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User's Guide 

for the DOS Operating System 
(OEM VERSION) 
PC DOS 6.1 



— Note 

Before using this information and the product it supports, be sure to read the general 
information under Appendix C, "Notices" on page 417. 



First Edition (June 1993) 

The following paragraph does not apply to the United Kingdom or any country where such 
provisions are inconsistent with local law: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION 
PROVIDES THIS PUBLICATION "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESS OR 
IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY 
OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Some states do not allow disclaimer of express or 
implied warranties in certain transactions, therefore, this statement may not apply to you. 

This publication could include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes are periodically 
made to the information herein; these changes will be incorporated in new editions of the publication. IBM 
may make improvements and/or changes in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described in this 
publication at any time. 

It is possible that this publication may contain reference to, or information about, IBM products (machines 
and programs), programming, or services that are not announced in your country. Such references or 
information must not be construed to mean that IBM intends to announce such IBM products, 
programming, or services in your country. 

Requests for technical information about IBM products should be made to your IBM Authorized Dealer or 
your IBM Marketing Representative. 

Copyright International Business Machines Corporation 1981, 1993. All rights reserved. 

Note to U.S. Government Users — Documentation related to restricted rights — Use, duplication or 
disclosure is subject to restrictions set forth in GSA ADP Schedule Contract with IBM Corp. 



Contents 



About This Book ix 

Related Documentation ix 

What's New x 

Optional Tools xi 

Commands xii 

Device Drivers xii 

Multiple Configuration Commands xiii 

Keyboard and Code Page Support xiii 



Parti. Using the DOS Operating System 1 

Chapter 1 . Learning Basic DOS Concepts 3 

Understanding Files 3 

Working with Files 7 

Understanding Directories 14 

Understanding Paths 16 

Working with Directories 17 

Viewing Directory Contents 19 

Viewing Groups of File Names in a Directory 20 

Making Directories 20 

Deleting Directories 21 

Copying Directories 23 

Chapter 2. Configuring Your System 27 

Bypassing CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT Commands 28 

Using CONFIG.SYS Commands 30 

Using Multiple Configurations 39 

Specifying Startup Commands in Your AUTOEXEC.BAT File 44 

Chapter 3. Managing Disks 49 

Types of Disks 49 

Types of Diskette Drives 50 

Considerations for Formatting Disks 51 

Labeling a Disk 55 

Recovering Files from Defective Disks 57 

Chapter 4. Partitioning Your Hard Disk 59 

Understanding Hard-Disk Partitions 59 

Using FDISK 61 

Copyright IBM Corp. 1981, 1993 iii 



Chapter 5. Working with Batch Programs 75 

Understanding Batch Program Commands 76 

Making a Small Batch Program 78 

Testing a Batch Program 79 

Displaying Messages with a Batch Program 79 

Using the PAUSE Command 80 

Including Remarks in a Batch Program 81 

Running One Batch Program from Another 82 

Using Replaceable Parameters 82 

Controlling Program Flow 83 

Chapter 6. Redirecting Input and Output 87 

Redirecting Command Input and Output 87 

Passing Information through Filter Commands 89 

Chapter 7. Using Editing Keys for Commands 93 

Using DOS Editing Keys 93 

Using DOSKey to Work with Commands 95 

Using DOSKey to Work with Macros 101 

Chapter 8. Working with the Text Editor 109 

Choosing a Text Editor 110 

Starting the E Editor . 111 

Creating or Modifying a File 114 

Using Cursor Movement Keys to Move Around in the Text File 120 

Performing Basic Editing Tasks 121 

Selecting Text 125 

Using Key Combinations to Manipulate Text 128 

Using E Editor Commands 1 33 

Customizing the E Editor 144 

Chapter 9. Connecting Computers 153 

Understanding What the InterLnk Program Does 153 

Establishing the Connection between Computers 1 56 

Including INTERLNK in Your CONFIG.SYS File 157 

Running the InterLnk Program 158 

Redirecting Drives 159 

Excluding Drives from Redirection 160 

Breaking the Connection between Computers 1 60 

Remote Copying of INTERSVR.EXE and INTERLNK.EXE Files 160 

Reviewing Cable Specifications 161 

Chapter 10. Making More Memory Available 163 



iV DOS User's Guide 



Understanding Memory 164 

Analyzing Your Computer's Memory Before Running RAMBoost 166 

Understanding How RAMBoost Works 167 

Configuring RAMBoost 169 

Analyzing Your Computer's Memory After Running RAMBoost 172 

Using Advanced Features 174 

Chapter 11. Speeding Up Your System 179 

Improving the Efficiency of Your Hard Disk 179 

Using the BUFFERS Command 182 

Using SMARTDrive 183 

Using RAMDrive 185 

Chapter 12. Using Central Point Undelete 187 

Installing Central Point Undelete for Windows 187 

Starting Undelete 188 

Deleted File Condition 192 

Delete Protection Methods 193 

Getting More File Information 194 

Sorting the File List 194 

Selecting Files 195 

Undeleting Files on a Network 197 

Undeleting Directories and Their Files 198 

Scanning the Disk for Lost Files and Deleted Data 203 

Showing Existing Files 205 

Advanced Undelete Methods 206 

Purging Deleted Files 211 

How the Delete Protection Method Affects File Recovery 212 

Central Point Data Monitor 215 

Chapter 13. Using Central Point Scheduler 219 

Scheduling a Program 219 

Editing Existing Scheduled Events 221 

Deleting Scheduled Events 223 

Removing Scheduler from Memory 225 

Chapter 14. Problem Determination 227 

Chapter 15. Customizing for International Use 239 

Country Settings, Keyboards, and Code Pages 239 

Commands Used to Change International Settings 247 

ISO Fonts 248 



Contents V 



Part 2. Using the DOS Optional Tools . . 251 

Chapter 16. Using DOS Shell 253 

Installing DOS Shell After Installing DOS 253 

Starting DOS Shell 255 

Selecting Items from Lists or Menus 256 

Starting a Program 256 

Getting Help 257 

Leaving DOS Shell 260 

Customizing DOS Shell 261 

Changing Screen Colors 262 

Switching between Text and Graphics Mode 262 

Organizing Programs 263 

Working with Properties 268 

Chapter 17. Using IBM AntiVirus/DOS 279 

Installing IBM AntiVirus/DOS After Installing DOS 279 

Starting IBM AntiVirus/DOS 281 

Protecting Your Computer Data against Viruses 283 

Checking for Viruses 285 

Customizing Antivirus 288 

Cleaning Up When a Virus Is Detected 292 

Running the Antivirus Stand-Alone Program 295 

Systems that Use Resident Data Compression 297 

Systems that Use Security Software 297 

Troubleshooting 298 

Chapter 18. Using Central Point Backup 301 

Installing Central Point Backup After Installing DOS 301 

Configuring Central Point Backup 303 

Viewing the Main Central Point Backup Window 305 

Changing the User Level 306 

Making a Backup 308 

Selecting Files 311 

Selecting Drives to Back Up 317 

Viewing Files 320 

Working with Setup Files 321 

Comparing Data 326 

Restoring Data 329 

Performing Network Backups 331 

Tape Drive Information 337 

Backup Strategies 344 

Backup Methods 347 



Vi DOS User's Guide 



The CPBDIR Program 352 

Chapter 19. Using IBM PenDOS 355 

Installing IBM PenDOS after Installing DOS 355 

Starting PenDOS 357 

Using the Pen 357 

Using the Mouse as a Pen 358 

Using the PenDOS Menu 359 

Entering Characters 360 

Editing Characters 364 

Working with Applications 367 

Aligning the Tablet 371 

Recognition Tips 372 

Character Variations 373 

Chapter 20. Using Phoenix PCMCIA Support 375 

Installing Phoenix PCMCIA Support 376 

Getting Started with PCMCIA Support 377 

Card Services (PCMCS.EXE) 379 

Super Client Driver (PCMSCD.EXE) 379 

Virtual Driver for PCMCIA ATA Fixed Disks (PCMATA.SYS) 381 

FAT Diskette Emulation (PCMFDD.EXE) 382 

Memory Technology Driver (PCMMTD.EXE) 383 

Windows VxD Driver for Fax and Modem Cards (PCMVCD.386) 384 

Information Utilities (PCMINFO.EXE and WPCMINFO.CPL) 386 

Memory Card Utility (PCFORMAT.EXE) 389 

Appendix A. Installing DOS 391 

New Optional Tools 391 

Other DOS Install Features 392 

The SETUP Command and Its Options 392 

Choosing the Correct Installation Procedure 394 

Using OS/2 Dual Boot 403 

Uninstalling DOS 403 

Reinstalling DOS 404 

Using the README.TXT File 404 

Problem Determination 405 

Appendix B. Accessibility for Individuals with Disabilities 413 

IBM AccessDOS 413 

IBM Screen Reader/DOS ,414 

IBM PhoneCommunicator 415 

IBM VoiceType 2 415 



Contents Vii 



IBM KeyGuard 



416 



Appendix C. Notices . 417 

Trademarks and Service Marks 417 

Index 419 

Coupons 421 

Low Density Diskette Offer 423 

DOS Publications Order Form 425 

IBM PenDOS 427 

IBM AntiVirus/DOS . . 429 

IBM Special Needs Systems 431 

IBMTalkLink 433 

Central Point Software 435 

Traveling Software 437 

QUE's Everyday DOS Book 439 



Viii DOS User's Guide 



About This Book 



This book is written for users who are already familiar with DOS or who have 
experience using computers. 

This book is organized into two parts. Part 1 contains instructions for use with the 
fundamental DOS features. Part 2 contains information on the Optional Tools 
available with DOS. 

If DOS is not yet installed on your computer system, you will need to run the Setup 
program. For information about how to set up DOS, see Appendix A, "Installing 
DOS" on page 391 . 



Related Documentation 

The DOS library includes the following publications: 
Everyday DOS for PC DOS 6 

This book gives the beginning user basic information to become productive 
quickly. It also has information on 20 frequently used DOS commands. You 
will find step-by-step procedures for using DOS Shell and information about 
customizing DOS Shell in this book. Everyday DOS for PC DOS 6 can be 
optionally purchased. See the coupons included with this book. 

PC DOS Command Reference and Error Messages 

Part 1 of this book contains the commands listed in alphabetical order that can 
be typed from the DOS command prompt. This book also includes information 
on DOS device drivers, CONFIG.SYS commands, menu configuration 
commands, and .INI file information. It includes error messages in a 
cause-and-action format. This book can be optionally purchased. See the 
coupons included with this book. 

PC DOS Keyboards and Code Pages 

This book, an optional purchase item, contains examples of keyboard layouts, 
code page tables, and available accented characters that can be used with 
DOS. 

DOS 5.02 Technical Reference 

This book, an optional purchase item, is written for programmers who develop 
applications for DOS. 



Copyright IBM Corp. 1981, 1993 



ix 



Help for DOS 



To get a list of commands for which there is online help available, type the 
word help at the DOS command prompt. To get help on a particular command 
in the list, type help followed by the command name, or type the command 
followed by / ? 

The online help gives brief information about each command, instructions on 
the format to use when typing this command, brief explanations about each 
switch, and notes to assist you. 



What's New 

DOS provides many new and enhanced features. You can now: 

Use the new DOS E Editor provided with DOS to edit your ASCII text files. 
This text editor uses key combinations to mark the text you want to move, copy, 
or delete. The E Editor allows you to use an editor command line, key 
combinations, function keys, and cursor movement keys to perform editor tasks. 

Recover files and directories protected by certain specific methods of delete 
protection using Central Point Undelete program. Undelete works in 
conjunction with Data Monitor, a memory-resident program that includes options 
to guard against data loss and protect confidential data. 

Run programs without having to monitor the process using the Central Point 
Scheduler program. 

Use the network support feature that is compatible with DOS to allow your 
workstations to be both servers and clients as part of a network, and the ability 
to share information by providing access to a variety of shared files, directories, 
and printers. (This product can be ordered separately.) 

Optimize your system's memory by allowing greater use of Upper Memory 
Blocks (UMBs). 

Bypass your CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT files or manually process 
each device driver in your CONFIG.SYS file when you have problems starting 
DOS. 

Define your own menu configurations to be displayed when you start up your 
computer. 



X DOS User's Guide 



Make your files contiguous to speed up disk access using the new 
defragmentation program. 

Get diagnostic information about your system for service calls by using the 
query configuration command, QCONFIG. 

Use the improved SMARTDrive disk caching utility. 

Use the enhanced EMM386 to recover more UMBs and allow sharing of 
Expanded Memory (EMS) and Extended Memory Specification (XMS) memory. 

Have low-end UMB support for 8086-based, 8088-based, and 286-based 
systems. 

Select which of the new optional tools provided with DOS you want to install. 
Optional Tools 

The following optional tools have been added for DOS: 

Central Point Backup: A tool that allows you to back up, compare or verify, and 
restore hard disk data to different backup media, such as diskettes or streaming 
tape. Central Point Backup also includes a network feature, which allows the 
network administrator to back up and restore network data. 

IBM AntiVirus/DOS: A comprehensive antivirus product for DOS designed to 
detect and remove viruses from your system. 

Phoenix PCMCIA Support: A tool that makes it possible to have functionality for 
Personal Computer Memory Card International Association (PCMCIA **) PC Cards if 
your equipment is equipped while adhering to the industry standards that have been 
accepted by PCMCIA. 

IBM PenDOS: A tool that lets you use pen-based applications as well as standard 
mouse-based DOS applications on any computer. This version of PenDOS** 
recognizes numbers and symbols only. 

IBM DOS Shell: A tool available with previous versions of DOS, but which now 
has such optional tools as IBM AntiVirus/DOS, Central Point Scheduler, Central 
Point Backup, Central Point Undelete, and the IBM DOS E Editor selectable from 
the Main program area. 



PCMCIA is a trademark of Personal Computer Memory Card International Association. 
PenDOS is a trademark of Communications Intelligence Corporation. 



About This Book XI 



DOS also provides commands to allow you to use Windows** to access these 
optional tools: IBM AntiVirus/DOS, Central Point Backup, Scheduler, and Undelete 
programs. Additionally, Phoenix** PCMCIA Support for Windows is available. 



Commands 

Following are the commands that are either new or enhanced for DOS. 



Added Commands 



CHOICE (DOS) 
CPBACKUP (Backup) 
CPBDIR (Backup) 
CPSCHED (DOS) 
DATAMON (Undelete) 
DEFRAG (DOS) 
DELTREE (DOS) 
E (DOS) 
EJECT (DOS) 
IBMAVD (Antivirus) 



IBMAVDR (Antivirus) 
IBMAVW (Windows) 
IBMAVSH (Antivirus) 
IBMAVSP (Antivirus) 
INSTALLHIGH (DOS) 
INTERSVR (DOS) 
MOVE (DOS) 
NUMLOCK (DOS) 
PCFORMAT (PCMCIA) 
PCMINFO (PCMCIA) 



PENDOS (PenDOS) 
QCONFIG (DOS) 
RAMSETUP (RAMBoost) 
SCHEDULE (Scheduler) 
SMARTDRV (DOS) 
WNBACKUP (Windows) 
WNSCHEDL (Windows) 
WNUNDEL (Windows) 
WPCMINFO (Windows) 



Enhanced Commands 



COMMAND 
DEVICEHIGH 
DRVLOCK 
EMM386 



FDISK 
KEYB 

LOADHIGH (LH) 
MEM 



SETUP (only for installation) 

SETVER 

UNDELETE 

UNFORMAT 



Device Drivers 

Following are the device drivers that have been added for DOS. 

COUNTRY.SYS PCMVCD.386 RAMBOOST.EXE 

INTERLNK.EXE PCMMTD.EXE UMBMONO.SYS 

PCMATA.SYS PCMSCD.EXE UMBCGA.SYS 

PCMCS.EXE PENDEV.SYS UMBHERC.SYS 

PCMFDD.EXE POWER.EXE UMBEMS.SYS 



** Windows is a trademark of Microsoft Corporation. 
** Phoenix is a trademark of Phoenix Technologies, Ltd. 

Xii DOS User's Guide 



Multiple Configuration Commands 

Following are the commands you can use to modify your CONFIG.SYS file so you 
can select from several different system configurations when you start your 
computer. 



MENUITEM 
SUBMENU 

Keyboard and Code Page Support 

Following are the keyboard and code pages support that have been added for 
DOS. 

Keyboards Added Code Pages Added 

Albanian (448) 855 

Brazilian (275 and 274) 866 (Russian only) 

Bulgarian (241 and 442) 

Romanian (446) 

Russian (441 and 443) (Russian only) 
Turkish (440) 

Serbian/Montenegro, FYR Macedonian (118) 

In addition, you can choose during DOS Setup whether to use the International 
Organization for Standardization (ISO) code page fonts. 



Menu Commands 

INCLUDE 

MENUCOLOR 

MENUDEFAULT 



Blocks 

[Common] 
[Menu] 

[User Defined] 



About This Book Xhi 



XIV DOS User's Guide 



Part 1. Using the DOS Operating System 



Chapter 1. Learning Basic DOS Concepts 3 

Chapter 2. Configuring Your System 27 

Chapter 3. Managing Disks 49 

Chapter 4. Partitioning Your Hard Disk 59 

Chapter 5. Working with Batch Programs 75 

Chapter 6. Redirecting Input and Output 87 

Chapter 7. Using Editing Keys for Commands 93 

Chapter 8. Working with the Text Editor 109 

Chapter 9. Connecting Computers 153 

Chapter 10. Making More Memory Available 163 

Chapter 11. Speeding Up Your System 179 

Chapter 12. Using Central Point Undelete 187 

Chapter 13. Using Central Point Scheduler 219 

Chapter 14. Problem Determination 227 

Chapter 15. Customizing for International Use 239 

Copyright IBM Corp. 1981, 1993 1 



DOS User's Guide , 



Chapter 1. Learning Basic DOS Concepts 



The information that your computer uses is stored in files. To help you keep track 
of your files, you can group your files into directories. To access the data stored in 
your files, you must identify the drive and path where DOS is to search. 

This chapter discusses a few of the basic concepts you need to know to use DOS: 

Files, file names and extensions 
Drives and current drives 

Directories, current directories, subdirectories, and directory trees 

Paths, full and relative 

Wildcards 

DOS command prompt 



Understanding Files 

The information your computer uses is stored in files. The instructions used to run 
an application are stored in program files, and the information you create by using 
an application is stored in data files. 

As you work with an application, DOS processes the information stored in program 
files and passes it along to your system when it is needed. When you are finished 
using the application, you can save your data files on a hard disk (also referred to 
as fixed disk) or on a diskette. 

Every file has a name. Most files also have an extension. The file's name always 
appears first, and the extension is separated from the name by a period as in the 
following example: 

dosshel 1 . exe 

In this guide, a file's name and extension are jointly referred to as the file name. 

File Names 

The name you assign to a file must meet the following criteria: 
It can contain no more than eight characters. 



Copyright IBM Corp. 1981, 1993 



3 



It can consist of the letters A through Z, the numbers 0 through 9, and the 
following special characters: 



$ 



% 



@ 



underscore 
dollar sign 
exclamation point 
percent sign 
hyphen 
at sign 
apostrophe 



# 
& 



0 



{} 



caret 
tilde 



single quote 
parentheses 



number sign 

ampersand 

braces 



Note: No other special characters are acceptable. 

The name cannot contain spaces, commas, backslashes, or periods (except the 
period that separates the name from the extension). 

The name cannot be one of the following reserved file names: CLOCK$, CON, 
AUX, COM1, COM2, COM3, COM4, LPT1, LPT2, LPT3, LPT4, NUL, and PRN. 

It cannot be the same name as another file within the directory. 

File names are not case sensitive so you can type the file name in either uppercase 
or lowercase characters. 

Extensions 

Extensions can help you identify the type of information in a file. For example, if 
you have a file called MINUTES.TXT, the extension TXT identifies that it is a text 
file. The extension must contain no more than three characters. File name 
restrictions regarding characters and spacing also apply to extensions. 

The following are some of the extensions used by DOS: 

.EXE (executable) or .COM (command) for files that contain programs 

.BAT (batch) for files containing lists of commands that DOS carries out 
consecutively 

.INI (initialization) for files containing startup commands for an application 

Most applications that create files add an extension that helps the application 
identify the files you created by using it. IBM DisplayWrite* for example, assigns the 
.DOC extension to document files you create. It is generally best to use the 
extension an application specifies. 



* IBM DisplayWrite is a trademark of IBM Corporation. 
4 DOS User's Guide 



Current Drive 

If you type a command at the DOS command prompt, commands will be carried out 
on the drive you are currently working in unless you specify a different drive. 

The drive you are currently working in is called the current drive. The letter of the 
current drive is usually shown as part of the DOS command prompt (such as c \ > if 
the current drive is C). 

For example, suppose the current drive is drive A. To view a list of files on a 
diskette in drive A, you would type the following: 

dir 

You do not need to type the drive letter to see the current drive. 

To change the current drive, type the letter of the drive you want to change to, 
followed by a colon. For example, suppose the current drive is C. To change the 
current drive to drive A, type the following: 

a : 

Directories 

To help you keep track of your files, you can group your files into directories. Just 
as file folders in a file cabinet contain groups of related documents, directories can 
contain groups of related files. Each directory can be assigned a unique name so 
that you can identify it. For more information, see "Making Directories" on page 20. 

Sometimes you might want to further divide a directory to be more specific, or else 
your directory might contain so many files that it is too confusing to find the one you 
want. When this happens, you can use DOS to create additional directories. This 
is similar to placing a file folder within a larger file folder. A directory that contains 
another directory is called a parent directory. 

You will see more information about directory trees and how to view items in your 
directory in "Viewing Directory Contents" on page 19. 

Paths 

When you give the full path name for a file, you are stating a series of directory 
names that DOS follows before any actions are performed on that file. Each 
directory name is separated a backslash (\). 



Chapter 1. Learning Basic DOS Concepts 5 



Every file has its own separate path. If you have two files with the same file name 
but in different directories, DOS considers these to be two completely different files 
because it considers the path and the file name to be the full file specification. For 
example, even though C:\NOTES\AGENDA.DOC and 

C:\OFFICE\MEETING\AGENDA.DOC have the same file, these two files can have 
different file contents because their file specification is different. 

r- Drive / Directory / Subdirectory /-File 

/ / „ / , 



C:\OFFICE\MEETING\AGENDA.DOC 

X v . v 



Root ^— Separators 

Directory 



Paths are explained in "Understanding Paths" on page 16. 



Wildcards 

If you want to perform a task for a group of files whose names have something in 
common, you do not have to use the same command repeatedly for each file name 
in the group. A substitute for a name or extension is known as a wildcard. You 
can use wildcards to specify groups of files. 



There are two DOS wildcards: 

The asterisk (*) represents a whole word or a group of characters. 
The question mark (?) represents a single character. 

The following table shows various wildcard combinations. 



Wildcard 



What it represents 



Examples 



*.TXT 
REPORT/ 

??? * 



All files with a TXT extension 

All files named REPORT with any 
extension 

All files beginning with the letter M, 
regardless of extension 

All files having 3-letter names, with any 
or no extension 



JULY93.TXT, RECIPE.TXT 
REPORT.TXT, REPORT.WRI 

MEMO.TXT, MARCH.XLS 

SUN.BMP, WIN.INI, AUG 



Note: When you use an asterisk in the file name or the extension, DOS ignores 
the letters that come after the asterisk. 

For example, if you use the wildcard m . exe, it is the same as if you typed . exe. 



6 DOS User's Guide 



DOS Command Prompt 

When you see this prompt (C:\), this means DOS is ready to receive a command. 
The C:\ prompt is set by typing: 

prompt $p$g 

If you want to change this prompt, you can view the options available by typing 
help prompt. The number of prompts that can be associated with a program item 
has been reduced from 250 to 9. 

The PROMPT command allows you to keep track of where you are in your tree 
structure visually. For example, the prompt C:\OFFICE\LETTERS> shows you the 
root, OFFICE, and LETTERS directories in the tree structure. 

Add the PROMPT command to your AUTOEXEC.BAT file so that the prompt you 
specify is available every time you start your computer. 



Working with Files 

Certain DOS commands, when working with files and directories, allow you to do 
tasks such as: copying, renaming, deleting, moving, comparing, modifying, 
creating, and viewing the contents of files and directories. 

Copying Files 

You can use the COPY command to copy: 

A file from one directory or diskette to another 
A group of files by using DOS wildcards 

CAUTION: 

When you use the COPY command, you can inadvertently destroy a file by 
copying over it. For example, if you copy a file called SCORES.DAT to a 
directory that already has a file with that name, DOS replaces the existing file 
with the new copy. 

For information on copying a directory tree with files, type help xcopy at the DOS 
command prompt. For information on duplicating a diskette, type help diskcopy at 
the DOS command prompt. 

Copying a Single File 

To copy a file to another diskette or directory, use the COPY command. To use the 
COPY command, type the location and file name of the file you want to copy from 
{source file). Then type the location and file name of the file you want to copy to 
{target file). 



Chapter 1 . Learning Basic DOS Concepts 7 



Suppose drive C is the current drive. If you want to copy the AGENDA.DOC file 
from the \OFFICE\MEETING directory on a hard disk in drive C to the root directory 
on a diskette in drive A, you would type the following command: 

copy \meeting\agenda.doc a:\agenda.doc 

DOS makes a copy of the AGENDA.DOC file in the \MEETING directory on drive C 
and places the copy in a file having the same file name in the root directory of 
drive A. If you want the source and target files to have the same file name, you 
omit the target file name. For example, you could use the following command to 
produce the same result achieved by using the previous command: 

copy \meeting\agenda.doc a:\ 

After you use the COPY command, DOS indicates how many files were copied: 

1 File(s) copied 

If DOS cannot find the file you want to copy, it displays the File not found 
message. Check to see that you typed the file name correctly and that the file is in 
the directory you specified. 

Using Wildcards to Specify a Group of Files to Copy 

Suppose you have a number of files on a diskette in drive A that you designated as 
temporary by giving them the same extension (such as .TMP). If you want to copy 
these files to a diskette in drive B, you can use the asterisk wildcard: 

copy a : \ . tmp b : \ 

Renaming a File as It Is Copied 

If you want to give a new name to a file you are copying, specify the new file name 
as the destination file. For example, to copy the OUTGO.XLS file from a diskette in 
drive A to a diskette in drive B and rename it EXPAND.XLS, you would type the 
following at the command prompt: 

copy a:outgo.xls b:expand.xls 

You can copy a file to the same directory if you rename the file. If you do not 
rename the file when copying it to the same directory, DOS displays the following 
message: 

File cannot be copied onto itself 
file(s) copied 



8 DOS User's Guide 



Renaming a File 

To change the name of a file without changing its location, use the REN command. 
The REN command stands for rename. 

For example, suppose you have two versions of a file named SALES. LST. The 
version on the diskette in drive A contains last year's sales projections, whereas the 
version in drive C is up-to-date. Assume drive C is the current drive. To avoid 
confusion between the two files, you can use the following command to rename the 
file that contains outdated prices: 

ren a:\sales.lst sales. old 

You can use DOS wildcards to rename a group of files. For example, if you want 
all TMP files to be renamed to TXT files in a directory, use the following 
command. 

ren . tmp . txt 

Deleting Files 

You will eventually want to clean up your hard disk by removing files that are no 
longer useful. You can delete a single file, select a group of files to delete, or 
delete all files in a directory on a hard disk or diskette. When you delete files, you 
might not be able to recover them. Ensure that the files you specify for deletion are 
the ones you want to remove. 

If you accidentally delete files you want to keep, use the UNDELETE command as 
soon as possible to recover them. If you have created or changed other files after 
issuing the DEL command, the UNDELETE command might not be able to recover 
the deleted files. The UNDELETE command works best if you set up your system 
to keep track of files you delete by using the DATAMON command in your 
AUTOEXEC.BAT file as described in "Choosing a Delete Protection Method" on 
page 216. 

For more information about undeleting files and directories, see Chapter 12, "Using 
Central Point Undelete" on page 187. 

Deleting a Single File 

You delete a single file by typing the DEL command, followed by the location and 
name of the file you want to delete. For example, to delete a file named 
SALES. LST from a directory on drive C, type the following command: 

del crsales.lst 



Chapter 1 . Learning Basic DOS Concepts 9 



Deleting a Group of Files 

Before using wildcards to delete a group of files, it is helpful to use the DIR 
command to determine what files the wildcards might delete. Developing this habit 
will prevent you from accidentally deleting files you intend to keep. For example, to 
view the files you might delete, type the following command: 

dir a : \ . tmp 

If the display scrolls off the screen too quickly, use the DIR command with the /p 
switch. This switch pauses the display of information at the end of each full screen 
of text and gives you a Press any key to continue. . . message that allows you to 
continue on to the next screen display until completed. For example, type the 
following command: 

dir a : \ . tmp /p 

You can use DOS wildcards to delete a group of files. For example, the following 
command deletes all files with the .TMP extension on a diskette in drive A. 

del a : \ . tmp 

For more information about using wildcards, see "Wildcards" on page 6. 
Deleting All Files in a Directory 

To clear a directory of all files, you can use the DEL command and DOS wildcards. 
For example, to delete all the files in the \OFFICE directory on drive C, type the 
following: 

del c : \of f ice\ . 
If you do not specify a directory, all files in the current directory are deleted. 

Whenever you specify *.* with the DEL command, the following prompt appears: 

All files in directory will be deleted! 
Are you sure (Y/N) ? 

If you are sure you want to delete all the files, type y for Yes. DOS then deletes 
every file in the specified directory. 

If you type the directory without specifying any files, it is assumed you want to 
delete all the files in that directory. For example, to delete all files in the \MYDOCS 
directory on drive C, you could type the following command: 

del c : \mydocs 



1 0 DOS User's Guide 



If you want to delete the directory itself, use the RD (remove directory) command. 
Or you can use the DELTREE command to delete both the directory and all the 
files at one time. The RD command and the DELTREE command are discussed in 
more detail in "Deleting Directories" on page 21. 

Recovering Deleted Files 

When you delete a file, DOS does not delete the data in the file. Instead, it marks 
the file as deleted so DOS can reuse the area of the hard disk or diskette that was 
occupied by the deleted file. The data remains on the hard disk or diskette until 
DOS records the data of another file in the same region of the disk. 

Because the data in a deleted file can remain intact for a while, it is possible to 
recover a file that was accidentally deleted. As soon as you discover that the file 
has been deleted, use the UNDELETE command to restore the file. For more 
information about how to use the Undelete program, see Chapter 12, "Using 
Central Point Undelete" on page 187. 

Moving Files 

To move files, use the MOVE command. Suppose the \OFFICE\LETTERS 
directory on drive C is the current directory. To move the file AGENDA.DOC from 
the \OFFICE\LETTERS directory on drive C to a diskette in drive A, use the 
following command: 

move agenda . doc a : 

Use caution when you move files. If the destination you specify, such as drive A in 
the example, already has a file with the same name of AGENDA.DOC, the MOVE 
command replaces that file with the file you are moving. Make sure you do not 
overwrite a file unless you intend to overwrite it. Use the DIR command on drive A 
to verify that no file exists with the name AGENDA.DOC before you move the file. 

You can also move groups of files using wildcards. For example to move all the 
files on drive A with an extension of .TXT to drive C in the directory \TEXT, you 
would type: 

move a: . txt c:\text\ 

You can rename a directory when you move files. For example, to move all the 
files in the \NOTES directory to a new directory with the name \LETTERS, type: 

move c:\notes\ . c:\letters 



Chapter 1 . Learning Basic DOS Concepts 1 1 



You are prompted whether you want the directory created if it does not already 
exist: 

Make directory "c : \lett'ers\ " ? (Y/N) 

The MOVE command allows you to rename a file when you move only one file. To 
move the file LETTER1.TXT from the root directory of drive C, rename it to 
NEWLTR.TXT, and place it in the \LETTERS directory on drive D, type: 

move c:\letterl.txt d:\letters\newltr.txt 

If the directory does not already exist, you will receive the [Unable to create 
destination] message. 

Comparing Files 

To get an approximate comparison of two files, you can look at file size and time of 
creation. To get a precise comparison of two files, use the FC command. For 
example, you have two text files that have the same file name. They exist on two 
different diskettes. To see if they are the same and where they differ you can use 
the FC command as follows: 

1. Insert one disk in drive A and one in drive B. 

2. Type the following at the command prompt: 

fc /a a: (filename) . txt b: (filename) .txt 

The /a switch in this example abbreviates the output for the comparison of the two 
text files. DOS starts at the beginning of the two files and compares each byte. 
When DOS finds a difference, it displays the file name, the line of text that begins a 
set of differences, and the line that ends the set of differences, as in the following 
example: 

a : ( filename ) . txt 

Our expected revenues for the month of January are expected to rise 
\. . - 

when the results are not yet certain. 

b : (filename ) . txt 
Our expected revenues for January are less than projected 
\. . . 

when the results are not yet certain. 

For more information about the FC command, type help f c for a brief explanation 
and command syntax. 



1 2 DOS User's Guide 



Viewing and Changing File Attributes 

Every file can have the following attributes associated with it. These attributes are 
used as switches with the ATTRIB command. 

a Specifies the archive attribute which is used with the BACKUP, XCOPY, 

and other commands to control which files are backed up. 

r Specifies the read-only attribute which prevents a file from being 

changed or deleted. When a file has this attribute, you can look at the 
file but you cannot delete it or change its contents. 

h Specifies the hidden attribute which prevents DOS from displaying a file 

in a directory list. The file remains in a directory, but you cannot use the 
file unless you know its file name. This attribute is useful if you are 
working on confidential files. 

s Specifies the system attribute which designates a file as a system file. 

Files with the system attribute are not shown in directory listings. 

For more information about these attributes and how they are used with the 
ATTRIB command, type help attrib for a brief explanation and command syntax. 

Viewing File Attributes 

To see a file's attributes, type the ATTRIB command followed by the file name. For 
example, you would type the following to see the attributes associated with the 
CONFIG.SYS file on a disk in drive A: 

attrib a:\config.sys 

DOS displays up to four attributes in front of the file name. For example, if the 
CONFIG.SYS file has the archive and read-only attributes, DOS displays the 
following: 

A R C: \CONFIG. SYS 

You can see the attributes for a group of files by using wildcards with the ATTRIB 
command. For example, you would type the following to see the attributes of all 
files in the root directory of drive C: 

attrib c : \ . 



Chapter 1 . Learning Basic DOS Concepts 1 3 



Changing a File Attribute 

You can add to or take away file attributes by using the ATTRIB command along 
with the attribute letter. To assign an attribute precede the attribute letter with a +. 
To remove an attribute precede the attribute letter with a -. For example, use the 
following command to make the OUTGO.XLS read only: 

attrib +r outgo.xls 

If you should decide at a later time to remove the read-only attribute from this file, 
you would type: 

attrib -r outgo.xls 

Finding Text Within a File 

If you want to search one or more files for specified text, you can use the FIND 
command. For example, if your personal phone book is in the PHONE.TXT file, 
you can use the following command to view all lines of the file that contain the text 
"Area Code: 206": 

find "Area Code: 2 6" phone.txt 

DOS searches the PHONE.TXT file and displays each line that includes the text 
"Area Code: 206". You must enclose the search text in quotation marks. DOS finds 
only text that exactly matches the characters you specify, including capitalization 
and spacing. If the text in the file has formatting codes (for example, if the words 
"Area Code" are underlined), DOS cannot find the specified text. 

You cannot use wildcards to search more than one file, but you can include in the 
FIND command all the files you want to search. For example, the following 
command searches the ADDR.TXT file in addition to the PHONE.TXT file: 

find "Area Code: 2 6" phone.txt addr.txt 



Understanding Directories 

To help you keep track of your files, you can group your files into directories. Just 
as file folders in a file cabinet contain groups of related documents, directories can 
contain groups of related files. Each directory can be assigned a unique name so 
that you can identify it. 

For example, suppose you had three directories: one for office correspondence 
(\OFFICE), one for financial data (\FINANCE), and one for weekly status reports 
(\STATUS). You could create these three directories and keep your meeting 
minutes in the \OFFICE directory, your expense reports in the \FINANCE directory, 
and your status report files in the STATUS directory. If you later need to find one 



1 4 DOS User's Guide 



of your status reports, it will be easy because all the status reports are located in 
one directory. For more information, see "Making Directories" on page 20. 

Sometimes you might want to further divide a directory to be more specific, or else 
your directory might contain so many files that it is too confusing to find the one you 
want. When this happens, you can use DOS to create additional directories. This 
is similar to placing a file folder within a larger file folder. A directory that contains 
another directory is called a parent directory. 

Directory Tree 

The organization of directories and files is called the directory tree. When you 
format a hard disk, DOS creates one directory, called the root directory. The root 
directory is the very top-most directory. All other directories you create on the hard 
disk branch out from the root directory. 

You can view a list of files and directories in a directory by using the DIR command. 

For example, suppose you use the DIR command to view the list of files in the C:\ 
directory. Your screen would display a list similar to the following: 



AUTOEXEC 


.BAT 




495 


3-3- 


92 


7 :4p 


CONFIG 


. SYS 




525 


3-3- 


92 


6:47p 


DOS 




<DIR> 




1-14- 


93 


9:38a 


MYFMT 


.TXT 




4735 


2-16- 


93 . 


1 :43p 


MOVED I R 


.BAT 




746 


3-8- 


93 


8 : 58a 


NETWORK 




<DIR> 




3-29- 


93 


6 :47p 



Naming Directories 

Except for the root directory, which is always represented by the first backslash (\) 
following the drive letter, each directory has a name. A directory can also have an 
extension. 

The rules for directory names and extensions are the same as for naming files. 
Typically, however, directory names do not use extensions. For more information, 
see "File Names" on page 3. 

Sometimes, you see "." and entries in a directory (especially when you use the 
DIR command to view the files and directories in a directory). These are normal 
entries that are present in every directory. The single period ( . ) represents the 
current directory and the double period represents the parent directory. If you 
delete these entries, you can lose files. 



Chapter 1 . Learning Basic DOS Concepts 1 5 



Understanding Paths 

You often have to specify where DOS must search for a particular file. You do this 
by giving DOS the path to the file. The path specifies the location of a file within 
the directory tree. You can think of it as the route DOS must travel, starting at the 
root directory, to get to files in another directory. 

Suppose that drive C has this directory tree: 

i 

C:\ I Current Drive 

1 r 1 

^ j OFFICE | Current Directory 



j LETTERS j 

I MEETING j 

i. , ...I 

1 AGENDA. DOC 

NOTES j-- Destination Directory 

To get to the AGENDA.DOC file in the \OFFICE directory, DOS must go through 
the following directories: root (\), OFFICE, and MEETING. 

In DOS commands, you designate the path in the following way: 

c : \of f ice\meet ing\ agenda . doc 

This is the path of the \OFFICE\MEETING directory. The first letter and colon 
represent the drive letter. The first backslash represents the root directory, and the 
second backslash separates the \MEETING directory from its parent directory, 
\OFFICE. The file is called AGENDA and has a .DOC extension. This path is 
called the full path, because even if there is more than one file called 
AGENDA.DOC in other directories or other directories called \OFFICE\MEETING on 
other disks, no other file has exactly the same path. 

If you want DOS to make the \MEETING directory the current directory but not a 
specific file in the MEETING directory, you would type the following: 

cd \of f ice\meeting 



1 6 DOS User's Guide 



There is another kind of path to each file called the relative path. The relative path 
is the route DOS must look in to go from one directory or file to another, usually 
one level up in the path. For example, the relative path for the previous example 
would be: 

c : \of f ice 

DOS recognizes paths of up to 128 characters, including the drive letter and colon. 

The PATH command can be used to specify these series of directories. You can 
place your most-often used PATH statements in your AUTOEXEC.BAT file so DOS 
knows where to search whenever you start your computer. You can then type 
commands without having to specify the path where the command is located. 
Separate the individual paths with a semi-colon (;) if you specify more than one 
path, such as: 

path=c : \dos \ system; c : \uti Is ; 

Working with Directories 

If you type a command at the DOS command prompt, it will be carried out on the 
directory you are currently using unless you specify a different directory. 

Working in the Current Directory 

The directory you are currently working in is called the current directory for that 
drive. The name of the current directory is usually shown as part of the DOS 
command prompt. You might see c : \notes> if your current directory is \NOTES in 
drive C. 

For example, if drive C is the current drive and \OFFICE\NOTES is the current 
directory, you can delete the REPORT1 TXT file in the C:\OFFICE\NOTES directory 
by typing this command: 

del reportl.txt 

Because drive C is the current drive and \OFFICE\NOTES is both the current 
directory and where the file is located, you do not need to specify the path in the 
command. DOS searches for the file in the current directory. When the file is not 
located in the current directory you can do one of the following: 

Specify where the file is located by including its path in the command. 

Change to the directory containing the file the current directory by using the CD 
command. The CD command is described in "Changing Directories" on 
page 18. 



Chapter 1 . Learning Basic DOS Concepts 1 7 



If you are working with more than one drive, each of them has a current directory. 
If you do not specify a different path for the files, DOS will complete the operation in 
the current drive and directory. 

When you start your system, all current directories are the root directories of the 
drives in your system. The current directory on a diskette drive changes to the root 
directory when you change diskettes. 

Changing Directories 

To change to a different directory on the current drive, use the CD command. The 
CD command stands for change directory. 

To use the CD command, type: 

cd 

followed by the directory to which you want to change. 

If you want to change from the current directory to a subdirectory, a directory 
contained within the current directory, type the name of the subdirectory. For 
example, the following command changes the current directory to the MYDOCS 
directory within the current directory: 

cd mydocs 

If you want to change to a directory that is not a subdirectory of the current 
directory, type the path for the new directory. For example, to change from the 
directory C:\MEETING\STATUS to the directory C:\ART, type the following: 

cd \art 

You can use double periods as a shortcut to typing the name of the parent 
directory. To change to the parent of the current directory (the directory one level 
closer to the root), you can also use two periods (..) in the command. 

cd . . 

Regardless of which directory is current, you can change to the root directory of the 
current drive by typing this command: 

cd \ 



1 8 DOS User's Guide 



Viewing Directory Contents 

To view the contents of a directory, use the DIR command. The DIR command 
stands for directory and lists the contents of the directory you specify. 

For example, if C:\ is your current directory, you can type the following command 
to view its contents: 

dir 



DOS displays a listing similar to the following: 



CONFIG 


. SYS 




525 


3-3 


-92 


6:47p 


AUTOEXEC , 


. BAT 




495 


.3-3 


-92 


7 :4p 


DOS 




<DIR> 




1-14 


-93 


9:38a 


MYFMT 


.TXT 




4735 


2-16 


-93 


1 :43p 


MOVEDIR . 


. BAT 




746 


3-8 


-93 


8:58a 


NETWORK 




<DIR> 




3-29 


-93 


6:47p 



Note: The file names shown here are separated from the extensions not by a 

period, but by several spaces. When you refer to these files, however, you 
must separate the file names from the extensions with a period. 

If there is more information than can fit on one screen, use the DIR command 
followed by the /p switch to view files and subdirectories one screen at a time. For 
example, to view the contents of the current directory one screen at a time, type the 
following: 

dir /p 

You will see one screen of the directory contents. At the bottom of the screen, you 
will see this prompt: 

Press any key to continue... 
To view the next screen, press any key. 

If you add the path of a directory to the command, DOS displays the contents of the 
specified directory rather than the current directory. Regardless of which drive and 
directory are current; you would use the following command to view a list of files in 
the MEETING directory on drive C: 

dir c : \meet ing 



Chapter 1 . Learning Basic DOS Concepts 1 9 



Viewing Groups of File Names in a Directory 

Unless you specify otherwise, DOS displays all file names and directory names 
contained in a directory. To view only certain file names in a directory, you can use 
wildcards. For example, to see a list of all files that have a .DOC extension in the 
root directory of a diskette in drive B, type the following command: 

dir b : \ . doc 

To view the file names beginning with JAN in a directory called YEAR on drive C, 
type this command: 

dir c : \year\ jan . 
The file name is separated from the directory name by a backslash. 



Making Directories 

When you have a group of related files (such as specialized files that you use with 
one program or files from a specific project), you might want to store them in their 
own directory. To create a new directory, you can use the MD command, which 
stands for make directory. The new directory cannot have the same name as any 
other file or directory contained in that directory. 

For example, suppose the current directory is the root (\). To create a directory 
called OFFICE, you would type the following command: 

md office 

The MD command makes a directory within the current directory, unless you specify 
a different directory. For example, suppose the current directory is \OFFICE. While 
you are within the OFFICE directory, the DOS command prompt looks like this: 

C : \OFFICE> 

To make a directory called NOTES, you can type: 

md notes 

In this example, DOS makes a directory called NOTES in the \OFFICE directory. 
To see this change you must type: 

cd notes 

at the C:\OFFICE> command prompt. The command prompt then changes to 
display: 

C: \OFFICE\NOTES> 



20 DOS User's Guide 



If you are not making a directory within the current directory, you must type the 
entire path of the new directory or specify the path relative to the current directory. 
If you include a drive letter with the MD command, you can create a directory on a 
hard disk or diskette that is not current. 



Deleting Directories 

There are two ways to delete directories: 

You can use the DELTREE command, which allows you to remove the 
directory at the same time you delete all the files and subdirectories within the 
directory. 

You can use the RD command, which allows you to remove the directory or 
subdirectory after you have deleted all the files within the directory. 

Deleting All Files and the Directory Simultaneously 

To delete a directory and all the subdirectories and files in it, you can use the 
DELTREE command. For example, to delete the \WORK directory and all the files 
in the directory on drive C, type the following: 

deltree c:\work 

You also can use the DELTREE command to delete one or more files and 
directories. For example, to delete all the subdirectories and files in the \WORK 
directory on drive C and to delete the \OFFICE directory and all the files within this 
directory on drive A, type the following: 

deltree c:\work a:\office 

Use caution when you use the DELTREE command because every file and 
subdirectory within the directory you specify will be deleted. You are prompted 
before the deletion of each top-level directory or file, similar to the following: 

Delete directory "c:\work" and all its subdirectories? (Y/N) 

Deleting Only the Directory 

The directory you delete cannot contain any files or other directories. If the 
directory you want to delete contains files or other directories, you must first delete 
them. 



Chapter 1. Learning Basic DOS Concepts 21 



To delete only the directory, use the RD command, which stands for remove 
directory. For example, to delete the \MEETING\NOTES directory, type the 
following command: 

rd \meet ing\notes 

DOS removes the NOTES subdirectory from the \MEETING directory on the current 
drive. 

If DOS does not delete a directory after you have deleted all files and subdirectories 
in it, there might be hidden or read-only files in the directory. For information about 
viewing or changing the attributes of hidden or read-only files, type help at t rib at 
the DOS command prompt. 

CAUTION: 

Do not use the ERASE command to delete the " . " or " .. " entries in a 
directory. These are normal entries that are present in every directory. If you 
erase these entries, you can lose files. 

To delete a directory: 

1. Delete all files and directories within the directory you want to delete. 

For example, suppose the current directory is \ART, and \ART contains a 
directory called WORK. Before you can remove the WORK directory, which 
does not contain any other directories, you must delete its contents. To do so, 
you can type the following command: 

del. work\ . 

You can also type the following command with the same results: 
del work 

2. The following message appears: 

All files in directory will be deleted! 
Are you sure? ( Y/N) 

Type y for Yes to delete the files. Or, type n to cancel the command. 

3. Make sure the directory you are trying to delete is not the current directory. If it 
is, change to the directory one level higher by typing the following command: 

cd . . 

You cannot remove a directory while it is the current directory. 

4. Use the RD command to remove the directory. 



DOS User's Guide 



For example, when the WORK directory is empty, you can type the following 
command to remove the directory from the \ART directory: 

rd work 

DOS removes a subdirectory of the current directory, unless you specify otherwise 
by typing the full path of another directory. If you include a drive letter with the RD 
command, you can remove a directory from a drive that is not current. 

If you delete a directory accidentally, you can use the Undelete program to recover 
the directory and its files. For more information about undeleting a directory, refer 
to "Undeleting a Directory" on page 199. 



Copying Directories 

To copy a directory and its subdirectories, you can use the XCOPY command. The 
XCOPY command works with a single directory or a group of directories. You can 
create new files in the destination directory as well as new subdirectories with this 
command. 

Copying All Files in a Directory 

To copy a single directory (without subdirectories), use the XCOPY command 
without switches. For example, the following command copies all files in the 
C:\NEW\REPORTS\FINANCE directory to the \FINANCE directory on a disk in 
drive A: 

xcopy c:\new\reports\finance a:\finance 

If you do not make a directory before you use the XCOPY command, one will be 
created for you by the XCOPY command. 

Because the XCOPY command copies all files in a directory, you do not need to 
use wildcards. For example, the following XCOPY command copies all files in the 
current directory from drive A to drive B: 

xcopy a: b: 

While DOS prepares to copy the files, it displays a "Reading source file(s)" 
message. A message is also displayed showing the names of the files it copies and 
indicating how many files were copied when the operation is complete. 



Chapter 1. Learning Basic DOS Concepts 23 



Creating Directories as You Copy Files 

If the destination path in an XCOPY command does not exist, DOS creates it. For 
example, the following command copies all files from the root directory of a disk in 
drive A to the C:\TMP directory: 

xcopy a : \ c : \ tmp 

If the directory does not exist, there is a prompt asking you whether the name 
specified is a file or directory. To prevent DOS from prompting you, add a 
backslash at the end of the directory name. 

If you do not type a path, DOS copies the files to the current directory. 

Copying Subdirectories 

To copy files in a directory along with any subdirectories that contain files, add the 
/S switch to the XCOPY command. For example, you have a disk in drive A which 
contains the following subdirectories: SCHOOL, WORK, and HOME in the 
\SCHEDULE directory. The following command copies the files in the \SCHEDULE 
directory of drive A, including the three subdirectories and all their files, to the 
\MEMOS directory on drive C: 

xcopy a : \schedule\ c:\memos /s 

The backslash (\) after a : indicates that DOS should start at the root directory. 
When the /s is added, every file in every subdirectory that contains files is copied. 
DOS copies files from the root directory of drive A to C:\MEMOS, from A:\SCHOOL 
to C:\MEMOS\SCHOOL, from A:\WORK to C:\MEMOS\WORK, and from A:\HOME 
to C:\MEMOS\HOME. If any of the directories do not exist on drive C, DOS creates 
them. In this example, empty subdirectories on drive A are not copied. 

To copy an empty directory, use the /e switch with the /s switch. For example, 
suppose the disk in drive A has an empty subdirectory called MISC, in addition to 
the three subdirectories just mentioned. You could type the following command to 
copy all subdirectories, including the empty subdirectory: 

xcopy a:\ c:\memos /s /e 

You can use the /s switch without the /e switch, but you cannot use the /e switch 
without the /s switch. 



24 DOS User's Guide 



Renaming Directories 

To rename a directory, use the MOVE command. The following command renames 
the \OPS\STATS directory to \OPS\FIGURES: 

move \ops\stats \ops\figures 

The REN command, which you use to rename files, cannot be used to rename 
directories. 



Chapter 1. Learning Basic DOS Concepts 25 



DOS User's Guide 



Chapter 2. Configuring Your System 

Configuring your computer is setting it up so that DOS, your hardware, and your 
applications work the way you want them or the way they were intended to be 
used. This can be as simple as customizing the appearance of the DOS command 
prompt or as complex as setting up a new hardware component. Most of your 
system's configuration information is stored in two files: 

The CONFIG.SYS file is a text file that contains special commands. These 
commands set up your computer's hardware components (such as memory, 
keyboard, mouse, and printer) so that DOS and applications can use them. 
When DOS starts, it processes the commands in the CONFIG.SYS file. 

The AUTOEXEC.BAT file is a special batch file that DOS runs immediately after 
carrying out the commands in your CONFIG.SYS file. AUTOEXEC.BAT can 
contain any commands you want to carry out when you start your system. For 
example, this file can contain commands that define the port to which your 
printer is connected, clear your screen of startup messages, or it can start your 
favorite program. 

These files typically are located in the root directory of your hard disk (usually 
drive C). 

Normally, DOS carries out the commands in both the CONFIG.SYS and 
AUTOEXEC.BAT files each time you start your computer. However, if you need to, 
you can instruct DOS to bypass the commands in these files. For more 
information, see "Bypassing CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT Commands" on 
page 28. 

When you installed DOS, Setup created a basic system configuration that works for 
most people. You might want or need to change your system configuration. Before 
changing your configuration, refer to the following information. 



Copyright IBM Corp. 1981, 1993 



27 



To: 


See: 


Customize the way DOS uses hardware, 
memory, and files. 


"Using CONFIG.SYS Commands" on 
page 30. 


Add a new hardware component or 
reconfigure an existing component. 


"Hardware Devices Configuration" on 
page 34. 


Specify commands you want DOS to carry 
out when your computer starts. 


"Specifying Startup Commands in Your 
AUTOEXEC.BAT File" on page 44. 


L/cTine inore inari one oysiem 
configuration. For example, if several 
people use the same computer, each 
person can have a separate configuration. 


using iviumpie oonriguraiions on 
page 39. 



The rest of this chapter explains how to configure your system by using commands 
in your CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT files. 

The settings in your CONFIG.SYS file, control basic components of your system, 
such as memory and disks drives. If you change your CONFIG.SYS file and the 
new settings are incorrect, your system might not be able to start correctly. If this 
happens, restart your computer using your startup diskette (diskette 1 of the DOS 
Setup diskettes), or use the procedure to bypass CONFIG.SYS and 
AUTOEXEC.BAT commands. 



Bypassing CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT Commands 

If you need to, you can start your system without running the commands in your 
CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT files. This is most useful when you are 
experiencing system problems that might be related to the settings in your 
CONFIG.SYS or AUTOEXEC.BAT file. To bypass startup commands: 

You can bypass your startup files completely. 

You can have DOS confirm each CONFIG.SYS command and process each 
command in your AUTOEXEC.BAT file every time your computer starts. 

Bypassing Your Startup Files 

If you are having system problems that might be related to the commands in your 
CONFIG.SYS or AUTOEXEC.BAT files', you can temporarily bypass those files to 
start your computer. 



28 DOS User's Guide 



To bypass these files: 

1 . Start your computer. 

2. Press F5 immediately after your computer displays the message starting ibm 

DOS . . . 

Any device that requires an installable device driver does not work because the 
installable device drivers are not loaded. For example, programs that require 
expanded or extended memory are not able to run because no expanded- or 
extended-memory drivers are loaded. 

DOS uses the default environment variables of PATH=C:\DOS, PROMPT=$P$G, 
and COMSPEC=C:\COMMAND.COM temporarily until you correct the problem and 
restart your computer. 

Confirming Each CONFIG.SYS Command 

You can bypass selected CONFIG.SYS commands by having DOS prompt you for 
each command in the CONFIG.SYS file. 

To confirm each CONFIG.SYS command: 

1 . Start your computer. Just after your computer starts, DOS displays the text 

Starting IBM DOS . . . 

2. Immediately press and release the F8 key. 

One at a time, DOS displays each command in your CONFIG.SYS file followed 
by a prompt. For example, when DOS reaches the DOS=HIGH,UMB 
command, it displays the following prompt: 

DOS=HIGH,UMB [ Y, N] ? 

Respond by typing either y for Yes or n for No for each command in your 
CONFIG.SYS file. 

When DOS finishes processing the CONFIG.SYS file, it displays the following 
prompt: 

ProcessAUTOEXEC.BAT [ Y , N ] ? 

3. Type y to run all the commands in your AUTOEXEC.BAT file or type N to 
bypass your AUTOEXEC.BAT file completely. 



Chapter 2. Configuring Your System 29 



Using CONFIG.SYS Commands 

When your computer starts, DOS carries out commands that configure hardware 
and reserve space in memory for information processing. The file that contains 
these commands is called CONFIG.SYS. DOS Setup creates a CONFIG.SYS file 
and stores it in the root directory of your startup hard disk. You can add and 
change CONFIG.SYS commands to configure your system as needed. 

CONFIG.SYS File Editing 

To edit the CONFIG.SYS file, use a text editor, such as E Editor, that can save files 
as unformatted (ASCII) text. Do not edit the CONFIG.SYS file using a word 
processor that saves files in a special document format. If you do, your computer 
might not start. 

Because the CONFIG.SYS file controls how DOS starts, DOS reads it only when 
you start your computer. Therefore, after changing the CONFIG.SYS file, you must 
restart your computer for your changes to take affect. 

To make changes to your CONFIG.SYS file: 

1. Make a copy of your CONFIG.SYS file on a separate diskette before you make 
any changes. 

2. Edit the CONFIG.SYS file using the E Editor. 

3. Add or change CONFIG.SYS commands as necessary. Each CONFIG.SYS 
command must begin on a separate line. 

4. When you have finished editing the CONFIG.SYS file, save your changes and 
exit from the text editor. 

5. Restart your system by pressing CTRL+ALT+DEL so that your changes can take 
affect. 

CONFIG.SYS Commands 

The commands in your CONFIG.SYS file load special programs or determine how 
your system hardware works. A typical CONFIG.SYS file contains some, but not 
all, of the following commands. 



30 DOS User's Guide 



The following special CONFIG.SYS commands are used only to define multiple 
configurations within the CONFIG.SYS file. 



Command 

INCLUDE= 



MENUCOLOR= 
MENUDEFAULT: 



MENUITEM= 



SUBMENU= 



Purpose 

Instructs DOS to carry out the commands in another 
configuration block as well as the commands in the 
current block. 

Sets the text and background colors for the menu. 

Specifies the default menu item. This command is 
optional. If the [Menu] block does not contain a 
MENUDEFAULT command, the default is set to item 1. 
The MENUDEFAULT command can include an optional 
timeout value. If you do not select an item within the 
specified time, DOS starts your computer using the 
default configuration. 

Note: For multiple system configurations, this [Menu] 
block defines each configuration block menu 
item displayed on the Setup menu. 

Defines a menu item. The command specifies the 
configuration block associated with that item and, 
optionally, the menu text for that item. 

Specifies a menu item that displays another set of 
choices. The command specifies another menu block 
that defines the choices of the submenu. The block for 
the submenu can have any name other than [Menu]. 



The CONFIG.SYS file can also contain the following special characters: 

Command Purpose 

; Specifies that the current line is a descriptive comment 

and should not be carried out. Insert this character at 
the beginning of the line. 

Note: You can also insert a comment by using the 
REM command. 

? Specifies that DOS is to ask for confirmation before 

carrying out the current command. Insert this character 
just before the equal sign (=). For example, to have 
DOS ask for confirmation before carrying out the 
DOS=HIGH command, you would change the command 
to read DOS?=HIGH. 



Chapter 2. Configuring Your System 31 



This command can 

BREAK= 

BUFFERS= 

DEVICE= 

DEVICEHIGH= 

DOS= 

FCBS= 



be used with: 
FILES= 
INSTALL= 
INSTALLHIGH= 
LASTDRIVE= 
STACKS= 
SWITCHES= 



Note: Most CONFIG.SYS commands work only when included in the 

CONFIG.SYS file. The only exceptions are the BREAK, REM, and SET 
commands. These commands can be used in the AUTOEXEC.BAT file or 
typed at the DOS command prompt. 

The following table briefly describes the purpose of each CONFIG.SYS command. 



Command 

BREAK 



BUFFERS= 



COUNTRY= 



DEVICE= 



DEVICEHIGH; 



Purpose 

Specifies whether DOS is to check periodically for the 
CTRL+C or CTRL+BREAK key combination. For more 
information, type help break at the DOS command 
prompt. 

Specifies how much memory DOS reserves for 
transferring information to and from hard disks or 
diskettes. 

Sets the language conventions for your system. 

For more information, see Chapter 15, "Customizing for 
International Use" on page 239. 

Loads an installable device driver — a program that 
controls a hardware component, such as a mouse or 
memory board. 

For more information, see "Hardware Devices 
Configuration" on page 34. 

Loads an installable device driver into the upper 
memory area. 

For more information, see Chapter 10, "Making More 
Memory Available" on page 163. 



DOS User's Guide 



Purpose 

Specifies whether DOS will use the high memory area 
(HMA) and whether to provide access to the upper 
memory area. 

For more information, see Chapter 10, "Making More 
Memory Available" on page 163. 

Sets the characteristics of a disk drive. 

Specifies the number of file control blocks (FCBs) that 
DOS can have open at the same time. A file control 
block is a data structure that stores information about a 
file. 

Specifies how many files can be open at a time. 

Loads a memory-resident program (also called a 
terminate-and-stay-resident program, or TSR). 

Loads a memory-resident program into Upper Memory 
Blocks (UMBs). If upper memory is not available, this 
command functions like the INSTALL command. 

Sets the number of valid drive letters. 

Specifies whether the Num Lock setting of the numeric 
keypad is initially set to ON or OFF. 

Indicates that the current line is a descriptive comment. 
DOS does not carry out REM commands. For more 
information, type help rem at the DOS command 
prompt. 

Sets the value of an environment variable, such as 
PROMPT or TEMP. For more information, see "Using 
Multiple Configurations" on page 39, or type help set 
at the DOS command prompt. 

Specifies the command interpreter (a program that 
displays the command prompt where you type 
commands) that you want DOS to use. 

Specifies how much memory to reserve for processing 
hardware interrupts. 

Specifies special options using these switches: /K, /W, 
/N, and /F. 



Chapter 2. Configuring Your System 33 



Note: Most CONFIG.SYS commands can appear in the CONFIG.SYS file in any 
order. For example, the DOS, FILES, or BUFFERS commands can appear 
anywhere in the file. Only the relative order of the DEVICE and 
DEVICEHIGH commands is important. For an explanation of how to use 
the DEVICE command to configure hardware devices, see "Hardware 
Devices Configuration." 

Hardware Devices Configuration 

Each hardware component of your computer is called a device. Your computer's 
keyboard, mouse, display, printer, disk drives, and memory boards are all devices. 
Each device has its own characteristics that can be customized. 

DOS uses a special program called a device driver to control each device. For 
example, DOS uses a built-in device driver to control how information is read to and 
from a diskette drive. DOS has built-in device drivers for your keyboard, display, 
hard and diskette drives, and communication ports. Because these device drivers 
are built in, you do not have to do anything special to use them. You can 
customize certain features of these devices by using CONFIG.SYS commands. For 
a list of these commands, see "CONFIG.SYS Commands" on page 30. 

Other devices, such as memory boards or a mouse, have device drivers that are 
not built into DOS. Such a device driver is called an installable device driver 
because you install it by adding a command to your CONFIG.SYS file. Many 
hardware devices come with their own device drivers. For example, DOS comes 
with a device driver called HIMEM.SYS. Several other installable device drivers are 
included with DOS. 

To use an installable device driver, add a DEVICE command for that driver to your 
CONFIG.SYS file. When DOS starts, it loads the device driver into memory. For 
example, to load the HIMEM.SYS device driver from the C:\DOS directory, you 
would add a command like the following to your CONFIG.SYS file: 

device=c : \dos\himem. sys 

When DOS reads this command, it loads the HIMEM.SYS device driver into 
memory. The HIMEM.SYS device driver remains in memory and manages 
extended memory. 

Note: Many hardware devices come with installation programs that automatically 
add the necessary commands to your CONFIG.SYS file. 



34 DOS User's Guide 



DOS comes with the following installable device drivers. 



Driver 

ANSI.SYS 

CMOSCLK.SYS 



DISPLAY.SYS 
DRIVER.SYS 

EGA. SYS 
EMM386.EXE 

HIMEM.SYS 
INTERLNK.EXE 



PCMATA.SYS 



PCMCS.EXE 



Purpose 

Supports American National Standards Institute (ANSI) 
terminal emulation. 

Replaces the default DOS clock so that any request for 
the current date and time accesses CMOSCLK.SYS 
instead of the DOS system clock. Normally used only if 
your current DOS system clock is not keeping the 
correct date. 

Supports code-page switching for displays. 

Creates a logical drive that you can use to refer to a 
physical disk driver and specifies parameters for a drive 
not supported by your computer's ROM BIOS. 

Saves and restores the display when a graphics 
program is used with an EGA monitor. 

Simulates expanded memory and provides access to 
the upper memory area on a computer with at least an 
80386 processor and extended memory. 

Manages the use of extended memory on a computer 
with at least an 80286 processor and extended 
memory. DOS Setup installs this device driver 
automatically on such systems. 

Redirects requests for operations on one or more 
Interlnk client drives or printer ports to one or more 
drives or printer ports on the Interlnk server. You must 
install the INTERLNK.EXE device driver before you can 
use the INTERLNK and INTERSVR commands. 

Provides virtual block device driver support for PCMCIA 
ATA fixed disk cards if they are formatted with a 
FAT-compatible disk structure. 

Loads PCMCIA Card Services support. Can be loaded 
either as a terminate-and-stay-resident program from 
the DOS command prompt or as a device driver when 
included in the CONFIG.SYS file. 



** Hercules is a trademark of Hercules Computer Technology. 
* CGA, EGA, and VGA are trademarks of the IBM Corporation. 

Chapter 2. Configuring Your System 35 



Driver 

PCMFDD.EXE 



PCMMTD.EXE 



PCMSCD.EXE 



PENDEV.SYS 

POWER.EXE 

PRINTER.SYS 
RAMDRIVE.SYS 

RAMBOOST.EXE 



SETVER.EXE 



Purpose 

Emulates diskette drives from PCMCIA cards. Can be 
loaded either as a terminate-and-stay-resident program 
from the DOS command prompt or as a device driver 
when included in the CONFIG.SYS file. 

Installs one or more Memory Technology Drivers 
(MTDs) so that PCMCIA cards with different memory 
technologies can be loaded either as a 
terminate-and-stay-resident program from the DOS 
command prompt or as a device driver when included in 
the CONFIG.SYS file. 

Installs one or more Super Client Drivers (SCDs) so 
that PCMCIA cards with different devices, such as fax 
machines or modems, can be supported. Can be 
loaded either as a terminate-and-stay-resident program 
from the DOS command prompt or as a device driver 
when included in the CONFIG.SYS file. 

Provides the PenDOS application programming 
interface (API) for PenDOS applications. 

Provides the ability to reduce the consumption of power 
when your applications and devices are idle. 

Supports code-page switching for printers. 

Simulates a hard disk drive by creating a virtual disk 
drive in your system's random access memory (RAM). 

Increases your computer's conventional memory and 
makes using EMM386.EXE less complex. 
Automatically analyzes your computer's current 
configuration and then reconfigures it automatically to 
load terminate-and-stay-resident programs and device 
drivers into upper memory blocks. This eliminates the 
need to manually edit your CONFIG.SYS or 
AUTOEXEC.BAT files because it maintains a data file 
called RAMBOOST.INI to track the programs and 
device drivers that need to be loaded into upper 
memory. 

Loads the DOS version table into memory. 



36 DOS User's Guide 



Driver 

UMBMONO.SYS 



UMBCGA.SYS 



UMBHERC.SYS 



UMBEMS.SYS 



Purpose 

Maps the video memory of the monochrome adapter as 
Upper Memory Blocks (UMBs) that are used for loading 
programs with the LOADHIGH command if a CGA*, 
EGA*, or VGA* adapter is also present. It provides 
approximately 4K of extra memory. 

Maps the video memory of a color adapter as Upper 
Memory Blocks (UMBs) that are used for loading 
programs with the LOADHIGH command if a CGA, 
EGA, or VGA adapter is also present. It provides 
approximately 1 6K of extra memory. 

Maps the video memory of a Hercules" adapter as 
Upper Memory Blocks (UMBs) that are used for loading 
programs with the LOADHIGH command if a Hercules 
graphics adapter or a Hercules Graphics Adapter Plus 
is also present. It provides approximately 60K of extra 
memory. 

Maps a 64K block of EMS memory as Upper Memory 
Blocks (UMBs) that are used for loading programs with 
the LOADHIGH command if an EMS card with at least 
64K of EMS is also present in a machine. It provides 
approximately 64K of extra memory. Works on any 
class of machine with any level of EMS memory driver, 
but the EMS 3.2 level card is preferred because it uses 
less memory when loaded. 



The order in which DEVICE and DEVICEHIGH commands appear is important 
because some device drivers enable devices that are then used by other drivers. 
For example, the HIMEM.SYS extended-memory driver must be started before any 
drivers that use extended memory. 

The order in which device drivers should appear in your CONFIG.SYS file is as 
follows: 

1 . HIMEM.SYS if your system has extended memory. 

2. Your expanded-memory manager if your system has an expanded-memory 
board. 

3. EMM386.EXE if your system is an 80386 or higher processor with extended 
memory. If your CONFIG.SYS file includes both an expanded-memory 
manager and EMM386, the EMM386 command line should include the noems 
switch. 



Chapter 2. Configuring Your System 37 



EMM386 uses extended memory to simulate expanded memory on systems 
that do not have expanded memory. EMM386 can also provide access to the 
upper memory area. For more information, see Chapter 10, "Making More 
Memory Available" on page 163. 

4. Any other device drivers. 

Note: This list is intended to show only the correct order for device drivers. It is 

not intended to be a list of the commands that your CONFIG.SYS file should 
contain. The contents of your system's CONFIG.SYS file depends on the 
type of system, the amount or type of memory, the hardware configuration, 
and the applications you use. 

CONFIG.SYS File Examples 

The following is a typical CONFIG.SYS file for an 80386 computer with 2MB or 
more of extended memory: 

device=c : \dos\himem. sys 
dos=high, umb 

device=c : \dos\emm386 . exe ram 
f iles=4 
buf f ers=2 
break=on 

devicehigh=c : \dos\ansi . sys 
In this example: 

The BUFFERS command reserves 20 buffers for transferring information 
to-and-from disk drives. 

The FILES command reserves enough room to have 40 files open at one time. 

The BREAK command checks frequently for the CTRL+C or CTRL+BREAK key 
combination. 

The DOS=HIGH,UMB command runs DOS in the high memory area and 
specifies that programs should have access to the upper memory area For 
more information about the upper memory area, see Chapter 1 0, "Making More 
Memory Available" on page 163. 

The DEVICE commands load the HIMEM.SYS and EMM386.EXE device 
drivers. The HIMEM.SYS driver manages extended memory. The 
EMM386.EXE driver, when used in a DEVICE= statement with the ram switch, 
provides access to the upper memory area and simulates expanded memory. 

The DEVICEHIGH commands load device drivers into the upper memory area. 



38 DOS User's Guide 



If you use a network and your system includes an 80286 processor and expanded 
memory, your CONFIG.SYS file might look like this: 

rem This computer's expanded-memory board came with 
rem its own expanded-memory driver, EMSDRV.SYS. 
device = c : \emsdrv\ernsdrv . sys 
devicehigh-c : \dos\himem. sys 
device=c : \net Anetwork . sys 
devi ce=c : \dos\ramdr i ve . sys /a 

rem The /a switch instructs RAMDrive to use expanded memory, 
bu f fer s = 2 
f i les=3 
break=on 

rem The following command reserves space for 26 drives. 
1 a s t d r i v e z 

In this example: 

This CONFIG.SYS file loads device drivers for the expanded memory board, 
the HIMEM.SYS memory manager, and the network. 

The RAMDRIVE. SYS driver creates a RAM drive in expanded memory. 

The LASTDRIVE command reserves space for 26 logical drives so that letters 
from A to Z are available as labels for drives. 



Using Multiple Configurations 

A single CONFIG.SYS file can define several different system configurations. This 
can be useful if several people share a single computer, or if you want to be able to 
start your computer with a choice of configurations. 

Each step in defining how you would type multiple configuration commands in your 
CONFIG.SYS file is explained. 

Step 1: Defining a Startup Menu 

To use multiple configurations, you must define a startup menu. To do this, create 
a configuration block with the block heading [Menu]. A menu block can contain any 
of the following commands: 

The MENUITEM command 
The MENUDEFAULT command 
The MENUCOLOR command 
The SUBMENU command 

When your computer starts, the startup menu appears and lists the available 
configurations; you choose the configuration you want. 



Chapter 2. Configuring Your System 39 



If you type this in your CONFIG.SYS file: DOS produces this startup menu: 



IBM DOS Startup Menu 



[MENU] 

menuitem=DLS, Load DOS LAN Services Client 1. Load DOS LAN Services Client 
menuitem=INTLNK, Load InterLnk Client 2. Load InterLnk Client 

menuitem=CPSW, Load Code Page Switching 3. Load Code Page Switching 

menucolor=7 , 1 

menudefault=DLS, 2 Enter a choice: 1 Time remaining: 2 



In this example: 

The MENUITEM command defines the item on the menu. The first MENUITEM 
command value, [dls] , specifies the name of the associated configuration 
block. The second value, which is optional, specifies the text, Load dos lan 
Services client to display on the menu. If you do not specify any menu text, 
DOS uses the name of the configuration block as the menu text. 

The MENUCOLOR command sets the text color to 7 (white) and the 
background color to 1 (royal blue). 

The MENUDEFAULT command is optional. When this command is used, it 
specifies which menu item is to be the default configuration. The block must be 
defined elsewhere in the CONFIG.SYS file. When DOS displays the startup 
menu, the default menu item is highlighted, and its number appears after the 
Enter a choice prompt. If no item is specified, the default is set to the first 
item. 

The MENUDEFAULT command also sets a timeout value. You can specify a 
timeout value from 0 to 90 seconds. A timeout of 0 seconds forces automatic 
selection of the default, effectively bypassing the menu display. 

If you specify a timeout value but no item is selected within the specified time, 
DOS starts the computer with the default configuration. 

If you do not specify a timeout value, DOS does not continue until the ENTER 
key is pressed. 

Step 2: Defining Configuration Blocks 

A configuration block is a set of CONFIG.SYS commands that you want DOS to run 
when that particular configuration is selected from the startup menu. A 
configuration block begins with a block header — the block name surrounded by 
brackets. The block name must be a single word but can be as long as you want. 



40 DOS User's Guide 



When DOS starts with a particular configuration, it carries out all the commands 
between that block header and the next block header. 

A configuration block can contain any command you would normally place in your 
CONFIG.SYS file. A CONFIG.SYS file can define a [Common] block that includes 
commands common to all configurations. DOS carries out the command in a 
[Common] block for every configuration. You can have as many [Common] blocks 
as you want; DOS runs [Common] commands in the order in which they appear in 
the CONFIG.SYS file. 



The following CONFIG.SYS file defines two configurations and includes several 
commands that are common to both: 



CONFIG.SYS file (continued) 




[COMMON] 
f iles=3 
buf f ers = 3 
lastdrive=z 
break=on 

device= C:\DOS\HIMEM.SYS 
dos=HIGH,UMB 

device=C: \DOS\EMM386 . EXE NOEMS 
device=C : \DOS\SETVER . EXE 




[CPSW] 

country^ 1, 
devicehigh=C 


, C : \ DOS \ COUNTRY. SYS 
: \DOS\display . sys con= 


(ega, , 1 ) 


[DLS] 

devi cehigh=C 
devicehigh=C 
devicehigh=C 


: \NET\protman .dos /i:C 
: \NET\dlshelp . sys 
: \NET\ibmtok.dos 


: \NET 


[INTLNK] 
devicehigh=C 


: \DOS\INTERLNK.EXE 




[COMMON] 

devicehigh=C : \DOS\ANSI . SYS 
shell=C: \ DOSXCOMMAND.COM /P /E:512 





This CONFIG.SYS file configures the computer for LAN networking [DLS], laptop 
computer connectivity [INTLNK], and code page switching and keyboard support 
[CPSW]. For all three configurations, DOS runs the commands in the [Common] 
configuration blocks. 



Chapter 2. Configuring Your System 41 



The INTLNK configuration uses the Client Device Driver (INTERLNK.EXE) to make 
the client computer use devices on the server computer as though they were local 
drives. INTERLNK loads itself into upper memory when upper memory blocks are 
available. The [Common] section makes these upper memory blocks available. 

Step 3: Using INCLUDE statements for Multiple Configurations 

The CONFIG.SYS file can also contain the INCLUDE command.: You can include 
the contents of one configuration block in another by using the INCLUDE command. 
The INCLUDE command instructs DOS to carry out the commands in another 
configuration block as well as the commands in the current block. This command 
specifies the name of the block you want to include; the command can be used 
only within a configuration block. 

Suppose you wanted to add another configuration that includes all three of the 
previously discussed configuration blocks combined. You could use the INCLUDE 
command to do this by adding a fourth configuration similar to the following: 



CONFIG.SYS file (continued) 

[ LOADALL ] 

include=CPSW 

include=DLS 

include= INTLNK 

set path=c : \net ; c : \dos 

[Common] 



The [LOADALL] configuration uses the INCLUDE command to include the [CPSW], 
[DLS], and [INTLNK] blocks. It also has its own SET PATH command. 

It is a good idea to place a [Common] block at the end of your CONFIG.SYS file, 
even if it does not contain any commands. Some applications append commands 
to your CONFIG.SYS file. If your CONFIG.SYS file has a [Common] block at the 
end, an application can append commands to the CONFIG.SYS, and DOS will carry 
out those commands for all your configurations. 

Step 4: Modifying the AUTOEXEC.BAT File for Multiple Configurations 

When using multiple configurations, it can be useful to have DOS run different 
AUTOEXEC.BAT commands for each configuration. You can create branching 
code in the AUTOEXEC.BAT file by using batch commands such as the IF and 



42 DOS User's Guide 



GOTO commands. With batch commands, you can have DOS carry out different 
AUTOEXEC.BAT commands depending on the startup configuration. 

When a configuration is selected from the startup menu, DOS sets the CONFIG 
environment variable to the name of the selected configuration block. In the 
AUTOEXEC.BAT file, you can use the IF command to test the value of the CONFIG 
variable and then have DOS carry out different commands for different values. 
When you test the value of the CONFIG variable, you can enclose it both in percent 
marks (%) and double quotes ("), as shown in the example below. For information 
about the IF command, type help if at the DOS command prompt. 

The following AUTOEXEC.BAT file tests the CONFIG variable and executes 
different commands depending on the result; it is designed to work with the 
example CONFIG.SYS file. 



AUTOEXEC.BAT file 

@ECHO OFF 

PATH C: \DOS;C: \NET; 
PROMPT $p$g 
SET TEMP=C : \DOS 

rem Test the CONFIG environment variable to see what menuitem was selected, 
rem Was the network chosen to start? 
if "%CONFIG%" == " DLS " C:\NET\net start 

rem Was code page switching and keyboard support chosen? 

rem ISO.CPI gives you ISO Support. 

if NOT "%CONFIG%" "CPSW" GOTO NOTCPSW 

MODE CON CODEPAGE PREPARE=((85 ) C:\DOS\ISO.CPI) 

MODE CON CODEPAGE SELECT= 8 5 

LOADHIGH KEYB US 

: NOTCPSW 

rem Inquire about loading mouse support?; wait 3 seconds for a 

rem response, if no response default to No. 

CHOICE /C:YN /TN,3 Do you want to load MOUSE support? 

IF ERRORLEVEL 2 GOTO SKIPMOUSE 

LOADHIGH C:\DOS\M0USE.COM 

rem Now load DOSKEY, show CALL batchcommand to load IBM Antivirus/DOS 

rem and then come up in the DOSSHELL 

: SKIPMOUSE 

LOADHIGH DOSKEY 

SET IBMAV=C:\DOS 

C: \DOS\ 

CALL C:\DOS\IBMAVDR.BAT 
C : \DOS\DOSSHELL . EXE 



Chapter 2. Configuring Your System 43 



When DOS runs this AUTOEXEC.BAT file, it sets the path, prompt style, and the 
TEMP environment variable. 

DOS then tests the value of the CONFIG variable. The CONFIG.SYS value was 
set when you entered your choice of configuration from the Startup Menu. 

For example, if the name of the current configuration is not CPSW, DOS inquires 
whether you want mouse support. If you do not want to load the mouse or you do 
not make a choice of whether to load the mouse in three seconds, mouse support 
is not loaded. 

Whether or not you choose to have mouse support, this configuration then runs the 
DOSKey program, starts the IBM AntiVirus/DOS, and starts the DOS Shell program. 



Specifying Startup Commands in Your AUTOEXEC.BAT File 

Each time you start your system, DOS carries out the commands in your 
AUTOEXEC.BAT file. This file is located in the root directory of your hard disk 
(usually drive C). 

The .BAT file-name extension indicates that the file is a batch file— a. series of 
commands that DOS carries out automatically. The commands in the 
AUTOEXEC.BAT file set the characteristics of your devices, customize information 
that DOS displays, and start memory-resident programs and other applications. To 
run AUTOEXEC.BAT without restarting your system, type autoexec at the DOS 
command prompt. 

You can customize your system by adding commands to your AUTOEXEC.BAT file. 
You can use any commands you would normally type at the DOS command 
prompt. To edit your AUTOEXEC.BAT file, type e autoexec .bat at the DOS 
command prompt. If your AUTOEXEC.BAT file is not on your root directory, you 
must also include the path where it is located when you type the E command. 

Note: Before changing your original AUTOEXEC.BAT file, make a copy and save 
it with a different name, such as AUTOEXEC. BAK, as a precaution. 



44 DOS User's Guide 



AUTOEXEC.BAT Commands 

Every command in an AUTOEXEC.BAT file can also be used in other batch 
programs. Following are some of the most common AUTOEXEC.BAT commands. 



Command 


Purpose 


PROMPT 


Sets the appearance of your DOS command prompt. 


MODE 


Sets the characteristics of your keyboard, monitor, and serial and 




parallel ports. 


PATH 


Specifies the directories in which DOS searches for executable files 




(files with a .COM, .EXE, or .BAT file name extension). 


ECHO OFF 


Directs DOS not to display the commands in your AUTOEXEC.BAT 




file as they run. You can also prevent a command from being 




displayed by inserting an at sign (@) at the beginning of that line. 


SET 


Creates an environment variable that can be used by programs. 




The SET command can also be used in the CONFIG.SYS file. 



For information about these commands, type help followed by the command name 
at the DOS command prompt for a brief explanation and command syntax. 



For more information about programming batch files, see Chapter 5, "Working with 
Batch Programs" on page 75. 

Terminate-and-Stay-Resident Programs 

Another common use of the AUTOEXEC.BAT file is to start memory-resident 
programs-^-progmms that load into memory and stay there while you use other 
programs. These are also called terminate-and-stay-resident (TSR) programs. 
DOS comes with several memory-resident programs that are commonly started 
from the AUTOEXEC.BAT file, such as: 

APPEND FASTOPEN 
CPSCHED KEYB 
DATAMON SENTRY (or TRACKER) MOUSE 
DOSKEY SMARTDRV 

For more information about the these programs, you can type help followed by the 
command name at the DOS command prompt for a brief explanation and command 
syntax for these commands. 



Chapter 2. Configuring Your System 45 



AUTOEXEC.BAT File Examples 

The following example of a AUTOEXEC.BAT file contains the most commonly used 
AUTOEXEC.BAT commands: 

path=c : \ ; c : \dos ; c : \ut ility ; c : \batch 

prompt $p$g 

set temp=c : \ temp 

doskey 

c : \ smar tdrv . exe 
In this example: 

The PATH command directs DOS to search for program files in the current 
directory and then in the following directories: the root directory of drive C, 
C:\DOS, C:\UTILITY, and C:\BATCH. A semicolon (;) separates each directory. 

The PROMPT command sets the command prompt so that it shows the current 
drive and directory, followed by a greater-than sign (>). 

The SET command creates an environment variable named TEMP and sets it 
equal to the directory C:\TEMP. 

Note: The name you specify must be the name of an existing directory. Many 
programs, including DOS itself, use this variable when storing temporary 
files. 

The DOSKEY command loads the DOSKey program into memory. 
DOSKEY.COM can be located in any of the directories listed in the PATH 
command. 

The SMARTDRV command loads the SMARTDrive program into memory. 

Suppose your system has one diskette drive, one hard disk drive, a laser printer 
connected to port COM1 , and DOS Shell. You might want to put the following 
commands in your AUTOEXEC.BAT file: 

@echo off 

path=c : \ ; c : \dos ; c : \ut ility ; c : \ lotus ; c : \norton 

prompt $p$g 

mode lptl=coml 

set temp=c:\temp 

doskey 

dosshell . exe 



46 DOS User's Guide 



In this example: 

The ECHO OFF command prevents the AUTOEXEC.BAT commands from 
being displayed as they are carried out. The @ sign at the beginning of the 
line prevents the ECHO OFF command from being displayed. 

The MODE command redirects printer output from LPT1 (its default port) to the 
serial port COM1. 

The DOSKEY command loads the DOSKey program, which provides keyboard 
shortcuts at the DOS command prompt. 

The DOSSHELL command starts the DOS Shell program, which provides a 
graphical interface that forms many of the same file-management and 
disk-maintenance tasks that you perform from the command line. 



Chapter 2. Configuring Your System 47 



48 DOS User's Guide 



Chapter 3. Managing Disks 

Disks provide long-term information storage. The information you save on disks 
remains intact until you delete it. This chapter discusses the following: 

The types of disks and how they are used. 
How to format and unformat a disk. 
How to create a system diskette. 
How to label disks. 

How to recover information from a defective disk. 
Types of Disks 

There are generally two classifications of disks: hard disk (also referred to as fixed 
disk) and diskettes which come in two basic sizes: 5.25 and 3.5 inches. 

Disks store information on magnetic surfaces. In a diskette, the magnetic surface is 
a thin, flexible disk inside a protective plastic cover. A hard disk has two or more 
rigid disks stacked on top of each other in a sealed case. It remains in your 
computer until you upgrade to a larger hard disk or it somehow becomes damaged. 

Information on disks is divided into tracks and sectors. The more tracks a disk has, 
the more information it can store. The information is divided by DOS into sectors. 
A sector is the basic unit of storage on a disk. 

All disks need to be formatted so that they can receive and store information. 
Formatting writes track and sector marks on the disk defining the areas that DOS 
can use. When you format, the diskette is checked for defects. 

Diskettes vary in physical size and the amount of information they can hold. The 
storage size of a diskette is measured in bytes for files, and kilobytes and 
megabytes for disks. These terms are defined as follows: 

byte The amount of space it takes to store a character. 

kilobyte A kilobyte is approximately 1000 bytes, represented by a K in this 

guide (1024 bytes for CPU memory). 

megabyte A megabyte is approximately 1000000 bytes, represented by MB in 
this guide (1048576 bytes for CPU memory). 



Copyright IBM Corp. 1981, 1993 



49 



The following list shows the two most common types of diskettes that DOS can 
work with and the capacity for the diskettes drives and diskettes. 



Diskette 


Diskette Drive Capacity 


5.25-inch, double-sided/double-density 


360K 


5.25-inch, double-sided/high-density 


1200K or 1.2MB 


3.5-inch, 1MB capacity 


720K 


3.5-inch, 1MB/2MB capacity 


1440K or 1.44MB 


3.5-inch, 4MB capacity 


2880K or 2.88MB 



The 1MB diskettes can be used in both 720K and 1.44MB diskette drives; they 
must be formatted to 720K which you do with either a 720K or a 1 .44MB diskette 
drive. When you use a 1.44MB diskette drive, be sure to specify a format of 720K. 

The 2MB diskettes can be used in 1.44MB diskette drives only and must be 
formatted to 1 .44MB. You must use a 1 .44MB or 2.88MB diskette drive to format. 

If you intend to transfer diskettes between computers that have diskette drives with 
different capacities, use only 1 MB diskettes formatted to 720K. 

Note: A 1 .44MB diskette drive might have "1 .44" printed on the diskette eject 
button. A 720K diskette drive usually has no identification mark. 

Most diskettes have labels indicating their type. You can also use the DIR or 
CHKDSK command to view information about the storage capacity of a formatted 
disk. For information about these commands, type help dir or help chkdsk for a 
brief explanation and command syntax. 



Types of Diskette Drives 

Not all types of diskettes are compatible with all types of diskette drives. In 
general, the diskette must be formatted at a capacity less than or equal to the 
capacity of the drive in order for the diskette and diskette drive to be compatible. 
For example, if you have a high-density 5.25-inch diskette drive designed to work 
with 1 .2MB diskettes, you can use diskettes formatted as 360K disks. However, if 
you have a 360K drive, you usually cannot use disks formatted as 1 .2MB disks. If 
you are unsure whether a diskette works with a certain drive, you can try using the 
diskette by inserting it in the diskette drive and using the DIR command. If the 
diskette and drive are incompatible or if the diskette is unformatted, DOS displays a 
General failure error message. 



50 DOS User's Guide 



DOS adjusts its operations to work with the type of diskette drive you are using. 
When using some commands, you must add a switch if your diskette drive and 
diskette do not have the same capacity. 

Considerations for Formatting Disks 

Before you can use a disk, you must prepare it by using the FORMAT command. 
The diskette might or might not have been previously formatted. 

When you format a disk, DOS performs a safe format by default. Because of the 
safe format, you can restore the diskette to the way it was before the format by 
using the UNFORMAT command, provided you have not stored files on the newly 
formatted disk. 

When you format a diskette or hard disk, DOS reserves a small part of the disk for 
its tracking system. The tracking system consists of two parts: a file allocation 
table, which tracks the location of each file on the disk, and the root directory, which 
stores the name, size, creation date and time, and file attributes for the files on the 
disk. 

If you are using a new hard disk, you must partition it before you can format it. 
While you are running the DOS Setup program, if the hard disk is unpartitioned or 
unformatted, you can partition and format the hard disk. For information about 
setting up DOS on a hard disk, refer to the installation .instructions. You can also 
partition a new hard disk by using the Fixed Disk Setup Program (FDISK). For 
information about FDISK and partitioning, see Chapter 4, "Partitioning Your Hard 
Disk" on page 59. 

CAUTION: 

Because the FORMAT command destroys all information on a disk, it is a 
good idea to develop the habit of using the DIR command before formatting a 
disk so that you do not destroy important files. DOS displays a warning 
message if you attempt to format your hard disk. If you accidentally format 
your hard disk and you have not written new information to it, you might be 
able to use the UNFORMAT command to recover its contents. For 
information, see "Unformatting a Disk" on page 53. 

Formatting a Disk 

To format a diskette or hard disk, use the FORMAT command. For example, the 
following command formats a diskette in drive A: 

format a: 

Note: You must specify the drive that contains the diskette you want to format. 



Chapter 3. Managing Disks 51 



To format a hard disk after it has been partitioned, type: 

format (drive letter) 
at the DOS command prompt. If the hard disk has already been formatted, 

Warning, all data on non- removable disk drive C: will be lost 
Proceed with format (Y/N) ? 

Type y to proceed, or n to cancel the command. 

There are several switches that can be used with the format command. Some of 
the more common that you will use are as follows: 

/q Use this switch on a previously formatted disk to speed up the format process. 

/u Use this switch on new disks to speed up the format process or on disk where 
you have received read and write errors during the use of the disk. 

Use this switch to specify an unconditional format process which destroys all 
existing data on a disk and prevents you from using the UNFORMAT 
command. 

/f Use this switch to specify the size of the diskette to format. For example, if 
drive A is a 1.2MB, 5.25-inch drive, and you want to format a 360K diskette in 
it, you would type the following: 

format a: /f:36 

For more information about the switches that can be used with the FORMAT 
command, type help format for a brief explanation and command syntax. 

As it formats the disk, DOS displays the percentage of the disk that has been 
formatted. After the disk is formatted, you are prompted to give the disk a volume 
label. Type the name you want to give the disk, or press ENTER if you do not want 
a label. 

DOS then displays information about how the disk has formatted: 

1213952 bytes total disk space 
1213952 bytes available on disk 

512 bytes in each allocation unit 
2371 allocation units available on disk 

Volume Serial Number is 382C-17F4 



DOS User's Guide 



Bytes total disk space 



Indicates the storage capacity of the disk. 



Displayed if you have transferred the DOS system 
files to the disk. This line shows how much disk 
space is used by the three system files. 

Indicates how much of the disk is unusable 
because of bad sectors. If there are no bad 
sectors, this line is omitted. If a diskette has any 
bad sectors, do not store important files or backup 
files on it. Most hard disks have a small number of 
bad sectors. In general, the portion of a hard disk 
taken up by bad sectors should be a small fraction 
of the total space available. 

Indicates the total disk space minus the space 
taken up by the system files and any bad sectors. If 
the disk does not contain system files and there are 
no bad sectors, this number should be the same as 
the "bytes total disk space" number. 

Indicate how DOS has divided the available disk for 
file storage. If you multiply the two numbers on 
these lines, the result is the same as the "bytes 
available on disk" number. 

Volume serial number Indicates the serial number assigned to the disk. 

This number does not change unless the disk is 
formatted again. 

Following this information, you are prompted to format another disk. Type y to 
format another disk in the same drive with the same switches, or type n to return to 
the DOS command prompt. 

Unformatting a Disk 

You can restore a disk that has been reformatted by using the UNFORMAT 
command. The UNFORMAT command works most reliably if the disk was 
safe-formatted (that is, if you used the FORMAT command without the /u switch). 
The UNFORMAT command is most effective if used immediately after a disk has 
been reformatted. 



Bytes used by system 



Bytes in bad sectors 



Bytes available on disk 



Bytes in each allocation 
unit and allocation units 
available on disk 



Chapter 3. Managing Disks 53 



If the disk was safe-formatted, UN FORMAT restores the disk to the way it was at 
the time of the format. To restore a disk that has been safe-formatted, use the 
UNFORMAT command. For example, to restore a hard disk (drive C), use the 
following command: 

unf ormat c : 

You cannot restore a formatted disk if you use the /u switch with the FORMAT 
command. The /u switch performs an unconditional format (removes the 
safe-formatting). You also cannot restore a diskette if you changed its storage 
capacity when you reformatted it. You need to use the UNFORMAT command 
immediately after you have formatted a disk. If you have saved anything on the 
disk between formatting and unformatting, you will probably lose some of the 
information. 

For more information about the UNFORMAT command, type help unf ormat for a 
brief explanation and command syntax. 

Creating a System Diskette 

It is recommended that you make a system diskette to handle emergencies such as 
your computer system not starting. When the system files are on a diskette, you 
can use the diskette to start your system from drive A. 

System diskettes contain three DOS system files— IBMBIO.COM, IBMD0S.COM, 
and C0MMAND.COM. When you start your system, these three files are copied 
from the system diskette to your system's random-access memory (RAM). The 
IBMBIO.COM and IBMD0S.COM files are hidden files; you do not see them in 
directory listings on the diskette unless you use the /a switch with the DIR 
command. The COMMAND.COM file is usually in the root directory of every 
system diskette. 

In addition to these three DOS system files, you want to include the file 
FDISK.COM and an editor. You must copy these files to the system diskette. 

To create a system diskette during formatting, use the FORMAT command with the 
/s switch. For example, the following command formats the diskette in drive B and 
makes it a system diskette: 

format b: /s 



54 DOS User's Guide 



You can also use the following to ensure the use of a system diskette: 

Make a formatted diskette a system diskette by using the SYS command. For 
example, to copy the system files COMMAND.COM, IBMBI0.COM, and 
IBMD0S.COM to a formatted diskette in drive A, type the following: 

sys a : 

Keep diskette # 1 of the install diskettes handy. This diskette can be used to 
start your system. 

Note: You cannot make a system diskette by using the COPY command. This 
command does not copy the hidden system files. You must use the 
FORMAT or SYS command. For more information about these commands, 
type help format or help sys for a brief explanation and command syntax. 



Labeling a Disk 

Each disk can have a name, called the volume label, and a number, called the 
volume serial number. DOS uses the volume serial number to keep track of which 
disk is in a drive. DOS assigns a serial number to a disk when you format it. The 
serial number does not change unless the disk is formatted again. Only disks 
formatted by DOS version 4.0 and later have a serial number. DOS displays the 
disk's volume label and serial number above the list of files in every directory. 

You can change a disk's volume label by using the LABEL command. The volume 
label you choose can contain no more than 1 1 characters, and it cannot include the 
following characters: asterisk (*), question mark (?), slash (/), backslash (\), pipe (I), 
period (.), comma (,), colon (:), semicolon (;), plus sign (+), equal sign (=), less-than 
sign (<), greater-than sign (>), caret (~), quotation mark ("), brackets ([ ]), 
ampersand (&), parentheses (), or any key combinations. Volume labels can 
include spaces but not tabs. 

Note: You can use extended characters in a label, but if you do, it is 

recommended that you use code page 850. If you use code page 437, 
support for extended characters is limited. 



Chapter 3. Managing Disks 55 



Assigning and Deleting Labels 

If you work with a large number of disks, it might be convenient to create a label for 
each disk. You can view the label when you use the DIR or VOL command. 

To assign a volume label, use the LABEL command. For example, use the following 
command to assign the label disk 2 to a diskette in drive A: 

label a:disk 2 

If you type a drive letter, but no label, DOS prompts you for a label. For example, 
to label the diskette in drive B, type the following command: 

label b: 

DOS displays the current label and serial number of the diskette in drive B and then 
prompts you to type a new volume label. 

To delete a volume label, use the LABEL command without a name. When DOS 
prompts you to type a new volume label, press ENTER. A message appears, 
asking you to confirm deletion of the volume label. Type y to delete the label. 

Viewing Labels 

To view a disk's volume label and serial number, use the DIR or VOL command. 
When you use the DIR command, the volume label and serial number for the disk 
that you specify are displayed above the list of files. 

The VOL command displays the volume label and serial number of the disk in the 
drive you specify (if the disk has no serial number, only the volume label is 
displayed). For example, type the following command to view the volume label and 
serial number of the diskette in drive A: 

vol a : 



56 DOS User's Guide 



Recovering Files from Defective Disks 

If DOS or a program can no longer read a file or directory, there might be one or 
more damaged sectors on the disk. To recover the parts of the file or directory that 
are not damaged, you can use the RECOVER command. 

CAUTION: 

The root directory, where the recovered files are stored, can hold only a 
limited number of entries. If you try to recover more files than the root 
directory can hold, some files will be lost. In general, use the RECOVER 
command only when it is absolutely necessary. 

Recovering Files 

You cannot retrieve the part of a file that is stored in a defective sector, but you can 
recover the rest of it by using the RECOVER command. For example, if part of the 
GRAY.HIC file on a diskette in drive A is no longer readable by the program that 
created it, you can use the following command to try to recover some of the 
information in the file: 

recover a: gray. hie 

DOS reads the file one sector at a time. If any of the sectors are damaged, DOS 
removes them from the file. DOS marks the bad sectors so that information cannot 
be stored there in the future. 

When the operation is complete, DOS stores the recovered file in the root directory 
of the disk it came from. DOS names the recovered files sequentially, beginning 
with FILE0001.REC. 

Note: Even if a part of a file is successfully recovered, the file might be unusable if 
the information that was unrecoverable is critical to the file. 

If a directory is unusable, you can use the RECOVER command to recover as 
much of the information on the disk as possible. For example, to recover files in a 
directory on a diskette in drive A, you would type this command: 

recover a: 

All files that DOS recovers are stored in the root directory of the disk they came 
from. 



Chapter 3. Managing Disks 57 



58 DOS User's Guide 



Chapter 4. Partitioning Your Hard Disk 



Each operating system has conventions for storing files on a hard disk. If you use 
only DOS, your entire hard disk can be set up to use DOS conventions. However, 
if you want to use another operating system in addition to DOS, you must partition 
your hard disk into DOS sections and non-DOS sections. 

If you use only DOS, you can create a single DOS partition that occupies your 
entire disk. If you use only DOS and want to separate groups of directories, you 
can create a second DOS partition. When you use multiple partitions, DOS still has 
access to the entire hard disk. However, the files in the second partition appear to 
be on a different drive. 

If you are going to use your hard disk with another operating system (for example, 
OS/2* HPFS), you must create a partition for DOS and a partition for the other 
operating system. You use an operating system by making its partition active. 

Partitioning your disk is different from formatting it. When you partition a disk, you 
specify which sections of the disk DOS or another operating system can use. 
When you format a disk, DOS prepares an existing partition to receive files. After 
partitioning your disk, you must still format each partition before it can be used. 
See "Formatting Your Hard Disk After Using FDISK" on page 72. 

To create one or more DOS partitions on a hard disk, use the Fixed Disk Setup 
Program (FDISK) described in "Using FDISK" on page 61 . 



Understanding Hard-Disk Partitions 

You can create two kinds of DOS partitions on a hard disk: 

The primary DOS partition is the area that stores the IBMBIO.COM, 
IBMDOS.COM, and COMMAND.COM files necessary to run DOS. The primary 
partition can contain other files as well. If you want to start DOS from a hard 
disk, that disk must have a primary DOS partition. 

An extended DOS partition is an area where other non-system files can be 
stored on a disk. An extended partition is optional. 



OS/2 is a trademark of IBM Corporation. 
Copyright IBM Corp. 1981, 1993 



59 



You can have two partitions on a hard disk: one primary DOS partition and one 
extended partition. The extended partition can contain up to 23 logical drives. A 
logical drive is a section of a hard disk that serves as a separate disk drive. If you 
create a primary partition that does not occupy the entire hard disk, you can create 
an extended partition in the remaining space. In the extended partition, you can 
create logical drives. 

The Primary DOS Partition 

If you start DOS from a hard disk, the disk must have a primary DOS partition that 
contains the three DOS system files (IBMBIO.COM, IBMD0S.COM, and 
C0MMAND.COM). This partition must be the active partition. In general, the 
primary DOS partition on the first hard disk is assigned the drive letter C. 

You can reserve a portion of the disk space for the primary DOS partition. The rest 
of the disk space can be used for other partitions. 

The Extended DOS Partition 

When you create an extended DOS partition, you divide it into one or more logical 
drives. There are 26 letters available for logical drives (A through Z). Drives A and 
B are reserved for diskette drives. Drive C is reserved for the first primary DOS 
partition. Thus, there is a maximum of 23 logical drives that you can create in an 
extended DOS partition. 

You can use logical drives to group your directories and files. Logical drives do not 
create more disk space, however. 

For information about how to create an extended DOS partition, see "Creating an 
Extended DOS Partition" on page 66. 

Non-DOS Partitions 

Non-DOS partitions are partitions for other operating systems (such as OS/2 
HPFS). You cannot use the DOS version of the Fixed Disk Setup Program to 
create a non-DOS partition. For information about creating non-DOS partitions, see 
your system documentation. 

The Active Partition 

To start your operating system from a hard disk, you must make the primary 
partition (in which the operating system is stored) the active partition. For example, 
to use DOS, make your primary DOS partition active. You can use a partition that 
is not designated as active, but you cannot start an operating system from that 
partition. The only way you can start an operation system from a partition not 
designation as active is if you run a multi-boot manager program, such as IBM 
OS/2 Boot Manager, which must be active. 



60 DOS User's Guide 



A hard disk can have only one active partition at a time. 

If you have only a primary DOS partition, it must be the active partition. For more 
information about the active partition, see "Setting the Active Partition" on page 69. 



Using FDISK 

The FDISK displays information about partitions, creates partitions and logical 
drives, sets the active partition, and deletes partitions and logical drives. 

If your computer has never had an operating system installed on it, you can choose 
to have your disk partitioned during installation or you can run FDISK to partition 
your disk after you have installed DOS. 

CAUTION: 

FDISK destroys all existing files in partitions you modify. If you are using 
FDISK to change the partitions on a disk with files on it, be sure to back up 
the files you want to keep before you begin. If you want to create smaller 
partitions on a hard disk that has only a large DOS partition, you must first 
back up all files you want to save. 

Running FDISK During DOS Installation 

If DOS is the first operating system to be set up on your computer, you can choose 
to partition your disk when you run the Setup program. By default, the Setup 
program creates one primary DOS partition that occupies the entire disk. If you 
want to create more than one partition, select Partition some of the free space 
for DOS during Setup. To partition the disk, follow the steps described in the 
subsequent sections of this chapter. When you finish creating partitions, DOS 
continues the Setup program. For more information about setting up DOS, refer to 
Appendix A, "Installing DOS" on page 391. 



Chapter 4. Partitioning Your Hard Disk 61 



Running FDISK After DOS Has Been Installed 

After you set up DOS, you can repartition your disk by typing: 

fdisk 

at the DOS command prompt. When the Fixed Disk Setup Program starts, the 
main menu appears, as follows: 

IBM DOS Version 6. 
Fixed Disk Setup Program 
Copyright (c) IBM Corporation 1983 - 1993 

FDISK Options 

Current fixed disk drive: 1 



Choose one of the following: 

1. Create DOS partition or Logical DOS Drive 

2 . Set active partition 

3 . Delete partition or Logical DOS Drive 

4. Display partition information 



Enter choice: [1] 



Press Esc to exit FDISK 



CAUTION: 

If you use FDISK to change existing partitions on a hard disk, you lose the 
information contained in those partitions. Be sure you have copies of all files 
in a partition before using FDISK to change the partition. 

To choose a menu option, type the option number and then press ENTER. To 
return to a previous menu, press ESC. To quit FDISK, return to the main menu, 
and then press ESC. 

Each menu displays a Current fixed disk drive message, followed by a number. 
If you have only one hard (fixed) disk drive, the number is always 1 . If you have 
more than one hard disk drive, the number shows which drive FDISK is currently 
working with. The first hard disk drive in your system is 1, the second is 2, and so 
on. Changing the current drive when you are using FDISK does not change the 
current drive when you return to the DOS command prompt. The current drive 
refers only to physical disk drives, not logical drives, when you are using FDISK. 



62 DOS User's Guide 



Viewing Partition Data 

You can view information about the status, type, and size of the partitions on a hard 
disk by selecting Display Partition Information (option 4) from the FDISK main 
menu. 

The Display Partition Information screen looks like this: 

Display Partition Information 

Current fixed disk drive: 1 

Partition Staus Type Volume Label 

C: 1 A PRI DOS IBMDOS_5 

2 EXT DOS 

Total disk space is 42 Mbytes (1 Mbyte 

The Extended DOS partition contains 
logical DOS drives. Do you want to 
display logical drive information? [Y] 

Press Esc to continue 



The information varies, depending on the number, size, and type of partitions on 
your hard disk. 



Column 


Description 


Partition 


Shows the drive letter associated with each partition and the number of 




each partition. 


Status 


Displays the letter A next to the active partition. 


Type 


Shows whether a partition is a primary DOS partition (PRI DOS), an 




extended DOS partition (EXT DOS), or a non-DOS partition. 


Volume Label 


Shows the volume label of the primary partition. This field can be 




blank. 


Mbytes 


Shows the size of each partition, in megabytes. 


System 


Shows the type of file system being used on the partition. 


Usage 


Shows the percentage of the current disk that each partition occupies. 



Mbytes System Usage 

21 FAT16 5 % 
21 5 % 

= 1 48576 bytes) 



Chapter 4. Partitioning Your Hard Disk 63 



If there is an extended DOS partition that contains logical drives, a prompt appears, 
asking whether you want to see information about that partition's logical drives. 
Type y if you want to view this information. 

The screen displaying information about logical drives resembles this: 



Display Logical DOS Drive Information 

Drv Volume Label Mbytes System 
D: BACKUPA 18 FAT16 

E: BACKUPB 2 FAT12 

Total Extended DOS Partition size is 
Press Esc to continue 



Usage 
9 % 
1 % 

2 Mbytes (1 Mbyte = 1 4 8576 bytes 



The information varies, depending on the number and size of the logical drives. 



Column 


Description 


Drv 


Displays the drive letter of each logical drive. 


Volume Label 


Shows the label assigned to each drive. This field can be blank. 


Mbytes 


Shows the size of each logical drive, in megabytes. 


System 


Shows the type of file system being used on that partition. 


Usage 


Shows the percentage of available space in the extended DOS partition 




that each logical drive occupies. 



Creating a Primary DOS Partition 

The hard disk you use to start DOS must have a primary DOS partition. You can 
create a primary DOS partition that occupies the entire hard disk or only part of it. 
If you want to create an extended DOS partition with logical drives or, if you want to 
have space for a non-DOS partition, you must create a primary DOS partition that 
does not occupy your entire disk. 

You cannot change the size of an existing primary DOS partition. If you want a 
primary DOS partition of a different size, you must delete the existing partition and 
create a new one. When you delete the existing partition, you lose any information 
stored there, so back up files you want to save. For information about deleting a 
partition, see "Deleting a Partition or Logical Drive" on page 70. 



64 DOS User's Guide 



If your hard disk does not already have a partition, you can use the following 
procedure to create a primary DOS partition that occupies the entire disk. 

To create a primary DOS partition that occupies the entire hard disk: 

1 . From the FDISK main menu, select Create DOS Partition or Logical DOS 

Drive (option 1) by pressing ENTER. 

Another menu appears. 

2. Select Create Primary DOS Partition (option 1) by pressing ENTER. 

Another prompt appears, displaying this message: 

Do you wish to use the maximum size for a Primary DOS 
Partition and make the partition active (Y/N) ? [Y] 

3. Type y 

If you type n, FDISK prompts you to create a smaller primary partition. See the 
following procedure for more information. 

FDISK creates a primary partition that takes up all the available space on the 
hard disk. If you have only one hard disk, DOS displays the following 
message: 

System will now restart 

Insert DOS system diskette into drive A: 
Press any key when ready 

4. Insert a DOS system diskette and then press any key. 

After partitioning the hard disk, you need to format it by using the FORMAT 
command with the /s switch. For more information, see "Formatting Your Hard Disk 
After Using FDISK" on page 72. 

To create a primary DOS partition that occupies part of the hard disk: 

1. From the FDISK main menu, select Create DOS Partition or Logical DOS 

Drive (option 1) and press ENTER. 

Another menu appears. 

2. Select Create Primary DOS Partition (option 1) by pressing ENTER. 
Another prompt appears, displaying this message: 

Do you wish to use the maximum available size for a Primary DOS 
Partition and make the partition active (Y/N).. ? -[Y] 

3. Type n and another menu appears. 



Chapter 4. Partitioning Your Hard Disk 65 



4. If you want the default size (100 percent), press ENTER. Otherwise, type the 
number of megabytes or the percentage of the disk to use. If you type a 
percentage, follow the number with a percent (%) sign. 

The following message appears: 

Primary DOS Partition created, drive letters changed or added. 

5. To return to the FDISK main menu, press ESC. 

When you quit FPISK, you need to format the new partition on your hard disk by 
using the FORMAT command with the /s switch. For more information, see 
"Formatting Your Hard Disk After Using FDISK" on page 72. 

Note: When you create a primary DOS partition that does not occupy your entire 
hard disk, you must make the partition active before you can use the hard 
disk with DOS. For more information about making a partition active, see 
"Setting the Active Partition" on page 69. 

Creating an Extended DOS Partition 

If you want to divide your hard disk into more than one DOS partition, you can 
create an extended DOS partition in addition to the primary DOS partition. Within 
the extended DOS partition, you typically can assign up to 23 logical drives. Logical 
drives are areas of your hard disk that DOS treats as separate disk drives. You 
must assign at least one logical drive to an extended DOS partition. 

If you have one hard disk, there must already be a primary DOS partition that uses 
only part of the disk before you can create an extended DOS partition. If you have 
more than one hard disk, only the disk you use to start your system must have a 
primary DOS partition; your other hard disk(s) can contain only extended DOS 
partitions. However, if you are using only one partition per disk, set the single 
partition as a primary partition. 

To create an extended DOS partition: 

1. From the FDISK main menu, select Create DOS Partition or Logical DOS 
Drive (option 1). 

The Create DOS Partition or Logical DOS Drive menu appears. 

2. From this menu, select Create Extended DOS Partition (option 2). 

A menu is displayed showing the total number of megabytes available for an 
extended partition. The default for the partition size is the maximum available 
space on the hard disk drive, minus the size of the primary partition. If there is 
no space available, you must delete and recreate the primary DOS partition so 
it is smaller or reduce the size of any non-DOS partitions that exist. 



66 DOS User's Guide 



3. If you want the default size, press ENTER. Otherwise, type the number of 
megabytes or the percentage of the unused disk space to be used for the 
extended DOS partition. If you type a percentage, follow the number with a 
percent (%) sign. 

The Create Logical Drive(s) in the Extended DOS Partition menu is displayed. 

When you create an extended DOS partition, you can set up one or more logical 
drives. See the following section for more information. 

Note: If FDISK finds defective tracks at the beginning of an extended DOS 
partition, it adjusts the partition boundaries to avoid those tracks. 

Creating Logical Drives in an Extended DOS Partition 

To store information in an extended DOS partition, you must create one or more 
logical drives. Each logical drive is assigned a drive letter. You can store and 
retrieve information on a logical drive as though it were a physical disk drive. For 
example, you can use logical drive D to store files for a particular program, and you 
can work with those files by specifying drive D rather than a directory. 

To create or modify a logical drive: 

1 . Create an extended DOS partition. 

See page 66 for information about how to create an extended DOS partition. 

2. Using the Create Logical DOS Drive(s) menu, type the number of megabytes or 
the percentage of the partition space you want to use for the first logical drive. 

If you type a percentage, follow the number with a percent (%) sign. If you 
want one logical drive to occupy the whole extended DOS partition, press 
ENTER. 

3. Continue specifying the sizes of partitions until you have used up the entire 
partition or until you have created all the logical drives you want. 

If the entire partition is assigned to logical drives, the FDISK main menu 
reappears. To quit the menu before all the space has been allocated, press 
ESC. 

After you create a logical drive, you must format it. For more information about 
formatting a logical drive, see "Formatting Your Hard Disk After Using FDISK" on 
page 72. 



Chapter 4. Partitioning Your Hard Disk 67 



How Drive Letters Are Assigned 

The primary DOS partition on your startup hard disk is drive C. The drive letters of 
additional hard disks and logical drives depend on the number of disks you are 
using and how they are partitioned. 

If you have only one hard disk, logical drives you create in the extended DOS 
partition are given letters beginning with D. For example, if you create five logical 
drives in the extended DOS partition, they are named D, E, F, G, and H. 

If your system has more than one hard disk and you have only one primary DOS 
partition, all logical drives you create in the extended DOS partitions are assigned 
letters consecutively. 

Suppose your system has two hard disks. The first has a primary DOS partition 
and an extended DOS partition with two logical drives, and the second hard disk 
has an extended partition with two logical drives. The primary DOS partition on the 
first disk is drive C; the two logical drives on the disk are drives D and E. The two 
logical drives on the second disk are drives F and G. 

You might have primary DOS partitions on more than one hard disk. If so, DOS 
assigns drive letters consecutively to all the primary DOS partitions first and then 
assigns drive letters consecutively to the logical drives in the extended DOS 
partitions. 

Suppose a system has two hard disks, each containing a primary DOS partition and 
an extended DOS partition with two logical drives. The primary DOS partition on 
the first disk is drive C; the primary DOS partition on the second is drive D. Logical 
drives on the first disk are drives E and F, and logical drives on the second are 
drives G and H. 

DOS assigns different drive letters to existing logical drives if you add another hard 
disk to your system and create a primary DOS partition on it. If you create only an 
extended DOS partition, the drive letters remain unchanged. For example, suppose 
you have a disk with a primary DOS partition named drive C and an extended DOS 
partition that has a logical drive named drive D. If you add a hard disk to your 
system and create a primary DOS partition on it, the primary DOS partition on the 
new disk becomes drive D because primary DOS partitions are assigned 
consecutive drive letters. The logical drive on the original disk becomes drive E 
instead of its prior designation as drive D. 

If you add another hard disk to your system and create only an extended DOS 
partition on it, the drives on the original disk are unaffected. Any logical drive that 



68 DOS User's Guide 



you create on the new disk is given the next available drive letter. For example, 
suppose you have a hard disk with a primary DOS partition (drive C) and two logical 
drives (drives D and E). If you add a second hard disk with two logical drives, 
these drives are named F and G. The drive letters on the original disk remain 
unchanged. 

Some programs only accept drive letters A and B. In these cases, you can use the 
SUBST (substitute) command, which temporarily substitutes a drive letter with 
another drive letter and path. While a substitution is in effect, DOS regards any 
reference to drive A or B as a reference to a directory on your hard disk. 

For example, suppose you are using a communications program that only accepts 
files from drive A. To substitute the drive letter A with the \COMM directory on 
drive C, you would type the following command before starting the program: 

subst a: c:\comm 

Then, when the program requests files from drive A, DOS looks in C:\COMM 
instead. 

The drive letter you specify in the SUBST command must not be greater (in 
alphabetic order) than the letter specified in the LASTDRIVE command in your 
CONFIG.SYS file. 

When you finish using the program, remove the association between the drive and 
the directory by using the 16 switch: 

subst a: /d 

The following commands ignore any substitutions you make when using the SUBST 
command: FORMAT, CHKDSK, DISKCOMP, DISKCOPY, FDISK, LABEL, 
RECOVER, RESTORE, and SYS. 

Setting the Active Partition 

The active partition contains the operating system that is loaded when you start or 
reset your system. Unless you create a primary DOS partition that occupies your 
entire hard disk, you must set the active partition by using FDISK. If you are using 
a non-DOS partition, you must reset the active partition when you want to switch 
between DOS and the non-DOS operating system. Only one partition can be active 
at a time. 



Chapter 4. Partitioning Your Hard Disk 69 



To set the active partition: 

1. From the FDISK main menu, select Set Active Partition (option 2). 

A menu appears that displays the status of each partition. The active partition 
is indicated by the letter A. 

2. Type the number of the partition you want to make active. The default setting 
is the current active partition number. 

3. To return to the FDISK main menu, press ESC. 

You can make only primary partitions active. If you try to make an extended DOS 
partition active, FDISK displays a message similar to the following: 

Partition selected (3) is not startable, active partition not changed. 

Deleting a Partition or Logical Drive 

You might need to change the size of your partitions. For example, you might need 
to make room for a non-DOS operating system or change the size and number of 
the logical drives. You cannot reduce or enlarge an existing partition. If you want 
to change a partition's size, you must delete the partition and recreate it. 

When you delete a partition, all information in the partition is deleted and cannot be 
recovered. Therefore, be sure you have backup copies of the information you want 
to save. When you delete a partition, you do not lose information stored in other 
partitions on your disk. For example, if you delete the extended DOS partition but 
not the primary DOS partition, files in the primary DOS partition are not deleted. 

If you want to delete the primary DOS partition on a disk, you must first delete each 
logical drive in the extended partition, then the extended partition itself. 

You can delete one or more logical drives in the extended DOS partition of a hard 
disk. All information on a logical drive is lost when you delete it. Deleting one 
logical drive does not affect the information on other logical drives. 

If there are logical drives that have drive letters greater (in alphabetic order) than 
the drive you delete, these letters will change. Suppose, for example, that you 
have logical drives D, E, and F on a disk. If you delete drive D, drive E becomes 
drive D, and drive F becomes drive E. 

Note: To continue using DOS after you delete the primary DOS partition, you must 
restart your system, using a DOS system diskette in drive A. Make sure 
you have a diskette formatted as a system diskette before you delete the 
primary partition. 



70 DOS User's Guide 



To delete a partition or logical DOS drive: 

1. From the FDISK main menu, select Delete Partition or Logical DOS Drive 

(option 3). 

Another menu appears. 

2. Type the number of the option you want. 

FDISK displays the status of the partition or logical drives along with a message 
warning that the data in the partition or logical drive will be lost. 

3. Type the number that corresponds with the drive letter and then type the 
volume label of the logical drive you want to delete. 

FDISK displays a message confirming the information you typed. 

4. Type y to delete the partition or drive. 

If you deleted your primary DOS partition, you need to create a new one before you 
can use DOS from your hard disk. 

To create a new primary DOS partition before you quit the Fixed Disk Setup 
Program: 

1. From the FDISK main menu, select Create DOS Partition or Logical DOS 
Drive (option 1). 

Another menu appears. 

2. Follow the instructions in the preceding sections to create a DOS partition that 
occupies either your entire hard disk or only part of it. 

When FDISK is finished, a prompt appears. 

3. Insert a system diskette in drive A and press any key to restart your system. 

4. Format the new partition by using the FORMAT command with the /s switch. 

5. Remove the system diskette from drive A and restart your system. 

At this point, your hard disk contains the DOS files IBMBIO.COM, 
IBMDOS.COM, and C0MMAND.COM. You can now install the remaining DOS 
files by inserting the next Setup diskette and continuing with DOS installation. 



Chapter 4. Partitioning Your Hard Disk 71 



Working with More Than One Hard Disk 

If your system has more than one hard disk drive, you can use FDISK to create and 
modify partitions on any drive. The first physical disk must have a primary DOS 
partition. Your other disks can have primary DOS partitions or extended DOS 
partitions, or both. On most computers with multiple hard disks, only drive C can be 
used to start the operating system. 

When you start FDISK, you work with the first hard disk on your system. To work 
with a different disk drive, you must select Change Current Fixed Disk Drive 
(option 5) from the FDISK main menu and specify the number of the drive you want 
to partition. If you have only one hard disk drive, the Change Current Fixed Disk 
Drive option is not displayed on the FDISK main menu. 

Formatting Your Hard Disk After Using FDISK 

When you quit FDISK after you change the size of any of the DOS partitions on 
your hard disk, this message is displayed: 

System will now restart 

If you changed the size of your primary DOS partition, FDISK prompts you to insert 
the DOS system diskette in drive A and press any key. You then return to the 
DOS command prompt. 

After using FDISK, you must use the FORMAT command to prepare any partition 
that you create or change. If you do not format the disk, DOS gives you the 
following error message when you try to use the hard disk: 

Invalid media type 

If you are formatting the primary DOS partition of the hard disk from which you will 
start your system, be sure to transfer the DOS system files from a diskette by using 
the FORMAT command with the /s switch or by using the SYS command after you 
format. 

When you format your hard disk, you must format each new partition separately. 
For example, if you made your primary DOS partition (drive C) smaller and created 
two logical drives in an extended DOS partition (drives D and E), you must use the 
FORMAT command three times: 

format c: /s 
format d: 
format e : 

The first command formats the primary partition and transfers the DOS system files 
from the startup disk to that partition. The second and third commands format the 
logical drives. 



72 DOS User's Guide 



CAUTION: 

If you made changes to some but not all of the partitions or logical drives on 
your system, be careful when you format the partitions or drives you 
changed. Because FDISK can assign different letters to drives after you 
change partitions or logical drives, you might inadvertently format a drive that 
has information stored on it. 

Before you format a drive, you can use the CHKDSK command to check the 
contents of the drive. If you see the message Probable non-DOS disk or invalid 
media type before the disk information is displayed, the drive is not formatted. If 
the disk information is displayed without this message, the drive is formatted. 

You might want to give a descriptive label to each logical drive you create so that 
you know what information is on it when you make changes to your system. You 
can do this by using the /v switch when you use the FORMAT command. 

For more information, see "Considerations for Formatting Disks" on page 51 . 



Chapter 4. Partitioning Your Hard Disk 73 



DOS User's Guide 



Chapter 5. Working with Batch Programs 



As you work with DOS, you might find yourself repeatedly typing identical 
sequences of commands. For example, you might often type the same three 
commands to change the current drive, change the current directory, and then start 
a program. By using DOS, you can store commands in a batch program or batch 
file. Instead of typing commands individually, you need only type the name of the 
batch program. DOS carries out this "batch" of commands as if you had typed the 
commands individually from the keyboard. 

A batch program is an unformatted text file that contains one or more DOS 
commands. For example, a batch program might contain the commands you use to 
change your directory and start a text editor, such as the E Editor. 

Suppose you are copying files to a diskette by using the following commands: 

cd\work\ doc files 
copy . txt a: 
cd\ report s\xf iles 
copy .txt a: 

To put these four commands into a batch program, you store them in an 
unformatted text file and assign the file a .BAT extension. Each time you want to 
copy these files, you type the name of the batch program at the DOS command 
prompt. 

Using batch programs gives you the following advantages: 

Batch programs speed up your work. When you run a batch program, you only 
have to remember one command, instead of several. You do not have to 
retype multiple commands or look up commands you cannot remember. 

Batch programs customize DOS. Using batch programs, you can create 
personalized commands that perform the exact task you need. You can also 
design your own prompts and messages. 



Copyright IBM Corp. 1981, 1993 



75 



Understanding Batch Program Commands 

Any DOS command you use at the DOS command prompt or in DOS Shell can 
also be put in a batch program. In addition, there are DOS commands that are 
specially designed for batch programs. The commands and their functions are as 
follows: 



Command 


Action 


CALL 


Runs a second batch program and then returns to the first one. 


CHOICE 


Prompts you to choose from a set of choices, waits until you make a 




choice by pressing a key, and beeps if you select a key that is not 




amona the available choices 


ECHO 


Displays messages on your screen or turns the ECHO feature on or off. 


FOR 


Carries out a command for a group of files or directories. 


GOTO 


Switches to commands in another part of your batch program and 




continues processing commands from that point. 


IF 


Carries out a command based on the result of a condition. 


PAUSE 


Temporarily stops your batch program from running; your program starts 




running again when you press any key. 


REM 


Annotates your batch program so that you can remember what each 




part of the program does. 


SHIFT 


Changes the position of replaceable parameters. 


@ 


Is placed in front of a command in your batch program and prevents the 




single command from being displayed. 



The CALL, ECHO, GOTO, IF, PAUSE, and REM commands are explained further 
in this chapter. 

For information about the remaining commands (FOR, CHOICE, and SHIFT 
command), type help followed by the command name for a brief explanation and 
command syntax. 



76 DOS User's Guide 



Creating a Batch Program 

You can create a batch program by using the E Editor or the COPY command. 
When you use a text editor other than the E Editor to create a batch program, save 
your files as unformatted (ASCII) text. Most text editors have an option for saving 
files this way. 

For information about the E Editor, see Chapter 8, "Working with the Text Editor" 
on page 109. 

When you are creating a small batch program, it might be more convenient to use 
the COPY command, which is described on page 78. 

Naming a Batch Program 

A batch program must have a .BAT file name extension. It is generally not a good 
idea to give a batch program the same name as an existing DOS command. 
Suppose, for example that you create a batch program for a customized formatting 
command and name it FORMAT.BAT. The program does not run if DOS finds the 
FORMAT.COM file before it finds FORMAT.BAT, because DOS gives precedence 
to files with .COM and .EXE extensions. 

You can avoid this problem by using a name that is not already assigned to a DOS 
command. For example, you might name the program MYFMT.BAT. 

Running a Batch Program 

To run a batch program, you type its name without the extension. For example, if 
you had a file named FILES.BAT in your current directory, you would type the 
following command to run the batch program: 

files 

When the batch program has parameters, add a space after the file name. For 
example, when the FILES.BAT program requires a file specification as a parameter, 
you would type a command like this: 

files c:\reports\data 

By default, DOS displays each command in a batch program as the command is 
carried out. After the batch program runs, DOS might display two DOS command 
prompts because it treats the end-of-file character in a batch program as a new 
line. 



Chapter 5. Working with Batch Programs 77 



Stopping a Batch Program 

When you want to stop a batch program before all of its commands have run, press 
CTRL+C or CTRL+BREAK (more than once, if necessary). You get a message 
asking to confirm that you want to stop the batch program. 

Type y to stop the program or n to continue with the next command. You can 
temporarily stop a batch program by pressing CTRL+S or the PAUSE key. This 
"freezes" the screen until you press another key. 

When your batch program is on a diskette and you remove the diskette while the 
program is running, DOS displays the following message: 

Not ready reading drive A 
Abort, Retry, Fail? 

To continue running the batch program, reinsert the diskette and type r. 



Making a Small Batch Program 

You can use the E Editor provided with DOS to create a batch program. When 
there are more than a few lines in your batch program, it is a good idea to use a 
text editor to create the file. 

Suppose, for example, you want to create a batch program that formats a 360K 
diskette in your high-density diskette drive. To create the program and name it 
MYFMT.BAT, use the following E command: 

e c : \my fmt . bat 

At this point, the file is empty and the cursor is placed where you can add the 
FORMAT command to the file. Type the following: 

format a: /f:36 

Now you are ready to close the file and return to the DOS command prompt. You 
do so by pressing F4. 

After you have created the batch program, you need only type the name of the 
batch program to format a 360K diskette in your high-density diskette drive, as 
follows: 

my fmt 

DOS displays the FORMAT command on the screen, and then prompts you to 
insert a diskette in drive A. Make sure the directory that contains this batch 
program is either current or in the directory search path. 



78 DOS User's Guide 



Testing a Batch Program 

It is generally best to a create a large batch program in stages. This ensures that 
one part of the batch program works before you create another part. 

When you run a batch program that contains a command that is not valid, DOS 
cancels that command and proceeds to the next. If the batch program is set up to 
display commands as they are carried out, you will see an error message when a 
command is not valid. If commands are not displayed, the batch program will 
contain an ECHO OFF command. Remove any ECHO OFF commands if you want 
commands to be displayed along with the error messages. 

Displaying Messages with a Batch Program 

You can include messages in a batch program to prompt you for additional 
information or to remind you of a particular task that the batch program does. 

When you want DOS to display a message on your screen, use the ECHO 
command. For example, to display the message Put a diskette in drive a, you 
would use the following command: 

echo Put a diskette in drive A 

Tip: On networks, your message is displayed quicker when you put it in a .TXT file 
and then use the TYPE command in your batch program to display the message. 

DOS displays this message on the screen. When you want the message shifted to 
the right a certain number of spaces, you must include the spaces as part of the 
message. For example, to center the message on your screen, add the necessary 
spaces in the command, as follows: 

echo Put a diskette in drive A 

When you want to skip a line, type ECHO followed by a period: 

echo . 

When ECHO is on, DOS displays batch commands at the command prompt as it 
carries them out. Therefore, the message in the preceding example (Put a 
diskette in drive a) is displayed twice: first at the command prompt as part of 
the batch command and secondly as a prompt to carry out the command itself. To 
suppress commands that appear at the command prompt and display a message 
only once, use the following command: 

echo off 

Add this command to the beginning of your program as the first line. 



Chapter 5. Working with Batch Programs 79 



Tip: To prevent a single command in your batch program from being displayed, put 
an at sign (@) in front of it. For example, to prevent the display of the ECHO OFF 
command, type @echo off 

When you want commands to be displayed, use this command at the beginning of 
the program: 

echo on 

Using the PAUSE Command 

To momentarily stop a batch program at a predetermined command or print task, 
use the PAUSE command in the batch program, as follows: 

pause 

When DOS finds a PAUSE command in a batch program, it displays the following 
message: 

Press any key to continue... 

DOS stops running the program until you press any key (except the PAUSE key). 

For example, adding a PAUSE command to the following COPYIT.BAT program 
stops the program from running while you put a diskette in drive A. 

echo off 

echo Put a diskette in drive A then 
pause 

copy c:\work\may\ . txt a: 
copy c:\reports\may\ .doc a: 
els 

echo Here are the files you copied: 
echo . 

dir a: /p 

When this batch program pauses, DOS displays the following: 

Put a diskette in drive A then 
Press any key to continue. . . 



80 DOS User's Guide 



Including Remarks in a Batch Program 

When your batch program is longer than a few lines, it is helpful to include remarks. 
You can use remarks to comment on the commands in a batch program and to 
make the program easier to read by separating it into sections. 

You add a remark by typing rem followed by a space and the comment you want to 
include, as in this example: 

rem This part of the batch program copies files to a diskette. 

Note: Ensure that the ECHO command is turned off before using the REM 
command. 

After you type rem and a space, DOS ignores any other text on the line. Therefore, 
you can type any character you want on the remark line or leave it blank with the 
exception of the following character symbols that have special meaning for 
COMMAND.COM: 

less-than (<) 
greater-than (>) 
pipe (I) 

For example, the following remarks divide and explain sections of COPYIT.BAT: 

rem Copy of the MAY subdirectories 

rem 

echo off 

echo Put a diskette in drive A then 
pause 

copy c:\work\may\ . txt a: 
copy c:\reports\may\ .doc a: 
rem 

rem Clear the screen and display the files that were copied 

rem 

els 

echo Here are the files you copied: 
echo . 

dir a: /p 

Remarks do not affect the way a batch program runs; they simply annotate the 
commands for anyone who reads the file. 



Chapter 5. Working with Batch Programs 81 



Running One Batch Program from Another 

You can run a batch program from another batch program by including just the 
name of the program you want to start or by including the CALL command with the 
name of the program. If you type only the name, the original batch program quits 
running, and the new batch program runs instead. 

For example, the following batch program runs four commands and then starts a 
batch program named NEXTONE: 

a : 

cd\tmp 

copy c : \ . sys a : 

cd\perm 

nextone 

When NEXTONE finishes running, DOS displays the command prompt. 

If you want to return to the original batch program after running the other batch 
program, use a CALL command with the name of the program you want to start. 
When the second batch program finishes running, DOS returns to the original batch 
program and carries out the next command. 

For example, the following batch program carries out two commands, starts 
NEXTONE, and then carries out two more commands when NEXTONE finishes 
running: 

a : 

cd\tmp 

call nextone 

copy c : \ . sys a : 

cd\perm 



Using Replaceable Parameters 

DOS includes symbols called replaceable parameters, numbered %0 through %9. 
You can include replaceable parameters in a batch program. When you run the 
batch program, DOS replaces the symbol with the parameter you include when you 
type the batch command. 

The %0 replaceable parameter substitutes for the name of the batch command as it 
is typed at the DOS command prompt. 



82 DOS User's Guide 



Replaceable parameters %1 through %9 substitute for command-line parameters 
typed after the batch-command name. The first parameter on the command line is 
%1, the second is %2, and so on. If you want to specify more than nine 
parameters, use the SHIFT command. 

For information about the SHIFT command, type help shift for a brief explanation 
and command syntax. 

Suppose you created a batch program (COPYIT.BAT) that moved data from one 
subdirectory to another. After the creation of the batch program, you could use the 
replaceable parameter feature to accomplish this task. The following example 
illustrates this: 

copyit %1 %2 

This batch program in COPYIT.BAT is set up to move all information from the first 
parameter %1 to the second parameter %2. If you wanted to move all information 
from subdirectory c : \april\ . to drive A using the replaceable parameters, you 
would type the following at the DOS command prompt: 

copyit c:\april\ . a: 
DOS replaces %1 with c : \aprii\ . and %2 with a : 

Note: If you use the percent sign (%) as part of a file name or string within a batch 
program, you must type it twice. The first occurrence indicates that the 
second % is part of a name, rather than a replaceable parameter. 

In addition to replaceable parameters, you can use environment variables in a batch 
program. For information about environment variables and an example of how to 
use one in a batch program, type help set for a brief explanation and command 
syntax. 



Controlling Program Flow 

To increase the flexibility of a batch program, you can use the IF command to carry 
out different commands under different conditions, and the GOTO command to 
switch to different parts of the program. By using replaceable parameters with IF 
and GOTO commands in a batch program, you can perform complex tasks. 



Chapter 5. Working with Batch Programs 83 



Using the IF Command 

You can use the IF command to specify a condition that must be true for a 
command to be carried out. For example, suppose you want to create a batch 
program named RUNIT.BAT that starts your chess program, CMATE, when you 
type the following command: 

runit A 

To perform this task, include the following IF command in RUNIT.BAT: 

if " %1"=="A" cmate 

The double equal sign (==) means the parameter must equal the value. When DOS 
carries out this command, it checks to see whether or not %1 is an A. If %1 is an 
A, DOS carries out the command that follows (in this case, it starts the CMATE 
program). When you quit CMATE, DOS carries out the command on the next line 
of RUNIT.BAT. 

If %1 is not an A, DOS skips the command that runs CMATE and moves to the 
next line of the batch program. Both the parameter and the letter with which it is 
compared should be enclosed in quotation marks to avoid syntax errors when no 
parameter is present. 

Using the GOTO Command 

The GOTO command directs your program to switch to another part of the program 
and continue processing the commands at that point. The line that the program is 
to switch to is marked with a label preceded by a colon (:). The same label appears 
in the GOTO command, as in the following example: 

goto skipdown 

echo both of these echo commands 
echo will be skipped 
: skipdown 
els 



84 DOS User's Guide 



Using the IF and GOTO Commands Together 

If you use the GOTO command with an IF command, you can run different sections 
of a batch program under different conditions. For example, when you are at the 
command line about to run the batch file, the following command directs DOS to 
switch to the line labeled chess if you type an uppercase A: 

if "%l"=="A" goto chess 

Using a series of IF commands, you can create a batch program that can run 
several programs. For example, the following batch program changes to the 
C:\GAMES\CHESS directory and runs the CMATE program if you type an 
uppercase A; it also changes to the C:\GAMES\CHECK directory and runs the 
CHECKERS program if you type anything but an uppercase A. 

if " %l"=="A" goto chess 

rem 

rem 

rem If the user doesn't type A, run Checkers, 
rem 

cd\ games \ check 
checkers 

rem Checkers game has finished running to end this batch file 

rem Skip over Chess by jumping to the line labeled :end. 

goto end 

rem 

rem 

rem 

rem If DOS jumps to this label, the user wants Chess. 

rem 

: chess 

cd\ games \ chess 
cmate 

rem The following line marks the end of the batch program. 
: end 



Chapter 5. Working with Batch Programs 85 



86 DOS User's Guide 



Chapter 6. Redirecting Input and Output 



Redirection characters let you perform many useful tasks. A redirection character 
changes the place that a command gets information from or sends information to. 
Redirection characters are useful when you want DOS to save information in a file 
rather than display it on your screen. You can also use a filter command to redirect 
information that a command typically would send to the screen. Filter commands 
help you sort, view, and select parts of the output of a command. 



Redirecting Command Input and Output 

Unless you specify otherwise, DOS receives input from your keyboard and sends 
output to your screen. Sometimes it is useful to redirect the input or output to a file 
or a printer. For example, you might want to redirect a directory listing from the 
screen to a file. 

To redirect the input or output of a command, you use one of the following 
redirection characters: 

The greater-than sign (>) sends the output of a command to a file or a device, 
such as a printer. 

The less-than sign (<) takes the input needed for a command from a file rather 
than from the keyboard. 

The double greater-than sign (») adds output from a command to the end of a 
file without deleting the information already in the file. 

Redirecting the Output of a Command 

Almost all commands send output to your screen. Even commands that send output 
to a drive or printer also display messages and prompts on your screen. 

To redirect the output from the screen to a file or printer, use the greater-than sign 
(>). You can use the greater-than sign with most DOS commands. For example, 
in the following command, the directory listing produced by the DIR command is 
redirected to the DIRLIST.TXT file: 

dir > dirlist.txt 



Copyright IBM Corp. 1981, 1993 



87 



If the DIRLIST.TXT file does not exist, DOS creates it. If DIRLIST.TXT exists, DOS 
replaces the information in the file with the output from the DIR command. 

The following command creates a file named CHECKDSK.TXT, which contains the 
output of the CHKDSK command: 

chkdsk a: > checkdsk.txt 

If CHECKDSK.TXT already exists, DOS replaces its contents with the output that 
the CHKDSK command usually sends to your screen. 

To add the output from a command to the end of a file without losing any of the 
information already in the file, use a double greater-than sign (»). For example, in 
the following command, the directory listing produced by the DIR command is 
appended to the DIRLIST.TXT file: 

dir >> dirlist.txt 

To send the output of a command to a printer, use the greater-than sign with the 
name of the port to which the printer is connected. For example, the following 
command redirects the output of the DIR command from the screen to the printer 
attached to the LPT1 port: 

dir > lptl 

Note: Some command output, such as error messages, cannot be redirected 
when using the greater-than sign (>). 

Redirecting the Input to a Command 

Just as you can send the output of a command to a file or printer rather than to 
your screen, you can take the input for a command from a file rather than from the 
keyboard. To take input from a file, use the less-than sign (<). For example, the 
following command takes the input for the SORT command from the LIST.TXT file: 

sort < list. txt 

DOS alphabetizes the lines of the LIST.TXT file and displays the result on your 
screen. 

For more information about the SORT command, see "Sorting Text Files" on 
page 90. 



88 DOS User's Guide 



Passing Information through Filter Commands 

Filter commands divide, rearrange, or extract portions of the information that passes 
through them. DOS has three filter commands: 

The MORE command displays the contents of a file or the output of a 
command one screen at a time. 

The FIND command searches through files and command output for the 
characters you specify. 

The SORT command alphabetizes files and command output. 

To send input from a file to a filter command, use the less-than sign (<). If you 
want the filter command to get its input from another command, use the pipe ( I ). 

Note: Before using the pipe, you should set a TEMP environment variable. For 
information about setting environment variables using the SET command, 
type help set for a brief explanation and command syntax. 

Controlling the Screen Display by Using the MORE Command 

The MORE command displays the contents of a file or the output of a command 
one screen at a time. For example, the following MORE command displays the 
contents of the LIST.TXT file one screen at a time: 

more < list.txt 

After a screen of information is displayed, you see the word More appear. To 
continue to the next screen, press any key. To stop the command without viewing 
more information, press CTRL+C. 

The MORE command is helpful if you are working with a command that produces 
more than one screen of output. For example, suppose you want to view a directory 
tree for your hard disk. If you have more directories than DOS can display on the 
screen, you can use the TREE command with a pipe ( I ) and a MORE command as 
in the following example: 

tree c:\ I more 

The first screen of output from the TREE command is displayed, followed by the 
word More. DOS pauses until you press any key (except the PAUSE key). 



Chapter 6. Redirecting Input and Output 89 



Searching for Text by Using the FIND Command 

The FIND command searches one or more files for the text you specify. DOS 
displays every line containing that text. The FIND command can be used as a filter 
command or as a standard DOS command. 

For information about the FIND command as a standard DOS command, type help 
find for a brief explanation and command syntax. 

To use FIND as a filter command, include a less-than sign (<) and a file name to 
search through. The search is case-sensitive. For example, the following 
command finds occurrences of the string Pacific Rim in the file TRADE.TXT: 

find "Pacific Rim" < trade.txt 

To save the output of the FIND command rather than display it, use a greater-than 
sign (>) and the name of the file that is to store the output. For example, the 
following command finds occurrences of "Pacific Rim" in the TRADE.TXT file and 
saves them in the NWTRADE.TXT file: 

find "Pacific Rim" < trade.txt > nwtrade.txt 

To print the output rather than display it, use a greater-than sign and the name of 
the port your printer is attached to, as in the following command: 

find "Pacific Rim" < trade.txt > LPT1 

Sorting Text Files 

The SORT command alphabetizes a text file or the output of a command. For 
example, you would use the following command to sort the contents of a file named 
LIST.TXT and display the results on your screen: 

sort < list . txt 

In this example, the SORT command sorts the lines of the LIST.TXT file and 
displays the results without changing the file. To save the output of the SORT 
command rather than display it, include a greater-than sign (>) and a file name in 
the command. For example, you would use the following command to alphabetize 
the lines of the LIST.TXT file and store the results in the ALPHLIST.TXT file: 

sort < list. txt > alphlist.txt 

To sort the output of a command, type the command followed by a pipe ( I ) and the 
SORT command. For example, the following command sorts the output of the 
FIND command: 

find "Jones" maillst.txt I sort 



90 DOS User's Guide 



When you type this command, DOS lists in alphabetic order the lines in which the 
string Jones appears. 

Note: You can use the SORT command on files that are 64K or less in size. 

For more information about the SORT command, type help sort for a brief 
explanation and command syntax. 

Combining Commands with Redirection Characters 

You can combine filter commands, other commands, and file names to make 
custom commands. For example, you might use the following command to store 
the names of files that contain the log string: 

dir /b I find "LOG" > loglist.txt 

DOS sends the output of the DIR command through the FIND filter command and 
stores the file names that contain the log string in the LOGLIST.TXT file. The 
results are stored as a list of file names (for example, A. LOG, LOGDAT.SVD, and 
MYLOG.BAT). 

To use more than one filter in the same command, separate the filters with a pipe 
(I). The following command would search every directory on drive C, find the file 
names that include the string log and display them one screen at a time: 

dir c:\ /s /b I find "LOG" I more 

Because you use a pipe (I), DOS sends the output of the DIR command through 
the FIND command. The FIND command selects only file names that contain the 
log string. The MORE command displays the file names that are selected by the 
FIND command — one screen at a time. 



Chapter 6. Redirecting Input and Output 91 



92 DOS User's Guide 



Chapter 7. Using Editing Keys for Commands 



You can use editing keys to quickly view and edit your last command rather than 
retype it. In addition, you can use the DOSKey program to do your editing. By 
adding the DOSKEY command to your AUTOEXEC.BAT file, this program will be 
loaded and ready to use every time you start your computer. The DOSKey 
program includes the DOS editing keys plus a number of other keys that are useful 
for editing commands. 

Using the DOSKey program you can also do the following: 

Store the commands you use over and over again so that you do not have to 
retype them to use them. 

Create macros that contain a series of commands. A macro runs much like a 
batch program. 



Using DOS Editing Keys 

DOS provides several editing keys that you can use to edit the last command you 
typed at the command line. For example, suppose you misspell the name of a file 
in a COPY command. Rather than retype the entire command, you can use editing 
keys to view the command and change the part that is misspelled. This section 
describes the editing keys you can use if you do not have the DOSKey program 
loaded in your AUTOEXEC.BAT file. 

When you type a command, DOS carries out the command and saves it in a 
temporary location called the template. For example, suppose you type the 
following command: 

type ada.txt 

When you press ENTER, DOS displays the contents of ADA.TXT and copies the 
command i vpo ada . txt to the template. The template can contain only the 
previously typed command. For information about saving and reusing more than 
one command, see "Using DOSKey to Work with Commands" on page 95. 



Copyright IBM Corp. 1981, 1993 



93 



You can use the command stored in the template as a starting point for typing your 
next command. The following editing keys display and edit the previous command 
stored in the template: 



Editing Key Command Carried Out 

F1 (or RIGHT Copies the previous command to your screen, one character at a time. 

ARROW) One character is displayed each time you press F1 . For example, if 

your last command was dir c:\work\finals\ .bak, by pressing the F1 
key three times dir is displayed at the DOS command prompt. 

To add a character, press the INSERT key, type the character, and 
press F1 to display the rest of your command one character at a time. 

F2 Copies the previous command to your screen, up to but not including 

the character you specify. For example, your last command was dir 
c : \worknew\ final. If you press F2 and type \, dir c: is displayed at 
the DOS command prompt. 

F3 Copies the remainder of the previous command to your screen. 

F4 Deletes the previous command from the template, starting from the 

beginning of the command, up to but not including the letter you specify. 
For example, suppose the previous command was type ada . txt. If 
you press F4 and type d, and then copy the template to your screen by 
pressing F3, DOS displays da. txt. 



F5 


Copies the current command line to the template, but does not carry out 




the command. 


F6 


Places a CTRL+Z character (~Z) in the current command line. 


LEFT ARROW or 


Deletes the character before the cursor on the current command line, 


BACKSPACE 


without affecting the template. 


DEL 


Deletes the character on the template corresponding to the current 




cursor position. 


INSERT 


Starts insert mode so that characters you type do not replace 




characters in the same position in the template. Press the INSERT key 




again to stop insert mode. 


ESC 


Cancels the current command line without carrying it out, leaving the 




template unchanged. 



Note: Some of these keys function differently when DOSKey is loaded. 



DOS User's Guide 



Copying a Previously Typed Command 

When you type a command, DOS carries it out, copies the command to the 
template and displays the DOS command prompt. For example, suppose you type 
the following command: 

copy c : \work\ . txt a: 

The files are copied to a diskette in drive A, the command is copied to the template, 
and the DOS command prompt appears. At this point, you can view the entire 
previous command by pressing F3. The command from the template is displayed: 

copy c:\work\ .txt a:_ 

The cursor appears at the end of the command. To copy your files to another disk, 
insert a different disk in drive A and then press ENTER. DOS carries out the COPY 
command again. 

Editing a Previously Typed Command 

Using the F3 and LEFT ARROW keys, you can quickly fix a command that you 
mistyped. For example, suppose you typed . dpc and pressed ENTER when you 
meant to type . doc, as in the following command: 

copy c:\work\ .dpc a: 

Rather than retype the command, you can edit the incorrect one. To edit the 
command, first press F3. The command from the template is displayed: 

copy c:\work\ .dpc a:_ 

The cursor appears at the end of the command. To change dpc to doc, press the 
LEFT ARROW key five times to move the cursor back five spaces: 

copy c:\work\ . d_ 
To correct the command, type o, press F3, and then press ENTER. 



Using DOSKey to Work with Commands 

You can use the DOSKey program to view, edit, and carry out DOS commands that 
you have used previously. DOSKey includes the DOS editing keys and other keys 
that make it easy for you to use previous commands. When using DOSKey, you 
can type several commands on one line. 

In addition, you can create, run, and save command macros. A macro is one or 
more DOS commands that are stored in random-access memory (RAM). It runs 
much like a batch program. The first time you use DOSKey it is loaded into RAM. 
Thereafter, DOS saves your previous commands and any macros you create. 



Chapter 7. Using Editing Keys for Commands 95 



Although you have more editing power with DOSKey than you do with DOS editing 
keys, DOSKey takes up a small amount of your computer's memory. If you need 
the maximum amount of memory for other purposes, you might want to use DOS 
editing keys instead of DOSKey. 

Loading DOSKey Into Memory 

To load the DOSKey program into memory, type the following at the DOS 
command prompt: 

doskey 

Unless you indicate otherwise, DOS reserves 512 bytes of memory for the 
commands and macros you record. If your average command contains 15 
characters, you can store or have the ability to recall about 35 commands with the 
amount of memory reserved. The resident portion of the DOSKey program itself 
occupies about 4K of memory. 

If you want to reserve more or less memory, you can include the /bufsize= switch 
in the command. For example, to reserve 300 bytes of memory for recorded 
commands, type the following command: 

doskey /bufsize=3 

As the memory you reserved for DOSKey is used up, the oldest commands are 
removed so that the new ones can be stored in the buffer. You can clear the buffer 
by pressing ALT+F7. 

Typing More Than One Command on a Line 

Typically, you type one command per line. After you install DOSKey, you can type 
several commands on a line. You separate each command by pressing CTRL+T. A 
paragraph mark appears on your screen each time you press CTRL+T. You can 
type as many commands as you like on one line as long as the total line length 
does not exceed 128 characters. 

For example, to delete all the files in the \TMP directory and then remove the 
directory, type the following two commands on the same line: 

del \tmp\ . SI rd \tmp 

The DEL command is initiated and you are prompted to confirm the deletion. Then 
the second command is initiated. 



96 DOS User's Guide 



Viewing Previous Commands 

When DOSKey is loaded, it keeps a list of your commands as you type them. You 
can use the following keys to view previous commands. To carry out a command 
again after it is displayed, press ENTER. 



Friitinn Kpv 


nnmmanri fiarripri Out 

wwl 1 II 1 ICII IU val 1 ICU vlll 


UP ARROW 


Di^nlau^ thp nrp\/im pommanri in thp li^t 
Lyiopiayo ii ic yJi ovivjuo uui i n i icii ivj n i u ic hoi. 


DOWN ARROW 


ni^nlsv/^ thp nPYt rnmmfiiifl in thp li^t 

L/JOUIuy O 11 IC 1 ICAL Uvl 1 II 1 ICII Ivl III LI IC HOI. 


F7 


Displays thG list of commands DOSKey has stored. 


F8 


Cycles through the stored commands that start with the characters you 




specify. (You type the search text and then press F8). 


F9 


Prompts you to type the number of the stored command you want. To 




see the numbered list of commands, press F7. 


PAGE UP 


Displays the oldest command in the list. 


PAGE DOWN 


Displays the newest command in the list. 


ESC 


Clears the command from the screen. 



Viewing the List of Stored Commands 

DOSKey displays a numbered list of the commands it saves. For example, suppose 
you type the following three commands after you load DOSKey: 

copy c:\work\ . txt c:\revised 
dir c:\revised\ .txt 
dir c:\work\ .txt 

DOSKey saves the three commands. To view the full list of commands, press F7. A 
numbered list of the commands appears: 

1: copy c:\work\ .txt c:\revised 
2: dir c:\revised\ .txt 
3: dir c:\work\ .txt 

If there are more commands in the list than can fit on one screen, DOSKey pauses 
after each screen of commands. To see the next screen of commands in the list, 
press any key except PAUSE. 



Chapter 7. Using Editing Keys for Commands 97 



Viewing the Previous or Next Command 

The first time you press the UP ARROW key, DOSKey displays the most recent 
command. 

You can reuse the command by pressing ENTER. 

If you press the UP ARROW key more than once, DOSKey displays commands 
further back in the list. To move backward in the list and view the next most recent 
command, press the UP ARROW key again. Continue this process to move 
backward in the list of commands. 

To move forward in the list, press the DOWN ARROW key. 
Viewing the First or Last Command 

To view the most recent command, press PAGE DOWN. To view the oldest 
command, press PAGE UP. 

Viewing Other Commands in the List 

You can use F9 or F8 to view a specific command in the list. Suppose DOSKey has 
saved the following list of commands: 

1: a: 
2 : dir 

3: c:\myuts\figdsk a: time=3 space=35.8 
4 : dir 

5: del . tmp 

If you want to view command number 3, you can use the arrow keys or press F9. 
When you press F9, the following appears: 

Line number: 
To view line 3, type 3 and then press ENTER. 

You can also use F8 to view a command that begins with letters you specify. For 
example, to view a command that begins with C:\, type c : \ at the DOS command 
prompt and then press F8. 

When you press F8, DOSKey displays the most recent command that begins with 
the characters you typed. You can press F8 again to view the next command in the 
list that begins with the characters you typed. Keep pressing F8 to cycle through all 
the matching commands. If DOSKey does not find a matching command in the list, 
nothing happens. 



98 DOS User's Guide 



Editing and Using Previous Commands 

As you type a new command or after you view a previous command, you can use 
editing keys to change it. You can use the same editing keys with DOSKey that you 
use with the command template. When you use some of these keys with DOSKey, 
however, you see slightly different results. DOSKey provides a number of 
additional editing keys that make it easy to change a previously typed command. 
The editing keys affect only the displayed command; they do not change any 
commands that DOSKey has already stored. 

You can use the following editing keys with DOSKey: 



Editing Key 


Commands Carried Out 


HOME 


Moves the cursor to the beginning of the displayed command. 


END 


Moves the cursor to the end of the displayed command. 


LEFT ARROW 


Moves the cursor back one character in the displayed command. 


RIGHT ARROW 


Moves the cursor forward one character in the displayed command. 


CTRL+LEFT ARROW 


Moves the cursor back one word in the displayed command. 


CTRL+RIGHT ARROW . 


Moves the cursor forward one word in the displayed command. 


BACKSPACE 


Deletes the character before the cursor on the current command 




line, without affecting the template. 


DEL 


Deletes the character at the cursor. 


CTRL+END 


Deletes all characters from the cursor to the end of the line. 


CTRL+HOME 


Deletes all characters from the cursor to the beginning of the line. 


INSERT key 


Toggles between insert mode and replace mode. 


ESC 


Clears the displayed command from the screen. 



If you hold down CTRL while you press the RIGHT ARROW or LEFT ARROW key, the 
cursor moves to the beginning of the next or previous word. A word in this case is a 
group of characters separated from other characters by a space. For example, the 
following command has three words: 

copy c:\games\suzz.exe a:_ 

If the cursor is at the end of the line, as in this example, you can move it to the "C" 
in C:\GAMES\SUZZ.EXE by pressing CTRL+LEFT ARROW twice. 

With the cursor anywhere in the word C:\GAMES\SUZZ.EXE, you can move the 
cursor to the beginning of the next word by pressing CTRL+RIGHT ARROW. If you 
press CTRL+RIGHT ARROW again, the cursor moves to the end of the line. 



Chapter 7. Using Editing Keys for Commands 99 



By pressing the INSERT key, you can add characters at the position of the cursor. 
The INSERT key toggles between insert and replace mode. In replace mode, new 
characters you type replace any characters that follow the cursor. After you press 
the INSERT key , you switch to insert mode; the character at the cursor position and 
the characters following the cursor move right as you type. For example, suppose 
the following line is displayed, and the cursor is under the S in SUZZ.EXE: 

copy c:\games\suzz.exe a: 

To change the line so that C:\GAMES\SUZZ.EXE becomes 
C:\GAMES\NEW\SUZZ.EXE, you press the INSERT key and type new\. The line 
now appears like this: 

copy c:\games\new\suzz.exe a: 

To turn off insert mode, press the INSERT key again. The characters you now type 
replace any characters following the cursor. Insert mode is turned off when you 
press ENTER to carry out a command. You can start DOSKey and specify insert 
mode as the default by using the /insert switch. 

For more information about the DOSKEY command, type help doskey for a brief 
explanation and command syntax. 

Deleting the List of Stored Commands 

To delete the list of stored commands and begin a new list, press ALT+F7. The list 
is also deleted when you reload DOSKey or reset your system. 

Saving the List of Stored Commands in a Batch Program 

To save the list of stored commands, you can type the DOSKEY command with the 
/history switch, the output redirection character (>) and the name of the file in 
which you want the list stored. For example, to store your list of commands in the 
SAVCOMMS.TXT file, you would type the following command: 

doskey /history > savcomms.txt 

To create a batch program by using DOSKey, first press ALT+F7 to delete the list of 
commands from DOSKey. Then type the commands you want to save. Use the 
/history switch to save the commands in a file with a .BAT extension. 



100 DOS User's Guide 



Using DOSKey to Work with Macros 

A macro is a set of commands that you can carry out by typing the name of the 
macro. A macro is very much like a batch program. Both contain sets of 
commands that you carry out by typing a name. 

A macro has the following characteristics: 

It is stored in RAM and as a result processes much faster than a batch 
program. 

It can be run from any directory. 

The macro is created as one command or a series of commands separated by 
a special character all on one line. The total length of the macro cannot 
exceed 127 characters. 

You can use replaceable parameters. These are represented by the characters 
$1 through $9. 

Macros are lost each time you turn your system off or reset it. This can be 
avoided by putting the definition commands for the macros you commonly use 
into one batch program. To make the macros available, you run the batch 
program. 

Creating a Macro 

To create a macro, type doskey followed by the macro name, an equal sign, and 
the commands in the macro. For example, you can use the following command to 
create a macro called DDIR that displays a directory in wide format: 

doskey ddir=dir /w 

If you type ddir at the DOS command prompt, DOS processes the macro, 
displaying a five-column list of the files in the current directory. Because the macro 
is stored in memory, it does not matter which directory is current when you run it. 

To include more than one command in a macro, separate the commands with a 
dollar sign ($) and the letter T. For example, the following command creates a 
macro called CMP that alphabetizes and lists the .DOC files and then the .BAK files 
in the current directory: 

doskey cmp=dir .doc /o:n $t dir .bak /o:n 



Chapter 7. Using Editing Keys for Commands 1 01 



While you are creating and testing a macro, it is easiest to type the command that 
defines the macro at the DOS command prompt. Then, you can use the DOSKey 
editing keys to change and redefine the macro quickly. 

Because macros are stored in memory, they are lost when you turn your system off 
or reset it. Therefore, if you create a macro that you use often, put the command 
that defines the macro in your AUTOEXEC.BAT file so the macro is available each 
time DOS starts. 

Running a Macro 

To run a macro, type its name at the DOS command prompt. For example, to run 
the DDIR macro, type the following command at the DOS command prompt: 

ddir 

If the macro has parameters, leave a space between the macro name and the 
parameters. For example, suppose you create a macro called DUPS that has as 
parameters the name of the text file you want to copy and the name of the directory 
that you want to copy the file to. To copy all TXT files from the current directory to 
the C:\TXTFILES directory, you would type the following command: 

dups . txt c:\txtfiles 

There cannot be any space between the DOS command prompt and the macro 
name. If there is, DOS does not recognize the name and displays the following 
message: 

Bad command or file name 

Suppose you want to create a macro that has the same name as a command. For 
example, you would use the following command to create a macro called DIR so 
that typing dir would replace the DOS DIR command: 

doskey dir=dir /w 

When you have a macro with the same name as a command, DOS runs the macro 
rather than the command. Thus, when you are at the DOS command prompt, DOS 
runs the DIR macro rather than the DIR command. 

Whenever you want to use the DIR command instead of the DIR macro, you can 
type a space between the DOS command prompt and dir. Now, DOS does not 
recognize DIR as a macro name, but it does recognize it as a command. 



1 02 DOS User's Guide 



Note: You cannot run a macro from within a batch program, but you can define it 
in a batch program. For more information about batch programs, see 
Chapter 5, "Working with Batch Programs" on page 75. 

When you want to stop a currently running macro, you must press CTLR+C 
for every command in the macro. Each time you press CTRL+C in a macro, 
DOS stops the command it is currently processing. 

Editing a Macro 

You can change a macro by editing the command that created it. If the macro is 
defined in a batch program, you can edit the batch program and then run it again. If 
the macro is one of the commands that DOSKey has stored, you can redisplay the 
macro command, edit it by using DOSKey editing keys, and complete the edit by 
pressing ENTER. For information about DOSKey editing keys, see "Editing and 
Using Previous Commands" on page 99. 

Saving a Macro 

To save macros stored in memory, use the DOSKEY command with the /macros 
switch, a greater-than sign (>), and a file name. In the following example, the 
names and contents of the macros currently in memory are stored in the 
MACS. BAT file: 

doskey /macros > macs. bat 

If you add the DOSKEY command to the beginning of each macro that you saved 
in the MACS. BAT file, you can load the macros into memory by running the batch 
program. For example, suppose you created the following three macros and saved 
them in the MACS. BAT file: 

ddir=dir /oe /p 
mv=copy $1 $2 $t del $1 
where=dir /s /p $1:\ .$2 

If you want these macros to be available each time you start your system, first add 
the DOSKEY command to them, as follows: 

doskey ddir=dir /oe /p 

doskey mv=copy $1 $2 $t del $1 

doskey where=dir /s /p $1:\ .$2 



Chapter 7. Using Editing Keys for Commands 1 03 



Each time you run the batch program, DOSKey loads the three macros into 
memory. You might want to run the batch program from your AUTOEXEC.BAT file 
by using the CALL command. For more information about the AUTOEXEC.BAT 
file, see Chapter 2, "Configuring Your System" on page 27. 

Deleting a Macro 

To delete a macro, type doskey, followed by the name of the macro you want to 
delete plus an equal sign. For example, to delete the DDIR macro, type the 
following command: 

doskey ddir= 

DOSKey removes the macro from memory. To delete all macros, press ALT+F10. 

Note: Deleting macros makes the memory available for other macros, but it does 
not return the memory to the command-history buffer. 

Using Replaceable Parameters 

You can use replaceable parameters in a macro in much the same way you use 
them in a batch program. In a macro, the replaceable parameters are $1 through $9 
rather than %1 through %9. 

For example, the following command creates a macro named FINDIT that searches 
through the directories on drive C for file names that match the one you specify: 

doskey findit=dir c:\$l /s 

The /s switch is used to display file names from all directories on drive C (including 
the current directory) that match the file name you specify. 

To run this macro, type find it followed by a file name at the DOS command 
prompt. For example, to locate all files on drive C that have the extension .OLD, 
you would type the following command: 

findit .old 

DOSKey substitutes the file name you type for the $1 parameter in the macro. The 
resulting command looks like this: 

dir c:\ .old /s 

You can use the same parameter more than once in a macro. For example, the 
following command creates a macro called DDEL. This macro moves a file to a 
directory named DELETED on drive C. 

doskey ddel=copy $1 c:\deleted $t del $1 



1 04 DOS User's Guide 



When you run the DDEL macro, you type the name of the file that is to go into the 
G:\DELETED directory. DOSKey replaces the $1 in the macro with the file name. It 
copies the file to DELETED and then deletes it from its original directory. 

To delete the files In the C:\DELETED directory, you can use this macro named 
CLEANUP: 

doskey cleanup=dir c:\deleted $t del c:\deleted\ 

The macro displays a list of files in the C:\DELETED directory and then starts the 
DEL command. Because the DEL command prompts you to confirm deletion of all 
the files, you have a chance to review the file names before deleting any files. 

Using the $* Replaceable Parameter 

You can use the $* replaceable parameter to assign to a single parameter all of the 
text following the command that starts a macro. Typically, DOS distinguishes 
parameters by looking for a space. The text between the first two spaces is the 
first parameter, the text between the second and third spaces is the second 
parameter, and so on. If you use the $* parameter, DOSKey ignores spaces and 
assigns all text to the $* parameter. 

The $* parameter is most useful when the macro you create uses a variable 
number of parameters. For example, you can use the following command to create 
a macro named D that allows you to abbreviate the DIR command: 

doskey d=dir $ 

This macro works exactly like the DIR command, regardless of the number of 
parameters you specify. For example, all of the following commands are carried out 
in the same way with the D macro as they are with the DIR command: 

d . txt 
d .txt /s 
d .txt /s /b 

If you use the $1 parameter instead of the $* parameter with the macro, DOS 
substitutes the first parameter and ignores the rest of the command line. 



Chapter 7. Using Editing Keys for Commands 1 05 



Redirecting Input and Output 

You redirect input and output in macros the same way you do using DOS 
commands. The only difference is that macros require different characters: 



Character 


Redirection 


$L (or $1) 


Equivalent to the less-than sign (<). It redirects the input to a 




command. 


$G (or $g) 


Equivalent to the greater-than sign (>). It redirects the output of a 




command. 


$G$G (or $g$g) 


Equivalent to the double greater-than sign (»). It appends output 




onto the end of a file. 


$B (or $b) 


Equivalent to the pipe ( 1 ). It redirects output from one command 




to another. 



For example, the following command creates a macro named PDIR that prints 
directory listings: 

doskey pdir=dir $g lptl: 

The following command creates a macro named MTYPE that displays the contents 
of the file you specify and pauses between each screen of information: 

doskey mtype=type $1 $b more 

The following command creates a macro named ASORT that alphabetizes the file 
and stores the information in a different file: 

doskey asort=sort $L $1 $g $2 

To run this macro, you type the file name you want to sort. DOSKey replaces the 
$1 replaceable parameter with the first file name you specify. The $L parameter 
redirects the file to the SORT command. The $g and $2 parameters redirect the 
output of the SORT command to the second file you specify. 

For example, after you create the ASORT macro, type the following: 

asort input.txt output.txt. 

This is the same as typing: 

sort < input.txt > output.txt 



1 06 DOS User's Guide 



When defining a DOSKey macro, you must mark the dollar sign ($) when it occurs 
anywhere other than in parameters, command separators, and redirection 
characters. You mark it by typing two dollar signs rather than one. 

For example, suppose your macro copies a file to the $&CENTS directory. When 
you type the name of the directory, you must use "$$&cents" in your macro 
definition. As the command is carried out, the dollar sign is assumed to be a 
standard character rather than a marker or parameter. 



Chapter 7. Using Editing Keys for Commands 107 



1 08 DOS User's Guide 



Chapter 8. Working with the Text Editor 



A text editor allows you to create, edit, and print memos, letters, and special files 
(such as AUTOEXEC.BAT or CONFIG.SYS) that customize DOS. 

A text editor, sometimes referred to as an editing tool, differs from a word 
processing program in the following ways: 

Files you create by using the text editor are unformatted text files, such as 
ASCII text files, which means they do not contain any special formatting 
characters. If you save such a file when using a text editor, the special 
characters of the word processing program may lose their formatting function. 

Because DOS batch programs and files, such as AUTOEXEC.BAT and 
CONFIG.SYS must be unformatted text files, text editors are a useful tool for 
customizing your system. 

When you reach the end of a line using a text editor, you must press ENTER to 
move the cursor to the next line because there is no "word wrap" feature used 
with a text editor. A line of text can be up to 255 characters long. 

Unlike word processing programs that always place files in a specific directory, 
you must specify the exact location (full path) where you want to place the file 
when using a text editor. 

A text editor can have its own command line within the program. This 
command line is not the same command line as the DOS command prompt. 
This command line allows you to type editor commands used only for 
performing tasks within the text editor. 

Although not designed to be a word processor, the flexibility of the DOS text editor 
allows you to do some tasks to make it "act" more like a word processing program, 
such as: 

Set a margin before you start typing. The text will then "word wrap" when it 
reaches the right margin you have set. This will eliminate your having to press 
ENTER at the end of each line of text. 

Use the AUTOSAVE feature to automatically get temporary backup versions of 
your files. 

Use the split-a-line and join-a-line feature to resemble pressing ENTER and 
DELETE when using a word processing program. 



Copyright IBM Corp. 1981, 1993 



109 



Choosing a Text Editor 

DOS provides a more flexible text editing tool than provided with previous versions 
of DOS. 

The DOS E Editor: 

Using the E Editor, you can: 

Type commands from the E Editor command line. 
Select text and move, copy, overlay, or delete it. 
Copy and move text from one file into another file. 
Access multiple files. 

Locate and make a change globally in a file. 

Size and drag an editing window. 

Draw boxes around text. 

Add and multiply numbers in a marked area. 

Change characters in a marked area to all uppercase or all lowercase letters. 

Use online help for information about the E Editor function keys and 

commands. 

Edit large text files. 

Note: This chapter only discusses how to use the E Editor 
The Edlin editor: 

Edlin, the line editor included in previous versions of DOS, is also available. 
The DOS 5.0 Editor: 

When you install this version of DOS, it analyzes your system and determines if you 
have a previous version of DOS on your system. If you are a previous user of 
DOS 5.0, the DOS editor provided with DOS 5.0 will still be available for your use. 
If you prefer to use this editor, you can select it from the programs area of the DOS 
Shell or type edit, followed by the path and name of the file you want, to load the 
DOS 5.0 Editor. 



110 DOS User's Guide 



Starting the E Editor 

You can start the E Editor by: 

Selecting the editor from DOS Shell. 

Information on how to select files and run programs using DOS Shell can be 
found in Chapter 16, "Using DOS Shell" on page 253. 

Typing e (or e followed by the path and name of the file) at the DOS command 
prompt. 

Once you load the E Editor, you will be using the E Editor command line to 
perform many of the tasks discussed in this chapter. Press ESC to switch 
between the E Editor command line and the editing window. 

Viewing the E Editor Screen 

After you start the E Editor and begin typing, the version number displayed is 
replaced by the function keys at the bottom of the screen and you see a screen 
similar to the following: 

Text Input Area 
(expands as you enter text) 



Top of file =- 
Bottom of file 



C:\MPQRTS.TXT \ 

fl^He?p\ Z'^Sa'Je 3~(jmit 4VFi-lg^ 



Line i Coi 2 Insert E 3.12 



Reminder Line Command Line 



Function Keys 

(switches to Information line) 



Reminder Line 

The bottom line of the E Editor screen displays a brief reminder of each action 
associated with the function key (or F keys, such as F1=Help and 2=Save). You 
can perform the most common editing tasks with one keystroke. 



Chapter 8. Working with the Text Editor 111 



Function Key 


What It Does 


ESC 


Allows you to move between the text input area to the E Editor 




command line (not a function key). 


F1=Help 


Accesses help information about function keys and editing 




commands. You can page through this help information using the 




page up ana page down Keys. 


F2=Save 


Saves the file you are editing but does not exit the file. 


F3=Quit 


Removes your file's text from memory without saving it. If your file 




has been modified, you will be asked whether you really wish to quit 




the file without saving. When there are no remaining files in 




memory, then you can exit to DOS. 


F4=File 


Saves your file and quits the editor after saving. When there are no 




remaining files in memory, then you can exit to DOS. 


F6=Draw 


Starts the drawing text graphics feature. Then you type a number (1 




through 6), B for blank, or / followed by any character. You can 




create or erase text graphic drawings by moving around with the 




cursor keys. See "Drawing Lines" on page 138 for more information. 



F7=Name Lets you change the name of the file you are editing. Type the new 

name and press ENTER. Afterwards, press the ESC to return the 
cursor to the text area, which does not change the name of the 
previous copy on disk. It changes the name of the file to be saved. 
Renaming is a good way to begin a revised copy without losing the 
original file. 

F8=Edit Lets you open another file or more than one file at a time. Type a 

filename, press ENTER, and press the ESC key to return your cursor 
to the text area so you can begin editing this second file. You can 
enter more than one file name separated by a space and can specify 
wild cards in file names (for example, *.doc or *.c). Press the F10 
key to switch between the multiple files you are editing. 



Note: Do not select F8=EDIT to make edits to your current file. 



F9=Undo 


Restores the original contents of a line you typed incorrectly. Undo 




does not restore deleted lines or changes to multiple lines. Only the 




current line you are editing can be restored. 


FlO=Next 


Switches between active files if you have loaded another file (F8 key 




or EDIT command). 



The reminder line, called the function key text area, changes when you hold down a 
SHIFT, CTRL, or an ALT key, to show you the function key text appropriate to that 
shifted state. 



112 DOS User's Guide 



Information Line 

You also can see the name of the file you are editing, location of the cursor (line 
number and column number), typing mode (insert or replace), and the version 
number of the IBM DOS E Editor 

Command Line 

The command line can be found near the bottom of the E Editor screen. To jump 
the cursor from the typing area to the command line, press ESC. Press the ESC 
again to return the typing area. 

Window Style 

You can change the location of the reminder line, the information line, and the 
command line by selecting a different window style. See "Customizing the E Editor" 
on page 144 to learn how to alter the appearance of the editing screen and other 
customization techniques. 

Btting Help 

To get information about the E Editor after the editing window appears, press F1 to 
display help information. 



= rmr * Top of file 
E Editor Help 



Directory of Help Panels 



Page 1: 


Function Keys and 


(Fl 


- F10) 




Alt+Keys 


(Alt+Fl 


- Alt+FlO) 


Page 2: 


Shift+Keys and 


(Shift+Fl 


- Shift+F10) 




Ctrl* Keys 


(Ctrl+Fl 


- Ctrl+F10) 


Page 3 : 


Alt + Summary 


(Alt 


- Alt+O) 


Page 4 : 


Alt+Summary and 


(Alt+P 


- Alt + =0 




Ctrl + Summary 


(Ctrl+Enter 


- Ctr 1 ^Backspace ) 


Page 5: 


Ctrl* Summary 


(Ctrl 


- Ctrl+Z) 


Page 6-9: 


Command Summary 






Page 10: 


Edit Commands 






Page 11: 


Termination Commands 






Page 12 : 


Cursor Movement Controls 




Page 13: 


Copying, Moving, and Deleting text 




Page Down 





C : SDOSSEHELP . HLP 

Fl= : Help 2 =Sau i e 1 


1 :::: Qw i t 


Line 2 Col 

4=Fil.e 6=Draw ?=Mame 


1 Insert 

rNEdlt 3 -Undo 


E 3.12 

10=Hext 



Chapter 8. Working with the Text Editor 113 



You can then use the PAGE UP and PAGE DOWN keys to move forward and 
backwards through the help screens. 

You should not alter the Help file so always press the F3 key to quit or to exit Help. 

Leaving the E Editor 

You can stop editing and exit from the E Editor in two ways: QUIT (without saving 
changes) or FILE (saving changes). 



F3=Quit Removes your file's text from memory without saving it. If your file 

has been modified, you will be asked whether you really wish to quit 
the file without saving. 

F4=File Saves your file and removes it from memory. When all files have 

been removed from memory, you exit to DOS. 



Creating or Modifying a File 

You can use the E Editor to create a new text file or modify an existing file. For 
example, try entering some lines of text in a file named REPORTS.TXT in your root 
directory. You can use either method, DOS Shell or entering a command from the 
DOS prompt, to try this example. 

To edit a text file using DOS Shell: 

1. In the Main group, select the text editor by: 

If you are using a mouse, double clicking on the IBM DOS E Editor icon. 

If you are using a keyboard, press the TAB key to move to the Main group. 
Use the UP ARROW or DOWN ARROW keys to move the selection cursor to 
IBM DOS E Editor. Then press ENTER. 



114 DOS User's Guide 



The File to Edit pop-up window appears. 



IBM DOS Shell 


C:\ 

ISA @B 


ha d 

L Q P 


1 1 ' jflR'l^ 1 1 1 1 ft HG5^G3-93 
SJhI WW** * ifyZtE »fB05-O9-93 

ft ' y^^^Ol^^M^ft^^^aiice^My^^^Hel^^mi^lil 
















□ 




□ 


Main 








B Command Prompt 


□ 




□ 


El IBM DOS E EditorM 


□ 


□ 


B Central Point Scheduler 
B Central Point Undelete 
EiB] Disk Utilities 
B Central Point Backup 
B IBM AntiUirus/DOS 











2. Type in the name of the file you want to create or modify, including its path and 
file name in the File to Edit field. For example, you would type 

c : \ reports . txt in the field if you wanted to create a new file REPORTS.TXT in 
your root directory. 

If you want to modify an existing file, you must enter the file's name and full 
path. 

3. Select OK. 

To start the editor from the DOS command prompt: 

Type the following to try entering some lines of text in a file named REPORTS.TXT 
in your root directory. 

e c : \reports . txt 

You must always type the full path of the file unless you started the E Editor from 
the directory where you eventually want the file to be placed. 



Chapter 8. Working with the Text Editor 115 



You have opened the C:\REPORTS.TXT file using both DOS Shell and the E 
command typed at the DOS command prompt. 

You see the editing window. Your directory path and file name are displayed at the 
bottom of the screen. For descriptions of the parts of an E Editor screen, see 
"Viewing the E Editor Screen" on page 111. 

1 . Begin typing your text from where the cursor is positioned. Try typing the text 
in the following example: 

The following reports are required for the staff meeting on Friday: 
1 . Weekly Status Report 
2 . Funding Report 

2. When you reach the end of a line, you must press ENTER to move the cursor to 
the next line because there is no "word wrap." A line of text can be up to 255 
characters long. You can use the TAB key to move the cursor. 

As you enter the text, note near the bottom of the screen that the Line and Col 
numbers changing. 

3. Save and file the information as C:\REPORTS.TXT by pressing the F4 key. 

You see Saving c : \reports .txt flash at the bottom of your screen. 

If you do not specify the full path and file name when you load the E Editor, 
your file will be saved to the same drive and directory you were at when you 
created the file. 

You can change it by typing save followed by a new drive, directory, or file 
name. If you were in the C:\OFFICE\NOTES subdirectory when you typed e 
reports .txt, your file is saved as C:\OFFICE\NOTES\REPORTS.TXT instead 
of C:\. If you want to save the file to this directory, you would type the following 
at the E Editor command line: 

save c:\reports.txt 

After leaving the E Editor, you are returned to a command line or to DOS Shell. 

4. If you chose to run IBM DOS E Editor from DOS Shell, refresh DOS Shell to 
see the file you created. 



116 DOS User's Guide 



Naming an Unnamed File 

If you type only e at the DOS command prompt or select OK in the File to Edit 
pop-up window in DOS Shell without specifying a file name, you would see 
.unnamed file near the bottom on the left side of the screen. 

To name the unnamed file: 

1. Press F7=Name if you loaded an unnamed file by typing e. 
You are prompted to enter a name for the file. 

Press ESC and enter a file name after Name on the E Editor command line. 

Remember: Be sure to include a full path name (drive, directory, and 
subdirectory if applicable) where you want to find this file when you exit the E 
Editor. Unlike word processing programs that always place files in a specific 
directory, you must specify the exact location where you want to place this file. 
Otherwise, the file is put in the same drive and directory as you were in when 
you loaded the E Editor. 

2. Save and file under the new name by pressing F4=FILE. 

In addition to creating a new file and editing an existing file, you can also save and 
print files using the E Editor. 

Saving and Exiting a File 

After you create a file or make changes to an existing file, you can save it using a 
new name or you can save it using the name you specified when you opened the 
file. You also can save it with the same file name or new file name in a different 
drive or directory. 

It is a good idea to save your work in case there is a power loss or equipment 
failure by pressing F2=Save often during the editing session. Also, the E Editor has 
an AUTOSAVE features. If you type autosave 15 at the E Editor command line, 
your file is temporarily saved to a file after you press ENTER 15 times. 

CAUTION: 

Some files that you open might include special formatting characters. If you 
save such a file when using the E Editor, special characters lose their 
formatting function. 



To save the file Press F4=FILE to save the file and exit. 

and exit using the Thg fj)e js saved in the same drive and directory you were in 

same file name: when yQU started ^ E EdjtQr 



Chapter 8. Working with the Text Editor 117 



To save the file 1 . Press ESC to get to the E Editor command line, 

and exit using a _ 

different file yH 

name: file newname.ext 

where newname.ext is the new file name and extension for the 
file you are saving. 

Remember: If you attempt to save a file using the name of a file 
that already exists, the E Editor will not display a message 
asking whether you want to replace the existing file. 

To save the file in 1 . Press ESC to get to the E Editor command line, 

a different drive 0 _ 

or directory and 2 Type: 

exit: file drive : \dir\ filename, ext 

where drive:\dir is the new drive and directory where you want to 
store the file, and filename.ext is the name you want to give the 
file. The name can be the same name or a new name. 

Remember: If you attempt to save a file in a directory that 
contains a file with the same name, you are not prompted and 
asked whether you want to replace the existing file. 



Tip: You can save a modified version of a file without losing the original version. 
For example, if you have a file named MEMO.TXT, you can keep the original file 
and save a modified version as MEMO_2.TXT. 

Editing Multiple Files 

One advantage you have with the E Editor over other text editors is the ability to 
open and edit more than one file at a time. This ability to edit multiple files means, 
for example, that you can create a new file and copy (or move) information from an 
existing file into the new file. Or, you can edit multiple new files, multiple existing 
files, or any combination of new and existing files. The files are placed into 
memory in a type of invisible ring, and you can switch between all files in the ring 
by pressing F10 

To edit more than one file at a time: 

You can open the files from either DOS Shell or by typing the E command from the 
DOS command prompt. 



118 DOS User's Guide 



Here are some sample commands you might type: 

c : \ >e report . txt In this first example the E Editor loads the file REPORT.TXT 

you created earlier in the chapter into the E Editor. 

c : \ >e report . txt data . dat In this second example, two files are loaded into the E 

Editor. Use the F10 key to switch between files that are 
loaded for editing. 

c : \ >e . c In this third example, all the files with the C extension are 

loaded into the E Editor. 

From the E Editor command line, the equal sign (=) substitutes the current file's 
directory and saves keystrokes if you are editing several files in another directory. 
File names must be separated by spaces. For example: 

Your current directory is C:\EDIT 
The current file is C:\MYDOC\PROG\JIM.DOC 
You issue the command: EDIT =MIKE.TXT 
The E Editor loads C:\MYDOC\PROG\MIKE.TXT 

Printing a File 

You can use the E Editor PRINT command to print an open file. This command 
works only if you have a printer connected to or redirected through your LPT1 
(parallel) printer port. 

To print a file: 

1. Edit the file you want to print. (You can use REPORTS.TXT as a file you are 
wanting to print.) 

2. At the E Editor command line, type: 

print 

3. Press ENTER. 

The readiness of the printer is tested first to avoid having to wait for a device 
timeout in case the printer is offline. You might see the message: 

Printer not ready 

which means the printer is turned off, offline, or perhaps out of paper. Make 
sure the printer is ready and then repeat the PRINT command. 



Chapter 8. Working with the Text Editor 119 



Using Cursor Movement Keys to Move Around in the Text FH@ 

When you load an existing file into the E Editor, your file appears on the screen and 
the cursor is placed in the top, far left position in the text. To view a different part 
of the file, you have to move the cursor. 

Summary of Cursor Movement Keys 



Cursor Movement 


Action 


Key 




UP ARROW 


Moves cursor one line up. 


DOWN ARROW 


Moves cursor one line down. 


LEFT ARROW 


Moves cursor one character to the left. 


RIGHT ARROW 


Moves cursor one character to the right. 


HOME 


Moves cursor to column 1 of the current line. 


END 


Moves cursor to the end of the current line. 


PAGE UP 


Shifts view to page above current page. The cursor stays at same position 




on screen. 


PAGE DOWN 


Shifts view to page below current page. The cursor stays at same position 




Ull bC/lccll. 


CTRL+HOME 


N^/"iwno f i iro/"\K tr\ f/"\r» lino r\f fi 1 c\ 
IVIUVoo LiUibUI IU lUp Mile Ul Inc. 


CTRL+END 


^/flwQC n ircor +r\ Hr\M/"\rr\ lino r\f fllo 

ivicjvfcJb C/Uioor iu uoiiom line ui me. 


TAB 


IVIUVco UUIoUl IU iloXl IdU biup. 


SHIFT+TAB 


IVIUVco CUIbUl IU picVIOUb IdU biup. 


CTRL+PAGE UP 


IVIUVU& UUlbUI IU lUp Ul bUleoil. 


CTRL+PAGE DOWN 


iviovcb cuibur iu uoiiom 01 bcrcen. 


CTRL+LEFT ARROW 


h^ni/QC pi ircnr f/~\ honinninn r\f \hir\rr\ loft r*f irc?r\r 

iviovcb cuibur iu LJcginriiny ui wuiq icii ot uursur. 


CTRL+RIGHT ARROW 


Moves cursor to beginning of word to right of cursor. 


ENTER 


Creates a new line and moves the cursor to the beginning of the new line. 


CTRL+ENTER 


Moves cursor to column 1 of next line. 


ESC 


Moves cursor back and forth between text and E Editor command line. 


ALT+E 


Moves cursor to end of marked block. 


ALT+Y 


Moves cursor to beginning of marked block. 


CTRL+F5 


Moves cursor to the beginning of a word. 


CTRL+F6 


Moves cursor to the end of a word. 


CTRL+F 


Moves cursor to next found text. 


(repeat FIND) 





Note: You can also scroll by holding down an arrow key. 



120 DOS User's Guide 



Performing Basic Editing Tasks 

In addition to entering text, there are basic features that most text editors perform, 
such as: 

Inserting or replacing text. 
Connecting or breaking a line of text. 
Adding a blank line. 
Deleting all or only part of a line. 

Deleting characters, words, or lines of text without marking them first. 

Restoring a deleted line. 

Setting tabs. 

Setting margins. 

Saving keystrokes in a macro. 

Inserting or Replacing Text 

The E Editor has two modes for entering text: insert mode and replace mode. 
Press the INSERT key to alternate between modes. 



To insert text: Position the cursor at the point where the next text is to start and 

type it in. Existing text moves to the right to make room for what you 
type. 

When you start the E Editor, it is automatically in insert mode. At the 
bottom right-hand corner of the E Editor screen, you see the word 
"Insert." Press the INSERT key if you want to change to replace 
mode. 

In insert mode, the cursor is a box shape. 

To replace text: Press the INSERT key to replace characters instead of inserting them. 

At the bottom right-hand corner of the E Editor screen, you now see 
the word "Replace." 

Position the cursor at the point where the next text is to start and 
type it in. Existing text is overwritten when you type. Press the 
INSERT key again to resume inserting. 

In replace mode, the cursor is an underscore. 



Chapter 8. Working with the Text Editor 121 



Connecting or Breaking a Line of Text 

Because a text editor does not have "word wrap" (except for setting a margin before 
you begin typing), the way to break lines at a certain point in the text is to split 
(breaking) them. Other times you might want to join (connecting) two or more 
shorter lines into one line of text. The E Editor allows you to split or join a line: 



Split a Line: Position the cursor at the point where you want to split the line and 

press ALT+S. The text after the point where you put the cursor is 
now on the next line. 

Join a Line: Position the cursor at the end of the line where you want the text to 

continue or be connected and press ALT+J The line of text just 
below the cursor is now brought up to join the line the cursor is on. 



Adding or Erasing Lines 

Basic tasks you can perform using a text editor are to add a line, or erase all or 
part of a line of text. 



To add a blank 


Position the cursor anywhere in the line just above the row where 


line: 


you want to add the line and press ENTER. 


To erase to the 


Position the cursor anywhere on the line to the left of what you want 


end of the line 


to erase and press CTRL+E. The text to the end of the line is now 




erased. 



Deleting Unmarked Characters, Words, or Lines 

You can delete text one character at a time, one word at a time, one line at a time, 
or several lines at a time in blocks at one time. 



To delete a 


Place the cursor on the character you want to delete and press the 


character: 


DELETE key. 




The character is deleted from the screen and the text to the right of 




the cursor shifts to the left to fill the gap. 




To delete multiple characters, repeat the steps for each character 




you want to delete. 


To backspace 


Press the BACKSPACE key. 


over a character: 


The character to the left of the cursor is deleted from the screen and 




the text to the right of the cursor shifts to the left to fill the gap. 




By pressing the BACKSPACE repeatedly, characters continue to be 




deleted. 



122 DOS User's Guide 



To delete a word: Position the cursor at the beginning of the word to be deleted and 
press CTRL+D. 

The word is deleted from the screen and the text to the right of the 
cursor shifts to the left to fill the gap. Repeat the steps to delete 
multiple words. 

A text editor assumes a word to be a string of characters from the 
point where your cursor is positioned up to and including the first 
following space. 

To delete a line: Place the cursor in any column on the line to be deleted and press 
CTRL+BACKSPACE simultaneously. 

The line is deleted from the screen and the lines below it move up to 
fill the gap. Continuing to press CTRL+BACKSPACE deletes multiple 
lines. 



Note: If you have multiple characters, words or lines to delete, you might find it 
easier to mark words, lines, or blocks for deletion instead (see "Marking 
Text" on page 125). 

Restoring a Deletion 

Press F9=UNDO if you incorrectly type a change to a line and you want to restore its 
original contents. 

Note: The contents will only be restored if you have not pressed ENTER. 

The UNDO command does not restore deleted lines or changes to multiple lines. 
Only the current line you are editing can be restored. 

Setting Tabs 

Use the TAB key to move the cursor across the screen and insert text at set points. 

To change the tab settings: 

1. Press ESC to move your cursor to the command line. 

2. Type the TABS command on the E Editor command line. 

If you only type tabs, the current tab settings are displayed. The tabs are 
preset to every eighth column across the screen. For example: 

tabs 1 9 17 25 33 

3. Change the tab setting using the TABS command using the following format: 

tabs [tl [t2 [t3 , . . t32] ] ] 



Chapter 8. Working with the Text Editor 1 23 



For example, you could reset tabs for specific tab stops by typing the following 
at the E Editor command line: 

tabs 4 17 39 47 ... 55 

and then pressing ENTER. 

or 

You can type the TABS command followed by a number to set the tabs to 
every fourth column across the screen: 

tabs 4 

In this example, the tabs are set at 1 5 9 13 ... 125. 

Setting Margins 

To set new margins: 

1 . Press ESC to move your cursor to the command line. 

2. Type the MARGINS command on the E Editor command line. 

If you only type margins, the current margin settings are displayed. For 
example: 

margins 1 254 1 

3. Change the margin setting using the MARGINS command using the following 
format: 

margins [left margin[right margin[new paragraph margin]]] 
For example, you could type margins similar to: 

margins 17 5 
and press ENTER. 

To put the cursor back in the text area, press the ESC key. As you continue 
typing, the E Editor keeps your text within the new margin settings. 

Notice that your previously entered text is not automatically reflowed to the new 
margin settings. 

4. Press ESC to move your cursor to the command line. 

Saving Keystrokes in a Macro 

You can record and play back any sequence of keystrokes. Such a recorded 
sequence constitutes a temporary macro that can be repeated numerous times. If 
you find yourself entering the same key sequence more than twice, record them 
instead. 



1 24 DOS User's Guide 



To record a sequence of keys: 

1 . Press CTRL+R. 

2. Type your sequence of keys. 

Virtually any key can be recorded, including ESC, to switch to the E Editor 
command line. As you are recording the keys, the key operations are also 
taking place in addition to being recorded and saved. 

3. Do one of the following when prompted: 
CTRL+R Finishes the recording of keystrokes. 

CTRL+T Completes the recording and immediately runs the saved sequence. 

This is a shortcut which eliminates having to press CTRL+R a second 
time before pressing CTRL+T. 

CTRL+C Cancels saving the keystroke sequence. 
To replay the sequence at any other time: 

Press CTRL+T. 

Unless you have changed keystroke recordings, made a new recording, or left the 
E Editor, the keystroke recording is retained. 



Selecting Text 

You begin most editing operations by selecting a block of text. In a single line, you 
can select any amount of text, from a single character to the entire line. You can 
also select several lines or the entire file at once. 

In the E Editor, selecting a section of the text is called marking the text. When this 
is done correctly, you see the area you have marked highlighted on your screen. 
To copy, move, or delete a section of text, you must first mark the text before you 
can perform functions on it. 

Unmarking the text removes the highlighting and the text is no longer selected. 

Marking Text 

Four types of marks are recognized in the E Editor: 

Line Mark An entire line from column 1 up to an including column 255, 

unless you have set your margins before blocking. 

Note: Use line mark if you are going to copy or move text 
and then insert the text elsewhere in the file. Only 
the line mark moves the existing text down to let you 



Chapter 8. Working with the Text Editor 1 25 



insert the text. With line mark, no text shifts to the 
right. You are not required to add blank lines before 
you insert the moved or copied block of text. 

Block Mark A strictly rectangular area of text. 

Word Mark All characters from the point where your cursor is positioned 

up to and including the first following space. 

Character Mark A single character on which the cursor is placed, or multiple 
characters in words, phrases, or sentences. Allows you to 
mark multiple lines without having to be in a rectangular area 
of text. 

To mark a line of text: 

1 . Use the arrow keys or other cursor movement keys to move the cursor 
anywhere on the line you want to select or line mark. 

2. Press the line combination keys ALT+L. 
To mark multiple lines of text: 

After you mark a line, move the cursor to another line and press the line 
combination keys (ALT+L) again. All lines between the first mark and the second 
mark are then marked. 

To mark a block of text: 

1 . Use the arrow keys or other cursor movement keys to move the cursor to the 
upper, left character of the text you want to select or block mark. 

2. Press ALT+B. 

3. Move the cursor to the lower, rightward character of the text you want to block 
mark. 

4. Press ALT+B again to complete the block mark. 
The text you have marked is now highlighted. 

To mark a word: 

1 . Use the arrow keys or other cursor movement keys to move the cursor 
anywhere on the word you want to select or word mark. 

A text editor assumes a word to be a string of characters from the point where 
your cursor is positioned up to and including the first following space. Unlike 
the line mark, you cannot mark more than one word with this type of mark. 

2. Press the word combination keys ALT+W. 

DOS User's Guide 



To mark a character: 

1. Use the arrow keys or other cursor movement keys to move the cursor to a 
character you want to select or character mark. 

2. Press the character combination keys ALT+Z. The character is highlighted. 

To mark multiple characters in words, phrases, or sentences: 

1 . Use the arrow keys or other cursor movement keys to move the cursor to the 
first character of multiple words, phrases or sentences you want to select. 

A multiple character mark can span lines. Unlike the block mark, this type of a 
mark need not be a strictly rectangular shape. Because this mark is intended 
for marking sentences and phrases, the mark wraps around lines. 

2. Press the character combination keys ALT+Z 

3. After you mark one character, move the cursor, and press the mark character 
keys ALT+Z again to character mark multiple characters. 

All characters between the two marks are highlighted. 

After you have marked text, you can revise the range of the mark by placing the 
cursor at a different position and again pressing the combination key you last used. 
If the cursor is outside the range of the marked area, the marked area will be 
expanded to include the new position. If the cursor is within the marked area, it will 
be construed as a new end of the area mark. 

Unmarking Text 

You can clear marked text from the E Editor window by pressing ALT+U. Any 
marked text is no longer highlighted. 

Summary of key combinations for marking and unmarking text: 

Following is a table which summarizes the key combinations you would use to mark 
and unmark text. 



ALT+B 


Block mark for rectangles or lines. 


ALT+L 


Line mark for one or more lines. 


ALT+W 


Word mark. 


ALT+Z 


Character mark for sentences, phrases or characters. 


ALT+U 


Unmark. 



Chapter 8. Working with the Text Editor 1 27 



Using Key Combinations to Manipulate Text 

You can now perform any type of operation on the marked text that you want, such 
as copy, move, delete, or reflow it. To manipulate an area of text, follow these 
steps: 

1 . Mark the text you wish to copy, move, delete, or reflow by pressing the key 
combinations in the previous summary. The E Editor highlights the area to 
show you what you have marked. 

2. For copying or moving, select the destination for the highlighted text by moving 
the cursor to the destination position. 

3. Press a key combination, such as ALT+C (copy) to perform the operation. 
Deleting Text 

You use the DELETE command to delete a block of text and reposition the text 
once the deletion is made. 

To delete text: 

1 . Mark the text you want to delete. 

Refer to "Marking Text" on page 125 for instructions on how to select text if you 
do not know how to mark it. 

2. Press ALT+D. 

The text is deleted and the text to the right of the cursor shifts to the left to fill 
the gap. 

Copying Text 

You use the Copy command to copy and reposition a block of text. 

To copy a block of text: 

1 . Mark the block of text you want to copy. 

Refer to "Marking Text" on page 125 for instructions on how to select text if you 
do not know how to mark it. 

2. Select the destination for the highlighted text by moving the cursor to the 
destination position. 

3. Press ALT+C. 

The block of text is copied to the new location, and it is not removed from its 
original location. 

1 28 DOS User's Guide 



To copy a block of text into another file: 

1. Load the two files you are going to copy text between (target and source files). 
For information on how to edit more than one file at a time, refer to page 118. 

2. In the file that has the text you want to copy, mark the block of text. 

Refer to "Marking Text" on page 125 for instructions on how to select text if you 
do not know how to mark it. 

3. Select the destination for the highlighted text by switching to the second file 
(F10) and moving the cursor to the destination position. 

4. Press ALT+C. 

The block of text is copied to the new location, and it is not removed from its 
original location. 

You can copy the marked text into a file as many times as you want by repeating 
the COPY command (ALT+C). The text remains in the buffer, a temporary storage 
area, until you change what is marked. 

Moving Text 

You can move a block of text. This procedure is useful if you want to rearrange the 
order of text in a file. 

To move a block of text within the same file: 

1 . Mark the block of text you want to move. 

Refer to "Marking Text" on page 125 for instructions on how to select text if you 
do not know how to mark it. 

2. Move the cursor to the position where you want to move the text using the 
arrow keys. 

3. Press ALT+M. 

The block of text is deleted from the original location and moved to the new 
destination. 



Chapter 8. Working with the Text Editor 1 29 



To move a block of text into another file: 

1. Load the two files you are going to transfer text between (target and source 
files). 

For information on how to edit more than one file at a time, refer page 118. 

2. In the file that has the text you want to move, mark the block of text. 

Refer to "Marking Text" on page 125 for instructions on how to select text if you 
do not know how to mark it. 

3. Select the destination for the highlighted text by switching to the second file 
(F10) and moving the cursor to the destination position. 

4. Press ALT+M. 

The block of text is moved to the new location, and it is removed from its 
original location. 

When you move a block of text, the text is not removed from the buffer; it remains 
there until you move another block of text to the buffer. You can insert text from 
the buffer into a file as many times as you want by repeating the MOVE command 
(ALT+M). 

Reflowing Text 

The E Editor allows you to reflow text to fit with a new area between margin 
settings or in a defined area you define. 

Adjusting a Paragraph to the New Margins 

The E Editor recognizes a blank line as the end of a paragraph. Therefore, you 
can reflow text in a paragraph to adjust to new margin settings. Before you can 
adjust a paragraph to new margins, you must first set the margins. See "Setting 
Margins" on page 124 for information about setting margins. 

If a paragraph is not followed by a blank line or an end-of-file indicator, you must 
mark the paragraph before you can reflow text. 

To reflow text to revised margin settings: 

1 . Move the cursor to the beginning of the paragraph. 

2. If the paragraph is not terminated with a blank line or end or file, mark the area 
using combination keys. 

The E Editor highlights the text you have marked. 

3. Press ALT+P to adjust the marked paragraph to the current margin settings. 



130 DOS User's Guide 



Reflowing Marked Text 

Pressing the ALT+R combination keys lets you reflow a section of text to a defined 
space. It is typically used to reformat a special paragraph (such as an indented 
paragraph) without changing the margins. 

To reflow marked text: 

1. First mark the text to be reformatted (with any type of mark). 

2. Press ALT+R. 

You are prompted to mark the new block — the space into which you want the 
block ref lowed. 

3. Move the cursor to the upper-left character of the block of text you want to 
reflow. and press ALT+B. 

4. Move the cursor to the lower-right character of the block of text you want to 
reflow and press ALT+B. 

5. Press ALT+R and the text is reflowed. The space where the text came from is 
filled with blank spaces. 

ALT+P reflows a block marked area into the shape and size of the marked area 
and ignores the margin settings. 

In other words, with a block mark, ALT+P behaves as if you marked a block, 
pressed ALT+R, and remarked the same block. 

Summary of Text Operation Keys: 

After you have marked text, you can manipulate it by pressing the following key 
combinations: 



ALT+A 


Moves the text to the new position and fills the old position with 
blanks. 


ALT+C 


Copies the text to the new location by inserting it and pushing aside 
existing text. 


ALT+D 


Deletes marked text. The space formerly occupied is discarded. 


ALT+O 


Copies text to a new location except overlays the existing text rather 
than pushes it aside. 


ALT+M 


Moves marked text from one location to another location and discards 
the space previously occupied by the text. 


ALT+F 


Fills an entire marked area with a character you specify. The 
character can be a graphic; see "Entering Control and Graphic 
Characters" on page 145 for information on how to enter a graphic 
character. To end this operation, press the ESC key. 



Chapter 8. Working with the Text Editor 1 31 



ALT+P 


Reflows a marked paragraph to the new margin settings. If a block of 
text is marked, reflows only the marked text to the new margin 
settings. See "Adjusting a Paragraph to the New Margins" on 
page 1 30 for details. 


ALT+R 


Reflows the marked text into a new defined area. See "Reflowing 
Marked Text" for details. 


ALT+F7 


Shifts marked text to the left. If you have text next to the left column 
of the marked area, it will overlay any text in the far left column of the 
marked area. 


ALT+F8 


Shifts marked text to the right. All text to the right of the left edge 
boundary is shifted right. The far left marked column is filled with 
blank spaces. 


ALT+E 


Moves the cursor to the end of the marked text. Except for 
line-marked text, this is the far right character of the last line. For line 
marked text, the cursor column is unchanged. 


ALT+Y 


Moves the cursor to the start of the marked text. Except for 
line-marked text this is the far left character of the first line. For line 
marked text, the cursor column is unchanged. 


Some operation keys do not work with all combination keys, as shown in the 
following table. 


The top heading gives the marking keys. The left column shows the operation 
keys. At the intersection of any row and column is a description of where the 
cursor should be placed to define the destination. If no such description is given 
(as at the intersection of ALT+L and ALT+A), the operation is not allowed. 


ALT+L ALT+B or ALT+W ALT+Z 


Adjust (ALT+A) 


Top Left Corner 


Copy (ALT+C) 


Line Above Top Left Corner At Line 


Delete (ALT+D) 


Any Position Any Position Any Position 


Overlay (ALT+O) 


Top Left Corner 


Move (alt+m) 


Line Above Top Left Corner Top Left Corner 


Reflow (alt+p) 


Any Position Any Position Any Position 


SHIFT (ALT+F7/F8) 


Any Position Any Position 



DOS User's Guide 



Using E Editor Commands 

In addition to pressing keys or combinations of keys, you can use the E Editor 
command line to perform many functions of the E Editor. 

Enclosing an E Editor command in quotes when you invoke the editor lets you 
specify a command that takes effect immediately upon loading the E Editor. You 
can specify file names before the quoted command. For example, to start the E 
Editor, open a file named REPORT.DOC, and move the cursor to the bottom of the 
file, you would type: 

C> e report.doc ' bot 1 

Remember to shift from the window area of the editor to the E Editor command line, 
press ESC. Press ESC again to return to the window area of the E Editor. 

Finding Text 

To find a word, a phrase, or a combination of characters in a file, use the / (search) 
or L (locate) command. The text can be a word, a phrase, or any combination of 
characters and spaces. 

Note: To make sure the entire file is searched, go to the top of the file before you 
begin your search. 

You need to be specific about limiting your searches so you find only separate 
occurrences, such as searching for "let" and finding these letters in the word 
"letters." If you searched for "lett", you are limiting the search to a more specific 
search pattern. 

To find a word or phrase, use the following format: 

/findword/ [options] 

or 

L/ findword/ [options] 

If you do not specify any options, the / (search) or L (locate) command will do the 
following: 

Search the entire file (not only the marked area) in the forward direction. 

For example, the search starts at the current line and proceeds toward the end 
of the file. 

Search but ignore case. 

For example, the E Editor will find both Brown and brown. 



Chapter 8. Working with the Text Editor 1 33 



Search left to right through lines. 

Change the search options if you need to. When the E Editor searches for text, it 
starts at the current cursor position and selects the first occurrence of the text. You 
can specify the following search options: 

Search from current line backwards, to top of file or to top of marked area 
if the m option is chosen but still searches left to right. 



+ 


Search 


forward from current line to bottom of file. 


m 


Search 


within the marked text area only. 


a 


Search 


the current file, ignoring the marked area. 


c 


Search 


but ignore case. 


e 


Search 


but match the search pattern's case exactly. 


r 


Search 


from right to left through lines. 


f 


Search 


from left to right through lines. 



To find text: 

1. Return to the top of the file and type a / (search) or L (locate) command. 

For example, if you are trying to find "help" as a separate word, you would type: 

/help / 

or 

L/help / 

Make sure you include the space after the word "help" because the E Editor 
finds all occurrences, such as the help in helpless if you do not add the space 
in your search pattern. The second / is normally not required if you do not 
have options listed. Because you are limiting your search to help followed by a 
space, the second / is required to add the space. 

2. Press ENTER. 

If no occurrences of the text are found, you see the string not found 
message. 

3. To search for the next occurrence of the specified text, press CTRL+F. 

The / (search) or L (locate) command leaves the cursor in the text area, not on the 
E Editor command line. 

The / (search) or L (locate) command continues to search through the file each time 
you press CTRL+F until it reaches the end of the file. 



DOS User's Guide 



Here is an example of the / (search) or L (locate) command: 

/ f inalize/e 

The E option means to search but match the case exactly. After you press ENTER, 
the E Editor searches for the word "finalize", ignoring any words it might find that 
have uppercase letters in it, such as "Finalize". 

Any search string delimiter (not only the slash /) can be used after the L CATE 
command. You will need this if the search string itself contains a slash. When 
used with the slash delimiters (/), the command does not require a blank between 
the C and the /. However, if you are using a different delimiter, a blank space is 
required between the L and the delimiter. The same is true of the C (change) 
command. 

L $/$ 

In the last example, '$' is the delimiter and V is the string for which to search. 

Multiple options can be given at one time. 

/helper/-re 

If contradictory options are given (such as /rf), only the last option is the one 
remembered. 

In this example, the E Editor searches for the word "helper" from the current line 
backwards in the file, searches from right to left in the lines, and finds only the word 
"helper" and matching capitalization exactly while it is searching. 

Searching for and Replacing Text 

To find a word or phrase, use the following format: You can search for and replace 
a set of characters in a file at the same time using the C (change) command. The 
C (change) command begins at the cursor location and continues to the end of the 
file. To make sure that you search for and replace the entire file, move the cursor 
to the top of the file before you begin to search and replace text. 

To find a word or phrase and replace it with other text, use the following format: 
1 . Type a C (change) command using the following format: 

c/oldtext /newtext / [options] 

For example, if you are trying to find "mail" and replace it with "letters", you 
would type: 

c/mail /letters / 

The "C" is the shortened form of the C (change) command. 



Chapter 8. Working with the Text Editor 1 35 



Make sure you specify the spaces where necessary because the C (change) 
command changes all occurrences. If the spaces were not specified in the 
preceding example, the mail in mailbox would then become lettersbox if you do 
not add the space in your search pattern. 

There is one option available with the C (change) command that is not available 
with the L (locate) command. If you want to make all the changes, without 
being prompted, add an asterisk (*) similar to the example that follows: 

c /mi speled/mis spelled/ 

If you do not specify options, the C (change) command will do the following: 

Change the entire file (not only the marked area) in the forward direction. 

For example, the change starts at the current line and proceeds toward the 
end of the file. 

Search but ignore case. 

For example, the E Editor will find both Brown and brown. 

Search left to right through lines. 

Change the options if you need to. The E Editor starts at the current cursor 
position and changes the first occurrence of the text. You can specify the 
following change options: 

* Make all the changes, without being prompted. 

Change from current line backwards, to top of file or to top of marked 
area if the m option is chosen, but still searches left to right. 

+ Change forward from current line to bottom of file. 

m Change within the marked text area only. 

a Change the current file, ignoring the marked area. 

c Change but ignore case. (This is the default for the CHANGE 
command). 

e Change but match the search pattern's case exactly, 
r Search from right to left through lines, 

f Search from left to right through lines. 

2. Press ENTER. 



136 DOS User's Guide 



3. If the text is not found, you see the message string not found. If the text is 
found, you see the message Yes /No/Last /Go /Quit? near the bottom of the 
screen. Type: 

Y To make the change for this one item and search for the next 
occurrence. 

N To skip the change and search for the next occurrence. 
L To replace this last one and then stop. 

G To go ahead and replace the remaining occurrences without prompting 
for each occurrence. 

Q To stop making any further changes and discontinue the search. You 
can also press ESC. 

From the E Editor command line: 

Press CTRL+F To find the next occurrence of the specified text. 
or 

Type c To repeat the same C (change) command without having 

to retype the C (change) command. You are immediately 
asked Yes/No/Last/Go/Quit?. 

or 

4. Press ESC to put the cursor back in the text area. 

The C (change) command leaves the cursor in the text area, not on the E Editor 
command line. 

The C (change) command continues to search through the file each time you press 
CTRL+F until it reaches the end of the file. 

Here are some examples of C (change) commands: 

In the following example, you would be prompted to answer each time the word 
"bills" is found whether you want to make the change, not change this instance but 
search for the next occurrence, replace this one and stop, or replace this one and 
all the rest without prompting. 

c /bills/invoices/ 

Any search string delimiter (not only the slash /) can be used after the C (change) 
command. You will need this if the search string itself contains a slash. When 
used with the slash delimiters (/), the C (change) command does not require a 
blank between the C and the /. However, if you are using a different delimiter, a 



Chapter 8. Working with the Text Editor 1 37 



blank space is required between the "C" and the delimiter. The same is true of the 
L (locate) command. Typing: 

c $/$\$ 

changes / to \ 

Multiple options can be given at one time. 

/helper/-re 

If contradictory options are given (such as /rf), only the last option is the one 
remembered. 

In this example, the E Editor searches for the word "helper" from the current line 
backwards in the file, searches from right to left in the lines, and finds only the word 
"helper" and matching capitalization exactly while it is searching. 

Drawing Lines 

You can use graphics characters to draw boxes and diagrams. The DRAW 
command can be typed at the E Editor command line: 

draw 

Note: You can also press F6. 

To select drawing mode, you must issue the DRAW command with one of these 
arguments: 



Draw Option 


Result 


1 


Draws a thin, single line 


2 


Draws a thin, double line 


3 


Draws a dotted line 


4 


Draws a thick line 


5 


Draws a double, thin line horizontally; single, thin line vertically 


6 


Draws a double, thin line vertically; draws a single, thin line 




horizontally. 


/character 


Uses any character that follows the slash (/) to form a box. 



If you type the DRAW command without any arguments, the visual 

representations: l, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, b, or /any char appear at the bottom of the 

screen as a reminder. For example: 

Draw 2 



1 38 DOS User's Guide 



You are now in draw mode, which means that the cursor becomes like a paint 
brush: everywhere you move the cursor, a double line (because you typed 2) is 
drawn. 

Draw any shape with the cursor using the arrow keys (LEFT, RIGHT, UP, and 
DOWN). While in the drawing mode, you can stop drawing the double line and type 
in text or move the cursor to another location without drawing anything (in other 
words, lift the paint brush) by pressing INSERT. This key suspends the drawing 
without exiting from draw mode. 

To begin drawing again, simply press the INSERT key again. Pressing any key 
besides those on the numeric key pad ends draw mode. 

You can draw figures with characters other than the line graphics characters 
provided. For example, if you want to draw figures composed of the left 
parentheses, you would type at the E Editor command line: 

Draw / ( 

This process works with any character on the keyboard, as long as you precede the 
character with a slash (/). 

Creating Boxes Around Text 

You can use graphics characters to draw boxes. The BOX command can be typed 
at the E Editor command line: 

box 



To create a box, you must issue the BOX command at the E Editor command line 
with one of these arguments: 



Box Option 


Result 


C 


Creates a box comment using the C language syntax. 


P 


Creates a box comment using the Pascal language syntax. 


A 


Creates a box comment using Assembler syntax. 


E 


Erases the box around the marked area. 


R 


Reflows text in marked area. 


B 


Places spaces on all sides of the marked area, creating a box of 




blank spaces. 



If you type the BOX command without any arguments, the visual representations 
for: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, b, /x, P, C, A, E, R, and S appear at the bottom of the 
screen as a reminder. 



Chapter 8. Working with the Text Editor 1 39 



For example, for a double line, you could type: 

box 2 



Combining Files 

There are three E Editor commands you can use to pull text from one file and place 
it into a different file: GET, PUT,' and APPEND. 

The E Editor allows you to have multiple files open at one time. You can mark text 
in one file and insert that text into another file you have open. 

For example, you just finished a note summarizing your monthly activities in which 
you listed some statistics you want to put in a second file. You don't want to insert 
the entire note; you only want the statistical information pulled into a second file. 

To use the GET command to insert another file into an opened file: 

1 . Open the file you want to pull information into. 

For example, open a file named NEWFILE.TXT by typing the following: 

e c : \newf ile . txt 

2. Place the cursor on a line above where you want to insert the file yo want to 
get. 

Because this is a new file, place the cursor at the top of the file. 

3. Press ESC to get to the E Editor command line. 

4. Type the GET command using the following format: 

get filespec 

Substitute the full path and file name of the file you want to insert. For 
example, to pull the C:\REPORTS.TXT into the C:\NEWFILE.TXT, you would 
type the following at the E Editor command line: 

get c:\reports.txt 

5. Press ENTER. 

The entire file will be pulled into the NEWFILE.TXT file following the line where 
the cursor is placed. 



140 DOS User's Guide 



To append text to the bottom of a file: 

The APPEND command works the same way as the PUT command, appending the 
text to the bottom of a file. Refer to the PUT command in the following section. 

To use the PUT command to insert a file or part of the file into another file: 

1 . Open a file that contains information you want to put into another file. 
For example, open a file named NEWFILE.TXT by typing the following: 

e c:\newfile.txt 

2. Mark the text you want to put into another file by using the line mark key 
combinations ALT+L If you do not mark any text, the entire file will be inserted. 

3. Press ESC to get to the E Editor command line. 

4. Type the PUT command using the following format: 

put filespec 

Substitute the full path and file name of the file you want to insert the marked 
text into. The file can be a file that already exists or a new file. 

For example, to pull the marked text from the file C:\NEWFILE.TXT into the 
C:\REPORTS.TXT file, you would type the following at the E Editor command 
line: 

put c:\reports.txt 
and press ENTER. 

The marked text or the complete opened file (NEWFILE.TXT) is always written 
to the file specified in the PUT command. (REPORTS.TXT). 

Only the marked text is inserted into the REPORTS.TXT file. If the file already 
exists, the information can only be placed at the bottom of the file; the file is not 
overwritten. 

If you use the PUT command to insert an entire file, you do not have to open or 
mark the text first. 

For convenience, filespec can be omitted if you want to repeat a PUT to the same 
file. PUT commands without a filespec reuses the last-specified name. 

If you do not move the cursor and do another PUT command, the text from the 
second PUT command is inserted immediately following the text inserted from the 
first PUT command. 



Chapter 8. Working with the Text Editor 1 41 



To print using the PUT command: 

You can print a marked block of text by issuing put prn. The readiness of the 
printer is tested first to avoid having to wait for a device timeout in case the printer 
is offline. The PRINT command allows you to print only marked text. 

If no text is marked, the entire current file is PUT. You can use the equal sign (=) 
as a shorthand for either the directory or file name. 

To use the equal sign to repeat the file name: 

You can use the equal sign (=) as a shorthand for either the current file's directory 
or file name. Remember that the equal sign is shorthand for "same path as last 
specified" at the DOS command prompt, or "same path as current file's" at the E 
Editor command line. 

For example, you are currently editing a file named REPORT1.TXT located in the 
C:\REPORTS subdirectory. You want to edit REPORT2 in the same subdirectory. 
At the E Editor command line, you would type: 

e =report2 . txt 

The file's path and file name can be seen as c: reports \report2 .txt near the 
bottom left-hand part of the screen. 

Adding and Multiplying Numbers 

If you need to add columns or rows of numbers, the E Editor provides both an ADD 
and a MULTIPLY command. See "Calculating Mathematical Expressions" on 
page 143 for the proper format. 

To add or multiply a column or row of numbers: 

1 . Mark the text you wish to add or multiply. 

You can do this by pressing ALT+B once at the top left corner of the column 
and again at the bottom right corner of the column of numbers. When you 
finish marking the end of the text, the text is highlighted to show you the 
column of text you have marked. 

2. Press ESC to get to the E command line at the bottom of your screen. 

3. Type add or type mult depending on the type of operation you want to perform. 

4. Press ENTER. 

To return the cursor to the text area, press the ESC key. 



1 42 DOS User's Guide 



Calculating Mathematical Expressions 

If you need to add, subtract, multiply, or divide hex, octal, or decimal numbers, the 
E Editor provides a set of MATH commands that compute an arithmetic expression 
of the following format: 

arithmetic expression: arith term arith operator arith term 

arith term: decimal number 
I hex number 
I octal number 

I ' (..' arithmetic expression ' ) 1 
arith operator: '+' 



I '/' 

Hexadecimal (base 1 6) numbers must be preceded by the letter "x", (for example, 
xi = 16). Octal (base 8) numbers must be preceded by the letter "o" (for example, 

ol2 = 1 ). 



Math Command 


What It Does 


math arithmetic expression 


The MATH command computes the expression and 




appends the result as a decimal number. 


mathx arithmetic expression 


The MATHX command computes the expression and 




appends the result as a hexadecimal number. 


matho arithmetic expression 


The MATHO command computes the expression and 




appends the result as an octal number. 



Try some of the following MATH commands. If your cursor is not on the highlighted 
E Editor command line, press ESC. 

math -1 +4 

mathx -xff +1 

matho oil (xff-1) 

math 32 32 
The above examples would yield 30, xFFOB, 04235, and -1536 respectively. The 
last result is because all numbers, answers, and intermediate results are limited to 
the range -32768 to 32767 (in other words, a 16-bit signed binary number). 



Chapter 8. Working with the Text Editor 1 43 



Customizing the E Editor 

You can use commands to change the way the E Editor window appears. 



Changing the Window 

Non-Overlapping (Tiled Window) 

The E Editor provides two styles of windowing. In the tiled (non-overlapping) 
window style, which is how the E Editor window normally appears, the windows do 
not overlap. This allows changes to your file to be shown immediately in 
neighboring views of the same file. 

You can see this with a quick experiment: Press CTRL+H to split the screen into 
two horizontal views of the same file and type. 

Tiled windows cannot be resized or moved around the screen because this might 
cause one window to overlap another. Tiled windowing also has the interesting 
characteristic that each window or tile contains the same ring of files as the other 
tiles or windows. Simply press CTRL+W when you are in the text area to alternate 
between the tiles. Note that each tile keeps track of its own cursor position so that 
you can edit two places in the same file without having to page up or page down. 

Overlapping (Messy Window) 

In messy (overlapping) desktop, the windows can overlap. You use the SIZE and 
DRAG commands to select the window's size and position. 



Keys and Commands for Customizing the Window 



Keys or 
Command 


What They Do 


CTRL+A 


Selects next tiled window configuration. There are four different 
window arrangements you can use if you have specified tiled 
windows. You can view all four window configurations by 
continuing to press CTRL+A to view each window configuration. 

Note: CTRL+A can only be used in tiled windows. 

One window zoomed to fill the screen. 

Two equal windows positioned vertically. 

Four windows divided into four equally sized windows. 

Two equal windows positioned horizontally. 


CTRL+H 


Selects two horizontal window tile configuration. 


CTRL+V 


Selects two vertical window tile configuration. 


CTRL+W 


Switches to next window 



144 DOS User's Guide 



Keys or 
Command 


What They Do 


CTRL+Z 


Switches one fully zoomed window tile configuration. In the messy 
desktop configuration, this expands the current window to full 
screen. 


F10 


Switches to next file when you have multiple files open. 


ALT+F10 


Switches to a previous file when you have multiple files open. 


ws 

(command) 


(Also WINDOWSTYLE) Allows five different window styles for 
arranging the location of your reminder line, E Editor command 
line, and function keys; presents you with WS 1 when you open a 
file. 


E or ED 
(command) 


Presents you a zoomed window style for tiled window 
configurations when you open a file. 


SIZE 

(command) 


Is used for resizing a window and used for the messy desktop 
window configuration only. 


DRAG 

(command) 


Is used for moving window and used for the messy desktop 
window configuration only. 



Entering Control and Graphic Characters 

You can enter PC graphic characters (those with extended ASCII codes greater 
than 127) with ALT+keypad numbers. 

For example, to enter the symbol for the Greek character pi (represented by the 
code 227): 

1 . Hold down the ALT key. 

2. Type 22 7 on the numeric keypad. 

3. Release the ALT key. 

Graphic symbols with codes less than 32 might be harder to enter because they 
conflict with control characters recognized by the E Editor. You might want to enter 
the character with code 12 because you like the looks of the graphic symbol or 
because you wish to send that control code to a printer. Code 12 is the same as 
CTRL+L, which is recognized as a formfeed by printers. You cannot type it simply 
by pressing CTRL+L because a CTRL+L is recognized by the E Editor as a special 
action (copy the current line of text to the command line). 

In such a case, you can force the E Editor to accept the code without evaluation by 
prefacing it with ALT+X. Press alt+x first, followed by ctri+i and then press 
ENTER, or specifying the character such as: 

alt+x ctrl+1 



Chapter 8. Working with the Text Editor 145 



Note: ALT+X is only necessary if the key has already been defined. But pressing 
ALT+X is always safe. If you are unsure whether the key is predefined, 
press ALT+X first. 

You can also follow ALT+X with an extended key such as F1 , but this is seldom 
useful. Extended keys are represented on the computer by two characters, a null 
(ASCII zero, which looks like a blank) with another character. For instance, F1 
gives you a null with a semicolon. 

The E Editor cannot handle the following graphic characters, as they have special 
control meanings: 

Tab x ' 9 ' 

Line Feed x ' A ' 

Carriage Return x' D' 

End of File x ' 1A ' (only following a CR/LF) 

Using Syntax-Directed Editing Features 

If you have a Pascal or C programming background, you can use the E Editor for 
development of code because E Editor provides syntax-directed editing for Pascal 
and C files. 

When ENTER or the SPACEBAR is pressed, the E Editor looks at the first word in 
the line and enters the rest of the structure when you press CTRL+X if it 
understands it. Structure expansion can include IF statements, loops, case 
statements, and comments. 

Typical syntax-directed editing features can be demonstrated by the following 
sequence: 

1. Type e newfile.c 

In this example the file name is NEWFILE.C. Remember that the file's 
extension must be .C for syntax-directed editing to work. 

2. Type main and press the SPACEBAR, followed by pressing CTRL+X. 
Enter the main statement. 

3. Then type i f and press the SPACEBAR followed by pressing CTRL+X. 

This sequence edits a new file called newfile.c and by pressing the SPACEBAR 
followed by pressing CTRL+X in both instances above you have inserted the rest of 
the MAIN and IF structures. 

If you find automatic expansion distracting, you can turn it off. Pressing CTRL+X 
expands syntax even if the syntax expansion option is off. 



1 46 DOS User's Guide 



The E Editor automatically expands the syntax of the Pascal or C languages 
according to the file's name and extension. For example, if the user edits a file 
called TEST.C, the E Editor will know this file contains C language programs. 

Box comments can also be created easily according to the syntax particular to the 
language. 

Summary of E Editor Commands 

The following table briefly summarizes the tasks the E Editor can do from the E 
Editor command line. 

In the following table, some of the commands are shown in both uppercase and 
lowercase letters. You only have to type the uppercase letters for these commands 
to work. For example, instead of typing bottom, you only need to type bot. If a 
command has all uppercase letters, you must type the entire command name. 



Command Syntax 


Usage 


nnnn 


Moves the cursor to the line number you specified. The current line 
number is displayed near the bottom of the editing screen. 


+ [nnnn] 


Moves forward (down) nnnn lines. If no number is specified, the 
cursor goes to the bottom of file. 


- [nnnn] 


Moves backward (up) nnnn lines. If no number is specified, the 
cursor goes to the top of file. 


/pattern/ 


This command and the L (locate) command are the same. This 
slash (/) form saves a couple of keystrokes when the search string 
does not itself contain a slash; you do not have to type the l 
followed by a space. 


ADD 


Adds the marked block containing numeric expressions. See 
"Adding and Multiplying Numbers" on page 142. Real numbers are 
not supported. 


APPEND [filespec] 


Appends marked text to the file filespec. If no text is marked, the 
entire current file is taken as the source. In the E Editor, the 
APPEND and the PUT commands are basically the same. 


AUTOSAVE [nnnn 1 ON 1 
OFF] 


Saves the current file to a temporary file after you press the enter 
key a specified number of times. If a number or ON is specified, 
the name of the temporary file is shown. If no number is given, the 
current AUTOSAVE value (nnnn) is displayed. 

Note: These temporary files are saved in case of "system or power 
failure. They are deleted as soon as you exit from the E 
Editor. 


AUTOSHELL 110 1 
ON 1 OFF 


Turns ON (=1) or OFF (= ) the automatic pass-command-to- DOS 
feature. If you turn off AUTOSHELL, you can still direct commands 
explicitly to DOS by prefixing them with the "DOS" keyword. 


BOTtom 


Moves to the bottom of the file. 



Chapter 8. Working with the Text Editor 147 



Command Syntax 


Usage 


BOX 1I2I3I4I5I6I 

CIPIAIEIRIBI 

/character 


Draws a box around marked text block. The arguments are listed 
on the screen if the BOX command without an argument. 


C loldtextlnewtextl 


Changes the oldtext to the newtext string. The '/' can be changed 
to any character; the first character after the 'C and at least one 
space is used as the string delimiter. The third delimiter is needed 
only if options are specified. (See "Searching for and Replacing 
Texf ' on page 1 35 for details.) 


CD [path] 


If path is specified, changes current directory to patH. If no path is 
specified, the current directory is shown in the function key text 
area. 


CENTER 


If a line is marked, centers the text on the line according to the 
margins specified. If a block is marked, the text in the block is 
centered within the limits of the block. 


CHR ASCII character code 


Displays the character associated with the ASCII character code 
specified. 


DOLINES 


Executes the marked lines and works only if the text contained in 
the marked lines are E Editor or DOS commands. 


[DOS] [command] 


Runs the DOS command processor to execute the command. If no 
command is specified, you exit the E Editor temporarily and return 
to DOS. To return to the editing session, type exit at the DOS 
prompt. 


DRAG 


Moves a messy desk window to a different position on the screen 
using the cursor keys. DRAG command cannot be used with tiled 
windowing configuration. 


DRAW [1 I 2 I 3 I 4 I 5 I 
6 I B I /character] 


Allows text drawing with cursor keys. If no option is specified, all 
options and their graphic representations are shown in the function 
key text area. 


Edit [options] filespec ] 


Loads specified files into memory. If no files are specified, the next 
file in the current window is activated. If a file already exists in the 
active window, then it is activated. If a file already exists in a 
different window, a new view of the file is placed in the current 
window. 


File [/q] [filespec] 


Saves the current file and then quits it. If no filespec is given, the 
current name is used. You can use the equal sign (=) here as a 
shorthand for the same directory or file name as the currently open 
file's directory or file name. If the /q option is given, the message 
Saving. . . is not displayed. 


GET filespec 


Gets a file and inserts its text on the next line after the cursor 
position. You can use the equal sign (=) as a shorthand for the 
same directory or file name as the currently open file's directory or 
file name. 


HELP 


Opens the online file for help on the E Editor combination keys, edit 
commands, cursor movement keys, function keys, and editor 
termination commands. 



148 DOS User's Guide 



Command Syntax 


Usage 


KEY nnnn [charactei] 


Allows the repeat of a key or macro. For example, you can repeat 
an entire set of recorded keystrokes (ctrl+t) 20 times. You are 
prompted for the key. You can specify the character to be 
repeated as an optional second argument, as in key 8 =. If you 
do not specify it in the command, you will be prompted to press a 
key. 


L /pattern/ [ options ] 


Locates text in the active file, which matches pattern. The pattern 
delimiters shown as a slash (/) can be any special nonblank 
character and must not be present in pattern. The options following 
the second delimiter control the direction, scope, and uppercase 
and lowercase sensitivity of the search. The command name (L) 
can be omitted for convenience; in which case, the delimiter must 
ue a siasn {i ). 

After a L (locate) command, pressing CTRL+F repeats the search 
with the same options. See details in "Searching for and Replacing 
Text" on page 135. 


LOOPKEY nnnn 1 ALL 


Allows the repeat of a key in a vertical column. You are asked to 
specify a key. The key is entered nnnn times, proceeding vertically 
downward in the current column. Compare this to the KEY 
command, which repeats the key horizontally in the same row. You 

r>an cnor*if\/ At 1 inctoaH rvf a ni imhor 1 in lA/hiph raco tho ronotitinn 
Odi I ofJfcJOiiy r\i_L_ HiolcdU \J\ & fiuiiiud III winoii Laoc uic I C[Jt?iiuun 

continues to the end of the file. 


LOWERCASE 


Converts all uppercase alphabetic characters in the marked area to 
lowercase. 


MArgins left right new pgph 


Sets the margins with three values: the first number is for the 
column number on the left, the second number is the column 
number on the right, and the third number is the number of spaces 
to indent the start of a new paragraph. For example, the 
new-paragraph indentation occurs when you press ALT+P. Words 
typed past the right margin are wrapped to the next line, left and 
new pgph must be less than right. 


MATCHTAB [ON 1 OFF] 


If set on, the TAB and SHIFT+TAB keys use the previous line's 
columns for the current line's tab stops. The previous line's 
columns are defined by the first letter of each word. If no values 
are given, the current tabs are displayed. 


MATH expression 


Computes expression and returns result to the E Editor command 
line. The output number is a decimal number. Input numbers can 
be hex, octal, or decimal. Real numbers are not supported, only 
whole integers in the range -32768 to 32767. All intermediate 

roci iltc mi lot alo/~> ho in thio ra nno *~\ir\r\ ro r c oro . _ / ar\r\ * 
loo U lib IT1U51 ctlbU Uc in llllo icLiiyc. VcMIU UpcicUUlo die +, , /, dllU 

See "Calculating Mathematical Expressions" on page 143 for 
further details. 


MATHO expression 


Same as MATH command but output is octal. 


MATHX expression 


Same as MATH command but output is hexadecimal. 


MULT 


Multiplies the numbers in the marked area and prints the product in 
the row underneath the marked area. 



Chapter 8. Working with the Text Editor 1 49 



Command Syntax 


Usage 


Name [filespec] 


Renames the file in the E Editor, but not yet on disk. The new 
name is used the next time you save the file. A useful way to 
avoid overwriting the original. If no filespec is given, the current file 
name is displayed on the E Editor command line where it can be 
easily modified. 


NEWWINDOW [options] 
filespec 


Creates a new window containing the file specified. The options 
available are the same as the E command options. This command 
is for use in messy windowing only. 


PRINT 


Sends the marked block, or the entire file if there is no mark, to 
your printer. 


PUT [filespec] 


Writes the marked text area to the named file. The PUT command 
is basically the same as the APPEND command. If the named file 
already exists it's appended rather than overwritten as before. 

For convenience, filespec can be omitted if you want to repeat a 
PUT to the same file. PUT commands without a filespec reuses 
the last-specified name. 

You can print a marked block of text by issuing put prn. The 
readiness of the printer is tested first to avoid having to wait for a 
device timeout in case the printer is offline. The PRINT command 
allows you to print a block if one is marked. 

If there is no mark, the entire current file is PUT. You can use the 
equal sign (=) as a shorthand for the same directory or file name as 
the currently open file's directory or file name. 


QDate 


Displays the current system date in the form: 

Today is Friday, July 16, 1993. 


QTime 


Displays the current system time in the form: 

The time is 11:46:31 a.m. 


Quit 


Quits the current file and exits the E Editor if no more open files 
remain with a return code of zero (0). If there are multiple views of 
the current file, all views of the file are deleted. 


RC command 


Displays return code of command. Including this command is a 
good way to determine the exact result of a command. This 
command should be used similarly to the following: 

rc tabs 35 1 2 

This particular command results in the error number 272 (Error in 
tab settings) being displayed below the E Editor command line. 


Save [filespec] 


Saves the file to disk, using the current name if none is specified. 
You can use the equal sign (=) as a shorthand for the same 
directory or file name as the currently open file's directory or file 
name. If the /q option is given, the saving message is not 
displayed. 

If the /T option is specified, tab compression is performed. If there 
are eight spaces beginning in the first column anywhere in the file, 
a tab character is substituted for the eight blank characters. 



1 50 DOS User's Guide 



Command Syntax 


Usage 


SIZE 


Allows resizing a messy desk window with cursor keys. The SIZE 
command cannot be used with tiled windowing configuration. 


SORT [ R ] [ C ] 


If no area is marked, sorts the entire file. If an area is marked, the 
entire lines are sorted with the marked columns treated as the sort 
key. The /R option specifies a reverse (descending) sort. The /C 
option specifies case-insensitive and ignores whether the case is 

u|jpc?rL/d.bt? ur iuwyrud.bc. 

Allows you to sort a directory listing (for example, first by extension 
and again by file name). During the second sort, lines with equal 
file names are left in extension order. 


TABS n1 n2 ... n32 


Sets tab stops used by TAB and SHIFT+TAB keys. If only one tab 
stop is specified (for example, tabs 8), the E Editor interprets this 
as meaning that the user wants 32 tabs set, each 8 spaces apart, 
beginning with column 1. In this case, the result would be the 
same as issuing the following command: 

tabs 1 9 17 25 ... 247 

The tab stops must be listed in ascending order. 


TOP 


Moves to the top of the current file. 


UPPERCASE 


Converts all lowercase alphabetic characters in the marked area to 
uppercase letters. 


VER 


Displays the version of the E program on the status line and 
pauses the E Editor until you press ENTER. For example: 

E Version 3.12. Press any key. 


WindowStyle [ 1 I 2 I 3 I 4 
15] 


Sets active window style. The different styles adjust the location of 
the E Editor command line and the presence or location of the 
command and status lines. The WINDOWSTYLE command has 
no effect with the messy desktop windowing configuration. 



Chapter 8. Working with the Text Editor 1 51 



1 52 DOS User's Guide 



Chapter 9. Connecting Computers 



Using the InterLnk program and a cable, you can easily connect one computer to 
another computer to: 

Transfer files between computers. 

Use one computer to run programs located on another computer. 

Access information without having to copy files from one computer to another 
using diskettes. 

Assume you regularly gather information in the field using your laptop computer to 
record the information. When you return to the home office, you need to transfer 
the information to a database on your desktop computer. Using the InterLnk 
program, you can directly add the information you have gathered to the database 
on your desktop computer and print out the new information without copying files to 
and from diskettes. 




Understanding What the InterLnk Program Does 

InterLnk is specifically designed to let you exchange files between any two types of 
computers (for example, laptop to desktop, or desktop to desktop) that can be 
connected by cables. InterLnk consists of two separate file transfer utility programs: 

INTERLNK.EXE 
INTERSVR.EXE 



Copyright IBM Corp. 1981, 1993 



153 



The Client and Server Relationship 

Before you begin using these two programs, INTERLNK and INTERSVR, you need 
to understand the client and server relationship. 



Client The computer you use to enter commands is called the client. 

After a connection is made to the server computer, the client 
computer presumes that the server computer's drives and printers 
are its own, giving it accessibility to additional information, files, 
and printers. 

The client runs the INTERLNK.EXE program. 

Server The computer connected to the client is the server, which is 

dedicated to serving the client. The server computer runs the file 
transfer program. 

The server runs the INTERSVR.EXE program. 

Using the InterLnk program, you can create a client/server relationship between two 
computers. 



Once a connection is made to the server computer, you can do the same things 
with the server computer's drives and printers that you can do with your own 
computer, the client. If you connect a laptop to a desktop computer, the laptop is 
generally the client. 

After you connect your computers and start the InterLnk program, you can use a 
laptop or other computer (as the client) to enter commands that control both it and 
your desktop computer. The screen of the desktop computer (the server) displays 
the status of the connection. You use the desktop computer keyboard only to break 
the connection between the two computers. 



Suppose the laptop computer has three drives: a diskette drive (A) and two hard 
disk drives (C and D). The desktop computer also has three drives: two diskette 
drives (A and B) and a hard disk drive (C), similar to the following: 



Laptop Drives Desktop Drives 

A A 
C B 
D C 



With the InterLnk program connecting the two computers, drives on the desktop 
computer (the server) appear as additional drives on the laptop computer (the 
client). In addition to drives A, C, and D, the laptop computer now includes drives 
E, F, and G from the desktop computer that have been redirected. 



154 DOS User's Guide 



For example, if you typed the following command, on the laptop computer, you see 
displayed a list of files located in the root directory of a diskette inserted in drive A 
of the desktop computer: 

dir e : \ 

A list similar to the illustration is displayed on your computer's screen: 



This list displays how the drives were redirected. You see e equals a displayed. 
"E equals A" means that drive E of the client (laptop) is redirected to drive A of the 
server (desktop). 

The server's drives A, B, and C are now presumed to be the client's drives E, F, 
and G. If you make drive E your current drive on the laptop computer, any 
commands you type on the laptop are carried out on the drive A of the desktop 
computer. 

Note the InterLnk program reorders the drive letters, starting after the last drive 
letter and does not fill in any missing drive letters such as the missing drive B, as is 
the case with most laptop computers. 

The Client Device Driver (INTERLNK.EXE) 

INTERLNK is a single device driver performing either serial or parallel 
communication. This program redirects server drives and printers, meaning that the 
drives and printers from both computers can be controlled from one computer 
keyboard. 

When you connect your computers and start INTERLNK, the server displays the 
way your drives are mapped. You can change which drives and printers have 
access by redirecting or remapping the server drives to the client drives. You can 
only access six drives at one time. If the drive or printer you need to access is not 
one of the six currently listed, you will need to redirect the drives or printers so the 
drive or printer is one of the six. 

INTERLNK does not require any special switches or parameters for most 
configurations. Serial and parallel communications support and printer support are 
installed by default. Hardware ports and interrupt levels are set up automatically. 
INTERLNK loads itself into upper memory when upper memory blocks are available 



This Computer 
(Client) 



Other Computer 
(Server) 



E: equals 
F: equals 
G: equals 



A 
B 
C 



Chapter 9. Connecting Computers 1 55 



from DOS, unless you have set up the RAMBoost program to optimize your upper 
memory blocks. 

For more information about INTERLNK, type help interlnk for a brief explanation 
and command syntax. 

The INTERLNK Server Program (INTERSVR.EXE) 

INTERSVR is a dedicated, full-screen program, used for communicating with the 
client computer through serial and parallel lines. The server allows use of local 
drives and attached printers by the client computer. 

The server program provides an interactive user interface and a command line 
option to do the following: 

Exclude certain drives from the server. 

Refer to "Excluding Drives from Redirection" on page 160. 

Sequence the offering of drives. 

For example, if you have five drives (A through E, of which A and B are empty 
diskette drives on the server computer and the client has only three drives 
available, the normal sequencing would map or assign the letters A, B, and C. 
To ignore drives A and B, you can change type the following on the server to 
sequence the drives: 

intersrv c: d: e: 

While the server does not require any interaction after it is started, it provides the 
following types of feedback: 

Current state of drive mappings and printer redirection 
Drives that are offered 

Port you are connected to (a COM port means DOS searches only for serial 
ports; an LPT port means DOS searches only for parallel ports) 
Current baud rate (speed of data transmission) 
Drive activity 

Note: Network drives cannot be redirected by this program. 

For a list of the options available with INTERSVR, type help inter svr for a brief 
explanation and command syntax. 

Establishing the Connection between Computers 

The following hardware, software, and available memory requirements must be met 
before you can use INTERLNK: 



1 56 DOS User's Guide 



Two computers running DOS 5.02 or higher. Running this version of DOS 
ensures that both the INTERLNK.EXE and INTERSVR.EXE files are available. 



If you do not have DOS 5.02 or higher on one of the computers, refer to 
"Remote Copying of INTERSVR.EXE and INTERLNK.EXE Files" on page 160. 

An available serial or parallel port on each computer. Your cable connection 
must be serial-to-serial or parallel-to-parallel; if you have an available serial 
port, the second computer must also have an available serial port. 

CAUTION: 

Plugging a parallel cable into a serial connector or vice versa will damage 
your computer system. 

A type of connecting serial or parallel cable, such as: 

- A 3-wire, serial cable 

- A bidirectional parallel cable 

- A 7-wire, null-modem, serial cable (only used for the remote installation) 

Refer to "Reviewing Cable Specifications" on page 1 61 for specific details 
to wire the pin connections for serial and parallel cable. The file transfer 
utility programs support serial links using a null-modem cable, as well as 
serial and parallel links that use cables provided with FastLynx**, LapLink**, 
and Brooklyn Bridge** products. 

1 6K of free memory on the client computer and 1 30K of free memory on the 
server computer. 

The INTERLNK.EXE device driver statement in your CONFIG.SYS file on the 
designated client computer. Instructions on how to add this statement are 
given later in this chapter. 

Including INTERLNK in Your CONFIG.SYS File 

On the client computer, use a text editor, such as the E Editor provided with DOS, 
and add the following device driver statement to your CONFIG.SYS file: 

device=c : \dos\interlnk . exe 

By default, you are allowed to redirect three drives from the server. To redirect 
more than three, you must add the /drive switch to specify a number other than 



FastLynx is a trademark of the Rupp Corporation, LapLink is a trademark of Traveling Software, Inc., and 
Brooklyn Bridge is a trademark of Fifth Generation Systems, Inc. 

Chapter 9. Connecting Computers 1 57 



three or to specify no drives at all if you want to redirect only printers. For example, 
if you wanted to redirect four drives, you would type: 

device=\c : \dos\interlnk. exe /drives : 4 

If you are using a RAM drive, place the DEVICE=INTERLNK.EXE statement after 
the DEVICE=RAMDRIVE.SYS line to prevent INTERLNK from redirecting these 
drives first. 

After you have added the device driver statement in your CONFIG.SYS file, restart 
the client computer by pressing CTRL+ALT+DEL. Restarting the client computer 
loads INTERLNK. 



Running the InterLnk Program 

Before you start the InterLnk program, make sure you have physically connected 
your computers by attaching the appropriate cables to the ports, either 
serial-to-serial or parallel-to-parallel. 

To start the InterLnk program 

1 . On the server computer, type the following at the DOS command prompt for a 
serial connection: 

intersvr 

or 

Type the following on the server computer at the DOS command prompt for a 
parallel connection: 

intersvr /lptl: 

You see a screen displayed listing the server drives first. 

This Computer Other Computer 

(Server) (Client) 

A: equals D: 

B: equals E: 

C: equals F: 

D: equals G: 

LPT1: equals LPT2: 

Note: If you are running Windows, you will see a task swapping message; if 
you are running DOS, you will not see this message. Press ENTER to 
continue or F3 to quit. 



158 DOS User's Guide 



On the client computer, make sure you have added the device driver statement 
in your CONFIG.SYS file (see "Including INTERLNK in Your CONFIG.SYS File" 
on page 1 57). 

INTERLNK attempts to load this program into upper memory blocks if they are 
available; if they are not available, it loads into conventional memory. By 
default, INTERLNK remains in memory whether or not it finds another computer 
to connect with unless you specify the /noscan switch. 

Verify that the InterLnk program is loaded and view the status of the 
connections by typing the following at the DOS command prompt of the client 
computer: 

interlnk 

You see a screen displayed listing the drives that are connected similar to the 
following: 

This Computer Other Computer 

(Client) (Server) 



D: 


equals 


A: 


E: 


equals 


B: 


F: 


equals 


C: 


G: 


equals 


D: 


LPT2 : 


equals 


LPT1 



You are now able to access the drives of the server computer as though they were 
located on your client computer. If you need different drives than the ones currently 
accessed, redirect the drives. 

When you are finished, press ALT+F4 on the server. The server returns to the 
command prompt and the client no longer has access to the server's drives. 



Redirecting Drives 

If a device was assigned when you started INTERLNK, you can redirect the device 
on the client by using the INTERLNK command and specifying the server drive you 
want to redirect it to. Suppose that client drive D is redirected to server drive A, 
and the other drives are redirected as in the following example- 



Chapter 9. Connecting Computers 1 59 



This Computer 
(Client) 



Other Computer 
(Server) 



D: equals D: 

E: equals E: 

F: equals F: 

LPT2: equals LPTl : 

To redirect client drive G to server drive C, type the following at the client 
workstation: 

interlnk g=c 

To cancel the redirection of client drive G, do not specify a server drive, as follows: 

interlnk g= 



Excluding Drives from Redirection 

On the server computer, if you want to exclude a drive from redirection and make it 
unavailable to the client system, add the /x switch followed by the letter of the drive 
you want to exclude, such as: 

intersvr /x:d 



Breaking the Connection between Computers 

To break the INTERLNK connection between computers and stop the server, press 
ALT+F4 on the keyboard of the server computer. 

To restart the server, type: 

intersvr 



Remote Copying of INTERSVR.EXE and INTERLNK.EXE Files 

If, for some reason, you do not have DOS 5.02 or later installed on one of your 
computers, you will need to copy the INTERLNK.EXE and INTERSVR.EXE program 
files to the computer that does not have these files before you.-can run the InterLnk 
program. Although you only need the INTERLNK.EXE file for the client computer 
and the INTERSVR.EXE for the server computer, both files can reside on each 
computer. 



1 60 DOS User's Guide 



To copy files remotely: 



1 . If the server computer is connected to the client computer by a 7-wire 
null-modem serial cable, type the following at the server computer command 
prompt: 

intersvr /rcopy 
The INTERLNK Remote Installation screen is displayed. 

2. Specify the serial port of the other computer by using the direction arrows until 
you highlight the COM (serial) port you will use and press ENTER. 

3. Type on the client computer the MODE command you see displayed on the 
server computer. For example, you would type something similar to: 

mode coml:24 ,n,8,l,p 

which specifies a configuration for the serial port you have selected of 2400 
baud, no parity, 8 bits, and 1 stop bit. The p switch tells the program to keep 
trying to configure the port until a confirmation message is received that it has 
been reconfigured. 

4. Press ENTER 

5. Instruct DOS to accept the input from the COM1 port by typing: 

ctty coml 

The program is uploaded and sends a program which then receives the 
INTERSVR.EXE and the INTERLNK.EXE files automatically. 

Also, you can copy the INTERSVR.EXE and INTERLNK.EXE files to a diskette and 
then copy the files to the other computer, placing the files in the \DOS directory. 



Reviewing Cable Specifications 

The file transfer utility programs support serial links using a null-modem cable, such 
as as LapLink or FastLynx cable. These programs interact directly with the serial 
port hardware instead of the computers BIOS to make the connection. In most 
cases, for these programs the connecting cables is a serial cable. However, if the 
parallel ports on both systems are bidirectional, you will be able to use a parallel 
cable. You can create your own serial or parallel cable using the wiring tables 
below. 

If you want to use a serial port to transfer your data, then you must use the 
null-modem cable. Connect the null-modem cable to the serial port on your 
computer. 



Chapter 9. Connecting Computers 1 61 



To use the file transfer utility programs, you need the following: 

Two computers with DOS 5.02 or higher installed on each computer. 

If you do not have DOS 5.02 or higher on one of the computers, refer to 
"Remote Copying of INTERSVR.EXE and INTERLNK.EXE Files" on page 160. 

A null-modem cable to connect to the serial ports of your computers, or a 
parallel cable to connect to the parallel ports of your computers. 

Serial Cable 

There are two kinds of physical RS-232 ports used by DOS — 9 pin (DB9) and 
25-pin(DB25). Use the following table to wire the pin connections for a serial cable. 



9 Pin 


25 Pin 






25 Pin 


9 Pin 




pin 5 


pin 7 


< — 


— > 


pin 7 


•V pin 5 


Ground-Ground 


pin 3 


pin 2 


< — 


— > 


pin 3 


pin 2 


Transmit-Receive 


pin 7 


pin 4 


<- — 


— > 


pin 5 


pin 8 


RTS-CTS 


pin 6 


pin 6 


<- — 


— > 


pin 20 


pin 4 


DSR-DTR 


pin 2 


pin 3 


< — 


— > 


pin 2 


pin 3 


Receive-Transmit 


pin 8 


pin 5 


< — 


— > 


pin 4 


pin 7 


CTS-RTS 


pin 4 


pin 20 






pin 6 


pin 6 


DTR-DSR 



Note: The ground wire is connected to the same pin on both ends. The last three 
wires are the reverse of the prior three. > > 



Parallel Cable 

Use the following table to wire the pin connections for a parallel cable. 



25 Pin 






25 Pin 


pin 2 


< — 


— > 


pin 15 


pin 3 


< — 


— > 


pin 13 


pin 4 


< — 


— > 


pin 12 


pin 5 


< — 


— > 


pin 10 


pin 6 


< — 


— > 


pin 11 


pin 15 


< — 


— > 


pin 2 


pin 13 


< — 


— > 


pin 3 


pin 12 


< — 


— > 


pin 4 


pin 10 


< — 


— > 


pin 5 


pin 1 1 


< — 


— > 


pin 6 


pin 25 


< — 


— > 


pin 25 



Note: Pin 25 to pin 25 is the ground-to-ground connection for this cable wiring 
table. ■'}>' 



1 62 DOS User's Guide 



Chapter 10. Making More Memory Available 



Memory provides temporary storage for programs and data. It exists on the main 
system board of your computer or on add-in memory boards. All programs must be 
loaded into memory to run. 

In general, the more memory you have, the more programs you can run, and the 
more data you can work with at one time. Some programs require more memory 
than others. 

To run a program, your system must contain as much physical memory as that 
program requires. You can increase the amount of physical memory on your 
system by plugging a memory board into a slot inside your computer. 

For example, if a program requires 51 2K of memory, it is not going to run on a 
system that has only 256K of memory, no matter how much memory you free. You 
might add a 2-megabyte (2MB) memory board to your system which already has 
the 256K of memory on its main system board; the system would then have 
approximately 2.5MB of memory. 2.5MB is more than enough memory to run that 
program which requires 51 2K of memory. 

If you are having trouble running programs because there is not enough memory, 
you might want to adjust your computer's configuration to make more memory 
available. Some programs might not run even if your system does contain sufficient 
physical memory. The cause is often that memory-resident programs are taking up 
some memory, and there is not enough memory left over. Usually the problem is 
caused by insufficient conventional memory. However, with a few programs, the 
problem is caused by insufficient expanded or extended memory. 

A possible solution to these problems is to install and run an optimizer program 
such as RAMBoost. Running RAMBoost Setup increases your computer's available 
conventional memory and reduces the complexity of using computer memory 
management software. When RAMBoost is installed, it analyzes your computer's 
existing configuration and automatically reconfigures programs to load above 640K 
after restarting the system. During RAMBoost Setup, your existing programs in the 
CONFIG.SYS file are analyzed, and the LOADHIGH or DEVICEHIGH statements 
are changed for you by this program; you do not have to edit the CONFIG.SYS or 
AUTOEXEC.BAT files yourself. Whenever you add or remove items from the 
CONFIG.SYS or AUTOEXEC.BAT files, RAMBoost restarts the computer and 
automatically rearranges the new configuration to load programs into upper 
memory. 



Copyright IBM Corp. 1981, 1993 



163 



Understanding Memory 

Programs that run with DOS normally use your system's conventional memory. 
Many programs can also use extended or expanded memory, if it is available. If 
your system has an 80386-based or higher processor, you can also run programs 
in the upper memory area. 

To find out what type of memory your system has and which programs are currently 
loaded into memory, use the MEM command with the /c switch, or the QCONFIG 
command. For example, if you used the MEM command, you would type the 
following at the DOS command prompt: 

mem /c /p 

The /c switch provides you with a list of programs and classifies their memory into 
types of memory, such as conventional or upper memory. It is the Upper Memory 
Blocks that are used by RAMBoost to free conventional DOS memory. The /p 
switch pauses the information at the end of each screen of information. 

If you want to use the QCONFIG command, a more complete description of the 
QCONFIG command can be found in "Analyzing Your Computer's Memory Before 
Running RAMBoost" on page 166. 

Comparison of Memory Types 

The five most common types of memory are described as follows. 

Conventional DOS Memory 

The 80286-based or higher processors, which power personal computers and 
run the DOS operating system, have a 1024K (1 megabyte) address space 
when operating in real mode. Real mode means these processors are running 
as fast 8086-based computers. The lower 640K of this memory is designated 
as system memory and is called conventional DOS memory, (also known as 
base memory). This is the memory that DOS uses to process programs. 

Reserved Memory Area or Upper Memory Block (UMB) 

The upper 384K in the 1MB address space is known as the Upper Memory 
Block and is used by video adapters, network hardware, ROM BIOS, and other 
memory-mapped hardware. This space, however, is never completely filled. 
Memory is mapped into this region between 640K and 1 MB through the means 
of an upper memory manager (known as a platform). It is used for loading 
TSRs, DOS tables, and network software to free as much conventional DOS 
memory as possible. It is these Upper Memory Blocks that are used by 
RAMBoost to free conventional DOS memory. 



1 64 DOS User's Guide 



High Memory Area (HMA) 

The high memory area is the first 64K minus 16 bytes of extended memory 
located just above 1MB. 

3 MB — 



1 MB- 



640K 



Extended Memory 
(XMS) 
(2 MB) 



High Memory 
(First 64K) 



Upper Memory 
Area (384K) 



Conventional 
Memory 
(640K) 

Operating Environment 



Expanded Memory 
(EMS) 
(1 MB) 



. „ 



Extended Memory (XMS) 

Extended memory is addressed above 1024K and cannot be accessed when 
the processor is in real mode. Therefore, it cannot be used by standard 
programs running under DOS. On 80286-based and 80386-based or higher 
machines, some programs (mostly RAM disks and disk-caching programs) 
switch the processor to protected mode and access this space. Protected 
mode is a special mode of operation that 80286-based or higher computers 
have to be in to access extended memory. Extended memory can never be 
used on 8088-based and 8086-based machines because these processors do 
not support protected mode or memory above 1 MB. 

The Extended Memory Specification (XMS) method allows DOS programs to 
make use of the additional extended memory found in 80286-based, 
80386-based, and 80486-based or higher machines in a consistent, 



Chapter 1 0. Making More Memory Available 1 65 



machine-independent fashion. XMS/HMA can add almost 64K of memory that 
some DOS programs can access directly for storing a portion of its code 
segment; or as XMS/EMA it can provide DOS-extender programs (such as 
Windows 3.0 or later) with a standard and consistent method for storing data 
(or inactive code) in extended memory. XMS can provide an interface for any 
of these memory regions: 

Expanded Memory (EMS) 

Expanded memory uses a 64K window (of bank-switched memory), typically in 
the address space between 640K and 1 024K. Application programs must be 
written specifically to switch blocks of memory in and out of this window. The 
program itself uses conventional memory to function, and only accesses this 
expanded memory to store data. 



Analyzing Your Computer's Memory Before Running RAMBoost 

To find out what kind of memory your system has and how much you have 
available for your programs, you can use the QCONFIG command. QCONFIG is a 
utility used to query information about your computer system. 

The QCONFIG program is machine independent and can be run on any processor 
from a 8088-based to a 80486-based processor. 

To query information about your computer system: 

1. At the DOS command prompt, type: 



qconf ig 



You can use the /p switch (type qconf ig /p) or the MORE command (type 
qconf ig I more) to view the information one display screen at a time. 
QCONFIG examines your system and displays an analysis on the screen 
similar to the following: 



Fixed Disk l 
Local-Drive C 
Total Memory 
Conveentional 



58 MB = 59392 KB = 6 8174 8 bytes 
Size 59242K= 57.8M Avail 46 42K= 
4992 KB= 4.8 MB 



64KB Unallocated : 411KB 

4352 KB Unallocated : KB 

4672 KB Unallocated : 384 EB 

3616 KB Unallocated : 3616 KB 



44.9M 



Extended Memory 
Expanded Memory 



XMS Memory 
EMS Version 
XMS Version 



4. 

3. 



1 66 DOS User's Guide 



2. Redirect the information displayed to an output file by typing: 



qconfig /o 

This option directs output of the information displayed on the screen to a 
file named QCONFIG.DAT. 

or 

qconfig / ofilename.ext 

This option directs output of the information displayed on the screen to a 
text file (filename.exf) where you give the file a name of your own choice. 
Do not put a space between the "o" and the filename. ext. 

3. Print the information so you can have it available if you need to contact a 
service representative, or use it to compare subsequent memory information 
data. 

4. Review the information about your computer's memory and evaluate what you 
need to do to maximize the memory available for your applications, such as 
how to manually configure your system. 

Or, try running an optimizer program, such as RAMBoost, to free enough 
memory to run programs. 

For more information about the QCONFIG command, type help qconf iq at the 
DOS command prompt for a brief explanation and command syntax. 



Understanding How RAMBoost Works 

RAMBoost manages the area of memory of your computer from 640K to 1024K, 
called upper memory blocks (UMBs). RAMBoost runs invisibly on your computer, 
optimizing available memory automatically each time your computer's system 
configuration changes. If you add or remove programs from your CONFIG.SYS or 
AUTOEXEC.BAT files, RAMBoost automatically detects the change, restarts the 
system, and rearranges the remaining drivers in upper memory. 

RAMBoost works in conjunction with a memory manager. A memory manager 
(such as EMM386, Quarterdeck QEMM**, and Qualitas 386MAX") makes the open 
areas in your upper memory blocks available for loading memory-resident programs 
and device drivers (referred to as "loading high"). Loading programs high makes 
more DOS conventional memory available for your applications. 



** Quarterdeck QEMM is a trademark of Quarterdeck Office Systems. 
** Qualitas 386MAX is a trademark of Qualitas, Inc. 

Chapter 10. Making More Memory Available 167 



The amount of upper memory RAMBoost makes available is determined by the 
expanded memory specification (EMS) manager used with it. For example, if you 
use QEMM with Stealth the upper limit is approximately 225K. If you use DOS's 
EMM386, the upper limit varies from 64K to 160K, depending on the BIOS, 
peripherals, and the careful use of INCLUDE statements. You will see INCLUDE 
(for example, i=bl -b7f f) and EXCLUDE statements (for example, x=a000-b0ff) 
in your AUTOEXEC.BAT file after your have configured RAMBoost. 

Because the open space in upper memory is usually in several pieces of different 
sizes, programs can fit in some areas but not in others. RAMBoost arranges your 
memory-resident programs, device drivers, and other DOS resources such as those 
specified in the CONFIG.SYS files (for example, FILES=, BUFFERS=) into upper 
memory. This increases the amount of memory available for DOS to run 
applications. RAMBoost does this by creating a profile of your memory usage and 
by automatically rearranging the programs in your upper memory blocks to give you 
the maximum amount of free conventional memory. 

You configure RAMBoost once. Then, each time you start your computer, 
RAMBoost analyzes your computer's resident programs and device drivers, selects 
the optimal loading configuration, and loads them into upper memory blocks. 

If you are familiar with memory-management techniques, you can customize 
RAMBoost's performance by manually editing the settings in the RAMBOOST.INI 
file. RAMBoost detects software that might cause incompatibilities when loaded 
high. In some cases, you might gain more conventional memory by manually 
shifting the position of the memory manager in the CONFIG.SYS file; however, this 
is generally not necessary. The RAMBOOST.INI file can also be edited to force 
"problem drivers" to load into conventional memory. See "The RAMBoost 
Configuration File" on page 177 for an overview of the RAMBOOST.INI 
configuration file. 

RAMBoost System Requirements 

The following items are required to use RAMBoost Setup. RAMBoost Setup is 
flexible, however, because it works with the following operating systems and 
memory managers: 

A minimum of 1MB random access memory (RAM). 

A 80386-based, 80486-based, or higher processor. 



DOS User's Guide 



For Upper Memory Block support, at least 640K and an EEMS/EMS 4.0 
memory manager are required. Use one of the following EEMS/EMS 4.0 
memory managers: 

- HIMEM.SYS and EMM386.EXE provided with DOS 

- Quarterdeck Expanded Memory Manager-386" 

- Qualitas 386MAX and BlueMAX** 

- Helix" Netroom** 



Configuring RAMBoost 

You use the RAMSETUP.EXE program to configure RAMBoost. When loaded, 
RAMBoost automatically checks for the existence of memory managers, such as 
HIMEM.SYS and EMM386.EXE, on your system. Then, it scans upper memory to 
configure itself with the optimal parameters for managing upper memory. 

Note: If you are using QEMM386, 386MAX, or Netroom, you must install it 

according to its installation instructions before you activate RAMBoost. You 
must also make sure it provides upper memory blocks (UMBs). 

To configure RAMBoost: 

1 . Make backup copies of your CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT files as a 
precaution. 

2. Save information about your memory to an output file so you can compare it 
later to the results you get after you have loaded RAMBoost Before you begin 
the reconfiguration, type: 

mem /c > filename. ext 

where filename. ext is the name of the output file (for example, SAVEIT.OUT). 
The MEM command is preferred in this case rather than QCONFIG because it 
gives more details about your programs' upper memory. 

3. From the DOS command prompt, type: 

ramsetup 
and then press ENTER. 



** Quarterdeck Expanded Memory Manager-386 is a trademark of Quarterdeck Office Systems 

** BlueMAX is a trademark of Qualitas, Inc. 

** Helix and Netroom are trademarks of Helix Software Company 

Chapter 1 0. Making More Memory Available 1 69 



RAMBoost reads the RAMBoost profile and configuration files and displays a 
pop-up window: 




RAMSETUP will now modify your CONFIG.SYS and 
AUTOEXEC.BAT files. Choose OK to continue or choose 
Advanced to configure RAMBoost manually. Toexit the 
RAMBoost setup program, choose Exit. 



Note-. RAMSETUP can provide the mo$t thorough upper 
memorv analysis if you choose Exit, then remove 
EMM386 from yourCONFIG.SYS file, reboot your 
computer and run RAMSETUP again. 




Any of the following scenarios are possible, depending on what programs exist 
in your CONFIG.SYS file when RAMBoost Setup is run: 

If RAMBoost Setup detects a DEVICE=EMM386.EXE statement in your 
CONFIG.SYS file, you should select Exit, remove or use the REM 
command to comment the DEVICE=EMM386.EXE statement, reboot your 
system, and then run RAMBoost Setup again. 

Removing this statement provides the most thorough upper memory 
analysis. 

If RAMBoost Setup detects that you have a DOS memory manager 
installed, RAMBoost Setup installs RAMBoost in your CONFIG.SYS file. 
You have the options of reconfiguring the DOS memory manager to its 
base settings by selecting OK and modifying your computer's upper 
memory blocks manually by selecting Advanced. 



170 DOS User's Guide 



If RAMBoost Setup detects that you have installed a memory manager 
other than the one in DOS, it installs RAMBoost in your CONFIG.SYS file 
and possibly modifies your AUTOEXEC.BAT file, removing any LOADHIGH 
or DEVICEHIGH statements. 

Note: RAMBoost does not recognize the INSTALLHIGH statement so you 
should make sure any INSTALLHIGH statements are removed prior 
to running RAMBoost Setup. 

If RAMBoost Setup detects that you have no memory manager installed but 
finds the DOS memory manager on your computer, RAMBoost Setup 
installs RAMBoost and the memory manager in your CONFIG.SYS file. 

If RAMBoost Setup cannot find a memory manager on your computer, it 
informs you that you must install one. 

4. Follow the instructions displayed for the scenario that applies for your particular 
system. 

After RAMBoost Setup installs RAMBoost in your CONFIG.SYS file, a pop-up 
window is displayed that allows you to reboot (restart) your computer or exit. 



RAMSETUP needs to reboot your computer to determine 
the best fit for your resident programs and drivers 
in upper memory blocks. Please ensurthat the drive 
A door is open and choose reboot to begin this 
process. Choose exit if you do not want RAMSETUP to 
reboot your computer at this time. 



eboot 



If you select Exit, RAMBoost is activated the next time you start your computer. 
5. Select Reboot to activate RAMBoost. 



RAMBoost restarts your computer twice before RAMBoost is activated. 



Chapter 10. Making More Memory Available 171 



The first reboot: 

RAMBoost Setup loads all your memory-resident programs as usual and keeps a 
record of how much memory they use and where the programs are placed in upper 
memory. 

After restarting your computer, you see the following: 

RAMBOOST will automatically load in 3 seconds. Choose: 

' Y' to continue. 

' N' to prevent RAMBOOST from loading. 

Load RAMBOOST [Y/N] ? 

RAMBOOST is loaded in LEARN mode. 

The second reboot: 

RAMBoost Setup actually rearranges the programs to fill your upper memory as 
much as possible. You should then find a noticeable increase in conventional 
memory available for running applications. You now see; displayed on the last line: 

RAMBOOST is loaded in ACTIVE mode. 

followed immediately by the display of the DOS command prompt signifying that 
RAMBoost is loaded. 

After this, each time you start your computer, RAMBoost is loaded and it optimizes 
memory usage. Whenever you restart your computer, if RAMBoost determines that 
one of the system files it tracks has been altered (such as your AUTOEXEC.BAT or 
CONFIG.SYS files) or some other special condition has changed, RAMBoost 
automatically enters LEARN mode to optimize your computer's new configuration. 

Analyzing Your Computer's Memory After Running RAMBoost 

After RAMBoost is loaded, you might want to do the following to verify that you do 
have more conventional memory available: 

Edit your CONFIG.SYS file. Lines similar to the following are placed in this file 
if you successfully loaded RAMBoost 

device=c : \dos\emm3 86 . exe noems ram x=a -b ff i=bl -b7ffx=b8 -bfff ... 
device=c : \dos\ramboost . exe load 

The i= and x= are INCLUDE and EXCLUDE statements. The vellip . . . means 
that, although more of these statements are normally included in this DEVICE= 
statement, they are all not listed for this example. 



172 DOS User's Guide 



Note that all DEVICEHIGH= statements have been modified to show as 
DEVICE= instead. 

Save the output by typing: 

mem /c > filename. ext 

where filename.ext is the name of the output file (for example, SAVE2.0UT). 
The MEM command is preferred in this case rather than QCONFIG because it 
gives more details about your programs' upper memory. 

You should see information similar to the following: 

Modules using memory below 1Mb: 



Name 


Total 


= 


Conventional + 


Upper Memory 


IBMDOS 


11325 


(UK) 


11325 


(UK) 




(K) 


SMARTDRV 


2448 


(2K) 


2448 


(2K) 




(K) 


HIMEM 


172 


(IK) 


172 


(IK) 




(K) 


EMM3 86 


496 


(4K) 


496 


(4K) 




(K) 


RAMBOOST 


1432 


(IK) 


32 


(K) 


1112 


(IK) 


PENDEV 


96 


(K) 


96 


(K) 




(K) 


DISPLAY 


48 


(K) 


48 


(K) 




• (K) 


ANSI 


48 


(K) 


48 


(K) 




(K) 


COMMAND 


2912 


(3K) 


2912 


(3K) 




(K) 


IBMDOS 


37776 


(37K) 




(K) 


37776 


(37K) 


IBMDOS 


15872 


(16K) 




(K) 


15872 


(16K) 


APPEND 


8912 


(9K) 




(K) 


8912 


(9K) 


DOSKEY 


496 


(4K) 




(K) 


496 


(4K) 


IBMAVSH 


5264 


(5K) 




(K) 


5264 


(5K) 


FREE 


743456 


(726K) 


6632992 


(618k) 


11464 


(18K) 



Print the information so you can have it available for comparison against your 
printout before you ran RAMBoost Setup. 

If you printed or saved the output from the MEM command before you ran 
RAMBoost, you should compare the two files. 

For the majority of individuals, running RAMBoost should give you more 
conventional memory that you had prior to running it. If it does not, you may 
have to manually manipulate the upper memory blocks. Refer to "Using 
Advanced Features" on page 1 74 for information about how to customize upper 
memory. 



Chapter 10. Making More Memory Available 173 



What RAMBoost Changes 

RAMBoost Setup modifies your CONFIG.SYS file and possibly modifies 
AUTOEXEC.BAT file. Some of the following changes might be noted: 

A RAMBOOST.EXE statement is placed in your CONFIG.SYS file. 

EMM386 has been configured, unless you chose to use your existing memory 
manager. 

Your previous DEVICEHIGH= statements have become DEVICE= statements 
because RAMBoost now controls your upper memory blocks and does not 
permit you to manually insert programs into upper memory using 
DEVICEHIGH= statements. 

Any LOADHIGH commands in your AUTOEXEC.BAT file are removed for the 
same reason that DEVICEHIGH= statements are changed. 



Using Advanced Features 

RAMBoost runs by itself with minimal user interaction. It is possible, however, to 
customize the way RAMBoost uses the upper memory blocks of your computer. 

CAUTION: 

Use these advanced features only if you are very familiar with upper memory 
concepts and management. 

There are two ways you can work with advanced RAMBoost features: 

Using the Upper Memory Usage Editor. 
Editing the RAMBOOST.INI file directly. 

The Upper Memory Usage Editor 

The Upper Memory Usage Editor is an advanced feature of RAMBoost Setup 
memory manager. The Upper Memory Usage Editor allows you to: 

View your current upper memory usage. 
Make changes to your upper memory usage. 

You can use the Upper Memory Usage Editor to reserve upper memory blocks for 
devices that might not identify their upper memory usage during RAM Boost's Learn 
mode. These devices can be network or special video boards. You can also use 
the editor to make more upper memory blocks available. For example, if you know 
of an available region of upper memory blocks that appears unavailable, you can 
use the editor to change the status of the blocks from allocated to available. 



1 74 DOS User's Guide 



To start the Upper Memory Usage Editor: 

1 . From the DOS command prompt, type: 

ramsetup 

2. Then press ENTER 

If RAMSETUP detects that you have the DOS memory manager installed, 
RAMSETUP provides you with an Advanced option button. 

3. Select Advanced. 

The following table shows status symbols for each block: 



This Symbol 


Indicates 


An available memory block. 


An occupied memory block. 


RO 


A block allocated for ROM. 


VI 


A block allocated for video RAM. 


EM 


A block allocated for the EMS frame. 


AD 


A block allocated for adapter RAM. 



To change the current memory usage of a block: 

1 . Select the block you want to change, using the mouse or pressing the TAB key 
to activate the editor and then using the arrow keys. 

2. Select the function key that corresponds to the type of memory specification 
you want to apply. 

See "Function Keys" for more information. 

3. Repeat steps 1 and 2 until you have modified upper memory to your 
satisfaction. 

4. Select OK to save the changes to your CONFIG.SYS file. 

Function Keys: The following table shows the function keys you can use in the 
Upper Memory Usage Editor. 



Chapter 10. Making More Memory Available 175 



Function Key 


Description 


r i ncLr 


Provides online help. 


FP AVAII 
i£. nvnIL 


Makes the selected memory block(s) available for another use. 


F3 EXIT 


Exits from the program. 


FA. ROM 


Changes selected memory block usage to ROM. 


\ U V IUCU 


Changes selected memory block usage to video RAM. 


F6 EMS 


Changes selected memory block usage to EMS frame. 


F7 ADAPT 


Changes selected memory block usage to RAM adapters. 


F8 DEC 


Switches between the display of memory block addresses in decimal 




and hexadecimal characters. 



Using the Options Editor 

This dialog box lets you set the number of XMS (extended memory specification) 
handles and the size of your DMA (direct memory access) buffer. The default 
values are correct for most PCs. You can also enable or disable EMS (expanded 
memory specification) memory and specify whether your computer is equipped with 
a Weitek coprocessor. 

These options correspond to command-line options for the DOS memory manager, 
EMM386. 



Option Description 

XMS Handles Specifies the number of extended memory handles EMM386 can use, 
from 2 to 255. If you use many programs simultaneously that use 
extended memory, you may need to increase this number. 

DMA Buffer Specifies how many kilobytes of memory to reserve for Direct Memory 

Access (DMA). This should be the largest DMA transfer that occurs 
while EMM386 is active, and can be from 1 6 to 256. The default value 
is optimized to work on most PCs. 

Enable EMS Enables EMM386 to access expanded memory by designating a 

memory area as a swap page, required for expanded memory 
orientation. You can enable EMS if a program you use requires it. If 
you do not need it, you will have more available upper memory if you 
leave it disabled. 

Weitek Enables support for the Weitek coprocessor. If your computer uses this 

coprocessor, enable this feature. 



1 76 DOS User's Guide 



To use the Options Editor: 
1. Select Options from the Upper Memory Usage Editor menu. 



asp/ays Upper 
Memory aock status ^ 



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2. Make any necessary adjustments and select OK to save your settings. 

The RAMBoost Configuration File 

The RAMBoost configuration file is an editable ASCII text file. It contains all the 
necessary parameters for RAMBoost to manage your system. The profile is named 
RAMBOOST.INI. When RAMBoost needs to consult or edit this profile, it searches 
for it in the: 

Current directory 

Directory from which RAMBoost was executed 

DATA directory under the directory from which RAMBoost Setup was executed 

The RAMBOOST.INI file has eight sections. Each section begins with a section 
header and contains specific assignments relevant to the operation of RAMBoost. 
The sections are: 

System Learn 

PIF.Advice Learn. PIF 

Completion Triggers Learn. UMB 

Text PIF 



Chapter 10. Making More Memory Available 177 



1 78 DOS User's Guide 



Chapter 11. Speeding Up Your System 

This chapter explains how to speed up your system with the following methods: 

Improving the efficiency of your hard disk 
Using the BUFFERS command 
Using DOS Defragmenter 
Using SMARTDrive 
Using RAMDrive 

Improving the Efficiency of Your Hard Disk 

You can use the following methods to speed up your system without taking up 
additional memory. 

Deleting Unnecessary Files 

Deleting unnecessary files is an easy solution to freeing disk space. There are two 
categories of files you might consider deleting: 

Program and data files that you no longer use. 

Temporary files that were left on your hard disk when a program ended 
unexpectedly. 

You can use the following guidelines to decide whether or not to delete a file and 
then use the DELETE command to delete the file. 

Many programs create temporary files while they are running. Some programs 
store those files in a separate directory that is specified in your AUTOEXEC.BAT 
file by using the SET command. Most often, you designate such a directory by 
using the SET command with the TEMP or TMP environment variable. 

You should periodically clean out your TEMP directory. This is not necessary if 
your TEMP directory is on a RAM (Random Access Memory) disk. To avoid 
deleting a temporary file that is currently in use, you should delete files in your 
TEMP directory only when you are not running any program. 

CAUTION: 

Never delete the files COMMAND.COM, IBMBI0.COM, or IBMD0S.COM. The 
IBMBI0.COM and IBMD0S.COM files are usually hidden files. If you delete 
any of these files, your system will not start. 



Copyright IBM Corp. 1981, 1993 



179 



Using the CHKDSK Command 

You can use the CHKDSK command to recover lost allocation units that are taking 
up space on your hard disk. An allocation unit is the smallest piece of a hard disk 
that can be allocated to a file. Allocation units can get lost when a program ends 
unexpectedly, leaving temporary files on the hard disk without saving or deleting 
them properly. 

Make sure you quit all programs before using the CHKDSK command. If you are 
using FASTOPEN, SMARTDrive, or any other memory-resident program, disable 
the corresponding commands in your CONFIG.SYS file and restart your system. 

To follow the recommended procedure for using the CHKDSK command: 

1 . Quit all programs — including memory-resident programs. 

2. Change to the hard disk you want to clean up. 

For example, if you want to clean up the files on drive D, you would type d: at 
the DOS command prompt. 

3. Type: 

chkdsk /f 

The /f switch finds and recovers any lost allocation units. 

4. If there are any lost allocation units, you are prompted to convert them to files. 

If you want to inspect the contents of the lost allocation units before deleting 
them, type y. If you are sure the lost allocation units do not contain information 
you want, type n. The information is deleted and you can skip the remaining 
steps in this procedure. 

If you answer yes, the lost file allocation units are converted to visible files with 
file names similar to FILE0001.CHK. These files are put in your root directory. 

5. Use the TYPE command to view the contents of the files. 

6. Delete any .CHK files you do not want. 

For more information about the CHKDSK command, type help chkdsk at the DOS 
command prompt. 



1 80 DOS User's Guide 



Helping DOS Find Files Quickly 

When you type a command or start a program, DOS must find the executable file 
before it can carry out the command or start the program. If you type the full path 
and file name of the file, DOS can find and carry out the command or run the 
program almost immediately. If you type only the file name, DOS searches for the 
program file as follows: 

DOS looks for the program file in your current directory. 

If the file is not in your current directory, DOS looks for the file in the directories 
specified by your PATH command. It searches the directories in the order they 
appear in the path command. Typically, the PATH command is included in your 
AUTOEXEC.BAT file. 

This search can take time, particularly if your path contains many directories or if 
your directories contain many files. The fewer directories and file names DOS must 
search through, the faster the response will be. 

If your hard disk has one or two directories that contain frequently used program 
files, you might want to list those directories first in your PATH command. For 
example, suppose all your DOS batch (.BAT) programs are in the directory 
C:\MYTOOLS, and the programs you use most frequently are in the directory 
C:\PROGRAMS. An efficient path command might look similar to the following: 

path=c : \my tools ; c : \programs ; c : \dos ; c : \ ; 

You should keep the number of files in each directory to 150 or less. This reduces 
the time DOS spends searching. 

Using DOS Defragmenter 

Over time, as programs read from and write to your hard disk, information stored on 
your hard disk can become fragmented. Fragmentation occurs when a file, instead 
of being stored in contiguous sectors of the disk, is broken into fragments that are 
stored in different locations on the disk. Fragmentation does not affect the validity of 
the information— your files are still complete when you read them into a program. 
However, it takes much longer for your computer to read and write fragmented files 
than it does to read and write defragmented files. To defragment files, you run a 
program that reorganizes your files on disk drives back into contiguous files, which 
then optimizes performance. 



Chapter 1 1 . Speeding Up Your System 1 81 



To defragment the files on a hard disk: 

1 . Delete any unnecessary files from the hard disk. 

2. Quit all programs. 

3. Clean up lost allocation units by typing the following at the DOS command 
prompt: 

chkdsk /f 

4. Run DOS Defragmenter by typing the following at the DOS command prompt: 

def rag 

DOS Defragmenter displays a list of the disk drives on your computer. 

5. Choose the drive you want to defragment. 

DOS Defragmenter analyzes the data on that drive and recommends a 
defragmentation option. It also displays how the information is laid out on the 
drive you specified. 

6. To begin defragmentation, select Optimize. 

Or, if you want to change the defragmentation settings or get more information 
about the current defragmentation settings before you begin it, select 
Configure by pressing the RIGHT ARROW key and then pressing ENTER. 

The Optimize menu appears. 

For information about the commands on the Optimize menu, select a command 
by pressing the UP ARROW or DOWN ARROW key and then press F1. To begin 
the defragmentation from the Optimize menu, select Begin Optimization and 
press ENTER. 

If you need help while using DOS Defragmenter, press F1 . 

Using the BUFFERS Command 

The BUFFERS command in your CONFIG.SYS file specifies the number of buffers 
that DOS reserves for file transfers. 

The greater the number of buffers (up to about 50), the faster your system runs. 
However, past a certain value, increasing the number of buffers only uses more 
memory without increasing speed. 



182 DOS User's Guide 



When optimizing your system for speed, you want to specify the greatest number of 
buffers that are useful for your system. This number depends on the size of your 
hard disk. The following are the most effective buffer sizes for different sizes of 
hard disks: 



Hard-disk size Buffer size 

Less than 40MB 20 
40 through 79MB 30 
80 through 119MB 40 
More than 120MB 50 



The following command specifies 40 buffers— an optimal number for a system with 
a 110MB hard disk: 

buf f ers=4 

When calculating the default number of buffers, DOS bases the number on how 
much conventional memory your system has, rather than on the size of your hard 
disk. The default number that DOS calculates is a minimum number. The numbers 
in the preceding list are larger in order to increase system speed. 

Note: When a disk cache, such as the SMARTDrive program, is in use, the 
BUFFERS= number is not as critical and can be set lower. 



Using SMARTDrive 

The SMARTDrive program (SMARTDRV) is a terminate-and-stay resident (TSR) 
program that you can add to your AUTOEXEC.BAT file. This program reduces the 
time your computer spends reading data from your hard disk. You can control the 
size of the SMARTDRV memory cache and set up the hard disk cache in extended 
memory. 

Note: If you need to use the double buffering feature of SMARTDRV, you must 
designate SMARTDRV as a device driver by including the proper device 
command in your CONFIG.SYS file. See "Using Double Buffering" on 
page 184. 

To use the SMARTDrive program: 

1 . Verify whether your system has extended memory by typing the following at the 
DOS command prompt: 

mem 

Note: You must have a DOS memory manager, such as HIMEM.SYS installed 
on your system. 



Chapter 1 1 . Speeding Up Your System 1 83 



2. If your system has extended memory, you can add this command to your 
AUTOEXEC.BAT file so that this program runs whenever you start your 
computer. The line in your AUTOEXEC.BAT file would look like this: 

smartdrv [ [drive [+ I -]]... ] [options] 

For a list of the options available for use with the SMARTDRV command, type 
help smartdrv at the DOS command prompt. 

Note: If your system does not have extended memory, you cannot use the 
SMARTDrive program. 

SMARTDRV reserves an area in extended memory and then uses this area to store 
information it reads from your hard disk. An application gets this information much 
faster if SMARTDRV provides it from memory than if the application has to retrieve 
it from the hard disk. SMARTDRV also temporarily stores information to be written 
to your hard disk and later writes this information when system resources are in 
less demand. 

Warning: Make sure that SMARTDRV has completed all writing-cache before you 
turn off your computer. This is not necessary if you restart your computer by 
pressing CTRL+ALT+DEL. To make sure that SMARTDRV has completed, type 
smartdrv /c at the DOS command prompt. After all disk activity has stopped, you 
can safely turn off your computer. 

Using Double Buffering 

Double buffering is most commonly required if you are using a Small Computer 
System Interface (SCSI) hard disk, Windows, or other hard disk controllers that 
cannot work with virtual memory. 

To use the SMARTDrive program with double buffering: 

1. Verify whether your system has extended memory. 

2. If your system has extended memory, add the following command to your 
CONFIG.SYS file: 

device=c : \dos\smartdrv.exe /double_buf f er 

3. Press CTRL+ALT+DEL to restart your system. 

Most hard-disk controllers do not need to use double buffering. You should remove 
the SMARTDRV command line from your CONFIG.SYS file if you do not require 
double buffering. 



1 84 DOS User's Guide 



To determine whether or not you can remove this command: 

1 . Ensure that the SMARTDRV driver has been loaded and double buffering has 
been enabled. 

2. At the DOS command prompt, type smart drv and press ENTER. 
SMARTDRV displays information about your system. 

3. Look at the column labeled "buffering." If every line in the column reads "no," 
you can remove the DEVICE command for SMARTDRV from your 
CONFIG.SYS file. 



Using RAM Drive 

RAMDrive is a memory-resident program, also known as a 
terminate-and-stay-resident (TSR) program, that lets you use part of your 
computer's memory, called a RAM drive, as if it were a hard disk drive. By using 
RAMDrive, you can make programs run faster. RAM disks are temporary — any 
data you place on the RAM disk is lost when you turn off your computer. You can 
set up as many RAM disks as you want, limited only by the amount of memory your 
computer has and DOS drive letters available. You can run this feature on your 
system in either extended or expanded memory. 

Note: You should specify the extended or expanded parameter. Otherwise, 
RAMDRIVE. SYS uses your system's conventional memory. 

When you install DOS, the Setup program copies the RAMDRIVE.SYS file to your 
DOS directory. To create a RAM drive, you add a DEVICE or DEVICEHIGH 
command for RAMDRIVE.SYS drive to your CONFIG.SYS file. You must add a 
command for each RAM disk you use with your system. 

To activate the RAMDrive feature of your system: 

1 . Make a copy of your CONFIG.SYS file as a backup file. 

2. Open your CONFIG.SYS file by using a text editor, such as the E Editor. 

3. Add a DEVICE or DEVICEHIGH command line for the RAMDRIVE.SYS device 
driver after the DEVICE command that installs the expanded or extended 
memory manager. It should appear similar to the following: 

device=c : \dos\ramdrive . sys 512 /e 

This example creates a RAM drive that takes up 51 2K of extended memory. 
You can specify how much and what type of memory your RAM drive uses by 
customizing the command line. The /e switch specifies that extended memory 
should be used. 

4. Save the changes to your CONFIG.SYS file and exit the E Editor 



Chapter 1 1 . Speeding Up Your System 1 85 



5. Open your AUTOEXEC.BAT file. 

6. Set the TEMP environment variable to your RAM drive by adding a SET 
command line. The drive letter of your RAM drive should be the letter after that 
of your last physical drive. 

For. example, if your last physical disk drive is C, your RAM drive would be D. 
In this case, you would add the following command to your AUTOEXEC.BAT 
file: 

set temp=d: \ 

7. Save the changes to your AUTOEXEC.BAT file. 

8. Restart your computer by pressing CTRL+ALT+DEL 

IMPORTANT: If RAMDrive is to use extended memory, your CONFIG.SYS file 
must contain a DEVICE command for the HIMEM.SYS memory manager. If 
RAMDrive is to use expanded memory, your CONFIG.SYS file must contain a 
DEVICE command for the expanded-memory manager that came with your memory 
board. The DEVICE command for RAMDrive must come after the one for the 
memory manager. 

You can improve the performance of RAMDrive by doing the following: 

If you run programs from your RAM drive, list your RAM drive first in your 
PATH command. 

For example, if your RAM drive is drive D, add d : \ to the beginning of the 
PATH command. For information about the PATH command, type help path 
for a brief explanation and command syntax. 

If you use the EMM386 program as an expanded-memory emulator, do not put 
the RAM drive in expanded memory. 

Although RAMDrive can also use this emulated expanded memory, it is not as 
efficient as it would if it were using real physical memory. 



186 DOS User's Guide 



Chapter 12. Using Central Point Undelete 



The Central Point Undelete program (Undelete) recovers files and directories 
protected by these methods of delete protection: 

DOS 

Delete Sentry 
Delete Tracker 
Novell" NetWare" 386 
DR DOS"'s DelWatch 

Undelete is most effective when you protect files with one of the delete protection 
methods, but it can undelete most files even if they are not protected. For 
information about configuring Delete Sentry and Delete Tracker, see "Central Point 
Data Monitor" on page 215. 

Note: Undelete files as soon as possible for the best chance of recovering all your 
data. 

If you have accidentally erased or formatted your entire disk, use UNFORMAT to 
recover the disk. 



Installing Central Point Undelete for Windows 

The Central Point Undelete program (Undelete) for DOS is installed automatically 
during DOS Setup. However, if you want to use Undelete while in a Windows 
session, and you did not select Undelete for Windows at initial setup, you can still 
install this program. 

During Setup, DOS checks whether your computer has Windows 3.1 installed. If 
you do not have Windows 3.1 installed and want to use the optional tools provided 
with DOS, you should make sure you install in this order: 

1. Install DOS as you normally would, selecting the optional tools you want from 
the list provided. You will not see any of the optional tools for Windows listed. 

2. After you have installed DOS, install Windows 3.1 as you normally would. 

3. Install DOS again using the DOS Setup /e switch to install optional tools after 
DOS and Windows have been installed. 



** Delete Sentry is a trademark of Central Point Software. 
" Novell and NetWare are trademarks of Novell, Inc. 
" DR DOS is a trademark of Digital Research, Inc. 

Copyright IBM Corp. 1981, 1993 



187 



To install Central Point Undelete for Windows using the DOS Setup /e switch: 

1. Insert diskette 1 of the DOS Setup diskettes into drive A or B. 

2. At the DOS command prompt, type: 

a: setup /e 

or 

b: setup /e 

The /e switch allows you to return to the optional tools selection menu without 
having to do a complete reinstallation. At this point, only the necessary files for 
the optional tools for Windows will be installed. 

3. After Setup for DOS begins, follow the instructions displayed on the screen. 
Make sure you specify the same "Install to PATH" as you did when you did the 
initial DOS installation. 

At the Optional Tools menu, you see a no next to Central Point Undelete for 
Windows. 

4. Press the UP ARROW and DOWN ARROWS until you highlight Central Point 
Undelete for Windows. You can select other optional tools at this time by 
highlighting and pressing ENTER for each item. 

You now see yes next to Central Point Undelete for Windows and other optional 
tools you selected. 

5. After you select the optional tools you want to install, move the cursor to 
highlight the following: 

The listed options are correct. 

6. Press ENTER to accept the optional tool selections. 

Continue to follow the instructions displayed on the screen until the optional 
tools are installed. 



Starting Undelete 

Undelete is a tool that recovers files and directories protected by specific methods 
of delete protection. It can even undelete most files not protected by these 
methods. Undelete works in conjunction with Data Monitor, a memory-resident 
program that includes several options to guard against data loss and protect 
confidential data. 



1 88 DOS User's Guide 



To start Central Point Undelete: 

1 . Type the following at the DOS command prompt: 

undelete 
and then press ENTER 

2. If a password has been assigned, enter it and then select OK. 

If you prefer, you can use the DOS command prompt to undelete files rather than 
use the full-screen version of Undelete. 

To start the command-line version of Undelete: 

1 . At the DOS command prompt, type: 

undelete drive : \directory 
and then press ENTER. 

For each occurrence of a deleted file, you are prompted: 

Do you want to recover this file? (Y/N) 

2. Press Y to answer yes, or press N to answer no when queried about each file. 

You can limit your search by specifying the full path for the file if you know it, 
specifying a specific directory that you know contained this file, or through the use 
of wildcards just as you limit the search when using the DIR command. A better 
way to find out what files have been deleted is to type the following: 

undelete /list 

Typing this command provides a list of the files you have deleted and the method of 
protection being used to protect them, such as Delete Sentry, Delete Tracker, or 
DOS. You see a list of deleted files for the current directory. 

To start the Windows version of Undelete: 

You can start Central Point Undelete for Windows by double-clicking on the Central 
Point Undelete icon located in the IBM Tools program group. 

You then see the main window for Central Point Undelete for Windows. 



Chapter 12. Using Central Point Undelete 189 



Viewing the Undelete Window 

When the Undelete window appears, the directory tree on the left shows the 
directory structure of the selected drive. The file list on the right shows 
subdirectories and files that have been deleted from the highlighted directory. 
When you delete a file, you no longer see it when you use the DOS DIR command, 
but its data might still be on the disk. 



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92369 
47841 
42248 
8GQ6 
E8025 
46 



6/434/92 
6/4JZ/9Z 
6/431/92 
6/OT/9Z 

ii/<M./9e 
ii/«i/9e 

3/439/92 

s/acvsi 

6/B4/9Z 
5/Z7/9Z 
5/27/92 



2:42[i 
ll:QZa 

4:36 P 
18: 13a 

fi:C6p 

6:C6p 
18:090 

4=49p 
19:59n 

3:lC* 




Subdirectory 

File list 
shows deleted 
files 



What you see 


What it does 


Drive Line: 


Shows the currently selected drive. 


Directory tree: 


A graphical representation of all directories on the current drive. 


File list: 


Lists subdirectories and all deleted files from the highlighted 




directory. If a question mark (?) appears as the first character of 




the file name, this means that the deletion was not recorded by 




delete protection. 




If you are undeleting files on a network drive, Undelete comes up 




with an expanded file list rather than the directory tree and file list. 




See "Undeleting Files on a Network" on page 197. 


Deleted File Status 


Tells you when and how the highlighted file was deleted and gives 


panel: 


details about the file's condition. 



1 90 DOS User's Guide 



Expanded 
Me list' 



r; i_ fi z »L fin 4- m 

J? i le xj isK upx ions 


tie Xp 








1?) PROJECT .FIL Perfect 


11836 


3/18/87 


5 : 05pri C : sSALESs ANNUAL 


m 

a 


H) 7EETINGS.FIL Destroyed 
g 7QUIPHNT.FIL Poor 


350 
1841 


1/11/88 
5/28/88 


5:23 P m C:sSALESSANNUflL 
1 1 : 53an C : \SALESs ANNUAL 



















Delete Date: Unknown 



Delete Tine: 

*re available 



Protected by: DOS 



■I 



Function Keys 

The following function keys are available in Undelete: 



Function Key 


Description 


F1 HELP 


Provides online help about the selected item. 


F2 INDEX 


Displays the Help index. 


F3 EXIT 


Exits from Undelete. 


F4 VIEW 


Displays the contents of the highlighted file. 


F5 SELECT 


Lets you select files by file name specification. 


F6 UNSELECT 


Lets you deselect files by file name specification. 


F7 FIND 


Gives you the Find Deleted Files window. 


F8 UNDEL 


Undeletes selected files. 


F9 SORT 


Lets you select a sort order for listing files. 


F10 MENU 


Activates the horizontal menu bar. 



Chapter 12. Using Central Point Undelete 191 



Deleted File Condition 



The condition listed for each file name indicates how completely Undelete can 
recover it. Undelete assigns conditions based on the status of the file's clusters. A 
cluster is a unit of disk space; a file occupies one or more clusters. A file's clusters 
can be in consecutive order or scattered about the disk (fragmented). 



Condition What You Can Expect to Recover 

Perfect You can undelete the file completely and automatically. This is the 

condition of all files protected by these methods: Delete Sentry, 
Novell NetWare 386 Salvage, and DR DOS DelWatch. 

Excellent All the file's clusters are available and unfragmented (in consecutive 

order on the disk) and can be undeleted automatically. There is a 
small chance that some data might be overwritten. This is the best 
condition you can expect for files protected by the Delete Tracker 
method of delete protection. DOS-deleted files that are small or 
unfragmented can also be in Excellent condition. 



Good 


One or more of the file's clusters are in use by another file; therefore, 




they are not available. Some data might be overwritten. 


Poor 


The file's first cluster and possibly more are not available. Use an 




Advanced Undelete method to recover as much as is still available. 


Destroyed 


The file cannot be undeleted because all of its known clusters are in 




use by other files. However, you might be able to recover some of 




the data from a DOS-deleted Destroyed file using an Advanced 




Undelete method. 


None 


The file cannot be undeleted because it had no data in it when it was 




deleted. It is a file entry with a size of 0 bytes. 


Existing 


The file is not a deleted file. It was added to the list by the Show 




Existing Files option so that you can rename it or add deleted 




clusters to it manually, using Append to Existing File, one of the 




Advanced Undelete methods. 


Lost File 


The file was found by scanning for lost deleted files. It is a deleted 




file whose directory cannot be determined. Most likely, its directory 




has been deleted. 


Recovered 


The file was undeleted during the current session. 


Purged 


The file was purged from Delete Sentry, DelWatch, or NetWare 




during the current session. You can no longer recover the file. 



1 92 DOS User's Guide 



For technical information about the status of data in Excellent, Good, Poor, and 
Destroyed files that can help you decide how best to undelete files with those 
conditions, see "How the Delete Protection Method Affects File Recovery" on 
page 212. These conditions have slightly different implications, depending on 
whether the file was protected by Delete Tracker or DOS when it was deleted. 



Delete Protection Methods 

The Deleted File Status panel tells you what the highlighted file's delete protection 
method was when it was deleted. 



Protection Method How the Method Affects File Recovery and Condition 

Delete Sentry Indicates that the Delete Sentry method of delete protection was 

used. Files can be undeleted in Perfect condition because they are 
saved in a hidden directory. 

Delete Tracker Indicates that the Delete Tracker method of delete protection was 

used. DOS leaves deleted file data on the disk but marks the file's 
clusters as available. The Delete Tracker method records the 
cluster addresses of deleted files. As long as the file's clusters 
have not been overwritten by new data, a Delete Tracker-protected 
file can be undeleted in Excellent condition. 

DOS Indicates that no delete protection method was used. When DOS 

is the only source of information, files are undeleted based on their 
entries in the DOS directory and in the File Allocation Table (FAT). 



NetWare 386 



DelWatch 



Indicates that Novell NetWare's method of delete protection was 
used on the network drive. Files can be undeleted in Perfect 
condition because they actually remain on the drive until they are 
purged or the space they occupied is overwritten. This method of 
delete protection must be configured by the network administrator 
and users given Create rights to retrieve files prior to using 
Undelete. 

Indicates that the DR DOS method of delete protection, DelWatch, 
was used. Files can be undeleted in Perfect condition. 



For technical details about these methods, see "How the Delete Protection Method 
Affects File Recovery" on page 212. 



Chapter 12. Using Central Point Undelete 193 



Getting More File Information 

You can get additional information about any file you highlight by selecting File Info 
from the File menu. 



File Information 



Filet SHIPPING. UK 1 
Size; 8251 

Path: B:\5BLES\ftNHUflL\ 
Modif ied date; 2'2V98 
Deleted date: 2/20/91 
First Clyster: 88 

Condition : Perfect 

♦ tttlV 

this file can be 188:: undeleted. 



Sorting the File List 

By default, Undelete sorts by file name. However, you can change the order in 
which Undelete displays files by selecting a different sort order. For example, you 
might want to see all the .BAT files or all the files created on a certain date listed 
together so you can quickly find the one you wanted to undelete. Or, if you knew 
that the file was very small, you might sort the list in order of size. 

If you select more than one file to undelete, the sort order determines the order in 
which the files will be undeleted. If you are undeleting a group of files at one time 
that have different conditions, before undeleting them, sort them in order of 
condition so that Undelete can recover the files that are in the best condition first. 
The displayed condition of a file can change as previous files are undeleted. 

Changing the Sort Order 

1 . Select Sort by from the Options menu. 

2. In the Sort by pop-up window, select a sort order and then select OK. 
Name: Sorts the files by file name, which is the default. 
Extension: Sorts the files by file extension. 

Size: Sorts the files by size, with the smallest files first. 

Deleted Date and Time: Sorts files protected by Delete Sentry and Delete 
Tracker in order of the date that files were deleted. Within each date group, 
files are sorted in order of time deleted. DOS-deleted files that have an 
unknown date are listed last in unchanged order. 



1 94 DOS User's Guide 



Modified Date and Time: Sorts the files in order of the date that files were 
last modified. Within each date group, files are sorted in order of time last 
modified. 

Directory: Sorts the files alphabetically by directory name. This option is 
available only in the expanded-file list displayed for network drives and files 
found by specification, where the directory tree is not shown. 

Condition: Sorts the files by condition, in the following order: Perfect, 
Excellent, Good, Poor, Destroyed, Existing. 

Selecting Files 

You must first select the files that you want to undelete. The following table gives 
you several ways to select these files. 



To: 


Do This: 


Select a single file 


Move the highlight bar to the file you want to undelete and 




click the left mouse button, or press ENTER or SPACEBAR. 




The selected file changes color. You can select more than 




one file this way. 


Select or deselect a group of 


Press and hold the right mouse button, position the 


files with the mouse 


highlight bar over the first file, then also press and hold 




down the left mouse button. Drag the cursor over any 




additional files you want to select or deselect. Release 




both mouse buttons when finished. 


Select a group of files by 


Select Select by Name from the Options menu, enter a file 


specification 


specification, and select OK. 




Selected files change color. 


Deselect a group of files by 


Select Deselect by Name from the Options menu, enter a 


specification 


file specification, and select OK. 




The specified files are deselected. 



Automatic Undelete Methods 

When you have selected one or more files or directories, decide on an undelete 
method based on the condition of the deleted file. See "Deleted File Condition" on 
page 192. The methods described below undelete directories as well as files. 

Note: The Use Mirror File option is dimmed and deselectable when there is no 
Mirror file. 



Chapter 12. Using Central Point Undelete 195 



Undeleting a File Automatically 



If Then 

A selected file's Select Undelete from the File menu or press F8 to undelete the file 

condition is Perfect, automatically, in the directory from which it was deleted. 
Excellent, or Good 

The file's condition You might want to undelete it to another drive, as described next. At 
is Good least some of the disk space occupied by a Good file can be in use 

by another file. That part of the file will not be included if you use 
Undelete but will be included if you use Undelete to. 



Undeleting a File to a Different Drive 

As a safety precaution, you can undelete a file to a different drive, leaving the 
original deleted file unchanged. You can undelete to a floppy disk, for example. 
Then, if that automatic undeletion does not recover all the data you want, you still 
have the option of rebuilding the unchanged deleted file one cluster at a time. See 
"Advanced Undelete Methods" on page 206. 

To undelete a file to a different drive: 

1. Select Undelete to from the File menu. 

2. Select the drive where you want the undeleted file or files to be placed and 
select OK. 

3. For each selected file, accept or change the default directory path and select 
OK. 

The file is undeleted to the specified path under its original name. If the first 
character of the file name was "?" Undelete replaces it with an "X" 

Renaming an Existing File 

Undelete lets you know if a file you are undeleting has the same name as an 
existing file. For example, this might happen if the deleted file is a previous version 
of an existing file. You can rename the existing file before you undelete the deleted 
one. That way, you can keep both files in the same directory. 



196 DOS User's Guide 



To rename an existing file: 

1 . If the directory tree and file list are not visible, select Tree & File List from the 
File menu or press F7. 

2. Select Show Existing Files from the Options menu to add all existing files to 
the list of deleted files in each directory. 

3. Select the existing file you want to rename. 

4. Select Advanced Undelete Rename Existing File from the File menu. 

5. In the Rename Existing File pop-up window, type a new name for the existing 
file and select Rename. 

6. After the existing file has been renamed, you can use Undelete to recover the 
deleted file that would have duplicated the existing file's name. To remove the 
existing files from the list, select Show Existing Files again. 



Undeleting Files on a Network 

If you are undeleting files on a network drive, Undelete lists the files users have 
deleted that were protected by Delete Sentry or Novell NetWare 386 method of 
delete protection. In place of a directory tree, Undelete shows the deleted files path 
in an expanded file list. 



Expanded 
tile Us f 



Disk 



Options 

C3 



Help 



File 










£3 ALIAS 


.HPT Perfect 


16537 


9/29/87 5:10pn H ^SOURCES 


ma 



D AMERICAN. MKT Perfect 
U ANALYSIS. LST Perfect 



53668 12/88/98 9:49 P n H : SFINANCESMARKETS 
6536 8/B3/89 ll:35an H :NSAUEDATASLISTINGS 



CHC*a<38R,F£i F«,rf«c* SS8V9B 3 H:nF !HflNL'E> 



||) CHCK1989.FIL 
D CHCK1998.FIL 
D BfilLV RPT 
D EASTERN .MAX 
D MARKETS .LSI 
H) FH-ZONE1.DLG 
H PH-Z0NE2.DLG 
U PH-Z0NE3.DLG 
|5) PH-Z0NE4.DLG 
W\ RESEARCH. LST 



Perfect 
Perfect 
Perfect 
Perfect 
Perfect 
Perfect 
Perfect 
Perfect 
Perfect 
Perfect 



27682 
21991 
6745 
4382 
13589 
3585 
1197 
3789 
4331 
6581 



5/ B 1/98 
5/B1/98 
3/ 16/88 
9/22/89 
7/29/87 
11/81/98 
11/01/98 
11/B1/9B 
11/81/98 
6/85/89 



3 : 00an 
3.8Ban 
2:B9pn 

18: 3 lan 

18:44a« 
6:B5pn 
G:85 P n 
6:B5pn 
6:B5pn 
2 :56pn 



H INFIHANCESCHECKING 

h : sfinanceschecking 
h:nsources 

h : \sauedatasmailiw3s 

H:\SAUEDATAUISTINGS 
H : SSAUEDATAVPHOME 
H:\SAUEDATAsPHOHE 
H:\SAUEDATANPHOHE 
H:NSAUEDATA\PHONE 
H : ^SAVEDATANLISTINGS 



PI 




If a network directory is hidden, Undelete will not display the files unless the 
directory's hidden attribute is changed. Also, files deleted by other users do not 
appear in the list if you are using Delete Sentry, but the Novell NetWare method of 



Chapter 12. Using Central Point Undelete 197 



deletion protection shows all files. You can undelete files that you have deleted 
with your current user name. 

If you use Novell NetWare's method of delete protection to protect the network 
drive, users can see deleted files, but cannot recover files unless the network 
administrator has assigned Create rights to the directory that contained the deleted 
files. 

If none of these methods of delete protection were used on the network drive, 
Undelete does not list any deleted files. 

The following commands are not available if you are undeleting files on a network 
drive: 

Tree & File List on the File menu 
Advanced Undelete on the File menu 
All commands on the Disk menu 
Show Existing Files on the Options menu 
Use Mirror File on the Options menu 

Note: The Use Mirror File option will be dimmed if Mirror is not available. 

For more information, see "Deleted File Condition" on page 192. and "Delete 
Protection Methods" on page 1 93. 



Undeleting Directories and Their Files 

NetWare does not keep track of deleted directories, but the program does track the 
files in deleted directories. All other methods for finding files also find deleted 
directories. 

A directory contains file entries identifying the names, starting locations, and other 
information for all files that belong to it. When you delete a directory, deleted files 
that were in that directory no longer appear in Undelete's file lists. However, the 
deleted directory appears, identified with a folder icon and <dir> listed as the file 
size. As soon as you undelete a directory, any deleted files it contained appear in 
Undelete's file lists. If you cannot find a deleted file, see if you can find its directory 
using the directory tree and file list. When you undelete the directory, it appears in 
the directory tree. Select that directory, then select and undelete any of its deleted 
files. 

If you cannot find a deleted file's directory, you can still find the file or its data by 
using one of Undelete's disk scan methods discussed in "Scanning the Disk for Lost 
Files and Deleted Data" on page 203. 



198 DOS User's Guide 



Undeleting a Directory 

As you add files to a directory, it grows in size. DOS splits large directories into 
more than one group of file entries and does not keep track of the additional groups 
if you delete the directory. You can undelete most directories automatically. 
However, when Undelete cannot determine the location of all the parts of a 
directory, it displays the Directory Undelete pop-up window. 

Identifying Groups of File Entries Belonging to a Directory 

In the Directory Undelete pop-up window, identify the groups of file entries that 
belong in the directory you are undeleting. 



Dirui: lury Uii'Ju 1l- 



Group to 
Add or Skip' 




DOS -splits large directories into More 
than one group of files. ¥ou nutst identify 
th» groups that are part of flits, directory, 

Ho you want to add this group? 

kip ■ ndteloie ■ ancsl 



In this pop-up window, you do not select individual files to undelete. Rather, you 
decide whether the entire group of file entries displayed in the list box represents 
files that belong in the directory you want to undelete. 



If 


Then 


The group of file entries 


Select Add. 


displayed in the scrollable 


Undelete adds this group and searches for the next 


file list was in the directory 


probable group of file entries. 


The displayed group of file 


Select Skip. 


entries was not in the 


Undelete searches for the next probable group. 


directory. 





Chapter 12. Using Central Point Undelete 199 



To identify groups of file entries belonging to a directory: 

1 . Continue adding groups of file entries that belong in the directory. When you 
have added the same number of groups as originally belonged in the directory, 
Undelete recovers the directory automatically (you do not have to select 
Undelete) and rebuilds the directory tree to include it. 

2. Select Undelete to recover the directory before all groups are added. 

Finding Deleted Files 

If you cannot find a deleted file easily by looking for it in the Undelete directory tree 
and file list or when you want to display all deleted files on the disk in one listing, 
you can search for files by entering a file specification. 

To find deleted files: 

1. On the drive line above the Undelete directory tree and file list, click the drive 
from which the file was deleted, or press CTRL and the drive letter. 

2. Select Find Deleted Files from the File menu, or press F7. 




y3 s pwre Case \ v- U "V-^; 

Q -hole Uord Search P] Delete S>a.cker 



3. Select an option: 

File Specification text box: Lets you specify the name of the file or files you 
are searching for, using the DOS wildcard characters * and ?. 

Containing text box: Lets you narrow the search to deleted files that contain 
a specific text string. The program finds only files that contain that string. 

Groups: Finds files associated with a particular application. 

4. In the File Specification text box, enter the file specification that describes the 
file or files you want to find. 

You can include more than one specification, separating each by one space. 
For example, type . exe .com to include all program files. 
You can exclude files by prefacing a file specification with a minus sign. 
200 DOS User's Guide 



For example, type .bat -\ . bat to include all batch files except those in the 
root directory. 

Use the LEFT ARROW and RIGHT ARROW to move the cursor one character 
right or left, and HOME and END to position the cursor at the beginning or 
end of the entry. 

To insert characters, scroll to where you want to insert them, press INS and 
type the additional characters. To delete text, position the cursor after the 
character to be deleted and press BACKSPACE. 

You can use file specifications and file contents together to narrow your search. 

For example, if you type the file specification . doc and you type budget in the 
Containing text box, the program will find all IBM DisplayWrite files and other 
.DOC files that contain the word "budget." 

5. Enter the text you want to search for in the Containing text box. 

6. Select the text search options: 

Ignore Case: Finds files containing the text whether it is upper or lowercase. 
For example, if you type CHOCOLATE, Undelete will find files containing 
"Chocolate," "chocolate," and "ChoCoLate." 

Whole Word: Finds only the text you enter if it is one or more complete words. 
For example, if you type tort, Undelete will not find "tortellini" or "retorted." 

7. Select the delete protection methods to search for and then select OK. 

If no files on the current drive are protected by Delete Sentry, Delete Tracker, 
or DelWatch, those checkboxes are dimmed and you cannot select them. 

Delete Sentry: Finds deleted files that match the file and content specifications 
and were protected by Delete Sentry. 

Delete Tracker: Finds deleted files that match the file and content 
specifications and were protected by Delete Tracker. 

DOS: Finds deleted files that match the file and content specifications and 
were protected only by DOS. 

DelWatch: Finds deleted files that match the file and content specifications 
and were protected only by DR DOS's DelWatch. 

All files that match the specifications appear in the Find Deleted Files window, 
which contains an expanded file list that shows all files that match your Find 
Deleted Files specifications, including their paths. 

For more information, see "Deleted File Condition" on page 192 and "Delete 
Protection Methods" on page 193. 



Chapter 12. Using Central Point Undelete 201 



Most menu commands available in the Undelete directory tree and file list are 
also available in the Find Deleted Files window. The following commands are 
not available: Show Existing Files and its related commands, Rename Existing 
File, and Append to Existing File. 

8. To return to the directory tree and file list from the Find Deleted Files window, 
select Tree & File List from the File menu or press F7. 

The function associated with F7 switches between Tree and Find, depending 
on which window you are in. The command on the File menu also switches 
between Tree & File List and Find Deleted Files. 

Searching for a Group of Files 

Search groups make it easy to find deleted files associated with specific 
applications. 

Search groups that you create in Undelete are available to you in FileFind, and vice 
versa. 

To search for a group of files: 

1. Select Find Deleted Files from the File menu. 

2. Select Groups in the Find Deleted Files pop-up window. 

3. Select the group or groups from the Search Groups pop-up window and select 
OK. 

The specification for the group or groups you selected appears in the File 
Specification text box. If you selected more than one group, all of their 
specifications appear in the text box, separated by spaces. 

4. Select OK in the Find Deleted Files pop-up window. 

The groups you selected remain in effect until you change the file specification 
or leave the program. 

To add a search group: 

1 . Select Find Deleted Files from the File menu. 

2. Select Groups in the Find Deleted Files pop-up window. 

3. Select Edit. 

4. Select New, and enter a group name and file specification. 

Enter a file specification that describes the names and location of the files. For 
example, if all your IBM DisplayWrite files were located in C:\DW5 and had the 
extension .DOC, you can enter the file specification C:\DW5Y\DOC to define a 
group called "DW5 Files." 



202 DOS User's Guide 



5. Select Save. 

6. To use this group for the next search, select it and select OK in the Search 
Groups pop-up window. 

To edit or delete a search group: 

1 . Select Find Deleted Files from the File menu. 

2. Select Groups in the Find Deleted Files pop-up window. 

3. Select Edit. 

4. Select the search group you want to edit or delete. 

To edit a search group, change the group name, file specification, or both 
and select Save. 

or 

To delete a search group, select Delete. 

5. Select OK. 

6. To use this group for the next search, select it and select OK in the Search 
Groups pop-up window. 

Scanning the Disk for Lost Files and Deleted Data 

If you have not found a deleted file using any of the following methods, you can 
scan the entire disk for lost files or for deleted data that is not associated with any 
file or directory. 

Looking in the Undelete directory tree and file list 
Using the Find Deleted Files command 
Undeleting the file's deleted directory 

Try the Scan for Lost Deleted Files option first. If you cannot find the files you are 
looking for, you can scan the diskette's free clusters for the deleted data. 



Chapter 12. Using Central Point Undelete 203 



Scanning for Lost Deleted Files 

You can scan the entire disk for lost files — files no longer associated with any 
existing directory. 

1. Go to the directory where you want lost files to be recovered. Undelete 
recovers lost files to the current directory. 

2. Select Scan for Lost Deleted Files from the Disk menu. 

3. Select the delete protection methods to scan for: 

Delete Sentry: Finds deleted files that match the file and content specifications 
and were protected by Delete Sentry. 

Delete Tracker: Finds deleted files that match the file and content 
specifications and were protected by Delete Tracker. 

DOS: Finds deleted files that match the file and content specifications and 
were protected only by DOS. 

If no files on the current drive are protected by Delete Sentry or Delete 
Tracker, that checkbox is dimmed and you cannot select it. 

4. Select OK. 

Undelete scans the disk for files protected by the method or methods you selected. 
If you selected more than one method, Undelete scans the Delete Sentry directory 
first, then the Delete Tracker file, then the entire disk. 

The Scan for Lost Deleted Files pop-up window shows the file or cluster number 
being scanned and the number of scan items found. A progress bar shows you 
how much of the disk has been scanned. 

When the disk scan is complete, the list of files found appears in the Find Deleted 
Files window, with Lost File as its condition. Lost files retain their original names 
and other information, so you can easily select and undelete the files you are 
looking for. 

Scanning Free Clusters for Deleted Data 

You can scan the diskette's free clusters — disk space no longer associated with any 
existing file or directory— for a specified type of data or a text string. 

Note: When Undelete scans the diskette's free clusters, it does not look at files 
protected by Delete Sentry or Del Watch. 



204 DOS User's Guide 



To scan free clusters for deleted data: 

1 . Go to the directory where you want clusters containing the specified type of 
data to be recovered. Undelete recovers clusters to the current directory. 

2. Select one of the cluster scans from the Disk menu: 

If you select Scan for Data Types, select the type of data to scan for (Lotus 
1-2-3 and Symphony**, dBASE, or normal text). 

or 

If you select Scan for Contents, specify a word, phrase, or text string to scan 
for. It does not matter whether you use uppercase or lowercase letters. 

3. Select OK. 

The pop-up window shows the cluster number being scanned and the number 
of scan items found. A progress bar shows you how much of the disk has 
been scanned. 

When Undelete finds a contiguous group of free clusters that match the data 
type, it counts the group as a file and gives it a unique name. Undelete tries to 
match lost data with directory entries, making its best guess at the file's name. 
When the disk scan is complete, the list of clusters found appears in the Find 
Deleted Files window. 

Two additional Disk menu commands act on disk scanning: 

Set Scan Range: Lets you limit the scans to a range of clusters, rather than 
scanning the entire disk for clusters that cannot possibly contain the data you 
are looking for. For example, if your hard disk has never been more than half 
full, you can limit the upper end of the cluster range to half the total number of 
clusters shown in the Cluster Range pop-up window. The scan range remains 
in effect for all disk scans until you change it, leave the program, or change 
drives. 

Continue Scan: Lets you continue a scan you interrupted by selecting Cancel. 
You can interrupt a scan at any time to look at the list of files found to that 
point. 



Showing Existing Files 

You can add existing files to the list of deleted files to rename or add deleted 
clusters to them. This option is available only when you are in the Undelete 
directory tree and file list. 



Symphony is a trademark of Lotus Development Corporation. 

Chapter 12. Using Central Point Undelete 



205 



When you select Show Existing Files from the Options menu, all existing files are 
added to each directory's list of deleted files. After existing files appear, you can 
select them. 

To rename an existing file (to undelete a file whose name already exists), select it 
and select Rename Existing File from the File menu. For more information, see 
"Automatic Undelete Methods" on page 195. 

To add deleted clusters to an existing file, select it and select Advanced Undelete 

Append to Existing File from the File menu. See "Advanced Undelete 
Methods." 

Selecting Show Existing Files turns the option on and off. To remove existing files 
from the list, select the option again. 

Advanced Undelete Methods 

If one of the automatic undelete methods will not work, Undelete tells you to use 
one of its advanced file recovery methods. 

Manual Undelete: Lets you undelete the highlighted file by selecting the clusters 
you want in it. Use this method to undelete files listed in Poor condition, on 
DOS-deleted Destroyed files, or on files listed in Good and Excellent condition that 
contain some overwritten clusters. You can start with a list of available (free) 
clusters that Undelete associates with the highlighted file, then add, delete, and 
reorder free clusters until the file contains the data you want. 

To manually undelete a file: 

1. From the Undelete directory tree and file list or the Find Deleted Files window, 
select a file to undelete manually. 

2. Select Advanced Undelete Manual Undelete from the File menu. 



206 DOS User's Guide 



Fife information 
i 



File:' IHWiCE.ftCC 
Size: 2888 bytes 
Date : V26/08 
Tine! IB ;37ara 

Next Available Cluster 
ft 91 



kip .Clwstwe* 



pdate 

ancel 



List of Added Clusters 



lal Undelete 




Starting cluster 
Clusters needed 

Clusters added 



(slate 



3. If the file you selected is a DOS-deleted file whose first character has been 
replaced by a question mark, enter a new first character when requested. 

4. In the Manual Undelete window you can add, view, move, and delete free 
clusters from a list that you create. See "The Advanced Undelete Window" on 
page 208. 

Create a File: Lets you construct a new file when Undelete cannot find the file, but 
you are reasonably sure that it is still on the disk— which can happen, for example, 
if the file's directory has been overwritten. You enter a new file name and build the 
file by selecting available (free) clusters. 

To create a new file from deleted clusters: 

1 . Select Advanced Undelete Create a File from the File menu. 

2. In the Create a File pop-up window, type a name for the new file and select 
OK. 

3. In the Create a File window, you can add, view, move, and delete free clusters 
from a list that you create. See "The Advanced Undelete Window" on 

page 208. 

Append to Existing File: Lets you add available (free) clusters to an existing file. 
For example, if you realize that some data is missing after you undelete a file 
manually or create a file from available clusters, use this method to add the 
additional clusters. After you have appended available clusters to an existing file's 
clusters, you can reorder all the clusters and delete any you do not want. 



Chapter 12. Using Central Point Undelete 207 



Note: When you add a free cluster to a file, it might prevent you from undeleting 
other deleted files, so do this only after you have undeleted any other files 
you want to recover that can be automatically undeleted. 

To add deleted clusters to an existing file: 

1 . If you are not already in the Undelete directory tree and file list, select Tree & 
File List from the File menu. 

2. Select Show Existing Files from the Options menu. 

All existing files are added to the list of deleted files and appear in the directory 
tree and file list. The condition column identifies them as Existing. 

3. Select the existing file you want to add clusters to. 

4. Select Advanced Undelete Append to Existing File from the File menu. 

5. In the Append to a File window you can add, view, move, and delete free 
clusters to the list of clusters occupied by the selected file. 

The Advanced Undelete Window 

In the Advanced Undelete window, you determine which clusters to include in the 
file and in what order. By viewing clusters before you add them and by viewing the 
assembled file, you can tell whether the clusters you are adding contain data you 
want. 

The window title differs, depending on whether you chose Manual Undelete, 
Create a File, or Append to a File. 



Fife information 



File: 1 INMOICE.ftCC 
Size! 2888 bytes 
Date: 4/26/-8S 
T ine I 18 : 37 an 

Next Available Cluster 
tt 91 



List of Added Clusters 
I 









kip Cluster 


III 










□date 






a nee L 





Manual llndr. le+p. 




208 DOS User's Guide 



File Information: Includes the name and size of the file you selected to undelete, 
and the date and time it was last modified. 

List of Added Clusters: Lets you assemble a list of clusters you want to include 
in the undeleted file. You can add all free clusters on the current drive to this list. 
Free clusters are those not currently associated with any file or directory. After you 
add clusters to this list, you can view the assembled file to see if it contains the 
correct data, organized the way you want it. 



Item 


What It Means 


Next Available 


The next free cluster on the disk that you can add to the undeleted 


Cluster 


file. 


Starting cluster 


The disk location of the file's original first cluster. 


Clusters needed 


The number of clusters the original file contained. 


Clusters added 


The total number of clusters you added. Added clusters are listed 




in the scrollable panel on the right-hand side of the List of Added 




Clusters. These clusters are not actually assigned to the file until 




you select Update. 



Undeleting Clusters 

Use these buttons on the Advanced Undelete window to assemble the file you want 
to undelete: 



Manual Undelete 



File: TNUOICE.ACC 

Size: 2008 bytes 

Date: 4/28/88 

Tine.' 10;37an 

Next Available Cluster 
tt 110 



kip Cluster 



: : : 



List of fielded Cluste 



Starting cluster 
Clusters needed 

Clusters added 



elete 



91 

3 



Chapter 12. Using Central Point Undelete 209 



Button 


What It Does 




Lclo y*JU aUU all Ui oLJtJulllcU II tit; UUolcio, VltyW lilt? 1 dVctllaUlc 




cluster, or scan free clusters for specified data. See the following 




procedure. Each cluster you add is listed in the scrollable List of 




Added Clusters panel. 


Skip Cluster 


Skips to the next available free cluster. 


View File 


Lets you examine all the clusters you have already added. If the 




first cluster is a recognizable file type, the clusters appear in native 




format; otherwise they appear in text or binary format. 


Update 


Undeletes the file. The File Allocation Table is updated so that the 




clusters you added (shown in the List of Added Clusters panel) are 




associated with the undeleted file name. 



To undelete clusters: 

1 . Select Add Cluster. 

2. Select a cluster option: 

Add All Clusters: Available in Manual Undelete only, adds to the list the same 
number of free clusters originally assigned to the file. For example, if the 
selected file consisted of eight clusters, then the file's starting cluster and the 
next seven available cluster numbers will be added to the list. If the deleted file 
was fragmented, these might or might not contain the data that originally 
belonged to the file. You can view each cluster to find out. 

Add This Cluster: Adds the next available cluster (shown at the top of the 
Cluster Options pop-up window) to the list. 

View This Cluster: Displays the contents of the next available cluster so you 
can decide whether to add it. When in the Cluster Viewer, you can view each 
next available free cluster without leaving the viewer window. 

Scan for Contents: Lets you scan the diskette's free clusters for a text string 
you enter in the pop-up window. The first cluster that matches your string 
appears in the Cluster Viewer. You can add this cluster or display the next one 
containing the text string. 

Enter Cluster #: Lets you specify a cluster number to add to the list. This can 
be useful as a starting point if you know approximately where the file is on the 
disk. 

3. After cluster numbers are displayed in the List of Added Clusters, you can 
modify the list. 



21 0 DOS User's Guide 



4. Select an option: 

Move: Lets you use UP ARROW, DOWN ARROW, HOME, END, PAGE UP, and 
PAGE DOWN to move the highlighted cluster to a new place in the list. 

Delete: Removes the highlighted cluster from the list. 

5. When the list includes the clusters you want in the file, in proper order, select 
OK. 



Purging Deleted Files 

When you configure the Delete Sentry method of delete protection using Data 
Monitor, you can specify how many days to save deleted files and a maximum 
percentage of disk space to allow for Delete Sentry's hidden directory. Delete 
Sentry files are purged automatically when these limits are reached or when DOS 
needs the disk space they occupy. When Delete Sentry purges files, it removes the 
oldest deleted files first. See "Central Point Data Monitor" on page 215 for more 
information about Delete Sentry and how to configure it. 

You can also use Undelete to purge all or selected deleted files that are protected 
by Delete Sentry, Delete Tracker, NetWare, and DelWatch. This does not change 
the free space actually available on your disk because these methods allow DOS to 
use its disk space when needed. However, purging files does create more room for 
protected files, especially when disk space is at a premium. 

If one of these methods is not currently protecting files on the current drive, the 
Purge Deleted Files command will be dimmed in the File menu and you cannot 
select it. 

Warning: After you purge files, other files can overwrite their data, and you might 
not be able to recover them. 

To purge all deleted files: 

1. Select Purge Deleted Files from the File menu. 

2. In the submenu that appears, choose which type of protected files to purge. 

3. In the Purge File pop-up window, select Purge All. 

Undelete removes all files on the current drive protected by the selected 
method. 

Note: Purging NetWare files on a large file server can be slow. 



Chapter 12. Using Central Point Undelete 21 1 



To purge selected deleted files: 

1 . From the Undelete directory tree and file list, select the files you want to purge. 
You can purge all files except those protected by DOS. 

2. Select Purge Deleted File from the File menu. 

3. In the submenu that appears, choose the type of protected files to purge. 

4. In the Purge File pop-up window, select Purge. 

If any of the files you select cannot be purged or do not match the protection 
type you selected, that file selection will be ignored. 



How the Delete Protection Method Affects File Recovery 

Undelete can recover files by using information saved by Delete Tracker, Delete 
Sentry, Mirror, Novell NetWare's method of delete protection, and DR DOS's 
DelWatch. If none of these were used, Undelete uses information available through 
DOS. The way a file was protected when it was deleted determines how 
successfully you will be able to undelete it. Delete Sentry is the most reliable. To 
configure delete protection, use Data Monitor. See "Central Point Data Monitor" on 
page 215. 

Undeleting Files without Delete Protection 

When you delete a file without delete protection installed, DOS leaves the data on 
the disk; but in the File Allocation Table (FAT), it marks all the clusters used by the 
file as available. DOS replaces the first character of the deleted file's name with a 
special character that tells DOS not to include the deleted file in the directory listing. 
This means that you can no longer find that file using DOS. 

The file's data remains on the disk and can be undeleted until DOS overwrites it. 
Because the deleted file's clusters are no longer allocated in the FAT, DOS can use 
those now-free clusters for expanding or creating a file. Fortunately, a deleted file's 
clusters are likely to remain intact for a while because DOS usually looks beyond 
the last-saved data cluster for the next available disk space before it uses 
deleted-file clusters. 

DOS keeps a record of a deleted file's name (with its first character replaced by the 
special character), its starting cluster, and how many clusters belonged to the file. 
This information alone might not be enough to undelete the correct data because 
the clusters belonging to a file can be scattered about the disk. 



212 DOS User's Guide 



Here is a guide to interpreting the status of a file that was deleted without delete 
protection based on the condition assigned to it by Undelete: 



Condition Status of a file 

Excellent: There are enough contiguous (sequential) free clusters following the 

starting cluster to rebuild the file. If the original file was unfragmented, this 
group of contiguous clusters contains its data and you can Undelete it 
automatically. If the file was fragmented, use Manual Undelete to look for 
its data elsewhere on the disk. More information follows this list. 

Good: If the file's starting cluster is available but there are not enough contiguous 

free clusters following the starting cluster to rebuild a multiple-cluster file, 
Undelete assumes that one or more of the file's clusters are in use by 
other files and reduces its condition to Good. You can use View File to 
see what would be undeleted automatically. If data is missing, look for it 
elsewhere on the disk with Manual Undelete. 

Poor: The file's starting cluster is in use by another file. Use Undelete to, which 

copies to another drive all the clusters that Undelete assumes belonged to 
the original file, whether they are in use or not. Then you can examine the 
file to see if any of its original data was recovered. If more than the 
beginning of the file is missing, use one of the Advanced Undelete 
methods to look for the file's data elsewhere on the disk. 

Destroyed: The file's first cluster and enough contiguous clusters to rebuild it are in 
use by other files. However, because DOS does not keep track of all the 
clusters of deleted files, some of the data might still be on the disk if the 
file was fragmented. The missing data can be found by using one of the 
Advanced Undelete methods or by scanning the disk for deleted data. 



If you do not know whether the original file was fragmented, you might want to use 
View File or Undelete to, and examine the file to see if it contains the data you 
expect. If not, use Manual Undelete and look for the file's original clusters. If the 
file was fragmented, you might be able to find the missing data elsewhere on the 
disk. 

It is possible that some of the data in the available clusters of a DOS-protected file 
can be overwritten, even if the file's condition is Excellent or Good. See "When 
Data Might Be Overwritten" on page 215. 



Chapter 12. Using Central Point Undelete 213 



Undeleting Files Protected by Delete Tracker 

The Delete Tracker method of delete protection creates a hidden file named 
PCTRACKR.DEL in the root directory of the protected drive. It intercepts the DOS 
DEL command. In the PCTRACKR.DEL hidden file, Delete Tracker stores the 
name of the deleted file and the location of all the clusters it occupied. DOS then 
completes the delete operation and changes the FAT to indicate that the file is 
deleted and its clusters are available. 

If Delete Tracker was active when the file was deleted, Undelete will use 
information saved in the hidden file to find and evaluate all the deleted file's 
clusters. 



Here is a guide to interpreting the status of a deleted file protected by Delete 
Tracker based on the condition assigned to it by Undelete: 



Condition 


Status of a file 


Excellent: 


All of the original clusters for this file are available. Recover 




it automatically with Undelete. 


Good: 


The file's starting cluster is available. However, one or 




more of its remaining original clusters is currently in use by 




another file. 


Poor: 


The file's starting cluster is currently in use by another file. 


Destroyed: 


All of the file's clusters are in use by other files. Most likely, 




Undelete cannot recover any of it. 



For Good, Poor, and Destroyed files protected by Delete Tracker, you might want to 
use Undelete to, which copies to another drive all the clusters that belonged to the 
original file, whether those clusters are currently in use by another file or not. You 
can then examine the file to see how much of the original data was recovered. 

Even if the file's condition is Excellent, Good, or Poor, some of the data in the 
available clusters of a file protected by Delete Tracker might be overwritten, as 
described next. Before recovering the file, you can use Manual Undelete to 
remove any overwritten clusters. 



214 DOS User's Guide 



When Data Might Be Overwritten 

Files protected by Delete Tracker or DOS that have a condition of Excellent, Good, 
or Poor might contain some overwritten data in their available clusters. 

Undelete can determine only if a file's clusters are currently in use by another file. 
It has no way of determining if that file's data has been overwritten by another file 
that has also been deleted, which makes those clusters available once again. For 
example, many programs write to temporary files that are deleted when you exit 
from the program. These temporary files can overwrite the same clusters that were 
occupied by other deleted files. For this reason, undelete files protected by Delete 
Tracker or DOS as soon as possible after deleting them. 

Undeleting Files Protected by Delete Sentry 

The Delete Sentry method of delete protection creates a hidden directory named 
\SENTRY off the root directory of the protected drive. It intercepts the DOS DEL 
command and moves the deleted file to this directory without changing the record of 
the file's location stored in the FAT — effectively changing the path to the file but not 
its physical location. As far as DOS is concerned, the file has been moved. The 
file's clusters are still allocated in the FAT and are protected from being overwritten 
by DOS. Undelete can find the file in Delete Sentry's hidden directory. 

If Delete Sentry was active when the file was deleted, Undelete can recover the 
complete file in Perfect condition. However, Delete Sentry files are purged 
automatically when limits set in Data Monitor are reached or when DOS needs the 
disk space occupied by Delete Sentry files. In that case, or if you purge Delete 
Sentry files using Undelete, those files can be undeleted only through DOS 
information. 



Central Point Data Monitor 

Central Point's Data Monitor (DATAMON) is a memory-resident program that 
includes several options to guard against data loss. 

Warning: Do not use Data Monitor with versions of Central Point programs, such 
as Backup, earlier than Version 7. These versions are not compatible and can 
cause data loss. Use Version 7 or 8 programs instead. 



Chapter 12. Using Central Point Undelete 215 



Choosing a Delete Protection Method 

Delete Protection provides you with two different methods of security against 
accidentally deleting an important file. By selecting either of the following methods, 
you greatly improve your chances of being able to use the Undelete program to 
recover a deleted file. 

Delete Tracker 
Delete Sentry 

Delete Tracker 

You can turn on (+) or off (-) the Delete Tracker method of protection after Data 
Monitor is loaded. This method saves the name of each deleted file and a list of 
the cluster numbers it occupied in a hidden file called PCTRACKR.DEL in the root 
directory of the protected drive. This information helps the Undelete program find 
deleted files. This method provides a somewhat lesser degree of protection than 
Delete Sentry. However, when you use Undelete soon after a file is deleted, you 
have a good chance of recovering it. This method is not available on network 
drives. 

Delete Sentry 

You can turn on (+) or off (-) the Delete Sentry method of protection after Data 
Monitor is loaded. This method saves deleted files in a hidden directory named 
\SENTRY, providing complete protection against accidental deletion. The \SENTRY 
directory is not visible using the DOS DIR command. If you need the disk space 
used by the \SENTRY directory, the Delete Sentry program automatically removes 
data on deleted files, starting with the oldest data until there is enough space for 
your needs. This is done behind the scenes and you will not normally even be 
aware that this deletion is taking place. 

Note: If you turn off Delete Sentry, you will notice a decrease in the number of 
free bytes reported by DIR. The value for bytes available reported by the 
CHKDSK command does take into account the space occupied by the 
Delete Sentry files. 

You can use this method on network and local drives. 

Before you can use Delete Sentry on a network volume, the network supervisor 
should use Data Monitor to configure Delete Sentry for that volume. The hidden 
\SENTRY directory is created automatically. The supervisor should then assign 
users the following rights to the \SENTRY directory: 

NetWare 286 All rights except Parental 

NetWare 386 All rights except Access Control and 

Supervisory 



21 6 DOS User's Guide 



Loading and Configuring Data Monitor 

Data Monitor loads itself high automatically to conserve conventional memory if you 
have: 

A memory manager such as QEMM, 386MAX, or EMM386. 
Memory available between 640K and 1 MB. 

However, when you have RAMBoost loaded into memory, the RAMBoost program 
loads Data Monitor where optimally most efficient. 

To load Data Monitor: 

1 . From the DOS command prompt, type: 

datamon /sentry+ 

or 

datamon / tracker + 

Choose either method of protection for your data based on your needs. You 
can only have one method of protection running at one time; Delete Sentry and 
Delete Tracker are mutually exclusive. 

2. Configure Data Monitor options anytime after you load one of the methods of 
protection. To see a list of the options available with Data Monitor, type the 
following at the DOS prompt: 

help datamon 

Because DATAMON is a memory-resident program, you can add this command to 
your AUTOEXEC.BAT file. 

Loading Data Monitor for Network Drives 

For a network drive, you must use Delete Sentry; you cannot use Delete Tracker for 
network drives. To use Delete Sentry on a Novell network drive, you must load 
Data Monitor into memory after the Novell network drivers. 

If Data Monitor is already resident in memory, you can only turn on (+) an option 
from the command line if one of the following is true: 

Data Monitor is originally loaded with that option turned on, and it has been 
temporarily turned off. 

Data Monitor is the last program loaded into memory. 



Chapter 12. Using Central Point Undelete 217 



Loading Data Monitor into Low Memory 

If you have a memory manager program installed and memory available between 
640K and 1MB, Data Monitor normally loads itself high automatically unless a 
memory optimization program, such as RAMBoost is running. 

If you know you are running a memory optimizer, you can use the /LOW switch 
when you configure Data Monitor to specify that you do not want to load it into 
Upper Memory Blocks even if they are available. 

Unloading Data Monitor 

Using the minus sign (-) turns off either the Delete Sentry or Delete Tracker method 
of protection, but to remove (unload) Data Monitor from memory you must type: 

datamon /unload 

Data Monitor configuration choices are saved in a file called DATAMON.INI in the 
C:\DOS\DATA subdirectory. If an option is turned off and on, your original 
configuration choices are will still be in effect until you unload Data Monitor from 
memory. 

If you remove the DATAMON command in your AUTOEXEC.BAT file, you must 
restart your computer before Data Monitor can be unloaded. 



21 8 DOS User's Guide 



Chapter 13. Using Central Point Scheduler 



Scheduler lets you schedule any program to run without having to monitor the 
process. This is especially useful for lengthy procedures that do not require your 
presence, like a backup session or hard disk compression. For example, you might 
want to perform a backup to a tape drive every workday at 7:00 pm. You can 
schedule any executable command accepted at the DOS prompt. 

When a scheduled event occurs, Scheduler interrupts whatever program is running 
and provides a 15-second warning before it runs the scheduled event in case you 
are in the middle of an application that you do not want interrupted. When the 
event is complete (for example, making a backup), Scheduler returns to the 
application you were running. 

Scheduling a Program 

The memory-resident portion of Scheduler (CPSCHED.EXE) must be loaded before 
you can start a program at a scheduled time. 

To schedule a program: 

1 . From the DOS command prompt, type: 

cpsched 

and press ENTER. This loads CPSCHED.EXE as a terminate-and-stay-resident 
program. Or, you can add CPSCHED to your AUTOEXEC.BAT file so that this 
TSR is loaded whenever you start your computer. 

If you have an execution password set, make sure you remove the password 
before the program is scheduled to run or it will not start as scheduled. 

2. After the TSR is loaded, type: 

schedule 

at the DOS command prompt and press ENTER. 
You see the DOS Program Scheduler main window: 



Copyright IBM Corp. 1981, 1993 



219 



Click here to move 
forward amcnth 



Oick here to move 
back a month 



Shows current month — 
Today's date is highlighted 

Icon indicates scheduled 
event 



Adds a new event to the list 
Modifies easing e vents 
Deletes tie selected event 




Shows details about 
scheduled events 



Displays event list in 
customized views. 



3. Select the day on the calendar you want to schedule a program to run. 
or 

Select Add. 

4. If you want to change the date, then type the date, using the format mm/dd/yy in 
the Date field. 

5. Type the time you want to schedule your program, using the format hh:mma (you 
can use either a or p and Scheduler will appends an "m" for. you) in the Time 
field. 

Do not put a space between the time and the am or pm. 

6. If you want to customize an scheduled event, select a setup file. Use the TAB 
key to move to the Setup Files field and then press ENTER. 

You see a list of Scheduler setup files. 

7. Use the DOWN ARROW if you are using a keyboard or click on a setup file. 

8. Select a frequency: 

Note: The Windows Scheduler does not support weekly, biweekly, or monthly 
scheduled backups. 

One Time Only: Schedules the event to occur one time. 

Daily: Schedules the event to occur every day. 



DOS User's Guide 



Workdays Only: Schedules the event on the days you identify as workdays. 
You select the days of the week you want treated as workdays. 

Weekly Schedules the event on the same day every week. 

Monthly-Fixed Day Schedules the event on the same date each month. 

Monthly-Fixed Weekly Schedules the event on the same weekday each 
month. 

Biweekly Schedules the event the same weekday every other week. 

9. Type the program name in the Event field. 

For example, type ibmavd and any options (up to 64 characters). The file's 
extension is not necessary, and you can use any DOS character. 

or 

Select Browse to navigate to the directory and file that you want to schedule. 

Note: If you are scheduling an event, this pop-up window shows a Setup Files 
options. See "Using Preconfigured Setup Files" on page 324 for 
descriptions of these options. You can also schedule automatic virus 
scanning when you use the Backup program to back up your files. 

10. Select OK to save this information. 

1 1 . Continue in this manner until you have scheduled all the events you want. 

12. Select Exit. 

13. Make sure the Save Changes in Schedule option in the Close pop-up window 
is checked to save your scheduling information. 

When you want the program to run, be sure the computer is on and CPSCHED is 
loaded by typing cpsched at the DOS command prompt, or by selecting Scheduler 
from DOS Shell. The scheduled event occurs at the specified time and returns the 
machine to the state it was in prior to the event. 



Editing Existing Scheduled Events 

On the Scheduler window, you can see what events are scheduled because icons 
appear on each day there is a scheduled event. If you have scheduled events that 
you want to change (for example from daily at 5:00 pm to daily at 7:00 pm), you 
can change these scheduled events by editing them. 



Chapter 13. Using Central Point Scheduler 221 



To edit a schedule event: 

1. From the DOS command prompt, load the CPSCHED.EXE 
terminate-and-stay-resident program by typing: 

cpsched 

and then press ENTER. 

2. After the TSR is loaded, type: 

schedule 
and then press ENTER. 

The Scheduler calendar appears with icons representing events scheduled for 
the day. 

3. Select the event you want to change in the Scheduled events list. 

4. Select Edit. 

5. Make your changes in the Schedule or Edit an Event pop-up window. 



Schedule or Edit an Ek^ent 



Date : 
Setup Files 
Frequency: 1 
Event : 




For details, see steps 4 through 9 in "Scheduling a Program" on page 219. 

6. Select OK to save this information. 

7. Select Exit. 

8. Make sure the Save Changes in Schedule option in the Close pop-up window 
is checked to save your scheduling information. 



222 DOS User's Guide 



Deleting Scheduled Events 

If you decide you do not want a scheduled event to occur anymore, you can delete 
it. 

1 . From the DOS command prompt, type: 

cpsched 
and press ENTER. 

2. Type: 

schedule 
and press ENTER. 

The Scheduler window appears with events scheduled. 

3. Select the event you want to delete in the Scheduled Events list. 

4. Select Delete. 

The event is removed from the list. 

Keystrokes for Navigating the Calendar 

Use the following keys to navigate the Calendar window. 



Use This Key 


To Move To 


LEFT ARROW and RIGHT ARROW 


Yesterday and tomorrow 


UP ARROW and DOWN ARROW 


Last week and next week 


TAB 


Scheduled Events list and calendar 


PAGE UP and PAGE DOWN 


Last month and next month 


CTRL+LEFT ARROW and CTRL+RIGHT 


Last year and next year 


ARROW 





Chapter 13. Using Central Point Scheduler 223 



Scheduler Options 

The Options button lets you define what days you want the Scheduler to recognize 
as workdays, and change what to display in the Event List. 

When you select Options, the following pop-up window appears: 

a 



Scheduler Options 



Choose the days you want 
to define as workdays . 



Select how you want 
scheduled events to 
appear in the Event List 





Sunday 






a 


Monday 






a 


TUesday 


® 


Daily 


a 


Wednesday 






a 


Thursday 


0 


Monthly 


a 


Friday 






□ 


Saturday 


0 


All 



1 . Select the days you want defined as workdays. 

This specifies the days of the week that are treated as workdays and appear as 
options under Frequency. 

2. Select how you want scheduled events to appear in the Events list. 
Daily: Displays only those events scheduled on the selected date. 
Monthly: Displays those events scheduled on any day in the current month. 
All: Displays all scheduled events. 



224 DOS User's Guide 



Removing Scheduler from Memory 

To remove CPSCHED from memory, type the following from the DOS command 
prompt: 

cpsched /u 

You can enter additional command-line options from the DOS command prompt 
that have the same effect as scheduling events from each of the specified 
programs. 

For more information about the SCHEDULE command, or type help schedule for a 
brief explanation and command syntax. 



Chapter 13. Using Central Point Scheduler 225 



226 DOS User's Guide 



Chapter 14. Problem Determination 



This chapter explains how to solve problems you might have after you install DOS. 
It also answers some common questions about DOS. 

Note: If you are having problems, be sure to view the text file README.TXT that 
came with DOS. 

Using Memory 

How can I get DOS to run in the High Memory Area? 

If your computer has extended memory, the Setup program will configure your 
system so that DOS runs in the high memory area (HMA), which is the first 64K of 
extended memory. This conserves conventional memory for use by other 
programs. 

You can confirm that DOS is running in the HMA by using the MEM command. If 
DOS is in the HMA, you see the following on the last line of the message: 

IBM DOS resident in high memory area 

If your computer has extended memory and DOS is not running in the HMA, the 
problem is either that your CONFIG.SYS file does not contain the correct command, 
or your extended-memory manager is not correctly installed. HIMEM is the 
extended-memory manager provided with DOS. HIMEM (or another 
extended-memory manager) is required in order for DOS to use the HMA. 

To run DOS in the HMA: 

The CONFIG.SYS file must contain the statement DOS=HIGH,UMB or 
DOS=HIGH. 

The CONFIG.SYS file must contain a DEVICE command for the HIMEM 
memory manager (or another extended-memory manager), as in the following 
example: 

device=c : \dos\himem. sys 

The DEVICE command for HIMEM must appear before the DEVICE commands 
for other memory managers. 

The HIMEM. SYS file must be in the path specified by the DEVICE command in 
your CONFIG.SYS file. 

HIMEM must be properly installed on your computer. The computer must have 
at least 1 MB of memory and be a 286 computer or above. 



Copyright IBM Corp. 1981, 1993 



227 



Normally, the Setup program installs HIMEM and makes any necessary 
adjustments. There are a few hardware components that Setup cannot detect. 
View the README.TXT file for information about installing HIMEM with special 
hardware components. 

If you installed DOS on a hard disk, the README.TXT file is located in the 
directory containing your DOS files. 

If DOS does not run in the HMA, even though your CONFIG.SYS file contains the 
correct commands and HIMEM is properly installed, the memory configuration of 
your computer might not permit use of the HMA. 

What can I do when I receive a packed file corrupt message? 

DOS displays the message Packed file corrupt when a program cannot be 
successfully loaded into the first 64K of conventional memory. This is most likely to 
occur when you load device drivers into reserved memory, thereby freeing more low 
conventional memory. 

DOS provides the LOADFIX command. It ensures that a program is loaded above 
the first 64K of conventional memory. To use the LOADFIX command, include it at 
the beginning of the command that starts the program. The syntax of this 
command is: 

loadfix drive : \path\ filename 

For example, to ensure that a program file named MYAPP.EXE (in the C:\APPS 
directory) is loaded above 64K, you would type: 

loadfix c:\apps\myapp.exe 

What can I do when a program does not use XMS extended memory? 

Most programs that use extended memory conform to the Lotus7lntel7Microsofr 
/AST* (LIM) extended Memory Specification (XMS). To use such programs with 
DOS, you need an extended-memory manager, such as HIMEM. 

Some programs do not conform to the XMS. Such programs cannot use extended 
memory if this memory is managed according to the XMS. 



" Lotus is a trademark of the Lotus Corporation. 

" Intel is a trademark of the Intel Corporation. 

" Microsoft is a trademark of the Microsoft Corporation. 

** AST is a trademark of AST Research Incorporated. 

228 DOS User's Guide 



If you are using HIMEM, youxan allocate a portion of your extended memory to 
programs that use extended memory but do not conform to the XMS. This is done 
by including the /int15 switch with the DEVICE command for HIMEM. SYS. The 
value you specify for the /int15 switch should be the memory you want set aside, 
plus 64K. For example, to reserve 51 2K of non-XMS extended memory, you would 
include the following command in your CONFIG.SYS file: 

device=c : \dos\himem. sys /intl5=57 6 

Note: Some of the programs that do not conform to the XMS cannot run when 
DOS is in the high memory area. If you encounter problems with such a 
program, load DOS into conventional memory. 

What memory managers can I use with DOS? 

Most memory managers work with DOS. In general, you cannot simultaneously 
use two memory managers that provide access to the same memory. Similarly, 
you cannot use EMM386 to simulate expanded memory if you already have an 
expanded-memory manager installed. 

How can I increase the environment size of my system? 

The environment is an area of memory in which DOS stores variables such as 
PATH, COMSPEC, and PROMPT. These variables are called environment 
variables. The default environment size is 256 bytes. You can allocate more 
environment space by specifying the /e switch with the SHELL command. 

For example, if you added the following command to your CONFIG.SYS file, you 
would allocate 1024 bytes of environment space. 

she 1 1 =c : \ command. com /p /e:l 24 

If you are using more than one environment and you do not specify the /e switch for 
each, the size of the environments might vary. For information about environments, 
type help set at the DOS command prompt. 

How do I run device drivers and programs in the upper memory area? 

If you have a system with an 80386-based or higher processor and extended 
memory, you can make more conventional memory available by running certain 
device drivers and programs in the upper memory area. DOS provides RAMBoost, 
a memory optimizer program, that rearranges the existing items in your 



Chapter 14. Problem Determination 229 



CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT files for you when you run the RAMBoost 
Setup program. RAMBoost Setup rearranges your configuration and restarts the 
computer to load programs into upper memory. For information about using the 
upper memory area, see Chapter 10, "Making More Memory Available" on 
page 163. 

I'm getting an error message regarding the option ROM or RAM being 
detected within a page frame when. I restart my computer. What does it 
mean? 

If you see the message Option ROM or RAM detected within page frame, the 
EMM386.EXE memory manager is detecting a device in the address area where it 
is trying to locate a page frame. It has found another 64K contiguous space but is 
notifying you that its original try was not successful. No action need be taken if you 
do not mind the message. 

Another option is to include the area where the conflict is occurring. For example, 
on an AT BUS, EMM386.EXE detects a video adapter at the location C000. By 
including l=C000-CFFF on the EMM386 command line, this eliminates the warning 
message. 

My system hangs when I try to run RAMBoost Setup. Why? 

Your EMM386 statement in your CONFIG.SYS file probably has an INCLUDE 
statement specifying a particular segment address for the monochrome video 
display region or other regions of video RAM which conflicts with the segment 
addresses that RAMBoost Setup attempts to assign. When you run RAMBoost 
Setup, this program attempts to allocate any unneeded or unused segment 
addresses when it optimizes your system. 

If, for example, you have a color monitor, RAMBoost Setup will assign the 
monochrome display segment addresses because it assumes you will not be using 
these segment addresses if you have a color monitor. If, for example, you elect to 
use it as a monochrome display by altering the EMM386 INCLUDE statement, 
RAMBoost Setup attempts to change the segment address but cannot. 

I have EMM386.EXE loaded in my CONFIG.SYS, but I still do not have access 
to my upper memory blocks. Why? 

Besides using EMM386.EXE, you must have DOS=UMB or DOS=HIGH,UMB in the 
CONFIG.SYS. 



DOS User's Guide 



I'm getting an error message at the EMM386.EXE setup line in my 
CONFIG.SYS file. When the system is finished starting up I do not have 
access to the upper memory. What can I do? 

If you see the message Unable to set page frame base address, the memory 
manager, EMM386.EXE, is trying to locate a 64K EMS page address but it is 
already occupied by another device such as an Ethernet" or IBM Token Ring. With 
IBM PS/2* systems you can use the Reference Diskette to change the address of 
these devices. Generally speaking, they are easiest to move out of the way if they 
are placed at the very beginning or the very end of the allowed address ranges. 

Printing 

Why can't I print from the screen when I try to use the Print Screen key? 

If pressing Print Screen does not print an image of your screen, make sure you are 
running the Graphics program. This memory-resident program is necessary only for 
printing screens that contain graphics. 

To determine whether you are running Graphics, type mem /c at the DOS command 
prompt to view the names of the programs in memory. Check the "Name" column 
of the display for graphics. If it is present, the Graphics program is running. 

Note: The use of the Print Screen key is disabled by some network software. 

Using Commands 

I accidentally deleted a DOS file. Can I get it back? 

If you inadvertently delete a DOS file that you need, there are two ways to get the 
file back: 

Restore the file by using the UNDELETE command. 

The UNDELETE command can restore a deleted file. It is effective only if you 
haven't changed any of the information on your hard disk or diskette since 
deleting that file. If you move or change any files or directories, you might not 
be able to restore the deleted file. For information about the UNDELETE 
command, refer to Chapter 12, "Using Central Point Undelete" on page 187. 

Copy and expand the file from your installation diskettes 

If the UNDELETE command does not work, you can retrieve the file from your 
DOS installation diskettes. Most of the files on these diskettes are in 



** Ethernet is a trademark of Western Digital Corporation. 

* PS/2 and IBM Token Ring are trademarks of IBM Corporation. 



Chapter 14. Problem Determination 231 



compressed form. Compressed files contain an underscore (_) in their file 
name extension (for example DOSKEY.CO_). To retrieve a compressed file, 
use the EXPAND command. 

The following procedure explains how to retrieve a compressed file from an 
installation diskette. 

1 . Insert one of the DOS diskette in drive A or drive B. 

2. To find out the contents of the diskette, at the command prompt, type: 

dir a: 

3. Once you locate the missing file on one of the DOS diskettes, use the EXPAND 
command to expand and copy the compressed file from the installation diskette 
to your DOS directory. 

For example, to expand and copy the DOSKEY.CO_ file to the DOS directory 
on drive C, you would type: 

expand a:doskey.co_ c:\dos\doskey.com 

4. Follow the same procedure to find the EXPAND.EXE file. 

Note: EXPAND.EXE is not compressed. If you accidentally delete the 

EXPAND.EXE file (or any DOS file that is not compressed), you can 
recover it from the installation diskette by using the COPY command. 

5. Copy EXPAND.EXE from the appropriate installation diskette to your DOS 
directory. 

For more information about the UNDELETE, COPY, and EXPAND commands, type 
help followed by the command for a brief explanation and command syntax. 

How can I get the UNDELETE command to work? 

If you cannot recover a deleted file, it is probably too late to save the file by using 
the UNDELETE command. 

In general, the UNDELETE command works best under the following 
circumstances: 

If you use the UNDELETE command immediately after you delete a file. 
If you deleted only one file. 



DOS User's Guide 



If you use the DATAMON command, a memory-resident program that keeps 
track of certain changes you make to your hard disk or diskette. For more 
information about the DATAMON command, refer to "Central Point Data 
Monitor" on page 215. 

Warning: Never run a storage-compaction program (def rag mentation utility 
program) after deleting files you want to restore. The UNDELETE command cannot 
restore files that were deleted before you ran the storage-compaction program. 

Why can't I get the RESTORE command to work? 

There are several reasons the RESTORE command might not be able to restore 
files that were backed up by using the BACKUP command. 

You are trying to restore files to a different directory. 

The RESTORE command restores files only to the directory from which those 
files were backed up. For example, you cannot restore files backed up from 
C:\WORD to a directory named C:\OLDWORD. (However, you can change the 
drive letter. For example, you could restore files backed up from C:\WORD to 
the directory D:\WORD.) 

You are trying to restore a file to a different file name. 

The RESTORE command does not change the name of a file. For example, if 
you back up a file named REPORT.TXT, you cannot restore it to a file named 
MYREPORT.TXT. 

The RESTORE command is not compatible with the BACKUP command you 
used to back up the files. The RESTORE command supplied with this version 
of DOS can restore files that you backed up by using the BACKUP command 
from DOS Version 2.0 or later. If you backed up the files by using the 
BACKUP command from previous versions of DOS, you must use the 
RESTORE command to restore them. 

With DOS, use the optional tool Backup to back up files or directories for 
safekeeping. This tools includes compare and restore functions. Restore is 
designed to restore those files and directories on the same computer and with the 
same version of DOS. 

For more information about the Backup program and restoring files backed up by 
this program, see Chapter 18, "Using Central Point Backup" on page 301. 



Chapter 14. Problem Determination 233 



Why doesn't the DOS Editor run on my computer? 

If DOS displays the message Cannot find file e.exe when you try to run the DOS 
E Editor, make sure the E.EXE file is in your DOS directory. This file is required to 
run the DOS Editor. If E.EXE is not on your hard disk, copy it from the installation 
diskettes by using the EXPAND command. For more information about expanding 
and copying a file from your installation diskettes, see "I accidentally deleted a DOS 
file. Can I get it back?" earlier in this chapter. 

Using DOS Shell 

I changed the display type on my computer and now it doesn't work correctly 
with the DOSSHELL. What can I do? 

The easiest way to undo the modifications you have made is to reinstall DOS Shell 
as an optional tool using the DOS Setup /e switch to return DOS Shell to the 
original default settings. Using this switch allows you to install (or reinstall) the 
selections you make at the optional tools menu. You must reinstall DOS Shell to 
the same path where you initially installed DOS. 

Or, if you change the type of display you use, you can manually install files so that 
the display can work correctly with the DOS Shell. For example, if you were using 
an EGA display and change to a VGA display, you do not gain the benefits of the 
VGA display when running DOS Shell until you manually install the VGA files. 

DOS Shell supports seven types of displays. The files for each are on your DOS 
installation diskettes. To install these files, expand and replace your current DOS 
Shell display files. It is necessary to expand these files because they are in a 
compressed format on the installation diskettes. You expand the files by using the 
EXPAND command, which simultaneously expands and copies files. 

The following table shows the compressed files needed for each of the supported 
displays. 



* XGA is a trademark of IBM Corporation. 
234 DOS User's Guide 





Rom lirori filetQ 


MONO 


(bin VI fitp nprPQcaru\ MONO IN MONO RR 


PR A 


PPA VI PfiA IN PPA PR 


EGA 


EGA.VL, EGA.IN_, EGA.GR_ 


EGA MONO 


EGA.VL, EGA.IN_, EGAMONO.GR_ 


COLOR (VGA, Super VGA, 
XGA*, 8514, and other 
high-resolution displays) 


VGA.VL, VGA.IN_, VGA.GR_ 


MONO (VGA, Super VGA, 
XGA, 8514, and other 
high-resolution displays), 


VGA.VL, VGA.IN_, VGAMONO.GR_ 


Hercules 


HERC.VL, MONO.IN_, HERC.GR_ 



To install the DOS files for a different display, locate the files you need, copy the 
correct .Vl_ and .GR_ files, and then either create a DOSSHELL.INI file or modify 
your previous one. 

To find and copy the .VI and .GR_ files you need: 

1. Use the preceding table to determine which files you must install. 

2. Use the DIR command to view the directory of each diskette to determine which 
installation diskette contains the file or files that you need. 

3. Find the names of the files you need for your display and record the location of 
each file. Each file has an extension that ends with an underscored) to 
indicate it is a compressed file. 

4. Use the EXPAND command to expand and copy the appropriate .Vl_ and .GR_ 
files from the installation diskettes to the directory that contains your DOS files. 
Make sure you name the destination files with the .VID and .GRB extensions, 
respectively. 

For example, you would type the following to expand the VGA.VL file: 

expand vga.vi_ c:\dos\dosshell.vid 
You would type the following to expand the VGA.GR_ file: 

expand vga.gr_ c:\dos\dosshell.grb 

At this point, determine whether to replace your current DOSSHELL.INI file. If 
you choose to replace this file, you can immediately use any additional colors 
your new display provides. However, you lose any modifications you previously 
made to DOS Shell, such as program groups and program items. If you don't 



Chapter 14. Problem Determination 235 



want to lose these modifications, you must manually add the new color files to 
your existing DOSSHELL.INI file. 

To create a DOSSHELL.INI file with updated colors: 

Use the EXPAND command to replace your current DOSSHELL.INI file with the 
.IN_ file you need. Make sure you name the destination file DOSSHELL.INI. 

For example, you would type the following to expand the VGA. INI file: 

expand vga.in_ c:\dos\dosshell.ini 

To add updated colors to your current DOSSHELL.INI file: 

Note: Use the DOS E Editor to ensure data integrity of the DOSSHELL.INI file. 

For additional information on the DOS Editor, see Chapter 8, "Working with 
the Text Editor" on page 109. 

1. Use the EXPAND command to expand and copy the .IN_ file to your hard disk. 
For example, you would type the following to expand the VGA.IN_ file: 

expand vga.in_ c:\dos\vga.ini 

2. Compare your DOSSHELL.INI file with the .INI file you created. You might find 
it easier to compare these files if you print them. 

3. In the DOSSHELL.INI file, find the section that begins with the command 
COLOR =. 

This section contains available color schemes for your display. Each color 
scheme begins with the command SELECTION =. 

4. Add any new color schemes from the expanded .INI file to the COLOR = 
section of your current DOSSHELL.INI file. 

5. Add the values of three other commands from the new .INI file to your current 
DOSSHELL.INI file. 

These commands are located near the beginning of the files. Two of them, 
SCREENMODE = and RESOLUTION =, are in the SAVESTATE section of the 
file. The other command, CURRENTCOLOR =, is in the PROGRAMSTARTER 
section. 

The next time you start DOS Shell and use your new display, DOS Shell should 
have the correct default resolution. 



DOS User's Guide 



Can I start a TSR or my network connection from DOS Shell with task 
swapping enabled? 

Because DOS Shell is not a multitasking environment, you should load networks 
and TSRs before activating DOS Shell. 

I deleted a file from my system and I do not know how I did it. What 
happened? 

If you are using DOS Shell, be very careful with the powerful Select Across 
Directories option. When this option is enabled, if you select a file in one directory 
to delete (or change an attribute, or move), this file remains selected even if you 
change to a different directory. If you later chose to delete a file, ALL files that you 
have selected in every directory you have accessed are deleted. 

If you did not realize that you have this option enabled, you might delete files 
accidentally. To disable Select Across Directories, from the Options menu, click 
(or press the space bar) next to Select Across Directories. To verify that Select 
Across Directories is disabled, look at the Options menu again. The diamond to 
the left of Select Across Directories is gone. 

I have installed DOS and want to expand drive C: to be larger than 32MB. 
What steps do I need to take? 

This can be accomplished by backing up your system to diskettes, formatting the 
hard disk, repartitioning it, and then reformatting it. Then, you can reinstall DOS 
along with the other files. The following list outlines the steps to take: 

1. Back up your entire system using the Backup program. To start Backup, type: 

cpbackup 

and back up all the files on all your drives. If you need more information about 
backing up your files, refer to Chapter 18, "Using Central Point Backup" on 
page 301. 

2. Create a system diskette: 

format a: /s 

3. Copy the file FORMAT.COM to the diskette: 

copy c:\dos\format.com a: 

4. Copy the file FDISK.COM to the diskette: 

copy c:\dos\fdisk.com a: 

5. Restart from the diskette 



Chapter 14. Problem Determination 237 



6. Run FDISK, delete all partitions and remake the desired number of partitions. 
Refer to "Using FDISK" on page 61 for more information. 

7. Format C: and any other hard disk partitions. 

8. Install DOS again. 

9. Restore all files using the Central Point Backup program. Refer to "Restoring 
Data" on page 329. 

Miscellaneous Problems 

What should I do when the program or device driver reports the wrong 
version of DOS? 

Some programs or device drivers run only with specific versions of DOS. If a 
message appears indicating a program or device driver does not run with DOS, 
contact your vendor to get an updated program or to find out whether the current 
version of the program or device driver is actually compatible with DOS. 

If the current version of the program or device driver is compatible with DOS, use 
the SETVER command to change the version number that DOS reports to the 
program or device driver. When you use SETVER, the program or device driver 
interprets DOS as the version it is designed to use. For example, if a program 
named MYAPP.EXE runs only with DOS 3.3 or earlier, you would type: 

setver myapp.exe 3.3 

DOS reports the changed version number to the program when you restart your 
computer. If the program is compatible with DOS, the SETVER command 
eliminates the apparent incompatibility. 

There must be a DEVICE command for the SETVER.EXE device driver in your 
CONFIG.SYS file in order for the SETVER command to report a different version to 
a program. Also, make sure there is only one SETVER.EXE on your hard disk, 
because each SETVER.EXE contains a separate version table. 

For more information about the SETVER command, type help setver for a brief 
explanation and command syntax. 

Warning: Contact your software vendor for information about whether a program 
works with DOS. It is possible that IBM has not verified whether the program will 
run successfully if you use the SETVER command to change the program version 
number and version table. If you run the program after changing the version table 
in DOS, you might lose or corrupt data, or introduce system instabilities. If you do 
not contact your software vendor to determine the compatibility of a specific 
program with DOS, IBM is not responsible for any loss or damage. 



238 DOS User's Guide 



Chapter 15. Customizing for international Use 



DOS Setup allows the option of either accepting the default values or making 
selections that change the country-related settings, keyboard, and the display font 
(or character set). 

This chapter gives examples of how to modify these settings on your system 
without reinstalling DOS. For country-related settings, you can change: 

The country-specific conventions for displaying dates, times, currency, character 
sort order, and file name characters. You do this by using the COUNTRY 
command. 

The characters and arrangement of your keyboard to fit the standard keyboard 
of another country. You do this by using the KEYB command. 

The character set (code page) so that you can type and display characters from 
other languages. You do this by using the MODE command. 

This chapter also gives you information on how to change the display fonts to an 
ISO font. ISO is the International Organization for Standardization, researching the 
ergonomic requirements for working with Video Display Terminals (VDTs). ISO 
fonts can improve the readability of characters displayed on certain VGA or better 
hardware. 



Country Settings, Keyboards, and Code Pages 

To change the national language and the country-related settings you selected 
during Setup, you need to follow the examples in this chapter to modify the 
commands that were added to your CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT files. 



For more information about: 


See: 


Changing country-specific conventions 


"Switching Country Setting" on page 242. 


Changing the keyboard arrangement 


"Modifying the Keyboard Arrangement" on 




page 242. 


Changing the character set 


"Changing Code Pages" on page 243. 



The examples show how to change your country settings. Depending on which 
country settings you change, you might need to specify a new country code, 



Copyright IBM Corp. 1981, 1993 



239 



keyboard code, code page number, or keyboard identification number. Refer to the 
following table for the values you can specify: 



Country or language 


Keyboard 


Code 


Keyboard 


Country 




code 


page 


identification 


code 


Albanian 


al 


852, 


850 


448 


355 


Australia 


us 


437, 


850 




061 


Belgium 


be 


850, 


437 




032 


Bosnia/Herzegovina 


yu 


852, 


850 


234 


387 


Brazil 


br 


850, 


437 




055 


Bulgaria 


bg 


855, 


850 


442, 241 


035 


Canadian-French 


cf 


850, 


863 




002 


Croatia 


yu 


852, 


850 


234 


384 


Czech 


cz 


852, 


850 


243 


042 


Denmark 


dk 


850 






045 


Finland 


su 


850, 


437 




358 


France 


fr 


850, 


437 


120, 189 


033 


Germany 


gr 


850, 


437 




049 


Greece 


gk 


869, 


850 




030 


Hungary 


hu 




OOU 


208 


036 


Iceland 


ic 


850, 


861 




354 


International English 


- 


437, 


850 




061 


Italy 


it 


850, 


437 


141, 142 


039 


Japan 


JP 


437, 


932 




081 


Latin America 


la 


850, 


437 




003 


FYR Macedonia 


yc 


855, 


852 


118 


389 


(Cyrillic) 












Netherlands 


nl 


850, 


437 




031 


Norway 


no 


850 






047 


Poland 


Pi 


852, 


850 


214 


048 


Portugal 


po 


850, 


860 




351 


Romania 


ro 


852, 


850 


446 


040 


Russian 


ru 


866 




441, 443, 341 


007 



(Russian DOS only) 



240 DOS User's Guide 



Country or language 


Keyboard 
code 


Code 
page 


Keyboard 
identification 


Country 
code 


Serbia/Montenegro 
(Cyrillic) 


yc 


855, 852 


118 


381 


Slovakia 


si 


852, 850 


245 


042 


Slovenia 


yu 


852, 850 


234 


386 


Spain 


sp 


850, 437 




034 


Sweden 


sv 


850, 437 




046 


Switzerland (French) 


sf 


850, 437 




041 


Switzerland (German) 


sg 


850, 437 




041 


Turkey 


tr 


857, 850 


440, 179 


090 


United Kingdom 


uk 


850, 437 


166, 168 


044 


United States 


us 


437, 850 




001 


Yugoslavia 


yu 


852, 850 


234 


038 



Note: The keyboard and code page for Thailand is not provided with DOS but 
available separately. 

The following key combinations are needed to switch between keyboard layers: 

For the Bulgarian keyboard, use LEFT ALT+RIGHT SHIFT to access the 
Bulgarian layer and LEFT ALT+LEFT SHIFT to access the Latin layer. 

The following keyboard illustrates the Latin keyboard layer on the Bulgarian 
(442) keyboard. 




For Russian keyboards, use LEFT ALT+LEFT SHIFT to access the Russian layer 
and RIGHT ALT+RIGHT SHIFT to access the Latin layer. 

For Greek keyboards, use LEFT ALT+LEFT SHIFT to access the Greek layer and 
LEFT ALT+RIGHT SHIFT to access the the Latin layer. 



Chapter 15. Customizing for International Use 241 



For Cyrillic keyboards, use LEFT alt+left SHIFT to access the Cyrillic layer 
and LEFT ALT+RIGHT SHIFT to access the Latin layer. 

Switching Country Setting 

When you change languages, you might need to change the country settings on 
your computer. The country settings specify the following: 

The date and time display 

The symbol used for currency 

The sort order used when alphabetizing files 

The characters used in file names and directory names 

To change the DOS country-specific conventions, a COUNTRY command must be 
in your CONFIG.SYS file. Using this command loads the conventions for each 
country from a file (COUNTRY.SYS) included with DOS. When you change 
conventions, DOS uses the information in the COUNTRY.SYS file rather than the 
United States conventions. You can use the COUNTRY command regardless of 
whether you have loaded any code pages. By default, DOS uses United States 
conventions for the country settings. 

When you use a COUNTRY command, you must include a three-digit country code 
(refer to the previous table) to specify which conventions you want to use. For 
example, the country code for Spain is 034. Usually, the country code is the same 
as the international long-distance telephone code. 

Modifying the Keyboard Arrangement 

To find out what keyboard layout you currently have, type: 

keyb 

When you specify a different keyboard arrangement, you can switch physical 
keyboards and use a keyboard specific to a particular country, or change which 
characters you type using your current keyboard. 

To change the keyboard arrangement, use the KEYB command. You can specify 
this command from your AUTOEXEC.BAT file or from the DOS command prompt. 
You can use the KEYB command regardless of whether you have changed any 
other country-specific settings. The KEYB program works with IBM PC/XT, IBM 
PC/AT, IBM PS/2*, and IBM PC*-compatible keyboards. 



* PC/XT, PC/AT, PS/2, and IBM PC are trademarks of IBM Corporation. 
242 DOS User's Guide 



You can specify any keyboard with the KEYB command. However, if the active 
code page is for a language other than the keyboard you specify, some of the 
characters on the keyboard might not be available. 

Suppose you want to use an Italian keyboard. Assume also that your active code 
page is 850, which is the default code page for Italy. 

If your KEYBOARD. SYS file is in the path specified in your AUTOEXEC.BAT 
file, you would type the following command in your AUTOEXEC.BAT file or at 
the DOS command prompt: 

keyb it 

where it is the two-letter keyboard code identifier that specifies the Italian 
keyboard. 

If your KEYBOARD. SYS file is in another directory (for example, C:\INTL 
directory), you would type the following command: 

keyb it c : \intl\ key board. sys 

This form of the command must include two commas between the keyboard 
code and the path for KEYBOARD. SYS. 

Note: You can also change keyboard layouts from your CONFIG.SYS file if your 
default code page is the same as the code page that came with your 
system. 

If you change keyboards, you can return temporarily to your default keyboard 
configuration by pressing CTRL+ALT+F1. To switch to a typewriter mode (the 
standard for some countries), press CTRL+ALT+F7. 

Changing Code Pages 

This section describes how to change character sets (code pages) so that you can 
type and display characters from other languages. 

DOS can use up to 256 different characters when displaying, printing, and working 
with text. The exact set of characters used at one time is known as the code page. 
DOS provides these character sets or code pages for countries, languages, and 
regions. 

By default, DOS uses the code page that comes with your system. This code page 
is called the hardware code page. Your system has a hardware code page for your 
keyboard and your screen. DOS uses the character set in the hardware code page 
unless you specify otherwise. 

If you need only the characters contained in your hardware code page, you do not 
have to install additional code pages. If you want to use characters that are not 

Chapter 15. Customizing for International Use 243 



contained in your hardware code page, you must use a prepared code page. A 
prepared code page is an alternate set of 256 characters stored in code-page 
information (.CPI) files. By including several commands in your CONFIG.SYS and 
AUTOEXEC.BAT files, you can instruct DOS to use a prepared code page instead 
of the hardware code page. 

Note: Monochrome and CGA monitors and many printers cannot use prepared 

code pages. See the documentation for your hardware device to determine 
whether prepared code pages are supported before you attempt any 
changes. 

DOS has ten prepared code pages that you can use in addition to (or instead of) 
the hardware code page built into your system. Each prepared code page has the 
same set of standard ASCII characters — that is, the first 128 characters of each set 
are the same. However, each code page has a different set of national language 
characters, known as national language support (NLS). 

Before you use a code page, you must load it into memory. You can load more 
than one code page into memory, but only one code page can be active at a time. 
If you do not install a prepared code page, DOS uses your hardware code page. If 
you install one or more prepared code pages, you can switch between hardware 
code pages and any of the prepared code pages. 

For each of the countries supported by DOS, you can switch between two prepared 
code pages: a default code page and an alternate code page. If you want to 
change the code page, you must use one of the two code-page numbers that are 
valid for the new country settings. For example, if you want to specify a code page 
for Iceland's country settings, you must use either the default code page 850 or the 
alternate code page 861 . 



244 DOS User's Guide 



The ten DOS-prepared code pages include: 



Kli imhoc 
MUlTlDcr 


Type 


uescnpiion 


437 


United States 


Contains characters for English and most other European 
languages 


OOKJ 


iviuiininguai ^i_aiin \) 


OOiUalilS OllaraOicro TOl ITIUSI OT ulc laiigUagco, Uolliy 11 lc 

Latin alphabet that DOS supports 


852 


Multilingual (Latin II) 


Contains characters for East European languages, using 
the Latin alphabet that DOS supports 


855 


Multilingual (Cyrillic) 


Contains Cyrillic characters 


857 


Turkish 


Contains characters for Turkish 


860 


Portuguese 


Contains characters for English and Portuguese 


861 


Icelandic 


Contains characters for Icelandic 


863 


Canadian-French 


Contains characters for English and Canadian-French 


866 


Russian 


Contains characters for Russian 
(Russian DOS only) 


869 


Greek 


Contains characters for Greek 



Screen Preparation for Code Pages 

DOS comes with an installable device driver called DISPLAY.SYS that enables you 
to use prepared code pages with an EGA or VGA monitor. Monochrome and CGA 
monitors can use only their own hardware code page (usually 437). 

Following are two examples of using prepared code pages — one example is using 
one prepared code page (850) and the other example is using two prepared code 
pages (850 and 863). The two examples are placed side-by-side so you can note 
the differences and identify the changes you would need to make in the 
AUTOEXEC.BAT and CONFIG.SYS files, depending on whether you are using one 
or two prepared code pages. 

If the language you want to use requires one or two prepared code pages, you 
must add at least two commands to your CONFIG.SYS file and add two or more 
commands to your AUTOEXEC.BAT file. 

Suppose your current code page defaults to 850 and your hardware code page is 
437. However, you want to use a Belgian keyboard and an EGA monitor. Also 
suppose the DOS files you need are in the C:\DOS directory. To change to Belgian 
conventions (032) and install the display driver (EGA) that enables you to switch 
between code pages, and use the CHOP command to make the 863 code page 
active, use the following commands: 



Chapter 15. Customizing for International Use 245 



Using one prepared code page 



Using two prepared code pages 



Place in your CONFIG.SYS file: Place in your CONFIG.SYS file: 

country^ 32 , , c : \dos\country . sys country^ 32 , , c : \dos\country . sys 

device=c : \dos\display . sys con- ( ega , 437 , 1 ) device=c : \dos\display . sys con= (ega, 437 , 2 ) 

Place in your AUTOEXEC.BAT file: Place in your AUTOEXEC.BAT file: 

nlsfunc nlsfunc 

mode con cp prep= ( ( 85 ) c : \dos\ega . cpi ) mode con cp prep= (( 85863 ) c : \dos\ega . cpi ) 
keyb be, , c : \dos \ keyboard . sys keyb be, , c : \dos\ keyboard . sys 

chcp 863 chcp 863 

In the CONFIG.SYS file: 

The COUNTRY command sets the Belgian conventions for date, time, currency, 
character sort order, and file name characters. 

The DEVICE command installs DISPLAY.SYS, indicates that you have an EGA 
monitor with a 437 hardware code page and reserves space for one (or two) 
prepared code pages. 

In your AUTOEXEC.BAT file: 

You include the NLSFUNC command so you can switch between code pages 
for all devices at the same time. You can include the following NLSFUNC 
command in the CONFIG.SYS file rather than in the AUTOEXEC.BAT file: 

install=c : \dos\nlsfunc . exe 

You include the commands to prepare and select code page 850 if using one 
prepared code page (or code pages 850 and 863 if using two prepared code 
pages). The MODE command loads code page 850 (or 850 and 863) from the 
EGA.CPI file. The EGA.CPI file is used for loading code pages 437, 850, 852, 
855, 860, 863, and 866. EGAX.CPI is used for loading code pages 850, 857, 
861 and 869. 

The KEYB command changes the arrangement of the keyboard to match a 
Belgian keyboard. 

The CHCP command makes code page 863 active. While you are working, 
you can switch back to code page 850 by typing the following CHCP command 
at the DOS command prompt: 

chcp 85 

Make sure you restart your computer by pressing CTRL+ALT+DEL after making 
changes to your CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT files. 



246 DOS User's Guide 



Commands Used to Change International Settings 

To summarize, the following commands are used to change international settings, 
such as country codes, keyboard layouts, and character sets (code pages). 



DISPLAY.SYS 



KEYB 



Loads the DISPLAY.SYS device driver by specifying a DEVICE command 
in your CONFIG.SYS file. The device driver prepares DOS to display code 
pages on your monitor. This device driver lets you display international 
character sets on EGA, VGA, and LCD monitors. This device driver must 
be loaded by a DEVICE or DEVICEHIGH command in your CONFIG.SYS 
file. 

File: CONFIG.SYS 

Example: Assume your DISPLAY.SYS file is in the \DOS directory on 
drive C, you want to load a VGA monitor, the hardware code 
page is 437 and you want to use two prepared code pages. 

device=c : \dos\ display . sys con= ( vga ,437,2) 

Starts the KEYB program which configures a keyboard for a specific 
language. The DOS default is United States English. If you configure for 
a keyboard other than United States English, you can use the United 
States keyboard temporarily by pressing CTRL+ALT+F1 . 



File: 

Example: 



or 

File: 

Example: 



AUTOEXEC.BAT 

Assume your KEYB. SYS file is in the \DOS directory on drive 
C, you want to use an Italian keyboard, and your active code 
page is 850, which is the default code page for Italy. 

keyb it , , c : \dos\keyboard. sys 



CONFIG.SYS 

Make the same assumptions as above. 

install=c : \dos\keyb . com it , , c : \dos\keyboard . sys 



Your default codepage must be the same as the codepage that came with 
your system if you want to place this command in your CONFIG.SYS file. 



Chapter 15. Customizing for International Use 247 



NLSFUNC Starts the Nlsfunc program, a memory-resident program, which loads 
country-specific information for national language support (NLS). NILS 
supports the use of country-specific information and character set (code 
page) switching. 

File: AUTOEXEC.BAT 

Example: nlsfunc 

or 

File: CONFIG.SYS 

Example: Assume your NLSFUNC.EXE file is in the \DOS directory on 
drive C. 

install=c : \dos\nlsf unc . exe 

Note: Do not use this command while in Windows. 

MODE Configures system devices, such as preparing devices for code page 

switching. Also loads the code page information (.CPI) file by specifying 
the MODE CON CODEPAGE PREPARE statement. 

File: AUTOEXEC.BAT 

Example: Assume your MODE.COM file is in the \DOS directory on drive 
C, you have an EGA monitor with a 437 hardware code page, 
and you are using two prepared code pages. 

mode con codepage prepare=((85 863) c:\dos\ega.cpi) 
mode con codepage select=85 

CHCP Displays the number of the active code page. Use this command to 

change the active character set for all devices that support character set 
switching. The Nlsfunc program must be installed before you can use this 
command. 

File: AUTOEXEC.BAT 

Example: Assume you want the active code page to be 850. 

chcp 85 



ISO Fonts 



On certain hardware, changing to ISO fonts improves the readability of the 
characters displayed. You can use ISO fonts by selecting ISO fonts during DOS 
Setup or by switching to the ISO.CPI file provided with DOS. 

To meet ISO 9241 Part 3 and DIN 66234 compliance you need: 

To have system hardware that meets ISO 9241 requirements. 
To install code page switching software. 
To set your display to 80x25 text mode. 



248 DOS User's Guide 



For more information about ISO compliance for your computer hardware, refer to 
the manufacturer of your computer system. 



ISO.CPI contains the following code page fonts that comply with ISO: 



857 



855 



437 
850 



852 



United States 
Multilingual (Latin 
I) 

Multilingual (Latin 
II) 

Multilingual 

(Cyrillic) 

Turkish 



869 



866 



863 



860 
861 



Russian (Russian 
DOS only) 
Greek 



Canadian-French 



Portuguese 
Icelandic 



Use of ISO fonts requires 12.1K of conventional memory when DOS is running low 
(DOS=LOW). If you are running DOS in the High Memory Area (DOS=HIGH), they 
require 8.1 K of conventional memory. If the statement device=display . sys is in 
the CONFIG.SYS and the EGA parameter is specified, no change is required. This 
statement uses the CON=(EGA,,1) parameter, which requires 17.6K of conventional 
memory when DOS is running LOW. 

If you selected ISO fonts during DOS Setup, you would see a statement similar to 
the following in your AUTOEXEC.BAT file: 

mode con codepage prepare= ( ( 437 ) c:\dos\iso.cpi) 
mode con codepage select=437 

where 437 can be replaced with any number from the "code page" column of the 
table on page 240. 

To use non-ISO fonts, you must modify the AUTOEXEC.BAT file and change 
ISO.CPI to EGA.CPI or EGAX.CPI as follows: 

mode con codepage prepare= ( ( 437 ) c:\dos\ega.cpi) 



mode con codepage prepare= ( (437 ) c:\dos\egax.cpi) 

Note: The EGA.CPI file is used with code pages 437, 850, 852, 855, 860 and 863. 
EGAX.CPI is used with code pages 857, 861 and 869. 



or 



Chapter 1 5. Customizing for International Use 249 



250 DOS User's Guide 



Part 2. Using the DOS Optional Tools 



Chapter 16. Using DOS Shell 253 

Chapter 17. Using IBM AntiVirus/DOS 279 

Chapter 18. Using Central Point Backup 301 

Chapter 19. Using IBM PenDOS 355 

Chapter 20. Using Phoenix PCMCIA Support 375 



Copyright IBM Corp. 1981, 1993 251 



252 DOS User's Guide 



Chapter 16. Using DOS Shell 

Through the use of color and graphics, DOS Shell offers a visual way of working 
with DOS. Information is set up in different areas on your screen, making it easy to 
find. For example, when you first run DOS Shell, the following information is 
displayed on your screen: 

The disk drives available on your system 

The directory structure or tree for the current disk drive 

A list of files in the current directory 

A list of programs that you can run 

You can use DOS Shell to perform many of the same file-management and 
disk-maintenance tasks that you perform from the command line. For example, you 
can use the commands on the File menu to create directories, copy files, and view 
the contents of a file. You can use the Disk Utilities group to perform 
disk-maintenance tasks, such as formatting and copying disks. You can also use 
DOS Shell to organize and start programs, and to switch between them. 

Because DOS Shell is easy to use and has a complete online help facility available, 
you will find the information you need to use this product described in Everyday 
DOS for PC DOS 6. This book is available by separate purchase. Refer to the 
coupons included with this book for more information about ordering. 

This chapter provides you with installation instructions if you elected not to install 
DOS Shell at the initial installation of DOS, gives instructions on how to start and 
leave DOS Shell, and provides information about Help. 



Installing DOS Shell After Installing DOS 

If you did not choose to use DOS Shell for file-management and disk-maintenance 
tasks at initial setup, you can still install DOS Shell using DOS Setup with the /e 
switch. 

The DOS Setup diskettes contain everything you need to install DOS Shell. You 
might want to refer to Appendix A, "Installing DOS" on page 391 before you begin 
the installation of additional optional tools. 



Copyright IBM Corp. 1981, 1993 



253 



During Setup, DOS checks whether your computer has Windows 3.1 installed. If 
you do not have Windows 3.1 installed and want to use the optional tools provided 
with DOS for Windows, you should make sure you install in this order: 

1. Install DOS as you normally would, selecting the optional tools you want from 
the list provided. You will not see any of the optional tools for Windows listed if 
you do not have Windows 3.1 installed already. 

2. After you have installed DOS, install Windows 3.1 as you normally would. 

3. Install DOS again using the DOS Setup /e switch after DOS and Windows have 
both been installed. 

To install DOS Shell using the /e switch: 

1 . Insert diskette 1 of the DOS Setup diskettes into drive A or B. 

2. At the DOS command prompt, type: 

a: setup /e 

or 

b: setup /e 

The /e switch allows you to return to the optional tools selection menu without 
having to do a complete reinstallation of DOS. Only the necessary files for the 
optional tools will be installed. 

3. After Setup for DOS begins, follow the instructions displayed on the screen. 
Make sure you specify the same "Install to PATH" as you did when you did the 
initial DOS installation. 

At the Optional Tools screen, you should see yes next to DOS Shell. There is 
no need to press the UP ARROW to highlight DOS Shell as you do with other 
optional tools because the default is to install DOS Shell. 

4. Select other optional tools you want to install by highlighting the name of each 
optional tool and pressing ENTER to select each item. 

5. After you select the optional tools you want to install, move the cursor to 
highlight the following: 

The listed options are correct. 

6. Press ENTER to accept the optional tool selections. 

7. Continue to follow the instructions on the screen until you have completed the 
installation of the optional tools. 



254 DOS User's Guide 



Starting DOS Shell 

DOS Shell is automatically set up to run whenever you start your system, and DOS 
Shell will appear on your screen when you start DOS. If the command prompt 
appears instead, you can start DOS Shell from there. 

Warning: If you start a terminate-and-stay-resident (TSR) program before starting 
DOS Shell, do not quit the TSR program by using its exit procedure while you are 
still in DOS Shell. Instead, you must first leave DOS Shell and then quit the TSR 
program. 

To start DOS Shell from the command prompt: 

1. Type 

dosshell 

2. Then press ENTER. 

The DOS Shell window is displayed. 

Menu Bar Area 
Drive Icon Area 

File Manager 
Showing these areas: 

■ File List 

. Directory Tree 



Program Manager 
Showing this area: 

■ Program List 

Function Key Area 




Disk Utilities Group 



Chapter 16. Using DOS Shell 255 



Selecting Items from Lists or Menus 

There are three ways to select items from lists or to select menu choices: 

Using a mouse 

Using a keyboard 

Using mnemonic selection 

You can use mnemonic selection with DOS Shell. Make a selection by typing the 
single character displayed in a different color or different shade on the menu bar or 
list of menu items. This single character is known as a mnemonic character. To 
access the menu bar, you must press ALT followed by the underscored letter in the 
menu choice. For example, to access the File menu, you would press ALT+F to get 
the list of menu items. 



Starting a Program 

Programs can be started from the Main group of DOS Shell by double clicking on 
the program name or by using the TAB key to move the cursor to the Main group 
and then using the DOWN ARROW or UP ARROW until the program name is 
highlighted. Then press ENTER. 

There are four ways to start a program: 

From a program group, choose a program item. 

For example, Disk Utilities and Main are two program groups available with 
DOS Shell. For example, from the Main group you could start Central Point 
Scheduler by selecting the program by highlighting it and then pressing ENTER 
if you are using the keyboard, or double clicking on the item if you are using a 
mouse. 

Note: You must have installed Central Point Backup during DOS installation to 
have this program listed in the Main group. 

From a file list, choose a program file or a file associated with that program. 

From the list of files in a specific directory, you can start the program by 
selecting any file with an extension of .BAT, .EXE, or .COM. For example, to 
start the E Editor, select the program by highlighting the E.EXE file and then 
pressing ENTER if you are using the keyboard, or clicking on the item if you are 
using a mouse. 



256 DOS User's Guide 



From the File menu, select Run. Type the name of the program file in the Run 
dialog box, and then select OK. 

For example, type ibmavd to start the IBM AntiVirus/DOS program. 

From the Main group, select Command Prompt and type the name of the 
program at the DOS command prompt. 

Note: Do not type dosshell to return to DOS Shell because the program is 
already running. To return to DOS Shell, you must type exit and then 
press ENTER. 

Getting Help 

Online Help provides a quick way to get information about DOS Shell basics and 
how to use menus, commands, dialog boxes, dialog box options, and procedures. 

You can get help in three ways: 
By pressing F1 . 

By selecting the Help button that appears in most dialog boxes. 
By using the Help menu. 

To request help on a menu: 

1 . Press ALT. 

2. Select the menu you want help on by using the RIGHT ARROW or LEFT ARROW 
key and press ENTER. 

3. Press F1 . 

A Help window containing information about the selected menu appears. 
To request help on a command: 

Mouse 1 . Select the menu that contains the command you want help on. and 

press ENTER. 

2. Select the command you want Help on by using the DOWN ARROW or 
UP ARROW key and press ENTER. 

3. Press F1. 

A Help window containing information about the selected command 
appears. 



Chapter 16. Using DOS Shell 257 



Keyboard 1 . Press ALT to select the menu bar. 

2. Select the menu that contains the command you want help on by 
using the right arrow and LEFT ARROW keys. 

3. Select the command you want Help on by using the DOWN ARROW or 
UP ARROW key and press ENTER. 

4. Press F1. 

To request help on a dialog box option: 

1 . Open the dialog box you want help on. 

2. Select a command button or option using the TAB key or the arrow keys. 

3. Press F1 . 

For example, if you have selected Search For in the Search File dialog box 
and you press F1 , DOS Shell displays the following Help window: 



IBM DOS Shell Help 
Search For Box 




Getting Help on a Related Procedure 

Often Help refers you to a related procedure. For example, if you requested Help 
on the Color Scheme dialog box, this Help contains a reference to the procedure for 
changing colors. 

Within Help, related procedures are displayed in a different color or in reverse 
video, depending on the color scheme you have selected. 



258 DOS User's Guide 



To view a related procedure: 



Mouse 



Double-click the related procedure. 

A Help window containing information about the related procedure 
appears. 



Keyboard 



1 . Press TAB until the related procedure is selected. 

2. Press ENTER. 

A Help window containing information about the related procedure 
appears. 



Using the Help Menu 

You can use the commands on the Help menu to view an index of Help topics; 
information on the keys you can use with DOS Shell; basic skills for working with 
DOS Shell commands and procedures; and information about using the Help 
system. 

To use the Help menu: 



Mouse 



From the Help menu, choose the Help category you want. 

Either information about the subject or a list of topics related to the 
subject appears. 



Keyboard 



1 . Press ALT, H. 

2. Press the highlighted letter for the Help category you want. 

Or press the UP ARROW or DOWN ARROW key to select the Help 
category you want, and then press ENTER. 

Either information about the subject or a list of topics related to the 
subject appears. 



Note: If you have not used Help before, select Using Help from the Help menu to 
learn more about the type of information available. 



Chapter 16. Using DOS Shell 259 



Help Menu Options 

The following items are available from the Help menu: 



Index 

Keyboard 

DOS Shell Basics 

Commands 



Procedures 

Using Help 
About Shell 



Provides a list of all DOS Shell Help topics. 

Lists keys and key combinations you can use with DOS Shell. 

Provides an introduction to using DOS Shell. 

Explains all DOS Shell commands. This information is organized 
according to the menu in which the command appears. You can 
get the same information by selecting a command and then 
pressing F1. 

Provides step-by-step instructions for performing tasks in DOS 
Shell. 

Provides an introduction to using DOS Shell Help. 
Displays copyright and version information about DOS Shell. 



If you selected Shell Basics from the Help menu, the following help window 
demonstrates the type of information you would see: 



IBM DOS Shel 1 Help 




IBM DOS Shell Basics 






n 


Ue Icons to IBM DOS Shell 




Menus and Commands 




| D ia log Boxes | ^ 




File List and Program List 




File List Oueruiew 




Program List Ooeruieu 


■ 


Hoy to Leave IBM DOS Shell 


1 


msmm mmm rn^rm mmm 


n 



Leaving DOS Shell 

You can leave DOS Shell and move to the command prompt in two ways. You can 
quit DOS Shell temporarily, in which case you can work at the command prompt 
while DOS Shell is still in your system's memory. Or you can quit DOS Shell and 
remove it from your system's memory before you switch to the command prompt. 



260 DOS User's Guide 



To leave DOS Shell temporarily: 

Press SHIFT+F9. 
or 

Select Command Prompt from the Main group on the program list. 

To return to DOS Shell, you must type exit and then press ENTER. 

Note: Do not type do s she 11 to return to DOS Shell because the program is 
already running. 

If Task Swapper is enabled, you can switch back to DOS Shell without quitting 
Command Prompt by pressing CTRL+ESC. Note that Command Prompt is still 
running and listed in the Active Task List. 

If you made changes to a directory such as adding or deleting files, the changes 
will not be displayed in the file-list area until you update the directory. 

To update a directory: 

1 . Select the directory that you want to update. 

2. Press CTRL+F5. 

To quit DOS Shell: 

1 . If there are programs displayed in the Active Task List, you must quit each 
program before leaving DOS Shell. 

2. From the File menu, select Exit, which is equal to pressing ALT+F4 as noted on 
the File menu next to Exit. 

or 

Press F3. 

If you try to quit DOS Shell while you still have programs listed in the Active 
Task List, the Exiting Error dialog box appears. The dialog box tells you that 
you cannot quit DOS Shell without first quitting all programs that you have 
running. 

3. Select OK to close the dialog box. 



Customizing DOS Shell 

Before you begin customizing DOS Shell, make sure that DOS Shell is installed on 
your computer and that you know how to use it. If you have never used DOS Shell 
before, you might find it helpful to study the EveryDay DOS manual before 
customizing. 



Chapter 16. Using DOS Shell 261 



You can customize DOS Shell in several ways. You can change the screen colors 
or change the way information is displayed in the DOS Shell window. You can also 
organize your programs into groups and display the groups graphically, making it 
easier to find and use your programs. When you add a program item to a group, 
you can further customize the program by creating your own Help text, controlling 
the memory needed to run the program, and defining application shortcut keys. 

Changing Screen Colors 

There are several color schemes available for DOS Shell. 

To choose a color scheme: 

1. From the Options menu, select Colors. 
The Color Scheme pop-up window appears. 



Color Scheme 



Current Scheme: Honochrome-4 Colors 



Basic Blue 
Ocean 



flonochrome-Z Colors 



Monoclirone-4 Colors 



Preuieu Cancel 



To select the scheme you want, click on the scroll arrows until the color 
scheme you want comes into view and then click on that color scheme. Or use 
the UP ARROW or DOWN ARROW key to select the color scheme you want. 

If you want to see what the selected color scheme looks like on your screen, 
select Preview. 



4. Select OK to implement the color scheme. 



Switching between Text and Graphics Mode 

The appearance of DOS Shell on your screen depends on what type of display 
adapter you have and the screen mode you are using. A display adapter 
determines the screen display's capabilities, such as resolution and screen mode. 
The screen mode controls the size and shape of the images that appear on your 
screen. 



262 DOS User's Guide 



There are two types of screen modes: text and graphics. All display adapters 
support text mode, which is the mode DOS Shell uses the first time you start it. 
Only some display adapters support graphics mode. 

Within text or graphics mode, you usually have a choice of how many lines you 
want displayed. For example, if you choose to view 50 lines instead of 25 lines (the 
default), you see more information on your screen at once, but the words and 
symbols appear smaller. 

To change the screen mode: 

1 . From the Options menu, select Display. 

The Screen Display Mode pop-up window appears. 

2. Select the screen mode you want. 

3. If you want to see what the selected screen mode looks like on your screen, 
select Preview. 

4. Select OK to implement the screen mode. 

DOS Shell appears in the screen mode you selected. 



Organizing Programs 

You can organize programs into program groups to suit your needs. When you 
create a program group, you give it a title, which appears in the program list. In the 
default view, Program/File Lists, the program list appears in the lower-left corner of 
DOS Shell window. To work with a group, you choose its title. 

Adding and Deleting Groups 

You can add groups to the Main group, the Disk Utilities group, or a group you 
have created. For example, you might use three programs to keep track of your 
finances — one to maintain your checkbook, one to estimate taxes, and one to track 
your monthly bills. You might add a group named Accounts and put these account 
programs into it. 

When you create a group, you must give it a title. You can also give it a password 
that a user must know to view the group, and a Help message that provides 
information on the group and its program items. 

To add a group: 

1. Make sure you have selected Program/File Lists on the View menu. 

2. Press TAB to move to the program-list area of your screen. Or click anywhere 
inside the program-list area. 



Chapter 16. Using DOS Shell 263 



3. If the group to which you want to add the new group is not open, open it by 
double-clicking the group name. Or use the UP ARROW or DOWN ARROW key 
to select the group and then press ENTER. 

4. From the File menu, select New. 

The New Program Object pop-up window appears. 

5. Select Program Group. 

6. Select OK. 

The Add Group pop-up window appears. 





S Add Group 5 




Requ ired 






Title . . . 


t 


........] 






Optional 






Help Text 


I 


1 






Password 


I 


1 






f)K 




B8 Help ffwjl 



7. In the Title field, type a title for the new group. 

8. If you want the group to have a Help message, type up to 255 characters 
(including blanks) in the Help Text field. 

For example, you might type a Help message that reads, "Use the programs in 
this group to perform statistical operations." When you select this group and 
press F1 , DOS Shell displays the message. The message appears exactly as 
you have typed it and is formatted to fit in the Help pop-up window. If you want 
a line break to appear in the text, type (a caret followed by the letter M) at 
the point where you want the new line to start. 

9. If you want the group to have a password, type the password in the Password 
field. 

10. Select OK. 

To delete a group: 

1 . Select the group you want to delete. 

2. From the File menu, select Delete. 
or 

Press DEL. 

The Delete Item pop-up window appears. 



264 DOS User's Guide 



3. Select OK. 

When you delete a group, DOS Shell removes the group name from the program 
list and deletes the group's password and Help message. 

Changing the Contents of a Group 

You can change the contents of a group by adding program items, copying program 
items from another group, reordering items, and deleting items. 

Adding a Program Item 

When you add a program item to a group, you give it a title and specify the 
command that starts the program. In addition to assigning titles and startup 
commands, you can associate a variety of other information with a program item. 
For more information, see "Working with Properties" on page 268. 

To add a program item to a group: 

1 . Make sure you have selected Program/File Lists on the View menu. 

2. Press TAB to move to the program-list area of your screen. Or click anywhere 
in the program-list area. 

3. If the group to which you want to add the new item is not open, open it by 
double-clicking the group name. Or, use the UP ARROW or DOWN ARROW key 
to select the group and then press ENTER. 

4. From the File menu, select New. 

The New Program Object pop-up window appears, with New Program Item 
already selected. 

5. Select OK. 

The Add Program pop-up window appears. 





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6. In the Program Title field, type the program-item title that you want to appear 
in the program list. 



Chapter 16. Using DOS Shell 265 



7. In the Commands field, type the startup command, the command that starts 
the program. If the command is not in the current directory or in a directory 
specified by the PATH environment variable, or if it is not an internal command, 
you must include the complete path of the file in the command. 

You can include more than one command in this field. For more information 
about startup commands, see "Specifying a Startup Command" on page 269. 

8. Specify optional information you want to associate with the program item. You 
can specify the following: 

A startup directory, which DOS Shell changes to before starting the 
program. 

An application shortcut key, which (after you have started a program) you 
can use to switch to the program from other programs or from DOS Shell. 

Pause after exit, which prompts you to press any key to return to DOS 
Shell after the program has finished running. 

A password, which will be required before starting the program item. 

For more information about these options, see "Working with Properties" on 
page 268. 

9. If you want to specify other options, select Advanced. 
The Advanced pop-up window appears. 

For information about the options in the Advanced pop-up window, see 
"Specifying Advanced Properties" on page 275. 

10. Select OK. If you select Advanced, you return to the Add Program pop-up 
window when you select OK. You must then select OK in that field, also. 

Copying a Program Item to Another Group 

To copy a program item to another group, you select Copy For example, if you 
have an spreadsheet program item in your Account group, you can also put it in 
your Tax group. You can copy a program item to as many groups as you like. 

To copy a program item from one group to another: 

1. Select the program item you want to copy. 

2. From the File menu, select Copy. Instructions appear in the status bar. 

3. Open the group you want to copy the program item to. 

If the group you are copying to has a password, the Password pop-up window 
appears. 

4. Type the password, and select OK. 



266 DOS User's Guide 



5. Press F2. 

Reordering Items in a Group 

To move a program item or group title from one position in a group to another, use 
the REORDER command. 

To reposition a program item or group title: 

1 . Select the program item or group title you want to reposition. 

2. From the File menu, select Reorder. Instructions appear in the status bar. 

3. Double-click on the new location. 

Or move the selection cursor to the new location, and then press ENTER. 
The selected program item or group title moves to the new location. 

Deleting a Program Item from a Group 

You can delete a program item that you no longer need. Deleting a program item 
from a group does not delete the program file from the directory that contains it. 

To delete a program item from a group: 

1 . Select the program item you want to delete. 

2. From the File menu, select Delete. 
OA- 
Press DEL. 

The Delete Item pop-up window appears. If the program item has a password 
associated with it, you will see a warning message, but you can still delete the 
program item. 





Delete Iten 









1. Delete this iten. 



2. Do not delete this iten. 



3. Select OK. 



Chapter 16. Using DOS Shell 267 



Working with Properties 

A property is a piece of information that you associate with a program item. You 
can specify numerous properties for each program item. 

The following two properties are required: 

Program-item title 
Startup command 

These properties are optional: 

Startup directory 
Application shortcut key 
Pause after exit 
Password 

Additional advanced properties 

For information about creating program items, see "Adding a Program Item" on 
page 265. 

After you create a program item, you can change its properties by using the 
PROPERTIES command. 

To change the properties of a program item: 

1. Select the program item. 

2. From the File menu, select Properties. 

If the program item has a password, the Password pop-up window appears. 
Type the password, and select OK. 

The Program Item Properties pop-up window appears. The Program Title field 
and the Commands field show the properties that have been specified for the 
program item you selected, along with any optional properties. 



Program Item Properties 



Progran Title .... UliMlIIKM j 

Commands [EDIT v.i 

Startup Directory . . [ 

Application Shortcut Key I 



t ] Pause after exit Passuord . . [ 



1 


OK 


oi 


Cancel 


mm 


Help 




flduanced. . . 


1 





268 DOS User's Guide 



The Program Item Properties pop-up window is the same as the Add Program 
pop-up window, which is displayed when you create a program item. 

3. Type the information for the properties you want to change. 

4. Select OK. 

Specifying a Startup Command 

When you create a program item, you must type a startup command in the 
Commands field of the Add Program pop-up window. If the command is not in the 
current directory or in a directory specified by the PATH environment variable, or if 
it is not an internal command, you must include the complete path of the program 
file. For example, if you are creating a program item named WordPerfect and the 
path for WordPerfect is C:\WP\WP.EXE, you would type that path in the 
Commands field. 

You can also specify additional commands, run batch programs, and include 
replaceable parameters for the program. The following sections describe how to 
include these options. 

Specifying Additional Commands 

DOS Shell carries out each command in the order it appears in the Commands 
field. Each command must be separated by a semicolon (;). There must be one or 
more spaces on each side of the semicolon. Text in the Commands field cannot 
exceed 255 characters. 

For example, suppose you want to put an abbreviated list of the files in a directory 
into a text file, load the file into your text editor, edit the file, save it under a different 
name, and delete the original file when you are finished. If you are using the E 
Editor, your startup command might look like this: 

dir /b > tmp.txt ; c:\dos\e.exe tmp.txt ; del tmp.txt 

In this example, DOS Shell first stores the names of files in the current directory in 
a file named TMP.TXT. Then it runs the E Editor, loading the TMP.TXT file. When 
you quit the E Editor, the TMP.TXT file is deleted, and you return to DOS Shell. 

Running Batch Programs in a Startup Command 

You can run batch programs by including CALL commands in the startup command. 
For example, suppose you want to run a batch program named PREP. BAT before 
you start WordPerfect, and one called POST. BAT after you quit WordPerfect. You 
would type the following in the Commands field: 

call prep ; wp ; call post 



Chapter 16. Using DOS Shell 269 



For information about batch programs, see Chapter 5, "Working with Batch 
Programs" on page 75. 

Using Replaceable Parameters 

A parameter is additional information you give a program when you start it. For 
example, when you start E Editor from DOS Shell, the File to Edit pop-up window 
appears. You can specify a filename in the Text field. If you type recipes.txt, for 
example, E Editor loads the file RECIPES.TXT as soon as it starts. 

Many programs accept parameters in this manner. If the program item you add to a 
program group accepts parameters, you can include these parameters in the 
Commands field. 

If you want to be able to specify a different parameter whenever you run the 
program item, you can put a replaceable parameter in the Commands field. Each 
time you select the program item, DOS Shell displays a pop-up window that 
prompts you to fill in the value for the replaceable parameter before the program 
starts. 

In the Commands field, you indicate a replaceable parameter with the percent sign 
(%) followed by a numeral (1 through 9). For example, if you want DOS Shell to 
prompt you for a filename when you start WordPerfect, you might type the following 
in the Commands field: 

c : \wp\wp . exe %1 

The %1 in this example indicates that you want DOS Shell to prompt you to type a 
value in place of %1 every time you select the program item for WordPerfect. DOS 
Shell will prompt you by displaying a prompt pop-up window. 

To include a replaceable parameter in a startup command: 

1. Select the program item. 

2. From the File menu, select Properties 

If the program item has a password, the Password pop-up window appears. 
Type the password and select OK. 

The Program Item Properties pop-up window appears. 

3. In the Commands field, specify the command and indicate the replaceable 
parameters by typing a percent sign (%) followed by a numeral (1 through 9) for 
each. 

4. Select OK. 



270 DOS User's Guide 



A Program Item Properties or Add Program pop-up window appears for each 
replaceable parameter you have specified. 



Program I ten Properties 



Fill in information for v. 1 prompt dialog. 

Uindou Title . . . . [ 1 

Program Information . [Enter the name of the file to edil 

Prompt nessage . . . [File to edit? 1 

Default Parameters . . [ ] 

El EB HI 



5. The information you type in this pop-up window will create a customized pop-up 
window for the program item that you are adding or changing. Type the 
information that you want to appear in the pop-up window. Each time you select 
the program item, DOS Shell will display the information you have typed. 

The Window Title you supply will appear at the top of the pop-up window. The 
Program Information you supply will appear under the title. You can type up to 
106 characters in the Program Information field. The Prompt Message you 
specify will appear to the left of the field where you specify the parameter value. 

If you specify a value in the Default Parameters field, the value will appear in 
the prompt pop-up window. You can accept the default parameter or change it. 
Specify a default parameter value if you plan to use that value frequently when 
you run the program. For example, if you are working on a project that often 
requires you to use a particular document, you might type that document's 
name as the default parameter for a text editor. 

There are two special parameters that you can use in the Default Parameters 
field to automatically set a default parameter. The %f parameter sets the 
default filename to the filename currently selected in the file list. The %l 
parameter (a percent sign followed by the letter L) sets the default parameter to 
the parameter that was specified the last time the program item was run. 

If you want DOS Shell to prompt you for a file to load when you start a text 
editor, you can specify values such as the following in the Program Item 
Properties pop-up window: 



Chapter 16. Using DOS Shell 271 



WMMBMma nm 

Fill in infornation for X 1 prompt dialog. 

Uindou Title .... [IBM DOS EDITOR ] 

Program Information . (Enter the name of the file to edil 

Prompt flessage . . . [File to edit? ] 

Default Parameters . . [ 1 



1 


Cancel 


■ 


Help 


1 





Each time you select the program item, DOS Shell will prompt you with a prompt 
pop-up window. 

Using the Same Replaceable Parameter More Than Once: You can use the 

same replaceable parameter more than once in a Commands field. For example, 
suppose you create files by using WordPerfect, and you store them in C:\EDIT\WP. 
Suppose that as you create these files, you always back them up on a disk in drive 
A. To load a file into WordPerfect and then back up the file (onto a disk in drive A) 
after you have edited it, you would type the following in the Commands field: 

c:\edit\wp\wp.exe %1 ; copy %1 a: 

Using More Than One Replaceable Parameter: You can include up to nine 
different replaceable parameters in the Commands field. For example, suppose 
you want DOS Shell to prompt you for a file to load with WordPerfect and for a 
backup directory to copy the file to when you finish editing. You would include two 
different replaceable parameters in the Commands field, as in the following 
example: 

c:\wp\wp.exe %1 ; copy %1 %2 

If you add this command in the Commands field, you will be prompted to provide 
the name of the file you want to edit in addition to the directory to which you want 
to copy the file. Then you can edit your WordPerfect document. 

For each replaceable parameter, DOS Shell prompts you for information to appear 
in the prompt pop-up window, as described previously. 

Specifying a Startup Directory 

You can specify which directory you want DOS to change to before it starts a 
program that is in a program group. For example, if you keep budget spreadsheets 
in a directory named C:\FILES, you need to make sure DOS Shell changes to that 
directory before starting your spreadsheet program. 



272 DOS User's Guide 



To specify a startup directory: 

1 . Select the program item whose properties you want to change. 

2. From the File menu, select Properties. 

The Program Item Properties pop-up window appears. 

3. In the Startup Directory field, type the drive and path of the directory you want 
DOS Shell to change to before it starts the program, as in the following 
example: 



Proyrrtn I ten Properties 



Progran Title .... [ IliliBillMttlfBn 

Connamls [EDIT vl 

Startup Directory . . [ 

Application Shortcut Key [ 

[ 1 Pause after exit Passuord . . [ 



1 


OK 


JK 


Cancel 


1 





Specifying an Application Shortcut Key 

If you have started a program but are not currently working with it, you can use a 
key combination to switch quickly to it from another program or from DOS Shell. 
The shortcut key must have the form CTRL+character, SH\FT+character, or 
ALT+character, where character is a letter, number, or function key on your 
keyboard. (Exceptions are noted later in this section.) You can use any combination 
of the CTRL, SHIFT, and ALT keys with the character. 

To specify an application shortcut key: 

1 . Select the program item you want. 

2. From the File menu, select Properties 

The Program Item Properties pop-up window appears. 

3. In the Application Shortcut Key field, specify the key combination by pressing 
and holding down CTRL, SHIFT, or ALT, and then pressing a character. 

For example, suppose you have a program item named My Editor in the Main 
group and that you have enabled Task Swapper. You could assign CTRL+E as the 
shortcut key for My Editor. If My Editor is on the Active Task List, you can press 
CTRL+E to switch back to it from another program or from DOS Shell. 



Chapter 16. Using DOS Shell 273 



The name of the shortcut key will appear next to the program-item title in the Active 
Task List. For information about Task Swapper and the Active Task List, refer to 
the Everyday DOS for PC DOS 6 manual. 



The following key combinations are reserved and are not available as application 
shortcut keys: 



Specifying Whether to Pause After a Program Ends 

You can specify whether DOS Shell should pause after you quit a program that is in 
a program group. By default, DOS Shell prompts you to press a key to return to 
DOS Shell after you quit such a program. 

To eliminate the pause after you quit a program: 

1 . Select the program item you want. 

2. From the File menu, select Properties 

The Program Item Properties pop-up window appears. 

3. Clear the Pause After Exit option by clicking the X. 
or 

Press TAB until you select the option, and press the SPACEBAR to clear it. 

4. Select OK. 

Specifying a Password 

If you want DOS Shell to prompt you for a password before it starts a program item, 
you can specify the password in the Program Item Properties pop-up window. 

To specify a password for a program item: 

1 . Select the program item. 

2. From the File menu, select Properties 

The Program Item Properties pop-up window appears. 

3. In the Password field, type the password you want. 

4. Select OK. 



CTRL+M 

CTRL+I 

CTRL+H 

CTRL+C 

CTRL+[ 



SHIFT+CTRL+M 

SHIFT+CTRL+I 

SHIFT+CTRL+H 

SHIFT+CTRL+C 

SHIFT+CTRL+[ 



CTRL+5 (on the keypad) 



SHIFT+CTRL+5 (on the keypad) 



274 DOS User's Guide 



Specifying Advanced Properties 

When you select Advanced in the Add Program or Program Item Properties pop-up 
window, another pop-up window appears in which you can specify additional 
properties. The Advanced pop-up window looks like this: 



Aduanced 



Help Text [ 1 

Conventional Memory KB Required t ] 

XHS Henory KB Required [ ] KB Limit [ 1 

Uideo Hode (•) Text Reserue Shortcut Keys f. ] ALT+TAB 
( ) Graphics ( ] ALT+ESC 

[ 1 Preuent Program Switch ( ] CTRL+ESC 



OK II Cancel ■ I Help 



Adding Help Text 

You can add a Help message of up to 255 characters to any program item. This 
Help message is displayed if you press F1 when the program item is selected. DOS 
Shell displays the message exactly as you have typed it and formats it to fit in a 
Help pop-up window. If you want to begin a new line of text, type A m (a caret 
followed by the letter M) at the point where you want the new line to start. 

If you do not want the program item to have a Help message, leave the Help Text 
field blank. 

Specifying Conventional Memory 

Use the Conventional Memory KB Required field to specify how many kilobytes of 
conventional memory must be free in order to start a program. This property is 
useful for programs with specific memory requirements. 

Regardless of what you type in the Conventional Memory KB Required field, 
when you start a program, DOS Shell gives it all available conventional memory. 
The number you type in this field determines how much memory must be available 
before DOS Shell starts the program; it does not limit how much conventional 
memory the program receives. 

If DOS Shell cannot provide as much memory as you specify, a message appears, 
telling you there is not enough memory to run the program. 

If Task Swapper is not enabled, DOS Shell ignores any conventional-memory 
specification. 



Chapter 16. Using DOS Shell 275 



Specifying Extended Memory 

Use the XMS Memory options to specify how much extended memory to give to a 
program that uses memory according to the Lotus/Intel/Microsoft/AST Extended 
Memory Specification (XMS) standard. If Task Swapper is not enabled, the XMS 
memory specifications are ignored. 

A description of each XMS Memory option follows. Before using these options, you 
must have extended memory set up on your system. For more information, see the 
discussion about extended memory in Chapter 10, "Making More Memory 
Available" on page 1 63. 

KB Required Specifies how many kilobytes of extended memory must be free in 
order to run a program. 

Leave this setting blank for most programs. Specifying a value significantly 
increases the time it takes to switch to and from a program. Specify a value only if 
a program requires a certain amount of extended memory in order to run. 

If you run a program that requires extended memory, and DOS Shell cannot 
provide as much memory as you specify, a message appears when you try to start 
the program, telling you there is not enough memory. However, if Task Swapper is 
not enabled, the memory specification is ignored. 

KB Limit Specifies the maximum amount (in kilobytes) of extended memory 
that DOS Shell can give to a program. 

This option is useful for limiting a program's access to extended memory because 
some programs take all available extended memory whether they need it or not. If 
Task Swapper is not enabled, the KB Limit specification is ignored. 

Leave this setting blank to prevent a program from gaining access to any extended 
memory. 

Setting this option to -1 gives the program all the extended memory it requests (up 
to the maximum amount available). Set this option to -1 only if the program 
requires large amounts of extended memory. 

Using Video Mode 

Video Mode has two options: text and graphics. Use text mode unless you are 
having trouble switching to a program. 

Usually the memory reserved by text mode is enough, but you might need more 
memory if you are using a CGA monitor. Graphics mode requires more memory 
than text mode. Use text mode for all program items if you have a high-resolution 
graphics (VGA or EGA) monitor or a monochrome monitor. 



DOS User's Guide 



Reserving Shortcut Keys 

Use the Reserve Shortcut Keys option when you want a program to use shortcut 
keys typically used by Task Swapper (ALT+TAB, ALT+ESC, and CTRL+ESC). For 
information about Task Swapper, refer to the Everyday DOS for PC DOS 6 manual. 
If you want to reserve a shortcut key for a program, select it in the Reserved 
Shortcut Keys area of the Advanced pop-up window. 

For example, suppose you have a text editor that typically uses the ALT+TAB 
shortcut key to insert a special character. If you want to maintain that function while 
your text editor is running under DOS Shell, you need to select the shortcut key for 
the program. When you select this key, it is no longer reserved for DOS Shell. 

Preventing Program Switching 

If you want to prevent a program from switching to another program or to DOS 
Shell, select the Prevent Program Switch option from the Advanced pop-up window. 
If you select this option, you must quit the program to return to DOS Shell. 

Changing Group Properties 

A program group must have a title associated with it. It can also have Help text and 
a password. You can change any of these properties for all groups except the Main 
group. 

To change group properties: 

1 . Select the appropriate group. 

2. From the File menu, select Properties 

If the group has a password, the Password pop-up window appears. Type the 
password and select OK. 

The Program Group Properties pop-up window appears. 

■JU.IJlAI,.>riJ.IIIMJJ.»IJJll s L-« 



Requ i red 
Title . . 

Optional 
Help Text 
Password 



t£S3 j 

t i 
t j 



3. Change the title, Help text, or password. 

4. Select OK. 



Chapter 16. Using DOS Shell 277 



278 DOS User's Guide 



Chapter 17. Using IBM AntiVirus/DOS 

IBM AntiVirus/DOS (Antivirus) is a comprehensive antivirus product for DOS and 
Windows systems. It is designed to detect and remove viruses from your system. 

This chapter will help you understand viruses. It explains how to protect your 
computer data from viruses and describes how to install and use Antivirus. 

Antivirus offers two kinds of automated protection. When you install Antivirus, 
Automated check and Shield DOS are installed. If you want to turn off these 
features, refer to "Customizing Antivirus" on page 288. 

Automated check checks your fixed disks for viruses whenever you start your 
system. When Automated check detects a virus, you are given the opportunity to 
do a thorough examination of your system to find every instance of the virus and to 
remove it. 

Shield DOS checks DOS memory for viruses when you start DOS and monitors 
programs as you run them. If Shield DOS detects a virus when you start DOS, you 
will be notified, and the virus will be disabled. If a virus is detected when you are 
running a program, you will be notified and the virus will be prevented from 
becoming active or spreading. You then can use the infected program without 
spreading the virus. 

Note: After a virus has been detected, it is very important to run Antivirus to check 
your entire system for viruses as soon as possible. 

Some common viruses destroy programs so it is not possible to disinfect them 
reliably. Such programs, including Antivirus, do not function correctly and must be 
reinstalled when they become corrupted. Keeping the DOS shield installed at all 
times helps prevent this from happening. 



Installing IBM AntiVirus/DOS After Installing DOS 

If you did not choose antivirus protection at initial installation, you can still install 
IBM AntiVirus/DOS by rerunning DOS Setup using the /e switch. 

The DOS Setup diskettes contain everything you need to install Antivirus. You 
might want to refer to Appendix A, "Installing DOS" on page 391 before you begin. 

During Setup, DOS checks whether your computer has Windows 3.1 installed. If 
you do not have Windows 3.1 installed and want to use the optional tools provided 
with DOS for Windows, you should make sure you install in this order: 



Copyright IBM Corp. 1981, 1993 



279 



1 . Install DOS as you normally would, selecting the optional tools you want from 
the list provided. You will not see any of the optional tools for Windows listed if 
you do not have Windows 3.1 installed already. 

2. After you have installed DOS, install Windows 3.1 as you normally would. 

3. Install DOS again using the DOS Setup /e switch after DOS and Windows have 
both been installed. 

To install IBM AntiVirus/DOS using the Setup /e switch: 

1. Insert diskette 1 of the DOS Setup diskettes into drive A or B. 

2. At the DOS command prompt, type: 

a: setup /e 

or 

b: setup /e 

The /e switch allows you to return to the optional tools selection menu without 
having to do a complete reinstallation. At this point, only the necessary files for 
the optional tools for Windows will be installed. 

3. After Setup for DOS begins, follow the instructions displayed on the screen. 
Make sure you specify the same "Install to PATH" as you did when you did the 
initial DOS installation. 

At the Optional Tools screen, you see a no next to IBM AntiVirus/DOS and IBM 
AntiVirus/DOS for Windows. 

4. Press the UP ARROW or DOWN ARROW until you highlight IBM AntiVirus/DOS. 

5. Press ENTER. 

You now see yes next to IBM AntiVirus/DOS. 

6. Select other optional tools you want to install at this time, such as IBM 
AntiVirus/DOS for Windows, by highlighting the name of each optional tool and 
pressing ENTER for each item. 

If you are using IBM Boot Manager to start various operating systems, have 
IBM AntiVirus/DOS on each of the DOS and Windows partitions. For DOS, 
Boot Manager does not allow one bootable partition to access another. 

7. Move the cursor to highlight the following: 

The listed options are correct. 

8. Continue to follow the instructions displayed on the screen until the optional 
tools are installed. 



280 DOS User's Guide 



Starting IBM AntiVirus/DOS 



Antivirus has been designed to protect your system automatically. You also can 
use it to check your system for viruses whenever you want. In addition, Antivirus 
provides the following features: 

Antivirus Defaults: The defaults for the DOS Setup program have been 
constructed to provide the best protection for your system. DOS is set up to run a 
virus check on the first boot of the week on any new or changed program files. 
Shield DOS is installed whenever you start (boot) DOS. 

Stand-alone Antivirus Program: Antivirus also includes a stand-alone program. 
The stand-alone program can be used from a diskette when you cannot access the 
usual Antivirus program or start your system due to virus problems on your system. 
The stand-alone program can be started from a .BAT file or any command prompt 
after starting your system from a write-protected, virus-free diskette. See "Running 
the Antivirus Stand-Alone Program" on page 295 for more information on the 
stand-alone program. 

Dual Boot Systems: With Dual Boot systems, you can start either DOS or OS/2 
from the same partition. If you want protection under both operating systems, you 
must have the Antivirus program installed during DOS Setup and you must 
purchase the IBM AntiVirus/2 program separately for use with OS/2. Select 
Contacts from the Help menu for more information about ordering updates for IBM 
Antivirus. 

You can start Antivirus by: 

Selecting IBM AntiVirus/DOS from the program area of DOS Shell. 
Typing a command at the DOS command prompt. 

To start the DOS version of Antivirus: 

1 . Type the following at the DOS command prompt: 

ibmavd 

You see the main IBM AntiVirus/DOS window. 



Chapter 17. Using IBM AntiVirus/DOS 281 



Menu Line Push Button 




Function Keys 



2. To begin a check for viruses, click on the box in the center of the window 
where you see Push here or type p. This box remains permanently placed in 
the center of the main IBM AntiVirus/DOS window. 

You can use mnemonic selection with IBM AntiVirus/DOS. Make a selection by 
typing the single character displayed in a different color or shade on the push 
button. This single character is known as a mnemonic character. 

To access the menu bar, you can either: 

Make a selection using a mouse. 
Press F10 and then press ENTER. 

Press ALT followed by the letter shown in a different color on the list of menu 
choices. For example, to access the Check menu, you would press ALT+C. 



282 DOS User's Guide 



To check your system 
for viruses 




=Help =Keys help =Exit -Menu 

The first time you check your system, it will take longer to check for viruses 
because Antivirus is building a database that remembers what your files look like. 
On subsequent checks for viruses, Antivirus does not have to rebuild this database 
again; so the time needed to run checks is shortened. 

To start the Windows version of Antivirus: 

You can start IBM AntiVirus/DOS for use within Windows by double-clicking on the 
Antivirus icon located in the IBM Tools program group. 

You then see the main window for IBM AntiVirus/DOS for Windows. 



Protecting Your Computer Data against Viruses 

A computer virus is a program that can "infect" other programs by modifying them 
to include a (possibly "evolved") copy of itself. 

Viruses can spread themselves, without the knowledge or permission of the 
workstation users, to potentially large numbers of programs on many machines. 
Viruses can also contain instructions that cause damage or annoyance; the 
combination of possibly-damaging code with the ability to spread is what makes 
viruses a considerable concern. 

Viruses are not mysterious. They are just computer programs and only do things 
that programs can do. However, unlike most other programs, they are specifically 
designed to spread themselves. 



Chapter 17. Using IBM AntiVirus/DOS 283 



Viruses can often spread without any readily visible symptoms. When a virus is 
started on a workstation, it can run any instructions that its author chooses to 
include. These instructions can be event-driven effects (for example, triggered after 
a specific number of executions), time-driven effects (triggered on a specific date, 
such as Friday the 13th or April 1st) or can occur at random. 

Depending on the motives of the virus author, a virus can contain no intentionally 
harmful or disruptive instructions. Or, it can cause damage simply by replicating 
itself and taking up scarce resources, such as hard disk space, CPU time, or 
network connections. 

IBM AntiVirus/DOS has been carefully designed to help you reduce the risk of a 
virus infecting your computer. Antivirus examines your system for characteristics of 
specific viruses or classes of viruses. When it detects something with one of these 
characteristics, it warns you and tries to clean (remove) the virus. 

No program can entirely eliminate the risk of viruses, but there are a few simple 
things you can do to make sure the risk is reduced: 

Use Antivirus' Automated checking and Shield DOS features to detect viruses 
sooner than you would without these features. Use Antivirus to check diskettes 
for viruses before starting or running programs from these diskettes. 

Keep Antivirus up to date. As new viruses are discovered, Antivirus will be 
updated to deal with them. Select Contacts from the Help menu for more 
information about ordering updates for IBM Antivirus. 

Keep good backups and update them periodically. In some cases, the only 
way to clean up a system that has become infected with a virus is to restore it 
using virus-free backup copies. Check your system using Antivirus just before 
you do a backup to help prevent backing up infected files. If you do not 
currently have a good backup of your system, make one immediately after you 
install DOS. 

Keep your diskettes write protected whenever possible. Write protecting your 
diskettes keeps them from becoming infected. Most viruses travel from one 
computer to another on diskettes. Diskettes become infected when they are 
used in an infected system and have not been write protected. 

If possible, prevent executable files on LAN file servers from being modified by 
client computers. Preventing modifications keeps an infected client computer 
from infecting the LAN file server and keeps the infection from spreading to 
other client PCs. The DOS "read-only" attribute does not prevent virus 
infection. 

Your LAN administrator knows how to use the server's operating system to 
protect the server files. 



DOS User's Guide 



Checking for Viruses 

You can choose to check for viruses by either: 

Checking your system 
Checking diskettes 

Checking Your System 

Normally, Automated check verifies whether your system has any viruses when 
your computer is restarted. However, you can check your system whenever you 
want. 

To check your system: 

1 . Select Push here on the main Antivirus window. 

Antivirus checks boot sectors (including Boot Manager boot sectors) and files 
on your system for known viruses and for changes that might indicate the 
presence of an unknown virus. Network drives (on LAN servers) and local 
drives also can be checked. 

2. If a virus is detected, a thorough examination of your system will be done to 
find every instance of the virus, and you will be given the opportunity to remove 
it. 

Checking Diskettes 

It is a good idea to check diskettes for viruses before starting (booting) from them 
or before running programs from them. 

To check a diskette: 

1. From the Check menu, select Check diskettes 

The following illustration shows the Check diskettes pop-up window. 



Chapter 17. Using IBM AntiVirus/DOS 285 




3 



( . ) Program files 
( ) All files 



Execute 




Boot sectors and files on diskettes in the selected diskette drive are checked for 
viruses. 

2. Select Execute after all selections have been made. 

3. When a virus is detected, you are given the opportunity to remove it from the 
diskette. 

Checking Compressed Files 

Many people use compression software to store individual program and data files. 
This software reduces the amount of disk space required to store a file and reduces 
the amount of time required to transmit it via modem. Some programs are 
distributed in compressed form and decompressed automatically before they are 
run. Because compression changes the contents of the file, it also inhibits scanning 
software from examining the byte patterns within the original, decompressed file to 
see if they match any known viruses. 

IBM AntiVirus/DOS determines if individual compressed files have changed 
suspiciously but will not usually be able to search them properly for known viruses. 
To search them properly, decompress the files before you check your system. 

IBM AntiVirus/DOS will properly check disks that have been compressed with disk 
compression software, such as Stac*"s Stacker" program, as long as the disk 
compression software is currently active. 



** Stac and Stacker are trademarks of Stac Corporation. 
286 DOS User's Guide 



Shield DOS detects and deactivates any of the viruses it knows about if you run an 
infected program — no matter what compression technique is used to store the 
program file. 

Reviewing Logs 

Antivirus logs its activities so you can review them later. These logs contain 
information about when your system was checked, what files were checked, and 
whether any viruses were detected. 




To check your system 
for viruses 




The log from your current session of Antivirus is stored in the file CURRENT.LOG. 
The log from your previous session is stored in PREVIOUS.LOG. A cumulative log 
that briefly summarizes the results of any automated checks is stored in CUM. LOG. 
All these log files are stored in the \DOS directory. These files can be printed 
directly to your printer. 

An entry is added to the cumulative log each time Antivirus does an automated 
check. It does not record checks you do manually. You can edit or erase this 
cumulative log file if it grows too large. 



Chapter 17. Using IBM AntiVirus/DOS 287 



Customizing Antivirus 

You can customize the automated checking, the DOS shield, diskette checking, and 
system checking features of IBM AntiVirus/DOS. 

The default settings for Antivirus have been designed to do the right thing for most 
systems. Use the default settings unless you have a specific reason for preferring 
another setting. 

Customizing Automated Protection 
To customize Automated check: 

1 . From the Setup menu, select Automated check. 



neck etup Log rip 



IBM AntiVirus/DOS 



( ) Every boot 

( ) Daily (first boot) 

( ) Monthly (first boot) 

( ) Never 



S 




=Help =Keyshelp =Exit 

2. Specify Automated check to be done either periodically or whenever you start 
your system. Then select Save settings. 

3. Select Check options on the Automated check pop-up window to specify which 
drives to check, what kinds of files to check, and whether to check only new or 
changed files or to even check unchanged files. Then select Save settings. 



288 DOS User's Guide 



heck etup >,og dp 



IBM AntiVirus/DOS 



( ) All files 



[ X ] Fixed drives 
[ ] Network drives 



] Advanced options selection 



( . ) Program files 
( ) All files 



Execute 





=Help =Keys help :=Exit 

For Automated check to work, set it for any option except the Never option. 

Select Help from the Automated check pop-up window for more information on 
specific options, such as Advanced options. 

To customize Shield DOS: 

1. From the Setup menu, select Shield DOS. 



IBM AntiVirus/DOS 



heck letup log elp 



[ X ] Install shield 

[ X J Check high memory 

mmmmm 



=Help =Keys help =Exit 



=Menu 



2. Check (or uncheck) the Install shield check box on the Shield DOS pop-up 
window and then select OK. 



Chapter 17. Using IBM AntiVirus/DOS 289 



If you check Install shield, the shielding program wil! be loaded whenever DOS 
is started in the future and the DOS memory space is checked for resident 
viruses. Subsequently, the shielding program monitors for indications of activity 
from common DOS viruses. If viral activity is found, you will see a warning. 
The virus is not allowed to become active or to spread. 

or 

If you do not want to install Shield DOS, uncheck the check box on the Shield 
DOS pop-up window to prevent shielding from being installed when you run 
DOS. 

3. Check (or uncheck) the Check high memory option and then select OK. 

Normally, IBM AntiVirus/DOS checks high memory (memory above the 640K 
DOS limit) for resident viruses. This check might cause problems on some 
systems, especially where hardware adapters are sensitive to having their 
memory space read. Refer to "Problems with Shield DOS" on page 299 for 
more information. 

For more information on customizing Shield DOS, select Help from the Shield DOS 
pop-up window. 

Customizing Diskette Checking 

To customize the way diskette checking is done: 

1. From the Check menu, select Check diskettes. 

The Check diskettes pop-up window lets you specify which drive to check and 
whether to check all files or only program files. 

2. Select Save settings to save changes when you have completed the changes 
you want. 

Select Help from the Check diskettes pop-up window for more information on 
specific options. 

Customizing System Checking 

You can choose to check the system at times other than when scheduled for 
automated checking. 

To check the system at any time: 

1. Select Push here on the main Antivirus window. 
or 

2. From the Check menu, select Check system to customize the way in which 
this checking is done. 



290 DOS User's Guide 



IBM AntiVirus/DOS 



heck letup f ,og elp 



( ) All files 



[ X ] Fixed drives 
[ ] Network drives 



[ ] Advanced options selection 



( . ) Program files 
( ) All files 





=Help sKeys help =Exit 



h4 - 



The Check system pop-up window lets you specify which drives to check, what 
kinds of files to check, and whether to check new and changed files, or all files. 
Other combinations of disks, directories, and files can be checked by selecting 
Advanced Options. 



IBM AntiVirus/DOS 



heck 'letup Log lelp 
Drives 



[I 




=Help 



=Keys help =Exit 



3. Select Save settings to save any changes after resetting to the new options. 

Select Help from the Check system pop-up window for more information on specific 
options. 



Chapter 17. Using IBM AntiVirus/DOS 291 



Cleaning Up When a Virus Is Detected 

When a virus is detected during a check of your system, you are given the 
opportunity to clean up any infected files or boot sectors that have been detected 
so far. Cleaning up a virus infection does not stop there, however. It is likely your 
check only examined some of the files on your system — those in which viruses are 
most likely to be detected. It is possible that the virus has also infected other parts 
of your system. If you only clean up the infection you have detected so far, the 
infection you did not detect can continue to spread within your system and perhaps 
to other systems as well. 

Anytime a routine check turns up a virus, Antivirus provides you with the 
opportunity to perform a thorough check of your entire system, and to let you clean 
up any viruses detected. This thorough check can take more time than your routine 
check, but it helps ensure you have thoroughly cleaned your system. Let Antivirus 
complete this thorough check anytime you encounter a virus. 

Infected Systems 

When Antivirus finds a virus on your system, the virus infection report presents you 
with choices on how to remove the virus. Viruses whose identity can be positively 
verified can usually be disinfected, restoring the infected files or boot sectors to 
their original, uninfected condition. Antivirus is designed so that all common 
viruses can be reliably repaired this way. 

Some viruses damage files or boot sectors when they infect them. In this case, 
Antivirus does not disinfect them because you would be left with damaged 
programs afterwards. You are cautioned that they might not be disinfected. 

Antivirus can deal with hundreds of infected objects at one time. In the unlikely 
event that there are too many infected objects to deal with, you are presented with 
a series of virus infection reports. After you have dealt with one set of infected 
objects, the next set is displayed. 

Infected Diskettes 

The virus you detected on your system came from somewhere and might have 
spread beyond your system as well. If it was a boot sector virus, it infected your 
system when the system was started from an infected diskette. If it was a 
file-infecting virus, it infected your system when an infected program was executed 
or copied from a diskette or file server. In either case, the virus might have spread 
to the diskettes used in your system if your diskettes were not write protected. 

After an infection is detected, it is very important to check for viruses on the 
diskettes that were used recently in the infected systems. If you do not, the virus 
might reinfect your system or might spread to other systems. 



292 DOS User's Guide 



To check diskettes for viruses, see "Checking Diskettes" on page 285. 

Infected Nearby Systems 

When you share diskettes with other systems and use file servers on local area 
networks, infections can be passed between systems. The virus that infected your 
system might have come from one of these types of systems. It is very important 
to notify the users of these other systems and to make sure they also check their 
systems for viruses. You cannot eliminate this step in the antivirus procedure or 
else the virus will continue to be spread from their systems, reinfecting your system 
again, or continue to infect other systems. 

If you find a virus on your own system and your system is connected to a file 
server, it is very important to check that file server thoroughly for viruses. If any 
viruses are detected on the server, all the client PCs that use that server must be 
checked as well. 

Even if your system is not connected to a file server, nearby systems should be 
checked for viruses because you might have exchanged diskettes with them 
recently. This includes all the other systems in your office or laboratory, systems 
that belong to your friends, systems in your department or related departments, and 
systems belonging to people located near you. 

Ideally, all these other systems also have Antivirus installed on them. In this case, 
the users of these systems can have Antivirus check their systems. If Antivirus is 
not installed, you can use the Antivirus stand-alone program to check them. 

Uncommon Viruses 

Although it is unlikely to happen, your system can be infected with a new or very 
uncommon virus that Antivirus cannot positively verify. 

Infected files or boot sectors that cannot be disinfected reliably, either because the 
virus could not be positively verified or because the virus damaged them, should be 
erased/replaced. Antivirus overwrites and erases infected files so they cannot be 
restored accidentally. 

Names of files you erase are written to the log, to help you in restoring them from 
backups if necessary. You can view any of these logs: 

Current log 
Previous log 
Cumulative log 

Select the log you want to view from the Log menu. 



Chapter 17. Using IBM AntiVirus/DOS 293 



IBM AntiVirus/DOS 




To check your system 
for viruses 



Information about the current log, the previous log, and the cumulative log is stored 
in the files CURRENT.LOG, PREVIOUS.LOG, and the CUM. LOG, respectively, 
located in your \DOS directory. These are text files that can be printed directly to 
your printer. 

Erasing/replacing the master boot record of a hard disk is required to replace it with 
a valid master boot record. This is almost always the right thing to do. The only 
exceptions are when the disk has an unusual master boot record, like those used 
by some DOS security products. In these cases, erasing/replacing the master boot 
record can leave the system in an unusable state. Contact the vendor of the 
security product for assistance before trying to remove an unverified virus from 
these systems. 

System boot sectors infected with unverified viruses cannot be repaired 
automatically because their structure depends upon the operating system and 
version you are using, including Boot Manager boot sectors. In this case, use the 
DOS SYS command to replace an infected system boot sector. If you need 
information about the SYS command, type help sys for a brief explanation and 
command syntax. 

Be sure you start your system from a write-protected DOS diskette that is the same 
version that your hard disk uses, that the diskette has been checked and is free of 
viruses, and that the diskette is write protected at all times. Start your system by 
turning off the power, inserting the DOS diskette in drive A and turning on the 
power. Do not use CTRL+ALT+DEL to start your system. Some viruses can remain 
active in your system if you use CTRL+ALT+DEL. Issue the SYS command to 



294 DOS User's Guide 



replace the system boot sector. Then restart and use Antivirus to check your 
system for viruses once more, just in case. 



Running the Antivirus Stand-Alone Program 

A system can be so corrupted by a virus that it is not possible to run the usual 
version of Antivirus. In some cases, it can be so corrupted that it cannot even be 
started. In these situations, you should use the Antivirus stand-alone program to 
clean up your system. This program can be run from: 

A .BAT file by adding command-line arguments. 

A diskette after starting your system from a virus-free DOS diskette. Write 
protect this diskette immediately to prevent it from becoming infected. 

The Antivirus stand-alone program is not intended to be used in place of the 
standard versions of Antivirus. It does not have the features of automated 
operation, heuristic virus detection, or higher performance of the standard versions. 

Make a separate emergency diskette by copying the Antivirus stand-alone program 
files to a virus-free DOS diskette. Write protect this diskette immediately to prevent 
it from becoming infected. This Antivirus stand-alone program can be used to 
check DOS and Windows systems if you have virus problems that do not allow you 
to access the IBM AntiVirus/DOS program on your system. The stand-alone 
program files consist of the following: 

ADMIN. PRF Data file for profile information used to record settings in IBM 

AntiVirus/DOS. Do not change this file. 

IBMAVSP.EXE The Antivirus stand-alone program itself. It can be run 
directly from a DOS command prompt. 

LOCAL.MSG A message that is displayed if a virus is detected. 

VERV.VDB Data file used by the stand-alone program to verify the 

identity of viruses and disinfect them. Do not change this file. 

VIRSIG.LST Data file used by the stand-alone program to scan for 

indications of viruses. Do not change this file. 

If you create a batch file as discussed in "Running the Stand-Alone Program from a 
BATCH File" on page 296, place a copy of this batch file on the diskette also. 



Chapter 17. Using IBM AntiVirus/DOS 295 



To run the Antivirus stand-alone program: 

1. Type the following from the drive A prompt: 

ibmavsp 

2. When you use the Antivirus stand-alone program, specify whether to check all 
local fixed drives for viruses or only selected drives. You can check diskettes 
by specifying their corresponding drives. 

3. You are then asked if you want to check only files that usually contain 
programs, or all files on the drive. Because you already suspect that there are 
viruses on the system, you should check all files because viruses can infect 
files that are not normally thought of as program files. 

When a virus is detected, you are given the opportunity to remove it. 

If Antivirus can determine that it is safe to disinfect the boot sector or file, you will 
be given the opportunity to do so. Otherwise, you are asked if you want to have 
the file erased or the boot sector replaced. Respond in one of three ways: 

Yes To perform the operation on this file or boot sector. 

No To skip this file or boot sector. It remains infected. It is important not to 
do this because the infection can continue to spread. 

Go To perform the operation on this file or boot sector and perform it without 
asking about any others that are detected to be infected. Use this option if 
there are many infected files and you do not wish to respond to them 
individually. 

Running the Stand-Alone Program from a BATCH File 

You might prefer to run the Antivirus stand-alone program interactively as outlined 
previously. However, because the stand-alone program is a utility that protects 
your system, incorporate this program into a batch file so that it monitors for viruses 
automatically. 

If you use this stand-alone program in .BAT files, you are able to specify 
command-line options. For example, to scan all programs on all local hard drives 
and place the log into the file IBMASVP.LOG on drive C, you would type the 
following command: 

c:\dos\ibmavsp -programs -logc : \ ibmavsp . log 

This method of operation is useful in .BAT files and whenever user interaction is not 
desired. 



296 DOS User's Guide 



For more information about the IBMAVSP command, type ibmavsp / ? for a brief 
explanation and command syntax. 

Using the Antivirus Stand-Alone Program on an Infected System 

Starting from an infected diskette or hard disk can cause the virus to become active 
and to spread. Some viruses remain active even after restarting with 
CTRL+ALT+DEL. 

To start an infected machine safely, follow this procedure: 

1 . Turn off the computer's power. 

2. Insert a write-protected DOS diskette that has been checked and is free of 
viruses into drive A. Make sure the diskette is write protected or you might 
infect it accidentally. 

3. Turn on the computer's power. Let it run from the diskette. 

4. After the computer has started, type: 

ibmavsp 

at the command line to run the Antivirus stand-alone program and check the 
system for viruses. 



Systems that Use Resident Data Compression 

Some systems use resident data compression software to allow them to store more 
data on the hard disks. This software operates by intercepting read and write to the 
disk, compressing data as it is written, and uncompressing it as it is read back. 
Although the data is stored in compressed form on the disk, most programs only 
see it in uncompressed form. 

If you start from a diskette, you might not have the necessary software resident to 
access the compressed data correctly. In particular, the Antivirus stand-alone 
program might not be able to correctly check or repair your disk if you have started 
such a system from a diskette. 

In these cases, consult the product documentation for your data compression 
software to determine proper operation after starting from a diskette, or contact the 
data compression software vendor for assistance. 



Systems that Use Security Software 

Some systems use security software that is designed to prevent unauthorized users 
from accessing individual files, disks, or the entire system. In some cases, this 
software modifies the hard disk so that it cannot be accessed without going through 



Chapter 17. Using IBM AntiVirus/DOS 297 



the security software. In particular, such disks might not be able to be accessed 
correctly when your system is started from a diskette. This can cause the Antivirus 
stand-alone program to be unable to check or repair your disk if you started from a 
diskette. 

In these cases, consult the product documentation for your security software to 
determine proper operation after starting from a diskette, or contact the security 
software vendor for assistance. 



Troubleshooting 

Every effort has been made to ensure that Antivirus is compatible with your system. 
The following is a description of problems that can be encountered and how you 
can deal with them. 

New viruses continue to be written and released. A small fraction of them become 
widespread problems. To deal with these new viruses most effectively, any 
antivirus software should be kept up to date. Refer to Contacts for more 
information on how to obtain updates to IBM AntiVirus/DOS. 



heck iJetup f-6g 



IBM AntiVirus/DOS. 



ntroduction 
Virus escriptions 
Virus list 

ontacts 

roduct information 



=Help =Keyshelp =Exit =Menu 

Problem with the Antivirus Program 

When Antivirus is loaded, it performs a self-integrity test and warns you if 
something has changed one of the Antivirus programs. If you get this warning, it 
indicates that a virus is active or that some accident has corrupted the program. 



298 DOS User's Guide 



Problems with DOS Systems 

On DOS systems, you might get the message Abnormal program termination when 
first loading Antivirus. This indicates that insufficient memory is available to run the 
program. Remove some of your resident programs and try again, add more 
memory to your system, or use the Antivirus stand-alone program instead. This 
message can also occur if a virus has corrupted the Antivirus program files. 

Problems with Windows Systems 

On systems using Windows 3.0 or later with SHARE installed, Windows locks some 
files and prevents them from being checked by the Windows portion of Antivirus. If 
you want to check these files, exit from Windows and use the DOS portion of 
Antivirus (IBMAVD). 

On Windows systems, the Windows portion of Antivirus (IBMAVW.EXE) is installed 
as a read-only file. This is to permit it to do a self-integrity check under Windows 
even if the SHARE program is loaded. If you need to delete IBMAVW.EXE for 
some reason, you will need to make this file read-write before doing so. You can 
do this with the ATTRIB command. 

On Windows systems, you only can have one copy of Antivirus open at a time. If 
you try to open a second session of Antivirus, the second session will not start; you 
only can work with Antivirus in the session that is already open. 

While the Windows portion of Antivirus correctly detects infected boot sectors, it is 
not always able to disinfect them. If your system has infected boot sectors, exit 
Windows, and invoke the DOS portion of the product by going to a DOS command 
prompt and typing: 

ibmavd 

Diskette Image Files 

Viruses that infect boot sectors are detected by Antivirus only in boot sectors, not in 
files. If you have a diskette-image file you want to check for viruses, create a 
diskette from the image and check the diskette. The only exceptions to this rule are 
the files BOOT. DOS and BOOT.OS2 that hold boot-sector images when you use 
the Dual Boot utility. If Antivirus finds a virus that infects boot sectors in one of 
these files, it will warn you and offer to erase the file. Obtain a clean copy of the 
file from a similarly configured machine or from a service center before using the 
Dual Boot feature again. 

Problems with Shield DOS 

Normally, Shield DOS tries to install itself into expanded memory if it is available on 
your DOS system. If this causes problems on your system, edit the file 
IBMAVDR.BAT in the \DOS directory, and remove the /x switch from both lines that 



Chapter 17. Using IBM AntiVirus/DOS 299 



call IBMAVSH (the DOS shield program). This tells Shield DOS not to install itself 
in expanded memory. 

Normally, the DOS shield in Antivirus checks high memory (memory above the 
640K DOS limit) for resident viruses. This causes problems on some systems, 
especially where adapters are sensitive to having their memory space read. A 
common symptom of this problem is that the adapter (often a communications 
adapter) does not function properly when the DOS shield is installed. 

To fix problems with your hardware caused by the installation of the Shield 
DOS: 

1 . Uncheck the Check high memory check box on the Shield DOS pop-up 
window. 

2. Select OK to save the settings. 

3. Restart your system to let the new settings take effect. 



DOS User's Guide 



Chapter 18. Using Central Point Backup 



If you have ever experienced data loss, you know the value of backing up your 
data. Sudden power failures, software problems, mechanical failures, and user 
mistakes can all lead to the loss of valuable data. An up-to-date backup ensures 
that you can restore data quickly and resume working. 

The Central Point Backup" program (Backup) provides protection against data loss 
by allowing you to make a backup copy of data. The options let you customize 
your backup using the following methods: 

Full Backup: Backs up all selected (highlighted) files. Because Full Backup is 
the default for Central Point Backup, you must deselect any files you do not 
want to back up. 

Incremental Backup: Backs up all files that have changed since the last full or 
incremental backup. 

Differential Backup: Backs up all files that have changed since the last full 
backup. 

Unattended Backup: Backs up your data to a tape, hard drive, or to a 
network volume at a time you specify. 

After backing up, you can compare and verify data between your backup media and 
the source volume to ensure the backup is correct. 

If you ever lose data because of a hardware failure or other problem, you can 
restore quickly and easily using Backup's smart restore capability. 

The network features of Backup allow you to back up data to a network directory or 
to a SCSI device or QIC-02/36 tape device attached to a file server. If you are a 
network administrator, you can back up and restore the network data. 



Installing Central Point Backup After Installing DOS 

If you did not select Central Point Backup for DOS or Central Point Backup for 
Windows at initial installation, you can still install these optional tools by rerunning 
DOS Setup. 



" Central Point Backup is a trademark of Central Point Software, Inc. 
Copyright IBM Corp. 1981, 1993 



301 



The DOS Setup diskettes contain everything you need to install Central Point 
Backup on your system. You might want to refer to before you begin the 
installation of the optional tools. 

During Setup, DOS checks whether your computer has Windows 3.1 installed. If 
you do not have Windows 3.1 installed and want to use the optional tools provided 
with DOS for Windows, you should make sure you install in this order: 

1 . Install DOS as you normally would, selecting the optional tools you want from 
the list provided. You will not see any of the optional tools for Windows listed. 

2. After you have installed DOS, install Windows 3.1 as you normally would. 

3. Install DOS again using the /e switch after DOS and Windows have been 
installed. 

To install Central Point Backup using the DOS Setup /e switch: 

1. Insert diskette 1 of the DOS Setup diskettes into drive A or B. 

2. At the DOS command prompt, type: 

a:setup /e 

or 

brsetup /e 

The /e switch allows you to return to the optional tools selection menu without 
having to do a complete reinstallation of DOS. At this point, only the necessary 
files for the the optional tools are installed. 

3. After Setup for DOS begins, follow the instructions displayed on the screen. 
Make sure you specify the same "Install to PATH" as you did when you did the 
initial DOS installation. 

At the Optional Tools screen, you will see no next to Central Point Backup. 

4. Press the UP ARROW or DOWN ARROW until you highlight Central Point 
Backup. 

You can also select any of the other optional tools, such as Central Point 
Backup for Windows, that you want to install by highlighting each tool and then 
pressing ENTER for each item. 

You now see yes next to all the optional tools you selected. 

5. Move the cursor to highlight the following: 

The listed options are correct. 



302 DOS User's Guide 



6. Press ENTER to accept the optional tool selections. 

7. Continue following the instructions on the screen until the optional tools are 
installed. 



Configuring Central Point Backup 

The following procedure assumes you already have Central Point Backup installed 
on your computer by using the DOS Setup diskettes. See "Installing Central Point 
Backup After Installing DOS" on page 301 if the program is not installed. During 
configuration, the program guides you through the process and saves your choices 
in a file called CPBACKUP.CFG. 

To start configuring Central Point Backup from the DOS command prompt: 

Type cpbackup and press ENTER. 

To start configuring Central Point Backup from DOS Shell: 

If you are using a mouse, double-click on Central Point Backup in the Main 
program group. Or, if you are using a keyboard, press the TAB key until you 
highlight Main. Use the UP ARROW or DOWN ARROW to highlight Central Point 
Backup and then press ENTER. 

To start configuring Central Point Backup for Windows: 

You can start Central Point Backup for Windows by double-clicking on the Backup 
icon located in the IBM Tools program group. 

Performing the Initial Confidence Test 

The first time you use Backup, you must configure the program to work optimally 
with your system. The type of drives you want to use, the choice of media, and a 
backup test are all part of the configuration process. 

Remove any tape cartridge from your tape drive before configuring. This allows 
Backup to determine the actual size of your tape drive, rather than read the size of 
the tape. 



Chapter 18. Using Central Point Backup 303 



Follow the instructions on the screen. During the confidence test, you must 
respond to: 

Define your equipment and choose a tape type. 

If you are backing up to a tape device connected to a network file server, a 
confidence test is not needed. 

Choose a drive and media. 

If you want to back up or restore using diskettes assigned to drive letters other 
than A or B and you do not have the CPBACKUP command in your 
AUTOEXEC.BAT file, you must use low speed. A confidence test is not 
required in that case. 

If at any time you need help, press F1 . 

Backup tests your computer for the speed setting that gives you the best 
performance and reliability. This eliminates guessing whether your machine 
supports high-speed backups. Run this test on every computer, especially if you 
change the system environment in any way (such as adding or removing drives or 
using different media). That way, you can be sure that Backup always works with 
your current configuration. 

To rerun the confidence test: 

If you have difficulties with the confidence test during the initial configuration 
process and have since corrected the problem, you can run the test again by 
selecting choices from the Configure menu. 

1 . Select Backup Speed from the Configure menu. 

2. Select Test. 

3. Select OK when the test is complete. 

4. Select Save as Default from the File menu to save the new information. 

To skip the confidence test, select Skip. Backup sets the speed to High 
automatically. 

Warning: Skipping the confidence test can result in unreliable backups. 

Understanding the Results of the Confidence Test 

Backup always tests your system at high speed first. If the test fails, it repeats 
automatically at medium speed. However, at times, some computers fail the 
high-speed test in such a way that prevents testing at medium speed. 

To change the Backup Speed if your machine fails the high-speed setting: 

1. Turn your machine off and then back on to reset the hardware. 



304 DOS User's Guide 



2. Select Backup Speed from the Configure menu. 

3. Select Medium. 

4. Select OK. 

5. Select several files to back up for the test. 

6. Select Start Backup. 

When the test is complete, a pop-up window informs you of the results. The 
backup speed is set automatically to the fastest speed as determined by the 
test. 

7. Select Compare when the backup is complete. 

If all files compare, your computer can do safe, reliable backups at the chosen 
speed. 

Note: The confidence test only checks the drive and media you selected. If you 
change the drive or media you use for backing up, test the new drive and 
media combination. Some systems can run at high speed with one type of 
media but might need to use medium or low speed with other media to be 
reliable. 

Viewing the Main Central Point Backup Window 

After you have configured Backup, the next time you load Backup the main Backup 
window appears. 




B j Backup safeguards hard disk files by 

copying them to tape or disk. 



estore 



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E it 

► Backup for DOS wmm 



|Backup safeguards hard disk files by copying them to tape or disk. 



Chapter 18. Using Central Point Backup 305 



Central Point Backup has an extensive online help facility for your use. If at any 
time you need help, press F1 . 

When you select Backup, Restore, or Compare from the main Backup window, the 
following Express window appears: 



Saves selections 
in setup files 

Displays current 
setup file 

Displays current _ 
backup method 



Displays backup- 
statistics 



Ensures medium Compresses data 

is readable to save time or space Creates report Schedules backups 




1 drive 




39 directories 




1673 files 


1 tape 


— 68 megabytes 




88:35 III mites 



Bat: up Tt>: 



Returns to 
'pnmary window 

Dnvesand volumes 
"to back up 

Displays directory 
-tree for rife selection 

-Media to 

back up to 



Backup defaults to this Express Window. This Express feature simplifies your 
backup, compare, or restore procedures with a simple "point-and-click" interface. 

Buttons let you perform certain menu options quickly. All of the button commands 
also appear on the menus. At the Beginner and Intermediate user levels, some of 
these buttons are dimmed, meaning the default value is used and cannot be 
changed. 

Changing the User Level 

If you want to change the user level from Advanced user, use the following 
procedure. The default user level is Advanced. 

To change the user level: 

1. Select User Level from the Configure menu. 

2. Select the level you want. 

Beginner: If you are not concerned with options you are not familiar 

with or just want to do a backup as easily as possible, 
use the Beginner level. Central Point Backup 
automatically defaults to the options that reflect the 



306 DOS User's Guide 



highest degree of safety, security, and ease of use for 
the Beginner level. 

Intermediate: If you want to perform backups as quickly and easily as 

possible, but need additional control over file selection 
and backup methods, then use the Intermediate level. 

Advanced: For maximum control over all aspects of your backup, 

use the Advanced level. If you are familiar with previous 
versions of Backup, use the Advanced level. 

3. Select the check box to password-protect the user level so it cannot be 
changed without the proper password. 

An "X" appears, indicating that password protection is on. 

4. Select OK to continue or Cancel to retain the current user level. 



The following table shows the commands available in each level: 



Menu Command 


Beginner 


Intermediate 


Advanced 


File menu 


Load Setup 


X 


X 


X 


Save Setup 




X 


X 


Save Setup As 




X 


X 


Save as Default 


X 


X 


X 


Print history 


X 


X 


X 


Exit 


X 


X 


X 


Action menu 


Start Backup 


X 


X 


X 


Backup From 


X 


X 


X 


Select Files... 




X 


X 


Schedule Backups 




X 


X 


Restore 


X 


X 


X 


Compare 


X 


X 


X 


Options menu 


Backup Method 




X 


X 


Reporting 


X 


X 


X 


Compress 






X 


Data Encryption 






X 



Chapter 18. Using Central Point Backup 307 



Menu Command 


Beginner Intermediate 


Advanced 


Verify 




X 


Media Format 




X 


Format Always 




X 


Error Correction 




X 


Virus Detection 




X 


Save History 




X 


Overwrite Warning 


X 


X 


Time Display 




X 


Selection Options 


X 


X 


Display Options 


X 


X 



The Configure, Tape Tools, and Help menus remain the same for all user levels. 

Making a Backup 

This section explains how to do a full backup of your hard drive using the default 
settings of Backup. If you are unfamiliar with backing up data see "Selecting Files" 
on page 31 1 first. 

The following procedure assumes you have installed and configured Backup and 
are now ready to do a backup. 

You can start Central Point Backup by: 

Selecting Central Point Backup from the program area of DOS Shell. 
Typing a command at the DOS command prompt. 

To start Central Point Backup: 

1. From the DOS command prompt, type: 

cpbackup 

2. Press ENTER and the main Backup window appears. 



308 DOS User's Guide 



R ~ -r—— -t-f^t m^H^ 1 . 






B 



J 



Backup safeguards hard disk files by 
copying them to tape or disk. 



estore 



01 



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J 



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Backup for DOS 




3. Select Backup. 

Backing Up All Files 

Backup performs a quick scan of each local hard drive when you select it. This 
scan identifies problems that could potentially interrupt the backup or cause data 
distortion. 

1. Select a drive to back up in the Backup From list (also available as Backup 
From on the Action menu). 

By default, all files on a drive are selected, as indicated by a checkmark to the 
left of the drive icon. If you would rather not scan each drive when selected, 
you can turn off the scan by selecting Drive Integrity from the Configure menu. 



Select specific directories and files to back up by choosing the Select Files for 
Backup button or double-clicking on the drive icon in the Backup From list. 

2. Select a backup destination in the Backup To drop-down list box (also available 
as Choose Drive and Media from the Configure menu). 

3. Select Start Backup (also available from the Action menu). 

4. Type a descriptive name of up to 30 characters, press the TAB key, and type an 
optional password; then select OK. 

Describe your backups uniquely. This description is what appears in the 
History list, Select Directory, or Search History files pop-up window when you 
do a compare or restore, and it can help you remember the correct history file 
to use. 



or 



Chapter 18. Using Central Point Backup 309 



Warning: Remember your password. If you attempt to restore a 
password-protected backup set, the program asks you for the password. If you 
forget or lose the password, you cannot restore your data. This password is 
different than the user-level password. It is specific to each backup, and is 
intended to prevent unauthorized restoring of your data. 

5. Insert the backup diskette or tape into the drive when prompted. 

If you are using diskettes or fixed media for your backup, skip ahead to step 6. 

Note: It is normal for the drive light to stay on continuously during a backup 
using high and medium speed. You will not damage your disks by 
inserting or removing them when you are prompted to do so, even when 
the drive light is on. 

If you are using tape, do not remove the tape cartridge from the drive when the 
tape is moving. Doing so can damage the tape. 

A list of all the backups made to this tape appears in the Tape Directory box. 
The list contains the descriptions entered at the beginning of each backup. The 
list also includes the date and time of the backup, the size of the files on the 
tape, and the original size of the files. These sizes can differ because of data 
compression and error correction code. Unless you are backing up to a tape 
device connected to a file server or using a local SCSI tape drive, skip ahead to 
step 6. 

Remote or SCSI Tape 

Only if you are backing up to a tape device connected to a file server or using a 
local SCSI tape drive will a list of all the backups made to this tape appear. 

Choose either the OK button to append to the tape, the Erase button to 
overwrite the tape, or the Cancel button. 

Note: If you are sharing a SCSI tape with other users, or backing up to a 
network tape, select the Catalog button to scan the tape for all 
backup sets and update the tape directory on your hard disk. See 
"Synchronizing the Volume Tape Content (VTC) Files" on page 343 
for details. 

If you select Erase, you might be prompted to enter the tape password (if it 
is password-protected). This prompt for a password is a security measure 
to prevent deletion of other backups on that tape. 

6. After the backup begins, press ESC any time you want to pause or cancel the 
backup. 

A pop-up window displays options to Resume, End, or Quit the backup. 



31 0 DOS User's Guide 



Warning: If you are using a SCSI tape, quitting the backup results in an 
unusable tape. The data can be recovered from the tape, but the tape must be 
erased before future backups can be written to it. Use the End option instead 
of Quit so the proper end of data markers are written to the tape. 

When the backup is complete, the backup statistics appear. 

Perform a comparison at this point to be absolutely sure your backed-up data 
matches the original data exactly. 

7. Select Compare to begin the comparison process. 

See "Comparing Data" on page 326 for further details. 

Selecting Files 

By default, Central Point Backup performs a full backup of your system. However, 
you can deselect files and directories. 

To deselect files: 

1 . Select Select Files for Backup from the Backup window (or select Select 
Files for Backup from the Action menu). 

Note the number of files and directories selected at the bottom of the Directory 
and Files Lists window. 

2. Highlight either a directory in the Directory Tree or a file in the Current Directory 
list. 

3. Press ENTER and note how the number of directories or files decreases as you 
deselect items. 

Or, you can use one of the following two ways of selecting files: 

Automatically with file filter commands. 

For information about file filter commands, refer to page 312. 
Manually from the tree. 

For information about the directory tree, refer to page 316. 

By default, all files on a drive are selected, as indicated by a checkmark to the left 
of the drive icon. If you would rather not scan each drive when selected, you can 
turn off the scan by selecting Drive Integrity from the Configure menu. 



Select specific directories and files to back up by choosing the Select Files for 
Backup button or double-clicking on the drive icon in the Backup From list. 

Chapter 18. Using Central Point Backup 31 1 



After you make your selections, you can save the information in a setup file, saving 
time because you do not have to repeat selections every time you back up. You 
also have the flexibility of defining multiple setups with different selections. 

Selecting Files Automatically 

There are several options that affect selected files: the backup method, manual file 
selections, and the following automatic file selection filters, grouped under the 
command Selection Options from the Options menu. These file filter commands 
are: 

Manual subdirectory inclusion 
Include/exclude files 
Attribute exclusions 
Date range selection 

Manual Subdirectory Inclusion 

This command is on by default. This means any time you click a directory to select 
or deselect it (or press ENTER when the cursor is on it), all subdirectories are also 
selected or deselected. 

Including and Excluding Files 

Include/exclude files is a very powerful, yet flexible command. Choosing it displays 
a text window where you can enter the list of drives, directories, and files to include 
or exclude for a backup. The default is *.* (all files selected). 

Backup processes the files on your drive by looking at the include/exclude list and 
then the backup method. Then it selects files to back up accordingly. 

Because the include/exclude list allows over 100 specifications, this is the 
recommended way to back up because it works with all backup methods— full, 
differential, and incremental. 

Warning: File specifications in the Include/Exclude list are ignored when you 
check the Save File Selections option in the Save Setup pop-up window. See 
"Knowing When to Use Automatic File Selection" on page 325. 

To include and exclude files: 

1. Select Selection options Include/exclude files from the Options menu. 

These are the guidelines for using the list: 

Use up to 16 lines of specifications. Each line supports multiple 
specifications, which must be separated by a space, comma, or semi-colon. 
Each line can have a maximum of 64 characters. All 16 lines cannot 
contain more than 100 specifications total. 



312 DOS User's Guide 



If you have multiple drives selected to back up, you can enter different 
specifications for each drive. 

Check the Include Subdirectories box next to each line if you want to back 
up nested subdirectories contained in the specification. For example, if 
your \WORD directory contained subdirectories named \DATA and 
\LETTERS: 



Specification 


Include 


What is Backed Up 




Subdirectories? 




C:\WORDW 


Yes 


All files contained in \WORD, \WORD\DATA, 






and \WORD\LETTERS 


C:\WORD\*.* 


No 


Only files contained in \WORD 



For multiple drive backups, each entry must begin with the drive letter it 
applies to; otherwise, the entry applies globally (to all selected drives). 

You can use DOS wildcard characters (* and ?). 

To exclude files from a backup, begin the entry with a minus sign (-). For 
example, typing - . on the first line excludes ALL files, allowing you to 
select specific directories and files to back up. 

The list processes all specifications on a line before going to the next line. 

2. Type the specific entries to include or exclude. 

The following table shows an example of what to type in the Include/Exclude 
Files pop-up window. 



To: Type This: 



Include all files on all specified drives except all COM 
and EXE files. 


*.* -*.COM -\EXE 


Log drive C and exclude all files in \TIFFS directory on 
drive C. 


-C:\TIFFS\*.* 


Log drive D and include all .EXE files on drive D. 


D:*.EXE 


Log drive E and include all files on drive E. 


E:*.* 



Warning: Do not enter mapped drive letters and server-volume names in the 
same include/exclude list. Errors can occur and drives might not be logged. 

3. Select the Check for Path existence and log drives box to be sure each drive 
logs and contains valid paths. 



Chapter 18. Using Central Point Backup 313 



When you select OK, each entry beginning with a drive letter is checked for 
validity and then selected. 

4. Select OK to continue or Clear List if you want to start over with your 
selections. 

When you select OK in the text window, all entries process from top to bottom 
down the list. Only the selected directories and files are highlighted when you 
display the tree. 



Root Directory Special Exception: Backup complies with the subdirectory 
inclusion indicator except in the following situations: 



Specification 


Include 
Subdirectories? 


What is Backed Up 


* * 


Yes or No 


All directories and files are selected, regardless of 
the setting of the Include Subdirectories flag. 


^* * 


Yes or No 


Only the files in the root directory are selected, 
regardless of the setting of the Include Subdirectories 
flag. 


C:\V 


Yes or No 


Only the files in the root directory are selected, 
regardless of the setting of the Include Subdirectories 
flag. 



Attribute Exclusion 

The Attribute exclusions command acts as a modifier to the Include/Exclude Files 
command. For example, when you select a directory to back up and Exclude 
Hidden Files is marked, no hidden files in that directory are backed up. 

To exclude file attributes: 

1. Select Selection options Attribute exclusions from the Options menu. 

2. Select the attributes you want to exclude and select OK. 

Hidden Files: Hidden files (and directories) are usually a sign of 
copy-protection and can be position-sensitive on the hard disk. This means if 
you copy the files off the diskette and onto another diskette, they probably will 
not work because of the copy protection. In the event your hard disk crashes, 
you must reinstall the program from the original diskettes. 

System Files: These are your DOS system files for example, IBMBIO.COM. 
Because they are DOS system files, you probably do not need to back them up 
as they are also position-sensitive. 



31 4 DOS User's Guide 



Tip: If you are backing up a drive prior to changing DOS versions, do not back 
up the DOS files. If you do, do not restore them. 

Read-Only Files: Files you can open and use but not modify in any way. 
Date Range Selection 

Date Range Selection modifies the include/exclude entries by letting you select files 
by date. Files are selected if their dates are within the range set by the start and 
end dates you specify. 

To set a date range: 

1 . Select Selection options Date range selection from the Options menu. 

2. Select On. 

Date Range Selection is off by default. 

3. Type the range of dates using double digits: 

mm/dd/yy or mrn/dd/yyyy 

Backup uses the date format that is standard in your country. For example, the 
U.S. uses the format shown above. Enter the date as you would with the DOS 
DATE command. 

4. Select OK. 



Selecting Files Manually 

If you are accustomed to displaying your hard drive's tree structure to select 
directories and files, you can pop up a directory tree from Express, or you can 
disable Express to use the tree exclusively. 

Note: Displaying the tree is not available at the Beginner user level. 

The Tree List lets you select directories and files by clicking on each with the 
mouse, or using the TAB, ENTER, UP ARROW, DOWN ARROW, LEFT arrow, and 
RIGHT ARROW to navigate around the tree and select files. 

To display the Express Tree: 

1 . Double-click on the drive icon in the Backup From list box. 
(Or press ENTER when the highlight bar is on the drive.) 

or 

2. Select Select Files for Backup from the Action menu or click the button. 



Chapter 18. Using Central Point Backup 315 



Central Point Backu 



□ 


Directory Tree 


Files in 


Current Directory 


1 




=] CA 








189 85/29/91 


04 


03p A — 


u 






^] 386MAX 




g AUCOLOR 


DAT 


7224 03/29/91 


10 


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^ AFTERDRK 




|| AUINST 


HLP 


6019O 05/06/91 


01 


00p 








— D ADMODULE 


■i 


Q BOOTSAFE 


EXE 


24881 05/06/91 


01 


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L— Q BLANKER 




|| CHKLIST 


CPS 


351 05/29/91 


02 


29p A — 








1 — Q BITMAPS 




□ CPAU 


EXE 


157521 05/06/91 


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^ BATS 




^ CPAU 


GRP 


1507 05/30/91 


08 


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39569 05/06/91 


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H CPAU 


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766 05/06/91 


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— D BASKET. OUT 




ID CPAU 


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359 05/29/91 


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§ CPAU 


PIF 


545 05/06/91 


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D CPSCOLOR 


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161745 05/06/91 


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76 directories 




2259 selected files 









iHelp ^QUieu ^Exit 



When a directory is active in the Tree List, the files contained in that directory 
appear in the File List on the right. You can select or deselect individual files 
with the mouse by clicking, or with the keyboard. 

3. Select the directories you want to back up with the mouse by clicking on them 
or by using the keyboard: 

Use LEFT ARROW to move to the previous directory at the same level as 
the current directory. 

Use RIGHT ARROW to move to the following directory at the same level as 
the current directory. 

Scroll the lower-level directories with the UP ARROW and DOWN ARROW. 

To deselect all files in the subdirectory, press ENTER. Note that the number 
of directories begins to diminish. Press ENTER again when the directory 
you want is highlighted to select all files in that directory. 

The number of selected directories appears at the bottom of the Tree List and the 
number of selected files appears at the bottom of the File List if you are using the 
Express Interface. 

Press ESC or F10 to return to the Express selection window. 

Note: For monochrome users, a bullet appears to the left of each file that is 
selected. 



31 6 DOS User's Guide 



Disabling Express 

The directory tree always appears when you turn off the Express interface. If you 
prefer, you can disable Express so the tree always appears. 



To disable Express: 
1 . Select Express Interface from the Configure menu. 
The Tree List appears for the currently selected drive. 



Displays number of directories 
and files selected and total number 
of kilobytes 




Displays how many disks 
or tapes are needed and 
how long the procedure 
will take 




Displays function keys and messages 

The number of selected directories in the Tree List and the number of selected 
files in the File List appears at the top if you are not using the Express 
Interface. 

2. Select Save as Default from the File menu. This makes the Tree and File 
Lists always visible for future sessions. 



Selecting Drives to Back Up 

Backup displays all the storage devices it finds (such as hard drives, network 
drives, and Bernoulli" drives) in the Backup From list. You can select multiple 
drives to back up at one time. A checkmark appears next to each selected drive in 
the Backup From list. 



Bernoulli is a trademark of Iomega Corp. 



Chapter 18. Using Central Point Backup 317 



Selecting Local Drives 

1 . Select the drive or drives you want to back up in the Backup From list box. 

or 

Select Backup From from the Action menu. 

2. Select the drive or drives to back up. 

When Express is disabled, additional options appear: 

Allow Single Drive Backups: When selected, all drive icons dim except for 
the currently selected drive. The path box appears so you can type a specific 
path (for example, E:\ACCOUNTS). The drive letter appears in the path box if 
you select the drive icon first. 

Allow Multiple Drive Backups: When selected, the path box disappears. You 
can then select more than one drive to back up. 

Note: You cannot specify a path when the drives are displayed as server 
volume names. 

3. Select OK. 

Displaying Multiple Drives with Express Disabled 

The letters of the drives you have selected to back up appear in the Settings box 
when Express is disabled. 

The currently selected drive's directories appear in the directory tree window. 

Press F4 or + on your numeric keypad to display the next drive. 

Press SHIFT+F4 or - on your numeric keypad to display the previous drive. 

Note: You will only see the next drive displayed with F4 if you have more than one 
drive selected. 

Multiple-Drive Backups 

If your system consists of multiple drives, you might want to back up all of them 
during the same backup session. Backup processes each drive of a multiple-drive 
backup as separate backup sets. 

For example, if you select drives C, D, and E to back up, Backup prompts you to 
insert diskette #1. After drive C is backed up and the history file is written, you are 
prompted again to insert diskette #1 of set #2 . Do not insert diskette #1 of your 
just-completed backup. Use a new diskette. This diskette becomes the first of the 
backup set for drive D. This process repeats for each drive of a multiple-drive 
backup. 



31 8 DOS User's Guide 



Similarly, if you use tape, each drive creates a separate backup set on the tape. 

Note: If you are using low speed, the Fixed or Removable Drive and Path options, 
and backing up multiple drives, each drive creates a subdirectory named 
XJDRIVE on the destination media (where x=drive letter) that contains the 
data for each drive. 

Displaying Novell Network Drives 

If you are connected to a Novell network, you can select how you want local and 
network volumes displayed in the Backup From list. Backup defaults to displaying 
drives by drive letters. 

Many network volumes are mapped to a drive letter that is actually a specific path 
on a particular volume of a particular file server. For example, if you map drive G 
to the directory NOVELL\SYS:ACCTS\RECEIVE, you access that directory 
whenever you type g : at the DOS command prompt. 

You can select to display the server and volume name instead of a drive letter. By 
referencing network servers by name, you avoid confusion if the network drive 
mappings change. 



For example: 



This Drive 


Indicates 


Drive C 


Local DOS drive. 


Drive G 


[SYS:ACCTS\RECEIVE] Mapped drive. 


NOVELL\SYS: ACCTS 


Single volume on a network drive. 



Note: Be careful when backing up and restoring files that appear as mapped drive 
letters. If the mappings change after the files are backed up, the files might 
not be restored. 

To select to display the server and volume name instead of a drive letter: 

1. Select Novell Network File Selection from the Configure menu. 

2. Select from the following: 

Drive Letter: Displays logical drive letters, assigned by the NetWare Map 
command to a network volume. 

ServerWolume: Displays network drives as true network volumes, rather than 
as logical drive letters. 



Chapter 18. Using Central Point Backup 319 



If you want to back up an entire volume on a server, select the ServerWolume 
option, or make sure that the drive mapping for the backup is mapped to the 
root of the volume. Backup allows up to 10 server volume drives in a setup 
file. 



Viewing Files 

Backup features viewers for many popular applications. The viewer automatically 
adjusts to display the correct file format (a spreadsheet display for spreadsheet 
files, for example). However, the viewer cannot let you edit the contents of the file. 

Viewing a file can be especially useful if you have multiple files with the same 
names in different directories, or you cannot remember the contents of a file. 
Backup can view word-processing files; spreadsheet files; database files; graphics 
files, and binary files, which contain executable code. 



To view specific files: 

1 . Select the file you want to view. 

2. Press F2 (QView). 



Function Key 


What It Does 


F1 Help Information 


Displays help information. 


F2 File Information 


Displays information such as the name of the file, its size, 
and date. 


SHIFT+F2 
Database/ 

Spreadsheet Information 


Displays the name, type, and length of each field or cell in 
the current file. Select a field or cells to move the highlight 
in the View window to that location. 


F3 Exit 


Closes the View window and returns to Backup. 


SHIFT+F3 Wrap 


Allows you to scroll the display of the pop-up window to the 
right. 


SHIFT+F4 ASCII 


Displays in ASCII format. 


F5 GoTo 


Lets you specify the line number you want to go to in the 
file you are viewing. 


F6 Viewer 


Displays a list of available viewers from which you can 
select a new viewer for the current file. 


F7 Search 


Searches the viewed file for specific characters. 


SHIFT+F7 Search Again 


Looks for the next occurrence of the search text. 


F8 Unzoom/Zoom 


Unzoom shrinks the View window to a smaller size. Zoom 
returns it to its previous size. 



320 DOS User's Guide 



Function Key 


What It Does 


F9 Next file 


Views the previous file (if any) in the directory of files being 




viewed. 


F10 Previous file 


Views the next file (if any) in the directory of files being 




viewed. 


SHIFT+F10 About 


Displays copyright information. 



Working with Setup Files 

Backup comes with several preconfigured setup files. One, named WEEKLY. SET, 
does a full backup of all files on the first hard drive of your computer system, which 
is usually drive C. Other preconfigured setup files include SPREAD. SET, which 
backs up Lotus 1-2-3", Excel", and Quattro" files on your first hard drive; and 
WORDPROC.SET, which backs up many word-processing documents from 
applications such as Microsoft Word", WordPerfect", Lotus Write/Ami", and Lotus 
Ami Pro" The database set, DATABASE. SET, backs up files with extensions .DB, 
.DBF, .NDX, .IDX, .PX, and .DTF. 

Select the setup file you want to use from the Setup Files drop-down list. You can 
modify the setup file to further customize it for your system and backup needs. If 
you make changes, select the Save Setup button to save the new information. 

Follow steps 3 through 7 beginning in "Backing Up All Files" on page 309. 

See "Working with Setup Files" for more information. 

Setup files offer a way to save your selections for future use without having to go 
through repetitious configurations. You can load these setup files from the 
command line or from within Backup. 

Note: You must have setup files to schedule unattended backups with the 
Scheduler. 

You can use setup files with all operations— backup, compare, and restore — to 
instantly configure Backup to the specifications contained in that setup file. This is 



** Lotus 1-2-3, Write/Ami, and Lotus Ami Pro are trademarks of Samna Corporation. 

*" Quattro is a trademark of Borland International, Inc. 

** Microsoft is a trademark of Microsoft Corporation. 

** WordPerfect is a trademark of WordPerfect Corporation. 

'* Excel is a trademark of Microsoft Corporation. 

Chapter 18. Using Central Point Backup 321 



especially important if you want to compare or restore a backup where you might 
not remember all the details about the setup you used at the time. 

A setup file processes the files on your hard drive according to the criteria 
contained in that setup file. Although you can always see all files and directories on 
your hard drive when the Tree List is displayed, only the highlighted ones are used 
during a backup, compare, or restore. 

The information contained in a setup file includes the settings for the following 
commands: 

Setup description 

Backup from (drives and directories) 
Back up to (media size) 
Server/volume or Drive Mappings display 
Backup speed (high, medium, or low) 

Backup method (full, incremental, differential, full copy, separate incremental, or 

virus scan) 

Reporting (on or off) 

All directory and file selections 

Attribute exclusions 

Date range selections 

Overwrite warning (on or off) 

Compression Display options 

Error correction (on or off) 

Data encryption (on or off, and the type) 

Formatting options 

Save history (on or off) 

Verification option 

Central Point Anti-Virus" detection (on or off) 
Exit when complete 

Defining and Saving Setup Files 

The Save Setup commands let you define and save multiple backup types and 
options. 

Save Setup As: Saves the selections you make during a backup session with a 
specific file name and the .SET extension. 

Save Setup: Saves all current settings without prompting you for a setup name 
(thus overwriting the current setup file). 



" Central Point Anti-Virus is a trademark of Central Point Software, Inc. 
322 DOS User's Guide 



Note: The Save Setup commands are not available at the Beginner user level. 

If you save setup files with specific file selections, using the Save File Selections 
option, another file with an .IEx extension (where x=drive letter) is also saved with 
its parent .SET file. The .IEx file includes all directory and file selections, and there 
is one .IEx for each drive saved. 

Backup allows up to 10 server\volumes in one setup file. The naming convention 
for these setup files is slightly different, depending on whether you log network 
drives as drive letters or server volumes. Network volumes logged as drive letters 
appear with an .IEx extension (where x=the drive letter). Network volumes logged 
as server volumes appear as .IEa, (where a=a number from 0 to 9). The server 
volume name is saved in the setup file itself. 

Note: If you are backing up serve rVolumes to a QIC-format tape, be sure to turn 
on the Save History command. This ensures the name of the server\volume 
is saved with the backup information on your hard disk. Because of the 
QIC-format design, server\volume names cannot be saved on the tape itself. 

Saving Setup Files 

1 . Select Save Setup (also available as Save setup As from the File menu). 

2. Enter the name to use for this backup configuration. 

3. Enter a description of this setup file, using up to 32 characters. 

4. Select the Save file selections check box if you made specific file selections. 
Two options then become available: 

Save to include all future directories and files on drives: Automatically 
backs up any new directories or files you add anywhere on your hard disk. 

Save to exclude all future directories and files on drives: Prevents 
automatic backup of any new directories and files added to your hard disk. 

5. Select OK. 

Note: If you are using or plan to use the differential, incremental, or separate 
incremental backup method, use the Include/Exclude Files command to 
select the files you want to back up. Use the Save File Selections option 
with the full backup method only. See "Knowing When to Use Automatic 
File Selection" on page 325. 

Loading Setup Files 

Load Setup lets you select and load a previously saved backup configuration. If 
you have saved setup files from previous versions of Backup, you can load and use 
them with this command. 



Chapter 18. Using Central Point Backup 323 



To load setup files: 

1 . Click on Setup. 
or 

Select Load setup from the File menu. 

2. Select the setup file to use for this session, and select OK. 

Using Preconfigured Setup Files 

Backup includes several preconfigured setup files. One, named WEEKLY.SET, 
does a complete backup of all the files on the first hard drive of your computer 
system, which is usually drive C. Another file, DAILY. SET, backs up only those 
files that have changed since the last full backup. 



The following table shows other preconfigured setup files: 



Preset File Name 


Files Backed Up 




DATABASE. SET 


*.DB 


*.DTF 




*.DBF 


*.RBF 




*.NDX 


*.PX 




MDX 




SPREAD. SET 


*.XL* 


*.CAL 




*.WK* 


*.WQ* 


WORDPROC.SET 


*.DO* 


*.JW 




*.STY 


*.SAM 




*.WP* 


*.TXT 




*.WRI 





Use these setup files as a foundation to customize for your particular needs and 
system. Be sure to save any modifications you make. 



324 DOS User's Guide 



Knowing When to Use Automatic File Selection 

Backup processes the files on your drive by looking at the include/exclude list, and 
then the backup method. Then it selects files to back up accordingly. 

However, if you save specific file selections in a setup file with the Save File 
Selections option, Backup always backs up these files, regardless of the backup 
method. The Save File Selections option and the Include/Exclude Files option are 
mutually exclusive. 

File specifications in the Include/Exclude Files list are ignored when the Save File 
Selections option is on. You must use one option or the other in a specific setup 
file. 

Include/Exclude Files 

Because the include/exclude list allows over 100 specifications, this is the 
recommended way to back up because it works with all backup methods — full, 
differential, and incremental. 

Use the include/exclude list until your list gets so specific that it hits the 
100 specification limit, then use Save File Selections. 

Save File Selections 

If there are specific files that you always want to back up, regardless of the setting 
of the backup method, use Save File Selections in the Save Setup pop-up 
window. 

Scheduling Backups 

The Scheduler button and the Schedule Backups command use Central Point 
Scheduler, which is an application that lets you schedule backups without 
monitoring the procedure. Scheduler can also be used whenever you want to 
schedule any program to run automatically at a specified time. For example, you 
might want to run a program that has to be compiled. You can set up a batch file 
first and then schedule it to run automatically when you are not using your 
computer. This is especially useful for backing up to tape drives, removable 
cartridges, or to a network volume. 

Note: The Schedule Backups command is not available at the Beginner user level. 

Scheduler provides a 15-second warning before it runs the scheduled backup in 
case you are in the middle of an application that you do not want interrupted. 
When the backup is complete, Scheduler returns to the application you were 
running. 



Chapter 18. Using Central Point Backup 325 



The memory-resident program, CPSCHED, must be resident in order to launch 
Backup at the scheduled time. If you chose not to have CPSCHED automatically 
load when you installed Backup, you must load CPSCHED prior to any scheduled 
backups. 

To load CPSCHED, from the DOS command prompt, type: 

cpsched 

For complete instructions on how to schedule events, such as scheduling a backup, 
see Chapter 13, "Using Central Point Scheduler" on page 219. 

Unattended Backups 

When you want the backup to run, be sure the computer is on, CPSCHED is 
loaded, and a tape is in the drive. Backup performs the backup at the specified 
time, and returns the machine to the state it was in prior to the backup. 

Note: If the setup file used in the scheduled backup has a description, that 

description also becomes the description of that backup. Otherwise, the 
backup has the name "Unattended Backup." 

If Backup is launched from a batch file and the backup progresses without 
interruption, control is returned automatically to the batch file to execute the 
next command. 

If Backup is launched from the command line with a setup file or from 
Scheduler, then Express is automatically disabled to conserve memory. This 
means the directory tree and file list is always visible on screen. Any automatic 
backup (scheduled or run from the command line) answers the default button in 
any pop-up window that appears. At the beginning of tape backups, a pop-up 
window appears, showing the tape contents and offers options to Append or 
Erase the tape. For all backup methods, except Full/Erase Tape, the default 
button is Append, which is what happens in automatic tape backups. 



Comparing Data 

After performing a backup, compare your hard disk data with the data contained on 
your backup media. This comparison is an extra measure of security so that you 
are sure the data contained on your backup disks or tapes matches the files on 
your hard drive and is restorable. 

Use Compare whenever you make changes to your hardware configuration or 
backup settings, or when you use new media. 

Note: Backup automatically skips certain files during a comparison. 



326 DOS User's Guide 



Comparing Your Backup to the Original Data 

If you used a setup file when doing the backup, use the same setup file for the 
comparison, so all the settings are identical. You have the opportunity to start a 
comparison immediately after a backup is complete. 

Compare saves a report of the comparison results automatically if you have turned 
on the Reporting command. 

To compare your backup to the original data: 

1. Select Compare from the main selection window (or Compare from the Action 
menu). 

2. Select History and select the history file of the backup set containing the data 
you want to compare. 

or 

Highlight the history file you want, press the SPACEBAR to load the history file, 
and press ENTER to display the history tree 

or 

Use the Retrieve History button if the history file you want to compare is not in 
the History list. 

Tip: Double-click on a drive icon in the Compare To list to display a text box 
and type a specific path to compare to, or press enter. 

3. Select Start Compare. 

If you used a password when the backup was originally performed, you see a 
prompt to enter it now. Also, if you encrypted the data, you are prompted for 
the decryption key. For online help about Data Encryption, select this item from 
the Action menu and then press F1 for online help. 

4. Insert the first diskette or tape of your backup set. Continue to insert diskettes 
or tapes as prompted. 

At the conclusion of the comparison, the results are displayed. 

Displaying the Compared Files 

If some of your files do not match, it is easy to see which ones they are. The icons 
next to each mismatched file indicate why the file did not compare. (See the 
symbol table that follows.) 



Chapter 18. Using Central Point Backup 327 



To display the compared files: 

Double-click the history file you just compared. 
or 

Press the TAB key until you get to the History list and then press ENTER. 

Note: Windows updates certain files every time you exit from Windows. 

Therefore, if you back up with the Windows version of Backup, exit from 
Windows, and then use either version to compare the backup. Some of the 
backed-up files from your Windows directory will never compare with the 
original files on the hard disk. These files include most of the .GRP files, 
and some .INI files, including PROGMAN.INI. 

Compare Symbols: The symbol next to each file icon indicates how that file 
compared with the original file. 



Symbol 


What it Means 


= The backup file was identical to the hard disk file. 


X 


The backup file did not match the hard disk file, although the date and time 




stamps matched. 


The following symbols can appear (in addition to the above symbols) if you are 


doing a comparison at a time other than immediately after a backup 


Symbol 


What it Means 


< 


The backup file did not match the hard disk file, and the date/time stamp was 




older. 


> 


The backup file did not match the hard disk file, and the date/time stamp was 




newer. 


s 


The backup file matched the hard disk file, but the date/time stamp was 




different. 


The backup file was missing from the hard disk. 



No symbol next to a file means that the file has not been compared (for example, if 
you are not comparing all files on your hard disk). 



DOS User's Guide 



Restoring Data 

Backup can restore an entire hard disk or specifically selected files and directories. 
You can restore files that were backed up on one machine to a different machine, 
or restore files to a previous state. 

Note: The Overwrite Warnings command is on by default at all user levels. 

However, if you turned it off during a backup, turn it on for a restore so you 
are notified if any files on the hard disk will be overwritten by older versions 
of the same files in the backup set. 

All the restore functions available in Express are also available when Express is 
disabled. For each command button of Express, there is a corresponding menu 
command on the Action menu when in Restore mode. To perform a restore or 
search a history file, select the appropriate command from the Action menu. To 
retrieve, rebuild, or print a history file, select Choose directories from the Action 
menu. 

Full Restore 

If you have experienced a hard disk crash and need to reformat, you must install 
DOS and Backup again before you can start your restore. If you need to, you can 
refer to Appendix A, "Installing DOS" on page 391 for instructions on how to install 
DOS. 

If you are restoring multiple drives, you must restore each drive individually. If you 
are restoring network volumes, see "Performing Network Backups" on page 331. 

Notes: 

1 . It is important to restore your files using the same speed as the original backup. 
For example, if you backed up your files using low speed, you must restore 
your files at that speed. 

2. If you are accustomed to using a mouse, reinstall your mouse drivers before 
running Backup. 

To perform a full restore of your system: 

1 . From the DOS command prompt, type: 

cpbackup 
and then press ENTER. 

Because this is the first time you are using Backup after installing it on your 
hard disk, you must configure it again. 

2. Select Restore after configuration. 



Chapter 18. Using Central Point Backup 329 



3. Select Retrieve History. 

or 

If Express is disabled, select Choose Directories from the Action menu. 

4. When prompted, insert the last diskette or the requested tape of the backup 
set. 

The history file is read from the backup and the history name and backup date 
appear in the History drop-down list. 

Tip: To select the restore destination, double-click a drive icon in the Restore 
To list box to display a text box. Then, type a specific path to restore to, or 
press ENTER. 

5. Select Start Restore. 

If you are restoring a network backup that contains trustee information or the 
bindery, you are asked if you want to restore this information. You must have 
the proper network privileges to restore each; otherwise, the information is not 
restored. See "Performing Network Backups" on page 331 for details. 

6. When prompted, insert the first diskette or tape of your backup set. 
The progress of the restore process appears on the screen. 

7. Continue to insert disks or tapes until the restore is complete. 

Note: It is normal for the drive light to stay on continuously while restoring at high 
and medium speed. You will not damage your disks by inserting or 
removing them when you are prompted to do so, even when the drive light 
is on. 

Overwrite Warning: If this warning is on, a pop-up window appears when the 
directory containing your newly restored Backup files is detected. Select Skip this 
file and Repeat for all Later Files to avoid overwriting the files. 

Be especially careful if you are restoring a backup that might contain an older 
version of DOS than what is currently on your hard drive. 

If you are restoring a directory with attributes that are different than the existing 
directory, an overwrite warning appears. 

If your backup method is incremental, you only need to do a single restore because 
all incremental backups are appended automatically to the parent full backup, and 
only the most current files are selected to restore. 



DOS User's Guide 



Printing a Directory from a History File 

Use the Print History command from the File menu to print the directory of a 
backup set to a disk file or to a printer. 

If you send the directory to a file, you can view the directory when the File List is 
displayed in Backup mode, or you can use the View command at the DOS 
command prompt. The file is named HST.RPT. 

To print a directory from a history file: 

1 . Select the history file you want to print from the History list. 

2. Select Print History. 



Performing Network Backups 

Central Point Backup allows you to back up files between your personal 
workstation, Local Area Networks (LANs), and networks such as Novell NetWare. 

Backing Up the Local Area Network 

If you are connected to a Local Area Network and have write access to the LAN, 
you can back up your workstation files to the LAN drives (if backups are permitted). 

Or, you can back up LAN drives the same way you back up your own workstation 
drives, by specifying the full path of the LAN drive. 

Before you back up files from a specified path, make sure that the Express 
Interface is disabled and there are no Novell Network Server/Volumes designated. 
If the pop-up box does not provide a path, select Allow Single Drive Backups 
because you cannot specify a path with a multiple drive backup. 

Backing Up Workstation Data 

This section explains how a workstation user can back up the data on his or her 
local hard drive to a directory on the network, or to a tape device connected to the 
server. 

The following procedure assumes you have already configured to back up to a 
remote device. If you have not done so, see "Configuring to Use a File Server 
Tape Device" on page 333. 

To back up to a file server tape device: 

1 . Select the files to back up, and set any other options you want. 

2. Select Save Setup to save your settings and file selections for future use. 

Chapter 18. Using Central Point Backup 331 



3. Select Start Backup. 

If you select Full Backup/Erase Tape, enter the password for the tape. 

This is a safety measure so no one else's data is erased. The same message 
appears if you try to erase the tape using the commands on the Tape Tools menu. 

If Backup determines the tape is empty, you are still prompted for a password, but 
then you become the "owner" of that tape. You can erase that tape because you 
know the password. Others can only append to the tape. 

You can back up the data from your workstation to a specific network directory. 
Each user must back up to a unique path, otherwise each subsequent backup 
overwrites the previous backup. 

To back up to a network directory: 

1. Create a subdirectory named FULL on the network and do a full backup, either 
weekly or monthly, to that directory. This subdirectory should be a subdirectory 
of your \HOME directory. 

2. Create two subdirectories named DAILY1 and DAILY2 on the same volume. 

Alternate daily differential or separate incremental backups to the two DAILY 
directories. 

By creating the three directories, you avoid the problem of overwriting the three 
files that Backup writes that contain your data and information about the 
backup. These three files are: 

CPBACKUP.001, which contains your backed-up data. 
CPBACKUP.DIR, which contains the directory of the backed up data. 
CPBACKUP.INF, which contains boot record information. 

Note: Normal network security is in effect during a backup. This means each 
user must have rights to read from and write to the drive and directory 
specified. 

3. Select the data you want to back up. 

4. Click the Backup To drop-down list and select Fixed Drive. 

or 

Select Choose Drive and Media from the Configure menu and then select 
Fixed Drive and Path. 

5. Enter the path as a destination, and select OK. 



332 DOS User's Guide 



To enter a serverWolume name, turn on the ServerWolume option in the File 
Selection pop-up window, which is under Novell Network from the Configure 
menu. 

6. Select Save Setup to save the settings for future use. 

7. Select Start Backup. 

Tip: You can use the Scheduler command to schedule a backup of your data to 
the network after you go home for the day. See "Scheduling Backups" on 
page 325. 

Backing up Novell Networks 

Backup can back up data to a network directory or to a SCSI devices or QIC-02/36 
tape device attached to the server. You can display server\volumes by name or as 
drive letters mapped to specific paths. 

As a network supervisor, you can back up and restore the network data. 
Configuring to Use a File Server Tape Device 

If your personal computer is on a network that is running server-based software, 
you can back up to a tape drive that is connected to the network server. If you are 
running Backup for the first time, the following pop-up window appears 
automatically. If you have already configured the program for use with another 
device, select Define Equipment from the Configure menu. 

To configure to back up to a tape drive that is connected to the network 
server: 

1 . Select Remote. 

2. Select the server you want to access from the list and select OK. 

Only the servers that are actually running the server-based software appear in 
this box. Also, the list of servers can change, based upon the availability of the 
servers. 

3. Select the tape device you want to use. 
You can select only one device from the list. 

4. Select OK. 

A pop-up window asks you to remove the tape from the drive. In many cases, 
this is impossible to do because your server can be inaccessible to you, or the 
tape can be in use by someone else. In any case, select OK to continue. 

5. Select Save as Default from the File menu to save the configuration 
information. 



Chapter 1 8. Using Central Point Backup 333 



File Server Backup Strategy 

This section details using the server-based software to back up a network file 
server, including the bindery, trustee rights, and extended file attributes of network 
data. You must be a supervisor, or the true equivalent, to use these features. 

A good network backup strategy involves not only backing up data, but planning for 
and preventing disaster from striking your network. In the event a disaster does 
occur, having a solid plan for restoring the network files and getting back to normal 
as quickly as possible is imperative. Some of the precautions you can take now to 
help avert a downed server are: 

Ensure the electrical supply to your server is adequate, reliable, and uses an 
uninterrupted power supply (UPS). 

Hard drives do not last forever, especially those used in a server. If you begin 
to notice system error messages, hear an odd noise coming from the drive, or 
get excessive read/write errors, back up the drive immediately, and run 
diagnostics on it. 

Keep track of the data that is kept on the network. Save yourself backup time 
by eliminating redundant, obsolete, or unused files. Encourage the users on 
your network to pare down the number of files they copy to it. 

Establish a regular backup schedule and stick to it. 
It is a good idea to take some precautions before a disaster strikes your network. 

To take precautions with your Novell 3.11 file server: 

1 . Print and save a copy of the server pro file information such as the server 
name, IPX" number, volume names and sizes. 

2. Prepare an emergency diskette with the following files for each NetWare 3.11 
server on the network: 

SERVER.EXE 
LOGIN.EXE 
STARTUP. NCF 
AUTOEXEC.NCF 
IN STALL. NLM 
CPBACKUP.NLM 

The driver for the network interface card 
The driver for the host adapter card 

The driver for the server's startup hard disk (ISADISK.DSK, for example). 



" IPX is a trademark of Novell, Inc. 
334 DOS User's Guide 



3. Store this diskette and the printed information together in a safe place, 
preferably off site. 

To take precautions with your Novell 2.15c file server: 

1 . Print and save a copy of the server profile information such as the server name, 
IPX number, volume names, and sizes. 

2. Store the printed information in a safe place, preferably offsite. 

Backing Up a File Server 

1 . Configure Backup to use the Remote option. 

See "Configuring to Use a File Server Tape Device" on page 333 for 
step-by-step instructions. 

2. Select the way you want to display the network volumes: as server\volume 
names or mapped drive letters, using Novell Network File Selection from 
the Configure menu. 

3. Select the data to back up. 

Tip: Use the backup password feature on each network backup set as an 
additional measure of security. 

To back up bindery-trustee information: 

1. Check Novell Network Bindery-Trustee from the Configure menu. 

Backup automatically backs up trustee rights and the bindery files if these 
options are checked. 

2. Check from the following: 

Back up bindery information: Backs up the database of information on the 
user lists of the network and the groups they belong to on the network. The 
bindery consists of permanent, hidden, and system files that are always located 
in the SYS:SYSTEM directory. The files are NET$BVAL.SYS and 
NET$BIND.SYS for NetWare 286 networks. Under NetWare 386, the files are 
NET$OBJ.SYS, NET$PROP.SYS, and NET$VAL.SYS. 

If you have already logged the SYS:SYSTEM volume, the bindery files are 
selected immediately when you check this box and select OK. 

Note: If the SYS volume has not been logged before the backup begins, the 
bindery files are not backed up. 

Back up trustee information: Backs up the assigned rights of every file in the 
backup set. 



Chapter 18. Using Central Point Backup 335 



These options are available only if you are backing up to a supported tape 
device on the server or to a SCSI device connected to the workstation you are 
using. You must be logged in as a supervisor or the equivalent to successfully 
back up or restore network security data such as the bindery and trustee files. 

Tip: Issue the NetWare CASTOFF/ALL command before the backup starts so 
it is not interrupted. 

Restoring a File Server 

This section details using Backup to restore a network file server, including the 
bindery, trustee rights, and extended file attributes of network data. You must be a 
supervisor, or the true equivalent, to restore these items. 

NetWare 2.15c uses NET$OS.EXE as the executable server file, which is required 
to rebuild and restart the server. The following steps assume this file has been 
generated and is available to the NetWare install process. 

To restore a Novell 2.15c file server: 

1. Follow the steps in the Novell documentation for configuring and starting the 
NetWare 2.15c server. 

These steps include such tasks as creating the NetWare partitions and 
volumes, making the SYS: volume bootable (if applicable to your situation), 
and loading the SYSTEM and PUBLIC files, including NET$OS.EXE. 

2. From any workstation, log on as SUPERVISOR and load the VAP. 

3. Restart the server. 

4. From any workstation, run Backup, and continue restoring. 

This procedure refers to a server configured with a DOS boot partition. 

To restore a Novell 3.11 file server: 

1. Reformat or replace the damaged file server hard drive. 

2. Create a bootable DOS partition. 

3. Create the SERVER subdirectory. 

4. Copy the contents of the emergency diskette outlined previously into the 
SERVER subdirectory. 

5. Execute SERVER.EXE to start the server. Use the printed profile for the 
correct information to enter when prompted. The NetWare prompt (:) should 
appear. 

6. Load the hard disk driver or drivers. 



DOS User's Guide 



7. Load the Novell INSTALLNLM. 

8. Recreate the partitions, one per disk, using the printed profile as a guide. 

9. Recreate the volumes, starting with SYS. You might have more than one 
volume per partition, or a volume can span multiple partitions. 

10. Mount the volumes. 

11. Load the network interface card driver and bind IPX to that card. 

12. Load the CPBACKUP.NLM from the console prompt. 

13. From any workstation, log on to the server as SUPERVISOR, run Backup, and 
proceed with the restore. 

Restoring Bindery/Trustee Information 

You can restore the bindery files and the trustee information for network files if you 
are a network supervisor. 

Note: You must restore the bindery to the SYS volume of the server because the 
bindery exists only on the SYS volume. 

After the restore process begins, the catalog file of the backup set is opened and 
checked for bindery and trustee information. A pop-up window appears, prompting 
for confirmation of these files. 

If the bindery is not being restored to the SYS volume, the option to restore the 
bindery is unavailable in the pop-up window. 

If you attempt to restore bindery information, without having supervisory rights, error 
messages occur, and the bindery is not restored. 

If you -are restoring files, including the bindery files, but not trustee information, the 
bindery files are restored first, and then the remaining files are restored. 

If you restore to a Novell NetWare 286-based server, another pop-up window 
appears informing you that two restores are necessary if you are restoring bindery 
and trustee files. The first process restores only the bindery files. You must then 
restart the server and run a second restore to finish restoring the remaining files 
and trustee information. 



Tape Drive Information 

Backup supports a variety of tape drives, ranging from those that connect to a 
floppy controller card to multiple-gigabyte SCSI drives. The most common type of 
tape drive for single-user PCs is the mini-cartridge drive, which encompasses the 
QIC standard as well as proprietary formats. Mini-cartridges are quarter-inch tapes, 



Chapter 1 8. Using Central Point Backup 337 



generally known as DC-2000, and can hold up to 250 megabytes of compressed 
data. 

Many drives that are sold as 120MB or 250MB capacity actually are referring to the 
capacity of the tape when data compression is used. How much the data is 
compressed depends a great deal on the data itself. 

Floppy or Secondary Controller Card and QIC Drives 

Backup is compatible with the following tape drives: 



Aiwa 80MB 
Alloy 120 

Alloy Retriever 40/60 

Alloy Retriever 60e 

Alloy Retriever 125c 

Alloy Retriever 250c 

ArchiveXL 80 Model 5580 Internal 

Archive 5540 (1991 model) 

ArchiveXLe 5580e External 

Backtrax 80MB 

CMS Tape 40/INT 

CMS T2120AT 

Colorado DJ-10 (Jumbo 120) 

Colorado DJ-20 (Jumbo 250) 

Colorado KE-10 External 40MB 

Colorado KE-15 External 40MB 

Colorado KE-15 External 80MB 

Compaq" 

Internal 40MB Tape 

Compaq Internal 80MB Tape 

IBM PS/2 Internal Tape Backup Unit 

Identity 120 

Identity 120e 

Identity 80i 

Iomega" Tape 250MB 
Irwin 485 (external 80MB) 
Irwin 745 (external 40MB) 
Irwin 785 (external 80MB) 
Irwin Accutrac A120 



Irwin Accutrac A250 

Irwin DC 2000 Series: Model 2040 (40MB) 

Irwin DC 2000 Series: Model 2080 (80MB) 

Irwin SXe 120 and 250 

Irwin SX 5540 and 5580 

Mountain Filesafe TD-4000 

Mountain Filesafe TD-8000 

Mountain 4400 

Procomm 80MB 

Summit Express SE 120 

Summit Express SE 250 

Tallgrass FS120 

Tallgrass FS300 

Tallgrass TG1140 

Tallgrass Filesafe Series 80 

Tecmar MiniVault 120i 

Tecmar MiniVault 120e 

Tecmar MiniVault 250i 

Tecmar MiniVault 250e 

Irwin 445 (external 40MB) 

Tecmar QT-40e 

Tecmar QT-40i 

Tecmar QT-80e 

Tecmar QT-80 

Wangtek 3040 

Wangtek 3080 

Wangtek FAD 3500 Internal 40MB 

Well-Tech (Colorado drive for Toshiba" T5200) 



" Compaq is a trademark of Compaq Computer Corporation 

" Iomega is a trademark of Iomega Corp. 

** Toshiba is a trademark of Toshiba Corporation. 

338 DOS User's Guide 



Note: If you use a tape drive that is connected to your high-speed floppy controller 
card, you cannot access the floppy drives during the tape backup. 



Certain tape drives only work with specific-density controller cards. A drive 
requiring a high-density floppy controller card normally found on AT-class machines 
will not work on an XT-class machine with a low-density floppy controller card. 
However, that same drive might work on an XT if a secondary high-speed controller 
card is used for the drive. Be sure you know the type of controller card your 
system has and if the tape drive you want to use is compatible with it. 

Note: Both 80MB Irwin and QIC-80 drives can read, but not write, a 40MB 

formatted tape. Neither 40MB Irwin nor QIC-40 can read or write 80MB 
formatted tapes. Irwin drives can read only Irwin tapes (except for the SX 
series), as Irwin uses a servo-technique that is not compatible with other 
tape drives. 

SCSI Tape Drives 

Backup is compatible with the following SCSI tape drives: 



Archive Python DAT (1.3GB) 
Archive Viper 2060 (60MB) 
Archive Viper 2150 (150MB) 
Archive Viper 2525 (525MB) 
Archive Viper 5250 (250MB) 
Cipher ST150 (150MB) 
Compaq 320/525 (525MB) 
Exabyte 8200C (2.5GB) 
Exabyte EXB-8500 (5GB) 
Exabyte EXB-8200SX (2.5GB) 
Exabyte EXB-8200 (2.5GB) 
Hewlett Packard C1502A DAT (1.2GB) 
Hewlett Packard C2224 DAT (1.2GB) 
Maynard** 250Q (250MB) 
Maynard 525Q (525MB) 
Maynard 1300+ (1.2GB) 
Maynard 2200+ (2.2GB) 
Mountain 2100 (2.2GB) 
Mountain 7150 (150MB) 
Mountain 7250 (250MB) 



Mountain 7500 (500MB) 
Mountain 1200 (1.2GB) 
NCR" 6100 (150MB) 
NCR 6300 (525MB) 
NCR 2101 (2.2GB) 
Tandberg 3600 (150MB) 
Teac MT-01 (250MB) 
Tecmar THS-2200 (2.2GB) 
Tecmar ProLine 250 (250MB) 
Tecmar ProLine 525 (525MB) 
Tecmar ProLine Data Vault (1.2GB) 
WangDAT 1300 (1.3GB) 
WangDAT 3100 (1.3GB) 
WangDAT 3200 (1.3GB) 
Wangtek 5099ES (60MB) 
Wangtek 5150 (150MB) 
Wangtek 5150ES (150MB) 
Wangtek 5525ES (525MB) 
Wangtek 7200HS (2.2GB) 



Maynard is a trademark of Maynard Electronics, Inc. 
NCR is a trademark of NCR Corporation 



Chapter 18. Using Central Point Backup 339 



Tape Formatting (non-SCSI) 

Formatting a tape is a process that is required only once; however, it is a good idea 
to purchase preformatted and certified tape cartridges. This is not only more 
convenient for you, but also saves time during a backup. Backup can format a tape 
during a backup, if necessary, but the time involved is considerable. Use Format 
on the Tape Tools menu to format a tape before you use it. 

Note: Most SCSI tapes are already formatted when you purchase them; however 
Backup can format a SCSI tape as necessary. 

Every tape must have two things done to it before it is ready to use: 

Formatted (initialized): Formatting lays out data tracks and maps them for the 
read/write mechanism. This process is very similar to formatting a diskette. 
Formatting a tape is not the same as erasing a tape. Erasing deletes data from 
the tape; formatting lays out the data tracks that the data is stored on. 

Certified: Verifies the tape by checking for bad blocks and locking them out 
(similar to DOS locking out bad sectors on a diskette). This is done last. 

An Irwin-formatted tape has one additional process done to it before it is formatted 
and certified: 

Servo-written: Writes permanent information to the tape. This information is 
precisely placed along the track so the tape drive's read/write mechanism is guided 
along the proper data tracks. This is usually a one-time-only procedure. If a tape 
ever needs to be servo-written again, bulk-erase the tape first. 

The following table shows the approximate time it takes to fully format various 
non-SCSI tapes. The third and fifth columns refer to special tapes that can be 
formatted to greater capacity. These tapes are marked "XL," which means they 
have extra length. If you buy a 40MB tape marked XL, you can format it to hold 
60MB of data. Similarly, if you buy an 80MB XL tape, you can format it to hold 
120MB of data. 



Procedure 


40MB 
non-SCSI tape 


40MB XL 
non-SCSI tape 


80MB 
non-SCSI tape 


80MB XL 
non-SCSI tape 


Servo-written 
(Irwin only) 


36 min 


54 min 


51 min 


76 min 


Formatted 


18 min 


27 min 


33 min 


50 min 


Certified 


18 min 


27 min 


33 min 


49 min 


Totals: 


36 min 


54 min 


66 min 


99 min 


Totals with 
servo-write: 


72 min 


108 min 


117 min 


175 min 



340 DOS User's Guide 



These times are based on a 500 Kbps (kilobits per second) data rate that a 
high-density diskette controller uses, such as those found in AT-class machines. All 
times should be doubled if done at the 250 Kbps rate used by low-density diskette 
controllers, such as those found in XT-class machines. All times should be halved 
if using a high-speed 1000 Kbps controller card. 

If you insert a blank tape, Backup first rewinds the tape and attempts to read the 
tape header. If that is unsuccessful, the tape is retensioned and you have the 
opportunity to format the tape, insert a new tape, or cancel. 

QIC Format and Full-Screen Backup Format 

Backup supports the standard QIC-40/80 format for tapes and the proprietary 
Full-Screen Backup format. There are some differences between the Full-Screen 
Backup format and QIC, which are summarized in the following table. 



QIC 


Full-Screen Backup 


Freely interchangeable with other QIC 


Proprietary format can only be restored with 


format backup programs. 


Backup 


Writes directory information at the beginning 


Writes directory information at the end of 


of the backup set. 


the backup. 


Supports all backup methods but 


Supports all backup methods. 


incremental because of placement of 




directory. 




Might have to insert every tape of a 


Only needs the specific tape of a 


multiple-tape backup to restore a single file. 


multiple-tape backup to restore a single file. 



If the first tape (where directory is stored) of 
a multiple-tape backup is lost, no data is 
recovered from any of the remaining tapes 
(even if a history file exists on the hard 
disk). You cannot restore any data 
contained on tapes beyond the missing 
tape. (Example: If tape #3 of a six-tape 
backup is lost, only the data on tapes 1 and 
2 can be restored.) 



If last tape (where directory is stored) of a 
multiple-tape backup is lost, but the history 
is on the hard disk, all data up to the 
missing last tape is recovered. As long as a 
directory exists (on tape or hard disk), all 
data is recovered except what was 
contained on the missing tape. 



There is no significant performance increase of one format over the other, and both 
formats use about the same amount of space on the tape (all things being equal 
such as method and compression). 



Micro Channel is a trademark of IBM Corporation. 



Chapter 1 8. Using Central Point Backup 341 



After a tape is formatted as QIC, it does not need to be reformatted as Full-Screen 
Backup because the low-level formatting is identical. There is one exception to 
this— non-SX Irwin tape drives. These drives use special servo-writing (described 
previously) which is not QIC-compatible. The Irwin SX series of tape drives is 
QIC-compatible. 

Be aware that using encryption on a backup set written to a QIC tape makes that 
backup set unrestorable by other QIC-compatible backup programs. 

Note: If you are backing up server\volumes to a QIC-format tape, be sure the 

Save History command is on. This ensures the name of the server\volume 
is saved with the backup information on your hard disk. Because of the way 
QIC format was designed, server\volume names cannot be saved on the 
tape itself. 

Tape Controller Card Technical Information 

Backup supports various manufacturers' floppy and tape controller cards. In many 
cases, the card is recognized and used with no information required from you. 
However, some cards require special parameters to be set the first time you use 
Backup so the card is recognized for future backups. This is saved in the default 
configuration file. This section details the various cards that require this special 
information. 

Adapter cards connect between the primary diskette controller and the diskette and 
tape drives. Backup automatically detects the following cards when you select 
Search with the Define Equipment command. 

Archive XL20A 
Colorado AB-10 
Irwin 4251 

Secondary Tape Controller Cards Supported (Micro Channel): It is not 

necessary to specify any address information for these cards: 

Irwin 4100MC 

Mountain MACH2 (Micro Channel") 
Tecmar MCA Floppy Tape Controller 

Secondary Tape Controller Cards Supported (ISA): The following tape 
controller cards, which are Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) must have the I/O 
port address, IRQ channel, and the DMA channel specified. 



342 DOS User's Guide 



Tape Drive 


ADDR 


IRQ 


DMA 


Alloy FTFA Controller 


340 


3 


2 


Colorado FC-10 


180 


3 


2 


Colorado TC-15 


180 


3 


2 


Compaq Expansion Chassis #1075-70-001 


370 


6 


2 


Iomega IHA-10p 


370 


3 


1 


Irwin 4100 


370 


3 


2 


Mountain File Safe 8500 


130 


E 


0 


Mountain MACH2 


3E7 


5 


3 


Summit Accelerator 


3E7 


5 


3 


Summit SE 305 


130 


E 


0 


Tecmar QT 


300 


3 


1 


Wangtek Lightning Thunderbolt 


300 


3 


1 



The addresses listed are the factory settings of the cards. If you have altered these 
settings in any way, you must specify the values you have set so Backup can 
recognize the card. 

You can specify settings by entering the correct values in the Tape Configuration 
pop-up window, which you access with the Define Equipment command. 

SCSI Host Adapter Cards 

A SCSI tape device is connected to your personal computer with a special SCSI 
adapter card. Backup supports the following cards: 

Adaptec** AHA-1 520/1 522/1 510 AT 
Adaptec AHA-1 540/1 542 AT 
Adaptec AHA-1 640 MCA 

Adaptec AHA-1 740/1 742/1 744 EISA (in 1540 emulation mode ) 

Synchronizing the Volume Tape Content (VTC) Files: During the SCSI 
configuration of Backup, a pop-up window appears. 

The options that appear in this pop-up window can vary, depending on the type of 
SCSI adapter card you have. 



Adaptec is a trademark of Adaptec, Inc. 



Chapter 18. Using Central Point Backup 343 



A *.VTC (volume tape catalog) file is written to your hard disk after the backup 
process for each SCSI tape used, and is subsequently updated after each backup. 

When the Resync Volume Table before each Backup option is on, which is the 
default setting, the *.VTC file on your hard disk is updated with the *.VTC file on the 
tape before the tape directory appears on your screen. This process is 
time-consuming because the tape must be rewound and searched for the last 
*.VTC file. 

If you use a tape for a single PC, and you are the only one using that tape, you can 
safely turn off the Resync Volume Table before each Backup option because your 
*.VTC files are always identical. Turning off this option saves time by not having to 
rewind the tape and search for the last *.VTC file. 

However, if multiple users are backing up to the same tape, it is essential that the 
Resync Volume Table before each Backup option is on. This ensures that the 
*.VTC file on each user's hard disk always displays the actual directory of the tape. 

If there is any doubt about the contents of a SCSI tape, select the Catalog button 
in the Tape Directory pop-up window, which automatically compares and updates 
the VTC files. 



Backup Strategies 

Backing up your data depends in good measure on how frequently that data 
changes. Consider the following questions: 

How valuable are my files to me or my business? 
How many of my files change on a daily basis? 

How long would it take to replace those files if something happened to them? 

Backup offers several methods of backing up your data, depending on drive, media, 
and speed. Each method is explained in "Backup Methods" on page 347. 

Diskette Backup Strategy 

Make and use setup files for different backup methods, or use the WEEKLY and 
DAILY setup files that came with Backup. Use at least two sets of backup disks so 
that you are never overwriting your last backup with the current backup. 

Using a Preconfigured Setup File 

Backup ships with a preconfigured setup file (WEEKLY) that is set to back up all 
files on your first hard drive (usually C) and another one called DAILY that backs up 
only the changed files since the last full backup. 



344 DOS User's Guide 



To back up only changed files on a weekly basis: 

1 . Start Backup on Friday by typing: 

cpbackup weekly 

2. Begin your backup using the first set of diskettes. 

3. Label each diskette with its backup sequence number, name, and set number. 

For example, #1, Friday backup, Set a. The next diskette would be #2, 

Friday backup, Set A, and SO on. 

4. Start Backup on Monday through Thursday by typing: 

cpbackup da.i ly 

When prompted, insert the last diskette of your backup set (if doing an 
incremental backup). For example, if you used 25 disks for your Friday backup, 
you would insert diskette #25 of backup set A. When prompted, insert 
additional diskettes as needed. 

5. Label each diskette with its proper sequence number (#26 of Set A, #27 of Set 
A, and so on). 

Each day, you back up and append the changed files to the Friday full backup set. 
By the end of Thursday's daily backup, you might have several disks beyond the 
original 25 you used on Friday. 

Conversely, if you do a differential backup, you are prompted to insert a new 
diskette each day. If the need to restore ever arises, you restore the full backup 
and the last differential diskette. 

To back up on even-numbered weeks starting on Friday: 

Repeat the above steps, using the second set of diskettes. Be sure to label these 
as Set B. 

Using Different Backup Methods 

For many people, a monthly full backup is sufficient, coupled with daily backups of 
the changed files. Use one of the following methods, depending on your particular 
needs, every day: 

Do a daily differential backup to diskettes. Alternate between two sets of disks 
for safety. When the sets use more than six diskettes, do another full backup. 
The differential method does not save multiple daily versions of the changed 
files. It only saves the latest versions. 

Do a separate incremental backup on Monday (which starts a new backup set), 
followed by daily incremental backups to diskettes. This keeps daily versions of 



Chapter 1 8. Using Central Point Backup 345 



the files that change but creates less backup sets than using separate 
incremental exclusively. 

Tape Backup Strategies 

A tremendous advantage to using a tape drive for your backup is its ability to totally 
automate your backups. A simple strategy is to use at least two tapes so you are 
never writing over your last backup with the current backup. 

To back up using the two-tape strategy: 

1 . Schedule a weekly full backup using the WEEKLY setup file and Tape #1 . 

2. Schedule a daily backup using the DAILY setup file and Tape #1. 

3. Use Tape #2 the second week, and continue alternating tapes each week. 

Another popular backup strategy, referred to as "Grandfather, Father, Son," uses 10 
tapes and gives you a complete backup of 12 weeks' data. 

To back up using the ten-tape strategy: 

1 . Label the tapes as follows: 

1 - Monday 

2 - Tuesday 

3 - Wednesday 

4 ■ Thursday 

5 - 1 st Friday 



6 - 2nd Friday 

7 - 3rd Friday 

8 - 1st Month 

9 - 2nd Month 
10 - 3rd Month 



2. Use tape 5 on the first Friday and back up your entire system. 

3. On the following Monday, use tape 1 , labeled Monday, to do a separate 
incremental or differential backup of the changed files. Repeat this every 
weekday using the appropriately labeled tape. 

4. On the second Friday, use tape 6 (2nd Friday) for another full backup, and 
repeat the Monday through Thursday backups, using the corresponding tapes 
(you will overwrite these tapes). 

5. Repeat step 4 for week 3, using tape 7 (3rd Friday). 

6. Repeat step 4 for week 4, and use tape 8 (1st Month) on the fourth Friday. 

7. Repeat steps 2 through 6, using tape 9 (2nd Month) on the fourth Friday of the 
second month, and tape 10 (3rd Month) on the fourth Friday of the third month. 

In subsequent months, recycle the three "Month" tapes, always overwriting the 
oldest tape. 



346 DOS User's Guide 



To back up using the combined diskettes and tapes strategy: 

Do full backups to tape, with subsequent differential or separate incremental 
backups to diskettes. This saves the expense of purchasing a lot of tapes (as in 
the above strategy). 

Use this method if you are backing up to a removable cartridge, such as a Bernoulli 
or SyQuest drive, or to a directory on a network. 

To back up using the removable media or network backup strategy: 

1: Create a subdirectory named FULL on the network or cartridge and do a full 
backup, either weekly or monthly, to it. 

2. Create two subdirectories named DAILY1 and DAILY2 on the same drive. 

Alternate daily differential backups to the two DAILY directories. 

By creating the three subdirectories, you avoid the problem of overwriting the three 
files that Backup writes that contain your data and information about the backup. 
These three files are: 

CPBACKUP.001, which contains your backed-up data. 
CPBACKUP.DIR, which contains the directory of the backed up data. 
CPBACKUP.INF, which contains boot record information. 



Backup Methods 

This information is provided for those who would like to know the different ways to 
back up data, how to use each method, and why you would want to use it. The 
Archive Bit Backup can detect what files have changed between backups by the 
status of the archive bit. The archive bit is a special status bit that is contained in 
the directory entry for every file on your hard disk. This bit determines if a file has 
changed since the last backup. When you change or create a file, DOS sets the 
archive bit. Backup uses the archive bit as an indicator of whether a file has been 
added or changed since the last backup. The method you choose to back up your 
files determines how Backup uses the archive bit. 

To see which files in a tree have their archive bit set, select Display Options 
Long Format, and then display the tree. You can see the "A" attribute for every file 
that has it set. 

The following table explains each backup method and the effect each has on the 
archive bit of a backed-up file: 



Chapter 18. Using Central Point Backup 347 



Backup Method 


How it Backs Up Your Hard Disk 


C, ill 

run 


Selects all files specified by Selection Options, regardless of 




the setting of the archive bit. A full backup is the default 




setting. A full backup clears the archive bit after the backup is 




finished. This marks each file as being backed up. 


run oopy 


The same as a full backup except that it does not change the 




archive bits. All files are backed up and their corresponding 




archive bits remain in the same state they were in prior to the 




backup. 


The next two options are available only if you have your drive and media set to a 


tape drive. 




Backup Method 


How it Backs Up Your Hard Disk 


Full/Erase Tape 


This is a full backup to tape, starting the backup at the 




beginning of the tape, regardless of any previous backups that 




might be on it. 


Full/Append to Tape 


This is a full backup to tape, starting a new backup 




immediately after the last backup on the tape. 


Note: Start with a full backup to set the archive bits before using any of the 


following three methods. 


Backup Method 


How it Backs Up Your Hard Disk 



Incremental Selects only files specified by Selection Options that have their 

archive bits set. A history file of all backed-up files is stored on 
the backup media. An incremental backup writes the new 
backup data to the end of a previous backup (usually a full) 
and then merges the history file of the incremental with that of 
the full backup, making one backup set and history file. 
Multiple incremental backups are appended to a full backup. 
After backing up the new or changed files, it clears the archive 
bit. 

Separate Incremental Selects the same files as incremental, but does not append to 

a previous backup. It maintains its own history file within each 
backup set. After backing up the new or changed files, it 
clears the archive bit. Each separate incremental backup 
starts on a new diskette and overwrites any data on the 
diskette. When making multiple-drive incremental backups to a 
tape, you must use the separate incremental method. 



DOS User's Guide 



Backup Method 



How it Backs Up Your Hard Disk 



Differential Selects the same files as incremental, but the archive bits for 

the files it backs up remain in the same state they were in prior 
to the backup. Each differential backup starts on a new disk. 
You can also reuse previous differential disks, which overwrites 
any data on the disk. 



The following section discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each backup 
method, giving an example of how each method works. 

Full Backup 

Advantages: This method is safest because everything is backed up. If 

your hard disk experiences a problem after your backup, then 
restoring all or some of the files, as well as the entire 
directory structure, from a full backup is easy. A full backup 
is contained in one set of disks or tapes. 

Disadvantages: Doing full backups exclusively can be time consuming and 
use many disks or tapes. 

Example: 



Day 


Files Changed 


Files Backed Up 


Friday 


A B C D 


A B C D 


Monday 


AB 


A B C D 


Tuesday 


ABC 


A BC D 



In the above example, the letters represent files that are backed up and 
demonstrate how' they get backed up into different backup sets. 

Full Copy Backup 

Advantages: You can back up files from a write-protected device, such as 

a CD-ROM drive or network drives. You can make multiple 
backups for off-site storage. You can back up a hard disk 
that is experiencing problems without writing to it. When you 
are having hard disk problems, writing to it can cause even 
worse problems to happen. You can make a "copy" of the 
hard drive at the office to take home to "restore" on your 
home computer without affecting the archive bits for future 
incremental or differential backups. 



Chapter 18. Using Central Point Backup 349 



Disadvantages: Subsequent incremental, separate incremental, or differential 
backups are redundant if based on a full copy backup. The 
reason is that some of the same files are backed up because 
the archive bits were not set. 

Example: 



Day 


Files Changed 


Files Backed Up 


Friday 


A B C D 


A B C D 


Monday 


A B 


A B C D 


Tuesday 


ABC 


A B C D 



The following methods are partial backups that only back up changed or new files 
since the last full or incremental backup. Each handles the backup disks or tapes 
in different ways. 

Incremental Backup 

Advantages: This form of backup provides a daily version of your files by 

appending the changed files to the full backup. In the event 
of a restore, all the files needed to restore your system to the 
point of your last backup are in one backup set of disks or 
tapes. You can also restore just one day's version of your 
files. This method is usually much faster than doing a full 
backup every day. 

Disadvantages: If you change large files daily, you have multiple copies of 

that file on your disks or tapes, which takes up space. If you 
make multiple-drive full backups to one tape, you cannot do 
incremental backups to that same tape (only to the last 
backup on the tape, and the tape must be in CPS-format). 

Example: 



Day 


Files Changed 


Files Backed Up 


Friday 


A B C D 


A B C D 


Monday 


A B 


A B 


Tuesday 


B D 


B D 



In the above example, there are three versions of file B in the 
backup set. 



DOS User's Guide 



Separate Incremental Backup 

Advantages: This is the same process as the incremental backup 

described previously. However, a separate incremental 
backup does not append itself to the parent full backup. You 
can lock the full backup disks or tapes away for safe-keeping, 
and use different disks or tapes for daily backups of changed 
files using the separate incremental method. If you are using 
tape, you can make multiple full and separate incremental 
backups to the same tape. 

Disadvantages: Having multiple sets of disks or tapes with daily changes can 
lead to confusion or lost disks. Each separate incremental 
backup requires a separate diskette or set of diskettes. If 
you have to rebuild your hard disk, each separate 
incremental backup must be restored in reverse order, 
followed by the full backup. 

Example: 



Day 


Files Changed 


Files Backed Up 


Friday 


A B C D 


A B C D 


Monday 


A B 


A B 


Tuesday 


ABC 


ABC 



In the previous example, there are three versions of files A 
and B on three different sets of disks. 



Differential Backup 

Advantages: If you are working with large files that change frequently, then 

a differential backup saves media by allowing you to use the 
same disks or tapes over and over for the daily backup. In 
the event that you need to restore your hard disk, you would 
restore your latest differential set first, and then the full 
backup. As soon as you complete a new differential backup, 
the older differentials are no longer needed and can be 
reused. 

Disadvantages: You do not have daily versions of files if you are using the 
same disks for backing up every day and the disks are likely 
to wear out faster as they are used more often. If you are 
using tapes and doing unattended differential backups, you 
end up backing up the same data multiple times, because 



Chapter 18. Using Central Point Backup 351 



each differential backup is appended to the tape. Do not use 
a tape for unattended differential backups for this reason. 

Example: 



Day 


Files Changed 


Files Backed Up 


Friday 


A D 


A D 


Monday 


B 


A B D 


Tuesday 


ABC 


A B C D 



Note: Never mix the partial backup methods you use after a full backup unless 
you are very sure of what you are doing. If you start with the incremental 
method, then continue to use that until your next full backup. The same is 
true for using the differential method because one method clears the archive 
bit and the other leaves it alone. 



The following table summarizes each backup method and what it does: 



Backup Method 


Changed 
files 
only 


Resets 
archive 
bit 


Selected 
files 


Creates 
new 
set 


Appends 

to a 
previous 
backup 


Full 




X 


X 


X 




Full Copy 






X 


X 




Incremental 


X 


X 






X 


Separate Incremental 


X 


X 




X 




Differential 


X 






X 





The CPBDIR Program 

The CPBDIR program determines the number of disks and the correct order of a 
high- or medium-speed diskette backup (very helpful if you forgot to label the disks 
in their proper order) as well as information about how the backup was made. 

Note: Use the DOS DIR command on low-speed disks to find out the diskette 
number and date of backup. There will be two files on the diskette: 

CPBACKUP.INF 

CPBACKUP.nnn where nnn is the diskette number of the set. 

There will also be a CPBxxx.DIR on the last diskette of the set (this is the history 
file). 



352 DOS User's Guide 



CPBDIR is a stand-alone application that you run by typing the following at the 
DOS command prompt. If you want to read a backup diskette from a different 
drive, type: 

cpbdir d: 

where d is the drive letter of the drive where the backup diskette is inserted. 
You must put a colon after the drive letter. 

CPBDIR then displays information from the backup diskette, such as the disk 
number of the backup set, media used, formatting, speed used, and if a directory 
exists on the diskette. CPBDIR recognizes the following parameters: 

d Is the drive the backup diskettes are in. 

fx Shows an extended list of information about the backup disk. 



Chapter 1 8. Using Central Point Backup 353 



354 DOS User's Guide 



Chapter 19. Using IBM PenDOS 



PenDOS** lets you use pen-based applications as well as standard mouse-based 
DOS applications on any 386" or higher computer. Computing has never been 
easier because you can write, draw, and issue commands using two skills you 
learned as a child: pointing and using a pen. 

PenDOS lets you use the mouse as a pen. You do not need any other special 
equipment to try pen computing. To get you started, PenDOS lets you use the 
mouse as a pen. For instructions, see "Using the Mouse as a Pen" on page 358. 

Using a pen tablet computer or externally attached digitizer tablet, you can write 
naturally because PenDOS includes CIC's Handwriter Recognition System. To 
introduce you to pen computing, this version of Handwriter recognizes numbers and 
symbols only. A full version of Handwriter that recognizes uppercase and 
lowercase letters, numbers, punctuation marks, and symbols is available separately 
from IBM. 



Installing IBM PenDOS after Installing DOS 

If you did not choose to use pen-based applications at initial setup, you can still 
install PenDOS by rerunning DOS Setup using the /e switch. 

The DOS Setup diskettes contain everything you need to install PenDOS. You 
might want to refer to Appendix A, "Installing DOS" on page 391 before you begin 
the installation of optional tools. 

To install PenDOS using the DOS Setup /e switch: 

1. Insert diskette 1 of the DOS Setup diskettes into drive A or B. 

2. At the DOS command prompt, type: 

a: setup /e 

or 

b: setup /e 



PenDOS is a trademark of Communication Intelligence Corporation. 
386 is a trademark of Intel Corporation. 

Handwriter is a trademark of Communication Intelligence Corporation. 

Copyright IBM Corp. 1981, 1993 3 55 



The /e switch allows you to return to the optional tools selection menu without 
having to do a complete reinstallation. At this point, only the necessary files for 
the optional tools for Windows will be installed. 

3. After Setup for DOS begins, follow the instructions displayed on the screen. 
Make sure you specify the same "Install to PATH" as you did when you did the 
initial DOS installation. 

At the Optional Tools screen, there is a no next to IBM PenDOS. 

4. Press the UP ARROW and DOWN ARROW until you highlight PenDOS. 

5. Press ENTER. - 

You now see a selection of pen and mouse tablet drivers. Look for the name 
of the tablet or pen computer you will use with PenDOS and select one of the 
following: 

Your computer's tablet driver if you have a pen tablet computer with a 
self-contained digitizer. 

The proper tablet driver for your digitizer if you have an externally attached 
digitizer. 

The Digitizing Pad Emulation via Mouse tablet driver if you will be using 
your mouse as a pen. 

Use the arrow keys to scroll up or down until your selection is highlighted, and 
then press ENTER. 

When you return to the optional tools selection menu, you now see yes next to 
PenDOS. 

6. Select any other optional tool you want to add at this time by highlighting an 
optional tool and pressing ENTER. Repeat this step for each optional tool. 

You now see yes next to the optional tools you want to install. 

7. Move the cursor to highlight the following: 

The listed options are correct. 

8. Press ENTER to accept the optional tool selections. 

9. Continue following the instructions on the screen until the optional tools are 
installed. 



356 DOS User's Guide 



Starting PenDOS 

Before starting PenDOS, it is important to make sure you have the proper hardware 
installed and the correct tablet driver selected. If you have a pen tablet computer 
with a self-contained digitizer, you should have chosen that computer's tablet driver 
during DOS Setup. Refer to "Installing IBM PenDOS after Installing DOS" on 
page 355 for details. 

If you have an externally attached digitizer, be sure the digitizer is connected to the 
proper communication port on your computer. Refer to the digitizer manufacturer's 
instructions for the proper installation procedure. You should have also selected 
the proper tablet driver for your digitizer during DOS Setup. If you will be using 
your mouse as your pointing device, select the Digitizing Pad Emulation via Mouse 
tablet driver during DOS Setup. 

The DOS Setup program modifies your CONFIG.SYS file by adding the appropriate 
device statement when you select IBM PenDOS as an optional tool and then select 
a tablet or mouse device. 

If you do not want to modify your AUTOEXEC.BAT to have PenDOS start 
automatically whenever you start your computer, you can type the PENDOS 
command at the DOS command prompt each time you want to use this program. 

To start PenDOS: 

1 . Type the following at the DOS command prompt: 

pendos 

2. Press ENTER. 



Using the Pen 

With PenDOS, you use the pen to write, edit, draw, select text or objects, and issue 
commands such as saving or closing a file. 

Hold the pen the same way you hold an ordinary pen or pencil. 

Rest your hand and forearm on the writing surface as you would when you 
write on a piece of paper. 

Press the pen tip lightly against the writing surface. 



Chapter 19. Using IBM PenDOS 357 



The pen has two important 
features: the pen tip and 
the side button. 



~ Pen Tip 

Pen Tip: You press the pen tip on the writing surface to write in the Writing 
Window, make gestures, select text and objects, choose menu commands, and 
tap the on-screen buttons. 

Side Button (some pen models): You hold down the side button with the pen 
close to the writing surface to display the PenDOS menu. You also hold down 
the side button while you make editing gestures, such as delete or insert. 

If your pen does not have a side button, tapping the extreme upper-right corner 
of the writing surface is equivalent to holding down the side button. 



Using the Mouse as a Pen 

If you have a pen tablet computer or an externally attached digitizer tablet and pen, 
you will not need to use your mouse as a pen. Simply install the correct tablet 
driver for your hardware as explained in "Starting PenDOS" on page 357. 

To use the mouse as a pen, use the Digitizing Pad Emulation via Mouse tablet 
driver by selecting it during DOS Setup. 

If you do not have a statement about MOUSE.COM in the DOS AUTOEXEC.BAT 
file, then before you start PenDOS, type mouse on the DOS command prompt to 
load M0USE.COM. 

Then, when you move the mouse in PenDOS, the special "arrow" cursor displays 
the location of the pen tip. To write characters, hold down the left mouse button 
while you move the mouse. Use the right mouse button as the pen's side button. 
To write gestures, hold down both buttons simultaneously. 



358 DOS User's Guide 



Using the PenDOS Menu 

The PenDOS menu contains buttons you can tap to display the Writing Window and 
the PenDOS keyboard, as well as to send ESC and ENTER to an application. 

To display the PenDOS menu: press the pen tip lightly against the writing 
surface while holding down the side button. The PenDOS menu appears in the 
upper-right corner of the screen. 




i 



The PenDOS menu buttons perform the following actions: 



Button What it does 



t — — — | Displays a keyboard, used for entering all characters, including 

1 _ J non-printable characters such as CTRL, ALT, SHIFT, and function keys. 



[ ESC ) Acts ,ike tne ESC ke Y on a keyboard. 



Acts like the ENTER key on a keyboard. 



WW Displays the Writing Window. 



Chapter 19. Using IBM PenDOS 359 



Entering Characters 

There are two ways to enter characters with PenDOS: writing in the Writing 
Window and tapping keys on the PenDOS keyboard. 

Using the Writing Window 

The Writing Window provides a pop-up window in which you can enter and edit 
characters, and then send them to the DOS command line or to an application. In 
this version of PenDOS, only numbers and symbols are recognized. 

To display the Writing Window: 

You can: 

1 . Press the pen tip lightly against the writing surface while 
holding down the side button. 

The PenDOS menu appears. 

2. Tap the WW button on the PenDOS menu. 



Or, you can: 

Write the Insert gesture anywhere on the writing surface. 

For information about gestures, see "Editing Characters" on 
page 364. 

The Writing Window appears: 



A 



Editing Line 



Writing Area 



I 1 


2i3 


4 


5|67jah|0j | 


■ | 1 •] 



CLEAR ! 



SPACE I CANCEL. SEND 



MORE i K 



Function Buttons 



The Writing Window has three important areas: 

The editing line displays the characters that were entered. 

The writing area contains a row of boxes. Write one number or symbol in each 
box. 



360 DOS User's Guide 



The function buttons let you edit the characters you wrote as well as send them 
to an application. You can also display the PenDOS keyboard by tapping the 
K button. 



Button 



What it does 



CLEAR Clears all characters in the Writing Window. 

Deletes the last character before the cursor in the editing line, like the 
* BACKSPACE key on a keyboard. 



SPACE 



CANCEL 



SEND 



Inserts a space character at the editing line cursor. 



Closes the Writing Window without sending any characters to the 
application. 



Sends characters to the application, closes the Writing Window, and 
returns to the application. 



Works like SEND, but it also sends a carriage return after the last 
character. 

MORE Sends the characters to the application and clears the editing line. 
K Displays the PenDOS keyboard. 



To display the PenDOS keyboard: tap the K on the Writing Window. 

To return to the Writing Window from the PenDOS keyboard: tap the 

CANCEL button on the PenDOS keyboard. 

Using the PenDOS Keyboard 

If a DOS application does not provide mouse-aware menus or if you need to enter 
non-printable characters such as ALT+F1 , use the PenDOS keyboard to issue 
commands. PenDOS sends the keystrokes to the application as if you had typed 
them on a physical keyboard. 

To display the PenDOS keyboard: hold down the pen's side button and tap the 
K button on the PenDOS menu, or tap the K button on the Writing Window. 



Chapter 19. Using IBM PenDOS 361 



Editing Line Numeric Keypad 







Fj F2j F3j F4j ^ F6] F7j P8j «} Fioj Flj FJ_j 




JJdliiiiJiJlMJLJJddddd 

™ | q 1 w 1 9 1 r 1 J Lj ij J i| iJ jj U S 

_f!JiJiJlll]lJlJjJjlJlJJJ ±Z=LJ 

sm | z\ x| c| v| b| n| m| . | | /| sh« | 
A " I 1 CL 1 


fd d fJ J 
lljj.ll J 
llllli J 
Jilil J 
iJJJ 


CLEAR j 4-1 CANCEL I SEND j MORE J WW 1 

"7_j 



Function Buttons 



The PenDOS keyboard has three important areas besides the standard keys: 

The editing line displays the characters that were entered. 

The numeric keypad lets you enter ASCII values. It is only displayed when the 
NL (Num Lock) button is selected. 

The function buttons let you edit the characters you wrote as well as send them 
to an application, or display the Writing Window. 

The buttons on the PenDOS keyboard have the same function as the buttons 
on the Writing Window: 



Button 


What it does 


CLEAR 


Clears all characters in the editing line. 




Deletes the last character before the cursor in the editing line, like 




the BACKSPACE key on the keyboard. 


CANCEL 


Closes the keyboard without sending any characters to the 




application. 


SEND 


Sends characters to the application, closes the keyboard, and 




returns to the application. 


MORE 


Sends the characters to the application and clears the editing line. 


WW 


Displays the Writing Window. 



362 DOS User's Guide 



To use the Pen DOS keyboard: use the pen to tap the keys for the desired 
characters. The characters appear in the editing line. 

To use special keys such as SHIFT and CTRL: 

1 . Tap the modifier key or keys. The modifier keys on the PenDOS keyboard are 
SHIFT, CTRL, ALT, CL (Caps Lock), NL (Num Lock), and SL (Scroll Lock). 

2. Tap the desired character that follows the modifier key. 

Note: The notation <scan> appears for some control characters, function keys, 
and certain instances of ALT+character. 

For example, to enter CTRL+A, tap CTRL, and then tap A. PenDOS sends "A to the 
editing line at the top of the PenDOS keyboard. 

To send keystrokes to the application: tap the SEND or MORE button, or tap 

the 4 I key on the PenDOS keyboard. Tapping 4 I sends the contents of the 

editing line followed by a carriage return to the application. 

To enter an ASCII value: 

1 . Tap NL (Num Lock) to display the numeric keypad. 

2. Tap ALT. 

3. Tap the numbers of the ASCII code on the numeric 
keypad (located on the right side of the PenDOS 
keyboard). 

For example, the ASCII code 156 is equivalent to the £ 
character. 

The ASCII code and the associated character appear 
above the numeric keypad. 

4. Tap the ALT key again. 
The value is sent to the editing line. 

To display the Writing Window: tap the WW button on the PenDOS keyboard. 

To return to the PenDOS keyboard from the Writing Window: tap the 

CANCEL button on the Writing Window. 

To remove the PenDOS keyboard from the screen: tap the CANCEL button on 
the PenDOS keyboard. 




Chapter 19. Using IBM PenDOS 363 



Editing Characters 

To edit the characters in the Writing Window, on the PenDOS keyboard, or in an 
application, you make gestures with the pen. Gestures are simple pen strokes that 
resemble proofreaders' marks. 

Some gestures have the same effect in most DOS applications. These are called 
universal gestures. For example, the Delete gesture is a universal gesture for 
deleting a single character. Not all gestures are supported in every application. 
For example, if the application does not have a command for undoing the last 
action, the Undo gesture has no effect in that application. 

Note: You can use gestures if your pen does not have a side button. Tapping the 
extreme upper-right corner of the writing tablet is equivalent to holding down 
the side button. 



The following table describes the PenDOS gestures: 



Gesture 


What it does 


Universal 
gesture 




Deletes a single character. 


Yes 


x 


Deletes the highlighted block of text. 


Yes 




Displays the Writing Window and 
inserts text at this location. 


Yes 




Inserts a space. 


Yes 



364 DOS User's Guide 



Gesture 


What it does 


Universal 
gesture 


/ / 
/ / 


Simulates clicking the right mouse 
button. To write the Tap gesture, hold 
down the pen's side button and tap 
the pen tip lightly against the writing 
surface. 


Yes 




Undoes the last action. 


No 


A 


Pastes previously copied text. 


No 




Copies the highlighted block of text. 


No 



Most gestures have hot spots, shown in the table as a black dot on the gesture 
stroke. The hot spot indicates where you want the action to occur. For example, 
the hot spot for the Insert gesture is at the tip; that is, when you write the Insert 
gesture, make sure the tip is centered on the character to the right of where you 
want to insert. 

The following gestures do not have hot spots, so you can write them anywhere on 
the writing surface: 

Undo 

Delete a block 
Copy a block 
Tap 

For your convenience, PenDOS provides gesture macros used by many popular 
applications. A macro is a sequence of keystrokes that executes a command. 



Chapter 19. Using IBM PenDOS 365 



To write a gesture: 

1. Press the pen tip lightly against the writing surface while holding down the side 
button. 

2. Write the gesture. 

The gesture should remain within a 2.5 inch by 2.5 inch square. 

3. Lift the pen from the writing surface. 

Editing Characters in the Writing Window and PenDOS Keyboard 

This section describes how to edit the characters that appear in the editing line of 
both the Writing Window and the PenDOS keyboard. 

To delete a character: hold down the side button and write 
one of the delete gestures over the character in the editing 



line. 

The character is deleted. Any characters to the right move 
over to close the space. 

To insert a character: 

1 . In the editing line on the Writing Window or PenDOS keyboard, place the 
cursor by tapping the character to the right of the position where you want to 
insert the new character. 

For example, to insert a "7" before the "8" in the following illustration, you would 
place the cursor on the "8." 



I 123456 E)9 0 



Write Numbers Only 



I C LEAR I I-*— I space! cancel] SEND j f'^hT] MORE j jjf 



The insertion point is highlighted, and all characters in the writing area 
disappear. 

2. Write the new character in the writing area, or tap the new character on the 
PenDOS keyboard. 



366 DOS User's Guide 



To insert a space: 

There are two ways to insert a space: 

Write the Insert Space gesture in the editing 
line. 



1234567 




Make sure the hot spot is centered on the 
character to the right of where you want the 
space to appear. 

Tap the character in the editing line that is to 
the right of where you want the space to 
appear and then tap the SPACE button. 

To clear the writing area: hold down the side button and 
write one of the delete gestures anywhere in the writing area: 



Note: The delete gestures clear the writing area only. To S * ^ J 

clear the editing line as well as the writing area, tap 
the CLEAR button. 

Working with Applications 

This section explains how to work with standard mouse-aware applications using 
PenDOS. 

Starting Applications 

You can start applications whether you are using DOS Shell or not. 

To start an application if you are using DOS Shell: 

1. Tap twice rapidly with the pen (double-tap) on the drive that contains the 
application you want to start. 

2. Double-tap the directory name. 

If the directory does not appear in the scroll list, scroll down by using the scroll 
arrows or thumb, or by making a fast, vertical pen stroke that starts anywhere 
and extends below the window. Do not hold down the side button when you 
make the pen stroke. 

3. Double-tap the application's file name. Executable files normally have the 
extension .EXE or .BAT. 




Chapter 19. Using IBM PenDOS 367 



To start an application if you are not using DOS Shell: 

t. At the DOS command prompt, hold down the side button and press the pen tip 
lightly against the writing surface. 

The PenDOS menu appears in the upper-right corner of the screen. 

2. Tap the K button to display the PenDOS keyboard. 

3. Go to the directory that contains the file by tapping cd \directory_name and then 
tapping the A I key. 

If you make an entry mistake, see "Editing Characters" on page 364. 

4. Start the application by tapping the keys for filename and then tapping the M I 

key. 

Note: You can also start applications by typing commands on a physical 
keyboard. 

Pointing and Selecting 

To position the application cursor: lightly tap the writing surface with the pen 
tip. Tapping with the pen tip is equivalent to clicking the left mouse button. 

To select menu items: tap the item with the pen tip. 

To select a block of text or group of objects: 

1 . Tap one end of the selection and keep 

the tip in contact with the writing surface, fj Jtj 

then drag the pen to the other end of the /// /// 

selection. 

2. Lift the pen from the writing surface. 

This is equivalent to holding down the 
mouse button and dragging the mouse. 

Note: These instructions apply only to of text 

mouse-aware applications that support ora^roupbYoBjecte. . . 
block highlighting. 




368 DOS User's Guide 



Editing Characters in the Application 

To delete a character: hold down the side button and write 
one of the delete gestures. Make sure the hot spot is 
centered on the character you want to delete. 



To delete a highlighted block or group of objects: hold 
down the side button and write the Delete Block gesture. 

To insert a character using the Writing Window: 

1 . Hold down the side button and write the Insert gesture in 
the application file. Make sure the hot spot is centered at 
the location where you want to insert the character. 

The Writing Window appears. 

2. Write the character or characters you want to insert. 

3. Tap 4 I, SEND, or MORE. 

To insert a character using the PenDOS keyboard: 

1 . Place the cursor by tapping the character to the right of 
the position where you want to insert the new character. 

2. Display the PenDOS keyboard by holding down the pen's 
side button and tap the K button on the PenDOS menu. 

3. Use the pen to tap the keys for the desired characters. 

4. Tap the 4 I key, the SEND, or MORE button. 

To insert a space: hold down the side button and write the 
Insert Space gesture. Make sure the hot spot is centered at 
the location where you want to insert the space. 

To paste previously copied text or objects: hold down the 
side button and write the Paste gesture in the application file. 
Make sure the hot spot is centered at the location where you 
want to paste the text or objects. 



Chapter 19. Using 



To undo the previous command: hold down the side 
button and write the Undo gesture anywhere on the writing 
surface. 

Note: The Undo gesture is not a universal gesture; it might 
not work in all applications. 

Using an Off-the-Shelf Application 

You can use PenDOS with most of the DOS applications you already have. 

For example, to use PenDOS with Borland's Quattro Pro" spreadsheet application: 

1. In Quattro Pro, tap a cell to highlight it. 
To select a group of cells, drag the pen. 

2. Hold down the side button with the pen close to the writing surface to display 
the PenDOS menu. 

3. To enter characters in the highlighted cell, write the Insert gesture, or tap WW 
or K on the PenDOS menu. 

In the Writing Window, write numbers in the boxes and then tap 4 I , 

SEND, or MORE. 

On the PenDOS keyboard, tap the keys of the characters you want to enter 
and then tap the ENTER key ( 4 I). 

4. To clear a cell, highlight the cell and write one of the delete gestures. 

5. To delete a cell or several cells, highlight the cells and write the Delete Block 
gesture. 

6. To copy a cell or several cells, highlight the cells and write the Copy gesture. 

7. To undo the last action, write the Undo gesture. 
Note: Undo must be enabled. 




** Quattro Pro is a trademark of Borland International, Inc. 
370 DOS User's Guide 



Aligning the Tablet 

If the ink does not seem to line up with the tip of your pen, you can align the tablet. 

To align the tablet: 

1. Start the PSETUP.EXE file. 

Note: Follow the instructions in "Working with Applications" on page 367. You 
will find the PSETUP.EXE file in the C:\DOS\SYSTEM directory. 

The following window appears: 



2. Use the pen to tap the center point of the cross-hairs. 
Hold the pen at the same angle you do when you write. 

3. Test the alignment by writing anywhere outside the box that contains the 
cross-hairs. To clear the ink, tap the CLEAR button. 

4. If the alignment is still not precise, tap the center point again. 

5. When the tablet is aligned to your satisfaction, tap the SAVE button to save the 
new alignment and exit the program. 

To exit the alignment program without saving any changes, tap the CANCEL 
button. 




CLEAR 



CANCEL 



SAVE J 



Chapter 19. Using IBM PenDOS 371 



Recognition Tips 

This section contains tips to help you ensure that PenDOS recognizes all of your 
characters. 

Separate Your Characters 

The Writing Window contains boxes to help you separate the characters. Write one 
character in each box. 



Write Numbers Only 



CLEARj j SPACE] CANCE L] SEND] I 1 MORE J JK_ 



Closing Loops 

Make sure the loops are fully closed, 
misinterpreted as a "4." 



An open "9" could be 



4 H 



Retracing 

To avoid confusion, do not retrace characters. PenDOS 
interprets retraces as a new character. 



Writing Slashes and Parentheses 

Write slashes and parentheses so that they cross both the top 
and bottom lines of the box. 



znn 



372 DOS User's Guide 



Character Variations 

PenDOS uses CIC's Handwriter Recognition System. This section lists the 
characters that this version of Handwriter recognizes and how to write them. When 
the direction and sequence of the pen strokes is important, arrows indicate the 
direction of the pen stroke and numbers indicate the sequence of the strokes. 
Horizontal lines represent the top and bottom lines of the boxes in the PenDOS 
Writing Window. 



Numbers 



Symbols 





1 












3V 


§< 




A 


A 






k> 


VS. 2 


2 -&1 
































(0l 







V 



1 

S5> 



1 



'J 1 

X 

2-^ 



1 4 



Chapter 19. Using IBM PenDOS 373 



374 DOS User's Guide 



Chapter 20. Using Phoenix PCMCIA Support 

A computer having Personal Computer Memory Card International Association 
(PCMCIA) support provides sockets into which you can insert credit card-sized 
devices called PC Cards. PC Cards let you extend the capabilities of your 
computer by adding functions, such as: 

Communications (modems, Token Ring, Ethernet, 3270, and 5250) 
Memory (DRAM, SRAM, EPROM, and FLASH) 
Rotating media (ATA disk drives) 
Solid state disk drives 

The PCMCIA sockets are numbered 0 through n-1 where n is the number of 
sockets on your system. You insert a PC Card by aligning it with a PCMCIA socket 
and sliding the card into the socket. You remove a card by pressing the eject 
button (or by some other ejection means provided by your system vendor) on the 
PCMCIA socket to eject the card. Refer to your hardware documentation for 
details. 

After the PC Cards are installed and operating, you can interchange PCMCIA PC 
Cards in the PCMCIA PC Card slots (adhering to certain precautions) with little or 
no knowledge of the technology involved in the inner workings of the software. This 
ability to easily insert and remove PC Cards means you can move function and 
data from one computer to another. 

The PCMCIA standard allows for the uniform development of PC Cards for 
portable, laptop, some desktop, and palmtop PC accessories, such as memory 
expansion cards, fax and modem attachments, and interfaces to corporate 
networks. 

The PCMCIA standard defines both the hardware and software interfaces for 
PCMCIA sockets and cards. The Card Services module is the operating system 
software layer for PCMCIA. It defines a set of application programming interfaces 
(APIs) that system and application software can use to communicate with PCMCIA 
sockets and cards. 



Copyright IBM Corp. 1981, 1993 



375 



This chapter provides a description of each of the following components of PCMCIA 
Support: 



Description: 


Device Driver Name: 


Card Services 2.0 


PCMCS.EXE 


Super Client Driver 


PCMSCD.EXE 


Virtual driver for FAT-structured devices 


PCMATA.SYS 


(FAT Block Device Driver) 




FAT diskette emulation 


PCMFDD.EXE 


Memory Technology Driver 


PCMMTD.EXE 


Information utilities 


PCMINFO.EXE (for DOS) 




WPCMINFO.CPL (for Windows) 


Windows VxD driver for fax or modem cards 


PCMVCD.386 


SRAM format utility for drive A or B 


PCFORMAT.EXE 



Installing Phoenix PCMCIA Support 

The DOS Setup diskettes contain the modules required to provide PCMCIA support 
on your system. You might want to refer to Appendix A, "Installing DOS" on 
page 391 before you begin the installation of the optional tools. 

If you want to use PCMCIA Support while in a Windows session, and you did not 
select PCMCIA Support for Windows at initial setup, you can still install this 
program. 

During Setup, DOS checks whether your computer has Windows 3.1 installed. If 
you do not have Windows installed and want to use the optional tools provided with 
DOS for Windows, you should make sure you install in this order: 

1. Install DOS as you normally would, selecting the optional tools you want from 
the list provided. You will not see any of the optional tools for Windows listed. 

2. After you have installed DOS, install Windows as you normally would. 

3. Install DOS again using the DOS Setup /E switch after DOS and Windows have 
been installed. 



376 DOS User's Guide 



To use the Setup /e switch to install Phoenix PCMCIA Support: 

1. Insert diskette 1 of the DOS Setup diskettes into drive A or B. 

2. At the DOS command prompt, type: 

a:setup /e 

or 

b: setup /e 

The /e switch allows you to return to the optional tools selection menu without 
having to do a complete reinstallation. At this point, only the necessary files for 
the optional tools for Windows will be installed. 

3. After Setup for DOS begins, follow the instructions displayed on the screen. 
Make sure you specify the same "Install to PATH" as you did when you did the 
initial DOS installation. 

At the Optional Tools screen, you see a no next to Phoenix PCMCIA Support. 

4. Press the UP ARROW or DOWN ARROW until you highlight Phoenix PCMCIA 
Support. You can also select Phoenix PCMCIA Support for Windows and any 
other optional tools at this time by highlighting and pressing ENTER to select 
each item. 

You now see yes next to Phoenix PCMCIA Support and the other optional tools 
you selected. 

5. Move the cursor to highlight the following: 

The listed options are correct. 

6. Press ENTER to accept the optional tool selections. 

Continue to follow the instructions displayed on the screen until the optional 
tools are installed. 



Getting Started with PCMCIA Support 

As a notebook, laptop, palmtop, or desktop personal computer user, you can take 
full advantage of many of the functions of PCMCIA Support software. Using 
Phoenix PCMCIA Support, the installation and operation will seem almost 
transparent. 



Chapter 20. Using Phoenix PCMCIA Support 377 



However, in order to install, modify, and maintain PCMCIA Support software it is 
important that you have an understanding of DOS, Windows, and the ability to 
modify the CONFIG.SYS and SYSTEM.INI files that are necessary for adaptation or 
modification of the many drivers and utilities that are managed by PCMCIA Support. 

Drivers are ordinarily included in either CONFIG.SYS (DOS drivers) or SYSTEM.INI 
(Windows drivers). Both DOS and Windows executables can reside on any disk to 
which the system has access. You can locate the DOS drivers on any drive; 
however, you must specify the full path for DOS drivers. For DOS to find and 
process a file, the .EXE or .COM file must reside in a directory specified using the 
PATH command, the current directory, or be executed using the full path name. 

Windows drivers must reside in the \WINDOWS\SYSTEM directory. You can run 
Windows executables from any directory as long as you specify the full path when 
you run the program, or when you create or define a Windows icon. 

The Phoenix PCMCIA components must be loaded for you to have PCMCIA 
Support available. These components can be loaded: 

As a device driver in your CONFIG.SYS with either the default options or 
modified options. 

As a terminate-and-stay-resident (TSR) program with options by either: 

- Typing the command from the DOS command prompt. 

- Entering the command in your AUTOEXEC.BAT where it is automatically 
loaded whenever you restart your computer. 

Instructions on adding the device driver statement in the CONFIG.SYS file or 
adding the command in the AUTOEXEC.BAT file (or typing it from the DOS 
command prompt) are given for each Phoenix PCMCIA Support component. 

Modifying the CONFIG.SYS File for Use with PCMCIA 

Use a text editor (such as E Editor or a similar text editing program) to make the 
following change to your CONFIG.SYS file. You must restart your system for any 
changes to your CONFIG.SYS to become active. However, because you will be 
changing your AUTOEXEC.BAT file as well, you can wait until you have completed 
making your changes in both files before restarting your system. 

Note: If you are using an editor other than the E Editor, be sure that the changes 
to the CONFIG.SYS, or AUTOEXEC.BAT files are entered in ASCII or an 
unformatted TXT mode. 



378 DOS User's Guide 



Modifying the AUTOEXEC.BAT File for Use with PCMCIA 

Use the E Editor (or similar edit program) to make the following change to your 
AUTOEXEC.BAT file. When you are finished changing your AUTOEXEC.BAT file 
(and CONFIG.SYS file), you must restart your system in order for any changes to 
become active. 

Note: When all changes have been made and saved, restart your computer by 
pressing CTRL+ALT+DEL. 



Card Services (PCMCS.EXE) 

PCMCS.EXE is a Card Services 2.0 driver that interfaces directly with Socket 
Services 2.0, which meets the Intel Exchangeable Card Architecture (ExCA) socket 
compliance test criteria. 

PCMCS.EXE is responsible for coordinating access to the PC Cards and allocating 
system resources among Card Services client drivers. A client driver is a device 
driver, utility, or program designed to support a particular, or multiple PC Cards. 
Card Services 2.0 is only provided as a driver loaded by DOS. This driver can be 
loaded by the CONFIG.SYS file or can be run as a terminate-and-stay-resident 
(TSR) program from the DOS command prompt. You must load Socket Services 
before you load Card Services. 

Add the following device driver to your CONFIG.SYS file for Card Services: 

device- [drive : ] [pathjpcmcs.exe 
where [drive:][path] specifies the location of the device driver file. 

From the DOS command prompt, type: 

[drive:] [path] pcmcs 

Note: Socket Services is not installed with DOS. This software is provided with 
your system. If an error occurs while attempting to load Card Services, 
refer to the README.TXT file in your \DOS directory for information about 
Socket Services. 

When Card Services is loaded, default values for command-line options are 
available. 



Super Client Driver (PCMSCD.EXE) 

The PCMSCD.EXE is a super client driver that supports the configuration of several 
PC Cards. After configuration, the PC Card operates as an integral component of 
the system. 



Chapter 20. Using Phoenix PCMCIA Support 379 



The PCMCIA Super Client Driver is intended to work only with the Phoenix 
PCMCIA Card Services and does not operate on Card Services furnished by third 
party suppliers. 

You can either load the Super Client Driver as a device driver from the 
CONFIG.SYS file or run from the DOS command prompt and loaded as a TSR. 
You must load the Card Services driver before the Super Client driver. 

Add the following device driver to your CONFIG.SYS file for the Super Client Driver: 

device= [drive: ] [path] pcmscd.exe 
where [drive:][path] specifies the location of the device driver file. 

From the DOS command prompt, type: 

[drive:] [path] pcrnscd 

When Super Client Driver is loaded, default values for command-line options are 
available. 



DOS User's Guide 



Virtual Driver for PCMCIA ATA Fixed Disks (PCMATA.SYS) 

The PCMCIA virtual driver supports PCMCIA-ATA compatible fixed disks and 
SRAM cards formatted in a FAT structured format. This device driver, called 
PCMATA.SYS, registers as a bulk memory client to Card Services. 

The PCMCIA virtual device driver also supports read/write operations for SRAM 
cards formatted in an DOS FAT structured format. You can also use the DOS 
FORMAT command to format SRAM PC Cards for read/write operations. 
Supporting this format also allows you to use data stored in other computers in the 
system with the PCMCIA Support software. 

You can either load PCMATA.SYS as a device driver from the CONFIG.SYS or run 
as a terminate-and-stay-resident (TSR) program from the DOS command. 
PCMATA.SYS must be loaded after Card Services. 

Add the following device driver to your CONFIG.SYS file: 

device= [drive :] [path] pcmata . sys / 1/1 [/addr=nn] 



where: 



[drive:][path] 



Specifies the location of the device driver file. 

Specifies the socket (0 or 1) to which drive emulation is 
assigned. 



/0 I /1 



/addr=/7A7 



PC Card Configuration Address. The first available 4K block 
starting at hexadecimal segment address C00OH. The range 
for nn is CO to F0 (where CO is equivalent to C000H and F0 
is equivalent to F000H). The default value is CO. 



When PCMATA.SYS is loaded, default values for command-line options are 
available. 



Chapter 20. Using Phoenix PCMCIA Support 381 



Using the DOS FORMAT Command to Format PCMCIA PC Cards 

PCMATA.SYS allows you to format PC Cards using the DOS FORMAT command. 
Use one of the following with the FORMAT command, where drive is the drive 
assigned to the socket. 



For SRAM Cards: 


For this size: 


You would type: 


256K 


FORMAT driverJU /T:64 /N:8 


512K 


FORMAT drive: /U /TA28 /N:8 


1MB 


FORMAT drive: /U /T:255 /N:8 


2MB 


FORMAT drive: /U 



For IDE Fixed Disks, you use the same command. However, the parameters must 
correspond to the size of the fixed disk. The parameters are: 

/U Performs an unconditional format. 

IT :n Represents the number (/?) of cylinders on the IDE Disk. 

/N:17 Represents 17 sectors per track. 

The following is an example using the FORMAT command to format an IDE Disk 
with 600 cylinders and 17 sectors per track: 

format f: /u /t: 6 /n:17 

For ATA rotating drive cards and SunDisk cards, use format d: /u to format the 
entire card. 



FAT Diskette Emulation (PCMFDD.EXE) 

PCMFDD provides diskette drive emulation on PCMCIA sockets as drives A and B. 
PCMFDD provides INT13H emulation for drives A and B. When this driver loads, it 
performs diskette drive emulation on the specified socket. This driver registers with 
Card Services as a bulk memory client and is a completely hardware independent 
component of PCMCIA Support software. 



382 DOS User's Guide 



After you load DOS, you can achieve diskette drive emulation by loading 
PCMFDD.EXE. You can load PCMFDD.EXE as either a DOS device driver from 
the CONFIG.SYS file. Or, you can load this device driver from the DOS command 
line as a TSR or add this command to your AUTOEXEC.BAT file. PCMFDD must 
be loaded after Card Services. 

Add the following device driver to your CONFIG.SYS file: 

device= [drive :] [path] pcmfdd. exe /addr=nn /x:m 
where [drive:][path] specifies the location of the device driver file. 

From the DOS command prompt, type: 

[drive :] [path] pcmfdd /addr=nn /x:m 

The command-line options are: 

/addr=nn Specifies the system window base address of 8K for memory card 
emulation. The base address must be on a 16K boundary, where 
nn ranges from CO to EE (CO is equivalent to C000H, and EE is 
equivalent to EEOOH) 

x The emulated drive letter (drive A or drive B). 

m The socket number (0 or 1). 



Memory Technology Driver (PCMMTD.EXE) 

PCMMTD.EXE can be loaded either as a terminate-and-stay resident program from 
the DOS command prompt or as a device driver from the CONFIG.SYS file. The 
PCMCS.EXE must be loaded prior to loading PCMMTD.EXE. 

Add the following device driver to your CONFIG.SYS file to install the Memory 
Technology Driver: 

device^ [drive : ] [pathjpcmmtd.exe 
where [drive:][path] specifies the location of the device driver file. 

From the DOS command prompt, type: 

[drive:] [pathjpcmmtd.exe 

PCMMTD provides SHELL.MTD, which demonstrates all of the interface capabilities 
in the MTD. 



Chapter 20. Using Phoenix PCMCIA Support 383 



Windows VxD Driver for Fax and Modem Cards (PCMVCD.386) 

PCMVCD.386 is the Windows VxD (virtual device driver) for PC Card support in 
386-enhanced mode. It is a replacement module for the Windows VCD (virtual 
COMM driver). PCMVCD.386 allows fax and modem cards inserted into a PCMCIA 
socket to be available to all sessions under Windows. During installation of DOS, if 
you select PCMCIA support, PCMVCD.386 gets copied in your DOS directory. 
However, if you have Windows and want Phoenix PCMCIA Support, you must 
manually edit the SYSTEM.INI file before you can have Phoenix PCMCIA Support 
under Windows. 

To replace the Windows Virtual COMM driver with the PCMCIA Windows VxD 
driver: 

1. Copy the file PCMVCD.386 from the DOS directory to the \WINDOWS\SYSTEM 
directory. 

2. Edit the \WINDOWS\SYSTEM.INI file as follows: 

a. Locate the section label [386Enh]. 

b. Add the following line anywhere in that section: 

device=drive : Windows \system\pcmvcd . 3 86 
where drive: refers to the drive letter where Windows 3.1 is installed. 

c. Locate the line that states: 

device= vcd 

and either comment it out by adding semi-colons at the start of the line: 

; device= vcd 

or 

Remove the line entirely. 

d. For each COM port that you might want to use as a PCMCIA port, add the 
following line to the [386EnhJ section: 

com#base=xxxx 

where # is the number of the COM port (1 , 2, 3, or 4) and xxxx is the 
hexadecimal value of the standard location of the COM port (3F8, 2F8, 
3E8, or 2E8, respectively). 

e. If you want a window to pop up to notify you when a card is removed or 
inserted, add the line: 

pcmcianot i f y=true 
If you do not want notification, leave this line out. 



384 DOS User's Guide 



f. Add the line: 

p cmc i a c om4 = t r u e 
to enable the PCMCIA functions of the driver. 

g. If the line comverifybase=true is present in the file, you must remove it. 
This option cannot be set and Windows still handle PCMCIA ports properly. 

h. If the line: 

EMMExc 1 ude = xxxx -yyyy 
is present, edit it as follows; otherwise add it: 

EMMExclude=C8 -DFFF 

Other values might work but are dependent on your particular system. 

i. Now add a new section to SYSTEM.INI, called: 

[PCMCIA] 

j. Make sure this line appears after all other items in a section. Each section 
starts with a name in [brackets]. 

k. For each COM port that you want available as a PCMCIA port, add the line: 

com #=true 

where # is the COM port number (1, 2, 3, or 4). 

3. Save the new edited SYSTEM.INI file. 

SYSTEM.INI Example: 

An example to make COM ports 3 and 4 available as PCMCIA serial ports. Your 
SYSTEM.INI file would end up looking like this (only those parts relevant to 
PCMCIA are shown): 

[386Enh] 

DEVICE=C: \WINDOWS\SYSTEM\PCMVCD. 3 86 

; DEVICE= vcd << commented out! 

EMMExclude=C8 -DFFF 

COM3BASE=3E8 

COM4BASE=2E8 

PCMCIACOM4=TRUE 

PCMCIANOTIFY-TRUE 

[PCMCIA] 
COM 3= TRUE 
COM 4=TRUE 



Chapter 20. Using Phoenix PCMCIA Support 385 



Notes: 



You cannot designate a port number for a COM port that is already installed. 
For example, if your computer has an adapter card already configured for 
COM1, you cannot also designate it as a PCMCIA port. 

If there are other entries in the [386Enh] section for COM#BASE=, then leave 
them. They are not relevant as long as the port numbers are not the same as 
ports you want to configure as PCMCIA ports. 

You must also designate a COM port number to the PCMCS.EXE device driver, 
either as part of your CONFIG.SYS file or to be loaded from the command line 
as a TSR. 

The COM port specified to PCMCS must match one of the COM#BASE=xxxx 
and COM0#^TRUE entries in SYSTEM.INI. 

When you initialize PCMVCD.386 under Windows, it registers as a client to Card 
Services. When you install a fax and modem device, PCMVCD ensures that the 
device is available to the entire Windows operating system when you successfully 
configure the fax and modem card. 



Information Utilities (PCMINFO.EXE and WPCMINFO.CPL) 

The PCMCIA Support Information Utilities provide information about each PCMCIA 
socket and the card inserted in it. Information such as card type, card name, and 
so forth is displayed. This component provides the information for both the DOS 
and Windows environment. Two information utilities are provided with PCMCIA 
Support software. PCMINFO.EXE is a DOS-based utility. WPCMINFO.CPL is the 
utility that runs under Windows. Socket Services and Card Services must be 
loaded before these utilities can be executed. 

DOS Environment (PCMINFO.EXE) 

PCMINFO is executed in DOS and provides an array of information about each 
socket and any cards installed in the socket of the PC portable. 

Note: PCMINFO.EXE does not operate in a Windows environment. For a 
Windows environment, see "Microsoft Windows Environment 
(WPCMINFO.CPL)" on page 388. 

To run the information utility in the DOS environment, type the following at the DOS 
command prompt: 

[drive :] [path] pcminfo [options] 

where [drive:][path] specifies the location of the device driver file. 



386 DOS User's Guide 



You can use the following command-line options for PCMINFO.EXE: 

/d This option (not case sensitive) is an interactive display mode and will 

continuously display the PCMINFO screen, allowing instantaneous 
update of the PCMCIA sockets. 

/t This option suppresses the timer tick display and can be used in 

conjunction with the 16 option. 

/? Displays help information. 

As an example, to continuously display the PCMINFO screen, allowing 
instantaneous update of the PCMCIA sockets, type: 

[drive :] [path] pcminfo /d 

To return to the DOS command prompt, press any key. 

Running PCMINFO displays the following options for each socket and card: 
Number of sockets in the system. 

Number of sockets active (card/device installed) or inactive (card/device not 
installed). 

Card or device manufacturer's name. 
Product name. 
Device type. 

Whether the device is configured or not. This information is not displayed for 
memory cards. 

Last event status (available with the /d or the /d A options). 

PCMCIA services version. 

Card services vendor version number. 

On Memory Cards the following information is displayed: 

The size of the memory on the card. 
The status of the write protect switch. 

For static memory cards (SRAM) and Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM) 
cards, the following information is displayed: 

The status of the battery: 

Okay 

Low 

Dead 



Chapter 20. Using Phoenix PCMCIA Support 387 



Microsoft Windows Environment (WPCMINFO.CPL) 

WPCMINFO.CPL is a Windows 3.1 icon that is placed in the Windows Control 
Panel, which displays information about PCMCIA sockets and cards on the host 
system. When you select Phoenix PCMCIA Support during installation of DOS, 
WPCMINFO.CPL and WPCMINFO.HLP files are copied to your DOS directory. To 
install the information utility if Windows is already installed or if you install Windows 
after you install DOS, you must copy the WPCMINFO.CPL and WPCMINFO.HLP 
files into the WINDOWS\SYSTEM directory. A PCMCIA icon is created in the 
Control Panel under Windows. To access the PCMCIA Support information utility, 
click on the PCMCIA icon. 

When you run the information utility (in either DOS or Windows) the status of each 
socket is displayed. The status will indicate whether a socket is empty or a card is 
installed and, if installed, whether the PC Card is in the process of being 
configured. The information utility also gives you the name and information about 
the installed card. If a non-configurable card is installed, a message will be 
displayed informing you of this status. 

When you select the control panel icon in Windows, a PCMCIA icon appears. 
Selecting this icon produces a control panel with the following information: 

Information about the sockets. 

The PCMCIA logo and an associated help file for WPCMINFO. 
Number of sockets in the system. 

Number of sockets active (card installed) or inactive (card not installed). 
Card Manufacturer's name. 
Product name. 
Device Type. 

Whether the device is configured or not. This information is not displayed for 
memory cards. 

The status of the write-protect switch. 
For SRAM and DRAM cards the following information is displayed. 

The status of the battery: 

Okay 

Low 

Dead 

Note: This icon requires an appropriately configured PCMCIA-capable system to 
operate properly. In particular, Card Services must be loaded prior to 
loading Windows. 



388 DOS User's Guide 



Memory Card Utility (PCFORMAT.EXE) 

PCFORMAT.EXE is a utility to format a PCMCIA static memory card of any size for 
DOS FAT file system drivers. 

Note: This utility is not for use with the Flash file system. 

The PCMCIA sockets should emulate diskette drives A or B by using the FAT 
diskette emulation driver PCMFDD.EXE as either a device driver or as a TSR. 

pcformat d: [ / s : nnnn [k I m] J 

The default parameters for PCFORMAT are equivalent to the 1 MB Poquet format. 
The /s option should be used to specify the card size. The "K" for kilobytes or the 
"M" for megabytes qualifier is required. 

When PCFORMAT is entered without parameters, a help message is displayed. 

(of:). Drive letter assigned to the PCMCIA slot containing the static 

memory card to be formatted. 

/s:nnnn[k\m] Specifies the card size in kilobytes (K) or megabytes (M). 

The maximum size supported is 32MB. 



Chapter 20. Using Phoenix PCMCIA Support 389 



390 DOS User's Guide 



Appendix A. Installing DOS 



This book provides what you need to know to successfully install DOS on your 
computer system. The Installation Guidelines table (Table 1 on page 394) 
provides a list to help you choose which installation information pertains to your 
system. Read the specific information that applies to your system before beginning 
the install process. This will ensure a smooth and successful installation. 

The DOS Setup program is designed to provide your system with the information it 
needs to operate effectively. It prompts you to verify and change information and 
then acts on your choices to do such things as: 

Customizing system information. 

Partitioning and formatting your hard disk if necessary. 

Backing up your previous version of DOS. 

Installing and copying DOS to your hard disk. 

Installing the optional tools you select. 

New Optional Tools 

DOS has the following new optional tools. You will be asked to choose which ones 
you want to install on your system. 

Note: If you do not have Microsoft** Windows Version 3.1 already installed, you 
will not be able to choose any of the optional tools for Windows. 

IBM* PenDOS 

Allows the use of pen-based applications and allows you to use the mouse 
as the pen for applications. 

Phoenix** PCMCIA** Support 

Personal Computer Memory Card International Association (PCMCIA) 
provides support for PCMCIA devices if your computer is equipped with 
PCMCIA sockets. A credit card-sized device is inserted into these sockets 
extending the capability of the computer. 

Central Point Undelete for Windows 

This is a support utility for Windows Version 3.1 if it is installed on your 
computer. 

IBM AntiVirus/DOS for Windows 

Provides support for Windows Version 3.1 when using this tool to protect 
your computer from virus infections. 



Copyright IBM Corp. 1981, 1993 



391 



IBM AntiVirus/DOS 

Protects your computer from virus infections. 

IBM DOS Shell 

Installed as a default. If you do not want to use the IBM DOS Shell, be 
sure to select No on the optional tools screen. 

Central Point Backup for Windows 

Provides support for Windows Version 3.1 when using this full-screen 
program to backup the information on your computer. 

Central Point Backup for DOS 

Full-screen program for backing up the information on your computer. 

Other DOS Install Features 

The following are also changeable during install: 
The current time and date. 
Country support for international character sets. 
Keyboard layout for different countries. 

The use of the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) fonts for 
VGA hardware. 

A system-generated backup of your DOS files if another version of DOS is 
detected on your system. 



The SETUP Command and Its Options 

The SETUP command is used only when you are installing the latest version of 
DOS. It is used when the Install diskette #1 is in drive A. You can receive the 
online help by typing setup /? at the command prompt. 

Syntax 

The following syntax shows the options that can be used with the SETUP 
command: 

setup [/a][/b][/e] [/p][ft:filepath][/u] [/w] 

Optional Switch Explanation 

The following list provides a brief explanation of how each switch can be used with 
the SETUP command. 

/a Specifies the LAN Server Administrator installation option. 



392 DOS User's Guide 



/b Specifies to use black and white instead of color screen display. 

/e Use to install DOS tools without copying DOS files. 

/p Use to install on a disk that might be incompatible with DOS. 

/tifilepath Specifies the target path to copy DOS files to. 

Ai Use to uninstall the latest version of DOS. 

/w Allows Windows tools to be installed even though a valid Windows 
3.1 directory was not found. 



Appendix A. Installing DOS 393 



Choosing the Correct Installation Procedure 

The following table will help you choose the correct procedure for the type of 
installation you want to do. 



Table 1. Installation Guideline Choices 


Installation Guidelines 


See page 


If you are installing DOS for the first time and you have 
no other systems on your computer 


395 


If you are installing DOS on a new hard disk or a 
newly formatted hard disk or a partitioned hard disk 


395 


If you are installing DOS on your hard disk 


395 


If you are installing DOS and you have Windows on 
your computer 


395 


If you are installing DOS on a Drive Other than C 


397 


If you are installing DOS and you have OS/2 installed 


398 


If you are installing DOS on a PS/1 


399 


If you are a LAN Administrator responsible for installing 
DOS 


399 


If you are a LAN user and need to upgrade to DOS 


401 


If you are installing DOS on a compressed drive 


402 


If you are not installing on a hard disk but want to use 
some of the DOS commands 


40^ 


If you want to use OS/2 Dual Boot (After Installation) 


403 


If you need to uninstall DOS 


403 


If you need to reinstall DOS 


404 


If you need to use the DOS README.TXT File 


404 


If you have an installation problem 


405 


If you need to install additional optional tools 


404 



394 DOS User's Guide 



Installing DOS (Normal Install) 

The DOS Setup program installs DOS on drive C on the hard disk in your computer 
unless you specify otherwise (see "Installing DOS on a Drive Other than C" on 
page 397). Before beginning the install: 

Check the installation guidelines that apply to your system. (See the 
Installation Guidelines table, Table 1 on page 394.) 

Ensure that you system has 51 2K of available memory. This is the minimum 
amount of memory needed for installing DOS 

Note: For additional information about the hard disk space requirements, see 
"Problem Determination" on page 405. 

Read the introductory information. 

Be aware that this install is designed to replace all the existing DOS files 
currently in the directory you choose to install to. 

Note: A file will be replaced if it has the same filename as that being installed 
and if it exists on the directory you choose to install to. 

To install DOS booting from diskettes: 

1. Insert Diskette 1 in drive A. 

2. Turn on your computer or press Ctrl+Alt+Del to restart your computer. The 
DOS main screen is displayed. 

3. Press ENTER to continue. 

Two selection windows are going to be displayed. The first provides the 
opportunity to change the current time and date, character sets for the country, 
keyboard layout for the country, and the ISO font. 

4. Press ENTER if all of the selection items are correct. The second selection 
window (optional tools) is displayed. If you need to make a change on the first 
window, proceed as follows: 

Use the Up arrow to scroll up the list. The list item is highlighted as you 
come to it. 

Press Enter on the list item you want to change. Follow the instructions to 
make your change. After making your selection, you are returned to the 
selection window. Use the Down arrow to scroll to the line The listed 
options are correct if you are not already there. 

Press ENTER if everything is correct. The optional tools selection window 
is displayed. 



Appendix A. Installing DOS 395 



The optional tools window is displayed with the NEW optional tools available for 
use with DOS To use these tools you need to change the selection choice 
from NO to YES with the exception of IBM DOS Shell which has a default of 
YES. Each tool is selected individually. 

5. Use the Up arrow key to scroll up the list of optional tools. Use the Down 
arrow key to scroll down the list. The list item is highlighted as you come to it. 

6. Press ENTER to select an optional tool for your system. You will see the 
selection choice change from NO to Yes or Yes to NO. 

7. Continue to scroll the screen making the choices you want. When you have 
finished, select The listed options are correct line and press Enter. 

8. Follow the instructions on your screen, inserting the remaining installation 
diskettes in sequential order. 

Note: If you chose not to install all of the optional tools, you may not be 

required to insert all of the diskettes that came with the product. This is 
because that diskette supports optional tools you chose not to select. 

Notes: 

1. If an error message occurs during the installation process, see "Problem 
Determination" on page 405. This section contains actions you can take to 
resolve problems you might have during the running of Setup. 

2. You can choose to install the optional tools at a later time using the /e switch. 
(See "Reinstalling DOS" on page 404.) 



396 DOS User's Guide 



If you have questions about any of the procedures or options, Help is available by 
pressing the F1 key. 

To Install DOS on an existing DOS system: 

1. Turn on your computer and bring up your current system. 

2. Insert Diskette 1 in drive A or B. 

3. Type the following at the command prompt: 

[driveletter] : setup 
The DOS main screen is displayed. 

4. Follow the instructions beginning with step 3 on page 395. 

Notes: 

1. If you are currently using DOS Version 2.1, you must use the method described 
earlier of booting from diskettes to install DOS 

2. You can choose to install the optional tools at a later time using the /e switch. 
(See "Reinstalling DOS" on page 404.) 

3. If you install DOS over an existing version of DOS, Setup updates your existing 
CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT files and saves the original files as 
CONFIG.OLD and AUTOEXEC.OLD. 

4. If you do not have a hard disk to install DOS on, you can use DOS Install 
Diskette 1 as a startup diskette to run DOS from your diskette drives. You will 
not have the full range of DOS features because some of the files are 
compressed, but you will be able to use many of the DOS commands. See 
"Using the Startup Diskette" on page 402. 

Installing DOS on a Drive Other than C 

If you have previously partitioned your hard disk into logical drives, you can install 
the DOS directory on any of those drives. The required system files for running are 
loaded to primary drive C. All other files associated with the install are copied to 
the drive you specify. 

1. Follow the steps in "Installing DOS (Normal Install)" until the Optional Tools 
screen is displayed. 

2. In addition to selecting the tools you want to use, select Install to Path: 

3. Press Enter. 

4. Type the drive and directory where you want to install DOS. 

5. Press Enter. 



Appendix A. Installing DOS 397 



6. Continue the installation. DOS is installed to the drive and directory you 
specified. 

Installing DOS If You Have OS/2 Installed 

The following guidelines only apply if: 

You have installed the OS/2* dual boot system. 
You have installed OS/2 with Boot Manager active. 
You have installed OS/2 as a FAT file system. 

To install if your system has just OS/2 installed as a FAT file system: 

1. Insert diskette #1 in drive A. 

2. Turn on your computer. 

3. You will receive a message informing you that your system will be turned into a 
dual boot system. 

4. Follow the instructions on your screen. 
Notes: 

1 . After your installation is complete, first time users of the OS/2 dual boot feature 
need to refer to "Using OS/2 Dual Boot" on page 403 for information on how to 
use the OS/2 dual boot feature. 

2. If you are using OS/2 Version 1 .2 or lower, upgrade your version of OS/2 
before installing DOS. 

To install using the OS/2 Boot Manager you must do the following within OS/2 
before DOS can be installed: 

1. Use OS/2 FDISK to set the DOS partition to installable while OS/2 is running. 

2. Place DOS Install Diskette 1 in drive A, and then restart your computer (press 
Ctrl+Alt+Del). 

3. Follow the install instructions as they are displayed on your screen. 

To install if your system already has dual boot capability: 

1 . Switch to the directory that contains the BOOT.COM file. This file starts dual 
boot. This file is generally located in the C:\>0S2 directory. To get to this 
directory, type the following: 

cd\os2 

2. To move from the OS/2 operating system to the DOS operating system, type 
the following at the command prompt in an OS/2 window: 

boot /dos 
398 DOS User's Guide 



3. When your DOS version is finished loading, insert the DOS Install Diskette 1 in 
drive A. 

4. Type the following at the DOS command prompt: 

a : setup 

5. Follow the instructions on your screen. 

6. After the installation is done, you can return to OS/2 from the DOS operating 
system by typing the following at the command prompt in DOS: 

boot /os2 

Note: BOOT.COM is an OS/2 file. If your system does not have this file 

installed, you will have to retrieve it from your OS/2 diskettes and install 
it in your OS/2 directory. 

Installing DOS on a PS/1 DOS and ROM Four-Quad System 

You can install DOS on a PS/1 * DOS and ROM four quad system no matter what 
version of DOS is on your system. The install requirements are as follows: 

1 . Start your computer. 

2. Bring up your Customize program screen. 

3. Ensure that you set all your settings to the Built-in selections. 

4. Insert the DOS Install Diskette #1 in drive A. 

5. Click on Setup program. 

6. Follow the instructions in "Installing DOS (Normal Install)" on page 395 to 
complete the install. 

LAN Server Administrator Installation of DOS 

The following information is intended for LAN administrators, who will be installing 
DOS from a network server or a remote workstation. If you are installing DOS in a 
single workstation that is not connected to a network, you do not need this 
information. 

Before you can install DOS across the network, you must first copy the DOS files 
into a subdirectory that you specify on the server. To do this, run Setup with the /a 
switch. 



Trademark of the IBM Corporation 



Appendix A. Installing DOS 399 



Running Setup /a does the following: 

Copies DOS files from the diskettes into a subdirectory on the server. 

Copies IBMBIO.COM and IBMD0S.COM from the diskettes into the same 
subdirectory as the other DOS files. 

Notes: 

1. These instructions do not apply to Remote Initial Program Load (RIPL**) 
systems or medialess computers. For RIPL systems, see your manufacturer's 
instructions about installing DOS images. 

2. If your server is running OS/2, run Setup /a from a remote workstation. The 
workstation must have read/write access to the server. 

To install DOS files to a server: 

1. Insert DOS Install Diskette 1 into a drive on the system server. 

2. Start the Setup program by typing: 

n: setup /a 

(n: represents the drive where the install diskette is inserted.) 

3. Press Enter and follow the instructions on your screen. 

Note: To ensure that current system files (such as COMMAND.COM, 

IBMBI0.COM, or IBMDOS.COM) are not overwritten, specify a directory 
other than the root directory. 

The DOS files are copied to the selected subdirectory on the server. 

4. Mark the files in the subdirectory as read only. 

5. Share this subdirectory with workstations that will be installing DOS across the 
LAN. 

To install DOS files from a remote workstation to a server: 

1 . Start your network software on the workstation and connect to the network 
server where the DOS files are to be copied. The workstation must have 
read/write access to the server. 

2. Insert DOS Install Diskette 1 into a drive on the workstation. 

3. Start the Setup program by typing: 

n: setup /a 



** RIPL is a trademark of CTA, Inc. 
400 DOS User's Guide 



(n: represents the drive where the install diskette is inserted.) 

4. Press Enter and follow the instructions on your screen. The DOS files are 
copied to the selected subdirectory on the server. 

Note: To ensure that current system files (such as COMMAND.COM, 

IBMBI0.COM, or IBMDOS.COM) are not overwritten, you must specify 
a directory other than the root directory. 

5. Mark the files in the subdirectory as read only. 

6. Share the subdirectory with workstations that will be installing DOS across the 
LAN. 

Installing DOS After the LAN Administrator Install 

Note: If you do not have access to the server containing DOS or are not sure how 
to upgrade the network files, contact your LAN administrator. 

To Install DOS after the LAN administrator has made it available within the 
LAN: 

1 . Start the workstation with your current version of DOS. 
Notes: 

a. Avoid starting applications, terminate-and-stay-resident (TSR) programs, 
disk caches, multitaskers, and task switchers when installing DOS. 

b. If you are running OS/2 with the Dual Boot feature, type the following at the 
OS/2 command prompt: 

boot /dos 

2. Start your network software; then connect to the server containing DOS. 

Note: Upgrade your network files to work with DOS according to instructions 
from the LAN administrator. 

3. Start the Setup program that is on the server. For example, if the DOS files are 
located in a subdirectory named DOS61 on network drive N, you would type: 

n : \dos61\setup 

and then press Enter. 

4. After installing DOS, restart your workstation. 

5. Reconnect to the LAN server to ensure your LAN software upgrade was 
successful. If you cannot start the LAN software or reconnect to the LAN 
server, see your LAN administrator. 



Appendix A. Installing DOS 401 



Installing DOS on a Compressed Drive 

Use the following procedures to install DOS on systems where drives have been 
compressed with compatible and non-compatible disk compression programs. 

Some compatible disk compression systems are: Stac's Stacker, Superstor and 
Microsoft's DoubleSpace. 

To install DOS on a drive that has been compressed with a compatible disk 
compression program: 

1. Start your system. 

2. Run the DOS Setup program and your compatible disk compression program 
will be recognized and handled accordingly. 

3. Follow the install steps in "Installing DOS (Normal Install)" on page 395. 

If you have compressed your drives using a non-compatible disk compression 
program, contact your software vendor. 

Notes: 

1 . Before upgrading a compatible compression drive it is a good practice to 
ensure your hard disk has the latest compression program installed. For 
example, if you have a version of Superstor before Version 1 .4, you need to 
upgrade. If you have a version of Stacker before Version 2.0, you need to 
upgrade. 

2. Some compression programs do not provide Sync capabilities. These 
programs might have down level versions of DOS files on the hard disk after 
installing DOS. If you experience this, copy the correct file(s) from the DOS 
ship diskettes or from the container file. 

Using the Startup Diskette 

It is possible to use the DOS Install Diskette 1 as a startup diskette and not install 
DOS on a hard disk. (This is intended for those users with computers without hard 
disks.) When the DOS Install Diskette 1 is used as a startup diskette, you can use 
many of the DOS commands such format, fdisk, attrib, dir, and copy. 

To use the Startup diskette: 

1. Insert Diskette 1 in drive A. 

2. Turn on your computer or press Ctrl+Alt+Del to restart your computer. 

3. Press F3 when you see the main IBM DOS screen. 

4. Type y at the prompt. 



402 DOS User's Guide 



The DOS command prompt, A:\>, is displayed. You can now use DOS. 



Using OS/2 Dual Boot 

After you have installed DOS to operate along with your OS/2 system, use the OS/2 
dual boot feature to switch between the operating systems. 

Before you can use dual boot, you must switch to the directory that contains 
BOOT.COM which will start dual boot. This file is generally located in the C:\OS2 
directory. To get to this directory, type the following: 

cd os2 

To move from the OS/2 operating system to the DOS operating system, type the 
following at the command prompt: 

boot /dos 

To return to OS/2 from the DOS operating system, type the following at the DOS 
command prompt: 

boot /os2 



Uninstalling DOS 

The primary purpose of the Uninstall process is to make it easy to restore your 
previous version of DOS after you install DOS. You must have selected the Back 
up current directory option during installation. In most cases, there will be no 
reason to uninstall DOS; however, the option exists if you need it. The backup 
diskettes that the DOS Setup program creates contain your previous version of 
DOS, including copies of your previous CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT files. 

You cannot use your backup diskettes if you have done any of the following since 
installing DOS: 

Repartitioned or reformatted your hard disk. 

Deleted or moved either of the two DOS hidden system files (IBMBIO.COM and 
IBMD0S.COM). 

Installed a disk compression program. If you have done this, you need to 
uncompress the drive before the Uninstall process will work. 

To restore your previous version of DOS: 

1 . Insert DOS Diskette 1 in drive A. 



Appendix A. Installina DOS 403 



2. Type the following at the DOS command prompt: 

a: setup /u 

3. Follow the instructions on your screen. 



Reinstalling DOS 

You can run Setup using the /e switch and reinstall DOS as many times as is 
necessary. In fact, as you upgrade your equipment or as your needs expand, you 
will want to reinstall DOS to install the optional tools you did not install initially. 

Note: When you reinstall you will not erase the optional tools you have already 
installed. However, you must ensure that you install to the same drive and 
path that contains your current DOS directory. 

When you reinstall, make sure you: 

Review the install steps that apply to your system. (Use Table 1 on page 394 
to guide you.) 

Install to the same directory each time. If you do not, you will have multiple 
copies of the base DOS files on your computer. 

To reinstall using the /e switch: 

1 . Insert diskette 1 of the DOS Setup diskettes into drive A or B. 

2. At the DOS command prompt, type: 

a: setup /e 

or 

b: setup /e 

3. At the Optional Tools screen, use the Up arrow to scroll to the optional tool you 
want to use and press Enter. The selection choice will change from NO to 
YES. 

4. Continue to follow the instructions displayed on the screen until reinstallation is 
complete. 



Using the README.TXT File 

DOS comes with a README.TXT file. This file contains important information. If 
you have a DOS system, you can view or print this file before installing DOS for 
additional information about DOS. 



404 DOS User's Guide 



Viewing a File 

To "View" a file, use a text editor or use the TYPE command to look at the file. To 
use the TYPE command type the following at a command prompt: 

type readme.txt I more 

This command puts the contents of README.TXT on your display screen. Adding 
the "I MORE" displays one screen of information at a time. Press Enter to see the 
following screen. To stop viewing press Ctrl+C. 

Printing a File 

To print the README.TXT file, type the following command: 

print readme.txt 

Problem Determination 

This chapter explains how to solve problems you might encounter while installing 
DOS 

Solving Setup Problems 

If you have trouble during installation, there could be a number of causes. This 
section explains the most common problems. 

How much hard disk space do I need to install this version of DOS? 

The answer to this question depends on the type of system and the optional tools 
you choose to install as follows: 

DOS without Windows (Version 3.1) 

- DOS with DOS SHELL; requires 3.5 meg. 

- DOS and all DOS optional tools (no Windows); requires 6.5 meg. 

DOS with Windows (Version 3.1) 

- DOS and Windows; requires 8 meg. 

- DOS, Windows, and all DOS and Windows optional tools; requires 1 5.5 
meg. 

What if the Setup program does not run? 

The Setup program cannot successfully install DOS for one or more of the following 
reasons: 

There is insufficient space on your hard disk. 

Your primary DOS partition is too small or incompatible with the setup program. 

Appendix A. Installing DOS 405 



You do not have a hard disk. 

My primary DOS partition is too small or incompatible. What can I do? 

You must repartition your hard disk before installing DOS if your hard disk has one 
of the following characteristics: 

You do not have enough space in your primary partition for the system files and 
not enough space for a minimal install on any logical drives. 

The size of the cluster or sector is incompatible. 

Try SETUP IP. 

There are more than four primary partitions. 

The primary DOS partition is not active. 

A disk-partitioning program that is not compatible with the automatic Setup 
program has been used to partition your hard disk. 

When you repartition your disk, you have the option of creating one large partition 
on your hard disk or multiple smaller partitions. 

Warning: To change the size of a partition or reduce the number of partitions, you 
must delete the existing partitions and create new ones. Therefore, you must back 
up the files on every partition you plan to modify so that you do not lose the 
information in those files. 

Use the following procedure to back up your files and repartition your hard disk. 

1 . Back up your hard disk. (Refer to the documentation that came with your 
current version of DOS.) 

2. Remove the partitions from your hard disk, using the same program you used 
to create the partitions. 

If you created the partition by using the FDISK program supplied with DOS 
Version 3.3, use the same command to remove the partitions. 

3. Use FDISK to create a partition large enough for the DOS install. 

4. Use the FORMAT command to format any other partitions you created. 

5. Restore your files to the primary DOS partition. (Refer to the documentation 
that came with your current version of DOS.) 

6. To complete the installation, follow the instructions found in "Installing DOS 
(Normal Install)" on page 395. 



406 DOS User's Guide 



What should I do if my computer does not restart? If this happens and if the 
problem is related to the settings in your CONFIG.SYS or AUTOEXEC.BAT, you 
can temporarily bypass these files to start your computer. 

1 . Start your computer. 

2. Press F5 immediately after your computer displays the message starting ibm 

DOS . . . 

Any device that requires an installable device driver does not work because the 
installable device drivers are not loaded. For example, programs that require 
expanded or extended memory are not able to run because no expanded- or 
extended-memory drivers are loaded. 

DOS uses the default environment variables of PATH=C:\DOS, 
PROMPT=$P$G, and COMSPEC=C:\COMMAND.COM temporarily until you 
correct the problem and restart your computer. 

You can bypass selected CONFIG.SYS commands by having DOS prompt you for 
each command in the CONFIG.SYS file. 

To confirm each CONFIG.SYS command: 

1 . Start your computer. Just after your computer starts, DOS displays the text 

Starting IBM DOS. . . 

2. Immediately press and release the F8 key. 

One at a time, DOS displays each command in your CONFIG.SYS file followed 
by a prompt. For example, when DOS reaches the DOS=HIGH command, it 
displays the following prompt: 

DOS=HIGH, UMB [ Y , N ] ? 

Respond by typing either y for Yes or n for No for each command in your 
CONFIG.SYS file. 

When DOS finishes processing the CONFIG.SYS file, it displays the following 
prompt: 

ProcessAUTOEXEC.BAT? [Y, N] ? 

3. Type y to run all the commands in your AUTOEXEC.BAT file or type n to 
bypass your AUTOEXEC.BAT file completely. 

Installing 

What is the maximum length of the PATH variable? 

The PATH variable, like other environment variables, is limited to 127 characters. 
Use the PATH command to set your path variable to one or more directories. 



Appendix A. Installing DOS 407 



Whenever you type a command, DOS searches the directories in your path for the 
command or program you are trying to run. The following is an example of the 
PATH command: 

path=c : \ ; c : \dos ; c : \windows ;d: \bat files ; d: \util 

The name of the variable (PATH) and the equal sign take up 5 of the 127 
characters. This means you can use 122 characters to specify directory names. 
To use those 1 22 characters most efficiently: 

Remove any spaces from the PATH command. 

Remove seldom-used directories from the PATH command. 

Use short directory names. 

Use batch programs to set and reset the path according to your current needs. 

Use the SUBST command to substitute a drive letter for a long directory path, if 
necessary. 

You can then use that drive letter instead of the full path in the PATH 
command. You can use the SUBST command in your AUTOEXEC.BAT file. If 
you do, it must precede the PATH command. 

For example, to shorten a path named C:\USER\LINDA\FORMS to Q:, you would 
include the following command (before the PATH command) in your 
AUTOEXEC.BAT file. 

subst q: c:\user\linda\forms 

For more information about the PATH and SUBST commands, type help followed 
by the command for a brief explanation and command syntax. 

Which device drivers should I use? 

DOS includes several device drivers that you load by using the DEVICE command 
in your CONFIG.SYS file. Other products might also include some of these device 
drivers. The following device drivers are examples of a few general-purpose device 
drivers supplied with DOS: 

HIMEM 
RAMDrive 
SMARTDRV 
EMM386 

If these device drivers are in your CONFIG.SYS file before you install DOS, the 
Setup program modifies the file so that you are using the versions supplied with 
DOS. 



408 DOS User's Guide 



How do I determine what stack size to use in my CONFIG.SYS? 

You might need to experiment with the proper stack size for your system to avoid a 
stack size overflow. 

I have installed DOS and want to expand drive C: to be larger than 32MB. 
What steps do I need to take? 

This can be accomplished by backing up your system to diskettes, formatting the 
hard disk, repartitioning it, and then reformatting it. Then, you can reinstall DOS 
along with the other files. The following list outlines the steps to take: 

1. Back up your entire system using the CPBACKUP** program. To start 
CPBACKUP, type: 

cpbackup 

and back up all the files on all your drives. 

2. Create a system diskette: 

format a: /s 

3. Copy the file FORMAT.COM to the diskette: 

copy c:\dos\format.com a: 

4. Copy the file FDISK.COM to the diskette: 

copy c:\dos\fdisk.com a: 

5. Start up from the diskette 

6. Run FDISK, delete all partitions and remake the desired number of partitions. 

7. FORMAT C: and any other hard disk partitions. 

8. Install DOS again. 

9. Restore all files using the CPBACKUP program. 

Miscellaneous Problems 

What should I do when the program or device driver reports the wrong 
version of DOS? 

Some programs or device drivers run only with specific versions of DOS. If a 
message appears indicating a program or device driver does not run with DOS, 
contact your vendor to get an updated program or to find out whether the current 
version of the program or device driver is actually compatible with DOS. 

If the current version of the program or device driver is compatible with DOS, use 
the SETVER command to change the version number that DOS reports to the 

Appendix A. Installing DOS 409 



program or device driver. When you use SETVER, the program or device driver 
interprets DOS as the version if is designed to use. For example, if a program 
named MYAPP.EXE runs only With DOS 3.3 or earlier, you would type: 

setver myapp.exe 3.3 

DOS reports the changed version number to the program when you restart your 
computer. If the program is compatible with DOS, the SETVER command 
eliminates the apparent incompatibility. 

There must be a DEVICE command for the SETVER.EXE device driver in your 
CONFIG.SYS file in order for the SETVER command to report a different version to 
a program. Also, make sure there is only one SETVER.EXE on your hard disk, 
because each SETVER.EXE contains a separate version table. 

For more information about the SETVER command, type help setver for a brief 
explanation and command syntax. 

Warning: Contact your software vendor for information about whether a program 
works with DOS. It is possible that IBM has not verified whether the program will 
run successfully if you use the SETVER command to change the program version 
number and version table. If you run the program after changing the version table 
in DOS, you might lose or corrupt data, or introduce system instabilities. If you do 
not contact your software vendor to determine the compatibility of a specific 
program with DOS, IBM is not responsible for any loss or damage. 



41 0 DOS User's Guide 



Messages During Setup 

If you receive one of the following messages when running SETUP.EXE, see the 
explanation that follows each message. 



Message 


Explanation 


"Your current operating system on drive C 
is not recognized as being DOS (2.1 or 
higher)." 


You might have purchased the wrong 
version of DOS. The upgrade version 
requires a previous version of DOS to be 
installed before you can install this 
version. 


One or more of the following incompatible 
TSR programs has been detected. Stop 

thp oronram or rpmnup it from vonr 
CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT files 
and run SETUP again. 

FASTOPEN.EXE 

DESQVIEW 

TASK SWAPPER 

WINDOWS 


Run SETUP by booting off diskette or 
stop the conflicting TSR by editing them 
out of vour HONFIfi ^Y^ and 
AUTOEXEC.BAT files. 



Appendix A. Installing DOS 41 1 



41 2 DOS User's Guide 



Appendix B. Accessibility for Individuals with Disabilities 

The IBM Independence Series', is a family of products designed to help individuals 
with disabilities achieve greater personal and professional independence through 
the use of technology. The following products are designed specifically for 
improving access between individuals with disabilities and others through the use of 
a computer or a telephone: Screen ReaderVDOS, Screen Reader/2, VoiceType* 2, 
AccessDOS, KeyGuard, and PhoneCommunicator*. 

There are also clinical products, designed to aid the therapy of those people with 
speech and attention/memory impairments. The clinical products are: 
SpeechViewer*, SpeechViewer II, and THINKable72. 

For further information or assistance with ordering any of these Independence 
Series products, call the IBM Independence Series Information Center at 
1-800-426-4832 (Voice) or 1-800-426-4833 (TDD). In Canada, call 1-800-465-7999 
(Voice). 



IBM AccessDOS 

AccessDOS is a complimentary DOS-based utility to extend keyboard, mouse, and 
sound access on a personal computer. AccessDOS is useful for people with 
mobility, visual, or hearing impairments because of the specialized control it offers. 
Key features include: 

StickyKeys 

Enables you to individually press each key for multiple key operations. For 
example, you can press CTRL, press ALT, and then press DEL to restart your 
system instead of pressing the keys simultaneously. 

MouseKeys 

Makes it possible to use the keys on the numeric keypad to simulate the use of 
a mouse. 

RepeatKeys 

Enables you to set the rate at which keys repeat when held down. 
SlowKeys 

Instructs the computer not to accept a key as "pressed" until it has been held 
down for a specific length of time. 



Independence Series, Screen Reader, VoiceType, PhoneCommunicator, SpeechViewer, and THiNKabie are 
trademarks of the IBM Corporation 



413 



Copyright IBM Corp. 1981, 1993 



BounceKeys 

Prevents double characters from being typed if your finger bounces on the key 
when pressing or releasing it. 

Serial Keys 

Enables you to control the keyboard and mouse functions using a special input 
device (not included) attached to a serial port. 

ToggleKeys 

Causes a beep to sound when the Caps Lock, Num Lock, or Scroll Lock keys 
are activated. 

ShowSounds 

Causes the screen to blink or display a small musical note on the display when 
the computer makes a sound. 



IBM Screen Reader/DOS 

Screen Reader/DOS reads the words on a display screen to people who are blind 
or visually impaired so that they can use a computer as a sighted person would. It 
can also be used effectively by individuals who have reading dysfunctions. 

Screen Reader/DOS contains prewritten profiles for many application programs. 
You can also modify existing profiles or write your own, using the Profile Access 
Language. 



Some of the major functions include: 
Autospeaks 

Monitors the screen and alerts you when changes, such as status or error 
messages, occur. 

Dedicated 18-key keypad 

Controls Screen Reader/DOS functions to enhance productivity by reserving the 
keyboard for application functions. As an alternative, Screen Reader/DOS can 
also be controlled from the keyboard. 

Powerful reading functions 

Allow you to read complete screens, paragraphs, sentences, words, or letters. 
You read only the amount of information you need. 

Host/LAN support 

Enables connectivity 

Windowing 

Provides easy access to many display formats featured in today's popular 
applications. 



41 4 DOS User's Guide 



IBM PhoneCommunicator 

PhoneCommunicator brings a wide range of telephone communication options to 
the fingertips of people who are hearing-impaired, speech-impaired, or both. 

Designed for both home and office use, PhoneCommunicator consolidates many 
functions in one system that is menu-driven and easy to use. Some of the key 
features are: 

Telephone communications with hearing persons 

Can be provided through the use of most touch-tone telephones. 

Communication with both Baudot and ASCII Telecommunication Device 
for the Deaf (TDDs) 

Provides a full-screen view of the dialog from both parties. 
Note: TDD is used interchangeably with TT (text telephones). 
Auto-answer mode 

Records messages from callers using touch-tone telephones and from TDD 
callers. Notes the time and date of the call. 

Programmable modem 

Allows communication with ASCII bulletin boards, letting you browse, inquire, 
and send messages. 

Personalized messages 

Allow you to generate and save messages for later recall and use during 
conversations. 



IBM VoiceType 2 

VoiceType 2 is a flexible speech recognition program that provides an affordable 
keyboard alternative for IBM personal computers. With VoiceType 2, a person can 
enter text and control DOS-based applications (such as word processors, 
spreadsheets, and databases) simply by speaking. Among its many unique 
advantages are: 

Adaptive learning capability 

Responds to your speech patterns. 

Use of multiple-user speech files 

Is supported on a single system. 

Large flexible vocabulary 

Allows for as many as 7,000 user-specified words and commands. It includes a 
100,000-word backup dictionary that aids in word prediction and spelling 
accuracy. 



Appendix B. Accessibility for Individuals with Disabilities 415 



Built-in voice commands 

Controls popular applications and DOS. 

Online voice-accessible documentation 



IBM KeyGuard 

The IBM KeyGuard is designed for use on IBM keyboards on many IBM computer 
systems, including the PS/2, PS/ValuePoint", AS/400*, and RISC System/6000*. 
The KeyGuard is a molded keyboard overlay with holes that expose and isolate 
each keytop. It attaches securely so the keyboard can be tilted at any desired 
angle. Features include: 

Better keying control 

Enables mobility-impaired users to achieve greater control by pressing keys 
through the corresponding holes on the KeyGuard when using a typing stick or 
a single finger. 

Increased accuracy 

Helps minimize accidental key strokes in a busy office or plant environment. 
Hand support 

Provides a handrest, an important feature for individuals with palsied or other 
coordination conditions. 

The IBM KeyGuard is also appropriate for use in education and preschool 
environments with young children who have not yet mastered typing skills. 



* PS/ValuePoint, AS/400, and RISC System/6000 are trademarks of the IBM Corporation. 
416 DOS User's Guide 



Appendix C. Notices 

References in this publication to IBM products, programs, or services do not imply 
that IBM intends to make these available in all countries in which IBM operates. 
Any reference to an IBM product, program or service is not intended to state or 
imply that only IBM's product, program, or service may be used. Any functionally 
equivalent product, program, or service that does not infringe any of IBM's 
intellectual property rights or other legally protectable rights may be used instead of 
the IBM product, program, or service. Evaluation and verification of operation in 
conjunction with other products, programs, or services, except those expressly 
designated by IBM, are the user's responsibility. 

IBM may have patents or pending patent applications covering subject matter in this 
document. The furnishing of this document does not give you any license to these 
patents. You can send license inquiries, in writing, to the IBM Director of 
Commercial Relations, IBM Corporation, Purchase, NY 10577. 



Trademarks and Service Marks 



The following terms, denoted by an asterisk (*) in this publication, are trademarks or 
service marks of the IBM Corporation in the United States or other countries: 



AS/400 

CGA 

EGA 

DisplayWrite 
IBM 

IBM PC 

IBM Token Ring 
Independence Series 



Micro Channel 

OS/2 

PC/AT 

PC DOS 

PC/XT 

Personal System/2 

PhoneCommunicator 

PS/2 

PS/ValuePoint 



RISC System/6000 

Screen Reader 

Speech Viewer 

THINKable 

VoiceType 

VGA 

XGA 



The following terms, denoted by a double asterisk (**) in this publication, are 
trademarks of other companies as follows: 



Adaptec 

Ami Pro 

AST 

Bernoulli 

BlueMAX 

Brooklyn Bridge 

Central Point Anti-Virus 

Central Point Backup 

Compaq 

dBASE 



Adaptec.lnc. 
Samna Corporation 
AST Research, Inc. 
Iomega Corp. 
Qualitas, Inc. 

Fifth Generation Systems, Inc. 
Central Point Software, Inc. 
Central Point Software, Inc. 
Compaq Computer Corporation 
Borland International, Inc. 



Copyright IBM Corp. 1981, 1993 



417 



Delete Sentry 

DR DOS 

Excel 

FastLynx 

Handwriter 

Helix 

Hercules 

Intel 

Iomega 

IPX 

LapLink 
Lotus 

Lotus 1-2-3 

Maynard 

Microsoft 

Microsoft Word 

NCR 

Netroom 

NetWare 

Novell 

PC Card 

PCMCIA 

PenDOS 
Phoenix 
QEMM 
Qualitas 

Quarterdeck Expanded Memory Manager 

Quattro Pro 

RIPL 

Stac 

Stacker 

Symphony 

Toshiba 

Windows 

WordPerfect 

386MAX 

8086 

8088 

80286 

80386 



Central Point Software 
Digital Research, Inc. 
Microsoft Corporation 
Rupp Corporation 

Communication Intelligence Corporation 
Helix Corporation 

Hercules Computer Technology, inc. 
Intel Corporation 
Iomega Corp. 
Novell, Inc. 

Traveling Software, Inc. 

Lotus Development Corporation 

Lotus Development Corporation 

Maynard Electronics, Inc. 

Microsoft Corporation 

Microsoft Corporation 

NCR Corporation 

Helix Software Company 

Novell Incorporated 

Novell Incorporated 

Personal Computer Memory Card 

International Association 

Personal Computer Memory Card 

International Association 

Communication Intelligence Corporation 

Phoenix Technologies, Ltd. 

Quarterdeck Office Systems 

Qualitas, Inc. 

Quarterdeck Office Systems 

Borland International, Inc. 

CTA, Inc. 

Stac Electronics 

Stac Electronics 

Lotus Development Corporation 

Toshiba Corporation 

Microsoft Corporation 

WorkPerfect Corporation 

Qualitas, Inc. 

Intel Corporation 

Intel Corporation 

Intel Corporation 

Intel Corporation 



DOS User's Guide 



Index 



Special Characters 

; CONFIG.SYS command 31 
- [n] (E Editor command) 147 
: (colon) in batch program 84 
? CONFIG.SYS command 31 
/ (E Editor command) 147 
/e switch 280 
BAT file 44 
.TXT mode 378 
.REC files 57 

[n] (E Editor command) 147 

* (IBM trademark) 417 

** (other company's trademark) 417 

+ [n] (E Editor command) 147 

< (take output) 87 

= (E Editor) 119,142 

> (send output) 87 

» (adding output) 87 

I (pipe) 89 

Numerics 

8514 color display 235 

8514 monochrome display 235 

A 

AccessDOS 413 
accessing 

See also installation 

Central Point Backup 308 

Central Point Undelete for Windows 1 88 

IBM AntiVirus/DOS for Windows 280 

Undelete 188 
active partition 

described 61 

setting 69 
add a blank line (ENTER) 122 
add a line of text (ENTER) 1 1 6 
ADD command (E Editor) 147 



ADD in E Editor 142 
adding output (») 87 
ADMIN. PRF 295 
advanced features 

RAMBoost 174 
advanced properties 275 

DOS Shell 275 
allocation units 

recovering 180 
ALT, PenDOS modifier key 363 
Antivirus program 279 
AntiVirus/DOS program 

installing 279 
APPEND command 45 
APPEND command (E Editor) 141, 147 
application shortcut keys 

defining 266, 273 
archive bit defined 347 
archive file attribute 

purpose of 1 3 
ASCII codes 

converting from 148 

displaying characters according to 145 
ASCII values, entering for PenDOS 363 
Assembler syntax 139 
ATTRIB command 13,14 
ATTRIBUTE EXCLUSION command in 

Backup 314 
AUTOEXEC.BAT 

commands 
common 45 

international settings 246 

startup commands 44 
AUTOEXEC.BAT command 44, 45 

APPEND 45 

CPSCHED 45 

DATAMON 45 

DOSKEY 45 

ECHO OFF 45 

FASTOPEN 45 

KEYB 45 



Copyright IBM Corp. 1981, 1993 



41 



AUTOEXEC.BAT command (continued) 
MODE 45 
MOUSE 45 

multiple configurations 42 

PATH 45 

PROMPT 45 

SET 45 

SMARTDRV 45 
AUTOEXEC.BAT file 

defining macros in 102 

explanation of 27 

modifying for PCMCIA 378, 379 
automated virus checking 279 
AUTOSAVE command (E Editor) 117 
AUTOSHELL in E Editor 147 

B 

backing up a file server 333 
backing up multiple drives 318 
BACKSPACE button for PenDOS 361 , 362 
Backup 

automatic file selections 312 
backing up a file server 335 
backing up to a network device 331 
backing up to a network directory 332 
backup method reference chart 352 
backup methods 345 
backup methods and file selection 325 
changing the user level 306 
choosing a file server 333 
choosing files with the keyboard 316 
compare symbols 328 
comparing data 326 
confidence test 304 

retesting 304 

troubleshooting 304 
configuration file 303 
contents of setup files 322 
CPBDIR 352 
description of backup 309 
disabling Express 317 
displaying the directory tree 315 
drive display 319 
excluding file attributes 314 



Backup (continued) 

failing high speed test 305 
files created by low-speed backups 332, 
347 

files that do not compare 327 
first time configuration 303 
formatting non-SCSI tapes 340 
hidden files 314 

include subdirectories example 313 
include/exclude files example 313 
include/exclude files list special 

exceptions 314 
include/exclude list guidelines 312 
installing 301 
making a backup 308, 309 
monochrome file selection 316 
network backup 333 
non-Express window explained 317 
password for backup set 309 
preconfigured setup files 321, 324 
previous versions 324 
printing a backup directory 331 
QIC tape drives supported 338 
Remote option 333 
restoring bindery and trustee 

information 337 
restoring data 329 

restoring when Express is disabled 329 
SCSI host adapter cards supported 343 
SCSI tape directory 310 
SCSI tape drives supported 339 
selecting files automatically 312 
selecting files by date 315 
selecting files manually 315 
selecting multiple drives when Express is 

disabled 318 
server volumes in setup files 323 
setup files defined 321 
setup files description 323 
starting a compare 327 
strategies for backing up 344 
system files 314 
tape backup strategies 346 
tape controller cards 342 
supported 342 



420 DOS User's Guide 



Backup (continued) 

tape controller cards address table 342 

tape information 338 

tape password 310 

unattended backups 326 

user level reference chart 307 

using CPSCHED 325 

using the include/exclude list 312 

viewer function keys 320 

viewing files 320 

volume tape catalog explained 343 
warnings 304,310,311,313 
include/exclude list 313 
quitting a SCSI backup 31 1 
remember password 31 0 
skipping confidence test 304 
when to run confidence test 304 
when to select files automatically or 
manually 325 
Backup confidence test 

when to run 304 
BACKUP FROM command 318 
Backup method 
differential 349 
full 348 
full copy 348 
full/append to tape 348 
full/erase tape 348 
incremental 348 
separate incremental 348 
backup strategy for networks 334 
batch command 

described 76 
batch program 
batch commands 
described 76 
calling from another batch program 82 
colon for labels 84 
creating 

by using the E command 78 
creating conditions in 84, 85 
described 75, 76 

displaying commands and messages 79 
GOTO command 84 



batch program (continued) 

including comments in 81 

naming conventions for 77 

running 77 

stopping 

temporarily 78, 80 

to discontinue processing 78 

to display a prompt 80 

testing 79 

tools for creating 77 

using replaceable parameters in 82, 83 

using the GOTO command 85 
batch programs 

creating 

by using DOSKey 100 

defining macros in 101 

running in a startup command 269 
Bernoulli drive 317 
bindery and trustee backups 335 
bindery and trustee information 

restoring 337 
bindery files listed 335 
block mark (E Editor) 126 
block reflowing (ALT+R) using E Editor 131 
block, configuration 40 
boot (restart) 

bypassing boot commands 28 
boot (start) systems 

Dual Boot 281 

IBM Boot Manager 280, 281 
Boot Manager 280 

using to install DOS 398 
bootable diskette 

See system diskette 
bootable partition 280, 336 
BOTTOM command (E Editor) 147 
BOX command (E Editor) 148 
BOX in E Editor 146 
BREAK command 32 
breaking a text line in E Editor 122 
buffer 

described 129, 130 

E Editor 129, 130 



Index 421 



BUFFER command 32 
buffering, double 184 
BUFFERS command 38 

using to increase system speed 1 82 
bulk memory client 381 
bulk-erasing a tape 340 
button 

CANCEL 361 

ENTER 359 

K 359 

SEND for PenDOS 361 

similar to ESC 359 

SPACE for PenDOS 361 

WW 359 
bypassing CONFIG.SYS 28 
bytes defined 49 

C 

C (change) command 

E Editor 135 
C (change) command (E Editor) 148 
C language syntax 139, 146 
calculating mathematical expressions using E 

Editor 143 
CALL command 82 

in startup commands for program 
items 269 
calling 

Central Point Backup 308 

IBM AntiVirus/DOS 281 

the E Editor 1 1 1 

Undelete 188 
CANCEL button for PenDOS 361 , 362 
Caps Lock (CL), PenDOS modifier key 363 
Card Services (PCMCS.EXE) 379 
carriage return 

button for PenDOS 361 

sending 361 
CASTOFF command 336 
CD command 17 
CD command (E Editor) 148 
CENTER command (E Editor) 148 
Central Point Backup 

installing 308 



Central Point Backup (continued) 

starting 308 
Central Point Backup for Windows program 

installing 302 
Central Point Undelete for Windows 

installing 188 

starting 1 88 
Certifying tapes in Backup 340 
CGA display 235 
changing 

configuration 28 

hardware devices 28 
changing user level in Backup 306 
character mark (E Editor) 127 
character send, activating 361 
character variations for PenDOS 373 
characteristics of viruses 
characters, entering for PenDOS 360 
characters, international 242 
CHCP command 248 
check for viruses on startup 
CHKDSK command 50,182 

increasing disk space 1 80 

using before formatting a hard disk 73 
choosing correct install procedure 394 
CHR command (E Editor) 148 
CL (Caps Lock), PenDOS modifier key 363 
CLEAR button for PenDOS 361 , 362 
clearing 

the E Editor window 127 
client, definition of 154 
colon (:) in batch program 84 
colors 

changing 

in DOS Shell 262 
COLORS command 

DOS Shell 262 
colors for DOS Shell 236 
COMM Driver (VCD) 384 
command 

AUTOEXEC.BAT 45 
APPEND 45 
CPSCHED 45 
DATAMON 45 
DOSKEY 45 



422 DOS User's Guide 



command (continued) 

AUTOEXEC.BAT (continued) 

ECHO OFF 45 

FASTOPEN 45 

KEYB 45 

MODE 45 

MOUSE 45 

PATH 45 

PROMPT 45 

SET 45 

SMARTDRV 45 

startup 44 
batch 

described 76 
CD (change directory) 17 
combining with redirection characters 91 
CONFIG.SYS 30 
DATAMON 232 
DELTREE 10, 21 
DEVICE 37, 185 
DEVICEHIGH 37, 185 
DIR (directory) 19 

displaying when a batch program runs 79 
editing 

using DOSKey 95, 96, 98, 100 
EXPAND 232 
filter 89 

described 89 
MD (make directory) 20 
MEM command 183 
MOVE 1 1 

RD (remove directory) 21 

redirecting input from a file 88 

redirecting output to a file or printer 87 

REN (rename) 9 

RESTORE 233 

SETVER 238 

startup 28 

SUBST 69 

UNDELETE 11,232 

using editing keys 93, 94 

viewing or repeating 95 

using DOSKey 98 
XCOPY 23 



command-line options 

for RAMDrive 185 
COMMAND.COM file 

copying when formatting a disk 54 

primary DOS partition 59 
commands 

Backup 306, 312, 314, 315, 318, 320, 322, 
324, 325, 331 , 335 

attribute exclusions 314 

backup from 318 

bindery and trustee backups 335 

date range selection 315 

include/exclude files 312 

load setup 324 

print history 331 

QView 320 

save setup 322 

schedule backups 325 

user level 306 
COUNTRY 242 
DATE command 315 
DOS Shell 

online help for 257 
editing 

using DOSKey 96, 97, 98, 99 
enhanced for DOS xii 
FORMAT 382 
IBMAVD 281 
INTERLNK command 158 
INTERSVR command 158 
KEYB 242 
MEM 164 
new for DOS xii 
PENDOS 357 
QCONFIG 164, 166 
startup commands 

for program items 269, 270, 271 , 272 
typing multiple commands per line 96 
UNDELETE 9, 189 
using editing keys 95 
viewing or repeating 

using DOSKey 97 
common block, multiple configurations 41 



Index 423 



compare 

generating a report in Backup 327 
symbols defined in Backup 328 
comparing 
files 

using the FC command 12 
comparing data in Backup 328 
compressed drives 

installing DOS 402 
computers, connecting 153 
conditional processing 84, 85 
CONFIG.SYS 

INTERLNK command 157, 159 

international settings 239 
CONFIG.SYS command 

; 31 

? 31 

BREAK 32 
BUFFER 32 
bypassing 28 
COUNTRY 32 
creation of 30 
DEVICE 32 
DEVICEHIGH 32 
DOS 33 
DRIVPARM 33 
FCBS 33 
FILES 33 

INCLUDE command 31 
INSTALL 33 
LASTDRIVE 33 
menu block 31 
MENUCOLOR command 31 
MENUDEFAULT command 31 
MENUITEM command 31 
NUMLOCK 33 
REM 32, 33 
SET 32, 33 
SHELL 33 
STACKS 33 
SUBMENU command 31 
SWITCHES 33 
CONFIG.SYS file 
changing 30 



CONFIG.SYS file (continued) 

editing 30 

EMM386.EXE 230 

example of 38 

explanation of 27 

modifying for PCMCIA 378 
configuration 
configuration block 40 

common 41 

menu 31,39 

submenu 31 
configuration of system 27 
configurations, multiple 28 
configure selection 

defragmenter 182 
configuring 

RAMBoost 169 
connecting a text line in E Editor 122 
control characters using E Editor 145 
conventional memory 164 

specifying in DOS Shell for programs 275 
copy block of text gesture for Pen DOS 365 
COPY command 

DOS Shell 266 
copy text (ALT+C) using E Editor 1 31 
copying 

directories 23, 24 

program items among program groups 266 

subdirectories 24 

with the E Editor (ALT+C) 128 
COUNTRY command 32, 239, 242 
country settings, changing 242 
CP format vs QIC for tapes in Backup 341 
CPBACKUP.CFG file 303 
CPBDIR 352 

parameters 353 
CPSCHED command 45 
CPSCHED in Backup 325 
CTRL, PenDOS modifier key 363 
CTRL+BREAK key combination 

stopping a batch program 78 
CTRL+C key combination 

stopping a batch program 78 



424 DOS User's Guide 



CTRL+S key combination 

stopping a batch program temporarily 78 
cursor movement 

keys 120 

move to beginning of marked area 

(ALT+Y) 132 
move to end of marked area (ALT+E) 1 32 
customizing 

AUTOEXEC.BAT file 44 
E Editor window 144 
customizing DOS Shell 

adding passwords for program items 274 
adding program groups 263, 264 
adding program items to groups 265, 266 
changing 

color schemes 262 
group properties 277 
program item properties 268 
screen modes 262 
copying program items among groups 266 
creating Help messages 
for program groups 264 
for program items 275 
creating startup commands 269 
defining application shortcut keys 273 
deleting a program group 264 
deleting program items from groups 267 
pausing after quitting a program 274 
preventing program switching 277 
rearranging items in program groups 267 
reserving shortcut keys for programs 277 
running batch programs in a startup 

command 269 
setting video mode for programs 276 
specifying memory for programs 275, 276 
using a startup directory for programs 272 
using replaceable parameters 270, 271 , 
272 

customizing your system 

using batch program messages 79 

data 

recovering 1 87 

deleted file (see Undelete) 187 



Data Monitor 

delete protection 193, 211, 212, 215 
purging Delete Sentry files 21 1 
Undelete 193,211,212,215 
DATAMON command 45, 232 
DATE command 315 
date display, international 242 
DATE RANGE SELECTION command in 

Backup 315 
default E Editor 

function keys 1 1 1 

search options=" 135, 138 
defaults 

Antivirus 279 
defective sectors 

recovering data from a defective disk 57 

reported by the FORMAT command 53 
defining a startup menu 39 
DEFRAG command 182 
defragmented files 181 
defragmenter 

configure selection 182 

Optimize Menu 182 

optimize selection 182 
defragmenter program 181 
delete 

a directory 10, 21 

all directory files 10 
delete a character 

left of cursor (BACKSPACE) 122 

right of cursor (DELETE) 1 22 
delete a character for PenDOS 362 
delete a line of text 

(CTRL+BACKSPACE) 123 
delete a word of text (CTRL+D) 123 
DELETE button for PenDOS 361 
delete character gesture for PenDOS 364 
DELETE command 9 

deleting a program group 264 

deleting a program item 267 

DOS Shell 264, 267 
delete highlighted block gesture for 
PenDOS 364 



Index 425 



delete marked text (ALT+D) using E 

Editor 131 
Delete protection 

Delete Sentry method 193,215 

Delete Tracker method 193, 214 

none (DOS) 193,212 

purging Delete Sentry files 211 

purging Delete Tracker files 21 1 

purging DelWatch files 21 1 

purging NetWare files 21 1 
Delete Tracking 193 
deleting 

logical drives 70, 71 

macros 1 04 

program groups 264 

program items from groups 267 

using the E Editor (ALT+D) 128 

virtual drives 69 
deletion 

restoring in the E Editor 123 
DELTREE command 10,21 
device 

explanation of 34 
DEVICE command 32, 37, 38, 185 
device driver 

ANSI. SYS 35 

CMOSCLK.SYS 35 

customizing features of 34 

DISPLAY.SYS 35 

DRIVER.SYS 35 

EGA. SYS 35 

EMM386.EXE 35 

explanation of 34 

HIMEM.SYS 35 

installable 34 

INTERLNK.EXE 35 

list of 35 

order in CONFIG.SYS file 37 
PCMATA.SYS 35 
PCMCS.EXE 35 
PCMFDD.EXE 36 
PCMMTD.EXE 36 
PCMSCD.EXE 36 
PENDEV.EXE 36 



device driver (continued) 

POWER.EXE 36 

RAMDRIVE.EXE 36 

RAMDRIVE.SYS 36, 185 

SETVER.EXE 36 

SMARTDRV 183 

UMBCGA.SYS 37 

UMBEMS.SYS 37 

UMBHERC.SYS 37 

UMBMONO.SYS 37 
device driver, installable 

explanation of 34 
DEVICEHIGH command 32, 37, 38, 185 
Differential backup 

advantages and disadvantages 351 
differential backup method 349 
DIR command 19 
directories 

copying 23 

copying all files in a directory 23 
creating as you copy files 24 
recovering deletions 9 
recovering from a defective disk 57 
startup 

for program items 266, 272 
undeleting 198 
directory 

IP switch 19 
changing 17, 148 
current 17 
deleting 10, 21 
description of 5, 14 
make 20 
making 5, 15 
moving files 1 1 
names 15 
new 20 
parent 5, 15 
renaming 25 
root 1 5 

viewing contents of 19 
viewing groups of file names in 20 
directory tree 15 

displaying in Backup 315 



426 DOS User's Guide 



disabilities, individuals 

ordering products for 413 

products designed for 413 
disk 

formatting 

preparing for DOS files 53 
disk buffers 

speeding up your system 182 
disk drive 

logical 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73 

using a path for a drive letter 69 
disk space 

increasing 

by recovering allocation units 180 

on a newly formatted disk 53 
diskette drives 

described 50 
diskette, startup 30 
diskettes 

See also disks 

creating a system diskette 54 
formatting 51, 53 
restoring 53 

sizes and types of 49, 50 
disks 49, 50 

See also diskettes, hard disks 
formatting 

creating a system diskette 54 
described 51 

preparing for DOS files 51, 53 
recovering data from a defective disk 57 
renaming 55 
restoring 53 

volume label for 52, 55, 56 
DISPLAY command 

DOS Shell 263 
display mode 

See graphics mode, text mode 
display monitor 

CGA 235 

EGA 235 

EGA monochrome 235 
Hercules 235 
monochrome 235 



display monitor (continued) 

VGA color 235 

VGA monochrome 235 
display, changing 234 
DISPLAY.SYS 246, 247 
displaying 

multiple drives in Backup 318 

the directory tree in Backup 315 
document format, special 30 
DOLINES command (E Editor) 148 
DOS 

customizing 79 

DATE command 315 

enhanced commands xii 

new commands xii 

new optional tools xi 

running FDISK during DOS setup 61 

wildcards in Backup 313 
DOS command 33 
DOS command (E Editor) 148 
DOS defragmenter 181 
DOS help x 

DOS memory managers 229 
DOS README.TXT file 227 
DOS Shell 

add colors 236 

adding program groups 263, 264 
changing 

group contents 265, 266, 267 

group properties 277 

program item properties 268, 269, 270, 
271, 272, 273, 274, 275, 276, 277 
deleting a program group 264 
described 253 
displays supported 234 
Help 

creating Help messages 264, 275 

requesting 257 

using the Help menu 259, 260 

viewing related procedures 258 
installing 253 
leaving temporarily 260 
quitting 261 
starting 

from the command prompt 255 



Index 427 



DOS Shell command 

starting DOS Shell 255 
DOS Shell program 

installing 253 
DOS Shell window 

changing 

color schemes 262 
screen modes 262 

rearranging items in program groups 267 
DOS version number 238 
DOS=HIGH,UMB command 38 
DOSKEY command 45 

See also DOSKey program 
DOSKey program 

creating macros 101 

deleting macros 104 

deleting stored commands 100 

described 95 

editing macros 103 

editing previous commands 99, 100 

installing 96 

macros 

described 101 

redirection characters for macros 106 

running macros 102 

saving commands in a batch program 100 

saving macros 103 

typing multiple commands per line 96 

using replaceable parameters in 
macros 104, 105 

viewing previous commands 97, 98 
DOSSHELL command 

starting DOS Shell 255 
DOSSHELL.INI file 235 
double buffering 

SMARTDRV 183 
double buffering (SMARTDRV) 184 
DRAG command (E Editor) 148 
DRAW in E Editor (F6) 148 
drawing lines (F6) 112 
drive 

changing 5 

current 5 



drive A and B emulation 382 
drive A and drive B emulation 382 
drive letter 

described 70 

hard disk partition 

described 68, 69, 72 

hard disk partitions 70 

substituting with a path 69 
drive other than drive C 

installing on 397 
driver, PCMCIA 

PCMATA.SYS 381 

PCMCS.EXE 379 

PCMFDD.EXE 382 

PCMINFO.EXE 386 

PCMMTD.EXE 383 

PCMSCD.EXE 379 

WPCMINFO.EXE 388 
drives 

displaying multiple in Backup 318 
light on continuously during backup 310 
mapping explained 319 
multiple selection in Backup 318 
resetting defaults for tapes 343 
scanning for available (free) clusters 203 
selecting multiple in Backup 317 

DRIVPARM command 33 

Dual Boot 

using to install DOS 398 

dual boot systems 281 

E 

E (EDIT) command (E Editor) (F8) 148 
E command 

creating small batch programs 78 

starting the E Editor 115 
E command (or ED command) 

the E Editor 114 
E Editor 

= (E Editor) 119 

adding a blank line (ENTER) 122 

adding a line of text (ENTER) 1 1 6 

breaking a line 122 

buffer 129, 130 



428 DOS User's Guide 



E Editor (continued) 
connecting a line 122 
copying text (ALT+C) 128, 131 
copying text to and from files 129 
creating a file 114, 116 
customizing the window 144 
deleting a line of text 

(CTRL+BACKSPACE) 123 
deleting a word of text (CTRL+D) 123 
deleting text (ALT+D) 128, 131 
described 110 
drawing lines (F6) 112 
editing a file (F8) 112 
erasing to end of line (CTRL+E) 122 
ESC to get to command line 112 
filling marked area (ALT+F) 131 
finding and replacing text 135 
finding text 133 
function keys 111 
getting help (F1) 112 
getting information 112 
help information 112 
joining a line 122 

jumping to E Editor command line 112 
macro, immediate 124 
marking blocks (ALT+B) 1 26 
marking characters (ALT+Z) 127 

word (ALT+Z) 127 
marking lines (ALT+L) 126 
marking text 126, 127 

block (ALT+B) 126 

characters, phrase, or sentence 
(ALT+Z) 127 

line (ALT+L) 126 

word (ALT+W) 126 
marking words (ALT+W) 1 26 
modifying a file 114 
moving text (ALT+M) 129, 131 
moving text to and from files 130 
moving the cursor 120 
naming a file (F7) 112 
naming an unnamed file 117 
online help for 113 
overlaying text (ALT+O) 131 



E Editor (continued) 

paragraph formatting (ALT+P) 1 32 

printing a file 119 

printing a file using E Editor 119 

problem determination 234 

quitting (F3) 112 

quitting a file (F3) 114 

reflowing block of text (ALT+R) 131 

reflowing marked area (ALT+R) 131, 132 

reflowing paragraph (ALT+P) 130 

refresh DOS Shell file list 1 1 6 

replacing text 135 

restoring a iine (F9) 112, 123 

saving (F2) 112 

saving and quitting (F4) 112 

saving and quitting a file (F4) 114 

searching for text 133 

selecting 

text 125 
splitting a line 122 
starting 

with the E or ED command 115 
starting from DOS 1 1 1 
switching between multiple files (F10) 112 
text editor 1 09 
types of marks 

block (ALT+B) 126 
characters (ALT+Z) 127 
word (ALT+W) 126 
unmarking text (ALT+U) 127 
using your keyboard 120 
E Editor function keys 1 1 1 
e switch 280 
ECHO command 79 
ECHO OFF command 45 
ED command 

starting the E Editor 115 
editing 

AUTOEXEC.BAT file 44 
commands 

using DOSKey 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100 
macros 1 03 
multiple files 118 
using editing keys 93, 94, 95 



Index 429 



editing a file (F8) 112 
editing keys 

for commands 93, 94, 95 

for DOSKey 99, 100 
editing line 360, 362 
editing line character, PenDOS 

deleting 361 
editing, PenDOS 

clearing a character 361 

clearing characters 362 

closing without sending characters 361, 
362 

copying 365 

delete a character 361 

deleting a block 364 

deleting a character 362, 364 

inserting a space 364 

inserting a space character 361 

pasting 365 

sending characters to application 361, 362 

sending characters with carriage 
return 361 
EGA display 235 
EGA monitor 246 
EGA MONO display 235 
EGA.CPI file 246, 249 
EGAX.CPI file 249 
EMM386 

system hang 230 
EMM386.EXE 184,230 
emulation, drives A and B 382 
enhanced DOS commands xii 
ENTER button for PenDOS 359 
environment size 229 
environment variable 

batch programs 83 

setting TEMP 89 

before using a pipe 89 
erase to end of line (CTRL+E) 122 
error message 

displayed when a batch program runs 79 
error messages 411 
ESC (in E Editor) 112 



ESC for PenDOS 359 

ESC key for E Editor 111,113,118 

examples 

differential backup 351 

full backup 349 

full copy backup 349 

incremental backup 350 

separate incremental backup 351 
examples of 

ADD 142 

date display 150 

E version display 151 

edit 1 file 118 

edit 2 files 118 

edit multiple files 118 

file naming 119 

file naming shorthand 119 

math 143 

multiple file specs 119 
print 119 

setting margins 130 

setting tabs 123 

string change 135 

string search 133, 135 

time display 150 
execute the current line 

DOLINES 148 
EXIT command for DOS Shell 

DOS Shell 261 
EXPAND command 232, 236 
expanded memory (EMS or EEMS) 166 
Express 

disabling in Backup 317 

restoring when disabled in Backup 329 
extended DOS partition 

creating 66, 67 

creating or changing logical drives 67 
deleting logical drives from 70, 71 
described 59, 60 
drive letter 

described 68, 69, 70, 72 
extended memory 183 

specifying in DOS Shell for programs 276 



430 DOS User's Guide 



extended memory (XMS) 165, 228 

extensions of files 4 

extra length tapes in Backup 340 

F 

F1 (HELP in E Editor) 112, 148 
F10 (NEXT in E Editor) 112 
F2 (SAVE in E Editor) 112 
F3 (QUIT in E Editor) 112,114 
F4 (FILE in E Editor) 112, 148 
F5 during startup 29, 407 
F6 (DRAW in E Editor) 148 
F7 (FILE in E Editor) 114 
F7 (NAME in E Editor) 112, 150 
F8 (EDIT in E Editor) 112,148 
F8 during startup 29, 407 
F9 (UNDO in E Editor) 112,123 
FASTOPEN command 45 
FAT 381 

Undelete 203,210,212 
FAT Diskette Emulation (PCMFDD.EXE) 382 
fax 384 

FC command 12 
FCBS command 33 
FDISK command 

See Fixed Disk Setup Program 
FDISK.COM file 237 
file 

See also batch program, hidden file, system 
file 

AUTOEXEC.BAT 28 
CONFIG.SYS 28 
copy 7 
delete 9 
description of 3 
extension 4 
move and rename 1 1 
names of 3 

redirecting command output to 87 
rename 9 

using as command input 88 
file allocation table 
described 51 



file attributes 
changing 14 
described 13 

viewing in a group of files 13 

viewing in a single file 13 
file deletion 231 
FILE in E Editor (F4) 148 
file name 

restrictions 4 
file name extension 

batch programs 77 
file server 

backing up 333 

configuring to use a tape device in 

Backup 333 
Novell 2.15c 335 
Novell 3.11 334 
restoring a Novell 2.15c 336 
restoring a Novell 3.11 336 
running server-based software 333 
files 

automatic selection in Backup 312 

backing up by date 31 5 

backup method and file selection in 

Backup 325 
comparing 

using the FC command 12 
copying with directories 23, 24 
created by low-speed backups 332, 347 
creating 110 

See also Edlin 110 
excluding by attribute in Backup 314 
finding 198,200,204 

deleted 200 

in a deleted directory 198 

lost deleted 204 
monochrome selection in Backup 316 
overwritten 192, 196, 212, 215 
printing from the E Editor 119 
recovering deleted files 187 
recovering deletions 9 
recovering lost files 198, 204 
renaming 196 
restoring 

from a defective disk 57 



Index 431 



files (continued) 

selecting 312, 315 

automatically in Backup 312 
manually in Backup 315 

selecting automatically or manually in 
Backup 325 

selecting manually in Backup 316 

setup files in Backup 321, 322, 324 
contents of 322 

that do not compare in Backup 327 

undeleting 187 

viewing in Backup 320 
FILES command 33, 38 
fill marked area (ALT+F) using E Editor 131 
filter 

described 89 

FIND command 90 

MORE command 89 

SORT command 90 
FIND command 

using as a filter 90 
finding and replacing text 

using the E Editor 135 
finding text 

with the E Editor 133 
finding viruses 279 
first time configuration in Backup 303 
fixed disk 

See also diskettes, hard disks 

media address 381 
Fixed Disk Setup Program 

creating a primary DOS partition 64, 65, 
66 

creating an extended DOS partition 66, 67 

creating logical drives 67 

deleting a partition or logical drive 70, 71 

described 61 

drive letter for partition 

described 68, 69, 70, 72 
formatting partitions with Format 72, 73 
menus 

described 62 
partition 

described 59, 60, 61 



Fixed Disk Setup Program (continued) 

partitioning more than one hard disk 72 

running 

after setting up DOS 62 

while running the Setup program 61 

viewing partition data 63, 64 
FORMAT command 51, 53, 382 

creating a system diskette 54 
format, special for documents 30 
FORMAT.COM file 237 
formatting disk 

after using FDISK 72, 73 
formatting disks 

creating a system diskette 54 

described 51 

preparing for DOS files 51, 53 

quick format 52 

restoring after reformatting 53 

safe format 52 

specifying disk capacity 52 

unconditional format 52 
formatting, paragraph (ALT+P) using E 

Editor 132 
full backup 348 

advantages and disadvantages 349 
full copy backup 348 

advantages and disadvantages 349 
full path 16 
full-screen Backup 301 
full/append to tape backup method 348 
full/erase tape backup method 348 
function buttons, PenDOS 361, 362 
function keys 

F1-F10 111 

for viewers in Backup 320 
function keys, E Editor 1 1 1 

G 

gesture 

copy block of text 365 

definition of 364 

delete highlighted block 364 

insert space 364 

paste 365 



432 DOS User's Guide 



gesture (continued) 

tap 365 

undo 365 
GET command (E Editor) 148 
GET command in E Editor 140 
getting E Editor help information 

(F1) 112 
GOTO command 84, 85 
grandfather, father, son 

backup strategy 346 
graphic characters using E Editor 145 
graphics mode 

changing screen modes in DOS Shell 262 

for program items 276 
graphics program 231 
greater-than sign 

redirection character 87 
group of files 

delete 1 0 

H 

hard disk 

formatting after partitioning 72, 73 
installing on 395 

partitioning 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 68, 
69, 70, 72 
disk drives, logical 67 
hard disks 

See also disks 
partitioning 59 
restoring 53 
safe format 52 
hardware device 

adding 28 
hearing impairment 413, 415 
help 

(F1) 111 
command 148 
creating 

for program groups 264 
for program items 275 
for DOS Shell 257, 258, 259, 260 
online 257, 258, 259, 260, 264, 275 



help for DOS x 

HELP in E Editor (F1) 148 

help information 

defragmenter 1 82 
help menu in DOS Shell 

described 260 
Hercules 235 
hidden file attribute 13 
hidden files in Backup 314 
high memory area (HMA) 165,227 
High speed 

failing test in Backup 305 
history files 

printing a directory in Backup 331 
HMA 227 

I 

IBM AccessDOS 413 
IBM AntiVirus/DOS 279 

installing 281 
IBM AntiVirus/DOS for Windows 

installing 280 

starting 280 
IBM Boot Manager 280 
IBM Independence Series 413 
IBM Screen Reader 414 
IBM VoiceType 2 415 
IBMAVD command 281 
IBMAVSP.EXE 295 
IBMBIO.COM file 

copying when formatting a disk 54 

primary DOS partition 59 
IBMDOS.COM file 

copying 

when formatting a disk 54 

primary DOS partition 59 
IF command 43, 84, 85 
INCLUDE command 31,42 
include subdirectories 

example in Backup 313 
include/exclude files 

example 313 
include/exclude files list 

special exceptions 314 



Index 433 



include/exclude files list in Backup 312 

guidelines 312 
incremental backup 

advantages and disadvantages 350 
incremental backup method 348 
Independence Series 413 
Information Center for disabilities 413 
Information Utilities 

DOS 386 

Windows 388 
input 

taking (<) 87 
insert mode 100 

insert space gesture for PenDOS 364 

INSTALL command 33 

installable 

device driver 35, 36, 37 

ANSI.SYS 35 

CMOSCLK.SYS 35 

DISPLAY.SYS 35 

DRIVER.SYS 35 

EGA. SYS 35 

EMM386.EXE 35 

HIMEM.SYS 35 

INTERLNK.EXE 35 

PCMATA.SYS 35 

PCMCS.EXE 35 

PCMFDD.EXE 36 

PCMMTD.EXE 36 

PCMSCD.EXE 36 

PENDEV.EXE 36 

POWER.EXE 36 

RAMDRIVE.EXE 36 

RAMDRIVE.SYS 36 

SETVER.EXE 36 

UMBCGA.SYS 37 

UMBEMS.SYS 37 

UMBHERC.SYS 37 

UMBMONO.SYS 37 
installation 

Central Point Backup for Windows 302 
Central Point Undelete for Windows 187 
DOS Shell 253 
IBM Anti Virus/DOS 279 



434 DOS User's Guide 



installation (continued) 

IBM AntiVirus/DOS for Windows 279 

of Backup, full-screen 301 

of DOS Shell 253 

of PenDOS 355 

optional tools 280 

PCMCIA Support for DOS 376 

Phoenix PCMCIA Support for 
Windows 376 
installing 

after the LAN Administrator installs 401 

booting from diskette 395 

from a remote workstation to a server 400 

from within your DOS system 395 

if OS/2 is installed 398 

if OS/2 is installed as FAT 398 

if using Boot Manager 398 

if using Dual Boot 398 

if you have a PS/1 399 

if you have no hard disk 402 

if your drives are compressed 402 

if your system already has dual boot 
capability 398 

LAN administrator 399 

mouse drivers 329 

on drive other than C 397 

on hard disk 395 

optional tools 391 

to a server 400 

using diskettes 395 

using the OS/2 Boot Manager 398 
installing DOS from a LAN server 399 
installing DOS from a LAN workstation 399 
INTERLNK command 158 

preinstall considerations 156 
InterLnk program 153 

breaking connection 160 
International format 

date, time, and currency 242 
international settings 

CHCP command 248 

DISPLAY.SYS 247 

KEYB command 247 

MODE command 248 



international settings (continued) 

NLSFUNC command 248 
INTERSVR command 158 
ISO fonts 239, 248 
ISO.CPI file 249 

J 

joining a text line in E Editor 122 
jump 

batch program 84, 85 

K 

K button for PenDOS 359, 361 
key 

for stopping a batch program 78 
stroke sequence play (CTRL+T) 124 
stroke sequence record (CTRL+R) 1 24 

KEY command 149 

KEYB command 45, 242, 247 

keyboard 

choosing files in Backup 316 
displaying 359 

editing characters on 361 , 362 
keyboard, changing 242 
KeyGuard 416 
keys 

for changing commands 93, 94, 95 
for working with DOSKey 97, 98, 99, 100 
for working with the E Editor 120 
kilobytes defined 49 

L 

L (locate) command (E Editor) 149 
label 

batch programs 84 
LABEL command 56 
labels 

for disks. See Volume label 55 
LAN administrator 

installing DOS on a server 399 
installing DOS on a workstation 399 
using setup /a 399 



laptop, computer 153 
LASTDRIVE command 33 
less-than sign 

redirection character 87 
LIM 3.2/4.0 165 
line mark (E Editor) 126 
lines, drawing (F6) 112 
listing 

previous commands 97 
loading 

See also installation 

Central Point Backup 308 

IBM Anti Virus/DOS 281 

the E Editor 1 1 1 

Undelete 188 
LOCAL. MSG 295 
logical drive 

creating or changing 67 

deleting 70, 71 

described 60 

drive letters in extended DOS partitions 68 
formatting after creating or changing 72, 
73 

LOOPKEY command (E Editor) 149 
lowercase 
marked text 

LOWERCASE command 149 

M 

macro, immediate 124 
macros 

creating 101 

deleting 104 

described 101 

editing 103 

limit on length of 101 

naming with DOS command names 102 

running 102 

saving 1 03 

stopping 102 

using redirection characters and pipes 106 
using replaceable parameters in 104, 105 
versus macros 101 



Index 435 



macros for Pen DOS gestures 365 
making a backup 308 
margins 

paragraph adjustment to 130 

setting 130 
MARGINS command (E Editor) 149 
margins, setting 124 
marking text 

See also text marking 

how to mark 126, 127 
line (ALT+L) 126 
MATCHTAB 

command 149 
MATH command (E Editor) 149 
MATH in E Editor 143 
mathematical expressions in E Editor 143 
MATHO command (E Editor) 149 
MATHX command (E Editor) 149 
megabytes defined 49 
MEM command 164,183 
memory 

analyzing your computer 166 

extended memory (XMS) 228 

problems 227 

specifying in DOS Shell for programs 275, 
276 

Upper Memory Area 229 
memory analysis 183 

Memory Card Utility (PCFORMAT.EXE) 389 
memory card utility, PCMCIA 

PCFORMAT.EXE 389 
memory managers 229 
Memory Technology Driver 

(PCMMTD.EXE) 383 
memory types 

conventional memory 164 

expanded memory (EMS or EEMS) 166 

extended memory (XMS) 165 

high memory area (HMA) 165 

upper memory block (UMB) 164 
memory-resident program 

defragmenter 181 

RAMDrive 185 

SMARTDRV 183 



memory-resident program (continued) 

starting 45 
menu 

optimize 

defragmenter 1 82 

startup 39 
menu block, multiple configurations 31 , 39 
menu for PenDOS 359 
MENUCOLOR command 31,39 
MENUDEFAULT command 31 , 39 
MENUITEM command 31, 39 
message 

cannot find E.EXE file 234 

displaying when a batch program runs 79 

packed file corrupt 228 

ROM or RAM within page frame 230 
messages, error 41 1 
mnemonic selection 256, 282 
mobility impairment 413 
mode 

insert or replace 100 
MODE command 45, 246, 248, 249 
modem 384 

modifier keys for PenDOS 363 
monitor, video 234 
MONO display 235 
monochrome 

file selection indication in Backup 316 
monochrome display 235 
MORE button for PenDOS 361, 362 
MORE command 89 
MOUSE command 45 
mouse drivers 329 
mouse, using as a pen 358 
MOVE command 1 1 
move marked area (ALT+M) using E 

Editor 131 
movement 

of cursor 120 

of cursor to a specific line 147, 151 
of cursor to beginning of marked area 

(ALT+Y) 132 
of cursor to end of marked area 

(ALT+E) 132 



436 DOS User's Guide 



moving text 

with the E Editor (ALT+M) 129 
MULT command 142 
multiple configuration 28 

common block 41 

menu block 31, 39 

submenu block 31 
multiple configurations 39 
multiple drive selection in Backup 318 
multiple files, editing 118 
multiple-drive backups 318 
multiply 

MULT command 149 
multitasking using DOS Shell 237 

N 

NAME in E Editor (F7) 150 

names of files 3 

naming a file (F7) 112 

naming an unnamed file in E Editor 117 

network backup strategy 334 

networks 

Undelete 198 

commands not available 198 
NEW command 

DOS Shell 264, 265 
new DOS commands xii 
new DOS optional tools xi 
NEWWINDOW command (E Editor) 150 
NL (Num Lock), PenDOS modifier key 363 
NLSFUNC command 246, 248 
no hard disk 

using DOS commands 402 

using the startup diskette 402 
noems switch 37 
non-DOS partition 

defined 60 
non-Express window in Backup 317 
non-ISO fonts 249 
normal use of Antivirus 281 
Novell network 

2.15c file server 335 

3.11 file server 334 

backing up 333 



Novell network (continued) 

backing up a file server 335 

backing up the bindery and trustee 
files 335 

backing up to a network device 331 

backing up to a network directory 332 

backup strategy 334 

bindery files listed 335 

CASTOFF command 336 

drive display 319 

restoring a 2.15c file server 336 

restoring a 3.1 1 file server 336 

restoring bindery and trustee 
information 337 

server tape device in Backup 333 
Num Lock (NL), PenDOS modifier key 363 
numeric keypad 362 
NUMLOCK command 33 

O 

online help 

creating Help messages 
for program groups 264 
for program items 275 
for DOS Shell 257, 258, 259, 260 
online help for 

the E Editor 113 
operators 

MATH command 149 
optimize menu 182 
optimize selection 

defragmenter 182 
optimizing your system 

by increasing system speed 
reducing file search time 181 
using the BUFFERS command 182 
using the CHKDSK command 180 
optional tools xi 

adding after initial DOS install 280 
Backup 301 

Central Point Backup for DOS 391 
Central Point Backup for Windows 391 
IBM AntiVirus/DOS 279, 391 
IBM AntiVirus/Dos for Windows 391 



Index 437 



optional tools (continued) 

IBM DOS Shell 391 

IBM PenDOS 391 

IBM Undelete for Windows 391 

Phoenix PCMCIA 391 
options editor 

RAMBoost 1 76 
OS/2 Antivirus 281 
OS/2 dual boot 

switching between operating systems 403 

using after installation 403 
OS/2 systems 

FAT system 398 

installing DOS 398 

using Boot Manager 398 

using Dual Boot 398 
output 

adding (») 87 

sending (>) 87 
overlay text using E Editor 131 
overwrite warning during restore 330 
overwritten files 192, 196, 212, 215 

P 

packed file corrupt 228 
page frame 230 

paragraph adjustment to new margins using E 

Editor 130 
paragraph formatting (ALT+P) using E 

Editor 1 32 
parameters 

in startup commands for program 
items 270, 271 , 272 
parent directory 5, 15 
partition 

See also Fixed Disk Setup Program 

described 59, 61 
partitioning a hard disk 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 

65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 72 
partitions 

described 60 
Pascal syntax 139, 146 
password 

protecting a backup 309 



password (continued) 

user level in Backup 306 
passwords 

for program groups 264 

for program items 266 
paste gesture for PenDOS 365 
path 16 

full 16 

relative 1 6 
PATH command 45 

order of devices 1 86 
PAUSE command 80 
pause key 

stopping a batch program temporarily 
PC Memory Card International 

Association 375 
PCM ATA. SYS 

PCMCIA ATA fixed disk 381 
PCMCIA 

modifying CONFIG.SYS file 378 
PCMCIA ATA 381 
PCMCIA driver 

PCMATA.SYS 381 

PCMCS.EXE 379 

PCMFDD.EXE 382 

PCMINFO.EXE 386 

PCMMTD.EXE 383 

PCMSCD.EXE 379 

WPCMINFO.EXE 388 
PCMCIA Support 375 

installing 376 

starting 377 
PCMCIA Support for Windows program 

installing 376 
PCMCIA VxD 384 
PCMCS.EXE (PCMCIA driver) 379 
PCMFDD.EXE 

PCMCIA ATA fixed disk 382 
PCMFDD.EXE (PCMCIA driver) 382 
PCMINFO.EXE (PCMCIA driver) 386 
PCMINFO.EXE file 387 
PCMMTD.EXE (PCMCIA driver) 383 
PCMSCD.EXE (PCMCIA driver) 379 



438 DOS User's Guide 



pen, using with PenDOS 357 
PenDOS 

aligning tablet 371 

BACKSPACE button 361,362 

CANCEL button 361,362 

carriage return button 361 

CLEAR button 361,362 

copy block of text gesture 365 

DELETE button 361 

delete highlighted block gesture 364 

ENTER button 359 

ESC button 359 

installing 355 

K button 359, 361 

keyboard 361 

menu 359 

modifier keys 363 

MORE button 361 

paste gesture 365 

SEND button 361 

SPACE button 361 

space character 364 

starting 357 

tap gesture 365 

undo gesture 365 

Writing Window 359 
PENDOS command 357 
performance improvements 186 
Phoenix PCMCIA Support 

installing 376 
Phoenix PCMCIA Support for Windows 

installing 377 

starting 377 
PhoneCommunicator 415 
phrase mark (E Editor) 127 
pipe 

with the MORE command 89 

with the SORT command 90 
pipe (I) 89 
polled basis 381 

preconfigured setup files in Backup 321 , 324 
prevent Program Switch option 
DOS Shell 277 



primary DOS partition 

creating 64, 65, 66 

described 59, 60 

drive letter 

described 68, 69, 70, 72 
PRINT command 

the E Editor 119 
PRINT command (E Editor) 1 1 9, 1 50 
print from the screen 231 
PRINT HISTORY command in Backup 331 
print screeen key 231 
printer 

redirecting command output to 87 
printer control characters using E Editor 145 
printing 

files from the E Editor 119 
printing a backup directory 331 
printing a block of text 150 
printing a compare report in Backup 327 
printing a file using E Editor 119 
problem 

with starting DOS 28 
problem determination 405 

backing up system 237 

task swapping 237 
problem resolutions 227 
products, disabilities 

IBM AccessDOS 413 

IBM Screen Reader 414 

IBM VoiceType 2 415 

KeyGuard 416 

PhoneCommunicator 415 

Screen Reader 414 
program groups 

adding 263, 264 

adding passwords for 264 

adding program items to 265, 266 

changing properties of 277 

copying program items 266 

creating Help messages for 264 

deleting 264 

deleting program items from 267 
rearranging program items 267 



Index 439 



program items 

adding passwords for 266, 274 
adding to program groups 265, 266 
changing properties of 268 
copying among program groups 266 
creating Help messages for 275 
creating startup commands for 266, 269, 

270, 271, 272 
defining shortcut keys for 266, 273 
deleting from program groups 267 
preventing switching 277 
rearranging 267 
reserving shortcut keys for 277 
setting video mode for 276 
specifying memory requirements for 275, 

276 

using a startup directory for 266, 272 
Programs 
running 

from DOS Shell 256 
PROMPT command 45 
PROPERTIES command 
DOS Shell 268, 277 
properties in DOS Shell 
advanced 275 
application shortcut keys 273 
CALL command in startup commands 269 
for groups 

changing 277 
for program items 
changing 268 
Help messages for program items 275 
memory requirements for programs 275, 
276 

password for program items 274 
pause after program exit 274 
program switching 277 
replaceable parameters in startup 

commands 270,271,272 
reserved shortcut keys 277 
startup commands 269 
startup directory for program items 272 
video mode 276 



protection 

Undelete 193, 212, 215 
protection against 

viruses 283 
protection from viruses 

Automated check 279 

shielding, DOS 279 
PS/1 systems 
purging deleted files 21 1 
PUT command (E Editor) 150 
PUT in E Editor 141 

Q 

QCONFIG command 164,166 
QDATE command (E Editor) 150 
QIC 

and CPS format for tapes in Backup 341 
QIC tape drives supported 338 
QTime command (E Editor) 150 
quick format 52 
QUIT in E Editor (F3) 150 
quitting 

DOS Shell 261 
quitting a file 

(F3) 112,114 

R 

RAM 230 
RAM Boost 

advanced features 1 74 

changing memory usage of a block 175 

comparison of memory types 1 64 

configuration file 177 

configuring 169 

expanded memory (EMS or EEMS) 166 

extended memory 165 

extended memory specification 166 

freeing conventional DOS memory 164 

options editor 176 

overview 167 

RAMSETUP command 169 

reserved memory area 1 64 

system hang 230 



440 DOS User's Guide 



RAMBoost (continued) 

system requirements 168 

upper memory blocks 164 

upper memory editor 1 75 
function keys 175 

upper memory usage editor 174 

XMS 166 
RAM Drive 185 
RAMDRIVE.SYS 185 
RC 

about return code 150 
command 1 50 

RD command 21 

read-only file attribute 13 

README.TXT file 227 
printing the file 404 
using the file 404 
viewing the file 404 

recognition tips for PenDOS 372 

recover 

deleted files 1 1 

RECOVER command 57 

recovering 

allocation units 180 

files from a defective disk 57 

recovering data 
deleted file 187 

redirected drives 155,159 

redirecting command input or output 
described 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 
in DOSKey macros 106 
saving stored commands 100 
setting TEMP before using a pipe 89 
sorting data with SORT command 90 
viewing data one screen at a time 89 
with the FIND command 90 

redirection character 

combining commands with 91 
defined 87 

passing information through filters 89 
redirecting command input 88 
redirecting command output 87 
reference chart 

backup methods 352 



reflow marked area (ALT+R) using E 

Editor 131, 132 
reinstalling DOS 

adding optional tools 404 

on the same directory 404 
relative path 16 
REM command 32, 33, 81 
remark, including in batch programs 81 
remote option in Backup 333 
removing 

a virtual drive 69 

logical drives 70, 71 

macros 104 
rename 

a directory 25 
rename a file 9 
RENAME command 9 
renaming 

a disk 55 
REORDER command 

DOS Shell 267 
repeating commands without retyping 

using DOSKey 97, 98 

using editing keys 95 
replace mode 1 00 
replaceable parameter 

using in batch programs 82, 83 
replaceable parameters 

in startup commands for program 
items 270, 271 , 272 

using in macros 104, 105 
replacing text 

using the E Editor 135 
reserve shortcut keys option 

DOS Shell 277 
reserved memory area 164 
resetting tape drive defaults 343 
restart 

problem 28, 407 
restore 

deleted file 

deleted files 1 1 

recovering 1 1 



Index 441 



restore a file 231 
RESTORE command 233 
restoring 

data 329 

disks 53 

overwrite warning 330 
restoring a line (F9) 112 
restoring a line (F9), E Editor 123 
restoring bindery and trustee information 337 
restoring data in Backup 329 
return codes 

See RC 
ROM 230 
root directory 15,27 
running 

batch programs 77 

macros 1 02 

programs 

from DOS Shell 256 
running without restarting system 44 

S 

safe format 51 
SAVE command 
E Editor 117 
SAVE command (E Editor) 117 
SAVE in E Editor (F2) 150 
SAVE SETUP command in Backup 322 
saving 

a file created with the E Editor 1 1 7 
macros 1 03 
saving a file 
(F2) 112 

saving and quitting a file (F4) 112, 114 
SCHEDULE BACKUPS command 325 
Scheduler 
Backup 224 

selecting options 224 
scheduling an unattended backup 326 
screen 

changing modes in DOS Shell 262 
Scroll Lock (SL), Pen DOS modif ier key 363 
SCSI 

adapter cards supported 343 



SCSI (continued) 

tape directory 310 

tape drives supported 339 
SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) 184 
searching for files 

reducing file search time 181 
searching for text 

using the E Editor 133, 135 
sectors 

recovering data from a defective disk 57 
sectors defined 
selecting 

text 

in the E Editor 125 
selecting files 

manually in Backup 316 
SEND button for PenDOS 361 
send output (>) 87 
sentence mark (E Editor) 127 
separate incremental backup 

advantages and disadvantages 351 
separate incremental backup method 348 
server volume display 

explained 319 
server volumes in Backup setup files 323 
server, definition of 154 
servo-writing 340 
SET command 32, 33, 45 

TEMP environment variable 186 
setting margins 124 
Setup 

See also Installation 

/e switch 234 
Setup le switch 234 
setup files in Backup 321 

contents of 322 

description 323 

loading 324 

preconfigured 324 

preconfigured in Backup 321 

saving 323 

server volumes 323 
SETVER command 238 



442 DOS User's Guide 



Shell 

See DOS Shell 
SHELL command 33 
Shield DOS 279 
shift marked text 

to the left (ALT+F7) 132 

to the right (ALT+F8) 132 
SHIFT, PenDOS modifier key 363 
shortcut keys 

for starting program items 266, 273 

reserving for program items 277 
SIZE command (E Editor) 151 
size of environment 229 
SL (Scroll Lock), PenDOS modifier key 363 
Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) 184 
SMARTDRV command 45 
socket, PCMCIA 386 
SORT command 90 
SORT command (E Editor) 151 
sort order, international 242 
source file 7 

SPACE button for PenDOS 361 

space character 
inserting 361 

space character for PenDOS 364 

special document format 30 

specifying disk capacity 52 

speech impairment 415 

speech recognition program 415, 416 

speeding up your system 179 
by reducing file search time 181 
by using the BUFFERS command 182 
by using the CHKDSK command 180 

splitting a text line in E Editor 122 

SRAM 381 

STACKS command 33 
stand-alone Antivirus 281 
start (boot) systems 

IBM Boot Manager 280 
START RESTORE command in Backup 329 
starting 

See also installation 

batch programs 77 

Central Point Backup 308 



starting (continued) 

Central Point Undelete for Windows 188 

DOS Shell 255 

IBM Anti Virus/DOS 281 

IBM AntiVirus/DOS for Windows 280 

macros 1 02 

PCMCIA Support 377 

PenDOS 357 

programs 

from DOS Shell 256 

the DOSKey program 96 

the E Editor 111,115 

Undelete 188 

Windows Antivirus 283 
starting a compare in Backup 327 
startup 

bypassing boot commands 28 

bypassing system files 28 

the Fixed Disk Setup Program 62 
startup command 28 
startup commands for program items 

creating 269 

running batch programs in 269 
using replaceable parameters 270, 271 , 
272 

startup directory for program items 266, 272 
startup diskette 402 

See also system diskette 
startup menu 39 
statup system diskette 54 
stopping 

a batch program 80 

batch program 78 
strategies and backup methods 345 
strategies for backing up 344 
subdirectories 

copying 24 
submenu block, multiple configuration 31 
SUBMENU command 31 , 39 
SUBST command 69 

restrictions with other commands 69 
Super Client Driver (PCMSCD.EXE) 379 
Super VGA color display 235 



Index 443 



Super VGA monochrome display 235 
switch 

Setup /e 234 
switch, /e 280 
SWITCHES command 33 
switching between multiple files (F10) 1 12 
symbols used in compare in Backup 328 
syntax 

Assembler 139 

C language 139, 146 

Pascal 139, 146 
syntax directed E Editor features 146 
syntax expansion 

forced (CTRL+X) 146 
SYS command 54 
system boot 281 
system configuration 27 
system diskette 

creating 54, 237 
system file attribute 1 3 
system files 

copying when formatting a disk 54 
system files in Backup 314 
system hang 230 
system requirements 

RAM Boost 168 
SYSTEM.INI 386 

T 

tablet, aligning 371 
tabs 

compress file using 150 

word used as guide 1 49 
TABS command (E Editor) 151 
taking input (<) 87 
tap gesture for PenDOS 365 
tape 

backup strategies 346 
bulk-erasing 340 
certifying in Backup 340 
controller cards 342, 343 

address table 342 

resetting defaults 343 
controller cards supported 342 



tape (continued) 

extra length in Backup 340 

formatting in Backup 340 

formatting time table in Backup 341 

information in Backup 338 

making a backup 310 

password-protected in Backup 310 

QIC drives supported 338 

QIC vs CPS format in Backup 341 

SCSI drives supported 339 

SCSI host adapter cards supported 343 

servo-writing 340 

volume tape catalog explained in 
Backup 343 
target file 7 
task swapping 

problem determination 237 
TEMP environment variable 

required for using a pipe 89 
terminate-and-stay resident (TSR) program 

defragmenter 181 

RAMDrive 185 

SMARTDRV 183 
testing 

batch programs 79 
testing backup speed 304 
text copying 

using the E Editor (ALT+C) 128 
text deletion 

using the E Editor (ALT+D) 128 
text editor 109 

DOS 5.0 Editor 110 

E Editor 110 

Edlin Editor 110 

special document format 30 
text file 

creating 1 1 4 
text mode 

changing screen modes in DOS Shell 262 

for program items 276 
text processing 

See E Editor 
text, selecting for PenDOS 368 



444 DOS User's Guide 



time display, international 242 

time table formatting tapes in Backup 341 

tools, optional 

Backup 301 

IBM AntiVirus/DOS 279 

new for DOS xi 
TOP command (E Editor) 151 
tracks defined 49 
tree, directory 15 
troubleshooting 227, 237 

Backup 304 

confidence test 304 
troubleshooting Backup 

drive light on 310 
trustee and bindery file backups 335 
typing control impairment 416 

u 

UMB (upper memory blocks) 230 
unattended backups 326 
unconditional format 52 
Undelete 187 

advanced methods 206 

appending deleted data to existing file 208 

automatic file recovery 195 

clusters, available (free) 203, 207, 208, 
209, 210 
adding 210 

appending to an existing file 208 

creating a new file from 207 

scanning disk for 203 

starting cluster number 209 

undeleting manually 207 

viewing 208 

working with 210 
delete protection 1 93, 21 1 , 21 2, 21 4, 21 5 

Delete Sentry method 193, 215 

Delete Tracker method 193, 214 

DelWatch method 193 

NetWare Salvage method 193 

purging files 211 

without (DOS delete) 1 93, 21 2 
Delete Sentry files, purging 21 1 
Delete Tracker files, purging 21 1 



Undelete (continued) 

DelWatch files, purging 21 1 
directories 198 
directory tree and file list 190 
File Allocation Table (FAT) 203 
file conditions 192 

destroyed 1 92 

excellent 192 

existing 192 

good 1 92 

lost 192 

none 192 

perfect 1 92 

poor 1 92 

purged 192 

recovered 1 92 
file information 194 
file list 194,195 

selecting from 195 

sorting 1 94 
finding deleted files 200 
finding files in a deleted directory 198 
free clusters, scanning 203 
function keys 191 
installing 1 87 
manual file recovery 207 
NetWare files, purging 21 1 
network files 1 98 

overwritten files 192, 196, 212, 215 
protection methods 193 
purging files 211 
renaming existing files 196 
scanning a disk for deleted data 203, 204, 
205 

for contents (text) 204 
for data type 204 
for lost deleted files 204 
free clusters 203 
setting scan range 205 
search groups 202, 203 
adding 202 
deleting 203 
editing 203 
using 202 



Index 445 



Undelete (continued) 
selecting files 1 95 
showing existing files 205 
starting 188 

undeleting a file 196, 198, 207 
automatically 196 
directories 198 
files in deleted directories 198 
manually 207 
network files 1 98 
to another drive 1 96 
undelete a file 231 

UNDELETE command 9, 11, 189, 232 
Undelete for Windows program 

installing 187 
UNDO command (E Editor) 123 
undo gesture for PenDOS 365 
UN FORMAT command 53 
unfragmented files 181 
uninstalling 403 
universal gesture 

definition of 364 
unmarking 

text 

with the E Editor (ALT+U) 127 
unnamed file in E Editor 117 
upgrading across a LAN 401 
Upper Memory Area 229 
upper memory block (UMB) 164 
upper memory blocks (UMB) 230 
upper memory usage editor 

RAM Boost 174 
uppercase 

marked text 

UPPERCASE command 151 
user level 

changing in Backup 306 

reference chart in Backup 307 
USER LEVEL command in Backup 306 
user level password in Backup 306 
utility, PCMCIA 

PCFORMAT.EXE 389 



V 

variations of characters for PenDOS 3 

VCD (Virtual COMM Driver) 384 

VER command (E Editor) 151 

version of DOS 238 

version table for SETVER 238 

VERV.VDB 295 

VGA color display 235 

VGA monitor 246 

VGA monochrome display 235 

video display 234 

video Mode options 

DOS Shell 276 
viewer function keys in Backup 320 
viewing 

commands 

using DOSKey 97, 98 

disk volume label and serial number 

file attributes 13 
viewing commands 

using editing keys 95 
viewing files in Backup 320 
VIRSIG.LST 295 
Virtual COMM Driver 386 
Virtual COMM Driver (VCD) 384 
virtual drive 

deleting 69 

using instead of a drive letter 69 
virtual driver 

PCMATA.SYS 381 

PCMCIA ATA fixed disk 381 
virus characteristics 284 
virus protection 

Automated check 279 

Shield DOS 279 
viruses 

protection against 283 

what to do if detected 279 
visual impairment 413, 414 
VoiceType 2 415 
VOL command 56 
volume label 

creating 

changing, or deleting 56 
changing, or deleting 55, 56 



446 DOS User's Guide 



volume label (continued) 
defined 55 

specifying when formatting a disk 52 

viewing 

using the DIR command 56 
using the VOL command 56 
volume serial number 

assigned when formatting a disk 53 

defined 55 

viewing 

using the DIR command 56 
using the VOL command 56 
VTC file explained in Backup 343 

w 

Warnings 

Backup 304,310,311,313 
include/exclude list 313 
quitting a SCSI backup 31 1 
remember password 31 0 
skipping confidence test 304 

wildcard 20 

wildcards 6 

window functions 

NEWWINDOW command 150 

Windows 

installing Central Point Backup 303 

installing Central Point Undelete 189 

SYSTEM.INI 386 

with IBM AntiVirus/DOS 283 

WPCMINFO.CPL file 388 
Windows program 

enhanced mode 184 
Windows Undelete 

installing 187 
Windows VxD 384 

WINDOWSTYLE command (E Editor) 151 
word mark (E Editor) 126 
word wrap 1 22 
WPCMINFO.CPL file 388 
WPCMINFO.EXE (PCMCIA driver) 388 
writing area 360 
Writing Window 

clearing characters 361 



Writing Window (continued) 
closing 361 

displaying 359, 360, 363 
editing characters in 364 

Writing Window (WW) 
button 359 

WS 

See WINDOWSTYLE 
WW 

displaying 364 
WW button for Pen DOS 359 

X 

XCOPY command 23 
XGA color display 235 
XGA monochrome display 235 
XMS extended memory 228 
XMS Memory options 
DOS Shell 276 



448 DOS User's Guide 




s 



3 C DOS 6 Low Density Diskette Offering 



'our PC DOS 6 includes either 3.5" high-density (1 .44MB) diskettes or 5.25" high- 
lensity (1.2MB) diskettes. If your system requires 3.5" (720K) or 5.25" (360K) low- 
lensity diskettes, call the following number: 

n the US: 1-800-992-4777 



n Canada: 1-800-465-7999 



Mease fill out the information below and have it ready when you call, 
'our DOS 6 customer registration number: 

four preferred diskette size (limit of one diskette set per registration): 

] 3.5" low-density diskettes, Part No: 71G4158 

1 5.25" low-density diskettes, Part No: 71G416 
j 3.5" low-density upgrade diskettes, Part No: 71G4159 

2 5.25" low density upgrade diskettes, Part No: 71G4161 



four name, shipping address, and phone number. We cannot ship to post office 
>oxes. 



lame 



:ompany name 



address 



:ity State/ Province Zip/Postal Code 

[ ) 

)aytime phone (in case we have a question about your order) 

["his offer is available only in the United States, Canada, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. 
/irgin Islands. This offer expires June 30, 1994. Allow 1 to 2 weeks for delivery upon 
eceipt of your order by IBM. Upon receipt of your new diskettes, you must destroy the 
ligh density diskettes included with the original product. 



® 



DOS 6 PUBLICATIONS ORDER FORM 



Use this form to order the following items: 

• DOS 6 Keyboards and Codepages: This book contains keyboard layouts that 
represent the key symbols you can expect to use when you change the country 
settings for your computer. 

• DOS 6 Command Reference and Error Messages: This book contains infor- 
mation about the commands, error messages, and device drivers available for 
DOS 6. 

• DOS 5.02 Technical Reference: This book contains information necessary for 
utilizing operating system features and creating DOS device drivers. This book 
is valid for the DOS 6 release. 

Please complete the other side of this form. Add your applicable state and local 
sales/use tax. Enclose your check, money order, or credit card information with the 
order. Make your check or money order payable to IBM Corporation, or you can 
charge your order to your VISA", MasterCard**, AMERICAN EXPRESS", DIS- 
COVER**, or DINERS CLUB** credit card. We cannot accept cash, CODs, or pur- 
chase orders. Be sure to include shipping information. Allow 2-4 weeks for 
delivery of mall orders. This offer is available only in the United States, Canada, 
Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. This offer expires June 30, 1994. Mail 
the completed form to: 

IBM Corporation 
P.O. Box 2009 
Racine, Wl 53404 

Telephone orders are also accepted. Please have the part numbers, quantities, 
and credit card information available when you call. Allow 1-2 weeks for delivery 
of telephone orders. 

• In the United States, call toll free 1-800-426-7282, weekdays between 8 a.m. 
and 8 p.m. Eastern Time. 

• In Canada, call collect 1-416-474-7000, weekdays between 8:30 a.m. and 4:30 
p.m. Eastern Time. 

• In Alaska, call 1-414-633-8108. 



VISA is a trademark of VISA International Services Association. 
MasterCard is a trademark of MasterCard International, Incorporated. 
AMERICAN EXPRESS is a trademark of American Express, Incorporated. 
DISCOVER is a trademark of Sears, Roebuck and Co. 
DINERS CLUB is a trademark of Diners Club of America. 



DOS 6 PUBLICATIONS ORDER FORM 



Print your name, shipping address, and phone number: 



Name/Title 
Company- 
Ship to address 

City State Zip 

J ) 

Daytime telephone (in case we have a question about your order) 

Method of Payment: 

□ My check or money order payable to IBM Corporation is enclosed. 

□ Charge to: □ VISA □ MasterCard □ DISCOVER 

□ AMERICAN EXPRESS 



Acct# Exp. Date 

Signature 



Hem Description 


Part No. 


Qty. 


Price 


Total 


DOS 6 Keyboards and Codepages 


71G3629 




$ 5.00 




DOS 6 Command Reference/Error Msgs 


71G3634 




$15.00 




DOS 5.02 Technical Reference 


52G9932 




$49.00 




Shipping and handling 


$ 5.50 


Subtotal 


$ 


Add your applicable state and local sales/use tax 


$ 


TOTAL 


$ 



All prices are in US dollars only 



DOS 6 PUBLICATIONS ORDER FORM 



Advertisement 

till Handwriting Recognition Available! 

CONGRATULATIONS... 

j have made an excellent choice by 
Dosing PC DOS 6.0 as your operating 
stem. Included in DOS 6.0 you will find a 
Dset of Pen DOS from IBM which provides 
meric and symbolic recognition software 
ich can be used with much of today's 
i-recognition hardware. A list of some of 
s companies offering pen hardware is listed 
the back for your convenience. 

10 you can order a Pen DOS package from 
J\ which includes full handwriting recognition 
it may be installed on your new IBM DOS 
i system. This version allows you to write 
d recognize the complete set of numbers, 
ers, and a large set of commonly used 
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plets, a handwriting trainer, and macro editor 
customize the gestures you use with 
nDOS. To order, please complete the form 
the back. 

IS and Hamtwrtttr art trademarks and rtgtsttrtd tmfemvto of Communication inM llgtnct Corporation 
IBM It a raglstarad tradanwk of International Buttaatt Machine* Corporation 




fold"here £ 



NO POSTAGE 
NECESSARY 
IF MAILED 
IN THE 
UNITED STATES 



BUSINESS REPLY MAIL 

FIRST-CLASS PERMIT NO. 40 ARMONK, NEW YORK 
POSTAGE WILL BE PAID BY ADDRESSEE 



IBM CORPORATION 
PO BOX 2009 
RACINE, WI 53401 




Advertisement 



YES! I'm ready to experience the full power 
of pen computing. Send me the full handwriting 
recognition version of PenDOS from IBM. 

The following manufacturers offer pen hardware compatible with PenDOS: 



1-800-676-4223 1-408-655-1900 
1-800-448-1184 1-5KM17-6011 
1-800-932-1212 1-602-948-6540 



ACECAD Inc. 
Appoint, Inc. 
Calcomp 

Offer good In tho U.S. only. For Canadian ordors, 



1-800-962-3900 1-714-995-3900 
1-800-44KURTA 1-602-276-5533 
1-800-922-6613 1-206-750-8882 



FTG Data Systems 
Kurta Corporation 
Wacom Technology 

dial 1-800-465-7999 for additional Information 



ITEM DESCRIPTION 


PART NO. 


QTY. 


PRICE 


TOTAL 


PenDOS - U.S. 


60G9442 




39.95 




PenDOS - U.K.* 


68G6002 




39.95 




PenDOS - French* 


68G6003 




39.95 




PenDOS - German* 


68G6004 




39.95 




PenDOS - Spanish* 


68G6005 




39.95 




PenDOS - Italian* 


68G6006 




39.95 




Ship To 


Shipping & 
Handling 


5.00 


Company 


SubTotal 




Address 


Tax 




City State Zip 


TOTAL 





PenDOS is only available in 3.5" High Density Diskettes 
* Non-U.S. versions will be availablel 10/ 1/ 93 



Please remember. This offer is only good until December 31 st , 1993. 



^ Sorry but we cannot accept cash, checks, 

I DfSSA HlUtttrCanl OlBl 



CODs, purchase orders or phone orders. 




IBM AntiVirus/DOS 



Special Update Offer 



Offer expires July 1, 1994 

Updates to IBM AntiVirus/DOS assure 
you of continuing protection for as 
little as $9.95* each 

New viruses are continually finding their way into the computing environment. If you have read 
about the "Dark Avenger Self Mutating Engine Toolkit", you know how easy it is for even the 
novice to write new and harmful viruses. IBM updates will guarantee that you get the latest anti- 
virus technology and stay protected against the newest viruses. For a limited time, you can 
purchase updates for only $9.95* each to protect your investment in PC DOS and IBM Antivirus. 
The updates include the latest anti-virus programs and virus signatures. With this special offer, you 
can receive the latest update immediately, and if you want, the next update in three to four months. 
Don't hesitate, send in the coupon below to receive the latest update. 

In addition to the update, you will also receive information about how to insure yourself against 
viruses on an ongoing basis with our Annual Update Service. 

*$9.95 is for delivery within the United States, see reverse side for prices outside of the United States. 



□ 



" Clip on Dotted Line " — — — — — — — — — - 

Please send me Antivirus Updates. I understand the first shipment will be 
sent immediately and the second in three to four months. (Please allow 3 weeks 
for delivery.) See reverse side for address. (Not valid after July i, 1994) 




Name 



Company 



Department 



Street Address 



City 



Zip Code/Postal Code 



Daytime Phone 

Select disk size: 



□ 5.25 inch 360K □ 3.5"720K 



United States Price is $9.95 per update. IT outside of 
the United States, please see reverse side for price. 

Signature; 



□ Price - One Update 

□ Price - Two Updates 

Shipping & Handling (U.S. & Canada only) $ 3 -°° 

Applicable Tax (Sales Tax or VAT) 

Total 

Payment Method: r Check/Money Order Enclosed 

□ VISA □MasterCard [J American Express □EuroCard 

□ JCB □ Diner's Club □ Australian/New Zealand BankCard 

Card Number: I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I 
Expiration Date: I I bJ I I 

VAT # or Tax Exempt # if applicable: 
' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' I ' ' ' ' ' 



IBM AntiVirus/DOS Special Update Offer Price Chart 

(Offer expires July 1, 1994) 

If you are a resident of the United States, the price for one update is $9.95, two updates are $19.90. Canadian 
residents price for one update is $14.95, two updates are $29.90. Please add $3.00 for shipping and handling and 
add your sales tax or GST in Canada. Forms of payment accepted include VISA, Mastercard, American Express, 
Personal Check or Money Orders. Mail Coupon to: 



U.S. Residents: 

If paying by check, 
make payable to 
"IBM Corporation" 



IBM Antivirus Update Offer 
P.O. Box 9031 
Boulder, Colorado 80301 
or 

Fax credit orders to: 
800-925-7479 



Canadian Residents: 

If paying by check, 
make payable to: 
"IBM Canada Ltd." 



IBM Antivirus Update Offer 
P. O. Box 657 

North York, Ontario M3C 9Z9 
or 

Fax credit orders to: 
800-267-5185 



For residents of any European country, Including: 
Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, 
Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, 
Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, 
United Kingdom, or any Latin American, South 
American, Middle Eastern, or African Country you 
must pay in Danish Krones. The price for a single 
update is 1 1 0 Danish Krones; two updates are 220 
Danish Krones. Shipping and handling is included 
in this price. Please add your Value Added Tax to 
these prices. Forms of payment accepted include 
Eurocard, Mastercard, JCB, VISA, American Ex- 
press, Diners Club, money order and Denmark 
cheques. 



The following table shows approximately 1 10 Danish Krones in your 
equivalent currency at press time and Value Added Tax rates 



Mail Coupon to: 



SPC Direct Services 
Att. AVUPDATE/DOS 
Oliefabriksve] 45 
DK-2770 Kastrup 
Denmark 



Country 


Price 


VAT 


Currency 


Austria 


200.00 


NA 


Schilling 


Belgium 


578.95 


19.5% 


Franc 


Denmark 


110.00 


25.0% 


Krone 


France 


96.49 


18.6% 


Franc ! 


Germany 


28.65 


15.0% 


Mark 


Greece 


3,928.57 


18.0% 


Drachma 


Ireland 


11.75 


21.0% 


Punt \ 


Italy 


26,829.27 


19.0% 


Lira i 


Luxembourg 


578.95 


15.0% 


Franc 


Netherlands 


32.26 


17.5% 


Guilder ■ 


Norway 


120.88 


NA 


Krone ! 


Portugal 


2,682.93 


16.0% 


Escudo 


Spain 


2,115.38 


15.0% 


Peseta | 


Sweden 


130.95 


NA 


Krona 


Switzerland 


25.94 


NA 


Franc 


United Kingdom 


11.47 


1 7.5% 


Pound 


Other European Countries 


18.00 


NA 


US Dollar 


All Other Countries 


18.00 


NA 


US Dollar 



If you are a resident of a Pacific community country, 
including: Australia, New Zealand, Korea, Taiwan, 
Hong Kong, China, Philipines, Indonesia, Brunei, 
Singapore, Malaysia, Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka 
or any other Asian country, you must pay in Austra- 
lian dollars. The price for a single update is A$25.35; 
two updates are A$50. 70. Shipping and handling is 
included in this price. Forms of payment accepted 
include Mastercard, VISA, Bankcard (only issued in 
Australia and New Zealand) and American Express. 
Australian cheques are also accepted. 

Mail Coupon to: IBM Antivirus Update/DOS 
P.O. Box 400 

PENNANT HILLS NSW 2120 
Australia 



The following table shows approximately A$25.35 in your 



equivalent currency at press time: 



Australia 


25.35 


A$ 


New Zealand 


32.73 


$ 


Korea 


14,400.00 


Wan 


Taiwan 


470.59 


t 


Hong Kong 


138.92 


t 


China 


101.95 


Yuan S 


Philipines 


431.76 


Peso 


Indonesia 


36,734.69 


Rupiah 


Brunei 


28.90 


$ 


Singapore 


28.94 


$ 


Malaysia 


46.05 


Ringgitt 


Bangladesh 


720.58 


Taka 


India 


18,181.82 


Rupee 


Sri Lanka 


850.66 


Rupee 


Bangladesh 


201,50 


Baht 



ADVERTISEMENT 



Special Needs Systems Independence Series 

IBM offers many products for people with special needs. The products that form the 
Independence Series are listed below by disability area. 

Speech/Hearing 

IBM PhoneCommunicator - a telephone communication system for the 
speech/hearing impaired (US and Canada only) 

IBM Speech Viewer - an entry-level speech modification/therapy tool 

IBM Speech Viewer II - a full-function speech modification/therapy tool 

Attention/Memory 

IBM THINKable - a therapy tool for treatment of cognitive disorders 

Vision 

IBM Screen Reader/DOS - a screen text-to-speech conversion tool for visually 
impaired DOS users 

IBM Screen Reader/2 - a screen information-to-speech conversion tool for vis- 
ually impaired OS/2 version 2.1 users 

Mobility 

IBM VolceType - a speech recognition program for computer access 
IBM Keyguard - a template to enhance keying accuracy 
IBM AccessDOS - a utility to enhance keyboard access 



ADVERTISEMENT 



For a FREE copy of AccessDOS 

Call: 

(800) 426-7282 (in the US) 
(Ask for offer DS.) 

(800)465-7999 (in Canada) 

In Europe, contact the National Support Centre for Persons 
with Disabilities (NSCPD) in your country. 

For additional information about the Independence Series 

Call: 

(800) 426-4832 (in the US) 
(Ask for operator 62.) 

(800)465-7999 (in Canada) 

In Europe, contact the National Support Centre for Persons 
with Disabilities (NSCPD) in your country. 



Let's talk DOS on TalkLink 



IBM is pleased to offer a new service that gives our valued customers the ability to 
converse electronically with each other and with the internal IBM community worldwide, 
introducing TalkLink, a communication tool that connects you to the world of IBM. 

TalkLink gives you the flexibility to communicate with thousands of peer users, devel- 
opers, and IBM support staff who share a common interest in DOS. Field your 
DOS-related questions and comments regarding... 

• Commands and Functions • DOS Applications 

• Printing • DOS Windows Support 

• Device Drivers • General Questions and Answers, or 

• DOS Shell • Novell Network Software on DOS 



You'll find a host of relevant topics on purchasing, installing, supporting, and using pro- 
ducts and services marketed by IBM and related business affiliates. Here are some of 
the capabilities you'll discover on TalkLink: 



contain various product-related topics. • Set display options- customize your 



Highlights 



• Conferences and forums- these 
question and answer bulletin boards 



You will also find information on prob- 
lems and fixes. 



Items posted here are shared between 
Bulletin Board System (BBS) users 
and IBM personnel worldwide. 



personal choices, such as, display 
colors. 



• Customer-to-customer messaging - 

you can send private messages to 
other IBM customers. 



• Mode of operation- we provide high 
performance software for interactive 
access. 



• Search service- search IBM data- 
bases in an interactive mode. This 
facility includes a large Q&A database, 
IBM System Center Flashes, and 
IBM's problem management libraries. 



• News and announcements- view 
recent information regarding products 
and services. 



• Support- you can submit or view 
problem reports that receive the 
prompt attention of that conference or 
forum owner. You can also place 
orders for product-related materials. 



• Software Library- download our 
application programs, Service Paks 
(CSDs), and Select Paks (fixes). 



TalkLink is available only in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin islands 



Let's talk DOSon TalkLink 



TalkLink Fees and Charges 

Our billing rates are designed to accommodate most customer needs: 

• $15.00 registration fee (one-time charge for each user registration, or when a user 
switches from another option) 

• $18.00 monthly availability charge includes unlimited hourly service. 



Drop us a card 

If you are interested in learning more about TalkLink, or about the additional pricing 
options available, fill out the form below and send it to: 

ATTN: TalkLink 
IBM CORPORATION 
P.O. Box 2150 
ATLANTA, GA 30301 -9949 

There has never been a better time to do business 

with IBM 



Please send me additional information about 

TalkLink 



Name/Title 



Company 



Address 



City 

I 1 



Telephone 



State 



Zip 



Add Cables to Interlnk in 4jS|k 
IBM DOS for File Transfer 



High-Speed Cables 

Traveling Software's custom-designed serial and 
parallel cables provide the fastest way to move data 
between PCs. Purchase our cables to use with Interlnk 
for only $24.95. Or for just $15 more, get our cables 
plus LapLink Pro, the industry standard in file transfer. 





Each cable is 8' long and color-coded for easy 
identification. Use the yellow parallel cable for 
fast file transfer in the office. The blue TraveLite 
serial cable is lightweight and has bom 9- and 
25-pin connectors - great for travel. 




LapLink Pro is the easiest 
and fastest file transfer 
tool available. Transfer 

files via cable or modem 



Order your new cables by fax or mail. Just complete the information 
requested on the order form, then fax or mail in this card along with 
your payment to the fax number or address below. 

D Yes! Please rush my order! (Limit one cable set per customer) 



Description 


Unit Price 


Total 


8' TraveLite Serial Cable 


$13.95 




8' Serial & Parallel Cable 


$24.95 




LapLink Pro & Cables 


$39.95 




* New York, Virginia, Pennsylvania 
and Washington state residents add 
appropriate sales tax. 

"Shipping charge: 

UPS Ground: $5.00 
2nd day air: $7.00 
Canadian orders: $11.00 (U.S. Funds) 


Subtotal 


$ 


Sales Tax*: 


$ 


Shipping**: 


$ 


TOTAL 


$ 



TO ORDER BY MAIL 



Traveling Software, Inc. 
Attn: Customer Service 
18702 North Creek Pkwy 
Bothell, WA 98011 



TO ORDER BY FAX 



206-485-6786 



Tnwliig SoftwiK, Tta fowling Softwiit nitcue logo ud Uplmii 
m tttdwmrki or ngifend tndwmrki of TityoHng Sottwre, Inc. 



Method of Payment: 

□ VISA □ MasterCard □ Discover 
EH A merican Express D Check 

c«a* \ I I I I I I I I I I I I TTT 
Expiration Date □□□□ 

Cardholder's name 



Ship To: 

Name 



Company Name. 
Address 



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TRAVELING SOFTWARE 

The Leader in Portable Communications 





The Essential File Transfer Utility 

LapLink Pro is an essential utility for anyone who needs to transfer files between two PCs. 
With easy-to-use file transfer capabilities using a modem or cable, pull-down menus, and the 
fastest transfer speeds in the industry, LapLink Pro provides users with one of the most powerful 
communications tools available. 

With LapLink Pro you can: 

• Instantly send or receive files easily via modem or cable 
between two PCs 

• Remote install LapLink Pro over modem to any 
computer, anywhere 

• Reduce transfer times with on-the-fly data compression 

• Automate repetitive tasks with easy-to-use Batch function 

• Ensure that selected directories on two computers are 
absolutely identical with the Synchronize command 

• Transfer files at speeds up to 3MB per minute 

What's more, LapLink Pro comes with everything you need to start 
transferring files, including serial and parallel cables. 





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LapLink Includes: 

• Both 3.5 inch and 5.25-inch disks 

• Four-headed TraveLite™ serial cable 

• High-speed parallel cable 

• Full documentation 



System Requirements: 

• IBM PC/XT/AT, PS/2 or 100% compatible 

• DOS 2.11 or later 

• 440 available RAM (5 12K recommended) 



TRAVELING SOFTWARE 

The Leader in Portable Communications 





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