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Inslruclor Lileralure Series — hJo. 64 



Child Life in the 
Colonies 



NEW AMSTERDAM 




F. A. OWEN PUBLISHING COMPANY 
DANSVILLE, N. Y. 



INST 

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PRICE 10< 



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290 Fuzz in Japan — A Child-Life Reader 

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(Continued on third cover page) 



INSTRUCTOR LITERATURE SERIES 



Child Life in the Colonies 

New Amsterdam 

BY 

Virginia Baker 




F. A. OWEN PUBLISHING COMPANY, 
DANSVILLE, N. Y. 



Ojpyriijht, VM7, by World's EvtuLs P'tblt.sluny Vu. 







Annetje 




Child Life in New Amsterdam 

I am going to tell you about a little girl who 
lived more than two hundred years ago in what 
is now the city of Xew York. 

This little girl was called Annetje, ''^Yhat a 
strange name for an American child ! '' you ex- 
claim. But Annetje was not an American 
child in the true sense of the word. 

Annetje's parents were Dutch, and were horn 
in the Xetherlands, or Holland, which is the 
country of the Dutch people and is in Europe. 
But Annetje herself was born in America. 

I will tell you how Annetje's home came to 
be in America. In the rear 1609, a brave sailor 



4 CHILD LIFE IN NEW AMSTERDAM 

named Henry Hudson, who had already made 
some darino' voyages, was sent by the Dutch 
East India Company, to ex^Dlore the ocean 
further. 
At that time the Dutch people Avere largely 

engaged in commerce. They owned more 

ships than did all the other nations of Europe 

together. One of their cities, Amsterdam, was 

a great commercial-centre. 

Henry Hudson, or as the Dutch called him, 
Hendrick Hudson, commanded a small vessel 
called the ''Half-Moon." He had a crew of 
twenty Dutchmen and Englishmen. 

At first Hudson steered the "Half-Moon'' 
in a northerly direction. But the intense cold 
and huge icebergs of the Arctic Ocean terrified 
his men, so he turned his vessel about and 
sailed towards the Avest. 

He soon passed Greenland and, continuing 
on in a more southerly course, reached New- 
foundland. Sailing on and on, he skirted Ca]ie 
Cod and, at last, came to the entrance of Dela- 
ware Bay. 



CHILD LIFE IX XEW AMSTEPvDAM 5 

After slightly exploring this bay, he turned 
the ''Half-Moon" and again went northward. 
Presently, he found himself at the mouth of 
a beautiful river. 

Hudson sailed up this river as far as his shi}) 
could go. He was charmed witli the beauty of 
its shores. The Indians who dwelt near by 
came to Avelcome him, and gladly exehangod 
the skins of wild animals for knives, beads, and 
hatchets. 

AVhen Huds(jn ri^^turned to Holland he said 
mucli in praise of the "Groot liivcr, " or "Great 
River," v>hich he had discovered. It was 
named in his honor and over since has been 
called the ''Hudson Eiver. " 

Th(^ Dutch laid claim to all the country about 
the Hudson, to which they gave the name "Xew 
Netherlands. " They planted ti'ading-posts in 
the Xew Netherlands and bought the furs of 
the otter and beaver from the Indians. 

A log fort and a few log huts were built on 
Manhattan Island, at the mouth of the Hudson, 
This settlement was called Xew Amsterdam. 



6 CHILD LIFE IN NEW AMSTERDAM 

It was the beginning of the present g'reat city 
of New York. 

At first, few settlers came to New Amster- 
dam. But, as years went on, more and more 
people left Holland to build new homes in 
America. Annetje's father and mother were 
among these colonists. New Amsterdam had 
grown into a thriving town by the time that An- 
netje was seven years old. 

It was a very quaint town, quite unlike the 
New York that we know. It was, indeed, very 
Dutch in appearance. Most noticeable were 
the many windmills perched upon the hilltops, 
their whirring sails looking like the wings of 
great birds. The house in which Annetje lived 
was much like all the other houses in the town. 
These houses were built of wood, with their 
gable ends set to the street. The gable ends 
were not of wood, but of black and yellow bricks 
brought from Holland and arranged in a pat- 
tern like the top of a checker-board. 

In each house were many doors and win- 
dows. The windows were small, sometimes 



CHILD LIFE IN NEW AMSTERDAM 7 

containinj:^' only two panes of glass. The doors 
were divided into halves, an upper and a lower. 
In the upper half were set two buirs-eyes of 
thick green glass. The doors opened with a 
latch and were supplied with knockers of iron 
or brass. 

On either side of the doors were seats, look- 
ing very comfortable and inviting. The house 
roofs were high and steep and surmounted b}' 
one or more gilded Aveather-cocks. The date 
at which the houses were built appeared in iron 
letters on the fronts. 

Before the houses were rows of poplar trees, 
and the dooryards were bright with beds of 
gay tulips, roses, lilies, sunflowers, pinks, and 
marigold. Side by side with the flowers grew 
cabbages, lettuce, beans, and cucumbers. Herbs 
for medicine and for kitchen use mingled with 
these, and hop vines clustered everywhere. 

At break of day, every spring and summer 
morning, Annetje was awakened by loud blasts 
of a horn. The horn was blown by the town 
cow-herd, who sounded it at each door as he 



8 CHILD LIFE IN NEW AMSTERDAM 

passed along the streets. In answer to his 
summons the cows of the townspeople poured 
from stables and gateways, the bells hanging 
at their necks jangling merrily as they wended 
their way to the green pastures which were 
their feeding places. 

As soon as her eyes opened, Annetje sprang 
from her little ''trek bedd, " or trundle bed, 
and quickly dressed herself. A very guaint 
looking figure she was when, at last, she joined 
the rest of the family at the breakfast table. 

Her stockings were blue with a bit of red em- 
broidery at the ankles, and her tiny high-heeled 
shoes were ornamented by bright silver buck-> 
les. She wore a sort of waistcoat of calico, and 
many skirts that stood out stiffly and gave her 
quite an umbrella-like appearance. The outer 
skirt was striped with blue and yellow and was 
partly covered by a blue linen apron, 

Annetje's hair was combed straight back from 
her forehead, and kept in place by a quilted 
calico cap. Around her nc^ck was a string of 
white coral beads. Her round, rosy Dutch face 




Breakfast 



10 CHILD LIFE IN NEW AMSTERDAM 

was dimpled with smiles. Her two brothers, 
Jacobus^ twelve years old, and Oloff, aged nine, 
were dressed in a fashion very different from 
that of the boys of today. They wore yellow 
stockings, shoes with buckles, gay scarlet jack- 
ets, and several pairs of trousers, one over an- 
other. If Annetje resembled an umbrella, cer- 
tainly Jacobus and Oloff looked much like a 
couple of human balloons. 

The "goede vrouw/' Annetje's mother, aided 
by Gooseje, the maid servant, served the break- 
fast to the hungry brood of little folks. There 
was plenty of good Dutch food upon the table, 
sausages, rye bread, grated cheese, suppawn, 
and fresh, sweet buttermilk. But I must tell 
you that suppawn was not a true Dutch dish. 
It w^as a food which the Indians taught the 
Dutch to prepare, a sort of porridge made of 
corn meal and milk boiled together. Annetje 
would not have thought her breakfast complete 
without a bowl of suppawn. 

Breakfast over, the three children at once set 
about the tasks which, every morning, they 



CHILD LIFE IX NEW AMSTERDAM 11 

were expected to do. Jacobus brouo'ht wood 
and water to the kitchen, Oloff fed the poultry, 
and Annetje knitted dihgently upon a stockin<^ 
of soft, l)hie wool. At half-past seven work 
was laid aside, and our little friends started for 
school. 

You must not think that their school was at 
all like the one which you attend. In those 
early times there were no such large, hand- 
some schoolhouses in New Amsterdam as are 
now found in the city of New York. 

The school attended by Annetje and her 
brothers was kept in a small room which would 
have seemed to you quite bare and unattrac- 
tive. The scholars sat on wooden benches 
and were expected to be very quiet and atten- 
tive. The teacher was a stern-faced man, who 
maintained strict order by the aid of a long 
birch rod. 

There were no pots of blooming flowers in 
the schoolroom windows, no glass globes filled 
with pretty goldfish, no beautiful pictures on 
the walls, no prettily bound schoolbooks, no 



12 CHILD LIFE IN NEW AMSTERDAM 

busy work, no colored crayons, no boxes of 
bright paints. Annetje would have opened her 
blue eyes wide in wonder had any one of these 
things been brought into the room. 

The morning exercises began with prayer. 
Then the children were taught how to read and 
to spell, to "cipher" — that is, to do what you 
call number work — and to write with pens 
made of goose quills. The teacher also in- 
structed them in the church catechism. The 
session closed at eleven o'clock with another 
prayer. 

Annetje walked homeward from school very 
demurely, but you may be sure that Jacobus 
and Oloff were not so quiet. When well out of 
the school master's sight and hearing they ran, 
and jumped, and laughed, and shouted, as glee- 
fully as the school boys of today do. 

You may be certain that all three of the chil- 
dren were quite ready for dinner when home 
at length was reached. And a very nice dinner 
they found awaiting them every noon-time. 
Sometimes they had venison, sometimes 



CHILD LIFE IN NEW AMSTERDAM 13 

duck, turkey or, perhaps, goose. There were 
often great lobsters, over a foot long, oysters, 
crabs, shad, or some other kind of fish. The 
Dutch behoved in always having their tables 
well supplied with solid food. 

So Annetje's mother served with her meats 
and fish a great many vegetables, cabbage and 
potatoes, onions, carrots, turnips and beets. 

For dessert the children had pies of apple 
and pumpkin, ginger cakes, and honey cakes, 
crisp doughnuts, and, best of all, rich ^'oly 
koeks" glistening with sugar. There were 
fruits, too, in their season, apples and cherries, 
j)lums and melons, and always plenty of 
cheese, and milk, cream, or buttermilk. 

Dinner was scarcely ended ere it was time for 
school again. The afternoon session was very 
much like that of the morning. It closed at 
four o'clock. Then away scampered Jacobus 
and Oloff, a\ ith a score of their chosen school- 
mates, to play marbles, or "knucklebones," 
until tea-time. "Knuckle bones" was a favor- 
ite game with the New Amsterdam boys. It 




Knuckie Bones 



CHILD LIFE IX NEW AMSTERDAM 15 

was played with the knuckle bones of sheep, 
very much as you play jackstones, today. 

Annetje and her dear friends Tryntje, Anna, 
and Xeltje, hurried homewards, chattering 
blithely all the way. At the back of Annetje's 
house was a sort of bower formed by a frame 
work covered with vines. In this bower the 
little girls loved to play with their dolls, Ka- 
trina, Elsa, and Maryje. I wish you might have 
seen those dolls with their round Dutch faces, 
staring eyes, and straight, stiff arms and legs. 

Annetje thought her Katrina very beautiful, 
and spent many hours knitting stockings and 
making skirts, and caps, and waistcoats for her. 

The children played happily until the faint 
sound of the cow-herd's horn echoed in the 
distance. The cows were coming back from 
the pastures, and the horn reminded Xeltje 
and Tryntje that it was time they, too, were 
thinking of home. The dolls were tenderly 
placed in the bright calico pockets worn at 
their sides, and, bidding Annetje good night, 
the two little girls reluctantly left the bower. 



16 CHILD LIFE IN NEW AMSTERDAM 

Presently Oloff and Jacobus appeared, tired 
and hungry. 

As soon as supper was ended Annetje hur- 
ried to her mother's room. There in the deep-^ 
hooded wooden cradle lay Tytje, the rosy little 
baby sister whom Annetje loved dearly. Tytje 
began to laugh and crow when she saw Annetje. 
Annetje lifted her from the cradle and a gay 
romp followed. But bye and bye, Tytje's white 
lids began to quiver. Then Annetje replaced 
the baby in the cradle and, as she gently rocked 
it to and fro, sang a quaint Dutch lullab}^ This 
is what she sang — 

"Trip a trop a tronjes, 
The pigs ill the bean patch, 
The cows ill the clovei", 
The horses in the oat field, 
The ducks in the water. 
The calves in the long grass, 
But my baby is sweetest of all. 

When TA^tjo was fast asleep in her soft downy 
nest, Annetje crept softly from the room. 

If it were a warm, pleasant evening she found 
her father, mother, and brothers seated on 
the benches l)osi(lo the house door. The good 



CHILD LIFE IN NEW AMSTERDAM 17 

father talked to his children of Holland with its 
dykes and windmills, and its queer houses with 
storks' nests on the roofs. He told them, too, 
how brave Hendrick Hudson, in the stout little 
''Half-Moon" had discovered the river on whose 
waters they had, themselves, often sailed. 

When bed-time arrived the children rose, 
bade their parents good night, and went quietly 
up stairs. I have told you that .A.nnetje slept 
in a ''trek bedd." Now I must describe the 
sleeping place of Jacobus and Oloff. It was a 
sort of bench built into an alcove set in the 
wall. It was furnished with a feather bed and 
pillow. In winter, another feather bed served 
as blankets, sheets, and coverlid combined. In 
this cozy nook the two boys were snug and 
warm the coldest nights. 

AVhen I tell you that school was kept upon 
Saturdays as well as other week days, you 
will doubtless think that the Xew Amsterdam 
children had a very hard time. But you are 
mistaken. The Dutch were a jolly people who 
liked to see their children happy. 



18 CHILD LIFE IN NEW AMSTERDAM 

All the boys and f^irls in New Amsterdam 
were divided, according to their ages, into 
bands called ' 'companies." Each company 
had a leader w^hom its members obeyed. The 
company to which Annetje belonged included 
all her dearest friends and playmates. 

Each year, upon her birthday, Annetje was 
allowed to invite her "company" to an after- 
noon party. This party was a great event you 
may be sure. The little girls all wore their 
very best frocks and caps, and their hair was 
as smooth as "orange butter" could make it. 

The little boys appeared in trieir gayest 
trousers and jackets, with shoe buckles bright 
and shining. 

The w^hole house was given up to the little 
folks, and they romped and played to their 
hearts' content. And they feasted to their 
hearts' content, too, on chicken and turkey, 
short-cakes and krullers, jumbles, izer cook- 
ies, and all sorts of other Dutch dainties. 

May Day and New Year's Day were the two 
famous holidays of New Amsterdam. The 



CHILD LIFE IX XEW AMSTERDAM 19 

morning of May Day was ushered in by the 
firing of guns and a great deal of noise of every 
kind. There was much feasting, and visiting, 
and May poles were erected in various places. 
"Annetje's company" had their own May poles, 
gay with flowers and ribbons, round which 
they danced and frolicked merrily. 

Annetje hardly knew which she liked best, 
May Day or New Year's Day — "Xieuw-Jaar" 
she called it. Great preparations were always 
made in Xew Amsterdam for the "Nieuw- 
Jaar" feast. For a fortnight before the arrival 
of the great day, Annetje's home was in a 
bustle. 

The whole house was swept and brushed 
and scrubbed, until not a speck of dust could 
be seen anywhere. Chairs and tables, mirrors 
and candlesticks were dusted and rubbed and 
dusted again. And the kitchen was fragrant 
with the odor of meats, and pies, and cakes, 
and other delicacies with which shelves and 
dressers were loaded. 

Jacobus was kept busy running errands and 



20 CHILD LIFE IN NEW AMSTERDAM 

bringing great armfuls of firewood, while An- 
netje and Oloff assisted their mother in poU 
ishing the family silver. For children in New 
Amsterdam were expected to make themselves 
useful in every possible way. 

Annetje dearly loved the beautiful bright 
silver pieces. There were quaint "monkey 
spoons" with apes' heads on their handles, fat 
little salt cellars, mugs, cups, tankards and 
bread baskets. There were porringers and 
sauce boats, tea and coffee pots. There were 
sugar boxes shaped like shells and a dear little 
milk pitcher in the form of a cow which was the 
children's favorite piece. 

When the "Nieuw-Jaar" at length arrived, the 
great parlor, rarely used except ui)on holidays, 
was thrown open and soon the house was 
thronged with guests. All day long the friends 
and neighbors came pouring in to offer their 
wishes for a "Happy New Year!" and to taste 
the "goede vrouw's" toothsome dainties. All 
was joy and laughter and merriment. 

Very weary, indeed, was Annetje when the 



CHILD IJFE IX NEW AMSTERDAM 21 

long, jolly day came at length to an end ; and 
she slept so soundly that even the voice of the 
watchman calling the hour of dawn failed to 
rouse her. For in winter, when the cow-herd 
could no longer drive the cattle to pasture, the 
townspeople depended upon the ''rattle watch' ^ 
to awaken them in good season every morning. 

How many American children know that the 
custom of decorating eggs at Easter time was in- 
troduced into this country hy the Dutch? The 
little folks of Xew Amsterdam would have 
thought Easter very incomplete without the 
giving and receiving of these eggs. Every year 
Annetje and her mother prepared several dozen 
— hens', ducks' and geese's eggs — coloring them 
red, blue and yellow, i)ink, purple and green. 
There was a wee pigeon's eg^, too, for Katrina, 
the doll. 

But the festival that Annetje loved best of 
all was the feast of St. Nicholas, that good saint 
whom' you know as Santa Glaus. Annetje 
called him ^'8ant Xicolaus, " and on the eve of 
his feast dav she alwavs hung her stocking by 



22 CHILD LIFE IN NEW AMSTERDAM 

the fireplace that he might fill it with o^fts. 

Jacobus and Oloff hung their stockings, also, 
beside Annetje's and, next to theirs, the "goode 
vrouw" xjinned another, tiny and plump, which 
belonged to baby Tytje. 

The fireplace Avhere the stockings hung was 
a real Dutch fireplace, wide and deep. It was 
faced with square blue and Avhite tiles repre- 
senting Bible scenes, the ''Flight into Egypt," 
* 'Jonah and the whale, " and many others, in 
which all the figures were dressed in Dutch 
costumes giving them a very ciuaint appear- 
ance. The chimney was so very large that the 
children felt sure Sant Nicolaus could never 
find difficulty in getting down it. Every year 
they fell asleep listening for the sound of his 
sleigh bells but, although they never heard them 
among the tree-tops, they always found their 
stockings crowded with gifts in the morning — 
cakes, sweetmeats, and toys. 

There was much feasting and visiting on Sant 
Nicolaus' Day in New Amsterdam, just as there 
was upon May Day and New Year's Day. An- 



CHILD LIFE IN XEW AMSTERDAM 23 

netje and her brothers were dressed in their 
gayest attire, and enjoyed themselves by go- 
ing from honse to house to see what the saint, 
the ''goed heihg man'' — good, holy man — 
had brought as presents to their idaymates. 

Having learned so much about the manner 
in which Annetje i^assed other days, I am sure 
that you will like to kno\v how she sjient her 
Sundays. Although Sunday was not kept so 
strictly in Xew Amsterdam as in Puritan New 
England, the greater part of the people at- 
tended church very regularly. 

At the sound of a drum loudly beaten on 
Sunday mornings, Annetje, with her brothers, 
followed her parents to the quaint little church. 
If it Avere wintertime, both she and her mother 
carried little ''foot stoves" in their hands, for 
the church building was unheated and, often, 
the services were conducted with the church 
doors wide open even when snow was falling. 
As the services were very long, it would not be 
strange if Annetje enjoyed going to church in 
summer rather than in winter. 



24 CHILD LIFE IN NEW AMSTERDAM 

She sat very still in her place, however, 
whether she felt cold or warm, while the con- 
gregation was assemhling\ She watched with 
interested eyes the clerk and his assistants 
carry up the aisle the cushions brought from 
the City Hall for the ''Magistrates' Pew," in 
which the "burgomasters," or ruling men of the 
town, always sat. 

She always felt a thrill of awe when the Gov- 
ernor of the New Netherlands — stout old Peter 
Stuyvesant— entered the church. He had a 
stern, determined face and was very gorgeous 
in his shining silver buttons and buckles, his 
flowered silk and velvet garments and his long 
curling wig. But what most interested the 
children in the Governor was the fact that he 
had lost one leg and, in its place, wore a leg 
made of wood ornamented with strips of sil- 
ver. 

The church service was very long, and in 
spite of herself Annetje often dozed before it 
ended. She liked to sing the psalms, but she 
understood very little of the sermon preached 



oy the "dominie," as the minister was called. 
During the sermon the clerk had char-^'e of the 
great hour glass which stood noar the pulpit, 
and which he sometimes turned three times be- 
fore the dominie ceased speaking. 

In the middle of the sermon a pause was 
made while the deacons collected the contribu- 
tions. They walked up and down the aisles, 
thrusting into each pew long poles having 
*'sacjes,"' or bags of cloth, hung upon hoops 
at the ends, and into these bags the people 
dropped their money. On each bag was a. 
small bell whose tinkle warned the congrega- 
tion of the deacons" aiiproach. 

I am afraid that Jacobus and Oloff did not 
enjoy the service as much as Annetje. It was 
very hard for the restless little lads to sit 
quietly during the dominie's preaching, but if 
they grew uneasy they were c|uickly stilled by 
a touch of the sexton's rod, or Avhip. 

Sometimes in early autumii. Annetje's 
lather took her into the country to visit her 
cousin, Metje. Metje lived upon a farm, and 



26 CHILD LIFE IN NEW AMSTERDAM 

Annetje thought this farm, next to her own 
home, the most delightful place in the world. 

The farm house was a long, low, rambling 
building full of quaint little windows, short 
steep flights of stairs, cupboards, closets, and 
all sorts of rooms, big and little. Annetje was 
never tired of roaming from cellar to garret. 

In the great cellar were huge bins stored full 
of apples, potatoes, turnips and other vegeta- 
bles. Side by side with the bins were rows of 
vinegar and cider barrels, hogsheads of corned 
beef and salt pork, firkins of butter, lard, and 
pigs' feet, kegs of salted shad and mackerel. 
Swinging shelves supported jars of pickles and 
sweetmeats, with head-cheese and sausages, 
rolliches and cheeses. The cellar was full of 
delicious odors which the children sniffed Avith 
delight. 

A more charming play-room than the garret 

Annetje could not imagine. There were great 

boxes and sea chests pushed far under the 
eaves, behind which were famous hiding 
places. There were old tables and stools, era- 



CHILD LIFE IX XEAV AMSTERDAM 27 

dies and beds, discarded jjots and pans, broken 
dishes and jugs, indeed everything needful for 
playing house with Metje and her dolls. 

Best of all, there Avas the smoke house open- 
ing into the great chimney, and hung with 
hams and sausages, sides of bacon and dried 
beef. Tiie children transformed this into any- 
thing their fancy pleased. Sometimes it was 
an enchanted castle, sometimes the under- 
ground home of elves and dwarfs, sometimes 
an Indian wigwam, sometimes the cabin of 
Hudson's ship the "Half-Moon." 

For the snug, tidy sleeping rooms Annetje 
cared little, but she loved the great kitchen 
dearly. The floor was scoured as white as 
soap and sand could make it. The long dresser 
glittered with rows of pewter dishes that shone 
like silver. The great logs in the huge fireplace 
blazed merrily, filling the whole room with a 
ruddy glow. 

From the rafters overhead hung ears of corn 
and festoons of dried apples and peaches and 
strings of scarlet peppers. Two great spinning 



28 CHILD LIFE IN NEW AMSTERDAM 

wheels stood in opposite corners, Avith bag's of 
wool waiting to be spun into yarn beside them. 

An open door gave a glimpse of the milk 
room with its churn, and long shelves laden 
with milk ])ails and milk pans and pats of 
freshly made butter. 

Annetje peeped into the farmhouse parlor 
with a feeling of awe — she and Metje were 
rarely allowed to enter it. It was not so grand 
as her own parlor in Xew Amsterdam, but An- 
netje thought it a very beautiful i)lace. 

The great round table and big claw-footed 
chairs were iiolished until they reflected the 
children's faces. The andirons, seemed to 1)0 
made rather of gold than brass. The silver in 
the corner cu])board ai)pearod to wink a 
thousand sparkling eyes, and Aimetje gazed 
enchanted at the tall mantel piece, decorated 
with shells and dri(>d grasses and strings of 
bright colored birds' eggs. 

And the farm yard with its great shadowy 
barn, its snowy ducks and geese, its hens and 
tvu^keys, its hoi'ses and pigs, its cows and calves, 



CHILD LIFE IN NEW AMSTERDAM 29 

was iKjt a whit less enchanting than the house. 
And Annetje thought that the wheat fields and 
orchard, the corn fields and green meadows 
stretching to the silvery Hudson, were almost 
as beautiful as Fairyland. 

.. Metje loved the farm dearly, as all children 
love their own homes. But she was very fond 
of visiting Xew Amsterdam which to her 
seemed a very large and bustling place. 

One August, — it was in the year 1661 — while 
Metje was at Annetje's home, an event hap- 
pened which neither of the children ever for- 
got. When Metje became an old, old lady she 
used to tell her grandchildren about it. 

Early one bright morning the town of Xew 
Amsterdam Avas awakened by the booming of 
guns. The people sprang from their beds in 
terror and soon the streets echoed with the 
cry, "The English! The English !" Men rushed 
from house to house notifying the people that 
four English war vessels were in the bay below 
the town. 

At that time England and Holland were at 



30 CHILD LIFE IN NEW AMSTERDAM 

war. So England sent its ships to try to take 
the New Netherlands away from the Dutch. 

Governor Stuyvesant, who was absent from 
New Amsterdam, hurried back to the town 
with all speed, and did his best to save it from 
the enemy. But New Amsterdam was in no 
condition to resist the well-armed English. 
And the New Amsterdam people, who saw that 
they could not well defend themselves, pre- 
ferred to yield to their foes rather than to sac- 
rifice their lives and their property. 

So in September, the Dutch flag that had 
floated over New Amsterdam was hauled down 
and the English flag was raised in its i)lace. 
How Annetje wept when she saw the cross of 
St. George flying in the morning breeze ! 

Even the name of the toAvn Avas changed 
from New Amsterdam to New York in honor 
of the King of England's brother, the Duke of 
York. But for a very long time Annetje would 
constantly forget to say the new name. It 
sounded strange and unnatural to her. As for 
Metje, she returned home quite broken-hearted. 



CHILD LIFE IN NEW AMSTERDAM 31 

She felt that the town would never seem just 
the same to her. 

And it never was the same, for English peo- 
ple came to live there, and English ways and 
manners, quite unlike those of the Dutch, were 
gradually introduced. The English language, 
too, began to be taught in the schools. Oh, how 
hard it was for Annetje's little Dutch tongue 
to pronounce some of the long, strange-sound- 
ing words ! 

After a time, however, Annetje became more 
used to English customs. She learned to speak 
the language, and to like some of the dear little 
English girls who were her schoolmates. 

It is now many years since Dutch Xow Am- 
sterdam became English Xew York. Audit is 
many years since the Eevolutionary War. when 
English Xew York became a i)art of the United 
States. But, even now, you will find descend- 
ants of the early Dutch settlers living in Xew 
York. You will find there, too, remnants of 
old Dutch customs that are unknown in other 
parts of our country. 



32 



CHILD LIFE IN NEW AMvSTERDAM 



All about what Avas once the New Nether- 
lands lin^'er quaint, old Dutch le^^ends. One 
of our American authors wrote charming sto- 
ries founded on these legends which you will 
like to read Avhen you are older. 

New York is, to-day, the largest city in the 
United States and the largest city of the world. 
But you must never forget that it grew out 
of the Dutch town of New Amsterdam — the 
town which little Annetje knew and loved. 




INSTRUCTOR LITERATURE SERIES-Continiied 

172 Labu the Little Lake Dweller — Grimes 

173 Tara of the Tents^Gnmes 

195 A'ight Before Christmas and Other Christmas 

roeiiis and Stories (Any Grade) 

256 Bolo the Cave Boy — Grimes 

25 7 Kwasa the Cliff Dweller — Grimes 

291 Voyage to Lilhput (Abridged)— Swift 

293 Hansel and Gretel, and Pretty Goldilocks 

304 Story Lessons in Everyday Manners — Bailey 

312 Legends from Many Lands — Bailey 
314 The Enchanted Bugle and Other Stories 

331 Karl and Katherine in Holland — Reiter 

332 Keniiro the Japanese Boy — Mayne 

333 Chang Fu Chen; A Little Chinese Girl 

FIFTH GRADE 

Nature and Industry 

92 Animal Life in the Sea — Reiter 

93 Story of Silk — Brown 

94 Story of Sugar — Reiter 

96 What We Drink (Tea, Coffee and Cocoa) 
139 Peeps into Bird Nooks — II 
210 Snowdrops and Crocuses 
24 Story of King Corn — Cooley 
263 The Sky Family — Denton 

280 Making of the World — Herndon 

281 Builders of the World — Herndon 
283 Stories of Time — Bush 

History and Biography 
16 Exijlorations of the Northwest 
80 Story of the Cabots — McBride 
9 7 Stories of the Norsemen — Hanson 

98 Story of Nathan Hale — McCabe 

99 Story of Jefferson — McCabe 

100 Story of Bryant — McFee 

101 Story of Robert E. Lee — McKane 

105 Story of Canada — McCabe 

106 Story of Mexico — McCabe 

10 7 Story of Robert Louis Stevenson — Bush 
110 Story of Hawthorne — McFee 

112 Biographical Stories — Hawthorne 
141 Story of Grant — McKane 

144 Story of Steam — :McCabe 

145 Story of McKinley — McBride 
157 Story of Dickens — Smith 

179 Story of the Flag — Baker 

185 Story of the First Crusade — Mead 

190 Story of Father Hennepin — McBride 

191 Story of La Salle— McBride 

217 Story of Florence Nightingale — McFee 

218 Story of Peter Cooper — McFee 

219 Little Stories of Discovery — Halsey 
232 Story of Shakespeare^ — Grames 

265 Four Little Discoverers in Panama — Bush 

2 74 Stories from Grandfather's Chair — Hawthorne 

2 75 Wlien Plymouth Colony Was Young 

287 Life in Colonial Days — Tilhnghast 

Literature 

8 King of the Golden River — Ruskin 

9 The Golden Touch — Hawthorne 
61 Story of Sindbad the Sailor 

108 History in Verse 

113 Little Daffydowndilly and Other Stories 

180 Story of Aladdin and of Ah Baba — Lewis 
18G Heroes from King Arthur — Grames 

194 Whittier's Poems — Selected 

199 Jackanapes — Ewing 

200 The Child of T^rbino — De La Ramee 
208 Heroes of Asgard — Selections — Keary 
212 Stories of Robin Hood — Bush 

234 Poems Worth Knowing — Book II — Inter 

244 What Happened at the Zoo — Bailey 

250 At tlie Back of the North Wind, Selection 

from — ^tacdonald 
255 Chinese Fables and Stories — Feltges 
309 Moni the Goat Boy — Spvri 

313 In Nature's Fairyland — Bailey 

SIXTH GRADE 

Nature and industry 

109 Gifts of the Forest (Rubber. Cinchona. 

Resins, etc.) — McFee 
249 Flowers and Birds of Illinois — Patterson 
29 8 Story of Leather — Peirce 
299 Story of Iron — Ogden 
Geography 

114 Great European Cities— I (London-Paris) 

115 Great European Cities — II (Rome-Berlin) 
168 Great European Cities — III (St. Petersburg. 

Constantinople) — Bush 
^~ ORDER BY NUMBER. 



24 6 What I Saw in Japan — Griffis 

24 7 The Chinese and Their Country — Paulson 

285 Story of Panama and the Canal — Nida 

324 A Visit to Brazil — Haynes 

325 A Visit to Hawaii — Mesick 
Agriculture 

2 71 Animal Husbandry, I — Horses and Cattle 
272 Animal Husbandry, II — Sheep and Swine 
History and Biography 

73 Four Great Musicians (Bach, Mozart, Bee- 

tlioven, Mendelssohn) — Bush 

74 Four More Great Musicians (H2.ndel. Haydn, 

Schubert, Schumann) — Bush 

116 Old English Heroes (Alfred, Richard the 

Lion-Hearted, The Black Prince) — Bu-h 

117 Later Enghsh Heroes (Cromwell, Welhngtun, 

Gladstone) — I'.ush 

160 Heroes of the Revolution — Tristram 
163 Stories of Courage — Bush 

187 Lives of Webster and Clay — Tristram 

188 Story of Napoleon — Bush 

189 Stories of Heroism — Bush 
19 7 Story of Lafayette — Bush 

198 Story of Roger Wilhams — Leighton 
209 Lewis and Clark Expedition — Herndon 

224 Story of William Tell — Hallo.k 
253 Story of the Aeroplane — Galbreath 

266 Story of Belgium — Griffis 

267 Story of Wheels — Bush 

286 Story of Slavery — Booker T. Washington 
310 Story of Frances E. Willard — Babcock 

326 Story of Harding — Galbreath 

Literature 

10 The Snow Image — Hawthorne 

11 Rip Van Winkle — Irvmg 

12 Legend of Sleepy Hollow- — Irving 
22 Rab and His Friends — Brown 

24 Three Golden Ap]3les — Hawtliornet 

25 The Miraculous Pitcher — Hawthorne! 

26 The Minotaur — Hawthorne 

118 A Taie of the White Hills and Other Stories 

119 Bryant's Thanatopsis, and Other Poems 

120 Ten Selections from Longfellow — (Paul Re- 

vere's Ride. The Skeleton in Armor, etc.) 

121 Selections from Holmes 

122 The Pied Piper of Hamehn — Browning 

161 The Great Carbvuicle, Mr. Higginbotham'a 

Catastrophe, Snowflakes — Hawthorne 

162 The Pygmies — Hawthorne 

211 The Golden Fleece — Hawthorne 

222 Kingsley's Greek Heroes — I. Perseus 

223 Kingsley's Greek Heroes — II. Thesetis 

225 Tennyson's Poems — Selected (Any grade) 

226 A Child's Dream of a Star, and Other Poems 
229 Responsive Bible Readings — Zeller 

258 The Pilgrim's Progress (Abridged) — Simons 
264 The Story of Don Qtiixote — Bush 
2 77 Thrift Stories — Beni. Franklin and Others 
284 Story of Little Nell (Dickens) — Smith 

294 The Dragon's Teeth — Hawtliorne 

295 The Gentle Boy — Hawthorne 
328 Circe's Palace — Hawthorne 

SEVENTH GRADE 

Literature 

13 Cotirtship of Miles Standish — Longfellow 

14 Evangeline — Longfellowt 

1 5 Snowbound — Whittier t 

20 The Great Stone Face — Hawthorne 

123 Selections from Wordsworth 

124 Selections from Shelley and Keats 

12 5 Selections from The Merchant of Venice 

14 7 Story of King Arthur, as told by Tennysom 

149 The Man Without a Country — Halef 

192 Story of Jean Valjean — Grames 

193 Selections from the Sketch Book — Irving 
196 The Gray Champion — Hawthorne 

213 Poems of Thomas Moore — (Selected) 

214 More Selections from the Sketch Bock 

216 Lamb's Tales from Shakespeare — Part I — 

Tempest, ^lerchant of Venice, Macbeth 

231 The Oregon Trail (Cond. from Parkman) 

23 5 Poems Worth Knowing — Book III — Gram. 

238 Lamb's Adventures of Flvsses — Part I 

239 Lamb's Adventures of Ulysses — Part II 

241 Story of the Hiad — Church (Cond.) 

242 Story of the .?^neid — Church (Cond.) 

251 Story of Language and Literature — HeiUg 

252 The Battle of Waterloo — Hugo 

254 Story of "The Tahsman" (Cond. from Scott) 
(Continued on next page) 



INSTRUCTOR LITERATURE SERIES-Continued 

259 The Last of the Mohicans (Cond.) 

260 OUver Twist (Cond. from Dickens) 

261 Selected Tales of a Wayside Inn — Longfellow 

296 Uncle Tom's Cabin (Cond. from Stowe) 

297 Story of David Copperiield (Condensed) 
307 The Chariot Race — -Wallace 

311 Story of Jerusalem — Heilig 

315 Story of Armenia- — -HeiUg 

316 Lamb's Tales from Shakespeare — Part II — 

Hamlet, Midsummer Night's Dream 
Nature 

278 Mars and Its Mysteries — Wilson 

279 True Story of the Man in the Moon — Wilson 

EIGHTH GRADE 

Literature 

17 Enoch Arden — Tennyson t 

18 Vision of Sir Launfal — Lowellt 

19 Cotter's Saturday Night — Burnst 
23 The Deserted Village — Goldsmith 

126 Rime of the Ancient Mariner — Coleridge t 

127 Gray's Elegy and Other Poems 

129 Julius Cffisar — Selections — Shakespeare 



130 Henry the VIII — Selections — Shakespeare 

131 Macbeth — Selections — Shakespeare 

142 Scott's Lady of the Lake — -Canto It 

154 Scott's Lady of the Lake — Canto II f 

143 Building of the Ship and Other Poems — > 

Longfellow 
148 Horatius, Ivry, The Armada — Macaulay 
150 Bunker Hill Address — Selections from Adams 

and Jefferson Oration — Webster t 
153 Prisoner of Chillon and Other Poems — Byronf 

155 Rhcecus and Other Poems — -Lowellt 

156 Edgar Allan Poe — Biography, Selected Poems 
158 Washington's Farewell Address 

169 Abram Joseph Ryan — Biography and Se- 
lected Poems — Smith 
215 Life of Samuel Johnson — Macaulay t 
221 Sir Roger de Coverley Papers — Addisont 

236 Poems Worth Knowing — Book IV. — Adv. 

237 Lay of the Last Minstrel — Canto I — Scottt 
276 Landing of the Pilgrims (Oration) — Webster 

305 Wee WilUe Winkie — Kipling 

306 Howe's Masquerade — Hawthorne 

t These have biographical sketch of author, with 
introduction or explanatory notes. 



PRICE 10c per Copy, Postpaid. Sc Per Copy, Not Postpaid, on Orders for 25 or More Copies. 



DOUBLE NUMBERS of the Instructor Literature Series 

For Various Grades as Indicated in List Below. 64 or More Pages in Each Book. 

Price 15c per Copy, Postpaid. 12c per Copy, Not Postpaid, on Orders for 25 or More Copies. 
Strong Paper Covers. Order by Number. 



401 Adventures of Pinocchio — Collodi (4th gr.) 

402 Ivanhoe (Cond. from Scott) — Myers (8th gr.) 

403 Harmful and Helpful Insects — Patterson 

(6th grade) 

404 The Nurnberg StoTe — Ramee (5th grade) 

405 Story of Roosevelt — Brumbaugh (6th grade) 

406 The Gold Bug — Poe (8th grade) 

407 A Dog of Flanders — Ramee (5th grade) 

408 Health Stories and Rhymes (3rd grade) 



409 Stories from Newfoundland History (44 

pages) — Blackall (6th grade) 

410 Speeches of Lincoln (8th grade) 

411 Little Lame Prince (Cond.) — Mulock (gr. 4) 

412 Alice in Wonderland (Abridged) — Carroll 

(4th grade) 

413 The Spy (Condensed) — Cooper (8th grade) 

414 Longfellow for Boys and Girls — Paris (3rd 

grade) 



EXCELSIOR LITERATURE SERIES IZl^J^^^.fZ;:?'.'^'^ 

tions, comments, pronouncing vocab 24c 

33 Silas IWarner. Ehot. Biography, notes, ques- 
tions, critical comments. 238 pages 30o 

3 5 Lady of the Lake. Scott. Biography, intro- 
duction, pronouncing vocabulary 30c 

3 7 Literature of the Bible. Heilig 15o 

39 The Sketch Book. (Selected) Irving, Biog- 
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41 Julius Caesar. Edited by Thomas C. Blaisdell, 
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43 Macbeth. Edited by Thomas C. Blaisdell. 
Notes and questions 24c 

4 5 IWerchant of Venice. Edited by Thomas C. 
Blaisdell. Notes and questions 24c 

4 7 As You Like It. Edited by Thomas C. Blais- 
dell. Introduction, notes, questions 24c 

49 Hamlet. Edited by Thomas C. Blaisdell. 
Notes and questions 24c 

59 Poe's Tales. (Selected) Biography, introduc- 
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61 Message to Garcia and Other Inspirational 
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63 Lincoln-Douglas Debates. Edited by Edwin 
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05 The IVIan Without a Country. Hale. Introduc- 
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67 Democracy and the War. Seventeen Addresses 
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69 Treasure Island. Stevenson. Biography, notes, 
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1 Evangeline. Biography, introduction, oral and 

written exercises and notes 18c 

3 Courtship of Miles Standish. Longfellow. With 

introduction and notes 1 8c 

5 Vision of Sir Launfal. Lowell. Biography, 

introduction, notes, outlines 1 5c 

7 Enoch Arden. Tennyson. Biography, intro- 
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9 Great Stone Face. Hawthorne. Biography, 
introduction, notes, outlines 1 5c 

11 Browning's Poems. Selected poems with notes 
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13 Wordsworth's Poems. Selected poems with in- 
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15 Sohrab and Rustum. Arnold. With, introduc- 
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19 A Christmas Carol. Charles Dickens. Com- 
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21 Cricket on the Hearth. Chas. Dickens. Com- 
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23 Familiar Legends. McEee 15c 

25 Some Water Birds. McFee. Description, and 
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27 Hiawatha. Introduction and notes 30c 

29 Milton's Minor Poems. Biography, introduc- 
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81 Idylls of the King. (Coming of Arthur, Gar- 
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