Skip to main content

Full text of "Untrodden fields of anthropology : observations on the esoteric manners and customs of semi-civilized peoples; being a record of thirty years experience in Asia, Africa, America and Oceania"

See other formats


YtX  <TC 

CCC  CC 

c<r  cc  cr 

CCS  cc  ct 
«cs:  c c 
«x  ct 


T CC  '<  c:  ^ 

tc  ■'  <*: 

^ c r <*r  ^ ‘ 

r <cc  or  « > 
cc  ^ ^ c 

5-  cc  GC  ^ ^ 

i cc  ''fiC  ^ c 

i cc  cC  ^ s 

(T  <«r  c 
cc 


r <c 

C Cc 

I cc 

C <J 

.c  CL 
jC  C. 

<s 

Z- 

tV'  cr  <sc 
c C cc 

<xc  c"  cc  ^ 
cCCLc 

^ CC  CC 

••  «:  cc  « «.  ct 

CG  cr  ccC 

c«rcc  ‘f 

ccC  ■■■  C_<3C 
c c:  c <c  ^ 
CC  C ' 

CC  G ‘ ' 'C 
cccc  ( C 


cc  ccc 

CC  CC  CC  cc' 

cccc  <C  <L 

e<L_C,C  ccc  c 
, c_c  k:c  cc  cc 
c<r«Lc  ccc  <r 
cCCC  CC 
« cc  «CC  c:*r  « 

C CCGC  ■ 

f <C<CC  ^ ^ 

< CC'CC  ^ J 

I c«:<cc  ^ 5 

c ccc  c:c  ^ 

0 c<ncc 

« C<®  CC  ^ c 
c cc<^  ^ ^ “ 

C CC«iC  cC  cc  <c 
cc  CC  ^ <G 

cc  CC^  cc^  cC. 
CC  c;c«p  cc  <C  <3 

cc  oc^cc  cc  c 
c C-c<e  cc  5*  c 
cC  CCCC  cc  fC  cc, 
cc  c<^  cC  « cc 
c CC  cc  <r 

CC  C^CC^ 

cc  GCSC  Cc  CC  CC 

cC  CC  CCC  CG 

Ve  cccccc  cc 

cc  cc 

'^fc 

: cc 
V cc 


;■  ^ 'c'aciarGjG 
C ^ GCCC«Cc 
CC  CCL<'<p<^<i, 

C «L  CC^ 
c ec_  CO 


c cc  cc. 

C ^ C£i- 
" c'^^  cc'  ^ o 

cec  cc  o 

c cC  cc  c 

C cC  cc  o 

<r  oc  <n  C 

c c CC  o 
C «jC  cc  C<_ 
cc  c c«e_^ 
C <3C.<rc  cc<^- 

CC  O CC'CC 


crcei  tc  «;  ,c  c'l 

' , cjC  CCcc  cc  ^ 

cG  dzcc  (XI  c<- ' cr  cc  c 

CCGCCCC  cc  5 f - 

_ ^cC  ccc  CCCC  c C cc 

c ^ cc  cccc  cc  cc  C l 

V ^ cc  ccc  cc  « « 

cr  c <c  cCCGG  c 

« c cc^^Vcc 

c c c COX^ 


C cc 

C<c 
c cc 
C c: 


CC  CL  CC^ 


cc  <C>C 
cc  C%iCG 
cc  cCcCC 
ccccc 

^ lC  cc 


cc 

or 

oc 

cc 

cc 

c< 

cr 

cc 

cc . 

ce 

CG 


CCLCCX^ 
c cc  C CCCC 
f cC  c «'CC<31 
« cC^<-cc<rc  ' 
C(T  CC^rCOCC  C 
C CCctCCG  C 
C CC  < cCCC  c 
t CC(C€CC  G 
c <LC^«S1C  C 

CL  LC  LC<^ 

CC  ^ lCCC 
CCC  ccrc- 
<X<C  COC 
CC  C ( cc 

cc  ( :C<3C 
CCC  LC< 

ccL  «'cr 
cfc  ccc 


c « 


« 

«: 


' c 


« 
cc 
CC 
G 
cc 
CC 
C 

CC  G .tCC  cc 

(XC  C'  <1^  cc.  ■ 
rV  lC'^,CL  ^ ^!v<C 

L It  rt  ' 'C  i:..  .',uv_  . . 


■o  c « cccc  c ^ c c cc 
^ C LC  cccc  cc  cc  c c ^ 

^ c cf  fc  "c 

^ ^ VC/ccc  i L C _ . 

C cc  'tec  CCCC  CL  CL 

^c  lcccclc  t c c e. 

"''^VcVlC  cefo^  / 

cc  cX  CCCCC  C'  cC  cc 
Vcc<  <\<o  « <t. 

' c cccc 
cc  ccc 
c c X-C 

C:1,XC 
CCS  cC-C 


c 


I C <C'  5S  LC-V  f > >7 

LL-.SX«rCSC,C< 


CJC.'C".C  cc,  .‘ 

o C 'ic  <-< 

C c lO  <c 

tc  r<  c n 

clx^C'LC  cc 

•0'Cjt«,  (f  <-0 
^ v-C  • Cc  <~  c 

L C.  .C  cc  ^<<<  C X 
L CClCl'C  <C< 

G S'icIc  'G  c 

C cc  L<  C 

CCLL  . cc  L 

C «CC  'LL  C C C 

C <iE  LC 

XUS  c 

CLIC  -Cf 

c^. 

' t c, C 

>^(c  r c 
>Z^c  cc 
CX<  cc 
C C L cc 

C c L ecc 

C X L cc  c 
C CL  CLC  C 
> c cc  c_ 

C C cc  X 


C C-Cc 

^ c t,  <•  C<- 


c CClCC  X 

‘ c*^  c ^ CC*^  c* 

c Op  cc  c 

C CCLCC,  C 

c cc  cc  c 

c cc  c<  c 

c cc  CO  c 
c cc  c c c 


CCCCC 


C cc  0 L 
c cc  cc 
C cc  L C 
C cc  cc 

. c <rc  cL< 
C cc  ( 0 

. C cc  fC 


<L  CC 

C “ <L  <C 
c <■  C C 
c LoCf  C 

CJ  tt  C'L  C 

cr  c CL  C 
<2:  L cc 


CC  c 

CL  c 

— cc  c _ 

XCC  f t C"  e Cl  t C 

:^L  < L <X  L C L^  C eCC 

^fi<  c ta  V t c «fc  o 


XCL  vL  ^ 

ccc  <(  CC 
, cc  • L oc 

<CL  'C  CC  (' 


CC 


•CXVLL 

ccc  c c <; 

eCC  c f> 

; ^ I i 

c L C <,  ^ S t- 

( C C < C : 
( CC  c C <: 

CCC  C c x« 
ccc  L c x< 
CCC  t C <0 
CCCiC  C<L  ) 

X CC^L  c_<‘i 

_ ^ cc  X < '.<-•  a 

L-.C  C CCCCL  C*! 

^ CL  «S 

C C Cc  LC  CL  C ^ 


l.v 


. - ■“  to  OL.<*0  L 

(C  or  <3L  OL  LX 
rC  CC  <CC  cc  tC  <v 

>V  H cc  cC 

cr  CO  oc  < c < 

rr  cc  xc  OL  L X 


rc  CC'  Lire  CO- ^ 

rr  <Xc  ecc  cc  cc 

CC  ( LCC  LC  LC 


eras,  c cc 

l^c 
c 


(«;■ 


CCX 

tc;'7 

(L 
c 

r LCCa^^«X^ 

■ L oXXC  C rC 
t CC<C(LlC 
c c<  X^LC  < L 

>L  CC  XCCC  L 0 

'L0<^L^<‘< 


_ cc 
^ ^ 'C  cc 
i XL  CO 

OL  < L oc 
r CLC  CC 
<r  c <L  oo 
c <r  LL  ^ 

C c sr  <C 

C < 'L  CO 
< O L CO 

«:  c c co 
c c o oc 
C C 0 oc 
c c c cc 

t C LC  cC 
<&  c < cc 
C c LC 

cc  L <0  < 

c c C'LC 


.0X0 

< <ccc 

' ecco 
^(CCC 

. , , ocCCC 
\ , c<  cc 
C t eCCO 

o ■ lccl 
O V oc  cc 
O'  L L C o c 
c «'cC  cc 
C(.(LCC  cc 
C a ce  cc 
f «CC  cc 
a O C CCL 

• (tCC  oc 
L^oC  cc  ' 

r , cco  C CL 

(LCC  a 
(CC-C  CC; 
»CC  LC  V 
fc  r r i 


■,t 

w 

L. 


CC 
c C 

L X 


L C 

X 

L X 


C ' 
«.  < 

<t  ' 

X « 

X ft 
XlL 

X V. 

X I 


X 

X 


<■ 

i'f 


r r , ^ V r c<Z^C  CC 

c \ ^ C -CCC  c c <4. 
< ',  ■«  t < OCCfc  c<r  <S- 
r ’■  ^ ^ ' ■ CC^<^  S < <T 

1 ^ C ' ^ <3c<xrcc  cs 

t ^ c < cxrcc  cr  ct 
f ^ <r  1 cccc  CC  c« 

C ^ C C Qp3CCC  <S 

■ <c;  ^ <2.  ‘ 

c « f t CXXC  CC  <3C 

< ^ c c_«^cc  <x 


CC  <s 

CC  d 

or.  CC 
« CC 
CC  CC 

<X  CC 

CC  c«r 

-^CC  CC 

C«^  CC  <_<c 

corccor 


<C 


<L 


CK' 

^ c'  CC  Ct  ' 
ft  CC  CC  C / 

CC  C^  c CC  CC  c. 

C C<  c CC  CC  tc 

% CC  > CC  CC  C 

• <> 


, <^^CCC  c< 

1 C^cccr  cC 
c K^cccc  «: 

C c«cc  CC 

CC  CSL,«cc  cc_ 

CC  « « C'<;  <X 

ct  C<f  ccc  CC 
CC  c^ccc  cc 

CC  cCCCC  cc 
cc  dCCCCC  cc 

cc  cetccc  c< 

' cc  CCCCC  cc 
' Cc  CCCCC  cc 
cc  CCCCC  cc 
' cc  cccc  cc 
va  ec 

c ccc  CC-S‘  CC 


c c c <c<r  cc 

<.  c ct  c <c  cc  Ci 
‘ t C f cc,CC  t 

c or . <x  cc  ‘S 
c <rr  orcrC  cc 
C CC  ' ccc  cc  ( 

C CC'  cccx:  CO 

C C'  cccc  cc  < 

e C_  OCCC 

«;  ct  1 1 

c cr  c c« 


ttv 


^ tc  cc  <r  t c ^ 

g g:  ^ 

X,  <2 


c c^  cc 

ccc  cc 


V c ^ C ^ ^ 

c c ^ c t <rc  c^  . c c.  t 
tv;  t c t C cc  <xc  c <c  C 

, ^ c c t C c^C  ccCt,  ^ 

<fc  C ^ C < ccccf  c -C  X 

.'v  t «L  t c CCLcks  t “C  CT 

<r«L  < c c cc  cc  t cv  c, 

O <L  < c <k:  c C cc  cc  C -e  -c 

t c ^ C C CCC  C C c 

t < c c < c cc  « c c <; 

' " C cc  C c.  CCC  C c -o 
C <3C  c c CCC  C Cc  <z 
" C C CCC  C C X ' 
C C cccc  C C'  c 
C c cccc  c r-  c: 
CcCC^CXC  ' 

C'CX  CCCC^^  X 

d C ^ ^ 


X C £ cX  cc  cc 

C C CCOXI-  <C 

X X ^cXCC  CL 

<C  cc  CC«rcC'C  cc 

X c ccCXC  ' cc 
C X CCC  cc  ( 

X (T  CCCXCC 


CX  ■>%c 


f Xt 

cc< 

( C C 

cc 

%i 


c <x 
c <x 
C CX 

C cc 
<rx 

C cc 

cc 


t,’ 


^c 

C d 

c OC 
■ cc 

< GC 

£ cc 
/ « 
c cr 
c cc 
C CL 
c cr 
c cc 
c cc 
c cr 
c <r  . 

c cc 

C cr 

c cc 

C Cc 

C cc 
c .cc 
C C< 

< c ct 
' C ct 

' C.  Ct 
c <r  Ct 
X cc 
CcV  ' iC  Cc 
cc  c ( X cc 

OC  Cdcjc  <rf  Cd  cc' 

c <:^  <CcCcc‘  cC  CX 
<d  K c <xi  ccr  cc  c.  < c ^ 

^c^  X c C c X C , 

c ' c <s;  c,c<  c^  c<  c 

^ Tcl^cdCdcrVc  'c  xV" 

^cc^ccrccc  cc  <r 

crc  ccc«  cc  ctc  X c 
CCC  CXCXCc  crcCc 
c SS  cec  C c 

<-gcc  rccx« 

<■  ^ ‘«^L<JSL^  C t C!  c^:  o 


X cr  <;cc-  <r  cc  X 

X cc  ^^^c*^C4 

- VVv 

^ » . cc  cc  a 

c 

X 
X 
_ X 

rc 

GC 
cc 

. c cc 

C C CX 
^ c c cc 
xc  c cc 
xc  ccx 

X C c cc 
xc  < cc 
XC  < tc 
XC  CCC 
'Crc  CCC 
XC  c cc 

cc  CCC  . 

XC  CCC 

ct  c c< 

Cf  < rc 

Xc 

<CC  CCC 
'Cc  c c( 

<C<  c (C 

C<  c ' < 

Cc  c c 
X CcC 
CCC(C 

ct 

C '« 

X'C 

X ■■ 

:Sc'S:^^,s,^-^c 

«cxco  cC  ^ c _ r 

'-''  C XXC'C  t 

' c d :-cct,'<  t -«  - 

'•c  XCC'C  c X C 

'CX^'C  c X r 

c cxc  c c «:  ^c  c 
CXXC  c-c'  X / ' 

cc  X xcc  X c 

'<  C '^d  c X o 
£ C»XC  X c 
< X^CIC  X C 

^ X^XX  C X c . 

■'X^^S  C X C! 


c <jcc  c cc 

'C  ^Ct<  tc  ^ 


L t45XX  "Ct 

^c  C ccV  cc 


C XC  tc  C£  CO 
t c orv<  <c^  < 

,C  dV  CC^  C 

X Cc:c  c cc  X . 
tc  XCC-  c^  X: 

c;c  <r<  Xc' 

^ 4 c cc  Xi' 

cc  <C>£  t cc 


c 


c cf  C 

c^tc  cbc  c :cX 
c c cer  e c c 
XC  ^ccee  'C 
CCX  SCL  ^ ^ 


C r 

[ C 

c < 

( cc 

X re 

cccc  L X 

c 

i 

c c 

£ cc 

X 

' X 

rccr  Ct  X 

c 

r e 

C C 

ex 

X 

'£  X 

CCS  C « X 

O 

i ■<  I 

ccr 

rX 

X < 

x_ 

t'ceccx 

C 

i < ■ 

c c 

CC 

X 

X 

cg;  c ex 

c 

c c 

tc 

X 

X 

c<rtci  X 

c- 

1 c/ 

c c 

cC 

X 

t X 

c txc  f:  X 

<r 

' ( iC. 

c < 

ex 

X 

X 

c«:c  ':'X 

c 

•■  < '<■ 

c < 

tc 

< 

X 

exec  X 

or 

■<  < 

re 

C tc 

X 

X 

exte-x 

c 

X eXCOX 

X oxece 
C cxccx 

X <rgt  t X 


cc 


_X<i^XC  X cc 

X«^Ec  C X ct 
C C C X 

' CXfG  t'C  X 
t O X -CX  < X,cc 
. C C <CtC  ..c  X cc 
r c cctc  tc  X cc 
cc  tcrct  c X ct 

cc  -eerr  ,c  < c 
cc  cc  c 
cc  CC'  - tC 
CCCCo  c 

cc  CCC  c 

<;  c CCC ' ' <c 

cc  CX<-  tC 

cc  cC 


<C  ; vr  ^ (Lcc  <c 

tj  X ' cc^lx  cc c X cr 


cc 

C4 

EL  re 

X CC 

rC 

G« 

c re 

cr. 

c« 

it 

X ec 

Cf 

Ct 

c« 

c< 

cc 

C rC 

d tt 

t C cc  cCCCi 

C^C  <X  cCCX< 

(.  c X-  cr<“ 

c ■ < <c 

C d COl^ 

C C <X  CCC4 
c « <y  c«cc< 

X . <r  cc  cccti 

C :C  X . «rc^ 

C£  CCCXC 

X «rcx 

Cr  CCCXfC 

<c  c<rc<c 
ct  «rxc 
Ct  'ccrcx 

Cc  CCCCX  Cc  cc 
cc  CCCCX  Cc  (CX  X c 
c CCCCX  cc  <c  c r 
'Cexc  cc  tXtCrc  cc 
X CdCX  cc  CCV  X r cc 


C CCC  X c 
X CCC  c c 
X CCC  X < 

:;tc  <c  c t ^ 

sc  cCCC  X ' 

X XCC^C  ' 
^ tc  «r  C d 
C CtCC  X 

. XCC  c 

■'  ctcc  c 

Cc  CC  C ' 

Cc  cc  X -'  ' 

X,  cc  C t « 
XC  cc  C >'  V 
X CX  C't  ‘ 


(X  t'CXC 
GC.(Cd 
Cc  tC(CCC 
X 

cttcc  rc  o- 

cr  c^'  " cc  d tt 

<kcm^  Cl  s f $v 

cc  cccc^,  r 
fcirccc  c cC 

*4Cf, 

cc«tccc  r X 

tc  cc  < t d 
CCXC  cc  £C 
crccC  cc  ' C 

tc  cccc  cc  <■  < 

rr  <^CC  cc  c < 
ct  «cr  cc  f c 
cr«ra  cc  £ c 
ct  «c  c cc  t c 
CC<3CfC  ct  < c 
CtXCC  cc  C 

gss  g ' t'  ^ 

cr  fccc  OC 
cr  flrrc  <r 
cr  CCC  ct 


X 
c 

c 

C c 

SiSi  S( 

. ‘gXt‘'V‘ 

XC  r r r 

' c^  >11 


c d ee  cc^ 

^ cl" 


( C dTc.  cr  cr  - 
C ^cr  (CC 


erxec  XC  cc 

c tec  ex  XC  ex 
c cere  XC  see 


cc  rcc,  c ecC  <Tc  CC:  c 

XC  se  x X 


XC  « 'C  (jcc 

<L  C CCi  C cc< 

dtr'  X ,!-•  il  V.  trrr< 


cc  cc. 

r'  or  ~ 


CCC  cc 
t <r  cc 
cc  C (C  CX 
X r s cc 
X r « re 

X r - CX 
C r < X 
«■  r c or 

C Cc  cc 

xri  c 

_ . X<  <:  X 

..cc  X£  c X 

vSr  d X 

. C C c 

rc  c c X 

ec  c'  c 

#/-  c ^ X 


d CCC 
cc  C<I.C 


cc  'f 

cetr 

XC-r 

ccr 
cere 

XXfC 
XC  C 

' crc  _ _ 

etc  exc 
cec  eCc 
cec  <c 

X etc  cX' 

X XCC  « C 

X X'  c c xt 

c:  c ccct 

X X cc  c 


C ccccce 

d Cfecc  e<  ■•  c< 


R.C.P.  EDINBURGH  LIBRARY 


R53760A0236 


Documents  on  Medical  Antheopology 


ANTHROPOLOGY 

OBSERVATrONS  ON  THE  ESOTERIC 

MaDoers  and  Customs  of  Semi-Civilized  Peoples; 

BEING  A 

RECORD  OF  THIRTY  YEARS’  EXPERIENCE  IN 

ASIA,  AFRICA,  AMERICA 
and  OCEANIA. 

By  a French  Army-Surgeon. 


{IN  TWO  VOLUMES) 
VOL.  II 

[AH  Rights  Reserved] 


PARIS 

Librairie  de  Medecine,  Folklore  et  Anthropologie 

13  Faubourg  Montmartre,  13 
1898 


■■  ■ 


f - 


t.  ■ 

k: 


i 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS 

OF 


ANTHROPOLOGY 


“ No  physical  or  moral  misery,  no  sore  however  corrupt  it 
may  be,  should  frighten  him  who  has  devoted  himself  to  the 
Knowledge  of  Man ; and  the  sacred  Ministry  of  the  Medical  Man  by 
forcing  him  to  witness  everything,  also  pe''mits  him  to  say  every- 
thing.” 

Tardieu,  Des  Attentats  aux  Mceurs. 


Tc  ykp  OC7T07TVI'JXl  XXKSTTOV 
<pU7£0g,  yjv  £%f/  TIC  xsL 

Aristophanes  (Vesp.  1457): — 


“The  decomposition  of  dead  bodies  v/e  can  well  prevent,  can 
we  not  also  stay  the  decomposition  of  the  human  heart?  If  the 
weak  know,  if  we  know,  that  a given  vice  has  a bad  taste,  and 
‘turns  but  to  dead  ashes  in  the  Mouth’,  with  what  happiness  should 
we  fly  from  it.  It  is  only  necessary  to  see  certain  phases  of 
degradation  such  as  they  really  are,  to  hold  them  afterwards  in 
hatred.” 

Adele  Esquiros,  Les  Marcliandes  d’ Amour. 


Xass  uns,  geliebter  :ffiruber,  nlcbt  vergessen, 

Base  von  6tcb  selbst  bev  /Iftcnecb  nlcbt  scbclben  bann. 

Goethe  (Torq.  Tasso,  I,  2,  85). 


Documents  on  Medical  Anthropology 


OBSERVATIONS  ON  THE  ESOTERIC 


Manners  and  Customs  of  Semi-Civilized  Peoples; 

BEING  A 

RECORD  OF  THIRTY  YEARS’  EXPERIENCE  IN 

ASIA,  AFRICA,  AMERICA 
and  OCEANIA. 

By 'A  French  Army-Surgeon. 


{IN  TWO  VOLUMES) 
VoL.  II 

{AH  Rights  Reserved] 


PARIS 

Librairie  de  Medecine,  Folklore  et  Anthropologie 

13  Faubourg  Montmartre,  13 
1898 


PREFATORY  NOTE 

TO  THE  SECOND  VOLUME 


“ Dont  ne  m’a  retarde  I’opinion  de  ceux  qui  disent  que  c’est 
une  chose  vergogneuse  et  sale  de  traicter  de  cette  matiere,  et  que 
la  lecture  d’un  tel  livre  peut  induire  quelque  lihidineux  desir  en  la 
peusee  de  ceux  qui  le  liront.  Mais  nul  ne  le  lise  qui  n’en  aura 
a faire.  Nous  desirons  empescher  le  mal;  si,  ce  faisant,  nous  ne 
pouvons  fuir  le  scandale  volontairement  pris,  cela  ne  nous  doit  pas 
etre  impute,  ains  a la  pernicieuse  Yolonte  de  ceux  qui  d’eux-memes 
cherchent  a se  scandaliser  sans  sujet.” 

Dr.  JAQUES  DUVAL. 

Traite  des  Hermaiihrodites. 

(Rouen,  1612,  p.  58.) 


'‘Sciie  est  nescire,  nisi  1&  me  scire  alius  sciret.” 


PREFATORY  NOTE 

TO  THE  SECOND  VOLUME. 


The  following  letter,  received  from  a valued  correspondent, 
is  so  just,  and  defines  our  Author’s  elfort  with  such 
precision,  that  we  think  it  of  sufficient  interest  to  reproduce. 
Others  were  sent  to  us,  many  of  them  couched  in  very 
appreciative  and  laudatory  terms.  We  hope  to  include 
them  all  in  a third  supplementary  volume  to  appear  later. 

Sir, 

In  reply  to  your  request  to  contribute  any  criticisms 
one  wishes  upon  “ Untrodden  Fields  of  Anthropology  ” 
by  “ A French  Army-Surgeon  ” (published  1896),  although 
I have  not  resided  abroad,  nor  can  claim  any  special 
knowledge  of  the  subject,  as  a medical  man,  and  having 
read  the  work  very  carefully,  I should  like  to  make  the 
following  general  remarks.  The  title  at  once  arrests  the 
scientific  attention  and  the  book  leads  one  straight  into 
fields  “ untrodden  ” as  far  as  I am  aware — at  all  events 
little  more  than  a note  here  and  there  appears — in  the 
standard  anatomical,  physiological,  or  anthropological 
works;  in  its  purely  psychological  aspects  I believe  it  is 
wholly  untreated.  The  author’s  numerous  observations 
on  the  various  races  and  species  of  mankind,  with  which 
his  position  brought  him  into  contact ; the  careful 


X 


PREFATORY  NOTE. 


differentiations  he  details  in  the  several  species  and  races, 
and  the  rough  classification  he  sketches  therefrom,  are 
very  interesting;  while  his  description  of  relevant  and 
characteristic  customs,  of  the  different  races,  and  the 
incidents  of  travel  in  passing  from  place  to  place  are 
equally  attractive.  The  scientific  aspects  of  the  work  are 
very  interesting,  but  the  details  of  the  examples,  brief, 
and  in  general  scientific  terms.  From  the  purely  scientific 
side  it  would  he  probably  too  much  to  look  for  the 
scientific  minutiae  of  Darwin,  or  numerous  and  exact 
measurements,  under  the  - circumstances  of  the  compilation 
of  the  work  and  the  newness  of  the  subject  as  a speciality. 
The  illustrations  to  the  work  are  excellent.  In  my 
opinion  it  would  have  been  better  had  they  been  annexed 
to  the  matter  of  the  text,  or  if  separated,  they  should 
have  been  bound  in  uniform  size  as  the  volumes.  As 
many  notes  on  the  distinguishing  characteristics  of  the 
male  organs  of  generation  in  the  various  races  appear  in 
the  text,  some  typical  illustrations  of  them  would  seem 
a natural  part  of  the  illustrations,  whereas  they  are 
absent.  A further  advantage  to  the  illustrations  would» 
I think,  be,  to  draw  them  to  scale;  either  as  a whole, 
or  the  particular  scale,  given  at  the  foot  of  each  plate. 
Lastly  I think  it  is  to  be  regretted  that  as  a work  treating 
of  a scientific  subject,  and  further  as  being  a speciality, 
it  is  not  announced  to  and  procurable  by  the  scientific 
world  through  the  ordinary  channels.  Apologising  for 
these  brief  criticisms  and  congratulating  the  author  on 
what  he  has  achieved. 

Yours  faithfully, 

“MEDICUS.” 

England,  Sept.  1897. 

Our  friend’s  name  is  withheld,  as  desired. 


EDITOR’S  NOTE 


I regard  sex  as  the  central  problem  of  life.  And  now  that  the 
problem  of  religion  has  practicall}'  been  settled,  and  that  the  problem 
of  labour  has  at  least  been  placed  on  a practical  foundation,  the 
question  of  sex — with  the  racial  questions  that  rest  on  it — stands 
before  the  coming  generations  as  the  chief  problem  for  solution. 
Sex  lies  at  the  root  of  life,  and  we  can  never  learn  to  reverence 
life  until  we  know  how  to  understand  sex. 


Havelock  Ellis. 


Nature  and  truth,  though  never  so  low  or  vulgar,  are  yet 
pleasing  when  openly  and  artlessly  represented. 

Pope. 


EDITOR’S  NOTE  TO  THE  FOREGOINO 


My  correspondent  is  in  error  in  thinking  that  the  First 
Edition  “ Untrodden  Fields  of  Anthropology  ” was  “ not 
procurable  by  the  scientific  world  through  the  ordinary 
channels.”  The  work  was  duly  advertised  and  announced 
in  1896,  for  three  months  before  and  three  months 
after  it  appeared,  in  the  following  medical  Reviews  and 
literary  Magazines  amongst  many  others: — 

“ The  Medical  Press  and  Circidar  — “ The  Lancet" . — 
^ The  Edinburgh  Medical  Journal". — “The  Glasgow 
Medical  Journal".  — “The  Bristol  Medico-Chirurgical 
Journal". — “The  Birmingham  Medical  Beview" . — 

“The  Homeopathic  World".  — “The  Athenceum". — “The 
Academy".  — “Pall  Mcdl  Gazette" .—“  Globe" . — 

The  prospectus  announcing  the  work  was  sent  to  a 
large  number  of  London  medical  men  in  practice  and  to 
the  “ Fellows  of  the  Anthropological  Institute  of  Great 
Britain  and  Ireland  ” ; and  the  work  was  • regularly 
supplied,  on  demand,  to  the  London  medical  publishers, 
whose  clients  had  ordered  a copy  of  it  through  them. 

With  regard  to  the  illustrations,  I feel  compelled  to 
admit  that  the  observations  of  “ Medicus  ” have  consider- 
able raison  d'Mre.  But  it  was  here  that  both  Editor 
and  Author  were  most  anxious  not  to  give  offence  by 
transgressing  the  bounds  of  propriety.  Few  things  occasion 


XIV 


EDITOR  S NOTE. 


more  trouble  and  expense,  in  the  production  of  any  given 
work,  than  the  illustrations,  and  more  especially  did  we 
feel  this  in  connection  with  a work  dealing  specifically 
with  the  arcana  of  anthropological  science.  The  Author, 
it  is  true,  had  the  intention,  at  the  outset,  to  reproduce 
in  the  text  some  original  drawings  which  he  had  executed 
during  his  medical  experiences  in  the  Colonies,  but,  on  more 
mature  consideration,  it  was  agreed  that  the  illustrations 
in  question  would  be  more  appropriate  to  another  important 
work,  for  which  the  Doctor  has  been  collecting  material 
during  the  last  twenty-five  years. 

This  treatise,  which  will  deal  from  an  Anatomical, 
Physiological  and  Philosophical  standpoint,  with  the  Crimes 
and  Follies  of  Humanity,  having,  the  Sexual  Instinct  for 
their  fons  et  origo,  will  review  and,  in  some  instances, 
combat  the  theories  of  the  German  School  (with  Dr.,  R.  von 
Krafft-Ebing  en  tete),  in  reference  to  the  Psychopathia 
Sexualis.  No  more  need  be  said  here  of  this  work,  which, 
when  it  shall  appear,  will  undoubtedly  command  the 
attention  of  the  Medical  and  Anthropological  world. 

The  Author  requests  me  to  say  again  that  he  will  be 
glad  to  receive  and  consider  any  legitimate  criticisms 
on  the  subjects  dealt  with  in  “Untrodden  Fields  of 
Anthropology”,  providing  they  be  couched  in  proper 
language  and  regarded  from  a scientific  point  of  view. 


CHARLES  CARRINGTON. 


Paris,  February  2Ist,  1898. 


CONTENTS 

OF  THE 


SECOND  VOLUjME 


1 


SECOND  ENLARGED  AND  REVISED  EDITION 


ANALYTICAL 


TABLE  OP  CONTENTS 


PART  THE  THIRD 


Prefatory  Note  to  the  Second  Volume ix 

Editor’s  Note  to  the  foregoing xin 

Table  of  Contents' xvii— xxiv 


AFRICA 

Senegal  and  the  South  Rivers 

Chapter  I. 

Sent  to  Senegal.  — Arrival  at  Saint  Louis. — General  impression 
of  the  Senegal  coast.— A few  words  about  tlie  town  of  Saint 
Louis.  — The  Black  Town. — Anthropological  characteristics  of 
the  Wolof  race. — The  beauty  of  tlie  young  Negress. — Operation 
performed  on  the  breasts  of  women  lying-in.— The  genital 
organs  of  Negroes. — Rapes  and  other  offences  against  modesty 
amongst  Creoles  and  Negroes.  [Page  1 

Chapter  II. 

Various  races  besides  the  Wolofs. — Mussulmans  and  Fetishists.  - 
The  Toucouleur.— The  Peulh. — The  Sarrakholais.  — The  civilisa- 
tion of  the  White  man  has  no  effect  on  the  character  of  the 
Black.  — Tlie  Kassonke.  — The  young  Kassonke  girl.-  The  Malinkds 
and  Bambaras.— The  Senegalese  sharpshooter.  [Page  27 


XVII 


XYIil 


CONTENTS 


Chaptee  III. 

Social  condition,  and  moral  characteristics  of  the  Negro  race  in 
general.— The  Chiefs  and  Marabouts.— Free  men,  griots,  and 
blacksmiths.— The  Griot  village  of  Erina. — Slaves.— The  slavery 
question.— Moral  characteristics  of  the  Black. — The  Black’s  opinion 
of  the  civilised  Toubab.  — Karamoko’s  carbine.— Various  customs 
and  superstitions  common  to  the  people  of  Senegal. —Mussulman 
amulets  and  the  fetish  man’s  “grigris”.  [Page  39 

Chapter  IV. 

The  Negro  woman.— Her  social  condition.— Marriage.— The 
wife  purchased  by  the  husband.  — Vanity  of  the  women  who  fetch 
high  prices.— Marriage  ceremonies. — Constancy  of  the  Negress. 
— The  wives  of  the  Sharpshooters.  — Their  inconstancy.— Their 
virtues. — Polygamy  amongst  the  Blacks.  — The  chief  mistress  of 
the  house. —Jealousy  unknown  to  the  Negress.— Divorce. 

[Page  49 

Chapter  V. 

The  hymen.— Large  and  small  lips.— Clitoris. —The  fork  and 
the  navel.  - A study  of  the  genital  organs  of  the  Negro  races  of 
Africa. — Marks  of  virginity  in  the  young  girl.  — Circumcision  of 
young  girls. — The  festival  of  same.  — The  nubile  Negress.— 
The  genital  organ  of  the  Negro. — The  perforated  Kabylo 
woman.— Circumcision  the  probable  cause  of  the  size  of  the 
Negro’s  penis. — The  effect  of  circumcision  on  the  size  of  the 
penis  of  the  pubescent  boy.  — Mantegazza  on  the  genital  organs 
of  the  Negroes.— His  opinion  on  circumcision. — The  incontestable 
advantages  of  this  operation.  — The  suppression  of  masturbation 
in  the  circumcised.  — The  festival  of  circumcision  amongst  Fetish 
worshippers.— Excursus  by  Dr.  Godard  on  the  defloration  of 
virgins  in  Egypt. — Sir  K.  F.  Burton  on  Dahomeyan  customs. — 
Female  infanticide. — Thibetan  nuptial  customs.— The  Hottentot 
“Apron”. — The  perforation  of  the  penis  amongst  Australian 
tribes.  [Page  65 


CONTENTS 


XIX 


Chapteu  VI. 

Erotic  dances  of  the  Senegal  Xegroes. — The  “ Anamalis  fobil  ” 
and  the  “ bamboula  " of  the  Wolofs. — The  “ belh’ dance  ” of  the 
Landounians  of  Eio  Nunez. — Obscene  dance  of  the  massacre  of 
the  wounded,  and  mutilation  of  the  dead,  on  the  field  of  battle.— 
The  Gourou  or  Kola  nut,  the  aphrodisiac  of  the  Negroes. 

[Page  109 

Chapter  VIT. 

Sexual  intercourse  of  the  Negro  races.  — Sensitiveness  of  the 
race.— Contempt  of  the  Negress  for  the  White  man.— The  usual 
method  of  copulation.— Prolonged  duration  of  copulation  in  the 
Negro.— Circumcision  as  a potent  cause  of  delay  in  spending.— 
The  unimportance  of  the  signs  of  virginity  in  the  Negress. — 
Negro  girls  deflowered  by  Toubabs.— Amorous  subterfuges  used 
in  Europe. — Artifices  used  by  Asiatic  peoples. — Former  American 
customs.  — Report  of  Carletti,  the  Traveller.  — Savage  habits 
regarding  perfumes. — Tumefaction  of  the  gland.  — Influence  of 
chastity  on  health. —Elements  of  social  science. — Dr.  Yerga 
on  celibacy.  [Page  117 

Chapter  VIII. 

Perversions  of  the  sexual  passion  amongst  the  Negroes. — The 
Negress  is  neither  a Sodomite  nor  a Lesbian.  -Parent-Duchatelet 
on  “Lesbian  Love”. — Tribads  despised  by  other  prostitutes.— 
How  the  vice  is  contracted.  — The  strange  affection  of  Tribads. — 
Lawful  love  thought  .shocking. — Pregnancy  frequent  among 
them. — Masturbation  and  pederasty  very  rare  amongst  the 
Negroes.  — A Black  Mes.salina.— The  Black  man’s  lust  for  the 
White  woman.  — A White  Mes.salina.  — A White  woman  violated 
by  a Negro.— Taylor  on  raping  adult  women.  — Evidence  of 
signs  of  violence.— Trick  of  a Negro  to  get  a White  woman.— 
A little  White  girl  deflowered  by  a Negro.  [Page  155 

Chapter  IX. 

Differences  between  the  organs  of  generation  of  the  various 
races  of  Senegal.  [Page  189 


XX 


CONTENTS 


PART  THE  FOURTH 


OCEANIA 

New  Caledonia— The  New  Hebrides— Tahiti 


Chapter  I, 

My  stay  in  New  Caledonia. — Anthropological  characteristics 
of  the  Kanaka  of  New  Caledonia. — The  Kanaka  “Popinee”.— 
Degraded  condition  of  the  Popinee.— The  genital  organs  of  the 
Kanaka  race.— Circumcision  at  the  age  of  puberty.- Seclusion 
of  girls  at  puberty.  — “ Hunting  the  Snake  ”.— Beating  as  a 
means  of  purification. — Woman  during  the  menstrual  period. — 
The  Kanaka  virgin. — Division  of  the  Kanaka  race  into  independent 
and  hostile  tribes. — The  man’s  “ manou  ”.  — Strange  modesty  of 
the  Kanaka. —The  girdle  of  the  Popinee.— A few  words  about 
manners  and  customs.— The  position  of  the  Chief  in  the  social 
state. — Habitations.— Food.— The  Kanaka  stove. — Beliefs  and 
superstitions. — The  wizard-doctor  (Takata).  —Prof.  Frazer  on 
“Killing  the  God”.  [Page  191 


Chapter  II. 

Moral  characteristics  of  the  Kanaka.  — Causes  of  the  insurrection 
of  1878. — The  Kanaka’s  courage. — His  weapons. — The  attack  on 
the  post  at  Foa. — Heroic  death  of  sixteen  warriors.— Ferocity  of 
the  Kanaka.— The  philosophy  of  man-eating. — Devourers  of 
their  own  offspring. — Men  eaten  to  win  glory.— Anthropophagy 
a motive  for  war. — Dogs  v.  women  at  Terra  del  Fuego. — 
Flagrante  delicto  of  animality.— Cannibalism.  — Its  causes. — 
The  “ pilou-pilou  ”. — The  erotic  “ pilou-pilou  ”. — Scenes  of 
cannibalism.  —The  massacres  of  the  “ Alcmena”,  and  la  Poya. — 
The  Chief’s  part  in  the  feast  of  human  flesh. — The  reward  of 
the  French  Government.  [Page  230 


CONTENTS 


XXI 


Chapter  III. 

Forms  of  sexual  intercourse  amongst  the  Kanakas.— The  Popine'e 
the  property  of  the  Chief. — The  Kanaka  marriage.— Polyandry. — 
The  condition  of  the  Popinee.— The  Kanaka  “ break  wood  ”,  the 
usual  method  of  copulation.  — Accouchement. — Vulvar  deformities 
produced  by  the  repeated  coition  of  the  Kanaka  Popinees. — An 
original  form  of  punishment  for  adultery.— Not  confined  to  the 
Kanakas.— Mrs.  Potiphar  and  Joseph.  — Lust  of  the  Kanaka  for 
the  White  woman. — The  head  chief  Atai  and  Mme  F***. 

TPage  252 

Chapter  IV. 

Perversions  of  the  sexual  passions  amongst  the  Kanakas. — The 
perversions  of  the  Popinees.— Pederasty  after  the  age  of  puberty. — 
A curious  theory  of  sexual  aberration.  — The  symptomatic 
characteristics  of  the  pederasty  of  the  Kanaka.  — Cruelties  and 
erotic  mutilations'  committed  by  the  Kanakas  during  the 
insurrection.— White  women  beheaded  and  violated.  — Bechir,  the 
Arab.— Louis,  the  Kanaka  interpreter. — Acts  of  Sadism. — The 
mutilation  and  outraging  of  corpses.  [Page  268 

Chapter  V. 

The  convict  in  New  Caledonia. — The  motives  for  this  chapter.— 
The  Penitentiary  of  Nou  Island.  — The  convict  as  a family 
servant.— The  ticket-of-leave  man.  — The  convent  of  Bourail.— 
Lesbians  and  “ fellatrices  — Tribadism  in  Europe. —Tribads  are 
not  Sapphics.— The  Courtesans  of  Greece.— Lombroso  on  the 
causes  of  this  vice.  — Natural  wantonness.— Environment  as  a 
factor.— Secret  clubs  of  vice. —Advanced  age,  another  cause.— 
Disgust  born  of  excess.  — Congenital  tendency. — The  criminality 
of  husbands.— The  military  post  at  Bourail.— The  General’s  cap.— 
“Jc  m’emmerde,  and  I want  a man  ".—Marriage  of  liberated 
convicts.  — Sodomy  and  pederasty  amongst  the  convicts.— Prisons 
as  breeder  of  vice.— The  universality  of  the  vice.— Infamous 
passions.  [Page  297 


XXII 


CONTENTS 


Chapter  VI. 

A note  by  the  Author. — Anthropological  characteristics  of  the 
natives  of  the  New  Hebrides.— Their  admixture  with  the,  Maori- 
Polynesian  race.  — Characteristics  of  the  pure  Melanesian  race.— 
It  is  autochthonous  in  Australia. — Anthropological  importance  of 
the  genital  organs  in  determining  the  origin  of  a race. — The 
genital  organ  of  the  African  Negro,  and  of  his  various  crossings 
with  the  White.— The  genital  organ  of  the  Melanesian,  compared 
to  that  of  the  African  Negro.— The  genital  organ  of  the 
woman  of  the  New  Hebrides.  [Page  328 


Chapter  VII. 

A few  words  on  the  manners,  customs,  etc.,  of  the  New  Hebri- 
deans.—Costume.— The  manou. — The  woman’s  girdle. — Tattoo- 
ing.—Habitations.— Food.— Arms  and  utensils. —The  tam-tam ; 
the  pilou-pilou.— The  erotic  dance.— The  Kawa.  [Page  336 


Chapter  VIII. 

Forms  and  perversions  of  the  sexual  habit  amongst  the  New 
Hebrideans.  — Social  condition  of  woman.— Marriage. — Sacrifice 
of  widows  in  the  islands  of  Tanna  and  Anatom.  — Adultery 
and  its  punishment. — Methods  of  copulation. — The  Popinee  in 
relation  with  the  European.  — Captain  L***  and  his  Popinee. — 
Sodomy. — Pederasty. — Bestiality. — Artificial  hypospadias  of  the 
natives  of  Santo.— In  Ce}don,  by  a Scotch  Doctor. — Editor’s  Note. 

[Page  344 


Chapter  IX. 

Six  weeks  at  Tahiti. — Panoramic  view  of  Tahiti  at  sun-rise.— 
Anthropological  characteristics  of  the  Tahitian  Maori  race.— 
Beauty  of.  the  Maori  race. — The  portrait  of  Rarahu. 

[Page  367 


CONTENTS 


XXIII 


Chapter  X. 

Maimers  and  customs  of  tlie  Taliitians. — Social  condition  of  the 
ancient  Tahitians.  - The  Manahune.  — Religion  and  the  priests.— 
Origin  of  the  Tahitian  race.— The  language.— The  Tahitian  Arii 
is  an  Aryan  like  the  old  Greek.— The  priest's  part  in  Tahitian 
civilisation.  — The  Marae.  — Human  sacrifices.— The  end  of 

Tahitian  civilisation.  —Habitations.  — Baths.  —Food. — Amuraa. — 
Public  festivals.— Costumes.  [Page  373 

Chapter  XL 

Moral  characteristics  of  the  Tahitians. —Marriages.  — Woman’s 
place  amongst  the  Maoris. — Births. — The  taboo.  — Adopted 
children.— Songs.— The  hymeneal  chant.  — The  upa-upa,  or 
lascivious  dance  of  the  Tahitian  women.  — A upa-upa  in  the 
interior  of  the  island.  — Diseases.— Rapid  e.x.tinction  of  the  pure 
Maori  race.  ' [Page  384 


Chapter  XII. 

Importance  of  sexual  intercourse  to  the  Maoris. — Love  the  prin- 
cipal occupation  of  the  race.  — Manners  of  the  former  inhabitants 
of  New  Cytherea.  — Public  offerings  to  Venus.  — Opinions  of  Cook 
and  de  Bougainville  on  the  debauchery  of  the  Tahitians.  — Good 
Friday  in  Lancashire. —Timorodee,  the  lascivious  dance.  — Sacred 
orgies  and  erotic  festivals. — Ancient  rites. —The  ancient 
Peruvians. — The  sect  of  the  Nicolites. — The  aborigines  of 
Australia. — The  Hawaian  Hula-Hula. — The  West  African 

Negroes.  — The  South  American  Puri.— Christian  festivals. — 
New  Britain  Islands.— E.sthonia.— Marriage  amongst  the 

Tahitians.— Circumcision  and  tattooing.— Tattooing  on  women. — 
The  sect  of  the  Arrioys,  amongst  whom  woman  is  in  common. — 
The  happy  life  of  the  Tahitians.  — The  day’s  life  of  a Yahine 
at  Papeete.  — Jealousy  of  the  present  race  of  Tahitians. — Tahitian 
hospitality. — The  true  character  of  the  Vahine.— Marriage  after 
trial.  — “If  thee  tak,  I tak  thee”. -The  “Come  Nights”. — The 
Philippine  Islands.  [Page  395 


XXIV 


CONTENTS 


Chapter  XIII. 


Forms  of  sexual  passion  in  Tahiti. — The  genital  organ  of  the 
Maori  race  in  the  adult  and  at  the  age  of  puberty. — Genital 
vigour  of  the  Tane. — Genital  vigour,  1st,  in  the  European,  2nd, 
in  the  Maori  Tane. — Causes  of  the  genital  power  of  the  Tane. — 
Precocious  lustfulness  of  the  Tahitian  children,  and  its  results. — 
The  deflowering  of  the  little  Tahitian  girls.— Dr.  Ploss  on  the 
importance  of  sex  studies. — The  methods  of  coition  usual 
amongst  the  Maori  race.  [Page  426 


Perversions  of  the  sexual  passion  amongst  the  Tahitians. — The 
Tane. — Corruption  of  the  Vahine  in  contact  with  the  European. — 
Sexual  perversions  of  the  Vahine. — Masturbation  and  Sapphism.— 


Chapter  XIV. 


The  influence  of  race  in  genital  perversions. 


[Page  448 


lllntiobben  jficlbs  of 
Hntbvopoloo^. 


PART  THE  THIRD.  AFRICA. 

Senegal  and  the  South  Rivers. 
CHAPTER  I. 

Scjif  to  Senegal. — Auival  at  Saint  Louis. — General  impression 
of  the  Senegal  coast.  — A fezv  vjords  about  the  town  of  Saint 
Louis. — The  Black  Town. — Anthropological  characteristics  of  the 
Wolof  race.  — The  beauty  of  the  voting  Negress. — Operation  per- 
formed on  the  breasts  of  women  lying-in. — The  genital  organs 
of  Negroes. — Tapes  and  other  offences  against  modesty  amongst 
Creoles  and  Negroes. 


Sent  to  Senegal.  A short  time  after  my  return  from 
Guiana,  I was  sent  to  Senegal,  where  a terrible  epi- 
demic of  yellow  fever  had  disorganised  the  medical 
service,  and  necessitated  the  despatch  of  more  doctors, 
hospital  attendants,  etc. 

Arrival  at  Saint  Louis.  The  Government  transport, 
which  I was  on  board,  arrived  at  .Saint  Louis  one 
Sunday,  coasted  along  the  shore,  and  anchored  before 
the  bar  at  the  entrance  to  the  river. 

The  General  Impression  produced  by  the  Senegal 

I 


2 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


Coast.  M.  Loti,  of  the  Academy,  has  admirably 

described  the  aspect  of  the  coast  of  Senegal,  and  the 
impression  it  produces  upon  the  traveller  who  has  just 
come  from  France.  “ In  descending  the  coast  of  Africa, 
when  you  have  passed  the  southern  border  of  Morocco, 
you  coast  along,  for  days  and  nights,  an  interminable, 
desolate  shore.  This  is  the  Sahara,  the  great  sea 

without  water,  which  the  Moors  also  call  Balad-ul- 

atish,  1 or  ‘the  land  of  thirst.’  Solitude  succeeds 

solitude,  with  mournful  monotony  of  moving  sand-hills 
and  indefinite  horizon ; and  the  heat  increases  in  in- 
tensity day  by  day.  And  then  appears  above  the  sand, 
an  old  and  white  city,  planted  with  a few  yellow 
palms;  this  is  Saint  Louis  of  Senegal,  the  capital  of 
Senegambia.  A church,  a mosque,  a tower,  and  some 
Moorish  looking  houses.  These  all  seem  to  doze  in 
the  hot  sunlight,  like  those  Portuguese  towns  which 
formerly  flourished  on  the  Congo  coast.  Saint  Paul, 
and  Saint  Philippe  de  Benguela.  You  approach,  and 
you  are  astonished  to  find  that  the  town  is  not  built 
on  the  coast,  that  it  has  not  even  a port,  nor  any 
communication  with  the  exterior  ; the  coast,  which  is  low 
and  straight,  is  as  inhospitable  as  that  of  the  Sahara, 
and  an  unending  line  of  breakers  prevents  the  approach 
of  ships.  You  then  notice,  what  you  had  not  perceived 
from  a distance ; immense  human  ant-hills,  on  the  shores 
thousands  and  thousands  of  thatched  cottages,  liliputian 
huts  with  pointed  roofs,  beneath  which  huddles  an  odd 
Negro  population.” 

‘ This  word  is  shortened  in  the  “dog-like,”  Arabic  patois  of  the  Moors 
to  Bled-al-atish.  Senegal  is  the  oldest  colony  of  France,  and  dates  as 
far  back  roughly  speaking  as  1368,  when  the  hardy  sailors  of  Dieppe 
first  came  across,  and  disputed  its  possession  with  the  adventurous  Por- 
tuguese. The  narrative  of  its  gradual  conquest  is  one  of  the  most  ex- 
citing in  the  history  of  European  colonisation. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


3 


A Few  Words  about  the  Town  of  Saint  Louis. 

Saint  I.ouis  is  about  eighteen  miles  from  the  mouth  of 
the  Senegal.  The  town  is  entirely  built  upon  an  island 
of  a very  long  lozenge  shape,  a mile  and  a quarter 
long,  and  500  yards  broad.  In  the  centre  are  massed 
the  (Government  House,  the  Church,  and  the  huge 
Rogniat  Barracks;  a little  to  the  south  is  the  Hospital, 
and  in  the  north,  the  Mosque.  All  around,  in  the 
central  part,  are  streets  in  the  direction  of  the  axes  of 
the  lozenge,  and  bordered  with  houses  in  masonry  of 
a cubical  form,  and  generally  of  only  one  storey,  and 
with  flat  roofs  forming  terraces,  called,  in  the  language 
of  the  country,  argamasses.  These  argamasses  serve 
to  receive  the  rain  water.  Saint  Louis  having  no 
springs  or  wells  of  really  drinkable  water.  There  is 
no  verdure,  unless  it  be  a few  palm  trees  in  occasional 
corners,  and  the  rudiments  of  a garden  round  the 
Government  House,  kept  up  at  a great  expense  during 
the  dry  season,  when  a barrel  of  water  costs  a dollar. 

A sojourn  at  Saint  Louis  is  not  enchanting,  for  the 
place  is  the  very  opposite  of  that  verdant  spot,  Cayenne, 
where  the  vegetation  is  extraordinarily  exuberant. 
Here  there  is  nothing  but  yellow  grey  sand,  and  walls 
painted  white,  the  reflection  from  which  blinds  you. 
According  to  my  custom,  I took  up  my  residence  at 
the  north  point  of  the  town,  at  the  extreme  limit  of 
the  European  quarter,  in  order  to  be  as  much  as 
‘possible  in  contact  with  the  Black  population,  whose 
huts  and  low  houses  (in  brick  for  the  rich  people)  are 
relegated  to  the  two  extremities  of  the  town. 

The  Black  Town.  In  that  part  of  the  island  which 
forms  the  Black  Town,  are  crowded  together  the  huts 
and  hovels  of  the  Negroes,  which  are  in  the  form  of 


4 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


our  bee-hives.  On  visiting  them  you  will  find  some 
gutted,  overturned,  or  burnt.  From  the  conical  roofs 
of  those  which  appear  to  be  inhabited,  hang  dirty  rags, 
and  scraps  of  meat  and  fish.  Negro  boys,  quite  naked, 
run  about  here  and  there  on  the  sand  of  the  river 
banks, — banks  that  have  fallen  in,  and  are  covered 
with  filth.  Some  old  Negresses,  hardly  covered  with 
miserable  rags  of  cotton  drawers,  and  their  hanging 
breasts  all  bare, — crouch  down  before  the  doors  of  the 
huts,  smoking  their  pipes,  and  watching  any  stray 
European  who  is  passing.  In  front  of  the  door,  is  the 
mortar  for  grinding  meal,  hollowed  out  of  an  immense 
tree  trunk,  and  you  may  often  see  a woman,  carrying 
her  child  astride  on  her  buttocks,  and  handling  the 
heavy  pestle.  Young  Negroes,  quite  bare,  girls  and 
boys,  with  just  a string  of  glass  beads  round  their 
waists,  surround  you  and  pursue  you  with  the  mono- 
tonous refrain,  “ Toubab,  give  me  ha’penny.” 

If  you  pass  from  the  extremity  of  the  island  to  the 
narrow  sand-bank  which  extends  between  the  sea  and 
the  right  bank  of  the  river,  you  will  come  across  the 
suburban  village  of  Guet  ‘ N ’ Dar,  which  is  connected 
with  the  town  by  a little  bridge,  built  on  beams.  In 
this  suburb  is  held  the  native  market,  so  picturesquely 
described  by  Loti.  ^ If  you  leave  the  town  by  the  East, 
to  go  to  the  large  island  of  Sohr,  you  must  pass  over 
a bridge  of  boats  half  a mile  long. 

Anthropological  Characteristics  of  the  Wolof 

Race.  The  town  of  Saint  Louis  is  almost  entirely 
populated  by  the  Yolof,  or  Wolof,  race,  but  you  may 
also  find  there  examples  of  all  the  Negro  races  of 
Senegal.  It  would  take  too  long  to  describe  all  these 

* Le  Roman  cl'ini  Spahi,  by  Pierre  Loti,  Paris,  1896. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


5 


different  races,  and  by  choosing'  the  Wolofs  as  a type. 
I shall  be  able  to  point  out  the  principal  differences 
between  this  race  and  the  others. 

The  first  few  steps  that  a traveller  takes  in  Saint 
Louis  and  its  Negro  suburbs,  will  reveal  to  him  a 
striking  difference  between  the  inhabitants  of  the 
American  colonies,  and  the  African  Negro.  The 
Blacks  of  the  Antilles,  and  Guiana,  are  descended 
from  slaves,  imported  from  all  corners  of  Africa,  since 
the  time  of  Louis  XIII.,  and  whose  descendants  were 
set  free  in  1848.  The  admixture  of  all  these  different 
tribes  has  produced  a race  without  any  original 
characteristics,  more  or  less  bastardized,  and  corrupted, 
by  contact  with  the  White  man,  and  the  stain  of  the 
slavery  of  their  ancestors.  In  Senegal  it  is  not  the 
same.  Although  slavery  exists,  the  various  races  have 
preserved  their  peculiar  characteristics,  and  there  is  a 
great  difference,  for  example,  between  a Wolof  and  a 
Peulh. 

The  Wolofs  originally  came  from  Walo,  and  little 
by  little  have  established  themselves  in  the  capital  of 
Senegal.  But  they  have  preserved  the  manners  and 
.customs  of  their  forefathers,  though  they  have  allowed 
themselves  to  be  converted  to  Islam.  It  is  for 
their  use,  that  a fine  mosque  has  been  erected  at 
North  Point.  Their  huts  line  the  streets  of  the  town, 
and  are  divided  into  groups,  separated  by  tapades,  or 
screens  of  woven  reeds,  five  or  six'  feet  high.  There 
is  always  a court  in  front  of  these  huts.  Whilst  the 
woman  works  in  the  house,  the  man  fishes,  hunts,  or 
does  a little  work  of  some  sort. 

The  Wolofs  are  a fine  race;  their  average  stature 
is  greater  than  that  of  the  European.  The  arms 
and  legs  are  long,  but  though  the  thigh  is  tolerably 


6 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


fleshy,  the  calf  is  very  thin.  The  foot  is  large  and 
flat,  and  the  head  small.  Loti,  in  the  Roman  dhin 
Spahi,  exactly  depicts  the  Wolof  in  a few  lines:  “ If 
a vessel  anchors  before  Saint  Louis,  you  will  soon  see 
it  surrounded  by  long  pirogues,  pointed  at  the  prow 
like  a fish’s  head,  and  manned  by  Blacks  who  stand 
and  paddle.  The  boatmen  are  tall,  thin,  and  of  hercu- 
lean strength,  well-made  and  muscular,  with  faces  like 
gorillas,  and  possessed  of  true  Negro  obstinacy,  and 
the  agility  and  strength  of  acrobats ; ten  times  have 
they  been  driven  back  by  the  breakers,  and  ten 
times  have  they  recommenced  their  task;  their  black 
skins,  wet  with  sweat  and  sea  water,  gleam  like  polished 
ebony.  ” 

The  children  go  about  quite  naked,  until  they  attain 
the  age  of  puberty,  and  have  no  hair  but  one  woolly 
lock  left  on  their  otherwise  clean-shaved  heads.  When 
the  boys  attain  puberty,  which  is  generally  at  about 
twelve  or  thirteen  years  of  age,  they  don  a blue  or 
white  boubou,  a sort  of  long  full  shirt  in  cotton,  with 
no  sleeves,  and  no  seam  down  the  sides,  and  which 
falls  almost  to  the  feet.  When  the  girls  become  nubile, 
that  is  to  say  at  ten  or  twelve  years  at  the  latest, 
they  wear  cotton  drawers,  and  have  the  bust  naked, 
but  they  often  replace  this  garment,  when  they  grow 
to  be  women,  by  a bouboti,  rather,  shorter  than  that 
of  the  men. 

The  Beauty  of  the  Young  Negress.  In  the 

children,  we  can  therefore  watch  the  progressive  devel- 
opment of  the  race.  The  Wolofs  do  not,  like  some 
races  of  the  interior  of  Africa,  tattoo  themselves.  If 
it  were  not  that  the  breasts  are  disfigured  when  the 
first  child  is  born,  and  the  head  with  its  flat  nose  and 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


7 


thick  lips,  the  Negresses  would  be  perfect  specimens 
of  humanity.  This  may  easily  be  imagined,  for  they 
live  in  the  open  air,  the  full  development  of  their  body 
and  limbs  is  not  interfered  with,  and  they  may  be 
said  to  grow  like  plants  out  of  doors;  the  bust  is 
never  deformed  by  the  use  of  the  corset,  that  instrument 
of  torture  of  civilised  woman.  ^ 

The  Negress  (girl  or  woman)  having  to  handle  for 
several  hours  a day,  a pestle  that  weighs  eighteen  or 
twenty  pounds,  acquires  by  means  of  that  repeated 
gymnastic  exercise,  a fine  development  of  the  muscles 
of  the  arm  and  shoulder.  They  are  strong  and  vigorous, 
and  the  Toiibab  (White)  who  tried  to  offer  violence  to 
one  of  these  Negresses,  would  soon  find  out  his 
mistake.  The  breast  of  the  young  girl,  who  is  of 
nubile  age  and  has-not  had  any  children,  is  pear-shaped, 
but  compact,  hard,  and  resisting,  and  the  nipples  are 
very  hard,  and  point  out  horizontally  under  the  boubou: 
The  walk  is  light  and  graceful,  and  the  pagne  or 

' The  ancients  were  strangers  to  this  modern  horror,  unless  we  class 
the  belt  or  ceinturc  worn  by  the  Roman  girls  and  matrons  in  this 
category.  Various  names  were  given  to  them,  according  to  whether 
they  were  placed  across  the  breasts  or  the  hi]ts,  ne.\t  to  the  body  or 
over  the  clothes.  The  Latins  called  them  : Cestus,  Capitium,  Fascia, 
Taenia,  Mamillare ; while  among  the  Greeks  they  were  known  as: 
Strophion,  Zone,  Apodesmos.  From  such  simple  beginnings ' gradually 
evolved  the  complicated  bit  of  machinery  that  European  dames  and 
virgins  love  to  imprison  themselves  in  to-day.  In  1727,  the  Chevalier  de 
Nisard  became  so  enthusiastic  on  the  subject,  that  he  broke  out  into 
the  following  rhapsody:  — 

“Est-il  rien  de  plus  beau  qu’tin  corset, 

Qui  naturellenient  figure, 

Et  qui  montre  comme  on  est  fait, 

Dans  le  mottle  de  la  Nature.” 

Those  who  feel  interested  in  the  subject  may  refer  to  Ernest  Leoty’s 
charming  little  work  “ Le  Corset  d travers  Ics  Ag'es”  (Paris,  1893). 


8 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


drawers,  which  cover  the  lower  part  of  the  body,  if 
draped  gracefully,  does  not  detract  from  the  g'race  of 
her  movements.  After  she  has  borne  her  first  child, 
all  is  changed.  ^ The  beauty  of  the  breasts,  and  of 
the  body  in  general,  quickly  fades.  The  breast  becomes 
elongated,  and  hangs  down  like  the  udder  of  a she- 
goat,  to  which  indeed  it  bears  a certain  resemblance. 
The  cause  of  this  is  very  simple,  though  I believe  it 
is  but  little  known,  for  I have  not  found  it  mentioned 
in  any  book  of  travels  in  Senegal,  or  Africa,  with 
which  I am  acquainted. 

Operation  on  the  Breasts  of  Women  lying-in. 

The  Negress  must  have  both  hands  free,  when  she 
works  the  heavy  meal-pestle.  That  is  why  she  carries 
her  child  astride  on  her  buttocks,  and  supported  there 
by  a large  piece  of  linen,  which  passes  under  the 
child’s  arms,  and  is  fastened  under  the  woman’s  breasts. 
When  the  child  wants  to  suck,  the  mother  pulls  it  to 
either  side,  then  pushes  her  breast  under  her  arm, 
and  goes  on  with  her  work  whilst  the  child  is  suckling. 
The  mere  weight  of  the  milk  would  be  insufficient  to 
pull  down  the  breast  of  a young  woman,  and  make 
it  sufficiently  long.  This  curious  deformity  is  caused 
by  a surgical  operation,  which  the  old  matrons  perform 
upon  the  young  women,  when  they  are  lying-in.  This 
operation  consists  in  cutting  the  subcutaneous  muscles 
which  support  the  breasts,  by  an  oblique  incision,  which 

‘ This  peculiarity  of  a rapid  change  and  loss  of  form  and  firmness  in 
the  breasts  of  the  Black  woman,  on  her  attainment  of  motherhood,  has 
also  been  noted  in  the  Viennese  ladies.  Burton,  with  his  usual  ’cuteness, 
has  already  noted  the  fact  (see  “Terminal  Essay”  of  the  tenth  volume 
of  the  UNBOWDLERISED  edition  of  his  Nights also  page  248  of  the 
'■'Book  of  Exposition,"  Paris,  1896). 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


9 


is  done  very  skilfully,  but  is  so  painful  that  it  makes 
the  patient  cry  out.  The  young  woman  does  not, 
however,  utter  a cry  or  groan  during  the  act  of 
parturition,  and  gets  u^^  two  hours  afterwards  in  order 
to  bathe  her  infant.  The  large  size  of  the  womb 
renders  the  delivery  very  easy, — much  more  so  than 
is  the  case  with  the  Annamite  Congai,  who  remains 
in  bed  forty  days,  and  has  to  take  the  greatest  pre- 
cautions to  prevent  a deadly  attack  of  peritonitis.  The 
method  of  carrying  the  infant  on  the  back  is  very 
convenient  for  the  child,  for  the  Negress  has  generally 
very  well-developed  buttocks,  and  on  this  rounded 
double  cushion  the  child  is  as  comfortable  as  though 
it  were  on  a seat.  But  this  plan  has  the  disadvantage 
of  bowing  the  legs,  and  the  child  very  often  acquires 
much  the  same  sort  of  walk  as  a dismounted  horseman. 

The  Genital  Organs  of  Negroes.  It  is  only  among 
a few  of  the  Negro  races  that  the  exterior  genitals  of 
women  have  been  as  carefully  examined  and  described 
as  in  DE  Rochebrune’s  work  on  the  Wolof  Negroes. 

These  g'enitals  he  de.scribes  as  being  slightly  developed. 
A slit  of  only  a few  millimeters  long  represented  the 
big  labia,  the  nymphcr  are  so  to  say  rudimentary, 
measuring  0.004  across,  and  0.021  m.  in  length;  the 
entire  vulva  is  thus  characterised  by  a depression,  the 
surface  being'  exteriorly  bounded  by  two  ellipsoid 
wrinkles,  which  from  the  lower  part  and  the  middle 
of  the  Mans  Veneris  spread  out  until  they  reach  the 
neighbourhood  of  the  front  region  of  the  perinaeum ; 
at  the  same  the  inner  borders  of  these  wrinkles  join 
together,  forming  merely  a light  wavy  line,  to  be 
observed  even  on  women  of  a certain  age.  These 
parts  differ  also  from  the  others  in  colour,  which  is 


lO 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


paler  than  the  rest  of  the  skin  which  is  black,  in  adults 
the  nymphce  are  of  a slaty-blue,  whereas  in  young- 
girls  they  are  dark  red. 

The  clitoris  continually  stands  out;  in  all  the 
cases  where  it  was  measured,  its  dimensions  were 
0.013  rn-  the  middle  of  the  exposed  part. 

This  formation  differs  considerably  from  that  of 
European  women.  On  the  other  hand,  however,  the 
usual  lengthening  out  of  the  nymphcB,  which  other 
observers  have  described  as  being  a characteristic  of 
Negro  women,  is  not  found  among  the  Wolof  Negroes; 
on  the  contrary,  with  them  the  nympJuB  seem  to  be 
to  a certain  extent  atrophied ; one  might,  as  DE  Roche- 
BRUNE,  speak  of  a genuine  arrest  of  development.  ^ In 
fact,  the  outspringing  of  the  clitoris  excepted,  the 
further  development  of  the  outer  surface  of  the  vulva 
cannot  be  better  compared  with  other  parts  than  with 
those  of  an  European  maiden  of  from  8 to  10  years 
of  age. 

Very  remarkable  also  is  the  position  which  this 
organ  occupies.  If  a perpendicular  line  is  supposed 
through  the  body  of  the  woman  from  head  to  foot, 
and  if  a perpendicular  surface  is  supposed  through  this 
line  at  the  level  of  the  anus,  it.  will  be  found  that  the 
fossa  navicularis  ^ is  situated  in  this  plane,  and  there- 
fore the  base  of  the  vulva  is  situated  in  a point  relatively 
high  as  regards  the  vertical  line.  This  is  also  further 
observable  in  the  length  of  the  perinaeum,  which  is 
very  remarkable.  Whilst  its  average  length  in  Euro- 
pean woman  is  0.012  m.,  in  the  Wolof  Negress  it 


‘ Rochebnme  (A.  Fremeau  de)  in  the  ''Revue  d’ Anthropologie," 
1881,  IV.  2. 

® i.e,  pudc7idum. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


I I 

attains  to  0.025  m. ; this  difference  of  0.013  m.  shows, 
that  the  vulva  lies  back  by  that  quantity. 

Rapes  and  other  Offences  against  Modesty 
amongst  Creoles  and  Negroes.  ^ Among  the  races 
inhabiting  warm  climates,  there  are  several  conditions 
which  awaken  and  over-excite  the  genetic  sense  at  an 
early  age.  The  climate  in  this  plays  only  an  indirect 
part;  for  if  at  first  it  determines  a more  or  less  active 
sexual  stimulus,  it  soon  tempers  and  enervates,  and 
renders  continence  easy  to  those  who  do  not  seek  to 
violate  it.  But  a warm  temperature  engenders  habits 
only  too  likely  to  provoke  licentiousness.  There  is  in 
this  opposition  between  the  cosmical  influence  and  the 
social  influences  derived  from  it,  a contrast,  the  effects 
of  which  have  fong  been  the  object  of  observation. 
The  East,  which  in  the  early  ages  of  Christianity 
produced  such  a number  of  illustrious  virgins  and  pious 
hermits,  and  which  at  the  present  day  shows  us  the 
high  honour  in  which  chastity  is  held  in  Buddhist 
countries,  has  also  given  to  the  world  traditions  of 
the  vilest  debauchery.  Sexuality,  where  it  is  not 
sufficiently  restrained  by  conventual  or  religious  obliga- 
tion, but  where,  on  the  contrary,  its  instinct  meets  with 
innumerable  solicitations,  must  have  many  slips  in 
consequence,  and  such  is  the  case  in  Creole  countries.  In 
the  French  colonies  the  dominant  race  is  that  of  the  Negro, 
the  most  salacious  of  all,  and  there  the  White  Man 
shows  a sort  of  taste  for  the  coloured  woman,  the 
origin  of  which  may  perhaps  be  traced  to  a mysterious 


* We  give  this  extract  from  Dr.  Corre’s  book,  Le  Crime  en  Pays 
Creoles,  as  supplementing  our  observations  on  the  manners  and  customs, 
prevalent  in  the  French  Guiana,  dealt  with  in  the  first  volume. 


12  UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 

law  of  renovation  by  crossing  of  races ; however,  the 
prejudice  of  colour  prevents  legitimate  unions,  which 
would  be  so  profitable  to  the  regular  development  of 
the  population  and  to  the  improvement  of  morals, 
instead  of  which  it  contributes  to  maintain  them  in  a 
deplorable  state  of  dissoluteness.  The  state  of  nudity, 
or  that  thin  light  costume  which  partly  reveals  the 
form  of  the  body  and  presents  it  more  seductively  to 
the  imagination,  provokes  desire.  The  facility  of  inter- 
course increases  the  danger  of  the  contact  between 
the  sexes,  the  more  so  that  the  numerical  disproportion 
that  has  been  observed  between  them  obliges  all  the 
women  to  vie  with  each  other  in  coquetry,  advances, 
so  to  say,  in  order  to  attract  the  gaze  and  the  choice 
of  men.  Further,  in  the  inevitably  idle  life  woman  is 
obliged  to  lead  in  the  tropics,  her  natural  aspirations 
are  subjected  to  a compression  which  often  transforms 
them  into  a particular  vice.  Among  Muslims,  the 
concentration  of  a greater  or  lesser  number  of  women 
into  the  possession  of  one  male  develops,  in  the  men, 
by  reason  of  satiety  of  the  opposite  sex,  erotic  habits, 
which  lead  them  to  boy  love;  in  the  French  colonies, 
countries  of  Christian  civilisation,  official  monogamy 
thrusts  outside  of  the  pale  of  married  life  many  young 
girls,  who  interiorly  rebel  against  their  situation,  at 
the  same  time  that  concubinage,  permitted  to  the 
husband,  deprives  the  wife,  to  the  profit  of  the  mistress, 
of  a considerable  share  of  the  marital  property ; the 
man  remains  faithful  to  the  cult  of  woman;  for  the 
lively  and  graceful  beings  to  whom  he  addresses  it 
have  nothing  of  the  inertia  and  passiveness  of  the  sad 
sequestered  women  of  the  harem ; but  the  wife  seeks 
the  satisfaction  of  her  unsatiated  longings  . . . without 
compromising  herself,  among  her  friends  or  companions. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


13 


already  initiated  into  the  Lesbian  mysteries.  Pederastic 
habits  are  hardly  ever  heard  of  among  the  Creoles, 
but,  on  the  contrary,  the  celebrated  dialogue  between 
hlegilla  and  Liena  is  often  repeated  among  them.  ^ 
The  necessity  of  residing  in  a torrid  climate  in  very 
open  houses,  if  it  diminishes  the  chances  of  adultery, 
while  leaving  a sufficient  liberty  to  the  women  in  a 
sort  of  intercourse  which  seems  beneath  suspicion,  has 
the  grave  objection  of  furnishing  to  the  curiosity  of 
children,  much  too  soon,  unwholesome  occasions  for 
its  exercise : so  that  a youth  enters  very  early  on  his 
first  campaign  in  the  amorous  career,  and  it  is  frequently 
the  same  with  the  young  girl,  under  one  form  or 
another,  if  she  is  not  protected  by  sufficient  education. 
In  the  upper  classes,  there  is  always  a proper  varnish 
of  good  morals,  often  indeed  based  upon  a foundation 
of  real  virtue.  But  in  the  others,  they  too  ordinarily 
express  by  blamable,  if  not  criminal,  acts  the  perversions 
or  the  brutality  of  the  sexual  sense. 

In  January  1866,  at  Pointe-a-Pitre,  three  coloured 
girls  were  accused  of  a criminal  assault  on  a Negress 
of  14  years  of  age,  who  repulsed  their  proposals. 

In  February  1888,  in  consequence  of  a complaint 
lodged  by  the  parents  of  the  victims,  Dr.  Blane  was 
commissioned  to  go  and  examine,  at  Capesterre,  the 
state  of  two  twin  Negro  sisters,  aged  1 2 years,  whom 
a Mulatto  woman  had  deflowered  with  her  finger. 

In  matters  of  this  nature  the  case  is  almost  always 
dismissed  or  else  the  accused  acquitted,  not  because  the 
presumptions  of  a culpable  action  are  entirely  set  aside, 

‘ Lucian,  Hetaer.  dial.  V.  In  the  East,  for  similar  reasons,  the  same 
tastes  are  developed  among  the  women  of  the  harems ; the  insufficiency 
of  genetic  satisfaction  on  the  one  side,  and  the  excess  of  the  same  on 
the  other,  bring  about  naturally  a seeking  for  anti-natural  love. 


M 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


but  because  they  disappear  behind  the  established  fact 
of  flagrant  habits  of  precocious  lasciviousness  in 
young  girls  suddenly  become  so  rigidly  virtuous. 

Men,  here,  very  seldom  commit  criminal  assaults  on 
children  of  their  own  sex.  The  only  case  I have  met 
with  in  the  registers  examined  by  me  at  Guadeloupe  ^ 
was  that  of  a White  Man,  of  excellent  family,  admitted 
at  too  young  an  age  to  direct  pupils,  who  but  the 
day  before  had  been  his  comrades:  this  vicious  young 
fellow  continued  to  practise,  with  others  equally  vicious, 
habits  they  had  contracted  together  when  sitting  on 
the  same  benches  at  school,  without  understanding 
that  the  change  in  his  position  gave  additional  gravity 
to  his  acts! 

Characteristics  of  Creole  Criminality.  The 

criminal  assaults  committed  by  men  are  generally  on 
children  or  adults  of  the  female  sex,  and  are  committed 
by  young  and  vigorous  Negroes,  but  not  always  of 
violent  or  brutal  instincts ; in  Creole  countries  violation 
in  this  respect  presents  some  particular  characteristics. 
It  is  exceptional  for  it  to  be  committed  with  violence 
on  children ; it  is  sometimes  done  by  surprise  or  by 
moral  constraint,  under  circumstances  analogous  or 
similar  to  those  which  generally  distinguish  this  crime 
with  us ; more  often,  it  seemed  to  me,  when  the 
attempt  is  made,  it  is  with  the  complicity  more  or  less 
proved  or  at  least  with  the  consciousness  of  the  little 
girl,  already  initiated  in  the  sexual  act,  obeying 
willingly,  or  even  herself  provoking  it;  the  child 

’ I restrict  myself  to  the  study  of  Creole  criminality,  and  therefore 
shall  not  mention  a criminal  assault  committed  on  young  boys  by  a 
schoolmaster  of  European  origin,  belonging  to  the  “ Christian  Brothers 
Congregation.” 


ANTH  ROPOLOG  Y. 


15 


dissimulates,  or  else  admits  the  fact  only  when  it  has 
been  discovered  and  that  it  has  brought  upon  her  the 
threats  of  her  parents.  * 

On  the  6th  March,  1879,  a Negro,  a country  labourer, 
was  caught  in  a field,  in  the  flagrant  act  of  having 
significative  intercourse  with  a little  girl  of  1 1 years 
old : she  then  began  to  cry  out  saying"  that  she  had 
been  taken  by  force.  But  the  accused  having- 
maintained  that  he  had  for  a long  time  past  been  in 
the  habit  of  taking-  certain  familiarities  with  the  child, 
the  victim  at  last,  after  some  hesitation,  admitted  the 
fact:  “ Yes,”  said  she;  “ but  I was  much  younger,  I did 
not  yet  go  to  school ; 1 often  went  to  see  X . . . , we 
used  to  play  on  the  ground  together,  in  his  cabin ; he 
used  to  lift  up  my  frock,  and  rub  himself  against  me, 
he  used  to  touclr  my  parts  with  his  fingers  and  with 
his  member;  but  he  never  hurt  me.”  And  the  vicious 
little  girl  added  that  she  had  let  herself  be  led  into 
the  field,  under  the  promise  of  getting  two  sous  and 
a little  looking-glass  that  she  had  seen  in  his  cabin. 

In  1881,  he  was  acquitted  at  the  assizes  at  Pointe- 
a-Pitre.  He  was  a Negro  of  26  years  of  age,  a field- 
labourer,  represented  as  being  of  a very  gentle  dis- 
position, but  not  very  intelligent,  who,  not  having  been 
able  to  obtain  the  favours  of  a girl  of  from  15  to  16 
years  old,  had  addressed  himself  to  her  sister,  then 
only  6 years  of  age,  and  had  obtained  from  her  what 
he  wanted.  The  child,  shedding  tears,  admitted  all 
this  to  be  true,  but  only  after  her  sister,  who  had 

' I may  observe  incidentally  that  in  many  of  these  little  girls  preco- 
city manifests  itself,  by  the  abnormal  development  of  the  external  genital 
organs  and  the  premature  appearance  of  the  menses,  phenomena  which 
are  not  observed  in  Negresses,  in  African  populations  where  some  moral 
decorum  is  still  preserved. 


i6 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


discovered  every  thing,  had  declared  that  she  would 
tell  all  to  their  mother.  The  following  is  textually 
the  evidence  given  by  the  accused  and  the  victim. — 
“ On  the  Saturday  after  the  festival  of  the  Republic, 
towards  noon,  after  having  left  my  work,  I went  to 
the  cabin  of  my  neighbour.  Miss  M . . . ; she  was  absent. 
I met  there  with  the  little  girl  Augustine,  with  whom 
I began  to  play  at  hide  and  seek.  While  we  were 
playing  together,  she  asked  me  if  I would  do  that 
with  her.  I answered  that  I would  not,  and  was 
about  to  go  away,  when  she  called  me  back,  repeating 
her  request,  and  she  lay  down  on  her  back ; seeing 
her  then  in  that  posture,  I unbuttoned  my  trousers, 
mounted  upon  her,  and  had  intercourse  with  her.  ^ I 
then  went  away,  and  returned  to  my  work  in  the  field. 
On  the  following  Monday  the  mother  of  the  little  girl 
accused  me  of  having  violated  her  child;  I excused 
myself  and  begged  her  pardon  on  my  knees.” — Au- 
gustine, in  her  turn,  said : “ One  day,  I do  not  remember 
which,  but  it  is  not  long  ago,  I was  near  to  the  cabin 
of  Didine,  and  I was  playing  with  her  child,  when  X . . . , 
Didine’s  neighbour,  called  me  to  his  room,  and  shut 
himself  in  with  me.  He  then  took  me  by  the  arm, 
and  laid  me  on  my  back  on  the  ground  and  unbut- 
toning his  trousers,  and  laying  himself  upon  me,  during 
some  instants  he  rubbed  his  member  against  my  private 
parts.  I felt  that  he  was  hurting  me,  but  I did  not 
cry  out,  because  he  had  promised  to  give  me  some- 
thing to  eat ; his  member  did  not  enter  my  body.  A 
few  days  afterwards,  I felt  rather  sharp  smartings  at 

' In  cases  of  this  kind  there  is  only  external  coition  (perineal  coition 
of  Lacassagne) : the  crime  remains  within  the  limits  of  an  outrage  against 
decency  and  does  not  constitute  violation,  in  the  legal  sense  of  the  word. 
See  the  thesis  of  P.  Bernard,  Lyons,  1886. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


17 


my  parts,  I had  difficulty  in  walking,  and  when  I 
made  water  it  burned  me.”  The  result  of  the  enquiry 
was  unfavourable  to  the  girl,  and,  although  a connexion 
had  been  admitted  which  constituted  a criminal  attempt, 
according  to  the  Law,  the  culprit  was  not  punished. 

Blackmail  a Ground  of  Accusation.  It  may  be 

understood  that,  in  a population  which  presents  such 
looseness  of  manners,  the  magistrates  and  doctors 
are  obliged  to  use  the  utmost  circumspection.  More 
than  one  accusation  hides  beneath  it  either  revenge 
or  an  attempt  to  blackmail.  Sometimes  the  criminal 
attempt  has  been  got  up,  with  infernal  immodesty, 
between  the  victim  and  her  parents,  or  else  any  initial 
scene  at  all  is  dispensed  with,  and  father,  mother 
and  child  agree  marvellously  together  to  concoct  a 
calumny  against  the  man  they  wish  to  ruin.  It  is 
now  25  years  ago,  at  Martinique,  I was  in  the  con- 
sulting-room of  a physician,  when  a couple  of  Negroes 
brought  in  a little  girl  of  from  5 to  6 years  old,  with 
a very  wide-awake  look  and  decided  gestures ; they 
wanted  her  to  be  visited,  asserting  that  sh.e  had  been 
violated  the  previous  day,  or  the  day  before  that,  by 
a bad  man,  their  next-door  neighbour!  The  child  was 
laid  upon  a table ; before  there  had  been  time  to  say 
a single  word  to  her,  she  quickly  lifted  up  her  clothes 
and,  without  hesitation,  placed  herself  in  the  posture  of 
a woman,  who  is  holding  herself  ready  for. . . whatever 
may  be  desired : she  presented  no  traces  at  all  of 
lesions . . . and  the  accusation  was  a false  one.  One  of 
my  colleagues  related  to  me  that  he  was  one  day 
called  in,  to  a respectable  family,  to  examine  a little 
girl  of  from  8 to  10  years  old,  who,  her  parents 
pretended,  had  been  violated  by  a personage ...  of 


2 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


quasi-official  rank ; the  matter  was  grave ! The  child 
of  her  own  accord  lay  down  on  her  back,  exposing 
her  person  with  the  utmost  effrontery,  but  presenting 
nothing  more  than  an  abnormal  development  of  the 
external  genital  organs  and  of  the  clitoris;  my  col- 
league, guessing  with  what  sort  of  creature  he  had  to 
do,  asked  her  under  his  breath  if  she  was  not  in  the 
habit  of  doing  z' a7nie  ^ and  she  replied  by  a smile 
and  a cynical  glance,  as  if  there  could  be  the  least 
doubt  of  so  7iatural  a thmg ! The  child  had  built  up, 
piece  by  piece,  an  accusation  against  a man  who  had 
doubtless  taken  her  fancy,  but  whose  reputation  was 
far  above  suspicion,  and  the  parents  had  believed  in 
this  odious  falsehood ! ® 

The  Psychology  of  Negro  Brutality.  In  criminal 
assaults  on  adults,  the  Negro  will  sometimes  resort 
to  brutal  means,  for  instance,  if  he  is  drunk.  But 
usually,  when  he  uses  violence,  it  is  with  the  con- 
viction that  he  is  merely  carrying  to  the  extreme  his 
part  as  lover,  to  the  unavowed  satisfaction  of  the  resist- 
ing woman.  He  does  not  attack  women  of  notorious 
virtue,  but  those  whom  he  has  seen  to  easily  grant  to 
others  the  favours  he  envies ; he  had  supposed,  in  per- 
fect good  faith,  that  he  might  dare  to  take  what  was 
only  pretended  to  be  denied  him  . . . for  form’s  sake, 
and  he  is  astounded  when  he  hears  a sentence  pro- 
nounced against  him : he  does  not  understand  why  he 

’ This  is  the  current  expression  used  to  designate  those  enjoyments 
which  girls  and  women  procure  to  each  other. 

® As  I am  writing  for  those  persons  who  are  interested  in  questions 
of  criminality,  for  serious  reasons  or  professionally,  I do  not  feel  called 
upon  to  sacrifice  the  instructive  realism  of  my  observations  to  a silly 
mock-modesty. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


19 


should  be  punished  for  having’  sought  to  penetrate  . . . 
through  an  open  door,  with  the  same  severity  with 
which  he  would  have  been  treated  had  he  effected  an 
entrance  through  a fractured  gateway.  I admit  that  I 
somewhat  share  the  amazement  of  this  simple  fellow, 
when  I read  in  the  judicial  newspapers  certain  decisions, 
in  which  some  judges  assimilate  the  rape  of  a prostitute, 
even  on  the  habitual  theatre  of  her  tariffed  abandon- 
ments, to  the  violation  of  an  honest  woman,  an  assault 
doubly  criminal,  both,  as  an  outrage  to  virtue,  and  as 
a wrong  to  the  family. 

But,  in  our  colonies,  criminal  assault  frequently  pre- 
sents itself  under  an  original  form,  scarcely  to  be 
observed  elsewhere.  A Lovelace  of  the  village  or  of 
the  town  suburbs  has  fixed  his  choice  upon  a girl  or 
upon  a woman,  he  has  courted  her  without  success, 
he  takes  her  by  surprise:  he  watches  for  the  moment 
when  she  reposes,  at  night  in  her  cabin,  without  a light, 
half  naked,  already  asleep  or  dozing,  or  at  other  times 
he  awaits  the  moment  when,  at  the  hottest  time  of  the 
day,  after  her  dinner,  she  throws  herself  all  languid 
on  to  her  couch,  in  that  state  of  vague  consciousness 
which  constitutes  the  charm  of  the  siesta;  he  slips  in 
furtively,  burning  with  desire,  and  seeks  at  once  to 
satisfy  it.  The  woman  is  alone,  thinking  of  her  hus- 
band or  of  her  lover,  she  abandons  herself  to  the 
caresses  she  has  been  accustomed  to,  and  discovers 
when  it  is  too  late . . . the  irregularity  of  the  embraces 
she  has  been  receiving. 

Letter  sent  to  a Judge.  A magistrate  com- 
municated to  me  the  following  complaint,  addressed  to 
his  Court  by  a coloured  woman,  a document  curious 
both  in  form  and  in  subject. 


20 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


“ Mister  Magistrate  (beg  pardon).  ^ 

“ I appear  before  you  naturally  as  a complainant  to 
“ declare  that  the  lad  named  C . . . has  taken  by  his 
“ boldness  the  liberty  to  enter  into  my  place  and  violate 
“ my  domicile  without  my  consent ; on  Saturday . . . 
“ at  about  half  past  seven  at  night. 

“ Now  on  leaving  my  place  (beg  pardon). 

“ He  has  lost  my  public  reputation  as  concerns  Mr. 
“ X . . . who  lives  in  the  suburb  ...  It  is  he  alone 
“ who  will  be  able  to  present  himself  as  my  witness. 

“ Now  as  to  the  way  I was . . . 

“ I was  lying  down  at  the  time  fast  asleep  after  the 
“ fatigue  of  standing  up  all  day  with  a flat  iron  in 
“ my  hand.  ^ 

“ Why  I was  lying  down  was  because  I expected 
“ my  friend  (bed-fellow). 

“ So  when  he  came  in,  he  took  off  his  jacket  and 
“ his  shoes,  and  penetrated  simply  until  on  to  my  stomach 
“ using  his  finger  naturally  bold. 

“ And  I,  believing  that  it  was  my  friend  who  had 
“ come  in,  I begin  to  serve  him : but  my  eyes  still  full 
“ of  sleep,  I all  at  once  took  my  thumb  and  forefinger 
“ to  measure  his  size  and  then  I put  my  head  over 
“ his  left  shoulder,  I plainly  saw  that  he  was  not  my 
“ friend.  I made  a movement  tumbling  him  over  and 
“ out  of  my  room. 

“Then  I ran  to  open  my  doors  quickly  from  fear 
“ of  his  presence  ! 

“ Then  he  took  up  his  coat  and  shoes  as  fast  as 
“ possible,  saying  to  me,  was  it  not  I who  had  asked 

’ We  give  a copy  of  the  original  text  at  the  end  of  this  chapter 
whence  it  will  be  seen  that  we  have  rigorously  reproduced  the  peculiar 
patois  of  the  complainant. 

" Complainant  was  a washerwoman  and  koner. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


2 I 

“him  to  come? ...”  [The  rest  of  the  letter  is  devoid 
of  interest). 

This  is  couleur  locale  and  no  mistake ! It  is  not 
invented ! A few  examples,  taken  from  various  local 
assize  courts,  will  thoroughty  prove  it:  We  shall  see 
the  love  pirates  carry  their  audacity  so  far  as  to  take 
a woman  lying  between  her  children  or  at  the  side  of 
her  husband. 

A Negro  field-labourer,  an  impudent  village  Don 
Juan,  so  little  delicate  in  his  love  affairs  that  his  own 
mother  was  supposed  to  have  been  his  mistress,^  becomes 
enamoured  of  the  charms  of  a young  Negress.  His 
attentions,  however,  were  repelled,  but  our  man  was  not 
to  be  so  easily  pjat  off,  he  soon  devised  a way  to 
obtain  what  he  wanted.  He  had  already  been  several 
times  surprised  trying  to  approach  sleeping  women : 
he  trusted  to  be  more  successful  this  time.  One  after- 
noon that  the  handsome  Negress,  tired  with  having 
danced  too  much . . . and  also  with  having  had  too 
much  to  drink,  was  sound  asleep  in  her  cabin,  “ she 
felt  herself  given  up,”  says  the  indictment,  “to  the  las- 
civious embraces  of  a man,  who  pressed  upon  her  with 
all  the  weight  of  his  body  . . . The  violation  was  faci- 
litated by  this  circumstance,  that  the  victim,  half  asleep, 
imagined  that  she  was  in  the  company  of  her  usual 
bed-fellow.  An  exclamation  (of  amorous  delirium, 
says  the  indictment)  which  escaped  the  intruder,  dis- 
sipated the  error.”  Being  caught  hold  of  by  the  girl, 
embarrassed  by  his  trousers,  fallen  down  about  his 
heels,  the  culprit  was  soon  apprehended  by  the  neigh- 


* In  certain  primitive  societies  incestuous  connections  are  not  un- 


common. 


22 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


hours,  who  had  hurried  on  hearing  the  cries  and  the 
noise  of  the  struggle . . . 

Another  Case.  A field-labourer,  aged  41  years, 
single,  but  the  father  of  eight  children,  having  a 
very  bad  reputation  in  the  country,  penetrated  one 
night  into  the  cabin  of  a respectable  woman.  “ She 
was  in  bed  with  her  children  . . . She  felt  a heavy 
body  pressing  upon  her  legs,  and  she  imagined 
it  to  be  one  of  her  children  that  had  turned  over 
while  asleep  and  had  rested  upon  her;  but  she  soon 
found  out  her  mistake.  A strong  hand,  after  having 
separated  her  thighs  one  from  the  other,  slid  up 
to  her  private  parts  ...”  To  the  cries  of  the  victim, 
the  man  replied  with  insults,  and  he  did  not  leave 
the  cabin  tmtil  two  hours  afterwards.  He  did  not 
attempt  to  deny  the  facts,  but  pretended  that  the 
woman  had  given  him  a rendez-vous,  and  that  she 
had  only  resisted  when  she  perceived  that  she  was 
surprised  by  one  of  her  children:  the  judicial  enquiry 
set  aside  this  assertion,  found  to  be  untrue. 

I find,  among  my  notes,  two  other  still  more  extra- 
ordinary cases  of  rape.  A tailor,  one  night,  took  by 
force  a woman  sleeping  by  the  side  of  her  husband ! 
A sailor,  after  having  failed  in  an  amorous  attempt 
on  a young  girl,  who  awoke  on  feeling  his  first  touches, 
that  same  night,  managed  to  glide  into  a cabin  where 
there  was  a family  of  farm-labourers ; at  the  foot  of 
the  couch  on  which  the  husband  was  sleeping,  the 
wife  lay  dozing  on  a mat:  she  woke  up  . . . when  all 
was  over,  convinced  of  having  had  intercourse  with 
her  legitimate  possessor! 

Narcotization  not  a Factor.  The  way  in  which 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


23 


these  outrages  are  committed  excludes  all  idea  of 
the  previous  preparing  of  the  victim  by  narcotization. 
I would  not  maintain  that  criminal  outrages  or 
attempts  may  not  at  times  have  been  perpetrated 
without  their  knowledge  on  persons  rendered  uncon- 
scious by  opium,  thrown  into  their  food  or  drink. 
At  all  events,  I know  of  no  case  of  the  kind.  The 
crime,  in  ordinary  cases,  has  been  thoroughly 
premeditated,  in  the  sense  that  the  aggressor  has  for  a 
more  or  less  long  time  coveted  the  woman,  that  he  has 
sought  for  a propitious  moment  to  get  possession  of 
her : nevertheless,  as  he  has  prepared  nothing  to  bring 
about  the  circumstances  which  have  favoured  his 
design,  the  assault  remains  accidental,  and,  for  that 
reason,  is  to  some  degree  attenuated  in  the  eyes  of 
the  judges  and  of  dhe  jury ; it  seems  even  as  if  there 
was  a tendency  to  nearly  always  exclude  the  idea  of 
violence,  for  the  penalties  applied  rarely  exceed  from 
I to  2 years’  imprisonment.  ^ But  the  frequency  of 
criminal  assault  by  surprise,  the  audacity  and  off-hand 
manner  with  which  it  is  often  accomplished,  point  to 
a certainty  of  impunity,  among  the  accused,  the  cause 
of  which  may  perhaps  be  referred  to  a new  Creole 
superstition.  They  believe  over  there  that  there  are 
sorcerers  who  possess  secrets  for  making  people 

' The  Court  of  Bourges  and  the  Criminal  Chamber  of  the  Court  of 
Cassation  had,  not  long  ago,  to  decide  in  a case  of  criminal  assault,  of 
quite  colonial  character.  The  accused  party  rejected  the  crimination  of 
assault  with  violence:  “He  had  introduced  himself,  favoured  by  the 
night,  into  the  bed  of  his  victim,  who  had  let  him  have  his  will, 
mistaking  him  for  her  husband.”  The  woman  did  not  discover  her 
error  until  the  act  had  been  consummated.  The  High  Court  decided 
that  the  circumstance  of  violence  could  not  be  set  aside,  the  crime 
having  been  committed  without  the  retlccted  consent  of  her  who  hail 
been  the  sufferer. 


24 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


invisible,  ^ and  when  a theft  is  spoken  of,  the  author 
of  which  has  not  been  discovered,  they  never  fail  to 
repeat  that  he  surely  had  the  means  not  to  he  seen. 
The  man  who  dares  to  risk  himself,  panting  with  lust, 
but  not  besides  much  troubled  with  any  great  danger  of 
immediate  correction  and  of  legal  punishment,  near  to  a 
woman  lying  next  to  her  husband,  has  more  than  once 
drawn  his  bold  confidence  from  his  reliance  in  some  piai 
or  quhnhois  (amulet),  capable  of  hiding  him  from  view.  ® 

‘ That  is  to  be  found  again  in  the  “ Grand  Albert"  (a  book  of  magic) 
between  a receipt  to  make  a person  dance  stark  naked  and  another  to 
enable  one  to  travel  ten  leagues  in  an  hour! 

“To  become  invisible.  You  have  a black  cat  and  you  must  buy  a 
new  pot,  a looking-glass,  a flint  and  tinder-box,  an  agate,  some  char- 
coal and  tinder,  taking  care  to  draw  water  from  a fountain  at  the 
stroke  of  midnight;  after  which  you  light  your  fire.  Put  the  cat  into 
the  pot  and  hold  the  lid  down  with  the  left  hand  without  ever  moving 
or  looking  behind  you,  whatever  noise  you  may  hear;  then  let  the 

cat  boil  for  24  hours,  and  serve  it  on  a new  dish;  take  the  meat  and 

throw  it  over  your  left  shoulder,  saying  these  words : “ Accipe  quod 
tibi  do,  et  nihil  amplius”  (Take  what  I give  thee,  and  nothing  more). 
Take  the  bones,  and  put  them  one  after  another  between  the  teeth  of  your 
left  jaw,  looking  at  the  same  time  at  your  reflection  in  the  mirror;  and  if  it 
is  not  the  good  one,  you  must  throw  it  away,  repeating  the  same  words, 
until  you  have  found  it ; and  as  soon  as  you  no  longer  perceive  your  reflection 
in  the  glass,  withdraw  backwards,  saying : “ Pater,  in  tnanus  tuas  coni- 
mendo  spiritum  7neiim  (Father,  into  thy  hands  I commend  my  spirit). 

® The  intrigue  of  a very  free  Creole  novel,  printed  in  1697  {Le  Zombi 
du  Gra7id  Perou  ou  la  Comtesse  de  Cocagne,  by  Blessebois,  a naval 

officer),  is  based  upon  this  belief  in  talismans  which  render  a person  in- 

visible. The  Countess  of  Cocagne,  a beauty  more  exalted  by  amorous 
ardour  than  adorned  by  the  qualities  of  decency  and  modesty,  goes  to 
a M.  de  C.  . . . , an  expert  in  the  magical  art,  to  ask  him  for  a means 
to  bring  back-  to  her  the  Marquis  du  Grand  Perou.  M.  de  C.  per- 
suades her  that  he  has  rendered  her  invisible,  and,  thus  transformed 
into  a Zombi  (spirit,  ghost),  she  causes  trouble  in  the  house  of  the  Marquis. 
The  magician  contrives  to  obtain  a substantial  reward  for  his  assistance . . . 
on  the  occasion  of  a private  supper  with  the  Countess. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


25 


The  kind  of  criminal  assault  I have  just  been  studying 
is,  it  may  be  said,  entirely  special  to  the  very  lowest 
class  of  Negroes.  The  Mulattoes  and  the  Whites,  even 
when  of  inferior  condition,  or  of  no  social  rank  whatever, 
are  never  or  very  rarely  guilty  of  anything  of  the  kind. 
They  have  as  much  amorous  desire  as  have  the  Negroes, 
and  without  being  embarrassed  with  much  more  scru- 
ples in  such  matters,  but  they  know  how  to  employ 
means  which  cannot  compromise  them,  in  so  easy-going 
a country.  Prosecutions  are  rare  for  abduction  of  a 
minor.  It  would  cause  too  much  trouble,  and  there 
would  be  the  danger  of  sometimes  coming  into  collision 
with  important  personages:  the  young  girls  are  early 
willing  to  grant  what  is  asked  of  them,  and  the  mothers 
are  very  ready  and  easy  agents  for  such  buying  and 
selling ; as  for  the  riper  fruit,  they  take  particular  care 
not  to  wait  until  they  are  taken  by  force  or  by  sur- 
prise. 

Following  is  the  original  text  of  the  let- 
ter GIVEN  IN  THE  PRECEDING  TEXT. 

“ Monsieur  le  Procureur  (pardon). 

„ Je  me  presente  au-devant  de  vous  natirelement  pligna 
^(plaignante),  pour  vous  declarez  que  le  nomme  gagon 
„(gar^on)  C.  . . a prit  par  sa  hardiesse  une  primotee 
„d’entre  jusque  chez  moi  voler  mon  domicile  sans  ma 
„consentement ; le  samedi ...  a sept  heures  et  demi  du 
„soir  environ  . . . 

„Maintenant  en  sortant  de  chez  moi!  (pardon). 

„I1  a perdit  ma  repitation  en  publique  aupres  du 
„M.  X.  . . , qui  demeure  faubourg . . . Ce  lui  seul  qui 
„pourra  presente  pour  mon  temoin. 

„Maintenant  sur  la  fa^on  que  j’etais . . . 


II 


2 6 UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF  ANTHROPOLOGY. 

,J’etais  couchee  fare  (?)  en  I’heure  en  profond  sommeil 
„par  la  fatigue  d’une  journee  que  j’ai  reste  debourg 
„avec  les  caraux  a la  main ! ^ 

„Qui  fait  si  j’etais  a me  repose,  c’etait  en  attendant 
„entre  mon  serviteur  (le  co7tcubin). 

„De  lors,  lorsqu’il  a entre  de  chez  moi,  il  (a)  retire 
„sa  veste,  ces  souliers  et  il  a penetre  bonnement  jusque 
„sur  mon  estomac,  agisse  (agissant,  se  servant)  son 
„doiz  natirelement  hardi. 

„Et  moi  sachant  (croyant)  que  ce  mon  serviteur  qui 
„arrive,  je  commence  a me  servir  pour  lui;  mais  avec 
„le  sommeil  aux  yeux,  tout  de  suite  j’ai  pris  mon  pouce 
„el?  mon  doigt  lindex  en  mesurant  sa  carerure  (sic) 
„et  de  plus  j’ai  pris  ma  tete,  je  la  mis  au-dessus  de 
„son  bras  gauche,  je  reconnu  bonnement  que  ce  n’etiez 
„pas  mon  serviteur.  J’ai  fait  un  mouvement  en  le 
„renversant  en  dehors  de  ma  cabane. 

„De  la  j’ai  ouvrire  mes  portes  avec  une  vitesse 
„natirelement  peurs  de  sa  presence! 

„De  la  il  a prit  ces  souliers  et  son  redingote  de  plus 
„vite  que  possible,  et  me  disant  si  ce  n’est  pas  moi 
„meme  qui  lui  avait  offrire  de  venir  me  trouve ...” 
{le  reste  sans  intdret). 

* La  plaignante  etait  blanchisseuse  et  repasseuse. 


CHAPTER  II. 

Various  races  besides  the  Wolofs. — Mtisstdmans  and  Fetishists.  — 
The  Toucouleur. — The  Peidh. — The  Sarrakholais.  -The  civilisa- 
tion of  the  White  man  has  no  effect  on  the  character  of  the 
Black. — The  Kassonke.- — The  young  Kassonkc  girl. — The  Malinke's 
and  Bamharas. — The  Senegalese  sharpshooter. 

Various  Races  besides  the  Wolofs.— Mussulmans 
and  Fetishists.  I cannot  thoroughly  describe  in 
detail  all  the  moral  characteristics,  manners,  customs, 
etc.,  of  all  the  tribes  and  races  to  be  found  in  Senegal. 
I must  confine  myself  to  a few  general  remarks,  and 
only  treat  in  extenso  such  points  as  more  specially 
refer  to  the  sexual  passions.  I shall,  however,  note 
the  anthropological  characteristics  which  distinguish 
the  principal  races. 

These  may  first  be  roughly  classed  into  two  great 
divisions,  the  Mussulmans  and  the  fetish  worshippers. 
The  Wolofs,  Sereres,  Toucouleurs,  Peulhs,  and  Soninkes 
or  Sarrakholais,  are  Mussulmans;  on  the  other  hand 
the  Bambaras,  Malinkes,  Mandingos,  and  Kassonkes 
are  fetish  worshippers.  Other  races  of  the  South  of 
Senegambia,  as  the  Diobas  for  example,  were  originally 
fetish  worshippers,  and  have  gradually  become  Mussul- 
mans. Before  the  French  came  to  .Senegal,  the 
Mussulm.ans  were  conquering  with  the  sword  the  fetish 
worshippers,  and  French  civilisation  has  greatly  interfered 
with  the  extension  of  Mahometanism,  which  is  the  great 

27 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


reason  why  the  P'rench  are  so  hated  by  those  who 
profess  that  religion. 

The  Toucouleur.  Above  Walo,  on  the  left  bank 
of  the  Senegal,  in  Fouta-Toro  and  the  neighbouring 
districts,  are  found  the  Toucouleurs,  a very  warlike 
and  thievish  race,  and  soldiers  of  Islam.  They  were 
always  in  the  front  rank  of  the  enemies  of  the  French. 
To  their  love  of  war,  they  add  a considerable  degree 
of  intelligence,  and  often  enroll  themselves  in  the 
regiment  of  native  sharpshooters.  It  was  from  amongst 
this  race  that  El  Hadj  ’Umar  recruited  his  best  soldiers, 
and  by  their  help  was  able  to  conquer  a large  Empire 
in  the  Soudan,  but  the  best  provinces  were  wrested 
from  him  by  the  Erench  some  ten  years  ago. 

The  anthropological  characteristics  of  the  Toucouleur 
differ  but  little  from  those  of  the  Wolof.  The  Toucouleur 
is  more  slender  and  less  robust,  than  the  Wolof.  He 
comes  to  Saint  Louis,  with  only  a simple  strip  of  rag 
to  cover  his  nakedness.  He  lives  on  the  charity  of 
his  co-religionists,  and  sleeps  in  any  shelter  he  can 
find,  for  he  has  neither  hearth  nor  home.  Every 
halfpenny  he  can  earn  he  puts  away,  until  he  has 
amassed  the  twenty  francs  he  needs  for  the  purchase 
of  an  old  flint  musket,  a little  barrel  (about  iilbs)  of 
“treaty  powder”,  and  a dozen  spare  gun  flints.  Any 
scraps  of  metal  which  fall  in  his  way, — door  knobs, 
bits  of  wire  fencing,  saucepan  handles,  etc. — are 
carefully  stored  away,  and  with  these  the  Negro 
blacksmith  will  manufacture  projectiles,  which  will 
not  carry  far,  or  with  any  precision,  but  which,  when 
fired  at  short  range,  will  make  terrible  wounds.  Many 
French  soldiers  have  felt  their  effects. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


29 


The  Peulh  forms  a large  race,  scattered  about  over 
the  country  between  the  Senegal  and  the  Upper  Niger. 
In  the  opinion  of  General  Faidherbe,  ^ the  Peulhs  came 
originally  from  Lower  Egypt,  and  are  descended  from 
the  Hyksos,  a pastoral  people  driven  out  by  the  Pha- 
raohs. They  are  fanatical  Mussulmans,  and  were  of 
great  service  to  El  Hadj  ’Umar.  Like  their  ancestors, 
they  are  nomadic,  and  live  on  the  produce  of  their 
flocks.  The  PeuUi,  in  fact,  is  evidently  of  Semitic 
origin;  if  his  hair  is  not  smooth,  at  least  it  falls  in 
cork-screw  curls  on  his  shoulders.  The  general  tint 
of  his  body  is  of  a reddish  brown,  and  the  external 
mucous  surface  of  the  gland,  and  the  vulva  in  the 
woman,  are  almost  as  light  as  those  of  the  Mulatto. 
The  features  are  regular,  and  he  has  not  the  thick 
nose  of  the  other  Negroes.  The  Peulh  rarely  visits 
Saint  Louis,  and  is  hardly  ever  found  in  the  ranks  of  the 
Native  Sharpshooters,  of  whom  I shall  presently  speak. 

The  Sarrakholais.  This  people  is  certainly  of  Semitic 
origin,  and  its  name  is  synonymous  with  White  man. 
We  will  borrow  from  Colonel  Frey,  who  in  1885-86 
commanded  an  expedition  against  the  Sarrakholais, 
who  had  been  stirred  up  to  revolt  by  the  Marabout  ^ 
Mahmaduz-Zamine,  a description  of  the  anthropological 
characteristics  of  this  race. 

’From  1854  to  1865  Faidherbe  was  the  Governor-general  of  Senegal, 
which  he  administrated  with  great  energy  and  ability.  He  has  left 
several  important  works  on  the  races  and  countries  he  had  to  deal  with. 

® Marabout,  derived  through  the  Portuguese  Marabuto  from  the  Arabic 
muf’aribi,  is  a Mohammedan  “Saint”  supposed  to  work  miraculous  cures. 
These  religious  “medicine”  men  wield  immense  influence  over  credulous 
and  fanatical  peoples  who  regard  them  as  supernatural  beings  ; they 
correspond  to  the  Mollahs  of  the  Indian  frontier  tribes  and  the  fetish 
men  of  “Rhodesia”. 


30 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


“ The  face  is  oval,  the  eyes  large,  and  well-shaped, 
the  nose  straight,  and  the  lips  thin.  A Semitic  descent 
is  also  shown  in  the  carriage  of  the  head,  which  is 
proudly  held  high,  and  in  the  harmonious  proportion 
of  the  limbs,  which  are  well  made,  and  of  a proper 
length.  If  a young  girl  of  pure  race  is  examined, 
the  observer  is  still  more  struck  by  the  resemblance 
of  her  features  to  those  of  the  white  race.  Her  nose 
is  small,  and  often  aquiline,  with  quivering  nostrils; 
the  eyes — almond-shaped,  and  surmounted  by  long 
lashes — are  large,  and  have  a strange  expression,  like 
those  of  a frightened  gazelle ; the  mouth,  nicely  and 
sometimes  prettily  shaped,  discloses  a set  of  small, 
very  even,  and  extremely  white  teeth;  her  throat  and 
bust  are  admirably  formed ; her  limbs  well-proportioned, 
though  perhaps  a trifle  frail ; her  legs  flnely  shaped ; — 
in  fact  the  young  Sarrakholais  girl  is  ‘ a pretty  little 
thing,’  not  devoid  of  a seductive  charm.  Owing,  how- 
ever, to  numerous  crossings  with  black  races,  in  a 
great  many  of  the  Sarrakholais  these  marks  of  race 
have  become  degenerate  and  degraded,  and  have 
acquired  from  these  other  races  a coarser,  heavier  form. 

But  there  still  remains,  as  a characteristic  trait  of  the 
Sarrakholais  people,  an  intelligence  superior  to  that  of 
the  tribes  amongst  whom  they  live,  a more  advanced 
civilisation,  a greediness  of  gain  which  is  peculiar  to 
them,  and  a really  extraordinary  aptitude  for  trade, 
which  has  caused  the  Sarrakholais  to  be  called  ‘the 
pedlars  of  Western  Africa,’ 

“ These  Sarrakholais  pedlars  constitute  the  whole  body 
of  the  Dioulas,  or  caravan  men.  Their  stock  consists 
of  a little  salt,  a few  pieces  of  cotton,  some  powder, 
and  a few  trading  muskets.  They  travel  from  one 
country  to  another,  and  barter  and  exchange  their 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


31 


goods,  and  when  they  have  acquired  some  capital, 
they  become  slave  traders,  — that  is  the  dream  of  their 
life.  To  provide  for  this  event,  the  Dioula  takes  care 
to  furnish  himself,  before  his  departure,  with  Some  very 
neatly  made  handcuffs  and  irons,  which  he  uses  for 
securing  those  captives,  who,  having  been  taken  in 
war,  cannot  resign  themselves  to  their  wretched  fate, 
and  become  violent  and  difficult  to  guard.  Captives 
of  this  sort  are  sometimes  sold  to  the  Dioula  for  a 
handful  of  salt.  Other  Sarrakholais,  who  have  no  taste 
for  travel  and  adventure,  attain  the  coveted  position  of 
householder  by  other  means.  They  come  to  Saint 
Louis,  or  to  the  outposts,  or  landing  stages,  at  the  age 
of  fifteen,  and  secure  the  most  lucrative  and  best  paid 
positions  which  can  be  obtained  by  native  employes, 
and  choose,  as  much  as  possible,  those  places  which 
require  the  least  amount  of  hard  work. 

“ Almost  all  the  native  sailors  (laptots)  who,  at  Senegal, 
compose  the  crews  of  the  despatch  boats  and  the  trad- 
ing lighters,  are  Sarrakholais.  All  the  best  posts  as 
servants,  waiters,  and  clerks,  which  can  be  held  by 
natives,  are,  at  Saint  Louis,  occupied  by  Sai*rakholais. 
Of  the  sixteen  ‘river  captains’, — a kind  of  pilot,  whose 
position  is  much  envied  by  the  natives,  on  account  of 
the  privileges  of  various  sorts  they  possess, — fourteen 
are  Sarrakholais.  On  the  other  hand,  not  a man  ot 
this  race  is  to  be  found  in  the  ranks  of  the  Spahis,  or 
the  Senegalese  Sharpshooters,  for  the  very  good  reason 
that  the  work  is  very  hard,  and  the  pay  very  small.” 

According  to  Colonel  Frey,  the  Sarrakholais  people 
formed,  some  centuries  ago,  a vast  empire  in  the  centre 
of  the  Soudan, — an  empire,  the  remains  of  which  are 
still  scattered  over  the  African  Continent,  under  the 
names  of  Soninkes,  Markankes,  and  Sarrakholais.  They 


32 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


are  found  on  both  the  right  and  left  banks  of  the 
Senegal.  We  have  given  this  quotation  in  extenso, 
as  being  the  most  complete  refutation  of  the  popular 
error  that  the  Black  of  Senegal  owes  what  civilisation 
he  has  to  the  White  man. 

The  Civilisation  of  the  White  Man  has  no 
Effect  upon  the  Character  of  the  Black.  In  1 885-86, 
the  most  intelligent  native  race,  the  Sarrakholais,  though 
then  enjoying  a high  degree  of  material  prosperity,  —a 
prosperity  which  they  owed  in  great  part  to  contact 
with  European  civilisation, — rose  like  one  man,  and 
attacked  the  rear  of  the  small  French  column  which 
was  fighting  in  the  Upper  Soudan  against  Samory.  ^ 
Foremost,  amongst  those  who  thus  revolted,  were  the 
old  laptots,  and  the  clerks  of  the  merchants  of  Saint 
Louis.  Perhaps  one  reason  was,  that  this  race  knows 
what  an  aversion  the  Toubab  has  for  slavery,  that 
great  curse  of  Africa;  and  the  Sarrakholais,  though 

‘ This  Negro  has  been  styled  “The  Black  Napoleon  of  the 
French  Soudan.”  He  is  the  bitter  enemy  of  Colonial  France.  For 
relentless  energy  and  great  ability  he  may  be  fitly  compared  to  the 
Algerian  Arab,  ’Abd-ul-Kader.  Like  most  of  the  native  chiefs  who 
have  played  an  important  role  in  Africa,  Samory’s  beginnings  were 
very  humble.  Son  of  a caravan-leader,  during  his  absence  on  a journey, 
his  mother  was  kidnapped  and  carried  away  into  slavery.  Samory  on 
hearing  of  this,  did  not  hesitate  to  seek  out  the  powerful  chief  who 
had  abducted  her  and  demand  her  freedom.  This  chanced  to  be  the 
turning-point  in  his  destiny,  for  the  chief  pleased  with  his  handsome 
aspect,  engaged  him  for  his  service.  The  rest  of  his  career  nurtured 
by  ambition  and  fostered  by  blood  and  fire,  forms  one  of  the  most 
extraordinary  pages  in  the  history  of  the  Soudan.  His  army  is  said  to 
number  60,000  men,  of  which  5,000  are  mounted.  Many  times  has 
his  death  been  reported,  and  as  many  times  the  report  proved  false  by 
his  sudden  resurrection.  Like  his  famous  Corsican  prototype,  the 
treaties  made  with  his  adversaries  have  been  ruthlessly  broken  in 
subservience  to  a tireless  ambition. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


33 


they  had  lived  amongst  the  Whites,  are  great  slave 
dealers.  The  fanaticism  of  the  Mussulman  had  also  a 
great  deal  to  do  with  the  hate  they  felt  for  the  Christian 
White  man. 

The  anatomical  description  of  the  Sarrakholais  I 
shall  give  in  the  chapter  relating  to  the  organs  of 
generation  of  the  black  races. 

The  Kassonkes  are  another  race  of  Semitic  origin, 
but  greatly  bastardised  by  crossing  with  the  native 
Blacks.  The  Kassonkes,  or  Kassonkais,  are  tall  fine 
men,  as  strong  and  robust  as  the  Wolofs,  but  that  is 
the  only  trait  they  have  in  common,  for  they  are  very 
lazy.  They  inhabit  Natiogo,  Kosso,  and  Soyo,  on  the 
left  bank  of  the  Upper  Senegal.  The  costume  of  the 
men  is  rather  original,  and  deserves  a special  mention. 
For  head-dress,  they  have  a sort  of  small  cap  with 
two  pointed  peaks,  which  they  wear  on  the  side  of  the 
head,  like  a French  soldier’s  kepi.  They  wear  wide 
trousers,  like  a Zouave,  but  shorter  and  fuller.  Their 
costume  is  completed  by  a small  botiboii,  which  comes 
half  way  down  the  leg.  This  dress  is  made  of  native 
stuff,  dyed  yellow  or  brown.  The  women  are  very 
pretty,  whilst  they  are  young,  but  they  tattoo  their  lips 
and  gums  a violet  colour,  with  tincture  of  indigo. 

The  Kassonke  is  far  from  being  as  brave  as  the 
Sarrakholais.  Fie  is  generally  a thief,  an  idler,  and  a 
drunkard.  In  this  latter  capacity  he  does  not  admire 
a religion  of  which  one  of  the  leading  precepts  enjoins 
abstention  from  fermented  liquors.  In  this  also  he 
differs  from  the  Sarr^lkholais,  who  is  a strict  observer 
of  the  law.  Though  he  is  not  brave,  he  is  very  fond 
of  war,  or  rather  pillage,  which  is  the  natural  attendant 
of  war  amongst  all  these  people,  but  should  he  encounter 

3 


34 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


any  serious  resistance  he  will  fly  without  feeling  any 
shame.  He  is  especially  fond  of  stealing  women  and 
children,  who  may  be  heedlessly  wandering  round  the 
villages,  and  selling  them  as  slaves.  Even  an  adult 
native  man,  travelling  alone  and  unarmed,  is  by  no 
means  safe,  and  runs  a great  risk  of  being  set  on  by 
two  or  three  scoundrels,  bound,  and  carried  to  the 
next  village  to  be  sold  as  a slave.  But  the  Kassonke 
has  a great  respect  for  the  White  man,  of  whom  he 
has  a most  salutary  dread.  He  has  not,  as  the  Wolof 
and  Toucouleur  have,  the  bitter  and  vindictive  hate  of 
the  Mussulman  for  the  Christian  dog, — a feeling  which 
caused  the  Sarrakholais  to  revolt  during  a time  of 
peace  and  prosperity.  Round  Medina,  in  the  heart  of 
the  Kassonke  country,  Islamism  has  made  some  few 
converts,  but  they  are  not  very  fervent,  and  the  religion 
rather  tends  to  decline  than  increase.  The  marabouts’ 
school  is  hardly  attended  by  any  but  the  children  of 
the  Wolof  traders,  who  are  established  in  considerable 
numbers  at  this  post,  on  account  of  the  commerce  with 
the  upper  part  of  the  river. 

The  Young  Kassonke  Girl.  A very  pretty  de- 
scription of  the  young-  Kassonke  girl  is  given  in  Loti’s 
charming  romance,  which  has  already  been  quoted.  ^ 

“ Fatou-Gaye  had  on  her  feet  pretty  little  leather 
sandals,  kept  on  by  straps,  which  passed  between  the 
big  and  second  toes,  like  the  ancient  cothurnae.  She 
wore  the  scanty  and  clinging  drawers, — a fashion 
which  the  Egyptian  women  of  the  time  of  Pharaoh 
had  bequeathed  to  the  Nubian  women.  Over  that  was 
a botibou,  a large  square  of  muslin  with  a hole  through 
which  to  pass  the  head,  and  which  fell,  like  a peplum, 

' Rotnan  d’lin  Spahi. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


35 


a little  lower  than  the  knees.  Her  ornaments  were 
composed  of  heavy  rings  of  silver,  rivetted  round  the 
wrists  and  ankles,  and  necklaces  of  the  fragrant 
souviare. 

She  looked  very  pretty,  did  Fatou-Gaye,  with  her 
high  barbaric  head-dress,  which  gave  her  the  aspect 
of  a Hindoo  goddess  dressed  up  for  a religious  festival. 
She  had  not  the  flat  nose  and  thick  lips  of  some  of 
the  African  tribes,  and  which,  in  France,  we  are  in 
the  habit  of  considering  as  the  type  of  the  black  race. 
She  was  of  the  pure  type  of  the  Kassonke  race ; a 
small  nose,  fine  and  straight,  with  thin  nostrils,  slightly 
pinched  in  and  quivering,  a well-formed,  pretty  mouth 
with  splendid  teeth;  and,  above  all,  large  wide  eyes 
like  blue  enamel,  which  sparkled,  according  to  her 
mood,  sometimes  with  a strange  gravity,  sometimes 
with  a mysterious  mischief.” 

The  Malinkes  and  Bambaras  are  Negroes  who 
are  fetish  worshippers,  descendants, — according  to  Dr. 
Colomb  ^ — of  the  Mandingo  race,  which  came  originally 
from  the  banks  of  the  Niger.  It  has  not  been  mixed 
by  crossings,  and  is  characterised  by  thick  lips,  a very 
flat  nose,  woolly  hair,  and  a narrow  facial  angle.  The 
Malinkes  are  found  on  the  banks  of  the  Niger,  and 
the  higher  branches  of  the  Upper  Senegal,  where  they 
form  the  major  part  of  the  population. 

The  Bambaras  are  principally  established  upon  the 
right  bank  of  the  Niger.  They  have  the  same  anthro- 
pological characteristics  as  the  Malinkes,  but  are  more 
thick-set  and  not  so  tall ; the  calves  of  their  legs  are 

’ Notice  snr  les  Oasis  die  Sahara  et  les  grandes  routes  qni  y 
conduisent.  (Nouvelles  Annales  des  Voyages,  Juillet,  i860)  par  Lieut.- 
Colonel  de  Colomb. 


36 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


more  muscular  than  those  of  the  other  Blacks.  They 
are  intellig'ent,  strong,  and  brave,  and  are  hated,  and 
incessantly  attacked,  by  the  Mussulman  people  who 
surround  them. 

The  Malinke  is  thinner,  less  robust,  and  much  less 
brave  than  the  Bambara.  According  to  Colonel  Frey, 
the  Malinke,  either  owing  to  superstitious  terror  or  to 
cowardice,  will  not  travel  at  night,  or,  at  least,  unless 
he  is  compelled  to  by  force  of  circumstances ; for 
though  in  the  daytime  he  can  rely  on  his  weapons, 
and  his  agility,  to  bring  him  safely  through  perils,  in 
the  dark  he  is  exposed  to  a thousand  dangers  he 
cannot  always  avoid.  After  sunset  his  sight  becomes 
considerably  weaker ; it  might  almost  be  said  that  he 
is  struck  with  blindness.  This  peculiarity  of  the  Malinke 
is  attributed  to  the  immoderate  use  of  alio,  the  dried 
leaf  of  the  boabab  tree,  and  to  the  very  small  quantity 
of  salt  which  he  consumes. 

The  Senegalese  Sharpshooter  is  a volunteer, 
recruited,  for  a certain  wage,  from  amongst  all  the 
races  of  Senegal.  The  Government  is  not  particular 
as  to  how  the  men  are  obtained,  provided  that  they 
are  strong  and  healthy.  I was  surgeon  to  a battalion 
of  Sharpshooters  at  Saint  Louis,  and  the  captain  of 
the  battalion  assured  me  that  three-fourths  of  the 
Negroes,  who  were  engaged  to  serve  for  three  years 
at  the  various  posts  on  the  river,  from  whence  they 
had  been  sent  to  head-quarters,  were  slaves,  bought 
from  their  masters  at  a fixed  rate  of  ^12  a head.  By 
the  very  fact  of  his  engagement,  the  Sharpshooter 
becomes  a free  man,  as  soon  as  he  is  released  from 
military  service. 

By  giving  medical  attendance  to  the  families  of  the 


ANIHROPOLOGY. 


37 


Sharpshooters,  I was  able  to  learn  many  details  con- 
cerning their  manners  and  customs.  Colonel  Frey  has 
devoted  several  pages  to  a description  of  the  modest 
Senegalese  Sharpshooter,  without  whose  aid  it  would 
have  been  impossible  to  conquer  the  Upper  Senegal 
and  the  Soudan. 

“ The  corps  is  formed,  ” he  says,  “ of  divers  elements, 
borrowed  from  all  the  different  races  of  Senegambia, 
and  a practised  eye  can  tell  each  at  a glance.  The 
Toucouleur  can  be  recognised  by  his  warlike  temper, 
and  his  noisy,  boastful  character;  the  Bambara,  who 
most  usually  has  been  captured  on  the  Niger,  by  his 
robust  limbs  and  his  quiet  temper;  the  Peulh  by  his 
regular  features,  his  thin,  nervous  legs,  and  his  extreme 
agility;  the  Wolof,  who  is  more  civilised  than  the  other 
Blacks,  by  his  mild  temper  and  more  polished  manners. 

“ In  spite  of  the  fact  that  they  are  recruited  from 
such  diverse  elements,  the  Sharpshooters  show  a 
remarkable  esprit  de  corps.  They  are  most  useful 
auxiliaries,  of  great  intrepidity,  and  most  of  them  really 
brave.  The  Sharpshooter  is  the  right  soldier  for 
conquest.  No  one  is  fitter  than  he  to  make  a forced 
march,  and  execute  the  sudden  attacks  that  a young 
and  bold  commander  may  conceive  and  execute. 
When  once  he  has  put  on  his  grigris  (leather  amulets), 
in  which,  by  the  way,  he  has  no  great  confidence, 
from  having  seen  fidl  under  his  bullets  many  of  his 
enemies  who  were  covered  with  them,  but  which, 
nevertheless,  he  likes  to  wear  as  ornaments;  when  once 
he  is  furnished  with  his  goat-skin,  holding  five  or  six 
quarts  of  water,  and  his  wallet,  containing  a handful 
of  couscous,  and  a hundred  and  twenty  cartridges,  his 
officers  may  ask  him  to  march  twenty  hours  at  a stretch, 
and  he  will  regard  it  as  mere  child’s  play.” 


38  UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF  ANTHROPOLOGY. 

The  Sharpshooter  is  not  always  distinguished  for 
discipline,  especially  if  he  is  commanded  by  officers 
who  have  only  just  arrived  in  the  country,  and  are 
ignorant  of  the  language,  and  the  manners  of  the 
natives,  and  do  not  know  what  to  give,  and  what  to 
refuse,  to  their  men.  Moreover,  as  he  passes  nine 
months  out  of  each  year  in  the  bush,  he  needs  a firm 
hand,  tempered  with  parental  authority,  or  he  will, 
without  any  scruples,  desert,  and  take  his  arms  and 
baggage  with  him.  Besides,  he  is  a natural  pillager. 
If  the  men  are  not  carefully  watched,  they  will  despoil 
any  caravan  they  come  across.  The  Sharpshooter  is 
viewed  with  scorn  and  loathing  by  the  traders,  the 
well-to-do  people,  and,  generally  speaking,  by  every 
Mussulman.  For  is  he  not  a mercenary  in  the  pay  of 
the  Whites,  — a turncoat,  and  almost  a renegade? 

When  it  was  proposed  to  introduce  into  Senegal 
a law  which  should  make  military  service  obligatory 
on  the  natives,  numerous  protests  were  raised  amongst 
the  Blacks  of  Saint  Louis.  “We  would  resist  such  a 
law,”  they  cried,  “ even  if  we  should  have  to  revolt 
against  the  French  authority.” 


CHAPTER  III. 

Social  condition  and  moral  characteristics  of  the  Negro  race  in 
general. — The  Chiefs  and  Marabouts.  — Free  7nen,  giiots,  and 
■blacksmiths. — The  Griol  village  of  Krina. — Slaves. — The  slaveiy 
question. — Moral  characteristics  of  the  Black.  — The  Black’s  opinio?! 
of  the  civilised  Toubab. — Karamoko’s  carbine. — Various  customs 
and  superstitions  common  to  the  people  of  Senegal. — Mussulman 
anudets  and  the  fetish  man’s  “ g?'igris” . 

Social  Condition.  All  the  Negroes — except  the  chiefs 
and  marabouts — may  be  divided  into  three  well-marked 
castes;  the  free  men,  the  griots,  and  the  slaves.  All 
these  peoples  have  chiefs,  little  “ Kinglets”  of  a village, 
who  ojepress  their  subjects  like  the  tyrants  of  antique 
Greece.  Amongst  the  Mussulman  people,  the  head- 
chief  possesses  both  the  civil  and  religious  power,  and 
is  a great  marabout,  like  El  Hadj  Omar  Mahmadou 
Lamine,  who  stirred  up  the  Sarrakholais  to  rebel, 
Abdoul-Bou-Ba-Kur  in  the  Eouta-Toro,  and  many  others. 
Beneath  them  they  have  ordinary  marabouts,  priests 
of  the  Mussulman  religion,  who  fight  for  their  faith. 
Some  of  them  give  their  soldiers  grigris,  and  amulets 
against  bullets,  steel,  fire,  etc. 

The  Free  Men  may  be  divided  into  many  cate- 
gories. At  the  head  of  them  comes  the  warrior,  who 
is  a cultivator  of  the  soil  in  his  leisure  hours.  Below 
these  come  the  industrial  classes,  the  various  trades  of 
which  form  corporations  analogous  to  those  which 
existed  in  Erance  before  1789.  By  a singular  custom, 

39 


40 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


which  reminds  one  of  the  castes  of  India,  a man  may 
only  marry  amongst  families  of  the  same  trade,  and 
this  trade  is  hereditary;  the  son  of  a blacksmith  is  a 
blacksmith  all  his  life,  even  though  he  may  never 
touch  a hammer.  I should  remark  in  passing,  that  one 
profession  often  includes  a good  number  of  others. 
Thus  the  blacksmith  is  also  a locksmith,  armourer, 
potter,  and  carpenter,  in  his  spare  moments.  He  is 
even  a goldsmith  and  jeweller,  and  his  trinkets  are 
not  wanting  in  a certain  barbaric  elegance.  He  even 
adds  to  these  vocations  that  of  surgeon-sorcerer,  and 
he  it  is  who  circumcises  the  little  boys.  The  trade  of 
weaver  is  generally  exercised  by  the  captives. 

The  Griot.  On  the  same  social  level  as  the  black- 
smith-surgeon-sorcerer is  the  griot  (Dieli-Ke).  He  is 
the  musician,  the  singer  of  praises  of  whoever  will  pay 
him,  the  minstrel  of  the  Middle  Ages.  The  instrument 
he  usually  plays  on,  bears  a striking  resemblance  to 
the  hurdy-gurdy  of  the  Savoyard,  and  from  it  he  ex- 
tracts some  excruciating  sounds.  The  accordion  is 
also  in  favour  with  him. 

The  free  man  has  a great  contempt  for  the  griot,  but 
is  afraid  of  him.  He  is  more  intelligent  than  the  common 
run  of  the  natives,  and  “ exploits  ” everybody,  either  by 
singing  the  praises  of  the  generous,  or  by  making 
insulting  songs  about  those  with  whom  he  has  a quarrel. 

The  griot  goes  to  war  without  any  musket, — like 
the  blacksmith-armourer, — but  with  a sword,  which, 
however,  he  does  not  use.  He  contents  himself,  during 
the  battle,  with  singing,  and  exciting  the  warriors  to 
kill  each  other.  If  his  side  should  happen  to  be  van- 
quished, he  will,  without  the  least  sense  of  shame, 
change  his  opinion  and  servilely  exalt  the  victor, 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


41 


whom,  before  the  battle,  he  had  been  cursing.  Some 
of  the  griots  often  become  the  counsellors  of  the  most 
powerful  chiefs. 

I knew,  both  at  Saint  Louis  and  in  the  interior, 
some  griots  of  the  Mussulman  tribes.  None  of  them 
could  resist  the  temptation  of  a glass  of  good  absinthe, 
or  sangara  (trade  brandy),  if  it  was  offered  on  the 
quiet. 

If  the  griot  sings  during  the  battle,  the  blacksmith 
has  to  repair  the  arms,  manufacture  the  heavy  bullets 
of  wrought  iron,  and  after  the  battle,  as  an  improvised 
surgeon,  cut  off  limbs,  slash  the  flesh  of  the  wounded, 
and  extract  the  bullets.  No  European  would  be  able 
to  survive  the  often  terrible  mutilations  which  result 
from  this  not  very  conservative  style  of  surgery.  I 
should  mention  in  passing,  that  the  wife  of  the  black- 
smith circumcises  the  young  girls,  amongst  the  tribes 
who  practise  that  operation,  and  amongst  the  Kas- 
sonkes,  dresses  the  hair  of  the  women,  and  even  of 
the  men.  But  to  return  to  the  griots.  They  only  marry 
amongst  themselves  generally : and  at  their  death,  are 
not  deemed  worthy  of  a funeral  ceremony.  They  are 
usually  buried,  with  their  instrument,  in  the  trunk  of 
a hollow  tree,  which  is  then  closed  up. 

Slaves.  There  are  three  categories  of  captives  or 
slaves.  The  first  includes  the  house  slaves,  who  have 
formed  part,  for  many  generations,  of  the  slaves  of 
the  family,  and  are  born  in  that  position.  They  are 
rather  servants  for  life  than  slaves  properly  so  called. 
They  are  very  rarely  sold,  and  then  only  for  very 
grave  reasons.  In  fact,  they  are  considered  by  custom, 
as  an  integral  part  of  the  family,  like  the  freed-men 
of  old  Rome.  The  second  category  is  composed  of 


42 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


the  slaves  of  the  lougan,  so  named  because  they 
undertake  the  farming  and  other  works.  Usually 
he  has  been  bought  young,  and  has  grown  up 
in  the  house.  He  is  almost  as  much  esteemed  as 
the  house  slave,  and  his  lot  is  not  very  hard.  Then 
comes  the  trade  slave.  He  is  mere  human  merchan- 
dise; hardly  nourished,  ill-treated,  often  beaten,  and 
hawked  about  from  one  caravan  to  another.  When  he 
falls  on  the  road,  ill,  or  worn  out,  he  is  allowed  to  die 
on  the  ground  like  a dog,  and  his  body  becomes  the 
prey  of  the  jackals  and  hyaenas. 

Every  effort  has  been  made  by  the  French  Govern- 
ment to  put  an  end  to  this  horrible  traffic,  but  has 
proved  unavailing,  owing  to  the  conservative  routine, 
and  the  ill  will,  of  the  Negroes  themselves.  I have 
mentioned  that  the  Sarrakholais,  the  most  intelligent 
race  in  all  Senegal,  furnish  the  greater  part  of  the 
Dioulas,  or  conductors  of  caravans.  The  French  out- 
posts have  orders  to  stop  these  caravans,  but  the 
caravans  escape  surveillance  by  making  long  detours. 
When  the  inhabitants  of  a village  are  captured,  the 
captors  begin  by  murdering  all  the  males  above  fifteen 
years  old,  and  the  old  women.  The  rest  are  led  away 
into  slavery,  and  often  are  sold  at  an  absurdly  low 
price. 

The  Slavery  Question  is  the  stumbling  block 
which  will  always  prevent  European  civilisation  from 
extending.  We  shall  never  make  the  Black  under- 
stand that  he  has  not  the  right  to  buy  or  sell  his 
fellow  man  in  the  market,  like  cattle.  But  between 
the  fetish  worshipper  of  the  interior  of  Africa,  or  of  the 
Dahomey  coast,  who  cuts  his  captive’s  throat,  and  the 
Mohammedan,  who  makes  him  work  hard  it  is  true,  but 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


43 


takes  as  much  care  of  him  as  he  would  of  a beast  of 
burden,  the  distance  is  immense. 

Our  efforts  to  suppress  slavery  have  only  alienated 
from  us  the  good  will  of  the  people,  and  though  the 
public  sale  of  slaves  is  forbidden,  an  almost  open  traffic 
in  flesh  is,  all  the  same,  carried  on  amongst  the  tribes 
of  the  interior.  At  Saint  Louis  even,  where  all  the 
complicated  machinery  of  French  law  exists,  there  are 
found,  in  spite  of  it,  slaves  who  have  been  brought 
from  the  interior  by  the  traders.  They  are  disguised 
under  the  name  of  domestics,  and  are,  in  reality, 
servants  for  life.  There  are  young  girls  of  this  cate- 
gory, who  are  made  over,  before  they  attain  puberty, 
to  “ amateurs  ” who  want  virgins.  Of  course,  the 
Black  traders  who  bring  back  these  slaves,  do  not 
openly  boast  of  it,  but  the  fact  is  nevertheless  certain, 
and  I have  good  proofs  of  it.  For  instance,  in  my 
house,  I often  used  to  see  a Negro  boy,  the  colour  of 
old  bronze,  a half-breed  between  a Moor  and  a Negress, 
whom  a rich  Black  merchant, — my  landlord,  if  you 
please, — had  brought  with  him  from  the  station  of 
Podor,  when  he  went  to  attend  the  gum  market. 
This  lad,  who  was  completely  naked,  despite  his  thir- 
teen years,  used  to  come  and  help  my  cook  to  wash 
up  the  dishes,  and  his  wages  consisted  of  a bit  of  sea 
biscuit,  which  he  used  to  devour  with  teeth  as  white 
as  those  of  a puppy,  with  sometimes  a lump  of  sugar. 
Although  his  skin  was  lighter  than  that  of  a Zambo, 
but  not  so  light  as  that  of  a Mulatto,  the  mucous  sur- 
faces of  the  lips  and  the  gland  were  a very  dark  red- 
brown.  Seeing  that  I appeared  interested  a little  in 
the  creature,  my  landlord  asked  me  one  day  if  I wanted 
to  buy  him.  I appeared  to  entertain  the  proposal.  Fie 
asked  me  twelve  pounds,  saying  that  that  was  the 


44 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


value  of  the  cloth  he  had  given  for  him,  and  that  he 
would  only  sell  him  under  the  express  condition  that 
the  lad  was  to  be  circumcised,  and  never  made  a 
Christian. 

The  motives  which  caused  me  to  refuse  this  proposal 
will  be  easily  understood.  Thinking  that  I wanted  to 
beat  him  down,  he  lowered  the  price,  and  finally  my 
landlord’s  son,  a big  booby  twenty  years  old,  proposed 
to  trade  the  Negro  boy  for  my  central  fire  gun  with 
spare  rifled  barrels,  my  faithful  companion  during 
fifteen  years.  I kept  my  gun,  and  resolutely  refused 
the  nigger  boy. 

Moral  Characteristics  of  the  Black.  I shall  only 
say  a very  few  words  about  those  moral  characteristics 
common  to  all  the  Black  races  of  Senegal. 

The  Black  certainly  differs  more  from  the  White, 
morally,  than  he  does  in  the  colour  of  his  skin. 
Superficial  observers  often  reproach  him  with  his 
idleness,  his  apathy,  his  carelessness,  his  want  of 
forethought.  The  Negro  is  only  a great  child,  who 
takes  no  care  for  the  future.  When  the  harvest  is 
good,  he  eats  and  drinks,  and  never  troubles  to  put 
any  by  for  the  morrow,  or  even  to  reserve  the  grain 
needed  for  sowing  the  Lougans  (cultivated  lands).  If 
the  harvest  should  fail,  he  dies  of  hunger.  But  he  is 
honest  and  upright;  he  is  grateful,  and  remembers 
benefits  received.  He  often  forgets  ill-treatment  even. 
During  an  illness,  which  kept  me  in  bed  a fortnight, 
my  young  Sarrakholais  boy  helped  himself,  from  a 
sack  of  dollars,  to  all  the  money  needed  for  the  house- 
hold expenses.  He  was  my  factotum : cook,  groom, 
and  valet.  He  gave  an  account  of  all  the  money 
spent  every  day,  and  took  whatever  money  he  required. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


45 


I wrote  down,  when  he  was  not  present,  all  the  items 
in  a small  account  book,  and  when  I was  well  again, 
verified  the  balance,  which  was  perfectly  correct. 
Only,  the  rascal  had  eaten  nine  pounds  of  sugar  in  a 
very  few  days.  In  Cochin-China,  my  sack  would  have 
been  emptied  by  an  Annamite  boy,  the  first  day  of 
my  illness,  and,  perhaps,  if  I had  been  alone,  as  I 
was  in  Senegal,  and  had  a large  sum  of  money  in 
the  house,  the  thief  would  have  poisoned  me,  to  prevent 
unpleasant  disclosures. 

Opinions  of  the  Black  concerning  the  Civilised 
Touhab.  The  Black, — and  I mean  by  this  not  the 
ignorant  Negro,  but  the  trader,  or  the  Sarrakholais, 
who  has  come  into  contact  with  civilisation  at  Saint 
Louis, — does  not  understand  our  system  of  government 
a little  bit.  For  him,  the  French  Government  is  the 
husband  of  the  Republic,  who  is  a very  rich  woman, 
who  rules  France,  which  is  her  property.  As  to  the 
soldiers,  they  are  the  slaves  of  the  Government.  What 
is  the  use  of  explaining  the  parliamentary  system  to 
such  fellows?  The  right  side  of  compidsory  military 
service  they  do  not  understand,  but  the  wrong  side 
of  it  they  can  comprehend  when, — on  the  very 
problematical  chance  of  civilising  a Negro, — they  see 
the  son  of  a Normandy  peasant,  or  a Burgundian 
vine-dresser,  sent  to  die  in  an  unhealthy  country,  or 
be  killed  by  one  of  the  subjects  of  Behanzin,  in 
Dahomey.  The  Senegalese  Sharpshooter,  however, 
knows  something  about  discipline  in  his  own  way, 
and  can  obey  orders,  if  they  are  given  by  a capable 
officer. 

The  Black  gazes  open-eyed  at  all  the  wonders  of 
civilisation.  At  first  they  are  astonished,  but  that  soon 


46 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


wears  off,  and,  strange  to  say,  they  never  try  to  under- 
stand or  explain  anything  they  see.  All  that  they 
say — when  they  say  anything  at  all — is,  “ That’s 
another  invention  of  the  Toubab.”  The  railway  at 
Senegal,  the  telegraph,  telephone,  rifled  cannon,  the 
dynamite  with  which  the  walls  of  their  tatas  (fortified 
redoubts)  are  blown  down,  etc.,  do  not  cause  a single 
idea  to  penetrate  their  thick  skulls.  The  son  of  my 
landlord,  the  big  booby  I have  mentioned,  who  read 
and  spoke  French,  said  to  me  one  day,  when  I wanted 
to  lend  him  a handbook  on  Elementary  Physics,  to 
improve  his  mind,  “ The  White  men  are  rich,  and  they 
know,  and  can  do,  a lot  of  things;  but  everyone  has 
his  turn,  and  the  day  will  come  when  the  Black  man 
will  know  as  much  as  the  Toubab.” 

Whatever  amount  of  education  you  may  give  a 
Black,  you  can  no  more  change  his  character  than  you 
can  the  colour  of  his  skin,  and,  as  the  proverb  says, 
“ The  barber  wastes  his  soap,  when  he  tries  to  wash 
a blackamoor  white.”  From  a moral  point  of  view, 
we  are  committing  a great  error,  when  we  try  to 
instil  European  ideas  of  civilisation  into  the  brain  of 
the  Negro. 

Karamoko’s  Carbine.  As  we  know,  some  of  the 
sons  of  the  principal  chiefs  were  brought  up  at  Saint 
Louis,  at  the  “School  for  hostages”,  founded  by 
Faidherbe.  As  soon  as  they  returned  home  again, 
they  invariably  proved  to  be  the  bitterest  enemies  of 
the  Whites.  The  example  of  Karamoko,  the  son  of 
Samory,  who  came  to  Paris,  where  he  was  received 
like  the  son  of  a king — a strange  manner  of  showing 
our  superiority!  — is  an  unanswerable  proof  of  the 
failure  of  this  method. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


47 


It  appears  that,  on  his  return,  his  father  sent  an 
escort,  to  welcome  him  on  re-entering  the  Kingdom. 
Karamoko  was  laden  with  gifts  from  the  French 
Government,  and  amongst  these  was  a fine  repeating 
rifle,  richly  ornamented.  The  chief  who  commanded 
the  escort,  having  left  the  ranks,  and  presented  himself 
alone  before  the  King’s  son,  Karamoko  ordered  him 
to  return  to  his  place  at  once.  The  chief  did  not 
obey  quite  quickly  enough,  so  he  had  a bullet  througli 
his  head  from  Karamoko’s  rifle.  In  the  recent  combats 
between  Achinard’s  column  and  the  natives  of  the 
Soudan,  Karamoko  always  showed  himself  to  be  our 
most  intractable  enemy,  and  yet  he  had  not,  as  the 
other  chiefs  had,  the  excuse  of  being  ignorant  of  the 
French  military  power.  He  had  heard  hundreds  of 
field  guns  fired,  at  the  camp  of  Chalons,  and  had  seen 
a division  of  cavalry  reviewed.  My  opinion,  respecting- 
the  character  of  the  Blacks  is  entirely  corroborated  by 
that  of  Dr.  Lota.  ' 

Various  Customs  and  Superstitions  common 
to  the  Different  Tribes  of  Senegal.  I do  not  pro- 
pose to  describe  here  the  various  customs  of  the 
numerous  tribes  which  inhabit  Senegal.  I shall  content 
myself  by  noticing,  in  a few  lines,  those  manners  and 
superstitions  which  are  common  to  all,  as  the  circum- 
cision of  boys,  the  manner  of  burying  the  dead  with 
the  face  turned  towards  the  East,  the  form  of  saluta- 
tion with  the  hand  over  the  heart,  and  the  Mussulman 
chaplet,  which  is  as  common  as  the  fan  is  in  Spain. 

It  is  evident  that  Islamism,  having  been  imposed  by 
force,  has  taken  no  real  root  amongst  the  tribes  of 
Semitic  origin.  As  to  the  real  fetish  worshipper,  be- 

' Dr.  Lota,  Deux  ans  eiitre  le  Se'negal  et  le  Niger. 


48  UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF  . ANTHROPOLOGY. 


longing  to  the  Mandingo  race,  the  religion  of  Mahomet 
has  hardly  been  able  to  penetrate  his  thick  skull,  and 
even,  when  he  is  converted,  he  nevertheless  retains 
his  old  superstitions. 

When  a Negro  is  ill,  prayers  are  offered  up  to  his  deities, 
but  that  does  not  prevent  his  friends  and  relatives  from 
having  faith  in  the  prayers  and  amulets  of  the  marabouts  ; 
and,  at  the  same  time,  recourse  is  h9.d  to  a fetish  wizard, 
who  cuts  open  an  unfortunate  fowl,  and  examines  its 
liver,  exactly  as  the  augurs  used  to  do  in  old  Rome. 

Mussulman  Amulets  and  Fetish  “Grigris”. 

When  a Mussulman  is  ill,  verses  of  the  Koran  are 
written  on  specially  prepared  slips  of  wood,  which  are 
then  washed  in  water,  and  the  water  given  to  the 
invalid  to  drink,  or  little  bags  containing  scraps  of 
paper,  on  which  are  inscribed  verses  of  the  Koran,  are 
placed  on  the  seat  of  the  disease.  That  is  a kind  of 
remedy  that  is  within  the  reach  of  everybody.  As  to 
the  fetish  worshippers,  they  have  a blind  faith  in  the 
grigris,  which  are  sold  to  them  by  sorcerers,  to  pre- 
serve them  from  illness,  poverty,  the  terrible  bullets 
of  the  Toubab,  the  knives  of  their  enemies,  etc.,  or 
charms  to  render  the  possessor  happy  in  his,  or  her, 
domestic  life.  A severe  wound  will  hardly  serve  to 
undeceive  them,  and  if,  by  chance,  they  escape  from 
a battle  with  a few  bruises  or  a slight  wound,  they 
continue  to  believe  in  their  charm  with  blind  credulity. 
The  sorcerers  who  sell  grigris  are  generally  of  the 
blacksmith  class,  and  in  order  to  astonish  and  impress 
the  people,  they  dress  themselves  in  a strange  garb 
made  of  strips  of  bark,  wear  a large  calabash  on  the 
head,  and  wander  about  the  villages  at  night,  uttering 
horrible  howls. 


CHAPTER  IV. 


The  Negro  ivoman. — Her  social  condition. — ]\Ia triage.  — The  wife 
purchased  bv  the  husband. — Vanity  of  the  women  laho  fetch  high 
prices.  — Marriage  ceremonies. — Constancy  of  the  Negress. — The 
ivives  of  the  Sharpshooters. — Their  inconstancy.  — Their  virtues. — 
Polygamy  amongst  the  Blacks.  — The  chief  mistress  of  the  house. 
— fealousy  unknown  to  the  Negress.  — Divorce. 

The  Social  Condition  of  Woman.  Travellers  who 
dash  helter-skelter  through  the  country,  represent  the 
Negro  woman  as  a kind  of  domestic  animal,  obedient 
and  hard-working,  and  the  property  of  her  husband, 
who  has  purchased  her,  and  may  purchase  several 
other  wives  besides.  To  an  impartial  observer,  however, 
who  studies  matters  closely,  this  custom  of  the  husband 
purchasing  his  wife,  or  wives,  does  not  involve  social 
inferiority  to  the  latter.  When  we  understand  the 
manners  and  customs  of  the  Blacks,  we  see  that  woman 
is  not  in  such  a miserable  condition  as  is  said,  and 
that,  relatively  at  all  events,  she  enjoys  some  measure 
of  liberty.  Let  us  select  as  an  example  the  household 
of  the  Negro  of  Saint  Louis.  The  husband  brings  in 
the  wood,  cultivates  a patch  of  land,  fishes,  or  hunts. 
The  native  traders,  who  serve  the  European  merchants, 
ascend  the  river  to  trade.  These  last  form  a rather 
high  caste,  and  quickly  obtain  a good  position.  In 
the  interior  of  Senegal,  the  man  goes  where  he  likes, 
but  very  often  squats  on  the  door  sill  and  tells  his 
beads,  if  he  is  a good  Mussulman ; sometimes  he 
makes  his  own  clothes, — a task  which  not  being  very 


50 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


fatiguing  he  reserves  to  himself.  Meanwhile  his  wife 
slaves  at  all  the  heavy  work ; she  cultivates  the  field, 
gets  in  the  harvest,  looks  after  the  animals,  grinds  at 
the  mill,  and  prepares  the  couscous.  The  operation 
of  grinding  is  very  hard  work,  and  often  the  woman 
is  obliged  to  rise  in  the  middle  of  the  night,  for  she 
has  to  pound  for  many  hours  at  the  coarse  millet, 
which  is  as  large  and  heavy  as  maize.  In  the  afternoon, 
the  work  recommences.  Vain  attempts  have  been 
made  to  introduce  waterpower  mills  to  grind  the  millet, 
but  the  Negroes  have  always  refused  them,  saying  that 
their  wives  would  have  nothing  to  do  if  they  did  not 
grind  at  the  mill. 

In  short,  the  social  condition  of  the  Negress  is  no 
worse  than  that  of  women  in  many  civilised  countries, 
even  including  France,  where,  in  certain  districts,  the 
peasant  women  work  in  the  fields  like  men.  When 
the  Negro  returns  from  war,  or  from  hunting,  or  from 
pillage,  and  does  not  find  everything  in  order  at  home, 
he  complains,  scolds,  or  perhaps  even  thrashes  his  wife 
a little—  but  is  not  that  also  the  case  in  many  civilised 
countries?  Read  the  Assommoir,  or  La  Terre,  ^ of 
Zola,  and  tell  me  if  our  boasted  civilisation  is  so 
superior  to  that  of  the  “ poor  Negro”  ! The  Negroes, 
both  men  and  women,  are  very  fond  of  their  children, 
seldom  scold  them,  and  hardly  ever  beat  them.  Of 
how  many  parents  in  civilised  Europe  can  the  same 
be  said? 

' These  books  were  translated  into  English  by  Vizetelly,  who  got 
1 8 months  “ hard  ” for  it.  He  was  70  years  of  age  ! A book  was  published 
with  the  title  “ Extracts  principally  from  ENGLISH  CLASSICS  : showing 
that  the  Legal  Sttppression  of  M.  Zola’s  novels  would  Logically 
involve  the  Bowdlerising  of  some  of  the  Greatest  Works  in  English 
Literature  (Lond.,  1888).  For  more  particulars  about  this  crapulous 
business  see  Citrious  Bypaths  of  LListo^y  (Paris,  1897). 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


51 


Marriage  amongst  the  Blacks. — Purchase  of  the 
Wife  by  the  Husband.  Amongst  all  the  Blacks, 
Mussulman  as  well  as  fetish  worshippers,  the  husband 
buys  his  wife;  that  is  an  incontestable  fact — but  are 
the  Annamites,  or  many  nations  more  civilised  still, 
any  better?  ^ In  any  case  the  girl  herself  is  not 
allowed  to  have  a voice  in  the  matter.  It  is  simply 
a matter  of  business  between  her  future  husband  and 
her  parents.  The  marriage  portion  is  haggled  over ; 
— it  varies  according  to  the  position  of  the  two  parties, 
and  at  Saint  Louis  consists  of  rolls  of  cloth,  cattle,  and 

’ Westermarck,  in  his  History  of  Himian  Marriage  (p.  143),  Lond. 
1894,  writes:  “There  are,  however,  even  in  savage  life,  circumstances 
which  compel  certain  persons  to  live  unmarried  for  a longer  or  shorter 
time.  "When  a wife  has  to  be  bought,  a man  must  of  course  have 
some  fortune  before  he  is  able  to  marry.  Thus,  as  regards  the  Zulus, 
Mr.  Eyles  writes  to  me  that  ‘ young  men  who  are  without  cattle  have 
often  to  wait  many  years  before  getting  married’  {see  Weber,  Zwei 
Jahrein  Africa,  vol.  II,  p.  216  [Kafirs]).  When  Major-General  Campbell 
asked  some  of  the  Kandhs  why  they  remained  single,  they  replied  that 
they  did  so  because  wives  were  too  expensive  (Campbell,  The  JJYid 
Tribes  of  Khondistan).  Among  the  Munda  Kols  and  Hos,  in  conse- 
quence of  the  high  prices  of  brides,  are  to  be  found  ‘ what  are  probably 
not  known  to  exist  in  other  parts  of  India,  respectable  elderly  maidens’ 
(Watson  and  Kaye,  vol.  I,  no.  18).  In  the  New  Britain  Group,  too, 
according  to  Mr.  Romilly,  the  purchase  sum  is  never  fixed  at  too  low 
a price,  hence  ‘ it  constantly  happens  that  the  intended  husband  is 
middle-aged  before  he  can  marry.  ’ (Romilly,  Proceed.  Royal  Geog. 
Soc.  NS.,  vol.  IX,  p.  8).  Similar  statements  are  made  in  a good  many 
books  of  travels.  ” 

The  customs  of  these  savage  tribes  are  the  opposite  of  those  of 
modern  France,  where  wives  buy  their  husbands,  and  where  beautiful 
women,  often  neglected  by  the  dowry  hunter,  because  their  purse  is  not 
of  sufficient  bulk,  fall  to  a workman  or  waiter.  Benj.  Disraeli  was  of 
opinion  that  the  mariage  de  conveiiance  more  often  turned  out  well  than 
the  marriage  for  Love,  the  latter  article  having  the  habit  of  “ flying  out  ”, 
according  to  the  old  English  proverb,  “ at  the  window,  when  Poverty  comes 
in  at  the  door”. 


52 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


sometimes  money ; in  the  interior,  it  is  one  or  two 
slaves.  An  instalment  is  all  that  is  necessary ; a 
promise  to  pay  the  balance  after  the  marriage  ceremony 
is  generally  accepted  by  the  parents  of  the  bride.  In 
the  interior,  amongst  the  Kassonkes,  a young  girl  may 
be  even  “booked  in  advance”,  and  a “retaining  fee” 
paid;  this  is  faithfully  returned,  if,  when  she  is  of 
nubile  age,  her  parents  do  not  wish  to  complete  the 
marriage,  but  if  it  is  the  young  man  who  refuses,  he 
loses  the  money  he  has  paid.  There  is  one  really 
valid  cause  for  breaking  the  contract,  and  that  is 
immoral  conduct  on  the  part  of  the  girl ; otherwise, 
as  soon  as  she  is  nubile,  or  at  about  the  age  of  twelve 
years,  she  is  sent  to  her  future  husband.  This  custom 
of  marriage,  or  rather  of  betrothal  by  mutual  consent 
of  the  interested  parties,  also  exists  in  the  Negro  villages 
of  the  Wolofs  round  Saint  Louis. 

Conceit  of  those  Negro  Women  for  whom 
Large  Prices  are  paid.  The  Negress  does  not  con- 
sider it  a dishonour,  that  she  has  been  purchased  from 
her  father.  On  the  contrary,  she  boasts  of  the  high 
price  that  has  been  paid  for  her.  I heard  of  a very 
neat  reply  made  by  one  of  them  on  this  subject.  A 
European  family  made  the  voyage  out  with  me.  The 
husband  was  a Government  official,  and,  from  motives 
of  economy,  lodged  in  a little  brick  house  in  the  North 
part  of  the  town  near  the  Mosque.  His  wife,  a good- 
natured  inquisitive  little  Frenchwoman,  became  acquaint- 
ed with  many  of  the  Blacks  in  the  neighbourhood,  and 
had  for  a servant  a little  Negro  girl  twelve  years  old. 
One  day  the  sister  of  this  Negress,  a fine  strapping 
girl  of  sixteen,  came  to  inform  her  sister’s  mistress  that 
she  was  about  to  be  married.  She  was  going  to  marry 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


53 


a trader  in  rather  a good  position,  and  she  was  recount- 
ing what  handsome  presents  he  had  made  to  her  father. 
The  Frenchwoman  said,  in  a tone  of  reproach,  “What! 
are  you  not  ashamed  to  boast  that  you  have  been 
bought  and  paid  for,  as  though  you  were  a beast  of 
burden?”  The  Negress  was  nettled  at  this  remark, 
and  replied,  “ If  my  lover  gave  all  that  for  me,  it 
proves  that  he  loves  me,  and  will  pay  a high  price  to 
possess  me,  whilst  you,  and  the  other  wives  of  the 
Toubabs,  seem  so  ugly  to  your  men,  that  you  are 
obliged  to  buy  your  husbands,  and,  unless  you  gave 
them  a large  sum  of  money,  they  would  never  have 
you.”  The  allusion  to  the  dot  usually  given  with 
European  women  was  decidedly  neat,  and  the  retort 
was  well  deserved. 

Marriage  Ceremonies  vary  a little  amongst  the 
various  tribes,  but  in  general  they  have  rather  the 
character  of  a festival  than  of  a religious  ceremony, 
even  amongst  the  Mussulmans.  The  husband  first 
prepares  the  house,  which  is  empty.  On  the  wedding 
day,  the  modest  bride,  covered  with  a long  thick  veil, 
but  without  a single  spray  of  orange  blossom — very 

' Max  Nordau  holds  that  mone^v  matters  should  not  enter  into  the 
sexual  relations  at  all  : — 

“■  AVhen  material  considerations  enter  no  longer  into  the  contracting 
of  a marriage,  when  woman  is  free  to  choose  and  is  not  compelled  to 
sell  herself,  when  man  is  obliged  to  compete  for  woman’s  favour  with 
his  personality  and  not  with  his  social  position  and  property,  then  the 
institution  of  matrimony  will  become  a truth  instead  of  the  lie  it  is 
no\^',  the  sacred  and  sublime  spirit  of  Nature  will  bless  every  embrace, 
every  child  will  be  born  surrounded  by  the  love  of  its  parents  as  with 
a halo,  and  will  receive,  as  its  first  birthday  present,  the  STRENGTH  and 
VITALITY  with  which  every  couple  which  has  been,  united  by  the  attraction 
of  affinity  endows  its  offspring.  ” Convenlionat  Lies  of  our  Civilisatiofj, 
Lond.  1895  (page  307). 


54 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


different  from  the  European  bride — is  taken  by  a matron 
to  the  conjugul  domicile.  All  the  female  friends  of 
the  family  make  a procession,  carrying  on  their  heads 
the  wedding  presents,  which  consist  of  household  uten- 
sils, such  as  screens,  baskets,  a mortar  and  pestle, 
calabashes  for  couscous,  millet,  earth-nuts,  earthenware 
jars,  etc. 

The  bride  enters  the  house,  accompanied  by  the 
matron,  whose  duty  it  is  to  initiate  her  into  the  sweet 
delights  of  love,  and  meanwhile  the  tam-tams  outside 
beat  with  redoubled  vigour.  Men  are  strictly  forbidden 
to  enter  the  house,  but  the  women  of  the  village  come 
in  turn  to  visit  the  bride,  give  her  advice,  and  felici- 
tations. She  stands,  covered  with  her  veil,  and  listens 
to  all  her  friends  have  to  say.  Outside  the  tam-tams 
beat  wildly,  and  the  griots  sing  the  future  exploits  of 
the  husband,  and  how  great  he  is  to  be.  At  last  the 
husband  enters  the  house,  turns  out  the  women,  locks 

the  door,  tears  off  the  bride’s  veil,  and  then but 

the  reader  must  guess  the  rest. 

As  soon  as  he  enters  the  house,  the  noise  increases, 
the  tam-tams  nearly  split,  the  old  flintlock  muskets, 
charged  with  whole  handfuls  of  powder,  go  off  like 
field  guns,  the  women  clap  their  hands  in  frenzy,  sing 
wedding  odes,  and  dance  round  the  house  like  bac- 
chantes. The  cries  and  groans  of  the  bride  are 
drowned  in  this  infernal  hubbub,  but  it  does  not,  I 
have  been  assured,  prevent  the  husband  from  doing  his 
duty.  1 

Faithfulness  of  the  Negress.  The  Negress  is 
usually  faithful  to  her  husband,  especially  in  regard 

’ See  Excursus  to  chapter  XII  for  curious  Marriage  Ceremonies  in 
Europe. 


ANTHROPOLOGY, 


55 


to  the  Toubab,  for  she  is  afraid  of  having  a Mulatto 
child,  which  would  be  a living  proof  of  her  fault. 
This  is  particularly  the  case  at  Saint  Louis,  where  it 
is  easier  to  obtain  the  favours  of  a young  girl  than 
of  a married  woman.  I have  often,  for  a joke,  asked 
some  of  the  women  who  lived  near  me,  and  with 
whom  I was  in  the  habit  of  talking  freely,  to  sleep 
with  me.  “Allah  terre!"  (God  would  slay  me)  they 
always  cried,  and  rushed  precipitately  into  their  houses. 

The  Europeans  who  will  not,  or  cannot,  get  a 
woman  or  “ maid  of  all  work  ”,  have  no  resource  but 
the  low  class  prostitutes, — regular  old  “jacks”,  who 
are  scorned  and  despised  by  all  the  rest  of  the 
population. 

V 

The  Wives  of  the  Sharpshooters.  The  first  thing 
a Sharpshooter  does,  is  to  try  to  get  together  a few 
pence,  and  buy  a wife,  but  he  has  some  difficulty  in 
effecting  this  at  Saint  Louis,  where  he  is  not  in  the 
odour  of  sanctity,  and  is  looked  down  upon  with  disgust 
by  the  Wolof  trader,  who  is  a fanatical  Mussulman. 
Sometimes  he  marries  the  widow  of  a deceased  com- 
rade, but  generally  procures  a wife  in  the  Roman 
method,  in  the  course  of  one  of  his  expeditions  into 
the  interior.  Captives — the  wives,  or  daughters,  of  the 
vanquished, — furnish  the  greater  part  of  the  Sharp- 
shooters’ wives.  Colonel  Frey’s  book, — to  which  I 
refer  the  reader, — gives  some  interesting  information 
on  this  subject.  At  Saint  Louis,  I saw  women  who 
came  from  all  parts  of  Senegambia  and  the  Upper 
Soudan.  They  all  lived  comfortably  together. 

Their  Unfaithfulness.  The  wives  of  the  Sharp- 
shooters seemed  to  me  to  be  less  faithful  than  the  other 


56  UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 

Negresses,  but  that  was  evidently  due  to  their  social 
surroundings.  The  Sharpshooters  at  Saint  Louis  receive 
a fixed  pay,  and  are  not  fed.  The  bachelors  board 
with  the  married  men,  for  a consideration,  and  often 
even  sleep  in  the  house.  This  promiscuity  favours 
easy  morals,  and  the  wife  of  a Sharpshooter  is  regarded 
with  as  much  scorn  by  a Wolof  Negress  of  Saint  Louis, 
as  a sutler  woman  would  be  by  the  wife  of  a banker, 
in  Europe.  ^ 


' Free  and  easy  as  undoubtedly  is  the  virtue  of  these  native  ladies, 
there  is  many  a high-born  dame  in  Europe  who  could  give  them  points 
in  what  honest  old  Daniel  Defoe  would  call,  “Conjugal  Lewdness,  or 
Matrimonal  Whoredom  ” (Fond.  1727),  as  the  two  following  works  more 
than  sufficiently  show  : — 

The  Case  of  Impotency  as  debated  in  England  in  that  Remarkable 
trial.  Anno  1613,  between  Robert,  Earl  of  Essex,  and  Lady  Frances 
Howard,  who  after  eight  years  marriage  commenced  a suit  against  him 
for  Impotency. — The  Trial  of  Mervin,  Lord  Audrey,  Earl  of 
Castlehaven,  for  Sodomy  and  a Rape.  Anno  1631. — The  Proceedings 
upon  the  Bill  of  Divorce  between  the  Duke  of  Norfolk  and  Lady  Mary 
Mordant.  London,  1715,  2 vols. — The  Case  of  Impotency  debated 
on  the  late  Famous  Trial  at  Paris  between  the  Jilarquis  of  Gesores  and 
Mademoiselle  de  Mascranny.  London,  1714,  2 vols,  121110. 

The  Trial  of  the  Hon.  Mrs.  Catharine  Newton,  wife  of  John 
Newton,  Esq.,  and  daughter  of  the  Rt.  Hon.  and  Rev.  Lord  Francis 
Seymour,  at  the  Consistory  Court  of  Doctor’s  Commons,  upon  a Libel 
and  Allegations  charging  her  with  the  Crime  of  Adultery  with  Mr. 
Isham  Baggs,  a young  Oxonian  ; Mr.  Brett,  a Player  at  Bath ; 
Thomas  Cope,  her  Coachman ; Isaac  Hatheway,  her  Footman ; John 
Ackland,  of  Fairfield,  Somerset,  and  other  persons,  with  all  the 
interesting  scenes,  full,  minutely,  and  circumstantially  dis- 
played concerning  the  whole  of  the  evidence  in  that  very  remarkable 
Trial.  London,  1782.  Fro7itisJ>iecc,  ‘■'•Mrs.  Newton  bathing  in  the 
River  Trent,  assisted  by  Mr.  Baggs,  ” 8vo. 

Bear  in  mind  that  these  are  7iot  erotic  books  produced  in  Belgium, 
or  Holland,  but  sober  English,  home-made  Jiarratives  where  if  nothing 
be  “extenuated”,  naught  has  been  “put  down  in  malice”. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


57 


The  Good  Qualities  of  the  Sharpshooter’s  Wife. 

Nevertheless  she  possesses  some  remarkably  good 
qualities,  and,  without  her  aid,  the  expeditions  into  the 
interior  would  be  unable  to  operate.  In  fact,  the 
Sharpshooter  will  never  carry  any  baggage,  and  the 
military  authorities  have  never  been  able  to  compel 
him  to  bear  the  “ace  of  diamonds”,  or  knapsack, 
carried  by  the  French  footsoldier.  When  he  is  on  an 
expedition,  his  load  consists  of  a huckaback  bag,  con- 
taining food,  and  a strip  of  tent  canvas,  worn  across 
the  body  from  left  to  right,  and  in  which  are  placed 
some  packets  of  spare  cartridges.  He  fills  the  two 
cartridge  pouches  he  carries  in  front,  and  puts  the 
rest  of  his  ammunition  into  a cartridge  bag  behind 
him.  At  his  side  is  a goat  skin  filled  with  water. 
His  wife  and  children  follow  him  in  his  expeditions. 
The  linen,  food,  kitchen  utensils,  etc.,  are  all  packed 
in  enormous  round  baskets,  which  the  Negresses  carry 
on  their  heads ; they  often  carry  more  than  a hundred 
weight,  and  with  that  burden  the  unlucky  wretches 
follow  the  march.  The  children  go  on  foot ; the  very 
little  ones  are  carried  astride  their  mothers’  buttocks. 
When  a halt  is  made,  the  women  build  huts  of  boughs, 
wash  the  linen,  and  cook  couscous.  When  the  hus- 
band is  on  guard,  the  gallants  take  advantage  of  their 
opportunities. 

If  the  wife  of  the  Sharpshooter  is  too  apt  to  open 
her  thighs,  at  all  events  she  is  good-hearted.  Ask 
anything  of  a Negress,  and  she  will  give  it  if  she 
has  it,  even  if  she  has  to  deprive  herself.  But  as  soon 
as  she  has  any  claim  on  your  gratitude,  she  will  often 
ask  for  her  “Sunday”.'  Happily  she  is  satisfied  with 
very  little,  and  a very  small  piece  of  money  will  satisfy 

' Soldiers’  slang;  to  ask  for  a Sunday  is  to  ask  for  a “tip,” 


0 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


her.  The  Negro  has  an  innate  weakness  for  presents, 
and,  whether  he  is  rich  or  poor,  a small  gift  will  always 
afford  him  pleasure. 

Polygamy  exists  amongst  all  the  Blacks,  but  the 
poorer  classes  generally  content  themselves  with  one 
wife.  The  rich  traders  of  Saint  Louis  have  as  many 
as  six,  one  for  each  day  of  the  week,  except  the 
Sunday,  when  they  rest.  ^ Only  the  marabouts  and 
the  great  chiefs  may  have  an  almost  unlimited  number 
of  wives,  but  I am  bound  in  duty  to  say  that  they 
never  abuse  the  privilege. 

Man’s  right  to  possess  a number  of  women  has  often 

' In  David’s  time  people  held  far  freer  ideas  about  women  than  we  do  to- 
day, e.g.  it  was  thought  right  for  them  to  possess  numerous  wives  and  to 
have  carnal  connections  with  other  women  besides.  According  to  Samuel 
(book  II,  3rd  chap.,  2 — 3)  six  sons  were  bom  in  Hebron  by  six  differ- 
ent mothers  to  the  Israelite  king.  Again  in  chap.  V,  verse  13  it  is 
said;  '■‘And  David  took  him  more  concubines  and  wives  out  of  Jertt- 
salem,  after  he  tvas  come  from  Hebron;”  and  yet  it  is  said  (in  l Kings 
XV,  3)  that  "David  did  that  which  was  right  in  the  eves  of  the  Lord, 
and  turned  not  aside  from  anything  that  he  cornmanded  hhn  all  the 
davs  of  his  life,  save  only  in  the  matter  of  Uriah  the  Hittite.” 
Probably  it  was  this  which  caused  Dryden  to  write : 

“When  nature  prompted,  and  no  law  deny’d 
Promiscuous  use  of  concubine  and  bride  ; 

Then  Israel’s  monarch,  after  Heaven’s  own  heart, 

His  vigorous  warmth  did  variously  impart 
To  wives  and  slaves  ; and  wide  as  his  command, 

Scattered  his  Maker’s  image  through  the  land.” 

Absalom  and  Achilophel. 

Few  people  will  dissent  from  the  shrewd  observations  of  Max 
Nordau  : — “Man  lives  in  a state  of  polygamy  in  the  civilised  countries 
in  spite  of  the  monogamy  enforced  by  the  laws  ; out  of  100,000  men 
there  would  barely  be  one  who  could  affirm  that  he  had  never  had 
fleshly  commerce  with  but  one  single  woman  during  his  whole  life;  and 
if  the  principles  of  monogamy  are  more  strictly  observed  by  women, 
U is  not  because  they  have  never  had  any  inclination  to  dis- 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


59 


been  called  in  question ; yet  such  right  after  all  is 
merely  a question  of  latitude  and  longitude,  of  age 
and  country.  Bigamy  is  severely  punished  in  Europe, 
but  Oriental  countries  regard  sexual  weaknesses  with 
great  leniency,  providing,  of  course,  it  is  not  a case  of 
adultery. 

Westermarck  in  his  History  of  Human  Marriage 
has  the  following  masterly  summing  up  of  this  fasci- 
nating study; — “Polygyny  was  permitted  by  most  of 
the  ancient  peoples  within  the  historic  period,  and  is 
at  present  permitted  by  several  civilised  nations  and 
by  the  majority  of  savage  tribes.  Yet,  among  not  a 
few  savage  and  barbarous  races  it  is  almost  unknown, 
or  even  prohibited  ; and  almost  everywhere  it  is  confined 
to  the  smaller  part  of  the  people,  the  vast  majority 
being  monogamous.  Moreover,  where  polygyny  occurs, 
it  is  modified,  as  a rule,  in  two  ways  that  tend  towards 
monogamy : through  the  higher  position  granted  to 
one  of  the  wives,  generally  the  first  married,  and 
through  the  favour  constantly  shown  by  the  husband 
to  the  wife  he  likes  best.  Among  certain  peoples 
polyandry  occurs,  and,  like  polygyny,  is  modified  in 
a monogamous  direction,  the  first  husband  usually  being 
the  chief  husband.  Among  the  causes  by  which  the 
forms  of  marriage  are  influenced,  the  numerical  pro- 
portion between  the  sexes  plays  an  important  part. 


regard  them,  but  because  Conventional  Morality  keeps  a sharper  look-out 
upon  woman’s  conduct  and  punishes  her  lapses  more  severely  than  man’s.” 
Conventional  Lies,  etc.,  page  30. 

See  much  more  on  this  subject  in  the  Book  of  Exposition  on  the 
“ Sen.suai.ism  of  the  Koranic  Paradise”  (XXI  to  XLI). 

For  comparison  with  Polyandry  see  the  Excursus  (p.  84)  at  end  of  this 
chapter;  and  also  refer  to  Ch.  Letourneau’S  L’ Evolution  dti  Mariage 
et  de  la  Famille  (Paris,  1888). 


6o 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


In  some  countries  there  are  more  men  than  women, 
in  others  more  women  than  men.  This  disproportion 
is  due  to  various  causes,  such  as  female  infanticide, 
war,  and  disparity  in  the  number  of  the  sexes  at  birth. 
There  are  facts  which  seem  to  show  that  in  rough 
mountainous  countries  more  boys  are  born  than  girls, 
and  that  consanguineous  marriages  produce  a con- 
siderable excess  of  male  births.  If  this  be  so,  it  can 
hardly  be  a mere  coincidence  that  polyandry  occurs 
chiefly  among  mountaineers  and  peoples  who  are 
endogamous  in  a very  high  degree.  As  for  polygyny, 
there  are  several  reasons  why  a man  may  desire  to 
possess  more  than  one  wife.  Among  many  peoples 
the  husband  has  to  live  apart  from  his  wife  during 
her  pregnancy,  and  as  long  as  she  suckles  her  child. 
Female  youth  and  beauty  have  for  men  a powerful 
attraction,  and  among  peoples  at  the  lower  stages  of 
civilisation  women  generally  become  old  much  sooner 
than  in  more  advanced  communities.  The  liking  of 
men  for  variety  is  also  a potent  factor ; and  to  have 
many  wives  is  to  have  many  labourers.  The  barren- 
ness of  a wife  is  another  very  common  reason  for 
the  choice  of  a new  partner,  as  desire  for  offspring, 
for  various  reasons,  is  universal  in  mankind. 

“ In  a savage  and  barbarous  state  a man’s  power  and 
wealth  are  proportionate  to  the  number  of  his  offspring. 
Nevertheless,  however  desirable  polygyny  may  be  from 
the  man’s  point  of  view,  it  is  prohibited  among  many 
peoples,  and  among  most  of  the  others  it  is  exceptional. 
Where  the  amount  of  female  labour  is  limited,  and  no 
accumulated  property  exists,  it  may  be  very  difficult 
for  a man  to  keep  a plurality  of  wives.  Again,  where 
female  labour  is  of  considerable  value,  the  necessity  of 
paying  the  purchase-sum  for  a wife  is  a hindrance 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


6 I 

to  polygyny,  which  can  be  pvercome  only  by  the 
wealthier  men.  Polygyny  implies  a violation  of  the 
feelings  of  women ; hence,  where  due  respect  is  paid 
to  these,  monogamy  is  considered  the  only  proper  form 
of  marriage.  The  refined  pas.sion  of  love,  which  depends 
not  only  on  external  attractions,  but  on  sympathy  arising 
from  mental  qualities,  forms  a Lie  between  husband 
and  wife  which  lasts  for  life ; and  the  true  monogamous 
instincts,  the  absorbing  passion  for  one,  is  a powerful 
obstacle  to  polygynous  habits.  It  is  certain  that  poly- 
gyny has  been  less  prevalent  at  the  lowest  stages  of 
civilisation — where  wars  do  not  seriously  disturb  the 
proportion  of  the  sexes ; where  life  is  chiefly  supported 
by  hunting,  and  female  labour  is  consequently  of  slight 
value ; where  there  is  no  accumulation  of  wealth  and 

V 

no  distinction  of  class — than  it  is  at  somewhat  higher 
states:  and  it  seems  probable  that  monogamy  prevailed 
almost  exclusively  among  our  earliest  human  ancestors. 
But,  though  civilisation  up  to  a certain  point  is  favour- 
able to  polygyny,  its  higher  forms  invariably  and 
necessarily  lead  to  monogamy.” 

Burton  comes  to  the  following  conclusions  based  on 
the  reasoning  that  the  relations  of  the  sexes  are  all  a 
question  of  climate. 

“ The  world  shows  that  while  women  have  more 
philoprogenitiveness,  men  have  more  amativeness ; 
otherwise  the  latter  would  not  propose  and  would 
nurse  the  doll  and  baby.  Fact,  however,  in  low-lying 
lands,  like  Persian  Mazanderan  versus  the  Plateau ; 
Indian  Malabar  compared  with  Maratha-land;  California 
as  opposed  to  Utah  and  especially  Egypt  contrasted 
with  Arabia.  In  these  hot-damp  climates  the  venereal 
requirements  and  reproductive  powers  of  the  female 
greatly  exceed  those  of  the  male;  and  hence  the  disso- 


62 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


luteness  of  morals  would  be  phenomenal,  were  it  not 
obviated  by  seclusion,  the  sabre  and  the  revolver.  In 
cold-dry  or  hot-dry  mountainous  lands  the  reverse  is 
the  case;  hence  polygamy  there  prevails,  whilst  the 
low  countries  require  polyandry  in  either  form,  legal 
or  illegal  {i.c.  prostitution).  I have  discussed  this 
curious  point  of  ‘ geographical  morality  ’ (for  all  morality 
is,  like  conscience,  both  geographical  and  chronological), 
a subject  so  interesting  to  the  lawgiver,  the  student  of 
ethics  and  the  anthropologist,  in  ‘ The  City  of  the  Saints.’ 
But  strange  and  unpleasant  truths  progress  slowly, 
especially  in  England.”  i 

The  Head  Mistress  of  the  House  is  always  the 
first  wife  married ; the  others  are  considered  as  servants, 
which  reminds  one  of  the  history  of  Sarah  and  Hagar, 
the  two  wives  of  Abraham.  But  if  there  are  any  quarrels 
or  discord  in  the  house,  amongst  the  women,  the  husband 
will  restore  harmony  by  thrashing  them  all  round,  with 
strict  impartiality.  Any  man  may  take  a captive  to  wife, 
and  as  long  as  she  is  sterile,  he  may  sell,  or  get  rid 
of  her.  If  she  has  any  children,  she  acquires  legitimate 
rights,  and  becomes  an  integral  part  of  the  family. 

Jealousy  is  unknown  to  the  Negress.  All 

Negresses,  to  whatever  race  they  may  belong,  have 
one  characteristic  in  common,  and  that  is  the  almost 
entire  absence  of  jealousy  in  regard  to  their  lord  and 
master.  This  is  evidently  the  result  of  the  right  of 
the  husband  to  possess  several  wives.  The  same 
Negress,  who  was  boasting  to  Mme  D . . . of  the  high 
price  her  husband  had  paid  to  obtain  her  hand,  came 
some  months  afterwards  to  pay  a visit,  and  announce 
^Arabian  Nights  (vol.  Ill,  page  241)  (Benares?),  1885. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


63 


that  she  was  in  an  interesting  condition.  She  had 
also  a favour  to  ask.  Her  husband  was  about  to  leave 
for  the  Upper  River,  and  needed  some  money  to 
purchase  a second  wife;  she  had  therefore  come  to 
borrow  two  hundred  francs  for  this  purpose.  The 
money  was  needed  for  a payment  on  account,  and 
the  marriage  was  to  take  place  before  the  departure 
of  the  trader,  who  on  his  return  would  be  sure  to 
repay  the  loan,  and  complete  the  payment  due  to  the 
parents  of  his  second  wife.  On  hearing  this  very 
naive  request,  little  Mme  D . . . burst  into  a passion 
and  cried,  “ What ! unhappy  woman,  you  want  to 
borrow  money  for  your  husband  to  buy  another  wife? 
Are  you  not  jealous?”  “Jealous,  what  is  that?”  asked 
the  Negress.  “Why,”  replied  the  White  woman,  “to 
be  the  only  wifej  the  only  mistress  in  your  own  house, 
the  only  one  to  share  your  husband’s  bed.” 

“Oh,  I don’t  care  about  that,”  answered  the  other. 
“ My  husband  is  always  on  me  now,  and  that  is  very 
fatiguing.  ' When  there  are  two  of  us,  we  shall  each 
have  half  of  the  work.  When  there  are  three,  there 
will  always  be  one  resting,  and  when  there  are  four, 
we  shall  have  almost  nothing  to  do  except  take  care 
of  the  children,  and  we  can  talk,  and  amuse  ourselves. 
Besides,  if  our  husband  beats  us,  we  can  defend  our- 
selves all  the  better.” 

If  a Negress  is  beaten  undeservedly,  by  her  hus- 
band, the  other  wives  will  take  her  part.  He  had 
better  not  go  too  far,  if  he  is  in  the  wrong,  for,  in 
her  hands,  the  heavy  pestle  for  grinding  millet  becomes 

‘ A very  curious  story  is  that  given  in  No.  XXXVIII  Lcs  Cent 
Nouvelles  Nonvclles,  where  the  question  of  “ marital  fatigue  ” plays  an 
important  part.  Vide  also  on  “ P'lagellation  in  France ’’ in  The  Curious 
Bypaths  of  History"  (Paris,  1898). 


64  UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF  ANTHROPOLOGY. 

a formidable  weapon.  In  this  case,  the  husband  has 
but  one  alternative;  he  must  either  knuckle  under,  or 
clear  out  of  the  house  as  quickly  as  he  can. 

Divorce.  When  a woman  is  ill-treated  too  much, 
he  is  free  to  leave  her  husband,  and  even  take 
another,  provided  she  returns  the  sum  paid  for  her. 
This  summary  method  of  divorce,  though  it  does  not 
agree  with  the  ethics  of  civilised  nations,  has  the  great 
advantage  of  rendering  the  relations  between  husband 
and  wife  more  affectionate  than  might  at  first  be 
believed.  Children  do  not  interfere  with  this  amicable 
arrangement,  for  they  follow  the  mother,  and  the  new 
husband  takes  both  hen  and  chickens. 

As  to  the  slave  who  is  a temporary  mistress,  so 
long  as  she  has  no  children  by  her  master,  she  has 
no  rights.  To  be  kept  as  long  as  she  is  young  and 
pretty,  and  sold  as  soon  as  she  has  ceased  to  please, 
is  her  usual  fate. 


CHAPTER  V. 


The  hvme7t. — Large  and  small  lips. — Clitoris. — The  jork  ana 
the  navel. — A study  of  the  genital  organs  of  the  Negro  races  oj 
Africa. — Marks  of  virginity  m the  young  girl. — Circumcision  of 
young  girls. — The  festival  of  same. — The  nubile  Negress. — 
The  gejiital  organ  of  the  Negro.  — The  Perforated  Kabyle 
ivoman. — Circiancision  the  probable  cause  of  the  size  of  the 
Negro's  penis.  — The  effect  of  circimicision  on  the  size  of  the  penis 
of  the  pubescent  boy .—Mantegazza  on  the  genital  organs  of  the 
Negi'oes. — Tfis  opinion  o?i  cPamicision.- — The  incontestable 

advajitages  of  this  opei'ation.  — The  suppressioti  of  masturbation 
in  the  circmncised'l—The  festival  of  cirawteision  amongst 
Fetish  ivorshippei's. — Excui'sus  by  Dr.  Godard  on  the  defloration 
of  virgms  in  Egypt.  — Sir  R.  F.  Burton  on  Dahomey  an  customs. 
— Female  Infanticide. — Thibeta)i  nuptial  customs. — The  Hottentot 
Apron" . — The  pe7foratio7i  of  the  penis  amo?igst  Austi’alian 
tribes. 

I INSERT  here  some  of  the  medical  observations  and 
notes  I made  at  Guiana,  concerning  the  young  Negresses, 
as  these  observations  agree  perfectly,  or  with  very 
slight  differences,  with  those  made  at  Senegal. 

The  Hymen  exists  in  the  Black  race,  as  it  does 
in  the  White.  But  it  is  much  less  developed,  and 
constitutes  a much  less  efficacious  barrier  against 
copulation,  especially  when  it  is  effected  with  a penis 
like  that  of  the  White  man,  which  is  not  so  huge  as 
that  of  the  adult  Black.  I am  speaking  now  of  the 
pure  Black  race.  Amongst  races  of  Semitic  origin, 
like  the  Sarrakholais,  the  hymen  is  more  resisting. 


66 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


According  to  Tardieu,  in  the  French  virgin,  the  hymen 
will  not  admit  the  end  of  the  first  finger.  In  the 
case  of  the  young  Negress,  however,  you  can  generally 
put  in  the  first  finger  without  destroying  the  hymen. 
With  her  the  vulva  is  not  so  open  at  the  upper  part, 
but  hardly  closed,  if  at  all,  in  the  lower  part.  The 
opening  rarely  points  forward,  it  is  rather  obliquely 
downwards. 

Large  and  Small  Lips.  In  the  Negress,  the  small 
lips  assume,  at  an  early  age,  an  immense  development, 
and  considerably  exceed  the  great.  Is  this  caused  by 
repeated  pulling,  or  is  it  a peculiarity  of  the  race?  I 
cannot  say,  but  this  lengthening  coincides  with  nubility, 
and  amongst  the  fetish  worshippers,  excision  is  the 
general  rule. 

Clitoris.  The  clitoris  of  the  young  Negress  is  very 
much  developed.  After  the  nubile  age  it  increases 
greatly. 

The  Fork  and  the  Navel.  The  projection  of  the 
fork  is  not  so  great  as  in  the  European  woman. 

Operations  on  Female  Sexual  Organs.  Before 
proceeding  to  study  the  customs  relating  to  the 
circumcision  of  girls,  we  think  it  will  be  of  interest 
to  quote  a few  remarks  by  our  late,  indefatigable 
friend.  Dr.  Floss  (of  Leipzig),  on  the  operative  treatment 
of  female  sexual  organs  among  different  peoples. 

“Certain  savage  tribes,”  he  writes,  “ are  accustomed 
to  lengthen  and  widen  the  female  pudenda.  In  the 
South-East  of  Africa,  in  the  Wahia  tribe,  near  the 
lake  Nyassa,  it  is  usual  to  artificially  lengthen  the 
clitoris  until  it  attains  the  dimension  of  a finger.  An 
artificial  elongation  of  the  labia  has  also  been  observed 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


67 


in  Dahomey  ” ( Vide,  Adams,  Remarks  07t  the  coimtry 
East  from  Cape  Palmas  to  the  Congo  river,  1823,  p. 
15  — 75).  Prince  Max  of  Neuwied  noticed  a similar 
artificial  deformity  among  the  women  of  the  Mandan 
Indians  in  North  America,  and  mentions  also  the  same 
custom  of  elongation  of  the  labia  pude^idi  among  the 
Menitary  and  Crow  Indians,  both  externally  and 
internally.  Similarly  the  Trihadie  or  A7uor  lesbicus, 
among  the  Arabs,  leads  also  to  an  artificial  extension 
of  the  clitoris. 

But  what  is  far  more  important  from  the  anthropo- 
logical point  of  view  is  the  study  of  more  sanguinary 
operations : the  circumcision  and  infibulation  of  maidens. 
Among  some  nations  both  operations  are  simultaneously 
performed,  in  others  either  of  the  two.  We  will  now 
examine  the  7nodus  opera7idi,  the  importance,  the  object 
and  the  results  of  the  operation,  and  the  countries 
where  it  is  most  practised. 

The  Excision  of  the  Clitoris.  This  operation 
consists  in  a bloody  extirpation  and  uprooting  of  the 
clitoris,  together  with  the  prcepiitiiun  clitoridis  and  a 
part  of  the  small  labia,  and  even  sometimes  a part  of 
the  entry  to  the  vagina. 

This  strange  and  cruel  custom  prevails  in  a great 
number  of  countries,  not  only  in  Africa,  but  in  many 
other  lands.  It  is  found  among  the  Arabs,  in  Egypt, 
in  A^ubia,  in  Abyssinia,  in  Kordofan  and  the  neigh- 
bouring districts  and  among  numerous  tribes  on  the 
East  coast  of  Africa,  as  well  as  among  those  of  the 
West  coast.  It  has  also  been  noticed  in  the  Malay 
Archipelago,  particularly  in  Java,  and  among  the 
Chuncho  and  Campas  Indians  in  Peru. 

It  is  very  difficult  to  trace  the  cause  of  this  custom. 


68 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


Some  are  of  opinion  that  it  is  for  the  purpose  of 
diminishing  sexual  lust  in  the  female.  There  are  others, 
however,  who  pretend  that  in  those  tropical  climates 
the  clitoris  and  labia  often  take  such  undue  develop- 
ment as  to  become  objects  of  repulsion  to  the  male, 
and  consequently  an  obstacle  to  marriage.  According 
to  Mungo  Park,  the  Mandingo  Negroes,  in  West  Africa, 
do  not  attach  any  religious  signification  to  the  operation, 
but  consider  it  useful  and  favourable  to  the  fecundity 
of  the  woman.  This  is  also  the  case  in  the  Malay 
Archipelago,  where  the  development  of  the  pudenda 
is  often  excessive.  The  operation  is  generally  performed 
as  early  as  possible,  but  seldom  later  than  the  eighth 
or  ninth  year.  The  operators  are  women,  who  go 
about  crying ; “ Any  girls  to  be  cut ; ” the  instrument 
employed  is  simply  a sharp  knife. 

It  is  usual  in  all  parts  of  Africa,  where  this  custom 
is  practised  for  a number  of  girls  to  be  circumcised 
together,  and  when  they  are  healed,  which  requires 
about  eight  days,  a festival  is  held  in  their  honour. 
A girl  uncircumcised  would  be  repudiated  by  her 
husband,  as  he  could  also  be  by  his  wife  if  he  had 
not  undergone  the  operation. 

Infibulation. — The  Sewing  up  of  Maids.  This 
operation  consisted  principally  in  sewing  up  the  labia, 
or  in  removing  them  by  excision  and  causing  the 
wounded  surfaces  to  heal  together  by  adherence,  leaving 
only  a small  orifice  free.  It  is  common  among  the 
Gallas,  Somalis  and  Bedschas  above  the  Nile  cataracts 
and  from  there  extends  among  the  inhabitants  of 
Harrar  to  Massowa  on  the  Red  Sea.  The  custom 
seems  to  be  of  very  great  antiquity  and  is  mentioned 
by  the  celebrated  ancient  Arab  doctor  Rhazes,  in  his 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


69 


work  of  ten  volumes  dedicated  to  King  A1  Mansur, 
Lib.  V,  c.  69. 

The  object  of  the  operation  is  evidently  to  insure 
the  chastity  of  the  maiden  until  her  marriage,  previous 
to  which  she  has  to  undergo  the  counter-operation. 
When  the  husband  starts  upon  a journey,  he  often 
submits  his  wife  to  a new  infibulation  to  make  sure 
that  no  one  shall  trespass  on  his  premises  during  his 
absence.  Slave-dealers  also  employ  that  method  to 
insure  the  value  of  their  merchandise.  According  to 
Brehm  {Reises kizze7i  in  Nord-Ost  Africa,  Jena,  1885, 
Th.  I,  S.  169) : the  Mohammedan  law  requires  circumci- 
sion only,  but  the  inhabitants  of  the  Sudan  are  not 
satisfied  with  this,  “ sed  etia}>i  labiis  jninoribus  {Nymphis) 
abscissis  labia  majora  inde  a Ve^ieris  monte  iisque  ad 
vaginam  sanando  ita  copulant,  lit  fistula  sola  ad 
urinam  fundendam  pateat"  (but  also,  the  lesser  lips 
or  nymphee  being  cut  away,  the  greater  lips,  right 
from  the  nions  Veneris  to  the  vagina,  unite  in  process 
of  healing,  so  that  only  a narrow  pipe  is  left  open  for  the 
discharge  of  the  urine).  When  marriage  is  decided 
upon,  the  future  bridegroom  sends  a wooden  model  of 
his  priapus  to  the  parents  of  the  young  lady,  and 
according  to  its  dimension  a corresponding  opening  is 
made.  Cailliaud,  in  his  Travels  on  the  White  Nile  to 
Mero^  and  Senaar,  Paris,  1826,  II,  alluding  to  this 
barbarous  custom,  expresses  himself  as  follows : “Apres 
avoir  elague  ces  deux  membranes,  les  plaies  de  I’une 
et  de  I’autre  sont  rapprochees,  et  la  patiente  est  tenue 
dans  un  etat  d’immobilite  presque  entiere  jusqu’a  ce 
qu’elles  se  soient  reunies  ensemble  par  agglutination  ; 
au  moyen  d’une  canule  tres  mince  on  menage  une 
ouverture,  a peine  suffi.sante  pour  les  ecoulements 
naturels.  Quelque  temps  avant  le  manage,  il  faut 


70 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


detruire  par  incision  cette  adherence  contraire  a la 
nature.”  It  is  usually  not  less  than  twenty  days  before 
marriage  that  the  young  girl  is  submitted  to  this  cruel 
operation  of  opening  out.  When  the  wife  is  about  to 
give  birth  to  a child  the  opening  has  to  be  enlarged, 
and  after  her  confinement  is  often  sewn  up  again 
(Rtippel’s  Travels  m Nubia  and  Kordofan,  etc., 
Frankfort,  1829,  p.  42).  ^ 

Circumcision  of  Young  Girls.  This  form  of 
circumcision  is  peculiar  to  those  tribes  that  are  fetish 
worshippers,  and  consists  of  the  excision  of  the  lesser 
lips.  It  is  not  a religious  ceremony  at  all,  but  simply 
a matter  of  hygiene.  It  should  be  remarked,  that 
amongst  these  races,  it  is  the  blacksmith-surgeon  who 
circumcises  the  boys,  and  it  is  his  wife  who  circum- 
cises the  girls.  The  instrument  employed  in  both  cases 
is  an  iron  knife,  very  badly  sharpened,  and  more  like 
a saw  than  a surgical  instrument.  But  though  the 
operation  is  not  a religious  ceremony,  it  is  celebrated 
by  a curious  festival,  which  is  a kind  of  holiday  for  the 
whole  population  of  the  village.  On  that  day,  everyone 
puts  on  his  best  clothes,  and  all  the  people  meet  on 
the  public  place,  to  the  sound  of  the  griots’  tam-tam. 

The  Festival  of  the  Circumcision  of  Girls. 

Accompanied  by  horrible  music,  consisting  of  tam- 
tams and  other  instruments,  and  the  songs  of  the 
griots,  the  young  girls  who  are  to  be  operated  upon, 
— superbly  dressed,  and  wearing  all  the  family  jewels, 
— make  the  circuit  of  the  village,  and  return  to  the 
public  place,  when  a ball  immediately  commences,  and 

^ Zeitschrift  fiir  Ethnologic  for  1871. 

See  Dr.  Godard’s  article,  in  connection  with  this  subject,  on  the 
defloration  of  virgins,  in  the  Excursus  to  present  chapter. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


71 


lasts  twenty-four  hours.  When  they  are  worn  out 
with  fatigue,  they  are  carried  by  the  old  matrons 
into  the  hut  where  the  circumcision  is  to  take  place. 
The  operation  is  performed  at  daybreak,  when  all  the 
women  of  the  village  go  alone  to  the  hut  of  the 
blacksmith  and  his  wife,  who  has  to  perform  the 
operation.  She  sets  to  work  in  this  manner.  The 
patient  is  seated  on  a block  of  wood  about  eighteen 

inches  high,  placed  at  a little  distance  from  the  wall 

of  the  hut.  When  she  sits  she  opens  her  thighs  as 

widely  as  possible ; the  body  is  bent  back,  and  the 

head,  which  is  held  nearly  horizontal,  touches  the  wall. 
The  arms,  which  are  thrown  back,  lean  on  a little 
bench,  which  runs  along  the  side  of  the  wall.  In  this 
position,  the  vulva  is  open,  and  the  “ little  lips”  project. 
The  woman  squats  down  in  front  of  the  girl,  lays  hold 
of  the  right  lip  with  the  left  hand  and  cuts  if  off  with 
a sharp  stroke ; then  she  performs  the  same  operation 
on  the  left  side.  To  stop  the  bleeding,  she  applies  a 
plaster,  the  base  of  which  is  ferruginous  mud  from  the 
smithy,  mixed  with  water  containing  a little  alum.  This 
plaster  is  not  only  a styptic,  but  cicatrises  the  wound. 
The  patient  must  remain  in  the  house  a week.  During 
the  three  or  four  following  weeks,  a troop  of  girls  may 
be  seen  every  morning,  limping,  with  sticks  in  their 
hands,  to  the  river,  to  perform  their  ablutions.  At 
last  the  bandage  is  taken  off,  and  they  can  play  about 
as  much  as  they  please.  ^ 

The  Nubile  Negress.  The  epithet  vast  may  be 
applied  even  more  fitly  to  the  Negresses  of  Senegal, 
than  to  those  of  Guiana.  On  account  of  the  size  of 

’ Refer  to  notes  by  Sir  Rich.  F.  Burton  on  certain  Customs  of  the 
Dahoineyans  in  the  E.xcursiis  to  this  chapter;  also  to  the  Hottentot 
“ Apron  ”. 


72 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  01 


the  vulva,  and  the  vagina,  and  the  want  of  nervous 
susceptibility  in  the  Negress,  delivery  is  effected  almost 
without  pain.  In  the  adult  Negress,  the  vulva  is  placed 
very  low,  and  descends  almost  vertically,  as  does  also 
the  vagina,  which  is  much  longer  than  in  the  European 
woman.  There  is  a very  pronounced  clitoris,  which  is 
often  the  size  of  the  little  finger  of  an  adult.  The 
pubes  is  prominent,  and  is  covered  with  some  stiff  and 
hard  hair.  The  Negresses  shave  themselves  with  the 
neck  of  a broken  bottle. 

The  Genital  Organ  of  the  Negro.  According  to 
the  usual  law,  to  which  this  is  no  exception,  the  geni- 
tal organ  of  the  male  is  in  proper  proportion,  as  regards 
size,  to  the  dimensions  of  the  female  organ.  In  fact, 
with  the  exception  of  the  Arab,  who  runs  him  very 
close  in  this  respect,  the  Negro  of  Senegal  possesses 
the  largest  genital  organ  of  all  the  races  of  mankind. 
It  is  even  more  developed  than  that  of  the  Negro  of 
Guiana.  While  dealing  with  this  subject,  we  may  be 
permitted  to  cite  the  following  case,  reported  by  a 
brother  officer,  of  perforation  of  the  vagina  of  a young 
Kabyle  woman  non-nubile,  caused  by  the  sexual  approach 
of  her  husband. 

The  Perforated  Kabyle  Woman.  ’ On  the  25th 
of  September,  1869,  in  the  village  of  El-Mesloub,  the 
young  Aini-Ntamrant,  of  the  Beni-Raten  tribe,  aged 
twelve  and  married  since  about  thirty  days  to  El 
Haoussin  or  Ali,  a youth  of  from  15  to  16  years  old, 
died  suddenly. 

Public  rumour,  from  the  very  next  morning,  accused 

‘ This  note  was  commiinicated  by  M.  Prosp.  Albert,  medecin  aide- 
inajor  de  classe,  at  the  military  hospital  of  Tizi-Ozou  (Algeria) 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


73 


the  husband  of  having  killed  his  wife  by  premature 
and  forced  conjugal  approach.  The  Amyn  or  judge 
of  the  tribe  thought  it  his  duty  to  have  the  body  sent 
to  the  Burcmi  Arade,  and  we  were  charged  to  pro- 
ceed to  a posf  vwrtem  examination  of  it.  The  follow- 
ing was  the  result. 

The  body  is  that  of  a quite  young  girl  not  yet 
developed.  She  is  thin,  and  the  ^nammce  are  not  yet 
elevated  above  the  surface  of  the  breast,  nor  is  there 
yet  any  hair  on  the  pubis,  which  is  merely  covered 
with  down.  The  vulva  is  but  imperfectly  developed, 
and  the  girl  had  never  been  nubile.  Her  conforma- 
tion and  her  exterior  genital  organs  were  those  of  a 
child.  A close  examination  showed  that  the  fork  was 
torn  vertically  downwards  for  a distance  of  three 
tenths  of  an  inch ; the  rent  extends  through  the  navi- 
cular  fossa  into  the  vagina.  There  is  no  trace  of  the 
hymen  left,  but  in  its  place  red  excoriations.  On 
further  examination  the  vagina  was  found  to  be  ex- 
tremely short,  measuring  not  more  than  inch  in  depth, 
and  at  its  inner  extremity  there  was  an  opening 
through  which  the  finger  could  penetrate  right  into 
the  abdomen. 

The  uterus  is  that  of  a child  and  weighs  only  three 
grammes.  All  these  facts  show  positively  that  Aini- 
Ntamrant  was  quite  unfit  for  marriage,  and  her  hus- 
band must  have  used  the  utmost  violence  to  have 
caused  the  lesions  we  noticed.  The  examination  of  the 
brain  showed  that  death  was  owing  to  intense  cerebral 
congestion. 

We  caused  the  young  husband  of  the  victim  to 
appear  before  us.  He  is  a lad  of  15  or  16  years  old: 
of  middle  height,  well  constituted,  but  thin.  He  has 
no  beard,  and  but  little  hair  on  the  pubis,  which 


74 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


besides  is  shaved.  His  genital  organs  are  greatly 
developed  for  his  age.  His  testicles  are  voluminous. 
From  the  tip  of  the  gland  to  its  insertion  in  the 
pubis  the  penis  measures  three  inches  and  one  sixth 
in  length;  its  average  circumference  is  inches. 

Is  it  necessary  to  draw  attention  to  the  enormous 
disproportion  between  the  volume  and  length  of  the 
penis  of  this  young  man,  when  in  a state  of  erection, 
and  the  opening  of  the  vulva  and  length  of  the  vagina 
of  his  wife. 

From  his  own  admissions  we  gleaned  the  following: 
the  marriage  took  place  a month  ago,  but  the  first 
conjugal  approaches  were  so  painful  to  her  that  the 
girl  wanted  to  go  back  to  her  mother.  But  he  refused 
to  let  her  do  so,  promising  however,  to  have  patience. 
Unfortunately  he  could  not  contain  himself  and  the 
extreme  violence  he  used,  notwithstanding  the  suppli- 
cations of  his  wife,  ruptured  the  vagina,  the  walls  of 
which  we  had  besides  noticed  to  be  very  thin. 

This  unfortunately  is  one  of  the  examples  of  the 
disadvantages  of  the  Koran,  which  omits  to  assign  an 
inferior  limit  of  age  to  marriage  between  young  people.  ‘ 

Circumcision  the  Probable  Cause  of  the  Size  of 
the  Negro’s  Penis.  Without  any  hesitation  I attribute 
the  size  of  the  penis  to  the  operation  of  circumcision. 
It  is  certain  that  the  removal  of  that  portion  of  the 
skin,  and  the  mucous  surface  of  the  foreskin,  which 
compresses  and  caps  the  gland,  and  often  prevents  it 
coming  out  even  when  in  erection,  interferes  with  the 
free  development  of  the  young  boy’s  organ.  We  know 
that  at  the  time  of  puberty,  in  the  European,  consid- 

' Mcmoires  de  jncdccinc  et  de  chirurgie  militaires.  Paris,  8vo., 
p.  142 — 146. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


75 


erable  changes  in  the  genital  organ  are  produced  in 
a few  months.  The  testicles  grow  very  quickly  and 
the  member  develops  rapidly.  But  in  many  young 
people  there  is  complete  phimosis,  owing  to  the  small- 
ness of  the  free  extremity  of  the  foreskin,  more  especi- 
ally in  those  who  at  the  age  of  puberty  are  not  addicted 
to  masturbation.  It  has  often  occurred  to  me,  in  the 
course  of  my  medical  visits  to  the  barracks,  to  notice 
that  many  of  the  young  French  soldiers  had  the  mem- 
ber of  a completely  conical  form,  diminishing  gradually 
from  the  root  of  the  gland.  The  foreskin  covered  it 
entirely,  and  the  member  was  skinned  with  difficulty, 
when  it  was  limp,  and  with  more  difficulty  still  when 
it  was  erect.  In  other  cases,  if  an  incomplete  phimosis 
allowed  the  glaijd  to  partly  come  out,  the  shortness 
of  the  “ bridle  ” of  the  foreskin  curved  the  gland,  and 
prevented  it  from  assuming  its  normal  form  and  posi- 
tion. This  is  phimosis,  which  is  common  enough  in 
all  the  European  races,  and  which  can  only  be  got 
rid  of  by  a more  or  less  complete  circumcision,  which, 
however,  many  persons  refuse  to  have  done,  unless  it 
is  an  absolute  necessity.  Now  let  us  look  at  the  young 
Negro  of  thirteen  or  fourteen,  who  is  circumcised  at  the 
age  of  puberty.  ' 

The  Effect  of  Circumcision  on  the  Size  of  the 
Penis  of  the  Pubescent  Boy.  A fairly  large  cush- 
ion of  flesh  and  skin  is  removed,  and  the  retraction 
draws  the  skin  of  the  penis  behind  the  crown  of  the 
gland,  to  the  extent  of  two-fifth  to  four-fifths  of  an 
inch  at  least ; when  the  penis  afterwards  develops,  the 
gland,  having  nothing  to  check  it,  will  assume  its 

' See  also  The  Perforation  of  the  Penis  in  Australia^  at  end  of 
chapter. 


76 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


normal  size.  Cicatrisation,  assisted  by  the  healing 
growth  which  repairs  the  loss  of  the  skin  and  mucous 
surface  taken  away,  causes  the  largest  part  of  the 
member  to  correspond  with  the  circular  scar  caused 
by  the  operation.  Although  the  gland  may  be  much 
developed,  its  diameter  still  remains  slightly  inferior 
to  this  part  of  the  penis,  which  on  the  whole  greatly 
resembles  a large  fish,  with  a round  head  and  a short 
tail.  We  can  then  understand  why  the  Negroes  of 
Guiana  call  their  member,  a fish. 

The  Negro  is  a real  “man-stallion”,  and  nothing 
can  give  a better  idea  (both  as  to  colour  and  size)  of 
the  organ  of  the  Negro,  when  erect,  than  the  tool  of 
a little  African  donkey.  The  absence  of  hair  on  the 
pubes — which  the  Negroes  remove, — makes  the  resem- 
blance more  complete.  Nor  is  it  confined  merely  to 
colour  and  size,  for  the  yard  of  the  Negro,  even  when 
in  complete  erection,  is  still  soft  like  that  of  the 
donkey,  and  when  pressed  by  the  hand  feels  (as  I 
have  already  said)  like  a thick  india-rubber  tube  full 
of  liquid.  Even  when  flabby,  the  Negro’s  yard  still 
retains  a size  and  consistence  that  are  greater  than 
that  of  the  European,  whose  organ  shrivels  up  and 
becomes  soft  and  limp.  The  average  size  of  the  penis 
generally  appeared  to  me  to  be  about  to  8 inches 
in  length,  by  two  inches  in  diameter.  Except  with 
young  lads,  just  arrived  at  the  age  of  puberty,  the 
penis  is  rarely  less  than  6^  inches  in  length  by  if 
inches  in  diameter.  I took  these  measurements  from 
the  Sharpshooters,  amongst  whom  I met  specimens  of 
most  of  the  races  of  Senegal  and  the  Upper  Niger. 
I often  came  across  a penis  of  pf  to  lo  inches,  by 
2 1 inches,  and  once,  in  a young  Bambara,  barely 
twenty  years  of  age,  found  a monstrous  organ  iif 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


77 


inches  long  by  2.6  inches  in  diameter  at  the  circular 
circumcision  mark. 

Mantegazza’s  Opinion  as  to  the  Size  of  the 
Genital  Organs  of  the  Negroes.  I find  in  Man- 
tegazza  ‘ an  exact  confirmation  of  what  I have  just 
said.  “ Observations  as  to  the  shape  and  dimensions 
of  the  genital  organs,  in  the  various  races,  are  not  as 
yet  very  numerous ; it  is  proved,  however,  that  the 
Negroes  generally  have  the  \firile  member  more  vo- 
luminous than  other  people,  and  I myself  verified  this 
statement,  during  the  years  in  which  I practised 
medicine  in  South  America.  The  size  of  the  genital 
parts  in  the  male  corresponds  to  the  huge  dimensions 
of  the  vagina  in  the  Negresses.  Falkenstein  remarked 
that  the  Negroes  of  Loango  had  huge  members,  and 
that  their  wives  reproached  our  men  with  having  such 
small  yards.  He  rejects  the  singular  idea  of  Topinard, 
who  states  that  it  is  only  when  flabby  that  this 
enormous  size  is  noticed,  and  that,  on  the  contrary, 
the  penis  is  reduced  in  size  when  erect.  Falkenstein  ^ 
also  observed  amongst  the  Negresses  of  Loango,  as 
amongst  us,  a great  difference  as  to  the  beginning  of 
menstruation  in  different  individuals.” 

But  I do  not  agree  with  Mantegazza  when  he 
discusses  the  advantages,  and  disadvantages,  of  circum- 
cision. 

Mantegazza’s  Opinion  of  Circumcision.  “ The 

historians  of  the  Jews  have  exaggerated  the  hygienic 

' Gli  Amori  degli  Uomini  di  Paolo  Mantegazza,  Senatore  del  Regno 
(Milan,  1892). 

^ Die  Loango- Kiiste  in  72  Original-PJiotographieii  (35  Blatt)  nchst 
erlduterndcm  Text,  Berlin,  1876. 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


7« 

value  of  circumcision.  It  is  true,  that  circumcised 
persons  are  rather  less  disposed  to  masturbation,  and 
to  venereal  diseases,  but  circumcision  is  above  all  a 
distinctive  mark,  and  a cruel  mutilation  of  the  protecting 
organ  of  the  gland,  and  destroys  the  pleasure  of 
copulation.  It  is  a bloody  protest  against  universal 
brotherhood,  and  though  Christ  was  circumcised,  he 
protested  on  the  Cross  against  all  those  marks  and 
symbols  which  divide  and  separate  men.  Dimerbroek 
says,  that  the  foreskin  increases  a woman’s  pleasure 
in  the  act  of  copulation,  and  that  is  why,  in  the  East, 
women  prefer  uncircumcised  men.  I should  not  like 
to  affirm  that  this  is  so,  because,  when  the  member  is 
in  erection,  the  circumcised  and  uncircumcised  yard  are 
exactly  alike.  In  any  case  it  would  need  a woman 
to  resolve  this  difficult  problem,  and  no  one  has  ever 
given  her  opinion  on  the  subject.  I only  know  that, 
amongst  civilised  people,  circumcision  is  an  absurdity, 
and  though  I am  by  no  means  an  antisemite,  and  have 
a great  esteem  for  the  Israelites,  I say,  and  shall  always 
say,  to  the  Jews:  Do  not  mutilate  yourselves,  and  im- 
print on  your  bodies  this  hateful  mark,  which  distin- 
guishes you  from  other  men.  As  long  as  you  do  so, 
you  can  never  pretend  to  be  our  equals.  For,  from 
the  first  days  of  your  life,  you  yourselves  proclaim,  by 
means  of  the  knife,  that  you  belong  to  a distinct  race, 
that  will  not  and  cannot  mingle  with  ours.” 

For  my  part,  my  opinion  is  radically  opposed 
to  that  of  Mantegazza,  for  reasons  which  I will  explain 
in  detail. 

The  Incontestable  Advantages  of  Circumcision. 

The  fact  is,  that  circumcision  offers  great  advantages, 
without  any  serious  inconveniences.  The  painful  ope- 


A.NTHROPOLOGY. 


79 


ration  is  the  principal  objection,  but  when  the  operation 
is  once  clone,  the  gland  remains  always  uncovered, 
and,  by  rubbing  against  the  clothes,  the  mucous  sur- 
face dries,  hardens,  and  becomes  tanned.  The  seba- 
ceous glands  of  the  crown  dry  up,  and  their  disagreeable 
secretion  disappears  almost  entirely.  The  general 
sensibility  of  the  organ  is  also  blunted,  and  copulation 
requires  a long  time  before  emission  takes  place.  But 
if  it  is  longer,  the  result  is  the  same  in  the  end  for 
the  man,  and  the  woman  gets  the  advantage.  I do 
not  think  there  are  many  women  who  will  contradict 
this  statement. 

The  immense  advantage  which  I find  in  circumci- 
sion is  the  almost  complete  suppression  of  all  the 
maladies  which  are  brought  on  by  completely  developed 
phimosis,  either  directly  or  indirectly  ; —balanitis,  prosta- 
titis, phlegmons  of  the  penis,  etc.  A penis  with  a 
dry  gland,  the  skin  of  which  is  slightly  tanned,  is 
infinitely  less  likely  to  contract  syphilis  than  a gland 
that  is  capped  by  a phimosis,  and  has  a fine  and  delicate 
skin,  and  a “ bridle  ” that  curbs  it  in.  The  least  scratch 
or  roughness,  in  the  mucous  covering  of  the  vagina, 
will  prove  infectious  to  such  a member. 

I hope  that  the  reader  will  be  of  my  opinion,  and 
conclude  that  Mantegazza  is  wrong. 

The  Suppression  of  Masturbation  in  the  Cir- 
cumcised. An  indisputable,  and  not  less  valuable 
advantage  of  circumcision  is,  that  it  almost  completely 
suppresses,  in  the  pubescent  youth,  the  vice  of  mastur- 
bation. In  fact,  I have  remarked  that  the  Negro  boy, 
who  practises  masturbation  before  he  is  circumcised, 
does  not  practise  it  afterwards.  He  never  experiences 
that  continual  tickling,  which  the  European,  provided 


8o 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


(unfortunately  for  him)  with  a perfect  phimosis,  feels 
to  such  a degree,  that,  if  he  does  not  take  daily  pre- 
cautions as  to  cleanliness,  the  gland,  surrounded  as  it 
is  by  a filthy  layer  of  sebaceous  smegma,  remains, — 
as  does  also  the  urinary  meatus, — in  a state  of  morbid 
irritation. 

The  Arab  and  the  Negro  are  guarded  from  all  that. 
Circumcision  is  of  the  greatest  necessity  to  them,  and 
that  is  why  the  fetish  worshipper,  who  hates  the 
Mussulman,  is,  like  him,  circumcised.  In  the  Negro 
boy  before  puberty,  the  yard,  which  is  nearly  as  large 
as  that  of  the  Hindoo  (“man-hare”)  is  provided  with 
a foreskin,  which  is  very  long  and  prominent.  More- 
over, the  child  learns  at  an  early  age  the  habit  of 
pulling  his  member  by  the  foreskin,  and  this  little 
amusement  being  often  repeated,  the  skin  becomes  still 
longer.  This  habit  is  a kind  of  tradition  with  them, 
and  these  young  rascals  glory  in  possessing  an  abnormally 
long  foreskin,  when  the  day  arrives  for  being  circum- 
cised. Well  may  it  be  said  that  the  spirit  of  emula- 
tion will  take  strange  forms. 

The  Festival  of  Circumcision  amongst  the  Fetish 
Worshippers.  With  the  Mussulman,  circumcision  is 
almost  a religious  ceremony,  whilst,  as  we  have  seen, 
marriage  is  not.  On  the  other  hand,  amongst  the 
fetish  worshippers,  it  is  a festival  celebrated  with  great 
rejoicings,  but  devoid  of  any  religious  character.  I 
quote  from  the  author  of  a very  interesting  book  ‘ 
a description  of  the  festival  of  circumcision  in  a Malinke 
village. 

“We  must  assist  to-day  at  a great  festival.  To- 
morrow the  young  lads  of  the  village  of  Makadiam- 

' Bechet,  Cinq  Anne'es  dans  le  Haut  Soudan. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


bougou  are  to  be  circumcised,  and  the  most  renowned 
musicians  have  come  to  give  their  assistance  at  this 
solemnity.  The  orchestra  is  composed  of  eight  bala- 
fours,  five  koras,  a score  of  guitars,  flutes,  tambourines, 
and  tam-tams,  and,  in  short,  all  the  musicians  and 
instruments  that  can  be  got  together ; there  are  also 
choruses  of  women  and  young  girls. 

“ Frequent  libations  of  dolo  (millet-beer)  consumed 
during  the  day,  have  much  to  do  with  the  musical  and 
Terpsichorean  excitement,  which  everyone  evinces  whilst 
awaiting  the  beginning  of  the  festival.  The  price  of 
gouro  has  doubled,  and  this  valuable  aphrodisiac  is 

•4^ 

hardly  to  be  found  on  the  market,  such  stores  of  it 
have  been  laid  in  by  the  villagers.  About  three  o’clock 
in  the  afternoon,  Ave  see  a large  crowd  making  for  the 
Fort.  These  are  the  young  heroes  of  the  day,  who, 
accompanied  by  the  Griots,  come  in  great  pomp,  to 
salute  the  Commandant,  and  try  to  obtain  presents  from 
him.  The  candidates  for  circumcision  are  about  thirty 
in  number,  and  from  twelve  to  fourteen  years  of  age. 
They  wear  their  best  boubous,  and  are  covered  with 
the  jewels  and  amulets  of  their  respective  families. 
Their  faces  are  radiant;  and  everyone  crowds  round 
them  to  excite  them,  and  encourage  them  to  support 
bravely  the  brutal  operation. 

“The  chief  Griot,  in  a hoarse,  wild  voice,  sings:  ‘To- 
morrow you  will  be  pure,  to-morrow  you  will  be  men. 
You  can  go  to  war.  The  horsemen  of  Samory  will 
fly  before  you.’  The  women  and  young  girls  repeat 
in  chorus  almost  exactly  the  same  words;  then  the 
Griots  sing  all  together : ‘ A Malinke  does  not  fear  to 
shed  his  blood.’  The  young  girls  reply:  ‘The  sons 
of  the  Malinke  do  not  fear  the  knife.’  The  Griots  : 
‘To-morrow  all  the  women  will  be  satisfied  with  you.’ 

6 


82 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


And  during  all  the  festival,  similar  litanies  are  chanted 
in  every  variety  of  tone. 

“ I will  be  silent  as  to  the  details  sung  concerning 
the  operation  itself.  The  heroes  of  the  day,  each 
armed  with  a sabre,  come  one  after  the  other,  stamp- 
ing, and  performing  a war  dance,  which  consists  in 
imitating  cuts  and  thrusts,  and  making  menacing 
gestures  at  an  imaginary  foe ; whilst,  with  a yet 
unskilful  hand,  they  try  to  turn  the  shining  blade 
above  their  head;  the  movements  of  their  legs  give 
to  their  supple  young  bodies  a motion  from  left  to 
right,  which  is  exceedingly  graceful.  Then,  in  their 
turn  come  the  women  and  young  girls,  dancing  and 
rolling  their  heads  round  on  their  shoulders  with  such 
vigour  that  the  back  of  the  head  often  touches  the 
spine,  which,  to  the  spectators,  has  a most  disagree- 
able effect. 

“ The  songs  and  dances  continue  thus  all  the  night, 
but  being  desirous  of  assisting  at  the  ceremony,  which 
takes  place  at  daybreak,  we  only  put  in  an  appearance 
for  about  half  an  hour,  at  the  evening  festivities.  The 
interpreter  told  us  that  the  circumcision  is  performed 
publicly,  and  that,  except  the  women,  anyone  can  assist 
at  it,  that  usually  the  Blacks  did  not  like  the  Whites 
to  be  present,  but  an  exception  would  be  made  in  the 
case  of  the  Commandant,  and  the  officers  from  the 
Fort.  Though  I had  been  three  years  in  the  country, 
this  was  the  first  time  that  I had  assisted  at  a cere- 
mony which  is  very  interesting  in  many  respects.  I 
will  not  speak  here  of  the  really  astonishing  courage 
shown  by  the  children.  The  instrument  used  by  the 
blacksmith-surgeon  was  a common  iron  knife  of  the 
country,  sharpened  with  a file,  and  whetted  on  a flint 
stone : the  patients  sang,  waved  their  arms,  and  smiled 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


83 


at  the  excited  spectators,  who  fired  off  their  guns  and 
uttered  wild  cries.  When  the  operation  was  finished, 
the  boy  was  seated  on  the  hot  sand  which  was  heaped 
up  round  him  to  his  waist.  He  is  then  shut  up  for  a 
month,  in  a hut,  which  he  must  not  leave  until  he  is 
completely  cured.” 

I will  complete  this  recital  by  giving  some  details 
of  the  operation  itself. 

These  particulars  I had  from  one  of  my  colleagues, 
who  witnessed  the  operation.  The  blacksmith-surgeon 
is  provided  with  a small  plate  of  yellow  copper,  about 
the  tenth  of  an  inch  thick,  with  a hole  of  about  half 
an  inch  in  diameter  in  it.  He  draws  through  this 
hole  the  lad’s  foreskin,  and  with  the  left  hand  pulls  it 
forward,  till  he  gets  the  right  quantity  (which  varies 
according  to  the  length  of  the  foreskin  and  the  thick- 
ness of  the  boy’s  yard),  whilst,  with  his  right  hand,  he 
stops  the  point  of  the  gland  from  coming  through. 
He  takes  care  to  pull,  with  the  finger  and. thumb  of 
the  right  hand,  the  skin  of  the  gland  a little  towards 
the  base  of  the  penis,  whilst  the  foreskin  is  - held  in 
its  place.  That  being  done,  he  takes  his  knife,  which 
he  had  held  between  his  teeth,  and  with  a single 
stroke  cuts  clean  off  that  portion  of  the  foreskin  which 
is  on  the  plate.  Having  removed  the  plate,  the 
blacksmith-surgeon  sucks  with  his  lips  the  blood  which 
comes  out  of  the  wound,  gently  draws  back  the  skin 
of  the  penis  to  uncover  the  gland,  and  washes  the 
wound  with  water  containing  a resinous  essence 
(probably  an  extract  from  some  kind  of  fir-tree),  which 
has  the  property  of  stopping  the  flow  of  blood.  The 
foreskin  which  has  been  cut  off  is  wrapped  in  a bit 
of  rag,  and  used  as  a wad  for  an  old  gun,  which  is 
charged  like  a small  cannon,  and  fired  in  the  air. 


84 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


amidst  loud  cries  of  joy.  The  operation  ends,  as  I 
have  already  said  in  the  case  of  the  girls,  by  daily 
bandaging  the  wound  with  ferruginous  mud,  which  is 
sedative  and  healing. 

EXCURSUS  TO  CHAPTER  IV.* 

Polyandry.  Polyandry  is  met  with  in  many 
different  countries.  It  should  not,  however,  be  con- 
founded with  the  customs  of  certain  warlike  castes, 
devoted  to  celibacy,  whose  wives  are  in  common. 
Such  are  the  NaiT  on  the  Malabar  Coast,  ^ in  Southern 
India,  and  the  same  custom  formerly  prevailed  among 
the  Toporague  Cossacks. 

Genuine  polyandry  exists  among  the  Esquimaux, 
the  Aleutians,  the  Koriaks  and  the  Kolouches.  Sir 
John  Lubbock  notices  the  same  custom  among  the 
Iroquois  and  among  several  tribes  on  the  banks  of  the 
Orinoco.  In  the  South  Seas  it  exists  among  the  Masris 
of  New  Zealand  and  in  some  other  of  the  smaller  is- 
lands. ® In  Southern  India,  in  the  Neilgherry  Hills, 
polyandry  is  an  institution  among  the  Todas,  where 
all  the  brothers  of  the  same  family  become  successively 
the  husband  of  the  wife  of  the  elder  brother,  and,  vice 
versa,  the  younger  sisters  of  the  wife  becoming  the 
wives  of  this  matrimonial  association.  ® A somewhat 
similar  institution  existed  among  the  ancient  Britons 
in  the  time  of  Csesar,  as  also,  according  to  Mr.  La- 
gneau,  among  the  Agathyrses  and  the  Liburnea.  Mr. 
Rousselet  relates,  that  on  the  Malabar  Coast,  among 

* Vide  note  p.  59  ante. 

’ Oscar  Pescliel,  Voelkerkunde,  1875.  ° Graul,  Ostindien,  vol.  3. 

® G.  V.  Kessel,  Atisland,  1872,  No.  37.  Waitz,  Anthropologie,  vol.  3. 

‘ Oscar  Peschel,  ibidem.  ° Baierlein,  Nach  und  Aus  Indieji. 

’ Dc  Bello  gallico,  lib.  V,  cap.  XIV. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


85 


the  Na'ir  tribe,  a young  girl  takes  legally  a husband, 
that  is  to  say  a protector,  for  he  never  becomes  a 
husband  de  facto : this  advantage  is  reserved  to  a 
number  of  younger  men  whom  the  lady  later  on  attaches 
to  her  household. 

In  South  Africa  polyandry  exists  in  the  Herero 
tribe.  ^ Samuel  Turner,  in  his  travels,  in  Thibet,  ^ 
saw  that  it  existed  in  certain  parts  of  that  country, 
and  Vigne  ^ also  notices  it  as  prevailing  in  the  Himalaya 
Mountains,  East  of  Simla,  near  Mossouri,  and  even  in 
the  Chitral  district  there  are  traces  of  this  strange 
custom.  ^ 

In  another  locality  of  the  Himalayas,  Kooloo,  poly- 
andry exists,  but  sporadically  only,  so  that  in  the  same 
village  polyandry^  and  polygamy  may  exist  together. 
Mr.  Lyall,  British  political  agent  in  the  Himalayan 
districts  of  Kooloo,  Lahool  and  Spiti,  ^ relates  that  he 
saw  in  one  Kooloo  house  four  men  with  one  wife; 
next  door,  three  men  with  three  wives  and,  a little 
further  on,  one  husband  with  four  wives.  These  arrange- 
ments always  depend  upon  the  relative  wealth  of  the 
respective  households.  This  opinion  is  indeed  that  of 
most  of  the  travellers  who  have  visited  these  regions. 
“ I have  myself,  ” says  Mr.  Ujfalvy,  “ seen  in  the  village 
of  Manglaoor  matrimonial  associations  in  which  four 
or  six  men,  all  brothers,  lived  with  one  wife.  Colonel 
Jenkins,  for  many  years  chief  of  the  Kooloo  district, 
informed  me  that  it  was  not  indispensable  that  these 
men  should  be  brothers.” 

’ G.  Fritsche,  Die  Eingehorene7i  Siidafrika’s. 

® Samuel  Turner,  Embassy  to  Thibet. 

^ Vigne,  Travels  in  Kashmir,  Ladak  and  Iskardo,  1842. 

^ Biddulph,  The  Tribes  of  the  Hijidoo-Knsh,  Calcutta,  1880. 

^ Harcourt,  TheHimalaya7i  Districts  of  Kooloo^  Lahool  and  Spiti,  1871. 


86 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


In  the  Kooloo  district  there  is  not  much  land  fit  for 
cultivation  ;■  property  is  therefore  very  limited  and  would 
finally  tend  to  disappear  by  continuous  portioning  out : 
the  proprietor  would  no  longer  be  able  to  live  on  the 
produce  of  his  land.  In  order  to  obviate  this  incon- 
venience, female  infanticide  is  common  in  these  valleys, 
and  consequently  the  increase  of  the  female  population 
becomes  impossible.  It  was  this  barbarous  custom, 
according  to  Rousselet,  which,  prevailing  in  Rajputana, 
obliged  the  haughty  Rajpoots  to  seek  for  wives  outside 
of  their  own  territory.  The  matrimonial  associations 
in  Kooloo  live  on  the  best  terms  one  with  the  other; 
the  children  issued  from  these  strange  unions  speak  of 
an  elder  and  of  a younger  father;  and  when  one  of 
the  husbands  perceives  on  the  threshold  of  the  marital 
chamber  the  shoes  of  one  of  his  colleagues,  he  knows 
that  he  must  not  enter.  This  custom  is  called  the 
djoutika  tabou.  ^ 

Female  Infanticide.  With  regard  to  the  dilemma 
in  which  an  otherwise  friendly  critic  wished  to  enclose 
me,  saying : “ If  really  three  fourths  of  the  women 

become  nuns,  we  do  not  see  why  female  infanticide, 
which  Mr.  Ujfalvy  thinks  is  so  general,  should  be 
practised  at  all.  Either  this  infanticide  is  without  an 
object,  and  is  but  little  practised,  or  the  number  of 
women  is  not  sufficient  to  people  the  convents,  the 
existence  of  'which  is  well  established."  My  only 
answer  is  that  there  is  not  e'ven  one  woman’s  convent 
in  the  whole  country.  All  the  travellers  who  have 
visited  these  districts  will  confirm  me  on  this  point. 

In  Ladak  polyandry  also  exists,  but  not  in  quite 
the  same  manner  as  in  Kooloo.  Here  the  women 

* The  prohibition  of  the  shoe. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


87 


enjoy  a particular  privilege,  they  have  the  faculty  of 
choosing,  outside  of  the  association  of  brothers  of  whom 
they  are  the  spouse,  a fifth  or  sixth  supplementary 
husband,  according  to  their  taste. 

But  in  I.adak  polygamy  is  also  to  be  met  with ; 
and  it  even  sometimes  happens  that  a rich  heiress  will 
choose  one  husband  only  and  remain  satisfied  with  hmi. 

I have  not  visited  the  Lahool  district  itself,  but  I 
have  been  able  to  obtain  accurate  information  concern- 
ing the  manners  and  customs  of  the  country.  The 
inhabitants  are  Buddhists,  but  their  religion  is  far  less 
pure  than  in  Thibet.  There  are  lamas  and  nuns ; the 
latter,  few  in  number,  reside  but  two  months  of  winter 
yearly  in  their  convent.  The  rest  of  the  time  they 
live  with  their  fajnily,  and  as  they  have  taken  no  vow 
of  chastity,  they  can  marry.  They  also  often  marry 
lamas.  It  would  appear  that  the  life  they  lead  during 
their  brief  sojourn  in  the  convent  is  very  far  from  being 
edifying. 

Polyandry  undoubtedly  exists  in  the  Lahool  country, 
and  perhaps  also  in  the  Spiti  districts,  but  documents 
are  wanting  on  the  subject : however,  one  of  the  Pandits, 
Nain  Singh,  sent  by  colonel  Montgomery  to  explore 
the  southern  slopes  of  the  Eastern  Himalaya,  noted  its 
existence  to  the  North  of  Spiti.  Besides  the  manners 
and  customs  of  Lahool  and  of  Spiti  are  very  similar 
to  those  of  Thibet  proper,  where  polyandry  was  already 
noted  by  Samuel  Turner  at  the  end  of  the  last  century.  ^ 
The  reflections  added  by  Turner  to  the  relation  of  his 
travels  are,  besides,  most  instructive.  We  have  our- 
selves been  able  to  notice,  particularly  in  Lahool,  a 
great  degeneracy  of  Buddhism,  intermixed  with  Hindoo- 

' Samuel  Turner,  An  Account  of  an  Embassy  to  the  Court  of  the  Teshoo 
Lama  in  Thibet,  1800. 


88 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


ism ; in  proof  of  which  the  almost  absolute  liberty 
enjoyed  by  the  nuns  in  this  country. 

In  Ladak  polyandry  seems  to  have  taken  root  for 
the  same  reasons  as  in  the  Kooloo  district ; in  Ladak 
the  amount  of  available  arable  land  is  still  less  than 
in  Kooloo,  and  the  conditions  of  the  climate  are  such 
that  it  would  be  impossible  to  extend  it.  Schlagintweit  ^ 
and  Drew  ^ seem  to  be  right  when  they  ascribe  to 
economic  reasons  the  prevalence  of  polyandry  in  Ladak ; 
for  in  Ladak,  more  than  elsewhere,  the  population 
would  die  of  hunger  if,  by  reason  of  regular  succession, 
the  landed  property  should  become  infinitely  subdivided, 
and  all  the  more  so  on  account  of  the  geographical 
isolation  of  the  country.  Drew,  who  was  for  a long 
time  governor  of  Ladak,  was  never  able  to  obtain 
any  information  concerning  female  infanticide  in  that 
country. 

Drew  seemed  to  think  that  the  small  number  of 
female  births  in  Ladak  was  one  of  the  consequences 
of  polyandry.  It  appears,  however,  that  in  this  country, 
to  prevent  a too  great  diminution  of  the  population 
polygamic  and  monogamic  marriages  are  now  and 
then  contracted  which  re-establish  the  equilibrium.  It 
is  certain  that  polyandry  has  an  injurious  effect  on  the 
morals  of  the  women ; for  neither  in  Kooloo  nor  in 
Ladak  can  the  women  pass  for  models  of  conjugal 
fidelity.  In  Kooloo  particularly  they  have  the  reputation 
of  being  coquettish  and  fickle. 

At  Leh,  the  capital  of  Ladak,  there  is  a whole 
quarter  of  the  town  inhabited  by  half-breeds  resulting 
from  the  union  of  Ladak  women  with  foreign  fathers. 
As  for  Kooloo,  travellers  relate  strange  stories.  In 

' Vide  Schlagintweit,  Indien^  vol.  IT. 

^ Drew,  ibidem. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


89 


fact  we  were  assured  that  the  assistant  commissioner 
of  the  country  had  taken  the  most  stringent  measures 
to  protect  the  Kooloo  husbands.  When  an  English 
officer  passing  through  the  country  succumbs  to  the 
charms  of  a Calypso  of  this  country,  the  husbands 
are  required  to  refuse  him  all  means  of  subsistence, 
so  as  to  force  him  to  quit  the  country  as  soon  as 
possible.  I had  myself  occasion  during  my  journey 
to  meet  with  a young  officer,  the  victim  of  an  adventure 
of  the  kind,  and  to  whom,  for  reasons  of  humanity,  I 
ceded  some  boxes  of  tinned  provisions. 

However,  at  Kooloo,  these  strange  families  live 
together  on  the  very  best  terms,  without  the  least  signs 
of  jealousy.  It  must  also  be  remembered  that  the 
numerous  temple^  in  this  country  are  ministered  by 
young  girls  devoted  to  the  worship  of  Mahaderi,  the 
wife  of  Siva,  and  these  maidens  are  far  from  being 
averse  to  gallant  adventure. 

The  men  work  in  the  fields  or  become  coolies  to 
carry  travellers’  baggage ; the  wife  manages  the 
household  and  looks  after  the  children ; she  receives 
and  takes  care  of  the  money  earned  by  her  husbands. 
She  is  therefore  the  real  guardian  of  the  property 
earned  by  the  matrimonial  association. 

In  the  discussion  which  followed  the  communication 
of  Mr.  Ujfalvy,  Mr.  Rousselet  made  the  following 
remarks : “ It  is  evident  that  polyandry  is  a social 
form  much  spread  about  in  ancient  times  among  the 
wild  peoples  of  Asia.  But  it  is  in  India  that  the 
custom  has  been  best  preserved  up  to  our  days,  and 
traces  of  it  are  to  be  met  with  throughout  the  whole 
of  the  peninsula,  from  the  Himalaya  to  Cape  Comorin. 

“ The  Nair  or  Nagar  tribe  on  the  Malabar  Coast  have 
best  preserved  the  practice  of  polyandry,  of  which 


90 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


traces  are  also  to  be  found  among  some  other  tribes 
of  the  Deccan,  such  us  the  Ramoosis,  and  the  Metars, 
and  also  under  form  of  a prostitution  consecrated  by 
usage,  as  among  the  Ouled  Nail  in  Algeria. 

“The  Nair  are  evidently  of  Turanian  origin;  they 
settled  in  Southern  India  long  before  the  Aryans  and 
imposed  their  domination  on  the  aborigines.  Their 
name  which  signifies  master  co7tqueror,  is  sufficient  to 
show  that  origin.  After  the  introduction  of  the  Aryan 
influence,  they  refused  to  accept  the  Brahmanic  organi- 
sation, and  were  relegated  among  the  Sudras,  without 
however  losing  all  their  importance. 

“ Although  adopting  the  worship  of  Vishnoo,  they 
have  preserved  their  veneration  for  the  sanguinary 
Marima,  to  whom  they  sacrifice  various  animals,  cocks, 
goats  and  even  oxen,  of  which  they  afterwards  eat  the 
flesh,  contrary  to  the  Brahmanical  precepts. 

“ Their  organisation  is  based  upon  the  principle  of 
what  may  be  called  the  matriarcat,  that  is  to  say  that 
the  woman  holds  the  first  rank. 

“ At  the  age  of  ten  years,  the  young  girl  is  legally 
joined  to  a man  of  her  caste;  but  as  soon  as  the  union 
is  consummated,  the  husband  is  dismissed  with  a slight 
present  to  remunerate  him  for  his  service,  and  hence- 
forward he  is  forbidden  all  connection  with  the  woman 
whom  he  has  so  to  speak  enfranchised.  From  this 
moment  the  Nair  woman  may  go  with  whomsoever 
she  pleases,  but  in  reality  she  does  not  contract  any 
durable  union,  she  can  only  have  more  or  less  passing 
lovers,  and  she  may  choose  them  where  she  likes, 
even  among  strangers.  Nevertheless  custom  imposes 
upon  her  a sort  of  selection  and,  under  pain  of  losing 
in  consideration,  she  must  choose  her  lovers  among 
men  of  the  highest  castes  or  else  of  particularly 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


91 


vigorous  constitution,  so  as  to  add  to  the  credit  and 
to  the  beauty  of  her  tribe.  But  the  lover  possesses 
• no  rights  whatever  in  the  house;  the  authority  always 
belongs  to  the  woman.  The  head  of  the  family  is 
always  the  mother,  and  in  her  absence  the  eldest 
daughter ; it  is  she  who  administers  the  property  of  her 
brothers  or  of  her  sons ; inheritance  goes  by  collateral 
line,  that  is  to  say  the  nephew  inherits  from  his  uncle ; 
the  supposed  father  can  leave  nothing  to  his  children  ; 
in  the  family  he  has  not  even  any  recognised  title 
and  is  considered  merely  as  a friend  and  protector. 

“ The  soil  itself  always  belongs  to  the  wife,  head  of 
the  community ; the  mother  leaves  it  to  her  eldest 
daughter  and  all  the  brothers  cultivate  it  for  the 
benefit  of  the  entire  community;  men  having  no  living 
sister  or  nephews,  and  therefore  having  no  heirs,  get 
themselves  adopted  as  brothers  by  some  woman  outside 
of  their  family.  This  organisation  was  extended  even 
to  royalty,  for  during  a long  period  the  crown  of 
Travancore  was  transmitted  in  female  descent  only, 
to  the  exclusion  of  the  males. 

“ Among  the  tribes  of  Southern  India  who  still  practise 
polyandry  it  is  necessary  to  note  the  Tir  and  the 
Poliyar,  on  the  Malabar  Coast,  and  in  the  Mysore 
country.  Here,  marriage  exists ; only  the  brothers  or 
members  of  the  same  family  combine  to  have  one 
wife  in  common,  and  the  estate  passes  undivided  to 
the  children  of  the  community,  who,  on  their  side, 
continue  this  indivision  by  common  unions. 

“ In  the  North-East  of  India,  at  the  foot  of  the  Hi- 
malaya, among  the  mountaineers  of  the  Garros  tribe, 
there  still  exist  traces  of  this  ancient  custom,  although 
polyandry  has  practically  disappeared.  Among  the 
Garros  the  woman  is  still  the  head  of  the  family;  she 


92 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


administers  the  property  and  transmits  it  directly  to 
her  children.  However,  marriage  mostly  affects  there 
the  form  of  monogamy  or  of  polygamy,  but  it  is  always 
the  daughter  who  seeks  and  chooses  for  herself  her 
husband,  and  it  is  she  who,  on  the  eve  of  her  marriage, 
has  her  favoured  one  carried  off  by  her  friends  and 
brought  to  her  house. 

“ As  in  all  other  polyandric  tribes,  among  the  Garros 
the  son  never  inherits  the  paternal  property,  which 
always  goes  to  the  son  of  his  sister,  but  this  nephew 
inherits  at  the  same  time  from  the  widow  and  is 
obliged  to  take  her  to  wife,  even  should  she  be  the 
mother  of  his  own  wife. 

“ The  polyandric  system  seems  to  be  practised  only 
according  to  the  real  wants  of  the  population.  So 
that,  when  the  number  of  the  population  diminishes,  a 
woman  contents  herself  with  one  husband  only. 

“Another  peculiar  custom  in  Ladak  is  worthy  of 
notice,  that  is  the  retirement  from  social  life  of  the 
parents  after  they  have  attained  a certain  age.  When 
the  daughter  is  married  and  has  children,  the  father 
and  mother  abandon  their  property  to  her  benefit, 
reserving  to  themselves  only  what  is  strictly  necessary 
for  their  keep.  In  most  cases  each  community  has  a 
little  house  and  field  reserved  for  this  purpose.  When 
two  or  several  fathers  attain  together  the  age  of 
retirement,  they  continue  to  live  together.” 

N.B.  It  is  but  fair  to  add  that  we  are  indebted  for 
the  preceding  notes  on  Polyandry  to  an  article  on  the 
subject  in  the  Bulletin  de  la  Societe  d’ Anthropologic 
for  the  year  1883. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


93 


Dr.  Godard  on  the  Deflowering  Virgins  in  Egypt.  ^ 

The  Turks  do  not  care  to  marry  a woman  still  in 
possession  of  her  virginity,  but  such  is  not  the  case 
with  the  Arabs,  the  schismatic  Copts  and  the  Catholics. 
To  them,  as  I have  already  said,  virginity  is  the  first 
quality  of  woman. 

In  Nubia,  girls  are  married  at  the  age  of  from  eight 
to  ten  years,  but  the  husband  does  not  lie  with  them. 
In  order  to  verify  that  the  girl  is  still  a virgin,  the 
Nubian  makes  her  sit  upon  a chair,  one  woman  holds 
the  right  arm,  another  holds  the  left,  two  other  women 
hold  the  thighs  stretched  apart.  The  future  husband 
then  introduces  the  leading  finger  into  the  vagina  to 
assure  himself  that  the  girl  is  a virgin.  He  then 
keeps  her  for  one  or  two  years  in  his  house,  until 
she  is  about  ten  years  old.  Then,  instead  of  having 
her  incised,  as  in  the  Soudan,  he  himself  dilates  the 
vagina  in  the  following  manner:  he  introduces  first 
one  finger,  and  then  two,  and  repeats  this  manoeuvre 
during  several  days. 

The  rich  husband  is  carried  into  the  nuptial  chamber 
by  his  eunuchs.  There  he  finds  his  bride  enveloped  in  a 
great  veil  which  hides  her  from  his  eyes.  He  , says  a 
prayer ; that  terminated,  he  says  to  her : “ Thou  art 
my  love,  I will  give  thee  slaves,  jewels,  and  what 
thou  mayest  desire.”  He  then  lifts  her  veil  and  must 
exclaim — “How  beautiful  she  is?”  Then  the  first 
handmaiden  of  the  household  enters  and  makes  the 
bed,  and  then  leaves  the  married  couple  alone.  The 
next  morning  she  re-enters  the  chamber  to  find  beneath 
the  pillow  the  usual  present  from  the  husband,  which 
corresponds  to  the  beauty  he  has  found.  The  nuptial 

* Dr.  Godard,  Observations  medicates  en  Palestine  et  en  Egypte, 
8vo.  Paris,  1867  (p.  85 — 88). 


94 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


couch  is  on  the  floor;  it  consists  of  mattresses  one 
upon  the  other. 

Among  the  Arabs  marriage  usually  takes  place 
before  the  period  of  the  menses.  If  the  bride  is  aged 
from  nine  to  ten  years,  she  is  deflowered  by  a matron, 
if  she  has  attained  the  age  of  thirteen  years,  the 
operation  is  performed  by  the  husband.  The  same 
customs  prevail  among  the  schismatic  Copts. 

The  matron  proceeds  in  the  following  manner:  the 
two  mothers  being  present,  she  introduces  the  fore- 
finger of  the  right  hand,  enveloped  in  a handkerchief, 
into  the  vagina.  The  young  girl  cries  out  a great 
deal.  The  finger  is  then  withdrawn,  and  the  hand- 
kerchief stained  with  blood  is  spread  out  and  exhibited 
to  the  parents  and  friends  assembled  in  the  next  room. 
When  it  is  the  husband  who  deflowers  his  bride,  he 
does  it  with  his  finger,  as  I have  already  remarked. 
Of  course  every  precaution  is  taken  that  the  young 
girl  may  always  seem  to  be  a virgin.  It  is  usual  for 
the  husband  to  wait  a few  days  before  sleeping  with 
his  wife,  from  three  to  eight  days. 

The  Catholic  Christians  deflower  their  brides  by  means 
of  the  member,  at  all  events  when  the  girls  are 
grown  up.  The  operation  is  performed  in  the  presence 
of  the  two  mothers  and  of  the  woman  who  dressed 
the  hair  of  the  girl  in  her  bath ; the  other  relations  are 
in  the  next  room.  Sometimes  the  young  man  pretends 
that  the  girl  he  has  married  is  a woman,  and  refuses 
to  accomplish  coition.  The  mothers  endeavour  to 
persuade  him  that  he  is  mistaken,  but  he  remains 
obstinate.  Then  the  female  hair-dresser,  always  a 
knowing  one,  interferes  and,  if  she  knows  that  the 
girl  is  not  a virgin,  she  employs  the  following  stra- 
tagem : she  takes  a handkerchief,  and  enfolds  her 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


Q5 


forefinger  in  it.  As  her  nails  are  very  long  and  pointed, 
they  pass  through  the  handkerchief,  so  that  when  her 
finger  enters  the  vagina,  by  means  of  a sharp  scratch 
with  her  nail  there  is  an  immediate  flow  of  blood. 
The  handkerchief  stained  with  blood  is  brought  out 
and  shown  to  the  young  man.  He  is  then  told  that 
he  does  not  know  his  business,  and  if  he  still  persists 
in  his  refusal,  the  women  insult  him  and  the  relations 
in  the  next  room  .shout  “ Ou ! Ou ! ” at  him.  The  hand- 
kerchief is  exhibited  to  those  present,  and  in  general 
the  young  man  remains  convinced  that  he  has  espoused 
a virgin.  This  fraud  is  easy  at  the  early  age  of  the 
husband,  who  is  inexpert  and  too  young. 

Tuttle  girls  are  sometimes  deflowered  very  early. 
Madame  X . . . . informed  me  that  she  had  seen,  during 
the  feast  of  the  Ramadan,  a little  girl  of  six  years  of 
age  and  a boy  of  five  acting  coition  in  the  street; 
they  were  merely  imitating  what  they  had  witnessed. 
Sometimes  little  Arabs  of  from  three  to  four  years  old 
are  summoned  by  a little  girl  of  their  own  age  to 
coition  in  the  open  street.  This  seems  incredible. 

Tuttle  girls,  who  begin  to  have  connection  with  men 
from  the  age  of  eight  to  nine  years,  have  the  vagina 
very  large.  Tt  is  all  distended,  withered  and  has  lost 
its  elasticity.  T had  an  opportunity  of  observing  this 
in  Cairo  on  a little  girl  whom  T visited  in  company 
with  Mr.  X . . . . Her  vagina  was  monstrous  in  width. 

Tn  Constantinople,  as  T was  informed,  the  husband 
employs  his  member  for  defloration ; but  as  it  would 
be  impure  to  mingde  the  human  semen  with  the  blood 
resulting  from  the  rupture  of  the  hymen,  two  matrons 
remain  at  the  side  of  the  husband  during  the  operation, 
and  as  soon  as  they  perceive  that  it  is  about  to  finish, 
they  force  him  to  withdraw  and  to  ejaculate  outside. 


96 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


Customs  of  the  Dahomeyans.  I now  proceed  to 
notice  certain  peculiarities  in  the  Dahomeyan  race, 
which  in  the  usual  phrase,  are  “ unfit  for  the  drawing- 
room table.” 

The  Dahomeyan  is  essentially  a polygynist ; and  Dal- 
ziel’s  History  is  correct  in  asserting  “ The  Dahomeyan 
women  do  not  admit  the  embraces  of  their  husbands 
during  pregnancy,  nor  at  the  time  of  suckling,  which 
continues  two  or  three  years,  nor  while  under  the 
catamenia,  during  which  they  retire  to  a part  of  the 
town  allotted  to  their  reception.  The  prostitutes,  who 
in  this  country  are  licensed  by  royal  autority,  are  also 
obliged  to  confine  themselves  to  a particular  district, 
and  are  subject  to  an  annual  tax.”  The  latter  class, 
called  ko'si  (twenty- wife),  because  the  honorarium  was 
twenty  cowries,  is  supplied  from  the  palace;  and  the 
peculiar  male  and  female  system  which  pervades  the 
court  rendering  eunuchesses  necessary  as  well  as 
eunuchs,  demands  Hetczrce  for  the  women  as  well  as 
for  the  male  fighters.  I was  hardly  prepared  for  this 
amount  of  cynicism  amongst  mere  barbarians ; although 
in  that  wonderful  book,  the  “ Arabian  Nights,  ” which 
has  been  degraded  by  Europe  into  mere  Fairy  Tales, 
the  lover  is  always  jealous,  not  of  his  own,  but  of  the 
opposite  sex. 

Another  great  peculiarity  in  Dahomey  is  as  follows: 
— Almost  all  the  world  over,  where  man  is  circumcised, 
the  woman  is  subjected  either,  as  in  Egypt,  to  mutila- 
tion of  the  clitoris,  performed  in  early  infancy,  when 
that  part  is  prominent,  or  as  in  the  Somal  and  the 
upper  Nilotic  tribes,  described  by  M.  Werner  (Raise 
zur  Entdeckung  der  Quellen  des  Weiss en  Nil),  to 
mutilation  combined  with  excision  of  the  ny^nphce 
and  fibulation,  the  wounded  surfaces  being  roughly 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


97 


stitched  together.  The  reason  of  such  mutilation  is 
evident.  Removal  of  the  prepuce  blunts  the  sensitive- 
ness of  the  glans  penis,  and  protracts  the  act  of  Venus, 
which  Africans  and  Asiatics  ever  strive,  even  by  charms 
and  medicines,  to  lengthen.  The  clitoris,  called  by 
old  authors  fons  et  scaiurigo  Veneris,  must  be  reduced 
to  a similar  condition,  or  the  too  frequent  recurrence 
of  the  venereal  orgasm  would  injure  the  health  of  the 
woman.  This  is  the  case  in  the  old  Calabar  River  of 
the  Biafran  Bight;  in  Dahomey  it  is  reversed. 

Adagbwiba,  or  circumcision,  which  in  parts  of  West 
Africa, — the  Gold  Coast  for  instance, — appears  sporadic, 
is  universally  practised  in  Dahomey.  During  the  days 
of  the  History  (Introd.,  p.  XVIII)  the  time  of  submitting- 
to  the  rite  was  left  to  the  boys  themselves,  and  their 
caresses  were  not  admitted  by  the  women  as  long  as 
they  remained  in  the  natural  state.  At  present,  circum- 
cision is  undergone  in  Whydah  and  about  the  seaboard 
at  the  age  of  twelve  to  sixteen;  in  the  interior  it  is 
often  delayed  till  the  youth  is  twenty  years  old,  when 
it  becomes  cruel  and  sometimes  dangerous.  It  is  ap- 
parently not  a religious  ceremony : a lay  practitioner, 
and  not  the  fetishman,  being  the  performer.  The 
patient  sits  over  a small  hole  dug  in  the  ground.  The 
operator  draws  out  the  prepuce,  which,  as  amongst 
Africans  generally,  is  long  and  fleshy,  and  removes 
the  blood  from  it  by  manipulation.  He  then  inserts 
under  the  prepuce  the  forefinger  of  the  left  hand,  and 
wetting  with  saliva  a splint  or  a bit  of  straw,  marks 
the  circle  which  is  to  be  removed.  Two  cuts  with  a 
sharp  razor,  one  above,  the  other  below,  conclude  the 
operation.  This  would  argue  an  origin  unconnected 
with  the  Jewish  and  with  the  Moslem  forms,  which 
also  vary;  amongst  circumcising  peoples,  however,  the 

7 


98 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


rite  is  everywhere  differently  performed.  The  favourite 
styptic  is  heated  sand  thrown  on  the  wound,  which  is 
washed  every  third  day  with  simples  boiled  in  water. 
The  drink  is  ginger  and  warm  water;  the  food  preferred 
is  ginger  soup,  but  anything  may  be  eaten  except  pork. 
‘‘A  certain  operation  peculiar  to  this  country,”  says 
the  History  (Joe.  cit.),  “ is  likewise  performed  upon  the 
women,”  and  this  the  foot-note  thus  explains  — 
longatio,  videlicet,  artificialis  lahioruin  ptidendi,  capella. 
mamillis  simillima  (That  is  to  say  the  artificial  lengthen- 
ing of  the  lips  of  the  pudendum,  so  as  closely  to  resemble 
a she-goat’s  dugs).  The  parts  in  question,  locally 
called  “ Til,"  must,  from  the  earliest  years,  be  ma- 
nipulated by  professional  old  women,  as  is  the  bosom 
amongst  the  embryo  prostitutes  of  China.  If  this  be 
neglected,  lady  friends  will  deride  and  denigrate  the 
mother,  declaring  that  she  has  neglected  her  child’s 
education,  and  the  juniors  will  laugh  at  the  daughter 
as  a coward,  who  would  not  prepare  herself  for  mar- 
riage. The  sole  possible  advantage  to  be  derived  from 
the  strange  practice  is  the  prevention  of  rape,  but  the 
men  are  said  to  enjoy  handling  the  long  projections, 
whose  livid  slaty  hue  suggests  the  idea  of  the  turkey- 
cock’s  carbuncle.  It  is  popularly  said,  “ There  can 
be  no  pleasurable  Venus  without  ‘Tu’,”  I find  the 
custom  amongst  the  cognate  tribes  of  Grand  Popo,  but 
not  in  any  other  part  of  the  West  African  Coast. 

As  a rule  the  Dahomeyan  eunuch  still  marries,  and  I 
have  heard  of  cases  similar  to  that  quoted  in  Dalziel’s 
History,  when  relating  the  end  of  the  rebel  eunuch 
“Tanga;”  — “To  his  wives  he  appeared  not  the  rigid 
jailer,  nor  the  tyrannic  usurper  of  their  affections,  but 
the  generous  arbiter  of  their  liveliest  pleasures.  Hence 
they  could  not  but  be  charmed  with  a freedom  which 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


99 


no  other  seraglio  enjoyed,  and  ” (all  devoted  themselves 
to  death)  “they  would  not  survive  that  felicity  and 
protection  which  was  to  terminate  with  the  existence 
of  their  master  and  their  lover,  whose  ruin  seemed 
inevitable.”  It  is  difficult  to  obtain  information  in 
Dahomey  concerning  eunuchs,  who  are  special  slaves  of 
the  king,  and  bear  the  dignified  title  of  royal  wives. 
The  operation  is  performed  in  the  palaces,  by  evulsion 
of  the  testicles,  and  is  often  fatal,  especially  when 
deferred  till  the  age  of  twenty.  Throughout  Yoruba 
these  neutrals  are  found  at  the  different  courts,  and 
the  practice  may  have  migrated  from  the  East. 

Amongst  all  barbarians  whose  primal  want  is  progeny, 
we  observe  a greater  or  a less  development  of  the 
Phallic  worship.^  In  Dahomey  it  is  uncomfortably  pro- 
minent; every  street  from  Whydah  to  the  capital  is 
adorned  with  the  symbol,  and  the  old  ones  are  not 
removed.  The  Dahomeyan  Priapus  is  a clay  figure  of 
any  size  between  a giant  and  a pigmy,  crouched 
upon  the  ground  as  if  contemplating  its  own  Attributes. 
The  head  is  sometimes  a wooden  block  rudely  carved, 
more  often  dried  mud,  and  the  eyes  and  teeth  are 
supplied  by  cowries.  A huge  penis,  like  the  section 
of  a broom-stick,  rudely  carved,  like  the  Japanese  articles 
which  I have  lately  been  permitted  to  inspect,  projects 
horizontally  from  the  middle.  I could  have  carried  off 
a donkey’s  load  had  I been  aware  of  the  rapidly 
rising  value  of  Phallic  specimens  amongst  the  collectors 
of  Europe.  The  Tree  of  Life  is  anointed  with  palm- 
oil,  which  drips  into  a pot  or  a shard  placed  below  it, 
and  the  would-be  mother  of  children  prays  that  the 
great  god  Legba  will  make  her  fertile.  Female  Legbas 
are  rare,  about  one  to  a dozen  males.  They  are,  if 
possible,  more  hideous  and  gorilla-like  than  those  of 


lOO 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


the  Other  sex;  their  breasts  resemble  the  halves  of 
German  sausages,  and  the  external  labia,  which  are 
adored  by  being  anointed  with  oil,  are  painfully  de- 
veloped. There  is  another  Phallic  god  named  “ Bo  ” , the 
guardian  of  warriors  and  the  protector  of  markets.  ^ 

The  Apron  of  the  Hottentot  Women.  ^ A 

peculiarity  belonging  to  the  Hottentot  or  Bosjesman 
women  is  the  enormous  elongation  of  the  nymphae. 
Their  labia  minora,  of  extravagant  length,  presenting 
a reddish  blue  livid  coloration,  remain  joined  together 
in  their  entire  length,  and  descend  vertically  between  the 
thighs.  According  to  certain  travellers  these  nymphse, 
thus  in  juxta  position,  might  at  first  sight  be  mistaken 
for  a male  member,  for  a narrow  flabby  penis. 

This  deformity  has  been  called  by  all  travellers  the 
Apron ; some,  who  had  been  unfortunately  too  discreet 
to  examine  the  thing  closely,  took  it  for  an  article  of 
dress  placed  in  front  of  the  genital  organs,  either 
from  modesty,  or  else  from  simple  coquetry ; others 
have  considered  this  appendage  to  be  a special  organ ; 
very  few,  indeed,  among  those  who  have  examined 
more  closely,  have  been  able  to  exactly  understand 
the  disposition  of  this  anomaly.  But  the  apron  is  not 
a distinctive  characteristic  of  the  Bosjesman  race. 
Cuvier  relates  that  in  Abyssinia  it  was  usual  to  perform 
excision  of  the  deformed  labia  minora  and  that  one 
of  the  first  reforms  sought  to  be  introduced  by  the 
Catholic  missionaries,  in  the  sixteenth  century,  when 
they  introduced  their  religion  into  the  country,  was 
the  suppression  of  this  operation.  But  the  young  girl 

' From  Sir  R.  F.  Burton’s  article  in  Memoirs  of  Anthropological 
Society  of  London  (Lond.,  1863,  pages  317 — 320). 

^Bulletin  de  la  Socie'te  d’ Anthropologic,  1881  (pages  385 — 388). 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


lOI 


converts,  who  had  not  been  operated  upon,  being  no 
longer  able  to  find  any  husbands,  the  Pope,  who  was  then 
not  yet  infallible,  authorised  the  shortening  of  the  labia. 

This  elongation  of  the  labia  minora  is  also  observable 
among  Negresses:  Mr.  L.  Vincent  saw  some  measuring 
from  2 to  3 inches.  This  deformation  is  also  some- 
times observable  on  White  women,  but  in  a far  less 
exaggerated  degree. 

But  if  this  anatomical  peculiarity  is  not  exclusively 
the  privilege  of  the  Bosjesman  race,  in  no  other  does 
this  deformation  attain  such  prodigious  proportions;  in 
fact,  some  of  these  women  have  been  found  wearing 
aprons  of  from  6 to  7 inches  in  length. 

Many  opinions  have  been  expressed  concerning  this 
apron : some  have  simply  denied  its  existence ; others 
have  considered  it  to  be  the  result  of  certain  practices, 
as  an  artificial  deformation ; and  lastly,  among  the 
authors  who  reasonably  believed  that  this  peculiarity 
was  to  be  attributed  to  nature,  not  only  have  the  most 
various  ideas  and  hypotheses  been  expressed,  but  the 
most  fantastical  descriptions  have  been  traced. 

Perron,  who  seems  to  have  adopted  the  opinion  of 
General  Jansens,  thinks  that  the  apron  is  a special 
organ  placed  in  front  of  the  genitals  and  not  the  devel- 
opment of  one  of  their  parts. 

Levaillant’s  error  is  less  serious,  but  he  also  has  not 
looked  close  enough,  and  if  he  has  seen  that  the  apron 
is  a part  of  the  organs  of  generation  considerably 
developed,  he  has  not  sufficiently  noted  the  starting- 
point  nor  the  cause  of  this  deformation ; he  thinks 
that  it  is  an  artificially  promoted  elongation  of  the 
labia  majora:  “The  apron,”  he  says,  “may  attain  to 

the  length  of  3^  inches,  more  or  less,  according  to 
the  age  of  the  individual,  or  to  the  trouble  she  has 


102 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


taken  to  cultivate  this  strange  ornament ; I saw  a 
young  girl  of  fifteen  whose  nymphae  were  already  4 
inches  long.  Until  then  it  is  friction  and  traction  which 
have  begun  to  distend,  suspended  weights  complete 
the  work.” 

Barrow,  with  much  reason,  protests  against  this 
opinion.  In  fact,  the  apron  is  so  little  of  an  ornament, 
that  a great  many  women,  not  only  among  the  Hot- 
tentots, but  also  among  the  Bosjesmans,  hide  it.  Some 
of  the  latter  who  go  about  naked,  when  before  strangers, 
keep  their  nymphae  squeezed  between  their  thighs  so 
as  to  dissimulate  them  from  view.  This  it  was  that 
caused  certain  travellers  to  imagine  that  the  deformation ' 
did  not  exist.  And  this  dissimulation  may  be  com-' 
plete,  for  this  is  what  Cuvier  says  of  the  Hottentot 
Venus:  “While  she  was  being  examined  she  kept 

her  apron  hidden  between  her  thighs ; it  was  only 
after  her  death  that  she  was  found  to  have  pos- 
sessed one.” 

Besides  all  the  Bosjesmans  questioned  by  Barrow 
affirmed  to  him  that  this  deformation  was  natural  and 
that  the  means  employed  to  obtain  it,  mentioned  by 
Levaillant,  were  never  resorted  to.  Many  Bosjesman 
women  transported  into  Cape  Colony  in  early  age, 
never  having  revisited  the  country  of  their  birth,  and 
consequently  ignorant  of  such  practices,  had  deformed 
genitals  like  the  Bosjesman  women  of  the  Bush. 

Of  all  travellers,  Barrow  is  he  who  has  most  care- 
fully examined  this  anomaly.  He  relates  as  follows: 

“ Everybody  knows  the  history  of  the  appendage  which 
the  Hottentot  women  possess  at  a place  not  usually 
exposed  to  view ; a conformation  not  belonging  to  the 
fair  sex  in  general.  This  fact  is  absolutely  true.  As 
for  the  Bosjesman  women,  all  of  them  were  the  same 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


103 


in  the  tribe  we  met,  and  we  were  able  to  satisfy  our 
curiosity  on  that  point,  without  in  the  least  offending 
their  modesty.  After  examining  them  carefully,  it 
seemed  to  me  to  be  an  elongation  of  the  labia  minora, 
more  or  less  extended  according  to  the  age  of  the 
subject.  The  longest  we  measured  were  a little  over 
5 inches;  the  woman  carrying  them  was  of  middle 
age.  Some  are  said  to  have  them  longer.  These 
elongated  nymphae,  joined  together  and  pendent,  seem 
at  first  sight  as  if  belonging  to  the  opposite  sex.  Their 
colour  is  a livid  blue  with  a reddish  tint,  very  much 
like  the  comb  of  a Turkey-cock,  an  excrescence  which 
can  give  a pretty  good  idea  of  it,  with  regard  to 
appearance,  size  and  form.  The  interior  parts  of  the 
nymphae,  wrinkled  and  creased  in  the  White  woman, 
lose  this  character  among  the  Hottentots  and  become 
perfectly  smooth ; but  then  they  no  longer  possess  that 
stimulating  nature  for  which  certain  anatomists  pre- 
tended that  they  had  been  created;  these  appendages 
have  at  least  the  advantage  of  protecting  the  women 
from  all  violence  on  the  part  of  the  other  sex;  for  it 
seems  almost  impossible  that  a man  should  have  con- 
nection with  such  a woman  without  her  consent  or 
even  without  her  aid.” 

The  best  description  of  the  apron  is  that  given  by 
Cuvier,  after  the  Hottentot  Venus,  whose  body  he 
had  : “ According  to  necroscopic  examination,”  he  says, 

“it  was  apparent  that  the  apron  was  not,  as  Perron 
had  supposed,  a particular  organ,  but  the  development 
of  the  nymphae ; the  labia  majora  were  not  salient, 
they  intercepted  an  oval  of  about  4 inches  in  length. 
From  the  superior  angle  between  them  there  depended 
a semi-cylindrical  protuberance  of  about  18  lines  in 
length  with  6 lines  in  width,  the  lower  extremity  ot 


104 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


which  widens  out,  divides  and  prolongs  in  the  shape 
of  two  fleshy  petals,  creased,  of  about  2^  inches  in 
length,  with  i inch  in  width;  each  of  these  is  rounded 
at  the  end;  their  basis  spreads  out  and  falls  down 
along  the  interior  border  of  the  lahia  majora  and 
terminates  in  a fleshy  crest  at  the  lower  angle  of  the 
labia.  If  these  two  appendages  are  lifted  up,  they 
form  together  the  figaire  of  a heart,  the  lobes  of  which 
would  be  narrow  and  long,  the  middle  being  occupied 
by  the  opening  of  the  vulva.  Each  of  these  lobes 
bears,  on  its  outer  surface,  close  to  the  inner  margin, 
a furrow  deeper  than  the  other  creases,  and  which 
continues  deepening  until  the  two  bifurcations  join 
together;  so  that  where  they  have  thus  united  there 
is  a double  border  encircling  a dimple  in  the  form  of 
a wedge ; in  the  middle  of  this  dimple  there  is  a slender 
prominence  terminating  in  a little  point  at  the  place 
where  the  two  borders  join  again  together. 

“ Consequently  the  two  fleshy  lobes  are  formed  above 
by  the  prepuce  and  the  summit  of  the  nymphcB,  the 
rest  of  them  consisting  only  in  the  extra-development 
of  these  same  nymphcB.  The  vulva  and  the  matrix 
show  nothing  particular.  ” 

The  above  can  be  verified  by  a visit  .to  the  Museum 
of  Natural  History  at  the  Jardin  des  Plantes  (Paris), 
where  there  is  a life-size  exact  model  of  the  Hottentot 
Venus,  in  naturalibus. 

Thibetan  Nuptial  Customs.  In  Thibet  the  young 
girls  about  to  marry  are  previously  relieved  of  their 
virginity  by  the  priests,  either  Buddhist  or  Tao-See, 
according  to  their  religion.  In  either  case,  the  priest 
of  one  or  the  other  faith  has  mission  to  prepare  the 
bride  for  the  nuptial  rite. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


105 


In  the  Chinese  text  this  ceremony  is  called  fchin- 
than.  ' Each  year,  at  the  fourth  moon,  the  officer  of 
the  Province  announces  the  day  fixed  for  the  fchin- 
than.  On  that  day  each  priest  has  his  female  client 
and  can  have  but  one. 

On  the  marriage  day,  the  procession  of  friends,  with 
music  and  drums,  goes  in  grand  parade  to  meet  the 
priest  and  accompanies  him  to  the  residence  of  the 
bride. 

There,  two  canopies  have  been  prepared  covered 
with  brilliant  coloured  stuffs.  The  priest  occupies  one 
seat,  the  bride  the  other. 

As  soon  as  night  has  fallen,  the  principal  persons 
of  the  escort  disappear,  but  the  gongs  and  trumpets 
continue  more  than  ever  to  make  as  much  noise  as 
possible  before  the  house  of  the  bride. 

During  this  night  full  license  is  granted  to  the  priest, 
and  this  is,  as  modestly  expressed  as  possible,  what 
takes  place: 

“ A^idivi  ilium  cum  virgine  simul  in  proximmn 
cubiculum  ingredi,  ibique  earn,  manu  adhibita,  con- 
shiprare.  Mamim  demde  in  vinum  immisit,  quo,  si 
quibusdam  credideris,  pater,  mater,  proximi  tandem 
atque  vicini  frontem  signant ; si  aliis,  vinu7u  ore  ipsi 
degustant.  Sunt  et  qui  sacerdotem  pziellcE  pleiio  coitu 
miscere  assei'unt,  alii  contra  co7itendzmt." 

(I  have  heard  tell  that  the  priest  going  into  a neigh- 
bouring chamber  with  the  maid,  there  deflowers  her, 
making  use  of  his  hand  for  the  purpose.  Then  he 
plunged  his  hand  in  wine,  with  which,  if  you  believe 
some  authorities,  the  father,  mother,  relations  generally 
and  neighbours,  put  a mark  on  their  forehead;  if  others 

‘ In  Latin : strati  dispositio.  (Abel  Remusat,  Melanges  Asiatiques, 
t.  I,  p.  71  & seq.) 


io6 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


are  to  be  credited,  they  actually  swallow  the  wine. 
Some  moreover  declare  the  priest  enjoys  full  coition 
with  the  girl,  but  others  deny  this). 

The  Perforatio  Penis  in  Australia.  ^ “ Before 

leaving  Australia  I made  the  acquaintance  of  a Mr. 
B.  . . . , an  experienced  squatter,  who  gave  me  some 
interesting  information  concerning  the  Mica  operation 
in  Central  Australia. 

“ This  operation  consists  in  a slitting  up  of  the  lower 
side  of  the  urethra,  in  consequence  of  which  the  penis 
is  no  longer  a tube  but  more  exactly  a gutter.  The 
operation  is  performed  by  means  of  a sharp  flint  and 
a piece  of  bark  is  placed  in  the  wound  to  prevent 
primary  healing  of  the  severed  surfaces  by  agglutina- 
tion. After  the  operation  the  young  men  may  go 
about  perfectly  naked,  which  they  are  forbidden  to  do 
previously.  They  are  now  permitted  to  marry.  In 
micturition  they  stand  erect,  the  legs  apart  and  urinate 
like  women.  In  the  moment  of  erection  the  penis  is 
broad  and  flat  and  the  sperm  is  ejaculated  extra  vagina 
(outside  the  vagina).  This  fact  was  also  noticed  by 
other  European  travellers  who  had  paid  natives  to 
perform  coition  in  their  presence.  It  was  also  parti- 
cularly remarked  that  among  about  300  natives  there 
were  only  three  or  four  who  had  not  been  operated, 
and  it  appeared  that  upon  these  devolved  the  duty 
of  insuring  the  propagation  of  the  tribe.  One  of  these, 
who  had  been  no  doubt  specially  selected  for  the 
purpose,  was  a splendid  specimen  of  humanity,  fully 
six  feet  two  inches  in  stature.” 

Edward  J.  Eyre,  in  Journ.  of  Expedition  of  Discovery 

* Extracts  prom  Travellers’  Note-Books, 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


107 


into  Ce7itral  Australia,  etc.,  Lond.  1840 — 41,  Vol.  I, 
p.  212,  says:  “In  the  Port  Lincoln  Peninsula  and 

along  the  adjacent  coast  the  natives  not  only  are  cir- 
cumcised, but  have  in  addition  another  most  extraor- 
dinary ceremonial : Finditjir  nsq^te  ad  nrethram  a 
parte  mfera  poiis,  p.  213.  (The  penis  is  cleft  right 
to  the  urethra  from  underneath).  Among  the  party  at 
the  camp  I examined  many  and  all  had  been  operated 
upon.  The  ceremony  with  them  seemed  to  have  taken 
place  between  the  age  of  twelve  and  fourteen  years, 
for  several  of  the  boys  of  that  age  had  recently  under- 
gone the  operation,  the  wounds  being  still  fresh  and 
inflamed.  This  custom  must  contribute  to  prevent  a 
too  rapid  increase  of  the  population  ...” 

In  another  work  by  several  authors : The  Native 

Tribes  of  South  Australia,  Adelaide,  1879,  the  Rev.  G. 
Taplin,  in  a note  at  page  14,  gives  a description  of 
the  operation;  Operationem  hoc  modo  perfciunt: 
os  Walabii  attenuatum  per  ^lrethra7n  immittunt  illud- 
q^le  ad  scrotum  protrudaint  ita  ut  permeet  carneni. 
Scindtcnt  dein  lapide  acuto  tisque  ad  gland ern  penis . . .” 
(They  perform  the  operation  in  the  following  way: 
they  insert  the  slender  bone  of  a Walaby  down  the 
urethra,  and  push  it  home  to  the  scrotum,  so  as  to 
pierce  the  flesh.  Then  with  a sharp  stone  they  slit 
up  the  penis  right  to  the  glans).  In  the  same  work 
(p.  231),  the  missionary  C.  W.  Schiirmann  writes  as 
follows ; “ Another  operation  is  also  performed  at 

this  period.  It  consists  of  a cut,  with  a chip  of 
quartz  from  the  orifice  of  the  penis,  along  its  lower 
side  down  to  the  scrotum,  opening  the  passage  out 
in  its  whole  length.  I have  not  been  able  to 
ascertain  the  motives  of  this  strange  mutilation.” 
— S.  Gason  says  in  ATanners  and  Ctistoins  of  the 


lo8  UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF  ANTHROPOLOGY. 

Native  Tribes  of  South  Australia,  p.  273  ; “So  soon  as 
the  hair  on  the  face  of  the  young  man  is  sufficiently 
grown  to  allow  the  end  of  the  beard  to  be  tied,  the 
ceremony  of  the  Koolpie  is  decided  on  . . . The  operation 
is  then  commenced  by  first  laying  his  penis  on  a piece 
of  bark,  when  one  of  the  party,  provided  with  a sharp 
splinter  of  flint,  makes  an  incision  underneath  the 
penis,  into  its  passage,  from  the  foreskin  to  its  base; 
this  done,  a piece  of  bark  is  inserted  in  the  wound 
so  as  to  prevent  its  healing  by  first  intention.  . .”  (It 
is  supposed  that  by  this  means  coition  is  more  rapidly 
accomplished,  ejaculation  being  sooner  induced).  ' 

* Zeitschrift  fur  Ethnologic  (l88o). 


CHAPTER  VI. 


Erotic  dances  of  the  Senegal  JSfegroes. — The  “ Anainalis  fobil” 
and  the  bambonla"  of  the  JJolofs. — The  ''belly  dance"  of  the 
Landoumans  of  Rio  Nunez. — Obscene  dance  of  the  massacre  of 
the  wounded,  and  mutilation  of  the  dead,  on  the  field  of  battle. — 
The  Gourou  or  Kola  nut,  the  aphrodisiac  of  the  Negroes. 

All  the  tribes  of  Senegal  have  dances  which  are 
peculiar  to  them.  Amongst  the  Bambaras  of  the  Upper 
Niger,  it  is  a character  dance,  a sort  of  war  dance 
performed  by  armed  men.  But,  amongst  the  greater 
number  of  the  other  tribes,  the  dance  has  an  erotic 
character.  The  most  striking  of  these  is  the  famous 
dance  of  the  Wolofs  of  Walou,  generally  called  by  the 
generic  name  of  bambottla. 

The  Anamalis  Fobil,  or  Bamboula  of  the  Wolofs, 

is  frequently  danced*  in  the  streets  of  Saint  Louis  and 
the  Negro  suburbs  of  the  town,  by  the  light  of  the 
chaste  Diana  (which  is  then  full  moon),  by  the  brilliant 

' Compare  the  dances  of  the  Greeks  and  Romans.  Scaliger  (J.  C.), 
in  his  Poet  tea  (book  I,  p.  64).  “Among  the  infamous  dances  were 
the  Qixvoi/aa,  QixvovOxhai,  that  is  to  say  the  shaking  of  the  hips 
and  thighs,  called  by  the  Latins  crissare.  Among  the  Spaniards  this 
abominable  dance  is  still  in  honour.  The  meaning  of  this  dance  is 
very  significant : waving  their  buttocks,  these  young  dancing  girls  stooped 
to  the  ground,  and  finally  threw  themselves  down  on  their  back,  as 
if  to  receive  the  amorous  assault.  The  Lacedemonian  differed 

from  this  dance,  in  that  tire  girls  jumped  so  as  make  their  heels  strike 
their  buttocks.”  Aristophane.s  in  Lysistrata  (v.  82)  says:  “ I dance 

naked  and  with  my  heel  smite  my  buttock.”  PoLLUX  (IV,  ch.  14): — 
“With  regard  to  the  ^i^aOiq,  it  was  a kind  of  Laconian  dance. 


1 lO 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


light  of  which  not  a single  detail  is  lost  to  the  spectators. 
As  soon  as  night  falls,  you  hear  the  sound  of  the  tam- 
tam, calling  the  Negro  population  to  the  Place.  The 
beginning  is  quiet  enough,  the  tam-tams  beat  without 
any  entrain,  the  dancers,  male  and  female,  timidly 
essay  a few  steps,  and  then  regain  the  ranks  of  the 
spectators.  Little  by  little,  they  become  warmer,  the 
dance  becomes  bolder  and  more  risky,  the  tam-tam 
marks  the  time  faster  and  faster,  the  spectators  clap 
their  hands  and  utter  obscene  cries,  particularly  the 
famous  aitanialis  fobil,  and  the  paroxysm  of  lust  reaches 
its  apogee.  Loti,  in  the  Roma7i  d’un  Spahi,  gives  a 

Prizes  were  offered  for  competition,  not  only  between  young  men 
but  also  between  young  girls.  It  was  required  to  jump  and  strike 
tire  buttocks  with  the  heels ; the  jumps  of  each  of  the  competitors 
were  counted  and  marked;  and  the  score  of  jumps  went  up  to 
ONE  THOUSAND ! ” Another  and  more  difficult  dance  was  known  under 
the  name  of  ixkdxTiGfia,  in  which  the  foot  was  required  to  touch 
the  shoulder.  Pollux  {ibid.).  “ The  i'uXa.XXiOftaxa  were  danced  by 
women;  it  was  required  to  kick  higher  than  the  shoidder.”  For  an 
interesting  choreographical  theory  see  John  O’Neill’s  erudite  work.  The 
Night  of  the  Gods,  an  Enquiry  into  Cosmic  and  Cosmogonic  Jtfyfhology 
and  Symbolism  (London,  David  Nutt,  1897),  Vol.  II.  He  traces  the  origin 
of  certain  forms  of  Dancing  to  a primitive  religious  practice ; and  connects 
the  same  with  the  circular  perambulation  of  Eastern  shrines  and  with 
the  use  of  the  Prayer-wheel,  and  then  explains  all  three — round  dancing, 
circular  worship  by  perambulation,  and  the  twirling  of  the  prayer-wheel 
— from  the  extremely  ancient  worship  of  the  (apparently)  revolving 
Heavens.  Schopenhauer’s  philosophy  of  dancing  is  curious.  Irritability, 
he  says,  objectified  in  the  muscular  tissue,  constitutes  the  chief  characteristic 
of  animals,  and  of  the  animal  element  in  man.  Where  it  predominates 
to  excess,  dexterity,  strength,  bravery — that  is  fitness  for  bodily  exertion 
and  for  War — is  usually  to  be  found.  Nearly  all  warm-blooded  animals, 
and  even  insects,  far  surpass  Man  in  irritability.  It  is  by  irritability  tliat 
animals  are  most  vividly  conscious  of  their  existence;  wherefore  they 
exult  in  manifesting  it.  There  is  even  still  a trace  of  that  exultation 
perceptible  in  hlan,  in  dancing.  The  Will  in  Nature,  Bell  and  Son, 
1889,  p.  250. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


I 1 I 


description  of  this  dance,  which  I may  be  permitted 
to  borrow. 

“ Anamalis  fobil ! shrieked  the  Griots,  striking  on 
their  tam-tams,  their  eyes  glaring,  their  muscles  strung, 
their  bodies  glistening  with  sweat.  And  everyone 
repeated,  clapping  their  hands  in  frenzy — anamalis 
fobil — a?iamalis  fobil — the  translation  of  which  would 
burn  this  page.  Anamalis  fobil!  the  first  words,  the 
dominant  note,  and  the  refrain  of  a maniac  song,  mad 
with  fervour  and  licence,  the  song  of  the  bamboula  of 
Spring!  Anamalis  fobil!  the  cry  of  wild  unrestrained 
desire,  of  the  vigour  of  the  Negro  overwarmed  by  the 
sun  into  a terrible  hysteria,  the  alleluia  of  Negro  love, 
the  hymn  of  seduction. 

“To  the  bamboulas  of  Spring'  come  the  young  lads, 
mingling  with  the  girls  who  have  just  assumed,  with 
great  pride,  their  costume  of  nubility,  and  to  a wild 
rhythm  of  unearthly  melody,  they  all  sing,  dancing  on 
the  sand,  Anamalis  fobil! — Bamboula!  A Griot,  who 
is  passing,  strikes  a few  blows  on  his  tam-tam.  It  is 
the  call  to  arms,  and  all  gather  round  him.  The  women 
run  up,  and  range  themselves  in  a closely  packed  ring, 
chanting  one  of  those  obscene  songs  of  which  they 
cire  so  fond.  One  of  them  leaves  the  crowd,  and  rushes 
into  the  middle,  into  the  empty  circle  where  the  tam- 
tam is  beating : she  dances  to  the  sound  of  grigris  and 
glass  beads ; her  steps,  which  are  slow  at  first,  are 
accompanied  by  gestures  which  are  terribly  licentious. 
Her  movements  become  quicker  until  she  is  in  a perfect 
frenzy  ; they  seem  like  the  frisking  of  a mad  monkey, 
the  contortions  of  a maniac. 

“ Her  strength  is  at  last  exhausted,  she  retires,  breath- 
less, and  worn  out,  with  the  sweat  glistening  on  her 
black  skin  ; her  companions  welcome  her  with  applause 


I 12 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


or  yells,  then  another  takes  her  place,  and  so  on  until 
all  have  taken  part.” 

In  a literary  work,  that  everybody  may  read,  the  author 
could  not  say  everything,  and  was  obliged  to  be  very 
particular,  as  to  what  he  wrote.  Not  having,  in  this 
book,  the  same  reasons  for  reticence,  I may  explain 
that  anmnalis  fobil  means,  “ the  dance  of  the  treading 
drake  ” . The  dancer  in  his  movements  imitates  the  copu- 
lation of  the  great  Indian  duck.  This  drake  has  a mem- 
ber of  a cork-screw  shape,  and  a peculiar  movement 
is  required  to  introduce  it  into  the  hole  of  the  duck. 
The  woman,  for  her  part,  tucks  up  her  clothes,  and 
convulsively  agitates  the  lower  part  of  her  body,  by 
an  indescribable  movement  of  the  haunches;  she  alter- 
nately shows  her  partner  her  vulva,  and  hides  it  from 
him,  by  a regular  movement,  backwards  and  forwards, 
of  all  the  body.  The  presence  of  a Toubab  does  not 
interfere  at  all  with  the  erotic  passion  of  the  dancer, 
who,  on  the  contrary  frisks  about  more  than  ever,  and 
addresses  him  with  obscene  phrases,  more  especially 
if  she  is  an  old  woman.  They  are  always  the  most 
excited,  as  Loti  has  remarked.  “ The  old  women  are 
distinguished  by  the  wildest  and  most  cynical  indecency. 
The  child,  which  she  often  carries  fastened  on  her 
back,  and  packed  up  in  the  most  uncomfortable  manner, 
utters  piercing  shrieks,  but  in  their  excitement  the 
Negresses  are  deaf  to  everything,  even  the  maternal 
instinct,  and  nothing  stops  them.” 

I have  already  said  that  the  anamalis  fobil  is  danced 
in  Saint  Louis,  under  the  paternal  eye  of  the  authorities, 
and  without  any  interference  from  them.  At  least  it 
was  so,  barely  more  than  ten  years  ago. 


The  “Belly  Dance”  of  the  Landoumans  of  Rio 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


I13 

Nunez.  The  Kassonkes  and  Sarrakholais  have  also  a 
lascivious  dance,  but  not  of  such  a pronounced  character 
as  the  Wolof  dance.  At  Rio  Nunez,  the  Landoumans 
have  a dance,  which  resembles  the  danse  du  ve^itre 
of  the  Arabs.  The  dance  is  performed  by  a woman. 
She  executes  a series  of  steps,  sometimes  forward, 
sometimes  backwards,  sometimes  sideways,  accompanied 
by  a wagging  of  the  pelvis,  meant  to  imitate  the 
movements  of  a woman  copulating  in  the  regular 
classical  method.  The  Arab  dances  at  the  Ptiris  Ex- 
hibition of  i88g,  gave  a tolerably  exact,  though  not 
very  forcible,  idea  of  this  dance.  ^ 

Obscene  Danc«  of  the  Massacre  of  the  Whites, 
and  Mutilation  of  the  Dead.  Not  one  of  the  authors 
who  has  written  about  Senegal,  has  described  the 
horrible  doings  of  some  of  the  races  of  the  interior, 
especially  the  Toucouleurs  and  the  Malinkes,  after  a 
battle  in  which  the  Europeans  have  been  defeated  or 
repulsed,  and  have  left  their  dead  and  wounded  on 
the  field  of  battle.  These  last  are  n;ost  horribly 
mutilated  by  the  old  women,  who  come  to  despoil  the 
dead.  Eor  the  dead  the  inconvenience  is  not  great, 
but  the  unfortunate  wounded  suffer  horribly  before 
they  die.  The  subject  has  been  touched  upon  very 

' This  dance  is  highly  indecent.  We  shall  not  soon  forget  the  first 
time  we  saw  it  executed  by  t\¥o  Jewesses  absolu7ne7it  titles,  in  some 
house  to  which  our  courier  led  us  in  a back  street  in  Tangier.  Most 
“ greenhorns”  freshly  come  from  Europe  are  caught  in  this  way.  We 
were  “ bled”  of  about  ten  “ pesetas”  each,  of  which  the  “ courier”  mentioned 
no  doubt  received  halves.  The  same  dance,  much  more  skilfully  done, 
we  have  since  witnessed  at  the  Casino  de  Paris  for  one  franc  and  in 
a travelling  booth  at  fete  time  on  the  Place  de  la  Repiibliqtie  for  two 
sons.  The  danseuse  was  this  time  clothed  in  gauze  and  thus  executed, 
the  display  is  vastly  more  graceful  and  suggestive. 


8 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


II4 

delicately  in  the  “Roman  d’un  Spahi,”  the  best  book 
that  we  have  about  Senegal.  Fatou-Gaye,  the  mistress 
of  Jean,  the  Spahi, — Avho,  with  the  advance  guard  of 
his  squadron,  has  been  killed  by  an  ambuscade  of  the 
enemy, — comes  to  search  for  the  corpse  of  her  lover, 
which  she  at  last  finds.  The  description  of  the  scene 
is  very  powerful.  “ Fatou-Gaye  stopped,  trembling  and 
terrified.  She  had  recognised  him,  lying  there  with 
his  arms  thrown  out,  and  his  mouth  open  to  the  sun, 
and  she  recited  some  unknown  prayer  to  a pagan 
deity,  touching  meanwhile  the  grigris  hung  round  her 
black  neck.  She  remained  a long  time,  muttering  to 
herself,  and  gazing  with  haggard  eyes,  the  whites  of 
which  were  suffused  with  blood.  Afar  off,  she  saw 
approaching  the  old  women  of  the  enemy’s  tribe, 
wending  their  way  towards  the  dead,  and  she  suspected 
that  something  horrible  was  about  to  happen.  Hideous 
old  Negresses,  their  wrinkled  skins  shining  under  the 
torrid  sun,  approached  the  young  man,  their  grigris 
and  glass  beads  clinking  as  they  moved ; they  touched 
the  body  with  their  feet,  laughed,  performed  obscene 
rites,  and  uttered  strange  words  which  seemed  like  the 
cries  of  monkeys ; they  violated  the  dead  with  ghastly 
buffoonery.” 

We  will  complete  this  quotation  by  an  exact  recital 
of  what  takes  place, — the  details  were  furnished  to  me 
by  persons  in  whom  I have  implicit  confidence.  The 
old  Negresses  cut  off  the  organs  of  generation  of  the 
wretched  Toubabs,  with  a common  knife,  ^ badly 

’ This  terrible  form  of  mutilation  was  practised  by  tire  Abyssinians 
in  the  late  war  with  Italy.  After  the  battle  of  Adoua  (in  1896)  a 
sergeant  who  had  been  temporarily  stunned,  aame  to  himself  and  followed 
the  line  of  retreat,  when,  near  a pile  of  slain  soldiers,  overcome  with 
fatigue,  he  again  fainted.  On  recovering  his  senses  he  felt  a sharp. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


I 15 

sharpened,  whilst  the  young  women  dance  round  in  a 
characteristic  dance  of  the  same  nature  as  the  anainalis 
fobil,  and  showing  their  vulva,  and  insulting  in  his 
distress  the  unhappy  wretch,  who  is  sometimes  con- 
scious, and  saying  to  him,  “ Toubab,  look  at  this  y.vvr  \ 
you  shall  never  more  enjoy  it.”  The  mutilation  being 
effected,  the  old  women  stuff  the  poor  man’s  yard  into 
his  mouth,  and  leave  him  to  perish  miserably.  The 
dead  are  treated  the  same,  but  of  course  it  makes  no 
difference  to  them.  It  is  usual,  amongst  the  officers 
engaged  on  expeditions  in  Senegal,  to  always  reserve 
for  themselves  the  sixth  shot  of  the  revolver,  so  that 
they  may  not  fall  alive  into  the  hands  of  these  devilish 
hags.  The  young. white  soldiers  are  also  recommended 
to  fight  to  the  last  drop  of  their  blood,  and  never  under 
any  circumstances  leave  the  field  of  battle  without 
orders.  The  removal  of  the  wounded  is  rigorously 
insisted  upon.  The  native  Sharpshooters  know  well 
what  fate  to  expect  if  they  are  defeated,  and  fight 
with  the  utmost  energy,  for  they  are  not  spared  any 
more  than  the  Whites.  The  Romans  fought  pro  aris  et 
focis,  and  if  the  subject  were  not  so  serious,  one 
might  say  that  in  Senegal  they  fight  pro  7nentula 
et  coleis. 

The  “Gourou”  or  Kola  Nut,  the  Aphrodisiac  of 
the  Negroes.  The  Blacks  only  know  of  one  aphro-. 
disiac,  the  gouroii  or  Kola  nut,  which,  strictly  speaking, 
is  not  a nut  at  all,  but  a large  chestnut,  very  much 

burning  pain  at  the  junction  of  the  thighs,  and  then,  to  his  horror, 
found  he  had  been  deprived  of  the  attributes  of  manhood.  Endowed 
with  uncommon  strength  and  courage  this  man  was  able  to  crawl  into 
the  Italian  camp,  more  dead  than  alive,  and  a record  of  his  experiences 
appeared  in  La  Statnpa.  (See  Eunuchs  and  Eunuchism ; Paris,  1898, 
for  similar  cases). 


Il6  UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF  ANTHROPOLOGY. 

like  a horse  chestnut.  This  fruit  comes  from  the  South 
rivers.  The  Negroes  of  .Senegal  and  the  Soudan  chew 
the  gourou  with  delight,  although  it  has  a sharp  and 
astringent  taste.  It  produces  on  the  Black  a sort  of 
general  nervous  excitement,  which  sensibly  increases 
all  the  physical  faculties,  including  of  course  the 
generative  powers.  A Negro  who  chews  a few  goiiroii 
nuts,  can  go  twenty-four  hours  without  eating,  and 
march  or  dance,  almost  without  interruption,  the  whole 
time : at  the  great  bamboulas  and  fetes,  the  gouroit  is 
therefore  much  used.  It  is  a most  valuable  fruit  when 
exceptionally  hard  work  (amorous  or  otherwise)  has  to 
be  done,  but  its  use  should  not  be  abused.  Kola  is 
now  admitted  into  European  therapeutics,  and  is  used 
for  restoring  lost  strength,  and  stimulating  the  forces 
of  the  body.  It  contains  a greatar  quantity  of  caffeine 
and  theobromine  than  the  best  teas  and  coffees ; and 
it  has  a direct,  immediate,  and  certain  effect  upon  the 
heart  and  the  circulation,  which  it  regulates  and 
strengthens.  Kola  is  a most  useful  medicine,  active, 
and  energetic,  and  a restorative  of  the  best  kind.  I 
found  it  of  great  service  when  I accompanied  the 
expedition  to  Fouta-Toro,  and  I chewed  it  from  time 
to  time,  in  order  to  restore  my  strength.  ^ 

' A most  interesting  account  is  given  by  Edouard  Heckel  under  the 
title  of  “ Des  Kolas  Africains  ” in  the  Bull,  de  la  Soct.  de  Geographic 
de  Marseille,  Avril-juin,  1883. 

For  a detailed  account  of  certain  Aphrodisiacs  see  The  Old  Man 
Young  Again  (1898)  and  Aphrodisiacs  and  Anti- Aphrodisiacs,  hy^ohn 
Davenport,  Lond.  1869. 


CHAPTER  VII. 


Sexual  mtercojirse  of  the  Negro  races.  — Sensitiveness  of  the 
race. — Contempt  of  the  Negress  for  the  White  man. — The  usual 
method  of  copidation.  — Prolo7iged  duration  of  copidatioti  in  the 
Negro. — Circumcision  as  a potent  cause  of  delav  in  spending. — 
The  7inimportance  of  the  sig?is  of  virgmitv  in  the  Negress. — 
Negro  girls  defloivered  bv  Toubabs. — Amorous  subterfuges  used 
in  E2irope. — Artifices  used  by  Asiatic  peoples. — Fonner  A77iejican 
custo7)is. — Repo7't  of  Carletti,  the  T7'aveller. — Savage  habits 
regarding  perf7i7nes.^Tu77iefaction  of  the  gland. — htfliience  of 
chastity  on  health. — Eleme7its  of  social  science.  — Dr.  Verga  07i 
celibacy. 

Forms  of  Sexual  Intercourse  amongst  the  Negro 
Races.  I must,  in  the  first  place,  do  my  best  to 
destroy  the  common  impression  that  prevails,  that  the 
Negress  is  “a  hot  woman,”  passionately  fond  of  the 
pleasures  of  love.  She  is  nothing  of  the  kind,  and  only 
cares  for  the  normal  form  of  sexual  passion.  I have  already 
remarked,  concerning  Guiana,  that  the  pure  Negress 
had  only  an  “ affection  of  the  head  ” for  the  White,  and 
that  the  woman  of  real  lively  passions  was  the  Mulatta, 
and,  more  especially,  the  Quadroon.  The  observations 
I made  at  Senegal,  coincided  exactly  with  those  made 
at  Guiana,  and  I will  now  gxplain  the  physiological 
causes  of  the  peculiarity. 

The  nervous  system  of  the  Black  is  much  less  devel- 
oped than  that  of  the  White.  He  recovers  from  wounds 
and  extraordinary  mutilations  which  would  kill  a White 
man.  By  a law  which  is  as  old  as  the  world,  the 


Il8  UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 

more  civilised  people  become,  the  more  delicate,  and 
the  much  more  nervous  they  are.  Is  this  an  advantage 
or  a disadvantage?  The  question  is  a doubtful  one. 
The  Negro  who  has  his  leg  cut  off  at  the  thigh,  does 
not  have  the  traumatic  fever  which  carries  off  so  many 
Parisians  after  a similar  operation.  The  accouchement 
of  some  women — veritable  bundles  of  nerves — would 
be  impossible  without  the  use  of  chloroform.  The 
Negress  on  the  other  hand,  hardly  suffers  at  all  in 
labour,  and  soon  resumes  her  usual  work,  whilst  the 
civilised  woman  is  obliged  to  lie  in  bed  for  whole 
weeks.  As  may  be  imagined,  with  such  a vast  genital 
apparatus,  and  such  a low  nervous  system,  the  Negress 
is  very  far  from  being  a woman  of  lively  passions. 
She  is  almost  insensible  to  caresses  that  would  make 
a White  woman  swoon  away  with  pleasure.  I knew 
a very  intelligent  young  officer  who  had  a taste  for 
Lesbianism.  Being  of  rather  a cold  temperament,  he 
was  obliged,  to  excite  himself,  to  lick  with  his  tongue 
the  external  genital  parts  of  the  woman ; it  was  the 
only  way  in  which  he  could  get  an  erection.  This 
little  amusement  once  gave  him  a chancre  under  the 
tongue,  for  which  he  came  to  consult  me.  Being 
discreetly  questioned,  he  confessed  to  the  habit,  and 
frankly  assured  me  that  the  Negresses  were  very  cold, 
and  that  it  took  a long  time  to  make  them  feel  the 
effect  of  his  Lesbian  manoeuvres. 

Contempt  of  the  Negress  for  the  White  Man. 

The  result  of  this  characteristic  organisation  of  the 
Black  woman, — amplitude  of  the  vulva  and  vagina, 
combined  with  a poorly  developed  nervous  system, — 
is  that  the  Negress  does  not  care  for  the  White  man, 
who  is  generally  powerless  to  produce  the  proper 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


II9 


voluptuous  sensation.  The  Toubab  has,  for  her,  two 
irremediable  faults;  firstly,  the  small  size  of  his  penis, — 
for,  with  rare  exceptions,  the  European  is  a “ man-hare” 
in  comparison  with  the  Negro ; secondly,  the  rapidity 
with  which  he  accomplishes  the  act  of  copulation. 
With  the  White  man  the  emission  takes  place  before 
the  Negress  has  experienced  any  sensation  of  pleasure. 
The  use  of  opium,  which  retards  the  emission,  is  un- 
known at  Senegal,  and  so  the  Negress  compares  the 
Toubab  to  a cock  on  a hen,  whilst,  she  says,  the 
Negro  is  like  a dog  with  a bitch.  This  comparison, 
which  I heard  from  an  old  Black  procuress,  is  not 
devoid  of  truth. 

The  Usual  Method  of  Copulation.  For  a woman 
constituted  as  the  Negress  is,  copulation  with  a Negro 
is  preferable  to  that  with  a White  man.  .She  finds  in 
the  male  of  her  own  race  the  wherewithal  to  satisfy 
her; — a penis  of  a magnitude  in  proportion  to  the  size 
of  her  vagina,  and  a prolonged  copulation.  ^ There 
is  no  preliminary  of  love  on  either  side, — none  of  those 
little  love  tricks  of  which  Ambroise  Pare  ^ speaks. 
The  act  is  accomplished  in  the  natural  vessel,  and  in 
the  classical  fashion  of  human  coition,  —the  woman 
lying  on  her  back,  and  the  man  between  her  thighs. 

I once,  however,  saw  employed,  by  a Malinke  of 
Kita,  a peculiar  position  which  is  used,  it  seems,  in 
his  country.  This  Malinke,  a fetish  worshipper,  was 

' Compare  R.  F.  Burton’s  note  on  page  6 of  tlie  Benares  edition 
of  the  "-Nights”;  or  the  "Book  of  Exposition”  (page  73),  if  the  first 
be  unobtainable,  respecting  the  genital  dimensions  of  the  NEGROES  of 
SoMALi-LAND  and  Zanzibar. 

^ See  ante  for  note  regarding  this  quaint  and  plain-spoken  old  surgeon  ; 
a record  of  his  life  and  times  was  published  in  1897  by  Messrs, 
Putnam’s  Sons  (Lond.  and  New  York). 


I 20 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


a big  fellow,  who  could  drink  absinthe  nearly  pure, 
and  who  used  often  to  come  to  see  my  cook,  an 
acquaintance  of  his,  who  lived  with  his  wife  in  a hut 
near  my  house.  Happening  by  a rare  chance  to  go 
to  the  hut,  I surprised  the  Malinke  in  criminal  con- 
versation with  the  cook’s  wife.  It  should  be  said  that 
the  wife  was  a Malinke,  who  had  been  captured,  and, 
by  the  fortune  of  war  had  become  the  wife  of  my 
cook,  a Negro  of  the  Antilles,  who  had  formerly  served 
as  a sailor  on  a Government  transport  ship,  and  had 
afterwards  been  three  years  in  the  Sharpshooters.  It 
was  lucky  for  the  guilty  parties  that  it  was  not  the 
husband  who  surprised  them,  or  the  kitchen  knife 
might  have  played  a nasty  part  in  the  drama.  They 
were  so  preoccupied  that  they  did  not  hear  me  enter 
the  hut,  and  I was  able,  without  any  premeditation 
on  my  part,  to  closely  study  their  position,  which  was 
simply  this.  The  woman  was  squatting  on  her  hams; 
with  her  head  down,  and  resting  against  the  wall  of 
the  hut,  her  hands  placed  on  her  knees.  The  man 
was  behind  her,  between  her  thighs,  his  body  bent 
forwards,  and  was  holding  the  woman  by  her  haunches, 
whilst  he  accomplished  the  act  in  the  natural  receptacle, 
though  in  a position  a retro.  The  culprits  (if  culprits 
they  were)  avowed  that  this  position  is  used  out  of 
doors,  when  there  is  a trunk  of  a tree  to  lean  against, 
and  no  mat  to  lie  upon.  But  whether  he  use  this 
uncomfortable  method  or  any  other,  the  Negro  takes 
a much  longer  time  before  he  spends,  than  the  White 
man  does.  I should  estimate  that  he  is,  on  an  average, 
quite  three  times  as  long  in  finishing  a copulation  as 
the  White  man  is,  and  I am  not  at  all  exaggerating. 
The  reasons  for  this  are  very  natural.  Firstly,  the 
sensitiveness  of  the  genital  apparatus  is  much  less  in 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


I 2 I 


the  Black  man  than  in  the  White,  for  the  same  reason 
that  the  generating  parts  of  the  Negress  are  endowed 
with  a less  acute  sensitiveness  than  those  of  the  White 
woman.  It  would  be  abnormal,  and  contrary  to  the 
laws  of  physiology  for  the  Black  man  to  accomplish 
the  venereal  act  as  rapidly  as  a European,  whilst  the 
woman  of  his  race  was  very  slow  in  coming.  Nature 
is  a good  mother,  and  whatever  she  does  she  does  well. 

In  the  ^'Scented  Garden  Man' s Heart  to  Gladden"  ^ 
by  Sheikh  Nafzawi,  the  story  of  Zohrah  affords  us  a 
proof  that  the  sagacious  Arab  writer  had  made  the 
same  remark  as  I have,  concerning  the  slowness  of  the 
Negro  in  spending.  ^ The  circumcised  Arab  is,  however, 
slower  than  the  ^European,  and  a fortiori  the  circum- 
cised Negro  is  slower  still,  on  account  of  his  possessing 
a nervous  system  that  is  less  easily  moved. 

Circumcision  is  a Potent  Cause  of  Slowness 
in  Spending.  This  may  easily  be  understood.  All 
the  circumcised  yards  that  I examined,  and  as  surgeon 
to  the  Sharpshooters  I saw  some  hundreds  in  the 
course  of  my  regular  medical  visits,  present  a common 
characteristic  that  I have  already  described.  The 
secretion  of  the  sebaceous  glands  situated  round  the 
crown  of  the  gland  is  dried  up ; these  glands  are 
atrophied  and  are  hardly  visible  with  a magnifying 
glass.  In  the  uncircumcised  Negro  of  Guiana  I had 
previously  noticed  a slight  development  of  these  glands, 
and  a very  slight  secretion,  coinciding,  in  the  Negress 
v.^ith  a marked  dryness  of  the  vaginal  mucous  surface. 

' XVlth  Century. 

^ The  story  was  given  in  full,  at  the  end  of  the  present  chapter,  in 
the  first  edition,  but  for  the  reasons  stated  farther  on  we  have  thought 
fit  to  suppress  it  in  this  edition, 


122 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


I have  previously  remarked  that  very  few  of  these 
women  were  subject  to  the  flowers.  This  rule  applies 
also  to  the  women  of  Senegal. 

But  to  return  to  the  Negro  of  Senegal.  The  mucous 
surface  of  the  gland,  being  always  exposed  to  the 
air,  like  that  of  the  Arab,  dries,  hardens,  and  assumes 
a consistence  like  that  of  the  ordinary  skin.  As  may 
be  supposed,  in  order  to  spend,  the  Black  requires  a 
very  prolonged  rubbing,  and  the  receptacle  is  large 
and  well  lubricated.  A Negro  is  therefore  able  to 
make  the  act  of  coition  last  a long  time  before  he 
spends,  and  can  even,  if  he  likes,  keep  back  the 
supreme  moment  by  modulating  his  thrusts.  He  can 
thus  accomplish  amorous  exploits  which  would  knock 
up  a European. 

In  the  story  of  Zahirah,  the  Negro  Mamoun  has 
assigned  to  him  the  task  of  satisfying  the  attendant, 
Mounah  (“  she  who  satisfies  desires  ”)  whom  no  man 
had  ever  been  able  to  satiate  with  copulation.  The 
reader  will  see,  in  the  extract  from  the  Arab  author, 
how  Mamoun  acquitted  himself  of  the  task,  and  suc- 
ceeded in  giving  Mounah  as  much  as  she  wanted. 
Allowing  for  Oriental  exaggeration,  it  is  certain  that 
a well-fed,  circumcised  Negro  can  perform  on  a woman 
nearly  the  whole  night  and  only  spend  five  or  six 
times. 

I do  not  believe  there  are  many  Europeans  capable 
of  such  amorous  feats. 

Unimportance  of  the  Signs  of  Virginity  in  the 
Negroes.  The  Negroes  of  Senegal  do  not  attach,  as 
the  x\rabs  do,  considerable  importance  to  the  presence 
of  the  real  signs  of  virginity  in  the  young  girls.  I 
have  already  mentioned  that  the  husband  purchases 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


123 


his  wife,  and  that  marriage  is  a festival,  and  not  a 
religious  ceremony.  The  non-existence  of  the  material 
proofs  of  virginity  seldom  give  rise  to  any  complaint 
on  the  part  of  the  husband.  Cases  in  which  a young 
woman  is  sent  back  to  her  parents  are  not  common, 
for  half  the  marriage  portion  would  be  retained  by 
the  girl’s  father,  as  damages.  Moreover,  the  size  of 
the  virile  member  of  the  Negro  renders  it  difficult  for 
him  to  detect  any  trick.  The  Black  bride,  on  the 
wedding  night,  shows  herself  expert  in  the  art  of 
simulating  the  struggles  of  an  expiring  virginity,  and 
it  is  considered  good  taste  for  the  girls  to  require  to 
be  almost  raped.  The  least  innocent  young  women 
are  often  the  most  clever  at  this  game.  Thus  through- 
out nearly  all  Senegal,  the  European,  who  has  a taste 
for  maidenheads,  can  easily  be  satisfied,  provided  he 
is  willing  to  pay  the  price.  ^ At  Saint  Louis  certain 
women  of  ill-fame  procure  young  girls,  who  bear  the 
significant  name  of  the  “ unpierced”,  and  vary  from 
eight  or  nine  years  to  the  nubile  age.  It  is  even 
easier  to  obtain  a young  girl  before  she  is  nubile  than 
afterwards,  on  account  of  the  certainty  of  her  not 
bearing  any  children.  The  price  is  within  the  range 
of  all  purses,  according  to  quality,  and  you  can  have 
a Negro  girl,  warranted  “ unpierced”  (belonging  to 
the  category  of  domestic  slaves),  for  the  modest  sum 
of  from  eight  to  sixteen  shillings.  Of  course,  the 
respectable  matron  pockets  half  this  sum,  for  her 
honorarium. 


* A celebrated  Parisian  courtesan  used  to  boast,  according  to  Man- 
TEGAZZA,  that  she  had  “ sold  ” her  “ virginity  ” on  82  different  occa- 
sions! ! See  '■'•Curious  Bypaths  of  History”  (Paris,  1898,  .pages  275 
to  300)  for  further  uncommon  details  on  this  subject. 


124 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


The  Medico- Juridical  Importance  of  Signs  of 
Virginity.  Taylor  has  treated  this  subject  at  great 
length  in  his  valuable  work  on  Medical  Jurisprudence, 
and  inasmuch  as  “ Untrodden  Fields  ” will  be  read  by 
Doctors  and  Anthropologists  living  abroad  and  who 
may  not  have  Taylor’s  book  within  reach,  we  trust  to 
be  excused  for  quoting  so  long  a passage.  We  have 
fully  detailed  our  own  views  and  experience  on  this 
subject  in  another  part  of  the  present  work. 

“The  question,”  says  Taylor,  “ may  become  of  impor- 
tance not  only  as  it  affects  the  reputation  of  a female,  but 
the  credibility  and  character  of  the  person  who  makes  the 
imputation  of  a want  of  chastity.  In  1845,  a gentleman 
was  brought  to  a court-martial  on  a charge  of  having 
deliberately  and  falsely  asserted  that  on  several  occasions 
he  had  connection  with  a native  woman.  This  was 
denied  by  the  woman,  and  evidence  was  adduced  to 
show  that  she  had  still  what  is  commonly  regarded 
as  the  main  sign  of  virginity,  namely,  an  unruptured 
hymen.  In  consequence  of  this,  the  gentleman  was 
found  guilty  and  cashiered.  The  woman  was  at  the 
time  about  to  be  married,  and  this  rendered  the  in- 
vestigation all  the  more  important  to  her.  A surgeon, 
who  examined  the  girl,  deposed  that  he  found  the 
membrane  of  a semilunar  form,  and  tensely  drawn 
across  the  vagina ; and  his  evidence  was  corroborated 
by  that  of  a midwife.  The  inculpated  person  took  up 
a double  line  of  defence — ist,  that  the  examination  of 
the  woman  was  incomplete ; and  2nd,  that  the  hymen, 
if  present,  would  not  justify  the  witness  in  saying  that 
intercourse  could  not  possibly  have  taken  place.  On 
the  first  point,  it  is  unnecessary  here  to  make  a 
remark ; but  it  appeared,  from  their  own  admissions, 
that  the  witnesses  had  never  before  examined  women 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


125 


with  this  particular  object.  Assuming  that  there  was 
no  mistake,  it  became  a question  whether  non-inter- 
course could  in  such  a case  be  inferred  from  the 
presence  of  the  membrane.  Fruitful  intercourse,  it  is 
well  known,  may  take  place  without  rupture  of  the 
hymen  Some  instances  of  this  kind  were  referred  to 
at  the  court-martial ; but  such  cases  are  usually  regarded 
as  of  an  exceptional  nature.  The  real  question  is, 
whether,  unless  the  hymen  be  in  an  abnormal  state, 
intercourse  can  possibly  occur  between  young  and 
active  persons  without  a rupture  of  this  membrane. 
Intercourse  is  not  likely  to  be  confined,  under  these 
circumstances,  to  a mere  penetration  of  the  vulva.  The 
membrane  in  this  woman  is  stated  to  have  been  tensely 
drawn  across  the  canal,  and  it  was  not  tough ; it  was 
therefore  in  a condition  to  render  it  most  easy  for 
rupture.  In  the  case  of  an  old  man,  or  of  one  of 
weak  virile  power,  vulvar  intercourse  might  be  had 
without  destroying  the  membrane ; but  such  a case 
could  only  be  decided  by  the  special  circumstances 
which  accompanied  it.  The  presence  of  ihe  unruptured 
hymen  affords  a presumptive  bixt  not  an  absolute  proof 
that  the  woman  is  a virgin ; and  if  the  membrane  is 
of  ordinary  size  and  shape,  and  in  the  ordinary  situation, 
it  shows  clearly  that,  although  attempts  at  intercourse 
may  have  been  made,  there  can  have  been  no  vaginal 
penetration.  Admitting  the  statements  of  the  examiners 
to  be  correct,  it  is  improbable  that  this  woman  had 
had  sexual  intercourse  several  times,  or  even  on  one 
occasion. 

“ In  the  case  of  Delafosse  v.  Fortescue,  ^ which 
involved  an  action  for  defamation  of  character,  the 
plaintiff,  a married  man,  aet.  64,  had  been  charged 
^ Exeter  Lent  Ass.,  1893. 


126 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


with  committing  adultery  with  a certain  woman.  Several 
witnesses  for  the  defendant  positively  swore  that  they 
had  seen  these  persons  in  carnal  intercourse.  This 
was  denied  by  the  plaintiff;  and,  as  an  answer  to  the 
case,  medical  evidence  was  tendered  to  the  effect  that 
the  woman  with  whom  the  adulterous  intercourse  was 
alleged  to  have  taken  place  had  been  examined,  and 
the  hymen  was  found  intact.  In  cross-examination, 
however,  this  was  admitted  not  to  be  a conclusive 
criterion  of  virginity,  and  a verdict  was  returned  for 
the  defendant.  The  form  and  situation  of  the  hymen 
in  this  case  were  not  described ; but  it  is  to  be 
presumed  that  these  were  hot  such  as  to  constitute 
a physical  bar  to  intercourse,  or  this  would  have  been 
stated  by  the  medical  witness.  Hence  the  existence 
of  the  membrane  was  not  considered  to  disprove  the 
allegations  of  eye-witnesses.  In  Scotland  this  kind  of 
medical  evidence  is  not  admissible.  A wife  sued  the 
husband  for  divorce,  on  the  ground,  inter  alia,  that 
he  had  committed  adultery  with  C.  In  defence  the 
defendant  denied  the  adultery,  and  adduced  C.  as  a 
witness,  who  swore  that  such  connection  had  never  taken 
place.  She  also  swore  that  she  had  submitted  to  an 
inspecfio  corporis  by  Simpson.  The  defendant  then 
proposed  to  examine  Simpson,  that  he  might  speak 
to  the  result  of  his  examination.  He  argued  that  this 
was  the  best  evidence  that  he  could  adduce  in  support 
of  his  innocence,  as  if  the  girl  was  still  a virgin  the 
adultery  alleged  could  not  have  been  committed.  The 
court  refused  to  admit  the  evidence,  on  the  ground 
that  the  evidence  proposed  was  merely  that  of  an 
opinion  from  the  professor;  that  other  medical  men 
might  differ  from  him  in  opinion,  even  from  the  same 
observations,  and  that,  as  the  court  could  not  compel 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


127 


C.  to  submit  to  another  examination,  the  proposed 
evidence  must  be  considered  exparte  and  inadmissible.  ' 
In  Hunt  v.  Hunt  a verdict  was  obtained  at  common- 
law  against  the  alleged  paramour  in  a case  of  adultery. 
It  was  subsequently  proved  that  the  lady  was  virgo 
intacta.  So  long  as  there  are  facts  which  show  that 
women  have  actually  conceived  with  the  hymen  still 
in  its  normal  state,  it  is  inconsistent  to  apply  the  term 
‘virgo  intacta’  to  women  merely  because  this  mem- 
brane is  found  entire.  A woman  may  assuredly  have 
an  unruptured  hymen,  and  yet  not  be  a ‘ virgo  intacta’. 
This  can  only  be  decided  by  the  special  circumstances 
proved  in  each  case.  Such  virgines  intactcB  have 
frequently  required  the  assistance  of  accoucheurs,  and 
in  due  time  have  been  delivered  of  children.  ^ A 
similar  question  arose  in  Reg.  v.  Hakmer.  ^ The  pris- 
oner was  indicted  for  perjury.  He  was  a waiter  at 
a tavern,  and  being  called  as  a witness  in  a divorce 
suit,  swore  that  he  had  seen  one  of  the  parties  in 
adulterous  intercourse  on  more  than  one  occasion.  The 
lady  with  whom  the  adultery  was  alleged  to  have 
been  committed,  denied  this  on  oath,  and  Lee  and 
another  medical  expert  gave  evidence  that  they  had 
examined  this  lady,  and  found  her  to  be  a virgo 
intacta.  He  was  found  guilty.” 

Negro  Girls  deflowered  by  Toubabs.  The  “ un- 
pierced” soon  lose  their  right  to  the  title,  when  they 
have  to  do  with  a Toubab,  but,  on  account  of  the 
size  of  their  genital  parts,  the  loss  of  their  maidenhead 

^ Sessiotis  Cases  (Edin.,  Feb.  ir,  i860). 

^ “ Amer.  Journ.  Med.  Soc.”  Ap.,  1873,  p.  560. 

C.C.C.,  June,  1872. 


128 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


is  not  such  a serious  affair  for  them  as  it  would  be 
for  a little  French  girl  who  was  not  yet  nubile.  I 
have  never  remarked  in  a little  Negress,  who  had  been 
deflowered  by  a White,  the  vulvar  inflammation,  which, 
with  us,  is  noticed  as  the  result  of  premature  copulation 
before  the  parts  are  sufficiently  developed.  I have 
sometimes  found  a little  irritation,  but  never  any  erosions 
or  ulcerations.  This  results  not  only  from  her  being 
so  wide,  but  also  from  her  lack  of  nervous  sensitiveness. 
For  example,  when  she  continues  to  practise  copulation 
with  a Toubab,  the  vulva  finally  assumes  the  charac- 
teristic deformity.  If  the  reader  will  remember  that 
the  European,  who  is  below  the  average  dimensions 
in  regard  to  his  penis,  is  like  a little  boy  in  proportion 
to  the  Negress  of  ten  or  twelve  years  old,  it  is  not 
difficult  to  imagine  that  the  Negress  he  has  deflowered 
can  entirely  take  in  the  yard  of  the  White,  the 
dimensions  of  which  are  much  less  than  that  of  the 
adult  Black. 

If  copulation  is  repeated,  the  vagina  enlarges  and 
distends,  which  greatly  facilitates  the  admission  of  the 
member.  On  the  other  hand,  when  the  girl  has  to  do 
later  with  a Negro  husband,  an  astringent  lotion  (myrrh 
and  alum  are  very  much  employed  for  this  purpose) 
will  render  the  bride  a pseudo- virgin.  The  deceived 
husband,  not  having  the  anatomical  knowledge  neces- 
sary to  assure  himself  of  the  real  existence  of  the 
signs  of  virginity,  feels  a difficulty  in  copulating,  and 
is  far  from  suspecting  any  trick.  Does  not  much  the 
same  kind  of  thing  prevail  also  in  Europe?  How 
many  girls  who  have  been  deflowered  get  married 
without  their  husband  ever  suspecting  anything, 
although  he  has  not  the  same  physical  disadvantages 
that  the  Black  has,  to  prevent  his  seeing  through  the 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


1 29 

trick.  ^ Is  it  to  this  amorous  blindness  that  the  Greeks 
and  Romans  alluded,  when  they  represented  Cupid 
with  a bandage  over  his  eyes?  One  is  almost  tempted 
to  believe  it. 

Amorous  Subterfuges  used  in  Europe.  Mantegaz.za 
makes  some  very  interesting  remarks  on  this  subject. 

In  opposition  to  those  who  exact  the  virginity  of 
the  bride,  there  are  others  who  attach  no  importance 
whatever  to  it. 

According  to  Ilureau  de  Villeneuve,  ^ the  hymen  is 
not  described  in  the  Chinese  works  on  medicine  and 
surg-ery,  and  he  explained  the  fact  by  saying  that  the 
mothers  and  nurses  succeeded  in  obliterating  it  by 
continual  washings  of  the  genital  parts.  It  is  said  to 
be  the  same  in  India. 

Epp  enthusiastically  applauds  these  customs.  They 
contrast  with  the  want  of  cleanliness  among  us  Euro- 
peans who,  out  of  modesty  or  through  neglect,  transform 
this  nest  of  love  into  a putrid  sink. 

' Much  fuss  is  made  by  men  over  this  matter,  hut  we  think  that  if 
tliey  were  purer  in  their  own  lives  they  would  be  less  likely  to  suspect 
their  wives’  chastity.  Women  have  as  much  right  morall)’  to  expect 
purity  ill  the  men  they  marry  as  the  contrary;  although,  we  know  that 
of  course,  the  old  cry  will  be  raised  about  the  inequality  of  the  sexes 
and  the  husband  having  to  pay  for  children  not  his  own,  yet  the  fact 
remains  that  healthy  offspring  are  given  to  those  who  have  learnt 
“ self-governance”.  Too  often,  the  libertine,  so  jealous  and  exacting  as 
regards  his  partner,  brings  a syphilitic  body  to  the  marriage  bed,  and  in  the 
scrofulous  faces  of  his  children  reads  for  the  lirst  time  the  meaning 
about  the  “ sins  of  the  fathers  descending  upon  the  children  until  the 
third  and  fourth  generations.” 

Sec  “ Excursus”  to  the  jiresent  chapter  on  the  Injl^icnce  of  Chastity 
on  the  Health. 

“ Dc  I’ Accouchement  dans  la  Race  Jaune,  these  de  Paris,  Ploss, 
op.  cit.,  t.  I,  p.  219. 


9 


130 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


The  ancient  Egyptians  used  to  make  an  incision  in 
the  hymen  previous  to  marriage,  and  Saint  Athanasius 
relates  that  among  the  Phoenicians  a slave  of  the 
bridegroom  was  charged  by  him  to  deflower  the  bride. 

The  Caraib  Indians  attached  no  value  to  virginity, 
and  only  the  daughters  of  the  higher  classes  were 
shut  up  during  two  years  previous  to  marriage. 

It  appears  that  among  the  Chibcha  Indians  in  Central 
America  virginity  is  not  at  all  esteemed.  It  was  con- 
sidered to  be  a proof  that  the  maiden  had  never  been 
able  to  inspire  love. 

In  ancient  Peru  the  old  maids  were  the  object  of 
high  esteem.  There  were  sacred  virgins  called  Wives 
of  the  Sim  ^ somewhat  similar  to  the  Roman  vestals. 
They  made  a vow  of  perpetual  chastity  and  passed  their 
lives  in  weaving  and  in  preparing  chicha  ^ and  cakes 
of  Indian  corn  for  the  King  fnca).  ® 

It  is  also  said  that  they  were  buried  alive  when  they 
happened  to  break  their  vow  of  chastity,  unless  indeed 
they  could  prove  having  conceived,  not  from  a man, 
but  from  the  sun.  The  seducer  was  put  to  death  and 
his  race  dispersed. 

Several  authors  worthy  of  credence  assure  us  that 
these  vestals  were  guarded  by  eunuchs.  The  temple  at 
Cuzco  had  one  thousand  virgins,  that  of  Caranqua  two 
hundred.  It  would  appear,  however,  that  the  virginity 
of  these  vestals  was  not  so  very  sacred  after  all,  for 
the  Inca  Kings  used  to  choose  from  among  them  con- 
cubines for  themselves  or  for  their  principal  vassals  and 
favourite  friends.  According  to  Torquemada,  these 

* The  nuns  of  the  present  day,  do  they  not  style  themselves  the 
“ Spouses  of  Christ?  ” 

® A fermented  intoxicating  beverage. 

® Read  the  priests  of  the  Temple.  (Trnsl.). 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


•31 

vestals  remained  only  three  years  in  the  temple,  and 
were  then  replaced  by  others.  The  Inca  used  to  choose 
three  whom  he  consecrated  priestesses  of  the  sun,  then 
three  for  himself  and  the  others  he  married  to  his 
subjects  or  else  gave  them  their  liberty. 

Marco  Polo  narrates  how  young  girls  were  exposed 
by  their  mothers  on  the  public  highway  in  order  that 
travellers  might  freely  make  use  of  them.  A young 
girl  was  expected  to  have  at  least  twenty  presents 
earned  by  such  prostitutions  before  she  could  hope  to 
find  a husband,  d'his  did  not  prevent  them  from  being 
very  virtuous  after  marriage,  nor  their  virtue  from 
being  much  appreciated. 

Waitz  assures 'us  that  in  several  countries  of  Africa  a 
young  girl  is  preferred  for  wife  when  she  has  made  herself 
remarked  by  several  amours  and  by  much  fecundity. 

It  was  impossible  ever  to  find  the  signs  of  virginity 
among  the  Machacura  women  in  Brazil,  and  Feldner  ^ 
explains  the  reason  in  latin  : “ Nulla  inter  illas  inveni- 
tiir  virgo,  quia  mater  inde  in  tencra  cctatc  fUla;  maxi- 
ma c-iun  ctira  omnem  vagince  constrictioncm  ingredi- 
mcntumque  amovere  shidet,  hoc  quidem  modo  manui 
dextra  imponitur  folium  arbori's  in  infidibuliformam 
rcdactum,  ct  dum  index  in  partes  genifalcs  immissus 
hue  ct  illud  movetur,  per  infundibulum  aqua  tepida 
immittitur."  (Among  them  a virgin  is  never  to  be 
found,  for  this  reason  that  the  mother  from  her  daughter’s 
tenderest  years  endeavours  with  the  utmost  care  to 
remove  all  tightness  of  the  vagina  and  obstacle  therein. 
With  this  end  in  view,  the  leaf  of  a tree  folded  into 
the  shape  of  a funnel  is  held  in  the  right  hand,  then 
while  the  index  finger  is  introduced  into  the  g'enital 


Voyage  a trovers  le  Bresit,  Liegnitz,  1828,  vol.  II,  p.  148. 


132 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


V 


parts  and  worked  to  and  fro,  warm  water  is  admitted 
by  means  of  the  funnel). 

Among  the  Sakalaves  in  Madagascar  the  young  girls 
deflower  themselves,  when  the  parents  have  not  pre- 
viously seen  to  this  necessary  preparation  for  marriage. 

Among  the  Balanti  of  Senegambia,  one  of  the  most 
degraded  races  in  Africa,  the  girls  cannot  find  a hus- 
band until  they  have  been  deflowered  by  their  King, 
who  often  exacts  costly  presents  from  his  female  sub- 
jects for  putting  them  in  condition  to  be  able  to  marry. 

Barth  (1856),  in  describing  Adamad,  says  that  the 
chief  of  the  Bagoli  used  to  lie  the  first  night  with 
the  daughters  of  the  Fulba,  a people  under  his  sway. 
Similar  facts  are  related  of  the  aborigines  of  Brazil 
and  of  the  Kinipeto  Esquimaux.  In  many  of  these 
cases  it  is  not  easy  to  determine  if  we  have  to  do 
with  the  right  of  the  strongest  or  with  a strange  taste 
on  the  part  of  voluntary  victims. 

Demosthenes  informs  us  that  there  was  a celebrated 
Greek  hetsera,  named  Nesera,  who  had  seven  slaves 
whom  she  called  her  daughters,  so  that  being  supposed 
to  be  free  a higher  price  was  paid  for  their  favours. 
She  sold  their  virginity  five  or  six  times  over  and 
ended  by  selling  the  whole  lot  together. 

The  god  Mutinus,  Mutunus  or  Tutunus  of  ancient 
Rome,  used  to  have  the  new  brides  come  and  sit 
upon  his  knees,  as  if  to  offer  him  their  virginity. 
.Saint  Augustine  says : “ hi  cclchrationc  nuptiaruvi 

super  Priapi  scapuvi  nova  nupta  seder c jubebatur." 
(In  the  celebration  of  nuptials  the  newly  wed  bride 
used  to  be  bidden  sit  on  the  shaft  of  Priapus). 
Lactantius  gives  more  precise  details;  “A  Mutunus 
in  cujus  sinu  pudendo  nubentes  prersident,  ut  illaruvi 
pudicitiam  prius  dens  delibasse  videatur"  (and 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


133 


IMutunus,  in  whose  shameful  lap  brides  sit,  in  order 
that  the  god  may  appear  to  have  gathered  the  first- 
fruits  of  their  virginity).  It  appears,  however,  that 
this  offering  was  not  merely  symbolical,  for  when  they 
had  become  wives,  they  used  to  return  to  the  favourite 
deity  to  pray  for  fecundity. 

Arnobius  also  relates:  “ etiam  ne  Tutunus,  cujus 
i))imanibus  pudendis,  liorrentiqiie  fasciiio,  vestras 
inequitare  matronas  et  auspicabile  ducitis  ct  optatis  ?" 
(is  it  Tutunus,  on  whose  huge  organs  and  J^piurKivy 
TooX  you  think  it  an  auspicious  and  desirable  thing 
that  your  matrons  should  be  (/.owreh?) 

Pertunda  was  another  hermaphrodite  divinity  that 
Saint  Augustine  maliciously  proposed  rather  to  name 
the  Dens  Pretundus  (who  strikes  first) ; it  was  carried 
on  to  the  nuptial  bed  to  aid  the  bridegroom.  “ Pertunda 
in  aibiculis  prcesto  est  znrginaleni  scrobem  effodientibus 
maritisd  (Pertunda  stands  there  ready  in  the  bed- 
chamber for  the  aid  of  husbands  excavating  the 
<pipyiv  ttit)  (Arnobius). 

The  Kondadgis  (Ceylon),  the  Cambodgians  and  other 
peoples  charged  their  priests  with  the  defloration  of 
their  brides. 

Jager  communicated  to  the  Berlin  Anthropological 
Society  a passage  from  Gemelli  Cancri,  which  mentions 
a stupratio  officialis  practised  at  a certain  period  among 
the  Bisayos  of  the  Philippine  Islands : “ There  is  no 
known  example  of  a custom  so  barbarous  as  that  which 
had  been  there  established,  of  having  public  officials, 
and  even  paid  very  dearly,  to  take  the  virginity  of 
young  girls,  the  same  being  considered  to  be  an 
obstacle  to  the  pleasures  of  the  husband.  As  a fact 
there  no  longer  exists  any  trace  of  this  infamous 
practice  since  the  establishment  of  the  Spanish  rule  . . . 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


13^ 

but  even  to-day  a Bisayo  feels  vexed  to  find  his  wife 
safe  from  suspicion,  because  he  concludes,  that  not 
having  excited  the  desire  of  anyone,  she  must  have 
some  bad  quality  which  will  prevent  him  from  being 
happy  with  her.” 

On  the  Malabar  Coast  also,  there  were  Brahmins 
whose  only  religious  office  was  to  gather  the  virgin 
flower  of  young  girls.  These  latter  used  to  pay  them 
for  it,  without  which  they  could  not  find  husbands. 
The  King  of  Calicut  himself  used  to  grant  the  right 
of  the  first  night  to  a Brahmin ; the  King  of  Tamassat 
grants  it  to  the  first  stranger  who  arrives  in  the  town; 
whereas  the  King  of  Campa  reserves  to  himself  the 
jus  prima:  noctis  for  all  the  marriages  in  the  King- 
dom. 1 Warthema  says  that  the  King  of  Calicut, 
when  he  took  a wife,  chose  the  most  worthy  and 
learned  Brahmin  to  deflower  the  maiden  ; for  this  service, 
he  received  from  400  to  500  crowns.  At  Tenasserim, 
fathers  used  to  beg  of  their  daughters  to  allow  them- 
selves to  be  deflowered  by  Christians  or  by  Mohamme- 
dans. Pascal  de  Andagoya,  who  visited  Nicaragua 
between  1514  and  1522,  says  that  it  was  usual  for  a 
grand-priest  to  lie  during  the  first  night  with  the  bride, 
and  Oviedo  (1535),  speaking  of  the  Acovacks  and 
other  American  nations,  relates  that  the  wife,  in  order 
that  the  marriage  should  be  happy,  passed  the  first 
nuptial  night  with  the  priest  or  piache,  and  Gomarra 
(1551)  relates  the  same  thing  of  the  inhabitants  of 
Cumana. 

In  Europe,  young  girls  who  are  not  very  virtuous, 
and  who  have  studied  all  the  various  forms  of  flirta- 

* De  Gubernatis,  Histoire  des  voyageurs  italiens  aux  hides  Orien- 
tales,  Livourne,  1875,  P-  35 On  the  deflowering  function  of  the 
priests  of  India,  see  p.  193,  a letter  of  Filippo  Sassetto. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


135 


tion,  are  most  generally  passed  off  as  virgins  when 
they  marry.  Even  when  it  does  not  really  exist,  there 
are  many  ways  by  which  a virginity, —which  perhaps 
has  been  sold  over  and  over  again  by  expert  and 
clever  procuresses — can  be  simulated.  A little  time 
before  going  to  the  nuptial  bed,  the  girl  inserts  into 
her  vagina  a few  drops  of  pigeon’s  blood;  or  in  some 
cases  she  selects  for  her  wedding  day,  the  last  day 
of  menstruation.  A sponge,  skilfully  placed,  allows 
the  blood  to  flow  at  the  moment  of  the  catastrophe, 
when  a sudden  “ Oh,”  announces  to  the  unsuspecting 
husband  that  the  temple  has  been  violated  for  the  first 
time,  and  that  the  veil  of  the  smtcfum  sanctorum  has 
really  been  rept  by  him.  Add  also  to  these  methods, 
injections  so  astringent  that,  at  the  required  time, 
they  will  give  to  a prostitute  whose  gap  has  been 
widened  by  a thousand  customers,  a tightness  greater 
than  that  of  a real  virgin. 

Artifices  used  by  Asiatic  Peoples.  Man,  not 
satisfied  with  the  natural  voluptuous  sensation  of  the 
simple  act  of  copulation,  has  sought  by  means  of 
numerous  and  divers  artifices  to  increase  it,  in  which 
his  imagination  has  indeed  surpassed  itself 

It  was  already  known  by  the  relations  of  ancient 
travellers  that  among  certain  peoples  of  the  islands  of 
the  Straits  of  Sunda,  and  of  parts  of  Asia,  they  gar- 
nished the  virile  member  with  different  adjuncts  to 
increase  the  sensation  of  the  woman,  but  these  relations 
were  generally  put  down  as  exaggerated.  But  now 
there  can  no  longer  be  the  slightest  doubt,  and  Mik- 
lucho-Maclay  has  given  us  a nearly  complete  history 
of  these  extravagant  inventions  of  human  lechery. 

He  was  able  to  examine  the  virile  member  of  a 


136 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


Dayak,  preserved  in  the  military  hospital  at  Batavia. 
The  gland  and  the  urethra  are  traversed  by  an  artifi- 
cial canal  of  little  diameter,  the  anatomical  preparation 
being  very  reduced  in  volume.  The  perforation  is 
effected  by  means  of  a silver  needle.  Into  it  is  passed 
an  instrument,  which  during  coitus,  stongly  frictions 
the  vagina,  thus  procuring  an  unusual  voluptuous  sen- 
sation. The  excitive  instrument  is  a stem  bearing  at 
both  ends  a hole  through  which  are  passed  hairs  so 
as  to  form  a double  brush.  The  stem  is  of  silver,  ivory 
or  brass.  It  appears  that  some  of  them  have  a double 
perforation,  probably  so  as  to  be  able  to  carry  two 
excitive  machines  or  to  change  the  position  of  the 
voluptuous  brush.  Dr.  Steenstra-Toussaint  has  certified 
to  Miklucho-Maclay  having  seen  the  penis  of  a Dayak 
perforated  with  holes  from  the  summit  of  the  gland 
to  the  prepuce.  Van  Graafen,  of  Batavia,  the  first 
European  who  made  long  journeys  into  the  interior  of 
Borneo,  has  communicated  to  the  Russian  traveller  many 
details  connected  with  this  singular  custom. 

The  operation  is  performed  only  on  adults.  The 
prepuce  being  drawn  back,  the  member  is  confined 
between  two  bamboo  splints  ; and  during  eight  or  ten 
days  it  is  covered  with  pieces  of  linen  steeped  in  cold 
water.  The  gland  is  then  pierced  through  with  a thin 
pointed  bamboo  stem,  and  into  the  wound  is  introduced 
a pigeon’s  quill  steeped  in  oil,  which  is  renewed  every 
day,  until  cicatrisation. 

When  at  work  or  travelling  the  Dayaks  wear  a quill 
passed  through  the  orifice.  When  they  proceed  to  the 
operation  of  love,  they  withdraw  the  quill  and  insert 
in  its  stead  the  ampallang,  which  is  a little  stem,  made 
of  wood,  silver  or  gold  of  about  if  inch  in  length 
and  a little  less  than  of  an  inch  in  thickness.  At 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


137 


one  extremity,  there  is  a little  ball  of  agate  or  metal, 
at  the  other  a similar  one  is  fixed  when  the  ampallang 
is  in  place.  The  entire  apparatus  put  in  place  may 
have  rather  less  than  2 inches  in  length  and  a width 
of  about  one  tenth  of  an  inch. 

The  wife  knows  how  to  express  in  different  manners 
the  measure  of  ampallang  she  desires.  Sometimes 
she  hides  in  a dish  of  rice  presented  to  her  spouse  a 
betel  leaf  rolled  in  the  form  of  a cigarette,  or  else 
with  the  fingers  of  her  right  hand  placed  between  her 
teeth  she  indicates  the  dimension.  She  has  a right  to 
the  ampallang^  and  if  the  man  refuses  it  her  she  may 
separate.  Once  accustomed  to  this  refinement  they 
cannot  do  without  it.  During  coition  the  men  en- 
deavour to  introduce  their  7/^  obliquely,  so  that 

once  introduced  into  the  vagina,  it  shall  occupy  a 
transverse  position. 

Van  Graafen  only  once  saw  a Dayak  having  two 
ampallangs  one  behind  the  other.  All  the  others  had 
only  one,  and  the  perforation  was  always  horizontal 
and  above  the  urethra. 

Riedel  assured  Miklucho  that  in  the  North  of  Cele- 
bes, the  ampallang  is  also  employed  under  the  name 
of  kambio7tg  or  kamhi.  It  is  furnished  at  its  extrem- 
ities with  two  strings,  probably  to  be  able  to  change 
the  direction  of  the  instrument.  He  says  also  that  it 
is  customary  to  fix  round  the  root  of  the  gland  the 
eyelids  of  a goat,  so  as  to  cause  more  pleasure  to  the 
woman. 

In  Java  also,  strips  of  goat-skin  are  attached  round 
the  gland  several  centimeters  in  width.  Sometimes 
the  entire  member  is  enveloped  in  a sort  of  hairy 
sheath  of  goat-skin  from  which  the  gland  alone 
emerges. 


138 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


Another  still  more  singular  fashion  of  making  the 
virile  member  more  agreeable  to  the  woman  is  to 
make  some  deep  incisions  into  the  gland,  and  to  insert 
small  pebbles  into  them.  When  the  wounds  are  healed 
the  gland  takes  a bossy  aspect  and  has  greater  energy. 

Former  American  Customs.  A similar  fact  was 
recorded  by  Amerigo  Vespucci,  according  to  whom 
the  American  women  made  their  husbands’  penis 
bigger  by  artificial  means.  ^ In  China  also,  the  women 
are  not  unworthy  of  the  Dayaks.  In  the  long  leisures 
of  their  domestic  captivity,  they  give  themselves  up 
to  masturbation,  not  only  with  the  finger,  but  also 
with  the  aid  of  very  ingenious  instruments. 

There  he  found  an  amusing  custom ; nor  did  he 
fail,  in  order  to  raise  a laugh,  to  relate  what  he  had 
seen  and  heard. 

“ There  are  some  old  women  whose  sole  business,  in 
order  to  earn  their  livelihood,  is  to  sell  little  fools’ 
bells  ^ of  gold,  silver,  copper  of  the  size  of  small 
filberts,  made  with  considerable  art ; and  when  a man 
desires  a woman  or  wishes  to  marry,  they  decorate  his 
member,  by  fixing  some  of  these  little  grelots  to  it 
between  skin  and  flesh,  for  without  them  he  would 
be  refused,  and  according  to  his  quality  he  buys  them 
of  gold  or  silver.  The  same  women  who  sell  them, 
raise  the  skin  in  several  places  and  deposit  therein 
these  grelots,  attaching  them  with  stitches.  In  a short 

^ Relatio7ts  des  decouvertes  faites  par  Colomb,  etc.,  Bologna,  1875, 
P-  137- 

^ In  French  grelot,  very  thin  metal  spheres  with  a narrow  slit  at  the 
top,  containing  a very  little  metal  ball,  which  at  the  slightest  movement 
emits  a bell-hke  sound.  Such  grelots  are  usually  attached  to  the  well- 
known  tools-caps. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


139 


time  the  skin  heals  over  them.  Some  have  a dozen 
or  even  more  of  such  ornaments. 

“ Men  so  decorated  are  iii  high  favour  with  the 
women,  because  their  little  bells  ring  as  they  walk 
along  the  streets.  These  old  women  often  asked  him 
to  let  himself  be  arranged  in  this  fashion,  but  he 
would  never  consent  that  others  should  take  pleasure 
in  his  displeasure.”  ^ 

(Here  several  lines  are  wanting). 

And  in  the  manuscripts  of  Pigafetta,  preserved  in 
the  Ambrosian  Library  at  Milan,  we  read  at  page  94 : 

“ All,  big  or  little,  have  the  member  perforated  close 
to  the  gland ; it  is  traversed  by  a goose-quill  having 
at  either  extremity  a sort  of  star  with  rays  or  a disk 
resembling  the  head  of  a big  nail.  The  cylinder  still 
leaves,  however,  a passage  for  the  urine.  The  thing 
appeared  so  strange  that  I wished  often  to  see  it. 
Neither  the  old  men  nor  the  young  remove  either  the 
cylinder  or  the  stars.  They  say  that  their  wives 
require  it  so,  that  it  does  not  prevent  the  act  of 
generation  and  that  they  prepare  their  children  for  it 
from  the  earliest  age.  However,  that  strange  bridle 
notwithstanding,  the  women  preferred  us  to  their 
husbands.” 

North  and  Candish,  who  travelled  in  those  seas  in 
1600,  have  seen  the  same  thing,  but  they  say  that  this 
cylinder  could  be  removed  and  they  considered  it  as 
an  instrument  of  infibulation  invented  for  the  purpose 
of  indisposing  men  from  the  vice  contrary  to  nature 
to  which  they  were  inclined  {/list,  des  Voyages,  X,  537). 
It  must  be  said  that  this  custom  has  been  abandoned, 
for  recent  navigators  make  no  mention  of  it,  although 

* See  the  letter  of  Amerigo  Vespucci  in  Ramusio  (I,  p.  131),  and 
Paro  {Recherches  philosophiques  stir  les  Americains), 


140 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


they  speak  of  a sort  of  circumcision,  in  usage  in  the 
South-Sea  Islands,  differing  from  that  of  the  Jews,  and 
of  another  kind  of  infibulation.  ^ 

In  another  part  of  the  manuscripts  of  Pigafetta  (p. 
173),  we  read: 

“ Our  old  pilot  related  other  extravagant  things,  he 
told  us  that  young  men  of  Java  insert  little  bells 
between  the  gland  and  the  prepuce ” 

Morga,  145  (Hackl,  304): 

“ The  natives  of  the  Pintadas  Islands,  and  particularly 
their  women,  are  full  of  vice  and  sensuality,  and  their 
malice  has  suggested  to  them  infamous  methods  of 
copulation.” 

From  early  youth  the  men  have  their  virile  member 
pierced  with  a hole  close  to  the  gland:  they  pass 
through  this  a little  serpent’s  head  or  one  of  metal. 
With  the  aid  of  this  machine  they  give  themselves  up 
to  excesses  of  coition,  although  it  results  in  loss  of  blood 
and  other  inconveniencies  to  the  woman,  etc. 

Lindschotten  (German  transl.  by  J.  von  Bry,  Frank- 
fort a/M.  1613)  says  that  in  Pegu  the  penis  is  adorned 
with  one  or  two  shells  as  big  as  hazelnuts  which  are 
suspended  between  skin  and  flesh  and  emit  a very 
pleasant  sound.  He  says  that  its  object  is  to  combat 
sodomy,  a vice  to  which  they  are  much  inclined.  He 
afterwards  naively  relates  that  the  women  there  go 
almost  naked,  merely  covering  their  genitals  with  a 
thin  strip  of  cotton  which  opens  out  at  the  least 
movement,  so  as  to  excite  the  men  and  deviate  them 
from  sodomy. 

Report  of  Carletti,  the  Traveller.  Jager  has 
communicated  this  other  quotation  from  the  voyages  of 
* Cook,  Voy.  V,  241  ; Pauw,  Rech.  sur  les  Americains,  IV. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


141 

Carletti  (Ragionamenti  di  Frmiccsco  Carletti,  Florence, 
1701,  p.  148): 

“ These  people,  the  Bisajos  (Philippine  Islands)  are 
all  much  inclined  to  the  pleasures  of  Venus  and  their 
women  are  not  less  sensual  than  beautiful.  They 
amuse  themselves  with  them  in  different  strange  and 
diabolical  manners,  and  specially  one  which,  if  I had 
not  seen  it,  I should  never  have  dared  to  relate  to 
your  lordship,  for  fear  of  being  taken  for  a liar,  but 
since,  from  curiosity  and  to  assure  myself  of  the  fact, 
I have  even  given  some  money  that  they  might  show 
me  what  I wanted  to  see,  so  that  I may  be  believed. 
The  greater  number  of  the  Bisajos,  by  invention  of 
the  devil  and  to  have  a diabolical  pleasure  with  their 
wives,  pierce  through  their  virile  member,  and  in  the 
hole  which  they  make  just  through  the  middle,  they 
place  a little  bit  of  lead  which  goes  through  from  one 
side  to  the  other ; to  its  extremity  is  attached  a little 
star  also  of  lead  which  entirely  encircles  the  member, 
slightly  distant  from  it.  Beneath  the  leaden  stem  is 
a little  hole  into  which  is  inserted  a rivet  to  prevent 
it  from  falling  off.  Thus  armed,  they  amuse  them- 
selves with  their  wives  to  whom  they  cause  not  less 
pain  at  the  outset  than  pleasure  in  the  end,  when  they 
have  become  well  heated  by  the  prickings  caused 
them  by  this  star,  to  such  an  extent  that  in  the 
beginning  they  lose  the  taste  for  that  which  they  later 
on  desire.  They  say  that  they  practise  this  kind  of 
lechery  for  the  sake  of  health,  in  fatiguing  themselves 
less  and  in  satisfying  their  lascivious  wives  beyond  all 
expression ; but,  as  for  myself,  I think  that  it  is  rather 
an  invention  of  Satan  to  hinder  these  unfortunates  from 
reproducing  their  species.” 

Among  other  voluptuous  artifices  there  may  also  be 


1 


142  UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 

ranged  the  custom  observed  among  some  Australian 
tribes  and  the  Wolof  Negroes  of  Senegal  of  seeking 
for  young  girls  not  yet  nubile  so  as  to  augment 
voluptuousness  by  the  disproportion  of  the  organs.  In 
Australia  the  old  men  of  the  tribe,  by  the  aid  of  their 
fingers  and  of  certain  little  sticks,  gradually  dilate  the 
vagina  of  young  children  so  as  to  make  them  serve 
for  their  lechery. 

In  the  Island  of  Ponape  (Caroline  Islands),  the  labia 
minora  and  the  clitoris  of  young  women  are  artificially 
elongated  in  order  to  increase  voluptuousness,  and  their 
lovers  seize  between  their  teeth  these  delicate  organs 
in  order  to  excite  and  gradually  stretch  them.  Kubary  . 

says  that  some  of  them  place  upon  the  vulva  of  their  ( 

women  a piece  of  fish  which  they  lick.  They  do  that  ‘ 

when  they  wish  to  have  a son  by  the  preferred  wife. 

She  is  so  excited  by  this  manoeuvre  that  she  allows  i 

her  urine  to  escape,  the  husband  then  takes  and  | 

fecundates  her. 

“ On  this  ground,”  continues  Professor  Mantegazza, 

“ men  of  purest  Aryan  race  and  those  of  the  basest 
ethnical  degree  tender  each  other  a brotherly  hand 
of  animality.  If  the  fish  inserted  into  the  vulva  of  a 
woman  of  Ponape  horrifies  you,  I may  tell  you  that 
in  Europe  an  officer  used  to  insert  into  the  vagina 
of  his  mistress  slices  of  orange  before  swallowing 
the  same,  and  that  there  are  men  who  like  to  receive 
upon  their  naked  belly  the  ultimate  products  of  the 
digestion  of  their  mistress.” 

Savage  Habits  regarding  Perfumes.  In  the 

madness  of  lechery,  men  have  been  known  to  eat 
congealed  sperm  (Borel  calls  them  Priapelithes)  and 
to  eat  bread  kneaded  on  the  buttocks  of  women. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


143 


“ Fecisti  quod  quaedam  mulieres  facere  solent  ? Proster- 
nunt  se  in  faciem  et  discopertis  natibus  jubent  ut 
supra  nudas  nates  conficiatur  panis  et,  eo  decocto, 
tradunt  maritis  suis  ad  comedendum,  hoc  ideo  faciunt 
ut  plus  excandescant  in  amorem  illarum.  Si  fecisti, 
duos  annos  per  legitimas  ferias  poeniteas.  (Burchard, 
XII) — Mulier  qualicumque  molimine  aut  seipsam 
polluens,  aut  cum  altera  fornicans,  quatuor  annos. 
Sanctimonialis  faemina  cum  sanctimoniali  per  machina- 
mentum  polluta,  septem  annos.  (Ducange.)  Cum 
sanctimoniali  per  machinam  fornicans  annos  septem 
poeniteat.”  ^ 

The  study  of  the  odours  preferred  by  man  in  the 
genital  organs'  of  woman  belong'S  also  to  the  ethnical 
history  of  lechery.  Generally  the  natural  odour  suffices, 
but  several  peoples  perfume  the  vulva  with  special 
odours.  In  this  art  the  East  takes  the  lead,  and  some 
European  ladies  are  in  the  habit  of  perfuming  their  whole 
body  before  going  to  a ball  or  to  a love  rendezvous.  ^ 

Hartmann  presented  to  the  Anthropological  Society 
of  Berlin,  at  its  meeting  of  the  i8th  October,  1873,  some 
vases  in  terra  cotta,  pierced  with  holes,  sent  by  J.  Hil- 
debrandt,  which  are  used  by  the  Somali  women  to  per- 
fume their  genitals  and  are  called  in  Nubian  Kalenqul 
or  TerenqiU.  They  are  to  be  met  with  even  in  the 
huts  of  the  poorest  natives.  The  perfume  is  obtained 
by  burning  amber,  the  opercula  of  a species  of  Sfroui- 
bus  to  be  found  in  the  Black  Sea  and  called  du/z  by 
the  Arabs,  and  the  wood  of  the  Acacia  verck.  Ascherson 

* We  prefer  not  to  translate  these  Latin  passages. 

^ On  the  mysterious  connection  between  love  and  the  sense  of  smell, 
see  Mantegazza,  Physiologic  de  l’a?nour,  p.  174.  Singular  mi-vture  of 
the  Epicureanism  of  smell  with  obscenity,  Brantome  mentions  a lady  at  court 
who  wore  as  a relic  the  genital  parts  of  her  dead  husband,  perfumed, 
embalmed  and  contained  in  a silver-gilt  casket. 


144 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


remarked  on  the  same  occasion  that  these  fumigations 
are  also  employed  on  a large  scale  in  Abyssinia. 

Saint  Augustine  accused  the  Manichaeans  of  mixing 
their  semen  with  the  consecrated  host  and  with  their 
food : “ Qua  occasione  vel  potius  execrabilis  superstiti- 
onis  quadam  necessitate  cogantur  electi  eorum,  velut 
eucharistiam  conspersans  cum  semine  humano  sumere, 
ut  etiam  inde  sicut  de  aliis  cibis  quos  accipiunt,  sub- 
stantia ilia  divina  purgetur ....  Ac  per  hoc  sequitur 
eos,  ut  sic  earn  de  semine  humano,  quam  admodum 
de  aliis  seminibus,  quae  in  alimentis  sumunt,  debeant 
manducando  purgare.” 

Next  to  Saint  Augustine  I may  mention  the  quite 
modern  belief  of  some  prostitutes  who  swallow  human 
semen  as  an  infallible  remedy  against  tuberculosis. 

In  all  these  quotations,  except  Hureau  de  Villeneuve 
who  seems  the  most  competent,  all  travellers  indicate 
the  voluptuousness  of  women  as  the  sole  motive  of 
these  ingenious  excitants.  I am  convinced  on  the 
contrary  that  the  invention  is  to  be  entirely  attributed 
to  men,  and  that  they  are  not  the  last  to  profit  by 
the  ampalang.  In  this  manner  they  narrow  the  vagina, 
which  in  hot  climates  and  in  females  enervated  by  the 
excessive  temperature  tends  to  take  enormous  dimen- 
sions. Nor  must  we  forget  that  our  voluptuousness  is 
increased  a hundredfold  at  sight  of  the  voluptuous- 
ness of  our  partner. 

It  is  well  known  that  there  are  now  in  Europe 
anipalangs  less  cruel  than  those  of  the  Dayaks,  but  as 
voluptuous.  And  it  appears  that  in  Paris  thongs  made 
of  the  barbs  of  feathers  are  attached  round  the  member, 
and  rings  are  also  sold  with  india-rubber  rays  for 
arming  the  lance  of  man  and  to  make  it  more  agreeable 
to  the  daughters  of  Eve.  Besides  the  wish  to  augment 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


145 


voluptuous  sensation,  one  of  the  principal  motives  of 
these  diabolical  inventions  is  to  experiment  novelties 
and  to  play  with  organs  which,  in  the  fecund  period 
of  life,  by  a sort  of  fascination  attract  the  attention  of 
both  sexes. 

Tumefaction  of  the  Gland.  Among  numerous 
others  that  I might  quote,  the  following  facts  published 
some  years  ago  in  the  Lyon  medical,  more  than 
sufficiently  prove  it: 

“ G . . .,  a married  man,  59  years  of  age — September 
1871. — A week  ago,  he  introduced  his  penis  into  his 
marriage  ring.  He  came  to  consultation  at  the  hospital 
with  the  ring  fixed  behind  the  gland  and  the  prepuce. 
There  was  considerable  tumefaction  of  the  gland,  the 
prepuce  was  in  a state  of  paraphimosis  and  the  stran- 
gulation exercised  by  the  ring  had  determined  an 
uneven  ulceration,  very  deep  at  the  superior  part  of 
the  member,  superficial  at  the  basis.  Micturition  was 
difficult,  but  it  was  still  possible.  The  ring  was  cut 
in  two  ; cicatrisation  took  place  rapidly  ; two  days  later, 
the  patient  quitted  hospital  almost  cured.  Notwith- 
standing the  violence  and  the  long  duration  of  this 
strangulation,  there  was  no  gangrene. 

“ Gangrene  of  the  penis  from  mechanical  causes  is 
rare,  but  it  may  be  produced  by  an  artificial  strangu- 
lation causing  paraphimosis.  As  a fact,  the  ulceration 
caused  by  ligature  of  the  penis  is  often  seen  not  only 
to  overrun  the  dorsal  surface  of  the  member,  but  also 
the  inferior  surface,  and  to  give  rise  to  an  urinary 
fistula  without  gangrene. — Laroyenne  on  two  occa- 
sions saw  ulcerations  of  this  nature  on  timid  children 
who  had  tied  their  penis  so  as  not  to  wet  their  beds. 
— The  case  of  our  patient  is  a proof  that  sphacelus 


10 


146 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


is  not  so  easily  produced  as  most  authors  pretend.” 

It  is  needless  to  add  that  the  penis  becomes  mortified 
when  the  constriction  is  considerable  and  prolonged. 
With  regard  to  phimosis  it  is  generally  admitted  that 
it  may  often  be  complicated  by  gangrene ; but  such  a 
complication  is  in  fact  extremely  rare.  M.  Laroyenne 
has  never  observed  it.  In  any  case,  ulcerations  are 
soon  formed  on  the  prepuce  and  on  the  skin;  on  the 
under  surface,  the  ulceration  presents  a special  character 
of  gravity,  when  the  urethral  canal  is  concerned,  for 
it  may  then  become  the  starting-point  of  a urinary 
fistula,  or  even  of  an  immediate  infiltration  of  urine, 
or  of  an  ultimate  stricture  of  the  urethra.  But  the 
circulation  is  seldom  so  interrupted  as  to  lead  to  such 
extremities.  It  is  therefore  erroneously  that  Demar- 
quay  and  with  him  many  others  have  assigned  that  as 
a cause  of  phimosis  and  of  paraphimosis. 

Cases  of  ligature  or  of  constriction  of  the  penis  by 
foreign  bodies  are  not  unknown  to  science : they  are 
to  be  met  with  nearly  everywhere.  We  will  simply 
mention  a few. 

Demarquay  records  two : the  first  has  been  published 
by  M.  Leteinturier ; the  introduction  of  the  penis  into 
a ring  was  followed  by  mortification  of  the  entire  skin 
of  the  penis  and  of  a portion  of  the  back  part  of  the 
scrotum : this  was  the  case  of  a peasant  who  thus 
employed  as  an  amulet  the  token  of  love  given  to  him 
by  his  mistress. 

The  second  case  is  one  belonging  to  Bourgeois,  who 
did  not  hesitate  to  cut  away  a portion  of  the  crown 
of  the  gland  so  as  to  be  better  able  to  remove  the 
ring.  This  was  a radical  method;  the  patient  was 
quits  with  a scar  on  the  prepuce  and  on  the  back 
of  the  penis,  and  was  cured  at  the  end  of  two  months. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


147 


N.  Guillot  has  also  related  the  story  of  a baker, 
who  in  the  first  months  of  his  marriage  had  allowed 
his  wife  to  slip  on  to  his  penis  the  nuptial  ring  she 
usually  wore  on  her  finger.  This  ring  was  of  gold, 
and  a pharmaceutical  chemist  had  the  ingenious  idea 
of  making  it  dissolve  in  a bath  of  mercury. 

In  1868,  Dr.  Guibout  communicated  to  the  Societe 
des  Hopitaux  the  case  of  a man  of  50  years  of  age 
who  had  introduced  around  his  member,  down  to  the 
root,  seven  very  strong  and  narrow  copper  rings,  in 
order,  as  he  said,  to  procure  himself  moments  of  enjoy- 
ment. These  rings  remained  in  this  situation  for  eleven 
hours;  the  penis  was  already  hard,  cyanosed,  much 
swollen  and  of  gangrenous  aspect.  After  numerous 
efforts,  all  the  rings  were  successfully  cut  through.  In 
eight  days  all  traces  had  disappeared. 

Let  us  finally  cite  two  very  curious  cases ; that  of 
the  soldier  whose  penis  Larrey  found  stuck  in  the  ring  of 
his  bayonet,  and  that  of  a man  taking  a warm  bath  who 
was  discovered  suspended  by  his  member  to  the  tap. 

EXCURSUS  TO  CHAPTER  VII. 

“THE  STORY  OF  ZAHIRAH  ” FROM  THE 
“ Scented  Garden  Mads  Heart  to  Gladden  ” ^ 

BY  THE  Sheik  Nafzawi. 

This  story,  given  in  the  first  edition  of  “Untrodden 
Eields,”  has  been  omitted  from  the  present  edition  for 
several  reasons  ; (I)  because  on  consideration  we  deemed 
it  too  free  for  a purely  anthropological  book  whose 
only  aim  is  scientific  exactness ; (II)  because  the  story 
as  it  then  stood  was  textually  incorrect  and  did  not  con- 
’ KITAB-UL-‘ATIR  FI  NUZHAT  IL-KHATIR. 


148 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


form  to  the  original  Arabic  text;  and  (III)  because  the 
Scented  Garden  may  itself  be  obtained  and  perused 
when  the  complete  and  untruncated  version  of  this 
famous  Oriental  book  shall  be  given  to  the  world. 

Influence  of  Chastity  on  Health.  ^ A man  may 

kill  himself  by  excess  of  venereal  pleasure ; as  he  may 
also  impose  upon  himself  an  absolute  continence.  But 
in  this  case  it  is  not  so  complete  as  might  be  supposed, 
the  nocturnal  pollutions  amounting  to  positive  copu- 
lations with  loss  of  semen  and  voluptuous  spasm.  A 
virgin  perfectly  pure  in  herself  may  even  experience 
in  dream  the  spasms  of  pleasure. 

Nevertheless,  voluntary  chastity  reduces  to  a minimum 
the  secretion  of  sperm  and  of  venereal  desire ; it  may 
even  cause  the  gradual  dying  out  of  these  wants,  which 
constitute  the  greatest  delights  and  also  the  greatest 
tyranny  of  humanity. 

It  must  be  recognised  to  what  a degree  chastity 
favours  health,  longevity,  energy  of  intellect  and  of 
sentiment,  and  the  limits  beyond  which  it  ought  not 
to  extend  so  as  not  to  disturb  the  harmony  of  life 
dependant  on  the  regular  action  of  all  the  organs. 

It  seems  at  first  that  by  being  sparing  of  so  precious 
a product  as  the  sperm  and  economising  the  strength 
expended  in  every  sexual  intercourse,  the  individual 
should  be  able  to  accumulate  an  important  reserve 
force;  but  this  is  only  partly  true,  and  it  is  difficult 
to  precise  the  amount  of  chastity  necessary  for  the 
maintenance  of  health. 

With  regard  to  man,  statistics  supply  us  with  no 
elements  for  solving  the  problem;  they  prove  on  the 
contrary  that  marriage  is  conducive  to  health  and 

* From  Mantegazza,  Igiene  dell’  Amore  (Milan,  1892). 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


149 


longevity,  but  here  we  have  only  a comparison  between 
married  life  and  celibacy,  and  celibacy  is  not  always 
synonymous  with  chastity.  Bachelors  are,  very  often, 
the  worst  of  libertines.  But  if  we  could  meet  around 
us  a dozen  of  men  really  chaste,  we  should  find 
them  superior  to  others  in  vigour,  in  longevity  and  in 
intellectual  energy.  I think  also  that  priests  owe  the 
old  age  to  which  they  often  attain  to  their  chastity, 
admitting  at  the  same  time  that  their  minor  responsa- 
bility  and  the  ease  and  comfort  of  their  lives  are  also 
advantageous  to  their  health,  conceding  at  the  same 
time  to  malicious  persons  that  the  servants  of  God  are 
not  all  of  them  chaste. 

All  men,  particularly  the  young,  may  experience 
the  immediate  benefits  of  continence.  Blumenbach 
has  said  that  the  reabsorption  of  sperm  at  the  time  of 
their  loves  renders  animals  ferocious ; but,  many  cen- 
turies before  him,  Aretaeus  said  that  the  sperm  made 
us  lively,  ardent  and  vigorous.  Martin  of  Lyons  relates 
the  case  of  a man,  in  whom  the  spermatic  secretion 
having  become  suppressed,  he  used  to  have  sweatings 
having  the  smell  of  sperm,  accompanied  by  the  volup- 
tuous sensation  of  ejaculation.  We  leave  aside  this 
latter  question  of  the  voluptuous  sensation,  but  accept 
the  idea  of  the  sperm-smelling  sweat,  because  we  have 
ourselves  recognised  a strong  odour  of  sperm  among 
very  chaste  but  very  ardent  young  men.  It  is  certain 
that  a certain  part  of  the  semen  is  reabsorbed  and  strongly 
excites  the  muscles,  the  brain  and  the  nerves,  and  in 
the  second  part  of  my  book  will  be  seen  the  importance 
I give  to  this  reabsorption  in  the  production  of  the  se- 
cundary  sexual  characters.  The  semen  accumulated 
for  a long  time  in  the  spermatic  vesicles  constitutes  a 
real  reservoir  of  force,  which  may  reveal  itself  under 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


150 

the  most  varied  forms.  Memory  becomes  prompt  and 
tenacious,  thought  is  rapid  and  fecund,  the  will  is 
energetic  and  the  whole  character  shows  a vigour 
quite  unknown  to  libertines. 

Some  sublime  egotists  had  soon  observed  that  their 
life  was  being  exhausted  in  the  pleasures  of  love,  and 
by  condemning  themselves  to  absolute  chastity  were 
able  to  preserve  unto  the  extremest  old  age  their 
ardent  enthusiasms,  their  juvenile  energies  and  a life 
always  enjoyable.  No  magnifying  glass  enables  us  to 
see  the  celestial  blue  so  well  as  the  prism  of  chastity. 

It  is  perhaps  fortunate  for  the  future  of  humanity, 
that  we  cannot  put  into  balance,  on  the  one  hand  all 
the  voluptuous  spasms  of  a life  spent  in  the  cult  of 
Venus,  and  on  the  other  all  the  harmonies,  all  the  joys 
and  all  the  poesy  of  a chaste  life.  Everybody  would 
then  perhaps  be  chaste  and  the  world  would  perish. 

In  all  books  of  history  and  of  morality,  thousands 
of  facts  are  met  with  which  show  that  in  all  times  and 
in  all  places,  man  has  sought  in  chastity  the  means 
to  double  his  forces  in  order  to  devote  them  to  higher 
purposes.  We  see  athletes  condemn  themselves  to 
continence,  warriors  preparing  for  the  fight  by  abstaining 
from  sexual  pleasure  and  many  religions  commanding 
their  priests  to  observe  celibacy  and  chastity.  A fact 
less  known,  is  that  in  the  University  of  Paris,  during 
nearly  six  centuries,  no  married  men  could  be  admitted 
to  profess  in  any  of  the  faculties.  Before  granting 
the  licentiate  of  arts  the  chancellor  of  the  University 
required  the  oath : Jurate  quod  non  estis  matrhnona- 
liter  conjuncti  (Swear  that  ye  are  not  conjoined 
matrimonially),  and,  on  the  29th  April,  1566,  some 
married  men  having  contrived  to  introduce  themselves 
into  the  University  thanks  to  the  civil  wars,  the 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


151 

chancellor  had  them  expelled  and  the  rector  concluded 
his  sentence  of  exclusion  in  these  terms : Unanimi 

omniuni  consensu  et  ore  comviuni  vultis  puniendos 
mulcta  certe  prwiarios,  qui  in  eorum  collegia  admi- 
serunt  viros  tcxoralos.  (By  the  unanimous  consent  of 
all  and  the  common  voice  ye  hereby  declare  those 
governors  should  be  punished  at  any  rate  with  a fine, 
who  have  admitted  married  men  in  their  college). 

Considering  the  great  economy  of  force  resulting 
from  chastity,  many  persons  imagine  that  it  must  give 
an  unusual  energy  to  the  genital  organs.  This  is  true 
only  for  short  periods  of  chastity.  When  it  is  pro- 
longed, the  organs,  on  the  contrary,  are  weakened. 

Absolute  chastity  is  a rare  exception  and  is  possible 
only  to  a chosen  few ; but  a temporary  chastity  is  to 
be  recommended  to  those  who,  at  certain  periods  of 
their  life,  have  to  spend  a great  amount  of  intellectual 
power. 

Elements  of  Social  Science.  Chastity  has  also 
its  evils ; but  they  have  been  exaggerated  by  several 
writers  and  specially  by  the  anonymous  author  of  the 
Eleyrients  of  Social  Science.  He  who  reads  the  terrible 
case  of  the  cure  Blanchet,  who  wrote  such  harrowing 
letters  to  Buffon,  must  turn  pale  with  horror  at  the 
effects  of  absolute  chastity : but  this  worthy  priest 
is  a rare  exception.  At  the  utmost  there  are  a 
few  weeks  or  some  months  of  wrestling,  but  the 
victory  then  becomes  easy  and  certain.  First  of 
all  desire  becomes  excessive,  there  is  extreme  dis- 
quietude, sleepless  nights,  continuous  and  violent 
erections ; then  all  calms  down  and  beneficial  nocturnal 
pollutions  supply  a safety  valve.  It  is  true  that  in 
some  cases  there  is  headache,  vertigo,  but  this  is 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


15^ 

almost  always  when  chastity  comes  after  venereal 
abuse.  I have  seen  many  individuals  without  force, 
stupified  or  paralysed  after  venereal  excesses,  I could 
count  twenty  diseases  resulting  from  this  cause:  I never 
saw  one  produced  solely  by  chastity. 

Women  support  it  much  better  than  men,  and  many 
cases  of  hysteria  said  to  have  been  produced  by 
unsatisfied  love  must  be  ascribed  to  another  cause. 

I speak  of  virgins ; young  widows  may  prove 
an  exception,  particularly  when  they  have  other 
habits  and  are  voluptuous  by  nature.  They  may 
have  congestions  of  the  brain,  vertigos  and  divers 
forms  of  neuroses.  Habit  is  the  element  which  exercises 
the  greatest  influence  on  all  the  acts  commanded  by 
the  cerebro-spinal  axis,  and  this  truth  should  be  deeply 
meditated  by  those  not  over  vigorous  husbands,  who 
during  the  honeymoon,  from  self-conceit  or  by  the 
aid  of  momentary  excitation,  have  accustomed  their 
wives  to  a regimen  they  are  unable  to  continue  to 
provide  them  later.  Putting  aside  “ women  of  ice  ” and 
“ women  of  fire  ”,  who  are  exceptions,  the  others  become 
lascivious,  chaste  or  moderate,  according  to  what  their 
partners  design  them  to  be. 

Dr.  Verga  on  Celibacy.  Doctor  Verga,  a remark- 
able author  and  philosopher,  has  well  studied  the 
influence  of  celibacy  and  of  marriage  on  insanity.  May 
I be  permitted  to  briefly  give  the  substance  of  his 
interesting  researches  : ^ 

“ It  is  generally  accepted  that  for  mental  as  well 
as  for  bodily  maladies,  the  efficient  and  determinant 

‘ Prof.  Andrea  Verga,  St  le  Celibat  predispose  a la  folie.  Milan, 
1869. — Si  le  Mariage  contribue  a la  Folie,  Milan,  1871. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


I 53 


causes  obtain  all  their  value  from  the  hereditary  or 
acquired  individual  predisposition. 

“ This  predisposition,  which  manifests  itself  usually 
in  infancy,  may  later  on  engender  an  aversion  or 
exterior  obstacles  to  marriage.  Some  young  people, 
born  of  parents  cerebrally  affected,  having  themselves 
such  a morbid  sensitiveness  that  they  feel  irritated  at 
the  least  contradiction,  I might  almost  say  at  all 
opposition  to  their  will,  and  who  have  a horror  of  any 
restriction  to  their  liberty,  understand  that  they  are 
not  made  for  marriage,  and  condemn  themselves 
voluntarily  to  celibacy ; the  malady  which  threatens 
them  finds  them  naturally  inclined  to  a single  life. 
For  it  must  be  remarked,  marriage  is  a dignity  that 
requires  a vocation  and  special  aptitudes ; it  is  the 
crowning  glory  of  the  individual.  Others  again,  even 
more  inclined  to  insanity,  but  less  persuaded  of  the 
danger,  or  having  fewer  scruples,  either  stimulated  by 
instinct  or  constrained  by  special  circumstances,  seek 
to  marry ; but  certain  peculiarities,  certain  excentricities 
cause  families  and  young  girls  to  receive  them  very 
coldly.  Time  passes  and  at  last  insanity  manifests 
itself. 

“ It  is  evident  that  in  such  cases  the  effect  of  celibacy 
is  merely  apparent.  All  those  bachelors  of  either  sex 
did  not  go  mad  because  they  were  unmarried,  but 
because  they  were  already  on  the  highroad  to  madness. 

“ You  may  tell  me  that  young  girls  are  in  far 
different  conditions  from  those  of  young  men ; that 
they  do  not  choose,  but  are  chosen ; that  their  parents 
more  easily  dispose  of  their  hand  and  willingly  allow 
them  to  go  away,  knowing  how  capricious  they  are 
and  how  difficult  to  govern;  all  that  is  very  true. 

“ But  that  is  precisely  what  must  render  the  proportion 


154  UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF  ANTHROPOLOGY. 


of  insanity  less  among  young  girls  and  also  less 
pronounced  among  married  women : two  facts  entirely 
corroborated  by  statistics.  We  have  also  determined 
by  our  calculations  that  the  adult  female  insane 
unmarried  are  in  the  proportion  of  35.17  per  cent, 
whereas  the  bachelor  insane  amounted  to  64.83  per  cent, 
and  on  the  contrary  the  married  women  insane  were 
in  the  proportion  of  48.93  per  cent,  while  the  married 
men  insane  amounted  to  51.07  per  cent. 

“ It  is  with  insanity  as  with  epilepsy,  with  idiocy 
and  cretinism : all  these  maladies  might  be  styled  the 
maladies  of  celibacy,  so  much  do  they  preponderate 
among  bachelors  of  both  sexes.  But,  if  we  except 
epilepsy,  which  sometimes  manifests  itself  late  in  life, 
idiotism  and  cretinism  are  essentially  peculiar  to  early 
youth.  Idiots  and  cretins  remain  children  all  their 
lives  and  never  acquire  the  matrimonial  capacity. 

“ From  which  it  follows  that  with  them  celibacy  is 
the  consequence  and  not  the  cause  of  their  infirmity.” 


CHAPTER  Vm. 

Perz’ersions  of  the  sexjial  passion  amongst  the  Negroes. — The 
Negress  is  neither  a Sodomite  nor  a Lesbiaii. — Parent- Duchdtelet 
on  '^Lesbian  Love". — Tribads  despised  by  other  prostitutes. — 
Hoiv  the  vice  is  contracted. — The  strange  affection  of  Tribads. 
— Laufu!  love  thought  shocking.  — Pregnancy  frequent  among 
them. — Masturbation  arid  pederasty  very  rare  amongst  the  Negroes. 
— A Black  Messalina. — The  Black  man's  lust  for  the  White 
woma?i. — A Whit£  Alessalina. — A White  woman  violated  by  a 
Negro. — Taylor  on  i aping  adult  women.  — Evide?ice  of  signs 
of  violence. — Trick  of  a Negro  to  get  a White  loomen.  — A little 
White  girl  deflowered  bv  a Negro. 

The  Negress  is  neither  a Sodomite  nor  a Les- 
bian. After  the  explanations  just  given,  as  to  the 
want  of  genital  sensitiveness  in  the  Negress,  it  would 
not  appear  strange  that  we  should  discover  few  cases 
of  erotic  perversion,  which  are  so  common  amongst 
Asiatic  people.  The  Negress  is  not  a Lesbian,  although 
her  clitoris  is  well-developed.  Neither  is  she  a sodom- 
ite, but,  on  the  contrary,  has  a profound  aversion 
for  that  depraved  habit.  ^ The  reason  perhaps  is, 
that  when  practised  with  the  Negro’s  yard,  anal  copula- 
tion would  be  a real  torture, — a kind  of  impalement. 
The  only  traces  of  sodomy  I found,  were  amongst  the 
lowest  class  of  Black  women  of  Saint  Louis, — cheap 
prostitutes  of  the  worst  sort.  I may  mention  par- 
ticularly one  of  these  women,  who  was  still  young, 

’ See  KrafFt-Ebing  on  tribadic  practices  among  Eirropean  “ fast  women  ” 
— Psychopathia  Sexualis  (page  429). 

155 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


156 

and  who  presented  a notable  development  of  the 
buttocks,  with  a deep  infundibulum,  a sphincter  com- 
pletely relaxed,  and  an  orifice  so  considerably  dilated 
that  it  admitted  three  fingers  without  pain.  This 
woman  confessed  that  it  was  the  Whites  (Is  this  quite 
certain?)  who  practised  sodomy  upon  her,  and  that 
before  she  allowed  them  to  do  it,  she  demanded  in  ad- 
vance a bottle  of  sangara,  which  she  drank  till  she 
was  dead  drunk,  and  in  this  way  she  felt  nothing,  or 
next  to  nothing. 

Parent-Duchatelet  on  “ Lesbian  Love.”  While 
dealing  with  this  subject  we  think  it  not  inopportune  to 
contrast  the  careful  and  conscientious  study  of  this 
great  man  in  regard  to  the  prevalence  of  unnatural 
vice  amongst  Parisian  prostitutes  ^ and  the  causes  that 
originate  it.  “I  cannot  refrain  here,”  he  says,  “from 
treating  of  a very  important  item  in  the  history  of  the 
habits  of  prostitutes,  but  I am  forced  to  do  it  with  the 
utmost  reserve.  I am  about  to  speak  of  those  loves 
which  a depraved  taste  contrary  to  nature  impels  some 
prostitutes  to  seek  to  satisfy  among  members  of  their 
own  sex. 

“ These  disgusting  and  monstrous  marriages^  so  com- 
mon in  houses  of  correction,  that  but  very  few  female 
prisoners  can  escape  from  them,  are  they  as  frequent 
among  prostitutes  as  some  people  seem  to  think?  The 
following  are  the  details  on  that  subject  that  I have 
been  able  to  collect  from  all  those  who  by  their  situa- 
tion were  able  to  make  observations. 

“ Regarding  the  number  of  prostitutes  addicted  to 

* La  Prostitution  dans  la  Ville  de  Paris  consideree  sous  le  Rapport 
de  I’Hygiene  Publique,  de  la  Morale  et  de  1’ Administration  par  A.  J.  B. 
Parent-Duchatelet,  3eme  edit.  (Bailliere  et  Fils,  Paris,  1857). 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


•57 


this  vice,  I have  found  an  extreme  difference  of  opin- 
ion : there  are  some  who  pretend  that  all  or  nearly 
all  of  them  abandon  themselves  passionately  to  it ; others 
on  the  contrary  have  assured  me  that  very  few  are 
given  to  it.  This  contradictory  opinion  was  based  with 
the  former,  not  with  the  latter,  solely  upon  a vague  sup- 
position, on  some  flying  reports,  gathered  by  chance 
here  and  there,  and  not  upon  a careful  study  of  the 
question,  destined  to  elucidate  it,  and  having  for  basis 
a certain  number  of  observations. 

“ This  contradiction  can  be  in  great  part  explained  by 
the  fact  that  none  of  these  women  will  ever  admit  of 
being  addicted  to  this  vice,  for  when  they  are  ques- 
tioned, they  reply  quickly  and  with  impatience ; / am 
for  vien  only,  and  I never  was  for  wonicm.  All  the 
persons  who  have  been  enabled  to  study  them  at  all 
moments  of  their  life,  and  particularly  in  hospitals  and 
prisons,  have  assured  me  that  they  are  absolutely  silent 
on  that  subject;  that  they  are  as  ashamed  of  this  vice 
for  themselves  as  they  are  ashamed  for  their  comrades 
who  are  given  to  it;  those  only  in  prison,  who  are  re^dly 
guilty,  do  not  hesitate  to  shew  themselves  in  their 
true  light. 

Tribads  despised  by  other  Prostitutes.  Generally 
speaking,  tribads,  for  that  is  the  name  given  to  these 
women  addicted  to  unnatural  practices,  are  despised 
and  looked  down  upon  by  the  other  prostitutes ; indeed 
to  some  of  these  they  inspire  a sort  of  horror  which 
impels  them  to  fly  from  and  avoid  them.  During  the 
moments  of  coming  together  and  of  conversation  in 
prison  they  are  not  spared  reproaches  and  jeers,  but 
always  in  covered  words;  and  even  in  their  disputes, 
when  they  abuse  each  other  in  the  coarsest  language. 


158  UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 

they  still  preserve  a certain  restraint  on  that  point. 
Jealousy  alone  or  the  wish  for  revenge  can  induce 
them  sometimes  to  denounce  each  other,  but  that  is 
rarely  observed. 

A woman  who  kept  a house  of  prostitution,  and 
who  was  addicted  to  this  vice,  had  received  into  her 
establishment  a very  pretty  girl  whom  she  wished  to 
attach  to  herself ; but  the  girl  quitted  the  place  solely 
for  that  reason,  regretting  at  the  same  time,  she  said, 
the  well-being  and  comforts  of  all  kinds  with  which 
her  mistress  surrounded  her. 

A girl  of  low  degree,  while  in  a state  bordering 
upon  intoxication,  wishing  to  do  violence  to  one  of 
her  comrades  who  refused  to  comply  with  her  desires, 
caused  such  a disturbance  in  the  house  that  the  police 
had  to  interfere.  All  the  women  attached  to  the  brothel 
denounced  her  to  the  commissary  of  police  as  guilty 
of  a criminal  assault. 

How  the  Vice  is  contracted.  Some  persons  who 
have  given  me  information  on  the  subject,  are  of 
opinion  that  it  is  mostly  with  women  keeping  brothels 
that  prostitutes  contract  the  vice  here  in  question,  which 
may  be  attributed  to  the  abundant  food  supplied  to 
them,  the  idle  life  they  lead  and  the  conversations  they 
hold  with  each  other;  but  a crowd  of  other  details 
tend  to  convince  me  that,  if  such  conditions  are  not 
without  influence,  they  act  only  upon  a very  small 
number,  and  the  origin  of  these  depraved  tastes  must 
be  sought  for  elsewhere. 

An  observation  made  and  repeated  in  the  interior 
of  a prison,  the  only  place  where  it  is  possible  to 
properly  study  certain  tastes  and  inclinations  which 
dominate  among  prostitutes,  has  proved  that  nearly  all 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


159 


the  tribads  belonged  to  the  class  of  independent  prosti- 
tutes (not  attached  to  licensed  brothels),  and  also  that 
those  who  made  themselves  remarked  by  their  tendency 
to  pervert  the  others,  had  invariably  passed  some  years 
inside  of  prisons.  ^ 

Who  does  not  know,  in  fact,  that  it  is  in  the 
prisons,  and  more  especially  in  the  prisons  for  women, 
that  these  shameful  vices  most  generally  prevail,  and 
there  are  but  few  female  prisoners  who  can  resist, 
particularly  if  their  detention  extends  over  more  than 
eighteen  months  or  two  years.  It  is  towards  the  age 
of  from  twenty-five  to  thirty  years  that  prostitutes 
usually  take  to  this  sort  of  libertinism,  and  after  having 
already  plied  tlieir  trade  during  six,  eight  or  ten  years, 
unless  they  have  passed  some  time  in  prison.  If  at 
times  there  are  found  young  women  novices  in  the 
business  of  prostitution  who  show  similar  inclinations,  it 
is  not  that  they  were  naturally  impelled  to  it,  but  that 
they  are  more  properly  to  be  considered  as  the  victims 
of  others  who  have  led  them  astray.  There  are  but 
few  old  prostitutes  who  may  not  be  ranked  among 
the  tribads ; they  at  last  come  to  have  a horror  of 
men,  and  to  become  the  associates  of  thieves  and  of 
all  that  is  most  abject  and  most  crapulous. 

^ It  is  in  fact  in  prison,  that  women  most  often  contract  this  shameful  vice. 
Nearly  all  young  girls,  who  remain  some  time  in  prison,  are  contaminated  with 
it;  this  and  other  considerations,  show  the  necessity  of  the  cellular  system. 

The  terms  of  the  Regulations  of  1824  mentioned  by  Parent-Duchatelet 
are  strictly  observed,  and  the  licensed  houses  are  visited  at  night  by 
the  police  to  see  that  they  are  executed.  But  notwithstanding  these 
precautions,  conniption  has  progressed,  and  there  are  now  but  few 
prostitutes  that  are  not  tainted  with  it.  How  can  it  be  otherwise,  seeing 
that  these  unfortunate  creatures  meet  only  with  contumely,  humiliation 
and  insult  from  men,  who  are  often  the  very  first  to  excite  them  to 
practise  a vice  which  ought  rather  be  to  them  a subject  of  horror. 


i6o 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


It  is  worthy  of  remark  that  there  is  often  a con- 
siderable disproportion  of  age  and  of  charm  between 
two  women  who  conjoin  in  this  manner;  and  what  is 
likely  to  surprise,  is,  that,  once  the  intimacy  established, 
it  is  usually  the  younger  and  prettier  who  shows  the 
greater  attachment  and  more  passionate  love  to  the  other. 

The  Strange  Affection  of  Tribads.  Whence  comes 
this  attachment,  and  how  are  these  liaisons  formed? 
I was  able  to  procure  in  a prison  communication  of 
the  correspondence  between  these  tribads ; I invariably 
found  it  romantic,  full  of  the  usual  expressions  employed 
by  lovers,  and  evidencing  throughout  a much  exalted 
imagination.  The  most  curious  specimen  of  the  kind 
that  I saw,  was  a series  of  letters  addressed  by  one 
prisoner  to  another;  the  first  of  these  was  a declaration 
of  love,  but  the  style  of  which  was  veiled,  covered, 
and  extremely  reserved ; the  second  was  more  ex- 
pansive ; the  last  ones  expressed  in  burning  terms  the 
most  violent  and  unbridled  passion. 

In  most  cases  the  want  of  education  excludes  the 
manner  of  communication  peculiar  to  cultivated  minds ; 
it  is  by  caresses,  care,  attentions,  kindnesses  of  all 
sorts,  that  the  superannuated  and  sometimes  even  old 
prostitutes  manage  to  seduce  quite  young  girls,  and 
succeed  in  attaching  them  to  themselves  in  a really 
most  astonishing  manner.  These  old  dames  are  then 
seen  to  work  with  extreme  ardour  in  order  to  augment 
their  gains  and  be  able  to  make  presents  to  those  whom 
they  want  to  seduce ; they  offer  to  do  work  for  shops, 
and  use  all  the  powers  that  the  art  of  seduction  can 
suggest  to  them,  to  compensate  by  peculiar  and  artificial 
qualities,  what  in  them  is  deficient,  and  which  might 
tend  to  inspire  aversion. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


l6l 


When  such  liaisons  are  established  they  present 
certain  curious  peculiarities  which  we  will  now  en- 
deavour to  unveil. 

With  prostitutes  the  loss  of  a lover  of  the  same  sex 
is  far  different  from  the  abandonment  by  a lover  of 
the  opposite  sex.  In  the  latter  case,  consolation  is 
quickly  found,  another  is  soon  met  with  who  will 
cause  the  unfaithful  one  to  be  forgotten.  But  what  a 
difference  with  the  others!  In  fact  their  attachment 
approaches  more  to  frenzy  than  to  love ; they  are 
tormented  by  jealousy,  and  the  dread  of  being  sup- 
planted and  of  thereby  losing  the  object  of  their  affec- 
tions, makes  them  never  quit  each  other,  but  watch 
each  other’s  footsteps;  they  get  run  in  for  the  same 
offences,  and  manage  to  quit  the  house  of  correction 
at  the  same  time. 

When  they  are  taken  to  prison,  supposing  they  are 
purposely  placed  in  separate  dormitories,  there  is  no  end 
to  their  observations,  child-like  complaints,  cries  and 
howls ; they  play  all  sorts  of  tricks  so  as  to  rejoin  those 
from  whom  they  would  not  be  separated ; they  simulate 
illness  so  as  to  be  sent  to  the  infirmary,  some  indeed 
have  been  known,  in  that  intention,  to  inflict  very 
serious  wounds  upon  themselves.  Some  of  them,  more 
cunning  than  all  the  others,  and  consummate  mistresses 
of  all  the  tricks  of  their  trade,  have  applied  to 
certain  parts  of  their  genital  organs  little  pieces  of 
caustic  potash,  by  means  of  which  were  produced 
slight  ulcerations  so  closely  resembling  venereal  chancres 
that  the  most  experienced  surgeon  might  be  misled. 
They  have  most  of  them  a wonderful  talent  to  simu- 
late the  itch,  which  they  accomplish  by  pricking  the 
parts,  where  that  eruption  usually  shows  itself,  with  a 
needle  made  red  hot. 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


162 

The  abandonment  of  a tribad  by  the  object  of  her 
affection  becomes  in  a prison  a circumstance  requiring 
the  closest  vigilance  on  the  part  of  the  warders  ; 
the  woman  who  has  been  abandoned  is  decided 
to  take  a striking  revenge  on  the  unfaithful  one,  as 
also  on  the  other  who  has  supplanted  her ; hence 
real  duels  in  which  the  combatants  employ  as  weap- 
ons the  basins  in  which  the  food  is  served,  and 
sometimes  even  with  knives ; but  the  instrument  most 
frequently  made  use  of  in  these  single  combats  is  the 
hair-comb.  This  often  causes  very  serious  wounds, 
mortal  results  have  even  been  several  times  observed. 
Formerly  such  duels  were  of  frequeut  occurrence  in 
the  prison  of  La  Force,  ^ and  the  governor,  M.  Chef- 
deville,  whenever  he  became  cognizant  of  any  infidelities 
of  that  kind,  used  to  write  to  the  Prefect  of  Police,  for 
the  authorisation  to  put  into  a separate  place  the  woman 
who  had  thus  become  an  object  of  hatred  to  another. 

This  hatred  and  rage  among  such  excitable  beings 
as  prostitutes  cannot  last  very  long;  her  vengeance 
once  sated,  the  abandoned  woman  seeks  to  bring  back 
to  her  the  unfaithful  one,  in  which  she  sometimes 
succeeds;  or  if  her  efforts  are  useless,  she  attempts 
new  conquests,  and  plies  again  her  pernicious  talents. 

Lawful  Love  thought  Shocking.  There  is,  however, 
one  case,  which  in  itself  is  absolutely  unpardonable, 
and  demands  perpetual  revenge ; that  is  when  a woman 
quits  another  to  attach  herself  to  a man  whom  she 
makes  her  lover.  This  crime,  we  repeat,  is  one  that  is 
never  to  be  forgiven.  Nothing  can  cause  it  to  be 

' This  prison  was  demolished  a great  many  years  ago.  All  female 
delinquents  are  now  sent  to  the  prison  of  Saint-Lazare,  specially  destined 
for  women.  (Trans.). 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


163 

forgotten.  Woe  to  her  who  has  thus  sinned ! for, 
if  she  is  not  the  stronger  of  the  two,  she  is  sure  to 
get  a beating  every  time  she  meets  the  other  who 
thinks  she  has  the  right  to  reproach  against  her  the 
most  outrageous  affront  that  a prostitute  can  receive. 

This  vengeance  of  a tribad  who  has  been  abandoned, 
under  the  circumstances  above  alluded  to,  presents  a 
remarkable  particularity,  which  is,  that  in  such  a case 
the  other  prostitutes  never  interfere,  by  offering  their 
friendly  offices  to  e^ideavour  to  separate  the  combatants , 
which  they  never  fail  to  do  in  cases  of  ordinary  dis- 
putes. But  in  the  cases  in  point,  they  look  on  with 
indifference,  and  allow  the  quarrel  to  be  settled  as  it 
may.  Does  this  manner  of  acting  result  from  any 
agreement  or  rule  among  themselves  ? or  is  it  motived 
by  the  contempt  they  entertain  for  creatures  who,  by 
the  excess  of  their  infamy,  have  plunged  themselves 
even  below  their  own  level?  We  are  inclined  to  adopt 
the  latter  explanation,  but  without  maintaining  that  it 
is  the  more  exact. 

Pregnancy  frequent  among  them.  Several  in- 
spectors and  some  former  warders  of  prisons,  have 
informed  us  that  pregnancy  is  more  frequently  met 
with  in  tribads  than  among  other  prostitutes  who  have 
not  yet  contracted  this  foul  taste.  This  may  be  under- 
stood and  to  a certain  extent  explained.  The  same 

witnesses  have  also  remarked  that  in  these  cases  the 

r 

pregnancy  became  the  subject  of  jokes  and  of  inuendoes 
throughout  the  prison,  and  that  she  who  presented 
those  symptoms  was  not  the  object  of  the  particular 
care  and  attention  which  the  imprisoned  prostitutes  are 
ready  to  show  to  their  comrades  who  may  happen  to 
be  in  that  situation. 


164 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


It  may  therefore  be  taken  for  granted  that  tribads  have 
come  to  the  lowest  stage  of  vice  to  which  a human 
creature  can  descend,  and  that,  for  that  very  reason, 
they  require  to  be  more  specially  looked  after  by  those 
who  are  charged  with  the  supervision  of  prostitutes, 
but  more  particularly  by  those  to  whom  is  confided 
the  direction  of  the  prisons  destined  to  receive  these 
women. 

The  attention  of  the  authorities  has  at  various  times 
been  drawn  to  these  unfortunates.  For  instance,  in  the 
police  regulations  of  1824,  the  keepers  of  brothels  are 
expressly  forbidden  to  allow  any  of  their  women  to 
sleep  two  in  the  same  bed,  ^ and  when  on  inspection 
at  night  any  infraction  of  this  regulation  was  noticed, 
the  two  delinquents  were  punished  with  several  days 
imprisonment;  the  same  severity  is  meted  out  to  free 
prostitutes  who  are  found  in  the  same  condition ; lastly 
the  license  was  withdrawn  from  a woman  keeper  of  a 
brothel,  because  she  was  found  in  bed  with  one  of  her 
boarders. 

In  summing  up  these  details,  in  considering  the 
circumstances  which,  among  prostitutes,  contribute  to 
develop  these  infamous  proclivities,  in  studying  at  what 
age  this  vice  generally  begins  to  develop  itself  among 
them,  taking  also  into  consideration  the  limited  number 
of  prostitutes  who  continue  their  trade  more  than  two 
or  three  years ; finally,  seeing  how  the  tribads  are 
treated,  and  despised  by  those  who  have  not  yet 
followed  their  example,  it  may  be  concluded  that  the 
number  of  those  who  have  descended  to  the  lowest 
stage  of  vice  is  far  more  limited  than  certain  persons 
have  asserted,  and  that  it  is  impossible  to  say  what 
is  the  exact  proportion  in  which  they  stand  to  the 

’ These  regulations  are  still  in  force. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


165 

Others,  but  with  some  approximation  to  the  truth  it  may 
be  said  that  they  do  not  constitute  one  fourth  of  the 
prostitutes  actually  plying  their  trade  in  the  city  of  Paris. 

The  above  details  show  how  important  it  is  that 
those  who  are  charged  to  maintain  order  and  good 
morals  should  know  in  their  least  particularities  the 
customs  and  habits  of  prostitutes. 

Masturbation  and  Pederasty  very  rare  amongst 
the  Blacks.  The  free  Negro  is  neither  a sodomite 
nor  a pederast.  He  even  masturbates  very  little. 
Besides,  the  rubbing  of  the  hand  on  the  slightly  sen- 
sitive mucous  surface  of  the  circumcised  gland  would 
require  a much  longer  time  than  in  copulation  before 
it  produced  emission.  The  uncircumcised  Negro  boy 
masturbates,  by  pulling  the  foreskin  which  he  elongates 
considerably.  But,  wdien  once  he  is  circumcised,  he 
considers  it  almost  a disgrace  to  masturbate,  for  there 
are  plenty  of  women  with  whom  to  satisfy  his  sexual 
needs.  It  is  not  the  same  with  the  slave,  who,  whether 
circumcised  or  not,  has  fewer  facilities  for  copulation 
than  the  free  Negro,  and  amongst  the  slaves  we 
find,  what  we  always  find  in  collections  of  human 
beings  when  the  female  element  is  wanting.  There 
is  an  exchange  of  reciprocal  pederasty,  and  each  is 
active  and  passive  in  turn.  At  least,  that  was  the 
result  of  a medical  examination  I made,  of  two  young 
Bambara  Sharpshooters,  who  came  from  ^the  station  at 
Kita,  where  they  had  been  set  at  liberty  after  the 
capture  of  a batch  of  slaves  belonging  to  the  Sarrak- 
holais  caravan  men.  They  enlisted  at  an  early  age, 
before  they  were  twenty  years  of  age.  They  con- 
fessed to  me  that,  amongst  the  captives  and  slaves, 
pederastic  practices  w^ere  carried  on  so  long  as  they 


i66 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


could  not  procure  women,  but  ceased  as  soon  as  women 
were  to  be  had.  These  two  Sharpshooters,  a black 
Castor  and  Pollux,  continued  their  unnatural  habits 
until  they  took,  at  Saint  Louis,  a wife  in  common  be- 
tween them,  the  divorced  wife  of  a Sharpshooter,  who 
was  on  an  expedition  in  the  interior. 

A Black  Messalina.  She  was  a virago  of  about 
thirty  years  of  age,  and  one  of  the  finest  specimens 
of  the  female  Black.  She  came  to  Saint  Louis  quite 
young,  and  did  not  know  where  she  was  born,  but 
from  the  shape  of  her  body,  I have  always  believed 
that  she  was  a Bambara.  She  was  of  average  height, 
thick-set,  with  enormous  buttocks;  a veritable  Black 
Callipyge.  From  her  bust  there  stuck  out  horizontally 
two  pear-shaped  breasts,  as  big  as  melons,  which  did 
not  droop  (she  had  never  been  a mother)  and  from 
which  projected  two  black  nipples,  each  as  big  as  a 
thumb.  Her  belly,  as  round  as  a large  pumpkin, 
showed  a protruding  vulva,  and  the  prominent  pubes 
was  covered  with  a fleece,  as  hard  and  prickly  as  a 
hair-brush.  The  clitoris,  which  was  of  the  size  of  the 
little  finger,  became  erect  at  the  least  touch.  She  was 
one  of  the  few  Negresses  who  experienced  pleasure 
in  manual  or  buccal  masturbation.  The  vulva  was 
widely  open,  permitting  the  easy  introduction  of  the 
four  fingers  together.  The  large  and  small  lips  were 
greatly  developed.  She  had  never  undergone  excision, 
having  been  brought  to  Saint  Louis  when  very  young, 
and  the  wife  of  the  trader  whose  servant  for  life  (read 
“ slave  ”)  she  was,  had  prostituted  her  to  the  Whites 
at  a very  early  age.  Like  the  Quartilla  of  Petronius, 
she  did  not  remember  ever  having  been  a virgin. 

At  this  time,  she  was  dividing  her  favours  between 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


I 67 

two  husbands,  and  a good  many  lovers,  if  report  was 
to  be  believed.  As  she  was  my  washerwoman,  and 
had  no  objection  to  a glass  of  sangara,  she  used  to 
recount  to  me  the  story  of  her  campaigns  in  the  interior, 
and  how  once  she  good-naturedly  took  compassion  on 
the  garrison  of  one  of  the  posts,  and  in  one  night 
satisfied  the  Toubab  sergeant,  and  fifteen  Sharpshooters. 
I have  spoken  at  some  length  about  this  woman,  as 
to  my  mind  she  constituted  a rare  exception  to  the 
general  rule,  for  such  feminine  lust  is  very  rare  amongst 
the  Negresses.  She  well  deserved  the  name  of  Mes- 
salina.  ^ 

The  Negro’s  Lust  for  the  White  Woman.  If 

the  Negress  has  generally  very  little  taste  for  the 
Toubab,  we  cannot  say  the  same  of  the  Black  man 
for  the  White  woman.  It  is  quite  an  extravagance 
of  erotic  good  taste  for  a Negro  when  he  can  get  a 
diggen  To^lbab,  but  it  is  a whim  that  very  few  get 
an  opportunity  of  satisfying.  The  Creoles  of  Saint 
Louis  show  the  same  repugnance  for  the  Negro,  as 
those  of  the  Antilles  or  Guiana.  As  to  Frenchwomen, 
there  are  very  few  of  them  in  the  colony,  and  they 
are  generally  the  wives  of  officers,  or  functionaries, 
and  their  social  position  prevents  them  from  committing 
any  follies.  Perhaps  some  one  amongst  them,  being 
of  a lascivious  temperament,  may  feel  a desire  to  know 
whether  the  Black  is  built  differently  from  ^he  White, 
but  the  fear  of  a coloured  offspring  damps  the  fire  of 
her  concupiscence.  Timor  fructiis  nigri,  initium  prn- 
denticB.  I only  knew  of  one  White  woman  who  pros- 
tituted herself  to  the  Negroes,  and  she  was  hy.sterical. 

* See  note  regarding  Messai.INA  V.VI.ERLV  in  “ Excursus”  to  present 
chapter. 


i68 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


Dr.  Paul  Moreau  (of  Tours),  cites  a remarkable 
case  which  has  some  bearing  on  the  lascivious  woman 
alluded  to,  showing  that  these  erotic  proclivities  are 
strictly  speaking  congenital.  A little  girl  not  yet  three 
years  old,  lying  down  on  the  floor  or  leaning  with 
force  against  a piece  of  furniture,  used  to  agitate  her 
body  with  singular  violence.  Her  parents  at  first  saw 
in  this  only  play;  but  recognising  with  pain  that  it 
proceeded  from  a sort  of  libertinism,  they  endeavoured 
carefully  to  correct  so  unfortunate  a habit,  employing 
alternately  caresses  and  prayers,  or  threats  and  shame, 
and  lastly  punishment:  they  seemed,  however,  in  no 
wise  to  succeed. 

The  child  grew  up  and  the  evil  increased  to  such 
a degree  that  at  table,  in  company,  in  church,  at  sight 
of  an  agreeable  object,  she  gave  herself  up  in  all  pos- 
sible ways  to  these  manoeuvres,  which  were  followed 
by  copious  ejaculation.  On  being  questioned  as  to  the 
moment  when  her  paroxym  was  about  to  take  place, 
she  remained  silent  or  else  admitted  she  experienced 
great  pleasure.  At  the  moment  of  her  crises  she  seemed 
to  have  almost  entirely  lost  all  sense  of  sight  and  of 
hearing.  The  threats  and  reprimands  of  her  parents 
had  the  effect  of  making  her  abstain  from  giving  way 
in  their  presence  at  least  to  her  unhappy  propensity ; 
but,  nevertheless,  she  sought  for  solitude  in  order 
to  satisfy  it:  and  often  was  she  found  exhausted  and 
drowsy. 

Nothing  could  stop  this  excess  of  lasciviousness ; a 
physician  was  called  in  whose  advice  was  without 
effect.  Her  parents  then  decided  to  marry  her,  and 
fixed  their  choice  upon  a very  vigorous  man.  She 
became  enceinte,  and  from  that  moment  was  exempt 
from  her  infirmity ; but  she  always  came  out  of  the 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


169 

most  frequently  repeated  amorous  assaults,  fatigued  but 
not  satiated. 

At  last,  her  accouchement  having  been  very  labori- 
ous, she  died  under  it.  Her  clitoris  was  of  the  size 
of  a penis.  The  period  of  her  greatest  salacity  lasted 
from  the  beginning  to  the  end  of  spring,  and  during 
the  whole  of  that  time  the  patient  exhaled  the  smell 
of  a male-goat. 

This  lubricity  was  it  seems  heriditary.  * 

A White  Messalina.  This  unfortunate  woman  made 
her  husband  ill  by  excessive  copulation.  I was  obliged 
to  send  him  to  the  hospital,  to  give  him  a little  rest. 

Being  left  alone  in  a small  lodging,  not  far  from 
the  Negro  quarter,  in  the  North  part  of  the  town,  she 
soon  began  to  misconduct  herself  in  a most  scandalous 
manner.  In  the  middle  of  the  day,  in  the  hottest 
hours,  when  you  are  sure  not  to  find  either  a White 
man  or  a Creole  in  the  street,  she  would  sit,  half 
naked,  at  her  window,  and  make  signs  to  any  Negro 
who  was  passing.  They  came,  at  first  singly,  then  by 
twos,  by  threes,  and  finally  in  parties,  and  all  in  turn 
assuaged  their  brutal  passions  upon  her.  They  had 
never  had  such  a good  time.  The  scandal  became  so 
great  that  it  reached  the  ears  of  her  husband,  and  he 
obtained  from  the  authorities  permission  to  shut  up 
his  wife  in  the  hospital.  Ill  she  really  was^  for  her 
erotic  excesses  had  produced  a severe  affection  of  the 
womb.  ^ 

Moreau,  says  Krafft-Ebing,  considers  these  cases 
peculiar  to  themselves,  but  he  is  certainly  in  error. 

' Ephthnerides  des  cnrieux  de  la  nature. 

^ Refer,  for  the  imaginative  side,  to  Burton’s  “Nights”  (Vol.  I,  Benares 
edit.)  “ The  tale  of  the  Ensorcelled  Prince.” 


170 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


The  sexual  complex  us  of  symptoms  is  always  but  the 
partial  manifestation  of  a general  psychosis  (mania, 
hallucinatory  insanity?). 

The  essential  element  of  the  state  of  sexual  excite- 
ment is  a condition  of  psychical  hypersesthesia  with 
involvement  of  the  sexual  sphere.  The  imagination 
calls  up  only  sexual  images,  which  may  lead  to 
hallucinations,  illusions,  and  true  hallucinatory  delirium. 

The  most  indifferent  ideas  excite  sensual  association, 
and  the  lustful  colouring  of  the  ideas  and  apperceptions 
is  very  much  intensified. 

The  abnormal  state  of  consciousness  implicates  the 
whole  course  of  feeling  and  desire,  and  is  accompanied 
by  general  physical  excitement  like  that  which  accom- 
panies coitus. 

Giraud  {Annal.  med.  psychol.)  has  reported  a case 
of  rape  of  a little  girl  by  a religious  paranoiac,  aged 
43,  who  was  temporarily  erotic.  Here,  also,  belongs 
a case  of  incest  (Liman,  Vierteljahrsschr.  f ger.  Med) 

M.  impregnated  his  daughter.  His  wife,  mother  of  eighteen  children, 
and  herself  pregnant  by  her  husband,  lodged  the  complaint.  M.  had 
had  religious  paranoia  for  two  years.  “ It  was  revealed  to  me  that  I 
should  beget  the  Eternal  Son  with  my  daughter.  Then  a man  of  flesh 
and  blood  would  arise  by  my  faith,  who  would  be  eighteen  hundred 
years  old.  He  would  be  a bridge  between  the  Old  and  New  Testa- 
ments.” This  command,  which  he  deemed  divine,  was  the  cause  of 
his  insane  act. 

Sexual  acts  that  have  a pathological  motive  some- 
times occur  in  persecutory  paranoia. 

A married  woman  of  thirty  had,  by  means  of  money  and  sweet- 
meats, enticed  a boy  of  five,  who  played  near  her,  handled  his  genitals, 
and  then  attempted  coitus.  She  was  a teacher,  who  had  been  betrayed 
and  then  cast  off.  Previously  moral,  for  some  time  she  had  given 
herself  to  prostitution.  The  explanation  of  her  immoral  change  was 
given,  when  it  was  found  that  she  had  various  delusions  of  persecution, 
and  thought  she  was  under  the  secret  influence  of  her  seducer,  who 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


171 

impelled  her  to  sexual  acts.  She  also  believed  that  the  boy  had  been 
put  in  her  way  by  her  seducer.  Coarse  sensuality  as  a motive  for  her 
crime  came  less  into  consideration,  as  it  would  have  been  easy  for  her 
to  satisfy  sexual  desire  in  a natural  way. 

(Ktissner,  Berl.  Klin.  Wochenschrift) 

Cullere  (“Perversions  sexuelles  chez  les  persecutes,” 
in  Annal.  7nedico-psychol.,  March,  1886)  has  reported 
similar  cases,  the  case  of  a patient  who,  suffering  with 
paranoia  sexualis  persecutoria,  tried  to  violate  his 
sister,  giving  as  a reason  that  the  impulse  was  given 
him  by  Bonapartists. 

In  hysteria  the  sexual  life  is  very  frequently  ab- 
normal ; indeed,  always  in  predisposed  individuals. 
All  the  possible-  anomalies  of  the  sexual  function  may 
occur  here,  with  sudden  changes  and  peculiar  activity ; 
and,  on  an  hereditary  degenerate  basis  and  in  moral 
imbecility,  they  may  appear  in  the  most  perverse 
forms.  The  abnormal  change  and  inversion  of  the 
sexual  feeling  are  never  without  effect  upon  the 
patient’s  disposition. 

The  following  case,  reported  by  Giraud,  is  one  of 
this  nature  worthy  of  repetition : — 

Marian  L.,  of  Bordeaux.  At  night,  while  the  house- 
hold was  asleep  under  the  influence  of  narcotics  she 
had  administered,  she  had  given  the  children  of  the 
house  to  her  lover  for  sexual  enjoyment,  and  had 
looked  on  at  the  immoral  acts.  It  was  found  that  L. 
was  hysterical  (hemianaesthesia  and  convulsive  attacks), 
but  before  her  illness  she  had  been  a moral,  trustworthy 
person.  Since  her  illness  she  had  become  a shameless 
prostitute,  and  lost  all  moral  sense. 

In  the  hysterical  the  sexual  sphere  is  often  abnor- 
mally excited.  This  excitement  may  be  intermittent 
(menstrual?).  Shameless  prostitution,  even  in  married 


172 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


women,  may  result.  In  a milder  form  the  sexual 
impulse  expresses  itself  in  onanism,  going  about  in  a 
room  naked,  smearing  the  person  with  urine  and  other 
things,  or  wearing  male  attire,  etc. 

Schiile  [Klin.  Psychiatrie,  1886,  p.  237)  finds  very 
frequently  an  abnormally  intense  sexual  impulse  “ which 
disposes  girls,  and  even  women  living  in  happy  mar- 
riage, to  become  Messalinas.” 

The  author  cited  knows  cases  in  which,  on  the 
wedding-journey,  attempts  at  flight  with  men,  who 
had  been  accidentally  met,  were  made;  and  respected 
wives  who  entered  into  liaisons,  and  sacrificed  every- 
thing to  their  insatiable  impulse. 

In  hysterical  insanity  the  abnormally  intense  sexual 
impulse  may  express  itself  in  delusions  of  jealousy, 
unfounded  accusations  against  men  for  immoral  acts,  ^ 
hallucinations  of  coitus,  ^ etc. 

Occasionally  frigidity  may  occur,  with  absence  of 
lustful  feeling, — due,  for  the  most  part,  to  genital 
anaesthesia. 

A White  Woman  violated  by  a Negro.  A 

Frenchwoman,  of  whom  I have  previously  spoken, 
Mme  D***,  was  the  victim  of  a horrible  outrage. 
During  the  epidemic  of  yellow  fever,  she  had  lost 
both  her  husband  and  her  son.  I attended  them,  but 
I could  not,  in  spite  of  all  my  efforts,  persuade  her, 
when  she  fell  ill  in  her  turn,  to  enter  the  hospital, 

' Vide  Fall  Merlac,  in  the  author’s  Lehrh.  d.  ger.  Psychopathol.,  2. 
Aufl.,  p.  222. — Morel,  Traite's  des  7iialadies  mentales,  p.  687. — Legrand, 
La  folie,  p.  337.  Process  La  Ronciere,  in  Annal.  d’hyg.,  leSerie,  IV; 
3e  Serie,  XXII. 

^ The  incubus  in  the  witch-trials  of  the  Middle  Ages  depended  on 
them. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


173 


which  was  already  crowded.  Her  house  and  mine 
were  both  in  the  Negro  quarter.  She  had  no  one  to 
assist  her  but  Negresses,  whose  attentions  are  well 
meant  but  not  very  useful.  I had  no  hope  of  saving 
her,  and  one  day  diagnosed  that  she  would  die  in  the 
course  of  the  night.  I told  a Negress,  her  neighbour 
and  servant,  to  attend  to  her  as  usual,  but  to  leave 
her  quiet  if  she  did  not  ask  for  anything. 

Being  on  duty,  and  obliged  to  pass  the  night  at 
the  hospital,  I could  not  return  until  the  following 
morning.  Mme  D***  was  dead.  The  Negress  thought 
she  was  dead  at  about  three  o’clock  in  the  morning, 
and  had  then  left  the  house,  after  having  covered  the 
body  with  a sheet ; when  she  came  again  in  the 
morning  at  seven  o’clock,  a little  before  I did,  she 
had  found  the  sheet  on  the  ground,  and  the  body  of 
Mme  D***  lying  across  the  bed,  with  the  chemise 
removed.  The  Negress  declared  that  she  had  shut  the 
door,  to  prevent  any  animals  entering,  but  one  of  the 
windows  was  open ; the  house  was  of  only  one  floor. 
I saw  at  the  first  glance,  that  the  face  of  the  dead 
woman  presented  a peculiar  appearance  of  suffering 
and  horror.  The  body  bore  on  the  breasts  marks  of 
bites,  and  large  bruises.  The  nipple  of  the  left  breast 
was  almost  completely  torn  off.  Serious  injuries  had 
been  done  to  the  genital  organs.  These  were  well 
formed,  the  clitoris  of  a normal  size,  but  the  vulva  was 
widely  open.  The  great  lips  were  parted,  showing  the 
vagina  gaping.  You  could  not  distinguish  any  trace 
of  the  myrtiform  caroncula,  the  fork,  the  navel  pit,  or 
the  vestibule.  The  entrance  to  the  womb,  distended 
to  such  an  extent  as  to  admit  a child’s  hand,  was  in 
place,  but  the  mucous  surface  of  the  passage  was 
hanging  down,  as  it  is  in  the  case  of  women  who  have 


174 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


had  a great  number  of  children,  or  who  frequently 
indulge  in  copulation.  The  finger  met  with  clots  of 
blood,  which  obstructed  the  bottom  of  the  wound,  and 
I could  feel  that  the  “ tench’s  nose  ” had  lost  its  usual 
power  of  resistance,  and  could  be  pushed  back.  The 
whole  genital  apparatus  had  the  appearance  of  having 
been  pounded,  with  a hard  wooden  pestle.  There  was 
not  the  slightest  doubt  in  my  mind,  but  that  Mme 
D***  had  been  violated  before  her  death.  The  Negress 
servant  had  left  early,  in  order  not  to  be  present  at 
her  death,  and  a Toucouleur  burglar  (perhaps  even 
several — unless  it  was  the  neighbours)  had  entered  the 
chamber  of  the  unfortunate  woman,  and  outraged  her. 
It  is  very  probable  that  the  poor  woman,  so  martyred, 
had  recovered  consciousness  before  dying;  from  the 
expression  of  the  face  this  might  be  guessed  at  all 
events.  Mme  D***’s  house  was  rather  removed  from 
the  others,  and  near  the  bank  of  the  river.  The 
neighbours  had  heard  nothing,  and  their  dogs  had  not 
barked,  or  at  least  not  more  than  usual.  An  enquiry 
discovered  nothing,  and  in  the  midst  of  the  general 
confusion,  which  the  yellow  fever  had  created  throughout 
the  entire  colony  of  Saint  Louis,  the  tragical  end  of 
Mme  D***  passed  unnoticed.  ‘ 

Taylor  on  Raping  Adult  Women.  In  this  case 
we  have,  of  course,  a woman  in  a weak  or  rather 

’For  a similar  case  that  occurred  to  the  Cantiniere  of  a French 
regiment  during  the  occupation  under  the  Second  Empire,  see  the 
realistic  story  of  my  friend  M.  Hector  France,  La  Vache  enragee,  which 
appeared,  together  with  other  tales,  some  years  ago  in  Le  Reveil,  under, 
the  general  title  of  Muse,  Haschish  et  Sang.  The  present  editor  has 
in  hand,  we  understand,  an  English  edition  of  these  stories.  Sir  Rich. 
F.  Burton  refers  to  this  work  in  very  high  terms  in  one  of  his  notes 
to  the  ‘■'■Nights." 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


175 


helpless  condition.  Mention  has  often  been  made  ot 
the  possibility  of  committing  rape  on  adult  women  in 
a good  state  of  health  and  possessing  normal  strength. 
Napoleon,  in  an  anecdote  recounting  the  story  of  the 
woman  who  came  in  tears  to  him  with  a complaint 
of  having  been  violated  by  one  of  his  soldiers,  is  said 
to  have  drawn  his  sword  and  wriggled  the  empty 
scabbard  before  her  face  in  demonstration  of  the 
absurdity  of  her  tale  unless  she  had  been  a consenting 
party.  This  incident  is  also  related  as  having  taken 
place  between  Queen  Elizabeth  (of  England)  and  one 
of  her  waiting-women  who  complained  of  a courtier; 
and  we  are  more  inclined  to  believe  it  emanated  from 
a woman’s  wit  than  from  a man’s.  But  it  is  not 
advisable  to  give  too  much  account  to  “ old  wives’ 
fables”.  It  is  a question  which  properly  belongs  to 
Medical  Jurisprudence,  and  it  is  to  one  of  the  great 
English  exponents  of  this  science  that  we  now  turn. 
Saith  our  author:  * 

“ Some  medical  jurists  have  argued  that  a rape  cannot 
be  perpetrated  on  an  adult  woman  of  good  health  and 
vigour;  and  they  have  treated  all  accusations  made 
under  these  circumstances  as  false.  Whether,  on  any 
criminal  charge,  a rape  has  been  committed  or  not, 
is  of  course  a question  of  fact  for  a jury  and  not  for 
a medical  witness.  The  fact  of  the  crime  having  been 
actually  perpetrated,  can  be  determined  only  from  the 
evidence  of  the  prosecutrix  and  of  other  witnesses ; 
still  a medical  man  may  be  able  to  point  out  to  the 
court  circumstances  which  might  otherwise  escape 
notice.  Setting  aside  the  cases  of  infants,  idiots, 

' Fide  Taylor’s  Principles  Mid  Practice  of  Medical  Jurisprudence, 
4th  edit,  by  Thomas  Stevenson,  M.D.,  Lond.  Vol.  II,  Lond.  Churchill, 
1894. 


176 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


lunatics,  and  weak  and  delicate  or  aged  women,  it  does 
not  appear  probable  that  intercourse  could  be  accom- 
plished against  the  consent  of  a healthy  adult,  except 
under  the  following  conditions  : — 

I.  When  narcotics  or  intoxicating  liquids  have  been 
administered  to  her,  either  by  the  prisoner  or  through 
his  collusion.  It  matters  not,  in  a case  of  this  kind, 
whether  the  narcotics  have  been  given  merely  for  the 
purpose  of  exciting  the  female,  or  with  the  deliberate 
intention  of  having  intercourse  with  her  while  she  was 
intoxicated, — the  prisoner  is  equally  guilty.  ^ The 
nature  of  the  substance  whereby  insensibility  is  produced 
is  of  course  unimportant.  Thus  the  vapours  of  ether 
and  chloroform  have  been  criminally  used  in  attempts 
at  rape.  In  a case  which  occurred  in  France,  a dentist 
was  convicted  of  a rape  upon  a woman,  to  whom  he 
had  administered  the  vapour  of  ether.  The  prosecutrix 
was  not  perfectly  unconscious,  but  she  was  rendered 
wholly  unable  to  offer  any  resistance.  ^ A dentist 
was  convicted  of  rape  under  somewhat  similar  circum- 
stances in  the  United  States,  but  it  was  thought  that 
the  woman  had  made  the  charge  under  some  delusion. 
In  Reg.  V.  Snare Y (Winchester  Lent  Ass.,  1859), 
there  was  a clear  attempt  at  fraud.  The  prosecutrix 
asserted  that  she  was  INSTANTLY  rendered  insensible 
by  the  prisoner  forcibly  applying  a handkerchief  to 
her  face,  and  she  accused  him  of  having  committed  a 
rape  upon  her.  The  charge  was  disproved  by  a 
distinct  alibi,  as  well  as  by  the  improbability  of  all 
the  circumstances. 

Casper  met  with  a solitary  case  in  which  a girl,  aet. 

‘See  Reg.  v.  Camplin,  Law  Times,  June  28th,  1845;  also  Med. 
Gaz.,  vol.  36,  p.  433. 

® Med.  Gaz.,  vol.  40,  p.  865. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


177 


16,  accused  a man  of  having  had  intercourse  with  her 
while  she  was  sleeping  in  her  bed,  of  which  she  was 
not  conscious  until  he  was  in  the  act  of  withdrawing 
from  her.  On  her  own  statement  she  was  VIRGO 
INTACTA  up  to  the  date  of  this  occurrence.  Upon  the 
facts  of  the  case,  Casper  came  to  the  conclusion  that, 
if  her  statement  was  true,  the  man  could  not  have 
had  intercourse  with  her  without  causing  pain  and 
rousing  her  to  a consciousness  of  her  position.  The 
hymen  was  not  destroyed,  but  presented  lacerations 
in  two  places.  This  and  other  facts  showed  that  there 
had  been  intercourse,  but  did  not  prove  that  this  had 
taken  place  without  the  consciousness  of  the  woman.  ^ 
In  White  v.  Howarth,  ^ it  was  alleged  that  the 
defendant’s  daughter,  having  gone  to  consult  the  plain- 
tiff, who  was  a dentist,  he  took  an  opportunity  of 
rendering  her  suddenly  insensible  by  chloroform,  and 
then  had  intercourse  with  her.  In  cross-examination, 
however,  it  transpired  that  the  girl  was  not  rendered 
insensible  at  all,  but  was  conscious  of  all  that  was 
going  on,  and  she  might  have  given  an  alarm  but  did 
not.  Most  of  these  stories,  when  properly  examined, 
will  be  found  inconsistent  and  untrue.  It  is  not  the 
property  of  chloroform  or  of  any  narcotic  substance, 
in  a non-fatal  dose,  to  render  a person  instantaneously 
insensible  and  powerless.  In  Bromwich  v.  Waters  ^ 
it  was  alleged  on  the  part  of  the  plaintiff,  that  the 
defendant  had  given  to  a woman  some  liquid,  which 
she  had  only  tasted,  and  then  suddenly  became  incon- 
scious. It  was  suggested  that  while  in  this  state  the 
defendant  had  had  intercourse  with  her,  which  he 

^ Klin.  Novellen,  1863,  p.  31. 

^ Liverpool  Wint.  Ass.,  1861. 

^ Chester  Lent  Ass.,  1863,  p.  253,  ante. 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


178 

denied;  the  woman  herself  alleged  that  she  was  not 
conscious  of  her  pregnancy  until  some  months  after 
this  visit.  But  such  symptoms  could  not  be  reasonably 
ascribed  to  any  of  the  known  narcotic  substances.  If 
given  in  a non-fatal  dose  their  effects  are  slowly  and 
gradually  produced;  if  they  come  on  in  a few  minutes, 
the  dose  must  have  been  large,  and  then  it  is  probable 
the  person  would  die.  There  is  no  doubt  that  many 
of  the  charges  made  against  medical  men  and  dentists 
by  women  who  allege  that  they  have  been  violated 
whilst  under  the  influence  of  anaesthetics  are  false  charges. 
Anaesthetics  stimulate  the  sexual  functions,  and  the 
anogenital  region  is  the  last  to  give  up  its  sensitive- 
ness. 1 These  charges  are  sometimes  made  in  all  good 
faith  by  modest  females.  A woman  under  the  partial 
influence  of  an  anaesthetic  may  mistake  the  forcible 
attempts  to  restrain  her  movements,  whilst  she  is  pass- 
ing through  the  preliminary  stage  of  excitement  induced 
by  the  anaesthetic,  for  an  attempt  upon  her  person. 
In  one  instance,  a lady  engaged  to  be  married  was 
accompanied  to  a dentist  by  her  affianced  husband. 
Chloroform  was  given,  and  a tooth  extracted  in  the 
presence  of  this  gentleman.  She  could  hardly  be  con- 
vinced that  the  dentist  had  not  made  an  attempt  upon 
her  chastity. 

Evidence  of  Signs  of  Violence.  We  have  seen 
from  the  preceding  section  that  the  English  law  is 
very  severe  in  the  punishment  dealt  out  to  those  who 
dare  to  trifle  with  woman’s  honour.  But  sometimes 
the  cleverest  jurist  alive  is  non-plussed  by  the  absence 
of  any  external  marks  which  would  indicate  that  force 
had  been  used.  The  charges  of  prostitutes,  for  instance, 

* Bull,  of  the  Medico-Legal  Soc.  of  New  York,  May  and  Dec.,  1881. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


179 


are  received  with  suspicion  and  closely  scrutinised.  Some- 
thing more  than  medical  evidence  would  be  required  to 
establish  a charge  underthese  circumstances.  The  question 
turns  here,  as  all  cases  of  rape  upon  adult  women,  on 
the  fact  of  consent  having  been  previously  given  or  not. 
This  is  the  point  at  which  the  greater  number  of  these 
cases  of  alleged  rape  break  down;  and  it  need  hardly 
be  observed,  that  this  question  has  no  relation  to  the 
duties  of  a medical  witness;  all  that  he  can  do  is  to 
establish,  occasionally,  whether  or  not  sexual  inter- 
course has  been  had  with  or  without  some  violence. 
It  is  obvious  that  there  may  be  marks  of  violence 
about  the  pudendum  or  on  the  person,  and  yet  the 
conduct  of  the  woman  may  have  been  such  as  to 
imply  consent  on  her  part : we  must  not  suppose 
that  medical  proof  of  intercourse  is  tantamount 
to  legal  proof  of  rape.  When  a woman  has  already 
been  in  habits  of  sexual  intercourse,  there  is  commonly 
much  less  injury  done  to  the  genital  organs.  The 
hymen  will,  in  these  cases,  be  found  destroyed  and 
the  vulva  dilated.  Still,  as  the  intercourse  is  presumed 
to  be  against  the  consent  of  the  women,  it  is  most 
likely  that  when  there  has  been  a proper  resistance, 
some  injury  will  be  apparent  on  the  pudendum ; and 
there  will  be  also,  probably,  extensive  marks  of  violence 
on  the  body  and  limbs.  These  cases  are  generally 
determined  without  medical  evidence  by  the  deposition 
of  the  woman,  corroborated,  as  it  should  always  be, 
by  circumstances.  This  statement  regarding  the  presence 
of  marks  of  violence  on  the  pudendum  of  a married 
woman,  on  whom  a rape  is  alleged  to  have  been  committed, 
requires  some  qualification.  In  two  cases  of  rape  on 
married  women,  in  which  the  crime  was  completed  in 
spite  of  the  resistance  of  the  women,  there  were  no 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


1 8o 

marks  of  violence  on  the  genital  organs  in  either  case. 
In  one,  ^ it  appears,  that  while  an  accomplice  held  the 
head  of  the  woman  with  her  face  downwards  between 
his  thighs,  the  prisoner  had  forcible  intercourse  with 
her  from  behind, — her  thighs  having  been  first  widely 
separated.  In  the  second  case  an  accomplice  held  the 
woman  down  on  a bed  by  her  neck,  while  the  prisoner 
separated  her  thighs,  and  thus  had  intercourse  with  her. 
She  was  examined  nine  hours  afterwards  by  an  expe- 
rienced surgeon,  and  he  found  no  mark  or  trace  of 
violence  on  or  anywhere  near  her  pudendum.  There 
were  bruises  on  her  arms,  neck,  and  legs,  where  she 
had  been  forcibly  held  down.  In  each  of  these  cases, 
it  will  be  seen  that  the  woman  had  not  to  struggle 
with  a single  assailant;  and  there  can  be  no  doubt 
that,  if  a married  woman  is  rendered  powerless  by  many 
persons  being  combined  against  her,  or  if  rendered 
insensible  by  intoxicating  drinks  or  narcotic  vapours, 
a rape  may  be  perpetrated,  without  any  injury  whatever 
to  the  genital  organs.  A separation  of  the  thighs  in 
a married  woman  will  cause  such  a dilatation  of  the 
parts,  as  to  render  it  easy  for  the  male  organ  to  penetrate 
the  vagina  without  leaving  any  traces  of  violence  on 
the  labia  or  the  female  organs  generally. 

On  the  other  hand,  the  vagina  may  be  the  seat 
of  violence,  and  no  marks  to  indicate  a struggle  or 
the  application  of  force  be  found  on  the  body.  A 
woman  was  knocked  down,  her  clothes  were  pulled 
over  her  face,  and  a rape  was  perpetrated  by  the 
assailant.  In  the  position  in  which  she  was  held,  with 
her  arms  and  hands  covered  over,  she  was  half 
suffocated,  and  unable  to  offer  any  effectual  resistance. 
She  was  examined  on  the  evening  of  the  day  of  the 
^ Reg.  V.  Owen  and  others  (Oxford  Circ.,  1839). 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


l8l 


assault.  No  marks  of  violence  were  found  on  her 
body,  but  the  mucous  membrane  of  the  vagina  at  its 
commencement  was  contused,  and  in  some  portions 
lacerated ; and  blood  was  oozing  from  these  parts.  It 
was  considered  that,  under  these  circumstances,  the 
statement  of  the  woman  was  consistent  with  the  fact 
that  there  were  no  marks  of  violence  on  her  body. 
There  was  no  reason  to  suppose  that  the  injury  to 
the  vagina  had  been  caused  in  any  other  way  than 
by  a criminal  assault. 

Trick  of  a Negro  to  get  a White  Woman.  I 

had,  as  boy,  in  my  service,  a young  Sarrakholais 
named  Demba,  sixteen  years  old,  and  therefore,  of 
course,  past  the  age  of  puberty,  and  none  the  worse 
for  being  one  of  the  finest  specimens  of  his  race.  He 
was  the  son  of  a laptot,  who  had  brought  him  to  Saint 
Louis  when  quite  young, — in  his  tenth  year.  At  twelve 
years  old,  he  had  been  servant  to  an  officer  of  Spahis. 
This  officer  had  resided  a long  time  in  Algiers,  and 
was  the  intimate  friend  of  an  official,  who  had  also 
come  from  Algiers,  and  had  married  an  Algerian  woman 
of  Spanish  descent. 

The  intimacy  between  the  two  friends  was  carried 
to  such  an  extent,  that  the  officer,  who  lived  next 
door  to  the  official  (there  was  a terrace  connecting  the 
two  houses),  was  constantly  in  the  house  of  the  latter. 
The  wife  of  the  official,  a woman  of  ardent  tempera- 
ment and  warm  passions,  was,  as  may  be  guessed,  the 
mistress  of  the  officer,  and  when  her  husband  had 
gone  to  his  bureau,  used  to  go  along  the  terrace  to 
her  lover’s  room.  Demba,  the  Negro  boy,  served  as 
the  messenger  of  love,  and  during  the  absence  of  the 
husband,  watched  at  the  door  in  case  of  his  sudden 


i82 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


and  unexpected  return.  One  day  it  happened  that  the 
husband  had  already  left,  and  the  lady  had  just  entered 
her  lover’s  room,  when  the  officer  was  called  away, 
on  some  military  duty  requiring  his  immediate  attend- 
ance. The  Negro  boy,  who  was  a very  handsome 
lad,  with  eyes  like  a gazelle,  and  a form  like  an  antique 
aun,  but  already  a man,  so  far  as  the  size  of  his 
genital  apparatus  was  concerned,  though  he  had  not 
yet  arrived  at  the  age  of  puberty,  ventured  to  enter 
the  chamber  where  the  lady  was  still  fretting  over  the 
absence  of  her  lover.  I cannot  describe  here,  in  full 
and  realistically,  the  scene  in  which  Demba  showed 
the  lady,  proofs  in  hand,  that  he  was  in  love  with  her, 
and  that  he  was  of  a size  to  satisfy  her  desires.  I 
will  content  myself  with  saying  that  the  pleasure  of 
the  lady  was  all  the  greater,  since  the  Negro  boy, 
though  capable  of  taking  his  master’s  place,  in  respect 
to  the  dimensions  of  his  penis,  being  still  under  the 
age  of  puberty,  did  not  secrete  any  seed,  and  the 
copulation  could  go  on  for  an  indefinite  time,  without 
any  danger  of  producing  fruit—  a double  advantage  of 
pleasure  and  security. 

I had  this  story  from  the  Negro  boy  himself.  The 
young  rascal,  who  was  as  intelligent  as  he  was  un- 
scrupulous, also  related  to  me  the  following  anecdote.  ^ 

A Little  White  Girl  deflowered  by  a Negro. 

He  related  to  me,  that  when  he  was  hardly  more  than 

^ This  inordinate  salaciousness  in  the  Negro  (man)  is  an  established 
fact,  and  has  given  rise  to  more  lynchings  in  the  Southern  States  of 
America  than  anything  else,  cases  of  robbery  and  brigandage  not  excepted. 
The  Scented  Garden  of  the  Sheikh  Nafzawi  records  two  or  more 
notable  cases  of  Negro  lust  and  brutality,  and  Burton’s  note  (on  page  6 
Benares  edit,  of  Vol.  I of  his  Nights)  respecting  the  genital  organs 
of  the  Zanzibar  Negroes,  will  recur  to  ail  students  of  Anthropology. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


183 


ten  years  old,  and  came  to  Saint  Louis,  his  father,  a 
laftot  in  the  employ  of  a European  merchant  of  Saint 
Louis,  procured  him  a place  in  the  merchant’s  house, 
as  boy.  This  merchant  had  married  a Signare  (a 
coloured  Creole)  from  Gorea,  and  had  a little  daughter 
almost  of  the  same  age  as  the  young  Negro,  but  who 
was  nubile,  for,  according  to  the  Negro  boy,  she  made 
blood  {sic).  Anyhow,  her  parents  did  not  distrust  him, 
and  did  not  look  very  well  after  their  daughter,  and 
she,  with  the  lasciviousness  natural  to  coloured  girls, 
took  the  Negro  boy  for  her  lover.  She  used  to  rise 
in  the  night,  and  go  into  the  warehouse  where  he 
slept.  Their  amorous  delights  were  carried  on,  quietly 
and  mysteriously,  for  a year,  but  were  at  last  discov- 
ered by  traces  of  menstrual  blood,  which  were  found 
one  day  on  some  flour  sacks,  which  had  served  for 
their  improvised  bed  of  love.  The  Negro  boy  was 
turned  out  of  doors  with  a good  kicking,  and  the  girl 
was  sent  to  a boarding  school  at  Bordeaux,  to  complete 
an  education  that  had  commenced  so  well.  ^ 

EXCURSUS  TO  CHAPTER  VIII. 

THE  CHARACTER  OF  MESSALINA  VALERIA.  ^ 

Although  often  referred  to,  the  real  character  of  this 
“ lady  of  lust  and  death  ” is  little  known.  She  would 
probably  be  regarded  by  the  medical  profession  to-day 
as  a “case”  of  uterine  fever:  — 

' See  Burton’s  Nights  (Vol.  II,  page  49  of  the  Benares  edition)  for  a 
note  by  the  chevalier  on  the  criminal  connection  of  Negro  boys  with 
White  girls.  The  confiding  parents  who  entrust  their  children  to  the 
care  of  these  enterprising  Blacks  too  often  suffer  a rude  awakening.  W e 
shall  probably  revert  to  this  subject  later. 

^ From  Dr.  Paul  Moreau,  Aberrations  dti  .Sens  Ge'ne'siqiic. 


184 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


There  are  vices,  said  Serviez  (in  1728),  as  well  as 
virtues,  which  seem  to  be  hereditary  in  families.  The 
bad  examples  of  fathers  sometimes  spread  a sort  of 
contagion  which  contaminates  their  descendants,  and  a 
witty  lady  once  said  in  elegant  language  “ that  a 
coquettish  mother  would  rarely  engender  strict  daugh- 
ters. ” 

Valeria  Messalina  is  an  unhappy  example  which 
confirms  this  maxim.  Born  of  a mother  not  over 
virtuous,  she  imitated  and  even  surpassed  her  in  her 
debauches.  Her  life  was  filled  with  crime,  she  stained 
her  reputation  with  the  most  shameful  and  crying 
licentiousness.  Her  prostitutions  were  altogether  infa- 
mous, her  lewdness  was  beyond  measure,  and  her 
dissolution  public  and  unlimited.  The  most  brutal 
pleasures  were  those  which  had  the  liveliest  attraction 
for  her,  and  the  most  horrible  licentiousness  revealed 
itself  to  her  in  seductive  garb.  The  only  thing  she 
looked  upon  with  eyes  of  horror  was  virtue,  and  what 
gave  her  the  least  trouble  wes  her  reputation.  She 
forgot  her  dignity,  her  birth,  the  natural  modesty  of 
her  sex,  the  fidelity  she  owed  to  her  husband  and  to 
her  emperor,  to  give  herself  up  brutally  to  her  pas- 
sions, without  any  care  for  decency,  and  without  fear 
of  the  fate  of  those  whom  she  resembled.  Never  was 
such  dissolution  seen  before. 

She  was  the  daughter  of  Valerius  Messala  Barbatus 
and  of  Lepida  who  was  accused  of  prostitution  and  of 
sorcery,  and  of  having  had  incestuous  intercourse  with 
her  brother  Domitius  Ahenobarbus.  It  was  this  impure 
spring  that  gave  birth  to  a stream  still  more  impure. 
She  was  married  to  her  cousin,  the  emperor  Claudius. 

Messalina  had  been  gifted  by  nature  with  so  violent  a 
tendency  for  lechery,  that  it  was  very  difficult  for  her 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


185 


to  contain  herself  within  the  legitimate  bounds  of 
marriage,  too  limited  for  a heart  burning  with  a thou- 
sand desires. 

She  had  beauty  and  credit  enough  to  attract  lovers 
and  too  little  virtue  to  let  them  long  languish.  The 
corruption  of  her  temperament  awakened  her  lubricity ; 
the  love  of  riches  and  of  great  inheritances  excited 
her  cruelty  against  those  who  were  rich,  so  that  de- 
bauchery and  avarice  were  the  two  baneful  things 
which  underlay  all  the  desires  and  all  the  actions  of 
this  infamous  princess. 

Messalina  thought  only  of  satisfying  her  passions ; 
she  made  those  who  were  virtuous  enough  to  resist 
her  shameful  advances  suffer  from  her  cruelty.  She 
accused  those  who  would  not  consent  to  be  her  ac- 
complices of  crimes  against  the  State,  and  the  penalty 
of  their  resistance  was  death.  In  this  way  she  caused 
her  brother-in-law  Silanus,  who  had  repelled  with 
horror  all  her  offers,  to  be  put  to  death  ....  and  how 
many  others! 

Such  extravagant  lubricity  would  allow  no  limit 
to  the  crimes  of  this  princess.  Always  athirst  for 
pleasure,  she  was  not  satisfied  with  plunging  bru- 
tally into  the  grossest  and  most  infamous  debauchery, 
but  gave  herself  up  to  the  first-comer,  and  sacrificed 
everything  to  her  burning  desires,  without  being 
ever  able  to  gratify  them  to  satiety.  She  wanted  still 
to  have  companions  and  imitators  of  her  prostitutions ; 
and  authority  having  great  influence,  she  thought  to 
diminish  the  horror  of  her  infamies  in  associating  in 
her  crimes  ladies  belonging  to  the  highest  families  in 
Rome,  whom  she  forced  to  live  with  her  in  shameful 
libertinism. 

Further,  in  order  to  carry  her  brutality  to  the  last 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


I 86 

point,  she  forced  them  to  prostitute  themselves  to  people 
abandoned  to  debauchery  in  presence  of  their  husbands, 
whom  she  made  the  witnesses  of  their  infamies  and 
often  the  accomplices  and  approvers  of  their  crimes. 

Juvenal  sketched  a fearful  but  sublime  picture  of  the 
libertinism  of  Messalina. 

We  beg  permission  to  quote: — 

Extract  from  Juvenal’s 
Sixth  Satire. 

Respice  rivales  Divorum:  Claudius  audi 

Quae  tulerit.  Dormire  virum  quum  senserat  uxor, 

Ausa  Palatino  tegetem  praeferre  cubili, 

Sumere  nocturnos  meretrix  augusta  cucullos, 
Linquebat,  comite  ancilla  non  amplius  una ; 

Et  nigrum  flavo  crinem  abscondente  galero, 

Intravit  calidum  veteri  centone  lupanar, 

Et  cellam  vacuam  atque  suam : tunc  nuda  papillis, 
Prostitit  auratis,  titulum  mentita  Lyciscae, 
Ostenditque  tuum,  generose  Britannice,  ventrem. 
Excepit  blanda  intrantes,  atque  aera  poposcit, 

Et  resupina  jacens  multorum  absorbuit  ictus. 

Mox,  lenone  suas  jam  dimittente  puellas, 

Tristis  abit:  sed  quod  potuit,  tamen  ultima  cellam 
Clausit,  adhuc  ardens  rigidse  tentigine  vulvse, 

Et  lassata  viris,  sed  non  satiata  recessit. 

Obscurisque  genis  turpis,  fumoque  lucernae 
Foeda,  lupanaris  tulit  ad  pulvinar  odorem. 

Juvenal,  Sat.  vi.  115  — 132. 

It  is  no  easy  task  to  render  into  English  the  vigour 
ot  the  original ; for  those  unacquainted  with  Latin  we 
offer  the  following  translation. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


187 


“ Look  at  the  rivals  of  the  Gods ; hear  the  treatment 
Claudius  had  to  bear.  Soon  as  ever  his  consort  saw 
her  husband  was  asleep,  recklessly  preferring  a pallet 
to  the  Palace  bed  and  donning  the  hood  of  night- 
walkers,  the  Imperial  harlot  would  leave  his  side, 
accompanied  by  a single  maid ; ^ and  hiding  her  dark 
hair  under  a yellow  wimple,  entered  the  reeking  brothel 
with  its  patchwork  quilts,  and  made  for  the  chamber 
that  stood  vacant,  her  own.  Then  naked  and  with 
gilded  nipples  she  took  her  stand  for  hire,  under  the 
feigned  name  of  Lycisca,  ^ and  exposed  the  ILAA/  that 
bore  you,  noble  Germanicus,  to  all.  She  welcomed 
her  visitors  with  a fawning  smile,  and  asked  for  the 
fee,  and  throwing  herself  on  her  drank  in  the 
of  many  lovers.  Presently,  when  the  whore-master 
dismissed  his  girls,  reluctantly  she  left ; but  doing  all 
she  could  to  delay,  was  the  last  to  close  her  chamber, 
still  raging  with  the  lust  of  a turgid  womb  ; and 
retired,  wearied  with  men,  but  unsatisfied.  Then,  with 
soiled  face  and  darkling  cheeks,  and  rank  with  the 
lamp’s  smoke,  she  carried  the  stench  of  the  brothel  to 
the  Emperor’s  couch.” 

We  append  also  Gifford’s  well-known  metrical  trans- 
lation of  the  passage. 

Turn  to  the  rivals  of  the  Immortal  Powers, 

And  mark  how  like  their  fortunes  are  to  ours. 

Claudius  had  scarce  begun  his  eyes  to  close, 

' This  confidante,  according  to  Pliny  (lib.  VII),  was  one  of  tlie  most 
famous  prostitutes  known  in  Rome ; he  adds  that  she  even  at  times 
surpassed  her  mistress:  eamqtic  die  ac  node  superavit  quint o et  vices- 
simo  concubitu. 

^ The  haunts  of  vice  in  Rome  were  divided  into  little  cells,  on  the 
doors  of  which  could  be  read  the  names  of  each  of  the  courtesans  who 
occupied  them. 


1 88  UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF  ANTHROPOLOGY. 


Ere  from  his  side  his  Messalina  rose ; 

(Accustom’d  long  the  bed  of  state  to  slight, 

For  the  rank  mattress,  and  the  hood  of  night ;) 
And  with  one  maid,  and  her  dark  hair  conceal’d 
Beneath  a yellow  tire,  a strumpet  veil’d  ! 

She  slipt  into  the  stews,  unseen,  unknown. 

And  hir’d  a cell,  yet  reeking,  for  her  own. 

There  flinging  off  her  dress,  the  imperial  whore 
Stood  with  bare  breasts,  and  gilded,  at  the  door. 
And  shew’d,  Britannicus,  to  all  that  came. 

The  womb  that  bore  thee,  in  Lycisca’s  name  : 
Allur’d  the  passers  by  with  many  a wile, 

And  ask’d  her  price,  and  took  it,  with  a smile. 
And  when  the  hour  of  business  was  expir’d, 

And  all  the  girls  dismiss’d,  with  sighs  retir’d  ; 

Yet  what  she  could,  she  did  ; slowly  she  past. 

And  saw  her  man,  and  shut  her  cell  the  last. 

Still  raging  with  the  fever  of  desire. 

Her  veins  all  turgid,  and  her  blood  all  fire. 
Exhausted,  but  unsatisfied,  she  sought 
Her  home,  and  to  the  Emperor’s  pillow  brought. 
Cheeks  rank  with  sweat,  limbs  drench’d  with  poison- 
ous dews. 

The  steam  of  lamps,  and  odour  of  the  stews  ! 

It  is  useless  to  insist  further  upon  this  woman  who 
carried  impudicity  to  such  a point  that  it  would  be 
impossible,  without  shame,  to  write  the  entire  history 
of  her  obscenities.  The  few  extracts  that  we  have 
given  amply  suffice  to  demonstrate  the  really  morbid 
character  of  her  debaucheries. 

Des  Aberratio7ts  du  Sens  Genesique,  Dr.  Paul  Mo- 
reau, Paris,  1880,  8 VO.,  p.  30 — 33. 


CHAPTER  IX. 


Di^erences  between  the  organs  of  generation  of  the  varions  laces 
of  Senegal. 

Races  of  Senegal,  their  Genital  Organs.  So  far 

as  I was  able  to  judge  from  a certain  number  of  ob- 
servations, although  all  the  races  of  Senegal  present 
common  characteristics  as  to  their  genital  organs, 
nevertheless  certain  differences  may  be  found  between 
them. 

Amongst  those  people  who  have  a Semitic  origin, 
the  yard  is  less  developed  when  in  a flaccid  condition, 
and  the  difference  when  in  a state  of  erection  is  more 
considerable,  than  in  the  Black  of  pure  race,  as  the 
Wolof  for  instance.  I have  already  said  that  there  is 
an  infiltration  of  Semitic  blood  amongst  the  Peulhs 
and  Sarrakholais. 

In  the  Peulh,  the  penis  is  relatively  smaller  than  in 
the  pure  Black,  but  the  testicles  are  more  developed. 
In  its  shape,  the  yard  much  resembles  that  of  the 
Mulatto.  Moreover,  there  are  Peulhs  who  differ  little, 
as  to  general  colour,  from  certain  Mulattos.  However, 
the  ordinary  hue  of  the  body  is  a reddish  brown,  whilst 
that  of  the  Mulatto  is  rather  a yellow  brown.  The 
mucous  surfaces  of  the  lips,  the  gland,  and  the  vulva, 
in  the  Peulh,  are  a little  darker  than  in  the  half-breed 
between  the  White  and  the  Black. 

With  the  Sarrakholais,  who,  according  to  Dr.  Lota, 

189 


I go  UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF  ANTHROPOLOGY. 


are  a cross  between  the  Peulhs  and  the  pure  Black 
race,  the  male  organ  of  generation  is  not  sensibly 
smaller  than  that  of  the  Wolof,  and  presents  the  same 
characteristic  of  being  very  large  when  it  is  flaccid. 
But  as  the  Sarrakholais  have  a general  tint  of  skin  a 
reddish  brown,  similar  to  that  of  cooked  chocolate,  we 
find  in  them  the  mucous  surface  of  the  lips,  the  gland, 
and  the  vulva,  to  be  a little  lighter  than  that  of  the 
skin  of  the  penis,  and  of  a hue  much  resembling  that 
of  the  Zambo  of  Guiana. 

The  other  races, — the  Wolofs,  Kassonkes,  Malinkes, 
Toucouleurs,  Bambaras,  etc. — present  the  common  char- 
acteristic which  is  a type  of  the  race, — that  is  to  say 
that  the  penis  is  almost  as  large  when  flabby  as  it  is 
in  a state  of  erection,  and  the  external  mucous  surfaces, 
are  of  the  same  black  colour  as  the  skin.  It  was 
amongst  the  Malinkes  of  Kita,  that  I found  the  most 
developed  penis,  and  notably  the  one  of  the  maximum 
dimensions,  being  nearly  twelve  inches  in  length,  by 
a diameter  exceeding  2-|  inches.  This  was  a terrific 
machine,  and  except  for  a slight  difference  in  length, 
was  more  like  the  yard  of  a donkey  than  that  of  a 
man.  The  unfortunate  Sharpshooter  who  possessed 
this  “ spike  ” could  not  find  a Negress  large  enough 
to  receive  him  with  pleasure,  and  he  was  an  object 
of  terror  to  all  the  feminine  sex. 


PART  THE  FOURTH.— OCEANIA. 


New  Caledonia. 

The  New  Hebrides — Tahiti. 

CHAPTER  I. 

My  Slav  in  Neiv  Caledonia. — Anthropological  characteristics  of 
the  Kanaka  of  Neiv  Caledo)iia. — The  Kanaka  Popine'e"' . — 

Degraded  co?iditio?i  of  the  Popme'e.  — The  genital  organs  of  the 
Kanaka  race. — Circumcision  at  the  age  of  puberty. — Seclusion  of 
girls  at  puberty.  — “ Himting  the  Snake". — Beating  as  a means 
of  purification. — Woman  during  the  mejistrual  period. — The 
Kanaka  virgin.  — Divisio?i  of  the  Kanaka  race  into  independent 
and  hostile  tribes.  — The  man's  ''Cnanou" . — Stramge  tnodesty  of 
the  Kanaka. — The  girdle  of  the  Popinee. — A feiv  ivords  about 
manners  and  customs. — The  position  of  the  Chief  in  the  social 
state. — Habitations. — Food.  — The  Kanaka  stove. — Beliefs  and 
sjiperstitions.  — The  wizard-doctor  (Takata). — Prof.  Frazer  07i 
“ Killing  the  God  " . 

My  Stay  in  New  Caledonia.  I arrived  in  New  Ca- 
ledonia at  the  moment  when  the  fierce  insurrection  of 
the  natives,  which  commenced  in  1878,  had  just  finished. 
It  had  cost  the  Colony  two  years  of  war.  Everyone 
remembered  incidents  of  the  struggle,  and  I collected 
a good  deal  of  information  from  eye-witnesses  whose 
evidence  could  be  trusted. 

In  order,  however,  not  to  unduly  lengthen  this  book, 
I will  say  nothing  about  the  Europeans  in  New  Ca- 


1Q2 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


ledonia,  except  the  transported  convicts,  who  have 
special  and  peculiar  manners  and  customs. 

Anthropological  Characteristics  of  the  New 
Caledonian  Kanaka.  New  Caledonia  was  colonised 
by  the  Melanesian  Negro  in  the  first  place,  and 
afterwards  received  the  accession  of  a superior  race, — 
the  Maoris.  According  to  the  greater  or  less  infusion 
of  Maori  blood,  which  is  different  in  the  various  tribes, 
the  tint  varies  considerably,  from  a smoky  black  to 
chocolate,  and  to  a dark  Florentine  bronze  with  cop- 
pery gleams.  On  the  east  coast,  you  more  especially 
find  tribes  of  a lighter  colour.  The  Kanaka,  therefore, 
is  rather  a Negro  half-breed  than  a real  Negro,  and 
even  when  the  colour  of  his  skin  is  darkest,  it  is  im- 
possible to  confound  him  with  the  Negro  of  Africa. 
In  fact,  his  head  differs  notably  from  that  of  the 
African.  It  is  asymmetric,  the  facial  angle  is  wider, 
the  forehead  is  open,  high,  narrow,  and  convex.  The 
skull  is  flattened  across,  especially  in  the  temporal 
region.  It  is  covered  with  woolly  hair,  stiffer  and 
less  curly  than  that  of  the  Negro,  and  which  is  often 
stubbly,  which  is  never  the  case  with  the  hair  of  the 
Negro.  The  eyes  are  widely  open,  but  the  conjunctiva 
is  often  injected  with  streaks  of  blood,  which  gives 
them  a fierce  expression.  The  cheek-bones  are  slightly 
projecting,  the  jaw  prognathous.  The  lips  are  fairly 
thick,  and  are  turned  back,  the  mouth  wide,  the  teeth 
very  fine,  and  regular.  The  Kanaka  has  nearly  always 
a moustache,  and  often  a good  sized  beard,  which  is 
rarely  the  case  with  the  African.  The  colour  of  the 
hair  and  beard  is  a dark  black,  but  you  often  find 
men  who  have  the  hair  and  beard  a fine  coppery  red 
as  clear  and  bright  as  that  of  the  European. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


193 


But,  more  especially,  it  is  in  the  exactness  of  his 
proportions,  and  the  regularity  of  form  of  his  body, 
that  the  New  Caledonian  excels.  The  race  is  generally 
thin  and  supple;  the  obesity  of  the  European  never 
vulgarises  and  disfigures  his  shape.  The  arms  and 
legs  are  not  of  a disproportionate  length,  as  in  the 
Negro.  The  muscles,  which  are  hidden  in  the  flesh 
during'  youth,  assume  a vigorous  projection  in  virility ; 
those  of  the  arms  are  often  as  well  developed  as  in  a 
robust  European ; those  of  the  thighs  and  legs  are  less 
so,  but  they  are  firm  and  nervous.  The  Kanaka  is 
indefatigable  on  the  march,  especially  if  animated  by 
pleasure,  or  passion. 

The  Kanaka  Popinee.  This  is  the  name  given  in 
New  Caledonia,  to  the  fairest  half  of  the  human  race, 
which  in  this  country  is  incontestably  the  ugliest.  In 
fact,  there  exists  such  a striking  difference  between 
the  two  sexes  in  respect  to  beauty,  that  one  is  almost 
inclined  to  wonder  whether  the  male  Kanaka  has  not 
the  right  to  consider  such  a companion  as  much  below 
him,  or  whether,  on  the  other  hand,  it  is  the  state  of 
degradation  in  with  the  woman  lives  that  has  made 
her  so  ugly.  The  hair  of  the  woman  is  short  and 
frizzled,  and  is  worn  in  a ball-shaped  knob  like  the 
helmet  of  a Bavarian  soldier.  Whilst  she  is  a young 
girl,  the  Popinee  is  worth  looking  at.  The  breasts, 
which  are  arch-shaped,  are  firm,  and  though  she  is 
generally  slender,  her  form  is  fairly  well  rounded,  and 
her  skin  soft.  But  this  fleeting  beauty  lasts  but  for  a 
flash,  and  the  Popinee  soon  withers  under  the  hard 
existence  that  savage  life  compels  her  to  lead.  The 
skin  dries,  the  scars,  with  which  she  covers  herself  as 
a sign  of  mourning,  render  her  repulsive,  and  mater- 

13 


194 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


nity  completes  the  work.  Suckling  greatly  develops 
the  breast,  which  lengthens  and  falls  naturally,  although 
the  practice  of  sub-cutaneous  incision  is  unknown  to 
her.  The  nipple  of  the  breast  is  large  and  black. 
When  she  no  longer  gives  suck,  the  breast  remains 
flabby  and  wrinkled,  and  falls  down  like  a she-goat’s 
udder.  The  belly  shows  several  parallel  wrinkles,  and 
the  skin  hangs  down  over  the  pubes,  like  an  old 
kitchen  apron.  An  old  Kanaka  Popinee  is  an  object 
of  disgust,  whereas  the  maid,  even  when  aged,  always 
retains  a certain  carriage.  A young  Kanaka  of  twenty, 
on  the  contrary,  is  a magnificent  specimen  of  the  race, 
and  resembles  an  antique  bronze. 

Degradation  of  the  Popinee.  Every  day,  the 
unfortunate  Popinee  works  like  a beast  of  burden. 
She  does  all  the  work  for  the  squad  (I  use  this  word 
purposely)  both  in  cultivation  and  war.  On  the  march 
she  carries  the  provisions,  the  culinary  utensils,  the 
tools.  She  marches  on  and  on  indefinitely,  weighed 
down  by  her  burden ; if  she  gets  weak,  a good  blow  with 
the  handle  of  a war  club  will  restore  her  strength. 
At  night  the  she-donkey  with  four  legs  can  sleep  on 
its  litter,  but  the  Popinee  cannot.  She  must  satisfy  the 
passions  of  the  squad,  and,  even  when  she  is  pregnant, 
this  double  work  is  hardly  interrupted  by  child-birth. 

The  average  height  of  the  women  is  much  inferior 
to  that  of  the  men,  and  in  this  respect  there  is  nearly 
the  proportion  between  the  two  sexes  as  in  our  own 
race.  The  women  suckle  their  children  for  a very  long 
time — from  three  to  five  years.  The  oppression  under 
which  they  groan,  the  hard  work  put  upon  them,  and 
the  privations  which  are  too  often  their  lot,  rapidly 
wear  out  the-  strength  of  their  constitution. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


195 


The  Genital  Organs  of  the  Kanaka  Race.  The 

genital  organs  of  the  man  are  well-proportioned,  but 
much  less  developed  than  those  of  the  Negro.  They 
resemble  rather  those  of  the  South  European,  both  as 
to  shape  and  dimensions,  whether  flaccid  or  erect, 
though  a little  superior  in  size.  The  penis,  when  in 
erection,  is  from  5|-  to  7-^  inches  in  length  by  i-t-to2 
inches  in  diameter — rarely  more.  Once  only  did  I 
find  a penis  of  inches.  This  size,  on  the  contrary, 
is  very  frequent  amongst  the  African  Negroes.  The 
average  appeared  to  be  6^  inches  by  if  inches.  The 
testicles  are  as  well  developed  in  length  as  those  of 
the  European,  but  appeared  to  me  to  be  a little  flatter. 
In  the  colour  of  the  mucous  surface  of  the  lips,  the 
gland,  and  the  vulva,  the  Kanaka  also  resembles  the 
European.  With  those  natives  who  have  the  skin  of 
a smoky  black  colour,  the  mucous  surfaces  are  never 
black,  as  they  are  in  the  Negro.  It  is  of  a fairly 
bright  red,  darkened  by  a touch  of  sepia.  With  those 
who  have  the  skin  the  colour  of  Elorentine  bronze 
(they  are  almost  pure  Maoris)  the  mucous  surface  is 
of  a bright  red,  toned  down  by  light  sienna, — almost 
the  colour  of  red  brick. 

The  reader  must  bear  in  mind  that  we  must  go 
back  to  the  Quadroon  (three  quarters  white),  and  should 
still  find  the  mucous  surfaces  not  so  light  and  bright 
as  in  the  Kanaka.  I shall  revert  to  this  subject,  when 
I compare  the  organ  of  the  African  Negro  with  that 
of  the  Melanesian  Black  of  Australia.  It  may  be  said, 
that  in  the  coloured  man,  a cross-breed  between  the 
White  and  the  Black,  the  mucous  surface  of  the  gland 
is  darker  than  the  skin  of  the  penis.  With  the  Ka- 
naka it  is  absolutely  quite  the  contrary,  who  in  this 
anthropological  peculiarity  resembles  the  South  Italian, 


196  UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 

the  Sicilian  for  instance,  who  often  has  the  skin  of 
the  penis  and  the  scrotum  very  brown,  and  the  gland 
bright  red.  The  pubes  is  covered  with  a black  and 
curly  fleece, — red,  in  individuals  of  that  colour — and 
fairly  abundant. 

Circumcision  at  Puberty.  Usually,  in  the  boy 

before  the  age  of  puberty  the  foreskin  is  fairly  long. 
At  the  age  of  puberty,  in  certain  tribes, — generally 
speaking,  those  who  have  the  darkest  skin  and  who 
live  on  the  western  coast  (such  as  the  Kone  tribe) — 
they  make  those  boys  who  have  phimosis,  and  whose 
gland  does  not  skin  easily,  undergo  a sort  of  demi- 
circumcision.  The  surgeon-sorcerer  of  the  tribe  splits 
the  upper  part  of  the  foreskin,  with  a piece  of  quartz, 
sharpened  and  polished,  down  to  the  crown  of  the 
gland,  a length  of  about  an  inch. 

This  operation,  which  is  much  less  painful  than  the 
complete  circumcision  of  the  Negro,  produces  almost 
the  same  effect,  and  the  gland,  even  when  in  a flaccid 
state,  is  completely  freed.  The  foreskin  thus  divided 
is  tied  up  with  hourao  leaves,  steeped  in  the  juice  of 
certain  herbs  which  the  surgeon-sorcerer  chews,  and 
which  make  it  quickly  heal,  and  draw  it  back  behind 
the  gland.  But  when  in  erection,  the  foreskin  that 

has  been  operated  upon  in  this  way,  sticks  up  in  the 
form  of  a comb,  very  much  like  the  cut  ears  of  a 
terrier,  forming  an  unpleasant  looking  projection  above 
the  penis.  This  would  be  rather  uncomfortable  in 

copulation,  if  the  Kanakas  were  particular  in  their 
pleasures.  This  pseudo-circumcision  is  simply  a hygienic 
measure,  and  nowise  a religious  custom.  ^ 

‘ Watermarck  (see  his  work  on  Marriage),  it  is  only  right  of  me  to 
point  out,  thinks  differently  and  quotes  authorities  on  the  tribes  he 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


197 


Seclusion  of  Girls  at  Puberty.  While  dealing 
with  the  customs  pertaining  to  males  prevalent  amongst 
savage  peoples  on  the  arrival  of  the  age  of  puberty, 
it  may  not  be  uninteresting  to  quote  the  curious  remarks 
of  Frazer  regarding  girls  in  whom  also  the  signs  of 
womanhood  begin  to  appear.  “Amongst  the  Zulus,” 
this  author  says,  “ and  kindred  tribes  of  South  Africa, 
when  the  first  signs  of  puberty  show  themselves,  while 
a girl  is  walking,  gathering  wood,  or  working  in  the 
field,  she  runs  to  the  river  and  hides  herself  among 
the  reeds  for  the  day  so  as  not  to  be  seen  by  men. 
She  covers  her  head  carefully  with  her  blanket  that 
the  sun  may  not  shine  on  it  and  shrivel  her  up  into 
a withered  skeleton,  assured  result  from  exposure  to 
the  sun’s  beams.  After  dark  she  returns  to  her  home 
and  is  secluded  in  a hut  for  some  time.”  ^ 

In  New  Ireland  girls  are  confined  for  four  or  five 
years  in  small  cages,  being  kept  in  the  dark  and  not 
allowed  to  set  foot  on  the  ground.  The  custom  has 
been  thus  described  by  an  eye-witness.  “ I heard  from  a 
teacher  about  some  strange  custom  connected  with  some 
of  the  young  girls  here,  so  I asked  the  chief  to  take  me 
to  the  house  where  they  were.  The  house  was  about 
twenty-five  feet  in  length,  and  stood  in  a reed  and 
bamboo  enclosure,  across  the  entrance  to  which  a 
bundle  of  dried  grass  was  suspended  to  show  that 
it  was  strictly  ‘ tabtt  ’.  Inside  the  house  were  three 

names.  Of  course,  I do  not  deny  that  in  the  cases  he  cites  hygiene 
is  not  the  object  of  the  operation ; but  notwithstanding,  my  observa- 
tions hold  good  with  regard  to  the  Kanakas,  amongst  whom  I have 
personally  moved  and  have  known  perhaps  with  too  dangerous  intimacy 
not  to  be  sure  of  my  facts  about  them. 

' Rev.  James  Macdonald  (Reay  Free  Manse,  Caithness),  Jl/anners, 
Customs,  Superstitions,  and  Religions  of  South  African  Tribes  (in 
manuscript). 


198 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


conical  structures  about  seven  or  eight  feet  in  height, 
and  about  ten  or  twelve  feet  in  circumference  at  the 
bottom,  and  for  about  four  feet  from  the  ground,  at 
which  point  they  tapered  off  to  a point  at  the  top.  These 
cages  were  made  of  the  broad  leaves  of  the  pandanus- 
tree,  sewn  quite  close  together  so  that  no  light,  and 
little  or  no  air,  could  enter.  On  one  side  of  each  is 
an  opening  which  is  closed  by  a double  door  of  plaited 
cocoa-nut  tree  and  pandanus-tree  leaves.  About  three 
feet  from  the  ground  there  is  a stage  of  bamboos 
which  forms  the  floor.  In  each  of  these  cages  we 
were  told  there  was  a young  woman  confined,  each 
of  whom  had  to  remain  for  at  least  four  or  five  years, 
without  ever  being  allowed  to  go  outside  the  house. 
I could  scarcely  credit  the  story  when  I heard  it;  the 
whole  thing  seemed  too  horrible  to  be  true.  I spoke 
to  the  chief,  and  told  him  that  I wished  to  see  the 
inside  of  the  cages,  and  also  to  see  the  girls  that  I 
might  make  them  a present  of  a few  beads.  He  told 
me  that  it  was  ‘ tabu, ' forbidden  for  any  men  but 
their  own  relations  to  look  at  them  ; but  I suppose  the 
promised  beads  acted  as  an  inducement,  and  so  he 
sent  away  for  some  old  lady  who  had  charge,  and  who 
alone  is  allowed  to  open  the  doors  ....  She  had  to  undo 
the  door  when  the  chief  told  her  to  do  so,  and  then  the 
girls  peeped  out  at  us,  and,  when  told  to  do  so,  they 
held  out  their  hands  for  the  beads.  I,  however,  purposely 
sat  at  some  distance  away  and  merely  held  out  the 
beads  to  them,  as  I wished  to  draw  them  quite  outside, 
that  I might  inspect  the  inside  of  the  cages.  This 
desire  of  mine  gave  rise  to  another  difficulty,  as  these 
girls  were  not  allowed  to  put  their  feet  to  the  ground  all 
the  time  they  were  confined  in  these  places.  However, 
they  wished  to  get  the  beads,  and  so  the  old  lady  had 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


199 


to  go  outside  and  collect  a lot  of  pieces  of  wood  and 
bamboo,  which  she  placed  on  the  ground,  and  then 
going  to  one  of  the  girls,  she  helped  her  down  and 
held  her  hand  as  she  stepped  from  one  piece  of  wood 
to  another  until  she  came  near  enough  to  get  the 
beads  I held  out  to  her.  I then  went  to  inspect  the 
inside  of  the  cage  out  of  which  she  had  come,  but 
could  scarcely  put  my  head  inside  of  it,  the  atmosphere 
was  so  hot  and  stifling.  It  was  clean  and  contained 
but  a few  short  lengths  of  bamboo  for  holding  water. 
There  was  only  room  for  the  girl  to  sit  or  lie  down 
in  a crouched  position  on  the  bamboo  platform,  and 
when  the  doors  are  shut  it  must  be  nearly  or  quite 
dark  inside.  The  girls  are  never  allowed  to  come  out 
except  once  a day  to  bathe  in  a dish  or  wooden  bowl 
placed  close  to  each  cage.  They  say  that  they  perspire 
profusely.  They  are  placed  in  these  stifling  cages  when 
quite  young,  and  must  remain  there  until  they  are 
young  women,  when  they  are  taken  out  and  have  each 
a great  marriage  feast  provided  for  them.”  ^ 

* The  Rev.  G.  Brown,  quoted  by  the  Rev.  B.  Banks,  “Marriage 
Customs  of  the  New  Britain  Group,  ” Jo2irn.  Anihrop.  Institttte,'KNY\l, 
284  sq. ; cp.  Rev.  G.  Brown,  “Notes  on  the  Duke  of  York  Group, 
New  Britain  and  New  Ireland,”  Journ.  Royal  Geogr.  Soc.,  XLVII 
(1877),  p.  142  sq.  Powell’s  description  of  the  New  Ireland  custom  is 
similar  (Jf^anderlngs  in  a ITi'/d  CoTiniry,  p.  249).  According  to  him 
the  girls  wear  wreaths  of  scented  herbs  round  the  waist  and  neck ; an 
old  woman  or  a httle  child  occupies  the  lower  floor  of  the  cage : and 
the  confinement  lasts  only  a month.  Probably  the  long  period  mentioned 
by  Mr.  Brown  is  that  prescribed  for  chiefs’  daughters.  Poor  people 
could  not  afford  to  keep  their  children  so  long  idle.  This  distinction 
is  sometimes  expressly  stated;  for  example,  among  the  Goajiras  of 
Colombia  rich  people  keep  their  daughters  shut  up  in  separate  huts  of 
puberty  for  periods  varying  from  one  to  four  years,  but  poor  people 
cannot  afford  to  do  so  for  more  than  a fortnight  or  a month.  F.  A. 
Simons,  “An  exploration  of  the  Goajira  Peninsula,”  Proceed  Royal 


200 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


In  some  parts  of  New  Guinea  “ daughters  of  chiefs, 
when  they  are  about  twelve  or  thirteen  years  of  age, 
are  kept  indoors  for  two  or  three  years,  never  being 
allowed,  under  any  pretence,  to  descend  from  the  house, 
and  the  house  is  so  shaded  that  the  sun  cannot  shine 
on  them.”  ^ Among  the  Ot  Danoms  of  Borneo  girls 
at  the  age  of  eight  or  ten  years  are  shut  up  in  a 
little  room  or  cell  of  the  house  and  cut  off  from  all 
intercourse  with  the  world  for  a long  time.  The  cell, 
like  the  rest  of  the  house,  is  raised  on  piles  above, 
the  ground,  and  is  lit  by  a single  small  window 
opening  on  a lonely  place,  so  that  the  girl  is  in  almost 
total  darkness.  They  may  not  leave  the  room  on  any 
pretext  whatever,  not  even  for  the  most  necessary 
purposes.  None  of  her  family  may  see  her  all  the 
time  she  is  shut  up,  but  a single  slave  woman  is 
appointed  to  wait  on  her.  During  her  lonely  confine- 
ment, which  often  lasts  seven  years,  the  girl  occupies 
herself  in  weaving  mats,  or  with  other  handiwork. 
Her  bodily  growth  is  stunted  by  the  long  want  of 
exercise,  and  when,  on  attaining  womanhood,  she  is 
brought  out,  her  complexion  is  pale  and  wax-like. 
She  is  now  shown  the  sun,  the  earth,  the  water,  the 
trees,  and  the  flowers,  as  if  she  were  newly  born. 
Then  a great  feast  is  made,  a slave  is  killed,  and  the 
girl  is  smeared  with  his  blood.  ^ In  Ceram  girls  at 

Geogr.  Soc.  N.  S.  VII  (1885),  p.  791.  In  Fiji,  brides  who  were  being 
tattooed  were  kept  from  the  sun.  Williams,  Fiji  and  the  Fijia7is, 
I,  1 70.  This  was  perhaps  a modification  of  the  Melanesian  custom  of 
secluding  girls  at  puberty.  The  reason  mentioned  by  Mr.  Williams, 
“to  improve  her  complexion,”  can  hardly  have  been  the  original  one. 

' Chalmers  and  Gill,  Work  and  Adventure  in  New  Gtiuiea,  p.  159. 

“ Schwaner,  Borneo,  Beschrijvijig  van  het  stroomgebied  va?t  den  Barito, 
etc.,  II,  77  sq. ; Zimmerman,  Die  Insehi  des  hidischen  und  Stillest 
jWeeres,  II,  632  sq. ; Otto  Finsch,  Neu  Giiinea  und  seine  Bewohner,  p.  1 16. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


201 


puberty  were  formerly  shut  up  by  themselves  in  a 
hut  which  was  kept  dark.  ^ Amongst  the  Aht  Indians 
of  Vancouver  Island,  when  girls  reach  puberty  they 
are  placed  in  a sort  of  gallery  in  the  house  “ and  are 
there  surrounded  completely  with  mats,  so  that  neither 
the  sun  nor  any  fire  can  be  seen.  In  this  cage  they 
remain  for  several  days.  Water  is  given  them,  but 
no  food.  The  longer  a girl  remains  in  this  retirement 
the  greater  honour  is  it  to  the  parents;  but  she  is 
disgraced  for  life  if  it  is  known  that  she  has  seen  fire 
or  the  sun  during  this  initiatory  ordeal.”  " Amongst 
the  Thlinkeet  or  Kolosh  Indians  of  Alaska,  when  a 
girl  shows  signs  of  womanhood  she  is  shut  up  in  a 
little  hut  or  cage,  which  is  completely  blocked  up  with 
the  exception  of  a small  air-hole.  In  this  dark  and 
filthy  abode  she  had  formerly  to  remain  a year,  without 
fire,  exercise,  or  associates.  Her  food  was  put  in  at 
the  small  window;  she  had  to  drink  out  of  the  wing- 
bone  of  a white-headed  eagle.  The  time  has  now  been 
reduced,  at  least  in  some  places,  to  six  months.  The 
girl  has  to  wear  a sort  of  hat  with  long  flaps,  that 
her  gaze  may  not  pollute  the  sky;  for  she  is  thought 
unfit  for  the  sun  to  shine  upon.  ® Amongst  the 


^ Riedel,  De  sluik-  en  kroesharige  rassen  tusschen  Selebes  en  Papua, 
p.  138. 

® Sproat,  Scenes  and  Studies  of  Savage  Life,  p.  93  sq. 

® Erman,  “ Etnographische  Wahrnehmungcn  u.  Erfahrangen  an  den 
Kiisten  des  Behrings-Meeres,”  Zeitschrift  f.  Etlinologie,  II,  318  sq.; 
Langsdorff,  “ Reise  um  die  Welt,”  II,  114  sq.;  Holmberg,  “Ethnogr. 
Skizzen  iiber  die  Volker  d.  russischen  Amerika,”  Acta  Societatis  Scien- 
tiarian  Fennicae,  IV  (1856),  p.  ^20sq.;  Bancroft,  Native  Races  of  the 
Pacific  States,  I,  no  sq.;  Krause,  Die  Tlinkit-Indianer,  p.  217  sq. ; 
Rev.  Sheldon  Jackson,  “Alaska  and  its  Inhabitants,”  American  Anti- 
quarian, II,  III  sq. ; W.  M.  Grant,  in  Journal  of  American  Folk-Lore, 
I,  169.  For  caps,  hoods,  and  veils,  worn  by  girls  at  such  seasons. 


202 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


Koniags,  an  Esquimaux  people  of  Alaska,  girls  at 
puberty  were  placed  in  small  huts  in  which  they  had 
to  remain  on  their  hands  and  knees  for  six  months ; 
then  the  hut  was  enlarged  enough  to  let  them  kneel 
upright,  and  they  had  to  remain  in  this  posture  for  six 
months  more.  ^ When  symptoms  of  puberty  appeared  on 
a girl  for  the  first  time,  the  Indians  of  the  Rio  de  la  Plata 
used  to  sew  her  up  in  her  hammock  as  if  she  were 

dead,  leaving  only  a small  hole  for  her  mouth  to  allow 

her  to  breathe.  In  this  state  she  continued  so  long  as 
the  symptoms  lasted.  ^ 

Hunting  the  Snake.  In  similar  circumstances  the 
Chiriguanos  of  Bolivia  hoisted  the  girl  in  her  hammock 
to  the  roof,  where  she  stayed  for  a month ; the  second 
month  .the  hammock  was  let  half  way  down  from  the 
roof;  and  in  the  third  month  old  women,  armed  with 
sticks,  entered  the  hut  and  ran  about  striking  everything 
they  met,  saying  they  were  hunting  the  snake  that 
had  wounded  the  girl.  This  they  did  till  one  of  the 

women  gave  out  that  she  had  killed  the  snake.  ® 

Amongst  some  of  the  Brazilian  Indians,  when  a girl 
attained  to  puberty,  her  hair  was  burned  or  shaved  off 
close  to  the  head.  Then  she  was  placed  on  a flat  stone 
and  cut  with  the  tooth  of  an  animal  from  the  shoulders 

compare  G.  H.  Loskiel,  History  of  the  Mission  of  the  United  Brethren 
among  the  Indians,  I,  56;  fournal  Anthrop.  Institute,  VII,  206;  G. 
M.  Dawson,  Report  of  the  Queen  Charlotte  Islands,  1878  (Geological 
Survey  of  Canada),  p.  130B;  Petitot,  Monographic  des  Dhie-Dindjic', 
pp.  72,  75  ; id..  Traditions  mdie7i7ies  dti  Co77ada  Nord-Ouest,  p.  258. 

' Holmberg;  Bancroft,  I,  82;  Petroff,  Report  on  the  Population,  etc. 
of  Alaska,  p.  143. 

''  Lafiteau,  Mceurs  des  Sat/vages  A77ie'ricains,  I,  262  sq. 

Lettres  e'difiantes  et  curieuses,  VIII,  333.  On  the  Chiriguanos 
see  Von  Martins,  Zur  Etli7iographie  A7nerikdis  zunial  Brasiliens,  p. 
212  sq. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


203 


all  down  the  back,  till  she  ran  with  blood.  Then  the 
ashes  of  a wild  gourd  were  rubbed  into  the  wounds ; the 
girl  was  bound  hand  and  foot,  and  hung  in  a hammock, 
being  enveloped  in  it  so  closely  that  no  one  could  see 
her.  Here  she  had  to  stay  for  three  days  without 
eating  or  drinking.  When  the  three  days  were  over, 
she  stepped  out  of  the  hammock  upon  the  flat  stone, 
for  her  feet  might  not  touch  the  ground.  If  she  had 
a call  of  nature,  a female  relation  took  the  girl  on  her 
back  and  carried  her  out,  taking  with  her  a live  coal 
to  prevent  evil  influences  from  entering  the  girl’s  body. 
Being  replaced  in  her  hammock  she  was  now  allowed 
to  get  some  flour,  boiled  roots,  and  water,  but  might 
not  taste  salt  or  flesh.  Thus  she  continued  to  the  end 
of  the  first  monthly  period,  at  the  expiry  of  which  she 
was  gashed  on  the  breast  and  belly  as  well  as  all  down 
the  back.  During  the  second  month  she  still  stayed 
in  her  hammock,  but  her  rule  of  abstinence  was  less 
rigid,  and  she  was  allowed  to  spin.  The  third  month 
she  was  blackened  with  a certain  pigment  and  began 
to  go  about  as  usual.  1 Amongst  the  Macusis  of  British 
Guiana,  when  a girl  shows  the  first  signs  of  puberty, 
she  is  hung  in  a hammock  at  the  highest  point  of  the 
hut.  For  the  first  few  days  she  may  not  leave  the 
hammock  by  day,  but  at  night  she  must  come  down, 
light  a fire,  and  spend  the  night  beside  it,  else  she 
would  break  out  in  sores  on  her  neck,  throat,  etc.  So 
long  as  the  symptoms  are  at  their  height,  she  must 
fast  rigorously.  When  they  have  abated,  she  may  come 
down  and  take  up  her  abode  in  a little  compartment 
that  is  made  for  her  in  the  darkest  corner  of  the  hut. 
In  the  morning  she  may  cook  her  food,  but  it  must 
be  at  a separate  fire  and  in  a vessel  of  her  own.  In 
’ Thevet,  Cosmographie  um've>-selle  (Paris,  1575),  H,  94665^.  ; Lafiteau. 


204 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


about  ten  days  the  magician  comes  and  undoes  the  spell 
by  muttering  charms  and  breathing  on  her  and  on  the 
more  valuable  of  the  things  with  which  she  has  come 
in  contact.  The  pots  and  drinking  vessels  which  she 
used  are  broken  and  the  fragments  buried.  After  her 
first  bath,  the  girl  must  submit  to  be  beaten  by  her 
mother  with  thin  rods  without  uttering  a cry.  At  the 
end  of  the  second  period  she  is  again  beaten,  but  not 
afterwards.  She  is  now  “ clean,”  and  can  mix  again 
with  people.  ^ Other  Indians  of  Guiana,  after  keeping 
the  girl  in  her  hammock  at  the  top  of  the  hut  for  a 
month,  expose  her  to  certain  large  ants,  whose  bite  is 
very  painful.  ^ 

Beating  as  a Means  of  Purification.  The  custom 
of  stinging  the  girl  with  ants  or  beating  her  with 
rods  is  intended,  we  may  be  sure,  not  as  a punish- 
ment or  a test  of  endurance,  but  as  a purification,  the 
object  being  to  drive  away  the  malignant  influences 
with  which  a girl  at  such  times  is  believed  to  be  beset 
and  enveloped.  Examples  of  purification,  both  by 
beating  and  by  stinging  with  ants,  have  already  come 
before  us.  ® Probably,  beating  or  scourging  as  a 
religious  or  ceremonial  rite  always  originated  with  a 
similar  intention.  It  was  meant  to  wipe  off  and  drive 
away  a dangerous  contagion  (whether  personified  as 
demoniacal  or  not)  which  was  supposed  to  be  adhering 
physically,  though  invisibly,  to  the  body  of  the  sufferer.  ^ 

’ Schomburgk,  Reisen  in  British  Gtiiana,  II,  315 Martius,  Zur 
Ethnographie  Amerika’s,  p.  644. 

“ Labat,  Voyage  du  Chevalier  des  Marchais  en  Guinee,  lies  voisines 
et  a Cayenne;  IV,  365  sq.  (Paris  ed.),  p.  17  sq.  (Amsterdam  ed.) 

° Above,  p.  213  sq.  vol.  I,  p.  153  sq. 

* This  interpretation  of  the  custom  is  supported  by  the  fact  that 
beating  or  scourging  is  inflicted  on  inanimate  objects  expressly  for  the 


ANTHROPOLOGY, 


205 


The  pain  inflicted  on  the  person  beaten  was  no  more 
the  object  of  the  beating"  than  it  is  of  a surg"ical 

purpose  indicated  in  the  text.  Thus  the  Indians  of  Costa  Rica  hold 
that  there  are  two  kinds  of  ceremonial  uncleanness,  nya  and  bii-ku-rii. 
Anything  that  has  been  connected  with  a death  is  7iya.  But  hu-ku-yu 
is  much  more  virulent.  It  can  not  only  make  one  sick  but  kill.  “The 
worst  bu-ku-n)  of  all  is  that  of  a young  woman  in  her  first  pregnane}'- 
.She  infects  the  whole  neighbourhood.  Persons  going  from  the  house 
where  she  lives  carry  the  infection  with  them  to  a distance,  and  all 
the  deaths  or  other  serious  misfortunes  in  the  vicinity  are  laid  to  her 
charge.  In  the  old  times,  when  the  savage  laws  and  customs  were  in 
full  force,  it  was  not  an  uncommon  thing  for  the  husband  of  such  a 
woman  to  pay  damages  for  casualities  thus  caused  by  his  unfortunate 
wife.  Bn-ku-n'i  emanates  in  a variety  of  ways ; arms,  utensils,  even 
houses  become  affected  by  it  after  long  disuse,  and  before  they  can  be 
used  again  must  be  purified.  In  the  case  of  portable  objects  left  un- 
disturbed for  a long  time,  the  custom  is  to  beat  them  with  a stick 
before  touching  tliem.  I have  seen  a woman  take  a long  walking, 
stick  and  beat  a basket  hanging  from  the  roof  of  a house  by  a cord. 
On  asking  what  that  was  for,  I was  told  that  the  basket  contained 
her  treasures,  that  she  would  probably  want  to  take  something  out  the 
next  day,  and  that  she  was  driving  off  the  bu-kn-ru.  A house  long 
unused  must  be  swept,  and  then  the  person  who  is  purifying  it  must 
take  a stick  ,and  beat  not  only  the  movable  objects,  but  the  beds,  posts, 
and  in  short  every  accescible  p.art  of  the  interior.  The  next  day  it  is 
fit  for  occupation.  A place  not  visited  for  a long  time,  or  reached  for 
the  first  time,  is  bu-hn-rii.  On  our  return  from  the  ascent  of  Pico 
Blanco,  nearly  all  the  party  suffered  from  little  calenturas,  the  result  of 
extraordinary  exposure  to  wet  and  cold  and  want  of  food.  The  Indians 
said  that  the  peak  was  especially  bu-ku-n'i,  since  nobody  had  ever  been 
on  it  before.”  One  day  Mr.  Gabb  took  down  some  dusty  blow-guns 
amid  cries  of  bu-ku-n'i  from  the  Indians.  Some  weeks  afterwards  a body 
died,  and  the  Indians  firmly  believed  that  the  bu-ku-ra  of  the  blow- 
guns  had  killed  him.  “ From  all  the  foregoing,  it  would  seem  that 
bu-ku-n)  is  a sort  of  evil  spirit  that  takes  possession  of  the  object,  and 
resents  being  disturbed;  but  I have  never  been  .able  to  learn  from  the 
Indians  that  they  considered  it  so.  They  seem  to  think  of  it  as  a 
property  the  objects  acquire.”  W.  M.  Gabb,  Indian  Tribes  and 
Languages  of  Costa  Rica  (read  before  the  American  Philosophical 
Society,  20th  August,  1875),  p.  504  sq. 


2o6 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


operation  with  us;  it  was  a necessary  accident,  that 
was  all.  In  later  times  such  customs  were  interpreted 
otherwise,  and  the  pain,  from  being  an  accident, 
became  the  prime  object  of  the  ceremony,  which  was 
now  regarded  either  as  a test  of  endurance  imposed 
upon  persons  at  critical  epochs  of  life,  or  as  a morti- 
fication of  the  flesh  well  pleasing  to  the  god.  But 
asceticism,  under  any  shape  or  form,  is  never  primitive. 
Amongst  the  Haupes  of  Brazil  a girl  at  puberty  is 
secluded  in  the  house  for  a month,  and  allowed  only 
a small  quantity  of  bread  and  water.  Then  she  is 
taken  out  into  the  midst  of  her  relations  and  friends, 
each  of  whom  gives  her  four  or  five  blows  with  pieces 
of  (an  elastic  climber),  till  she  falls  senseless  or 

dead.  If  she  recovers,  the  operation  is  repeated  four 
times  at  intervals  of  six  hours,  and  it  is  considered  an 
offence  to  the  parents  not  to  strike  hard.  Meantime, 
pots  of  meats  and  fish  have  been  made  ready;  the 
s^J!>lys  are  dipped  into  them  and  then  given  to  the  girl 
to  lick,  who  is  now  considered  a marriageable  woman.  * 

When  a Hindoo  maiden  reaches  maturity  she  is  kept 
in  a dark  room  for  four  days,  and  is  forbidden  to  see 
the  sun.  She  is  regarded  as  unclean ; no  one  is  allowed 
to  touch  her.  Her  diet  is  restricted  to  boiled  rice, 
milk,  sugar,  curd,  and  tamarind  without  salt.  ^ In 

^ A.  R.  Wallace,  Narrative  of  Travels  07i  the  Amazon  and  Rio 
Negro,  p.  496. 

^ Bose,  The  Hindoos  as  they  are,  p.  86.  Similarly,  after  a Brahman 
boy  has  been  invested  with  the  sacred  thread,  he  is  for  three  days 
strictly  forbidden  to  see  the  sun.  He  may  not  eat  salt,  and  he  is 
enjoined  to  sleep  either  on  a carpet  or  a deer’s  skin,  without  a mattress, 
or  mosquito  curtain.  Ib.  p.  186.  In  Bali,  boys  who  have  had  their 
teeth  filed,  as  a preliminary  to  marriage,  are  kept  up  in  a dark  room 
for  three  days.  Van  Eck,  “Schetsen  van  het  eiland  Bali,”  Tijdschrift 
voor  Nederlandsch  Indie,  N.  S.  IX  (1880),  428  sq. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


207 


Cambodia  a girl  at  puberty  is  put  to  bed  under  a 
mosquito  curtain,  where  she  should  stay  a hundred 
days.  Usually,  however,  four,  five,  ten,  or  twenty 
days  are  thought  enough;  and  even  this,  in  a hot 
climate  and  under  the  close  meshes  of  the  curtain,  is 
sufficiently  trying.  ^ According  to  another  account,  a 
Cambodian  maiden  at  puberty  is  said  to  “ enter  into 
the  shade.”  During  her  retirement,  which,  according 
to  the  rank  and  position  of  her  family,  may  last  any 
time  from  a few  days  to  several  years,  she  has  to 
observe  a number  of  rules,  such  as  not  to  be  seen  by 
a strange  man,  not  to  eat  flesh  or  fish,  and  so  on. 
She  goes  nowhere,  not  even  to  the  pagoda.  But  this 
state  of  retirement  is  discontinued  during  eclipses;  at 
such  times  she  goes  forth  and  pays  her  devotions 
to  the  monster  who  is  supposed  to  cause  eclipses  by 
catching  the  heavenly  bodies  between  his  teeth.  ^ The 
fact  that  her  retirement  is  discontinued  during  an  eclipse 
seems  to  show  how  literally  the  injunction  is  interpreted 
which  forbids  maidens  entering  on  womanhood  to  look 
upon  the  sun. 

Woman  during  the  Menstrual  Period.  Mr.  Frazer 
has  gone  deeply  into  this  subject  and  quotes  a mass 
of  authorities  to  prove  that  the  ground  of  this  seclusion 
of  girls  at  puberty  lies  in  the  deeply  engrained  dread 
which  primitive  man  universally  entertains  of  men- 
struous  blood.  Evidence  of  this  has  already  been 
adduced,  but  a few  more  facts  may  here  be  added. 
Amongst  the  Australian  blacks  “ the  boys  are  told 
from  their  infancy  that,  if  they  see  the  blood,  the}/ 

' Moura,  Roy  mime  du  Cambodge,  I,  377. 

^ Aymonier,  “Notes  sur  les  coutumes  el  croyances  superstitieuses  des 
Cambodgicns,”  Cochinchine  Frarifaise,  Exnns/ons  et  Reconnaissances^ 
No.  16  (Saigon,  1883),  p.  193  sq.  Cp.  id.  Notice  sn?-  le  Cambodge, 


2o8 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


will  early  become  gray-headed,  and  their  strength 
will  fail  prematurely.”  Hence  a woman  lives  apart 
at  these  times;  and  if  a young  man  or  boy  approaches 
her  she  calls  out,  and  he  immediately  makes  a circuit 
to  avoid  her.  The  men  go  out  of  their  way  to  avoid 
even  crossing  the  tracks  made  by  women  at  such 
times.  Similarly  the  woman  may  not  walk  on  any 
path  frequented  by  men,  nor  touch  anything  used  by 
men ; she  may  not  eat  fish,  or  go  near  water  at  all, 
much  less  cross  it;  for  if  she  did,  the  fish  would  be 
frightened,  and  the  fishers  would  have  no  luck;  she 
may  not  even  fetch  water  for  the  camp ; it  is  sufficient 
for  her  to  say  Thama  to  ensure  her  husband  fetching 
the  water  himself.  A severe  beating,  or  even  death, 
is  the  punishment  inflicted  on  an  Australian  woman 
who  breaks  these  rules.  ^ The  Bushmen  think  that,  by 
a glance  of  a girl’s  eye  at  the  time  when  she  ought 
to  be  kept  in  strict  retirement,  men  become  fixed  in 
whatever  position  they  happen  to  occupy,  with  what- 
ever they  were  holding  in  their  hands,  and  are  changed 
into  trees  which  talk.  ^ 

“ The  Guayquiries  of  the  Orinoco  think  that,  when  a 
woman  has  her  courses,  everything  upon  which  she 
steps  will  die,  and  that  if  a man  treads  on  the  place 
where  she  has  passed,  his  legs  will  immediately  swell 
up.  ® The  Creek  and  kindred  Indians  of  the  United 
States  compelled  women  at  menstruation  to  live  in 
separate  huts  at  some  distance  from  the  village.  There 

’ Native  Tribes  of  South  Australia,  p.  i86;  E.  J.  Eyre,  Journals, 
II,  295,  304;  W.  Ridley,  Kamilaroi,  p.  157;  Journ.  Anthrop.  hist. 
II,  268,  IX,  459  sq.;  Brough  Smyth,  Aborigines  of  Victoria,  I,  65, 
236.  Cp.  Sir  George  Grty,  Journals,  II,  344  > J-  Dawson,  Australian 
Aborigines,  lOl  sq. 

^ Bleek,  Brief  Account  of  Bushman  Folk-lore,  p.  14;  cp.  ib.  p.  10. 

® Gumilla,  Histoire  de  I’  Orenoque,  I,  249. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


209 


the  women  had  to  stay,  at  the  risk  of  being  surprised 
and  cut  off  by  enemies.  It  was  thought  ‘ a most 
horrid  and  dangerous  pollution  ’ to  go  near  the  women 
at  such  times ; and  the  danger  extended  to  enemies 
who,  if  they  slew  the  women,  had  to  cleanse  themselves 
from  the  pollution  by  means  of  certain  sacred  herbs 
and  roots.  ^ Similarly,  among  the  Chippeways  and 
other  Indians  of  the  Hudson  Bay  Territor;}',  women  at 
such  seasons  are  excluded  from  the  camp,  and  take 
up  their  abode  in  huts  of  branches.  They  wear  long 
hoods,  which  effectually  conceal  the  head  and  breast. 
They  may  not  touch  the  household  furniture  nor  any 
objects  used  by  men;  for  their  touch  ‘is  supposed  to 
defile  them,  so  that  their  subsequent  use  would  be 
followed  by  certain  mischief  or  misfortune,’  such  as 
disease  or  death.  They  may  not  walk  on  the  common 
paths  nor  cross  the  tracks  of  animals.  They  ‘ are  never 
permitted  to  walk  on  the  ice  of  rivers  or  lakes,  or 
near  the  part  where  the  men  are  hunting  beaver,  or 
where  a fishing-net  is  set,  for  fear  of  averting  their 
success.  They  are  also  prohibited  at  those  times  from 
partaking  of  the  head  of  any  animal,  and  even  from 
walking  in  or  crossing  the  track  where  the  head  of  a 
deer,  moose,  beaver,  and  many  other  animals  have 
lately  been  carried,  either  on  a sledge  or  on  the  back. 
To  be  guilty  of  a violation  of  this  custom  is  considered 
as  of  the  greatest  importance;  because  they  firmly 
believe  that  it  would  be  a means  of  preventing  the 
hunter  from  having  an  equal  success  in  his  future 
excursions.’  ^ So  the  Lapps  forbid  women  at  men- 

' James  Adair,  History  of  the  American  Indians,  p.  123  sq. 

■ S.  Hearne,  Journey  to  the  Norther7i  Oceati,  p.  314  sq.;  Alex. 
Mackenzie,  Voyages  through  the  Contment  of  North  America,  CXXIII ; 
Petitot,  Monographie  des  Dhie-Dindjie,  p.  75  sq. 


14 


2 lO 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


struation  to  walk  on  that  part  of  the  shore  where  the 
fishers  are  in  the  habit  of  setting  out  their  fish.  ^ 

“ Amongst  the  civilised  nations  of  Europe  the  super- 
stitions which  have  prevailed  on  this  subject  are  not 
less  extravagant.  In  the  oldest  existing  cyclopaedia  — 
the  Natural  History  of  Pliny — the  list  of  dangers 
apprehended  from  menstruation  is  longer  than  any 
furnished  by  savages.  According  to  Pliny,  the  touch 
of  a menstruous  woman  turned  wine  to  vinegar,  blighted 
crops,  killed  seedlings,  blasted  gardens,  brought  down 
the  fruit  from  trees,  dimmed  mirrors,  blunted  razors, 
rusted  iron  and  brass  (especially  at  the  waning  of  the 
moon),  killed  bees,  or  at  least  drove  them  from  their 
hives,  caused  mares  to  miscarry,  and  so  forth.  ^ 
Similarly,  in  various  parts  of  Europe,  it  is  still  believed 
that  if  a woman  in  her  courses  enters  a brewery  the 
beer  will  turn  sour ; if  she  touches  beer,  wine,  vinegar, 
or  milk,  it  will  go  bad;  if  she  makes  jam,  it  will  not 
keep;  if  she  mounts  a mare,  it  will  miscarry;  if  she 
touches  buds,  they  will  wither;  if  she  climbs  a cherry- 
tree,  it  will  die.  ® 

^ C.  Lemius,  De  Lappojtibus  Finmarchiae  eorumque  lingtia  vita  et 
religione  pristhia  (Copenhagen,  1767))  P-  494- 

“Pliny,  Nat.  Hist.  VII,  § 64  sq. ; XXVIII,  § 77  sqq.  Cp.  Geo- 
ponica,  XII,  C.  20,  5 and  25,  2 ; Columella,  XI,  3,  50. 

® A.  Schleicher,  Volkstihnliches  aus  Sonnenberg,  p.  134;  B.  Souche, 
Croyances,  Presages  et  Traditions  diverses,  p.  II;  V.  Fossel,  Volk- 
7ttedicin  wid  medicwischer  Aberglaube  in  Steierniark  (Graz,  1886), 
p.  124.  The  Greeks  and  Romans  thought  that  a field  was  completely 
protected  against  insects  if  a menstruous  woman  walked  round  it  with 
bare  feet  and  streaming  hair.  Pliny,  Nat.  Hist.  XVII,  266;  XXVIII, 
78;  Columella,  X,  358  sq.  ; XI,  3,  64;  Palladius,  De  re  rtistica,  i, 

3;  Geopo7tica,  XII,  8,  5 sq. ; Aelian,  Nat.  Afti/n.  VI,  36.  A similar 
remedy  is  employed  for  the  same  purpose  by  North  American  Indians 
and  European  peasants.  Schoolcraft,  Pidian  Tribes,  v.  70;  Wiedemann, 
Aus  deiii  inneren  und  dussern  Leben  der  Ehoten,  p.  484.  Cp.  Hal- 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


2 I I 


“ Thus  the  object  of  secluding  women  at  menstruation 
is  to  neutralise  the  dangerous  influences  which  are 
supposed  to  emanate  from  them  at  such  times.  That 
the  danger  is  believed  to  be  especially  great  at  the 
first  menstruation  appears  from  the  unusual  precautions 
taken  to  isolate  girls  at  this  crisis.  Two  of  these 
precautions  have  been  illustrated  above,  namely,  the 
rules  that  the  girl  may  not  touch  the  ground  nor  see 
the  sun.  The  general  effect  of  these  rules  is  to  keep 
the  girl  suspended,  so  to  say,  between  heaven  and 
earth.  Whether  enveloped  in  her  hammock  and  slung 
up  to  the  roof,  as  in  South  America,  or  elevated  above 
the  ground  in  a dark  and  narrow  cage,  as  in  New 
Ireland,  she  may  be  considered  to  be  out  of  the  way 
of  doing  mischief,  since,  being  shut  off  both  from  the 
earth  and  from  the  sun,  she  can  poison  neither  of 
these  great  sources  of  life  by  her  deadly  contagion. 
In  short,  she  is  rendered  harmless  by  being,  in  electrical 
language,  insulated.  But  the  precautions  thus  taken 
to  isolate  or  insulate  the  girl  are  dictated  by  a regard 
for  her  own  safety  as  well  as  for  the  safety  of  others. 
For  it  is  thought  that  the  girl  herself  would  suffer  if 
she  were  to  neglect  the  prescribed  regimen.  Thus  Zulu, 
as  we  have  seen,  believe  that  they  would  shrivel  to 
skeletons  if  the  sun  were  to  shine  on  them  at  puberty, 
and  in  some  Brazilian  tribes  the  girls  think  that  a 
transgression  of  the  rules  would  entail  sores  on  the 
neck  and  throat.  In  short,  the  girl  is  viewed  as 
charged  with  a powerful  force  which,  if  not  kept  within 
bounds,  may  prove  the  destruction  both  of  the  girl 
herself  and  of  all  with  whom  she  comes  in  contact. 

trich,  Zur  Volkskttnde  der  Siebenbiirger  Sachsen^  p.  280;  Heinrich, 
Agrarische  Sitten  tuid  Gebrduche  unter  den  Sachsen  Siebe7ibiirgens, 
p.  14;  Grimm,  Deutsche  Mythologie,  HI,  468. 


2 I 2 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


To  repress  this  force  within  the  limits  necessary  for 
the  safety  of  all  concerned  is  the  object  of  the  taboos 
in  question.” 

The  Kanaka  Virgin.  Whilst  she  is  a girl,  the 
organs  of  the  young  Kanaka  are  very  little  developed 
and  when  she  comes  to  puberty,  the  mount  of  Venus 
which  is  not  at  all  prominent,  is  provided  with  a very 
scanty  fleece,  although  the  removal  of  the  hair  is  an 
unknown  practice.  Usually,  the  clitoris  is  normal,  the 
vulva  and  vagina  are  of  a development  proportioned 
to  the  size  of  the  male  organs,  and  more  inclined  from 
the  front  to  the  rear  than  is  the  case  with  the  Euro- 
pean woman,  but  much  less  so  than  with  the  African 
Negress.  When  the  hymen  exists,  it  has  invariably 
the  annular  form.  But  it  does  not  always  exist,  for 
the  child  is  often  deflowered  at  an  early  age.  When 
she  is  a woman,  the  necessity  of  satisfying  several  men 
soon  deforms  the  genital  organs.  In  fact,  there  is  but 
one  Popinee  for  five  or  six  Kanakas,  and,  in  certain 
tribes,  there  are  even  eight  or  nine  men  to  one  woman. 
That  is  the  sole  cause  of  polyandry,  and  it  may  be 
imagined  that  the  unfortunate  Popinee,  with  a good 
half  dozen  husbands  who  make  her  work  in  the  day 
by  thrashing  her  with  the  handle  of  their  war  club, 
and  at  night  prevent  her  from  sleeping,  by  poking 
her  with  that  instrument  which  our  forefathers  called 
“the  finger  without  a nail,”  has  scarcely  any  rest  or 
ease.  Generally,  after-  she  has  borne  two  children,  the 
Popinee  is  worn  out  The  depopulation  of  New  Cale- 
donia therefore  progresses  rapidly,  especially  since  the 
war  of  1878,  which  destroyed  nearly  all  the  tribes  ot 
the  West  coast,  with  the  exception  of  the  Kones,  and 
some  others  of  no  importance. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


213 


Division  of  the  Kanaka  Race  into  Independent 
and  Hostile  Tribes.  The  peopling  of  the  island  by 
successive  immigrations  of  the  Black,  coming  from  the 
West,  and  the  IMaori,  from  the  East;  the  elongated 
shape  of  the  island,  which  resembles  a chain  of  moun- 
tains emerged  from  the  sea,  and  separating  completely 
the  East  and  West  coasts ; the  division  of  the  basins 
of  the  rivers  by  numerous  lesser  chains  of  mountains, 
very  difficult  of  access,  all  concur  to  separate  the  New 
Caledonian  race  into  a number  of  tribes,  which  are 
often  enemies  to  each  other.  Nevertheless,  the  root 
of  the  language  is  common,  and  so  are  the  manners 
and  customs.  A tribe  consists  of  villages,  the  chiefs 
of  which  depend  on  the  chief  of  the  tribe; — an  organised 
feudalism,  like  the  clans  of  old  Scotland. 

The  Man’s  “Manou.”  The  costume  of  the  Ka- 
nakas is  of  primitive  simplicity.  The  man  wears  on 
his  head  a handkerchief,  tied  into  a turban  by  means 
of  his  sling,  and  often  ornamented  with  feathers,  or 
plants.  He  ornaments  his  body  with  necklaces  of  shark 
skin,  and  bracelets  of  shells  on  his  arms  and  legs. 
The  lobe  of  the  ear  is  often  pearced  with  a hole,  in 
which  is  inserted  a round  piece  of  wood,  as  big  as  an 
ordinary  cork.  The  belly  is  tied  round  with  a girdle 
of  leather  and  cord,  and  the  acme  of  “ high  life  ” is 
to  have  the  chest  smeared  with  a mixture  of  lard  and 
cocoa-nut  oil.  But  the  real  costume  of  the  Kanaka  is 
the  maiiou,  an  article  of  clothing  of  a bright  colour, 
generally  red.  This  is  what  the  manou  is.  Some 
Parisian  play-wright  has  made  a naval  officer,  supposed 
to  have  returned  from  New  Caledonia,  say,  that  with 
a pair  of  gloves  you  can  clothe  ten  Kanakas.  The 
fingers  of  the  gloves  would  have  to  be  of  extra  size 


214 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


if  SO.  Another  witty  “ boulevardier  ” says,  that  a Kanaka 
much  resembles  a gentleman  in  evening  dress,  for 
both  wear  a tail  coat.  I ask  the  reader’s  pardon  for 
inserting  this  joke. 

This  solitary  article  of  dress  is  called  the  manou 
which  the  Frenchman  has  translated  by  the  word 
moineau.  To  manufacture  his  manou  the  Kanaka 
takes  a cotton  handkerchief  of  some  bright  colour,  rolls 
it,  twists  it  round  his  yard,  so  that  it  makes  a comic 
looking  hood  the  point  of  which  falls  to  the  knee, 
then  he  passes  the  two  opposite  ends  under  his  tes- 
ticles and  fastens  them  on  the  pubes,  at  the  root  of 
his  penis.  The  singular  effect  that  this  strange  cos- 
tume gives,  when  it  is  seen  for  the  first  time,  may  be 
easily  imagined.  One  soon  gets  used  to  it,  however, 
even  European  ladies.  In  the  jumps  and  bounds, 
which  the  Kanaka  makes  in  dancing  the  pilou-pilou, 
his  national  dance,  the  manou  waggles  about  like  the 
clapper  of  a bell,  which  has  an  irresistibly  comic  effect. 
When  two  chiefs  meet,  it  is  considered  a mark  of 
courtesy  and  good  taste  to  exchange  ynanous  with 
each  other.  It  would  be  a serious  insult  to  a Kanaka 
to  lay  hold  of  the  end  of  his  manou  and  unroll  it; 
you  would  stand  a good  chance  of  getting  a rap  on 
the  head  from  his  club.  I found  it  very  difficult  to 
persuade  a Kanaka  to  take  off  his  manou,  and  show 
me  his  genital  organs.  He  would  never  do  so  in 
public,  but  only  in  a hut,  and  when  free  from  obser- 
vation. He  even  carries  his  scruples  to  such  an  extent 
that  he  is  shocked  at  seeing  a European  bathe  stark 
naked.  I experienced  this  myself.  One  hne  morning, 
I wanted  to  take  a bath  in  the  Thio,  and  as  I was 
alone,  and  there  was  no  policeman  to  summon  me  for 
indecent  exposure,  I jumped  into  the  water  in  the 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


215 


costume  of  Father  Adam.  When  I came  out,  I found 
that  some  Kanakas  had  assembled  on  the  shore  whilst 
I was  taking  my  bath.  They  were  extremely  shocked 
at  my  nakedness,  and  pointed  at  me,  and  made  fun 
of  me. 

One  of  the  Missionary  Fathers  told  me  the  following, 
which  he  declared  to  be  true.  Some  sailors  were 
bathing,  quite  naked,  near  a village,  without  suspect- 
ing that  they  were  scandalising  the  villagers.  Sud- 
denly they  all  began  to  cry  out,  for  each  man  felt 
himself  caught  hold  of  by  the  genital  parts.  Some 
Kanaka  divers  were  trying  to  put  caps,  made  of  leaves 
rolled  up,  over  the  members  of  the  men. 

Strange  Modesty  of  the  Kanaka.  The  Kanaka 
carries  his  prudery  even  further.  The  civilised  Euro- 
pean makes  water  against  a wall,  and  often  hardly 
hides  himself,  when  there  is  no  urinal  at  hand,  but  I 
have  never  seen  a Kanaka  make  water  in  public.  He 
hides  himself,  and  crouches  down  behind  a bush  or  a 
hut,  before  he  takes  off  his  mano^l,  which  of  course 
would  interfere  with  the  operation.  In  this  respect 
the  Kanaka  can  give  the  Englishman  points. 

Our  distinguished  friend  Letourneau,  the  professional 
anthropologist,  has  made  a careful  study  of  the  .strangely 
different  ideas  prevalent  amongst  various  races  on  the 
subject  of  modesty,  and  his  remarks  are  so  apposite 
that  we  take  leave  to  quote  them : “ Throughout 
Polynesia,  ” he  says,  “ nudity  was  formerly  the  fashion. 
Tasmanians  and  Polynesians  would,  if  necessary,  cast 
a mantle  of  Kanguru  skins  over  their  shoulders,  but 
it  was  solely  on  account  of  the  cold,  or  as  a protec- 
tion against  thorny  briars.  The  women  did  not  even 
dream  of  modesty,  and  one  must  be  affected  with  the 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


216 

monomania  of  the  human  race  to  find  any  intention 
of  decency  in  the  custom  of  the  Tasmanian  women, 
when  squatting  down,  to  bring  up  one  or  both  their 
feet  so  as  to  cover  their  nudity.  ^ 

“ It  often  happens  that  European  travellers,  particu- 
larly missionaries,  who  are  prone  to  attribute  to  inferior 
races  all  or  a part  of  their  own  ideas  on  decency, 
have  seen  an  intention  of  modesty  in  mere  rudiments 
of  clothing,  used  only  for  purposes  of  protection.  The 
strings  and  bit  of  bark  of  the  Neo-Caledonians  and 
of  the  Mallicollo  islanders,  the  shells  worn  by  the  latter 
do  not  in  any  way  reveal  a moral  intention;  ^ the 
part  they  play  is  that  of  a special  armour  destined  to 
protect  delicate  organs. 

“ In  New  Caledonia  (the  Isle  of  Pines),  the  missionaries 
provoked  violent  protests,  when  they  raised  the  preten- 
sion to  make  the  girls  wear  the  girdles  of  married 
women,  and  these  latter  energetically  claimed  their 
rights.  ^ 

“ The  Polynesian  women,  always  very  lightly  clad, 
would  undress,  without  thought  of  evil,  on  the  slightest 
motive  and  invariably  when  they  went  to  bathe.  In 
the  Sandwich  Islands,  the  native  ladies,  already  some- 
what touched  by  European  civilisation,  used  to  swim 
stark  naked  towards  the  ships,  bearing  on  their  heads 
their  silk  dresses,  their  shoes  and  stockings  and  their 
parasols,  wherewith  to  deck  themselves  out  when  they 
got  on  board.  ^ 

“ The  perfect  absence  of  scruples,  with  which  the 


* LabillardiSre,  quoted  by  Bonwick  (Daily  Life,  etc.,  p.  58). 

^ Cook’s  Voyage  round  the  world. — De  Rochas,  Nouvelle  Caledoitie, 
p.  153. — D’Entrecasteaux,  Hist.  Univ.  des  Voyages,  t.  XV,  p.  56. 

De  Rochas,  loc.  ctt.  p.  153. 

* Beechey,  Hist.  Univ.  des  Voyages,  t.  XIX,  p.  374. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


217 


Polynesians  considered  what  we  call  par  excellence 
‘ morals  gave  rise  to  incidents  most  singular  to  Euro- 
peans. During  a passage  of  one  of  Cook’s  boats  be- 
tween the  islands,  a Tahitian  lady  of  high  rank  wanted 
to  convince  herself  de  visu,  that  Englishmen  were,  in 
every  way,  made  like  the  men  of  her  own  country, 
and  that,  out  of  pure  curiosity.  ^ On  another  occasion, 
a missionary  was  forced  to  hurry  back  to  the  ship 
that  had  brought  him : the  islanders,  being  quite  unable 
to  understand  his  continence,  had  imagined  that  he 
had  some  sort  of  malformation  and  had  endeavoured 
to  assure  themselves  of  the  fact.  With  slight  varia- 
tions, similar  customs  may  also  be  observed  elsewhere 
than  in  the  Pacific  Ocean.  In  general,  primitive  men 
are  strangers  to  any  trouble  about  decency.  Eor 
instance,  the  most  savage  of  the  American  Indians, 
the  Euegians,  ^ the  Californians,  ^ satisfied  their  neces- 
sities at  the  very  place  where  they  happened  to  be  at 
the  moment,  and  without  taking  heed  of  their  neigh- 
bours. 

“In  1498,  at  Trinity  Island,  Christopher  Columbus 
found  the  women  entirely  naked,  whereas  the  men 
wore  a light  girdle  called  gziayaco.  At  the  same 
epoch,  on  the  Para  Coast,  the  girls  were  distinguished 
from  the  married  women  by  their  absolute  nudity. 
The  same  absence  of  costume  was  observed  among 
the  Chaymas,  ^ and  Du  Chaillu  noticed  the  same 
among  the  Achiras  on  the  West  coast  of  Africa.  ^ It 
is  besides  well  known  how  very  primitive  is  the  female 

' Cook,  Second  Voyage  rou7id  the  world. 

‘‘‘  L’Hermitte,  Hist.  Univ.  dcs  J’^oyages,  t.  VH,  p.  435. 

^ La  Perouse,  Hist.  Univ.  des  Voyages,  t.  XII,  p.  194. 

* Humboldt,  Hist.  Univ.  d.  Voy.,  t.  XXXVIII,  p.  362. 

Du  Chaillu,  Journey  in  equatorial  Africa,  p.  466. 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


218 

costume  throughout  Black  Africa.  That  of  the  men 
is  often  still  more  so.  Sometimes  it  is  entirely  absent, 
as  Schweinfurth  relates  in  the  notes  of  his  travels, 
that  the  Dinkas  glorified  in  their  complete  nudity,  and 
contemptuously  called  the  traveller  ‘ the  Turkish  lady  ’ 
on  account  of  his  attire.  ^ 

“ I will  here  cease  this  enumeration,  which  might  be 
much  longer.  In  making  it  my  object  was  in  no  wise 
to  group  strange  facts  shocking  to  our  European  ideas 
of  modesty.  My  object  was  only  to  shed  a light  upon 
these  primitive  customs,  which  surely  were  those  of 
our  former  ancestors. 

“ But  from  these  facts  some  general  ideas  may  be 
deduced,  very  important  for  the  study  of  the  origin 
of  morals. 

“The  animal  kingdom  altogether  ignores  modesty, 
and  yet  love,  considered  as  an  exclusive  sentiment, 
does  not  seem  to  be  foreign  to  all  animals.  The 
delicacy  with  which  the  males  of  certain  species  of 
birds  court  and  love  their  females,  is  such  as  to  bring 
shame  not  only  to  savage  humanity  but  to  many 
so-called  civilised  peoples.  To  the  Illinois  parrakeet 
{Psittacus  pertinax^i,  widowhood  and  death  are  synony- 
mous ; but  even,  when  these  monogamists  are  constant, 
these  animals  ignore  modesty.  Why  therefore,  and 
how  is  it,  that  this  sentiment  plays  so  considerable  a 
part  in  the  morality  of  the  superior  races  ? Montaigne 
put  the  same  question  to  himself  when  he  wrote 
as  follows ; ‘ What  has  the  genital  act,  so  natural,  so 

necessary  and  so  just,  done  to  men,  that  it  may  not 
be  mentioned  without  shame  and  is  to  be  excluded  from 
serious  and  regulated  language?  We  boldly  say  kill. 


* Schweinfurth,  The  Heart  of  Africa,  p.  152. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


2 ig 

rob  and  betray,  and  dare  speak  of  the  other  only 
between  our  teeth.’  (Livre  III,  chap.  V). 

“ This  is  one  of  those  questions  of  psychological 
evolution,  which  comparative  ethnography  alone  can 
clear  up. 

“ First  of  all  the  primitive  man  makes  no  moral  dis- 
tinction between  the  different  wants  which  solicit  him, 
between  hunger  and  love;  he  does  not  discuss  either 
of  them,  and  modesty  is  quite  as  unknown  to  him  as 
it  is  to  beasts.  But,  among  these  latter,  even  an  ex- 
clusive choice  does  not  engender  the  sentiment  of  mo- 
desty. It  is  that  this  sentiment  is  the  result  of  two 
combined  causes:  selection  and  life  in  society.  It  is 
not  delicacy  of  sentiment,  it  is  the  brutal  egotism  of 
the  primitive  man  that  has,  quite  involuntarily,  deter- 
mined the  genesis  of  decency  and  of  sexual  morality. 
The  first  seeds  of  these  high  sentiments  were  sown  when 
men,  liberating  themselves  from  the  primitive  promis- 
cuity, began  to  consider  women  as  private  property. 
The  chief  began  by  reserving  this  property  to  himself, 
protecting  it  as  viell  as  he  could  from  the  enterprises 
of  other  men,  and  more  particularly  severely  punishing 
the  least  slip  of  his  wife  or  wives,  of  course  without 
subjecting  himself  to  any  restriction  whatever.  Little 
by  little,  thanks  to  these  brutal  prohibitions,  there  began 
to  germ  in  the  female  mind  a certain  sentiment  of  con- 
jugal duty,  of  sexual  reserve,  a care  to  veil  her  person 
more  or  less,  and  this  sentiment  ended  in  being  trans- 
mitted hereditarily. 

“ In  this  connection,  Polynesia  is  still  a precious  field 
for  observation.  In  the  islands,  where,  as  at  Tahiti, 
the  sexual  liberty  was  pretty  nearly  unlimited,  the  mar- 
ried women  even  being  themselves  let  out  or  lent  by 
their  husbands  with  the  greatest  facility,  all  modesty 


220 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


was  unknown.  In  New  Zealand,  on  the  contrary,  where 
the  owners  of  women  were  more  jealous  of  their  rights, 
they  almost  invariably  punished  with  death  the  woman 
guilty  of  unauthorised  adultery,  which  they  authorised 
but  with  difficulty,  the  women  were  relatively  decent. 
Even  when  swimming,  or  during  their  sleep,  they  used  to 
keep  on  them  their  girdles  of  phormiu7n  tenax  which 
encircled  their  waists.  ^ 

“ Before  giving  themselves  to  Europeans,  they  usually 
required  the  consent  of  their  family  or  of  their  husband 
and,  after  having  obtained  this  consent,  in  consideration 
of  a proper  present,  it  was  still  necessary  to  negotiate 
with  them.  ^ 

“ Some  of  them  also  became  attached  to  their  European 
lovers  and  remained  faithful  to  them.  ® The  men  did 

' Duperrey,  Hist.  Univ.  des  Voy.,  t.  XVIII,  p.  152. 

® Cook’s  “First  Voyage  round  the  World.” 

® Editor’s  note. — One  of  our  contributors,  Mr.  Costello,  communicates 
the  following: — “In  1843  a cousin  of  mine  was  acting  as  surgeon  on 
board  one  of  H.M.  ships  which  anchored  off  New  Zealand  to  overhaul 
and  .repair.  The  islands  were  then  almost  entirely  possessed  by  the 
Maoris,  and  one  of  the  chiefs,  who  had  met  with  an  accident,  sent  on 
board  to  ask  for  a surgeon.  My  cousin,  a handsome  young  Irishman, 
was  sent  ashore,  where  he  remained  several  weeks,  saying  that  he  had 
many  other  patients,  and  only  occasionally  visited  tlie  ship.  The  fact 
was  that  our  inflammable  Hibernian  had  been  captivated  by  the  charms 
of  the  chief’s  lovely  daughter ; a sort  of  marriage  ceremony  was  performed, 
the  enamoured  doctor  promising  to  remain  widi  the  Maoris  and  be  their 
‘Medicine-man.’  The  ship  was,  however,  now  ready  to  sail,  and  the 
Captain  sent  an  order  to  the  surgeon  to  come  on  board  at  once.  In- 
stead of  obeying  he  ran  away  to  the  woods  with  his  Maori  wife.  This, 
however,  was  of  little  avail;  an  armed  party  of  seamen  discovered  his 
retreat  and  brought  him  forcibly  to  the  ship,  the  girl  following  and 
lamenting  behind.  As  the  ship  began  to  move,  she  could  be  seen 
from  the  deck,  as  standing  on  the  shore,  with  a sharp  shell  she  cruelly 
cut  and  lacerated  her  face,  so  that  no  other  man  should  ever  afterwards 
take  a fancy  to  her. — Later,  a whaler  which  came  to  the  same  place, 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


22  1 


not  consider  it  at  all  immoral  to  lend  or  to  let  out 
their  wives;  it  was  the  right  of  the  proprietor  of  the 
thing  possessed,  but  already  a certain  jealousy  held 
them  back.  In  order  to  test  how  far  their  scruples 
went  with  regard  to  conjugal  faith,  as  we  read  in  the 
relation  of  Dumont  d’Urville,  Mr.  Gaimard  made  all 
sorts  of  offers  to  a chief  in  order  to  obtain  the  favours 
of  his  wife,  but  this  rangatira  was  deaf  to  all  these 
seductions,  even  to  the  offer  of  an  ordinary  gun, 
simply  replying  each  time:  (sacred  or  forbidden). 

But  when  the  doctor  came  to  offer  him  in,  in  joke,  a 
double-barrelled  gun,  the  savage  chief,  incapable  of 
resisting  so  seductive  an  offer,  merely  answered  by 
pushing  his  wife  into  the  arms  of  the  stranger,  at  the 
same  time  extending  his  other  hand  for  the  gun.”  ^ 

The  Woman’s  Girdle.  The  costume  of  the  women 
is  as  rudimentary  as  that  of  the  men.  It  consists 
merely  of  a girdle,  which  encircles  the  hips,  and  hardly 
hides  the  buttocks. 

A Few  Words  concerning  Manners  and  Customs. 

I shall  deal  very  briefly  with  all  that  does  not  concern 
sexual  passion. 

The  Chief’s  Place  in  the  Social  State.  The 

Chief  of  the  tribe  is  an  omnipotent  ruler, — a monarch 
by  divine  right  and  by  heredity.  Salic  law  prevails 
throughout  the  entire  island.  The  Chief  is  a kind  of 
god, — a fetish.  Men  bow  down  at  his  approach. 
Women  are  even  still  more  unworthy  to  gaze  upon 

ascertained  that  the  poor  thing  did  not  long  survive,  but  had  died  of 
a broken  heart.” 

’ Voyage  de  1’ Astrolabe,  p.  171. 


222 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


his  venerated  face.  To  present  themselves  before  him, 
they  commence,  when  they  are  quite  a hundred  yards 
distant,  to  go  on  all  fours,  and  to  complete  the  resem- 
blance to  an  animal,  they  fasten  to  their  girdle  a 
bundle  of  tow,  which  hangs  down  behind  like  a horse’s 
tail. 

The  Chief  has  a kind  of  supreme  council,  composed 
of  the  most  renowned  warriors,  and  the  most  prudent 
and  experienced  old  men.  Peace  and  war  are  decided 
by  this  council;  cultivation  and  the  harvests  are  in 
common.  The  Great  Chief  by  divine  right  has  a sort 
of  Mayor  of  the  Palace,  who  is  called  the  War  Chief; 
he  trains  the  warriors  to  military  tactics,  and  leads 
them  to  combat,  whilst  the  Great  Chief  prudently 
remains  within  his  tent,  far  remote  from  blows.  On 
the  death  of  the  Great  Chief,  everyone  in  the  tribe 
assumes  mourning,  which,  for  the  women,  consists  in 
whitening  the  upper  part  of  the  body  with  chalk,  and 
painting  the  face  black,  with  a white  streak  at  the 
corner  of  the  nose,  and  the  eyebrows  painted  white. 
As  may  be  imagined,  this  funeral  masquerade  makes 
the  young  women  ugly,  and  renders  the  old  Popinees 
horrible.  Before  the  French  occupation,  the  fattest 
wives  of  the  deceased  Chief  were  knocked  on  the  head 
with  a club,  and  eaten  at  a funereal  pilou-pilou  per- 
formed in  his  honour. 

Habitations.  The  Kanaka  hut  is  of  the  shape  of 
a bee-hive,  with  a low  and  narrow  door  for  the  only 
opening.  In  the  centre  of  this  hive,  a fire  burns 
incessantly,  and  on  it  is  thrown  the  refuse  of  the  cocoa- 
nut  tree,  to  drive  out  the  mosquitoes,  which  are  the 
curse  of  the  country.  No  European  can  remain  in 
one  of  these  huts,  on  account  of  the  vermin  and  the 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


223 


stench.  The  Chief’s  hut  is  higher  than  the  others,  as 
is  also  the  hut  of  the  Council  of  the  Old  Men.  On 
the  top  is  placed  a fetish,  a man  or  a woman,  roughly 
carved,  and  with  the  genital  parts  out  of  all  proportion. 
The  whole  is  crowned  by  an  immense  weathercock, 
with  an  arrow  fifteen  or  twenty  feet  long,  and  a sttir, 
the  symbol  of  the  Chief’s  power. 

Food.  The  food  of  the  New  Caledonian  is  almost 
exclusively  vegetable  (taro,  yams,  patatas,  and  fruits). 
The  coast  tribes  also  eat  fish,  which  is  an  important 
addition  to  their  diet.  Before  the  arrival  of  the  Euro- 
peans,— with  the  exception  of  some  birds,  a large  bat, 
the  rat,  and  the  dog, — there  were  no  animals.  The 
introduction  of  pigs  and  poultry  has  been  a great 
benefit  to  the  Kanakas,  for  these  animals  require  hardly 
any  care. 

The  Kanaka  Stove.  To  roast  a fish  or  a pig,  the 
Kanaka  requires  neither  spit,  meat  screen,  nor  stove. 
The  savage  cook  lights  a large  fire,  and  makes  red 
hot  therein  some  large  stones;  then  digs  an  oval  hole 
in  the  ground,  the  size  of  the  joint,  and  puts  in  the 
bottom  the  hot  stones.  On  these  hot  stones  he  places 
the  fish  or  pig,  well  wrapped  up,  with  spices  inserted, 
in  banana  leaves.  Above  this  he  puts  some  leaves  of 
the  miaouli,  previously  damped;  then  covers  the  whole 
with  earth,  and  lets  the  meat  cook  in  this  concentrated 
heat.  The  steam  mingles  with  the  acrid  aroma  of  the 
rniaouli, — which  is  much  like  the  laurel  tree, — and  the 
joint  has  a delicious  flavour.  That  is  how  the  cannibal 
cooks  his  dinner. 


Beliefs  and  Superstitions.  The  Kanaka  has  a 


224 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


vague  idea  of  the  immortality  of  the  soul,  which  will 
survive  the  body,  and  depart  into  another  world, — a 
veritable  Mohammedan  paradise,  where  it  will  dance  in- 
terminable pilou-pilous , stuff  itself  with  yams,  and 
everyone  will  have  as  many  women  as  he  wants. 

He  believes  also  in  the  ghosts  or  manes  of  his  an- 
cestors and  others, — strange  beings  who  interfere  for 
good  or  evil  in  this  world,  and  are  the  cause  of  favour- 
able or  unfavourable  events.  Amongst  these  spirits 
of  the  dead,  those  of  the  chiefs  have  the  greatest  power, 
and  public  prayers  are  addressed  to  them,  to  cause  a 
good  crop  of  yams,  or  a good  haul  of  fish.  As  may 
be  guessed,  the  authority  of  a Chief  is  therefore  never 
questioned  by  his  subjects. 

The  Wizard-doctor  (Takata).  The  Takata  is  at 
once  wizard,  physician,  and  the  buffoon  of  the  Chief, 
whom  he  amuses.  He  is  the  interpreter  of  the  spirits, 
to  whom  he  is  reputed  to  talk,  is  doctor  to  the  whole 
tribe,  and  also  casts  spells  and  enchantments,  like  the 
sorcerer  of  the  Middle  Ages.  To  cause  an  enemy  to 
die,  the  Kanaka  applies  to  the  Takata,  who  makes  a 
statuette,  carries  it  to  the  grave-yard,  and  buries  it 
with  various  invocations  to  the  spirits  of  the  dead. 
Does  he  wish  the  canoe  of  an  enemy  to  founder? — he 
buries  a small  canoe.  Does  he  wish  to  “ put  a spoke 
in  the  wheel”  of  a favoured  rival  ? — the  Takata  makes 
an  enormous  Priapus,  upon  which  the  person  requiring 
the  spell  makes  water,  uttering,  at  the  same  time,  some 
mysterious  words  which  the  sorcerer  has  taught  him. 
The  charm  will  work  if  he  can  slip  the  figure  of  the 
Priapus  between  the  legs  of  his  rival,  whilst  he  is  sleeping. 
To  spoil  the  fishing  of  a neighbouring  tribe,  a young 
girl  takes  off  her  girdle  on  the  beach.  If  only  one 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


225 


of  the  crew  has  erotic  desires,  no  fish  will  be  caught. 
This  superstition  especially  prevails  upon  the  East  coast. 

Killing  the  God.  This  curious  belief  in  regard  to 
fishes  is  not  confined  to  the  Kanaka  alone.  Mr.  J.  C. 
Frazer,  with  whom  I have  had  the  pleasure  to  converse 
on  these  matters  at  Cambridge  University  in  years 
gone  by,  and  who  has  frequently  rendered  me  valuable 
help,  has  consecrated  a few  lines  to  this  interesting 
subject  of  piscine  folk-lore  in  his  carefully  documented 
work,  “ The  Golden  Bough,  a study  in  Comparative 
Religion”  (London,  Macmillan,  1890).  He  says,  in 
the  chapter  entitled  “ Killing  the  God  ” : “A  tribe  which 
depends  for  its  subsistence,  chiefly  or  in  part,  upon 
fishing  is  careful  to  treat  the  fish  with  every  mark  of 
honour  and  respect.  The  Indians  of  Peru  adored  the 
fish  that  they  caught  in  greatest  abundance  ; for 
they  said  that  the  first  fish  that  was  made  in  the  world 
above  (for  so  they  named  Heaven)  gave  birth  to  all 
other  fish  of  that  species,  and  took  care  to  send  them 
plenty  of  its  children  to  sustain  their  tribe.  For  this 
reason  they  worshipped  sardines  in  one  region,  where 
they  killed  more  of  them  than  of  any  other  fish  ; in  others, 
the  skate ; in  others,  the  dogfish ; in  others,  the  golden 
fish  for  its  beauty ; in  others,  the  crawfish ; in  others, 
for  want  of  larger  gods,  the  crabs,  where  they  had 
no  other  fish,  or  where  they  knew  not  how  to  catch 
and  kill  them.  In  short,  they  had  whatever  fish  was 
most  serviceable  to  them  as  their  gods.  ‘ The  Otawa 
Indians  of  Canada,  believing  that  the  souls  of  dead 
fish  passed  into  other  bodies  of  fish,  never  burned  fish 

’ Garcilasso  de  la  Vega,  Royal  Commentaries  of  the  Yncas,  First 
Part,  bk.  i.  ch.  to,  vol.  I,  p.  49  sq.^  Hakluyt  Society.  Cp.  «/.,  II, 
p.  148. 


15 


226 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


bones,  for  fear  of  displeasing  the  souls  of  the  fish,  who 
would  come  no  more  to  the  nets.  ’ The  Hurons  also 
refrained  from  throwing  fish  bones  into  the  fire,  lest 
the  souls  of  the  fish  should  go  and  warn  the  other 
fish  not  to  let  themselves  be  caught,  since  the  Hurons 
would  burn  their  bones.  Moreover,  they  had  men  who 
preached  to  the  fish  and  persuaded  them  to  come  and 
be  caught.  A good  preacher  was  much  sought  after, 
for  they  thought  that  the  exhortations  of  a clever  man 
had  a great  effect  in  drawing  the  fish  to  the  nets. 
In  the  Huron  fishing  village,  where  the  French  missionary 
Sagard  stayed,  the  preacher  to  the  fish  prided  himself 
very  much  on  his  eloquence,  which  was  of  a florid  order. 
Every  evening  after  supper,  having  seen  that  all  the 
people  were  in  their  places,  and  that  a strict  silence 
was  observed,  he  preached  to  the  fish.  His  text  was 
that  the  Hurons  did  not  burn  fish  bones.  ‘ Then  en- 
larging on  his  theme  with  extraordinary  unction,  he 
exhorted  and  conjured  and  invited  and  implored  the 
fish  to  come  and  be  caught,  and  to  be  of  good  courage, 
and  to  fear  nothing,  for  it  was  all  to  serve  their  friends 
who  honoured  them  and  did  not  burn  their  bones.’  ^ 
The  disappearance  of  herring  from  the  sea  about  He- 
ligoland, in  1530,  was  attributed  by  the  fishermen  to 
the  fact  that  two  lads  had  whipped  a freshly-caught 
herring  and  then  flung  it  back  into  the  sea.  ® The 
natives  of  the  Duke  of  York  Island  annually  decorate 
a canoe  with  flowers  and  ferns,  lade  it,  or  are  supposed 
to  lade  it,  with  shell -money,  and  set  it  adrift  to  pay 

’ Relations  des  J6suites,  1667,  p.  12. 

* Sagard,  Le  Grand  Voyage  dti  Pays  des  Hurons,  p.  255  sqq. 
(p.  178  sqq.  of  the  Paris  reprint). 

“ Scheiden,  Das  Salz,  p.  47.  For  this  reference  I am  indebted  to 
my  friend  Prof.  W.  Robertson  Smith. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


227 


the  fish  for  those  they  lose  by  being  caught.  1 It  is 
especially  necessary  to  treat  the  first  fish  caught  with 
consideration,  in  order  to  conciliate  the  rest  of  the  fish, 
for  their  conduct  may  be  supposed  to  be  influenced 
by  the  reception  given  to  the  first  of  their  kind  which 
is  taken.  Accordingly,  the  Maoris  always  put  back 
into  the  sea  the  first  fish  caught,  ‘ with  a prayer  that 
it  may  tempt  other  fish  to  come  and  be  caught.’  ^ 

“ Still  more  stringent  are  the  precautions  taken  when 
the  fish  are  the  first  of  the  season.  On  salmon  rivers, 
when  the  fish  begin  to  run  up  the  stream  in  spring, 
they  are  received  with  much  deference  by  tribes  who, 
like  the  Indians  of  the  Pacific  Coast  of  North  America, 
subsist  largely  upon  a fish  diet.  In  British  Columbia 
the  Indians  used  to  go  out  to  meet  the  first  fish  as 
they  came  up  the  river.  ‘They  paid  court  to  them, 
and  would  address  them  thus:  “You  fish,  you  fish; 

you  are  all  chiefs,  you  are ; you  are  all  chiefs.  ” ’ ® 
Amongst  the  Thlinket  of  Alaska  the  first  halibut  of 
the  season  is  carefully  handled,  addressed  as  a chief, 
and  a festival  is  given  in  his  honour,  after  which  the 
fishing  goes  on.  ^ In  spring,  when  the  winds  blow 
soft  from  the  South,  and  the  salmon  begin  to  run  up 
the  Klamath  river,  the  Karoks  of  California  dance  for 
salmon,  to  ensure  a good  catch.  One  of  the  Indians, 
called  the  Kareya  or  God-man,  retires  to  the  mountains 
and  fasts  for  ten  days.  On  his  return  the  people  flee, 
while  he  goes  to  the  river,  takes  the  first  salmon  of 

’ W.  Powell,  ]]"andermgs  in  a IT  ild  Country,  p.  66  sq. 

R.  Taylor,  Te  Ika  a Mauri ; or,  New  Zcalnjid  and  its  Inhabitants, 
p.  200;  A.  S.  Thomson,  The  Story  of  New  Zealand,  I,  202;  E. 
Treger,  “ The  Maoris  of  New  Journal  Anthrop.  Inst.  XIX,  109. 

^ Lubbock,  Origin  of  Civilisation,  p.  277,  quoting  Metlahkatlah,  p.  96. 

* W.  Dali,  Alaska  and  its  Resources,  p.  4 1 3. 


228 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


the  catch,  eats  some  of  it,  and  with  the  rest  kindles 
the  sacred  fire  in  the  sweating-house.  ‘ No  Indian 
may  take  a salmon  before  this  dance  is  held,  nor  for 
ten  days  after  it,  even  if  his  family  are  starving.’ 
The  Karoks  also  believe  that  a fisherman  will  take  no 
salmon  if  the  poles  of  which  his  spearing-booth  is  made 
were  gathered  on  the  river-side,  where  the  salmon 
might  have  seen  them.  The  poles  must  be  brought 
from  the  top  of  the  highest  mountain.  The  fisherman 
will  also  labour  in  vain  if  he  uses  the  same  poles  a 
second  year  in  booths  or  weir,  ‘because  the  old 
salmon  will  have  told  the  young  ones  about  them.’  ^ 

“ Among  the  Indians  of  the  Columbia  River,  ‘ when 
the  salmon  make  their  first  appearance  in  the  river, 
they  are  never  allowed  to  be  cut  crosswise,  nor  boiled, 
but  roasted;  nor  are  they  allowed  to  be  sold  without 
the  heart  being  first  taken  out,  nor  to  be  kept  over 
night,  but  must  be  all  consumed  or  eaten  the  day 
they  are  taken  out  of  the  water.  All  these  rules  are 
observed  for  about  ten  days.’  ^ They  think  that,  if 
the  heart  of  a fish  were  eaten  by  a stranger  at  the 
beginning  of  the  season,  they  would  catch  no  more 
fish.  Hence,  they  roast  and  eat  the  hearts  themselves.  ® 
There  is  a favourite  fish  of  the  Ainos  which  appears 
in  their  rivers  about  May  and  June.  They  prepare 
for  the  fishing  by  observing  rules  of  ceremonial  purity, 
and  when  they  have  gone  out  to  fish,  the  women  at 
home  must  keep  strict  silence,  or  the  fish  would  hear 

’ Stephen  Powers,  Tribes  of  California,  p.  31  sq. 

^ Alex.  Ross,  Adventures  of  the  First  Settlers  on  the  Oregon  or 
Columbia  River,  p.  97- 

Ch.  Wilkes,  Narratives  of  the  US.  Exploring  Expedition,  IV, 
324,  V.  1 1 9,  where  it  is  said,  “a  dog  must  never  be  permitted  to  eat 
the  heart  of  a salmon ; and  in  order  to  prevent  this,  they  cut  the  heart 
of  the  fish  out  before  they  sell  it.” 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


22Q 


them  and  disappear.  When  the  first  fish  is  caught  he 
is  brought  home  and  passed  through  a small  opening 
at  the  end  of  the  hut,  but  not  through  the  door;  for 
if  he  were  passed  through  the  door,  ‘ the  other  fish 
would  certainly  see  him  and  disappear.’  ^ This  explains 
the  custom  observed  by  other  savages  of  bringing 
game  into  their  huts,  not  by  the  door,  but  by  the 
window,  the  smoke-hole,  or  by  a special  opening  at 
the  back  of  the  hut.”  ^ 

*11.  C.  St.  John,  “The  Ainos”  in  Jo2int.  Anthrop.  Inst.  II,  253; 
id.  Notes  and  Sketches  from  the  Wild  Coasts  of  Nipon.  p.  27  sq. 

“ Scheft'er,  Lapponia.  p.  242  sq.;  fourn.  Anthrop.  Instit.  VII,  207; 
Revue  d’ Ethnographic,  II,  308  sq. 


CHAPTER  II. 

Moral  characteristics  of  the  Kanaka. — Ca?ises  of  the  insurrection 
of  i8y8. — The  Kanaka’s  courage. — His  iveapons.  — The  attack  on 
the  post  at  Foa. — Heroic  death  of  sixteen  ivarriors. — Ferocity  of 
the  Kanaka. — The  philosophy  of  man-eatmg.  — Devourers  of  their 
own  offspring. — Men  eaten  to  win  glory. — Anthropophagy  a 
motive  for  zvar. — Dogs  v.  women  at  Terra  del  Fuego.  — Flagrante 
delicto  of  animality. — Caziziibalism. — Its  causes.  — The  pilou- 
pilou" . — The  erotic  “ pilou-pilou" . — Scenes  of  cannibalism.  — The 
massacres  of  the  ""  Alcmena” , and  la  Poya.  — The  Chief’s  part 
m the  feast  of  human  flesh. — The  reward  of  the  French  Governmezit. 

Moral  Characteristics  of  the  Kanaka.  The 

Kanaka  is  nothing  but  a big  boy;  he  has  all  the  worst 
instincts  of  the  child, — he  is  ferocious,  cruel,  and  pitiless, 
but  he  is  a man  endowed,  as  we  are,  with  moral  sense. 
He  is  distinguished  by  a blind  obedience  to  his  Chief. 
The  Chief  has  but  to  command  him,  and  he  will  obey. 
He  does  not  think  himself  a whit  inferior  to  civilised 
man,  and  does  not  fear  him.  Moreover,  the  colonist, 
with  whom  alone  he  has  the  opportunity  of  comparing 
himself,  is  not  remarkable  for  morality.  The  Kanaka 
thinks  our  civilisation  is  too  complicated,  and  he  sin- 
cerely pities  the  White  man  who  cannot  exist  without 
all  the  apparatus  of  Government.  There  are  only  two 
things  he  envies  us, — alcohol,  and  weapons  of  precision. 
At  bottom  he  is  honest  and  in  that  respect  differs  radically 
from  the  Annamite,  who  is  as  thievish  as  a magpie. 
You  may  leave  within  his  reach  the  things  he  most 

230 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF  ANTHROPOLOGY. 


231 


likes,  food,  meat,  wine,  and  spirits  even,  and  he  will 
touch  nothing.  You  may  leave  upon  the  wharf  all 
the  provisions  destined  for  some  European  post,  and  the 
Kanaka  will  even  help  you  to  load  them,  but  he  will 
steal  nothing.  He  is  generous.  Give  a Kanaka  a 
bottle  of  brandy,  or  something  good  to  eat,  and  he  will 
share  it  with  his  companions.  He  is  very  proud,  and 
feels  an  insult  deeply.  In  spite  of  the  injury  done  by 
the  cattle  of  the  colonists,  which  devoured  his  fields  of 
taro  and  yams,  the  Kanaka  would  never  have  revolted, 
if  the  gendarmes  of  la  Poya  had  not  been  .so  imprudent 
as  to  arrest  the  chiefs  of  thirteen  tribes,  and  handcuff 
them.  The  next  day  the  whole  of  the  thirteen  tribes 
had  revolted. 

Causes  of  the  Insurrection  of  1878.  The  insur- 
rection of  the  Kanakas  commenced  with  the  murder 
of  the  gendarmes  of  la  Poya,  and  the  pillage  and 
burning  of  the  colonists’  houses  followed.  It  became  a 
war  of  races.  The  attack  on,  and  destruction  of,  the 
gendarmerie  was  led  by  a young  Kanaka,  who  had 
been  brought  up  amongst  the  gendarmes.  A little 
later,  I shall  have  a few  remarks  to  make  on  the  part 
played  by  certain  other  Kanakas,  who  had  been  educated 
amongst  Europeans. 

The  Courage  of  the  Kanaka.  — His  Weapons. 

The  insurrection  showed  fully  the  courage  of  the 
Kanaka,  who  with  nothing  but  the  primitive  weapons 
of  barbarism,  dared  to  attack  civilised  men,  armed 
with  the  most  perfect  engines  of  modern  warfare. 

The  principal  weapon  of  the  Kanaka  is  the  tainio, 
a small  axe  with  a long  handle,  or  the  club  with  a 


2 32  UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 

head  like  a bird’s  beak.  This  is  the  weapon  for  close 
combat.  For  fighting  at  a distance,  he  has  a sling, 
which  throws  polished  oval  stones,  then  three  or  four 
darts  of  thin  flexible  wood,  which  he  hurls  from  a 
distance  of  fifteen  or  twenty  paces,  like  the  Roman 
legionary  who  threw  his  piluvi,  and,  at  close  quarters, 
he  uses  the  tamio,  or  the  club.  With  these  pre-historic 
weapons,  he  did  not  hesitate  to  attack  brave  soldiers 
armed  with  Chassepots,  or  colonists  provided  with 
Lefaucheux  rifles,  or  English  breech-loading  Sniders. 
The  Chassepots  and  Sniders  which  the  Kanakas 
captured  at  the  outbreak  of  the  insurrection,  became, 
in  their  hands,  terrible  weapons.  If  the  tribes  of  the 
North  and  East,  instead  of  declaring  for  us,  had  also 
revolted,  all  the  Europeans  in  the  interior  would  have 
been  massacred,  and  Noumea  blockaded.  It  would 
have  required  a formidable  expedition,  sent  from  France, 
to  relieve  the  remaining  Europeans. 

In  spite  of  the  help  given  by  those  tribes  which 
remained  faithful,  it  took  two  years  to  put  down  the 
insurrection.  A good  description  of  the  fighting  can 
be  found  in  Commandant  Riviere’s  book. 

The  Attack  on  the  Post  of  La  Foa.  I have 
stated  that  the  very  fact  of  these  badly  armed  Kanakas 
revolting,  was  a proof  of  their  courage.  An  instance 
of  this  courage  is  given  by  Commandant  Riviere,  who 
relates  that  an  attack  was  made,  by  daylight,  on  the 
post  of  la  Eoa,  which  was  protected  by  palisades,  and  a 
“ blockhouse  ” furnished  with  quick-firing  guns.  These 
so-called  savages  must  have  had  an  astonishing  courage 
to  undertake  such  an  enterprise.  The  attack,  however, 
failed,  though  it  was  led  with  considerable  skill.  For 
two  hours  the  Kanakas  hurled  stones  from  their  slings 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


233 


at  the  palisade  and  blockhouse,  in  spite  of  a well- 
directed  fire  from  the  breech-loading  guns. 

Heroic  Death  of  sixteen  Warriors.  I will  quote 
here  another  instance,  which  I heard  from  an  officer 
employed  in  one  of  the  flying  columns  sent  against 
the  Kanakas.  The  insurrection  had  been  put  down, 
and  the  remnants  of  the  tribes  were  being  pursued,  in 
order  that  they  might  be  captured  and  transported  to 
Pine  Island.  A tribe  (that  of  the  great  Farinos)  was 
surrounded  by  the  column,  aided  by  the  warriors  of 
the  friendly  tribe  of  the  Kondis.  The  rebel  Chief 
assembled  all  his  warriors,  and  explained  to  them  the 
impossibility  of  continuing  the  struggle,  and  that,  to 
save  the  lives  of  the  children  and  old  men,  it  would 
be  better  to  surrender,  and  give  up  their  arms.  Sixteen 
warriors  replied  that  they  preferred  death  to  slavery. 
These  sixteen  fought  to  the  last  gasp,  against  more  than 
a hundred  Kanakas,  who  struck  them  down  with  darts, 
and  stones  from  their  slings.  To  my  mind,  their  action 
was  quite  as  noble  as  that  of  Leonidas  at  Thermopylae. 

Ferocity  of  the  Kanaka.  But  it  cannot  be  denied 
that,  in  spite  of  his  bravery,  the  Kanaka  is  ferocious, 
and  his  ferocity  is  mingled  with  cunning.  All  the 
colonists  who  were  killed,  were  murdered  by  Kanakas 
they  believed  to  be  friends,  and  struck  from  behind 
at  the  moment  when  they  least  expected  it.  A Kanaka 
entered  the  house  of  a colonist  in  a friendly  way,  and 
asked  for  a bit  of  biscuit,  a leaf  of  tobacco,  or  a glass 
of  tafia ; when  his  victim  turned  or  stooped,  to  get 
the  article  demanded,  he  was  struck  on  the  back  of 
the  head  with  a tamio.  Many  of  the  colonists,  hearing 
of  the  massacre  of  their  neighbours,  assembled  together, 


234 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


armed  with  their  guns,  but  the  Kanakas  they  deemed 
their  friends,  and  who  had  been  charged  by  their  chief 
to  murder  them,  told  them  to  fear  nothing,  and  they 
would  be  guarded  and  protected.  The  unhappy  wretches, 
men,  women,  and  children,  fell  under  the  clubs  of  their 
pretended  defenders.  The  general  massacre  of  the 
Whites  was  systematically  arranged.  If  the  insurrection 
had  been  universal  amongst  all  the  tribes,  not  a colonist 
would  have  remained  alive. 

Only  two  instances  are  known  in  which  a Kanaka 
took  pity  on  a White,  and  warned  him  that  if  he  did 
not  fly  he  would  be  murdered.  But  in  extenuation  of 
the  conduct  of  the  Kanaka,  it  should  be  said  that  he 
was  crushed  and  ill-treated  by  the  colonists,  his  planta- 
tions were  ravaged  by  their  cattle,  he  was  mercilessly 
overworked,  insulted,  and  often  beaten.  I am  not  ex- 
cusing the  Kanaka ; I am  simply  stating  facts.  The 
greatest  massacres  took  place  in  that  part  of  the  island 
where  the  Whites  were  most  mixed  with  the  natives, 
and  they  were  struck  down  by  these  natives  who  used 
to  come  most  frequently  to  their  houses. 

The  Philosophy  of  Man-eating.  Professor  Letour- 
neau  ^ has  made  an  extensive  study  of  this  subject 
based  on  reports  of  travellers.  His  observations  are 
so  pertinent  that  we  may  be  excused  for  quoting 
them.  “ In  a curious  chapter  of  his  ‘ Essays,’  that 
incarnation  of  common  sense,  by  name  Montaigne, 
wrote  as  follows : ‘ I think  that  there  is  more  barbarity 
in  eating  a live  man  than  to  eat  him  when  he  is 
dead ; to  tear  to  pieces  by  torments  and  by  gehennas 
a body  full  of  feeling,  to  roast  it  little  by  little,  to 

^ In  his  profound  work,  L’ Evolution  de  la  Morale,  Paris  1894, 
which  an  edition  bowdlerised — as  usual,  has  appeared  in  Enghsh. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


235 


deliver  it  to  be  bitten  and  torn  by  dogs  and  swine 
(as  we  have  not  only  read  of,  but  ourselves  have  seen 
in  recent  times,  not  between  old  enemies,  but  between 
neighbours  and  fellow-citizens,  and  what  is  worse, 
under  pretence  of  piety  and  of  religion)  than  to  roast 
and  eat  him  after  he  is  dead.’ 

“ From  the  strictly  utilitarian  point  of  view,  Montrigne 
seems  to  be  in  the  right.  It  is  evident  that  the  real 
crime  consists  in  killing  a man  and,  when  the  crime 
is  committed,  as  it  happens  in  civil  and  religious 
wars,  with  the  approval  of  a perverted  moral  sense, 
the  crime  is  then  still  more  lamentable.  Nevertheless, 
cannibalism  is  a moral  aggravation  of  homicide.  It 
amounts  to  pushing  to  the  utmost  extremes  the  con- 
tempt of  one’s  neighbour ; it  means  rigorously  to 
assimilate  man  to  game  or  to  a domestic  animal. 

“ Besides,  ethnography  throughout  attests  the  reality 
of  this  assimilation.  Only  the  human  races  that  have 
remained  at  the  lowest  degree  of  savagery,  practise 
cannibalism  in  its  primitive  and  absolutely  bestial 
form.  As  the  moral  sense  begins  to  form  and  the 
intelligence  becomes  more  developed,  man  is  more 
and  more  ashamed  of  cannibalism.  He  limits  its 
practice,  dissimulates  it  and  finally  succeeds  in  reducing 
it  to  a pure  symbol.  In  this  embryonic  stage,  and  as  a 
survival,  anthropophagy  persisted  for  a long  time,  even 
into  the  very  heart  of  the  latest  phases  of  morality. 
It  is  only  in  its  altogether  primitive  form,  when  it  is 
practised  openly,  and  simply,  that  it  is  the  characteristic 
of  bestial  morals.  This  evolution  of  cannibalism  is 
curious.  I will  briefly  review  its  principal  stages.  At 
the  outset  man  is  to  another  man  as  one  animal  is  to 
another,  not  only  is  the  enemy  devoured,  that  is  to 
say  a competitor  on  the  other  side  of  such  and  such 


236 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


a brook  or  mountain,  but  often  even,  in  case  of  •; 

necessity,  the  women,  the  children  and  old  men  of 
their  own  tribe.  Afterwards,  cannibalism  becomes 

A 

restricted,  except  in  case  of  famine,  to  enemies. 

“ Restriction  now  follows  restriction ; for  conscience  f 

. . ? 

becomes  more  sensitive,  and  on  the  other  hand,  with 

the  progress  of  civilisation,  the  food  supplies  become  i 

less  precarious.  As  a rule  religion  is  also  mixed  up  s 

with  it,  and  it  regulates  and  consecrates  anthropo- 
phagy. Little  by  little,  it  finishes  by  limiting  the 
practice  to  rare  and  exceptional  cases,  and  even  brings 
it  down  to  be  no  longer  anything  but  a religious  cere- 
mony, and  to  make  it  symbolical.  Under  this  last 
form,  cannibalism  may  continue  to  exist  even  among 
the  most  advanced  civilisations.  In  1874,  at  the  An- 
thropological Congress  at  Bologna,  Carl  Vogt  not  a 
little  scandalised  certain  of  his  auditory  when  he  said 
that  he  could  trace  and  note  in  the  Catholic  mass  a 
last  vestige  of  the  anthropophagy  of  our  ancient  an- 
cestors; and  yet  Carl  Vogt  was  right. 

“ But  religious  anthropophagy  is  not  its  only  atten- 
uated form  derived  from  ancient  cannibalism.  Juristic 
anthropophagy  also  competes  with  it,  and  can  also 
co-exist  with  a relatively  advanced  stage  of  civilisation. 

We  shall  have  to  speak  of  the  judicial  anthropophagy 
of  the  Battaks  of  Sumatra,  who  till  quite  recently  con- 
demned adulterers,  night-robbers  and  others  to  be  eaten. 

“ But  it  is  with  the  lower  forms  of  cannibalism  that 
we  have  to  do  at  present.  The  lowest  of  all  is  bestial 
anthropophagy,  having  for  sole  motive  the  desire  and 
the  want  to  eat  meat.  Cannibalism  out  of  greediness 
follows  very  closely,  and  cannibalism  out  of  vengeance, 
or  from  warlike  fury,  is  often  but  a hypocritical  form 
of  the  same,” 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


237 


Devourers  of  their  Own  Offspring.  “ After 
having  laid  down  these  preliminaries,  we  can  now  enter 
upon  the  exposition  of  the  facts  and  will  begin  with 
Australia.  ‘In  this  country,’  says  Oldfield,^  ‘there 
exists  a very  decided  taste  for  human  flesh.  The  flesh 
of  women  is  particularly  esteemed ; therefore  they  but 
rarely  attain  to  old  age.  The  men  look  upon  them 
as  beasts  of  burden,  domestic  animals,  which  may  be 
not  only  beaten,  wounded  and  killed  at  will,  but  also 
eaten  without  scruple.  As  Father  Salvado  ^ says,  in 
times  of  dearth  they  are  sacrificed  without  hesitation.’ 

“Oldfield  goes  even  further:  ‘They  are  generally 

despatched,’  says  he,  ‘without  the  least  scruple,  before 
they  become  old  and  thin,  lest  so  much  good  food 
should  be  lost ....  In  fact,  so  little  importance  is 
attached  to  them,  either  before  or  after  death,  that  it 
may  reasonably  be  questioned  whether  the  man  does 
not  put  his  dog,  when  it  is  alive,  on  absolutely  the 
same  level  as  his  wife,  and  wdiether  he  thinks  more 
frequently  and  more  tenderly  of  the  one  than  of  the 
other,  after  having  eaten  them  both.’ 

“ Cunningham  also  relates  that,  in  the  bag  of  one  of 
the  Australians  of  his  suite,  he  found  a woman’s  neck 
put  by  as  food  reserve.  The  same  traveller  makes  a 
general  observation  proving  evidently  that  the  brutal 
practice  of  cannibalism  is  the  sign  of  an  altogether 
inferior  mental  condition.  According  to  him,  anthro- 
pophagy exists  in  Australia  particularly  among  the 
tribes  living  in  a state  of  anarchy,  without  organisa- 
tion, where  the  brutal  force  of  the  individual  reiuns 
uncontrolled,  that  is  to  say  among  the  least  intelli- 
gent of  the  tribes. 

‘ Oldfield,  Historical  Memoirs  on  Australia. 

^ Trans.  Ethnol.  Soc.  (New  Series,  vol.  Ill,  p.  220). 


238 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


“If  the  Australian  woman  is  frequently  devoured, 
by  reason  of  her  relative  weakness,  it  is  of  course 
still  more  often  so  with  regard  to  the  child,  who  is 
still  weaker. 

‘“It  is  a common  practice  in  Australia,’  says  Oldfield, 

‘ to  eat  children  in  times  of  famine.  Then,’  he  adds, 

‘ the  mother  must  not  lament  too  loudly,  under  penalty 
of  being  beaten.  She  is  only  permitted  to  utter  some 
smothered  moans.  But,  however  great  may  be  the 
grief  of  the  mother,  it  is  appeased  when  she  is  offered 
her  legal  share,  the  child’s  head,  which  she  begins  to 
eat,  although  she  continues  her  sobbing.’  ^ At  first 
sight  this  assertion  of  Oldfield  seems  incredible.  But 
it  surprises  less,  when  we  consider  the  psychology  of 
the  Australian,  who  is  a very  curious  type  with  regard 
to  the  origin  and  formation  of  his  moral  sense.  The 
Australian  is  in  fact,  as  we  shall  see,  susceptive  of 
retaining-  tenacious  mental  impressions,  barely  more 
reasoned  than  those  of  our  domestic  animals,  and 
which,  like  them,  he  obeys  instinctively. 

“ In  any  case  it  is  certain  that  the  Australian  is  quite 
willing  to  devour  his  own  children.  Sturt  ^ also  con- 
firms the  information  furnished  by  Oldfield.  He  relates 
in  fact,  that  an  Australian  smashed  on  a stone  the 
head  of  his  sick  child,  which  he  then  roasted  and 
devoured.” 

Men  eaten  to  win  Glory.  “ Similar  customs,  but 
stamped  with  greater  brutality,  used  to  reign  or  still 
reign  in  many  parts  of  the  Polynesian  archipelagos. 
At  Viti,  murder  and  cannibalism  were  not  only  abso- 
lutely simple  things,  but  even  perfectly  honourable. 

*Jom-nal  of  two  Expeditions  of  Discovery  in  Australia,  etc.,  p.  286. 

^ Hist.  Univ.  des  Voyages  (vol.  XLIII,  p.  362). 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


239 


A man  was  more  esteemed  the  more  often  he  had  been 
covered  with  blood  and  gorged  himself  with  human 
flesh.  A chief  of  Raki-Raki,  the  great  Ra-Undre- 
Undre,  used  to  glory  in  having  eaten  nine  hundred 
persons,  all  to  himself,  and  without  having  allowed 
anyone  else  to  have  a share. 

“ A Viti  islander,  of  the  name  of  Loti,  who,  it  appears, 
afterwards  became  an  excellent  Christian,  roasted  his 
wife  on  a fire  that  he  had  made  her  prepare  and  light 
herself ; he  then  ciit  her  up  and  devoured  her : all  that 
without  animosity  or  anger,  solely  to  acquire  notoriety, 
to  be  some  one  out  of  the  common.  The  love  of  glory, 
so  habitually  and  so  emphatically  vaunted  in  Europe 
by  the  panegyrists  of  heroes  is,  says  Pritchard,  ^ Tnuch 
developed  among  the  Viti  islanders,  and  there,  it  is 
to  great  murderers  and  great  cannibals  that  fame  is 
attached.  In  no  other  part  of  the  world  is  the  deviation 
so  striking  from  what  we  call  the  ‘moral  sense’,  or 
rather  the  complete  absence  of  moral  ideas,  innate  and 
necessary  according  to  our  metaphysicians. 

“ But  it  is  necessary  to  point  out  at  once  that  we  have 
not  here  before  us  a stupid,  sleepy  race.  The  Viti 
islanders  are  in  no  wise  inferior  to  the  other  Polynesians, 
with  whom,  besides,  they  are  largely  crossed  by  inter- 
marriage. But  among  them,  extreme  discredit  attaches 
itself  to  whoever  has  never  killed  and  eaten  an  enemy. 
In  that  case,  indeed,  the  culprit  was  subjected  to  a 
degrading  punishment ; he  was  sentenced  to  turn  up 
the  mud  with  his  dishonoured  club,  which  he  had  not 
known  how  to  wield.  ^ But  with  that,  all  was  not 
finished  here  below.  After  human  justice  came  that 
of  the  gods.  In  the  future  life  of  the  Vitians,  the 

* W.  T.  Pritchard,  Polynesiati  Reminiscences,  p.  371. 

^ Wake,  Evohition  of  iMorality,  vol.  I,  p.  323. 


240 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


jealous  gods,  great  amateurs  of  human  blood,  lay  in 
waiting  for  the  shades  of  mortals  and  called  them 
severely  to  give  an  account  of  the  number  of  enemies 
they  had  massacred  and  eaten  during  their  passage  on 
the  earth. 

“ But,  at  the  Viti  Islands  as  at  New  Zealand,  which 
we  shall  soon  have  occasion  to  study,  and  where  the 
Melanesians  seem  to  have  preceded  the  Polynesians, 
cannibalism  was  absolutely  animal.  It  was  on  the 
field  of  battle  itself  that,  in  the  manner  of  wild  beasts, 
the  enemy,  wounded  or  prisoner,  was  torn  to  pieces 
and  devoured. 

“ Those  of  the  vanquished,  who  were  not  immediately 
sacrificed,  were  simply  put  by  in  reserve  for  future 
banquets.  They  were  therefore  fattened : they  were 
then  slaughtered  and  eaten,  according  to  necessity. 
At  Viti,  human  flesh  was  much  prized.  Certain 
gourmets  allowed  it  to  become  ‘gamey.’  In  the 
language  of  the  country  it  was  called  ‘ long  pork  ’ 
meat,  and  it  was  the  rule  that  a dish  of  human  meat 
should  be  served  at  all  gala  banquets.  It  was  the 
ideal  food,  and  to  vaunt  the  excellence  of  a dish,  they 
would  say;  ‘It  is  as  tender  as  dead  man.’” 

Anthropophagy  a Motive  for  War.  “ Similar  cus- 
toms, though  less  refined,  for  the  race  is  not  so  intelligent, 
prevailed  in  New  Caledonia.  The  desire  to  eat  human 
flesh  was  the  most  usual  motive  for  war  between  the 
tribes.  ‘It  is  now  a long  time,  the  chiefs  would 
sometimes  say,  since  we  have  had  any  meat  to  eat : 
let  us  go  and  fetch  some.’  Sometimes,  as  M.  de  Rochas  ^ 
tells  us,  before  starting  on  the  war-path,  a sort  of 
anthropophagic  poem,  an  alternate  dialogue  between 

* De  Rochas,  Bull,  de  la  Soc.  d' Anthrop.  v.  I,  p.  414. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


241 


the  chief  and  the  warriors  was  sung:  ‘Shall  we  attack 
the  enemies  ? — Yes. — Are  they  strong  ? — No. — Are  they 
brave? — No. — We  will  kill  them? — Yes. — We  will  eat 
them  ? — -Yes.’  The  fight  ceased  as  soon  as  a few  men 

had  been  killed.  The  cutting  up  of  the  dead  bodies 
was  a joyful  and  glorious  ceremony.  It  was  preluded 
by  a dance,  during  which  one  of  the  dancers  bore  a 
spear  in  one  hand,  and  in  the  other  a special  instrument, 
destined  to  cut  up  the  bodies.  1 After  the  battle  the 
chiefs  picked  out  for  themselves  the  lion’s  share  and 
put  apart  also  certain  choice  morsels,  destined  to  be 
sent  as  presents,  to  dubious  allies.  ^ But  it  was  not 
alone  war  cannibalism  that  existed  in  New  Caledonia, 
domestic  cannibalism  was  also  practised.  For  instance, 
a provident  chief  would  now  and  then  slaughter  and 
salt  one  of  his  subjects,  so  as  to  be  able  to  have 
every  day  a dish  of  meat.  ® Another  chief,  whose 
name  is  legendary,  Bouarate  the  great,  used  often 
with  his  family  to  enjoy  a good  meal  off  one  of  his 
inferior  subjects.  Public  opinion  in  New  Caledonia 
was  far  from  condemning  such  princely  modes  of 
action,  and  in  fact  Bouarate  has  left  behind  him  a 
brilliant  reputation ; ‘ Great  chief,  Bouarate ! Hand- 
some lord,  Bouarate!’  used  to  say  with  enthusiasm 
those  of  his  subjects  whom  he  had  not  yet  devoured.  * 
Paternal  love  itself  was  silent  before  so  much  glory. 
A Neo-Caledonian  father  placidly  related  how  his 
child  had  been  eaten  by  his  prince,  who,  said  he,  was 
a great  chief.  ® 

’ D’Entrecasteaux,  Voyage  an  Pacifique. 

^ De  Rochas,  Nouvelle  Cali'donie,  p.  206. 

® Bourgarel,  Race  de  I’Occ'anie,  in  Mem.  de  la  Soc.  d'Anthrop. 
vol.  II. 

* De  Rochas,  Notiv.  Caledonie,  p.  246. 

^ Ch.  Braine,  Nouvelle  Cale'donie. 

16 


242 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


“ To  sum  up,  at  the  Fiji  Islands  as  at  New  Caledonia, 
the  stranger,  member  of  another  tribe,  was  considered 
as  game,  while  the  women,  the  children  and  inferiors 
often  served  for  butchers’  meat.” 

Dogs  V.  Women  at  Terra  del  Fuego.  “ At  this 
place,  woman  is,  as  in  Australial  and  in  many  other 
places,  an  object  of  food  provision.  Fitzroy  ^ saw  an 
old  woman  sacrificed,  at  a moment  of  scarcity  of  food. 
She  was  suffocated  by  having  her  head  kept  for  a 
certain  time  in  the  smoke  of  a fire  made  of  green 
sticks.  The  answer  given  to  the  remonstrance  of  the 
English  traveller  on  this  occasion,  is  quite  typical;  it 
puts  beyond  doubt  the  perfect  innocence,  the  absence 
of  scruple  with  which  these  to  us  so  horrible  acts  are 
committed  fn  primitive  countries.  ‘ Why,’  said  Fitzroy, 

‘ do  you  not  rather  sacrifice  your  dogs  ? — The  dog 
catches  the  iappo'  (otter),  quietly  answered  the  natives. 

“ These  manners  are  not  special  to  such  and  such  a 
race,  to  such  and  such  a country ; they  are  to  be  met  with, 
almost  identically,  wherever  man  has  but  little  become 
disengaged  from  animality,  wherever  also  his  food  is 
scant  and  precarious.  Everywhere,  in  Melanesia,  in 
Africa,  in  America,  there  are  certain  tribes  who  have 
less  humanity  than  wolves. 

“ I will  now  briefly  mention  a few  more  of  these  in- 
structive cases  before  speaking  with  detail  of  Polynesian 
cannibalism,  more  specially  interesting  for  the  study 
of  the  evolution  of  morals. 

“ ‘The  Guarayos’  (South  America),  say  the  authors  of 
the  Lettres  edifiantes,  ^ ‘pursue  men  just  as  they  would 
pursue  beasts : they  take  them  alive  if  they  can,  and 

‘ Fitzroy,  Voyage  of  the  Adventure  and  of  the  Beagle. 

'^Lettres  cdifiantes,  t.  X,  p.  231. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


243 


carry  them  away  to  be  slaughtered  one  after  another 
according  as  the  necessity  of  hunger  becomes  felt.’ 
Not  only  were  they  preserved  as  food  provision,  but 
they  were  fattened,  and  they  were  even  supplied  with 
wives;  then,  at  a given  moment,  they  were  slaughtered 
with  great  ceremony,  care  being  taken  to  besmear  the 
male  children  with  their  blood,  in  order  that  they 
should  become  courageous.  The  victims,  quite  as 
ferocious  as  their  tormentors,  died  like  the  Red  Indians, 
striking  up  their  death-song,  during  which  they  defied 
their  tormentors,  reminding  them  of  how  many  of  their 
friends  and  relations  they  had  themselves  devoured.”  ^ 

Flagrante  Delicto  of  Animality.  “ As  to  bestial 
ferocity,  certain  Red  Indian  tribes  of  the  extreme 
North  are,  even  at  the  present  day,  quite  equal  to 
the  Guaranos  mentioned  by  the  ancient  missionaries. 
Let  us  give  ear  to  what  is  told  us  by  a Brittany 
missionary.  Monsignor  Faraud,  Bishop  of  Mackensie, 
who  lived  for  many  years  amongst  tribes  that  had 
preserved  their  old  custom  : ‘ These  savages  qhe  Dueel- 
deli-Ottine,  or  inhabitants  who  eat  men)  carry  their 
passion  for  anthropophagy  to  such  an  extreme  that  the 
mother  is  not  in  safety  with  her  child,  nor  the  children 
with  their  father.  Relations  eat  their  relations,  and 
friends  devour  each  other.  The  least  dearth  re-awakens 
in  their  heart  this  horrible  passion  and  then  the  strongest 
devours  the  weakest.’  ^ Other  Red  Skins,  neighbours 
of  the  above,  the  Cris,  practise  only  war  anthropophagy, 
but  in  an  absolutely  bestial  manner.  On  the  battle- 
field itself,  the  victor,  having  scalped  his  vanquished 
enemy,  cuts  open  his  breast,  and  extracts  from  it  the 

’ Thevet,  Singularite's  de  la  France  antarctique,  p.  187. 

® Dix-huit  Ans  chez  les  Sauvages,  p.  374. 


244 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


still  palpitating  heart,  into  which  he  greedily  bites.  * 
“ These  atrocious  customs  exhibit  man  to  us  m flagrante 
delicto  of  animality.  They  alone  would  suffice  to 
set  at  naught  the  time  honoured  theory  of  innate, 
necessary  moral  ideas.  I need  not  further  insist ; there 
are  many  other  facts  which  will  come  to  confirm  these 
latter  and  constitute  a superabundant  demonstration.”  ^ 
We  will  now  return  to  our  Kanakas,  and  I shall 
give  my  reasons  in  the  next  section  for  differing  with 
my  master,  Letourneau,  on  the  causes  that  give  rise,  at 
any  rate  amongst  these  people,  to  the  lust  after  human  flesh. 

Cannibalism. — Its  Causes.  The  food  of  the  Ka- 
naka, being  almost  entirely  vegetable, — especially 
amongst  the  tribes  of  the  interior  who  cannot  add  sea 
fish  to  their  diet,  — is  not  sufficient  to  give  strength, 
and  sustained  resistance  to  fatigue.  The  Kanaka  eats 
enormously.  He  consumes  at  a single  meal  quantities 
of  food  which  would  be  extraordinary  for  a European, 
but  they  are  sugary  and  starchy  foods,  rich  in  carbon, 
but  poor  in  nitrogen.  He  lacks  convertible,  blood- 
making  food.  He  is  like  a steam-engine  which  has 
the  furnace  loaded  with  5oke,  and  no  water  in  the 
boiler.  In  the  expeditions,  the  auxiliaries,  although  less 
heavily  laden  than  our  soldiers,  were  worn-out  by  fatigue, 
whilst  the  Europeans  could  still  keep  on  marching. 
They  were  obliged  to  be  fed  on  biscuit  and  bacon. 

With  all  due  respect  to  the  vegetarians,  a vegetable 
diet  is  nonsense.  No  vegetarian  could  undergo  the 
hard  work  and  fatigue,  which  a meat-eater  could. 

“ Nothing  can  come  of  nothing,”  as  Shakespeare 

' Dix-lniH  Ans  chcz  les  Saiivages,  p.  374- 
^ Letourneau,  opiis  cit. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


245 

says ; ^ to  have  muscle  you  must  have  meat.  The 
Kanaka  having  in  New  Caledonia  neither  poultry,  nor 
pork,  and  nothing  but  notous  (pigeons  as  large  as  a 
fowl),  ate  his  vanquished  enemy,  and,  by  atavism,  this 
depraved  taste  continued  to  exist  amongst  the  race 
after  the  introduction  of  the  pig  and  cattle.  The  most 
handsome  gift  you  can  make  a Kanaka  is, — next  to  a 
gun, — a quarter  of  salt  beef.  Toussenel  ^ has  well 
described  cannibalism. 

“ Cannibalism  is  one  of  the  diseases  of  the  childhood 
of  primitive  man,  that  poverty  explains,  though  it  does 
not  justify.  Let  us  pity  the  cannibal,  and  not  abuse 
him  too  much,  we  civilised  beings,  who  slay  millions 
of  men.  The  evil  is  not  so  much  in  roasting  your 
enemy,  as  in  killing  him  before  he  wanted  to  die.” 

The  Pilou-pilou  is  an  important  factor  in  the  life 
of  the  Kanaka.  Nothing  can  be  done  without  a pilou- 
pilou,  which  is  danced  in  war,  after  victory,  in  love, 
and  as  an  enjoyment.  Each  tribe  has  its  own  pilou- 
pilou,  differing  somewhat  from  that  of  other  tribes. 
It  would  take  too  long  to  describe  tlrem  here,  but  I 
will  give  a general  idea  of  the  principal  varieties  of 
the  dance. 

The  Pilou-pilou  of  War.  Only  the  warriors  take 
part  in  this.  They  are  in  war  paint,  that  is,  painted 
black,  with  white  marks  here  and  there  on  the  body, 
which  gives  them  a most  diabolical  appearance,  and 
with  their  darts  and  laniios  in  their  hands.  A large 

* Our  author  has  slipped  here,  or  is  he  purposely  facetious  ? “ Ex 

nihilo,  nihil  fit"  can  hardly  be  fathered  on  Shakespeare;  it  must  be 
considerably  older,  we  fancy,  than  William’s  time. 

® In  his  Zoologie  passionnelle. 


246 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OE 


fire  is  lighted,  round  which  the  warriors  stand  in  a 
circle.  After  repeated  groans,  and  a sharp  whistle, 
which  has  a horrible  effect,  they  brandish  their  arms, 
leap,  grind  their  teeth,  and  make  awful  grimaces. 
Then  the  band  of  warriors  separates  into  two  circles, 
which  turn  round,  the  men  meanwhile  uttering  hoarse, 
guttural  cries  like  wild  beasts.  At  last  the  two  bands 
rush  at  each  other  with  savage  cries,  and  imitate  a 
deadly  combat.  I was  present  at  Kone  at  a filou- 
pilou  of  this  kind,  and  I could  not  prevent  giving  a 
shudder,  though  I was  under  the  protection  of  the 
chief,  who  was  seated  beside  me. 

The  Pilou-pilou  of  Love.  The  women  take  part 
in  this  pilou-pilou,  which  is  intended  to  celebrate  the 
sports  of  love,  but  they  do  not  mingle  with  the  men. 
They  form  a small  circle  within  that  of  the  men,  and 
dance  without  moving  from  their  place,  moving  their 
haunches  backwards  and  forwards  in  very  supple 
movements,  with  now  and  then  a lascivious  kind  of 
leap.  This  is  an  imitation  of  the  movements  of  a 
woman  in  copulation.  The  men  dance  round  and  round 
them,  leaping,  bounding,  squatting,  and,  as  they  rise, 
pushing  their  bellies  forward  to  imitate  the  movement 
of  the  penis  in  copulation. 

The  Pilou-pilou  of  the  Cannibals.  Although  the 
Kanaka  has  now  poultry  and  pork,  he  has  nevertheless 
retained  his  hereditary  taste  for  human  flesh.  I was 
informed,  during  my  stay  in  New  Caledonia,  that  the 
tribe  of  Kanala  ate  from  time  to  time,  at  an  enormous 
pilou-pilou,  captives  of  some  of  the  insurgent  tribes 
captured  in  1878.  Not  having  seen  it,  I cannot  say 
how  true  this  was,  but  I can  give  extracts  from  trust- 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


247 


worthy  writers  to  prove  the  existence  of  this  horrible 
custom. 

In  the  first  place,  there  was  the  massacre  of  the 
boat’s  crew'  of  the  Alc7nena.  The  ship’s  long  boat 
was  sent  to  land,  to  get  w^ater.  As  a matter  of  form, 
three  rifles  w^ere  put  in  the  bottom  of  the  boat. 
Fourteen  Whites,  of  whom  two  were  officers,  landed, 
and  a quarter-master  and  tw^o  sailors  remained  in  the 
boat.  These  last  heard  the  cries  of  their  comrades, 
and  guessing  that  they  w^ere  being  massacred,  tried 
to  escape  by  swimming  to  the  vessel,  but  they  were 
overtaken  by  the  Kanakas,  brought  back  to  land,  and 
bound.  They  saw  their  unfortunate  comrades  cut  up, 
cooked,  and  eaten,  at  an  enormous  pilou-pilou. 

The  first  insurrection,  that  of  1868,  began  by  the 
massacre  of  a sergeant  and  eight  men,  who  had  been 
sent  to  a tribe  to  requisition  by  force  a body  of  men 
to  construct  the  road  to  Noumea.  The  soldiers  were 
received  in  a friendly  manner,  so  they  stacked  their 
arms,  and  separated.  They  were  immediately  struck 
down,  and  their  bodies  cut  to  pieces.  Some  of  their 
limbs  were  sent  to  all  the  neighbouring  tribes  who  were 
on  good  terms  with  the  murderers.  Those  which  ac- 
cepted this  new  kind  of  there  were  three  other 

tribes, — declared  against  the  French.  It  took  eighteen 
months  to  subdue  these  four  tribes. 

An  eye-witness  of  the  insurrection  of  1&78,  Paul 
Branda,  ^ gives  some  very  interesting  and  previously 
unpublished  details  concerning  this  insurrection,  and 
relates  several  instances  of  cannibalism.  “ During  the 
preparations  for  the  massacre,”  he  says,  “the  Kanakas' 
surrounded  a captain,  the  commander  of  the  district, 
an  enormously  fat  giant,  named  Chausson.  They 

' In  his  book,  Lcs  Leffres  <Vnn  Marin. 


248 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


danced  a pilou-pilou,  singing  in  chorus  ‘ We  will  eat 
Chausson ! ’ Then  each  warrior  advanced  in  turn, 
brandishing  his  arms.  One  said,  ‘ Chausson,  I will  eat 
your  hands ; ’ another,  ‘ Chausson,  I will  eat  your  feet,’ 
and  they  all  gazed  longingly  at  the  fine  juicy  captain. 
The  worthy  man,  who  understood  the  language  of  the 
country,  laughed  heartily,  and  said,  ‘ What  funny  devils 
these  Kanakas  are.’  Twenty-four  hours  later,  the 
entire  tribe  was  up  in  arms,  crying,  ‘Let  us  go  and 
eat  Chausson.  ’ By  a lucky  chance,  the  over-confiding 
commander  of  the  district  had  that  day  been  called  to 
Noumea,  and  so  escaped  the  teeth  of  his  admiring 
subjects.  ” 

I will  also  quote,  from  the  same  author,  an  account 
of  the  massacre  of  la  Poya.  “ The  insurgents  captured 
a vessel,  laden  with  supplies  and  cartridges,  and  having 
a crew  of  eleven  men.  The  unaccountable  delay  in 
the  arrival  of  this  ammunition  caused  great  uneasiness 
as  to  the  fate  of  the  vessel  and  its  crew,  and  a steam 
launch,  fully'  armed,  was  ordered  to  go  and  look  for 
it.  Our  sailors  soon  disturbed  the  horrible  feast  at 
which  the  Kanakas  were  celebrating  their  triumph. 
Near  the  feasting  place  were  the  trunks  of  men,  hor- 
ribly decomposed,  and  hidden  in  the  rushes  by  the 
river.  The  heads  had  been  cut  off  as  spoils  of  triumph, 
and  the  limbs  had  been  eaten. 

“ In  an  open  space  overshadowed  by  tall  trees,  near 
the  linipid  river  of  la  Poya,  were  chairs  and  sofas,  taken 
from  the  houses  of  the  colonists,  which  had  been  sacked, 
and  forming  a circle.  In  the  middle,  as  the  centre 
piece  of  the  table,  was  a putrefying  human  head.  Here 
and  there  lay  human  bones,  carefully  cleaned,  especi- 
ally the  shin  bones.  The  captain  of  the  boat  said, 
‘ They  are  to  make  flutes.’  In  baskets  hung  on  the 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


249 


branches,  were  slices  of  grilled  flesh,  neatly  packed, 
and  of  an  appetising  odour ; one  of  the  crew,  formerly 
a pork-butcher,  said  they  were  pork ; a butcher  declared 
they  were  beef ; one  of  the  friendly  Kanakas  in  the 
crew,  said,  ‘That?  white  tayo!’  A silence  of  terror 
and  horror  fell  upon  all  the  men.  The  grilled  flesh, 
and  the  few  bones,  were  piously  collected,  and  buried 
with  funeral  honours.  Of  course  this  was  very  pioper, 
but  it  seemed  odd,  nevertheless,  to  accord  military 
honours  to  kitchen  scraps.” 

A little  further  on  the  same  author  adds,  “ Our  allies 
did  not  put  themselves  out  of  the  way  on  our  account ; 
they  ate  their  enemies  in  sight  of  our  soldiers.  The 
absolute  need  of  their  services  obliged  us  to  shut  our 
eyes.  The  chief  of  the  Kones  came,  and  presented  to 
the  colonel  four  left  ears.  ‘Why,’  said  the  colonel, 
‘you  have  had  them  cooked  ! ’ — ‘Yes,’ replied  the  chief, 

‘ so  that  they  might  keep  good.’  After  having  received 
his  reward,  he  went  off  rmm chin g the  ears. 

“ The  Government  paid  ten  francs  each  for  the  head 
of  every  rebel  Kanaka.  The  Arab  convicts,  who  were 
the  best  sharpshooters,  used  to  bring  in  the  ears  of 
those  they  killed,  in  order  to  claim  the  reward.  They 
were  accused  of  sometimes  bringing  women’s  ears,  and 
after  that  they  used  to  bring  the  penis  and  testicles 
of  the  dead  Kanakas,  finding  the  head  rather  awkward 
to  carry  on  horseback.” 

The  Chiefs  Share  in  the  Feast  of  Human  Flesh. 

I will  terminate  these  few  remarks  relating  to  anthro- 
pophagy, by  an  account  of  the  chiefs  part  in  the  feast. 

Formerly,  long  before  the  advent  of  the  French — 
when  the  struggle  for  life  between  the  tribes  was  at 
its  height,  the  conquering  chiefs  used,  by  the  aid  of 


250 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


an  instrument  which  I have  never  seen,  and  of  the 
shape  of  which  I am  ignorant,  to  tear  out  the  genital 
parts,  the  heart,  and  the  eyes  of  the  conquered  chief. 
These  ferocious  warriors  did  not  content  themselves 
with  cooking  their  enemies  in  the  Kanaka  stove,  but 
preferred  to  devour  on  the  field  of  battle  the  parts  thus 
torn  off,  all  raw  and  bleeding.  They  thought  that  they 
should  thus  acquire  the  piercing  sight,  the  courage, 
and  the  virility,  of  their  adversaries.  This  custom  now 
is  nothing  more  than  a tradition.  According  to  some 
travellers,  it  also  used  to  exist  among  the  Maoris  of 
New  Zealand. 

The  Reward  of  the  French  Government.  Of 

course,  these  customs  are  horrible,  but  it  must  be 
remembered  that  the  Kanaka  is  uncivilised.  What 
shall  we  say  though  to  the  action  of  the  French  Gov- 
ernment during  the  insurrection  ? I am  not  inventing 
statements,  but  again  quoting  from  Branda. 

“We  found  allies  on  the  following  conditions ; all 
the  spoil,  the  women,  and  ten  francs  for  every  head 
brought  in. 

“ The  Kanaka  mutilates  dead  bodies,  but  he  does  not, 
as  the  Indian  does,  wish  to  inflict  pain  on  his  enemy. 
On  the  other  hand,  I have  heard  Europeans  seriously 
complain  of  the  incapacity  of  certain  officers,  who  would 
not  wring  information  from  prisoners  by  means  of 
torture.”  ‘ 

' The  “ soft-hearted  party”  who  are  fearful  of  shedding  blood,  and 
whose  timorousness  is  too  often  the  cause  of  its  being  shed,  will  not 
accept  the  Jesuitical  doctrine  that  “ the  end  justifies  the  means.”  Yet 
in  primitive  societies  none  but  iron  measures  can  prevail,  and  the  man, 
or  tribe,  not  prepared  to  strike  hard  blows  runs  a risk  of  being  wiped 
out  by  the  “ other  side”.  There  are  men  in  the  United  States  who 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


251 


maintain  that  the  perpetuation  of  criminal  families  can  be  prevented 
only  by  THE  AMPUTATION  OF  THEIR  REPRODUCTIVE 
ORGANS,  and  we  hope  to  deal  with  tliis  subject  in  a future  work  on 
Eunuchs  and  Eunuchism. 

We  quote  the  following  from  THE  MEDICAL  WORLD: — 

“ The  matter  of  the  castration  of  those  who  persist  in  crime  is  receiving 
more  and  more  attention.  In  the  Legislature  of  Alichigan  a Bill  was 
introduced  which  provides  for  ASEXUALISATION.  Feeble-minded 
and  epileptics  who  become  inmates  of  the  feeble-minded  institution  of 
the  State,  ‘before  he  or  she  is  discharged,  shall  be  caused  to  submit 
to  an  operation  that  causes  asexualisation,  that  such  person  shall  cease 
to  be  able  to  reproduce  their  kind.’  All  persons  convicted  the  third 
time  for  felony,  and  those  convicted  of  having  ravished  a child  or 
woman,  after  tlie  first  year’s  incarceration,  must  submit  to  the  operation 
which  causes  asexualisation.” 


CHAPTER  III. 


Forms  of  sexual  intercourse  amongst  the  Kanakas. — The  Popinee 
the  property  of  the  Chief. — The  Kanaka  marriage.  — Polyand7y. — 
The  coridition  of  the  Popine'e.  — The  Ka7iaka  “ break  ivood,  ” the 
usual  77ietliod  of  cop7datio7i. — Accouche7ns7it. — Vulvar  deformities 
p7'oduced  by  the  7-epeated  coitio7i  of  the  Kanaka  Popine'es. — An 
orighial  fo7’m  of  p7inish77ie77t  for  ad77ltery. — Not  confined  to  the 
Ka7iakas. — M7'S.  Potiphar  a7id  Joseph. — Lust  of  the  Kanaka  for 
the  White  ivo77ian.  — The  head  chief  Atai  and  Mine 

The  Popinee  the  Property  of  the  Chief.  Every 
girl  of  the  tribe  is  born  the  property  of  the  Chief,  and 
his  rights  over  her  do  not  cease  until  the  time  when 
he  gives  her  to  his  warriors.  Until  then  he  can  sell 
her,  hire  her,  or  even  eat  her,  if  that  is  his  pleasure. 
The  Chief  of  Kone  would  not  sell  his  women  to  the 
Europeans,  but  he  let  them  out  on  hire.  Kake,  the 
Chief  of  the  Kanalas,  was  not  so  particular,  and  is  said 
to  have  sold  women  to  some  of  the  colonists.  I was 
assured  that,  hardly  more  than  ten  years  before  my 
visit,  many  of  the  tribes  of  the  interior  ate  the  women 
captured  from  hostile  tribes.  I have  already  remarked, 
that  the  unfortunate  Kanaka  Popinee  has  not  only  to 
do  all  the  cooking  and  household  work,  but  to  satisfy 
the  sexual  needs  of  her  squad  of  husbands — a term 
which  I will  hasten  to  explain. 

The  Kanaka  Marriage. — Polyandry.  As  a matter 
of  fact,  marriage  does  not  exist  in  New  Caledonia. 

252 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF  ANTHROPOLOGY.  2^3 

The  Chief  gives  the  women  to  those  of  his  warriors 
with  whom  he  is  most  satisfied,  and  in  that  consists 
all  the  ceremony  of  marriage.  But,  as  the  number 
of  women  is  much  inferior  to  that  of  the  men,  the 
result  is  that  every  woman  is  the  property  of  several 
husbands.  It  is  this  collection  of  husbands,  having 
one  wife  in  common,  that  I have  designated  under 
the  name  of  the  “ squad.”  They  live  together  in  a hut, 
with  their  common  wife.  ^ 

The  Condition  of  the  Popinee.  Every  day  the 
Popinee  has  to  work  like  a beast  of  burden,  and  at 
night  she  has  to  satisfy  the  desires  of  all  the  males. 
How  does  each  of  the  husbands  manage  to  get  his 
share  of  the  conjugal  cake?  That  is  a subject  on  which 
I could  gather  no  precise  information.  Does  each 
gentleman  have  a proper  day  for  visiting  Madame, 
like  some  of  the  Parisian  fast  men,  who  keep  a woman 
between  four,  or  even  eight,  of  them?  Or  do  the 
stronger  and  more  vigorous  husbands  take  the  lion’s 
share,  and  only  leave  their  associates  the  scraps  of  the 
feast,  after  they  themselves  are  completely  satisfied? 
I could  gather  no  trustworthy  information  on  the  point. 
It  is  probable,  however,  that  love,  that  noble  sentiment 
that  sways  the  human  breast,  finds  no  place  in  a 
Kanaka  household.  The  wretched  Popinee  has  to 
permit  the  embraces  of  the  males  whenever  they  are 
“in  rut.”  Pregnancy  does  not  cause  any  remission  in 
their  attacks,  nor  does  the  period  of  suckling  either, — 
which  by  the  way  extends  over  three  or  four  years. 

^ Herb.  Spencer  in  The  Priticiples  of  Sociology^  LoncL,  Williams 
and  Norgate,  1885  ; and  Ch.  Letourneau,  in  L’ Evolution  du  Mariage 
et  de  la  Famille,  Paris,  1888,  both  treat  the  subject  of  Polyandry 
in  a very  full  and  competent  manner,  although  from  standpoints,  ol 
course,  rather  different. 


254 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


The  Kanaka  “Break  Wood.”  As  might  be  expected, 
the  Kanaka  does  not  show  much  consideration,  or  affec- 
tion, for  his  common  wife, — the  more  so,  perhaps,  because 
she  is  ugly  enough  to  frighten  a man.  Sexual  connec- 
tion is  performed  without  any  preliminary  preparation. 
The  Kanaka  when  he  is  “in  rut”,  lays  his  wife  on  a 
bundle  of  brushwood,  or  grass,  which  serves  as  litter 
(the  word  exactly  expresses  my  idea)  and  “ trusses  ” 
her  in  the  classical  position  common  to  all  mankind. 
This  is  called  “ to  break  wood  ” . Perhaps  the  name 
is  derived  from  the  fact  that  the  Kanakas  often  perform 
the  “ act  of  love  ” in  the  brush,  amongst  the  bushes. 
After  a hard  day’s  work  it  often  happens  to  the  unfor- 
tunate Popinee,  that  she  is  obliged  to  support  the  amorous 
assaults  of  her  squad  of  husbands  all  night. 

Accouchement  takes  place  without  any  sort  of 
ceremony.  The  female  neighbours  help  the  women  in 
labour  as  they  best  can.  After  a day  or  two’s  rest, 
she  goes  to  work  again.  As  to  the  labour  of  love,  the 
genital  organs  are  hardly  given  time  to  recover  from 
the  disorders  caused  by  the  accouchement.  There  is 
always  one  husband,  more  impatient  than  the  others, 
who  cannot  wait,  and  very  often,  though  at  the  risk  of 
crippling  his  wife,  he  recommences  copulation  with  her. 
Owing  to  this  little  amusement,  the  woman  is  worn 
out,  and  rarely  brings  forth  more  than  two  children, 
and  although  married  at  twenty,  or  twenty-five  at  the 
latest,  she  is  soon  used  up ; at  thirty,  she  is  a wretched 
decrepit  creature  horrible  to  behold. 

Vulvar  Deformities  caused  by  Repeated  Coition. 

This  incessant  coition  without  any  relaxation  produces 
in  the  Popinee  very  marked  deformities  of  the  vulva. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


255 


Usually,  a Popinee  of  twenty-five  to  thirty  years  of 
age,  who  has  broug'ht  forth  one  or  two  children,  when 
examined  medically,  presents  the  same  symptoms  that 
are  found  in  old  European  prostitutes,  who  have  been 
several  years  in  public  brothels.  My  observations  agree 
perfectly  with  those  of  Dr.  Charpy,  whose  remarks, 
published  in  the  Annals  of  Dermatology,  and  Syphi- 
ligraphy  (1871 — 72)  I here  reproduce. 

“ Of  all  the  beauties  of  the  public  prostitute,  ” he 
says,  “ that  which  perhaps  first  perishes,  is  the  beauty 
of  the  genital  organs.  The  prostitute  may  still  have 
her  breasts  firm,  her  thighs  un wrinkled,  and  old  age 
and  dissipation  may  hardly  have  caused  a lock  of  her 
hair  to  fall,  but  the  apparatus  of  her  trade  par  excellence, 
is  already  mechanically  dilapidated,  and  has  suffered 
irreparable  damages  from  wear  and  tear.” 

The  deformities  which  result,  are,  according  to  Dr. 
Charpy,  who  made  more  than  eight  hundred  observa- 
tions on  prostitutes  of  all  ages,  a hypertrophy,  and 
sometimes  an  atrophy  of  the  great  and  little  lips ; a 
wrinkled  aspect,  and  a brownish  colour,  of  the  lesser 
lips;  the  very  frequent  appearance  of  an  eruption  of 
acne  or  herpes  on  the  organs ; the  elongation  of  the 
clitoris,  and  the  pushing  back  of  the  urinary  meatus, 
due  partly  to  the  projection  of  the  vaginal  bulb,  on 
account  of  the  development  of  the  erectile  tissue,  and 
partly  to  the  enlargement  of  the  follicles  which  sur- 
round the  entrance  to  the  meatus.  To  these  defor- 
mities may  be  added,  the  widening  of  the  vaginal 
orifice,  on  account  of  the  loss  of  the  elasticity  of  the 
tissues,  and  the  tonicity  of  the  constrictor  muscle;  the 
thickening  of  the  mucous  surface  of  the  vaginal  orifice, 
which  is  yellow  and  as  though  tanned;  a fungous 
condition  of  the  canal  of  the  urethra,  with  chronic  in- 


256 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


flammation  of  the  follicles  situated  in  the  anterior  and 
inferior  part  of  the  canal,  resulting  from  rubbing  and 
old  urethritis.  Consequently,  the  mucous  surface  is 
tumefied,  becomes  detached,  and  projects  from  the 
outside  in  the  form  of  a fungous  mass  of  a violet 
colour,  which  easily  becomes  ulcerated. 

I will  only  add  a few  words  to  complete  this  sketch, 
which  applies  in  every  particular  to  the  Kanaka  Po- 
pinee,  worn  out  by  incessant  copulation  with  several 
men.  I found  in  some  women,  having  only  one  or 
two  children,  and  aged  from  twenty-five  to  thirty  years, 
the  vulva  and  vagina  enormously  dilated,  to  such  an 
extent  that  a speculum  of  the  largest  size  could  easily 
be  introduced.  I am  not  exaggerating,  when  I say 
that  the  vagina  could  take  a penis  of  the  size  of  a 
pint-champagne  bottle. 

I attribute  this  deformity  to  the  fact  that  a very 
little  time  after  her  accouchement,  and  before  the 
genital  parts  have  had  time  to  return  to  their  normal 
condition,  the  woman  is  obliged  to  suffer  the  male  to 
approach  her  again.  The  vagina,  not  being  able  to 
return  to  its  normal  condition  of  resistance,  reniains 
dilated  by  a purely  mechanical  effect. 

An  Original  Form  of  Punishment  for  Adultery. 

It  might  be  imagined  that  with  the  incessant  amount 
of  prostitution — as  it  may  be  called  —that  the  Popinee 
undergoes  almost  every  night,  that  she  had  quite 
enough  of  copulation,  and  never  committed  the  sin  of 
adultery.  That,  however,  would  be  to  fail  to  take 
into  account  the  fancies  and  failings  of  a woman’s 
brain.  Adultery  exists,  and  is  punished  in  an  original 
manner,  which  is  not,  I believe,  practised  anywhere 
else  in  the  world. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


257 


When  a woman  is  convicted  of  adultery,  the  Chief 
condemns  her  to  die  in  the  manner  in  which  she  has 
committed  her  offence.  I will  explain  what  I mean. 
The  woman  is  fastened  down  in  a hut  in  such  a 
manner  that  she  cannot  move.  Her  hands  are  tied 
behind  her  back,  her  legs  are  bent  to  the  thighs  and 
fastened  to  them  by  means  of  a rope  which  passes 
round  the  thigh  and  the  shin,  and  is  then  fastened  to 
that  which  secures  the  arms  and  the  hands ; the  woman 
is  thrown  on  her  back  with  her  thighs  open,  and  the 
opening  of  the  vulva  widely  gaping.  The  description 
may  not  be  very  clear ; it  would  need  a photograph 
to  show  the  position  plainly.  But  I do  not  know  of 
any  photographer  who  has  ever  been  able  to  take 
such  a picture,  for  what  I am  relating  was  told  me 
in  confidence  by  Kake,  the  Chief  of  the  Kanalas. 
When  she  is  powerless  to  move,  the  woman  is  given 
over  to  the  young  warriors  of  the  tribe,  each  of  whom 
enters  the  hut  in  his  turn.  The  men  dance  the  piloii- 
pilou  whilst  awaiting  their  turn.  The  operation,  or 
rather  the  execution,  continues  without  cessation  until 
the  victim  dies, — as  may  be  imagined — in  horrible 
sufferings.  According  to  Kake,  it  takes  about  a hundred 
of  these  assaults  to  kill  the  woman.  ^ 

Not  Confined  to  the  Kanakas.  The  ingenuity  of 
man  has  found  out  “many  curious  inventions”,  but 
surely  nothing  more  revolting  than  this  barbarous 
practice.  Unfortunately  this  custom  is  not  confined  to 

' De  Rochas,  in  bis  book,  Nouvelle  Caledonie  (page  262),  confirms 
my  account.  L.  Moncelon,  Reponse  au  Questionnaire  de  Sociologie, 
in  Bull.  Soc.  d’ Atithrop.,  1886,  states  that  he  has  seen  a man  sen- 
tenced to  death  for  having  looked  at  the  wife  of  a chief  when  she 
stooped  down  to  pick  up  some  shells;  crime  of  lese-majeste'. 

17 


258 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


Melanesia  alone.  It  is  to  be  found  in  all  countries  and 
in  all  times.  The  adulterous  man,  it  should  be  noticed, 
is  never  punished  for  having  forsworn  his  conjugal 
vows,  but  wholly  and  solely  for  having  injured  another 
hu.sband.  I have  no  space  here  to  go  into  the  laws 
of  adultery  prevalent  among  various  nations  and  tribes. 
The  philosophy  relating  to  this  has  been  clearly  sketched 
out  by  able  teachers  like  Letourneau  and  other  pro- 
fessional experts.  Still  I would  call  attention  to  the 
fact  that  this  savage  doctrine  of  lex  talionis  is  carried 
out  with  the  same  brutal  and  lascivious  ferocity  amongst 
the  Omahas.  These  people  tie  the  wretched  female 
to  a stake  in  the  prairie,  and  abandon  her  to  the  ob- 
scene embraces  of  twenty  or  thirty  men.  Bancroft  ^ 
affirms  that  the  Modocs  of  California  publicly  slit  open 
the  guilty  woman’s  belly;  while  the  Hoopsa,  another 
tribe  of  Red  Skins,  tore  out  one  of  the  adulterer’s  eyes 
or,  were  he  married,  took  away  his  wife.  If,  quitting 
modern  times  and  savage  countries,  we  travel  back  to 
classical  antiquity,  we  find  that  hardly  any  better  state 
of  things  existed  in  the  more  polished  lands  of  Greece 
and  Rome.  Here  marriage  was  crudely  considered  as 
nothing  more  than  a civic  duty  and  thought  of  only 
from  the  standpoint  of  population.  Strange  as  it  may 
sound  to  us,  Lycurgus  and  Solon  encouraged  the  im- 
potent husband  to  favour  the  adultery  of  his  young 
wife.  “It  was  not  reproachable,”  says  Plutarch,  speak- 
ing of  the  laws  of  Lycurgus,  “ for  a man  already  fairly 
stricken  in  years  and  who  owned  a young  spouse,  to 
allow  a fine  young  man  who  had  the  talent  to  please 
him  and  was  of  kindly  nature  to  take  his  place  in  the 
conjugal  bed  with  his  wife,  'pour  la  faire  emplir  de 
bonne  sentence, ' and  afterwards  recognise  the  fruit  which 

’ Native  Races,  I vol.,  p.  350. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


259 


was  born  of  the  relations,  as  though  it  had  been  en- 
gendered by  himself.  Therefore,  was  it  allowable  in 
an  honest  man  who  loved  the  wife  of  another  through 
seeing  that  she  was  virtuous,  modest  and  bore  fine 
offspring,  to  beg  her  husband  to  permit  him  to  have 
connection  with  her  so  as  to  sow  there,  as  in  rich  and 
fertile  earth,  beautiful  and  good  children,  which  by  this 
means  should  come  to  have  a community  of  blood  and 
relationship  with  people  of  wealth  and  honour.”  ^ This, 
of  course,  is  marriage  considered  without  the  least  pre- 
judice, and  from  the  strict  point  of  view  of  social  utility, 
and  I doubt  much  that  the  world  has  yet  attained  to 
so  philosophical  and,  as  it  seems  to  me,  elastic  an 
interpretation  of  the  wedded  state  as  to  sanction  this 
practice  to-day,  except,  perhaps,  as  a private  arrange- 
ment. 

“ Solon,  ” says  Letourneau,  “ imitated  Lycurgus  on  this 
point  with  the  following  restriction,  recalling  the  code 
of  Manou,  that  the  wife  of  an  impotent  husband  ought, 
with  the  authorisation  of  course  of  her  conjoint,  to  select 
a lover  from  among  the  nearest  relatives  of  the  said 
husband.”  ^ Manners  went  sometimes  beyond  the  laws, 
and  Plutarch  mentions  that  Cimon  of  Athens,  example 
of  soul-greatness  and  of  goodness,  lent  his  wife  to  the 
rich  Callias.  ® But  that  did  not  at  all  prevent  the  laws 
of  Solon  from  authorising  the  husband  to  kill  the 
adulterer  whom  he  might  catch  in  flagrante  delicto. 
Further  still,  the  law  struck  with  civil  degradation  the 
too  indulgent  husband  and  authorised  family  tribunals 
to  sentence  to  death  the  guilty  woman,  whom  the 
outraged  husband  himself  executed,  before  witnesses.  * 
Finally,  a law  of  Draco,  which  was  never  repealed, 

' Plutarch,  Lycurgus,  XXIX.  ® Plutarch,  Solon,  XXXVI. 

° Plutarch,  Life  of  Cimon.  * Legouve,  Hist,  morale  des  femmes  (p.  182). 


26o 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


handed  over  the  adulterous  lover  to  the  tender  mer- 
cies of  the  husband.  ^ In  sum,  save  for  the  care  of 
the  good  of  the  State,  before  which  all  gave  way,  this 
Grecian  legislation  did  no  more  than  consecrate  the 
old  primitive  right,  which  made  the  woman  the  hus- 
band’s chattel. 

Rome’s  Code  of  Adultery.  Rome  followed  strangely 
hard  on  Greece  in  all  that  concerned  the  marriage  bond.  ^ 
For  the  wife,  her  manners  and  legislation  were  at  first 
of  savage  atrocity.  The  term  “ adulterer  ” was  at  the 
outset  applied  only  to  the  wife,  and  the  law  of  the  Twelve 
Tables  conferred  the  right  to  drag  up  the  guilty  woman 
before  a domestic  tribunal ; she  was  condemned,  and 
executed  by  the  relatives  themselves : Cognati  necanto 
uti  volent  (Let  the  kinsmen  kill  her  as  they  shall 
please).  These  family  tribunals  lasted  all  through  the 
Republican  regime,  and  even  later,  concurrently  with 
the  Lex  Jtilia  ; but  manners  became  less  harsh,  and  death 
as  a penalty  of  adultery  was  replaced  with  banishment 
of  at  least  200  miles  from  Rome  and  the  obligation  to 
wear  the  courtesan’s  toga.  Of  course,  if  the  husband 
surprised  the  adulterous  wife  in  the  very  act  he  still 
possessed  authority  to  kill  her  on  the  spot ; ® and  the 
lover  he  could  keep  to  torture  or  mutilate,  as  the 
warmth  of  his  lost  love,  or  the  cold-blooded  calculation 
of  revenge,  might  dictate.  The  character  of  the  mu- 
tilation was  of  the  savagest  kind.  A picturesque  word 
for  it  exists  in  French,  raffaniser,  and  its  meaning 
may  be  better  imagined  than  explained.  The  outraged 
husband  could  also  deliver  the  hapless  lover  to  the 

’ Menard,  Morale  avant  hs  philosophes,  p.  303. 

® Lecky,  History  of  European  Morals,  vol.  [I,  p.  312., 

* Wake,  Evolution  of  Morality,  vol.  II,  p.  85. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


26  I 

ferocious  lubricity  of  his  slaves.  One  would  think  in 
these  days  that  it  were  enough  to  render  the  poor 
wretch  an  eunuch  and  expose  him  to  unnatural  passive 
treatment.  But  law  and  opinion  further  authorised  the 
husband  to  demand  a sum  of  money  for  the  ransom 
of  his  wife’s  lover  and  this  consequently  opened  the 
door  for  torture  as  a means  of  blackmailing. 

It  was  reserved  for  the  philosophical  Emperor,  An- 
toninus, more  clement  and  equitable  than  his  fore- 
runners, to  amend  this  terrible  state  of  things.  He 
forbade  by  law  the  husband,  himself  presumed  guilty 
of  adultery,  to  kill  or  judicially  prosecute  his  wife 
surprised  in  her  lover’s  arms.  In  time,  the  reaction 
that  was  to  be  expected  took  place,  and  manners 
affecting  the  conjugal  couch  became  daily  more  licenti- 
ous. Tolerance  gave  birth  to  license,  and  Septimus 
Severus  laid  down  new  laws  against  breaches  of  the 
marriage  vow.  That  such  laws  were  needed  and  ap- 
preciated is  proved  by  the  fact  that  Dion  Cassius  found 
on  the  public  registers  at  Rome  three  thousand  cases 
of  adultery.  ^ Socrates,  the  ecclesiastical  historian, 
informs  us  that  Theodosius  not  only  softened  the 
penalties  waiting  upon  adultery,  but  did  very  much 
more.  He  swept  away  the  old  Roman  custom,  born 
of  cruelty  and  lubricity,  which  sanctioned  the  locking 
up  of  the  guilty  woman  in  a small  lodgment  where 
she  was  delivered  to  the  sensuality  of  all-comers,  the 
latter  even  being  obliged  to  carry  small  bells  to 
attract  attention.  ^ The  same  ignoble  practice,  I have 
pointed  out  already,  was  in  vogue  amongst  certain 
red-skinned  tribes  of  North  America,  and  if  the  com- 
munity of  the  custom  does  not  prove  that  the  Romans 

’ Friedlander,  Mceurs  roinaines,  etc.,  vol.  I,  p.  367. 

^ Socrates,  Hist.  Eccles.  lib.  V.,  cap.  XVIII. 


262 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


were  less  civilised  than  the  Red  Skins,  it  at  any  rate 
demonstrates,  combined  with  other  facts,  “ the  original 
equality  of  the  most  diverse  races  in  the  state  of 
primitive  savagery.”  ‘ In  the  name  of  Religion  many 
crimes  have  been  wrought,  and  the  pious  Constantine, 
to  whom  the  imperial  purple  next  fell,  once  more  showed 
that  the  newest  converts  are  the  worst  fanatics.  This 
Christian  neophyte,  with  a fury  that  knew  no  bounds, 
waged  pitiless  war  against  all  infractions  of  the  public 
peace.  On  the  assumption  that  cruelty  was  the  only 
cure  for  viciousness,  he  launched  forth  a law  making 
adultery  in  both  sexes  punishable  with  death. 

“Justinian  reacted  against  this  and  moderated  the 
rigours  of  the  law.  His  code  condemns  the  adulteress 
to  be  whipped,  to  have  her  hair  shaved  off  and  to  be 
shut  up  in  a convent  for  the  rest  of  her  days,  unless 
her  husband  should  take  her  back  again  before  the 
expiration  of  two  years.  Compared  with  the  excessive 
zeal  of  Constantine,  this  appears  almost  merciful. — It 
is  also  too  well-known  how  previously,  under  the  much 
wiser  pagan  emperors,  the  Roman  morals  had  become 
so  relaxed;  an  almost  free  marriage  procured  to  the 
young  women  of  the  aristocracy  an  almost  unlimited 
independence,  or,  at  all  events  and  despite  the  laws, 
adultery  had  ceased  to  be  an  abominable  crime,  as  it 
had  begun  to  be  considered  among  the  ancestors.  ” ^ 

In  the  realistic  stories  of  Algerian  experience  written 
by  my  old  friend  and  brother  officer.  Hector  France 
(ex-Captain  of  the  “ Chasseurs  d’Afrique  ”),  there  is  a 
powerful  narrative  of  an  old  man’s  revenge  on  his 
young  wife’s  lover,  whom  he  had  succeeded  in  trapping. 
I shall  give  no  account  of  this  here,  although  Hector 

* Letourneau,  L’ Evolution  du  Mariage  et  de  la  Famille  (Paris,  1888), 
page  279. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


263 

France  assures  me  it  is  thoroughly  true  in  fact,  as  I 
understand  that  the  editor  of  the  present  work  intends 
bringing  out  an  English  version  of  these  extraordinary 
stories,  which  have  already  been  done  into  the  Anglo- 
Saxon  tongue  by  a master-hand. 

A Kanaka  “Joseph  andPotiphar’s  Wife.”  Branda 
relates,  in  a very  graphic  manner,  the  story  of  a Kanaka 
“ Potiphar’s  wife”. 

“ The  son  of  the  terrible  Bouarate  came  to  complain 
to  the  commander  of  the  district  of  the  rape  of  one 
of  his  wives  by  six  of  his  subjects.  What  a sign  of 
the  times!  respect  for  sovereigns  is  on  the  wane,  even 
in  New  Caledonia.  Who  had  dared  to  molest  the  wife 
of  the  noble  lord,  Bouarate?  In  former  times  the 
noble  lord,  instead  of  coming  whining  to  the  French 
authorities,  would  have  knocked  the  delinquent  on  the 
head  with  his  war  club,  and  afterwards  eaten  him ; — 
perhaps  also  eaten  his  faithless  spouse  into  the  bargain. 
Philip,  however,  was  more  good-natured,  and  after 
having  extorted  as  large  a fine  as  he  could  from  the 
guilty  parties,  had  requested  that  they  might  also  have 
a week's  hard  labour  in  the  prison.  But  the  result 
of  the  inquiry  showed,  that,  if  there  had  been  any 
rape,  it  was  that  of  the  six  striplings,  who  had  been 
seduced  by  this  Messalina  of  Hienghen.  ^ I was  present 

^ “ So  far  as  we  can  ascertain  rape  by  females  on  males  is  a crime 
unknown  to  the  English  law.  Several  cases  of  this  kind  have,  however, 
come  before  the  French  criminal  courts.  In  1845,  a female,  aged  eigh- 
teen, was  charged  with  having  been  guilty  of  an  act  of  indecency,  with 
violence,  on  the  person  of  a boy  under  the  age  of  fifteen  years.  She 
was  found  guilty.  In  another  case,  which  occurred  in  1842,  a girl,  aged 
eighteen,  was  charged  with  rape  on  two  children, — the  one  eleven 
and  the  other  thirteen  years  of  age.  It  appeared  in  evidence  that  the 
accused  had  enticed  the  two  boys  into  a field,  and  had  there  had  forcible 


264 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


at  the  examination  of  one  of  the  accused,  a handsome 
young  man  of  sixteen  or  seventeen  years,  with  a soft 
skin,  of  a relatively  light  colour,  a modest  face,  and 
mild,  soft  eyes.  This  youthful  Apollo  energetically 
denied  that  he  had  been  guilty  of  showing  such 
disrespect  to  his  chief ; the  lady  had  been  the  real 
culprit,  and  he  had  only  been  the  passive  instrument. 
Whenever  he  met  Mrs.  Philip  she  shot  terribly 
amorous  glances  at  him,  asked  him  for  a light  for 
her  pipe,  put  her  hand  on  his  shoulder,  caressed  him, 
etc.,  etc.  He  refused  to  understand.  Whereupon  she 
explained  herself  more  categorically,  and  invited  the 
handsome  lad  to  come  with  her  into  the  brush,  and 
‘break  wood.’ 

“The  Caledonian  Joseph  answered  Mrs.  Potiphar  with 
a formal  refusal.  Unfortunately,  one  day,  the  lady 
(still  under  the  pretext  of  wanting  a light  for  her  pipe) 
seized  Joseph  by  the  hem  of  his  garment — I mean  that 

connection  with  them.  This  female  was  proved  to  have  had  an  unna- 
tural contraction  of  the  vagina,  which  prevented  intercourse  with  adult 
males.  She  was  found  to  be  labouring  under  syphilitic  disease,  and 
the  proof  of  her  offence  was  completed  by  the  disease  having  been 
communicated  to  the  two  boys.  She  was  convicted.  * Casper  describes 
cases  of  this  description  which  have  fallen  under  his  observation,  j By 
the  Penal  Code  of  France,  it  is  a crime  in  either  sex  to  attempt  inter- 
course with  the  other,  whether  with  or  without  violence,  when  the  child 
is  under  eleven  years  of  age.  That  this  offence  is  perpetrated  in  England 
cannot  be  doubted.  It  is  by  no  means  unusual  to  find,  in  the  wards 
of  hospitals,  mere  boys  affected  with  venereal  disease.  In  some  instances 
this  may  be  due  to  precocious  puberty;  but  in  others  it  can  only  be 
ascribed  to  that  unnatural  connection  of  adult  women  with  male  children 
with  is  punished  as  a crime  in  the  other  sex.  The  only  accessible 
medical  proof  would  consist  in  the  transmission  of  gonorrhoea  or  syphilis 
from  the  woman  to  the  child.”  (Taylor’s  Medical  Jutisp.). 

* “Ann.  d’Hyg.”  (1847,  I,  p.  463). 

f “Gerichtl.  Med.”  (vol.  2,  p.  129),  and  “Klin.  Novellen”  (1863,  p.  15). 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


265 


Caledonian  garment  for  which,  on  wet  days,  a rolled-up 
leaf,  kept  in  its  place  by  the  stalk  of  some  plant,  can 
be  advantageously  substituted.  This  kind  of  garment 
is  called  in  the  country,  moineau.  It  is  the  height  of 
fashion  to  wear  it  very  large.  The  unlucky  young 
man  thus  seized  by  the  hem  of  his  garment,  did  not 
dare  to  fly  in  a state  of  shameful  nudity.  The  young 
woman  led  him  into  the  wood, — and  then  she  took 
the  garment  off  herself.” 

Lust  of  the  Kanaka  for  the  White  Woman. 

The  European  woman,  however  modest  may  be  her 
costume,  and  however  moderate  her  degree  of  beauty 
seems  a goddess  descended  from  Olympus,  compared 
to  the  horrible  Popinee,  the  mere  caricature  of  a woman. 
It  may  be  imagined,  a priori,  that  the  Kanaka  has 
few  opportunities  of  gratifying  his  amorous  taste,  though 
he  is  very  desirous  to  “ break  wood  ” with  a White 
woman.  In  former  days,  he  would  have  eaten  her  with 
great  gusto,  at  a pilou-pilou,  but  now  he  is  more 
modest,  and  would  content  himself  with  her  favours. 
Unluckily  for  him,  the  wives  and  daughters  of  the 
colonists,  who  are  generally  of  English  birth,  on  the 
mother’s  side  at  least,  their  mothers  having  usually 
come  from  Australia,  are  of  pure  manners,  and,  with 
very  rare  exceptions,  the  Kanaka  is  considered  by  the 
White  woman  as  a biped  unworthy  of  her  attention. 
However,  I learned  from  an  old  colonist  who  had  lived 
at  la  Poya  for  many  years,  and  who  escaped  being 
murdered  in  the  rebellion,  that  he  had  several  times 
tried  to  bring  up  young  Kanakas  he  had  bought  from 
the  chief  of  the  Earinos,  but  that  these  boys,  as  soon 
as  they  attained  puberty,  were  a great  bother,  and 
were  always  hanging  round  the  petticoats  of  the  women 


266 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


and  girls.  On  this  account  he  was  obliged  to  get  rid 
of  them  and  take  in  their  place  men  he  had  hired  from 
the  New  Hebrides,  and  this  afterwards  saved  the  lives 
of  himself  and  family.  He  armed  his  New  Hebrideans 
with  four  or  five  old  muskets  he  had  on  his  farm,  and 
the  Kanakas,  seeing  that  he  was  prepared,  did  not 
dare  to  attack  him. 

The  Great  Chief,  Atai,  and  Madame  F***.  Com- 
mandant Riviere  gives  some  curious  details  concerning 
the  passion  of  Atai,  the  principal  leader  of  the  revolt, 
for  Mme  F***  the  widow  of  an  artillery  captain,  and 
proprietress  of  a farm. 

“ Mme  F***  was  much  admired  by  Atai,  the  chief 
promoter  of  the  rebellion.  He  was  a neighbour  of  hers, 
and  often  came  to  see  her.  He  brought  her  fruit,  and 
she  offered  him  coffee,  bread,  and  wine.  He  used  to 
smoke  his  pipe  under  the  verandah,  whilst  she  worked, 
and  talked  to  him.  On  gala  days,  when  he  was  full 
dressed,  he  wore  the  tunic  of  an  infantry  officer,  with 
gold  stripes,  and  a kepi,  like  most  of  the  other  Chiefs, 
but  most  usually  he  was  naked.  But  in  a copper  skin, 
nudity  does  not  seem  to  shock  women,  perhaps  because 
they  are  so  used  to  seeing  it. 

“ Atai  was  tall,  of  a remarkably  strong  build,  and 
very  intelligent,  but  he  was  forty-five  years  old,  which 
is  not  young  for  a Kanaka,  his  head  was  large,  the 
top  of  his  skull  bald,  and  his  ears  hanging,  and  pierced 
with  large  holes,  according  to  the  custom  of  the  country. 
He  was  much  struck  by  Mme  F***,  and  one  day, 
unexpectedly,  but  very  quietly,  asked  her  to  marry 
him.  She  was  greatly  astonished,  and  refused.  Atai 
renewed  his  proposal  on  several  other  occasions,  but 
always  met  with  the  same  answer.  His  vexation  had. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


267 


perhaps,  something  to  do  with  the  insurrection  ; there 
is  generally  a woman  at  the  bottom  of  everything. 
I have  many  times  told  Mme  F***  that  she  ought  to 
have  sacrificed  herself,  and  she  would  have  prevented 
the  insurrection.  She  did  not  contradict  me,  but  replied, 
that  not  even  to  save  the  colony  from  the  greatest 
possible  dangers,  would  she  have  contracted  such  a 
marriage.” 


CHAPTER  IV. 

Perversions  of  the  sexjial  passio?is  amo?igst  the  Kanakas.  — The 
pervej'sions  of  the  Popine'es. — Pederasty  after  the  age  of  puberty. — 
A curious  theory  of  sexual  aberration. — The  symptomatic 
characteristics  of  the  pede^'asty  of  the  Kanaka.  — Cruelties  and  erotic 
mutilations  committed  by  the  Kanakas  during  the  insurrection. — 
White  women  beheaded  and  violated. — Bechir,  the  A?'ab. — Louis, 
the  Kanaka  interpreter. — Acts  of  Sadism. — The  mutilation  and 
outraging  of  corpses. 

The  Perversions  of  the  Popinees.  The  unhappy 
Popinee  is  not  perverted,  in  the  strict  sense  of  the 
word;  she  permits  the  caresses  of  the  man,  but  she 
knows  nothing  at  all  about  the  “spices  of  Venus.” 
She  is  completely  ignorant  of  the  art  of  performing 
in  a kneeling  posture, — an  art  in  which  the  Congai 
is  so  expert.  Nor  is  she  a sodomite.  There  are 

exceptions  to  every  rule,  it  is  true,  but  I found  very 
few  exceptions  to  this.  I cannot  say,  whether  the 
woman  of  New  Caledonia  has  the  same  aversion  for 
“ the  worship  of  Venus  the  wrong  way,”  as  the  Negress 
of  Senegal  has,  the  number  of  Popinees  I was  able 
to  question  (and  that  with  the  greatest  possible  difficulty), 
being  insufficient  to  enable  me  to  deduce  a general 
rule,  from  such  observations  as  I was  able  to  make. 

Pederasty  after  the  Age  of  Puberty.  The  Kanaka 
attains  puberty  at  the  age  of  thirteen  or  fourteen.  He 
cannot  become  a warrior  till  he  is  of  a certain  age, — 
usually  about  the  twentieth  year, — and  he  must  first 

268 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF  ANTHROPOLOGY.  269 

“prove  himself  to  be  a man,”  by  undergoing'  certain 
trials.  The  Chief  then  gives  him  his  share  of  a 
Popinee.  Until  that  time,  woman  is  forbidden  fruit 
for  him.  The  girls,  as  has  been  seen,  belong  to  the 
Chief,  and  the  vengeance  of  the  Chief  is  a terrible 
thing  to  incur.  However,  now  and  then,  a lad  manages 
to  find  some  young  girl  and  “pluck  her  rose.” 

As  to  the  woman  who  is  the  property  of  a squad 
of  husbands,  it  is  not  advisable  to  have  anything  to 
do  with  her,  for  there  is  the  danger  of  getting  a crack 
on  the  head  from  a war  club,  and,  moreover,  a woman 
who  is  watched  by  such  a lot  of  husbands  is  not  easily 
got  at.  But  the  powers  of  generation  have  imperative 
rights  at  the  age  of  from  fifteen  to  twenty,  and  so 
the  young  Kanakas,  who  are  brought  up  and  taug'ht 
together,  follow  the  example  of  the  Greeks  of  the 
sacred  battalion  of  Thebes,  and  in  default  of  women, 
“ console  ” each  other.  Wherever  human  beings  of 
one  sex  are  collected  together,  the  same  result  will 
follow,  if  moral  sense  is  wanting,  and  the  moral  sense 
of  the  Kanaka  is  not  that  of  the  civilised  man. 

But,  it  must  be  confessed,  to  the  disgrace  of  our 
civilisation,  that  in  spite  of  the  most  attentive  watch- 
fulness, pederasty  finds  a secret  asylum  in  our  great 
educational  establishments.  If  the  past  career  of  the 
poor  wretches,  whom  pederasty  has  brought  into  the 
criminals’  dock,  were  inquired  into,  it  would  probably 
be  found  that  there  was  a vicious  and  depraved 
childhood.  I know,  for  my  own  part,  that  several  of 
my  college  friends  were  addicted  to  this  vice.  I have 
purposely  abstained  from  speaking  of  one  of  them,  an 
officer  in  the  Navy,  who  left  behind  him  in  Cochin- 
China  a deplorable  reputation,  on  account  of  his  hardly 
concealed  weakness  for  boys.  I should  mention  that 


270 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


he  already  had  this  vice  when  he  was  a pupil  at  the 
College  of  T***,  and  virility  did  but  increase  the  sins 
of  his  youth. 

Sexual  Aberration  in  Antiquity.  We  make  a 
pause  here  to  quote  the  peculiar  theory  of  Mantegazza 
and  to  show  how  wide-spread  was  this  vice  long 
before  the  modern  European  nations  existed. 

“ Love  between  males  is  one  of  the  most  horrible 
facts  of  human  psychology;  in  all  ages  and  in  every 
country  it  has  been  a far  more  common  vice  than  is 
supposed.  Let  us  first  examine  the  facts,  it  will  then 
be  time  to  comment  on  them. 

“ Carthage  was  famous  for  its  vices  contrary  to 
nature,  and  the  Carthaginians  gloried  in  them.  Sal- 
vianus,  a preacher  of  that  period,  said : 

“'■et  nil  se  7nagis  virilis  fortitudinis  esse  crederent,  qui  ynaxime 
vir  os  fce^ninei  usus  probrositate  fregissent.’ 

(and  they  would  think  themselves  to  be  of  the  greater 
manliness  and  vigour,  in  proportion  as  they  had  to  the 
greatest  extent  broken  men  in  with  the  abomination 
of  using  them  as  women). 

“ Mythological  tradition  traces  pederasty  back  to 
Orpheus  and  the  Thracians. 

“ ‘ Ille  etiajn  Thracutn  populis  fuisse  auctor  amorem 
In  teneros  transferre  snares,  citraque  juventam. 

Breve  ver  cefatis  et  printos  carpere  flares'  OviD. 

(He  too  is  related  to  have  been  the  first  who  taught 
the  peoples  of  Thrace  to  transfer  their  love  to  males 
of  tender  age,  and  before  maturity  to  enjoy  the  brief 
spring-tide  of  their  youth  and  pluck  the  blossoms  of  their 
early  bloom). 

“ Aristotle  says  that  this  vice  was  authorised  by  law 
in  the  island  of  Crete  in  order  to  prevent  an  excessive 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


271 


increase  of  the  population.  Athenseus  also  speaks  of 
the  sodomy  of  the  Cretans,  but  attributes  it  also  to 
the  Chalcidians  of  Euboea.  Licofronius  accuses  Achilles 
of  having  massacred  on  the  altar  of  Apollo  the  youth 
Troilus,  who  had  refused  to  submit  himself  to  his 
shameful  desires.  Sodomy  was  certainly  a Greek  vice, 
for  did  they  not  introduce  it  even  into  Olympus  in 
uniting  Jupiter  and  Ganymede,  Apollo  and  Hyacinthus, 
Hercules  and  Hylas.  Sophocles  and  Hischylus  dared 
to  mention  it  in  their  tragedies,  and  Anacreon  sang 
Bathyllus.  The  divine  Socrates  himself  loved  youths. 

“ Rome  is  not  unworthy  of  her  great  mistress  in  this 
respect.  Caesar  sells  the  first  fruits  of  his  youth  to 
Nicomedes,  King  of  Bithynia.  Horace  extols  the 
charms  of  his  male  lovers,  Idgurinus,  Gyges,  Lyciscus, 
etc.  Virgil  gives  immortality,  under  the  name  of 
Alexis  to  his  love  for  the  youthful  Alexander.  The 
Roman  people  calls  to  mind  Augustus  when  that 
famous  verse  is  recited  on  the  stage : 

Videsne  lit  Cincrdus  orbem  digito  tempcrei  ?' 

(See  you  how  a Cinaedus  directs  the  world  with 
his  finger?) 

“ A Roman  emperor  has  statues  and  temples  raised 
in  honour  of  his  minion,  and  the  immortal  historian 
of  Tiberius  writes : 

Infantes,  necdum  tamen  lacte  depulsos,  inguini  ceu papillce  admo- 
vebat:  pronior  tunc  ad  id  genus  libidinis  et  natura  et  atate.' 

(Young  children,  not  yet  weaned,  he  would  put  to  his 
TrpiCpxTsc  as  to  their  mother’s  teat, — being  in  fact  better 
adapted  to  this  form  of  indulgence  both  by  constitution 
and  age). 

“ And  at  another  place : 

“ fertur  etiam  in  sacrificando  quondam  captus  facie  ministri,  ne- 
quisse  abstinere  quia  pene  vix  dum  re  divina  peracta,  ibidem  statim 


2/2 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


seductum  co-nstupraret,  sirmdque  fratrem  ejus  tibicinem , atque  utique 
7nox^  quod  muUio  jiagitiuni  exprohabant,  crwa  fregisse.' 

(He  is  said,  moreover,  on  one  occasion  when  engaged 
in  sacrifice,  to  have  been  captivated  by  the  looks  of 
a temple  ministrant,  and  to  have  been  unable  to  refrain 
from  almost  instantly,  the  service  barely  completed, 
taking  him  aside  on  the  spot  and  polluting  him,  and 
along  with  him  his  brother,  a flute-player ; then  pre- 
sently, because  they  were  two  living  proofs  of  his 
infamy,  to  have  had  their  legs  broken). 

“ As  for  Caligula,  what  Ausonius  says  of  him  is  suf- 
ficient : 

“ ‘ Tres  uno  in  lecto : stuprwn  dtio  perpetiuntur 
Et  duo  cojnmittimt : quatuor  esse  rear. 

Falleris,  extre^nis  da  singula  criniina,  et  ilhim 
Bis  nwneres  medium  qui  facit,  et  patitur.' 

(Three  in  one  bed;  two  submit  to  violation,  two 
perform  it:  then,  I presume  there  are  four  altogether. 
Nay ! you  are  mistaken ; give  a villainy  apiece  to  the 
two  outside  actors,  but  count  the  middle  one  twice, 
for  he  both  does  and  suffers). 

“ Heliogabalus  has  been  depicted  by  Lampridius  in 
a single  phrase : 

“ Quis  enhn  ferre  possit  principem,  per  cuncta  cava  corporis  libt- 
ditiern  recipienton  ? ” 

(For  who  could  tolerate  a Prince  that  welcomes  lust 
by  every  ccpiCpia-  of  the  body?) 

“ Nero  gets  himself  married  by  Doryphorus  in  the 
midst  of  naked  women  and  of  lascivious  dances; 

“ ‘ Per  licita  atqtie  illicita  fccdatus,  nihil  flagitii  reliquerat  quo 
corruptio  ageret . . and  further  on:  '•  Virorum  ac  feminarum  ad 
stipitem  deligatorton  inguuxa  ttn'adebat,  et  quuni  affatim  descsvisset, 
coxificeretur  a Doryphoro  liberto.' 

(Debauched  in  every  natural  and  every  unnatural 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


273 


way,  he  had  left  no  single  abomination  untried,  whereby 
foulness  might  come  into  play. 

He  had  men  and  women  bound  to  a stake  and 
violated  their  private  xizprg  one  after  the  other;  then, 
when  he  had  sufficiently  wreaked  his  lust  upon  them, 
he  would  be  himself  by  Doryphorus  his  freedman). 

“ And  the  vice  became  a passion.  And  in  fact,  Helio- 
gabalus : 

“ ‘ SIC  aniavit  (the  eunuch  Hyerocles)  nt  eidem  ingnina  osczilarettir^ 
doralia  sacra  se  asserens  celebrareP 

(He  loved  him  so  extravagantly  that  he  would 
actually  imprint  kisses  on  his  TrpiCpXTeg,  declaring  he 
was  celebrating  the  festival  of  the  Floralia). 

The  Roman  world  was  but  one  huge  orgy,  and 
Juvenal  has  described  the  lascivious  dances  that  were 
exhibited  on  the  theatres. 

“ ‘‘Forsitan  expectes  ut  Gaditana  canoro 
Incipiat  prurire  choro,  plausuqite  probates 
Ad  terrain  tremulo  descendant  dune  puellce  ; 
Irritamentwn  Veneris  languentis  et  acres 
Divitis  urticce:  major  tamen  ista  voluptas 
Alterius  sexus,  magis  ille  extenditur  et  mox 
Auribiis  atque  oculis  concepta  urina  moveturd 

(Perhaps  you  may  await  the  moment  when  the 
Gaditanian  wanton  strikes  up  her  prurient  stave 
and  the  tinkling  dance  that  accompanies  it,  and  the 
girls,  applauded  and  approved,  fall  swooning  to  the 
floor  with  buttocks  all  a-quiver;  so  is  languid  Love 
roused,  such  the  keen  stimulants  of  the  rich  voluptuary. 
But  greater  still  is  the  delight  of  the  other  sex;  more 
and  more  is  it  excited,  till  very  soon,  set  agoing  by 
sounds  and  sights  like  these,  the  vpiys  is  voided). 

“ Martial  has  allowed  himself  to  be  carried  away  by 
the  phantasies  of  the  most  paradoxical  eroticism; 

18 


-’74 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


“ Padicat  pueros  tribas  Philcenis, 

Et  tentigine  savior  mariti 
Undenas  vorat  in  die  puellas... 

Post  hcec  otnnia,  ctmi  lihidinatur 
Non  fellat  [putat  hoc  paru7n  virile') 

Sed  plane  medias  vorat  puellas.  ’ 

(The  tribad  Philaenis  pedicates  boys,  and  fiercer 
than  any  husband’s  wantonness,  devours  eleven  maids 
in  a day ....  After  all  these  indulgences  if  she  still 
feels  lustful  longings,  she  does  not  fellate — this  she 
deems  unmanly,  but  just  sets  to  work  and  devours 
girls’ 

“ If  now  we  turn  from  the  Greco-Latin  antiquity  to 
the  ancient  Gauls,  then  to  America  or  to  contempo- 
rary savage  tribes,  we  find  sodomy  not  less  prevalent. 

“ According  to  Diodorus  of  Sicily,  the  Gauls  gave 
themselves  up  to  orgies  of  debauchery  and  sodomy. 
In  some  parts  of  the  North  of  Mexico,  men  dressed  as 
women  and  who  were  forbidden  to  carry  arms  were 
espoused  as  wives.  According  to  Gomara  there  were 
at  Tamulipas  houses  of  prostitution  the  inmates  of  which 
were  men.  ^ Diaz  relates  that,  on  the  coasts  of  Mexico, 
pederasty  was  a common  vice,  although  it  was  consid- 
ered as  a crime  and  severely  punished.  Duflot  found 
these  vices  contrary  to  nature  very  common  in  Cali- 
fornia. Pederasty  was  general  in  Nicaragua.  The  first 

* For  further  details  on  ancient  pederasty  and  collateral  vices  the 
student  is  referred  to  Geschichte  der  Lustseuche  ini  Alterthiime  by 
Dr.  Julius  Rosenbaum,  an  English  translation  of  which,  with  literal 
rendering  of  the  Latin  and  Greek  passages,  has  been  carefully  done  by 
Alfred  R.  Allinson,  Esq.  M.A.  (Oxon)  and  will  be  published  by  the  editor 
of  the  present  work.  The  curious  reader  may  also  consult  Dr.  Virey, 
De  la  Femme.,  Paris,  1827,  from  which  Mantegazza  has  borrowed  the 
majority  of  his  Latin  references  given  in  the  text;  and  also  Forberg’s 
Manual  of  Classical  Erotology,  Paris,  Liseux,  1882. 


ANTPIROPOLOGY. 


275 


explorers  found  it  implanted  among  the  aborigines  ol 
Panama,  although  disapproved  of  by  them.  It  was  the 
same  in  ancient  Peru,  on  the  coast  of  Guayaquil. 

“ Many  travellers  have  also  met  with  it  among  the 
natives  of  North  America.  There  men  could  be  seen, 
dressed  as  women,  and  occupied  in  household  work. 
From  Alaoka  to  -Darien  are  to  be  seen  youths  brought 
up  and  dressed  like  women,  and  who  live  in  concu- 
binage with  the  chiefs  and  great  personages.  The 
Aleoutians,  the  Codiaks  and  the  inhabitants  of  Nutka 
had  also  this  shameful  custom.  The  ancient  travellers 
often  mention  the  existence  of  these  horrible  vices 
among  the  Caribs  of  the  Continent;  but  at  Cumanea, 
on  the  contrary,  sodomy  was  execrated. 

“ It  appears  that  at  Madagascar  vices  contrary  to 
nature  are  not  wanting,  as  is  proved  by  the  existence 
of  singers  and  dancers  dressed  as  women. 

“ In  the  East,  and  unhappily  in  Europe  also,  neither 
children  nor  women  are  wanting  for  the  satisfaction 
of  this  degrading  pleasure,  and  in  certain  cities  of  Italy 
the  sodomists  have  a language  by  signs  to  indicate 
that  they  can  conjugate  the  verb  in  the  active  or  in 
the  passive  tense  [cmedi  or  patici)." 

Prof.  Mantegazza’s  Curious  Theory.  “ This  in- 
famous vice  is  not  confined  to  the  lower  classes  of 
our  society;  it  is  to  be  found  also  among  the  richest 
and  most  intelligent.  In  the  narrow  circle  of  my 
acquaintance  I have  met  with  a French  man  of  let- 
ters, a German  poet,  an  Italian  politician,  and  a Spanish 
lawyer,  all  of  whom  were  addicted  to  it.  Why  is  it  that 
this  disgusting  form  of  licentiousness  is  so  often  to  be 
met  with?  I think  that  I have  found  the  solution  of  the 
problem. 


276 


untrodd™  fields  of 


“ Anatomists  are  aware  of  the  close  connection  that 
exists  between  the  nerves  that  are  distributed  to  the 
rectum  and  those  which  go  to  the  genital  organs. 
Perhaps  by  reason  of  some  anomaly,  in  men  given  to 
this  disgusting  aberration  the  net-work  of  nerves  which 
preside  over  the  voluptuous  sensations  go  to  the  rectum, 
and  that  it  is  their  excitation  which  induces  in  the 
patici  the  venereal  orgasm  which,  in  ordinary  cases, 
can  be  procured  only  by  the  sexual  organ.  What  still 
further  pleads  in  favour  of  this  explanation,  is  that 
there  are  to  be  found  female  patici,  women  who,  in 
the  act  of  tribadism,  like  to  have  the  rectum  excited 
by  the  finger,  men  who  can  obtain  erection  only  by 
foreign  objects  being  introduced  into  the  rectum.  And 
I remember  very  well  the  case  of  a great  writer  who 
admitted  to  me  that  he  had  not  yet  been  able  to  dis- 
cern whether  he  experienced  more  voluptuous  feeling 
during  coition  or  during  defecation. 

“ It  is  easier  to  explain  the  voluptuous  sensation  in  the 
cinedi  who  experience  a genuine  orgasm  on  an  ignoble 
track,  preferred  on  account  of  its  narrowness.  That 
explains  also  why,  in  many  countries,  sodomy  is  prac- 
tised on  children  only,  whence  the  name  pederasty, 
and  why  it  is  far  more  frequent  in  warm  countries 
where  the  vagina  becomes  very  large,  and  the  con- 
tinual aspect  of  naked  bodies  and  the  facility  of  ob- 
taining women  blunts  the  pleasure. 

“ However,  it  yery  often  happens  that  sodomy  is  not 
of  peripheric  origin  but  resides  in  the  nervous  centres. 
I therefore  admit  peripheric  or  anatomical  sodomy  (by 
an  abnormal  distribution  of  the  nerves),  lustful  sodomy 
(from  desire  of  narrowness),  and  psychical  sodomy.  ^ 

‘ Krafft-Ebing  thinks  that  the  above  is  “ one  of  the  strangest  expla- 
nations of  congenital  contrary  sexual  feeling”  that  has  been  made.  “ How 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


277 


“The  author  of  the  Voyage  d’ Anacharsis  says  that 
the  laws  of  ancient  Greece  protected  the  prostitutes 
in  order  to  combat  pederasty. — Aspasia,  the  mistress 
of  Pericles,  of  vSocrates  and  of  Alcibiades,  encouraged 
the  love  between  the  two  latter.  Plato  has  preserved 
us  a fragment  of  a dialogue  between  Socrates  and 
Aspasia : ‘ Socrates,  I have  read  in  thy  heart,  it  is 
burning  for  the  son  of  Dynomache  and  of  Clinias. 
Listen,  if  thou  would’st  have  the  handsome  Alcibiades 
respond  to  thy  love ; be  docile  to  the  counsels  of  my 
tenderness. — O,  intoxicating  words!  exclaimed  Socrates, 
O ecstasy!  a cold  sweat  has  gone  through  my  body, 
my  eyes  have  filled  with  tears. — Cease  thy  sighs,  she 
interrupted,  full  of  sacred  enthusiasm,  elevate  thy  mind 
to  the  divine  intoxications  of  poetry;  that  enchanting 
art  will  open  to  thee  the  sanctuary  of  his  soul.  The 
sweets  of  poetry  fascinate  the  intellect,  the  ear  is  the 
road  to  the  heart  which-  is  the  portal  to  all  the  rest.’ — 
In  the  grand  times  of  the  Latin  civilisation,  pederasty 
was  a tolerated  form  of  prostitution  and  of  slavery. 
Citizens  were  not  to  give  way  to  the  desires  of  a 
libertine,  but  slaves  and  emancipated  slaves  could  and 
were  indeed  obliged  to  do  so.  In  Rome  masculine 
prostitution  was  more  ardent  and  more  general  than 
the  feminine,  and  the  obscene  traces  of  it  are  to  be 
found  in  the  verses  of  Catullus,  of  Martial  and  even 

does  this  author,”  says  he,  “in  other  ways  so  acute,  explain  the  great 
majority  of  cases,  where  pederasty  is  abhorred  by  those  affected  with 
contrary  sexual  feeling  ? Besides,  Nature  never  makes  such  leaps. 
Mantegazza  rests  his  hypothesis  upon  the  statements  of  an  acquaintance, 
a celebrated  writer,  who  affirmed  to  him  that  he  was  not  sure  that 
he  took  a greater  pleasure  in  coitus  than  in  defecation ! Allowing  the 
correctness  of  this  experience,  still  it  would  only  prove  that  the  man 
was  sexually  abnormal,  and  that  his  pleasure  in  coitus  was  reduced  to 
a minimum.”  Krafft-Ebing,  optcs  cit.,  p.  227 — 8. 


278 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


of  Virgil.  The  ignoble  Greek  poet  Sotades  gave  his 
name  to  some  poems  which  were  inspired  him  by  the 
loves  of  three  men.  In  ancient  Rome  the  barbers’ 
shops  were  often  houses  of  male  prostitution; 

Quorum  frequente  opera  non  in  tondendaharha,  pilisque  vellendis 
niodo,  sed  vero  et  pygiacis  sacris  cincedice,  ne  nefarie  dica?n,  de  node 
administrattdis  utebantur.’ 

(Whose  services  were  utilised  frequently  not  only 
for  shaving  the  beard  and  plucking  out  superfluous 
hairs,  but  also  in  serving  by  night  a la  cinsedus,  not 
to  speak  coarsely,  the  rites  of  posterior  sacrifice). 

(Commentaries  of  Douza  on  Petronius). 

“ Moses  is  perhaps  the  only  legislator  previous  to 
Christ  who  has  cast  anathema  upon  pederasty — At 
Constantinople  under  Constantine  there  were  even  houses 
of  prostitution  where  men  sold  themselves  like  women 
— In  France,  after  the  crusades,  this  vice  became 
general  and  a poet  of  that  period,  Gauthier  de  Coincy, 
prior  of  the  Abbey  of  Saint  Medardus  at  Soissons, 
depicts  the  life  in  convents  in  far  from  edifying  colours: 

“ ‘ La  grammaire  hie  a hie  accouple 
Mais  Nature  maldit  le  couple. 

La  mort  perpetuel  engenre 
Cil  qui  aime  masculin  genre 
Plus  que  le  leminin  ne  face 
Et  Dieu  de  son  livre  I’efface. 

Nature  rit,  si  com  moi  semble 
Quand  hie  et  hoe  joignent  ensemble. 

Mais  hie  et  hie,  chose  est  perdue. 

Nature  en  est  tost  esperdue  . . 

“ Philippe  le  Bel  adopted  energetic  measures  to  pre- 
vent sodomy,  and  the  celebrated  trial  of  the  Knights 
Templars  revealed  horrible  things.  The  following  is 
the  testimony  of  Jean  de  Saint-Just: 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


279 

“^Deinde  dixit  ei  quod  poterat  carnaliter  commiice'ri  cum  fratribus 
ordinis  et  patt  qtiod  ipsi  commiscerentur  cu??i  eo ; hoc  tamen  no>i  fecit 
nec  fuit  requisitns^  nec  scit,  nec  audivit  qjtod  fratres  ordinis  commi- 
terent  peccatum  prcedictumf 

(I'hen  he  told  him  that  he  could  have  intercourse 
carnally  with  the  brethren  of  the  Order,  and  suffer 
them  to  have  intercourse  with  him  ; this,  however,  he 
did  not  do  nor  was  required  to  du,  nor  does  he  know 
nor  has  ever  heard  that  the  brethren  of  the  Order 
committed  the  aforesaid  sin). 

“ Still  more  explicit  is  the  evidence  given  by  Rodolphe 
de  Taverne: 

‘ Deinde  dixit  ei  quod,  ex  quo  voverat  castitatem,  debebat  abstinere 
a mulieribus,  ?ie  ordo  infat7iaretur ; vernmtameti  sccundutn  dicta 
puncta,  si  haberet  color em  naturalem , poterat  refrigerarc,  et  carnaliter 
com77iisceri  cu77i  fratribtts  ordinis,  et  ipsi  co77i777iscere7itur  cu77i  eo  ; 
hoc  tamen  71011  fecit,  nec  credit  quod  in  ordine  fieret.' 

(Then  he  told  him  that  from  the  time  he  had  vowed 
chastity  he  was  bound  to  abstain  from  women,  that 
the  Order  should  not  be  disgraced.  Nevertheless, 
according  to  his  words  and  ordinances,  if  he  felt  the 
natural  heat  of  blood,  he  could  have  intercourse  car- 
nally with  the  brethren  of  the  Order,  and  they  have 
intercourse  with  him  ; however,  he  did  not  do  this,  and 
does  not  believe  that  it  was  done  in  the  Order). 

“ Dufour  attributes  to  the  Italians  who  accompanied 
Marie  de  Medicis  to  France  the  spread  of  sodomy  in 
that  country.  It  is  true  that  in  Italy  at  that  time  the 
punishment  of  sodomy  was  a fine  of  only  36  livres 
tournois  and  g ducats,  whereas  in  France  the  penalty 
of  this  crime  was  the  stake  (a  punishment  very  seldom 
applied  it  is  true). — It  is  curious  to  read  the  discussion 
of  confessors  on  the  various  sins  that  can  be  committed 
in  the  way  of  sodomy  by  a man  with  a woman  (see 


28o 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


Jean  Benedicti,  Somme  des  peches  et  remedes  d’iceux, 
Lyons,  1534).  Sanchez  condemned  sodomy  between 
husband  and  wife  as  a mortal  sin  : 

“ ‘ Duabtis  mtilieribus  ap7id  synagogam  conqiiestis  se  fuisse  a viris 
suis  sodomice  cognitis,  responsum  est  ab  illis  rabbmis : virtan  esse 
uxoris  dommimi,  proinde  posse  nti  ejus  utcunque  libtierit,  non 
aliter  quam  is  qui  pisceno : ille  enim  tarn  anterioribus  quam  poster i- 
oribus  partibus,  ad  arbitrium  vesci  potest.'  * 

(Two  women  having  made  complaint  before  the 
synagogue  that  they  had  been  known  by  their  husbands 
sodomually,  it  was  answered  by  those  Rabbis:  that 
the  man  was  master  of  the  woman,  consequently  that 
he  could  use  her  as  he  pleased,  as  does  one  who  uses 
a vessel:  for  he  can  satisfy  himself  with  the  anterior 
or  the  posterior  parts  at  his  own  will  and  pleasure). 

“To  return  to  psychical  sodomy,  several  cases  of  which 
form  I have  had  occasion  to  study.  It  more  particu- 
larly attacks  well  educated,  intelligent  men  who  are 
often  neuropathic  subjects.  A young  man  of  high 
family  and  very  chaste  came  to  consult  me  because  he 
perceived  that  he  loved  and  desired  persons  of  his  own 
sex,  whereas  he  remained  insensible  to  the  seductions 
of  women.  He  was  seized  with  violent  erotic  spasms 
whenever  he  kissed  a child.  In  order  to  study  him- 
self, he  went  to  a house  of  prostitution  and  remained 
insensible  to  all  provocations.  This  unfortunate  young 
man,  who  resisted  with  all  his  might,  assured  me  that 
he  would  commit  suicide  if  he  could  not  come  out 
victor  from  the  strife.  I do  not  know  whether  he  suc- 
ceeded for  I have  never  seen  him  since. 

' See  the  remarks  of  Havelock  Ellis  on  the  teachings,  and  the  interest 
taken  in  sexual  problems  by  the  Catholic  Church,  Preface  to  Sexual 
Inversion,  Lond.  1897. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


281 


“ Psychical  sodomy  is  not  a vice,  but  a passion. 
culpable,  revolting  and  disgusting  passion  as  much  as 
you  please,  but  a passion.  These  sodomists  told  me 
in  their  confession,  which  I read  with  tears,  that  they 
adored  their  lovers  with  real  jealousy.  They  gave  them 
tokens  of  love,  wrote  tender,  chaste  and  poetical  letters 
to  them.  In  a certain  Italian  town,  they  walk  out 
together  in  the  evening  in  the  darkest  corners  of  the 
public  gardens ; they  kiss  each  other  and  embrace  with 
the  most  irresistible  passion.” 

The  Symptomatic  Characteristics  of  the 
Pederasty  of  the  Kanaka  are  guided  by  this  rule: 
he  uses  a man  when  he  cannot  get  a woman,  and, 
when  he  can  get  a woman,  no  longer  practises  the 
vice.  With  him  it  is  not  a morbid  passion,  as  it  is 
in  the  old  civilised  countries  of  the  Extreme  East, 
where  lust  is  satisfied  indifferently  on  either  men  or 
women,  and  either  the  active  or  passive  role  assumed 
wdth  the  greatest  facility.  With  the  Kanaka,  it  is 
simply  a mutual  interchange  of  kindnesses  which  are 
quite  simple  and  natural, — if  that  expression  can  be 
used  in  regard  to  acts  which  are  unnatural.  I may 
add  that  anal  copulation  is  practised  bestially,  without 
any  of  the  refinements  of  lust  in  which  the  Chinese, 
and  more  especially  the  Annamites,  are  so  expert. 
But  I will  say  no  more  on  this  filthy  subject. 

At  what  age  do  the  young  Kanakas  commence  to 
practise  this  vice  ? Erom  the  confessions  made  to  me, 
I am  able  to  state  that  matters  are  very  much  the 
same  as  they  are  in  our  large  educational  establish- 
ments. I say  our,  but  should  rather  have  said  the,  for 
sodomy  is  universal  in  Europe,  and  has  taken  root  every- 
where. Before  puberty,  the  young  Kanakas  masturbate 


282 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


among  themselves  ; after  puberty,  and  the  operation  of 
demi-circumcision,  and  at  an  age  when  the  yard  is  not 
yet  fully  developed,  they  take  to  anal  coition.  All 
the  young  sodomites  I examined,  bore  the  marks  of 
being  both  active  and  passive  agents. 

Cruelties  and  Erotic  Mutilations  committed  by 
the  Kanakas  during  the  Insurrection.  I have 
explained  at  some  length  his  innate  ferocity.  He 
never  tortures  his  living  enemies,  but  he  abuses  their 
dead  carcases,  and  mutilates  them  erotically,  after 
having  glutted  his  brutal  lusts  on  their  still  breathing 
bodies.  I have  also  mentioned  that  the  Kanaka  lusts 
after  the  White  woman.  Not  being  able  to  possess 
her  alive,  in  some  cases,  during  the  insurrection,  he 
killed  her,  and  made  her  dead  body  the  instrument  of 
his  lust. 

Many  were  the  cases  that  came  under  my  personal 
notice  of  rapes  on  White  women,  more  often  than  not 
followed  by  mutilation  and  murder.  And  I could  fill 
a fairly  large  size  work  with  strange  details  of  savage 
crimes.  The  question  of  the  association  of  lust  and 
cruelty  will  be  examined  a few  pages  further  on.  I 
shall  not  therefore  stop  to  enquire  into  this  matter 
here,  but  direct  the  student’s  attention  to  the  close 
juridical  analysis  of  this  crime,  which  has  been  made 
by  Krafift-Ebing : — By  the  term  rape,  the  jurist 
understands  coitus,  outside  of  the  marriage  relation, 
with  an  adult,  enforced  by  means  of  threats  or  violence ; 
or  with  an  adult  in  a condition  of  defencelessness  or 
unconsciousness ; or  with  a girl  under  the  age  of 
fourteen  years.  Immissio  penis,  or,  at  least,  conjunctio 
membrorum  (Schiitze),  is  necessary  to  establish  the  fact. 
To-day,  rape  on  children  is  remarkably  frequent. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


283 


Hofmann  (“  Ger.  Med.”  I,  p.  155)  and  Tardieu 
(“Attentats”)  report  horrible  cases. 

The  crime  of  rape  presumes  a temporary,  powerful 
excitation  of  sexual  desire,  induced  by  excess  in  alcohol, 
or  by  some  other  condition.  It  is  highly  improbable 
that  a man  morally  intact  would  commit  this  most 
brutal  crime.  Lombroso  (Goltdammer’s  Arch.)  considers 
the  majority  of  men  who  commit  rape  to  be  degenerate, 
particularly  when  the  crime  is  done  on  children  or  old 
women.  He  asserts,  that,  in  many  such  men,  he  has 
found  actual  signs  of  degeneracy. 

It  is  a fact  that  rape  is  very  often  the  act  of 
degenerate  male  imbeciles,  ^ where,  under  some  cir- 
cumstances, the  bond  of  blood  is  not  respected.  Cases 
as  a result  of  mania,  satyriasis,  and  epilepsy,  have 
occurred,  and  are  to  be  kept  in  mind. 

The  crime  of  rape  may  follow  the  murder  of  the 
victim.  ^ There  may  be  unintentional  murder,  murder 
to  destroy  the  only  witness  of  the  crime,  or  murder 
out  of  lust  {v.  S7iprd).  Only  for  cases  of  the  latter 
kind  should  the  term  bist-miirder  ^ be  used.  The 
motives  of  lust-murder  have  been  previously  considered. 
The  cases  given  in  illustration  are  characteristic  of  the 
manner  of  the  deed.  The  presumption  of  a murder 
out  of  lust  is  always  given  when  injuries  of  the  genitals 
are  found,  the  character  and  extent  of  which  are  such 
as  could  not  be  explained  by  merely  a brutal  attempt  at 
coitus ; and  still  more,  when  the  body  has  been  opened,  or 
parts  (intestines,  genitals)  torn  out,  and  are  wanting.  ^ 

' Annal.  medico-psychol.,  1849,  p.  515;  1863,  p.  57;  1864,  p.  215; 
1866,  p.  253. 

^ Comp,  the  cases  of  Tardieu,  Attentats,  ji.  182 — 192. 

^ Comp.  Haltzendorff,  Psychologie  des  Mords. 

* Tardieu,  Attentats,  Case  51,  p.  188. 


284 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


A Case  of  German  “ Lust-murder.  ” However 
shocking  the  preceding  case,  and  others  I may  later 
relate,  may  appear  to  the  student,  I hardly  need  to 
remind  him  of  the  fact  that  others,  quite  as  bad,  have 
been  perpetrated  in  Europe  by  people,  who  were  not 
held  to  be  savages,  at  least  not  by  race,  and  who 
had  the  advantage  of  being  brought  up  “ under  the 
shadow  of  the  Cross.”  Works  on  Medical  Juris- 
prudence are  filled  with  them.  We  will  content  our- 
selves with  a case  recited  by  Krafft-Ebing  who  points 
out  that  these  “ lust-murders  are  never  committed  with 
accomplices.” 

“On  the  evening  of  May  27,  1888,  an  eight-year- 
old  boy,  Blasius,  was  playing  with  other  children  in 
the  neighbourhood  of  the  village  of  S.  An  unknown 
man  came  along  and  enticed  the  boy  into  the  woods. 
The  next  day  the  boy’s  body  was  found  in  a ravine,  with 
the  abdomen  slit  open,  an  incised  wound  in  the  cardiac 
region,  and  two  stab-wounds  in  the  neck. 

“Since,  on  May  21st,  a man,  answering  to  the  de- 
scription given  of  the  murderer  by  the  children,  had 
attempted  to  treat  a six-year-old  girl  in  a similar 
manner,  and  had  only  accidentally  been  detected,  it 
was  presumed  to  be  a case  of  lust-murder.  It  was 
proved  that  the  body  was  found  in  a heap,  with  only 
the  shirt  and  jacket  on;  also,  that  there  was  a long 
incision  in  the  scrotum. 

“ Suspicion  fell  upon  a peasant,  E. ; but,  on  confronta- 
tion with  the  children,  it  was  not  possible  to  identify 
him  with  the  stranger  who  had  enticed  the  boy  into 
the  woods.  Besides,  with  the  help  of  his  sister,  he 
proved  an  alibi.  The  untiring  efforts  of  the  officers 
brought  new  evidence  to  light,  and  finally  E.  confessed. 
He  had  enticed  the  girl  into  the  woods,  thrown  her 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


285 


down,  exposed  her  genitals,  and  was  about  to  abuse 
her;  but,  as  she  had  an  eruption  on  her  head,  and  was 
crying  loudly,  his  desire  cooled,  and  he  fled. 

“ After  he  enticed  the  boy  into  the  woods,  with  the 
pretext  of  showing  him  a bird’s  nest,  he  was  taken 
with  a desire  to  abuse  him.  Since  the  boy  refused  to 
take  off  his  trousers,  he  did  it  for  him ; and  when  the 
boy  began  to  cry  out,  he  stabbed  him  twice  in  the 
neck.  Then  he  made  an  incision,  just  above  the  pubes, 
in  imitation  of  female  genitals,  in  order  to  use  it  to 
satisfy  his  lust.  But,  since  the  body  grew  cold 
immediately,  he  lost  his  desire,  and,  cleaning  his  knife 
and  hands  near  the  body,  he  fled.  When  he  saw  the 
boy  dead,  he  was  filled  with  fear,  and  his  limbs 
became  weak. 

“ During  his  examination  E.  looked  apathetically  at 
a garland.  He  had  acted  in  a state  of  mental  weak- 
ness. He  could  not  understand  how  he  came  to  do 
such  a thing.  He  must  have  been  beside  himself; 
for  he  often  became  senseless,  so  that  he  would  almost 
fall  down.  Previous  employers  report  that  he  had 
periods  when  he  was  devoid  of  thought  and  confused, 
doing  no  work  all  day,  and  avoiding  others.  His 
father  states  that  E.  learned  with  difficulty,  was  un- 
skilful at  work,  and  often  so  obstinate  that  one  did 
not  think  to  punish  him.  At  such  times  he  would  not 
eat,  and  occasionally  ran  away  and  remained  all  day. 
At  such  times  he  also  seemed  quite  lost  in  thought, 
screwed  his  face  up,  and  said  senseless  things.  When 
quite  a boy,  he  still  sometimes  wetted  the  bed,  and  often 
came  home  from  school  with  wet  or  soiled  clothing. 
He  was  very  restless  in  sleep,  so  that  no  one  could 
sleep  beside  him.  He  had  never  had  playmates.  He 
had  never  been  cruel,  bad,  or  immoral. 


286 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


“ His  mother  gave  similar  testimony ; and  further, 
that  in  his  fifth  year,  E.  first  had  convulsions,  and 
once  lost  the  power  of  speech  for  seven  days.  Some 
time  about  his  seventh  year  he  once  had  convulsions 
for  forty  days,  and  was  also  dropsical.  Later,  too,  he 
was  often  seized  in  sleep,  and  he  often  then  talked  in 
his  sleep ; and  mornings,  after  such  nights,  the  bed 
was  found  wet. 

“ At  times  it  was  impossible  to  do  anything  with  him. 
Since  his  mother  did  not  know  whether  it  was  due  to 
viciousness  or  disease,  she  did  not  venture  to  punish  him. 

“ .Since  his  convulsions,  in  his  seventh  year,  he  had 
failed  so  in  mind  that  he  could  not  learn  even  the 
common  prayers,  and  he  also  became  very  irascible. 

“ Neighbours,  persons  prominent  in  the  community,  and 
teachers  state  that  E.  was  peculiar,  weak-minded,  and 
irascible ; that  at  times  he  was  very  strange,  and  appa- 
rently in  an  exceptional  mental  state. 

“ The  examinations  of  the  medical  experts  gave  the 
following  results: — E.  is  tall,  slim,  and  poorly  nourished. 
His  head  measures  53  centimeters  in  circumference. 
The  cranium  is  rhombic,  and  in  the  occipital  region 
flattened. 

“ His  expression  is  devoid  of  intelligence ; his  glance 
is  fixed,  expressionless;  his  attitude  is  careless,  and 
his  body  is  bent  forward.  Movements  are  slow  and 
heavy.  Genitals  normally  developed.  E.’s  whole  appear- 
ance points  to  torpidity  and  mental  weakness. 

“ There  are  no  signs  of  degenerative  marks,  no  abnor- 
mity of  the  vegetative  organs,  and  no  disturbances  of 
motility  or  sensibility.  He  comes  of  a perfectly  healthy 
family.  He  knows  nothing  of  convulsions  or  of  wetting 
his  bed  at  night,  but  he  states  that,  of  late  years,  he 
has  had  attacks  of  vertigo  and  loss  of  mind. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


287 


“ At  first,  in  circumlocution,  he  denies  the  murder. 
Later,  in  great  contrition,  before  the  examining  judge, 
he  confessed  all,  and  gave  a clear  motive  for  his  crime. 
He  had  never  had  such  a thought  before. 

“ He  has  been  given  to  onanism  for  years ; he  even 
practised  it  twice  daily.  He  states  that,  for  want  of 
courage,  he  had  never  ventured  to  ask  coitus  of  a 
woman,  though  in  dreams  such  scenes  exclusively 
passed  before  him.  Neither  in  dreams  nor  in  the 
waking  state  had  he  ever  had  perverse  instincts;  par- 
ticularly no  sadistic  or  contrary  sexual  feelings.  Also, 
the  sight  of  the  slaughter  of  animals  had  never  interested 
him.  When  he  enticed  the  girl  into  the  woods,  his 
desire  was  to  satisfy  his  lust  with  her ; but  how  it 
happened  that  he  tried  such  a thing  with  a boy,  he 
could  not  explain.  He  thought  he  must  have  been 
out  of  his  mind  at  that  time.  The  night  after  the 
murder  he  could  not  sleep  on  account  of  fear;  he  had 
twice  confessed  already,  to  ease  his  conscience.  He 
was  only  afraid  of  being  hung.  This  should  not  be 
done,  as  he  had  done  the  deed  in  a weak-minded 
condition. 

“ He  could  not  tell  why  he  had  cut  open  the  boy’s 
abdomen.  It  had  not  occurred  to  him  to  handle  the 
intestines,  smell  them,  etc. 

“ He  stated  that,  after  the  attempt  on  the  girl  in  the 
day-time,  and  in  the  night,  after  the  murder  of  the 
boy,  he  had  convulsions.  At  the  time  of  his  crime  he 
was  indeed  conscious,  but  he  had  not  thought  at  all 
of  what  he  did. 

“He  suffered  much  with  headache;  could  not  endure 
heat,  thirst,  or  alcohol;  there  were  times  when  he  was 
perfectly  confused.  The  test  of  his  intelligence  showed 
a high  grade  of  weak-mindedness. 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


“ The  opinion  (Dr.  Kautzner,  of  Graz)  showed  the 
imbecility  and  neurosis  of  the  accused,  and  made  it 
probable  that  his  crime,  of  which  he  had  only  a 
general  recollection,  had  been  committed  in  an  excep- 
tional (prse-epileptic)  mental  state,  conditioned  by  the 
neurosis.  Under  all  circumstances,  E.  was  considered 
dangerous,  and  probably  would  require  commitment  to 
an  asylum  for  life.”  ^ 

It  seems  almost  a relief  after  this,  to  get  back  to  our 
Kanakas  in  the  woods,  for  amongst  them  we  are 
used  to  this  sort  of  thing,  and  experience  has  taught 
us  to  wait  for  it,  ever  on  the  alert  with  horse  and 
revolver  to  fight  or  to  fly  as  circumstances  may  dictate. 
I would  be  the  last  to  undertake  the  defence  of  the 
atrocious  acts  of  the  Kanaka,  but  he  can  at  least 
plead  his  savage,  “ uncivilised”  condition,  and  moreover, 
has  centuries  of  inherited  tendency  behind  him  im- 
pelling him  (“  quien  sabe?”)  irresistibly  on  towards 
the  realisation  of  his  necrophilic  instincts. 

White  Women  beheaded  and  violated.  There 
is  plenty  of  evidence  that  the  unfortunate  wives  and 
daughters  of  the  colonists,  who  were  killed  during  the 
insurrection,  were  decapitated,  and  afterwards  violated. 
Many  were  eaten ; — the  limbs  and  the  breasts  at  least, 
if  not  the  entire  body.  The  bodies  that  were  found, 
bore  marks  of  erotic  mutilations  of  a fantastic  kind. 

When  war  is  declared,  and  hostilities  commence, 
the  warriors  are  ordered  to  avoid  women.  Copulation 
is  forbidden  to  them,  but  to  violate  the  headless  trunks 
of  White  women  is  not  considered  an  infringement  of 
the  rule.  The  reader  may  perhaps  think  I am  exag- 
gerating, so  I will  therefore  ask  permission  to  lay 

* Krafft-Ebing,  Psychopathia  Sextialts,  p.  397. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


289 


before  him  a couple  of  quotations,  in  support  of  my 
statements.  The  first  is  an  account  of  the  massacres 
of  la  Foa  and  la  Fonwari,  as  related  by  Commandant 
Riviere. 

“ The  Kanakas  continue  to  murder,  and  to  set  fire 
to  the  houses.  The  waggons  afford  a proof  of  this. 
One  is  laden  with  wounded  people,  the  other  with 
sixteen  dead  bodies.  Most  of  the  wounded  are  insen- 
sible, some  groan,  and  others  are  delirious.  The 
wounds,  which  are  nearly  always  on  the  skull,  or 
back  of  the  neck,  are  deep  cuts,  made  with  the  axe, 
or  the  bird’s  beak  club.  All  these  persons  have  been 
struck  from  behind,  at  a moment  when  they  did  not 
expect  it,  by  Kanakas  whom  they  knew.  The  savages 
had  amused  themselves  by  practising  on  the  dead 
bodies  various  refinements  of  cruelty  or  lust.  Some 
of  the  limbs  were  wanting,  and  had  been  separated 
from  the  trunk  by  an  axe.  Others  showed  ablations 
made  with  a knife,  or  even  with  the  teeth,  or  mon- 
strous or  derisive  obstructions  with  wooden  plugs.” 

In  spite  of  the  intentional  reticence  of  the  author, 
the  reader  will  understand  the  nature  of  these  ablations 
and  obstructions.  ^ 

Bechir,  the  Arab.  A short  time  after  the  insur- 
rection had  been  put  down,  I became  acquainted  with 
one  of  the  Arab  convicts,  who  had  acted  as  a scout 
against  the  Kanakas.  This  Arab,  whose  name  was 
Bechir,  had  distinguished  himself  by  his  courage,  and 

’ “Eunuchs  and  Eunuchism”  (in  course  of  preparation)  will  contain 
an  account  ol  a number  of  cases  of  similar  mutilations  which  have 
been  perpetrated  in  Europe.  There  does  not  e.vist,  as  far  as  we  know, 
any  work  dealing  specifically,  and  in  a serious  way,  with  this  department 
of  medical  and  juridical  anthropology. 


•9 


2QO 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


he  was  an  eye-witness  of  the  massacre  of  Bouloupari. 
He  had  asked,  as  the  sole  reward  for  his  services,  to 
be  sent  back  to  Algeria,  and  passed  his  time  in  writing 
begging  petitions,  in  which  he  naively  recounted  his 
brave  deeds.  From  one  of  these  petitions,  I extract 
the  following  lines,  which  are  also  reproduced  in  the 
Lcttres  d’un  Marin. 

“ I arrived  at  Bouloupari,  and  first  went  towards 
the  Gendarmerie.  There  were  four  horses  in  the  stables. 
Near  a hay-cart,  two  convicts  lay,  bathed  in  their 
blood.  I then  went  to  the  Kiosque,  where  the  gen- 
darmes usually  took  their  meals.  Ten  yards  from  the 
Kiosque,  lay  the  body  of  the  cook,  face  downwards. 
He  had  been  struck  with  an  axe  on  the  back  of  the 
neck,  and  his  hands  were  still  holding  in  their  death 
grip  a dish  broken  in  two.  Four  gendarmes  had  met 
their  death  as  they  were  leaving  the  Kiosque, — no 
doubt  to  fetch  their  arms.  At  the  telegraph  office,  the 
body  of  the  clerk  lay  in  the  road,  his  face  turned 
towards  the  sky ; his  little  black  dog  was  watching 
beside  him.  Behind  the  telegraph  office  was  the  house 
of  the  Kleiches ; the  husband  lay  with  his  skull  split ; 
his  wife  was  naked,  her  body  covered  with  wounds 
and  bruises,  and  a broken  bottle  pushed  i7tto  her  belly. 

“ Still  keeping  on  my  horse,  for  I was  afraid  of  being 
taken  alive,  I entered  the  convicts’  camp.  They  lay 
pell-mell,  murdered  during  their  siesta;  two  of  them 
were  still  in  their  dying  agonies.  At  the  overseers’ 
hut,  the  fire  prevented  me  from  counting  the  victims. 
At  Mostini’s  house,  all  were  dead ; Mme  Mostini  had 
been  violated,  and  her  abdomen  torn  open  up  to  the 
navel.  Her  little  sister  had  taken  refuge  under  the 
body.  She  had  also  been  killed,  and  had  suffered  the 
same  mutilation  as  her  sister.” 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


291 


Louis,  the  Kanaka  Interpreter.  Louis,  a Kanaka, 
an  interpreter  on  board  a ship,  and  who  spoke  French 
very  well,  played  an  important  part  in  the  massacres 
of  la  Poya.  He  was  employed  by  a European  mer- 
chant. He  fell  in  love  with  Mme  V***,  a superb 

blonde,  the  wife  of  an  English  colonist,  and  as  she 
refused  to  favour  his  suit,  he  resolved  to  profit  by  the 
massacre  of  the  Whites  to  satisfy  his  passion.  Knowing 
that  the  husband  was  absent,  he  went  to  Mme  V***’s 
house,  with  five  other  Kanakas.  They  began  by  mur- 
dering the  children.  Mme  V***  seized  a loaded  double- 
barrelled  shot  gun,  and  killed  two  of  the  assassins. 
Then  Louis,  the  interpreter,  split  her  head  open.  At 
this  moment  M.  V***  rode  up  on  horseback,  but  seeing 
that  the  murderers  were  four  to  one,  he  had  not  the 
courage  to  attempt  to  avenge  the  murder  of  his  wife 
and  family,  and  rode  off  at  full  gallop.  Louis  satisfied 
his  brutal  passion  upon  the  still  palpitating  body  of 
the  poor  woman,  then  the  Kanakas  cut  her  in  pieces, 
as  they  would  a sheep,  roasted  her  at  a Kanaka  stove, 
and  Louis  ate,  for  his  share,  the  heart  and  one  of  the 
arms.  These  facts  were  notorious  at  Oubatche,  where 
Louis  was  shot,  and  were  related  to  me  by  a colonist, 
who  was  present  at  the  execution  of  the  interpreter.  ^ 

Acts  of  Sadism.  The  kind  of  crime  last  de- 
scribed falls  into  the  category  of  what  is  known 
as  “ Sadism,”  by  which  term  is  meant  the  “association 
of  lust  and  cruelty  ” as  a means  of  satisfying  the 
senses,  the  name  of  course  being  derived  from  that 
of  the  infamous  Marquis  de  Sade.  ^ It  is  possible  that, 

’ Tardieu  establishes  the  fact  that,  from  1851  to  1875  inclusNe,  22,017 
cases  of  rape  came  before  the  courts  in  France,  and,  of  these,  17,657 
were  conmittcd  on  children! 

^ Leo  Taxil  gives  some  interesting  details  of  this  sexual  monster. 


2Q2 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


although  violence  would  undoubtedly  have  been  in 
any  case  employed,  murder  would  not  have  followed 
the  accomplishment  of  the  sexual  act  had  not  this 
courageous  woman  “ shown  fight”,  and  quietly  submitted 
to  the  monster’s  lustful  attacks.  Krafift-Ebing,  the 
great  pathologist,  than  whom  no  other  has  made  a 
more  profound  study  of  these  delicate  matters,  points 
out  that  “ the  conquest  of  woman  takes  place  to-day  in 
the  social  form  of  courting,  in  seduction  and  deception. 
From  the  history  of  civilisation  and  anthropology  we 
know  that  there  have  been  times,  as  there  are  savages 
to-day  that  practice  it,  where  brutal  force,  robbery,  or 
even  blows  that  rendered  a woman  powerless,  were 
made  use  of  to  obtain  love’s  desire.  It  is  possible 
that  tendencies  to  such  outbreaks  of  sadism  are 
atavistic.”  Under  the  section  of  “ Paraesthesia  of 
Sexual  Feeling”  — “Perversion  of  the  Sexual  Instinct” 

which  must  have  been  a case,  Krafft-Ebing  thinks,  “ of  habitual  satyri- 
asis, accompanied  by  perverse  sexual  instinct.”  Sade  was  so  cynical 
that  he  deliberately  sought  to  idealise  his  cruel  lasciviousness,  and  took 
glory  in  proclaiming  himself,  by  all  means  available,  the  apostle  of  a 
theory  based  upon  it.  Utterly  corrupt  both  in  mind  and  body,  he  lost 
no  opportunity  of  realising  his  lustful  theories.  Amongst  other  sensual 
erraticisms,  he  threw  an  entire  company  of  ladies  and  gentlemen  into 
an  erotic  paroxysm,  who  had  responded  to  his  invitation  to  dinner,  by 
causing  them  to  be  served  with  chocolate  bon-hons  which  contained  a strong 
mixture  of  cantharides.  His  lewdness  and  perversity  earned  for  him  a 
committal  to  the  Insane  Asylum  at  Charenton,  from  which  he  made 
good  his  escape  during  the  Revolution  of  1790.  He  afterwards  wrote 
(the  fruit  of  his  meditations  at  the  French  “ Colney  Hatch  ” ?)  obscene 
novels  filled  with  lust,  cruelty  and  the  most  disgustingly  obscene  scenes 
which  the  human  imagination  in  the  hour  of  its  wildest  nightmare  has  ever 
bodied  forth.  He  had  the  audacity  to  present  Bonaparte  with  a mag- 
nificently bound  copy  of  these  “precious”  productions,  on  the  latter’s 
attaining  the  Consulate.  It  is  to  the  credit  of  Bonaparte  that  he  had 
these  works  destroyed,  and  the  author  again  lodged  at  Charenton* 
where  he  died,  at  the  age  of  64. 


ANTHKOPOLOGi'. 


293 


in  that  comprehensive  work  “ Psychopathia  Sexualis,  ” 
the  student  will  find  quite  sufficient  fact  and  theory 
to  start  him  on  the  road  of  independent  enquiry  for 
himself.  The  German  doctor  calls  special  attention  to 
the  “ Association  of  Active  Cruelty  and  Violence  with 
Lust  ” to  which  phenomenon,  he  says,  writers  of  all 
kinds  have  invited  notice.  ^ 

The  Mutilation  and  Outraging  of  Corpses  come 
under  the  designation  of  sadistic  acts,  and  are  probably 
amongst  the  most  horrible  of  all  sexual  perversions. 
The  necrophiles  form  a group  apart.  They  call  for 
the  pitiful-loving  study  of  the  anthropologist  and 
alienist,  for  no  other  can  relieve  or  understand  their 
awful  state  of  mind. 

“ This  horrible  kind  of  sexual  indulgence,”  says  Krafft- 
Ebing  (p.  430),  “ is  so  monstrous  that  the  presumption 
of  a psychopathic  state  is,  under  all  circumstances, 
justified;  and  Maschka’s  recommendation,  that  the 
mental  condition  of  the  perpetrator  should  always  be 
investigated,  is  well  founded.  In  any  case,  an  abnormal 
and  decidedly  perverse  sensuality  is  required  to  over- 
come the  natural  repugnance  which  man  has  for  a 
corpse,  and  permit  a feeling  of  pleasure  to  be  experienced 
in  sexual  congress  with  a cadaver. 

“Unfortunately,  in  the  majority  of  the  cases  reported 
the  mental  condition  was  not  examined;  so  that  the 
question  whether  necrophilia  is  compatible  with  mental 
soundness  must  remain  open.  But  anyone  having 
knowledge  of  the  horrible  aberrations  of  the  sexual 
instinct  would  not  venture,  without  further  consideration, 
to  answer  the  question  in  the  negative.” 

' U.  A.  Novalis,  in  his  Fragments ; Gorres,  Christliche  Mystik, 
vol.  Ill,  p.  460. 


2 94  UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 

In  these  cases,  just  as  with  lustful  murderers  and 
analogous  cases,  an  idea  which  in  itself  awakens 
a feeling  of  horror,  and  before  which  a healthy 
person  would  shudder,  is  accompanied  by  lustful 
feelings,  and  thus  leads  to  the  impulse  to  indulge  in 
acts  of  necrophilia. 

The  cases  of  mutilation  of  bodies  mentioned  in 
literature  seem  to  be  pathological ; but,  with  the  excep- 
tion of  the  celebrated  one  of  Sergeant  Bertrand,  ^ they 
come  far  from  being  described  and  observed  with 
exactness.  In  certain  cases  there  may  be  nothing 
more  than  the  possibility  that  unbridled  desire  sees  in 
the  idea  of  death  no  obstacle  to  its  satisfaction.  The 
seventh  case  mentioned  by  Moreau  is  perhaps  such  a 
one  : — 

A man,  aged  23,  attempted  to  rape  a woman,  aged 
53.  Struggling,  he  killed  her  and  then  violated  her, 
threw  her  in  the  water,  and  fished  her  out  again  for 
renewed  violation.  The  murderer  was  executed.  The 
meninges  of  the  anterior  lobes  were  thickened  and 
adherent  to  the  cortex.  French  writers  have  recorded 
numerous  examples  of  necrophilia.  Two  cases  con- 
cerned monks,  where  they  were  performing  the  watch 
for  the  dead.  In  a third  case  the  subject  was  an 
idiot,  who  also  suffered  from  periodical  mania,  and 
after  commission  of  rape  was  sent  to  an  insane  asylum, 
and  there  mutilated  female  bodies  in  the  mortuary. 

In  other  cases,  however,  there  is  undoubtedly  direct 
preference  of  a corpse  to  the  living  woman.  When 
no  other  act  of  cruelty — cutting  into  pieces,  etc. — is 
practised  on  the  cadaver,  it  is  probable  that  the  life- 

’ Vide  Krafft-Ebing,  Psychopathia  Sexualis,  Philadelphia,  1895,  P- 
69 — 70;  Legrand,  La  folie  devant  les  Tribunaux,  p.  524;  Tardieu, 
Attentats  aux  Mceurs,  Paris,  1878,  p.  114. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


295 


less  condition  itself  forms  the  stimulus  for  the  perverse 
individual.  It  is  possible  that  the  corpse — a human  form 
absolutely  without  will — satisfies  an  abnormal  desire, 
in  that  the  object  of  desire  is  seen  to  be  capable  of 
absolute  subjugation,  without  possibility  of  resistance. 
Brierre  de  Boismont  (“  Gazette  medicale  ”,  July  2 ist,  1859) 
relates  the  history  of  a corpse-violator  who,  after 
bribing  the  watchman,  had  gained  eiitrance  to  the 
corpse  of  a girl  of  sixteen,  who  belonged  to  a family 
of  high  social  position.  At  night  a noise  was  heard 
in  the  death-chamber,  as  if  a piece  of  furniture  had 
fallen  over.  The  mother  of  the  dead  girl  effected  an 
entrance,  and  saw  a man  dressed  in  his  night-shirt 
springing  from  the  bed  where  the  body  lay.  It  was 
at  first  thought  that  the  man  was  a thief,  but  the  real 
explanation  was  soon  discovered.  It  was  afterward 
ascertained  that  the  culprit,  a man  of  good  family,  had 
often  violated  the  bodies  of  young  women.  He  was 
sentenced  to  imprisonment  for  life.  The  story  of  a 
prelate,  reported  by  Taxil  (“  La  prostitution  contempo- 
raine”,  p.  171),  is  of  great  interest  as  an  example 
of  necrophilia.  From  time  to  time  he  would  visit 
houses  of  prostitution  in  Paris  and  order  a prostitute, 
dressed  in  white  like  a corpse,  to  be  laid  out  on  a 
bed.  At  the  appointed  hour  he  would  appear  in  the 
room,  which,  in  the  meantime,  had  been  elaborately 
prepared  as  a room  of  mourning;  then  he  would  act 
as  if  reading  a mass  for  the  soul,  and  finally  throw 
himself  on  the  girl,  who,  during  the  whole  time,  was 
compelled  to  play  the  role  of  a corpse.  ^ We  have 
neither  time  nor  space  to  go  into  Krafft-Ebing’s  ex- 

' .Simon  (Crimes  et  de'lifs,  p.  209)  mentions  an  experience  of  Lacas- 
sagne’s,  to  whom  a respectable  man  said  that  he  was  never  intensely 
excited  sexually  except  when  a spectator  at  a funeral. 


2q6  untrodden  fields  of  anthropology. 

planation  of  the  pathological  conditions  that  give  rise 
to  these  lustful  obsessions;  our  aim  will  be  sufficiently 
attained  if  we  induce  the  student  to  go  directly  to  the 
master’s  work. 

Krafft-Ebing  is  careful  to  observe  that  “ the  not 
infrequent  cases  where  individuals  of  very  excitable 
sexual  natures  bite  or  scratch  the  companion  in  inter- 
course fall  within  physiological  limits.”  In  the  course 
of  my  practice  I have  known  numbers  of  both  sexes 
resort  to  this  where  the  harm  done  was  very  small 
and  due  to  nothing  else  than  intense  passion  for  the 
beloved.  I may  be  allowed  to  quote  three  lines  from 
Alfred  de  Musset’s  ode  to  the  Andalusian  girl  and  am 
sure  that  the  beauty  of  them  will  more  than  justify 
me  in  the  reader’s  eyes  for  their  introduction. 

“ Qu’elle  est  superbe  en  son  desordre — 

Quand  elle  tombe  les  seins  nus — 

Qu’on  la  volt  beante,  se  tordre — 

Dans  un  baiser  de  rage  et  mordre — 

En  hurlant  des  mots  inconnus ! ” 


CHAPTER  V. 


The  convict  in  New  Caledoyiia. — The  motives  for  this  chapter. 

— The  Penitentiarv  of  Non  Island. — The  co7ivict  as  a fainilv 
servant. — The  ticket-of-Ieave  nia}i. — The  convent  of  Bourail. — 
Lesbians  and  “ fellatrices” . — Tribadism  m Europe. — Tribads  are 
not  Sapphics. — The  courtesans  of  Greece. — Lombroso  on  the  causes 
of  this  vice. — Natural  wanton?iess. — Enviroitment  as  a Eactor. 
— Secret  clubs  of  vice.  — Advanced  age,  another  cause. — Disgtist 
born  of  excess. — Congenital  tendericy. — The  criminalitv  of 
husbands. — The  inilitarv  post  at  Bourail. — The  General’s  cap. 

— “A  7n’ em77ierde,  and  I zvant  a ma7i  ”, — Marriage  of  liberated 
convicts.  — Sodo77iv  and  pedezasty  amongst  the  cozivicts. — Brisozis 
as  bz'eeder  of  vice. — The  zmivez'sality  of  the  vice. — Izfazzious 
passions. 

The  Motives  for  this  Chapter.  I will  terminate 
the  portion  of  the  book  relating  to  New  Caledonia,  by 
saying  a few  words  about  transportation,  in  order  to 
complete  the  study  of  the  subject  I have  already  made 
concerning  Guiana.  I have  said  that  as  the  worthy 
ex-convicts  died  like  flies,  in  the  unhealthy  colony  of 
Guiana,  some  philanthropic  humanitarians  had  the  in- 
genious idea  of  sending  them  to  New  Caledonia,  one 
of  the  healthiest  climates  in  the  world,  and  one  of  the 
very  few  tropical  climates  in  which  a European  can 
work  without  danger  from  the  sun.  I will  not  discuss 
here  the  future  of  this  kind  of  colonisation,  I will  con- 

297 


2q8 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


tent  myself  with  studying  the  special  manners  of  these 
not  very  interesting  personages. 

The  Penitentiary  of  Non  Island.  On  Nou  Island, 
at  the  entrance  to  the  harbour  of  Noumea,  is  the  cen- 
tral Penitentiary,  containing  three  to  four  thousand 
convicts.  In  the  environs  of  Noumea,  and  in  certain 
other  places  in  the  Colony,  are  camps  of  convicts,  em- 
ployed in  works  outside  the  Penitentiary,  which,  how- 
ever, contains  all  the  central  workshops.  The  office 
of  the  Penitentiary  Administration  is  at  Noumea,  and 
there  application  must  be  made  to  obtain  convicts,  who 
are  hired  out  for  a certain  sum.  All  cannot  obtain  this 
favour,  but  only  those  convicts  whose  conduct  is  “ first- 
class”,  who  by  their  docility,  and  relative  morality, 
deserve  the  good  opinion  of  the  officers. 

The  Convict  as  a Family  Domestic.  From  the 
class  last  mentioned, — which,  if  not  the  most  culpable 
is,  in  my  eyes  at  least,  the  most  hypocritical — 
are  taken  the  garfons  de  famille  who  occupy,  in 
the  households  of  civilians,  and  the  functionaries  of 
the  Penitentiary,  the  same  position  that  the  “ orderly” 
does  in  military  households.  Commandant  Riviere,  in 
his  Souvenirs  de  la  Nouvelle  CalMonie,  describes  in 
a sentimental  and — in  my  opinion — much  too  flattering 
manner,  these  garfons  de  famille.  He  makes  them 
out  to  be, — not  men  marked  with  the  brand  of  infamy, 
but  valuable  assistants,  and  companions,  to  whom  you 
easily  get  habituated.  With  all  due  deference  to  him, 
I think  this  glowing  account  must  be  considerably 
toned  down.  Those  who  employ  garfons  de  famille, 

do  so  because  their  means  do  not  allow  them  to  take 
other  servants.  A “ hired  man”  from  the  New  Hebrides 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


2Q9 


is  much  more  trustworthy,  and  faithful,  than  a first- 
class  convict.  “ The  cask  always  smells  of  the  herring,  ” 
as  the  old  proverb  truly  says.  If  the  garcon  de  fa- 
millc  does  not  dare  to  steal,  at  least  he  will  become, 
whenever  you  send  him  away,  a valuable  accomplice 
of  his  comrades  who  have  escaped  from  Nou  Island, 
and  who  at  Noumea,  rob  almost  with  impunity.  When 
this  excellent  servant  learns  where  you  keep  your 
money,  he  will  make  it  known  to  his  friends  and 
acquaintances,  and  some  fine  night,  when  you  return 
home,  you  will  find  that  your  house  has  been  cleaned 
out.  Not  only  money,  but  also  clothes  and  arms,  will 
become  the  spoil  of  the  robber,  who,  thus  rigged  out, 
can  hide  himself  in  the  suburbs  of  Noumea,  and,  if 
need  be,  defend  himself  against  the  Kanakas  of  the 
native  police,  who  are  always  on  the  track  of  escaped 
convicts. 

The  Liberated  Convict.  When  the  transported 
convict,  condemned  to  eight  years  or  more  of  hard 
labour,  has  finished  his  time,  he  has  to  reside,  for  the 
same  number  of  years,  in  some  fixed  residence.  He 
then  becomes  Monsieur  le  IJbe're,  and  the  never  failing 
manna  of  the  favour  of  the  prison  authorities  is  rained 
upon  him  ever  and  always.  For  “ Messieurs  les  Liberes  ” 
there  has  been  created  a real  colony,  in  the  valley  of 
Bourail,  the  finest,  largest,  and  most  fertile  valley  in 
the  island.  Commandant  Riviere  has  described  this 
colony  in  his  book,  as  he  saw  it  through  the  enchanted 
prism  of  his  imagination.  To  this  work,  from  which  I 
have  already  quoted,  I refer  the  reader  anxious  to 
know  his  opinion.  Mine  is  radically  different,  and  the 
picture  of  the  existence  of  the  liberated  convict,  who 
has  been  granted  an  allotment,  is,  to  my  mind,  quite 


300 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


misleading.  He  makes  out  these  ex-convicts  to  be 
repenting  angels.  I venture  to  assert  that  they  are 
quite  the  reverse,  and  support  my  statement  by  the 
general  opinion  of  all  the  colonists  of  New  Caledonia. 
For,  in  the  first  place,  it  is  not  in  the  power  of  any 
regulations  in  the  world,  reformatory  or  not,  to  alter 
human  nature  when  it  is  vicious.  In  the  name  of 
common  sense,  what  are  we  to  expect  from  the  union 
of  a thief,  or  an  assassin,  with  a girl  convicted  of  infan- 
ticide, or,  at  least,  a thief,  or  a prostitute,  or  a jail  bird 
of  some  kind,  from  the  central  prison? 

The  Convent  of  Bourail.  Let  us  speak  in  the 
first  place  of  the  celebrated  convent  of  Bourail,  the 
inmates  of  which  are  sweet  and  docile  lambs,  according 
to  Commandant  Riviere.  In  this  etablishment  are  penned 
up  (the  word  is  not  a whit  too  strong)  a lot  of  women 
sent  from  France,  and  who  have  been  taken  from  the 
central  prisons  to  make  future  mothers  of  families.  On 
their  arrival  at  Noumea,  on  the  steamers  (generally 
those  of  the  Compagnie  des  Chargeurs  Reunis  of 
Havre),  they  are  sent  direct  to  the  convent  at  Bourail, 
that  they  may  recover  from  the  fatigue  of  the  journey, 
and  live  in  peace  and  piety,  until  the  excellent  Admin- 
istration gives  them  husbands  after  their  own  heart. 
The  reader  may  easily  guess,  whether  nymphs  of  this 
sort  are  likely  to  spend  their  time  in  telling  their  beads, 
knitting  socks,  or  making  baby  linen.  The  first  thing 
they  demand  with  might  and  main,  is  a Government 
grant,  with  a man  attached  to  it.  Like  the  Greeks  in 
La  Belle  Helene,  they  must  have  love  if  it  was  all 
there  was  in  the  world. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


301 


Lesbians  ’ and  Fellatrices.  ^ They  continue  in  the 
convent  their  habits  as  Lesbians  and  fellatrices  which 
they  have  learned  in  those  convents  of  France,  on  the 
doors  of  which  are  inscribed  “ No.  69”,  in  large  characters, 
and  from  which  many  of  them  come.  The  others  have 
walked  the  streets  of  the  large  towns,  and  are  not  much 
better,  if  they  are  not  worse.  The  “ marmite  " of  the 
souteneur  makes  a worthy  pair  with  the  whore  from 
the  brothel.  It  may  easily  be  understood,  that, — with 
the  best  will  in  the  world, — the  sisters  of  Saint  Joseph, 
who  have  the  charge  of  the  souls  of  this  flock  of 
scabby  sheep,  cannot  be  everywhere.  Oh,  those  poor 
sisters ! To  gain  their  place  in  Paradise,  they  must 
suffer  Flell  upon  earth.  In  spite  of  the  means  they 
have  for  dissipating  the  e?inuis  of  confinement,  the 
prisoners  want  the  open  air  and  liberty,  and  are  inclined 
to  marry  the  first-comer  who  means  business.  No 
matter  what  is  the  age,  the  appearance,  or  the  skin, 

‘ A verb  exists,  Icshiare  (XsG§id^siv),  to  depict  this  vice.  Blondeaii’s 
diet,  defines  it  “Aimer  d la  ma)ii'ere  de  Sappho;  vouloir  imiter  les 
homnies  dans  les  caresses  q2i’on  fait  anx  belles  person?ies  de  sofi 
sexe ; tribader ; gamahucher.  Les  Lesbiennes  sont  celebres  pour  avoir 
rendu  la  bouche  le  plus  frequent  organe  de  la  volupte.  Elies  employ- 
aient  la  langue  a se  faire  plaisir  mutuellement,  et  elles  aflfectaient  la 
blancheur  aux  levres.  We  have  already  spoken  of  the  novels  on  the 
vice;  one  of  them,  Les  denx  Amies  of  Rene  Maizeroy  was  siqjpressed. 

° Latin  fellator,  fellatrix  from  fellare,  to  suck ; mettre  dans  la 
bouche  le  membre  en  erection ; also  called  irmtmare  which,  as  showing 
the  frightful  distortion  of  words,  meant  {vide  Forberg)  “ to  give  the 
breast  It  is  strange  that  a disgusting  habit  of  this  kind  should  have 
found  an  author.  Les  Fellatores,  is  a book  that  was  suppressed,  but 
copies  are  still  to  be  met  with.  See  for  fuller  explanation  of  these 
words,  with  illustrative  passages  from  the  ancient  writers,  Rambach’s 
Thesatirus  Eroticits  Linguae  Latinne  (Stuttgart,  1833);  Forberg’s 
Manuel  d' Eroiologie  Classique  (Paris,  1882);  and  Blondeau’s  Diction- 
2iaire  Erotique  latinfrarifais  (Paris,  Liseux,  1885). 


302 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


of  Monsieur  le  Libere  who  comes  to  ask  their  hand. 
He  brings  liberty  at  the  end  of  his  and  that 

is  all  they  want. 

We  take  this  opportunity  to  go  more  fully  into  the 
nature  and  causes  of  this  frightful  feminine  perversion, 
which,  since  I quitted  the  colonies,  seems  to  have  made 
such  terrible  strides  as  a factor  not  to  be  counted  with 
lightly.  Our  observations  to  a large  extent  are  based 
upon  the  profound  and  extensive  study  of  our  master, 
Lombroso,  whom  we  have  to  thank  for  many  a fertile 
suggestion.  His  able  work.  La  Feimne  Criminelle  et 
la  Prostituee  is  a mine  of  information  upon  the  vices 
and  waywardness  of  womankind. 

Tribadism  in  Europe.  The  sole  predominant  ano- 
maly which  is  really  very  prevalent  among  prostitutes, 
is,  says  Lombroso,  tribadism.  Speaking  of  this  vice, 
Parent-Duchatelet  observes  that  all  or  nearly  all  pros- 
titutes are  given  to  it ; others  say,  on  the  contrary, 
that  the  number  of  them  is  very  limited ; according  to 
him  this  contradiction  proceeds  from  their  want  of 
frankness  when  confessing  this  vice ; they  reply  warmly 
and  with  impatience  when  the  question  is  put  to  them: 
“/  am  a prostitute  for  7nen  and  not  for  women." 
Others  whom  we  have  questioned,  add:  “ We  do  it, 
but  it  is  shameful."  Some  say:  “ The  male,  that  is 
always  lawful." 

Moll,  after  what  seems  to  have  been  a serious  study, 
concludes  that  in  Berlin  the  number  of  tribads  amounts 
to  25  per  cent  of  all  the  prostitutes. 

Prostitutes  in  general  maintain  a certain  reserve  on  that 
subject;  in  their  quarrels  they  insult  each  other  in  the 
grossest  language,  but  they  never  make  any  allusion  to 
this  vice,  even  when  they  are  certain  that  it  is  practised. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


303 


According  to  Parent-Duchatelet,  it  is  towards  the 
age  of  from  25  to  30  that  prostitutes  give  themselves 
up  to  this  vice,  after  they  have  exercised  their  trade 
during  eight  or  ten  years,  unless  they  have  been  in 
prison. 

If  there  are  any  young  ones  and  novices  among 
them,  it  is  that  they  are  the  victims  of  others  who 
have  seduced  them. 

Parent-Duchatelet  also  very  justly  calls  attention,  as 
a remarkable  phenomenon,  to  the  remarkable  dispro- 
portion of  age  and  beauty  between  two  women  who 
unite  in  such  manner;  and  what  is  still  more  surprising, 
is,  that  once  the  intimacy  established,  it  is  generally  the 
younger  and  the  handsomer  of  the  two  who  feels  towards 
the  other  the  most  passionate  and  tenacious  love. 

“ I have  been  informed  by  many  inspectors  and  by 
several  overseers  of  prisons  that  pregnancy  is  more 
frequent  among  tribads  than  among  the  prostitutes. 
This  is  comprehensible  and  can  be  to  a certain  extent 
explained.  The  same  observers  have  remarked  that 
in  such  cases,  the  state  of  pregnancy  becomes  the  sub- 
ject of  jokes  and  of  quarrels  in  the  prison,  and  there 
is  not  that  pity,  those  attentions  and  care  that  female 
prisoners  usually  display  towards  their  unfortunate 
companions  who  may  be  in  that  condition.”  (Parent- 
Duchatelet). 

The  habits  of  these  tribads  differ,  it  appears,  according 
to  the  country  to  which  they  belong. 

Among  the  tribadic  couples  in  Berlin,  living  in 
concubinage,  says  Moll,  ^ there  is  always  at  least  one 
who  is  a prostitute : the  active  and  passive  roles  are 
always  distinct.  The  first,  or  the  more  active,  belongs 
to  that  which  they  call  the  papa  or  the  uncle,  to  whom, 

’ Moll,  Les  inversio77.s  sexuelles,  Paris,  1893. 


304 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


as  in  marriage,  great  freedom  is  permitted  in  her  con- 
nection with  men;  these  are  mostly  prostitutes. 

The  passive  role  is  called  mamma  and  woe  betide 
her  if  she  is  unfaithful. 

Some  women  become  tribads  all  at  once ; but  they 
admit,  that  from  their  infancy  they  were  passionately 
fond  of  masculine  games,  liked  to  dress  in  manly  attire, 
to  dance  with  women,  to  smoke  strong  cigars,  to  get 
tipsy,  to  ride  on  horseback,  to  fight;  others  began  to 
smoke  at  5 years  of  age,  were  fond  of  male  occupa- 
tions and  had  a repugnance  for  needle-work ; never- 
theless they  never  assume  a masculine  air  but  when 
they  know  that  they  are  not  observed.  They  can 
recognise  each  other,  it  appears,  by  certain  signs  made 
with  the  eyes  or  the  mouth;  in  general  they  sympa- 
thise only  with  one  particular  category,  either  for  fair 
women  or  for  dark,  and  they  never  change. 

The  Parisian  tribads  ^ often  prefer  to  pawn  their  jewelry 
and  their  clothing  rather  than  be  unfaithful  to  each 
other : there  is  a distinctive  sign  which  makes  them 
recognisable : they  usually  wear  exactly  similar  toilets ; 
they  have  the  same  jewels,  and  call  each  other  sisters. 
And  in  fact  the  expression  petites  sosurs"  (little 
sisters),  in  balls,  cafes,  on  the  Boulevards,  and  in  the 
public  gardens,  has  become  synonymous  of  tribad. 

Many  of  them  remain  faithful  during  many  years; 
there  were  some  who  remained  so  for  17  years;  but 
the  majority  of  them  change  from  month  to  month 
and  even  from  one  day  to  the  other. 

Tribads  are  not  Sapphics.  But  it  seems  ^ that  a 
distinction  must  be  drawn  here  between  the  tribads 

’ Martineau,  Stir  les  deformations  vtilvaires . 

® Moraglia,  Archivio  di  Psichiatria  et  Anthrop.  critninale,  vol.  XVI,  V. 


ANTHROJ’OLOGY. 


305 


properly  so-called  and  the  Sapphics  or  Lesbians  (Cun- 
nilingues).  The  tribads  have  mostly  a masculine  gait, 
and  aspect  with  virile  passions,  a taste  for  sport,  for 
cigars  and  for  manly  attire.  And,  from  their  earliest 
age,  they  loved  only  for  women ; they  did  not  fall 
into  vice  excited  by  others,  but  were  born  vicious  as 
others  are  born-criminals ; they  have  always  a genuine 
repugnance  for  the  male  and  all  of  them  disdain  mar- 
riage. 

The  Sapphists,  on  the  contrary,  are  either  led  to 
Lesbian  love,  particularly  by  difficulties  met  with  in 
love  with  men,  or  have  been  led  astray  by  depraved 
companions.  They  have  no  virile  character ; they  have 
no  aversion  to  man,  with  whom  they  can  repeat  their 
Lesbian  practice  without  repugnance. 

The  loves  of  Sapphists  do  not  last  nearly  so  long  as 
those  of  tribads,  except  in  colleges,  and  they  provoke 
far  fewer  jealousies.  Their  epistolary  correspondence 
is  also  very  rare  and  never  sentimental. 

There  is  not  here,  as  with  tribads,  one  woman  who 
imposes  herself  upon  another,  but  two  who  agree 
together  for  some  time,  ready  to  separate  without  ill- 
feeling. 

Among  them,  it  is  said,  only  one  anomaly  is  ob- 
servable: the  gland  of  the  prepuce  in  the  form  of  a 
club  and  hypertrophy  of  the  prepuce  in  the  form  of 
a hood : which  is  the  effect  of  the  exercise  and  of 
the  abuse;  they  are  therefore  vicious  by  occasion. 

The  Courtesans  of  Greece.  The  same  customs 
existed  in  ancient  times.  The  auletridcB  of  the  Greeks 
had  also  frequent  and  intimate  intercourse  among  each 
other.  In  the  dicterions,  among  the  imprisoned  hetaerae 
this  paradoxal  love  reigned  with  great  intensity. 


20 


3o6 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


A tribad  courtesan  was  careful  to  hide  this  vice 
which  met  with  more  indulgence  from  her  companions 
than  from  men. 

The  entire  life  of  these  tribads  was  an  assiduous 
study  of  beauty;  from  the  continuous  contemplation 
of  their  own  nakedness  and  the  comparing  of  it  with 
that  of  their  companions,  they  created  ardent  pleasures 
to  themselves  without  the  aid  of  their  lovers,  who  often 
left  them  cold  and  insensible  (Lucian).  The  passions, 
which  were  thus  inflamed  between  the  auletridoi,  were 
violent  and  implacable.  In  the  dialogues  of  Lucian, 
we  see  the  beautiful  Charmide  complaining  that  her 
friend  Philemation,  old  and  painted,  whom  she  has 
loved  for  seven  years  and  has  overwhelmed  with 
presents,  has  abandoned  her  for  a man.  Charmide, 
in  order  to  forget  this  love  which  consumes  her,  tries 
to  get  another  friend ; she  gives  five  drachmas  to 
Triphena  to  share  her  bed,  after  a banquet  at  which 
she  has  not  tasted  a dish  nor  emptied  a single  cup; 
but  hardly  has  Triphena  laid  herself  down  at  her  side 
than  she  thrusts  her  from  her,  seeming  to  avoid  the 
contact  of  her  friend. 

Lucian,  in  his  Dialogues  of  Courtesans,  tells  us  that 
one  woman  could  at  one  and  the  same  time  carry  on 
two  heterogeneous  affections  and  be  passionately  in 
love  with  a man  and  with  a woman. 

Lombroso  on  the  Causes  of  this  Vice.  Parent- 
Duchatelet,  who  is  not  always  so  happy  in  his  ex- 
plications as  he  is  precise  and  exact  in  the  information 
he  gives,  explains  tribadism  by  the  forced  privation 
of  man  and  by  promiscuous  residence  in  prison  or  in 
brothels;  but  he  has  not  thought  of  the  invasion  of 
this  vice  into  the  higher  ranks  of  society,  which  have 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


307 


no  connection  with  prisons  or  with  the  life  in  houses 
of  prostitution  ; in  order  to  prove  this,  as  .Sighele  remarks, 
one  has  but  to  refer  to  the  large  number  of  novels  in 
which  allusion  is  made  to  it. 

Amongst  such  works  we  may  call  to  mind  the  fol- 
lowing ; some  of  them  have  been  written  by  men  of 
genius,  and  all  by  writers  of  great  talent.  This  fact 
in  itself  is  significant  of  the  condition  of  “ Society.” 

Diderot,  La  Religieuse,  the  romance  of  a devotee 
of  Lesbian  love ; Balzac,  Fille  atix  yeux  d'or, 
Lesbian  love ; Theophile  Gautier,  Alademoiselle  de 
Maicpht ; Feydeau,  La  Cointesse  de  Chalis ; Flau- 
bert, Salammbd ; Belot,  Alademoiselle  Giraud  ma 
femme.  In  German  literature  Krafft-Ebing  cites 
the  novels  of  WiLBRAND:  FridoUn's  heimliche  Ehc ; 
of  Emerich  Count  Stadion,  Brick  tmd  Brack,  odcr 
LAcht  in  Schatten,  and  of  Sacher-Masoch,  Femes 
im  Pelz.  Zola  also  alludes  to  tribadism  in  Nana  and 
in  La  Curee,  and  quite  recently  in  Italy,  Butti,  in 
his  novel  L Automna. 

“There  are  in  Paris,”  writes  Leo  Taxil,  “in  high 
society,  genuine  Lesbian  assemblies,  groups  of  women 
residing  in  fashionable  quarters,  who  take  the  title  of 
Lesbians,  and  rob  and  covet  each  the.  pathic  victims 
that  are  supplied  to  them  by  special  procuresses.  ^ 

“ They  also  are  Lesbian,”  adds  Leo  Taxil,  “these  Kell- 
nerinne7i  who  are  to  be  seen  together  in  the  Paris 
beer-houses,  wearing  exactly  similar  clothing,  whom 
the  students  call  little  sisters ; these  actresses  who  live 
together,  these  married  women  of  40  years  of  age, 
for  whom  a young  and  attentive  friend  quits  every- 
thing and  never  leaves  them  for  a moment.  They 
are  always  accompanied  by  a little  dog  adorned  with 

' Corruption  fin-dc-siecle. 


3o8 


UNTRODDliN  FIELDS  OF 


ribbons,  etc. ; they  may  also  be  recognised  by  their 
habit  of  protruding  their  tongue ; I have  distinguished 
some  by  a continual  convulsive  contraction  of  the 
hands,  by  the  more  masculine  attitude  and  dress  of 
one  of  the  two.” 

The  causes  are  here  of  various  nature : — 

Natural  Wantonness.  The  first  is  the  excessive 
lasciviousness  of  some  of  them,  which  the  endeavour 
to  satisfy  by  every  means,  even  by  the  least  natural. 
In  this  way  we  see  one  of  them  giving  herself  up  to 
women  after  having  used  and  made  abuse  of  men ; 
and  who  does  not  remember  the  words  of  Catherine 
II,  who  had  also  become  a tribad : “ Why  has  nature 
not  given  us  a sixth  sense  ? ” 

The  same  thing  is  noticed  in  men,  and  Caylus,  the 
prototype  of  Urnings,  admitted  having  made  abuse  of 
women  until  the  age  of  33  years;  and  as  born-criminals 
are  more  lascivious,  the  observation  of  Parent-Duchatelet 
becomes  better  comprehensible,  that  the  most  depraved 
tribads  and  the  most  inclined  to  deprave  the  others, 
had  all  of  them  remained  during  several  years  in 
prison. 

Environment  as  a Factor.  The  second  cause  is 
the  influence  of  the  place  of  habitation  ; some  of  us 
have  verified,  that  in  prison,  some  of  these,  unable  to 
satisfy  their  desires  with  men,  turned  to  women  and 
became  a centre  of  corruption,  that  spread  even  to 
the  religious  sisters  on  service.  It  is  for  this  reason 
that  although  female  prisoners  are  often  criminaloi'ds 
but  little  inclined  to  erotism,  they  often  become  tribads 
under  the  influence  of  the  very  lascivious  born-criminals. 

Parent-Duchatelet  observes  that  the  prison  is  the 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


309 


great  school  of  tribadism,  and  that  the  most  resisting 
of  prisoners  finally  gives  way  to  the  vice,  if  she  has 
to  remain  there  from  18  to  20  months.  Okies  remarks 
that  if  several  women  are  assembled  together  in  a 
prison,  their  erotic  indecency,  even  when  they  are 
closely  watched,  increases  in  cubic  ratio;  and  when 
they  are  locked  up  together,  scenes  take  place  which 
far  surpass  the  compass  of  any  imagination  (Liszt, 
Archiv.  i8gi). 

In  this  manner  they  come  near  to  animals,  which, 
when  they  are  unable  to  satisfy  their  sexual  wants 
on  members  of  their  species  of  the  opposite  sex,  make 
attempts  upon  those  of  their  own. 

The  same  fact  has  been  observed  in  asylums,  where 
the  entrance  of  one  tribad  is  sufficient  to  contaminate 
the  entire  establishment,  where  no  tendency  of  the 
kind  had  previously  existed.  (Lombroso,  Le  Tribadisme 
dans  les  Asiles). 

Secret  Clubs  of  Vice.  As  a third  cause  we  may 
name  the  assembling  together  of  a number  of  women, 
particularly  if  among  them  there  be  prostitutes  and 
lascivious  creatures.  This  assembling  provokes,  by  a 
sort  of  immoral  ferment  introduced  into  the  community, 
and  by  the  multiplication  of  the  vices  of  each  of  its 
members,  the  formation  of  a more  energetic  collective 
vice.  Besides,  the  prostitutes  are  often  naked  or  half 
naked,  living  together  in  almost  continual  contact, 
sleeping  two  and  sometimes  three  in  one  bed.  In  the 
higher  classes  the  same  thing  is  found  in  colleges,  in 
the  orgies  of  the  carnival  and  also  in  some  convents. 

Let  us  call  to  mind  the  scenes  described  by  Juvenal : 
“ When,  summoned  to  the  dance  by  the  sound  of  the 
flute,  excited  by  music  and  by  libations,  the  priestesses 


310 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


of  Bacchus  loosen  their  long  tresses,  exhaling  passionate 
sighs,  then  to  what  ardour  are  they  not  the  prey, 
impelling  them  to  join  one  with  the  other!  What 
accents  does  not  passion  and  the  phrenzy  of  the  dance 
impress  upon  their  voices ! Nought  any  longer  stops 
the  divine  torrent  which  they  let  flow  down  their 
thighs.  Then  Lasella  provokes  and  defles  them  to 
wrestle  for  the  crown,  the  prize  which  she  carries  off 
with  more  lascivious  motions,  from  the  most  depraved 
of  prostitutes : and  yet  she  cannot  but  admire  Me- 
dullina  and  her  lascivious  gests.  Both  of  these  great 
dames  have  an  equal  glory.  Nothing  is  simulated  in 
their  play,  so  much  so  that,  a son  of  Sparta,  insensible 
and  frozen  from  his  birth,  and  the  venerable  Nestor, 
could  not  support  the  sight  without  being  inflamed.” 

Similar  collective  orgies  take  place  in  certain  houses 
of  prostitution  in  Paris,  with  participation  of  ladies  of 
fashion  (Fiaux,  Les  maisons  de  tolerance,  1892);  which 
reminds  us  of  the  pederastic  orgies  of  men  assembled 
together,  which  gave  occasion  to  the  prosecutions  at 
Padua,  of  Pavia,  etc.  The  forbidden  fruit  seems  only 
to  be  enjoyable  to  the  degenerate  when  accompanied 
by  the  noisiest  and  most  scandalous  complicity. 

Fiaux  gives  other  reasons,  hitherto  ignored,  for  the 
influence  of  the  houses  of  prostitution  on  tribadism ; 
this  is  that  the  mistresses  of  these  establishments  favour 
it  in  order  to  have  greater  tranquillity  in  the  house, 
to  drive  away  from  it  fancy-men  who  are  always 
prejudicial  to  them,  for,  as  they  say  : “ When  our  women 
have  a lover,  they  go  away  on  their  out-days  and  spend 
outside  the  money  they  have  gained ; whereas,  on 
the  contrary,  the  tribads  shut  themselves  up  in  their 
room  and  treat  each  other  to  dainties  and  liqueurs 
which  are  sold  to  them  in  the  establishment.” 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


311 


Sometimes  they  visit  the  hospitals  where  they  go 
to  recruit  and  establish  the  preliminaries  of  these  unions. 
Sometimes  the  mistresses  of  these  houses  are  them- 
selves sapphic ; they  dress  and  treat  their  pathics  with 
much  attention  and  care,  or  else  suddenly  act  with 
such  violence  towards  them  as  to  oblige  them  to  have 
recourse  to  the  police. 

More  often  again,  they  continue  this  infamous 
traffic  for  another  sorry  purpose:  to  make  it  the  sub- 
ject of  poses  plastiques,  in  which  scenes  of  orgies 
there  figured,  to  render  the  tableaux  more  exciting, 
the  little  dogs  of  these  dames,  sights  which  brought 
them  in  large  profits.  Lastly,  as  we  have  already 
said,  it  enabled  them  to  supply  a higher  range  of 
society  with  the  pathics  required  by  noble  dames. 

Carlier  relates  that  there  exist  in  Paris  four  or  five 
houses  of  prostitution  where  women  of  the  upper  ten 
and  of  the  demi-^novde  meet  to  abandon  themselves  to 
collective  orgies  and  to  sapphism.  It  may  be  here 
remarked  that  prostitutes,  so  inclined  to  reciprocal 
sapphism,  are  far  less  so  towards  outside  lady  visitors, 
unless  they  are  obliged  to  do  so  by  special  agreement 
mentioned  in  their  contracts  and  remunerated  at  sti- 
pulated price. 

In  the  houses  of  prostitution  the  women  also  make 
bets,  and  have  competitions  and  examens  on  their  own 
secret  beauties,  which  naturally  excite  to  tribadism. 
It  often  happens  that  young  girls,  who  are  not  born- 
sapphists,  first  of  all  resist  and  manifest  a certain  aver- 
sion to  this  vice;  but  the  greater  number  succumb 
when  tipsy  and  get  gradually  accustomed  to  it  and 
become  occasional  sapphists. 

There  exists,  according  to  Fiaux,  a curious  rite  in 
connection  with  these  strange  nuptials.  The  woman 


312 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


who  seduces  her  companion,  the  papa  we  may  say, 
purchases  a bottle  of  champagne  and  places  it  before  her 
sweetheart  at  their  first  dinner  together.  All  the  others 
then  know  of  the  new  marriage  and  each  one  is  bound 
to  respect  it.  “In  private  life,”  says  Martineau,  “the 
brasseries  (beer-cafes)  serve  to  bring  about  these  unions  ; 
and  one  can  often  see  in  these  establishments  two  bar- 
maids who  live  together.  They  manage  to  suffice  for 
their  household  expenses  with  the  gratuities  they  obtain 
from  their  customers;  they  avoid  as  much  as  possible 
all  sexual  contact  with  man,  and  when  want  of  money 
forces  one  of  them  to  do  so,  it  is  always  as  much  as 
possible  unbeknown  to  the  other.” 

Advanced  Age,  another  Cause.  Maturity  and 
age,  in  changing  the  character  of  the  female  sex,  also 
favours  sexual  inversion  in  women. 

Natural  history  also  shows  us  that  this  tendency  to 
the  sexual  habits  of  the  male  may  also  be  noticed  in 
the  females  of  animals  when  they  grow  old.  As 
Parent-Duchatelet  observes,  almost  all  tribads  are  past 
middle-age.  The  princess  R***  who  wrote  a letter  to 
a chere  amie  couched  in  terms  of  the  most  violent 
Lesbian  love,  became  a tribad  at  the  age  of  sixty, 
after  having  led  an  excessively  gay  life  with  men  in 
her  youth ; this  is  to  some  extent  comprehensible,  for 
old  age  is  in  fact  a sort  of  degeneracy.  It  is  true 
that  sapphism  is  also  to  be  met  with  in  quite  young 
girls,  but  only  if  they  live  in  houses  of  prostitution 
or  in  girls’  colleges,  where,  according  to  Zola,  they 
are  influenced  and  even  compelled  by  their  companions. 

Disgust  born  of  Excess  may  be  regarded  as  a fifth 
cause  of  this  unnatural  practice.  Among  prostitutes 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


313 


and  also  among  some  gay  women,  there  is  to  be 
added  the  apathy  and  disgust  caused  by  the  too  fre- 
quent use  of  the  male;  when  the  sexual  passion  is 
ardent,  and  fails  to  meet  with  satisfaction  from  the 
male,  it  takes  another  direction.  It  is  known  that 
fishermen  object  to  eat  fish.  Martineau  says;  “Some 
of  these  tribads  are  driven  to  it  by  hatred  of  the  bully 
who  maltreats  them ; by  disgust  of  the  long  file  of 
males  they  have  been  obliged  to  satisfy,  of  whom 
they  are  satiated  even  to  nausea.”  Illusions  con- 
tinually destroyed,  even  in  the  genuine  love  they  may 
bear  to  their  lovers,  also  contribute  to  it ; impassioned 
and  inconstant,  they  are  continually  subject  to  the  ill- 
treatment  of  men,  they  then  turn  to  women  whom  they 
trust  will  be  more  faithful  and  who  to  a certainty  will 
be  more  gentle.  Thus  it  was  that  Nana  abandoned 
herself  to  women  from  disgust  of  men  and  of  unclean 
amours,  and  after  having  been  deserted  by  her  fickle 
amants  de  coeur. 

Fiaux  relates  that  a poor  girl,  to  explain  the  love 
she  entertained  for  a bully,  said,  with  wonderful  truth: 
''  If  I have  nothing  to  love,  I am  nothing."  It  is  this 
longing  to  love  a stronger  being,  or  merely  for  a love 
that  is  not  mercenary,  that  is  at  the  bottom  of  all 
these  loves  for  bullies  or  fancy-men,  even  in  those  big 
brothels  where  their  presence  is  unnecessary. 

“ One  of  the  reasons  of  sapphism,”  writes  Sighele 
[Copia  criminale,  p.  533),  “is  no  doubt  the  sexual  per- 
version of  men.  The  sadists  (and  I gather  under  this 
name  all  the  different  sorts  of  voluptuousness  against 
nature  into  which  masculine  love  has  been  transformed) 
exact  from  prostitutes  the  most  repugnant  acts,  and 
finally  tire  and  disgust  them.  These  women,  who  have 
almost  abdicated  their  sex,  can  only  feel  disgust  for 


314 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


such  men,  who  are  almost  no  longer  males.  Thence 
is  born — as  a logical  and  natural  sequence — sapphism. 
To  escape  from  one  infamy,  the  prostitutes  cast  them- 
selves into  another.” 

But  that  is  not  limited  to  prostitutes. 

Congenital  Tendency.  Krafft-Ebing  informs  us 
that  a certain  girl,  aged  29  years,  had  an  alcoholic 
father,  who  committed  suicide ; her  brothers  and  sisters 
were  also  alcoholic  or  hysteric,  and  her  maternal  uncle 
was  a madman.  She  was  menstruated  at  1 8 years ; 
but  already  at  the  age  of  14  she  had  chlorosis  and 
later  on  serious  hysteria;  at  the  age  of  18  she  had 
sexual  intercourse  with  a young  man  with  whom  she 
had  fallen  in  love,  and  a little  later  on  she  masturbated 
herself  in  remembrance  of  him.  In  order  to  continue 
her  romance  with  him,  she  dressed  in  male  attire, 
became  steward  in  a noble  household,  and  on  this 
occasion  made  her  mistress  fall  in  love  with  her;  she 
afterwards  became  an  employee  in  a shop,  and  must 
with  her  comrades  have  frequented  houses  of  prosti- 
tution ; she  was  then  disgusted,  and  resumed  female 
dress.  She  was  sent  to  prison  for  theft,  but  being 
found  to  be  hysterical  she  was  sent  to  a hospital, 
where  she  fell  violently  in  love  with  the  female  attend- 
ants. The  medical  officers  pretended  that  this  tendency 
was  congenital,  but  she  protested : “ I feel  as  a woman ; 
but  the  companionship  of  my  male  colleagues  has  dis- 
gusted me  with  men,  and  as  I have  an  ardent  nature, 
and  feel  the  want  of  attaching  myself  to  some  one, 
little  by  little  I felt  myself  impelled  to  bind  myself 
to  women  and  young  girls  with  whom  I can  better 
agree.  ” 

It  would  seem  that  we  have  here  a latent  and  feeble 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


315 


congenital  cause,  upon  which  has  been  grafted  an 
accidental  cause  precisely  as  is  the  case  in  the  offences 
of  criminaloids.  (See  Lombroso,  L Homme  crimmel, 
vol.  II,  1895). 

“Another  cause  of  tribadism — which  joins  to,  and 
becomes  confounded  with,  the  first — is,”  says  Sighele, 
“ the  absence  in  rich  houses  of  prostitution,  of  the  bully 
or  fancy-man.  The  prostitute  longs  for  a more  lasting, 
less  ephemeral  affection  than  what  her  trade  procures 
her  every  day ; unable  to  find  it  in  men,  she  seeks 
for  it  in  one  of  her  companions.  They  live  together, 
and  the  very  intimacy  of  their  obscenities,  paves  the 
slope  down  which  they  glide,  without  perceiving  it, 
into  Lesbian  love. 

“ From  the  luxurious  lupanars,  sapphism  has  spread  to 
other  centres,  if  not  less  depraved,  certainly  less  boldly 
vulgar. 

“ Sometimes  a kept-woman  of  high  degree,  a courtesan 
of  upper  rank,  has  heard  her  friends  speak  of  such 
turpitudes ; after  supper,  she  has  had  the  curiosity  to 
see  it,  and  finally  she  has  wanted  to  make  the  expe- 
riment. 

“ On  the  other  hand,  some  young  girl  in  rich  houses 
of  prostitution,  who  has  managed  easily  to  meet  with 
an  enthusiastic  lover  who  takes  her  away  to  live  with 
him,  then  communicates  her  infamous  habits  to  other 
women  whose  acquaintance  she  makes.  In  this  manner 
tribadism  has  become  a very  frequent  exception  even 
among  married  women.  Leo  Taxil  says  that  ‘the  number 
of  lady  tribads  in  Paris  is  incalculable.’  ” 

The  Criminality  of  Husbands.  There  is  another 
cause  for  tribadism  for  which  man  is  wholly  responsible. 

Martineau  knew  married  men,  men  living  in  con- 


3i6 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


cubinage  or  having  a passing  liaison  of  only  a few 
hours,  who,  in  order  to  excite  genesic  ardours  that 
have  become  more  or  less  extinct,  endeavour  to  awaken 
in  the  woman  powerfully  voluptuous  sensations.  To 
obtain  this  result,  they  do  not  hesitate  to  resort  to 
mercenaries.  They  may  even  be  seen  after  a gay 
supper,  to  take  their  female  companion  to  some  special 
establishment,  to  be  subjected  to  sapphism  so  as  to 
develop  in  her,  who  generally  was  ignorant  of  the  act, 
a genesic  passion  which  she  will  be  all  the  more 
inclined  to  satisfy,  that  she  has  experienced  more 
voluptuous  sensations.  But  from  that  moment  the 
woman  will  ardently  seek  for  sapphism,  accepts  coition 
but  with  repugnance  and  at  once  takes  rank  among 
the  professional  or  occasional  tribads. 

The  Military  Post  at  Bourail.  The  convent  is 
situated  on  the  side  of  a little  hill,  some  170  feet  high, 
on  the  summit  of  which  is  a guard-house  occupied  by 
a post  of  Marines.  The  palisades  of  the  guard-house 
overlook  the  walls  of  the  convent,  and  are  almost 
within  speaking  distance.  The  women  keep  all  the 
soldiers  in  a quiver  of  excitement.  In  spite  of  the 
sharpest  look-out,  and  a punishment  of  thirty  days  in 
prison  from  the  officer  commanding,  entire  squads  of 
the  men  sleep  out  every  night,  and  scale  the  walls  of 
the  convent.  The  women  drop  ropes  down,  if  the 
soldiers  have  no  ladders.  The  janitress,  who  has  the 
key  of  the  great  door  in  her  pocket,  and  the  poor  nuns 
sleeping  in  their  little  cells,  are  far  from  suspecting 
what  scenes  of  lust  go  on  in  all  corners  of  the  convent. 
But  no  notice  was  taken  of  this.  The  conduct  of  the 
soldiers  was  so  -well  known,  that,  whereas,  in  the  other 
posts  in  the  Colony,  the  men  are  only  relieved  once 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


317 


a year,  the  garrison  of  Bourail  is  relieved  every  three 
months.  Generally,  the  soldiers,  when  they  get  back 
to  Noumea,  have  to  do  a month’s  prison,  for  being 
absent  at  night  without  leave. 

The  General’s  Cap.  One  day,  a General,  who  had 
been  inspecting  the  troops,  came  down  from  the  guard- 
house after  the  review.  The  damsels  were  all  at  the 
windows  of  the  dormitory,  to  watch  the  proceedings. 
As  the  General  passed  under  the  walls  of  the  convent, 
one  of  the  inmates  cried,  “I  say!  You  may  have  a 
fine  gold  cap,  but  you  haven’t  got  such  a good  head 
to  put  under  it  as  my  little  trumpeter.”  The  General 
had  the  good  sense  to  laugh. 

“ Je  m’emmerde,  and  I want  a Man  ”.  A 

Governor  of  the  Colony,  during  one  of  his  rounds, 
visited  the  convent  at  Bourail.  After  having  “ reviewed” 
all  the  inmates,  who  did  their  best  to  maintain  a 
dignified  and  respectful  attitude,  he  stopped  in  front  of 
a pretty  young  blonde,  who  was  standing  in  a corner 
of  the  room,  her  eyes  modestly  cast  down,  and  with  a 
sad  and  dreamy  expression  on  her  fair  face.  The 
Governor,  who  was  anxious  to  pose  as  a paternal 
benefactor,  said  to  the  young  girl,  “ Well,  my  child,  are 
you  glad  to  be  so  well  cared  for  by  these  good  Sisters? 
Is  there  anything  you  want  ? ” The  reply  was  forcible, 
and  even  more  complete  than  that  of  Zola’s  La  Satin 
in  “Nana”  : “I?  Je  m’emmerde,  and  I want  a man!  ” 
The  Governor  turned  on  his  heel,  and  walked  away 
without  saying  another  word. 

The  Marriage  of  the  Liberated  Convicts.  When 
permission  to  marry  is  granted,  the  State,  represented 


3i8 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


on  this  occasion  by  the  Governor  of  the  Reformatory, 
marries  the  well-assorted  couple.  The  convicts,  all 
numbered,  pass  in  front  of  the  immates  of  the  convent, 
who  are  also  ranged  in  order,  and  if  the  male  prisoner. 
No.  3,  takes  a fancy  to  the  female  prisoner  No.  5,  for 
instance,  they  are  granted  an  interview,  which  takes 
place  through  the  bars  of  the  grating,  and  under  the 
sanctimonious  eye  of  the  good  Sister. 

The  marriage  occurs  soon  afterwards.  The  convict 
has  granted  to  him  a piece  of  land,  with  a small  brick 
house  built  on  it,  some  agricultural  implements,  seeds 
for  sowing,  kitchen  utensils,  the  more  indispensable 
articles  of  furniture,  and  for  thirty  months  he  receives 
his  rations  from  Government, — bread,  wine,  meat,  coffee 
and  tafia.  How  many  worthy  peasants  in  France,  who 
have  never  stolen  a farthing,  would  be  glad  of  such 
treatment!  The  marriage  is  celebrated  at  the  Mairie, 
and  the  Church,  and  the  neighbours  are  invited  to  the 
wedding  feast,  for  there  is  always  a wedding  breakfast 
and  attendant  rejoicings.  The  State,  however,  does 
not  carry  its  generosity  so  far  as  to  pay  the  expenses. 
The  modest  bride  procures  the  necessary  money.  She 
has  sold,  in  advance,  her  wedding  night  to  some  ad- 
mirer of  patched-up  virtue.  The  price  varies,  accord- 
ing to  the  quality  of  the  chaste  bride.  It  is  usually 
fifty  francs.  At  the  end  of  the  nuptial  repast,  it  is  the 
husband  who  himself  conducts  his  better  half  to  the 
house  of  the  purchaser,  and  the  next  morning  he  comes 
to  fetch  her,  and  lead  her,  happy  and  smiling,  to  the 
legal  domicile.  I am  inventing  nothing;  what  I here 
state  is  known  to  everybody  in  New  Caledonia,  except 
the  Government,  which  closes  its  eyes  in  order  to  see 
nothing.  And,  it  is  with  people  of  this  sort,  that  they 
seriously  wish  to  colonise  the  island ! The  convict 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


319 


contents  himself  with  hardly  scratching  the  surface  of 
the  earth,  and  sowing  some  haricots,  maize,  pumpkins, 
and  tobacco,  which  is  very  easy  work.  The  conjugal 
field  is  the  one  he  trusts  in  to  bring  in  the  money. 
The  State  furnishes  the  daily  bread,  and  the  woman 
procures  the  luxuries  they  require.  What  the  domestic 
life  of  such  a couple  may  be,  can  be  guessed.  Abuse 
and  blows  are  showered  upon  the  wife,  if  she  is  not 
a successful  bread-winner,  or  if  she  has  a fancy  for 
putting  any  of  her  lovers  on  the  free  list.  Sometimes, 
the  husband  uses  the  knife ; and  then  the  military  tri- 
bunal interferes.  In  other  cases,  on  the  contrary,  the 
wife  poisons  her  husband,  or  employs  one  of  her  lovers 
to  settle  him.  The  children,  when  there  are  any — very 
fortunately,  there  are  but  few, — go  to  the  devil  their 
own  way,  as  might  be  expected  of  the  offspring  of 
such  cankered  beings,  the  prime  fruit  of  the  hulks  and 
the  brothel! 

Sodomy  and  Pederasty  amongst  the  Convicts. 

We  shall  not  be  astonished  to  find  amongst  the  con- 
victs, both  men  and  women,  the  vices  of  Sodom  and 
Gomorrha  flourishing  vigorously.  In  the  Reformatory, 
the  convicts  freely  practise  pederasty,  and  the  liberated 
ones  add  thereto  sodomy  with  their  wives.  A man  is 
not  usually  condemned  to  hard  labour  for  mere  pecca- 
dillos, and  the  moral  sense  is  almost  extinct  when  they 
come  to  the  Reformatory.  Whether  you  call  the  con- 
demned criminal  a convict,  or  a transported  prisoner; 
— whether  he  is  dressed,  as  formerly  in  the  hulks,  in 
yellow  trousers,  a red  coat  and  a green  cap;  or,  as  at 
present,  in  a very  clean  costume  of  white  linen,  with 
a neat  straw  hat,  you  do  not  change  his  nature.  By 
the  sole  fact  of  living  together,  the  bad  become  worse. 


320 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


and  spoil  those  who  are  not  yet  completely  corrupt. 
Put  some  damaged  fruit  into  a basket  with  sound 
fruit,  and  it  will  make  the  good  go  bad;  a fortiori 
when  you  put  rotten  fruit  with  fruit  that  is  already 
damaged.  The  violent  scoundrels,  those  of  the  redoubt- 
able fifth  category,  use  the  knife,  and  end  on  the  guil- 
lotine. The  weak,  and  the  cowards,  are  also  hypocrites, 
that  they  may  obtain  the  privileges  reserved  for  the 
first-class,  but,  at  bottom,  they  are  not  a bit  better 
than  the  others.  Crimes  and  assassinations  are  frequent 
amongst  this  evil  crew.  They  have  taught  the  Kanakas 
the  use  of  certain  poisonous  solanacese,  the  effect  of 
which  is  deadly,  and  which  grow  freely  throughout 
all  the  Colony. 

Prisons  as  Breeder  of  Vice.  I see  that  my  opinion 
as  to  the  life  spent  by  the  convict  in  prison  being  a 
prolific  breeder  of  unnatural  vice  is  shared  by  Mr. 
Havelock  Ellis,  an  English  scientist  who  has  had  the 
courage  to  deal  with  this  unpleasant  subject.  In  his 
last  work.  Sexual  Inversion,  Studies  in  the  Psychology 
of  Sex,  he  quotes  with  approval  the  observations  of 
my  Italian  confrere.  Dr.  Venturi.  I reproduce  the 
whole  passage:  — 

“ In  a Spanish  prison,  not  many  years  ago,  when  a 
new  governor  endeavoured  to  reform  the  homosexual 
manners  of  the  women,  the  latter  made  his  post  so 
uncomfortable  that  he  was  compelled  to  resign.  .Sallilas, 
Vida  Penal  en  Espana,  asserts  that  all  the  evidence 
shows  the  extraordinary  expansion  of  Lesbian  love  in 
prisons.  The  mujeres  homhrunas  receive  masculine 
names — Pepe,  Chulo,  Bernardo,  Valiente;  new-comers 
are  surrounded  in  the  courtyard  by  a crowd  of  lasci- 
vious women,  who  overwhelm  them  with  honeyed 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


321 

compliments  and  gallantries  and  promises  of  protection, 
the  most  robust  virago  having  most  successes ; a single 
day  and  night  complete  the  initiation.  The  frequency 
of  sexual  manifestations  in  insane  women  is  well 
recognised.  With  reference  to  homosexual  manifes- 
tations, I will  merely  quote  the  experience  of  Dr. 
Venturi  in  Italy:  ‘In  the  asylums  which  I have 

directed  I have  found  inverted  tendencies  even  more 
common  than  have  other  observers ; and  the  vice  is  not 
peculiar  to  any  disease  or  age,  for  nearly  all  insane 
women,  except  in  acute  forms  of  insanity,  are  subject 
to  it.  Tribadism  must  thus  be  regarded  as  without 
doubt  a real  equivalent  and  substitute  for  coitus,  as 
these  persons  frankly  regard  it,  in  this  unlike  pederasty 
which  does  not  satisfy  in  insane  men  the  normal  sexual 
desires.’”  (Venturi,  Le  Degenerazione  psichosesstiale, 
1892,  p.  148.) 

Mr.  Ellis  says  (page  82)  that  “ with  girls,  as  with 
boys,  it  is  in  the  school,  at  the  evolution  of  puberty, 
that  homosexuality  first  shows  itself,  ” and  is  later 
developed  in  the  workshop,  amongst  servants  at  hotels 
or  actresses  in  the  theatre.  “ I quote,  ” he  says,  the 
following  from  a private  letter  written  on  the  Con- 
tinent : ‘ An  English  resident  has  told  me  that  his 

wife  has  lately  had  to  send  away  her  parlourmaid  (a 
pretty  girl),  because  she  was  always  taking  in  strange 
women  to  sleep  with  her.  I asked  if  she  had  been 
taken  from  hotel  service  and  found,  as  I expected, 
that  she  had.  But  neither  my  friend  nor  his  wife 
suspected  the  real  cause  of  these  nocturnal  visits.’ 

“ At  Wolverhampton,  some  years  ago,  the  case  was 
reported  of  a woman  in  a galvanising  ‘ store  ’,  who 
after  dinner  indecently  assaulted  a girl  who  was  a new 
hand.  Two  young  women  held  the  victim  down  and 


322 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


this  seems  to  show  that  homosexual  vice  was  here 
common  and  recognised.” 

The  Universality  of  the  Vice.  From  very  early 
times,  and  in  lands  widely  removed  from  each  other, 
this  strange  and  unnatural  practice  has  prevailed.  Sir 
Rich.  Burton  has  dwelt,  in  his  final  essay  to  the  tenth 
vol.  of  the  “ Nights  ” , on  the  ethnography  of  homo- 
sexuality ; but  few  cases  have  been  handed  down  with 
so  much  fidelity  as  to  detail  as  the  following.  This 
is  the  case  of  Catherina  Margaretha  Lincken,  who 
married  another  woman,  somewhat  after  the  manner 
of  the  Hungarian  Countess  V.,  in  our  own  day,  Le.^ 
with  the  aid  of  an  artificial  male  organ.  She  was 
condemned  to  death  for  sodomy,  and  executed  in  1721, 
at  the  age  of  27  (F.  C.  Muller,  “ jFm  weiterer  Fall 
von  co7itrdrer  Sexualempfindimg,"  Friedrich’s  Blatter, 
Heft  IV,  1891).  This  was  in  Germany,  and  it  is  some- 
what remarkable  that  even  at  a much  earlier  period 
such  an  instrument  appears  to  have  been  used  by 
German  women,  for  in  the  twelfth  century  Bishop 
Burchardt  of  Worms  speaks  of  its  use  as  a thing 
“ which  some  women  are  accustomed  to  do.”  I have 
found  a notice  of  a similar  case  in  France,  during  the 
sixteenth  century,  in  Montaigne’s  Journal  du  Voyage 
en  Italic  en  1^80  (written  by  his  secretary) ; it  took 
place  near  Vitry  le  Franpais.  Seven  or  eight  girls 
belonging  to  Chaumont,  we  are  told,  resolved  to  dress 
and  to  work  as  men;  one  of  these  came  to  Vitry  to 
work  as  a weaver,  and  was  looked  upon  as  a well- 
conditioned  young  man,  and  liked  by  everyone.  At 
Vitry  she  became  betrothed  to  a woman,  but,  a 
quarrel  arising,  no  marriage  took  place.  Afterwards 
“ she  fell  in  love  with  a woman  whom  she  married. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


323 


and  with  whom  she  lived  for  four  or  five  months  to 
the  wife’s  great  contentment,  it  is  said ; but  having 
been  recognised  by  some  one  from  Chaumont,  and 
brought  to  justice,  she  was  condemned  to  be  hanged. 
She  said  she  would  even  prefer  this  to  living  again 
as  a girl,  and  was  hanged  for  using  illicit  inventions 
to  supply  the  defects  of  her  sex.”  [Journal,  ed.  by 
D’ Ancona,  1889,  p.  ii). 

Infamous  Passions.  I have  said  that  pederasty 
existed  amongst  the  convicts,  a suitable  ground  in 
which  its  pestilential  growth  could  flourish  freely.  I 
have  said  enough  already  on  this  loathsome  subject, 
apropos  of  the  Annamite  race,  and  do  not  wish  to 
tire  the  reader  with  repugnant  details.  There  are 
certain  subjects  with  which  I was  obliged  to  deal  in 
the  course  of  this  work,  but  to  which  it  is  useless  to 
revert.  I will  simply  state  that, — in  analogy  to  what 
goes  on  amongst  the  Chinese  of  Saigon, — there  are 
to  be  found,  amongst  the  transported  convicts  and 
libere's,  couples  united  by  the  bonds  of  an  infamous 
love.  Of  the  two  associates,  the  one  plays  the  passive 
part, — he  is  the  wife;  the  other, — the  husband — plays 
the  active  part.  Rarely  are  the  parts  reversed,  and 
in  this  circumstance  we  see  that  the  pederasty  of  the 
convicts  differs  greatly  from  that  of  the  Annamites 
and  the  Kanakas.  Generally,  in  the  couple,  there  is 
one  old,  and  one  young,  man,  and,  curious  to  say,  it 
is  nearly  always  the  old  man  who  plays  the  woman’s 
part.  The  younger  and  more  vigorous  man  is  most 
often  the  husband.  The  rule,  however,  has  exceptions. 

Coffignon,  in  his  ably  written  book,  “ La  Corruption 
a Paris”  (p.  327),  divides  active  pederasts  into  ''ama- 
teurs," " entretenetirs,"  and  "souteneurs." 


324 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


The  “ amateurs"  rwettes")  dire  debauched  persons, 
but  also  frequently  congenitally  perverse  sexually,  of 
position  and  fortune,  who  are  forced  to  guard  them- 
selves against  detection  in  the  gratification  of  their 
homesexual  desires.  For  this  purpose  they  visit 
brothels,  lodging-houses,  or  the  private  houses  of  female 
prostitutes,  who  "are  generally  on  good  terms  with 
male  prostitutes.  Thus  they  escape  blackmail. 

Some  of  these  “ amatettrs  ” are  cunning  enough  to 
indulge  their  vile  desires  in  public  places.  They  thus 
run  the  risk  of  arrest,  but,  in  a large  city,  little  risk 
of  blackmail.  Danger  is  said  to  add  to  their  secret 
pleasure. 

The  “ entreteneurs  ” are  old  sinners  who,  even  with 
the  danger  of  falling  into  the  hands  of  blackmailers, 
cannot  deny  themselves  the  pleasure  of  keeping  a 
(male)  mistress. 

The  “ soutenetirs  ” are  pederasts  that  have  been, 
who  keep  their  ''jesus,"  whom  they  send  out  to  entice 
customers  {“faire  chanter  les  rivettes"),  and  who  then, 
at  the  right  moment,  if  possible,  appear  for  the  pur- 
pose of  plucking  the  victim. 

Not  unfrequently  they  live  together  in  bands,  the 
members,  according  to  individual  desire,  living  together 
as  husbands  and  wives.  In  such  bands  there  are 
formal  marriages,  betrothals,  banquets  and  introduc- 
tions of  brides  and  bridegrooms  into  their  apartments. 

These  “ souteneurs  ” attach  their  “’jesus  ” to  them- 
selves. 

The  passive  pederasts  are  ''' petits  jestts,"  “jesus," 
or  “ aunts.  ” 

The  '’'■petits  jesus  ” are  lost,  depraved  children,  whom 
accident  places  in  the  hands  of  active  pederasts,  who 
seduce  them,  and  reveal  to  them  the  horrible  means 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


325 


of  earning  a livelihood,  either  as  “ entretcmis  ” or 
as  male  street- walkers,  with  or  without  ^'■souteneurs." 

The  most  suitable  and  promising  “ petits  jesus  ” are 
given  into  the  hands  of  persons  who  instruct  these 
children  in  the  art  of  female  dress  and  manner. 
Gradually  they  then  seek  to  emancipate  themselves 
from  their  teachers  and  masters,  in  order  to  become 
"femmes  entretenues ; ” and  not  unfrequently,  by  means 
of  anonymous  denunciation  of  their  “ souteneurs  ” , are 
caught  by  the  police. 

It  is  the  object  of  the  " soziteneiir"  and  the  "petit 
jesus,"  to  make  the  latter  appear  young  as  long  as 
possible,  by  means  of  all  the  arts  of  the  toilet. 

The  limit  of  age  is  about  twenty-five  years ; then 
they  all  become  "jesus"  and  "femmes  entretenues," 
and  are  then  sustained  by  several  "souteneurs."  The 
"jesus"  fall  into  three  categories:  "files  galantes," 
i.e.,  those  that  have  fallen  again  into  the  hands  of  a 
"souteneur"-,  " pierreuses"  (ordinary  street-walkers, 
like  their  female  colleagues) ; and  “ domestics. " 

The  “ domestics  " hire  out  to  active  pederasts,  either 
to  gratify  their  desires,  or  to  obtain  "petits  jesus" 
for  them. 

A sub-group  of  these  “ domestics  " is  formed  by  such 
of  them  as  enter  the  service  oi"  petits  jesus  " as  "femmes 
de  chambre. " The  principal  object  of  these  “ domestics  " 
is  to  use  their  positions  to  obtain  compromising 
knowledge,  with  which  they  later  practise  blackmail, 
and  thus  assure  themselves  ease  in  their  old  age. 

The  most  horrible  class  of  active  pederasts  is  made 
up  of  the  "aunts"  — i.e.,  the  "souteneurs"  of  (male) 
prostitutes, — who,  though  normal  sexually  depraved, 
practise  pederasty  (passive)  only  for  gain,  or  for 
blackmail. 


326 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


The  wealthy  amateurs  have  their  reunions  and  places 
of  meeting,  where  the  passive  ones  appear  in  female 
attire,  and  horrible  orgies  take  place.  The  waiters, 
musicians,  etc.,  at  such  gatherings  are  all  pederasts. 
The  ''Jilles  galantes  ” do  not  venture,  except  during 
the  carnival,  to  show  themselves  on  the  street  in  female 
dress;  but  they  know  how  to  lend  to  their  appearance 
something  indicative  of  their  calling,  by  means  of 
style  of  dress,  etc.  They  entice  by  means  of  gesture, 
peculiar  movements  of  the  hands,  etc.,  and  lead  their 
victims  to  hotels,  baths,  or  brothels. 

What  the  author  says  of  blackmail  is  generally 
known.  There  are  cases  where  pederasts  have  allowed 
their  entire  fortune  to  be  wrung  from  them. 

Feminine  jealousies  and  hates  pale  before  the  horrible 
passions  excited  in  the  hearts  of  these  monstrous 
lovers.  Revenge  of  unrequited  love  (it  is  sad  to  have 
to  profane  the  word  “ love  ” by  applying  it  such 
aberrations),  often  drives  the  neglected  one  to  use 
the  knife.  If  he  has  not  the  courage  to  do  this,  he 
seeks  a new  lover,  who  can  avenge  for  him  the  disdain 
of  the  old  one.  Often  are  there  related  before  the 
Council  of  War  accounts  of  scenes  too  horrible  to 
dwell  upon,  for  these  murders  are  often  accompanied 
by  atrocious  aggravations,  and  erotic  mutilations.  The 
transported  convict  of  the  White  race  becomes  as 
ferocious  as  the  Kanaka,  and  has  not,  as  he  has,  the 
excuse  of  being  a savage.  But  here  I will  lay  down 
my  pen  for  the  present,  deeming  it  useless  to  tire  the 
reader  with  an  account  of  such  disgusting  turpitude.  ^ 


^ A defence  of  uranism  has  been  made  by  Carl  Ulrichs  writing 
vmder  the  name  of  “NUMA  NUMANTIUS,”  and  “all  the  latest  lite- 
rature,” says  Schrenck-Notzing,  “shows  traces  of  the  influence  of  Ulrich’s 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


327 


theory.”*  Compare  the  following  writings  of  the  author  mentioned; 

“ Forschungen  fiber  das  Rathsel  der  mannmannlichen  Liebe: 

“ VINDEX  ” : Social  and  legal  studies  of  male  love  of  males.  Proof 
that  it  deserves  punishment  as  little  as  love  of  women,  and  that,  ac- 
cording to  the  existing  laws  of  Germany,  it  cannot  be  legally  punished. 
Leipzig,  1864. 

“INCLUSA”:  Anthropological  studies  of  male  love  of  males.  Proof 
that  in  a certain  class  of  individuals  of  masculine  form  sexual  love  of 
males  is  congenital  sexually.  Leipzig,  1864. 

“ VINDICATE  ” : Struggle  for  freedom  from  persecution.  Criminal 

details  and  legislative  proposals,  looking  to  a revision  of  existing  criminal 
laws.  Diary  of  an  tuning.  Leipzig,  1865. 

“FORMATRIX”;  Anthropological  studies  of  the  love  of  timings. 
Description  of  the  se.xual  nature  of  timings  in  detail.  Key  to  the 
riddle  of  uranism  and  its  varieties.  Leipzig,  1865. 

“ ARA  SPEI  ” ; Studies  in  moral  and  social  philosophy  in  relation 
to  the  love  of  urnings.  Relation  of  the  urning’s  love  to  morality, 
Christianity,  and  the  moral  arrangement  of  the  world.  Moral  justifica- 
tion of  the  urning’s  love.  Love-bond  of  urnings.  The  conflict  of  urnings 
and  its  solution.  The  exceptional  place  of  love  in  the  moral  status  of 
the  world.  Hope.  Leipzig,  1865. 

“ GLADIUS  FURENS”:  The  enigma  of  nature  in  the  urning’s 

love,  and  error  as  a maker  of  laws.  An  arraignment  of  German  laws. 
Kassell,  1868. 

“ MEMNON  ” : The  sexual  natiue  of  the  male-loving  tuning.  Psycho- 

physical hermaphroditism.  Aninia  midiebris  virili  corpore  inclusa.  A 
study  in  natural  science.  Two  parts.  Schleiz,  1868. 

“INCUBUS”:  Urning’s  love  and  blood-thirstiness.  A consideration 

of  abnormal  states  of  mind  and  responsibility,  occasioned  by  the  case 
of  Zastrow,  Berlin;  with  fifteen  allied  cases.  Leipzig,  l86g. 

“ ARGONAUTICUS  ” : Zastrow  and  the  timings  belonging  to  the 

camp  of  the  pietists,  ultramontanes,  and  free-thinkers,  with  considerations 
concerning  blood-thirstiness  and  responsibility,  and  brief  reports  from 
the  world  of  urnings  and  the  criminal  cases : Bishop  Morell,  of  Edin- 
burgh; Count  Czarnechy,  of  Posen;  Superintendent  Forstner,  of  Vienna. 
Leipzig,  1869. 

* See  Theurapeutic  S7iggestion  in  Psychopathia  Sexualis  by  Dr.  A. 
von  Schrenck-Notzing  (Munich),  trans.  by  Chas.  G.  Chaddock,  M.D. 
(Phil,  and  Lond.,  1895). 


CHAPTER  VI. 


A note  by  the  Author. — Anthropological  characteristics  of  the 
natives  of  the  Neiv  Hebrides. — Their  admixture  with  the  Maori- 
Poly  nesian  race. — Characteristics  of  the  p2ire  Melanesian  race. — 
It  is  autochtnonous  in  Australia. — Anthropological  importance  of 
the  genital  organs  in  determining  the  origin  of  a race. — The 
genital  organ  of  the  African  Negro,  and  of  his  various  crossings 
with  the  Uhite. — The  genital  organ  of  the  Melanesian,  compared 
to  that  of  the  African  Negro.  — The  genital  organ  of  the  woman 
of  the  New  Hebrides. 

Note  by  the  Author.  I have  not  had  the  good  luck 
to  visit  the  New  Hebrides,  but  I studied  the  race  at 
Noumea,  where  many  of  the  New  Hebrideans  were, 
in  1 88 — , employed  by  the  colonists.  Besides  this,  I 
knew  several  “ Copra-makers,  ” who  had  resided  in 
the  islands  for  a time,  and  had  returned  to  New  Cale- 
donia to  recover  their  health,  which  had  been  weakened 
by  marsh  fever.  Amongst  these,  I met  one  of  my  old 
college  chums,  formerly  an  officer  in  the  Navy,  who, 
after  a series  of  adventures,  had  settled  down  in  these 
islands,  and  who  has  since  ended  by  leaving  his  bones 
there.  I can  confidently  give  the  new  and  original 
information  with  which  he  supplied  me.  I have  also 
gathered  some  useful  knowledge  from  a book  by  M. 
Imhaus,  formerly  the  manager  of  the  French  New 
Hebridean  Company. 

Anthropological  Characteristics  of  the  New  He- 
bridean Race.  The  New  Hebridean  is  a Melanesian 

328 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF  ANTHROPOLOGY.  329 


Black  of  almost  pure  race,  in  most  of  the  islands.  In 
some  of  them  he  is  crossed,  like  the  Kanaka  of  New 
Caledonia,  with  the  Maori-Poly nesian  race; — but  these 
crossings  form  only  a minority  of  the  natives.  Usually, 
the  New  Hebridean  is  darker,  less  robust,  and  not  so 
handsome  as  the  New  Caledonian.  I must  remark, 
that  the  native  of  Loyalty  Island  is  of  Maori  race,  if 
not  almost  pure,  at  least  not  crossed  to  any  great 
extent  with  the  Melanesian  race,  and  that  he  is  in  a 
much  more  advanced  state  of  civilisation  than  the  New 
Caledonian.  I may  apply  the  same  observation  to  the 
New  Hebridean,  who  is  lower  in  the  scale  than  the 
New  Caledonian.  In  all  these  people  the  degree  of 
civilisation  may  almost  be  ascertained  by  the  lighter 
colour  of  the  skin,  which  is  the  index  of  a greater  or 
less  infusion  of  Maori  blood. 

When  speaking  of  Tahiti,  I shall  make  a special  study 
of  the  Maori  race.  For  the  time  being,  I will  content 
myself  by  saying  that,  in  the  New  Hebrides,  we  are  able 
to  watch  the  effects  of  the  crossing  of  the  two  races. 

The  Crossing  of  the  Polynesian  and  Melanesian 
Races.  M.  Imhaus  gives  a striking  instance  of  this 
admixture. 

“In  the  small  island  of  Mele,  near  the  Sandwiches, 
the  intrusion  of  the  Maori  only  dates  back  about  thirty 
years,  which  enables  us  to  see  clearly  the  progress 
made  by  the  race.  The  accident  which  caused  this 
was  the  wreck  of  a vessel,  which  was  taking  some 
Kanaka  Maoris  back  to  Samoa.  The  crew  was 
murdered,  and  eaten,  but  the  Maoris,  braver  and  more 
vigorous  than  their  companions,  escaped  from  their 
enemies,  and  took  refuge  in  a desert  corner  of  the 
island.  There  they  organised  their  forces,  and,  thanks 


330 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


to  the  internal  dissensions  amongst  the  New  Hebrideans, 
were  able  to  hold  their  ground,  and  make  themselves 
feared.  They  carried  olf  wives  for  themselves,  from 
the  neighbouring  tribes,  and  they  formed,  at  last,  a 
powerful  tribe,  which  was  upon  the  point  of  subduing 
the  island,  if  it  had  not  come  across  the  White  man 
in  its  progress.” 

Such  an  instance,  of  quite  recent  date,  well  explains 
why  the  mixed  population  of  Cana  and  Aoba  is  now 
so  different  from  that  of  the  other  islands,  where  the 
Melanesian  race  continues  to  be  unmixed. 

Characteristics  of  the  Melanesian  Race.  Firstly, 
let  it  be  said  that  the  Melanesian  Oceanean,  who  came 
from  Australia,  and  who  first  peopled  New  Caledonia, 
the  Loyalty  Islands,  and  the  New  Hebrides,  greatly 
resembles  the  African  Negro.  There  is  the  same  deep 
black  coloration  of  the  skin,  the  same  woolly  hair,  on 
a high  skull  pressed  down  towards  the  front,  the  wide 
nose,  thick  lips,  flat  face,  and  low  facial  angle.  But 
there  the  resemblance  ceases.  Primarily,  I may  remark 
that  the  African  Negroes  are  stalwart,  and  physically 
handsome,  whilst  the  Melanesian  race  is  the  most 
degraded  of  all,  and  undoubtedly  occupies  the  lowest 
rank  in  the  scale  of  humanity.  The  New  Hebridean, 
who  is  a pure  Melanesian,  is  still  what  he  was  in  the 
time  of  Forster,  one  of  the  companions  of  Cook,  in 
1774,  who  closely  studied  the  natives  of  Mallicolo. 

“ Being  small  and  badly  proportioned,  with  lanky 
limbs,  a pot  belly,  a flat  face,  and  thick,  frizzy  short 
hair,  these  savages  are  hideous ; they  remind  one  more 
of  a monkey  than  a man.”  Those  pseudo-scientific 
men,  who  have  never  taken  their  feet  off  their  own 
footstools,  have  gravely  discussed,  at  great  length,  the 


AMTHROPOLOGY. 


331 


question  whether  the  Australian  Negro  came  from 
Africa,  or,  on  the  contrary,  the  African  Negro  came 
from  Australia.  They  have  never  taken  into  consid- 
eration the  distance  which  separates  the  nearest  part 
of  Australia  from  the  coast  of  Mozambique, — a distance 
equal  to  700  of  longitude,  or  one  fifth  of  the  circum- 
ference of  the  equator,  or  something  like  five  thousand 
miles,  or  rather  more  than  4500  nautical  miles.  And 
to  accomplish  this  enormous  distance  the  emigrants 
could  only  have  at  their  disposal,  a few  clumsy  canoes, 
with  no  water,  no  food,  hardly  any  sails,  and  above 
all,  no  compass.  The  absurdity  of  such  an  hypothesis 
is  palpable  when  we  remember  that  Christopher  Colum- 
bus, genius  as  he  was,  needed  the  compass,  unlimited 
faith,  three  ponderous  caravels,  and  the  best  and  bravest 
sailors  of  Spain,  to  perform  the  voyage  from  Palos  to 
San-Lucaye,  which  is  less  than  that  which  divides 
Africa  from  Australia.  No ! the  African  Negro  and 
the  Australian  Negro  are  two  entirely  distinct  races. 

The  Melanesian  Race  of  Australia  is  Autoch- 
thonous. Must  we  then  agree  with  that  theory  of 
modern  science,  according  to  which  Australia  has  its 
own  peculiar  race,  and  believe  that  the  Melanesian 
race  is  autochthonous?  That  is  Darwin’s  theory,  who 
maintains  that  natural  selection  caused  man  to  appear 
simultaneously  or  successively,  in  several  parts  of  the 
earth.  One  point  is  now  generally  admitted  by  men 
of  science,  and  that  is  that  the  Australian  continent, 
the  last  discovered  by  European  civilisation  was,  on 
the  contrary,  the  first  to  appear  above  the  waters,  as 
we  learn  from  geological  data,  and  from  the  character 
of  the  fauna  and  flora.  Was  it  the  first  to  receive 
the  human  race,  and  does  that  explain  the  mental 


332 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


inferiority  of  the  natives,  compared  with  other  races? 
I do  not  pretend  to  answer  the  question,  but  leave 
the  problem  for  others  to  solve. 

But  I am  going  to  try  to  prove  here,  by  means  of 
the  difference  existing  between  the  anthropological 
characteristics,  that  the  Australian  Black  is  not  de- 
scended from  the  African  Negro.  He  differs  from  him 
less  than  do  the  other  races,  yellow,  white,  or  red, 
but  that  is  all. 

Anthropological  Importance  of  the  Genital 
Organ  in  Determining  the  Origin  of  Race.  I 

revert  to  a question  which  I have  already  discussed. 
Misplaced  modesty  has  caused  anthropologists  gen- 
erally to  neglect  to  examine  the  male  genital  apparatus. 
Apart  from  this,  they  give  us  minute  details  concerning 
the  facial  angle,  the  prognathous  jaw,  etc.  Like  the 
Norman  peasant  of  Falaise,  they  have  forgotten  to 
light  the  candle  in  their  lantern.  To  me,  it  seems 
evident  that  the  genital  organ  gives  us  the  key  to 
prove  the  descent  of  a race,  for,  in  all  the  various 
crossings  the  race  may  undergo,  it  is  physically  the 
most  powerful  characteristic, — the  one  which  lasts  the 
longest,  and  is  the  last  to  disappear.  And  this  is  but 
logical.  The  genital  organ  ensures  the  continuity  of 
the  race.  It  is  the  most  important  organ;  it  is  the 
last  to  appear,  and  the  first  to  disappear.  It  lasts 
hardly  more  than  half  the  life  of  a man.  For  these 
reasons  it  is  the  anthropological  characteristic  to  which, 
above  all  others,  importance  should  be  attached,  and 
I do  not  deem  it  more  shameful  and  disgusting  to 
measure  the  length,  the  size,  or  the  stiffness  in 
erection,  of  a Negro’s  penis,  than  it  would  be  for  a 
surgeon  to  probe  a urethra,  or  perform  an  operation 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


333 


on  a testicle.  There  is  no  false  modesty  in  medical 
matters. 

The  Genital  Organs  of  the  Coloured  Races. 
Result  of  the  Crossing  of  the  Negro  and  the  White. 

Although  this  question  has  been  thoroughly  studied  in 
the  part  of  the  book  relating  to  Guiana,  I refer  to  it 
again  here  to  facilitate  comparisons.  The  persistence 
of  the  characteristics  of  the  genital  organ  of  the  Negro 
in  all  the  crossings  of  the  race  first  proved  to  me  the 
importance  of  this  sign.  Thus  the  Zambo,  who  is  one 
quarter  White,  is  almost  a Negro  as  regards  his  genital 
organ,  and  differs  more  from  the  White  man  than  the 
Quadroon,  who  is  one  fourth  Black,  differs  from  the 
Negro.  The  Mulatto  (half  White  and  half  Black)  is 
genitally  much  nearer  the  Negro  than  the  White. 
Taking  the  two  extreme  points  of  departure,  the  White 
and  the  Black,  and  comparing  the  two  genital  organs, 
I have  shown  the  radical  differences  which  separate 
them  as  to  form,  colour,  and  size,  in  the  conditions  of 
flaccidity  and  erection.  The  Zambo  is  from  this  point 
of  view,  almost  a Negro,  the  Mulatto  much  nearer  a 
Negro  than  a White  man,  and  we  must  come  to  the 
Quadroon  before  we  find  that  the  genital  apparatus  of 
the  White  man  has  regained  its  lost  ground.  But,  I 
have  been  careful  to  state,  that  though  the  Quadroon, 
who  has  but  one  quarter  of  Black  blood,  may  often 
have  hair  almost  fair,  and  a skin  lighter  than  that  of  a 
South  European,  a simple  examination  of  the  genital 
organs  will  reveal  the  “man  of  colour”.  The  penis  is 
always  proportionally  more  developed  than  in  the  pure 
White,  the  difference  between  the  flaccid  condition  and 
erection  less  considerable;  and,  finally,  the  mucous 
surface  of  the  gland  has  never  that  red  or  pink  colour 


)1 


334 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


which  is  peculiar  to  the  European  of  the  unmixed 
White  race. 

The  influence  of  the  genital  organs  of  the  Negro  is 
still  evident  in  the  Octoroon  (who,  however,  has  but 
an  eighth  part  of  Black  blood)  and  can  be  recognised 
by  a gland  of  a rather  dark  brownish  red  colour,  and 
a scrotum  much  darker  than  the  skin  of  the  body.  I 
attribute  this  curious  persistence  to  the  fact  that  the 
crossing  of  the  two  races  takes  place  in  tropical  coun- 
tries, and  in  unhealthy  climates,  for  which  the  Negro 
race  was  specially  created.  If  a similar  crossing  took 
place  in  Siberia,  between  Russians  and  Negroes,  perhaps 
the  reverse  would  happen,  and  the  White  race  would 
have  the  superiority  over  the  Black. 


Comparison  of  the  Genital  Organ  of  the  Melane- 
sian with  that  of  the  African  Negro.  By  the  aid 

of  these  facts,  I am  able  to  rebut  the  theory,  that  the 
two  races  of  Negroes  of  Africa  and  Australia  have 
the  same  ethnological  origin.  And  here  are  my 
arguments.  In  the  Melanesian  Black,  however  dark 
the  skin  may  be,  and  it  is  often  as  black  as  a pair 
of  boots  well  polished  with  Day  and  Martin’s  blacking, 
you  will  never  find  the  mucous  surface  of  the  gland 
black,  as  it  is  in  the  African  Negro.  The  mucous 
surface,  on  the  contrary,  is  of  a fairly  bright  purplish 
red,  such  as  may  be  obtained  by  a mixture  of  car- 
mine, Vermillion,  and  Vandyke  brown,  with  neutral 
tint  in  the  shadows. 

This  colour,  being  rather  bright,  contrasts  forcibly 
with  the  dark  ground  of  the  skin  of  the  penis  and 
the  scrotum.  It  resembles  the  penis  of  a Negro,  the 
mucous  surface  of  the  gland  of  which  has  been 
flayed.  As  to  the  genital  apparatus,  it  is  less  developed 


T 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


335 


in  the  Melanesian  than  in  the  African  Negro.  The 
dimensions  of  the  penis  are  very  nearly  those  (as 
average  and  maximum)  given  for  the  New  Caledonian ; 
but  the  gland  has  a more  obtuse  shape,  and  there  are 
cases  of  phimosis,  when  circumcision  has  not  been 
performed.  The  testicles  appeared  to  me  to  be  a 
little  less  developed.  The  pubes  is  shad'^d  with  rather 
coarse,  curly  hair.  In  a flabby  state,  the  penis  is  still 
fairly  large,  but  the  difference  in  the  state  of  erection 
is  very  marked,  which  is  not  the  case  with  the  African 
Negro.  These  fundamental  differences  between  the 
genital  organs  of  the  Australian  and  African  Negroes 
are,  to  my  mind,  an  unanswerable  proof  that  the  former 
are  autochthonous  in  Australia,  and  that  that  country 
is  the  cradle  of  the  race.  From  there  it  spread  to 
New  Caledonia,  then  to  the  New  Hebrides,  where 
later  the  Black  race  became  mixed  with  the  Maori- 
Polynesian. 

The  Genital  Organ  of  the  Woman  of  the  New 
Hebrides  is  naturally  in  proportion  to  that  of  the 
male  organ.  It  presents  very  little  difference  (except 
a darker  colour  of  the  skin  and  the  mucous  surfaces) 
from  that  of  the  New  Caledonian  woman.  I therefore 
refer  the  reader  to  what  I have  already  written  con- 
cerning the  latter. 


CHAPTER  VII. 


A feiv  words  on  the  manners,  custofns,  etc.,  of  the  New  Hebii- 
deans. — Costu?ne. — The  manou. — The  woman’s  girdle. — Tattoo- 
ing.— Habitatiojis. — Food. — Anns  and  utensils. — The  tam-tam; 
the  pilou-pilou.  — The  erotic  daiice. — The  Kama. 

A Few  Words  on  the  Manners,  Customs,  etc. 

Before  studying  the  New  Hebridean  in  contact  with 
the  White  man,  it  is  as  well  to  cast  a rapid  glance  at 
the  manners  and  customs  of  the  people.  We  will  begin 
by  mentioning  that  the  dialect  varies  in  every  island 
throughout  the  group. 

Costume. — The  Manou  of  the  New  Hebridean. 

Like  that  of  the  New  Caledonian,  the  costume  is  of  the 
simplest  possible  kind,  and,  for  the  man,  is  confined  to 
the  manou.  But  the  matioti  is  of  a different  shape. 
The  New  Caledonian  lets  his  hang  between  his  legs 
down  to  the  knees.  The  New  Hebridean,  on  the  con- 
trary, pulls  his  up,  and  passes  the  end  under  a girdle 
of  aloe  fibre  which  he  is  never  without. 

At  Santo  and  Aoba,  instead  of  the  ttianou,  the  men 
wear  a kind  of  short  petticoat  made  of  bark,  and  not 
more  than  four  or  five  inches  in  length  (just  sufficient 
to  hide  the  genital  organs),  which  is  fastened  to  a narrow 
girdle.  But,  in  the  other  islands,  the  upright  manou 
is  used  and  it  has  the  curious  effect  of  letting  the  two 
testicles  stand  out  exposed  to  sight,  owing  to  the  lower 
part  of  the  scrotum  being  pulled  up  by  the  manou. 

336 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF  ANTHROPOLOGY.  337 


The  Women’s  Girdle.  In  all  the  islands  the  women 
are  completely  naked  above  the  waist.  Those  of  Aoba 
wear  a plaited  petticoat ; in  the  other  islands,  a few 
fibres  of  cocoa-nut  are  twisted  into  a wreath  threaded 
on  a cord,  which  passes  round  the  hips  and  constitutes 
the  whole  costume.  This  little  petticoat  only  covers 
the  abdomen  and  the  buttocks.  At  Tana  the  petticoat 
comes  down  to  the  ground,  and  resembles  an  old  crinoline, 
rather  flattened. 

Tattooing  Tattooing  is  very  little  used,  and  is  con- 
fined to  a few  blue  rays  on  the  face,  and  a scar  or 
two  on  the  body.  But  the  native  smears  himself  all 
over,  principally  on  the  face,  with  red  and  white  paint, 
which  gives  him  a terrible  appearance  in  war. 

Habitations. — Food.  I will  simply  say  that  the 
hut  much  resembles  that  of  the  New  Caledonian,  and 
that,  like  the  latter,  the  New  Hebridean  lives  almost 
entirely  upon  vegetable  food.  The  introduction  of 
poultry  and  pigs,  by  Cook,  however,  somewhat  im- 
proved the  diet.  On  the  coast,  the  tribes  have  a further 
resource,  in  the  form  of  fish.  The  New  Hebrideans 
harpoon  fish  with  their  javelins. 

Arms  and  Utensils.  The  utensils  are  confined  to 
some  rude  dishes  of  wood  or  bamboo,  and  the  furniture 
to  a few  mats  placed  on  the  ground.  In  the  way  of 
weapons,  the  New  Hebridean  possesses  the  war  club 
with  a rounded  head  and  points  projecting  from  it  all 
round ; javelins,  ten  feet  long,  armed  at  the  tip  with 
splinters  of  bone,  and  with  a human  shin  bone  fastened 
to  the  butt;  and  bows,  throwing  arrows  furnished  with 
human  bones.  Arrows  and  darts  are  often  poisoned. 


22 


338 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


by  means  of  a sticky  extract  made  from  the  juice  of 
certain  plants.  The  Whites  who  trade  (usually  with 
the  exchange  of  shots  on  both  sides)  with  the  natives, 
greatly  fear  the  wounds  of  these  poisoned  weapons, 
and  so  they  sold  them  a number  of  old  muzzle  loading 
muskets,  shooting  round  bullets.  They  have  also  im- 
prudently allowed  them  to  possess  some  Snider  rifles. 
This  fault  was  due  to  the  captains  of  some  of  the 
English  vessels,  but  now  the  few  Whites  who  inhabit 
the  island,  still  manage  to  make  themselves  feared,  by 
means  of  their  American  Winchester  rifles,  with  sixteen 
shots  in  the  magazine. 

The  Tam-tam;  the  Pilou-pilou.  On  the  little 
open  space  in  the  middle  of  each  village  may  be  seen, 
fastened  into  the  ground,  enormous  trunks  of  hollow 
trees,  having  the  form  of  human  heads  and  trunks, 
with  an  enormous  phallus.  This  is  the  New  Hebridean 
tam-tam,  which  gives,  when  it  is  struck  with  a thick 
stick,  a dull  sound,  like  that  of  a big  drum.  After 
the  yam  and  banyan  harvests,  the  natives  assemble  at 
the  sound  of  this  drum,  and  dance  an  interminable 
piloio-pilou,  like  that  of  the  New  Caledonian.  During 
two  or  three  days,  they  eat,  drink,  yell,  beat  the  tam- 
tam, and  play  on  bamboo  pipes.  These  wild  dances 
sometimes  mimic  war,  and  sometimes  love. 

“ The  Erotic  Dance.  “No  art,”  observes  Mr.  T.  M. 
Wheeler,  ^ “ dates  back  to  a more  hoary  antiquity  than 
that  of  dancing;  nor  is  there  any  the  history  of  which 
takes  us  over  a wider  survey  of  mankind.  From  pre- 
historic times  only  to  be  interpreted  by  such  remains 

' In  Footsteps  of  the  Past,  being  Essays  on  Hiunan  Evolution, 
Lond.  n.  d. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


339 


as  gesture  language,  hieroglyphics,  the  customs  of 
modern  savages,  and  the  games  of  children,  down  to 
our  own  ballets  and  ball-rooms ; on  every  part  of  the 
globe,  from  China  to  Peru,  alike  among  North  American 
Indians  and  natives  of  Central  Africa,  dancing  is  found. 
It  goes  deeper  than  spoken  language.  Thoughts  and 
feelings  were  expressed  by  actions  long  before  they 
were  communicated  by  words.  Dancing  is  indeed,  as 
Elie  Reel  us  sa}"s,  ‘ the  supreme  art  and  language  of  primi- 
tive men.’  It  even  preceded  humanity,  an  inheritance 
from  ape-like  ancestors.”  In  case  the  latter  remark 
may  seem  to  go  too  far  for  a scientific  work,  we  quote 
from  Prof.  Robert  Hartmann’s  interesting  account  of 
a captive  gorilla:  ^ — 

“ He  often  expressed  his  feelings  after  quite  a human  fashion,  by 
clapping  his  hands  together,  an  action  which  no  one  had  taught  him; 
and  he  executed  such  wild  dances,  sometimes  overbalancing  himself, 
reeling  to  and  fro,  and  whirling  round,  that  we  were  often  disposed  to 
think  that  he  must  be  drunk.  Yet  he  was  only  drunk  with  pleasure, 
and  this  impelled  him  to  display  his  strength  in  the  wildest  gambols.” 

The  same  writer  adds  that  “ among  savage  races  the 
medicine-men,  shamans,  sorcerers,  rain  doctors,  etc., 
often  assume  ape-like  attitudes  in  the  contortions,  leaps, 
dances,  and  other  gestures  which  are  inseparable  from 
their  trade.” 

In  unconscious  excitement,  action  becomes  automatic 
and  at„vistic.  Savages  dance  off  their  emotions,  whether 
of  anger  or  entreaty,  of  passion  for  hunting,  war,  love, 
or  religion. 

Prof.  Hartmann  thinks  that:  “when  we  see  a Zikr, 
an  Islamite  rite  of  worship,  accompanied  by  obligatory 
howls  and  contortions  of  body,  we  are  tempted  to 
imagine  ourselves  in  the  midst  of  a troop  of  wild 


Anthropoid  Apes,  263. 


340 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


apes.”  The  Zikr,  be  it  said,  is  an  ancient  lunar  dance, 
in  honour  of  the  moon  as  time-measurer. 

A far  greater  authority  even  than  the  writer  just 
quoted,  Herbert  Spencer,  finds  the  origin  of  dance  and 
song  in  the  same  instinctive  motions.  He  says: 

“Muscular  movements  in  general  are  originated  by  feelings  in  genera. 
The  violent  muscular  motions  of  the  limbs  which  cause  bounds  and 
gesticulations,  as  well  as  those  strong  contractions  of  the  pectoral  and 
vocal  muscles  which  produce  shouting  and  laughter,  become  the  natural 
language  of  great  pleasure.  Consequently,  children  shout  and  jump  when 
they  are  pleased.  So  when  primitive  kings  are  honoured  by  their  sub- 
jects, they  are  honoured  by  irregular  jumping  and  gesticulation,  with  un- 
rhythmical shouts  and  cries,  at  first  rising  without  concert,  but  which 
gradually  by  repetition  become  regularised  into  the  measured  movements 
we  know  as  dances,  and  the  organised  utterances  constituting  songs.” 

“ It  might  be  contended,  ” says  Mr.  W.  Wheeler, 
“ that  no  art  has  so  fallen  from  its  high  estate,  and  that 
what  was  once  a religious  exercise  is  now  mainly 
maintained  by  love  of  kicking  and  flirting.  In  this, 
however,  it  is  not  alone.  Some  even  of  our  children’s 
games  were  once  religious  exercises.  It  would  be 
difficult  to  overestimate  the  importance  of  the  dance 
in  ancient  times.” 

The  women  of  the  New  Hebrides  content  themselves 
by  dancing,  or  rather  swaying  to  and  fro  like  bacchantes, 
in  the  midst  of  a large  circle  formed  by  the  men,  but 
they  do  not  directly  mingle  with  them.  The  erotic 
dance  imitates  the  accomplishment  of  copulation.  The 
men,  whilst  leaping,  seize  their  manoii  which  they 
unfasten  from  the  girdle  and  shake  it  with  the  right 
hand,  and  with  the  left  hand  imitate  the  action  of  seizing 
a woman  between  their  arms.  Then  they  waggle  their 
bodies  backwards  and  forwards,  whilst,  with  the  right 
hand,  they  keep  the  yard  horizontal,  thus  imitating 
copulation  a retro  upon  a woman  stooping  down.  At 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


341 


the  same  time,  the  face  expresses  the  volujDtuous  sensa- 
tions of  coition.  According  to  the  French  “copra- 
maker”  from  whom  I had  these  details,  realism  is 
carried  so  far,  that  some  of  the  dancers  masturbate  in 
order  to  better  imitate  nature.  He  could  not  say 
whether  the  masturbation  was  carried  to  the  extent  of 
producing  emission;  I should  think  not,  howe\er. 

The  women,  during  this  time,  show  their  genital 
parts  to  the  men,  in  order  to  excite  them  the  more, 
and  leap  about  like  she-goats  in  rut.  All  this  is  done 
amidst  plaintive  songs,  interrupted  from  time  to  time 
by  loud  cries,  and  wild  bowlings.  ^ 

“ Dancing,  ” says  Dr.  E.  B.  Tylor,  ^ “ may  seem  to  us  mo- 
derns a frivolous  amusement ; but  in  the  infancy  of  civili- 
sation it  was  full  of  passionate  and  solemn  meaning. 
Savages  and  barbarians  dance  their  joy  and  sorrow,  their 
love  and  rage,  even  their  magic  and  religion.  The  forest 
Indians  of  Brazil,  whose  sluggish  temper  few  other 
excitements  can  stir,  rouse  themselves  at  their  moonlight 
gatherings,  when,  rattle  in  hand,  they  stamp  in  one- 
two-three  time  round  the  great  earthen  pot  of  intoxicating 
kawa  liquor;  or  men  and  women  dance  a rude  courting 
dance,  advancing  in  lines  with  a kind  of  primitive 
polka  step ; or  the  ferocious  war  dance  is  performed 
by  armed  warriors  in  paint,  marching  in  ranks  hither 
and  thither  with  a growling  chant  terrific  to  hear.” 
Lascivious  forms  of  dancing  were  intended  to  make  the 
gods  propitious,  to  excite  their  fec  -.ndity  and  make  them 
fruitful.  Often  the  gods’  representatives  were  all  too 
human.  Rajah  Brooke  ^ tells  how  the  Dayaks  danced 

’ In  reference  to  this  style  of  dancing  the  student  will  compare 
note  on  pages  109  to  113  of  the  present  vol. 

^ Anthropology^  Lond.,  1881. 

“ Charles  Brooke,  Ten  Years  in  Sarawak,  2 vols.  Lond.  1866. 


342 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


before  him,  and  once  “the  wife  of  the  Orang  Kaya, 
who  was  very  pretty  and  danced  exceedingly  well, 
insisted  upon  exhibiting  herself  before  Bethune  and 
myself.”  But  she  got  reproved  by  the  M.  C.  who 
said,  “ Why  don’t  you  dance  fair,  the  Great  Man  [god] 
can  see  no  one  but  you.  ” “ This  early  form  of  the 

dance,”  thinks  Mr.  Wheeler,  “survives  in  the  ballet 
formerly  held  chiefly  at  the  court  of  kings  and  his 
courtiers,  but  with  the  development  of  ‘ His  Majesty’s 
Theatre’  into  a people’s  ‘Palace  of  Varieties,’  the 
girls  still  display  their  charms  before  ‘ the  gods.’  Both 
at  our  ballets  and  ball-rooms  we  are  often  reminded 
that  nudity  is  ‘the  sacred  garb  in  which  man  clothes 
himself  to  approach  the  Divinity.  ’ ” 

It  may  be  not  uninteresting  in  this  connection  to 
recall  a peculiar  kind  of  chorographic  display  described 
by  Colonel  Dalton,  ^ a gentleman  I once  had  the 
honour  to  meet  with  abroad;  I refer  to  the  bear 
dancers  of  the  Juangs,  who  with  the  exception  of  some 
leaves,  are  entirely  nude.  “ The  girls  acting  independ- 
ently advance  with  bodies  so  much  inclined,  that  their 
hands  touch  the  ground ; thus  they  move  not  unlike 
bears,  and  by  a motion  from  the  knees  the  bodies 
wriggle  violently,  and  the  broad  tails  of  green  leaves 
flap  up  and  down  in  the  most  ludicrous  manner.  The 
pigeon  dance  followed;  the  action  of  a love-making 
pigeon  when  he  struts,  pouts,  sticks  out  his  breast,  and 
scrapes  the  ground  with  his  wings  was  well  imitated,  the 
hands  of  the  girls  doing  duty  as  wings.  Then  came  a 
pig  and  a tortoise  dance,  in  which  the  motions  of  those 
animals  were  less  felicitously  rendered,  and  the  quail 
dance  in  which  they  squatted  and  pecked  at  the  ground 


Col.  E.  T.  Dalton,  Descriptive  Ethnology  of  India,  Calcutta,  1872. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


343 


after  the  fashion  of  those  birds.  They  concluded  with 
the  vulture  dance,  a highly  dramatic  finale.  One  of 
the  men  was  made  to  lie  on  the  ground  and  represent 
a dead  body.  The  girls  in  approaching  it  imitated 
the  hopping,  sidling  advances  of  the  bird  of  prey,  and 
using  their  hands  as  beaks,  snipped  and  pinched  the 
pseudo-corpse  in  a manner  that  made  him  occasionally 
forget  his  character  and  yell  with  pain.  This  caused 
afreat  amusement  to  his  tormentors.  I have  heard,” 
adds  Col.  Dalton,  “of  a ‘ballet’,  called  ‘the  cocks  and 
hens’,  but  this  they  could  not  be  induced  to  exhibit. 
It  was  admitted  that  it  was  impossible  to  keep  the 
leaves  in  proper  position  whilst  they  danced  it.  It  was 
too  much  of  a romp,  especially  for  a day  performance.” 

Kawa.  To  stimulate  themselves,  everybody  drinks 
Kaim,  a drink  made  from  a root  which  is  chewed  by 
the  woman,  who  spit  juice  and  saliva  into  wooden 
basins,  where  it  ferments.  This  beverage,  which  is 
not  very  enticing  to  a European,  produces  an  intoxi- 
cation quite  as  violent  as  that  caused  by  alcohol. 


CHAPTER  VIII. 

Forms  and  perversions  of  the  sexual  habit  amongst  the  New 
Hebrideans. — Social  condition  of  zooman. — Marriage.  — Sacrifice 
of  zvidows  in  the  islands  of  Tanna  and  Anatom. — Adultery 
and  its  punishment. — Methods  of  copulation. — The  Popinee  in 
relation  with  the  European. — Captain  Z***  and  his  Popine'e. — 
Sodomy. — Pederasty  .—Bestiality  .■ — Artificial  hypospadias  of  the 
natives  of  Santo. — In  Ceylon  by  a Scotch  Doctor. — Editor’s  Note. 

The  information  on  these  heads  I can  only  give 
subject  to  some  reserve,  for  as  regards  most  of  these 
heads,  I have  had  to  content  myself  with  information 
furnished  by  New  Hebrideans,  men  and  women,  who 
had  come  to  New  Caledonia,  to  be  hired  as  servants. 

The  Popinee  of  the  New  Hebrides.  The  social 
condition  of  the  Popinee  of  the  New  Hebrides  differs 
little  from  that  of  the  woman  of  New  Caledonia.  As 
a girl,  she  is  under  the  absolute  control  of  her  father ; 
as  a woman,  she  does  but  change  her  master.  She 
is  considered  as  much  inferior  to  the  man,  and  is  not 
allowed  to  eat  at  the  same  time  with  him,  but  must 
wait  till  he  has  finished.  Her  husband  has  the  right 
to  beat  her,  or  kill  her,  without  anyone  thinking  of 
blaming  him,  or  still  less  of  punishing  him.  He  takes 
no  notice  of  her ; never  entrusts  her  with  a secret ; 
and  is  much  offended  if  a White  man  offers  the  poor 
wretch  a morsel  of  food  or  a cup  of  drink.  She  has, 
however,  a great  advantage  over  her  neighbour  of 

344 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF  ANTHROPOLOGY.  345 


New  Caledonia,  inasmuch  as  she  is  not  obliged  to 
give  herself  up  to  several  men  at  the  same  time. 
Polyandry,  which  is  caused  by  a disproportion  in  the 
number  of  women,  is  a rarity  in  the  New  Hebrides. 
No  woman  has  more  than  one  husband,  and  the  chiefs 
of  the  tribes  are  even  polygamists. 

Marriage  is  performed  with  certain  ceremonies 
which  have  no  religious  meaning,  and  are  only  intended 
to  denote  the  husband’s  possession  of  the  wife.  It  is 
at  one  of  the  pilou-pilo^ls  that  the  young  man  generally 
picks  out  his  future  bride.  He  does  not  worry  himself 
at  all  about  her  heart,  but  makes  a declaration  of  love 
to  the  girl’s  father.  If  he  does  not  oppose  the  match, 
the  future  bridegroom  has  only  to  obtain  the  chiefs 
permission  to  marry.  When  this  permission  is  obtained, 
the  girl  has  nothing  to  do  but  obey. 

Wives  are  also  obtained  in  another  manner.  When 
two  neighbouring  tribes  are  at  peace,  two  young 
people  of  either  tribe  can  exchange  sisters, — of  course 
with  the  father’s  consent.  But  then  che  chief  of  each 
tribe  is  entitled  to  a present  from  the  young  warrior 
of  the  other  tribe.  In  this  case,  also,  the  girl’s  consent 
is  not  necessary.  If  a girl  or  woman  has  no  male 
relatives,  the  chief  of  the  tribe  gives  her  away  in 
marriage,  or  not  unfrequently  takes  her  himself. 

If  a woman  is  too  much  ill-treated  by  her  husband, 
she  may  put  herself  under  the  protection  of  another 
man,  and  eventually  become  his  wife.  In  this  special 
case,  which  is  very  rare,  the  woman  becomes  the 
object  of  a deadly  combat  between  the  two  men,  who 
fight  with  war  clubs  like  two  knights  of  the  Middle 
Ages  at  a tournament.  If  the  woman’s  protector  is 
vanquished,  the  husband  generally  clubs  the  two  of 


346 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


them  to  death,  and  a grand  pilou-pilou  is  danced  round 
their  bodies,  as  a sort  of  funeral  ceremony. 

When  a chief  dies,  if  he  has  several  wives,  the  new 
chief  picks  out  those  which  please  him,  and  those  he 
does  not  like  are  hanged  or  clubbed  to  death,  at  a 
grand  pilou-pilou  given  in  honour  of  the  late  chief. 

Sacrifice  of  Widows  in  the  Islands  of  Tanna 
and  Anatom.  At  Tanna  the  wife  is  frequently 
strangled  after  the  death  of  her  husband ; this  custom 
no  longer  exists  amongst  the  tribes  of  the  interior. 
It  was  imported,  it  would  appear,  from  the  island  of 
Anatom,  where  it  is  still  in  force,  for  the  women  wear 
round  their  necks,  from  the  time  of  their  childhood,  a 
cord,  to  incessantly  remind  them  of  the  fate  in  store 
for  them.  The  strangulation  is  performed  in  this 
manner.  Two  young  men,  whilst  the  woman  is  asleep, 
drive  pegs  into  the  ground  on  each  side  of  her,  and 
fasten  the  cord  to  them  in  such  a manner  that  the 
neck  remains  compressed,  until  death  ensues. 

The  husband-poisoner,  who  now  and  again  crops  up 
in  England  and  France,  would  have  little  motive  in 
these  savage  countries  to  play  this  unhappy  role,  it 
being  to  the  obvious  advantage  of  every  married  lady 
to  keep  her  “ lord  ” in  the  “ land  of  the  living  ” as  long 
as  possible.  It  is  quite  appalling  to  reflect  upon  the 
universality  of  widow-sacrificing.  Westermarck  says: — 
Formerly  among  the  Comanches,  when  a man 
died  his  favourite  wife  was  killed  at  the  same  time.  ^ 
In  certain  Californian  tribes,  widows  were  sacrificed 
on  the  pyre  with  their  deceased  husbands ; ^ and 

’ Schoolcraft,  “Historical  and  Statistical  Information  on  the  Indian  Tribes 
of  North  America,”  vol.  II,  p.  133. 

^ Ibidj  vol.  IV,  p.  226;  vol.  V,  p.  217. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


347 


Mackenzie  was  told  that  this  practice  sometimes  occurred 
among  the  Crees.  ^ In  Darien  and  Panama,  on  the 
death  of  a chief,  all  his  concubines  were  interred  with 
him.  When  one  of  the  Incas  died,  says  Acosta,  the 
woman  who  he  had  loved  best,  as  well  as  his  servants 
and  officers,  were  put  to  death,  “ that  they  might  serve 
him  in  the  other  life.”  ® The  same  custom  prevailed 
in  the  region  of  the  Congo,  as  also  in  some  other 
African  countries.  ^ “ It  is  no  longer  possible  to  doubt,” 
says  Dr.  Schrader,  “ that  ancient  Indo-Germanic  custom 
ordained  that  the  wife  should  die  with  her  husband.  ” ^ 
In  India,  as  is  well  known,  widows  were  sacrificed, 
until  quite  resently,  on  the  funeral  pile  of  their  hus- 
bands ; ® whilst,  among  the  Tartars,  according  to 
Navarette,  on  a man’s  death,  one  of  his  wives  hanged 
herself  “ to  bear  him  company  in  that  journey.  Among 
the  Chinese,  something  of  the  same  kind  seems  to  have 
been  done  occasionally  in  olden  times.”  Writers  of 
the  stamp  of  Max  Nordau  are  nevertheless  enquiring 
vigorously  whether  in  Europe  the  majority  of  widows 
are  not  also  subjected  to  a species  of  “ economic 
strangulation”  when  once  the  bread-winner  has  gone. 
But  this  question  belongs  rather  to  the  domain  of 


‘Mackenzie,  “Voyages  to  the  Frozen  and  Pacific  Oceans,”  London, 
1802,  p.  98. 

® Seeman,  “Voyage  of  the  Herald,”  Lond.  1853,  vol.  I,  p.  316. 

^ Acosta,  “Natural  and  Moral  Hist,  of  the  Indies,”  Lond.  1880. 

* Reade  (Winwood),  “Savage  Africa,”  Lond.  1863,  p.  359.  Waitz, 
“Anthropologic  der  Natnrvolker,”  Leipzig,  1859 — 72,  pp.  192,  193,419. 

® Schrader,  “Prehistoric  Antiquities  of  the  Aryan  Peoples,”  Lond. 
1890,  p.  391. 

® Crawfurd,  “ Hist,  of  the  Indian  Archipelago  ” vol.  II,  p.  241.  Zimmer- 
man, “Die  Inseln  des  Indischen  Meeres,”  Berlin,  1863,  vol.  I,  p.  19. 

’Navarette,  “An  Account  of  the  Empire  of  China,”  in  Awnsham 
and  Churchill’s  “ Collection  of  Voyages  and  Travels”,  p.  77. 


348 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


Social  Economics  than  to  a sober  work  on  Anthropo- 
logy and  it  must  be  strictly  “ tabooed  ” here. 

Adultery.  In  certain  islands,  the  outraged  husband 
has  the  right  of  life  or  death  on  the  wife  and  her  lover. 
But  the  latter  generally  defends  himself,  and  a combat 
takes  place  as  related  above.  In  other  islands,  on  the 
contrary,  the  husband  sells  his  adulterous  wife,  even  if 
the  lover  is  a White  man.  ^ 

The  Position  in  Coitu.  Our  friend.  Dr.  Ploss,  thought 
it  well  to  explain  his  standpoint  in  treating  this  ques- 
tion, and  we  can  do  no  more  than  quote  his  words: — 

“ It  may  seem  strange  that  we  should  give  a par- 
ticular attention  to  the  situation  and  position  of  the 
actors  in  sexual  connection. 

“ It  is  by  no  means  our  intention,  in  the  manner  of 
Pietro  Aretino,  to  pass  in  review  all  the  positions  which 

^ Quite  recently  we  English  have  somewhat  restrained  our  inclination  to 
pretend  that  morally  we  are  better  than  any  other  nation.  The  records 
of  the  courts  and  the  scandals  of  society  prove  that  in  sexual  matters 
we  are  as  culpable  as  any  people  on  earth.  And,  owing  to  our  Peck- 
sniffian  airs,  care  has  been  taken  that  the  world  shall  be  informed  of 
this  fact.  Here,  for  instance,  is  “ Les  Dessous  de  la  Pudibonderie 
Anglaise,”  a volume  of  468  pages,  published  in  French,  containing 
summaries  of  some  of  the  most  sensational  divorce  cases,  beginning  with 
that  of  Admiral  Knowles  in  1755.  We  are  also  treated  to  some  choice 
passages  from  the  English  comedy  writers,  even  in  the  present  century. 
These  are  of  a nature  to  make  one  wonder  at  the  impudence  of  ignorant 
people  in  this  country  on  the  boldness  of  the  foreign  stage,  which  was 
never  so  coarse  or  so  brutal  as  that  of  England.  We  have  in  this 
smartly  edited  and  lively  book  a picture  of  British  morals  and  manners 
sufficient  to  moderate  our  inordinate  self-esteen  and  offensive  hypocrisy. 
An  effective  chapter  might  have  been  added  as  to  the  terrible  immo- 
rality prevailing  at  the  present  day  among  the  clergy  of  the  English 
Established  Church. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


349 


may  be  invented  by  refined  lechery  and  voluptuous- 
ness, but  only  to  examine  the  positions  adopted  by 
certain  peoples,  and  which  are  worthy  of  our  attention 
because  they  differ  from  those  usually  known.  It  is 
therefore  not  from  an  erotic,  but  solely  from  the  eth- 
nographic and  anthropological  point  of  view  that  we 
feel  called  upon  to  study  this  question.  For  we  must 
the  more  devote  our  attention  to  this  subject,  that  the 
differencies  noticed  may  raise  the  question,  though 
perhaps  not  bringing  an  immediate  answer,  what  are 
the  causes  and  conditions  which  are  here  at  work,  if 
there  is  an  instinctive  imitation  of  the  copulation  of 
certain  animals,  or  if  we  must  see  therein  the  result 
of  certain  anatomical  modifications  in  the  human  races. 

“ It  is  quite  natural  to  understand  that  man  instinct- 
ively adopts,  in  all  his  physiological  acts,  the  position 
which  he  finds  the  easiest  and  most  convenient. 

“ It  is  therefore  natural  to  suppose  that  this  principle 
prevails  in  all  countries  and  that  there  are  certain 
modes  and  forms  which  exist  and  have  become  tradi- 
tional among  certain  peoples,  and  this  extends  to  the 
position  occupied  by  man  and  woman  hi  coitu  and 
which  we  find  to  exist  traditionally  among  different 
peoples. 

“ We  find  besides,  in  different  countries,  many  differ- 
ences of  practice  which  are  accepted  by  reason  of 
their  ancient  customs  and  legendary  habit. 

“ jF/  Kfab  of  the  Khodja  Omar  Halehy  Ahou  Othman 
gives  us  the  following  picturesque  description ; 

“ ‘ Qiiand  tout  sera  prct  pour  la  penetration,  quand 
la  femme,  humectee  par  le  desir,  vous  montrera,  par 
ses  soupirs  et  par  ses  petits  cris,  qiCelle  est  cn  mesure 
de  recevoir,  avec  profit,  la  liqueur  spermatique,  vous 
vous  mettrez  sur  elle,  visage  contre  visage,  ventre  contre 


350 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


ventre,  sans  brusquerie,  et  vous  commencerez  la 
penetratio7i  en  evitant  Ics  fortes  secousses.  ’ (Regia).  ^ 

“ At  the  same  time  we  may  mention  that  we  have 
noticed  similar  customs,  with  some  modifications,  in 
other  nations. 

“ At  all  events,  OUR  normal  position  consecrated  from 
ancient  days  among  the  most  different  nations  as  the 
most  dominant,  is  proved  by  many  documents.  We 
find,  for  instance,  in  the  Peruvian  remains  which  are 
preserved  in  the  Ethnographical  Museum  at  Leipzig, 
two  double  vases,  which  practically  represent  the 
position  occupied  by  two  persons  in  coitu,  in 
which  the  female  is  on  her  back,  while  the  man  lies 
upon  her  breast  upon  breast,  so  that  his  mouth  touches 
the  chin  of  the  woman.  At  the  back  of  the  man  is 
to  be  seen  the  mouth  of  a vessel  from  which  they  may 
drink.  The  Berlin  Ethnographical  Museum  possesses 
a similar  specimen. 

“ On  the  contrary,  other  Peruvian  vases  present  other, 
unusual,  positions.  Eor  instance,  the  Berlin  Museum 
has  a vase  in  the  Macedo  collection,  on  the  cover  of 
which  is  represented  a woman  lying  on  her  elbows 
and  on  her  knees  and  who  is  looking  back  at  a short- 
legged  man,  who  stands  behind  her,  and  who,  leaning 
his  hands  upon  her  loins,  is  busy  with  the  work  of 
intromission. 

“ The  same  position  is  also  found  on  other  vases  in 
the  same  collection,  but  the  pair  are  already  in  action, 
in  which  the  woman  holds  her  hind  quarters  very 
high.  In  two  other  cases  the  woman  is  reclining, 
while  the  man  is  kneeling  between  her  thighs.  In  the 
Minas  collection  at  Cuzco  we  see,  among  other  similar 

’ “ Theologie  Musulmane : — El  Ktab  des  Lois  Secretes  de  I’ Amour," 
traduit  et  mis  en  ordre  de  Paul  de  Regia  (Paris,  8vo.,  1893). 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


351 


examples,  on  a vase  the  representation  of  a couple  in 
the  side  position,  in  which  the  man  accomplishes 
copulation  from  behind. 

“ As  we  have  here  only  examined  the  several  positions 
adopted  in  the  same  country,  we  cannot  give  the  one 
or  the  other  of  them  as  dominant  types. 

“ Nor  can  we  any  more  accept  as  specimens  of 
national  custom  one  or  other  of  the  positions  presented 
to  us  by  Chinese  and  Japanese  art.  In  the  Japanese 
drawings,  either  in  figure  books  or  in  prints,  there  can 
be  no  doubt  that  they  have  been  composed  for  erotic 
purposes  and  in  order  to  excite  desire.  It  may  per- 
haps not  be  the  same  with  regard  to  the  Chinese 
drawings.  Here  we  have  to  do  with  a group  of  works 
of  art  which,  under  the  names  of  tsch'ttn-tschc,  ‘ Spring- 
tables  ’ or  Pi'-hi\  ‘Secret  Games’,  are  well  known. 
In  form  they  resemble  our  painters’  colour  boxes,  upon 
the  sliding-cover  of  which  are  delineated  in  colours 
groups  of  two  or  more  beings  of  opposite  sex,  which 
are  generally  represented  engaged  in  innocent  conver- 
sation or  out  walking;  but  when  the  lid  is  opened, 
there  is  to  be  seen  in  tinted  relievo  a representation  of  a 
nearly  naked  couple  in  various  positions  of  copulation. 
It  is  not  possible  to  deduce  therefrom  the  predomi- 
nance of  any  settled  position  for  the  act  of  coition,  but 
it  may  be  remarked,  how  often  the  woman  is  re- 
presented bent  to  the  utmost  to  the  knees,  and  leaning 
on  her  elbows.  We  shall  come  back  upon  this  question. 

“ Eugene  Pander  informed  me  that,  in  the  beginning 
of  the  present  century,  they  were  used  as  bridal  gifts. 
Professor  Dr.  Grube  gave  me  the  following  additional 
information  on  that  subject:  ‘According  to  oral  tra- 

dition wide-spread  in  China,  these  “ Spring-tables  ” 
served  as  amulets  against  fire  during  the  Ming  dynasty 


352 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


(1368  — 1644).  A Chinese  friend  of  mine,  Mr.  Knei-lin, 
assured  me  that  the  assertion  of  Pander,  that  these 
“ Spring-tables  ” were  used  as  presents  to  the  bride,  is 
altogether  a mistake,  but  it  is  more  probable  that  they 
may  be  presented  to  young  men  who  are  about  to 
marry,  and  “ do  not  know  how  to  go  about  it.  ” ’ 

“ But  after  all  it  is  not  easy  to  say,  what  amount  of 
credit  is  to  be  given  to  such  graphical  representations. 
The  Berlin  Ethnographical  Museum  possesses  a group, 
cut  in  wood,  from  the  Benue  district  in  West  Africa, 
in  which  the  couple  occupy  the  usual  position,  the 
woman  stretched  on  her  back,  and  the  man  extended 
upon  her.  There  is  in  the  same  collection  a group 
of  several  figures  in  brass,  from  the  West  African 
Slave  Coast,  twice  representing  the  woman  in  horizontal 
position  with  outstretched  legs,  her  knees  drawn  up 
and  her  thighs  nearly  perpendicular,  while  in  both 
cases  the  man  standing  up,  but  the  lower  part  of  his 
body  in  kneeling  position,  is  accomplishing  the  mtro- 
missio  penis.  On  the  celebrated  prehistoric  Rock 
drawings  at  Bohuslaen  in  Schonen  (Bohemia)  there  are, 
according  to  the  copies  made  by  Brunius,  ^ two  couples 
represented  performing  the  act  standing.” 

As  may  be  imagined,  amongst  a people  with  such 
rudimentary  ideas  of  civilisation,  the  methods  of  copu- 
lation are  not  of  the  most  refined.  It  appears,  how- 
ever, as  the  result  of  my  enquiries,  that  some  differences 
exist  amongst  the  various  tribes.  The  New  Hebridean, 
who  is  almost  black,  does  not  “ break  wood”  like  the 
New  Caledonian.  He  performs  copulation  in  the  shade 
and  mystery  of  his  hut.  The  position  habitually  used 

' C.  G.  Brunius,  Forsok  till  Forklaringar  ofver  Hallristningar, 
Lund,  1868,  Tafel  V. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


353 


is  the  classical  one,  on  a mat,  the  woman  underneath, 
and  the  man  on  the  top.  However,  a position  a retro 
was  described  to  me,  the  woman  stooping  with  her 
head  down,  the  thighs  slightly  bent,  and  rather  open, 
the  hands  resting  on  the  calves  of  the  legs.  This  po- 
sition causes  a wide  dilatation  of  the  vulva  and  vagina. 
The  man,  standing  upright  between  the  legs,  performs 
in  the  natural  luanner.  This  position  is  used  out-of- 
doors,  between  lovers,  who  fear  to  be  surprised  by  a 
jealous  husband.  The  woman  can  hide  herself  in  the 
bushes,  whilst  the  man,  standing  upright,  with  his  hands 
free,  can  look  about  him.  He  is  ready  to  defend  him- 
self, and  can  use  his  weapons,  if  the  cuckolded  hus- 
band should  suddenly  appear  to  spoil  his  pleasure. 

With  the  exception  of  these  two  positions,  the  black 
Kanaka  knows  nothing  about  the  spices  of  Venus.  In 
those  islands  where  the  Polynesian  blood  has  markedly 
altered  the  Melanesian  race,  it  appears  that  sometimes 
the  man  sits  on  a mat,  with  his  back  against  a wall ; 
the  woman  straddles  across  him,  with  her  face  towards 
him,  and  performs  the  labour  of  love  almost  alone  by 
raising  and  lowering  her  body  alternately. 

The  Popinee  in  Relation  with  the  European. 

But  the  Popinee  engaged  at  Noumea  quickly  becomes 
civilised  in  contact  with  the  European,  especially  when 
she  is  young  and  pretty.  She  quickly  learns  a host 
of  things  of  which  she  was  ignorant  in  her  own  country. 
She  soon  becomes  an  adept  at  “kneeling”,  and  will 
even  go  further  than  that.  Drunkenness  is  her  little 
weakness,  and  if  you  pay  for  her  drink  she  will  refuse 
you  nothing.  Apropos  of  this  subject,  the  reader  will 
perhaps  permit  me  to  relate  a little  story. 


23 


354 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


Captain  L***  and  his  Popinee.  L***  was  a sea- 
captain,  engaged  in  bringing  “ cooHes  ” from  the  New 
Hebrides.  He  had  in  his  house  a youth  of  eighteen, 
and  a Popinee  (his  sister,  so  it  was  said),  aged  about 
twenty.  The  next  house  to  that  of  Capt.  L***  was 
inhabited  by  the  surgeon  of  the  Marines,  a worthy 
man,  proverbial  for  his  good  nature.  His  “orderly”, 
who  was  almost  the  master  of  the  house,  was  a tall 
rascal  nearly  six  feet  in  height,  a Mulatto  from  the 
Antilles,  and  vicious  and  corrupt  to  a degree  that  is 
rarely  seen.  My  little  hut  was  close  by,  and  my  New 
Caledonian  Kanaka  sometimes  went  to  chat  with  the 
orderly  of  my  colleague.  A little  wall,  hardly  six 
feet  high,  separated  the  back-yards  of  the  houses  of 
the  Doctor  and  Captain  L***.  Every  night,  the  Mulatto 
used  to  mount  on  a beam  placed  against  the  wall, 
lay  hold  of  the  Popinee,  who  stood  on  a heap  of 
stones  and  lift  her  over  to  his  side  of  the  wall.  Then 
he  took  her  to  his  room  which  was  on  the  ground 
floor.  The  Doctor  slept  on  the  first  floor,  and  his 
room  was  reached  by  a staircase  outside  the  house, 
on  the  other  side.  My  Kanaka  was  often  a witness 
of  the'  love  passages  of  the  couple,  and  even  took 
part  in  them.  In  a little  time  this  did  not  suffice. 
The  Doctor’s  orderly  started  a small  clandestine  brothel, 
for  the  benefit  of  his  comrades  at  the  barracks,  pro- 
vided they  were  ready  to  pay  for  the  luxury.  At 
last,  one  night  they  made  such  a noise,  that  the  Doctor, 
who  generally  returned  about  midnight,  but  who, 
feeling  tired  that  evening,  had  gone  to  his  room  about 
eight  o’clock,  without  the  orderly  hearing  him  come 
in, — was  awakened  about  an  hour  later,  by  an  infernal 
din.  He  descended  in  haste,  and  through  the  window 
of  the  room  saw  a woman  lying  naked  on  a mattress 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


355 


in  the  middle  of  the  floor,  surrounded  by  a group  of 
soldiers,  ready  for  the  game  of  love.  The  moment 
he  was  seen,  there  was  a stampede ; the  solitary  candle 
which  lighted  the  scene  was  knocked  over,  and  in 
the  twinkling  of  an  eye,  everybody  had  disappeared, 
except  the  woman  and  the  orderly.  The  latter,  who 
was  as  drunk  as  a fiddler,  was  lying  under  the  woman, 
and  formed  the  base  of  the  human  group. 

I have  mentioned  that  my  Kanaka  was  amongst 
those  present.  The  orderly  declared  that,  whilst  he 
was  enjoying  the  woman  in  a peculiar  position,  the 
Kanaka  had  forced  his  way  into  the  room,  and  taking 
advantage  of  the  circumstance  that  both  the  Mulatto 
and  the  Popinee  were  drunk,  has  assaulted  the  woman 
behind,  sodomite  fashion.  The  truth,  as  confessed  to 
me  by  my  Kanaka,  was,  that  he  and  two  of  the 
Europeans,  one  of  whom  was  the  hospital  corporal,  a 
native  of  the  city  of  Marseille,  had  performed  on  the 
woman  in  this  fashion. 

The  affair  ended  in  smoke;  the  wo’*thy  Doctor  did 
not  want  to  complain  to  the  Colonel,  for  fear  of  being 
laughed  at,  and  contented  himself  with  sending  away 
his  orderly,  and  changing  the  hospital  corporaf  under 
some  excuse  or  other.  I caused  the  Popinee  to  be 
brought  to  me  by  a Kanaka  one  evening,  and  found 
in  her  evident  traces  of  sodomitic  practices. 

Sodomy.  We  may  remind  the  .student  that  this 
offence  is  punishable  under  the  24  and  25  Viet.  C. 
100,  S.  61.  “Whosoever  shall  be  convicted  of  the 
abominable  crime  of  buggery,  committed  either  with 
mankind  or  with  any  animal,  shall  be  liable,  at  the 
discretion  of  the  court,  to  be  kept  in  penal  servitude 
for  life,  or  for  any  term  not  less  than  ten  years.” 


356 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


“ Sodomy  is  commonly  understood,”  writes  Taylor,  “ to 
signify  unnatural  intercourse  between  men  and  man, 
while  bestiality  implies  unnatural  intercourse  with  animals. 
Continental  medical  jurists  have  invented  a new  term 
Pederastia  [YlouTog  spx(7T^g,  pueri  amator),  comprising  those 
cases,  not  unfrequent,  in  which  boys  at  about  the  age 
of  puberty  are  made  the  victims  of  the  depraved 
passions  of  a certain  class  of  men,  but  this  term  is  not 
applicable  to  the  crime  committed  by  and  between 
adults.  ” 

The  New  Hebridean  Popinee  has  not  the  same  horror 
of  the  vice  of  sodomy  that  the  African  Negress  has. 
The  girl  mentioned  in  the  foregoing  story  was  not 
the  only  one  of  the  hired  women  to  whom  I gave 
medical  attendance,  and  it  often  happened  that  I found 
signs  of  inveterate  sodomy. 

We  have  little  right  to  despise  the  savage  for  being 
addicted  to  this  shocking  habit  if  we  take  into  considera- 
tion the  frequency  Avith  which  such  cases  come  before 
European  tribunals.  Taylor  states  indeed  that  this 
crime  is  unhappily  frequent  in  Lancashire,  hardly  an 
assize  being  held  in  Manchester  or  Liverpool  where 
one  or  more  of  these  cases  are  not  tried.  The  crime 
is  not  unfrequent  among  seamen.  In  a case  tried  at 
Liverpool  in  1 884  it  was  proved  that  a sailor  had  induced 
a lad  to  go  to  sea  in  order  that  he  might  act  as  the 
prisoner’s  passive  agent.  The  lad  was  unaware  of 
this,  and  on  the  offence  being  committed  denounced 
the  prisoner  to  the  rest  of  the  crew,  Avho  complained 
to  the  captain,  and  the  prisoner  was  given  in  charge 
to  the  authorities  at  the  port  in  South  America.  The 
consular  authorities  inquired  into  the  case,  but  sent  the 
prisoner  home  for  trial  in  England.  The  boy  w'^as 
examined  by  Lowndes,  who  found  him  suffering  from 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


357 


pain  in  the  anus  and  rectum,  although  this  was  some 
time  after  the  committal  of  the  offence.  The  prisoner 
was  convicted,  and  sentenced  to  twenty  years’  penal 
servitude.  In  another  case  where  Lowndes  gave 
evidence  the  prisoner,  a blind  man,  was  charged  with 
committing  this  offence  upon  his  own  son,  a boy  of 
twelve,  who  was  himself  the  subject  of  partial  paralysis. 
There  were  indications  that  the  crime  had  been  com- 
mitted. The  jury  found  the  prisoner  guilty  of  the 
attempt,  and  he  was  sentenced  ^to  ten  years’  penal 
servitude. 

Unless  an  examination  is  made  soon  after  the  per- 
petration of  the  crime,  the  signs  of  it  will  disappear. 
In  the  case  of  one  long  habituated  to  these  unnatural 
practices,  certain  changes  have  been  pointed  out  as 
medical  proofs,  among  them  a funnel-shaped  state  of 
parts  between  the  nates,  with  the  appearance  of 
dilatation,  stretching,  or  even  a patulous  state  of  the 
anus,  and  a destruction  of  the  folded  or  puckered  state 
of  the  skin  in  this  part.  There  may  be  also  marks 
of  laceration,  cicatrices,  etc.,  and  sometimes  the  evidence 
derivable  from  the  presence  of  syphilitic  disease. 

This  condition  of  parts  would  represent  the  chronic 
state  induced  by  these  practices  in  the  patient  or 
succubus.  In  the  recent  or  acute  form,  fissure  and 
laceration  of  the  sphincter  ani,  with  bruising  and  effusion 
of  blood,  would  be  found.  The  appearances  above 
described  as  belonging  to  the  chronic  stage  were  met 
with  in  the  case  of  Eliza  Edwards.  Her  history  is 
curious.  “ An  unclaimed  body  was  sent  to  Guy’s 
Hospital  by  the  inspector  of  anatomy,  as  a female : 
on  removing  the  dress,  however,  it  was  found  to  be 
that  of  a male.  Erom  some  suspicion  respecting  the 
cause  of  death,  and  the  habits  of  this  person,  a coroner’s 


358 


UNTRODDEN  FIEI.DS  OF 


inquest  was  held.  It  turned  out  that  the  deceased, 
whose  age  was  24,  had  assumed  the- dress  of  a female 
at  the  age  of  1 4,  and  had  performed  in  many  parts 
of  England  as  an  actress.  The  features  had  a somewhat 
feminine  character;  the  hair  was  very  long,  and  parted 
in  the  centre ; the  beard  had  been  carefully  plucked 
out,  and  the  remains  of  this  under  the  chin  had  been 
concealed  by  a peculiar  style  of  dress.  It  was  remarked 
during  life  that  the  voice  was  hoarse.  The  breasts 
were  like  those  of  a male,  and  the  male  sexual  organs 
were  perfectly  developed.  They  had  evidently  been 
subjected  to  great  stretching,  and  appeared  to  have 
been  drawn  forward  and  secured  to  the  lower  part  of 
the  abdomen.  The  state  of  the  rectum  left  no  doubt 
of  the  abominable  practices  to  which  this  individual 
had  been  addicted.  It  was  found  that  death  had  taken 
place  from  natural  causes.  The  most  remarkable  cir- 
cumstance in  this  case  is,  that  the  deceased  had  been 
attended  in  his  last  illness  by  an  eminent  physician  for 
disease  of  the  lungs ; and  so  well  was  the  imposition 
maintained,  that  this  medical  attendant  did  not  entertain 
a suspicion  of  the  real  sex  of  his  patient.  ^ This 
person  was  found  after  death  to  be  a man,  although 
he  had  passed  himself  off  in  dress  and  habits  during 
life  as  a woman.  On  an  examination  of  the  body 
there  was  strong  evidence  that  he  had  been  for  many 
years  addicted  to  unnatural  habits.  It  was  noticed  by 
all  present  that  the  aperture  of  the  anus  was  much 
wider  and  larger  than  natural.  There  was  a slight 
protrusion  and  thickening  of  the  mucous  membrane  at 
the  margin.  The  rugae  or  folds  of  skin  which  give 
the  puckered  appearance  to  the  anal  aperture  had 
quite  disappeared,  so  that  this  part  resembled  the  labia 

' Med.  and  Phys.  Journ.,  Feb.  1833,  p.  168. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


359 


of  the  female  organs.  The  lining  membrane  was 
thickened  at  the  verge  of  the  anus  and  was  in  an 
ulcerated  condition.  The  male  organs  had  been  drawn 
up  and  secured  by  a bandage  bound  round  the  lower 
part  of  the  abdomen.  A short  account  of  this  remark- 
able case  of  concealed  sex  was  published  in  the  ‘ Lond. 
Med.  and  Physical  Journ.’,  Feb.  1833,  p.  168.  Trials 
for  this  crime  are  not  unfrequent,  but  the  reports  of 
evidence  are  not  made  public.  There  cannot  be  any 
doubt  that  false  charges  are  as  common  as  in  cases 
of  rape.  They  are  made  for  the  purpose  of  extortion, 
and  as  the  publication  of  such  a charge,  even  when 
unfounded,  is  really  dreaded,  and  has  actually  led  to 
suicide,  it  often  proves  a successful  method  of  extortion. 
It  is  especially  deserving  of  notice  that  such  accusations 
are  frequently  made  by  soldiers  and  policemen.” 

Pederasty.  The  young  New  Hebrideans,  who  come 
to  be  hired,  have  a difficulty  in  finding  at  Noumea 
any  opportunities  of  satisfying  their  amorous  passions. 
The  women  of  their  own  race  prefer  the  White  man, 
as  being  not  only  more  pleasant,  but  more  profitable. 
As  for  getting  White  women,  they  might  as  soon  find 
a needle  in  a bottle  of  hay.  The  New  Hebridean  youth 
has  not  a farthing  of  money,  and  is  not  likely  to  be 
loved  for  his  own  sake,  for  he  is  an  object  of  disgust 
even  to  the  female  freed  prisoner,  or  the  wife  of  the 
old  convict,  though  they  are  not  remarkable  for  delicate 
sentiments.  As  a matter  of  course,  this  state  of  things 
leads  to  pederasty  amongst  the  hired  men,  as  it  does 
also  with  the  New  Caledonian.  But  it  is  not  a morbid 
mental  depravity,  like  that  of  the  Annamite,  who  is 
ready  to  lend  himself  to  any  form  of  erotic  turpitude. 
It  seemed  to  me  (though  I cannot,  however,  affirm  it 


36o 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


with  absolute  certainty)  that  these  unnatural  acts  were 
performed  without  any  of  the  refinements  of  lust  prac- 
tised in  the  Far  East.  The  New  Hebridean  acts 
according  to  the  old  French  proverb,  If  you  can’t 
get  thrushes,  you  must  eat  blackbirds.”  And  he  eats 
his  blackbird  simply  roasted,  without  any  sauce,  or 
even  a bit  of  fat  to  grease  the  dish.  He  simply  satis- 
fies his  amorous  inclinations  on  the  mutual  aid  system. 
He  is  very  far  from  boasting  about  it,  and  it  is  only 
with  great  difficulty  that  he  can  be  made  to  avow 
the  truth.  I was  never  able  to  obtain  a confession 
without  the  bait  of  a bit  of  silver  and  the  promise  of 
absolute  secrecy. 

Bestiality  with  a She-goat.  Taylor,  the  English 
writer  on  Medical  Jurisprudence,  ^ from  whom  we  have 
already  had  occasion  to  quote,  speaking  of  the  unna- 
tural intercourse  of  man  with  animals,  points  out  that 
to  this  peculiar  form  of  sexual  aberration  the  Germans  ^ 
apply  the  term  “ Sodomy,  ” while  specialists  in  Eng- 
land and  Erance  more  commonly  give  to  it  the  name 
of  “Bestiality.”  Trials  for  this  crime  perpetrated  with 
animals,  such  as  the  cow,  the  mare,  and  the  she-ass, 
are  not  unfrequent  at  the  assizes.  They  are  not  reported, 
and  do  not  therefore  attract  any  public  notice.  The 
criminals  are  commonly  youths  or  men  employed  to 
look  after  the  animals.  In  most  of  these  cases  the 
criminal  has  been  caught  flagrante  delicto — or  under 
such  circumstances  as  to  leave  no  doubt  of  the  attempt, 
if  not  of  the  completion,  of  the  act  of  unnatural  in- 
tercourse. 

* The  Principles  and  Practice  of  Medical  Jurisprudence,  by  the 
late  Alfd.  S.  Taylor,  4th  edit,  by  Thos.  Stevenson,  M.D.,  Lond., 
Churchill,  1894. 

^ Casper,  Gerichtl.  Med.,  vol.  l,  p.  180. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


361 


“ Medical  evidence  is  seldom  required  to  sustain  the 
prosecution.  There  may  be,  however,  circumstances 
which  can  only  be  properly  interpreted  by  an  expert. 
The  hair  of  the  animal  may  be  found  on  the  perpe- 
trator, or  marks  of  blood  or  feculent  matter  upon  his 
dress,  and  in  such  cases  analysis,  or  the  microscope, 
may  enable  a witness  to  express  an  opinion  in  proof 
or  disproof  of  the  charge.  In  one  case  tried  at  the 
assizes,  where  a man  was  charged  with  having  had  un- 
natural intercourse  with  a cow,  the  prosecution  was 
able  to  show  that  some  short  coloured  hairs  found  on 
the  prisoner’s  person  resembled  those  of  the  animal. 
In  another  case,  ^ the  editor  found  the  peculiar  coloured 
hairs  of  a mare  upon  the  prisoner’s  clothes,  and  sper- 
matozoa on  his  trouser-flap. 

“ The  medical  jurists  of  Germany  have  taken  a great 
interest  in  cases  of  sodomy  and  bestiality ; and  in  some 
of  their  reports  they  have  contrived  to  throw  an  air 
of  science  over  the  details  of  this  detestable  crime. 
Kutter  has  published  an  elaborate  report  of  a case  of 
this  kind,  ^ in  which  a sub-officer  was  charged  by  his 
captain  with  unnatural  intercourse  with  a mare,  and  in 
support  of  the  charge  Kutter  was  able  to  furnish  good 
microscopical  evidence.  The  captain,  on  entering  the 
stable  suddenly,  found  the  prisoner  in  the  act  of  moving 
away  from  the  stall  of  the  animal.  Kutter  was  called 
to  examine  the  mare,  and  found  some  small  abrasions 
about  the  genitals  of  the  animal,  and  a slight  escape 
of  bloody  mucus  from  these  parts.  The  prisoner  will- 
ingly submitted  himself  to  examination.  Kutter  found 
some  stains  of  blood  on  his  skirt;  and  on  the  penis 
between  the  prepuce  and  the  glans,  there  were  a num- 

* Reg.  V.  Brinkley,  Lincoln  Ass.,  Ap.,  1887. 

“ “ Fleischliclier  Vermischung  init  einem  Thiere.” 


362 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


ber  of  short,  dark,  pointed  hairs.  The  prisoner  accounted 
for  them  by  saying  that  the  night  before  he  had  had 
connection  with  some  woman.  Kutter  examined  the 
hairs  carefully  by  the  hid  of  a microscope,  and  found 
them  to  be  shorter,  thicker,  and  more  pointed  than 
those  of  a human  being.  They  were  also  coarse,  and 
less  transparent.  Comparing  them  with  hairs  gently 
rubbed  off  the  back  part  of  the  mare,  they  exactly 
corresponded  in  colour,  form,  and  length,  so  as  to  leave 
no  doubt  on  his  mind  that  there  has  been  unnatural 
intercourse.  It  was  impossible  to  say  with  any  certainty 
that  the  blood-stains  on  the  shirt  were  produced  by  the 
blood  of  the  animal.  This,  however,  was  not  a neces- 
sary part  of  the  evidence.  ^ On  these  facts  Kutter 
gave  an  opinion  that  the  prisoner  had  been  guilty  of 
unnatural  intercourse  with  the  mare.” 

I will  conclude  by  noting  a case  of  bestiality 
committed  by  a New  Hebridean  with  a she-goat.  At 
the  request  of  the  master  of  this  new  sort  of  Corydon, 
I examined  both  the  animal  and  the  culprit, — who 
could  not  deny  the  charge,  having  been  caught  in  the 
act  by  his  master.  The  goat  showed  a well-marked 
anal  infundibulum,  very  similar  to  that  of  professional 
passive  sodomites.  The  anus  was  much  dilated,  and 
admitted  two  fingers,  though,  in  its  normal  condition, 
the  anus  of  the  goat  is  very  constricted,  the  dung  of 
the  animal  being  in  small  round  balls.  The  genital 
parts  of  the  man  presented  all  the  marks  of  active 
sodomy.  The  yard,  which  was  normal  as  to  length 
(sf  to  6 inches  in  erection)  was  very  thick  at  the  base, 
where  it  was  nearly  two  inches  in  diameter,  but  it 
diminished  gradually  up  to  the  gland,  where  the  diameter, 
at  the  crown,  was  hardly  more  than  half  that  of  the 

’ Horn’s  “ Vierteljahrsschr.,”  1865,  i,  p.  160. 


ANTHROPOI-OGY. 


363 


base,  and  the  crown  was  further  strangled  by  a rather 
well-pronounced  phimosis.  It  terminated  in  a point, 
and  the  “ ring  ” was  but  slightly  marked.  Altogether 
it  was  more  like  the  penis  of  an  animal  than  that  of 
a man.  The  testicles  were  developed,  and  showed  that 
the  man  often  indulged  in  copulation.  Having  purposely 
asked  if  he  had  never  tried  to  enter  the  natural  way 
when  the  goat  was  “ on  heat”,  I received  the  following 
reply  in  the  “ Biche-la-Mer”  language,  which  is  the 
patois  of  Polynesia : “ Me  have  no ; belong  me  cue 
too  large.”  This  naively  cynical  response,  devoid  of 
all  artifice,  convinced  me,  in  fact,  that  it  was  impossible 
for  the  human  organ,  on  account  of  its  great  difference 
from  the  genital  organ  of  the  he-goat,  to  enter  the  long 
but  narrow  vulva  of  the  she-goat.  ^ 

Artificial  Hypospadias  of  the  Natives  of  Santo. 

I found  a native  of  Santo  with  an  artificial  hypospadia, 
performed  at  the  age  of  puberty  by  the  Takata.  With 
a well-sharpened  piece  of  quartz,  the  urethra  is  slit 
from  the  gland  to  the  root  of  the  bag,  the  penis  being 
first  fastened  to  a piece  of  bark.  The  wound  is  covered 
with  a bandage  of  fine  bark,  after  being  dressed  with 
some  herbs  chewed  by  the  Takata.  This  curious 
operation  compels  those  who  have  been  thus  mutilated 
to  stoop  down  to  make  water.  In  a state  of  erection, 
the  member  becomes  large  and  flat,  and  when  emit- 
ting, the  sperm  dribbles  out  over  the  bag.  The  native, 
who  exhibited  this  curious  mutilation,  told  me  that  he 
was  not  the  only  one,  and  that  it  was  not  unfrequently 

’Compare  also  pages  159- — 160  of  vol.  I,  GU  A»iori  degli  Uojnini, 
by  Cav.  Paolo  Mantegazza,  Milano,  1892,  for  two  other  curious  cases 
of  this  strange  lewdness.  One  can  hardly  dignify  it  with  the  name  of 
passion. 


3&4 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


performed  by  the  Takata  on  persons  specially  named 
by  the  Chief.  He  could  not  explain  to  me  the  reason 
for  this  singular  custom. 

It  is  certain,  however,  that  it  comes  from  Australia 
(the  original  cradle  of  the  New  Hebridean  race),  where 
it  is  practised  in  the  central  and  western  parts  of  the 
country. 

The  natives  of  Santo  are  almost  completely  pure 
Melanesians. 


IN  CEYLON. 

Further  notes  for  author  of  “ Untrodden  Fields 
of  Anthropology”  in  addition  to  those  sent  before,  by 
a Scotch  Doctor.  ^ 


The  Malabar  Tamil  coolies,  men  and  women,  all 
remove  the  hair  from  the  pubis  and  sexual  organs, 
anus,  ears,  and  nose,  cheek  and  chin,  by  either  pulling 
the  hair  out  with  tweezers  (forceps),  or  shaving  it  off 
with  broken  glass-bottles,  or  a razor,  or  rubbing  the 
hair  with  hot  wood  ashes,  or  lime.  These  coolies  are 
emigrants  from  S.  India.  The  Cinghalese,  proper  na- 
tives of  Ceylon,  do  not  do  this.  When  the  male  Tamil 
is  having  his  pubic  hair  shaved  off,  the  barber  is 
made  to  insert  the  penis  in  to  a hollow  piece  of  bam- 
boo, which  he  holds,  and  uses  as  a handle ; he  is  not 
allowed  to  touch  the  sacred  organ — they  all  worship 
the  Thallic  emblem ! Cases  of  sodomy  or  pederasty 
are  rare  in  Ceylon  among  Tamils  and  Cinghalese  ex- 
cept among  S.  Indian  Chetties  and  Mohammedan  traders, 
who  are  reported  to  practise  sodomy  on  goats,  cows, 

’ See  pages  93  to  96  inclusive  of  the  1st  vol.  of  this  work. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


365 


and  very  rarely  on  boys.  When  a Pamil  man  has  a 
venereal  disease,  he  is  told  to  go  and  practise  on  the 
goats ! ! Compare  this  with  the  Chinaman  who  prac- 
tises sodomy  on  ducks,  and  where  he  cuts  its  head 
off,  at  the  critical  moment  to  give  him  a final  sensa- 
tion or  orgasm!  The  Cinghalese  girls,  when  about  10 
or  12,  are  often  made  to  sit  in  water  for  2 or  3 days 
with  a tangle  sea-weed  stalk  pushed  into  the  vulva. 
This  enlarges  and  swells  up,  like  a “ tupelo  tent”  and 
opens  up  the  hymen.  Both  Tamils  and  Cinghalese  use 
astringent  lotions  to  tighten  up  the  vagina,  but  the 
drug  used  is  kept  secret.  In  a Cinghalese  family  of 
brothers,  there  is  only  one  wife  kept  (polyandry),  and 
when  a brother  wants  the  wife  for  the  night,  he  takes 
off  his  head-handkerchief — which  they  all  wear  round 
the  head, — and  hangs  it  over  the  top  of  the  door  of 
his  bedroom.  This  is  the  signal  to  the  other  brothers 
that  he  has  engaged  the  wife  for  the  night  and  none 
dare  enter  in,  except  himself  and  the  woman.  Among 
the  Cinghalese,  brothers  have  sexual  intercourse  with 
half-sisters,  and  uncles  with  nieces,  and  fathers  with 
daughters  and  step-daughters,  and  incest  is  common 
among  them.  The  author  of  “ U.  F.  of  A.”  should  make 
enquiries  about  the  curious  customs  of  the  Malays  in 
Sarawak,  Selangor,  Perak  and  in  Malay  Straits  gener- 
ally. It  is  well  known  here  in  Ceylon,  that  the  Malay 
woman  will  not  allow  a man  to  have  intercourse  with 
her,  unless  he,  a Malay,  can  put  a wheel  on  his  penis, 
which  he  does  as  follows  : The  glans  penis  is  bored  trans- 
versely with  a hot  iron,  and  a small  tunnel  is  thus 
made  from  side  to  side ; into  this  he  puts  a small  axle 
or  stick  and  fastens  to  each  end  of  the  axle  2 small 
wheels  which  project  on  each  side  of  his  glans.  During 
intercourse,  the  wheels  revolve  and  the  cogs  on  them 


366  UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF  ANTHROPOLOGY. 

run  up  and  down  inside  the  vagina  and  give  the 
woman  what  she  considers  a proper  sensation  and 
orgasm.  This  boring  of  the  penis  often  results  in 
stricture,  if  the  tunnel  has  been  bored  too  close  to  the 
urethra  and  inflammation  sets  in,  where  the  one  crosses, 
the  other  at  right  angles.  These  Malay  wheels  are 
hard  to  obtain,  but  every  Malay  who  is  a “ man  of  valour” 
and  a man  of  vigour  among  his  women  has  one  of 
them.  They  are  kept  secret,  and  Europeans  cannot  get 
them,  but  it  is  true  nevertheless,  and  this  subject  is 
worth  investigation. 

Editor’s  Note: — The  author  is  extremely 

OBLIGED  TO  THIS  CORRESPONDENT  FOR  HIS  CLEAR 
AND  PERTINENT  OBSERVATIONS.  IN  A FUTURE  WORK 
THE  ESOTERIC  HABITS  OF  THE  MALAYS,  IN  THE 
PLACES  NAMED,  WILL  BE  PROBABLY  DISCUSSED : 

Meanwhile,  the  co-operation  of  travellers  and 
Anthropologists  is  earnestly  invited  to  shed 

LIGHT  UPON  THESE  OBSCURE  POINTS,  WHICH  ARE 
DEALT  WITH,  SO  FAR  AS  I AM  AWARE,  IN  NO  OTHER 

European  book. 


CHAPTER  IX. 


Six  weeks  at  Tahiti,  — Panoramic  vieiv  of  Tahiti  at  sun-rise. — 
Anthropological  characteristics  of  the  Tahitian  Maori  race. — 
Beantv  of  the  Maori  race.  — The  portrait  of  Rar aim. 

Six  Weeks  at  Tahiti.  On  leaving  New  Caledonia 
to  return  to  France,  I obtained,  as  an  unexpected 
favour,  permission  to  make  the  journey  at  my  own 
expense  via  Tahiti  and  America,  instead  of  returning 
on  the  sailing  transport  vessel.  The  Government,  how- 
ever, paid  me  a sum  equal  to  what  my  voyage  on 
the  transport  vessel  would  have  cost.  But  I was 
anxious  not  to  lose  such  an  opportunity  of  visiting  the 
famous  New  Cytherea,  so  much  belauded  by  the  old 
navigators.  Thanks  to  the  kindness  of  the  heads  of 
the  Naval  Department,  I was  also  able  to  obtain  a 
furlough,  and  remain  six  weeks  at  Papeete,  the  capital 
of  Tahiti. 

One  of  my  colleagues.  Doctor  S***,  who  had  been 
three  years  in  the  colony,  undertook  to  serve  as  my 
guide,  and  owing  to  his  kindness  in  putting  his  notes 
at  my  disposal,  and  to  the  information  of  various  kinds 
which  he  procured  for  me,  my  voyage  to  Tahiti  was 
not  devoid  of  profit. 

Panoramic  View  of  Tahiti  at  Sun-rise.  The 

three-masted  sailing  vessel,  which  carried  me  from 
Noumea  to  Papeete,  very  luckily,  arrived  within  sight 
of  land  at  evening  and  did  not  enter  the  harbour  till 

367 


368 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


next  morning.  I was  therefore  able  to  enjoy  the  never 
to  be  forgotten  spectacle  of  sun-rise  when  only  a few 
miles  from  the  coast  of  Tahiti. 

At  the  moment  when  the  shades  of  night  gave  place 
to  the  grey  hues  of  dawn,  the  New  Cytherea  rose  to 
view,  and  proudly  raised  its  enormous  pyramidal  sil- 
houette,— a gigantic  mass  of  a uniform  dark  blue  tint, 
crowned  by  Mount  Orohena,  about  7500  feet  high. 
The  great  valleys  of  the  island  formed  deep  shadows 
on  the  sides  of  the  mountains,  the  summits  of  which 
began  to  be  gradually  lighted  up.  The  bright  light 
of  day  spread  rapidly,  and  the  delighted  eye  watched 
undreamed  of  effects  of  colour,  until  the  orb  of  day, 
rising  like  a golden  disk  behind  the  mountains,  made 
their  peaks  glitter  like  diamond  points. 

The  short  duration  of  twilight,  which,  in  the  tropics, 
precedes  the  daylight  by  only  a few  minutes,  made 
the  spectacle  seem  like  a panorama  which  was  being 
slowly  unrolled.  Moorea,  the  sister  island  of  Tahiti, 
with  its  mountain  tops  rising  into  the  blue  sky,  formed 
a delightful  background  of  a pinkish  grey  tint.  The 
eye,  used  to  the  wild  scenery  of  New  Caledonia,  with 
its  arid  mountains,  rests  with  pleasure  on  the  rich 
foliage  of  Tahiti.  Beyond  the  girdle  of  reefs,  on  the 
edge  of  its  pretty  harbour,  Papeete,  the  capital  of  the 
island,  lies  gracefully  like  a lizard  in  the  sun.  From 
a distance  you  can  hardly  see  more  than  the  church, 
and  a few  houses  on  the  shore ; all  the  rest  is  hidden 
under  a luxuriant  vegetation.  I mentally  compared 
this  picturesque  site  with  Saint  Louis  at  Senegal;  the 
one,  a charming  nest  of  verdure;  the  other,  a dull 
glare  of  white  walls. 

A boat  took  me  to  land.  Some  narrow  streets, 
planted  with  trees,  forming  a roof  of  foliage  over  the 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


369 


traveller’s  head,  little,  low  houses,  with  red  tiled  roofs, 
and  surrounded  by  gardens  filled  with  flowers  and 
foliage, — such  is  Papeete.  In  this  delightful  town  I 
spent  a few  weeks,  and  the  memory  of  it  still  makes 
my  heart  beat  with  pleasure.  And  yet  Tahiti  is  no 
longer  the  New  Cytherea  of  de  Bougainville, — the 
paradise  of  love. 

Anthropological  Characteristics  of  the  Tahitian 
Maori  Race.  The  Tahitian  Maori  race  is  a product 
of  the  crossing  of  three  races, — white,  yellow,  and  black 
(the  Melanesian), — the  two  former  markedly  dominating 
over  the  latter.  The  tint  tends  generally  to  a reddish 
white,  and  ranges  from  light  brown  chocolate  (the 
darkest  shade)  to  the  warm,  slightly  olive  tint  of  the 
Spaniards  of  Andalusia.  In  fact,  reader,  if  you  have 
never  seen  a Vahine  (a  woman  of  Tahiti)  nothing  can 
give  you  a better  idea  of  her  than  the  Andalusian 
with  the  brown  breasts,  of  Alfred  de  Musset.  The 
almost  white  tint  belongs  exclusively  to  the  families 
of  the  Chiefs,  who  have  formed  fewer  mesalliances 
with  the  Black  race,  which  came  from  Australia, 
evidently.  In  1767  the  navigator,  Wallis,  found  at 
Maravai  some  Chiefs  almost  white,  and  with  red  hair. 
Generally,  in  the  Maoris,  the  skull  is  enlarged  at  the 
level  of  the  parietal  bones,  and  its  shape  from  front 
to  rear,  resembles  that  of  the  keel  of  a ship.  The 
hair  is  black,  fine,  abundant,  sometimes  curly,  but 
never  woolly.  It  shades  a projecting  forehead,  and 
eyes  that  are  slightly  oblique,  and  always  very  large, 
denoting,  in  the  man,  pride;  and,  in  the  woman, 
voluptuousness.  Cheekbones  slightly  projecting,  a nose 
sometimes  flat,  a large  mouth  with  sensuous  lips  of  a 
dark  ruby  red,  magnificent  teeth,  a not  very  prominent 

24 


370 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


chin,  covered,  in  the  case  of  the  men,  with  a light 
black  beard,  a long  neck,  large  shoulders  and  breast, 
a fine  waist,  a slim  form,  well-proportioned  limbs,  with 
fine  and  long  extremities,  complete,  in  the  man,  a most 
imposing  ensemble. 

Beauty  of  the  Maori  Race.  Truly  the  Tane 
(Tahitian)  of  from  twenty  to  twenty-five  years  of  age, 
is  a splendid  fellow,  and,  in  my  opinion,  one  of  the 
most  perfect  specimens  of  human  beauty.  If  the  Greek 
sculptors  had  but  known  him,  what  masterpieces  of 
art  they  would  have  bequeathed  us.  A characteristic 
that  is  common  enough  amongst  the  young  Tanes  is 
a development,  sometimes  fairly  considerable,  of  the 
buttocks,  which  are  generally  rounded,  and  of  a slightly 
feminine  shape,  though  the  body,  in  its  entirety,  presents 
an  appearance  of  strength  combined  with  grace.  The 
antique  statue  of  the  Indian  Bacchus  might  serve  as 
a type  of  many  of  the  Tanes.  We  may  remark  that 
the  flat  nose  is  not  a natural  characteristic,  and  is  due 
to  the  fact  that  the  Tahitian  nurses  had  formerly  the 
habit  of  crushing  the  cartilage  of  the  noses  of  the 
young  children.  The  younger  generation,  on  the  con- 
trary, have  the  nose  aquiline,  and  of  a very  regular 
shape.  In  the  Vahine,  the  head  is  smaller  than  that 
of  the  man ; the  breasts  have  a splendid  curve,  slightly 
arched,  of  an  average  size,  with  small  nipples  standing 
out  straight  in  front.  The  waist  is  slender,  the  belly, 
the  haunches,  and  the  buttocks,  are  rounded  and  beau- 
tifully proportioned,  the  thighs  plump  and  well  fur- 
nished, the  calves  and  ankles  splendid.  The  general 
appearance  of  some  Vahines  of  from  eighteen  to  twenty 
years  calls  to  mind  the  antique  Venus  of  Arles. 

To  whom  shall  the  prize  of  beauty  be  given?  If 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


371 


the  Tane  attracts  our  gaze  by  a beauty  which  is 
majestic,  though  still  remaining  graceful,  and  which 
makes  him  resemble  the  Indian  Bacchus,  the  Vahine 
fascinates  the  traveller  by  a languorous  charm,  and 
there  shoots  from  her  black,  gazelle-like  eyes,  soft 
glances  which  are  at  once  both  sweet  and  impudent, — 
a seductive  grace  that  promises  every  sort  of  volup- 
tuous pleasure.  A Vahine  of  sixteen,  leaving  her  bath, 
might  serve  as  a model  for  Venus  rising  from  the  sea, 
her  long  hair  spread  over  her  shoulders  like  a royal 
mantle,  and  often  falling  below  the  bust.  The  pubes 
is  well  furnished  with  soft  hair,  in  colour,  black,  dark 
chestnut,  and  sometimes  red,  for  there  are  golden  red 
blondes  amongst  the  Vahines. 

The  Portrait  of  Rarahu.  I have  tried  my  best  to 
describe  the  nature  of  the  beauties  of  the  Tahitian  race, 
but  I feel  how  powerless  my  pen  is  to  accomplish  the 
task,  and  I have  sought  the  help  of  that  of  Pierre  Loti. 
The  portrait  of  his  mistress,  little  Rarahu,  is  a perfect 
jewel,  and  the  reader  will  no  doubt  be  pleased  that  I 
reproduce  it  here. 

“ Rarahu  was  a tiny  creature  unlike  any  other, 
though  she  was  a perfect  type  of  the  Maori  race  which 
peoples  the  Polynesian  archipelago,  and  which  is  deemed 
one  of  the  most  beautiful  in  the  world ; a distinct  and 
mysterious  race  the  origin  of  which  is  unknown.  Rarahu 
had  eyes  of  a russet  black,  full  of  exotic  languor,  and 
of  a wheedling  softness,  like  those  of  a kitten  when 
you  caress  it ; her  eyelashes  were  so  long,  and  so 
black,  that  you  might  have  taken  them  for  painted 
feathers.  Her  nose  was  short  and  small,  like  those  of 
some  of  the  Arab  girls ; her  mouth,  a little  thicker  and 
a little  wider  than  the  classic  type,  had  deep  corners 


372  UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF  ANTHROPOLOGY. 


of  a delightful  contour.  In  laughing,  she  showed  all 
of  a set  of  teeth  which  were  a trifle  large,  and  white 
as  white  enamel, — teeth,  which  the  years  had  not  had 
time  to  polish  much,  and  which  still  retained  the  light 
striae  of  childhood.  Her  hair,  which  was  perfumed 
with  sandal  wood,  was  long,  straight,  and  perhaps  a 
trifle  coarse;  it  fell  in  heavy  masses  on  her  round, 
naked  shoulders.  A uniformly  tawny  tint,  tending 
to  redbrick,  like  that  of  the  light  terra-cottas  of  old 
Etruria,  spread  over  all  her  body,  from  the  top  of  her 
forehead  to  the  tips  of  her  toes. 

“ Rarahu  was  not  tall,  but  admirably  made,  and 
splendidly  proportioned ; her  breast  was  pure  arid 
polished,  her  arms  perfect.  Round  each  ankle  was 
a light  blue  tattoo  mark,  imitating  a bracelet;  on  the 
lower  lip  three  little  blue  transversal  rays,  almost 
imperceptible,  like  those  of  the  women  of  the  Marquesas 
Islands ; and  upon  her  forehead  a still  paler  tattoo 
mark,  in  the  form  of  a diadem.  That  which,  above 
all,  characterised  her  race,  was  the  excessive  closeness 
of  her  prominent  eyes,  as  in  all  the  Maoris ; when  she 
was  gay  and  laughing,  this  gave  to  her  childish  face 
the  cunning  look  of  a young  marmoset ; but  when 
she  was  serious  or  sad,  there  was  something  about 
her  that  you  could  not  define  better  than  by  these 
two  words, — a Polynesian  grace.” 


CHAPTER  X. 


Manners  and  catstonn  .of  the  Tahitians.  — Social  condition  jof  the 
ancient  Tahitians. — Ihe  Manahune'—  Religion  and  the  priests. — 
Origin  of  ihe  Tahitian  race.  — The  language. — The  Tahitian 
Arii  is  an  Arvan  like  the  old  Greek. — The  priest' s part  in  Tahitian 
civilisatio7i. — The  Marae.  — Human  saaifices.- — The  end  of  Tahi- 
tiaji  civilisation. — Habitations.  — Baths.  — Food.  — Amuraa. — Pub- 
lic festivals. — Costumes. 

Although  this  chapter  has  only  an  indirect  connec- 
tion with  sexual  passions  and  habits,  it  seemed  to  me 
that  it  would  not  be  altogether  useless ; however,  I 
will  be  brief. 

Social  Condition  of  the  Ancient  Tahitians.  The 

dynasty  of  Pomare  established  by  force  its  authority 
over  Tahiti  and  the  neighbouring  isles.  When  Tahiti 
was  discovered,  only  one  Chief, — Oamma,  the  husband 
of  Queen  Oberea — possessed  the  “ red  maro”,  or 
insignia  of  royal  power.  The  government  was  theocratic; 
the  royal  race  descended  from  the  God-King,  Hiro. 
Under  the  sovereign,  are  the  princes  of  the  royal 
blood ; under  the  princes,  the  lords,  divided  into  two 
categories,  and  classed,  according  to  their  order  of 
pre-eminence,  into  Arii  (principal  chiefs),  and  Raatira; 
the  first  have  nearly  all  the  power,  and  the  second 
mere  empty  honours. 

The  , Manahune.  Under  these  was  the  Manahune 
(man  of  the  people)  who  possessed  nothing  of  his  own. 

373 


374 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


His  heritage  was  subject  to  certain  feudal  rights,  but 
he  could,  nevertheless,  transmit  it  intact  to  his  children 
as  a sort  of  permanent  usufruct.  He  c_ould  enter  into 
the  sect  of  Arrioys,  of  which  I shall  speak  more  fully 
later  on. 

Religion  and  the  Priests.  Religion  played  an 
important  part  amongst  the  old  Tahitians.  Alongside 
of  royalty  and  the  nobility,  was  the  sacred  caste  of  the 
priests,  possessing  considerable  privileges.  Without 
entering  on  long  dissertations,  I will  only  say,  that 
the  old  religion  of  the  Tahitians  resembled  that  of  the 
Greeks,  and  showed  the  same  characteristics.  There' 
was  the  same  pantheism,  the  same  anthropomorphism 
of  the  inferior  gods,  the  same  worship  of  the  forces 
of  Nature.  The  creator  of  the  world  was  Taoroa, 
whose  cosmic  arrangements  seem  to  have  been 
distinguished  by  simplicity  and  energy.  Man  must  die, 
but  matter  is  eternal.  The  Divinities  are  of  two 
orders;  the  Atorias,  or  great  gods,  who  rule  men’s 
actions,  but  do  not  have  to  judge  their  morality.  To 
enumerate  all  their  names  here,  would  take  too  long, 
but  I find  amongst  the  Tahitian  gods,  an  Esculapius, 
a Hercules,  a Mars,  a Mercury,  an  Apollo,  etc.  Below 
these  high  gods,  are  inferior  gods,  who  may  be  com- 
pared to  the  Naiads,  Nymphs,  Dryads,  Fauns,  etc.,  of 
the  old  Greek  mythology.  The  gods  could  assume 
human  form,  when  they  wished  to  satisfy  their  passions ; 
— exactly  like  the  Greek  Jupiter.  Finally,  in  the 
lowest  rank,  v-/e  find  the  Oromatouas,  domestic  gods, 
or  lares,  absolutely  identical  with  the  lares  and  penates 
of  the  Romans.  This  resemblance  of  the  Tahitian 
religion  to  that  of  the  ancient  Greeks  would  seem  to 
indicate  a common  origin. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


375 


I have  said  above,  that  the  Tahitians  were  the 
outcome  of  three  races;  the  white,  yellow,  and  black. 
The  first  is  almost  pure  in  the  case  of  the  kings,  the 
princes,  and  the  Arii."  In  the  Raatira,  the  yellow  race 
predominates.  The  Raatira  were  the  first  conquerors 
of  the  aborigines,  and  were  subdued  in  their  turn  by 
the  Arii,  who  left  them  barren  honours  and  empty 
titles,  but  took  away  from  them,  in  reality,  all  their 
power.  The  Manahune  has  more  black  blood  than 
the  nobles,  although  this  black  blood  has  been  greatly 
ameliorated  by  an  admixture  of  yellow  blood,  and  a 
little  white  blood. 

Origin  of  the  Tahitian  Race.  So  much  being 
understood,  anthropology,  the  religion,  and  the  language 
will  enable  us  to  discover  the  secret  of  the  origin  of 
the  Maori  race. 

The  Tahitian  language  is  at  once  soft,  sonorous,  and 
harmonious,  and  by  its  grammar,  its  elegance,  and  its 
accentuation,  reminds  one  of  Greek,  though  of  course 
much  less  perfect.  To  this  opinion,  Edward  B.  Tylor,  the 
distinguished  Oxford  anthropologist,  I consider  gives 
his  support  by  the  following  passage: — “ Language, 
appearing  as  an  art  in  full  vigour  among  rude  tribes, 
already  displays  the  adaptation  of  child-like  devices 
in  self-expressive  sound  and  pictorial  metaphor,  to  utter 
thoughts  as  complex  and  abstruse  as  savage  minds 
demand  speech  for.  When  it  is  considered  how  far 
the  development  of  knowledge  depends  on  full  and 
exact  means  of  expressing  thought,  is  it  not  a pregnant 
consideration  that  the  language  of  civilised  men  is  but 
the  language  of  savages,  more  or  less  improved  in 
structure,  a good  deal  extended  in  vocabulary,  made 
more  precise  in  the  dictionary  definition  of  words? 


376 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


The  development  of  language  between  its  savage  and 
cultured  stages  has  been  made  in  its  details,  scarcely  ii\ 
its  principle.  It  is  not  too  much  to  say  that  half  the 
vast  defect  of  language  as  a method  of  utterance,  and 
half  the  vast  defect  of  thought  as  determined  by  the 
influence  of  language,  are  due  to  the  fact  that  speech 
is  a scheme  worked  out  by  the  rough  and  ready 
application  of  material  metaphor  and  imperfect  analogy, 
in  ways  fitting  rather  the  barbaric  education  of  those 
who  formed  it,  than  our  own.  Language  is  one  of 
those  intellectual  departments  in  which  we  have  gone 
too  little  beyond  the  savage  stage,  but  are  still  as  it 
were  hacking  with  stone  celts  and  twirling  laborious 
friction-fire.”^  Besides  the  singular  and  plural  numbers, 
the  Maori  possesses,  like  Greek,  the  dual,  which  is 
unknown  to  European  tongues.  The  language  of  a 
people  is  the  mark  of  its  state  of  civilisation.  We  may 
then  compare  the  Tahitian  civilisation  to  that  of  the 
ancient  Greeks,  and  by  the  connection  existing  between 
the  languages  and  religions,  assign  to  them  both  a 
common  origin.  ' 

Consequently  it  is  easy  to  trace  the  origin  of  the 
Tahitian  race.  The  autochthone  was  the  Melanesian 
Negro  of  Australia:  he  was  conquered,  at  a very 
remote  epoch,  by  men  of  a yellow  race,  evidently 
Malays.  These  latter  partly  allied  themselves  to  the 
conquered  people  and  formed  the  earliest  race  of 
nobles,  those  of  the  Raatira.  Finally  the  White,  the 
last  conqueror,  came,  and  founded, — like  the  Norman 
in  England, — a superior  hierarchy,  a select  caste  (that 
of  the  Arii),  which  forced  its  religion  and  language  on 
the  conquered  people.  But  the  language  has  become 
corrupted  by  being  mixed  with  that  of  the  conquered 

* Primitive  Culture,  third  edit.  London,  Murray,  1891,  vol.  II,  p.  445. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


377 


people,  just  as  French  is  but  a corruption  of  Latin; 
and  English,  a mixture  of  Saxon  and  old  Norman 
French. 

The  close  relationship  between  the  Maori  and  the 
ancient  Greek  being  thus  established,  it  naturally 
follows  that  the  two  races  must  be  derived  from  one 
common  stock. 

The  Tahitian  Arii  is  an  Aryan,  like  the  Old 
Greek.  Greek  civilisation  is  the  daughter  of  Flindoo 
civilisation,  and  India  is  really  the  cradle  of  the  civilised 
world.  Philology  and  religion  will  prove  this  assertion. 
The  names  of  the  gods  of  the  Greek  mythology  are, 
in  fact,  almost  pure  Sanscrit,  and  are  nothing  but 
translations  of  the  titles  given  to  the  Hindoo  gods. 
Hercules  is  in  Sanscrit  Hora-Kala,  the  hero  of  battles ; 
Jupiter,  in  Sanscrit  Zu-pitri,  is  the  father  of  heaven, 
or  Zeus-pitri,  and  became  the  Zeus  of  the  Greeks,  and 
the  Jehovah  of  the  Hebrews;  Pallas  is  in  Sanscrit 
Pala-sa,  the  goddess  who  protects;  Minerva  is  in  Sans- 
crit Ma-nara-va,  she  who  supports  the  brave;  Bellona 
is  in  Sanscrit  Bala-na,  warlike  strength ; Neptune  is  in 
Sanscrit  Na-patana,  he  who  masters  the  fury  of  the 
waves;  Mars,  the  God  of  War,  is  in  Sanscrit  Afri,  he 
who  deals  death ; Pluto,  the  God  of  Hell,  is  in  Sanscrit 
Plushta,  he  who  strikes  by  fire;  Orestes,  celebrated 
for  his  madness,  is  in  Sanscrit  0-rah-sata,  doomed  to 
misfortune ; Pylades,  his  friend,  is  in  Sanscrit  Pa-la-da, 
he  who  consoles  by  his  friendship ; Centaur  is  in 
Sanscrit  Ken-tura,  a man-horse.  But  here  I will  stop, 
though  I could  run  through  the  entire  mythology  in 
the  same  way. 

Let  us  take  the  names  of  the  peoples  of  the  Aryan 
race,  whose  migrations  are  shown  by  etymology. 


378 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


The  Hellenes,  the  ancient  Greeks,  are  in  Sanscrit 
Hela-na,  warrior-worshippers  of  Hela,  the  Moon.  In 
the  Tahitian  language,  the  moon  is  called  Hina  ! The 
Italians,  a name  which  comes  from  Italus,  the  son  of 
the  Trojan  hero,  are  in  Sanscrit  Itala,  men  of  low  caste; 
the  Celts,  the  first  conquerors  of  almost  the  whole  of 
Europe,  are  in  Sanscrit  Kalla-ta,  the  invading  chiefs; 
the  Gauls  are  in  Sanscrit  Ga-la-ta,  the  people  who 
march  conquering;  the  Belgians,  in  Sanscrit,  Ba-la-ja, 
the  children  of  the  brave ; the  Scandinavians,  in  Sanscrit, 
Skanda-nava,  worshippers  of  Skanda,  the  god  of  battles ; 
the  Alemanni  (Germans),  in  Sanscrit,  Alamanu,  the 
free  men ; finally  Ireland,  which  the  poets  call  “ Erin 
the  green  ” , is  in  Sanscrit  Erin,  rocks  surrounded  by 
salt  water. 

I am  positive  that  there  would  be  found  in  the  Tahitian 
language  many  words  derived  from  the  Sanscrit,  and 
that  the  White  Arii,  the  invader  of  the  island  of 
Tahiti,  who  has  conquered,  and  then  peopled,  the  other 
large  islands  of  Polynesia,  New  Zealand,  the  Hawaii 
Islands,  etc.,  is  an  Aryan  of  pure  extraction,  the  brother 
of  the  Aryan  who  conquered  India  and  Europe. 

The  Priest’s  Place  in  Tahitian  Civilisation.  The 

caste  of  priests,  like  that  of  the  Brahmins  of  India,  and 
the  bonzes  of  Cambodia,  proudly  maintained  its  privileges 
against  the  king  and  nobles.  No  people  in  the  world, 
not  even  the  Romans,  allowed  the  ministers  of  their 
gods  greater  importance.  In  peace  or  war,  no  acts  of 
political  or  civil  life  occurred  without  their  interference. 
The  person  of  the  priest  (Faaoura-Poure)  was  sacred, 
and  the  sacerdotal  authority  hereditary,  like  that  of 
the  Brahmins  of  India ; their  power  extended  even  to 
life  and  death.  They  were  the  guardians  of  traditions, 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


379 


the  historians  of  the  nation.  Below  the  priests,  was 
a whole  hierarchy,  analogous  to  the  deacons  and  sub- 
deacons of  the  Catholic  Church ; and  also  the  Tiis,  who 
were  inspired  by  the  inferior  deities,  and  acted  as 
exorcists  and  sorcerers. 

I shall  speak  of  the  Arrioys,  in  the  chapter  on  the 
perversions  of  sexual  passion. 

The  Marae,  or  sacred  temple,  offered  some  resem- 
blance to  the  altars  of  the  Gaulish  druids,  and  it  would 
even  be  possible  to  trace  a curious  resemblance  between 
the  analogous  duties  of  the  Faaoura-Po7ire  and  the 
Druid,  in  their  respective  societies.  It  consisted  of  a 
parallelogram,  terminated  at  one  of  its  extremities  by 
a pyramid  of  stone,  surrounded  by  sacred  trees.  A 
kind  of  wooden  platform,  mounted  on  four  legs,  formed 
the  fata  or  altar,  and  there  the  victim  was  offered, 
or  the  dead  body  of  the  chief  deposited.  In  the 
marae  were  to  be  seen, — cut  by  the  inexperienced 
chisel  of  some  Tahitian  sculptor,  — the  toos,  or  images 
of  the  Atouas. 

Human  Sacrifices.  To  obtain  the  favour  of  the 
gods,  recourse  was  had  rather  often  to  human  sacrifices. 
Even  in  these  horrible  ceremonies,  the  mild  nature  of 
the  Tahitian  showed  itself,  and  the  unfortunate  victims 
designated  by  the  priests  were  killed  unexpectedly. 
At  the  time  when  cannibalism  prevailed,  the  victims 
were  eaten,  and  the  eye  was  the  favourite  morsel  of 
the  King,  from  whence  came  the  name  Aimata  (eat 
eye),  which  was  borne  by  many  persons  of  the  royal 
family.  Captain  Cook  was  present  at  a human  sacrifice. 
But  they  ceased  at  the  beginning  of  the  present  cen- 
tury, and  since,  in  1820,  Pomare  II.  abjured  the 


38o 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


religion,  of  his  fathers,  the  old  Tahitian  religion  is  quite 
dead,  and  the  Maori  race  itself  is  dying  out. 

The  End  of  Tahitian  Civilisation.  All  this  feudal 
organisation  has  disappeared  under  the  influence  of 
European  civilisation,  represented  by  the  religious 
fanaticism  of  the  English  missionaries.  The  penal  and 
religious  code  of  Pomare  II.  was  drawn  out  by  English- 
men, who  endeavoured  to  bestow  British  manners  and 
customs  on  a people  whose  civilisation  was  so  different 
from  that  of  prudish  Albion.  It  was  a repetition  of 
the  marriage  of  the  cold  Saxon  carp  with  the  lascivious 
Maori  rabbit.  The  result  obtained  may  be  summed 
up  in  two  words,  hypocrisy  and  drunkenness.  In  the 
chapter  relating  to  the  sexual  passions  of  the  Tahitian 
race,  I shall  more  fully  discuss  the  question  of  the 
influence  of  the  Anglican  priest,  importer  of  Bibles, 
but  also  trafficker  in  gin.  Let  us  also  add  the  small 
and  great  pox,  with  which  the  European  has  presented 
the  Maoris. 

At  the  time  when  I arrived  at  Tahiti,  the  old  Queen 
Pomare  had  died,  leaving  the  throne  to  her  second 
son,  who  took  the  title  of  Pomare  V.  To  spite  his 
wife,  an  English  half-breed,  Pomare  V.  ceded  his 
royal  rights  to  Prance,  and  Tahiti  has  now  become  a 
Erench  colony.  Loti  is  quite  correct  in  saying  that 
from  the  death  of  Queen  Pomare  dates  the  end  of 
Tahiti,  as  far  as  concerns  customs,  local  colour,  and 
the  strange  charms  of  an  island  that  the  Erench  navi- 
gator, de  Bougainville,  had  christened  New  Cytherea. 

Habitations.  The  Maori  does  not  live  in  a dirty 
hut,  like  the  Kanaka  of  New  Caledonia,  or  the  New 
Hebrides.  His  house  is  a large  rectangular  building. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


381 


a really  airy  cage,  with  bamboo  walls  hung  with  mats, 
and  the  roof  covered  with  “ tiles”  made  of  the  pandanus 
or  the  cocoa-palm  leaf,  and  the  roof  ends  in  a verandah. 
The  hut  stands  in  the  midst  of  a large  enclosure,  the 
property  of  the  family,  and  under  the  shadow  of  cocoa- 
palms,  bread-fruit  trees,  and  mango  trees.  In  the  in- 
terior all  is  exquisitely  clean. 

Baths.  The  Maori  race  is  exceedingly  cleanly,  and 
might  give  a lesson  in  this  respect  to  many  civilised 
Europeans.  To  bathe  in  cold  spring  water  every  day 
is  a necessity  to  him,  and  in  the  shades  of  evening 
you  may  see  in  every  pool  of  every  brook, — which 
are  numerous  enough  in  the  valleys, — couples  of  bathers 
playing  joyously.  I must  have  recourse  to  Loti  again, 
to  depict  the  grace  and  the  charm  of  the  Tahitian 
women  bathing. 

“ Turning  to  the  right  through  the  underwood,  we 
followed  for  half  an  hour  the  Apire  road,  and  then 
came  to  a large  natural  pool  in  the  rock.  Into  this 
pool  of  Fataoua  falls  a cascade  of  delightfully  cool 
running  water.  Here,  all  day  long  there  is  a numerous 
gathering ; on  the  grass  lie  some  of  the  fairest  damsels 
of  Papeete,  who  pass  the  hot  tropical  days  in  talking, 
singing,  sleeping,  or  swimming  and  diving  like  gold 
fish.  They  go  into  the  wafer  dressed  in  their  muslin 
tunic,  which  they  still  wear  whilst  they  sleep  after 
their  bath,  wet  as  it  is, — like  the  Naiads  of  old.  .Sailors 
often  come  here  to  make  the  acquaintance  of  some  of 
the  girls.” 

Food.  The  food  of  the  Tahitian  is  varied.  Fish 
constitutes  the  main  portion  of  the  nourishment.  It  is 
often  eaten  raw  with  taioro,  a sauce  composed  of  grated 


382 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


cocoa-nut,  fermented  with  sea-water  boiled  to  evapora- 
tion. In  this  food  there  are  two  powerful  aphrodisiacs, 
phosphorus,  and  sea  salt.  To  this  diet,  the  Maori  adds 
poultry,  and  on  grand  occasions,  pork.  As  vegetables 
he  has  the  yam,  the  taro,  and  the  sweet  batata.  He 
has  also  bread-fruit,  which  grows  everywhere,  and  the 
fei,  a kind  of  wild  banana,  can  be  found  on  the  mountains. 
As  dessert,  he  possesses  every  variety  of  tropical  fruit ; — 
oranges,  bananas,  mangoes,  pine-apples,  etc.,  which 
grow  wild.  All  the  blessings  of  heaven  are  showered 
upon  this  island,  and  man  has  nothing  to  do  but  take 
the  trouble  to  live.  I would  ask  the  reader  to  remark 
how  rich,  abundant,  and  varied,  this  diet  is.  As  we 
shall  see  a little  later,  it  is  not  without  its  influence 
on  the  amorous  vigour  of  the  Tahitian. 

The  Public  Festivals  of  the  Tahitians.  Every 
Saturda.y,  after  gathering  the  fei  in  the  mountains, 
friends  and  neighbours  assemble  at  a social  gathering. 
Besides  these  private  gatherings,  there  are  celebrated, 
at  certain  periods  of  the  year,  in  every  district,  grand 
public  banquets,  called  amuraa.  They  are  veritable 
Gargantuan  feasts,  and  will  bear  comparison  with  our 
largest  public  banquets.  I do  not  know  of  any  writer 
who  has  ever  dared  to  say  that  he  saw  a dinner  of 
five  hundred  covers,  laid  in  a village.  Everybody  sets 
to  work.  Yams,  taros,  feis,  and  magori,  are  heaped 
up  in  profusion ; whole  herds  of  pigs,  and  hundreds  of 
fowls,  are  slaughtered,  and  roasted  in  the  open  air,  in 
front  of  enormous  fires. 

Costume.  The  Tahitian  Maori  looks  handsome  in 
his  simple  and  artistic  costume,  which  consists  of  a white 
cotton  shirt,  or  vest,  falling  loosely  over  a pareo, — a 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


383 


large  piece  of  cotton  stuff  of  a large  pattern  and  bright 
colours,  which  is  draped  round  the  hips,  and  hangs  as 
low  as  the  middle  of  the  calf  of  the  leg,  and  replaces 
the  hideous  trousers  of  civilisation,  introduced  by  the 
English.  Dressed  in  this  costume,  the  young  Tane 
carries  his  head  high,  and  his  chest  stuck  out,  with  an 
easy,  manly,  and  proud  bearing. 

The  Vahines  wear  the  gaule" , — a long  robe  with- 
out any  waist,  fastened  under  the  breasts,  like  the  dress 
of  the  time  of  the  Directory.  On  the  head  is  a light 
“straw”  hat,  made  of  the  fine  fibres  of  the  bamboo; 
the  hair  falls  loosely  on  the  shoulders,  or  often  hangs 
down  to  the  thighs,  or  is  twisted  into  two  long  plaits 
which  hang  down  the  back,  a la  Swiss  peasant  maiden. 

Tane  and  Vahine  are  alike  ignorant  of  the  use  of 
the  shoe,  that  instrument  of  torture  of  civilised  man,  and 
their  feet  consequently  are  well  formed,  and  the  insteps 
as  arched  as  those  of  the  Andalusians.  The  Vahines 
wear  this  simple  toilet  with  ease  and  grace,  and  charm 
the  eye  by  their  lissom  bearing,  and  coquettish  air.  On 
fete  days,  and  the  evenings  of  the  upa-tipa,  the  hat  is 
replaced  by  the  reva-reva,  bows  of  transparent  ribbon 
of  a yellow  green  tint,  made  from  the  pith  of  the  cocoa- 
palm.  The  Vahine  fixes  in  her  hair  the  Hare  viiri,  a 
beautiful  white  flower,  the  scent  of  which  is  sweeter 
than  the  orange  flower.  Sometimes  she  perfumes  her 
hair  with  powdered  sandal  wood,  and  crowns  her  head 
with  a wreath  of  foliage  interlaced  with  flowers.  When 
she  is  thus  attired,  the  dark  daughter  of  Tahiti  delights 
the  eye,  and  captivates  the  senses.  Unless  a European 
is  physically  fitted  to  become  the  guardian  of  a seraglio, 
it  would  hardly  be  possible  for  him  to  resist  the  se- 
ductions of  the  Vahine. 


CHAPTER  XI. 


Moral  characteristics  of  the  Tahitians. — Marriages. — Womaji’s 
place  amongst  the  Maoris. — Births. — The  taboo.—  Adopted  children. 
— Songs.  ~ The  hymeneal  cha?it. — The  upa-upa,  or  lascivious 
dance  of  the  Tahitian  women. — A upa-upa  in  the  interior  of 
the  island. — Diseases.  — Rapid  e.xtmction  of  the  pure  Maori  race. 

Moral  Characteristics  of  the  Tahitians.  I have 
spoken  of  the  beauty  of  the  Tahitians.  I might  also 
mention  their  physical  strength,  for  the  Tane  is  an 
athlete,  as  vigorous  as  he  is  handsome.  Cook’s  sailors 
were  easily  overthrown  at  wrestling  by  the  Tahitians, 
as  Cook  himself  confessed,  and  yet  it  is  well-known, 
that  of  all  the  European  races,  the  Anglo-Saxon  is 
that  in  which  all  species  of  physical  exercise,  especially 
wrestling  and  boxing,  are  most  held  in  honour.  Yet, 
with  all  his  great  physical  strength,  the  Tahitian  is 
mild,  and  good-natured.  These  qualities  had  led  him 
to  abolish  cannibalism,  before  the  island  was  discovered, 
and  he  spared  the  victims  of  the  human  sacrifices  as 
much  pain  as  possible,  by  killing  them  unexpectedly. 

The  old  Tahitian  was  a bellicose  warrior.  European 
civilisation  has  made  him  peaceable,  but  nothing  has 
altered  his  light,  changeful  character.  The  Tahitian 
is  a real  child,  joyous  and  capricious;  laughing  one 
moment  and  weeping  the  next,  without  any  reason. 
His  head  is  full  of  folly,  but  his  heart  is  sound.  He 
has  all  the  gay  and  careless  nature  of  the  Neapolitan 
lazzaroni,  but  he  never  uses  the  knife,  as  the  Italian 

384 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF  ANTHROPOLOGY.  385 

does.  Sun  and  fine  weather  make  him  gay  and 
joyful;  bad  weather  makes  him  sad  and  dreamy.  All 
the  dreams  and  fancies  of  imagination  appeal  to  his 
nature.  The  cold,  formal  Protestant  religion  has  not 
been  able  to  remove  his  belief  in  superstitions, — the 
last  trace  of  the  religion  of  his  forefathers ; he  fears 
the  solitude  of  the  great  woods,  and  the  obscurity  of 
night,  for  he  is  afraid  of  meeting  the  Tupapan,  the 
shades  or  spirits  of  the  dead.  If  his  griefs  are  short 
but  lively,  his  gaiety,  on  the  other  hand,  is  wild  and 
contagious.  Above  all  and  before  all,  the  Tahitian 
Maori  loves  pleasure. 

Marriages.  It  is  important  to  remark  that  the 
Tahitian  priest,  whose  influence  was  formerly  so  con- 
siderable, never  interfered  in  marriages,  which  at  New 
Cytherea  have  always  remained  the  manifestation  of 
the  formal  wishes  of  the  couple  united,  without  any 
religious  consecration.  Cook  describes,  however,  the 
Tahitian  marriage  ceremonies,  as  we  shall  see  later  on, 
when  I come  to  speak  of  the  ancient  customs. 

Woman’s  Place  in  the  Maori  Race.  If  the  Tane 
does  not  purchase  his  wife,  at  least  she  was  not  his 
equal,  amongst  the  old  Tahitians.  At  table  she  did 
not  eat  along  with  her  husband ; she  could  not  be  a 
priestess ; admission  to  the  Marae  was  forbidden  to 
her.  The  daughters  of  the  royal  house  could,  however, 
inherit  the  throne.  The  Salic  law  has  never  been  in 
force  at  Tahiti,  but,  on  the  contrary,  descent  is  trans- 
mitted by  the  woman,  the  Tahitians  considering,  not 
without  reason,  that  though  a man  was  certain  that 
he  came  out  of  his  mother’s  womb,  he  was  not  sure 
who  his  male  parent  was,  and  the  famous  axiom  of 

25 


386 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


Roman  law,  Pater  is  est  quern  nuptiiz  demonstrant 
(The  father  is  he  whom  marriage  demonstrates  to 
be  so)  has  never  been  applied  in  Tahiti. 

Births. — The  Taboo.  The  mother  of  a newly-born 
infant  became  taboo.  She  might  not  touch  anything 
with  her  hands  during  a period  of  two  months,  and 
other  women  had  to  feed  her.  Under  these  circum- 
stances, one  consequence  of  the  taboo  was  to  prevent 
the  renewal  of  coition  before  the  woman’s  organs  of 
generation  had  returned  to  their  normal  condition.  I 
have  shown,  in  the  case  of  the  New  Caledonian  Kanaka, 
what  serious  disorders  might  result  from  commencing 
copulation  too  soon  after  parturition. 

“An  observer,”  says  Frazer,  ‘Golden  Bough’  (vol. 
I,  page  1 68),  “who  knows  the  Maoris  well,  states 
‘ Tapu  [taboo]  is  an  awful  weapon.  I have  seen  a 
strong  young  man  die  the  same  day  he  was  tapued ; 
the  victims  die  under  it  as  though  their  strength  ran 
out  as  water.’  ^ A Maori  chiefs  tinder-box  was  once 
the  means  of  killing  several  persons ; for  having  been 
lost  by  him,  and  found  by  some  men  who  used  it  to 
light  their  pipes,  they  died  of  fright  on  learning  to 
whom  it  had  belonged.  So,  too,  the  garments  of  a 
high  New  Zealand  chief  will  kill  anyone  else  who 
wears  them.  A chief  was  observed  by  a missionary 
to  throw  down  a precipice  a blanket  which  he  found 
too  heavy  to  carry.  Being  asked  by  the  missionary 
why  he  did  not  leave  it  on  a tree  for  the  use  of  a 
future  traveller,  the  chief  replied  that  ‘it  was  the  fear 
of  its  being  taken  by  another  which  caused  him  to 

' E.  Tregear,  “The  Maoris  of  New  Zealand,”  in  Jour7i.  Anthrop. 
Inst.  XIX,  loo. 


ilA 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


387 


throw  it  where  he  did,  for  if  it  were  worn,  his  tapu’ 
{i.e.  his  spiritual  power  communicated  by  contact 
to  the  blanket  and  throug-h  the  blanket  to  the  man) 
‘would  kill  the  person.’  ^ 

“ No  wonder  therefore  that  the  savage  should  rank 
these  human  divinities  amongst  what  he  regards  as 
the  dangerous  classes,  and  should  impose  exactly  the 
same  restraints  upon  the  one  as  upon  the  other.  For 
instance,  those  who  have  defiled  themselves  by  touching 
a dead  body  are  regarded  by  the  Maoris  as  in  a very 
dangerous  state,  and  are  sedulously  shunned  and 
isolated.  But  the  taboos  observed  by  and  towards 
these  defiled  persons  (e.g.  they  may  not  touch  food 
with  their  hands,  and  the  vessels  used  by  them  may 
not  be  used  by  other  people)  are  identical  with  those 
observed  by  and  towards  sacred  chiefs.  ^ And,  in 
general  the  prohibition  to  use  the  dress,  vessels,  etc., 
of  certain  persons  and  the  effects  supposed  to  follow 
an  infraction  of  the  rule  are  exactly  the  same  whether 
the  persons  to  whom  the  things  belong  are  sacred  or 
what  we  might  call  unclean  and  polluted.  As  the 
garments  which  have  been  touched  by  a sacred  chief 
kill  those  who  handle  them,  so  do  the  things  which 
have  been  touched  by  a menstruous  woman.  An 
Australian  blackfellow,  who  discovered  that  his  wife 
had  lain  on  his  blanket  at  her  menstrual  period,  killed 
her  and  died  of  terror  himself  within  a fortnight.  ® 
Hence  Australian  women  at  these  times  are  forbidden 
under  pain  of  death  to  touch  anything  that  men 

’ R.  Taylor,  Te  Ika  a Maui;  or.  New  Zealand  and  its  inhabitants, 
p.  164. 

“ A.  S.  Thomson,  The  Story  of  New  Zealand,  I,  loi  sqq.;  Old 
New  Zealand,  by  a Pakecha  Maori,  pp.  94,  104  sqq. 

^ Journ.  Anthrop.  Inst.  IX,  458. 


388 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


use.  They  are  also  secluded  at  child-birth,  and  all 
vessels  used  by  them  during  their  seclusion  are 
burned.  ^ Amongst  some  of  the  Indians  of  North 
America  also  women  at  menstruation  are  forbidden  to 
touch  men’s  utensils,  which  would  be  so  defiled  by  their 
touch  that  their  subsequent  use  would  be  attended  by 
certain  mischief  or  misfortune.  ^ Amongst  the  Eskimo 
of  Alaska  no  one  will  willingly  drink  out  of  the  same 
cup  or  eat  out  of  the  same  dish  that  has  been  used 
by  a woman  at  her  confinement,  until  it  has  been 
purified  by  certain  incantations.  ® Amongst  some  of 
the  Tinneh  Indians  of  North  America  the  dish  out  of 
which  girls  eat  during  their  seclusion  at  puberty  ‘are 
used  by  no  other  person,  and  wholly  devoted  to  their 
own  use.’  ^ Again  amongst  some  Indian  tribes  of  North 
America  men  who  have  slain  enemies  are  considered 
to  be  in  a state  of  uncleanness,  and  will  not  eat  or 
drink  out  of  any  dish  or  smoke  out  of  any  pipe  but 
their  own  for  a considerable  time  after  the  slaughter, 
and  no  one  will  willingly  use  their  dishes  or  pipes. 
They  live  in  a kind  of  seclusion  during  this  time,  at 
the  end  of  which  all  the  dishes  and  pipes  used  by 
them  during  their  seclusion  are  burned.  ^ Amongst 
the  Kafirs,  boys  at  circumcision  live  secluded  in  a 
special  hut,  and  when  they  are  healed  all  the  vessels 

' W.  Ridley,  “Report  on  Australian  Languages  and  Traditions,”  in 
Journ.  Anthrop.  Inst.  II,  268. 

Alexander  Mackenzie,  Voyages  from  Montreal  through  the  Con- 
tinent of  North  America,  CXXIII. 

® Report  of  the  Titternational  Polar  Expedition  to  Point  Barrow, 
Alaska  (Washington,  1885),  p.  46. 

‘“Customs  of  the  New  Caledonian  Women,”  in  fourn.  Anthrop. 
Inst.  VII,  206. 

^ S.  Hearne,  A fourney  fro)Ti  Prince  of  Wales’s  Fort  in  Hudson’ s 
Bay  to  the  Northern  Ocean,  p.  204  sq. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


389 


which  they  had  used  during  their  seclusion  and  the 
boyish  mantles  which  they  had  hitherto  worn  are 
burned  together  with  the  hut.  ^ Whpn  a young 
Indian  brave  is  out  on  the  war-path  for  the  first  time 
the  vessels  he  eats  and  drinks  out  of  must  be  touched 
by  no  one  else.”  ^ 

Adopted  Children.  The  Maori  Polynesian  is  almost 
the  only  human  race  in  which  the  child,  in  the  old 
legislation,  rarely  belonged  to  its  progenitors.  The 
adoption  of  children  was  extremely  common  amongst 
the  old  Tahitians,  and  has  not  yet  disappeared  from 
amongst  their  customs.  It  is  one  of  the  most  curious 
customs  of  the  race.  Between  the  Metiia  (the  natural 
father)  and  the  Metua  Faami  (the  adoptive  father) 
there  was  an  almost  incessant  exchange  of  infants  at 
the  breast,  and  this  exchange  created  between  the 
two  families  a sort  of  quasi  tie  of  relationship. 

Songs. — The  Hymeneal  Chant.  I heard  the  hy- 
meneal chant  for  the  first  time  in  the  salons  of  the 
Government  House  at  Papeete.  The  chant  was  sung 
in  the  garden.  The  chorus  was  composed  of  seventy 
to  eighty  persons,  seated  in  the  Turkish  fashion,  in 
several  rows,  the  women  in  front.  A woman  com- 
menced, on  a very  high  chest  note,  a lively  and  curious 
air ; the  other  women  repeated  it  in  a rather  low  key, 
and  the  men  formed  the  bass,  whilst  some  of  these 
latter,  swaying  their  bodies  backwards  and  forwards, 
uttered  real  groans. 

' L.  Alberti,  De  Kaffers  (Amsterdam,  18  to),  p.  76  sq. ; H.  Lich- 
tenstein, Reisen  im  siidlichen  Afrika,  I,  42". 

“ Narrative  of  the  Captivity  and  Advenittres  of  fohn  Tanner 
(London,  1830),  p.  122. 


390 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


The  ensemble  was  perfect,  and  the  voices  astonish- 
ingly true.  What  a difference  between  this  and  the 
cries  and  howls,  as  of  wild  beasts,  at  a New  Caledonian 
pilou-pilou.  All  the  parts  agreed  in  true  harmony. 
It  was  a strange  kind  of  music,  but  it  was  music. 
The  Maoris  sang  as  the  Greeks  doubtless  did  in 
the  plays  of  Sophocles  and  Euripides.  To  fully 
understand  the  originality  of  the  hymeneal  chant, 
you  ought  to  hear  it  when  a bright  moon  is  shedding 
its  light  on  groups  of  women,  excited  by  dancing 
the  upa-upa. 

The  Upa-upa.  On  the  evening  of  a fete  day,  or 
after  the  delights  of  a joyous  feast,  the  upa-upa  is 
generally  danced.  This  lascivious  dance  shows  the 
Tahitian  in  her  true  character.  It  is  a national  dance, 
and  there  is  nothing  that  resembles  it  in  any  part  of 
the  world.  It  is  performed  at  night,  by  the  light  of 
the  moon,  or  Hina,  the  ancient  female  divinity  of 
Tahitians,  the  silver  rays  of  which  light  up  the  scene, 
under  a transparent  sky,  in  which  the  stars  of  the 
Southern  Cross  glitter  like  diamonds.  There,  under 
the  shadow  of  the  trees,  and  on  the  green  carpet  of 
a soft  lawn,  men  and  women  dance  wildly  with  infinite 
pleasure.  In  vain  has  British  prudery  sought  to  repress 
the  license  of  the  ^ipa-upa.  The  young  Queen  Pomare, 
when  she  was  but  sixteen,  and  the  English  divines 
sought  to  forbid  her  the  upa-upa,  replied  by  organising 
an  enormous  upa-upa  in  the  island  of  Moorea,  and 
before  all  her  people,  and  simply  clad  in  transparent 
lace,  which  the  missionaries  had  given  her,  and  which 
showed  the  shape  of  her  royal  form,  performed  this 
most  lascivious  dance. 

I must  have  recourse  once  more  to  the  pen  of  Loti 


/ 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


391 


to  make  the  reader  understand  the  nature  of  this 
dance. 

“ Every  evening'  the  wild  scene  was  renewed.  When 
night  fell,  the  Tahitian  girls  decked  their  heads  with 
the  brightest  flowers;  the  hurried  strokes  of  the  tam- 
tam called  them  to  the  7ipa-2ipa,  and  thither  they  ran, 
their  locks  dishevelled,  their  bodies  hardly  covered  by 
their  muslin  tunics,  and  the  maddening  lascivious 
dance  often  lasted  till  the  morning.  The  Tahitian 
women  clapped  their  hands,  and  accompanied  the 
tam-tam  with  a song,  sung  in  chorus,  to  a fast  and 
frenzied  tune.  Each  of  them  in  turn  executed  a 
figure.  The  steps  and  the  music  were  slow  at  first, 
but  grew  faster  till  they  attained  a delirium,  and  when 
the  girl  dancing  was  worn  out,  and  stopped  suddenly 
at  a loud  bang  on  the  drum,  another  darted  into  her 
place,  and  surpassed  her  in  immodesty  and  frenzy. 
The  girls  of  Pomotou  formed  other,  and  wilder,  groups, 
and  rivalled  those  of  Tahiti.  Crowned  with  curious 
wreaths  of  the  datura,  wild  as  mad  women,  they  danced 
to  a more  jerky  and  wilder  rhythm,  but  in  a manner 
so  charming,  that,  between  the  two,  one  did  not  know 
which  to  prefer.” 

At  present  the  ^lpa-^lpa,  as  danced  at  Papeete,  has 
lost  a good  deal  of  its  original  character,  and  has 
almost  become  an  imitation  of  the  chahut  of  Bullier. 
But  in  the  interior  it  has  still  retained  its  original 
form,  and  has  been  thus  described  by  the  traveller, 
Desfontaines,  who,  more  fortunate  than  I,  was  able  to 
make  the  tour  of  the  island. 

“ After  lunch,  a number  of  the  young  Tahitian  girls, 
crowned  with  roses,  and  with  their  hair  unloosed,  came 
and  formed  a circle  under  the  trees,  squatting,  in  the 
Oriental  fashion,  on  the  grass.  One  of  them  possessed 


392 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


an  accordion ; we  were  about  to  assist  at  a tipa-ttpa, 
a kind  of  lascivious  dance,  accompanied  by  songs. 
Hardly  had  the  accordion  uttered  the  first  notes,  than 
the  singing  began,  to  a lively  and  rapid  air,  and  at 
this  moment  the  faces  of  the  dancers  seemed  suddenly 
to  be  lighted  up ; in  their  eyes,  and  in  their  smiles, 
there  appeared  an  indescribable  expression,  which 
illuminated  their  faces  with  a look  that  seemed  almost 
divine ; they  appeared  to  no  longer  belong  to  the 
earth.  The  head  was  inclined,  and  thrown  slightly 
backwards,  the  body  swayed,  the  elbows  struck  the 
sides  in  time  with  the  air,  with  movements  which 
resembled  tremblings,  or  the  light  beating  of  wings, 
the  lower  limbs  rose  and  fell  according  to  the  rhythm, 
and  thus  they  danced  before  us.  And  when  they  had 
finished  the  verse,  which  ended  with  a long,  high 
note,  they  stopped  in  their  dance,  and  the  expression 
suddenly  died  out  of  their  faces;  it  was  difficult  to 
believe  that  they  were  the  same  women.  Then  one  of 
them  turned  towards  me  in  the  most  disdainful  manner, 
and  said  in  a tone  of  command  which  admitted  of  no 
reply,  ‘ Frenchman,  bring  us  some  beer.’  The  woman 
of  this  country  is  a wild  animal  of  far  too  charming 
a kind  to  be  refused  a request,  so  I hastened  to  offer 
them  some  drink.  Without  loss  of  time,  they  passed 
round  the  ring,  glasses  filled  with  beer  or  rum,  and 
which  they  emptied  at  a single  draught.  Then,  trans- 
forming themselves  anew  into  ethereal  beings,  they 
began  a second  verse,  which-  finished  in  the  same 
manner  with  a sudden  stop,  and  another  demand  of, 
‘Frenchman,  more  beer.’  Songs  and  dances  thus 
alternated  with  libations,  without  the  least  respite.  The 
excitement  reached  its  height.  Amidst  these  gardens 
of  cocoa-palms,  these  young  and  beauteous  damsels. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


393 


in  their  light  garments,  with  their  beautiful  black  hair 
crowned  with  wreaths  of  roses,  resembled  Nymphs 
engaged  in  their  voluptuous  sports,  and  intoxicated 
with  the  exuberance  of  love.  This  was  the  time  for 
us  to  slip  away,  for  the  dance  would  soon  degenerate 
into  orgies.  We  left  the  spot,  being  anxious  to 
carry  away,  unchanged,  the  memory  of  this  never  to 
be  forgotten  vision.” 

Diseases. — Rapid  Extinction  of  the  Pure  Maori 
Race.  Before  the  discovery  of  the  island,  the  principal 
diseases  were  rheumatic  pains,  generally  caused  by  ex- 
cessive bathing  in  cold  water,  and  elephantiasis, — a 
disease  derived  from  the  Black  race.  On  the  other 
hand,  since  so-called  modern  civilisation  has  established 
a footing  in  the  island,  gin,  the  two  poxes,  and  more 
especially  phthisis,  have  caused  enormous  ravages.  The 
royal  family  of  Pomare, — a race  of  giants,  remarkable 
for  their  strength  and  beauty, — has  almost  entirely 
died  out.  In  Cook’s  time,  the  island  possessed  a po- 
pulation of  more  than  a hundred  thousand  inhabitants ; 
at  present,  there  are  not  ten  thousand.  If  contact  with 
the  White  race  would  quickly  rid  humanity  of  the  can- 
nibals of  New  Caledonia  and  the  New  Hebrides,  that 
would  be  a benefit,  but  we  must  be  allowed  to  deplore 
the  extinction  of  the  mild,  good-tempered  Maori  race. 
It  lived  so  happily  in  its  terrestrial  paradise  before  the 
arrival  of  the  Europeans.  There  was  hardly  any  work 
to  be  done,  no  moral  troubles,  free  love,  and  every 
kind  of  pleasure.  What  have  we  given  it  in  exchange? 
Alcohol,  small-pox,  and  consumption,  a terrible  trinity 
alone, — to  say  nothing  of  drunkenness  and  hypocrisy. 
In  a few  years’  time  there  will  be  (with  some  few  ex- 
ceptions) no  Tahitians  of  pure  breed  left  in  New  Cytherea, 


394  UNTRODDEiN  FIELDS  OF  ANTHROPOLOGY. 

What  will  the  half-breed  race,  the  cross  between  the 
European  and  the  Vahine,  be  like?  Will  it  possess 
the  moral  qualities  of  the  father,  and  the  physical 
qualities  of  the  Maori  race?  That  is  a question  that 
the  future  alone  can  answer. 


CHAPTER  XII. 

Importance  of  sexual  mte^xourse  to  the  Maoris. — Lo7>e  the  priji- 
cipal  occ7ipation  of  the  race. — Maimers  of  the  former  inhabitants 
of  New  Cytherea. — Public  offerings  to  Venus.— Opinions  of  Cook 
and  de  Bougainville  on  the  debauchery  of  the  Tahitians. — Good 
Friday  in  Lancashire. — Timorodee,  the  lascivious  dance. — Sacred 
orgies  and  erotic  festivals. — Ancient  rites.  — The  ancient 
Peruvians. — The  sect  of  the  Nicolites. — The  aborigines  of  Australia. 
— The  Haivaian  Hula-Hida. — The  West  African  Negroes.  — The 
South  American  Puri. — Christian  festivals. — New  Britain  Islands. 
— Esthonia.  — Marriage  amongst  the  Tahitians. — Circumcision  and 
tattooing. — Tattooing  on  women.  — The  sect  of  the  Arrioys,  amongst 
whom  woman  is  in  common. — The  happy  life  of  the  Tahitians. — 
The  day's  life  of  a Vahine'  at  Papeete. — fealousy  of  the  present 
race  of  Tahitians. — Tahitian  hospntality . — The  true  character 
of  the  Vahine. — Marriage  after  trial.  — ^Mf  thee  tak,  I tak 
thee" . — The  “ Come  Nights". — The  Philippine  Islands. 

Love  is  the  Principal  Occupation  of  the  Race. 

The  dolce  farniente  in  which  men  and  women  pass 
their  day,  the  easiness  of  an  existence  which  is  almost 
devoid  of  material  wants,  the  fact  that  family  cares 
are  almost  unknown  to  this  people,  the  last  represent- 
atives of  the  age  of  gold  of  humanity,  all  combine  to 
leave  them  the  leisure  necessary  for  consecrating  all 
their  nights  to  love. 

Before  studying  the  Tahitian  as  he  now  is,  let  us 
throw  a backward  glance  at  the  manners  of  New  Cy- 
therea at  the  time  of  its  discovery  by  the  European 
navigators. 


395 


396 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


Manners  of  the  Ancient  Inhabitants  of  New 
Cytherea.  In  order  to  well  understand  the  influence 
of  “ cant”  and  British  mock-modesty  on  the  present 
manners  of  the  Tahitians,  we  must  glance  at  the  cyni- 
cally frank  and  free  manners  of  their  ancestors  at  the 
time  of  the  discovery  of  the  island.  What  most  es- 
pecially struck  the  navigators  of  the  eighteenth  century, 
was  the  freedom  with  which  the  affairs  of  love  were 
performed  in  open  daylight,  instead  of  in  the  obscurity 
and  mystery  of  night.  This  led  them  to  declare  that 
the  Tahitians  were  not  jealous  of  their  wives,  because 
they  offered  them  to  strangers,  and  that  the  women  had 
not  preserved  that  natural  instinct  of  modesty  which  is 
found  almost  everywhere.  The  Tahitians,  after  having 
listened  to  the  Anglican  divine  service,  showed  Cook 
and  his  companions  a ceremony  of  quite  another  kind, 
and  which  must  have  rather  startled  British  cant. 

Public  Offerings  to  Venus.  “ A young  man  six 
feet  in  height,  and  a young  girl  of  eleven  or  twelve 
years  of  age,  sacrificed  to  Venus  before  several  of  our 
men,  and  a number  of  the  natives,  without  attaching 
any  idea  of  indecency  to  their  action,  but,  on  the  con- 
trary, seemed  to  imagine  that  they  were  merely  con- 
forming to  one  of  the  customs  of  the  country.  Amongst 
the  spectators  there  were  several  women  of  high  rank, 
and  notably  Oberea,  the  Queen  of  the  island,  who  may 
be  said  to  have  presided  over  the  ceremony,  for  she 
gave  the  young  girl  instructions  how  to  play  her 
part,  but  though  the  girl  was  very  young  she  did  not 
appear  to  need  instructing.” 

Let  us  listen  also  to  what  de  Bougainville,  who  has 
bestowed  upon  Tahiti  the  apt  and  pretty  epithet  of 
New  Cytherea,  has  to  say  on  the  same  subject. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


397 


“ Every  day  our  men  walked  about  unarmed,  either 
singly  or  in  twos  or  threes:  they  were  invited  into 
the  huts  and  provided  with  food.  But  the  hospitality 
of  the  master  of  the  house  was  seldom  confined  to 
the  offer  of  a slight  repast ; they  also  offered  young 
girls.  1 The  hut  was  instantly  filled  by  a crowd  of 
men  and  women,  curious  to  watch  the  proceedings, 
and  who  formed  a ring  round  the  altar  on  which  the 
young  victim  to  hospitable  duty  was  to  be  sacrificed. 
The  ground  was  covered  with  flowers  and  foliage, 
and  the  musicians  sang  to  the  strains  of  the  flute  a 
hymn  of  rejoicing.  Venus  is  the  goddess  of  their  hos- 
pitality ; her  worship  permits  no  mystery,  and  each 
act  in  her  honour  is  a national  feast;  they  were  greatly 
surprised  that  we,  on  our  side,  showed  any  embar- 
rassment.” 

We  may  note  how  differently  the  facts  are  related 
by  the  two  celebrated  navigators.  Cook,  the  English- 

‘ Compare  Sir  R.  F.  Burton  on  the  Krumen:  — “As  regards  moral- 
ity, in  its  limited  sense,  the  Krumen  are  not  bright  in  the  scale  of. 
creation.  Adultery  is  punished,  it  is  true,  by  a fine,  and  in  the  case 
of  a wealthy  or  powerful  man,  there  may  be  a ‘great  palaver.’  The 
European  stranger,  however,  travelling  in  their  country  is  expected  to 
patronise  their  wives  and  daughters,  and  these  unconscious  followers  of 
Lycurgus  and  Cato  feel  hurt,  as  if  dishonoured,  by  his  refusing  to 
gratify  them.  The  custom  is  very  prevalent  along  this  coast.  At 
Gaboon,  perhaps,  it  reaches  the  acme ; there  a man  will  in  one  breath 
offer  the  choice  between  his  wife,  sister,  and  daughter.  The  women 
of  course  do  as  they  are  bidden  by  the  men,  and  they  consider  all  famil- 
iarity with  a White  man  a high  honour.”  Dr.  Livingstone,  chap.  25, 
asserts,  “I  have  heard  women  speaking  in  admiration  of  a White  man, 
because  he  was  pure  and  never  was  guilty  of  any  secret  immorality.” 
This  is  amongst  the  Makolokos : he  would  have  heard  them  speak  in 
anything  but  an  admiring  way  about  continence  in  these  regions. 

“ Wanderings  in  West  Africa  from  Liverpool  to  Fernando  Pof 
Lond.  1863,  vol.  II,  p.  24. 


398 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


man,  mentions  the  offering  to  Venus,  but  says  nothing 
about  his  own  men.  De  Bougainville,  more  frankly, 
declares  that  the  Frenchmen  showed  some  embarrass- 
ment at  being  called  upon  to  thus  perform  in  public, 
but  he  does  not,  from  false  modesty,  deny  that  some 
of  the  sailors  (probably  Provencals  who  are  naturally 
lewd  and  reckless)  did  commit  such  acts  coram  populo. 

Let  us,  however,  return  to  Cook’s  account.  “ It 
cannot  be  supposed  that  these  people  can  much  esteem 
chastity;  men  offer  to  strangers  their  sisters  or  their 
daughters,  out  of  civility,  or  as  a return  for  some 
service,  and  conjugal  infidelity,  even  in  the  woman, 
is  only  punished  by  a few  hard  words,  or  some  light 
blows.  License  and  lust  are  carried  to  a degree  that 
no  nation  in  the  history  of  the  world,  from  the  creation 
until  now,  has  ever  attained,  and  which  it  is  impossible 
to  imagine.” 

Cook  wrote  the  preceding  lines  after  his  first  voyage ; 
on  the  second  visit  he  was  less  severe  in  his  opinion 
of  the  lewdness  of  the  Tahitians.  “ However,”  he 
says,  “those  who  have  represented  all  the  women  of 
Tahiti  and  the  Society  Islands  as  ready  to  grant  the 
greatest  favours  to  all  those  who  would  pay  them, 
have  been  very  unjust  to  them ; it  is  a mistake.  It 
is  as  difficult  in  this  country  as  it  is  in  any  other,  to 
have  commerce  with  married  women  of  a certain  rank, 
and  even  with  those  who  are  not,  except  the  women 
of  the  common  people,  and  amongst  these  last  there 
are  many  who  are  chaste.  Certainly  there  are  prosti- 
tutes, as  there  are  everywhere  else,  and  the  number 
of  them  is  perhaps  greater  than  usual,  and  such  were 
the  women  who  came  on  board  our  ships,  or  into  the 
camp  which  we  had  established  on  the  coast.  And 
as  these  women  mix  freely  with  the  chaste  ones,  and 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


399 


with  women  of  the  highest  rank,  one  is  at  first  tempted 
to  believe  that  they  are  all  of  the  same  sort,  and  that 
there  is  no  difference  between  them  except  that  of 
price.  But,  it  must  be  confessed,  that  a prostitute 
does  not  seem  to  them  to  commit  any  fault  which 
would  cause  her  to  lose  the  esteem  or  the  companion- 
ship of  her  fellow  countrywomen.”  ^ 

Good  Friday  in  Lancashire.  ^ Some  five-and- 
thirty  years  ago,  on  Good  Friday,  if  the  weather  was 
at  all  favourable,  a strange  sight  could  be  witnessed 
at  any  of  the  steam-ferry  landing-stages  along  the 
quays  of  Liverpool.  There  were  congregated  motley 
crowds  of  men  and  women,  mostly  young,  laughing, 
joking,  and  making  fun  in  broad  Lancashire  dialect 
of  the  serious  God-abiding  folks  passing  by  on  their 
honest  way  to  Church  or  Chapel,  much  to  the  latters’ 
discomfiture  and  abomination. 

But  whence  came  these  crowds  and  what  was  their 
destination  ? 

They  were  Lancashire  operatives  with  their  wives, 
and  they  were  waiting  for  steamboats  to  convey  them 
to  Eastham,  some  five  or  six  miles  higher  up  on  the 
other  side  of  the  Mersey,  where  the  river  widens  out 
into  an  estuary  of  considerable  extent.  The  purpose 
of  their  trip  was  to  have  an  “outing”, — but  a “Good 
Friday  outing”, — one  of  an  altogether  peculiar  kind. 

On  arriving  at  Eastham,  they  formed  into  numerous 
groups  and  settled  into  comfortable  nooks  to  enjoy  the 
contents  of  their  provision  baskets,  which  they  washed 
down  with  copious  draughts  of  ale.  Then  there  was 

* For  comparison  with  these  customs,  see  the  E.xcursus  to  present 
chapter,  “Marriage  after  Trial.” 

® This  account  was  sent  to  us  by  an  old  Lancashire  resident. 


400 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


dancing  and  games  at  hide  and  seek,  and  blind-man’s 
buff,  after  which,  well  primed  with  fun  and  whiskey, 
they  disappeared  by  couples  into  the  neighbouring  brush- 
wood; Eastham  at  that  time  was  a.  wild  region  of 
little  sand  hills  covered  with  sparse  thickets,  the  only 
inhabitants  being  rabbits,  to  which  the  place  was  a 
perfect  paradise.  To  anyone  wandering  through 
the  brushwood,  a strange  sight  was  now . disclosed ; 
nearly  every  bush  sheltered  some  couple  actively 
engaged  in  amorous  conversation  on  the  soft  sand. 
Sometimes  their  legs  only  protruded  from  the  protecting 
bush,  sometimes,  a little  more  of  their  persons,  but 
their  lively  motions  left  no  room  for  doubt  as  to  the 
nature  of  their  occupations. 

These  were  all  married  couples,  who  believed  that 
copulation  in  the  open  air  on  Good  Friday  would 
ensure  them  the  birth  of  a boy  during  the  year. 

It  is  conjectured  that  this  superstition  dates  back  to 
the  first  invasion  by  the  then  heathen  Anglo-Saxons 
and  that  it  may  be  referred  to  the  cult  of  the  Scan- 
dinavian Venus,  the  goddess  Freya,  whose  name  appears 
in  Friday. 

The  Lascivious  Dance,  Timorodee.  “ Amongst 
the  amusements  of  these  islanders,  there  is  a dance 
called  Timorodee,  which  is  performed  by  young  girls, 
whenever  eight  or  ten  of  them  meet  together.  This 
dance  consists  of  postures  and  gestures  which  are 
extremely  lascivious,  but  to  which  children  are  ac- 
customed from  their  earliest  years ; moreover,  it  is 
accompanied  by  words  which  plainly  express  lewdness. 
The  Tahitians  keep  time  as  exactly  as  our  best  theatri- 
cal dancers  in  Europe.  These  amusements,  which  are 
permitted  to  the  young  girl,  are  forbidden  to  her  as 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


401 


soon  as  she  has  become  a woman;  she  can  then 
practise  for  herself  the  lessons,  and  realise  the  symbols, 
of  the  dance.” 

Sacred  Orgies  and  Erotic  Festivals.  My  old 

friend.  Dr.  Ploss,  has  dwelt  upon  these  with  great 
wealth  of  detail; — Before  terminating  our  observations 
concerning  prostitution,  we  must  once  more  refer 
to  the  delivery  of  women  to  this  infamy  as  it  was 
customary  at  certain  festivals  among  various  nations. 
It  was  often  on  the  occasion  of  festivals  of  their  divinities, 
which  were  connected  with  religious  orgies,  in  other 
cases  there  were  erotic  feasts  of  profane  nature,  during 
which  by  special  exemption  the  usually  existing  bounds 
of  morals  and  honour  were  left  aside,  and  the  other- 
wise strictly  forbidden  extra-nuptial  sexual  intercourse 
was  accepted  and  tolerated,  and  indeed  sometimes 
ordered. 

Ancient  Rites.  During  the  festivals  of  Isis,  the 
Pascht,  in  ancient  Egypt,  the  most  fearful  licentiousness 
reigned.  It  was  the  same  in  Byblos  at  the  funeral 
rites  of  Adonis;  and  on  these  occasions  the  women 
who  refused  to  abandon  their  bodies  on  that  particular 
day  in  the  temple  of  Aphrodite,  were  subjected  to  the 
punishment  of  having  their  hair  cut  off. 

The  festival  of  the  Bona  Dea  in  Rome  was  principally 
celebrated  by  the  women.  As  Juvenal  has  recorded, 
it  degenerated  into  the  wildest  orgies,  in  which  ladies 
of  the  highest  rank  were  not  ashamed  to  have  intercourse 
with  the  lowest  people. 

Similar  things  are  reported  from  other  centres  of 
culture.  Stoll  ^ tells  us  for  instance  that  in  ancient 

^ Stoll  (O.),  Ethnog.  V.  Guatemala. 


26 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


402 

Guatemala  on  the  days  of  the  grand  sacrifice  there 
were  great  rejoicings. 

“ The  bounds  of  modesty  ceased  to  exist,  inebriated 
individuals  abandoned  themselves  without  choice  to 
sexual  depravity  with  their  daughters,  sisters,  mothers 
and  concubines,  and  even  little  children  of  from  six 
to  seven  years  old  were  not  spared.” 

The  Ancient  Peruvians.  Von  Tschudi,  ^ speaking 
of  the  ancient  Peruvians,  says : 

“ In  the  month  of  December,  that  is  at  the  approaching 
moment  of  the  ripening  of  the  fruit  PaVtay  or  PaVta, 
the  participators  in  the  festival  prepare  for  it  by  a 
five  days’  fast,  that  is  to  say,  abstinence  from  salt, 
utstt  (chilies,  capsicum  sped)  and  from  female  inter- 
course. On  the  day  fixed  for  the  beginning  of  the 
festival  the  men  and  women  assemble  at  a certain 
place  among  the  gardens,  all  of  them  stark  naked. 
At  a signal  they  all  start  off  on  a race  to  a distant 
hillock.  Each  man  who  overtakes  a woman  on  the 
road  immediately  takes  advantage  of  the  occasion  then 
and  there  to  copulate  with  her.  This  festival  is  continued 
during  six  days  and  six  nights.” 

This  account  was  taken  from  an  extremely  rare  do- 
cument, a Carta  pastoral  de  exortacion  e instruccion, 
fol.  47,  from  Don  Pedro  de  Villagomez,  archbishop  of 
Lima,  who  says  that  this  festival  is  called  Akhataymita. 

The  Sect  of  the  Nicolites.  Here  we  have  to  do 
with  heathen  folks  ; but  similar  things  have  been  seen 
in  Christendom.  For  instance,  in  the  fourth  century 
the  sect  of  the  Nicolites,  who  thought  it  to  be  a reli- 

' Tschudi,  Beitr.  iiber  Peru.  Denkschr.  der  K.  Acad,  der  Wissensch., 
Wien,  1891,  Vol.  XXXIX,  p.  214. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


403 


gious  duty  to  put  aside*  every  feeling  of  modesty  and 
to  consider  every  form  of  sensual  depravity  right  and 
holy  (Lombroso).  Similar  opinions  were  defended  by 
the  disciples  of  Karpocrates  and  Epiphanius,  as  well 
as  by  the  sects  of  the  Kanaiis,  the  Adamites  and  the 
Picards,  and  also,  at  the  end  of  the  14th  century,  the 
Turlupins.  For  further  details  see  Lombroso.  ^ 

But  even  up  to  the  present  moment  such  sexual 
depravations,  pretended  for  the  glory  of  God,  have 
found  enthusiastic  disciples.  This  is  to  be  seen  in  the 
description  given  by  Dixon  in  his  “ Spiritual  Brides” 
of  certain  bigotted  religious  sects ; it  is  also  to  be  seen 
in  the  religious  service  in  Eva  van  Buttler  and  her 
similars,  and  is  proved  lastly  by  the  judicial  enquiries 
instituted  in  Russia  concerning  the  members  of  the 
Skopzi  seat. 

The  Aborigines  of  Australia.  As  it  has  been 
already  mentioned,  there  are  not  only  religious  festivals 
to  which  are  added  such  orgies,  there  have  been  and 
are  still  feasts  celebrated  of  a profane  character,  in  which 
the  sexual  connection  between  man  and  woman  is  either 
represented  in  pantomime  or  is  really  and  naturally 
operated.  For  instance,  Muller  ^ relates  the  following 
concerning  the  Australian  aborigines : 

“ It  is  remarkable  and  reminds  one  of  the  animal 
condition  of  the  native  Australian  that  marriage  and 
copulation  are  generally  accomplished  during  the  warm 
season,  when  nature  furnishes  the  necessary  food  in 
abundance  and  the  body  is  therefore  more  disposed 
for  sensual  enjoyment.  Among  some  tribes,  the  AVat- 
schandics  for  instance,  marriage  takes  place  in  the 

' Lombroso,  Anthropol.  Studien,  Hamburg,  1894. 

" Miiller,  AUgem.  Ethnogr.,  Wien,  1873,  p.  293 — 300. 


404 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


warm  season  and  is  the  occca«ion  of  a special  festival, 
called  Kaaro.  This  is  celebrated  at  the  first  new  moon 
after  the  yams  have  become  ripe, “and  is  inaugurated 
by  the  men  with  an  eating  and  drinking  bout.  For 
this  purpose  the  men  smear  themselves  all  over  with 
wallaby  grease  and  ashes,  and  then  execute  an  ex- 
tremely obscene  dance  by  moonlight  roundabout  a pit, 
which  is  surrounded  by  bushes.  This  pit  and  bushes 
is  supposed  to  represent  the  cunnus,  of  which  they 
present  the  shape,  and  the  spears  brandished  by  the  men 
represent  the  mentulae.  The  men  jump  in  wild  and 
savage  bounds  expressive  of  their  lust  around  the  pit, 
into  which  they  finally  cast  their  spears,  singing  at  the 
same  time  the  following  song  in  keeping  with  the  ob- 
scene nature  of  the  occasion : 

“ Pulli  nira,  pulli  nira, 

Pulli  nira,  Wataka  ” 

{Non  fossa,  non  fossa, 

Non  fossa  sed  cnnnus  !) 

The  Hawaian  Hula-Hula. , In  the  island  of  Hawai 
the  natives  have  an  extremely  lascivious  dance  which 
they  call  Hula-Hula. 

“ First  of  all  the  dancers  of  both  sexes,  as  well  as 
the  musicians,  are  seated  in  double  rank  on  the  ground 
with  their  legs  crossed,  and  they  alternately  rise  and 
sit  down  to  the  cadence  of  a chorus,  whereby  they 
first  of  all  slowly  and  then  quicker  and  at  last  very 
passionately  agitate  the  upper  part  of  their  bodies, 
waving  their  arms  to  and  fro  and  shaking  little  cala- 
bashes in  which  are  pebbles  which  rattle,  so  that 
they  make  a most  tremendous  noise.  The  melody  is 
far  more  complicated  than  in  that  of  the  Haka  dance 
of  the  Maoris  of  New  Zealand  or  than  the  Meke-Meke 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


405 


of  the  Viti  Islands.  The  two  female  dancers  wear  a 
peculiar  ornament  round  their  ankles,  a sort  of  bodice 
and  raised  frock ; formerly  the  costume  was  limited  to 
a frock  which  could  be  easily  lifted  up.  When  the 
dance  has  lasted  a little  time  they  spring  about  wildly 
and  with  savage  cries  and  exclamations  make  the  most 
indecent  movements  with  their  hind-quarters.  The 
native  spectators  participate  most  enthusiastically  in 
the  amusement,  laugh  very  heartily  and  imitate  the 
same  obscene  movements  of  the  hind-quarters.” 

The  West  African  Negroes.  .Staff-surgeon  Wolff,  * 
speaking  of  the  amusements  of  the  Negroes  in  the 
Congo  territory  (West  Africa),  says: 

“ The  dance  here  consists  mainly  in  thrusting  the 
hind-quarters  backwards  and  forwards  as  quickly  as 
possible,  they  and  the  women  posted  opposite  to  each 
other,  advancing  and  retreating  alternately,  at  last 
taking  hold  of  each  other.  In  this  position  they 

remain  for  a moment  still,  and  then  recommence 
the  previous  backward  and  forward  movements.  In 
many  of  the  Mandinga  villages  during  the  embrace 
they  make  the  most  unequivocal  motions,  after 
which  they  hold  each  for  some  time  still  embraced,  as 
if  exhausted.” 

The  South  American  Puri.  Spix  and  v.  Martins  ^ 
had  occasion  to  observe  in  the  darkness  of  the  evening 
a dance  of  the  Puri  in  South  America,  in  the  second 
part  of  which  the  women  began  to  give  a rapid 

* WolfF,  Verha7idl.  der  Ges.  f.  Erdkiiiide  zu  Berlin,  Bd.  13,  1886, 
P-  48,  49,  55.  56- 

® Spix  und  V.  Martins,  Reise  nach  Brasilie^i. 


4o6 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


rotary  motion  to  their  pelvis,  thrusting  it  alternately 
forward  and  backward.  The  men  also  thrust  the 
middle  of  their  body  forward,  but  forward  only. 

That  such  lust  exciting  dances,  among  people  who 
attach  but  slight  value  to  maiden  chastity,  should 
soon  lead  to  acts,  cannot  be  a source  of  astonishment, 
and  Kulischer  ^ is  of  opinion  that  there  is  herein  a 
sort  of  elective  choice.  He  cites  a number  of  examples, 
which  tend  to  confirm  his  opinion.  Among  others  the 
following ; 

“ The  making  of  a choice  by  the  women,  and  the 
attention  they  pay  to  the  exterior  appearance  of  the 
men,  is  clearly  noticeable  in  one  of  the  Kaffir  dances. 
In  these,  says  de  Albertis,  any  number  of  men, 
usually  naked,  place  themselves  in  close  line  together, 
each  with  his  right  arm  lifted,  holding  a war  club,  and 
with  the  left  arm  holding  his  next  man.  Close  behind 
the  men  stand  a line  of  women,  but  whose  arms  are 
not  entwined.  They  continue  hopping  in  the  air  and 
with  both  feet  and  without  ever  changing,  while  the 
women  are  seen  to  make  a sort  of  cramp-like  move- 
ment of  the  entire  body,  consisting  principally  in  a 
backward  and  forward  bending  of  the  shoulders 
combined  with  a movement  of  the  head.  From  time 
to  time  the  latter  go  round  about  the  men,  following 
one  another  at  a very  slow  pace,  and  then  re-occupy 
their  first  position.  During  all  this  they  are  careful 
to  give  themselves  a most  modest  appearance  particu- 
larly by  lowering  their  eyes.  But  the  real  object 
of  this  lowering  of  the  eyes  of  the  women,  while 
inspecting  the  men  as  they  stand  in  rank,  is  easy 
enough  to  divine.  ” 


* Kulischer,  Zcitschr.  f.  JEthnol.,  Berlin,  1876. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


407 


Christian  Festivals.  ^ But  in  Christendom  also 
there  have  been  festivals,  in  which  modesty  was  not 
one  whit  more  respected  than  it  is  by  these  savages. 
It  was  particularly  the  Asses’  and  Fools’-feasts,  and 
also  the  Church  commemorations  and  Processions  which 
led  to  the  most  shameless  debauchery.  There  were 
certain  dances  that  were  not  in  best  repute.  As 
Praetorius  ^ says,  speaking  of  the  Gallarda  dance  ; 

“ Besides  such  a roundabout  dance  was  accompanied 
by  shameful  obscene  gestures  and  indecent  motions.” 
Kulischer  ^ quotes  a sermon  by  Spangenberg  to  the 
following  effect : 

“ God  preserve  all  pious  souls  from  such  maidens, 
who  take  delight  in  the  dance  at  eventide  and  gladly 
allow  themselves  to  be  spun  round  and  immodestly 
kissed  and  seized  hold  of  There  can  indeed  be  nothing 
good  in  them  ; they  only  excite  each  other  to  impudi- 
city,  and  feather  Satan’s  darts.  At  such  dances  many 
a woman  has  lost  her  honour  and  good  fame.  There 
many  a maiden  has  learnt  that  it  would  have  been 
better  had  she  never  known  them.  To  sum  up,  there 
is  naught  honourable  nor  godly  thereby.” 

As  has  been  remarked  the  Fools’-feasts  were  the 
occasion  of  the  grossest  indecencies.  The  parody,  of 
mass,  used  to  be  performed  in  the  church,  the  actors 
being  masked  and  in  grotesque  costumes,  while  gambling 
and  dicing  went  on  and  ribald  songs  were  sung. 
Dulaure  * says : “ After  mass,  there  were  renewed  acts 
of  extravagance  and  of  impiety.  The  priests,  mixed 
up  with  the  population  of  both  sexes,  running  about ; 

’ Lombroso,  cit. 

“ Pratorius,  Gestriegelte  Rocken- Philosophia,  Chemnitz,  1707,  cap.  36. 

“ Knlischer,  M.,  Zcitschr.  f.  Ethnol.  Berlin,  1876. 

* Dulaure,  J.  A.,  Culte  dzi  Phallus,  Paris,  1885,  p.  96. 


4o8 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


exciting  each  other  to  the  most  licentious  acts  that  an 
unbridled  imagination  could  suggest.  No  longer  any 
shame  or  modesty ; no  barrier  opposed  this  outbreak 
of  folly  and  passion.  In  the  midst  of  the  tumult,  of 
blasphemies  and  dissolute  songs,  some  were  seen  to 
divest  themselves  entirely  of  their  clothes,  others  aban- 
doning themselves  to  the  most  shameful  libertinism. 
Then  the  disorder  was  continued  in  the  street.  The 
most  debaimhed  among  the  seculars  mingled  with  the 
clergy,  and  disguised  as  monks  and  nuns,  performed 
lascive  movements,  taking  all  the  postures  of  the  most 
unbridled  profligacy.” 

Quite  similar  monstrosities  at  the  Asses’  feasts.  They 
throw  a very  curious  light  upon  the  moral  conditions 
of  mediaeval  Europe. 

New  Britain  Islands.  According  to  Weisser  ^ 
the  young  maidens  in  the  New  Britain  Islands  are 
guarded  with  jealousy,  and  they  are  not  allowed  any 
communication  whatever  with  the  young  men  in  the 
village ; but  on  certain  evenings  a loud-sounding  drum 
is  heard  in  the  bush,  upon  which  they  are  allowed  to 
go  there  to  meet  together  with  the  youths. 

According  to  other  information  concerning  the  same 
group  of  islands,  Weisser  seems  to  have  made  a 
mistake.  This  account  says  that  in  New  Britain  any 
woman  without  living  relations  may  give  herself  to 
whomsoever  she  likes ; but  should  she  be  killed,  the 
tribe  is  not  held  bound  to  avenge  her  death.  If  a man 
marries  her,  she  has  the  same  rights  as  the  other 
wives.  If  her  father  and  mother  are  still  living,  their 
consent  is  necessary  if  she  wishes  to  become  a prostitute, 
which  consent  is  often  given.  Otherwise  the  woman 

^ Weisser,  Zeitschr.  f.  Ethnol.,  1885,  XVII. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


409 


runs  the  risk  of  being  killed  by  anyone  of  her  relations, 
because  she  may  have  been  destined  to  become  the 
wife  of  an  important  man  or  have  already  been  bought 
by  a chief.  On  certain  nights  a drum  is  beaten,  at 
sound  of  which  all  the  prostitutes  run  into  the  forest 
and  are  there  hunted  by  the  young  men.  This  is 
called  “Lu-Lu”,  an  expression  which  either  relates  to 
the  women  themselves  or  to  something  connected  with 
this  custom. 

Esthonia.  Kreutzwald  says,  concerning  the  inhabi- 
tants of  Esthonia,  that  in  the  supplement  to  the  Revel 
Esthonian  Almanac  for  1840,  it  is  related  that  about 
60  years  ago  thousands  of  people  used  to  congregate 
on  the  eve  of  Saint  John’s  festival  (24th  June)  around 
the  ruins  of  an  ancient  church  where  they  lighted  a 
votive  fire  into  which  they  cast  fire  offerings.  Women 
that  were  barren  danced  naked  round  the  ruins,  others 
gave  themselves  up  to  eating  and  drinking,  while  the 
youths  and  maidens  amused  themselves  in  the  woods 
doing  many  naughty  things.  ^ 

“ Although  we  no  longer  meet  with  untrammelled 
intercourse  between  young  people  of  both  sexes,  we 
may  yet,”  thinks  Dr.  Ploss,  “from  an  ethnographical 
point  of  view  consider  it  as  an  echo  of  ancient  days, 
when  we  find  that  in  spite  of  all  decency  and  modesty 
in  words,  on  certain  occasions  youths  and  girls  come 
together,  and  the  most  immodest  and  indecent  things 
are  allowed  to  be  freely  said  and  done  to  the  great 
amusement  of  all  parties. 

“Even  to-day  these  evil  customs  have  not  died  out 
from  amongst  us,  particularly  in  the  country,  and  it  is 
usually  on  a marriage  evening  that  they  take  place, 

' Kreutzwald,  Fr.  H.,  Der  Ehsten  Gehrauche,  Petersburg,  1854. 


410 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


whereas  formerly  in  the  Middle  Ag'es,  even  in  the  best 
society,  when  the  young  couple  were  taken  home, 
they  were  not  spared  the  most  abominably  indecent 
jokes  and  sallies.  It  may  be  added  that  in  the 
Spinnstuben  (common  spinning  rooms  in  German  vil- 
lages) the  conversation  and  songs  are  not  always 
strictly  moral.  Vambery  ^ relates  something  similar 
of  one  of  the  Turkestan  tribes,  the  Kumuken,  in 
Western  Asia,  as  he  says : 

“ Among  the  games  of  the  Kumuken  must  be 
counted  the  S'udjim-Tadjak,  that  is  to  say  Love-stick, 
which  is  usually  played  by  unmarried  people  on  the 
occasion  of  a marriage,  and  in  which  enamoured  couples 
strike  each  other  with  a stick  on  the  shoulder,  exchanging 
at  the  same  time  a partly  sarcastic  and  partly  erotic 
dialogue.  ” 

Marriage  amongst  the  Tahitians.  “It  appears,” 
says  Cook,  “ that  marriage  at  Tahiti  is  but  an  agree- 
ment between  the  man  and  the  woman,  in  which  the 
priests  do  not  interfere;  the  couple,  however,  does 
observe  certain  ceremonies.  The  bridegroom  sits  by 
the  side  of  his  wife,  and  takes  her  hand  in  his.  He 
is  accompanied  by  ten  or  twelve  persons,  the  greater 
number  of  whom  are  women,  who  sing  a monotonous 
chant;  the  bride  and  bridegroom  make  some  short 
responses  ; then  they  have  brought  to  them  some  food, 
of  which  the  husband  offers  part  to  his  wife,  and  she, 
in  her  turn,  offers  some  to  him.  This  action  is  accom- 
panied by  certain  words,  and  then  they  both  go  to 
bathe  in  the  river.  When  a marriage  is  made,  both 
parties  perform  the  conditions,  but  sometimes  they 
separate  by  common  consent,  and,  in  that  case,  the 

’ Vamb6ry,  DasTurkenvolk  in  Ethnogr.  Beziehtingen,  &c.,  Leipzig,  1885. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


41  I 

divorce  is  performed  as  easily  as  the  marriage  was 
made.” 

Circumcision  and  Tattooing.  “ The  priests  derive 
no  income  from  their  flock  for  the  nuptial  ceremony, 
but  there  are  two  other  ceremonies  by  which  they 
gain  considerable  sums.  The  one  is  circumcision,  and 
the  other,  tattooing.  These  people  have  adopted  cir- 
cumcision from  no  other  motive  than  that  of  cleanliness. 
The  operation  cannot  be  called  circumcision,  properly 
speaking,  as  they  do  not  make  a circular  amputation 
of  the  foreskin ; they  only  slit  it  across  the  upper  part 
to  provent  it  from  covering  the  gland.” 

A learned  friend  of  mine  in  the  Berlin  “Journal  of 
Ethnography  ” has  already  dealt  with  this  subject.  I 
transcribe  his  remarks.  ^ “ Tattooing  among  the  Pelau 

islanders  is  much  less  developed  than  in  Japan,  and 
nothing  approaching  to  the  majority  of  the  men  are 
now  tattooed,  though  in  former  times  the  custom  gen- 
erally prevailed.  The  reason  for  this  decrease  in  the 
practice  was  accounted  for  to  me  on  the  ground  of  the 
many  serious  maladies  and  even  cases  of  death  resulting 
from  the  operation  of  too  extended  tattooing.  I have 
not  heard  the  same  complaint  made  either  in  Japan 
or  in  Samoa,  where  the  natives  are  tattooed  all  over. 
Here,  such  things  as  serious  illness  or  still  less  mortal 
effects  subsequent  to  tattooing  were  said  to  be  of  very 
rare  occurrence.  But,  as  the  natives  of  Pelau  are 
great  amateurs  of  tattoo  ornamentation,  and  greatly 
admire  a rich  skin  embellishment  of  the  kind  (such  as 
may  be  seen  in  Japan,  in  Uleai,  and  neighbouring 
islands),  and  as  they  are  far  from  having  weak  con- 
stitutions compared  with  other  Pacific  islanders  (the 

’ Zeitschrift  fiir  Ethnologic^  Berlin,  1878,  80,  p.  107. 


412 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


Japanese  for  instance),  there  would  evidently  seem  to 
be  here  a sort  of  idiosyncracy.” 

Tattooing  on  Women.  “ In  Pelau  the  women  are 
more  tattooed  than  the  men.  On  adult  women  it  is 
to  be  seen  on  the  dorsal  side  of  the  hands,  also  up 
to  about  the  middle  of  the  fore-arms,  particularly  on 
the  outside,  the  mans  veneris  is  covered  with  ara- 
besques, and  with  all  sorts  of  almost  continuous  designs, 
while  the  exterior  sides  of  the  legs,  from  the  trochanter 
major  down  to  the  exterior  malleolits , is  tattooed  with 
a series  of  crosses,  stars,  dots  and  simple  zig-zag  lines. 
The  tattooing  of  the  mons  veneris  is  not  undertaken 
until  after  the  first  menstruation.  The  front  part  of 
the  exterior  labia  is  also  tattooed, — The  tattooing  on 
this  part  is  probably  the  reason  for  the  practice  of 
depilating  all  the  hairs  from  the  pubes  of  women.  The 
operation,  in  this  case  very  painful,  is,  I was  assured, 
finished  in  an  afternoon. — Wishing  to  see  this  tattooing, 
I prevailed  upon  several  young  girls  to  strip  off 
together  their  ‘ Kariut  ’,  or  garment  made  of  pandanus 
leaves,  and  was  at  once  reminded  of  what  Costanti 
says  of  the  tattooed  bodies  of  the  Suliotes ; ‘ their 
aspect  does  not  in  the  least  provoke  a feeling  of  shame.’ 
At  first  view  it  seemed  to  me  as  if  the  girls  wore  a 
triangular  piece  of  stuff  over  their  pubes.”  ‘ 

’ The  damsels  in  question,  after  assuring  themselves  that  none  of  their 
men  could  see  us,  made  no  difficulty  whatever  in  complying  with  my 
desire. — It  would  also  seem  that  in  Pelau  there  is  no  shame  attached  to 
the  exhibition  of  the  naked  body  (except  in  certain  positions).  I have 
constantly  seen  men  stark  naked  working  or  walking  about,  without  in 
the  least  troubling  themselves  about  passers-by.  But  among  all  of  them 
the  long  prepuce  entirely  covered  the  gland,  and  I was  told  that  the 
presenting  to  view  of  the  glans  penis  was  alone  considered  indecent, 
that  is  to  say  “ Mogull”  or  “Taboo”  in  Polynesian, 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


413 


The  Sect  of  the  Arrioys  (Woman  in  common). 
“A  considerable  number  of  the  Tahitians,  of  both  sexes, 
form  singular  societies,  wherein  all  the  women  are 
common  to  all  the  men.  This  arrangement  affords 
them  a perpetual  variety  in  their  pleasures ; which 
variety  it  seems  they  so  much  need,  that  the  same 
man  and  woman  rarely  live  together  for  more  than 
two  or  three  days.  These  societies  are  known  by  the 
name  of  Arrioy ; those  who  belong  to  them  hold 
meetings  at  which  the  other  islanders  are  not  present. 
The  men  amuse  themselves  with  wrestling,  and  the 
women  dance  the  Timorodee  in  order  to  excite  in 
themselves  desires,  which,  it  is  said,  they  satisfy  upon 
the  spot.  Nor  is  this  all : if  one  of  the  women  becomes 
pregnant,  which  happens  much  more  rarely  than  if 
each  woman  lived  with  one  man  only,  the  infant  is 
strangled  as  soon  as  born,  in  order  that  it  may  not 
embarrass  the  father,  or  interrupt  the  pleasures  of  the 
abominable  prostitution  of  the  mother.  Sometimes, 
however,  it  happens  that  the  mother  experiences  that 
feeling  which  nature  implants  in  the  breasts  of  all 
animals  which  bring  forth  young,  and  the  maternal 
instinct  then  overcomes  the  passions  which  had  led 
her  into  this  society.  But  even  in  this  case,  she  is 
not  allowed  to  preserve  the  child  alive,  unless  she  can 
find  one  of  the  men  who  will  declare  that  the  child 
is  his,  and  adopt  it.  This  will  save  the  infant’s  life, 
but  the  man  and  woman,  being  regarded  as  devoted 
solely  to  each  other,  are  driven  out  of  the  community, 
and  lose  all  rights  to  enjoy  the  privileges  and  pleasures 
of  the  Arrioys. 

“ No  people  should  be  charged  on  imperfect  evidence 
with  such  horrible  and  strange  practices,  but  I have 
convincing  proofs  of  the  truth  of  the  account  I have 


414 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


given.  The  Tahitians  so  far  from  regarding  it  as  a 
disgrace  to  belong  to  this  society,  are  quite  proud  of 
it,  and  deem  it  a great  distinction.  We  were  shown 
several  persons  who  were  members  of  an  Arrioy,  and 
we  questioned  them  on  the  subject,  and  received  direct 
from  their  mouths,  the  details  that  I have  just  given. 
Many  of  the  natives  confessed  to  us  that  they  were 
affiliated  to  one  of  these  abominable  associations,  and 
that  many  of  their  children  had  been  put  to  death.  ” 

As  will  be  seen  from  the  foregoing  extract,  the 
Tahitians  long  ago  discovered  the  theory  of  free  love, 
and  free  woman,  which  certain  modern  philosophers 
talk  so  much  about.  It  may  reasonably  be  supposed 
that  this  sect  of  Arrioys  gave  the  Chevalier  Andrea 
de  Nerciat,  an  erotic  writer  of  the  i8th  Century,  the 
idea  of  his  famous  “Society  of  Aphrodite”,  in  which 
woman  was  common  to  all  the  men,  though  he  placed 
the  seat  of  the  Society  at  Paris. 

The  sect  of  the  Arrioys  has  long  ceased  to  exist  at 
Tahiti,  the  English  missionaries  having  caused  it  to  be 
suppressed  by  Pomare  II.,  when  he  was  converted  to 
Protestantism. 

The  Happy  Life  of  the  Tahitians.  Modern  civi- 
lisation has  not  been  able  to  change  the  Tahitian  race. 
If  in  the  present  day  the  Tahitian  does  not  openly 
perform  the  acts  of  love,  as  his  ancestors  did,  sexual 
lusts  still  form  the  sole  object  of  his  thoughts.  He 
has  simply  become  more  of  a hypocrite,  but  at  bottom 
he  is  what  he  has  been.  The  accounts  of  modern  trav- 
ellers leave  no  doubt  on  this  point.  The  people  ot 
the  Saxon  and  Semitic  races  say,  “ Business  first  and 
pleasure  after,  ” but  pleasure — sexual — is  the  sole  occu- 
pation of  the  Tahitian. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


415 


Paul  Branda,  in  his  Lettres  d’zm  Marin,  thus  depicts 
the  life  of  the  Tahitians. 

“ Nature  seems  to  have  created  the  Tahitian  woman 
for  nothing  else  but  pleasure.  She  is  not  pretty,  but 
her  charm  lies  in  her  languid  pose,  and  her  graceful 
form ; she  breathes  voluptuousness  out  of  every  pore. 
But, — as  is  but  too  clearly  seen, — we  were  not  put 
into  the  world  for  pleasure  only,  and  he  or  she  who 
seeks  pleasure  finds  death.  This  graceful,  artistic,  idle 
race  will  soon  disappear.  There  is  no  place  for  it  in 
this  world  of  business,  science,  and  work.  During  the 
last  five  days  I have  travelled  about  a good  deal.  I 
will  not  say  that  the  Tahitian  women  do  nothing,  but 
I will  simply  state  that  I have  never  seen  them  doing 
anything.  In  the  town,  they  lounge  through  the  streets, 
laughing  and  talking  amongst  themselves,  or  with  the 
young  men;  in  the  country,  they  bathe  and  dive  like 
Naiads,  and  then,  with  their  long  hair  still  dripping 
with  water,  they  lie  on  the  grass  on  the  banks  of  the 
brooks,  in  lascivious  attitudes,  and  gracefully  smoke 
cigarettes,  or  they  stroll  about  making  wreaths  of  the 
yellow  flowers  of  the  bouraos,  or  cutting  yellow  stars 
from  the  golden  fruit  of  the  pandanus.  ” 

Chartrier,  the  traveller,  in  his  interesting  work  on 
Tahiti,  also  describes  the  present  life  of  the  Tahitians. 

“ The  Tahitian,  though  richly  endowed  by  nature  with 
physical  and  muscular  strength,  shows  a marked  re- 
pugnance for  all  kinds  of  labour.  Having  few  wants 
to  satisfy,  he  does  not  feel  the  necessity  of  working ; 
besides  which  the  foreigner  never  refuses  the  Vahines 
the  little  luxuries  which  they  require. 

“ You  can  never  get  a Tahitian  to  undertake  any 
cultivation  of  the  ground,  or  perform  any  work  that 
is  ordered.  As  to  his  intelligence,  his  mental  gifts  are 


4i6 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


on  a par  with  his  bodily  ones,  but  he  never  uses  them 
except  to  gain  the  favours  of  the  Vahines,  or  to  detect 
the  business  tricks  of  the  Europeans.  We  remember 
an  instance  in  which  a midshipman  had  promised  a 
native  a gold  ring  in  return  for  some  services  he  had 
performed,  but  the  ring  he  did  give  was  copper-gilt. 
He  had,  however,  not  reckoned  upon  the  exquisitely 
fine  sense  of  smell  of  the  Tahitian,  who  having  put  it 
to  his  nose,  quickly  detected  the  copper.  As  to  the 
women  they  have  preserved  to  the  present  day  a sort 
of  soft  laziness,  and  Olympian  carelessness.  Dreami- 
ness, a stroll,  a siesta,  a dance,  a few  songs,  and  a 
bath,— these  form  their  principal  occupations.” 

A Day  of  the  Life  of  a Vahine  at  Papeete. 

The  Tahitian  women  pass  their  existence  in  playing 
and  laughing,  like  the  nymphs  of  Calypso’s  island; 
but  unfortunately  they  add  to  these  amusements,  cards, 
tobacco,  and  beer,  which  European  civilisation  has 
brought  them. 

“ In  the  morning,  the  Tahitian  women  who  inhabit 
Papeete  and  the  environs,  after  having  made  their 
purchases  of  fish  and  fruit,  assemble  at  the  market 
round  the  tables,  were  the  Chinese  sell  them  tea,  coffee, 
butter,  cakes,  etc.  Then  they  return  home  to  take 
their  principal  meal,  which  they  eat  about  eleven 
o’clock,  and  which  is  prepared  by  the  men  or  the  old 
women.  As  soon  as  it  is  finished,  and  the  scraps  given 
to  the  domestic  animals,  numbers  of  which  wander 
round  the  house,  the  women  attend  to  their  toilet. 
The  mats  are  then  spread,  and  they  take  their  siesta, 
the  invariable  custom  throughout  the  tropics,  and  which 
lasts  about  two  hours.  Then,  still  reclining,  but  in  a 
circle,  they  play  cards, — an  amusement  of  which  Tahitian 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


417 


women  are  extremely  fond ; a cigarette  rolled  in  a long 
leaf  of  the  pandanus  passes  from  mouth  to  mouth,  and 
each  Vahine  takes  two  or  three  whiffs,  and  leisurely 
breathes  out  the  smoke  through  her  nostrils.  Those 
who  do  not  care  for  ecarte  or  poker,  tittle-tattle  about 
the  incidents  of  last  night’s  dance,  or  hum  native  songs 
to  an  accompaniment  on  the  accordion  or  Jew’s  harp. 
In  the  evening,  if  there  is  no  ztfa-upa,  or  band,  they 
meet  in  ‘ Little  Poland  Street  ’,  one  of  the  principal 
streets  of  the  capital,  and  the  usual  promenade.  There 
they  walk  about  in  pairs,  a sailor’s  hat,  surrounded 
with  wreaths  of  flowers  and  odorous  plants,  on  their 
head,  holding  with  one  hand  the  little  finger  of  their 
companion,  and  with  the  other  gracefully  raising  the 
train  of  their  long  robe  of  white,  pink,  or  blue  muslin, 
and  thus  they  stroll  up  and  down,  humming  national 
airs.  The  youth  of  the  Tahitian  woman  is  passed  in 
a continual  fete.  Alas!  time  has  destroyed  all  their 
pleasures.  Poor  Vahine!  she  must  say  farewell  to  the 
upa-upa,  the  hymeneal  chant,  and  the  long,  idle 
reveries ! ” 

Jealousy  of  the  Tahitian  in  the  Present  Day. 

The  inhabitants  of  New  Cytherea  no  longer  offer  their 
wives  to  the  European  stranger.  The  Tahitian  of  the 
present  day  is  as  jealous  of  his  wife  as  any  other  man 
can  be.  I am  speaking  of  the  native  of  the  interior, 
and  not  of  the  native  of  Papeete,  who  has  been  corrupted 
by  contact  with  the  European. 

The  traveller,  Desfontaines,  from  whom  I have  already 
quoted,  gives  some  curious  details,  which  I here  repro- 
duce, as  to  the  present  manners  of  the  Tahitians: 
“ Excessive  hospitality  prevails  amongst  the  Tahitians, 
but  they  do  not  offer  their  wives,  as  certain  travellers 

27 


4i8 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


State.  If  by  chance  they  do  offer  you  a woman,  it  is 
one  whom  all  the  world  can  possess.  On  the  contrary 
they  are  very  jealous,  as  I found  on  more  than  one 
occasion,  and  this  jealousy  exists  amongst  the  women 
as  much  as  amongst  the  men.  One  night  I was 
awakened  by  loud  cries,  and  ran  out  of  doors.  A 
young  Tahitian  woman  was  being  dragged  along  by 
the  hair  of  her  head.  I questioned  the  people  present 
and  was  told  that  the  young  man  had  been  unfaithful 
to  his  wife,  and  that  to  punish  him,  the  girl  had  left 
him  and  refused  to  return.  Not  being  able  to  persuade 
her,  he  employed  violence,  and  this,  I was  told,  fre- 
quently occurred.  Another  time  I heard  that  a woman 
had  severely  wounded  her  husband  in  the  thigh,  with 
the  point  of  a pair  of  scissors,  because  he  had  gone 
astray  with  other  women.  I myself  almost  fell  a victim 
to  this  blind  and  fierce  jealousy.  One  day  I asked 
for  some  information,  frorn  a pretty  woman  I met  on 
the  road.  Suddenly,  a man  came  out  of  the  thicket,  and 
seeing  me  talking  to  his  better  half,  seized  an  enormous 
stake  and  rushed  at  me,  foaming  at  the  mouth  with 
rage,  and  his  eyes  glaring.  I thought  my  last  hour 
had  come,  but  conscious  of  my  innocence,  I stood  firm, 
with  my  arms  crossed.  When  within  a yard  of  me, 
he  stopped  short,  and  lowered  his  weapon ; then  he 
poured  forth  a flood  of  words  which  I imagine  could 
not  have  been  compliments.  I stood  quite  still  and 
watched  him,  and  when  he  had  finished  his  harangue, 
I took  him  by  the  arm  and  tried  to  lead  him  to  the 
mutoi,  or  rural  policeman,  of  the  district,  but  naturally, 
he  refused  to  come. 

“ When  you  do  interfere  with  his  wife,  the  Tahitian 
threatens  to  harpoon  you.  I may  add,  too,  that  the 
native  never  misses  his  aim,  and  if  he  should  throw 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


419 


his  three-prongfed  harpoon  at  your  back,  you  would 
die  a most  terribly  painful  death.  Truth  compels  me 
to  own,  however,  that  such  an  occurrence  is  exceedingly 
rare.  But  though  the  Tahitian  does  not  offer  you  his 
wife,  he  will  offer  you  his  best  bed,  or,  if  he  has  but 
one,  he  will  not  hesitate  an  instant  to  give  you  that, 
and  will  stretch  himself  on  the  mats.” 

Tahitian  Hospitality.  In  the  cordial  hospitality 
he  is  always  ready  to  give,  the  mild,  good-natured 
character  of  the  Maori  shows  itself  in  its  true  light. 
I again  borrow  from  Desfontaines  the  following  account. 
He  had  been  invited  to  lunch  with  the  chief  of  a 
district,  to  whom  he  had  been  recommended  by  a 
Frenchman  of  Papeete,  a friend  of  the  chief. 

“ In  the  afternoon  I prepared  to  take  leave  of  my 
hosts,  and  they  watched  me  with  surprise  preparing 
my  few  articles  of  baggage.  Then  the  daughter  of 
the  house,  the  lovely  Tara,  approached.  ‘Aita  (no)/ 
she  said,  ‘ you  sleep  here  and  stop  with  us.’  The 
invitation  was  so  prettily  given,  that  it  would  have 
been  bad  grace  on  my  part  to  refuse  it.  I was  in  no 
hurry,  so  I accepted  the  invitation.  After  a pleasant 
evening  on  the  beach,  spent  in  the  company  of  some 
pretty  girls,  with  whom  I began  to  talk  Tahitian  with 
the  help  of  my  little  dictionary,  we  returned  to  the 
hut.  The  drum  began  to  beat  to  summon  all  the  folks 
of  the  district  to  the  hymeneal  chant.” 

I will  pass  over  the  traveller’s  description  of  the 
hymeneal  chant,  and  also  of  his  dinner. 

“ My  dinner  being  finished,  I lay  on  my  face  on  a 
mat,  with  my  elbows  resting  on  a cushion.  The 
Kanaka  cigarette  passed  from  mouth  to  mouth  round 
the  circle  of  Tahitians  of  which  I now  formed  part. 


420 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


The  beautiful  Tara,  who  had  disappeared  for  a minute, 
now  returned  with  a magnificent  wreath.  As  she 
advanced  majestically,  decked  with  flowers,  and  clad 
in  a long  loose  robe  which  floated  round  her  she 
looked  like  a queen.  She  came  and  sat  by  my  side 
on  the  mat,  and  amidst  these  poetic  surroundings,  in 
which  the  exhalations  of  the  flowers  mingled  with  the 
scent  of  nionoi  (oil  perfumed  with  sandal  wood),  in 
which  my  eyes  rested  on  smiling  faces,  and  my  soul 
was  captivated  by  the  charms  of  this  unexpected 
friendship,  I found  a happiness  which  I cannot  describe. 
The  little  children  themselves,  pretty  as  Cupids,  had 
lost  their  fear  of  me,  and  allowed  me  to  caress  them. 
I taught  them  how  to  blow  kisses,  and  it  was  pretty 
to  see  them  carry  their  little  hands  to  their  mouths, 
and  quickly  take  them  away  again,  or  else  waft  kisses 
in  the  Australian  way,  that  is  to  say,  pretend  to  pick 
the  kiss  off  the  lips  with  the  finger  and  thumb,  then 
turn  the  palm  of  the  hand  towards  me  and  prettily 
throw  it. 

“ The  hour  of  repose  arrived,  and  I went  to  bed.  In 
the  morning  the  glare  of  a bright  red  band  of  light 
shining  from  under  a dark  cloud,  awoke  me.  Nothing 
could  be  more  beautiful  than  the  landscape,  as  seen 
through  the  bars  of  this  birdcage  house.  I rose  with 
the  sun,  and  prepared  to  leave ; they  still  wished  me 
to  stay,  but  I was  unwilling  to  abuse  their  kind 
hospitality,  and  excused  myself  on  the  ground  that  I 
was  pressed  for  time.  They  compelled  me,  however, 
to  stay  to  lunch.  When  I was  finally  about  to  take 
leave  of  my  hosts,  the  charming  Tara  came  to  me 
with  a bottle  of  -mo7ioi,  some  of  which  she  emptied 
into  the  palm  of  her  hand.  She  made  me  smell  it, 
and  asked  if  the  perfume  was  agreeable  to  me.  Upon 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


421 


my  replying  in  the  affirmative,  she  anointed  my  hair 
with  this  perfumed  oil.  Then  everyone  accompanied 
me  to  the  door-step,  and  shook  hands  with  me  cordially, 
As  I walked  away,  a last  ia-orana  (farewell)  greeted 
my  ears  : I turned  and  beheld  the  young  and  beauteous 
Tara  waving  me  a last  farewell.  I replied  with  a 
kiss.  The  little  girls  insisted  on  conducting  me,  and 
carried  my  baggage  to  the  banks  of  the  neighbouring 
river.  They  absolutely  refused  to  take  the  money  I 
offered  them,  when  I took  leave  of  them,  and  long  after 
I left  them  I could  still  see  them  blowing  me  kisses.” 

The  True  Character  of  the  Vahine.  The  Vahine 
is  not  only  a beautiful  creature  of  pleasure ; under  the 
carnal  covering  that  is  swayed  by  her  passionate 
nature  beats  an  ardent  heart,  that  is  susceptible  of  true 
affection,  and  as  capable  of  sincere  love  as  that  of  any 
European  woman.  This  much  can  be  learned  from 
the  celebrated  novel  Le  Mariage  de  Loti, — a book 
which  made  the  literary  fortune  of  its  author.  The 
romance  is  a strikingly  lifelike  picture.  It  would  not 
have  been  possible  to  invent  such  true  sketches  of  the 
manners  and  the  character  of  the  Tahitian  as  abound 
in  this  book, — a remarkable  work  written  by  one  who 
is  a psychologist  as  well  as  a lover.  It  will  certainly 
save  from  oblivion  the  Maori  Vahine,  when  the  race 
has  finally  disappeared,  which,  alas,  will  happen 
ere  long. 


EXCURSUS  TO  CHAPTER  XII. 

Marriage  after  Trial.  ^ We  must  now  refer  to  a 
particular  form  of  marriage  which  may  be  denominated 
'Translated  from  Dr.  Floss,  “ ZJrri  TVeih”  (Berlin,  1897). 


422 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


“ marriag-e  after  trial.”  This  consists  in  the  strange 
custom,  that  an  affianced  couple  live  together  in  regular 
sexual  intercourse  for  a certain  time,  sometimes  during 
several  years,  and  that  marriage  is  only  finally  settled 
when  the  future  husband  has  succeeded  in  landing 
his  betrothed  in  the  family  way.  If  no  pregnancy 
intervenes  it  is  taken  for  granted  that  these  two  people 
are  not  suited  for  each  other,  and  they  therefore 
separate.  It  is  not  seldom  that  the  bride  who  has 
been  thus  quitted  very  soon  finds  a new  suitor  ready 
to  take  the  place  of  his  predecessor  and  to  commence 
another  trial  period  with  her.  To  abandon  a girl  who 
has  become  pregnant  under  such  circumstances,  would 
be  considered  a particular  infamy  and  deserving  of 
general  condemnation. 

“ If  thee  tak,  I tak  thee.  ” G.  v.  Bunsen  ^ relates 
that  in  several  parts  of  Yorkshire  marriage  after  trial 
still  exists.  The  abandonment  by  the  lover  of  the 
bride  after  having  made  her  pregnant  is  most  severely 
blamed  by  the  neighbourhood.  The  solemn  words  of 
the  bridegroom  when  entering  into  such  a trial  contract 
are:  If  thee  tak,  I tak  thee  (If  thou  conceivest  I will 

marry  thee). 

It  is  also  reported  that  in  1864  marriage  after  trial 
still  existed  in  Masuren  (East  Prussia)  where  it  was  a 
general  custom  among  the  peasants.  Here  also  the 
marriage  was  really  contracted  only  after  the  girl  had 
become  pregnant. 

The  “Come  Nights.”  Fischer  ^ reports  a similar 

‘ Zeitschr.  f.  Ethnol.,  vol.  XIX,  p.  376,  Berlin,  1887. 

^ Fischer  (Frd.),  Die  Probeniichte  der  deutschen  Bauernmadchen,  p. 
lOl,  Zurich,  n.  d. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


423 


custom  in  the  Black  Forest,  where  a distinction  is  made 
between  the  Come  Nights  and  the  Trial  Nights.  The 
first  always  precede  the  latter  and  the  maidens  begin 
with  them  as  soon  as  they  are  grown  up.  “ The 
country  folk  consider  this  custom  so  innocent,  that  it 
not  unfrequently  happens  that  when  a village  priest 
asks  a peasant  after  the  health  of  his  daughter,  the 
latter,  to  prove  to  him  how  well  the  child  has  grown 
up,  quite  openly  and  with  fatherly  satisfaction  says 
that  she  has  begun  to  hold  her  ‘Come  Nights.’” 

The  “ Come  Nights”  are  certainly  of  a rather  inno- 
cent nature. 

The  young  man  is  not  permitted  to  enter  the  house 
through  the  door,  he  must  go  to  the  chamber  of  his 
sweetheart  through  the  window,  which  may  be  some- 
times a rather  risky  undertaking.  In  the  chamber  he 
finds  the  girl  reclining  on  the  bed,  but  completely 
dressed,  and  all  his  pains  and  efforts  will  at  first  procure 
him  no  other  advantage  than  that  of  being  able  to 
pass  an  hour  or  two  conversing  with  his  darling. 
“ As  soon  she  falls  asleep,  he  must  leave  on  the  instant, 
and  it  is  only  little  by  little  that  their  interviews 
become  more  lively.”  The  “ Come  Nights”  now  grad- 
ually change  into  the  “ Trial  Nights”.  After  a while 
the  maid,  with  all  sorts  of  teasings  and  country  jokings, 
would  let  him  get  a stray  glimpse  of  her  hidden 
charms,  receives  him  little  by  little  in  lighter  vestment, 
and  at  last  grants  him  all  that  a woman  can.  But  in 
all  this  a certain  gradation  is  always  observed.  Very 
often  the  girl  refuses  her  lover  the  supreme  favour 
until  he  uses  violence  to  conquer.  This  is  always 
when  the  coy  maiden  has  some  doubt  as  to  the  phy- 
sical vigour  of  her  lover. 

It  is  not  of  unfrequent  occurrence  that  after  a few 


424 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


“ Trial  Nights  ” the  couple  separate.  But  the  maiden’s 
reputation  does  not  thereby  suffer  in  the  least,  and  she 
soon  finds  another  lover  ready  to  continue  with  her 
the  novel  already  commenced.  Her  reputation  becomes 
endangered  when  she  is  known  to  have  gone  through 
several  trial  periods  without  any  serious  result.  The 
village  gossips  then  think  themselves  authorised  to 
suspect  in  the  girl  some  hidden  infirmity. 

It  is  highly  probable  that  this  custom  of  marriage 
on  trial  also  exists,  if  not  so  generally,  in  many  other 
parts  of  Germany  among  the  peasants.  * The  healthy 
peasant  girl  who  thus  gets  in  child,  now  often  seeks 
for  lucrative  employment  as  wet-nurse  in  the  nearest 
large  town,  and  as  soon  as  her  services  are  no  longer 
required,  she  returns  to  her  native  village  and  marries 
her  faithful  swain.  Fischer  produces  many  examples, 
from  which  it  appears  very  probable,  that  this  trial 
before  marriage  was  at  one  time  very  general  among 
both  high  and  low.  He  further  supports  this  opinion 
by  referring  to  the  solemn  public  lying  together  of 
bride  and  bridegroom  before  marriage,  as  it  existed 
of  yore,  and  also  the  marriage  by  proxy  of  crowned 
heads  when  the  procurator  of  the  prince  put  his  leg 
bared  to  the  knee  into  the  bed  in  which  was  the 
princely  bride,  he  standing  at  the  side  of  the  bed  in 
full  armour,  and  this  in  presence  of  all  the  high 
dignitaries  of  the  State  and  of  the  Court  assembled. 
Pope  Alexander  III.  ruled  that  of  two  affianced  brides, 
the  one  is  to  be  proclaimed  legitimate  wife  who  has 
already  cohabited  with  her  future  husband ; and  the 

' It  exists  in  many  parts  of  the  Bavarian  Alps,  where  the  entry  through 
the  window  of  the  lover  is  called  fensterln  (windowing);  only,  these 
lusty  mountaineers  brook  no  dallying  Co7ne  Nighis,  but  their  courtship 
is  soon  followed  by  marriage. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


4^5 


52nd  law  of  the  Allemanen  (ancient  Germans)  notifies 
that  whosoever  has  ruptured  his  connection  with  his 
betrothed,  must  swear  “ that  it  was  neither  from  sus- 
picion of  any  crime  by  her  committed,  nor  that  he 
had  really  discovered  anything  of  the  kind  in  her.” 

Ebers  ^ also  informs  us  that  this  trial  before  marriage 
is  of  very  respectable  antiquity,  for,  as  he  says,  it 
already  existed  in  long  ages  past  among  the  ancient 
Egyptians. 

The  Philippine  Islands.  Hans  Meyer  ^ shows 
that  some  analogy  with  this  custom  is  eqiuilly  to  be 
met  with  in  uncivilised  tribes.  Speaking  of  the  Igor- 
rotes  in  the  Philippine  Islands,  he  says: 

“ M^hen  a loving  couple  have  obtained  the  consent 
of  their  parents  to  their  marriage,  a feast  is  arranged, 
in  which  roast  pork  and  boiled  rice  constitute  the 
principal  elements,  and  during  the  feast  the  married 
couple  are  shut  up  together  in  a hut,  where  provided 
with  sufficient  food,  they  remain  together  during  four 
or  five  days,  until  the  festival  is  over,  either  party  is 
at  liberty  to  relinquish  the  marriage.  If  it  is  the  man 
who  declines,  he  is  obliged  to  give  to  the  woman  a 
robe,  a spade,  a cooking-pot,  a bracelet  and  earrings 
and  to  pay  the  cost  of  the  feast.  But  if  the  trial 
results  in  the  woman  becoming  in  child,  the  man  is 
obliged  to  build  her  a hut  and  to  give  her  a hog  and 
a cock  and  hen.” 

'Ebers  in  Zeitsclir.  “Fiir  Edle  Frauen”  von  Heinrichsen,  1816. 

^ H.  Meyer,  “Eine  Weltreise,”  Leipzig,  1890. 


CHAPTER  XIII. 


Forms  of  sexual  passion  in  Tahiti. — The  genital  otgati  of  the 
Maori  race  m the  adult  and  at  the  age  of  puberty. — Genital 
vigour  of  the  Tane'. — Genital  vigour,  ist,  in  the  European,  2nd, 
in  the  Maori  Tane. — Causes  of  the  genital  poiver  of  the  Tane. 
— Precocious  lustfulness  of  the  Tahitian  children,  and  its  results. 
— The  deflowering  of  the  little  Tahitian  girls. — Dr.  Ploss  on  the 
importance  of  sex  studies.  — The  methods  of  coition  usual  amongst 
the  Maori  race. 

The  Genital  Organ  of  the  Maori  Race  in  the 
Adult  and  at  the  Age  of  Puberty.  The  genital 
organs  of  the  adult  Tane  are  generally  well  developed, 
and  appeared  to  me  to  be  superior  in  size  to  those 
of  the  average  South  European,  whom  the  Tahitians 
much  resemble  in  the  general  colour  of  the  skin,  though 
the  Tanes  are  taller,  more  robust,  and  of  a handsomer 
type. 

In  spite  of  the  shortness  of  my  stay,  I was  able  to 
examine  a sufficient  number  of  Vahines  and  Tanes, — 
regular  patients  of  my  friend  Dr.  S***, — to  be  able  to 
form  an  opinion. 

The  member  generally  exceeds  6^  inches  in  length, 
and  i-|  inches  in  diameter.  Dimensions  of  7-^  to  8 
inches  by  to  2 inches  are  far  from  being  rare,  but 
beyond  these  measurements  they  seldom  go.  Those 
of  9 inches  by  2 inches  appeared  to  me  to  be  excep- 
tional. The  average  seemed  to  be  7^  inches  by  if 
inches.  The  result  of  numerous  measurements  made 
in  France,  shows  that  the  average  there  is  5-|  inches 

426 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF  ANTHROPOLOGY.  427 


by  a little  less  than  i-|  inches  in  diameter.  The  Tane 
is  therefore  much  better  furnished  than  the  civilised 
man.  He  is  inferior  in  this  respect  though  to  the 
African  Negro,  whose  enormous  penis  generally  exceeds 
9 inches,  and  attains  nearly  10  inches,  or  even  12 
inches, — dimensions  which  are  far  from  rare;  but  this 
is  the  member  of  a small  donkey,  rather  than  that  of 
a human  being. 

But,  wherein  the  Tane  most  markedly  resembles  the 
civilised  man,  is  in  the  hardness  of  erection.  The  penis, 
in  a flaccid  state,  is  proportionally  a little  more  devel- 
oped, but  the  erection  is  very  stiff,  and  in  a young 
Tane  of  twenty  years,  the  yard  will  stand  almost  per- 
pendicularly, so  as  to  touch  the  abdomen.  Such  an 
erection,  on  the  contrary,  s almost  impossible  to  the 
Negro,  whose  penis  remains  half  soft,  and  at  the  most 
never  rises  beyond  the  horizontal  position, — a difference 
that  I attribute  to  the  imperfect  nervous  system  of  the 
organ  in  the  African  Negro. 

The  gland  of  the  Maori  has  a regular  form,  and 
uncovers  very  easily,  for  when  in  a flaccid  state, 
the  foreskin  only  partly  covers  it.  The  gland  is 
proportionally  larger  than  the  yard,  properly  so  called, 
the  shape  of  which  is  generally  cylindrical ; its  colour 
is  a fine  dark  red,  slightly  shaded  by  a dash  of  ochre 
and  sepia.  This  is  almost  the  only  difference  between 
the  apparatus  of  a Tane  and  that  of  a European  of 
South  Europe,  for  though  the  latter  has  sometimes  a 
browner  skin,  the  gland  is  always  bright  red. 

Since  the  forced  conversion  to  Protestantism  imposed 
on  their  subjects  by  the  Pomare  dynasty,  and  the 
extinction  of  the  old  Tahitian  priesthood,  circumcision, 
by  the  slitting  of  the  upper  part  of  the  foreskin,  no 
longer  exists,  I have  mentioned,  that  the  gland  is 


428 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


normal,  and  regular  in  shape.  In  children  of  less 
than  ten  years,  the  foreskin  is  tolerably  long,  and 
forms  a cushion  projecting  beyond  the  gland.  I will 
presently  explain,  how  it  is  the  adult  Tane  enjoys 
some  of  the  benefits  of  circumcision  without  having 
undergone  that  operation. 

With  regard  to  the  size  of  the  testicles,  the  Maori 
surpasses  all  the  rest  of  the  human  race.  They  are 
always  proportionately  developed  in  comparison  to 
the  penis,  and  in  the  African  Negro  they  are  in  inverse 
ratio.  In  the  Tane,  the  shape  is  exactly  the  same  as 
a hen’s  egg,  and  they  often  attain  the  same  size. 

For  a boy  not  to  arrive  at  puberty  at  twelve  years 
is  very  rare ; at  fifteen  or  sixteen  his  member  is 
already  well  developed,  and  almost  as  large  as  that 
of  the  European  at  twenty  years,  and  his  testicles  are 
the  size  of  a pigeon’s  egg.  Although  the  Tane  has 
but  little  beard,  his  pubes  is  covered  with  soft  and 
curly  hair,  black  or  deep  chestnut  in  colour,  and 
fairly  abundant. 

The  Genital  Organ  of  the  Vahine,  in  form  and 
dimensions,  is  astonishingly  like  that  of  some  Quadroons. 
But  the  mans  Veneris  appeared  to  me  to  be  more 
developed,  and  covered  with  a fleece  of  hair  more 
abundant,  and  rather  softer.  In  vulgar  language,  it 
is  said  of  a woman  so  endowed  by  nature,  that  she 
has  a nice  fur  cap.  The  vulva  and  vagina  are,  naturally, 
of  the  same  colour  as  the  gland  in  the  male.  The 
clitoris  is  well  developed  in  the  Vahine:  its  size  is 
from  1.6  to  2.0  inches  whilst  in  the  French  woman 
it  is  but  1.2  inches  or  so,  according  to  Martineau.  I 
shall  speak  again  of  this  organ,  in  the  chapter  con- 
cerning the  perversions  of  sexual  passion  at  Tahiti. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


429 

The  general  direction  of  the  vulva  and  vagina,  from 
top  to  bottom,  and  from  front  to  back,  differs  little 
from  that  of  the  European  woman,  and  is  much  less 
inclined  towards  the  rear  than  that  of  the  Negress,  or 
the  New  Hebridean  and  Kanaka  half-breed  woman. 
In  some  Vahines,  I found  a very  highly  developed 
mans  Veneris,  covered  with  a profusion  of  soft  fine 
hair. 

The  Genital  Force  of  the  Tane.  If  I may  trust 
in  the  confessions  made  to  Dr.  S***  by  some  of  the 
Vahines, — confessions  I myself  elicited  and  heard, — the 
European  does  not  compare  favourably  to  the  Tane 
in  the  matter  of  genital  force.  In  the  degrees  of  this 
comparison,  which  is  not  very  flattering  to  civilised 
man,  the  Englishman  occupies  the  lowest  rank.  The 
Erenchmen  come  before  him,  and  amongst  the  Erench, 
the  Provencal,  the  Languedocian,  and  the  Gascon, 
occupy  the  first  rank,  though  they  are  far  below  the 
Tane  of  twenty-five  years,  who  has  just  arrived  at  the 
full  development  of  his  sexual  strength.  The  examina- 
tion of  the  genital  organ  of  the  Maori  has  already  given 
some  criterion  of  the  genital  force  of  the  race.  Though 
the  penis  does  not  attain  the  enormous  dimensions  of 
that  of  the  Negro,  the  testicles,  on  the  other  hand,  the 
real  organs  of  generation,  are  more  developed  than 
those  of  the  White  man,  and  much  more  than  those  of 
the  Negro,  and  are  the  true  index  of  manly  vigour. 

The  learned  physiologist  Mantegazza  ^ gives  the 
palm  for  genital  force  to  the  Negro. 

“We  have  no  statistics,  ” he  says,  “ which  will  give 
an  ethnographic  estimate  of  the  genital  force  of  the 
various  human  races.  But  we  may  assert,  with  almost 

’ GU  Amori  degli  Uoinini  (Milano,  1892). 


430 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


scientific  accuracy,  that  the  Negroes  are,  in  general, 
the  most  vigorous  of  all,  and  that  polygamist  nations, 
on  account  of  the  great  exercise  of  their  genital  organs, 
are  the  most  vigorous,  and  the  most  ready,  in  this 
respect.  Turks,  Arabs,  and  Hindoos,  expend  but  little 
intellectual  strength,  and  as  they  have  in  their  harems 
a large  assortment  of  wives,  they  can  easily  surpass 
us  in  the  feats  of  love.  ” 

With  due  deference  to  the  learned  Italian,  I am  not 
at  all  of  his  opinion.  Certainly,  the  Negro  is  the 
most  powerful  human  male  animal,  if  we  take  into 
consideration  the  time  necessary  for  him  to  complete 
copulation,  for  he  can  work  almost  an  entire  night 
without  exceeding  half  a dozen  emissions.  The  Turks 
and  the  Arabs  both  exceed  the  Negro  in  quantity. 
As  to  the  Hindoos,  we  estimate  them  as  much  inferior 
to  the  average  European.  Physiology  has  its  immut- 
able laws,  and  the  amount  of  work  which  can  be 
obtained  from  any  organ,  is  in  direct  proportion  to 
its  force.  The  Hindoo  is  lascivious,  though  less  so 
than  the  Annamite  and  the  Chinese,  but  his  genital 
organ  is  far  below  the  average.  Lewdness  is  not  a 
sign  of  genital  force,  but  quite  the  contrary.  I am 
now  speaking  merely  of  copulation,  and  its  frequent 
repetition,  for  if  we  examine  the  question  from  the 
point  of  view  of  impregnation  of  the  woman,  that  is 
quite  another  matter.  In  that  case,  the  Asiatic  of  the 
P'ar  East  must  take  the  first  place,  as  the  most  fruitful 
propagator,  though  he  is  the  worst  furnished  of  all. 

Estimate  of  the  Genital  Force  of  the  European. 

It  is  difficult  to  form  an  absolute  criterion  of  the  genital 
force  of  a race,  for  in  every  race  there  is  a great  difference 
between  individuals,  and  much  depends  upon  the 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


431 


particular  temperament,  and  the  constitution  of  the 
person.  On  this  point,  I may  perhaps  be  excused  if 
I again  quote  from  the  physiologist  Mantegazza,  who 
has  made  a special  study  of  the  subject  in  his  Igiene 
delV  amore. 

In  this  interesting  work  he  says,  “ I have  satisfied 
all  the  statistical  requirements  of  my  readers,  and  have 
also  given  my  regulations  for  love.  I have  said,  that 
from  the  age  of  twenty  to  thirty,  a healthy  man  can, 
with  impunity,  sacrifice  to  Venus  three  or  four  times 
a week,  and  that  from  thirty  to  forty-five,  he  should 
follow  the  precept  of  Luther: 

Sn  ber  mo^e  jmier 

9Jlacf)t  be§  jal)ren  l)unbert  Diev 

"BaS  ic^abet  loeber  bir  no^  mir. 

“ After  forty-five,  I should  say  that  connection  once 
a week,  or  even  less,  should  suffice,  and  just  after 
puberty  I should  wish  the  same  ratio  to  be  observed. 
You  may  take  this  rule  though  for  what  it  is  worth,, 
and  remember  that  these  figures,  though  they  may  be 
too  high  for  many,  will  not  be  sufficient  for  others. 
Nothing  can  be  more  uncertain  than  the  sexual  wants 
of  different  individuals,  for,  except  the  brain,  there 
is  nothing  more  variable  in  man  than  the  testicle. 

“ Here  follow  some  facts  I have  collected,  and  which 
may  give  an  idea  of  the  extreme  limits  of  the  vigour 
of  men  of  our  race.  A plasterer  copulated  three  or 
four  times  a day,  even  when  he  was  fifty.  I knew  a 
native  of  the  Romagna,  of  about  fifty  years  of  age, — 
a cadaverous  looking  man,  with  the  face  of  a satyr, 
and  ruined  in  health, — who  in  his  youth  had  tackled 
seventeen  women  in  one  day.  He  could  continue  to 
perform  two  or  three  times  a day  for  months  and 


432 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


months.  A young  Argentine  lived  for  a year  with  a 
young  woman,  and  indulged  twice  a day.  A woman 
of  Zurich  was  had  by  the  same  man  eighteen  times 
in  one  night.  A lady  of  the  Romagna  underwent  the 
caresses  of  her  lover  fourteen  times  in  one  night.  I 
knew  a young  man  who  performed  fourteen  times  in 
one  day,  and  another  ten  times,  without  feeling  any 
fatigue.  A young  Englishman  I knew,  shut  himself 
up  in  a room  with  a pretty  girl,  provided  himself  with 
plenty  of  generous  wine  and  substantial  food,  and 
tried  to  kill  himself  with  excess  of  love.  After  three 
or  four  days  of  incessant  copulation,  he  fell  ill,  but 
did  not  die.  One  of  the  bravest  generals  in  our  army 
could,  at  forty-nine  years  of  age,  possess  his  mistress 
five  times  in  three  hours.  He  could  also  sacrifice 
daily  to  love  for  many  consecutive  days.  Some  of 
these  facts  may  seem  to  be  exaggerated,  but  I maintain 
that  the  possibility  of  from  ten  to  fourteen  copulations 
in  one  day,  without  injury  to  health,  has  been  plainly 
demonstrated  by  science. 

“ On  the  other  hand,  I knew  a man  who  was  in 
sound  health,  and  possessed  of  his  full  share  of  virile 
strength,  who  was  married,  and  who  sacrificed  to  love 
only  twice  a year,  and  I have  known  many  others 
who,  during  twenty  or  thirty  years,  have  never  ‘loved’ 
their  wives  more  than  twice  a month,  and  who  could, 
without  inconvenience,  remain  chaste  for  months  and 
years.” 

I am  of  the  same  opinion  as  Mantegazza,  and 
maintain  that  a man  who  can  copulate  once  a day, 
or,  from  time  to  time  perform  six  times  in  a night, 
when  he  is  from  twenty  to  thirty-five  years  of  age, 
is  above  the  average;  for  these  “six  shooters”,  as  the 
women  call  them,  are  very  rare  in  these  days  of 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


433 


physical  enervation.  As  to  men  who  can  attain  a 
dozen  in  one  night,  or  can  perform  twice  a day,  they 
have  been  excessively  rare,  and  may  be  considered 
as  exceptional  phenomena,  at  all  times  amongst  all 
European  peoples.  Read  the  literary  productions  of 
our  worthy  ancestors, — the  Cymbaluvi  Mnndi,  Le Lloyen 
de  parvenir,  Les  Cent  No2tvelles  ncuvelles,  etc. : in 
all  these  you  will  find  stories  of  lovers  who  could 
get  as  high  as  twelve  times,  regarded  by  our  fore- 
fathers as  rare  exceptions  to  the  general  rule. 

The  Catholic  Church  on  Abstinence.  Dr.  Virey 
has  made  a judicious  study  of  this  subject.  We  quote 
a few  of  his  observations  and  must  refer  the  student 
who  wishes  for  more  details  to  his  work  on  La  Femme 
(Paris,  1825):  — 

According  to  the  ancient  rites  of  the  Catholic  religion 
marriage  might  be  solemnised  at  all  times,  but  it  could 
not  be  consummated  carnally  during  Lent  or  during 
Advent,  as  it  is  said  in  the  Canon  of  the  Council  of 
Elvira,  and  by  Saint  Thomas.  ^ The  following  is  the 
rule,  in  verse,  which,  according  to  Gerson,  regulates 
abstinence  from  conjugal  duty: 

Fesfa,  sacerqjie  locus,  jej7inia,  menstrua,  partus- 
Peccas ; bis  pcccas,  reddis  quandoqtie  licenter. 

(jfeaBt  5ag,  ati5  l30lg  gtouni',  fasting,  menstruation,  cbllD* 
blrtl3;  on  sucb  occasions  sou  commit  a sin,— anb  a boublc 
sin.  If  sou  give  was  llccntlousls). 

Whoever  had  connection  with  his  wife  on  Sunday 
was  threatened  with  being  likely  to  produce  monsters, 
lepers,  hunchbacks,  etc.  ^ The  Church  did  not  either 

* Dist.  32.  queest.,  l,  art.  5,  qu.  4. 

“ Gregoire  de  Tours,  De  miractil.  S.  Martini,  L.  II,  chap.  XXIY. 

28 


434 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


legally  accept  marriages  during  Advent  until  the  octave 
of  the  Epiphany,  and  from  Septuagesima  to  the  octave 
of  Easter,  nor  during  the  fourteen  days  before  the 
feast  of  Saint  John,  besides  the  other  times  of  absti- 
nence. It  was  also  required  to  abstain  from  connection 
with  the  wife  during  eight  days  previous  to  going  to 
communion.  ^ Wasselin,  Abbot  of  Liege,  said  that  it 
was  proper  to  say  prayers  before  giving  one’s  self  up 
to  the  work  of  nature.  ^ Geoffroi  de  Beaulieu,  confessor 
of  Saint  Louis,  relates  also  that  this  virtuous  king 
abstained  from  seeing  his  queen  Marguerite  during 
Lent,  Advent,  the  festivals  and  other  solemnities.  ® 
Pope  Nicholas  I.  enjoined  the  same  continence  on  the 
Bulgarians  during  Lent  and  at  the  other  periods  of 
abstinence.  ^ 

Saint  Paul  had,  in  fact,  recommended  this  reserve 
in  order  to  be  better  able  to  attend  to  prayer,  ^ and 
Saint  Augustine  ordained  it  during  time  of  abstinence.  ® 
The  conjugal  duty  being  an  obstacle  to  prayer,  says 
Saint  Jerome,  continence  should  become  the  sister 
and  companion  of  fasting.  ® The  more  a man  can 
abstain  from  women,  particularly  in  Lent,  according  to 
Cesairius  of  Arles,  and  from  concubines,  says  Saint 
Eligius,  bishop  of  Noyon,  ® the  more  perfect  he  is.  This 
continence,  says  Theodorus,  archbishop  of  Canterbury, 

' Gratian,  Decret  III.  part,  de  conser.,  dist.  II,  c.  XXI. 

° Epist.  ad  Florinu77i  ahbat.  t.  I.  Analect.,  p.  339. 

® Gaudefrid.  in  Duchesne,  Rectceil  des  Hist,  de  France,  t.  V,  p.  448. 

* Consult.  Bulgar.  c.  IX,  Concil.  t.  VIII,  p.  521. 

® Corinth.,  I,  Cap.  VIII. 

° Ser?no  206,  in  Quadrages,  No.  3. 

’ Adv.  Jovmian,  etc.,  t.  I,  de  custod.  virgin.,  epist.  17. 

® Origen,  homelia  10,  in  Levit. 

® Eligius,  homel.  16,  tom.  XII.  Biblioth.  paUnun.  p.  321. 

Theod.  Cantuar.  Epist.  Capital.  No.  33. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


435 


must  last  forty  days  before  Easter,  and  one  week  after 
Pentecost.  The  Canons  of  Ireland,  according  to  Dachery  ^ 
ruled  that  husbands  should  keep  away  from  their  wives 
three  times  in  the  year:  during  Lent,  during  the  days 
of  abstinence  preceding  the  festival  of  Saint  John, 
during  Advent  before  Christmas,  besides  every  Sunday, 
Wednesday  and  Friday;  further,  during  pregnancy, 
and  after  confinement,  thirty-six  days  if  it  is  a boy, 
and  forty-six  if  it  is  a girl.  Among  the  Eastern 
Christians,  this  continence  is  a precept  for  all  periods 
of  abstinence.  ^ This  brings  to  mind  the  story  of 
Lafontaine  about  old  Richard  de  Quinzica : 

Quinzica  then,  perceiving  that  his  powers 
Fell  short  of  what  a bird  like  his  devours, 

T’excuse  himself  and  satisfy  his  dear. 

Pretended  that  no  day  within  the  year 
To  Hymen,  as  a saint,  was  e’er  assigned 
In  calendar  or  book  of  any  kind. 


At  times  the  week  entire  he’d  have  a fast; 

At  others  say  the  day  among  the  saints’  was  classed ; 
Fast  every  Friday — Saturday  the  same. 

Since  Sunday  followed,  consecrated  day. 


The  like  observed  before  and  after  Lent 
And  every  feast  had  got  the  same  extent. 


Of  patron  saints  he  always  had  a list; 

Th’Evangelists,  Apostles  none  he  missed,  etc.  * 

We  rather  doubt  whether  such  regulations  could 
have  met  with  the  approval  of  the  ladies. 

* Tom.  IX,  spicileg. 

^ Balsamon,  Jtir.  orie7it.,  p.  386. 

® Tales  and  Novels  of  La  Fontaine.  English  ti'anslation,  London, 
1896.  Yol.  I,  p.  60 — 61  (The  Old  Plan's  Calendar^ 


436 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


Ancient  legislators  also  went  so  far  as  even  to 
regulate  the  conjugal  duty  itself.  Zoroaster  prescribed 
its  accomplishment  once  in  nine  days.  ^ Solon  estab- 
lished a viinimum  of  three  times  a month.  Mohammed 
ordains  that  if  a Mussulman  does  not  see  each  of  his 
wives  at  least  once  a week,  the  neglected  one  may 
sue  for  a divorce.  According  to  the  Judaic  law,  not 
to  work  at  propagation  is  equal  to  homicide ; and  in 
India  any  unmarried  woman,  or  even  any  married  but 
barren  woman,  becomes  an  object  of  profound  con- 
tempt. ^ It  is  perhaps  not  without  utility  to  ascertain 
how  far  the  natural  forces  of  man  and  woman  can 
go  in  the  venereal  act.  ® The  latter  seems  better  able 
to  sustain  more  assaults  than  the  former  can  furnish. 
Proculus,  a very  vigorous  Roman  general,  is  cited,  who 
deflowered  ten  Sarmatian  female  prisoners  of  war  in 
one  night.  We  were  informed  by  a woman  (less 
interested  to  exaggerate  in  such  matters  than  a man) 
that  she  had  counted  eleven  complete  acts  by  the 
same  man  in  one  night.  Ordinarily  these  sorts  of 
efforts  rarely  exceed  six  or  seven  at  most,  as  Venette 
says,  with  emissio  seinims,  and  those  men  who  attempt 
to  go  beyond,  quihus  adhuc  rigidus  m ingume  nervtis. 


'Vide  Zend  Avesta,  tom.  II,  p.  562  (French  translation  by  Anquetil- 
Duperron).  Self-pollution,  etc.  was  also  forbidden.  See  Vendidad  Sa7te', 
p.  407,  etc. 

“ In  Cambodgia,  according  to  Labissachere,  the  women  are  very  lascivi- 
ous ; if  their  husband  remains  ten  nights  absent,  they  consider  themselves 
authorised  to  seek  for  compensation  elsewhere. 

’ The  ancient  Parthians,  when  they  were  impotent,  begged  their  best 
friends  to  come  to  their  assistance  to  help  them  to  give  citizens  to 
the  fatherland.  The  women  of  the  Medes  gloried  themselves  in  not 
being  able  to  be  satisfied  by  one  man;  a husband  did  not  count  for 
much  with  them,  no  doubt  out  of  patriotic  zeal  for  the  population  of 
the  State. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


437 


either  do  not  ejaculate,  or  even  sometimes  emit  blood 
in  these  perilous  feats.  But  women,  in  general,  resist 
longer  to  repeated  enterprises.  We  know  of  a com- 
mon prostitute,  who  had  already  several  times  taken 
part  in  wild  orgies,  who  abandoned  herself  one  night 
to  twenty-one  soldiers  : the  number  of  acts  accomplished 
is  unknown ; the  following  day  she  was  taken  with 
violent  hemorrhage  from  the  uterus,  and  shortly  after- 
wards died.  She  was  a brunette,  rather  spare,  of 
medium  strength,  although  in  the  vigour  of  her  age. 
There  are  females  suffering  from  nymphomania  who 
are  absolutely  insatiable : the  history  of  INIessalina  is 
well  known ; she  sustained  twenty-five  assaults  without 
yet  being  satiated,  although  exhausted  with  fatigue: 

Adhuc  ardens  rigida  tentigine  vulva: 

Et  lassata  viris,  nondum  satiata,  recessit. 

(Still  burning  with  tbe  luet  of  a turgiO  organ,  anb  wearicb 
with  men,  but  not  set  eatisfieb,  sbe  witbbrew). 

It  would  appear  therefore  that  in  such  tournaments 
woman  is  equal  to  two  men  and  a half.  It  is  parti- 
cularly after  the  evacuation  of  the  menses  that  she  is 
the  most  ardent  and  that  conception  more  readily 
takes  place.  The  facts  related  by  Cabrol,  ^ of  forty 
coitions  in  one  night,  and  of  eighty-seven  assaults  in 
two  nights  by  men  who  had  absorbed  cantharides,  are 
either  much  exaggerated,  or  are  absolutely  morbid 
and  lethal  cases,  from  which  it  is  impossible  to  draw 
any  conclusions.  ^ 

The  gallant  defenders  of  the  fair  sex  maintain  in 
fact  that  marriage  having  been  established  for  the 

^ Alphabet  tun  anatom,  observ.  17. 

Vide  also  Martin  Schurig,  Spermatologia  • and  Sinibaldus,  Genean- 
thropia,  4to.,  who  both  bring  together  several  curious  facts  connected 
with  coition. 


438 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


procreation  of  children,  the  wife  has  the  right,  and  it 
is  even  her  duty,  to  complain  of  a husband  unable  to 
make  a mother  of  her.  Would  it  be  just  to  unite  a 
young  and  amiable  person  to  an  ugly  impotent  being 
such  as  a eunuch,  videns  oculis  et  ingemiscens,  quasi 
spado  complectens  virginern  et  suspirans  (looking  with 
the  eyes  and  groaning,  like  a eunuch  embracing  a 
virgin  and  sighing),  as  is  said  in  the  book  of  Ecclesias- 
ticus?  For  an  honest  and  modest  woman,  if  she 
does  not  suffer  the  danger  of  temptation  under  such 
circumstances,  cannot  free  herself  from  involuntary 
disgust  and  contempt.  Why  sacrifice  a naturally  feeble 
and  timid  sex,  by  condemning  her  to  perpetual  abnega- 
tion of  herself,  and  to  close  its  heart  to  the  most 
delicious  emotions  of  nature. 

Solatte  perpetua  mcerens  car  per  e juventa? 

Nec  dulces  7tatos,  Veneris  nec  prcemia  tioris? 

Virgil,  .<32neid,  IV,  32. 

(Art  thou  in  loneliness  and  mourning  to  waste  in 
perpetual  virginity,  and  never  know  dear  sons  of  thine 
own,  never  the  joys  of  Love?) 

Extent  of  the  Genital  Force  of  the  Maori  Tane. 

From  the  information  furnished  to  me  by  the  Vahines 
— information  which  I was  naturally  unable  to  control 
de  visu — I learn,  that  from  twenty  to  forty  years  of 
age  the  Tane  generally  copulates  night  and  morning, 
without  feeling  any  fatigue.  He  can,  after  a copious 
feast,  and  under  the  excitement  of  the  lascivious  tipa- 
tipa,  exceed  this,  and  easily  attain  six  or  even  eight 
turns  in  one  night.  Certain  persons,  exceptionally 
fitted  for  the  sports  of  love,  can  accomplish  their  ten, 
or  even  twelve.  On  account  of  their  amorous  powers, 
they  are  much  sought  after  by  the  Vahines. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


439 


This  is  very  different  from  the  regulations  of  the 
ancient  legislators, — Zoroaster,  for  example, — who  limited 
the  duty  of  a husband  to  one  copulation  every  nine 
days,  or  of  .Solon,  who  fixed  the  maximum  at  three 
times  a month.  It  seems  that  up  to  a very  advanced 
age,  the  Maori  is  capable  of  accomplishing  the  venereal 
act  within  the  very  moderate  limits  just  mentioned. 

Causes  of  the  Genital  Force  of  the  Tane.  The 

lazy,  idle  existence  of  the  Tane,  which  in  some  points 
resembles  the  farnientc  of  the  Neapolitan  lazzaroni, 
has  a good  deal  to  do  with  this  quality  of  “ the  good 
cock  always  ready  to  tread,”  as  Montaigne  calls  it. 
Besides,  his  diet  is  of  a kind  which  almost  seems 
prepared  by  nature  to  assist  him ; salt  sauce,  and 
phosphorised  fish,  that  is  to  say  two  of  the  most  power- 
ful aphrodisiacs.  Add  to  this  also,  the  natural  glucose 
of  the  sweet  tropical  fruits,  for  we  know  that  sugar 
is  a most  efficacious  restorative  for  those  who  abuse 
the  pleasures  of  love.  Poultry  and  pork  support  the 
general  muscular  strength,  and  repair  the  loss  caused 
by  the  frequent  emission  of  the  spermatic  secretion. 
Little  or  no  alcohol, — an  artificial  stimulant,  enervating 
to  the  genital  force.  Thus  the  Tane,  who  has  rested 
the  greater  part  of  the  day,  after  an  amount  of  phy- 
sical labour  which  has  been  barely  sufficient  to  bring 
his  muscles  of  bronze  into  proper  play,  and  after  two 
copious  and  succulent  repasts,  finds  himself  at  night 
by  the  side  of  a charming  woman,  and  his  mind  being 
at  rest,  and  not  having  any  business  worries,  as  the 
civilised  man  has,  he  cannot  better  employ  his  time 
than  by  attending  to  the  wants  of  his  wife, — and  he 
acquits  himself  of  the  task  most  admirably. 


440 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


Precocious  Lust  of  the  Tahitian  Children,  and 
its  Results.  With  such  free  and  easy-going  parents, 
and  by  virtue  of  the  atavism  of  the  race,  which  Pro- 
testant bigotry  may  render  hypocritical,  but  cannot 
destroy,  the  beautiful  Tahitian  children,  free  as  the  air 
in  which  they  frolic  all  day  under  the  shadow  of  the 
great  fruit  trees  around  their  parents’  houses,  learn  at 
an  early  age  to  play  at  little  husband  and  little  wife. 
Children  of  neighbours  form  couples,  and  mutually 
instruct  each  other.  The  Tane  is  precocious ; he  attains 
puberty  at  eleven  or  twelve  years  at  the  latest.  By 
the  age  of  ten  he  has  commenced  to  prepare  for  the  work 
of  love.  The  foreskin  of  the  Tahitian  boy  of  less  than 
ten,  is,  as  I have  already  said,  fairly  long,  and  yet  in 
the  adult  Tane,  when  the  member  is  in  erection,  the 
gland  is  completely  uncovered,  and  when  the  penis  is 
in  a flaccid  state,  the  gland  is  but  half  covered  by 
the  foreskin.  This  requires  an  explanation,  which  I 
am  able  to  give,  thanks  to  the  avowals  of  some  of  the 
young  Tanes  who  supplied  me  with  a confirmation  of 
the  statement  already  made  me  by  my  young  Tahitian 
boy,  Tara. 

It  seems  that  the  young  rascals  of  Tahitians  deem 
it  a kind  of  semi-disgrace  if  the  gland  does  not  come 
out  in  a state  of  erection,  and  those  who  have  the 
infirmity  of  phimosis  are  laughed  at  by  the  Vahines. 
The  old  form  of  circumcision,  by  means  of  slitting 
the  foreskin,  had  many  advantages,  and  the  only  ob- 
jection to  it  was  that  the  slit  was  made  too  long,  and 
the  foreskin  stuck  up  like  a dog’s  ears.  Circumcision 
having  disappeared  with  the  old  religion  of  Tahiti,  is 
now  imitated  by  the  following  trick.  The  little  scoun- 
drel of  a Tane  boy  holds  the  tip  of  the  foreskin 
between  the  thumb  and  first  finger,  when  he  wants  to 


anthropology. 


441 


make  water,  and  leaves  only  a small  outlet  for  the 
passage  of  the  urine.  The  result  is,  that  the  urine, 
finding  no  free  escape,  forms  a bag,  which  distends 
the  foreskin  round  the  gland.  This  operation  being 
repeated  several  times  a day,  mechanically  distends 
the  foreskin,  and  enlarges  the  aperture,  exactly  as  does 
Nelaton’s  dilator  with  three  arms,  which  was  invented 
for  the  same  purpose.  But  the  Tahitian  method  pos- 
sesses a great  advantage  over  the  dilator,  in  that  it 
operates  gradually,  without  pain  and  without  accident, 
and  that  at  a time  when  the  genital  apparatus  is 
undergoing  a radical  change, — that  is  to  say,  at  the 
time  of  puberty.  After  employing  this  trick  daily  for 
some  months,  the  gland  is  completely  free,  and  if  the 
curb  of  the  gland  is  too  short,  it  is  cut  with  a sharp 
flint,  and  the  little  wound  is  dressed  with  cotton, 
soaked  in  the  juice  of  a plant  which  has  all  the  healing 
properties  of  arnica.  There  is  no  danger  in  this  trivial 
operation,  for  I performed  it  on  myself  when  I was 
twenty-two  years  of  age,  and  was  studying  medicine,' 
by  giving  myself  a cut  with  a bistoury,  and  the  wound, 
treated  with  a few  shreds  of  lint,  soaked  in  a rather 
strong  solution  of  Goulard  water,  healed  in  four  or 
five  days. 

As  soon  as  the  gland  can  come  out  freely,  the 
young  Tane,  whether  he  produces  sperm  or  not,  com- 
mences to  copulate  with  his  “little  wife”.  As  at  this 
period  the  genital  organs  are  changing  rapidly,  and 
are  excited  more  than  they  ought  to  be,  they  quickly 
enlarge  and  develop.  For  this  reason,  a Tane  of 
fifteen  or  sixteen,  who  has  been  playing  with  the  girls 
for  the  last  three  or  four  years,  or  perhaps  even  five 
or  six,  has  the  organs  of  generation  almost  as  large 
and  as  strong  as  those  of  the  European  at  twenty. 


442 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


Hippocrates  has  observed  also,  that  the  Scythians  were 
impotent,  and  their  genital  parts  were  small,  from 
their  continually  riding  on  horseback,  and  because 
they  wore  trousers,  so  that  they  could  not  put  their 
hands  to  their  genital  parts,  and,  moreover,  these  being 
supported,  were  not  elongated  by  their  own  weight, 
as  with  the  people  of  the  East,  who  wear  robes  which 
do  not  prevent  the  free  development  of  the  organ. 
Lallemant,  a physician  of  Montpellier,  in  his  Commen- 
taries on  Hippocrates,  declares  that  in  bakers,  who  do 
not  wear  drawers,  the  contrary  effect  to  that  mentioned 
by  Hippocrates,  is  produced  : '' Saepe  audivimus  pistores 
et  coeteros  quorum  partes  pudendce  subligaculis  non 
obteguntur,  sed  liberius  pendent,  crassos  et  bene  nu- 
tritos  habere  testes.” 

CUCle  have  often  heath  the  fact  stateh  that  hahers  anh 
otbera  whose  private  parts  are  not  hclh  bs  restraining 
banhs,  but  bang  more  freelg,  have  beavg  anh  well  nourisbeh 
testicles). 

All  the  writers  and  philosophers  of  antiquity  agree 
on  this  point  with  the  physician  of  Cos.  Plato  says 
very  briefly:  “The  parts  of  the  body  grow  weak  and 
relaxed  in  repose,  and  increase  in  force  and  vigour 
when  they  exercise  the  functions  which  are  proper  to 
them.”  In  Aristophanes,  the  small  penis  is  mentioned 
as  an  attribute  of  young  men  who  have  preserved 
their  innocence,  and  the  large  penis  is  looked  upon  as 
a sign  of  corrupted  youth.  Galen  confirms  the  obser- 
vations of  Plato  and  Aristophanes.  He  says  that  the 
genital  organs  of  athletes,  and  other  men  who  are 
obliged  by  their  profession  to  be  chaste,  are  ordinarily 
shrunken  and  retracted,  like  those  of  old  men,  whilst 
the  reverse  is  found  to  be  the  case  with  those  who 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


443 


abuse  the  pleasures  of  Venus.  The  great  Arabian 
physician,  Avicenna,  gives  a similar  opinion.  Rewrote 
two  special  chapters,  one  relating  to  methods  of  in- 
creasing the  size  of  the  penis,  De  magnificantibits 
virgam  (of  such  as  increase  the  size  of  the  verge), 
and  the  other  to  methods  of  contracting  the  vulva, 
De  constrmgentibiis  vulva m (of  such. as  contract  the 
size  of  the  vulva).  ^ In  the  first  case  he  recommends 
friction  (he  might  have  said  masturbation),  with  various 
drugs  proper  to  retain  the  increased  flow  of  blood 
which  the  erection,  due  to  the  masturbation,  had 
brought  to  the  yard.  If  I may  dare  to  express  my 
own  opinion  after  that  of  such  great  philosophers  and 
physicians  I might  remark,  that  from  my  own  obser- 
vations on  young  conscripts,  I found  vigorous  youths 
of  more  than  average  corporal  strength  and  develop- 
ment, had  the  genital  organs  small ; the  large  penis 
and  great  testicles,  on  the  contrary,  were  found  in 
subjects  who  looked  thin  and  weak,  and  had  the 
muscles  but  poorly  developed.  The  genital  organ,  if 
excited  too  soon,  is  nourished  at  the  expense  of  the 
whole  body.  There  is  an  old  sea-proverb  which  ex- 
presses this  theory  somewhat  coarsely.  “ The  worse 
the  dog,  the  better  his  tail.” 

The  Deflowering  of  the  Little  Tahitian  Girls. 

The  hymen  exists  in  the  Tahitian  race,  at  it  does  in 
every  other  human  race;  but  it  soon  disappears,  on 
account  of  the  libidinous  habits  of  the  children.  By 

' This  fascinating  and,  as  we  thinlv,  vital  subject  is  fully  discussed 
in  the  “Book  of  Age-Rejuvenescence  in  the  Pouter  of  Concuptscence," 
“KITAB  RUJU’A  AS-.SIIAYKH  ILA  SABAH  FI-’L-KUWWAT 
’ALA-L  BAH”,  the  English  version  of  an  extraordinary  Arabic  medical 
work  of  the  Xllllh  century  and-  hitherto  untranslated  into  any  European 
Language. 


444 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


ten  years  old,  the  little  Tahitian  girl  has  already  “ seen 
the  wolf”.  At  first,  perhaps,  it  is  only  a very  little 
wolf, — that  of  her  young  neighbour,  with  whom  she 
plays  at  husband  and  wife.  Does  the  little  brother 
lend  his  help,  as  in  Tonquin  and  Cochin-China?  I do 
not  think  so,  but  I must  own  that  I did  not  have  time 
to  verify  the  point,  which  is  important  from  a philosoph- 
ical point  of  view.  The  few  young  girls  I saw,  who 
had  the  hymen  intact,  were  less  than  ten  years  old. 
At  twelve  years,  a Vahine  can  take,  without  pain  or 
serious  injury,  a male  of  the  dimensions  of  the  average 
European,  if  not  as  to  length,  at  least  as  to  thickness. 
This  is  the  result  of  habitual  coition  with  children  of 
the  same  age,  whose  yards  are  in  proportion  to  the 
size  of  the  vulva  and  vagina.  There  is  a slow  and 
gradual  dilatation,  which  distends  the  hymen  without 
tearing  it,  as  would  a brusque  copulation  with  a 
disproportionate  organ.  The  vulvar  orifice  enlarges  a 
little  every  day,  almost  without  deformation,  and  the 
hymen  assumes  an  annular  shape,  formed  by  a circular 
fold  which  doubles  the  smaller  lips  at  the  entrance 
to  the  vagina,  and  easily  allows  the  introduction  of 
the  finger. 

This  gradual  deformation  is  not  special  to  the  Maori 
race.  Mantegazza  cites  the  following  fact. 

“ I have  seen  with  my  own  eyes,  in  Paraguay,  ” he 
says,  “ children  of  both  sexes,  stark  naked,  playing 
freely  together,  and  I believe  that  more  than  once, 
out  of  curiosity  and  for  amusement,  they  try  copula- 
tion long  before  the  age  of  puberty,  which  little  by 
little  dilates  the  genital  parts  of  the  girl,  and  results 
probably  in  a gradual  loss  of  the  maidenhead,  without 
violence.” 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


445 


Dr.  Floss  on  the  Importance  of  Sex  Studies. 

The  position  of  woman  in  the  family  and  in  the  people, 
the  mutual  connection  between  man  and  woman  are 
of  the  greatest  importance  to  determine  the  moral 
degree  of  each  nation.  There  is  to  be  found  a com- 
plete scale  from  the  deepest  contempt  for  woman  to 
the  highest  degree  of  glorification,  from  the  most 
shameful  maltreatment  to  the  most  tender  attentions. 
The  purely  sexual  connection  is  the  prominent  feature 
only  among  the  most  barbarous  races,  but  even  among 
half  civilised  nations  it  still  plays  an  important  part. 
But,  on  the  contrary,  where  a higher  degree  of  culture 
has  been  attained  intellectual  and  moral  life  recognises 
the  value  of  the  female  sex,  and  sexual  connection  is 
then  controlled  by  elevated  aesthetic  views  within  the 
bounds  of  the  strictest  morality.  Where  woman  is 
nothing  more  than  a thing,  first  of  all  to  satisfy  man’s 
animal  desires,  and  secondly  relieve  him  of  a portion 
of  his  hard  work,  there  will  the  worst  be  expected  of 
her  as  regards  sexual  connections. 

Ethnology  cannot  do  otherwise  than  busy  itself  with 
such  things,  which  are  generally  treated  “ away  from 
the  public  ear,”  and  we  cannot  avoid  mentioning  such 
subjects  if  we  wish  to  come  to  a true  knowledge  of 
woman  in  nature  and  ethnology. 

It  is  not  to  be  denied  that  among  Southern  races 
female  decency  in  the  act  of  coition  is  not  particularly 
observed,  if  we  are  to  believe  the  accounts  of  travellers. 
Speaking  of  the  women  and  girls  on  the  Island  of 
Ponape  in  the  Carolinas,  who  seem  to  be  absolutely 
cold  and  icy,  Finsch  ^ repeats  after  one  of  them  : “ Three 
young  girls  whom  I had  occasion  to  experiment  upon 

’ Otto  Finsch,  Ueher  die  Bewohner  von  Ponape  (Ostl.  Carolinen), 
Zeitschrift  fiir  Ethnologic,  Band  XII,  Berlin,  1880. 


446 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


with  regard  to  their  mobility,  remained  totally  indiffer- 
ent during  the  initiatory  manipulations,  and  remained 
absolutely  passive  during  the  operation  and  scarcely 
reacted  at  the  culminating  moment ; however,  all  three 
of  them  showed  no  disinclination  to  recommence  and 
were  particularly  very  sensitive  to  the  Nervus  rertwi. 
A wetted  sponge,  held  beneath  the  arm,  was  each 
time  after  terminated  Aches  rapidly  introduced  in  order  to 
absorb  all  superfluous  matter,  by  which  artificial  means 
too  much  slipperiness  was  avoided  for  renewed  intro- 
mission.” There  is,  however,  no  doubt  that  the 
recording  experimentator  had  to  do  specially  with  sub- 
jects who  officially  belonged  to  the  order  of  Venus 
viilgivaga. 

Methods  of  Copulation  amongst  the  Maoris. 

The  methods  of  satisfying  the  sexual  passion  are  very 
simple  amongst  the  natives  of  the  interior.  They 
perform  naturally,  and  without  any  preliminaries.  The 
Vahine,  who  is  of  a lascivious  temperament,  would 
prefer  these  preliminaries,  for  she  is  of  a very  nervous 
and  passionate  nature,  but  the  Tane,  who  is  vigorous, 
and  excited  by  genital  instincts,  goes  straight  to  the 
mark.  Copulation  is  therefore  plain  and  simple,  and 
most  generally  in  the  classical  position,  and  rarely  a 
retro,  on  account  of  the  forward  position  of  the  vulva. 
The  parts  are,  however,  sometimes  reversed,  and  the 
woman  straddles  the  man.  This  position  is  assumed 
when  the  Vahine  is  pregnant,  in  order  not  to  injure 
the  fruit.  In  this  respect  there  is  a curious  resemblance 
between  the  Maori  and  Annamite  women.  To  sum 
up  in  short,  Tanes  and  Vahines  repeat  the  natural 
mode  of  copulation  as  often  as  possible,  under  the 
impulse  of  a temperament  created  for  physical  love. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


447 


At  Papeete  it  is  quite  another  affair.  European 
corruption,  more  hypocritical,  but  quite  as  great,  if  not 
greater,  than  that  of  the  old  Tahitians,  must  be  taken 
into  account.  This  leads  us  to  the  chapter  on  perversions 
of  the  sexual  passions,  in  which  we  shall  study  the 
pernicious  influence  of  the  civilised  man. 


CHAPTER  XIV. 


Perversions  of  the  se.xnal  passion  amongst  the  Tahitians.  — The 
Tajie. — Corruption  of  the  Vahine  in  contact  7jvith  the  European, 

— Seccual  perversions  of  the  Vahine'. — Masturbation  and  Sapphism. 

— The  influence  of  race  in  genital  perversions. 

The  Tane,  This  chapter  will  be  brief  so  far  as 
concerns  the  Maori  Tane.  From  the  age  of  puberty, 
he  is  a faithful  worshipper  of  the  natural  Venus,  and 
fervently  adores  her  until  old  age.  He  commences 
the  sports  of  love  as  soon  as  he  finds  a little  Vahine, — 
or  perhaps  even  a nubile  one, — who  is  obliging  enough 
to  give  him  his  first  lessons.  Is  he,  when  young, 
addicted  to  the  vice  of  masturbation,  peculiar  to  human 
kind,  and  its  caricature,  the  simian  race  ? I do  not 
know;  but  from  the  moment  that  he  has  to  do  with 
his  first  mistress,  the  Tane  cares  only  for  women. 
That  there  may  be  amongst  the  race, — as  amongst 
all  others, — sodomites  and  pederasts,  I admit;  but  they 
are  very  rare  exceptions,  and  prove  nothing  against 
the  relative  morality  of  the  Maori  race.  The  cult  of 
the  Annamite  “basket”,  and  “boy”,  has  never  existed 
at  Tahiti,  and  from  this  particular  point  of  view,  the 
Tane  is  less  depraved  than  certain  European  nations, 
the  Italians  for  example,  amongst  whom  the  culo  has 
always  counted  fervent  devotees. 

Corruption  of  the  Vahine  in  Contact  with  the 
European.  European  travellers,  who  now  visit  Tahiti, 

448 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF  ANTHROPOLOGY.  44Q 


complain  bitterly  of  the  want  of  morality,  and  the 
venality,  of  the  Vahine  of  Papeete.  Desfontaines  has 
faithfully  re-echoed  these  statements,  but  he  confesses 
that,  if  this  picture  of  the  immorality  of  the  Tahitian 
women,  “ painted  by  the  Frenchmen  residing  at  Papeete, 
is  a fair  representation  of  the  character  of  the  natives 
of  the  capital,  it  is  absolutely  false  as  regards  those 
of  the  interior.”  ^ 

Of  what  then  can  the  European  complain  ? Is  he 
not  reaping  the  bitter  fruit  that  he  has  sown?  The 
accounts  of  Cook  and  de  Bougainville  have  shown  us 
the  Tahitian  race  as  attaining  a very  advanced  degree 
of  civilisation,  worthy  to  be  compared  with  that  of 
the  ancient  Greeks.  The  Tahitian  race  was,  at  that 
moment,  at  the  apogee  of  its  physical  and  moral 
development.  The  Tahitians  were  good,  docile,  and 
hospitable,  even  to  the  point  of  offering  their  wives, 
not  for  money,  but  for  “love” — in  both  senses  of  the 
phrase.  In  this  fortunate  island,  the  Vahine  bestowed 
her  charms  for  the  pleasure  she  derived,  and  not  for 
filthy  lucre.  Is  it  not  the  European,  with  his  pretended 
superior  civilisation,  who  has  destroyed  these  manners, 
— brutally  frank,  I admit,  but  simple  and  naive?  He 
has  given  the  Tahitian  artificial  needs,  by  bringing 
him  alcohol ; he  has  morally  poisoned  him  with  his 
gold,  and  corrupted  his  blood  by  transmitting  syphilis, 
which  was  absolutely  unknown  before  the  discovery 
of  the  island.  It  is  the  European  who  has  made  tire 

* Macdonald,  cited  by  Westermarck,  Htima7i  Marriage,  p.  151,  states 
that  “in  Efate,  of  the  New  Hebrides,  se.xual  intercourse  is  regarded 
as  something  unclean  ” (See  Oceania : Linguistic  and  Anthropological, 
Melbourne  and  London,  1889);  and,  according  to  the  report  of  Cook, 
the  Tahitians  believed  that,  “ if  a man  refrained  from  all  connection 
with  women  some  months  before  death,  he  passed  immediately  into  his 
eternal  mansion  without  any  purification.” 


29 


45° 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


Vahine  drunken,  selfish,  and  lustful  after  money.  The 
Tane  has  become,  by  the  force  of  circumstances,  a 
maqiiereav , * and  a pander.  The  Vahine  of  Papeete 
is  the  worthy  rival  of  the  prostitute  of  Paris  or  London, 
and  she  has  but  too  well  profited  by  the  lessons 
learned  from  the  European. 

All  the  worst  faults  of  venal  prostitution  are  now 
found  at  Papeete,  as  I can  testify  de  visit.  The  grand- 
mothers of  the  present  generation  of  Vahines  were 
“horizontals”.  Their  grand- daughters  have  become 
“ kneelers  ” [i.e.  agenouillee,  a fellatrice)  in  the  Parisian 
fashion.  How  can  she  do  otherwise  than  despise  the 
European,  who  has  taught  her  such  disgusting  practices  ? 
She  reserves  all  her  affection  for  her  handsome  Tane, 
the  lover  after  her  own  heart,  who,  at  least,  does  not 
beat  her,  as  the  souteiieur  ^ of  la  Villette  thrashes  his 
marmite.  ^ when  she  does  not  bring  in  enough  galette.  ^ 
In  his  moral  decay,  although  he  has  become  a drunkard 
and  a pander,  the  Maori  still  preserves  an  innate  re- 
spect for  woman.  He  is  morally  superior  to  the  de- 
graded beings,  who  grovel  in  the  lowest  depths  of  life 
in  the  great  European  capitals.  He  never  uses  the 
knife  to  kill  pante,  ^ that  he  may  rob  him  at  his  ease. 
Poor  Maori,  who  is  being  quickly  killed  off  by  contact 
with  the  White,  but  who  still  retains  his  sweet  disposi- 
tion and  good-nature  ! 

There  is,  however,  one  thing  to  which  the  Vahine 
resolutely  objects,  and  to  which  she  can  be  brought 

^ Maqueremi.  a prostitute’s  bully ; marmitc,  a woman  who  keeps 
the  same  by  her  prostitution;  galette,  cake,  but  in  slang,  money; 
soutemnir,  a man  who  lives  on  the  proceeds  of  a girl’s  whoring  and 
maintains  (sozetient)  her  in  her  evil  way;  are  all  words  used  in  Parisian 
fast,  low  life. 

" .Slang  for  customer. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


451 


only  with  the  greatest  difficulty.  The  practice  of 
sodomy  is  almost  unknown  to  her.  We  cannot  say 
as  much  for  the  public  “gay  women”  of  old  Europe; 
a perusal  of  the  works  of  Tardieu  and  Martineau 
would  set  that  point  at  rest.  With  many  of  them  it 
is  a mere  question  of  price. 

Besides,  it  must  be  confessed  that  Europe,  the  eldest 
daughter  in  civilisation  of  old  Asia,  cannot  reproach 
her  mother  with  immorality,  for  she  is  now  as  corrupt 
as  ever  her  mother  was, — but  she  conceals  it  better. 

Sexual  Perversions  of  the  Vahine.  The  contact 
of  the  corrupt  White  man  with  a woman  of  a nature 
so  ardent,  and  so  passionately  fond  of  physical  love, 
as  the  Vahine,  has  had  the  natural  result.  He  found 
in  her  suitable  ground,  and  the  seed  of  lust  has  sprung 
up:  it  is  in  the  methods  of  copulation  that  it  has  first 
shown  itself. 

I do  not  know  who  introduced  into  Tahiti  the 
“Manual  of  Classical  Erotology”  of  Forberg,  but  all 
the  different  positions  of  copulation  indicated  by  that 
experienced  writer  are  known  and  practised  by  the 
“ gay  ” Vahines.  It  is  the  same  with  the  thirty-six 
positions  attributed  to  Pietro  Aretino,  on  account  of 
his  indecent  Sonnets,  and  under  whose  name  it  has 
circulated  for  the  last  three  hundred  years.  I saw  a 
copy  of  the  French  Aretin,  which  passed  from  hand 
to  hand,  and  was  used  as  a love  breviary.  ^ 

But  contact  with  the  White  has  produced  other,  and 
more  disastrous,  results.  It  has  been  the  direct  cause 
of  the  introduction  of  two  vices  unknown  to  the  old 
Tahitian  women.  I mean  masturbation  and  Sapphism, 

* See  also  CRAISSON,  ihe  CATHOLIC  THEOLOGIAN,  in  his 
curious  work,  De  rebus  vcncreis  ad  usmn  Confessoriortim,  Paris,  1870. 


452 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


the  existence  of  which  I plainly  diagnosed  amongst  a 
certain  number  of  the  prostitutes  of  Papeete.  Further 
information  on  t|ie  same  subject  was  also  supplied  by 
my  colleague,  Dr.  S***. 

Masturbation  and  Sapphism.  “ Masturbation,  ” 
says  Martineau,  ^ “ consists  of  friction  of  the  clitoris. 
The  friction  is  employed  by  the  woman  herself,  or  by 
some  other  person.  Friction  of  the  clitoris  is  produced 
most  usually  by  the  finger,  but  sometimes  with  the 
penis,  or  sometimes  with  the  tongue.  In  this  latter 
case  there  is  suction  at  the  same  time.  To  this  last 
variety  of  masturbation  I have  given  the  name  of 
Sapphism.  Besides  these  methods,  friction  of  the  clitoris 
is  produced  by  the  aid  of  foreign  bodies.” 

The  masturbation  of  the  Vahines  is  most  usually 
effected  with  the  aid  of  another  person,  a man  or  a 
woman,  and  Sapphism  is  most  usually  employed.  The 
observations  that  I was  able  to  make,  perfectly  coin- 
cided with  those  of  the  eminent  surgeon  of  the  Lourcine 
Hospital.  I was  more  especially  able  to  verify  their 
exactness  in  the  case  of  a Vahine,  of  about  twenty 
years  of  age,  and  with  a darker  skin  than  is  usual 
with  the  majority  of  Tahitians.  She  was  the  mistress 
of  a White  man,  and  exhibited  positive  signs  of  a 
Sapphism  repeated  two  or  three  times  every  day,  with 
a Vahine  who  was  one  of  her  comrades.  The  clitoris 
was  thick  and  large ; the  hood  was  helmet-shaped,  and 
the  gland  very  swollen,  and  almost  as  thick  as  the 
thumb.  The  colour  was  that  of  dark  wine  lees. 

While  I personally  consider  that  these  vices  are 

' Refer  also  to  the  special  study  DR.  POUILLET  has  made  of  this 
branch  of  sexual  pathology  in  his  work,  De  I' Onanistne  chez  la  Femme, 
Paris,  no  date,  but  about  1895. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


453 


imported  amongst  savage  peoples  by  corrupted  White 
men,  it  must  be  stated  that  other  very  competent 
authorities  regard  these  depravities  as  indigenous  to  the 
soil  and  existing  before  the  advent  of  the  European. 
Dr.  Ploss  in  “Das  Weib”  supports  this  doctrine. 

“ It  is  generally  supposed,”  he  writes,  “that  everything 
connected  with  unnatural  sexual  intercourse  pertains 
to  a higher  degree  of  culture.  But  this  is  a great  mis- 
take, and  on  the  contrary  we  not  seldom  meet  with 
most  refined  voluptuousness  in  races  of  a quite  low 
degree  of  civilisation,  but  whose  usages  have  been 
illusorily  supposed  to  represent  an  idyllic  natural  living 
condition.” 

We  have  already  had  occasion  to  draw  attention  to 
certain  artificial  changes  of  form  practised  on  the 
female  genital  organs,  which  must  apparently  have 
some  connection  with  the  sensual  passion  desired  to 
be  raised  in  young  maidens.  Of  course  the  children 
of  savages  see  nothing  extravagant  therein.  Letour- 
neau  W^ery  rightly  obserses : “ Gene  sic  extravagancies 

are  not  abnormal,  and  truly  examined,  are  not  unnatural, 
for  they  may  be  observed  among  many  animals.” 

As  a fact  masturbation  and  other  artificial  methods 
of  irritating  the  genital  organs  point  in  one  and  the 
same  direction,  and  in  this  connection  it  is  hardly 
necessary  to  allude  to  the  pupping  of  a bitch,  to  the 
mutual  mounting  of  cows  when  in  heat,  or  to  the 
masturbation  of  apes.  The  same  has  been  observed 
on  the  extremely  savage  species,  the  hyaenas. 

It  is  of  course  to  be  understood  that  masturbation 
produces  a change  of  form  of  the  genitals.  But  apart 
from  this  anatomical  consideration,  may  not  this  vice 
have  very  serious  consequences  on  the  entire  organism, 

' La  Sociologie  d'apres  V ethnographie,  Paris,  1880,  p.  62. 


454 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


among  which  may  be  noted  a premature  sexual  devel- 
opment, and  a subsequent  diminution  and  weakening 
of  physical  force  and  consequently  of  genetic  power? 

Eram,  ^ who  during  many  years  practised  as  a 
physician  in  the  East,  expresses  himself  as  follows; 
“ In  order  to  have  an  idea  of  its  frequency  in  general 
among  young  girls  in  the  East,  it  is  only  necessary 
to  bear  in  mind  their  want  of  exercise,  their  sedentary 
life,  their  idleness,  their  tiresome  existence,  and  parti- 
cularly the  confidence  and  credulity  of  the  mothers 
who  neglect  every  kind  of  supervision  with  regard  to 
all  that  takes  place  in  their  daughters’  chambers  in 
their  solitary  hours.” 

Among  the  Khoikhoin  (Hottentots)  the  practice  of 
masturbation  is  so  common  among  the  girls  that  it  has 
become  almost  a national  custom,  and  that  there  is  no 
mystery  made  about  it,  and  it  is  mentioned  in  spoken 
and  written  language  as  a common  affair.  (Fritsch).  ^ 

We  have  observed  quite  identical  facts  among  the 
Basutos  and  the  Ovararheros. 

The  impudicity  of  the  Viscayan  women  in  the  Philippine 
Islands  before  the  advent  of  the  Spaniards  is  notorious ; 
they  had  indeed  invented  an  artificial  penis  in  order 
to  satisfy  their  exorbitant  lust,  and  they  had  also  other 
means  to  satisfy  unnatural  desire.  (Blumentrill). 

Joest  ® informs  us  from  Japan  that  in  that  country 
little  bullets  called  Rin-no  tama  are  used  to  excite  the 
sexual  irritability  of  women,  and  are  introduced  into 
the  vagina  for  the  purpose  of  excitation,  and  are  kept 
there  in  place  by  means  of  a paper  plug. 

* Dc  la  Pratique  des  Acconchements  en  Orient,  Paris,  i860,  p.  45, 
69,  362. 

® Die  Eingeborene  Siid-Afrikas,  Breslau,  1873. 

® Allerlei  Spielzeug.  Intern.  Arch.  f.  Ethnographic,  Vol.  VI,  p.  166. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


455 


Joest  adds:  “that  girls,  even  pretty  well  experienced 
in  love  matters,  knew  these  bullets  by  name  only,  and 
they  are  supposed  to  be  used  only  by  highly  respect- 
able people  (Dancers,  and  Singers),  and  by  those  high 
ranked  priestesses  of  Venus  looked  after  by  Europeans. 
These  bullets  are  hollow  and  are  divided  into  two  parts, 
into  each  of  which  is  inserted  an  entirely  free  metal  bell. 
The  least  movement  causes  these  little  bells  to  ring 
and  gives  rise  to  a slight  vibration,  a not  unpleasant 
tickle,  something  like  a slight  electrical  shock  from  a 
feeble  induction  battery.  The  Chinese  women  are  also 
said  to  make  use  of  these  ‘ sounding  and  exciting  bells.’” 

Jacobs  ^ says  also,  with  regard  to  the  Balina  Island, 
Dutch  East-Indies,  that  there  reigns  in  those  quarters 
a most  terrible  demoralisation....  Onanism  and  mastur- 
bation prevail ; it  is  there  called  njoktjok.  Ketimoen 
and  Pisang  are  not  taken  by  the  Balina  girls  generally 
as  dainties,  nor  more  than  as  articles  of  food.  In  the 
boudoirs  of  many  Balik  beauties,  and  certainly  in  every 
harem  are  to  be  found  wax-made  plaisirs  des  dames, 
known  under  the  discreet  names  of  ganem  or  tjPak- 
tjelakati  mal'em,  (tjelak  = penis,  malem  = wax),  and  many 
quiet  solitary  hours  are  agreeably  passed  with  this 
consolator.  The  gane7u  is  also  called  Kocmpentje 
{compensation). 

A not  unfrequent  vice,  by  means  of  which  a woman 
endeavours  to  give  sensual  satisfaction  to  another,  is 
the  so-called  tribadism.  This  sexual  perversity  is  known 
from  ancient  times  under  the  name  of  “ Lesbian  love”, 
because  it  mostly  prevailed  among  the  women  of 
Mytilene,  the  capital  of  the  island  of  I.esbos,  where  it 

* ReisebeschrivingmitaanteekeningenbetrefFende  Hygiene,  Volkenkunde, 
etc.,  van  de  Eilanden  Bali  en  Lombok,  Batavia,  1883. 


456 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


long  existed.  It  is  supposed  to  have  been  imported 
thence  to  Greece,  to  Rome  and  to  Egypt.  This  vice 
has  also  spread  to  the  East  and  prevails  particularly 
among  the  Arabs.  And  according  to  Parent-Duchatelet  ^ 
and  other  authors,  it  exists  also  among  the  nations  of 
Western  Europe,  and  is  indeed  more  frequent  than  is 
supposed.  Lucian  has  alluded  to  it  in  his  dialogues 
of  hetaerae. 

An  excessive  development  of  the  clitoris  naturally 
facilitates  active  tribadism.  In  ancient  Rome  there 
were  the  so-called  Fricatriccs  and  Siibigatorices,  who 
particularly  devoted  themselves  to  this  voluptuous  work, 
and  it  is  in  the  highest  degree  probable,  that  the  efforts 
of  many  peoples  to  promote  the  greater  development 
of  the  clitoris  by  repeated  excitations,  correspond  to 
this  vice.  It  is  reported  that  the  Bali  women  excell 
in  this  matter.  Jacobs  says:  Almost  in  the  same 

measure  as  pederasty,  but  more  secretly,  do  the  females 
practise  among  themselves  the  so-called  Lesbian  love 
{metjcngtjeng  djocock,  literally : “ rubbing  the  basins 
together  without  making  any  noise”).  In  Malay  lan- 
guage: bertainpoe  laboe — iampoe,  the  crown  • of  a fruit, 
perhaps  an  allusion  to  the  clitoris,  with  its  digital  and 
lingual  variations.  The  considerable  development  of 
the  clitoris  among  the  Bali  women  would  give  some 
credence  to  this  opinion. 

Among  other  Orientals  also  the  artificial  augmentation 
of  the  clitoris  is  far  from  rare  and  therein  may  be 
found  the  possible  explanation  of  the  fact  that  women, 
without  having  recourse  to  artificial  means,  are  able 
to  find  a sensual  satisfaction  together. 

Duhousset  ^ pretends  that  such  Lesbian  love  once 

* La  Prostitution  a Paris,  Paris,  1857. 

Bull,  de  la  Soc.  d’Anthrop.  d.  Paris,  1878,  vol.  XII,  p.  124. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


457 


resulted  in  pregnancy,  but  we  must  leave  the  proof  of 
the  fact  to  him.  He  relates  that  in  Egypt  two  female 
friends,  who  practised  this  vice  together,  continued  to 
do  so  even  after  one  of  them  had  been  married ; it 
then  happened  that  the  one  who  had  remained  single 
became  pregnant,  the  explanation  of  this  fact  being 
that  the  married  woman  had  retained  in  her  vagina 
some  of  the  semen  given  to  her  previously  in  cohabi- 
tation by  her  husband,  and  that  she  communicated  the 
same  to  her  friend  while  caressing  her.  This  fact  was 
communicated  to  the  Anthropological  Society  of  Paris 
in  1877. 

Jan  Mocquet  ^ records  a cruel  punishment  inflicted 
for  tribadism.  “ A certain  King  of  Siam  having  learned, 
that  a great  number  of  his  wives  and  concubines,  the 
most  beautiful  that  could  be  found  in  the  kingdom, 
sometimes  amused  themselves  together,  by  imitating 
manly  nature,  to  excite  their  lust,  summoned  them 
before  him,  and  in  condemnation  of  their  unchastity, 
had  each  of  them  branded  on  the  forehead  and  both 
cheeks  with  the  image  of  a virile  member,  and  then 
had  them  cast  living  into  the  flames.” 

That  German  women  in  the  Middle  Ages  were  also 
addicted  to  this  vice  appears  from  the  ecclesiastical 
penalties  edicted  by  Bishop  Burchard  of  Worms,  ^ which 
are  quoted  by  Dulaure  and  are  as  follows : 

“ Fecisti  quod  qjicBdam  mulieres  facere  sole^if,  11  f 
facer es  quoddain  molimcn  aut  viachinainentum  in  modum 
virilis  memhri,  ad  mensurani  tucr  voluntatis,  et  illud 
loco  verendorum  tuoriun,  aut  alterhis,  cum  aliquibus 
ligaturis  colligares,  et  fornicationem  faceres  cum  aliis 

' Itinerariit7n,  Lib.  IV,  p.  267,  in  M.  Schurig,  Muliebra,  p.  107. 

“Burchard,  Bishop  of  Worms  (12th  century),  De  Poenilentia.  Decre- 
torum  I,  19, 


458 


UNTRODDEN  FIELDS  OF 


mulie^'ciilis,  vel  alia;  eodem  instrumento  sivc  alio 
tectim?  Si  fecisti,  qninque  arinos  per  legitimas  ferias 
pocniteas.  Fecisti  quod  qiio'dayn  imdieres  facere  solenp 
ut  jam  supradicto  molimine,  vcl  alio  aliquo  machina- 
mento,  tu  ipsa  in  te  solam  facer es  fornicatio^iem  ? Si 
fecisti  2inum  annum  per  legitimas  ferias  poeniteas."  ^ 

Communication  contrary  to  nature  between  women 
and  beasts  is  not  either  an  invention  of  modern  times. 
With  regard  to  this  Mantegazza  says: 

“ Nor  is  woman  either  spared  the  shame  of  bestiality. 
From  the  most  ancient  times,  as  Plutarch  relates, 
women  gave  themselves  up  to  the  unchaste  vagaries 
of  the  sacred  goat  in  Mendes.  Now,  after  a long 
series  of  centuries,  it  is  the  dog  that  takes  the  place 
of  the  goat.  More  than  once  do  lovely  women,  in 
the  highest  spheres  of  cultured  Europe,  adore  their 
lap-dogs,  in  a way  they  would  not  admit  to  a living 
soul.  Sometimes,  but  more  seldom,  it  is  not  a lap-dog, 
and  then  the  aberration  is  still  more  base  and  des- 
picable and  instead  of  a bestial  tribadism  we  have  an 
example  of  bestial  coition,  of  an  infamous  and  shameful 
connection  between  the  loveliest  of  creatures  with  the 
ugliest  and  worst-smelling  of  domestic  animals.”  ^ 

In  such  disgusting  matters  the  ape  plays  an  important 
part.  In  countries  where  the  gorilla  and  Orang-Outang 
live,  numerous  stories  are  related  of  girls  carried  off 

' Dulaure,  Des  divinites  generatrices,  Paris,  1885,  p.  96.  A trans- 
lation of  this  bonne  botiche'e  of  the  good  Bishop  was  made,  but,  on 
reflection,  it  was  decided  not  to  give  a translation  of  it  in  English.  As 
the  Latin  scholar  will  readily  see,  it  is  grossly  improper,  and  we  marvel 
at  the  state  of  morals  that  could  allow  German  priests  to  ]3ut  such 
questions  to  female  penitents,  married  and  unmarried.  No  medical  man 
would  thus  question  a woman  to-day  without  risking  his  reputation. 
See  infra  Havelock  Ellis  on  the  se-xual  teachings  of  the  Catholic  Church. 

^ Mantegazza,  Archiv.  per  Anthrop.,  IX,  1879. 


ANTHROPOLOGY. 


459 


by  these  big  beasts,  and  their  sexual  connection  with 
their  victims.  But  in  such  cases  the  connection  was 
always  a forced  one.  But  we  have  accounts  of  voluntary 
intercourse  between  women  and  apes.  For  instance, 
the  Indians  on  the  banks  of  the  Amazon  river  believe 
that  certain  tailed  men  among  the  Uginas  are  the 
result  of  such  monstrous  marriages  between  Indian 
women  and  Coati  apes.  ^ According  to  Francis  de 
Castelnau  ^ such  cohabitation  with  Coati  apes  still  takes 
place  in  those  districts.  He  relates  as  follows: — “As 
I was  going  down  the  Amazon  river,  I one  day  saw 
near  to  Fonteboa  a black  Coati  of  enormous  size;  it 
belonged  to  an  Indian  woman,  to  whom  I offered  a 
very  considerable  sum  for  this  curious  animal ; but  she 
refused,  at  the  same  time  bursting  out  laughing.  An 
I