deputy, 112. 

Newbold, Augustin, deputy, 112, 

Newberry, William, deputy, 115. 
Newgate, bequests to prisoners in, 




Newgate Street, conduii in, lo. 
New Hospital within Cripple - 

gate, l)L-(juc'st to, 13. 
Nind, Henry W., deputy, 1 1 5. 
Noel, Thomas, 66. 

Oatley, William, Common Council- 
man of Cripplegate. 133. 
Overman, Thomas, 3, 60, 69. 

Pack, Christopher, deputy, 112. 
- Sir Christopher, 2, 64, 194. 
Pakyngton, Humfrey, no. 
Palmer, Alfred Kdward, Common 

Councilman of Cripplegate, 133. 
Parker, John, deputy, 115. 
Parliament, Members of, expenses 

c.f. 22, 23, II, 72. 

Parsons, Sir John, 82, 147, 195, 

Patten, William, deputy, 89, 115. 

Payn, William, 128. 

Pearce, Robert, Clerk of Cripplei;ate 
Ward Without, 133. 

Pecche, John, 182. 

Pecock, Stephen, 184. 

Peers, Sir Charles, 201. 

Pennant, Sir Samuel, Lord Mayor, 
death of, 94. 

Pewterers' Company, an alderman 
Iran^laled from, 145, 147. 

Philip, Matthew, 34. 

Phillips, Sir Benjamin, 202. 

Pickering, John, deputy, 115. 

Pilkinston,' Sir Thomas, 84. 

Piot, Richard, 193. 

Plomer, or Plumer, Sir [ohn, 37, 

Plompton, Henry, 212. 

Pontefract, William de, 17. 

Portsoken Ward, the Court of 
Aldermen refuse to admit Michael 
Scales as alderman of, 153. 204; 
removal of aldermen to and from, 
197 ; table of contested elections of 
aklermen in, 204: table of aldermanic 
vacancies in, 205 ; number of Com- 
mon Councilmen for, 214, 216, 217, 
218, 219. 

the priors of Holy Trinilv, alder- 
men of, 198. 

Aldermen of: — 

Averell, Henry, 198. 

. Bludworth, Sir Thomas, 194. 
Chiverton, Sir Richard, 2, 73«, 

-4, 193, 196. 
Goodyere, Henry, 190. 
Hancock, Nicholas, prior of 

Holy Trinity, 198. 
Johnson, Thomas, 153, 154. 
Langham, Sir John, 68, 181. 
Love, William, 68. 
Moon, Sir Francis, 202. 

Parsons, Sir John, 82, 147, 195, 
Poston, Roger, deputy, 115. 
Probyn, Henry, deputy, 115. 
Pullen, John, deputy, 115. 
Pulteney, John, mayor, who had 
not been sheriff, 235. 

Q,ueenhithe Ward, nominations of, 
for aldermen rejected by Court of 
Aldermen, 149 ; removal of alder- 
men to and from, 196, 197 ; table 
of contested elections in, 204 ; table 
of aldermanic vacancies in, 205 ; 
number of Common Councilmen for, 
214, 216, 217, 218, 219. 

Aldermen of: — 

Alleyn, Ralph, 184. 
Dodmer, Raufe, 145. 
Harte, Sir John, 196. 

Hay ward, Sir Rowland, 49, 51, 

193, 196. 
Lamberd, Nicholas, 149. 
Langley, John, 192, 193. 
Lyon, Sir John, 45. 
Mundy, Sir John, 184. 
Pecock, Stephen. 184. 
Taillour, Sir William, 196. 
Vanner, Henry, 196. 
Wylkynsone, John, 145. 

Radington, Baldwyn, mayor, 25. 
Ramsey, Thomas, 192. 
Rawlinson, Thomas, 95. 

deputy, 115. 

Sir Thomas, 82, 195. 

Rawson, Richard, 192, 193. 
Read, John, dismissed from the Com- 
mon Council for misbehaviour, 231. 

Septimus, deputy, 115. 

Reynardson, Sir Abraham, 67, 68. 
Roberts, William, 236. 
Robinson, John, mercer, 150. 

Sir John, 72, 126, 193, 196. 

Roche, William, 44. 

Rogers, Sir Robert H., Deputy of 
Cripjjlegale Within, 115. 120, 133. 

Rokesle, Gregory de. 10, 11. 

Royal Exchange, destruction and 
rebuilding of, 123, 124 ; frescoes in, 

Russel, Elias, 12. 

Sadler, Francis, deputy, 115. 

John, discharged from his alder- 
manry, 190. 

St. Alban " de Wodestrete," 
chapel of St. Mary in, 18 ; be(juests 
lo, 21, 28. 

St. Benedict " Powlis wharf," 
bequests lo poor of, 31. 

St. Giles, Cripplegate, bequests to, 
12, 13. 



St. Giles Without London, sick 
of, l)equesls lo, lo. 

St. Laurence Jewry, Ijequests to, 
29 : bequests to poor of, 31. 

St. Mary de Aldermanbury, be- 
quests to poor of, 31. 

St. Mary Magdalen " de Mylk- 
strete," l^equests to, 18, 28. 

St. Mary Somerset, bequests to 
poor of, 31. 

St. Michael " de Bassynge- 
shawe," bequests to, 28. 

St. Michael " de Wodstret," 

betjuesls to, 17, 20. 
St. Peter near " Powlis wharf," 

bequests to p(Jor of, 31. 
St. Peter " de Wodstrete," be- 
quests to, 2 1. 
St. Thomas' Day, Common Council 

elected on, 208, 209 ; dinners on, 

prohibited, 228. 
Salmon, William, 153. 
Salomons, Sir David, 202, 203. 
Sambrooke, Sir Jeremy, 83. 
Savory, Sir Joseph, 105, 203. 
Sawbridge, Charles Walter, clerk of 

Cripplegate Within Ward, 133. 
Sayer, Kir., deputy of Cripplega'.e 

Without Ward, no, 112. 
Scales, Michael, 153, 204. 
Seccheford, Henry de, 15. 
Sbaa, Sir Edmund, 38, 43, 126. 
Sharpe, Richard, deputy of Tower 

ward, III. 
Shelley, Thomas, 192. 
Sheriffs, mode of election of, 235 ; 

the mayor's prerogative of electing 

one of the, 235. 
Shorter, Sir John, 79, 83. 
Sidney, Thomas, 202. 
Simmonds,. Thomas, deputy, 115. 
Skinner, Edmond, deputy, 115. 

Sir Thomas, 53, 54, 55 

Smith, David, deputy, 115. 

Henry, deputy, 115. 

Snowden, deputy, 124. 

Soame, Sir Stephen, Lord Mayor, 57 ; 
translated from one company to an- 
other, 147 ; alderman of Cheap ward, 


Thomas. 200. 

Southwark, see Bridge Ward 

Spakeman, Nicholas, 150. 
Spencer, James, 190. 
Spilsbury, Benjamin, deputy, 115. 
Stable, Adam, 192. 
Staffertone, Robert, punishment of, 

fjr disobedience to an alderman, 229. 
Staines, Sir William, 4, 98, 100, 115. 
Stampe, Sir Thomas, 84, 85. 
Stanes, Thomas de, 128. 
Staples, John, 220. 

Stapley, Richard, Common Council- 
man of Cripplegate, 133. 

Starky, Peter, deputy of Bassishaw 
ward, 1 10. 

Starkey, Thomas, 48. 

Stede, William, 42. 

Stewart, Sir William, 2, 85, 87, 1 14, 

Stokton, John, 2, 3, 36, 37, 192. 

Stone, David Henry, 202. 

Suffolk, Elias de, 13. 

Swanlond, Sir Simon de, mayor who 
had not been sheriff, 16, 235. 

Swynnerton, Sir John, 58. 

Taillour, Sir William, 196. 
Taillur, Philip le, removed from the 

mayoralty, 9. 
Tasker, Ralph, deputy, 112. 
Tate, John, no. 

Robert, no. 

Tatersall, Robert, 109. 
Thorapson, William, 202. 
ThorogOOd, Sir Benjamin, 195. 
Tichborne, Robert, 67. 

Tillie, Alexander, Common Council- 
man of Cripplegate, 133. 

Tilney, Ralph, 39. 

Tolos, John, 145. 

Tower, Sir John Robinson, Constable 
of the, 73. " 

Tower Ward, removal of aldermen 
to and from, 197 ; table of contested 
elections in, 204 ; table of aldermanic 
vacancies in, 205 ; number of Com- 
mon Councilmen for, 214, 216, 217, 
218, 219. 

Aldermen of: — 

Barne, Sir George, 196. 
Finnis, Thomas Quested, 202. 
Peers, Sir Charles, 201. 
Robinson, Sir John, 72, 126, 

193, 196. 
Tolos", John, 145. 
Watts, John, ni. 
Towse, John, 63, 151. 
Tranter, George Thomas Sirrell, Com- 
mon Councilman of Cripplegate, 133. 
Turke, Walter, Sheriff and Mavor, 14. 
Turner, William, 68. 
Twyford, Nicholas, 195. 

Underbill, Edward, 83. 
Usshe, John, see Wysshe. 

Vallance, Thomas, deputy, \\<^. 

Vanner, Henry, 196. 

Venour, William, 22. 

Vialou, Henry, Common Councilman 

of Cripplegate, 133. 
Vintners' Company, Master 


Wormwell, William, 70. 



Vintry Ward, nominations of, for 
aldermen rejected by Court of Alder- 
men, 151 ; removal of aldermen 
to and from, 196, 197 ; table of con- 
tested elections of aldermen in, 204 ; 
table of aldermanic vacancies in, 205 ; 
number of Common Councilmen for, 
214, 216, 217, 218, 219. 

Aldermen of: — 

Abney, Sir Thomas, 201. 
Eyles, Sir John, 201. 
Fowle, Sir Thomas, 2, 82. 
Gabriel, Sir Thomas, 202. 
Vanner, Henry, 196. 

Vyner, Thomas, 66. 

Walbrook Ward, removals of alder- 
men to and from, 197 ; contested 
elections of aldermen for, 204 ; table 
of aldermanic vacancies in, 205 ; 
number of Common Councilmen for, 
214, 216, 218, 219. 

Aldermen of: — 

Aylmer, Sir Laurence, 183. 
Eyre, Sir Simon, 196. 
Lawrence, Sir James Clarke, 

202, 203. 
Pecche, John, 182. 
Walcote", John, 229. 
Walcote, John, 229. 
Walling-ton, John, deputy, 115. 
Walpol, Adam, 128. 
Walworth, William, sherift", 18. 
Warbulton, Robert, 20, 22, 24. 
Ward, John, 173. 

Wardmotes, proceedings at, 223-226. 
Warner, Samuel, committal of, for 

refusing the office of alderman, 181. 
Warren, Sir Ralph, Lord Mayor, 

Watts, John, III. 
Wengrave, John de, mayor who had 

not been sheriff, 235. 

Westerby, James, Common Council- 
man for Cripplegate, 133. 

Whateley John, mercer, 109. 

White, Henry, deputy, 115. 

Robert, 4, 69. 

Whitebakers, 171. 

Whytte Bakers, 43. 

Whitington, Richard, mayor, 23, 
25. 26, 27, 53. 

Whitmore, Sir George, 73, 185. 

Whyte, Sir John, 46, 196. 

Sir Thomas, Lord Mayor, 46. 

Wilfort, James, 183. 

Williams, Sir John. 2,4, 80, 114,, 159. 

Willshire, Leonard, deputy, 115. 

Wilson, Colonel, 202. 

Wing, Samuel, deputy, 115. 

Winton, John de, 128. 

Wodecok, John, 2, 25, 26. 

" Wodestrete,'' alderman of, 13. 

Wollaston, Sir John, 196. 

Wood, Sir Matthew, 4, 80, lOl, 160. 

Woodall, John, 212. 

Woodroffe, David, 191. 

Wooldridge, Thomas, dismissed from 
his aldermanry, 186. 

Worley, Henry, 183. 

Wormwell, William, 70. 

Worstede, Simon de, 14, 18, 128. 

Wotton, Nicholas, mayor, 29. 

Wottone, William, 230. 

Wright, Sir Edward, 233. 

Wye, Thomas Henry, Common Coun- 
cilman of Cripplegate, 133. 

Wylkynsone, John, 145. 

Wyndesore, John de, 13. 

Wyndout, Tliomas, 40. 

Wysshe or Usshe, John, committal 
of, for refusing the office of alderman, 

Wythers, David, deputy, 115. 

"Yvilane," 10. 


Page 5, line 3, for Fvnchyngfe/d read Fynchingfeld. 

Page 5, line 14, for 1363 read 1368. 

Page 6, line 19, for Humphrey read Humphry. 

Page 6, line 22, omit Draper. 

Page 20, line 9, for ijSj read /J/^. 

Page 24, Robert ^^'arbulton should be added as Presented and sworn 
for the sixth time 12 March, 1387. 

Warbulton's IVill was dated June it, ijSy (see p. 20), he 
probably died in that month, and Adam Bamme zvas substituted 
as alderman, sejtnng for the remainder of the year. 

Page 25, line 25, for /jpj read 13^4. 

Page no, line 10, for Robert xeQ.6. John. 




Los Angeles 

This book is DUE on the last date stamped below. 






D 000 451 215 8