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VACCINATION 

Proved Useless & Dangerous 

FROM FORTY-FIVE YEARS OF 
REGISTRATION STATISTICS. 



ALFRED R. WALLACE, LL.D. 



I 



TO MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT 



AND OTHERS. 



Forty-five years of 
Registration Statistics, 
proving Vaccination 
to be both useless and 
dangerous. 

In Two Parts. 



BY 

ALFRED R. WALLACE, LL.D. 



SECOND EDITION. 
WITH CORRECTIONS, NOTES, AND AN APPENDIX. 
By ALEXANDER WHEELER. 



Condon i 

E. W. ALLEN, 4 Ave Maria Lane. 



1889. 



Forty-five years of 
Registration Statistics. 



PART I. 



Small-pox Mortality and Vaccination. 



T T AVING been led to enquire for myself 
^ ^ as to the effects of Vaccination in 
preventing or diminishing Small-pox, I have 
arrived at results as unexpected as they appear 
to me to be conclusive. The question is one 
which affects our personal liberty as well as 
the health and even the lives of thousands ; 
it therefore becomes a duty to endeavour to 
make the truth known to all, and especially to 
those who, on the faith of false or misleading 
statements, have enforced the practice of 
vaccination by penal laws. 

I propose now to establish the following 
four statements of fact, by means of the only 



4 



FORTY-FIVE YEARS OF 



official statistics which are available ; and I shall 
adopt a mode of presenting those statistics as 
a whole, which will render them intelligible to 
all. These statements are : 

(i.) — That during the forty-five years of the 
Registration of deaths and their causes, 
Small-pox mortality has very slightly diminished, 
while an exceedingly severe Small-pox epi- 
demic occurred within the last twelve years 
of the period. 

(2.) — 'That there is no evidence to show that 
the slight decrease of Small-pox mortality is 
due to vaccination. 

(3.) — That the severity of Small-pox as a 
disease has not been mitigated by vaccination. 

(4.) — That several inoculable diseases have 
increased to an alarming extent coincidently 
with enforced vaccination. 

The first, second, and fourth propositions will 
be proved from the Registrar-General's Reports 
from 1838 to 1882 ; and I shall make the 
results clear and indisputable, by presenting 
the figures for the whole period in the form 
of diagrammatic curves, so that no manipulation 
of them, by taking certain years for comparison, 
or by dividing the period in special ways, will 
be possible. 



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DIAGRAM 1. 

Deaths in London perMillion Living from Small Pox and from the Chief otherZymotic Diseases except Cholera. 

Lont-rluie Sma// Pox. SotUd LineTypTui-s <S-t>. ' Upper Line ZyjnctzcDUcases. 




DIAGR;?fl 11. 

Deaths m England and Wales per Million Living from Small Pox and from the Chief other Zymotic Diseases except Chole 

xfcDmdu LowrLiM S^rwU Pm IIMal. J.ine, OPtlcicd TaccwMioru Upprr Luj^. Zymallc. Viscoses. 

































































































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NOTE, riu OPfi/:M Vaccination, line is per 100000 of tfie, livinyj Pci>,ir.a.iun 



REGISTRATION STATISTICS, 



5- 



The diagrams show, in each case, not the 
absolute mortaHty but the deaths per miUion 
Hving, a method which eHminates the increase 
of population and gives true comparative results 

Vaccination has not diminished Small- pox. 
Diagram I. exhibits^ the deaths from Small- 
pox, in London, for every year from 1838 to 
1882, while an upper line exhibits the deaths 
from the other principal zymotic diseases given 
in the Registrar- General's Annual Summary for 
1882, (except Cholera, which is only an occasional 
epidemic,) namely, — Scarlet fever and Diphtheria, 
Measles, Whooping Cough, Typhoid and other 
fevers, and Diarrhoea. A dotted line between 
these shows the mortality from fevers of the 
Typhoid class, t 

The first thing clearly apparent in this diagram, 
is the very small diminution of Small-pox 

* The Diagrams in the First Edition stopped at 1882. In this Edition 
the later years are added without variation of the text, which these later 
years do but accentuate. Complaint has been made of this presentment. 
It is the most accurate that can be made. The favorite method of averaging 
in such a manner as to take all the sharp lines from the curves, totally 
obscm-es the epidemic nature of the disease of Small-pox, its great 
characteristic featiu'e. No tiater presentment than that chosen can be 
adopted. The line of official vaccinations includes, for 1884-5-6, official 
re-vaccinations, which have not been given since 1872, or the fall would 
be much more pronounced for these years. — Ed. 

f From the Registrar-General's Annual Summary of Deaths, etc., iii 
London, 1882. Table 23, p. xxv. 



6 



FORTY-FIVE YEARS OF 



corresponding widi die epochs of penal and 
compulsory vaccination ; while the epidemic of 
1 87 1 was tlie most destructive in the whole 
period. The average diminution of Small-pox 
mortality from the first to the second half of the 
period, is 57 deaths per million per annum. 
Looking now at the upper curve, we see that 
the mortality from the chief zymotic diseases 
has also decreased,* more especially during 
the last 35 years ; but the decrease of these 
diseases is not, proportionally, so great, owing 
to the fact that deaths from Diarrhoea have 
considerably increased in the latter half of 
the period. On the other hand. Typhus and 
Typhoid fevers have diminished to a much 
greater extent than Small-pox, as shown by 
the dotted line on the diagram, the reduced 
mortality from this cause alone being 382 per 
million, or more than six times as much as 
that from Small-pox. Every one will admit 
that this remarkable decrease of Typhus,i' &c., 

* From 1838 to 1853, the average Small-pox death-rate exceeded that of 
the years 1854 to 1867 by 229 per million living. But the average of the 
years 1868 to 1886, exceeded that of the years 1854 to 1867 by 46 per 
million. 

t The deaths from Typhus, Enteric, and Fever, 1871-80, were less by 
540 per million than in the ten preceding years. The years i88i to 1S86 
show a furtlier reduction, as compared with 1871 to 1880, of 125 per million 
living. — Ed. 



REGISTRATION STATISTICS. 



7 



is due to more efficient sanitation, greater 
personal attention to the laws of health, and 
probably also to more rational methods of 
treatment. But all these causes of amelioration 
have certainly had their effect on Small-pox; 
and as the mortality from that disease has 
not equally diminished, there is probably some 
counteracting cause at work. So far, therefore, 
from there being any proof that vaccination 
has diminished Small-pox in London, the 
tendency of the Registrar-General's facts, (and 
there are no other facts which are trustworthy,) 
is to show that some counteracting cause has 
prevented general sanitation from acting on 
this disease as it has acted on Typhus, and 
that cause may, possibly, be vaccination itself. 

We will now turn to Diagram II., which 
gives a representation of similar statistics for 
England and Wales,* except that unfortunately 
there is a blank in the record for 1843-46, in 
which years the Registrar- General informs us, 
"the causes of death were not distinguished." 
Here too we perceive a similar decrease in 
Small-pox mortality, broken by the tremendous 
epidemic of 187 1-2, while the other chief 
zymotic diseases represented by the higher 



* From the Registrar-General's Annual Report, 1882. Table 32, p. xliii. 



8 



FORTY-FIVE YEARS OF 



line, show more irregularity, but a considerable 
recent decrease. For all England, as for 
London, the tables show us that Typhoid 
fevers have decreased far more than Small- 
pox, (but for clearness the curve of Typhus 
is omitted,) and we have, therefore, again, 
no reason for imputing the decrease in Small- 
pox to vaccination. But we may go further 
than this negative statement, for we have> 
fortunately, a means of directly testing the 
alleged efficacy of vaccination. The eleventh 
Annual Report of the Local Government Board 
gives a table of the number of successful 
vaccinations, at the expense of the Poor Rate, 
in England and Wales, from 1852 to 1881. 
From the figures of this table I have calculated 
the numbers in proportion to the population of 
each year, and have exhibited the result in the 
dotted line on my Diagram II.; and to this I 
beg to direct the reader's attention, since it 
at once dispels some oft-repeated erroneous 
statements."^ 

In the first place we see that, instead 

* I have examined every Report of the Local Government Board, with 
the intention of giving the total vaccinations for the whole period embraced 
in this Diagram II. But the total vaccinations are not tabulated, and are 
only given in the text for the years since 1872. Hence the official 
vaccinations only appear here, with such vaccinations as are tabulated. — Ed. 



REGISTRATION STATISTICS. 



.9 



of vaccination havino- increased since the 
enforcement of penal laws, it has actually 
diminished ; so that the statement so often 
made by official apologists for vaccination, and 
repeated by Sir Lyon Playfair in his speech 
to the House of Commons, June, 1883, — that the 
progressive efficiency of legal vaccination has 
diminished Small- pox, is absolutely tmtriie, 
sijzce there has been a decrease rather than 
an increase of " efficient vaccination!' * A 

* It is curious that even the Registrar-General appears to be 
ignorant of the fact that, official vaccination has not increased in 
efficiency since the penal laws came into force. In his Report for 
1880, p. xxii., he says — " These figiu-es show conclusively that, 
coincidenily with the gradual extension of the practice oj vaccination, 
there has been a gradual and notable decline in the mortality from 
Small-pox at all ages." As, however, there has not been shown to 
have been any such "gi-adual extension of the practice of vaccination," 
but, so far as official records go, just the reverse, the whole argument 
falls to the ground ! It is trae that this curve does not exhibit the numbers 
of the vaccinated population, which there is no means of arriving at. 

Mr. Marson, the Siu-geon of the Small-pox Hospital, told the Select 
Committee, 1871, answer 4,190: — "The public are pretty largely 
vaccinated now, and will be more so every year, I should think as time 
goes on. There is one point which has not been very cleaily brought 
forward this morning, and that is the increase of Small-pox after vaccination 
year after year. When I first went to the hospital, 35 years since, from 
1835 the admission of patients into the Small-pox hospital was 

44 per cent, of Small-pox after vaccination; from 1845 to 1855, 64 per 
cent. ; from 1855 to 1865, 78 per cent. ; and during 1863 and 1864, S3 
and 84 per cent. Those are patients who have been vaccinated." The 
line of official vaccination in the diagi-am, shows that Mr. Marson was 
mistaken as to the amount of public vaccination, and that it was a larger 
incidence of Small-pox among the vaccinated he was witnessing ; not the 
result of extension of vaccination. — Ep, 



lO 



FORTY-FIVE YEARS OF 



temporary increase in the number of vacci- 
nations always takes place during an epidemic 
of Small-pox, or when an epidemic is feared ; 
but an examination of the curve of vaccination 
does not support the statement that it checks 
the epidemic. On careful inspection it will 
be seen that on three separate occasions 
a considerable increase in vaccinations was 
followed by an increase of Small-pox. Let 
the reader look at the Diagram, and note 
that in 1863 there was a very great number 
of vaccinations, followed in 1864 by an increase 
in Small-pox mortality. Again, the number of 
vaccinations steadily rose from 1866 to 1869, 
yet in 1870-71 Small-pox mortahty increased ; and 
yet again, in 1876 an increase in vaccinations 
was followed by an increase of Small-pox deaths. 
In fact, if the dotted line showed inoculation 
instead of vaccination, it might be used to 
prove that inoculation caused an increase of 
Small-pox. I only maintain, however, that it 
does not prove that vaccination diminishes the 
mortality from the disease. During the panic 
caused by the great epidemic of 187 1-2, vacci- 
nations rose enormously, and declined as rapidly 
the moment the epidemic passed away, but there 
is nothing whatever to show that the increased 



REGISTRATION STATISTICS. 



vaccinations had any effect on the disease, which 
ran its course and then died out Hke other 
epidemics. 

It has now been proved from the only complete 
series of official records that exist : — 

(i.) — That Small-pox has not decreased so 
much or so steadily as Typhus and allied fevers. 

(2.) — That the diminution of Small-pox 
mortality coincides with a diminished, instead 
of an increased efficiency of official vaccination. 

(3.) — That one of the most severe epidemics 
of Small-pox on record, within the period of 
accurate statistics, occurred after 33 years of 
official, compulsory, and penal vaccination. 

These three groups of facts give no support 
to the assertion that vaccination has diminished 
Small-pox mortality ; and it must always be 
remembered that we have actually no other 
extensive body of statistics on which to found our 
judgment. The utility or otherwise of vaccination 
is purely a question of statistics. It remains for 
us to decide, whether we will be guided by the 
only trustworthy statistics we possess, or continue 
blindly to accept the dogmas of an interested 
and certainly not infallible body of professional 
men, who once upheld inoculation as strongly 
as they now uphold vaccination. 



12 



FORTY-FIVE YEARS OF 



Small-pox has not been mitigated 
BY Vaccination. 

It is often asserted that, although vaccination 
is not a complete protection against Small-pox, 
yet it diminishes the severity of the disease, 
and renders it less dangerous to those who 
take it. This assertion is sufficiently answered 
by the proof above given, that it has not 
diminished Small-pox mortality ; but more 
direct evidence can be adduced. 

The best available records show that, the 
proportion of deaths to Small-pox cases is the 
same noiv, although a large majority of the 
population are vaccinated, as it was a century ago 
before vaccination was discovered. Dr. Jurin, 
in 1723; the London Small-pox Hospital 
Reports, 1746-63 ; Dr. Lambert, 1763 ; and 
Rees' Cyclopaedia, 1779; give numbers varying 
from 16-5 to 25-3 as the per-centage of mortality 
among Small-pox patients in hospitals ; — the 
average of the whole being i8-8 per cent. 

Now for the epoch of vaccination. Mr. Marson, 
1836-51, and the Reports of the London, Homer- 
ton, Deptford, Fulham, and Dublin Small-pox 
Hospitals, between 1870 and 1880, give numbers 



REGISTRATION STATISTICS. 



13 



varying from 14-26 to 217 as the deaths per cent, 
of Small-pox patients, the average being 18-5. 
And this, be it remembered, under the improved 
treatment and hygiene of the nineteenth as com- 
pared with the eighteenth century. 

These figures not only demonstrate the false- 
hood of the oft-repeated assertion that vaccination 
mitigates Small- pox, but they go far to prove the 
very opposite — that the disease has been rendered 
more intractable by it ; or how can we account for 
the mortality among Small-pox patients being 
almost exacdy the same now as a century ago, 
notwithstanding the great advance of medical 
science and the improvements in hospitals and 
hospital treatment?* 

* The following authorities have been examined for the facts and figiu'cs 
of this section. 

Dr. Jurin (18,066 cases) and Dr. Lambert (72 cases) given in 
"Analyse et Tableau de 1' influence de la Petite Verole ; par E. E. 
DuviLLARD. Paris, 1806." (pp. 112, 113.) 

London Small-pox Hospitals (6,454 cases) given in "An account of 
the Rise, Progi-ess, and State of the Hospitals for relieving poor people 
afflicted with the Small Pox, and for Inoculation," appended to "A Sermon 
preached before the President and Officers of the Hospital .... by 
the Bishop of Lincoln. London, 1763." 

Rees' Cyclopcedia, 1779, Vol. 2, Art. Inoculation Col. INP. par. 5, 
(extract). "From a general calculation it appears that, in the Plospitals 
for Small-pox and Inoculation, 75 die out of 400 patients having the 
distemper in die natural way." 

Total cases before Vaccination, 24,994. 

Mr. Marson, Resident Surgeon to the Small-pox and Vaccination 
Hospital, London, (5,652 cases) ; given in the Blue Book on The Histoiy 
and Practice of Vaccination, 1857, p. 18. 



FORTY-FIVE YEARS OF 



Small-pox in the Army and Navy. 

Here we have a crucial test of the efficacy 
or uselessness of vaccination. Our Soldiers 
and Sailors are vaccinated and re-vaccinated 
in accordance with the most strinrent official 
regulations. They are exceptionally strong 
and healthy men, in the prime of life, and 
if vaccination is of any use. Small-pox should 
be almost unknown among them, and no 

London Hospitals, 1870-72, (14,808 cases); in the Report of a Committee 
of the Managers of the Metropolitan Asylum District, July 1872, p. 5. 

London Hospitals, 1876-80, (15,172 cases); in a letter to The Times 
of November 8th, 1879, from W. F. Jebb, Clerk to the Meti-opolitan 
Asylum District. 

Homerton, (5,479 cases); from the Report of the Committee, 1877. 
Deptford, (3,185 cases); from the Report of the Medical Superin- 
tendent, 1 881. 

Fulham, (1,752 cases); from the Report of tlie Medical Superintendent, 
1881. 

Dublin, (2,404 cases); from the Annual Report of the Committee, 1880. 
Total cases after Vaccination, 48,451. 

The extracted figures and per-centages have been all cai'efuUy verified, 
and the averages have been obtained by dividing the total number of deaths 
multiplied by 100, by the total number of cases. 

I have thought it best to leave these notes unaltered. They are not 
affected by more recent experience, excepting in this Vi'ay : — That the gi'eat 
extension of our hospital accommodation involves a much larger number of 
mild cases being admitted. Objection has been taken to Jurin's figures. 
JtJRiN, it must be remembered, was trying to induce people to accept 
artificial Small-pox by inoculation, and he gives his figures to show the 
great fatality of Small-pox taken in the ordinary way by infection. He 
would therefore certainly not err in making it too mild. The total 
experience of the Metropolitan Asylums Board, up to the issue of the last 
report to the managers, is given in the Appendix. — Ed. 



REGISTRATION STATISTICS. 



15 



soldier or sailor shoiUd ever die of it. They 
are in fact often spoken of as a "perfectly 
protected population." Now let us see what 
are the facts. 

A Return has been issued to the House of 
Commons, " Small-pox (Army and Navy)," 
dated "August, 1884," giving the mean strength, 
the number of deaths from Small-pox, and the 
ratio per thousand in each service for the twenty- 
three years 1860-82. An examination of this 
Return shows us that there has not been a single 
year without two or more deaths in the Army, 
and only two years without deaths in the Navy. . 
Comparing the Return on "Vaccination, Mortahty," 
No. 433, issued by the House of Commons in 
1877, we find that, in the twenty- three years 
1850-72, (the latest there given,) there were many 
years in which no adult Small-pox deaths were 
recorded for a number of large towns of from 
100,000 to 270,000 inhabitants- Liverpool had 
none in 3 of the years, Birmingham and Sun- 
derland in 7, Bradford and Sheffield in 8, Halifax 
in 9, Dudley in 10, while Blackburn and Wolver- 
hampton were each totally without adult Small- 
pox mortality for 11 out of the 23 years! 

It is true that the cases are not strictly 
comparable, because for these towns we have 



i6 



FORTY-FIVE YEARS OF 



only deaths of persons aged 20 and upwards 
given separately, whereas the ages of the 
Army and Navy range chiefly from about 17 to 
45. But, considering the extremely unsanitary 
state of many of these towns, and their great 
preponderance in freedom from Small-pox, there 
is clearly no room left for the alleged effect of re- 
vaccination in securing to our soldiers and sailors 
immunity from the disease. 

But let us now look at the averages for the 
whole series of years, as affording the best and 
only reliable test. On working these out carefully 
I find the mean Small-pox mortality for the 23 
years to be, in the Army 82-96, which we may 
call 83 per million, and in the Navy^' 157 per 
million. Unfortunately no materials exist for an 
exact comparison of these rates with those of the 
civil population ; but with much labour I have 
made the best comparison I can arrive at. From 
the Census General Report, 1881, and the Reports 
of the Registrar- General for the same 23 years 
as are included in the Army and Navy Return, 



* The 4Sth Report of the Registrar-General, (Tables 63 and 4,) gives 25 
Small-pox deaths among 195,937 British Merchant Seamen in 18S2. This 
is at the rate of 127 per million, against the above 157 for the Navy. We 
have no reason to believe that re-vaccination is common in the merchant 
service. In the Navy, therefore, the influence of re-vaccination appears to 
be hm-tful rather than beneficial. — Ed. 



REGISTRATION STATISTICS. 



17 



I have been able to ascertain the Small-pox 
mortality of males in England and Wales between 
the years 15 and 55, taken as best representing 
those of the two services ; and the result is a 
mean Small-pox death rate of 176 per million.* 

It will be observed that this is but little more 
than the Navy mortality, though more than 
double that of the Army, and the question 
arises, to what is the difference due. And 
first, why is the Small-pox mortality in the 
Navy nearly double that of the Army? The 

* The following are the data on which this calculation is founded :— 

In the General Report of the last Census, Table 14, p. 89, the numbers 
of males at successive ages are given for the three last Censuses— 1861, 1871, 
and 1 88 1. By a simple calculation it is found that the number of males of 
all ages is to that of males aged 15—55 in the proportion of I to -528. 

Table 4, p. 78, of the same Census Report, gives the male population 
for the middle of each of the 23 years included in the Army and Navy 
Retm-n. The mean of these numbers is 1 1 , 1 67, 500 ; and this sum, multiplied 
by the factor -528, gives 5,896,500 for the average male population of the 
ages 15 — 55 for those years. 

From the tables of "Causes of Death at different Periods of Life" in 
the twenty-three successive Reports of the Registrar-General, 1 860-1 882, I 
have extracted the deaths from Small-pox of males aged 15—55, the mean 
annual value of which is 1,041 ; and this number, divided by the number of 
millions in the corresponding population (5-8965), gives the death-rate per 
million = 176. 

The limit of age, 15 — 55, has been taken because the General Report of 
the Census of 1 88 1, Table 40, gives, for the Army and Navy, 7,530 men 
over 45, and 28,834 under 20 years of age. 

The Small-pox death-rate for same ages, England and Wales, for the 
years 1850 to 1870, was only 109 per million. Supplement to 35th Report, 
Table 2, p. 2. The enormous increase is due to the epidemics since 
1870.— Ed. 

B 



i8 



FORTY-FIVE YEARS OF 



regulations as to re-vaccination are the same in 
both, and are in both rigidly enforced, and the 
men are pretty equal in stamina and general 
health. The cause must therefore be in the 
different conditions of life of the two services ; 
and it seems to me a probable supposition, that 
the difference arises chiefly from the less efficient 
ventilation and isolation which are possible on 
board ship as compared with Army Hospitals.* 
The general mortality of the Navy from 
disease appears (from the Registrar-General's 
Report, 1882, Tables 59 and 65,) to be 
considerably less than that of the Army, 
so that the greater mortality from Small- 
pox must be due to some special conditions. 
But whatever these are, the conditions of the 
civil population are certainly much worse. Two- 
thirds of the families inhabiting Glasgow live in 
houses of one or two rooms only, and many other 
towns, including London, are probably not much 
better. Under such conditions, and with the 

* An Officer of the Royal Marine Artilleiy, of great experience, 
confirms this view. He assures me that isolation is absolutely impossible 
on board a ship of war. But if this is the explanation of the phenomenon, 
it is itself a proof of the complete inefficacy of re-vaccination, which not 
only does not protect men from catching Small-pox, but allows them to 
die of it quite as much as — and, allowing something for the superiority of 
sanitation, even more than— the adult civil population, only partially 
vaccinated and hardly ever re-vaccinated ! 



REGISTRATION STATISTICS. 



19 



low vitality induced by insuf¥icient food, over- 
work, and bad air, we should expect the Small-pox 
mortality of our civil population to be very much 
greater than that of the picked class of sailors 
who enjoy ample food, fresh air, and medical 
attendance. Where then is the alleged "full 
security" afforded by re-vaccination, and how are 
we to characterise the statements circulated at 
the expense of the public, that "Small-pox is 
almost unknown in the Army and Navy?'"^ If 
we are to draw a legitimate conclusion from 
the facts, it is, that the re-vaccination to which 
our soldiers and sailors are subjected, renders 
Small-pox more fatal when it attacks them, for 
thus only can we explain the large mortality 

* The following ai-e a few of these assertions. The italics are to call 
attention to the essential words of each statement. 

The "Lancet," of March 1st, 1879, says :—" Vaccination needs to be 
repeated well once in a lifetime, and then ike immunity is abnost absohiie." 

The Medical Officer of the General Post Office says, in a circular 
dated June, 1884. — "The only means of seeming protection against 
Small-pox is by re-vaccination .... it is desirable, in order to obtain 
fnll security, that the operation should be repeated at a later period of life." 

In the tract on "Small-pox and Vaccination " issued by the National 
Health Society, and now being widely circulated at tlie expense of the 
ratepayers, with the sanction of the Local Government Boai-d, we find 
this statement :—" Evei-y Soldier and Sailor is re-vaccinated; the result 
is that Small-pox is almost tuiknown in the Army and Navy, even amid 
smTounding epidemics." 

The above statements are proved by the Official Returns now issued 
to be absolutely untrue, and must have been ignorantly and recklessly 
ipade without any adequate basis of fact, 



20 



FORTY-FIVE YEARS OF 



among picked healthy men under constant medical 
supervision, and living under far better sanitary 
conditions than the mass of the civil population. 

One other mode of comparison can be made, 
showing that even the Army Small-pox death- 
rate is but little better than that of some large 
towns, during the same period. The rate per 
million for the adult population, between the 
ages 15 and 55, on an average of the years 
1860-82 for five very large towns was as 
follows : — ^ 



Manchester, (population 340,211 in 


582), 131 per million. 






315,998 „ 


119 




Brighton ... 


), 


109,595 „ 


114 




Bradford ... 




200,158 „ 


104 




Oldham ... 


)> 


115,572 „ 


89 


)> 


Of course 


there 


are many 


other 


towns which 



have a much higher mortality, but very few are 



* These figiires have been thus obtained — the Registi-ai--Generars 
Summaiy, 1882, (Table 7, p. xv.) gives the Small-pox deaths per 1,000, 
for twenty great Towns, for the years 1872-82. The Parliamentaiy 
Return, "Vaccination, Mortality," 1877, gives the Small-pox mortality and 
population of a considerable number of towns for the years 1847-72. 
From these two official papers the Small-pox mortality per million of the 
whole male population from i860 to 1882, for such towns as occur in 
both the tables, is easily obtained. The average Small-pox death-rate 
for all England is found to be 211 7, wlrile that of the ages 15—55 is 
176. These numbers are in the proportion of I to -83 ; hence the total 
Small-pox mortality of any town multiplied by the factor "83 will give, 
approximately, the mortality at ages 15—45- The proportion has been 
obtained from males only, but that of the two sexes combined will not 
be materially different, 



REGISTRATION STATISTICS. 



21 



much worse than the Navy. The very worst 
large town which I can find in the Reports is 
Newcastle-on-Tyne, which for the same period 
had an adult Small-pox mortality of 349 per 
million. But the fact that five of our most 
populous towns have considerably less adult 
Small-pox mortality than the Navy, and one 
of them but litde more than the Army, amounts 
to a demonstration of the uselessness of the 
most complete re-vaccination. 

The general mortality of our adult population 
is much greater than that of the Army and Navy. 
From the official sources of information already 
quoted, I find that the average mortality of the 
adult male population of England, of the ages 
1 2 — 25, for the years 1860-82, was about 1 1,300 
per million.* 

That of the Navy, for the same period, was 
11,000 per million from all causes, and only 
7, 1 50 from disease. 

That of the Army, at home, was 10,300 per 
million. Abroad it was nearly double (19,400), 
but this included all the deaths from casualties, 
exposure, &c., in the Abyssinian, Afghan, Zulu, 
Transvaal, and other petty wars. 



* Taken from p. lii., 4Stli Report of the Registrai--General. — Ed. 



FORTY-FIVE YEARS OF 



Thus the superior physique of our soldiers and 
sailors, together with the sanitary conditions 
under which they live, are fully manifested in a 
mortality from disease much below that of the 
adult civil population of comparable ages. If 
we make the same allowance for the influence of 
these causes in the case of Small-pox, there 
remains absolutely nothing for the alleged pro- 
tective influence of re-vaccination. 

Surely we shall now hear no more of the 
re-vaccinated nurses in Small-pox hospitals, (as 
to whom we have no statistics, but only vague 
and usually inaccurate assertions,) when we have 
a great, officially recorded experiment to refer 
to, extending over 23 years and applied to 
more than 200,000 men, the results of which 
directly contradict every professional and official 
statement as to the safeguard of re- vaccination. 

Vaccination itself a cause of Disease 
AND Death. 

As has been now shown, vaccination is 
quite powerless either to prevent or to mitigate 
Small-pox. But this is not all, for there are 
good grounds for believing that it is itself the 
cause of much disease and serious mortality. 



REGISTRATION STATISTICS. 



23 



It was long denied by medical men that 
syphilis can be communicated by vaccination ; 
but this is now universally admitted, and no 
less than 478 cases of vaccine-syphilis have 
already been recorded."^ But there is also 
good reason to believe that many other blood- 
diseases are transmitted and increased by the 
same means, since there has been for many 
years a steady increase of mortality from such 
diseases which is terrible to contemplate. The 
following table elves the increase of five of 
these diseases from the Registrar- General's 
Annual Report for 1880, (page Ixxix., Table 
34,) and it is very noteworthy that, in the 
long list of maladies there tabulated, no 
others, (except Bronchitis, which often follows 
vaccination though not, probably, transmitted 
by it,) show any such striking and continuous 
increase, while the great majority are either 
stationary or decreasing. 



* See Mr. Tebb's "Compulsory Vaccination in England," p. 25, 
(Note,) for a list of the authorities for these cases. 



FORTY-FIVE YEARS OF 



Annual Deaths in England per 
Million Living.* 



Average of 5 years. 


1850-4 


1855-9 


1860-4 


1865-9 


1870-4 


1875-9 


1880. 




279 


199 


191 


148 


433 


82 


25 




37 


51 


64 


82 


81 


86 


84 




302 


327 


369 


404 


442 


493 


S16 




265 


261 


272 


316 


299 


330 


371 




20 


18 


24 


23 


29 


39 






12 


IS 


16 


17 


18 


23 


22 


Totals... 


636 


672 


745 


842 


869 


971 


993 




0 


36 


109 


206 


233 


335 


357 



We here see a constant increase in the 
mortahty from each of these diseases, an 
increase which in the sum of them is steady 
and continuous. It is true, we have not, and 
cannot have, direct proof that vaccination is 
the sole cause of this increase, but we have 
good reason to beheve that it is the chief 
cause. In the first place it is a vera causa, 
since it directly inoculates infants and adults, 
on an enormous scale, with whatever blood- 
disease may exist unsuspected in the system 

* This Table lias not been continued in later Reports ; but we find 
that Cancer (tlie only disease of the five sepai-ately tabulated) goes on 
steadily increasing, the mortality for the five years, 18S1-85, being given in 
the 48th Report as follows :— Syphilis, 92; Cancer, 544. Small-pox, 
for the same period was 78. — Ed. 



REGISTRATION STATISTICS. 



25 



of the infants from whom the vaccine vims is 
taken. In the next place, no other adequate 
cause has been adduced for the remarkably 
continuous increase of these special diseases, 
which the spread of sanitation, of cleanliness, 
and of advanced medical knowledge, should 
have rendered both less frequent and less 
fatal. 

The increased deaths from these five causes, 
from 1855 to 1880, exceed the total deaths 
from Small-pox during the same period I 
So that even if the latter disease had been 
totally abolished by vaccination, the general 
mortality would have been increased, and there 
is much reason to believe that the increase 
may have been caused by vaccination itself.'" 



* It has been boldly asserted by the Government Department 
controlling vaccination, [Eleventh Report of the MecUcal Officer to Local 
Government Board, p. vi., et seq.,] that even if some childi-en are killed 
by vaccination, 12,000 lives are annually saved by it. The basis of that 
assertion is an esliinate which contradicts the official vaccination returns 
at almost eveiy point. ■ The estimate and assertion are false to the 
facts which are obtainable. 

The above noted estimate is taken to prove that 94 per cent, of London 
children under ten years of age are vaccinated, and that 95 per cent, of the 
population [p. 41] are vaccinated. This statement is further assumed to be 
supported by an examination of " 53,185 children in various national, 
charitable, and parochial schools and workhouses in London." Such is 
the odious rigour of vaccine regulations in our "national, charitable, and 
parochial workhouse schools," that I should not have been surprised if, 
of these chikhen, not one was found uuvacciuated. The parents of these 



26 



REGISTRATION STATISTICS, 



poor children have had no one to defend them by paying fines for neglect 
of the vaccination. Yet this "inspection" showed 6 per cent, to have 
" no vaccination scar," or to be doubtful as to vaccination. 

It is on such bases, that tremendous statements, such as that noted 
above, are founded ; and to shade off the impudence of this one it is further 
declared that ' ' tlie estimate of the number of the unvaccinated is probably 
too high." Our responsible ministers have been appealed to respecting 
such a base use of official reports, and have had the humour to refer the 
objector to the veiy officials who have so degraded their department of 
"the public service." These, in turn, when appealed to, refer to the 
head of the department ; meanwhile the false statement is repeatedly 
quoted, and stands as first used. 

The Reports of the Local Government Board, show that only once 
have there ever been more than 87 per cent, of the births of the countiy 
vaccinated, and in London 3 or 4 per cent, fewer. The last year 
reported, 1886, gives 30,000 fewer official vaccinations than 1877, when 
it was over 86 per cent, of the births. The plan of the officials is 
to get 94 per cent, vaccinated, by deducting the infants who died un- 
vaccinated from the total births, and treating the rest as "surviving." 
I know no more condemnable trick. Death is as busy with vaccinated 
as with unvaccinated children. — Ed. 



PART II. 



Comparative Mortality of the 
Vaccinated and the Unvaccinated. 



TN his speech in the House of Commons, 
June 19th, 1883, Sir Lyon Playfair made 
the foUowing statement: — "An analysis of 
10,000 cases in the MetropoHtan Hospitals 
shows that 45 per cent, of the Unvaccinated 
patients die, and only 1 5 per cent, of Vaccinated 
patients;" and he further showed that statistics 
of a similar character had been published in 
other countries. It will no doubt be objected 
by my readers that these statistics, if correct, 
are a complete proof of the value of vaccination ; 
and I shall be expected to show that they are 
incorrect or give up the whole case. This I am 
prepared to do ; and I now undertake to prove — 
firstly, that the figures here given are unreliable ; 
and, secondly, that such statistics necessarily give 
false results unless they are classified according 
to the age-periods of the patients. 



28 



FORTY -FIVE YEARS OF 



The per-centages of Vaccinated and 
Unvaccinated unreliable. 

The simple fact of death from Small-pox is 
easily ascertained, and has been for many years 
accurately recorded. 

But, whether the deceased person had been 
vaccinated or not, is a fact by no means easily 
ascertained, because confluent Small-pox (which 
alone is ordinarily fatal) obliterates the vacci- 
nation marks in the worst cases, and the death is 
then usually recorded among the unvaccinated 
or the doubtful. For this reason alone the 
official record — vaccinated or tmvaccinated— is 
altogether untrustworthy, and cannot be made 
the subject of accurate statistical enquiry.* 

But there are other reasons why the comparison 
of the deaths of these two classes is worthless. 
Deaths registered as unvaccinated include — 

(i.) — Infants dying under vaccination age, and 
who, therefore, have no corresponding class among 

* As an instance of the reticence of officials on the subject. I cannot 
find any details in the Regisb-ar-General's reports respecting vaccinated 
persons dying of Small -pox until 1874. For that year 270 vaccinated 
persons are reported dying of Small-pox. Then' for years no information is 
given, until 1879, when it is again inserted. For that and the subsequent 
years we have 2,512 vaccinated persons returned as dying of Small-pox. 
Several thousands are noted as "not stated as to vaccination."— Ed. 



REGISTRATION STATISTICS. 



29 



the vaccinated, but among whom the Small-pox 
mortality is greatest. 

(2.) Children too weakly or diseased to be 

vaccinated, and whose low vitality renders any 
severe disease fatal. 

(3.) A large but unknown number of the 

criminal and nomad population who escape 
the vaccination officers. These are often badly 
fed and live under the most unsanitary conditions ; 
they are, therefore, especially liable to suffer in 
epidemics of Small-pox or other zymotic diseases. 

It is by the indiscriminate union of these 
three classes, together with those erroneously 
classed as unvaccinated owing to the obliteration 
of marks or other defect of evidence, that the 
number of deaths registered "unvaccinated" is 
swollen far beyond its true proportions, and the 
comparison with those registered ''vaccinated" 
rendered altogether untrustworthy and misleading. 

This is not a mere inference, for there is much 
direct evidence that the records "unvaccinated" 
and "no statement" in the Reports of the 
Registrar-General are often erroneous. As the 
chief argument for vaccination rests upon this 
class of facts, a few examples of the evidence 
referred to must be here given. 



30 



FORTY-FIVE YEARS OF 



(i.) — Mr. a. Feltrup, of Ipswich, gives a case 
of a boy aged 9, who died of Small-pox, and was 
recorded in the certificate as " unvaccinated." 
By a search in the register of successful vac- 
cinations it was found that the boy, Thomas 
Taylor, had been successfully vaccinated on the 
20th May, 1868, by W. Adams. {Suffolk 
Chronicle, May 5, 1877.) 

(2.) — In " Notes on the Small-pox Epidemic 
at Birkenhead, 1877." By Fras. Vacher, M.D., 
(p. 9.,) we find the following : — 

"As regards the patients admitted to the 
fever hospital or treated at home, those entered 
as vaccinated displayed undoubted cicatrices, as 
attested by competent medical witnesses, and 
those entered as not vaccinated were admitted 
unvaccinated or without the faintest mark. The 
mei^e assertions of patients or their friends that 
they zvere vaccinated counted for nothing, as 
about 80 per cent, of the patients entered in the 
third cohtm^i of the table (' unknown ') were 
reported as having been vaccinated in infancy." 
(The italics are my own.) 

(3.) — Bearing upon this important admission, 
we have the following statement in Dr. Russell's 
Glasgow Report, 187 1-2 (p. 25) : — 

"Sometimes persons were said to be vaccinated, 



REGISTRATION STATISTICS. 



31 



but no marks could be seen, very frequently be- 
cause of the abundance of the eruption. In some 
cases of those which recovered, an inspection 
before dismissal discovered vaccine marks, some- 
times 'very good,'" 

(4.) — " The last epidemic of Small-pox which 
visited vaccinated Preston was in 1877. 
February of that year, Dr. Rigby, the medical 
officer of the Union, sent out a report, in which he 
stated that 'out of 83 persons admitted into the 
Fulwood Small-pox Hospital, 73 were vaccinated.' 
All recovered, he alleged, but the ten unvaccinated 
cases all died. Here was a bold and specific 
statement ; but what were the facts revealed after 
careful investigation by two committees ? The 
first case reported as unvaccinated turned out to 
be a revaccinated policeman, named Walter Egan. 
Another case reported as unvaccinated was a 
child named Mary Shorrock, vaccinated by the very 
medical officer who rettirned her as unvaccinated. 
In all, six cases out of the ten were proved to 
have been vaccinated, whilst three were doubtful, 
we not being able to trace them." — From letter 
of Mr. J. SwiNDLEHURST, in the Walsall Observer, 
July 2ist, 1888.— Ed. 

(5.) — In 1872, Mr. John Pickering, of Leeds, 
carefully investigated a number of cases entered 



32 



FORTY-FIVE YEARS OF 



as " not vaccinated " by the medical officers of 
the Leeds Small-pox Hospital, tracing out the 
parents, examining the patients if alive, or ob- 
taining the certificate of vaccination if they 
were dead. The result was, that 6 patients, 
entered as " not vaccinated," and still living, 
were found to have good vaccination marks ; 
while 9 others who had died, and whose deaths 
had been registered as " not vaccinated," were 
proved to have been successfully vaccinated. In 
addition to these, 8 cases were proved to have 
been vaccinated, some of them three or four 
times, but unsuccessfully, and 4 others were 
certified " unfit to be vaccinated," yet all were 
aliice entered as " un vaccinated." The full 
particulars of this investigation are to be found 
in a pamphlet by Mr. Pickering, published by 
F. Pitman, 20, Paternoster Row, London. 

(6.) — As further corroborative evidence of the 
untrustworthiness of all records on the subject 
emanating from medical men, the following 
quotation from an article on " Certificates of 
Death," in the Birmingham Medical Review for 
January, 1874, is important; the italics are my 
own : — " In certificates given by us voluntarily, 
and to which the public have access, it is scarcely 
to be expected that a medical man will give 



REGISTRATION STATISTICS. 



33 



opinions which may tell against or reflect upon 
himself in any way. In such cases he will most 
likely tell the truth, b7it not the zuhole truth, and 
assign some prominent symptom of the disease as 
the cause of death. As instances of cases which 
may tell against the medical man himself, I will 
mention erysipelas from vaccination, and puerperal 
fever. A death from the first cause occurred 
not long ago in my practice, and although 
I had not vaccinated the child, yet in my desire 
to preserve vaccination from reproach, I omitted 
all mention of it from my certificate of death!^ 
The illustrative facts now given cannot be 
supposed to be exceptional, especially when we 
consider the great amount of time and labour 
required to bring them to light ; and taken 
in connection with the astounding admissions of 
medical men, of which examples have been just 
given, they prove that no dependence can be 
placed on the official records of the proportions 
of vaccinated and unvaccinated among Small- 
pox patients ; while, if Mr. Vacher's method of 
registration is usually followed, about 80 per 
cent, of those classed by the Registrar- General 
under the heading "no statement" have been 
really stated, by their parents or friends, to have 
been vaccinated. 



34 



FORTY-FIVE YEARS OF 



Our Hospital Statistics necessarily give 
False Results. 

But a still more serious matter remains to 
be considered, and it is a striking proof of the 
crude and imperfect evidence on which the im- 
portant question of the value of vaccination has 
been decided, that the point in question has been 
entirely overlooked by every English advocate of 
vaccination, although it involves an elementary 
principle of statistical science. 

This point is, that until the records in our 
hospitals, "vaccinated" and " unvaccinated," are 
strictly correct, and properly classified, it can 
be demonstrated that true results cannot be 
deduced from them."^' 

The requisite comparison has, however, been 
made on a population of about 60,000, consisting of; 
the officials and workmen employed on the Imperial 
Austrian State Railways, by the Head Physician, 
Dr. Leander Joseph Keller ; and his results 
during the years 1872-3 are so important that it is 
necessary to give a brief abst ract of them.t 

* See remarks in the Appendix on the eruption. — Ed. 

f Report on Small-pox cases among the Employes of the Imperial Austrian 
State Railway Company for the year 1873. Translated from the German by 
Mrs. Hume-Rothery. National Anti-Compulsory Vaccination League. 

Another and enlarged version of Dr. Keller's Report has been published : 

The Mitigation Theoiy of Vaccination : an Account of the Statistics 
collected during the Small-pox Epidemic of 1872-73 ; By Dr. Keller, 
Medical Director of the Austrian State Railways. By Alfred Milnes, 
M.A. — London: E. W. Allen, Ave Maria Lane. 



REGISTRATION STATISTICS. 



35 



^i.) — It is shown that the death-rate of Small- 
pox patients is greatest in the first year of life, 
then diminishes gradually to between the 15th 
and 20th year, and then rises again to old age ; 
thus following exactly the same law as the 
general mortality. 

(2.) — The Small-pox death-rate, among over 
2,000 cases, was i7"85 per cent, of the cases, 
closely agreeing with the general average. That 
of the unvaccinated was 23*20 per cent., while 
that of the vaccinated was only 15 "61 per cent. 

(3.) — This result, apparently so favourable to 
vaccination, is shown to be wholly due to the 
excess of the unvaccinated in the first two years 
of life,"^ and to be a purely numerical fact 
entirely unconnected with vaccination. This is 
proved as follows : — Taking, first, all the ages 
above 2 years, the death-rates of the vaccinated 
is 1 3 '76, and of the unvaccinated 13" 15, — 
almost exactly the same, but with a slight 
advantagfe to the unvaccinated. 

Taking now the first two years, the death-rate 
is found to be as follows : — 

Vaccinated. Unvaccinated. 

First year of life 60-46 45 '24 

Second year of life 54*o5 38' 10 



* This applies to Austria. In England vaccination is usually performed 
earlier, yet, in a pamphlet entitled ' ' Plain Fads on Vaccinaiion, " by 



36 



FORTY-FIVE YEARS OF 



Thus the Small-pox death-rate Is actually less 
for the unvaccinated than for the vaccinated in 
infants, and eqtial for all the higher ages ; yet 
the average of the whole is higher for the 
unvaccinated, simply on account of the greater 
proportion of the unvaccinated at those ages at 
which the mortality is tmiversally greatest. 

It is thus made clear that any comparison of 
the Small-pox mortality of the vaccinated and the 
unvaccinated, except at strictly corresponding ages, 
leads to entirely false conclusions. 

This curious and important fact may perhaps 
be rendered more easily intelligible by an 
illustration. Let us take the whole population 
up to 20 years of age, and divide it into two 
groups — those who go to school, and those who 
do not. If the Small-pox mortality of these 
were separately registered, it would be found 
to be very much greater among the non-school 
goers, — composed chiefly of infants, and of 
children too weakly to be sent to school, 
amongst whom the mortality is always very 

G. Oliver, about 1872, it was stated that in the Small-pox Hospital, 
Hampstead,— "The number of the unvaccinated patients, up to the age of 
ten years, greatly preponderates over the vaccinated of corresponding ages." 
In the Homerton Small-pox Hospital in the eight years 1S71-77, there were 
147 unvaccinated patients under 2 years old, to 20 vaccinated, including 
among these the doubtful cases. 



REGISTRATION STATISTICS. 



'37 



oreat so much so that a doctor of wide ex- 
perience — Dr. Vernon, of Southport — has stated 
that, he had never known an infant under one year 
of age recover from Small-pox. But we should 
surely think a person either silly or mad who 
argued from such statistics that school-going was 
a protection against the disease, and that school 
children formed a "protected population." Yet 
this is exactly comparable with the reasoning 
of those who adduce the greater mortality among 
unvaccinated Small-pox patients of all ages 
and conditions, as the very strongest argument 
in favour of vaccination ! 

Good statistics* and good arguments cannot 
be upset, or even weakened, by those which are 
bad. I have now shown that the main argument 
relied on by our adversaries, rests on thoroughly 
unsound statistics, inaccurate to begin with, and 
wrongly interpreted afterwards. Those which I 
have used, on the other hand, if not absolutely 
perfect, are yet the best and most trustworthy 
that exist. I ask statisticians and men of 
unbiassed judgment to decide between them. 



* It must be insisted upon, over and over again, that they are not good 
slatistics, where the class under trial — the vaccinated — are in gi-eat numbers 
of cases assumed not to be vaccinated against all testimony available. — Ep. 



38 



FORTY-FIVE YEARS OF 



Conclusion from the Evidence. 

The result of this brief enquiry may be 
thus summarized : — 

(i.) — Vaccination does not diminish Small- 
pox mortality, as shown by the 45 years of the 
Registrar-General's statistics, and by the deaths 
from Small-pox of our "re-vaccinated" soldiers 
and sailors being as numerous as those of the 
male population of the same ages of several of 
our large towns, although the former are picked, 
healthy men, while the latter include many 
thousands living under the most unsanitary 
conditions. 

(2.) — While thus utterly powerless for good, 
vaccination"^ is a certain cause of disease and 
death in many cases, and is the probable cause 
of about 10,000 deaths annually by five inocu- 
lable diseases of the most terrible and disgusting 
character, which have increased to this extent, 
steadily, year by year, since vaccination has been 
enforced by penal laws ! 

(3.) — The hospital statistics, showing a greater 

* The operation itself kills many. The Registi-ai-General gives, under 
the head of Cow-pox and other effects [eiysipelas, &c.] of vaccination for 
the years 1881 to 1S86, the following deaths of infants under one yeai'. In 
the countiy, 255 deaths. In London, 61. Total for the six years, 316. — Ed. 



REGISTRATION STATISTICS. 



39 



mortality of the unvaccinated than of the vac- 
cinated, have been proved to be untrustworthy ; 
while the conclusions drawn from them are 
shown to be necessarily false. 



If these facts are true, or anything near the 
truth, the enforcement of vaccination by fine 
and imprisonment of unwilling parents, is a 
cruel and criminal despotism, which it behoves 
all true friends of humanity to denounce and 
oppose at every opportunity. 

Such legislation, involving as it does, our 
health, our liberty, and our very lives, is too 
serious a matter to be allowed to depend on 
the misstatements of interested officials or the 
dogmas of a professional clique. Some of the 
misstatements and some of the ignorance on 
which you have relied, have been here 
exposed. The statistical evidence on which 
alone a true judgment can be founded, is 
as open to you as to any doctor in the 
land. We, therefore, demand that you, our 
representatives, shall fulfil your solemn duty 
to us in this matter, by devoting to it 
some personal investigation and painstaking 
research ; and if you find that the main facts 



40 



REGISTRATION STATISTICS. 



as here stated are substantially correct, we 
call upon you to undo without delay the evil 
you have done. 

We, therefore, solemnly urge upon you 
the immediate repeal of the iniquitous 
penal laws by which you have forced upon 

us a dangerous and useless operation an 

operation which has admittedly caused many 
deaths, which is probably the cause of 

GREATER MORTALITY THAN SmALL-POX ITSELF, 
BUT WHICH CANNOT BE PROVED TO HAVE EVER 
•SAVED A SINGLE HUMAN LIFE. 



APPENDIX. 



TN addition to other difficulties besetting the 
students of our Hospital records, one stands 
prominently forward as exceeding the others. 
Dr. Wallace has referred to the difficulty of 
comparing vaccinated with those called un- 
vaccinated, who are a mixed class, often not 
even classed in age together. But a greater 
omission must be complained of. 

The only correct way of classing Small-pox 
patients is by age and by eruption. The eruption, 
or the state of the skin, is the only scientific 
guide to the nature of the disorder. One kind 
of Small-pox is so mild, that even bad nursing 
can hardly kill the patient — another kind so 
fatal, that not the best nursing and greatest 
skill can cure it. As a rule these two kinds 
are lumped together without any distinction, and 
even when given they are not often divided 
into vaccinated and un-vaccinated. In general 
summaries this classification is universally 
disregarded. 



42 



APPENDIX. 



The Metropolitan Hospitals have been in 
operation since 1869. During the 16 years 
reported upon to the managers, since that time 
they have received 53,579 cases of Small-pox 
for treatment. Of this great total, no fewer than 
41,061 are classed as vaccinated, 5,866 un- 
vaccinated, and the remainder as "doubtful." 
The fatality of the un-vaccinated and doubtful 
is very heavy, but this is largely due to con- 
siderations as to the people who are the un- 
vaccinated, which have already been urged, and 
which are greatly strengthened by facts now to 
be adduced. 

The Handbook, 1887, giving these particulars, 
has no "doubtful" class until 1880. Before 
that period the un-vaccinated absorbed them all. 

As to this doubtful class ! Why are there 
any doubts in the classification? The answer 
is that the vaccination marks are on the skin, 
and the skin is the part of the patient most 
affected in the very bad cases. In the mild 
cases the skin does not suffer much. The 
vaccination marks are clearly visible. And so 
the "good" marks of vaccination will most 
certainly be most numerous in the mild cases. 
But in the confluent cases the skin is badly 
affected. The pustules run together, and if this 



APPENDIX. 



43 



eruption is over the vaccinated arm, no vaccination 
mark can be seen. But no case is recorded as 
vaccinated unless a mark is seen. So it comes 
to pass, that such a patient declaring himself 
vaccinated is put down as "doubtful," or as 
"said to be vaccinated." We see now why this 
class is of heavy fatality. It receives the doubtful 
bad cases, but never any doubtful mild ones. 

This is further confirmed by a reference to 
the most fatal cases of all, the "malignant." 
In these the skin is not degraded as it is in 
the confluent ; the eruption is suppressed, and 
the blood poisoned. But the vaccination marks 
show. From several reports of medical super- 
intendants, I have collected 66 1 of these very fatal 
cases. In only 8 cases were there "doubts." The 
rest yield: vaccinated, 486 persons with 432 
deaths; and un-vaccinated, 167 persons with 150 
deaths. Nothing more damaging to vaccination 
could be recorded. Yet in a purely age table ; 
or in a table of vaccinated and un-vaccinated, 
without reference to the state of the skin, all 
this is buried. 

We see then that in the mild cases, error as to 
classification is very unlikely ever to occur. In 
these no deaths need be feared, except from 
complications. 



WORKS BY THE SAME AUTHOR. 



THE MALAY ARCHIPELAGO : The land of the Oiang 
Utan and Ihc ]5iid of Taradise. A Naiialive of Travel, with Studies 
of Man and Nature. With Maps and Illustrations. Third and 
Cheaper Edition. Crown 8vo. 7s. 6d. 
"The result is a vivid picture of tropical life, which may be read with unflagging 

interest, and .-x sufficient account of his scientific conclusions to stimulate our appetite 

without wearying us by detail. In short, we may safely say that we have never read a 

more agreeable book of its kind." — Saturday Review. 

THE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OP 

ANIMALS. With a Study of the Relations of Living and Extinct 
Faunas as Elucidating the Past Changes of the Earth's Surface. 2 
vols. 8vo., with Maps and numerous Illustrations by Zwecker. 42s, 

The Times says: — "Altogether it is a wonderful and fascinating story, whatever 
objections may be taken to theories founded upon it. Mr. Wallace has not attempted 
to add to its interest by any adornments of style ; he has given a simple and clear 
statement of intrinsically interesting facts, and what he considers to be legitim.ate 
deductions from them. Naturahsts ought to be grateful to him for having undertaken 
so toilsome a task. The work, indeed, is a credit to all concerned — the author, the 
publishers, the artist, unfortunately now no more, of the attractive illustrations — last, but 
by no means least, Mr. Stanford's map-designer." 

TROPICAL NATURE : With other Essays. 8vo. 12s. 

" Nowhere amid the many descriptions of the tropics that have been given is to be 
found a summary of the past history and actual phenomena of the tropics which gives 
that which is distinctive of the phases of nature in them more clearly, shortly, and 
impressively." — Saturday Review. 

ISLAND LIFE; OR, THE PHENOMENA AND 

CAUSES OF INSULAR FAUNAS AND FLORAS, including 
a Revision and attempted Solution of the Problem of Geological 
Climates. With Maps. 8vo. iSs. 

" ' Island Life' is a work to be accepted almost without reservation from beginning to 
end. . . Whoever reads this book must be charmed with it." — St. James's Gazette. 
"The work throughout abounds with interest." — Atliena:iim. 

" Mr. Wallace has written nothing more clear, more masterly, or more convincing than 
this delightful volume." — Fortnightly Review. 

BAD TIMES: An Essay on the Present Depression of Trade, 
tracing it to its Sources in Enormous Foreign Loans, Excessive War 
Expenditure, the Increase of Speculation and of Millionaires, and the 
Depopulation of the Rural Districts ; with Suggested Remedies. 
1885. With Diagrams. Crown 8vo. 5s. 

LONDON : MACMILLAN & CO. 



LAND NATIONALISATION, ITS NECESSITY AND 

ITS AIMS. Being a comparison of the System of Landlord and 
Tenant with that of Occupying Ownership in their influence on the 
Well-being of the People. Third Edition. Paper covers, 8d. Limp 
cloth, IS. 6d. 

LONDON: W. REEVES, I85, FLEET STREET, E.C. 

ON MIRACLES AND MODERN SPIRITUALISM. 

Three Essays. Second Edition, crown 8vo., cloth, 5s. 
LONDON: TRUBNER & CO., LUDGATE HILL. 



The London Society for 
The Abolition of Compulsory Vaccination. 



Prcsidetit. 

WILLIAM TEBB, Esq., 7, Albert Road, Gloucester Gate, Regent's Park-, N.W. 

Vice-rrcsi(ie7its. 

THOMAS BURT, Esq., M.P., 26, Pal.ace Street, Buckingham Gate, S.W. 
HENRY P. COBB, Esq., M.P., 53, Lincoln's-Inn Fields, W.C. 
HANDEL COSSHAM, Esq., M.P., Weston Park, Bath. 
IS.A..\C HOLDEN, Esq., M.P., O.akworth House, Keighley. 
Executive Committee. 
CH..\IRM.^N.— WILLIAM TEBB. 



R. ALFREY. 
W. L. BEURLE. 
JOHN BOTTOMLEY. 



JOHN LEWIS. 
Mrs. LOWE. 

CORNELIUS PEARSON. 



GENERAL EARLE. 
Mrs. R. R. GLOVER. 
J. F. HAINES. 
WILLIAM WHITE, Laurels, Cheshunt, Herts. 
Hon. 7"rf<zj?/?-c;-— CORNELIUS PEARSON, 15, Harpur Street, Red Lion Square, W.C. 

Bankers— "XViY. LONDON & COUNTY BANK (Westminster Branch), S.W. 
Parliamentary Agent— Vf. L. BEURLE, Linden House, 331, Victoria Park Road, E. 
Secretary— WlhLlPM. YOUNG, 77, Atlantic Road, Brixton, S.W. 



In times when the laws of health 
were impeifectly understood, it was 
believed that by poisoning the blood 
with the vims of small-pox, or cow- 
pox, a future attack of small-pox 
might be escaped. While many 
kindred medical practices have been 
discredited and forgotten. Vaccina- 
tion, endowed by the State, has 
survived, and has entered into 
legislation, and is enforced with fine 
and imprisonment. It is in vain 
for nonconformists to plead that they 
do not believe that Vaccination has 
any power to prevent or to mitigate 
small-pox, or that it is attended by 
the risk of communicating other 
diseases. They are told they may 
believe what they like, but that 
vaccinated they must be, for the 
benefit of the rite is settled beyond 
dispute, and that only fools and 
fanatics venture to question what has 
been irrevocably determined. 

Many too, whilst disinclined to 
discuss Vaccination as a medical 
question, or to surrender confidence 
in its prophylaxy, are opposed to its 
compulsory infliction. They main- 
tain that every remedy should be 
left to justify itself by its own efficacy, 



and that of all prescriptions the last 
which requires extraneous assistance 
is Vaccination ; for its repute is 
based on the fact that its subjects 
are secure from small-pox, and in 
that security may abide indifferent 
to those who choose to neglect its 
salvation. Even nurses in small- 
pox hospitals, it is said, when 
efficiently vaccinated and re-vacci- 
nated, live unaffected in the variolous 
atmosphere. They consequently 
hold that to compare an unvaccinated 
person to a nuisance, as is frequently 
done, is to make use of an epithet 
that implicitly denies the virtues 
asserted for Vaccination, a nuismce 
being a danger or annoyance which 
another cannot conveniently avoid. 

The members of the London 
Society therefore appeal with 
confidence to the sympathy and 
support of their countrymen. They 
claim to enlist the energies not 
only of those who are opposed to 
Vaccination as useless and mis- 
chievous, but of those who, time 
to their faith in liberty, would leave 
its acceptance to the discretion of 
the individual. 



The London Society for 
The Abolition of Compulsory Vaccination. 



OBJECTS OF THE SOCIETY. 

!• — The Abolition of Compulsory Vaccination. 
II. — The Diffusion of Knowledge concerning Vaccination. 
Ill— The Maintenance in London of an Office for the Publication 
of Literature relating to Vaccination, and a Centre of 
Information and Action. 



The viinimum Annual Suiscri^tion constituting^ Membership is S&.Gd. Every 
oppotient of Compulsory Vaccination in the United Kingdom is earnestly invited 
to join and co-operate with the Society. 



I AM directed to draw attention very 
earnestly to the claims of the 
London Society for the Abolition of 
Compulsory Vaccination. 

The Society is engaged in an 
arduous enterprise with the firm 
resolve to achieve success ; and with 
this end in view the Members 
maintain an Office ; they publish the 
V acciiiatioii Inquirer, and a variety 
of books, tracts, and leaflets, which 
are liberally distributed wherever 
likely to be of use; they organise 
public meetings, and avail themselves 
of eveiy opportunity for lectures and 
discussions ; and from the Office 
conduct an extensive correspondence 
at home and abroad. 

It is needless to say that all these 
operations are attended with expense, 
and indeed with heavy expense, yet 
from none of them is it possible to 
withdraw ; on the contrary with 
larger means they would be developed 
and extended. At present the chief 
cost of these operations is borne by 
the liberality of the few, and it is 
the wish, and the reasonable wash, 
of the Committee to enlarge the area 
of subscription, and to have the 
names of all opponents of Com- 

77, Atlantic Road, 

Brixton, S.W. 



pulsoiy Vaccination upon their 
register of membership. 

The successful issue of this most 
honourable agitation would be 
greatly hastened if only those who 
are persuaded of the folly of vacci- 
nation, and who abhor the tyrannical 
infliction of the rite upon the un- 
willing, would come forward and 
assist to sustain those who are 
disposed to assume the more active 
duties of the conflict. The Com- 
mittee feel that it is not becoming 
that many, who have openly ex- 
pressed their sympathy with the 
objects they have in view, and who 
will rejoice over the Abolition of 
Compulsory Vaccination, should yet 
do little or nothing to contribute to 
the victory which they are sufficiently 
enlightened to desire. 

The Committee therefore hope 
that you will not only look favourably 
on this appeal for assistance, but 
that you will also tiy to enlist in the 
good cause some of those latent 
sympathisers, who, probably, only 
require the stimulus of suggestion 
and persuasion to become active 
allies. 

WILLIAM YOUNG, 

Secretary. 



THE VACCINATION INQUIRER. 

Published Monthly, price id., or is. 6d. per annum, post free. 
E. W. ALLEN, 4 Ave Maria Lane, London, E.C. 




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