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THE 


CHEMISTS'  MANUAL: 


PRACTICAL  TREATISE  ON  CHEMISTRY, 


QUALITATIVE  AND  QUANTITATIVE  ANALYSIS, 

STOICHIOMETRY,     BLOWPIPE     ANALYSIS,     MINERALOGY, 

ASSAYING,    TOXICOLOGY,    ETC.,    ETC.,    ETC. 


BY 

HENRY   A^  MOTT,    Jr.,    E.M.,   Ph.D., 

MiNiKe  Bnoinebb  and  Analttioil  Chbxist,  Mkxbsb  of  the  Axsrican  CmonoAL 

SOOIETT,  MEJIBEB   OF   THE  NEW  YORK  ACADEXT  OF    SdENCES,  FeLLOW  OF 
THE  OBOeBAFHIOAL  SOCIETT,  EtO.,  BTO.,  EtO. 


NEW   YORK: 
D.    VAN    NOSTRAND,    PUBLISHER, 

28  MURRAY  STREET  &  27  WARREN  STREET. 

1877. 


Copyright,  1877,  ^V  Henry  A.  Mottj  Jr. 


Electrotyptd  by  Printtd  by 

SMITH    &    McOOUGAL.  J.  J.  UTTLE    &    CO. 


^    ■ 

Q 


r  1 1  H  E  literature  of  Analytical  Chemistry,  in  the  various 
-*^  branches  of  qualitative,  quantitative,  blowpipe  and  tech- 
nical analysis,  and  assaying,  has  expanded  to  such  a  degree 
as  to  make  it  impossible  for  students,  and  even  for  most  pro- 
fessional chemists,  to  possess  a  complete  library  in  these  depart- 
ments of  the  science :  moreover,  much  of  the  literature  is  sealed 
to  many  chemists  by  being  published  in  French  and  German, 
or  in  journals  and  transactions  of  Societies  which  are  inac- 
cessible. A  further  embarrassment  arises  from  the  multiplicity 
of  methods  given  in  special  works,  from  which  few  can  select 
without  first  testing  several. 

This  carefully  prepared  Manual  of  Dr.  Mott  will  prove 
especially  valuable,  as  containing;^  a  judicious  selection  of  the 
most  important  methods,  most  of  which  have  been  tested  by 
laboratory  experience,  and  found  to  give  satisfactory  results. 
These  are  presented  in  a  concise  form,  with  reference  to  original 
authors.  The  numerous  tables  of  constants  will  also  be  found 
of  great  value. 

This  work  will  possess  a  special  value  for  the  student  and 
laboratory  worker,  and  will  serve  as  a  useful  reference  book  for 
the  general  scientific  reader. 

CHAS.  R  CHANDLEE,  Ph.D.,  M.D.,  LL.D.,  F.C.S.,  Etc. 


« 


»  * 


PREFACE. 


/^N  the  principle  that  every  scientific  man  "should  compile 
^^  his  own  pocket-book,  as  he  proceeds  in  study  and  prac- 
tice, to  suit  his  particular  business/'  the  Author  accumulated 
from  time  to  time  a  large  number  of  valuable  notes  and  tables, 
which  became  too  voluminous  to  be  carried  in  the  pocket,  and 
soon  grew  in  the  form  of  manuscript.  After  repeated  requests 
by  a  number  of  prominent  scientific  men,  the  Author  has 
decided  to  present  the  manuscript,  greatly  enlarged  and  im- 
proved, to  the  public.  The  object  of  the  Author  has  been  to 
accumulate  only  matter  which  has  a  practical  value  attached 
to  it. 

Under  the  Department  of  Qualitative  Analysis,  the  Author 
has  adopted  the  method  or  classification  presented  in  a  work 
commenced  by  Tuttle  and  Chandler,  and  has  consulted  various 
works  on  the  subject,  especially  Fresenius*  Qualitative  Analysis 
and  Watts*  Dictionary  of  Chemistry.  It  has  been  the  object  of 
the  Author  to  furnish  formulae  for  all  compounds  and  precipi- 
tates considered,  as  they  have  recently  been  determined.  The 
Schemes  presented  wiU  be  found  very  practicable  and  accurate, 
as  has  been  demonstrated  by  frequent  use. 

Under  the  Department  of  Mineralogy,  only  the  principal 
minerals  of  those  elements  which  have  found  use  in  the  Arts 
are  considered.  Free  use  has  been  made  of  Dana's  Mineralogy, 
as  also  Egleston's  Lectures  on  Mineralogy. 


vi  PREFACE. 

Under  the  Department  of  Quantitative  Analysis^  Schemes 
are  presented  for  the  most  frequent  occurring  compounds  met 
with  in  every-day  analyses,  all  of  which  have  been  frequently 
tested  and  found  accurate. 

Under  the  Department  of  Assaying y  brief  and  accurate  meth- 
ods are  described  for  the  assay  of  those  ores  usually  met  with 
in  the  laboratory.  In  preparing  the  method  described  for  the 
assay  of  gold  and  silver  ores,  the  Author  was  greatly  assisted 
by  a  valuable  pamphlet  (reprint  from  the  "  American  Chemist  '* 
for  1870)  by  T.  M.  Blossom,  E.M. 

In  the  Miscellaneous  Department,  the  Author  has  compiled 
a  large  number  of  tables  which  cannot  help  but  possess  a  prac- 
tical value. 

It  has  been  the  intention  of  the  Author  to  furnish  the  author- 
ity for  all  analyses  and  tables  presented  in  this  work;  and  if 
any  have  been  omitted,  by  communicating  direct  to  the  Author, 
all  claims  will  be  promptly  acknowledged. 

The  various  subjects  considered  in  this  work  opens  a  channel 
for  it  among  Chemists,  Pharmaceutists,  Physicians,  and  Scien- 
tific men  in  general. 

The  Author  is  quite  familiar  with  the  fact  that  a  work  of 
this  character  must  open  much  room  for  criticism;  still  he 
hopes  it  will  prove  on  the  whole  acceptable  to  all. 

AUTHOR 
98  Wall  Stbbet,  Fa.  7, 1877. 


1 


TABLE  OF  CONTENTS.       J*nicV^V 


PIGS 

Tables  of  the  Elembittb 3, 4, 5,  6 

Specific  Heatb 7, 10 

QUALITATIVE  ANALYSIS 11 

Deportment  of  the  Metals  and  their  Salts  with 

Reagents 18-154 

Scheme  for  Qxjalitativb  Analysis 188-146 

Detection  of  Acids 147-164 

Table  of  Analytical  Chemistry 155-16tf 

Zettnow's  Scheme  for  Qualitative  Analysis 170 

Scheme  fob  the  Alkaloids 172 

Reactions  of  Fat  Oils 176-179 

Fat  Oils 180-184 

Phabmacopcbial  Preparations — Tests  for  Impurities.  185-ld2 
Organic  Substances — Influence  on  the  Precipitation 

OF  Metallic  Oxides 198 

BLOWPIPE  ANALYSIS 196 

Casamajor's  Table 196 

Table  of  Volatile  Elements 198 

Scheme  for  Blowpipe  Analysis 200 

SPECIFIC  GRAVITY  DETERMINATIONS 207-212 

Hydrometer  Degrees 213, 214 

Alcohol— Specific  Gravity  of  Solutions 210 

Hydrochloric  Acid— Specific  Gravity  of  Solution.  . .         220 

Nitric  Acid — Specific  Gravity  of  Solution 221 

Phosphoric  Acid— Specific  Gravity  of  Solutions 228 

Sulphuric  Acid  "  "         "  '        225 

Ethylic  Ether  "  "         "  "        226 

Ammonic  Hydrate        '*  "         "  •'        227 


Vlll 


TABLE  OF  CONTENTS. 


PAGE 

PoTABBic  Hydrate— Specific  Gbavity  of  Solutions  . . .  229 

SoDic  Hydrate               "              "         "          "          ...  230 

Acetic  Acid                    "              "         •'          "          ...  231 

Glycerin                          "              "         "           "          ...  232 

Specific  Gbavity  of  Official  Liquids 232 

Table  of  Specific  Gravity  and  Weights 235 

MINERALOGY 241 

Principal  Minerals 243 

Coal 836 

Petroleum 348 

Scale  of  Hardness 350 

8T0ICHI0METRT 368 

Table  of  Solubility 860 

Table  of   Reduction   of  Compounds  found  to  Con- 
stituents Sought 362 

QUANTITATIVE  ANALYSIS 871 

Iron  Ore  Analysis 373 

Cast  Iron       "        384 

Chromic  Iron  "        888 

Pig  Lead        *'        890 

Nickel  Ore    "         392 

Copper  Orb    "        898 

Zinc  Ore         "        894 

Pyrolubite     "         895 

Ilmenite         '' 397 

Orthoclasb    *'        898 

dolomitb        '*        899 

Whitb  Lead  "        400 

Type  Metal    "        401 

Silver  Coin   " 402 

Fertilizer      "        403 

Water            "        404 

Coal                "        421 

Gunpowder    "        423 

Glass              "        425 

Chlorimetry 427 


TABLE  OF  CONTENTS.  ix 

TAQt 

Organic  Analysis 431 

Urinb            *' 460 

Blood           "        447 

Milk              **         457 

Suo ABS 462 

'*       Examinations 472-486 

ASSAYING 487 

IBON  Orb  Assay 489 

Gold  and  Silver  Assay 494 

Lead  Ores,  Assay  of 614 

Antimony,           " 616 

Platinum,           "        616 

CHEMISTRY  OF  MAN 617 

Analysis  of  Secretions 620-644 

MISCELLANEOUS  DEPA RTMENT 645 

Elements,  Classification  of 647 

Table  of  the  Defunct  Elements 654 

Price  of  Metals 656 

Agricultural  Products 667 

Pbutts,  Composition  of 672 

Glycerin  as  a  Solvent 678 

f0rmul2b  of  frequently-occurring  substances 678 

Formula  of  Frequently-occurring  Acids. 581 

Artificial  Formation  of  Organic  Bodies 584 

Alcohols 585 

Alloys  and  Compositions. 687 

Available  Oxygen  in  a  few  Oxygen  Compounds  ....  689 

Old  Names  for  a  few  Salts 690 

Poison  and  their  Antidotes 592 

Thermometecrs 698 

Different  Remarkable  Temperatures 602 

Table  of  Boiling-points  of  Satxtbated  Solutions.  . . .  608 

Barometer  Degrees 604 

Weights  and  Measures 605 

Table  of  the  Value  of  Standard  Coins  in  Circula- 

tion  in  U.  S.  Money 614 


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TABLE  OF  SPECIFIC  HEATS. 


TABLE  OF  SPECIFIC  HEATS  OF  ELEMENTARY  SUBSTANCES. 


KAXM  or  BUB8TAN0S. 

Aluminium, 

Antimony, 

Arsenic,    .---.-.-- 

"        (crystallized),     -    -    -    . 
*'        (amorphous),      -    -    -    - 

Bismuth, 

Boron  (amorphous), 

"      (crystallizea), 

Cadmium, 

Calcium, 

Carbon  (natural  graphite),    -    -    - 
«  "  *'        (purified), 

M  U  *€  ... 

M  «  ««  .         .         - 

"      (gas  carbon), 

"         "        "         (purified),     - 

€t  (4  «  <( 

«  «<  «« 

"      (iron  graphite),    -    -    -    - 

"      (diamond), 

Copper, 

Indium,    -- - 

Iron,     ---         

Lead, 

Magnesium, 

Ruthenium, 

Selenium,  (crystalline),  -    -    -    - 

"         (amorphous),  -    -    -    - 

Silicon  (graphitoYdal),     .    .    -    . 

"      (crystalline),    -    -    -    -    - 

*'      (fused), 

Silver,  -    - 

<i      «««....._. 

Sulphur  (rhombic), 

Tellurium, 

Tin, 

"     (cast), 

"     (allotropic), 

Zinc, 

*t  _    _    _ 


BFBOmOHSAT. 


0.202 
j    .0495 
i    .0523 

.0622 

.0880 

.0758 

.0S05 

.254 

.230 

.0542 

.0548 

.1670 

.2010 

.1977 

.1955 

.174 

.1968 

.2000 

.2040 

.185 

.1961 

.166 

.1483 
0.0930 

.0670 

.112 

.0315 

.245 

.0611 

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.165 

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▲UTUOBITT. 


Eopp. 

Bunsen. 

Kopp. 

{Neumann   (Pogg.   Ann. 
cxxvi.  187). 
Bettendorff  and  WUUner. 

do.  do. 

Kopp. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

Bunsen. 

do. 
j  Regnault  (Ann.  Ch.  Phys. 
1     [4],vii.  46). 
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Bettendorff  and  Wtillner 
Kopp. 
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do. 
Bettendorff  and  Wtillner. 
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Bettendorff  and  WHllner. 
Kopp. 

Bettendorff  and  WtOlner. 
Kopp. 
Bunsen. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
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Neumann. 

Bettendorff  and  Wtillner. 

Kopp. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

Bunsen. 

Kopp. 

Bunsen. 
Kopp. 

do. 
Bunsen. 

do. 
Kopp. 
Bunsen. 


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DEPORTMENT 

OF 

THE  METALS  AND  THEIR  SALTS 

WITH    REAGENTS. 


GROUP  I 

Will  contain  Silver  Salts,  Mercurous  Salts,  and  Lead 
Salts,  the  Chlorides  of  which,  namely.  Argentic  Chloride, 
Mercurous  Chloride,  and  Plumbic  Chloride,  are  insoluble 
or  but  sparingly  soluble  in  water  and  in  dilute  acids^  and  are 
therefore  precipitated  by  Hydrochloric  Acid. 

SILVER. 

Symbol  Ag. — Atomic  weight,  108. — Equivalence,  I  and  HI. — Positive 
Monad.— Electric  conductivity  at  32'  F.  100.00.— Specific  gravity,  10.53.— 
Specific  heat,  0.0670.— Atomic  volume,  10.04.— Fusing  point,  1023"  C— 
Color,  white. — Cut  with  a  knife. — Order  of  malleability  commencing  with 
gold,  second  ;  ductility  commencing  with  gold,  second ;  tenacity  commencing 
with  (iron  as  1000,  silver  as  849) ;  heat-conducting  power  commencing  with 
gold,  third. 

SILVER  OXIDES. 

There  are  three  silter  oxides  known. 

Argentic  Oxide,  AggO,  made  by  heating  argentic  car- 
bonate to  200°  C. ;  it  is  a  brown-black  powder,  having  a  Sp. 
Or.  7.143  (Herapath). 

Argentic  Dioxide,  Ag202,  formed  when  concentrated 
AgNOa  ^s  electrolyzed,  with  two  thick  platinum  wires  for 
poles,  and  is  deposited  in  crystals  on  the  positive  pole,  while 
metallic  silver  separates  at  the  negative  pole. 


14  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

Abgentoub  Oxide,  Ag^O,*  is  made  by  passing  hydrogen 
gas  over  argentic  oxalate  or  citrate  heated  to  100°  0. ;  half  the 
acid  is  set  free,  leaving  the  aboentous  oxn)E ;  remove  the  acid 
by  water. 

SILVER  SALTS. 

The  silver  salts  are  non- volatile  and  colorless;  most  of 
them  acquire  a  black  tint  when  exposed  to  the  light.  Vege- 
table colors  are  not  altered  by  the  soluble  neutral  salts,  but 
the  salts  are  decomposed  at  red  heat. 

METALLIC  SILVER. 

1.  Heated  on  Chabcoal,  it  fuses,  and  gives  after  a  time 
a  red  incrustation  of  argentic  oxide  (AggO). 

3.  Hydroohlorio  Acid  has  very  little,  it*  any,  action  on  it. 

3.  Nitric  Acid  dissolves  it  slowly  when  cold,  rapidly  when 
hot,  evolving  nitrogen  dioxide  (NjOa). 

6Ag+8HN03=6AgN03  +  N2d2-f-4H20. 

4,  Sulphuric  Acid,   when  concentrated,   dissolves  silver 

if  heated,  evolving  sulphurous  oxide  (SO2).      The  solution 

contains  argentio  sulphate  (Ag2S04).     Dilute  acid  has  no 

effect.  ,,^A^ 

2Ag+2H2S04=Ag2S04  +  S02-f-2H20. 

Ifote.^'The  silyer  of  commeroe  is  ucniallj  alloyed  with  copper ;  it  also 
oontains  a  trace  of  gold,  which  remains  hehind  as  a  black  powder  when  the 
sUver  and  copper  are  dissolved  in  nitric  add.^TuTniB  aii^d  Cha^tdleb.) 

SALTS  OF  SILVER. 

Solution  heat  fitted  for  reaction : 

Abgentio  NrrBATE  (AgNOa). 

6.  Hydbochlobio  Acid,  when  added  to  argentic  nitrate, 
produces  a  white  precipitate  of  argentic  chloride  (AgCl)  tTisol- 
nble  in  water  and  in  Nrrsio  acid;  readily  soluble  m  am- 
Hoino  HYDBATE  and  reprecipitated  by  nitric  acid. 

AgN03  +  HCl=AgCl  +  HN03. 
*  If  this  formula  ^g^O  is  correct,  oxjgen  is  a  tetrad. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  15 

NoUr—The  argentic  chloride  /becomes  violet  when  exposed  to  the  light. 
When  mixed  with  a  certain  quantity  of  mercurous  chloilde  or  faming  sul- 
phuric acid,  this  change  of  color  does  not  take  place. — (TimuB  ahi> 
Chasdelvb.) 

6.  Soluble  OHLOBmEs,  such  aa  NaCI,  KCI,  etc.,  produce  the 
same  result  as  hydrochloric  acid. 

AgNOg  +  NaCl= AgCl  +  NaNOg. 

SoDio  Thiosulphate  (Na2S203)  DI880LTE8  BTgentic  chloride, 
and  prevents  precipitation  by  potassic  chloride ;  but  potassic 
or  sodic  bromide  or  iodide  added  to  the  solution,  precipitates 

ABOENTIC  BBOMIDE  Or  IODIDE. 

2AgCl + 2Na2S203 = (Na2S203 + Ag2S203)  +  2NaCl. 

(Na2S2^+Ag2S203) + 2NaCl+ 2NaBr=2AgBr+ 2Na2S203  +  2NaCL 

•■    ^    ' 

Potassic    Cyanide    dissolves    argentic    chloride    forming 

AEGENTO-POTASSIO  OTANIDB. 

AgCl+2KCN=AgCN,KCN  +  KCl. 

7.  Htdbosulphurio  Acid  produces  a  black  precipitate  of 
ARGENTIC  SULPHIDE  (AggS)  insolublc  in  dilute  acids  and  in 
ammonic  sulphide  (NH4HS),  soluble  in  boiling  nitric  acid  with 
separation  of  sulphur. 

2AgN03  +  H2S=:Ag2S+2HN03. 

' — ^ — ' 

8*  Ammonic  Sulphide  acts  the  same  as  hydrosulphuric 

acid. 

2AgN03  +  NH4SH=Ag2S+NH4N03  +  HN03. 

9.  Potassic  Hydrate,  when  added,  produces  a  light-brown 
precipitate  of  abgentic  oxide  (Ag20),   insoluble  in  excess, 

SOLUBLE  IN  AMMONIC   HYDRATE. 

2AgN03  +  2KH0= Ag20  +  2KNO3  +  H2O. 

10.  Ammonic  Hydrate  added  to  neutral  solutions  pro- 
duces a  brown  precipitate  of  abgentic  oxide  soluble  in  excess. 
No  precipitate  is  produced  in  acid  solutions. 

2AgN03  +  NH40H=Ag20  +  NH4N03  +  HN03. 


16  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

11.  P0TAB8IC  Bromide  precipitates  abgentio  beomide  (AgBr) 
yellowish  in  color,  insoluble  in  water  and  acids,  and  mnch  less 
soluble  in  amnionic  hydrate  than  the  chloride,  soluble  in  sodic 
hyposulphite. 

AgNOg  +  KBr=AgBr+  KNO3. 

13.  PoTAssio  Iodide  produces  a  pale-yellow  flocculent 
precipitate  of  argentio  iodide  (Agl),  slowly  acted  on  by  light, 
insoluble  in  acids  and  almost  so  in  ammonic  hydrate,  soluble 
in  a  concentrated  solution  of  potassic  iodide,  and  soluble  in  a 
solution  of  sodic  hyposulphite. 

AgN034-KI=AgI  +  KN03. 

The  FOLLOWING  are  a  few  miscellaneous  beactions  : 

3AgN03  +  Na2HP04=Ag3P04  +  2NaN03  +  HN03. 

N  y  » 

Ag3P04= Argentic    Orthophosphate    or    Phosphate    is  a 
canary-yellow  product.     Solution  is  acid. 

AgNOg  +  NaP03 = AgPOg  +  HaNO^, 

y . ' 

AgP03= Argentio  Metaphosphate  is  a  gelatinous  mass. 
* — • — ' 

4AgN03  + Na4P207=Ag4P207+4NaN03. 

* , ' 

Ag4P207= Argentic  Pyrophosphate  is  a  white  precipitate. 

2AgN03  +  KaCrgOy  +  AgaCrjO^  +  2KNO3. 

Ag2Cr207= Argentic  Bichromate,  red-brown. 

2AgN03  +  K2Cr04= Ag2Cr04  -f  2KNO3. 

' * ' 

Ag2Cr04= Argentic   Chromate,  dark-brown  precipitate,  sol- 

> , > 

uble  in  ammonic  hydrate  and  in  dilute  acids. 

AgN03 -I- KCN  =  AgCN -f  KNO3. 

' — » — ' 

AgCN= Argentic  Cyanide  is  a  white  curdy  precipitate,  sol- 

^        _        ' 

T 

uble  in  exceee  of  reagent,  insoluble  in  dilute  acids. 

2AgN03  +  Na2C03=Ag2C03  +  2NaN03. 


■>— 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

Ag2C03=ABGBXTio  Cabbonate,  soluble  in  ammoDic  hydrate 
and  amnionic  carbonate. 

2AgN03 + C2H204= AgaCaO^ + 2H  NO3. 

* . ' 

Ag2C204=AEGENTic  OxALATE,  white  precipitate,  soluble  in 

% , 1 

amnionic  hydrate  and  sparingly  in  nitric  add. 

3AgN03+CcH5K307=CcH5Ag307+3KN08. 

' , ' 

CgH5Ag307= Argentic  OrrRATE,  white  powder. 

' , ' 

CfiH4Ag20fi= Argentic  Tartrate,  curdy  precipitate,  produced 

by  mixing  a  dilute  solution  of  argentic  nitrate  with  a  dilute 
solution  of  Kochelle-salt  (C8H4KNa05.4H20  potassio-sodic 
tartrate)  slightly  acidulated  with  nitric  acid. 

Metallic  Silver  is  PREciPrrATED  by  Zn,  Cu,  Fe,  Hg  P,  etc., 
SnCl2,  FeS04,  ^^^• 

2AgN03+Zn=2Ag+Zn2N03. 
2AgN03  +  Cu=2Ag+Cu2N03. 


4AgCl  +  2Na2Co2+A<5*=4Ag+4NaCl+2C02  +  02. 

AgN03  +  C+A<5=Ag-f  CO2  +  NO. 

13.  Blowpipe. — Dry  compounds  of  silver,  mixed  with 
sodic  carbonate  and  fused  before  the  blowpipe  on  charcoal, 
yield  malleable,  metallic  globules  of  pure  silver  without 
forming  an  incrustation. — Characteristio  Eeaction,  No.  5, 

LEAD. 

Symbol,  Pb.— Atomic  weight,  207.  —  Equivalence,  11  and  IV.— .Color, 
blaiah  white. — Cut  by  a  knife. — Specific  gravity,  11.36. — Fuses  at  SSS"*  C. 
(or  617''  P.— Rudberg).— Specific  Heat,  0.0314.— Atomic  volume,  18.24.— 
Electric  conductivity  at  32"  F.  8.32.- Order  of  malleability  commencing 

♦  Ad — Heat  or  fuse. 


18  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

with  gold,  is  the  seventh ;  for  dactilitj  commencing  with  gold,  is  the 
eighth. — Tenacity,  iron  as  1000, — Pb=50. — Order  of  heat-eondacting  power 
commencing  with  gold,  is  the  seventh. 

LEAD  OXIDES. 
Lead  unites  with  oxygen  to  form  five  oxides  : 

Plumbic  oxide,  PbO ;  Plumbous  oxide,  PbgO ; 
Plumbic  peroxide,  Pb02 ;  Plumbic  orthoplumbate,  Pb304 ; 

Plumbic  meta  plumbate,  PbaOs. 

PbgO  Plumbous  oxide  may  be  produced  if  plumbic  ox- 
alate is  heated  in  a  retort  from  which  air  is  excluded,  viz. : 

2PbC204  =  Pb^O  +  CO  +  3CO2. 

PbO  Plumbic  oxide  (Litharge)  may  be  obtained  pure  by 
igniting  basic  nitrate  or  the  carbonate  or  oxalate  in  a  platinum 
crucible  in  contact  with  air,  taking  care  the  oxide  does  not 
fuse,  otherwise  it  would  take  up  the  metal  from  the  crucible. 
Pure  oxide,  lemon-yellow  color,  Sp.  Gr.  9.4214. 

Pb02  Plumbic  peroxide  may  be  formed  by  exposing  the 
protoxide  (PbO)  suspended  in  water  to  the  action  of  a  stream 
of  chlorine  gas.  It  is  a  brown  powder;  when  heated  gives 
off  oxygen,  and  is  converted  into  red  lead  or  protoxide. 

Pb304  Plumbic  orthoplumbate  =  (2PbO.Pb02  or  PbO. 
Pl^aOa)  Pb2Pb04,  and  is  sometimes  called  red  oxide;  it  is 
formed  when  the  protoxide  is  kept  at  a  low  red  heat  for  a 
considerable  time  in  contact  with  air.  It  is  a  scarlet  crystal- 
line granular  powder,  Sp.  Gr.  8.62  (Karsten). 

Pb203  Plumbic  meta  plumbate  (Pb.PbOg)  may  be  obtained 
by  precipitating  a  solution  of  red  oxide  in  acetic  acid  with 
caustic  alkalies  or  alkaline  carbonate.  It  is  a  reddish-yellow 
precipitate. 

LEAD   SALTS. 

The  salts  of  lead  are  non-volatile ;  most  of  them  are  color- 
less; the  neutral  soluble  salts  redden  litmus-paper,  and  are 
decomposed  at  a  red  heat. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  19^ 

Plumbic  chloride,  when  heated  with  access  of  air,  partially 
volatilizes,  and  oxy chloride  of  lead  remains  behind. 

METALLIC   LEAD. 

14.  Heated  on  chabooal,  it  fuses  and  gives  an  incrusta- 
tion of  plumbic  oxide,  which  is  deep-yellow  when  hot,  pale- 
yellow  when  cold.  . 

15.  Hydbochlorio  acid  has  very  little  action  on  lead. 

16.  NiTEic  Acn),  when  concentrated,  acts  very  slowly  on 
lead ;  but  if  it  be  diluted,  especially  if  heated,  it  rapidly  dis- 
solves it,  forming  plumbic  nitrate,  which  separates  from  the 
solution  sometimes  in  white  crystals. 

3Pb-h8HN03=3Pb2N03  +  N202+4H20. 

17.  SuLPHUEio  ACID,  whcu  hot  and  concentrated,  dissolves 
lead  and  forms  plumbic  sulphate  with  evolution  of  sulphurous 
oxide.     Dilute  acid  does  not  act  on  lead. 

Pb+2(H2S04)=PbS04+S0^-h2H20. 

LEAD   SALTS 
Solution  hest  fitted  for  the  reactions: 

Plumbic  "NrrBATB  (PbgNOa). 

18.  Hydeochloeic  acid,  when  added  to  a  solution  of  plum- 
bic nitrate,  produces  a  white  precipitate  of  plumbic  chloeide 
(PbCl2),  which  is  soluble  in  a  large  amount  of  watee  ;  there 
is  therefore  no  precipitate  found  in  dilute  solutions  of  lead. 
In  every  case  a  little  lead  escapes  precipitation.  Ammonic 
hydrate  does  not  dissolve  or  blacken  the  precipitate. 

Pb2N03  +  2HC1=  PbCla  +  2H  NO3. 

19.  Htdeosulphueic  acid  produces,  a  black  precipitate  of 
PLUMBIC  sulphide,  which  is  insoluble  in  cold  dilute  acids,  in 
alkalies,  alkaline  sulphides,  and  potassic  cyanide. 

Hot  dilute  nitric  acid  dissolves  (if  dilute  enough)  the  precipi- 
tate, forming  plumbic  nitrate,  and  separates  sulphur.    Fuming 


30  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

nitric  acid  oxidizes  the  stdphur  and  converts  the  precipitate 
into  insoluble  plumbic  sulphate.  If  in  the  solution  to  be  pre- 
cipitated from,  there  is  any  excess  of  concentrated  mineral  acid, 
such  acid  must  be  neutralized  by  the  addition  of  water  or  an 
alkali  before  the  hydrosulphuric  acid  will  precipitate  the  lead. 
If  the  solution  contains  an  excess  of  free  hydrochloric  acid 
the  precipitate  may  be  red,  consisting  of  plumbic  sulphide  and 
plumbic  chloride,  which  in  time,  with  the  addition  of  hydro- 
sulphuric  acid  in  excess,  will  be  converted  into  plumbic  sul- 
phide. 

Pb2N03  +  H^Srr  PbS + 2H  NO3. 

20.  Ammonio  sulphide  acts  the  same  as  hydrosulphuric 
acid. 

Pb2N03+NH4SH  =  PbS-hNH4N03  +  HN03. 

21.  SuLPHUBio  ACID  produccs  a  white  precipitate  of  plumbic 
sulphate,  which  is  nearly  insoluble  in  dilute  acids  and  water ; 
concentrated  nitric  acid  partially  dissolves  it;  concentrated 
hydrochloric  acid,  when  boiling,  dissolves  it  with  difficulty; 
a  solution  of  potassic  hydrate  dissolves  it  more  readily.  Am- 
monic  acetate  or  citrate  dissolves  it,  and  dilute  sulphuric  acid 
precipitates  it  again.  In  very  dilute  solutions  of  lead  an  ex- 
cess of  dilute  acid  should  be  added,  as  the  precipitate  only 
forms  after  standing.  Precipitate  is  blackened  by  hydrosul- 
phuric acid,  which  distinguishes  it  from  baric  and  strontic 
sulphate,  which  are  insoluble.  Plumbic  sulphate,  in  the  cold, 
is  soluble  in  water  to  the  extent  of  ly^^^nr  Fresenius ;  in  dilute 
sulphuric  acid,  ^^^^^^  Fresenius;  ahnost  absolutely  insoluble 
in  alcohol. 

Pb2N03  +  H2S04=PbS04+2HN03. 

» — . — ' 

22.  Potassic  Hydrate  produces  a  white  precipitate  of 
plumbic  hydrate  (PbgHO),  readily  soluble  in  excess,  and 
almost  insoluble  in  an^monic  hydrate. 

Pb2N03  +  2KHO-hPb2HO-h2KN03. 
23*  Ammonia    produces  a  white  precipitate  of  plumbic 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  21 

hydrate  (Pb2H0),  insoluble  in  excess,  but  readily  soluble  in 
nitric  acid.  In  solutions  of  plumbic  acetate,  amnionic  hydrate 
(free  from  carbonate)  does  not  immediately  produce  a  precipi- 
tate, owing  to  the  formation  of  a  soluble  plumbic  triacetate. 

The  filtrate  from  the  precipitation  should  be  examined,  for 
it  will  contain  some  lead  if  the  ammonic  hydrate  is  in  excess 
and  there  are  ammonic  salts  present. 

Pb2N03  +  NH4H0=Pb2H0  +  NH4N03  +  HN03. 

\  y  / 

24.  PoTAssic  Chromate  or  Dichbomate  produces  a  yellow 
precipitate  of  plumbic  chromate  (PbCr04)  which  is  insoluble 
in  acetic  acid;  sparingly  soluble  in  dilute  nitric  acid,  but 
readily  so  in  potassic  hydrate. 

Pb2N03  +  K2Cr04=PbCr04  +  2KN03. 

' — . — ' 

2Pb2N03  +  K2Cra07+H20=2PbCr04+2KN03  +  2HN03. 

25.  SoDio    Cabbonate    produces  a  white   precipitate  of 

PLUMBIC  CABBONATE,    together   with   PLUMBIC    HYDRATE,   which 

is  insoluble  in  excess  of  the  precipitant,  and  also  in  potassium 
cyanide. 

7Pb2N03  +  7Na2C03  +  H20=(6PbC03  +  Pb2  HO) + UNaNOg 

* — » — »     ' » ' 

+  CO2. 

26.  Potassium  Iodide  precipitates  plumbic  iodide  as  a 
beautifrd  light-yellow  precipitate. 

2KI  +  Pb2N03  =  Pbl2+2KN03. 

Metallio  lead  is  precipitated  by  zinc  and  iron  out  of  its 

soluble  salts. 

Pb2N03+Zn  =  Pb+Zn2N03. 

Pb2N03  +  Fe=  Pb -h  Fe2N03. 

When  plumbic  sulphate  is  heated  with  carbon  in  the  right 
proportion,  metallic  lead  is  produced. 

PbS04 + C = Pb  -h  CO2  +  SO2. 

27.  Blowpipe. — Dry  compounds  of  lead,  when  frised  with 


22 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


8odic  carbonate  on  charcoal  in  the  inner  (reducing)  flame,  fxir* 
nishes  very  soft,  malleable  globules  of  metallic  lead,  which 
produces  a  mark  on  paper  like  a  pencil.  A  yellow  incrustation 
is  formed  at  the  same  time,  which  becomes  quite  pale  when  cold« 

« 

LIMIT  OF  REACTIONS  OF  TESTS  FOR   LEAD. 


OHS  PABT  OF 

nr  WATiB. 

BIAOBffT. 

▲UTBOBITT. 

Lead 

100,000  or  more. 
900,000 
800,000 
100,000 

90,000 

96,000 

70,000 

Snlphydric  Acid. 

It                  u 

ti              ti 

tt              u 

H,SO«  in  exoeaa. 
Na,SO«  in  15  min. 
Cliromate  of  PotaaBtnm. 

A.  S.  Taylor. 

Laaaalgne. 

Hartlng. 

Pfur. 

PfUr  A  Halting, 

Laatnaigiie. 

Hartiqg. 

LeadaB  Nitrate 

Oxide  of  Lead  aa  Nitrate 
Nitrate  of  Lead 

Oxide  as  Nitrate 

Leadas        '"     

Oxtdeaa      *'     

CHABAOTEBis'no  Bbaotions,  18,  21,  S7. 


MERCURY. 

Symbol  Hg  (Hydnurgyram  trqm  Mupapyvpov,  Uqnid  silTer  or  quickrilver). 
—Atomic  weight,  200.— Eqaivalenoe  (Hg,)  and  IL— Denidty,  100.— Mo- 
lecular weight,  200. — Molecular  volume,  2. — One  litre  of  mercury  yapor, 
weight  8.06  grains  (100  critha).— Specific  gravity,  18.696  at  S2^  F.— Solidifies 
at  -40'  F. ;  boils  at  850'  F.— Vapor,  Sp.  Gr.  6.076.— Electric  conductivity, 
1.63  at  78°  F.— Atomic  volume,  14.56. 

MERCURY  OXIDES. 

There  are  two  mercubt  oxides  known: 

Meboubig  oxide  HgO,  or  red  mercuric  oxide,  also  called 
binoxide  and  deutoxide. 

When  mercurouB  or  mercnric  nitrate  is  exposed  in  a  glass 
vessel  surrounded  with  sand,  to  heat,  as  long  as  nitrous  oxide 
is  evolved,  mercuric  oxide  is  formed.  The  commercial  oxide 
has  a  bright  brick-red  color,  shining  crystalline  grains.  Sp. 
Gr.  11.074  (Herapth)  of  precipitated. 

Mercurous  Oxide  HgsO.  Black  mercurous  oxide,  also 
called  dioxide  and  suboxide. 

When  a  solution  of  mercurous  salt  is  mixed  with  an  excess 
of  caustic  alkali,  mercurous  oxide  is  precipitated.  Brown-black 
powder.  Sp.  Gr.  10.69  (Herapth)  of  that  obtained  from  calomel. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  23 

METALLIC   MERCURY. 

!38«  Heated  m  a  titbe,  having  one  end  closed,  it  boils, 
and  in  the  cool  part  of  the  tube  minute  shining  particles  con- 
dense. 

29.  Htdboohlobio  aoto  does  not  attack  metallic  mercury. 

30.  KiTRiG  Aom,  if  dilute  and  cold,  dissolves  the  metal 
slowly,  and  the  solution  contains  mebcubous  NrrBATE. 

Dttnte.  .^x^ 

6Hg-f.8HN03=3Hg2(N03)2+N202+4H20. 

Concentrated  acid,  when  hot,  dissolves  the  metal  rapidly, 
forming  meboubio  nitrate. 

3Hg+8HN03=:3Hg(N03)2  +  N202+4H20. 

31.  Sulphuric  aoid,  when  concentrated  and  in  excess,  if 
heated,  dissolves  the  metal  with  evolution  of  sulphurous  oxide, 
forming  mebcurio  sulphate. 

Hg+2H2S04=HgS04+S<0^+2H20. 

When  the  metal  is  in  excess  of  the  acid,  a  mixture  of  mer- 
cnrous  and  mercuric  sulphate  is  obtained.  Dilute  acid  does 
not  act  upon  the  metal. 

SALTS  OF   MERCUROUS  OXIDE. 

The  mercurouB  salts  volatilize  on  ignition  ;  most  of  them  are 
decomposed  by  this  process.  Mercurous  bromide  and  chloride 
volatilize  unaltered.  Mercurous  nitrate  is  decomposed  on  the 
addition  of  much  water  into  a  pale-yellow  insoluble  basic  and 
soluble  acid  salt.  The  soluble  salts  in  the  neutral  state  redden 
Utmus-paper.    Most  of  the  salts  are  colorless. 

Solution  best  fitted  for  reactions  : 

Mercurous  Niirate  Hg2(N03)2. 

3!3«  Hydrochloric  acid  precipitates  a  powder  of  dazzling 
whiteness,  mercurous  chloride  (Hg2Cl2)  (calomel). 

Hg22N03  +  2HCl=Hg2Cl2+2HN03. 


24  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

Insoluble  in  water  and  dilute  acids.  Hydrochloric  and 
nitric  acids,  after  long  boiling,  dissolves  it.  Nitrohydrochloric 
acid  and  chlorine  dissolve  it  readily,  converting  it  into  mer- 
curie  chloride.  Amnionic  hydrate  and  potassic  hydrate  blacken 
mercurous  chloride ;  when  potassic  hydrate  is  used,  the  black 
ihercurous  oxide  is  precipitated  (§  36) ;  when  amnionic  hydrate 

is  used,   MEBOUBOUS-AMMONIUM    CHLOBIDE    (NH3Hg)2Cl2   is  pro- 

duced. 

Hg2Cl2+2NH^0H=(NH3Hg)2Cl2+2H20. 

33.  Soluble  ohlobides  produce  the  same  precipitate  as 
hydrochloric  acid. 

Hg2(N03)2  +  2NaCl  =  Hg2Cl2  +  2NaN03. 

V  y  / 

34.  Hydbosulphuric  Acro  produces  a  black  precipitate  of 
HERCUBOUS  SULPHIDE  (Hg2S) ;  insolublc  in  ammonic  sulphide, 
dilute  acids,  and  potassic  cyanide ;  easily  soluble  in  nitrohydro- 
chloric  acid,  but  not  by  boiling  concentrated  Nrrsic  Acm,  which 

does  NOT  ATTACK  IT. 

Hg2(N03)2  +  H2S=Hg2S+2HN03. 

35.  Ammonic  sulphide  produces  the  same  precipitate  as 
hydrosulphuric  acid. 

Hg2(N03)2  +  NH^HS=Hg2S+NH4N03  +  HN03. 
36*  PoTAssio    HTDBATE  produccs  a  black  precipitate  of 

MEBOUBOUB   OXIDE. 

Hg2(N03)2+2K0H  =  Hg20+2KN03+H20. 

Precipitate  is  insoluble  in  excess.  8odic  hydrate  produces 
the  same  precipitate. 

37.  Ammonio  HTDBATE  produces  a  black  precipitate  of 
2NH3.3Hg2O.N2O5,  which  is  a  htdrated  tbimebcubous  am- 
monium NrrBATE.  2(NHHg3)N03.2H20  (according  to  C.  G. 
Mitscherlich),  but  according  to  Kane,  2(NH2Hg2)N03.H20  (di- 
mercurous  ammonium  nitrate).  The  precipitate  is  velvet-black, 
and  is  known  as  ^^  Hahnemann's  Soluble  Mebcuby." 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  25 

METALLIC   MERCURY   PRECIPITATED. 

38.  Stannous  ohlobide  produces  a  gray  precipitate  of  me- 
tallic MEROUBY,  which  may  be  united  into  globules  by  boiling 
the  metallic  deposit,  after  decanting  the  fluid  with  hydro- 
chloric acid,  to  which  a  drop  of  stannous  chloride  may  be 
added  with  advantage. 

39,  Metallic  copper,  when  introduced  into  a  solution  of 
mercury,  becomes  covered  with  a  lustrous  coating  of  metallic 
MSRCURT.  If  the  coated  copper  be  dried  and  heated,  it  as- 
sumes its  original  color,  the  mercury  being  volatilized. 

Hg22N03+Cu=2Hg+Cu2N03. 

"Copper  wire  or  foil,  in  pieces  aboat  one  inch  in  length,  may  be  used  for 
thifi  teat.  They  should  be  first  dipped  into  strong  nitric  add,  and  well  washed. 
The  mercarial  solution  should  be  acidulated  with  a  few  drops  of  dilute  nitric 
add,  and  then  boiled  for  a  few  minutes  with  the  stripe  of  copper.  These 
are  then  to  be  removed,  washed,  dried  between  folds  of  paper,  and  gently 
heated  in  a  small  glass  tube,  closed  at  one  end.  A  shining  ring  of  minute 
globules  of  mercury  will  oondeose  above  the  copper,  which  now  resumes  its 
original  color.  This  method  is  often  used  to  separate  mercury  from  organic 
substances,  in  examining  vomited  matter,  and  in  case  of  poisoning."— {TuT- 
TLB  AND  Chandler.) 


40,  PoTAssic  cTANiDE  precipitates  mercury. 

Hg22N03  +  2KCN = Hg2(CN)2 + 2KN08. 
Hg2(CN)2=Hg-hHg(CN)2. 


I 


There  is  first  formed  Hgj  (CN)2,  which  is  resolved  into  mer- 
curic cyanide  Hg(CN)2  and  metallic  mercury. 

Metallic  meboubt  is  separated  as  a  gray  powder  by  zinc, 
sulphurous  acid,  and  phosphorous  acid. 

41,  NriRic  ACID  converts  all  mercurous  salts  into  mercuric  by 
boiling. 

A  FEW   MISCELLANEOUS   REACTIONS. 

PoTASsio  IODIDE,  wheu  added  to  mercurous  nitrate,  forms  a 
greenish-yellow  precipitate  of  mebcubous  iodide  (always,  how- 
ever, mixed  with  mercuric  iodide),  soluble  in  excess. 


26  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

F0TA8810  FEBBOGYANiDE,  when  added  to  mercurous  nitrate, 
forms  a  white,  and  potassio  febbigtanide  a  reddish-brown 
precipitate. 

Sodic  phosphate  and  oxalic  acid  form  white  precipitates 
with  mercurous  nitrate. 

Hg22N03+C2H204=C^^4+2HN03. 
3Hg22N03  +  2Na2H  P04=2Hg3P04  +  4NaN03  +  2H  NO3. 

•w 

Potassio  ghromate  produces  a  brick-red  precipitate  when 
added  to  mercurous  nitrate. 

Gallic  acid  produces  a  brownish-yellow  precipitate  when 
added  to  mercurous  nitrate. 

42.  Blowpipe. — Dry  compounds  of  mercury  mixed  with 
ten  to  twelve  parts  of  dry  sodic  carbonate,  and  heated  in  a  dry 
glass  tube,  closed  at  one  end,  yield  metallic  mebcubt,  which 
condenses  in  minute  globules  in  the  cool  part  of  the  tube. 
These  may  be  united  together  into  larger  globules  by  rubbing 
with  a  glass  rod. 

"  To  make  this  test  more  delicate,  the  mercmy  oomponnd  sbould  be  care- 
follj  dried ;  the  sodic  carbonate  should  be  ignited  (on  platinum  foil)  just 
previous  to  use.  To  prevent  sublimation  of  any  undecompoeed  mercury 
compound,  a  layer  of  sodic  carbonate  should  be  placed  above  the  mixture." 

— (TUTTLB  AKD  CHA2!n>LEB.) 

Chasagtebistio  Beactions,  3!3y  39,  42. 

DETECTION   OF   MEMBERS  OF  GROUP   I. 

Having  noticed  the  different  respective  behaviors  of  the 
chlorides  of  the  members  of  this  group,  with  water  and  am- 
monic  hydrate,  we  are  able  to  make  a  scheme  for  their  separa- 
tion and  detection. 

SCHEME  FOR  THE  SEPARATION   AND   DETECTION   OF 

MEMBERS  OF  GROUP   I. 

The  solution  to  be  examined  is  supposed  to  contain  a  salt  of 
silver,  mercurous  oxide,  and  lead. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


27 


Add  to  the  solution  hydrochloric  acid;  there  is  produced  a 
precipitate  of  argentic,  plumbic,  and  mercurous  cl^oride. 

AgCl+PbCla  +  HgaCla. 
* , ' 

Filter  the  precipitate  and  wash  it,  then  boil  the  precipitate 
in  water  and  filter : 


Filtrate. 

The  filtrate  will  oon- 
tain  PbCl,  in  solution. 
Add  sulphuric  add  if  a 
precipitate  is  produced; 
it  is  plumbic  sulphate 
PbSO^.  (See  §  18 ;  §  27.) 


Rbsidub. 

The  residue  will  contun  AgCl+Hg,Cl,.    Add 
amnionic  hydrate,  and  filter. 


Solution, 

Solution  will  contain 
the  silver  salt.  Add 
nitric  acid,  which  will 
precipitate  (AgCl)  ar- 
gentic chloride.  (See 
I  §5.) 


Betidue, 

If  black  (see  §  82)  dis- 
solve in  (8HCl  +  HNOs) 
nitrohydrochloric  acid. 
Add  stannous  chloride 
(SnCl,)  in  excess,  which 
wiU  deposit  metallic 
mercuiy     (Hg).       (See 

838.)  "^ 


O-ROUP   II. 

This  group  contains  the  metals  not  pbecipitated  by  Hydbo- 
OHLOBiG  Acid,  but  precipitated  from  their  acid  solutions  by 
Hydbosulphubio  Acid. 

FIRST  DIVISION. 

Salts  of  the  metals,  the  sulphides  of  which  are  insoluble  in 

AHHONIO   SULPHIDE. 

SECOND  DIVISION. 

Salts  of  the  metals,  the  sulphides  of  which  are  soluble  in 

4MM0inG   SULPHIDE. 

FIRST   DIVISION. 
Salts  of  Lead,*  Mercury,  Copper,  Cadmium,  and  Bismuth. 

SALTS  OF  MERCURIC  OXIDE. 
Solution  best  fitted  for  the  reactions  : 

Mebcubio  Chlobide  (HgCl2). 

The  SALTS  of  KEBOUBio  OXIDE  Yolatilize  upon  ignition ;  most 
of  them  are  decomposed  by  this  process.  Mercuric  chloride, 
bromide,  and  iodide  volatilize  unaltered.  Mercuric  nitrate 
and  sulphate  are  decomposed  by  water  (added  in  large  quan* 
tity)  into  soluble  acid  and  insoluble  basic  salts.  The  soluble 
neutral  salts  redden  litmus-paper.  Most  of  the  salts  of  mer- 
curic oxide  are  colorless. 


*  The  reactions  of  the  salta  of  lead  have  been  given  §  18  et  seq. ;  it  is 
intTodaced  here  for  the  reason  that  very  dilate  lead  solutions  give  no  pre- 
cipitate with  hydrochloric  acid,  bat  are  precipitated  by  hydrosulphoric  acid. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  29 

43.  Hydbosulphttbio  acid,  when  added  to  a  solution  of 
mercuric  chloride  in  small  quantities,  produces  a  white  or 
yellow  precipitate  (HgCl2  +  2HgS).  On  the  addition  of  more 
of  the  precipitant,  the  precipitate  formed  passes  from  white  to 
yellow,  to  orange,  to  brownish-red  color,  and  finally  to  black 
if  enough  has  been  added.  This  distinguishes  the  mercuric 
oxide  from  all  other  bodies. 

HgCl2  +  H2S=HgS+2HCl. 

Meroubio  suLPHmE  is  not  ^solved  by  ammonic  sul- 
phide,  potassic  hydrate,  or  potassic  cyanide;  insoluble  in 
boiling  nitric  or  hydrochloric  acid.  Dissolves  completely  in 
potassic  sulphide,  and  is  readily  decomposed  and  dissolved 
by  nitrohydrochloric  acid. 

44.  Amhonio  sulphide  produces  the  same  precipitate  as 
hydrosulphuric  acid. 

HgCl2  +  NH4HS=HgS+NH4Cl+HCl. 

45.  PoTAssio  HYDRATE,  added  in  small  quantities  to  a 
neutral  or  slightly  acid  solution,  produces  a  reddish-brown 
precipitate,  which  acquires  a  yellow  tint,  if  reagent  is  added  in 
excess.  The  reddish-hrown  precipitate  is  a  basic  salt;  the 
yettow  precipitate  consists  of  mercuric  oxide. 

HgCl2  +  KHO=HgO  +  2KCl-fHCl. 

In  very  acid  solution  the  precipitation  is  very  incomplete. 
When  the  solution  of  mercuric  chloride  contains  an  excess  of 
ammonic  chloride,  the  precipitate  is  analogous  to  that  pro- 
duced in  §  40. 

46.  Ammonio  hydrate  produces  a  white  precipitate,  if 
ammonic  hydrate  be  in  excess  [HgCl2(NH2)2] ;  if  mercuric 
<jhloride  be  in  excess  [2HgCl2(NH2)2]. 

47.  Potassic  iodide  produces  a  scarlet  precipitate  of  mer- 
-curic  iodide  (Hgig). 

HgCl2+2KI  =  Hgl2  +  2KCl. 


30  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

Soluble  in  excess  of  either  salt.  This  difficulty  may  be 
avoided  by  adding  a  drop  of  potassic  iodide  to  the  white  pre- 
cipitate by  amnionic  hydrate,  §  40,  which  will  change  to  a 
chocolate-red  Hglj. 

48.  Stannous  chloride,  when  added  in  small  quantities^ 
produces  a  precipitate  of  mercurous  chloride. 

2HgCl2  +  SnCl2= HgaCla  +  SnCV 

* — M — ' 

It  added  in  excess  and  boiled,  the  mercurous  chloride  at  first 
formed  is  reduced  to  metal. 

HgaClj  +  SnCla = Hgg  +  SnCV 

The  metal  may  be  united  into  globules  by  boiling  with 
hydrochloric  acid  and  some  stannous  chloride. 

49,  Blowpipe. — The  behavior  of  the  mercuric  salts  is  the 
same  as  the  mercurous  salts ;  therefore  see  §  36. 

CHASAcrrEBisTio  Beaotion,  39y  43y  47,  42,  49. 

A  FEW   MISCELUNEOUS   REACTIONS. 

FoBMio  ACID  REDUCES  mercuvic  chloride  to  mercurous 
chloride. 

Amhonio  carbonate  produces  a  white  precipitate  with 
mercuric  nitrate. 

PoTASsio  CARBONATE  produccs  a  ycUow  precipitate  of  HgO. 

Hydro-potassic  carbonate  and  htdrosodic  carbonate  pro- 
duces a  brown-red  precipitate  in  mercuric  nitrate,  and  a  white 
precipitate  turning  red  in  mercuric  chloride.  Precipitate 
(2HgO,HgCl2). 

Sodio  phosphate  produces  a  white  precipitate. 

Potassic  ferrooyanide  produces  in  solutions  not  too  dilute 
a  white  precipitate  turning  blue,  prussian  blue  being  formed 
while  filtrate  contains  mercuric  cyanide. 

Potassic  ferricyanide  produces  a  white  precipitate  with 
mercuric  nitrate,  and  none  with  mercuric  chloride. 

Tincture  of  galls  forms  an  orange-yellow  precipitate  in 
all  solutions  except  mercuric  chloride. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  31 

COPPER. 

Symbol,  Cu.  (Latin,  Cuprinm,  Cnpnis). — Atomic  weight,  68.5. — Eqnivar 
lence  (Cu,)^  and  II. — Color,  fle8li-red.~Ci7StalB,iBometric. — Specific  gravity, 
8.862.— Atomic  volume,  7.10.— Specific  heat,  0.0961.— Fusing  point,  1996"  P. 
— Electric  conductivity  at  82**  F.  is  99.96. — Order  of  malleability  commenc- 
ing with  gold  is  third ;  Ductility,  fifth ;  Heat-conducting  power,  fourth.— 
Tenacity=650. 

COPPER  OXIDES. 

There  are  two  well-determined  copper  oxides,  and  two  un- 
certain oxides. 

Cup&ous  OXIDE,  CU2O,  also  called  dioxide,  suboxide,  and 
red  oxide  of  copper.  Found  native  in  two  fomis  as  (rothkup- 
ferey  and)  red  copper  and  copper  hloonij  chalotrechite  (kupter- 
bluthe).  Ignite  29  pts.  copper-filings  with  24  pts.  anhydrous 
cupric  sulphate,  and  cuprous  oxide  is  obtained.  Hydrochloric 
acid  forms,  with  cuprous  oxide,  cuprous  chloride,  which  is 
easily  decomposed  by  water.  Nitric  acid  converts  it  into 
cupric  nitrate ;  most  other  acids  decompose  it,  forming  cupric 
salts  and  depositing  metallic  copper.  Very  few  oxygen  salts 
known ;  sulphites  and  double  sulphites  with  alkaline  metals. 

CuPEio  OXIDE,  CuO,  black  oxide  of  copper.  Found  native  as 
malaoonite.  Prepared  by  exposing  cupric  sulphate  to  an  in- 
tense heat,  or  cupric  carbonate  or  nitrate  to  a  moderate  heat. 
Beduced  to  metal  by  hydrogen,  when  ignited  with  it,  or  char- 
coal.    Potassium  or  sodium  also  reduce  it  to  a  metallic  state. 

Sesquioxide  of  ooppeb,  CU2O3;  not  known  in  a  separate 
state.  Mix  chloride  of  lime  with  a  solution  of  cupric  nitrate 
and  there  is  formed  calcic  cuprate,  a  beautifiil  rose-colored 
substance ;  it  decomposes  but  slowly.  Most  other  salts  are  de- 
composed with  violent  evolution  of  oxygen,  soon  after  formation. 

Peroxide  of  ooppeb,  CUO2 ;  formed  by  agitating  cupric 
hydrate  with  a  large  excess  of  hydrogen  peroxide  at  0°  C.  It  is 
a  yellowi8h-])rown  powder.  Insoluble  in  water,  with  acids  it 
forms  ordinary  cupric  salts  and  hydrogen  peroxide.  It  may 
only  be  a  compound  of  cupric  oxide  and  hydrogen  peroxide.— 
(Thenabd.) 


32  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

METALLIC  COPPER. 

50.  HsATED  ON  OHABooAL  it  becomes  coated  with  cupric 
oxide ;  it  fuses  with  difficulty,  and  gives  no  incrustation. 

51*  Hydbochlorig  ach)  has  very  little  action  on  metallic 
copper. 

53.  Nitric  acid  dissolves  it  readily,  forming  cupric  nitrate 
and  evolving  nitrogen  dioxide. 

3Cu  +  8HN03=3Cu2N03  +  N^+4H20. 

53.  SuLPHUBic  AoiD,  whcu  hot  and  concentrated,  rapidly 

dissolves  copper,  forming  blue  cupric  sulphate  (CUSO4),  and 

evolving  sulphurous  oxide.    Dilute  acid  has  but  little  action 

on  copper.  ,^a^ 

Cu  +  2H2S04=CuS04  +  SO2  +  2H2O. 

54.  NrrBOHYDKocHLOEic  ACID  dissolves  copper,  forming 
cupric  chloride  and  evolving  nitrogen  dioxide  (NjOj). 

3Cu+2(3HCl  +  HN03)=3CuCl2  +  N^+4H20. 

SALTS  OF  COPPER. 

^'  Most  of  the  neutral  salts  are  soluble  in  water ;  the  soluble 
salts  redden  litmus-paper,  and  suffer  decomposition  when 
heated  to  gentle  redness,  with  the  exception  of  the  sulphate, 
which  can  bear  a  somewhat  higher  temperature.  They  are 
usually  white  in  the  anhydrous  state ;  the  hydrated  salts  are 
usually  of  a  blue  or  green  color,  which  their  solutions  continue 
to  exhibit  even  when  much  diluted." 

Solutions  heat  fitted  for  the  7'eaction8  : 

CuPEic  Sulphate  (CUSO4). 

55.  Hydrosulphurio  Acro  produces  a  black  precipitate  of 
cupric  sulphide. 

CuS04+H2S=CuS+H2S04. 

Cupric  sulphide  is  slightly  soluble  in  ammonic  sulphide, 
completely  soluble  in  boiling  nitric  acid,  and  dissolves  com- 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  33 

pletely  in  potassic  cyanide ;  not  soluble  in  dilute  sulphuric  or 
hydrochloric  acid. 

56.  Ammonio  bulphtoe  produces  the  same  precipitate  as 
hydrosulphuric  acid. 

CuS04+NH4HS=CuS+NH4HS04. 

67.  PoTABSio  HYDRATE  produccs  a  light-blue  bulky  precipi- 
tate of  OUPBIO  HYDIiATE  (Cu2H0). 

CuS04+2KH0=Cu2H0  +  K2S04. 

' — * — ' 

Insoluble  in  excess.  When  heated,  turns  black,  forming  cu- 
Pido  oxmE. 

"  The  presence  of  fixed  organic  matters  (sngar,  tartaric  acid)  caases  the 
hydrate  to  rediseolve  in  excess  of  potassic  hydrate  with  a  deep-blue  color." — 

(TUTTLB  AND  CHAimLER.) 

58.  Ammonio  hydrate  produces  a  greenish-blue  precipitate 
of  a  BASIC  SALT  (CuS04+2Cu2H0),  when  added  in  a  small 
quantity;  in  a  large  quantity  the  precipitate  dissolves,  im- 
parting to  the  liquid  a  deep  azure-blue  color,  forming  (NH3)2 
CuO+(NH4)2S04.  This  test  distinguishes  copper  from  most 
other  substances. 

3CuS04+4NH4H0=2Cu2H0-fCuS04+2(NH4)2S04. 

■* 

69.  SoDio  CARBONATE  produccs  a  greenish-blue  precipitate 

of  cupric  carbonate    and  cupric  hydrate   (CuC03  +  Cu2H0), 

with  the  evolution  of  carbonic  oxide. 

2CuS04  +  2Na2C03  +  H20=CuC03  +  Cu2H0  +  C02  +  2Na2S04. 

This  precipitate,  on  boiling,  is  converted  into  cupric  oxide. 

60.  PoTAssio  FERRocYANiDE  produccs  a  chocolate-colorcd 
precipitate  of  cupric  ferrocyanide  (Cu2FeCgN5). 

2CuS04+H4FeC6N6=Cu2FeC6N6  +  2H2S04. 

Insoluble  in  dilute  acids,  but  readily  soluble  in  ammonic 
hydrate.  Decomposed  by  potassic  hydrate,  with  the  forma- 
tion of  cupric  hydrate  and  potassic  ferrocyanide. 


34  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

To  very  dilute  solutions  of  copper,  potassic  feirocyanide 
imparts  a  reddish  color,  which  is  a  more  delicate  indication 
than  the  ammonic  hydrate  reaction,  being  still  visible  in  a 
solution  containing  1  pt.  of  copper  in  400,000  pts.  of  liquid 
(Lassaigne),  and  in  1,000,000  pts.  (Sarzeau). 

Dissolves  in  ammonic  hydrate,  and  forms  on  evaporation, 
which  produces  a  most  delicate  test.  Thus,  if  a  solution  con- 
taining copper  and  iron  be  treated  with  anunonic  hydrate  in 
excess,  a  few  drops  of  potassic  ferrocyanide  added,  the  liquid 
filtered,  and  filtrate  evaporated  in  a  small  porcelain  crucible 
or  capsule,  cupric  ferrocyanide  is  left  behind,  exhibiting  char- 
acteristic red  color  (Warrington  Chem.  Soc,  Qu.  J.  v.  137). 
Before  applying  the  test,  the  solution  should  be  acidulated 
with  acetic  acid.  If  strong  mineral  acids  present,  they  should 
be  neutralized  by  adding  excess  of  potassic  or  sodic  acetate. 

61.  Potassic  cyanide  produces  a  precipitate  of  cupeio 
OYANiDB  Cu(CN)2,  which  is  yellow-green. 

CuS04-h2KCN=Cu(CN)2  +  K2S04. 

* , ' 

Solvhle  in  excess.     Hydrochloric  acid  throws  down  from  this 

solution  cuprous  cyanide  soluble  in  excess  of  acid ;  hydrosul- 

phuric  acid  and  ammonic  sulphide  produces  no  precipitate 

with  this  solution. 

63.  Potassic  iodide  produces  a  yellow  precipitate  of  ctprio 
lODroE  with  separation  of  iodine. 

63.  Metallic  iron,  when  introduced  into  a  solution  of 
copper,  acidulated  with  a  few  drops  of  hydrochloric  acid,  be- 
comes coated  with  a  characteristic  film  of  metallic  copper  of 
coppery-red  color. 

CuS04  +  Fe=Cu  +  FeS04. 

If  the  solution  containing  copper  be  introduced  into  a  plat- 
inum dish  with  a  little  free  hydrochloric  acid  and  a  piece  of 
zinc  introduced,  the  platinum  becomes  rapidly  covered  with  a 
coating  of  copper. 

Pt-|-CuS04+Zn=ZnS04-hPt+Cu. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  35 

64.  Blowpipe. — If  a  dry  compound  of  copper  is  fused  with 
a  little  sodic  carbonate  and  potassic  cyanide  on  charcoal  in  the 
reducing  flame  of  the  blowpipe,  there  is  produced  a  globule 
of  METALLIC  COPPER.  No  incrustatiou  is  formed.  If  the  ftised 
mass  is  triturated  with  water  in  a  mortar,  the  charcoal  particles 
are  washed  ofl^,  leaving  shining  scales  of  metallic  copper  per- 
fectly visible  when  only  a  minute  quantity  of  the  compound 
is  used. 

65.  Borax  and  sodio  phosphate  readily  dissolve  cupric 
oxide  in  the  outer  flame.  Beads  are  green  while  hot,  and  blue 
when  cold.  Any  compound  of  copper  imparts  to  borax  bead 
fused  on  platinum  wire  in  the  outer  flame,  a  green  color  while 
hot,  and  hlite  when  cold.  If  this  bead  is  detached  and  heated, 
on  charcoal,  with  a  little  metallic  tin,  the  bead  becomes  red 
and  opaque^  and  colorless  when  only  a  minute  quantity  of 
copper  is  present. 

In  the  inner  flame  the  borax  bead  is  made  colorless,  that 
produced  with  sodic  phosphate  and  ammonia  turns  dark-green ; 
both  acquire  a  brownish-red  tint  upon  cooling. 

Characteristic  Eeactions,  58,  60,  63,  64,  65. 

CADMIUM. 

Symbol,  Cd.  (Greek,  Cadmia — Calomine). — Atomic  weight,  112. — Equiva- 
lence, II. —  Density,  56. — Molecular  weight,  112. — Molecular  volume,  2. — 
Discovered  in  1817  by  Hermann  and  also  by  Stromeyer. — Specific  gravity, 
8.604.— Becomes  brittle  at  82"  C— -Boiling  point,  1580"  F.— Fusing  point, 
442''  F.— Calculated  Sp.  Gr.  of  vapor,  3369 ;  observed  specific  gravity,  3.94 
—Atomic  volume,  12.96.— Electric  conductivity,  at  82**  F.,  23.72.— Order  of 
ductility  commencing  with  gold,  eleventh. — Color,  grayiah-wbite. 

CADMIUM   OXIDES. 

Cadmium  forms  two  oxides,  viz. :  CdjO  and  CdO. 

Cadmous  oxide  CdgO,  or  suboxide.  This  oxide  may  be  ob- 
tained by  heating  the  oxalate  to  about  the  melting-point  of 
lead.  ,^j^     ^^^j^ 

2C2Cd04+  A<J=Cd20  +  C0  +  3C02. 

It  is  a  green  powder  resembling  chromic  oxide,  and  is  re- 


36  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

solved  by  heat  or  by  adds  into  metallic  cadmium  and  cadmio 
oxide.  It  does  not  yield  metallic  cadmium  with  mercury, 
hence  it  appears  to  be  a  definite  compound  and  not  merely  a 
mixture  of  the  metal  with  cadmic  oxide. 

Cadmio  oxide,  CdO,  or  protoxide,  may  be  obtained  by  heat- 
ing metallic  cadmium  in  the  air,  when  it  takes  fire  and  is 
converted  into  cadmic  oxide.  Formed  also  by  igniting  the 
hydrate,  carbonate,  or  nitrate.  Sp.  Gr.  6.9502.  Insoluble  in 
water. 

METALLIC  CADMIUM. 

66.  Hydbochlobio  acid,  when  hot,  converts  the  metal  into 

CADMIC  CHLORIDE  (CdCl2),  liberating  at  the  same  time  hydrogen 

gas.  .**-, 

Cd  +  2HCl=CdCl2  +  2H. 

67.  Sulphuric  Acro,  when  dilute,  converts  the  metal  into 
CADMIC  SULPHATE  and  liberating  hydrogen  gas. 

Cd  + H2S04=CdS04  + 2H. 

68.  Nitric  acid  is  the  best  solvent  for  the  metal,  convert- 
ing it  into  CADMIC  NITRATE  (Cd2N03)  and  liberating  at  the 
same  time  nitrogen  dioxide. 

3Cd  +  8HN03=3Cd(N03)2+N^+4H20. 

69.  Heated  on  charcoal,  it  fuses  and  deposits  a  reddish- 
brown  incrustation  of  cadmic  oxide. 

CADMIUM   SALTS. 
Most  of  the  cadmium  salts  are  colorless ;  they  have  a  dis- 
agreeable metallic  taste,  and  act  as  emetics.     The  solutions, 
even  of  the  neutral  salts,  redden  litirms-paper.     The  salts  are 
decomposed  by  heat. 

Solution  heat  fitted  for  the  i^eactions  : 

Cadmic  Nttrate  (Cd2N03). 

70.  Hydrosulphuric  acid  produces  in  a  solution  of  cadmic 
nitrate  a  bright-yellow  precipitate  of  cadmic  sulphide  (CdS). 

Cd2N03  +  H2S=CdS  +  2HN03. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  37 

The  solution,  if  acid,  must  be  largely  diluted,  as  the  precipi- 
tate CdS  is  soluble  in  concentrated  hydrochloric  acid;  not  sol- 
uble in  very  dilute  hydrochloric,  sulphuric,  or  nitric  acid,  but 
soluble  in  boiling  hydrochloric  and  sulphuric  acids ;  not  soluble 
in  alkalies  or  amnionic  sulphide.  Cadmic  sulphide  is  the  only 
yelUrw  sulphide  not  soluble  in  ammonic  sulphide. 

71.  AaoioNio  SULPHIDE  produccs  the  same  precipitate  as 
hydrosulphuric  acid. 

Cd2N03-fNH4HS=CdS-hHN03+NH4Nd3. 

73.  PoTAssio  HYDRATE  produccs  a  precipitate  of  cadmic 
HTDBATE,  which  is  whitc ;  insoluble  in  excess  of  precipitant. 

Cd2N03  +  2KH0=Cd2H0  +  2KN03. 

73.  Ammonio  hydrate  produces  a  white  precipitate  of  oad- 

MIO  HYDRATE,  Solublo  in  CXCCSS. 

Cd2N03  +  2NH4H0=Cd2H0+2NH4N03. 

74.  Ammonic  carbonate  produces  a  white  precipitate  of 
CADMIC  CARBONATE,  insolublo  iu  oxcess.  Dissolves  readily  in 
potassic  cyanide. 

Cd2N03+(NH4)2C03=CdC103  +  2NH4N03. 

, — , — » 

76.  SoDic  PHOSPHATE  precipitates  cadmic  orthophosphatb 

(Cd3P208).     A  white  powder. 

3Cd2N03-(-2Na2HP04=Cd3P208+4NaN03  +  2HN03. 

X ^ » 

76.  Ammonic  oxalate  produces  a  white  precipitate  when 
added  to  cadmic  chloride  of  cadmic  oxalate  (CdC204.3H20); 
soluble  in  ammonic  hydrate. 

CdCl2  +  C2(NH4)204  +  3H20  =  CdC204.3H20  +  2NH4Cl. 

• , ' 

77.  Potassic  ferrocyanide  produces  a  white  precipitate. 

2Cd2N03  +  K4Cfy=Cd2Cfy+4KN03. 

78.  Potassic  ferricyanide  produces  a  yellow  precipitate, 
soluble  in  hydrochloric  acid. 

3Cd2N03  +  K6Fe2C,2N,2=Cd3Fe2C,2N,2  +  6KN03. 


38  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

METALLIC   CADMIUM    PRECIPITATED. 

Zjnc  precipitates  metallic  cadmium  from  its  salts  (in  den* 

drites). 

Cd2N03+Zn=Cd+Zn2N03. 

79.  Blowpipe.  —  When  a  cadmium  compound  is  mixed 
with  sodic  carbouate  and  fused  on  charcoal  in  the  inner  flame 
of  the  blowpipe,  there  is  produced  a  reddish-brown  incrusta- 
tion, of  cadmic  oxide,  which  becomes  very  distinct  on  cooling; 
no  metal  is  produced. 

Chaeacteeistio  Reacjtions,  70,  79. 

BISMUTH. 

Symbol,  Bi.  (Gennan,  wismat).— Atomic  weight,  210. — Equivalence,  in 
and  v.— Specific  gravity  of  solid,  9,880.— Fusing  point,  507°  F.— -Atomic 
volume,  21.34— Specific  beat,  0.0808.— Electric  conductivity  at  82''  F.,  1.245. 
— Order  of  brittleness  commencing  witb  antimony  is  third. 

BISMUTH   OXIDES. 

Bismuth  forms  two  definite  oxides,  and  two  others. 

BisMUTHous  OXIDE,  BijOs,  or  trioxide. — Formed  when  bis- 
muthous  nitrate  is  gently  ignited.  It  is  a  pale-yellow  powder, 
which  melts  at  red-heat.    It  occurs  native  as  bismuth  ochre. 

BiSMUTHic  oxroE,  Bi^Os,  or  protoxide. — Prepared  by  passing 
chlorine  through  a  concentrated  solution  of  potassic  hydrate 
which  contains  bismuthous  hydrate  (BiHOj,  or  BigOg.HjO)  in 
suspension ;  a  blood-red  substance  then  separates,  which  is  a 
mixture  of  hydrated  bismuthic  acid  and  bismuthic  oxide. 
This  is  treated  with  dilute  nitric  acid,  which  dissolves  the 
oxide,  but  in  the  cold  does  not  attract  the  acid.  Bismuthic 
oxide  is  a  bright-red  powder.  **  Bismuthates  are  but  little 
known.  Hydropotassic  bismuthate,  Bi2KH05  =  BiK03  BiHOa, 
is  known." — Akppe. 

Bismuth  dioxide,  Bi202. — This  oxide  is  formed  when  a  solu- 
tion of  a  bismuth-salt  is  treated  with  stannous  chloride.  (A 
corresponding  sulphide  is  known.) 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  39 

BiSMUTHATE  OF  BISMUTH,  Bi204. — ^Wlien  bismutliic  oxide  is 
heated  to  100°  C.  it  becomes  converted  into  bismuthate  of  bis- 
muth (Bi203.Bi205=2Bi204). 

METALLIC   BISMUTH. 

80*  Heated  on  charcoal  it  fuses  and  deposits  a  deep- 
yellow  incrustation  of  bismuthous  oxide  (BijOa). 

81.  Hydbochlobic  Acm  does  not  act  upon  bismuth. 

83.  NiTRio  Acro  dissolves  it  rapidly,  converting  it  into 
bismuthous  nitrate  (BiSNOg). 

2Bi  +  8HN03=2Bi(N03)3  +  N^+4H20. 

If  water  is  added  to  the  solution,  a  white  basic  nitrate 
(Bi203.N205  +  H20=Bi2N208+H20)  is  precipitated. 

83.  Sulphuric  acid  dissolves  it  when  concentrated  and 
aided  by  heat,  forming  bismuthous  sulphate,  Bi2(S04)3,  and 
liberating  sulphurous  oxide.  Dilute  sulphubio  acid  does  not 
dissolve  bismuth. 


2Bi+6H2S04=Bi2(S04)3+2S02+6H20. 

BISMUTH   SALTS. 

The  salts  of  bismuthous  oxide  are  non-volatile,  with  the  ex- 
ception of  a  few  (bismuthous  chloride).  The  soluble  salts,  in 
the  neutral  state,  redden  litmus-paper,  and  are  decomposed 
when  treated  with  a  large  amount  of  water,  insoluble  basic 
salts  separating,  the  greater  portion  of  the  acid  and  a  small 
quantity  of  bismuth  remaining  in  solution. 

SoliUdon  best  fitted  for  the  reactions  : 

Bismuthous  Niibate,  Bi  (N03)3. 

84.  Htdbosulphukio  acid  produces  a  black  precipitate  of 
bismuthous  sulphide  (Bi^Sa). 

2Bi(N03)3  +  3H2S=Bl2S3  +  6HN03. 

■^        ,       ^ 

Insoluble  in  alkalies,  alkaline  sulphides,  and  potassic  cyanide. 
Nitric  acid  decomposes  and  dissolves  it  when  hot.     If  the 


40  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

solutions  to  be  precipitated  from  are  very  acid  from  the  pres- 
ence of  free  hydrochloric  or  nitric  acid,  they  must  be  first 
diluted. 

85.  Ammonio  sulphide  produces  the  same  precipitate  as 
hydrosulphuric  acid. 

86.  PoTASsio    HYDKATE  prccipitates  a  white  bismuthous 

HYDRATE  (BigOa-HgO). 

2Bi(N03)3  +  6KH0=Bi203.H20  +  6KN03  +  2H20. 

% , » 

Insoluble  in  excess,  but  soluble  in  dilute  acids. 

87.  Ammonic  HYDKATE  produces  the  same  precipitate  as 
potassic  hydrate. 

2Bi(N03)3  +  3NH^H0=Bl203.H20+3NH4N03  +  3HN03. 

' H ' 

88.  SoDio  CARBONATE  produccs  a  precipitate  of  basic  bis- 
muthous CARBONATE. 

2Bi(N03)3  +  3Na2C03  =  Bi203.C02  +  6NaN03  +  2CO2. 

' ^ ' 

The  precipitate  is  white ;  insoluble  in  excess  and  in  potassic 

cyanide. 

89.  Potassic  dichromate,  or  ghromate,  produces  a  yellow 
precipitate  ;  when  in  excess  it  has  the  composition  of  3Bi203. 
2Cr203.  If  this  be  treated  with  a  small  quantity  of  acid,  a 
yellow  salt  remains  undissolved,  consisting  of  Bi203.2Cr203 ; 
this  may  be  precipitated  when  bismuth  salt  is  in  excess. — 
(Lowe.)  This  last  precipitate,  according  to  Pearson,  consists 
of  Bl203.Cr203.     Compare  §  89  with  §  24. 

90.  Water,  when  added  to  solutions  of  bismuth,  precipi- 
tate WHrrE  BASIC  SALTS.  (Bi203.N205  + H20  =  2BiN04+ H2O) 
is  precipitated  from  the  nitrate;  from  the  chloride  a  basic 
chloride  (Bi2Clg.2Bi203  +  6H20)  is  precipitated 

"  This  reaction  is  very  characteristic,  and  distinguishes  bismuth  from  all 
other  metals,  except  antimony.  Bismuthons  chloride  exhibits  this  reaction 
in  the  most  striking  manner,  and  it  is  best  to  convert  the  bismuth  compound 
into  this  salt  by  adding  an  excess  of  hydrochloric  acid  and  evaporating  to 
dryness.  The  residue  is  dissolved  in  as  little  hydrochloric  acid  as  poseible, 
and  the  solution  poured  into  a  large  quantity  of  water. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  41 

"  Bismuthoos  sulphate  is  not  decomposed  by  hydrochloric  add.  When  a 
solution  is  to  be  tested,  therefore,  which  is  known  to  contain  sulphuric 
add,  it  is  best  to  precipitate  bismuthous  oxide  by  an  excess  of  ammonia, 
filter,  wash,  and  dissolve  in  hydrochloric  add,  and  then  proceed  as  above." 

— (TUTTLB  AND  CHANDLER.) 

A   FEW   MISCELLANEOUS   REACTIONS. 

Pybophosphoric  ach),  when  added  to  a  solution  of  bismuth- 
ous nitrate,  produces  a  precipitate  of  bismuthous  diphosphate 
(2Bi203.3P205=Bi4P,02,). 

4:Bi(N03)2  +  SH^PaOy = Bi^PgOj ,  +  12H  NO3. 

» . ' 

Phosphoric  aotd  produces  a  precipitate  of  bismuthous  phos- 
phate (orthophosphate)  when  nitric  acid  is  present. 

Bi(N03)3  +  H3P04  +  HN03=BiP04+4HN03. 

<■  y  / 

Oxalic  acid  precipitates  bismuthous  oxalate  ;  a  white  pre- 
cipitate (Bi3C60,2.15H20). 

3Bi(N03)3  +  3C2H204+15H20=C6Bi30,2.15H20  +  6HN03. 

•Tartaric  acid  added  to  hot  moderately  strong  bismuthous 
nitrate,  produces  a  white  precipitate  of  bismuthous  tartrate. 

METALLIC   BISMUTH    PRECIPITATED. 

Metallic  bismuth  is  precipitated  from  its  solutions  by  metal- 
lic iron,  copper,  lead,  and  tin,  viz. : 

2Bi(N03)3+3Pb=2Bi  +  3Pb2N03. 
2Bi(N03)3  +  3Cu=2BI  +  3Cu2N03. 

91.  Blowpipe. — When  solid  compounds  of  bismuth  are 
fused  with  sodic  carbonate  in  the  reducing  flame  of  the  blow- 
pipe, BRnTLE  metallic  GLOBULES  of  metal  are  produced,  as 
also'  an  incrustation  of*  bismuthous  oxide,  which  is  yellow. 

Characteristic  Keactions,  89,  90,  91, 


42 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


SCHEME  FOR  THE  SEPARATION  AND  DETECTION  OF  THE 
MEMBERS  OF  THE  FIRST  DIVISION  OF  GROUP  II. 

The  solution  to  be  examined  is  supposed  to  contain  a  salt 
of  mercuric  oxide,  copper,  cadmium,  lead,  and  bismuth. 

Add  hydrochloric  acid — ^no  precipitate.  Add  to  the  solu- 
tion hydrosulphuric  acid  (HjS) ;  there  is  produced  a  precipitate 
of  bismuthous  sulphide  (Bi2S3),  plumbic  sulphide,  (PbS),  cad- 
mic  sulphide  (CdS),  mercuric  sulphide  (HgS),  and  cupric  sul- 
phide (CuS). 

BijSg  +  PbS+HgS+CciS+CuS. 
' , ' 

Wash  completely  to  expel  the  chlorine  in  the  mixture;  add 

moderately  strong  nitric  acid  (free  from  hydrochloric),  and 

warm,  then  filter. 


RssrouB. 

Is  oompoaed  of 

HgS +  S.  "Black." 

* ^ ' 

Dissolve  in  a  little 
aqua-regia.  Add 
fitannous  chloride ; 
a  precipitate  is 
mercuric  chloride, 
HgtCl,.  Heat.  Me- 
tallic mercury  is 
fonned.    See  §48. 


Solution. 

The  solution  contains  the  Pb.  Cu,  Bl,  and  Cd.  Add 
dilate  sulphuric  add;  concentrate  solution  to  expel 
HNO,  ;  add  H,0  and  filter. 


Bendue, 

PbS04. 

' . — ' 

See  §21. 


SotfOion 

Contains  the  Cu,  Bi,  and  Cd.     Add  NH^HO 

and  filter. 

FUtraU  Blue 
Contains  the  Cu  and  Cd.   Divida 


Precipitate, 

Bi,0,.H,0. 
Wash,  dis- 
solve in  H  CI. 
Testas^OO. 


Jst  Part. 

Acidulate  with 
acetic  acid.  Add 
K^Cfy,  a  preci- 
pitate CugCfy. 
SeegeO. 


2d  Part. 

Add  KCN  to  de- 
stroy blue  color, 
then  H,S.  Pre- 
cipitate      CdS. 

See§70. 


SECOND   DIVISION  OF  GROUP  il. 
Metals,  the  sulphidefl  of  which  are  soluble  m  ammonio 

8ULPHIDE. 

Absenic,  antimony,  tin,  gold,  platinum. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  43 


ARSENIC. 

Symbol,  As.  (Greek,  araenican,  potent).— Atomic  weight,  75. — EqniTalenoe, 
ni  and  V. — Density,  150. — ^Molecular  weight,  800. — ^Molecular  volume,  2. — 
1  litre  of  arsenic  vapor  weighs  13.44  grams  (150  criths). — Specific  gravity, 
5.7  to  5.959  (Miller).— Atomic  volnme,  12.96.— Specific  heat,  0.0814.— Elec- 
tric conductivity  at  82*  P.,  476.— Vohitilizes  at  858°  F.— Order  of  brittleness 
commencing  with-  antimony,  second. — Color,  dark-gray ;  bright  only  when 
freshly  fractoied. 

ARSENIC  OXIDES. 

Arsenic  forms  two  well-defined  oxides,  viz.:  Arsenious 
oxide  AS2O3,  and  arsenic  oxide  AS2O5.  The  black  film  which 
forms  on  the  surfSsice  of  the  metal  is  supposed  to  be  a  sub- 
oxide, but  it  is  more  probably  a  mixture  of  metallic  arsenic 
with  arsenious  oxide. 

Absenious  oxtoe,  AS2O3,  in  the  hydrcUed  state  absenious 
ACID.  Occurs  native  in  the  mineral  arsenite  or  arsenolite. 
Formed  when  arsenic  is  volatilized  in  contact  with  free 
oxygen,  as  when  the  metal  is  heated  in  a  glass  tube  through 
which  a  current  of  air  is  passing. 

2AS+O3+  A<J=As203. 

It  is  a  white  solid.    Sp.  Gr.  3.7385  (Gtiibourt).    Volatilizes  at 
about  218°  C.     Insoluble  in  ether ;  nearly  so  in  alcohol. 

Absenio  oxide,  AS2O5,  in  the  hydrated  state  arsenic  acid. 
This  compound  is  formed  by  oxidizing  arsenious  oxide  or 
arsenious  acid  with  nitric  acid,  aqua-regia,  hypochlorous  acid, 
or  other  oxidizing  agents.  Dissolve  AS2O3  in  hot  HCl  and 
oxidize  by  adding  HNO3,  the  latter  being  added  as  long  as  red 
vapors  are  produced,  the  whole  then  cautiously  evaporated  to 
complete  dryness,  and  the  residue  heated  to  low  redness.  Ar- 
senic oxide  is  produced  as  a  white  anhydrous  mass  which  has 
no  action  on  litmus-paper.  Strongly-heated  arsenious  oxide 
and  free  oxygen  are  produced. 

As205-f  A<J=As203-f  20. 


44  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

METALLIC  ARSENIC. 

93.  Heated  on  chaecoal,  it  does  not  fiise,  but  gives  off 
fames  of  arsenious  oxide  (AS2O3),  a  portion  of  which  is  deposited 
as  a  white  incrustation.  A  peculiar  alliaceous  odob  is  emitted 
at  the  same  time. 

93.  Heated  in  a  tube  which  has  one  end  closed,  the 
arsenic  sublimes,  forming  a  hlack^  shining  metallic  itmo  on 
the  glass. 

94.  Hydrochloric  Acro  does  not  attack  metallic  arsenic. 

95.  Sulphuric  acid,  dilute,  does  not  attack  metallic  ar- 
senic, but  boiling  concentrated  acid  oxidizes  it  to  arsenious. 
oxide,  evolving  sulphurous  oxide. 

2As-f2H2S04=As203  +  2S02-f  H2O. 

96.  NriRic  ACID,  when  dilute,  converts  arsenic  by  the  aid 
of  heat  into  arsenious  acid. 


2As+2HN03=As203+N202  +  H20. 

Concentrated  nitric  acid  converts  the  metal  partially  inta 
arsenic  oxide  (AS2O5). 

6As -flOH  NO3 = 3AS2O5 +7^^+ 5H2O. 

Arsenious  acid  (2H3As03=3H20.As203). 

Solution  hest  fitted  for  the  reactions: 

Arsenious  Acid,  H3ASO3. 

97.  Htdrosulphurio  acid  produces  no  precipitate  with 
arsenious  acid,  but  imparts  to  the  solution  a  yellow  color. 
If  hydrochloric  add  be  added,  a  precipitate  of  arsenious  sul- 
phide (AS2S3)  is  produced,  which  is  soluble  in  ammonic  sul- 
phide, from  which  it  may  be  reprecipitated  by  acids. 

2H3As03+3H2S-fHCl=As2S3  +  6H20  +  HCl. 

' — • — ' 

Ammonic  carbonate  dissolves  arsenious  sulphide,  especially 
when  heated,  from  which  it  can  be  reprecipitated  by  means 
of  acids.  It  is  readily  dissolved  by  hot  nitric  acid ;  also  by 
hydrochloric  acid,  with  potassic  chlorate. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  46 

98.  Ammonio  sulphide  produces  no  precipitate;  simply 
imparts  to  the  solution  a  yellow  color.  If  hydrochloric  acid 
be  added,  a  yellow  precipitate  of  absbnious  sulphide  is  pro- 
duced, soluble  in  excess. 

2H3As03  +  3NH4HS+3HCl=As2S3  +  3NH4Cl+6H20. 

' — « — ' 

99.  Argentio  niirate  produces  no  precipitate  in  arsenious 
acid,  but  if  ammonic  hydrate  be  cautiously  added,  a  yellow 
precipitate  of  argentic  ARSENirE  is  produced,  which  dissolves 
'easily  in  excess  of  ammonic  hydrate  and  in  nitric  acid. 

2H3As03+4AgN03  +  2NH^H0=Ag^^205  +  2NH4N03+2HN03 

+  3H2O. 

"  In  makiTig  this  test,  add  the  argentic  nitrate,  and  then  (incline  the  test- 
tabe)  let  one  or  two  drops  of  ammonia  run  down  so  as  to  form  a  layer  on  the 
surface  of  the  liquid  to  be  tested.  Where  the  two  liquids  are  in  contact  a 
bright  yellow  ring  of  argentic  arsenite  (2AgaO.  As^Oa  =Ag4As,0g)  will  be  seen." 

— (TUTTLB  AND  CHAia>LER.) 

100.  CuPRio  SULPHATE  produccs  no  precipitate,  but  if 
-ammonic  hydrate  be  added,  as  in  §  94,  a  yellowish-green 
CUPRIO  arsenite  (Scheele's  green;  2CuO.As203=Cu2As205)  is 
precipitated. 

2H3As03  +  2CuS04+2NH4H0=Cu2As205  +  (NH4)2S04+H2S04 

+  3H2O. 

101.  Reinsoh's  Test. — If  a  solution  of  arsenious  acid, 
mixed  with  hydrochloric  acid,  be  heated  with  a  clean  strip  of 
METALLIC  COPPER,  an  irou-graj  film  or  incrustation  is  de- 
posited on  the  copper  even  in  highly  diluted  solutions,  which 
is  METALLIC  ARSENIC ;  this  film  may  be  detached  in  black  scales 
by  long  boiling.  The  thickness  of  the  film  depends  on  the 
concentration  of  the  solution  and  the  amount  of  arsenious 
acid  present.  The  film  may  be  separated  from  the  copper  by 
boiling  the  strips  in  ammonic  hydrate,  when  minute  spangles 
separate.  If  the  film  separated  by  boiling  water  be  dried, 
and  introduced  into  a  tube  closed  at  one  end,  on  the  applica- 


46 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


tion  of  heat  the  arsenic  is  caused  to  Bublime  as  a  Bhining  ring^ 
jf  much  is  present,  or  as  a  whit«  ciystalline  ring  of  araenious 
oxide,  if  the  quaotitj  is  small. 

103.  Metallic  Zinc. — If  arsenious  acid  is  introduced  into 
a  flask  in  which  hydrogen  gas  is  being  evolved  from  pure  zine 
and  dilute  sulphuric  acid,  the  zinc  oxidizes  not  only  at  the  ex- 
pense of  the  oxygen  of  the  water,  but  also  at  the  expense  of 
that  of  the  arsenious  acid,  and  the  arsenic  separates  accordingly 
in  the  metallic  state ;  but  a  portion  of  the  metal  combines  in 
the  moment  of  its  separation  with  the  liberated  hydrogen  of 
the  water,  forming  htdeooen  aesknide  or  absine  (H3AS), 
This  reaction  affords  a  means  for  the  detection  of  even  tho 
most  minute  quantities  of  areeoic. 

103.  Maesh's  Test. — This  experiment  is  best  conducted 
in  the  apparatus  here  figured.     Into  the  flask  (a)  containing 


granulated  (pure)  zinc  and  distilled  water,  dilute  snlphurio 
acid  is  introduced.  Hydrogen  is  liberated,  which,  passing 
through  the  calcic  chloride  tube  (6),  where  it  is  dried,  escapes 
at  the  extremity  of  the  apparatus.  As  soon  as  the  air  is  com- 
pletely expelled  the  hydrogen  may  be  ignited. 

If  the  solution  containing  the  arsenic  be  now  poured  into 
the  flask,  hydrogen  arsenide  will  be  evolved,  and  the  flame 
changed  to  a  livid  Uue. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  47 

104.  1.  K  a  piece  of  cold  porcelain  (the  cover  of  a  porcelain 
crucible)  be  held  in  the  flame,  a  black  deposit  of  metallic 
arsenic  is  produced.  The  stain  disafpeabs  when  moistened 
with  calcic  hypochlorite  (Ca2C10). 

105.  2.  If  one  or  two  drops  of  strong  nitric  acid  be  poured 
on  an  arsenic  stain,  and  then  gently  evaporated,  it  is  converted 
into  arsenic  oxide.  By  adding  a  drop  of  argentic  nitrate,  and 
cautiously  neutralizing  with  ammonic  hydrate,  a  brick-red 
argentic  arseniate  (3Ag20.As205=AggAs208=2Ag3As04)  is  pro- 
duced. An  excess  of  ammonic  hydrate  dissolves  the  red  ar- 
seniate. 

106.  3.  If  tube  c,  dy  (which  should  be  of  hard  glass  and 
free  from  lead)  be  strongly  heated  between  the  points  c  and  dy 
the  hydrogen  arsenide  is  decomposed,  metallic  arsenic  being 
deposited  in  the  form  of  a  shininq  bi^ge  mibbob  on  the  cold 
part  of  the  tube. 

107.  4.  If  a  short  tube  be  adjusted,  by  means  of  a  caout- 
chouc connector,  to  the  extremity  of  the  tube  c,  dy  and  the  gas 
passed  into  a  solution  of  argentic  niteate,  a  black  pbecipi- 
TATE  of  metallic  silver  is  produced,  while  the  arsenic  passes 
into  solution.  On  neutralizing  the  filtered  liquid  (see  §  99) 
with  ammonia,  the  yellow  abgentio  absenite  is  precipitated. 

12AgN03  +  2AsH3  +  3H20=12Ag+As203  +  12HN03. 

108.  Fleetman's  Test. — If  a  solution  containing  arsenic 
be  mixed  with  a  large  excess  of  a  concentrate  solution  of 
potassic  hydrate,  and  boiled  with  granulated  zmc,  hydrogen 
arsenide  is  evolved.  A  piece  of  filter-paper  moistened  with  a 
solution  of  ABGENTIO  NiTBATE,  assumcs  a  pubplish-black  color 
if  exposed  to  this  gas.  This  experiment  may  be  conducted  in 
a  small  flask,  or  large  test-tube,  supplied  with  a  cork,  through 
which  passes  a  small  tube,  drawn  to  a  point. 

109.  Blowpipe. — Dry  compounds  of  arsenic,  when  heated 
with  sodic  carbonate  on  charcoal  in  the  inner  flame  of  the 
blowpipe,  emit  a  peculiar  gablig  odob.  This  odor  has  its 
origin  in  the  reduction  and  re-oxidation  of  the  arsenic ;  very 
minute  quantities  may  be  detected  in  that  way. 


48  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

110.  Heated  with  sodic  carbonate  and  a  little  potassic 
cyanide,  in  a  dry  tnbe  closed  at  one  end,  a  black  mirror  of 
METALLIC  AssENic  sublimes. 

Chaeactebistio  Eeactionb,  93,  93,  100,  101,  104, 
105,  106,  107,  109,  110. 

Aesenio  Acid,  H3ASO4. 
Solution  best  jitted  for  the  y^eactiona : 

Aesenio  Acid  H3As04.(3H20.As205=2H3As04). 

111.  Hydeosulphtjeic  acid  fails  to  produce  a  precipitate  in 
arsenic  acid,  but  if  the  acid  be  acidified  with  hydrochloric  acid 
and  the  solution  warmed  and  allowed  to  stand,  a  yellow  pre- 
cipitate of  aesenio  sulphide,  AsgSg,  is  produced,  which  is  sol- 
uble in  ammonic  sulphide.  It  is  ^re-precipitated  from  this 
solution  by  acids. 

2H3As04-f5H2S+HCl=As2S5-f8H20  +  HCl. 

* — . — ' 

112.  "  In  order  to  separate  arsenic  oxide  completely  by 
hydrosulphuric  acid,  it  is  necessary  first  to  reduce  it  to  arseni- 
ous  oxide  by  adding  a  little  sodic  avlphite  to  the  solution. 
The  excess  of  sulphurous  acid  is  then  to  be  removed  by  boiling 
the  liquid." — (Tuttle  and  Chandlee.) 

113.  Ammonic  sulphide  produces  aesenig  sulphide,  which 
is  held  in  solution  as  ammonic-arsenic  sulphide. 

2H3As04+6NH4HS=NH4HS.As2S5  +  5NH4H0  +  3H20. 

If  to  this  solution  an  acid  be  added,  the  double  sulphide  is 
decomposed  and  arsenic  sulphide  is  precipitated ;  this  precipi- 
tate separates  more  rapidly  than  in  the  case  of  hydrosulphuric 
acid  (§  111). 

2H3As04  +  5NH4HS+5HCl=As2S5-f-5NH4Cl  +  8H20. 

114.  Argentic  niteate  produces,  under  the  circumstances 
stated  in  §  105,  a  brick-red  precipitate  of  argentic  arseniate, 
easily  soluble  in  nitric  acid  and  in  ammonic  hydrate.  When 
free  nitric  acid  is  present,  therefore,  it  is  necessary  to  neutralize 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  49 

very  carefully  with  amnionic  hydrate.  As  argentic  arseniatb 
is  slightly  soluble  in  ammonic  nitrate  the  precipitate  is  not 
always  produced. 

2H3ASO4+ 6AgN03  +  3NH^H0=2Ag3As04+ NH4NO3 + 

SHNOa  +  SHa'a"'^ 

115.  Hydrochloric  acids  or  chlorides,  if  present,  should  be 
removed  by  precipitation  with  argentic  nitrate,  a  little  nitric 
acid  being  added  to  retain  the  arseniate  in  solution.  If  am- 
monic  hydrate  is  now  added  to  the  filtered  liquid,  the  brick- 
red  argentic  arsenite  (3Ag20.As205=2Ag3As04)  is  precipitated. 

116.  Cdpbic  sulphate,  under  the  same  circumstances  as  in 
§  95,  produces  a  greenish-blue  precipitate  of  cupric  arseniate 
(2Cu0.H20.As205=Cu2H2As208=2CuHAs04),  soluble  in  nitric 
acid  and  in  ammonic  hydrate. 

117.  Metallic  zinc  behaves  the  same  as  with  arsenious 
acid.    (See  §97,  98.) 

118.  Metallic  copper  (Reinsch's  test)  acts  as  with  arseni- 
ous acid,  except  that  much  more  hydrochloric  acid  is  to  be 
added  in  order  to  insure  reduction.     (See  §  96.) 

119.  Ammonio-magnesic  arseniate  [2MgO.(NH4)20,As205  4- 
I2H2O  =  Mg2(NH4)2As208  =  2Mg(NH4)As.04)  is  precipitated 
when  arsenic  acid  is  added  to  a  clear  mixture  of  (magnesic 
sulphate,  ammonic  chloride,  and  a  suflScient  quantity  of  am- 
monia). It  separates  from  concentrated  solutions  immediately, 
&om  dilute  solutions  after  some  time. 

2H3As04+2MgS04  4-NH4Cl  +  6NH4H0  =  2Mg(NH4)As04 
+  NH4Cl-f2(NH4)2S04  4-6H2a 

The  above  magnesia  mixture  may  be  prepared  by  dissolv- 
ing in  water  24.6  grams  of  crystallized  magnesic  sulphate  and 
33  grams  of  ammonic  chloride,  adding  some  ammonic  hydrate 
and  diluting  to  the  volume  of  a  litre. 

120.  Blowpipe. — (See  Arsenious  Acid,  §  109,  110.) 

4 


50  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

ANTIMONY. 

Symbol,  Sb.  (Arabic,  al4thruidem). — Atomic  weight,  122. — Equivalence^ 
in  and  v.— Density,  244  (?)— Molecular  weight,  488  (?)— Molecular  volume,  2. 
— 1  litre  of  antimony  vapor  weighs,  21.86  grams  (244  criths)  (?) — Sp.  Qr.  6.715. 
—Melts  at  450"  C— Atomic  volume,  18.16.— Specific  heat,  0.0508.— Fusing 
point,  1150"  F.— Electric  conductivity  at  82**  F.,  4.65.— Order  of  brittlenees, 
first. — Bluish-white  color. 

ANTIMONY  OXIDES. 

Antimony  unites  with  oxygen  to  form  three  definite  com- 
pounds, SbgOg ;  Sb204 ;  SbjOs. 

Antimonious  oxide,  Sb203,  occurs  as  a  natural  mineral  (Val- 
entinite,  white  antimony,  antimony-bloom,  weisspieseglanzez). 
It  may  be  prepared  by  burning  the  metal  in  the  air. 

2Sb+30  =  Sb203. 

Easiest  mode  of  obtaining  it  is  to  heat  antimonious  sulphide 
with  strong  hydrochloric  acid,  as  long  as  hydrosulphuric  acid 
goes  off,  and  pour  the  resulting  solution  of  antimonious  chlo- 
ride into  a  boiling  solution  of  sodic  carbonate.  A  crystalline 
powder  is  then  deposited  consisting  (according  to  Graham)  of 
antimonious  oxide. 


Sb2S3-h6HCl=2SbCl3-|-3H2S. 


2SbCl3  +  2Na2C03  =  Sb203  +  6NaCl + SCOa- 

*^       ,        ^ 

T 

Hegnaulty  however,  states  ("Cours  de  Chimie,"  iii.,  239) 
that  the  oxide  obtained  is  a  hydrate  containing  86203,  H2O,  or 
SbH02  (meta-antimonious  acid). 

Antimonious  oxide  dissolves  sparingly  in  water;  more 
freely  in  strong  hydrochloric  acid.  Dissolves  when  boiled 
with  AQUEOQS  TARTARIC  ACID,  and  vcry  easily  in  hydropotassic 
tartrate  (cream  of  tartar),  forming  antimonio-potassic-tartrate 
C4H4KSb07  (tartar  emetic).  It  is  quite  insoluble  in  nitric 
acid  of  ordinary  strength,  but  dissolves  in  cold  fuming  nitric 
acid,  forming  a  solution  which  deposits  pearly  scales  of  a 
nitrate  (N205.2Sb203  =  Sb4N20||).  It  dissolves  in  fuming 
sulphuric  acidj  the  solution  depositing  shining  scales  of  a 
sulphate  containing  3S03.Sb203  =  Sb2S30|2* 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  51 

Antimonic  oxn)E,  SbsOs ;  in  the  hydrated  state  antimonic 
acid.  This  compound  is  obtained  as  a  hydrate  by  treating 
antimony  with  nitric  acid,  or  with  aqua-regia  containing  an 
excess  of  nitric  acid ;  by  precipitating  a  solution  of  potassic 
antimonate  with  an  acid ;  by  decomposing  antimonic  chloride 
with  water.  The  hydrate  oxide  obtained  by  either  of  these 
methods  gives  off  its  water  at  a  heat  below  redness,  and  yields 
antimonic  oxide  as  a  yellowish  powder. 

The  hydrated  oxides  obtained  by  the  three  methods  given 
above  are  by  no  means  identical.  That  obtained  by  the  first 
and  second  methods  is  monobasic,  and,  according  to  BerzeliitSj 
contains  SbgOs-HgO,  or  SbH03;  according  to  Fremy^  86205. 
5H2O,  or  SbHgOs,  when  dried  at  mean  temperature;  but  the 
add  obtained  by  the  action  of  water  on  antimonic  chloride  is 
dibasic,  and  contains,  according  to  Fr&nvy^  Sb205.4H20.  The 
acids  are  antimonic  HSbOa ;  met-antimonic,  pyro-antimonic,  or 
di-antimonic,  H4Sb207 ;  ortho-antimonic,  H3Sb04. 

Antimonoso  -  ANTiMONio  OXTOE,  Sb204.  —  Somo  cousider 
this  oxide  as  (Sb203  +  Sb205=2Sb204)  a  compound  of  the 
antimonious  and  antimonic  oxides.  This  oxide  forms  salts 
with  the  alkalies  (often  called  antimonites),  which  may  be  ob- 
tained solid.  Potassic  antimonite,  K20.Sb204,  by  mixing  the 
solution  of  this  salt  with  hydrochloric  acid,  a  precipitate  of 
hydrated  antimonoso-antimonic  oxide,  H20.Sb204,is  produced. 
The  salt  K20.Sb204  may  be  regarded  as  (K20.Sb203)+(K2O. 
Sb205)or  KSbOa-KSbOg. 

METALLIC  ANTIMONY. 

131.  Heated  on  chaecoal  it  bums  brilliantly,  emitting 
copious  white  inodorous  vapors,  and  if  left  to  cool  before  it  is 
completely  burnt  away,  becomes  covered  with  a  white  net- 
work of  the  crystallized  antimonious  oxide.  The  white  fumes 
form  an  incrustation  on  the  charcoal. 

123.  Hydrochlobio  acto  does  not  attack  antimony  in  the 
solid  (compact)  state  even  on  boiling;  but  if  the  antimony  is  in 
a  fine  powder  it  is  dissolved  by  the  boiling  acid,  and  hydrogen 
gas  is  given  off. 


52  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

123.  Nitric  acid  rapidly  oxidizes  it,  forming  a  white 
powder,  which  diflFers  in  composition  according  as  the  acid 
used  is  dilute  or  concentrated. 

Moderately  dilute  acid,  the  product  consists  of  antimoni- 
ous  oxide  mixed  with  antimonic  oxide  (SbaOa.SbgOs). 

12Sb4-16HN03=3(Sb203.Sb205)-h8N202+8H20. 

DiLLTE  ACID  converts  it  ahnost  entirely  into  antimonious 
oxide. 

Concentrated  acid  converts  it  almost  entirely  into  anti- 
monic OXIDE.     The  acid  oxidizes  it,  but  does  not  dissolve  it. 

134.  NiTROHYDRocHLORTC  ACID  dissolves  the  metal  when 
hot,  forming  antimonious  chloride  (SbCls)  when  the  acid  is  not 
very  concentrated,  and  antimonic  chloride  (SbCls)  when  the 
acid  is  very  concentrated. 

2Sb-h2(3HCl  +  HN03)=2SbCl3+4H20  +  N^2- 

135.  Sulphuric  acid,  when  dilute,  does  not  attack  anti- 
mony ;  but  if  heated  concentrated  acid  be  employed,  the  metal 
is  converted  into  antimonious  sulphate  (Sb203.S03=Sb2S05) 
with  evohition  of  sulphurous  oxide. 


2Sb4-4H2S04  (conc.)+ A(y=Sb2S06-h3S02-h4H20. 

SALT  OF  ANTIMONIOUS  OXIDE. 

Most  of  the  salts  of  this  oxide  are  decomposed  upon  ignition. 
Tlie  soluble  neutral  salts  redden  litmus-paper.  When  heated 
with  a  large  amount  of  water,  they  are  decomposed  into  basic 
salts  and  acid  solutions.  Thus:  water  precipitates  from  a 
hydrochloric  acid  solution  of  antimonious  chloride  (SbCla), 
antimonious  oxychloride  (2SbCl3.5Sb203)  (powder  of  algaroth). 
This  precipitate  is  soluble  in  tartaric  acid,  therefore  it  is  not 
precipitated  in  the  presence  of  this  acid. 

Solution  hest  fitted  for  the  reactions: 

Antimonious  Chloride,  SbCls. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  53 

126.  Hydbosulphuric  Acm  produces  an  orange-red  precip- 
itate of  ANTiMONiouB  suLPHmE  (SbgSs)  whcn  added  to  an  acid 
eolation  of  antimonious  salts. 

2SbCl3  +  3H2S= SbaSa  -h  6HC1. 

From  alkaline  and  neutral  solutions  the  antimonious  sitl- 
pmDE  is  only  partially  precipitated. 

Antemonious  sulphide  dissolves  readily  in  potassic  hydrate 
and  ammonic  sulphide,  sparingly  soluble  in  amnionic  hydrate. 
Boiling  hydrochloric  acid  (concentrated)  dissolves  it  with 
evolution  of  hydrosulphuric  acid  gas.  Boiling  nitric  acid  dis- 
solves a  portion,  and  converts  the  rest  into  a  white  insoluble 
powder. 

137.  Aaoionic  sulphide  produces  an  orange-red  precipitate 
of  antimonious  sulphide. 

2SbCl3+3NH4HS=Sb2S3-h3HCl-h3NH4Cl. 

* — » — ' 

This  precipitate  is  soluble  in  excess,  especially  when  the 
precipitant  is  rich  in  sulphur. 

138.  Water,  when  added  in  large  quantities,  produces  a 
white  precipitate  of  antimonious  oxychloride  (2SbCl3.5Sb203) 
(according  to-Duflos  and  Bucholz),  which  is  soluble  in  tartaric 
acid,  whereby  it  is  distinguished  from  bismuth  (§  85).  The 
formation  of  this  precipitate  is  prevented  if  tartaric  acid  or 
much  free  hydrochloric  acid  is  added  before  the  addition  of 
the  water. 

139.  Potassio  hydrate  produces  a  white  precipitate  of 
antimonious  acid  (HSbOg  or  SbgOg-HgO),  which  is  soluble  in 
excess.  This  solution  precipitates  from  argentic  nitrate,  black, 
metallic  silver — the  antimonious  oxide  being  changed  into  anti- 
monic  oxide. 

This  precipitate  is  readily  distinguished  from  that  which  is 
produced  by  potassic  hydrate  alone,  in  silver  solutions,  by  its 
insolubility  in  ammonic  hydrate.  (See  §  9.)  The  presence  of 
tartaric  acid  prevents  the  precipitation. 

130.  A^QfONic  hydrate  produces  the  same  precipitate  as 
potassic  hydrate. 


54  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

131.  Ammonio  cabbonate  produces  a  precipitate  of  wliite 

HYDRATED   ANTIM0NI0U8   OXTOE   Or   ANTIMONIOU8   ACH),  HSb02. 

2SbCl3  +  3(NH4)2C03  +  H20=2HSb02  +  6NH4Cl+3C02. 

' — « — ' 

The  precipitate  is  partially  soluble  in  excess.  The  presence 
of  tartaric  acid  prevents  the  precipitation. 

133.  SoDic  OABBONATE  produccs  the  same  precipitate  as 
amnionic  carbonate,  viz. :  HSb02. — (Regnault.) 


2SbCl3  +  3Na2C03  4-H20=2SbH02  +  6NaCl+3C02. 

133.  Metallic  zmo  precipitates  antimony  from  its  solution 
in  the  form  of  a  black  powder.  If  free  acid  be  present,  aitti- 
MONious  HYDRIDE,  SbH3,  (Stibinc)  is  evolved.  This  experiment 
is  conducted  precisely  as  in  the  case  of  arsenic  (§  102). 

134.  1.  If  a  piece  of  cold  porcelain  is  held  in  the  flame,  a 
BLACK  DEPosrr  of  metallic  antimony  is  produced,  which  does 
not  dissolve  when  treated  with  calcic  hypochlorite  (Ca2C0). 

135.  If  one  or  two  drops  of  nitric  acid  be  poured  on  the 
antimony  stain,  and  gently  evaporated,  it  is  converted  into 
white  ANTiMONio  OXIDE.  Abgentio  ntirate  produces  no 
change.    (See  §  100.) 

136.  If  the  tube  c,  d,  be  strongly  heated,  a  metallic  ring  is 
deposited,  as  in  the  case  of  arsenic  (§  101). 

137.  If  ANTiMONious  HYDRIDE  bc  passcd  into  a  solution  of 
argentio  nttrate,  a  black  FRECipnATE  of  argentic  antimonide 
is  produced  (SbAg3). 

3AgN03  +  SbH3  =  SbAg3  +  3HN03, 

' — » — ' 

On  neutralizing  the  filtered  liquid  by  ammonic  hydrate,  no 
precipitate  is  produced.     (Comp.  Arbenu  ,  §  107.) 

To  detect  antimony  in  argentic  antimonide  it  should  be 
washed,  boiled  with  nitric  acid  (which  dissolves  only  the  anti- 
mony), and  filtered.  Ilydrosulphuric  acid  should  then  be 
added  to  the  filtrate,  and  on  boiling,  orange-red  antimonious 
t>ulphide  separates. 

138.  Metallic  zinc  boiled  with  a  solution  of  antimony,  to 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  55 

which  a  very  large  excess  of  potassio  hydrate  has  been 
added,  liberates  pure  hydrogen,  which  does  not  discolor  paper 
moistened  with  a  solution  of  argentic  nitrate.     (See  §  103.) 

139.  Auric  chloride,  when  added  to  a  solution  of  antimoni- 
ous  chloride  or  other  antimonious  salts,  forms  a  tellow  pre- 
cipitate of  metallic  gold,  autimonic  oxide  at  the  same  time 
being  precipitated  as  a  white  powder,  unless  the  solution  con- 
tains a  large  excess  of  hydrochloric  acid. 

4AuCl3  +  3Sb203  +  6H20=4Au  +  12HCl  +  3Sb205. 

The  reduction  is  slow  at  ordinary  temperatures,  but  is  acceler- 
ated by  heating.  In  a  solution  of  antimonious  acid  in  potassic 
hydrate,  auric  chloride  produces  a  black  precipitate  which 
forms  a  very  delicate  test  for  antimonious  oxide. 

140.  Metallic  copper  precipitates  antimony  from  its  solu- 
tions, in  the  form  of  a  bright  metallic  film,  which  may  be 
dissolved  off  by  a  solution  of  potassic  permanganate,  yielding  a 
solution  which  will  give  the  characteristic  red  precipitate  with 
hydrosulphuric  acid. — (Odling.) 

141.  Blowpipe. — Solid  compounds  of  antimony,  mixed 
with  sodic  carbonate  (and  potassic  cyanide),  and  fused  on 
charcoal  in  the  inner  flame,  yield  brittle  globules  of  metal- 
lic ANTIMONY,  forming  at  the  same  time  a  whiie  incrustation 
of  antimonious  oxide. 

Characteristio  Beactions,  123,  128,  129,  134,  135, 
136,  137. 

ANTIMONIC  OXIDE. 

Antimonic  oxide  (Sb203)  is  pale-yellow,  its  hydrates  or  acids 
(HjSbOs  ortho-antimonic  acid;  HSb03  dimeta-antimonic  acid; 
H4Sb207  diantimonic  acid)  are  white.  The  oxide  and  acids 
are  slightly  soluble  in  water,  and  almost  insoluble  in  nitric 
acid,  but  dissolves  pretty  readily  in  hot  concentrated  hydro- 
chloric acid,  forming  antimonic  chloride,  which  becomes  turbid 
on  addition  of  water. 

Sohition  lest  Jilted  for  the  reactions : 

Potassio  Antimoniate,  KgSbgOg. 


56  THE  CHEMISTS^  MANUAL. 

142.  Nrntto  acid  produces  a  white  precipitate  of  htdrated 

ANTIMONIC  ACID  (SbgOs-^HgO). 

143.  Htdbochlojeug  acid  precipitates  the  same  as  with 
nitric  acid  soluble  in  excess. 

144.  Hydbosulphubic  acid,  in  a  neutral  solution,  produces 
no  precipitate.  If  an  excess  of  hydrochloric  acid  is  present, 
an  orange-red  precipitate  of  antimonic  sulphide  (SbaSj)  is  pro- 
duced. 

K2Sb206  4-5H2S-h2HCl=Sb2S5-h2KCl4-6H20. 

^ — ^ — ' 

Antimonic  sulphide  is  soluble  in  ammonic  sulphide,  from 
which  it  may  be  precipitated  by  acids. 

145.  PoTAssio  hydrate  in  acid  solutions  precipitates  a 
white  hydrate  of  antimonic  acid  (Sb205.4:H20),  soluble  in 
excess. 

146.  Argentic  nitrate  produces  in  solutions  of  anti- 
monic OXIDE  to  which  an  excess  of  potassic  hydrate  has  been 
added,  a  black  precipitate  of  argentic  oxide,  which  is  readily 
soluble  in  ammonic  hydrate.  This  reaction  distinguishes 
antimonic  oxide  from  the  salts  of  antimonious  oxide.  (See 
§  129.) 

147.  Antimonic  oxide,  when  boiled  with  hydrochloric  acid 
and  potassic  iodide,  liberates  iodine,  which  dissolves  in  the 
hydriodic  acid  present,  giving  a  brown  color  to  the  solution. 

148.  Potassic  metantimonla^te  (K2H2Sb207.6H20)  is  a  sol- 
uble salt,  whilst  sodic  metantimoniate  (Na2H2Sb207.6H20)  is 
insoluble.  This  difference  in  the  two  salts  make  the  potassic 
metantimoniate  valuable  as  a  test  for  sodic  salts. 

149.  Metallic  zinc  acts  as  with  antimonious  salts  (§  137). 

150.  Blowpipe. — See  Antimonious  Salts.    (See  §  141.) 

TIN. 

Symbol,  Sn. — Atomic  weight,  118. — Equivalence,  II  and  FV.— Molecular 
weijfht,  236.— BriUiant  white  metal.— Specific  gravity,  7.292.— Melts  at 
280'  C— Atomic  volume,  16.20.— Specific  heat,  0.0562.— Fusing  point, 
442°  F.— Electric  conductivity  at  32^  F.,  12.86.— Order  of  malleability  com- 
mencing with  gold,  fourth ;  of  ductility,  seventh ;  heat-conducting  power, 
seventh. — ^Tenacity,  68  (iron  as  1000). 


THE  CHEMISTS*  MANUAL.  57 

TIN   OXIDES. 
Tin  unites  with  oxygen  to  form  three  oxides,  SnO ;  80203 ; 

SnOj. 

Stannous  oxide,  SnO,  or  protoxide,  may  be  prepared  by 
heating  stannous  oxalate  out  of  contact  with  the  air  (Liebig). 
By  precipitating  stannous  chloride  with  sodic  carbonate,  and 
heating  the  washed  and  dried  precipitate  of  stannous  hydrate 
in  an  atmosphere  of  hydrogen  or  carbonic  oxide  to  a  tempera- 
ture not  exceeding  80°  C,  the  anhydrous  oxide  is  thus  obtained 
as  a  brown  or  black  powder  (Berzelius).  According  to  Otto, 
the  hydrate  sometimes  changes  to  the  black  oxide  on  the  filter, 
or  the  sides  of  the  precipitating  vessel,  whence  it  is  touched 
with  a  glass  rod.  Stannous  oxide  is  a  black  powder  of  specific 
gravity  6.666  (Berzelius).  Permanent  in  the  air  at  ordinary 
temperatures,  but  easily  oxidized  to  stannic  oxide  when  heated. 
Stannous  hydrate,  Sn2H203=2SnO.H20. 

Tin  sesquioxide,  Sn203. — This  oxide  was  obtained  by  Fuchs 
in  combination  with  water,  by  diffusing  recently-precipitated 
ferric  oxide  in  a  solution  of  stannous  chloride  not  containing  an 
excess  of  acid,  and  afterward  boiling  the  mixture.  Sesquioxide 
of  tin  is  then  precipitated. 

2SnCl2  +  Fe203=Sn203  +  2FeCl2. 

* — » — ' 

Thus  obtained  is  a  slimy  gray  matter ;  ammonic  hydrate  dis- 
solves it  readily  (not  so  stannous  oxide).  This  oxide  produces 
a  purple  precipitate  with  auric  chloride  (not  so  stannic  oxide). 

Stannic  oxide,  Sn02,  or  dioxide,  occurs  native  in  tinstone  or 
cassiterite.  May  be  prepared  by  burning  metallic  tin  in  con- 
tact with  the  air.  May  also  be  prepared  by  igniting  either  of 
the  other  oxides  or  their  hydrates  in  contact  with  the  air.  It 
is  a  white  or  yellowish  powder,  assuming  when  heated  a  darker 
color.     Specific  gravity,  6,6  to  6.9. 

Stannic  acid,  Sn02.H20=H2Sn03. 
Metastannic  acid,  Sn50,o-5H20=H,QSn50,5. 

The  first  acid  is  capable  of  exchanging  the  whole  of  its 


58  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

hydrogen  for  a  metal,  and  forming  stannates,  whereas  the 
latter  exchanges  only  one-fifth  of  its  hydrogen  metals  forming 
metastannates. 

METALLIC  TIN. 
151.  Heated  on  charcoal,  in  the  onter  flame  of  the  blow- 
pipe, it  is  converted  into  stannic  oxide  (Sn02) ;  in  the  inner 
flame  it  remains  unchanged. 

Sn  +  0=Sn02. 

153.  Hydrochloric  acid,  when  dilute  and  cold,  dissolves 
tin  but  slowly;  when  hot  and  concentrated  it  is  easily  dis- 
solved, forming  stannous  chloride,  and  liberating  at  the 
same  time  hydrogen. 

Sn  +  2HCl=SnCl2  +  2H. 

The  presence  of  much  stannous  chloride  in  the  solution  re- 
tards the  action  of  the  hydrochloric  acid  to  some  extent. 

153.  NrpRic  ACID  when  concentrated  (Sp.  Gr.  1.5)  does  not 
act  on  tin,  the  metal  even  preserving  its  metallic  brilliancy ; 
but  if  the  acid  be  diluted  it  attacks  the  metal  very  violently, 
converting  it,  when  heated,  entirely  into  metastannic  acid= 

Sn5H,oO,5  =  Sn50,o.5H20  +  5Sn02.5H20. 

According  to  Weber^  nitric  acid  of  Sp.  Gr.  1.2  converts  tin 
at  ordinary  temperatures  into  stannous  nitrate,  stannic  acid, 
and  metastannic  acid,  which  is  colored  yellow  by  admixed 
stannous  metastannate. 

With  nitric  acid  Sp.  Gr.  1.2  it  converts  tin  into  (if  the  liquid 
is  well  cooled)  metastannic  acid  [stannic  ?]  and  stannic  nitrate ; 
by  dilution  and  heating  the  stannic  acid  is  converted  into  in- 
soluhJe  metastannic  acid,  which  indeed  is  always  produced 
under  influence  of  heat.  When  this  product  is  heated  to  red- 
ness it  is  converted  into  stannic  oxide. 

154.  Sulphuric  acid,  when  dilute,  dissolves  tin  slowly 
(with  the  aid  of  heat),  and  converts  it  into  stannous  sulphate, 
SnS04,  and  liberates  hydrogen  at  the  same  time. 

Sn4-H2S04  =  SnS04-fiH. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  59 

When  the  acid  is  concentrated  and  hot  (with  plenty  of  tin) 
it  is  dissolved,  and  converted  into  stannic  sulphate,  and 
liberating  suLPHtnEtous  oxide  at  the  same  time. 

Sn +4:H2S04= Sn(S04)2  +  isOa + ^HaO. 

STANNOUS  SALTS. 

The  stannous  salts  are  colorless  and  are  readily  decomposed 
by  heat.  The  soluble  salts  in  the  neutral  state  redden  litmus- 
paper.  The  stannous  salts,  when  exposed  to  the  air,  rapidly 
absorb  oxygen,  and  are  converted  into  salts  of  stannic  oxide. 
The  crystallized  stannous  chloride  only  dissolves  to  a  clear 
liquid  in  water  acidulated  with  hydrochloric  acid. 

Solution  best  fitted  for  the  reactioTia : 

Stannous  Chloride,  SnCl2. 

155.  Htdbosulphubio  acid  produces,  when  added  to  stan- 
nous chloride,  a  brown  precipitate  of  stannous  sulphide  (SnS). 

SnCl2  +  H2S=SnS-|-2HCL 

The  precipitate  is  dissolved  by  ammonic  sulphide  (in  excess), 
which  first  converts  it  into  stannic  sulphide,  from  which  solu- 
tion it  may  be  precipitated  by  acids.  Nitric  acid  converts  it 
into  insoluble  metastannic  acid.  In  alkaline  solution,  the  tin 
is  only  partially  precipitated  by  hydrosulphuric  acid. 

156*  Ammonio  sulphide  produces  the  same  precipitate  as 
hydrosulphuric  acid,  soluble  in  excess  if  the  ammonic  sulphide 
contains  an  excess  of  sulphur  (known  by  its  bright-yellow 
color). 

157.  PoTAssio  HYDRATE  prccipitatcs  stannous  hydrate 
(2SnO.H20)  as  a  white  compound  which  is  soluble  in  excess. 

2SnCl2+4KHO=2SnO.H204-4KCl4-H20. 

, , ' 

158.  Ammonic  hydrate  produces  the  same  precipitate  as 
potassic  hydrate  (2SnO.H20-f-Sn2H203). 

2SnCl2  +  2NH4HO  +  H20=2SnO.H20  +  2HN4Cl  +  2HCl. 

▼ 

The  precipitate  is  insoluble  in  excess  of  ammonic  hydrate. 


60  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

159.  SoDio  CARBONATE  produces  the  same  precipitate  a& 
amnionic  hydrate. 

2SnCl2  +  2Na2C03  +  H20=2SnO.H20+4NaCl4-C02. 

* « ' 

160.  Mercuric  chloride  produces  a  white  precipitate  of 
mercurous  chloride. 

2HgCl2  +  SnCl2=  Hg2Cl2  +  onCl4. 

When  much  stannous  chloride  is  present,  the  precipitate  is 
reduced  to  metal. 

Hg2Cl2  +  SnCl2=  Hg2  +  SnCl4. 

This  is  a  very  delicate  reaction  for  salts  of  stannous  oxide^ 
(See  §  42.) 

161.  Potassic  ferricyanide  and  ferric  chloride,  when 
added  to  a  solution  of  stannous  chloride  in  hydrochloric  acid, 
produces  a  precipitate  of  prussian  blue,  owing  to  the  reductioa 
of  the  ferricyanide  to  ferrocyanide. 

Ke(FeCeNe)2  +  FejCl^  =  ^e^i^eC^^^)^  +  6KC1. 
[  KgCfy2-hFe2Cl6  +  Fe2Cfy2  +  6KCl. 

•2Fe2(FeCeNe)2  +  2SnCl2  +  4HCl=Fe4(FeCcNc)3  +  2SnCl4-hH^. 

(FeC,Ne>  '  ' 

2Fe2Cfy2  +  2SnCl2 + 4HC1=  Fe^Cfyg  +  2SnCl4  +  H^Cfy. 

^ — , — ' 

The  reaction  is  extremely  delicate,  but  it  can  be  held  to  be 
decisive  only  in  cases  where  no  other  reducing  agent  is  present. 

163.  Metallic  zinc  produces  a  gray  precipitate  of  ten  (Sn)^ 
soluble  in  hydrochloric  acid  after  the  removal  of  the  zinc. 

163.  Blowpipe. — If  solid  compounds  of  tin  be  fused  on 
charcoal  with  sodic  carbonate  (and  potassic  cyanide)  in  the 
reducing  or  inner  flame,  metallic  globules  of  tin,  which  are 
white  and  malleable,  are  produced. 

Characteristic  Reactions,  153,  160,  163. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAU  61 

STANNIC  SALTS. 

The  salts  of  stannic  oxide  are  colorless;  they  are  decom- 
posed at  red  heat.  Anhydrous  stannic  chloride  is  a  volatile 
liquid,  strongly  Aiming  in  the  air.  The  soluble  salts  of  stan- 
nic oxide  in  the  neutral  state  redden  litmus-paper. 

Solution  best  fitted  for  the  reactions  : 

Stannic  Chloride,  SnCl4. 

164.  Htdbosulphurio  acid  produces  in  neutral  or  acid 
solutions  a  yellow  PBECiprrATB  of  stannic  sulphids  (SnS2). 

SnCl4+2H2S=SnS2+4HCl. 

\    ^    * 

The  precipitate  dissolves  readily  in  potassic  hydrate,  am- 
monic  sulphide,  concentrated  hydrochloric  acid,  and  aquar 
regia.  Soluble  with  difficulty  in  ammonic  hydrate,  and 
insoluble  in  ammonic  carbonate  and  dilute  acids.  If  the  pre- 
cipitate  contains  arsenic  sulphide,  ammonic  carbonate  will 
dissolve  it.  Boiling  nitric  acid  converts  it  into  insoluble 
stannic  oxide,  but  is  dissolved  by  hot  hydrochloric  acid  to 
which  a  little  nitric  acid  has  been  added. 

165.  Ammonic  sulphide  produces  the  same  precipitate  as 
lydrosulphuric  acid,  soluble  in  excess,  reprecipitated  by  acids 
unaltered. 

SnCl4+2NH4HS=SnS2  +  2NH4Cl+2HCl. 

166.  Potassic  hydrate  and  sodio  hydrate  produce  a 
white  precipitate  of  stannic  acid  (Sn02.H20=SnH203)  if  acid 
be  present,  soluble  in  excess  of  potassic  or  sodic  hydrate. 

SnCl4+4KH0  +  HCl=Sn02.H20+4KCl+H20+HCl. 

' . ' 

SnCl4+4NaH0  +  HCl=Sn02.H20+4KCl+HCl  +  H20. 

> , ' 

167.  Ammonic  and  sodio  carbonate  produce  a  white  pre- 
cipitate of  an  ACID  8TANNATE. 


62  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

168.  Babic  or  calcic  cabsonate  produces  a  precipitate  of 
STANNIC  ACID  (SnHjOa),  soluble  in  excess. 

SnCl4+2BaC03  +  H20=SnH203+2BaCl2  +  C0^. 

SnCl4+2CaC03  +  H20=Sn02.H20  +  2CaCl2  +  C0^. 

» » ' 

169.  SoDio  SULPHATE  produccs  a  white  precipitate  of  stan- 
nic acid  hydrate,  insoluble  in  excess. 

SnCl4  +  4Na2S04+4H20  =  Sn02.2H20+4NaCI+4(NaHS04). 

170.  Blowpipe. — Same  as  §  163. 

PLATINUM. 

Symbol,  R.— Atomic  weight,  197.— Atomic  volume,  9.12. — Specific  heat^ 
0.0324.— Specific  gravity,  2.15.— Equivalence,  II  and  IV.— Electric  conduc- 
tivity at  69.2°  F.,  10.68. — Order  of  malleability  commencing  with  gold,, 
sixth  ;  of  ductility,  third ;  of  heat-conducting  power,  second. — Tenacity,  494. 
— Color,  white. 

PLATINUM   OXIDES. 

Platinum  forms  two  oxides,  Pt"0  and  Pt'^02,  both  of  which 
are  salifiable  bases.  According  to  E.  Davy,  there  is  also  an 
oxide  of  intermediate  composition. 

Platinous  oxtoe,  PtO,  is  obtained  as  hydrate  (PtO.H20or 
PtH202)  by  digesting  platinous  chloride  in  a  warm  solution  of 
potassic  hydrate,  and  washing  the  precipitate  formed. 

PtCl»+2KH0+  A<J=PtO.H50+2KCl. 


2' 


Part  of  the  hydrate  remains  dissolved  in  the  alkali,  and  may 
be  precipitated  by  neutralizing  the  liquid  with  sulphuric  acid. 
According  to  Berzelius,  it  may  be  converted  by  a  gentle  heat 
into  anhydrous  platinous  oxide  (Pt02). 

Dissolves  slowly  in  acids  forming  unstable  salts.  Boiling 
hydrochloric  acid  resolves  it  into  platinic  chloride  and  metal- 
lic platinum.  When  recently  precipitated,  it  dissolves  in 
potassic  hydrate  or  sodic  hydrate,  forming  PLATiNrrEs,  which 
are  formed  when  metallic  platinum  is  treated  with  caustic 
alkalies. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  63 

Platinio  Oxide,  Pt02. — Dobereiner  mixes  platinic  chloride 
with  an  excess  of  sodic  carbonate,  evaporates  to  dryness,  heats 
the  mixture  gently,  and  dissolves  out  the  chloride  and  excess 
of  sodic  carbonate  with  water.  There  then  remains  a  sodic 
platinate  containing  Na2O.3RO2.6H2O,  from  which  nitric  acid 
removes  the  soda  without  dissolving  the  platinic  oxide.  When 
platinic  hydrate  (Pt02.2H20)  is  gently  heated,  it  is  converted 
into  anhydrous  Pt02,  which  is  a  black  powder.  Platinic  oxide 
unites  with  strong  bases,  forming  salts  called  platinates 

PLATINUM  SALTS. 

The  platinic  salts  are  decomposed  at  a  rea  heat.  The  solu- 
tions redden  litmus-paper.  Platinic  chloride,  if  heated,  is 
resolved  into  platinous  chloride,  then  into  metallic  platinum. 
The  color  of  most  of  the  salts,  yeUow;  platinic  chloride,  a 
reddish-brown ;  solution,  reddish-yellow. 

METALLIC   PLATINUM. 

171.  Heated  on  charcoal,  it  does  not  fuse,  nor  does  its 
suriace  become  tarnished. 

172.  Hydeochlorio  Acm  has  no  effect  on  platinum  when 
pure. 

173.  ^N'riRio  ACH)  has  no  effect  on  platinum. 

174.  NrrRo-HYDRocHLORio  Acm  dissolves  the  metal  slowly, 
forming  a  reddish-yellow  solution  of  platinic  chloride  (PtCl4). 

3Pt+4(3HCl+HN03)=3PtCl4+2N^2  +  8H20. 

175.  Sulphuric  acid  has  no  effect  on  metallic  platinum. 

176.  Silver  alloyed  with  platinum,  the  alloy  becomes  sol- 
uble m  nitric  acid. 

PLATINUM    SALTS. 
Solution  heat  fitted  for  the  reactions : 

Platinic  Chloride,  PtC^. 

177.  Hydrosulphuric  acid  produces  a  brownish-black  pre- 


64  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

cipitate  of  Platinio  sulphide  (PtSg),  slowly  when  cool,  rapidly 
when  hot.  PtCl4+2H2S=PtS2+4HCl. 

The  precipitate  is  soluble  with  difficulty  in  amnionic  sul- 
phide ;  insoluble  in  dilute  acids,  but  soluble  to  some  extent  in 
concentrated  nitric  acid,  and  completely  dissolved  by  nitro- 
hydrochloric  acid. 

178.  Ammonic  sulphide  precipitates  platinic  sulphide  (PtS2), 
soluble  in  excess. 

PtCU+4NH4HS=PtS2+2NH4Cl+2HCL 

Acids  reprecipitate  the  sulphide  unaltered. 

179.  Ammonio  CHLORmE  produces  a  yellow  crystalline  pre- 
cipitate of  ammonic  chloro-platinate  [(NH4Cl)2PtCl4=(NH4)2 
PtClg],  slightly  soluble  in  water,  insoluble  in  alcohol. 

PtCl4+2NH4Cl=(NH4)2PtCl5. 

^  _  > 

If  the  solution  be  very  dilute,  the  precipitate  does  not  ap- 
pear for  some  hours. 

Ignite  the  precipitate,  and  metallic  platinum  is  left  in  a 
spongy  state. 

180.  Stannous  chloride  produces  a  deep  brown-red  color 
(if  acid  be  present),  due  to  the  formation  of  platinous  chloride 

(PtCl2). 

If  the  platinum  solution  be  very  dilute,  the  color  is  yellow, 
becoming  darker  on  standing. 

Very  minute  quantities  of  platinum  may  be  detected  by  this 
test. 

181.  PoTASsic  ioDn)E  first  colors  platinum  solutions  deep- 
red  ;  then,  on  standing,  or  on  the  application  of  heat,  a  brown 
precipitate  of  platinic  iodide  separates. 

PtCU  +  4KI  =  Ptl4-f-4KCl. 

183.  Metallic  copper  or  zinc  (or  formic  acid  on  heating) 
precipitates  platinim  as  a  black  powder  (Pt),  soluble  in  aqua- 
regia,  but  insoluble  in  either  hydrochloric,  nitric,  or  sulphuric 
acid.  It  is  not  removed  from  the  copper  by  heat.  (See  §  33,  90.) 

CHARA(-rKKisTi('  Reac-hons,  170, 172, 173, 175,  176,  182. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


65 


GOLD. 

STmbol,  Au. — Atomic  weight,  197. — Equivalence,  I  and  in. —  Specific 
gravity,  19.28.— Orange-yellow  metal. —Fuses  at  1102"  C.  (2015.6''  F).— Atomic 
volume,  10.04.— Specific  heat,  0.0548.— Electric  conductivity  at  32*'  F.,  77.96. 
— Order  of  malleability,  first ;  ductility,  first ;  heat-conducting  power,  first. — 
Tenacity,  278  (iron,  as  1000.) 


GOLD  OXIDES. 

Gold  forms  two  well-defined  oxides,  AU2O,  AU2O3,  and  one 
of  uncertain  composition  (AuO  ?). 

AuEous  OXIDE,  AugO,  is  obtained  when  aurous  chloride  is 
decomposed  bj  a  cold  potassic  hydrate  solution. 

2AuCl+2KH0=Au20  +  2KCl=H20. 

' — I — ' 

Aurous  oxide  is  obtained  as  a  green  powder,  partly  dis- 
solved by  the  precipitant,  and  soon  begins  to  decompose,  being 
resolved  into  auric  oxide  and  metallic  gold,  which  is  deposited 
on  the  sides  of  the  vessel  as  a  slim  film,  appearing  green  by 
transmitted  light,  like  gold-leaf.  Potassic  hydrate  produces 
no  precipitate  from  auric  chloride  unless  some  organic  matter 
is  present ;  if  tannic  acid  is  added,  the  precipitate  (deep-black) 
is  aurous  oxide  (AU2O). 

AuRio  oxTOE,  AU2O3,  may  be  produced  by  adding  potassic 
hydrate  to  auric  chloride,  then  acetic  acid,  then  boiling  the 
mixture ;  the  precipitate,  when  dried,  is  auric  oxide  (AU2O3). 


AuCl3  +  6KHO=K303Au  +  3KCl  +  3H20. 

K2O3AU  +  3C2H402= H3O3AU  +  3KC2H3O2. 

' — » — ' 

2H,0oAu-f-  A(5=Auo03-f-3HoO. 


The  oxide  may  also  be  prepared  by  digesting  zinc  oxide  in 
auric  chloride,  and  decomposing  the  resulting  zinc  compound 
with  nitric  acid. — (Pelletieb.) 

It  is  a  brown-black  powder ;  when  exposed  to  sun-light  it  is 
very  quickly  reduced. 

5 


66  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

Intermediate  oxide,  AuO? — When  stannous  chloride  and 
organic  substances  act  on  solutions  of  gold,  this  oxide  (AuO) 
seems  to  be  produced.  Auric  chloride  stains  the  skin  purple, 
probably  in  consequence  of  the  formation  of  this  oxide. 

METALLIC  GOLD. 

183.  Heated  on  Chabcoal,  it  fuses  with  some  diflBculty, 
its  surface  remains  bright,  and  no  incrustation  is  produced. 

184.  Hydrochloeic  acid,  when  pure,  does  not  act  on  gold. 

185.  Nitric  acid  does  not  act  on  gold. 

186.  NrrRO-HYDRocHLORic  ACID  dissolves  the  metal  slowly 
when  cold,  more  rapidly  when  aided  by  heat,  producing  auric 
chloride,  and  liberating  nitrogen  dioxide. 


2Au  +  2(HN03  +  3HCl)=2AuCl3+4H20  +  N202. 

"The  gold  of  commerce,  and  also  that  which  is  found  native,  con- 
tains more  or  less  silver  and  copper.  If  the  amount  of  silver  present 
be  small,  the  gold  is  readily  dissolved  in  aqua-regia,  while  the  silver 
remains  undissolved  as  chloride. 

"  If  the  proportion  of  silver  be  more  considerable,  the  gold  is  protected, 
and  its  solution  prevented,  by  the  argentic  chloride  formed. 

"  If  the  silver  amount  to  more  than  three-fourths  of  the  whole,  it  may 
be  entirely  extracted  by  nitric  acid,  leaving  the  gold  undissolved."— (TnT> 

TLB  AND  ChANDLEB). 

187.  SuLPHumc  Acm  does  not  attack  gold. 

GOLD   SALTS. 

The  oxygen  salts  are  few;  there  is  a  sodio-aueous  hypo- 
sulphite (sulpho-Bulphate),   Au^SgOa-S  Na2S2  03.4H2  0,  or 

{  N  °A^  I  04.2H20,or  Na3Au(S203)2.2H20 ;  the  solution  of  this 

3 

salt  is  used  for  fixing  daguerreotype  pictures.    There  is  a 

baryto-aurous  hyposulphite  (sulpho-sulphate)  j  ^    .     }  O4,  or 

Ba3Au(S203)2  ;  sulphuric  acid  removes  all  the  barium  from  thia 
last  salt,  and  forms  htdrated  aurous  hyposclphfte  (sulpho- 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  bV 

sulphate).  The  haloid  salts  of  gold  are  yellow,  and  their 
solutions  continue  to  exhibit  this  color  up  to  a  high  degree  of 
dilution.  The  whole  of  them  are  readily  decomposed  on  igni« 
tion.     Neutral  solution  of  auric  chloride  reddens  litmus-paper. 

Soltition  hest  fitted  for  the  reactiotis  : 

AuRio  Chloride,  AUCI3. 

188.  Hydrosulphubic  Acm  precipitates  from  dilute  neutral 
or  acid  solutions  in  the  cold  auric  sulphide  (AU2S3). 

2AUCI3  +  3H2S  =  AU2S3  +  6HCI. 

> — , — ' 

From  boiling  solutions  the  precipitate  is  aueous  sdlphide, 

Au2S. 

2AUCI3  +  3H2S  =  AU2S+6HCI+2S. 

AuBio  SULPHIDE  (AU2S3)  is  a  black  precipitate;  dissolves,  as 
also  does  aueous  sulphide,  in  yellow  ammonic  sulphide,  par- 
ticularly if  heated.  Acids  reprecipitate  it  from  this  solution. 
Auric  sulphide  and  aureus  sulphide  are  insoluble  in  hydro- 
chloric, nitric,  and  sulphuric  acid,  but  dissolves  in  nitrohydro- 
clJoric  acid. 

189.  AsoioNic  sulphide  produces  a  brownish-black  pre- 
cipitate of  AUBIO  SULPHIDE  (AU2S3),  solublc  in  excess  if  precipi- 
tant is  rich  in  sulphur. 

2AUCI3  +  3NH4HS  =  Au2S3  +  3NH4Cl-h3HCl. 

190.  Oxalic  acid  on  boiling  produces  even  in  slightly 
acid  solutions  a  precipitate  of  finely  divided  metallic  gold, 
appearing  first  as  a  purple  or  brown  powder,  which  ailerwards 
separates  in  the  form  of  flakes.  If  these  flakes  are  rubbed, 
they  assume  a  metalhc  appearance. 

2AuCl3-f  3H2C2O4  =  2Au-h6HCl-h6CO^. 

"  If  free  hydrochloric  or  nitric  acid  are  present  this  precipitate  does  not 
occur,  but  qaickly  makes  its  appearance  if  a  Uttle  amnionic  hydrate  be 
added  to  the  boiling  solation.  If  but  a  small  quantity  of  gold  is  present, 
the  liquid  simply  assumes  a  purple  color."— (Tuttle  akd  Chandler.) 


68  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

191.  Febbous  sulphate  produces  a  precipitate  of  metallic 
GOLD  from  its  solutions,  as  a  bluish-black  powder,  which  be- 
comes yellow  and  lustrous  when  rubbed.  (The  solution  must 
not  contain  an  excess  of  nitric  acid.) 

2AuCl3+6FeS04  =  2Au  +  Fe2Cle+2Fe23S04. 

193.  Antimonious  chloride  precipitates  metallic  gold 
from  acid  solutions  of  its  chloride,  by  means  of  acid  solution 
of  antimonious  chloride. — (Lovel.) 

3SbCl3-i-2AuCl3  =  3SbCl5  +  2Au. 

193.  Sulphurous  acid,  or  sulphurous  oxide  gaSj  when 
added  to  a  solution  of  gold,  precipitates  metallic  gold  com- 
pletely. 

2AuCl3-i-3H20  +  3H2S02  =  6HCl+3H2S04-f-2Au. 

194.  Reaction,  which  takes  place  during  the  process  of 
gilding.  ^^^ 

6AUCI3  -f-  3K2CO3  +  6Cu  =  6Au  +  6CUCI2  +  5KC1 + KCIO3  -i-3C02. 

195.  Stannous  chloride  and  stannic  chloride,  when 
mixed  together,  produce  in  very  dilute  solutions  of  gold  a 
purple  precipitate  known  as  "  purple  of  cassius." 

An  acid  solution  of  tin  sesquioxide,  80203,  produces  the 
same  precipitate ;  tliis  distinguishes  stannic  sesquioxide  from 
stannic  oxide  (SnO-i-SnOg  =  50303). 

Berzelius  found  that  when  "  purple  of  cassius  "  was  ignited 
there  remained  a  mixture  of  stannic  oxide  and  7net(dl!G  gold ; 
he  proposed  to  represent  it  as  a  compound  of  the  purple  gold 
dioxide,  AuO,  combined  with  stannic  sesquioxide,  80203 ; 
hence,  AuO. 80203.  A  glance  at  its  formula  shows  how  readily 
tlie  "  purple  of  cassius,"  as  thus  represented,  may  pass  into 
gold  and  stannic  oxide : 

Au0.8n203=Au-f2Sn02. 

"Purple  of  cassius"  is  considered  by  Figuier  to  consist  of 
a  hydrated  iK)rBLE  ktannate  of  gold  and  tin  (8n"Au205.4H20 
=Au20.Sn02.8nO.Sn02.4H20). 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  69 

**A  very  delicate  method  of  making  this  reaction  is  as  follows:  Ferric 
chloride  is  added  to  stannous  chloride,  until  a  permanent  yellow  color  is  pro- 
duced ;  the  solution  is  then  considerably  diluted.  The  gold  solution,  having 
been  likewise  very  much  diluted,  is  poured  into  a  beaker,  which  is  placed 
on  a  sheet  of  white  paper ;  a  glass  rod  is  dipped  into  the  tin-iron  solution, 
and  afterwards  into  the  gold  solution,  when,  if  even  a  trace  of  the  precious 
metal  is  present,  a  blue  or  purple  streak  will  be  observed  in  the  track  of  the 
glass  rod." — (Abel  and  Bloxam.) 

The  reaction  will  indicate  by  a  faint  coloring  1  pt.  of  gold  in 
64,000  pt8.  of  liquid. 

196.  PoTASSic  IODIDE  produces,  when  added  to  a  neutral 
solution  of  auric  chloride,  a  dark-green  precipitate  of  auric 

IODIDE,  Aulg. 

When  first  added  the  liquid  acquires  a  dark-green  color,  and 
yields  a  dark-green  precipitate  of  auric  iodide,  which  redis- 
solves  on  agitation ;  but  after  1  at.  of  the  auric  iodide  has 
been  added  to  4  at.  of  potassic  iodide,  a  further  addition  of 
the  gold  solution  decolorizes  the  liquid,  and  forms  a  permanent 
precipitate  of  auric  iodide,  because  the  auric  and  potassium 
iodide  at  first  produced  are  thereby  decomposed. 

AuCl3-f4KI  =  KI.Aul3. 

3(KI.Aul3)-FAuCl3=4Aul3-f3KCl. 

' — . — ' 

Characteristic  Eeactions,  183,  184,  185,  187,  188, 
189,  195. 

SCHEME  FOR  THE  SEPARATION  AND  DETECTION  OF  THE 
MEMBERS  OF  THE  SECOND  DIVISION  OF  GROUP  II. 

The  solution  to  be  examined  is  supposed  to  contain  a  salt 
of  arsenic,  antimony,  tin,  gold,  and  platinum. 

Add  hydrochloric  acid — ^no  precipiiate. 

Add  to  the  acidified  solution  hydrosulphuric  acid ;  there  is 
produced  a  precipitate  of 

AsaSx -h  SbgSx -f- SnSx + AU2S3 -I-  PtSg. 
*w-^ , ' 

Wash  the  precipitate  well,  then  add  hydrochloric  acid  and 
potassic  chlorate,  and  heat  gently  and  filter.  Eesidue  is  sul- 
phur. 


70 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


SOLUTION. 

AsClg  +  SbClg  4-  SnCl^ + AuClg  +  PtC^. 
Divide  the  solution  into  two  parts. 


FiBST  Pabt. 

Test  tliiB  portion  for  As,  Sb,  and 
Sn. 

Concentrate  the  solution ;  intro- 
duce some  of  it  into  a  flask  contain- 
ing zinc,  water,  and  dilute  sulphuric 
acid.  (§  133, 102.)  Then  pass  the 
gas  thus  generated  into  a  solution 
of  argentic  nitrate :  a  precipitate 
is  produced  consisting  of  silver 
and  argentic  antimonide.  Ag+ 
Ag.Sb.    Filter 


Second  Pabt. 

Test  this  portion  for  Au  and  Pt 
Divide  into  halves. 


FiLTBATB. 

Add  argentic 
nitrate,  neutral-  ' 


la  Half, 

Add  hydrochloric 
acid,  then  ferrous 
sulphate ;  boil  the 
mixture ;  there  is 
precipitated  metal- 
lic gold.  Filter, 
wash,  dry  the  pre- 
cipitate, and  fuse 
on  charcoal  with 
borax  to  a  globule, 
yellow.  (See  §11)1.) 


Sd  Half. 

Add  a  little  am- 
monic  chloride, 
evaporate  to  dry- 
ness over  a  water- 
bath,  and  treat  with 
alcohol.  An  or- 
ange -  red  residue 
(NH4Cl),.PtCl4  in- 
dicates platinum. 
(See  §  182.) 


ize  the  clear  solution  with  dilute  ammonic  hydrate ;  a  pre- 
cipitate of  argentic  arseuite  is  produced.  Yellow  Ag^As^ 
Og.    (See  §09,107.) 


Pbecifitatb. 

Wash  precipi- 
tate well,  intro- 
duce filter,  and 
precipitate  in  a 
test-tube;  add 
tartaric  acid,  and 

boil  for  a  few  minutes.  The  antimony  will  dissolve;  filter.  Residue, Ag. 
Filtrate  will  contain  the  antimony  ;  add  hydrosulphuric  acid,  and  boil,  when 
a  flocculent  orange-red  precipitate  will  be  produced :  antimonic  sulphide. 
(See  §  126.)  By  this  process  Hoffman  readily  detected  one  part  of  antimony 
in  the  presence  of  199  parts  of  arsenic. 

Detection  of  Tin. — The  tin  is  precipitated  in  the  flask  by 
the  zinc,  as  a  gray  metallic  powder.  It  is  necessary  to  detach 
the  tin  from  the  zinc,  etc.,  by  agitation ;  then  transfer  the  tin 
to  another  vessel ;  wash  it ;  then  boil  in  hydrochloric  acid ;  filter 
if  necessary.  Add  mercuric  chloride ;  tliere  is  produced  a  pre- 
cipitate of  mercurous  chloride.    (See  §  160.) 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


71 


SCHEME   FOR  THE   SEPARATION   AND   DETECTION   OF 

THE   MEMBERS  OF  GROUP   II. 

The  solution  to  be  examined  is  supposed  to  contain  meiv 
curie  oxide,  copper,  cadmium,  lead,  bismuth,  arsenic,  antimonjr, 
tin,  gold,  and  platinum. 

Add  hydrochloric  acid — no  PEEcn»rrATE. 

Add  hydrosulphuric  acid,  and  pass  the  gas  through  the  solu- 
tion ;  there  is  precipitated 

BiaSa-f-PbS+HgS-f-CdS+CuS+AsaSx-hSbjSx-f  AugSa  +  PtSa. 

^ , ' 

Filter,  and  wash  the  precipitate  well;  then  add  yellow 
AMMONio  SULPHIDE ;  Warm  gently  and  filter ;  wash. 


BEsmuE. 

Will  oontain  the  PbS,  CuS,  6!S,— 
HgS— CdS.  Wash  well  to  remove 
chlorine.  (Test  with  argentic  ni- 
trate.)  Boil  the  precipitate  with 
nitric  acid ;  filter  *   wash. 


Bendue, 
HgS+S. 


8oluti<m. 

Contains  the  Pb, 
Cu,   6i,   and    Cd. 
Treat    according 
to  scheme.  I 


SoLTrriON. 

Will  oontain  the  As,  Sb,  Sn,  Au,  and 
Ft.  Add  dilate  snlphnric  acid ;  there 
is  precipitated 

AsgS,  +Sb,S,  +SnS, + AugS,  +  PtSj+S. 
' , ' 

Filter  and  wash;  dissolve  in  hydro- 
chloric acid  and  potassic  chlorate. 

AsCl,  +  SbCl,  +  SnCl^  +  AuClj  +  PtCl4. 

Treat  according  to  scheme. 


GROUP    III. 

Metals  NOT  precipitated  by  hydrochloric  acid,  nor  from 
their  add  solutions  by  hydrosulphuric  acid,  but  precipi- 
tated BY  AMMONIC  SULPHIDE  : 

Aluminum,  chromic  oxide  salts,  zinc,  iron,  cobalt,  nickel, 


manganese. 


ALUMINUM. 


Symbol,  M.  (Latin,  alumen,  alum), — Atomic  weight,  27.4 — ^Equivalence 
(Ala)vi.— Specific  gravity,  2.5  to  2.67.— Specific  heat,  0.202.— Electric  con- 
ductivity at  67.2"  F.,  23.76.— Atomic  volume,  solid,  10.66.— Malleable  white 
metal. 

ALUMINUM   OXIDE. 

Aluminum  unites  with  oxygen  to  form  one  oxide,  AI2O3. 

Aluminic  oxide,  AI2O3,  may  be  prepared  by  burning  metal- 
lic aluminum  in  a  fine  state  of  division,  either  in  the  air  or  in 
oxygen. 

2Al  +  30  =  Al203. 

By  precipitating  a  boiling  solution  of  common  almn 
(Al3033S04+K2S04  =  Al2S30,5.K2S04),  free  from  iron,  with 
ammonic  carbonate,  washing  the  precipitate  well  with  water, 
and  igniting  it  to  expel  the  combined  water. — (Watts.) 

By  igniting  aluminic  sulphate  or  ammonia  alum.  In  the 
former  case  sulphuric  oxide  is  given  off;  in  the  latter,  that 
compound,  together  with  ammonic  sulphate;  an  aluminic 
oxide  remains. 


Al23S04-f  A(5  =  AI2O3  +  3SO3. 


Al2(NH4)24S04+  AcJ  =  Al203+(NH4)2S04  +  3S03. 


THE  CHEMISTS*  MANUAL.  73 

Artificially  prepared  aluminic  oxide  is  white,  Sp.  6r.  3.87 
and  3.90. 

Aluminic  monohydrate,  AI2O3.H2O  =  AI2H2O4. 
Aluminic  dihydrate,  AI2O3.2H2O  =  AI2H4.O5. 
Aluminic  trihydrate,  AI2O3.3H2O  =  Al2H50g. 
Al2Cl6-f-NagOeAl2  +  6H20  =  aAlgOa-SHaO-f-eNaCl. 

Aluminic  hydrate  (trihydrate,  AI2O3.3H2O  or  AI2H5O5)  forms 
compounds  called  aluminates;  the  hydrogen  can.be  replaced 
by  an  equivalent  quantity  of  various  metals. 

METALLIC  ALUMINUM. 

197.  Heated  on  chaecoal,  it  fuses,  and  becomes  tarnished 
on  the  surface,  owing  to  the  formation  of  aluminic  oxide 
(AI2O3). 

198*  Hydrochloric  ach),  either  dilute  or  concentrated, 
dissolves  it  readily,  even  at  low  temperatures,  forming  alu- 
minic chloride  (AljClg),  with  evolution  of  hydrogen. 

2Al  +  6HCl  =  Al2Clc-f-6H. 

199.  Nn'Rio  Acm,  either  dilute  or  concentrated,  does  not 
attack  aluminum,  at  ordinary  temperatures,  and  very  slowly 
even  at  tlie  boiling  heat. 

300.  Sulphuric  acid,  when  hot  and  dilute^  dissolves  it 
slowly,  evolving  hydrogen.  Neither  concentrated  or  dilute 
acid  attacks  aluminum  in  the  cold. 

201.  PoTAssic  hydrate  dissolves  it  readily ;  caused  by  the 
rapid  oxidation  of  the  metal,  evolving  hydrogen,  and  forming 
poTASSic  ALUMiNATE,  which  remains  in  sohition. 

AI2  +  6KHO  =  (K0)5Al2-f-6H. 
Al2  +  6NaHO  =  (NaO)5Al2-f  6H. 

ALUMINUM    SALTS. 

Some  of  the  aluminum  s&lts  are  soluble,  and  some  not ;  most 
of  them  are  colorless.  Aluminic  chloride  (AlgCl^)  is  a  yellow 
crystalline  volatile  solid. 


74  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

The  soluble  Baits  have  a  sweetish,  astringent  taste,  redden 
litmus-paper,  and  lose  their  acid  upon  ignition.  The  insoluble 
salts  are  dissolved  bj  hydrochloric  acid  with  the  exception  of 
certain  native  compounds. 

Solution  best  fitted  for  the  reactions  : 

Alum  [AI2.3SO44-K2SO4+I2H2O  =  Al2K2(S04)4.12H20]. 

202.  Ammonic  suLPHmE  produces  a  white  precipitate  of 
ALUMiNic  HYDRATE  (AI2O3.3H2O  or  AI2H5O5),  hydrosulphuric 
gas  being  evolved.  The  precipitate  is  insoluble  in  excess,  but 
soluble  in  hydrochloric  and  other  acids. 

Al2K2(S04)4  +  6NH4HSH-6H20=Al2Hg06+3(NH4)2S04+ 


K2SO4+6H2S. 

!303.  Ahmonio  hydrate  produces  a  white,  gelatinous  pre- 
cipitate of  ALUMENic  HYDRATE  (AljHgOg),  but  slightly  solublo 
in  excess.  Insoluble  if  ammonic  chloride  be  present,  but  solu- 
ble in  hydrochloric  and  other  acids. 

AI23SO4.K2SO4  +  6NH4HO  =  Al2Hg0^5  +  K2S04+3(NH4)2S04. 

* y ' 

"  In  yeiy  dilute  solutions  the  precipitate  c&n  hardly  be  distingmshed  by 
the  eye.  On  boiling,  or  shaking,  however,  it  becomes  visible,  being  fre- 
quently carried  to  the  surface  of  the  Uquid  by  entangled  air-bubbles." — 

(TUTTLE  AND  CHANDLEB.) 

204.  Ammonic  cabbonate  produces  a  white  precipitate  of 

ALUMINIC   HYDRATE  and    HYDROAMMONIC  CARBONATE  (Al2Hg0g  + 

NH4.H.CO3),  the  ammonic  salt  not  being  removed  by  washing. 
— (H.  KosE.)    (Pogg.  Ann.  xli.  462.) 

205.  SoDic  CARBONATE  produccs  a  white  precipitate,  which 
after  being  washed  and  dried,  then  triturated  with  water,  again 
washed  and  dried  over  sulphuric  acid,  consists  of  pure  aluminic 
hydrate  (AljHgOg). — (James  Barret,  Chem.  News,  i.  110.) 

206.  PoTAssic  hydrate  produces  the  same  precipitate  as 
ammonia,  soluble  in  excess,  and  formino  at  the  same  time 

POTASSIC   ALUMINATE. 

AI23SO4.K2SO4  +  6KHO  =  Al2Kg05  +  K2S04  +  3H2S04. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  75 

If  the  solution  now  containing  potassic  aluminate  be  mixed 
with  aluminic  chloride,  the  aluminum  from  both  compounds 
will  be  precipitated  as  aluminio  oxide  : 

AlaKgOfi+AlaClfi  =  2AI2O3  +  6KCL 

S  y  / 

The  aluminum  may  be  precipitated  as  aluminio  hydeate, 
by  first  acidulating  with  hydrochloric  acid,  and  then  adding 
ammonic  hydrate. 

Al2Kg0fiH-6HCl-f-NH4H0  =  AlaHgOc  +  eKCl  +  NH^HO. 

» , ' 

Sodic  silicate,  Na20.Si02,  precipitates  when  added  to  a  solu- 
tion of  potassic  aluminate,  aluminic   silicate  (Al2Si309  or 

AI2O3.3SIO2  ?). 

207.  SoDio  PHOSPHATE  (ortho),  whcu  added  to  a  solution 
of  alum,  produces  a  precipitate  which,  in  the  anhydrous  state, 
has  the  composition  (8A1203.9P205).^Ludwiq.) 

But  when  the  alum  solution  is  carefully  added  to  the  sodic 
phosphate,  a  precipitate  of  the  neutral  salt  (AI2O3.P2O5.6H2O 
or  Al^PO^.SHjO,  or  with  4  at.  or  4^  at.  of  H2O)  is  produced. 

2Na2HP04+Al23S04.K2S04+6H20  =  AI2O3.P2O5.6H2O 

+2Na2S04+  H2SO4+  K2SO4. 

The  precipitate  varies  in  composition,  according  to  the 
proportions  of  the  acting  solution,  the  temperature  at  which 
they  are  mixed,  and  the  extent  to  which  the  precipitate  is 
washed. 

The  precipitates  are  soluble  in  hydrochloric  acid  and  re- 
precipitated  by  ammonic  hydrate.  Precipitates  are  soluble  in 
excess  of  potassic  hydrate,  and  reprecipitated  by  an  excess  of 
acetic  acid,  in  which  they  are  nearly  insoluble.  By  this  be- 
ha\'ior  they  are  distinguished  from  aluminic  hydrate  (AI2H5O5). 

If  sodic  silicate  (Na20.Si02)  is  added  to  the  solution  of 
aluminic  phosphate  in  potassic  hydrate,  the  aluminum  is  pre- 
cipitated as  silicate  (AI2O3.3SIO2  ?),  while  the  phosphoric  acid 
remains  in  solution. 


76  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

208.  Blo^tipe. — K  any  of  the  compounds  of  aliuninnm  be 
heated  on  charcoal,  then  moistened  with  a  few  drops  of  co- 
baltic  nitrate  (C02NO3)  solution,  and  again  strongly  ignited, 
an  infused  mass  of  deep  sky-blue  color  is  produced,  which 
consists  of  a  compound  of  the  two  oxides. 

By  candle-light  it  appears  violet.  Maxij  fusible  compounds, 
free  from  aluininic  compounds^  assume  the  same  color. 

Characteristic  Keactions,  203,  206. 

CHROMIUM  . 

Symbol,  Cr.  (Greek,  crama,  color). — ^Atomic  weight,  52.12. — Equivalence, 
II,  IV,  VI.— Also  a  pseudo-triad  (Cra)^!.— Specific  gravity,  7.01.— Discovered 
by  Vauquelin  in  1797. — Atomic  volume,  7.00. 

CHROMIUM  OXIDES. 

Chromium  unites  with  oxygen  to  form  several  compounds : 
CrO  ;  CrgOa ;  CrOa  ;  CrgO^,  which  is  intermediate  between  CrO 
and  CrjOa  ;  and  several  oxides  intermediate  between  CfjOs 
and  CrOa- 

Chromous  OXIDE,  CrO. — This  compound  exists  in  some  speci- 
mens of  chromic  iron  and  in  pyrope.  It  is  precipitated  as 
HYDRATE  by  the  action  of  potassic  hydrate  on  a  solution  of 
chromous  chloride  (CrCl2).  Chromous  hydrate,  aCrO.HgO  or 
CraHgOs,  is  very  unstable,  decomposing  water  at  ordinary 
temperatures;  unless  protected  from  the  air  by  precipitating 
from  a  well-boiled  solution  of  potassic  hydrate,  it  is  converted 
as  soon  as  formed  into  chromoso-chromic  oxide,  with  evolution 
of  hydrogen.  Yellow  when  precipitated,  brown  when  dry. 
(Dry  in  atmosphere  of  hydrogen.)  When  ignited  it  gives  off 
hydrogen  forming  chromic  oxide  (CraOg). 

2CrO.H20+  A<5=Cr203  +  2H. 

The  anhydrous  chromous  oxide  (CrO)  has  not  as  yet  been 
obtained. 

Chromoso-ghromic  OXIDE,  CrgO^  or  CrO.CrgOs,  may  be  pre- 
pared by  precipitating  chromous  chloride  (CrCl2)  with  potassic 
hydrate,  without  excluding  the  air.     After  washing  in  water 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  77 

and  drying  in  the  air,  it  has  the  color  of  Spanish  tobacco.    It 
is  but  slightly  attacked  by  acids. 

Chbomic  oxide,  CrjOa- — This  oxide  exists  in  chrome-iron 
ore  and  in  chrom-ochre.  It  may  be  prepared  by  igniting  mer- 
curous  chromate  (Hg2Cr04),  or  ammonic  di-chromate  [(NH4)2 

4Hg2Cr04+Ac5=2Cr203+  8Hg+100. 
(NH4)2Cr207+  AcJ=Cr203  +  4H20  +  2N. 

By  passing  chlorochromic  anhydride  (Cr02Cl2)  through  a 
red-hot  porcelain  tube : 

4Cr02Cl2+  Ac5=2Cr203  +  8Cl+20. 

By  passing  chlorine  gas  over  ignited  potassic  di-chromate : 

K2Cr207-|-  AcJ-h2Cl=Cr203  +  2KCl+i0. 

Chromic  oxide  obtained  by  any  of  these  processes  has  a 
dark-green  color. 

Chromic  Hydbates. — When  chromic  chloride  (Cr2Cl5)  is 
boiled  with  an  excess  of  potassic  hydrate,  a  precipitate  of 
(Cr203.4H20  or  Cr2H807)  (Ordway)  is  produced. 

Cr2Cl6-|-6KH0-h4H20=Cr203.4H20  +  6KCl+3H20. 

> , ' 

By  treating  the  chloride  with  sufficient  potassic  hydrate  to 
redissolve  the  precipitate  first  formed,  and  neutralizing  the 
excess  of  alkali  with  hydrochloric  acid,  another  hydrate  is  ob- 
tained. A  third  hydrate  is  obtained  by  precipitating  a  solu- 
tion of  a  chromic  salt  with  excess  of  ammonic  hydrate.  The 
dried  precipitate  thus  obtained  is,  according  to  Schaffner, 
Cr203.6H20  or  H,2Cr209. 

Cr23S04  +  3NH4H0  +  6H20=Cr203.r)H20  +  3NH4HS04. 

, ^ f 

When  chromic  salts  are  treated  with  an  excess  of  sodic 
hydrate,  and  heated,  a  gelatinous  hydrate  (CraOg-SHgO  or 
H  ioCr208)  of  fine  green  color  is  precipitated. 

Cr23S04-|-6NaH0-h5H20+  Atf=Cr203.5H20  +  3Na2S04 

+  3H2O. 


78  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

The  same  hydrate  is  obtained  by  pouring  a  chromic  salt  of 
eitlier  modification  into  excess  of  the  boiling  alkali  solution. 

When  a  solution  of  violet  chrom-alum  [K2Cr2(S04)4.12H20] 
is  poured  into  an  excess  of  ammonic  hydrate,  and  heated  not 
above  60°  C,  a  grayish-green  pulverulent  precipitate  is  formed 
having  the  composition  (CrjOg-THgO  or  Hj^CrjOio)  (Lefort). 
Dissolves  in  acids  with  violet  color. 

K2Cr2(S04)4+7H20  +  3NH4H0+Ad=Cr2H,4O,o+3NH4HS04 

+  K2SO4.  " 

If  the  ammoniacal  solution  is  left  to  evaporate  in  the  air  or 
over  oil  of  vitriol,  a  hydrate  (CraOg-OHjO  or  HigCrjOia)  is 
obtained.  When  dry,  it  forms  a  grayish-violet,  very  light 
powder;  when  dissolved  in  acids,  it  yields  red  salts. — (Le- 

FORT.) 

Emerald-oseen  of  Panetier  is  obtained  by  melting  in  a 
cnicible  a  mixture  of  equivalent  quantities  of  boric-anhydride 
and  hydropotassic  chromate,  and  treating  the  fused  mass  with 
water,  when  mono-metachromic  hydrate  (Cr203.2H20=Cr2 
H4O5)  is  obtained.  By  washing  this  hydrate  and  triturating 
it,  a  brilliant  green  powder  is  obtained. — (Guignet.) 

Chromium  peroxide,  Cr203.Cr03=Cr305  or  2(Cr02).  The 
precipitate  formed  by  ammonic  hydrate,  when  added  to  chromic 
sulphate  mixed  with  hydropotassic  chromate  is  (2Cr02.H20) 
(Vogel).  The  black  substance  obtained  by  heating  chromic 
anhydride  (trioxide)  to  200°C.  is,  according  to  Traube,  normal 
chromic  chromate,  Cr203.3Cr03  or  Cr50,2.  The  precipitate 
formed  by  mixing  the  solution  of  chroin-alum  and  neutral 
potassic  chromate,  when  dried  at  100°  C.  is  (3Cr403.2Cr203. 
9H2O  =  CrjgOia.OHgO  =  Cr,5H,8024).  Chromic  hydrate  di- 
gested with  excess  of  chromic  acid,  yields  a  dark-browm  solu- 
tion, which  dries  up  to  a  residue  containing  according  to  Maus 
(Cr203.4Cr03  =  SCrgOs). 

Chromic  trioxtoe  (anhydride),  Cr03,  may  be  prepared  by 
pouring  1  vol.  of  potassic  di-chromate  in  a  thin  stream  into 
1^  vol.  of  sulphuric  acid,  stirring  all  the  while.     As  the  liquid 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  79 

cools,  chromic  trioxide  crystallizes  from  it  in  crimson  needles 
often  an  inch  long. 

Chbomic  trioxide  melts  at  190°  C,  and  begins  to  decom- 
pose at  250°  C. ;  gives  off  oxygen,  leaving  a  brown  oxide 

CHROMIC   CHROMATE,  which,  whcn  FURTHER   HEATED,  is  REDUCED 

to  CHROMIC  OXIDE.  Chromic  trioxide  is  a  powerful  oxidizing 
agent,  being  quickly  reduced  to  chromic  oxide  by  sulphydric 
acid,  zinc,  arsenious  acid,  tartaric  acid,  sugar,  alcohol,  and 
•various  other  organic  bodies,  especially  when  heated. 

2Cr03-h3H2S  =  Cr203  +  3H20  +  S3. 
2Cr03-hl2HCl  =  CraClg  +  GHaO-hClg. 

Sulphurous  acid  added  to  a  solution  of  a  chromate  throws 
down  a  brown  precipitate,  consisting  of  (Cr203.Cr03=Cr305= 
3Cr02),  which  is  chromium  peroxide. 

Perchromic  acid,  H2Cr20e,  or  (HCr04). — When  hydrogen 
peroxide  dissolved  in  water  is  mixed  with  a  solution  of  chromic 
acid,  the  liquid  assumes  a  deep  indigo-blue  color,  but  often 
loses  this  color  very  rapidly,  giving  off  oxygen  at  the  same 
time.  The  same  blue  color  is  obtained  by  adding  a  mixture 
of  aqueous  hydrogen  peroxide  and  sulphuric  or  hydrochloric 
acid  to  potassic  di-chromate,  but  in  a  very  short  time  oxygen 
is  evolved,  and  chrom-alum  is  left  in  solution.  For  each  atom 
of  potassic  di-chromate  4  at.  oxygen  are  evolved,  provided  an 
excess  of  hydrogen  peroxide  be  present.  We  may  therefore 
suppose  that  perchromic  Acro,  H2Cr208,  is  first  formed  by  the 
union  of  HO  (H2O2)  with  Cr03,  and  afterwards  resolved  into 
oxygen  and  chromic  hydrate. — (Barreswil.) 

H  2^208  =  H2Cr204  +  04. 

According  to  Storer,  the  coloring  power  of  perchromic  acid 
is  so  great,  that  when  a  solution  of  1  pt.  potassic  di-chromate 
in  30.000  to  40.000  pts.  water  is  shaken  up  with  ether  con- 
taining hydrogen  peroxide,  the  ether  acquires  a  perceptible 
blue  tint ;  he  therefore  recommends  this  reaction  as  a  vert 
delicate  test  for  chromic  acid.  Schonhein  applies  it  as  a 
test  for  hydrogen  peroxide. 


80  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

METALLIC   CHROMIUM. 

309.  Heated. — Wohlek's  cheomium,  when  heated  in  the 
air  to  redness,  acquires  yellow  and  blue  tarnish  like  steel,  and 
gradually  becomes  covered  with  a  film  of  green  oxide  j  but 
the  oxidation  is  by  no  means  complete. 

Peligot's  chromium  oxidizes  with  great  facility,  taking  fire 
in  the  air,  even  at  a  heat  below  redness,  and  being  converted 
into  green  chromic  oxide,  CrgOa- 

Deville  says  when  chromium  is  pure  it  is  even  less  fusible 
than  platinum. 

"  The  properties  of  chromium  differ  considerablj,  according  to  the  man- 
ner in  which  it  is  prepared,  the  pecnliarity  doubtless  depending  chiefly  on 
the  state  of  aggregation." 

210.  Hydrochloric  Acro  dissolves  Wohler's  chromium, 
forming  blue  chromous  chloride  (CrCla)  and  evolving  hydrogen. 

Cr+2HCl  =  CrCl2  +  2H. 

Peligoi's  chromium  also  dissolves  in  hydrochloric  acid. 
Fremy's  crystals  of  chromium  are  not  attacked  by  any  acid, 
not  even  by  nitromuriatic  acid. 

211.  NiFRic  ACID  does  not  attack  Wohler's  chromium 
when  either  dilute  or  concentrated. 

Peligot's  chromium  is  oxidized  by  nitric  acid, 

2Cr-h8HN03  =  Cr26N03  +  N^H-4H20. 

Fremy's  chromium  is  not  attacked. 

212.  Sulphuric  acid  when  dilute  and  heated  dissolves 
Wohler's  and  Peligot's  chromium,  forming  curomic  8Ulphate(?) 
(Cr23S04)  and  evolving  sulphurous  oxide. 

2Cr+6H2S04  =  Cr23S04  +  3S02-l-6H20. 

Fret^iy's  crystals  are  not  attacked. 

213.  NrrROMURiATic  acid  dissolves  Wohler's  and  Peligot's 
chromium,  but  does  not  even  attack  Fremy's  crystals  of 
chromium. 


THE  CHEMISTS*  MANUAL.  81 

CHROMIUM   SALTS. 

The  chromic  salts  exhibit  two  principal  modifications,  the 
green  and  the  violet.  Most  of  the  salts  dissolve  in  hydro- 
chloric acid  retaining  their  color,  but  if  heated,  a  green  color 
is  produced.  Many  of  the  salts  are  soluble  in  water,  which 
salts  redden  litmus-paper.  Chromic  salts  containing  a  volatile 
acid  are  decomposed  upon  ignition.  Chromous  salts  are  but 
little  known,  but  chbomous  CHLOfiroE  (CrCl2)  is  one  of  the 
most  powerful  deoxidizing  agents  known. 

Solution  heat  fitted  for  the  reactions : 

Chbom-Alum  or  Potassic  Chromic  Sulphate  [Cr203.3S03. 
K20.S03.12H20=Cr2K2(S04)4.12H20]. 

214.  Ammonic  sulphide  produces  a  white  precipitate  of 

HYDRATED  GHROMIO   OXIDE  (Cr203.9H20). 

Cr2K2(S04)4-h3NH4HS-hl2H20=Cr203.9H20+3NH4HS04+ 


KaSO^-hSHjS. 

The  precipitate  is  insoluble  in  excess,  but  soluble  in  acids. 

316.  Ammonic  hydrate  produces  in  solutions  of  the  green 
chrovxic  salts^  a  grayish-green  precipitate;  in  solutions  of 
the  violet  chromic  salts,  a  grayish-blue  precipitate,  both  of 
which  yield  green  solutions  with  sulphuric  or  hydrochloric 
acud.  The  liquid  above  the  precipitate  has  a  reddish  color, 
and  contains  a  smaU  quantity  of  chromic  add,  which  may  be 
precipitated  by  boiling  the  mixture.  The  precipitate  formed 
when  ammonic  hydrate  is  added  in  excess  is  (Cr203.6H20),  or 
H,2Cr209  when  dried. — (Schaffner.) 

Cr2K2(S04)4+3NH4H0-|-6H20=Cr203.6H20-f3NH4HS04-h 

K2SO4. 

Lefort  states  that  if  a  violet  solution  of  chrom-alum  be 
poured  into  excess  of  avinionic  hydrate,  and  heated  to  a  tem- 
perature not  exceeding   50°  C,  a  grayish-green  pulverulent 


82  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

precipitate  is  produced,  having  the  composition  (Cr203.7H20 
=  H7Cr05),  dissolving  in  acids  to  a  violet  color. 

Fbemy  states  that  when  amnionic  hydrate  is  added  to  a 
violet  chromic  salt,  there  is  a  precipitate  produced,  which, 
when  dried  in  vacuo,  has  the  composition  (CrgOa-OHjO). 

Cr2K2(S04)4+3NH4H0  +  9H20=Cr203.9H20  +  3NH4,HS04+ 

K2S04.^ 

It  dissolves  in  acetic  acid,  ammonic  hydrate,  and  dilute 
potash-ley.  Its  properties  are  liable  to  considerable  altera- 
tions ;  thus,  by  the  action  of  boiling  water,  or  by  prolonged 
contact  with  cold  water,  by  the  action  of  concentrated  saline 
solutions,  by  desiccation  for  several  days  in  the  air  or  in  vacuo, 
and  trituration,  it  is  rendered  insoluble  in  liquids  in  which  it 
was  previously  soluble.  Fremy  is  of  the  opinion  that  these  alter- 
ations result  from  an  aUotropie  7nodijication  of  the  chromic 
oxide,  and  not  from  loss  of  water.  He  applies  the  term  ghromio 
OXIDE  to  the  oxide  which  has  been  rendered  insoluble  in  acetic 
acid,  potassic  hydrate,  and  ammonia  in  the  manner  just  men- 
tioned, and  METACHROMic  oxroE  to  that  oxide  which  is  soluble 
in  these  reagents,  and  is  precipitated  by  ammonic  hydrate  from 
a  violet  chromic  salt. 

216.  Potassic  hydrate  produces  a  precipitate  of  htdrated 
CHROMIC  OXIDE,  which  is  soluble  in  excess,  but  reprecipitated 
by  boiling,  as  (Cr203.5H20=CrH504,  according  to  Lefort). 

Cr2K2(S04)4-f-6KH0-|-5H20=Cr203.5H20-h4K2S04-f-3H20. 

* , ' 

Cr2K2(S04)4+6NaH0+5H20=Cr203.5H20+3Na2S04+K2S04 

*  _  ^ 

+3H2O. 

According  to  Fr6my,  the  precipitate  is  (Cr203.9H20=2Cr 
H9O6). 
Cr2K2(S04)4+6KH0  +  9H20=Cr203.9H20+4K2S04+3H20. 

Cr2K2(S04)4+6NaH0+9H20=Cr203.9H20+3Na2S04+K2S04 

+3H2O. 


•THE  CHEMISTS*  MANUAL.  83 

If  the  green  solution  of  chromic  oxide  in  potassic  hydrate 
be  boiled  with  plumbic  oxide  (or  plumbic  orthoplumbate),  the 
chromic  oxide  is  converted  into  chromic  trioxide,  plumbic 
oxide  at  the  same  time  being  dissolved.  If  the  liquid  be  fil- 
tered and  then  acidulated  with  acetic  acid,  yellow  plumbic 
CHBOMATE  (PbCr04)  is  precipitated. 

**  When  the  chromic  oxide  is  mixed  with  mach  ferric  oxide,  it  is  noib  dis- 
solved by  excess  of  potassic  hydrate."-— (Tuttle  and  Chandler.) 

317.  Zmc,  immersed  in  a  solution  of  chrom-alum  or  chromic 
chloride,  excluded  from  the  air,  gradually  reduces  the  chi^omic 
salt  to  a  clivomous  salt,  the  liquid  after  a  few  hours  acquiring 
a  fine  blue  color,  and  hydrogen  being  evolved  by  decomposi- 
tion of  the  water.  If  the  zinc  be  left  in  the  solution  for  some 
time,  the  whole  of  the  metal  is  precipitated  in  the  form  of  a 
basic  chromous  salt,  and  its  place  taken  by  the  zinc. 

Tin  likewise,  at  a  boiling  heat,  reduces  the  chromic  salt  to  a 
chromous  salt,  but  only  to  a  limited  extent ;  and  on  leaving 
the  liquid  to  cool  after  the  action  has  ceased,  a  contrary  action 
takes  place,  the  chromous  chloride  decomposing  the  stannous 
chloride  previously  formed,  reducing  the  tin  to  the  metallic 
state,  and  being  itself  reconverted  into  chromic  chloride. 

Iron  does  not  reduce  chromic  salts  to  chromous,  but  simply 
precipitates  a  hasio  chromic  sulphate  or  an  oxychloride  as  the 
case  may  be. 

218.  Blowpipe. — If  any  compound  of  chromium  be  fused 
on  charcoal  or  on  a  platinum-foil  with  a  little  potassic  nitrate 
and  sodic  carbonate,  a  yellow  mass  of  potassic  chbomate  is 
obtained.  If  this  be  dissolved  in  a  little  water,  an  excess  of 
acetic  acid  and  a  few  drops  of  plumbic  acetate  added,  a  yel- 
low precipitate  of  plumbic  chbomate  ( PbCr04)  is  obtained. 

219.  Borax. — Compounds  of  chromium  are  dissolved  in 
borax,  both  in  the  oxidizing  and  reducing  flame,  to  clear  beads 
of  a  faint  yellowish-green  tint,  which,  upon  cooling,  changes 

to  EMERALD-OREEN. 

Characteristic  Keactions,  215,  216,  218,  219* 


84  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

ZINC. 

Symbol,  Zn. —  Atomic  weight,  65. — Equivalence,  IL — Density,  32.6. — 
Molecular  weight,  65. — ^Molecular  volume,  2. — ^Haid  and  brittle  at  ordinary 
temperatures  and  at  200"  C,  but  between  100"  C.  and  150**  C.  it  is  malleable 
and  ductile.— Melts  at  412**  C— Boils  at  1040'  C,  evolving  vapor  having  half 
the  nominal  density. — Atomic  volume,  13.76. — Specific  heat,  0.0935. — Specific 
gravity,  7.13.— Electric  conductivity  at  32"  F.,  is  29.02. 

ZINC    OXIDES. 

Only  one  well-defined  oxide  is  known — ^zinoio  oxide,  ZnO. 
Berzelius  regards  the  gray  film  which  forms  on  zinc  when  ex- 
posed  to  the  air  as  the  suboxide  (ZnjO).  Tliinard  also  states 
that  a  glutinous  peroxide  (Zn02)  is  produced  by  the  action  of 
hydric  peroxide  on  hydrated  zinc  oxide. 

Zmcio  OXIDE,  ZnO,  occurs  native  contaminated  with  man- 
ganese oxide  as  zincite^  and  comprised  with  ferric  and  man- 
ganic oxides  as  Franhlinite,  When  zinc  is  burnt  in  the  air, 
this  oxide  is  produced. 

Zn-|-0=ZnO. 

Ordinary  oxide  is  a  white  amorphous  powder.  Specific 
gravity,  5.6.  When  heated,  assumes  a  yellow  color,  but  be- 
comes white  again  on  cooling. 

ZINC   SALTS. 

Zincic  salts  are  colorless ;  part  of  them  are  soluble  in  water, 
and  the  rest  in  acids.  The  neutral  salts  which  are  soluble  in 
water  redden  litmus-paper,  and  are  readily  decomposed  by  heat, 
with  the  exception  of  zmcic  axtlphate^  which  can  bear  a  dull  red 
heat,  without  being  decomposed.  Zincic  chloride  is  volatile 
at  a  red  heat. 

METALLIC  ZINC. 

320.  Heated  on  charcoal,  it  fuses  and  burns  with  a 
white  flame,  forming  zincic  oxide  (ZnO),  some  of  which  is  de- 
posited as  an  incrustation,  yellow  while  hot,  and  white  when 

^'^l^-  Zn+0=ZnO. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  86 

221.  Hydeochlorio  acid  dissolves  zinc,  forming  zmcio 
OHLOBiDE  (ZnCl2),  with  evolutioD  of  hydrogen. 

Zn  +  2HCl=ZnCl2  +  2H. 

If  a  strip  of  platinum  or  copper  be  put  into  the  solution,  a 
galvanic  current  is  formed,  and  the  zinc  dissolves  very  rapidly. 

222.  Nitric  acid  dissolves  it  readily,  forming  zincic 
NITRATE  (ZnSNOa).  If  the  acid  be  concentrated,  nitrogen  di- 
oxide (N2O2)  is  given  off;  if  very  dilute,  nitrogen  monoxide 
(NjO)  is  given  off. 

Zn+4HN03=Zn2N03  +  N^2  +  2H20. 
4Zn  +  10HN03=4Zn(N03)2  +  N^-f5H20. 

223.  Sulphuric  acid,  when  diluted,  readily  dissolves  it, 
forming  zincic  sulphate  (ZnS04)  ^^^  liberating  hydrogen. 

Zn  +  H2S04=ZnS04+2H. 
Concentrated  acid  has  scarcely  any  action  in  the  cold. 

'*  All  acids  sol  able  in  water,  even  the  organic  acids  (if  not  too  diluted), 
dissolve  zinc.  Hydrogen,  is  liberated  in  every  case,  except  where  sulphurous 
acid  is  employed.  In  this  case  zincic  htfosulfhite  (ZnS, O4)  and  zimcic 
SULPHATE  (ZnSO^)  are  formed,  and  no  gas  liberated"— (Tvttle  and  Chan- 
dler.) 

224.  Potassic  hydrate,  sodic  hydrate,  and  even  ammonic 
HYDRATE,  whcH  boilcd  with  zinc,  dissolve  it,  forming  potassic 
ziNCATE  (K2Zn02),  SODIC  ziNCATE  (Na2Zn02),  and  AMMONIC  zinc- 
ate  [(NH4)2Zn02],  with  evolution  of  hydrogen. 

Zn  +  2KH0  =  K202Zn-fiH. 

Zn  +  2NaH0 = Na2Zn02  +iH. 

Zn-h2NH^H0  =  (NH4)202Zn  +  2H. 

225.  Many  metals — silver,  copper,  tin,  for  example — are 
precipitated  from  their  solutions  in  the  metallic  state  by  zinc, 
soluble  salts  of  zinc  being  formed  at  the  same  time.  (See 
Metallic  Silver  PRECiprrATE,  and  §  63-162.) 


S6  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

ZINCIC   SALTS. 
Solution  hest  fitted  for  the  r^eactions: 

ZiNcic  Sulphate  (ZnS04). 

326«  Hydbosulphukio  Acm  produces  no  precipitate  in  a 
mineral  acid  solution  not  too  dilute ;  but  on  neutral  solution 
it  precipitates  part  of  the  zinc.  From  acetic  acid  solutions  all 
of  the  zinc  may  be  precipitated  as  ZnS.HgO. 

227.  Ammonic  suLPHroE  produces  a  white  precipitate  of 

HYDBATED   ZINCIC   SULPHIDE  (ZnS.HgO). (WaCKENKODER.) 

ZnS04+NH4HS+H20=ZnS.H20  +  NH4HS04. 

^ » ' 

The  precipitate  is  insoluble  in  excess,  but  soluble  in  hydro- 
chloric, sulphuric,  and  nitric  acids,  and  in  a  very  large  excess 
of  acetic  ax^id. — (Wackenrodeb.) 

228.  Ammonic  hydrate,  in  neutral  or  but  slightly  acid 
solutions,  produces  a  white  gelatinous  precipitate  of  zmcio 
HYDRATE,  soluble  in  excess^  and  reprecipitated  by  boiling ;  also 
soluble  in  acids  and  in  ammonic  salts. 

ZnS04  +  2NH4H0=ZnH202-f(NH4)2S04. 

, — ^ — , 

229.  Potassio  hydrate  and  sodio  hydrate  produce  the 
same  precipitate  as  ammonic  hydrate. 

ZnS04  +  2KH0=ZnH202  +  K2S04. 

The  precipitate  is  soluble  in  excess,  and  from  its  sodic  or 
potassic  solution  it  may  be  precipitated  as  sulphide  by  hydro- 
sulphuric  acid. 

230.  Ammonic  carbonate  produces  a  white  basic  zincio 
CARBONATE.  If  the  solutious  are  very  dilute^  or  if  concen- 
trated and  boiling,  the  precipitate  has  the  composition  (Zn2 
C03.ZnH0  +  xH20  or  Zn3HC04.xH20).  Soluble  in  excess^  in 
ammonic  salts,  and  in  acids. 

231.  Sodic  cabbonate,  same  precipitate  as  ammonic  car^ 
honate^  but  not  soluble  in  excess^  but  soluble  in  ammonic  salts 
and  in  acids. 


CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  37 

Fresenius  gives  the  composition  of  the  precipitate  fonned 
by  ammonic  and  sodic  carbonate  as  (3ZnH202  +  2Zn-f  COg-f- 
4H2O  or  Zn5HgC20|2.4:H20). 

!33S.  DisoDic  0RTHOPHO8PHATE  produces  a  white  precipi- 
tate of  Dizmoic  OBTHOPHO8PHATE  (Zn2H2P208.2H20)  from  hot 
solutions. 

2ZnS04  +  2NaHP04  +  2H20=Zn2H2P208.2H20  +  2NaS04. 

'^^ — , ' 

233.  PoTAssic  FEEROOYANiDE  produccs  a  precipitate  in  the 
form  of  a  white  powder  of  zmcic  feebocyanide  (Zn^FeaCy^ 
H-SHjO).     The  precipitate  is  insoluble  in  hydrochloric  acid. 

!334,  Blowpipe. — When  compounds  of  zinc  are  treated 
with  the  reducing  flame  on  charcoal,  an  incrustation  of  zinc 
oxide  is  formed ;  yellow  while  hot,  white  when  cold.  If  this 
oxide  be  moistened  with  a  little  cobaltic  nitrate,  and  then 
heated,  an  infused  mass  having  a  green  color  is  produced. 

IRON. 

Symbol,  Fe.— Atomic  weight,  56. — Equivalence,  II,  IV,  VI. — Also  a 
pseudo-triad  (Fe,)^. — White  pig-iion,  Sp.  Gr.,  7.6 — Gray  pig-iron,  Sp.  Gr., 
7.1. — Specific  gravity  of  iron,  7.844. — Atomic  volume,  7.10. — Specific  heat, 
0.112.— Electric  conductivity  at  32"  F.,  16.81. 

•     IRON    OXIDES. 

Iron  forms  two  oxides  corresponding  to  the  chlorides: 
Ferrous  oxide,  FeO,  and  ferric  oxide,  Fe203,  and  several  oxides 
of  intermediate  composition,  called  ferroso-terric  oxides,  which 
may  be  regarded  as  compounds  of  the  two  just  mentioned ; 
the  most  important  of  these  is  the  magnetic  oxide,  Fe304  = 
FeO.FcjOa.  A  trioxide  may  be  supposed  to  exist  in  the  fer- 
rates (Fe03),  *®  ^^  potassic  ferrate  (KgO-FeOa),  but  it  has  not 
as  yet  been  isolated. 

Feebous  oxroE,  FeO.  Found  in  nature  in  the  form  of  car- 
bonate (FeCOa),  ^^  spathic  iron  ore,  and  in  chalybeate  waters. 
May  be  obtained,  according  to  Dehray^  by  passing  a  itiixture 
of  equal  volumes  of  carbonous  oxide  (CO)  and  carbonic  oxide 


88  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

(CO2)  over  red-hot  ferric  oxide.  It  ia  not  easily  prepared  in 
the  pure  state,  on  account  of  the  avidity  with  which  it  absorbs 
oxygen. 

Ferrous  hydrate  may  be  precipitated  from  a  solution  of 
pure  ferrous  salt,  perfectly  free  from  air,  with  potassic  hydrate, 
also  free  from  air,  in  a  vessel  filled  with  de-aerated  water. 
Precipitate  must  be  washed  by  decantation  with  recently 
boiled  water,  then  dried  and  preserved  in  an  atmosphere  free 
from  oxygen. — (Schmidt.) 

Ferric  oxide,  FcjOa,  occurs  in  nature  as  specular  iron 
ore,  as  martite,  and  as  red  hematite.  May  be  obtained  in 
small  crystals  by  decomposing  ferric  chloride  with  lime  at  a 
red  heat  (Daubr^).  May  be  obtained  as  an  amorphous  powder 
by  igniting  ferrous  sulphate  with  ^  pt.  of  saltpetre  and 
lixiviating  the  product;  by  dissolving  iron  in  nitric  acid, 
evaporating,  and  heating  the  resulting  nitrate  to  redness. 

The  amorphous  powder  is  nearly  black ;  has  a  specific 
gravity  5.04  to  5.17. — (Rose.) 

Ferric  oxide  is  reduced  to  the  metallic  state  by  hydrogen 
gas  at  a  heat  below  redness,  and  at  a  red  heat  by  charcoal, 
carbonous  oxide,  and  ammonia  gas.  Ferric  oxide  dissolves  in 
acids ;  best  solvent,  strong,  boiling  hydrochloric,  much  facili- 
tated by  presence  of  zinc  or  stannous  chloride ;  the  oxide  then 
dissolves  as  ferrous  chloride. 

Fe203  +  6HCl+Zn  =  2FeCl2+ZnCl2-h6H. 

Ferrio  hydrates  are  most  easily  prepared  by  precipitating 
a  moderately  dilute  solution  of  ferric  chloride  with  excess  of 
ammonic  hydrate  (with  a  smaller  quantity  a  basic  salt  would  be 
thrown  down)  ;  the  precipitate  formed  in  the  cold  (the  ferrum 
oxidatum  fuscum  of  the  pharraacopcpias)  has  the  composition 
Fe203.2H20,  according  to  Gmelin  (Handbook,  v.  198)  and 
Lefort  (J.  p.  Chem.,  liv.  305);  FeaOa.SHjO,  according  to 
WitMein  (Farm.  Centr.  1853,  p.  367);  or  2Fe203.3H20,  ac- 
cording to  Peau  de  Saint-Gilles  (Ann.  Ch.  Phys.  [3],  xlvi.  47) ; 
the  proportion  of  water  doubtless  varying  according  to  the 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  89 

degree  of  dilntioii,  the  mode  of  precipitation,  and  the  tempera- 
ture at  which  the  hydrate  has  been  exposed  in  drying.  The 
hydrate  precipitated  from  hot  solutions  is  Fe203.2H20,  accord- 
ing to  Lefort. — (Schaffner,  Ann.  Ch.  Pharm.,  li.  117.) 

Native  ferric  hydrates  are  also  of  various  composition. 
Gothite  is  FcgOs-HgO;  and  a  variety  of  bog  iron  (Quellery) 
from  Russia  consists,  according  to  Hermann  (J.  p.  Chem., 
xxvii.  53),  mainly  of  FejOa-SHjO. 

If  the  ordinary  yellow  hydrate,  2Fe203.3H20  (precipitated 
fix)m  chloride  by  ammonic  hydrate),  be  boiled  in  water  for  seven 
or  eight  hours,  it  changes  to  a  brick-red  (Fe203.H20),  and  is 
scarcely  acted  on  by  boiling  nitric  acid,  but  dissolves  slowly  in 
hydrochloric  acid.  This  hydrate  is  precipitated  when  ordinary 
hydrate  is  boiled  in  acetic  acid  (Peau  de  Saint-Gilles). 

Febroso-ferric  oxides  and  hydrates.  Iron  oxides  inter- 
mediate between  ferrous  and  ferric  oxide  are  called  ferroso- 
ferric  oxides ;  they  may  be  regarded  as  compounds  of  the  two. 
The  principal  ones  are  the  scale  oxide  and  magnetic  oxide. 

Scale  oxide,  Fe809=GFeO.Fe203.  If  iron  is  heated  to 
redness  in  the  air,  layers  of  scale  oxide  are  formed,  which  may 
be  separated.  The  inner  layer  is  a  blackish-gray,  porous, 
brittle  substance,  attracted  by  the  magnet,  and  has  the  compo- 
sition 6FeO.Fe203.  The  outer  layer  contains  a  larger  amount 
of  ferric  oxide,  32  to  37  per  cent,  and  on  the  very  surface, 
52.8  per  cent  (Mosander).  The  outer  layer  is  of  a  reddish 
iron-black  color,  dense,  brittle,  yields  a  black  powder,  and  is 
more  strongly  attracted  by  the  magnet  than  the  inner  oxide. 

Magnetic  oxide,  Fe304.=FeO.Fe203,  occurs  native;  when 
pure  contains  nearly  72  per  cent  of  iron  (the  richest  ore).  It 
is  produced  when  iron  is  heated  to  redness  in  aqueous  vapor 
(Regnault,  Gay  Lussac).  When  ferrous  chloride  is  heated  to 
redness  with  excess  of  sodic  carbonate. — (Liebio  and  Wohler). 

Ferroso-ferric  hydrate  ; — there  are  two  hydrates : 
Dingy-green  hydrate.     Made   by   exposing   white   ferrous 
hydrate  to  the  air  for  a  short  time  ;  or  by  precipitating  a  mix- 
ture of  ferrous  salt  with  a  little  ferric  salt  by  ammonic  hydrate. 


90  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

a  dingy  green  hydrate  of  ferroso-ferric  hydrate  is  obtained, 
which  is  converted  by  the  air  into  rusty-brown  ferric  hydrate. 

Black  hydrate.  This  hydrate  (FeO.FejOa  +  xHgO  nearly)  is 
precipitated  from  a  solution  of  magnetic  oxide  in  hydrochloric 
acid  by  ammonic  hydrate.  This  black  precipitate  is  magnetic 
in  the  liquid  if  a  magnet  dipped  in  it,  and  the  precipitate 
collects  around  it.  It  contains  about  7  per  cent  of  water,  and 
when  heated  in  a  retort,  leaves  anhydrous  ferroso-ferric  oxide ; 
when  heated  in  the  air,  it  is  converted  into  ferric  oxide. 

Ferric  trioxide,  FeOa,  ^^  ^^^  known  in  the  free  state,  but 
is  supposed  to  exist  in  the  ferrates,  viz.:  Potassic  ferrate, 
K20.Fe03=K2Fe04. 

METALLIC   IRON. 

235.  Heated  on  charcoal,  it  is  slowly  converted  into  the 
black  magnetic  oxide  (ferroso-ferric  oxide),  Fe304,  without 
Rising. 

236.  Hydrochloric  acid  dissolves  iron,  forming  a  pale- 
green  solution  of  FERROUS  CHLORIDE  with  evolutiou  of  hydrogen. 

Fe-h2HCl=FeCl2  +  2H. 

'*  A  small  residue,  consisting  of  carbon  and  silicon,  which  are  constant 
ingredients  of  iron,  remain  undissolved  in  the  form  of  a  black  powder." — 

(TUTTLB  AND  CHANDLER.) 

237.  NrTRio  acid,  when  concentrated,  has  very  little  action 
on  iron ;  but  if  diluted,  it  dissolves  the  metal  very  rapidly, 
forming  ferric  NriRATE  (Fe26N03)  and  liberating  nitrogen 
dioxide  (N2O2). 

2Fe  +  8HN03=Fe26N03  +  N202+4H20. 

'*  Iron,  which  has  been  plunged  into  strong  nitric  acid,  is  said  to  become 
pamve^  and  is  unaffected  by  dilute  acid.  The  same  is  true  of  iron- wire, 
one  end  of  which  has  been  heated  to  redness."— (Tuttlb  and  Chandler.) 

238.  Sulphuric  acid,  when  concentrated,  dissolves  iron, 
forming  ferrous  sulphate  and  generating  sulphurous  oxide. 

Fe+H2S04=FeS04  +  S07H-2H20. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  91 

If  the  acid  used  be  dilute,  hydrogen  gas  is  generated. 

239.  NiTROMURiATio  ACID  dissolves  iron,  forming  fbrsio 
€HL0BiDE  (FcjClg)  and  liberating  nitrogen  dioxide  (NgOa). 


2Fe  +  2(3HCl+HN03)=Fe2Clc  +  N202+4H20. 

FERROUS  SALTS 

Most  of  the  ferrous  salts  are  soluble  and  crystallizable ;  they 
are  wliite  in  the  anhydrous  state,  and  pale  greenish-blue  in  the 
hydrated  state.  The  solutions  have  a  sweetish  taste,  with  an 
inky  after-taste;  they  quickly  absorb  oxygen,  and  are  con- 
verted into  basic  ferric  salts — thus:  2FeS04-|-0=Fe20.2S04 
(Fe203.2S03).  Ferrous  salts  containing  a  volatile  acid  give 
up  on  ignition,  leaving  a  residue  of  ferric  oxide.  The  soluble 
neutral  salts  redden  litmus-paper. 

Solution  best  fitted  for  the  reactions : 

Febbous  Sulphate  (FeS04). 

240*  Hydrosulphueio  acto,  in  acid  solution,  produces  no 
precipitate,  nor  in  neutral  solution^,  provided  the  iron  is  in 
combination  with  a  mineral  acid.  In  neutral  solutions,  whet'e 
the  iron  is  combined  with  acids  such  as  carbonic,  oxalic,  tar- 
taric, or  acetic,  part  of  the  iron  is  precipitated  in  the  form  of  a 
BLACK  HYDRATED  FEBBOUS  SULPHIDE.  The  precipitation  in  the 
last  three-mentioned  salts  going  on  only  until  a  moderate  quan- 
tity of  acid  is  set  free. 

241«  Ammonic  SULPHIDE  produccs  a  black  precipitate  of 
FEBBOUS  suLPHTOE  (FeS)  (perhaps  containing  water) : 

FeS04-f-NH4HS=FeS-f-NH4HS04. 

Soluble  in  dilute  hydrochloric  acid.  The  precipitate  oxid- 
izes rapidly  in  the  air,  being  first  converted  into  ferrous  sul- 
phate, then  into  yellow-brown  hanic  ferric  sulphate. 

242.  Ammonic  hydbate  precipitates  part  of  the  iron  as 


92  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

FEBE0U8  HYDBATE  (FeH202),  the  lest  remains  dissolved  in  the 
liquid : 

2FeS04  +  2NH4H0=FeH202  +  (NH4)2S04.FeS04. 

The  precipitate  at  first  is  nearly  white ;  it  changes  to  a  dirty 
green  ferroso-ferric  hydrate  (Fe304.04H8)  by  absorbing  oxygen 
from  the  air,  then  to  a  reddish-brown  feme  hydrate  (FeOa-SHaO 
=  Fe2Hc04). 

*'  If  the  solution  contains  free  acid,  or  amnionic  salts^  amnionic  hydrate 
produces  no  precipitate,  a  soluble  double  amroonic  salt  and  ferrous  salt  being 
formed  [FeSO^+CNH 4)8804].  But  on  exposure  to  the  air,  oxyjyen  is  ab- 
sorbed, and  ferric  hydrate  gradually  separates." — (Tuttle  and  CHAi!n>LEB.) 

243.  PoTAssio  Hydrate  completely  precipitates  the  iron  as 
a  dirty  white  feerous  hydrate  : 

FeS04  +  2KH0=Fe(0H)2  +  K2S04. 

* . ' 

The  precipitate  changes  the  same  as  in  the  case  of  amnionic 
hydrate,  absorbing  oxygen  from  the  air. 

244.  PoTASsic  FERROCYANiDE  produccs  in  solutions  per- 
fectly free  from  ferric  salts  a  white  precipitate  of  potassio- 

FERBOUS-FEBBOCYANIDE  (KgFeaCyg)  '. 

FeS04+  K4FeCyc=K2Fe2Cyc  +  K2SO4. 

This  precipitate  absorbs  oxygen  from  the  air,  which  acquires 
a  blue  color,  and  prussian  blue  [ferric  ferrocyanide,  Fe7Cy,8  = 
Fe™4Fe°3Cyi9  or  2(Fe2)^'Cy5.3Fe"Cy2,  whicli,  in  combination 
with  18  molecules  of  water,  constitute  prussian  blue]  is  formed, 
probably  thus : 

6K2Fe2Cyg  +  03  =  Fe^Cy ,  g  +  3K4Fe°Cyg  +  FegOa.— (Fownes.) 

The  oxide  is  dissolved  by  the  free  acid  present.  Nitric  acid 
or  chlorine  converts  potassio-ferrous-ferrocyanide  immediately 
into  prussian  blue. 

245.  Potassio  ferricyanide  produces  a  deep-blue  precipi- 
tate of  ferrous  FERRiCYANiDE,  Fe°(Fe2)^Cy,2+xH20 1 

3FeS04  +  KgFe2Cy,2+xH20=Fe3Fe2Cy,2.xH20  +  3K2S04. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  93 

The  precipitate  is  insoluble  in  hydrochloric  acid,  but  is  de- 
composed by  potassic  hydrate.  This  precipitate  is  known 
under  the  name  of  "  TurnbuU's  blue." 

"  This  is  an  extremely  delicate  test  for  ferrous  salts.  Before  adding  the 
ferricyanide,  the  solution  should  be  acidulated  with  acetic  acid;  or  if  it 
already  contains  free  mineral  acid,  potassic  or  sodic  acetate  should  be  added, 
in  order  to  replace  the  free  mineral  acid,  which  might  produce  a  blue  color 
by  decomposing  the  terricyanide." — (Tuttle  and  Chandleb.) 

246.  "  NriBio  acid,  in  the  cold,  imparts  a  brown  color  to 
solutions  of  ferrous  salts,  due  to  the  formation  of  a  compound 
of  the  ferrous  salt  with  nitrogen  dioxide  (N2O2)  ;  thus  (4FeS04. 
N2O2).  On  applying  heat  this  compound  is  destroyed — ^the 
ferrous  salt  changed  to  a  ferric  salt,  and  the  solution  assumes  a 
yellow  color." 

If  ferrous  sulphate  is  added  very  carefully  to  a  solution  con- 
taining a  nitrate  (with  the  same  volume  of  pure  sulphuric  acid 
as  the  nitrate),  so  that  the  fluids  do  not  mix,  the  stratum, 
where  the  two  fluids  are  in  contact,  shows  a  purple,  after- 
wards a  brown,  or,  in  cases  where  only  minute  quantities  of 
nitric  acid  are  present,  a  reddish  color.  If  the  fluids  are 
mixed,  a  clear  brownish-purple  liquid  is  obtained. 

247.  Potassic  and  sonic  carbonate  and  ammonic  sesqui- 
CABBONATE  precipitate  white  hydrated  ferrous  carbonate  in 
thick  white  flakes,  which,  on  exposure  to  the  air,  absorb  oxygen 
and  give  oflF  carbonic  oxide,  first  assuming  a  dirty  green  color, 
and  ultimately  changing  to  yellowish-brown  ferric  hydrate. 
The  precipitate  may  be  rendered  more  permanent  by  mixing 
it  with  a  little  sugar  when  moist.  Dissolved  by  aqueous  car- 
bonic acid.    Exists  in  chalybeate  waters. 

248.  Potassic  sulphocyanate  neither  alters  the  color  of 
pure  ferrous  solutions,  nor  forms  any  precipitate  in  them. 

249.  Tincture  of  galls  neither  colors  nor  precipitates 
ferrous  salts,  when  they  are  quite  free  from  ferric  oxide ;  but 
the  mixture  acquires  a  violet-black  color  on  exposure  to  the  air. 

250.  Blowpipe. — Metallic  iron  may  be  obtained  by 
fusing  ferrous  salts  on  charcoal  with  sodic  carbonate  and  po- 


94  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

tassic  cyanide.  If  the  fused  mass  is  washed  with  water  in  a 
mortar,  a  black  powder  is  obtained,  which  is  readily  attracted 
hy  the  magnet. 

251.  BoBAx  dissolves  ferrous  salts  in  the  outer  flame,  form- 
ing a  yellow  bead;  in  the  inner  flame  a  bottle-green  bead^ 
owing  to  reduction. 

FERRIC  SALTS. 

Most  of  the  ferric  salts  in  solution  are  yellow  or  reddish- 
yellow.  The  soluble  neutral  salts  redden  litmus,  and  are 
decomposed  by  heat.  Ferric  salts  are  easily  reduced  to  fer- 
rous salts  by  various  deoxidizing  agents;  as  by  sulphydric 
acid,  sulphurous,  hyposulphurous,  and  phosphorous  acids; 
by  stannous  chloride ;  by  metallic  iron,  and  even  by  silver  at 
the  boiling  heat. 

Solution  heat  fitted  for  the  reactions  : 

Febbic  Chloeide  (FegClg). 

252.  Hydbosulphitric  Acro  reduces  the  ferric  salts  to  the 
ferrous  and  deposits  sulphur : 

Fe2Cl6  +  H2S=2FeCl2  +  2HCl  +  S. 

It  will  be  seen  from  the  reaction  that  the  hydrogen  of  the 
hydrosulphuric  acid  acts  as  the  reducing  agent. 

"  When  in  combination  with  a  weak  organic  acid  (as  acetic  acid),  iron  is 
precipitated  as  sulphide  (FeS)  by  hydrosulphuric  acid."— ^Tuttlb  and 

CHANDIaEB.) 

253.  Ammonic  suLPHmE  produces,  in  strong  solutions  of 
ferric  salts,  a  black  precipitate  of  febbous  smi^mDE  mixed 
with  sulphur. 

Fe2Clg  +  2NH4HS=FeCl2  +  2S+2NH4Cl+2HCL 

FeCl2  +  NH4HS=FeS-fNH^l  +  HCl. 

The  presence  of  ammonic  chloride  favors  the  precipitation. 
The  precipitate  is  easily  soluble  in  dilute  acids,  the  sulphur 
remaining  undissolved. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  95 

In  very  dilute  solutions  of  ferric  salts,  hydrosulphuric  acid 
only  produces  a  blackish-green  coloration,  which,  if  kept  for  a 
long  time,  deposits  ferrous  sulphide  in  black  flocks. 

254.  Ammonic  htdbate  added  in  excess  produces  a  pre- 
cipitate of  FEBEic  HYDKATE,  FcaOa.SHgO  (Wittsteiu).  (See 
Ferric  Hydrates  under  Ferric  Oxide*) 

The  precipitate  is  of  a  brownish-red  color,  insoluble  in  am- 
monic salts,  but  soluble  in  acids. 

Fe2Cl6  +  6NH4H0=Fe2Hg0c  +  6NH4Cl. 

' » ' 

255.  PoTASsiG  HTDBATE  produces  the  same  precipitate  as 
ammonic  hydrate. 

Fe2Clg  +  6KHO  =  Fe2HgOc  +  6KCl. 

> ^ » 

256.  PoTAssio  FEBEocTANmE  produccs  in  very  dilute  solu- 
tions a  deep  blue  precipitate  of  Febbic  febboctanttoe,  FeyCyig 
or  2Fe2Cy5.3FeCy2 : 

2Fe2Cl6  +  3K4FeCye=Fe7Cy,8+12kci. 

' , ' 

(FeyCyie  in  combination  with  18  molecules  of  water  constitute 
Prussian  blue.)  See  §  242.  The  precipitate  is  insoluble  in 
acid,  but  decomposed  by  potassic  hydrate,  with  separation  of 
ferric  hydrate : 

'^e7Cy,8  +  12KHO=2Fe2HgOg  +  3K4FeCyg. 

"This  is  one  of  the  most  delicate  tests  for  iron.  Neutral  solutions 
should  be  acidulated  with  acetic  acid  before  applying  it.  As  strong  acids 
decompose  the  potassic  f  errocyanide,  giving  rise  to  a  blue  color,  it  is  best  to 
add  potassic  or  sodic  acetate  to  acid  solutions,  in  order  to  replace  the  free 
mineral  acid  by  acetic  add : 

HC1  +  KC,H,0,=KC1+H.C,H,0,."— (TuTTLE  Ain>  Chaitdler.) 

257.  Potassic  ferrictanide  produces  no  precipitate  in 
absolutely  pure  ferric  salts,  but  changes  the  color  of  the  solu- 
tion to  a  GREENISH-BROWN.  If  there  is  the  least  trace  of  ferrous 
salt  present,  a  blue  precipitate  is  produced.  This  test  distin- 
guishes the  ferric  salts  from  the  ferrous  salts. 

258.  Potassic  sulphocyanate  does  not  produce  a  precipi- 
tate, but  colors  the  solution  a  deep  blood-red;  the  color  is 


96  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

very  distinct  in  very  dilate  solutions,  and  is  probably  the  most 
sensitive  test  for  ferric  salts.  The  color  is  due  to  the  forma- 
tion of  a  soluble  ferric  sulphocyanide ;  it  appears  in  solution 
not  too  acid;  if  much  free  hydrochloric  or  nitric  acid  is 
present,  the  hydrochloric  acid  nearly  destroys  it,  and  a  certain 
quantity  of  nitric  acid,  after  a  while,  completely  destroys  it. 
Ammonic  hydrate  instantly  decolorizes  the  red  solution,  and 
precipitates  ferric  hydrate  [^^2(0^)6]'  Ammonic  sulphide 
produces  a  black  precipitate  of  febbio  sulphide  (FeaSg). 

"  A  similar  red  coloration  is  produced  hj  potassic  salphocyanate  in  solu- 
tion containing  molybdic  oxide  (MoO,)  or  hyponitric  acid." — (Fresenixjs.) 

259.  Baric  carbonate,  wlien  shaken  up  with  a  ferric  solu- 
tion, produces  a  precipitate  of  febeio  hydrate  : 


Fe2C]e  +  3BaC03  +  3H20  =  Fe2Hg06  +  3BaCl2  +  3C02. 

' , ' 

In  FERROUS  SALTS  (sulphate  excepted),  baric  carbonate  pro- 
duces no  precipitate. 

260.  SoDic  ACETATE.  "When  a  solution  containing  a 
ferric  salt  is  rendered  nearly  neutral  by  sodic  carbonate,  and 
then  heated  to  boiling  with  addition  of  excess  of  sodic  acetate, 
all  the  iron  is  precipitated  as  a  (reddish)  brown  basic  sesqui- 
acetate,  and  may  be  completely  removed  from  the  solution  by 
jilteAng  hot  and  washing  with  boiling  water.  If  it  is  allowed 
to  remain  in  the  solution,  it  jyartlally  redissolvea  as  the  latter 
becomes  cohL^'^ 

261.  Blowpipe.— See  §§  24:9,  250. 

COBALT. 

Symbol,  Co.— Atomic  weight,  60.— Equivalence,  II,  IV,  and  probably  VI. 
—Also  a  pseudo-triad  (Co,)vi.— Specific  Riavity,  8.71  (to  8.95).— Malleable  at 
red  heat— Atomic  volume,  6.94.— Specific  heat,  0.1069.— Electric  conduc- 
tivity at  82°  F.,  17.22. 

COBALT  OXIDES. 
Cobalt  unites  witb  oxygen  to  form  several  oxides:  CoO, 

C0O2,  CO2O3,  CO3O4,  COeOy,  CO3O9. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  97 

CoBALTOUs  OXIDE,  CoO,  or  protoxidc,  may  be  obtained  by 
igniting  cobaltous  hydrate,  Co(0H)2,  or  carbonate,  C0CO3,  in 
close  vessels,  by  igniting  the  protochloridQ  (cobaltous  chloride) 
in  a  stream  of  aqueous  vapor. — (Sghwabzenbebg.) 

Co(OH)2+A<5=CoO  +  H20. 

C0CO3+  A<5=CoO  +  C02. 

CoCl2  +  H20+Ac5=CoO+(iH  +  2ci). 

The  pure  cobaltous  oxide  is  a  light  greenish-gray  or  olive- 
green  non-magnetic  powder.  It  is  reduced  to  the  metallic 
state  at  a  red  heat  by  hydrogen,  charcoal,  carbonous  oxide  (CO), 
potassium,  and  sodium. 

Cobaltous  hydrate,  C0O.H2O  or  Co(HO)2,  is  produced  when 
a  cobaltous  salt  is  decomposed  by  potassic  hydrate  out  of  the 
air,  A  blue  basic  salt  is  first  produced,  which  changes  slowly 
(quickly  on  heating)  to  the  rose-colored  hydrate.  If  ignited 
out  of  the  air,  cobaltous  oxide  is  formed  as  above;  but  if 
ignited  in  the  air,  a  higher  oxide  is  formed.  Dissolves  readily 
in  acids,  and  forms  cobaltous  salts. 

CoBALTio  OXIDE,  C02O3  (scsquioxidc). — It  may  be  prepared 
by  passing  chlorine  through  water  in  which  cobaltous  hydrate 
is  suspended  ;  it  is  then  precipitated  as  cobaltic  hydrate : 

2Co(0H)2  +  3H20+2Cl=Co203.3H20  +  2HCl. 

» , » 

The  water  is  decomposed  by  the  chlorine,  and  hydrochloric 
acid  is  produced,  while  the  oxygen  of  the  water  preoxidizes 
the  cobalt 

When  this  black  hydrate  is  cautiously  heated  to  600°  C.  or 
700°  C,  the  black  cobaltic  oxide  is  produced. 

Cobaltic  oxide  acts  as  a  weak  base. 

Cobaltic  acetate  is  the  most  permanent  cobaltic  salt. 

CoBALToso-coBALTio  OXIDES.  —  The  oxido  CO3O4  =  (CoO. 
C02O3)  may  be  prepared  by  heating  to  redness  in  contact 
with  the  air,  cobaltous  nitrate,  oxalate,  or  cobaltic  hydrate 
(Hess,  Kamraelsberg),  but  according  to  Beetz  and  Winkel- 
blech,  the  oxide  thus  obtained  is  C05O7  or  Co,20|4. 

7 


98  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

If  the  residue  obtained  by  gently  igniting  the  oxalate  in 
contact  with  air,  is  digested  in  strong  hydrochloric  acid,  the 
oxide  C03O4  remains  in  hard,  brittle,  grayish-black  micro- 
scopic octahedrons  having  a  metallic  lustre.  The  same 
crystalline  compound  is  obtained  by  igniting  dry  cobaltoua 
chloride  alone,  or  mixed  with  ammonic  chloride,  in  dry  air 
or  oxygen  gas.^SoHw  a  rztcmbkrg.  ) 

CoBALTic  ANHYDBTOE,  C03O5  or  C05O10,  Ib  obtained  in 
combination  with  potassic  oxide,  by  strongly  igniting  the 
oxide  C03O4,  or  the  pure  cobaltous  oxide  or  carbonate,  with 
pure  potassic  hydrate.  A  crystalline  salt  is  formed  which 
contains,  when  dried  at  100°  C,  KaO.SCoaOs-hSHjO. 

CoBALTic  DIOXIDE,  C0O25  has  uot  yet  been  obtained  in  a  free 
state,  but  may  be  supposed  to  exist  in  the  oxycobaltic  salts. 
Co02.N205.5NH3-f-H20=the  nitrate. 

METALLIC  COBALT. 

262*  Heated  on  charcoal,  it  takes  fire,  and  is  converted 
into  cobaltoso-cobaltic  oxide  (C03O4) : 

3C04-04+  A<5=CoO.Co203  or  C03O4. 

It  decomposes  aqueous  vapor  at  a  red  heat. 

263.  Htdrochlobig  acid  dissolves  the  metal  slowly  in  the 
cold,  more  rapidly  when  heated,  forming  cobaltous  chloride 
(C0CI2)  and  liberating  hydrogen. 

Co  +  2HCl=CoCl2  +  2H. 

264.  Kftrio  acid  dissolves  the  metal  easily,  forming  cobal- 
tous nitrate  [Co  (N  03)2]  and  liberating  nitrogen  dioxide : 

3Co  +  8HN03= 3Co(N  03)2  +  N^ + 4:H  2O. 

265.  SuLPHiJRio  ACID,  when  dilute,  dissolves  the  metal, 
forming  cobaltous  sulphate  (C0SO4),  with  evolution  of  hydro- 
gen gas:  .^^ 

Co  +  H2S04=CoS04+2H. 

If  heated  the  metal  dissolves  more  rapidly. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  99 


COBALTOUS  SALTS. 

Cobaltons  salts  in  solution  have  a  rose-red  color,  except  when 
they  are  very  concentrated  or  contain  a  free  acid,  in  which 
case  they  are  blue;  dilution  with  water  changes  the  blue 
color  to  red.  The  neutral  solutions  faintly  redden  litmus- 
paper.  Cobaltons  sulphate  is  the  most  permanent,  all  others 
being  decomposed  at  a  red  heat;  the  sulphate  can  stand  a 
moderate  red  heat.  Cobaltic  oxide  dissolves  in  hydrochloric 
acid,  forming  cobaltons  chloride  and  liberating  chlorine. 

Co203  +  6HCl=2CoGl2  +  2Cr+3H20. 

Solution  heat  fitted  for  the  reactions : 

Cobaltic  NrrRAXE,  Co(N03)2. 

266.  Hydbositlphtjbio  acid  produces  no  precipitate  in  solu- 
tion containing  an  excess  of  any  strong  acid ;  but  in  solutions 
of  the  acetate,  or  of  any  cobalt  salt  mixed  with  potassic  acetate, 
it  forms  a  black  precipitate  of  cobaltous  sulphide  (CoS)  when 
cobaltons  acetate  is  used,  and  cobaltic  sulphide  (C02S3)  when 
cobaltic  acetate  is  used. 

267.  Ammonio  sulphide  precipitates  completely  the  cobalt 
as  cobaltous  sulphide,  insoluble  in  excess: 

Co(N03)2  +  NH4HS=CoS+NH4N03-f-HN03. 

Ammonic  chloride  greatly  favors  the  precipitation.  The 
precipitate  is  with  diflSculty  soluble  in  hydrochloric  acid,  but 
dissolves  in  nitromuriatic  acid  very  easily,  especially  when 
heated. 

268.  Ammonio  hydrate  precipitates  a  portion  of  the  co- 
balt as  a  bluish  basic  salt  [5Co(0H)2.Co(N03)2],  a  portion 
remaining  in  solution  as  a  double  salt  [Co(N03)2.NH4N03] 

If  the  solution  contains  free  acid  or  ammonic  salts,  no  pre- 
cipitate is  produced.  The  precipitate  in  contact  with  the  air 
becomes  green.  If  more  ammonic  hydrate  be  added,  it  dis- 
solves and  forms  a  brownish-red  liquid,  which,  by  the  action 
of  the  air,  changes  to  red-brown,  and  then  consists  of  the  ele- 


...  y 


« * 
« « *  1 1 


100  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

ments  of  ammonic  hydrate  united  with  the  higher  oxides  of 
cobalt.  If  the  precipitation  is  performed  out  of  contact  with 
the  air,  cobaltous  hydrate  is  precipitated.  (See  Cobaltous 
Oxide.) 

269.  P0TA8810  HYDRATE  produccs  a  blue  precipitate  of  a 
basic  salt  [5Co(OH)2.(CoN03)2],  which  is  insoluble  in  excess, 
assuming  a  green  or  dirty  bluish-green  color  when  exposed  to 
the  air,  from  formation  of  cobaltic  oxide;  but  if  protected 
from  the  air,  is  converted  into  cobaltous  hydrate  of  a  dingy  red 
color.  A  solution  of  cobaltous  and  cobaltic  chloride  produces 
a  precipitate  with  potassic  hydrate  which  does  not  change  to 
dingy  red  even  on  boiling,  but  merely  acquires  a  darker  color. 

370.  Potassic  cyanide  produces  a  red-brown  precipitate  of 
COBALTOUS  CYANIDE  [Co(CN)2  or  CoCyg],  soluble  in  excess, 
forming  a  double  cyanide  (4KCy.CoCy2),  from  which  acids  pre- 
cipitate cobaltous  cyanide : 

Co(N03)2+2KCN=Co(CN)2+2KN03. 
Co(CN)2  +  KCN=CoKCy3  or  Co(CN)2.KCN. 
CoK4Cye  +  4HCl=CoCy2+4KCl-f4HCy. 

If  the  solution  containing  an  excess  of  potassic  cyanide  be 
boiled  with  free  hydrocyanic  acid  (generated  by  adding  a  few 
drops  of  hydrochloric  acid),  a  compound  potassio-cobaltic 
cyanide  is  formed  (K5C|2N,2Co2=6KCy.Co2Cy5);  in  the  solu- 
tion of  which  acids  produce^  when  added,  no  pbecipctate. 
(Important  distinction  from  nickel.) 

4Co(CN)2  +  12KCN-f-4HCN  +  20=2KeC,2N,2Co2  +  2H20. 

371.  Potassic  febrooyanide  produces  a  pale-blue  precipi- 
tate of  hydeated  cobaltous  feerocyanide,  which,  when  care- 
fully treated,  gives  oflF  the  greater  part  of  its  water,  and 
assumes  a  dark-green  color.  Dissolves  in  ammonic  hydrate 
and  carbonate;  not  in  chloride.  Insoluble  in  hydrochloric 
acid. 

373.  Poi'Assio  FEEEicYANiDE  produccs  a  purplish-brown 
(brown-red)  precipitate  of  cobaltous  feericyanide,  insoluble 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  101 

in  hydrochloric  acid,  and  in  amnionic  hydrate.    This  precipi- 
tate may  bepi*oduced  in  an  anunonic  solution  of  cobalt. 

273.  Basic  carbonate  in  the  cold  does  not  precipitate 
cobaltons  salts  (sulphate  excepted,  which  precipitates  the 
greater  part  of  the  cobalt  after  a  long  time).  No  precipitate 
is  found  when  cobaltous  chloride  is  used  in  the  cold,  but  when 
heated  to  boiling,  after  a  long  time  all  the  cobalt  is  pre- 
cipitated. 

274.  PoTAssic  NrrEiiE  when  gradually  added  to  cobaltous 
nitrate  acidified  with  nitric  or  acetic  acid,  precipitates  a  beau- 
tiful OEANGE- YELLOW  COMPOUND,  which  cousists,  according  to 
A.  Stromeyer,  of  C02O3.2N2O3.6KNO2.2H2O,  and  contains  13.6 
per  cent  of  metallic  cobalt : 

2Co(N03)2  +  12KN02  +  2C2H402  +  2H20= 

Co203.2N205.6KN02.2H20-f-4KN03  +  2KC2H302  +  NlS. 

, , , 

By  this  reaction  cobalt  may  be  distinguished  from  nickel ; 
dilute  solutions  should  be  concentrated  before  adding  the 
potassic  nitrite.  The  precipitate  is  only  slightly  soluble  in 
water;  insoluble  in  sah'ne  solutions  and  in  alcohol.  When 
boiled  with  water  it  dissolves,  though  not  copiously,  to  a  red 
fluid,  from  which  alkalies  precipitate  cobaltous  hydrate. 

275.  Potassic  cabbonate,  if  added  hot  to  a  hot  solution  of 
cobaltous  nitrate,  produces  a  precipitate  of  5C0O.2CO2.4H2O. 
When  added  at  the  ordinary  temperature,  a  precipitate 
4C0O.2CO2.7H2O  is  formed;  if  either  of  these  precipitates  be 
boiled,  they  assume  an  indigo  blue  color,  and  the  precipitate 
is  then  4CoO.C02.4rH20,  becoming  green  during  washing  by 
absorption  of  oxygen. 

276.  Blowpipe. — ^When  compounds  of  cobalt  are  frised  on 
charcoal  with  a  little  sodic  carbonate  and  potassic  cyanide  in 
the  inner  flame,  and  the  fused  mass  pulverized  in  the  cold  in 
a  mortar,  on  treating  with  water,  metallic  cobalt  is  obtained 
as  a  gray  powder,  which  is  attracted  by  the  magnet. 

277.  Borax.  Any  compound  of  cobalt  imparts  to  a  borax 
bead  in  either  flame  a  beautiful  sapphire  blue  color. 

Characteristic  Eeactions,  267,  272,  270,  274,  277. 


102  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


NICKEL. 

Symbol,  Nl.— Atomic  weight,  58.— Eqoiyalence,  II,  IV,  probably  VI. 
Also  a  pBendo-triad  (Ni,)^'.— Magnetic ;  loses  this  property  at  250**  C. 
Atomic  volume,  6.94— Specific  heat,  0.1069.— Specific  gravity,  a82. 
Electric  conductivity  at  82°  F..  17.22. 


NICKEL  OXIDES. 

Nickel  uniteB  with  oxygen  to  form  two  oxides,  NiO,  Ni203; 
the  first  is  a  salifiable  base,  the  other  is  not. 

NicKELOus  OXIDE,  NiO  (protoxide),  may  be  obtained  by  cal- 
cining nickelons  nitrate,  hydrate,  or  carbonate : 

Ni(OH)2+Ae5=NiO  +  H^. 

It  may  be  freed  from  traces  oi  peroxide^  which  it  sometimes 
contains,  by  heating  it  to  about  100**  C.  in  hydrogen  gas. — 
(Ebdmann.) 

It  is  a  dense  green  or  grayish-green  non-magnetic  powder, 
which  does  not  absorb  oxygen  from  the  air,  either  at  common 
or  high  temperatures.  It  is  reduced  to  the  metallic  state  by 
hydrogen  at  a  red  heat,  and  by  charcoal  at  a  white  heat. 

NicKKLOus  HYDRATE,  NI(0H)2,  is  obtained  as  an  apple-green 
precipitate,  by  treating  the  solution  of  a  nickelous  salt  with 
excess  of  potassic  or  sodic  hydrate : 

Ni(N03)2  +  2KH0  =  Ni(0H)2-f-2KN03. 

Ni(N03)2+2NaOH  =  Ni(OH)2+2NaNO,. 

Dissolves  easily  in  adds ;  also  in  amrnonic  hydrate^  form- 
ing a  violet  solution. 

A  crystalline  hydrate  [Ni(0H)2.H20]  has  been  found  as  an 
incrustation  on  chrom-iron  in  Texas,  Pennsylvania. 

NiCKKLic  OXIDE,  NigOa  (sesqmoxide  and  peroxide).  This 
oxide  is  produced  by  calcining  the  nitrate  at  a  moderate  heat. 


2Ni(N03)2+  Ac5=Ni203  +  (2N202  +  50). 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  103 

It  is  a  black  powder  of  Sp.  Gr.  4.84  (Herapath),  which  is 
resolved  by  ignition  into  oxygen  and  nickelous  oxide. 

Ni203+A<J=2NiO  +  a 

NiCKBLio  HTDBATB,  Ni'aOa.SHgO  or  Ni2(0H)g.  By  passing 
chlorine  gas  through  an  alkaline  solution  of  nickelous  hydrate, 
a  precipitate  of  nickelic  hydrate  is  produced.  If  a  nickelous 
salt  is  mixed  with  an  excess  of  caustic  alkali,  then  with  an 
alkaline  hypochlorite,  this  hydrate  is  produced.  It  is  dark- 
brown  when  suspended  in  water,  but  forms  a  black  shining 
mass  when  dry.  When  heated  it  readily  gives  off  water  and 
oxygen.  Dissolves  in  ammonic  hydrate  with  evolution  of 
nitrogen^  the  solution  containing  nickelous  hydrate. 

Another  htdeated  nickelic  oxide  of  a  dingy  light-green 
color  is  obtained  by  treating  the  nickelous  hydrate  with  hydro- 
gen peroxide.— (Thknard.) 

METALLIC   NICKEL 

278.  Heated  on  charcoal  by  the  outer  flame,  it  is  rapidly 
oxidized  and  converted  into  nickelous  oxide  (NiO)  without 
fusing  or  forming  an  incrustation. 

In  the  inner  flame  the  metal  is  not  changed. 

279.  Hydrochloric  acid,  if  not  too  dilute,  dissolves  the 
metal  slowly  with  evolution  of  hydrogen,  forming  at  the  same 
time  NICKELOUS  chloride  (NiCl2). 

Ni  +  2HCl=NiCl2  +  2H. 

280.  NrrRio  acid  rapidly  dissolves  the  metal,  forming 
nickelous  niirate  [Ni(N03)2],  and  liberating  at  the  same 
time  nitrogen  dioxide  (N2O2). 

3Ni  +  8HN03=3Ni(N03)2  +  N202+4H20. 

281.  Sulphuric  acid  dissolves  the  metal  slowly  when 
dilute  and  aided  by  heat,  forming  nickelous  sulphate  and 
liberating  at  the  samie  time  hydrogen. 

Ni  +  H2S04=NiS04-f2H. 


104  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

NICKELOUS  SALTS. 

The  solutions  of  the  nickelous  salts  have  a  light-green  color. 
The  salts  are  mostly  green  in  the  hydrated  state,  and  yellow  in 
the  anhydrous  state.  The  soluble  neutral  salts  slightly  redden 
litmus-paper,  and  are  decomposed  at  a  red  heat. 

Solution  heat  fitted  for  the  7*e(iction8  : 

Nickelous  Niteate  [Ni(N08)2]. 

282.  Hydeosulphubic  acid  produces  no  precipitate  in  acid 
solutions,  and  only  partially  precipitates  the  nickel  from  neutral 
solutions  (such  as  sulphate  or  chloride)  ;  but  if  nickelous  ace- 
tate or  any  nickelous  salt  be  mixed  with  sodic  or  potassic 
acetate,  the  metal  is  completely  precipitated  as  nickelous  sul- 
phide (NiS)  on  boiling,  unless  a  large  excess  of  acetic  acid  is 
present. 

283.  Ammonic  sulphide  produces  a  dark-brown  precipi- 
tate of  nickelous  sulphide  (NiS),  which  is  slightly  soluble  in 
excess,  forming  a  dark-brown  solution,  from  which  it  may  be 
completely  precipitated  by  boiling : 

.    Ni(N03)2  +  NH4HS=NiS+NH4N03  +  HN03. 

Nickelous  sulphide  is  solvhle  with  difficulty  in  hydrocldoric 
acid  or  acetic  acid,  but  easily  soluble  in  nitric  or  nitrohydro- 
chloric  acids. 

384.  Ammonic  hydrate  produces  no  precipitate  if  the  solu- 
tion contains  ammonic  chloride  or  free  acid.  K  the  solution 
is  neutral,  a  partial  precipitate  of  nickelous  hydrate  [NI(0H)2] 
is  produced,  a  portion  remaining  in  solution  as  a  double  salt 
with  the  ammonic  salt  [Ni(N03)2  +  2NH4N03].  The  precipi- 
tate formed  is  soluble  in  excess,  forming,  after  standing,  a  blue 
solution,  from  which  nickelous  hydrate  may  be  precipitated 
by  sufficient  potassic  hydrate. 

285*  Potassic  hydrate  produces  an  apple-green  precipi- 
tate of  NICKELOUS  HYDRATE,  iusoluble  in  excess,  soluble  in  am- 
monic salts. 

Ni(N03)2+2KH0=Ni(0H)2-f.2KN03. 


/ 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  105 

286.  FoTASBio  FERRocTANroE  produces  a  greenish-white 
precipitate  in  flocks,  consisting  of  nickelons  ferrocyanide 
(NigFcaCyg)  and  some  potassic  ferrocyanide,  soluble  in  am- 
nionic hydrate,  insoluble  in  ammonic  salts  and  in  hydro- 
chloric acid. 

287.  Potassic  febbtoyanide  produces  a  yellowish-green  pre- 
cipitate of  nickelous  ferricyanide  (Nl2Fe2Cy,2),  insoluble  in 
hydrochloric  acid;  soluble  in  ammonic  hydrate.  No  precipi- 
tate is  produced  in  ammonic  solutions  of  nickel.  This  dis- 
tinguishes nickel  from  cobalt.     (See  §  276.) 

288.  PoTAssio  CYANms  produces  a  yellowish-green  precipi- 
tate of  nickelous  cyanide  [Ni(CN)2]  : 

Ni(N03)2  +  2KCN  =  Ni(CN)2+2KN03. 

Soluble  in  excess,  forming  a  brownish-yellow  solution  consist- 
ing of  a  double  cyanide  of  nickel  and  potassium  [Ni(CN)2  + 

2KCN] : 

Ni(CN)2+2KCN=2KCN.Ni(CN)2=K2NiCy4. 

If  sulphuric  or  nitric  acid  be  added  to  the  solution,  the 
potassic  cyanide  is  decomposed,  and  nickelous  cyanide  is 
reprecipitated,  which  is  only  soluble  with  diflSiculty  in  these 
acids,  but  more  so  on  boiling.    (See  §  274.) 

Mercuric  oxide  decomposes  the  solution  of  the  double  salt 
[2KCN.Ni(CN)2],  precipitating  nickelous  hydrate : 

HgO+2KCN.Ni(CN)2  +  H20=NiH202  +  2KCN.Hg(CN)2. 

' — • — ' 

Cobaltocyanide  is  not  decomposed  by  mercuric  oxide  or 

alkaline  hypochlorites. 

289.  Potassic  NrrErrE  produces  no  precipitate,  even  in 
concentrated  solutions.  This  distinguishes  nickel  from  cobalt. 
(See  §  278.) 

290.  Babio  gabbonate  produces  no  precipitate  (sulphate 
excepted). 

291.  Blowpipe. — All  nickel  salts,  when  fused  on  charcoal 
in  the  inner  flame  with  a  mixture  of  sodic  carbonate  and  potas- 
sic cyanide,  are  reduced  to  a  gray  metallic  powder,  which  is 


106  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

attracted  by  the  magnet.  The  fused  mass  is  best  washed  with 
water  in  a  mortar,  when  the  metallic  nickel  (Ni)  maybe  ob- 
tained. 

292.  Borax. — Compomids  of  nickel  give  in  the  outer  flame 
a  clear  bead  of  a  reddish-brown  color  while  hot,  and  a  pale  or 
dark  yellow  when  cold.  In  the  inner  flame  the  bead  changes 
to  gray  and  opaque,  owing  to  reduction  of  the  metal. 

Charaoteeistio  KEAcnoN8,'283,  287,  288,  292. 

MANGANESE. 

Symbol,  Mn. — ^Atomic  weight,  56. — Equivalence,  11,  IV,  and  VI. — Also  a 
pseudo-triad,  (Mng)vi.— Specific  gravity,  8.02.— Specific  heat,  0.1217.— 
Atomic  volume,  7. 

MANGANESE   OXIDES. 

Manganese  unites  with  oxygen  to  form  four  diiferent  defi- 
nite oxides : 

Mai^ganous  Oxide MnO. 

Manganoso-manganig  Oxtob      .    .  M 11304. 

Manganic  Oxide Mn203. 

Manganese  Dioxide Mn02- 

Manganous  oxide,  MnO  (protoxide),  may  be  obtained  by 
igniting  manganous  hydrate^  carbonate,  or  oxalate,  at  a  mod- 
erate heat  in  a  closed  vessel,  or  better,  in  a  stream  of  hydrogen, 
and  allowing  the  product  to  cool  in  that  gas.  liebig  and 
Wohler  recommend  mixing  equal  parts  of  fused  manganmia 
chloride  and  sodic  carbonate  with  a  small  quantity  of  sal 
ammoniac^  heating  the  mixture  until  it  fuses,  and  exhausting 
the  fused  mass  with  water  when  cold.  It  is  a  grayish-green 
powder,  which,  according  to  Despretz,  melts  at  the  heat  of  a 
forge-fire  to  a  fine  green-colored  mass. 

Manganous  htdbate  is  obtained  by  precipitating  a  man- 
ganous salt  with  "  caustic  potash,"  as  a  white,  milky,  floccu- 
lent  precipitate,  which,  on  exposure  to  the  air,  turns  brown  by 
oxidation,  and  is  ultimately  converted  into  manganic  hydrate. 


V, 

\ 


/ 


( 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


\ 


According  to  H.  Davy,  the  hydrate  contains  24  per  cent  of 
water. 

Manganic  Oxide,  MnjOa  (sesquioxide).  This  oxide  occurs 
native  as  braunite  (91-97  per  cent  MnjOa).  May  be  obtained 
by  heating  manganic  hydrate  to  low  redness.  According  to 
Schneider,  all  the  lower  oxides  are  converted  into  sesqnioxide 
by  strong  ignition  in  oxygen  gas.  Manganic  oxide,  when 
strongly  ignited  in  the  air  or  in  a  closed  vessel,  gives  off 
oxygen,  and  leaves  mangai^oso-manganic  oxide.  Hot  strong 
Bnlphuric  acid  reduces  it  to  mcmganoxis  oxides  and  dissolves  it 
with  evolution  of  oxygen  gas. 

Manganic  hydbatb,  MnaHjO^.  Found  native  as  manges 
nite  or  gray  mangcmese  ore.  It  is  found  when  manganous 
hydrate  is  exposed  to  the  air.  Artificially  prepared,  it  is  a 
dark-brown  powder,  light,  and  capable  of  soiling  very  strongly. 
When  boiled  with  concentrated  nitric  acid,  it  is  resolved  into 
manganous  oxide,  which  dissolves,  and  a  hydrated  peroxide  as 
a  residue  (Berthier).  Dissolves  in  cold  hydrochloric  acid, 
forming  numganio  chloride. 

Manganoso-manganio  oxide,  MngO^  =  MnO.MnjOg  (red 
oxide  of  manganese),  occurs  native  as  hausmannite  (98-99.44 
per  cent  MngO^).  When  manganous  oxide,  nitrate  or  carbonate 
is  strongly  ignited  in  contact  wtih  air,  or  when  either  of  the 
other  oxides  is  subjected  to  very  strong  ignition.  This  oxide 
is  very  easily  prepared.  When  heated  to  whiteness  with  char- 
coal, it  is  reduced  to  metallic  manganese.  Hot  sulphuric  acid 
dissolves  it,  forming  manganous  sulphate  and  liberating  oxygen : 

MngO^+SHaSO^-l-  A<J=3MnS04  +  8H20  +  0. 

Hot  hydrochloric  acid  dissolves  it  with  liberation  of  chlorine. 

Mn304  +  8HCl-|-A<J=3MnCl2+4H20-|-2CL 

Manganese  dioxide  (Mn02)  (peroxide),  occurs  native  as 
pyrolusite  or  polianite.  When  manganoso-manganic  oxide  or 
manganic  oxide  is  boiled  with  strong  nitric  acid,  manganese  di- 
oxide is  produced,  or  when  manganous  carbonate  is  heated  in  an 
open  vessel  to  260°  C. ;  and  any  portion  of  carbonate  that  may 


108  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

then  remain  undecomposed,  may  be  removed  by  cold  and  very 
dilute  hydrocbloric  acid ;  whereupon,  according  to  Forchham- 
mer,  pure  manganese  dioxide  remains  behind.  When  heated 
alone,  manganese  dioxide  is  converted  into  manganoso-man- 
ganic  oxide.  When  drenched  with  strong  sulphuric  acid,  it  gives 
up  one-fourth  of  its  oxygen,  and  yields  a  dark-red  solution  of 
KANGANiG  SULPHATE  (MngSSO^).  With  cold  hydrochloric  acid» 
it  forms  manganic  ohloeide  (MngClg) ;  on  heating ^  manganous 
chloride  (MnCl2)  is  obtained  with  evolution  of  chlorine. 

Hydbates  of  manganese  dioxide.  In  the  spontaneous  de- 
composition of  mauganates  or  permanganates  dissolved  in 
water  or  in  dilute  acid,  a  black-brown  hydrated  dioxide  is  pre- 
cipitated, which  cakes  together  to  a  black  coherent  mass 
CONTAINING  Mn02.H20  (Mitschcrlich).  The  same  hydrate  is 
formed  when  manganous  carbonate  suspended  in  water  is 
treated  with  chlorine,  and  the  black-brown  residue  is  well 
washed  with  dilute  acid  (Berthier).  A  hydrate  containing 
2Mn02H20  is  obtained  when  a  solution  of  a  manganous  salt 
is  precipitated  by  a  mixture  of  potassic  hydrate  and  potassic 
hypochlorite. — (Winkelblech). 

The  hydrate  3MnO,H20  is  deposited  on  evaporating  a 
solution  of  manganous  bromate  (Rammelsberg).  The  hydrate 
4:Mn02.H20  is  obtained  by  treating  manganoso-manganic  hy- 
drate with  strong  nitric  acid  (Berthier).  (See  Gmelin's  Hand- 
book,  iii.  206.) 

Manganese  oxides,  intermediate  in  composition  between 
the  sesquioxide  and  dioxide  are  mostly  mixtures  of  different 
oxides  (which  cannot  be  regarded  as  definite  chemical  com- 
pounds or  distinct  mineral  species),  although  there  are  one  or 
two  of  definite  composition.  Psilomelane,  Varvacite,  Wad, 
Earthy  Cobalt,  Cupreous  Manganese,  Wad  or  Bog  Manga- 
nese, Groroilite,  Pelokonite. 

METALLIC   MANGANESE. 

293.  Heated  on  charcoal,  it  rapidly  oxidizes,  but  does 
not  melt.    Manganese  oxidizes  very  easily  when  it  is  exposed 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  109 

to  the  air  at  ordinary  temperatures,  and  must  therefore  be 

kept  under  rock-oil,  or  in  sealed  tubes.    Decomposes  water  at 

ordinary  temperature,  being  itself  oxidized. 

294.  Hydboohlobic   acid    dissolves    the   metal,   forming 

MANGANorrs  oHLOBmE  (MnCl2)  and  liberating  at  the  same  time 

hydrogen.  -*^ 

Mn  +  2HCl=MnCl2  +  2H. 

395.  NriEic  ACID,  when  dilute,  dissolves  the  metal. 

296.  Sulphuric  acid,  when  dilute,  dissolves  the  metal, 

liberating    hydrogen    and    forming    mangaxous    sulphate, 

MnS04:  ,^ 

Mn  +  H2S04=MnS04  +  2H. 

rhe  metal  prepared  by  Brunner's  process,  when  immersed 
in  strong  sulphuric  acid,  liberates  but  a  small  quantity  of 
hydrogen  at  ordinary  temperatures,  but  dissolves  on  boiling 
with  evolution  of  sulphurous  oxide.  In  dilute  sulphuric  acid 
it  dissolves  readily ;  also  in  nitric  acid,  in  very  dilute  hydro- 
chloric, and  in  acetic  acid. 

\ 
MANGANOUS  SALTS. 

Manganous  salts  have  a  pale  rose  tint,  which  is  not  de- 
stroyed by  sulphurous  or  hydrochloric  acid,  and  is  therefore 
characteristic.  Some  of  the  salts  are  soluble  in  water,  the  rest 
in  acids.  The  ones  soluble  in  water  are  decomposed  at  a  red 
heat  (sulphate  excepted).  The  solutions  do  not  alter  vege- 
table colors. 

Solution  he8t  fitted  for  the  reacUons  : 

Manganous  Sulphate  (MnSO^). 

297*  Hydbosulphueio  acid  produces  no  precipitate  in  acid 
solutions,  but  from  a  neutral  solution  of  manganous  acetate  a 
flesh-colored  precipitate  is  formed  after  a  while;  but  not  if  the 
solution  contains  free  acetic  acid. 

298.  Ammonig  sulphide  produces  in  neutral  solutions  a 


110  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

flesh-colored  precipitate  of  hjdrated    makganotts    sulphidb 
(MnS.xH20): 

MnS04+NH^HS+xH20=MnS.xH20  +  NH4HS04. 

' . ' 

The  precipitate  is  insoluble  in  excess,  but  dissolves  in  adds, 
even  in  acetic  acid.  The  precipitate,  on  exposure  to  the  air, 
oxidizes,  and  its  surface  turns  brown.  The  separation  of  the 
precipitate  is  much  facilitated  by  the  presence  of  amnionic 
chloride. 

299.  Ammonio  hydbate  produces  in  neutral  solution  & 
white  precipitate  of  manganous*  hydbate  [Mn(0H)2]  : 

MnS04  +  2NH^H0=Mn(0H)2  +  (NH^)2S04. 

' » ' 

In  solutions  containing  free  acid  or  ammonic  salts  it  pro- 
duces no  precipitate;  but  if  suflBicient  anmionic  hydrate  is 
added,  and  the  solution  exposed  to  the  air,  all  the  manganese 
is  deposited  as  brown  manganic  hydbate  (MnjOa-HgO). 
Manganous  hydrate,  on  e2q)osure  to  the  air,  oxidizes,  and  is. 
converted  into  manganic  hydrate. 

300.  PoTAssio  HYDBATE  produccs  a  white  precipitate  of 

MANGANOUS   HYDBATE: 

MnS04  +  2KH0=Mn(0H)2  +  K2S04. 

' , ' 

The  precipitate  soon  absorbs  oxygen  from  the  air  and  tnma 

brown;  if  collected  on  a  filter  and  washed,  it  ultimately 

changes  to  manganic  hydbate. 

301.  Potassio  or  sodig  cabbonate  produces  a  white  pre- 
cipitate, which,  after  washing  with  boiling  water  and  dried  in 
vacuo  of  sulphuric  acid,  has  tiie  composition  2MnC03.H20 : 

2MnS04  +  2K2C03  +  H20  =  2MnC03.H20  +  2K2S04. 

' , ' 

If  atomic  quantities  of  manganous  chloride  and  sodic  car- 
bonate are  mixed  together,  the  precipitate  will  contain  5Mn 
C03.2Mn(0H)2. 

303.  PoTAssic  FEBBOCYANiDE  produccs  a  white  precipitate, 
soluble  in  hydrochloric  acid.     When  the  manganous  salt  ia 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  IH 

poured  into  the  potassic  ferrocyanide,  the  precipita^  contains 
both  manganese  and  potassium.  Both  precipitates  are  tinged 
with  red. 

303.  Potassic  febbiotanide  produces  a  brown  precipitate 
which  is  t7i8oluble  in  acids. 

304.  Plumbic  dioxide  (or  red  lead),  when  saturated  with  a 
fluid  containing  manganous  oxide  (free  from  chlorine)  and  a 
little  nitric  acid  (free  from  chlorine),  and  the  mixture  boiled 
and  allowed  to  settle,  the  fluid  is  of  a  purple-red  color  from 
the  formation  of  permanganic  acid  (Crum)  or  manganic  ni- 
trate (Rose). 

The  color  is  very  perceptible  after  the  excess  of  lead-oxide 
has  settled,  and  is  the  most  delicate  test  for  manganese  in  the 
wet  way. 

305.  Babio  oabbokate  produces  no  precipitate  except  with 
the  sulphate. 

306.  Febbous  salt.  To  determine  the  amount  of  ferrous 
salt  in  a  solution,  by  adding  potassic  permanganate  and  sul- 
phuric (or  hydrochloric)  acid,  the  reaction  is  as  follows: 

10FeS04+K2Mn208  +  8H2S04=5Fe23S04+K2S04  +  2MnS04 

+  8H2O. 
K2Mn2O8+10FeCl2  +  16HCl=2MnCl2  +  2KCl+5Fe2Cl5-l-8H2O. 

307.  Mangaitbse  salts  of  any  oxide,  when  boiled  with 
hydrochloric  acid,  exhibit  the  reactions  of  manganous  salts, 

308.  Manganates.  Potassic  manganate^  when  boiled 
with  water,  decomposes  and  precipitates  Mn02*H20 : 

3K2Mn04  +  8H20  =  Mn02.H20  +  K2Mn208+4KH0. 

This  change  is  retarded  by  excess  of  alkali.  Nitric,  sul- 
phuric, or  hydrochloric  acid,  effects  the  change  at  once ;  with 
hydrochloric  acid  the  red  solution  gradually  becomes  brown, 
and  when  heated,  colorless,  owing  to  the  formation  of  mangan- 
otis  chloride.  The  solution  is  also  decolorized  by  sulphurous 
and  sulphydric  acid  and  other  reducing  agents. 

K2Mn04  +  2H2S04  =  MnS04+K2S04-|-2H20. 


112  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

309.  Eebmanganateb  form  a  deep  purple-red  colored  soln- 
tion.  They  are  veiy  easily  reduced  by  organic  compounds, 
and  by  all  reducing  reagents,  such  as  hydrochloric,  sulphur- 
ous, arsenious,  nitrous,  and  sulphydric  acids,  and  ferrous  salts 
(see  §  310),  stannous  salts,  etc. ;  the  solution  first  becoming 
green  and  ultimately  colorless. 

310.  Manganic  salts  in  solution  are  red,  and  yield  with  po- 
tassic  hydrate,  in  the  absence  of  amnionic  chloride^  a  black  pre- 
cipitate of  manganous  hydrate.  They  are  easily  reduced  to 
manganous  salts  by  merely  heating,  also  by  hydrochloric,  sul- 
phurous, or  nitrous  acid  or  any  organic  compound ;  the  liquor 
then  becomes  colorless.  Ammonic  sulphide  first  reduces  them 
to  manganous  salts,  then  precipitates  the  flesh-colored  sulphide. 

311.  Blowpipe. — If  a  manganese  compound  be  fused  on 
charcoal  or  on  a  piece  of  platinum-foil  in  the  outer  flame  of 
tho  blowpipe  with  sodic  carbonate,  there  is  produced  sodic 
manganate  (Na2Mn04),  which  is  green  while  hot,  and  bluish- 
green  when  cold. 

Potassic  nitrate  may  be  added  with  advantage.  The  mix- 
ture should  be  heated  on  the  under-side  of  the  platinum-foil 
in  the  hottest  part  of  the  flame. 

312.  Borax.  Any  compound  of  manganese,  when  heated 
with  borax  or  phosphorous  salt,  in  the  outer  blowpipe  flame, 
forms  an  amethyst-colored  bead  containing  manganoso-man- 
ganic  oxide,  which  becomes  colorless  in  the  inner  flame,  by 
reduction  of  that  compound  to  manganous  oxide.  This  test  is 
very  sensitive,  and  serves  to  distinguish  manganese  from  other 
metals,  when  not  disguised  by  other  metals  forming  colored 
beads. 

Chaeacteeistic  Reactions,  397,  398,  304,  307,  311, 
312. 

SCHEME   FOR  THE   SEPARATION   AND   DETECTION   OF 

THE   MEMBERS  OF  GROUP   III. 

The  solution  to  be  examined  is  supposed  to  contain  a  chro- 
mic salt,  a  salt  of  aluminum,  zmc,  irox,  cobalt,  nickel  and 
manganese. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAJU 


113 


Add  AMMONIO  CHLORIDE,  then  AMMONIO  HYDBATE  {uTltU  alkd* 

Une\  And  then  ammonig  suLPHms.     There  will  be  precipi- 
tated: 

Alt(OH)e  +  Cr,0,.9H,0  +  ZnS.H,0  +  FeS.(xH,0 1)+ CoS  +  NiS  +  MnS.xH,0. 

»    ■■  ■      y  .  ■■!/ 

Filter  off  the  precipitate,  and  wash  it;  dissolve  it  in  the 
Ainnel  with  hydrochloric  acid ;  then  wash.    There  will  be  a 


RssiDnii. 

The  residae  will  contain 

CoS  +  NiS  +  S. 

Test  the  residne  with 
borax  bead  (after  wash- 
ins  well). 

Hoe  bead  aignifiea^ 
Cobalt. 

Brown  bead  BlgnifleB— 
Nickel. 

8eeS|aT7,Sg8. 

Place  precipitate  In  a 
porcelain  cmcible,  paper 
and  all;  bum  it:  dlBsolve 
residue  in  hot  nitric  acid ; 
dilute,  filter,  and  concen- 
trate filtrate  to  a  few 
drope.  Add  acetic  acid, 
then  potasaic  nitrite,  filter 
off  the  precipitate  and 
waBh. 

Feltbatv.  Feboipitate. 


Add  po 
tassic  by 
drate :     a 
precipi 
tate  equal 
n  i  ckeiouB 
hydrate 

NI(OH),. 

■See  {  mSot 
Filter  off 
precipi- 
tate  and 
wa^h  it ; 
then  test 
with  bo- 
rax bead, 
to  be  enre. 
Bee|21tt. 


A  vellow 
precipitate 

C0,0,.2N,0,. 

6KN0..2H,0. 

See  I S74. 

Test  pre- 
cipitate with 
borax  bead, 
to  be  sure. 
See|877. 


Solution. 

The  Bolntion  will  contain  the  Zn,  Mn,  F«.  Al,  Or,  and  H,S. 
Add  a  few  crystals  of  potasBic  chlorate,  and  boil  to  destroy  H,S, 
and  to  change  FeO  to  Fe,0..  Add  an  excess  of  potaaaic  hydrate, 
filter  off  the  precipitate  and  waah. 


Solution. 

Solution  will  con- 
tain some  of  the  Zn, 
Al,  Or.  Boil  the  so- 
lution ;  a  precipitate 
will  be  Cr,0,.gH,0. 
See  I  210.  FUter, 
wash,  and  test  the 
precipitate  with  bo- 
rax bead.  See  1 219. 
Divide  filtrate  into 
two  parts. 

2d  Pabt. 


iBT  Part. 

Add  by- 
drosu  1- 
phn  r 1 c 
acid  or 
a  m  monic 
pulphide  ; 
a  precipi- 
tate is 

ZnS.H,0. 

See$«286, 
237.  Test 
according 
toS288. 


Add  hy- 
drochloric 
acid,  then 
amnionic 
hydrate ; 
a  precipi- 
tate     is 

Al,(OH).. 

See  I  208. 
Test  ac- 
cordinffto 
i206. 


Fbboipitatb. 
DtTide  precipitate  into  three  parts. 


IST  Part. 

Dissolve 
in  hydro- 
chlor i  c 
acid.  Then 
add  potas- 
slc  sulpho- 
c  van  ate, 
which  col- 
ors  the 
solution 
a  deep 
blood-rea, 
8  h  o  w  1  ng 
the  pres- 
ence  of 
IRON.  Sec 
$256.  Test 
I  also  with 
p  o  t  a  8  B  ic 
ferrocyan- 
ide,  1 2S6. 


2d  Part. 

FaBe  on  platinnm- 
foll  with  sodic  ni- 
trate and  Bodlc  car- 
bonate. If  green, 
manganese  is  pres- 
ent. See  §810.  Dis- 
solve residue  in 
water  and  filter. 


Solution. 

Contains 
Cr.  Mn.  Zn. 
Add  acetic 
acid  and 
divide  in 
halves. 

Ut  Half. 

Add  plum- 
bic ace- 
tate; a 
yell  ow 
precipi- 
tate is 

PbCrO,. 

See  last 
part  of; 
$216. 

Sd  Haif. 

Add  alco 
hoi.  Boil: 
filter,  if 
necessary; 
then  aad 
hydro  sul- 
p  h  u  r  i  c 
acid'  a 
prcci  pi- 
tate  is 

ZnS.H,0. 

See  S  226 


Rbbidub. 

Contains 
Mn.Fe.Zn. 

Dissolve 
in  hydrc- 
chloric 
acid.  Add 

Eotassic 
yd  rate 
in  excess, 
filter,  add 
to  filtrate 
hydrosul- 
phu  ri  c 
acid:  a 
precipi- 
tate is 

ZnS.H,0. 

See  $226. 


8d  Part. 

Dissolve 
in  warm 
hvdrochlo- 
rfc  acid. 
Add  Bodic 
carbonate, 
a  m  m  onic 
hydrate 
and  baric 
carbon- 
ate :  shake 
well;  a  pre- 
cipitate is 
a  greenish 
chromic 
hydrate 
and  baric 
salt.  Fil- 
ter,  add 
a  m  m  onic 
hydrate  to 
filtrate; 
then  a  m- 
monic  sul- 
p  h  i  d  e  . 
which  will 
show  the 
p  r  e  s  ence 
uf  manga- 
nese by  a 
precipi- 
tate 

MnS.xH,0. 

See  1 29a 


aROUP  IV. 

Metals  NOT  precipitated  by  Hydrochloric  Acid,  Hydbo- 
8ULPHURIC  Acid,  or  Ammokic  Sulphide. 

FIRST   DIVISION 

Will  contain  the  metals  which  are  precipitated  by  ammonio 
carbonic  in  presence  of  ammokic  chloride,  yiz. :  Babium, 
Strontium,  and  Calcium. 

SECOND  DIVISION 

Will  contain  the  metal  which  is  not  precipitated  by  ammonic 
carbonate  in  presence  of  ammonic  chloride,  bnt  is  precipi- 
tated by  Bodic  phosphate,  viz.,  Magnesium. 

FIRST   DIVISION. 

BARIUM. 

Symbol,  Ba. — ^Atomic  weight,  137.    EqnlyalSnce,  II  and  IV. — Beoog* 
nized  first  by  Scheele  in  1774.— Isolated  by  Davy  in  1808.— Bp.  Ghr.«  400. 

BARIUM   OXIDES. 

Baiinm  unites  with  oxygen  to  form  two  oxides :  BaO  and 

BaOa- 

Babic  oxide,  BaO.    When  baric  iodate  is  ignited,  all  the 

iodine  is  given  oft*  and  f  of  its  oxygen,  there  then  remaining 

baric  oxide.  ,,.a^ 

Ba(l03)2+A<J+BaO  +  l205. 

When  baric  carbonate  is  exposed  to  the  strongest  heat  of  a 
forge-fire,  baric  oxide  and  carbonic  oxide  are  produced. 

BaCOg  +  A  «J=  BaO + COj. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAJU  115 

Baric  oxide  is  a  grayish-wbite,  friable  ma&s,  baving  a  specific 
gravity  of  4.7  (Karsten).  5.54:  (Filbol).  Heated  in  vapor  of 
carbon  disulpbide,  it  forms  baric  carbonate  and  sulpbide  * 

3BaO  +  CSa  +  A  <J=  BaCOg  +  2BaS. 

Baric  hydbate,  BaO.HjO  or  Ba(0H)2.  Wben  baric  oxide 
is  moistened  with  water,  it  combines  into  hydrate  with  great 
evolution  of  temperature.  May  be  prepared  by  boiling  the 
sulphide  with  water  and  cupric  oxide : 

6BaS+6H20  +  8CuO+A<5=5Ba(OH)2+BaS2H204+4Cu2S. 

As  the  last  two  compounds  are  insoluble  if  the  liquid  is  fil- 
tered and  the  filtrate  allowed  to  cool,  crystals  of  hydrate  are 
deposited  as  the  liquid  cools  [Ba(0H)2.8H20]. 

Basic  dioxide,  Ba02,  may  be  obtained  by  heating  baric 
oxide  or  hydrate  to  low  redness  in  a  current  of  pure  oxygen 
or  of  air  free  from  carbonic  oxide.  It  is  a  gray  powder.  When 
thrown  into  water  it  diffuses  itself,  forming  a  hydrate  which 
probably  contains  Ba02.3H20. 

Argentic  oxide,  chloride,  sulphate  or  carbonate  introduced 
into  an  acid  solution  of  baric  dioxide,  is  partly  reduced  to 
metallic  silver.  Silver  compounds  in  small  quantities  or  other 
similar  compounds  are  capable  of  reducing  large  quantities  of 
baric  dioxide.  Iodine,  on  the  other  hand,  decomposes  it  in 
exactly  atomic  proportions: 

.     Ba02  +  i2=Bal2  4-20. 

METALLIC   BARIUM. 

313.  Watee.  Barium  decomposes  water  at  ordinary  tem- 
peratures, forming  bakio  oxide  and  evolving  hydrogen  : 

Ba+H20=Ba04-iH. 

314.  Heated  in  the  air,  it  bums  with  a  dark-red  light 
(Davy),  but  heated  before  the  oxyhydrogen  blowpipe,  it  bums 
with  a  greenish  flame  (Clarke). 


116  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

315.  Sulphuric  acid  converts  the  metal  very  rapidly  into 
BABio  SULPHATE,  with  ovolution  of  hydrogen. 

Ba+H2S04=BaS04+2H. 

BARIC   SALTS. 

All  baric  salts  are  colorless,  except  those  which  have  a 
colored  acid.  Most  of  the  salts  are  insoluble  in  water,  but 
dissolve  in  hydrochloric  acid,  with  the  exception  of  baric  sul- 
phate and  silicofluoride,  which  are  insoluble  in  any  acid. 
The  soluble  salts  do  not  aflfect  litmus-paper.  Baric  nitrate 
and  chloride  are  insoluble  in  alcohol.  All  but  baric  chloride 
are  decomposed  upon  ignition. 

Solution  best  fitted  for  the  reactions : 

Basic  Chlobide,  BaCl2. 

316.  Ammonic  hydrate  (pure)  forms  no  precipitate  even 
in  the  most  concentrated  solutions. 

317.  PoTAssic  HYDRATE  (free  from  carbonate)  produces  in 
concentrated  solutions  a  precipitate  of  baric  hydrate  : 

BaCl2-|-2KH0  +  8H20=Ba(0H)2.SH20  +  2KCl. 

' , ' 

Water  dissolves  the  bulky  precipitate  [Ba(0H)2.8H20]. 

318.  SoDio  or  ammonic  carbonate  produces  a  white  pre- 
cipitate of  BARIC  CARBONATE : 

BaCla  +  NagCOa  =  BaCOg  +  2NaCl. 

, — , — , 

BaCla + (N  H4)2C03 = BaCOa  +  2N  H^Cl. 

Baric  carbonate  is  slightly  soluble  in  ammonic  chloride,  so 
that  if  the  solution  is  veiy  dilute  no  precipitate  is  produced. 
With  ammonic  carbonate,  in  acid  solution,  a  precipitate  is 
only  produced  upon  heating  the  fluid  when  the  last  reagent  is 
used. 

319.  Sulphuric  Acm  and  all  soluble  sulphates  tlirow 
down  from  all  baric  salts,  whether  neutral  or  acid,  a  white 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  117 

pulverulent  precipitate  of  basic  sulphate,  which  ifi  insoluble 
in  nitric  or  hydrocliloric  acid  even  at  a  boiling  heat : 

BaCl2+  H2S04=BaS04-|-2HCl. 

^     ^     ' 

BaClg  +  Na2S04=  BaSO^  +  2NaCL 

According  to  Harting,  a  solution  of  baric  chloride  containing 
1  pt.  of  barium  in  71,000  pts.  of  water  becomes  turbid  with  sodic 
sulphate  after  the  lapse  of  half  an  hour.  A  solution  of  nitrate 
in  200,000  to  400,000  pts.  of  water,  after  some  minutes  gives 
a  cloudiness,  but  in  800,000  pts.  of  water  the  reaction  is  no 
longer  visible. — (Lassaigne.) 

320.  SoDio  PHOSPHATE  produccs,  in  neutral  or  alkaline 
solutions,  a  white  precipitate  of  baric  phosphate  (BaPO^),  which 
is  soluble  in  free  acid.  If  ammonic  hydrate  is  added,  a  por- 
tion of  the  precipitate  is  converted  into  basic  baric  phosphate 
(SBaO.PgOg  or  BaaPgOe). 

331.  PoTAssio  CHROMATE  produccs  a  yellow  precipitate  of 

BAiaO  CHBOMATE  (BaCrO^) : 

BaCla  +  K2Cr04=  BaCrO^ + 2KCL 


■V— 


The  precipitate  dissolves  in  nitric,  hydrochloric,  or  excess 
of  chromic  acid,  forming  a  reddisli-yellow  colored  solution, 
from  which  it  may  be  precipitated  by  ammonic  hydrate. 

PoTAssic  BiGHBOMATE  may  bo  used. 

322.  PoTAssic  OXALATE  produces  a  white  precipitate  of 
BARiG  OXALATE  (Ba2C408.2H20),  soluble  in  hydrochloric  and 
nitric  acid : 

BaCl2  +  2KC204+H20  =  Ba2C408.2H20  +  2KC]. 

-^ , ' 

This  precipitate  dissolves  in  oxalic  acid  and  acetic  acid ;  but 
the  solution  rapidly  deposits  in  tlie  form  of  a  crystalline  powder 

of  an  HYDROBABIG  OXALATE  (Ba204C4H2.4H20). 

333.  IIydrofluosilicic  acid,  when  added,  produces  a  pre- 
cipitate of  microscopic  crystals,  insoluble  in  excess  of  the  acid, 
composed  of  babig  siLiooFLuoBmE  (BaSiF^). 

BaCl2  +  SIH2Fg  =  BaSiFg  +  2HCL 
2HF.SIF4=SIHoFc. 


118  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

The  precipitate  is  nearly  insoluble  in  nitric  and  hydrochloric 
acid.  This  reaction  will  detect  one  part  of  baric  chloride  in 
3800  pts.  of  water.  Alcohol  favors  the  precipitation.  Stron- 
tium compounds  not  heiyig  precipitated  by  silicofluoric  acid, 
are  therefore  easily  detected  from  barium  compounds  and  vice 
versa. 

324.  Heated.  Baric  salts,  when  heated  with  dilute  alco- 
hol, impart  to  the  flame  a  gbeenish-tellow  color  (not  very 
characteristic).  When  heated  in  the  inner  blowpipe  flame, 
the  outer  flame  is  colored  yellowish-green.  This  flame,  when 
viewed  through  green  glass,  appears  blue-green. 

Chabactesistio  Beaotions,  316,  319,  320,  324,  323. 

STRONTIUM. 

Symbol,  Sr. — Atomfc  weight,  88. — Equivalenoe,  11  and  IV. — DietingtuBhed 
by  Hope  in  1792. — Prepared  pnre  by  Matthiefleen  in  1865. — Atomic  volume, 
84.56.— Specific  gravity,  2.54.— Electric  condnctivity,  6.71  (at  68-62''  F.). 

STRONTIUM  OXIDES 

Strontium  unites  with  oxygen  to  form  two  oxides :  Stbontio 
oxide  and  stbontio  peeoxide. 

Strontio  oxide,  SrO,  may  be  prepared  by  heating  strontic 
nitrate  to  redness,  or  by  exposing  the  carbonate,  either  alone 
or  mixed  with  charcoal,  to  the  strongest  heat  of  a  forge-fire. 
It  is  a  grayish-white  porous  mass  of  specific  gravity,  3.0  to 
4.0  (Davy),  3.932  (Karsten),  infusible,  not  volatile,  and  glows 
in  the  blowpipe  flame  with  a  dazzling  white  light. 

Strontio  Hydrate,  SrO.H20=Sr(OH)2,  may  be  produced  by 
adding  atomic  quantities  of  water  to  strontic  oxide,  when  the 
mass  becomes  hot,  and  the  strontia  hardens  to  a  crvstalline 
hydrate.  On  dissolving  the  hydrate  with  five  or  six  pts.  of 
boiling  water,  filtering  hot,  and  leaving  the  solution  to  cool, 
needle-shaped  transparent  crystals  of  [Sr(0H)2.8H20]  are  de- 
posited, which  deliquesce  when  exposed  to  the  air.  When 
heated  to  100°  C,  or  above,  they  give  off  fifty  per  cent,  of 
water  and  leave  strontic  hydrate  [Sr(0H)2]. 

Strontio  peroxtoe  is  obtained  as  hydrate  in  shining  scales  by 
mixing  "strontia  water"  with  hydrogen  peroxide. — (Thenard.) 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  119 

METALLIC   STRONTIUM. 

325.  Heated  in  the  air,  it  burnB  with  a  beautiful  red  light, 
Btrontic  oxide  being  formed. 

3!36«  Acids.  Hydrochloric,  sulphuric,  and  dilute  nitric 
act  upon  strontium,  nitric  acid  often  causing  it  to  ignite. 
Concentrated  nitric  acid  does  not  act  upon  it  below  the  boil- 
ing heat. 

327.  Water  is  readily  decomposed  by  metallic  strontium, 
Btrontic  oxide  and  hydrogen  gas  being  formed. 

H20-fSr=SrO  +  2H. 

STRONTIC   SALTS. 

Strontic  chloride  deliquesces  in  moist  air,  and  dissolves  in 
absolute  alcohol:  but  strontic  nitrate  does  not  dissolve  in 
absolute  alcohol,  nor  does  it  deliquesce  when  exposed  to  the  air. 

Solution  best  fitted  for  the  reactions : 

StEONTIO  NriBATE  [Sr(N03)2]. 

328.  Ahmonig  hydrate  does  not  produce  a  precipitate 
when  added  to  strontic  nitrate. 

329.  PoTAssic  HYDBATB  produccs  a  precipitate  of  strontic 
hydrate  [Sr(0H)2.8H20]: 

Sr(N03)2+2KH0  +  8H20=Sr(0H)2.8H20  +  2KN03. 

' . ' 

This  precipitate  of  crystals  dissolves  more  easily  in  water 
than  the  corresponding  baric  salt. 

330.  Some  or  ammonic  cakbonate  produces  a  white  pre- 
cipitate of  STRONTIC  CARBONATE : 

Sr(N03)2  +  Na2C03  =  SrC03  +  2NaN03. 

Sr(N03)2  +  (N  H^)2C03= SrC03  -f  2N  H^N03. 

* — ^ — ' 

Strontic  carbonate  dissolves  in  ammonic  chloride  with  more 

diflBculty  than  baric  carbonate. 


120  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

331.  SuLFHUBiG  Acm  and  sulphates  produces  a  precipitate 
of  STEONTio  SULPHATE  in  the  form  of  a  white  powder : 

Sr(N03)2  +  H2S04= SrS04  -f-  2H  NO3. 

* — i — ' 

Sr(N03)2  +  Na2S04=SrS04+2NaN03. 

If  the  solution  is  heated,  the  precipitation  is  greatly  pro- 
moted. 

Strontic  sulphate  is  far  more  soluble  in  water  than  baric 
sulphate,  therefore  from  dilute  solution  it  takes  a  longer  time 
for  it  to  separate ;  even  in  concentrated  solutions,  if  a  calcic 
sulphate  solution  is  used,  the  precipitate  takes  some  time  in 
forming.  As  strontic  sulphate  is  insoluble  in  alcohol,  if  it  be 
added  the  precipitate  will  form  far  more  rapidly.  If  the  solu- 
tion is  acid  with  nitric  or  hydrochloric  acid,  the  reaction  is  not 
so  delicate,  as  strontic  sulphate  is  perceptibly  soluble  in  those 
acids. 

If  baric  chloride  is  added  to  a  solution  of  baric  sulphate  in 
hydrochloric  acid,  then  water,  the  mixture  becomes  turbid. 
Strontic  sulphate  decomposes  by  long  digestion  in  solutions  of 
ammonic  carbonate  or  dicarbonate  ;  also,  and  far  more  rapidly, 
in  a  boiling  solution  of  one  part  of  potassic  carbonate  and 
three  parts  of  potassic  sulphate.  (This  is  an  important  dis- 
tinction from  baric  sulphate.) 

333.  Hydrofluosilicio  acid  fails  to  produce  a  precipitate 
in  dilute  or  concentrated  solutions.     (See  §  326.) 

333.  Ammonio  oxalate  produces  a  white  precipitate  from 
even  dilute  solution  of  steontio  oxalate  (SrC204.H20). 

S<N03)2  +  (NH^)2C204-fH20=SrC204.H20-|-2NH^N03. 

» , , 

Strontic  oxalate  dissolves  readily  in  nitric  and  hydrochloric 
acid,  and  slightly  in  ammonic  salts,  but  veiy  slightly  in  oxalic 
or  acetic  acids. 

334.  SoDio  PHOSPHATE  produccs  a  white  precipitate  of 
btbontic  phosphate  (Sr2H2P208  or  SrHP04): 

Sr(N03)2-l-Na2HP04=SrHP04+2NaN03. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  121 

Strontic  orthophosphate  is  a  white  powder,  insoluble  in 
water,  but  soluble  in  water  containing  acids  or  ammonie 
salts. 

335.  Heated  with  alcohol,  and  the  mixture  ignited  and 
stirred,  the  flame  will  be  a  beautiful  carmine  color.  If  strontic 
salts  be  exposed  on  platinum-wire  to  the  inner  flame  of  the 
blowpipe,  the  outer  flame  is  colored  red,  which,  when  viewed 
through  a  blue  glass,  appears  purple  to  rose-colored,  which  dis- 
tinguishes it  from  calcic  salts,  which,  under  the  same  circum- 
stances, has  a  faint  green-gray  tint. 

Characteristic  Beactions,  331,  332,  335. 

CALCIUM. 

Symbol,  Ca. —  Atomic  weight,  40. —  Eqai valence,  II  and  IV. -^Specific 
gravity,  1.5778. — ^Atomic  volume,  25.28. — Discovered  by  Davy  in  1808,  and 
in  1855  by  Matthiesaen  in  a  pare  state. 

CALCIUM   OXIDES. 

Calcium  unites  with  oxygen  to  fomi  two  oxides :  CaO  and 

Ca02. 

CALac  oxide,  CaO  (Lime),  may  be  prepared  by  heating 
any  calcic  salt  containing  an  easily  expelled  acid,  such  as  calcic 
nitrate  or  carbonate,  etc. : 

CaC03+  AcJ=CaO+C02. 

Lime  or  calcic  oxide,  when  pure,  forms  a  white  porous  mass 
of  specific  gravity  2.3  to  3.08.  Lime  takes  up  water  very 
rapidly,  generating  steam,  then  falling  to  a  powder  (known  as 
slaked  lime),  which  is  calcic  hydrate  (or  hydrate  of  lime)  [Ca 
(0H)2=Ca0.H20].  This  powder  is  soft,  and  at  a  red  heat 
gives  oif  its  water  and  is  converted  again  into  qutck-lime. 

Calcic  dioxide,  Ca02  (peroxide),  is  known  only  in  the  state 
of  hydrate,  which  falls  down  in  fine  crystalline  scales  when 
lime-water  is  mixed  with  an  aqueous  solution  of  hydrof;en 
peroxide. — (Thenabd.  ) 


122  THE  CHEMISTS*  MANUAL. 

METALLIC  CALCIUM. 

336.  Wateb  is  decomposed  by  calcium;  calcic  oxidb 
(CaO)  being  formed  and  hydrogen  being  liberated. 

H20+Ca=CaO-f2H. 

337.  Acros,  such  as  dilute  nitric,  hydrochloric,  and  sul- 
phuric, rapidly  act  upon  the  metal.  Nitric  acid  acts  so  rapidly 
sometimes  that  the  metal  ignites.  Concentrated  nitric  acid 
will  not  act  upon  the  metal  unless  heated  to  boiling. 

338.  Heated  in  the  air  on  platinum,  it  bums  with  a 
bright  flash,  oxidizing  and  forming  calcic  oxide. 

CALCIC   SALTS. 

All  ddcic  salts  dissolve  in  nitric  or  hydrochloric  acid  (calcic 
sulphate  excepted).  Calcic  bromide,  iodide,  nitrate,  acetate, 
and  many  other  organic  salts  dissolve  in  water.  Calcic  car- 
bonate, borate,  phosphate,  arsenate,  and  oxalate  are  insoluble 
in  water ;  the  sulphate  is  sparingly  soluble.  Calcic  chloride 
and  nitrate  are  soluble  in  absolute  alcohol,  and  deliquesce  in 
the  air. 

Solution  heat  fitted  for  the  reactions  : 

Calcic  Chloride  (CaCl2).    (Hydrated  Calcic  Chloride, 

CaCla-SHaO.) 

339.  AMMoinc  hydrate  produces  no  precipitate. 

340.  PoTAssic  hydrate  produces  a  white  gelatinous  pre- 
cipitate of  calcic  hydrate  [Ca(0H)2],  unless  the  solution  is  very 

dilute. 

CaCl2+2K0H=Ca(0H)2-h2KCl. 

341.  SoDio  carbonate  produces  a  white  precipitate  of 

CALCIC  CARBONATE  (CaCOa)  I 

CaCla  +  NaaCOa =CaC03  -|-  2NaCl. 

Calcic  carbonate  is  soluble  with  effervescence  in  nitric,  hydro- 
chloric, and  acetic  acids. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  BiANUAL.  123 

Hydrosodic  carbonate  produces  no  precipitate  in  the  cold ; 
but  on  boiling,  a  pulverulent  precipitate  is  produced  with 
escape  of  carbonic  oxide. 

342.  SuLPHUBio  Acro  and  soluble  sulphates  produce  im- 
mediately a  white  precipitate  of  hydbated  calcic  sulphate, 
unless  the  solution  is  too  dilute,  in  which  case  if  alcohol  be 
added,  the  precipitate  is  soon  deposited,  as  calcic  sulphate  is 
insoluble  in  alcohol. 

CaCl2  +  H2S04+2H20=CaS04.2H20  +  2HCL 

, , , 

CaCl2  +  Na2S04+2H20=CaS04.2H20+2NaCL 

' , ' 

Hydrated  calcic  sulphate  is  slightly  soluble  in  water,  the 

anhydrous  salt  nearly  insoluble.     1  pt.  of  hydrate  dissolves 

in  332  pts.  of  water  at  any  temperature  (Lassaigne).     The 

solubility  is  increased  by  the  presence  of  acids  and  sodic 

chloride. 

343.  Hydbofluosilioio  acid  produces  no  precipitate.  (See 
§  326.) 

344.  Ammonio  oxalate  "precipitates  hydrated  calcic 
OXALATE  (CaC204.H20)  as  a  white  pulverulent  powder,  at  the 
boiling  heat  or  in  the  cold  from  concentrated  solutions.  From 
very  dilute  solutions  (provided  there  is  no  free  mineral  acid 
present),  in  the  cold  the  precipitate  is  always  a  mixture  of 
(CaC204.H20  and  CaC204.3H20)."— {Souchat  and  Lessen.) 

CaCl2+(NH4)2C204+H20=CaC204.H20+2NH4Cl. 

» , ' 

345.  Sodic  phosphate  precipitates  hydrated  dicalcic  ortho- 
phosphate  (Ca2H2P208.xH20  or  CaHP04.xH20) : 

CaCl2  +  Na2HP04+xH20=CaHP04.xH20+2NaCl. 

If  the  solution  is  vei^  slightly  acid,  the  precipitate  forms 
more  rapidly.  The  precipitate  is  more  or  less  soluble  in  acids 
according  to  the  manner  of  precipitations. 

346.  Heated.  When  alcohol  is  burnt  on  soluble  calcic 
salts,  the  flame  is  red  tinged  with  yellow ;  viewed  through  a 
green  glass,  the  flame  appears  siskin-green;  through  a  blue 


124  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

glass,  a  &int  green-gray  tint.  The  hydrated  chloride  and  a 
few  other  calcic  compounds,  when  heated  in  the  blowpipe- 
flame  on  platinnm-wire,  impart  a  red  color  to  the  flame,  similar 
to  that  of  strontium,  but  less  intense ;  the  color  disappears  as 
soon  as  the  salts  are  dehydrated,  and  does  not  appear  at  all  if 
baric  salts  are  present. 

Charactebistio  Beactions,  341,  342,  343,  344,  345, 
346. 

[The  separation  and  detection  of  the  members  of  the  first 
division  of  Group  IV  will  be  given  combined  with  the  mem- 
bers of  the  second  division.] 

SECOND    DIVISION. 

MAGNESIUM. 

Symbol,  Mg. — ^Atomic  weipfht,  24. — Equivaleiioe,  II. — ^A  wire  0JS67  mm. 
in  tliickneBS  gives  a  light  equal  to  74  stearine  candles,  five  of  which  weigh  a 
pound. — Atomic  volume,  13.76. — Specific  heat,  0.245. — Specific  gravity,  1.74. 
—Electric  conductivity  at  62.6"  F.  is  25.47. 

MAGNESIUM   OXIDE. 

Magnesio  oxide,  MgO  (Magnesia),  may  be  produced  by 
burning  the  metal  in  the  air  or  in  oxygen  gas,  or  when  car- 
bonate or  nitrate  is  ignited  in  the  air.  It  is  a  white  powder, 
having  a  specific  gravity  of  3.07  to  3.200,  increased  by  ignition 
in  a  pottery-furnace  to  3.61  (H.  Rose).  It  melts  under  oxy- 
hydrogen  blowpipe,  and  is  converted  into  an  enamel  which 
scratches  glass  like  a  diamond  (Clark). 

Magnesio  hydeate,  Mg(0H)2,  occurs  native  as  brucite,  and 

is  precipitated  as  a  white  powder  on  adding  potassic  or  sodic 

hydrate  or  baryta  water  in  excess  to  the  solution  of  a  magnesic 

salt. 

MAGNESIUM. 

347.  Heated  to  redness  in  the  air  or  in  oxygen  gas,  it 
bums  with  a  bluish-white  light,  forming  magnesic  oxide. 

Mg -1-0= MgO. 

348.  Water  is  decomposed  by  the  metal  very  slowly,  but 
if  the  water  be  acidulated  the  decomposition  is  very  rapid. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  125 

349.  Htdbochlobio  Acm.  When  the  metal  is  thrown  on 
this  acid,  it  takes  fire  momentarily. 

350.  SuLPHTJBic  ACID,  when  concentrated,  dissolves  it 
filowly,  forming  magnesio  sulphate  (MgS04) : 

Mg+  H2S04=  MgS04+2H. 

A  mixture  of  sulphuric  add  and  fuming  nitric  acid  does  not 
act  upon  it  at  ordinary  temperatures. 

MAGNESIC  SALTS. 

Magnesium  salts  are  colorless  unless  they  contain  a  colored 
acid.  They  all  dissolve  in  hydrochloric  acid,  with  the  exception 
of  magnesic  metaphosphate.  Magnesic  carbonate,  borate,  phos- 
phate, arsenate,  arsenite,  and  many  organic  salts  are  insoluble  in 
water,  but  most  of  these  salts  are  soluble  in  ahmonic  chlobide  ; 
most  of  the  others  are  soluble  in  water.  They  have  a  bitter  taste. 
They  are  decomposed  on  ignition  (magnesic  sulphate  excepted). 

Solution  heat  fitted  for  tJis  reactions : 

Magnesio  Sulphate  (MgS04). 

351.  Hydbosulphubic  acid  or  ammonic  sulphide  produce 
no  precipitate. 

352.  Ahhonic  hydbate,  when  added  to  an  aqueous  pure 
solution  of  a  magnesic  salt,  produces  a  precipitate  of  magnesic 
HYDBATE  [Mg(0H)2],  which  IS  iusolublc  in  excess: 

MgSO^-f  2NH4OH  =  Mg(0H)2  -|-(NH4)2S04. 

If  the  solution  were  made  previously  acid  (no  excess),  no 
precipitate  would  be  produced,  owing  to  the  formation  of  an 
ammonic  salt.  Even  if  the  solution  is  neutral,  only  part  of 
the  magnesia  is  precipitated,  owing  to  the  formation  of  a 
double  ammonic  salt. 

353.  P0TA88IC   HYDBATE  produccs  a  white  precipitate  of 

MAGNESIO   HYDBATE  [Mg(0H)2]  I 

MgS04  +  2K0H  =  Mg(0H)2-|-K2S04. 
The  precipitate  is  insoluble  in  ammonic  salts,  especially  in 

AMMONIC   CHLOBIDE. 

354.  SoDic  CARBONATE  produccs  a  white  precipitate   of 


126  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

BASIC    MAGNE8I0    OABBONATE    [iMgCOg  +  Mg(0H)2  +  lOHjO]^ 

"  One-fifth  of  the  carbonic  oxide  liberated  in  the  process  com- 
bines with  a  portion  of  the  magnesic  carbonate  and  forms 
a  dicarbonate,  which  remains  in  solution.  But  if  the  solution 
be  boiled,  further  precipitation  takes  place  (MgCOa  +  SHjO  is 
produced)."  Ammonic  chloride  and  other  ammonic  salts  pre- 
vent the  precipitation  and  dissolve  the  precipitate  formed. 

355.  Ammonic  carbonate  produces,  after  a  time,  a  white 
precipitate  of  ammonio-magnesic  carbonate  [(NH4)2C03-f- 
MgC03-|-4H20=(NH4)2Mg(C03)2.4H20]  in  concentrated  solu- 
tion, but  not  in  very  dilute  solutions.  Ammonic  CHLORmE 
only  hinders  the  precipitation,  but  does  not  prevent  it  in  con- 
centrated solutions. 

356.  Baric  hydrate  and  calcic  hydrate  both  precipitate 
magnesic  hydrate : 

MgSO^ + Ba(0H)2= Mg(0H)2  -h  BaSO^- 
MgS04 + Ca(0H)2= Mg(0H)2 + CaS04. 

> , f 

This  reaction  affords  an  easy  means  of  separating  magnesia 
from  the  alkalies. 

357.  SoDic  PHOSPHATE,  whcu  added  to  neutral  solutions, 
produce  a  white  precipitate  of  magnesic  phosphate  (MgHP04. 
7H2O).  If  this  precipitate  be  boiled,  trimagnesic  phosphatk 
[Mg3(P04)2.7H20]  is  produced: 

MgS04-f-Na2HP04+7H20=MgHP04.7H20-f-Na2S04. 

, , , 

If  ammonic  hydrate  and  ammonic  chloride  be  added  before 
precipitating,  the  precipitate  will  be  ammonic  dimagnesio 
ORTHOPHOSPHATE  [(NH4)2Mg2(P04)2.1^H20],  which  is  a  crystal- 
line precipitate.     This  is  a  very  delicate  test  for  magnesic  salts. 

If  the  solution  is  very  dilute,  the  crystals  attach  themselves 
to  the  glass,  on  the  sides.  According  to  Harting  (J.  pr. 
Chem.,  xxii.  50),  a  solution  containing  only  ^^^(^(^^  of  mag- 
nesia gives  a  precipitate  after  twenty-four  hours  with  am- 
monic phosphate  mixed  with  free  ammonic  hydrate,  provided 
the  latter  solution  is  highly  concentrated  and  added  in  equal 
quantity. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


127 


358.  Ahmonio  oxalate,  in  concentrated  solutions,  pro- 
duces a  white  precipitate  of  kagnesic  oxalate  (MgCsO^. 
2H2O),  mixed  with  various  ammonig-magnesio  oxalates. 

359.  SuLPHUMo  Acro  produces  no  pi*ecipitate. 

360.  Hydbofluosilicio  ach)  produces  no  precipitate. 

361.  Heated  on  chasooal,  when  moistened  with  water  to 
redness,  then  moistened  with  one  drop  of  cobaltic  nitrate; 
heated  again,  first  gently,  then  intensely,  in  the  oxidation 
flame,  a  pinkish  mass  is  obtained  which  becomes  apparent  on 
cooling.  The  salt  must  be  free  from  alkalies,  alkaline  earths, 
and  heavy  metallic  oxides  to  manifest  this  reaction. 

362.  Flame.    Magnesic  salts  impart  no  color  to  the  flame. 
Ghasagtebistio  Beactions,  357,  356,  359,  360,  362. 


SCHEME  FOR  THE  SEPARATION  AND  DETECTION  OF  THE 

MEMBERS  OF  GROUP  IV. 

The  solution  to  be  examined  is  supposed  to  contain  a  salt 

of  BABIUM,  CALOITJM,  STBOIHITJM,  and  MAGNESinM. 

Add  AMMONic  OHLOBTOE,  then  AMMONiG  HYDRATE,  and  then 
AMMoxiG  CARBONATE,  there  will  be  precipitated  baric,  stron- 
TiG,  and  OALGic  carbonate  ;  filter  and  wash  the  precipitate. 


Prbcipitate. 
BaCO,  +  SrCO,  +  CaCO,. 

Dissolve  in  hydrochloric  acid ;  add 
sodic  acetate,  and  then  potassic  di- 
chromate;  a  yellow  precipitate  (Ba 
CrO,)  is  produced ;  filter  and  wash. 


Filtrate. 

Test  for  magnesic  salt  by  adding 
sodic  phosphate;  there  will  be  pre- 
cipitated magnesic  phosphate  [Mg^ 
(P0J.7H,0].    (See  §867.) 


PBBCIPrrATB. 

BaCrO,. 
(See  §  821.) 


Filtrate. 

Add  to  a  portion  of  the  filtrate  calcic  sulphate,  and 
wait  ten  mmutes,  if  a  precipitate  forms.  Add  to  the  re- 
maining portion  potasac  sulphate;  a  precipitate  is  pro- 


duced ;  filter  and  wash  thoroughly. 

Preclpitate. 

Strontic   suJphate,    SrSO^.      (See 
§831,885.) 


Filtrate. 

Add  ammonic  hydrate  and  oxalic 
acid ;  a  white  predpitate  is  CaCgO^. 
(See  §§844, 846,  842.) 


GROUP  V. 

To  this  Groap  belong  Potassium^  Sodium^  and  Ammonia, 
neither  of  which  are  precipitated  by  Hydboghlobic  Acid, 
Hydbosulphubio  Acid,  Ammokio  Sulphidb,  Ammokio  Cab- 

BOKATE,  or  SODIC  PHOSPHATE. 

POTASSIUM. 

Symbol,  K. — Atomic  weight,  39.1.— Eqiivalence,  I,  III  and  V. — Atomic 
Tolame,  44.96.— Specific  heat,  0.16956.— Fusing  point,  144.6"  F.— Specific 
gravity,  0.860.    Electric  conductivity  between  68°-71''  F.,  20.85. 

POTASSIUM   OXIDES. 

Potassium  unites  with  oxygen  to  form  three  oxides,  KjO, 
K2O2,  K2O4.  "  A  gray  suboxide  is  said  also  to  be  found  during 
the  gradual  oxidation  of  the  metal  in  the  air,  but  it  is  proba- 
bly a  mixture  of  the  protoxide  with  potassium." — (Watt.) 

POTASSIO    PBOTOXIDE,  (KjO),    Or  ANHYDEOUS    POTASH.      WhoQ 

potassium  is  exposed  to  air  free  from  moisture  in  thin  slices, 
potassic  protoxide  is  produced,  or  when  1  at.  of  potassium  is 
heated  with  1  at.  of  potassic  hydrate. 

2KH0  +  K2=2K20-|-iH. 

It  is  white,  very  deliquescent  and  caustic,  volatilizes  at  a 
high  temperature,  melts  at  a  low  heat.  Combines  with  water 
very  rapidly. 

Potassic  peroxide,  (K2O4),  or  tetroxide,  may  be  prepared 
by  heating  pure  potassium  in  a  current  of  dry  air  moderately, 
and  then  in  dry  oxj^gen  gas.  It  is  a  chrom-yellow  powder 
which  cakes  together  about  2S0°  C.  It  absorbs  moisture  from 
the  air,  and  is  decomposed  by  water  forming  potassic  dioxide, 
K2O2. 


THE  CHEMISTS*  MANUAL.  129 

PoTAssic  DioxTOB,  KpOj,  18  formed  at  a  certain  stage  in  the 
preparation  of  the  peroxide,  but  it  is  difficult  to  obtain  it  free 
from  the  yellow  peroxide.  It  is  a  white  powder ;  its  aqueous 
solution  is  prepared  by  dissolving  potassic  peroxide  in  water 
as  stated  above. 

POTASSIUM. 

363.  Heated  in  the  air  to  its  point  of  volatilization,  it 

bursts  into  flame  and  burns  rapidly  with  a  violet  light,  forming 

potassic  oxide  (KjO). 

K2-I-0=K20. 

364.  Watbe  is  decomposed  with  great  violence  by  potas- 
sium,  displacing  half  the   hydrogen   and  forming  potassio 

HYDRATE.  ..**^ 

2H20  +  K2=2KH0-f  Hg. 


"  The  escaping  hydrogen  carries  with  it  a  small  portion  of  the  vola- 
tilized metal,  and  takes  fire  from  the  heat  evolved,  burning  with  a  beauti- 
ful rose-red  flame,  while  the  metal  floats  on  the  water,  and  finally  disap- 
pears with  an  explosive  burst  of  steam  as  the  globule  of  melted  potash 
becomes  cool  enough  to  come  into  contact  with  the  water." 

POTASSIC  SALTS. 

Most  of  the  salts  are  readily  soluble  in  water.  They  are 
colorless,  unless  colored  by  their  constituent  acid.  Potassic 
sulphate,  carbonate,  phosphate,  arsenate,  and  borate  are  not 
decomposed  by  heat.  Potassic  chloride,  bromide,  iodide,  and 
hydrate  volatilize  without  decomposition  at  a  very  high  tem- 
perature.   Most  other  potassic  salts  are  decomposed  by  heat. 

Solution  heat  fitted  for  the  reactions  : 

Potassic  CnLOBroE,  KCl. 

365.  Plaitnio  dichloride  produces  a  yellow  crystalline 
precipitate  of  potassic  chloro-platinate  (2KCl.PtCl4=K2PtCl5) 
in  neutral  and  acid  solutions : 

2KC1+  PtCl4=2KCl.PtCl4. 

2KN03  +  2HCl-|-PtCl4=K2PtCle  +  2HN03. 

*       ^       ^ 

2KCIO3  +  2HCH-  PtCl4=  KaPtClg + 2HCIO3. 

9  " ^ 


130  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

In  concentrated  solution  the  precipitate  forms  immediately, 
in  dilute  solution  only  after  standing  for  some  time,  and  in 
very  dilute  solution  the  precipitate  is  only  discernible  under 
the  microscope. 

The  dilute  solution  is  best  to  be  evaporated  to  a  small  bulk, 
then  add  alcohol  and  a  little  ether  (as  potafisic  chloroplatinite 
is  not  soluble  in  alcohol  or  ether,  but  is  to  some  extent  in 
water).  As  ammonic  cHLOROPLAxiNrrE  greatly  resembles  po- 
TAssiG  GHLOBOPLAimnE,  caxc  must  be  taken  not  to  confound 
the  two. 

366.  Some  hydkotabtratb,  NaC^HgOg,  produces  a  white 
crystalline  precipitate  of  acid  potassic  tartrate  (KC4H5O5): 

KC1+  NaC4H50<j  =  KC4H50<j  +  KCl. 

'        ^        ' 

The  precipitate  is  soluble  in  180  pts.  of  cold  water,  readily 

soluble  in  acids  or  in  alkaline  solutions,  insoluble  in  alcohol. 

In  dilute  solution  the  precipitation  is  facilitated  by  addition 

of  alcohol,  also  by  agitating  the  solution  or  scratching  the  side 

of  the  vessel  with  a  glass  rod.    Better  evaporate  to  small  bulk, 

add  alcoholj  then  the  acid  sodic  tartrate. 

367.  Tartaric  acid  produces  the  same  precipitate  as  sodic 

hydrotartrate  in  neutral  or  alkaline  solutions.     If  the  solution 

is  acid,  the  acid  must  first  be  neutralized.     The  precipitate 

forms  very  rapidly  in  concentrated  solutions,  but  not  in  very 

dilute  solutions;  they  must  first  be  evaporated  to  a  small 

volume. 

KCl+H.C4H505=KC4H50g  +  HCL 

368.  Flame.  Any  potassic  salt  that  is  volatile  at  a  red 
heat  when  brought  in  contact  with  the  outer  blowpipe  flame, 
colors  the  flame  violet. 

Alcoholic  solutions  of  potassic  salts  bum  with  a  violet  flame. 
The  color  is  not  visible  in  the  presence  of  sodium  or  (lithium) ; 
but  if  viewed  through  a  plate  of  dark-blue  glass,  the  sodium 
flame  is  cut  ofl^,  and  and  the  potassium  flame  becomes  dis- 
tinctly visible  as  a  rich  reddish-violet  color. 

Characteristic  Keactioxs,  365,  366,  368* 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  131 

SODIUM. 

Symbol,  Na. — Atomic  weight,  23.— Specific  gravity,  0.973.  Atomic  toI- 
ume,  23.60.— Specific  heat,  0.29340.— Fosiiig  pgint,  207.7°  F.— Electric  con- 
ductivity between  e&*^7V  F.,  37.48. 

SODIUM    OXIDES. 

Sodium  unites  with  oxygen  to  form  two  oxides :  NasO  and 

Na202* 

SoDic  OXIDE,  NagO  (protoxide  or  anhydrous  soda).  When 
metallic  sodium  is  burnt  in  the  air,  sodic  protoxide  and  dioxide 
are  produced.  If  the  dioxide  be  exposed  to  a  very  high  tem- 
perature, the  protoxide  is  produced,  or  if  sodic  hydrate  be 
heated  with  atomic  quantities  of  metallic  sodiiun. 

NaOH  +  Na=Na20+ll 

The  specific  gravity  of  the  protoxide  is  2.805. — (BLabsten.) 
SoDio  DIOXIDE,  NagOg  (peroxide).  This  oxide  may  be  pre- 
pared by  Igniting  the  metal  in  oxygen  gas  until  constant 
weight.  It  is  a  pure  white  powder,  which  becomes  yellow  on 
heating,  and  on  cooling,  white  agaiiu  When  thrown  into 
water  little  by  little,  a  solution  of  dioxide  is  obtained.  If  this 
solution  be  evaporated  over  oil  of  vitriol,  crystals  of  sodio 
DIOXIDE  HYDRATE  are  obtained  (NajOg-SHjO).  These  crystals 
left  to  effervesce  for  nine  days  over  oil  of  vitriol,  form  another 
hydrate,  Na202.2H20. 

SODIUM. 

369*  Heated  in  the  air,  it  bums  with  a  yellowish  flame, 
forming  sodio  psotoxxde  and  dioxide. 

Na4  +  03  =  NajO  +  NagOj. 

When  simply  exposed  to  the  air,  it  oxidizes  like  potassium, 
but  not  BO  rapidly. 

370.  Water  is  decomposed  when  sodium  is  dropped  on  it ; 
hydrogen  is  evolved  while  the  metal  runs  around  on  the  sur- 
face of  the  water ;  the  hydrogen  does  not  take  fire  unless  the 
water  is  previously  heated. 


132  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

SODIC   SALTS. 

Sodic  salts  are  more  generally  soluble  than  potassic  salts. 
They  are  colorless  anless  colored  by  some  colored  acid. 

Sodic  carbonate  crystallizes  readily  whilst  potassic  carbonate 
crystallizes  with  diflSculty.  The  tabular  crystals  of  sodic  car- 
bonate effervesce  rapidly  when  exposed  to  the  air.  The  same 
applies  to  sodic  sulphate,  but  not  to  potassic  sulphate. 

Solution  heat  fitted  for  the  reacUons: 

Sodic  Chloride  (NaCl). 

371.  Tartabio  acid  or  sodic  DrrAETRA.TE  produce  no  pre- 
cipitate even  in  concentrated  solutions. 

373.  SiLicoFLUOMo  ACID  produccs  in  concentrated  solutions 
a  gelatinous  precipitate  of  sodio  silioofluoride  (4NaF.SiF4): 

4NaCl  +  4HF.SIF4=4NaF.SiF4-h4HCl. 

%        ,        / 

The  potassic  salt  (4KF.SiF4)  is  prepared  in  the  same  way. 

373.  Potassic  aced  metantimoniate  (KgO.SbjOs.THjO) 
(sometimes  called  granular  antimonate  of  potassium).  This 
salt  may  be  prepared  by  treating  antimonic  trichloride  with 
an  excess  of  potassic  hydrate  sufficient  to  redissolve  the  pre- 
cipitate first  formed,  and  adding  potassic  permanganate  till 
the  solution  acquires  a  faint  rose  color.  The  liquid  filtered 
and  evaporated,  yields  crystals  of  granular  metantiomonate 
(Reynoso).  This  salt  dissolves  readily  in  water  between  45° 
and  50°  C,  but  sparingly  in  cold  water.  It  must  be  preserved 
in  a  solid  state,  and  only  dissolved  as  required.  When  this 
solution  is  added  to  a  sodic  solution  (if  not  too  dilute),  the 
precipitate  of  sooio  acid  metantimoniate  (NagO.SbjOj-l-THjO 
or  2NaOH.Sb05  +  6H20)  is  flocculent  at  first,  but  finally  be- 
comes crystalline. 

2NaCl+K20.Sb205.7H20=Na20.Sb205.7H20  +  2KCl. 

If  the  solution  to  be  examined  contain  1  pt.  of  sodic  salt  in 
300  pts.  of  water,  the  precipitate  is  produced  immediately. 
In  dilute  solutions  the  precipitate  is  gradual,  and  is  deposited 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  133 

as  crystal  on  the  sides  of  the  glass;  in  solutions  containing 
TuW  P^"  ^^  sodic  salt  the  effect  is  apparent  after  twelve  hours. 
The  presence  of  alcohol  helps  the  precipitation.  Alkali  in  a 
free  state  retards  it,  and  the  presence  of  lithium  and  am- 
monia in  diluted  solution  spoils  the  test ;  as  they  themselves 
form  similar  precipitates,  they  should  first  be  removed,  and 
also  earth  metals  if  present. 

The  solution  to  be  tested  should  be  neutral,  or  slightly  alka- 
line, for  free  acid  would  separate  antimonic  add  from  the 
potassic  salt. 

374.  Platinio  dichloride  produces  no  precipitate  with 
sodic  solutions. 

SoDio  CHLOKOPLATINATE  is  vcry  solublc  in  water  and  alcphol. 
It  may  be  prepared  by  slowly  evaporating  a  drop  of  sodic 
chloride  with  an  excess  of  platinic  dichloride  on  a  piece  of 
glass,  when  crystals  of  sodic  chloroplatinate  appear,  which 
may  be  seen  sometimes  with  the  eye,  and  readily  by  the  help 
of  a  magnifier. 

375.  Flame.  Any  sodic  salts  colors  the  outer  blowpipe 
flame  with  a  rich  yellow  color^  which  entirely  destroys  the 
color  produced  by  any  other  metal.  Alcoholic  solutions  of 
sodic  salts  bum  with  a  yellow  flame.  The  sodic  flame  is  char- 
acterized by  its  rendering  a  crystal  of  potassic  dichromate, 
which  is  illuminated  by  its  light  colorless.  Paper  covered 
with  mercuric  iodide  when  seen  by  the  sodic  flame  appears 
yellowish-white  (Bunsen).  Viewed  through  green  glaaSj  its 
color  is  orange-yellow. — (Mebz.) 

Ghaeactebistio  Beactions,  373,  374,  375* 

AMMONIA. 

Symbol,  NH,. — ^Molecular  weight,  17. — MolectQar  Yolnme,  2. — Density, 
8.5.--One  litre  weighs  0.763  grams  (8.6  criths).— Specific  heat  (H,0=1)  is 
0.608  (Regnault).— -Specific  gravity,  0.6893  (calculated  by  H.  Davy).— Re- 
fractive power  (air=l)  is  1.309  (Dolong). — Faraday  obtained  solid  ammonia 
by  exposing  the  dry  gas  to  a  pressure  of  20  atmospheres  and  to  a  cold  of 
—76°  C. — It  is  a  white,  transparent,  crystalline  body,  which  melts  at  76°  C. 
and  has  a  higher  specific  gravity  than  ammonia  in  the  liquid  state,  which 


134  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

has  a  specific  grayitj,  0.76 ;  boiling  point  at  749  mur.,  barometric  pressure, 
-33.7'  C.  (Bnnsen).— Its  tension  at  —17.78"  C.  =  2.48  atmospheres;  at 
0"  C.  =  4.44  atm. ;  at  10.8'  C.  =  6  atm. ;  at  19.44*'  C.  =  7.60  atm. ;  at  28.31"  C. 
=  10.  atm. 

AMMONIC   HYDRATE. 

When  ammonia  gas  is  passed  into  water  it  is  rapidly  ab- 
sorbed, with  considerable  evolution  of  heat  and  with  great 
expansion. 

"Davy  found  that  1  vol.  water  at  10"  C.  and  29.8  inches  barometric 
pressure  absorbs  670  vols,  ammonia,  or  nearly  half  its  weight ;  the  specific 
gravity  of  this  solution  is  0.875.  According  to  Dalton,  water  at  even  a 
lower  temperature  absorbs  even  more  ammonia,  and  the  specific  gravity  of 
the  solution  is  0.85.  According  to  Osaun,  100  pts.  water  at  24"*  C.  absorbs 
8.41  pis.,  at  55"  C,  5.96  pts.  ammonia.  1  vol.  water,  by  absorbing  505  vols, 
anmionia,  forms  a  solution  occupying  1.5  vols.,  and  having  a  specific 
gravity  0.9 ;  this,  when  mixed  with  an  equal  bulk  of  water,  yields  a  liquid 
of  specific  gravity  0.9455,  whence  it  appears  that  aqueous  ammonia  expands 
on  dilution."— (Urb.) 

Ammonic  hydrate  or  aqueous  ammonia  (NH3-fH20= 
NH4.OH)  is  a  colorless  transparent  liquid,  smelling  of  ammonia, 
and  having  a  sharp,  burning  taste. 

Its  specific  gravity  varies  from  1.000  to  0.85,  according  to 
amount  of  ammonia  it  contains ;  its  boiling  point  varies  simi- 
larly. A  perfect  saturated  solution  freezes  between  —38°  C. 
and  —41°  C,  forming  shining,  flexible  needles ;  at  —49°  C.  it 
solidifies  to  a  gray  gelatinous  mass  without  smell  (Fourceroy 
and  Yauqnelin).  It  lost  almost  all  its  ammonia  at  or  below 
100°  C.  The  following  table,  on  next  page,  shows  the  amount 
of  real  ammonia  contained  in  ammonic  hydrate  of  different 

densities. 

AMMONIC   SALTS. 

When  ammonia  or  ammonic  carbonate  is  brought  in  contact 
with  an  acid,  the  salt  corresponding  to  the  acid  is  directly  pro- 
duced. Ammonic  salts  have  a  pungent,  saline,  bitter  taste. 
They  are  soluble  in  water  generally  with  facility ;  less  soluble 
in  alcohol  and  ether.  They  are  colorless  if  their  acids  are 
colorless.  They  are  volatile  at  a  high  temperature  with  or 
without  decomposition. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


135 


DALTON. 

H.  DAVY. 

UKE. 

Specific 
Gravity. 

g     Percentage 
•qq     Ammonia. 

BoiUng 
Point 

Specific 
Gfravlty. 

Percentage 
Ammonia. 

Specific 
Gravity. 

Percentage 
Ammonia. 

© 

©     Specific 

w     Gravity. 

1 

Percentage 
Ammonia. 

0.85 

-4"  C. 

0.8750 

32.3» 

0.8914 

27.940 

15.900 

0.86 

32.6 

+  3.5" 

0.8857 

29.25 

0.8937 

27.633 

0.9410 

14.575 

0.87 

29.9 

10" 

0.9000 

26.00 

0.8967 

27.038 

0.9455 

18.250 

0.88 

27.3 

17" 

0.9054 

25.37* 

0.8983 

26.751 

0.9510 

11.925 

0.89 

24.7 

23" 

0.9166 

22.07 

09000 

26.500 

0.9564 

10.600 

0.90 

22.2 

30" 

0.9255 

19.54 

0.9045 

25.175 

09614 

9.275 

0.91 

19.8 

37" 

09326 

17.53 

0.9090 

23.850 

0.9662 

7.950 

0.92 

17.4 

44" 

0.9385 

15.88 

0.9133 

22.525 

0.9716 

6.625 

0.93 

15.1 

50" 

0.9435 

14.58 

0.9227 

19.875 

0.9768 

5.500 

0.94 

128 

67« 

0.9476 

13.46 

0.9275 

18.550 

0.9828 

3.975 

0.95 

10.5 

63" 

0.9513 

12.40 

0.9320 

17.225 

0.9887 

2.650 

0.96 

8.3 

70" 

0.9545 

11.56 

0.9945 

1.325 

0.97 

6.2 

79" 

!  0.9573 

10.82 

0.98 

41 

87" 

0.9597 

10.17 

0.99 

2.0 

92" 

0.9616 
0.9692 

9.60 
950» 

Solution  heat  fitted  for  the  reactions : 

AmMONIO   SuLPEtATE   (NH4)2S04. 

376.  PoTASsio  HYDRATE.  If  a  solution  containing  an  am- 
nionic salt  be  treated  with  potassic  hydrate,  ammonia  is  liber- 

(NH4)2S04+2KH0=2NH3  +  K2S04+2H20. 

The  ammonia  thus  liberated  may  be  detected  by  the  smell, 
or  by  the  fiimes  generated  when  a  volatile  acid  is  brought  in 
contact  with  it.  As,  for  example,  hydboohlobio  Acro  pro- 
duces WHITE  FUMES  of  AMMONIC  CHLORIDE : 

NH3-f-HCl=NH4Cl. 

The  gas  generated  may  be  detected  by  moistened  test-paper. 
Calcic  or  sodic  hydrate  may  be  used  in  place  of  potassic 
hydrate. 

377.  Platinio  diohloride,  when  added  to  a  solution  con- 


♦Theae  nmnbers  were  determined  by  experiment;  the  rest  is  Davy 
table  by  calculation. 


136  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

taining  an  amnionic  salt,  produces  a  yellow  precipitate  of  am- 

MONIO  CHLOBOPLATINATE  [(NH4Cl)2PtCl4  =  (NH4)2PtCl5]  I 

NH4CI+  PtCl4=(NH4Cl)2.PtCl4. 

' * ' 

(NH4)2S04+2HCl+PtCl4=(NH4Cl)2+PtCl4+H2S04. 

This  precipitate  is  somewhat  lighter  in  color  than  the  cor- 
responding potassic  precipitate.  Where  the  precipitate  is 
ignited  it  is  converted  into  pure  metallic  platinum  perfectly 
free  from  chloride. 

378.  Nessleb's  Test.  If  to  a  solution  containing  an  am- 
monic  salt,  potassio  hydrate  be  added,  and  a  solution  of  mer- 
CUBIC  IODIDE  in  POTASSIO  IODIDE,  a  browD  PBEGiprrATE  or 
COLORATION  is  immediately  produced : 

NH3-|-2Hgl2=:NHg2l+3HI. 

' — » — ' 

(NH4)2S04+4Hgl2=2NHg2l  +  6HI  +  H2S04. 

• — . — ' 

This  reaction  is  by  far  the  most  delicate  test  for  ammonia. 

379.  SODIO    ACID    TARTRATE    Or   TARTARIC    AGED   produCCS    a 

white  precipitate  of  ammonic  acid  tartrate  (NH4C4H5O5): 
(NH4)2S04+2NaC4H50e=2NH4C4Hg0«  +  Na2S04. 

' »  * 

This  precipitate  is  slightly  soluble  in  cold  water,  readily  sol- 
uble in  alkaline  solutions  and  mineral  acids.  If  this  precipi- 
tate be  ignited  the  carbonaceous  residue  obtained  will  have  no 
alkaline  reactions. 

380.  SoDIO    PHOSPHO-MOLYBDATE    produCCS    a    YELLOW   PRB- 

ciPFTATE,  soluble  in  alkalies  and  non-volatile  organic  acids,  but 
insoluble  in  mineral  acids. 

381.  Flame.  Alcoholic  solutions  of  ammonic  salts  bum 
with  a  blue  or  violet  flame. 

383.  Heated.  Any  ammonic  salt,  if  heated,  either  alone 
or  with  a  fixed  alkali,  baryta,  lime,  plumbic  oxide,  etc.,  evolve 
ammonia.  Magnesia  expels  only  half  the  ammonia,  forming  a 
double  salt. 

Characteristic  Reactions,  376,  378,  382* 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


137 


SCHEME   FOR  THE   SEPARATION   AND   DETECTION   OF 

MEMBERS  OF  GROUP  V. 

The  solution  to  be  examined  is  supposed  to  contain  a  salt 
of  potassium,  sodium,  and  ammonia. 
Divide  the  solution  into  two  parts : 


First  Part. 

Add  potanic  hydrate 
and  boil,  and  test  for 
ammonia  with  hydro- 
chloric add ;  also  by 
BmeU  and  test  -  paper. 
(See  §376.)  Test  also 
with  Neasler^B  solution. 
(§878.) 


Sboond  Pabt. 

If  ammonia  has  been  found  in  "First  Part," 
evaporate  to  dryness  the  '*  Second  Part "  to  ex- 
pel all  ammonia.  Dissolve  residue  in  water; 
add  hydrochloric  acid,  then  platinic  dichloride; 
there  will  be  precipitated  potassic  chloroplati- 
nate  ;  filter  and  wash. 


PRBCnTTATE. 

K.PtCl,.    (See  §365.) 
Test  as  in  §  868. 


Filtrate. 

Evaporate  filtrate  to 
dryness;  the  presence  of 
red  circular  crystals  indi- 
cate the  presence  of  a 
sodic  salt.  Add  alcohol, 
and  test  by  flame.  (See 
§875.) 


SCHEME    FOR 

QUALITATIVE    ANALYSIS. 


THE  SUBSTANCE  FOR   EXAMINATION    IS  A  SOLID. 
PRELIMINARY  EXAMINATION.* 

This  consists  in  an  accurate  observation  of  the  physical  prop- 
erties of  the  substance,  its  form,  color,  hardness,  gravity,  and 
odor,  and  of  its  deportment  at  a  high  temperature,  either  alone 
or  in  contact  with  some  chemical  compound  which  produces 
decomposition. 

1.  The  substance  is  heated  m  a  dby  narbow  tube. 


(a).  Organic  compounds  carbonize  and  blackeuy  evolving 
empyreumatic,  inflammable  gases. 

*  The  majority  of  the  prelimhiary  teetB  are  taken  from  Manual  of  Chem. 
Anal.,  hy  Fred.  Ho£fman,  Ph.D. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  139 

(J).  The  sxibstance  rernmns  unaltered ;  indicating  absence 
of  organic  matter,  of  salts  containing  water  of  crystallization, 
and  of  volatile  compounds. 

(c).  The  substance  fuses^  expelling  aqueous  vaporsj  which 
condense  in  the  cooler  parts  of  the  tube ;  indicating  salts  with 
water  of  crystallization  (these  will  generally  re-solidify  after 
the  expulsion  of  the  water)  or  decomposable  hydrates,  which 
often  give  off  their  water  without  fusing. 

(d).  Gases  or  f  nines  are  evolved;  smell  of  iodine  from 
iodine  compounds ;  smell  of  sulphurous  oxide  from  decomposi- 
tion of  sulphates ;  smell  of  nitrogen  oxides  from  the  nitrates ; 
smell  of  ammonia  from  ammonic  salts,  from  cyanides,  or  from 
nitrogenous  organic  compounds,  in  which  latter  case  carboniza- 
tion takes  place,  and  either  cyanogen  or  empyreumatic  fumes 
escape  with  the  ammonia. 

(e).  Sublimates  are  formed  by  volatile  substances,  as  sul- 
phur and  compounds  of  ammonium,  mercury,  arsenic,  and 
antimony.  In  this  case  the  sublimate  is  removed  to  the  bot- 
tom of  the  test-tube,  and,  together  with  the  substance,  is 
covered  with  a  few  small  pieces  of  charcoal,  and  again  heated ; 
mercury  and  arsenic  form  metallic  sublimates,  the  latter  with 
the  characteristic  garlic  odor,  the  former  without.  In  another 
tube  part  of  the  substance  is  heated,  and  the  sublimate  is 
moistened  with  solution  of  potassic  hydrate ;  mercurous  chlo- 
ride turns  black;  mercuric  chloride  red;  and  anmionic  salts 
evolve  the  odor  of  ammonia. 

2.  The  substance  is  mixed  with  dried  sodio  caebonate, 

AND    heated    on    OHABCOAL    IN    THE    BEDUOING-FLAME    OF    THE 
BLOWPIPE. 

(a).  Fusion  and  absorption  into  the  coal  indicates  alkalies. 

(J).  An  infimble  white  residue^  either  at  once  or  after  pre- 
vious fusion  in  the  water  of  crystallization,  indicates  com- 
pounds of  calcium,  barium,  strontium,  magnesium,  aluminium, 
zinc,  or  tin. 

{c).  A  reduction  to  the  metallic  state  takes  place,  without 
formation  of  a  peripheric  incrustation  upon  the  charcoal.   Com- 


140  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

pounds  of  tin,  silver,  and  copper  give  malleable  shining  scales. 
Compounds  of  iron,  manganese,  cobalt,  and  nickel  are  reduced 
to  a  gray  infusible  powder ;  all  visible  upon  cutting  the  fuse 
from  the  coal,  and  triturating  and  levigating  it  in  an  agate 
mortar. 

{d).  Reduction  with  incrustation:  Antimony  compounds 
give  a  brittle  metallic  globule  and  a  white  incrustation ;  bis- 
muth, a  brittle  globule  and  a  brown-yellow  incrustation ;  lead, 
a  malleable  globule  and  a  yellow  incrustation ;  zinc  and  cad- 
mium are  reduced,  but  give,  the  former  a  white  incrustation, 
not  volatile  in  the  oxidizing  flame,  the  latter  a  brown-red  in- 
crustation. 

(e).  Arsenic  compounds  give  the  smell  of  garlic. 

(f).  Borates  and  aluminates  swell  up. 

(c/).  Sulphur  compounds  givo  an  alkaline  sulphide,  which, 
when  moistened,  leaves  a  black  stain  upon  a  clean  piece  of 
silver. 

3.*  Fuse  a  small  pobtion  together  wtth  a  bead  op 
miceocosmio  salt,  and  expose  fob  some  time  to  the  outer 
flame  of  the  blowpipe. 

(A).  The    substance    dissolves    readily,    and    rather 

LARGELY,   TO   A   CLEAR   BEAD   (WHILE   HOT). 

(a).  The  hot  bead  is  colored : 

Blue,  by  candle-light  inclining  to  violet — cobalt. 

Green,  upon  cooling,  blue;  in  the  reducing-flame,  after 
cooling,  red — copper. 

Green,  particularly  fine  on  cooling,  unaltered  in  the  reduc- 
ing-flame—chromium. 

Brownish-red,  on  cooling,  light-yellow  or  colorless ;  in  the 
reducing-flame,  red  whilst  hot,  yellow  whilst  cooling,  then 
greenish — iron. 

Dark-yellow  to  reddish,  turning  lighter  or  altogether  col- 
orless on  cooling ;  in  the  reducing-flame  unaltered — ^nickel. 

Yellowish-brown,  on  cooling,  changing  to  light-yellow  or 
losing  its  color  altogether;  in  the  reducing-flame  almost  col- 

*  From  "Qualitative  Analysis/'  Fresenios,  1870,  p.  252. 


THE   CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


143 


GROUP   II. 

SCHEME   FOR   DETECTING. 
Pb,  Cu,  Bi,  Hg,  Cd,  As,  Sb,  Sn,  Au,  R. 

Add  to  filtrate  from  Group  I  (after  testing  with  HCl),  H2S 
nntil  filtrate  smells  distinctly  of  the  reagent;  filter  off  the 
precipitate  (aft«r  passing  HjS  gas  through  solution);  wash  it. 
Lay  filtrate  aside  (test  according  to  Group  III).  If  no  pre- 
cipitate forms,  pass  on  to  Group  III.    The  precipitate  may  be : 

PbS,  CuS,  61*253,  HgS,  CdS,  AsjSx,  SbgSj^,  SnS^,  AU2S3,  PtS2. 

Add  yellow  NH^HS,  warm  gently  and  filter. 


Residue. 

FbS,  CoS,  Bi,S„  HgS,  CdS. 

Wash  well  to  remoTO  CL    (Test 
With  A«NO,.) 
Boil  prec.  with  HNO, ;  filter;  wash. 


Bkbidub. 

HeS  +  S 
(black).  Dis- 

Bolve  in 
8HCLHN0, 

and  boil 

with  SnCl. 

Prec.=Hg. 

(Bee  1 48.) 


Solution. 

Pb,  On,  Bi,  Od. 
Add    dUnte     H,SO«, 
cone.  80L  to  expel  HNO,. 
Add  H.O  and  filter. 


Bksidue. 

PbSO... 
(See  S  81.) 


Solution. 

On,  Bi,  (3d. 

Add 

NH.OH 

and  Alter. 


Pbbcipi- 

TATB. 

Bi,0»H.O. 
Wash.   m»- 
■olve  in  HCl 
test    (1 90.) 


FiLTBATE. 

Cu,  Cd. 
Divide  in  two  parts. 


iBT  Pabt. 

Acidulate 
with  acetic 
acid.  Add 
K,Ofy;  a 
precipitate 
18  Gu.Ciy. 
(See  i  60.) 


8d  Pabt. 

Add  ECN 
to  destroy 
blue  color ; 
tben  add 
H,8,  which 
will  precipi- 
tate CdS. 

(Seefm.) 


Solution. 

ASfSx,  SbaSx,  SnSz,  Au^St,  PtSi. 

Add  dilate  H,S04 :  there  is  precipitated:  AsaSa 
+  8b,S,  +  SnS,+Au,Ss+Pt8a  +  8. 
Filter  and  wash:  dissolve  in  HCl  and  KCIO,  by 

Smtle  beat;   AsCl,-i-8bCl,+SnCU+AuCl.+PtCl«. 
ivide  in  two  parts. 


IsT  Pabt. 

Test  this  portion  (br 
As,  Sb,  Sn. 
Concentrate ;  introduce 
some  into  flask  contain- 
ing Zn  +  H.O  +  H.SO^. 
See  ^  188, 102.   Pass  ais 

?3nerated  into   AgNO^. 
rec.=A£-t-Ag,Sb.   Fil- 
ter; wash. 


Pbeoipi- 

tatk. 

Wash  well; 
introduce 
filter  and 
precipitate 
in  a  test- 
tube.   Add 


2d  Pabt. 


Test 


this    portion 

tu,  Pt 
alves. 


for 


9d  Half. 

Add  NH.d 

Evaporate  to 

dryness  over 

water  bath; 

treat  with 

alcohol. 

Oraoge-red 

residue  Is  (NH4Cl),.PtCl« 

indicates  Pt.    (See  1 182.) 


I9t  HaJf. 

Add  HC], 
then  FeSO« 

and  bolL 
Prec.  eaual 

Au.    (See 

I  iw.) 


Filtbatb. 
Add 

AgNO.. 
Neutralize 
with  dilute 
NH4OH ;  a  yellow  prec.  =  Ag«As,0.. 
(See  88  99, 1(W.)  -e*     .    . 


tartaric  acid  and  boil  for  a  few  minutes,  filter  (resi- 
due Ag).  Add  H,S  and  boil ;  an  orange-red  prec.  = 
Sb,S,.    (See  $128.) 


Detbotion  of  Tnr.  Detach  tin  A*om  sine  in 
flask  by  agitation,  then  transfer  the  tin  to  another 
▼esael;  wash  it;  boil  with  HCl;  filter,  if  necessary.  Add  HgCl,.  There  is  precipitated 
Hg,Cl. ;  bolL    Hg  is  precipitated,  which  indicates  Sn.    (See  f  100.) 


GROUP  III.  . 

SCHEME  FOR  DETECTING. 

AI2O3,  CrjOa,  ZnO,  CoO,  NiO,  MnO,  FeO,  Fe203,  Appendix. 

Add  to  filtrate  from  Group  II  (after  testing  with  HjS) 
NH4CI  +  NH4OH  (until  alkaline) +NH4HS.    Filter  off  the  pre- 


142 


THE  CHEMISTS*  MANUAL. 


by  other  means.  This  is  generally  accompanied  by  fiision  with 
three  to  four  parts  by  weight  of  alkaline  carbonates,  in  the  case 
of  baric,  strontic,  calcic,  and  plumbic  sulphate,  and  also  of  silicic 
oxide  and  silicates,  or  by  fusion  with  hydropotassic  sulphate 
in  the  case  of  aluminic  oxide  or  aluminates.^ 

H2O  SOLUTION. 
Test  with  red  and  blue  litmus-paper.  Add  HCl.  If  solu- 
tion was  acid,  the  precipitate  may  be  either  PbCl2,  AgCl,  or 
Hg2Cl2.  If  solution  was  alkaline,  it  may  be  either  2SbCl3. 
6Sb203,  Sn02.H20,  H4Si04,  etc.  Filter  if  precipitate  forms. 
Add  to  filtrate  H2S;  if  precipitate  is  produced,  saturate  the 
liquid  with  H2S  gas  and  precipitate  PbS,  CuS,  HgS,  CdS,  Bi2S3, 
As2Sxj  Sb2Sx,  SnS^,  AU2S3,  PtS2-  Filter  and  wash;  testaccord^ 
ing  to  Group  II, 

ACTUAL  ANALYSIS. 

Substance  to  be  examined  is  soluble  in  water;  also  such 
as  are  insoluble  in  water,  but  soluble  in  HCl,  HNO3,  (3 HCL 
HNO3). 

GROUP   1. 

SCHEME  FOR  DETECTING. 
Ag.  salts. — Hg2  salts. — Pb  salts. 
Add  HCl.  Free.  =  AgCl + Hg2Cl2  +  PbCl2. 

Filter  and  wash ;  lay  jUtrate  one  side  to  be  further  treated 
(as  in  Group  II).    No  precipitate ;  pass  on  to  Group  II. 
Boil  precipitate  in  HgO  and  filter. 


FiLTBATXL 

PbCl,  in  H,0. 

Add   dUate    H,S04,    which   will 
precipitate  PBSOa.    (See  §§  18,  27.) 


Rbsidus. 
AgCI  +  Hg,Cl,. 
Add  NH^OH  and  filter. 


Solution. 

Add  HNO. 
which  will   pre- 
cipitate       AgCI. 
(See  §  5.) 


Residttb. 

If   black    (1 
§  32).       Dissolve 
in   (3HC1.HNC,). 
Add    SnCl,  and 
boil ;  Hg  precipi- 
tated.  (See  §88.) 


♦  See  Srhemt*  ior  Analvsis  of  Insolable  Substances. 


THE  CHEMISTS*  MANUAL. 


143 


GROUP   II. 

SCHEME   FOR   DETECTING. 

Pb,  Cu,  Bi,  Hg,  Cd,  As,  Sb,  Sn,  Au,  Pt 

Add  to  filtrate  from  Group  I  (after  testing  with  HCl),  H2S 
until  filtrate  smells  distinctly  of  the  reagent;  filter  off  the 
precipitate  (after  passing  H2S  gas  through  solution) ;  wash  it. 
Lay  filtrate  aside  (test  according  to  Group  III).  If  no  pre- 
cipitate forms,  pass  on  to  Group  III.    The  precipitate  may  be : 

PbS,  CuS,  Bi^Ss,  HgS,  CdS,  AsjS,,  Sb2S,j,  SnS^,  AugSa,  PtS2. 

Add  yellow  NH4HS,  warm  gently  and  filter. 


Resedub. 

FbS,  CnS,  Bi,S„  HgS,  CdS. 

Wash  well  to  remoTO  CL    (Test 
With  A«NO..) 
Boil  prec.  with  HNO, ;  filter;  wash. 


RssiDxrs. 

Hfi:S+s 

(black).  Di0- 

Bolve  in 
8HCLHN0. 

and  boil 
with  Sna, 
Prec.=Hg. 

(8ee|4d.) 


Solution. 

Pb,  On,  Bi,  Od. 
Add    dUate     H,SO«, 
cone.  BoL  to  expel  HNO,. 
Add  H,0  and  filter. 


BniDUE. 

PbSO,., 

(Sees  31.) 


SoLunoir. 

Ou,  Bl,  Cd. 

Add 

NH.OH 

and  Alter. 


Pbbcifi- 

TATS. 

Bi.O.H.O. 
Wash.    Uiiu 
iolve  in  HCl 
teat.    (1 90.) 


FiLTBATS. 

Cu,  Cd. 
Divide  in  two  parts. 


iBT  Past. 

Acidalate 
with  acetic 
acid.  Add 
K4Cfy;  a 


Is  Cn.Cfy. 
(See  i  60.) 


8d  Pabt. 

Add  KCN 
to  destroy 
bine  color ; 
then  add 
H,S,  which 
will  precipi- 
tate CdS. 

(SeeS^) 


Solution. 

As«Ss,  SbsSx,  SnSx,  AQsSi,  PtSi. 

Add  dilate  HaS04 :  there  is  precipitated:  ASaSa 
+  Sb.Ss-»- SnS, -I- An.Ss+PtS, -t-B. 

Filter  and  wash:  dissolve  in  HCl  and  KCIO.  by 
gentle  heat;  ABCl,+SbCl,-fSnCU-t-Aa(}l»-i-PtCl«. 
Divide  in  two  parts. 


IsT  Pabt. 

Test  this  portion  for 
As,  Sb,  Sn. 
Concentrate ;  introdnce 
some  into  flask  contain- 
ing Zn  +  H,0  -I-  H,SO«. 
See  SS  13S,  103.  Pass  nis 
generated  into  AgNO,. 
Prec.=Aje+Ag,8b.  Fil- 
ter; wash. 


PBEom- 

tats. 

Wash  well; 
introdnce 
filter  and 


FiLTBATB. 

Add 

AgNO,. 

Nentralise 
with  dilote 


2d  Pabt. 


Test 


this   portion 
Au,  Pt 
Divide  in  halves. 


for 


9d  ffa(f. 

Add  NH.Cl. 

Bvaporate  to 

dryness  over 

water  bath; 

treat  with 

alcohol. 

Oranee-red 

residue  is  (NH4Cl),.PtCI« 

hidicates  Pt.    (See  §  18».) 


Add  HC], 
then  FeSO« 

and  bolL 
Prec.  equal 

Au.  (See 
%  191.) 


precipitate  !NH«OH;  a  yellow  prec.  =  Ag.As.O.. 
in  a  test-  (See  1899,107.) 

tube.   Add  ' • — 

tartaric  acid  and  boil  for  a  few  minutes,  filter  (resi- 
due Ag).  Add  HaS  and  boil ;  an  orange>red  prec.  = 
SbaSa.    (See  8 136.) 


Dbtbctzon  of  Tor.  Detach  tin  A*om  sine  in 
flask  by  ai^tation,  then  transfer  the  tin  to  another 
Teasel;  wash  it;  boil  with  HCl;  filter,  if  necessary.  Add  HgCl,.  There  Is  precipitated 
HgaCla ;  bolL    Hg  is  precipitated,  which  indicates  Sn.    (See  f  100.) 


GROUP   III.  . 

XHEME  FOR  DETECTING. 

AI2O3,  CfjOa,  ZnO,  CoO,  NiO,  MnO,  FeO,  FcjOa,   Appendix. 

Add  to  filtrate  from  Group  II  (after  testing  with  HjS) 
NH^Cl  +  NH4OH  (until  alkaline) + NH^HS.    Filter  off  the  pre- 


144 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


cipitate.    Lay  filtrate  to  one  side  to  be  tested  according  to 
Group  IT.    If  no  precipitate  fomui,  pass  on  to  Group  TV. 
The  precipitate  may  be ; 

Al2(0H)6  +  Cr203.9Ha0+ZnS.H20  +  FeS(xH20»)+CoS  + 
NiS+MnS.xHaO. 
Wash,  and  dissolve  in  the  funnel  with  HCl,  then  waeh  f^ain. 
There  will  be  a 

Co8*N18  +  B, 
Wni-li  well   ttnd 
wllh  bomi  bead    ( 
culor).    (SeeilSTT. — 
Bnm  preclpitalfi,  pnpt 
uill  nil.  In  porcelain  cru- 
cible. dlBsolve  reiildus  In 
hot  UNO,  dilate,  flllfr, 

dropa.  Add  IcMIc  acid 
lotteKNO,.  Filler  off 
tbe  pnclpitate  And  WABh. 


>tl    Add  a  few  crriiUlB 
teichanire  Feti  to  Fe.O,. 


Boll :     a     urMipiU 
i*  Cr,0,GH,a     mtv 


SOLUTIOK. 

Hn-^Fe  +  AUCr-fU 
ttslB  or  KCIO.  md  boll  U 


Nt(Oni,. 
(See  saw. 

Filter  off 
prectpllelB;      ,_. 

— •■'•       (See  jST4. 


HCl  md   Divide  la  two 

Iparu:  ouidft 


lireclpiWUl    NH.On.  „    „„„,„„ 

■Jitl.)  >c»t  |(8ee  {  W 
utPnnliiiB       Test  K 


iron     iSi'o'  iMiibethe  greenwH  euro 
a»Lo\  Tn-i'  v..i-nnix  Ifle       hrdral^ 


phatPB  and  oulatee  of  Cb.  Ba,  Sr,  Jig.    DlHSoIve 


Add     tbl>    part!    Add  Fe,Cl, 
drop  bydrnp  to  «  sort!-  —"' 

£JNH,I,Md^,1     ln|  PSCCIPITATB. 

=  FcPO. 


HfCDlte.    DlKIolveti 
fieatl;  and  Oiler. 


;CI.  Bfffer 


Id.  a.   fute 
PI  foil  »1U1 


Whitp 

llhe  preei 


FlLTRiTl 

IllcnnlnlnBa.Sr.  Ca.Hi 
elactordlDK  loOronp  n 


!■  Id  lir?l.    Add   KOIt  li 


lale;  BTfllinrprcripl- 1  llllBr  If  nfrciiBrr  ; 
talBisPBCrO..  (SeellhpnartdR.M;  n  iir.'- 
laalparlof  ttl8.)  •-IpliHrp  (•  ZiiX.tl.U.'    *  T] 

I  (See  I  an.)  niutul 


■e  toMedforaojofthe 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


146 


GROUP  IV. 

SCHEME   FOR   DETECTING 
Ba,  Sr,  Ca,  Mg. 

Add  to  filtrate  from  Group  III  (after  testing  with  NH4HS), 
NH4C1+NH40H+(NH4)2C03;  a  precipitate  is  produced ;  filter 
and  wash. 

If  no  precipitate  is  produced,  pass  on  to  Group  V. 


PREdPITATB. 

BaCO,  +  SrCO,  +  CaCOa. 
Dissolve  in  HCl ;  add  Bodic  acetate, 
then  K,Cr,07  ;  a  yellow  precipitate 
is  produced;  filter. 

Prbcipitatb. 
BaCrO,.    (See  §  821.) 


PBBCIPrrATB. 

SrSO^.    (See  §§  331,  385.) 


Filtrate. 

Mg. 
Add  NaHPO^  ;  a  precipitate  is  Mg, 
(POJb.TH.O.    (See  §857.) 

FnJTBATB. 

Add  to  a  portion  of  filtrate  CaSO^, 
and  wait  ten  minutes,  if  a  precipitate 
forms.  Add  to  the  remaining  portion 
K2SO4 ;  a  precipitate  is  produced; 
filter  and  wash  thoroughly. 

Filtrate. 

Add   NH4OH   and  oxalic  acid;  a 
wliite  precipitate  is  CaCgO^.     (See 
344, 346, 342.) 


GROUP  V. 

SCHEME   FOR   DETECTING 
NH3,  K,  Na. 

Divide  a  portion  of  the  original  solution  in  two  parts : 


First  Part. 

Add  KOH  and  boil :  test  gas  with 
HCl ;  smeU,  and  try  test-paper.  (See 
§376.) 

Test  also  with  Nessler's  solution. 
(See  §  378.) 


10 


Second  Part. 

If  ammonia  has  been  found  in  ''First 
Part,"  evaporate  to  dryness  the  "  Sec- 
ond Part"  to  expel  all  ammonia 
(present  as  salts).  Dissolve  residue 
in  H,0  ;  add  HCl,  then  PtCl4  ;  a  pre- 
cipitate forms ;  filter  and  wash. 


146 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


Precipitatb. 

K,PtC1e.    (See  §365.)    Test  as  in 
§868. 


FiLTRATB. 

Evaporate  filtrate  to  drTnefls;  the 
presence  of  red  circular  crystals  indi- 
cates the  presence  of  Na.  Add  alco- 
hol, and  test  hy  flame.  (See  §  876.) 
May  also  test  with  KgO.SbaOs.7H,0. 
(See  §  373.) 


INSOLUBLE  SUBSTANCES. 

SCHEME   FOR  THEIR   DETECTION. 

SiOa,  Silicates,  BaS04,  PbS04,  SrS04,  SnOj,  CrOg. 

Make  borax  bead — green =Cr203.  Fuse  part  of  insoluble 
substance  with  NagCOg  on  charcoal  with  reducing  flame,  then 
put  it  on  a  bright  silver  coin  when  cold,  and  moisten  with 
water ;  a  small  black  spot  on  silver,  after  standing,  indicates 
sulphur.  Wash  the  ftised  mass  a  little,  then  grind  to  a  powder, 
and  carefully  look  for  metallic  scales=Pb(S04).  Boil  original 
substance  with  NH4C2H3O2,  and  filter  and  wash. 


Solution. 
Contains  the  Pb(S04  ?). 


Solution. 

Addulate  with  HCl;  eraporate  to 
dr3mess ;  moisten  with  HCl ;  dissolve 
in  H,0  and  filter. 


Solution. 

Test  for  H^SQ^ 
with  BaCla* 


Rbbidue. 

Test  for  SnO, 
with  phoephorons 
bead. 


Rbsidub. 

Fuse  some  with  Na^Cog  on  char- 
coal; metallic  globiiJe=Sn.  Black 
spot  on  silver  coin=BaS04+SrS04. 
Fnse  some  of  residue  on  Pt  foil  with 
NagCO,  ;  boil  with  water  and  filter. 

Rbbidur. 

IMssolve  in  HCl ;  evaporate  to  dry- 
ness; moisten  with  HCl;  dissolve  In 
H,0  and  filter. 


Solution. 

Ba,Sr.  Testae- 
cording  to  Group 
IV. 


Residue. 

Test  for  SiO, 
with  phosphorous 
bead. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  147 

DETECTION   OF  THE   INORGANIC  AND  ORGANIC 
ACIDS  IN  SUBSTANCES  SOLUBLE  IN  WATER. 

SULPHURIC  ACID  (H2SO4). 

Add  baric  chloride  to  a  portion  of  the  original  solution  [if 
Pb.Ag.  or  Hg2  salt  have  been  found,  add  Ba(N03)2],  which,  if 
acid,  first  make  neutral  or  slightly  alkaline  with  NH4OH.  If 
a  precipitate  forms,  add  HCl ;  if  it  does  not  dissolve,  sulphuric 
acid  (H2SO4)  is  present. 

H2SO4+  BaCl2=BaS04+2HCl. 

* — « — ' 

To  detect  free  H2SO4  in  presence  of  a  sulphate,  mix  the 
fluid  under  examination  with  a  very  little  cane-sugar,  and 
evaporate  to  dryness  at  212°  F.  If  free  H2SO4  was  present,  a 
black  residue  remains,  or  in  the  case  of  most  minute  quan- 
tities, a  blackish-green  residue.  Other  free  acids  do  not  de- 
compose cane-sugar  in  this  way, — (Eunge.) 

Hydrochloric  (HCl);  Hydrobromic  (HBr);  Hydriodic  (HI); 
Hydrocyanic  (HCN)  ;  Hydroferrocyakio  (H4Fe"Cy5) ;  Hy- 
DROFERRiCYANic  [H5(Fe2)^Cy,2] ;  and  Sulphur. 

Add  to  a  portion  of  the  original  solution  argentic  nitrate 
(AgNOa) ;  there  will  be  precipitated: 

AgCl  -f-  AgBr + Agl  +  AgCy + Ag4FeCye + AggFe2Cy ,  j. 

Observe  the  color  of  the  precipitate : 

AgCl,  AgBr,  AgCy,  Ag4FeCy5  are  white  precipitates. 

Agl  is  a  yellow  pt'ecipitate. 

AggFe2Cyi2  is  a  brownieh-red  precipitate. 

Add  HNO3  *o  *^®  precipitate  and  shake  it;  if  it  does  not 
dissolve,  one  or  all  of  the  above  acids  may  be  present.  If  the 
precipitate  is  blackish,  this  points  to  hydrosulphuric  acid  or  a 
soluble  metallic  sulphide.  Sulphur  may  easily  be  detected  by 
testing  a  fresh  solution  with  CUSO4. 

If  hydrosulphuric  acid  is  present  in  the  solution  to  be  tested, 


148  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

it  must  first  be  removed  by  boiling.  Alkaline  sulphides  must 
be  removed  by  a  metallic  salt,  such  as  will  not  precipitate 
any  of  the  other  acids,  or  at  least  will  not  precipitate  them 
from  acid  solutions. 

Hydbiodic  acid  (HI)  and  htdeootanio  acid  (HCN),  in  the 
presence  of  hydrochloric  or  hydrobromic  acid,  may  be  detected, 
viz. :  The  hydbiodio  acid  solution  is  mixed  with  some  thin 
clear  starch-paste,  then  made  distinctly  acid  with  dilute  H2SO4 
or  HCl,  and  a  drop  or  two  of  a  concentrated  solution  of  potassic 
nitrate  (KNOg)  is  then  added,  when  the  starch  iodide^  blue 
color,  makes  its  appearance ;  if  the  hydriodic  acid  present  is 
very  dilute,  the  fluid  turns  reddish  instead  of  blue.  This  re- 
action is  more  delicate  when  the  solution  is  quite  cold. 

The  hydrocyanic  acid  solution  (or  the  solution  containing 
it)  is  mixed  with  ferrous  sulphate,  which  has  been  exposed  to 
the  air  for  a  while ;  then  potassic  hydrate  is  added,  when  a 
bluish-green  precipitate  forms,  which  consists  of  prussian  blue 
and  ferric  hydrate.  Heat,  then  add  HCl,  when  the  hydrate 
will  dissolve  and  leave  prussian  blue  undissolved.  If  hydro- 
cyanic acid  is  present  in  only  minute  quantities,  the  fluid 
simply  appears  green  after  adding  HCl,  and  it  is  only  after 
long  standing  that  a  small  precipitate  falls. 

For  the  detection  of  hydkochlobic  and  hydrobromic  acid, 
hydrocyanic  and  hydriodic  acid  must  be  removed.  All  the 
radicals  present  in  the  solution  to  be  tested  must  be  con- 
verted into  silver  salts  and  ignited.  The  argentic  cyanide 
will  thereby  be  decomposed,  leaving  the  aigentic  chloride, 
bromide,  and  iodide  unaltered.  The  residue  is  then  fused 
with  NajCOg  +  KjO,  then  boiled  with  HjO;  sodic  and  potas- 
sic chloride,  bromide,  and  iodide  are  then  in  solution  ;  or 
the  fused  silver  salts  may  be  easily  decomposed  by  means 
of  zinc  and  H2SO4,  and  the  whole  allowed  to  stand  for  some 
time.  The  solution,  containing  the  soluble  zincic  chloride, 
bromide,  or  iodide,  is  filtered  off  from  the  metallic  silver.  If 
to  the  mixed  sodic  or  zincic  salts  a  solution  of  one  part  of 
cupric  sulphate  and  two  and  a  half  parts  of  ferrous  sulphate 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  149 

be  added,  the  Bodic  or  zincic  iodide  will  be  decomposed  and 
cuprous  iodide  (CU2I2)  will  be  precipitated  as  a  dirty-white 
precipitate.  The  addition  of  a  little  amnionic  hydrate  helps 
the  complete  precipitation. 

From  HYDROBEOMio  ACID,  hydriodic  acid  is  separated  most 
accurately  by  palladious  chloride,  which  only  precipitates  the 
hydriodic  acid  as  palladious  iodide.  From  hydrochloric  it  is 
separated  by  palladious  nitrate. 

Hydrobeomic  acid,  in  presence  of  hydriodic  acid  and  hydro- 
chloric acid,  may  be  detected,  viz. :  "  Mix  the  fluid  with  a  few 
drops  of  dilute  H2SO4,  then  with  some  starch-paste,  and  add  a 
little  red  fuming  nitric  acid  or,  better  still,  a  solution  of  hypo- 
nitric  acid  in  sulphuric  acid,  whereupop  the  iodine  reaction 
will  show  itself  immediately.  Add  now  chlorine  water,  drop 
by  drop,  until  that  reaction  has  disappeared;  and  then  add 
some  more  chlorine  water  to  set  the  bromine  also  free,  which 
may  then  be  separated  and  identified,"  viz. :  The  substance  to 
be  examined  is  placed  in  a  test-tube,  and  a  little  carbonic  di- 
sulphide  or  chloroform  is  added,  which  gathers  as  a  globule  at 
the  bottom ;  dilute  chlorine  water  is  then  added  drop  by  drop, 
the  whole  being  agitated.  When  bromine  is  present  in  con- 
siderable quantities  (e.  ^.,  1  of  bromine  to  1000  of  water),  the 
globule  acquires  a  reddish-yellow  color;  with  very  minute 
quantities  {e.  g,,  1  of  bromine  to  30,000  of  water),  it  still  has  a 
perceptible  pale-yellow  tint. 

HYDROCHLORIC  ACID. 

Hydrochloric  acid  may  be  said  to  be  present  when  mere 
traces  of  iodine  and  bromine  have  been  found ;  if  the  precipi- 
tate by  argentic  nitrate  is  quite  large,  and  is  not  soluble  in 
nitric  acid. 

METALLIC  CHLORIDE. 

Metallic  chlorides  are  detected  in  the  presence  of  metallic 
bromides,  viz. :  The  metallic  chlorides  and  bromides  are  trit- 
urated with  potassic  chromate,  the  mixture  treated  with  sul- 
phuric acid  in  a  tubulated  retort,  and  a  gentle  heat  applied ; 


150  THE  CHEMISTS*  MANUAL. 

a  deep  brownisb-red  gas  is  evolved,  which  condenses  into  a 
fluid,  and  passes  over  into  the  receiver.  If  this  distillate  is 
mixed  with  amnionic  hydrate  in  excess,  if  a  metallic  chloride 
is  present,  a  yellow  tint  is  imparted  to  the  liquid  by  the  am- 
monic  chromate  which  forms ;  upon  the  addition  of  an  acid, 
the  color  of  the  solution  changes  to  a  reddish-yellow,  owing  to 
the  formation  of  ammonic  dichromate.  In  the  case  of  a  metal- 
lic bromide,  the  distillate  does  not  turn  yellow,  but  becomes 
colorless  upon  supersaturation  with  ammonic  hydrate. 

NITRIC  ACID  (HNO3). 

If  ferrous  sulphate  is  added  very  carefully  to  a  solution  con- 
taining a  nitrate  (witb  the  same  volume  of  pure  sulphuric  acid 
as  the  nitrate),  so  that  the  fluids  do  not  mix,  tlie  stratum, 
where  the  two  fluids  are  in  contact,  shows  a  purple,  afterward 
a  brown,  or  in  cases  where  only  minute  quantities  of  nitric 
acid  are  present,  a  reddish  color.  If  the  fluids  are  mixed,  a 
clear  brownish-purple  liquid  is  obtained. 

CHLORIC  ACID  (HCIO3). 

When  sulphuric  acid  is  poured  into  a  solution  containing  a 
chlorate  (as,  for  example,  potassic  chlorate),  there  will  be  pro- 
duced potassic  perchlorate  (KCIO4),  potassic  hydrosulphate 
(KHSO4) ;  and  a  bright  yellow  gas,  perchloric  oxide  (CI2O4),  is 
evolved : 


3KC103  +  2H2S04=KC104  +  2KHS04+H20+Cl204. 

This  gas  has  an  aromatic  odor,  and  colors  the  solution  yel- 
low. If  the  solution  be  heated  (which  should  be  done  with 
only  a  small  quantity,  and  with  a  great  deal  of  care),  a  crack- 
ing  sound  occurs. 

PHOSPHORIC   ACID  (H3PO4). 

Add  to  the  solution  supposed  to  contain  phosphoric  acid, 
ammonic  hydrate  in  excess,  then  ammonic  chloride,  and  then 
magnesic  sulphate ;  there  will  be  precipitated  ammonio-mag- 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  151 

neBian  phosphate  (NH4)2Mg2P209.     The  pVecipitate  is  white, 
and  if  kept  in  a  warm  place  (not  too  hot)  it  subsides  quickly. 

If  a  solution  containing  phosphoric  acid  be  added  drop  by 
drop  to  a  solution  of  amnionic  molybdate  in  nitric  acid,  there 
is  formed  in  the  cold,  either  immediately  or  after  the  lapse  of 
some  time,  a,  pulverulent  pale-yellow  precipitate^  which  gathers 
on  the  sides  and  bottom  of  the  tube.  If  the  phosphoric  acid 
is  only  present  in  quantity  (0.0002  grm.),  it  is  necessary  to 
heat  gently  (not  above  100°  F.),  and  to  wait  a  few  hours.         / 

OXALIC  ACID  (C2H2O4).— HYDROFLUORIC  ACID  (HF). 

Add  ammonic  hydrate,  then  calcic  chloride ;  if  a  precipitate 
is  produced,  add  acetic  acid ;  if  not  dissolved,  test  a  portion  of 
the  original  solution  by  adding  some  finely-pulverized  man- 
ganese dioxide  and  a  few  drops  of  sulphuric  acid  for  ox  alio 
AdD.  K  present,  a  lively  eflFervescence  ensues,  caused  by 
escaping  carbonic  oxide : 


Mn02  +  C2H204  +  H2S04=MnS04-f2C02-f2H20. 

Test  another  portion  of  the  original  snbstance  for  hydeoflit- 
oEic  Acro.  Mix  together  the  substance  to  be  tested  with  sul- 
phuric acid  (so  that  a  thin  paste  is  made)  in  a  platinum 
crucible,  and  cover  with  a  watch-glass  which  has  been  coated 
on  the  convex  side  with  bees-wax,  and  a  few  marks  made 
with  a  pin  through  the  wax  to  the  glass ;  fill  the  concave  side 
with  water,  and  heat  the  crucible  gently  for  an  hour  or  so, 
when  the  marks  made  by  the  pin  will  be  etched  into  the  glass 
by  the  action  of  the  hydrofluoric  acid  evolved,  and  the  marks 
will  not  be  removed  by  washing. 

BORACIC  ACID  (H3BO3). 

Add  to  a  portion  of  the  original  solution,  hydrochloric  acid 
until  distinct  acid  reaction ;  then  dip  a  slip  of  turmeric  paper 
in  the  solution ;  then  dry  the  paper  at  112°  F.,  when,  if  boracic 
acid  was  present,  the  paper  will  show  a  peculiar  red  tint 


152  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

(H.  EoBe).  If  this  peculiar  red-tinted  paper  be  moistened 
with  an  alkali  or  alkaline  carbonate,  its  color  passes  into 
bluish  or  greenish-black.  Hydrochloric  acid  restores  the  red 
tint  (A.  Vogel ;  H.  Ludwig).  Malvern  W.  lies,  Ph.B.,  has 
discovered  what  may  be  called  the  most  reliable  test  for 
boracic  acid  and  borates  known.  It  consists  in  simply  dipping 
a  platinum-wire  in  glycerine,  then  into  the  finely-powdered 
substance,  and  then  holding  the  same  in  a  gas  flame,  when  the 
flame  will  be  colored  green.  By  this  method  boracic  acid  has 
been  detected  in  substances  when,  by  all  other  tests,  its  pres- 
ence could  not  be  demonstrated. 

SILICIC  ACID  (H^SiO^). 

This  acid  has  probably  been  found  already.  Evaporate 
some  of  original  substance  with  hydrochloric  acid  to  dryness ; 
moisten  with  hydrochloric  acid,  and  dissolve  in  water.  If 
Si02  remains,  silicic  acid  is  present.     (Phosphorous  bead.) 

CHROMIC  ACID  (H^CrO^). 

The  yellow  or  red  color  of  the  original  solution,  or  the 
purple-red  color  of  the  precipitate  produced  by  argentic 
nitrate,  points  to  the  presence  of  chromic  acid.  If  there  re- 
mains any  doubt,  add  plumbic  acetate  to  a  portion  of  the 
original  solution  acidifled  with  acetic  acid,  when  basic  plumbic 
chromate  will  be  precipitated  (Pb2Cr05=2PbO.Cr03). 

ORGANIC  ACIDS. 

Before  testing  for  organic  acid,  remove,  flrst,  Group  I,  II, 
in,  according  to  Scheme,  as  their  presence  might  disturb  the 
reactions. 

Make  a  portion  of  the  fluid  from  which  Group  I,  II,  III 
have  been  removed  slightly  alkaline  by  adding  NH4OH  ;  add 
some  NH4CI,  then  CaCl,  and  shake  vigorously,  and  let  the 
mixture  stand  at  rest  for  some  minutes  (ten  to  twenty). 

A  precipitate  forms ;  filter. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


153 


Pbboipitatb. 

Digest  and  shake  the  pre- 
cipitate with  NaHO:  duate 
with  water ;  Ulter,  ana  boil  fil- 
trate for  some  time.  If  a  pre- 
cipitate separates,  tabtabio 
A0iD(C«HcO.)  maybe  assamed 
to  be  present.  Four  over  the 
precipitated  calcic  tartrate 
NH«oH  in  a  test-tube,  then 
add  AgNO.,  and  heat,  wben 
palvemlent  metallic  silver 
will  separate. 


Filtrate. 

Add  some  more  calcic  chloride,  then  add  aloohoL    A  pre- 
cipitate forms ;  filter. 


PBBCIFrrATB. 

Wash  with  some  alcohol, 
dissolve  on  filter  with  HCl ; 
add  NH4OH  to  feeble  alka- 
line reaction,  and  boil  for 
some  time.  A  heavv  white 
precipitate  forms ;  filter. 


FiLTBATE. 

Add  alcohol 
again,  which 
will  precipi- 
tate calcic 
malate ;  dis- 
solve in  acetic 
acid ;  add  al- 
cohol, and 
filter  if  neces- 
sary.    The 
filtrate  is  pre- 
cipitated with 
plnmbic  ace- 
tate,  and  neatrallased  with  ammonic  hydrate ;  wash  precip- 
itate; stir  in  water  decomposed  by  HgS,  and  evaporate 
filtrate  to  dryness. 

The  malic  acid  thus  obtained,  if  heated  in  a  glass  tube,  is 
converted  into  malHc  add  (C.H.O,),  which  will  condense 
to  crystals  in  the  colder  part  of  the  tnbe.  This  indicates 
the  presence  of  mauo  acid  (C«HaO,). 


Pbeclpitatb. 

Calcic  cit- 
trate  dissolve 
in  BCii  add 
NH«OH,  and 
boil ;  if  calcic 
citrate  is  pre- 
cipitated 
again,  Cit- 

BIO    ACID 

(C.H.O,)  is 
present. 


FiLTBATB. 

Heat  to  expel  alcohol,  neu- 
tralize exactly  with  HCl,  and 
addFcaCla.  If  a  light-brown 
fiocculent  precipitate  is  pro- 
duced, filter,  digest^  and 
heat  the  washed  precipitate 
with  NH«OH  in  excess; 
filter,  evaporate  filtrate  near- 
ly to  dryness,  and  divide  in 
halves. 


IST  HALF. 

Add  alcohol 
and  baric 
chloride;  a 
white  precipi- 
tate will  con- 
sist of  baric 
succinate, 
BaC,H,0., 
which  indi- 
I'cates  the  pres- 
ence of  suc- 

OITRIC  ACID 

(C.H.OJ. 


2d  half. 

Add  hydro- 
chloric acid, 
when  BEN- 
ZOIC ACID 
(CH.O,)  wiU 

be  precipi- 
tated as  a  daz- 
zling white 
sparkling 
powder. 
^^  Benzoic  acid 
may  generally 
be  detected 
by  pouring  a 
little  hydro- 
chloric acid 
over  the  orig- 
inal solution,  when  the  benzoic  acid  will  remain  undissolved;  if  this  be  heated  on  a 
platinum-foil,  it  will  fhse.  and  afterward  volatilize  completely.  The  fhmes  of  benzoic 
acid  cause  a  peculiar  irritating  sensation  in  the  throat  ana  provoke  coughing :  when  cau- 
tiously cooled,  they  condense  to  brilliant  needles ;  when  kindled,  they  bum  with  a  lumin- 
008  sooty  fiame." 

ACETIC  ACID  (C2H4O2). 

Introduce  a  portion  of  the  original  solution  in  a  small 

tube,  pour  some  alcohol  over  it,  add  about  an  equal  volume 

of  sulphuric  acid,  and  heat  to  boiling.     Evolution  of  the  odor 

of  acetic  acid  demonstrates  its  presence,  increased  by  shaking. 

FORMIC  ACID  (CH2O2). 

When  neither  chromic  or  tartaric  acid  have  been  found,  add 
to  solution  argentic  nitrate  in  excess  the  sodic  hydrate  until 
the  fluid  is  exactly  neutralized,  and  boil. 

If  formic  acid  is  present,  the  argentic  formiate  which  was 
produced  is  decomposed  and  metallic  silver  precipitated 

If  chromic  and  tartaric  acid  have  been  found,  mix  the  orig- 
inal solution  with  some  nitric  acid ;  add  plumbic  oxide  in  ex- 
cess ;  shake  the  mixture ;  filter ;  add  to  the  filtrate  dilute  sul- 
phuric acid  in  excess,  and  distil.  Add  to  the  distillate  ferric 
oxide  (FsgOg),  when  the  fluid  will  become  a  blood-red  color, 
owing  to  the  formation  of  a  soluble  neutral  salt. 


154 


A    COMPLETE    TABLE     OF 


BY   JAMES 

(OLD    SYSTEM    OF 


KAJCB. 


Salts  of  Potash, 


Soda, 


Lithia, 


BaryU, 


Strontia, 


Lime, 


Magnesia, 


Alumina, 


Glucina, 


Thoria, 


Yltria, 


Zirconia, 


Cerium, 


(Protoxide, 
Peroxide) 


AXXONIA. 


No  precipitate. 


No  precipitate. 


No  precipitate. 


A  volaminone 
precipitate,  Bola- 
Dle  in  a  large 
quantity  of  wa- 
ter. 

No  precipitate 
unless  left  for 
some  days. 

Same  aa  Stron- 
tia. 


A  bulky  preci- 

{^itate  complete- 
▼  soluble  in  Mu- 
riate of  Ammo- 
nia. 

A  white  preci- 

Eltate,  insoluble 
1  Muriate  of 
Ammonia  in  ex- 
cess, but  soluble 
in  Potash. 

A  white  precl- 

fiitate,  insoluble 
n  excess  and  in 
Muriate  of  Am- 
monia. 


A  frelatinous 
precipitate,  in- 
soluble inexcess. 


A  white,  volu- 
minous precipi- 
tate, insoluble  in 
excess. 


A  white  preci- 

£itate|  insoluble 
1  excess. 


A  white  preci- 
pitate, turntufr 
Drown,  insoluble 
in  excess. 


POTASS. 


OABBOKATB  OV 
FOTABH. 


The  same. 


Same  as  Bary- 
ta: not  quite  bo 
soluble. 


The  same,  not 
quite  BO  soluble. 


A  white  preci- 
pitate, insoluble 
m  excess;  solu- 
ble in  Muriate  of 
Ammonia. 

A  precipitate 
soluble  in  ex- 
cess. Insoluble 
in  Muriate  of 
Ammonia. 


A  precipitate 
completely  solu- 
ble in  excess. 


The  same. 


The  same. 


The  same,  per- 
fectly insoluble 
in  excess. 


ThcBame. 


No  immediate 
precipitate,  but 
after  a  time  a 
granular  one. 

A  white  preci- 
pitate, soluble 
with,  effervesces 
in  tree  acids. 


Same  as  Baryta. 


The  same  as 
Baryta  it  Stron- 
tla. 

A  white  preci- 
pitate, Boloble  in 
Muriate  of  Am- 
monia. 


A  white  preci- 
pitate, soluble  in 
caustic  potash. 


A  precipitate, 
soluble  in  a  great 
excess  of  preci- 
pitant. 


A  white  preci- 
pitate, soluble  in 
excess. 

A  white  preci- 
pitate, slightly 
soluble  in  a  great 
excess. 

A  white  preci- 
pitate, slightly 
soluble  in  a  great 
excet*s. 

A  white  preci- 
pitate, slightly 
soluble  in  ex- 
cess. 


BIOARBOIIATB 
or  POTASH. 


The  same. 


The 


Same  as  Baryta. 


The  same. 


No  precipitate 
unlesB  solution 
Ib  boiled,  then  a 
Btrong  one. 


The  same ;  Car- 
l>onic  Acid  gaa 
Is  disengaged. 


The  same. 


The  same. 


The  same,  com- 
pletely soluble  In 
a  great  excess. 


The  same. 


The  same. 


ANALYTICAL    CHEMISTRY. 

HAYWOOD. 

NOMENCLATURE.) 


OABBONATB  OF 
AimONIA. 


BULFHIJBETTBD 
HTDBOeSN. 


HTOR08T7LPHATB 
OF  AXXONIA. 


YELLOW  PBUSBI- 
▲TB  OF  POTABH. 


BSD  PBI78BIATB 
OF  POTABH. 


No  precipitate. 


No  precipitate. 


Thestme. 


No  precipitate. 


The  same. 


The  same. 


Same  as  the  Bi- 
carbonate of  Pot" 
asb,  Bolable  in 
Muriate  of  Am- 
monia. 

The8am& 


No  precipitate. 


No  precipitate. 


No  precipitate. 


No  precipitate  if 
the  test  is  pnie. 


No  precipitate 
in  any  Bolation. 


A  white  precipi- 
tate of  Alumina, 
Boluble  in  Potash. 


No  precipitate. 


No  precipitate. 


A  white  preci- 
pitate, Bolnble  in 
ezcesB. 


The  same. 


No  precipitate. 


The  same. 


TheBame,more 
easily  soIaDle  in 
excess. 


The  same. 


No  precipitate. 


No  precipitate. 


No  precipitate. 


No  precipitate. 


A  white  precipi- 
tate,soliible  in  Pot^ 
ash. 


A  white  precipi- 
tate  of  Thoria. 


A  precipitate  of 
Yttrfa. 


A      YoinminoiiB 
precipitate. 


A  white  precipi- 
tate o(  Protoxide. 


No  precipitate. 


A  white,  heavy 
precipitate,  sola- 
Die  in  acidB. 

A  white  preci- 
pitate. 


A  white  preci- 
pitate. 


A  white  preci- 
pitate. 


No  precipitate. 


No  precipitate. 


No  precipitate. 


No  precipitate. 


156 


A    COMPLETE    TABLE    OF 


BY    JAMES 

(OLD    SYSTEM    OF 


NAME. 


Salts  of  Potash, 


Soda, 


Llthla, 


Baryta, 


Strontia, 


Ume, 


Magnesia, 


Alumina, 


Gluclna, 


Thorla, 


Yttrla, 


Zlrconla, 


Cerium, 


(Protoxide, 
Peroxide) 


OXALXO  ACID. 


No  precipitate 


No  precipitate 
nnlees  left  for 
Bome  daya. 


A  troubling  in 
Btronj?  Bolntionis; 
if  Ammonia  be 
added,  a  precipi- 
tate. 

An  immediate 

Erecipitate,8olu- 
le  in  Nitric  or 
Muriatic  Acid. 

No  precipitate 
anlesB  Ammonia 
be  added. 


No  precipitate. 


No  precipitate. 


A  white  preci- 

Eitate,  InBoluble 
1  excess. 


A  white  preci- 

Sitate,  dolable  in 
[arlatic  Acid. 


A  white  precip- 
itate, solable  In 
a  ^reat  excess  or 
in  Muriatic  Acid. 

A  white  precip 
itflt<',evcninacld 
solatlons ;  spar- 
ingly soluble  in 
i  Muriatic  Acid. 


lODiDB  or 

POTASSIUM. 


No  precipitate. 


BuuPHATv  or 

FOTABH. 


A  white  preci- 
pitate, if  Ammo- 
nia be  added. 


A  volnminone, 
white  precipi- 
tate, insoiable  in 
Btrong  acidB. 

The  same  as 
Baryta ;  rather 
more  solnble  in 
water. 


No  precipitate 
in  dilate  soln- 
tions,bat  a  white 
one  if  strong. 

No  precipitate. 


After  a  time 
crystals  of  Alom 
are  formed. 


No  crystals  are 
formed. 


Thrown  down 
as  a  doable  salt, 
insoiable  in  ex- 
cess. 

After  a  time  a 
precipitate  is 
formed,  but  is 
easy  solable  in 
an  excess. 

A  white  preci- 
pitate, almost  in- 
soluble in  water 
I  and  acids. 

After  a  time  a 
precipitate,  in- 
soluble in  ex- 
cess. 


PBOSPHATB  or 
BOOA. 


No  precipitate; 
but  if  Ammo- 
nia be  added,  a 
strong  one. 

A  white  pred- 
uitate,  solable  la 
flnee  acide. 


SameasBaiyta. 


SameasBaxyta. 


A  white  precipi- 
tate, particularly 
if  Ammonia  be 
added. 

A  white  precipi- 
tate, solable  in 
Acids  or  Potash. 


A    ▼olomlnoos 
precipitate. 


A  white,  flaky 
precipitate. 


A  white  pre- 
cipitate, solable 
in  acids,  but  is 
again  precipita- 
ted by  boiling. 

A  voliuninoiiB 
precipitate. 


Awhitepreclpi- 
Ute. 


ANALYTICAL    CHEMISTRY. 


157 


HAYWOOD. 

NOMENCLATURE  ) 


xXTALLio  znro. 


BKFORB  THE  BLOWFIPB. 


0BBBB7ATI0K8. 


On  Platinnm  wire  tlngee 
outer  flame  violet ;  with  Bo- 
rax and  Oxide  or  Nickel,  a 
blae  bead. 

The  bead  of  Nickel  and  Bo- 
rax is  not  changed  by  Soda ; 
heated  on  Platinum  wire 
tinges  outer  flame  yellow. 

Tinges  onter  flame  of  a  car- 
mine color ;  the  double  phos- 
phate is  fosible. 


Cannot  easily  be  distin- 
guished :  the  Chloride  tinges 
outer  flame  greenish ;  invisi- 
ble alone;  Aisible  with  fluxes. 

Tinges  outer  flame  carmine 
red  when  heated  on  Platinum 
wire. 


Same  as  Stroutia,  only  not 
BO  bright;  gives  a  powerfhl 
white  light  when  strongly 
heated. 

When  a  salt  of  Magnesia, 
that  has  been  heated,  in  mois- 
tened with  Nitrate  of  Cobalt, 
it  acquires  a  pale  red  color. 

Treated  as  the  above  on 
Charcoal,  a  fine  blue  color  is 
communicated  to  the  assay. 


When  moistened  with  Ni- 
trate of  Cobalt,  becomes  dark 
gray,  or  nearly  black. 


Not  easily  distinguished: 
produces  a  colorless  bead 
with  Borax. 


Tttria  behaves  in  the  same 
manner  as  Glucina. 


Cannot  easily  be  distin- 
guished from  similar  sub- 
stances. 


Converted  to  Peroxide,  sol- 
uble in  Borax,  producing  a 


Give  a  white  precipitate  with  Tartaric  Acid, 
a  yellow  one  with  Cnloride  of  Platinum,  and 
a  gelatinous  one  with  Hydrofluostlicic  Acid, 
which  distinguishes  it  from  other  substances. 

Gives  no  precipitate  with  Tartaric  Acid,  or 
Chloride  of  Platinum,  by  which  it  may  be  dis- 
tlnguished. 

No  precipitate  with  Chloride  of  Platinnm ; 
can  easily  be  distinguished  from  the  former. 


Easily  distinguished  by  forming  a  white 
precipitate  with  Sulphates  and  Carbonates. 
The  Chloride  is  insoluble  in  Alcohol. 


Distinguished  fh)m  Barvta  by  giving  a  pre- 
cipitate with  Hydroflnosilicic  Acm,  and  by  the 
filtered  liqnid  of  the  still  Alkaline  Sulphate 
giving  a  precipitate  with  Baryta  water. 


Distinguished  frt)m  Baryta  and  Strontia  by 
giving  no  precipitate  with  Sulphates  when 
diluted ;  separated  in  the  state  of  Nitrates  and 
Chlorides  by  Alcohol. 

Easily  distinguished  and  separated  by  Sul- 
phates from  the  above,  or  by  tne  precipitates 
Deing  all  soluble  in  Muriate  of  Ammonia. 

Distinguished  from  the  Alkalies  by  giving  a 
white  precipitate  with  Ammonia.ana  may  be 
separated  nx>m  most  other  substances  by 
Caustic  Potastu 

May  be  distinguished  teom  Alumina  by  the 
Carbonates,  from  Magnesia  by  being  insolu- 
ble in  Muriate  of  Ammonia,  and  from  Lime 
and  the  Alkalies  by  Ammonia. 

Thoria  may  be  distinguished  and  separated 
ftt)m  the  above  substances,  as  It  is  perfectly 
insoluble  after  Ignition  in  all  acids  except  the 
Sulphuric. 

Distinguished  fhsm  Thoria  by  Sulphate  of 
Potash,  and  fh>m  the  other  substances  de- 
scribed by  the  same  means  as  Thoria. 


Distinguished  fh)m  Thoria  by  Sidphate  of 
Potash  and  Oxalic  Acid,  and  from  Tttria  by 
its  Oxide,  after  ignition,  being  insoluble  In 
all  Acids  except  the  Sulphuric. 


Distinguished  tram  other  substances  pre- 

,     „  _    viouply  aescribed  by  turning  Into  a  red  Per- 

red  bead ;  color  mes  on  cool-  '  oxide  when  heated  in  contact  with  the  atmoe- 
ing.  phere. 


158 


A     COMPLETE     TABLE     OP 


KAXB. 


Manganese,  •   •   • 
(Protoxide) 


Manganese,  •  •   - 
(Sesqnioxide 

and 
Peroxide) 


Zino, 


Cobalt, 


Nickel, 


(Protoxide 

or 
Peroxide) 


(Protoxide 

and 
Peroxide) 


Iron, 


(Protoxide) 


Iron, 


(Sesqaioxide 

and 
Peroxide) 


Cadmium, 


Lead,    • 


(Protoxide 
Peroxide) 


Bismuth, 


Copper, 


(Deatozide) 


AXXONIA. 


A  white  preci- 

Eitate,  eolnole  in 
Lariate  of  Am- 
monia, taming 
brown  at  the  sur- 
face. 

A  dark-brown 
precipitate,  in- 
Bolable  in  Mari- 
ate  of  Ammonia. 


A  white,  gelat- 
inous precipi- 
tate, Bolnble  in 
excess. 


A  bine  precipi- 
tate, soluble  in 
excess,  forming 
a  greenish  so- 
lution, taming 
brown. 

A  slight  green 
troubling,  uen  a 
dear,  blue  solu- 
tion, precipitate 
green  Dy  Potash. 

A  green  preci- 
pitate, soluDle  in 
Muriate  of  Am- 
monia, turning 
brown  in  contact 
with  the  air. 


A  reddish- 
brown  precipi- 
tate, insolnble  in 
Muriate  of  Am- 
monia. 


A  white  preci- 
pitate, soluble  in 
a  slight  excess. 


A  white  preci- 

f>itate,  insoluble 
n  an  excess,  ex- 
cept with  Ace- 
tates. 

A  white  preci- 

f»itate,  insoluble 
n  excess. 


A  green  preci- 
pitate and  deep 
purple  solution ; 
again  precipi- 
tated by  Potash 
if  boUed. 


FOTA8H. 


A  precipitate, 
turning  brown, 
insoluble  in  Mu- 
riate of  Anmio- 
nia. 


The  same. 


The    same   as 
Ammonia. 


A  bine  preci- 
pitate, insoluble, 
turning  green 
and  pale,  red 
when  DoUed. 


An  apple-green 
precipitate,  in> 
soluble  in  ex- 
cess. 


A  green  preci- 

>1tate,  insoluble 

n  excess,  tura- 

ng  brown  at  the 

surfiAce. 


The  same. 


A  white  preci- 

Eitate,  Insoluble 
1  excess. 


A  white  preci- 
pitate, soluble  in 
a  great  excess. 


The  same. 


A  green  preci- 

Eitate,       which 
oiling   renders 
black. 


OABBONATB  OV 
FOTABH. 


A  permanent, 
white  precipi- 
tate, slightly  sol- 
uble in  Muriate 
of  Ammonia. 


A  brown,  volu- 
minous precipi- 
tate. 


A  white  preei- 

1)itate,  insoluble 
n  excess,  but 
soluble  in  Muri- 
ate of  Ammonia 
or  Caustic  Alka- 
lies. 

A  red  precipi- 
tate, which  boil- 
ing renders  blue. 


precipi 


llght>-green 
piute. 


A  white  precl- 

Sitate,  soluble  in 
[uriate  of  Am- 
monia. 


A  Hght-brown 
precipitate. 


A  white  preci- 

Gitate,  insoluble 
1  excess. 


A  white  preci- 

f>itate,  insoluble 
n  excess,  but 
soluble  in  Pot- 
ash. 

The  same. 


A  green  preci- 
pitate, which 
Dolling  renders 
black. 


BICARBOKATB 
OF  FOTABH. 


The  same,  on- 
less  yery  dilute. 


The  same. 


A  white  pred* 

Eitate,  whicn  he- 
aves     in     the 
same  manner. 


A  red  predpi- 
tate. 


The  same :  Car- 
bonic Acta  gaa 
is  given  off. 


The 


The  same:  Car> 
bonic  Acid  la  dia- 
engaged. 


A  white  preci- 
pitate; Carbonic 
Acid  is  disen- 
gaged. 

A  similar  pred- 
pitate  witn  an 
evolution  of  gaa. 


The 


A  light-n^reeii 
precipitate,  sotai- 
ble  in  exoesB. 


ANALYTICAL     CHEMISTRY. 


159 


CABBONATV  OT 
AXXONIA. 


The  same. 


The  same. 


A  white  preci- 
pitate, BoluDle  in 
excess. 


A  red  precipi- 
tate, solnble  io 
Mnrlate  of  Am- 
monia. 


A  grocu  preci* 
pitate,  solnble  in 

Szcefis,  forming  a 
Inish  solution. 


The  same. 


A  Ught>brown 
precipitate. 


A  white  preci- 

Eitate,  insoluble 
1  excess. 


The  same. 


The  same. 


A  green  preci- 
pitate, solnble  in 
excess,  same  as 
Ammonia. 


BULPHX7BXTTBD 
HTOBOOBN. 


No  precipitate 
unless  Ammonia 
be  added. 


A  milk-white 
precipitate  of 
Bolpbnr ;  solu- 
tion then  con- 
tains a  Froto- 
salt 

A  white  preci- 
pitate  If  neatral, 
but  none  if  acid. 


No  precipitate; 
solution  turns 
darker. 


No  precipitate ; 
scdntion  turns 
darker. 


No  precipitate. 


A  miOnr-wliite 

Srecipitaie  of 
nlphur ;  solu- 
tion then  con- 
tains Protoxide. 

A  yellow  preci- 
pitate. 


A  black  preci- 
pitate, in  both 
neutral  and  acid 
solutions. 


A  black  preci- 
pitate, in  both 
neutral  and  acid 
solutions. 

A  black  or  dark- 
brown  precipi- 
tate, in  both  neu- 
tral and  acid  so- 
lutions. 


HTOBOSUIiPHATB 
OF  AimONIA. 


A  flesh-red  pre- 
cipitate, turning 
brownish  in  con- 
tact with  the  air. 


The  flesh-red  pre- 
cipitate ;  the  preci- 
pitate by  Ammonia 
IS  turned  flesh-red 
by  it. 


A  white  precipi- 
tate, insoluble  in 
excess. 


A  black  precipi- 
tate, insoluble  in 
excess. 


A  black  precipi- 
tate, slightly  sol- 
uble in  excess. 


A  black  preclpi- 
tatctumingbrown 
at  the  surfiice. 


A  black  precipi- 
tate, same  as  Pro- 
toxide. 


A  vellowlBh  pre- 
cipitate, insoluble 
in  excess. 


A  black  precipi- 
tate, insoluble  in 
excess. 


A  black  precipi- 
tate, insoluble  in 
excess. 


The  same ;  insol- 
uble in  excess. 


TXLLOW  PBUSSI- 
ATB  OF  POTASH. 


A  pale-red  pre- 
cipitate, soluble 
in  free  acids. 


A  grayi  sh-green 
precipitate. 


A  gelatinous, 
white  precipi- 
tate, insoluble  in 
Muriatic  Acid. 


A  green  preci- 
pitate turning 
gray,  insoluble 
in  Muriatic  Acid. 


A  white  preci- 
pitate, slightly 
tending  to  green, 
insoluDle  in  Mu- 
riatic Acid. 

A      light-blue 

f>recip1tate,tum- 
ng  darker,  in- 
soluble in  Muri- 
atic Acid. 


An  immediate 
dark-blue  preci- 

Eltate,  insoluble 
1  Muriatic  Acid. 


A  slightly  yel- 
low precipitate, 
soluble  in  Muri- 
atic Acid. 

A  white  preci- 
piUte. 


A  white  preci- 
pitate, soluolc  In 
Muriatic  Acid. 


A  reddish- 
brown  precipi- 
tate, insoluble  in 
Muriatic  Acid. 


RED  FBUSSIATB 
OF  POTASH. 


A  brown  preci- 

EiUte,   insoluble 
1  free  acids. 


The    same    as 
the  Protoxide. 


A  yellowish-red 
precipitate,  solu- 
ble in  Muriatic 
Acid. 


A  reddish- 
brown  precipi- 
tate, insoluble  in 
Muriatic  Acid. 


A       yellowish- 

Seen  precipitate, 
soluDle  in  Mu- 
riatic Acid. 


An    immediate 
dark-blue    preci- 

Eitate,  insoluble 
1  Acids. 


No  precipitate. 


A  tcHow  preci- 

Sitate,  soluble  in 
[uriatic  Acid. 


No  precipitate. 


A  pale-yellow 
precipitate,  sol- 
uble in  Muriatic 
Acid. 

A      yellowish- 

{:reen  precipitate, 
nsoluDle  in  Mu- 
riatic Acid. 


160 


A     COMPLETE     TABLE     OP 


KAMB. 


Manganese,  •   -   - 
(Protoxide) 


Manganese,  -   -   - 
^Seeqaioxide 

and 
Peroxide) 


Zinc, 


Cobalt, 


Nickel,- 


(Protoxide 

or 
Peroxide) 


(Protoxide 

and 
Peroxide) 


OZAUO  AOID. 


Iron, 


(Protoxide) 


Iron, 


(SeBqnloxide 

and 
Peroxide) 


Cadmium, 


Lead, 


(Protoxide, 
Peroxide) 


Bismuth, 


Copper 


u.  •   •    •   " 

(Deatoxide) 


A  white  crys- 
talline deposit, 
nnleee  very  di- 
lute. 


No  precipitate, 
but  tne  Bolatton 
ia  soon  rendered 
colorless. 


A  white  preci- 
pitate, sola  Die  in 
me  Acids  and 
Allcalies, 


A  slif^ht  troub- 
ling and  shortly 
a  |Mile-red  preci- 
pitate. 


No  immediate 
precipitate,  bat 
a  Blow  deposit. 


A  yellow  color, 
and  shortly  a 
precipitate. 


No  precipitate ; 
solution  tarns 
yellowish. 


An  immediate 
precipitate,  solu- 
Dle  in  Ammonia. 


An  immediate, 
white  precipi- 
tate. 


lODiDB  or 

FOTASSIUM. 


No  precipitate. 


No  precipitate. 


sm^PBATv  or 

POTASH. 


No  precipitate. 


No  precipitate. 


No  precipitate. 


No  precipitate. 


No  precipitate. 


PBOspHATs  or 

SODA. 


A  permanent, 
white  precipi- 
Ute. 


A  yellow  preci- 
pitate, solaole  in 
a  great  excess. 


No  immediate  A  brown  preci- 
precipitate,  but  I  pitate,  solable  in 
after  a  time  a  excess, 
granular  one. 


A  greenish  pre- 
cipitate. 


A  white  preci- 
pitate, solaole  in 
a  great  excess. 


A  white  preci- 
pitate, very  in- 
solnble. 


No  precipitate 
except  from  the 
water  of  solu- 
tion. 


No  precipitate. 


A  brown  preci- 
pitate in  neutrtl 
solutions. 


A  white  pred- 
uitate,  soluble  in 
h'ee  Acids  and 
Alkalies. 


A  blue  precipi- 
tate. 


A  white  precipi- 
tate, slightly  ten- 
ding to  green. 


A  white  preci- 
pitate, turning 
green. 


A  white  precipi- 
tate, which  Am- 
monia turns 
brown,  and  at 
length  dissolves. 


A  white  preci- 
pitate. 


A  white  precipi- 
tate, soluble  in 
Potash. 


A  white  preci- 
pitate. 


A  greenisb- 
whltp  precipitate, 
soluble  in  Am- 
monia. 


ANALYTICAL     CHEMISTRY. 


161 


XKTALUO  ZnVO. 


No  precipitate. 


la  precipitated 
as  Bmall  metallic 
spang^leB. 


Precipitates  in 
n  crystalline  me- 
tallic state. 


Precipitates  it 
ft*om  the  milky 
solation,  even  as 
a  spongy  mass. 


Zinc  and  Iron 
both  precipitate 
metallic  Copper 
Trom  all  its  solu- 
tions. 


BBFORB  THB  BLOWPIFB. 


Produces  a  bead  of  an  ame- 
thyst color  in  the  outer  flame 
with  Borax,  which  disap- 
pears in  the  inner  flame. 


Same  as  Protoxide. 


On  Charcoal  with  Soda  a 
coat  of  white  Oxide  is  formed; 
with  Nitrate  of  Cobalt  they 
assume  a  green  color. 


The  smallest  portion  colors 
Borax  strongly  blue:  reduced 
to  a  metallic  state  with  Soda; 
magnetic. 


With  Borax  in  the  outer 
flame,  a  reddish  color,  which 
disappears  when  cold ;  with 
Soda,  a  white  magnetic 
powder. 


With  Borax  in  the  outer 
flame,  a  red  bead,  turning 
lighter  as  it  cools :  interior 
flame  a  green  bead,  turning 
lighter  on  cooling. 


Peroxide  behaves  in  the 
same  manner;  with  Sodn, 
a  magnetic  powder  is  ob- 
tained. 


Heated  on  Charcoal,  in  the 
inner  flame  a  brownish-red 
powder  snbUmes. 


Heated  on  Charcoal  with 
Soda,  is  reduced  to  metallic 
globules,  which  are  maUea- 
ble;  a  yellow  powder  sub- 
limes: produces  clear  glass 
with  Borax. 

On  Charcoal  are  easily  re- 
duced to  brittle  metallic  glo- 
bules ;  a  vellow  oxide  sub- 
limes ;  with  Borax,  a  clear 
glass. 


Outer  flame  with  Borax,  a 
fine  green  bead ;  inner  flame 
dirty  red ;  with  Soda  is  re- 
duced. 


OBSBBYATIONB. 


The  reaction  of  these  salts  with  Hydrosul- 
phate  of  Ammonia  is  so  well  characterized 
that  they  cannot  be  mistaken. 


The  Peroxide  is  always  converted  into  the 
Dentoxide  by  solution  in  an  Acid.  Mnriatic 
Acid  converts  it  into  Protoxide  by  boiling. 


The  solution  in  Potash  is  precipitnted  by 
Hyd.  Sul.  Am-,  which  distinsuishes  it  A*om 
earthy  sails,  and  mav  easi^  be  separated 
fh>m  other  metals  by  Ammoma. 


Easily  distinguished  from  all  other  salts  by 
their  behavior  with  Hydrosulphate  of  Am- 
monia. 


Distinguished  flrom  Cobalt  by  Ammonia  and 
Potash,  and  ttom  other  substances  in  the  same 
way  as  Cobalt. 


The  Salts  of  Iron  are  easily  distinguished 
by  their  behavior  with  the  Prnssiates ;  may 
be  separated  from  Manganese  by  Succinate 
of  Soda. 


Peroxide  is  distinguished  and  separated 
from  Protoxide  by  red  Prussiate  of  Potash 
and  Ammonia. 


Distinguished  by  Sulphuretted  Hydrogen, 
and  may  oe  separated  fh>m  all  the  above  by  a 
bar  of  Zinc. 


Solutions  of  Lead  give  a  precipitate  with 
Sulphuric  Acid  and  sulphates,  and  therefore 
may  be  distinguished  from  most  other  metals. 
Mnriatic  Acid  also  precinitates  Lead,  but 
water  dissolves  the  precipitate. 


May  be  detected  by  giving  a  precipitate 
with  water  alone. 


Salts  of  Copper  can  be  easily  distinguished 
from  other  salts  by  their  behavior  wfth  Am- 
monia and  Potash. 


162 


A     COMPLETE     TABLE     OF 


NAXB. 


Silver, 


Mercury,  -   -   -   - 
(Protoxide) 


Mercury,  -   -  -   - 
(Peroxide) 


Platina, 


Gold, 


Tin, 


(Protoxide) 


Tin, 


(Peroxide) 


Antimony, 


Chromium, 


Vanadium, 


Columbium, 


Iridium,    - 


AJfXONIA.. 


A  brown  precl- 

Eitate,  vsry  solu- 
le  in  excess,  but 
is  reprecipitated 
by  Potash. 

A  black  preci- 
pitate, sola  Die  in 
excess. 


A  white  preci- 

Eitate,  insoluble 
1  excess. 


A  yellow  preci- 
pitate, solable  in 
excess,  in  solable 
in  firee  acids. 


A  yellow  preci- 
pitate. 


A  white  preci- 

Eitate,  insoluble 
I  excess. 


A  white  preci- 
pitate, solable  in 
acids  and  in  ex- 
cess. 


A  white  preci- 

1>ltate,  insolable 
n  excess  and  in 
Muriatic  Acid. 

A  greenlsh-blae 
precipitate,  in- 
soluble in  ex- 
cess. 


A  grayish- 
white  precipi- 
tate, tamtnc:  red 
and  dissolving. 


Is  readily  dis- 


id 


solved,  and  mav 
be  again  precipi- 
tated by  acids. 


A  brown  pre- 
cipitate, partly 
soinble.  forming 
a  purple  solu- 
tion. 


FOTABH. 


A  brown  preci- 
pitate, insolable 


In 

soluble 

monia. 


excess, 
in 


but 
Am- 


A  black  preci- 
pitate, soluDle  in 
excess. 


A  yellow  or 
white  precipi- 
tate, solable  in 
excess. 


A  yellow  pre- 
cipitate, soluble 
in  excess  when 
boiled,  and  again 
precipitated  by 
acids. 

At  first  no 
precipitate,  but 
shortly  a  black 
one. 

A  white  preci- 
pitate, soluble  in 
excess ;  decom- 
posed by  boiling. 


The  same,  sol- 
uble in  excess. 


The  sane,  sol- 
uble in  Muriatic 
Acids. 


A  green  preci- 
pitate, soluDle  in 
excess :  again 
thrown  down  by 
boiling. 

The  same. 


The 


in- 


same, 
soluble  in  strong 
acids. 


A   dark-brown 
precipitate. 


OABBONATB  OV 
POTASH. 


A  white  preci- 
pitate, soluble  in 
Ammonia. 


A  dirty  yellow 
precipitate, 
which  boiling 
renders  black. 


A  reddish- 
brown  precipi- 
tate; if  it  con- 
tains Muriate 
of  Ammonia,  a 
wliite  one. 

A  yellow  precl- 

Eitate,  insoluble 
1  excess. 


No  precipitate. 


A  white  preci- 

gitate,  insoluble 
1  excess. 


The     same; 
deposits   slowly 
lin  after  solu- 


on. 


The  same. 


A  green  preci- 
pitate, slightly 
soinble  in  ex- 
cess. 


A  grayish- 
white  precipi- 
tate, soluble  in 
excess. 


The  same,  and 
maybe  dissolved 
by  Acetic  Acid. 


No  precipitate ; 
color  destroyed. 


BICARBONATE 
OF  FOTABH. 


The  same. 


A  white  preci- 
pitate, rendered 
black  by  boiling. 


A  reddish- 
brown  precipi- 
tate, either  im- 
mediate or  after 
a  time. 


The  same ;  Mu- 
riatic Acid  must 
be  added  in  all 
cases. 


No  precipitate 


The  same. 


A  white  pred- 

Gitate,  insolable 
1  excess. 


Thesame^ 


The  same;  rath- 
er lighter. 


The  same. 


Theeamei 


ThesameL 


ANALYTICAL     CHEMISTET. 


163 


CABBONATX  OF 
AXXONIA. 


A  white  prad- 
plute,  solaole  in 
ezcew. 


A  my  or  black 
precipitate. 


A  white  preci- 
pitate. 


A  yellow  preci- 
pitate. 


A  yellow  preci- 
pitate, if  neutral. 


The  same. 


BnLFHTTBSTTXI) 
HTDBOGBN. 


The  same. 


The  same. 


The  same;  ap- 
proaching to  Yio- 


The  same,  in- 
soluble in  excess. 


The  same. 


The  same. 


A  black  preci- 
pitate, in  both 
nentral  and  acid 
solutions. 


A  black  preci- 
pitate, in  acid 
and  neutral  solu- 
tions. 


A  black  preci- 
pitate, turning 
white,  and  again 
black  by  an  ex- 
cess,  soluble  in 
Potash. 

A  brown  color 
and  shortly  a 
precipitate. 


A  black  preci- 
pitate, in  both 
acid  and  neutral 
solutions. 

A  dark-brown 
precipitate,  in 
both  acid  and 
neutral  solu- 
tions. 

No  immediate 
precipitate,  but 
shortly  a  yellow 
one. 


A  red  precipi- 
tate in  acid  so- 
lutions. 


No  precipitate 
in  any  solutions. 


Generally  a 
brown  precipi- 
tate, in  ether, 
acid,  or  neutral 
solutions. 


HTOBOSULPHATB 

or  AjmoNiA. 


A   dark-brown 
precipitate. 


A  black  precipi- 
tate, Insoluble  in 
excess. 


A  black  precipi- 
tate, insoluble  in 
excess,  partly  sol- 
uble in  Potash. 


The  same;  solu- 
tion must  be  neu- 
tral. 


A  brown  precipi- 
tate, soluble  in  a 
large  excess. 


A  brown  precipi- 
tate, soluble  in  ex- 
cess. 


A  brown  precipi- 
tate, soluble  in  ex- 
cess, reprecipita- 
ted  by  Muriatic 
Acid. 

A  yellow  preci- 
pitate, soluble  in 
excess. 


A  red  precipitate, 
soluble  in  an  ex- 
cess. 


A  greenish  preci- 
pitate. 


A    grayish-white 
precipitate. 


TZLLOW  PBUSSI- 
▲TX  OF  FOTABH. 


No  action  with 
the  Acid,  but  a 
brown  precipitate 
with  the  Oxide. 

The  same;  solu- 
ble in  excess. 


A  white  preci- 
pitate. 


A  white,  gelat- 
inous precipi- 
tate. 


A  white  preci- 
pitate, turning 
blue. 


A  yellow  preci- 
pitate, solution 
turns  darker. 


An      emerald- 
green  color. 


A  white,  gelat- 
inous precipi- 
tate. 


No  precipitate 
at  first,  but  short- 
ly the  whole 
forms  a  thick 
jelly. 

A  white  preci- 

Eitate,  Insoluble 
1  Muriatic  Acid. 


No  precipitate. 


RED  FBU88IATB 
OF  POTASH. 


A     yellowlsh- 
en     precipi- 
te. 


No  precipitate. 


A  reddish- 
brown  precipi- 
tate.  . 


A  reddish- 
brown  precipi- 
tate, turning 
white. 


A  yellow  in  most 
solutions.  but 
none  with  the 
Perchloride. 


The  same. 


No  precipitate. 


A  white  preci- 

Sitate,  soluble  in 
[uriatic  Acid. 


No  precipitate. 


No  precipitate, 
but  shortly  a 
slight  opacity. 


No  precipitate. 


164 


A    COMPLETE    TABLE    OF 


HAMS. 

OXAUC  Aon>. 

lODiDB  or 

FOTABBIUM. 

8ULPHATB  OF 
POTASH. 

FH08PHATB  OV 

'  fiboA. 

Silver, 

A  white  preci- 
pitate, etolaole  in 
Ammonia. 

AyellowiBh  pre- 
cipitate, Bolnble 
in  excess. 

A  white  preci- 
pitate, unless  the 
solution   be   di- 
luted ;  soluble  in 
water. 

A  yellow  preci- 
pitate, Bolnble  in 
Ammonia. 

Mercury,  •   -   -   - 
(Protoxide) 

A  white  preci- 
piute. 

A  greenish-yel- 
low precipitate, 
rendered    black 
by  an  excess  and 
at    length    diB- 
Bolves. 

A  white  preci- 
pitate. 

A  white  preci- 
pitate. 

Mercury,  -   -   -   - 
(Peroxide) 

A  white  preci- 
pitate, bnt  none 
in  the  Perchlo- 
ride. 

A   fine  scarlet 
precipitate,  sol- 
uble   in   excess 
and  in  Muriatic 
Acid. 

A  white  preci- 
pitate. 

A  white  preci- 
pitate in  most, 
but  not  in  the 
Perchloride. 

Platlna,    -   -   -   - 

No  precipitate. 

A   deep-brown 
color  and  preci- 
pitate,      which 
i>oiling  reduces. 

No  precipitate. 

No  precipitate. 

Gold, 

A   dark  color, 
and  shortly  the 
Gold  iB  precipi- 
tated. 

A    dark    color 
and  a  yellowlBh 
precipitate. 

No  precipitate. 

No  precipitate. 

Tin, 

(Protoxide) 

A  white  preci- 
pitate. 

A       yellowish 
precipitate,tum- 

ng  red.  soluble 
in  excess. 

A  white  preci- 
pitate, partial. 

A  white  preci- 
pitate. 

Tin. 

(Peroxide) 

No  precipitate. 

No  precipitate. 

No  precipitate. 

A  white  preci- 
pitate. 

Antimony,    •   •   - 

A  white  preci- 
pitate, caused  by 
water. 

The  same. 

The  same. 

The  same. 

Chromium,  -   -   - 

No  precipitate. 

A  greenish  pre- 
cipitate, soluble 
in  Muriatic  Acid. 

No  precipitate. 

A  light-green 
precipitate. 

Vanadium,   -   -   - 

—       —       — 

—       —       _ 

No  precipitate. 

No  precipitate. 

Columbium,     •   - 

Di8fK>lTefl    the 
OxldoB. 

—       —       _ 

Fused  with  it, 
the    Oxide    re- 
maint*  after  boil- 
ing. 

—      _      — 

Iriflliini     ■    >    •    . 

No  precipitate 
or  action. 

ANALYTICAL     CHEMISTRY. 


165 


XXTALUCVVKO. 


Is  precipitated 
in  a  metallic  stata 


Forms  a  sray 
coating,  which  is 
an  amalgam. 


Same   ad  Pro- 
toxide. 


A  black,  metal- 
lic powder. 


AbrowSthnlky 
coating. 


Small  grayiBh- 
white  epangles 
of  Tin. 


A  white  jelly; 
Hydrogen  gas  is 
disengaged. 


Precipitated  in 
the  form  of  a 
black  powder. 


\ 


No  ivrecipitate. 


Precipitated  as 
a  dark  powder. 


BBTORB  THS  BLOWPIPE. 


With  Borax  in  the  outer 
flame,  a  milky  glat^s;  with 
Soda  Is  easily  reduced. 


Heated  in  a  glass  tube  with 
a  little  Soda,  Mercury  sub- 
limes and  condenses  in  small 
globules. 


Same  as  Protoxide. 


Completely    reduced,    but 

S'ves  no  color  to  fluxes  or 
ime. 


Same  as  Platina,  insoluble 
in  all  acids  except  Nltro-Mu- 
riatic. 


Easily  reduced  with  Soda : 
deprives  a  bead  of  Ck>pper 
and  microcosmic  salt  of  its 
green  color. 


Reduced  on  Charcoal,  forms 
a  white  enamel  with  glass ; 
does  not  dissolye  easily  in 
Borax. 


Rednced  with  Soda,  rapidly 
oxidizes  and  sublimes  iu  the 
outer  flame  as  a  thick,  white 
smoke. 


A  fine  emerald-green  bend, 
both  in  the  inner  and  outer 
flame,  with  fluxes. 


In  the  inner  flame,  with 
Borax,  a  green  glass,  outer 
becomes  yellow. 


Bfi'ervesces  with  Soda;  a 
dear  glass  with  Borax,  or 
the  Phosphoric  Salt. 


No  action  with  fluxes :  no 
odor ;  may  be  coupled  with 
lead. 


OBSEBYATIONa 


Muriatic  Acid  throws  down  a  white  preci- 
pitate, insoluble  in  acids,  but  soluble  in  Am- 
monia, which  distinguishes  it  from  all  other 
substances. 


Muriatic  Acid  gives  a  white  precipitate, 
insoluble  in  acids,  which  Ammonia  renders 
black,  but  does  not  dissolve ;  by  this  it  may 
be  distinguished. 


Persalts  of  Mercury  are  easily  recognized 
by  Sulphuretted  Hydrogen  and  Iodide  of  Po- 
tassium. 


Eaaily  recognized  by  its  behavior  with  Pot- 
ash and  Ammonia ;  may  be  separated  by  Mu- 
riate of  Potash. 


Protochloride  of  Tin  gives  a  deep  purple 
color  and  precipitate:  Sulphate  of  Iron  tnrowa 
down  the  gold,  which  distinguishes  it  from 
most  other  metals. 


The  behavior  of  these  salts  with  Gold,  aa 
above,  is  sufficient  to  distinguish  them. 


The  Peroxide  is  insoluble  in  aD  Acids  after 
ignition ;  Nitric  Acid  oxidizes  Tin,  but  does 
not  dissolve  the  Oxide. 


The  Oxide  is  volatile  and  insoluble  in 
Nitric  Acid ;  may  be  distinguished  from  Tin 
by  Sulphuretted  Hydrogen ;  water  only  pre- 
cipitates part  of  the  Oxide. 


Its  solutions  are  usually  green,  and  may  be 
distinguished  ttom  most  other  solutions  by 
Sulphuretted  Hydrogen. 


All  its  salts  have  a  blue  color :  distinguished 
from  Iron  by  Hydrosulphate  of  Ammonia. 


When  ftised  with  Caustic  or  Carbonated 
Alkalies,  the  whole  is  soluble  in  water. 


Fused  with  Carbonate  of  Potash,  the  result 
is  not  soluble  in  water,  but  dissolves  in  Mu- 
riatic Acid,  producing  various  colors. 


y 


166 


A     COMPLETE     TABLE     OF 


NAXB. 


Rhodium, 


Palladium, 


Osmium, 


Tellurium,    -  - 


Titanium, 


Tungsten, 


Uranium, 


Molybdenum, 


AXXONIA. 


Shortly  a  lem- 
on-yellow color. 


A  yellowish 
precipitate, 
slightly  soluble 
in  excess. 


No  precipitate ; 
solution  turns 
yellow. 


A  white  preci- 
pitate, soluble  in 
excess. 


A  white  preci- 

{>itate,  insoluble 
n  excess. 


The  Acid  dis- 
solves, bat  is 
again  precipita- 
ted by  stronger 
acids. 


A  brown,  flaky 
precipitate,  in- 
soluble in  ex- 
cess. 


The  Acid  is  dis- 
solved, and  the 
Protoxide  forms 
a  brown  precipi- 
tate. 


POTASH. 


OABBONATX  OF 
FOTABH. 


A  yellow  nrecl 


A      gelatinous 


pitate,  soluble  in    precipitate  when 


acids. 


An  orange-col- 
ored precipitate 
from  the  Nitrate- 


Fused  with  the 
whole,  is  soluble 
in  water. 


A  white  preci- 
pitate, soluble  in 
excess;  repreci- 
pitated  by  acids. 


The  same. 


The  same. 


A  yellowish 
precipitate,  in- 
solable  in  ex- 
cess. 


The  same ;  pre- 
cipitate insolu- 
ble in  excess. 


boiled  with  the 
doable  Chloride. 


A  deep-brown 
precipitate,  iu- 
solubie  in  ex- 
cess. 


No  precipitate ; 
solution  turns 
yellowish. 


The  same. 


Theeam& 


Is  insoluble  in 
water  when 
fhsed  in  it. 


The      same, 
slightly  soluble. 


A  brown  preci- 
pitate, soluble  in 
excess. 


BIOABBOKATI 
or  POTASH. 


No  precipitate 


The  same. 


Thesama 


The  same. 


The  same. 


The  same. 


The  same. 


ANALYTICAL     CHEMISTRY. 


167 


CABBONATB  OF 
AMMONIA. 


SnLFHTTRBTTKD 
HTDBOOSN. 


No  precipitate.      —       —      — 


The  Bame. 


The  earns. 


The  name. 


The  same. 


A  yellowish 
precipitate,  tola- 
Die  in  excess. 


The  same. 


A  dark-brown 
precipitate.  ^ 


A  brown  preci* 
pltate. 


A  black  preci' 
pitate,  soluble  in 
Potash. 


No  precipitate. 


No  precipitate. 


No  precipitate. 


A  brown  preci- 

Sitate,  in  Alka- 
ne  Bolntions. 


f 


HTDBOBT7LPHATB 
OF  AXXONIA. 


No  precipitate. 


The  same. 


The  same;  solu- 
ble in  excess. 


The  same,  or  in 
excess. 


A  dirty-green  pre- 
cipitate, nniess 
Tartaric  Acid  be 
present,  then  no 
precipitate. 

A  precipitate,  sol- 
uble in  excess. 


A  black  precipi- 
tate, slightly  som- 
ble  in  excess. 


The  same.  If  Mn- 
riatic  Add  be 
added. 


rSLLOW  FBUSSI- 
ATB  OF  POTASH. 


No  precipitate. 


An  orange  or 
olive  yellow  pre- 
cipitate. 


No  precipitate. 


No  precipitate. 


RXD  FBUSSIATB 
OF  POTASH. 


No  precipitate. 


No  precipitate. 


A  deep  orange 
precipiute. 


A  brownish-red 
precipitate. 


A  brown  preci- 
pitate. 


The  same. 


The  same. 


168 


A    COMPLETE     TABLE    OP 


NAlfE. 

OXALIO  ACID. 

lODiDB  or 

POTASSIUM. 

STTLPHATK  OF 
POTASH. 

PHOSPHATB  or 
SODA. 

Rhodium,     -   .   - 

—      -^      ■"- 

Fused  with  the 
Bisolphate,    the 
whole  dissolves 
in  water. 

"^ 

^ 

Palladium,   -   .   - 

No  action. 

—         —         — 

An  orance-yel- 
low  precipitate. 

— 

— 

— 

Osmium,  .   -   -   - 

« 
Tnrne    darker, 
bat  is  not  preci- 
pitated. 

—         —         — 

No  precipitate 
or  action. 

— 

— 

— 

Tellurium,    -   -  - 

—      —      — 

—         —         — 

—       —       — 

— 

— 

Titanium,     ... 

A  white  floccQ- 
lent  precipitate. 

—         —         .- 

— 

— 

— 

Tungsten,     -   -  - 

_      —      « 

—         —         — 

Does  not  form 
a  doable  salt 

— 

— 

— 

Uranium,      .   •   . 

_      _      _ 

_         —         _ 

No  doable  salt 

— 

... 

Molybdenum,  •   - 

_      _       — 

—         —         — 

• 

— 

— 

— 

ANALYTICAL    CHEMISTRY. 


169 


MSTALUO  SINO. 


Precipitated 
from  doable 
Chloride  of  Rho- 
diam  and  Soda. 


Precipitated  in 
a  metallic  state. 


Precipitated  as 
a  dark  powder. 


Is  precipitated 
as  a  olack  pow- 
der. 


A      deep-bine 
color  is  produced. 


In  Muriatic 
Acid  n  bine  Oxide 
la  formed. 


In  a  Mariatlc 
•olntion  of  the 
Acid  a  blue  and 
red  powder. 


BEFORE  THB  BLOWFIPB. 


No  action  with  fluxes. 


Same  as  Bhodlnm. 


Gives  a  strong  odor  of 
Chlorine ;  has  no  action 
with  flaxes;  may  be  cupelled 
with  Lead. 


A  white  glass,  when  cold; 
with  flaxes;  mmes  when 
heated  alone. 


With  Soda,  a  yellow  glass, 
opaqne  when  cold ;  with  Bo- 
rnx  and  Inner  flame,  a  bine 
glass. 


With  Borax,  a  clear  glass 
in  the  onter  flame,  yellow  in 
the  inner:  blood-red  with 
Iron  and  Phosphorons  salt. 


OBSBBYATIONS. 


Insoluble  in  acids  after  ignition;   dietin- 

fniehed  and   separated    bv  Bisoipnate   of 
(»tash;  the  doable  Chloride  is  soluble  in 
Alcohol. 


The  Cyanide  of  Mercury  will  easily  sepa- 
rate Paliadinm  as  a  yellow  precipitate ;  the 
Chloride  is  soluble  in  Alcohol. 


Tincture  of  Oalls  gives  a  purple  precipi- 
tate ;  separated  by  distillation. 


May  be  separated  from  most  other  metals, 
combined  with  Chlorine  or  Hydrogen,  both 
compounds  being  volatile. 


Is  precipitated  by  boiling;  distinenished 
from  other  metals  by  its  behavior  with  Tar- 
taric Acid  and  Hydrosalphate  of  Ammonia. 


Sulphuric,  Nitric,  and  Muriatic  Acid  preci- 
pitate its  Alkaline  solutions  white,  tnniing 
yellow  when  boiled  with  Nitro-Muriatic 
Acid. 


On  Platinum  with  Bomx,       Separated  from  most  metals  by  dissolving 
a  clear,  yellow  glass,  outer    in  Carbonate  of  Ammonia  or  Soda ;  its  solu- 
tions are  green. 


flame,  dirty  green,  not  vola- 
tile. 


Sublimes  as  a  white  pow- 
der ;  a  clear  glass  with  Bo- 
rax. 


Distinguished  by  Carbonates,  but  separated 
by  Hydrosalphate  of  Ammonia. 


170 


ZETTNOW'S  SCHEME  FOR  QUALITATIVE  ANALY 

ARRANQED  B7 


FOR    THE    STUDENTS    OF    THE    SCHOOL 

Addhydrochloric  acid  to  the  Bolntion.  wash,  and  flltgr. 


PrtcipUaU. 

Boil  with  water  and 

filter. 


excess  of  ( 


Solu- 
tion. 
Add 
H.SO« 


Pre- 
cip- 
Uate 
Pb. 


Setidw. 

Treat  with 
(NH*)HO. 


PredpUaU. 

Agitate  with  considerahle  cold 
water  and  filter. 


Solu- 
tion. 
Add 
HNO,. 


Pre- 
dp- 
UaU 

Aar. 


Residue 

turns 

gray 

or 

black, 


FiUrate. 
Add  excess 

of 
(NH.).C,0. 


PredpUate 
Ca. 


Beddue. 

Add  (NH«)HO  and 

(Nfl.),C,H.O., 

ligest  and  filter. 


ii 


Beeidue. 

Boil  with  Na.CO,, 

filter,  wash,  dissolve 

on  filter  with  HCl, 

neatralize  filtrate 

with  (NHJHO,  and 

divide  into  two 

parts. 


FUtraU. 

Add 

Hrc.H.o.) 

and  KaCrO« 


PredjMate 


let  Half. 
Add  excess 
of  solation 

ofSrSO,. 


Precipitate 
Ba. 


Second  Baif. 
Add  excess  of 
HgSiaFl.  and  alco- 
hol.   Shake,  filter, 
dilate  with  water, 
expel  alcohol  by 
evaporation,  add 
solution  of  CaSO«, 
and  after  one  or 
two  minutes  a 
precipitate 
Sr. 


In  this  scheme  regard  is  had  to  the  following  sub- 
stances in  aqueous  solution : 

I.  PbO,  Ag.O,  HgO. 

II.  CaO,  BaO,  8rO. 

III.  (NHJ.O,  Na.O,  K,0. 

IV.  A8aO„  As,0„  SbaO,,  Sb.O,,  SnO,  8nO„ 

Hg,0,  CuO,  CdO,  Bi,0,. 
V.    PeO,  Fe,0„  Cr,Oa,  Al.O,. 
VI.    MnO,  MgO.  CJoO,  NiO. 
VII.    ZnO. 


To  ^  add  BaHsO. 
andboiL 


Volamieed, 


(NHJ.O. 

Testns 

with  HCl 

and  litmus. 


Place  I 
when 
wash 


Solution. 


Add 

excess 

of 

(NHJ.CO, 

and 

(NflO.C.O., 

warm,  filter, 

evaporate  to  drviness, 

and  ignite  residue. 

Test  on  platinum 

wire  in  colorless 

flame :  intense  yellow 

color  Indicates 

Na. 

Violet  color  seen 

through  blue  glass 

indicates 


Voia- 
tmted. 

Collect 

spots  on 

cold 

porce- 
lain, 
and 
treat 
with 

NaClO. 

Spots 

dissolve ; 


Spots 

do  not 

dissolve ; 

Sb. 

Test 

also  with 

AgNO,. 


N.  B.— To  test  for  zinc,  mix 
HCl,  H,80„  filter,  add  NaHO  in 
and  NH«C1  to  filtrate,  boil  until 
ter.    Add  K«Fe,Cy.  to  solution. 


SIS  WITHOUT  THE  USE  OF  H2S  OR  (NH4)  HS- 


171 


H.  C.  BOLTON,  Ph.  D., 

OF    MINES,    COLUMBIA    COLLEGE. 


H«804  and  wm^  on  Alter. 


liUrau. 
Divide  the  eolntlon  tnto  two  nneqaal  parts,  \  and  |. 


of  the  eolation  in  a  Marches  apparatas,  add  pieces  of  zinc  and  a  strip  of  platinam  foil, 
bat  little  zinc  remains  heat  16  or  90  minntes,  and  throw  contents  of  flask  on  a  filter  ;j 
thoroughly. 


Besidve, 
Treat  with  strong  HNO,,  and  filter. 


JBesidve. 

Wash,  boil 
with  HCl, 
and  filter. 


8olU' 
tUm. 

Pntin 

a  plati- 
nam 
di«h 

with  a 
piece 

ofzinc. 

A  dark 
spot 

on  the 
plati- 
nam 
indi- 
cates 
Sb. 


due. 
Add 
to  eo- 
lation 

iu 
pUti. 
nam 
dish, 
boil 
with 
HCl, 
filter 
and 
add 

^^' 

dpi- 
taU 
Sn. 


.mtraU. 
Divide  into  two  parts. 


l8tHa{f. 

Add 

8nCU. 


Precipi- 
tate 


IH  Portion. 

Add  KCyS. 
Bed  Color, 


3eamdHialf. 

Add  HCl,  boU, 

then  add  excess  ol 

NaHO,  watth  the] 

precipitate  on  fil'j 

ter  with  water, 

then  with 

(N;H«)H0  contain^ 

ing  NH«CL 


FiUrate. 

and  divide  in  two 
nneqnai  Darts. 


Second  Portion. 

Neutralize  with  (NHJHO,  add  ex- 
cess of  BaCoa,  flffitate  10  minutes, 
filter  and  wash  thoroughly. 


Residue, 

Dissolve 
on  filter 
in  very 

little 
HCl  and 

add 

large 
quantity 
ofH«0 
to  the 
filtrate. 
A  cloudy 
precipi- 
tate in- 
dicates 

Bi. 


FiUrote. 

Divide  into  two 
parts. 


let  Half. 

Acid«y_ 
with  HCl 

and  add 
K.Fe,Cy, 


Predpi- 
tote 
Cu. 


tdHa^. 
Add 

excess 
of 

NaHO. 

a  white 

gelatin- 
ous 

Precipi- 
tate 
Gd. 


Prec^ate. 

Boil  in  a  porcelain 

dish  with  dilate 

H,80«  and  filter. 

Add  excess  of  NaHO 

to  filtrate,  a  few  dropf 

of  KaMn,0«,  anda 

little  NH,C1,  boil, 

filter,  and  dlj^^^^e 


1 


FiUrate. 

Add  excess  of  dilute 
HaSO,,  filter,  and  sat- 
urate filtrate  with 
(NH«).CO„  warm,  filter, 
and  wash. 


Oi 


letffaff. 

Add  some 

H(C,H.O,) 

and 

(C,H,0,), 


U£39 


tdHalf. 
Add  ex- 
cess of 
NH.Cl. 
Precipi- 
tate 
AL 


a  portion  of  the  original  solution  with 
excess,  and  boil.  Add  a  little  (NH«),CO, 
all  odor  of  (NHJHO  is  expelled,  and  flJ- 
a  cloud  or  precipitate  indicates  Zn. 


*  To  determine  de- 
gree of  oxidation  of 
Fe,  examine  the  ori- 
ginal solution  with 
K«Fe,Cy.andKCy8. 


Precipitate 
Mix  a  por- 
tion with 
Na.CO. 
and  NaNO., 
fhseon 
platinum 
foil. 
Oreen  color. 


Solution. 

Add 
Na.HPO.. 


Dissolve 
another 
portion  iu 
Ha.  neu- 
tralize 
with 
(NHJHO, 
add  con- 
siderable 
NH,C1  and 
(NH,),C,0, 
Pre(^tate 
Ga. 


Pre^ 
cipi- 
tate 

Mgr* 


Solu- 
tion. 
Evap- 
orate 

to 

dry- 
ness, dis- 
solve in 
HCl,  add 
KNO,  and 
H(C.fl,0.). 
filter. 


172 


STAS-OTTO'S    SCHEME    FOR    THE 


TRANSLATED  FROM  THE  GERMAN 


Taken  np  by  ether  in  acid 
solutions.^ 


With  tannic  acid. 


Precipitated. 


CoLcm- 
cm. 

The  yeUow 
eolation  is 
colored 
violet  by 
concen- 
trated 
HNO,. 


On  dilating 
the  nitric 
acid  sola- 
tlon  and 
making  It 
alkaline 
withNaHO, 
an  orange- 
red  colora- 
tion is 
obtained. 


DiaiTA- 

UN. 

Mixed  with 
a  Bolation 

of  galls 
concentra- 
ted H,SO«, 

A  bright- 
red  stratam 
is  formed 
and  Anally 

a  red 

liquid. 


On  dissolv- 
ing in  con- 
centrated 
H,SO«  and 

mixing 

Avithadrop 

of  bromine 

water,  a 

vMet-red 

coloration 

is 
prodaced. 


No  action. 


PlCBOTOZ- 
TS, 

The  dilate 
alkaline 
(NaHO) 

solation  is 
ooloriesa 

and 
redaccs 

Fehling's 

copper 

solation. 


*  Also  a  small  quantity  of  atropin. 


Taken  ap  by  ether 


Solid 


With  concentrated  salpharic  acid. 


In  the  cold. 


Bose-red. 


Bbuoin. 

Solable  In 
concentra- 
ted HNO„ 

with  a 

bright-red 

color, 

which 

becomes 

udlow  on 

neatine:. 

On  adding 

stannic 
cboride  to 
this  sola- 
tion, a 
violet  color 
is  formed. 


Brown-red. 


Deuhih- 

IN 

forms  with 
concentra- 
ted U,SO« 
and  bro- 
mine water 
a  reddish- 
violet  color. 
The  same 
coloration 
appears  on 
evaporat- 
ing with 
phosphoric 
acid. 


ACONTTIN 

dissolves 
in  n,80« 

with  a 
red^nwon 

color. 


On  heating. 


Yellow, 
then  or- 
ange, and 
cherry-red. 


Vkba- 

TSUI 

forms  with 
concentra- 
ted HCl  a 
colorkes 
solation, 

which 
becomes  a 
fine  dark- 
red  on 
heating. 


Tellow,  then 

violet-blae, 

and  dark-rod. 


Nabcotin 

on  dissolving 

in  H.SO, 

with  a  little 

HNO„  forms 

a  red  color. 

Concentnited 

H,SO«  with 

a  trace  of 
Bodic  molyb- 
date  forms  a 
green  color. 
Dissolves  in 
HCl,  forming 
a  pale-green 

solution 

which  tnms 

yeUowitih-red 

on  adding 

NH«HO. 


t  Also  partially 


*  Phnrmaceatieche  Poet, 


«p 


MBiKi99VP 


DETECTION    OF    ALKALOIDS,    ETC.       173 

BY    H.    CARRINGTON    BOLTON,    PH.D.* 


in  alkaline  eolationB.t 


(odorleM). 


With  concentrated  H,SO« 
and  K,Cr.O,. 


In  the  cold. 


Violet-bine. 


Stbtcbnin 

formet  a  ffeUow 

solution  with 

HNO,. 

The  f}iokt 

coloration  also 

obtains  when 

either  potaesic 

ferricTflnide. 

plamoic  and 

maniranic 

dioxidefi,  or 

potasfilc  lodate 

l»  ni^ed 

in  place  of 

K,Cr,0,. 


Note. 

CTUBABIN 

gives  similar 
reactions  to 
strychnin, 
bnt  forms  a 
red  color  with 
HjSO*  alone, 
and  is  more- 
over insolnble 
tn  ether  in  the 
presence  of 
acids  and 
alkalies. 


On  heating. 


Characterie- 
tic  odor. 


Atbovin. 

The 

odor  is  better 

formed  by 

Slicing  the 
kaloid  on  a 
few  crystals 
of  chromic 
acid  and 
gently 
heating  until 
theflnreen 
oxide  of 
chromiam 
begins  to 
form. 


With 

concentrated 

phosphoric 

acia  and 

application 

of  heat. 


ACONTTIN 

produces  a 

violet  color. 

Dissolves  in 

concentrated 

U^SO^witha 

htUr-lfrown 

color. 


Liquid  (strongly  odorous). 


With  chlorine  water. 


Precipitated. 


COKIH. 

Aqueous 

solutions 

become 

colored  on 

heating. 


Dklphinin 

and 
Digit  AUN 

behave  In  the 
same  manner 
with  U,PO«. 


Dtt  HCl  gas 

colore  it  red 

and  then 

deep-blue. 


No  action. 


NiCOTIK. 

Aqueous 

solutions  do 

not  become 

colored  on 

heating. 


On  gently 

beating  with 

HCl, 

becomes 

violet,  and  on 

adding 

HNO, 

the  color 

changes  to 

orange. 


colchicin  and  digitalin. 


Insoluble  in 
ether. 


MORPUIN. 

The  ammonia- 

cal  solution 
gives  a  grass- 
green  solution 

on  heating 

with  cupram- 

monium 

(Nadler). 

Concentrated 

HNO,  colors  it 

Noodred, 

neutral  Fe,Cla 

colors  it 

darMlue. 

On  dissolving 

in  concentrated 

H,SO«,heating, 

allowing  to 

cool,  and  then 

adding  a  little 

HNO„  an  in- 

tense  red  color 

is  produced. 

Reduces  an 

acid  solution 

of  iodic  acid, 

the  iodine 

dissolving  out 

in  C8,  with  a 

tiokt  color. 


Vol  VI.,  No.  11,  June,  1878. 


174  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

DETECTION   AND   SEPARATION   OF  ALKALOIDS. 

According  to  J.  Trapp  (Jahresb.,  1863,  p.  702). 

The  yellow  pulverulent  or  flocculent  precipitates  produced 
in  the  acid  solution  of  many  organic  bases  by  phosphomolybdic 
acid  are  insoluble  in  dilute  nitric  acid,  but  easily  soluble  in 
amnionic  hydrate  and  the  fixed  alkalies.  The  solutions  of  the 
several  precipitates  in  ammonic  hydrate  exhibit  the  following 
color-reactions : 

Aconitin 1 

iettn::::::;::  ^'''^'' ^^^ ^«i*"i«- 

Berberin J 

Bracin Orange Yellow-green. Brown. 

Codein Yellow Green Orange>red. 

QSinidii!.'.'!;'.;;!!}^®"^^ InBoluWe Colorless. 

Cafiein Yellow Colorless , .     

Conin Yellowish- white Light-blue Colorless. 

With  digitalin  (y^  of  a  grain)  and  phosphomolybdic  acid^ 
there  is  formed  a  yellow  liquid,  which  becomes  green  on  boil- 
ing ;  deep-indigo  on  addition  of  ammonic  hydrate ;  green  again 
on  heating ;  then  colorless. 

NEW   REACTION   OF  THE  ALKALOIDS.* 

If  strychnin  be  dissolved  in  concentrated  sulphuric  acid,  to 
which  is  added  a  little  eerie  oxide  (sesquioxide  of  cerium),  an 
intense  blue  color  is  developed,  similar  to  that  produced  in  the 
ordinary  mode  of  testing  by  potassic  dichromate.  The  color 
is,  however,  more  durable,  and  passes  gradually  into  a  cherry 
red,  which  remains  unchanged  for  several  days.  Other  alka- 
loids, treated  in  the  same  manner,  give  rise  to  a  variety  of 
color-reactions,  as  follows : 

Brucin  (C21H22N2O2) — Orange,  and  finally  yellow. 
Morphin  (C34H33N20g) — Brown,    olive-green,    and    finally 
brown. 

Narcotin  (C5H7N) — Brown,  passing  to  cherry-red. 


*  Vierte^ahresschrift  fuer  Prak.  Phann. 


THE  CHEMISTS*  MANUAL. 


175 


Codein  (CieHjiNOa  or  C3gH42N20e) — Olive-green,  and 
finally  brown. 

Quinin  (C20H24N2O2) — ^Pale-yellow. 

Veratrin  (C32H52N2O8) — Keddish-brown. 

Atropin  (C,7H23N03) — ^Yellowish-brown. 

Solanin  (C43H7,N0,6  ?) — Yellow  and  finally  brown. 

Emetin  (C30H44N2O8) — Brown. 

Colchicin  (CiyHi^NOs) — Green,  and  finally  dirty-brown. 

Conin  (CgH ,  5N) — Clear  yellow. 

Piperin  (C,7H,9N03) — Colors  the  sulphuric  acid  blood-red ; 
an  addition  of  eerie  oxide,  dark-brown. 


STRYCHNIN. 

The  following  table  comprises  the  various  tests  for  strych- 
nia made  by  Mr.  W.  T.  WenzeU  (Am.  Jour.  Phar.,  Sept.  1870). 
The  solution  of  strychnin  was  made  by  dissolving  the  alkaloid 
in  water  with  the  aid  of  sulphuric  acid  : 


0BAIK8 

STBTCUMIN. 

EO.aCrO,  and 
SO«H  test  (solid). 

CrO,  and  SO«H 
test  (1<600). 

KO.MnaO,  and 
SO«H  test  (1-SOO0). 

1-100,000. 

Color -reaction, 
distinct  and 
weU-defined. 

Color   of  reac- 
tion, very  fine 
and  distinct. 

Reaction  very 
brilliant  and 
durable. 

1-300,000. 

Reaction  weak 
and    evanen- 
cent. 

Color  fine  and 
distinct. 

Colors  brilliant 
and  reaction 
distinct. 

1-600,000. 

No  reaction. 

Colors  still  de- 
finable,    but 
weak. 

Reaction      dis- 
tinct and  col- 
■  ors  fine. 

1-900,000. 

No  reaction. 

Reaction  faint, 
but  succession 
of  colors  weU- 
defined. 

1-1.300,000. 

• 

• 

Reaction  very 
faint. 

176 


REACTIONS     OF     FAT     OILS 


(WATT»S    Die.    CHEM., 


OILS. 


OUve 


OaUipoU. 


India  nut. 


Pale  Bape-seed 


Poppy. 


French  nut. 


Castor 


Hemp-seed. 


Linseed. 


Lard 


Neat's-foot. 


Sperm 


Seal. 


Cod-liver 


Caustic 
Soda. 

Bp.  Or., 
1.84a 


Slight 
yellow. 


Ditto. 


Thick  and 
white. 


Dirty 

yellowiBh 

white. 

Ditto. 


Ditto. 


Ditto. 


White. 


Thick 

browniah 

yellow. 

Flaid 
yellow. 


Pinkidh 
white. 


Dirty 

yellowish 
white. 

Dark  red. 


Ditto. 


Ditto. 


suij'hubic 

Acid. 

Sp.  Or., 

1.476. 


Oreen 

tinge. 

Ditto. 


Brownieh. 


Oreen 
tinge. 


Intense 
green. 

Oreen. 


Dirty  white. 


Yellow 
tinge. 

Light  red. 


Ditto. 


Parple. 


sulphubio 

Acid. 

Sp.  Or., 

1.630. 


Oreenish 
white. 


Oray. 


Dirty  white. 


Pink. 


Dirty  white. 


Oray. 


Oreenish. 
Dirty  white. 

Dirty  white. 


Intense 
green. 

Dirty  green. 


Dirty  white. 


Brown  iflh 
dirty  white. 

Red. 


Ditto. 


Purple. 


SULPHUBIO 

Acid. 

Sp.  Or., 

1.685. 


Light 
green. 

Brown. 


Lii?ht 
brown. 


Brown. 


Drown. 


Intense 
green. 

Oreen. 


Light 
brown. 


Brown. 


Intense 
brown. 


Ditto. 


Ditto. 


NlTBIC 

Acid. 

Sp.  Or., 

1.180. 


Oreenish. 


Ditto 


Yellow. 


Orange 
yellow. 


Dirty 
green. 

Yellow. 


Light 
yellow. 


Slight 
yelfow. 


Pink. 


177 


WITH    ACIDS    AND    ALKALIES 

Vol.    IV,    p.  188.) 


Nrrmo 

Acid. 

Sp.  Or., 

isao. 

Nmuc 
Acid. 

Sp.  (4r., 
1.8& 

4- Caustic 

Soda. 

Sp.  Gr. 

1.84. 

Phosfhobio 

Acid. 

Syrupy. 

SXTLPHUBIO 

Acid  + 

NlTBIO 

Acid. 

Aqua 
Bboia. 

+ Caustic 

Soda. 

Sp.  Or., 

1.840. 

Oreenish. 

Greenish. 

Fluid 
white 
mass. 

Slight  green. 

Orange 
yellow. 

Fluid  white 

mass. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Fibrous 
ditto. 

Ditto. 

Dark 
brown. 

Fibrous 

yellowish 
wnite  mass. 

Ditto. 

Orange 
white. 

Fibrous 

white  mass. 

Fluid  ditto. 

Dark 
brown. 

Fibrous 

yellowish 
wnite  mass. 

Orange 
yellow. 

Bed. 

Light  red 
mass. 

Slight 
yellow. 

Fluid  intense 

rose-colored 
mass. 

Bed. 

Dark  red. 

Fibrous 
red  mass. 

Brown 
yellow. 

Dark 
brown. 

Yellow. 

Fibrous 
orange  mass. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Fluid  red 

mass  with 

brown 

liquor 

underneath. 

Fibrous 

white 

mass. 

Green  be- 
coming 

Intense  red. 

« 

Brownish 
red. 

Ditto. 

Fluid  orange 
mass  with 

brown  liquor 
beneatn. 

Fibrous  pale 

rose-colored 
mass. 

Greenish 

dirty 

brown. 

Greenish 

dirty 

brown. 

Fibrous 

light  brown 

mass. 

Green. 

Green 

becoming 

black. 

Green. 

Fibrous 

light  brown 

mass. 

Yellow. 

Green 

becoming 

brown. 

Fluid 
yellow 
mass. 

Brown 
yellow 
green. 

Ditto. 

Greenish 
yellow. 

Fluid  orange 
mass. 

Very  slight 
yellow. 

Fluid 
mass. 

Brown. 

* 

Fluid  pink 
mass. 

Light 
yellow. 

Light 
brown. 

Fibrous 
white 
mass. 

Dark 
brown. 

Slight 
yellow. 

Fibrous 

brownish 
yellow  mass. 

Ditto. 

Bed. 

Fluid 
mass. 

Dark  red. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Fluid  orange 
yellow  mass. 

Light  red. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Yellow. 

Ditto. 

ITS 


SCHEIE  FOR  THE  ANALYSIS   OF   FATTY 


ARRANGED     BY 


1I\   tt  >»Mfir«'  ;«n9^ 

»..     -^    «-H   (UttiUsC 
»•":»%  *.*u.     V 'It ill- 


1*.-  fcj«.««»    *  'KMX» 


Vs 


^•»*SV' 


yVi* 


Xwrov  and  light 

{r««« :  oO  becomes 

AoccsJent  and 

OMqae. 
OQ  Of  almonds. 


Tellowieh. 
Poppv-seed  oil, 

olive  oil, 

rape-seed  oil, 

sesame  oiL 


Dark-j^reen ; 

pink  above. 

Poppy-seed  oiL 


Greenish. 

Linseed  oil, 

hemp-seed  ou« 

oils  containing  Ca, 

and  artif.  dyes. 


Brood  and  beantifkil 

light-bine  green. 

OUve  oil. 


10  drops  of  oil,  9  of  concentrated  snlphnric  acid. 


BNUitiAil  green, 

with  brown  stripes, 

Rhpe-aeed  oil. 

Yellow;  after 

agitating,  brown 

and  olive-green. 

Poppy-seed  oU, 

madia  olL 

Bed,  soon  changing 

to  black,  stripes 

nndalating  through 

the  liqnid. 

Train  oiL 

SMMIfled.  cmmb- 
bu«v  and  white. 
01l>^  oil,  oil  of 

•teionds*  bleached 
imp«HMedoiL 

SoUdlfled, 
cmmbline,  and 

yenowTsh. 
Bape-seedoU. 

Solidified  and  red. 
Sesame  oil. 

Solid. 

atx-v  oU. 

Smeary. 

Rape-seed  oil, 

oil  of  almonds, 

sesame  oil. 

Smeary,  bat  drying 

after  some  time. 

Drying  oils. 

1:1 

l>Mtor  oil. 

1:S6 
Poppy-seed  oil. 

1:80 
Hemp-seed  oil. 

011119 
|N»|*I»v>«khI  oil, 
aMKl  v41  uf  bras*. 

0*914 

Oil  of  almonds, 

oil  of  brass,  camp. 

,       0-W8 
^    OUve  OiL 

MMkiMwdoU. 

-18* 

Castor  oil. 

+9-64^  6'  to  4^8*. 

Olive  oU,  lard  oU. 

1 

— 16*  to— 90" 

Linseed  oil. 

—90'  to  -96* 

Oilofahnonds. 

Vx^.    A,v   k«N*»  ^1Mii,»  |>»c«ttb«r,  IflTO. 


17* 


OILS   AT   ORDINARY   TEMPERATURES. 

G.     GLASSNER. 


Pink  color. 
Bellned  rape-seed  oil. 

Brown  and  stiff. 
Hemp-seed  oil. 

Tellowish-brown 

and  tlnid. 

Linseed  oil. 

Red. 
Train  oiL 

Brown-red. 
God-liver  oU. 

Qreen,  red  above. 
Linseed  oil. 

Brown-red, 
greenish  below, 
^ape-seed  oil. 

The  oil  colors 

thron^hout  red, 

after  some  time. 

Linseed  oiL 

Eqaal  voliunes  oil  and  acid. 


Wit 

boat  bisalphide  of  carbon. 

With  bisulphide  of 

When  agitated, 

fine  dark-ffreen. 

Bape-seed  oiL 

Green. 

Linseed  oil. 

hemp-seed  oil. 

Bed. 
Train  oU. 

With  SO  timet*  its 
vol.  CSa,  splendid 

violet,  quickly 

changing  to  brown 

coloration. 

Train  oil. 

Wax-like  and  white. 
Castor  oiL 

The  elaidine  mass 
shows  oil  drops 

and  ttripei. 

Oil  mixtures  con- 

taining  drying  oils. 

Unchanged. 

Linseedoil, 

poppy-«eed  oil, 

nut  oU. 

Ethereal  oils,  added 

to  the  olive  to 

correct  the  smell, 

float  on  the  elaidine. 

X 

1:40 
Linseed  oil. 

1:00 
Oil  of  almonds. 

0*088 
Sesame  oil. 

0-984 
Sunflower  oil. 

0-960  — 0-70 
Castor  OiL 

0-980 
Linseed  oil. 

—16* 
Snnflower  oil. 

-6* 
Oil  of  brass,  napus. 

-40* 
Oil  of  brass,  camp. 

Sesame  oiL 

180 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


FAT  OILS. 

The  following  table*  exhibits  a  list  of  the  priDcipal  vegeta- 
ble fat  oils,  together  with  their  speciiic  gravities  and  solidifj- 
ing  points.  The  specific  gravity  marked  with  an  asterisk  are 
according  to  the  determinations  (taken  as  15°  C)  by  Cloey 
(Bull.  Soc.  Chem.  1866,  p.  46) ;  the  rest  and  the  solidifying 
points  are  taken  from  Omelin's  Handbook.  The  numbers  in 
the  last  column  denote  the  temperatures  at  which  the  oils 
become  perfectly  solid ;  nearly  all  of  them,  however,  become 
viscous  or  semi-solid  at  temperatures  somewhat  higher. 


Naxb  of  Oil. 

Namv  or  Plant  which 

TTiei.I>B  IT. 

Sfbcific 
Qbavitt. 

SoUDIFTIRe  POOIT. 

1.  Drying  Oil. 

Oresa-seed  oU 

Oil  of  deadly  night- 1 

shade ) 

Oil    of    gold    of[ 

pleasure  seed. . . ) 

Gourd-seed  oil 

Grape  seed  oil 

Hemp-seed  oil 

Oil  of  honesty 

Linseed  oil 

Oil  of  madi  

Lepidium  Bativum .... 
Atropa  belladonna. ... 

Camellna  sativa 

Cucurbita  peps 

Vitis  vinifera 

Cannabis  sativa 

Hesperis  matronalis. . . 
Linum  usitatissimum. 
Madia  sativa 

0.924 
0.925 

0.93075* 

0.9231 
0.9202 
0.93075* 
0.9232 
0.93515* 
0.9286  at  15° 
0.92702* 
0.92504* 
0.9312 
0.926 
0.9283 
0.904 
0.9232 
0.92878* 
0.9358 

0.91844* 

0.923 

0.917 

0.942 

'  0.9639* 
0.9306 

09136  at  15' 

-15''  C. 
-27.5° 

-19" 

-15° 

-11° 

-27.5° 

below  -16° 

below  —20° 

below  —10° 

PoDDV  oil 

Papaver  sonmif  erum. . 
Helianthus  aunuus. . . 

Finns  sylvestus 

Abies  picea  dec 

Abies  excelsa  dec 

—18' 

Sunflower  oil 

Oil  of  Scotch  fir  seed 
Oil  of  silver  fir  cones 

Oil  of  spruce  fir 

Patty  oil  of  spruce  fir 
Tobacoo-seed  oil. . . . 
Walnut  or  nut  oil . . 
Weld -seed  oil 

m 

Non-Drying  Oils. 

( Vegetable) 
Almond  oil 

-16° 
-30° 

below  -15° 

..................... 

Nicotiana  tabacum 

Juglans  regia 

Reseda  luteola 

Amygdalus  communis. 

Fagus  sylvatica 

Butea  f rondosa 

jCalophyllum   ino-| 
(     phyllum ) 

Cnnarium  commune . . 

Ricinus  communis 

G()S8>'pium  barbadeuse 
j  BraHsica    campes- 
\     tris  oleifera 

-15" 
-18° 
below  -15' 

—21° 

Beech-nut  oil 

Oil  from  seed  of.. .. 

Oil  from  seed  of.. .. 

Oil  from  seed  of  . . . 
Castor  oil 

-17.5° 
+  10 

-1-5^ 

+6  to  2.5- 

-18' 

-6.25° 

Cotton-seed  oil 

Colza  oil 

♦  Watt's  Die.  Chem.,  vol.  iv,  p.  180. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


181 


PAT  01L8— (Continued). 


Naxe  or  On.. 


Naxe  of  Plant  which 

YTEUM  IT. 


Cioton  oil 

Oil  of  cyperuB-grafis. 

Oil  of  Daphne... .) 
Oleum     seminum  > 

coccognidii ) 

Earth-nut  oil 

Ergot  oil 

Hazel-nut  oil 

Henbane-seed  oil. . . 

Horse^hestnut  oil. . 

Mesuaoil 

Black  mustard  oil . . 
White  mustard  oil. . 
Oil  from  seed  of . . . . 
Oil  from  root  and) 
seed  of ) 

Parsley  oil 

Plum-kernel  oil. . . . 
Oil  from  seed  of . . . . 
Summer  rape-seed ) 

oil [ 

Winter  rape-seed  oil 

Sesame  oil  

Spindle-tree  oil 

Spurge  oil 

Oil  from  seed  of 

Oil   from  various) 

kinds  of -.. ) 


Croton  tiglium 

iCyperus    esculen-  J 
tus  (root) ) 

Daphne  mezereum. .. . 

Arachis  hypogcea 

Secale  comutum 

Corylus  avellana. 

Hyoscyamus  nigra. . . . 
j  .&culus      hippo- ) 
I     castanum ) 

Mesua  ferrera 

Sinapis  nigra 

Sinapis  alba 

Nigella  sativa 

Finns  quadrif olia. 


Petroselinum  sativum. 

Prunus  domestica 

Pougamia  glabia 

Brassica  proecox 

Brassica  napus 

Sesamum  orientale.. . . 
Euonymus  europoeus. 
Euphorbia  lathyris. . . 
Sterculia  foetida 


Thea  and  camellia. 


Spccifio 
Gravitt. 


0.94268* 
0.918 

0.914-0.921 

0.918 
0.922 
0.91987* 
0.913* 

0.915 

0.954 
0.92102* 
0.93388* 
0.92 

0.935 


1.078  at  12' 

0.9127 
0.915 

0.91555* 

0.91648* 
0.92415* 
0.95717* 
0.92613* 
0.928 

0.927 


SouDiFTiNo  Point. 


-87" 
-19" 

+8° 

+  5° 
below  0** 
does  not  solidify. 

+  2'' 


(becomes  turbid 
at    -12%    but 
does  not  solid- 
ify. 
-8.7° 
+8" 


a  little  below  0° 
-5" 
-12°  to  -15" 
-Hi" 
below  -1-8° 

{forms  an  emul- 
sion at  4.5" 


The  following  table  *  exhibits  the  rotary  power  of  a  eon- 
Biderable  number  of  volatile  oils,  together  with  their  refractive 
indices  A,  D  and  II,  as  determined  by  Gladstone  (Chera.  Soc. 
J.,  xvii,  8).  Also  their  specific  gravities.  The  rotary  power 
was  determined  for  a  column  of  liquid  10  inches  long ;  the  same 
length  of  a  solution  of  equal  parts  of  cane-sugar  and  water 
produced  a  deviation  of  +105°. 


*  Watt's  Die.  Chem.,  vol.  iv,  p.  185. 


182 


THE  CHEMISTS*  MANUAL. 


SPECIFIC    GRAVITIES    AND    OPTICAL    PROPERTIES    OF 

ESSENTIAL    OILS. 


CBUDE  OHiS. 


Anise 

Atberosperma  moscbatam 

Bay 

Bergamot 

•*        Florence 

Birch-bark 

Cajeput 

Calamus 

"      Hamburg 

Caraway 

' '  Hamburg,  1  st  dist . 
«'  "         2d  dist. 

Cascarilla 

Cassia 

Cedar 

Cedrat 

Citronella 

"        Penang. 

Cloves 

Coriander 

Cubebs 

Dill 

Elder 

Eucalyptus  amygdalina. . 

**  oleosa 

Indian  Geranium 

Lavender 

Lemon 

Lemon  grass 

*•      Fenang 

Melaleuca  erlcifolia 

'*  linarifolia 

Mint 

Myrtle 

Myrrh 

Neroli 

(I 

Nutmeg 

**         Penang 

Orange-peel 

"         "   Florence 

Parsley 

Patchouli 

'*        Penang 

"        French 

Peppermint 


Spbcifio 
Gravity 

AT 

16'.6  C. 


RBniACTIVB  Indiosb. 


.9852 

1.0425 
.8808 
.8825 
.8804 
.9005 
.9203 
.9888 
.9410 
.8845 
.9121 
.8832 
.8956 

1.0297 
.9622 
.8584 
.8908 
.8847 

1.0475 
.8775 
.9414 
.8922 
.8584 
.8812 
.9322 
.9043 
8903 
.8498 
.8932 
.8766 
.9030 
.9016 
.9342 
.9105 
.8911 

1.0189 
.8789 
.8743 
.8826 
.9069 
.8509 
.8864 
.9926 
.9554 
.9592 

1.0119 
.9028 


Temp. 


16^5 
14" 
18°.5 
22*^ 
26°.5 
8'' 
25^5 
10° 

ir 

19" 

10" 

10".5 

10" 

19".5 

23' 

18" 

21" 

15".5 

17" 

10" 

10" 

11".5 

8\5 
13^5 
13".5 
21".5 
20" 
16".5 
24" 
13^5 

9" 

9" 
19" 
14".5 
14" 

7".6 
18" 
10" 
24" 
16" 
20" 
20" 
I  8".5 
121" 
,21" 
14" 
14".5 


A. 


D. 


1.5438 

1.5172  I 

1.4944  I 

1.4559  I 

1.4547 

1.4851 

1.4561 

1.4965 

1.4843 

1.4601 

1.4829 


1.4844 
1.5602 
1.4978 
1.4671 
1.4599 
1.4604 
1.5213 
1.4592 
1.4953 
1.4764 
1.4686 
1.4717 
1.4661 
1.4653 
1.4585 
1.4667 

L4756 
1.4665 
1.4710 
1.4767 
1.4756 
1.4623 
1.5196 
1.4614 
1.4673 
1.4644 
1.4749 
1.4633 
1.4707 
1.5068 
1.4990 
1.4980 
1.5074 
1.4612 


1.5566 
1.5274 
1.5022 
1.4625 
1.4614 
1.4921 
1.4611 
1.5031 
1.4911 
1.4671 
1.4903 
1.4784 
1.4918 
1.5748 
1.5035 
1.4731 
1.4659 
1.4665 
1.5312 
1.4652 
1.5011 
1.4884 
1.4749 
1.4788 
1.4718 
1.4714 
1.4648 
1.4727 
1.4705 
1.4837 
1.4712 
1.4772 
1.4840 
1.4H22 
1.4680 
15278 
1.4676 
1.4741 
1.4709 
1.4818 
1.4699 
1.4774 
1.5162 
1.5050 
1.5040 
1.5132 
1.4670 


BOTATIOK. 


.6118 

.5628 

.5420 

.4779G.  -I- 

.4760G. 

.5172 

.4778 

5204G. 

.5144 

.4886 

.5142 


.5158 

.6243G. 

.5238 

.4952 

.4866 

.4875 

.5666 

.4805G. 

.5160G. 

.5072 

.4965 

5021 

.4909 

.4868G. 

.4862 

.4946 


.5042 

.4901 

.4971 

.5015G. 

.5037 

.4879 

.54720. 

.4835(i.i 

.4S31F. 

.4934  I 

.5053  ! 

.4916 

.4980 

.54170. 

.51940. 

.51830. 

.5202F.: 

.4854  I 


-♦- 


+ 

+ 
+ 


1" 

7" 

6" 
23" 
40" 
38" 

0' 

48".5 
42"? 
63" 


■h   26" 

0" 

+  8" 

+  156" 

-  4" 

-  1" 

-  4" 
-f  21"? 

+206" 
+  14".5 
-136" 
+  4" 

-  4" 

-  20" 
+  164" 
+  3"? 

0" 
+  26" 
+  11" 
-116" 

-  13" 
+  21" 
-136" 
+  15" 
+  28" 
+  44" 
+  9" 
+  32"? 
+  216" 

-  9" 

-120" 

-  72" 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


183 


SPECIFIC  GRAVITIES,  ETC.,  OF  ESSENTIAL  OILS  {Continued), 


CRUDE  OILS. 


Peppermint,  Florence.. . . 

Petit  grain 

Rose 

Rosemary 

Rosewood 

Sandalwood 

Thyme 

Turpentine 

Verbena 

Wintergreen 

Wormwood 


Sfboifio 
Gbayitt 

AT 

16' .6  C. 


Retbactiye  Indices. 


.9116 
.8765 
.8912 
.9080 
.9064 
.9750 
.8843 
.8727 
.8812 
1.1423 
.9122 


Temp. 

A. 

D. 

H. 

14" 

1.4628 

1.4682 

1.4867 

21" 

1.4536 

1.4600 

1.4808 

25" 

1.4567 

1.4627 

1.4835 

16".5 

1.4632 

1.4688 

1.4867 

17" 

1.4843 

1.4903 

1.5113 

24" 

1.4959 

1.5021 

1.5227 

19" 

1.4695 

1.4754 

14909G. 

13" 

1.4672 

1.4732 

1.4938 

20" 

1.4791 

1.4870 

1.5059G. 

15" 

1.5163 

1.5278 

1.5r37 

18" 

1.4631 

1.4688 

1 

1.4756F. 

Rotation. 


-  44" 
-f  26" 

-  7" 
+  17" 

-  16" 

-  50" 

-  79" 

-  6" 
+     3" 


SPECIFIC  GRAVITIES.  BOILING  POINTS,  AND  OPTICAL 
PROPERTIES  OF  HYDROCARBONS  FROM  ESSENTIAL 
0 1 LS.* — (Gladstone.) 


SOUBCB  OS  Htdbooabbon. 


I  •   •    •    ■    •  « 


Orange  peel 

"    Florence 

Cedrat 

Lemon ....    .     .  < 

Bergamot 

'•        Florence 

Neroli 

Petit  grain 

Caraway,  Hamburg,  Istdist. 

Dill 

Cascarilla 

Elder 

Bay 

Gaultberilene 

Nutmeg 

"        Penang. 

Carverie 

"        Hamburg,  2d  dist. 

Wormwood 

Terebene 

Anise 

Mint 

Peppermint  


.8460 
.8468 
.8466 
.8468 
.8466 
.8464 
.8466 
.8470 
.8466 
.8467 
.8467 
.8468 
.8508 
.8510 
.a518 
.8527 
.8530 
.8545 
-8565 
.8583 
.8580 
.8600 
.8602 


t^ 

to 

^<o 

5  — 

£S 

1.4645 

174"  C. 

174" 

1.4650 

173" 

1.4660 

173" 

1.4660 

175" 

1.4619 

176" 

1.4602 

173" 

1.4614 

174" 

1.4617 

176" 

1.4645 

173" 

1.4646 

172" 

1.4652 

172" 

1.4631 

171" 

1.4542 

168" 

1.4614 

167" 

1.4630 

166" 

1.4634 

166" 

1.4610 

•  •  ■ 

1.4641 

160" 

1.4590 

160" 

1.4670 

160" 

1.4607 

160" 

1.4622 

175" 

1.4577 

.0277 

.0281 

.0280 

•0280 

.0295 

.0287 

.0291 

.0282 

.0286 

.02881 

.03051 

.02691 

.0260 

.0271 

.0284 

.0274 

.0261 

.0263 

.0253 

.0275 

.0268 

.0255' 

.0267, 


r 

Specific 

Refractive 

Energy. 

.0048 

.649 

.0049 

.5491 

.0049 

.5492 

.0049 

.5502 

.0049 

.6466 

.0048 

.6437 

.0047 

.5450 

.0046 

5439 

.0048 

.5486 

.0046 

.5486 

.0049 

.6494 

.0047 

.5468 

.0047 

.5338 

.0049 

.5422 

.0047 

.54a5 

.0049 

.5434 

.0048 

.5440 

.0048 

.5431 

.0047 

.6359 

.0048 

.6440 

.9047 

.6368 

.0048 

.5374 

.0047 

.5321 

g 

•s 
S 


+  154" 
+  260" 
+  180" 
+  172" 
+  76" 
+  82" 
+  76" 
+  60" 
+  180" 
+  242" 
+  0" 
+16" 
-22" 

+  49" 

+  4" 
-20" 
+  86" 
+  46" 
0" 

+  30" 
-60" 


184 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


SPECIFIC  GRAVITIES,  ETC.,  HYDROCARBONS— (Cimtintted.) 


SOUBCB  OF  HTDROOABBOH. 


tt 


it 


tt 


Laurel  turpentine 

Thyme  

Turpentine,  I 

II 

Ill 

IV 

Eucalyptus  amygdalene. . . 

Myrtle 

Parsley 

Rosemary 

Cloves 

Rosewood 

Cubebs 

Calamus 

**        Hamburg 

Cascarilla 

Patchouli 

"        Penang 

French 

Colophene 


If? 


& 


.8618 
.8685 
.8644 
.8555 
.8614 
.8600 
8642 
.8690 
.8732 
.8805 
.9041 
.9042 
.9062 
.9180 
.9275 
.9212 
.9211 
.9278 
.9255 
.9391 


160** 
160'' 
160° 
160" 
160** 
160'' 
171" 
168" 
160" 
163" 
249" 
249" 
260" 
260" 
260" 
254" 
254" 
257" 
260° 
815" 


1.4637 
1.4617 
1.4612 
1.4590 
1.4621 
1.4613 
1.4696 
1.4565 
1.4665 
1.4583 
1.4898 
1.4878 
1.4950 
1.4930 
1.4976 
1.4926 
1.4966 
1.4963 
1.5009 
1.5084 


.0260 
.0282 
.0250 
.0256 
.0249 
.0254 
.0328 
.0248 
.0291 
.0241 
.0284 
.0277 
.0302 
.0322 
.0837 
.0307 
.0274 
.0275 
.0262 
.0309 


Is 


(S 


.0047 
.0048 
.0047 
.0047 

.0047 
.0049 
.0047 
.0046 
.0046 
.0045 
.0045 
.0041 
.0042 
.0043 
.0042 
0042 
0044 
.0042 
.0041 


2 

O  ^  kT 


.5380 
.6846 
.5835 
.5365 
.5364 
.5864 
.5434 
.5253 
.5355 
.5205 
.5417 
.5395 
.5462 
.5370 
.5365 
.5347 
.5391 
.5849 
.5412 
.5418 


g 

s 


+  94" 
-76" 

1+48" 

-87" 

-90" 

-88" 

-142" 

+  64" 

-44" 

+8" 

-11" 
+  59" 
+55" 

+  22" 
+  72" 

-90" 

0" 


*  This  table  exhibits  the  densities  and  optical  properties  of  a  consider- 
able number  of  polymeric  hydrocarbons.  The  oils  are  arranged  according 
to  their  specific  gravities  at  20"  C.  The  column  headed  **  Dispernan  at 
£0°  O."  gives  the  difference  between  the  refractive  indices  of  the  lines 
H  and  A.  The  "sensitiveness"  is  the  amount  of  diminution  of  the  refrac- 
tive Index  when  the  temperature  rises  10";  it  is  calculated  for  the  line  A. 
The  ''Specific  refractive  energy"  is  the  refractive  index  minus  unity, 
divided  by  the  density.    In  this  table  it  is  taken  for  A ;  that  is,  the  column 

mA— 1 
represents  — ^ — .    (Watt's  Die.  Chem.,  vol.  iv,  p.  187.) 

Gladstone  proposes  (Chem.  Soc.  J.  [2],  x,  i)  to  distinguish  the  several 
hydrocarbons  by  the  following  names : 

Hydrocarbon  from  Bay Laurylene. 

**  "  Calamus Calamene. 

*'  Dill Anethene. 

*'  "  Elder Sambucene. 

"  "  Eucalyptus  amygdalina .  Eucalyptene. 

"  "  Myrtle Myrtene. 

*•  "  Nutmeg Myristicene. 

"  "  Rosewood Rhodine. 


TH5  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


185 


TABLE  OF  OFFICIAL  TESTS  FOR  IMPURITIES  IN 
PHARMACOPCEIAL  PREPARATIONS. 

ATTFIELD'S  TABLE. 


XAU  or  PBKPABATIOir. 


Acftds  Gummi. 
Acetom 


Addam   Aoeticam — 
Acetic  Acid 

Add.  Acetic.  Glac. . . . 
Affidpin  fioracicttm... 

Addam  Citricom. . . . 


Addam  Gallicom. . . . 

Addam  Hjdrochlori- 
cam 

Addam  Hydrocyani- 
com  Dilatom 

Addum  Xitricnm . . . 

Addam  Ozalicnm. . . . 


Addam    Phoephori-  ^ 
cam  Dilatom 


Addam  Solphuricnm 
Addam  Tannicam . . . .' 


Addam  Tartaricum.  • 


Aconitia 

Adeps  Preparatus. . .  •] 

^ther. 

iBther  puros 

Alcohol. j 

Alcohol  Amylicam. . . . 
Alam 


IMFUKITIBB. 


Starch 

More  than  one  thou- 
sandth H.SO^ 

Traces  of  Pb  or  Cu... 

H-SO4 

HCl 

Salphorous  Add 

Sulpharous  Acid 

Alkaline  Salts 

Traces  of  Cu.  or  Pb. . 

Tartaric  Acid 

Sulphuric  Acid 

Mineral  Matter 

Tannic  Acid 

Sulphuric  Acid 

Arsenic 

Sulpharous  Add 

Sulphuric  Add 

Hydrochloric  Add  . . . 

Mineral  Matter 

Sulphuric  Acid 

Hydrochloric  Add  . . . 

Mineral  Matter 

PborPt 

Sulphuric  Acid 

Hydrochloric  Add . . . 
Meta phosphoric  Acid. 

Nitric  Acid 

Phosphorous  Acid. . . . 

Mineral  Matter 

Nitric  Acid 

As  or  Pb 

Mineral  Matter 

Metallic  Matter,  as  Pb 

Oxalic  Add. 

Calcium  Tartrate .... 
Calcium  Sulphate. . . . 

Mineral  Matter 

Mineral  Matter 

Naa  ...7. 

Starch  (flour) 

Alcohol 

Alcohol  and  Water  . . 

Resin  or  Oil 

Water 

Other  Spirit.  Matter . 
Iron  (Sulphate) 


TKT. 


Iodine. 


\  Quantitative  Analysis. 


Sulphuretted  Hydrogen. 

BaCl,  or  Ba2N0a. 

AgNO,. 

Nascent  Hydrogen. 

Nascent  Hydrogen. 

Insolubility  in  AlcohoL 

HgS. 

Acetate  of  K. 

BaCl,  or  Ba2N0a. 

Indneration. 

Gelatine. 

BaCl,  or  Ba2N08. 

HjS. 

Nascent  Hydrogen. 

BaClo  orBa2NO.. 

AgNO,  insoluble  in  HNOg. 

Evaporation  and  ignition. 

BaCl,  or  BagNO,. 

AgNO,. 

Incineration. 

BaCi.  or  Ba2Noj. 

AgNO,  and  HNOa- 

Albumen. 

FeSo4  and  H8SO4. 

Corrosive  Sublimate. 

Evaporate  and  ignite. 

FeSO^. 

H])S. 

Incineration. 

H,S. 

CaSO^. 

Ammonia  Oxalate. 


(i 


«i 


Indneration. 

Incineration. 

AgNOa. 

Iodine. 

Boiling-point  and  Sp.  Gr. 

Sp.  Gr. 

Opalescence  on  dilution. 

Anhydrous  CUSO4. 

Boiling-point  and  Sp.  Gr. 

Yellow  or  Red  Prussiate. 


186 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


NAMB  or  PBBPARATIOX. 


Ammonia  Benzoas. . . . 

Ammonise  Carbonas..  •] 

AmmonuB  Chloridam.. 

Amylum < 

AntimoDiam  Nigrum. 
AntimoDii  Oxidum. . . . 
Antimoniam  Tartrate. 
Aqua  Aurantic  Floris. 


□cpuiums. 


TEST. 


Aqua  Distillata 


Argenti  Nitras .... 

Argenti  Oxidum.. . . 

Argentum  Purificatum 

Atropia 

AtropisB  Sulphas. . . 


{ 


Balsamum    Peruvia 
num 


ia-  j 

Beberis  Sulphas. .... 
Bismuth  Carbonas. . . 


Bismuth  Subnitras. .   . 

Bismuthum  Puiifica-) 

tum ) 

Borax 

Bromom \ 


Cadmii  lodidunL .... 

Calcii  Chloridum. . . . 

Calcis  Carbonas  Pre- 
cipitata. 

Calds  Phosphas. . . . .  -j 

^!' \ 

Calxchlorata 

Cambogia 


Fixed  Salts 

Fixed  Salts 

Ammonium  Sulphate. 
Chloride. 

Fixed  Salts 

Alkaline  Matter. 

Acid  Matter 

Silica 

Higher  Oxides  of  Sb.. 
General 

It  D.L/U.Sn..  .......... 

Fixed  Salts 

Sn,  Pb,  and  Cu 

Calcium  Salts 

Chlorides 

Sulphates 

Carbonates 

Other  Nitrates,  etc. . . 

Met^lic  Silver 

General 

Copper 

Mineral  Matter 

Mineral  Matter 


Fixed  Oil. 
Alcohol. . . 


Mineral  Matter. . . 

Bi3N0,  orNH.NO,.. 

Jjead  Carbonate 

Oxychloride  of  Bi. . . . 

Oxynitrate  of  Pb 

Oxychloride  of  Bi. . . . 

Copper 

General 

General 

Iodine 


1 


Zinc  Iodide. 


1 


General 

(^a  Hypochlorite.. . 

Carl)onic  Oxide 

Al.Oj.FeO  and  Phos- 
phates  

Chlorides. 

Carbonate  of  Ca 

Alumina 

Sand 

Carbonate  of  Ca . . . .  j 
Al^Og,  FeO,  etc. .. .  'j 

General 

Starch 


Non-volatility. 

Non-volatility. 

BaCl,orBa2NO,. 

AgNO,. 

Non-volatility. 

Bed  Litmus. 

Blue  Litmus. 

Insoluble  in  HCL 

Tartrate  of  K. 

Quantitative  Analyaia 

H,S. 

Evaporation  and  Ignition. 

HgS. 

Ammonium  Oxalate. 

AgNOg. 

BaCl,  orBa2N08. 

Lime  Water. 

Quantitative  AnalyEis. 

Effervescence  with  HNO,. 

Quantitative  Analvsis. 

NH4HO  toHNO.'solutloiL 

Incineration. 

Incineration. 

Invisibility  with  Alcohol. 
Non-diminution  of  volume 
when  mixed  with  Water. 
Incineration. 
Indigo  Sulphate. 
Dilute  HjSO.. 
AgNO,. 
Dilute  H,S04. 
AgNO.. 

NH4HO  to  HNOa  Bolntlon. 

Quantitative  Analvsis. 
Sp.  Gr.  Boiling-pomt. 
Starch. 

EHO  in  excess,  then  sul- 

phydrate  of  NH4. 
Quantitative  Analysis. 
Quantitative  Analysis. 
HCl. 
Saccharine  solution  of  CaO 

to  solution  in  HNO,. 
AgNOa  +  HNO,. 
Effervesces  with  Adds. 
Solution  of  Potash. 
Insoluble  in  Acids. 
Effervesces  with  Acids. 
Saccharine  solution  of  Lime 

to  solution  in  Acids. 
Quantitative  Analysis. 
I(xline  (green). 


THE    CHEMIST'S    MANUAL. 


187 


NAMB  OF  FBEPAKATION. 


Camphora 

Carbo  Animalis  Puri-  { 

ficatus ) 

Carbo  Ligni 

Catecbu  Pallidum. . . . 
Cera  Alba 


IXPUBITIBS. 


Cera  Flava. 


Ceri  Oxalas. 


Cataceum. . 
Chloroform 


1 


Copaiba. 


Creasotxmi 


Cupri  Sulphas. 


Elatrium, 


Fel  Bovinum  Purifi- 
catum 


Ferri  Arsenias. 


1 
s 


Ferri  Carbonas  Saccha- 
rata 


Ferri   et    Ammonis 
extras 


Ferri  et  QuineB  Citras 


{ 

Ferri  Oxidnm  Magneti- 
cum 

Ferri  Peroxidum  Hu- 
midum 


Ferri  Phosphas. 


TEST. 


Fixed  Salts . . 

Earthy  Salts 

More  than  2%  Ash. . 

Starch 

Soft  Fats 

Soft  Fats 

Resin 

Flour 

Carbonate  and  Oxa-  j 

lates (; 

Alumina ( 

General -j 

Soft  Fats 

General 

Hydrocarbons 

Non-volatile  matter. . , 


WoodOU, 


i 


Carbolic  Add, 


Ferrous  Sulphate. 


Chalk.. 
General. 


Mucus,  crude  bile. . . . 

Sodium  Sulphate.... 
General 

j(NH,),S04 

(General 


Tartrate  of  Fe  and 
NH4 


i 


General 

EorNa  Salts 

K  or  Na  Salts 

General 

Other  Alkaloids. . . .  [ 

j  Metallic  Iron 

I  General 

j  Ferrous  Hydrate 

"i  Ferric  Oxyhydrate. . 

Ferri  Arsenias -J 

General 


Non-volatility. 
Incineration  by  help  of  red 

oxide  of  Hg. 
Incineration. 
Iodine. 

Melting  point. 
Melting  point. 
Soluble  in  Alcohol. 
Insoluble  in  Turpentine. 
Iodine. 

Ash,  soluble  in  acids  with 
effervescence. 

Ins.  of  Hydrate  in  NH4HO. 

More  or  less  of  48  per  cent. 
Ash. 

Melting  point. 

Specific  Gravity. 

Sulphuric  Acid.       • 

Residue  on  evaporation. 

Gelatinous  at  270°  F. 

Incomplete  sol.  in  Benzol. 

Oxidation. 

Non-vol.at212°  F. 

Dextro  rotation  of  Polar- 
ized ray. 

Crystallization  on  cooling. 

HNOj,  and  NH^HO. 

Effervesces  with  Acids. 
Quantitative  Analysis. 

Incomplete  sol.  in  Spirit. 

Baa,  or  Ba2N0,. 
Quantitative  Analysis. 

Baa,  or  Ba2N0,. 
Quantitative  Analysis. 

Ebullition  with  EHO  and 

saturated  with  H,O.S  = 

KHC^H.O,. 
Quantitative  Analysis. 
Alkalinity  of  Ash. 

Alkalinity  of  Ash. 
Quantitative  Analysis. 
Insolubility  of  precipitated 

Alkaloid  in  Ether. 
Effervesces  with  Acids. 
Quantitative  Analysis. 

Acid  solution. 

Insol.  in  cold,  dilute  HCl. 

Slip  of    Cu   in  Acid  solu- 
tion. 
Quantitative  Analysis. 


188 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


NAME  OF  FREPABATION. 


Ferric  Sulphas. 
Ferri  Sulphas. 


Qranalata 

Ferrum  Radactum. . . . 

Ferrom  Tartaratum. 


Gljcerlnum. 


Hydrargyri  lodidum) 

Rubrum ) 

Hydrargyri  lodidainj 

Viride f 

Hydrargyri    Oxidum 

Rubrum 

Hydrargyri  Subchlo- 

ridum 

Hydrargyri  Sulphas. . . 

Hydrargyrum 

Hydrargyrum  Animo- 

niatum 

Hydrargyrum     Cum 

Creta 


lodum 


JalapsB  Resina. 


Limonis  Succus -j 

Liquor  Ammoni®. . . 


Liquor       AmmonisB 
Fortior 


Liquor  Antimonii  Chlo- 

ridi 

Liquor  Arsenicalis. . . . 
Liquor  Arsenici  Ilydro- 

cliloricus 

Liquor     Bismuthi    et 

Ammoni®  Citrate. . . 

Liquor  Calcis 

Liq.  Calcis  Chloratae.  ) 
Liquor  Calcis  Saccha-  ^ 

ratus ) 


I1CPUBITIB8. 


'  Ferric  Oxysulphate . 

Ferric  Compounds.  -J 

Copper,  &c 

:^B  than  50% 

Ferrous  Compounds.. 
Ammoniacal  Salts.. . . 
General 


General 


Fixed  Salts. 


Red  Iodide. 


Fixed  Salts,  Nitrate) 

of  Mercury j 

Corrosive  Sublimate.. 

Fixed  Salts 

Fixed  Salts 

Pb,  Sn,  Zn,  Bi,  Cu  . . . 

Fixed  Salts 


TEST. 


Mercuric  Oxide. 


I 


Fixed  Salts 

Cyanide  of  Iodine 
General 


Resin 


Deficiency  of  Citric) 
Acid S 

General 

General  impurity  or  ) 
deficiency ) 

(NHJ.CO, 

Calcium  Salts 

Iron  Salts 


Sulphur  Salts. 

NH^a 

(NH,),SO,.... 


General    impurity ) 
or  deficiency. ...  J 


Insoluble  in  H^O. 
Precipitate  of  S  in  aqueous 

solution  by  H,S. 
H,S. 

Quantitative  Analysis. 
Red  Prussiate  to  Acid  bqL 
Soda. 
Quantitative  Analysis. 

Specific  Gravity. 

Non-volatility. 

Insoluble  in  Ether. 

Non-volatility.    Orange  va- 
por on  heating  in  tube. 
Treatment  with  Ether. 
Non-volatility. 
Non- volatility. 
Non-volatility. 

Non-volatility. 

Stannous  Chloride  to  solu- 
tion in  HCL 

Non-volatility. 
Physical  characteristics. 
Quantitative  Analysis. 

Soluble  in  Turpentine. 

Quantitative  Analysis. 

Sp.  Gr.  and  Quant.  Anal. 

Sp.  Gr.  and  Quant.  AnaL 

Lime  Water. 
Oxalate  of  Ammonia. 
Sulphydrate  of  Ammonium. 
Ammonio  Sulphate  of  Cop- 
per. 
AgXO,  to  Acid  solution. 
BaCl,  to  Acidified  solution* 


Specific  Gravity  and  Quan- 
titative Analysis. 


4 

'.  >eficiency  in  strength  Quantitative  Analysis. 

General  impurity  or  )  Specific  Gravity, 

deficiency )  Quantitative  Analysis. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


189 


HAMB  OF  PB^^ASATIOir. 


Liquor  Chlori. 


I 


Liquor  Ferri  Perchlo- 

rideFort 

Liquor    Ferri     Pemi- 

trates 

Liquor   Ferri    Persul- 

phates 

Liquor      Hydrargyri ) 

Nitric  Acid f 

Liquor  Lithiie  Effer-  [ 

vescens \ 

Liquor  Magnesia  Car-  [ 

bonas ) 

Liquor  Plumbi  Sub-  i 

acetatis S 


JXFUBJTOB, 


Liquor  Potasefe 


Liquor  Potassse  Ef- 
fervescens 


Liquor  Sod® ^ 


Liquor    Sodse   Ohlo- 
ratae 

Liquor   Sodse    Effer- 
vescens 


Lithise  Carbonas 
Lithi®  Citras. . . . 


■  •  •  •    ^ 

■■■■\ 


Magnesia 

Magnesia  Levis. 


Magnesia  Carbonas . . 
Magnesia  Carb.  Levis  '^ 


General  quality 

Fixed  matter 

Deficiency  in  strength 

Ferrous  Salts 

•-  General     impurity ) 
or  deficiency....  f 


J 


Deficiency  in  strength 

Mercurous  Salts 

General  impurity  or  ( 
deficiency \ 

Other  Mg  Salts j 

General  impurity  or  i 
deficiency f 

General  impurity  or  j 
deficiency ) 

General  impurity  or  i 
deficiency C 

K,CO. 

Calcium  Salts 


fsili^ 


Silica.... 

^tZSlZl  SulphateB 
*•*<*»  °' I  Chlorides 
[Alumina. 
Deficient  in  strength. 

Na  Bicarbonate 

Gen.  imp.  or  def. .... 

Calcium  salts 

NagCO. 

More  I  Silica 

than  J  Sulphates. . . . 
traces  ]  Chlorides. . . . 

of        Alumina 

Salts  of  KorNH^... 

Gen,  imp.  or  def 

Calcium  salts. 

Deficient  in  strength. 

Gen.  imp.  or  def 

Calcium  salts 

Alumina 

Deficient  in  strength. 

MgCo, 

Oa2HO  orCaCOg 

MgS04orNajS04... 

Alumina 

MgSO^  orNaj5S04... 

CaCOg 

Fe,  Pb,  etc 

Gen.  imp.  or  def 


TB8T. 


Specific  Gravity. 
Residue  on  evaporation. 
Quantitative  Analysis. 

Red  Prussiate. 
Specific  Gravity  and  Quan- 
titative Analysis. 

Specific  Gravity. 
HCl. 

Specific  Gravity. 
Quantitative  Analysis. 
Bitter    taste     (MgCl.    or 
MgSO^). 

Quantitative  Analysis. 

Specific  Gravity  and  Quan- 
titative Analysis. 

Specific  Gravity  and  Quan- 
titative Analysis. 

Effervesces  Acids  Ca2H0. 

Oxalate  of  Ammonia. 

\  Insoluble   in    Acid   after 

)      evaporation. 

BaClg  or  BaSNO.. 

AgNOg  to  Acid  solution. 

Ammonia  to  Acid  solution. 

Quantitative  Analysis. 

Tartaric  Acid,  etc. 

Sp.  Gr.  and  Quant.  Anal. 

Ammonia  Oxalate. 

Efierves.  Acids  and  Ca2H0. 

Insol.  in  Acids  after  evap. 

BaClg  to  Acid  solution. 

AgNOj  to  Acid  solution. 

Ammonia  to  Acid  solution. 

Perchloride  of  Pt  to  Acids. 

Sp.  Gr.  and  Quant.  AnaL 

Ammonia  Oxalate. 

Quantitative  Analysis. 

Quantitative  Analysis. 
Ammonia  Oxalate,  etc. 
Lime-water,  etc. 
Quantitative  Analysis. 

Eifervesces  with  Acids. 
Ammonia  Oxalate,  etc. 
BaCl,  to  Acid  solution. 
Ammonia  to  Acid  solution. 
BaCls  to  Acid  solution. 
HgO.O  to  NH4HO  solution. 
IlgS  to  Acid  Bol.-f  NH4HO. 
Quantitative  Analysis. 


190 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


KAMB  OF  FBSPABATION. 


Magnesiie  Sulphas  . .  •< 

Manna 

Mel 

Morphiffi  HydrochJo-) 
ras ) 

Olea  Distillata 

Opium 

Plumb!  Acetas 

Plumbi  Carbonas.. . . 

Potassa  Caustica  ....•< 

Potassa  Sulphurata. . 

PotasssB  Acetas 

PotasscB  Bicarbonas . . 

Potas8»  Carbonas. . . 

Potassae  Chloras -j 

PotasssB  Citras 

PotasssB  Nitras ,  •< 

PotassflB  Permanganas. 

PotasssB  Sulphas. . . .  j 

Potassse  Tartras { 

Potassie  Tart.  Adda.  ) 

Potassii  Bromldum. . 

Potassi  Ferridcyanide. 

Potassii  lodidum -j 

Quinitt  Sulphas | 

Rhei  Radix 


ZMFUBITIB8. 


CaSo4 

FeSO^ 

General  impurity. . . . 
Deficiency  of  Mannite 
Starch  (flour) 

General  impurity. . . . 

Fixed  olL 

Alcohol 

Deficient  in  Morphia. 

General 

PbS04,    BaS04,    or^ 
Silicates. ) 

Calcium  (chalk). . . .  •] 

More  than  (Chlorine, 
traces  of  (Sulphate. 
Gen.  imp.,  H^O,  etc. . 
Excess  of  Carbonate  / 

or  Sulphate ) 

Fe,  etc 

K.COa ] 

General 

More     ( Silicates. . . 

than  •<  Sulphate . . 
traces  of  ( Chloride. . . 

General 

KCl 

CaCl, 

General 

K-SO4 

KCl 

General 

KHSO4 

CaS04 

General 

Free  Bromine 

KI 

General 

Ferrocyanide  of  K. . . 

lodate  of  K 

Ka 

K.CO, 

Salicin 

General 

Turmeric 


TX8T. 


Ammonia  Oxalate. 
Chlorinated  NaO. 
Quantitative  Analysis. 
Quantitative  Analysis. 
Iodine. 

Quantitative  Analysis. 

Permanent  greasy  stain  on 

paper. 
Loss  in  volume  on  shaking 

with  water. 
Quantitative  Analysis. 

Quantitative  Analysis. 
Insoluble  in  Acetic  Acid. 

Ammonia  Oxalate,  after  re^ 

moving  the  Pb. 
AgNOg  to  Acid  solution. 
BaClg  to  Acid  solution. 
Quantitative  Analysis. 
More  than  25^    insoluble 

in  Spirit. 
Ammonium  Sulphydrate. 
Effervesces  with  Acids.    In- 

sol.  in  Spirit.  Alkalinates. 
Quantitative  Analysis. 
Insol.  in  Acids  after  evap. 
BaCl  •  to  Acid  solution. 
AgNO,  to  Acid  solution. 
Quantitative  Analysis. 
AgNO.. 

Ammonia  Oxalate. 
Quantitative  Analysis. 
BaCl,. 
AgNo,. 

Quantitative  Analysis. 
Test  Paper. 
Ammonia  Oxalate. 

Quantitative  Analysis. 

Odor. 

Chlorine  Water  and  Stardu 
Quantitative  Analysis. 
Ferric  Salt. 

HjO.T  and  Starch. 

AgNOj,  etc. 

Sacc.  solution  of  Lime. 

H,S04. 

Quantitative  Analyaifl. 

Boracic  Acid. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


191 


NAVE  OF  PBKPABATION. 


Santoninum 

Sapo  Doras 

Sapo  Mollis 

Scammonise  Resina. . 


Scammonium. . 
Sinapia 

Soda  Caustica.. 

Soda  Tartarata. 


i 


Sodae  Acetas. 


Sods  Arsenlas. 


Sod»  Bicarbonas 


•  •  •  •  ^ 


SodfB  Hypoeulphic .... 
SodffiNitras | 


Sodffi  Phoephas 


Sods  Salphas. . . . 
Sods  Valerianas. 


i 


SpiritoB  .SStheris  Ni-^ 
trod 


Spiritus      Ammonio^ 
Aromat I 

Spiritos      Chlorofor-  f 
mu J 

Spiritos  Tenuior  . . . 

Stzychnia 

Spiritus  Rectificatus. 


Mineral  Matter 
Earthj,  Soap,  etc. . . . 
Oil 

K  compounds 

Earthy,  Soap,  etc. . . . 

Oil 

Resin  of  Goaiacam.. . 

Resin  of  Jalap 

CaCo,,MgCO> 

Starch  (flour) 

Starch  (flour) 

More  than  j  Chloride. 

traces  of   ( Sulphate. 
Gen.  imp.,  Water,  &c. 

General 

Acid  or  Alkaline  imp. 
Na,S04orCaS04.... 

NaClopCaa, 

Excess   of   H,0  of) 
crystallization. . . . ) 

General 

Na,C0a 

More  than  J  Chlorides 

traces  of  }  Sulphates 

General 

NaCl 

Na.SO. 

More  than  traces  of 

Sulphates 

Def.  of  H,0  of  crys- 
tallization or  excess 

Ammonium  Salts. . . 

Ferric  Salts 

General 


NaOorNa,CO, | 

General 

More  than  trace  of  Add 


Free  Add 

Defidency  of  Nitrite  of 
Ethyl 


General. 


Gen.  (excess  of  H,0). 

Brucia 

Mineral  Matter 

Gen.  (excess  of  Hg). . . 

Resin  or  Oil 

More  than  trace  of) 
Fusel  Oa S 


Incineration. 
Insoluble  in  Spirits. 
Oil  stain.  Paper. 
Deliquescence  of  Ash. 
Insoluble  in  Spirits. 
Oily  stain,  Paper. 
Inner  surf,  of  potato  paring.. 
Insoluble  in  Ether. 
Effervesces  with  Acids. 
Solution  of  Iodine. 
Solution  of  Iodine. 
AgNO,  to  Acid  solutions. 
BaCl,  to  Add  solutions. 
Quantitative  Analysis. 
Quantitative  Analysis. 
Test  Paper. 

BaCl,  to  Acid  solution. 
AgNO,  to  Acid  solution. 

Quantitative  Analysis. 

Quantitative  Analysis. 

Mercuric  Chloride. 

AgNOg  to  Acid  solution* 

BaCl,  to  Acid  solution. 

Quantitative  Analysis. 

AgNO,. 

Baa,  or  Ba2N0,. 

BaClg  to  Acid  solution. 
Quamtitative  Analysis. 

Solution  KHO  heated. 

Quantitative  Analysis. 

Test  Paper. 
Insoluble  in  Spirits. 
Sp.Gr. 
Effervesces  with  Bicarbon^ 

ate  of  Soda. 
More  than  feeble  effervesi 
with  Bicarb,  of  Soda. 

Quantitative  Analysis. 


Spedfic  Gravity. 

Spedfic  Gravity. 
Nitric  Acid. 
Incineration. 
Specific  Gravity. 
Opalescence  on  dilution. 


AgNO, 


192 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


HJJa  or  FRKPARATION. 


Sulphur  Predpitatum. 
Sulphur  Sublimatam 


Sulphuris  lodidum.. . . 
Syrupi 


1 


Tamarmdus. 


Veratria. 


Zind  Aoetas. 


Zindi  Garbonas. 


Zind  Chloridum  . 


Zind  Ozidum. 


Zind  Sulphas. . . . 
Zind  Valerianas. . 


XXFUBmSB. 


CaS04 

Earthy  Matter 

HgSO^  or  HgSOg 

Sulphide  of  Arsenicum 
Dendency  of  Iodine... 
Defidency  of  Sugar. . . 

Traces  of  Cu. 

Mineral  Matter 

Sulphates 

Chlorides 

As,  Cd,Cu,Pb 

Acetate  of  Iron 

Copper  Acetate 

Chlorides 

Sulphates 

Copper  Carbonate. . . . 

As.Cd,  Cu,  Pb 

Sulphates 

CaClj 

FeCl, 

Fe.cl, 

ZaCO. 

NejSO^  or  ZnS04  . . . 

Chlorides, 

Copper  Oxide 

As,  Cd,  Cu,  Pb 

Iron  Siilphate 

Copper  Sulphate 

ZnS04 

Butyrate  of  Zinc 


TBST. 


Appear,  under  microeoope 

— residue  on  ignition, 
ndneration. 
Litmus-paper. 
Ammonia. 

Quantitative  Analysis. 
Specific  Gravity. 

Iron. 

Incineration. 

BaQj  or  6a2N0.. 

AgNO,. 

H  S 

HNO.+NH^HO. 

NH.HO. 

AgNO  8  to  Acid  solution. 

BaClg  to  Acid  solution. 

NH4HO  to  Add  solution. 

H,S. 

Baa,  or  Ba2N0a. 

Ammonium  Oxalate. 

Ferridcyanide  of  K. 

Ferroc}'anide  of  K. 

Effervesces  with  Acids. 

BaCl.  to  Acid  solution. 

Af^NO.  to  Add  solution. 

NH4HO  to  Add  solutjon. 

HjS. 

Tincture  of  Galls. 

CUSO4  add  NH4HO. 

Baa,  or  Ba2N0,. 

Acetate  of  Cu,  etc. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  193 


INFLUENCE   OF  FIXED  ORGANIC    SUBSTANCES  ON   THE 

PRECIPITATON   OF   METALLIC   OXIDES  FROM 

SALINE   SOLUTIONS   BY  ALKALIES. 

The  following  results  have  been  obtained  by  H.  Grothe 
(J.  pr.  Chem.,  xcii.  175) :  1.  The  alteration  produced  in  the 
reactions  of  different  metallic  solutions  with  alkalies  by  the 
presence  of  fixed  organic  bodies,  exhibit  great  diversities, 
scarcely  any  two  metallic  bodies  being  similarly  affected ;  so 
that  these  alterations  do  not  afford  properties  characteristic 
of  groups  of  metallic  oxides,  but  rather  of  individual  oxides, 
2.  Of  non-volatile  organic  substances,  citric  acid  acts  most 
strongly  in  modifying  these  reactions ;  then  follows  tartaric 
acid ;  then  sugar,  starch,  and  gum,  which,  however,  act  but 
feebly,  and  require  to  be  added  in  large  excess.  3.  The  pre- 
cipitating action  of  ammonic  hydrate  is  diminished  by  these 
bodies  much  more  than  that  of  sodic  carbonate.  4.  Solutions 
which  are  not  precipitated  in  presence  of  fixed  organic  bodicB 
by  alkaline  hydrates  or  carbonates,  are  for  the  most  part  pre- 
cipitated by  alkaline  orthophosphates,  pyrophosphates,  arse- 
nates, and  borates.  5.  Sodic  orthophosphate  may  be  used  as 
a  reagent  in  nearly  all  the  cases  in  which  the  precipitation  of 
a  metallic  oxide  is  hindered  by  the  presence  of  non-volatile 
organic  substances. 

The  following  table  exhibits  the  reactions  of  the  more  im- 
portant metallic  salts  with  ammonic  hydrate,  and  with  sodic 
carbonate,  borate,  phosphate,  pyrophosphate,  arsenate,  and 
borate,  in  presence  of  tartaric  acid,  citric  acid,  and  sugar: 
p  denotes  perfect  precipitation ;  i,  imperfect  precipitation ;  a 
dash^  no  precipitation : 

13 


194 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MAXUAL. 


Aluminium  Mm.. 
MimgnnooB  8alt«.. . 
Mftnganic  Salts. . . . 
Zinc  Saltt. 


Nickel  Salts. 


Cobaltons  Salts. . . . 


Uranlc  Salts. — 


FerrooB  Salts. 


Ferric  Salts. 


Capric  Salts. 


Cadmium  Salts. ... 


Lead  Salts 

Bismuth  Salts.... 

Chromic  Salts. . . . 
(Green  solution.) 

Chromic  Salts. . . , 
(yiolet  solution.) 


Tartaric  Acid 

Citric  Add 

Sugar. 

Tartaric  Add 

,  CStric  Add 

Tartaric  Add 

!  Citric  Add 

Sugar 

Tartaric  Add 

Citric  Add 

Tartaric  Acid 

Citric  Acid 

Sugar 

Tartaric  Acid 

atric  Acid 

Sugar 

'  Tartaric  Add 

Citric  Add 

Sugar 

Tartaric  Acid 

Citric  Add 

Sugar 

Tartaric  Add 

Citric  Add 

Sugar 

Tartaric  Add 

CUtric  Acid .   

Sugar. 

Tartaric  Add 

Citric  Add 

Sugar. 

Tartaric  Add 

ICitric  Acid 

Sugar 

Tartaric  Add 

Citric  Add 

Sugar ..   . 

Tartaric  Add 

Citric  Acid 

Sugar 

Tartaric  Acid 

Citric  Acid 

Sugar 


a 
o 
.a 

o  c         « 

<  CD 


L     ,     1 

—    I    P 
P-    I 
p.    I     P 

P 
P 

P-       i 
i.       i 


1. 
i. 


1. 


i. 

1. 

i. 
i. 


1. 

P- 
i. 

p. 
P- 


p. 
1. 

P- 
P- 
P- 

p. 

i. 

p. 
p. 
P- 


p. 
P- 
P 


6^ 


J£c     »•     eg 

CD 


—        —         p. 


P- 
1. 

p. 

P- 

P- 
1. 

P- 

P- 

P- 

P- 
1. 

1. 

L 

i. 
1. 

p. 


p- 
p. 


p- 
p- 
p- 
p. 
p- 
p. 
p- 
p. 
p- 
p. 


p- 
p. 
p- 


o 


\ 


V 

V 
1. 

p 
p 
p 
p 

p 

1 
1 


p- 
p- 

p. 

« 

1. 

p- 
p- 
p. 
p 
p. 
p- 
p. 
p- 
p- 
p. 


p- 
p- 
p. 


p. 

.  p. 
.  p- 

I  p-  1 
p. 
p- 
p. 
p- 
p. 
p. 
p- 


1. 


p- 
p. 
p- 
p- 
p. 

• 

1. 

p- 
p- 
p- 
p. 

• 

1. 
1. 

L 

L 
P- 


p. 

p. 

p. 

p- 

p. 

p. 

p- 

p. 

p- 

p. 

p- 

p» 

p- 

p. 

p. 

p- 

p. 

p. 

p. 

p- 

p- 

p- 

p. 

p. 

p. 

p- 

p- 

p- 

1. 

p. 

p- 

p- 

p- 

p- 

p. 

p- 

Il«»fip< 


ndnsts. 


196 


THE  li 


u 

Q. 

O 

—I 

cn 

LU 

X 

H 

UJ 

o 

Ll. 

u 

GQ 
CO 

b 

u 


CO 


0 

•-9 

o 


UJ 
UJ 


o 

CO 

y- 

co 
u 

o 

q: 
u 

H 
O 

< 


o 


Eh 

« 

Eh 

QQ 

O 

» 

02 
O 

» 

o 

Eh 
02 


O 


UJ  a* 


UJ^   o 


QQ 

» 

QQ 

QQ 
O 


QQ 

o 

a. 
O 

O 


99 


n 

;3 

o 

a 


t: 

73 


-  Zl-EMENTS 


.     V^aT-T'S    D3CT. 


& 


^^ 

r 

• 

^ 

3 

(i^ 

iQ 

o 

M 

H 

CO 

•J 

/■ 

Cfi 

'J. 

X 

H 

a> 

c   -^ 

^iH 

O 

o 

i^    ;- 

(—< 

r*-rt    ^-M 

c 

y^ 

.„ 

e 

o 


cn 
•J 

Hi 


wiiitfe. 


White. 


vHatiB. 


o     r. 


4.      TT 


isMihible  in 
A]iim:niia. 


l,fflnni>-y«Jlow  or 

nddicb-brcnrn; 

ttolnbleiii 


Wkite. 


C       T-     *- 
fr»         -     - 


•                  • 

• 

H 

M 

•                 , 

d 

• 

'^ 

»                 « 

K 

o 

»4 

H 

< 

* 

WUte. 


o 


WUtc 


Whit<- :  in  the 

tbin  imrt  Tam5 

b]^i^tl•b]Ack. 


^*- 


m» 


WVte. 


White. 


White. 


White. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


,^  !  I  1 

i-A  i  i  '^ 


"    "     "I 
i 


=  £^  -fagj 


_.      .      .      .      .  iog    "    B 


i^^f 


a  a  as  a  a  a 

ooooooo 


1-s 


I  I- 
I  ll 

I  I  11  MWii 


nii 


§i 


ilil 


-11. Italic 


-S8  8s55***i^ 


oeoo 


tofe^jS 


'III  ill 


Plllllll 


*"-  Ss-3    -S 


ililililllilll 


198 


TABLE    OF    VOLATILE    ELEMENTS 

FROM     "WATT»S     DICT, 


Metallic  Fzlx. 

OXTDE-FILM. 

Ozrox-nui 

WITH 

Staknoub 
Chlobedb. 

OZEDB-riLV 

with 
Stannous 
Chlobidb 
AND  Soda. 

OziDB-nui 

WITH 

Aboentic 

NiTBATB  AND 

Ammonia. 

Te. 

Black; 
thin  part  brown. 

White. 

Black. 

Black. 

Yellowish- 
white. 

Se. 

Cherry  red; 
thin  part  brick  red. 

White. 

Brick-red. 

Black. 

White. 

Sb. 

Black; 
thin  part  brown. 

White. 

White. 

White. 

Black; 
Insoluble  in 
Ammanla. 

As. 

Black ; 
thin  part  brown. 

White. 

White. 

White. 

Lemon-yellow  or 

reddish-brown; 

soluble  in 

Ammonia. 

Bi. 

Black ; 
thin  part  brown. 

Yellowish- 
white. 

• 

White. 

Kack. 

White. 

Hg. 

Gray; 

non-coherent  thin 

film. 

Fe. 

Black; 
thin  part  brown. 

White. 

White. 

White. 

White. 

Pb. 

Black; 
thin  part  brown. 

Yellow-ochre 
color. 

White. 

White. 

White. 

Gd. 

Black; 
thin  part  brown. 

Blacklfih- 

brown ;  thlD 

part  white. 

White. 

White. 

White ;  In  the 

thin  part  tnms 

bluish-black. 

Zn. 

Black ; 
thin  part  brown. 

White. 

White. 
White. 

White. 

White. 

Sn. 

BUck; 
thin  part  brown. 

Yellowleh- 
white. 

White. 

White. 

199 


W^HICH    CAN    BE   REDUCED   AS  FILMS. 


OF     CH  EM  ISTR  Y. 


lODIDB-riLV. 

loDiDK-rn.M 

WITH 

AmioNiA. 

SULPHIDB-FIUE. 

SVLPHIDB-mJi 

WITH  AMXONIO 

SULPHIDB. 

Hbhabks. 

Brown ; 

disappears  for  a  time 

on  breathing. 

Disappears 

altogetner  on 

blowing. 

Black  to 
blacklsh-brown. 

Disappears 
for  a  time. 

• 

Brown : 
does  not  wholly  dis- 
appear  on  breathing. 

Does  not 

disappear  on 

blowing. 

Yellow  to 
orange. 

Orange  and 

then  disappears 

for  a  time. 

Elements 
whose  redac- 
tion-films 
are  scarcely 
dissolved  tn 

dilute 
Nitric  Acid. 

Orange>red  to  yeUow ; 

disappears 

on  breathing. 

Disappears 

altogether  on 

bfowing. 

Orange. 

Disappears 
for  a  time. 

Orange-yellow ; 

disappears  for  a  time 

on  breathing. 

Disappears 

altogetner  on 

blowiug. 

Lemon 
colored. 

Does  not 
disappear. 

* 

Bluish-brown ; 

thin  parts  pink ; 

disappears  for  a  time 

on  breathing. 

Pink  to  orange ; 

cheotnut 

colored  when 

blowing. 

Burnt  nmber 

color  to 
coffee  color. 

■ 

Does  not 
disappear. 

Elements 

Carmine-colored  and 

lemon-yellow ; 

does  not  disappear  on 

breathing. 

Disappears 

for  a  time  on 

blowing. 

Black. 

Does  not 
disappear. 

whose  reduc- 
tion-films 
are  with 
"     difficulty 
dissolved  in 

dilute 
Nitric  Acid. 

J 

Lemon-yellow ; 

does  not  disappear  on 

breathing. 

Does  not 

disappear  on 

blowing. 

Black; 

thin  parts 

bluish-gray. 

Does  not 
disappear. 

Orange-yellow  to 

lemon  color ; 

does  not  disappear  on 

breathing. 

Disappears 

for  a  time  on 

blowing. 

Brownish-red 
to  black. 

Does  not 
disappear. 

White. 

White. 

Lemon 
colored. 

Does  not 
disappear. 

Elements 
whose  reduc- 
tion-films 
'  are  Instantly 
dissolved  in 

dilute 
Nitric  Acid. 

White. 

White. 

White. 

Does  not 
disappear. 

Tellowish-white. 

Yellowish- 
white. 

White. 

Does  not 
disappear. 

' 

200 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


SCHEME*   FOR  THE   QUALITATIVE    DETERMINATION    OF 
SUBSTANCES   BY  THE   BLOWPIPE. 

The  substance  may  contain  As,  Sb,  S,  Se,  Fe,  Mn,  Cu,  Ni, 
Pb,  Bi,  Ag,  Au,  Hg,  Zn,  Cd,  Sn,  CI,  Br,  I,  COj,  SiOj,  HNO3, 
HjO,  etc. 

1.  Treat  on  Ch  (charcoal)  in  the  O.F.  (oxidizing  flame)  to 
find  volatile  substances  such  as.  As,  Sb,  S,  Se,  Pb,  Bi,  Ag,  Zn, 
Cd,  etc.  (p.  66,  et  seq.)  [This  number,  and  all  others,  refer  to 
the  pages  of  Plattner's  Manual,  translated  by  H.  B.  Cornwall, 
1872.  Owing  to  the  additions  to  this  scheme,  as  also  Casa- 
major's  table  on  the  preceding  page,  reference  to  Plattner's 
Manual  will  be  unnecessary.] 

a.  If  there  are  volatile  substances  present,  form  a  coating  and  test  it 
with  S.Ph  (salt  of  phosphorus)  and  tin  on  Ch  for  Sb  (p.  99),  or  to  distin- 
guish between  Pb  and  Bi  (p.  280). 

b.  If  there  are  no  volatile  substances  present,  divide  a  part  of  the 
substance  into  three  portions  and  proceed  as  in  ^. 

a.  Yellow  coat,  yielding  with  S.Ph  a  black  bead;  disappearing  with 
blue  flame,  no  part  of  it  yielding  green  Sb  flame  ;  Pb  and  Bi. 

b.  Yellow  coat,  generally  with  white  border,  yielding  black  or  gray  bead 
with  S.  Ph,  disappearing  with  blue  flame ;  also  the  border  disappearing 
with  green  flame  ;  Pb  and  Sb. 

e.  Yellow  coat,  very  similar  to  b,  but  yielding  no  blue  flame ;  Bi  and  Sb. 
(See  note  at  end  of  Scheme.) 

3.  If  As,  Sb,  S,  Se  are  present,  roast  a  large  quantity 
thoroughly  on  Ch  (p.  77).  Divide  the  substance  into  three 
portions  and  proceed  as  in  ^. 

A.  Tbeatment  of  the  First  Pobtion. — ^Dissolve  a  very 
small  quantity  in  borax  on  platinum-wire  in  the  0.  F.  and 
observe  the  color  produced.  Various  colors  will  be  formed 
by  the  combination  of  the  oxides.  Saturate  the  bead  and 
shake  it  off  into  a  porcelain  dish ;  repeat  this  once  or  twice 
(p.  79). 

a.  Treat  these  beads  on  Ch  with  a  small  piece  of  lead,  silver  or  gold  in 
a  strong  R.  F.  (reducing  flame),  p.  113. 

^  Scheme  is  by  T.  Egleston,  E.  M.,  with  a  few  additions  by  Author. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  201 

b.  Fe,  Mn,  Co,  etc.,  remain  in  the  bead  (p.  115). 

If  the  bead  spreads  out  on  the  Ch,  it  must  be  collected  to  a  globule  hy 
continued  blowing. 

Make  a  borax-bead  on  platinum-wire  and  dissolve  in  it  same  of  th& 
fragments  of  the  head,  reserving  the  rest  for  accident. 

c.  Ni,  Cu,  Ag,  Au,  Sn,  Pb,  Bl  are  reduced,  and  collect  by  the  lead-button 
(p.  115). 

Remove  the  lead-button  from  the  bead  while  hot,  or  by  breaking  the 
latter,  when  cold,  on  an  anvil  between  paper,  carefully  preserving  all 
the  fragments. 

d.  If  Co  is  present  the  bead  will  be  blue. 

If  a  large  amount  of  Fe  is  present,  add  a  little  borax  to  prove  the  presence 
or  absence  of  Co  (p.  222). 

If  Mn  is  present,  the  bead,  when  treated  on  platinum- wire  in  the  O.F.^ 
will  become  dark- violet  or  black. 

e.  If  no  Co  is  present,  the  bead  will  be  almost  colorless. 

Look  here  for  Cr,  Tl,  Mo,  U,  W,  V,  Ta.  Mo  will  give  a  cloudy-brown  or 
black  with  the  borax-bead  in  the  R.  P.,  owing  to  the  molybdic  acid  being 
reduced. 

/.  Treat  the  button  <;  on  Ch  in  the  0.  F.  until  all  the  lead,  etc.,  is  driven 
off,  Ni,  Cu,  kg,  Au  remaining  behind ;  or  separate  the  lead  with  boradc 
acid  (p.  442). 

g.  Treat  the  residue  ^  on  Ch  in  O.F.  with  S.Ph  bead,  removing  the  but- 
ton while  the  bead  is  hot. 

h.  If  NI  and  Cu  are  present,  the  bead  will  be  green  when  cold  (p.  292). 
If  Ni  only,  yellow.    If  Cu  only,  blue. 

Prove  Cu  by  treating  with  tin  on  Ch  in  R.F.  (p.  288). 

».  For  kg  and  Au,  make  the  special  test  No.  8. 

B,  Treatment  of  the  Second  Portion. — Drive  off  the 
volatile  substances  in  the  O.F.  on  Ch.  Treat  with  the  R.F,  or 
mix  with  soda,  and  then  treat  with  R.F.  for  Zn,  Cd,  Sn.  If  a 
white  coating  is  formed,  test  with  cobalt  solution  (pp.  251,  256, 
276).  Tin  gives  greenish-blue ;  zinc,  green.  If  Zr\  is  found, 
it  is  not  necessary  to  look  for  Sn  and  vice  versa,  as  they  very 
rarely  occur  together.  Cd  gives  a  brown  coat  and  variegated 
tarnish. 

C.  Treatment  of  the  Third  Portion. — Dissolve  some  of 
the  substance  in  S.Ph  on  platinum-wire  in  O.F.,  observing 
whether  Si  is  present  or  not,  and  test  for  Mn  with  nitrate  of 
potassa  and  soda  (p.  210). 

3.  Test  for  As  with  soda  on  Ch  in  the  R.F.,  or  with  dry  soda 


202 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


in  a  closed  tube  (p.  345  et  seq.).  On  charcoal  it  gives  garlic 
odor ;  in  the  tube,  a  metallic  mirror. 

4.  Dissolves  in  S.Ph  on  platinum-wire  in  the  O.F.  (if  the  sub- 
stance is  not  metallic  and  does  ilot  contain  any  S),  and  test 
for  Sb  on  Ch  with  tin  in  the  R.F.     (See  1,  a,  p.  99.) 

6.  Test  for  Se  on  Ch ;  it  gives  a  horse-radish  odor  (p.  368). 

6.  In  absence  of  Se,  fuse  with  soda  in  the  R.F.,  and  test  for 
S  on  silver-foil  (p.  365).  By  moistening  the  fused  mass,  and 
letting  it  stand  on  the  foil,  the  latter  turns  black  if  S  be  pres- 
ent.    In  the  presence  of  Se,  test  in  open  tube  (p.  366). 

?•  Test  for  Hg  with  dry  soda  in  a  closed  tube;  a  metallic 
mirror  is  formed  (p.  304). 

8.  Mix  some  of  the  substance  with  assay  lead  and  borax 
glass,  and  fuse  on  Ch  in  the  R.F.  (p.  401).  Cupel  the  lead- 
button  for  Ag  (p.  407).  Test  with  nitric  acid  for  Au,  dissolv- 
ing the  silver  (p.  320). 

9.  Test  for  CI  and  I  with  a  bead  of  S.Ph  saturated  with 
oxide  of  copper.  CI  gives  blue  flame ;  I,  intense  green  (pp. 
873,  374,  375). 

10.  Test  for  Br  with  bisulphate  of  potassa  in  a  matrass, 
gives  brownish-yellow  fiimes  ;  test  also  for  CI  (p.  374). 

11.  Test  for  H2O  in  a  closed  tube ;  drops  collect  on  the  in- 
terior (p.  353). 

13.  Test  for  borates :  dip  substance  in  glycerine  and  hold 
in  flame — ^green  color.  If  barium  is  present,  remove  the  same, 
then  apply  the  test.  Discovered  by  Mr.  lies.  (See  Amer. 
Chem.,  Apr.  1876.) 

13.  Test  on  platinum-wire,  or  in  platinum-pointed  forceps, 
for  coloration  of  the  flame  (p.  72  et  seq.). 

14.  Test  for  CO2  with  hydrochloric  acid,  letting  the  gas 
pass  over  lime-water  (p.  360). 

16.  Test  for  HNO3  with  bisulphate  of  potassa  in  a  matrass; 
yellow-colored  fumes  and  acid  reaction  (p.  354). 

16.  Test  for  Te  in  an  open  tube;  forms  a  grayish-white 
sublimate,  which  fuses  to  clear  transparent  drops  when  strongly 
heated.    Te  burns  with  a  bluish-green  flame  (p.  354). 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


203 


DETECTION   OF  BISMUTH    IN  THE   PRESENCE  OF  LEAD 

AND  ANTIMONY. 

By  H.    B.    CORNWALL,    E.  M. 

One  part  teroodde  of  Usmuthj  fifty  parts  oxide  of  leady 
and  fifty  parts  teroxide  of  (mti/mony  are  mixed  with  an 
equal  volume  of  sulphur,  and  treated  B.B.  in  a  deep  cavity  on 
coal  with  the  blue  flame  for  a  few  minutes.  The  resulting 
fused  sulphides  remove  to  a  flat  coal,  and  treat  alternately 
with  O.F.  and  R.F.  until  the  antimonial  ftimes  cease  to  come 
off,  and  an  impure  blue  lead  flame  appears.  Powder  the 
residue  and  treat  a  portion  of  it  with  iodine  mixed  on  coal. 
Xo  hismuth  will  be  detected.  But  if  the  other  portion  is 
treated  in  an  open  tube  (4  in.  long  and  not  less  than  \  in. 
wide,  over  a  Bunsen  gas-burner)  with  a  mixture  of  5  parts 
sulphur  and  1  part  iodide  of  potassium  by  weight ;  and  about 
equal  volumes  of  this  and  of  the  metallic  oxide,  a  distinct  bis- 
muth sublimate  will  be  formed  about  one-third  of  an  inch 
above  the  lower  edge  of  the  yellow  sublimate. 

The  bismuth  sublimate  forms  a  red  ring.  If  sulphides  are 
under  treatment,  remove  the  excess  of  antimony  on  coal. 

Care  must  be  taken  not  to  confound  with  the  bismuth  sub- 
limate a  sublimate  of  iodine,  which  may  condense  on  the  upper 
part  of  the  tube^  but  at  a  greater  distance  fi^m  the  assay. 


ut,xH  mmit^s. 


DETERMINATION   OF   SPECIFIC   GRAVITIES. 

SPECIFIC   GRAVITIES   OF   POWDERS  OR   SMALL   SOLIDS. 

{Brand  and  TayUn'B  Chemistry,) 

The  specific  gravity  of  solids  in  powder  or  in  small  pieces 
may  conveniently  be  determined  by  the  bottle.  Thns :  weigh 
the  powder,  pour  it  into  the  bottle,  and  fill  it  with  water  at 
62°  F.,  taking  care  to  dislodge  all  adhering  bubbles  of  air. 
Then  weigh  it  and  deduct  the  known  weight  of  the  bottle; 
the  remainder  is  the  conjoint  weight  of  the  powder  and  water. 
Deduct  fi*om  this  last  sum  the  found  weight  of  the  powder^ 
and  tJie  difference  is  the  weight  of  the  water ;  deduct  this  dif- 
ference from  the  known  weight  of  the  water  required  to  fill 
the  bottle,  and  the  remainder  is  the  weight  of  a  volume  of 
water  equal  to  the  volume  of  the  solid  in  powder ;  then  as  this 
'  is  to  the  known  weight  of  water,  required  to  fill  the  bottle 
: :  Sp.  Gr.  water  :  Sp.  Gr.  powder.     Example : 

QrainB. 
Weight  of  water  iu  the  bottle 1000 

"       of  native  platinum  grains  (in  air) 40 

1040 
Weight  of  water  and  platinum  in  bottle 1037.5 

Difference  =  Volume  of  water  diBplaced 2.5 

40  -h  2.5  =  16  Sp.  Gr.  of  native  platinum. 

When  the  substance  is  soluble  in  water,  another  liquid  of 
known  specific  gravity  which  does  npt  act  upon  the  solid^ 
must  be  employed.  Alcohol,  oil  of  turpentine,  or  olive  oil 
may  be  used,  or,  in  some  cases,  the  substance  may  be  coated 
with  varnish.    Example — Required  Sp.  Gr.  of  Sugar : 

Qrains. 
Weight  of  sugar  in  air 400 

•'      "     "      in  oil  of  turpentine 182.5 

Weight  of  an  equal  bulk  of  oil 217.5 

Known  Sp.  Gr.  of  turpentine 0.870 

Then  0.870  :  1000  ::  217.5  :  250,  and  400-^250  =  1.6^ 
which  is  the  Sp.  Gr.  of  the  sugar. 


208  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

SPECIFIC  GRAVITY  OF  SOLIDS  HEAVIER  THAN  WATER. 

{Brand  and  Taylor^ a  Chemistry,) 

Weigh  the  solid  in  air,  then  suspend  it  by  a  fine  thread 
(horse-hair)  to  one  arm  of  a  balance ;  exactly  counterpoise  it, 
and  immerse  the  solid  so  counterpoised  in  distilled  water  at 
62°  F.,  and  note  how  much  less  it  weighs  now  than  when 
weighed  in  air.  The  difference  between  the  two  is  the  weight 
of  a  volume  of  water,  exactly  equal  to  that  of  the  immersed 
solid.  Divide  the  weight  of  the  solid  in  air  by  this  differ- 
ence, and  the  result  is  the  Sp.  Gr.  of  the  solid.  Thus  in  refer- 
ence to  a  small  bar  of  aluminum : 

OrainB. 
Weight  of  Alaminxim  in  air 46.3 

"       of         "  inwater 29.0 

Difierence  =  Volume  of  water 17.3 

46.3  + 17.3  =  2.6  Sp.  Gr.  of  Alominam. 

A  knowledge  of  the  Sp.  Gr.  of  solids  enables  a  chemist  to 
ascertain  the  weight  of  bodies  from  their  volume.  A  cubic  foot 
of  water  contains  1728  cubic  inches,  and  weighs  1000  ounces 
(strictly  998  ounces  62.4  pounds  Av.) ;  hence  a  cubic  foot  of 
sulphur  (Sp.  Gr.  1.957)  would  weigh  1957  ounces,  and  a  cubic 
foot  of  marble  (Sp.  Gr.  2.5)  would  weigh  2500  ounces.  A 
cubic  foot  of  air  weighs  535.161  grains. 

SPECIFIC   GRAVITY  OF  SOLIDS   LIGHTER  THAN   WATER. 

(Brand  and  Taylor's  Chemistry.) 

1.  Find  the  weight  of  the  solid  (a)  in  air.  2.  Take  a  piece 
of  metal  heavy  enough  to  make  («)  sink  in  water,  and  find  its 
weight  in  air  and  in  water.  3.  Tie  together  (a)  and  the  metal, 
and  find  the  weight  of  the  compound  mass  in  water.  The 
difference  between  the  weight  of  the  metal  in  air  and  in  water 
is  the  weight  of  a  volume  of  water  equal  to  that  of  the  metal ; 
deduct  this  from  the  difference  between  the  weights  in  air  and 
in  water  of  the  compound  mass,  and  the  remainder  is  the 
weight  of  a  volume  of  water  equal  to  (a),    Kow  divide  the 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  209 

weight  of  (a)  by  the  remainder,  and  obtain  the  Sp.  Gr.    Thus 
with  reference  to  beef-fet : 

GrainB. 
Weight  of  fat  in  air 117.3 

Add  brass  weight  to  sink  it 1000.0 

Weight  of  compound  mass  in  air 1117.8 

Grains. 
Lo8B  of  weight  by  the  compound  mass  in  water 245.5 

"    **  brass  weight  (1000)  in  water 119.4 

Weight  of  the  water  displaced  by  the  fat 126.1 

Hence  117.3  -¥- 126.1  =  0.930  Sp.  Gr.  of  beef-fat. 

SPECIFIC  GRAVITY  OF  GASES. 

The  weighing  of  the  air  and  gas  should  take  place  at  the 
same  temperature  and  pressure,  or  a  calculation  should  be 
made.  In  reference  to  gases  and  vapors,  air  is  taken  as  the 
standard  of  unity. 

Gases, — A  light  glass  flask,  of  about  forty  or  fifty  cubic 
.  inches  capacity  is  employed.  This  is  capable  of  being  screwed 
to  the  air-pump  plate,  and  of  being  suspended  to  a  scale-beam 
and  accurately  balanced.  The  flask  is  exhausted,  balanced, 
filled  with  dry  air,  and  again  balanced.  The  increase  in  weight 
represents  the  weight  of  the  volume  of  dry  air  in  the  flask,  at 
the  pressure  and  temperature  at  which  it  was  filled.  The  ex- 
periment is  repeated  with  the  dry  gas,  the  Sp.  Gr.  of  which  it 
is  proposed  to  determine.  The  following  is  the  Sp.  Gr.  of  car- 
bonic oxide  (CO2) : 

Grains. 

Weight  of  the  flask  with  dry  air 2033.8 

"     exhausted 2021.4 

Weight  of  dry  air  in  flask 12.4 

Grains. 

Weight  of  the  flask  with  dry  carbonic  oxide 2040.24 

"     exhausted '. 2021.40 

Weight  of  dry  carbonic  oxide  in  flask 18.84 

Hence,  18.84  -^  12.4  =  1.520  Sp.  Gr.  of  carbonic  oxide. 

The  weight  of  100  cubic  inches  of  any  gas  may  be  found  by 
multiplying  the  specific  gravity  of  the  gas  or  vapor  by  31  [one 


210  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

hundred  cubic  inches  of  dry  air  at  a  mean  temperature  of 
(62°  F.),  and  a  mean  pressure  (30  inches),  are  considered  to  weigh 
31  grains].  Thus,  nitrogen  has  a  Sp.  Gr.  of  0.967  and  0.967 
X  31=29.98  grains,  the  weight  of  a  hundred  cubic  inches  of 
the  gas. 

A  knowledge  of  the  Sp.  Gr.  of  gases  enables  a  chemist  to 
control  the  results  of  an  analysis  of  a  compound  gas.  Thus,  if 
2  volumes  of  ammonia  consist  of  one  volume  of  nitrogen  and 
three  volumes  of  hydrogen,  it  follows  that  the  sum  of  the  spe- 
cific gravities  of  its  constituents,  divided  by  2,  should  exactly 
represent  the  Sp.  Gr.  of  the  gas. 

SPECIFIC  GRAVITY  OF  VAPORS. 
(Brand  and  Taylor's  Chemistry,) 

The  weights  of  equal  volumes  of  vapor  and  air  are  com- 
pared under  the  same  temperature  and  pressure.  A  thin  glass 
globe  of  about  three  inches  diameter  is  drawn  out  at  its  neck 
to  a  narrow  tube,  six  or  seven  inches  long,  the  point  of  the 
tube  being  cut  across  with  a  file,  but  not  sealed.  The  globe 
is  then  weiglied,  and  the  temperature  and  pressure  at  the  time 
observed.  In  order  to  introduce  a  volatile  liquid,  the  globe  is 
warmed  so  as  to  expel  a  portion  of  its  air,  and  the  end  of  the 
tube  is  then  dipped  into  the  liquid.  As  the  globe  cools,  the 
air  within  contracts  and  the  liquid  is  forced  into  it  by  atmos- 
pheric pressure.  When  a  suflBcient  quantity  (from  100  to 
150  grains)  of  liquid  have  entered,  the  globe  is  finally  enclosed 
in  a  wire-holder,  and  immersed  in  a  bath  of  water,  oil,  or  other 
medium,  heated  to  50°  or  60°  above  the  boiling  point  of  the 
liquid  in  the  globe.  Under  these  circumstances,  a  stream  of 
vapor  rushes  rapidly  through  the  orifice,  carrying  with  it  the 
air  of  the  globe.  When  this  ceases  the  point  of  the  tube  is 
sealed  by  a  blowpipe  flame,  the  temperature  being  observed  at 
the  same  minute.  The  globe  is  removed  from  the  bath,  and 
when  cool  is  cleaned  and  weighed.  The  next  point  to  be 
determined  is  the  capacity  of  the  globe.  For  this  purpose  the 
neck  is  broken  under  the  surface  of  water  or  mercury,  when 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  211 

the  cold  fluid  enters  the  globe  and  filla  it  completely,  if  the 
operation  has  been  properly  conducted,  and  ail  the  air  haa 
been  expelled  by  the  vapor.  By  pouring  out  the  (vater  or 
mercury  into  a  graduated  veBsel,  the  capacity  of  the  globe  is 
accurately  ascertained.  The  data  necessary  fur  tlie  calculation 
is  thus  obtained : 

1.  The  weight  of  the  globe  full  of  air  at  the  common  tem- 
perature and  pressure. 

2.  The  weight  of  the  globe,  and  of  the  vapor  filling  it,  at 
the  temperature  of  the  bath,  and  under  the  same  pi-etisiire. 

3.  The  capacity  of  the  globe. 

Having  these  results,  there  can  be  obtained  by  calculation  : 

i.  The  weight  of  the  empty  globe. 

5,  The  weight  of  the  vapor  tilling  the  globe  at  the  tempera- 
ture of  the  bath,  as  well  as  its  volume  at  this  or  at  any  other 
temperature  that  may  be  required. 

Let  it  be  assumed  that  the  object  is  to  determine  the  s])eciflc 
gravity  of  the  vapor  of  chloroform. 

1.  The  weight  of  the  globe  full  of  air  at  60°  F.  and  bar.  30, 
ia  found  to  be  3012.4  grains. 

2.  Tbe  liquid  chloroform  having  been  introduced  into  the 
globe  in  the  manner  described,  the  globe  is  maintained  at  a 
temperature  of  200°  in  the  bath  until  nothing  but  vapor  re- 
mains in  the  interior.  The  aperture  of  the  small  tube  is  tlien 
sealed.  The  globe,  when  dry  and  cooled  to  00°  F.,  is  found  to 
weigh  2040  grains.  This  gives  the  weight  of  the  globe  and 
vapor  together. 

3.  The  capacity  of  the  globe  Ib  determined  by  breaking  the 
point  of  the  tube  under  water.  The  lii[uid  rushea  in  and 
entirely  fills  the  vessel.  When  this  liquid  is  poured  into  a 
graduated  glass,  it  is  found  that  at  60°'  F.  there  are  40  cubic 
inches ;  hence,  40  cubic  inches  of  air  were  contained  in  the 
globe  at  common  temperature  and  pressure, 

4.  Tbe  weight  of  this  air  would  be  12.4  ^■mx\%  (lOn  cubic 
inches  :  31  gra.  ::  40  cubic  inches  :  12.4grj^.l,  iiml  as  the  jjlobe 
and  air  weighed  together  2012.4  grains,  then  201:?.4  —  12.4  = 
2000  grains,  the  weight  of  tlie  empty  globe. 


212  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

5.  The  weight  of  the  vapor  filling  the  globe  may  now  be 
determined.  The  globe  was  found  to  weigh,  on  cooling,  2040 
grains ;  hence,  2040  —  2000  =  40  grains,  the  weight  of  the 
vapor.  It  is  now  necessary  to  determine  either  the  weight  of 
the  air  which  would  fill  the  globe  at  the  temperature  of  the 
bath,  or  the  volume  of  vapor  which,  by  calculation,  would  be 
contained  in  the  globe  when  cooled  to  60°  F.  The  reduction  of 
the  volume  by  cooling  from  200°  F.  to  60°  F.  is  the  more  sim- 
ple process.  Tbus  40  cubic  inches  at  60°  F.  (648  :  508  : :  40  : 
30.78).  According  to  Gay-Lussac,  1000  volumes  of  air  at 
32°  are  increased  to  1375  volumes  at  212°  F.  Hence,  the 
increase  is  f  J^  or  2.08,  for  each  degree  between  32°  F.  and 
212°  F.;  and  1000-^-2.08  =  480.  Hence,  the  increase  for 
each  degree  is  equal  to  l-480th  part  of  the  volume  at  32°  F. ; 
or,  assuming  that  the  volume  of  gas  at  this  temperature  is  480 
cubic  inches,  there  will  be  an  addition  of  07ie  cubic  inch  for 
every  degree  of  increase  of  temperature  up  to  212°  F. 

The  mean  temperature  is  taken  at  60°  F.,  and  480  cubic  inches 
at  this  temperature  would  become  (60  —  32  +  480)  508  cubic 
inches.  The  number  32  is  deducted  from  the  temperatures, 
because  it  is  from  this  degree  (32°  F.)  that  the  rate  of  expan- 
sion, on  which  the  calculation  is  based,  commences.  Hence, 
assuming  that  chloroform  vapor  was  cooled  to  60°,  and  could 
still  exist  as  vapor  at  that  temperature,  it  is  obvious  that  its 
specific  gravity  would  be  determined  by  ascertaining  the 
weight  of  30.78  cubic  inches  of  air  at  the  same  temperature 
and  pressure.  100  cubic  inches  of  air  weigh  31  grains ;  hence, 
100  :  31  : :  3078  :  9.54.  Hence,  at  the  same  temperature,  60°, 
30.78  cubic  inches  of  chloroform  would  weigh  only  9.54  grains ; 
and  40  -r-  9.54  =  4.19,  which  is  nearly  the  specific  gravity  of 
the  vapor  of  chloroform,  as  determined  by  calculation  from  its 
elementary  composition.  The  following  is  a  summary  of  the 
results: 

Capacity  of  the  globe  at  GO""  =     40  cubic  indiea. 

Weight  of  the  globe  with  dry  air  =  2012.4  grains. 

"  **      air  by  calculation  =      12.4      " 

Weight  of  the  globe  without  air  =  2000         " 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL  213 

W^ht  of  the  globe  with  chloroform  T»por  —  3040  graina. 

"         "      chloroform  vapor  =     40       " 

40  cable  Inches  of  air  or  vapor  ^t  300°,  reduced  to  30.78  cubic  inchee 

•160°. 

Weight  of  30.78  cable  Inches  of  ^  ftt  60°  =    0.54  grains. 

"  "  "  chloroform  vapor  at  60^    =40  " 


It  may  be  observed  that  the  ascertained  Sp.  Gr.  of  chloro- 
form vapor  is  4,20;  and  the  Sp.  Gr.  of  the  vapor  calculated 
from  its  elementary  composition  is  4.1805;  difl'erences  which 
are  comparatively  unimportant. 


SPECIFIC    GRAVITY 


Corresponding  to  Degrees  of  BAUME*S    HYDROMETER. 


14"  R.    17.5'  C.    (Sp.  Gr.  =  - 


144 


144 -B' 


correct.) 


DIGBBB. 

BPiourio 

ORJlVXTT. 

DXORBB. 

8FBCIVI0 
GBAVXTY. 

BBOBSX. 

SPBCDIO 
ORAT1TT. 

.0 

1.0000 

24.5 

1.2050 

48.5 

1.5079 

0.5 

1.0035 

25.0 

1.2101 

49.0 

1.5158 

1.0 

1.0070 

25.5 

1.2152 

49.5 

1.5238 

1.5 

1.0105 

26.0 

1.2203 

500 

1.5319 

2.0 

1.0141 

26.5 

1.2255 

50.5 

1.5401 

2.5 

1.0177 

270 

1.2308 

51.0 

1.5484 

3.0 

1.0213 

27.5 

1.2361 

51.5 

1.5568 

8.5 

1.0249 

28.0 

1.2414 

52.0 

1.5652 

40 

1.0286 

28.5 

1.2468 

52.5 

1.5787 

4.5 

1.0323 

29.0 

1.2522 

53.0 

1.5824 

5.0 

1.0300 

29.5 

1.2576 

53.5 

1.5911 

5.5 

1.0397 

30.0 

1.2682 

54.0 

16000 

«.0 

1.0435 

80.5 

1.2687 

54.5 

1.6089 

6.5 

1.0473 

81.0 

1.2743 

55.0 

1.6179 

7.0 

1.0511 

81.5 

1.2800 

55.5 

1.6271 

7.5 

1.0549 

82.0 

1.2857 

56.0 

1.6368 

8.0 

1.0588 

32.5 

1.2915 

56.5 

1.6457 

8.5 

1.0827 

83.0 

1.2973 

57.0 

1.6551 

9.0 

1.0667 

38.5 

1.3032 

57.5 

1.6647 

9.5 

1.0706 

84.0 

1.3091 

58.0 

1.6744 

10.0 

1.0746 

84.5 

1.3151 

58.5 

1.6842 

10.5 

1.0787 

85.0 

1.8211 

59.0 

16041 

11.0 

1.0837 

85.5 

1.3272 

59.5 

1.7041 

11.5 

1.0868 

36.0 

1.3333 

60.0 

1.7142 

12.0 

1.0909 

36.5 

1.3395 

60.5 

1.7245 

12.5 

1.0951 

87.0 

1.8458 

61.0 

1.7349 

13.0 

1.0992 

37.5 

1.8521 

61.5 

1.7454 

13.5 

1.1034 

38.0 

1.8585 

62.0 

1.7560 

14.0 

1.1111 

38.5 

1.3649 

625 

1.7668 

14.5 

1.1120 

39.0 

1.8714 

68.0 

1.7777 

15.0 

1.1163 

89.5 

1.3780 

63.5 

1.7888 

15.5 

1.1206 

40.0 

1.3846 

640 

1.7999 

16.0 

1.1250 

40.5 

1.3913 

64.5 

1.8112 

16.5 

1.1294 

41.0 

1.8981 

65.0 

1.8227 

17.0 

1.1339 

41.5 

1.4049 

65.5 

1.8348 

17.5 

1.1383 

42.0 

1.4118 

66.0 

1.8461 

18.0 

1.1429 

42.5 

1.4187 

66.5 

1.8580 

18.5 

1.1475        1 

43.0 

1.4267 

67.0 

1.8701 

19.0 

1.1520 

43.5 

1.4328 

67.5 

1.8828 

19.5 

1.1566 

44.0 

1.4400 

68.0 

1.8947 

20.0 

1.1613 

44.5 

1.4472 

68.5 

1.9071 

20.5 

1.1660 

45.0 

1.4545 

'       69.0 

1.9200 

21.0 

1.1707 

45.5 

1 .4619 

69.5 

1.9328 

21.5 

1.1755 

46.0 

1.4694 

70.0 

1.9459 

23.0 

1.1803 

46.5 

1.4769 

70.5 

1.9591 

225 

1.1852 

47.0 

1.4845 

71.0 

1.9726 

23.0 

1.1901 

47.5 

1.4922 

71.5 

1.9862 

23.5 

1.1950 

48.0 

1.6000 

72.0 

2.0000 

24.0 

1.2000 

■ 

THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL, 


215 


SPECIFIC    GRAVITY 

FOR    LIQUIDS    LIGHTER    THAN    >ArATER.  .  ^O^^'^  . 


14.4 


-  134  =  B"  ; 


144 


Sp.  Or.  *        B^  +  134 

TABLE  BY  DR.   W.   H.  PILE. 


=  Sp.  Gr. 


Dbobxvb 

Spxcinc 

DseRViCfl 

Sfboifio 

Dbgress 

Spxcifio 

DxeREBS 

Sfeoifu) 

OF 

Htdsom- 

ITBB. 

Gravitt 

(Baam6). 

OF 

Htbrom- 

BTEB. 

Gravity 

(Baume). 

OF 

Hydbom- 

BT1CR. 

* 

Gratitt 
(Banm6). 

OF 

Htdbom- 

ETEB. 

Gravitt 
(Baum6). 

10 

1.0000 

27 

.8917 

44 

.8045 

61 

.7329 

11 

.9929 

28 

.8860 

45 

.8000 

62 

.7290 

13 

.9859 

29 

.8805 

46 

.7954 

63 

.7253 

13 

.9790 

30 

.8750 

47 

.7909 

64 

.7216 

14 

.9722 

31 

.8695 

48 

.7865 

65 

.7179 

15 

.9655 

32 

.8641 

49 

.7821 

66 

.7142 

16 

.9589 

33 

.8588 

50 

.7777 

67 

.7106 

17 

.9623 

34 

.8538 

51 

.7734 

68 

.7070 

18 

.9459 

35 

.8484 

52 

.7692 

69 

.7035 

19 

.9395 

36 

.8433 

53 

.7650 

70 

.7000 

20 

.9333 

37 

.8383 

54 

.7608 

71 

.6965 

21 

.9271 

38 

.8333 

55 

.7567 

72 

.6930 

22 

.9210 

39 

.8284 

56 

.7526 

73 

.6896 

23 

.9150 

40 

.8235 

57 

.7486 

74 

.6863 

24 

.9090 

41 

.8187 

58 

.7446 

75 

.6829 

25 

.9032 

42 

.8139 

59 

.7407 

76 

.6796 

26 

.8974 

43 

.8092 

60 

.7368 

77 

.6763 

DEGREES    TWADDLE'S    HYDROMETER 

AND    THE    CORRESPONDING    SPECIFIC    GRAVITIES. 


DxeiiEBB. 

Specific 
Gravitt. 

DXOBXBS. 

Specific 
Gravitt. 

1.040 

Dbgbxbs. 

1 

SpEcnrio 
Gravity. 

1.075 

Bbobebb. 

SpBomo 
Gravity. 

1 

1.005 

8 

15 

22 

1.110 

2 

1.010 

9 

1.046 

16 

1.080 

23 

1.115 

3 

1.015 

10 

1.050 

17 

1.085 

24 

1.120 

4 

1.020 

11 

1.055 

18 

1.090 

25 

1.125 

5 

1.025 

12 

1.060 

19 

1.095 

26 

1.130 

6 

1.030 

13 

1.065 

20 

1.100 

27 

1.135 

7 

1.035 

14 

1.070 

21 

1.105 

28 

1.140 

216 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


PROPORTION  OF  ABSOLUTE  ALCOHOL 

BY    ^VEIGHT    IN    lOO    PARTS    OF    SPIRIT, 
OP  DIFFERENT  SPECIFIC  GRAVITIES  AT  60°  F.  (15°.6  C.) 

(FowNES.    Phil.  Trans.,  1847.) 


Alcohol 

Spboifio 

Alcohol 

Spbcific 

Alcohol 

Sfkcifxo 

Alcohol 

SpEcmo 

PKBCENT. 

Qravitt. 

FKBCENT. 

Qbavitt. 

PBBOSNT. 

Gbavitt. 

PBBCKNT. 

1 

Gbavitt. 

0 

1.0000 

25 

.9652 

51 

.9160 

76 

.8581 

0 

.9991 

26 

.9688 

52 

.9186 

77 

.8657 

1 

.9981 

27 

.9628 

58 

.9113 

78 

.8538 

2 

.9965 

28 

.9609 

54 

.9090 

79 

.8508 

3 

.9947 

29 

.9593 

55 

.9069 

80 

.8488 

4 

.9980 

80 

.9578 

56 

.9047 

81 

.8459 

6 

.9914 

81 

.9560 

57 

.9025 

82 

.8484 

6 

.9898 

82 

.9544 

58 

.9001 

88 

.8408 

7 

.9884 

83 

.9528 

59  . 

.8979 

84 

.8882 

8 

.9869 

84 

.9511 

60 

.8956 

85 

.8857 

9 

.9855 

85 

.9490 

61 

.8982 

86 

.8381 

10 

.9841 

86 

.9470 

62 

.8908 

87 

.8305 

11 

.9828 

87 

.9452 

68 

.8886 

88 

.8279 

12 

.9815 

88 

.9484 

64 

.8868 

89 

.8254 

13 

.9802 

89 

.9416 

65 

.8840 

90 

.8228 

14 

.9789 

40 

.9896 

66 

.8816 

91 

.8199 

16 

.9778 

41 

.9876 

67 

.8798 

92 

.8172 

16 

.9766 

42 

.9856 

68 

.8769 

93 

.8145- 

17 

.9753 

48 

.9885 

69 

.8745 

94 

.8118- 

18 

.9741 

44 

.9814 

70 

.8721 

95 

.8089 

19 

.9728 

45 

.9292 

71 

.8696 

96 

.8061 

20 

.9716 

46 

.9270 

72 

.8672 

97 

.8081 

21 

.9704 

47 

.9249 

78 

.8649 

98 

.8001 

22 

.9691 

48 

.9228 

74 

.8625 

99 

.7969 

28 

.9678 

49 

.9206 

75 

.8608 

100 

.7988 

24 

.9665 

50 

.9184 

1 

In  this  table  every  alternate  namber  is  the  resalt  of  a  direct  synthetical 
experiment ;  absolute  alcohol  and  distilled  water  being  weighed  oat  in  the 
proper  proportions,  and  mixed  by  agitation  in  stoppered  bottles ;  after  a 
lapse  of  three  or  four  days,  each  specimen  was  brought  exactly  to  60°  F., 
and  the  specific  gravity  determined  with  great  care. 


THE    CHEMIST'S    MANUAL. 


217 


TABLE 

Of  the  Proportion  by  Volttme  of  Absolutb  or  Real  Alcohol  ik 
100  Volumes  of  Spirits  of  different  Specific  Gravitieb  (Gay- 
LussAC)  AT  59°  F.    (15°  C). 


100  VoLmus 

ow  Sfibitb. 

100  YOLTTMES 

OF  Spibits. 

100  VOLUlOfiB 

OF  Spibits. 

Contain 

Contain 

Contain 

Specific 

Volumes 

Specific 

YOLUVBB 

Specific 

Volumes 

Gbayity. 

OF  REAL 

Qbavity. 

OF  beal 

Qbatitt. 

of  real 

Alcohol. 

Alcohol. 

Alcohol. 

1.0000 

0 

09608 

34 

0.8956 

68 

.9985 

1 

.9594 

35 

.8932 

69 

.9970 

2 

.9581 

36 

.8907 

70 

.9956 

3 

.9567 

37 

.8882 

71 

.9942 

4 

.9553 

38 

.8857 

72 

.9929 

5 

.9538 

39 

.8831 

73 

.9916 

6 

.9523 

40 

.8805 

74 

.9903 

7 

.9507 

41 

.8779 

75 

.9891 

8 

.9491 

42 

.8753 

76 

.9878 

9 

.9474 

43 

.8726 

77 

.9867 

10 

.9457 

44 

.8699 

78 

.9855 

11 

.9440 

45 

.8672 

79 

.9814 

12 

.9422 

46 

.8645 

80 

.9833 

13 

.9404 

47 

.8617 

81 

.9822 

14 

.9386 

48 

.8589 

82 

.9812 

15 

.9367 

49 

.8560 

83 

.9802 

16 

.9348 

50 

.8531 

84 

.9792 

17 

.9329 

51 

.8502 

85 

.9782 

18 

.9309 

52 

.8472 

86 

.9773 

19 

.9289 

53 

.8442 

87 

.9763 

20 

.9269 

54 

.8411 

88 

.9753 

21 

.9248 

55 

.8379 

89 

.9742 

22 

.9227 

56 

.8346 

90 

.9732 

23 

.9206 

57 

.8812 

91 

.9721 

24 

.9185 

58 

.8278 

92 

.9711 

25 

.9163 

59 

.8242 

93 

.9700 

26 

.9141 

60 

.8206 

94 

.9690 

27 

.9119 

61 

.8168 

95 

.9679 

28 

.9096 

62 

.8128 

06 

.9668 

29 

.9073 

63 

.8086 

97 

.9657 

30 

.9a50 

64 

.8042 

98 

.9645 

31 

.9027 

65 

.8006 

99 

.9633 

32 

.9004 

66 

.7947 

100 

.9621 

88 

.8980 

•   67 

218 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


QUANTITIES  OF  ABSOLUTE  ALCOHOL  BY  WEIGHT, 

IN    MIXTURES    OF    ALCOHOL    AND    WATER    OF    THE    FOL. 
LOWING    SPECIFIC    GRAVITIES.— (Drikkwatbb.) 


Sfboifio 

Alcohol 

Specifio 

Alcohol 

Sfboifio 

Alcohol 

Specifio 

AliCOBOL 

Gravity 

byW'ght 

Gravity 

byW'ght 

Gravity 

byW'ght 

Gravitt 

btW'ght 

AT  60*  F. 

IN  100 

AT  60*  P. 

IN  100 

AT  60'  p. 

n  100 

AT  »)•  P. 

IN  100 

(16'.6  C.) 

PABT6. 

.  (16\6  C.) 

parts. 

(16' .6  C.) 

PARTB. 

(16\6  C.) 

PARTS. 

1.0000 

0.00 

0.9959 

2.22 

0.9918 

4.64 

0.9877 

7.30 

.9999 

0.05 

.9958 

2.28 

.9917 

4.70 

.9876 

7.37 

.9998 

0.11 

.9957 

2.34 

.9916 

4.76 

.9875 

7.43 

,9997 

0.16 

.9956 

2.39 

.9915 

4.82 

.9874 

7.50 

.9996 

0.21 

.9955 

2.45 

.9914 

4.88 

.9873 

7.57 

.9995 

0.26 

.9954 

2.51 

.9913 

4.94 

.9872 

7.64 

.9994 

0.32 

.9953 

2.57 

.9912 

5.01 

.9871 

7.71 

.9993 

0.37 

.9952 

2.62 

.9911 

5.07 

.9870 

7.78 

.9992 

0.42 

.9951 

2.68 

.9910 

5.13 

.9869 

7.85 

.9991 

0.47 

.9950 

2.74 

.9909 

5.20 

.Wooo 

7.92 

.9990 

0.58 

.9949 

2.79 

.9908 

5.26 

.9867 

7.99 

.9989 

0.58 

.9948 

2.85 

.9907 

5.32 

.9866 

8.06 

.9988 

0.64 

.9947 

2.91 

.9906 

5.39 

.9865 

8.13 

.9987 

0.69 

.9946 

2.97 

.9905 

5.45 

.9864 

8.20 

.9986 

0.74 

.9945 

802 

.9904 

6.51 

.  .9863 

8.27 

.9985 

0.80 

.9944 

8.08 

.9903 

5.58 

.9862 

8.34 

.9984 

0.85 

.9943 

8.14 

.9902 

5.64 

.9861 

8.41 

.9983 

0.91 

.9942 

3.20 

.9901 

5.70 

.9860 

8.48 

.9982 

0.96 

.9941 

8.26 

.9900 

5.77 

.9859 

8.55 

.9981 

1.02 

.9940 

3.32 

.9899 

5.83 

.9^58 

8.62 

.9980 

1.07 

.9939 

8.37 

.9898 

5.89 

.9857 

8.70 

.9979 

1.12 

.9938 

8.43 

.9897 

5.96 

.9856 

8.77 

.9978 

1.18  . 

.9937 

3.49 

.9896 

6.02 

.9855 

8.84 

.9977 

1.23 

.9936 

355 

.9895 

6.09 

.9a54 

8.91 

.9976 

1.2$^ 

.9935 

8.61 

.9894 

6.15 

,  .9853 

8.98 

.9975 

1.34 

.9934 

3.67 

.9893 

6.22 

.9852 

9.05 

.9974 

1.40 

.9933 

3.73 

.9892 

6.29 

.9851 

9.12 

.9973 

1.45  , 

.9932 

8.78 

.9891 

6.35 

.9H50 

9.20 

.9972 

1.51 

.9931 

8.84 

.9890 

6.42 

.9849 

9.27 

.9971 

1.56  1 

.9930 

8.90 

.9889 

649 

•Vo4o 

9.34 

.9970 

1.61 

.9929 

8.96 

.9888 

6.55 

.9847 

9.41 

.9969 

1.67 

.9928 

4.02 

.9887 

6.62 

.9846 

9.49 

.9968 

1.73 

.9927 

4.08 

.9886 

6.69 

.9845 

9.56 

.9967 

1.78 

.9926 

4.14 

.9885 

6.75 

.9844 

9.63 

.9966 

1.83 

.9925 

4.20 

.9884 

6.82 

.9843 

9.70 

.9965 

1.89 

.9924 

427 

.9883 

6.89 

.9842 

9.78  ■ 

.9964 

1.94 

.9923 

4.33 

.9882 

6.95 

:  .9841 

9.85 

.9963 

1.99 

.9922 

4.39 

.9881 

7.02 

.9840 

9.92 

.9962 

2.05 

.9921 

4.45 

.9880 

7.09 

.9839 

9.99 

.9961 

2.11 

.9920 

4.51 

.9879 

7.16 

.9838 

10.07 

.9960 

2.17 

.9919 

4.57 

.9878 

7.23 

■ 

This  Table  is  founded  on  synthetic  experiments,  in  which  eleven  differ- 
ent mixtures  of  alcohol  and  water  were  made,  containing  respectix'clj  0.5, 
1,  2,  3,  4,  5,  6,  7,  8,  9,  and  10  per  cent  of  alcohol  by  weight :  the  alcohol  em- 
ployed had  a  specific  gravity  of  0.7938  at  60°  F.  or  15^5  C. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


219 


TABLE* 

Op  the  Quantity  of  ReaIj  Alcohol  contained  in  100  parts  op 
Aqoboub  Alcohol  by  Weight  and  by  Volume  at  diffebent 
Densities.    (Temperature,  16"  C.) 


Spbcivxo 

100  VOLUKBS 

Grayitt. 

contain: 

Alcohol. 

Water. 

.7961 

100 

0.00 

.8000 

^9. 

1.28 

.8016 

98 

2.64 

.8089 

97 

3.77 

.ai30 

96.- 

4.97 

.8169 

96., 

6.1Q 

.8206 

94 

7.32 

.8243 

93 

8.4S 

.8277 

92 

9.62 

.8811 

91 

10.76 

.8344 

90 

11.88 

.8377 

89 

13  01 

.8409 

88 

14.12 

.8440 

'87 

15.23 

.8470 

86 

16.32 

.8500 

85 

17.42 

.8530 

84 

18.62 

.8559 

83 

19.61 

.8588 

82 

20.68 

.8616 

81 

21.76 

.8644 

80 

22.82 

.8671 

79 

23.90 

.8698 

78 

2496 

.8723 

77 

23.03 

.8752 

76 

27.09 

.8778 

75 

'  2-3.15 

.8804 

74 

29.20 

.8830 

73 

30.26 

.8855 

73 

81.30 

.8880 

71 

32.35 

.8905 

70 

33.89 

.8930 

69 

34.44 

.8954 

68 

35.47 

,8978 

67 

86.51 

.9002 

66 

37.64 

.9026 

65 

88.68 

.9049 

64 

39.60 

.9072 

68 

40.68 

.9095 

62 

41.65 

.9117 

61 

42.67 

.9189 

60 

43.63 

.9161 

59 

44.70 

.9183 

58 

45.72 

.9205 

57 

46.73 

.9226 

56 

47.73 

.9247 

65 

48.74 

.9267 

64 

49.74 

.9288 

63 

60.74 

.9308 

62 

51.74 

.9328 

51- 

62.73 

100P4BT8 

BT  Weight 

CONTAIN  : 


Alcohol. 

100.00 
98.38 
96.88 
96.36 
93.89 
92.46 
91.08 
89.72 
88:37 
87.04 
85.74 
84.47 
83.22 
81.96 
80.72 
79.51 
78.29 
77.09 
75.91 
74.75 
78  69 
72.48 
71.30 
70.16 
69.04 
67.93 
66.82 
65.72 
64.64 
63.58 
62.50 
61.43 
60.38 
59.38 
68.29 
57.25 
66.23 
65.21 
5420 
63.19 
62.20 
61.20 
60.21 
49.24 
48.26 
47.29 
46.33 
4587 
44.41 
48.47 


Specific 
Gravity. 

100  Volumes 
contain: 

100  Parts 

BT  Weight 

contain  : 

Alcohol. 

Water. 

Alcohol. 

.9848 

60 

53.72 

42.63 

.9866 

49 

54.70 

41.59 

.9386 

48 

66.68 

40.66 

.9403 

47 

56.66 

89.74 

.9421 

46 

67.64 

38.82 

.9439 

45 

68.61 

87.90 

.9466 

44 

69.64 

87.00 

.9478 

48 

60.68 

86.09 

.9490 

42 

61.60 

36.18 

.9506 

41 

62.46 

84..30 

.9522 

40 

63.42 

88.40 

.9588 

39 

64.37 

82.62 

.9553 

88 

65.82 

81.68 

9568 

87 

66.26 

80.76 

.9582 

86 

67.20 

29.88 

.9596 

86 

68.12 

29.01 

.9607 

84 

69.04 

28.14 

.9620 

88 

69.96 

27.27 

.96^33 

32 

70.89 

26.41 

.9646 

81 

71.80 

25.56 

.9657 

80 

72.72 

24.70 

.9668 

20 

73.62 

28.86 

.9679 

28 

74.63 

28.00 

.9690 

27 

76.43 

22.16 

.9700 

26 

76.38 

21.31 

.9711 

26 

77.28 

20.47 

.9721 

24 

7ftl8 

19.63 

.9781 

23 

79.09 

18.79 

.9741 

22 

79.92 

17.96 

.9761 

21 

80.81 

17.13 

.9761 

20 

81.71 

16.29 

.9771 

19 

82.60 

15.46 

.9781 

18 

88.60 

14.63 

.9791 

17 

84.39 

13.80 

.9801 

16 

86.29 

12.98 

.9812 

15 

86.19 

12.15 

.9822 

14 

87.09 

11.88 

.9888 

18 

88.00 

10.51 

.9844 

12 

88.90 

9.09 

.9855 

11 

89.80 

8.87 

.9867 

10 

90.72 

8.06 

.9878 

9 

91.62 

7.24 

.9890 

8 

92.54 

6.43 

.9902 

7 

98.46 

5.62 

.9916 

6 

94.88 

4.81 

.9928 

6 

95.30 

4.00 

.9942 

4 

96.24 

3.20 

.9956 

8 

97-17 

2.40 

.9970 

2 

98.11 

1.60 

.9986 

1 

99.06 

0.80 

*  Exam.  Med.  Chemicals,  Holfinanii,  p.  119. 


220 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


TABLE* 


Of  the  Quantity  bt  Wbioht  of  Htbbochlobio-Acid  Gas  ooirrAiKED 
IN  100  Parts  by  Weight  op  Aqueous  Hydbochlobic  Acid  at 
DIFFERENT  DENSITIES.     (Temperature,  16°  C.) 


Pbb  oknt 

Percibnt 

Percent 

Pbrcbht 

Sncirio 
Qbatitt. 

OF 

Htdbo- 

OHLORIO 

SFBODno 

Qravity. 

OF 

Htdro- 

CHLORIO 

Sfboifio 

Qravity. 

1 

OF 

Htdbo- 
0Hix>iac 

Specific 
Gratitt. 

OF 

Hydro- 

CHLORIC 

Acid. 

Acid. 

1 

Acid. 

1 

Acid. 

1.2013 

41 

1.1561 

31.25 

1    1.1056 

21.5      ! 

1.0578 

11.76 

1.2003 

40.75 

1.1539 

31 

1.1044 

21.25 

1.0561 

115 

1.1991 

40.5 

11526 

30.75 

1.1031 

21 

j    1.0549 

11.25 

1.19S0 

40.25 

1.1513 

30.5 

1.1019 

20.75 

10537 

11 

1.1969 

40 

1.1501 

30.25 

1.1007 

20.5 

l.a524 

10.75 

1.19-J8 

89.75 

1.1488 

30 

1.0994 

20.25 

1.0512 

10.5 

1.19t7 

39.5 

1.1475 

29.75 

1.0982 

20 

1    1.0600 

10.26 

1.1938 

39.25 

1.1462 

29.5 

1.0969 

19.76 

1.0488 

10 

1.1925 

39 

1.1450 

29.25 

1.0957 

19.5 

1    1.0475 

9.75 

1.1913 

33.75 

1.1437 

29 

1.0945 

19.25 

1.0463 

9.5                               J 

9.26 

9 

1.1903 

385 

1.1424 

28.75 

1.0932 

19 

i    1.0451 

1.1890 

38.25 

1.1412. 

28.5 

1.0920 

18.75 

1.0439 

1.1878 

38 

1.1399 

28.26 

1.0907 

18.5 

1.0427 

8.76 

1.1867 

37.75 

1.1386 

28 

1.0895 

18.25    I 

1.0414 

8.5 

1.1855 

37.5 

1.1373 

27.75 

1.0883 

18 

1.0402 

8.26 

1.1811 

37.25 

1.1361 

27.5 

1.0870 

17.75 

1.0390 

8 

1.1833 

37 

11348 

27.25 

1.0858 

17.5 

'    1.0378 

7.76 

1.1821 

36.75 

1.1335 

27 

1    1.08411 

1725 

1.0366 

7.6 

1.1810 

38.5 

1.1323 

26.75 

1    1.0S33 

17 

1.0353 

7.25 

1.179S 

36.25 

1.1310 

26.5 

1.0821 

16.75 

;    1.0341 

7 

1.1787 

33 

1.1297 

26.25 

1.0807 

16.5 

1.0:J29 

6.76 

1.1775 

35.75 

1.1284 

26 

1.0795 

16.25 

1.0317 

6.5 

1.1763 

35.5 

1.1272 

25.75 

■    1.0783 

16 

1  <):;05 

6.26 

1.1752 

35.25 

1.1259 

25.5 

!    1.0770 

15.75 

10292 

6 

1.1739 

35 

1.1246 

25'.25 

'    1.0758 

15.5 

:    1.0280 

5.76 

1.1737 

34.75 

1.1234 

25' 

1.0746 

15.25 

1.0268 

65 

1.1714 

34.5 

1.1231 

24.75 

1.0733 

15 

,    1.0256 

5.26 

1.1703 

34.25 

1.1208. 

245 

1.0721 

14.75 

,    1.0244 

5 

11689 

34 

1.1196 

24.25 

1.0709 

14.5 

1.0231 

475 

1.1677 

33.75 

1.1183 

24 

1.0696 

14.25    , 

10219 

4.6 

1.1684 

38.5 

1.1170 

23.75 

1.0684 

14     i 

1.0207 

4.26 

1.1653 

33.25 

1.1157 

23.5      , 

10672 

13.75 

1.0195 

4 

1.1639 

88 

1.1145 

23.25 

1.0859 

13.5     1 

i    1.0170 

8.6 

1.1637 

32.75 

1    1.1132 

23 

1.0647 

13.26 

1    1.0146 

3 

1.1614 

33.5 

1.1119 

22.75 

1    1.0835 

13 

1.0122 

2.6 

1.16)2 

32  25 

,    1.1107 

22.5 

1.06-22 

12.75 

;    1.0097 

2 

1.1583 

82        1 

'    1.1094 

22.26 

•    l.OfilO 

125 

1.0073 

!     1.5 

1.1577 

31.75    1 

'    1.1081 

22 

1.0598 

:    12.25 

10048 

;    1 

1.1564 

31.5 

1.1069 

2175 

1.0585 

12 

1.0024 

1     0.6 

•  T« 

iken  f  roQ] 

i "  Manual 

Chem.  A 

nftl.."  by  ] 

P'red.  Hoi 

fmann.  p. 

87. 

THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


221 


The  density  of  the  aqaeous  acid  being  decreased  by  an  increase  of  tem- 
perature, and  increased  by  a  decrease  of  temperature,  the  consequent 
change  of  the  specific  gravity  amounts  for  each  degree  of  the  Centigrade 
thermometer  in  either  direction — 


For  acids  of  a  specific  gravity  of  1.1739  to  those  of  1.1386  to  about  0.0005 

1.1385         •'  1.0982        "       0.0004 

1.0933         "         1.0635       '*       0.0003 


« 


(( 


<« 


it 


u 


u 


For  instance :  An  acid  of  a  specific  gravity  of  1.1234  at  16°  C,  containing 
25  per  cent  of  hydrochloric-acid  gas,  will  have  at  18.5''  C.  a  specific  gravity 
of  (1.1234  —,0/004  X  2.5  =  )  1.1224,  and  at  13.5*'  C.  a  specific  gravity  of 
(1.1234  +^0^004  X  2.5  =)  1.1244.      ^ 

T A  BLE* 

Op  the  Quantttt  by  Weight  op  Nitric  Oxide  (N.Oj)  and  op  Mono- 
htdrated  nitric  acid  contained  in  100  parts  by  weight  op 
Aqueous  Nitric  Acid  at  difperent  Densities.  (Temperature, 
17.5°  C.) 


a«.^,«,rH       PkR      PJE»  cent 

J??^S^f  ,CEIfT  OF   OPN.O. 


1.523 

1.521 

1.519 

1.517 

1.516 

1.514 

1.512 

1.510 

1.508 

1.506 

1.504 

1.502 

1.500 

1.498 

1.496 

1,494 

1.492 

1.490 

1.488 

1.486 

1.484 

1.482 

1.480 

1.478 

1.476 

1.474 


S5 

84.5 

84 

83.5 

83 

82.5 

82 

81.5 

81 

80.5 

80 

79.5 

79 

78.5 

78 

77.5 

77 

76.5 

76 

75.5 

75 

74.5 

74 

73.5 

73 

72.5 


9916 
98.58 
98.00 
97.41 
96.83 
96.24 
95.66 
95.08 
94.50 
93.91 
93.33 
92.74 
92>16 
91.58 
91.00 
90.41 
89.83 
89.24 
88.66 
88.08 
87.50 
86.91 
86  33 
a5.74 

a5.i6 

84.58 


,  Spkoihc 
Qbavity. 


1.472 
1.470 
1.469 
1.467 
1.465 
1.462 
1.460 
1.458 
1.456 
1.454 
1 .451 
1.449 
1.447 
1.444 
1.442 
1.440 
1.438 
1.4^6 
1.434 
1.432 
1.430 
1 .428 
1.426 
1.424 
1.422 
1.419 


Per 

CEKT  OF 

N,0.. 

Pebctnt 

OF  NaO, 

+  H.0. 

Specific 
Gravity. 

72 

84.00 

1.417 

71.5 

83.41 

1.414 

71 

82  83 

1.412 

70.5 

82.24 

1.409 

70 

81.66 

1.406 

69.5 

81.08 

1.403 

69 

80.50 

1.400 

68.5 

79.91 

1.397 

68 

79.33 

1.394 

67.5 

78.75 

1.392 

67 

78.16 

1.389 

66.5 

77.58 

1.386 

66 

77.00 

1.383 

65.5 

76.41    ' 

1.380 

65 

75.83 

1.377 

64.5 

75.25 

1.374 

64 

74.66 

1.871 

63.5 

74,08 

1.368 

63 

73.50 

1.364 

62.5 

72.91 

1.361 

62 

72.33 

1.358 

61.5 

71.75 

1.355 

61 

71.16 

1.352 

60.5 

70.58    1 

1.349 

60 

70.00    1 

1.345 

59.5 

69.41 

1.342 

Feb 

CEirr  OF 

N,0.. 


59 

58.5 

58 

57.5 

67 

56.5 

56 

55.5 

55 

54.5 

54 

535 

53 

52.5 

52 

51.5 

51 

50.5 

50 

49.5 

49 

48.5 

48 

47.5 

47 

46.5 


Per  cemt 

OF  N,0, 

+  I1,0. 


68.83 
68.25 
67.66 
67.08 
66.50 
65.91 
65  33 
64.75 
64.16 
63.58 
63.00 
62.41 
61.83 
61.25 
60.66 
60.08 
59.50 
58.91 
58.33 
57.75 
57.16 
56.58 
56.00 
55.41 
54.83 
54.25 


*  Taken  from  "Man.  Chem.  Anal.,"  by  Fred.  HoflOnann,  1873,  p.  94. 


222 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


Sfboific 
Obavity. 

Pkr 

CENT  OF 

N,0.. 

Pkr  cent 

OP  N,0» 

+  H,0. 

1  Sfboific 
Obavity. 

1 

Pbb 

CENT  OF 

N.O.. 

Percent 

OF  ls,0, 1 

+H,0. 

Bfbcutio 
Gravity. 

Feb 

CENT   OF 

N,0,. 

Pebcsht 

OF  N,0. 

+H,0. 

1.338 

46 

53.66 

1.236 

32.5 

37.91 

1.132 

19 

22.16 

1.334 

45.5 

53.08 

1.232 

32 

37.33 

1.129 

18.5 

21.58 

1.330 

45 

52.50 

1.228 

31.6 

36.75 

1.125 

18 

21.00 

1.327 

44.5 

51.91 

1.2^ 

31 

36^16 

1.122 

17.5 

20.41 

1.333 

44 

51.33 

1.220 

30.5 

35.58 

1.118 

17 

1983 

1.319 

43.5 

50.75 

1.217 

•  30 

35.00 

1.114 

16.5 

19  26 

1.315 

43 

50.16 

.    1.213 

29.5 

34.41 

1.111 

16 

18.66 

1.312 

42.5 

49.58 

1.209 

29 

33.83 

1.107 

15.6 

18.08 

1.308 

42 

49.00 

1.205 

28.5 

83.25 

1.104 

15 

17.50 

1.304 

41.5 

48.41 

1.201 

28 

82.66 

1.100 

14.5 

16.91 

1.301 

41 

47.83 

1.198 

27.5 

32.08^ 

1.096 

14 

16.33 

1.297 

40.5 

47.25 

1.194 

27 

31.50 

1.092 

13.6 

15.74                            1 

1.294 

40 

46.66 

1.190 

26.5 

30.91 

1.089 

13 

15.16 

1.290 

39.5 

46.08 

1.186 

26 

30.33 

1.086 

12.6 

1468 

1.287 

39 

45.50 

1.182 

25.5 

29  74 

1.082 

12 

14.00 

1.283 

38.5 

44.91 

1.178 

25 

29.16 

1.078 

11.5 

13.41 

1.279 

38 

44.33 

1.174 

24.5 

28.58 

1.075 

11 

12.83 

1.275 

37.5 

43.75 

1.170 

24 

28.00 

1.071 

10.6 

12.26 

1.271 

37 

43.16 

1.167 

23.5 

27.41 

1.C68 

10 

11.66 

1.267 

:}«.5 

42.58 

1.163 

23 

26.83 

1.064 

9.5 

11.07 

1.263 

36 

42.00 

1.159 

22.5 

26.25 

1.060 

9 

10.60 

1.259^ 

35.5 

41.41 

1.155 

22 

25.60 

1.056 

8.6 

991 

1.255 

35 

40.83 

1.151 

21.5 

25.08 

1.053 

8 

9.83 

1.251 

345 

40.25 

1.147 

21 

24.49 

1    1.050 

7.5 

8.84 

1.247 

34 

39.66 

1.143 

20.5 

23.91 

'    1.045 

7 

8.16 

1.243 

33.5 

39.08 

1.140 

20 

2333 

1    1.038 

6 

7.00 

1.239 

33 

:.— Witl 

38.50 
1  the  de< 

1.136 

19.5 

22.74 

!    1.C82 

5 

6.88 

NOTI 

;reafle  aiK 

IS  —  . 

d  increa 

■ 

Lse  of  tei 

aperaturc 

),  the  density  of 

degree  of  the  Centigrade  thermometer  in  either  direction — 

For  acids  of  a  sp.  gr.  of  1.492  to  those  of  1.476  to  0.00213  in  the  average. 


<< 
«< 
<( 
ti 
<( 
<« 
(( 

(( 


1.472 
1.464 
1.430 
1.406 
1.377 
1.346 
1.808 
1.271 
1.232 
1.194 
1.155 


<( 

<c 
(« 
« 

« 
it 
i€ 
ii 
tt 
«( 


1.456  "  0.002 
1.434  -  0.00186 
1.412  "  0.00171 
1.883  "  0.00166 
1.862  "  0.00141 
1.815  "  0.00128 
1.279  -  0.00114 
1.239  "  0.001 
1.201  "  0.00086 
1  163  "  0.00071 
1.125  "  0.0006 


<( 
(( 
i« 
it 
(< 
tt 
f  i 
<« 
<< 

(i 
(< 


<( 
(< 
ti 
«< 
it 
<i 
<< 
« 
<i 
<( 
«< 


FbriMtanee:  An  acid  of  1.178  specific  gravity  at  17.6'*  C,  containing 
26  per  cent  of  anhydrous,  or  29.16  per  cent  of  monohyd rated.  Nitric  Add» 
will  have,  at  20°  C.  a  specific  gravity  of  (1.178-0.00072  x  2.6  =)  1.762, 
and  at  15'*  C.  a  specific  gravity  of  (1.178  +  0,00072  x  2.5  =)  1.1798. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


223 


TAB  LE* 

Of  the  QUAIVTITT   BT  WEIGHT   OF   PhOSFHOBIC   OxIDB  (PaOg)   AND   OF 

Tri-htdrated  Phosphoric  Acid  contained  in  100  Parts  bt  Weight 
OF  Aqueous  Phosphoric  Acm  at  different  Densities. 

(TBMFKRATT7BB,  17.6'  C.) 


8pkcd*io 

Perobhtof 

Feb  cknt  or 

Spboifio 

Per  cbkt  or 

Prr  cbnt  of 

Gravity. 

P.O.. 

P,0,+8H,0. 

Gbavitt. 

P.O.. 

PaO,+8H,0. 

1.809 

68 

93.67 

1.469 

46.5 

64.06 

1800 

67.6 

92.99 

1.462 

46 

63.37 

1.792 

67 

92.30 

1.455 

45.5 

62.68    '• 

1.783 

66.5 

91.61 

1.448 

45 

61.99    _ 

1.776 

66 

90.92 

1.441 

44.5 

61.30 

1.766 

655 

90.23 

1.435 

44 

60.61 

1.758 

65 

89.54 

1.428 

48.5 

59.92 

1.750 

64.5 

88.85 

1.422 

43 

59.23 

1.741 

64 

88.16 

1.415 

42.5 

58.55 

1.733 

63.5 

87.48 

1.409 

42 

57.86  . 

1.725 

63 

86.79 

1.402 

41.5 

57.17 

1.717 

62.5 

86.10 

1.398 

41 

56.48 

1.709 

62 

85.41 

1.389 

40.5 

55.79 

1.701 

61.5 

84.72 

1.383 

40 

55.10 

1.693 

61 

84.03 

1.377 

39.5 

54.41 

1.685 

60.5 

83.34 

1.371 

39 

53.72 

1.677 

60 

82.65 

1.365 

38.5 

53.04 

1.669 

59.6 

81.97 

1.359 

88 

52.35 

1.661 

59 

81.28 

1.354 

87.5 

51.66 

1.653 

58.5 

80.59 

1.348 

37 

50.97 

1.645 

58 

79.90 

1.342 

36.5 

50.28 

1.637 

57.5 

79.21 

1.336 

36 

49.59 

1.629 

57 

78.52 

1830 

35.5 

48.90 

1.621 

56.5 

77.83 

1.326 

35 

48.21 

1.613 

56 

77.14 

1.819 

34.5 

47.52 

1.605 

55.5 

76.45 

1,314 

34 

46.84 

1.597 

55 

75.77 

1.308 

83.6 

46.15 

1.589 

54.6 

75.08 

1.303 

38 

45.46 

1.581 

54 

74.89 

1.298 

82.6 

44.77 

1.574 

53.5 

78.70 

1.292 

32 

44.08 

1.566 

53 

73.01 

1.287 

31.5 

43.39 

1.559 

52.5 

72.32 

1.281 

31 

42.70 

1.551 

52 

71.63 

1.276 

80.6 

42.01 

1.543 

51.6 

70.94 

1.271 

80 

41.38 

1.536 

51 

70.26 

1.265 

20.5 

40.64 

1.528 

50.5 

69.57 

1.260 

20 

39.95 

1.521 

50 

68.88 

1.255 

28.5 

89.26 

1.513 

495 

68.19 

1.249 

28 

38.57 

1.505 

49 

67.50 

1.244 

27.5 

87.88 

1.498 

48.5 

66.81 

1.239 

27 

87.19 

1.491 

48 

66.12 

1.233 

26.5 

36.50 

1.484 

47.5 

65.48 

1.228 

26 

85.82 

1.476 

47 

6475 

1.223 

26.5 

85.18 

•  Loc.  dt.  (Hoffman),  p.  101. 


224 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


Table  of  the 

Quantity  by 

Weight,  Ertc.— (Continued.) 

Sfbcifio 

Per  cbkt  of 

Per  obnt  of 

Sfbcifio 

Per  cent  of 

Pbr  cent  of 

Gravity. 

PaO,. 

P,0,+3H,0. 

Qravitt. 

P.O.. 

P,0,+8H,0. 

1.218 

25 

34.44 

1.109 

13.5 

18.60 

1.213 

24.5 

33.75 

1.104 

13 

17.91 

1.208 

24 

33.06 

1.100 

12.6 

17.22 

1.203 

23.5 

32.37 

1.096 

12 

16.53 

1.198 

23 

31.68 

1.091 

11.5 

15.84 

1.193 

22.5 

30.99 

1.087 

11 

15.16 

1.188 

22 

30.31 

1.083 

10.6 

14.46 

1.183 

21.6 

29.62 

1.079 

10 

1377 

1.178 

21 

28.93 

1.074 

9.6 

13.09 

1.174 

20.5 

28.24 

1.070 

9 

12.40 

1.169 

20 

27.55 

1.066 

8.5 

11.71 

1.184 

19.5 

2686 

1.062 

8 

11.03 

1.159 

19 

26.17 

1.058 

7.5 

10.38 

1.155 

18.5 

25.48 

1.053 

7 

9.64 

1.150 

18 

24.80 

1.049 

6.5 

8.96 

1.145 

17.5 

24.11 

1.045 

6 

a26 

1.140 

17 

23.42 

1.041 

5.5 

7.57 

1.136 

16.6 

22.73 

1.037 

5 

6.89 

1.130 

16 

22.04 

1.033 

4.5 

620 

1.126 

15.5 

21.35 

1.029 

4 

5.51 

1.122 

15 

20.66 

1.025 

3.5 

4.82 

1.118 

14.5 

19.97 

1.021 

3 

4.18 

1.113 

14 

19.28 

1.017 

2.5 

8.44 

Note. — With  the  decrease  or  increase  of  temperature,  the  density  of 
phosphoric  acid  suffers  a  corresponding  increase  or  decrease,  amounting  for 
each  degree  of  the  Centigrade  thermometer  in  either  direction : 

For  acids  of  a  specific  gravity  of  1.809  to  those  of  1.613  to  about  0.001. 


« 

t(           « 

(f 

u 

"  1.597 

<4 

1.462 

0.00082. 

It 

«           U 

« 

tt 

"  1.448 

U 

1.336 

0.00068. 

« 

tt          4t 

11 

« 

"  1.825 

a 

1.228 

0.00052. 

<( 

<l           « 

U 

« 

"  1.218 

€t 

1.122 

0.0004 

M 

U           M 

ii 

<f 

"   1.113 

« 

1.079 

0.00036. 

For  instance :  An  acid  of  1.180  Sp.  Gr.  at  17.5**  C,  containing  16  per 
cent,  of  phosphoric  oxide  (P2O5)  or  22.04  per  cent  of  tri-hydrated  phosphoric 
acid,  will  have,  at  20°  C,  a  Sp.  Gr.  of  (1.130  -  0.0004  x  2,5  =)  1.129,  and  at 
15°  C,  a  Sp.  Gr.  of  (1.180  +  0.0004  x  2.5  =)  1.131. 


THE  CHEMISTS*  MANUAL. 


225 


TABLE* 
Op  the  Quantity  by  Weight  of  Sulphtjkic  Oxide  (SO,)  and  of 

MONOHTDRATBD     SULPHUBIC     ACID    CONTAINED     IN     100     PABTS     BY 

Weight  of  Aqueous  Sxtlfhubic  Acids  at  diffebent  Densities. 
(Temperature,  17.5''  C.) 


Sfkoifio 

FXB 

PlB 

CIKT    1 

Spboifio 

Per 

Gravity. 

CENT  OF 

SO.. 

OF  SOa' 
+  H,0. 

100 

Ghavitt. 

OBNT  OF 

SO,. 

1.841 

81.6 

1.559 

53.8 

1.840 

80.8 

99 

1.547 

53.0 

1.839 

80.0 

98 

1.536 

52.2 

1.838 

79.2 

97 

1.525 

51.4 

1.837 

78.3 

96 

1.514 

50.6 

1.835 

77.5 

95 

1.503 

49.8 

1.833 

76.7 

94 

1.493 

49.0 

1.830 

75.9 

93 

1.482 

48.1 

1.826 

75.1 

92 

1.471 

47.3 

1.821 

74.3 

91 

1.461 

46.5 

1.815 

73.4 

90 

1.450 

45.7 

1.808 

72.6 

89 

1.440 

44.9 

1.800 

71.8 

88 

1.430 

44.0 

1.791 

71.0 

87 

1.420 

43.2 

1.782 

70.1 

86 

1.411 

42.4 

1.774 

69.4 

85 

1.401 

41.6 

1.765 

68.5 

84 

1.392 

40.8 

1.755 

67.7 

83 

1.382 

40.0 

1.744 

66.9 

82 

1.373 

39.2 

1.733 

66.1 

81 

1.364 

38.3 

1.722 

65.3 

80 

1.354 

37.5 

1.711 

64.4 

79 

1.345 

36.7 

1.699 

63.6 

78 

1.386 

35.9 

1.688 

62.8 

77 

1.328 

35.1 

1.676 

62.0 

76 

1.319 

34.3 

1.665 

61.2 

75 

1.310 

83.4 

1.658 

60.4 

74 

1.302 

32.6 

1.641 
1.629 

59.6 

73 

1.293 

81.8 

58.7 

72 

1.2a5 

31.0 

1.617 

57.9 

71 

1.276 

30.2 

1.605 

57.1 

70 

1.268 

29.4 

1.593 

56.3 

69 

1.260 

28.5 

1.582 

55.5 

68 

1.251 

27.7 

1.570 

54.7 

67 

1.243 

26.9 

Per 

CENT 
OF  SO, 
+  HaO. 


66 
65 
64 
63 
62 
61 
60 
59 
58 
57 
56 
55 
54 
53 
52 
51 
50 
49 
48 
47 
46 
45 
44 
43 
42 
41 
40 
39 
38 
37 
36 
35 
34 
33 


Spboifio 

Per 

Grayity. 

CENT  OF 

80,. 

1.235 

26.1 

1.257 

25.3 

1.219 

24.5 

1.211 

23.6 

1.202 

22.8 

1.194 

22.0 

1.186 

21.2 

1.178 

20.4 

1.170 

19.6 

1.163 

18.7 

1.155 

17.9 

1.147 

17.1 

1.140 

16.8 

1.132 

15.5 

1.125 

14.7 

1.117 

las 

1.110 

13.0 

1.103 

12.2 

1.095 

11.4 

1.088 

10.6 

1.081 

9.8 

1.074 

9.0 

1.067 

8.1 

1.060 

7.8 

1.053 

6.5 

1.046 

5.7 

1.039 

4.9 

1.032 

4.1 

1.025 

3.2 

1.019 

2.4 

1.012 

16 

1.006 

0.8 

1.003 

0.4 

0.000 

0. 

Per 

CENT 
OF  SO, 
+  HaO. 


32 

31 
30 
29 
28 
27 
26 
25 
24 
23 
22 
21 
20 
19 
18 
17 
16 
15 
14 
13 
12 
11 
10 

0 

8 

7 

6 

5 

4 

3 

2 

1 

0.5 

0 


15 


*  Loc  dt.  (Hoffmann),  p.  108. 


226 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


NOTB. — With  the  decrease  and  increase  of  temperature,  the  density  of 
sulphuric  acid  suffers  a  corresponding  increase  or  decrease,  amounting  for 
each  degree  of  the  Centigrade  thermometer  in  either  direction : 

For  acids  of  a  Sp.  Or.  of  1.841  to  those  of  1.782  to  about  0.0014. 


« 


«< 


€t 


€t 


II 


1.774 

II 

1.665 

II 

0.0012. 

1.663 

u 

1.302 

II 

0.001. 

1.283 

II 

1.219 

fi 

0.00075. 

1.211 

If 

1.140 

it 

0.00045. 

1.132 

« 

1.067 

u 

0.00047. 

TABLE* 

Of  the  Quantitt  by  Weight  op  Pure  Bthtlic  Ether  contained 
IN  100  Parts  bt  Weight  of  Ether  at  different  Densities. 
(Temperature,  17.5''  C.) 


PXR 

Per 

PER 

Feb 

Sfbcifio 

CENT  OF 

Sfbcifio 

OBKT  OF 

SpEoino 

CENT  OF 

Sfbcifio 

cekt  of 

Gbayitt. 

Ethtijc 

Gbavitt. 

Ethtuo 

Qrayitt. 

Ethtuo 

Gravity. 

Ethtuo 

Ethkr. 

Ether. 

Ether  { 

1 

Ether. 

0.7185 

100 

0.7310 

87 

• 
0.7456 

74 

0.7614 

61 

.7198 

09 

.7320 

86 

.7468 

73 

.7627 

60 

.7206 

98 

.7331 

85 

.7480 

72 

.7640 

59 

.7215 

97 

.7342 

84 

.7492 

71 

.7653 

58 

.7224 

96 

.7353 

83 

.7504 

70 

.7666 

57 

.7238 

95 

.7364 

82 

.7516 

69 

.7680 

56 

.7242 

94 

.7375 

81 

.7528 

68 

.7693 

55 

.7251 

93 

.7386 

80 

.7540 

67 

.7707 

54 

.7260 

92 

.7397 

79 

.7552 

66 

.7721 

53 

.7270 

91 

.7408 

78 

.7564 

65 

.7785 

52 

.7280 

90 

.7420 

77 

.7576 

64 

.7750 

51 

.7290 

89 

.7432 

76 

.7588 

63 

.7764 

50 

.7300 

88 

.7444 

75 

.7601 

62 

.7778 

49 

Note. — With  the  decrease  and  increase  of  temperature,  the  density  of 
ether  suffers  a  corresponding  increase  or  decrease,  amounting  for  each 
degree  of  the  Centigrade  thermometer  in  either  direction : 

For  ether  of  a  Sp.  Gr.  of  0.7198  to  that  of  0.7881,  about  0.0018. 

.7842  "  .7504,  "  .0011. 
.7516  "  .7627,  "  .0009. 
.7640    "    .7764,   "   .0008. 

Far  instance :  An  ether  of  0.7206  specific  gravity  at  17.5°  C,  containing 
98  per  cent  ethyl  oxide,  will  have,  at  20*  C,  a  specific  gravity  of  (0.7206 
-0.0018  X  2.5=)  0.7178,  and,  at  15*^0.,  a  specific  gravity  of  (0.7206 
+  0.0018  X  2.5  =)  0.7239, 

*  Loo.  cit.  (Hoffmann),  p.  116. 


u 


(( 


<( 


<« 


M 


THE   CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


22T 


TABLE* 

Op  thb  Quantitt  by  Weight  of  Ammonia  contained  in  100  Parts 
BT  Weight  of  Ammonic  Hydrate  at  different  Densities.  (Tern, 
perature,  14"  C.) 


SpBoino 

Pbb  cent  of 

SFBcmo 

Pbb  obnt  of 

Sfeoifio 

Pbb  obnt  of 

Gbatttt. 

AVMONIA. 

Gravity. 

Akmomia. 

Gravitt. 

AmcoinA. 

0.8907 

33.0 

0.9127 

24.2 

0.9400 

15.4 

.8911 

32.8 

.9138 

240 

.9407 

15.2 

.8916 

32.6 

.9139 

23.8 

.9414 

15.0 

.8920 

32.4 

.9145 

23.6 

.9420 

14.8 

.8925 

82.2 

.9150 

23.4 

,9427 

14.6 

.8929 

.82.0 

.9156 

23.2 

.v4t)4 

14.4 

.8934 

31.8 

.9162 

23.0 

.9441 

14.2 

.8988 

31.6 

.9168 

22.8 

.9449 

14.0 

.8943 

31.4 

.9174 

22.6 

.9456 

13.8 

.8948 

31.2 

.9180 

22.4 

.9463 

13.6 

.8953 

31.0 

.9185 

22.2 

.9470 

13.4 

.8957 

30.8 

.9191 

22.0 

.9477 

18.2 

.8962 

30.6 

.9197 

21.8 

.9484 

18.0 

.8967. 

30.4 

.9208 

21.6 

.9401 

12.8 

.8971 

30.2 

.9209 

21.4 

.9498 

12.6 

.8976 

80.0 

.9215 

21,2 

.9505 

12.4 

.8981 

29.8 

9221 

21.0 

.9512 

12.2 

.8986 

29.6 

.9227 

20.8 

.9520 

12.0 

.8991 

29.4 

.9233 

20.6 

.9527 

11.8 

.8996 

29.2 

.9239 

20.4 

.9534 

11.6 

.9001 

29.0 

.9245 

20.2 

.9542 

11.4 

.9006 

28.8 

.9251 

20.0 

.9549 

11.2 

.9011 

28.6 

.9257 

19.8 

.9556 

11.0 

.9016 

28.4 

.9264 

10.6 

.9563 

10.8 

.9021 

28.2 

.9271 

19.4 

,9571 

10.6 

.9026 

28.0 

.9277 

19.2 

.9578 

10.4 

.9031 

.  27.8 

9283 

19.0 

,9586 

10.2 

.9036 

27.6 

.9289 

18.8 

.9593 

10.0 

.9041 

27.4 

.9296 

18.6 

.9601 

9.8 

.9047 

27.2 

.9302 

18.4 

.9608 

9.6 

.9052 

27.0 

.9308 

18.2 

.9616 

.9.4 

,9057 

26.8 

.9314 

18.0 

.9623 

9.2 

.9063 

26.6 

.9321 

17.8 

.9631: 

9.0 

.9068 

26.4 

.9327 

17.6 

.9639 

'8.8 

.9073 

26.2 

.9333 

17.4 

.9647 

8.0 

.9078 

26.0 

.9340 

17.2 

.96^ 

8.4 

.9083 

25.8 

.9347 

17.0 

.9662 

8.2 

.9089 

25.6 

.9353 

16.8 

.9670 

8.0 

.9094 

25.4 

.9360 

16.6 

.9677 

7.8 

.9100 

25.2 

.9366 

16.4 

.9686 

7.6 

.9106 

26.0 

.9373 

16.2 

.9693 

7.4 

.9111 

24.8 

.9380 

16  0 

.9701 

7.2 

.9116 

24.6 

.9386 

15.8 

.9709 

7.0 

.9122 

24:4 

.9393 

15.6 

.0717 

6.8 

*  Loc.  cit.  (Hoffman),  p.  146. 


228 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


Table  op  thb  Quantity  by  Weight  of  Ammonia,  Etc. — {Continued.) 


Sfboivio 

Pebosnt  of 

Sfboifio 

Peb  cjent  of 

Specific 

Pkbcemt  of 

Gbavitt. 

Ammonia. 

Gravity. 

Ammonia. 

Gravitt. 

Ammonia. 

0.9726 

6.6 

0.9815 

4.4 

0.9907 

• 

2.2 

.9733 

6.4 

.9823 

4.2 

.9915 

2.0 

.9741 

6.2 

.9831 

4.0 

.9924 

1.8 

.9749 

6.0 

.9839 

3.8 

.9932 

1.6 

.9757 

5.8 

.9847 

3.6 

.9941 

1.4 

.9765 

5.6 

.9855 

3.4 

.9950 

1.2 

.9773 

5.4 

.9863 

3.2 

.9959 

1.0 

.9781 

5.2 

.9873 

3.0 

.9967 

0.8 

.9790 

5.0 

.9882 

28 

.9975 

0.6 

.9799 

4.8 

.9890 

2.6 

.9983 

0.4 

.9807 

4.6 

.9899 

2.4 

.9991 

0.2 

Note. — With  the  decreafle  and  increase  of  temperature,  the  density  of 
amnionic  hydrate  suffers  a  corresponding  increase  or  decrease,  amounting 
for  each  degree  of  the  Centigrade  thermometer  in  either  direction  : 

For  ammonic  hydrate  of  a  Sp.  Gr.  of  0.9001  to  that  of  0.9221  to  about  0.00065. 

0.9251  "  0.9414  "  0.0004. 
0.9620  "  0.9670  "  0.0003. 
0.9709        "        0.9831       *'       0.0002. 


Far  instance:  Ammonic  hydrate  of  0.9593  specific  gravity  at  14°  C, 
containing  10  per  cent  of  ammonia,  will  have,  at  18**  C,  a  specific  gravity 
of  (0.9593  -  0.0003  x  4  =)  0.9581,  and  at  12"  C,  a  specific  gravity  of  (0.9598 
+  0.0003  X  2  =)  0.9599. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


229 


TABLE* 

Of  thb  QuAinrrr  by  Weight  of  Potabbic  Oxidb  contad^ed  in  100 
Pabts  by  Wbiobt  of  Potabbic  Hydbatb  at  diffbbekt  DBNBrriEs. 
(Temperature,  17.6''  C.) 


Bfbcifxo 

Pbb  cent  of 

1 

Pbb  cent  of 

SpBcmo 

Per  cent  of 

Gravxtt. 

Pot.  Oxidb. 

Gravxtt. 

Pot.  Oxide. 

Gravity. 

Pot.  Oxide. 

1.576 

46 

1.368 

80 

1.171 

15 

1.668 

44.6 

1.352 

29.5 

1.165 

14.6 

1.560 

44 

1.845 

29 

1.169 

14 

1.568 

43.6 

1.839 

28.6 

1.153 

13.5 

1.546 

43 

1.382 

28 

1.147 

13 

1.537 

42.5 

1.826 

27.5 

1.141 

12.5 

1.530 

42 

1.320 

27 

1.135 

12 

1.522 

41.6 

1.818 

26.5 

1.129 

11.5 

1.514 

41 

1.807 

26 

1.123 

11 

1.507 

40.5 

1.301 

25.6 

1.117 

10.5 

1.500 

40 

1.294 

25 

1.111 

10 

1.492 

39.5 

1.288 

24.6 

1.105 

9.5 

1.484 

39 

1.282 

24 

1.099 

9 

1.477 

38.6 

1.275 

28.6 

1.094 

8.& 

1.470 

38 

1.269 

28 

1.088 

8 

1.463 

37.5 

1.263 

22.6 

1.082" 

7.5 

1.456 

37 

1.257 

22 

1.076 

7 

1.449 

36.5 

1.250 

21.5 

1.070 

6.5 

1.442 

36 

1.244 

21 

1.065 

6 

1435 

35.5 

1.288 

20.5 

1.059 

5.5 

1.428 

35 

1.231 

20 

1.054 

5 

1.421 

84.5 

1.225 

19.5 

1.048 

4.5 

1.414 

84 

1.219 

19 

1.042 

4 

-  1.407 

83.5 

1.213 

18.6 

1.037 

3.5 

1.400 

83 

1.207 

18 

1.031 

8 

1.393 

82.5 

1.201 

17.5 

1.026 

2.5 

1.386 

32 

1.196 

17 

1.021 

2 

1.379 

31.5 

1.189 

16.5 

1.015 

1.5 

1.372 

31 

1.183 

16 

•  1.366 

80.5 

1.177 

15.6 

Note. — With  the  decrease  and  increase  of  temperature,  the  density  of 
the  solution  suffers  a  corresponding  increase  or  decrease,  amounting,  for 
each  degree  of  the  Centigrade  thermometer,  in  either  direction  : 

For  solution  of  a  specific  gravity  of  1.576  to  that  of  1.500  to  about  0.00055. 

"       "  *'  1.484         '*         1.358  "         0.0005. 

'*       "  "  1.345         "         1.281  "         0.0004 

"        "  "       "  "  1.219         "         1.111  "         0.00088. 


♦  Loc.  cit.  (Hoffmann),  p.  254. 


230 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


TABLE* 

Op  the  Quantitt  by  Weight  op  Sodic  Oxide  contained  in  100  Pabts 
BY  Weight  op  Sodic  Hydrate  at  dipperbnt  Densitibs.  (Tem- 
perature, 17.6°  C.) 


Sfbcifio 

Pbr  cent  of 

Specific 

Per  cent  of 

Specific 

Percsht  of 

Obavity. 

Sod.  Oxlds. 

Qbavitt. 

Sod.  Ojude. 

Qravitt. 

Bod  Oxide. 

1.500 

35 

1.353 

25 

1.210 

15 

1.492 

34.5 

1.345 

24.5 

1.203 

14.5 

1.485 

34 

1.888 

24 

1.195 

14 

1.477 

38.5 

1.831 

23.5 

1.188 

13.6 

1.470 

38 

1.324 

23 

1.181 

18 

1.468 

32.5 

1.317 

22.5 

1.174 

125 

1.455 

82 

1.309 

22 

1167 

12 

1.448 

81.5 

1.302 

21.5 

1.160 

11.5 

1.440 

31 

1.295 

21 

1.153 

11 

1.433 

30.5 

1.288 

20.5 

1.146 

10.5 

1.426 

30 

1.281 

20 

1.139 

10 

1.418 

29.5 

1.274 

19.5 

1.132 

9.5 

1.411 

29 

1.266 

19 

1.125 

9 

1.404 

28.5 

1.259 

18.5 

1.118 

8.6 

-    1.396 

28 

1.252 

18 

1.111 

8 

1.389 

27.5 

1.245 

17.5 

1.104 

7.5 

1.382 

27 

1.238 

17 

1.097 

7 

1.375 

26.5 

1.231 

16.5 

1.090 

6.5 

1.867 

26 

1.224 

16 

1.083 

6 

1.360 

25.5 

1.217 

15.5 

1.076 

5.6 

(Liquor  Natri  Caustic!  of  the  Pharmacopoea  Germanica  has  a  specific 
gravity  of  from  1.830  to  1.334,  and  contains  from  30  to  31  per  cent  of  sodic 
hydrate,  or  about  23.5  per  cent  of  sodic  oxide.) 

Note. — With  the  decrease  and  increase  of  temperature,  the  density  of 
the  solution  suffers  a  corresponding  increase  and  decrease,  amounting  for 
each  degree  of  the  Centigrade  thermometer,  in  either  direction  : 

For  solution  of  a  specific  gravity  of  1.500  to  that  of  1.853  to  about  0.00045. 

1.345         "         1.210       "       0.0004. 
1.208         "         1.076       "        0.00089. 


ti 


« 


*  Loc.  cit  (Hof&nann),  p.  255. 


■    MANUAL.  231 


DENSITY   OF  AQUEOUS  ACETIC   ACID. 


i 


232 


THE    CHEMISTS'    MANUAL. 


TABLE* 

Of  the  Quantity  by  Wbight  op  Wateb  contained  m  100  Paktb 
BY  Weight  of  Glycerin  at  different  Densities.  (Temperature 
17.6"  C.) 


^i 

f*  S9 

ts 

hk 

Speoifio 

85 

SPEcmo 

i§ 

Sfbcifio 

SI3 

Sfeoifio 

Gravity. 

01^ 

Gravity. 

»^ 

Gravity. 

t, 

Gravity. 

«^ 

£S 

flg 

£S 

1.267 

0 

1.224 

13 

1.185 

26 

1.147 

39 

1.264 

1 

1.221 

14      , 

1.182 

27 

1.146 

40 

1.260 

2 

1.218 

15 

1.179 

28 

1.142 

41 

1.257 

3 

1.215 

16 

1.176 

29 

1.139 

42 

1.254 

4 

1.212 

17 

1.173 

30 

1.136 

43 

1.250 

5 

1.209 

18 

1.170 

31 

1.134 

44 

1.247 

6 

1.206 

19 

1.167 

32 

1.131 

45 

1.244 

7 

1.203 

20 

1.164 

33 

1.128 

46 

1.240 

8 

1200 

21 

1.161 

34 

1.126 

47 

1.237 

9 

1.197 

22 

1.159 

35 

1.123 

48 

1.234 

10 

1.194 

23 

1.156 

36 

1.120 

49 

1.231 

11 

1.191 

24 

1.153 

37 

1.118 

50 

1.228 

12 

■  t 

1.188 

25 

1.150 

88 

*  Loc.  cit.  (Hofimann),  p.  224. 


THE    FOI-LO"WING    ARE    THE 

SPECIFIC     GRAVITIES     OF     OFFICIAL 

LIQUIDS, 

(B.  P.  =  British  Pharmacy.    U.  S.  P.  =  United  States  Pharmacy.) 

ATTFIELD. 
Name.  Sp.  Gr. 

Acid,  Acetic,  B.  P 1.044 

U.S.  P 1.047 

dOuted,  B.  P.  and  U.  S.  P 1.006 

Glacial 1 .065— 1 .066 

«    Carbolic 1 .065 

"    Hydriodic,  diluted 1.112 

"    Hydrochloric,  B.  P.  and  U.  S.  P 1.160 

"               "            diluted,  B.  P 1.052 

"               «*                "        U.S.  P 1.038 


M 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  233 

Name.  Sp.  Gb. 

Add,  Hydrocyanic,  B.  P.  and  U.  S.  P 997 

Lactic,  U.S.P 1512 

Nitric,  B.  P.  and  U.  S.  P 1.420 

"      diluted,  B.  P. 1.101 

"       U.S.  P 1.068 

•'    Nitpohydrochloric 1.074 

**    Phosphoric,  diluted,  B.  P 1.080 

"  "  "        U.S.P 1.056 

«*    Sulphuric,  B.  P.  and  U.  a  P 1.843 

•*  "  aromatic 927 

diluted,  B.P 1.094 

*•  "  "        U.S.P 1.082 

"    Sulphuroufl,  solution  of ,  B.  P 1.040 

U.  S.  P 1.035 

Alcohol,  U.  S.  P 835 

*        absolute 795 

"        (rectified  spirit,  84%) 838 

"        (proof  spirit,  49%) 920 

«        dilutum,  U.  S.  P 941 

fortius,  U.  S.P 817 

"        Amylic,  B.  P.  and  U.  S.  P 818 

Ammonia,  aromatic  spirit  of,  B.  P 870 

«•  stronger  water  of,  U.  S,  P •. 900 

"  solution  of ,  B.  P .959 

"  strong  solution  of ,  B.  P 89 1 

Antimony,  solution  of  Chloride  of ,  B.  P 1.470 

Arsenic,  Hydrochloric  solutions  of,  B.  P 1.009 

Arsenical  Solution  (Liquor  Arsenicalis),  B.  P 1.009 

Benzol,  B.  P 850 

Bismuth  and  Ammonia,  solution  of  Citrate  of ,  B.  P 1.122 

Bromine 2.960 

Chlorine,  solution  of,  B.  P 1.003 

Chloroform,  B.  P.  and  U.  S.  P 1.490 

Spirit  of,  B.  P 871 

Cinchonia,  liquid  extract  Yellow,  B.  P.  about 1.100 

Creasote,  B.  P 1.071 

U.S.P 1.046 

Ether,  R  P 736 

"       U.  S.  P 750 

"       pure  B.  P 720 

"       fortior.  U.  S.  P 728 

Glycerine,  B.  P.  and  U.  S.  P 1.250 

bon,  solution  of  Pemitrate  of,  B.  P 1.107 

U.S.P 1.065 


234  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.. 

Namb.  Sp.  Gb. 

Iron,  solution  of  Peisnlphate  of,  B.  P 1.441 

«                      "              U.S.P 1.320 

**     stzong  solution  of  Perchloride  of,  B.  P. 1.838 

*»     tincture  of  Perchloride  of,  B.  P.  and  U.S.  P 992 

Lead,  solution  of  Sub-acetate  of ,  B.  P 1 .260 

U.S.P 1.267 

Lime,  Saccharated  solution  of ,  B.  P. 1.052 

solution  CMorinated,  B.  P 1 .086 

Mercury  (at  0°  C.  =  82**  P.) 18.696 

(atl5^55C.  =  60''F.) 1^560 

"        acid  solution  of  Nitrate  of 2.246 

U.S.P 2.165 

Nitre,  Sweet  Spirit  of 845 

"         "         "  U.S.P 837 

on  of  Mustard,  B.  P , 1.015 

Potash,  solution  of,  B.  P 1.058 

U.  S.P 1.065 

Soda,  solution  of,  B.  P 1.047 

U.S.P 1.071 

"             Chlorinated,  B.  P 1.103 

U.S.  P 1.046 

Squill,  Oxymel  of ,  B.  P 1.320 

Syrup,  B.  P 1.330 

"      U.S.P 1.317 

"      of  Buckthorn,  B.  P 1.320 

"      of  Ginger 

**      of  Hemidesmus 1.335 

"      of  Iodide  of  Iron,  B.  P 1.385 

"      ofLemon,B.P 1.340 

"      of  Mulberries,  B.  P 1 .330 

«      of  Orange  Flower,  B.  P 1.330 

'*  '•       Peel,  B.  P 

"      of  Phosphate  of  Iron,  B.  P 

«      of  Poppies,  B.P 1.320 

"      of  Red  Poppy,  B.  P 1.330 

"      of  Red  Roses,  B.P 1.335 

"      of  Rhubarb,  B.  P 

"      of  Senna,  B.  P 1.810 

"       of  Squill,  B.  P 

"      of  Tolu,  B.  P 1.330 

Treacle,  B.  P about    1.400 


1 1 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


235 


TABLE  OF  SPECIFIC  GRAVITIES  AND  WEIGHTS 

(Trautwinb.) 

m  this  Table  the  Sp.  Gr.  of  Gases  and  Air  are  compared  with  that 

of  Water,  instead  of  that  of  Air. 


"SAMBB  of  SUBBTAHOn. 


Air,  atmospheric ;  at  60^*  F.,  and  under  pressure  of 
one  atmosphere,  14.7  lbs.  per  sq.  inch,  weighs  -g^^ 

part  as  much  as  water  at  60" 

Alcohol  pure 

"      of  commerce 

"      proof  spirit  ....•"• 

Ash,  perfectly  dry 

1000  ft.  board-measure  weighs  1.748  tons. 

Ash,  American  white,  dry average 

1000  feet  board-measure  weighs,  1.414  tons. 

Aluminum 

Antimony,  cast,  6.66  to  6.74 average 

•*        native 

Anthracite,  1.3  to  1.84  ;  of  Penn.,  1.3  to  1.7,  usually 
A  cubic  yard  of  anthracite  averages  1.75  cu.  yards 
when  oroken  to  any  market  size,  and  loose. 

Anthracite,  broken  of  any  size,  loose average 

"  "      moderately  shaken ** 

"         heaped  bushel,  loose,  77  to  88  pounds. . . 
A  ton  loose  avera||^  from  40  to  48  cu.  ft. ;  at  54 
lbs.  per  cu.  ft.,  a  cubic  yard  weighs  .651  ton. 

Asphaltum,  1  to  1.8 average 

Bismuth,  cast ;  also  native 

Brass  (copper  and  zinc),  7.8  to  8.4 

**     rolled 

Bronze  (Cu  8  parts  +  Sn  1  part),  gun  metal,  8.4—8.6 

Brick,  pressed 

"      common  hard 

"      soft  inferior 

Brick-work.    (See  Masonry.) 

Caldte,  transparent,  2.52-2.73 average 

Carbonic  anhydride  gas  is  1^  times  as  heavy  as  air. . 

Charcoals  of  pines  and  oaks average 

Chalk,  2.2  to  2.8 

Clay,  potter's  dry,  1.8  to  2.1 

"     dry  in  lump,  loose 

Coke,  loose,  of  good  coal 

"     a  heaped  bushel,  loose,  85  to  42  lbs. 
"     a  ton  occupies  80  to  90  cubic  feet. 
In  coking,  coal  swells  from  25  to  50  per  cent. 
Equal  weights  of  coke  and  coal  evaporate  about 
equal  weight  of  water ;  and  each  about  twice 
as  much  as  equal  weights  of  dry  wood. 

Cherry,  perfectly  dry average 

1000  feet  board-measure  weighs  1.562  tons. 


i< 


(I 


(( 


(t 


it 

n 


n 


Aysbaob 
Bp.  Ob. 


.00123 

.793 

.834 

.916 

.752 

.61 

2.6 
6.70 
6.67 
1.5 


Atbb.  Wt. 

OF  A  CU.  FT. 
IMIBB. 


1.4 

9.74 
8.1 
8.4 
8.5 


2.62 
.00187 

2.5 
1.9 


.672 


.0765 
49.43 
52.1 
57.2 

47. 

38. 

162. 
418. 
416. 
93.5 


52  to  56 
56  to  60 


87.3 
607. 
504. 
524. 
529. 
150. 
125. 
100. 

164, 

15  to  30 
156. 
119. 
63. 
23  to  32 


42. 


236 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


Naxeb  of  Substahobs. 


Coal,  bituminoiis,  1.2  to  1.5 average 

*'  "        broken  of  any  size,  loose. . .  .average 

**  "        moderately  shaken ** 

"  "        a  heaped  boshel,  loose,  70  to  78  lbs. 

"  "        a  ton  occupies  43  to  48  cubic  feet. 

A  cubic  yard,  solid,  averages  about  1.75  yards  when 
broken  to  any  market  size,  and  loose. 

Chestnut,  perfectly  dry average 

1000  feet  board-measure,  weighs  1.526  tons. 
Cement,  hydraulic,  American,  Rosendale;   ground, 

loose average 

Copper,  cast,  8.6  to  8.8 '* 

rolled,  8.7  to  8.9 

Cork 

Diamond,  3.44  to  3.55 ;  usually  3.51  to  3.55 

Earth,  common  loam,  perfectly  dry,  loose. . . . , 

**      slightly  moist,  loose 

"      common  loam  as  a  soft-flowing  mud 

"     "  "  •'  "    pressed  in 

a  box 

Ether. 

Elm,  perfectly  dry average 

1000  feet  board-measure  weighs  1.302  tons. 

Ebony,  dry ; average 

Emerald,  2.67  to  2.73 '* 

Fat ** 

Flint " 

Feldspar,  2.4  to  2.6 " 

Garnet,  8.5  to  4.3 ;  precious,  4.1  to  4.3 '' 

Glass,  2.5  to  3.45 " 

"      common  window " 

"      Millville,  N.  J.,  thick-flooring " 

Granite,  2.62  to  2.76 " 

Gypsum  (piaster  of  paris),  2.26  to  2.35 " 

Gravel,  about  the  same  as  sand.     (See.) 

Gold,  cast,  pure  24  carat " 

"     native,  pure,  19.3  to  19.4 ** 

"     pure,  hammered '• 

Gutta-percha " 

Hornblende,  black,  3.1  to  8.4 " 

Hydrogen  gas  is  14^  times  lighter  than  air ;  16  times 

lighter  than  oxygen 

Hemlock,  perfectly  dry average 

1000  feet  board-measure  weighs  .930  tons. 

Hickory,  perfectly  dry average 

1000  feet  board-measure  weighs  1.971  tons. 

Iron,  cast,  6.9  to  7.4 average 

"      "     usually  assumed  at " 

At  450  lbs.,  a  cubic  inch  weighs  .2604  lbs. ;  8601.6 
cubic  inches  a  ton ;  and  a  lb.  =  3.8400  cubic 
inches. 
Iron,  wrought,  7.6  to  7.9 ;  the  purest  has  the  great- 
est spedlc  gravity average 


AVKBAGB 

Sp.  Gb. 


1.85 


.66 


8.7 
8.8 
25. 
3.53 


716. 
56. 


1.22 
2.7 
.93 
2.6 
2.5 
4.2 
2.98 
2.52 
2.53 
2.69 


19.258 
19.32 
19.5 
.98 
3.25 


.4 

.85 

7.15 
7.21 


7.77 


Atbb.  Wt. 

OF  A  CU.  FT. 
□ILB8. 


84 

47  to  52 
51  to  56 


41. 


60. 
542. 
548. 
15.6 

72  to  80 

70  to  76 

104  to  112 

110  to  120 
44.6 
85. 

76.1 

58. 
162. 
156. 

186. 
157. 
158. 
168. 


1204. 

1206. 

1217. 

61.1 

203. 


.00527 


25. 

53. 

446. 
450. 


485. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


237 


NaMBS  or  SUBSTAHOBS. 


tt 
ti 
tt 

i* 


Iron,  large  rolled  bars average 

"        "  "        "    usually  assumed  at...      " 

"     sheet " 

At  480  lbs.,  a  cubic  inch  weighs  .2778  lbs. ;  and  a 
lb. =3.6()(K)  cu.  in.   Light  iron  indicates  impurity. 

Ivory ...  .average 

Ice " 

India-rubber " 

Lard 

Lead,  11.35  to  11.47 

Limestone  and  Marbles,  2.65  to  2.85 

Lime,  Quick 

Lime,    Quick,    ground,    loose,    per   struck  bushel, 

71  lbs average 

Mahogany,  Spanish,  dry* " 

**  Honduras,  dry ** 

Masonry   of   Granite  or    Limestone,  well  dressed 

throughout average 

Masonry  of  Granite,  roughly  scabbled,  mortar  rub- 
ble  average 

Masonry  of   Granite,   roughly  scabbled,   dry  rub- 
ble   average 

At  155  lbs.  per  cu.  ft.,  a  cu.  yd.  weighs  1.868  tons ; 
and  14.45  cu.  ft  =  1  ton. 
Masonry  of  Sandstone  about  ^  part  less  than  the 

foregoing. 
Masonry  of  Brickwork,  pressed  brick,  fine  joint,  aver. 

"         "  "  medium  quality " 

"         "  "  coarse  inferior " 

At  125  lbs.  per  cu.  ft.,  a  cu.  yd.  weighs  1.507  tons ; 
and  17.92  cu.  ft.  =  1  ton. 

Mercury,  at  32 '  Fah 

"  at  60^  Fah 

at  212°  Fah 

Mica,  2.75  to  3.1 average 

Mortar,  hardened,  1.4  to  1.9 " 

Mud,  dry,  close 

**     wet,  moderately  pressed 

**     wet,  fluid 

Naphtha 

Nitrogen  Gas  is  -J^  part  lighter  than  air 

Oak,  Live,  perfectly  drv,  .88  to  1.02 average 

'*     White,    "  "     .78  to    .88 " 

"     Red,  Black,  &c " 

Oils,  Whale,  Olive " 

"     of  Turpentine " 

Oxygen  Gas,  a  little  more  than  ^^  part  heavier  than  air 

Petroleum 

Peat,  dry,  unpressed 

Pine,  White,  perfectly  dry,  .35  to  45 

1000  ft.  board-measure  weighs  .930  ton. 

Pine,  Yellow,  Northern,  .48  to  .62 

1000  ft.  board -measure  weighs  1.276  tons. 


Aybbaob 
Sp.  Gb. 


7.6 

7 


1.82 

.94 

.93 

.95 

11,41 

2.75 

1.60 


.85 
.56 


13.62 

13.58 

13.38 

2.93 

1.66 


.848 

.95 
.83 

.92 

.87 

.00136 

.878 

.40 

.55 


Atbb.  Wt. 

OF  A  OU.  FT. 
XNLBB. 


474 
480 
485 


114 

58.7 

58 

59.8 
711 
172 
100 

57 
53 
35 

165 

138 

125 


140 
125 
100 


849 
846 
836 
183 
103 
80  to  HO 
110  to  130 
104  to  120 
52.9 

.0744 
59.3 
518 
32  to  45 
57.3 
543 

.0846 
54.8 
20  to  30 
25 

34.3 


*  Green  timbers  usually  weigh  from  J  to  nearly  ^  more  than  dry. 


238 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


NAinSS  OF  SUBBTANOSS. 


Pine,  Yellow,  Southern,  .64  to  .80 

1000  ft.  board-measure  weighs  1.674  tons. 

Pitch 

Plaster  of  Paris ;  see  Gypsum. 

Platinum,  21  to  22 

"         native,  in  grains,  16  to  19 

Quartz,  common,  pure,  2.64  to  2.67 

"  '*         finely  pulverized,  loose 

Ruby  and  Sapphire,  3.91  to  4.16 

Salt,  coarse,  per  struck  bu.,  Syracuse,  N.  Y.,  56  lbs. 

"     Liverpool,  fine,  for  table  use,  60  to  62  lbs 

Sand,  of  pure  quartz,  perfectly  dried  and  loose, 

usually  112  to  133  lbs.  per  struck  bushel 

1  measure  of  solid  quartz  makes  1.75  measures  of 
loose,  rounded  sand. 
Sand  well  shaken,  128  to  147  lbs.  per  struck  bushel. 

**       "    packed 

At  130  lbs.  per  cu.  ft.,  perfectly  wet,  17.23  cu.  ft. 
weigh  1  ton  ;  and  a  en.  yd.  =  1.567  tons. 

Extremely  fine,  even -grained  sand,  perfectly  dry, 
may  weigh  as  little  as  70  to  80  lbs.  per  cu.  ft. 

Sandstone,  fit  for  building,  dry,  2.1  to  2.78 

Snow,  fresh  fallen 

"      moistened  and  compacted  by  rain 

Sycamore,  perfectly  dry 

1000  ft.  board-measure  weighs  1.876  tons. 

Slate,  2.7  to  2.9 average 

Silver " 

Soapstone  or  Steatite,  2.65  to  2.8 

Steel,  7.8  to  7.9 

The  heaviest  contains  least  carbon. 

Sulphur 

Spruce,  perfectly  dry 

1000  ft.  board-measure  weighs  .930  ton. 

Spelter  or  Zinc,  6. 8  to  7.2 

Tallow 

Tar 

Topaz 

Tm,  cast,  7.2  to  7.5 

Turf  or  Peat,  dry,  unpressed 

Water,  pure  ram,  or  distilled,  at  82''  F.,  barom.  80  in. 

tt  tt  DQO   p  ((  .( 

Sea,  1.026  to  1.080 ' average 

Although  the  weight  of  fresh  water  is  almost  in- 
variably assumed  as  62^  lbs.  per  cu.  ft.,  yet  62J 
would  be  nearer  the  truth,  at  ordinary  tempera- 
tures  of  about  70° ;  or  a  lb.  =  27.759  cu.  in. ; 
and  a  cu.  in.  =  .5764  oz.  Avoir.,  or  .4328  oz.  Troy, 
or  252.175  grains.  The  grain  is  the  same  in 
Troy,  Avoirdupois,  and  Apothecaries'  weights. 

Wax,  Bees average 

Wines,  .998  to  1.04 " 

Walnut.  Black,  perfectly  dry 

Zinc  or  Spelter,  6.8  to  7.2 

Zircon,  4.5  to  4.75 


« 


(( 


w 


tt 


tt 


u 


t€ 


*t 


tt 


tt 


tt 


tt 


u 


Atkbaob 
8p.  Gb. 


.72 

1.15 

21.5 
17.5 
2.65 

4.04 


2.65 


.97 

.998 

.61 

7.00 

4.62 


Aybb.  Wt. 

oi*  A  CU.  rr. 

IN  LBS. 


45 

71.7 

1842 

165 
90 

49 
90tol0e 


99  to  117 
101  to  119 


2.41 

150 

— 

5  to  12 

.— . 

15  to  50 

.59 

87 

2.6 

162 

10.5 

655 

2.78 

170 

7.85 

490 

2 

125 

.4 

25 

7 

487.5 

.94 

68.6 

1 

62.4 

8.55 

— 

7.85 

459 

— 

20  to  80 

— 

62.875 

1 

62.381 

62.190 

1.028 

6406 

60.5 
62.8 
88 
437.5 


inMalflfla' 


MINERALOGY.* 

It  is  my  object  under  this  division  to  consider  only  those 
minerals  which  have  foimd  more  or  less  use  in  the  arts. 
Ores  of  the  following  elements  wiU  be  considered : 


1.  Aluminium. 

2.  Antimony. 

3.  Absenic. 

4.  Bismuth. 
6.  Cadmium. 

6.  Calcium. 

7.  Cakbon. 

8.  Chromium. 

9.  Cobalt. 

10.  Copper. 

11.  Gold. 

12.  Iridium. 

13.  Iron. 

14.  Lead. 

15.  LrrmuM. 


16.  Magnesium. 

17.  Manganese. 

18.  Mercury. 

19.  Nickel. 

20.  Phosphorus. 

21.  Platinum. 

22.  Potassium. 

23.  Silicon. 

24.  Silver. 

25.  Sodium. 

26.  Strontium. 

27.  Sulphur. 

28.  Tin. 

29.  Zmc. 

30.  ZmcoNiUM. 


*  See  Author's  Preface. 


16 


242 


THE  CHBMI8TS'  MANUAL. 


I.  ALUMINIUM. 

The  principal  Aluminium  minerals  are 


HiKBRAL. 

Habdnesb. 

Sp.  Ob. 

FOBIITTLA. 

CoMFOsmoir. 

Corandum 

9 

8.909-4.16 

... 

M 

Al  =  63.4 

Diaspore 

6.5—7 

3.8—8.6 

•••        • 

MB. 

A1,0,  =  85.1 

Aluminite 

1—3 

1.66 

A1S  +  9H 

Al.O,  =  29.8 

Alunogen 

1.6-3 

1.6-1.8 

•••     •••                • 

M  S,  18H 

Al.O,  =  15.4 

Alunite 

8.5—4 
2-2.6 

2.58—2.752 
1.75 

Ki3  +  8*ilS  +  6H 
KS  +  A1S,+24H 

Al.O.  =  87.18 

Kalinite 

•  ••      ••• 

MS  =  18.4 

Cryolite 

2.5 

2.9-3 

3Na  F  +  AlgP. 

Al  =  18 

Turquois 

6 

2.6-3.83 

...     .".*•       . 
A1,P  +  H 

A1,0.  =  46.9 

Wavellite 

3.25—4 

2.387 

iks  P«  +  12H 

AljOg  =  87.3 

Chrysobeiyl 

8.6 

8.5—3.84 

...              M. 

Al.O.  =  80.2 

CORUNDUM. 

Syn. — Corindon,  Sapphire,  Euby,  Oriental  Amethyst, 
Smirgel,  Emery.  Color  is  red,  blue,  purple,  yellow,  brown, 
gray  and  white.  Streak,  colorless.  Transparent,  translacent 
to  opaque.  Lustre  vitreous,  sometimes  pearly  on  the  base, 
and  occasionally  showing  a  bright  opalescent  star  of  six  rays 
in  the  direction  of  the  axis.  Crystallizes  in  a  rhombohedron 
of  86°4'.     Sp.  Gr.,  3.909^16. 

The  different  varieties  of  corundum  are  much  used  in  the 
arts.  Large  crystals  of  sapphire  have  been  found  at  New- 
town, N.  J.  Imperfect  rubies  have  been  found  at  Warwick, 
N.  J.,  and  bluish  crystals  in  Delaware  and  Chester  Co.,  Penn- 
sylvania. In  California,  in  Los  Angeles  Co.,  in  the  drift  of 
San  Fransisqueto  Pass.  In  Canada,  at  Burgess,  red  and  blue 
crystals  have  been  found. 

Bed  sapphire  is  the  most  highly  esteemed.  A  crystal 
weighing  four  carats,  perfect  in  transparency  and  color,  has 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


248 


been  valued  at  half  the  price  of  a  diamond  of  the  same  size. 
Corundum,  under  certain  conditions,  absorbs  water  and  changes 
to  diaspore,  and  perhaps  also  to  the  mica-like  mineral,  marga- 
rite  (Dana).  Corundum  may  be  found  artificially  by  exposing 
to  a  high  heat,  4  pts.  of  borax  and  1  of  alumina  (Ebelmen) ; 
by  decomposing  potash  alum  by  charcoal  (Gaudin) ;  by  subject- 
ing in  a  carbon  vessel  fluoride  of  aluminum  to  the  action  of 
boric  acid,  the  process  yielding  large  rhombohedral  plates 
(Deville  and  Caron);  by  the  addition  to  the  last  chromic 
fluoride,  aifording  the  red  sapphire  or  ruby,  or  with  less  of  the 
chromic  fluoride,  blue  sapphire,  or  with  much  of  this  chromic 
fluoride,  a  fine  green  kind,  by  action  of  aluminic  chloride  on 
lime  (Daubree). 

The  following  are  elaborate  analyses  by  J.  Lawrence  Smith, 
taken  from  elaborate  papers  in  the  Am.  J.  Sci.,  II,  x,  354, 
xi,  53,  xlii,  83.  The  column  of  hardness  gives  the  eflective 
abrasive  power  of  the  powdered  mineral,  that  of  sapphire 
being  as  100 : 


1.  Sapphire, /ntfia 

2.  Rnby,  "    

5.  Corvaidnm,  AHa  Minor. 
4.  "        India 

6.  Bmery,  Kvlah 

6.      "       Chester. 


Habdnebb. 

Sp.  Ob. 

•  •• 

Ai.. 

Haonx- 

TITB. 

9a. 

•  • 

Sx. 

100 

4.06 

97.51 

1.80 

^^ 

0.80 

00 

— 

97.8S 

1.09 

— 

1.21 

T? 

8.88 

98.89 

1.67 

1.12 

2.06 

66 

8.80 

98.12 

0.91 

1.02 

0.96 

67 

4J» 

68.60 

•••   (88.26 
60.21 

0.92 

1.61 

88 

— 

44.01 

— 

8.18 

H. 


—  =100.20 

—  =  99.62 
1.60  =  98.83 
2.86  =  98.87 
1.90  =101.18 
2.00  =  99.8!^ 


CRYOLITE. 

This  mineral  is  only  found  in  Greenland,  and  has  a  very 
extensive  use  in  the  arts  (Formula,  3NaF.Al2F3).  Its  compo- 
sition is  M  13.0,  Na  32.8,  Fl  54.0.    Sp.  Gr.  2,9-3. 

"  It  crystallizes  as  a  doubly  oblique  rhombic  prism  88°  30', 
and  has  a  perfect  basal  cleavage.  Its  lustre  is  vitreous  or 
slightly  pearly,  and  is  nearly  the  same  on  the  three  cleavages 
on  the  crystal.  Its  fracture  is  lamellar  or  scaly.  It  is  gener- 
ally white,  and  has  about  the  same  kind  of  lustre  as  a  stearine 


244 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


candle  on  the  fracture.  It  is  sometimes  colored  slightly  red, 
or  may  be  even  brick  red,  when  it  is  mixed  with  partially 
altered  siderite.     Occasionally  it  is  black." 

Heated  in  an  open  tube,  it  gives  up  HFl.  Soluble  in  sul- 
phuric acid,  giving  off  MFl.  It  is  easily  fusible,  even  in  the 
flame  of  a  candle,  without  the  aid  of  the  blowpipe.  If  it  is 
then  thrown  into  water,  there  seems  to  be  a  commencement 
of  decomposition,  for  an  alkaline  carbonate  or  lime-water 
throws  down  Al  ?  Cryolite  is  shipped  in  large  quantities  to 
Europe  and  the  United  States  (Pennsylvania),  where  it  is  used 
for  making  soda,  and  soda  and  alumina  salts ;  also  of  late  in 
Pennsylvania,  for  the  manufacture  of  a  white  glass  which  is  a 
very  good  imitation  of  porcelain. 


2.  ANTIMONY. 

The  principal  Antimony  minerals  are : 


MiNKRALS. 

HABDinSBB. 

Sp.  Ob. 

FOSKDUL 

COXFOBinOH. 

Native  Antimony 

8.85 

6.646—6.72 

Sb  (when  pure). 

Sb=  100 

Senannonite 

2—2.5 

5.22-5.3 

Sb 

Sb=    aS.56 

Valentinite 

2.5-8 

5.566 

Sb 

Sb=    83.56 

Stibnite 

2 

4.616—4.612 

Sb.S, 

Sb=    71.8 

Kermesite 

1—1.5 

4.6—4.6 

Sb  +  2SbS3 

Sb-    75.3 

NATIVE  ANTIMONY. 

Crystallizes  in  rhombohedra  of  87°  35'  (Rose).  Lustre  is 
metallic.  Color  and  streak  is  tin-white.  It  is  very  brittle. 
It  contains  sometimes  silver,  iron  or  arsenic  as  impurities. 
Composition  of  a  specimen  from  Andreasberg  gave,  according 
to  Klaproth,  antimony  98,  silver  1,  iron  0.25  =  99.25. 

The  mineral  allemontite  has  the  following  composition 
(SbAsg)  =  arsenic  65.22,  antimony  34.78.  Analysis  by  Eam- 
melsberg  of  the  AUemont  ore :  arsenic  62.15,  antimony  37.85= 
100  given  ISb  to  26As. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  245 

Antimony  has  been  found  native  in  the  Harz,  in  Mexico ; 
HnascOy  Chili ;  South  Ham,  Canada ;  at  Warren,  N.  J. 

Allemontite  occurs  sparingly  at  AUemont,  Przibram  in 
Bohemia ;  Schladmig  in  Styria,  and  in  the  Harz. 

STIBNITE. 

Stibnite,  or  gray  antimony,  furnishes  the  antimony  of  com- 
merce, and  is  therefore  the  principal  ore.  Sometimes  the 
oxides  senarmontite  and  valentinite  are  found  in  sufficient 
quantity  to  be  miued.  Stibnite  is  orthorhombic.  Hardness 
=  2.  Sp.  Gr.  =  4.516  (Hatiy);  4.62  (Mohs).  It  is  a  lead- 
gray  ore,  usually  iibrous  or  in  prismatic  crystals ;  it  has  a  me- 
tallic lustre  which  is  often  bright.  Streak  is  same  as  color, 
lead-gray. 

Composition,  SbgSg  =  sulphur  28.2,  antimony  71.8  =  100 
when  pure.  Eight  analyses  of  stibnite  from  Arnsberg,  West- 
phalia, gave  Schneider  a  mean  of  Sb  71.48,  S  28.52,  excluding 
0.33  per  cent  of  quartz. 

It  fuses  without  the  aid  of  a  blowpipe.  On  charcoal  it 
fuses,  giving  off  sulphurous  and  antimonious  fumes.  On  char- 
coal, in  R.  F.,  it  gives  antimony  coat,  and  colors  the  flame  green- 
ish-blue. 

Occurs  with  spathic  iron  in  beds,  but  generally  in  veins. 
Often  associated  with  blende,  heavy  spar  and  quartz.  It  is  met 
in  veins  at  Wolfsberg  in  the  Harz ;  abundant  near  Padstow 
and  Jintagel ;  abundant  also  at  Borneo.  In  the  United  States 
it  is  found  in  Maine,  New  Hampshire,  and  Maryland ;  abun- 
dant in  the  granitic  range,  south  side  of  Tulare  valley,  near 
pass  of  San  Amedio.  Specimens  found  in  Nevada  are  usually 
argentiferous  (Humboldt  mining  region).  It  is  also  found  in 
New  Brunswick. 

As  stated  above,  this  ore  aflbrds  nearly  all  the  antimony  of 
commerce.  "  The  crude  antimony  of  the  shops  is  obtained  by 
simple  fusion,  which  separates  the  accompanying  rock.  From 
this  product  most  of  the  pharmaceutical  preparations  of  anti- 
mony are  made,  and  the  pure  metal  extracted."     "  Tliis  ore 


246 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


was  used  by  the  ancients  for  coloring  the  hair,  eyebrows,  etc., 
to  increase  the  apparent  size  of  the  eye."  The  ore  changes  on 
exposure  by  partial  oxidation  to  antimony  hlende  (2Sb2S3-h 
SbjOa),  and  by  further  oxidation  to  valentinite  (Sb203).  Anti- 
mony ochre  (SbaOa  +  SbaOs),  and  also  SbjOs  +  SH  are  other 
results  of  alteration  (Dana). 

3.  ARSENIC. 
The  principal  Arsenic  minerals  are : 


MnnsRAL. 


Native  Arsenic 

Arsenolite 

Realgar 

Orpiment 


Habdness. 

Sp.  Gb. 

8.5 

5.93 

15 

3.698 

1.5—3 

3.4-3.6 

1.6—3 

3.48 

Ck>]iF08inoir. 


As 

As 

AsS 

AsjSs 


PsB  Ceht 
WHEN  Pubs. 


As 
As 

Ab 

As 


100 
75.76 
70.1 
61 


NATIVE  ARSENIC. 

Native  arsenic  is  one  source  of  arsenic,  but  it  is  too  rare  to 
amount  to  much.  It  is  found  in  veins  in  crystalline  rocks, 
and  in  older  schists,  and  is  generally  accompanied  by  other 
ores.  It  crystallizes  as  a  rhombohedron  of  85°  41'.  Hardness 
=  3.5.  Sp.  Gr.  5.93.  When  pure,  is  composed  only  of  arsenic ; 
but  it  generally  contains  some  antimony,  and  traces  of  iron, 
silver,  gold  or  bismuth.  The  arsenical  bismuth  of  Werner  is 
arsenic  containing  3  per  cent,  of  bismuth  (Hardness  =  2.  Gr.  = 
5.36-5.39).  An  antimonial  arsenic,  containing,  according  to 
Sehultz,  7.97  per  cent,  of  antimony,  occurs  at  the  Pahnbaure 
mine,  near  Marienberg,  Saxony.  A  similar  compound,  con- 
sisting, according  to  Genth,  of  arsenic  90.82  and  antimony  9.18 
(=  17As-|-lSb),  occurs  at  Washoe  Co.,  California. 

Native  arsenic  gives  metallic  arsenic  in  a  closed,  and  As  in 
an  open  tube.  In  the  R.  F.  it  volatilizes  without  residue  and 
without  melting,  coloring  the  flame  blue.    It  is  not  attacked 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  247 

by  HCl,  but  is  soluble  in  HNO3.  It  is  found  in  considerable 
quantity  in  the  silver  mines  at  Freiberg,  Annaberg,  Marien- 
berg  and  Schneeberg.  Abundant  at  Chauarcillo  and  else- 
where in  Chili.  In  the  United'  States,  it  has  been  observed 
by  Jackson  at  Haverhill,  N.  H.,  in  thin  layers  in  dark-blue 
mica  slate,  stained  by  plumbago,  and  containing  also  white 
and  magnetic  pyrites ;  found  also  at  Jackson,  N.  H.,  and  on 
the  east  flank  of  Furlong  Mountain,  Greenwood,  Me. 

REALGAR. 

Bealgar  has  the  following  composition  when  pure:  sul- 
phur 29.9,  arsenic  70.1  =  100  (AsS).  A  specimen  from  Spain 
gave  S  30.00,  As  70.25  (Hugo  Miller,  J.  Ch.  Soc.,  xi,  242). 
Hardness  =  1.5-2.  Sp.  Gr.  =  3.4r-3.6.  Lustre  resinous.  Color 
is  bright-red  and  vitreous.  Streak  red  when  not  decomposed, 
but  generally  orange-yellow. 

In  closed  tube,  it  fuses  and  volatilizes  without  decompo- 
sition ;  in  open  tube  gives  sulphurous  fumes  and  a  white  crys- 
talline sublimate  of  arsenious  acid.     Soluble  in  caustic  alkalies. 

Kealgar  crystallizes  as  an  inclined  rhombic  prism  74°  26'. 
It  is  always  crystallized  or  crystalline.  It  is  found  in  the 
Harz ;  at  Tajowa  in  Hungary  in  beds  of  clay,  and  at  Bumen- 
thal,  Switzerland,  in  dolomite. 

ORPIMENT. 

Formula  AsgSg  =  sulphur  39,  arsenic  61  =  100.  Hardness  = 
1.5-2.  Sp.  Gr.= 3.48  (Hoidinger);  3.4  (Breithaupt).  Its  color 
is  decided  lemon-yellow;  sometimes  slightly  orange-colored, 
owing  to  admixture  of  realgar.  Streak  is  yellow — generally 
a  little  paler  than  color.  Lustre  pearly  upon  the  faces  of 
perfect  cleavage ;  elsewhere  resinous. 

In  a  close  tube  it  ftises  and  volatilizes,  giving  a  dark-yellow 
sublimate;  acts  otherwise  like  realgar.  Dissolves  in  nitro- 
hydrochloric  acid  and  caustic  alkalies. 

Orpiment  crystallizes  as  a  right  rhombic  prism  100°  40'.  It 
is  usually  found  in  foliated  and  fibrous  masses,  and  in  .this 


248 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


form  is  found  at  Kapnik  in  Transylvania,  and  at  Felsobauza 
in  Upper  Hungary;  in  Fohnsdorf,  Styria,  found  in  brown 
coal.  Small  traces  are  met  with  in  EdenvUle,  Orange  Co., 
N.  Y.,  on  arsenical  iron. 

The  arsenic  of  commerce  is  mostly  obtained  from  the  arsen- 
ical ores  of  iron,  cobalt  and  nickel,  which  see. 


4.  BISMUTH. 

The  principal  Bismuth  minerals  are : 


MlNEKAIb 

HABDNBSa. 

6p.  Ob. 

CoXFOBinOH. 

Pbr  Cent  of, 

WHEN  PVBJt. 

Native  Bismuth.. . 

Bismuthinlte 

All? ipit^ - , , . . 

2—2.5 

2 
2-2.5 
1.5—2 

9.727 
6.4—7.2 
6.1—6.8 
7.2—7.9 

Bi 

Bi.S, 

8(CuPb)S  +  BijS. 

Bi.Te. 

Bi  =  100 
Bi=    81.25 
Bi  —    36.2 

Tetradymite 

Bi=    51.9 

NATIVE   BISMUTH. 

Native  bismuth  is  the  source  of  bismuth  in  the  arts.  When 
pure  contains  only  bismuth;  it  generally  contains,  though, 
traces  of  arsenic,  sulphur  and  tellurium.  A  specimen  analyzed 
by  Genth  (Am.  J.  Sci.,  II,  xxvii,  247),  gave  Bi  =  99.914:, 
Te  0,042,  Fe  trace  =  99.956.  A  specimen  analyzed  by 
Forbes  (Phil.  Mag.,  IV,  xxix,  3),  gave  Bi  94.46,  Te  5.09, 
As  0.38,  S  0.07,  Au  trace  =  100.00.  Hardness  =  2-2.5.  Sp.  Gr. 
=  9.727.  Color  silver-white,  with  a  reddish  tinge.  Lustre 
metallic.  Opaque.  Streak  same  as  color ;  subject  to  tarnish. 
Sectile.  Brittle  when  cold,  but  when  heated  somewhat  mal- 
leable. It  melts  in  the  flame  of  a  candle.  On  Ch  fuses  and 
is  entirely  volatilized,  leaving  a  yellow  coating.  It  is  not 
attacked  by  HCl.  Fuses  at  476°  F.  Dissolves  in  HNO3 ;  sub- 
sequent  dilution  causes  a  white  precipitate.  Crystallizes 
readily  from  fusion. 

Bismuth  is  found  native  in  veins  in  gneiss  and  other  crys- 


THE   CHEMISTS'   MANUAL.  249 

talline  rocks  and  clay  slate  accompanying  various  ores.  It  is 
most  abundant  at  the  silver  and  cobalt  mines  of  Saxony  and 
Bohemia.  Has  been  found  at  Lane's  mine  in  Monroe,  Conn. ; 
also  at  Brewer's  mines,  Chesterfield  District,  South  Carolina. 

BISMUTH  I NITE. 

Bisthmuthinite  when  pure  has  the  following  composition : 
Bismuth  81.25  -h  sulphur  18.75  =  Bi2S3.  When  impure,  it 
may  contain  in  small  quantities,  Fe,  Cu,  Au,  Pb,  Te,  Se.  A 
specimen  (Oravicza)  analyzed  by  Hubert  (Haid.  Ber.  iii,  401) 
gave  Bi  74.55,  S  19.46,  Fe  0.40,  Cu  3.13,  Au,  0.53,  Pb  2.26  = 
100.33.  Hardness  =  2.  Sp.  Gr.  6.4r-6.459 ;  7.2  :  7.16  Bo- 
livia (Forbes).  Color  lead-gray  or  tin-white,  with  a  yellowish 
or  iridescent  tarnish.  Streak  same  as  color.  Lustre  metallic. 
Opaque.     Crystallizes  as  a  right  rhombic  prism  91°  30'. 

In  an  open  tube  gives  sulphurous  fumes  and  a  bismuth  sub- 
limate, which  before  the  blowpipe  fuses  into  drops,  brown 
whUe  hot  and  opaque-yellow  on  cooling.  Fus.  =  1.  Dis- 
solves in  nitric  acid  and  gives  a  precipitate  on  diluting. 

Sometimes  found  massive,  with  a  foliated  or  reticulated 
structure.  Generally  found  associated  with  other  minerals. 
Accompanies  molybdenite  and  apatite  in  quartz  at  Brandy  Gill 
in  Cumberland.  Occurs  with  gold,  pyrite  chalcopyrite  in 
Eowan  Co.,  N.  C.  Found  with  chrysoberyl  at  Haddam,  Ct. 
(according  to  Shepard). 

5.  CADMIUM. 
The  principal  Cadmium  mineral  is 

GREENOCKITE. 

When  pure,  Greenockite  has  the  following  composition: 
Cd  77.7,  S  22.3  =  100  (CdS  or  CdgSa).  A  sample  analyzed 
by  Connel,  gave  cadmium  77.30  and  sulphur  22.56  =  99.86. 
Hardness  =  3-3.5.  Sp.  Gr.  =  4.8  (Brooke) ;  4.9^.999  (Breit- 
haupt) ;  4.5,  the  artificial  (Sochting). 


250 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


"Lustre  adamantine.  Color  honey-yellow,  citron-yellow, 
orange-yellow,  vein  parallel  with  the  axis,  bronze-yellow. 
Streak-powder  between  orange-yellow  and  brick-red.  Nearly 
transparent.  Strongly  double  refraction."  Not  thermoelectric 
(Breithaupt). 

In  a  closed  tube  assumes  a  carmine-red  color  while  hot, 
feding  to  the  original  yellow  on  cooling. 

In  open  tube  gives  sulphurous  acid.  Gives  reddish-brown 
coating  on  charcoal  in  R.  F.  Soluble  in  hydrochloric  acid 
with  effervescence  of  hydrogen  sulphide. 

Found  at  Bishoptown,  Scotland,  in  short  hexagonal  crystals, 
136°  24'.  Found  at  the  Ueberoth  zinc  mine,  near  Friedens- 
ville,  Lehigh  Co.,  Pa. 

Named  after  Lord  Greenock  (late  Earl  Cathcart). 


6.  CALCIUM. 
The  principal  Calcium  minerals  are : 


MXNEBAL. 

Hard- 
ness. 

Sp.  Ob. 

Formula. 

GoxFosinoir. 

Anhydrite.... 

8-^.5 

2.899-^896 

CaS 

Ca=:41.2;    '8  =  58.8 

-Gypsam 

1.&-8 

2.814-3.28 

CaS  +  2H 

Ca  =  d2.6;    8  =  46.6;    H  =  90.9 

Flnorite 

4 

8.01  —8.26 

CaFl 

Ca  =  61.8;    Fl  =  4a7 

Apatite 

4.6-6 

2.93  -8.26 

Ca.l^'+ICaCa.F) 

J  Ca=48.43;  "l**.- 40.92 (=89.35 P,Ca), 
■  Cl-6.81;  Ca=3.84(= 10.66  Cl,Ca). 

Fharmacolite. 

2-2.6 

2.64  -2.78 

(!Ca|H),A8 

Ca  =  24.9:  Ah  =  61.1 ;  H  =  M 

Ara^^onite 

8.5-4 

2.927— 2.W7 

•         •• 

CaC 

Ca  =  66;C  =  44 

Calcite 

2.6-8.6  2.506-2.729 

•         •• 

CaC 

Ca  =  56:  0  =  44 

Dolomite 

3J5-4 

2.8    —2.9 

Ca  C  -t-  Mg  C 

CaC  =  54.85;    MgG  =  45.65 

Schcelite 

4.6—6.8,6.9    —6.076 

CaW 

Ca  =  19.4;    W  =  80.6 

GYPSUM. 

Gypsum  has  the  following  composition  when  pure:  Lime 
82.6,  sulphuric  acid  46.5,  water  20.9  =  100  (CaS+2H). 
The  different  varieties  have  the  following  composition : 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


251 


1.  CrysUaiUed 

2.  Granular. 

8.  A\\m.j^  fibrous 

4.  Wienrode,  eom/xic^ 

6.  Osterode,         " 

a         ''        whiU 

7.  "        fwd 


••• 

s. 

1       . 
Ca. 

1 
H. 

■  • 

44.8 

88.0 

Sl.O 

^^ 

41.16 

83.88 

31.0 

— 

44.19 

S9.41 

30.18 

6.48 

45.76 

81.87 

19.90 

3.80 

45.96 

83.62 

30.70 

0.43 

46.61 

83.44 

80.74 

0.15 

46.60 

31.90 

31.56 

— 

—  =   96.8  Bacbolz. 

—  =    99.04  Rose. 
0.64=  100.85  Trobe. 
0.60  =  100.98  JflngBt 
0.60  =  100.19 

—  =   99.94  Hampe. 
—          0.46  =  100.80       ** 


Gypsum  takes  the  form  of  a  right  rhombic  prism  of  138°  28', 
and  has  three  cleavages.  Hardness  =  1.5-2.  Sp.  Gr.  =  2.314- 
2.328,  when  pure  crystal.  Massive  varieties  sometimes  glis- 
tening, sometimes  dull  earthy.  It  has  a  vitreous  lustre  which, 
on  some  of  the  faces,  may  be  adamantine. 

Its  colors  are  very  variable,  generally  not  very  sti'ong. 
The  color  is  usually  white,  although  it  may  be  gray,  flesh-red, 
honey-yellow,  ochre-yellow,  and  blue;  impure  varieties  are 
often  black,  brown,  red,  or  reddish-brown.  It  often  has  fe 
interposed  when  it  is  red.  Streak  is  white.  It  is  often  trans- 
parent or  translucent. 

Heat  immediately  expels  the  water  from  gypsum,  and  leaves 
it  white.  It  then  fuses  at  2.5  to  3,  coloring  the  flame  reddish- 
yellow.  On  charcoal  in  R.  F.  it  is  reduced  to  sulphide.  If 
not  ignited  above  260°  C,  it  will  unite  with  water  if  moistened, 
and  becomes  firmly  solid.  Soluble  in  muriatic  acid  and  in 
400  to  500  parts  of  water. 

Gypsum  often  forms  extensive  beds  in  connection  with 
stratified  rocks,  especially  limestones  and  marlites  or  clay- 
beds.  Fine  specimens  of  gypsum  are  found  at  Bex  in  Swit- 
zerland ;  large  cuticular  crystals  have  been  found  at  Mont- 
martre  near  Paris.  A  noted  locality  of  alabaster  occurs  at 
Castellina,  35  miles  from  Leghorn,  whence  it  is  taken  to 
Florence  for  manufacture  of  vases,  figures,  etc.  This  species 
occurs  in  extensive  beds  in  several  of  the  United  States,  more 
particularly  New  York,  Ohio,  Illinois,  Virginia,  Tennessee, 
and  Arkansas,  and  is  usually  associated  with  salt  springs. 


252  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

Also  in  Nova  Scotia,  Peru,  etc.  Handsome  selenite  and 
snowy  gypsum  occurs  near  Lockport,  N.  Y.  Large^rouped 
crystals  are  found  on  the  St.  Mary's  in  clay  in  Maryland. 
Large  beds  of  gypsum  are  found  with  rock  salt  in  Washington 
Co.,  Virginia.  Selenite  and  alabaster  are  found  in  Davidson 
Co.,  Tenn.  It  has  the  form  of  rosettes  or  flowers,  vines,  and 
shrubbery  in  Mammoth  Cave,  Ky.  Abundant,  also,  west  of 
the  Mississippi  in  many  places. 

"  Plaster  of  Paris  (or  gypsum  that  has  been  heated  and 
ground  up)  is  used  for  making  moulds,  taking  casts  of  statues, 
medals,  etc.,  for  producing  a  hard  finish  on  walls ;  also  in  the 
manufacture  of  artificial  marble,  as  the  scagliola  tables  of  Leg- 
horn, and  in  glazing  of  porcelain.  The  fibrous  variety,  when 
cut  en  cabochon  and  polished,  resembles  cat's-eye." 

The  Montmartre  gypsum  quarries,  near  Paris,  have  been 
famous  for  affording  brown  gypsum,  which,  on  account  of 
locality,  is  called  Plaster  of  Paris. 

CALCITE. 

Calcite,  when  pure,  is  composed  of  carbonic  acid  44,  and 
lime  56  =  100  (CaC).  A  portion  of  the  lime  of  calcite  is  fre- 
quently replaced  by  Mg,  Fe,  Mn,  Sr,  Ba,  Zn,  Pb.  The  color 
of  calcite  is  usually  white,  but  is  sometimes  yellowish,  gray, 
red,  green,  blue,  violet,  yellow,  brown,  and  black,  fie  pro- 
duces different  shades  of  red,  from  flesh-red  or  paler  to  opaque 
blood-red,  and  brownish-red  according  to  the  proportions 
present ;  the  latter,  Ilausmann  names  Hoematoconite,  as  in  the 
marble  liosseautico  of  Italy.  ^62^ 3  causes  yellowish  to  opaque 
ochre-yellow  and  yellowish-brown ;  the  deeper  sideroconite  of 
Hausmann.  Ferrous  oxide,  chromic  oxide  and  ferric  silicate 
cause  shades  of  green. 

When  calcite  is  perfectly  pure,  it  crystallizes  in  rhombohedra 
of  105°  3'.  Hardness  =  2.5-3.5 ;  some  earthy  kinds  (chalk,, 
etc).  Sp.  Gr.  =  2.50S-2.778 ;  pure  crystals  2.7213-2.7234 
(Bend);  fibrous  camellar  and  stalactite  2.70-2.72,  but  when 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  258 

pulverized,  2.729-2.7233.  Streak  is  white  or  grayish.  Lustre 
vitreous,  sub-vitreous,  earthy.  Transparent,  opaque.  Double 
refraction  strong. 

When  heated  in  a  closed  tube  it  sometimes  decrepitates. 
It  is  infiisible,  but  gives  a  very  luminous  flame,  coloring  it 
red  (Ca).  It  is  the  same  phenomena,  on  a  small  scale,  that 
is  produced  with  the  Drummond  Light.  When  heated  on 
platinum  foil  with  soda  it  fuses  to  a  clear  mass.  The  C  is 
expelled  by  heat  and  Ca  remains ;  when  this  is  moistened  on 
the  finger  a  sensation  of  heat  is  produced.  It  effervesces  very 
readily  with  acids,  even  in  the  cold. 

Andreasberg,  in  the  Harz,  is  one  of  the  best  European 
localities  of  crystallized  calcite.  In  Iceland,  a  single  rhombo- 
hedron  over  six  yards  long  and  three  high  has  been  observed. 

Crystals  are  found  also  in  many  parts  of  the  United  States, 
in  New  York  in  St.  Lawrence  and  Jefferson  counties,  espe- 
cially at  Eossie  lead-mine ;  one  nearly  transparent  is  in  the 
cabinet  of  Yale  College,  weighing  165  pounds.  In  New 
Hampshire,  Massachusetts,  New  Jersey ;  in  Virginia,  stalac- 
tites are  found  of  great  beauty;  also  in  the  large  caves  of 
Kentucky.  At  the  Lake  Superior  copper-mines,  splendid 
ciystals  are  found,  containing  scales  of  native  copper. 

Corals,  of  which  reefs  are  formed,  consist  mainly  of  car- 
bonate of  lime  (CaC). 

B.  Silliman,  Jr.,  obtained  for  a  recent  species  of  madrepora: 
carbonate  of  lime,  94.807;  phosphates,  fluorides,  etc.,  0.745; 
organic  matter,  4.448.  And  the  deposits  of  phosphates  and 
fluorides  afforded  the  percentage,  Si  12.5,  Ca  7.5,  Mg  4.2, 
MgF  26.62,  CaF  26.34,  MgP  8.00,  Al  and  fe  14.84. 

Marble. — ^Under  this  name  a  number  of  varieties  of  calcite 
are  included,  which  are  sought  after  in  the  arts.  In  fact,  when 
the  granular  limestones  are  compact,  and  are  fit  for  polishing 
or  for  architectural  or  ornamental  use,  they  are  called  marbles. 
The  colors  are  various.  Statuary  Marble  is  pure  white,  fine- 
grained, and  firm  in  texture.     The  PaHan  marble,  from  the 


254  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

island  of  Paros,  and  the  Carrara^  of  Modena,  Italy,  are  among 
the  best  statuary  marbles. 

What  is  sought  after  in  marble  is  a  uniform  disposition  of 
the  coloring  material;  these  colors  may  be  imiform  white^ 
black,  yellow,  and  red.  Variegated  marbles  are  also  much 
sought  after.  Marbles  colored  in  veins  of  black  and  white  are 
called  St.  Anne. 

The  Porter^  called  sometimes  Egyptian  marble,  is  of  black 
color,  handsomely  veined  with  yellow  dolomite,  and  comes 
from  Porto-venere,  near  Spezzia.  Marbles  are  not  necessarily 
exclusively  composed  of  carbonate  of  lime ;  thus,  the  marble 
called  verd-^ntique  is  filled  w^ith  veins  of  serpentine  and  talc. 

Shell  Marlles  include  kinds  consisting  largely  of  fossil  shells. 
Madreporic  marble  contains  corals.  EncrindL  contains  cri- 
noidal  remains. 

Ruin  Marble  is  a  kind  of  compact  calcareous  marl,  showing, 
when  polished,  pictures  of  fortifications,  temples,  etc.,  in  ruins, 
due  to  oxide  of  iron. 

Lithographic  Stone  is  a  very  even-grained,  compact  lime- 
stone, usually  of  buif  or  drab  color. 

Breccia  Marhle  is  made  of  fragments  of  limestone  cemented 
together.     Colors  are  various. 

Pudding-stone  Marhle  consists  of  pebbles  or  rounded  stones 
cemented. 

Hydraulic  limestone  is  an  impure  limestone.  The  French 
varieties  contain  2  or  3  per  cent,  of  magnesia  and  10  to  20  of 
silica  and  alumina  (clay).  The  varieties  in  the  United  States 
contain  20  to  40  per  cent,  of  magnesia  and  12  to  30  per  cent, 
of  silica  and  alumina.  A  variety  worked  extensively  at  Ron- 
dout,  N.  Y.,  (Contains,  CO2  34.20,  lime  25.50,  magnesia  12.35, 
silica  15.37,  alumina  9.13,  sesquioxide  of  iron  2.25.  Accord- 
ing to  Prof.  Beck  (Min.  N.  Y.,  78),  oxide  of  iron  is  rather 
prejudicial  to  it  than  otherwise. 

Carrara  Marble  has  the  following  composition,  according 
to  K»ppel  (J.  Pr.  Ch.,  Ivii,  324) :  CaC  98.765,  MgC  0.900, 
Si  0.006,  Fe,  Mn,  A  0.083,  sand  0.1560,  P  and  loss  0.090=100. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  255 

DOLOMITE. 

When  dolomite  is  pure,  it  has  the  following  composition : 
Cat  54.35,  MgC  45.65  (CaC-f  MgC).  Crystallizes  in  rhombo- 
hedron,  the  angle  of  which,  on  account  of  its  variation  of 
composition,  varies  between  106°  10'  and  106°  20'.  Hardness 
=  3.5-4.  Specific  gravity,  2.8-2.9,  true  dolomite.  Lustre 
vitreous,  inclining  to  pearly  in  some  varieties.  Colors  are  not 
very  decided,  although  it  may  be  white,  reddish,  or  greenish- 
white  ;  also  rose-red,  green,  brown,  gray,  and  black.  A  very 
rare  variety,  miemite,  has  a  very  decided  green  color  (aspara- 
gus green),  owing  to  the  presence  of  iron.  Part  of  the 
magnesia  is  replaced  in  some  dolomites  by  protoxide  of  iron, 
manganese,  and,  more  rai*ely,  oxide  of  cobalt  and  zinc. 

A  sample  of  dolomite  from  Westchester  County,  N".  T., 
gave,  according  to  Alsop  (Ann.  Lye,  N.  Y.,  viii) :  CaC  54.91, 
MgC  43.63,  FeC  1.23,  insol.  1.30  =  100  oz. 

A  sample  of  miemo,  miemite  (Eammelsberg,  Min.  Ch.,  213), 
gave:  CaC  57.91,  MgC  38.97,  FeC  1.74,  MnC,  0.57  =  99.19. 

A  sample  of  Jena,  crystallized,  uncolored,  gave,  according  to 
Suckow :  CaC  55.2,  MgC  44.7  =  99.9. 

T,  S.  Hunt  says  that  dolomites  make  up  the  chief  part  of 
the  Calciferous,  Clinton,  Trenton,  Guelp,  Niagara,  and  Onon- 
daga limestones  of  Canada.  Thus  we  see  that  the  limestone 
strata  of  the  globe  is  partly  dolomitic. 

Before  the  blowpipe  it  acts  like  calcite,  but  with  nitrate  of 
cobalt  the  presence  of  magnesia  can  be  ascertained.  Dolomite 
does  not  effervesce  as  easily  as  calcite,  especially  when  pure. 
If  in  a  powdered  state  and  heated,  the  acid  dissolves  it.  Ter- 
riferous  dolomites  become  brown  on  exposure. 

Dolomite  is  found  at  Salzburg,  the  Tyrol ;  Hungary,  Frei- 
berg, in  Saxony.  In  the  United  States,  in  Vermont,  at  Rox- 
bury ;  in  Rhode  Island,  at  Smithfield ;  New  Jersey,  at  Hobo- 
ken  ;  New  York,  at  Lockport,  Niagara  Falls,  and  Rochester. 
Dolomite  is  sometimes  used  for  making  lime ;  some  varieties 
are  used  as  marble.  It  is  also  used  in  the  manu&cture  of 
Epsom  salts. 


256  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


7.  CARBON. 

Carbon  occurs  in  nature  crystallized  as  the  Diamond  and 
«fl  Graphite. 

DIAMOND. 

The  diamond  is  nearly,  chemically,  pure  carbon.  It  crys- 
tallizes in  the  Isometric  system.  Its  forms  are  various.  Its 
usual  forms  are,  though,  the  octahedron  and  the  hexoctahedron. 
Hardness  =  10.  Sp.  Gr.  =  3.52955  (Thompson) ;  3.55  (Pe- 
louze).  Color  white  or  colorless ;  occasionally  tinged  yellow, 
red,  orange,  green,  blue,  brown,  and  sometimes  black.  Lustre 
brilliant  adamantine.  Transparent,  translucent,  and  opaque. 
Fracture  conchoidal.  Index  of  refraction  2.439.  Exhibits 
vitreous  electricity  when  rubbed. 

The  crystals  often  contain  numerous  microscopic  cavities,  as 
detected  by  Brewster,  and  some  are  rendered  nearly  black  by 
their  number.  The  black  planes  of  diamonds  reflect  all  the 
light  that  strikes  them  at  an  angle  exceeding  24°  13',  and 
hence  comes  the  peculiar  •  brilliancy  of  the  gem.  In  black 
pebbles  or  masses  called  carhonada^  occasionally  1000  carats 
in  weight.  Hardness  =  10.  Sp.  Gr.  =  3.012-3.416.  Consist 
of  pure  carbon,  excepting  0.27  to  2.07  per  cent. 

The  diamond  was  burned  in  the  academy  at  Florence  for 
the  first  time  in  1694,  by  a  powerful  burning-glass.  The 
crystalline  colorless  varieties  gave  only  0.01  per  cent,  of  ash. 
In  the  colored  varieties  the  proportion  is  lai-ger,  the  black 
diamond  giving  2-3  per  cent. 

The  Ancients  knew  nothing  about  cutting  diamonds,  and 
wore  the  natural  stone.  Louis  Berqueu  of  Bruges  in  Belgium, 
in  1456,  discovered  for  the  first  time  the  method  of  cutting  the 
diamond  so  as  to  increase  its  lustre.  Diamonds  not  fit  to  cut 
are  used  for  ends  of  tools  for  drilling  or  turning  hard  rocks, 
such  as  granite  or  porphyry.  The  small  stones  which  have  a 
very  sharp  edge  are  used  for  cutting  glass.  The  clear  stones 
of  diamonds  have  long  been  used  as  jewels  for  watches.    The 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


257 


black  diamond  has  also  been  used  for  a  long  time  for  turning, 
and  lately  in  this  country  for  drilling  the  harder  rocks. 

A  diamond  of  5-6  carats  is  a  very  large  stone ;  those  of 
12-20  are  very  rare,  and  very  few  are  known  that  weigh  more 
than  100  carats. 

WEIGHT  OP  THE  LARGEST  DIAMONDS  KNOWN. 


Naxi. 


Rajah 

Great  Mogal 

Orloff 

Koh-i-noor 

Fortagaeee 

Florentine 

Begent 

Star  of  the  Son  th... 
Koh-i-noor  (recat) . 

Shah 

Saltan  of  Turkey... 


Uncut. 

Cut. 

__ 

867  carats. 

900  carats. 

879A  " 

— 

194i    *• 

798     " 

186     " 

— 

148     " 

— 

189i    " 

410      *• 

1861    " 

S5U    " 

126^    " 

— 

106tV" 

-- 

96     " 

— 

84     ♦» 

Naxe. 


Piggott 

Nassac 

Dresden 

Sancy 

Engenie 

Pasha 

Dresden  (green). 

Hope  (blae) 

Polar  Star 

Camberland 

Bassian  (red) 


CJUT. 


esih  carats. 

781 

76* 

58» 

51 

49 

48i 

44i 

40 

89 

in 

u 

As  the  diamond  is  very  difficult  to  distinguish  from  some 
closely  allied  stones,  it  is  better  not  to  trust  to  the  judgment 
alone,  though  some  jewelers  think  they  can  detect  the  dia- 
mond with  ease. 

The  following  table,  given   by  Prof.  Egleston,  affords  a 


scientific  means : 


TABLE  FOR  DISTINGUISHING  PRECIOUS  STONES. 


Stohb. 

Dxnbitt. 

BmiACTioir. 

Ikdbz  of 
Bbfraotiozt. 

Electbicitt. 

Diamond 

8.5a-a55 

[.  8.9-4.8 

8.5-3.8 
84-3.6 
3.8-8.5 
2.6-2.8 
8.4-43.8 
4.4-4.6 
2.6-2.8 
Var.  8.5 

Simple. 
Doable,  1  axis. 

Doable. 
Doable,  2  axes. 

Doable. 
Doable,  1  axis. 

Simple. 
Doable,  1  axis. 

2.456 

1.766 

1.760 
1.686 
1.660 
1.585 
1.756 
1.990 

Positive,  not  darable. 

Baby.  Sapphire,  and 
Oriental  Amethyst 

Chrysoberyl 

White  Topaz 

Chnrsollte 

Lasts  several  hoars. 

Lasts  several  hoa'rs. 
More  than  24  hourc. 
Positive. 

Smerald 

Positive. 

Spinel 

Not  tried. 

Zircon 

Positive,  not  darable. 

Qoartz 

Doable,  1  axis.  '        1.549          Positive,  not  durable. 

Strass 

Simple.         1          —            Not  dnrable,  variable. 

1 

1 

17 


258  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

Some  diamonds  Iiave  red,  white  and  black  spots,  and  if  the 
diamond  is  heated  to  redness,  protected  from  the  air,  these 
spots  disappear.  This  would  seem  to  speak  for  the  formation 
of  the  diamond  below  red-heat.  Jacquelin  transformed  the 
diamond  into  graphite  by  exposing  it  to  an  electrical  current, 
which  seems  to  prove  that  diamond  and  graphite  are  only 
allotropic  conditions  of  carbon.  The  diamond  has  been  formed 
probably,  like  coal,  by  a  slow  decomposition  of  substances 
containing  carbon,  whether  vegetable  or  mineral,  or  even 
animal  matters.  Many  attempts  have  been  made  to  make  the 
diamond  artificially,  but  only  very  small  crystals,  if  any,  have 
been  formed. 

The  finest  diamonds  have  been  obtained  from  the  mines  of 
India,  which  are  no  longer  worked.  There  are  diamond  mines 
in  the  Urals  and  in  Brazil.  The  Brazil  mines  were  opened  in 
1727,  and  it  is  estimated  that  at  least  two  tons  of  diamonds 
have  been  obtained  from  them.  Diamonds  are  also  largely 
found  in  Africa,  in  the  province  of  Constantine.  In  the  United 
States,  a  few  crystals  have  been  found  in  Rutherford  Co.,  N.  C, 
and  HaU  Co.  (Am.  J.  Sci.,  II,  ii,  253,  and  xv,  373) ;  they  have 
been  found  also  in  Portis  mine,  Franklin  Co.,  N.  C.  (Genth) ; 
one  handsome  one,  over  one-third  of  an  inch  in  diameter,  was 
found  in  the  village  of  Manchester,  opposite  Kichmond,  Va. 
Diamonds  have  also  been  found  in  California,  ^N'evada  and 
Colorado. 

A  diamond,  when  cut  and  polished,  of  the  purest  water 
(perfectly  colorless,  without  any  defects),  weighing  one  carat, 
is  valued  at  £12  in  England ;  and  the  value  of  others  is  calcu- 
lated by  multiplying  the  square  of  the  weight  by  12,  except 
for  those  exceeding  20  carats,  the  value  of  which  increase  at  a 
much  more  rapid  rate.  The  slightest  tinge  or  color,  or  defect, 
affects  greatly  the  conmiercial  value. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


259 


GRAPHITE. 

Graphite  is  also  called  Plumbago  and  Black  Lead.  Its 
compositioii  is  pure  carbon,  with  often  a  little  oxide  of  iron 
mechanically  mixed. 

The  following  analyses  have  been  made  of  different  graphites 
by  C.  M6ne  (C.  E.,  Ixiv,  1091,  1867) : 


Sp.  Ob. 

Cabbov. 

Vol. 

Ahh. 

CoHPOSinoK  100  Pabts  Ash. 

LooAunxB. 

r 

m  . 

Si. 

Al. 

Fe. 

MgCa. 

Alk.Aiid 
loss. 

Ural,  Mt.  Alibert. 
Camberland,  Eng. 
Ceara,  Brazil 

2.1750 
2.8465 
2.8866 

94.08 
91.56 
77.16 

0.72 
1.10 
2.56 

5.25 

7.85 

20.80 

64J2 
62.5 
79.0 

24.7 
28.8 
11.7 

10 
12 
7.8 

0.8 
6.0 
1.6 

0.8 
1.2 

Kegnault  (Ann.  Ch.  Phys.,  II,  i,  202)  found : 


LOCALITIBB. 

c. 

H. 

Ash. 

Canada  (T\ 

86.8 

76.86 

96.66 

0.6 

0.70 

r.84 

12.6   =   99.9 

*'     ai) 

28.40  =  100.46 

\** »•...  ....  .....  ............... 

»*     (III) 

0.20  =  100.10 

Hardness  =  1-2.  Specific  gravity  =  2.0891 ;  of  Ticonder- 
oga,  2.229  (Kenngott);  2.14  (Wunsiedel,  Fuchs).  Color,  black. 
Streak,  black  and  shining.  Lustre  metallic,  opaque.  Sectile ; 
soils  the  fingers.  Infusible.  Bums  at  a  high  temperature, 
without  fiame  or  smoke,  leaving  usually  some  oxide  of  iron. 
Not  acted  on  by  acids. 

Graphite  in  some  places  is  coal  altered  by  heat.  It  is 
largely  used  in  the  arts  for  the  manufacture  of  lead  pencils 
and  crucibles,  also  as  a  lubricator.  It  is  found  at  Burrowdale, 
in  Cumberland.  Found  in  the  United  States  in  Massachu- 
setts, Rhode  Island,  Connecticut,  Vermont,  New  York,  and 
elsewhere. 


260 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


8.  CHROMIUM. 

The  principal  Chromium  mineral  is  chromite  (^e,  Cr,  Mg) 
(Al,  fe,  €r).  This  mineral,  called  also  chromic  iron,  is  the 
ore  which  famishes  the  chromium  in  the  arts.  When  pure, 
contains  oxide  of  iron  32,  and  oxide  of  chromium  68  =  100 
(Fe  €r). 

The  following  table '^  contains  a  number  of  analyses  of 
chromic  iron : 


LOOAUTIBS. 


1.  Cheater  County,  Pa. 


ti 


ti 


ti 


2. 

8.  Baltimore  (maBsWe) 

4.        "         (crystallized).... 


Fb. 

Mo. 

••• 

■Gn, 

••• 

86.14 

._ 

61.66 

9.78 

^  88.96 

— 

60.84 

0.93 

18.97 

9.96 

4491 

1&86 

90.13 

7.46 

60.04 

11.86 

Sl 


S.90  =  99.88 
0.68,    Ni0.10 
0.88  =  96  86 
—  =99.46 


Hardness  =  5.5.  Specific  gravity,  4.321,  crystals  (Thom- 
son) ;  4.498,  a  variety  from  Styria ;  4.568,  Texas,  Pennsylvania. 
Lustre  is  semi-metallic.  Fracture  uneven.  Color,  brownish- 
black.  Streak,  brown.  Opaque.  Sometimes  slightly  mag- 
netic. Chromic  iron  is  one  of  the  spinels  of  iron,  a  sort  of 
magnetite,  and  cannot  be  distinguished  from  magnetite  with 
certainty  except  by  its  chemical  properties. 

Chromic  iron  is  not  fusible  before  the  blowpipe ;  ir.  R.  F. 
becomes  slightly  rounded  on  the  edges,  as  also  magnetic. 
With  borax  and  salt  of  phosphorus  when  cool  give  chrome- 
green  color ;  the  green  color  is  heightened  by  fusion  on  char- 
coal with  metallic  tin.  It  is  not  attacked  by  acids,  but 
decomposed  by  fusion  with  bisulphate  of  potash  and  soda. 

Occurs  in  serpentine,  forming  veins,  or  imbedded  masses. 
It  assists  in  giving  the  variegated  color  to  verde-antique 
marble. 

♦  Analysis  No.  1,  Seybert  (Am.  J.  Sci.,  iv,  321) ;  No.  2,  Starr  (Am.  J.  Set, 
n,  xiv);  No.  8,  Abich ;  No.  4,  Abicli  (Pogg.,  xxiii,  835). 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


261 


It  is  found  in  large  quantities  in  veins  or  masses  in  serpen- 
tine, at  Baltimore,  Md.  Found  in  crystals  abundantly  in 
Pennsylvania.  Found  massive  in  New  Jersey,  Vermont, 
Massachusetts,  and  California. 

The  ore  obtained  in  England  is  procured  mostly  from  Balti- 
more, Drontheim,  and  Shetland  Isles ;  it  amounts  to  2000  tons 
annually. 

9.   COBALT. 

The  principal  Cobalt  minerals  are : 


Naxe. 

Hari>- 

KSS8. 

Sp.  Gb. 

Formula. 

COXPOBITIOK. 

LiniiflRite 

5.6 

4.8-5 

2Co  S  +  Co  Sa 

Co  =  58;    S  =  4S 

Bieberite 

—  ?  — 

1.994 

(Co,  Mg)8 +  7H 

Co  =  26.5;    8  =  28.4;    H  =  46.1 

Smaltite 

5.5-6 

6.4-7.2 

(Co,  Fe,  Nl)  Ab, 

Co=9.4;  Ab=72.1;  Ni=9.6;  Fe=9 

Cobaltlte 

5.5 

6-«.8 

Co  (S,  A8)a 

Co  =  85.5;   Ab  =  45.2;   8  =  19.8 

Erythrite 

1.5-2.5 

2.948 

Co  Ab  +  RH 

Co=87.55;  'Ab=88.48;  H=84.02 

Remingtonite. 

-?  — 

-?- 

—  ?- 

—  ?  — 

Earthy  Cobalt. 

2—2.5 

8.15-8.29 

(Co,  Ca)  Mn,  +  4H 

SometimeB  82^  Co 

SMALTITE. 

The  composition  of  smaltite  when  pure  is  Co  =  9.4 ;  As  = 
72.1 ;  Ni  =  9.5 ;  Fe  =  9.0  (Co,  Fe,  Ni)  Asg.  The  following  are 
a  few  analyses : 


LOCALITIBB. 


1.  Schne€berg , 

2.  Chatham,  Conn 

8.  Richelsdorf,  Conn.. 


Ab. 

Co. 

Ni. 
1.79 

Fi. 

Cu. 

S. 

TO.87 

13.95 

11.71 

1.89 

0.66 

TO.U 

8.82 

9.44 

11.86 

— 

4.78 

60.42 

10.80 

26.87 

0.80 

— 

2.11 

Bi. 


0.01  =  99.88 

—  =100 

—  =100 


AnalyatB  No.  1  was  made  by  Uoflhaann  (Pofrg.,  xrv,  485);  No.  2  by  Genth;  No.  8  by 
Bammclsberg. 

Hardness  =  5.5-6.     Specific  gravity,  4.4-7.2.     Color  gen- 
erally a  silver  or  tin  white,  sometimes  iridescent  or  grayish 


262 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


from  tarnish.  Streak  graylBh-black.  Lustre  metallic.  Brittle. 
Fracture  granular  and  uneven. 

On  charcoal  it  gives  off  arsenic,  and  Aises  to  a  globule.  lu 
a  closed  tube  gives  a  sublimate  of  metallic  arsenic ;  in  an  open 
tube  a  white  sublimate  of  arsenious  acid,  and  sometimes  traces 
of  sulphurous  acid.  With  the  fluxes  it  affords  the  reactions  for 
Co,  Fe,  and  Ni.     It  is  not  attacked  by  the  non-oxidizing  acids. 

Occurs  with  silver  and  copper  at  Freiberg  and  particularly 
at  Schneeberg,  in  Saxony.  It  has  been  found  at  Chatham, 
Conn. ;  also  in  crystals  at  Mine  La  Motte,  Missouri.  It  is 
used  for  making  smalt ;  hence  its  name. 


COBALTITE. 

Cobaltite  has  the  following  composition  when  pure :  Cobalt 
=  35.5 ;  arsenic  =  45.2  ;  sulphur  =  19.3  [C0S2  -f-  CoAsg  or 
Co  (S,  As)2].  The  cobalt,  though,  is  sometimes  replaced 
largely  by  iron,  and  sparingly  by  copper. 


LOOALITIBB. 

S. 

As. 

Co. 

Fl. 

1.  Skattenid 

%        "         

90.06 
90.85 
19.08 

48.46 
49.97 
48.14 

88.10 

89.07 

9.63 

3.98  =  99.87 

8.49,    quartz  1.68  =  100.84 

8.  Siegen  plumose. 

94.99, 8b  1.04,  Ca9.86,  gangne  0.69=100.75 

Analysis  No.  1  was  made  by  Stromeyer  (Sctaw.  J.,  xix,  886). 
*'        No.  9        '*        *^     Eblnghaus  (Ramm.,  4th  Suppl.,  116). 
"        No.  8        ''        "     Heidingsfeld  (Bamm.,  6Ui  SappL) 

Hardness  =  5.5.  Specific  gravity  =  6-6.3.  Color  silver 
white,  often  a  little  rosy  and  also  grayish,  if  much  iron  is 
present.  Streak  grayish-black.  Lustre  metallic.  Fracture 
uneven  and  lamellar.     Brittle. 

Not  altered  in  a  closed  tube,  but  in  an  open  tube  gives 
sulphurous  ftimes,  and  a  crystalline  sublimate  of  arsenious 
acid.  On  charcoal,  affords  fumes  of  sulphur  and  arsenic,  and 
fuses  to  a  magnetic  globule.  With  the  fluxes  gives  the  reac- 
tions for  Ni,  Co,  Fe.  It  is  soluble  in  warm  nitric  acid,  sepa- 
rating arsenious  acid  and  sulphur. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


263 


Found  at  Hokansbo  and  Tunaberg,  in  Sweden,  in  splendid 
large  crystalfi.  Also  at  Skutterud,  in  jfforway.  The  most 
productive  mines  are  those  of  Vena,  in  Sweden,  where  it 
occurs  in  mica  slate ;  these  mines  were  first  opened  in  1809. 
This  species  and  smaltite  aflFord  the  greater  part  of  the  smalt 
of  commerce.  Sometimes  the  black  oxide  of  cobalt,  a  kind  of 
bog  ore  and  very  impure,  is  sometimes  sufficiently  abundant 
to  be  valuable. 


10.    COPPER, 
The  principal  Copper  minerals  are : 


Naxb. 


Habd- 

NB8B. 


Sp.  Gb. 


Native  Copper 

3.6 

Cnprite 

a6-4 

Chalcocite .... 

3.6-8 

Bomite 

8 

Cbalcopyrite. . 

8,6-4 

Tennantite . . . 

8.6-^ 

Tetrahedrite.. 

8—4.6 

Chalcanthite.. 

3.6 

Brochantite... 

8.6-4 

Atacamite 

8-8.6 

Libethenite... 

4 

Oleyenite 

8 

liroconlte .... 

3-8.6 

Malachite 

8.6-4 

Aznrite 

a5-4.36 

6.86-6.16 
6.6-^.8 

4.4-6.6 

4.1-4.8 

4.87-4.63 

4JJ-6.11 

3.18 
8.78-8.87 
4-4.8 
8.6-8.8 

4.1-4.4 


3.888— 
3.965 


8.7-4.01 
3.5-8.881 


FOBMUUk. 


Cu 

■ea 

«aS 
(Ca  Fe)  8 

•Cu  8  +  Fe  S  +  Fe  S, 
4  (ea,Fe)  8  +  As.S, 

4(Cu,Fe,Zn,ttj»Ag)S 
(8b,  A8),S, 

CaS  +  6H 

3Ca,  S  +  Ca  H  4-  4H 

On  CI  H  +  8Cu  H 

Cu.  t»  +  H 

•  •  •  •        mm  m  • 

Cu«  (As,  P)  +  H 

_  ••  •• 

•  ••  mm  • 

Cn  (As,  P) 

+  (ICu,  +  i&) 

H,  -i-  9H 

•  •  •  •  • 

Cu,  C  +  H 
SCuC  +  CuH 


COHPOBinOlT. 


\ 


Cu  =  100 

Cu  =  88.8;    0  =  11.3 

Cu  =  79.8;     8  =  30.3 

For  (ICu  +  JFe)  8  = 
Cti=T0.18;    Fe=7.76;    8=33.11 

Cii  =  34.6;    Fe  =  80.6;    8  =  34.9 

i       Cu  =  47.7;    Fe  =  9.76; 
1       As  =  13.46;     8  =  80.35 

Cii=19.36;  Fe=3-7;Zn=l-7; 
Ag  =  O— 81 :    As  =  O— 11; 
8b  =  11—88;     8  =  19-88 


I 


Cu  =  81.8;  8  =  83.1;  H  =  86.1 
Cu  =  69:    8  =  19.9:    H  =  11.1 

Ca  =  68.6;  CaCa  =  80.3;  H  =  16.3 
Ca  =  66.6;    'f=S9.7;    H  =  &8 

j        Ca  =  67.4;  "Ab  =  86.7; 

(  'P'=   8.7;     H=    8.3 

Ca  =  86.88;    As  =  88.06. 
'P'=  8.73 ;  A  =  10.86 ;  H  =86.01 

Ca  =  71.9;    C  =  19.9;    H  =  8.3 
Ca  =  60.3;    0  =  36.6;    H=6.8 


264  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

NATIVE    COPPER. 

When  perfectly  pure,  native  copper  consists  of  copper, 
100  per  cent.,  but  it  often  contains  some  silver  and  bismuth. 
Hautefeuille  states  that  a  Lake  Supierior  specimen  gave  cop- 
per 69.280,  silver  5.54:3,  mercury  0.0119,  gangue  25.248; 
while  F.  A.  Abel  found  in  a  specimen  of  same,  which  had  a 
thick  vein  of  native  silver  running  through  it,  0.002  per  cent, 
of  silver,  with  a  trace  of  lead,  and  in  another  0.56  silver  (J.  Ch. 
Soc,  II,  i,  89).  Abel  obtained  for  a  Uralian,  from  the 
Kirghiz  District,  0.034  silver,  0.11  bismuth,  a  trace  of  lead, 
and  1.28  of  arsenic.  Color,  copper  red.  Streak,  metallic, 
shining;  ductile  and  malleable.  Fracture  is  hackly.  Lustre 
metallic. 

Fuses  easily ;  on  cooling  becomes  covered  with  a  coating  of 
black  oxide.     Dissolves  readily  in  acids. 

Copper  occurs  native  in  beds  and  veins,  and  is  most  abun- 
dant in  the  vicinity  of  dikes  and  igneous  rocks.  Sometimes 
found  in  loose  masses  in  the  soil. 

Found  in  fine  crystals  at  Turinsk  in  the  Urals.  Brazil, 
Chili,  Bolivia  and  Peru  aiford  native  copper.  Found  also  in 
China  and  Japan.  Found  in  Massachusetts,  Connecticut  and 
New  Jersey.  The  largest  deposits  in  the  world  are  found, 
though,  at  Kewenaw  Point,  Lake  Superior,  where  it  occurs  in 
veins  that  intersect  the  trap  and  sandstone.  The  largest  mass 
of  copper  ever  found  was  at  the  Minnesota  mine ;  it  was  45  feet 
in  length,  22  feet  at  the  greatest  width,  and  the  thickest  part 
was  eight  feet.  It  contained  over  90  per  cent,  of  copper,  and 
weighed  about  420  tons.  Found  also  in  small  quantities  in 
California  and  Colorado,  and  in  large  drift  masses  in  Russian 
America. 

CUPRITE. 

The  composition  of  Cuprite,  when  pure,  is  copper  88.8; 
oxygen  11.2  (Cu).  It  sometimes  afibrds  traces  of  selenium. 
Von  Bibra  found  the  tile  ore  of  Algodon  Bay,  Bolivia,  to  con- 
tain chlorine,  and  to  be  a  mixture  of  atacamite,  cuprite,  hema- 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


265 


tite,  and  other  earthy  materials ;  he  obtained  from  one,  ata- 
comite  31.82,  cnprite  10.85,  sesquioxide  of  iron  20.50,  gangue 
34.4:2,  water,  antimony  and  loss  2.87  (J.  pr.  Ch.,  xcvi,  203). 

Color  is  dark  blood-red,  sometimes  almost  black.  Streak 
dark  cochineal-red.  Subtransparent,  subtranslucent.  Frac- 
ture conchoidal,  imeven.  Brittle.  Lustre  adamantine  or  sub- 
metallic  to  earthy. 

In  oxidizing  flame,  it  is  infusible,  and  gives  a  black  scoria. 
In  the  reducing  flame,  it  gives  a  button  of  metallic  copper, 
which  is  malleable  and  ductile.  Soluble  in  HCl  and  HNO3. 
Unaltered  in  the  closed  tube. 

Abundant  in  Chili,  Peru  and  Bolivia.  Crystals  in  this 
region  simply  cubes  (D.  Forbes).  When  found  in  large  quan- 
tities, this  mineral  is  valuable  as  an  ore  of  copper.  Found  at 
Sommerville,  N.  J.,  Cornwall,  Pa.,  and  Lake  Superior. 

CHALCOCITE. 

Composition,  when  pure,  copper  79.8,  sulphur  20.2  (CuS). 
It  generally  contains  iron,  and  sometimes  silica  and  silver. 


LOCAUTIEB. 


1.  Stegen  

S.  Montagone,  Tuscany. 
&  Bristol,  Conn 


8. 

Cu. 

Pb. 

19.00 

79.50 

0.75 

21.90 

71.31 

6.49 

30.96 

79.42 

0.88 

Si. 


1.00  =  100.25 
—  =   99.70 
Ag0.11  =  100.12 


Analysis  No.  1  is  by  UUmann  (Syst.  tab.  Uebeis,  948). 
'*         No.  2  (Ramm.,  6th  Suppl.,  151,  and  Min.  Ch.,  997). 
'*        No.  8  (Private  contribntion  to  Dana's  Mineralogy). 

Hardness  =  2.5-3.  Sp.  Gr.  =  5.5-5.8 ;  5.7522  (Thompson). 
It  crystallizes  as  a  right  rhombic  prism  119°  35'.  Color  and 
streak  dark-blue,  almost  black.  Lustre  metallic.  Streak  some- 
times shining.  Ductile,  easily  cut  with  knife  into  curved 
shavings. 

Yields  nothing  volatile  in  closed  tube.  Melts  in  flame  of 
candle,  giving  off  sulphurous  fumes.  Melts  to  globule  of  cop« 
per  on  charcoal.     Soluble  in  hot  nitric  acid. 

Splendid  crystals  are  found  at  Cornwall.     Found  massive 


266 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


in  Siberia,  Tuscany,  Mexico,  Peru,  Bolivia  and  Chili.  Found 
massive  at  Bristol,  Conn. ;  also  in  New  York,  New  Jersey, 
Yirginia,  and  other  States. 

BORNITE. 

The  formula  for  Bornite  is  (Cu,Fe)S,  with  the  proportion 
of  copper  and  iron  varying.     The  following  are  some  analyses : 


LOOALXnXB. 


1.  St.  Poncrace 

S.  Delarae  (maeBive) . . 
8.  Jenrteland,  Sweden. 
4.  BamoB,  Mexico 


s. 

Or. 

2S.8 

60.2 

36.80 

66.10 

24.48 

60.71 

28.46 

02.17 

Fe. 


18.0,  gangae  6.0  =  100 
17.86,  Si  =  0.18  r=    00.88 
11.13,  Mn  trace,  Si  =  8.88  =  00.16 
11.78,  Ag  =  2JJ8  =  100 


AnalysiB  No.  1  by  Berttaier  (Ann.  de  M.,  lO,  vii,  640,  666). 
No.  2  by  Plattner  (Pogg.,  xlvii,  851). 
No.  8  by  D.  Forbes  (Ed.  N.  Phil.  J.,  I,  278). 
No.  4  by  C.  Bergenuum  (Jahrb.  Min.,  1867, 864). 


II 


Hardness  =  3.  Specific  gravity  =  4.4-5.6.  Specific  gravity 
of  Analysis  No.  3,  4.432.  Color  is  reddish-brown,  or  a  black 
violet-blue,  with  a  great  variation  in  colors,  owing  to  tarnish. 
Streak  pale  grayish-black,  or  blackish  bronze-yellow,  slightly 
shining.  Lustre  metallic.  Fracture  small  conchoidal,  uneven. 
Brittle. 

Gives  in  a  closed  tube  a  faint  sublimate  of  sulphur.  In  the 
oxidizing  fiame  it  is  roasted  with  sulphurous  odor;  in  the 
reducing  fiame  a  half-melted  globule,  which  is  attracted  by 
the  magnet.     Soluble  in  nitric  acid  with  separation  of  sulphur. 

It  is  generally  found  compact,  and  owing  to  its  variation  of 
colors,  easily  detected.  It  is  a  valuable  ore  of  copper.  Crys- 
talline varieties  are  found  at  Cornwall,  and  mostly  near 
Redruth.  It  is  the  principal  copper  ore  at  some  Chilian  mines, 
especially  those  of  Tamayo  and  Sapos ;  also  common  in  Peru, 
Bolivia  and  Mexico.  At  the  copper  mines  of  Bristol,  Conn., 
it  is  abundant,  and  often  in  fine  crystals.  It  occurs  also  in 
Massachusetts,  New  Jersey,  Pennsylvania,  and  elsewhere. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


267 


CHALCOPYRITE. 

The  composition  of  Chalcopyrite,  when  pure,  is  copper  34.6, 
Bnlphur  34.9,  iron  30.5  (CuS+FeS  +  FeSa)  =  2QCu-|-iFe)S  + 
FeSg.  Some  analyses  give  other  proportions;  but  probably 
from  mixture  of  pyrite. 


LOCALTTIBS. 

S. 

Cu. 

Fi. 

QUABTZ. 

1.  Sayn 

85.87 
88.88 
86.10 

84.40 
82.65 
83.86 

30.47 
87.77 
89.98 

0.S7  =  100.01 

S.  Jemterd.  Sweden 

Mn  trace.  Si  0.88  -  99.68 

8.  FhenixYlIle 

Pb  0.85  =  09.88 

AzudyBlB  No.  1  by  H.  Rose  (G!bb,  Ixzli,  186). 

No.  2  by  D.  Forbes  (Ed.  N.  Phil.  J.,  I,  878). 
No.  8  by  J.  L.  Smith  (Am.  J.  Sci.,  n, 


»i 


II 


Hardness  =  3.5-4.  Specific  gravity  =  4.1-4.3.  Color  is 
l)ras8-yellow,  with  metallic  lustre.  It  is  subject  to  tarnish, 
and  is  often  iridescent.  Streak  is  greenish-black,  a  little 
shining.     Opaque.     Fracture  conchoidal,  uneven. 

Decrepitates  in  a  closed  tube,  and  gives  a  sulphur  sublimate. 
On  charcoal,  before  the  blowpipe  it  melts,  gives  off  sulphurous 
acid,  and  yields  a  metallic  globule.  Dissolves  in  nitric  acid, 
with  separation  of  sulphur. 

Chalcopyrite  is  a  very  valuable  ore  of  copper.  At  the  Corn- 
wall mines,  it  is  the  principal  ore  of  copper,  and  10,000  to 
12,000  tons  of  pure  copper  are  smelted  annually  from  150,000 
to  160,000  tons  of  ore.  There  are  large  beds  of  this  ore  at 
Fahlun,  in  Sweden;  it  occurs  also  at  Eammelsburg,  in  the 
Harz.  Found  in  fine  crystals  at  Cerro  Blanco,  in  Chili.  It 
is  found  in  Maine,  New  Hampshire,  Vermont,  Massachusetts, 
Connecticut,  New  York,  Pennsylvania,  Virginia,  North  Caro- 
lina, Tennessee,  and  California.  The  ore  is  extensively  mined 
at  Bruce  mine  on  Lake  Huron. 


268 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


TETRAHEDRITE. 

The  composition  of  Tetrahedrite  is  copper  19-25,  iron  2-7, 
zinc,  1-7,  silver  0-31,  arsenic  0-11,  antimony  11-28,  sulphur 
19-26  [4(€u,  Fe,  Zn,  Hg,  Ag)S(SbAs)2S3]. 


LOOAUTIBB. 


1.  Rammel8berg(ma88iye)  9K.88 


S. 


S.  Arkansaci 

8.  Freiberg 

4.  Poraiflcta,  Hangary. 
6. 


tt 


tt 


6.  Kotterbach 


7.  MotscheUandsbeig. 


86.71 
81.17 
83.0C 
34.87 

23.68 


Sb. 


2a78      — 

26.60 

34.68 

31.66 

26.48 

19.84 


21.90    28.46 


Afl. 

Cu. 

Vm. 

__ 

87.96 

8.34 

1.03 

86.40 

1.89 

— 

14.81 

696 

— 

39.04 

7.88 

trace 

30.68 

1.46 

3.94 

85.84 

0.87 

a8i 

83.19 

1.41 

Zh. 


3.63 
4.30 
0.99 


0.69 


0.10 


Aa. 


Om  =  97.96 

8.80  =  99.03 

81.39  =  96.87 

0.13,  Hg  0.63  =  100.63 

0.09,  Hg  16.69  =  96.67 

j—    Hg  17.27,  Pb  0.31, 
1  Bi  0.81  =  100 

( 0.10,  Hg  17.32,  Co  0.8& 
<    Bi  1.67,  guiigae  1.89 


AnalyBiH  No.  1  by  (B.  H.  Ztg.,  1868,  No.  3) ;  Analyeis  No.  2  by  J.  L.  Smitb  (Ann.  J.  ScL« 
n,  xliii,  67) ;  Analysis  No.  3  by  H.  Rose  (Pogg.,  xv,  676) ;  Analyses  No.  4  and  No.  6  ore  by 
Hauer  (Jahrb.  g.  Reichs,  1862,  98 ;  J.  pr.  Ch.,  be,  55) ;  Analysis  No.  6  by  Q.  v.  Bath  (Pogg.» 
zcYi,  823) ;  Analysis  No.  7  by  Oellacher  (Jahrb.  Min.,  1866,  694). 

Hardness  =  3-4.5.  Specific  gravity  =4.5-5.11.  Color  is 
a  blackish-gray,  which  is  more  or  less  dark.  Streak  gener- 
ally same  as  color ;  sometimes  inclined  to  brown  and  cherry- 
red.     Opaque.     Lustre  metallic.     Rather  brittle. 

In  the  oxidizing  fiame,  on  charcoal,  it  is  roasted,  giving  a 
slight  odor  of  areenic  and  fumes  of  antimony,  and  in  the 
reducing  flame,  gives  a  brittle  globule  of  copper.  Decom- 
posed by  nitric  acid,  with  separation  of  antimonious  and  arse- 
nions  acids. 

It  is  found  in  masses  with  or  without  gangue.  Tlie  Cornish 
mines,  near  St.  Aust.,  have  aflforded  large  tetrahedral  crystals 
with  rough  and  dull  surfaces.  More  brilliant  crystals  occur 
in  Cornwall.  The  ore  containing  mercury  occurs  in  Sclimdl- 
nitz,  Hungary.  Tetrahedrite  is  found  in  Mexico,  Chili,  Ar- 
kansas, Caliibmia,  and  Arizona. 

MALACHITE. 
Composition  of  Malachite,  when  pure,  is  protoxide  of  copper 
71.9;  carbonic  acid  19.9;  water  8.2  (Cu^C  +  H  =  CuC-f-CuH). 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


269 


LOCALXTIEB. 

•  • 

C. 

Cu. 

H. 

1.  TuijiuBk,  Ural 

2.  Cheesy 

18.0 

21.26 

19.09 

70.5 

70.10 

71.46 

11.5  =  100 
8.75  -  100.10 

8.  FhenixviUe 

9.02.  ^  0.12  =  99.60 

AnalyeiB  No.  1  by  Kaproth  (Beitr.,  11,  287, 1797). 
**        No.  2  by  Vaaquelin  (Ann.  du  Hub.,  zx,  1). 
"•        No.  8  by  J.  L.  Smith  (Am.  J.  Sci.,  n,  zz,  249). 

Hardness  =  8.6-4.  Specific  gravity  =  3.7-4.01.  Color  is 
green,  and  may  be  of  different  degrees  of  intensity.  Streak 
paler  than  color.  Translucent,  opaque.  Lustre  of  crystals. 
Adamantine,  inclining  to  vitreous ;  of  fibrous  varieties  more 
or  less  silky ;  often  dull  and  earthy.  Fracture  subconchoidal, 
uneven.     It  ciystallizes  an  inclined  rhombic  prism  of  104°  28'. 

In  a  closed  tube  blackens  and  gives  off  water.  It  melts  at  2, 
-coloring  the  flame  green,  and  gives  a  scoriaceous  mass.  On 
charcoal  with  the  reducing  flame  gives  a  globule  of  metallic 
'Copper.     Soluble  in  acids  with  effervescence. 

Green  malachite  accompanies  other  ores  of  copper.  It  is 
usually  found  in  concretionary  masses,  which  have  a  fibrous 
fracture,  rarely  conchoidal.     Their  lustre  is  silky  and  velvety. 

Occurs  abundantly  in  the  Urals ;  at  Chessy,  in  France ;  in 
the  old  mine  at  Sandlodge,  in  Shetland;  in  the  Tyrol;  in 
Cornwall  and  Cumberland,  England ;  also  in  handsome  masses 
at  Bembe,  on  west  coast  of  Africa ;  also  in  Cuba,  Chili,  and 
Australia.  It  is  found  in  the  United  States  at  Cheshire,  Conn. 
In  New  Jersey,  Pennsylvania,  Maryland,  Wisconsin  and  Cal- 
ifornia. Malachite  is  ^  valuable  ore  of  copper,  when  found  in 
large  quantities.  It  admits  of  a  high  polish,  and  when  in 
large  masses  is  cut  into  tables,  vases,  etc.  It  is  often  employed 
for  veneering  large  articles,  such  as  tables,  doors,  etc.  A  mass 
weighing  forty  tons  was  found  in  Siberia. 

AZURITE. 

Composition  of  Azurite,  when  pure,  is  oxide  of  copper  69.2, 
carbonic  acid  25.6,   water    5.2  (2CuC-f-CuH).      Hardness  = 


272 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


The  whole  amount  of  gold  in  the  auriferous  sands  of  the 
Khine  has  been  estimated  at  $30,000,000,  but  it  is  mostly  cov- 
ered by  soil  imder  cultivation.  In  the  Urals,  they  are  prin- 
cipally alluvial  washings,  and  these  washings  seldom  yield  less 
than  65  grains  of  gold  for  4000  pounds  of  soil,  and  rarely 
more  than  120.  The  mines  in  the  Ural  became,  after  1819, 
the  most  productive  in  the  world,  until  the  discovery  of  the 
California  mines. 

Gold  is  found  in  China,  Japan,  Africa,  and  South  America. 
It  is  found  in  the  Rocky  Mountains,  Mexico,  Sierra  !N^evada, 
and  California.  In  the  Eastern  States,  it  is  found  principally 
in  Virginia,  North  and  South  Carolina,  and  Georgia. 

12.  IRIDIUM. 
The  principal  ore  of  Iridium  is  Iridosmine. 

IRIDOSMINE. 

Composition  of  Iridosmine  is  iridium  and  osmium  in  dif- 
ferent proportions.  Some  rhodium,  platinum,  rutherium  and 
other  metals  are  usually  present. 


LOOAUTIBS. 

IB. 

Bd. 

Pt. 

Bu. 

08. 

Cu. 

Fe. 

1.  New  Grenada 

70.40 
43.88 

19.80 
6.78 

0.10 
0.63 

8.48 

17JK> 
40.11 

a78 

~    =  100 

i.  Rnsftla  (Sp. Or.  18.0)... 

0.90  =  100 

Hardness  =  6-7.     Specific  gravity.  =  19.3-21.12. 

Color  tin-white  or  steel-gray.  Lustre  metallic.  Opaque. 
Malleable  with  difficulty. 

At  a  very  high  temperature  gives  oif  fumes  of  osmium. 
With  nitre  gives  the  reaction  for  osmium. 

It  is  found  with  platinum  in  the  province  of  Choco,  in 
South  America ;  in  the  Ural  Mountains ;  in  Australia.  It  is 
rather  abundant  in  the  auriferous  beach-sands  of  Xorthem 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


271 


NATIVE  GOLD. 

The  composition  of  native  gold,  when  pure,  is  gold,  but  it 
sometimes  contains  traces  of  copper,  iron,  palladium,  and 
rhodium. 


LOCALTTIXS. 


1.  Wicklow  County,  Ireland.. 
9.  BoroBchka  (N.  TagUsk) . . . . 

8.  Bolivia,  Tipnani 

4.  New  Grenada,  Santa  Rosa. 

6.  Australia 

«.        "        

7.  Tasmania,  Fingal 


Sp.  Gb. 

Au. 

Ae. 

F& 

16.834 

02.88 

6.17 

0.78 

18.66 

94.41 

6.23 

0.04 

16.07 

91.96 

7.47 

Trace. 

1416 

64.98 

86.07 

— 

— 

95.48 

8.69 

— 

— 

99.28 

0.44 

0.20 

— 

90.89 

&03 

— 

Cu. 


—  =99.27 
0.89  =  100 

—  gangue  0.97  =  100 

—  =100 

—  quartz  0.10  =  99.17 
0.07.       Bi  0.01  =  100 
Tr.,  Sn,  Pb,  Co  1.0=99.91 


Hardness  =  2.5-3.  Specific  gravity  =  15.6-19.5  ;  19.30- 
19.34  when  quite  pure  (G.  Bose).  Color  and  streak  diflerent 
shades  of  gold-yellow,  sometimes  inclining  to  silver-white. 
Lustre  metallic.  Very  ductile  and  malleable.  Fuses  easily, 
but  gives  no  reaction  with  fluxes.  Not  soluble  in  any  acid 
except  aqua-regia. 

Gold  is  widely  distributed  over  the  globe,  and  occurs  in 
rocks  of  various  ages,  from  the  Eozoic  to  the  cretaceous  or 
tertiary.  In  Europe  it  is  most  abundant  in  Hungary  at 
Konigsberg,  Schemnitz  and  Felsobanya,  and  in  Transylvania. 
Occurs  in  the  sands  of  the  Rhine,  the  Eeuss,  the  Aar,  the 
Rhone,  and  the  Danube.  On  the  Alps,  in  Spain,  in  many 
streams  of  Cornwall,  in  Scotland,  Ireland  and  Sweden. 

The  large  fragments  found  in  sand  are  called  nuggets,  which 
are  of  considerable  size. 

The  following  table  gives  the  weight  of  the  principal  ones : 


Name.                       Weight. 

1 

Naih. 

W  BIGHT. 

Welcome  Nneset. 

184  lbs.  8  oz. 

Miask,  Urals 

27  lbs. 

BaUarat,     Australia     (value, 
•41^). 

Blanch  Barkley  Nugget 

Miask.  Urate 

ii         ti 

16  ** 

146  lbs. 
96  " 
27  " 

Paraguay 

60  " 

Cabarrus  County,  N.  C 

California 

87  " 
27  *' 

tt            u 

11 

17  " 

276 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


the  sea-shore,  where  the  constant  action  of  the  water  has 
washed  out  the  impurities  and  made  it  quite  pure. 

The  beds  of  ore  at  Arendal,  and  nearly  all  the  celebrated 
iron  mines  of  Sweden,  consist  of  massive  magnetite ;  Danne- 
mora  and  Taberg,  in  Smaoland,  are  entirely  formed  of  it. 
Still  larger  mountains  of  it  exist  at  Kurunavara  and  Gelwara, 
in  Lapland.  Octahedral  crystals  are  found  at  Fahlun,  in 
Sweden ;  dodecahedral  crystals  occur  at  Normark,  in  Wermland. 
The  most  powerful  native  magnets  are  found  in  Siberia  and 
in  the  Harz ;  they  are  also  obtained  on  the  island  of  Elba. 

In  !N"oii;h  America,  it  constitutes  vast  beds.  It  occurs  in 
New  York  in  several  counties ;  in  Maine,  in  an  epidotic  rock ; 
at  Marshall's  Island,  masses  are  strongly  magnetic.  Also  in 
Vermont,  Connecticut,  New  Jersey,  Pennsylvania,  Maryland, 
and  in  California,  Sierra  Co.,  abundant,  massive,  and  in  crystals. 

"  No  ore  of  iron  is  more  generally  diffused  tlian  the  mag- 
netic, and  none  superior  for  the  manufacture  of  iron.  It  is 
easily  distinguished  by  its  being  attracted  readily  by  the  mag- 
net, and  also  by  means  of  the  black  color  of  its  streak  or 
powder,  which  is  some  shade  of  red  or  brown  in  hematite  and 
limonite.  The  ore,  when  pulverized,  may  be  separated  from 
earthy  impurities  by  means  of  a  magnet,  and  machines  for  this 
purpose  are  in  use." 


FRANKLINITE. 

Composition,  when  pure,  is  ferric  oxide  66,  manganic  oxide 

16,  zincic  oxide  17  (Fe,  Mn,  Zn)(Fe,  Mn). 
The  following  are  a  few  analyses : 


LOOALITIBa. 


1.  New  Jersey 
3. 

a 


It 
it 


•  •• 

•  •• 

Zn. 

Si. 

66.88 

18.17 

10.81 

0.40 

64.51 

18.51 

85.80 

— 

66.12 

11.99 

S1.T7 

0.28 

Analfsis  No.  1  by  Abicta  (Po^g.,  zz{ii,343). 

"         No.  2  by  Ranimolsben;  (Fori?.,  cvH,  812). 
"         No.  8  by  Steffens  (R  a  Ztg.,  xiz,  463). 


Al. 


0.73  =    98.09 

—  =  108.52 

—  =  100 


THE  CHEMISTS'  .MANUAL.  277 

Hardness  =  5.5-6.5.  Specific  gravity  =  5.069  (Thompson), 
5.091  (Haidinger).  Color  is  black.  Streak  dark  reddish- 
brown.  Very  slightly  magnetic.  Lustre  metallic.  Opaque. 
Fracture  conchoidal.    Brittle. 

Infusible.  With  borax  in  oxidizing  flame  gives  a  reddish- 
amethystine  bead  (manganese),  and  in  reducing  flame  changes 
to  bottle-green  (iron).  On  charcoal  with  borax  gives  the 
reactions  for  zinc  and  iron.  Soluble  in  hydrochloric  acid  with 
slight  evolution  of  chlorine. 

It  is  found  in  cubic  crystals  near  Elibach,  in  Kassau;  in 
amorphous  masses  at  Altenberg,  near  Aix-la-Chapelle. 

It  is  only  foimd  in  large  quantities  at  Hamburg,  New  Jersey, 
near  the  Franklin  Furnace ;  it  is  there  found  with  red  oxide  of 
zinc  and  garnet,  in  granular  limestone ;  also  at  Sterling  Hill, 
in  the  same  region,  where  it  is  associated  with  willemite  in  a 
large  vein,  in  which  cavities  occasionally  contain  crystals  from 
one  to  four  inches  in  diameter. 

Franklinite  is  used  as  an  ore  of  iron  and  zinc. 

HEMATITE. 

Composition,  when  pure,  is  iron  70,  and  oxygen  30  (-Fe). 
Some  hematite  contains  titanium.  Crystals  from  Krageroe 
afforded  Rammelsberg  (Pogg.,  civ,  528). 

f=e  93.63  -  ti  3.55,   Fe  3.26  =  100.44  =  Feti  -f  13fe  or 

(FeTi)203  +  13f^. 

The  varieties  depend  on  texture  or  state  of  aggregation,  and 
in  some  cases  the  presence  of  impurities. 

Vak.  1.  Specular,  Lustre  metallic,  and  crystals  ofl:en  splen- 
dent. 

(b.)  When  the  structure  is  foliated  or  micaceous,  the  ore  is 
called  micaceous  hematite. 

Var.  2.  Compact,  columnar,  or  fibrous.  The  masses  often 
long,  radiating ;  lustre  submetallic  to  metallic ;  color  brown- 
ish-red to  iron-black.     Sometimes  called  red-hematite. 

Var.  3.  Jied  Ochreous.  Red  and  earthy.  Reddle  and  red 
chalk  are  red  ochre,  mixed  with  more  or  less  clay. 


278  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

Vae.  4.  Clay  Iron-stone^  Argillaceous  Hematite,  Hard 
brownish-black  to  reddish-brown,  heavy  stone ;  often  in  part 
deep  red ;  of  submetallic  to  unmetallic  lustre ;  and  affording, 
like  all  the  preceding,  a  red  streak. 

(6.)  When  reddish  in  color  and  jasper-like  in  texture,  often 
caMed  jaspery-clai/  iron-stone. 

((?.)  When  oolitic  in  structure  (consisting  of  minute  flattened 
concretions),  it  is  called  lenticular  iron-ore. 

Hardness  =  5.5-6.5.  Specific  gravity  =  4.5-5.3,  of  some 
compact  varieties  as  low  as  4.2.  Color  dark,  steel-gray  or  iron- 
black  ;  in  very  thin  particles,  blood-red  by  transmitted  light ; 
when  earthy,  red.  Streak  blood-red  or  brownish-red.  In  thin 
scales,  it  is  transparent  and  of  a  blood-red  color.  Sometimes 
slightly  magnetic,  and  occasionally  even  magnetipolar. 

It  is  infusible,  but  when  exposed  for  a  long  time  to  the 
reducing  flame,  it  gives  a  magnetic  globule.  Dissolves  with 
diflSculty  in  hydrochloric  acid,  more  especially  if  it  contains 
titanium.  This  ore  is  found  in  rocks  of  all  ages.  The  specu- 
lar variety  is  mostly  confined  to  crystalline  or  metamorphic 
rocks,  but  is  also  a  result  of  igneous  action  about  some  volca- 
noes, as  at  Vesuvius. 

The  beds  that  occur  in  metamorphic  rocks  are  sometimes  of 
very  great  thickness.  In  North  America  it  is  widely  dis- 
tributed ;  occurs  in  beds  in  vast  thickness  in  rock  of  the  Eozoic 
age,  as  in  the  Marquette  region  in  northern  Michigan,  and  in 
Missouri  at  the  Pilot  Knob  and  the  Iron  Mountain ;  the 
former,  650  feet  high,  consisting  mainly  of  an  Eozoic  quartz 
rock,  and  having  specular  iron  in  the  upper  part,  the  iron  ore 
in  heavy  beds  interlaminated  with  quartz ;  the  latter  200  feet 
high,  and  consisting  at  surface  of  massive  hematite  in  loose 
blocks,  many  ten  to  twenty  tons  in  weight ;  in  Arizona  and 
New  Mexico.  Besides  these  regions  of  enormous  beds,  there 
are  numerous  others  of  workable  value,  either  crystallized  or 
argillaceous,  in  New  York,  Massachusetts,  New  Hampshire, 
North  Carolina  and  South  Carolina ;  a  micaceous  varietv  is  schis- 
tose  rocks,  containing  the  so-called  specular  schist  or  itahirite. 


THE  CHEMISTS'   MANUAL. 


279 


"  This  ore  aflfords  a  considerable  portion  of  the  iron  manu- 
factured in  different  countries.  The  varieties,  especially  the 
specular,  require  a  greater  degree  of  heat  to  smelt  than  other 
ores,  but  the  iron  obtained  is  of  good  quality.  Pulverized  red 
hematite  is  employed  in  polishing  metals,  and  also  as  a  color- 
ing material.  The  species  is  readily  distinguished  from  mag- 
netite by  its  red  streak,  and  from  turgite  by  its  greater  hard- 
ness and  its  not  decrepitating  before  the  blowpipe." 


LIMONITE. 

Composition,   when  pure:   ferric  oxide   85.6,   water   14.4 

(Fe2^2)-  ^^  *^®  ^S  ^^^  ^^^  ochres,  sand,  clay,  phosphates, 
oxides  of  manganese,  and  humic  or  other  acids  of  organic 
origin,  are  very  common  impurities. 

The  following  are  a  few  analyses  of  Limonite : 


Localities. 


1.  Horhaneen 

5.  Salitfbary,  Conn. . . 

8.  Diet,  of  Kandern  i 
(plBolUic) f 

4.  Diet,  of  Kandern  ) 
(pisolltic) ) 

6.  Bufiiilo,  Mo. 


•  • 

iifN. 

H. 

Si. 

'¥: 

•  •  • 

Co. 

82.27 

^^ 

18.26 

460 

._ 

. 

.1^ 

81.18 

0.60 

ia8i 

3.68 

Tr. 

0.93 

TV. 

71.71 

— 

8.28 

18.00 

— 

6.71 

— 

68.70 

11.S3 

1180 

— 

7.47 

— 

84.80 



11.62 

S.8S 

m^mm 

0.64 

— 

Ca. 


—  =  100.08 

tv./s'tv.  =  loais 

0.60  =  100  25 

—  =    99.60 

—  S  0.12  =  100.06 


AnalyeiB  No.  1  by  SchOnberg  (J.  pr.  Ch.,  ziz,  107). 
**        No.  2  by  C.  S.  Rodman. 

*'        No8.  3  and  4  by  Schenck  (Ann.  Ch.  Pharm.,  zc,  128). 
''        No.  5  by  Litton  (Rep.  G.  Mo.,  1866). 

Hardness  =  5-5.5.  Specific  gravity  =  3.6-4.  Color  gen- 
erally different  shades  of  brown,  sometimes  nearly  black  in 
the  botryoidal  varieties ;  when  earthy,  brownish-yellow,  ochre- 
yellow.  Streak  yellowish-brown.  Lustre  silky,  often  sub- 
metallic,  sometimes  dull  and  earthy. 

The  varieties  are 

1.  Compact.     Submetallic  to  silky  in  lustre. 

2.  Ochreous  or  earthy,  brownish-yellow  to  cxjhre-yellow ; 
often  impure  from  the  presence  of  clay,  sand,  etc. 


280  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

3.  Bog  Ore.  The  ore  from  marshy  places,  generally  loose 
or  porous  in  texture,  often  petrifying  leaves,  wood,  nuts,  etc. 

4.  Brown  Clay  Iron-stone^  in  compact  masses,  often  in 
concretionary  nodules,  having  a  brownish-yellow  streak,  and 
thus  distinguished  fi'om  the  clay  iron-stone  of  the  species 
hematite  and  siderite ;  it  is  sometimes  (a)  pisolilicj  or  an 
aggregation  of  concretions  of  the  size  of  small  peas  (Bohnerz, 
Germany)  ;  or  (b)  oolitic. 

Gives  off  water  and  becomes  red  when  heated.  Soluble 
in  acids. 

Limonite  is  in  all  cases  the  result  of  alteration  of  other  ores, 
through  exposure  to  moisture,  air,  and  carbonic  or  organic 
acids ;  and  is  derived  largely  from  the  change  of  pyrite,  sid- 
erite, magnetite  and  various  other  species.  It  is  therefore 
found  in  secondary  or  more  recent  deposits. 

Extensive  beds  exist  at  Salisbury  and  Kent,  Conn. ;  also  in 
Beekman,  Fishkill,  Dover,  and  Amenia,  N.  Y. ;  also  at  Lenox, 
Mass. ;  in  Vermont  at  Bennington,  Monkton,  Pittsford,  Put- 
ney and  Ripton. 

"  Limonite  is  one  of  the  most  important  ores  of  iron.  The 
pig  iron  from  the  purer  varieties,  obtained  by  smelting  with 
charcoal,  is  of  superior  quality.  That  yielded  by  bog  ore  is 
what  is  termed  cold-s/iort,  owing  to  the  phosphorus  present, 
and  cannot  therefore  be  employed  in  the  manufacture  of  wire, 
or  even  of  sheet  iron,  but  is  valuable  for  casting.  The  hard  or 
compact  nodular  varieties  are  employed  in  polishing  metallic 
buttons,  etc." 

PYRITE. 

The  composition  of  Pyrite,  when  pure,  is  iron  4G.7 ;  sul- 
phur 53.3  (FeSj).     There  are  several  varieties  of  pyrite. 

Vab.  1.  Ordinary,  (ji)  Indistinct  crystals;  (Ji)  nodular, 
or  concretionary,  often  radiating  within ;  (r)  stalactitic ;  {d) 
amorphous. 

Var.  2.  Nickel\ferou8.  Schnabel  found  0.168  of  nickel 
in  a  kind  from  a  silver  mine  near  Eckerhagen.     A  pyrite  from 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


281 


the  Kearney  ore-bed,  Gouverneur,  N.  Y.,  is  similar ;  it  is  a 
pale  bronze  in  color,  and  radiated  botryoidal.  Hardness  =  5.5. 
Specific  gravity  =  4.863.     (Am.  J.  Sci.,  II,  xv,  444.) 

Vab.  3.  Cobaltiferoiis.  Specimens  from  Cornwall,  Leba- 
non County,  Pa.,  afforded  J.  M.  Blake  2  per  cent,  of  cobalt. 

Var.  4.  Cupriferous.  A  variety  from  Cornwall,  Lebanon 
County,  Pa.,  gave  J.  C.  Booth  2.39  per  cent,  of  copper,  afford- 
ing the  formula,  (Fe,  Cu)  S2.     (Dana's  Min.,  1854,  55.) 

Var.  5.  Stanniferous ;  BaUesierosite^  Schulz  and  Pail- 
lette (Bull.  G.  Fr.,  II,  vii,  16.)  A  kind  in  cubes,  containing 
tin  and  zinc,  occurring  in  argillite,  from  Galicia. 

Vab.  6.  Auriferous.  Containing  native  gold.  Thepyrite 
of  most  gold  regions  is  auriferous. 

Var.  7.   Argentiferous  from  Hungary. 

Vak.  8.  ThaUiferous.  The  pyrite  of  the  Rammelsberg 
mine,  near  Goslar,  Prussia,  is  especially  rich  in  thallium. 

The  following  are  a  few  analyses : 


Localities. 


1.  Inverary 

8.  CornwuU 

8.  Chcssy  and  St.  Bel 
4.  AUier 


8. 

Fe. 

Ni. 

Co. 

Co. 

Sl 

••• 

49.32    45.73 

1.99 

1.24 

lis 

_ 

^^ 

53.37    44.47 

— 

— 

2.89 

— 

— 

46.5      39.3 

— 

— 

10.') 

8.8 

52.7 

44.2 

— 

^_ 

2.5 

— 

H. 


—        —      —  insolnble  0.06 

0.2 
0.2 


Analysis  No.  1  by  D.  Forbes  (Phil.  Map.,  IV,  xixv,  178). 
No.  2  by  Booth  (Dana's  Min.,  1854,  55). 
Nob.  3  and  4  by  C.  Mdne  (C.  B.,  Ixiv,  870). 


ti 


tt 


Hardness  =  6-6.5.  Specific  gravity  =  4.83-5.2 ;  5.185,  pol- 
ished crystals,  Zepharovich.  Color  on  its  natural  faces  and  on 
its  fracture  is  brass  yellow,  with  a  very  decided  metallic  lustre, 
and  is  quite  uniform.  This  color  caused  it  to  be  much  sought 
after  at  one  time  as  an  object  of  ornament.  It  was  then 
known  to  jewelers  as  marcasite.  Streak  is  greenish  or  brown- 
ish black.  Opaque.  Fracture  conchoidal,  uneven.  Brittle. 
It  strikes  fire  with  steel  without  giving  out  any  odor.  It  can 
be  fused  in  the  flame  of  a  candle.  Heated  in  a  tube,  sulphur 
sublimes.     In  the  reducing  flame  a  residue  is  obtained  which 


282 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


attracts  tlie  magnet.  It  is  insoluble  in  hydrochloric  acid,  but 
dissolves  in  nitric  acid  with  evolution  of  HgS.  Pyrite  occurs 
abundantly  in  rocks  of  all  ages,  from  the  oldest  crystalline  to 
the  most  recent  alluvial  deposits.  It  usually  occurs  in  small 
cubes,  more  or  less  modified;  also  in  irregular  spheroidal 
nodules  and  in  veins,  in  clay,  slate,  argillaceous  sandstones,  the 
coal^ formation,  etc.  Very  large  cubes  are  found  in  the  Cornish 
mines.  Large  octahedral  crystals  are  found  at  Persberg,  in 
Sweden.  Magnificent  crystals  come  from  Peru.  Found  as 
crystal  in  Maine  at  Conia,  Peru,  etc.,  and  massive  at  Bing- 
ham, Brooksville.  Found  also  in  New  Hampshire,  at  Unity, 
massive.  It  is  also  found  in  Massachusetts,  Vermont,  New 
York,  Pennsylvania,  Wisconsin,  Illinois,  North  Carolina,  Vir- 
ginia, and  Canada. 

SIDERITE. 

The  composition  of  Siderite,  when  pure,  is  ferrous  oxide  62.1 
and  carbonic  oxide  37.9  (FeC).  Part  of  the  iron  oxide  is  often 
replaced  by  manganese,  and  often  by  magnesia  and  lime.  The 
principal  varieties  are: 

(1)  Ordinary.  {a)  Crystallized,  (b)  Concretionai^y  = 
Spherosiderite ;  in  globular  concretions,  either  solid  or  con* 
centric,  scaly,  with  usually  a  fibrous  structure,  {c)  Granular 
to  compact  massive,  (d)  Oolitic,  like  oolite  limestone  in 
structure,  (e)  Earthy,  or  stony,  impure  from  a  mixture  with 
clay  or  sand,  constituting  a  large  part  of  the  clay  iron-stone  of 
the  coal  formation  and  other  stratified  deposits. 

(2)  In  this  variety  the  bases  replace  part  of  the  iron. 
The  following  are  a  few  analyses : 


LOCALITIBB. 


1.  Darham 

9.  Bieber  (white) 

8.  Salzburg 

4.  L.Laach 


6.  Enberg,  Styria —       — 


Mo. 

Ca. 

H. 

•  •• 

^^ 

0.59 

2.68 

— 

2.36 

1.12 

—  ganga6  0.4S 

10.48 

0.40 

— 

4,07 

— 

1.84 

— 

— 

MoC. 

CaC. 

10.88 

11.91 

— 

THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  283 

Analyeis  No.  1  by  Thompson  (Mln.,  i,  445). 

'*         No.  2  by  Glaseon  (Ann.  Ch.  Pharm.,  Ixii,  89). 
"         No.  3  by  Sommer  (Jahrb.  Min.,  1866,  465). 
**        No.  4  by  Bi^chof  (Rammelpbarg,  Min.  Cbemle,  883). 
"        No.  5  by  Bander  (Ramm.  Min.  Ch.,  217). 

Hardness  =  3.5—4.5.  Specific  gravity  =  3.7-3.9.  Color  is 
white  when  just  taken  from  the  mine  and  when  quite  pure, 
but  it  soon  becomes  altered  in  the  air,  and  takes  a  grayish 
color,  which  sometimes  becomes  brown,  brownish-red,  or  green. 
Streak  is  white.  Translucent  to  subtranslucent.  Lustre  vit- 
reous, more  or  less  pearly.     Fracture  uneven.    Brittle. 

On  charcoal  it  blackens  and  fuses  at  4.5.  Heated  in  a  closed 
tube  gives  off  carbonous  and  carbonic  oxide,  blackens,  and 
gives  a  magnetic  globule.  In  the  oxidizing  flame  the  iron 
becomes  ferric  oxide,  in  the  reducing  flame  it  becomes  mag- 
netic. Dissolves  in  acid  in  the  cold  slowly  with  effervescence, 
but  rapidly  and  with  brisk  effervescence  with  hot  acid. 

Siderite  occurs  in  many  of  the  rock  strata,  in  gneiss,  mica 
slate,  clay  slate,  and  as  a  clay  iron-stone  in  connection  with  the 
coal  formation  and  many  other  stratified  deposits.  It  is  often 
associated  with  metallic  ores.  Siderite  is  one  of  the  most 
important  ores  of  iron. 

In  Styria  and  Carinthia  this  ore  forms  extensive  tracts  in 
gneiss.  Clay  iron-stone  occurs  in  beds  near  Glasgow.  It  is 
found  in  veins  at  New  Milford,  Conn.,  Plymouth,  New  Hamp- 
shire, and  Sterling,  Mass.;  also  in  New  York,  Oliio  and 
Pennsylvania. 


284 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


14.  LEAD. 

The  principal  Lead  minerals  are : 


IfnnsBAL. 

Habd- 

KKSS. 

Sp.  Gb. 

Formula. 

Composition. 

Native  lead 

1J5 

11.445 

PI). 

Pb  =  100. 

Mininm 

2.8 

4.6 

'i»b  +  2Pb. 

Pb  =  90.66;  0  =  &.84. 

OaleDite 

2.5-2.75 

7.26-7.77 

PbS 

Pb  =  86.6;  8  =  18.4. 

Boarnonltc 

2.5—8 

5.7-6.91 

8(CaJ>b)S+8b.8. 

(Pb=42.4;  Sb=26;Cu=12.9; 
1                S  =  19.7. 

AD{(le9ite 

2.75—8 

6.12-6.89 

•     ••■ 

Fb8 

Pb  =  78.6;  8  =  26.4 

Clausthallte.... 

2.6—8 

7.6-8.8 

PbSe. 

Pb  =  72.4 ;  Se  =  27.6. 

Pyromorphite.. 

3.5-4.6 

6.5-7.1 

8Pb,^*+PbCa. 

(       Pb  =74.1:  P=  15.7; 
1        C1  =  2.C;  Pb  =  7.6. 

Minretlto 

8.5 

7—7.26 

8Pb,'As  +  PbCL 

Pbis  =  90.60 ;  PbCl  =  9.84. 

CerasBlte 

8-8.5 

6.466-6.48 

•       •• 

PbC. 

Pb  =  83.6 ;  C  =  16.5. 

Crocoite 

2.6-8 

5.9-6.1 

•       ••• 

PbCr. 

Pb  =  C89;Cr  =  31.1. 

Stolzite 

2.75—3 

7.87—8.13 

•        ••• 

PbW. 

Pb  =  49 ;  W  =  51. 

Wulfenlte 

2.76-8 

6.05-7.01 

•       ••• 

PbMa 

Pb  =  61.5 ;  Mo  =  33.6. 

GALENITE. 

The  composition  of  Galenite,  when  pure,  is  lead  86.6; 
sulphur  13.4  (PbS).  It  sometimes  contains  selenium,  zinc, 
cadmium,  antimony,  copper  as  sulphides,  besides,  also,  some- 
times native  silver  and  gold,  and  even  platinum. 

The  following  are  a  few  analyses : 


Localities. 

8. 

Pb. 

8b. 

Fe. 

Cu. 

Zm. 

Ao. 

1  Bottino 

2.  Argentina.... 

12.840 
15.62 

80.700 
72.90 

3.807 
6.77 

1.877 
1.77 

0.440 
1.11 

0.024 
1.38 

0.825 
0.72 

Analyses  No.  1  and  2  are  by  E.  Bechi  (.\in.  J.  Set,  H,  xiv,  60). 

Hardness  =  2.5-2.75.  Specific  gravity  =  7.25-7.7.  Color 
is  grayish-blue.  Streak  lead-gray.  In  its  fresh  fracture  it  has 
a  metallic  lustre,  which  is  quite  bright,  but  becomes  dull  on 
exposure.    Fracture  flat,  subconchoidal,  or  even.    Frangible. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


285 


In  an  open  tube  it  gives  off  sulphurous  oxide.  On  charcoal, 
decrepitates,  and  then  in  oxidizing  flame  is  roasted,  giving  off 
sulphurous  odor  and  lead  fumes,  which  coat  the  coal  at  a  short 
distance  from  the  assay  with  a  yellow  ring.  After  being 
roasted,  gives  a  globule  of  metallic  lead,  which  is  malleable. 
It  is  soluble  in  nitric  acid,  with  evolution  of  HgS. 

Occurs  in  beds  and  veins,  both  in  crystalline  and  uncrystal- 
line  rocks.  At  Freiberg,  it  occurs  in  veins  in  gneiss;  in 
Spain,  in  granite. 

Extensive  deposits  of  this  ore  exist  in  Missouri,  Illinois, 
Iowa,  and  Wisconsin.  The  productive  lead  region  is  bounded 
on  the  west,  north,  and  east  by  the  Mississippi,  Wisconsin,  and 
Rock  rivers.  Occurs  also  in  New  York,  Maine,  New  Hamp- 
shire, Massachusetts,  Virginia,  Tennessee,  etc. 

Galenite  is  the  only  important  ore  of  lead. 


CERUSSITE. 

The  composition  of  Cerussite,  when  pure,  is  oxide  of  lead 
83.6,  carbonic  oxide  16.5  (PbC). 
The  following  are  a  few  analyses : 


liOCALITXBS. 

C. 

Pb. 

Pb. 

Ca. 

1.  Lcadhilla 

16.0 
16.0 

83.00 
81.20 

0.60 

S.  ZeUerfeld 

0.90 

Analysis  No.  1  hj  Westranl},  and  No.  2  by  Elaproth  (Beitr.,  iii,  167). 

Hardness  =  3-3.5.  Specific  gravity  =  6.465-6.480.  Colors 
are  white,  grayish-white,  and  does  not  interfere  with  an 
adamantine  lustre.  Streak  is  uncolored.  Transparent  to  sub- 
translucent.     Fracture  conchoidal.     Very  brittle. 

Decrepitates  when  heated  in  a  small  tube,  loses  carbonic 
acid,  turns  first  yellow,  and  at  a  higher  temperature  dark  red, 
but  becomes  again  yellow  on  cooling.  After  decrepitation  on 
charcoal,  it  becomes  reduced  to  a  metallic  globule.  Soluble, 
with  effervescence^  in  nitric  acid. 


286 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


It  IB  found  in  beautiful  crystals  at  Jolianngeorgenstadt ;  in 
the  Harz ;  in  England  and  Ireland. 

Found  in  Massachusetts,  Pennsylvania,  North  Carolina,  and 
Wisconsin. 

15.    LITHIUM. 

The  principal  Lithium  mineral  is  lepidolite,  or  lithia  mica. 
Its  composition  varies. 


L00ALITIB8. 

•  • 

Sl 

•  •  • 

Aii. 

•  •• 

1.40 

ifo. 
0.41 

Na. 

Ll 

8.59 

k. 

H. 

Cl. 
0.11 

F. 
8.40 

Ca. 

•  • 

1.  Bozena.. 

49.06 

8a61 

— 

4.18 

4.24 

_ 

9.  Cornwall 

51.70 

96.78 

— 

1.29 
M. 

0.24 

1.15 

1.27 

10.29 

— 

— 

7.12 

0.40 

0.16 

8.  Zinnwald 

46.33 

14.14 

17.97 

4.57 

— 

— 

4.21 

4.90 

0.83 

— — 

8.10 

— 

— 

Analysis  No.  1  by  Gmelin ;  No.  2  by  Bammelebiirg  (5th  Suppl.,  120) ;  No.  8  by  GmeUn. 


••  ••• 


The  formula  for  lepidolite  is   [(K,  Li)3  (M,  1^)2]  Sig  +  2SI. 

Hardness  =  2.5-4.  Specific  gravity  =  2.84-3.  Crystallizes 
as  a  right  rhombic  prism  of  120°.  Color,  rose-red,  violet,  gray, 
lilac,  grayish-white,  white,  or  yellow.  It  is  to  these  brilliant 
colors,  which  resemble  the  wings  of  certain  lepidoptera,  that  it 
owes  its  name.  Lustre  pearly.  Translucent.  Streak  is 
colorless. 

In  closed  tube  gives  off  water  and  reaction  for  fluorine. 
Before  the  blowpipe  ftises  with  intumescence  to  a  grayish  glass, 
coloring  the  flame  red.  Attacked  by  acids,  but  not  completely 
decomposed.     Gelatinizes,  after  fusion,  with  hydrochloric  acid. 

It  is  found  near  Otd,  in  Sweden,  grayish-white ;  in  Zunn- 
wald,  in  Bohemia,  lilac  or  reddish ;  violet  at  Bozena,  in  Mora- 
via ;  brown  in  St.  Michael's  Mount,  in  Cornwall. 

Found  in  the  United  States  at  Paris  and  Hebron,  Me. ;  and 
granular  near  Middletown,  Conn. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


287 


i6.   MAGNESIUM. 

The  principal  Magnesium  minerals  are : 


MlNIBAL. 

Bracite 

£pM>mite 

Boracite 

• 

Xagneeite 

Spinel 


Hasdhxss. 


2.85 

7(ool74when ) 
massiye)      f 

8.5-4.6 

8 


Sp.  Gb. 


8.85—2.46 
1.685-1.751 

8.918-8.974 

8-8.08 
8.5-4.9 


FOB]nTI.A. 


MgH 

ifgS+7H 

Mg.B,+iMgCl 
MgC 

•       ••• 

MgAl 


CoxposinoN. 


Mg  68.97;  H  81.18. 

Mg  8&8 ;  B  68.6 ;  HgCl  10.6. 

Hg47.6;  C54.4. 
Mg88;  ^78. 


MAGNESITE. 

The  composition  of  Magnesite,  when  pure,  is  magnesia  47.6, 
carbonic  acid  62 A  (MgC).  Ferrous  oxide  often  replaces  some 
magnesia. 

The  following  are  a  few  analyses : 


1.  Snamm  (cryBtallifled).... 

Q  ii  U 

Mm  .  a  .  • 

8.  Salzbuig         **  

4.  Frankenstein  (compact).. 
6. 

FiimiTKBOirs  Maqnesitb. 

6.  Semmering  (white) 

7.  Hall  (black) 

&  St.  Gothard  (jeUow) 


•  • 

c. 

Fe. 

ifN. 

Ho. 

Ca. 

1 

H. 

• 

51.45 

0.79 

^ 

47.89 

^^ 

0.47 

60.79 

2JW 

— 

46.86 

— 

0.26 

49.07 

'^8.62 

0.88 

44.58 

0.66 

— 

60.22 

'- 

OJU 

48.86 

— 

1.89 

62.10 

— 

— 

47.90 

— 

— 

50.46 

8.19 

^_ 

48.49 

8.18 

_ 

50.98 

6.00 

1.61 

48.71 

— 

— 

60.88 

6.64 

0.66 

41.80 

— 

— 

zUj. 


1.18 

—  insol.  0.58 


-    C1.89 

—  can 


Analyeie  No.  1  by  Marchand  and  Scheerer  (J.  pr.  Ch.,  i,  896). 
No.  8  by  Mtlnster  (Pogg.,  Ixv,  898). 
No.  8  by  Sommer  (Jabrb.  Min.,  1866, 466). 
No.  4  by  Stromeyer  (Kastn.  Arch.,  iy,  488,  Unt). 
No.  5  by  RammelBberg  (Handw.,  887). 
No.  6  by  Bauer  (Jabrb.  O.  Relcbs,  ill,  164, 1868). 
No.  7  by  Stromeyer  (Schw.  J.,  li). 
No.  8  by  Stromeyer  (L  c). 


u 


Hardness  =  3.5-4.5.    Specific  gravity  =  3-3.08  crystallized ; 
2.8  earthy ;  3-3.2  when  ferriferous. 


288  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

Color  is  white,  yellow,  or  brown.  Lustre  vitreous ;  fibrous 
varieties  sometimes  silky.  Transparent,  opaque.  Fracture 
flat  eonchoidal.  The  primitive  form  is  a  rhombohedron  of 
107°  29'. 

Heated  in  a  tube,  it  gives  off  water  and  acts  like  dolomite. 
When  reduced  to  powder,  it  is  easily  dissolved  by  warm  hydro- 
chloric acid,  with  effervescence,  more  easily  than  dolomite.  It 
is  infusible,  but  glows  intensely  (Mg). 

First  discovered  by  Mitchell,  at  Hnibschiitz,  in  Moravia; 
found  in  Silesia,  Norway,  Styria,  etc.  In  the  United  States  it 
is  found  at  Bolton,  Mass. ;  at  Barehills,  near  Baltimore,  Md. ; 
in  Pennsylvania  and  California. 

Magnesite  is  much  used  for  making  Epsom  salts. 

SPINEL 

The  composition  of  Spinel,  when  pure,  is  magnesia  28, 
alumina  72  (MgAl).  The  magnesia  may  be  replaced  by  lime, 
iron,  manganese,  or  zinc,  separately  or  in  combination.  Alu- 
mina generally  takes  the  part  of  a  base ;  in  spinel,  however,  it 
plays  the  part  of  an  acid.  Spinel  is  not  really  a  mineral  species, 
but  is  rather  the  name  of  a  family  of  minerals,  which  are  simi- 
lar in  composition  and  crystalline  form. 

The  varieties  of  spinel  are : 

Vab.  1.  Ruhy^  or  Magnesia  Spinel.  Clear  red  or  reddish. 
Transparent  to  translucent,  sometimes  subtranslucent.  Specific 
gravity  =  3.53-3.58.  Composition  MgAJ,  with  little  or  no  Fe, 
and  sometimes  oxide  of  chromium  as  a  source  of  the  red  color. 
Varieties  are  called  {a)  spinel-ruby,  deep  red ;  (5)  balas-ruby, 
rose-red ;  (c),  rubicelle,  yellow  or  orange-red ;  {d)  almandine, 
violet. 

Var.  2.  Ceylonite^  or  Iron-magnesia  Spinel,  Color  is 
dark-green,  brown  to  black,  mostly  opaque,  or  nearly  so. 
Specific  gravity  =  3.5-3.6.  Composition,  (Mg,  Fe)  iX  or 
(Mg.  Fe)  (Xl,  F). 

Vab.  3.     Magnesiorlime  Spinal.     Color  green. 

Vab.  4.    Chlorospinel^    or    Magneda^iron    Spinel.     Color 


THE  CHEMISTS^  MANUAL. 


289 


gra8&-green,  owing  to  the  presence  of  copper.  Specific  gravity 
=  3.591-3.594.  Composition  Mg  (^,  f=e),  the  iron  being  in 
the  state  of  ferric  oxide. 

Vab.  5.  Picotite.  Color  black.  Contains  over  7  per 
cent,  of  oxide  of  chromium,  and  has  the  formula  (Mg,  Fe) 
(Al,  f^,  €r).     Lustre  brilliant.     Specific  gravity  =  4.08. 

The  following  are  a  few  analyses : 


LOCALXTIBS. 


1.  Ceylon  (red) 

%.  Aker  (blue) 

8.  Franklin,  X.  J.  (green) 

4.  Cejlon  (Ceylonlte) 

fi.  Ural  (Pleonsste) 

e.     "     (ChloroBplnel) 

7.  L.  Lhery  (Picotlte) 


•  •• 

Pb. 

Mo. 

Ca. 

09.01 

«■• 

0.71 

26.21 

^B. 

68.94 

— 

8.40 

26.73 



78.81 

— 

— 

1&68 

7.42 

57.20 

— 

20.61 

1&24 

— 

66.27 

— 

ia97 

17.58 

— 

64.18 

8.70 

— 

26.77 

0.27 

66.84 

— 

24.60 

10.18 

— 

Si. 


2.02 
226 
6.62 
8.15 
3.60 

1.98 


"Cb. 


1.10 


—  Cuo.arr 

7.90 


Analyses  No.  1  and  2  by  Abich  (Fogg.,  zxili,  806). 
No.  8  by  Tbompeon  (Min.,  i,  214). 
No.  4  by  C.  Gmelin  (Jahresb.,  iv,  166). 
No.  6  by  Abicb  (1.  c). 
No.  6  by  Rose  (Fogg.,  i,  652). 
No.  7  by  pamour  (Ball.  O.  Soc.,  H,  xiz,  418). 


ti 


M 


tl 


»l 


tl 


Hardness  =  8.  Specific  gravity  =  3.5-4.1 ;  3.523,  Hardin- 
ger ;  3.575,  red  spinel.  Color  red  of  various  shades,  passing 
into  blue,  green,  yellow,  brown,  and  black;  occasionally 
almost  white.  Streak  is  white.  Transparent,  nearly  opaque. 
Fracture  conchoidal. 

Infiisible,  but  changes  color.  Soluble  in  borax  and  salt  of 
phosphorus.  Soluble  with  difliculty  in  concentrated  sulphuric 
acid.  Decomposes  by  fiision  with  hydrosodic  or  potassic  sul- 
phate. It  occurs  in  pebbles  of  beautiful  colors  at  Ceylon,  in 
Siam,  and  other  eastern  countries.  Pleonaste  is  found  at 
Candy,  in  Ceylon.  A  pale-blue  and  pearl-blue  variety  is  found 
at  Aker,  in  Sweden.  Small  black  splendent  crystals  in  the 
ancient  ejected  masses  of  Mount  Somma. 

It  is  found  from  Amity,  N.  Y.,  to  Andover,  N.  J.,  in  a 
granular  limestone.  It  is  also  foimd  in  Massachusetts  and 
Canada  West. 

19 


290 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


The  varieties  used  in  the  arts  are  usnaUy  brought  to  this 
country  separated  from  their  gaugues.  They  come  especially 
from  Ceylon  and  Birmah.  These  spinels  are  used  by  jewelers, 
and  are  called  balas-ruby ;  they  are  much  less  esteemed  than 
the  oriental  ruby. 

17.  MANGANESE. 

The  principal  Manganese  minerals  are : 


MlHEKAL. 

Habd- 

NKBB. 

8p.  Gb. 

FOBMXTLA. 

CoxpoeinoH. 

Brannite 

e-6.6 

4.75-4.82 

•  •                         ••• 

Mn,  Mn,  orlfo 

Mn  86.96;  0 9.85 ;Ba 2.26 ;  H0.96w 

HauBmaDnlte  . . 

6-5.5 

4.T98 

Mn.Mn. 

Mn72.1;  027.9. 

Pyrolaslte 

2—2.5 

4.82 

Mn. 

Mn68.8;  0  86.7. 

Manganite 

4 

4.2-4.1 

•  ••       • 

MD62.6;  0  27.8;  H  10.2. 

PBilomelane.... 

5.6 

8.7-4.7 

j  (Ba,Mn)Mn  +  ) 
)  Mn  +  nUMn.  ) 

^MnandMn81.6;  Oa5;  K4.5; 
1                      H4A 

Wad 

0.5-6 

8-4.26 

j  iain  +  H.R  =  1 
(K,Ba,Co,HnJ 

jMnlfo  19,12;  O  8.82;  Ba  1.4; 
(                    H  10.06w 

Alabandite 

3.5-4 

8.95—4.04 

MnS. 

MD68.8;  S86.7. 

TrlpUte 

456 

8.44-&8 

B'¥»'  +  R,F. 

j  1^''82.8;  Fe  81.9;  Mn  82.6;  Ca8.2. 
( R=Fe  and  Mn ;  R=Ca,  Mg,  Fe. 

Bhodochrosite . 

8.5-4.6 

8.4-8.7 

MnC. 

Mn6U;  C88.6. 

"Distinction  between  the  Oxides  of  Manganese. — The 
oxides  of  manganese  are  very  difficult  to  distinguish  with  the 
blowpipe,  as  they  all  give  the  same  violet  bead  with  fluxes. 
Manganite  is  distinguished  by  giving  off  water,  from  braimite, 
hausmannite,  and  pyrolusite.  Wad  is  distinguished  especially 
by  its  lightness ;  for  all  the  others,  the  best  distinctions  are 
taken  from  the  color  of  their  streaks. 

Hausmannite. — Acute  octahedra  with  plane  faces;  traces 
of  cleavage ;  streak  brownish-red. 

Braunite, — Octahedra,  curved  faces  without  cleavage ;  gran« 
ular  with  a  bluish-black  color ;  streak  brown. 

Pyrcludte. — Tender;  stains  paper  black. 


THE   CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


291 


Manganite, — Black,  with  no  bluish  color ;  fracture  granular ; 
streak  brown ;  hardness  greater  than  the  others ;  gives  off 
water. 

Wad. — Light,  soils  the  fingers  chocolate  brown,  and  gives 
off  water. 

The  only  remaining  oxide  is  PsUomelaney  which  has  no 
very  distinct  characters.  It  is  generally  necessary  to  make  a 
chemical  test  for  Ba,  by  treating  with  HCl  and  then  with  S. 
Its  hardness  is  generally  greater  than  that  of  the  other  oxides." 


PYROLUSITE. 

The  composition,  when  pure,  is  manganese  63.3;  oxygen 
36.7  (Mn). 


MnMn. 

O. 

Ba. 

Sl 

• 

H. 

9>s. 

Ca. 

Al.. 

1.  Eltpersberg 

S.  nmenan 

84.06 
87.0 

11.78 
11.6 

0.68 
1.2 

0.61 
0.8 

I.IS 
6.8 

1.8 

0.8 

0.8 

AjudyBls  No.  1,  by  Turner  (Edinb.  Traoe.,  18S8). 

"       No.  2,  by  Scheffler  (Arch.  Pharm-,  xxxv,  «e0). 

Hardness  =  2-5.5.  Specific  gravity  =  4.82  (Turner).  Color 
iron-black  or  dark  steel-gray.  Lustre  metallic.  Opaque.  Its 
fracture  is  irregular  and  unequal.  Streak  black.  Crystallizes 
as  a  right  rhombic  prism  of  93°  40'. 

Pyrolusite  is  infusible,  not  even  giving  off  water.  With 
fluxes  gives  the  reactions  for  manganese.  Hydrochloric  acid 
dissolves  it  with  evolution  of  chlorine.  When  it  contains 
rhodonite,  gelatinous  silica  is  deposited. 

This  ore  is  extensively  worked  at  Elgersberg,  near  Ilmenan, 
and  other  places  in  Thuringia ;  at  Norderehrensdorf,  near 
Mahrish ;  Traban,  in  Moravia,  which  place  affords  many  hun- 
dred tons  of  ore ;  at  Plateau,  in  Bohemia,  and  elsewhere. 

Occurs  in  the  United  States  with  psilomelane ;  abundantly 
in  Vermont,  at  Brandon,  Irasburg,  Bennington,  etc.,  both 
crystallized  and  massive;  in  Conway,  Mass.,  in  a  vein  of 


'  1 


292 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


quartz ;  at  Plainfield  and  West  Stockbridge,  Mass. ;  at  Win- 
chester, N.  H. ;  at  Salisbury  and  Kent,  Conn.,  forming  velvet- 
like coating  on  limonite.  Found  also  in  California,  New 
Brunswick,  and  Nova  Scotia. 

Pyrolusite  and  manganite  are  the  most  important  ores  of 
manganese.  Pyrolusite  is  used  extensively  in  glass  works,  for 
making  bleaching  powders  and  also  for  the  manufacture  of 
oxygen. 

MANGANITE. 

Composition  of  Manganite,  when  pure,  is  sesquioxide  of 
manganese  89.8  (=Mn  62.5,  O  27.3),  water  10.2  (MnH). 


1.  nefcld... 
S.  Cbeverie 


Mn. 

O. 

H. 

63.86 
86.81 

27.64 

9.60 
10.00 

•  •  a 


Fb,  Ba  and  LOM. 


Gangae  1.14— S.06 


AnalyBis  No.  1,  by  Gmelin  (lb.,  xlii,  908). 

"        No.  2,  by  How  (PhU.  Mag.,  IV,  xxxi,  186). 


Hardness  =  4 ;  Specific  gravity  =  4.2-4.4.  Color  dark- 
brown  or  iron-black.  Streak  reddish-brown  to  nearly  black, 
darker  than  limonite.  Lustre  semi-metallic.  Opaque;  tninute 
splinters,  sometimes  brown  by  transmitted  light.  Fracture 
uneven.  Crystallizes  as  a  right  rhombic  prism  of  99°  40',  with 
an  easy  cleavage  parallel  to  the  brachypinacoid,  and  another 
more  difficult,  parallel  to  the  prism.  It  is  usually  well  crys- 
tallized. In  a  tube  it  gives  off  water  when  heated,  and  is 
then  infusible;  this  distinguishes  it  from  the  other  oxides. 
With  fluxes  gives  the  reaction  for  manganese.  In  acids, 
even  before  calcination,  it  is  dissolved  and  gives  off  chlorine. 

Manganite  occurs  at  Ilefeld,  in  the  Ilarz;  TIndennes,  in 
Sweden ;  Christiansand,  in  Norway ;  and  ('omwall,  etc.  It  is 
found  also  in  Nova  Scotia  and  New  Brunswick. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


293 


WAD. 
The  composition  of  Wad  varies  as  foDows 


LOCAUTXBB. 


1.  Deyonehlre 

%  VicdeBM>8 

8.  HlUsdale,  N.  Y. 


4.  Skidberg 


•                 ••  ■ 

Mn.    fbbs. 

O. 

••• 

Ba. 

Cu. 

79.12 

8.82 

— 

1.4 

— 

G0.8      — 

11.17 

— 

— 

— 

68.50 

— 

16.76 

— 

— 

66.16 

— 

8.70 

16.84 

— 

H. 


-1 


10.66 

12.4       M  7.0 

11.60,    insol.  &26. 
Co  12.07,    Si  0.92,  'JA  a76, 
Caa69,    MfirO.28,  ko.28. 


Aoalyfiis  No.  1  by  Turner  (Edinb.  J.  Sci.,  N.  S.,  11,  218). 
"        No.  2  by  Berthler  (Ann.  Ch.  Phys.,  U,  19). 
**         No.  3  by  Beck  (Rep.  Min.  N.  Y.,  56). 
^        No.  4  by  Bahr  (J.  pr.  Ch.,  liii,  808 ;  fr.  Oetv.  Ak.  Stockh.,  240, 1860). 


Hardness  =  0.5-6.  Specific  gravity  =  3-4.26.  Color  is 
dull-bluish,  or  brownish-black,  or  reddish-brown.  It  is  often 
very  light  and  soils  the  fingers. 

In  a  closeci  tube,  wad  when  heated  yields  water.  Loses 
oxygen  by  ignition.  Gives  the  reaction  for  manganese.  Yields 
chlorine  with  hydrochloric  acid.  The  varieties  containing 
cobalt  and  copper  react  for  these  metals. 

When  wad  contains  cobalt,  it  is  called  asbolite  or  earthy 
cobalt. 

When  wad  contains  copper,  it  is  called  lampadite  or  cupre' 
ous  manganese. 

Wad,  or  bog-manganese,  is  found  abundant  in  Columbia 
and  Dutchess  counties,  N.  Y. ;  at  Austerlitz,  Canaan  Centre, 
and  elsewhere  occurs  as  marsh  deposits.  Also  found  in  New 
Hampshire. 

This  ore,  when  abundant,  is  valuable. 


itH 


IttK  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


i8.    MERCURY. 

Tho  A^l  jovring  are  the  principal  Mercury  mineralB : 


M^EXWUUb. 

HABDinu. 

Sp.  Gb. 

FOBMlTUk.. 

COXFOBITION. 

1-8 

18.666 
6.4tS 

Hg 
HgS 

Hg.a 

100 
Hg86.2;    S18.& 
HgMO:    C115.L 

CINNABAR. 

Thi>  ooinposition  of  Cinnabar,  when  pnre,  is  mercury  86.2, 
ami  dulphur  13.8  (HgS  or  HggSa). 


LOCAUTIW. 

8. 

He. 

\  N«»ttumrktel 

14.95 

17.6 

11.8S 

86.00  =  99.96 

%  J^VkXk 

78.4.  9^  1.7.  Al  a7.  Ca  1.8,  Mn  0.2. 

a.  I'lUiftwnto 

89.36,  Fe  1.S3,  Ca  1.40,  il  0.61,  Mg,  0.49,  Si  14J». 

AnaljBiB  No.  1  by  Klaproth  (Beitr..  iv,  14). 

No.  S  by  Jobn  (John's  Ch.  Unt.,  i,  968). 
No.  8  by  A.  Bealey  (J.  Ch.  Soc.,  iv). 


ti 


tt 


llaninoss  =  2-2.5.  Specific  gravity  =  8.998.  Color  is 
(Hu^hlueal-red,  inclining  to, violet.  Streak  characteristic  ver- 
iniliou-ivd,  Wlien  it  is  impure,  the  color  is  often  black,  but 
tho  HtiHMik  is  always  red.  It  absorbs  light  easily,  which  often 
u\aktw  it  opaque.  It  is  the  most  refrangent  of  all  known 
hoiUort,  Soctilo,  Polarization  circular.  Ordinary  refraction, 
'J.S54;  extraordinary,  3.201  (Descl.). 

On  iihaixjoal  it  volatilizes  without  residue.  In  a  tube  gives 
a  rtnl  Hublimate.  It  is  not  attacked  by  acids,  and  is  the  only 
Hiilphido  which  is  not  acted  on  by  aqua-regia. 

Tho  Idria  mines  are  in  the  carboniferous  formation ;  those 
of  New  Almaden,  California,  in  partially  cretaceous  or  tertiary 
\mh.     It  is  found  in  Japan,  China,  Chili,  Peru,  etc. 


THE  CHEMISTS*  MANUAL, 


295 


Cinnabar  ib  the  principal  ore  of  mercury,  from  which  it  is 
obtained  by  sublimation.  It  is  sometimes  ground  and  used  as 
a  pigment,  called  vermilion. 


19.   NICKEL 

The  principal  Nickel  minerals  are : 


MnrEBAL. 

Habdness. 

8p.  Gb. 

FoBMUUk. 

Composition. 

MiUerite 

8-8.6 

4.6-6.66 

NiS 

Nl  64.9 ;  8  85.1. 

Niccolite 

6-6.5 

7.88-7.671 

NiAe 

Ni  44.1 ;  Ab  66.9. 

Ulmaimite. . . . 

5.5-6 

6.3-6.61 

NIS  +  Ni  (Sb,AB). 

Ni27.7;  8b  67.2;  S  16.1. 

Annaberglte.. 

— 

— 

Nl.'is  +  8H 

Ni87.2;  Ab88.6;  H24.3. 

Zaratite 

&-8.86 

3.97—2.698 

NiC  +  2N1H  +  4H 

N169.4;     C11.7;  H88.9. 

Chloanthite,  or  the  niccoliferous  smaltite,  is  sometimes  very 
valuable  for  nickel,  as  the  cobalt  is  nearly  absent  in  some 
specimens. 

MILLERITE. 

The  composition  of  MiUerite,  when  pure,  is  nickel  64.9, 
sulphur  35.1  (NiS). 


LooAunxs. 

s. 

Nl 

Co. 

Fa. 

Cu. 

1.  Saalfeld 

86.79 
85.14 

61.34 
63.06 

0.68 

0.40 

1.14  =  100 

i.  Qao  Mine.  Pa 

0.87,  gangne  0.28  =  100.86. 

Analysis  No.  1  by  Bammelsberg  (1st  SnppL,  67). 
"        No.  2  by  Genth  (Ann.  J.  Scl.,  II,  zxxiii,  196). 

Hardness  =  3-3.5.  Specific  gravity  =  4.6-5.65 ;  5.65  fr. 
Saalfeld  Bammelsberg;  4.601  fr.  Joachimethal  Kenngott. 
Color  brass  yellow,  and  often  with  an  iridescent  tarnish. 
Streak  bright.     Lustre  metallic.     Brittle. 

In  an  open  tube  gives,  when  heated,  sulphurous  fumes. 
Fuses  to  a  globule  on  charcoal  before  the  blowpipe ;  gives  a 


296 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


magnetic  globule  in  the  reducing  flame.    With  fluxes  most 
varieties  show  traces  of  copper,  cobalt,  and  iron. 

It  is  found  in  cavities  at  Bohemia,  Przibram,  Hummelfahrt 
mine  near  Freiberg,  Saxony,  Cornwall,  etc.  It  is  found  at 
the  Sterling  mine,  Antwerp,  N.  S. ;  also  at  the  Gap  mine, 
Lancaster  Co.,  Pa. 

N I  ceo  LITE. 

The  composition  of  Niccolite,  when  pure,  is  nickel  44.1 ; 
arsenic  55.9  (NIAs  or  NiaAsg). 


No.  1.. 
No.  2.. 
No.  8. 


Afl. 

Ni. 

Fb. 

Pb. 

Co. 

SB. 

s. 

64.78 

44.21 

0.84 

0.82 

^ 

__ 

0.40 

54.06 

48.60 

0.46 

— 

0.82 

0.06 

2.18 

63.71 

45.87 

— 

— 

— 

— 

0.48 

Cu. 


—  gangae0.20. 
1.44 


AnalysiB  No.  1,  by  Stromeyer  (GeL  Adz.  QOtt,  1817, 204). 
'*'       No.  2,  by  Ebelmen  (Ann.  d.  M.,  IV,  xi,  65). 
**•       No.  8,  by  Schnabel  (BammeLBbein;,  4tli  SnppL,  129). 


Hardness  =  5-5.5.  Specific  gravity  =  7.33-7.671.  Color 
is  a  light  copper-red,  which  is  very  characteristic.  The  inten- 
sity of  the  color  is,  however,  variable,  and  is  subject  to  tarnish ; 
those  specimens  containing  antimony  are  much  darker,  while 
those  containing  arsenic  are  paler.  Streak  is  pale  brownish- 
black.    Lustre  metallic.    Opaque.    Fracture  uneven.     Brittle. 

On  charcoal  it  gives  off  a  garlic  odor  with  white  vapors,  if  it 
contains  arsenic;  when  antimony  is  alone  present,  there  is 
only  a  coating  of  antimony  without  any  odor.  With  fluxes 
gives  reactions  for  iron,  cobalt,  and  nickel.  Soluble  in  nitro- 
hydrochloric  acid. 

It  is  found  in  the  Saxon  mines  of  Annaberg,  Schneeberg, 
etc.;  found  also  in  Styria,  Allemont,  Cornwall  sometimes; 
Scotland,  Chili,  and  Argentine  provinces.  It  is  also  found 
at  Chatham,  Conn.,  in  gneiss  associated  with  smaltite. 

Niccolite  is  a  very  important  ore  of  nickel. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


297 


20.  PHOSPHORUS. 

The  principal  Phosphorus  mineral,  or  minerals  containing 
phosphorus,  are : 


MlNBHAIj. 


Scbreibereite. 


Crjptolite. 


Apatite. 


PBeadomalachite . 


Boiickite. 


GaUainite. 


Phospbor^mmite 
or  Qammite 


Fyromorphite. 


HABDHX88. 


6.5 


5.  (Some- 
ttmea  4.6) 


45-6 

8.5 

85--I 


},. 


6-3 


8.6-^.6 


Sp.  Gb. 


7.01—7.28 


4.6 
Cryptolite. 
4.78 
.Fhosphocerite. 


Formula. 


%»3-&26 


4-^.4 

2.696-2.707 
2.5—2.52 

a9-4.20 
6.6—7.1 


P,  Fe,  Nl,  C. 


Ce,  P  (the 
Ce  replaced 
in    part   by 

ni). 


CoxpOBinox. 


j  Ca,  P  +  iCa 

1     (CI,  FD. 


I 

j    (Fe,Ca,) 
(     #>15H. 


^,  Co,  H. 

Analyses 
vary  much. 

(Fe^Ca,), 


A1P+6H 


( flS,  Fe}  H,+ 
( Imparities. 

I    8Pb,>*+ 
1      PbCl. 


e  yielded 
Fe8rr.aO;Ni4.24. 
undetermined. 

One  analysis  gave 

$'27.87;  Ce,  bi  78.70; 

Fe  1.51  (Cryp.);P  29.66; 

Ce,  Di  67.88:    Fe  2.95 
^  (Phosphocerite). 

f  'i»'40.92:  Ca4a4S=89.86; 
CI  6.S1;  Ca&84or'i>* 
42.26«,  Ga  60=92.26;  Ca 

/P;  F8.77;  Ca8.97. 

i  '$'24.66:  Cn  67.26;  H  8.20. 
(  Analysis  of  one  sample. 


1 


^20.49;  Fe  82.29;  Ca 

8.16;  H  19.06. 

P'  48.89;  Al  80.75;  H  26.86. 

S  72.0;  ifn  0.05;  Ca  6.00; 

Si  4.26;$' 2.80  ;H  14.75; 

,  F,  As,  tr. 

(Pb  74.1;  $16.7;  a  2.6; 
1  Pb  7.6. 


APATITE. 

The  composition  of  Apatite  is  phosphate  of  lime  with 
chloride  or  fluoride  of  lime  or  both;  Ca3P+^Ca(Cl,F);  or 
[^Ca+^(^Ca(Cl,F)],QP3  =  for  cJdorapatite.  Phosphoric  acid 
40.92,  lime  48.43  (=  89.35  P,Ca),  chlorine  6.81,  calcium  3.84 
(=10.65  Cl,Ca);  and  iov  fluorapatite,  P  42.26,  Ca  50.00 
(=  92.26  P,Ca),  F  3.77,  Ca  3.97  (=  7.74  F,Ca) ;  and  the  analysis 
should  give  for  the  former  P  40.92,  Ca  53.81 ;  CI  6.81 ;  for  the 
latter,  "P  42.26,  Ca  55.56,  F  3.77  (Eammelsberg). 


298 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


The  following  analyses  are  by  G.  Bose  (Pogg.,  ix,  185) : 


1.  Snabux. 
Norway. 

8.  MUBOIA, 

Spain. 

8.  Abenvat., 

NOBWAT. 

4  Obbirxk. 
Ttbol. 

Phosphate  of  Idme 

91.18 
4.98 
4.69 
8.174 

98.066 
0.886 
7.049 
8.886 

98.189 
O.801 
7.01 
8.194 

93.16 

Chloride  of  Calcium 

Fluoride  of  Calcium 

0.16 
7.09 

Specific  Gravity 

8.175 

The  following  are  a  few  other  analyses : 


1.  Snamm. 


8.  EragrOe,  wMte... 

A       "        rtd 

4.  Pargas,  Mu« 

6.  Miask,  yeilow, . . . 


•6.  Staffel. 


Mo. 

Ca. 

Cl. 

P. 

41.64 

1.T9 

— 

6&46 

8.66 

Not  deter. 

41.86 

0.89 

— 

68.84 

4.10 

t< 

41.81 

1.06 

— 

64.60 

1.08 

ii 

40.76 

0.81 

— 

64.74 

Tr. 

li 

48.06 

0.17 

— 

66.17 

Tr, 

u 

84.48 

6.48 

0.16 

46.79 

— 

8.46 

H. 


jO.48,  JA  0.88;  alk.0.17; 
(  insol.  0.88. 

0.88,  alk.  0.80;  insoL  l.ia 
a.  •••     ••• 

—    P,Pe,  A10.99. 

0.16 

8.46,  Al  1.08;   Si  4.88; 

01.51;  Na048;  ko.6& 


I 


AnalysiB  No.  1,  by  Weber  (Pogg.,  Izxxiy,  806). 

No.  8  and  8,  by  VOlcker  (J.  pr.  Ch.,  Ixxr,  884). 
No.  4,  by  Arppe  (An.  Fineka  Min.,  4). 
No.  6,  by  Rath  (Pogg.,  xcvi,  881). 
No.  6,  by  Foster  (Tb.,  1866,  716). 


t( 


t4 


Ik 


l( 


Hardness  =  4.5-5.  Specific  gravity  =  2.92-3.25.  Apatite 
is  generally  found  in  large  crystals,  which  are  yellow,  green, 
blue,  or  violet.  The  colors  are  never  very  bright.  It  may 
also  be  white,  red,  flesh-red,  and  brown.  Lustre  vitreous, 
inclining  to  subresinous.  Streak  is  white.  Transparent, 
opaque.  In  the  white  varieties,  there  is  sometimes  a  bluish 
opalescence  in  the  direction  of  the  vertical  axis.  Cross  frac- 
ture conchoidal  and  uneven.     Brittle. 

Apatite  fiises  with  difficulty  on  the  edges  at  4.5,  coloring 
the  flame  red  (Ca).     Wlien  moistened  with  sulphuric  acid  and 

heated,  colors  the  flame  pale  bluish-green  (P).  It  is  sohible  in 
hydrochloric  and  nitric  acids,  without  residue,  when  CaFl  is 
absent.  It  is  sometimes  phosphorescent  in  the  dark,  especially 
in  powder. 


THE  CHEMISTS*  MANUAL. 


299 


It  is  found  in  Sweden,  Norway,  Switzerland,  Bavaria,  Bo- 
hemia, and  in  Cornwall. 

In  the  United  States  it  is  found  in  Maine,  New  Hampshire, 
Massachusetts,  New  York,  New  Jersey,  Pennsylvania,  Mary- 
land, and  Delaware.     Also  found  in  Canada. 

A  compact  variety,  resembling  impure  limestone,  has  been 
found  near  Charleston,  S.  C.    It  is  used  in  making  fertilizers. 


PYROMORPHITE. 

The  composition  of  Pyromorphite  is  phosphoric  acid  15.7, 
oxide   of  lead  74.1,  chlorine  2.6,  lead  7.6  =  phosphate  of 

lead  89.8,  chloride  of  lead  10.2  =  100.     [SPbg  P  +  PbCl,  or 
(^  Pb  +  ^  PbCl),o  P].    Part  of  the  lead  is  often  replaced  by 
lime,  part  of  the  chloride  of  lead  replaced  by  fluoride  of  cal- 
cium, and  arsenic  acid  part  of  the  phosphoric  acid. 
The  following  are  a  few  analyses : 


LOCAUTXBS. 


1.  Bleistadt  (brown  ctystallized) 

S.  Kransberg  (green) 

S.  Bere80Tek(yeIlowiBh-green).. 
4.  Leadhills  (orange-red) 


Polysphoerite  (with  mach  phosphate 
of  lime). 


S.  Freiberg  (brown). 


CoMTAnnNO  AsBEHio  Acid. 


6.  Zschopan  (white) 

7.  Badenweller  (wax-yellow). , 

8.  **  (dark-orange). 


T7.0B 

P. 

[16.17] 
16.11 
15.88 


10.84 

•  •  ■ 

Ab. 

s.ao 

0.66 
0.09 


0.07 


I 


1.00 

Pb. 

72.44 
77.46 
77.45 


•  •• 

Ca,*!^! 


0.86,  Fe,P0.77. 


—  Fe,tfr0.fi0,  Vfr. 


11.06 

PbCJl. 
10.09 

—  Ca  2.40,(^9.64. 

—  Ca  2.46,  CI  nndet 


Analyels  No.  1  by  Lerch  (Ann.  Oh.  Pharm.,  xlv, 
"         No.  2  by  Sandberger  (J.  pr.  Ch.,  xlvii,  468). 
No.  8  by  Stmve  (Kok^ch.  Min.  Rnsri.,  ill,  42). 
No.  4  by  WOhler  (Pogg.,  Iv,  161). 
No.  5  by  Kersten  (Schw.  J.,  1x1, 1 ;  Pogg.,  xxvl,  489). 
No.  6  by  WOhler  (Pogg-,  iv,  161). 
Nob.  7  and  8  by  Seldel  (Jahrb.  Mln.,  1864, 222). 


Hardness  =  3.5-4.  Specific  gravity  =  6.5-7.1,  mostly  when 
without  lime ;  5-6.5,  when  containing  lime.  The  colors  are 
very  variable,  green,  yellow,  brown,  or  white,  and  are  depend- 


300 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


ent  upon  the  composition.  Streak  white,  sometimes  yellowish. 
Lustre  resinous.  Subtransparent,  subtranslucent.  Fracture 
subconchoidal,  uneven.    Brittle. 

Pyromorphite  occurs  principally  in  veins,  and  accompanies 
other  ores  of  lead. 

It  is  found  in  Brittany,  Saxony,  Bohemia,  at  Sonnenwerbel 
near  Freiberg,  and  in  Siberia.  It  is  found  green  and  brown 
at  Cornwall,  gray  at  Devon,  green  and  yellow  at  Derbyshire, 
golden-yellow  at  Cumberland,  red  and  orange  formerly  in 
Scotland,  clove-brown  and  yellowish-green  at  Wicklow. 

In  the  United  States  it  has  been  found  at  the  Perkionen 
lead  mine  near  Philadelphia,  and  very  fine  at  Phenixville; 
also  in  Maine,  New  York,  Massachusetts,  and  Bristol,  Conn. 
Good  crystallizations  of  bright  green  and  gray  colors  have 
been  found  in  Davidson  County,  N.  C.  It  is  a  valuable  ore 
of  lead. 

21.    PLATINUM. 

The  principal  Platinum  minerals  are : 


MiNBBAL. 

Habd- 

NE88. 

Sp.  Gb. 

FOBMUIiA. 

COXFOSITION. 

Flatinam  (Platina). 
Flatiniridiam 

4—4.5 
6—7 

16-19 
S2.6-28 

Pt+Pe,  Ir,  Os,  etc. 

j       Pt,  Ir  +        ) 
lPd,Rh,Cu,etc.  J 

j     Orei»  of  Pt  upoally  contain 
(  Pt  90^,  ineol.  10^,  Ir  i^,  Ra  9%. 

Pt  19.64-66.44 

PLATINUM. 

The  composition  of  Platinum,  or  Platina,  is  platinum  com- 
bined with  iron,  iridium,  osmium,  and  other  metals. 
The  following  are  a  few  analyses : 


LocAuma. 

Pt. 

An. 

Fb. 

IB. 

Rb. 

4.44 

Pd. 

Cu. 

u. 

Os. 

Sami>. 

1.  Ural 

sasT} 

__ 

10.98 

0.06 

1.80 

2.80 

0.11 

^_ 

_^ 

S.  Choco,S.A. 

86.16 

— 

8.03 

1.09 

2.16 

0.86     0.40  1   1.91 

— 

0.97,  Mn  0.10. 

8.  CaliforDia . 

79.86 

0.66 

4.46 

420 

0.66 

1.95  1   0.75  1  4.96     0.06*    2.60 

4. 

76.60 

1.20 

6.10 

0.86 

1.95 

1.80      1.25     7.66  i  1.25*  ,  160,  Pb  a)0.5& 

6. 

68.80 

0.80 

6.40 

a70 

1.80 

0.10      4.25    [22.66]     -       -     Hg0.60. 

*  Tbe  loB8,  with  some  oemiom. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


301 


Analysis  No.  1  by  Osann  (Fogg.,  viil,  606 ;  zl,  411 :  zlil,  288 ;  ziv,  8S9 ;  xv,  168). 
"        No.  2  by  Svanberg  (Institat,  ii,  294). 

'^        Nos.  8  and  4  by  St.  C.  DevUle  and  Debray  (Ann.  Ch.  Fhys.,  m,  M,  449). 
**        Ko.  6  by  Kromayer  (Ajrch.  Phann.,  II,  ex,  14 ;  Jahreab.,  18BS,  707). 

Hardne88=4r4.5.  Specific  gravity  =  16-19, 17.862, 17.759, 
two  masses  (G.  Rose) ;  17.200,  a  smaller ;  17.108,  small  grains 
(Breith) ;  17.608,  a  mass  (Breith) ;  17.60,  large  mass  from 
Nischne  Tagilsk,  Sokoloff.  Color  and  streak  are  whitish 
steel-gray ;  shining.  Lustre  metallic.  Opaque.  Ductile. 
Fracture  hackly.  Occasionally  magneti-polar.  When  crys- 
tallized, it  is  found  in  cubes  and  octahedra.  Platinum  was 
found  in  pebbles  and  small  grains  in  the  alluvial  deposits  of 
the  River  Pinto,  in  South  America.  It  was  first  discovered  in 
1822,  in  Russia ;  it  occurs  at  Nischne  Tagilsk  and  Gorobla- 
godat  in  tlie  Ural  in  alluvial  deposits.  Russia  affords  annually 
about  800  cwt.  of  platinum,  which  is  nearly  ten  times  the 
amount  from  Brazil,  St.  Domingo  and  Borneo,  which  last 
place  furnishes  600  to  800  lbs.  annually.  It  is  also  found  in 
the  sands  of  the  Rhine ;  in  Ireland,  in  Honduras,  in  traces 
with  gold  in  Rutherford  Co.,  N.  C. ;  at  St.  Francois  Beauc, 
etc.,  Canada  East. 

The  prominent  masses  of  Platinum  are : 

Weight. 
Mass  brought  by  Hnmboldt  from  S.  A.  (Berlin  Museum). .  1.088  grains. 

from  Coudoto  (Madrid  Museum) 11.641       " 

'*     Ural  (weighed  10^  Russian  pounds)..  11. 57    lbs.  Troy, 
in  DemidofE  Cabinet,  the  largest  yet  obtained 21  " 


<( 


(( 


it 


€i 


22.  POTASSIUM. 

The  principal  Potassium  minerals  are : 


MlNERAI.. 

Habd- 

NEB8. 

* 
8p.  Gb. 

FOJUIULA. 

COMFOBinON. 

Kalinite 

3-2.6 

1.76 

•    ■  • «            ■••      •••                       • 

KS  +  A1S,  +  24H. 

kS  16.4  ;Ais  86.2;  H46.6. 

Sylvite 

2 

1.9-2 

KCl. 
KCl-l-SMgCl+12H. 

K  52.6 :  CI  47.5. 

Camallite 

KCl  26.88;  MjrCl  84.20;  H8&92. 

Nitre 

2 

1.987 

•  A*- 

k46.6;  N'53.4. 

Taylorite 

2 

(IKO  +  JNH40)S0,. 

KO  47 ;  NH,0  6.2 ;  SO,  47.8. 

Aphthilalite.... 

8-8.6 

1.781 

•     ••• 

KS. 

k  64.1;  8  45.9. 

802 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


NITRE. 

The  composition  of  nitre,  when  pure,  ia  potash  46.6 ;  nitric 
acid  53.4  (K  N).  Klaproth  obtained  for  an  African  specimen 
(Beitr.,  i,  317)  nitrate  of  potash  42.55,  sulphate  of  lime  25.54^ 
chloride  of  calcium  0.20,  carbonate  of  lime  30.40. 

A  nitre  crust  from  the  ^dcinity  of  Constantino,  Algeria, 
afforded  K  N  86.00,  CaN  and  Mgjsj  3.00,  NaCl  6.00,  H  3.50, 
insol.,  etc.,  1.50  (Boussingault).  Hardness  =  2.  Specific 
gravity = 1.937.  Crystallizes  as  a  right  rhombic  prism  118**  50'. 
It  is  usually  white  and  transparent,  or  at  least  translucent. 
Streak  white.    Lustre  vitreous.     Taste  saline  and  cooling. 

Nitre  deflagrates  on  charcoal,  coloring  the  flame  violet  (K). 
Soluble  in  its  weight  of  cold  and  half  its  weight  of  warm 
water.     It  is  not  altered  by  exposure. 

Nitre  is  found  generally  in  minute  needle-form  crystals  and 
crusts  on  the  surface  of  the  earth,  on  walls,  rocks,  etc.  It 
forms  abundantly  in  certain  soils  in  Spain,  Egypt  and  Persia, 
especially  during  hot  weather  succeeding  rains.  It  is  found  in 
Madison  Co.,  Kentucky;  it  is  found  scattered  through  the 
loose  earth  covering  the  bottom  of  a  large  cave ;  also  in  other 
caverns  in  the  Mississippi  valley;  also  in  Tennessee.  Nitre 
is  the  saltpetre  of  commerce. 

23.  SILICON. 

The  principal  Silicon  minerals : 


MiNBBAL. 

Habonibs. 

Sf.  Gb. 

Quartz 

7 

2.6-8.8 

Opal 

6.5-6.6 

1.9—2.8 

WaUaifttonite.. 

4.6-« 

2.7&-a.9 

Pyroxene 

6-6 

8.28-8.6 

MalaeolUe 

_ 

8.2-8JS 

SahlUe 

— 

8.2S-8.4 

Formula. 


Si. 
Si  +  zH. 
CaSi. 
fRSiCRmaybeCa, 
Mk«  i'ei  Mn,  Zn, 
Na  and  k. 
(CaMg^i. 
(CaMgFe)Si. 


CoxFoainoH. 


8146.07;  0  68.88. 

H  =  8  — 21j<. 
Ga48.8;  S51.7. 


Ca25.8;  ]lgl&6;  8166.7. 
Ca24.9;  Mgl&4;  8i6&7. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


3oa 


The  Pbincipal  Silicon  ^isjSRAjs^Continiied.) 


MlHEaAIo 

HABDNB80. 

Sp.  Qr. 

FOBXULA. 

COMFOBinOH. 

^ir  ^rvH^v^H    v^  itVA.  ^m  ^v^^^B^  ^ 

Bedendergite. . 

— 

8.6-4168 

(|Ca  +  iFe)Si. 

Fe  37.01;  Ca  22.96;  8147.78. 
8144.4-61.79;   Ca  14-94; 

AugiU 

— 

aas-^us 

(CaMgFe)  (81]md. 

•  Mg  8.75-81.11;  Fe  4.94- 
l      ia08;&  8.88-8.63. 

Rhodomite . . . 

6J^-6.5 

8.4--8.68 

•        •• 

MnSi. 

Mn64.1:  8146.9. 

Spodamene... 

6.6-7 

8.1&-8.19 

•                  •••     •• 

(Li.  +  ^)Si». 

Li  6.4;  M  99.4;  8164.9. 

PetaUte 

6-6.5 

S.89-2.6 

C(LlNa),+iii]8i.+88i. 
fBSi  (R   may  be^ 

j  Li88;  NaI.9;  ^17.8; 
\                 81 77.7. 

Amphibole . . . 

5-6.6 

S.9-8.4 

Na,  k,  Ca,  Mg,  • 

t    Fe,  and  Mn).      J 

^T^wvlCMMvv    •  •  •  ■ 

5-6Ji 

9.9-8.1 

(GaMg)'si. 

i  Ga  19-16;  Mg  94-96; 
(              81 57-59.       . 

BorfMmd*.. 

— 

8.66-6.47 

( Three     varietiea, ) 
<   depending  on  the  > 
(  quantity  of  iron.  ) 

f    Ca  10-14;  Mg6-28; 
•     'iSL  6—15;  Fe  8-99; 
8140-55. 

AeHnoHte 

— 

8-8Ji 

(GaHgFe)8i. 

J      8165-69;  Mg  9-94; 
I       Ca  9-91 ;  Fe  8—11. 

Beryl 

7.6-6 

8.68-S.76 

UBe.  +  \MJku. 

Be  14.1 ;  'ix  19.1 ;  81 6&8. 

Chrysolite.... 

6-7 

8.88-8.6 

(MgFe).Si. 

Mg  60.28 ;  Fe  9.36 ;  81 4a75. 

Willemite..... 

6i» 

8.89-4.18 

Zn.Si. 

Zn72.9;  8197.1. 

Pbooacite. .... 

7.6--8 

S.96-8 

Be.Si. 

Be 45.8;  8154.9. 

Garnet 

6.5-7.6 

8.16^^.81 

(B,).8l,  +  R.8i,. 

Fmvpe 

— 

8.7-8.76 

jCHMgCaFeMn).) 
\       +  iAl].81..       ) 

fMg  ia43;    M  99.47;   Ca 
•  6JS8;  Fe  9Ji9;  Mn  6.97; 
8149.45. 

OroMularile . . 

— 

a4-8.7 

(iCa,KM).Si». 

Ca87.9;Ai  99.7;  8140.1. 

AlmandUe,,.. 

— 

— 

(iFe,  +  ^).81.. 

Fd48J):^90i»;S18ai. 

Spessartite.... 

— 

a7-4.4 

CiCMnFe),  -f  |£].8i,. 

jMn  80.96:  Fe  14.98;  M 
\         18.06;  8185.88. 

OwtarofoUe.,.. 

7.6 

8.41-8.81 

aCa,  +  4Cr),81,. 

Zircon 

7.6 

4.06-4.76 

..  .. 
ZrSi. 

Zr  67  ;  8  88. 

VersnTianite . 

6.6 

&49-8.46 

J[|(CaMgFe),  +  j 
\     2(A]Fe)].8i,.     S 

j  Ga  27-88 ;  Mg  0-10 ;  Fe 
( 0-16;  id  10-96;  81 85-4». 

304 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


The  Pbincipal  Silicon  Minerals— (OEm^ntied.) 


Mineral. 


Epidote. 


loUte. 


Biotite. 


HnscoYite. 


Lepldolite  . . . . 


Wemerlte.... 


Nephelite. 


Lapls-Laznll.. 

Haflynite 

Leacite 

Anorthlte 

Labradorite. . . 

Ollgoclase 

Alblte 

Orthoclaae. . . . 
Chrondrodite. 


Tourmaline  .. 


Habdnvss. 


6-7 
7-7.6 
2.5-8 
a-2.6 
2.6-4 

5-6 
5.6-6 

6-6.5 

6.5-6 

6.5-6 
6-7 

6 

6-7 

6-7 

6-6.5 
6-6.5 


7-7.5 


8p.  Ob. 


8.25-8.5 
2JS6-2.67 

2.7-8.1 
2.75-S.l 

2.84-8 
2.68-2.8 
2.5-41.65 

2.88-2.45 

2.4-2.5 

2.44-2.56 
2.66-2.78 

2.67—2.76 

2.56-2.72 

2.5»-2.65 

2.44-2.62 
8.118-8.94 


2.94-8U) 


FOBMULA. 


(iCa,-i-S(9eAl)s8i.. 


2(MgFe)Si+Al,Bi,. 


COMFOBITXON. 


^Ca  16-80  ;'ikl  14-28; 
*#e7-17;  8186-W. 


Mg8.8;  Fe  7.9;  JA  88.9; 
Si  49.4. 
CiCKMgFe).  +    1    (Mg  4-26;  Pe  0-20;  M 
KAlFe)],81,.      )    1 11—21;  '#e4-25;  81 86-44. 
[K.(lyFi)]  ,8i,  +  )  j      k  5-12 ;  M  81-88 ; 

'Fel-8;  Si48-5a 
K  4-14:    Li  1-6;   M 
14-88;  99  0-11;  8i  4»-61 
[i(CaNa),  +  |^l,  I'jNa  5;  Ca  18.1;   ^28.5; 
8i,  +  8i.         ),(  Si4a4. 

Nal6.9;  K  5JS;  Al  88.7; 

8i44.2. 

Na  0-12;  Ca  1-28; 


\ 

j  [K,(AlFe)].8i,  +  )  j      Kl 

1  U8i.  M      * 

j  [(KLl),(iFe)3.  )  J 

I   81. +281.  r1 

I 

j  (Na.K,),8i,+  )'( 

(  8A1.8i.  +  88i.  )  j  ( 


•••       •••      ••    ••• 


Na,0a,Al,Fe,Si,8,S. 


(    (iNa,  +  li).     )  j 

i    Si,  +  cas:    n 


KSi  +  A]8I.. 
(iCa.  +  fid).8l,. 

(Na,Ga)8i  -i-  lysi.. 


M  11-48;    Fe  0-4; 
81 40-46;  8  0-5;  Sfy-L 
Na  16.5;  Al  27.4;  Si  82; 

CaO.9;  814.2. 
K21.5;  A128.5;  8165. 
Ca20;  Aia6.0;  8148.1. 
Na4.5;  Ca  12.8;  iy  80.8; 
Si  68.0. 
i(Na,Ca),  -I-  iAl)|  j     Na2-12;    Ca  0.5-«; 

Si,  +  8iSi.        i    (       Al  19^ ;  Si  a>-M« 
(iNa,  +  fiXSi, 

-i-(0i. 

(ik,  +  |iM),8l, 

+  68L 

Mg.8i.. 


) 


Nall.8;^  19i6;  8i6B.& 


f[(Na,  K,  Ca,MgO 

Fe),  (Fe/il,  B)], 

81,. 


K  16.9;  Alias ;  Si  64.6L 
One  eample  gave  Mg  54.5 ; 
Fe6.75;  8188.19;  FeSJK. 
fNaO-5;  ko-4:  CaO-1 
MgO-15;  FcO-17;  Fe 
0-11  ;^  80-44  ;B  4-11; 
8i85-4a 


THE  CHEMISTS*  MANUAL. 


306 


Thb  Pbincifal  SHiicoN  Minerals — {Continued). 


ICmBRAIt. 


AncUlosite. . . . 


FibroUte 

Cyanite 

Topac  

BacUwe 

Datolite 

Tltanite 

Staarolite 

FdctoUte 

Lauinontite. . . 

DIoptoee 

Chxysocolla. . . 
Calamine 

Prehnlte 

Chloraatrolite. 
Apophylllte..* 


Natrolite. 


Analdte 


Habdnbsb. 


75   (fori 
trans- 
parent). 
8.1 — 8.8 

(for 
.opaqne) 


ft-7 


6—7.36 


8 


7.6 


6-6.5 


6—6.5 


7-7.5 


8.6-4 

6 

S— 4 

4.5-6 

6-«.5 
5.5-6 
4.5-6 
5-60} 
6-«.5 


Sp.  Gb. 


FOBMUUk.. 


8.05-aa5 


8JI-&8 

8.46-8.7 
8.4-8.65 


AfiL 


A18L 

A]Si. 
^i(FD. 


8.096       (iHs  +  }Be»  +  |Al)Si. 


2.6-8 

8.4-3.66 

8.4-8.8 

3.66-178 

2.36-3.86 

3.876-3.48 

3-2.88 

8.16—8.9 

3.8—3.95 

&18 

8.8-8.4 

8.17—8.85 

3.8S-8.89 


\ 


(Ca„H.JB)8L 

(Ca,Tl)8i. 
[KIH  +  |Mg  + 
iFe).|A])«S1.. 


•        •• 


UH  +  ^Na  -f  |C&)SL 

aCa.4-^)8is+8H. 

CuSl  +  H. 
Ca'si  +  8H. 
Zn.Sl  +  H. 


an  +  iCa  -f  iAl),81,. 


j   (Ca.Na,).8i,  + 
(8(i^Fe),Sl.+6H. 


) 


[iH+iak+«Ca)].) 
81  +  HSi.        ) 

Naiy^i;iH. 


•  «•         ■• 


Na,M4Si,3H. 


CoxFosxnoN. 


\ 


I 


Al  6a3 ;  81 866. 

Ai  68.8 ;  '8.868  (Al  may  be 
replaced  by  3X^  or  0.aK 
.  Mg.    H  may  be  present) 

M63.8:  S86.a 
81 15.17 ;  Al  89.68 ;  O  34.97; 

Fl  38.68. 
Be  17.4;  ^86.8;  8141.1; 

H6.3. 

Ca  86.0;   H5.6;   B  SIJ); 

8187.5. 

Ca81— 88;  Ti  88-48;  81 80J». 
H1.7;   Mg8.5;   Fe  16.8; 

Al  51.7;  8188.8. 
H8.7;   Na9.8;   Ca  8&8; 

81  54.8. 

Call.9;  M21.9\  Si  60.9; 

H16.8. 

Chi  50.4;  8188.8;  H  11.4 

Ca45.8;  H  30.5 ;  Si  84JK. 

Zn  67.6  ;H  7.5;  8185. 

Ca87.1;  H4.4;   A1319; 
8148.6. 

Na5.3;  Ca  18.7;  Fe  6.4; 
id  84.6;  8137.6;  H  7.6. 

H16.7;  k4.8;   Ca28; 
81  65.5. 

Na  16.8;   A137;   81  47Ji; 
H9.5. 

Nal4.1;  A188.8;  8154.4; 
il  8.2. 


306 


THE  CHEMISTS^  MANUAL. 


Thb  Pbincifal  Silicon  MiKKRAij&^Continued). 


MlMSKAI.. 

HARDNB88. 

Sp.  Gb. 

Chabazite 

4.6 

2.0-2.19 

Hannotome... 

4.5 

2.44-2.45 

Stelbite 

8.5-4 

2.094-2.205 

Henlaodite.  . . 

3.5-4 

2.2 

Talc. 

1.16 

2.565—2.8 

Bepiolite 

Serpeutine 

— 

— 

Prochlorite.. . . 

1—2 

2.'J3-3.96 

FORXULA. 


J  [jCa  +  J(Na,K)]  ) 
(        dy,4Si,6H.        i 


•  •         •• 


Ba^,68i  +SH. 


•  •«        •• 


Ca,Al,6Sl,6H. 


•  •  • 


Ca,Al,6Si,5H. 

(jMg  +  iH)8L 

Mg.Si,  +  2H. 

aMg+iH),8i  +  ik 

j  [KMg,Fe),  +  m] 

SiSH. 


1 


CoxposinoH. 


H 


Ca  4r-ll ;  Na  0-4  ; 
K  0.17-2.58  ;ii  17-21; 
8145-62;    H 19-22. 
fBa28.7;  ^15.9;  Si  46JS; 
H18.9.    When  it  conteins 
Ca  7.4  ;iM  20.5;  8i47.9; 
L    K  6.8  ;H  17.9. 
Ga8.9;  '^16.5;  Si  67.4; 

H17J8. 
Ca9.2;  M  16.9;  8169.1; 

H14.a 
Mg  83.5;  8162.8;  H8.7. 
Ug  27.1 ;  H  12.1 ;  8i  e0.a 
Mg  42.97  ;  Si  44.14  ;  H  12.89. 
Mg  15.3 ;  Fe  87.5 ;  M  19.7 ; 
8126.8;  H11.7. 


QUARTZ. 

The  composition  of  Quartz  is  pure  silica  or  silicon  46.67, 
oxygen  53.33  (Si02).  The  many  different  varieties  of  quartz 
may  be  i*egarded  as  allotropic  modifications.  "  Quartz  may  be 
massive ;  coarse  or  fine  granular  to  flint-like  or  crypto-crystal- 
line.  Sometimes  mamillary,  stalactitic,  and  in  concretionary 
forms." 

Colorless  when  pure ;  often  various  shades  of  yellow,  red, 
brown,  green,  blue,  and  black.  Streak  is  white,  with  pure 
varieties ;  if  impure,  often  the  same  as  color,  although  paler. 
Transparent,  opaque.  Hardness  =  7.  Specific  gravity  = 
2.5-2.8 ;  2.6413-2.641  (Bendant) ;  2.663  (Deville).  It  acquires 
vitreous  electricity  by  friction,  but  loses  it  very  quickly. 
Tough,  brittle,  friable.  Polarization  circular,  there  being  a 
colored  centre  instead  of  a  central  cross,  and  the  rings  of  color 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  307 

around  enlargmg  as  the  analyzer  is  turned  to  the  right  in  the 
right-handed  crystals,  or  left  in  the  left-handed ;  and  colored 
spirals  are  seen,  which  rotate  to  the  right  or  left,  when  the 
incident  light  and  emergent  light  are  polarized,  one  circularly 
and  the  other  plane. 

It  is  infusible  before  the  blowpipe.  With  soda  it  unites, 
with  effervescence;  with  salt  of  phosphorus  no  action  takes 
place.    It  is  not  acted  upon  by  any  acid  except  hydrofluoric. 

The  varieties  of  quartz  are  quite  numerous,  and  may  be  con- 
sidered as  follows : 

"  Crystallized  Quabtz. 

*'  Concretionary  Quartz,  Agate,  or  Chalcedony. 

"  Jasper. 

"  SiLEX  or  Flint,  which  is  more  easily  attacked  by  alkalies 
than  the  other  varieties.     It  is  never  pui;. 

"  Earthy  Quartz,  sometimes  in  the  shape  of  flour,  and  in 
every  way  analogous  to  the  silicic  acid  produced  in  the  labo- 
ratories.    It  is  often  formed  of  the  skeletons  of  infusoria. 

"QuARTZiiEs  and  Sand." 

With  respect  to  Crystallized  Quartz,  the  form  is  a  rhombo- 
hedron  of  94°  15',  but  this  primitive  form  is  rarely  found,  and 
is  always  in  very  small  crystals.  The  most  general  form  is  the 
combination  of  two  rhombohedra,  by  which  the  prism  is  appar- 
ently terminated  by  a  hexagonal  p^Tamid.  The  rhombohedron 
with  the  hexagonal  prism  is  a  form  sometimes  found. 

Quartz  is  found  penetrated  by  various  minerals,  "  as  topaz, 
chrysoberyl,  garnet,  different  species  of  hornblende  and  pyrox- 
ene groups,  kyanite,  zeolites,  calcite  and  other  carbonates, 
nitile,  stibnite,  hematite,  gothite,  magnetite,  fluorite,  gold, 
silver,  anthracite,  etc." 

Concretionary  Quartz,  Agate,  or  Chalcedony  is  less 
pure  than  crystallized  quartz.  A  gray  chalcedony  from  Hun- 
gary gave,  according  to  Eedtenbaher  (Ramm.  Min.  Ch.,  1007), 
§1  98.87,  *fe  0.53,  CaC  0.62  =  100.02.  Heintz  analyzed  a  car- 
nelian,  which  was  a  clear  red,  and  found  the  red  color  to  be 


808  THE  CHEMISTS*  MANUAL. 

due  to  ferric  oxide— fe  0.060,  AL  0.081,  Mg  0.028,  K  0.043, 
Na  0.075. 

Klaproth  analyzed  a  spedmen  of  chiysoprase  which  was 
apple-green,  and  found  in  that  of  Silesia  (Beitr,  ii,  127), 
Si  96.16, '/a  0.08,  'Pb  0.08,  Ni  1.0,  Ca  0.83,  H  1.85  =  100.  The 
color  was  due  to  the  presence  of  nickelous  oxide. 

Eedtenbaeher  has  analyzed  a  brown-banded  agate  with  the 
following  results :  SI  98.91,  '-Fe  0.72,  CaC  0.31  =  99.94.  Some 
agates  which  are  remarkable  for  their  colors  are  made  use  of 
in  the  arts,  such  as  the  blue  variety  called  sapphirine.  Besides 
the  camelian,  which  is  clear  red,  and  the  chrysoprase,  which  is 
clear  apple-green,  mentioned  above,  the  phrase,  which  is  dark- 
green,  and  the  sardine-stone,  which  is  dark-brown,  are  much 
used  in  the  arts.  When  agates  are  used  for  cameos,  they  must 
have  parallel  layers  of  different  colors.  These  are  often  pro- 
duced artificially.  The  zone  or  ribbon  agate  is  much  used  in 
the  arts.  When  the  zones  or  strata  are  in  parallel  layers,  and 
the  colors  in  great  contrast,  this  variety  is  called  onyx. 

Jasper  is  the  name  given  to  impure,  opaque-colored  quartz. 
The  red  jasper  is  colored  by  ferric  oxide — the  hvownish  or 
ochre-yellow  jasper  is  colored  by  hydrated  ferric  oxide,  which 
when  heated  loses  water  and  becomes  red.  It  may  also  be 
dark-green  and  brownish-green ;  grayish  bhie  and  blackish  or 
brownish-black.  Striped  or  ribbon  jasper  has  the  colors  in 
broad  stripes ;  Egyptian  ja^er  in  nodules,  which  are  zoned  in 
brown  and  yellowish  colors.  Jasper  admits  of  a  high  polish, 
and  is  used  for  vases,  boxes,  etc.  Porcelain  jasper  is  nothing 
but  baked  clay,  and  differs  from  true  jasper  in  being,  before 
the  blowpipe,  fusible  on  the  edges.  Red  2>orphyrii^  or  its 
base,  resembles  jasper,  but  is  also  fusible  on  the  edges,  being 
usually  an  impure  feldspar.  Jasper  is  used  extensively  in  the 
manufacture  of  Florentine  mosaics. 

In  the  variety  of  quartz  called  Silex  or  Flint,  there  is  no 
trace  of  crystallization  to  be  distinguished,  not  even  under  the 
microscope.  The  colors  are  not  so  bright  as  in  chalcedony. 
Lustre  is  barely  glistening.     Subvitreous.    It  breaks  with  a 


THE    CHEMISTS*    MANUAL. 


311 


for  if  an  opal  is  heated  it  losefi  fire,  but  often  regains  it  to  a 
less  degree  if  plunged  into  water. 

Precioxis  opal  occurs  in  porphyry  at  Czerwenitza,  near 
Kashaw,  in  Hungary ;  also  in  Honduras.  Fire  opal  occurs  at 
Zimapan,  in  Mexico.  Govimon  opal  is  abundant  at  Telke- 
banya,  in  Hungary ;  in  Moravia,  Bohemia,  Iceland,  the  Giant's 
Causeway,  and  the  Hebrides.  Hyalite  occurs  at  Schemnitz, 
in  Hungary.  Wood  opal  forms  large  trees  in  the  pumice  con- 
glomerate of  Saiba ;  also  in  Hungary,  Faroe,  and  Tasmania. 

The  Luiuherg  earth  contains  many  species  of  infusoria,  and 
is  10  to  18  feet  thick. 

In  the  United  States,  hyalite  occurs  sparingly  in  New  York, 
rarely  in  North  Carolina,  and  in  Georgia  and  Florida.  In  Wash- 
ington County,  Georgia,  good  fire  opals  have  been  found. 


BERYL. 

The  composition  of  Beryl  is  silica  66.8,  alumina  19.1,  glu- 

•  .. •   •• 

cina  14.1  (^663  -h  JAl)  Sig. 

There  are  two  prominent  groups  of  beryl  depending  on  the 
color,  the  color  varying  as  chromium  or  iron  is  present.  When 
the  color  is  bright  emerald  green,  it  is  owing  to  the  presence 
of  chromium  and  is  called  Emerald,  All  other  specimens  are 
called  Beinjl^  and  owe  their  color  to  iron. 

The  following  are  a  few  analyses : 


1.  Rosenbach,     Beryl. 
%.  Foseam              " 
3.  Ooshen,  Maes.,  " 
4  MLvAo^  Emerald 


•  • 

Si. 

•  •• 

20.71 

Be. 

Ca. 

66.51 

11.46 

1.83 

0.23 

67.00 

19.64 

12.56 

0.68 

0.18 

66.97 

17.2a 

12.93 

2.03 

— 

68.60 

15.75 

12.50 

1.00 

— 

Mo. 


0.12 

Atn,  tr. 

tfr  0.80,  Ca  0.86. 


Analysis  No.  1,  by  Hofkneister  (lb.,  Ixzzi,  1). 
*•       No.  2,  by  Scheerer  (Pogg.,  xlix,  688). 

No.  8,  by  Mallet  (Am.  J.  Scl.,  11,  xvii,  180). 
No.  4,  by  Klaproth  (Beitr.,  iii,  215). 

The  colors  of  beryl  are  very  variable;  they  are  emerald 
green,  pale  green,  passing  into  light  blue,  yellow  and  white. 


812  THE  CHEMISTS*  MANUAL. 

Streak  is  white.  Brittle.  Lustre  vitreous  or  resinous;  the 
opaque  varieties,  however,  have  no  lustre.  Double  refraction 
feeble ;  axis  negative.  Hardness  =  7.5-8.  Specific  gravity  = 
2.63-2.76.  At  a  high  temperature  before  the  blowpipe  the 
edges  become  rounded.     Fuses  at  5.5  (KobeU). 

The  colored  varieties  become  white  when  heated  and  lose 
in  weight,  which  would  seem  to  indicate  that  the  color  is  due 
to  organic  matter.  Glass  with  borax  clear  and  colorless  for 
beryl,  a  fine  green  for  emerald.     Unacted  upon  by  acids. 

Emeralds  are  found  in  clay-slate  near  Muso,  New  Orenada. 
A  perfect  hexagonal  crystal  from  this  locality,  two  inches  long, 
is  in  the  cabinet  of  the  Duke  of  Devonshire.  Emeralds  of  less 
beauty  but  of  large  size  are  found  in  Siberia,  Mount  Zalora, 
and  in  Upper  Egypt.  Transparent  beryls  are  found  in  Sibe- 
ria, Hindostan  and  Brazil.  Beryls  of  gigantic  size  have  been 
found  in  New  Hampshire  and  in  Massachusetts.  One  beryl 
from  Grafton,  N.  H.,  weighs  2.900  pounds ;  it  is  32  inches 
through  in  one  direction  and  22  in  another.  It  is  also  found 
in  Maine,  Connecticut,  and  Pennsylvania. 

GARNET. 

Garnet  is  a  unisilicate,  of  sesquioxide  and  protoxide  bases, 
having  the  general  formula  (iR2+i"^)2Si3  or  (R3)2Si3+-R2Sl3. 
The  following  are  the  varieties  (with  the  exception  of  the 
last)  which  blend  together  more  or  less  completely,  through 
varieties  containing  combinations  of  the  protoxide  bases  and 
also  of  the  sesquioxide  bases : 

A.  Grossularite  or  Liine-aUimina  garnet. 

B.  Pyrope  or  Magnesia-alumina  garnet. 
C  Almandite  or  Iron-altcmina  garnet. 

D.  Spessartite  or  Manganese-alumina  garnet. 

E.  Andradite  or  Lim.e-iron  garnet, 

F.  Bredergite  or  Lime-magnesia-iron  garnet. 
O,  Ouvarovite  or  Lime^hrome  garnet. 


THE  CHEMISTS*  MANUAL. 


313 


The  lollowing  are  a  few  analyses  of  the  diflferent  varieties : 


1.  Sladiantut  B.,  Orosa 

%.  Wilni,  OrwaularUe 

8.  Pyrope 

4.  Fatalnn,  Almandite 

5.  Haddam,  Ct.,  SpessartiU 

6.  WeBlmoreland,  Andradite... 

7.  Sala,  BredergiU 

8.  BUeerek,  OuvarovUe 


•  • 

Si. 

••• 

•  •• 

Fk. 

Mn. 

Mo. 
0.98 

40.99 

14.90 

10.94 

__ 

«HM 

88J25 

19.86 

7.88 

— 

0.50 

2.40 

41.35 

23.86 

— 

9.91 

2.50 

15.00 

89.66 

19.66 

— 

89.68 

1.80 

— 

35.83 

18.06 

— 

14.63 

80.96 

— 

STJifi 

— 

81.85 

— 

4.70 

— 

36.73 

2.78 

26.83 

— 

— 

12.44 

87.11 

5.88 

2.44 

22.54 

— 

1.10 

Cjl 


82.94 
81.75 
5.89,   Cr4.17 


26.74 
21.79 
80.84,  H8.01 


AnalyBls  No.  1,  by  Ivanoir(Kok»cb.  Min.  BubhI.,  ill,  79). 
No.  2,  by  Earsten  (Karet.  Arch.  Min.,  Iv,  888). 
No.  8,  by  Moberff  (J.  pr.  Ch.,  xliil,  122). 
No.  4,  by  Hiainger  (Schw.  J.,  xxi,  258). 
No.  5,  by  H.  Seybert  (Am.  J.  Sci.,  vi,  156, 1828). 
No.  6,  Hieinger  (JahreBb.,  ii,  101). 
No.  7,  Bredberg  (Ak.  H.  Stockb.,  1.  68, 1829). 
No.  8,  Kourouen  (Yech.  Min.  Oes.  St.  Pet.,  1841-66). 


14 


U 


U 


»1 


M 


it 


tt 


Color  of  garnet  may  be  red,  brown,  yellow,  white,  apple- 
green,  black;  some  of  the  red  and  green  colors  are  often 
bright.  Streak  is  white.  Transparent,  translucent,  opaque. 
Fracture  conchoidal  or  uneven.  Garnet  is  generally  found 
crystallized,  but  the  crystals  are  very  often  distorted.  Hard- 
ness =  6.5-7.5.  Specific  gravity  =  3.15-4.3.  It  is  brittle  and 
sometimes  friable ;  when  granular,  massive ;  very  tough,  when 
compact ;  cryptocrystalline. 

In  the  reducing  flame  of  the  blowpipe  most  varieties  fuse  to 
a  light-  brown  or  black  gloss,  and  often  becomes  magnetic, 
owing  to  the  presence  of  iron.  The  dark-red  varieties  are 
easily  fusible  to  a  magnetic  scoria,  as  they  contain  more  iron. 
Some  varieties  are  partially  decomposed  by  acids ;  all  except 
ouvarovite  are  after  ignition  decomposed  by  hydrochloric  acid, 
and  generally  with  separation  of  gelatinous  silica.  Decom- 
posed on  fusion  with  alkaline  carbonates. 

Common  garnet  is  found  in  Sweden  and  Norway.  Alman- 
dite or  precious  garnet  is  found  in  Ceylon,  Peru,  Brazil  and 
Greenland.  Other  varieties  are  found  in  Bohemia,  Saxony, 
Hungary,  and  in  the  Urals. 

In  the  United  States,  in  Maine,  beautiful  yellow  crystals  or 


314 


THE  CHEMISTS*  MANUAL. 


cinnamon  stones  (with  idocrase)  are  found.  Garnets  are  also 
found  in  New  Hampshire,  Massachusetts^  Connecticut,  New 
York,  New  Jersey,  Pennsylvania,  Delaware,  and  California ; 
also  found  in  Canada  and  New  Mexico. 


LAPIS   LAZULI. 

The  composition  of  Lapis  Lazuli  is  silicate  of  soda,  lime 
and  almuina,  with  a  sulphide,  probably,  of  iron  and  sodium. 
The  following  are  a  few  analyses : 


1.  Orient 

S.  Bncharei 

8.  Andes 


•  • 

Si. 

•  •• 

Fb. 

8.0 

Ca. 

Na. 

1 

46.0 

14.6 

17.6 

^_ 

45.60 

81.76 

TV. 

3.63 

9.09 

45.70 

35.34 

1.30 

7.48 

10.55 

H. 


S. 


2.0 
0.1S 


I    4.0,  CIO.O. 

I    5.89,  Fe  0.86,  CI  0.42,  S  0.96. 


4.32,  S  8.96,  K  1.86. 


AnalysiB  No.  1,  by  Klaproth  (Beitr.  i,  189). 

No.  3,  by  Varrentrapp  (Pogg.,  xUz,  616). 
No.  8,  by  Schultz. 


li 


«t 


Color  of  lapis  lazuli  is  azure-blue,  violet-blue,  red,  green, 
or  colorless.  Streak,  same  as  color.  Translucent,  opaque. 
Fracture  uneven.   Hardness,  5-5.5.  Specific  gravity,  2.38-2.45. 

When  heated  in  a  closed  tube,  gives  off  moisture;  the 
variety  from  Chili  glows  with  a  beetle-green  light,  but  the 
color  of  the  mineral  remains  blue  on  cooling.  Fuses  easily  at 
3  with  intumescence,  and  gives  a  bluisli  bead.  In  acids  it  is 
more  or  less  easily  attacked,  and  gelatinizes,  evolving  at  the 
same  time  a  little  HjS.  The  action  of  acids  is  frequently  to 
decolorize  it ;  sometimes  it  is  not  attacked  by  acids  except 
after  calcination. 

It  is  usually  found  in  syenite  or  crylallien  limestone,  associ- 
ated often  with  pyrite  and  mica  in  scales. 

It  is  found  in  Siberia,  of  a  dark-blue  color ;  also  in  Transyl- 
vania, Persia,  China,  Thibet,  Tartary,  and  near  the  Rio 
Grande. 

It  is  much  used  by  jewelers,  especially  when  it  contains 
pyrite.  It  was  formerly  used  to  make  ultramarine,  but  is  now 
superseded  by  a  cheap  artificial  preparation. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


315 


ORTHOCLASE. 

The  compoBition  of  orthoclase  or  feldspar  is  (JK3  -h  |  Al)2 
Sia  +  GSi,  or  else  with  half  the  excess  of  silica  basic  =  silica, 
64.6;  alumina,  18.5;  potash,  16.9,  with  soda  sometimes  re- 
placing part  of  the  potash.  The  orthoclase  of  Carlsbad  con- 
tains rubidium. 

There  is  a  large  number  of  varieties.  The  following  are  a 
few  analyses : 


LOOAUTIBB. 


L  Lomnitz,  Sileeia 86.75 

2.  Siberia 66.83 

8.  Radeberg,  Sax.  (wli.)  65.24 

4.  Scbemnitz i  64.00 

6.  Davidson  Co.,  N.  C.   65.80 

6.  Zircon— Syenite  ....  I  66.08 

7.  Iscbia 67.09 


8.  Lococlaae 65.40 

9.  Lochwald 66.87 


•  •• 

Fv. 

Mo. 

Ca. 

17.50 

1.75 

__ 

1.35 

17.89 

0.80 

0.09 

0.10 

30.40 

— 

0.84 

— 

18.00 

0.53 

0.81 

0.78 

30.30 

Trace 

Trace 

0.06 

19.17 

0.31 

— 

0.30 

ia88 

1.35 

0.08 

0.35 

19.48 

1.35 

0.30 

3.36 

19.95 

Trace 

0.40 

— 

Na.       E.      Zn. 


0.78 
6.88 
4.59 
7.33 
9.64 


13.0 

3.81 

0.27   12.85-0.52,  Li  0.71 

0.79 

4.85 

6.96 

7.58 

3.76 

8.43 


13,06,  Mn  0.19,  Ca  fr. 


15.43,  Pb  and  Ca0.8S 


0.31 


0.76 


Analysis  No.  1  by  Rose  (Scbeerer^s  J.,  viil,  348). 

**    3  '*  Abich  (Pogg.,  li,  698 ;  B.  H.  Ztg.  Jahrg.,  19). 

3  "  JenzBcb  (Pogg.,  zct,  304). 

4  "  C.  Bischof  (Bischof,  Lehrb.  Geol.,  ii,  8171-3187). 

5  ''  F.  A.  Oenth  (KeUer  and  Tied,  iii,  486). 

6  **  Scheerer  (Pogg.,  cviii,  436). 

7  *•  Q.  BiBchof  (Lehrb.  Geol.,  1.  c). 

8  *^  Smith  and  Brash  (Am.  J.  ScL,  II,  zri,  48). 

9  **  F.  Sandberger  ((3eol.  Beschr.  Baden,  Carlsmhe,  181, 48). 


ii 


ti 


(i 


i< 


u 


ti 


tt 


The  color  of  orthoclase  is  flesh-red,  white-gray,  greenish 
or  bright-green.  Streak  colorless.  Transparent,  translucent, 
opaque.  Fracture  conchoidal,  uneven.  Lustre  vitreous  on 
cleavage;  surface  sometimes  pearly.  Hardness,  6-6.5.  Spe- 
cific gravity,  2.44-2.62 ;  mostly,  2.5-2.6. 

Before  the  blowpipe,  the  colored  varieties  whiten.  In  thin 
scales  it  is  fusible  between  4  and  5  to  white  glass.  With 
borax  it  gives  a  transparent  glass,  and  with  salt  of  phosphorus 
a  silica  skeleton.  It  is  not  acted  on  by  acids.  Orthoclase  is 
an  essential  constituent  of  many  rocks.  It  is  found  in  fine 
crystals  at  Carlsbad  and  Elbogen  in  Bohemia ;  also  in  Siberia, 


316  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

Norway,  Silesia,  and  Cornwall,  etc.  In  the  United  States, 
orthoclase  is  found  in  crystals  in  Maine,  Connecticut,  New 
York,  North  Carolina,  etc.  Massive  orthoclase  is  abundant 
in  the  above  places,  as  also  in  Mt.  Desert,  Me.;  Rockport, 
Mass. ;  Norwich,  Conn.  Kaolin  at  Andover,  Mass.,  and  abun- 
dantly in  New  Milford,  Kent,  and  Cornwall,  Conn.,  etc. 
Under  the  influence  of  atmospheric  agencies  the  silicates 
undergo  a  peculiar  decomposition.  When  decomposition 
has  taken  place  in  a  rock,  the  elements  of  which  are  well 
separated  as  large-grained  granites  and  pegm  antes,  the  quartz 
is  unaltered  and  the  mica  is  not  decomposed ;  the  feldspar  or 
orthoclase  only  has  undergone  decomposition.  The  mica, 
however,  undergoes  certain  changes,  and  takes  on  a  silvery 
look,  which  it  did  not  have  in  the  unaltered  rock. 
The  products  of  decomposition  may  be  separated  as  follows : 

1.  Kaolins  or  porcelain  clays,  resulting  from  the  decom- 
position of  rocks  in  places. 

2.  Ordinary  Clays,  formed  as  sediments. 

3.  Clays,  produced  by  chemical  decomposition. 

KAOLIN. 

In  the  decomposition  of  orthoclase  to  form  kaolin,  it  loses 
ik  -f  |Si.  Part  of  the  silica  set  free  may  go  oft'  with  more  or 
less  of  the  potash,  or  may  form  opal,  quartz,  or  siliceous  sinter. 
Kaolin  is  generally  a  simple  hydrous  silicate  of  alumina, 
expressed  by  the  formula  VU.  Si2  +  2H  =  silica  46.3,  alumina  39.8, 
water  13.9.  It  is  usually  white,  and  somewhat  plastic,  not 
very  coherent,  earthy,  and  without  argillaceous  odor  when 
breathed  upon.  It  is  easily  separated  from  the  accompanying 
undecomposed  materials  by  crushing  and  washing.  It  is  very 
much  sought  for,  when  free  from  iron,  for  the  manufacture  of 
porcelain.  For  this  purpose,  it  is  indispensable  that  all  the 
mica  should  be  washed  out. 

Brougniart  analyzed  a  great  number  of  kaolins  used  in  the 
arts,  and  arrived  at  the  following  limits : 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  317 

Si  23-46 ;  metallic  oxides  0.5-1 ;  Al  21-43 ;  Ca,  Mg  0-6 ; 
alkalies  0-06 ;  H  5-12 :  residue  not  argillaceous  0-3. 

ORDINARY    GUYS. 

"  Clays  seem  to  have  been  formed  from  the  product  of  decom- 
position, carried  oft*  by  water  and  deposited  in  beds  in  the 
stratified  formations.  They  do  not  have  any  well-defined 
character.  When  dry,  they  rapidly  absorb  water,  which  they 
lose  easily,  and  then  contract  and  crack  in  every  direction." 
Lustre  is  somewhat  pearly  or  waxy,  to  dull.  Color  white, 
grayish,  greenish,  bluish,  reddish.  When  taken  from  the 
earth,  they  are  sometimes  somewhat  translucent  on  the  edges, 
and  have  a  soapy  look  and  a  slight  lustre.  When  breathed 
upon,  they  give  a  peculiar  odor,  called  argillaceous,  like  the 
smell  of  ground  after  a  rain.  Fracture  is  conchoidal.  Hardly 
plastic.     Hardness  =  1-2.     Specific  gravity  =  1.8-2.4. 

The  composition  of  clays  is  very  variable,  but  they  can  aU 
be  arranged  around  two  types,  represented  by  the  following 
compositions : 

I.  n. 


Si 

45—50     

60 — 66 

M 

. . . .     18—25 

• 

H 

9—15     

9—15 

These  may  be  represented  by  the  formulae : 

Al  Sis  +  4H  ;     Si  51.83,  fi  35.36,  H  12.46,  and 
Al  Sig  +  3H  ;     Si  65.64,  Al  22.54,  H    4.82. 

"These  clays  are  generally  plastic  enough  to  allow  their  use 
in  moulding  and  for  pottery.  When  they  contain  but  little 
iron,  they  can  be  used  for  fire-brick.  They  absorb  water  rap- 
idly, and  have  a  very  distinct  argillaceous  odor,  and  are  only 
partially  acted  on  by  acids." 


318 


THE  CHEMISTS^  MANUAL. 


CHEMICAL   CUYS. 

Under  this  head  is  considered  the  varieties  known  as  fuller's 
earth  or  smectic  clay. 

Their  composition  is  as  follows : 


LOOALITIBS. 


1.  Cillej  (Bmectite) 

8.  Rie^te  (fliller'a  earth).. 
8.  SteindOrfel  (malthacite). 


■  • 

Si. 

••• 

Mo. 

Ca. 

51.21 

12.26 

2.07 

4.89 

2.18 

63.00 

10.00 

9.76 

1.25 

aeo 

60.17 

10.66 

8.16 

— 

0.25 

H. 


27.89 

24.00,  K^r,Naa  0.10 
86.88 


Analysis  No.  1  by  Jordan  (Pogg.,  Ixxvli,  591). 
**  "    2  "  Klaproth  (Beitr.,  iv,  838). 

"  "   8  *'  O.  Meissner  (L  c). 


Color  is  white,  gray,  and  various  shades  of  green  to  moun- 
tain green  and  olive  green,  or  brownish.  Softens  in  water. 
In  the  fracture  their  lustre  is  quite  bright;  they  may  even  be 
translucent  on  the  edges.  They  do  not  absorb  water  as  easily 
as  kaolin  and  ordinary  clays,  but  they  unite  with  fats,  even 
when  cold,  and  saponify.  They  are  largely  used  for  soap  in  the 
countries  where  they  are  found. 

Before  the  blowpipe  the  malthacite  is  inftisible;  but  the 
smectite  and  the  Eiegate  fuller's  earth,  owing  to  the  impurities 
present,  fuse  rather  easily.  They  are  decomposed  by  hydro- 
chloric  acid. 

Malthacite  is  found  at  Steindorfel,  in  Lausitz;  and  Beraun, 
in  Bohemia.     Smectite  is  found  in  Cilley,  in  Lower  Styria. 

TOPAZ. 

The  composition  of  Topaz  is  silicon  15.17,  aluminium  29.58, 
oxygen  34.67,  fluorine  20.58  [^  (JSiOa  +  iSiFa)]. 
The  following  are  a  few  analyses : 


LOOALITnCS. 


1.  Anerbach,  Saxony .. . 

2.  Brazil  (yellow) 

&  Finbo  (pyrophysallte) 

4.  Trumbnll,  Conn 

6.  Altenberg(pycnite).. 


•  • 

Si. 

•  •• 

Ai«. 

84.24 

(77.45 

84.01 

56.88 

8186 

OT.74 

86.89 

65.96 

85.00 

48.00 

F. 


14.99 
1&06 
15.02 
17.85 
16.5 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  319 

Analyses  No.  1,  2,  8,  by  Berzelias  (Schweig  J.,  xvi,  428;  AihandL,  Iv,  286). 
Anaiysis  No.  4  by  Forchhammer  (J.  pr.  Ch.,  xxz,  400). 
5  *'  Bachobs  (Schw.  J.,  i,  885). 


»»  tt 


The  color  of  topaz  may  be  blue,  green,  yellow,  orange- 
yellow,  red,  and  colorless.  The  colors  vary  with  the  locality 
and  crystalline  form,  and  appear  to  be  generally  owing  to 
organic  substances.  Streak  colorless.  Hardness  =  8.  Spe- 
cific gravity  =  3.4-3.65.  Lustre  vitreous.  Pyro-electric. 
Transparent,  subtranslucent.  Crystallizes  as  a  right  rhombic 
prism  of  124°  17'. 

It  is  infusible  before  the  blowpipe.  The  yellow  varieties, 
when  heated,  take  a  pink  or  red  color,  and  are  then  known  as 
burnt  topaz.  Fused  in  the  open  air  with  salt  of  phosphorus 
gives  the  reaction  for  fluorine.  Only  paitly  attacked  by  sul- 
phuric acid:  Fine  topazes  come  from  the  Urals,  near  Katha- 
rinenburg  and  M iask ;  in  Nertschinsk,  beyond  L.  Baikal,  in 
the  Adun-Tschilon  Mountains,  etc.,  one  crystal  from  near  the 
River  Urulga,  now  in  the  imperial  cabinet  at  St.  Petersburg, 
being  llf  in.  long,  6J  in.  broad,  weighing  22J  lbs.  Av.,  and 
magnificent  also  in  its  perfect  transparency  and  wine-yellow 
color.  Found  also  in  Kamschatka;  Villa  Eica,  in  Brazil; 
Aberdeenshire ;  Altenberg,  Norway ;  Broddbo,  Sweden.  One 
crystal  found  at  this  last  place  weighed  80  pounds. 

In  the  United  States  it  is  found  at  Trumbull,  Middletown, 
and  Willimantic,  Conn. ;  also  in  North  Carolina  and  Utah. 

TALC. 
Syn. — Steatite,  soapstone,  or  potstone. 

The  composition  of  talc  in  some  cases  may  be  represented 
by  the  formula  (|Mg  4-  ^H)  =  silica  62.8,  magnesia  33.5, 
water  3,7.  In  other  cases  (|Mg  +  ^H)  Si  +  -^i^  =  silica  62.0, 
magnesia  33.1,  water  4.9.  The  formula  is  commonly  written, 
Mg^Sis  +  2H. 

The  following  are  a  few  analyses : 


320 


THE    CHEMISTS'    MANUAL. 


LOOAUTIBB. 


1.  Chamouni  (foliated  talc) 

5.  China  (agalmat) 

8.  Canton,  N.T.  (Reneselaerite).. 
4  Bbode  leland  (talc) 

6.  Pottoa,  Canada  (steatite) 


•  • 

8l 

Fb. 

Mo. 

6S^ 

a^ 

1.06 

85.40 

6a29 

0JS8 

3jnr 

81.98 

60.75 

— 

8.40 

82.90 

61.75 

— 

1.70 

81.66 

59.50 

0.40 

450 

S9.15 

H. 


0.04 

0.16,  ifn  0.38 

8.86,  Ca  1.00 

8.88 

4.40,  Ni  tr. 


Analysis  No.  1  by  Marignac  (Bibl.  Univ.,  1844). 
**  "    2  "  J.  Schneider  (J.  pr.  Ch.,  xliil.  81(0. 

"    8  "  Beck  (Mln.  N.  Y.,  297). 
'*   4  **  Delepse  (Rev.  Scientif.,  etc.). 
"    6  **  T.  8.  Hunt  (Rep.  G.  Can.,  18OT,  46^. 


it 


u 


The  color  of  talc  may  be  gi*een,  white,  red,  and  gray. 
Streak  white,  or  lighter  than  color.  It  is  flexible,  but  not 
elastic,  which  allows  of  its  being  distinguished  from  mica.  Its 
touch  is  unctuous  and  soapy,  on  account  of  the  large  quantity 
of  magnesia  it  contains.  Lustre  is  pearly.  Sectile  in  a  high 
degree.  Hardnes3=l--1.5.  Specific  gravity =2.565-2.8.  Crys- 
tallizes in  a  right  rhombic  prism  of  120°. 

Before  the  blowpipe  it  whitens,  swells,  and  sometimes 
decrepitates  a  little,  fusing  with  difficulty  on  the  edges.  With 
nitrate  of  cobalt  it  gives  the  reaction  for  magnesia.  Not 
decomposed  by  acids.  Eensselaerite  is  decomposed,  though, 
by  concentrated  sulphuric  acid. 

Talc,  or  steatite,  is  a  very  common  mineral,  and  constitutes 
beds  in  some  regions.  Apple-green  talc  occurs  in  the  Greiner 
Mountain,  in  Saltzburg;  in  Saltzburg,  Valais,  Cornwall, 
Scotland,  Ireland,  and  Shetland  Islands,  etc. 

In  the  United  States,  it  is  found  in  Maine,  New  Hampshire, 
Massachusetts,  Rhode  Island,  New  York,  Staten  Island,  New 
Jersey,  Pennsylvania,  and  North  Carolina,    Also  in  Canada. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


821 


24.    SILVER. 

The  principal  Silver  minerals  are : 


l£lNSBAI.. 

Habd- 

NB88. 

Sp.  Gb. 

FOBXULA. 

Composition. 

Native  silver 

2.4rS 

10.1—11.1 

Ag  (when  pure) 

AglOO. 

8-a.6 

10.6-14 

AgHg, 

Ag84.8:  Hg66.3. 

Argentite 

3—8.6 

TlI»-7.886 

AgS 

Ag87.1;  813.9. 

Pronatite 

3—3.5 

6.433— 6i66 

8AgS+AB,S. 
8AgS-i-Sb.S, 

Ag66.4;  S19.4;  As  15.3. 
Ag60.8;  8b  33.5;  817.7 

Pyrargyrite 

3-3.5 

6.7-6.9 

Stephanite 

3-3.5 

6.369 

6AgS+Sb,Sa 

Ag68.5;  816.3;  8b  15.8. 

Polybasite 

3-8 

6.314 

9(Ag,eQ)8+(8b,A8).S, 

jAg64.7;  Co  9.8;  8148; 
1                Sb9.7. 

Cerargyrite 

1—1.5 

5.31-5.43 

AgCl 

Ag75.8;  CI  34.7. 

Bromyrite. 

»-8 

6.8-6 

AgBr 

Ag57.4;  Br  43.6. 

Bipbollte. 

1—1.5 

5.31-5.81 

Ag  (CI,  Br) 
Agl 

Ag  69.88;  Br  14.80;  CI  16.48 
Ag46;I54. 

lodyrite 

1—1.5 

5.6-5.71 

NATIVE    SILVER. 

The  composition  of  Native  Silver  is  silver,  with  some  copper, 
gold,  and  sometimes  platinum,  antimony,  bismuth,  and  mer- 
cury.    The  varieties  are : 

1.  AuBiFEBOus. — Kustelite  contains  10-30  per  cent,  of  sil- 
ver.    Color  is  white  to  pale  brass-yellow. 

The  name  kiistelite  was  given  to  an  ore  in  Nevada.  Hard- 
ness =  2-2.5.  Specific  gravity  =  11.32-13.10.  Eichter  found 
in  it  silver,  lead,  and  gold. 

2.  Cupriferous. — Contains  sometimes  10  per  cent,  of  copper. 
4.  Antimonial. — John  found  in  silver  from  Johanngeorgen- 

stadt  (Chem.  Uiit.,  i,  285)  1  per  cent,  of  antimony,  and  traces 
of  copper  and  arsenic. 

The  color  of  native  silver  is  white,  but  is  subject  to  tarnish 
and  to  become  grayish-black.     Streak  silver-white.     Ductile, 
sectile.    Lustre  metallic.     Hardness  =  2.5-3.     Specific  grav- 
ity =  10.1-11.1 ;  when  pure,  10.5. 
21 


322 


THE    CHEMISTS'   MANUAL. 


Native  silver  has  all  the  characteristics  of  silver  on  charcoal ; 
fuses  easily  to  a  metallic  globule.  In  the  oxidizing  flame 
gives  a  brown  coating.  Soluble  in  nitric  acid,  and  deposited 
again  by  metallic  copper,  or  precipitated  by  hydrochloric  acid 
as  argentic  chloride. 

The  mines  of  Konigsberg,  in  Norway,  have  furnished  mag- 
nificent specimens  of  native  silver.  A  mass  weighing  60  lbs. 
was  obtained  from  the  Himmelsftirst  mine,  near  Freiberg, 
which  had  a  gravity  of  10.840.  It  is  also  found  in  the  Harz, 
Hungary,  Dauphiny,  and  in  some  of  the  Cornish  mines. 
Mexico  and  Peru  have  been  the  most  productive  countries  in 
silver.  A  Mexican  specimen  from  Batopilas  weighed,  when 
obtained,  400  lbs. ;  and  one  from  Southern  Peru  (mine  of 
Huantaya)  weighed  over  8  cwt. 

In  the  United  States,  it  is  disseminated  through  the  copper 
mines  at  Michigan.  It  has  also  been  found  in  New  York, 
New  Jersey,  California,  Nevada,  and  Idaho.  Also  found  in 
Canada. 

ARGENTITE. 

The  composition  of  Argentite,  often  called  vitreous  silver 
and  silver  glance,  is  sulphur  12.9,  silver  87.1  (AgS). 

The  following  are  a  few  analyses : 


LooALinxs. 

S. 

Ao. 

1.  Joachimsthal 

S.  Himmelefllret. 

15 

14.7 

14.46 

86 
86.8 

8,  JoAChim<^thAi 

77.58,  Pb  8.68,  Co  1.68,  Fe  2.08. 

AnalyBeB  No.  1  and  S  by  Klaproth  (Beitr.,  i«  168). 
AnalyBlB  No.  8  by  lindaker  (VogFe  Min.  Joach.,  78). 

Color,  deep  iron-black,  with  very  little  lustre  on  the  natural 
faces.  The  lustre  is,  however,  bright  on  the  fracture.  Streak 
same  as  color,  and  shining.  Opaque.  Perfectly  sectile. 
Hardness  =  2-2.5.     Specific  gravity  =  7.196-7.365. 

Argentite  melts  when  held  in  a  flame,  without  the  aid  of  a 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


323 


blowpipe.  In  the  oxidizing  flame  it  is  roasted ;  in  the  reduc- 
ing flame  gives  a  metallic  globule.     Soluble  in  nitric  acid. 

It  is  found  as  amorphous  masses  disseminated  in  gangues, 
which  are  usually  limestones.  It  is  a  very  valuable  ore  of 
silver,  and  is  found  at  Freiberg,  Annaberg,  Joachimsthal  of 
the  Erzgebirge ;  at  Schemnitz  and  Kremnitz,  in  Hungary ;  in 
Norway,  in  the  Urals,  Cornwall,  Bolivia,  Peru,  Chili,  and 
Mexico. 

Occurs  in  Nevada,  at  the  Comstock  lode,  at  difierent  mines, 
along  with  stephanite,  native  gold,  etc. ;  in  the  vein  at  Gold 
Hill ;  common  in  the  ores  of  Reese  Kiver ;  probably  the  chief 
ore  of  silver  in  the  Cortez  district ;  in  the  Kearsarge  district, 
silver  sprout  vein. 

•     PYRARGYRITE. 

The  composition  of  Pyrargyrite  is  sulphur  17.7,  antimony 
22.5,  silver  59.8  (3AgS  +  Sb^Sg). 

The  following  are  a  few  analyses : 


LOOALITIES. 

8. 

Sb. 

AG. 

1.  Mexico 

18.0 

17.46 

16.61 

81.8 

28.16 

S8.85 

60.8 

S.  ChUi 

8.  AodreaBbors 

60.01 

68.96,  gangne  0.80. 

AnalysiB  No.  1  by  WOhler  (Ann.  d.  Pbarm.,  xxvii,  157). 
u  .4    2  "  F.  Field  (Q.  I.  Ch.  Soc..  xU,  12). 

*«  "    8  ''  Bonsdorff  (Ak.  H.  Stockh.,  1821, 888). 

The  color  of  pyrargyrite  is  black  or  very  dark  red.  Streak 
cochineal-red.  Lustre  metallic,  adamantine.  Translucent. 
Opaque.  Fracture  conchoidal.  Hardness  :=  2-2.5.  Specific 
gravity  =  5.7-5.9. 

In  a  closed  tube,  gives  a  red  sublimate  of  sulphide  of  anti- 
mony ;  in  an  open  tube,  sulphurous  fumes  are  evolved,  and  a 
white  sublimate  of  oxide  of  antimony.  On  charcoal  it  fused 
and  coats  the  coal.  Heated  for  some  time  in  the  oxidizing 
flame,  or  with  soda  in  the  reducing  fiame,  a  globule  of  silver  is 


824 


THE  CHEMISTS*  MANUAL. 


obtained.    Decomposed  by  nitric  acid,  with  separation  of  sul- 
phur and  antimonious  acid. 

It  is  found  at  Andreasberg,  in  the  Harz ;  also  in  Saxony, 
Hungary,  Norway,  in  Spain  and  in  Cornwall.  In  Mexico,  it 
is  worked  extensively  as  an  ore  of  silver.  It  is  also  found  in 
Nevada,  at  Washoe,  in  Daney  Mine ;  and  at  Poorman  lode, 
Idaho,  in  masses  sometimes  of  several  hundredweight,  along 
with  cyrargyrite.    It  is  a  valuable  ore  of  silver. 

STEPHANITE. 

The  composition  of  Stephanite  is  (5AgS-f  SbgSg)  sulphur 
16.2,  antimony  15.3,  and  silver  68.5. 

The  following  are  two  analyses :  * 


Localities. 

S. 

SB. 

Ae. 

Fs. 

Cu. 

1.  SchemDitz 

16.42 
16.61 

14.68 
15.79 

68.64 
68.38 

0.14 

0.84 

9.  AndreAsbcrfiT ...  . . » 

Analyeifi  No.  1  by  Rose  (Pogj?.,  xv,  474). 

2  "  Kerl  (B.  U.  Ztg.,  1868,  No.  9). 


tk 


The  color  and  streak  of  Stephanite  is  black.  Lustre  metallic. 
Fracture  uneven.  Hardness  =  2-2.5.  Specific  gravity  = 
6.269  (Pryebram). 

In  a  close  tube,  it  decrepitates  and  fnses,  and  after  long  heat- 
ing gives  a  faint  sublimate  of  sulphide  of  antimony.  On 
charcoal  it  decrepitates  and  fuses,  giving  the  rose-colored  coat- 
ing of  silver  and  antimony.  After  long  treatment,  a  globule 
of  silver  is  obtained. 

It  is  found  at  Freiburg,  Saxony,  Bohemia,  Hungary,  in  the 
Harz,  Mexico,  and  Peru. 

It  is  an  abundant  ore  in  !Nevada,  in  the  Comstock  lode;  it 
is  also  found  in  Idaho. 

It  is  a  valuable  ore  of  silver. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


325 


CERARGYRITE. 

The  composition  of  Cerargyrite  (called  also  Horn  Silver)  is 
chlorine  24.7,  silver  75.3  (AgCl).  The  color  is  white,  gray, 
grayish-green,  or  colorless  when  perfectly  pure.  Streak  color- 
less and  shining.  Transparent,  feebly  translucent.  Fracture 
somewhat  conchoidal.  Sectile.  Lustre  resinous,  passing  into 
adamantine.  Hardness  =  1-1.6.  Specific  gravity  =  5.552 ; 
6.31-5.43  (Domeyke). 

In  a  closed  tube  fuses  without  decomposition.  Fuses  in  a 
flame  of  a  candle.  On  charcoal,  gives  a  globule  of  silver. 
Insoluble  in  nitric  acid,  but  soluble  in  ammonia. 

The  largest  masses,  particularly  green,  are  found  in  Peru, 
Chili  and  Mexico.  It  is  also  found  in  Norway,  Brittany, 
Nevada,  California,  Idaho  and  Arizona.  It  is  mined  as  an  ore 
in  South  America. 


25.  SODIUM. 

The  principal  Sodium  minerals  are : 


MiNEBAL. 

Soda  Nitre... 
Thenarditc. . . 
Mirabillte.... 
Qlaaberite... 

Halite 

Borax 

Natron 


Habdnbss. 

Sp.  Gb. 

2 

1.987 

2-3 

2.6-2.7 

1.6-2 

1.481 

2.5-8 

2.64-2.86 

2.5 

2.1-2.257 

2.26 

1.716 

1—1.6 

1.428 

Formula. 


•       •■• 


NaN. 

NaS. 

Na  8  +  lOH. 

(JNa  +  i6a)8. 

NaCl. 
NaB,  +  lOH. 
NaC  +  lOH. 


COMFOBITION. 


Na  86.6 ;  N  63.6. 

Na66.8;'d'48.7. 
Na  19.8  ;S  24.8;  H66.9. 
8  67.5:  Ca20.1;  Na22.4. 

Na  89.8 ;  CI  60.7. 
Na  16.2 ;  B  36.6 ;  H  47.2. 
Nal8.6:  C26.7;  H64.6. 


SODA  NITRE. 
The  composition  of  Soda  Nitre  is  nitric  acid  63.5,  soda 

•     ••  • 

36.5  (NaN).     Hochstetter  obtained  from  the  Chilian  minerals 

(v.  Leonh.,  1846,  235)  NaN   94.291,  NaCl  1.990,    KS  0.239, 

k  N  0.426,  MgN  0.858,  insoluble  0.203,  H  1.993. 
The  color  of  soda  nitre  is  white ;  also  reddish-brown,  gray, 


826 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


and  lemon-yellow.  Lustre  vitreous.  Fracture  indistinctly 
conchoidal.  Taste  cooling.  Crystals  strongly  double  refract- 
ing.    Transparent,  translucent,  or  opaque. 

Deflagrates  on  charcoal ;  colors  the  flame  yellow.  Dissolves 
in  three  parts  of  water  at  60°  F. 

It  is  found  in  Peru  in  great  abundance ;  also  in  Chili  and 
India. 

GLAUBERITE. 

The  composition  of  Glauberite  is  sulphate  of  soda  51.1, 
sulphate  of  lime  48.9  (JNa  +  JCa)S. 
The  following  are  a  few  analyses : — 


8. 

Ca. 

Na. 

Cl. 

1.  Villa  Rubia 

66.5 

57.53 

OT.22 

20.2 

20.37 

20.68 

28.8 

21.87 
21.88 

0.81 

8.  ischl 

&  Tarapaca 

0.14 

Analysliii  No.  1,  by  Brongniart. 

"       No.  2,  by  V.  Haaer  (Ber.  Ac  Wlen). 

'*      No.  8,  by  Hayes  (J.  Nat  H.  Soc  Boflt*  iv,  486). 

The  color  of  glauberite  is  generally  yellow,  somewhat  gray, 

but  when  fB  is  present  it  is  red.  Streak  is  white.  Fracture 
conchoidal ;  brittle.  Taste  slightly  saline.  Hardness  =  2.5-3. 
Specific  gravity  2.64-2.85. 

Decrepitates  and  melts  into  a  bead,  which  is  transparent 
when  hot,  but  opaline  when  cold.'  Water  separates  the  sul- 
phates by  dissolving  the  sulphate  of  soda.  It  is  soluble  in 
hydrochloric  acid. 

Glauberite  is  found  at  Villa  Eubia  near  Ocana  in  New 
Castle,  also  at  Ausse  in  Upper  Austria,  and  in  Bavaria.  Near 
Madrid  a  large  mass  of  glauberite  was  found  fourteen  to  fif- 
teen miles  thick  and  several  leagues  square. 


HAUTE. 

The  composition  of  Halite  (common  salt)  is  chlorine  60.7, 
sodium  39.3  (NaCl). 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


327 


The  following  are  a  few  analyses : 


1.  Vic,  white.. 

2.  **    gray  . . 
a    "    red... 

4.  "     yellow. 

5.  "    green.. 


NaCl. 

MoCl. 

•      ••• 

CaS. 

■      ••• 

NaS. 

99.8 

__ 

0.5 

__ 

90.8 

— 

50 

2.0 

99.8 

— 

— 

— 

96.70 

0.28 

1.21 

— 

96.37 

0.27 

1.09 

— 

MgS. 


—    Clay  0.2. 


ii 


1.9. 

a2. 


0.66 
0.80 


AnalyBes  No.  1— (S,  by  Berthier  (Aoxl  d.  M.,  z,  260). 

The  colors  of  halite  are  very  variable.  When  pure  it  is 
colorless,  but  generaUy  it  is  colored  by  some  earthy  or  organic 
matter.  It  may  be  gray,  red,  violet,  blue  or  green.  The 
cause  of  these  colors  is  not  very  well  understood ;  they  may 
be  owing  to  traces  of  Ni,  Co,  Cu,  or  organic  matter.  Streak 
is  white.  Lustre  vitreous.  Hardness  =  2.5.  Specific  gravity 
2.1-2.257;  of  pure  crystals  2.135  (Hunt).  Transparent,  trans- 
lucent. Fracture  conchoidal.  Eather  brittle.  It  is  soluble, 
and  has  its  own  peculiar  saline  taste. 

When  heated  it  at  first  decrepitates  and  then  melts;  when 
fused,  colors  the  flame  deep  yellow. 

Halite  or  common  salt  occurs  in  irregular  beds  in  rocks  of 
various  ages.  At  Durham,  Northumberland,  and  Leicester- 
shire, England,  salt  springs  rise  from  the  carboniferous  series ;  in 
the  Alps,  some  salt  works  are  supplied  from  oolitic  rocks.  In 
the  United  States,  the  brines  of  New  York  come  from  upper 
Silurian;  those  of  Ohio,  Pennsylvania  and  Virginia  mostly 
from  Devonian  and  subcarboniferous  beds.  Salt  also  occurs 
as  efllorescences  over  the  dry  prairies  and  shallow  ponds  or 
lakes  of  the  Rocky  Mountains  and  California.  Tlie  principal 
mines  of  Europe  are  at  Wieliczka,  in  Poland ;  at  Hall,  in  the 
Tyrol ;  Stassfurt,  in  Prussian  Saxony.  Also  in  Bavaria,  Salz- 
berg,  Transylvania,  Upper  Silesia,  France,  Valley  of  Cardona 
and  ekewhere  in  Spain,  forming  hills  300  to  400  feet  high. 
Also  occurs,  forming  hills,  near  Lake  Oromiah,  the  Caspian 
Lake,  etc.  It  is  also  found  in  Algeria,  Abyssinia,  India, 
China  and  Russia.    In  the  United  States,  it  has  been  found  in 


328 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


Virginia,  Oregon  and  Lonisiana.  Brine  springs  are  very 
numerous  in  the  Middle  and  Western  States.  These  springs 
are  worked  at  Salina  and  Syracuse,  N.  Y. ;  in  the  Kanawha 
Valley,  Va. ;  Muskingum,  Ohio ;  Michigan  at  Saginaw  and 
elsewhere,  and  in  Kentucky. 

26.  STRONTIUM. 

The  principal  Strontium  minerals  are : 


MiNERAI.. 

Hakdnesb. 

Sf.  Gr. 

FOBMULA. 

COXFOSXnOM. 

Celestlte 

Strontianite 

S-a5 

8.92-«.976 
8.80eH-a.713 

SrS. 

■      •  ■ 

SrC. 

Sr66.4;'S41& 
SrTaS:  C29.& 

CELESTITE. 

The  composition  of  Celestite  is  sulphuric  acid  43.6,  strontia 
56.4  (SrS). 
The  following  are  a  few  analyses : 


Localities. 


1.  Frankfltown,  Fa 

2.  StLhtcl,  Hanover. 

8.  Dehroelf. 

4.  Dombai^ 


8. 

Sb. 

Ba. 

Ca. 

43 

68 

— 

— 

43.74 

56.18 

0R6 

0.81 

43.94 

66.01 

0.64 

— 

43.95 

60.36 

— 

— 

F. 


0.04,  CaO  0.08,  H  0.05. 

0.65,  Si  0.11,  H  OJa, 

a08,  M  0.05,  CaC  0.10,  H,  Bit.,  0.15. 


AnalyBls  No.  1  by  E^proth. 

^*        Nob.  3, 8,  and  4  by  Stromeyer  (Unten.,  WS^. 

The  color  of  celestite  is  white,  often  faint  bluish,  and  inclin- 
ing to  pearly.  Streak  is  white.  Hardness  =  3-3.5.  Specific 
gravity  =  3.92-3.975 ;  3.9593,  crystals  (Bendant) ;  3.973,  fr. 
Tharaud  (Breith) ;  3.96  jfr.  Kingston  (Hunt).  Its  lustre  is 
very  bright,  often  pearly.  Fracture  is  lamellar  and  sometimes 
conchoidal. 

Decrepitates  and  fuses,  coloring  the  fiame  red.  Insoluble 
in  acids. 

It  is  found  in  Sicily,  Spain,  France,  Hungary,  Hanover, 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


329 


Aastria,  Yorkshire,  and  New  Grenada.  It  is  ^  found  about 
Lake  Huron,  particularly  about  Strontian  Island;  and  at 
Kingston,  Canada;  also  in  Chaumont  Bay,  Schoharie,  and 
Lockport,  N.  Y. 

Celestite  is  used  in  the  arts  for  making  nitrate  of  strontia, 
which  produces  the  red  color  in  fireworks. 


STRONTIAN  ITE. 

The  composition  of  Strontianite  is  carbonic  acid  29.8,  and 
strontia  70.2  (SrC).  The  strontia  is  often  replaced  in  a  small 
degree  by  lime. 

The  following  are  a  few  analyses: 


Localities. 


1  Strontian 

S.  Brftanedorf,  Saxony. 

8.  Strontian 

4. 


ik 


•  • 

c. 

SB. 

Ca. 

Mn. 

80.0 

69.5 

__ 

^^ 

__ 

89.94 

67.63 

1.28 

— 

0.09 

80.66 

65.68 

&53 

0.01 

— 

80.81 

65.60 

8.47 

0. 

n 

H. 


0.5 
0.07 

0.07 


Analysis  No.  1  by  Klaproth  (Beitr.,  i.  270;  ii,  84). 
"  *i    2  "  Stromeyer  ^Unters,  1, 198). 

«4  »i    8  *»  Thomson  (Min.,  i,  108). 

•*  "    4  *»  Stromeyer  (1.  c). 

The  color  of  strontianite  may  be  gray,  white,  yellow,  brown- 
ish, and  pale  green.  Streak  white.  Hardness  =  3.5-4.  Spe- 
cific gravity  =  3.605-3.713.  Lustre  vitreous,  inclining  to 
resinous  on  uneven  faces  of  fracture.  Transparent,  translu- 
cent.    Fracture  uneven.     Brittle. 

Before  the  blowpipe  it  swells,  arboresces,  and  fuses  on  the 
thin  edges,  and  colors  the  flame  red.  With  soda,  on  charcoal, 
the  pure  mineral  fuses  to  a  clear  glass,  and  is  entirely  absorbed 
by  the  coal.     Soluble  in  hydrochloric  acid. 

It  is  found  at  Strontian,  in  Argyleshire,  in  Yorkshire, 
England;  in  Ireland,  Harz,  Saxony,  and  Saltzburg. 

In  the  United  States,  it  occurs  at  Schoharie,  N.  Y. ;  at 
Muscalonge  Lake  ;  Chaumont  Bay ;  and  Theresa,  in  Jefierson 
Countv  New  York. 

Strontianite  is  used  for  pyrotechnics. 


330 


THE   CHEMISTS'    MANUAL. 


ay.    SULPHUR. 

The  composition  of  Native  Sulphur  is  pure  sulphur,  which 
is  often  contaminated  with  clay  and  bitumen. 

When  it  is  quite  pure,  it  is  of  a  yellow  color,  called  sulphur- 
yellow,  sometimes  having  a  greenish  tint.  It  is  sometimes  of 
a  reddish  color,  which  has  been  attributed  to  traces  of  selenium. 
Streak  is  sulphur-yellow,  reddish,  or  greenish.  Hardness  = 
1.5-2.5.  Specific  gravity  =  2.072,  of  crystals  from  Spain. 
Lustre  is  resinous.  Transparent,  subtranslucent.  Fracture 
conchoidal,  more  or  less  perfect.  Sectile.  Crystallizes  as  a 
right  rhombic  prism,  101°  40'. 

Heated  in  a  closed  tube  it  fuses  and  volatilizes,  leaving  no 
residue,  if  it  is  pure.  In  an  open  tube,  it  burns  with  a  blue 
flame,  and  gives  off  sulphurous  fiimes.  Becomes  strongly 
electrified  by  friction.  Insoluble  in  water,  and  not  acted  on 
by  acids. 

The  great  repositories  of  sulphur  are  either  beds  of  gypsum 
and  the  associated  rocks,  or  the  region  of  active  or  extinct 
volcanoes.  It  occurs  in  the  valley  of  Noto,  and  Mazzaro  in 
Sicily  ;  at  Conil,  near  Cadiz,  in  Spain ;  at  Bex,  in  Switzeriand. 
Also  at  Hanover,  Egypt,  Tuscany,  and  in  the  Chilian  Andes. 

Sulphur  is  found  near  the  Sulphur  Springs  of  New  York, 
and  in  Virginia,  in  limited  quantities ;  also  in  North  Carolina 
and  Nevada. 

28.    TIN. 

The  principal  Tin  minerals  are : 


MnrsBAi*. 


Caralterite. 


Stannlte 


HABDKE88. 

Sp.  Qb. 

6-7 

4 

6.4-7.1 
4.3-4.683 

FOBMULA. 


8d. 
2(Ca,Fe,Zn)S  -t-  SdS,. 


OovposinoN. 


8n  78.67,  O  21.23. 

So  S7.2,  Cu  29.3,  Fe,  6JL 
Zd  7.5,  S  29.6. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


331 


CASSITERITE. 

The  composition  of  Cassiterite  is  tin  78.67,  oxygen  21.33  (Sn). 
The  following  are  a  few  analyses : 


LOCALITIBS. 


1.  Finbo 

S.  Wlcklow,  Ireland 

8.  Tipnani,  BoliYla  (puh) . 


Sn. 

•  • 

^Ta. 

•  •• 

•  •• 

•  « 

Sl 

93.6 

2.4 

1.4 

0.8 

_- 

85.26 

— 

2.41 

— 

0.84 

91.81 

— 

1.08 

6.48 

0.78 


Analysis  No.  1  by  Berzelins  (Afh.,  Iv,  164). 

"  "    2  "  Mallet  (J.  G.  Soc.,  Dubl.,  Iv,  276). 

**  "    8  •»  Forbes  (FbU.  Mag.,  iv,  xxx,  140). 

Cassiterite  is  sometimes  found  colorless,  in  a  few  localities, 
bnt  generally  its  color  is  of  every  gradation,  intermediate 
between  gray,  white,  and  yellow.  The  color  is  generally  in 
bands  not  equally  diffused.  Streak  white,  grayish,  or  brown- 
ish. Hardness  =  6-7.  Specific  gravity  =  6.4r-7.1.  Lustre  is 
adamantine,  and  crystals  usually  splendent.  Nearly  transpa- 
rent, opaque.  Fracture  subconchoidal,  uneven.  Brittle.  It 
is  infusible  before  the  blowpipe.  In  the  reducing  flame  it  is 
with  difiiculty  reduced ;  but  if  soda  be  added,  the  reduction  is 
facilitated.  With  borax  it  melts  easily,  and  becomes  the  base 
of  an  enamel.     It  is  only  slightly  acted  on  by  acids. 

It  occurs  in  remarkable  crystals  in  Cornwall.  It  is  found  in 
Ireland,  Bohemia,  Saxony,  Greenland,  Sweden,  and  in  Fin- 
land. In  the  East  Indies  it  is  found  near  Borneo,  and  in 
Australia. 

In  Bolivia,  S.  A.,  at  Oruro  tin  mines ;  in  Bolivia,  and  in 
Mexico. 

In  the  United  States,  found  sparingly  at  Paris,  Maine ;  in 
Massachusetts,  New  Hampshire,  Virginia,  and  California. 


332 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


29.    ZINC. 
The  principal  Zinc  minerals  are : 


MXHEBAL. 


Zinclte 

Sphalerite . . . 

GoBlarite 

Smithsonite  . 
Hydrozincite 


Habdnesb. 

Sf.  Gb. 

4-4.5 

6.48-6.7 

8.5-4 

8.9-4.2 

2-2.6 

2.086 

5 

4—4.6 

2-2.5 

8.68 — 8.8 

FOBMULA. 


Zn 
ZnS 

•     •••  • 

ZIlS•^7H 

ZnC 

ZnC  +  2ZnH 


CoxpogiTxozr. 


Za  80  26,  019.74. 

Zn  67.0,  8  88.0. 
Zn  2a2/s  27.9,  H  48.9. 

Zn  64.8,  C  85.2. 
Zn  75,8,0  18.6,  HILL 


ZINCITE. 

The  composition  of  Zincite  is  oxygen  19.74,  zinc  80.26  (Zn). 
The  following  are  a  few  analyses : 


Vabibtueb. 


1.  Red.... 

2.  **  .... 
8.  "  .... 
4.  Tellow. 


Zn. 

Mk. 

•  •• 

92 

_^ 

8 

88 

12 

93.48 

6.50 

— 

99.47 

— 

0.68 

f^. 


0.86,  scales  Fe  0.44. 
—    ign.  0.28. 


Analysis  No.  1  by  Brace. 

"    2  "  BerthiOT  (Ann.  d.  M.,  iv,  488). 
"  "    3  "  A.  A.  Hayes  (Am.  J.  Scl.,  xhiii,  261). 

u  44    4  44  Yf  p  j)]^e  (Mining  Mag.,  H,  ii,  94, 1800). 

Color  of  zincite  is  characteristic;  it  is  a  deep  red,  sometimes 
orange-yellow.  Streak  orange-yellow.  Tmnslucent,  subtrans- 
lucent.  Fracture  subconchoidal.  Brittle.  Hardness=4r-4.5. 
Specific  gravity  =  5.43-5.7  ;  5.684,  orange-yellow  crystals 
(W.  P.  Blake).  Bleaches  if  heated  in  a  closed  tube,  but  on 
cooling  resumes  its  natural  color.  In  the  reducing  flame  it 
gives  metallic  zinc,  which  volatilizes,  oxidizes,  and  forms  a 
white  ring.  Gives  a  green  color  with  nitrate  of  cobalt.  Shows 
reaction  for  manganese.     Soluble  in  acids. 

It  occurs  with  Franklinite  at  Stirling  Hill  and  Mine  Hill, 
Sussex  County,  N.  J. 

It  is  used  as  an  ore  of  zinc. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


333 


SPHALERITE. 

The  composition  of  Sphalerite  is  sulphur  33,  zinc  67  (ZnS). 
The  following  are  a  few  analyses : 


LOOAUTIBB. 


1.  Przibram  (fibrous) 

8.  New  Jersey  (white) 

8.  Claasthal  (black) 

4  CorinthlA  Balbel  (rh.  crystal). 
6.  Chrystophite  (black) 


8. 

Zn. 

Pb. 

88.16 

61.40 

2.29 

82.22 

67.46 

— 

83.04 

65.89 

1.18 

82.10 

64.22 

1.82 

88.67 

44.67 

18.25 

Cd. 


1.60 

Trace. 

0.79,  Cn  0.18,  8b  0.68. 

Trace ;  Sb  and  Pb  0.72,  H  0^ 

0.28,  Mn  2.66,  8n  trace. 


Axialysls  No.  1  by  LeOwe  (Fogg.,  xzxviii,  161). 

»»    2  «  T.  H.  Henry  (Phil.  Mag.,  IV,  i,  28). 
''  ''    8  ''  C.  Eahlemann  (Zs.  nat.  Ver.  Halle,  vlll,  489). 

•*  *'    4  "  Kersten  (Pogg.,  Ixii,  182). 

**  »»   6  "  Heinlchen  (B.  H.  Ztg.,  xxU,  27). 

The  color  of  sphalerite  is  very  variable ;  it  is  rarely  color- 
less, but  is  generally  honey-yellow,  brown,  black,  re(i,  and 
green.  When  pure  it  is  generally  white  or  yellow.  Streak 
is  white,  reddish-brown.  Hardness  =  3.5-4.  Specific  grav- 
ity =  3.9-4.2 ;  4.063,  white,  New  Jersey.  Lustre  resinous  to 
adamantine.  Transparent,  translucent.  Fracture  conchoidal. 
Brittle. 

In  the  open  tube  it  gives  off  sulphurous  fumes,  and  generally 
changes  color.  In  the  oxidizing  flame  it  gives  off  sulphurous 
fumes  and  ofl;en  a  cadmium  coating.  The  roasting  is  long  and 
difficult,  and  after  it,  in  the  reducing  flame,  it  gives  a  coat  of 
zinc,  which  is  yellow  when  hot  and  white  when  cold.  Soluble 
in  hydrochloric  acid.  With  nitric  acid,  very  little  red  vapor 
is  given  off,  but  much  sulphydric  gas. 

Occurs  in  Derbyshire,  Cumberland,  Cornwall,  Transylvania, 
Hungary,  Harz ;  Salila,  in  Sweden ;  Kaliebozitz,  in  Bohemia, 
€tc.  Abounds  with  the  lead  ores  of  Missouri,  Wisconsin, 
Iowa,  and  Illinois.  Found  in  New  York,  Massachusetts,  New 
Hampshire,  Maine,  New  Jersey,  Pennsylvania,  Michigan,  and 
Tennessee. 

Sphalerite  is  one  of  the  most  abundant  ores  of  zinc. 


334 


THE  CHEMISTS*  MANUAL. 


SMITHSONITE. 

The  composition  of  SmithBonite  is  carbonic  add  35.2,  oxide 
of  zinc  64.8  (ZnC). 
The  following  are  a  few  analyses : 


LOCAUTIBB. 


1.  Somersetahire 

2.  AHenbeiig 

8.  Moreanet,  Belglnm. 


4  Altenbeig  (w.  ciyBt) 


5.  Algiers. 


6.  Albrarradon,  Mex. 


•  • 

c. 

Zn. 

Fm, 

PB. 

8&2 

618 

— 

— 

86.18 

64.56 

— 

0.16 

aa78 

68.06 

0^ 

— 

ZnC. 

•        •• 

FbC. 

MnC. 

MeC. 

98JM 

0.68 

0.16 

0.98 

90.10 

— 

— 

174 

98.74 

— 

1.50 

0.89 

Si. 


0.15 

1.68,  H 1J6. 


i 


CaC. 
0.90,  iDsol.  0.07. 

2.80,  Pbco.44,  Isaao, 

iPel.60,  sand  0.45. 
1.48,  CaC  &4S. 


Analysis  Na  1  by  Smittason  (NictaolBon^s  J.,  vi,  76). 
"    8  ''  Heidingsfeld  (Bamm.,  5th  Snppl.) 
**    8  "  Schmidt  (J.  pr.  Ch.,  ii,  257). 
'*    4  "  H.  RIsse  (Verrh.  nnt  Ver.  Bonn.,  86, 1866X 
"    6  "  Marlgny  (Ann.  d.  M.  V.,  xi,  679). 
"    6  "  Gtenth  (Am.  J.  Scl.,  xx,  119). 


^^ 


M 


t« 


4t 


Color  of  smithsonite  may  be  white,  green,  yellow,  or  brown. 
Streak  white.  Hardness  =  5.  Specific  gravity  =  4-4.45  ; 
4.45  (Levy) ;  4.42  (Haidinger).  Lustre  vitreous,  inclining  to 
pearly.  Subtransparent,  translucent.  Fracture  uneven,  im- 
perfectly conchoidal.  Brittle.  Crystallizes  in  rhombohedra 
of  107°  40'.  In  a  closed  tube,  when  heated,  loses  its  carbonic 
acid.  Infusible.  On  charcoal,  with  soda,  gives  vapors  which 
are  yellow  while  hot  and  white  when  cold.  Soluble  in  hydro- 
chloric acid  with  efiervescence. 

It  is  found  at  Nertschinsk  in  Siberia,  at  Dognatzka  in  Hun- 
gary, Altenberg  near  Aix  la  Chapelle,  at  Ciguenza,  in  Scot- 
land, and  in  Ireland. 

In  the  United  States  it  is  found  at  Brookfield,  Conn.,  in 
New  Jersey  at  Mine  Hill,  in  Pennsylvania  at  Lancaster,  in 
Wisconsin,  Minnesota,  Missouri,  and  Arkansas. 


THE    CHEMISTS*    MANUAL. 


335 


30.   ZIRCONIUM. 
The  principal  Zirconium  mineral  is  Zircon. 

ZIRCON. 

The  composition  of  Zircon  is  zirconia  67,  silica  33  (ZrSi). 
The  following  are  a  few  analyses : 


LOCAUTIBS. 


1.  Ceylon 

8.  Fredericksvaru  ?) 

8.  Bnncombe  Co.,  N.  C. . 


•  • 

Sz. 

Zn. 

Fb. 

Ca. 

83.5 

64.5 

1.5 

^_ 

83.86 

64.81 

1.66 

0.88 

88.70 

66.80 

0.67 

— 

H. 


0.41 


AnalyBiB  No.  1,  by  Klaproth  (Beitr.,  v,  196). 

"       No.  2,  by  Henueberg  (J.  pr.  Cb.,  xzzvlii,  606). 

"       No.  8,  by  C.  F.  Chandler  (Am.  J.  Sd,  H,  xziy,  181). 

Zircon  may  be  colorless,  pale  yellow,  brownish-yellow,  yel- 
lowish-green, reddish-brown,  gray  or  blue.  Streak  colorless. 
Hardne88=7.5.  Specific  gravity =4.05-4.75.  Lustre  adaman- 
tine. Transparent  to  subtranslucent  and  opaque.  Fracture 
conchoidal,  brilliant,  Double  refraction  strong,  positive.  It 
is  infusible.  The  red  varieties  before  the  blowpipe  lose  their 
color  without  losing  their  transparency,  and  the  dark-colored 
varieties  become  white.  It  is  thought  possible,  therefore,  that 
the  color  is  due  to  organic  matter.  Acids  do  not  affect  it,  but 
it  is  decomposed  by  fusion  with  alkaline  carbonates. 

It  is  found  in  the  alluvial  sands  in  Ceylon,  in  the  gold 
regions  of  the  Ural  near  Miask,  at  Arendal  in  Norway,  in 
Transylvania,  in  Bohemia,  Tyrol,  France,  Scotland,  Ireland, 
Greenland  and  Australia. 

In  North  America  it  is  found  in  Maine  at  Litchfield,  in 
Vermont,  Connecticut,  New  York,  New  Jersey,  Pennsylvania, 
North  Carolina  and  California. 


336 


THE   CHEMISTS'    MANUAL. 


COAL 

Coal  is  produced  by  the  spontaneous  distillation  of  wood, 
etc.,  after  life  has  left  the  material  acted  on.  The  following  is 
the  Coal  Series. 


COAL  SERIES,    -l 


OHIO  RIVBK. 


Vegetable  Tissttb,  eitheb  Hebbagboub  ob 

Ligneous. 
Peat. 

LlGNFTB. 

BrruMiNOus. 
Semi  BiTUMiNonB. 
Anthbacitb. 

GbAFHITIC  A19THBACITE. 

Gbafhite. 

CUHBSELAMD. 


A 
B 
C 
D 
E 


Bitaminous  Coal,        containing    50  fo     of  Volatile  Matter. 
Semi  "  "  "         17-25% 

Inflammable  Anthracite     **         10-20% 
Lehigh  "  "  a-10% 

Newport  Coal,  *'  0-7% 


(( 


(( 


<« 


(( 


(< 


(( 


«f 


<( 


COAL   MEASURES. 

The  following  sections,  general  and  local,  as  shown  on 
p.  337,  will  serve  to  give  an  idea  of  the  mode  of  occurrence  of 
coal  in  the  carboniferous  rocks,  and  of  the  nature  of  the  asso- 
ciated strata.     (J.  S.  Newberry,  Johnson's  Cyc,  Article  Coal,) 

The  Brier  Hill  coal  is  the  best  bituminous  coal  in  this 
country ;  it  has  the  following  composition : 


Bbibb  Hill  Coal.  ^ 


Water 1     to    8%. 

Volatile  Combustible..  80     to  88%. 

Fixed  Carbon 62     to  66%. 

Ash 1.5  to    8%. 

Sulphur 6  to    1%. 


The  Brazil  coal  is  the  best  coal  in  Indiana. 


TBE  CHEMISTS-  UASUAL. 


DBIPT 

fe  '.^-^^^f^  ,!^>,  ,=,^ii?^ 

UPPER 
COAL 

COAL 
KEASUItES 

.           H^-     _        -                                  ._  .      -■ 

.-     -^-^ 

COAL 
MKASITRK- 

«IN«I4)WKI:UI 

■     ■               V"^ 

LOWRH  r.Mil: 

lmestom; 

,      ■      ,      -           ■            '    .     _\...*-'--^ 

GBOIT 

CtaboDllkroni  eCnbi— W,  PezmerlTuiiB  and  Ohio. 


Coil  Heaparc»-N.  Ohio. 


338 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


o 

Q 
>^ 
'<\ 

8 

iz; 
o 

QQ 

o 
o 


s 

00 

TH 

©* 

TH 

o 

00 

• .*  •  •         • 

OO    £^     O  06 


1 


H  (d 


8 


9 


09  06 


& 


00 

o 

00 


-,-(  CJ  ?0  CD  «  t* 
00  CO  lO  00  00  09 

10009  0)09 
Ol 


s 


'3 
"I 


81 

•FN  es 


o 

06 


eo 


s  s 


ODO)        06       C9 


g.6     g     »6 


13  OS 


06 
09 


SrHOt-«PeO 
09C«5THSt* 

;^ttDCi0JC>O6 


'8 


i: 

«M 

9 


n 


t^  s    ' 


3 


lO 


06 


1 


5:S 


00 


s 


99  I 


• 

s 

^ 

• 

00 

00 

< 

■ 

o 

• 

• 

09 

s 

^ 


I 


I 


2  o 

< 


i 

QQ 


o 
^ 


&C3    :  »; 


•       •     I        • 


ss  s 


00  lO 


OOiO     O 

8*  ^ 


•  •  ■  •        ' 

O6  1O09 


!SS3S 


I  I    I 


I  I    I 


I  I    I 


o 

« 

« 
« 


O 


o 


o 

« 

» 

e 
•■ 


o 

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S|»?3m  '  Bo 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


339 


If  the  empirical  formula  C34.H4.8O22  be  assigned  to  wood, 
founded  on  the  analysis  of  oak,  as  shown  above,  the  approxi- 
mate empirical  formula  for  peat  will  be  C20H22O8  5  ^^^  Bovey 
lignite  C27H28O7  ;  for  Wigan  cannel  C26H20O2  >  ^^^  for  Welsh 
anthracite  C4.0H  1 50. 

Now,  if  a  small  amoimt  of  oxygen,  such  as  might  be  sup- 
plied by  solution  in  water,  be  supposed  to  act  upon  the  woody 
tissue,  each  of  these  varieties  of  fuel  might  be  formed  by  the 
separation  of  marsh  gas,  carbonic  oxide,  and  water  in  the 
following  proportions  (Miller) : 


Wood. 


Peat.  MarehOas.       Anh^Jrlde.       ^•^' 


-»  r- 


~\  r- 


■>         ^ 


4C34H48022-I-    6O2  =  4C20H22O8  +  24CH4  +  32CO2+    4:H20 

Lignite. 


Wood. 


4C34H48O22+  2O2 

Wood. 


4<^34H48022+4O2 
Wood. 


*C27H2807  +    8CH4    +  2OCO2  +24H2O 
Cannel. 

4C26H20O2  +  8CH4  +  24CO2+  40H2O 

Anthracite. 


4C34H48O22+  5O2  =  2C4oH,60    +  24CH4  +  32CO2+  32H2O. 


ESTIMATED  AREAS  OF  COAL  IN  PRINCIPAL  COUNTRIES. 

(Pepper.) 


LooAunxs. 


United  States 

British  Provinces  of  North  America 

Great  Britain 

France 

Belgium 

Rhenish  Prussian  Saarbrtlcker  coal-field 

Westphalia 

Bohemia 

Saxony  

Spain 

Russia 


&q.  MnjBs 
CoAi.  Abba. 


196,650 

7,530 

5,400 

984 

510 

960 

880 

400 

80 

200 

100 


Total 
Sq.  Milk. 


200.000 


8,964 


Assuming  a  thickness  of  20  feet  of  coal  over  200,000  square  miles,  North 
America  would  contain  4,000,000,000,000  tons  of  coal. 


340 


THE    CHEMISTS'    MANUAL. 


ANALYSIS    OF    COALS. 

ANTHRACITE. 


LOOALTTDIS. 


1.  Piesberg,  Hanover. 

3.  Pennsylvania 

4.  «  

5.  "  


C. 


87.96 
91.14 
90.45 
92.59 
84.98 


H. 


1.97 
2.08 
2.43 
2.63 
2.45 


N. 


0.61 


2.45 

1.61 
1.15 


0.92 
1.22 


s. 


AflH. 


9.31 
6.81 
4.67 
2.25 
10.20 


Nos.  1  and  2  by  Hilkenkamp  and  Eempner ;  3  by  Renault ;  4  and  5  by 
J.  Percy. 

BITUMINOUS. 
CAKING    COAL. 


LooautAbb. 


1.  Zweckan 

2.  Northumberland 
8. 

4.  River-de-Gier. . . . 

5.  Alaifl 


c. 

H. 

0. 

N. 

s. 

72.27 

4.16 

10.73 

0.34 

0.88 

78.65 

4.65 

14.21 

^— 

0.55 

82,42 

4.82 

11.97 

— 

0.86 

87.45 

5.14 

3.93 

1,70 

— 

89.27 

4.85 

4.47 

•^— 

^^ 

No.  1  by  Stein ;  2  and  3  by  Dick ;  4  and  5  by  Regnault. 


LIGNITE   OR   BROWN    COAL. 


Abh. 


12.50 
2.49 
0.79 
1.78 
1.41 


LooAums. 


H. 


Dax,  France. 

Bovey 

Irkutsk 


70.49 
66.31 
47.46 


5.59 
5.63 
4.56 


N. 


S. 


18.93 


22.86 
33.02 


0.57 


2.36 


Abh. 


4.99 

2.27 

14.95 


No.  1  by  Regnault ;  2  by  Vaux ;  3  by  Woskresaensky. 


NON-CAKING    COAL. 


LOOALTTIBB. 

C. 

H. 

0. 

N. 

8. 

Abh. 

1.  S.  Staffordshire 

72.13 
76.40 
80.98 
82.95 
90.54 

4.32 
4.62 
5.21 
5.42 
3.66 

17.11" 
17.43" 
10.91 
10.93 
2.70 

1.57 

0.54 
0.55 
063 

6.44 

2.             '              

1.55 

3.  Scotland 

6.75 

4.  Mous,  France 

5.  Valenciennes 

0.70 
3.10 

Nofl.  1  and  2  by  Dick  ;  3  by  Rowney ;  4  and  5  by  Marsilly. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


341 


LOCALITIBS. 


1.  Wigan... 

2.  *'      . . 
8.  Tyneside 


CANNEL    COAL. 


C. 


8407 
80.07 
78.06 


H. 


5.71 
5.58 
5.80 


O. 


7.82 
8.10 
3.12 


N. 


2.12 
1.85 


8. 


1.50 
2.22 


Ash. 


2.40 
2.70 

8.94 


No.  1  by  Regnault ;  2  by  Vaux ;  8  by  Taylor. 

Note.— (")  signifies  that  the  nitrogen  is  included  in  the  oxygen. 


The  following  table  is  taken  from  "  Report  on  Coals  to  Con- 
gress, 1844,"  by  Prof.  W.  E.  Johnson : 


LOOAUTIBS. 


Pennsylvania  (anthracite) 

Maryland  (free-burning  bitum.  coal) 

Pennsylvania    " 

Virginia 

Pittsburg  (bituminous  coal) 

Cfuinelton,  Ind     

Pictou,  Nova  Scotia 

t(  it  •< 


SFBcmo 
Gravitt. 

VoLun 

COXBUST. 

Mattxb. 

FiXTD 

Casbov. 

1.590-1.610 

8.84 

87.45 

1.3-1.414 

15.80 

78  01 

1.3-1.407 

17.01 

68.82 

1.29-1.45 

86.68 

50.99 

1.252 

36.76 

54.93 

1.278 

88.99 

58.44 

1.818 

27.88 

56.98 

1.825 

25.97 

60.74 

Ash  AND 

CUNKEBS 


7.87 

9.74 

13.85 

10.74 

7.07 

4.97 

13.89 

12.51 


ANALYSIS   OF  THE   ASHES  OF  COAL 

(Percentage  of  ash  in  the  coal  was  1.99.) 

(By  ELremer.) 

Silica 16.48 

Alumina 5.28 

Peroxide  of  iron 74.02 

Lime 2.26 

Magnesia. 0.26 

Potash 0.53 

Soda — 

Sulphate  of  lime 2.17 

Total 100.00 


342 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


DURABILITY  OF   DIFFERENT    WOODS. 

Experiments  on  this  subject  have  been  made  on  various 
kinds  of  wood,  of  which  sticks  2  feet  long  and  1^  inches  square 
were  cut,  and  driven  into  the  ground  until  but  1^  inches 
projected. 

The  results  were  as  follows : 


KINO  OF  WOOD. 


Chestnut  oak 

Canada  chestnut  oak 
Oak  from  Memel. . . . 
Oak  from  Dantzic. . . 
Hard  mahogany .... 

Soft  mahogany 

Cedar  of  I^bajion. . . 

Virginia  cedar 

Teak  wood 

Fir 

Pine 

Virginia  pine 

Hard  pine 

Soft  pine 

Laroh 

English  elm 

Canadian  elm 

American  ash 

Acacia 


OOITDITION  AFTSB  Si  TBS. 


Very  good 

Very  much  attacked. . 

The  same 

The  same 

Good 

Much  attacked 

Good 

Very  good. 

The  same 

Much  attacked. 

Very  much  attached . 
Attacked 

)^  in.  attacked,  the ) 
rest  good (* 

Much  rotted 

( \  in.  on  the  surface  ) 
•|  attacked ;  had  lost  > 

(in  weight j 

Much  rotted 

The  same 

The  same 

(Good,  except  loss) 
in  weight ) 


CONDITION  AniEB  6  TSAB8. 


fMost  specimens  moderately, 
some  very  much  attacked. 
Very  bad,  rotten. 
The  saptie. 
Exceedingly  bad. 
Tolerable. 

Very  bad,  entirely  rotten. 
Tolerable. 

{Very  good,  the  same  as  when 
first  put  in. 
Somewhat  soft,  but  good. 
Much  rotted. 
The  same. 
The  same. 

I  inch  attacked,  the  rest  tol- 
erable. 
Much  rotted. 

(  \  inch  much,  the  rest  a  little 
\     attacked. 

Entirely  rotten. 

Rotten. 

The  same. 
j  ^  inch  rotted,  the   rest   as 
I     sound  as  when  first  put  in. 


i 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


343 


PRODUCTS  OBTAINED  .FROM  DISTILLATION  OF  COAL 


r  Naphtha ' 


•J 
< 

o 


Gas,  Uluminatiog,  etc. 

Tar 

Ammonia  Water. 
Coke,  for  fbel. 


Oil8,8(^. 


RATiKniA  i  Benaole  )  j  Used  to  make 
^"^*®1  Toluol,  fl     Aniline. 

Naphtha. . .  .Used  for  Varnishes. 

Xylole Used  for  Small  Pox. 


Dead  Oil 


Pitch,  705(. 


I 


JTUKMlSHXa 

r  <^*'^^^<^  ^«*d  \  \  Used  for  Disin. 
Cresylic  Acid  f  '     fectants.* 

Naphthalene Dyes,  etc. 

Chrysene No  nse  as  yet 

Used  for  Roofing  and  Pavements. 
Anthracene,  S^. 


The  following  is  a  list  of  the  products  from  the  distillation 
of  coal  (Chandler*) : 

I.   COKE. 

Per  cent. 

1.  Carbon 90—95 

2.  Sulphide  of  iron  (FeySg) 3—10 

8.  Ash 8—15 


II.  AMMONIA    WATER. 


1.  Hjdro-ammonic  carbonate. 

2.  Amnionic  hydrosulphate. . , 
8.  Ammonic  sulphocjanide. . . 

4.  Ammonic  cyanide 

5.  Ammonic  chloride , 


Formala. 

1.  Benzol CgHg 

2.  Tolaol,  methyl-benzol C7H9 

8.  Ethyl-benzol CpHio 

4.  Xylol,  di-methyl-benzol. . .  C9H10 

5.  Cumol,  propyl-benzol CpH,  j 

6.  Methyl-ethyl-benzol CgH ,  2 


III.  TAR. 

1.  Hydrocarbons. 

8p.  Or. 


NH4HCOJ 
NH4HS. 
NH4CNS. 
NH4CN. 

NH4a. 


•    •   •    • 


.850 
.870 

.867 
,870 


Boiling  PolntB. 
82''C.=  179^6F. 
111°  =  281°.8 
182°  =  269°.6 
140°  =  284° 
153°  =  307°.4 
160°     =  320° 


*  Johnson's  Cycl.,  Article  Gas-Lighting. 


844 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


Fonniila. 

7.  Tri-methyl-benzol  (pseu- 

documol,  mesetylene.  Cg  His 

8.  Isobutyl-benzol C^  qHi 4 

9.  Cymol,      methyl-propyl- 

benzol C,oHi4 

10.  Di-ethyl-benzol C10H14 

11.  Di-methyl-ethyl-benzol 

(ethyl-xylol) C ,  0  H  m 

12.  Amyl-benzol Cj  ,Hi ^ 

13.  iSethyl-amyl-beDZol C  j  {  H 1 « 

14.  Di-methyl-amyl-benzol 

(amyl-xylol) C ,  3H2  0 

15.  Phenylene Cg  H4 

16.  Clnnamene,  styrolene...  Cg  Hg 

17.  Naphthalene Ci oHg 

18.  Di-phenyl :.  C,,H,o 

19.  Anthracene Ci^Hjo 

20.  Pyrene CigHjo 

21.  Chrysene    CigHis 

22.  Benzerytherene — 

And  probably : 

23.  QuintaniO CaHi t 

24.  Sextane CgH^ 

25.  Other  paraffines CnHsn+> 

26.  Qumtene,  amylene CaH|  0 

27.  Sextene CgH,, 

28.  Other  olifines CoHta 

29.  Quintine,  valerylene CoHg 

80.  Sextine.  diallyl CgH^o 

81.  Other  aoetyleneB CnHsa-t 

82.  Dipropyl (CiHO* 

38.  Dibutyl (C4H9), 

84.  Diamyl (CgH,,), 

35.  Dicaproyl (CeH.j), 

86.  Other  alcohol  radicals...  (C'dHso+Os 


8p.  Gr. 

Boiling  Points. 

. . . .   — 

. .  166°C 

.=  830°.8P. 

..  169** 

=  818°.2 

861  .. 

. .  178° 

=  852°.4 

....  —  . . 

..  178** 

=  352°.4 

. . . .  — 

..  184** 

=  863°.2 

859  .. 

. .  Ids'* 

=  379°.4 

. . ..  —  .. 

..  218'' 

=  415°.4 

.  •  •  •  "~*  •  • 

..  232'* 

=  449°.6 

....  ^  .. 

..  9r 

=  195°.8 

....  .924.. 

..  145' 

=  293° 

....  1.158  .. 

..  220° 

=  428° 

. . . .  —  .. 

..  240° 

=  464° 

....  1.147  .. 

..  800° 

=  572° 

....0.60  .. 

..   80° 

=  86° 

669  .. 

..   68° 

=  154°.4 

_i_ 

..   85° 

=  95° 

....  —  .. 

..   68° 

=  154°.4 

. .  .  "■"  . . 

..   46° 

=  114°.8 

. . . .    .  •  • 

..   58° 

=  186°.4 

678  . . 

..   68° 

=  154°.4 

706  . . 

..  106° 

-  222°.8 

741  .. 

..  158° 

=  816°.4 

757  .. 

..  202° 

=  895°.6 

..  •  •  —  .  • 

.  •   -~> 

... 

2.  AkohoiU. 

1.  Phenol,  carbolic  acid. . . .  Cg  Ha  OH  . . . 

2.  Cresol,  cresylic  acid C7  H7  OH  . . . 

8.  Phlorol,  phlorylic  acid. .  Cg  H9  OH  . . . 

4.  Xylenol Cg  Hg  OH... 

5.  Thymol C,  oH ,  3OH  . . . 


.  1.065  . 

...  180°  =356° 

— 

...  200°  =892° 

.  1.037  . 

...  195°  =888° 

.^  . 

...  213°.5  =  416° 

,  -_ 

...  220°  =428^ 

THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


345 


•  •  •  • 


Formnla.  Sp.  Gr. 

6.  Methyl-thymol Ci iHj^OH — 

7.  Ethyl-thymoL C,,H„OH — 

8.  Amyl-thymol Ci 5H9 3OH  ....     —    , . . ,      — 

8.  Acids, 

1.  Acetic H.C,HaOg  ....  1.062  ... .  117°.2 

2.  Butyric H.C4H7O, 9817 164' 

8.  Rosolic CcoHigO^....     —    ....      — 

4.  Bmnolic ?  ....     -*    ....      — 


Boiling  Points. 


248' 
327°.2 


1.  Ammonia 

2.  Methylamine 

8.  Ethylamine 

4.  Diethylamine 

6.  Amline,  phenylamine. . . 

6.  Toliudine 

7.  XyUdine 

8.  Ctimidine 

9.  Cynudine 

10.  Pyridine 

11.  Picoline 

12.  LutiOine 

18.  Collidine 

14.  Parvoline 

15.  Goridine 

16.  Rubidine 

17.  Viridine 

18.  Pyrrol 

19.  Leuooline,  chinoUne. . . . 

20.  IridoHne,  lepidine. 

21.  Cryptidine,  dispoline. . . . 


4.  Bases, 

H,N       . . . 

CH^N  . . . 
Cf  H7  N  , . . 
C4  Hi  jN  . . . 
Cg  H7  N  . . . 

Cg  Hg  N  .  .  . 
\jg    11 1  1^     .  .  . 

CjoHi  3N  . . . 
C|  1H15N  . . . 
C5  H5  N  . . . 
Cg  H7  N  . . . 

C7    Hg    N    , . , 

C,  HmN  ... 

Cg    Hi  3N     .  .  . 

Ci  qHi  gN  . . . 
^liilijwN    ... 

\j I  2<H, I  giN     ... 

C4  H5  N  . . . 

Cg  H7  X^  .  .  . 
V/|  oHg  r^  .  .  . 
C/i  iXli  1  JS      ... 

5.  Pitch. 


Gas  ....  — 
Qaa  ....  — 
19' 
67'.5 
182^^ 
205' 
215" 
225" 
250' 
117' 
138' 
154' 
179' 
188' 
211' 
280' 
251' 
188' 
288' 


1.028 


.952 

.... 

.vOO  .... 

.Vul  .  .  .  • 

•v40  .... 

•921  .... 


1.017  .... 

1.017  .... 

1.077  .... 

I.UdI  .  •  • . 


16'.2 
135'.5 
859'.6 
401" 
419' 
437' 
482' 
242'.6 
271'.4 
309'.2 
354'.2 
870'.4 
411'.8 
446** 
483'.8 
871'.4 
460'.4 


278'.9  =  525^ 


Ozidiaed  bitominouB  bodies,  whose  natare  has  not  been  accurately  de- 
termined. 

IV.   GAS. 

1.  Luminants. 

Fonnala.  Density. 

1.  Vapors  of  paraffines CnHta+s  — 

2.  Propyl (C3H-),  — 

8.  Other  alcohol  radicals (CoHsn+is)  — 


346  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

Formnk.  DeiiBity. 

4.  Olefiant  gas,  ethene Gf  H4  976 

5.  Propene C3H6  1.400 

6.  Butene C4H8  1.040 

7.  Vapors  of  other  olifines CnHtn  — 

a  Acetylene C,H,  020 

0.  Vapors  of  other  acetylenes  (?) CdHs 

10.  Valelene  (?) OnH, 

11.  Benzole CgHg  2.71 

12.  Vapors  of  toluol,  xylol,  etc G^Hta_«  — 

13.  Phenylene,  etc.  (?) CftHm-s  — 

14.  Cainamene,  etc.  (?) CaHto-io  — 

15.  Naphthalene Oi oHg  — 

16.  Diphenyl.  etc.  (?) CitHio — 

17.  Anthracene  (?) C,4H,o  — 

18.  Pyrene(?) C,6H,o  — 

19.  Chrysene(?) CigHj,  — 

20.  Phenol,  etc.  (Alcohols) GnHta-TOH  — 

21.  Bases  above  mentioned —  — 

2.  JHhimU. 

1.  Hydrogen H  0691 

2.  Marsh-gas,  methene CH4  5594 

3.  Carbonic  oxide 00  9727 

8.  Impurities, 

1.  Sulphuretted  hydrogen H,S  1.1747 

2.  Ammonic  sulphydrate NH4HS  — 

3.  Carbon  di-sulphide CS,  -» 

4.  Carbon  oxysulphide CSO  — 

5.  Sulphurous  oxide SO,  — 

6.  Mercaptan,  etc CaH^HS  — 

7.  Sulphur  bases,  etc. —  — 

8.  Ammonic  sulpho-cyanide NH^CNS  — 

9.  Ammonic  cyanide NH4CN  «— 

10.  Ammonic  f?umo-carbonate NH4HCO,  — 

11.  Carbonic  oxide CO,  1.5240 

12.  Nitrogen N  9760 

18.  Oxygen O  1.1026 

14.  Aqueous  yapor  (water) H,0  6201 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


347 


PRODUCTS  OF  COAL 

(MOLBBWORTH.) 


Pboduots. 


Cube  feet  of  gas  per  ton  of  coal. 

Pounds  of  coke 

Pounds  of  tar 

Pounds  of  ammoniacal  liquor . . 


Nbwoabtlk. 


From. 


9,500 

1,500 

70 

80 


To. 


10,000 

1,540 

90 

120 


CAimxL. 


From. 


11,600 
715 
710 


To. 


15,000 
720 
720 


Fuel  required  for  retorts,  about  20  lbs.  per  cwt. 

AVERAGE   EVAPORATING  POWER. 

(MOLESWOBTH.) 

1  lb.  of  coal    evaporates 9  lbs.  of  water.* 

1  lb.  of  coke  '*        9 

1  lb.  of  slack  "        4 

1  lb.  of  oak(dry)   "        4^ 

1  lb.  of  pine  "        aj 


(< 


<< 


<< 


a 


ti 


tt 


€€ 


t* 


Coal  loses  about  one-third  of  its  weight  in  coking,  but  increases  in  bulk 
one-tenth. 

PEAT. 


Ih  100  Pabts. 

C. 

H. 

OahdN. 

Arr. 

H.O. 

Sf.  Gb. 

Condensed  Peat. . . . 
Wood 

47.2 
89.6 
91.8 

4.9 
4.8 
2.9 

22.9 

84.8 

2.8 

5.0 
0.8 
8.0 

20.0 
20.0 

1.20 
0.75 

Anthracite 

1.40 

(Taken  from  a  book  on  Peat  and  its  Uses,  by  S.  W.  Johnson,  A.  M.) 

HEATING    POWER  OF  DIFFERENT   KINDS  OF  FUEL. 

(Johnson.) 
(The  comparison  is  made  in  units  of  heat,f  and  refers  to  equal  weights 
of  the  materials  experimented  on.) 

Air-dried  wood 2800 

"      "     peat 2500—3000 

Perfectly  dry  wood 3600 

♦  Peed-water  supplied  at  212°  F. 

f  The  amount  of  heat  that  will  raise  the  temperature  of  one  gram  of 
water  one  degree  of  the  Centigrade  thermometer,  is  agreed  upon  as  the 
unit  of  heat. 


348 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


Perfectly  dry  peat 8000— 4000 

Air  dry  lignite  or  brown  coal 8800—4200 

Perfectly  dry  lignite  or  brown  coal 4000—5000 

Bituminous  coal 8800—7000 

Anthracite 7500 

Wood  charcoal 6800—7600 

Coke 6600—7000 


PETROLEUM. 


Coal. 


Conglomerate. 


LOWBR  Caabonifbroub 


Flag  Bock. 

\ 

BhAle. 

T 

Sandstone  No.  1.             (^\ 

1 

Shale. 

Sandstone  No.  2. 

Shale. 

Sandstone  No.  8. 

s 
1 

Shale. 

Sandstone  No.  4. 

^ 

V 

-    V*  - 

Porta^. 

^ 


Coal. 


Conglomerate. 


LOWBB  CARBONTrKBOUS. 


Flag  Rock. 


Shale. 


Sandstone  No.  1. 


Shale. 


Sandstone  No.  8. 


Shale. 


Sandstone  No.  8. 


Shale. 


Sandstone  No.  4. 


Portage. 


PETROLEUM   CAVITY. 


If  a  petroleum  cavity  be  struck  at  (a),  it  often  happens  that 
the  gas  rushes  out  with  such  a  velocity  that  all  the  tools  are 
blown  out  of  the  shaft.    If  struck  at  (b),  petroleum  oil  will 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


349 


rash  out,  having  a  specific  gravity  at  the  bottom  of  the  shaft 
of  50°  B. ;  and  at  the  top  29°  B.  One  cavity  has  been  known 
to  give  100,000  barrels  of  oil  before  dry.  If  the  cavity  is 
struck  at  (c),  water  will  first  come  out,  then  oil. 

The  town  of  Fredonia,  N.  T.,  has  been  lighted  by  gas 
obtained  from  a  petroleum  cavity  for  the  last  40  years.  Several 
buildings  at  Erie,  N.  Y.,  are  also  lighted  from  gas  wells. 

Petroleum  is  found  all  the  time  by  the  decomposition  of 
animal  and  vegetable  substances.  The  formation  of  petroleum 
may  be  noticed  around  the  edges  of  stagnant  pools,  etc. 


PBODUCTS  OF  THE  DISTILLATION  OP  CRUDE  PETROLEUM. 

(By  C.  F.  Chandler.) 
Price  in  Bulk,  14  cents  per  OaUon. 


1^ 

OPQ 


Oases. 


US'*  B. 

to 
106«B. 

105*»B. 

to 
96°  B. 

WB. 

to 
80*  B. 


80°  B. 

to 
6B°B. 


65°  B. 

to 


NAia. 


[■Rhigolene. 


)•  Gasolene. 


f 


NapLtha 


00°  B.  ! ) 


>■  Benzine. 


«)«B. 

to 
88°  B. 

88°  B. 

to 


f 


Kerosene  or 

Refined 
Petroleum 


'\ 


li 


10 


v  Paraffin  oU. 


Coke,  gas,  and  loss. 
Total 


56 


19J 


10 


100 


Grayitt, 
Bbaume. 


110* 


100' 


86°  to  90 


71°  to  76° 


88°  to  65 


46* 


Unoondbmbbd,  Loss. 


1  Condensed  by  pnmp,  made  1 
by  one  firm  only  for  an  ice  >• 
machine,  boils  at  82°  F.    ) 


^  Condensed  by  ice  and  salt, 
used  as  an  aniesthetic 
boils  at  65°  F. 


1 


PRIOS  FEB 

Gai^lon. 


'  Condensed  in  worm  by  cold  1 
water,  used  in  "  air  gas  I 
machines  "  and  gas ''  car- 1 
bonizers."  J 

'  For  oU  clot/u,  cleaning,  etc : 
so-called  "Safety  oil,*^ 
"  Danforth's  oil,*'  "Amer- 
ican Safety  Gas,**  etc. ; 
for  adnlteratingkerosene; 
cleaning  oil  wells. 


For  paints  and  yamishes 


Ordinary  oil  for  lamps. 


■  •  •  •  ^ 


Semi-solid  when  cold.  1 
Chilled  and  pressed  to  I 
separate  paraflOn,  oil  used  [ 
for  labricating J 


$1  60 
$1  00 


85ct8. 

to 
18cte. 


7cts. 

to 
5cts. 


16cts. 

to 
12cts. 

aOcts. 

to 
86cts. 

18  cts. 

to 
14  cts. 


s 


13  eta. 

to 
90  cts. 


90  cts. 

to 
16  cts. 

80  cts. 

to 
40  cts. 


350 


THE  CHEMISTS*  MANUAL. 


SCALE  OF  HARDNESS. 

(MOHB.) 

1.  Talc.— Laminated  light-green  variety.    Easily  scratched  by  the  nail. 

2.  Gypsum. — Crystallized  variety.    Not  easily  scratched  by  the  nalL    Does 

not  scratch  a  copper  coin. 
8.  CAlcitb. — Transparent  variety.     Scratches  and  is  scratched  by  a  cop- 
per coin. 

4.  Fluor. — Crystalline  variety.    Not  scratched  by  a  copper  coin.    Does 

not  scratch  glass. 

5.  Apatttb. — Transparent  variety.    Scratches  glass  with  difficulty.   EasUy 

scratched  by  the  knife. 

6.  Obthoclasb. — ^White  cleavable  variety.    Scratches  glass  easily.    Not 

easily  scratched  by  the  knife. 

7.  QUABTZ. — Transparent  variety.    Not  scratched  by  knife.    Yields  with 

difficulty  to  the  file. 

8.  Topaz. — Transparent  variety.    Harder  than  flint. 

9.  Sapphibs.— Cleavable  varieties.    Harder  than  flint. 
10.  Diamond.— Harder  than  flint. 


THE   HARDNESS  OF  A  FEW   SUBSTANCES  ARRANGED. 


Diamond 10 

Ruby 9 

Cymophane 8.5 

Topaz  8 

Spinel 8 

Emerald 8 

Garnet 7.5 

Dicroite 7.5 

Zircon 7 

Peridote 7 

Quartz 7 

Tourmaline 7 

Opal 6.5-5.5 


Lapis  Lazuli 6 

Feldspar 6 

Amphibole 5.5 

Phosphorite 5 

Fluorspar 4 

Ccelestine 8.5 

Barytes 3.5 

Carbonate  Lime 8. 

Mica 2.5 

Gypsum 2 

Chlorite Iw5 

Talc 1 


tflufeteractt[8. 


MIR 


STOICHIOMETRICAL  CALCULATIONS. 

ExamupleJ^ —  What  is  the  percentage  composition  of  calcic 
sulphate,  CaS04? 

Molecular  weight  =  m. 
Atomic         "      of  any  constituent  =  a. 
Number  of  atoms  of  that  constituent  =  n. 
Percentage  amount  =  x. 

m  :  an  : :  100  :  x. 

By  the  formula,  the  molecule  contains  of 

Calcixtm^  one  atom  (atomic  weight,  40) 40 

Sulphur^    "      "       l[atomic  weight,  32) 32 

Oxygen^  four  atoms  (atomic  weight,  16) 64 

Molecular  weight  of  calcio  sulphate 136 

T,          ,                   ,.              an  X  100. 
From  above  proportion,  x  = 

Substituting  in  this  formula,  the  quantity  of 

Calcium  in  100  parts  is  — r^^ —  =  29.41. 

Sulphur  «    «       «    «  ^^  =  23-53. 

Oxygen    «    «       «    «  ^^  ^^^^^  =  47.06 

100.00 

Sample. —  What  is  the  formula  of  quartz^  its  molecular 
weight  being  60,  and  its  percentage  composition  being : 

Silicon 46.67 

Oxygen , 53.83 

100.00 

....  » 

*  All  the  following  examples  are  from  Barker's  Chemistry. 


354  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

The  atomic  weight  of  silicon  is  28 ;  hence  the  number  of 
atoms  of 

o-v  ij  u    /  wa?\60x  46.67       ^ 

Silicon  would  be  (n  =  —J-^^^^-^  =  l 

r^  u      u    /  mx  \60  X  53.33       ^ 

Oxygen    "      "   (^  =-i00-Jl00-^ri^  =  ^ 

The  molecular  fonnula  of  quartz  is  therefore  Si02- 

Example, — The  molecular  weight  of  argentic  nitrate  is  170 ; 
it  contains  63.53  per  cent,  of  silver,  and  has  but  one  atom  of 
silver  in  a  molecule.      WJiat  is  the  atomic  weight  of  silver  f 

-^   ,  mx        170  X  63.53 

We  have  a  =  ^^r^  or  — ^7^7; —  =  108. 

lOO/i  100  X  1 

Hence  the  atomic  weight  of  silver  is  108. 

Example. — Salt  contains  39.32  per  cent,  of  sodium,  whose 
atomic  weight  is  23.  In  a  molecule  of  salt  there  is  but  one 
atom  of  sodium.     WhcU  is  the  molecular  weight  of  salt? 

_   -                 an  X  100      23  X  1  X  100      ,„  ^ 
\Ve  have  m  =  or kft^ =  ^8.5. 

X  OV,OZ 

The  molecular  weight  of  salt  is  therefore  58.5. 

Again,  ferric  oxide  contains  three  atoms  of  oxygen,  or  30 
per  cent.      What  is  its  molecular  weight  f 

T>    .1.    x»         ,    16  X  3  X  100       ^^^ 
By  the  formula qjr =  160. 

Therefore  160  is  the  molecular  weight.      jO    r.  ^/2j  n) 

Example, — Ammonic  nitrate  NH4NO3,  breaks  up  under  the 
influence  of  heat  into  one  molecule  of  nitrogen  oxide,  NjO, 
and  two  molecules  of  ^HjO)^  IIow  much  nitrogen  oxide  in 
100  parts  of  ammonic  hjfdMoie  ?  ih\  \\4  CC 

In  formula  using  {a)  to  indicate  the  weight  of  the  group, 
and  (n)  the  number  of  such  group  in  the  molecule 

an  X  100      ^        ,  ,         44  X  1  X  100 

=  iormula,  we  have ,,-- =  55. 

m  bO 

Hence  ammonic  nitrate  yields  55  per  cent,  of  nitrogen 

oxide. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  355 

Example, — How  much  iodine  may  be  obtained  from  236 
grams  of  potassic  iodide  (Kl),  the  atomic  weight  of  iodine 
being  127,  and  the  molecular  weight  of  potassic  iodide  166  ? 

By  proportion, — As  166  parts  of  Kl  give  127  of  I,  it  is 
obvious  that  the  quantity  given  by  236  parts  would  be  given 
by  the  proportion : 

166  :  236  : :   127  :  y. 

y  =  180.5.     Answer,  180.5  grams  iodine. 

By  formula,  y  = ;  substituting  therefore  y  = — ^^ — 

=  180.5.     Hence  236  grams  potassic  iodide  yield  180.5  grams 
iodine. 

Example, — How  much  potassic  iodide  would  be  required 
to  yield  78  grams  of  iodine  ? 

z  =  — —^ ;   substitutmg  z  =  — zr^ —  =  102.    Answer,  102 
grams  potassic  iodide. 

CALCULATION   FROM   EQUATIONS. 

Examples, — Nitric  acid  is  prepared  by  the  action  of  sul- 
phuric acid  upon  potassic  nitrate  (KNO3),  according  to  the  fol- 
lowing equation : 

KN03-hH2S04=HN03-|-HKS04. 
101   +    98    =    63    4-    136.^ 

Problem  \%t. — 125  grams  of  nitre  yield  77.97  grams  of 
HNO3,  whose  molecular  weight  is  63.  What  is  the  molecular 
xoeight  of  potassic  nitrate? 

Bepresenting  by  M,  the  molecular  weight  of  substance 
given,  by  W,  the  absolute  weight  of  this  substance  given  in 
the  problem,  by  ?/?,  the  molecular  weight  of  the  substance  re- 
quired, and  by  w^  the  absolute  weight  of  this  substance,  then, 
M,  :  yf  '.  \  m  :  w\  from  which  the  following  formulas  may 
be  derived : 

xE        ^^/i\       Txr        ^'"'/o\  ^'^/0\  ^^^/IX 

M=-^(l);   W  =  -^(2);   m  =  -^^(3);   w  =  -.^{4:) 


356  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

In  Problem  Xst^  m  =  63,  W  equals  125,  and  w  =  77.97 ; 
hence  M  =     nn  qn    =  101,  Answer, 

Problem  2d. — The  molecular  weight  of  nitre  is  101,  and 
that  of  nitric  acid  is  63 ;  how  much  nitre  would  be  required  to 
yield  77.97  grams  nitric  acid  ? 

Here  the  quantities  being  represented  as  before,  we  have : 

W  = -^-- —  =  125,  Answer. 

DO 

Problem  Sd. — 125  grams  of  nitre  yield  77.97  grams  nitric 
acid.  The  molecular  weight  of  nitre  is  101.  What  is  the 
molecular  weight  o/  HtiO^i 

lo  ^  ..He.,  »  =  ^^^^  =  es,  A^e.. 

Problem  4th. — The  molecular  weight  of  nitre  is  101,  and 
that  of  HNO3  ^B  63*  How  much  HNO3  would  125  grams  of 
nitre  yield  ? 

We  have  w  =  — ^^j —  =  77.97  grams.  Answer. 

Problem  6th. — How  much  nitre  is  necessary  to  yield  36 
grams  of  HNO3? 

^      M  2/?    _      101  X  36     .^  ^  . 

W  = ;  W  =  — w:z —  =  57.7  grams,  Answer. 

Problem  6th.^^B.ow  much  sulphuric  acid  required  in  last 
problem  ? 

Here  M  =  98 ;  hence  W  =  — ^ —  =  56  grams,  Answer. 

Problem  Ith. — How  much  hydropotassic  sulphate  will  be 
produced  in  Problem  let  f 

M  =  136 ;  hence  W  =    '     „        =  77.7  grams.  Answer. 

The  last  three  problems  were  solved  by  formula  (2) ;  the 
following  ones  will  be  solved  by  formula  (4).  Formula  (2) 
and  (4)  are  usually  employed. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  357 

Problem  8th. — ^How  much  nitric  acid  may  be  produced 
fix)m  600  grams  of  KNO3  ? 

„  =  ^  =  6SX500  ^  3JJ  ,,  ^^  ^^^ 

Problem  9th. — How  much  H2SO4  will  be  required  to  de- 
compose 500  grams  of  nitre  ? 

-n  no    1  98x500      ,^^^^  ^ 

Here  m  =  98 ;  hence  w  =  — irrrj —  =  485.15  grams,  Answer. 

Problem  10th. — How  much  hydropotassic  sulphate  would  be 
yielded  by  the  decomposition  of  500  grams  of  KNO3  ^7  H2SO4  ? 

In  this  problem,  m  =  136 ;  hence  w  =  — ttt- =  673.27 

grams,  Answer. 

VOLUME  CALCUUTIONS. 

Problem  1st. — How  much  carbonic  dioxide  is  formed  by 
combustion  of  1  litre  of  carbonous  oxide  ? 

As  4  volumes  carbonous  oxide  yield  4  of  carbonic  dioxide, 
1  volume  will  yield  1  volume,  and  1  litre  of  course  1  litre, 
Answer. 

Problem  2d. — How  much  oxygen  is  needed  to  convert  2 
litres  carbonous  oxide  to  carbonic  dioxide? 

4  volumes  by  the  equation  require  2  of  oxygen;  hence  2 
litres  will  require  1  litre  of  oxygen.  Answer. 

Pi*oblem  Sd. — To  form  100  cubic  centimetres  of  carbonic 
dioxide,  how  much  carbonous  oxide  must  be  burned  ? 

4  volumes  of  carbonic  dioxide  require  the  combustion  of 
4  of  carbonous  oxide ;  100  cubic  centimetres  will  require  its 
own  volume  therefore,  or  100  cubic  centimetres.  Answer. 

■ 

RELATION   OF  WEIGHT  TO  VOLUME. 

Example  Ist. — ^What  volume  is  occupied  by  6.08  grams  of 
oxygen  gas  ? 

The  weight  of  1  litre  of  oxygen  is  1.43  grams;  hence  in  6.08 
grams  there  will  be  as  many  litres  as  1.43  is  contained  times 
in  6.08 ;  or  4.25  litres,  Answer. 


358  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

Example  2d. — ^What  is  the  weight  of  25  litres  of  nitrogen 
gas? 

1  litre  of  nitrogen  gas  weighs  1.26  grams ;  1.26  x  25  =  31.5 ; 
hence  25  litres  of  nitrogen  weigh  31.5  gi'ams,  Answer. 

SPECIFIC   GRAVITIES. 

Example. — What  is  the  specific  gravity  of  chlorine  gas  ? 
The  molecular  weight  of  chlorine  is  71 ;  its  density  there- 
fore is  y  or  35.5.      35.5  x  0.0693  =  2.46  (0.0693  Sp.  Gr.  of 

hydrogen  gas).     Chlorine  gas  is  therefore  2.46  times  heavier 
than  air. 

Problem. — The  specific  gravity  of  ammonia  gas  is  0.589. 
What  is  its  molecular  weight? 

Kthe  specific  gravity  is  0.589,  its  density  is  0.589  -r-  0.0693, 
or  8.5.     Hence  its  molecular  weight  is  8.5  x  2  or  17. 

GASEOUS  VOLUMES  FOR   PRESSURE. 

Example. — What  is  the  true  volume  which  250  cubic  centi- 
metres of  hydrogen  measured  at  742  millimetres  would  have,  if 
measured  at  760  millimetres  ? 

If  the  volume  of  a  gas  under  the  height  H  of  the  barometric 
column  be  represented  by  V,  and  under  any  otlier  height  H'  by 

V,  then  V  :  V  : :  H'  :  H;  whence  VH  =  V'H'  or  V  =  ^ 

Substituting  in  the  forumla 

742 
V  =  250  X  ^^  =  244  cubic  centimetres,  Answer. 

Example. — A  certain  volume  of  nitrogen  dioxide  gas,  under 
a  pressure  of  781  millimetres,  measured  542  cubic  centimetres. 
What  is  its  true  volume^  measured  at  760  millimetres  ? 

Substituting  in  formula 

781 
V=  542  X  fjw^  =  678.3  cubic  centimetres,  Answer. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  359 

GASEOUS  VOLUMES   FOR  TEMPERATURE. 

In  general,  if  V  represent  the  known  volume,  V  the  un- 
known volume,  and  t  the  number  of  degrees  the  temperature 
is  raised  or  lowered,  the  formula  for  calculating  an  increase  of 
volume  will  be : 

V'=  V  X  (1  X  «5  X  -003665). 

For  lower  temperature : 

V 

^^  (TTTx~^003665)- 

Example. — ^A  gas  measures  15  cubic  centimetres  at  0°.    What 
will  it  measure  at  60°  ? 
Substituting  in  formula, 

V'=  15  X  (1  +  60  X  -003665)  =  18.298  c.c,  Answer. 

Example, — What  will  a  gas  measure  at  0°,  which,  at  100, 
measures  40.1  cubic  centimetres  ? 

401 
^=  (1  +  100  X  -003665)  =  '^•^'^^  *'•*'•'  ^°'^"''' 

A  gas  measures  560  cubic  centimetres,  at  15°.     What  vnll 
it  measure  at  95°  ? 
Here  f-  95  -  15  =  80.     Hence, 

•  V'=  560  X  (1  +  80  X  -003665)  =  724.2  c.c.  Answer. 


360 


TABLE*      OF 


W  or  w— Bolnble  in  water.  A  or  a— insoluble  in  water,  eolnble  in  acide  (HCl^HNO, 
bat  soluble  in  acids.  W-I— eiNiringly  soluble  in  water  and  acids.  A-I— insoluble  in 
refer  to  notes,  p.  86S. 


« 

1 

• 

1 
§ 

< 

1 

< 

i 

• 
C3 

Cadmium. 

W4 

• 

1 
§ 

e 

1 

w 

8 
w 

Dyad  Iron. 

Acetate.... 

W 

W 

w 

.    w 

w 

a 

w 

w 

Arseniate. 

a 

w 

a 

a 

a 

a« 

a 

a 

a 

a 

a 

Arsenlte. . . 

w 

a 

a 

a 

a 

A 

a 

fienzoate.. 

w 

w 

w 

w 

w 

a 

w 

Borate 

a 

w 

a 

a 

w-a 

a 

a 

a 

a 

a 

Bromide... 

w 

W 

w-a 

w 

w-a 

w 

w 

wAi 

w 

w 

w 

Carbonate. 

a 

W 

A 

A 

a 

A 

a 

A 

A 

A 

Chlorate. . . 

w 

w 

W 

w 

w 

w 

w 

w 

w 

w 

Chloride.  . 

w 

"3.* 

W-Aio 

W 

W-A,. 

W 

W 

WAI 

W 

W 

W 

Chromate.. 

w 

a 

a 

a 

a 

w-a 

a 

a 

w 

Citrate... 

w 

w 

a 

a 

w-o 

w 

w 

w 

w 

Cyanide... 

w 

w-a 

a 

w 

a 

a-i 

a 

a-i 

Ferricy'de. 

w 

w 

i 

I 

PerrocyMe 

w 

w-a 

w 

I 

i 

i 

Fluoride. . . 

w 

w 

w 

a-l 

w 

w-a 

A 

w 

w-a 

» 

w-a 

Formate. . . 
Hydroxide 

w 
A 

w 
W 

A 

w 
W 

w 

a 

w 
a 

w 
W-A 

w 
A 

w 
A 

a 

w 
a 

Iodide 

w 

W 

w-a 

w 

a 

W 

w 

w 

w 

w 

W 

Malate.... 

w 

w 

w  &a. 

w  Aa 

Nitrate.... 

w 

W 

W 

Wx. 

w 

w 

W 

W 

W 

W 

Oxalate.. . . 

a 

W 

a 

a 

a 

a 

A 

w-a 

A 

a 

a 

Oxide 

AAI 

a,i 

W 

a 

a 

WAA 

AAI 

A 

A 

a 

Phosphate. 

a 

Wi.0 

w-a 

w  Aa 

a 

a 

W4A 

a 

a 

a 

a 

Silicate.... 

A-I 

a 

a 

a 

a 

a 

a 

a 

Succinate.. 

w-a 

w 

w-a 

w 

w-a 

w-a 

w-a 

w 

Sulphate . . 

Wi., 

Wff -t 

a 

A 

w 

W 

W-I 

WAA„, 

w..; 

W 

w. 

Sulphide.. 

a 

w 

Ait.i« 

W 

a 

A 

W-A 

a^ 

1 

a    1 

A 

A 

Tartrate... 

w 

w. 

a^. 

a 

a 

w-a 

a 

w 

w 

w 

w-a 

*  From  Qnalitatire  Analysis  (Freeeniofe). 


361 


SOLUBILITY. 


and  aqna  regla).    I  or  i— ineolnble  in  water  and  acids.    W-A-HBparingly  soluble  in  water, 
water,  sparingly  soluble  in  acids.    Capitals  indicate  common  substances;  small  figores 


I 

O 


W 

a 
a 
a 
a 
w 
a 
w 
W. 
w 
W 

w 

I 

w 

w 

A 

w 

w 

W 

a 

A 

a 

a 

W 
A 


"S 
S 


w 

a 

a 

a 

a 
w-i 

A 

w 
W-I 
A-I 

a 

a 
w-a 

a 

a 
w-a 

a 

W-A 

w-a 

W 

a 

A 

a 

a 

a 
A-I 

A 

a 


• 

1 

"S 
u 

a 

s 

i 
1 

1 

a 

> 

w 

w 

w-a 

a 

a 

a 

a 

a 

a 

w 

w 

a 

w-a 

a 

w 

w 

a-i 

A 

A 

a 

w 

w 

w 

W 

W 

A-1 

w 

w 

a 

w 

a 

a 

w 

a 

w 

i 

w 

a 

a^i 

a 

w 

w 

w 

A 

a 

w 

w 

A 

w 

w 

a 

w 

w 

W 

a 

w-a 

a 

A 

Am 

A 

a. 

a 

a 

a 

a 

w 

w 

a 

W 

W 

w-a 

a 

a 

a 

w-a 

w-a 

w-a 

w 

a 

a 
w-a 

w 

a 

w 
W,, 
w-a 
w-a 

W 


w-a 
w 

A 

w-a 
W 
a 
A 
a 

w 

w,, 
A.* 

a 


a 
a 

a 
w 
A 
w 
W 
a 
w 

Or-i 

i 

i 

w-a 

w 

a 
w 

W 
a 
A 
a 
a 
w 
W 
A.. 
a 


£ 


w 
w 

w 
w 
W 
W 
W 
W 

w„ 
w 

w 
W 
W 
W 
w 
w 
W 
W 
w 
W 
W 
W 
w 
W 
w 
W„ 

w 
w 


1 

a 
W 

W 

a 

W 

a 

w 

w-a 

w 

a 

W 

a 

W 

a 

W 

w 

w 

I 

W 

a 

w 

a 

W 

i 

w 

i 

w 

i 

w 

w 

w 

w 

w 

W 

i 

w 

w-a 

w 

w 

W 

a 

W 

a 

W 

a 

W 

W 

a 

w 

W-A 

W 

as* 

w 

a 

w 

s 

B 
p 
2 


W 

a 
a 

a 
w 
A 
w 
W 
w-a 
a 
w 

w 

a-i 

w 

w 

w 

w 

W 

a 

W 

a 

a 

w-a 

I 

w 

a 


• 

1 

1 

1 

w 

w 

a 

a 

a 

a 

w 

W 

W 

a 

w 

w 

w 

a 

a 

w 

w 

w 

w 

a 

w 

a 

A&I 

a 

a 

a 

w 

a.. 

A.. 

a 

B 

fc4 


W 


A 

w 

W 

w 
w-a 

a 

a 

a-i 
w-a 

w 

a 

w 

w 

w 

a 

A 

a 

a 
w-a 

W 
A,. 

a 


Acetate. 

Arseniate. 

Arsenite. 

Benzoate. 

Borate. 

Bromide. 

Carbonate. 

Chlorate. 

Chloride. 

Cbromate. 

Citrate. 

Cyanide. 

PerricyMe. 

F'rrocy'de, 

Fluoride. 

Formate. 

Hydroxide. 

Iodide. 

Malate. 

Nitrate. 

Oxalate. 

Oxide. 

Phosphate. 

Silicate. 

Succinate. 

Sulphate. 

Sulphide. 

Tartrate. 


Edited  by  Johnson.    Page  495-6-7.    (1875.) 


362  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


NOTES  TO  TABLE  OF   SOLUBILITY. 

1.  Aluminic  ammonic  sulphate,  W. 

2.  *'        potassic  "         W. 
8.  Ammonic  arsenic  chloride,  W. 

4.  "  platinic      "         W— I. 

5.  "  Bodic  phosphate,  W. 

6.  "  ma^esic  "  A. 

7.  "  ferrous  sulphate,  W. 

8.  "  cupric         "         W. 

9.  "  potassic  tartrate,  W. 

10.  Antimonic  hypochlorite,  A 

11.  Bismuthic  "  A. 

12.  "         basic  nitrate,  A. 

16.  Calcic  sulphantimonate,  W — A. 

17.  Chromic  potassic  sulphate,  W. 

18.  Cobaltic  sulphide.    Easily  soluble  in  HNO, ;  very  slowly  in  HCl. 

19.  Ferric  potassic  tartrate,  W. 

20.  Manp^anese  dioxide.    Soluble  in  HCl ;  insoluble  in  HNO,. 

21.  Mercurius  solubilis  Hahnemann!,  A. 

22.  Mercurammonic  chloride,  A. 

23.  Mercuric  sulphate  basic,  A. 

24.  Mercuric  sulphide.    Insoluble  in  HCl  and  in  HNO3 ;  soluble  in  aqua  regia. 

25.  Nickelic  sulphide.    (See  Cobaltic  Sulphide.) 

26.  Potassic  platinic  chloride,  W — A. 

27.  Argentic  sulphide.    Only  soluble  in  HNOj. 

28.  Tin  sulphides.    Soluble  in  hot  HCl ;  oxidized,  not  dissolved  by  HNO,  ; 

sublimed  stannic  sulphide  only  soluble  in  aqua  regia. 

29.  Zincic  sulphide.    Easily  soluble  in  HNO,  ;  with  difficulty  in  HCl. 

80.  Auric  sulphide.    Insoluble  in  HCl  and  in  HXO,  ;  soluble  in  aqua  regia- 

81.  Auric  bromide,  chloride,  and  cyanide,  W;  iodide,  a. 

82.  Platinic  sulphide.    Insoluble  in  HO ;  slightly  soluble  in  hot  HNO, ; 

soluble  in  aqua  regia. 
33.  Platinic  bromide,  chloride  and  cyanide,  nitrate  oxalate  and  sulphate,  W ; 
oxide,  a ;  iodide,  i. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  363 


REDUCTION    OF   COMPOUNDS 

FOUND  TO   CONSTITUENTS  SOUGHT   BY   SIMPLE 

MULTIPLICATION   OR   DIVISION. 

(Fresenius  Q^antitcUive  Analy%l8,^.  608.    1871  Edition.) 

The  following  table  only  contains  some  of  the  more  fre- 
quently occurring  compounds;  the  formulae  preceded  by  ! 
give  absolutely  accurate  results. 

FOR   INORGANIC  ANALYSIS. 

Carbonic  Acid. 
I  Carbonate  of  lime  x  0.44  =  carbonic  acid. 

Chlorine 
Chloride  of  silver  x  0.24724  =  chlorine. 

Cojyper, 
Oxide  of  copper  x  0.79849  =  copper. 

Iron. 
!  Sesquioxide  of  iron  x  0.7  =  2  iron. 
!  Sesquioxide  of  iron  x  0.9  =  2  protoxide  of  iron. 

Lead. 
Oxide  of  lead  x  0.9283  =  lead. 

Magnesia. 
Pyrophosphate  of  magnesia  x  0.36036  =  2  magnesia. 

Manganese. 

Protosesquioxide  of  manganese  x  0.72052  =  3  manganese. 

"  ''  «  X  0.93013  =  3  protoxide  of 

manganese. 
Phosphoric  Acid. 

Pyrophosphate  of  magnesia  x  0.6396  =  phosphoric  acid. 

Phosphate  of  sesquioxide  of  uranium  (2  UrjOsjPOs)  x  0.1991 

=  phosphoric  acid. 


364 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


Poiassa, 
Chloride  of  potassium  x  0.52445  =  potassium. 
Sulphate  of  potassa      x  0.5408    =  potassa. 
Potassio-bichloride  of  platinum  x  0.30507  1 

or  I  ^(Chloride  of 

Potassio-bichloride  of  platinum  |      1  potassium. 

3.278.  J 

Potassio-bichloride  of  platinum  x  0.19272] 

Potassio-bichloride  of  platinum.  ^  "" 

5.188. 

Soda. 
Chloride  of  sodium  x  0.5302    =  soda. 
Sulphate  of  soda      x  0.43658  =  soda. 

Sulphur, 
Sulphate  of  baryta  x  0.13734  =  snlphur. 

Sulphuric  Add. 
Sulphate  of  baryta  x  0.34335  =  sulphuric  acid. 

FOR  ORGANIC  ANALYSIS. 

Carhon. 
Carbonic  acid  x  0.2727 
or 
Carbonic  acid 


3.666. 

or 

Carbonic  acid  x  3 

11 

Hydrogen, 
Water  x  0.11111 1 


=  Carbon. 


or 

Water 

9 


=  Hydrogen. 


Nitrogen. 
Ammonio-bichloride  of  platinum  x  0.06269  =  nitrogen. 
Platinum  x  0.1415  =  nitrogen. 


THE   CHEMISTS'    MANUAL. 


365 


TABLE 

SHOWING    THE    AMOUNT    OF   CONSTITUENT   SOUGHT    FOR 
ONE    PART    OF    THE    COMPOUND    FOUND. 


SLBMXI7T8. 

POUIID. 

Sought. 

1. 

Aliiminiuin.. 

Alumina, 

Aluminium, 

0.53398 

A1,0,. 

Al,. 

(Ammonium) 

Chloride  of  Ammonium, 

Ammonia, 

0.81804 

NH^a. 

NH,. 

j  Ammonio-bichloride    of  ) 
I              Platinum, 

Oxide  of  Ammonium. 

0.11644 

NH^CUPta,. 

NH,0. 

(  Ammonio-bichloride   of  ) 
(              Platinum,              ) 

Ammonia, 

0.07614 

NH^Cl.Pta,. 

NH,. 

Antimony . . 

Terozide  of  Antimony, 

Antimony, 

0.88562 

SbO,. 

Sb. 

Tersulphide  of  Antimony, 

Antimony, 

0.71765 

SbS,. 

Sb. 

Antimonious  Acid, 

Teroxide  of  Antimony, 

0.04805 

SbO^. 

SbO,. 

Arsenio 

ArseniouB  Acid, 

Arsenic, 

0.75758 

AsOg. 

As. 

Arsenic  Acid, 

Arsenic, 

0.65217 

AsOg. 

As. 

Arsenic  Acid, 

Arsenious  Acid, 

0.86087 

AsOb. 

AsO,. 

Tersulphide  of  Arsenic, 

Arsenious  Acid, 

0.80488 

AflS,. 

AsO,. 

Tersulphide  of  Arsenic. 

Arsenic  Acid, 

0.98486 

AflSg. 

AsO,. 

j  Arseniate    of    Ammonia  { 
and  Magnesia.          ) 

Arsenic  Acid, 

0.60526 

2MgO,NH40,AsO,  +  Aq. 

AsO,. 

J  Arseniate    of    Ammonia  ) 
(          and  Magnesia.          ) 

Arsenious  Acid, 

0.52105 

3MgO,NH40,  AflOg  +  Aq. 

AsO,. 

Bariom 

Baryta, 

Barium, 

0.89542 

BaO. 

Ba. 

Sulphate  of  Baryta, 

Baryta, 

0.65665 

BaO,S08. 
Carbonate  of  Baryta, 

BaO. 
Baryta, 

0.77066 

BaO,  00,. 

BaO. 

Silico-fluoride  of  Barium, 

Baryta, 

0.54839 

BaFl,SiFl,. 

BaO. 

Bismnth 

Terozide  of  Bismuth, 

Bifimuth, 

0.89655 

BiO,. 

Bi. 

Boron 

Boracic  Acid, 

Boron, 

0.81429 

BO,. 

B. 

Bromine. . . . 

Bromide  of  Silver, 

Bromine, 

0.42560 

AgBr. 

Br. 

Oadminm . . . 

Oxide  of  Cadmium, 

Cadmium, 

0.87500 

CdO. 

Cd. 

366 


THE    CHEMISTS'   MANUAL. 


Elbmvktb. 


Oalcium 


Carbon. 


Copper. 


FOUNB. 


Chlorine. . . . 


Ohromiom.. 


Cobalt 


Fluorine. . . . 


Hydrogen . . 
Iodine 


Iron. 


Lead. 


Lime, 

CaO. 

SulDhate  of  Lime, 

'CaO,Sog. 

Carbonate  of  Lime, 

CaO.COj. 

Carbonic  Acid, 

CO,. 

Carbonate  of  Lime, 

CaO,CO,. 
Chloride  of  Silver, 

AgCl. 

Chloride  of  Silver, 

AgCl. 

Sesqtdoxido  of  Chromium, 

Cr,0,. 

Sesquioxide  of  Chromium, 

Cr.O,. 

Chromate  of  Lead, 

PbO,CrO,. 

Cobalt, 

Co. 

j  Sulphate  of  Protoxide  of  ) 

(  Cobalt,  ( 

CoO.SOa. 
(  Sulphate  of  Cobalt  +  Sul-  { 
{        phate  of  Potassa,        \ 

2(CoO,SO,)  +  (KO.SO,). 

j  Sulphate  of  Cobalt  +  Sul- ) 

j        phate  of  Potassa,         f 

2(CoO,SO,)  +  8(KO.SO,). 

Oxide  of  Copper, 

CuO. 

Subsulphide  of  Copper, 

Cu,S. 
Fluoride  of  Calcium, 

CaFl. 

Fluoride  of  Silicon, 

SiFl,. 

Water, 

HO. 

Iodide  of  Silver, 

Agl. 

Protiodide  of  Palladium, 

Pdl. 

Sesquioxide  of  Iron, 

Fe,0,. 

Sesquioxide  of  Iron, 

Fe,0,. 

Sulphide  of  Iron, 

FeS. 

Oxide  of  Lead, 

PbO. 

Sulphate  of  Lead, 

PbO,  SO,. 


Sought. 

1. 

Calcium, 

0.71429 

Ca. 

Lime, 

0.41176 

CaO. 

Lime, 

0.56000 

CaO. 

Carbon, 

0.27273 

C. 

Carbonic  Acid, 

0.44000 

CO,. 

Chlorine, 

0.24724 

CI. 

Hydrochloric  Acid, 

0.25421 

HCl. 

Chromium, 

0.68610 

Cr,. 

Chromic  Acid, 

0.31881 

2CrO,. 

Chromic  Acid, 

0.31062 

CrO,. 

Protoxide  of  Cobalt, 

1.27119 

CoO. 

Protoxide  of  Cobalt, 

0.4B887 

CoO. 

Protoxide  of  Cobalt, 

0.18015 

2CoO. 

Cobalt, 

0.14171 

2Co. 

Copper, 

0.79849 

Cu. 

Copper, 

0.79849 

2Cu. 

Fluorine, 

0.48718 

Fl. 

Fluorine, 

0.78077 

2F1. 

Hydrogen, 

0.11111 

H. 

Iodine, 

I. 
Iodine, 

I. 
Iron, 

0.54049 

0.705.56 

0.70000 

2Fe. 

Protoxide  of  Iron, 

0.90000 

2FeO. 

Iron, 

0.63686 

Fe. 

Lead, 

0.02825 

Pb. 

Lead, 

0.68817 

Pb. 

THE  CHEMISTS'   MANUAL. 


367 


Elbkbnts. 

Found. 

Sought. 

1. 

Lead 

Bnlphate  of  Lead, 

Oxide  of  Lead, 

0.78697 

PbO,SOa. 
Sulphide  of  Lead, 

PbO. 

Oxide  of  Lead, 

0.93805 

PbS. 

PbO. 

Lithium .... 

Carbonate  of  Litbia, 

Lithia, 

0.40541 

LiO,CO,. 

LiO. 

Sulphate  of  Lithia, 

Lithia, 

0.27273 

LiO,S08. 

LiO, 

Basic  Phosphate  of  Lithia, 

Lithia, 

0.38793 

8Li0,P05. 

8LiO. 

Magnesiuin . 

Magnesia, 

Magnesium, 

0.60030 

MffO. 

Mg. 

Sulphate  of  Magnesia, 

Magnesia, 
SgO. 

0.38350 

MgO,S03. 

Pyrophosphate  of  Magnesia, 

Magnesia, 
2MgO/ 

0.86036 

2MgO,PO,. 

Manganese. 

Protoxide  of  Manganese, 

Manganese, 

0.77465 

MnO. 

Mn. 

( Protosesquioxide  of  Man- ) 
*!                ganese.                f 

Manganese, 

0.72052 

MnO  +  Mn.Oj. 
Sesquioxide  of  Manganese, 

8Mn. 

Manganese, 
2Mn. 

0.69620 

MugOg. 

j  Sulphate  of  Protoxide  of ) 
(          Manganese, 

(Protoxide  of  Man-) 

0.47020 

MnO,SO,. 

MnO. 

Sulphide  of  Manganese, 

j  Protoxide  of  Man- 1 
(           ganese. 

0.81609 

Mn& 

MnO. 

Sulphide  of  Manganese, 

Manganese, 

0.68218 

MnS. 

Mn. 

Mercury . . . 

Mercury, 

Suboxide  of  Mercury, 

1.04000 

Hg,. 

Hg.O. 

Mercury, 

Oxide  of  Mercury, 

1.08000 

Hg. 

HgO. 

Subchloride  of  Mercury, 

Mercury, 

0.84940 

Hg.CI. 

Hg,. 

Sulphide  of  Mercury, 

Mercury, 

0.86207 

HgS. 

^Hg. 

Nickel 

Protoxide  of  Nickel, 

Nickel, 

0.78667 

NiO. 

Ni. 

Nitrogen... . 

( Ammonio  -  bichloride   of  ) 
')              Platinum, 

Nitrogen, 

0.06071 

NH,Cl,PtCl,. 

N. 

Platinum, 

Nitrogen, 

0.14155 

Pt. 

N. 

Sulphate  of  Baryta. 

Nitric  Acid, 

0.46352 

BaO.SO,. 

NO,. 

Cyanide  of  Silver, 

Cyanogen, 

0.19410 

AgC.N. 

C,N. 

Cyanide  of  Silver, 
AgC.N. 

Hydrocyanic  Add, 
HC,N. 

0.20156 

Oxygen 

Alumina, 
Al.O,. 

Oxygen, 

0.46602 

368 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


Blbkbhtb. 


Oxygen..... 


FOUKD. 


Terozide  of  Antimonj, 

SbO,. 

Arsenious  Acid, 

AsOg. 

Arsenic  Acid, 

AsOg. 

Baryta, 

BaO. 

Terozide  of  Bidmuth, 

BiO,. 

Oxide  of  Cadmium, 

CdO. 

Sesquioxide  of  Chromium, 

CfjOg. 

Protoxide  of  Cobalt, 

CoO. 

Oxide  of  Copper, 

CuO, 

Protoxide  of  Iron, 

FeO. 

Sesquioxide  of  Iron, 

Fe.O,. 

Oxide  of  Lead, 

PbO. 

Lime, 

CaO. 

Magnesia, 

MfO. 

Protoxide  of  Manganese, 

MnO. 

j  Protosesquioxide  of  Man- ) 

J  ganese,  J 

MuO  +  M.Oa. 

Sesquioxide  of  Manganese, 

Mn,0.^. 

Suboxide  of  Mercuiy, 

Hff.O. 

Oxide  of  Mercury, 

HgO. 

Protoxide  of  Nickel, 

NiO. 

Potassa, 

KO. 

Silicic  Acid, 

SiO,. 

Oxide  of  Silver, 

Ago. 

Soda, 

NaO. 

Strontia, 

SrO. 

Binoxide  of  Tin, 

SnO,. 

Water, 

HO. 


Souoirr. 


n, 


Oxyge 

30. 
Oxygen, 

30. 
Oxygen, 

50. 
Oxygen, 

O. 
Oxyffen, 

Oxygen, 

Ox^n, 

Oxygen, 

O. 
Oxygen, 

O. 
Oxygen, 

Ox^. 

Oxygen, 

O. 
Oxygen, 

O. 
Oxygen, 

O. 
Oxygen, 

O. 

Oxygen, 

40. 
Oxyffen, 

80. 
Oxygen, 

O. 
Oxygen, 

O. 
Oxygen, 

O. 
Oxygen, 

O. 
Oxygen, 


Oxygen, 

O. 
Oxygen, 

O. 
Oxygen, 

O. 
Oxygen, 

20. 
Oxygen, 

O. 


1. 

0.16488 
0.24242 
0.34788 
0.10458 
0.10845 
0.12500 
8.81881 
0.21888 
0.20151 
0.22222 
0.80000 
0.07175 
0.28571 
0.89970 
0.22585 

0.27947 

0.80880 
0.08846 
0.07407 
0.21888 
0.16962 
0.58888 
0.06898 
0.25810 
0.15459 
0.21888 
0.88889 


THE   CHEMIST'S   MANUAL. 


369 


Elkjixntb. 

Pound, 

Sought. 

1. 

Ozygea 

Oxide  of  Zinc, 

Oxygen, 

0.19740 

ZnO. 

0. 

PhoiphoruB. 

Phosphoric  Acid, 

Phosphorus, 

0.43662 

PO,. 

P. 

Pyrophosphate  of  Magnesia, 

Phosphoric  Acid, 

0.68964 

2MgO.PO,. 

PO.. 

j  Phosphate  of   Sesquiox- ) 
(            ide  of  Iron,             f 

Phosphoric  Acid, 

0.47020 

Fe,0„PO,. 

PO,. 

Phosphate  of  Silver, 

Phosphoric  Acid, 

0.16949 

8AgO,PO.. 

PO.. 

( Phosphate  of   Sesquiox-  { 
(        ide  of  Uranium, 

Phosphoric  Acid, 

0.19910 

2Ur,0„P0.. 
Pyrophosphate  of  Silver, 

PO,. 

Phosphoric  Acid, 

0.23437 

2AgO,PO,. 

POj. 

Potassium, 

Potauiom . . 

Potassa, 

0.88018 

KO. 

K. 

Sulphate  of  Potassa, 

Potassa, 

0.54060 

KO,SO,. 

KO. 

Chloride  of  Potassium, 

Potassium, 

0.52445 

KCl. 

K. 

Chloride  of  Potassium, 

Potassa, 

0.68178 

KCl. 

KO. 

(  Potassio-bichloride      of  ) 
{              Platinum,              ) 

Potassa, 

0.19272 

Kci,ptag. 

KO. 

j  Potassio-bichloride      of  ) 
(              Platinum,              ) 

Chloride  of  Potassium, 

0.80507 

Ka,PtCl8. 

KCl. 

Silioon 

Silicic  Acid, 

Silioon, 

0.46667 

• 

SiO,. 

Si. 

SUver 

Chloride  of  Silver, 

Silver, 

0.76276 

AgCl. 

Ag. 

Chloride  of  Silver, 

Oxide  of  Silver, 

0.80654 

Aga. 

Ago. 

Sodium 

Soda, 

Sodium, 

0.74190 

NaO. 

Na. 

Sulphate  of  Soda, 

Soda, 

0.48656 

NaSO«. 

NaO. 

Chloride  of  Sodium, 

Soda, 

0.53022 

NaCl. 

NaO. 

Chloride  of  Sodium, 

Sodium, 

0.89887 

NaCl. 

Na. 

Carbonate  of  Soda, 

Soda, 

0.58467 

NaO.CO,. 

NaO. 

Btrontituii. . . 

Strontia, 

Strontium, 

0.64541 

SrO. 

Sr. 

Sulphate  of  Strontia, 

Strontia, 

0.56403 

SrO,  SO,. 

SrO. 

Carbonate  of  Strontia, 

Strontia, 

0.70169 

SrO,CO,. 

SrO. 

Sulphur 

Sulphate  of  Baryta, 

Sulphur, 

0.13784 

BaO,SO,. 

S. 

370 


THE   CHEMISTS'    MANUAL. 


Eluibnts. 

FOUKD. 

SonoHT. 

1. 

Sulphur 

Tersulphide  of  Arsenic, 
AsS,. 

Sulphur, 

0.39024 

Salphate  of  Baryta, 

Sulphuric  Acid, 

0.84335 

BaO,SO,. 

SO,. 

Tin 

Biuoxide  of  Tin, 

Tin, 

0.78667 

SnO,. 

Sn. 

Binoxide  of  Tin, 

Protoxide  of  Tin, 

0.89333 

SnOg. 

SnO. 

Zinc 

Oxide  of  Zinc, 

Zinc, 

0.80260 

ZnO. 

Zn. 

Sulphide  of  Zinc, 

Oxide  of  Zinc, 

0.88515 

ZnS. 

ZnO. 

Sulphide  of  Zinc, 

Zinc, 

0.67031 

ZnS. 

Zn. 

WEIGHT    OF    SWEDISH    FILTER- PAPER    ASH. 


AoiD. 


No.  1  (3  in.) 0.0003  grms. 

No.  2  (4  in.) 0.0006  grms. 

No.  8  (6  in.) 0.0008  grms. 


At.kai.tke. 

.0.0010  grms. 
.0.0020  grms. 
.0.0030  grms. 


SCHEMES  FOR  THE 

"Ijuantitatiuc  Jnalpts" 

OF  THE  J^OST  FREQUENTLY  OCCURRING  COIJPOUNDS. 


SCHEME 

FOR  THE  QUANTITATIVE  ANALYSIS  OF  AN 

IRON  ORE  OR  SLAG. 

The  ore  is  sampled  and  prepared  as  described  under  Assay 
OF  Iron  Ores.  The  ore  may  contain  NagO,  Kg.O,  CaO,  MgO, 
AI2O3,  CfjOs,  Fe,  Mn,  Zn,  Ni,  Co,  Cu,  As,  SO3,  P2O5,  Ti025  Si02, 
V2O5?  WO3,  CO2,  CI,  Fe,  H2O — Orgakic  matter. 

Make  a  qualitative  examination  for  Cr203,  Cu,  As,  and  Ti. 

I.  SPECIAL  DETERMINATIONS. 


In  1  gram  deter- 
mine H,0  by  direct 
weight. 

(Fres.  Quant.  An., 
886.) 


In  1  gram  deter- 
mine CO,  hy  direct 
weight. 
(Frea.,  §  139,  II.  e.) 


For  special  determinations  of 
Kj.0,  Na.O,  Cr.O,  FeO,  As,  S, 
SO,,  TiO„  V,0.,  WOs,  CI,  Fl~ 
Organic  hatter.  (See  Appen- 
dix.) 


II.  MAIN   ANALYSIS. 

Pulverize  five  grams  to  impalpable  powder  and  fuse 
thoroughly  in  platinum  crucible  (Note  2)  with  20  grams 
Na2C03  (increase  to  30  grams  as  the  ore  contains  more  Si02 
and  Silicates)  and  2  grams  NaNOg  (increasing  to  5  grams  as 
the  ore  contains  more  FeO,  sulphides,  or  organic  matter). 

After  cooling,  treat  crucible  and  fused  mass  in  a  small 
beaker  with  boiling  water,  until  the  mass  is  thoroughly  dis- 
integrated (Note  8).  If  the  solution  has  a  decided  green 
color,  digest  with  a  little  alcohol;  filter  and  wash  with  hot 
water. —(Fres.,  §  160,  10,  a,  and  Note  4.) 


374 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


I.  WATER  SOLUTION. 

It  must  be  clear,  but  may  be  colored.  It  may  contain  AI2O3, 
ZnO,  Si02,  SO3,  P2O5,  CrOs,  AsgOj.  Add  excess  of  HCl ;  evap- 
orate to  dryness  (Note  5);  moisten  residue  thoroughly  with 
HCl;  digest  with  hot  water;  filter,  and  wash  with  hot  water. 


Residuso. 


SiOa,  etc., 
to  be  added 
to  and  re- 
fused with 
Residue  b. 


FiLTBATB  a. 

Dilute  to  600  ex.,  and  divide  in  three  portions. 


'Solution  a'— 800  cc. 

(If  tlie  ore  contains  As, 
see  Note  6.)  Put  into  a 
large  flaak  (to  be  after- 
wards com  bined  with  solu- 
tion d^)  after  determining 
Cr,0,,  if  present  (Note  7). 


Solution  a* 

100  cc. 
Add    BaCl., 
and   determine 
80.  asBaSO^. 
(Fres.,    §132 
and  Note  8.) 


Solution  a» 

100  cc. 
Add  to  solu- 
tion d*,  as  a  lit- 
tle Fe  often  en- 
ters the  water 
solution. 


II.   INSOLUBLE   RESIDUE. 

It  may  contain  CaO,  MgO,  AI2O3,  MnO,  ZnO,  NiO,  CoO,  Fe, 
As,  CuO,  P2O5,  Si02,  Ti02  (^^^  Pt  from  crucible).  Dry  the 
residue;  transfer  it  to  a  casserole ;  dry  and  bum  the  filter  and 
add  its  ashes;  moisten  with  H2O;  treat  with  HCl;  evaporate 
to  dryness,  and  add  HCl  (Note  9).  Warm  and  digest  with  hot 
water,  with  occasional  stirring.  When  dissolved  to  a  clear 
solution,  filter  and  wash. — (Fres.,  §  140.) 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


BWDns  b. 
U  mM  conlali 

8IO,.    iHO.,    ID! 

BtAtr  sabaUDCe* 
Combine  it  will 
B«iDD»a.  WmL 
[boroDglity   wltb 


"■   *Add 


Kcully;  Ih^n  ll^ 

'  Wfliht.  Liwa  = 
Bio,.  Fii«c  now 
wlt.i    hmiiliibste 

Ibe  and.  Wli 
craclblB  i8  p. 
ftctlj    told,   d 


FlLTKATB  A  OB  HtDBOOHLORIC  A 


SaMrace  thoroDgblr  wilb  H<6  gu. 


BoFl  V 
Ayua   Begla ; 


I.  (F'roe.,yM, 

'  preclpluie 
'  conti>r<»  Pt 
.  I  from  CTuelble, 


IFrcii, 1119,1, 
1,  and  J  1MB. 
B,uidB,8.b.) 


FiLTKin  d. 
Bon  with  KCIO,,  dllDlo  Us  DIM  e.c 
ibree  portlone. 


Combine  In  ■  Urga  Hiak;   idd    '.IS^-^-  A'iS 


«Qd  perhaps  P.O. I    lo  email  bol' 
andTlO,.         trani-ftr  lo  fla 
laiolve   <D    HCl'    Bdd  »H,(:1 
id  divide  Id  two  (NH.)IIO  to  a 
portona.         |    "^^^^"^^ 
ol'b    BoLunoii  odor  It  decided.  A 
■  )r  jellowlah. 
I  dstk  wltb 

-  "  '"njlKht, 

HNO.;  ceja,K'      •"—    '""  • 
NH.) 


»!d 


ipell- 


(NH,), 


PnsOTPITiTl/ 

mar  coDlaln  Mn,  Zn, 
Co,  and  m  (it  anl- 
phidetV     Dlaeolve  on 

-dilule  HOI,  and  wasb. 


iTSHsaLded 
<K  a.    Remi 


■enca  =  AI,o.(+i'l6.>.    If 
Ita  welirhi.    CucolBle  from 

II  =  Ar,o.. 


i?.1V*.!."i?' 


and  Mote  It.) 


melrlcallv. 
(Fre...«na. 
i,  and  NoU 


SOLUTtOH 

msT  eoElalD 
Zn  and  Mn. 
Boll;  add 
Kb, CO.  In 

wash. 
iFres..  «1£I8 
aod  i  n» 


FiLTBATm/ 

CaO  nnd  H^. 


PRIC.  I    PlLT. 

i.     '      h. 
Com-  Preclpl- 


5« 


andwelgb 


»elirht. 
SCI;    ad 


rong^T  to  coo  Plant 


!   wlih   Na.Co,:    aiier, 


BCl;  preclpl- 
i.Co  ■    — -- 

[Fret..  . 

Dednct  Ihla  welshi  It-om 
tbe  (Omier,  and  dUbraiwa 
-UnaiMn.Ot. 


376  THE  CHEMISTS*  MANUAL. 

NOTES. 

[The  references  to  Fresenius's  Quantitative  Analysis  refer 
to  London  edition  of  1865.] 

Note  2.  Preliminary  fusion. — Thoroughly  mix  the  ore 
and  its  fluxes  on  glazed  paper ;  put  about  a  third  of  the  mix- 
ture in  a  two-ounce  platinum  crucible,  and  heat  over  a  Bun- 
sen  burner  until  the  greatest  violence  of  the  eflfervescence  has 
ceased.  Then  add  and  treat  the  rest  in  the  same  way.  Finally, 
heat  strongly  over  a  blast-lamp  until  mass  is  in  complete  and 
quiet  fusion. 

Note  3.  Removal  of  the  fused  mass, — ^Let  crucible  cool 
until  just  below  red-heat,  and  place  it  on  a  clean  and  dry  iron 
plate,  whose  lower  part  is  immersed  in  cold  water.  When 
crucible  is  cold  enough  to  hold  in  hand,  put  it  in  a  small 
beaker  in  which  it  can  lie  on  its  side,  and  digest  with  boiling 
water.  Heat  over  a  water-bath  until  fused  mass  all  comes  out 
of  crucible,  or  will  come  out  by  inverting  it.  Remove  the 
crucible ;  wash  it ;  treat  it  in  a  small  beaker  with  a  little  con- 
centrated HCl  to  remove  any  adhering  particles,  and  add  this 
to  that  of  the  insoluble  residue  (2). 

Note  4.  Beduction  of  H2Mn04. — If  alcohol  is  added,  heat 
over  a  water-bath.  If  there  was  no  bluish-green  tint,  no  alco- 
hol need  be  added. 

Note  5.  Separation  cf  Si02. —  In  order  to  render  Si02 
entirely  insoluble,  the  evaporation  should  be  carried  to  perfect 
dryness,  until  no  odors  of  HCl  can  be  detected,  and  the  mass 
is  hard  and  crumbly.  As  the  residue  is  to  be  re-fused  with 
Kesidue  J,  the  drying  may  be  conducted  at  a  temperature 
somewhat  higher  than  100°  C. 

Note  6.  Removal  of  As. — The  As  has  already  been  mostly 
or  completely  volatilized  in  the  foregoing  evaporation.  If  a 
trace  still  remains,  saturate  with  H^S  gas,  filter,  wash,  add 
a  little  KCIO3  to  filtrate,  and  boil  until  S  is  completely  oxi- 
dized. 

Note  7.  Determination  of  CfjOs. — Add  KHO  in  excess, 


THE    CHEMISTS'    MANUAL.  377 

and  boil  with  sufficient  Br.  Cool,  add  HNO3  almost  to  neutrali- 
zation, acidulate  with  acetic  acidy  add  some  sodium  acetate  in 
excess  and  boil.  Filter  out  hot  the  basic  aluminium  acetate 
precipitate,  wash  with  hot  water,  containing  a  little  sodium 
acetate.  To  filtrate,  add  barium  acetate  in  slight  excess,  filter 
and  wash.  This  last  filtrate  and  the  precipitate  of  alumi- 
nium acetate  contain  all  the  P2O5  and  AI2O3  in  the  water 
SOLUTION.  The  latter  is  to  be  dissolved  in  HCl,  the  former  to 
be  freed  from  the  excess  of  barium  acetate  with  dilute  H2SO4, 
and  both  to  be  added  to  solution  d^.  Digest  the  precipitate 
of  BaCr04  and  BaS04  ^^^^  concentrated  H2S04,boil,  filter  and 
wash.  Boil  the  filtrate  with  concentrated  HCl  and  alcohol  to 
reduce  CrH204  to  Cr203  and  precipitate  the  latter  with  (NH4)20. 
(Fres.,  §  106,  1,  a.) 

NoTB  8.  Precipitation  of  BaS04. — -^^^  ^  cubic  centimetres 
of  BaCl2  at  first  to  hot  solution ;  when  precipitate  settles,  add 
a  little  more  to  see  if  there  is  any  H2SO4  present.  Filter, 
digest  with  HCl,  wash  with  hot  water. 

Note  9.  Separation  of  Si02. — ^Evaporate  as  in  Note  5. 
Then  add  HCl  pretty  freely  and  warm  for  some  time  before 
adding  any  water,  as  the  high  heat  may  have  produced  anhy- 
drous Fe203,  forming  an  oxychloride  which  is  very  slow  to 
dissolve,  especially  in  dilute  acid.  If  acid  added  be  too  dilute, 
concentrate  by  evaporation,  add  concentrated  HCl,  and  digest 
at  a  moderate  heat. 

Note  10,  Determination  of  Ti02.  —  I*^s  H2S  gas  into 
solution  d^  until  it  is  saturated,  boil  for  an  hour^  occasion- 
ally adding  HjS  water.  Filter  off  the  precipitate  and  wash. 
Add  a  few  grains  of  KCIO3  to  the  filtrate  and  boil.  Precipi- 
tate the  iron  with  (NH4)H0.  Dissolve  it  in  H2SO4  acid,  wann 
dilute,  etc.,  and  test  volumetrically  for  Fe.  (Note  18.)  The 
precipitate  obtained  by  boiling  with  H2S  was  Ti02  +  S.  Dry, 
ignite,  and  weigh  =  Ti02  in  one  gram  of  ore. 

Note  11.  Precipitation  of  the  Basic  Acetates. — Dilute  the 
solution  to  about  one  litre  for  each  gram  of  the  sesquioxide 
present.    It  is  sufficient  to  boil  from  ten  to  fifteen  minutes  for 


378  THE    CHEMISTS'    MANUAL. 

the  complete  precipitation  of  the  acetates.  The  filtering  should 
be  done  as  quick  as  possible — ^through  a  rib-filter.  Wash  the 
precipitate  with  boiling  water,  containing  a  little  sodium 
acetate.  Should  any  heme  acetate  separate  upon  concen- 
trating the  filtrate,  add  some  sodium  acetate^  boil,  filter,  dis- 
solve the  precipitate  in  HCl  and  unite  to  the  solution  of  the 
main  body. 

Note  12.  Determi7iation  of  P2O5. — The  following  method 
may  be  employed  for  the  removal  of  HCl.  Add  (NH4)H0 
suddenly  in  large  excess,  filter,  wash  once,  and  redissolve  in 
boiling  HNO3.  The  solution  containing  concentrated  HNO3 
in  large  excess,  and  no  more  than  a  trace  of  HCl  must  be 
diluted  to  about  400  cubic  centimetres  and  heated  to  boijing. 
Then  add  solution  of  (H4N)2Mo04  in  large  excess;  with  most 
ores  100  cubic  centimetres  are  sufficient.  Keep  near  the 
boiling  point  several  hours  and  set  aside  over  night  in  a 
warm  place.  Then  decant  on  a  rib-filter,  if  the  supemated 
liquid  is  colorless,  and  transfer  precipitate  to  filter  by  means 
of  small  portions  of  the  filtrate.  Einse  the  beaker  and  wash 
the  precipitate  once  with  the  diluted  precipitant.  Heat  the 
filtrate  and  washings  to  boiling,  add  a  little  more  of  the  preci- 
pitant and  set  aside  to  determine  if  any  more  P2O5  will  be 
precipitated.  Dissolve  the  precipitate  back  into  the  original 
beaker  by  pouring  dilute  (NH4)H0  through  the  filter.  [If  a 
red  residue  of  oxide  of  iron  remains  imdissolved,  pour  dilute 
HNO3  upon  it,  allow  it  to  pass  into  (NH4)H0  solution,  acidu- 
late with  HNO3,  t>oil,  add  more  of  the  precipitant,  and  set  aside 
as  before,  filter  and  wash  several  times  with  the  diluted  pre- 
cipitant, then  dissolve  the  precipitate  on  the  filter  and  adhering 
to  the  beaker  in  as  little  dilute  (NH4)H0  as  possible  into  a 
small  beaker.]  Add  from  one  to  ten  cubic  centimetres  of 
magnesia  mixture  (Fres.,  §  62,  6,)  and  continue  as  in  (Fres., 
§134,  1,  b,  a.). 

Note  13.  Washing  of  Fe203.6H20. — Wash  this  precipitate 
by  boiling  up  with  water  and  decanting  until  the  wash-water 
shows  very  little  alkaline  reaction  with  litmus-paper  and 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  379 

gives  very  little  precipitate  with  Bolution  of  AgNOa.     Then 
transfer  to  filter  and  wash  thoroughly  with  boiliug  water. 

Note  14.  Precipitation  of  the  Sulphides. — Add  no  more 
of  the  yellow  amnionic  sulphide  than  is  required,  as  an  ex- 
cess will  re-dissol^e  a  portion  of  the  precipitate  unless  much 
NH4CI  be  present.  But  an  excess  of  the  latter  reagent  will 
interfere  with  the  concentration  necessary  to  precipitate  the 
MgO  in  filtrate  h.  Cork  the  flask  tightly  before  setting  it 
aside. 

Note  15.  Separation  of  Co  and  Ni. — Should  these  constitu- 
ents be  present  in  considerable  quantity,  which  very  rarely 
happens,  it  is  better,  as  the  nickelous  sulphate  is  h'kely  to  be 
converted  into  NiO  by  too  strong  ignition,  to  dissolve  the  sul- 
phides in  aqua-regia,  neutralize  with  KHO,  precipitate  and 
determine  the  CoO  by  Genth  and  Gibbs'  process  (Fres.,  §  160, 
12,  and  §  111,  4),  and  in  the  filtrate  determine  the  Ni  as  oxide. 

Note  16.  Determination  of  Mn. — (Gibbs'  process.  Am. 
Jour.  Sci,,  xliv,  p.  216.)  To  the  HCl  solution,  free  from 
HgS,  add  (NH4)H0  in  excess  and  solution  of  Na2HP04  in  large 
excess.  Then  add  dilute  H2SO4  or  HCl  until  the  white  preci- 
pitate re-dissolves,  heat  to  boiling,  and  add  (NH4)H0  in  excess. 
Digest  near  the  boiling  point  about  an  hour,  when  the  precipi- 
tate, at  first  white  and  gelatinous,  becomes  crystalline  in  rose- 
colored  scales.  Filter  and  wash  with  hot  water.  If  tinged 
red,  re-dissolve  the  precipitate  in  dilute  HCl  and  repeat  the 
process.  On  ignition  the  precipitate  is  converted  into  Mn2P207, 
a  nearly  white  powder. 

If  Zn  is  present,  it  must  first  be  separated  as  ZnS,  as  in  the 
Scheme. 

Note  17.  Precipitation  ofdissohed  NiS. — A  trace  of  NIS, 
which  is  somewhat  soluble  in  ammonic  sulphide,  is  often  car- 
ried through  into  this  filtrate,  but  is  completely  thrown  down, 
along  with  the  excess  of  S,  by  this  acidulation. 

Note  18.  Volumetric  determination  of  Fe. — ^Put  solution 
rf',  after  treating  it  according  to  Note  10,  into  a  flask  holding 
200  cubic  centimetres,  cool,  dilute  with  cold  water  exactly  up 


380  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

to  the  mark,  mix  by  pouring  back  and  forth  several  times 
from  the  flask  to  a  beaker,  draw  out  100  cubic  centimetres 
with  a  pipette  known  to  deliver  that  quantity,  empty  it  into 
a  reducing  bottle  of  250  cubic  centimetres  capacity,  and  cover 
over  with  a  ground  plate  of  glass.  Put  in  each  bottle  a  piece 
of  amalgamated  Zn  free  from  iron,  and  a  strip  of  platinum- 
foil  resting  on  it,  add  about  10  cubic  centimetres  of  concen- 
trated H2SO4,  cover,  and  set  aside  over  night ;  when  reduction 
is  complete  the  solution  will  be  colorless.  Then  in  each  of 
two  flasks,  •  holding  about  75  cubic  centimetres,  introduce 
exactly  two  grams  of  fine  iron  wire,  add  an  excess  of  dilute 
H2SO4,  and  immediately  adjust  corks  (having  bent  tubes 
attached,  with  their  ends  immersed  in  small  beakers  of  warm 
water)  and  heat  until  the  complete  solution  of  the  wire.  By 
this  water-valve  arrangement  the  entrance  of  the  air  and  oxida- 
tion of  the  FeCla  solution  are  avoided,  and  when  the  water 
begins  to  run  back,  after  the  evolution  of  H  has  ceased,  its 
warmth  prevents  the  too  sudden  reduction  of  the  temperature 
and  condensation  of  the  vapors  in  the  flask.  After  cooling, 
pour  and  wash  out  the  contents  of  each  flask  with  the  beaker 
of  water  attached,  into  a  large  beaker,  add  dilute  H2SO4  in 
excess,  dilute  to  about  one  litre,  and  titrate  successively  and 
rapidly  with  the  solution  of  KgMnjOe,  to  determine  its  strength. 
Now  pour  and  wash  the  contents  of  each  reduction  bottle 
into  a  large  beaker,  add  dilute  H2SO4,  dilute  to  about  one  litre 
and  titrate  successively  as  before.  (In  a  HCl  solution  all  pos- 
sible excess  of  that  acid  must  be  avoided,  and  the  solution 
must  be  diluted  to  two  litres.)  Better  evaporate  the  solution 
previous  to  reduction  with  an  excess  of  H2SO4  and  drive  ofiF 
HCl. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  381 

APPENDIX. 

SPECIAL   DETERMINATIONS. 

Alkalies. — Mix  5  grams  of  ore,  very  finely  pulverized, 
with  30  grams  of  CaCOa  and  about  3  grams  NH^Cl;  calcine 
at  a  bright-red  heat  in  platinum  crucible  for  thirty  to  forty 
minutes;  boil  the  cinter  mass  with  water  for  two  to  three 
hours,  replacing  the  loss  from  evaporation;  filter  and  wash. 
(Fres.,  §  140,  II,  b,  8.)  Separate  all  CaO  by  addition  of  (NH^) 
HO  and  (NH4)2C03  in  excess,  and  then  a  few  drops  of  amr 
monic  oxalate;  filter  and  wash.  In  the  filtrate  the  alkalies 
occur  as  chlorides,  and  may  be  separated  in  the  usual  way. 
(Fres.,  §  152,  1,  a.) 

Chromium. — Fuse,  etc.,  as  in  Main  Analysis,  obtain  filtrate 
a  of  the  WATER  solution,  and  determine  the  Cr  as  in  Note  7. 

But  if  the  ore  be  chromic  iron,  either  employ  Hunt's  method 
(Fres.,  §  160, 10  a,  a)  or  that  of  Gibbs  (Amer.  Jour.  Sci.,  xxxix, 
p.  59),  as  follows :  Fuse  over  blast-lamp  with  10  to  15  parts 
KF,  HF;  digest  with  H2SO4  until  F  is  expelled;  add  hot  HgO 
filter,  and  in  the  filtrate  separate  CrgOg  from  AI2O3,  and  de- 
termine it  as  in  Note  7. 

Ferrous  oxide. — Digest  one  gram  of  ore,  finely  pulverized, 
in  a  flask  with  concentrated  HCl,  passing  a  current  of  carbonic 
anhydride.  After  complete  decomposition,  cool  in  carbonic 
anhydride,  and  immediately  titrate  the  solution  of  FeCl2,  with- 
out removing  the  insoluble  residue,  with  KjMngOe  (Note  18). 
The  presence  of  organic  matter  and  of  the  higher  oxides  of  Mn 
will  interfere  with  the  accuracy  of  the  process. 

For  a  special  determination  of  the  entire  amount  of  Fe  in 
an  ore,  either  this  method  may  be  employed,  omitting  the  use 
of  carbonic  anhydride,  or  the  ore  may  be  decomposed  by  fusion, 
as  in  the  Main  Analysis,  without  the  use  of  NagNOg,  or 
Clarke's  method  may  be  employed  as  follows  (Am.  Jour.  Sci., 
xlv,  178):  Thoroughly  mix  1  gram  of  ore  with  3  grams 
of  NaF  or  pure  powdered  cryolite,  put  in  large  platinum  cru- 
cible, and  cover  with  12  grams  of  coarsely-powdered  KHSO4. 


382  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

Fuse  about  twenty  minutes ;  cool;  add  concentrated  H2SO4; 
fuse  to  homogeneous  paste ;  cool,  and  dissolve  in  cold  water. 
When  cryolite  is  used,  a  bulky  white  residue  of  CaS04  gener- 
ally remains.  Keduce  the  solution  obtained  by  either  of  these 
methods  and  titrate  in  usual  way. 

Absenic. — Fuse  5  grams  of  ore  as  in  Main  Analysis  and 
obtain  the  water  solution,  in  which  the  As  will  be  present  as 
sodium  arseniate.  Add  a  little  Na2S04  and  HCl  to  slight  acid 
reaction ;  boil  a  few  minutes  until  all  the  AsjOs  has  been  re- 
duced to  AS2O3 ;  saturate  the  warm  solution  with  H2S  gas; 
filter,  and  wash  with  HgS  water.  Dry  filter  and  contents,  and 
oxidize  them  in  a  beaker  with  fuming  HNO3.  Dilute,  warm 
gently  with  a  little  KCIO3,  to  oxidize  organic  matter,  and  pro- 
ceed as  in  Fres.,  §  127,  2. 

StTLPHUEio  ACID. — Boil  5  grams  ore  with  50  c.c.  HCl +  50 
C.C.  H2O  + 10  c.c.  alcohol.  Filter  and  precipitate  with  BaCl2 
in  the  filtrate.  The  difference  between  the  sulphuric  an- 
hydride thus  found  and  the  total  found  in  the  Main  Analysis 
will  give  the  amount  equivalent  to  the  S  actually  existing  in 
the  ore  as  metallic  sulphide. 

TrrANio  acid. — The  ore  must  be  decomposed  and  the  Ti02 
brought  into  solution  in  cold  water  by  Clarke's  method,  de- 
scribed under  Ferrous  Oxide.  Then  proceed  as  in  Fres., 
§  107  and  §  235,  and  Note  10. 

Vanadic  and  tcngstic  Acros. — These  acids,  which  occur  in 
very  small  quantities  in  some  European  ores,  may  be  separated 
and  detected  as  follows:  Treat  Residue  a,  obtained  from  10  to 
20  grams  of  ore,  like  Residue  c  in  the  Scheme,  until  all  Si02  is 
expelled.  Any  residue  which  remains  may  contain  AI2O3, 
Ti02,  V2O5,  and  WO3.  Ignite  and  weigh,  fuse  it  with  Na2C03, 
dissolve  in  HCl,  boil,  add  NH4HO  in  excess,  and  saturate  with 
H2S  gas.  A  red  color  will  denote  the  presence  of  V2O5, 
and  a  brown  precipitate  that  of  WO3  (Pogg.  Anal.,  21,  47. 
H.  Eose's  Ilandb.  d.  Anal.  Chem.,  ii,  764). 

Chlorink. — Proceed  as  in  Fres.,  §  167,  3,  c. 


THE  CHEMISTS*  MANUAL. 


383 


Fluoeine. — ^Proceed  as  in  Fres.,  §  166,  5,  a,  or  if  the  ore 
contains  apatite,  as  in  Fres.,  §  166,  6. 

Organic  mattes. — Boast  1  gram  in  an  open  crucible,  at  a 
red  heat,  and  (when  the  protoxide  of  iron,  the  higher  oxides  of 
manganese,  sulphur,  and  arsenic  are  absent)  the  loss  dimin- 
ished by  the  amounts  of  carbonic  anhydride  and  HgO  present, 
will  be  approximately  equivalent  to  the  amount  of  organic 
matter. 

ANALYSIS  OF  A. 


Bbowh  Hkxatitb  OB 
LiMoiaTX. 


Ferric  oxide 90.05 

Ferrous  oxide. 
Manganoos  oxide. .  .0.88 

Alomina 0.14 

Lime 0.06 

Magnesia 0.20 

Potash. 

Silica 0.92 

Titanic  acid. 
Carbonic  acid. 
Phosphoric  acid.  . .  .0.09 

Water  i  ^y^^^^P^*'   ^ 
^*^^]  combined..9.22 

Organic  matter. 
Percentage  of  Iron .  63.04 


HEXATITB  or  SpBOritAB 

Obe. 


Ferric  oxide 96.16 

Ferrous  oxide. 
Manganous  oxide.  .0.24 

Alumina 0.06 

Lime 0.07 

Magnesia. 

Potash. 

Soda. 

Silica 6.66 

Carbonic  acid. 
Phosphoric  acid ) 
Sulphuric  acid  >  traces. 
Iron  pyrites       ) 

Organic  substance. 
Percentage  of  IronM. 10 


llAONiTio  Ibon  Orb. 


Ferric  oxide 62.20 

Ferrous  oxide 17.82 

Manganous  oxide. .  .0.14 
Zinc  oxide. 

Alumina 3.81 

Lime 6.62 

Magnesia 1.82 

Potash  and  Soda.. .  .0.10 

Silica 9.66 

Carbonic  acid. 

Phosphoric  acid 0.10 

Sulphuric  acid. 

Iron  pyrites 0.17 

xxT^t^^i  combined. .  .0.28- 
watery  hygro8copic.0.34 
Insoluble  in  acid. 

Percentage  of  Iron  Ji7,01 

»■  ■ .  ■ 


In  the  foregoing  analysis,  it  may  be  seen  that  (for  instance) 
the  magnesia  in  the  given  analysis  of  hematite  does  not  exist, 
neither  the  potash  in  the  limonite  or  the  zinc  oxide  in  the 
magnetite ;  but  in  some  ores  these  substances  are  present,  in  an 
appreciable  amount.  The  MAONExnE  of  this  state  most  always, 
if  not  always,  contains  Ti02. 


384  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

CAST  OR   PIG   IRON   ANALYSIS. 

Total  carbon :  Eogers'  process  (see  J.  Chem.  Soc,,  LondoD, 
May  1869).  To  2.5  grams  borings  or  filings  add  50  c.c.  of  a 
solution  of  CUSO4  (1  salt  to  5H2O) ;  heat  gently  for  ten  min- 
utes. Fe  dissolves,  and  Cu  separates;  carbon  remains.  Now 
add  20  c.c.  of  CuClj  (1  to  2)  +  50  e.c.  strong  HCl,  and  heat  for 
some  time  nearly  to  boiling  until  Cu  dissolves;  filter  through 
broken  glass  and  asbestos;  wash  thoroughly  with  boiling 
water,  and  finally  wash  with  ^nall  jet  into  flask  (c),  and  add 
three  grams  CrOj,  and  arrange  apparatus  as  shown  in  the 
FtODKE.  Tlien  add  30  c.c.  of  strong  H2SO4,  little  at  a  time, 
shaking  constantly,  closing  cock  of  funnel  tube  each  time. 
Finally  heat  gently  to  boiling,  not  allowing  more  than  three 
bubbles  of  gas  to  pass  per  second.  Boil  one  minute;  attach 
guard-tube  (a)  and  aspirator  to  guard  tube  (t)  and  draw  air  (3 
bubbles  per  second).     Increase  weight  of  tube  0^)^C02,  etc. 


APFAR&TUB  1ISZD. 


THE    CHEMISTS'    MANUAL.  385 

GRAPHITE    AND    SILICON. 

Eggertz  process.  (Chem.  News,  Am.  Reprint,  vol.  iv, 
p.  25.)  Add  5  grams  of  fine  borings  to  10  cubic  centimetres 
of  H2SO4  -f  50  cubic  centimetres  HgO ;  boil  one-half  hour, 
evaporate  one-third  and  cool.  Add  10  cubic  centimetres 
HNO3,  ^^^^  one-quarter  hour,  evaporate  on  water-bath  uDtil  no 
vapors  pass  off,  to  dry  or  nearly  dryness,  add  75  cubic  centi- 
metres HgO  +  13  cubic  centimetres  HCl  and  boil  one-quarter 
hoitr.  Add  more  HCl  if  anything  remains  undissolved. 
(Filter  through  a  filter  washed  with  acid,  dried  and  weighed.) 
Wash  first  with  cold  water  until  no  more  iron  appears  in  wash- 
ings, then  with  boiling  water  +  5  per  cent  HNO3.  ^^7  ^^ 
100°  C.  and  weigh.  Ignite  strongly  and  weigh  again.  Zoss 
=  GRAPHiiE.     Expel  Si02  with  NH4F.     Zona  =  Si02. 

Note. — Si02  dried  at  100°  C.  contains  6  per  cent  H2O, 
which  goes  off  on  ignition,  and  must  be  deducted  J^rorn 
GRAPHITE  after  Si02  is  determined. 

SULPHUR. 

By  Eggertz  process.  (Chem.  News,  Am.  Eeprint,  vol.  iii, 
p.  1.)  Dissolve  10  grams  KCIO3  in  200  cubic  centimeters  H2O 
and  add  5  grams  of  borings ;  boil  and  add  60  cubic  centimetres 
HCl  (little  by  little),  boil  until  Fe  dissolves.  Evaporate,  dry 
on  bath  to  ensure  oxidation  of  sulphur.  Thorough  dryness 
not  necessary,  as  SIO2  does  not  interfere  in  acid  solutions. 
Now  add  10  cubic  centimetres  HCl  -|-  30  cubic  centimetres 
HgO  and  leave  on  bath  until  all  FegClg  is  dissolved.  Then 
add  20  cubic  centimetres  HgO  and  wash  thoroughly.  Add  2 
cubic  centimetres  saturated  solution  of  BaCl2  (enough  for 
H2SO4  from  0.100  S)  ;  after  cooling,  add  5  cubic  centimetres 
(NH4)H0,  stir  and  leave  for  twenty-four  hours.  Filter  and 
wash  by  decantation  with  cold  water,  two  or  three  times,  and 
then  with  hot  water.  If  precipitate  shows  iron  after  ignition, 
treat  with  HCl,  etc. 


386  THE    CHEMISTS'    MANUAL. 


PHOSPHORUS. 

Dissolve  as  in  sulphur  determination.  Dry  at  140°  C, 
some  anhydrous  FcgOs  ^^^1  ^®  ^^^^  ^^^  SiOa*  Fuse  with  a 
little  KgSgOy  (bisulphate  of  potash),  soften  with  H2SO4,  and 
dissolve  in  water.  Filter  out  Si02  and  determine  it  as  a  check 
on  regular  determination.  Add  filtrate  to  main  one,  dilute 
largely  and  precipitate  sesquioxides  -f  P2O5  by  large  excess  of 
(NH4)H0  cold,  wash  by  decantation  two  or  three  times  with 
cold  water,  and  then  on  a  large  filter.  Dissolve  on  the  filter 
with  hot  dilute  HNO3.  ^^^1  ^"*  ^^7  CI  remaining  in  the 
solution,  and  precipitate  P2O5,  as  in  Note  12  of  Iron  Ore 
Scheme. 

IRON. 

Dissolve  0.200  grams  in  H2SO4,  reduce  with  Zn  and  Pt,  and 
titrate  with  KMn04;  when  oxidation  is  nearly  complete,  use 
solution  one-tenth  strength.     Note  18,  Iron  Ore  Scheme. 

BASES   OF  GROUPS   II,    III   AND   IV. 

Dissolve  10  or  20  grams  in  HCl.  Extract  Si02,  and  proceed 
as  in  Iron  Ore  Analysis.  It  is  better  to  determine  aluviinum 
separately. 

ANALYSIS  OF  FOREIGN    MALLEABLE   IRON. 

f — • S  wsDiBn . , 

Iron 99.863 99.220  —  98.78 

Carbon 0.054 0.087—  0.84 

SUicon 0.028 0.056  —  0.12 

Sulphur* 0.055..    0.632—  .... 

Phosphorus Trace 0.005  —  .... 

Manganese Trace —  0.C5 

Copper —  007 

Arsenic _.  ^ Trace  —  0.02 

Total,      100.00  100.00       99.b8 


*  Sulphur  determinations  are  probab'y  too  hi^rh. 


THE  CHEMISTS*  MANUAL. 


887 


ANALV'SfS  OF  CAST  IRON. 


Ore  need  -j 

Fuel  used  ] 

Analyst -j 


Iron 

Silicon 

Solphar 

Pliosphomei 

Hansanese 

Copper 

Alaminam 

Calcium 

Magneeiam 

X  oiai  ■•••    ••••••< 


Spa- 
thic. 

Char- 
coal 

Fre- 
senlos. 


83.860 
4.8S8 

0979 
0.014 
0.059 
10.707 
0.066 
0.077 
0.091 
0.045 

90.945 


Map. 
netic 

Char- 
coal. 

Henry. 


92.906 
4.809 

0.176 

Trace. 

0.132 

1.997 


100.00 


Clay  Iron  Ore  of  Coal  Measure. 

Coke. 

Woolwich  Arsenal. 


Cold  Blast. 


Iron 

Silicon 

Sulphar  

Phosphorus 

Manganese , 

Nickel  and  Cobalt. . , 

Total 


No.  3 

No.  1 

Pig. 

Pig. 

02.91 

94.60 

0.04 

810 

3.40 

2.16 

1.86 

0.11 

0.07 

0.68 

0.29 

0.50 

0.28 

0.05 

99.60 

100.09 

Forge 
Pig. 


94.88 

2.87 

1.09 
0.73 
0.T6 
0.23 

100.00 


ANALYSIS  OF  SLAG   FROM    BLAST   FURNACE. 


Works, 
Ore  used, 
Fuel  used, 


Kind  of  Iron, 


Analyst, 


Ferrous  oxide. 

Manganons  oxide. . . . 

Alumina 

Lime 

Magnesia 

Potash 

Silica 

Phosphoric  acid 

Calcium , 

Sulphur , 

Total , 

Percentage  Iron 


Dowlais. 

Dudley. 

Clay  Iron  Ore  of  Coal  Measure. 

Coke. 

White 
Forge  Pig. 

Gray  Pig. 

Hot  Blast 

Riley. 

Forbes. 

Perey. 

6.91 

0.78 

0.96 

1.27 

1.67 

1.62 

2.79 

0.40 

15.51 

15.18 

18.01 

14.11 

28.81 

82.82 

81.43 

85.70 

4.88 

7.44 

7.27 

7.61 

1.96 

1.92 

2.60 

1.86 

44.88 

88.48 

87.91 

88.05 

0.43 

0.15 

— 

0.60 
0.47 

1.28 
0.09  r 

3.66 

0.82 

100.68 

100.54 

09.59 

99.81 

5,87 

0.60 

0.62 

0.99 

388  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

CHROMIC   IRON   ANALYSIS. 

T.  S.  Hunt  and  (F.  A.  Genth.    ZeiUchriftf,  Anal.  Chem.,  i.,  498.) 

Take  0.5  gram  of  the  impalpable  powder,  and  fuse  in  a 
capacious  platinum  crucible  with  6  grams  potassic  hydrosul- 
phate  for  fifteen  minutes,  at  a  temperature  scarcely  above  the 
fusing  of  the  latter;  then  raise  the  heat  somewhat,  so  that  the 
bottom  of  the  crucible  may  just  appear  red,  and  keep  it  so 
for  fifteen  or  twenty  minutes.  The  fusing  mass  should  not 
rise  higher  than  half-way  up  the  crucible.  The  mass  begins 
to  fuse  quietly,  and  abundant  fumes  of  sulphuric  acid  escape. 
At  the  expiration  of  twenty  minutes  the  heat  is  increased  as 
much  as  necessary  to  drive  out  the  second  equivalent  of  sul- 
phuric acid,  and  even  to  decompose  partially  the  iron  and 
chromic  sulphate.  To  the  fused  mass  now  add  3  grams  pure 
sodic  carbonate ;  heat  to  fusion,  and  add  a  small  portion  from 
time  to  time  during  an  hour  of  3  grams  nitre,  maintaining  a 
gentle  red  heat  all  the  while  ;  then  heat  for  fifteen  minutes  to 
bright  redness.  Treat  the  cold  mass  with  boiling  water ;  filter 
hot ;  wash  the  residue  with  hot  water ;  then  digest  in  the  heat 
with  hydrochloric  acid.  If  anything  remains  undissolved,  it 
is  a  portion  of  the  ore  undecomposed,  and  must  be  subjected 
again  to  the  above  operation. 

To  weigh  such  a  residue  and  deduct  it  from  the  ore  first 
taken,  is  not  good,  as  it  never  possesses  the  composition  of  the 
original  substance.  The  alkaline  solution,  which  often  con- 
tains, besides  the  chromic  acid,  also  some  silicic,  titanic,  and 
manganic  acids  and  alumina,  is  evaporated  with  excess  of  am- 
monic  nitrate  on  a  water-bath  nearly  to  dryness,  and  till  all 
free  ammonia  is  expelled.  On  addition  of  water,  the  silicic 
acid,  alumina,  titanic  acid,  and  manganic  oxide,  remain  undis- 
solved, while  the  chromic  acid  passes  into  solution.  Filter 
and  thoroughly  wash  residue.  To  filtrate,  add  HCl  and  al- 
cohol, when  the  chromic  acid  is  converted  into  chromic  oxide 
(sesquioxide  of  chromium)  by  heating  the  solution  for  some 
time. 


THE    CHEMISTS'    MA^'UAL. 


389 


All  the  alcohol  imiBt  be  expelled  by  heat.  Then  to  the  solu- 
tion, which  must  not  be  concentrated,  heated  to  100°  in  a  beaker, 
is  added  amnionic  hydrate  in  slight  excess,  and  the  mixture 
exposed  to  a  temperature  approaching  boiling-point,  until  the 
fluid  over  the  precipitate  is  perfectly  colorless,  presenting  no 
longer  the  last  shade  of  red  ;  let  the  solid  particles  subside ; 
wash  three  times  by  decantation,  and  lastly  on  a  filter,  with 
hot  water,  dry  thoroughly  and  ignite  and  weigh  as  CrgOs 
(chromium  sesquioxide).     This  method  is  very  accurate. 


ANALYSIS  OF  CHROMIC   IRON. 


Chesteb  Co.,  Pa. 


35.14 


FeO 

MgO 

Cr^Og 51.56 

Al^Oa 9.72 


SiO, 


3.90 


Total,        99.32 


Baltimore. 

FeO 80.04 

MgO 

CfjOs 68.87 

AljOj 1.95 

CaO 2.02 

SiOg 2.21 

Total,  99.69 


390 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


SCHEME  FOR  THE  ANALYSIS  OF  PIG  LEAD. 

(See  Fbe8.,  Zeit,  Ann,  Ch.) 

Determine  the  silver  by  cupellation,  or  wet  way,  in  200 
grams.  For  other  metals  present  in  the  lead,  dissolve  200 
grams  in  1.5  litres  of  water  +  650  c.c.  strong  nitric  acid,  using 
a  large  flask  and  filtering,  should  the  solution  be  turbid. 


RSSEDUB  a, 

Sb-Os  —  SnO,  may  be  left.  If  bo, 
disBOlve  it  in  HCl,  iiasH  Id  U9S  ^b, 
filter  and  reserve  the  prec.  to  go  with 
Ftuto.  r.    ^Note  1.) 


Solution  a. 

Add  66  C.C.  of  pare  n,SO,,  Bhnke  and  allow  to 
stand  till  settled.    Then  filter  and  wash  thorooghly. 


PRECIFrrATB  b. 

Eqoal  PbSO«. 
Reject 


Pbecipitatb  e 

=  Pb80«  and  perhaps  Sb.  Dissolye 
in  HCl,  add  10  volumes  H.S  water, 
pass  UaS  gas  in,  and  filter,  etc. 


Solution  d. 
Reject  it. 


Pbboifitatn  d 

=  Sb.Sa  +  PbS,  add 
it  to  Prboipitate /. 
(Note  2.) 


Solution  b. 

Evaporate  until  ftimcs  of  snl* 

Shuric  acid  appear ;  cool,  and  add 
9  c.  c.  of  water ;  filter  and  wash 
with  hot  water. 

Solution  c. 

Dilute  to  200  cc,  heat  to  70*  C,  pass  H,S  gas  in, 
allow  to  stand  12  hours,  filter,  etc. 


12  hours  for  precipitate  to  settle ;  filter,  etc 


Solution  /. 

Evaporate  to 
600  c,  c,  add 

(NU,nO  + 
(NHJHS,  fiU 
flask  and  al- 
low it  to  stand 


Pbecipitatb  g 

=  Pes,  ZnS,  Cos,  NiS. 
Treat  on  the  filter  with  n 
mixture  of  6  partn  II, S 
water  +  1  part  dilute  IICl. 
pouring  back  several 
times  so  as  to  avoid  bulk ; 
filter,  etc. 


SoLimoN  g. 

Acidulate  with  HC  ,H  ,0  3 
and  boil  to  recover  NiS ; 
filter,  etc. 


Rbsidub  h 

=Co8,  NiS. 
Dry,  lErnite 
to  oxides  r, 
test  with 
the  blow- 
pipe 


Prec.  i. 
=  Pe,0,. 


Solution  h 

=  FeS.  ZnS. 
Add  HNO„ 
boil ;  then 
add(NH.)HO 
in  excess ; 
filter,  etc. 

Solution  i. 

Add 
(NH,mO  + 
(NU.)ns  in 
a  fla^k  and 
allow  to  stand  for  twenty- 
four  hours ;  filter,  etc. 

Sol.  J.     Pbioifitatb^ 

=  ZnS.     Di8- 

solvo   in    HCl 

and  boil  with 

NagCO,  In  excess :  filter, 

etc.,  igrnltc  and  weigh  os 

ZnO. 


Rbsidub  / 

=  Bi.,8,.  CuS, 

CdS,  Pbs. 
Spread  the  fil- 
ter in  a  ditih, 
and  treat  nenrly 
to  boiling  with 
HNO, ;  when 
dissolved,  fil- 
ter, wa«h,  dry 
and  bum  filter; 
throw  the  ash 
into  the  UNO, 
polntion.  Then 
add  2  c.c.  H,80«  and  evaporate  till  white 
fhmes  appear ;  add  HaO  and  allow  to  set- 
tle ;  filter,  etc. 


Precitatb  k 

'= NiS,  add  to 
Pbbo.  g. 


Filtrate  it. 
Reject 


Precifitatb  / 
=  SbjS,,  As,S„  8n8„  Bi^S,,  CuS, 


CdS,  PbS,  etc.   Add  Pbeo.  d. 
with  K,S,  filter,  etc.    (Note.) 


Treat 


SOLITTION  / 

=  A»,S,,  8b,Ss, 
SnS,  in  K.8  solu- 
tion.   Add  HCl  and 
filter. 


Prec.  r. 


Sol.  r. 
Reject. 


Prboifitatb  m. 


Solution  m. 


PbSO, ;  reject.       NeutraliEe  nearly  with 

!  pureKHO;  addNa,CO, 

and  a  little    KCy  (tree 
firom  K,S);  filter,  etc.    (N.B.  Note  4.) 

Precipitate  n    '         Solution  n. 

=  Bi.O,.  Add    a    little   more 

Di!»solve  ill  dilute  KCy  and  then  a  few 
UNO,  and  prec.  '  drops  K,S  ;  filter  and 
with  (NH,)aCO,  wash.  Have  Sol.  o 
as  above.  1  and  Pbeo.  o. 


SbjS,, 

SnS,. 
Add  prcclp.  flrom 
Residue  a :  dry. 
treat  with  Cfc'.,  and 
dry  again.  Evapo- 
rate after  adding 
Aiming  HNO„untO 
paper  is  destroyed 
and  most  of  the  acid 
gone.  Then  dilute 
a  little  and  add 
Na,CO,  to  alkaline 
r(>action,  and  then 
NaNO,  and  evapo- 
rate to  dryness,  and 
heat  careftilly  to  fti- 
sion.  After  cool- 
incr.  extrart  the  cake 
with  water,  etc. 

(S  o  Fres.,  a.  a., 
p.  427.) 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


391 


Solution  o. 

Add  a  little  ONO,  +  H.SO« 
+  UClf  and  evaporate  nntll  no 
odor  of  KCy  is  perceptibl2. 
Filter  if  neceftsary.  Precipitate 
the  Ca  with  11,8. 


PBBCtnTATB  O 


=  A£a8,  CdS. 


:Ag.8 

NO,. 


HN 


Wash  with  dilute 
(Note  8.) 


Solution  x 

=  CdS.  Evap- 
orate nearly  to 
drynei^e  and 
add  Na.CO,. 
If  no  precipi- 
tate   appears, 

add  KHO,  and  if  one  then  appears,  filter  and  wash ;  filter  with 

NH.NO,  and  burn  =  CklO. 


Besidub  X 

=  Ag.S.  Re- 
jected as  Ag,  is 
determined  sep- 
arately. 


Rbbidue  8. 

NaSbO.. 

Dissolve 
in  HCl  + 
H,C,H,0. 

and  pass 
in  H,S  = 
SbjSa  +  8, 

oxidize 
withHNO, 
and  weigh 

as  SbO,. 

Add  result 

from  Rbsi- 

DUB  t. 


K,S  and  add  large  excess  solntiou  of  salphnrons  acid,  and  digest 
bath,  and  then  boil  ontil  two-thirds  of  water  and  all  SO,  is  gone, 


for  some  time 
filter,  etc. 


Sol.  9. 

As,  Sb,  Sn. 
Evaporate 
off  alcohol, 
add    dilute 

H.SO«, 
evaporate 

until  no 

ftimes  of 
HNO,  are 
perceptible 

and  pass 
HaO  gas  in 

at  70°  C. 

and  filter, 

wash,   etc. 

Dissolve  in 

in  a  water- 


Rbsidub  L 

SbaS,  +  SnS,.  The  Sb,Sa  here  will  only 
be  a  trace.  Oxidize  in  a  crucible  with  HNO, 
and  weigh ;  then  ignite  in  hydrogen  to  expel 
the  SbOa,  and  oxidize  again  with  HNO.  and 
weigh  the  SnO,.    The  loss,  SbO,. 


Solution  t. 

A83S,.  Pass  in  H^S  gas,  filter  and  wash, 
oxidize  with  friming  HNO>,  dilute  a  little, 
warm  gently  with  KCIO.  and  precipitate  as 
ammonio-magnesic  arsenlate.  The  washing 
must  be  with  NaCl.  and  the  latter  displacea 
by  (NH«)CaHaOs,  toe  latter  washings  being 
rejected. 


Note  a?. — In  case  no  CdS  be  present,  Bi  and  Cu  may  be 
separated  by  (NH4)H0  and  (NH4)2C03. 

Note  1. — There  will  not  (probably)  be  any  Sn  in  the  lead. 
Should  there  be  any  it  must  be  looked  for  in  Filtrate  s. 

Note  2. — If  precipitate  d  contained  much  Pb,  better  treat 
separately  to  the  point  of  oxidizing  with  HNO3,  *^^  \hQTi  add 

to  PRECIPriATB  r. 

Note  3. — Better  dissolve  thoroughly  PRECiPnATE  r.  The 
Cd  with  (NH4)2C03,  which  will  not  dissolve  the  same. 

Note  4. — If  the  KCy  contains  KgS,  the  precipitated  car- 
bonate may  contain  sulphides.  Filter,  wash,  and  dissolve  in 
boiling  HNO3.  Filter  out  any  separated  sulphur.  Again  pre- 
cipitate with  (NH^)2C03  in  slight  excess  and  hoil, 

Ag  will  not  be  precipitated.  Cd  may  be.  Filter  and  wash 
with  water  and  then  with  a  little  KCy.  The  CdC03  is  so 
readily  soluble  in  KCy  that  it  will  be  carried  through  the  filter 
into  the  solution. 


392  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


ANALYSIS  OF  PIG    LEAD. 

Harz.  Havre. 

Copper 0.00476 0.0022 

Antimony 0.00317 0.0052 

Iron 0.00166 0.0007 

Zinc 0.00265 — 

Silver 0.00060 0.0006 

Lead 99.98716 99.9913 


Total 100.00000 100.0000 

SCHEME  FOR  THE  ANALYSIS  OF  A  NICKEL  ORE 

Fuse  2  grams  of  finely-powdered  niccolite  (niecolite  arsenide 
+  cobalt  -f  iron)  with  2  parts  of  potassic  nitrate  and  2  parts 
of  carbonate  of  soda,  in  a  platinum  crucible,  the  bottom  and 
sides  of  which  have  been  previously  lined  with  NagCOs ;  the 
mass  is  then  ignited  for  some  time,  and  when  cold,  digested 
in  water ;  the  oxides  formed  are  filtered  off  and  thoroughly 
washed.  The  solution  contains  all  the  arsenic  in  the  form  of 
arsenates  of  the  alkalies ;  it  is  supersaturated  with  HCl,  then 
mixed  with  (NH4)H0  and  MgS04.  Let  the  precipitate  stand 
for  twenty-four  hours,  then  filter  through  a  weighed  filter 
washed  with  dilute  (NH4)H0,  dried  at  100°  and  weighed. 

The  oxides  are  dissolved  in  concentrated  HCl,  and  the  cop- 
per and  bismuth,  precipitated,  by  HjS.  The  filtrate  from  HjS 
treatment  is  heated  to  boiling,  and  mixed  with  some  KCIO3  in 
order  to  peroxidize  the  iron,  which  may  then  be  separated  from 
the  nickel  and  cobalt  in  the  same  manner  as  from  manga- 
nese, by  baric  carbonate.  From  the  liquid  separated  from 
the  baric  carbonate,  the  dissolved  baryta  is  precipitated  by 
H2SO4,  and  filtered.  The  filtrate  contains  the  nickel  and 
cobalt,  which  are  precipitated  from  a  hot  solution  by  potassic 
hydrate. 

The  precipitate  containing  the  hydrated  oxides  of  Ni  and  Co 
is  gradually  mixed  with  potassic  cyanide  (free  from  cyanate), 
find  a  gentle  heat  applied  imtil  dissolved.  By  this  process 
the  cobaltous  and  potassic  cyanide,  KCy,CoCy29  in  tlie  solution 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  393 

18  converted  into  potassio-cobaltic  cyanide  (KgCo,2Cy2),  whilst 
the  nickelous-potassic  cyanide  remains  unaltered.  Add  to  the 
solution,  while  hot,  levigated  mercuric  oxide.  By  this  method 
the  nickelous-potassic  cyanide  is  decomposed,  and  all  the  nickel 
precipitated,  partly  as  oxide  and  partly  as  cyanide.  Filter  and 
wash ;  ignite ;  with  excess  of  air,  leaves  pure  oxide  of  nickel 
behind,  which  weigh.  Neutralize  the  filtrate  with  HNO3  ^^^ 
solution  of  mercurous  nitrate,  as  neutral  as  possible,  added 
as  long  as  it  produces  a  precipitate  of  mercurous-cobaltous 
cyanide.  After  being  filtered  (through  a  weighed  filter), 
washed,  and  dried,  it  is  ignited  with  excess  of  air,  w'hen  it  is 
converted  into  cobaltic  oxide,  which,  after  weighing,  must  be 
reduced  by  hydrogen  to  metallic  cobalt. 

ANALYSIS  OF  NICCOLITE. 


As 

..     54.05 

. .     43.50 

. ..     54.89 

52.71 

Ni 

...     43.21   ... 

45.37 

Fe 

. .      0.45  

. .       0.54 

Pb 

Co 

0.82 

Sb 

..       0.05 

2.18 

s 

1.35 

0.48 

Qaogue , 

0.20 

...Cu      1.44 

Total 

AnalyeiB  by. . 

..  100.75 
.  Ebelmbn. 

90.99 
Orxtnow. 

100.09 

SCHNABKL. 

SCHEME  FOR  THE  ANALYSIS  OF  A  COPPER  ORE 

Weigh  out  2  grams  of  the  powdered  ore  (impalpable  powder), 
and  put  into  a  beaker.  Add  concentrated  H2SO4-I-HNO3. 
Cover  with  convex  cover;  heat  gently  until  effervescence 
ceases;  remove  the  cover,  and  expel  all  the  HNO3  ^^^^  * 
water-bath  by  evaporation,  until  fumes  of.H2S04  are  given  off. 

Wash  down  the  sides  of  the  beaker  with  hot  water,  then 
filter  into  a  weighed  platinum  dish ;  after  diluting  with  water, 
throw  in  a  piece  of  zinc  (soluble  in  hydrochloric  acid  without 
residue),  and  add,  if  necessary,  a  little  more  acid.  Cover  the 
dish  with  a  watch-glass,  which  is  afterwards  rinsed  into  the 


394  .  THE    CHEMISTS'    MANUAL. 

dish.     The  separation  of  the  copper  commences  immediately. 
Heat,  if  necessary. 

After  an  hour  or  two  test  a  portion  of  the  siipemated  liquid 
with  HgS  water;  if  no  brown  tint  is  imparted,  the  copper  is 
all  precipitated.  Press  the  copper  together  with  a  glass  rod, 
decant  the  clear  fluid;  wash;  precipitate  with  boiling  HgO, 
and  decant  again;  rinse  the  dish  with  strong  alcohol;  heat 
over  water-bath ;  when  Cu  is  dry,  let  it  cool,  and  weigh.  The 
precipitation  may  be  done  in  a  porcelain  or  glass  dish,  but  it 
will  take  longer. 

ANALYSIS  OF  COPPER   PYRITES. 


s 

al 

Analye>i8  by 

35.87     

36.10 

33.88 

Cu 

34.40 

30.47 

32  86 

82  65 

Fe 

...   .     29.93 

32.77 

Quartz . 

Xi^Q .  •  •  • 

0.27 

..    ..       0.32 

Trace. 

Pb 

o.a5 

99.23 

SXITU. 

Tot 

101.01 
Rosx. 

99.62 

FOBBSB. 

SCHEME  FOR  THE  ANALYSIS  OF  A  ZINC  ORE. 

The  ore  may  contain  Zn,  Fe,  AI2O3,  CaO,  MgO,  PbO,  Si02, 
S,  H2O,  CO2. 

Dissolve  2  grams  of  pulverized  ore  in  a  mixture  of  5  e.c.  of 
HNO3-I-5  c.e.  of  HCl  at  a  gentle  heat,  then  add  5  c.c.  of  N2SO4 
and  evaporate  until  fumes  of  sulphuric  acid  are  given  off;  then 
add  boiling  HjO  and  filter. 


Precipitate. 

SiO,-fPbS04.  Weigh;  then  boil 
with  amnionic  citrate  and  filter.  Res- 
idue win  be  SiOjj.  The  filtrate  wiU 
be  Pb  in  solution;  add  II^S  and  the 
precipitate  will  be  PbS ;  put  in  cru- 
cible, add  HNOa  +  HjjSO^,  and  ignite, 
which  will  give  PbS04,  which  weigh.  1 

The  filtrate  will  contain  in  solution  Zn,  CaO,  MgO.     Add 
HgS  water;  then  pass  in  the  solution  H2S  gas  until  Zn  is  all 


FiLTRATB. 

FegOg,  AljOg,  ZnO,  CaO,  MgO,  in 
solution ;  neutralize  with  NajCo,  ; 
add  sodic  acetate  and  boil.  Precipi- 
tate wiU  be  FcgO,  and  AI^O,;  filter 
off. 


■H«MPi««B 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  395 

precipitated  as  ZnS.  Filter  and  wash  with  HgS  water.  Dis- 
solve ZnS  in  HCl  on  filter ;  then  wash  into  beaker  with  boiling 
H2O ;  add  a  few  crystals  of  KCIO3  and  boil ;  filter  ofi*  the  sul- 
phur which  may  separate ;  then  add  NajCOg,  and  the  Zn  will 
be  precipitated  as  ZnCO^ ;  filter  and  wash ;  ignite  in  a  porce- 
lain crucible  and  weigh  as  ZnO,  from  which  the  Zn  may  be 
calculated.  The  solution  filtered  from  ZnS  will  contain  CaO 
and  MgO.  Precipitate  CaO  as  oxalate,  and  MgO  as  MgNH4P04. 
Make  special  detenninations  for  S,  HgO  and  CO2. 

The  above  analysis  is  principally  for  the  determination  of  Zn. 

ANALYSIS  OF  ZINC   BLENDE. 

S 33.10 83.82 83.83 

Zn 64.23  64.39 54.17 

Fe 1.83   —     11.19 

Cd Trace 0.98 0.82 

Cu —     0.32 — 

Pb» 0.72 0.78 — 

Mn —     —     0.88 


H«0 0.80 


Total 99.16 100.29 100.88 

Analyeisby  K£bst;w.  Suth.  Sciucebbb. 

ANALYSIS    OF    PYROLUSITE 

FOR  ITS  COMMERCIAL  VALUE. 

The  following  analysis  is  founded  on  the  fact  that  when 
oxalic  acid  comes  in  contact  with  manganese  in  presence  of 
water  and  sulphuric  acid,  manganous  sulphate  is  formed,  and 
carbonic  acid  is  evolved. 

Mn02  +  H2S04-fC203=MnS04  +  2C02+H20. 

Each  equivalent  of  available  oxygen,  or,  what  amounts  to 
the  same,  each  1  eq.  manganese  dioxide  =  43.5,  gives  2  eq. 
carbonic  acid  =  44. 

As  44  parts  by  weight  of  CO2  correspond  to  43.5  of  manga- 
nese dioxide,  the  CO2  found  need  simply  be  multiplied  by 
43.5  and  the  nroduct  divided  by  44,  or  the  COo  mav  be  multi- 

♦  Sb  and  Pb.  " 


396 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


43.5 
plied  by  -~r-  =  0.9887  to  find  the  corresponding  amount  of 

manganese  dioxide. 

Take  (0.9887)  x  2  or  3  grams  of  ore,  which  is  finely  pulver- 
ized, and  introduce  into  a  weighed  flask  A  (capable  of  holding 
120  c.c.  up  to  the  neck)  ;  now  add  5-6  grams  of  sodic  oxalate 
or  7.5  grams  potassic  oxalate,  in  powder,  and  enough  water  to 
fill  the  flask  two-thirds  full.  Insert  the  cork  into  A  and  see 
that  it  does  not  leak« 

A  =  120  cc.  to  neck. 

6  =  100  c.c.  to  neck. 

6  for  sulpharic  acid. 

A  for  ores,  etc. 

a  is  closed  at  b  with  wax  ball. 

iTofe.— Exact  weight  of  A  and 
6  must  be  known  after  they  are 
charged — that  is,  before  CO,  is 
allowed  to  come  off. 

Now  make  some  H2SO4  flow  from  B  to  A,  by  applying 
suction  to  d  by  means  of  a  rubber-tube.  CO2  goes  oft*  imme- 
diately; when  it  ceases,  let  some  more  H2SO4  pass  in,  and 
complete  this  until  the  manganese  ore  is  completely  decom- 
posed.    Take  five  to  ten  minutes. 

Let  the  apparatus  be  weighed  again  after  becoming  cool. 
The  loss  will  equal  CO2.  The  number  of  centigrams  lost, 
divided  by  2  or  3,  according  to  the  multiple  of  0.9887  gram 
used,  expresses  the  percentage  of  manganese  dioxide  in  the  ore 
treated. 


ANALYSIS  OF   PYROLUSITE. 


Mn,  Mn 83.56 

0 1458 

BaO — 

SiO. - 

H,0 1.86 


Total 100.00  . 

Analysis  by ABryxDSON. 


a5.62 

11.60 

0.66 

0.55 

1.57 

100.00 
TuBmoL 


THE    CHEMISTS*    MANUAL. 


397 


SCHEME   FOR  THE  ANALYSIS  OF   ILMENITE. 


CKt 


Fuse  1  gram  with  3  grams  of  NaF  +  12  gi-ams  KgSgOT^/c^/'  >  U^ 
thoroughly.  Dissolve  in  large  volume  of  cold  water.  If 
there  is  any  residue,  fuse  and  dissolve  as  before.  Neutralize 
with  NajCOa  until  a  slight  precipitate  appeal's,  which  dissolve 
in  H2SO4,  so  the  fluid  will  be  slightly  acid.  Saturate  with 
HjS  gas  ;  boil  one  hour,  adding  from  time  to  time  HgS  water. 
Filter  off  the  precipitate,  and  wash  with  water  containing  HgS. 
The  precipitate  will  be  Ti02  +  S.  Ignite  and  weigh  =Ti02. 
If  the  precipitate  contains  iron,  fuse  over  again,  etc. 


ANALYSIS  OF  ILMENITE. 


TiO,.. 

Fe.O, 
FeO.. 
MnO.. 
MgO.. 
CaO . . 
SiO,.. 
Cr.Oj 


(HjBtatite.) 


Total »9.89 

Analyeia  by      MoBA]n>iB. 


(Dmenite.) 


2419 

46.67 

53.01 

19.91  

....  11.71 
85.87 

2.39 

0.63 

0.60 

o.a3 

1.77 

. . . .  0.25 
..   .      2.80 

0  aft 

100.17 

MOSANDIB. 


(Hyetatite.) 


25.28 
51.84 
22.86 


99.98 

KXNDALL. 


SCHEME  FOR  THE  ANALYSIS  OF  NATROLITE. 

Moisten  2  grams  of  the  pulverized  mineral  with  water,  and 
digest  in  concentrated  HCl ;  heat,  evaporate  over  water-bath ; 
break  up  residue  with  stirring-rod,  and  get  a  powder. 

It  must  neither  be  imder  or  over  heated.  Cover  with  paper 
and  put  in  air-bath,  heat  to  125°  C.  Let  it  dry  for  two  or 
three  hours,  moisten  with  concentrated  HCl  and  let  stand  a 
few  minutes.  Warm  gently,  then  add  water.  The  bases  go 
into  solution  and  Si02  separates,  which  is  weighed. 


398 


THE  CHEMISTS*  MANUAL. 


Divide  filtrate  into  two  parts : 

IST  Pabt. 


To  determine  NagO,  add  caustic 
baryta,  which  precipitates  Al,  Fe, 
Mg.  The  filtrate  will  contain  BaO, 
CaO,  and  alkalies.  To  remove  BaO 
and  CaO  add  (NH  J,COs  and  filter. 
Test  to  see  if  CaO  is  present  and 
burn  off  (NH4)H0.  Wash  out  evap- 
orating dish  with  smallest  amount 
of  water,  add  RCl  and  evaporate  in 
a  weighed  dish,  and  the  residue  will 
be  NaCi,  which  weigh. 


2d  Pabt. 


To  determine  Fe,  Al,  Mg,  treat 
this  2d  part  in  the  usual  manner. 
Precipitate  the  Fe  and  Al  by 
(NH  JHS,  etc. 


ANALYSIS    OF    NATROLITE. 


SiO,  . 

A1,0, 

Fe,0, 

CaO.. 

NaO, . 

H,0.. 


. .     48.00 

. .     24.25 

4751 

25.60 

44.50 

30.05 

1.75 

1.35 

0.98 

0.83 

. .     16.50 

16.12 

13.52 

. .       9.00 

888 

9.98 

99.16 

FUOHS. 

Total , 

Analysis  by.. 

..     99.50 
..Klafboth. 

99.81 

SCHBBBXB. 

SCHEME  FOR   FELDSPAR   OR  ORTHOCLASE 

ANALYSIS. 

Mix  the  finely-powdered  mineral,  dried  at  200^,  with  four 
or  five  parts  of  baric  carbonate ;  this  is  then  exposed  to  an 
intense  white  heat  by  a  blowpipe.  When  the  contents  are 
aggregated  into  a  cinder-like  mass,  the  mass  is  then  turned 
out  of  the  crucible  into  a  capacious  dish,  a  quantity  of  water 
poured  over  it,  and  hydrochloric  acid  added  in  slight  excess 
until  it  is  completely  dissolved,  with  the  exception  of  some 
gelatinous  Si02  which  separates.  The  whole  solution  is  then 
evaporated  to  perfect  dryness;  then  moisten  with  HCl  and  dis- 
solve in  HgO  and  filter  off  Si02,  which  weigh. 

Precipitate  the  baryta  in  the  filtrate  with  H2SO4  (very  lit- 


)L 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


399 


tie);  filter,  and  concentrate  the  filtrate,  add  (NH4)HS  and 
precipitate  the  AlgOg,  and  filter.  Evaporate  the  filtrate  to 
dryness,  and  ignite  it  to  expel  ammonia  salts.  The  residue  is 
sulphate  of  potash,  and  is  weighed.  If  soda  is  present  it  must 
be  separated. 


ANALYSIS    OF    FELDSPAR   (ORTHOCLASE). 


SiO. 


AlgOa 
Fe.Oa 


MgO 

CaO 

NajO  .... 
K,0 


66.75 

17.50 

1.76 

125 

12.00 


Total 99.25 

Analysis  by  .  .     Hosb. 


67.01 
18.60 
0.85 
0.19 
0.56 
2.01 
11.41 

100.63 

DUXRRB. 


65.10 
20.12 


2.42 

12.80 

100.44 
Hatbb. 


SCHEME  FOR  THE  ANALYSIS  OF   DOLOMITE 

OR   MARBLE. 

It  may  contain  CaO,  MgO,  SiOj,  AljOs,  FcjOs.  Dissolve 
1.5  grams  in  HCl  +  HNO3,  evaporate  to  drynessj  moisten  with 
HCl,  add  HjO  and  filter. 


Residue. 

SiOg  and  silicates  fuse  in  platinum 
crucible  with  NajCO,;  moisten  with 
HgO,  add  an  excess  of  HCl,  evapo- 
rate, dissolve  in  HgO  and  filter. 


Residue. 
SiOj,,  weigh. 


Prbcifitate. 

AljOa  +  Fe,0, 
(CaO,  MgO?). 
Wash  with  a  lit- 
tle hot  water,  dis- 
solve in  HCl,  re- 
predpitate,  filter, 
add  Filtrate  (C)  to  Filtrate  (E).   The  precipitate  =  AlgO, 
+  FegOj,  which  weigh  or  separate. 


B  Filtbate. 

Add  to  first  Fil- 
trate A. 


A  Filtrate  +  B. 

Warm,   add   NH^a  +  (NH4)H0, 
and  filter. 


E  Filtrate  +  C. 

CaO,  MgO. 
Concentrate  if 
too   bulky;    acid- 
ify with   Ha    if 
cloudy ;  then  add 

(NH,)HO  + 
(NHJ.CO^:   al- 
low   the    precipi- 
tate to  stand  over 

night ;  pour  the  clear  liquid  through  the  filter  ;  wash  the  precipitate  in  the 
beaker  once  or  twice  with  HgO ;  pour  the  clear  liquid  through  the  filter 
and  dissolve  the  precipitate  in  HCl.    Reprecipitate  with  (NH4),C,04  and 

filter. 

f 


400 


THE  CHEMISTS*  MANUAL. 


Pkbcipitatb. 

CaC,04.  Moisten  with  HaSO^  = 
2CaS04  and. ignite  in  platinum  cru- 
cible ;  cautiously  moisten  with  dilute 
HgSO^  ;  heat  and  weigh. 


FlLTRATB. 

MgO.     Concentrate  if  too  bulky, 
and  acidify  if  cloudy  with  HCl.    Add 
an  excess    of   (NH4)H0,   then    add 
I  NajHPO^.    Filter  off  precipitate  = 
>51gHP04  ;  wash  with  [1(NH4)H0  + 
I  3H,0]  ;  dry  and  weigh. 


For  CO2  determination  take  about  1.5  grams,  use  apparatus 
which  is  used  in  Pyrolueite. 

For  S  and  PO5  determinations,  digest  6  grams  in  HNO3  ^^^ 
divide. 

ANALYSIS  OF   DOLOMITE. 


(Jena,  cryet) 

CaCOa 55.22  .. 

MgCOa 44.77  .. 

FeCO, —     .. 

MnCO, —     . . 

H,0 —     .. 

FeO —     .. 


(Hiemite.) 
,.  57.91  . 
. .  38.97  , 
,.     1.74 

.     0.57 


(La  Yalenciana.) 
...  53.18 
.    ..  24.35 


( 


Total 99.99  . 

Analyeia  by Snoxow. 


...  99.19  ... 
RAXXBL8BBB0. 


10.46 

1.22 
0.22 

99.43 
Roth. 


SCHEME  FOR  THE  ANALYSIS  OF  WHITE   LEAD. 

The  substances  likely  to  be  found  are  BaS04,  clay,  ZnO, 
PbS04,  PbCOa,  CaCOg,  CaSO^,  HaO-foil.  Digest  10  grains 
of  the  material  in  a  flask  with  ether ;  filter  and  wash.  Weigh 
out  of  the  powder  2  grams,  and  dissolve  in  HNO3;  boil  and 
filter. 


Residxte  a. 

BaS04,  clay;  weigh,  and  separate 
if  desirable. 


PRBCIPrrATB  B. 
=  PbS ;  weigh  as  PbSO*. 

REsmuE  C. 

=  ZnS :  convert  into  ZnCX),,  and 
weigh  as  ZnO. 


Filtrate  A. 

ZnO,  PbO,  CaO ;  treat  with  JIgS  in 
presence  of  considerable  add,  and 
filter. 

Solution  B. 

Zn  +  CaO  in  solution  ;  add  (NH^) 
H0  +  (NH)4HS;  filter  and  wash. 

Filtrate  C. 

CaO;  add  (NH4),C,04,  and  the 
precipitate  wiU  be  CaC^O^. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


401 


To  determine  SO3  in  the  shape  of  PbS04  +  CaS04,  dissolve 
3  grams  in  boiling  dilute  HCl;  add  a  little  ammonic  citrate 
or  acetate ;  filter  and  determine  SO3  as  usual. 

This  scheme  will  apply  also  to  zincic  pigments. 

SCHEME  FOR  THE  ANALYSIS  OF  TYPE  METAL 

'May  contain  Sb,  Pb  (Sn,  Zn,  Fe).     Dissolve  1  gram  of  metal 
in  HNO3  +  tartaric  acid  at  a  gentle  heat;  filter  and  wash. 


Solution. 
Sb,  Pb  (Zn  +  Fe);  add  HgSO^  to 
solution  ;  beat  to  boiling,  and  filter. 


r  r 


Residi?e. 
SnO,  may  contain  a  little  Pb  am 
Sb;  ignite  the  residue  and  weigh. 
Fuse  with  NajCOj  +  S;  dissolve  in 
■^A  hot  HjO  and  filter.  Residue  =  PbS. 
^eat  in  porcelain  crucible  with  HNO, 
which  gives  PbS04  ;^  ignite  and  weigh. 
Add  to  Residue  43 


Residue  A. 
Will  be  PbSO^ ; 
dry  and  weigh.  .. 

Pbecipitatk. 

SbSa+PbS;  <fi- 
gest  with  yellow 
sulphide  of  ammo- 
nia and  filter. 

Residue. 
Will  bo  PbS; 
heat  in  a  porce- 
lain crucible  with 
HNOj,  which 
gives  PbSO^ ;  ig- 
nite and  weigh, 
and  add  to  Resi- 
due A. 


Solution. 
Sb,  Pb  (Zn  and 
Fe);  pass  in  H,S 
gas  and  filter, 
washing  with 
H,S  wat^r. 

Solution.   • 
Add  (NH  JHS ; 

« 

precipitlile  =  Fe 
and  Zn. 

Solution. 
(NH4)IIS,  Sbg 
Sj ;  precipitate 
with  HCl  =  SbS, 
+  S ;  evaporate 
with  HNO3  in  a 
porcelain  cruci- 
ble; burn  filter 
paper  with  NH4 
NO,  and  add ;  ig- 
nite the  whole  and 
^ghasSbO^. 


Residue. 

SnO,  may  contain  a  little  Pb  and 

Sbf ;  ignite  the  residue  and  weigh. 

Fuse  with  NagCO, +  S;  dissolve  in 

hot  HjO,  and  filter.    Residue  =  PbS. 

^Heat  in  a  >porcelaln    crucible  with 

[NO3  which  gives  PbS04 ;  ignite 

(nd  weigh.    Add  to  Residue  A. 

Solution. 
Add  Ha ;  precipitate=SbjS,SnSa  ; 
oxidize  with  HNOg  ;  fuse  with  NaHO 
in  silver  dish.     Dissolve  mass  in  8 
alcohol  +  1H,0  and  filter. 


REsmuE. 
NaSbOa ;  warm 
with  HCl ;  dilute 
with  HgO  and 
precipitate  with 
H,S  the  Sb  as 
SbgSg ;  treat  as 
before. 


Solution. 
Sn  as  Na^Sn 
O3 ;  acidulate  with 
HCl ;  precipitate 
by  HgS  =  SnS,  ; 
ignite  with  SnO„ 
and  weigh. 


Note. — The  above  schemes  show 
only  how  to  separate  the  constitu- 
ents. For  further  information,  see 
FreseniuB. 


402 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


ANALYSIS  OF  TYPE   METAL 


Mbtalb. 


Type  metal 

Printing  characters 

Babbitt  metal 

Britannia  metal 

White  metal 

Pewter 

Metal  that  expands  in  cooling. 


• 

§■ 

• 

A 

s 

, 

s. 

• 

a 

4-i 

q 

1 

1 

a. 

n 

15.6 
20 

69 

80 

— 

li^\^^ 

7.8 

.—. 

3.7 

89 

— 

50 

— 

25 

25 

56.8 

— 

7.4 

28.4 

— 

14 

— . 

86 

^— 

16.7 

75 

^■^ 

^^^ 

8.a 

B 

N 


—       7.4 


SCHEME  FOR  THE  ANALYSIS  OF  A  SILVER  COIN. 

It  contains  Au,  AggS,  Ag,  Pb,  Cu. 

Boil  in  KHO  to  clean  it ;  then  weigh,  dissolve  in  HNO3  (^^ 
from  CI),  and  filter. 


PRECnTTATB. 

An,  AggS.  Dry;  weigh;  wrap  in 
a  piece  of  Pb  and  cupel.  This  de- 
stroys the  AgS.  Add  also  a  little 
piece  of  silver  (the  weight  of  which 
must  be  known) ;  dissolve  the  button 
in  HNO.,  and  filter. 


Residue. 
An. 


Ag 
Cu. 
Pb 
Au. 


FHiTRATE. 

AgNOg  ;  add  to 
FUtrate  A. 


Filtrate  A. 

AgNO.,  Pb(NO,)„  Cu{NO,),  ;  add 
Ha  and  filter. 


PRBCIPrrATE. 

AgCl. 


Filtrate. 

Pbaj+^uQ,; 
add  about  10  c.c. 
of  H^SOf ;  evaporate  to  dryness  ;  dis- 
solve in  H,0 ;  filter  and  wash  with 
water  containing  a  little  alcohol. 


Precipitate. 
=  PbS04. 


Filtrate, 

=  CUSO4. 
Precipitate    with 
KHO,  and  test  fil< 
trate  with  HS. 


ANALYSIS  OF  SILVER  COIN.* 


51.49 

47.91 

.63 

.02 


Total. 


100.05 


*  Poor,  Spanish  coin. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  403 


SCHEME   FOR  THE  ANALYSIS  OF  FERTILIZERa 


Aspirator 


l^ 


^    -^"^    ^    »r 

I       I       I      I 


NITBOOEN  TUBE. 


Fertilizers  owe  their  value  to  P2O5  (soluble  and  insoluble  to 
NH3  and  K2O). 

Ist  Those  that  furnish  insoluble  P2O5 ;  as  bone  ash,  bone 
black,  rock  guanos,  apatite,  green  marl. 

2d.  Those  that  furnish  insoluble  P2O5  +  NH3;  as  bones, 
meat  scraps,  dried  blood,  and  almost  all  animal  matter. 

3d.  Those  that  furnish  NH3. 

4th.  Those  that  furnish  soluble  P2O5,  as  superphosphates. 

To  determine  insoluble  P2O5,  weigh  out  2  grams,  place  in  a 
porcelain  dish  and  evaporate  with  HNO3,  and  bring  into  solu- 
tion. To  destroy  organic  matter,  add  KCIO3.  Divide  the 
solution  in  halves,  and  heat  with  M0O3.  Wash  the  yellow 
precipitate  with  M0O3  and  dissolve  it  in  (NH4)H0,  and  repre- 
cipitate  with  magnesia  mixture. 

To  detennine  the  soluble  P2O5,  take  1.5  grams,  pulverize 
finely,  and  dissolve  in  cold  H2O,  and  determine  P2O5  as  usual. 

The  determination  of  the  nitrogen  is  conducted  by  mixing 
the  substance  with  soda-lime  and  heating.  The  H  which  is 
formed  goes  to  the  N,  and  0  to  C,  by  splitting  H2O. 

The  nitrogen  tube,  as  shown  in  the  figure,  is  placed  in  a 
gas  furnace,  or  in  a  charcoal  furnace.  Determine  NH3  with 
PtCl4  or  with  a  normal  HCl  solution. 

Multiply  the  determined  value  of  P2O5  in  bone  phosphate 
by  2.18  =  Ca3  (P04)2. 


404 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


COMPLETE   ANALYSIS. 

May  contain :  SlOg,  AI2O3,  FcjOa,  ^^0,  MgO,  KgO,  NagO, 
CO2,  NH3,  insoluble  P2O5,  soluble  P2O5,  H2SO4,  H2O,  organic 
matter. 

Use  special  methods  for  total  P2O5,  soluble  P2O5,  K2O, 
Na20,  NH3,  H2O,  CO2. 

For  Si02,  AI2O3,  Fe203,  CaO,  MgO,  H2SO4,  dissolve  5  grams 
in  HCl,  evaporate  to  dryness,  moisten  with  HCl,  add  water, 
and  filter. 


Rebidxte  a 
=.  SiO^,  ignite  and  weigh. 


Solution  A. 

Dilute  to  500  c.c. 
Divide  in  four  parts. 


1st.  200  c.c. 

Precipitate  CaO 
by  HgSO^  and 
alcohol.  (Not  too 
much  alcohol  nor 
too  little.  About 
2  vols,  alcohol  to 
1  of  solution  was 
with  this  solution. 
Precip.  =  CaS04. 
Test  after  weigh- 
ing for  AljOg  and 
Fe,0,. 


2d.  100  c.c. 

Determine     Pe 
with  EgMngOg. 


3d.  100  CO. 

Determine  HjSO^ 
with  Baa,. 


4th.  100  c.c. 

Determine  Al^O, 
by  adding  a  solu- 
tion of  4  grams  of 
metallic  iron  to  liquid  +  Na^Co,  +  NaCjHjO,.  The 
precipitate  =  AljO,  +  FegO,  +  PjOg.  Ignite  and  weigh, 
and  deduct  Fe,0,  +  PfOg. 


To  filtrate  from  1st  part  add  NaHPO^  and  (NH4)H0,  and  precipitate  = 
MgNH4P04.    Ignite  and  weigh  as  Mg^PjO,,  and  determine  MgO. 


ANALYSIS  OF  WATERS. 

BRIEF  RULES  WITH  REGARD  TO  MINERAL  WATERS. 

I.  Tf  the  water  reddens  blue  litmus-paper  before  boiling, 
but  not  atlerward,  and  the  blue  color  of  tlie  reddened  paper  is 
restored  upon  warming,  it  is  a  carbonate. 

II.  If  it  possesses  a  nauseous  odor,  and  gives  a  black  precip- 
itate with  acetate  of  lead,  it  is  sulphurous. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  405 

III.  If,  after  the  addition  of  a  few  drops  of  hydrochloric 
acid,  it  gives  a  blue  precipitate  with  yellow  or  red  potassium 
prussiate,  the  water  is  a  chalybeate. 

IV.  If  it  restores  the  blue  color  to  litmus-paper  after  boil- 
ing, it  is  alkaline. 

V.  If  it  possesses  neither  of  the  above  properties  in  a 
marked  degree,  and  leaves  a  large  residue  on  evaporation,  it  is 
saline  water. 

COMPLETE  ANALYSIS  OF  MINERAL  WATERS, 

WHEN   CONTAINING  ALKALINE  CARBONATES. 

Foe  Total  Solids. — Evaporate  0.5  litre  in  weighed  Pt  dish ; 
dry  to  constant  weight  at  130°  C,  and  weigh. 

Foe  FegOa-fAlaOa  +  CaO  +  MgO  —  SiOg,  acidulate  1  litre 
and  evaporate  to  dryness  in  Pt  dish ;  moisten  with  HCl  and 
treat  with  hot  water;  filter,  wash,  etc.  Dry  residue,  ignite 
and  weigh.  Then  expel  Si02  with  NH^Fl,  and  weigh  again. 
The  loss  is  Si02.    Should  any  residue  be  left,  exatnine  it  in 

the  SPECTEOSCOPE. 

Treat  the  filtrate  with  (NH4)H0  and  NH^Cl ;  boil  to  precipi- 
tate FcgOs,  AI2O3,  and  P2O5 ;  filter,  etc.  Dissolve  the  pre- 
cipitate, and  reprecipitate ;  add  the  filtrate  and  washings  to 
the  first,  and  in  the  combined  filtrates  determine  the  CaO, 
MgO  as  usual. 

Fob  SO3,  acidulate  1  litre  with  HCl,  evaporate  to  small 
volume  in  a  porcelain  dish,  and  precipitate  with  BaClj^^  as 
usual.  "^ 

Fob  Sodic  Cabbonate,  evaporate  1  litre  of  the  water  to 
dryness ;  treat  with  water  and  test  with  a  standard  solution  of 
H2SO4  or  other  acid-|-Na2C03  +  Li2C03;  or  evaporate  1  litre 
to  dryness,  dissolve  in  water,  filter,  wash.  The  sodic  or 
lithic  carbonate  go  into  solution.  To  the  filtrate  add  a  mix- 
ture of  CaCl2  +  (NH4)H0  [prepared  by  dissolving  60  grams 
CaCl2  in  250  c.c.  water,  adding  100  c.c.  (NH4)H0]  in  excess; 
filter  and  wash  rapidly. 


406  THE  CHEMISTS*  MANUAL. 

The  CO2  goes  to  the  lime ;  the  soda  and  lithia  are  washed 
out  as  chlorides.  Dissolve  the  CaCOs  on  the  filter  witli  HCl, 
then  precipitate  as  oxalate;  either  determine  as  CaSO^  or 
ignite  to  CaO,  and  estimate  the  corresponding  amount  of  CaCOa ; 
from  this  calculate  the  NajCOa  ^7  ^^^  proportion, 

At.  Wt.  CaCOa  :  At.  Wt.  NagCOa  :  :  CaCOg  found  :  NagCOa. 

/'    For  Potassic  oxide. — Take  1  litre  of  water ;  evaporate  nearly 
to  dryness  in  a  silver  dish;  filter,  wash  with  boiling  water, 
evaporate  in  Pt  or  porcelain  dish  with  slight  excess  of  HCl  -f 
PtCl4  to  dryness,  or  nearly  so,  on  water-bath.     Then  dissolve 
I      ^  in  a  mixture  of  2  parts  alcohol  and  1  part  ether.     Filter  out 
/  KCl,  PtCl4;  wash  very  completely  with  the  same;  dry,  trans- 
it fer  to  crucible,  and  ignite  with  oxalic  acid.     (See  Fresenius.) 
Total  Chlorine. — Test  yj^  gallons  with  standard  solution 
AgNOa  —  (1  c.c.  =  0.1  grain  NaCl). 

For  Carbonic  Acid. — Take  200  c.c.  of  the  water  previously 
treated  at  the  spring  with  "  CaCl2+(NH4)H0  preparation," 
being  careful  to  clear  the  neck  of  the  bottle  from  all  fat,  etc. 
Keep  the  bottle  in  boiling  water  until  the  effervescence  ceases ; 
then  filter  out  the  CaCOa,  rinsing  the  bottle  thoroughly  with 
water.  Keep  the  bottle  for  after  treatment.  Wash  the  CaCOa 
on  the  filter,  as  long  as  the  wash-water  gives  a  reaction  witli 
(NH^)2C20^. 

This  washing  should  be  done  rapidly,  to  avoid  the  forma- 
tion of  CaCOa  by  the  CO2  in  the  atmosphere,  acting  on  the 
CaH202  present.  Then  dissolve  the  CaCOa  adhering  to  the 
bottle  with  a  little  HCl,  and  wash  into  a  beaker.  Then  punch 
a  hole  in  the  filter  and  wash  the  CaCOa  into  same  beaker, 
cleansing  the  filter  with  HCl.  Boil  to  expel  CO2,  and  deter- 
mine the  lime  as  oxalate  or  caustic,  and  calculate  the  CO2. 

MAIN   ANALYSIS. 

Evaporate  10-20  gallons  of  the  water  to  diyness  in  large 
porcelain  dishes  (perfect  dryness  is  not  necessary).  Treat  the 
residue  in  the  dishes  with  water ;  boil ;  decant  through  a  filter. 


THE    CHEMISTS*    MANUAL.  407 

repeating  the  operation  a  number  of  times ;  finally  bring  the 
insoluble  residue  on  the  filter;  wash  with  boiling  water  until 
the  residue  gives  only  a  faint  trace  of  lithia  in  the  spectroscope 
(in  case  lithia  is  present). 

Treatment  of  the  REsrouE.  Insoluble  in  hot  water  (in 
case  lithia  be  not  present  in  such  quantity  or  in  such  a  form 
as  not  to  be  completely  removed  by  hot  water).  Dissolve 
residue  in  HCl;  evaporate  to  dryness;  add  concentrated  HCl 
to  the  dry  mass ;  dilute  with  water  and  filter  off^  residue,  which 
consists  of  SiOa  and  perhaps  BaS04,  ^^  ^^e  SO3  and  BaO  arc 
present  in  the  water.  Divide  filtrate  from  Si02  into  three 
equal  parts. 

Treatment  of  first  one-third  part  of  solution  for 

PHOSPHORIC    ACID. 

Drive  off  excess  of  HCl  from  solution,  and  then  remove  it 
entirely  by  boiling  with  concentrated  HNO3 ;  precipitate  with 
(NH4)2Mo04  and  proceed  as  usual. 

Treatment  of  second  one-third  part  of  solution  for 

IRON. 

Precipitate  the  iron  with  NH4HO  and  NH4CI,  as  usual ;  filter, 
wash,  and  re-dissolvc  the  precipitate  in  HCl  (or  perhaps  better 
H2SO4) ;  reduce  with  amalgamated  zinc  and  Pt,  determine 
volumetrically  with  KgMngOa. 

Treatment  of  third  one-third  part  of  solution  for 

BARYTA    AND    STRONTIA. 

Dilute  solution  with  water  and  add  dilute  H2SO4;  boil 
(enough  acid  should  be  added  to  precipitate  d  little  lime,  or 
else  some  SrO  may  remain  in  solution).  The  precipitate,  con- 
sisting of  (BaS04)  SrS04,  CaS04,  should  be  treated  with  a 


408  THE   CHEMISTS*    MANUAL. 

strong  solution  of  (NH4)2C03,  which  converts  the  CaS04  and 
SrS04  into  carbonates,  while  the  BaS04  is  unaffected.  The 
carbonates  are  then  dissolved  away  from  the  BaS04  on  the 
filter  with  hot  HCL  The  HCl  solution,  containing  CaCls  and 
SrC]2,  is  evaporated  to  dryness ;  the  chlorides  converted  into^ 
nitrates ;  the  calcic  nitrate  dissolved  out  by  digesting  with  a 
mixture  of  alcohol  and  ether.  (See  Fres.)  The  Sr(N03)2  is 
dissolved  in  water  and  precipitated  as  SrS04  with  dilute 
H2SO4. 

All  the  precipitates  should  be  examined  in  the  spectroscope, 
to  ascertain  if  the  operations  have  been  perfect. 

Treatment  op  the  EEsrouE,  insoluble  in  hot  water.  In 
case  lithia  be  present  in  such  quantity,  or  in  such  a  form,  as 
not  to  be  completely  removed  by  boiling  water,  divide  the 
HCl  solution  into  four  equal  parts,  and  take  one  part  for  the 
determination  of  lithia,  using  the  other  three  as  already  stated. 
Precipitate  out  with  (NH4)2C03  and  proceed  according  to 
Fresenius,  §  209,  p.  564,  in  order  to  free  the  lithia  from  all 
other  bases  precipitable  by  NaPOa. 

Tbeatment  of  "Wateb  Solution  resulting  trom  the  diges- 
tion with  hot  water  of  the  residue  obtained  by  evaporation  of 
10  to  20  gallons.  Evaporate  to  dryness,  pulverize  the  residue, 
and  weigh ;  divide  into  two  portions,  one  for  lithia,  and  one 
for  iodine  and  bromine. 

DETERMINATION    OF    LITHIA. 

Moisten  the  dry  salt  with  HCl  and  evaporate  on  the  water- 

Wh  if}  dryness,  in  order  to  convert  the  lithia  into  the  chloride. 

^j^^.  the  salt  in  a  glass  flask  and  agitate  with  absolute  alco- 

. »    >^4nttng  solution  through  a  filter  until  the  salt  gives  no 

-s*^.' ".  i^  Hthia  in  the  spectroscope.    Evaporate  off^  the  alco- 

▼uwr-Vittth ;  dissolve  the  residue  in  water.    Treat  the 

*   rjtmeA  according  to  Fresenius  (§  101,  p.  159), 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  409 


DETERMINATION    OF    IODINE    AND    BROMINE. 

Place  the  dry  salt  in  a  flask,  boil  on  a  water-bath  repeatedly 
with  70j?  alcohol,  until  Ae  salt  gives  no  reaction  for  bromine 
when  treated  with  chlorine  water  and  carbon  disulphide. 
Evaporate  the  alcoholic  solution  upon  the  water-bath ;  dissolve 
the  residue  in  water.  Add  PdCl2  to  a  slight  excess  and  heat ; 
allow  the  whole  to  stand  for  some  time,  then  filter  o'lt  the 
precipitated  Pdl2,  wash  with  warm  water,  dry  and  ignite. 

Divide  the  filtrate  from  the  Pdl  into  two  equal  portions. 
Precipitate  each  with  AgNOs.  Filter  oflT  the  AgCl  +  AgBr; 
wash,  dry,  ignite  one  precipitate,  and  weigh.  Place  the  other 
precipitate  of  AgCl  +  AgBr  in  a  beaker  and  digest  in  the  heat 
for  1  hour,  with  a  solution  of  KBr(lKBr  +  GHgO),  whereby  the 
AgCl  is  completely  converted  into  AgBr.  From  these  data 
estimate  the  amount  of  bromine  in  the  first  precipitate.  About 
as  much  KBr  is  required  for  the  conversion  as  there  is  AgCl  in 
the  precipitate.  See  "Wittstein  Zeitschrift  fiir  Analytische 
Chemie,"  1863,  S.  159. 

CaCla  -f  (NH^)HO    MIXTURE. 

60  grams  CaCla  in  250  c.c.  HgO.  Add  100  c.c.  (NH4)H0, 
boil,  filter,  add  100  c.  c.  (NH4)H0,  dilute  to  500  c.c. 

Note  I. — In  case  HjS04  be  present  in  a  water,  the  residue  insoluble  in 
HCl  may  contain  BaSO^,  and  perhaps  SrS04.  Treat  residue  with  pure 
NH4FI,  to  expel  SiOs,  weigh,  and  test  the  reeidue  in  the  spectroscope. 

,GRAM6    IN    U.   S.   GALLON    (231    cubic   Inches). 

349908 6 

408226 7 

466544 8 

624862 9 

583180 10 


?  .'■ 


88318 f  1( 

116636 2 

174954 3 

233272 4 

291590 5 


410 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


METHOD    OF    CALCULATING    WATER    ANALYSIS. 

United  States  gallon  contains  231  en.  inches  =  58318  grains 
of  distilled  HgO  at  60°  Fah. 

Suppose  an  analysis  of  a  litre  of  water  gave  the  following. 
Required  the  number  of  grains  of  each  substance  in  a  gallon. 

1  Litre.  Grains  in  a  Gallon. 

NagO 0.031  1.807 

CaO 0.173  10.089 

CI 0.172 10.030 

SiO, 0.250 14.579 

Multiply  each  substance  by  58318  and  divide  each  by  1000. 


TO  CALCULATE   HOW  ACIDS  AND   BASES  COMBINE. 

ORDINARY    DRIMKING    WATERS. 


1  IT.  S.  Gallon. 
Na,0 0.:J2fi 

KgO.... 

0.097 

CaO 

0.983 

MgO 

CI 

SO. 

0524 
0.243 
0.322 

•^'^j ••....♦.... 

SiO« 

0.621 

Organic  and  volatile  matter. 
CO.  (calculated) 

0.670 

1.302 

Total 

5.093 

1st.  Give  SO3  to  K^O. 

ad.      "     CI     "  remainder  K,0. 

3d.      "  '    "      "  Na. 

4th.    -      ••      '*  Mg. 

6th.    "      "      "  Ca. 

6th.    "      SOa  "  Na,0. 

Combined. 
K.SO^ 179 

Nan .400 

Na.SO^ ^ 263 

CaSO^ 156 

CaCOa 1.650 

MgCOa 1.100 

SiOg 621 

Org.  and  volatile  matter. .       .670 

Total 5.039 


3 


« 


7th.  Give  SO,  to  CaO. 

8th. 

9th. 
10th. 
11th. 


"  MgO. 
CO,  "  Na.O. 
"      "  CaO. 
"      "  MgO. 


5.093  —  .054  (amoant  of  oxjgen  in  Na  used  to  make  NaCl)  =  5.089. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  .  411 


ANALYSIS  OF  A  MINERAL  WATER. 

HATHORN  SPRING,  SARATOGA  SPRINGS. 

By  C,  F,  Chandler, 

Sodic  Cliloride 509.968  grains. 

Potassic  Chloride 9.597     " 

Sodic  Bromide 1.534     " 

Sodic  Iodide 198     " 

Calcic  Fluoride A  trace. 

Lithic  Dicarbonate 11.447 

Sodic  Dicarbonate 4.288 

Magnesic  Dicarbonate 176.463 

Strontic  Dicarbonate A  trace. 

Baric  Dicarbonate • 1.737 

Ferrous  Dicarbonate 1.128 

Potassic  Sulphate None. 

Sodic  Phosphate 006     " 

Sodic  Diborate A  trace. 

Aluminic  Oxide 131      " 

Silicic  Oxide 1.260     " 

Organic  Matter A  trace. 

Total  solid  contents 888.403  grains. 

Carbonic  oxide  (CO,)  in  1  gal.,  375.747  inches ;  density  1.009. 


ANALYSIS  OF  THE  ATLANTIC  OCEAN 

(By  Von  Bibba) 

AND  OF  THE  DEAD   SEA 

(By  the  Heeepathb). 

AtUmtlc  Ocean.  Dead  Sea. 

Specific  Gravity 1.0275 1.17205 

Sodic  Chloride 1671.34      6702.73 

Potassic  Chloride —        682.63 

Amnionic  Chloride —        3.35 

Calcic  Chloride —        1376.75 

Magnesic  Chloride 199.66      4457.23 

Aluminic  Chloride —        31.37 

Ferrous  Chloride Trace 1.50 

Manganous  Chloride —        3.35 

Sodicf  Bromide 31.16      156.53 


Carried  forward 1903.18      13416.61 


412  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL 

Atlantic  Ocean.  Dead  Sea. 

Bronght  forward 1903.18      13416.61 

Sodic  Iodide. Trace Trace. 

Potaanc  Snlphate 108.46      — 

Magnesic  Sulphate 34.99      — 

Calcic  Sulphate 93.30      38.07 

Sodic  Phosphate Trace — 

Calcic  Carbonate Trace Trace. 

Silver Traca      — 

Copper Trace — 

Lead Trace — 

Arsenic Trace — 

Silicic  Oxide Trace Trace. 

Organic  Matter Trace 84.59 

Bitumen —        Trace. 


Total  in  1  U.  S.  gallon 2139.93  gr 13489.17  gr. 

Per  cent,  by  weight 3.569     19.733 

Water 96.431     80.267 

Total 100.000     100.00 


Weight  of  1  gallon. .  .59922.  gra  68352.   grs. 

POTABLE    WATER  ANALYSIS. 

(Jl  Cliem,  Society,  London,  vol.  xxi,  p.  771.) 
I.  TOTAL  SOLIDS. 

Evaporate  J  litre  to  dryness  rapidly  at  100°  C.  to  constant 
weight. 

II.  ORGANIC  CARBON. 

To  2  litres  in  a  stoppered  bottle  add  60  e.c.  saturated  solution 
sulphurous  acid ;  J  of  this  (1  litre)  sulphurized  water  is  boiled 
for  two  or  three  minutes  (unless  it  contains  a  considerable 
amount  of  carbonates) ;  then  add  0.200  grams  sodic  sulphite  to 
secure  saturation  of  SO3  formed  during  subsequent  evapora- 
tion. To  secure  expulsion  of  N,  existing  as  nitrate,  add  2  drops 
FeCl2  or  FeaCl^.  Then  evaporate  boiled  water  to  drj-ness  in 
glass  capsule  of  100  c.c.  capacity,  keeping  capsule  without  a 
lip,  covered  with  paper  stretched  on  a  hoop  to  keep  out  dust ; 
there  should  be  no  (N  H4)H0  in  the  atmosphere ;  when  drj^,  a  few 
grams  plumbic  chromate,  powdered,  are  added,  and  triturated 


THE    CHEMISTS'    MANUAL.  413 

with  contents  in  an  agate  mortar ;  when  the  mixture  is  com- 
plete the  contents  are  transferred  to  a  combustion  tube  six- 
teen inches  long  sealed  at  one  end,  and  the  capsule  rinsed  with 
PbCr04,  and  the  tube  charged  .with  CuO  and  about  three 
inches  bright  copper  turnings.  Then  draw  out  open  end  and 
connect  with  a  Sprengel  pump,  letting  the  ends  of  glass  tubes 
touch  inside  of  rubber  tube,  and  plunge  the  joint  under  water. 
The  furnace  is  lighted  around  the  forward  end  of  combustion 
tube  and  the  pump  worked  for  five  or  ten  minutes.  The  de- 
livery end  of  the  pump  dips  into  a  mercury  bath,  and  a  tube 
filled  with  mercury  is  placed  over  it.  The  combustion  is  con- 
ducted as  usual.  When  the  organic  matter  begins  to  bum, 
the  operation  proceeds  slowly  until  the  vacuum  is  impaired  or 
carbonic  oxide  will  be  formed.  Combustion  lasts  forty-five 
minutes  to  one  hour.  Generally  no  gases  will  have  passed 
into  the  mercury  tube  unless  the  residue  is  very  rich  in  organic 
matter.  The  pump  is  now  worked  for  ten  minutes,  when  all 
the  gases  will  be  transferred  to  the  inverted  tube.  The  gases 
are  CO2,  N,  and  NOg.  (For  separation  and  determination  of 
these,  see  J.  Chem.  Soc,  vol.  vi,  p.  197.) 

The  weights  of  carbon  and  nitrogen  are  deducted  from  the 
volumes  of  these  gases,  expressed  in  100.000  parts  of  water. 
The  nitrogen  may  have  been  present  as  organic  nitrogen  or  a 
constituent  of  NH3.  The  latter  is  determined  in  the  water 
directly  by  Nessler's  test.  The  nitrogen  in  this  deducted 
from  total  nitrogen  =  organic  nitrogen. 

Note. — ^COj  is  determined  by  solution  of  E3O  of  1.8  specific  gravity,  and 
oxygen  by  solution  of  pyrogallic  acid  (1  acid  to  6  water). 

A  correction  is  made  by  boiling  distilled  water  for  24  hours 
with  alkaline  potassic  permanganate,  and  then  distilling  it; 
refusing  the  distillate  as  long  as  it  shows  any  reaction  for 
(NH4)H0  by  Nessler's  test,  and  then  slightly  acidulating  it 
with  H2SO4,  and  rectifying  it.  A  litre  of  this  is  acidified  with 
15  c.  c.  H2SO4,  containing  about  1.100  grams  recently  ignited 
NaCl,  and  evaporated.    The  residue  must  now  be  burned  in 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


CnO  made  by  oxididng  pnre  sheet  copper 
in  muffle— not  (rom  Cii2S0,. 

?bC[0 ,  to  be  heated  to  redneaa  for  3  bours, 
and  tnuufen^  to  stoppered  bottle. 


vacuo,  and  the  carbon  and  niti-ogen  obtained  deducted  from 

that  obtiiined  from  tlie  water  analyzed. 

N.  B, — See  J.  Cb.  Soc.,  London,  vol.  xil,  for  appanrtoa  for  measuring 
gasea,  also  witbout  absorbing  Barae,  and  tables  for  calculating  weigbt  of 
nitrogen,  et«.  See  particularly  Russell  on  Or.  Anal^rBis.  J.  Cbem.  Soc, 
London,  vol.  isi,  p.  126. 

3.    NITRATES   AND    NITRITES 

-Tlie  solid  residne  of  ^  litre  of  water  ia  treated  with  a  small 
quantity  of  distilled  water — a  very  slight  excess  of  Ag^SO^ 
added,  to  convert  chlorides  into  sulphates.  The  filtered  liqnid 
concentrated  in  a  small  beaker  to  2  or  3  c.  p.  Tliis  is  trans- 
ferred to  a  tube  with  a  cup  and  stop-cock  (see  Fig.  2)  filled 
with  mercury  and  standing  in  a  mercuiy-trough^tlie  beaker 
being  washed  once  or  twice  with  a  little  recently-boiled  dis- 
tilled water,  finally  witli  pure  HaSO*  in  greater  volume  than 


M 


THE   CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  415 

solution  and  rinsings.  If  air  gets  in,  push  tube  down  in  mer- 
cury and  draw  it  out.  Finally,  close  the  tube  firmly  at  the 
bottom  with  the  thumb,  and  shake ;  resisting  the  flowing  out 
of  the  mercury  between  the  acid  liquid  and  the  thumb.  In  3 
to  5  minutes  the  reaction  is  complete,  when  the  gas  is  trans- 
ferred to  a  measuring  apparatus  over  mercury. 
Half  the  volume  of  NO2  in  tube  =  N ;  the 
weight  calculated  from  the  volume.  Miller 
proposes  to  estimate  the  nitrates  by  the 
KaMngOe  solution,  of  which  1  c.c.  =  0.00237 
grams  N2O3.  He  adopts  Pugh's  process  for 
nitrates.     Or,  J.  Ch.  Soc,  vol.  xii,  p.  35. 

MILLER'S    METHOD    OF    KaMngOg. 

1  c.c.  =0.0001  gram  oxygen  requiring  0.395  gram  to 
1  litre  water.  Test  it  with  a  solution  of  oxalic  acid  containing 
0,7875  gram  to  1  litre  water ;  100  c.c.  of  this,  warmed  with  a 
very  dilute  solution  of  H2SO4  should  decolorize  100  c.c. 
KjMngOa  solution.  250  c.c.  of  the  water  to  be  tested  is 
placed  in  a  flask  with  3  c.c.  dilute  H2SO4  (1  acid  -f  3  water). 
Add  the  KgMngOe  solution  in  successive  portions  of  0.5  c.c. 
until  the  color  disappears,  and  until  after  the  last  addition  no 
change  takes  place  for  one-half  hour.  After  it  is  found  that 
no  change  takes  place,  the  last  0.5  c.c.  added  is  subtracted  as 
excess. 

ORGANIC   MATTER   IN   WATER. 

(Permanganate  Test.) 

Solution  made  is  that  1  c.c.  yields  0.0001  gram  oxalic 
acid,  then  1  litre  yields  0.100  gram  oxalic  acid. 

H2C2O4  and  2H2O  =  126  requires  1  At.  0  =  16. 

16  :  126  : :  0.100  :  .7875  =  oxalic  acid. 
Then  .7875  oxalic  acid  requires  0.100  oxygen. 


416  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

Then  .7876  oxalic  acid  dissolved  in  1  litre  H2O  require  for 
each  c.c.  ^%^(^  =  .0001  oxygen.  Permanganate  is  diluted  until 
1  C.C.  oxidizes  1  c.c.  oxalic  acid  solution;  so  1  c.c.  K2.Mn203 
carries  0.0001  available  oxygen. 

AMMONIA. 

If  the  (NH4)H0  be  not  alone  one  part  in  10,000,000,  which  is 
obtained  by  distillation  alone  or  with  NagCOs,  use  Hadow's 
modification  of  Nessler's  test.  If  it  be  alone  this,  Nessler's 
test  must  be  applied  directly  to  the  water.  The  water  must 
be  colorless,  free  from  carbonates  of  magnesia  and  lime.  Any 
tint  in  a  column  six  or  eight  inches  deep  is  fatal.  In  this  case 
add  a  few  drops  of  concentrated  solution  of  calcic  chloride  to 
one-half  litre  water,  and  precipitate  with  slight  excess  NaaCOa ; 

filter  after  an  hour ;  use  100  c.c. 
of  the  filtrate.  To  this  volume 
1  c.c.  of  the  Nessler  solution  is 
added,  and  the  color  observed. 
See  Miller  on  Potable  Waters, 
J.  Ch.  Soc.,  vol.  xviii,  p.  125. 

Use  a  cylinder  of  such  diameter 
that  100  c.c.  form  a  colunm  seven 
inches  deep  ;  place  it  near  a  window. 

AMMONIA. 

(MOiLEB'S  MBTHOD  ) 

Into  a  capacious  retort  one  litre  water  is  introduced,  and 
the  retort  connected  with  a  Liebig's  condenser ;  25  c.c.  of 
baric  hydrate  is  then  added ;  250  c.  c.  water  distilled  over. 
The  residue  in  the  retort  is  filtered  and  separated  from  salts 
of  baryta  (carbonate  and  sulphate)  and  evaporated  for  deter- 
mination of  nitrates  by  Pugh's  method.  The  distillate  id 
divided  into  two  equal  portions ;  one  for  Nessler's  test,  as 
practised  by  Iladow. 


} 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


NESSLER'S    SOLUTION.  / 

Make  a  concentrated  solution  of  40  grams  corrosive  su 
mate  (HgCl2).  Dissolve  62.5  grams  Kl  in  300  c.c.  water,  and 
add  to  this  the  mercurial  solution  until  the  mercury  iodide 
ceases  to  be  dissolved  on  agitation.  Next  dissolve  150  grams 
KgO  in  its  own  weight  of  water  and  add  it  gradually  to  the 
iodized  mercurial  solution,  stirring  while  mixing ;  then  dilute 
to  one  litre ;  let  it  stand  for  a  day  or  two  until  the  brown 
color  disappears,  and  it  becomes  clear.  Decant  the  clear 
liquid. 

About  3  c.c.  of  the  above  solution  is  added  to  the  half  of 
the  distillate,  same  as  one-half  litre.  If  (NH4)H0  be  present, 
a  yellow  color  will  appear;  if  the  NHg  be  ^^rcriiyTny  V^^^y  make 
a  solution  of  NH4CI  0.317  grams  to  one  litre  of  water,  which 
is  equal  to  0.1  gram  NH3  in  one  litre. 

Place  3  c.c.  of  this  solution  in  a  beaker  of  same  size  used  for 
the  distillate ;  dilute  with  150  c.c.  water;  add  3  c.c.  test  liquo7\ 
If  the  colors  coincide  then,  calculate  the  quantity  of  NH3. 
When  the  NH3  exceeds  0.6000  milligram  per  litre,  it  must 
be  determined  by  neutralizing  with  a  test  acid  solution.  The 
other  one-half  of  the  distillate  is  used.  The  solution  contains 
2.882  grams  H2SO4  in  one  litre  water;  1  c.c.  =  0.001  NH3, 
as  usual  with  litmus  solution. 

NITRIC    ACID. 
(Fuck's  Zelochi  Anal.  Chem,,  vi,  176.) 

Concentrate  two  litres  water,  adding  KgMngOe  to  pink  color. 
Filter;  concentrate  fluid ;  add  pure  H2SO4  and  distil  into  a 
flask  containing  BaCOs  suspended  in  HgO  until  H2SO4  goes 
over.  Filter  and  determine  the  Ba  existing  as  Ba(N03)2  and 
BaCl2.    Determine  CI  elsewhere  and  calculate  the  HNO3. 


418  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

TOTAL    RESIDUE. 
(Wanklyk.) 

Evaporate  100  c.  c.  in  a  small  platinum  dish  holding  about 
125  C.C.  The  dish  is  heated,  covered,  to  130°  C,  cooled  on  a 
thick  piece  of  cold  iron  (still  covered).  Evaporate  over  steam 
so  as  not  to  allow  the  dish  to  come  in  contact  with  the  boiling 
water.  Use  a  can  with  a  funnel  in  it,  the  dish  standing  in  the 
funnel.  When  dry,  wipe,  transfer  to  air-bath ;  dry  at  130"*  C, 
at  first  with  lid  on,  afterwards  without  it ;  cool  the  dish,  cov- 
ered, as  at  first,  on  cold  iron,  and  weigh.  If  the  air-bath  is  at 
a  temperature  of  130**  when  the  dish  is  put  in,  the  detennina- 
tion  can  be  made  in  1\  hours.  Liability  to  error  on  account 
of  dust,  destruction  of  organic  matter  on  accoimt  of  long  dry- 
ing, avoided. 

SOAP    TEST. 

Dissolve  marble  in  HCl ;  dry ;  fuse  in  a  weighed  crucible ; 
weigh.  Difference  =  CaCl2.  Dissolve  with  water ;  from 
known  weight  calculate  water  necessary  to  make  solution  so 
that  1  litre  =  1.110  grams  CaCl2 ;  each  cubic  centimetre  = 
0.001  =  1  C.C.  CaCla  =  1  c.c.  CaCOg. 

Take  2  parts  lead  plaster  and  1  KgCOg ;  pound  together  a 
little  at  a  time.  Extract  with  90^  alcohol,  30  times  as  much 
as  the  lead  plaster ;  allow  to  stand  for  some  time ;  filter ;  dilute 
with  its  own  volume  of  water. 

If  this  cannot  be  obtained,  use  good  potash  soap.  Measure 
accurately  10  c.  c.  of  the  soap  solution,  put  it  into  a  bottle 
with  70  c.c.  water,  and  add  CaClg  solution  until  frothing  stops. 
Shaking  up  properly,  from  this  calculate  how  much  dilution  is 
necessaiy  to  make  17  c.  c.  of  soap  solution  consume  16  c.  c. 
CaClg  solution ;  dilute  accordingly  with  alcohol  of  40^,  and 
verify.  [N.  B. — 17  c.  c.  standard  soap  test  should  neutralize 
16  c.  c.  of  standard  CaCl^  solution,  in  presence  of  70  c.  c.  pure 
water.  Each  c.  c.  of  soap  solution  will  then  be  equal  to  1  mil- 
ligram CaCOs,  or  its  equivalent,  or  0.010  grams  per  litre.] 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  419 

Take  70  c.  c.  of  the  water,  put  it  into  a  bottle,  add  soap 
solution  until  it  lathers ;  each  c.  c.  of  soap  =  1  gram  in  an 
English  gallon.  To  get  it  in  litres,  take  100  e.c.  water ;  each 
C.C.  soap  =  10  milligrams  CaCOa  per  litre.  (This  is  not  ahso- 
lately  exact.) 

If  more  than  17  c.c.  of  soap  is  required  in  70  c.c,  dilute 
the  water  with  its  own  volume  of  distilled  water,  and  go  on, 
etc.  Wanklyn  claims  that  70  c.c.  distilled  water  have  a  soap- 
destroying  power  =  1  milligram  CaCOa. 

NITRATES    AND    NITRITES. 

100  c.  c.  water  are  introduced  into  a  non-tubulated  retort ; 
50-70  c.  c.  solution  of  NaHO  added  (100  grams  NajO  to  1  litre 
water). 

Distil  until  not  more  than  100  c.  c.  remain,  and  until  no  ' 
NH3  comes  over.    Now  cool,  and  introduce  a  thin  sheet  of 
aluminium. 

Then  incline  neck  upwards ;  close  it  with  a  cork  through 
which  passes  the  narrow  end  of  a  small  tube  2  or  3  inches 
long,  filled  with  broken  tobacco  clay-pipe  moistened  with 
dilute  HCl,  connected  with  a  second  tube  holding  pumice  sat- 
urated with  H2SO4 ;  allow  to  stand  for  some  hours ;  then  wash 
the  contents  of  the  pipe-clay  tube  back  into  the  retort  with  a 
little  water  and  distil  down  one-half  into  80  c.c.  water.  Make 
the  distillate  up  to  150  c.c.  To  50  c.c.  of  this  add  Nessler's 
solution. 

If  the  color  is  not  too  strong,  the  estimation  may  be  made 
directly.    If  it  is  too  strong,  dih^te  the  remainder,  test,  etc. 

« 

TO    DETERMINE    NH3    BY   TITRATION. 

Use  1  litre  evaporated  to  small  bulk ;  treat  in  same  way  as 
above,  receiving  the  distillate  in  standtird  acid  instead  of 
water.  Soda  may  be  purified  from  nitrates  by  dissolving 
aluminum  in  cold  solution^  and  boiling. 


420  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


WITHOUT    DISTILLATION. 

Prepare  Boda  by  dissolving  100  grams  solid  soda,  diluting  to 
1  litre ;  dissolve  a  very  little  Al  in  it,  to  decompose  nitrates. 

1st.  Then  to  200  c.  c.  of  this  add  200  c.  c.  of  the  sample  of 
water  and  add  a  little  more  Al.  This  contains  original  ammo- 
nia  and  that  from  nitrates. 

2d.  Take  200  c.c.  of  the  soda  ley,  dissolve  in  it  a  little  Al  as 
before,  then  add  200  c.c.  water,  and  allow  to  subside.  This 
will  have  the  nitrates  ^unreduced.  Decant,  and  determine 
NH3  by  Nessler's  solution. 

Test  in  both  1st  and  2d.     Difference  =  nitrates. 

N.B. — To  both  samples  of  water,  before  mixing  with  soda 
ley^  add  a  little  CaCl2  to  get  an  appreciable  precipitate. 


ANALYSIS  OF  THE  "CROTON   WATER." 

{Calculated  for  100,000  parts  water) 

CaHjCjO,  (Calcic  Bicarbonate) 4.53 

MgHgCgOe  (Maguesic  Bicarbonate) 8.25 

SiOg 1.05 

Fe.Og Trace. 

AlgOj Trace. 

CaSO^ 0.26 

NajjSO^ 044 

K,S04 0.30 

Naa 0.68 

Organic  Matter 1.13 

Total 11.64 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


421 


PURITY    OF    CITY   WATERS.* 

Impurities  oontained  in  one  wine  gallon  of  231  cubic  inches  expressed  in 
grains. 


Cmr. 


New  York. . . 

it       It 

Brooklyn . . . , 
Jersey  City. , 

Trenton 

Philadelphia 

Boston 

Albany  

Troy 

Schenectady. 

Utica 

Syracuse  . . . . 
Kochester. ... 
Cleveland  . . . 

Chicago 

Dublin 

London 

Paris 

Amsterdam . . 


SOUBOB. 


Croton,  1869 

Well.  8th  Ave 

Ridgewood,  1869.... 

Passaic  River 

Delaware  River 

Schuylkill  River. . . . 

Cochituate  Lake 

Hydrant 

Hydrant 

Well,  State  St 

Hydrant 

New  Reservoir 

Genesee  River 

Lake  Erie 

Lake  Michigan 

Lough  Valley 

Thames  River 

Well,  Leadenhall  St. 

River  Seine 

River  Vecht 

Well 


Obganio 

Inorqanio 

AND 

Matteb. 

yOLATI]:.B 

Matteb. 

4.11 

0.67 

38.95 

4.59 

8.87 

0.59 

4.58 

2.86 

2.98 

0.56 

2.30 

1.20 

2.40 

0.71 

8.47 

2.81 

6.09 

1.84 

46.88 

2.33 

6.60 

0.96 

12.18 

1.80 

12.02 

1.23 

474 

1.53 

5.62 

1.06 

1.77 

1.34 

15.55 

0.83 

90.38 

9.59 

7.83 

1.00 

14.45 

2.13 

64.55 

4.38 

Total 

SOUDB. 


4.78 

43.64 

8.92 

7.44 

8.48 

8.50 

8.11 

10.78 

7.43 

4921 

6.46 

13.93 

13.26 

6.27 

6.68 

8.11 

16.38 

99.97 

8.83 

16.58 

68.98 


*  Taken  from  Lee.  on  Mineralogy  by  T.  EJgleston,  E.  M. 

COAL    ANALYSIS. 

In  the  ordinary  analysis  there  is  determined  moisture; 
volatile  and  combustible  matter;  fixed  carbon  (coke),  and 
sulphur. 

(a.)  Determination  of  moisture.*  Pulverize  the  coal  finely ; 
heat  one  or  two  grains  in  a  covered  platinum  or  porcelain 
crucible,  fifteen  minutes  in  an  air-bath  at  212°  to  240°  F. 
Cool  and  weigh,  repeat  until  weight  is  constant  or  begins  to 
rise.     Loss  =  moistubb. 

(5.)  Determination   of  volatile    and    combustible   matter. 


*  See  "  Notes  on  Assaying,"  p.  85,  by  Ricketts,  Ph.D. 


422  THE    CHEMISTS'    MANUAL. 

Heat  the  same  crucible,  with  contents,  to  bright  redness,  over 
a  Bunsen  burner  or  alcohol  lamp,  exactly  three  and  one-half 
minutes,  and  then  three  and  one-half  minutes  over  a  blast- 
lamp.  Cool  and  weigh.  Loss  =  volatile  and  combustible 
matter.  This  includes  one-half  of  sulphur  of  any  sulphide  of 
iron  contained  in  the  coal. 

(c.)  Fixed  carbon.  Heat  over  the  burner  until  the  ash  is 
white  and  constant  weight.  Loss  =  fixed  carbon  and  one-half 
the  sulphur  from  the  sulphide  of  iron. 

(d.)  The  sulphur  may  be  determined  as  follows :  "Weigh  out 
one  to  two  grams  of  the  finely  pulverized  coal  and  oxidize 
with  nitric  acid  and  potassic  chlorate  in  a  flask  until  action 
ceases ;  then  filter  and  wash.  If  the  residue  contain  sulphur, 
dry  and  weigh  it ;  then  ignite  and  weigh.  The  diflference  will 
be  the  sulphur  unoxidized ;  add  to  this  a  little  hydrochloric 
acid,  and  then  baric  chloride  in  slight  excess ;  heat  for  a  few 
moments  and  allow  the  particles  to  settle.  Pour  off  the 
liquid  through  a  filter  and  wash  with  dilute  hydrochloric  acid, 
then  with  water.  Dry  and  ignite  the  residue  in  a  porcelain 
crucible ;  multiply  the  weight  of  the  precipitate  less  that  of 
the  filter-ash  by  xiSiT  5  ^^®  product  equals  the  sulphur  in  the 
sample  taken. 

The  following  analyses  are  of  different  semi-bituminous 
coals  (by  Pierre  de  Peyster  Ricketts) : 

Moisture 8.310 0.965 

Volatile  Combustible  Matter 27.300 80.111 

Fixed  Carbon 61.965 61.083 

Ash 7.425 7.829 

Sulphur 8.863 1.847 

27.300  minus  -24p  and  30.111  minus  -L^  gives  the  cor- 
rect amount  of  volatile  matter.  61.965  minus  -Mj^  and 
61.033  minus  -^^j^,  the  correct  amount  of  fixed  carbon. 
Phosphorus  not  determined. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  423 


CLAY  ANALYSIS. 

I.  May  contain  AI2O3,  4Si02  +  6H2O,  with  variable  quan- 
tities of  KgO,  MgO,  FeO,  MnO,  feldspar,  sand,  etc. 

Dry  a  quantity  of  clay  at  100°  C,  and  weigh ;  ignite  and 
weigh  again.  Loss  =  HgO.  Treat  then  with  H2SO4  (concen- 
trated); heat;  evaporate  off  excess  of  acid;  dissolve  in  con- 
centrated HCl,  and  filter  off  the  Si02  (weigh).  If  the  clay 
contain  an  admixture  of  sand  or  feldspar,  the  silica  is  dissolved 
in  a  boiling  concentrated  solution  of  sodic  carbonate,  which 
leaves  the  sand  and  feldspar  undissolved. 

The  hydrochloric  acid  solution  is  considerably  diluted,  and 
gradually  neutralized  with  sodic  carbonate.  Precipitate  out 
ferric  and  aluminic  oxide,  then  manganous,  calcic,  and  mag- 
nesic  oxides  remain  in  the  solution  as  dicarbonates. 

The  FesOa  and  AI2O3  are  then  separated,  as  also  the  man- 
ganous, calcic,  and  magnesic  oxides. 

II.  The  clay  is  fused  with  three  times  its  weight  of  potassic 
and  sodic  carbonate,  the  fused  mass  dissolved  in  dilute  HCl, 
the  solution  evaporated  to  dryness,  the  residue  dissolved  in 
water  containing  HCl,  and  the  solution  filtered  off.  The  sep- 
aration of  the  other  bases  contained  in  the  solution  is  then 
effected  as  in  I. 

III.  For  the  determination  of  the  alkali  a  separate  portion 
of  the  clay  is  decomposed  by  fusion  with  baric  hydrate  or  car- 
bonate ;  the  baric  oxide  and  the  other  bases  are  precipitated 
from  the  solution  by  a  mixture  of  ammonic  hydrate  and  car- 
bonate ;  after  gently  heating,  the  solution  is  filtered  off,  the 
solution  evaporated,  and  the  residue  ignited,  when  potassic  and 
sodic  chloride  are  left,  which  may  be  separated  if  required. — 
(From  Wohler's  Mineral  Analysis.) 


*24  THE    CHEMISTS'    MANUAL. 


'  ANALYSIS  OF  CLAYS. 


The  hard,  dark  dap  used  for  tJte  substance  of  the  Mount  Savage  fire-Mek. 

(John  M.  Ordway.) 

SiUca 60.457 

Alumina 35.904 

Protoxide  of  Iron 1.504 

Oxide  of  Manganese Trace. 

Lime 0.133 

Magnesia 0.018 

Water  and  Organic  Matter 12.744 

Potash Inappreciable. 

100.760 

GUNPOWDER  ANALYSIS. 

I.  For  the  estimation  of  moisture,  5  or  6  grams  of  powder 
are  dried  over  H2SO4,  or  in  the  air-bath  at  100°. 

II.  A  similar  quantity  of  powder  is  moistened  with  water, 
triturated  in  a  mortar,  rinsed  into  a  filter,  and  thoroughly 
washed.  The  solution  of  nitre  thus  obtained  is  evaporated  to 
dryness  in  a  small  weighed  porcelain  dish,  the  dry  residue 
heated  for  some  time  to  200**,  or  even  until  the  nitre  fuses, 
and  its  weight  determined. 

III.  In  order  to  determine  the  sulphur  5  grams  are  inti- 
mately mixed  with  5  grams  anhydrous  NaaCOa,  5  grams  of 
nitre,  and  20  grams  of  decrepitated  NaCl,  and  the  mixture 
heated  to  redness  in  a  platinum  crucible.  When  cool,  the 
mass  is  dissolved  in  water,  the  solution  slightly  acidified  with 
HNO3,  and  the  H2SO4  precipitated  with  BaClj. 

The  amount  of  carbon  may  be  inferred  by  difference.  In 
order  to  determine  its  quality,  and  to  ascertain  whether  it  has 
been  completely  or  incompletely  carbonized,  the  mixture  of 
sulphur  may  be  separated  with  carbon  disulphide,  which  dis- 
solves the  sulphur  and  leaves  the  carbon,  which  must  be  well 
washed  and  dried. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


425 


ANALYSIS  OF  GUNPOWDER. 


GUlTPOWDEBa. 


Swedish  war  powder 

Hessian  artilJery  powder 

**  musket  "  .... 
French  sporting  *'  ... 
English       "  "      .... 

Rossian  powder 

Chinese        *'      


Charcoal. 

SULFHVB. 

KlTIOE. 

0.0 

16.0 

75.0 

10.7 

16.1 

74.2 

10.7 

15.6 

73.7 

13.5 

9.6 

76.9 

18.7 

10.1 

76.2 

17.7 

11.7 

70.6 

23.1 

16.4 

61.6 

AUTHOBITT. 


Meyer. 

i( 

(( 

Prechtl. 

Ure. 
Meyer. 
Prechtl. 


SCHEME  FOR  THE  ANALYSIS  OF  GLASS.* 

Two  analyses  are  made,  one  by  fusion  with  an  alkaline 
carbonate,  for  the  determination  of  silicic  acid ;  the  other  by 
decomposing  the  glass  with  hydrofluoric  acid,  in  order  to  esti- 
mate the  alkali. 

I.  The  very  finely-powdered  glass  is  fiised  with  three  times 
its  weight  of  potassic  and  sodic  carbonate ;  the  mass  is  then 
softened  with  water,  dissolved  in  dilute  hydrochloric  acid, 
evaporated  to  dryness,  redissolved  in  water,  acidulated  with 
hydrochloric  acid,  and  the  silica  filtered  oflTand  washed. 

From  the  solution,  the  small  accidental  impurities  of  ferric, 
manganous,  and  aluminic  oxides  which  are  usually  contained 
evfen  in  white  glass,  are  precipitated  by  ammonic  hydrate,  after 
the  solution  has  been  mixed  with  some  chlorine  water  to  per- 
oxidize  the  mang9,nous  oxide. 

The  lime  is  afterwards  precipitated  by  oxalic  acid,  and  the 
solution  filtered  from  the  calcic  oxalate  is  tested  for  magnesia, 
which  may,  moreover,  have  been  precipitated  with  the  alu- 
minic oxide. 

If  the  glass  contain  plumbic  oxide,  that  metal  is  precipitated 
by  sulphydric  acid  from  the  solution  filtered  from  the  silicic 
acid. 


*  Mineral  Analysis,  WOhler,  p.  209. 


426 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


II.  For  the  detennination  of  the  alkalies,  a  second  quantity 
of  very  finely-powdered  glass  is  decomposed  by  hydrofluoric 
acid,  or  by  ignition  with  baric  carbonate. 

In  the  last  case  after  fusion  the  mass  is  dissolved  in  water, 
evaporated  to  dryness  with  a  little  hydrochloric  acid,  then  dis- 
solved again  in  water  and  the  insoluble  silica  filtered  ofl^,  when 
a  solution  will  be  obtained  from  which  may  be  determined  the 
alkalies,  as  also  the  other  bases  if  necessary. 

The  following  table  contains  the  analysis  of  different  speci- 
mens of  glass : 

ANALYSIS  OF  GLASS. 

Paie-grecn  Glass  used  for  Medical  Battles  and  Chemical  Apparatus,* 


CONBTITUEHTS. 

BOTTLB  GLABB. 

MXDICAL-BOTTLS  QULBS. 

K,0 1 

Na.O f 

BaO 

&1 

8.8 

(8.9 

6.48 

6.1 

10.6 

10.5  .     &0 
—         8.0 

16.4 

^ 

0.0 

— 

—- 

— 

^ 

CaO 

2S.8 

S0.7 

19.0 

80.» 

88.1 

10.0 

16.9      18.0 

15.6 

MgO   

._ 

0.6 

7.0 

— 

— 

— 

—         0.6 

9.9 

MnO 

1.2 

— 

0.4 

~- 

— 

0.8 

1.9       - 

^_ 

Fe.O. 

4.0 
8.0 

8.8 
10.4 

4.4 

6.8 

6.74 

6.9 ; 

1.5 
8.0 

9.5 
4.5 

1.6 
8.6 

0.7 

iii?';;;;;;-;:*;;.:-::;::; 

6.01,    14.0 

9.4 

60.0 

60.4 

60.6 

68.66    456 

71.6 

02.5 

60.6 

69.0 

P.O. 

0.4 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

09.0 

100.0 

99.4 

100.00  100.00 

97.0 

97.4  1  99.4 

99.8 

The  last  four  analyses  are  hj  Benhier. 


ANALYSIS  OF  WINDOW  GUSS. 


COKBTmmHTS. 

Na,0 

CaO 

A1,0,   

SiO, 


a 


15.99 

13.81 

1.83 

69.65 


100.00 


11.80 

17.95 

2.90 

69.96 


100.00 


12.88 

16.17 

9.40 

68.95 


100.00 


d 


17.70 
9.65 
4.00 

68.65 


100.00 


100.00     100.00 


e 

/ 

ff 

13.7 

10.1 

11.1 

7.8 

14.8 

12.6 

10.0 

76 

7.4 

66.5 

68.0 

69.0 

100.00 


a  to/  is  French ;  g,  English ;  /  and  g^  the  hardest  and  most 
infusible ;  J,  the  next ;  ^,  the  softest  and  most  easily  fused  of 


*  Watt's  Die.  Chem.,  Article  Oiass. 


THE    CHEMISTS'    MANUAL.  427 

the  whole.  In  France,  a  mixture  is  used  of  100  parts  of  quartz- 
sand  with  between  30  and  40  parts  of  dry  sodic  carbonate  (or 
as  much  sulphate  with  charcoal)  and  30  to  40  partfi  of  calcic 
carbonate  (Dumas).  Window -glass  may  be  approximately 
represented  by  the  formula  Na20.2Si02+Ca0.2Si02. 

CHLORIMETRY. 

Chlorimetry  has  for  its  object  the  determination  of  the 
available  chlorine  in  the  ^^  bleaching  powder  ^^  of  commerce. 
Bleaching  powder  is  called  "  cliloride  of  lime  ; "  it  is  a  mix- 
ture of  calcic  hypochlorite,  calcic  chloride,  and  calcic  hydrate. 

The  following  method  of  chlorimetry*  is  based  upon  the 
conversion  of  arsenious  acid  into  arsenic  acid ;  the  conversion 
is  effected  in  an  alkaline  solution.  Potassic  iodide  starch- 
paper  is  employed  to  ascertain  the  exact  point  when  the  re- 
action is  completed. 

(a.)   PREPARATION  OF  POTASSIC  IODIDE  STARCH-PAPER. 

(Freseniua,  g  212.) 

Stir  3  grams  of  potato  starch  in  250  c.c.  of  cold  water,  boil 
with  stirring,  add  a  solution  of  1  gram  potassic  iodide  and 
1  gram  crystallized  sodic  carbonate,  and  dilute  to  500  c.c. 
Moisten  strips  of  Swedish  paper  with  this  fluid,  and  dry.  Keep, 
in  a  closed  bottle. 

(ft.)  PREPARATION  OP  SOLUTION  OP  ARSENIOUS  ACID. 

Dissolve  4.436  grams  of  ptire  arsenious  acid  and  13  grani;^ 
pure  crystallized  sodic  carbonate  in  600-700  c.c.  of  water, 
with  the  aid  of  heat ;  let  the  solution  cool,  and  then  dilute  to 
one  litre.  Each  c.c.  of  this  solution  contains  0.004436  grams 
arsenious  acid,  which  corresponds  to  1  c.c.  chlorine  gas  of  0° 
and  760  m.m.  atmospheric  pressure. 


♦  By  A.  Penot,  Dingler's  Polytech.  Jour.,  127, 184. 


428  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


PREPARATION  OP  SOLUTION  OP  "CHLORIDE  OP  LIMR" 

Weigh  10  grams  of  "chloride  of  lime,"  triturate  finely  with 
a  little  water,  add  gradually  more  water,  pour  the  liquid  into 
a  litre  flask,  triturate  the  residue  again  with  water,  and  rinse 
the  contents  of  the  mortar  carefully  into  the  flask ;  fill  the 
latter  to  the  mark,  shake  the  milky  fluid  and  examine  it  at 
once.     1  c.c.  of  this  solution  =  0.01  gram  chloride  of  lime. 

(c.)    THE    PROCESS. 

Put  50  C.C.  of  solution  of  "  chloride  of  lime"  in  a  beaker, 
and  from  a  50  c.c.  burette  add  slowly,  and  at  last  drop  by 
drop,  the  solution  of  arsenious  acid,  with  constant  stirring, 
until  a  drop  of  the  mixture  produces  no  longer  a  blue-colored 
spot  on  the  iodized  paper.  The  number  of  J  c.c.  used  indi- 
cates directly  the  number  of  chlorometric  degrees.  Suppose 
40  c.c.  of  arsenious  acid  solution  were  used,  the  quantity  of 
'*  chloride  of  lime"  used  in  the  experiment  contains  40  c.c.  of 
chlorine  gas.  Now  the  50  c.c.  of  solution  employed  corresponds 
to  (1  C.C.  =  0.01  gram)  0.5  gram  of  chloride  of  lime ;  therefore 
0.5  gram  of  chloride  of  lime  contains  40  c.c.  chlorine  gas ; 
therefore  1000  grams  contain  8000  c.c.  =  80  litres  of  chlorine 
gas. 


Ijrganic    Iwalgsis. 


THE    ELEMENTARY    OR    ULTIMATE 

ANALYSIS   OF   ORGANIC   COMPOUNDS. 

{From  F0WNB8'  Chemistry,  London,  1872.) 

Organic  corapoiindB  contain,  for  the  most  part,  only  a  small 
number  of  elements.  Many  consist  only  of  carbon  and  hydro- 
gen. A  very  large  number,  including  most  of  those  which 
occur  ready-formed  in  the  bodies  of  plants  and  animals,  consist 
of  carbon,  hydrogen,  and  oxygen;  others  consist  of  carbon, 
hydrogen,  and  nitrogen.  Others,  again,  including  most  of  the 
proximate  principles  of  the  animal  organism,  consist  of  four 
elements,  carbon,  hydrogen,  oxygen,  and  nitrogen.  Some 
contain  sulphur,  phosphorus,  chlorine,  and  metallic  elements ; 
in  fact,  artificially  prepared  carbon  compounds  may  contain 
any  elements  whatever.  Moreover,  even  those  which  contain 
only  a  small  number  of  elements  often  exhibit  great  complexity 
of  structure,  in  consequence  of  the  accumulation  of  a  large 
number  of  carbon-atoms  in  the  same  molecule. 

DETERMINATION    OF    CARBON    AND    HYDROGEN. 

The  quantities  of  these  elements  are  determined  by  heating 
a  known  weight  of  the  body  to  be  analyzed  in  contact  with 
some  easily-reducible  metallic  oxide,  black  oxide  of  copper 
being  the  substance  generally  used.  The  organic  body  then 
undergoes  complete  combustion  at  the  expense  of  the  oxygen 
of  the  cupric  oxide,  the  carbon  being  completely  converted 
into  carbonic  oxide,  and  the  hydrogen  into  water.  These 
products  are  collected  and  their  weights  determined,  and  from 


432  P  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

the  data  thus  obtained  the  quantities  of  carbon  and  hydrogen 
present  in  the  organic  substance  are  calculated.  When  nothing 
but  carbon  and  hydrogen,  or  those  bodies  together  with  oxy- 
gen, is  present,  one  experiment  suffices;  the  carbon  and 
hydrogen  are  determined  directly,  and  the  oxygen  by  difler- 
ence. 

The  substance  to  be  analyzed,  if  solid,  must  be  carefully 
freed  from  moisture.     If  it  will  bear  the  application  of  a  mod- 
erate  heat,  this  desiccation  is  very  easily 
Fig.  1.  accomplished  by  a  water  or  steam  bath ;  in 

other  cases,  exposure  at  common  tempera- 
tures to  the  absorbent  powers  of  a  large 
surface  of.  oil  of  vitriol  in  the  vacuum  of  an 
air-pump  must  be  substituted. 

The  dried  powder  is  weighed  in  a  narrow 
open  tube,  about  2 J  or  3  inches  long ;  the 
tube  and  substance  are  weighed  together, 
and,  when  the  latter  has  been  removed,  the 
tube  with  any  little  adherent  matter  is  re-weighed.  This 
weight,  subtracted  from  the  former,  gives  the  weight  of  the 
substance  employed  in  the  experiment.  As  only  half  a  gram 
(5  or  6  grains)  is  used,  the  weighings  should  not  involve  a 
greater  error  than  a  milligram  (or  ^  J^  part  of  a  grain). 

The  cupric  oxide  is  best  made  from  the  nitrate  by  complete 
ignition  in  an  earthen  crucible ;  it  is  reduced  to  a  powder  and 
reheated  just  before  use,  to  expel  hydroscopic  moisture,  which 
it  absorbs,  even  while  warm,  with  avidity.  The  combustion 
is  performed  in  a  tube  of  hard,  white  Bohemian  glass,  having 
a  diameter  of  0.4  or  0.5  inch,  and  varying  in  length  from  14 
to  18  inches;  this  kind  of  glass  bears  a  moderate  red  heat 
without  becoming  soft  enough  to  lose  its  shape.  One  end  of 
the  tube  is  drawn  out  to  a  point,  as  shown  in  the  figure,  and 
closed;  the  other  is  simply  heated,  to  fuse  and  soften  the 
sharp  edges  of  the  glass. 

The  tube  is  now  two-thirds  filled  with  the  yet  warm  cupric 
oxide,  nearly  the  whole  of  which  is  transferred  to  a  small  per- 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


433 


Fig.  2. 


celain  or  Wedgwood  mortar,  and  very  intimately  mixed  with 
the  organic  substance.  The  mixture  is  then  transferred  to  the 
tube,  and  the  mortar  rinsed  with  a  little  fresh  and  hot  oxide, 
which  is  added  to  the  rest ;  the  tube  is  lastly  filled  to  within 
an  inch  of  the  open  end  with  oxide  from  the  crucible.  A  few 
gentle  taps  on  the  table  suffice  to  shake  together  the  contents, 
so  as  to  leave  a  free  passage  for  the  evolved  gases  from  end  to 
end.  The  airangement  of  the  mixture  and  the  oxide  in  the 
tube  is  represented  in  the  above  figure. 

The  tube  is  then  ready  to  be  placed  in  the  ftimace  or  chauf- 
fer ;  this,  when  charcoal  is  the  fuel  employed,  is  constructed 
of  thin  sheet-iron,  and  is  furnished  with  a  series  of  supports  of 
equal  height,  which  sei^ve  to  prevent  flexure  of  the  combustion- 
tube  when  softened  by  heat.  The  chauflfer  is  placed  upon  flat 
bricks  or  a  piece  of  stone,  so  that  but  little  air  can  enter  the 
grating,  unless  the  whole  be  purposely  raised.    A  slight  incli- 

FiG.  3. 


nation  is  also  given  towards  the  extremity  occupied  by  the 
mouth  of  the  combustion-tube,  which  passes  through  a  hole 
provided  for  the  purpose. 

To  collect  the  water  produced  in  the  experiment,  a  small 
light  tube  of  the  form  represented  in  Fig.  4,  or  a  U-tube,  as  in 
Fig.  7,  filled  with  fragments  of  spongy  calcic  chloride,  is 


434 


THE    CHEMISTS'   MANUAL. 


attached  by  a  perforated  cork,  thoroughly  dried,  to  the  open 
extremity  of  the  combustion-tube.  The  carbonic  oxide  is  ab- 
sorbed by  a  solution  of  potassic  hydrate,  of  specific  gravity  1.27, 
which  is  contained  in  a  small  glass  apparatus  on  the  principle 
of  a  Woulfe's  bottle,  shown  in   Fig.   5.      The  connection 


Fig.  4. 


Fig.  5. 


between  the  latter  and  the  calcic-chloride  tube  is  completed 
by  a  little  tube  of  caoutchouc,  secured  with  silk  cord.  The 
whole  is  shown  in  Fig.  6,  as  arranged  for  use.  Both  the 
calcic-chloride  tube  and  the  potash  apparatus  are  weighed 
with  the  utmost  care  before  the  experiment. 


Fig.  6. 


DRAWING  OF  THE  WHOLE  ARRAKGEHENT. 


The  tightness  of  the  junctions  may  be  ascertained  by  slightly 
rarefying  the  included  air  by  sucking  a  few  bubbles  from  the 
interior  through  the  liquid,  using  the  dry  lips,  or,  better,  a 
little  bent  tube  with  a  perforated  cork ;  if  the  difference  of 
level  in  the  liquid  in  the  two  limbs  of  the  potash-apparatus  be 
preserved  for  several  minutes,  the  joints  are  perfect.  Red-hot 
charcoal  is  now  placed  around  the  anterior  portion  of  the  com- 
bustion-tube, containing  the  pure  cnpric  oxide;  and  when 
this  is  red-hot,  the  fire  is  slowly  extended  towards  the  farther 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


435 


extremity  by  shifting  the  movable  screen  represented  in  the 
drawing.  The  experiment  must  be  so  conducted,  that  a  uni- 
form Btream  of  carbonic  oxide  shall  enter  the  potaeh-apparatUB 
by  bubbles  which  may  be  easily  counted ;  when  no  nitrogen 
ie  present,  these  bubbles  are,  towards  the  termination  of  the 
experiment,  almost  completely  absorbed  by  the  alkaline  liquid, 
the  little  residue  of  air  alone  escaping.  In  the  case  of  an 
azotized  body,  on  the  contrary,  bubbles  of  nitrogen  gas  pass 
through  the  potash-solution  during  the  whole  process. 

When  the  tube  has  been  completely  heated  from  end  to  end, 
and  no  more  gas  is  disengaged,  but,  on  the  other  hand,  absorp- 
tion begins  to  be  evident,  the  coals  are  removed  from  the 
farthest  extremity  of  the  combustion-tube,  and  the  point  of  the 
latter  broken  off.  A  little  air  is  drawn  through  the  whole 
apparatus,  by  which  the  remaining  carbonic  oxide  and  watery 
vapor  are  secured.  The  parte  are,  lastly,  detached,  and  the 
calcic-chloride  tube  and  potash-apparatns  re-weighed. 


The  mode  of  heating  the  combnstion-tube  with  red-hot  char- 
coal is  the  original  process,  and  still  extensively  employed,  the 
construction  of  the  furnace  being  most  simple,  and  charcoal 
everywhere  accessible.  But  since  the  use  of  coal  gas  has  been 
universally  adopted  in  laboratories,  many  contrivances  have 
been  suggested,  by  means  of  which  this  convenient  fuel  may 


THE   CHEMISTS'   MANUAL. 


HI 


be  employed  also  in  oi^anic  analysis.  An  apparatus  of  this 
kind  *  is  the  one  represented  in  Fig.  7,  in  which  the  combus- 
tion-tube is  heated  by  a  seriea  of  perforated  clay  burners. 
These  are  fixed  on  pipes  provided  with  stopcocks,  so  that  the 
gas  may  be  lighted  according  to  the  reqmrements  of  the  case. 
The  stopcocks  being  appropriately  adjusted,  the  gas  bums  on 
the  surface  of  the  burners  with  a  smokeleBs  blue  flame,  which 
renders  them  in  a  short  time  incandescent.  The  construction 
of  this  furnace  is  readily  intelligible  by  a  glance  at  Fige.  8 
and  9,  which  exhibit  the  different  parts  of  the  apparatus  in 
section,  Fig.  8  representing  furnace  with  five  rows,  and  Fig.  9 
a  smaller  furnace  with  three  rows  of  clay  burners. 

The  following  account  of  a  real  experiment  will  serve  to 
illustrate  the  calculation  of  the  result  obtained  in  the  combus- 
tion of  crystallized  sugar: 

Qaantit;  of  sagar  employed 4.750  gikina. 

Potaah-appsTatUB  weighed  after  experimpnl. .   781. t8 

before         '•  ..  77383 

Carbon  dioiide 7.31 

Calciura-cblorlde  tube  after  experiment 926.05 

•'     before        "  223.30 


•  Hofitoann,  Journal  of  Chemical  Society,  vol.  li,  p.  80. 


THE    CHEMISTS'    MANUAL.  437 

7.31  gr.  carbon  dioxide  =  1.994  gr.  carbon  ;  2.75  gr.  water  =  0.d056  gr. 
hydrogen ;  or,  in  100  parta  sugar,* 

Carbon 41.98 

Hydrogen 6.43 

Oxygen  by  difference 51.59 

100.00 

When  the  organic  Bubstance  cannot  be  mixed  with  cupric 
oxide  in  the  manner  described,  tlie  process  must  be  slightly 
modified.  If,  for  example,  a  volatile  liquid  is  to  be  examined, 
it  is  inclosed  in  a  little  glass  bulb  with  a  narrow  stem,  which  is 
weighed  before  and  after  the  introduction  of  the  liquid,  the 
point  being  hermetically  sealed.  The  combustion-tube  must 
have,  in  this  case,  a  much  greater  length ;  and  as  the  cupric 
oxide  cannot  be  introduced  hot,  it  must  be  ignited  and  cooled 
out  of  contact  with  the  air,  to  prevent  absorption  of  watery 
vapor.  This  is  most  conveniently  effected  by  transferring  it, 
in  a  heated  state,  to  a  large  platinum  cnicible  to  which  a 
closely-fitting  cover  can  be  adapted.  When  quite  cold,  the 
cover  is  removed,  and  instantly  replaced  by  a  dry  glass  funnel, 
by  the  assistance  of  which  the  oxide  may  be  directly  poured 
into  the  combustion-tube  with  merely  momentary  exposure  to 
the  air.  A  little  oxide  is  put  in,  then  the  bulb,  with  its  stem 
broken  at  a,  a  file-scratch  having  been  previously  made ;  and 
lastly,  the  tube  is  filled  with  the  cold  and  dry  cupric  oxide. 

It  is  arranged  in  the  chauffer,  the  calcic-chloride  tube  and 
potash-apparatus  adjusted,  and  then  some  six  or  eight  inches 
of  oxide  having  been  heated  to  redness,  the  liquid  in  the  bulb 
is,  by  the  approximation  of  a  hot  coal,  expelled,  and  slowly 
converted  into  vapor,  which,  in  passing  over  the  hot  oxide,  is 
completely  burned.  The  experiment  is  then  terminated  in 
the  usual  manner. 

*  The  theoretical  oompoeition  of  sugar.  Cit^^^On,  reckoned  to  100 
parts,  gives : 

Carbon 42.11 

Hydrogen 6.43 

Oxygen 51.46 

100.00 


438  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

Fig.  10. 


Fusible  fatty  and  wavy  Bubstances,  and  volatile  concrete 
bodies,  as  camphor,  are  placed  in  little  boats  of  glass  or  plat- 
inum. 

Cupric  oxide,  which  has  been  used,  may  be  easily  restored 
by  moistening  with  nitric  acid  and  igniting  to  redness ;  it  be- 
comes, in  fact,  rather  improved  than  otherwise,  as,  after  fre- 
quent employment,  its  density  is  increased,  and  its  troublesome 
hygroscopic  powers  diminished. 

For  substances  which  ane  very  difficult  of  combustion,  from 
the  large  proportion  of  carbon  which  they  contain,  and  for  com- 
pounds into  which  chlorine  enters  as  a  constituent,  fused  and 
powdered  lead  chromate  is  very  advantageously  substituted  for 
the  cupric  oxide.  Plumbic  chromate  freely  gives  up  oxygen  to 
combustible  matters,  and  even  evolves,  when  strongly  heated, 
a  little  of  that  gas,  which  thus  ensures  the  perfect  combustion 
of  the  organic  body. 

ANALYSIS  OF  AZOTIZED   SUBSTANCES. 

The  presence  of  nitrogen  in  an  organic  compound  is  easily 
ascertained  by  heating  a  small  portion  with  solid  potassic 
hydrate  in  a  test-tube ;  the  nitrogen,  if  present,  is  converted 
into  ammonia,  which  may  be  recognized  by  its  odor  and  alka- 
line reaction. 

In  determining  the  carbon  and  hydrogen  in  such  bodies,  by 
combustion  with  cupric  oxide,  as  above  described,  a  longer 
tube  than  usual  must  be  employed,  and  four  or  five  inches  of 
its  anterior  position  filled  with  copper  turnings  rendered  per- 
fectly metallic  by  ignition  in  hydrogen. 


THE    CHEMISTS'    MANUAL.  439 

This  serves  to  decompose  any  nitrogen  oxides  formed  in  the 
process  of  combustion,  which,  if  suffered  to  pass  off  unde- 
composed,  would  be  absorbed  by  the  potash,  and  vitiate  the 
determination  of  the  carbon. 

The  nitrogen  may  be  estimated  either  by  converting  it  into 
ammonia,  by  igniting  the  substance  with  an  alkaline  hydrate, 
as  above  mentioned,  or  by  evolving  it  in  the  free  state  and 
measuring  its  volume. 

1.  By  conversimi  into  ammonia:  Will  and  Varrentrapp's 
method. — An  intimate  mixture  is  made  of  1  part  sodic  oxide 
and  2  or  3  parts  quicklime,  by  slaking  lime  of  good  qual- 
ity with  the  proper  proportion  of  strong  sodic  oxide,  drying 
the  mixture  in  an  iron  vessel,  and  then  heating  it  to  redness 
in  an  earthen  crucible.  The  ignited  mass  is  rubbed  to  powder 
in  a  warm  mortar,  and  carefully  preserved  from  the  air.  The 
lime  is  useful  in  many  ways ;  it  diminishes  the  tendency  of 
the  alkali  to  deliquesce,  facilitates  mixture  with  the  organic 
substance,  and  prevents  fusion  and  liquefaction.  A  proper 
quantity  of  the  substance  to  be  analyzed,  namely,  from  5  to  10 
grains,  is  dried  and  accurately  weighed  out ;  this  is  mixed  in  a 
warm  porcelain  mortar  with  enough  of  the  soda-lime  to  fill  two- 
thirds  of  an  ordinary  combustion-tube,  the  mortar  being  rinsed 
with  a  little  more  of  the  alkaline  mixture,  and,  lastly,  with 
a  small  quantity  of  powdered  glass,  which  completely  re- 
moves everything  adherent  to  its  surface;  the  tube  is  then 
filled  to  within  an  inch  of  the  open  end  with  the  lime-mixture, 
and  arranged  in  a  chauffer  in  the  usual  manner.  The  am- 
monia is  collected  in  a  little  apparatus  of  three  bulbs  (Fig.  11), 
containing  moderately  strong  hydrochloric  acid,  attached  by  a 
cork  to  the  combustion-tube.  Matters  being  thus  adjusted,  fire 
is  applied  to  the  tube  commencing  with  the  anterior  extremity. 
When  it  is  ignited  throughout  its  whole  length,  and  when 
no  gas  issues  from  the  apparatus,  the  point  of  the  tube  is 
broken,  and  a  little  air  drawn  through  the  whole.  The  acid 
liquid  is  then  emptied  into  a  capsule,  the  bulbs  rinsed  into 
the  same,  first  with  a  little  alcohol,  and  then  repeatedly  with 


440  THE  CHEMISTS*  MANUAL. 


Fig.  11. 


distilled  water ;  an  excess  of  pure  platinic  chloride  is  added ; 
and  the  whole  evaporated  to  dryness  in  a  water-bath.  The 
dry  mass,  when  cold,  is  treated  with  a  mixture  of  alcohol  and 
ether,  which  dissolves  out  the  superfluous  platinic  chloride, 
but  leaves  untouched  the  yellow  crystalline  ammonic  chloro- 
platinate.  The  latter  is  collected  upon  a  small  weighed 
filter,  washed  with  tho  same  mixture  of  alcohol  and  ether, 
dried  at  100°,  and  weighed ;  100  parts  correspond  to,  6.272 
parts  of  nitrogen.  Or,  the  salt  with  its  filter  may  be  very 
carefully  ignited,  the  filter  burned  in  a  platinum  crucible,  and 
the  nitrogen  reckoned  from  the  weight  of  the  spongy  metal, 
100  parts  of  that  substance  corresponding  to  14.18  parts  nitro- 
gen.    The  former  plan  is  to  be  preferred  in  most  cases. 

Bodies  very  rich  in  nitrogen,  as  urea,  must  be  mixed  with 
about  an  equal  quantity  of  pure  sugar,  to  furnish  inconden- 
sable gas,  and  then  diminish  the  violence  of  the  absorption 
which  otherwise  occurs;  and  the  same  precaution  must  be 
taken,  for  a  diflferent  reason,  with  those  which  contain  httle  or 
no  hydrogen. 

A  modification  of  this  process  has  been  suggested  by  Peli- 
got,  which  is  very  convenient  if  a  large  number  of  nitrogen- 
determination  is  to  be  made.  By  this  plan,  the  ammonia, 
instead  of  being  received  in  hydrochloric  acid,  is  conducted 
into  a  known  volume  (one-half  to  one  cubic  inch)  of  a  standard 
solution  of  sulphuric  acid  contained  in  the  ordinary  nitrogen- 
bulbs.  After  the  combustion  is  finished,  the  acid  containing 
the  ammonia  is  poured  out  into  a  beaker,  colored  with  a  drop 
of  tincture  of  litmus,  and  then  neutralized  with  a  standard 
solution  of  soda  in  water,  or  of  lime  in  sugar-water,  the  point 


THE   CHEMISTS'   MANUAL.  441 

of  neutralization  becoming  perceptible  by  the  sudden  appear- 
ance of  a  blue  tint.  The  lime  solution  is  conveniently  poured 
out  from  an  alkalimeter.  The  volume  of  lime-solution  neces- 
sary to  neutralize  the  same  amount  of  acid  that  is  used  for 
condensing  the  ammonia,  having  been  ascertained  by  a  pre- 
liminary experiment,  it  is  evident  that  the  difference  of  the 
quantities  used  in  the  two  experiments  gives  the  ammonia 
collected  in  the  acid  during  the  combustion.  The  amount 
of  nitrogen  may  thus  be  calculated. 

If,  for  instance,  an  acid  be  prepared  containing  20  grams 
of  pure  hydrogen  sulphate  (H2SO4)  in  1000  grain-measures, 
then  200  grain-measures  of  this  acid,  the  quantity  introduced 
into  the  bulbs,  will  correspond  to  1.38  grains  of  ammonia,  or 
1.14  grains  of  nitrogen.  The  alkaline  solution  is  so  graduated 
that  1000  grain-measures  will  exactly  neutralize  the  200  grain- 
measures  of  the  standard  acid.  If  we  now  find  that  the  acid, 
partly  saturated  with  the  ammonia  disengaged  during  the  com- 
bustion of  a  nitrogenous  substance,  requires  only  700  grain- 
measures  of  the  alkaline  solution,  it  is  evident  that  -^^of^^ 
=  60  grain-measures  were  saturated  by  the  ammonia,  and  the 
quantity  of  nitrogen  is  obtained  by  the  proportion,  200  :  1.14 
=  60 :  a?,  wherefore  a?  =  ^VoV^  =  0.342  grains  of  nitrogen. 

2.  By  measure  as  free  nitrogen. — When  the  nitrogen  exists 
in  the  organic  substance  in  the  form  of  an  oxide,  as  in  nitro- 
benzine,  CgH5(N02),  ethyl  nitrate,  C2H5(N0)0,  etc.,  the  pre- 
ceding method  cannot  be  employed,  because  these  nitrogen 
oxides  are  not  completely  converted  into  ammonia  by  heating 
with  alkaline  hydrates :  it  fails  also  in  the  case  of  certain 
organic  bases.  In  such  cases  the  nitrogen  must  be  evolved  in 
the  free  state  by  heating  the  organic  body  with  cupric  oxide, 
and  its  volume  determined  by  collecting  it  over  mercury  in  a 
graduated  jar.  There  are  several  ways  of  effecting  this :  the 
one  most  frequently  employed  is  that  of  Dumas,  as  simplified 
by  Melseus : 

A  tube  of  Bohemian  glass,  28  inches  long,  is  securely  sealed 
at  one  end ;  into  this  enough  dry  hydrosodic  carbonate  is  put 


U2 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


to  occupy  6  inchee,  A  little  pure  copper  oride  is  next  intro- 
duced, and  afterwards  the  mixture  of  oxide  and  organic  sub- 
stance ;  tlie  weiglit  of  the  latter,  between  4.5  and  9  grains,  in 
a  dry  state,  having  been  correctly  determined.  The  remainder 
of  the  tube,  amounting  to  nearly  one-half  of  its  length,  is 
then  filled  up  with  pure  cupric  oxide  and  spongy  metal,  and 
a  round  cork,  perforated  by  a  piece  of  narrow  tube,  is  securely 


adapted  to  its  month.  This  tube  is  connected  by  means  of  a 
caoutchouc  joint  with  a  bent  delivery-tube,  <7,  and  the  com- 
bustion-tube is  arranged  in  the  liimace.  A  few  coals  are  now 
applied  to  the  farther  end  of  the  tube,  so  as  to  decompose  a 
portion  of  the  hydrosodic  carbonate ;  the  remainder  of  the 
earbonate,  as  well  as  of  the  other  part  of  the  tube,  being  pro- 
tected from  the  heat  by  a  screen,  n.  The  current  of  carbonic 
oxide  thus  produced  is  intended  to  expel  all  the  air  from  the 
apparatus.  In  order  to  ascertain  that  this  object,  on  which 
the  success  of  the  whole  operation  depends,  b  acconiphshed, 
the  delivery-tube  is  depressed  under  the  level  of  a  mercunal 
trough,  and  the  gas  which  is  evolved,  collected  in  a  test-tube 
filled  with  concentrated  potash-solution.  If  the  gas  be  per- 
fectly absorbed,  or,  if  after  the  introduction  of  a  considerable 
quantity  only  a  minute  bubble  be  left,  the  air  may  be  con- 
sidered as  expelled.  The  next  step  is  to  fill  a  graduated  glass 
jar  two-tbirds  with  mercury  and  one-third  with  a  strong  solu- 
tion of  potash,  and  to  invert  it  over  the  delivery-tabe,  as 
represented  in  Fig.  12- 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL,  443 

This  done,  fire  is  applied  to  tlie  tube,  commencing  at  the  * 
front  end,  and  gradually  proceeding  to  the  closed  extremity, 
which  still  contains  some  undecomposed  hydrosodic  car- 
bonate. This,  when  the  fire  at  length  reaches  it,  yields  up 
carbonic  oxide,  which  chases  forward  the  nitrogen  lingering 
in  the  tube.  The  carbonic  oxide  generated  during  the  com- 
bustion is  wholly  absorbed  by  the  potash  in  the  jar,  and  nothing 
is  left  but  the  nitrogen.  When  the  operation  is  at  an  end, 
the  jar  with  its  contents  is  transferred  to  a  vessel  of  water, 
and  the  volume  of  the  nitrogen  read  off.  This  is  properly  cor- 
rected for  temperature,  pressure,  and  aqueous  vapor,  and  its 
weight  determined  by  calculation.  When  the  operation  has 
been  very  successful,  and  all  precautions  minutely  observed, 
the  result  still  leaves  an  error  in  excess,  amounting  to  0.3  or 
0.5  per  cent,  due  to  the  residual  air  of  the  apparatus,  or  that 
condensed  in  the  pores  of  the  cupric  oxide. 

A  modification  of  the  process,  by  which  this  error  is  con- 
siderably diminished,  has  been  devised  by  Dr.  Maxwell 
Simpson.* 

The  method  just  described  is  applicable  to  the  estimation 
of  nitrogen  in  the  oxides  and  oxygen-acids  of  nitrogen,  in 
metallic  nitrates  and  nitrites,  and,  in  fact,  to  the  analysis  of 
all  nitrogenous  bodies  whatever. 

ANALYSIS    OF    CHLORINATED   COMPOUNDS. 

The  case  of  a  volatile  liquid  containing  chlorine  is  of  very 
frequent  occurrence,  and  may  be  taken  as  an  illustration  of  the 
general  plan  of  proceeding.  The  combustion  with  cupric 
oxide  must  be  very  carefully  conducted,  and  two  or  three 
inches  of  the  anterior  portion  of  the  tube  kept  cool  enoughs 
to  prevent  volatilization  of  the  cupric  chloride  into  the  cal- 
cic-chloride tube.  Plumbic  chromate  is  much  better  for  the 
purpose. 

The  chlorine  is  correctly  determined   by  placing  a  small 

*  Quarterly  Joamal  of  the  Chemical  Society^,  vi,  299. 


444  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

weighed  bulb  of  liquid  in  a  combustion-tube,  which  is  after- 
wards filled  with  fragments  of  pure  quicklime.  The  lime  is 
brought  to  a  red  heat,  and  the  vapor  of  the  liquid  driven  over 
it,  when  the  chlorine  displaces  oxygen  from  the  Ume,  and 
gives  rise  to  calcic  chloride.  When  cold,  the  contents  of 
the  tube  are  dissolved  in  dilute  nitric  acid,  the  liquid  is  fil- 
tered, and  the  chlorine  precipitated  by  silver  nitrate. 
Bromine  and  iodine  are  estimated  in  a  similar  manner. 

ANALYSIS  OF  ORGANIC  COMPOUNDS  CONTAINING 

SULPHUR. 

When  a  body  of  this  nature  is  burned  with  cupric  oxide,  a 
small  tube  containing  plumbic  oxide  may  be  interposed  between 
the  calcic-chloride  tube  and  the  potash  apparatus,  to  retain 
any  sulphurous  acid  that  may  be  formed.  It  is  better,  how- 
ever, to  use  plumbic  chromate  in  such  cases.  The  proportion  of 
sulphur  is  determined  by  oxidizing  a  known  weight  of  the 
substance  with  strong  nitric  acid,  or  by  fusion  in  a  silver  ves- 
sel with  ten  or  twelve  times  its  weight  of  pure  potassic 
hydrate  and  half  as  much  nitre.  The  sulphur  is  thus  con- 
verted into  sulphuric  acid,  the  quantity  of  which  can  be  deter- 
mined by  dissolving  the  fused  mass  in  water,  acidulating  with 
nitric  acid,  and  adding  a  barium  salt.  Phosphorus  is,  in  like 
manner,  oxidized  to  phosphoric  acid,  the  quantity  of  which  is 
determined  by  precipitation  as  ammonic-dimagnesic  phosphate, 
or  othei'wise. 

EMPIRICAL  AND   MOLECULAR  FORMUUE. 

A  chemical  formula  is  termed  empirical  when  it  merely 
gives  the  simplest  possible  expression  of  the  composition  of 
the  substance  to  which  it  refers.  A  molecular  formula,  on  the 
contrary,  expresses  the  absolute  number  of  atoms  of  each  of  its 
elements  supposed  to  be  contained  in  the  molecule,  as  well  as 
mere  numerical  relations  existing  between  them.  The  em- 
pirical formula  is  at  once  deduced  from  the  analysis  of  the  sub- 
stance, reckoned  to  100  parts. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  445 

The  case  of  sugar  already  cited,  may  be  taken  as  an  ex- 
ample. 

This  substance  gives  by  analysis : 

Carbon 41.98 

Hydrogen 6.43 

Oxygen 51.59 

100.00 

If  each  of  these  quantities  be  divided  by  the  atomic  weight 
of  the  corresponding  element,  the  quotient  vrill  express  the 
relations  existing  between  the  numbers  of  atoms  of  the  three 
elements ;  these  are  afterwards  reduced  to  their  simplest  ex- 
pression. 

This  is  the  only  part  of  the  calculation  attended  with  any  dif- 
ficulty. If  the  members  were  rigidly  correct,  it  would  only  be 
necessary  to  divide  each  by  the  greatest  divisor  common  to  the 
whole ;  but  as  they  are  only  approximative,  something  is  of 
necessity  left  to  the  judgment  of  the  experimenter. 

In  the  case  of  sugar,  we  have 

*l-98      „  ,^    6.43       ^  ,„    51.59      „  ,^ 
-^  =  3.50;  -y-  =  6.43 ;  -j^  =  3.42, 

or  350  atoms  carbon,  643  atoms  hydrogen,  and  342  atoms 
oxygen.  Now  it  is  evident,  in  the  first  place,  that  the  hydrogen 
and  oxygen  are  present  nearly  in  the  proportion  to  form  water, 
or  twice  as  many  atoms  of  the  former  as  of  the  latter.  Again, 
the  atoms  of  carbon  and  hydrogen  are  nearly  in  the  proportion 
of  12  :  22,  so  that  the  formula  C,2H22j  0, ,  appears  likely  to 
be  correct.  It  is  now  easy  to  see  how  far  this  is  admissible, 
by  reckoning  it  back  to  100  parts,  comparing  the  results  with 
the  number  given  by  the  actual  analysis,  and  observing 
whether  the  diflference  falls  fairly,  in  direction  and  amount, 
within  the  limits  of  error  of  what  may  be  termed  a  good  ex- 
periment, viz. :  two  or  three  tenths  per  cent,  deficiency  in  the 
carbon,  and  not  more  than  one-tenth  or  two-tenths  per  cent, 
excess  in  the  hydrogen : 


446  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

Carbon 12  x  12  =  144 

Hydrogen 1  x  22  =  22 

Oxygen 10  x  11  =  176 

842 

842  :  144  =  100  :  42.11 
842  :  22  =  100  :  6.43 
842  :  176  =  100  ;  61.46 

To  determine  the  molecular  formula,  several  considerations 
must  be  taken  into  account — namely,  the  combining  or  satu- 
rating power  of  the  compound ;  if  it  is  acid  or  basic,  the  num- 
ber of  atoms  of  any  one  of  its  elements  (generally  hydrogen) 
which  may  be  replaced  by  other  elements ;  the  law  of  even 
numbers,  which  requires  that  the  sum  of  the  numbers  of  atoms 
of  all  the  perissad  elements  (hydrogen,  nitrogen,  chlorine,  etc.) 
contained  in  the  compound  shall  be  divisible  by  2 ;  and  the 
vapor-density  of  the  compound  (if  it  be  volatile  without  de- 
composition), which,  in  normally  constituted  compounds,  is 
always  half  the  molecular  weight. 

The  molecular  formula  may  either  coincide  with  the  em- 
pirical formula,  or  it  may  be  a  multiple  of  the  latter.  Thus, 
the  composition  of  acetic  acid  is  expressed  by  the  formula 
CH2O,  which  exhibits  the  simplest  relations  of  the  three  ele- 
ments ;  but  if  we  want  to  express  the  quantities  of  these,  in 
atoms,  required  to  make  up  a  molecule  of  acetic  acid,  we  have 
to  adopt  the  formula  C2H4O2;  for  only  one-fourth  of  the 
hydrogen  in  this  acid  is  replaceable  by  metals  to  form  salts, 
C2H3KO2,  for  example;  and  its  vapor-density,  compared  with 
hydrogen,  is  nearly  30,  which  is  half  the  weight  of  the  mole- 
cule, C2H4O2  =  2  .  12  -h  4  .  1  +  2  .  16.  Again,  the  empirical 
formula  of  benzine  is  CH  ;  but  this  contains  an  uneven  num- 
ber of  hydrogen  atoms ;  moreover,  if  it  expressed  the  weight 
of  the  molecule  of  benzine,  the  vapor-density  of  that  com- 

12-1-1 
pound  should  be  — ^ —  =  6.5,  whereas  experiment  shows  that 

it  is  six  times  as  great,  or  equal  to  39 ;  hence  the  molecular 
formula  of  benzine  is  C^H^. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  447 

Organic  acids  and  salt-radicals  have  their  molecular  weights 
most  frequently  determined  by  an  analysis  of  their  lead  and 
silver  salts,  by  burning  these  latter  with  suitable  precautions 
in  a  thin  porcelain  capsule,  and  noting  the  weight  of  the 
lead  oxide  or  metallic  silver  left  behind.  If  the  lead  oxide  be 
mixed  with  globules  of  reduced  metal,  the  quantity  of  the 
latter  must  be  ascertained  by  dissolving  away  the  oxide  with 
acetic  acid.  Or  the  lead  salt  may  be  converted  into  sulphate, 
and  the  silver  compound  into  chloride,  and  both  metals  thus 
estimated.  An  organic  base,  on  the  contrary,  has  its  molec- 
ular weight  fixed  by  observation  of  the  quantity  of  a  mineral 
acid  or  organic  salt-radical,  required  to  form  with  it  in  com- 
pound having  the  characters  of  neutrality. 

It  is  scarcely  necessary  to  observe  that  the  methods  just  de- 
scribed for  determining  the  empirical  and  molecular  formula 
of  an  organic  compound  from  the  results  of  its  analysis,  to- 
gether with  its  physical  properties  and  chemical  reactions,  are 
equally  applicable  to  inorganic  compounds. 

SCHEME   FOR  THE  ANALYSIS  OF   BLOOD. 

(Streckeb  Hakdw.  d.  Chem.,  U  [2],  115.) 

Water  Determination. — ^Evaporate  a  weighed  quantity; 
dry  the  residue  at  120°~130°  C,  and  weigh. 

Fibrin E  Determination. — The  blood,  as  it  runs  from  a 
vein,  is  received  in  a  tared  vessel,  and  stirred  from  five  to  ten 
minutes  with  a  glass  rod,  the  weight  of  which  is  included  in 
the  tare,  till  the  fibrine  is  completely  separated.  The  blood, 
together  with  the  separated  fibrine,  is  then  weighed,  strained 
through  linen,  and  the  fibrine  which  remains  thereon  is  placed 
for  some  time  in  water,  then  dried,  well  boiled  with  alcohol 
and  ether,  to  free  it  from  fat,  and  weighed  after  drying  at 
120°  C.     (Bacquerel  and  Rodier.) 

Estimation  of  Albumen  and  other  Matters  Coagulable 
BY  Heat. — A  weighed  quantity  of  blood,  slightly  acidulated 
with  acetic  acid,  is  added  by  drops  to  boiling  water,  the  liquid 


448  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

is  poured  through  a  weighed  filter,  and  the  coagulum  collected 
thereon ;  it  is  then  washed  on  the  filter  with  boiling  water, 
and  dried,  first  at  a  gentle  heat,  afterwards  at  120°  to  130°  C. 
The  residue  may  be  freed  from  fat  by  treatment  with  boiling 
ether.  If  the  blood  had  not  been  previously  freed  from 
fibrine,  the  weight  of  that  substance,  determined  as  above, 
must  be  deducted  from  the  total  weight  of  the  coagulum. 

Estimation  of  the  Extractive  Matter. — The  filtrate 
obtained  in  the  last  determination  is  evaporated  on  a  water- 
bath  in  a  tared  platinum  basin,  the  residue  dried  at  120°  C, 
weighed,  and  burnt  in  a  muffle  at  as  low  a  heat  as  possible. 
The  weight  of  the  ash,  deducted  from  that  of  the  total  dried 
residue,  gives  approximately  the  amount  of  extractive  matter. 

EsTiMATTON  OF  Fat. — ^A  quantity  of  blood  (which  need  not 
be  weighed)  is  dried  at  100°  C. ;  the  residue  is  pulverized  and 
dried  at  120°  C,  and  a  weighed  portion  thereof  is  treated  with 
ether  in  a  flask ;  the  ether  is  passed  through  a  small  filter  into 
a  tared  platinum  capsule ;  and  the  treatment  of  the  residue 
with  ether  is  repeated  several  times.  The  collected  ethereal 
solution  is  carefully  evaporated,  and  the  residue  dried  at 
100°  C.  As  the  weight  of  the  solid  constituents  of  the  blood 
have  been  previously  determined,  the  quantity  of  blood  from 
which  this  fat  has  been  obtained  may  be  calculated  from  that 
of  the  residue  which  was  subjected  to  treatment  with  ether. 

Estimation  of  Mineral  Constttuents. — A  weighed  quan- 
tity of  the  blood  is  dried,  mixed  with  ignited  sodic  carbonate, 
then  dried  and  incinerated  in  the  muffle  at  the  lowest  possible 
temperature,  then  treated  according  to  scheme  for  the  analysis 
of  ash. 

Separate  Estimation  of  the  Serum  and  Coagulum,  with 
THEIR  CoNSTFiuENTS. — The  frosh  blood  is  collected  in  a  tared 
cylindrical  vessel,  having  a  ground  edge,  and  not  too  shallow ; 
it  is  covered  with  a  glass  plate  and  left  to  stand  till  the  coagu- 
lation is  complete,  after  which  the  edge  of  the  clot  is  detached 
from  the  sides  of  the  vessel  by  means  of  a  needle.  The  blood 
is  then  weighed,  and  after  the  clot  has  contracted  as  much  as 


THE   CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  449 

possible,  the  serum  is  poured  oif,  and  the  quantity  of  albumen, 
etc.,  contained  in  it  is  determined  as  above  described.  The 
clot  and  the  inner  surface  of  the  vessel  are  then  freed  from 
serum  as  completely  as  possible  by  wiping  with  bibulous 
paper,  and  the  clot  is  weighed  on  the  vessel.  This  weight 
deducted  from  the  total  weight  of  the  blood,  gives  the  propai*- 
tion  of  serum. 

The  clot  contains  the  blood-corpuscles,  the  fibrine,  and  a 
certain  quantity  of  serum  ;  the  amount  of  water  contained  in 
it  may  be  determined  by  drying  at  120°  to  130°  C. ;  but  there 
is  no  known  method  of  directly  estimating  the  amount  of  the 
blood-corpuscles.  Prevost  and  Dumas  estimated  it  approxi- 
mately, on  the  assumption  that  the  water  contained  in  the  clot 
is  all  due  to  adhering  serum,  and  accordingly  deducted  from 
the  weight  of  the  dried  clot  an  amount  of  senim-constituents 
corresponding  to  the  quantity  of  water  in  the  clot,  together 
with  the  amount  of  fibrine  separately  determined.  As,  however, 
the  blood-corpuscles  themselves  contain  water,  this  method 
necessarily  makes  the  quantity  of  dried  corpuscles  too  small. 

The  separation  of  hematin  from  globulin  cannot  be  eflfected ; 
but  if  the  quantity  of  iron  in  the  dried  coagulum  be  determined, 
the  amount  of  blood  pigment  may  be  calculated  on  the  sup- 
position that  this  pigment  contains  6.64  per  cent,  of  iron. 
(See  Analysis  of  Man.) 


450  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


SCHEME  FOR  THE  ANALYSIS  OF  URINE* 

The  following  method  is  designed  more  particularly  for  the 
analysis  of  the  urine  of  herbivorous  animals,  but  it  may  be 
applied  in  the  examination  of  that  of  carnivorous  animals 
and  man  also. 

Specific  Gravtty.  —  Determine  this  by  comparing  the 
vreights  of  equal  volumes  of  the  urine  and  of  water,  or  with 
the  urometer,  a  species  of  hydrometer  constructed  expressly 
for  this  purpose ;  when  this  instniment  is  used,  all  foam  must 
be  carefully  removed  from  the  surface  of  the  liquid  by  filter- 
paper. 

A  difference  of  4°  C.  in  the  temperature  of  the  liquid  usu- 
ally makes  a  difference  of  about  1°  in  the  reading  of  the 
urometer. 

The  specific  gravity  of  urine  ranges  between  1.01  and  1.04. 

1.  Total  Amount  of  Dby  Substance  in  Solution. — Deter- 
mine this  by  evaporating  a  weighed  quantity  in  a  current  of 
dry  hydrogen  in  such  a  manner  as  to  estimate  the  ammonia 
that  is  expelled  at  the  same  time.  Take  4-6  c.c.  of  the  urine, 
accurately  weighed ;  the  evaporation  to  dryness  is  completed 
in  4^5  hours. 

In  human  urine,  that  has  an  acid  reaction  due  to  acid  sodic 
phosphate,  the  ammonia  may  be  assumed  to  have  been  driven 
from  urea,  and  by  multiplying  the  amount  of  it  by  1.765  the 
corresponding  amount  of  urea  will  be  obtained.  But  in  the 
urine  of  herbivorous  animals,  the  ammonia  resulting  from  Mw 
decomposition  must  be  estimated  by  the  difference  between 
the  ammonia  set  free  on  evaporation  to  dryness  and  that  found 
in  the  urine  by  direct  determination.     Generally,  however, 


*  Taken  from  Agric.  Chem.  Anal.    Caldwell. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  451 

these  quantities  of  ammonia  are  very  small,  and  can  be  left  out 
of  consideration. 

2.  The  NON-VOLATILE  MATTER  in  this  residue  left  on  evap- 
oration, is  determined  by  evaporating  a  fresh  quantity  of 
100  c.c.  of  the  urine  in  a  platinum  dish,  and  igniting  the  resi- 
due ;  determine  carbonic  acid  in  the  ash. 

3.  Carbonic  Acid  (free  and  combined). — Determine  this  in 
two  portions  of  100  c.c.  of  the  fresh  urine.  To  one  portion 
add  baric  chloride  containing  amnionic  hydrate  in  excess,  and 
to  the  other  baric  chloride  alone  ;  heat  both  mixtures  nearly 
to  boiling ;  collect  the  precipitates  on  dried  and  weighed  fil- 
ters; wash,  and  dry  them  at  100°;  weigh,  and  determine 
carbonic  acid  in  1-2  grams  of  each  precipitate ;  the  first  pre- 
cipitate contains  the  total  carbonic  acid,  the  second  only  the 
combined. 

4.  Nitrogen. — The  residue  left  from  (1)  may  be  used  for 
the  determination  of  nitrogen,  or  another  portion  of  5-10  c.c. 
of  the  urine  may  be  acidified  with  oxalic  acid,  mixed  with 
ignited  gypsum,  and  evaporated  to  dryness.  In  the  former 
case  .this  second  residue  will  contain  only  so  much  of  the 
nitrogen  as  was  not  expelled  in  the  form  of  ammonia  during 
the  desiccation ;  in  the  latter,  the  oxalic  acid  will  prevent  the 
escape  of  any  nitrogen  as  ammonia.  The  dry  substance  may 
be  completely  rinsed  off  the  sides  of  the  dish  with  some  of 
the  soda-lime  used  in  the  combustion. 

Or,  this  method  of  Voit  may  be  used :  Weigh  out  about 
5  c.c.  of  the  urine ;  mix  it  in  a  shallow  dish  with  a  sufficient 
quantity  of  fine  quartz-sand  to  absorb  it  all ;  put  the  dish 
under  the  receiver  of  an  air-pump,  and  exhaust  the  air ;  the 
whole  becomes  quite  dry  in  a  few  hours  and  may  be  pulverized 
easily,  and  completely  loosened  from  the  sides  of  the  dish  and 
mixed  with  the  soda-lime. 

The  combustion  may  be  performed  in  a  short  combustion- 


452  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

tube,  and  very  rapidly,  without  fear  of  losing  any  of  the 
ammonia. 

5.  Actual  Ammonia. — Determine  this  by  Schldssug's  method 
in  20  c.c.  of  the  urine,  after  filtration  to  remove  slimy  or  sedi- 
mentary matters.  In  the  fresh  urine  of  horned  cattle,  the  actual 
ammonia  does  not  amount  to  more  than  0.009-0.01  per  cent., 
but  in  human  urine  it  ranges  as  high  as  0.078-0.143  per  cent. 

6.  Complete  Analysis  of  the  Ash. — Evaporate  200-500 
grams  of  the  urine  to  dryness ;  incinerate  the  residue,  and 
examine  the  ash  for  its  constituents  in  the  usual  manner.  The 
ash  of  the  urine  of  herbivorous  animals  is  poor  in  alkaline 
earths,  and  8-10  grams  will  be  required  for  their  determina- 
tion. In  the  urine  of  ruminants,  phosphoric  acid  is  found  in 
hardly  determinable  quantity ;  while  in  that  of  swine,  and 
often  of  calves,  it  is  present  in  large  quantity  and  should  be 
estimated. 

7.  Chlorine  and  Urea. — These  are  determined  with  the 
aid  of  the  standard  solution  of  mercuric  nitrate.  The  urine 
must  first  be  freed  from  phosphoric  and  hippuric  acids.  Acid- 
ify 200  c.c.  with  nitric  acid ;  boil  the  mixture  to  expel  the 
carbonic  acid ;  neutralize  the  nitric  acid  with  freshly  ignited 
magnesia,  and  cool  the  liquid  to  the  temperature  of  the  room, 
by  immersing  the  flask  in  cold  water ;  transfer  the  liquid  to  a 
graduated  cylinder,  rinse  the  flask  into  the  cylinder  and  bring 
the  volume  of  its  contents  to  220  c.c. ;  add  30  c.c.  of  an  aque- 
ous solution  of  ferric  nitrate  of  such  a  degree  of  concentration 
that,  with  this  quantity  of  the  solution  added,  the  salt  will  be 
slightly  in  excess ;  the  excess  may  be  recognized  by  a  weak 
reaction  of  the  solution  on  a  slip  of  filter-paper  soaked  in  a 
dilute  solution  of  potassic  ferrocyanide  ;  too  large  an  excess  of 
the  ferric  salt  will  be  indicated  by  a  re-solution  of  the  precipi- 
tate that  was  formed  at  first  on  its  addition  ;  filter  the  liquid 
immediately  through  a  large,  dry,  ribbed  filter,  and  to  150  c.c. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  453 

of  the  filtrate  add  50  c.c.  of  a  solution  of  baryta  mixed  with  a 
little  calcined  magnesia ;  filter  again,  and  for  each  determina- 
tion of  sodic  chloride  and  urea  take  15  c.c.  of  this  filtrate, 
corresponding  to  9  c.c.  of  urine. 

(a.)  Chlorine  (common  salt). — Acidify  exactly  15  c.c.  of  the 
liquid  with  a  drop  of  nitric  acid,  and  allow  the  standard  solu- 
tion of  mercuric  nitrate  to  flow  in  from  the  burette,  with 
constant  stirring,  until  a  permanent  turbidity  appears.  A 
mere  opalescent  appearance  of  the  liquid,  which  may  be  pre- 
sented even  in  the  beginning,  is  easily  distinguished  from  the 
cloudy  turbidity  which  is  the  real  indication  of  saturation. 
Estimate  the  amount  of  sodic  chloride,  or  of  chlorine,  on  the 
basis  of  the  standard  of  the  solution  already  determined. 

(J.)  Urea. — In  a  second  portion  of  15  c.c.  of  the  liquid, 
proceed  to  determine  urea  with  the  same  standard  solution. 
Subtract  from  the  total  amount  of  solution  required,  the 
amount  used  in  one ;  and  also  make  the  correction  required  for 
dilution  of  the  solution. 

8.  HippuRio  Acid. — ^Evaporate  200  c.c.  of  the  urine  down 
to  50  c.c,  and  precipitate  the  acid  with  hydrochloric  acid,  etc. 
It  may  be  well  to  first  digest  the  urine  with  animal  charcoal 
in  the  proportion  of  two  grams  of  charcoal  to  10  c.c.  of  the 
liquid,  in  order  to  decolorize  it. 

There  are  usually  only  traces  of  uric  acid  in  the  urine  of 
herbivora,  and  it  cannot  be  estimated ;  but  in  the  urine  of 
carnivora  the  proportion  of  uric  acid  generally  exceeds  that 
of  the  hippuric. 

According  to  the  process  of  Meissner  and  Shepard,  for 
separating  these  two  acids,  evaporate  the  urine  until  it  begins 
to  crystallize ;  add  so  much  absolute  alcohol  to  the  hot  liquid 
that  a  further  addition  causes  no  more  precipitation  ;  let  the 
mixture  cool,  and  filter  it ;  the  best  absolute  alcohol  must  be 
used,  and  it  must  not  be  spared,  else  succinic  acid  may  remain 
in  solution  with  the  hippuric  and  cause  trouble.  Evaporate 
the  alcoholic  solution,  at  first  in  a  fiask  on  the  water-bath, 


454  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

until  aU  the  alcohol  and  the  water  are  expelled  and  only  a 
brown  sjrup  remains,  that  solidifies  to  a  crystalline  mass  on 
cooling ;  extract  this  mass,  while  yet  warm  and  liquid,  with 
ether  and  a  few  drops  of  hydrochloric  acid  added  after  the 
ether;  agitate  the  mixture  violently,  and  repeat  the  process 
two  or  three  times  with  fresh  portions  of  ether.  If  the  alco- 
hol and  water  were  not  carefully  removed  in  the  preceding 
evaporation,  some  of  the  urea  will  pass  into  this  ethereal 
solution.  Collect  the  ethereal  extracts,  distil  off  most  of  the 
ether,  and  let  the  rest  evaporate  spontaneously  in  the  air. 

Hippuric  acid  appears  then  in  the  form  of  handsome  crystals. 
If  the  crystals  are  not  colorless,  or  they  are  not  readily  formed, 
dilute  the  residue,  left  by  the  evaporation  of  the  ether,  with 
water,  boil  the  mixture  with  lime-water,  filter,  concentrate  the 
colorless  filtrate,  and  precipitate  the  hippuric  acid  by  hydro- 
chloric acid  in  excess. 

9.  Phosphoric  Acid. — (a.)  This  may  be  determined  directly 
in  the  urine,  with  the  standard  uranic  solution.  Filter  the 
urine,  if  necessary,  add  5  c.c.  of  sodic  acetate  to  50  c.c.  of  the 
filtrate,  and  titrate  the  mixture  with  uranic  acetate. 

(J.)  To  obtain  a  more  accurate  determination,  add  the  mag- 
nesia mixture  to  50  c.c.  of  the  clear  urine,  collect  and  wash 
the  precipitate  in  the  usual  manner,  dissolve  it,  without  dry- 
ing, in  acetic  acid  in  not  to  great  excess,  dilute  the  solution  to 
50  c.c.  with  water,  add  5  c.c.  of  the  solution  of  sodic  acetate, 
and  titrate  as  before  with  the  uranic  solution. 

(<7.)  To  determine  the  phosphoric  acid  that  is  combined  with 
alkaline  earths  only  to  100-200  c.c.  of  the  urine,  according  to 
its  strength,  add  ammonic  hydrate  until  alkaline  reaction 
ensues,  let  the  mixture  stand  twelve  houre,  and  collect  and 
treat  the  precipitate  in  the  manner  described  in  (i).  In 
another  precisely  equal  quantity  of  urine,  the  precipitate  by 
ammonic  hydrate  is  ignited  and  weighed;  the  amount  of 
magnesic  pyrophosphate  in  this  mixture  may  be  estimated  by 
multiplying  the  amount  of  phosphoric  acid  in  it,  as  determined 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  455 

above,  by  2.1831,  subtracting  the  sum  of  the  phosphates  from 
this  product,  and  multiplying  the  remainder  by  2.5227.  It*  it 
is  desired  to  determine  lime  and  magnesia  directly,  dissolve 
the  mixture  of  the  phosphates,  obtained  above  by  precipitating 
with  ammonic  hydrate,  without  drying  it,  in  as  small  a  quan- 
tity of  acetic  acid  as  possible ;  precipitate  the  lime  by  ammonic 
Oxalate,  and  the  magnesia  as  phosphate  again  by  excess  of 
ammonic  hydrate. 

10.  SuLPHUBic  Acid. — Heat  50-100  c.c.  of  the  urine,  add 
some  nitric  acid,  and  then  baric  chloride  in  slight  excess. 

11.  SuLPHUB. — To  determine  the  total  sulphur,  mix  50  c.c. 
of  the  urine  in  a  silver  crucible  with  solid  potassic  oxide  and 
a  little  saltpetre ;  evaporate  the  mixture  cautiously  to  dryness, 
ignite  the  residue  strongly  until  it  is  quite  white,  exhaust  it 
with  water,  and  determine  sulphuric  acid  in  the  filtered  solu- 
tion, in  the  usual  manner. 

12.  Carbon  and  Hydrogen. — Absorb  10  c.c.  of  the  urine 
by  fine  quartz-sand  that  has  been  previously  boiled  with  acid, 
washed  and  ignited,  dry  the  mixture,  and  bum  it  with  plumbic 
chromate. 

The  following  is  an  analysis  of  healthy  urine,  by  Marchand : 

Water 933.1»9 

Urea 32.675 

Uric  acid 1.065 

Lactic  acid 1.521 

Extractive  matters 11.151 

Mucus 0.283 

Potassic  sulphate 8  587 

Sodic  sulphate 8.213 

Ammonic  diphosphate 1.552 

Sodic  chloride 4.218 

Ammonic  chloride 1.652 

Calcic  and  magnesic  phosphate 1.210 

Lactates 1.618 

1000.000 


456 


THE    CHEMISTS'   MANUAL. 


The  following  analyses  are  by  Veraois  and  Becquerel,  show- 
ing the  comparative  composition  of  male  and  female  urine : 


COVBTZTUENTS. 


Specific  gravity 

Water 

Solid  confititaentB 

Urea 

Uric  add 

Other  organic  matters 

Fixed  salts 

Consisting  of-^ 

Chlorine. 

Sulphuric  acid 

Phosphoric  acid 

Potassic  oxide 

Sodic,  calcic,  and  magnesic  \ 
oxide ' 


Mean  Comfobition 

OF  THE 

Ubinb  of  foub 
HsALTHY  Men. 


1.0189 

968.815 

81.185 

13.838 

0.891 

9.261 

7.696  • 


Mean  Comfobitiok 
OF  the 
Ubinb  of  fottr 
Healthy  Woitbn 


1.01512 

975.052 

24.948 

10.866 

0.406 

8.038 

6.143 


General 
Mean. 


1.01701 

971.935 

28.066 

12.102 

0.398 

8.647 

6.919 

0.502 
0.855 
0.817 
1.800 

3.944 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  457 


SCHEME   FOR  THE  QUANTITATIVE  ANALYSIS 

OF  MILK. 

Evaporate  to  dryness  at  a  gentle  heat  over  a  water-bath 
5  grams  of  milk ;  heat  the  same  in  an  air-bath  to  105°  C, 
until  constant  weight. 


Loss  IN  Weight 
will  equal  the  Water. 


Weight  op  Residue 
will  equal  the  Milk-solids. 


TREATMENT  ^  THE   MILK   SOLIDS. 

Moisten  with  alcohol  and  disintegrate  the  mass ;  then  boil 
with  ether  two  or  three  times  to  extract  the  fat. 

Evaporate  the  ether-extract  over  a  water-bath  at  a  moderate 
heat  to  expel  the  ether ;  transfer  to  the  air-bath  and  increase 
the  heat  to  105°  C.  to  expel  any  traces  of  w^ater  or  alcohol. 
Weigh  the  residue,  which  will  equal  the  fat.  If  the  iirat 
residue,  after  extracting  the  fat  with  ether,  be  heated  to  expel 
any  ether  and  alcohol  it  may  contain,  and  weighed,  the  differ- 
ence in  weight  of  the  milk-solids  and  this  weight  will  equal 
ih^fat  extracted. 

Ileat  the  residue,  after  extracting  the  fat  and  evaporating 
to  expel  ether,  with  alcohol  (95  per  cent.),  then  add  25  c.c.  of 
boiling  water,  and  filter  through  a  weighed  filter-paper  /  filter 
a  little  at  a  time,  keeping  the  remainder  hot  over  a  water-bath. 
When  solution  is  all  filtered,  wash  the  casein  on  the  filter- 
paper  with  a  little  boiling  water.  Add  to  filtrate  five  to  ten 
drops  of  acetic  acid,  and  evaporate  to  a  small  volume,  by 
which  means  all  the  casein  remaining  in  the  filtrate  is  coagu- 
lated ;  filter  through  the  same  filter-paper,  and  wash  the  casein 
again  on  the  filter-paper  with  hot  water. 

The  filter-paper  will  then  contain  the  casein  and  some  in- 
soluble salts.  Heat  in  an  air-bath  until  dry.  The  weight  of 
the  same,  minus  the  weight  of  the  filter-paper,  will  equal  the 
casein  and  some  insoluble  salts ;  ignite  and  subtract  the  weight 
of  ash.     The  remainder  will  equal  the  casein. 


458  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

Evaporate  the  filtrate  from  tlie  casein  over  a  water-bath, 
then  heat  in  the  air-bath  to  constant  weight  (note  the  weight). 
Ignite  the  dry  mass  and  weigh  (note  the  weight) ;  subtract  the 
last  weight  from  the  first,  and  the  remaining  weight  will  equal 

the  MILK-SUGAB. 

To  determine  the  inorganic  salts  evaporate  to  dryness  and 
ignite  to  constant  weight  about  5  grams  of  milk.  The  weight 
obtained  will  equal  the  inorganic  salts. 

The  following  very  convenient  method  for  the  analysis  of 
milk  is  adopted* by  Chandler: 

Water  is  determined  by  evaporating  a  weighed  portion  of 
milk  in  a  flat  platinum  dish  (about  half  an  inch  deep  and  one 
and  a  half  inches  in  diameter)  at  212°  F.  The  loss  in  weight 
is  the  WATER.  The  salts  are  determined  by  carefully  inciner- 
ating the  solid  residue  left  after  the  evaporation  of  the  water. 
For  the  determination  of  the  other  constituents  a  platinum 
dish  is  nearly  filled  with  pure  quartz-sand ;  the  whole  weighed ; 
a  small  quantity  of  the  milk  is  added,  which  is  at  once  soaked 
up  by  the  sand,  and  the  whole  again  weighed  to  find  the  weight 
of  milk  taken.  The  whole  is  then  dried  at  212°  F.,  the  con- 
tents of  the  dish  extracted  with  anhydrous  ether,  and  again 
dried  ;  the  loss  in  the  weight  of  sand,  etc.,  indicates  the  per- 
centage of  BUTTER.  The  butter  may  be  weighed  directly  by 
evaporating  the  ethereal  solution  in  a  weighed  beaker.  The 
residue,  after  removing  the  butter,  is  washed  with  warm 
water,  to  the  first  of  which  a  few  drops  of  acetic  acid  is  added 
to  remove  the  sugar.  The  difference  between  the  original 
weight  of  the  sand  and  of  the  sand  and  casein  indicates  the 
percentage  of  casein.  A  correction  must  be  made  in  the 
weights  of  the  sugar  and  casein  on  account  of  the  salts,  which 
are  \fashed  out  with  the  sugar.  By  evaporating  and  igniting 
the  sugar  solution,  the  salts  washed  out  will  be  determined ; 
they  must  be  deducted  from  the  percentage  of  sugar ;  the  re- 
mainder of  the  salts  (ash)  must  be  deducted  from  the  casein. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


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Cd 

a 

M      & 

S     2 


5 
o 

Eh 


OQ 


460 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


The  following  table  contains  the  average  composition  of  the 
products  obtained  from  milk  in  making  butter  (Alex.  Muller)  : 


CONBTXTUENTB. 


Pat 

Albuminoids*. 
Milk-Sugar  . . 

Ash 

Water 

Total.. 


New 
Milk. 

• 

Skimxed 
Milk. 

Creax. 

BUTTBB- 
XILK. 

BUTTKR.t 

4.00 
8.25 
4.50 
0.75 
87.50 

0.55 
8.37 
4.66 
0.78 
90.64 

35.00 
2.20 
3.05 
0.50 

59.25 

1.67 

8.33 

4.61 

0.77 

89.62 

85.00 
0.51 
0.70 
0.12 

13.67 

100.00 

100.00 

100.00 

100.00 

100.00 

Brink,  t 


0.00 
0.39 
3.84 
0.86 
94.91 

100.00 


*  Casein  and  albumen.  t  Unsalted. 

X  Brine  that  separates  on  working  after  salting ;  salt  not  inclnded. 


The  following  table  contains  analyses   of  cheese  by  E. 
Homig  (1869) : 


Constituents. 


Water 

Fatty  Matters. 

Cn»ein 

Salts 

Loss 


p3 


3S.68 

20.14 

ai.90 

6.17 

0.13 


100.00 


Ramadoux 
Cheese. 


66.60 

17.05 

18.76 

6.78 

0.81 


100.00 


51.21 
9.16 

83.60 
6.01 
0.02 


100.00 


b  H  « 
P  H  H 


57.64 

20.31 

18.51 

8.51 

0.04 


100.00 


OORGON- 
ZOLA 

Cheese. 

o 

86.73 

&3.69 

25.67 

8.71 

0.21 

84.08 

28.04 

23.28 

6.58 

0.02 

69.28 

10.44 

24.09 

6.17 

0.02 

100  00 

100.00 

100.00 

Sb 


49.84 

20.63 

24.26 

5.45 

0.33 

100.00 


The  following  analyses  of  cheese  are  given  by  Voelcker: 


Constituents. 


Water 

Butter 

Caseine 

Sugar  of  Milk. . . ) 

Lactic  Acid \ 

Mineral  Matter. .. 

Nitrogen 

Common  Salt 


32.59 
32.51 
26.06 

4.53 

4.31 


GQ 


} 


20  27 
43.98 

33.55   } 

2.20 


100.00 

4.17 
1.59 


Is 


3032 
35.53 
28.18 

1.66 

4.31 


Q3 


32.44 
30.17 
31.75 

1.22 

4.42 


R 


d 


28.10 
33  68 
80.31 

8.72 

4.19 


a 

pa 


27.29 
8541 
25.87 

6.21 

5.22 


100.00 

3.89 
0.29 


100.00 

451 
1.55 


100.00  I  100.00     100.00 


5.12 
1.42 


4.85 
1.12 


4.14 
1.97 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  461 

The  composition  of  whey  is  as  follows  (Voelcker) : 

Water 89.65 

Butter 0.79 

Casein 3.01 

Milk-Sugar 5.72 

Mineral  Salts 0.88 

100.00 

The  following  analyses  are  by  Dr.  E.  Waller  (made  in 
January,  1875): 


Fat  .. 

Casein. 
Su^ar . 
Salts . . 
Water. 


AUBBICAN. 


10.29 

17.26 

10.64 

2.77 

53.04 

100.00 


Eaglb. 


14.30 
15.07 
11.64 
2.10 
56.83 

100.00 


Nbw  York. 


14.28 
13.96 
18.90 
2.00 
65.86 

100.00 


National. 


13.97 
14.02 
10.44 
2.38 
59.24 

100.00 


462 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


SUGARS   AND   SOME   ALLIED    BODIES. 


(MnjiEK.) 


Vabibtt  and 
Obioin  of  Suoab. 


Sucrose,  or 
cane-sugar, 

from  sugar- 
cane. 


Pbincifal  Pbofbbties. 


Crystallizes  in  four  or  six-sided  rhomboidal  prisms, 
is  very  soluble  in  water,  less  so  in  diluted  alcohol, 
ep.  gr.  1.6,  fuses  at  about  820°  F.  (100"  C),  is  not  preci- 
pitated by  subacetate  of  lead,  but  is  so  by  an  ammo- 
niacal  solution  of  acetate  of  lead,  does  not  reduce  an 
alkaline  solution  of  potassio  cupric  tartrate  on  boiling, 
produces  n^AMianded  rotation  =  73°.8,  undergoes  alco- 
holic fermentation  with  yeast,  combines  with  alkalies, 
yields  dextrose  and  levulose  when  boiled  with  dilute 
acids,  with  nitric  acid  yields  saccharic  and  oxalic  acids. 


Inverted 
cane-sugar, 

from  many 
recent  fruits. 


Is  not  crytallizable,  is  soluble  in  dilute  alcohol,  is 
not  precipitated  by  subacetate  of  lead,  reduces  au  alka- 
line  solution  of  potassio-cupric  tartrate  by  boiling,  pro- 
duces left-h&nded  rotation  =  —  26^  at  59°  F.  (15**  C), 
undergoes  alcoholic  fermentation  with  yeast,  turns 
brown  when  treated  with  alkalies,  is  partially  con- 
verted into  grape-sugar  by  boiling  with  dilute  acids. 


Dextrose, 
or  grape-sugar, 
CeHi,0,.H,.0; 

from  dried 
fruits,  or  from 
starch,  altered 

by  acids. 


("rystallizes  in  cubes  or  square  tables,  is  less  soluble 
in  water  than  cane-sugar,  but  more  soluble  in  alcohol, 
yields  a  precipitate  with  ammoniacal  acetate  of  lead, 
reduces  potassio-cupric  tartrate  and  the  salts  of  mer- 
cury, silver  and  gold  when  boiled  with  them,  ferments 
readily  with  yeast,  produces  right-handed  rotation  = 
57°. 4,  becomes  brown  when  treated  >vith  alkalies,  with 
nitric  acid  yields  saccharic  and  oxalic  acid. 


Lactose,  or 

sugar  of  milk, 

CigHggOii.HgO; 

from  whey  of 

milk. 


Crystallizes  in  four-sided  prisms,  is  less  soluble  in 
water  than  grape-sugar,  is  nearly  insoluble  in  alcohol 
and  ether,  is  precipitated  from  its  solutions  by  ammo- 
niacal acetate  of  lead,  reduces  the  salts  of  copper,  sil- 
ver, and  mercury,  when  its  alkaline  solution  is  boiled 
with  them,  produces  rt^A^-handed  rotation  =  50° .4,  is 
not  directly  susceptible  of  alcoholic  fermentation,  is 
converted  into  galactose  by  boiling  with  dilute  acids, 
yields  mucic  and  oxalic  acids  with  nitric  acid. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


463 


Variety  and 
Obigin  of  Suqab. 


Trehalose,  or 

mycose, 

Ci,H„0ii;2H,0 

(Berthelot) ; 
Turkish  manna, 

product  of 

insect  Larinua 

nidificana. 


PBmCIPAL  Pbofbbtibs. 


Crystallizes  in  brilliant  rectangular  octohedra  or  in 
rhombic  prisms,  produces  n^A^-handed  rotation  =  220"; 
if  heated  quickly  it  fuses  at  212%  and  at  266°  (130"  C.) 
loses  H3O  and  becomes  solid ;  may  be  heated  without 
decomposition  to  410"  (210°  C),  when  it  melts  again ; 
loses  its  water  of  crystallization,  is  very  soluble  in 
water,  and  in  hot  alcohol,  is  sparingly  soluble  in  cold 
alcohol  and  ether,  is  precipitated  by  ammoniacal  ace- 
tate of  lead,  does  not  reduce  potassio  <;upric  tartrate, 
ferments  slowly  and  imperfectly  with  yeast,  yields 
dextrose  when  heated  with  dilute  acids,  does  not  give 
mucic  with  nitric  acid,  but  when  heated  with  it  yields 
saccharic  and  oxalic  acids. 


Melezitose, 

(Berthelot) ; 

from 
larch  manna 


Crystallizes  in  short,  hard,  efflorescent  rhombic 
prisms,  is  very  soluble  in  water,  sparingly  soluble  in 
alcohol,  either  hot  or  cold,  insoluble  in  ether,  has 
a  sweetness  about  that  of  glucose,  fuses  at  280" 
(loS°  C),  is  precipitated  by  ammoniacal  acetate  of  lead, 
does  not  reduce  the  alkaline  potassio^upric  tartrate, 
produces  r^^^handed  rotation  =  94".  1,  ferments  with, 
difficulty,  yields  dextrose  when  heated  with  dilu 
acids,  gives  no  mucic  add  with  nitric  acid. 


Melitose, 

(Berthelot); 

from  the 

Eucalyptus. 


Crystallizes  in  slender  prisms,  is  freely  soluble  in 
water,  slightly  soluble  in  alcohol,  is  feebly  sweet, 
melts  and  loses  water  at  260"  (127"  C),  yields  a  precip- 
itate with  ammoniacal  acetate  of  lead,  does  not  reduce 
an  alkaline  solution  of  potassio-cupric  tartrate,  exerts 
n^/A^handed  rotation  =  102",  undergoes  alcoholic  fer- 
mentation with  yeast,  at  the  same  time  half  the  sugar 
is  separated  in  an  unfermentable  form  as  eucalin,  fur- 
nishes mucic  add  with  nitric  acid,  is  little  affected  by 
alkalies. 


Eucalin, 

C,H„Oe,H,0 

(Berthelot); 

from 

fermentation  of 

melitose. 


Is  not  crystallizable,  precipitates  ammoniacal  acetate 
of  lead,  aod  reduces  the  alkaline  potassio-cupric  tar 
trate  when  boiled  with  it,  produces  right  handed  rota- 
tion =  about  50",  is  not  susceptible  of  alcoholic  fer- 
mentation with  yeast,  becomes  brown  when  treated 
with  alkalies,  is  not  altered  by  boiling  with  dilate 
acids. 


464 


THE   CHEMISTS'   MANUAL. 


Variibtt  and 
Obigin  of  Suoab. 

Prtnoifal  Pbopbbtieb. 

Sorbin, 

CeH^gOfl 

(Pelouze) ; 

from  berries  of 

service  tree, 

Sorlnis 
attcvparia. 

Crystallizes  in  octohedra  with  a  rectangular  base,  is 
very  soluble  in  water,  nearly  insoluble  in  alcohol, 
sp.  gr.  1.65,  is  fusible  without  loss  of  weight,  gives  a 
white  precipitate  with  ammoniacal  acetate  of  lead,  re- 
duces the  alkaline  solution  of  potassio-cupric  tartrate 
on  heating  it  with  it,  occasions  left-h&nded  rotation 
=  —  46^9,  is  not  fermentable  with  yeast,  but  with 
cheese  and  chalk  slowly  yields  lactic  and  butyric  acids 
and  alcohol,  becomes  brown  when  treated  with  alka- 
lies, yields  a  red  solution  with  oil  of  vitriol,  is  con- 
verted into  oxalic  and  a  little  racemic  add  by  nitric 
acid. 

Tnosin, 
CeH,.0„2H.O 

(Scherer) ; 

from  muscular 

tissue. 

Crystallizes  in  radiated  tufts,  is  soluble  in  water, 
insoluble  in  absolute  alcohol  and  ether,  loses  water  by 
heat,  and  fuses  at  410"  (210"  C),  has  no  rotatory  power 
on  polarized  light,  does  not  reduce  the  alkaline  potas- 
sio-cupric tartrate  when  boiled  with  it,  is  not  suscepti- 
ble of  alcoholic  fermentation,  but  with  cheese  and 
chalk  yields  lactic  and  butyric  acids,  is  not  altered  by 
boiling  with  dilute  acids  or  alkalies,  forms  a  precipi- 
tate with  ammoniacal  acetate  of  lead. 

Mannite, 

from  the  juice 

of  Fraainus 

ornus. 


Crystallizes  in  silky  anhydrous  four-sided  prisms, 
is  soluble  in  water  and  alcohol,  fuses  at  820"  (160^  C), 
gives  a  precipitate  with  ammoniacal  acetate  of  lead, 
reduces  the  salts  of  silver  or  gold  by  heat,  does  not 
reduce  the  alkaline  potassio-cupric  tartrate  when  boiled 
with  it,  exerts  no  rotary  power  on  polarized  light,  is 
not  easily  fermentable,  with  nitric  acid  yields  saccharic 
and  oxalic  acids,  is  soluble  without  coloration  in  oil 
of  vitriol,  and  in  alkaline  solutions. 


Erythrite, 

C^H.oO^ 

(V.  Luynes); 

from  Roccella 

and  other 
lichens. 


Crystallizes  in  broad,  voluminous  crystals  of  the 
pyramidal  system,  is  soluble  in  water  and  in  alcohol, 
fuses  at  248"  (120"  C),  has  no  rotatory  power,  gives  no 
precipitate  with  ammoniacal  acetate  of  lead,  does  not 
reduce  the  alkaline  potassio-cupric  tartrate,  yields  no 
mucic  acid  with  nitric  acid,  is  not  fermentable. 


THE   CHEMISTS'    MANUAL. 


465 


VAKnTT  AKD 
0BI6ZN  or  SUGAB. 

Pbimoifal  Pbopkbtibs. 

Dulcite, 

C,H,,0. 

(Laurent) ; 

origin 
unknown. 

Crystallizes  in  brilliant  prisms,  is  soluble  in  water 
and  in  alcohol,  fuses  at  866''  (180**  C),  gives  no  precip- 
itate with  acetate  or  subacetate  of  lead,  does  not  reduce 
nitrate  of  silver  or  chloride  of  gold,  produces  no  rota- 
tion on  polarized  light,  is  not  susceptible  of  fermenta- 
tion with  yeast,  is  not  affected  by  dilute  alkalies,  is 
converted  into  mucic  acid  by  nitric  acid. 

Quercite, 
from  aooms. 

Crystallizes  in  transparent  prisms,  is  soluble  in  water 
and  dilute  alcohol,  is  fusible  at  420°  (215'.5  C),  does 
not  reduce  the  alkaline  potasslo-cupric  tartrate,  is  not 
fermentable  by  yeast,  is  soluble  without  change  of 
color  in  oil  of  vitriol  and  in  the  alkalies,  yields  oxalic 
acid  with  nitric  add. 

Finite, 

(Berthelot); 
from  Pinu8 
lamberHana, 

Crystallizes  slowly  in  hard,  hemispherical  radiated 
masses,  has  a  very  sweet  taste,  is  very  soluble  in 
water,  is  sparingly  soluble  in  alcohol,  gives  a  precipi- 
tate with  ammoniacal  acetate  of  lead,  does  not  reduce 
the  alkaline  potassio-cupric  tartrate,  sp.  gr.  1.52,  pro- 
duces n^/<t-handed  rotation,  is  not  fermentable,  fuses 
below  480*"  (249°  C),  does  not  yield  mucic  with  nitric 
acid. 

466  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

CANE-SUGAR. 

Cane-sugar,  or  sucrose,  is  the  sugar  of  commerce,  and  is 
prepared  from  the  sugar-cane,  Saccharum  qfficinafncniy*  which 
is  a  plant  of  the  grass  species ;  its  stalk  is  round,  knotted, 
and  hollow,  and  the  exterior  of  a  greenish-yellow  or  blue  with 
sometimes  violet  streaks. 

It  grows  from  2.6  to  6.6  metres  (8.4  to  22.5  ft.)  high,  and 
from  4  to  6  centimetres  (1.6  to  2.4  inches)  in  thickness ;  the 
interior  is  cellular.  The  leaves  grow  to  a  length  of  1.6  to 
2  metres  (5.2 — 6.6  feet),  and  are  ribbed.  The  plant  is  grown 
from  seed,  and  also  cultivated  from  cuttings. 

A  hectare  (2.471  acres  English)  of  land  yields  of  new  sugar: 

By  15  Months'  CnltiTatioii.  In  1  Year. 

From  Martinique. .  ..2,500  kUos  (  5,510  Ibe.  Ay.).  .2,000  kilo6  (  4,406  lbs.  Ay.) 
«     Gnadaloupe... 3,000     "     (6,612  "     "  ). .2,400    "     (5,289  "     "  ) 

♦'     Mauritius 5,000     "     (11,020  "     "  ).  .4,000    "     (8,816  "     "  ) 

"     BrazU 7,500     "     (16^30  "     "  ).  .6,000    "     (13,224  "     "  ) 

The  sugar-cane  yields  90  per  cent,  of  juice,  containing,  ac- 
cording to  Pfligot,  18  to  20  parts  of  crystallized  sugar.  The 
following  analyses  are  of  the  components  of  sugar-cane : 

Composition  of  the  (Haheite  Cane  by  Payen : 
Water 71.04 

Cane^ogar 18.00 

Cellulose,  lignite,  pectine,  and  pectic  acid 9.56 

Albumen  and  other  nitrogenous  principles 0.65 

Cerosine,  wax,  fats,  resins,  coloring  matter,  essential  oils,  etc.  0.37 

Soluble  salts 0 16 

Insoluble  salts 0.12 

Silica 0.20 


100.00 

By  Pbuqot.  By  Duput.  By  Icbbt. 

Martiniqae.  Goadalonpe.  Maoritina. 

Sugar. .... lo.O  ....  .......  if.o  .•.•«.•«••..  «u.U 

Water 72.1 72  0 69.0 

v/Ouuiose ............    v.v  ..••.•.-•...    v.o  ............  xw.v 

Salts. —  0.4 0.7-1J8 


•  See  Johnson's  Cjcl.,  Article  " Suffor;'  hy  C.  F.  Chandler;  also  Wag- 
ner's Tech.,  p.  364. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  467 

Out  of  the  18  per  cent,  of  the  sugar  found  in  the  cane,  as  a 
rule  not  more  than  8  per  cent,  of  crystallized  sugar  can  be 
realized. 

The  loss  may  be  accounted  for  thus :  90  per  cent,  juice  is 
expressed  from  the  cane,  from  which  only  about  50  to  60  per 
cent,  can  be  clarified  from  the  straw,  etc. ;  a  fifth  part  is  ex- 
hausted by  refining ;  and  finally,  two-thirds  of  the  sugar  is 
obtained  by  boiling,  while  the  rest  goes  to  the  molasses.  The 
18  per  cent,  sugar  may  be  realized  in  the  foUowing  manner : 

In  the  refuse  sometimes  remaiiiB 6    per  cent. 

By  skimming. 2.5  " 

In  the  molasses 3. 

As  raw  sogar. 6.5 

18    per  cent. 

Cane-juice  from  the  Canade  la  tierra  in  Cuba,  when  evap> 
orated  in  vacuo  at  the  atmospheric  temperature,  yields  in 
100  parts,  according  to  M.  Casacca : 

CryBtalline  white  sugar. 20.94 

Water 78.80 

Mineral  suhstances 0.14 

Organic  matter,  different  from  sugar 0.12 

100.00 

In  10  gallons  of  231  cu.  in.  of  cane-juice,  making  8 J°  B., 
there  are  5|  ounces  of  salts,  which  consist  of: 

Potassic  sulphate 17.840  grams. 

Potassic  sulphate 16.028     " 

Potassic  chloride 8.855     " 

Potassic  acetate 63.750     " 

Calcic  acetate 36.010     ** 

Gelatinous  silica 15.270     " 

Total 157.253  gr.=:  5.57  oz.Av. 

Vabieties  of  Sugab. — ^European  and  American  commerce 
deals  with  the  following  kinds  of  raw  sugars : 

1 .    West  Indian, — Cuba,  San  Domingo  or  Hayti,  Jamaica, 


468 


THE    CHEMISTS'    MANUAL. 


Porto-Eico,  Martinique,  Guadaloupe,  St.  Croix,  St.  Thomas, 
Havana. 

2.  American, — ^Eio  Janeiro,  Bahia,  Surinam,  Pemambuco. 

3.  East  Indian. — Java,  Manila,  Bengal,  Mauritius,  Bour- 
bon, Cochin-China,  Siam,  Canton. 

Of  late  there  has  been  a  distinction  between  sugar  culti- 
vated by  slave  and  that  by  free  labor ;  the  latter  comes  from 
Jamaica,  Barbadoes,  Demerara,  Antigua,  Trinidad,  Dominica ; 
the  former  from  Cuba,  Havana,  Brazil,  St.  Croix,  and  Porto- 
Eico. 

Besides  the  above-named  sugar,  American  commerce  deals 
with  New  Orleans,  Mexico,  Honolulu,  and  sometimes  with 
Egyptian  sugars. 

According  to  method  of  preparation,  raw  sugars  have  re- 
ceived, besides  the  above,  the  following  names :  Melado,  clay, 
muscovado,  molasses,  centrifugal,  drone,  and  potted  sugars. 

The  raw  sugars  come  into  market  packed  in  hogsheads, 
tierces,  barrels,  bags,  mats,  baskets,  and  cheeroons. 

In  the  French  and  English  colonies  sugar  is  exported  in 
chests  covered  with  fire-clay  under  the  name  of  chest  or  tub 
sugar. 

The  mode  of  manufacture  depends  on  the  foreign  constituents 
of  sugar,  all  of  which  must  be  destroyed  before  the  sugar  can 
be  refined.  According  to  Mulder,  we  have  in  the  following 
sugars  from — 


10  Sampler. 

Uatana. 

6  Sampler 

SUBINAW. 

4  Saiiiplc!<. 

Cane  Suirar 

98.6-83.1 
6.5      0.3 
3.5—  0.5 
1.9      0.3 
6.3      08 

97.0—87.3 
3.7—  0.9 
4.5—  0.4 
1.1—  0.0 
8.8      0.9 

92.J^    85  4 

Glucose  

Extractive  matter,  gum,  etc. 
Ash 

4,4—  1.6 
2.1   -  1.1 
1.4_-  0.8 

Water 

69_  40 

Molasses  is  produced  by  the  long-continued  heating  of  the 
cane-juice.      It  is  used  principally  in  the  colonies  for  the 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  469 

maiiii&cture  of  rum ;  it  is  soon  converted  to  spirit,  and  then 
quickly  becomes  acetated. 

West  India  molasses,  according  to  Dr.  Wallace,  has  the 
following  composition : 


• 


Cane-sugar 47.0 

Glucose 20.4 

Extractive  and  coloring  matter,  etc 2.7 

Salts  (ash) 2.6 

Water 27.8 

100.0 
Specific  gravity 1.36 

SuGAB  FEOM  Beets. — ^Marggraf,  in  the  year  1747,  was  the 
discoverer  of  sugar  in  beets,  and  suggested  the  manufacture  of 
sugar  from  this  source.  The  following  are  the  principal  sugar 
beets: 

Quendliniurg  beet  is  a  slender,  rose-colored  root,  and  very 
sweet ;  it  is  "matured  fourteen  days  before  any  other  kind. 

Silesian  heet  is  a  pear-shaped  root,  white  in  the  body  and 
light-green  on  top;  it  does  not  yield  as  much  sugar  as  the 
former,  but  as  more  beets  can  be  grown  on  the  same  amount 
of  ground,  it  produces  more  sugar.  It  is  much  cultivated  in 
France  and  Germany. 

Sihenan  heet  is  known  as  the  white-ribbed  beet;  it  is  pear- 
shaped,  with  very  light  green  ribbed  leaves.  Percentage  of 
sugar  in  this  beet  is  less  than  Silesian  beet,  although  of 
greater  weight. 

The  Fvencli  or  Belgian  beet  has  small  leaves  and  a  slender 
and  spiral  root,  yielding  sugar. 

The  Imperial  beet  is  slender,  pear-shaped,  very  white,  rich 
in  sugar,  but  does  not  yield  as  well  as  Silesian  beet. 

The  Kin(i  beet  is  a  biennial ;  in  the  first  year  the  root  is 
merely  developed ;  in  the  second  it  bears  seed. 


470 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


ANALYSES  OF  SUGAR  BEETS* 


• 

o 

i 

Nahib. 

. 

P 

i 

SB  1   * 
§1      S 

• 

Analyst. 

^ 

a 

1^ 

B 

m 

CD 
< 

Hohenheim 

81.5 
84.1 
81.7 

0.87 
0.^ 
0.84 

11.90 

9.10 

11.81 

8.47 
3.90 
8.86 

1.88 
1.05 
1.86 

0.89 
0.99 
0.94 

Wolff. 

Mffickern  

Bittbausen. 

"       Slbs 

it 

i4                1      ii 

79.5 

0.90 

12.07 

5.00 

1JS3 

0.88 

t. 

Bickendorf.  li  lbs  

80.0 

80.0 
79.0 

0.70 

0.68 
0.66 

12.90 

18.87 
18.82 

5.00 

1.20 

0.T0 

0.74 
0.60 

Oronyen. 

Slandetadt.  S  lbs 

5.81 
6.58 

StOckbardt 

Lockwltz,   n  **    

it 

Tharaud      l|  *'    manured 

82.7 

0.98 

12.84 

8.34 

0.79 

u 

It                a      u               tt 

81.8 

1.16 

10.15 

6.77 

1.12 

11 

'»            81  *'           "       

82.1 

1.14 

9.25 

6.86 

1.15 

tt 

u             4     **            ** 

836 

1.05 

8.45 

7.07 

0.98 

tt 

Silesia,  manured 

84.4 

1.14 

9.80 

396 

0.69 

Bretechnieder. 

"           *'      with  Bodlc  nitrate 

82.7 

142 

11.57 

8.68 

0.68 

1. 

"           "         **     calcic  pho8. 

84.1 

1.90 

9.82 

4.04 

0.T7 

t« 

Average 

81.5 

0.96 

11.6 

8.7  1  1.8 

0.86 

•  From  "  How  Grope  Grow  " — (Johnson). 

The  following  analysis  is  more  elaborate  than  the  above, 
and  is  considered  a  fair  average  analysis  of  the  sugar  beet.* 

Per  cent. 
Water 82.30 


(1.)  Insoluble  Constituents. 

Cellulose 

Pectose,  pectase,  pectic,  and  pectosic  acids 

Metarabic  acid 

Fattj,  waxy,  and  resinous  bodies. 

Albuminoids 

Pectates,  parapectates,  metapectates,  pectosates,  oxalates, 
and  phosphates  of  magnesium,  calcium,  iron,  and  man- 
ganese  

Silica 


0.80 


0.80 


Cane-sugar 
Glucose . . . 


(2.)  Soluble  Constituents, 


11.30 


1.50 


Albumen,  casein,  etc 

Asparagine  (C4HgN,0,) — 

Betaine(C8HiiN0,) 0.10 


Carried  forward 96.60 


THE    CHEMISTS'    MANUAL. 


471 


Brouglit  forward 96.60 

Pectine,  parapectin,  metapectin,  and  pectase 

Giunmy  bodies 

Cromogene ., 

A  yellow  extractive  body 

Parapectic,  metapectic,  aspartic,  citric,  and  malic  acids 

Pectates,  parapectates,  metapectates,  citrates,  malates,  ox- 
alates, aspartates,  sulphates,  phosphates,  nitrates,  and 
chlorides  of  potassium,  sodium,  rubidium,  and  ammo- 
nium   

Citrates,  malates,  asparates,  sulphates,  nitrates,  and  chlo- 
rides of  magnesium,  calcium,  iron,  and  manganese 

Silica 


a40 


100.00 


Near  Magdeburg,  where  the  beet  is  extensively  cultivated, 
the  general  results  give  : 

The  greatest  sugar  productions,  as 13.8  per  cent. 

That  from  inferior  beets. 9.2  "      " 

The  average  beet  yielding. . . .  ^ 11.2  "      " 

12^  cwts.  of  beet  yield  on  an  average  1  cwt.  of  raw  sugar. 
THE  ANALYSIS  OF  CANE-SUGAR. 


CONSTIT  U  EN  T8. 


Oxygen . . 
Carbon. . . 
Hydrogen 


S 


56.63 

42.47 

6.90 


49.856 
43.265 

6.875 


Pbout. 


53.35 

39.99 

6.66 


Ubb. 


50.33 

48.38 

6.29 


Fowints. 


51.59 

41.98 

6.43 


64 
11 


51.46 

42.11 

6.43 


Formula  for  Sugar  (sucrose),  Ci,H,,Oii. 

SACCHARIMETRY. 

There  are  several  methods  for  determining  the  amount  of 
saccharine  matter  contained  in  the  various  crude  sugar  pro- 
ductions ;  the  following  may  be  employed : 

1.  Mechanical, 

2.  Chemical,  or 

3.  Physical  Method. 


*  Taken  from  article  on  Sugar  by  C.  F.  Chandler— (Johnson's  Cycl.). 


*72  THE   CHEMISTS'    MANUAL. 

The  Mechanical  Method  is  applicable  for  determining 
the  sugar  in  beets  : 

"  The*  middle  part  of  the  beet  is  cut  in  thin  slices  to  the 
weight  of  25  to  30  grams  each  and  dried.  From  the  differ- 
ence in  weight  before  and  after  drying,  the  quantity  of  water 
contained  in  the  root  is  ascertained.  The  dry  residue  is  pul- 
verized, and  then  treated  with  boiling  dilute  alcohol  of  a 
specific  gravity  of  0.83.  By  this  means  the  sugar  is  dissolved 
and  the  weight  ascertained.  The  insoluble  residue  gives,  after 
drying,  the  weight  of  the  cellulose,  proteine  bodies  and  min- 
eral constituents.  If  the  alcoholic  solution  be  placed  in  a 
vacuum  over  caustic  lime,  it  gradually  becomes  more  and  more 
concentrated  until,  aft.er  standing  about  a  day,  the  sugar, 
owing  to  its  insolubility  in  absolute  alcohol,  may  be  collected 
in  small  colorless  crystals,  only  absolute  alcohol  remaining. 
Good  sugar-beets  give  20  per  cent,  dry  residue,  the  water 
amounting  to  80  per  cent.  Of  the  20  per  cent.,  13  per  cent, 
is  usually  sugar,  and  the  remaining  7  per  cent,  pectine, 
celhilose,  proteine,  and  mineral  substances.  The  higher  the 
specific  weight  of  the  juice  of  the  beet,  the  more  sugar  it  con- 
tains. The  juice  of  a  good  beet  properly  cultivated  marks 
8°  and  sometimes  9°  B." 

"Chemical  Method. — The  chemical  method  is  based  on 
the  following  facts : 

a.  The  known  proportional  solubility  of  calcic  hydrate  in 
cane-sugar. 

h.  The  capability  of  a  cane-sugar  solution  to  reduce  the 
hydroxides  of  copper  to  protoxides,  the  quantity  reduced 
affording  an  estimate ;  and  the  conversion  by  acids  of  cane- 
sugar  into  inverted  sugar  (a  mixture  of  levulose  with  dextrose 
or  glucose). 

c.  The  fermentation  of  sugar,  giving  rise  to  the  formation 
of  alcohol  and  carbonic  acid,  the  amount  of  which  can  be 
ascertained,  4CO2  corresponding  to  one  molecule  of  cane-sugar 


*  Wagner's  Technology. 


THE  CHEMISTS'   MANUAL.  473 

The  first  of  these  methods  is  that  of  determining  the  solu- 
bility of  calcic  hydrate  in  a  cane-sugar  solution.  The  fluid 
containing  sugar  is  stirred  with  calcic  hydrate,  the  quantity 
of  which  dissolved,  estimated  by  titration  with  sulphuric  acid, 
determines  the  quantity  of  sugar. 

The  second  method  is  grounded  on  the  researches  of  M. 
Trommer,  who  found — 

(1.)  That  cane-sugar  in  an  alkaline  fluid  does  not  reduce 
cupric  oxide ;  but  it  becomes  reduced  il*  the  sugar  has  pre- 
viously been  boiled  with  sulphuric  or  hydrochloric  acid,  the 
acid  converting  the  cane  into  inverted  sugar. 

(2.)  The  quantity  of  the  reduced  protoxide  is  proportional 
to  the  quantity  of  sugar.  Barreswil  and  Fehling  give  a  test 
based  on  this  law.  An  alkaline  solution  of  cupric  oxide  is  made 
by  dissolving  40  grams  of  cupric  sulphate  in  160  grams  of 
water,  and  adding  a  solution  of  160  grams  of  neutral  potassie 
tartrate  in  a  little  water,  with  600  to  700  grams  of  sodic 
hydrate  of  a  specific  gravity  1.12.  The  mixture  should  be 
diluted  to  1154.4  c.c.  at  15°.  A  litre  of  this  copper  solu- 
tion contains  34.65  grams  of  cupric  sulphate,  and  requirea 
for  its  reduction  5  grams  of  dextrose  or  levulose ;  or  10^ 
atoms  cupric  sulphate  (1247.5)  are  reduced  by  means  of  one 
atom  of  dextrose  or  levulose  (180)  to  protoxide  (34.65  :  5 
=  1274.5  :  180  or  6.93  :  1),  10  c.c.  of  the  copper  solution 
corresponding  also  to  0.050  grams  of  dry  dextrose  or  levulose. 
Mulder  prefers  a  solution  in  v/hich  1  part  of  cupric  oxide 
corresponds  to  0.552  parts  of  dextrose  or  levulose  of  the 
formula  CgHigOg  +  HgO;  by  the  use  of  this  test-liquor,  the 
amount  of  sugar  can  be  ascertained  with  great  accuracy.  By 
another  method  10  c.c.  of  this  copper  solution  are  heated  with 
40  c.c,  of  water,  and  placed  in  a  sugar  solution  till  all  the 
cupric  oxide  is  reduced.  When  this  point  is  nearly  reached^ 
the  precipitate  becomes  redder  and  forms  more  rapidly.  Test- 
ing the  filtrate  with  potassie  ferrocyanide,  will  throw  down  a 
yellow  precipitate  if  there  be  sugar  in  excess.  The  copper 
salts  are  instantaneously  reduced  by  the  sugar  in  correspond- 


4:74  THE  CHEMISTS'   MANUAL. 

ing  quantities ;  long  boiling  is  not  necessary ;    100  parts  of 
dextrose  or  levulose  correspond  to  96  parts  of  cane-sugar." 

Ferment  Test. — "  The  third  method,  the  ferment  test,  as  it 
is  generally  termed,  is  grounded  on  the  fact  that  a  solution  of 
sugar  may  be  preserved  for  an  indefinite  period  in  an  open  or 
close  vessel ;  but  that  if  decomposing,  azotized  matter  be  acci- 
dentally or  intentionally  added,  the  sugar  is  converted  first  into 
dextrose  or  levulose,  which,  sufferiug  vinous  fermentation,  is 
converted  into  alcohol  with  the  evolution  of  carbonic  acid : 

1  moL  of  cane-sugar  )      yields  by      (4  mols.  of  carbonic  acid  =  t76, 
(CJ2H22O11  =  342)  )   fermentation   (  4  mols.  of  alcohol  =  188. 

The  estimatioD  of  the  quantity  of  carbonic  acid  is  easily 
performed  by  means  of  the  alkalimetric  apparatus  of  Fresenius 
and  Will.  The  fermentation  being  complete,  tlie  air  is  sucked 
out  of  the  apparatus  and  the  amount  of  carbonic  acid  estimated 
from  its  loss,  which — 

multiplied  by  ^  =  1.9432  gives  the  quantity  of  cane-sugar ; 
"  "  J^  =  2.04546giyesthequantity  of  dextrose." 

IV.  A  mixture  of  one-third  volume  ether  with  two-thirds 
volume  absolute  alcohol.  This  is  neither  charged  with  acid 
nor  saturated  with  sugar. 

SCHEIBLER'S  METHOD. 

This  method  is  founded  on  the  principle  of  treating  samples 
of  sugar  with  saturated  solution  of  sugar  in  alcohol ;  tliis  solu- 
tion dissolves  and  eliminates  the  impurities  of  the  sample 
without  in  the  least  acting  upon  the  crystallized  portion.  The 
necessary  reagents  for  analysis  are : 

I.  Alcohol  of  85-86°  mixed  with  acetic  acid  (50  c.c.  to  each 
litre  of  alcohol),  and  saturated  with  sugar.  For  this  a  good 
refined  sugar  is  taken,  which  is  powdered  and  introduced  into 
the  bottle;  the  above-mentioned  solution  is  poured  in,  it  is 
hermetically  closed,  and  shaken  frequently  during  several  days. 

II.  Alcohol  of  about  92°. 

III.  Alcohol  of  about  96°.  Alcohols  11  and  III  have  no 
addition  of  acetic  acid,  but  are  saturated  with  sugar,  as  was 
the  case  with  the  first  solution. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 
The  apparatns  required  is  ehown  in  tbe  figare. 


It  consistB  of  a  50  c.c.  flask ;  the  neck  of  tbe  flask  ib  some- 
what enlai^ed,  ae  shown  in  the  figure  A.  Through  a  rubber 
stopper  K  is  iiiBerted  the  glass  filt«ring-tabe  OS.  At  the 
lower  end  of  this  tube  is  fastened  a  somewhat  lai^r  tube,  and 
to  this  is  fitted  a  felt-filter.  There  is  also  a  flask  B,  in  which 
a  vacuum  can  be  formed  by  means  of  suction.  This  flask  is 
attached  to  A  by  meanB  of  the  rubber  tube  P. 

Tbe  operation  is  as  follows ;  A  nonnal  quantity  of  sugar  is 
weighed  (26.048  grams  if  the  Ventzke's  polariscope  ie  used, 
or  16.35  grams  if  the  Duboseq)  in  the  flask  A.  The  stopper 
with  the  filter-tube  is  inserted  in  the  flask. 

Solution  IV  is  now  introdnced  into  the  flask  and  allowed  to 
remaia  for  fifteen  or  twenty  minutes,  during  which  time  the 
water  of  the  sugar,  as  also  the  small  quantities  of  foreign  sub- 
stances, such  as  fatty  bodies,  alkaline  salts,  alkaline  salts  of 
fatty  acids  (bntyric,  valerianic,  etc.),  are  dissolved,  and  the 
sugar  is  precipitated.  The  alcohol  and  ether  is  then  with- 
drawn into  the  flask  B  by  means  of  suction  applied  at  m. 


476 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


After  this  solution  No.  I  is  introduced,  and  then  No.  II, 
about  10  c.  c.  of  each.  This  washing  separates  the  absolute 
alcohol  adhering  to  the  sugar,  which  is  finally  saturated  with 
solution  II.  After  this  latter  has  been  drawn  off  by  suction, 
solution  No.  I  is  introduced.  The  solution  is  left  for  fifteen 
to  twenty  minutes,  sufficient  time  for  the  solution  of  all  im- 
purities of  the  raw  sugar,  the  molasses,  during  which  time  the 
mass  of  sugar  diminishes  in  volume  and  settles ;  the  solution 
is  then  removed  by  suction  the  same  as  the  others  into  the 
flask  B.  The  filter-tube  is  now  withdrawn,  and  any  adhering 
sugar  is  washed  into  the  flask ;  tri-plumbic  acetate  is  added, 
then  water,  until  the  50  c.c.  mark  is  reached.  The  solution 
is  then  polarized.  By  this  improved  method  it  is  claimed 
that  great  exactness  can  be  obtained,  much  time  spared,  and 
less  liability  to  loss  than  in  the  first  method  proposed  by 
Scheibler.  The  operation  occupies  about  two  hours,  and  sev- 
eral analyses  can  be  carried  on  at  the  same  time.* 

Physical  Method. — M.  Soleil  has  constructed  an  apparatus 
based  upon  the  rotatory  power  of  liquids,  for  analyzing  sac- 
charine substances,  to  which  the  name  mceJiarometer  is  applied. 

The  following  table  shows  the  effect  of  sugars  on  polarized 
light : 


SUQABS. 


Cane-sugar  (sucrope) 

Melezitose  (from  Larch  manna) 

Mycose  (from  Turkish  manna,  product  ) 

of  an  insect) f 

Melitose  (from  eucalyptus) 

Dextrose  (p;rape-sugar) 

Malt-sugar  (maltose) 

Fruit-sugar  (laBVulose) 

Eucalin  (from  fermentation  of  melitose). . 
Sorhin  (from  berries  of  the  service  tree). . 

Milk-suufar  (lactose) 

Galactose 

Inverted  sucrose  (from  honey  and  manna )  \ 

and  some  fruits) \  ' 


FoR]fc:i.iB. 


Effect  on  Polarizto 

LlOUT. 


CijHjgOji 
CuHjjOu 

^6  HijGg 
C.  H,,G, 
C.  H,,G. 

c«  n,,G. 

C,  H,.G. 


Right, 


94M. 
193  .0. 


"      102  .0. 
57^4. 
"      172  .0. 
Left,106  ,atl8'^C. 
Right,  50  .0. 
Left,  46  .9. 
Right,  56 '.4. 
83.3. 


i« 


Left,  28°  at  I^IS**  C. 


*  For  details  for  preserving  solutions,  etc.,  see  Am.  Chem.,  Much  1873 
and  September  1878. 


*         t 
i 


THE    CHEMISTS'    MANUAL. 


ill 


The  above  table,  according  to  Berthelot,  are  the  rotar^r 
powers  of  the  different  varieties  of  sugar,  if  equal  weights  of 
each  are  dissolved  in  an  equal  bulk  of  water ;  the  quantity  of 
each  sogar  ia  calculated  for  the  formulas  annexed. 


SOLEIL-DUBOSCQ    SACCHARO METER. 


H, — Is  a  ray  of  light  (Ai^pind  burner,  gas-light  is  j^nerally 
used). 

P, — Is  the  polarizer,  formed  by  two  prisms,  one  of  crown 
glass,  the  other  of  cale  spar.  The  ordinary  and  extraordinary 
rays  are  polarized  at  right  angles,  the  ordinary  ray  alone  meets 
the  eye.  The  principal  divieion  of  the  spar  ia  in  a  vertical 
plane  with  the  axia  of  the  instrument. 


478  THE    CHEMISTS'    MANUAL. 

E, — Two  quartz  plates  of  opposite  rotating  power  cut  per- 
pendicular to  axis  (c  and  d)  of  instrument,  having  a  thickness 
of  3.75  millimetres  (or  7.50  m.m.),  equal  to  a  rotation  of  90°, 
and  gives  a  violet  tint  called  the  "tint  of  passage,"  or 
"  transition  tint." 

T. — This  is  the  tube  made  of  copper  or  brass,  which  is 
sometimes  tinned  inside,  with  two  glass  plates  for  each  end  to 
close  the  tube  with^  so  that  it  can  hold  the  liquid  to  be 
analyzed. 

Q. — This  is  a  quartz  plate  5.5  millimetres  thick,  having  the 
property  of  right-handed  rotation. 

KK'. — This  is  a  wedge  of  left-banded  quartz ;  it  is  made  by 
cutting  a  quartz  plate  with  two  parallel  sides,  obliquely,  sa 
that  they  will  have  the  same  angle.  The  scale  of  the  instru- 
ment is  attached  to  these  parts :  ab  =  cd  =  4  millimetres. 

A, — Is  the  analyzer.  Formed  in  three  parts:  the  first  is  a 
very  small  flint-glass  prism,  the  second  is  a  crown-glass  prism^ 
the  third  is  a  prism  of  calc  spar, 

C, — Is  a  plate  of  quartz. 

LL', — Is  a  Galilee  Telescope. 

N, — Is  a  nickel  prism,  which  with  C  (quartz  plate)  produce& 
the  sensible  tints. 

S, — Is  the  eye  of  observer. 

Note. — The  Duboeoq  instrrmient,  in  oomparison  to  the  Yentzke,  is  beet 
adapted  for  the  examiuation  of  raw  sugars,  for  the  reason  that  only  16.85 
grains  are  taken  for  analysis,  whilst  26.048  grams  are  required  for  the^ 
Ventzke  instrument.  Some  raw  sugars  are  very  dark-colored,  and  are  diffi- 
cult to  decolorize ;  therefore,  the  least  amount  of  sugar  taken  in  a  giveik 
quantity  of  water  (100  c.a),  the  easier  will  it  be  to  decolorize  the  same. 


THE   CHEMISTS'    MANUAL.  47& 

THE  ANALYSIS  OF  SUGAR  BY  MEANS  OF  THE 

OPTICAL  SACCHAROMETER. 

The  analysis  of  sugar  solutions  by  means  of  the  optical  saccha- 
roraeter  usually  gives  rise  to  one  of  the  following  problems : 

(1.)  "  To  determine*  the  quantity  of  pure  sugar  in  the  solu- 
tion such  as  it  is ;  or, 

(2.)  To  determine  the  quantity  of  pure  sugar  in  the  solu- 
tion, irrespective  of  the  quantity  of  water  in  it ;  i.  e,,  the 
quantity  of  pure  sugar  in  the  substance  as  it  would  be  if 
deprived  of  its  water,  or,  more  briefly,  the  quantity  of  sugar 
in  the  dry  substance.'* 

In  the  first  case  we  must  treat  it  as  we  would  any  other 
saccharine  substance,  as  for  example — 

RAW    SUGARS. 

The  raw  sugar  to  be  analyzed  is  first  weighed :  16.35  grams 
are  taken  if  a  Soleil-Duboscq  saccharometer  is  to  be  used,  or 
26.048  grams  if  a  Ventzke-Soleil  instrument  is  used.  The 
sugar  weighed  is  dissolved  in  a  small  beaker,t  in  about  60  c.c. 
of  water,  and  then  transferred  to  a  small  flask  of  100  c.c. 
capacity,  being  careful  to  dissolve  every  particle  of  the  sugar 
and  transfer  the  same  to  the  flask,  where  it  is  diluted  to 
90  c.c,  after  which  4  c.c.  of  a  solution  of  common  salt  is 
added,  and  then  6  c.c.  of  tri-plumbic  acetate,  making  in  all 
10  C.C.  The  flask  is  then  agitated  for  a  few  moments,  when 
the  contents  are  filtered.  If  the  filtered  solution  has  a  reddish 
color,:}:  it  may  be  filtered  through  well-dried  bone-black,  when 
the  red  color  will  disappear.  If  bone-black  is  not  at  hand,  to 
60  c.c.  of  the  filtrate  add  50  c.c.  of  water  and  filter  if  neces- 
sary, when  a  solution  will  be  obtained  which  can  be  examined 
in  the  saccharometer. 

*  Amer.  Chem.,  Oct.,  1873.    Article  by  P.  Casamajor. 

f  It  is  only  in  cases  of  very  dark  sugars  that  the  filtrate  may  sometimes 
be  red ;  when  red  it  cannot  be  used  in  the  instrument. 

%  Nickel-plated  copper-beakers  will  be  found  to  be  very  useful,  espedaUy 
In  the  case  of  centrifugal  sugars,  which  are  difficult  to  dissolve. 


480  THE    CHEMISTS'    MANUAL. 

The  filtrate  of  a  white  or  yellow  color  is  now  to  be  exam- 
ined in  the  saccharometer.  The  tube  of  the  instrument  of 
20  C.C.  capacity,  aod  20  centimetres  in  length,  is  thoroughly 
washed  out  with  the  filtrate  and  then  filled  to  overflowing,  when 
the  open  end  is  covered  by  a  round  piece  of  glass,  and  the  cap 
is  put  on.  The  tube  is  then  put  in  the  instrument  and  the 
solution  examined.  It  is  necessary  to  see  that  the  zero  (0) 
point  on  the  scale  of  the  instrument  is  correct ;  this  is  accom- 
plished by  means  of  a  tube  filled  with  pure  water. 

The  color  of  the  field  best  adapted  to  examine  the  solution 
depends  on  the  sensitiveness  of  the  eye.  Experience  has 
shown,  though,  that  a  yellow  field  is  the  most  sensitive. 

When  once  the  tints  of  the  two  halves  of  the  plate  are 
exactly  alike,  the  division  of  the  scale  corresponding  to  the 
vernier  is  read  off,  and  the  corresponding  number  gives  the 
strength  of  the  solution. 

In  the  second  case,  that  is, 

TO  DETERMINE  THE  QUANTITY  OF  PURE  SUGAR  IN  A 
SOLUTION.  IRRESPECTIVE  OF  THE  QUANTITY  OF 
WATER   IN   IT. 

The  following  is  the  process  of  P.  Casamajor :  *  Two  cases 
may  present  themselves :  either  the  solution  is  light-colored 
enough  to  be  placed  in  the  saccharometer,  or  it  is  dark  and 
needs  to  be  decolorized.  Suppose  a  solution  which,  after  dilu- 
tion, its  density  Mis  between  5°  and  15°  Balling,  is  light-col- 
ored enough  to  go  into  the  saccharometer.  First  place  the 
areometer  in  the  solution ;  suppose  that  it  indicates  14°.3 ; 
next  place  in  the  solution  a  thermometer  which  will  indicate 
say  27|°  C,  and  note  that  the  excess  of  27^°  over  17^°  C.  is  10^ 

[NoTB. — ^The  indications  of  the  areometer  are  true :  for  tlie  temperature  of 
17^'  C.  and  for  any  otlier  temperature,  either  higher  or  lower,  we  must  con- 
sult the  table  for  "  correction  of  temperature,"  which  is  given  on  p.  483.] 

It  is  necessary  to  tnrn  now  to  the  Table  for  Correction  of 
Temperatnrefl,  and  find  the  quantity  to  be  added  to  the  degrees 
Balling  as  27^°  >  17}°  =  -f  10.     Opposite  10  in  the  table  is 

♦  Amer.  Cliem.,  Nov.  1S73.  p.  ir»l. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  481 

0.646,  which  we  add  to  14^3  BaUing  =  (14°.3  +  0.545  = 
14°.845)  14*'.84  comes  nearest  to  14.8  of  the  table  marked 
Diiboscq,  and  opposite  to  14.8  is  1.043,  and  in  the  table 
marked  Ventzke,  1.659. 

Suppose  a  Yentzke  instrument  is  used,  and  the  solution 
indicates  43  per  cent. ;  by  multiplying  43^  by  1.659  =  71.33^ 
gives  the  quantity  of  pure  sugar  in  the  dry  substance  of  the 
solution. 

If  the  solution  is  too  dark  to  be  used  in  the  saccharometer, 
it  must  be  decolorized.  The  first  step  to  be  taken  is  to  test 
the  solution  with  the  areometer  and  thermometer,  and  obtain 
the  rectified  degree  Balling  corresponding  to  17 J°  C.  Op- 
posite to  this  degree  Balling  we  find  in  the  table  the  corre- 
sponding factor,  which  is  written  down  for  future  use. 

The  solution  is  next  clarified  by  adding  the  "  sodic  chloride 
solution  "  and  tri-plumbic  acetate.  The  total  addition  will  be 
10  per  cent,  of  the  volume  of  the  sugar  solution.  If  the  solu- 
tion is  light,  5  per  cent,  will  do.  As  this  addition  of  liquid 
weakens  the  saccharimetric  strength  of  the  solution  by  5  or 
10  per  cent.,  according  to  the  quantity  of  decolorizer  added, 
it  must  be  compensated  for  by  adding  5  or  10  per  cent,  to  the 
factor  written  down.  The  solution,  after  being  filtered,  is 
finally  placed  in  the  tube  of  the  saccharometer,  and  the  indica- 
tion of  the  instrument  is  multiplied  by  the  factor  obtained  by 
adding  5  or  10  per  cent,  to  the  factor  of  the  table. 

Numerical  Example. — Suppose  we  liave  a  dark  boIuUoh.  After  being 
dilated  with  water,  it  is  tested  by  the  areometer  and  thermometer,  showing 
IV A  BaUing,  the  temperature  being  25^  C.  The  excess  of  25^"  over  17i" 
=  8.  Opposite  8  in  Table  for  Correction  of  Temperatures  we  find  0.486, 
which  is  added  to  IV A  Balling  (11".4  +  0.436  =  11.886).  Suppose  we  have 
a  Ventzke  instrument,  we  find  in  the  table  marked  Ventzke,  opposite  11.8 
(nearest  11.886),  2.107,  which  we  write  down.  The  solution  being  dark,  we 
add  10  per  cent,  of  clarifying  solution,  say  8  or  4  per  cent,  of  sodic  chlo- 
ride, and  the  balance  tri-plumbic  acetate  As  this  weakens  the  solution,  we 
compensate  for  it  by  adding  to  the  factor  2.107, 10  per  cent,  of  its  value  = 
0.2107,  which  gives  2.817.  The  solution,  after  being  clarified  by  filtration 
is  placed  in  the  saccharometer,  and  then  shows  say  22^  per  cent.  By  multi- 
plying'2.31 7  by  22i,  we  obtain  52.1,  which  is  the  percentage  of  pure  sugar 
in  the  dry  substance  of  the  solution. 


482 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


TABLES  FOR  THE  CORRECTION   OF  TEMPERATURES. 


Difference  between 
the  temperatare  ob- 
served and  17^*>  C. 

1 

2 

8 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 


Quantity  to  be  added 
or  subtracted  from 
degree  Balling. 

0.054 

0.109 

..   ..     0.163 

0.218 

0.272 

0.327 

0.881 

0.436 

0.490 

0.545 

0.600 

0.654 

0.708 

0.762 

0.817 


VENTZKE. 


Table  of  factors,  corresponding  to  degrees  Balling,  to  he  mvUiplied  by  ihs 

indication  of  the  saceharometer. 


HO 

M  2 


5. 

o.l 

5.2 

53 

5.4 

5.5 

5.6 

6.7 

5.8 

5.9 

6. 

6.t 

6.2 

6.3 

6.4 

6. 

6. 

0 

6.9 

6.9 


Factob. 

Factob. 

^ 

5.107  , 

7. 

8.618 

9. 

6.013 

7.1 

8.568 

9.1 

4.920 

7.2 

8.519  ' 

9.2 

4.823 

7.8 

8.470 

9.3 

4.733  1 

7.4 

3.420  1 

9.4 

4.639 

7.5 

8.371  , 

9.5 

4.559 

7.6 

3.32S 

9.6 

4.479 

7.7 

8  284  ' 

9.7 

4.399 

7.8 

3.340 

9.8 

4.319  , 

7.9 

8.197 

9.9 

4.239  1 

8. 

3.154 

10. 

4.171  1 

8.1 

8.116 

10.1 

4.103  ' 

8.2 

3.078 

10.2 

4.035 

8.3 

8.039 

10.3 

3.969 

8.4 

3.001 

10.4 

3.90D 

8.5 

2.963 

10.5 

3  844 

8.6 

2.929 

10.6 

3.787 

8.7 

2.895 

10.7 

3.730 

8.8 

2.860 

10.8 

3674 

8.9 

2.826 

10.1 

) 

^ 


< 
Pm 


2.792 
2.762 
2.731 
2.700 
2.670 
2.640 
2.612 
2.585 
2.558 
2.530 
2.503 
2.478 
2.453 
2.428 
2.403 
2.378 
2.356 
2.334 
2.311 
2.289 


11. 

11.1 

11.2 

11.3 

11.4 

11.5 

11.6 

11.7 

11.8 

119 

12. 

12.1 

12.2 

12.8 

12.4 

12.5 

12  6 

12.7 

12.8 

12.9 


pj 


pS 


2.267 
2.246 
2.225 
2.204 
2.184 
2.163 
2.144 
2.125 
2.107 
2.088 
2.069 
2.052 
2.034 
2.010 
2.000 
1.982 
1.966 
1.950 
1.934 
1.918 


18. 

13.1 

13.2 

13.3 

13.4 

13.5 

13.6 

13.7 

13.8 

13.9 

14 

141 

142 

14.3 

144 

14.5 

140 

147 

14.8 

14.9 

15. 


1.902 
1.887 
1.878 
1.858 
1.844 
1.829 
1.815 
1.801 
1.787 
1.773 
1.759 
1.746 
1.783 
1.721 
1.708 
1.695 
1.683 
1.671 
1659 
1648 
1.630 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


483 


DUBOSCQ. 


Table  of  factors,  corresponding  to  degrees  Balling,  to  he  multiplied  by  the 

indication  of  the  saccharometer. 


si 

O  H 

Q;2 


5. 

5.1 

5.2 

6.3 

6.4 

6.5 

5.6 

5.7 

5.8 

5.9 

6. 

6.1 

G.2 

6.3 

6.4 

6.5 

6.6 

6.7 

6.8 

69 


14 

g 

§i 

i 

«(2 

3.206 

7. 

3.151 

7.1 

8.097 

7.2 

3.042 

7.8 

2.988 

7.4 

2.933 

7.5 

2.879 

7.6 

2.824 

7.7 

2.770 ' 

7.8 

2715 

7.9 

2.661 

8. 

2.622 

8.1 

2.583 

8.2 

2.544 

8.3 

2.505 

8.4 

2.466 

8.5 

2.427 

8.6 

2.388 

8.7 

2.349  , 

8.8 

2.310 

1 

8.9 

2.271 
2.240 
2.207 
2.176 
2.147 
2.116 
2.088 
2.081 
2.034 
2.007 
1.980 
1.955 
1.931 
1.906 
1.882 
1.860 
1.839 
1.817 
1.796 
1.774 


9. 

9.1 

9.2 

9.8 

9.4 

9.5 

9.6 

9.7 

9.8 

9.9 

10. 

10.1 

10.2 

10.8 

10.4 

10.5 

10.6 

10.7 

10.8 

10.9 


i 


^ 


1.753 
1.734 
1.714 
1.695 
1.676 
1.657 
1.640 
1.622 
1.605 
1.588 
1.571 
1.555 
1.540 
1.524 
1.508 
1.493 
1.479 
1.465 
1.451 
1.437 


11. 

11.1 

11.2 

11.3 

11.4 

11.5 

11.6 

11.7 

11.8 

11.9 

12. 

12.1 

12.2 

12.3 

12.4 

12.5 

12.6 

12.7 

12.8 

12.9 


tfl 


£ 


1.423 
1.410 
1.397 
1.884 
1.371 
1.358 
1346 
1.834 
1.323 
1.311 
1.299 
1.288 
1.277 
1.266 
1.255 
1.244 
1.234 
1.224 
1.214 
1.204 


S^ 

«« 


13. 

18.1 

13.2 

13.3 

13.4 

13.5 

13.6 

13.7 

13.8 

13.9 

14. 

14.1 

14.2 

14.3 

14.4 

14.5 

14.6 

14.7 

14.8 

14.9 

15. 


§ 

U 

< 


1.194 
1.185 
1.176 
1.166 
1.157 
1.148 
1.189 
1.130 
1.122 
1.113 
1.104 
1.096 
1.088 
1.080 
1  1.072 
1.064 
1.056 
1.049 
1.043 

i.as4 

1.027 


DETERMINATION   OF  THE  WATER   IN    SUGAR. 

There  are  two  methods  which  can  be  employed : 

(1.)  By  drying  the  sugar  near  the  point  of  caramelization ; 
t.  e,^  120°  to  130°,  the  loss  in  weight  will  equal  the  water. 
The  operation  requires  about  two  hours. 

(2.)  By  means  of  the  "  water  areometer."  The  following  is 
a  description  of  the  process  of  P.  Casamajor : 

To  determine  the  amount  of  water  in  sugar :  Take  16.35 
grams  of  the  sugar  to  be  tested,  which  dissolve,  so  that  the 
solution  shall  occupy  100  c.c.  without  adding  tri-plumbic  ace- 
tate or  any  other  decolorizing  agent. 

After  shaking  up  thoroughly,  so  as  to  have  a  uniform  liquid^ 
pour  some  of  it  into  a  glass  cylinder ;  put  an  areometer  -into 
the  solution  and  note  the  division  to  which  it  sinks ;  also  note 


484 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 


the  temperatnre  of  the  BolutioD.  The  indications  of  the 
areometer  show  the  quantity  (provisional)  of  water  in  the  sugar 
tested,  if  the  temperature  is  17J°  C.  If  the  temperature  is 
not  17J°  C,  corrections  are  to  be  made  by  means  of  the  fol- 
lowing table : 


De^n^es  Celalas, 

al>oye  or  below 

17iC. 


1 

2 

8 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 


Qaantlty  to  add 

when  below  and  to 

Bnbtract  when 

above  11\  C. 


0.36 
0.71 
107 
1.44 
1.80 
2.15 
2.50 
2.87 
8.12 
8.48 
8.84 
4.20 
4.55 
4.81 
5.16 
5.52 


Suppose  you  have  the  indication 
of  your  areometer  2.50  and  that  of 
the  thermometer  231"  C.  Then 
23i  -  17i  =  6".  Opposite  6**  you 
find  2.15.    The  amount  of  water  is 

2.50 

'r-2.15 


Provisional,  0.85  per  cent. 

If  the  areometer  indicates  2.50 
and  the  thermometer  14"  C;  the 
difference  17J'  -  14"  =  3J%  to 
which  correspond  1.25,  average  of 

1.07 
1.44 

2)2.51 
1.25 

2.50  4-  1.25  =  3.75  per  cent  (pio- 
visional). 


There  is  another  correction  to  be  made  which  relates  to  the 
salts  contained  in  the  sugar.  Suppose  we  have  a  sugar  giving 
in  the  saccharometer  85  per  cent. ;  the  water  areometer,  after 
correction  for  temperature,  giving  4  per  cent.  The  sugar  may 
be  provisionally  put  down : 


Saccharimetric  ...  85  per  cent 

Water 4 

Impurities 11 


<< 


tt 


ProviflioiiaL 


Casamajor  found,  by  comparing  a  large  number  of  tests  in 
which  he  determined  the  ashes,  that  ^  of  the  impurities  in 
cane-sugar  and  -^  in  beet-sugar  should  be  added  to  the  water 
as  found  above^  to  correct  the  error  due  to  salts. 


THE    CHEMISTS'    MANUAL.  485 

Thus,  in  the  above  example,  J^  =  0.55,  whidi,  when  added 
to  4,  makes  4.55  per  cent. ;  therefore,  we  havM 


Saccharimetric 85  per  cent. 

Water 455       " 

Impurities 10.45       " 

100.00 

By  the  above  process  the  amount  of  water  may  be  deter- 
mined very  rapidly. 

If  it  is  desirous  to  determine  the  quantity  of  sugar,  using 
the  same  solution,  add  to  it  5  or  10  per  cent,  of  decolorizing 
.  material,  and  to  the  result  of  the  saccharometer  add  5  or  10 
per  cent,  to  counteract  for  the  dilution. 

DETERMINATION    OF   THE    SCALE    OF   THE    WATER 

AREOMETER. 

The  0  point  is  obtained  by  dissolving  16.35  grams  of  pure, 
dry  sugar  in  water,  so  that  the  solution  will  occupy  100  c.c. 
at  17-^°  C.  The  next  point  to  be  determined  is  10  per  cent., 
which  is  easily  obtained  by  taking  90  c.c.  of  the  above  solu- 
tion and  diluting  with  pure  water  up  to  100  c.c.  This  second 
Solution  at  17J°  0.  corresponds  to  a  sugar  having  10  per  cent, 
of  water.  Having  obtained  the  0  point,  as  also  the  10  per  cent, 
on  the  instrument,  the  space  may  be  divided  equally  between 
these  two  points  for  the  percentages.  The  points  obtained 
thereby  are  not  strictly  correct,  but  the  error  committed  is 
only  a  theoretical  one,  and  is  not  appreciable  on  such  an 
instrument. 

The  different  points  give  the  true  percentage  of  water  in  a 
sample  of  sugar  at  17^°  C,  after  allowing  for  the  correction 
due  to  salts  mentioned  above.  At  any  other  temperature,  cor- 
rection must  be  made  as  above. 

DETERMINATION   OF  THE  ASH    IN   SUGARS, 

Weigh  out  9  grams  of  the  sugar,  to  be  examined  in  a 
platinum-dish,  and  add  four  drops  of  sulphuric  acid,  diluted 


486  THE    CHEMISTS'    MANUAL. 

in  about  2  centimeters  of  water.  The  platinum-dish  is  gently 
heated  at  first  to  prevent  bubbling  over,  and  finally  heated 
strongly  to  incinerate  the  carbon.  The  result  is  the  same  as 
taking  10  grams  and  deducting  a  tenth.* 


*  The  reason  for  deducting  one-tenth  is  to  counterbalance  the  additional 
weight  due  to  the  conversion  of  the  sugar-salts  into  sulphate ;  it  is  entirely 
a  conventional  matter. 


ssagttij. 


'  *     I ' 


.'  :y^ 


ASSAY    OF    IRON    ORES. 

DIRECTIONS  FOR  SELECTING  SAMPLES  FOR  ANALYSIS. 

Several  fragments  sliould  be  selected  from  different  parts  of 
the  vein  or  bed,  amounting  in  the  aggregate  to  fifty  or  sixty 
pounds.  Or  when  the  ore  has  been  mined  and  is  lying  in 
heaps,  several  shovels-full  of  ore,  coarse  and  fine,  should  be 
obtained,  so  as  to  procure  a  fair  average  of  the  whole ;  it  is 
also  better  to  select  from  different  parts  of  the  pile — a  keg-fiill 
in  all  is  sufficient.  A  few  ounces,  or  even  less,  is  all  that  is 
actually  i-equired  for  the  analysis,  but  it  is  better  to  pulverize 
a  large  quantity  together,  and  the  portion  analyzed  is  a  much 
better  representation  of  the  mine  than  a  single  fragment  can  be. 

PREPARING   THE   SAMPLE   FOR  ANALYSIS. 

''  Break  up  in  an  iron  mortar  forty  or  fifty  pounds  of  the 
ore,  into  pieces  that  will  pass  through  a  tin  sieve  with  hali- 
inch  holes.  Thoroughly  mix  the  fine  and  the  coarse.  Now 
break  up  about  ten  pounds  of  average  quality,  so  that  it  will 
pass  through  a  sieve  made  of  tin  with  quarter-inch  holes. 
Mix  welly  take  one  pound  of  this,  and  pulverize  in  iron  mor- 
tar, until  it  will  pass  through  a  sieve  of  60  meshes  to  the  linear 
inch.  Mix  weU^  take  out  about  50  grams,  pulverize  in  agate 
mortar,  pass  through  mnslin  bolting-cloth,  and  put  into  a 
small  bottle,  tightly  corked,  for  analysis  and  special  determi- 
nations. Any  portion  of  this  taken  for  Assay  or  for  Quali- 
tative or  QuANTTTATiVE  ANALYSIS,  must  bo  pulvcrized  to  an 
impalpable  powder  in  an  agate  mortar." 

In  the  assay  of  iron  ores  it  is  necessary  to  slag  off  from 
the  iron  all  the  impurities,  so  that  the  iron  will  be  set  free  in 
a  pure  state.  The  formula  for  the  slag  must  be  =  K203.Si02 
+  2(3KO.Si02). 


490 


THE   CHEMISTS'    MANUAL. 


Its  approximate  percentage  composition  is : 


Silica 38    ^  ramparts. 

RgOg  (Alumina) ....     15    >•  or  about   •<   1  part. 

RO  (CaO,  MgO,  etc.) 47   )  I   8  parts. 


CHARGES  FOR  ORES  OF   UNKNOWN   COMPOSITION. 


Silica.. 
Lime. . 
Ore ... . 


1.  s. 
2.6 1. 


8. 


4.0  grams. 
1.5 


10. 


10. 


.10. 


u 


it 


It  is  necessary  to  make  two  assays  of  the  ore,  using  first 
charge  1,  then  charge  2,  etc. 

TO  CALCULATE  THE  CHARGE  WHEN  THE  COMPOSITION 

OF  THE  ORE   IS   KNOWN. 


The  ore  containB — 

Per  cent. 

10  ttramB 

or  ore 
contain— 

Required  to 
form  elag. 

Difference  to 
be  added. 

SUica 

Alumina 

CaO,MgO,  etc 

1.65 
1.04 
4.51 

0.165 
0.194 
0.451 

2.50 
1.00 
8.00 

2.385 
0.806 
2.549 

Kaolin  is  used  as  a  means  to  furnish  alumina,  and  kaolin  is 
(AI2O3  J .  Si02  i).  Now,  since  0.806  alumina  must  be  added  to 
charge  to  form  the  proper  slag,  twice  as  much  kaolin  must  be 
used,  as  only  one-half  of  the  kaolin  is  alumina.  Therefore, 
.806  X  2  =  1.612  grams  of  kaolin  to  be  added.  But  in  add- 
ing 1.612  grams  of  kaolin,  0.806  gram  of  Si02  is  added 
because  half  of  the  kaolin  is  Si02.  Therefore  0.806  grama 
must  be  subtracted  from  the  amount  of  Si02  to  be  added. 
2.335  grams  —  0.806  grams  =  1.529  grams  Si02  to  be  added. 

The  charge  is  therefore : 

Ore 10.  grams. 

Silica 1.529  grama 

Kaolin 1.612      *' 

Lime 2.549     " 


THE    CHEMISTS'    MANUAL. 


491 


The  above  example  was  where  the  ore  did  not  contain  suffi- 
cient Si02  to  form  the  required  slag.  The  following  is  an 
example  of  an  ore  containing  too  much  Si02 : 


The  ore  containe— 

Per  cent 

30  fframs 

of  ore 
contain— 

Required. 

To  be 
added. 

SUica 

Alumina 

CaO,  MgO,  etc 

25.96 
6.92 
7.59 

2.596 
0.692 
0.759 

2.50 
1.00 
8.00 

0.096 
0.808 
2.241 

To  add  0.308  of  AI2O3,  twice  0.308  or  0.616  of  kaolin  must 
be  added.  In  adding  0.616  kaolin,  0.308  Si02  is  added. 
Therefore,  since  there  is  already  0.096  Si02  too  much,  there 
will  be  0.096  +  0.308  or  0.404  Si02  too  much,  and  this  amount 
must  be  treated  so  that  it  will  form  a  slag. 


Constitaents. 

Excess. 

Required. 

Difference  to  be 
added. 

Silica 

Alumlua 

CaO.  MfirO.  etc 

0.404 

2.50 
1.00 
3.00 

2.006 
1.000 
8.000 

Now  in  adding  1.000  gram  of  AI2O3  two  grams  of  kaolin 
must  be  added,  and  in  adding  two  grams  of  kaolin  one  gram 
of  Si02  is  added ;  therefore  this  amount  of  Si02  must  be  sulv 
tracted  from  the  amount  of  Si02  necessary  to  add,  which  is 
2.096;  .-.  2.096  —  1.000  =  1.096. 

The  charge  is  therefore : 

Ore 10  grams. 

Silica 1.096  grams. 

Kaolin 0.616  4-  2.000  =  2.616  grams. 

Lime 2.241  +  8.000  =  5.241       ** 

To  add  Si02j  ground  quartz  is  used.  Ores  containing 
titanium  require  the  addition  of  fluor-spar,  0.5  to  10  grams, 
according  to  the  amount  of  titanium  that  is  present. 


492  THE  CHEMISTS*  MANUAL. 


PREPARING    THE    CRUCIBLE. 

The  crucible  used  is  a  Hessian  crucible.  They  are  filled 
with  hrasque.  Brasque  in  this  case  is  four  parts  of  pulverized 
charcoal  to  one  part  of  molasses.  This  is  thoroughly  kneaded 
until  a  ball  of  it,  made  in  the  hands,  resists  to  a  sensible 
degree  an  attempt  to  pull  it  apart. 

The  crucibles  are  packed  full  by  driving  the  brasque  in  with 
a  mallet;  a  conical-shaped  cavity  of  sufficient  size  for  the 
charge  is  cut  out  of  the  brasque  with  a  knife,  and  the  cavity 
on  the  inside  polished  with  a  strong  glass  tube.  The  crucible 
is  then  dried  by  a  fire  (must  not  be  heated  too  high). 

PREPARING    CHARGE. 

The  charge  is  weighed  out  and  thoroughly  mixed  on  glazed 
paper,  then  put  into  the  crucible.  The  top  of  the  conical  cavity 
is  then  covered  with  a  piece  of  charcoal,  and  then  the  whole 
top  of  the  crucible  is  covered  with  a  coating  of  fire-clay  (fire- 
clay with  one-fourth  to  one-half  part  of  fine  sand  and  a  little 
hair,  thoroughly  kneaded).  The  outside  of  the  crucible  is  also 
covered  with  fire-clay  (very  thin  coating),  and  then  the  cruci- 
ble is  luted  on  a  fire-brick  and  thoroughly  dried  before  putting 
it  into  the  furnace.  The  fire  should  be  kept  up  in  the  furnace 
between  four  and  5  hours,  with  anthracite  coal. 

Duplicate  assays  should  not  vary  more  than  0.3-0.4  of  one 
per  cent. 

The  button  should  be  gray  or  grayish-white,  the  grain  fine, 
or  tolerably  so.  Phosphorus  in  the  ore  makes  the  button  cold- 
short— hard,  brittle,  and  a  white  metal.  Sulphub  makes  the 
button  strong  reticulated — mottled  structure,  and  red-short. 

Manganese  gives  a  button  with  a  smooth  surface,  hard  and 
non-graphitic;  it  presents  a  white  crystalline  fracture.  The 
slag  obtained  has  an  amethyst  color,  or  yellow,  green,  and 
brown  when  manganese  is  present  in  excess. 


THE  CHEMISTS*  MANUAL.  493 

Chbomium  gives  a  smooth  button, "  well  fused,  with  a  brilliant 
crystalline  fracture,  and  tin-white  color ;  at  other  times  it  is 
white  and  only  half-fused,  or  it  may  even  form  a  spongy  mass 
of  a  clear  gray  color,  according  to  the  quantity  of  chromium 
contained  in  the  iron.  The  slag  is  dark  and  resinous,  sur- 
rounded with  a  thin  metallic  coating." 

"  TrrANiUM  gives  a  button  with  a  smooth  sur&ce ;  has  a  deep 
gray  fracture,  dull  and  crystalline,  and  adheres  strongly  to  the 
slag.  The  button  is  sometimes  covered  with  the  nitro-cyanide 
of  titanium  with  its  characteristic  copper  color.  The  slag  is 
resinous,  black,  and  scoriaceous,  curiously  wrinkled  on  the  out- 
side, and  covered  with  metallic  pellicles  of  nitro-cyanide  of 
titanium  with  its  characteristic  copper  color;  sometimes  the 
slag  is  vitreous  and  of  a  bluish  tint." 

The  following  is  a  comparison  between  the  results  obtained 
by  analysis  and  fire-assay,  by  Kicketts  :* 

Ore.  Iron  by  AnalyBis.  9y  Fire  Asuy. 

Magnetite 68.86  percent 69.6    71.2    71.8percent. 

Hematite 44.50   "     "      44.6    46.0    48.6    "      " 

Limonite 44.20   "     "      44.3    44.6    45.2    "      " 

*  "  Notes  on  Assaying,"  Bicketts,  p.  89. 


494:  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

ASSAY    OF    GOLD    AND    SILVER.* 

The  assay  of  gold  and  silver  will  comprise :  I.  Assay  of 
Ores;    II.  Assay  of  Alloys. 

I.    ASSAY    OF    ORES. 

PREPARATION  OF  THE  SAMPLE. 

It  is  essential,  in  the  first  place,  to  obtain  a  fair  average 
sample  of  the  ore,  otherwise  the  results  of  the  assay  may  be 
commercially  worthless.  Selection  must  be  left  to  the  judg- 
ment of  the  assayer.  The  sample  must  be  dried,  if  necessary ; 
care  being  taken  not  to  roast  it.  It  must  then  be  pounded  in 
an  iron  mortar,  and  passed  through  a  sieve  of  eighty  meshes 
to  the  linear  inch.  If  any  native  metal,  in  the  form  of  scales 
or  filaments,  remain  upon  the  sieve,  take  the  weight,  separately, 
of  what  has  passed  through  and  of  what  is  left  upon  the  sieve. 
The  latter  must  be  assayed  according  to  "  Assay  of  Alloys," 
and  the  result  referred  to  the  whole  amount  of  ore.  It  is  essen- 
tial that  the  whole  of  the  sample^  except  the  malleable  portion, 
be  passed  through  the  sieve.    Mix  thoroughly  the  sifted  ore. 

The  collection  of  the  gold  and  silver  in  a  button  of  metallic 
lead  is  effected  in  a  crucible,  or  in  a  scorifier,  whence  arise  two 
methods  of  assay :  I.  Crucible  Assay  ;  II.  Scorificatiox  Assay. 

The  crucible  assay  is  applicable  to  all  ores ;  the  latter  is  limit- 
ed, practically,  by  the  small  size  of  scorifiers,  to  the  richer  ores. 

I.    CRUCIBLE    ASSAY. 

An  ore  of  gold  and  silver  is  composed  of  precious  metal, 
gangue,  and  oxides,  sulphides,  etc.,  of  foreign  metals. 

To  collect  the  precious  metals  in  a  button  of  lead,  the  ore  is 
mixed  with  litharge,  suitable  fluxes,  an  oxidizing  or  a  reducing 
agent,  and  fused  in  a  Hessian  crucible.  Litharge  is  reduced 
to  metallic  lead;  the  latter  seizes  upon  the  previous  metals 
and  collects  in  a  button  at  the  bottom  of  the  crucible,  while 
the  foreign  materials  form,  with  the  fluxes,  a  fusible  slag  above 
the  lead  button. 

*  Soc  Amer.  Chem.,  1870— Articles  by  T.  M.  Blossom,  E.M. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  495 

The  crucible  is  broken  when  cold,  and  the  malleable  button 
detached  from  the  slag  by  hammering  on  an  anvil.  The  fol- 
lowing are  the  necessary  reagents : 

REAGENTS. 

Litharge,  Carbonate  of  Soda  or  of  Potash, 

Nlti'e,  Argol  (crude  bitartrate  of  potash), 

Charcoal,  Borax  GhiSB, 

Silica,  Common  Salt. 
Carbonate  of  Ammonia, 

The  reagents  must  be  finely  pulverized  and  dried,  and  kept 
in  closed  vessels. 

Borax  should  be  fiised  to  a  glass  and  pulverized. 

PRELIMINARY    ASSAYS    OF    REAGENTS. 

Ordinary  commercial  litharge  always  contains  silver ;  so  it 
becomes  necessary  to  determine  in  each  new  lot  the  amount 
of  silver  contained,  for  deduction  fipom  the  silver  found  in  the 
regular  assay  of  an  ore. 

There  must  also  be  determined,  beforehand,  the  reducing 
powers  of  argol  and  charcoal,  and  the  oxidizing  power  of  nitre. 
This  necessity  arises  from  the  impurity  of  the  reagents.  By 
reducing  power  is  meant  the  amount  of  metallic  lead  that  one 
gram  of  the  reagent  will  reduce  from  litharge ;  and  by  oxidizing 
power,  the  amount  of  metallic  lead  that  one  gram  of  nitre  will 
oxidize.  The  following  are  the  charges  for  the  preliminary 
assay: 

I.    REDUCING    POWER 

Abool.  Charcoal. 

Argol 2  grams.  Charcoal I  gram. 

Litharge 3  A.T.*  Litharge 2  A.T. 

Carb.  Soda J  A.T.  Carb.  Soda i  A.T. 

Salt  to Cover.  Salt Cover. 

•  A.T.  means  Assay  Ton.    It  is  obtained  as  follows : 
1  Av.  lb.  contains  7000  grains  =  16  Av.  oz.    1  oz.  =  437^  grains. 
1  Troy  lb.   contains  5760  grains  =  12  oz.   Troy.    1  Troy  oz.  contaiiu 
480  grains. 


r  4  << 


496  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

OxiDizma  PowEB.  Silver  in  Lithabob. 

Nitre 8  grams.  Litharge 4  A.T. 

Charcoal 1  gram.  Carb.  Soda 2  A.T. 

Litharge 2  A.T.  Charcoal 1  gram. 

Carb.  Soda i  A.T.  Salt Cover. 

Salt Cover. 

It  is  necessary  to  know  the  reducing  power  of  the  ore  to  be 
assayed;  therefore  a  Pbeltmtnaby  Assay  is  made. 

CHARGE. 

Ore 2  grams. 

Litharge 25     " 

Carb.  Soda 10     " 

Salt. Cover. 

The  reducing  power  of  an  ore  is  due  to  the  presence  of 
sulphur,  arsenic,  antimony,  zinc,  etc.,  but  generally  sulphur 
contained  in  the  pyrites,  etc.  It  is  necessary,  ii'  possible,  to 
determine  from  the  mineralogical  composition  of  the  ore  to  be 
assayed,  if  it  is  rich  or  poor.  If  rich,  ^  A.T.,  or  J,  ^,  ^  A.T.,  is 
taken.     If  the  ore  is  poor,  1  A.T.  or  2  A.T,  is  taken. 

From  the  preliminary  assay  of  reagents  we  have  found: 

One  gram  of  nitre  will  oxidize  5.4  grams  of  lead  (about). 

One  gram  of  charcoal  will  reduce  24  grams  of  lead  (about). 

And  from  the  preliminary  assay  of  the  ore  we  found  that 
2  grams  of  ore  gave  a  button  of  lead  weighing  3  grams. 

METHOD    OF    CALCULATING    CHARGES. 

Example. — Ore  pretty  rich. 

J  A.T.  will  be  taken  of  the  ore. 

Reducing  power  found  2  grams  of  ore  =  3  grams  of  lead. 

2  grams  =  3  grams  Pb. 
1  gram  =  1.5  grams  Pb. 

1  ton  contains  2000  lbs.  (2240).  2000  lbs.  x  7000  gr.  =  14000000  grainit  in 
one  ton. 

14000000  +  480  =  29166}  Troj  ounces  in  a  ton  of  2000  lbs. 

0.001  gram  =  1  milligram  =  1  Assajf  Chinee. 

291661 H- 1000  =  29.1661  grams  =  1  Assay  Ton  =  1  A.T. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  497 

1  AT.  is  taken  as  30  grams  for  convenience.  J  A.T.  of  ore 
taken. 

30  -^  2  =  15 ;    15  X  1.5  =  22.5  grams. 

A  cupel  should  not  be  made  to  hold  a  button  weighing 
more  than  18  grams ;  and  this  button,  22.5  grams,  is  too  large ; 
it  must  be  reduced  by  oxidation. 

22.6  — 18  =  4.5  grams  too  large. 

Oxidizing  power  of  nitre  =  5.4. 

.*.    4.5  grams  -=-  5.4  grams  =  .83  grams  nitre  required. 

The  charge  is  therefore : 

Ore iA.T. 

Litharge 1    " 

i  Carb.Soda i    " 

Nitre 83  grams. 

Salt Cover. 

In  the  above  charge  we  see  that  1  A.T.  of  litharge  and  ^  A.T. 
were  taken.  The  rule  is  to  take  twice  as  miich  litharge  as  ore^ 
and  the  same  amount  of  carbonate  of  soda  as  ore.  The  salt 
cover  is  used,  as  its  name  implies,  to  cover  the  charge  in  the 
crucible.  It  also  serves  to  wash  down  the  sides  of  the  crucible, 
if  the  charge  boils  up. 

The  above  charge  is  put  into  a  Hessian  crucible,  and  the  latter 
put  into  the  furnace,  covered  over,  on  top  of  a  brick  laid  on 
the  bottom.  The  crucible  is  left  in  the  furnace  equal  times  to 
and  from  fusion.  That  is,  if  it  takes  ten  minutes  to  promote 
fusion  of  the  charge  (the  knowledge  of  which  may  be  obtained 
by  lifting  the  cover  off  the  crucible  and  looking  in),  the  cruci- 
ble is  left  in  the  ftirnace  ten  minutes  longer. 

The  above  ore  treated  was  a  rich  ore ;  the  following  will  be 
a  poor  ore : 

Example. — Ore  is  poor.  1  A.T.  must  be  taken.  Reducing 
power  of  ore,  2  grams  of  ore  =  .35  gram  of  lead. 

2  =  .35 ;         .-.        1  =  .175. 


498  THE  CHEMISTS*  MANUAL. 

1  A.T,  =  30  grams.        /.    30  x  .175  =  5.25  grams. 

Button  wanted  most  weigh  18  grams. 

18  —  5.25  =  12.75  grams  too  small. 

1  gram  charcoal  =  24  grams  Pb. 

24  -r- 12.75  =  J  gram  (about)  of  charcoal  must 
be  added  to  charge. 

The  charge,  then,  is : 

Ore 1  A.T. 

Litharge 2   " 

Carb.  Soda 1    '* 

Charcoal \  gram. 

Salt Cover. 

ORES    TO    BE    ROASTED. 

Ores  containing  a  large  amount  of  sulphur  or  arsenic,  anti- 
mony or  zinc,  should  always  be  roasted. 

ROASTING    THE    ORE. 

The  ore  may  be  roasted  in  a  cast-iron  pan,  a  common  spider, 
over  the  crucible  furnace.  There  ought  to  be  a  hood  over  the 
furnace  to  carry  off  the  fumes.  The  pan  should  be  covered 
with  chalk  on  the  inside  ;  an  even  coating  may  be  made  with 
chalk  paste,  then  dried  over  the  fire.  The  coating  prevents  a 
loss  of  ore. 

The  weighed  sample  of  ore  must  be  spread  over  the  pan  and 
stirred,  while  heated  with  a  bent  wire  until  all  fumes  are 
driven  off. 

Ores  roasted  have  no  reducing  power ;  then  enough  charcoal 
must  be  added  to  reduce  from  the  lead  a  button  weighing 
18  grams.  1  gram  charcoal  =  24  grams  lead.  For  18  grams, 
therefore,  .555  gram  of  charcoal  must  be  added. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  499 


II.    SCORIFICATION    ASSAY. 

The  reagents  necessary  for  a  scorification  assay  are  test-lead 
and  horcKB  glass.  The  ore  is  mixed  with  these,  put  into  a 
scorifier,  and  fused  in  a  muffle. 

The  following  table  exhibits  the  proportions  found  by  expe- 
,  rience  to  be  best  adapted  to  the  different  gangues.  The  pro- 
portions are  referred  to  one  part  of  ore : 

Chancter  of  Gangae.                              Fiuts  Test-lead.  Farts  Borax. 

Qaartzose 8  — 

Basic(Fe,0„  A1,0„  CaO,  etc) 8  0.35—1.00 

Galena 6—6  0.15 

Arsenical 16  0.10—0.60 

Antimonial 16 0.10—1.00 

Pahlerz 12—16  0.10—0.16 

Ironpyrites. 10—16  0.10—0.20 

Blende 10—16  0.10—0.20 

No  preliminary  roasting  of  ore  is  required.  The  scorifier  is 
gently  heated  at  first,  and  then  highly  heated,  until  the  button 
of  lead  on  the  surface  of  the  charge  has  disappeared,  when  it 
is  taken  out  of  the  muffle. 

Charge  of  ore  is  generally  },  ^,  or  -^  of  an  assay  ton. 


CALCUUTING    CHARGE. 

Example. — Suppose  the  ore  is  rich  (take  JA.T.)  and  gangue 
antimonial.     1  A.T.  =  30 ;  |  A.T.  =  10. 

We  see  by  table,  for  ores  having  antimonial  gangue,  use 
16  parts  of  test-lead  and  0.10-1.00  of  borax  =  .5  (average). 
Therefore,  16  x  10  =  160  Pb,  and  .5  x  10  =  5  of  borax. 

Charge  is  therefore : 

Ore i  A.T. 

Test-lead 160  grams. 

Borax. 6      " 


600  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

GALENA— SPECIAL    METHOD. 

It  is  best  and  most  convenient  always  to  make  a  seorification 
assay  of  galena.  If,  however,  it  be  desirable  for  any  reason  to 
make  a  crucible  assay,  a  Chabge  of  nitre,  20  grams  per  assay 
ton  of  ore  used,  and  the  same  weight  of  carbonate  of  soda  as  of 
ore  used. 

CUPELLATION. 

The  lead  button  to  be  cupelled  must  be  malleable,  and  the 
proper  size  for  the  cupel,  about  12  to  15  grams.  The  cupel  is 
made  of  bone-ash,  and  weighs  18  grams ;  it  absorbs  the  scorise, 
leaving  a  pure  bead  of  precious  metal.  The  cupel  must  be 
carefully  dried  before  use,  and  must  be  free  from  cracks,  which 
would  cause  a  loss  of  precious  metal.  The  bottom  of  the 
muffle  should  be  covered  with  sand,  to  prevent  injury  to  it  by 
upsetting  a  cupel. 

Before  introducing  the  button  to  be  cupelled,  the  muffle,  as 
also  the  cupel,  should  be  at  a  reddish-white  heat.  The  button 
melts,  and  gradually  diminishes  in  size  by  oxidation  and 
absorption.  When  the  bead  becomes  dull,  then  bright,  resem- 
bling precious  metal,  the  cupel  must  be  withdrawn,  but  very 
gradually,  to  the  front  of  the  muffle,  where  it  must  be  covered 
over  with  an  inverted  cupel,  and  then  the  whole  is  withdrawn 
and  placed  one  side  to  cool.  The  beads  of  gold  and  silver, 
when  cold,  is  removed  from  the  cupel,  washed  and  weighed. 
(The  balance  used  for  weighing  must  weigh  down  to  one-tenth 
of  a  milligram.) 

INQUARTATION    AND    PARTING. 

The  separation  of  gold  from  silver  is  called  parting.  To 
dissolve  the  bead  in  nitric  acid,  the  silver  must  be  2.5-3  times 
the  amount  of  gold. 

N.B. — The  assajer  must  judge  from  the  color  of  the  bead  if  there  is 
enough  silver  present ;  if  not,  he  must  add  some  to  it  by  fusion  with  a 
blowpipe.    This  addition  of  silver  is  best  done  on  charcoal. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  501 

The  inquartated  bead  is  flattened  on  the  anvil,  and  treated 
in  a  porcelain  capsule  with  nitric  acid,  1.16  sp.  gr.  (21°  B.). 
It  is  heated  a  little,  until  all  the  silver  is  dissolved  from  the 
button,  when,  if  gold  is  present,  it  will  be  left  as  a  brown 
powder,  undissolved.  (Acid  must  be  free  from  all  traces  of 
chlorine.)  The  gold  residue  is  thoroughly  washed  with  dis- 
tilled water,  detached  by  the  knife,  transferred  to  a  cornet  of 
lead,  and  cupelled.  The  gold  bead  obtained  is  weighed,  and 
the  ASSAY  IS  COMPLETED.  It  remains  only  to  calculate  the 
results. 

CALCUUTION    OF    RESULTS.* 

Every  milligram  of  precious  metal  obtained  per  assay  ton 
of  ore  corresponds  to  ounces  in  the  ton  of  2000  lbs.  Av. 

Example. — Suppose  that  the  sample  presented  for  assay 
gave,  on  being  pulverized  and  passed  through  the  sieve  of 
80  meshes  to  linear  inch,  the  following  weights : 

A.  Sifted  ore 1458.32  grams. 

B.  Scales  of  metal 40.75      « 


C.    Total 1499.07 


<( 


It  being  known  from  the  mineralogical  composition  of  the 
sample  that  it  was  a  rich  ore,  \  A.T.  was  taken  for  an  assay  of 
the  sifted  portion  (A).  The  residue  of  metallic  scales,  etc.  (B), 
was  scorified  with  test-lead,  and  yielded  a  button  weighing 
60.35  grams.  This  button  was  rolled  out,  and  two  average 
samples  of  10  grams  each  were  cupelled. 

The  following  results  were  obtained  from  the  complete 
assays : 

A.— SIFTED    ORE— CRUCIBLE  ASSAY. 
One-third  assay  ton,  9.722  grams  yielded : 

1.  2.  Avenge. 

Au  +  Ag 0.19365     0.19275     0.19315 

Au  (by  parting) 0.00025    0.00025     ^J^^ 

Ag 0.19330     0.19250     0.19290 

*  See  Amer.  Chem.,  1870 — Article  by  BI06801D. 


502  THE   CHEMISTS'   MANUAL. 

1.                                  S.  Average. 

Ag 0.19330    0.19250    0.19290 

Ag  in  litharge* 0.00067    0.00067    0.00067 

Aginore 0.19263    0.19188    0.19223 


B.— METALLIC   SCALES. 
10  grams  of  the  scorified  button  yielded : 

1.                                  SL  Ayengo. 

Au  +  Ag 5.0625     6.0620    6.0622 

Au  (by  parting) 0.0020    0.0020 0.0020 

Ag 6.0606     6.0600     6.0602 

Ag  in  test-lead None None None. 


A.  Sifted  ore  (in  all) ... .    1468.82  x  -^^-  =  28.819  Ag. 

B.  MetaUic  scales  (in  aU)       40.76  =  ^^^^  x  60.36  =  80.638  Ag. 
Totalope 1499.07     69.357,  Total  Ag. 


1  A.T.  =  29.166666.        .'.        29166.66  =  miUigrains  in  1  A,T. 
29166.66  X  ^^^^  =  115471  oz.  per  2000  lb. 


0  00026 

A.  Sifted  ore 1458.32  x  ^-^  =0.0375  An. 

0002 

B.  MetaUic  scales 40.75  =  -^  x  60.86  =  0.0121  Au. 

C.  Total 1499.07  0.0496  Tl  An. 

0.0496 
29166.66  X  j^on?  ==  ^'^'^  ^'  P®' ^^^  ^^• 


Result  per  2000  lbb.  Orb. 

Silver 115471  oz.  @$  1.29 $1,489.58 

Gold 0.97  oz.  @  120.67 $     20.04 

Total  ballion 1156.97  oz $1,509.62 


*  The  litharge  yielded  one  milligram  of  silver  per  assay  ton,  and  two- 
thirds  assay  ton  of  it  was  employed. 


THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL.  508 

ASSAY  OF  ALLOYS. 

I.   SILVER  COIN   AND   BULLION. 

The  form  of  assay  used  for  silver  coin  and  bullion  is  that 
known  as  Gay-Lussac's  Wet  Method,  which  consists  in  deter- 
mining the  fineness  of  the  alloy  by  the  quantity  of  a  standard 
solution  of  common  salt  necessary  to  precipitate,  fully  and  ex- 
actly, the  silver  contained  in  a  known  weight  of  alloy. 

Process  embraces  two  steps : 

A,  Preliminary  Assay,  and  B,  Assay  Proper.  The  latter 
requires  for  its  conduction  the  preparation  of  three  solutions, 
called  Normal  Salt^  Decime  Salty  and  Decifne  Silver. 

Normal  Salt  Solution, — This  is  a  solution  of  common  salt 
of  such  a  strength  that  100  c.  c.  will  exactly  precipitate  one 
gram  of  silver.  It  is  prepared  as  follows:  Make  a  concen- 
trated solution  of  salt  in  water ;  take  10  c.c.  and  evaporate  to 
dryness  in  a  weighed  porcelain  capsule,  and  weigh ;  the  in- 
crease of  weight  will  equal  the  amount  of  salt  in  10  c.c. ;  mul- 
tiply this  result  by  10,  and  it  will  equal  the  amount  of  salt  in 
100  c.c.  of  solution.  Suppose  that  100  c.c.  of  the  concentrated 
salt  solution  contains  35  grams  of  salt.  Suppose  45  litres  of 
the  normal  salt  solution  is  required.     If  the  salt  were  pure : 

At.  Wt.  Ag.     At  Wt.  Nad. 

108       :      58.5   :  :   45  x  10   :   x  =  243.75  grams  = 

weight  of  pure  salt  required.  But  on  evaporation  of  100  c.c. 
of  solution,  only  35  grams  of  salt  were  obtained ;  therefore, 
pure  salt  (243.75  -r-  35)  x  100  =  696.29  =  number  of  cubic 
cent,  salt  solution  required  for  45  litres  of  water.  Since  in 
adding  the  salt  solution  we  also  add  696.29  c.c.  of  water,  there- 
fore, 45  litres  —  696.29  cc,  or  44  litres  304  c.c.  of  water  must 
be  added. 

Decim£  Salt  Solution. — This  is  a  solution  of  common  salt 
only  one-tenth  the  strength  of  the  former  ;  i.e.,  100  c.  c.  will 


604  THE  CHEMISTS'  MANUAL. 

exactly  precipitate  0.1  gram,  1  c.c.  will  precipitate  1  milligram 
of  silver.  The  solution  is  made  by  diluting  the  normal  salt 
solution  with  8  parts  of  pure  water. 

Decime  SH/ver  Solution, — Dissolve  1  gram  of  pure  silver  in 
nitric  acid,  and  dilute  to  a  litre ;  1  c.c.  of  the  solution  will  con- 
tain 1  milligram  of  pure  silver. 

The  decime  silver  solution  is  equivalent  to  the  decime  salt 
solution  ;  i.e.^  if  mixed  in  equal  quantities,  they  will  mutually 
suffer  complete  decomposition. 

The  normal  salt  solution^  aflber  being  prepared,  is  tested  and 
accurately  standardized.  In  three  bottles  of  250  c.c.  capacity 
(8  oz.),  1  gram  of  silver  is  dissolved  (in  each)  in  nitric  acid, 
and  the  whole  largely  diluted  with  water;  then  100  c.c.  of 
normal  salt  solution  is  allowed  to  pass  into  the  bottle,  when 
chloride  of  silver  is  precipitated ;  the  bottle,  being  closed  by 
a  well-fitting  glass-stopper,  is  shaken  for  quite  a  while ;  if  the 
solution  is  clear  on  standing,  the  normal  solution  is  of  the  right 
strength,  unless,  by  adding  some  of  the  decime  salt  solution,  a 
precipitate  is  produced;  add  2  thousandths  of  the  decime  salt 
solution^  agitate  as  before,  and  when  solution  becomes  clear, 
add  again  2  thousandths  decime  salt,  and  repeat  the  operation 
until  a  precipitate  fails  to  appear.  Suppose  there  have  been 
added  16  thousandths.  The  last  two  produced  no  precipitate 
and  are  not  counted.  The  two  preceding  thousandths  were 
only  needed  in  part,  so  that  the  acting  thousandths  were  above 
12  and  below  14  =  13  in  number.  Thus,  1013  parts  of  normal 
solution  are  required  to  precipitate  1  gram  of  silver,  while  only 
1000  parts  or  100  c.c.  should  be  required.  The  solution  is  too 
weak,  and  the  quantity  of  salt  solution  to  be  added  may  be 
found