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A aKAMMAR 



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OTCHIPWE LANGUAGE. 



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A THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL 

GRAMMAR 



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OP THE 



OTCHIPWE LANGUAGE 

FOR THE USB OP 

and otlier peisons JMflg among tlie Indians 

B, R. R. BISHOP BARAGA. 

A SHCO«».B„,OK, BV . MX,SXO..KV OP r„. OB..XBS. ^ 



MONTREAL: 

BEAUCHEMIN , VALOIS, Bo„k..»3 .™ p«,„^, 
256 and 258, St. Paul Street. 



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PREFACE. 



This is, I think, the first and only Otchipwe Grammar that 
ever was published in the United States. It was rather a hard 
work to compose it ; I had to break my road all through. 
Writers of other Grammars avail themselves of the labors of 
their predecessors, and collect, like the bee, the honey out of 
these flowers of literature, leaving the dust in. I had no such 
advantage ; I had nothing before me. No wonder then, if all 
be not correct in this first essay. Those who shall find errors 
or omissions in this Grammar, will oblige me very much by 
sending me their corrections and remarks, which will be thank- 
fully received and duly considered. 

My principal intention in publishing this Grammar is, to 
assist the Missionaries in the acquirement of the Otchipwe 
language and its kindred dialects, as I know by experience how 
useful it is the Missionary to know the language of the people 
whom he is endeavoring to convert to God. 

At the same time it is my wish'to do, for my part and in my 
sphere, what I wish should be done byjother Missionaries or 
competent persons, in their respective spheres ; that is, that 
complete Grammars and Dictionaries should be composed and 
published, of all the different Indian languages in the Union. 



— Vlll — 

It is the judicious opinion of Mr. Henry R. Schoolcraft^ 
(who has done, and is doing yet, much for the Indian history,^ 
" that the true history of the Indian tribes and their interna- 
tional relations^ must rest, as a basis, upon the light obtained 
from their languages" This is true ; and to obtain the light 
from the Indian languages, Grammars and Dictionaries would 
render the surest services. 

And finally I wish to do a service to the Philologist, to whoni 
it affords pleasure and acquir' -lent, to compare the grammatical 
systems of different language.,. •' • ' 

The Author. 



■r v,,!-i. 



REMARKS ON THIS SECOND EDITION. 



Our primary intention, our chief aim, in puhlisliing tliis 
second edition of Bishop Baraga'y Grammar and Dictionary, is 
to be of use to our Missionaries, especially those in Manitoba and 
Ki\vatin,(*) who are asking earnestly for those books, the first 
edition of vvliich is completely out of print. This work we 
liave been enabled to undertake with the generous aid of the 
Canadian Government, and the subscriptions of our friends. 

Althougli this edition is a mere reprint of Bishop Baraga's 
work, without any pretention of correcting nor enlarging it, 
nevertiieless we have thought it proper to make a few altera- 
tions in it in order to save prin 'ng expenses. 1" The number 
of examples has been much reduced, the chief ones only 
having been chosen among the numerous instances in the first 
edition. 2" We have departed Bishop Baraga's way as to the 
accents. It has been tliought proper to substitute the circuni- 
tlex accents to acute and grave accents on the vowels to be 
pronounced long or emphatically ; v. g. : omm, too much ; 
o sdgidn, he loves him or her, etc., complying in so doing with 
the wishes of our friends. 

Although we have followed throughout the whole work the 
orthography of Bishop Baraga, we will lay here directions for 
the Missionaries and other people in Manitoba who will make 
use of these books. 

1° The Sauteux, Otchipw6 or Ojibway language is actual'}' 
in use all around Lake Superior, in the Territories ofKiwatin 
and Dacotah, in the State of Minnesota, at Red Lake, along 



(*) Pronounce : Kiwetin. 



tlif* Mississippi sind Red Rivers, at Lake Manitoba, and even 
on the shores of the Great Saskatchewan. Throughout sucli a 
vast extent, one must not be astonished, then, to meet with some 
variations in the pronunciation and sound of some letters, 
wliich is also tlie case in the other languages. 

2" A is to be pronounced as in french, long or short, v. g. 
Ame, etc., Marie, and as in the English ^vorda father, matter, 
etc., f. i. Mddja, he starts ; atikameg, white fish, etc. 

N. B, — Whenever a vowel is not surmounted with this 
sign '^, it must be reputed short. 

E is always long and accented, v. g. epit, he, being sitting ; 
{imikwdn, a spoon, as in the French words, ete, gate. 

G. This letter is not as often used ia this country as in the 
country where the Otchipwe Dictionary and Grammar were 
first printed. Here the k is oftener sounded instead of the 
//. The same may be observed as to the t, which is frequently 
used by our Indians instead of c?, v. g. gon ; here they say: 
kon, snow ; ni nifjdnissiiuk, instead of nitjanissidog, my sons ; 
tebendam, instead o\' debendam, he is master, etc. 

/, as in the French words mille, mine; or, in the English 
words wind, thin; f. i.: loin, he; winitie, he is an impure 
heart. Some times i is accented and must be prdnounced so, 
v. g : g'lmodi, he steals. 

A', T. It would seem that the letters k and t should be 
doubled in some words, v. g. : akki, earth ; instead of aki; 
akkik, kettle, instead of akik ; sdkitton, instead of sdgiton, 
love it 

//. Thif letter could be u&?d some times to express a kind of 
guttural or aspirated sound which is met with in some words, 
as: Nin sdkiha, I love him, instead of: nin sdgia ; kapakiie- 
hond, instead of ; gapakiteond,i\xQ one. who is struck; mih, 
inst'^^d of mi, that's enough. 

V. Some would have desired that u, with the Italian 
sound, or the French sound ou, should ha"e been used some 
times instead of o, in some words, terminations or forms of 
verbs, v. g. : kikkiwehun, instead of kikiweon, a flag ; ikkito- 



1/nk, instead ofikiioiog, yc, say so ; ayoyuk, ins^t'ad of aioiog, 
ye, use it. 

V. In this country, y is used to join together a uccessio.i of 
syllables, v. g. : ikkitoydn, instead of Ikiioidn, I, saying so ; 
mddjayang, instead of mddjdiang, we, starting ; it i^also used 
at the end of words terminating by the sound of the French 
liquid I, V. g. : omotai, apakwei, tchihai ; we use to write 
liere : omotdy, a bottle ; apakio'ey, a mat ; ichihdy, a corpse, 
. which must be pronounced : o motaille, apakweille, ichihaille. 

3" The Dictionary and Grammar enumerate many expres- 
sions which are seldom or never used here. Thi^ will be 
easily understood. For, the more the Otchipwe language 
comes into contact with the Cree idiom, its congenerous, tlie 
more must it adopt its words, giving to them th^ Otchipwe 
pronunciation. 

Qy this remark too it will be understood why in our country 
the k and i are more frequently used, the Cree Indians, our 
neighbours, making a very frequent use of the same. 



A complete synopsis of the Otchipwe verbs and adjectives 
will be found at the end of this Grammar. This synopsis has 
been printed according to the orthography in use among the 
catholic Missionaries of Manitoba and Kiwatin. It is far from 
being perfect ; as it is, however, it will be useful to those who 
may need it. We think it useless to say that to derive some 
profit from it, some previous knowledge of the grammar will 
be necessary, especially the chapter of verbs. 

N. B. — I regret to be obliged to say that many typographical 
errors will be found, no doubt, in this edition. The reader will 
understand the reason of those errors and overlook them with 
indulgence, when we say that, for rea.sons out of the editor's 
control, this work was printed many hundred miles distance 
from the proof reader, who, at most, could possibly read 
the proofs but once. 



I 






GRAMMAR 



OF THE 



OTCHIPWE LANGUAGE. 



INTRODUCTION, 



The Otchipwe language is spoken by the tribe ofind ns called 
Chippewa Indians, * which was once a numerous and powerful 
tribe. It is now reduced to the small number of about 15,000 
individuals, who are scattered round Lake Superior, and far 
round in the inland, over a large tract of land. Several other 
tribes of Indians speak the same language, with little alterations- 
The principal of these are, the Algonquin, the Otawa, and the 
Potowatami tribes. He that understands well the Otchipwe lan- 
guage, will easily converse with Indians of these tribes. 

The Otchipwe Grammar, which is here presented to the reader, 
teaches the art of spelling and writing correctly the Otchipwe 
language. This Grammar is divided into three parte, viz : Or- 
thography, Etymology &nd Syntai. 



* The proper name of these Indians Is, Otchipwe Indtant. By this name, pro- 
nounced according to the orthography stated in this book, we will uall this 
Grammar and language. 



PART FIRST. 



vf :^ 



ORTHOGRAPHY, 



Orthography, (according to the meaning of this Greek word, 
tcorrect writing,) teaches the art of spelling the words of a lan- 
guage with correctness and propriety. To speak and write is the 
faculty and art of expressing thoughts with words. Words then 
are signs of our thoughts. These signs are either sounds uttered 
by the mouth, or marks formed by the hand. 

Words are composed of letters, which are the representatives 
of sounds formed by the organs of speech. 

There are only seventeen letters in the Otchipwe alphabet ; and 
no more are required to write correctly and plainly all the words 
■of this expressive language. These letters are divided into vowels 
And consonants. 

A vowel is the representative of an articulate sound, which can 
be distinctly uttered by itself. There are only four vowels in the 
Otchipwe language, namely, a, e, i, o. This language has no u. 
The letter u is sounded differently by different nations, English, 
French, German, &c. The Otchipwe language has none of these 
rounds. The German sound of the vowel u, (like oo in fool, or 
like u in full,) is unknown to the Otchipwe language ; so much 
80, that even in the two or three words, which these Indians 
have adopted from the French, the sound oo, (in French ou,) is 
changed into o. F. i. a handkerchief, (un motMihoir,) moshwe ; 
my button, (mon bouton,) nin feoto ; LoMis, Not. But more yet 
Ahan the German sound of «, is the French and English pronun- 
<5iation of the same, unknown to the Otchipwe language. 

A consonant is the representative of an inarticulate sound, 
^hich can only be perfectly uttered with the help of a vowel. 
There are thirteen consonants in this language, namely : 6, c, d, 
£fi ^>J> ^t »»> n,p, s, t,w. The following consonants, y, I, q, r, 



, -3- 

V, X, z, never occur in the words of this language ; and the Indiana 
who speak it, can hardly pronounce them, and many cannot 
pronounce them at all, especially old Indians. They pronounce 
yand V like b or p ; I and r they pronounce like ?i. So, for ins- 
tance, when they are asked to pronounce the French wordyaWne^ 
(flour,) they will eay panin ; the name David, they will pronounce 
Dabid; the nameitfaWe, Mani; the name Marguerite, Magit) &q. 



REMARKS ON THE VOWELS. 



Many methods have been tried to write Otchipwe words, but 
they proved deficient, and did not express exactly the sounds of 
these words, because the English orthography has been used. It 
can easily be observed, and will be acknowledged, when impajr- 
tially examined, by persons who understand some other lan- 
guage, that the English orthography, being so peculiar, can ne- 
ver be successfully applied to any other but the English lan- 
guage. It is impossible to write with propriety any other lan- 
guage but the English, according to the English orthograpliy, 
because the EngUsh vowels have so many different sounds, that 
they must necessarily create difficulty and uncertainty, when 
applied to the writing of words of other languages. 

And so, in fact, it is the case with any other language, more 
or lees. Every language has its own orthography, which could 
not be entirely applied to another language. 

' Why then should the Otchipwe language (with its kindred 
dialects) not have its own orthography ? This question imme- 
diately arose in my mind, when I first entered the field of mife- 
sionary labors among the Indians ; and soon brought me to the 
establishing of an own orthography for the Otchipwe language 
and its dialects. This orthography does not entirely belong to 
any other language, but is taken from the English and French, 
and adapted to the Otchipwe. 

According to this orthography I wrote my first little Indian 
work, in 1831, (with the help of an interpreter, at that time,) and 
published it in Detroit in 1832; and have ever since followed the 
eame in my subsequent Indian writings ; with only one altera- 



( 



— 4 



tion, which I have adopted in writing this Grammar ; putting 
the English sh instead of the P'rench ch. 

I am satisfied, in my humble opinion, that this is the easiest 
And plainest method of writing the Otchipwe language. It is 
.generally approved by those who have occasion to examine it } 
And it was adopted by some writers of Indian works, especially 
by the Rev. 8. Hall, (Lapointe, Lake Superior,) who published 
sthe New Testament, (New-York,1844,) almost entirely according 
■to this simple mode of writing the Otchipwe language. 

Here is an explanation of this orthography. The sound of the 
vowels aever changes ; they have always the same sound. The 
sounding of the consonants is adapted to the pronunciation of 
the same in English and French. This will be better understood 
After the perusal of the following remarks. 

The four vowels, a, e, i, o, are pronounced as follows : ' 

a is invariably pronounced as in the English words father ; 
AS, anakanan, mats ; ta-nagana, he will be left behind ; ga-saga- 
ang, he thjit is gone out. 

e is always pronounced as in the English word met ; as, etegy 
what there is ; eto, only ; enendang, liccording to his thought or 
will. 

i is always pronounced as in the English word pin ; as, inini, 
A man 5 kigi-ikit, thou hast said ; iwidi, there. 

is always pronounced as in the English word note ; as, odon, 
Jiis mouth ; onow, these here ; okoj, its bill. 

These rules have no exception in the Otchipwe language. The 
four vowels are invariably pronounced as stated here ; they may 
occur in the first or last syllable of a word, or in the middle ; 
and they are never silent. Which you will please to mind well, 
if you wish to pronounce correctly and easily the words of this 
language. 

As the general rule for the pronunciation of vowels is to pro- 
tiounce them always equally, and never to let them be silent, it 
follows that, where two or ^hree vowels of the same kind, or dif- 
ferent vowels, appear together in a word, they must all be 
bounded. 



— 5 — 



EXAMPLES. 



5a^aam, lie goes out ; pvon. sa-ga-am. 
Oossi, he has a father ; pron. o-os-sL 
Nin nihea, I cause him to sleep ; pron. nin ni-he-a. 
O moawan, they make him weep, cry ; pron. o mo-U'Wan. , , 
Waiba, soon ; pron. wa-i-ba. 
Maingan, wolf ; ^voxx. ma-in-gan. 
Nawaii, in the middle ; pron. na-wa-i-i. 
There are some diphthongs proper in this language. 
The letter i forms them, when it is preceded or followed by 
some other vowel ; ai, ei, oi, ia, ie, to. Both vowels are pro- 
nounced in one syllable, but both must be distinctly sounded ; 
they are ^rop^ diphthongs. 

-' .' : -, '!■'■■'■ ■-»;■- . ■ ' '. 

EXAMPLES. 

Misai, a loach, (fish;) pron. mi-sai. 

Omodai, bottle, pron. o-mo-dm. 

Apakwei, a mat to cover a lodge ; pron. a-pa-kwei. 

Hoi ! (interj.) hallo 1 

Saiagiad, whom thou lovest ; pron. sa-ia-gi-ad. 

Ebiian, thou who art ; pron. e-hi-ian. 

i^iaieg', where you are ; pron. a-ia-ieg. 

^ioioflf, make use of it ; pron. a-io-to^r. 

ACCENTS ON VOWELS. 



In order to facilitate the pronunciation of the words of this 
language, and to distinguish the first person from the second in 
some moods and tenses, I make occasionally use of accents in 
this Grammar and in the Dictionary of this language. These 
accents are, the acute, the grave and the circumflex accents. 

1. I put the acute accent on that syllable in the word which 
must be pronounced with more emphasis or stress than the 
others. And this emphasis, put on one syllable or on another, 



~ 6 — 



sometimes entirely changes the meaning of the word, as you see 
in some of the following Examples. F. i., dnakwad, it is cloudy ; 
andkan, a mat ; xiinikdn, seed ; agaming, on the beach ; agd- 
ming, on the other side of a river, bay, lake, etc. ; sdgaigan, a 
small lake ; sagdigan, a nail ; niblng, in the water ; nibing, in 
summer. "' 

2. I mi-ke use of the grave accent to distinguish the first per- 
son from the second in many circumstances, as will be seen in 
the paradigms or patterns of the Conjugations. Examples: 

Endndamdn, as 1 will or think ; enendaman, as thou wilt. Sa- 
gitoidmban, had 1 liked it ; sagitdiamhan, hadst thou liked it. 
Endaidng, where we live or dwell ; (the person or persons spok- 
en to, are not included in the number of those who dwell in the 
place alluded to.) Enddiang, where we live or dwell ; (the per- 
son or persons spoken to, are included.) 

3. I place the circumflex accent on some vowels,' to signify that 
they have the nasal sound, almost the same as in French, when 
they are followed by the letter n. F. i., senibd, silk, ribbon ; 
pakaakiwe, a hen ; abinodjt, a child ; gigo, fish, etc. The exact 
pronunciation of these vowels cannot be given in writing. You 
must hear them pronounced by persons who speak Otchipwe 
correctly ; and endeavor to take hold of the genuine pronunciation. 

I must observe here, that I don't put accents on every Indian 
word in this Grammar. I put them occasionally, for the ac- 
commodation of beginners. When I am writing for Indian rea- 
ders, I never use accents, except grave accents, for the distinc- 
tion of the two persons ; (as above in No. 2.) 

J. . . I . ./ REMARKS ON THE CONSONANTS. ', . v.. , ,: 

In regard to the consonants of this language, several remarks 
are to be made, which you are requested to peruse carefully and 
keep in memory, in order to read and write correctly the 
Otchipwe language. 

I tried to reduce the Otchipwe orthography, as much as pos- 
sible, to the easiest and plainest principles. No more letters are 



employed than are ab8olutely necessary. For this reason there 
are no silent letters in this orthography, and no duplications of 
letters, except of the letter «, which is indispensable. I employ 
the French j, to stand in Otchipwe for the .same soft sound as it 
does in French, because there is a perfect analogy between the 
French,/ in Jour, jar din, etc., and the Otchipwe j in joniia, ji- 
wan, etc., which the English consonants cannot well express. 
In English we have sh ; but thi.s sound does not exactly express 
the sound of the French or Otchipwe J; it is harder. This J is 
the only consonant I take from the French alphabet ; all the 
others are English consonants. 

Peruse now diligently the tbllowing remarks on the Otchipwe 
consonants. 

The letter c is never employed by itself; it can easily be dis- 
pensed with, by using s and k. It is only used in the composi- 
tion of letters ich, of which we will speak below. 

The letter d connected with J, has the sound of the English j, 
or of ^r, when pronounced soft, as in gender, ginger, etc. F. i., 
mddjau, go on ; ninindj, my hand ; dndjiton, change it ; ghnodj, 
secretly. 

The letter g has, in the Otchipwe orthography and reading, 
always a hard sound ; not only before a and o, but also invari- 
ably before e and i ; without any exception. F. i., geget, truly ; 
gigito, he speaks ; gi-^iigi, he was born ; gego, something. 

The letter h is used by itself only in some interjections, where 
it is pronounced with a strong aspiration, as haw! haw I hal- 
loo 1 hurrah I go on! hoi! halloo I The main use of this letter 
is its connexion with s, to form the same sound as in English, sh. 

The letter j, as above stated, is always pronounced as in 
French, that is to say, softer than the English sh. F. i.,jomin, 
grape, raisin ; joniia, silver, money ; ojimo, he runs away ; oni- 
jishin, it is good, fair ; mij, give him ; ganoj, speak to him. — 
Kindreader, be careful, not to pronounce it as in English, (John, 
joy, jar,) but as in French, (jour, jamais, etc.) 

The letter s is always pronounced like z, in the beginning as 
well as in the middle and end of syllables and words. When it 

a 



— 8 — 



is double, it has the hard sound of double s, like in English. F. 
i., 7iin segis, I fear, (pron. nin zegiz;) sanagisi, he is avaricious, 
(pron. zazagizi ;) nin sessessakis, I burn and weep, (pron. zesses- 
sakiz ;) ondciss, come here, (pron. ondass.) After a consonant, 
the letter s has always the hard sound, like double s. F. i., kwi- 
wisensag, boys, (pron. kwiwizenssag ;) amonsag, little bees or 
flies, (pron. amonssag.) — The two letters s and h in connexion, 
have the same sound in Otchipwe, as in English, in the begin- 
ning, middle and end of syllables and words. F. i., 7iiiihime, my 
younger brother, (or sister;) ashishin, put me ; asham, give me 
to eat ; binish, till ; Jdganash, an Englishman. 

The letter t in connexion with ch given the sound of the same 
composition of letters in the English words watch, match, pitcher ^ 
etc. F. i., ichiman, a canoe, tchatcham, he sneezes ; nin tchitr 
chag, my soul ; gwanatch, beautiful ; minotch, notwithstanding. 

The letter xc i.s pronounced like in English. 

It must be observed here, that the pronunciation of some con- 
sonants in the Otchipwe language is very vague .and uncertain. 
There are six consonants of this kind, viz : b, p ; d, t ; g, k. It 
is impossible to ascertain, by the pronunciation of the Indians, 
the correct orthography of some words commencing with these 
letters, or containing them. So, for instance, in a word begin- 
ning with 6, you will often hear the Indians pronounce this b 
like^ ; and sometimes like b. Or, if the word begins with a p, 
they will pronounce it at one time p, and at another b. And the 
same they do with d and t, with g and A-. They confound .very 
frequently these consonants. We also see in letters written by 
Indians in their own language, how they confound b with p ; d 
with t ; g with k ; not only in the beginning, but also in the 
middle and at the end of words. . -r ■ 

As a general rule for the right use of these six consonants, 
when they terminate the word, take this : In order to know 
whether 6 or p, dor t, g or k, terminate the word, (which you 
ordinarily cannot ascertain from the Indian pronunciation,) pro- 
long the word, that is, add a syllable, by forming the plural, or 
making some other change, and you will find the truejfinal letter. 



— 9 — 



Examples. 



This word //n^oZ*, a fir-tree, is often pronounced jingop. To* 
ascertain wliether h or p is the flnfil letter of this word, form t'he' 
plural by adding in, and you will ha.\ejin<jobig, where b> is dis- 
tinctly sounded. 

The words giju/, day, air, sky ; and gyik, cedar or c«dar-tree, 
are ordinarily pronounced alike ; but by a prolongation of the 
words, their final letters appear distinctly. They say gijigad, 
it is day ; gijikay, cedar-tre«s. 

So also mitig, a tree, and r/A/A', a kettle. These two words 
both exhibit A: as their final lettL^r in common pronunciation; 
but when you prolong the words, you will have, mitigog, trees ;; 
akikog, kettles. There the letters g and A; are sounded clearly,- 

Wenijishid, he who is good, or handsome ; commonly pro-- 
nounced wenijis hit ; but in the plural, wenijishidjig, the letter 
d is sounded in the soft pronunciation of djig. (And so in all the 
participles ending in ad, ed, id, od, which make their plural by 
adding/<V/.) 

To ascertain whether you have to write dj oritch, in the mid- 
dle or at the end of words, try to find out, whether the word, if 
placed in another position or inflection, would .^liow d or t ; and 
you will know, whether you have to write dJ or ich. 

Examples. 

Ojiichigade, it is made ; not ojidjigade, because it is derived 
from the verb, nind ojitov I make it 5 where t is distinctly 
sounded. 

Winitchige, he is making dirty (something, or some place) ; 
not winidjige, because it comes from nifi winiton, I make it 
dirty ; where again t is clearly heard. 

Nin banddjiion, I spoiled it ; not nin hanaichiton, because it 
comes from b anadad, ii is spoiled; where d is most clearly 
sounded. 

Kikendjige, he knows ; not kikentchige, because it is derived^ 
from nin kikendan, I know it ; where d is distinctly heard. 



— 10 — 



i 

i I' 



Gimodj, fiocretly ; not gimotch, because it comes from gimodi, 
he steals. — Etc. 

I know very well, dear reader, that you cannot make any use 
of these rules now in the beginning of your studies. But after 
the first perusal of this Grammar, and when you shall liave ac- 
quired some knowledge of this language, these rules will be use- 
ful to you ; they will be to you a good guidance, and lielp you 
materially in your endeavors to acquire a reasonable, systemati- 
cal and grammatical orthography of the Otchipwe language. 

If we wish to cultivate a little the Otchipwe language, we 
ougl)t to/(x the orthographical use of these six consonants, ac- 
cording to the mo.st [common and most reasonable pronuncia- 
tion. Th'8 I tried and yet try, to effect in my Indian writings, 
especially in this Grammar, and in the Dictionary of this lan- 
guage. If now those who feel able and disposed to write in Ot- 
chipwe, would adopt the orthography of these works, it would 
be fixed and established . And it is indeed the Grammar and the 
Dictionary we ought to consult and to follow in regard to the 
orthography of a language. If every one writes as he pleases, 
we will never arrive at uniformity and systematical regularity. 

There is analogy of this in the German language. The Ger- 
mans also pronounce the letter 6 very often like^>; and also the 
letter d like t, and g like k ; in the beginning and at the end of 
■words. But when they are writing, they don't follow this cor- 
rupted pronunciation ; they follow the orthography of their 
books, especially of Dictionaries. 

There will be some more rules and remarks, in regard to or- 
thography, in this Grammar. I cannot e:.plain them here ; 
they would be entirely misplaced, if here. You will find them 
in their due places. 



■'M,': 



!lff 



PART SECOND. 

ETYMOLOGY. 



. '• ' . "'-'t' 



Etymoloyy, (according to the signification of thif Greek word, 
docirine of the origin of words,) is that part of Grammar, which 
teaches tlie derivationn and inflections of words, and treats of the 
different parts of speecli. 

There are nine Parts of Speech in the Otchipwe language. T 
will put them down here in the same order in which this Gram- 
mar treats of them. This order differs from that observed in 
other Grammars ; for good reasons. 

The parts of speech are as follows : 

1. The Substantive or Noun; as, inini, man; ikwe, woman|; 
wigiwam, lodge, house ; mokoman, knife. 

2. The Pronoun ; as, nin, I ; kin, thou ; win, he, she, it. 

3. The Vei'b; as, nin gigii, I speak ; ki nondam, thou hear- 
est ; bimadisifhe lives. 

4. The Adjectioe ; as, gwanatch, beaut'ful ; matchi, bad ; oni- 
jishin, good, fine, useful. 

5. The Number ; as, midasswi, ten ; nijtana, twenty ; ningot- 
wak, hundred. 

G. The Prejiosition ; as, ndwaii, in the midst ; megwe, among ; 
binish, till. 

7. The Adverb ; as, sesika, suddenly ; nibiiva, much ; gwaiak, 
well ; loewib, quick, fast. 

8. The Conjunction ; as, gaie, and ; missawa, although ; kish- 
pin, if. 

9. The Interjection ; as, hoi! halloo I haw! go on 1 

Remark I. This language is ajanguage of verbs. I would al- 
most treat of the verb in the very first chapter of Etymology, 
because all depends on the verb, and almost all is, or can be, 
transformed into verbs. But the natural order requires it, to 



— 12 — 

treat first of the substantive or noun, which is the subject of the 
■verb; and then of the pronoun, which stands for the noun or 
substantive, as the subject of the verb, and ordinarily precedes 
it. But immediately after the noun and pronoun conies the verb, 
•which occupies two thirds of this Grammar. After the verb 
•comes the adjective and then the number, because these parts of 
Bpeech are commonly transformed into verbs. Now follows the 
jpreposition, which is often connected with the verb, and conju- 
gated with it ; then the adverb, which modifies the verb in vari- 
•ous manners ; and then the remaining two parts of speech. 

Remark 2. There are no articles in the Otchipwe language. 
The words aw, iw, etc., which are sometimes placed before sub- 
.stantives, are no articles ; they are demonstrative pronouns. So, 
for instance, aw ikwe, does not properly denote, the woman, but 
this or that woman. 

Remark 3. In the Otchipwe language, three parts of speech are 
declinable, that is, they undergo changes ; the rest are indeclin- 
able, they never change. The declinable parts of speech are the 
first three, substantive, pronoun, verb. Substantives and pro- 
nouns undergo a change in the plural ; and this is all their 
change. Verbs have their various Conjugations. Adiectives 
and numbers are indeclinable as such ; but when they are trans- 
formed into verbs, they have their Conjugations. 



'm-'} 



CHAPTER I. 



Ill 



OF SUBSTANTIVES OR NOUNS. 



,/♦ 



A Substantive or Noun is the name of a person or thing, really 
existing, or only thought, imagined. -< 

The name of a single individual is called a proper noun ; &a, 
Wawiiatan, Detroit ; Monengwanekan, L&pomte ; Wikwed, L'Anaei 
Mdngosid, Loonsfoot. 



— 13 — 

A common noun or substantive is the name applied to all per- 
sons or things of the same kind ; as, iniui, man ; ikwe, woman ; 
maingan, wolf ; animosh, dog ; mitig, tree ; adopotcin, table. 

OF GENDER. ' 



Gender is the distinction of substani ves with regard to sex. 
Almost all languages make a difference in their articles and ad- 
Jectives, when they apply them to substantives of the three diffe- 
rent genders, the masculine, feminine and neuter. But the Eng- 
lish language employs the same article and the same adjective 
before substantives of the three genders. And so does the Ot- 
chipwe language. For persons and things of both sexes, and of 
those that belong to none, the same adjective is used. F. i., 
mino iniui, a good man ; mino ikwe, a good woman ; mino wigi- 
warn, a good house ; gwandtch kwiwisens, a beautiful boy ; gtoa- 
ndtch ikwesens, a beautiful girl ; gwandtch masinaigan, a beau- 
tiful book. 

But the Otchipwe language goes yet a step farther ; even in 
ih.e pronoun there is no distinction of gender made ; loin signi- 
fies he, she and it. But as the distinction of the two sexes is ne- 
cessary in certain circumstances, the Otchipwe language, (like 
other languages,) has some different ivords for individual of the 



two sexes. 



Examples. 



Masc. 



Fern. 



Ogima, chief or king ; 
Inini, man ; 
Kwiwisens, boy ; 
^oss, my father ; 
Ningwiss, my son ; " 
Nissaie, my elder brother ; 
Mmishomiss, my grand-father ; 
And a variety of other terms 
of tnendship. 



ogimakwe, queen. 
ikwe, woman. 
ikwesens, girl. 
ningd, my mother. 
nindaniss, my daughter. 
nimisse, my older sister. 
nokomiss, my grand-mother, 
of relationship, and expressions 



m 



14 — 



I 




Instead of the English mode of distinguishing the two sexes^ 
by prefixing he to substantives for the masculine, and she for the 
feminine sex, the Otchipwe language contrives the distinction in 
the following manners, viz : 

1. By prefixing the word nabe, (male,) to substantives of the 
masculine gender, and ikice, (woman, female,) to those of the 
feminine gender. F. i., ndhe-pijiki, a bull or ox ; ikwe pijiki, a cow. 

2. By making use of the words nabeaiaa, (male being,) and ik- 
weaiaa, (female being,) which are ordinarily placed after the sub- 
stantive. F. i., pakaakv)e nabeaiaa, a cock ; pakadkioe ikweaiaa, 
a hen ; bebejigoganji nabeaiaa, a horse ; bebejigogavji ikiceaiaa, 
a mare. 

3. By affixing to substantives of the masculine gender ihe 
word inini, (man,) and to those of the feminine gender the word 
ihjoe, (woman,) modifying the two words a little. F. i., anokiia- 
^etomuti, a man servant ; anokitagekive, a maid servant; kiki- 
noamaghoinini, a [school-teacher (man) ; kikinoamgekwe, a fe- 
male school-teacher. They also will say : nishime inini, (or, 
kwiwisens,) my younger brother ; nishime ikwe, (or, ikwesens,) 
my younger sister. 

Remark. Instead of the distinction of gender, there is another 
distinction made between the substantives of the Otchipwe lan- 
guage, which is as important, as it is difficult, and peculiar to 
this language. It is the division of all the Otchipwe substan- 
tives in two classes ; some are animate and some inanimate. 

Animate substantives are called those which denote beings and 
things that are living, or have been living, really or by acception. 

Inanimate substantives are called those which signify things 
that never lived. 

This must be well borne in mind, as it is of great importance for 
the correct speaking of the Otchipwe language. 

The animate substantives, which denote beings that arereallr/ 
living, or have been so, cause no difficulty ; they are naturally 
known, and cannot be mistaken ; as, gdjagens, a cat; wawabi- 
ganodji, a mouse ; sagime, a moscheto ; ginebig, a serpent, etc. 
But substantives which signify things that have no life at all. 



— 15 — 

but which the Indians treat in their language like substantives^ 
that signify living beings, create one of the greatest difficulties 
and peculiarities of this language ; because there is no rule by 
which you could be guided to know these substantives. And 
still it is necessary to know whether a substantive is animate or 
inanimate, because on this distinction depends the right use and 
inflection of the verb and pronoun. If you confound the verbs 
that are used in connexion with amwa^e substantives with those 
that are employed with inanimate, you commit as big a blunder 
in the Otchipwe language, as you would in lilnglish by saying: 
1 am afraid of that man because she is a bad man ; or, 7 love my 
mother because he is so kind to me. 

Remark. The animate substantives will always be denoted by 
the sign an., in this Grammar as well as in the Dictionary ; and 
the inanimate substantives will be marked in. The same signff 
will also be employed for the verbs that have re|X)rt to animate- 
or inanimate substantives . Please remember well this remark. 

Here are some of those substantives which signify things that 
have no life, but are employed by the Indians like substantives- 
that signify living beings : 



Mitig, a tree. 
Pakwejigan, bread. 
Asshi, a stone. 
Mishimin, an apple. 
Pingwi, ashes. 
Assema, tobacco. 
Akik, a kettle. 
Op'm, a potatoe. 
Pigiw, pitch. 

Mikwdm, ice. ,< "> 

Gon, snow. 

Tashkiibodjigan, saw-mill. 
Tchibaidtig, cross. 
Manddmin, corn. 
^dbigan, clay. 



Nisdkosi, a corn-ear. 

Masdn, a nettle. 

Sibwdgan, corn-stalk. 

Nindigig, my knee. 

Agig, cold, phlegm. 

Gisiss, sun, moon, month. 

Tibaigisisswan, watch, clock.- 

Migwan, feather, quill. 

Nabdgissag, a board. 

Wababigan, lime. 

Opiodgan, pipe. 

yonna, silver, money. 

Assab, a net. 

Ess, a ."hell. 

Kishkibitdgan, a tobacco pouch- 



16 



Senibd, silk, ribbon. 
Masinitchigan, image. 
Gijik, cedar. 
Moshwe, handkerchief. 
Joniians, a shilling. 
Minessagdwanj , thorn. 
Andng, a star. 
Animiki, thunder. 
Ishkotekan, fire-steel. 
Kitchipison, belt. 



Miskodisimin, a bean. / 

Jingoh a fir-tree. ' 

JingWiK, pine-tree. 
Mindjikdwan, a mitten, a glove. 
Oddban, a sledge. • C i: ~> 
Osawdban, gall, bile. 
Botdgan, a stamp, stamper. 
Nindinlgan, my shoulder-blade. 
Miskwimin, a raspberry. 



Paganak, a walnut-tree. / ■ 
Titibisse-odaban, waggon, cart. Ojashdkon, (tripe de roche). 
Kdtawan, a block. Papdgimak, ash-tree. . , 

And a vast number of others. 

To facilitate the acquirement of these substantives, animate 
only by acception, I have marked them in the Dictionary thus : 
an. ; and the last letter of their plural is always g ; whereas the 
last letter of the inanimate substantives in the plural, is al- 
ways n. 

. , ' OF NUMBER. < ' 



' fill 



Number is that property of a substantive by which it denotes 
one object, or more. Number is double, the singular, and the 
plural number. " 

The singular number denotes only one object ; as wigiwam, a 
lodge ; amtk, a beaver ; onni:/an, a pi ite or dish ; mokoman, a 
knife. 

Thephiral number expresses two or more objects; as, jma- 
ganishag, soldiers ; wakaiganan, houses ; anishinabeg, Indians ; 
wagakwado n, eixes. . •) 

As in every language, so also in the Otchipwe, there are many 
substantives which, from the nature of the objects they signify, 
have no plural ; as totoshabo, milk ; sisibakwad, sugar ; kitimi- 
win, laziness, etc. But there are none in this language which 
have no singular. 



— 17 — 



FORMATION OF THE PLURAL NUMBER. 

The formation of the plural of the Otchipwe substantives is 
somewhat difficult. We have only a^ few rules for it, which are 
not sufficient. There are some general and some special rules. 

GENERAL RULES. 

Rule 1. The plural of the Otchipwe substantives is always form- 
ed by adding to the singular a letter or a syllable. Never 
anything is changed in the substantive itself. This is a rule 
without exception , as well for the animate as inanimate. 
Rule 2. The last letter of the plural of an animate substantive 
is invariably g ; and the last letter of the plural of an inani- 
mate substantive is always w. This rule again has no excep- 
tion. 

But the learner of this language gains little by these rules, 
because the letters that precede this final g or w in the syllables 
which are added to the singular, in order to form the plural, are 
80 various that we distinguish not less than twelve ditterent ter- 
minations of the plural, viz : seven for the animate, and five for 
the inanimate. 

The seven terminations of the plural of the animate substan- 
tives are : g, ag, ig, iag, jig, og, wag. 

The five terminations of the plural of the inanimate substan- 
tives are : n, an, in, on, wan. 

There is no generalr\x\G. for the formation of these different ter- 
minations of the plural; but there are some special rules which 
will be useful to the learner. , . 

SPECIAL RULES. 



Rule 1. The animate substantives in ans, ens, ins, ons, (which 
are always diminutives), and all the animate substantives in- 
dicating contempt, add always the syllable ag to the singular, 
to form the plural . 



— 18 — 



EXAMPLES 



f. ,-;,.. ■ 



Ogimdns, a little chief, ^ 
Joniians, a shilling, 
Pakwejigans, a small cake, 
Senibdns, a small ribbon, 
Wdgoshens, a young fox, 
Agimens, a small snow-shoe, 
Anishinabens, a young Indian, 
Jishtbens, a young duck, 
Gijikens, a little cedar, 
MigisinSi a young eagle, 
VVafemns, a young swan, 
Opinins, a small potatoe, 
Omimins, a young pigeon, 
Piiikins, a calf, 
Amons, a young bee, 
Mdngons, a young loon, 
Manitons, an insect, 
Animons, a small dog, 
Amikons, a young beaver, 
w4A;tfcons, a small kettle, 
Assabish, a bad net, 
Ininiwish, a bad man, 
Opwdganish, a bad pipe, 
Akikosh, a bad kettle. 



pi. ogimdnsag. 



I'' I y 



jomiansag. 

pakioejigdnsag. 

senibdnsag. 

wdgoshensag. 

agimensag. 

anishindbensag . 

jisMbensag. 

gijikensag. 

migisinsag. ■ 

wdbisinsag. ^ 

opininsag. 

omiminsag. 

pijikinsag. 

dmonsag. 

mdngonsag. 

manitonsag. 

animonsag. , 

amikonsag. ' ' 

akikonsag. 

assabishag. 

ininiwishag. 

opwdganishag . 

akikoshag. 



Some participles n\so moke their plural invariably by adding 
ag to the singular, as you will see in the Dubitative Conjugations. 

Rule 2. All the animate substantives in an and in, add likewise 
the syllable ag for the plural. But when those in in have the 
accent on the last syfiable, they add ig. (See the last two 
words in these Examples.) 



i.im.'t.i».>ii^acg^ 



19 — 



EXAMPLES : 


Kitchimokoman, American , 


Pl 


Kitchimokomanag. 


Migwan, a feather or pen, 


i( 


mtgwanag. 


Tibdigisissicdn, watch, clock, 


(1 


tihaigisisswdnag. 


Awakan, slave. 


i( 


awakanag. 


Nind inawemagan, my relative, 


tt 


nind inawemaganag. 


Opwdgan, pipe. 


K 


opwdganag. 


Masmitchigan, image. 


<< 


masinitchiganag. 


Ishkotekdn, fire-steel, 


l( 


ishkoUkdnag . 


Mindjikdwan, a mitten. 


<( 


mindjikd wa nag. 


Wehinigan, a rejected person, 


<1 


wehiniganag. 


Odabdn, a sledge. 


t( 


odabdnag. 


Nin wldjiioagan, my companion 


l( 


nin wldjiicaganag. 


Mishimin, apple, 


(1 


mishtminag . 


Nimdjdnissikawin,my god-child 


<( 


ninidjdnissikawinag 


Manddmin, one corn, 


It 


manddminag. 


Miskodissimin, a bean. 


<( 


miskodissiminag . 


Opin, a potatoe, 


<C 


opinig. 


Assin, a stone. 


(1 


asstnig. 



Rule 3. The animate substantives in d, e, i, 6, * add invariably 
iag to the singular, to form the plural. 



EXAMPLES : 



Senibd, a ribbon. 
Pakdakwe, cock or hen, 
Akiwesi, old man, 
Gigo, fish, 



pi. senibaiag. 
" pakadkweiag. 
*' akiwesiiag. 
" gigoiag. 



Rule 4. All the participles of the affirmative form (which are at 
the same time animate substantives,) add the syllable jig for 
the plural, when their final letter is d ; but when their final 
letter is (jr, they add t^r. .. 

* See p. 6. . ' ' 



— 20 — 



examples; 



Enamidd, & C\ir'\8t\&n, 
Kekmoamawind, a scholar, 
Waidbanged, a spectator, 
Geginaioishkid, a liar, 
Netd-wissinid, a great eater, 
Neici-gikawidang, a quareller, 
Pesindang, a hearer, 
Masinaigan tcaidbandang, a rea- 
der, 
Dehendang, proprietor, owner, 
Degwishing, arriver, comer. 



.1 

pi. enamiadjig. 

' i kekin oammoindjig. 

" waidbangedjig. 

" geginawishkidjig. 

" netd-wisHinidjig. 

" neta-gikaicidangig. * 

" masinaigan waidbandangig . 

" debendangig. 
" degwishingig. -' 



Rule 5. All the participles of the negative form (which are at the 
same time animate substantives,) add the syllable og for the- 
plural. ' 

EXAMPLES : 

Enamidssig, a pagan, pi. enamidssigog . 

N^bossig, an immortal, " nebossigog. 

Netd-gigitossig, a dumb person, " neta-gigitossigog. 

Bemossessig, a laine person, " bemossessigog. 

Rule 6. The inanimate substantives in gan and win, and like- 
wise all manma^e dimiVm^tucs in ans, e?ts, ins, ons, and also- 
all the inanimate substantives indicating contempt, add the- 
syllable an for the plural. 

■ i examples: 



Wakdigan, a house, 
Wasswdgan, & torch, 
Nibdgan, a bed, 
Adopowin, a table, 
Dodamowin, action. 



pi. toakdiganan. 
" wassicdganan . 
" nibdganan. 
" adopowinan. 
" dodamowinan. 



siommctt. 



— 21 — 



Batddowin, sin, 
Ondgans, a small dish, 
Apdbiwinens, a small chair, 
Aniiins, a small spear, 
Biwdhikons, a small iron, 
Masinaiganish, a bad book, 
Wigiwamish, a bad house or 
lodge, 



hutddowinan. ' 

ondgansan. 

apdbiwinensan, 

anitinsan. 

biwdhiknnsan. 

masinaiganishan. 

wiyiwaniishan. 



Thiise are all the rules I can give you for the formation of the 
plural number of Ot hipwe substantives. 

Let us pow consider all the twelve different terminations of the 
plural, (that is, the letters and syllables which are added to the 
singular, to form the plural,) to see the difficulty which this va^ 
riety must cause to the learner of this language. 



EXAMPLES OF THE TWELVE TERMINATIONS OF THE PLURAL OF 
OTCHIPWE SUBSTANTIVES. 



1. g. 
Anishinabe, an Indian, 
Meme, a wood-pecker, 
Windigo, a giant, 
Windigokwe, a giantess, 
Anishindbekwe, a squaw, 
Moshwe, a handkerchief 
Omxmi, a pigeon, 
Animiki, thunder, 
Bebejigdganji, horse, 
Manito, ghost, spirit, 

Joniia, silver, or a piece of silrer, 
Ogima, chief, 

2. ag. 
Wdgosh, fox, 
Kotawan, a block, 
Namebin, a sucker, 



pi. anishindbeg. 

" memeg. 

•' icindigog. 

" windigokweg. 

" anishinabekweg. 

" moshweg. 

" oviimig. 

" animikig. 

" bebejigoganjig. 

" manitog. 

" joniiag. 

" ogimag. 

pi. wdgoshag. 

" kotatoanag. 

" naniebinag. 



22 — 



Jishih, & dnck, 


<< 


jishibag. 


Bijiw, lynx, 


II 


bijiwag. 


Kitchipison, a belt, ^ 


(( 


kitchipisonag. , 


Namegoss, trout, . , - 


(1 


namegossag. 


Mishimin, apple, 


(( 


mishiininag. 


Kokosh, a hog, 


lb 


kokoshag. 


Manddmin, one corn. 


<( 


manddminag. 


Jimdganish, soldier, 


(( 


jimaganishag. 


.Mganash, Englislunan, 


( 1 


Jdganashag. 


d. ig. 
Jingob, fir-tree, 


pl 


jingobig. 


Asshi, a stone. 


<« 


assinig. 


Assdb, a net. 


(1 


aasabig. 


Opin, potatoe. 


t( 


ophiig. . • 


Minessagawanj, thorn, 


(4 


minhsagawanjig. 


Naidgatawendang, thinker. 


1( 


naidgatawendangig. 


Netd-agomvetang, gainsayer. 


i< 


netd-agonwetangig. 


Mctchi-dodang, inalefactor, 


• ( 


metchi-dodangig. 


4. iag. 






Mishike, turtle. 


pl 


mishikeiag. 


Wawdbigonodji, mouse, 


(< 


wawdbigonodjiiag. 


Assabikeshi, spider. 


tl 


assabikeshiiag. 


Mshpaid, a Spaniard; 


(< 


Eshpaioiag. 


Nijode, a twin. 


<( 


nijodeiag. 


Mssaie, my older brother, 


<( 


nissaiciag. 


Nimisse, my older sister, 


u 


nimisseiag. 


Jfinddngoshe, my cousin. 


<l 


ninddngosheiag. 


Mindimoie, an old woman, 


« 


mindimdieiag- 


5. jig. 






Swdnganamidd,Q. good Christian.pl 


swdnganamiddjig. 


Mekisiniked, shoemaker, 




mekisinikedjig. 


Bewdbikoked, a miner, 




bewdbikokedjig. 


Weddked, steersman. 




weddkedjig. 


Bebdmadisid, traveller. 




bebdmadisidjig. 


Jfetd-nagamod, a singer. 




netd-nagamodjig. 


Kekinoarndgedt teacher, 




kekinoamdgedjig. 



■^-viiASAS^MttaifcVi 



— 23 — 



Remark. The substantives of this nmnbcr, with innumerable 
others of this description, are also participles. It must bo ob- 
served that the termination Ji^f in the plural of these words is 
only a corruption, which is established now, and must remain. 
Properly it ought to be ig, as above, No. 3. We ought to say : 
Sxcdnganamiadig , mekisinikedig , bewdbikokedig, etc. The In- 
dians of Grand Portage, Fort William, and other places north of 
Lake Superior, have conserved this genuine pronunciation. 
6. og. 



Wdbos, a rabbit. 


pi. 


wabosog. 




Glsiss, sun, moon, month, 


i< 


_^//.Vi.S'.>fO//. 




Akik, kettle, 


a 


akikog. 




Miiig, tree. 


(C 


mitigog. 




Mons, moose. 


(( 


vwnsog. 




Andng, a star. 


(I 


andngng. 




Nabdgissag, a board, 


<( 


nabdgissagog. 




Enamidnsig, pagan. 


(( 


enamidsaigog. 




Enokissig, idler, sluggard, 


(( 


enokissigog. 




Mcnikwessig, a sober person, 


(I 


mi'iiikiocssigog. 




7. wag. 








Inini, man. 


pi. 


ininiwag . 




Ikion, woman, < 


(< 


ikwewag. 




Aiiiik, beaver. 


(( 


avukicag. 




Pijlki, ox, cow, 


(( 


pijlkiwag. 




Name, a sturgeon. 


(( 


namewag. 




Atik, a rein-deer. 


iC 


atlkicag. 




Migisi, eagle, « 


(( 


migisiwag. 




Wanagck, bark. 


(( 


wanagckwag. 




Atikameg, white fish, 


it 


atikamegwag. 




Jlngwdk, pine tree, 


ii 


jmgwdkwag. 




Bine, a partridge ,v 


ii 


bine wag. 




Wawdshkeshi, deer. 


ii 


wawdshkeshiioag. 




Anjeni, angel. 


ii 


anjeniwag ; (also 


anjeni g.) 


Wemitigoji, Frenchman, 

8. n. 
Abwl, a paddle, 


ii 


wemitigojiwag. 




pi 


. abw'in. 





^1 



— 24 — 



>^\ 



III'' 



Anwl, a l)all, bullet, 
ylw...., thing...., 

9. an. 
Wadjiw, mountain, 
Omodai, bottle, 
Kitujdn, garden, field, 
Nisid, my foot, 
Sakdon, a cane, 
Tchimdn, a canoe, 
Ndhikwdii, vessel, 
Jimdtjan, a lanco, 
Apdbiivin, chair, I nch, 
Masindigan, book, paper, 

10. in. 
Ami, fish-spear, 
Abdj, a lodge-pole, 
Nagwciah, rainbow, 
Mitujwah, a bow, 

11. on. 
Gijifjad, day, 
Tihikad, night, 
Anamiewiyamifi, ch urch, 
Anindtig, maple-tree, 

Wdtoan, egg, 
Wdgdkivad, axe, 
Makak, box, 

12. M'an.. 
Sibi, river, 
Mashklki, medicine, 
Odena, village, town, 
Wdbashkih'j swamp. 



By considering thi.s great variety of terminations of the plural, 
you will perceive that there is no general rule to be established 
for its formation. It must be learned froni us-age. (See Remark\^ 
in the beginnmg of Chapter III, in regard to the mutative vowel.) 



K 


antohi. 


(( 


aiin. 


Pl. 


wadjlwan. 


<< 


omttdaian. 


(( 


kiiigdnan. 


<< 


nisldan. 


(( 


sakdonan. • 


(( 


tchimdnan. 


(( 


ndbikwanan. 


<( 


jimdganan. 


(C 


apdbiwimm. 


a 


masindigaiian. 


(( 


anitin. 


a 


abdjin. 


(( 


nagweiahin. 


(( 


mitigwdbin. 


pl 


. gijigadon. 


(( 


tibikadon. 


<c 


anamiewigamigon 


(( 


anindtig on, 


(( 


xcdwanon. 


ee 


wdgdkwadon. 


(( 


makakon. 


pl. 


sibi lean. 


(( 


mashkXkiwan. '/ 


(< 


odenaioan. 


(( 


tcdbashkikiioan. 



-26^ 

To facilitate the ptudy^f the Otcliipwe language also in this 
respect, I liave luarkod in the Dictionary tiie phiral of all the 
Bubstantives of tliis language, which are susceptible of it. 

FORMATION OF SUBSTANTIVES. 

The Ot( lipwe language is a language of verbs. Verbs are 
more frequontly used than substantives. Where otl t languages 
will employ a substantive, the Otchipwe language uses a verb. 
Substantives are often changed into verbs, as are also other 
parts of speech ; and from verbs many sub; tantives are formt'd. 
There are some incariahle Hules for this formation, which you 
will find explained here. You will better understuiKi these rules 
after the perusal of the long Chapter of Verbs ; but we must put 
them here, because they belong to the Chapter of Substantives, 

RULES FOR THE FORMATION OP SUBSTANTIVES. 

Rule 1. By adding the syllable win to the third person singiilar, 
present, indicative, affirmative foriii, of a verb belonging to the 
I, Conjugation, you will have its substantive. 



Examples. 



Ojihiige, he writes ; 
Jaivendjige, he is charitable ; 
Oibaamdge, he pays ; 
Dibdkonige, he judges ; 

Sdgiiwe, he loves ; 
Ginii, he deserts ; 
Gimodi, he steals ; 
Kitimi, he is lazy ; 
Anwenindiso, he repents ; 
Gigito, he speaks ; 



ojihiigewin, writing. 
Jaicendjigewin, charity, grace. 
dibaamdgewin, payment (given.) 
dibdkonigewiti, juiigmeni (held, 

pronottnced.) 
sdgiiicewin, love. 
gimhcin, desertion. 
gimodiwin, stealing, theft. 
kitimhoin, laziness. 
auwenindisoicin, repentance. 
gigitowin, speaking, discourse. 



Rule 2. By changing the ist syllable, wag, of the third person, 
plural, present, indicative, of a verbcalled "communicative," 
into ivin, you will form its substantive. 



^9 



— 26 -^ 






Examples. 

Migddiwag, they figlit ; viigddiwin, fighting, war. 

Uihaamudiwag , they are paid dibaamddiwin, a general pay- 
together; inent. 

Gikdndiwag, they quarrel ; Gikdndiwin, quarrel. 

Ganonidiwag, they speak to gaiwnidiwin, conversation, 
each other ; 

Jingenindiwug, they hate each jingenindiwin, hatred, 
other ; 

Rule 3. Add to the first person, singular, present, passive voice, 
of a verb belonging to the IV Conjugation, the syllable win, 
and you v/ill have its substantive. 

Examples. 

Nin dibaamdgo, I am paid ; dibaamdgowin, payment {re- 
ceived.) 

Nin dihukonigo, I am judged ; dihdkonigoivin, judgment (un- 
dergone.) 

Nin kikinoamdgo, I am taught ; kikinoamdgowin, in8truction(rg- 



JVm ininigo, I am given ; 



ceived.) 
minigowin, gift (received.) 



Rule 4. Change the final g of the third person, plural, present, 
indicative, of the verbs belonging to the TI and III Conjuga- 
tions into icin, and you will have their substantives. 

Examples. 

Dddamog, they do ; dodamoioin, doing, action. 

Kashkendamog, they are sad ; kashkendaniowin, sadness, sor- 
row. 
Segendamog, they are afraid ; segendamowin, fear. 
Ozdmidonog, they speak too osdmidonowin, too much speak- 
much ; ing. 



— 27 — 

Rule 5. Add the syllable loin to the third person, singular, pre- 
sent, indicative, negative form, ending in i, of the verbs of the 
first three Conjugations, and you will have their substantives. 

Examples. 

Kaioin minikwessi, he does not minikwessmin, temperance. 

drink ; 
Kaivin\nitd-gigitossi, he cannot nitd-gigitossiwin, dumbness. 

speak ; 
Kawin bahdmUansi, he does not habamitansiwin, disobedience. 

obey; 

Rule 6. Change the final e of the verbs ending in ige or djige, 
into an, and you will form names of ^oo/s, implements, etc. 

Examples. 



Ninpakiteige,! sivike-, pakiteigan, hammer. 

Nin tchigataige, I sweep ; tchigataigan, broom. 

Nin tchigigalge, I square tim- tchigigaigan, broad axe. 

ber ; 

Nin kishkWodjige, I saw kichklbodjigan, hand-saw or 



(across. 



lo2-saw. 



Nin idshklbodjige,! a&w {&\ong.) idshklhodjigan, pit-saw or a 

saw-mill. 
Nin m,6kod,jigc. I am cutting mokodjigan, plane, drawing- 
wood (with a knife.) knife. 
Nin bissibodjige, I grind ; bissibodjigan, corn-mill. 

Rule 7. Change the final e of the verbs called " Working Verbs,'' 
(which you will find in the article : " Formation of Verbs," af- 
ter all the Conjugations ;) change this e in an, and you will 
form ' bstantives denoting i\\e jylace where the work signified 
by the working verb, is going on. 



.1 I 



— 28 — 
Examples. 

Hind akakanjcke, * I burn coal ; akaJcanjekan, the place where 
' a coal pit is burning, or has 

been so. 
Nin jomiiidhoke, I make wine; joviindbokaii, the place where 

they-niake wine, (vineyard.) 
sisihdkwadokan, Bugar-canip, 

sugar-bush. 
hiwdbikokan, the place where 
tliey produce iron, an iron- 
mine. 

Nin miskivdhikoke, I make (pro- 7nw^M?a6tA;oA'aw, a copper-mine, 
ducc) copper ; 



Nin sisibdkwadoke, I make 
sugar ; 

Nin biwdlnkoke, I make (pro- 
duce) iron ; 



Rule 8. Some verbs of the IV Con j. form animate substantives 
by adding gan to the first person singular. 



Ex * MPLES. 



Nind inawema, he is a rela- 
tion of mine. 

Nin widigema, I am married 
to him, (her.) 

Nin widjiwu, I accompany- 
him, (her.) 



nind inaioemagan, my relative. 

nin widigemagan, my husband, 

(wife.) 
nin widjiwagan, my companion. 



Remark. In regard to the substantives formed according to the 
first and third of the above rules, you will pleas*^ to bear in mind, 
that those which have e before the end-sjdlable win, signify an 
Si.ci\on done or doing ; and those that have o before win, mark 
the effect rgf;e?'i'ed from an action. It is important to mind this 
difference. In English there is no difference in the words of both 
kinds, (as you will see in the following examples,) but in the 
Otchipwe language the difference is material. 



* The letter n Is scarcely heard In this word. 






WMMWHIi 



29 — 



Examples. 



Mn dihaamdgewin, iny pay- nin dibaamdgowin, my pay- 
ment, (made by me ;) ment, [received by me.) 

Ki dibdkonigewin, thy judg- hi dibakonigoioin, thy judg- 
ment, [made by thee ;i ment, [undergone by thee.) 

kikinoam/i.gexoin, his instruc- kikinoamdgowin. Win instruc- 
tion, (given by him ;) tion, (received by him.) 

Mil windarndgewin, my report, nin tvindamdgoioin, my report, 
narration, (given by me ;) narration, [heard by me.) 

Ki gdssiamagewin, thy remis- ki gdssiamdgowin, thy remis- 
sion, (grantedhy thee ;) sion, (received by thee.) 

<? pakiteigewin, his beating, pakiteigmvin, his beating, 
[done by him ;) (received by him.) 

And a great number of other words of this description, which 
•are not all in the Dictionary, because they can be easily obtain- 
ed, from the respective verbs, by the learner himself. 

FORMATION OF TERMS OF CONTEMPT. 

There is yet another formation, or rather tran>iJ'ormatio7i, of 
substantives, which must be mentioned in the Otchipwe Gram- 
mar. 

By adding one of the syllable, ish, osh, or wi.sh, to a substan- 
tive, they transform it into an expression of contempt. 

Here are the Rules for this transformation. 
Rule 1. The animate substantives that make their plural by 

adding ag, ig, or iag ; and the inanimate tliat form the plural 

by adding an, or in ; take ish for tlie case of contempt. 



Substantives, 
Kwiwisens, a boy ; 

Jkivesens, a girl ; 



Examples. 




Plural. 


Contempt. 


kiviwisensag, 


kiciicisensish, a bad 




boy. 


ikwesensag, 


ikicesensish, a bad 




girl. 



— 30 — 



Substa7iiives. 


Plural. 


Contempt. 


Mnidjaniss, my child ; 


ninuljanissag, 


ninidjanissish, my 
bad child. 


Assahf a net ; 


assuhig. 


assabish,a,r\ old net. 


Assin, a stone ; 


assinig, 


assinisk, a bad, unfit 
stone. 


Ahinodji, a child ; 


abinodjHag, 


ahinodjiish, a bad 
child. 


Akiwesl, an old man ; 


akhcesiiag, 


akiwesiish, a bad old. 
man. 


Mokoman, a knife ; 


mokomanan, 


mokomanish, a bad 
knife. 


Mojiodgan, scissors ; 


mojwaganan, 


mojivaganish, bad 
scissors. 


Mitigicah, a bow ; 


mitigwabin, 


mitigwahish, a bad 
old bow. 


Anil, a spear ; 


anitin, 


cinitish, a bad, iinfit 
spear. 



Ri'LE 2. The animate substantives that form their plural by- 
adding og, or joac/, (when these latter terminate in a consonant 
in the singular,) and the tn«/M"ma^e that make their plural in on,. 
take osh for the case of contempt. 





Examples. 


- 


S uh slant we,<i. 


Plural. 


Contempt. 


Nabagissag, a board ; 


nabagissagog. 


nahagissagosh , a bad 
rotten board. 


Mitig, a tree ; 


mitigog, 


mitigosk, a bad tree. 


Akik, a kettle ; 


akikog, 


akikosh, a bad old 
kettle. 


Anang, a star ; 


anangog, 


anangosh, a bad star. 


Amik, beaver 5 


amikwag, 


amikosh, a bad bea« 


-.? ' ■ 1 ■ 




ver. 


Jingicak, pine ; 


jingwakicag, 


jingwakosh, a bad 
pine. 



Av. 



31 — 



Substantives. 


Plural. 


Contempt. 


Gag, a porcupine ; 

f 


'gagwag, 


gagosh, a bad porcu- 
pine. 


Nishkinjig, my eye ; 


nishkinjigon, 


nishkinjigosh, my 
bad eye. 


Makdk, a box ; 


makakon, 


makakosh, a bad box. 


Wdwan, an egg ; 


wawanon, 


wawanosh, a bad 
spoiled egg. 



Rule 3. The animate substantives that make their plural by ad- 
ding g, or wag, (when these latter terminate in a vowel in the 
singular ;) and the inanimate that form the plural by adding 
ivan; take wish for the case of contempt. 



Examples. 




Plural 


Contempt. 


ogimag. 


ogimawi.sh,vi bad 




chief 


wemitigojik" 


tcemitigojikwe- 


weg, 


wish, a bad 




Frenchwoman. 


anishinabeg, 


nnishinabeicish, a 




bad Indian. 


ininiwag, 


ininiwi.sh, a bad, 




wicked man. 


pijikiwag, 


pijikiwish, a bad 




ox. 


.sibiwan. 


.fibiwish, a bad 




river. 


odenawan. 


odenawish, a bad 




village. 



Substantives. 
Ogima, a chief ; 

Wemitigojikice, 
Frenchwoman; 

Anisliinabe, Indian ; 

Inini, a man ; 

Pijiki, an ox ; 

Sibi, a river ; 

Odena, a village ; 



Uemark 1. In the first three words of the above exaniples, viz : 
Kwiwi,wn.si.sh, ikwesensish , ninidjanissish ; and in the dimimi- 
tives, which all end in ,nsl, when expressing c* tempt, this.s/.sA 
is pronounced skish. But nevertheless we must grammatically 



— 32 




m 



.;!■ ;,ii 



•take it for sish. The pronunciation shish is only a corruption. 
So al.so, for instance, will a common speaker of the English 
language pronounce, shaysh she ; but it ought to be, says she. 
.And Canadians will say, II va checher, (it will dry ;) instead of 
saying, 11 va secher. 

Remark 2. The plural of all the animate substantives indicat- 
ing contempt, is invariably formed by adding a^to the singular ; 
and the plural of the inanimate by adding an. F. i., Kwiwisen- 
sish, kwiwisensishai/. Mitigosh, mitigoshag. Ininiwish, inini- 
■wishag. Mokomanish, mnkomanishan. Makakosh, makakoshan. 
Sibiwish, Sibiwishan, etc. 

Remark 3. There are a few inanimate substantives denoting 
contempt, which make an exception from the above Rule 1. 
They take asA, instead of ?'s/i; as, nisid, iny foot; pi. nisidan ; 
nisidash, my bad foot. Nibid, my tooth ; pi. nibidan; nibidash, 
my bad tooth. Mashkimod, a bag; pi. mashkimodan ; mashki- 
.7«o(^a.s'y^, a bad bag ; etc. Abwi, paddle; makes abwish ; anwi, 
a ball ; anwish. 

Remark 4. It must, however, be observed, that these terms 
implying contempt, are not always intended, nor taken, for con- 
tempt. They are sometimes expressions of hximiUtij, and at other 
..times they are caressing terms. 

So, for instance, an Indian speaking to you, will mention all 
that belongs to him, in those terms denoting contempt ; but 
only by modesty and humility. He will call his wife, nin min- 
dimoiemish ; his children, ninidjanissishag ; his lodge or 
house, ?iiH tvigiivamish ; hi.; canoe, nin tchimanish; his lug- 
gage, 7jm(Z ai//«/.v/*aM, etc. 

And a squaw, for instance, caressing her little son, will say : 
Ningwissensish ! ningwissensish ! [nin giois sens, signifies, my 
little son.) And caressing her little daughter she will repeat : 
Nindanissensish ! nindanisscnsish ! [nindanissens, means : my 
jittle daughter.) 



ii 



— 33 — 

FORMATION' OF DIMIKUTIVE SUBSTANTIVES. 

' The Otchipwe la!.j,uafie is very rich in diminutive substan- 
tives. They are formed from common substantives by the an" 
nexation of six diffevxnt terminations. These terminations are: 
s, ns, ens, ins, ons,, ens. 

Here are the Rules for the formation of the diminutives. 

Rule 1. The termination sis attached to substantives, animate 
and inanimate, that end in (/an, without an accent ; {'ifgan has 
an accent, the substantive belongs to liule 3, as, Kitigdn, kiti- 
f/dnens.) The animate make their }>lural in ag, the inanimate 
in an. 

Examples. 



Substantives. 


Plural. 


Diminutives. 


MasinitcJiigan, 


masinitchiga- 


masinitchigans, a little 


image ; 


nag ; 


image. 


Opwdgan, a pi}ie ; 


opivaganag ; 


opivogans, a small 
pipe. 


Botdgan, a stamp ; 


hntaganag ; 


botagans, a small 



stamp. 
Diminigan, an anger ; biminiganan ; biminigans, a gimlet. 
Masindigan, a book ; masinaiganan ; masinaigans, a small 

book. 
Kijapikisigan,a stove ; kijajnkisiganan ; kija2nki.vgans,a, smaU 

stove. 

Rule 2. The termination ns is added to the animate substantives 
that form their plural by adding g, iag, or icag, (when thpse 
latter terminate in a voioel in the singular) ; and to the inani- 
mate that add n for the plural. 



/' / 



34 — 





Examples. 


Suhstaniives. 


Plural. 


Ogimd, a cliief; 


oyimdif ; 



Makwd, a bear ; 



Diminutives, 
ngimdns, a small or 
young chief. 
Makwag ; viakwdns, ( p r o n . 

mdkons), a young 
bear. 
VFrnaArocZeitwe, alialf-breetl xvissakodekweg ; wissakodekicens, a 
woman ; young half-breed 

woman. 
0«/«A;inawe, a young man ; oshkinaweg ; oshkinawens, a 

small young man. 
Nishime, my younger bro- Nishimeiag ; nishimens, my small 
ther ; young br.or sister. 

Pakadkwe, a hen ; pakaakweiag ; pakaakwens, chicken. 

Pijiki, an ox, or cow ; pijikiwag ; pijikins,a calf. 

Migisi, an eagle ; migisiwag ; migisins, a young 

eagle. 
Vremi7i</oyV, a Frenchman ; Wemitigojiwag; We7nitigojins,(iy oung 

Frenchman. 
Abwi, a paddle ; abunn ; abioins, a small 

paddle. 
Anwi, a ball ; anwin; anwins, a small 

ball, shot. 

Rule 3, The termination ens is annexed to those animate sub- 
stantives that form their plural by adding ag ; and those in- 
animate that add an in the plural ; except the animate and in- 
animate substantives ending in the singular in gan, without 
an accent, which belong to Rule 1, as above. 



Examples. 



Substantives. Plural. Diminutives. 

Jdganash, an English- Jaganashag ; Jaganashens, a little 
jnan ; Englishman. 



— 35 



Substantives. 
Kokosh, a pig ; 



Plural, 
kokoshag ; 



Mlgwan, a pen, feather ; migwanag 



Kiiigdn, a field ; 
Mitchikdn, a fence ; 



h'tigdnan ; 
mitchikanan 



Bodawdn, a chinuiey ; bodawdnan ; 



Diminutives, 
kokoshens, a young 

pig- 
migwanens, a small 

feather. 
kitignnens, a garden, 
mitchikanens, a small 

fence. 
bodawanens, a small 
chimney. 



Rule 4. The termination ins is attached to the animate substan- 
tives that make their plural in ig ; and to the inanimate that 
make it in in. 



Substantives. 
Assin, a stone ; 
Assab, a net ; 
Opin, a potatoe ; 

Abdj'sL lodge-pjle ; 

Anit, a spear ; 



Examples. 

Plural. 

assinig ; 
assabig ; 
opinig ; 

abajin ; 

anitin ; 



Uiminutives. 
assinins, a little stone. 
assabins, a small net. 
opinins, a small po- 
tatoe. 
abajins,si small lodge- 
pole. 
anitins, a little spear. 



Rule 5. The termination ons is added to the animate substan- 
tives that form their plural by adding og, or icag (when these 
latter terminate in a consonant in the singular,) and to the 
inanimate that make the plural in on. 



Sidystantives. 
Andng, a star ; 



Examples. 

Plural, 
anangog : 



.(4A;iA:, a kettle ; akikog ; 

Ginebig, a 8erpent,8nake \ ginebigog ; 



iJiminvtives, 
anangons, a small star 

(asterisk.) 
akikons, a small kettle. 
ginebigons, a young 
snake. 



— 36 — 




Suhsiantives. 
JitKjwak, a pine-tree ; 

Atik, a rein-deer ; 

Ajibik, a rock ; 
Waijakwad, an axe ; 

Makak, a box ; 



Plural. Diminutives, 

jiiigioakwctij ; Jiiujwakona, a young 

pine-tree. 
atikway ; atikons, a young rein- 

<Ieer. 
ajib iko n ; r(/ « 6 / A'o ?t 5 ,a s i n a 1 1 r oc k . 

loagakwadon ; wurjakwadons, a small 

axe. 
makakon ; makakons, a small box. 



Rule 6. The ternunation wens is attached to tlie inanimate sub- 
HtantiveH which make their plural by adding wan ; as, odena, 
a village ; odenawan ; odenaioens, a small village, etc. 
For i\\ii plural of the diminutive.s, see pages 17 and 20. 

OF THE CASES OF SUBSTANTIVES. 

Case, in the grammatical language, is the position or state of 
a substantive, with regard to other words in the same sentence. 

The Otchipwe substantives have_/bur cases, viz : the Nomina- 
tive, Possessive, Objective, and Vocative. 

The Nominative denotes simply the name of a person or thing, 
or the subject of the verb. Examples of the nominative case are 
all the substantives of the Dictionary, from the iirst to the last. 

The Objective denotes the object of some action or relation. It 
does not ditler from the nominative in its construction, except 
in the third person of the personal pronouns, where the nomi- 
native is loin, ivinawa, he, she, it, they ; and the objective is 0,, 
him, her, it, them. 

The Possessive expresses the relation of property or posses- 
sion. This possessive case is expressed in Otchipwe by putting 
o or od between the two substantives, of which one corresponds 
to the English nominative, and the other to the possessive. The 
position of the two substantives is the same as in English ; the 
possessive comes first, and then the nominative; and instead of 
the letter s with an apostrophe before it, which is put in English 
between the possessive and the nominative, we put in Otchipwe 




— 37 — 

o or od, (wliich properly siirnifies his or her.) We put o before" 
nominatives tliat Viegin with a consonanv, and od before tliose 
tliat begin with a voweh But sonietimea this o is inseparably 
connected with the possessive, and sometimes changed into w. 
(This will be better understood after the stuily of the possessive 
pronoun.) 

EXAMPLES OF THE POSSESSIVE CASE. 

Nin gi-hidon John o masinaigan, I have brought John's book. 

Aidndi noss o sakaon f where is my father's cane? 

Ki loidigemagan od inawemaganan, thy wife's relatives. 

Nin wi-gishpinadon kissaie o wakdigan, I will buy thy brother'i* 

house. 
Meno-ijiwebisid inini od inendamowinan, a good man's thoughts,- 
Kitchi ogimd ogivissan gi-nihoioan, the King's son is tlead. 
Kikinoamdgewinini loiwan dkosiwan, the school teacher's wife \s' 

sick. 
Nissaie o tchimdn, my brother's canoe, Kimisseod anakan, thy 

sister's mat. Noss odassabin, my father's nets. 
Aio inini ojisheian, that man's grand children. 

The Vocative is used in calling persons or other objects. It is. 
double, singular and plural. 

The vocative in i\\Q singular number is only employed in call- 
ing proper names, or terms of relationship. Other substantives, 
are not susceptible of this vocative ; or rather, their vocative is 
like the nominative. They undergo no^changc in the vocative. 

I. RULES FOR THE FORMATION OF THE VOCATIVE SINGULAR. 

Rule 1. Proper names of women, ending in A"?re, reject the two- 
last letters, w and e, to form the vocative. F. i. Gijigokwey 
voc. Gijigok ! — Windigokice, voc. Windigok ! Ogdkwe, voc. 
Ogdk ! — Nodinokice, voc. Nodinok ! Otawdkice, voc. Otawak f 

Rule 2. The proper names of men and women, ending in a.' 
vowel, cut off this vowel for the vocative. F. i. Nijode, voc- 
Nijod ! — Abinodji voc. AbinodJ. 



■^ 



il' 



— 38 — 



f; 



11^^^ 



StuLE 3. Terms of relationship, ci)(lin<i in a vowel, reject this 
vowel, to form (ho vocative. F. i. Nita, my hrother-in-law I 
voc. nit ! — Nijis/u', my uncle, (my mother's brother,) voc. 
nijish ! — Ninos/ie (or ninwishe,) my aunt, (my mother's sister,) 
"oc. niiiosh ! or ninwish ! — Niiit/d, my mother, voc. ning ; 
;(They say more commonly, nhuje !) 

Exceptions. — Nimiskomc, my uncle, (my father's brother,) 
anake.s niniisho ! — Ninddiu/we, my sister-in-law, or my friejid, (a 
jemale spL'akin^ to a female,) does not change in the vocative, 
iiindCingwe ! — Nidji, my friend, (a male speaking to a male,) 
make.s likewise iiidji ! 

For the terms of relationsliip, ending in a consonant, there is 
no general rule for the formation of the vocative. Some of them 
jnake their vocative like the nominative ; as Ningwiss, my son, 
voc. nini/iviss ! — Ninddniss, my daughter, voc. ninddniss ! — 
Ninidjanis's, juy child, voc. ninidjaniss ! Nikdniss, my brother, 
.my friend, voc. nikdniss ! — Ninsigoss, my aunt, (my father's 
sister,) \oc. ninsiguss .' — Nindojini, my step-son, voc. nindojim! 
■ — Some of these terms form the vocative in a peculiar manner ; 
.as: Nimishomiss, my grand-father, voc. nimisho — Nokomiss, my 
grand-mother, voc. 7t6/io .' — Noss, my father, voc. nosse! — (The 
Indians of Grand Portage, Fort William, and other places in tlie 
north, say noss ! instead of nosse!) 

The vocative in the jdural number is used for substantives 
animate and inanimate, after the following rules. 

II. RULES FOR THE FORMATION OF THE VOCATIVE PLURAL. 



a. For animate substantives. 



HuLE 1 

CP 



atives ending in a, c, ^, 6, add idog for the vo- 
al. F. i. Akiicesi, an old man, voc. akiwesiidog ! — 
J ^<., a child, voc. abinodjiidog ! — Gigo, a fish, voc. r"- 

goiixog ! — Pakadkwe, a cock, \oc. jjakadkweidog ! / \ 



JRuLE 2. Substantives ending in the plural in ag or wag, change 
ag into idog, to form the vocative, F. i. Nind inawemaganag, 
iwy relations, voc. nind inawemaganidog ! — Jimaganishag, 



— 39 — 

(io]diers,\oc.jimti(/aniithidog! — Kwiwinensaf/, boys, voc. A.'?'?- 
wisensidog ! — Ikwesenaag, girls, voc. ikwesensidoy ! — Inini- 
tP(xg,u\en, voc. ininiioidog ! — Ikweirag, women, voc. ikwewi- 
dog ! — Pijikiwag, oxen, voc. pijikiwidog ! 

Rule 3. Substantive.s ending in tlie plural in g, ig, or og, change 
the final g into dog. F. i. Anishindheg, Indiana, voc. Anifthind' 
hedog ! — Ogimdg, chiefn, voc. ogimddog ! Andngog, stars, voc. 
andiigodog ! — Wabosog, rabbits, voc. waboHodog ! — Opinig, 
potatoes, voc. opinidog ! — Assabig, nets, voc. cssabidog ! 

Rule 4. Substantives with possessive pronouns change their 
last syllable nig into dog. F. i. Nind ogimaminanig, our 
chiefs, voc. yiind ogimaminadog ! — Nikdniasinanig ,o\\r friends, 
our brethren, voc. nikdiiissinadog ! — Nin icidjiwdgam'nanig, 
our companions, voc. nin widjiwdganinadog ! — Nind inawema- 
ganinanig, our relations, voc. nind inawemaganinadog ! 

b. For inanimate substaniices. 

Inanimate substantives have a proper vocative plural in the 
rhetorical figure of Apostrophe, where inanimate objects are ad- 
dr'issed like animate beings. There are two rules for the for- 
mation of this vocative. 

Rule 1. Inanimate substantives ending in the plural in an, 

change this an into idog, to form the vocative plural. F. i., 

Masindiganan. books ; voc. masindiganidog ! Matchi bimddi- 

siwinan, bad ..ves, (Wd habits ;) vocative, matchi bimddisi- 
winidog ! 

Rule 2. Inanimate substantives ending in the plural in in or 
on, change their final ?i intodo^. F. i., Miiigwdbiii, bows; 
voc. mitigicabidog ! Nagxoeiabin, rainbows ; voc. nagweiabidog ! 
Otchibikon, roots ; voc. otchibikodog ! 

Remark. Substantives which are at the same ixrwQ participles y 
form their vocative, singular and plural, according to the para- 
digms of the different Conjugations, (as you will see in theChap- 

4 



w 




~ "11 



— 40 — 

ter of Verbs.) F. i., Enamiad, a christian; voc cuamiaian ! 
christian! enamiaieg ! ye christians! Enamiassig, a pagan! 
voc. enamiassiwan ! pagan ! cnamiassiweg ! ye pagans ! 



CHAPTER 11. 



f{ 



OF PRONOUNS. 

A Pronoun, as dt jted by its very appellation, is a word used 
for a noun, or instead of a noun or substantive, to avoid the too 
frequent repetition of the same word. This is the reason why it 
follows here immediately after the substantive. And it is ordin- 
arily placed immediately before the verb in the sentence. This 
is tlie reason wliy it precedes immediately the verb in this 
Grammar. 

There are five distinct sorts or classes of pronouns in the Ot- 
chipwe Grammar, viz ; Personal, Possessioe, Demonstrative, In- 
terrogative, and Indefinite pronouns. We shall now consider 
each of these diti'erent classes of pronouns, respecting their in- 
flections and peculiar use. 

I. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 

Personal Pronouns are those which designate the three per- 
sons ; the ^rs^ person, or the speaker; the second person, or 
the one spoken to ; the third person, that is, the person or thing 
spoken of. 

f SCHEME OF THE PERSONAL PROKOnfS. 



First person : 

Sec person : 
Thd person : 



{ 



sing. 



plur. 



sing. 



{ 



nin, I, me, •\ • ' 

f nrn, or ki, / ^'®' 

\ ninawind, or kinawind, 
ki, or kin, thou, thee, 
kinawa, ki, you, 
win, he, she, it. 



us, 



\ plur 
sing. 

p'ur. winawa, they 



'^' 1 0, him, her, it, them, 
, J {objective case.) 



I 



— 41 — 



Remark 1. To the pronouns nin and ki, a euphonical d is at- 
tached, when the following verb commences with a vowel ; as, 
nind ija, I go ; kid anoki, thou workest ; nine? inendamin, we 
think ; kid inowa, you tell him, etc. 

There are analogous cases of such euphonical letters also in 
other languages. In French the letter t is inserted between the 
verb and pronoun in some instances to avoid a cacophonical 
accumulation of vowels ; as, y en a-t-il? aime-t-on ? etc. There 
is another analogy to our case in the Italian language. When 
the conjunctions eand'o, and the preposition a are followed by 
a word beginning with a vowel, a euphonical d is attached to 
them ; as voi ed io stesso ; io od ogni aJtro ; adxui cei'to passo...., 
etc. There are also in the Chapter of Verbs some such interpo- 
sitions of the euphonical d, (od, ged-, gad-.) 

It must, however, be observed, that this d, although generally 
used, may also sometimes be omitted. We may say : Mi ge-iji- 
webak, instead of mi ged-ijiwebak, so it will happen. Mi ge-iiig, 
so it will be, or be it so. Mi aw ge-ijad, ihh m\c w\\\ ^o. In 
the Oiawa dialect the euphonical d is more frequently omitted 
than in the Otchipwe. 

As we are speaking of euphonical letters, we must mention 
one more, which is used in this language. It is the letter /, 
which is sometimes prefixed to the particles go, ko, na, and sa, 
and to the conjunctions dash and gaie, wiien the word preceding 
them, ends in a consonant, to avoid a disagreeable crowd of con- 
sonants ;a8, win igo,\ie himself, odinan iko, he uses to tell him ; 
ki nondaw ina ? dost thou ; hear me ? ki kikendass isa, thou 
art learned ; nongom idash, but now ; 7iin igaie, I also. But it 
must again be observed, that the interposition of this euphoni- 
cal i is not absolutely necessary ; and I remarked among the In- 
dians , that it is more usual in some places than in others ; and 
more frequently employed by old grave speakers than by young 
folks. It is also more frequenth' used in speaking than in writ- 
ing. Be it finally remarked, that the same vowel is again used 
in Italian, to prevent a crowd of consonants. 









;SV s 



— 42 — 

Remark 2. The first person in the plural, we, is expressed in 
Otchipw: by nin or ki, by ninawind or kinawind. — Nin or ki is 
employed in the immediate connexion with the verb ; as, nin 
na</a)ndmin, we sing; kipisindamin, we listen. But when the 
pronoun is not connected with the verb, ninawind or kinawind 
is emjjloyed for we; as, awcnenag igiw negamodjig ? Ninawdin 
sa. Who are those that sing ? We do. Awcnenag igiw pesin- 
dangig? Kinawind sa. Who are those that listen. We do. 

Remarks. Although the pronouns nin and ki, ninawind and 
kinawind, all signify we, the difference between 7iin and ki, and 
between ninaioind and kinawind, is material, and must well be 
kept in memory, lor the right use of them. 

1. Ni )t or ninawind iHemifloyed, wj n those that speak, do 
not include in their number the persOii or persons whom they 
speak to. F. i , nin nagamoniin, we sing, (we that speak now, 
not the person or persons to whom we speak.) And likewise 
ninawind, that is, we only that speak, not the person or persons 
spoken to, 

2. Ki or kinawind is used, when those that speak, include in 
their number the person or persons to whom they speak. F. i., 
ki pisindamin, we listen, (we that speak, and the person or per- 
sons to whom we speak.) And so also kinawind, we altogether, 
those that speak, and those that are spoken to. 

Nota bene. Please mind well this difference between nin and 
ki, ninawind and kinawind. You will have to niake use of it 
throughout this Grammar. 

Remark 4. The Otchipv.'e language, like all other primitive 
and ancient languages, does not use the second person plural in 
addressing a person to whom respect is shown ; the second per- 
son singular is invariably employed, may the person addressed 
be on the lowest or highest degree of respectability. You have 
seen this already in many of the preceding examples. In Eng- 
lish such addresses sound rather rough and unusual, (except 
among Quakers.) But in order to give exactly the meaning of 
the Otchipwe phrases in English, I always retain the second 
person singular also in English. Be it generally remarked here, 



— 43 — 

that the English portion of all the examples of this Grammar 
could be much better than it is, but I try to acconmiodate the 
translation as much as can be, to the original, in order to give 
to the learner a clearer understanding of the Otchipwe sentences. 

II. POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 

Possessive Pronouns are those which mark possession or pro- 
perty. They may be divided in two classes, viz : those that im- 
mediately precede a substantive, which we may call conjunctive 
possessive pronouns ; and those that stand separated from it, 
which can be named relative possessive pronouns. 

First class : Conjun'"'' 'e Possessive Pronouns. 



Sing. 



Nin, my ; 

ki, thy ; Plur. 

0, his, her, its ; 



1 



Nin or ki, our ; 
ki, your ; 
0, their. 



These pronouns are always placed immediately before a sul)- 
ptantive, or before an adjective proper that may precede a sub- 
stantive. 

Examples. 

Nin mindjikuwanag hij, bring me my gloves (mittens.) 

Bisikan ki ivlwakwdn, put on thy hat. 

Mi aw kwiwisens saiCigitod o masinaigan, this is the boy that 

likes his book. 
Kimisse osdniominwendano icabainotcJtiichagwan, thy sister likes 

too much her looking-glass. 
Nin sagia aw ahinodji ; mi ow o wlwakwanens, I like this ciuld ; 

here is its little bonnet. 
Anindi nin tchimanindn ? Where is our canoe? 
Ka wika ta-nibossiwag ki tchitchCigonanig., ou r souls will never die. 
Anin vudashiwad ki manishtdnishimiwag ? What is the number 

of your sheep? 
Mij ogdiv hciwisensag o masindiganiwan, give to these boys their 

books. 



,lf 



— 44 — 

liatdinowan o mino dddamowinmi, hie (her) good deeds are many. 
Ninjingindan ninmatchi ijiwchisiwin, WioXe my bad conduct. 
Ki gete masmaigan aion kikinoamadmg kid oshkimasinaigan 

dashmino ganawendan, make use of thy old book at school, 

and take well care of thy new book. 

Second class : Relative Possessive Pronouns. 



Sing. 



Nin, mine ; 
kin, thine ; 
win, his, hers ; 



iNinawind, or kinawind, 
kinawa, yours ; [ours ; 
winawa, theirs. 



These pronouns are not in immediate connexion with the sub- 
stantive to which they allude, but are separated from it by one 
or more words, which' precede or follow the substantive. 

Examples. 

Nin ganahatch nin mokoman ow. E, nin sa, nin nissitdwinan. 

This is perhaps my knife. Yes, it is mine, I recognize it. 
Kin ganahatch ki moshwem ga-mikawag. Kin sa, nind inindam. 

It is perhaps thy handkerchief I found. It is thine, I think. 
Win na o pakiicigan ow ? E, win sa. Is this his (her) hammer ? 

Yes it is his (hers). 
Kinawa na ki wakaiganiwa ow ? Kawin ninatoind. Is this your 

house ? Xo, it is not ours. 
Kinawind na gegei kid ak'imindn kakina iw ? E, kinawind sa 

kakina. Is that indeed all onr land ? Yes, it is all ours. 
Ninawind na nin tchimaninan iio ? Kawin, kinawa, nind inen- 

dam. Is that our canoe ? No, it is yours, I think. 
Winawa na od assalmcan banddisiwan ? E, tcinawa sa. Are 

their nets lost ? Yes, theirs. 

Remark 1. You see by these e.xamples, that, wlienever the 
possessive pronoun is not immediately before the substantive, 
one of the second class is employed. 

Remark 2. What has been said in the preceding number of 
the euphonical d, is to be applied to the pronouns of this num- 
ber likewise. So you will say : 



H 



— 45 — 

Am bahisikawagan, my coat ; but you will have to say, nind 

andkaii, my mat. 
Ki makisin, thy shoe ; but, kid andgan, thy plate. 
O dodamowin, his doing ; but, od anamiewin, his religion. 

liemark 3. The difference between nin and kin, ours ; nina- 
icind and kinawind, ours ; is the same as stated above in Remark 
3, of the preceding number (p. 42). 

The use of the Otchipwe possessive pronouns is difficult. The 
difficulty is not created by the pronouns themselves, which are 
simple ; but by the substantives that follow them. 

To employ correctly these pronouns with their substantives, 
attention must be paid to the substantive or noun, to know wlie- 
ther it is animate or inanimate. (See pages 14 and 15). 

We will here first consider the v- of the possessive pronouns 
with inanimate substantives 

A. Possessive Pronouns with inaninmte Snhstantives. 

Form l: 



Singular. 



Plural. 



Singular. 



Plural. 



i 
{ 



Nin tchimtin, my canoe, 
ki tchiman, thy canoe, 
o tchiman, his (her) canoe. 

nin tchimanmin, my canoes, 

ki tchimanan, thy canoes, 

tchimanan, his (her) canoes. 

Nin tchimanmin, ") 

ki tchiman'in&n , ) 

ki tchimaniwa,, your canoe, 

o tchimaniwa,, their canoe. 

nin tc7iima7i\n&mn , •) 

, . , . . • • • > our canoes, 
ki tcnimanumnm\, / * 

ki tchimani\\a,n, your canoes, 

^c/ti/naniwan, their canoes. 



our canoe. 



After this form may be constructed all the inanimate substan- 



■J ;■' 



ft 










— 46 — 

tives with their possessive pronouns, that add the syllable an 
for the plural, as : 



Nin nahikicdn, my vessel. 
Nin masindigan, my book. 
Nishtigioun, my head. 
Ninik, my arm. 
Nindon, my mouth. 
Niiawag, my ear. 
Nind apahiwin, my chair. 



iW?i mokonidn, my knife. 

iWn wakdigan, my house. 

Nisid, my foot. 

Nikdd, my leg. 

Nikdn, my bone. 

Nibid, my tooth. 

iVmt? adopowin, my table. 



Remark. In regard to the orthography of some words in this 
list, and of many others of this description in the following 
forms, it is necessary to observe, that I adopted the rule, as well 
for the inanimate as animate substantives, to write the posses- 
sive pronoun with its substantive in one word, whenever (mind 
this well), whenever the substantive is such as never to be used 
alone, separated from its possessive pronoun. So, for instance, 
nishtigwdn, my head. The word shtigican is never used in the 
Otchipwe language, it is no word of this language. It must al- 
ways have a possessive pronoun before it, and it is inseparable 
from it. Of the same kind are : Ninik, nindon, nis'id, nikdn, 
nishkmjig, nliaw, niidss. Noss, ningd, nokomiss, nojishe, nita, 
ninim, nissim, nishimc, nissale, nidjikiwe, ninddngwe, ningwiss, 
ninddniss, etc., etc. — These and other words of this kind, are 
never pronounced without a possessive pronoun. Why and 
how shall we then separate them in writing ? What the most 
ancient usage of the language has connected, the individual wri- 
ter ought not to separate. 

Here is a little sub-form for this kind of substantives, with 
their possessive pronouns. 

( Nikdn, my bone, 

j kikan, thy bone, , 

^ okan, his (her) bone. 

' nikan&u, my bones, 
I kikan&n, thy bones, 

okannn, Iuh (her) bones. . 



Singular. 



Plural. 



_ 47 — 



Singular. 



Plural. 



r i\7A*nninan, ) 

I z-.v.^ «;.,.-.« r onv bone, 

I kikaniwa, your hone. 
[ okaii'wva, their hone. 

?»*A*«Minanin, ) 

, ., • • > our hones 
A7A'aHinanin, J 

A'/Araniwan, your hones, 

oA'«»i\van, their hones. 



i 



Note. Some of these words, denoting part.s of the human body, 
terminate in the second plural in ananin, as, nisid, my foot ; 
nmc?ananin, our feet. Likewise ninik, my arm ; nikdd, my 
leg ; nitdwag, my ear ; n'lbid, my tooth. Some words of this, 
and of the following forms, change the po.ssessive pronoun of 
the third person, o, into ici, as, iiihid, my tooth ; unhid, hi.'^ 
tooth. And many others in other forms, inanimate and animate. 

Examples. / 

Nibid nind dkosin ; I have toothache, (pain in one tooth.) 
Wihid'AW od akosinan ; he has toothache, (pain in more than 

one tooth.) 
Kakina kid dkosimin kinhtifj/wdnluanin ; we have all headache, 

(we all have pain in our heads.) 
Wabang ta-mddjiidssin ki nd,bikwan\uvt.\\ ; our vessel will leave 

to-morrow. 
Mamitchdivan ki ndbiktvan'iwan ; your vessels are large. 
Takwdmagad ki bimddisiwin'man oma aking ; our life on earth 

IS short. 
Anwenindisoda, andjitoda kid ijiwdbi-nivimnvLX^ , ki ga gasniama- 

gondn da.sh Debeniminang ki batddoicin'mauin ; let u.x repent 

and change our conduct (our life) and our Lord will hlot out 

our sins. 
Dcb^nimiiang, bonigidetawishindm nin batddoici n'lnaniu ; Lord, 

forgive us our sins. 
Deb6ndjiged o kikendanan kakina kid in^ndamowinniamn ; the 

Lord knows all our thoughts. ' ' 






ili 



1.!^ 



• — 48 — 

DcbenimikuKj, ki wdhanaanan kCikina nin dodamoninin&nin ; 
Lord, thou seest all our actions. 

Form 2. 



Singular. 



Plural. 



Singular, 



Plural. 



Nind ahdj, my pole, (lodge-pole), 
kid aba}, thy pole, 
od abaj, his \her) pole. 

nindabofiw, my poles, 
A-j(? a&a/in, thy poles, 
orf aftcr/in, their pole.". 

kid abajinau, } ^"^ P«^^' 
kid abajiwa, your pole, 
od abajiwa,, their pole, 

iWnd a6a/inanin, ■» 
kidabafmamu, } our poles, 

od abafiwan, your poles, 
kidabajiwixn, their poles. 



To this form belong the substantives with their possessive 
pronouns, that add for the plural the syllable in ; as: 



Nind an'it, my spear, 
NinlndJ, my hand, 
Ninde, my heart, 
Niiaw, my body, 
Niidss, my flesh. 



pi. nind anitin, our spears. 
" ninindjin, our hands. 

nind6inanin, our hearts. 

ki awinCin, our body. 

kiidssindn, our flesh, etc. 



Note. The two last words, niiaio and niiass, have wi in the 
third person, instead of o; iciiaw, his body; wiidss, liis flesh, 
(or meat in general.) See Note, p. 47. . 

Examples. "" < ' 

A'uawjinanin kaginig tarbimmUsimagadon gijigong, kishpin cna- 
miangin iji bimadiniang aking ; our bodies will live eternally 
in heaven, if we lead a Christian life on earth. 



— 49 — 

M6icM-ijiwibisidjig iceVawiwan kagig^ ishkoUng ta-dandkideiii- 

wan; tlie bodies of the wicked will burn in eternal fire. 
Awishtoid kitchi nihiwa o gi-ojitdnan kid anttinanin ; the black- 

Pinith has made a great many spears for us, (a great number 

of our ppears.) ' • 

Ndnwatig nind abajin o gi-bodawenan ; he burnt up (or fired) 

five of my lodge-poles. 
A'i/t2'/i<7/inanin aioiang kid ojitomin kakina kid inanokiwimnan ; 

by the use of our hands we do all our work. 
Sicdnganamiadjig od^iwan moshkineniwan mind in^ndamowin ; 

the hearts of true Christians are full of good will. 

Form 3. 



Singular. 



Plural. 



Singular. 



Plural. 



1 



-! 



Mn makak, my box, 
ki makak, thy box, 
makak, his, (her) box. 

nin makakon, my boxes, 
ki makakon, thy boxes, 
makakon, his, (her) boxes. 



our box. 



f Nin makakon&n, ) 
ki makakonan, ^ 

j ki makakowa, your box, , 
(. makakowa, their box. 

nin ;«aAraA;onanin, ) , 

, . , , . > our boxes. 
Art wa^aAronanin, j 

ki makakow&n, your boxes, 
o makakowan, their boxes. 



After this form can be formed all the inanimate substantives 
with their possessive pronouns, that add the syllable on to the 
singular to form the plural ; as : 

Mil wigwdssiwigamig, my lodge. Nin wagdkwad, my axe. 
Nishkinjig, my eye, or my face. Nind ajawishk, my sword. 



I 



m 



Pi 



50 — 



III'* 



Examples. 

Manidda ki xcagdk%cadox\&\\m, awi-manisseda ; let us take our 

axes, and let us go and chop wood. 
Manddadon ki wagdktoadowan, awashime nnijishin nin, niu 

wagdkwad ; your axes are bad, my axe is better. 
Kid dkosin na kishkivjig ? Is thy eye sore ? 
G^ga o gi-wanitcman oshkinjigon ; he almost lost hl.s eyes. 
Nijinon nangwana kid ajaw6skkon ; thou hast then two swords. 
Mddjidon ki makak ; gaie kinaipa mddjidoiog ki makakowaix ; 

carry away thy box ; and you also carry away your boxes. 

Remark. We could take the three forms in one only, and say 
i\\Q,t {\\Q mutative vowel, * which is a in the first form, i in the 
second, and o In the third, makes the only difference in the ter- 
nunations. But I think that for the beginner it will be easier to 
have the forms before him detailed according to the three diffe- 
rent mutative vowels. Learners that are more advanced, may 
take the three forms in one. 

OF THE POSSESSIVE TERMINATIONS. 

The inanimate substantives with possessive pronouns take 
sometimes the terminations m, im, or am. which may be called 
in the Otchipwe Grammar the possessive terminations, because 
they are annexed to substantives with possessive pronouns, in 
order to express more emphatically j)rn2)(>r/»/ ov jwssession. F. i. 
^ind aki, m)' land, my farm ; nind aklm, my own piece of land ; 
nin kijdpikisigdns, my little stove ; nin kijdpikisigdns'im, my 
own little stove. Nin wdgakwad, my axe ; nin wagakwadom, 
my own axe. 

There are tJiree rules for the annexation of the possessive ter- 
minations to inanimate substantives ; viz : 

Rule 1. Inanimate substantives with possessive pronouns, which 
terminate in a vowel, take the possessive termination m ; as. 



* You will find a Note on the mutative vowel Ui the next Chapter, in the 
enumeration of the different kinds oi' verbs. As far as this mutative vowelis 
coDcernetl here, you may call it thus : The vowtl with tvhich the ter'mtnationa of 
these form* commence. 



— 51 — 



Ninmiskwl, my blood; nin miskwim, hi miskwhn, o viisk- 
%ci\\\, my. thy, his own blood. Nin mashkiki, my medicine ; 
nin mashkikim, etc. Nin slbi, my river ; nin sibixu, o sibim, etc. 

Rule 2. Inanimate substantives with possessive pronouns, which 
form the' plural by adding on, take the possessive termina- 
tion om; as, Nin gijigadon, my days ; nin gijigadom, my own 
day ; nin gijagadoman, my own particular days ; o gijigadom, 
his remarkable day. Nind ajaweshkon, my swords ; od aja- 
weshkonx, od ajaweshkomtin, etc. 

Rule 3. All the other inanimate substantives with possessive 
pronouns, and likewise all inanimate diminutives, take the 
possessive termination im ; as, Nin ndbikwdn, njy vessel ; nin 
ndbikwdn'im, my own vessel, my very ve.ssel. Nin mitigwdb, 
my bow ; nin mitigwabim, o mitigicabhn, etc. 
Note. All these substantives with possessive pronouns, that 

take a possessive termination, belong to Form I. " Nin tchimCin." 

B, Possessive Pronouns tvith animate Substantives. 

We have seen in the preceding forms, how possessive pronouns 
j'.re expressed with inanimate substantives. Let us now consider 
the effect they make on animate substantives. 

Form 1. 

( Nind aklk, my kettle, 
kid akik, thy kettle, 
od akikon, his (her) kettle. 

nind akikog, my kettles, 
kid akikog, thy kettles, 
od akikon, his (her) kettles. 

Nind akikon&n, 2 
kid akikon&n, ^ ' 

kid akikowa, your kettle, 

od akikow&u, their kettle. 

nind akikon a.n'\g, t , ,, 

, .J , ., . our kettles, 

kid akikon&n\g, f 

kid akikow&g, yonr keiths, 
od akikow&n, their kettles. 



Singular. 



Plural. 



Singular. 



Plural. 



'I 



'l { 



— 52 — 



11^- 



Some animate substantives with possessive pronouns, that ter- 
TTiinate their phiral in i(/, conform also to this form, but their 
mutative vowel * la i instead of 0. F. i. nind assCih, my net; pi. 
nind assab\^, my nets ; od assahin, nind as«a6inan, kid assab- 
iwag, etc. Tliis i remains throughout all the terminations. 

Some animate substantives with possessive pronouns, that add 
only g for the plural, and end in a votcel in the singular, belong 
Also to tliis form with a little variation ; as: . , .. 

^ Mdf anishin&he, my neighbor, (fellow- 
J man,) brother. 

\ kidf anisJunabe, thy neighbor, 

(^ widf anishiiiaben, his (her) neighbor. 

( nidf atiishinabeg, my neighbors, (fcl- 
j low-men). 

I kidf anishinabeg, your neighbors. 
^ widf anlshinaben, his [her) neighbors. 

C Nidi' ariisJiinabeutin, ) ... 

I . . r > our neighbor. 



Singular 



Plural. 



Singular. S 



kidf anishinabenan 
kidf anishiiiabewA, your neiglibor. 
l^ indf anishinabew&n, their neighbor. 



Plural. 



^ 



( nidi' anishinaben&nis, ) ... 

,.:., . ,. , . S our neighbors 
' kKi) ams/nnaben&mg' \ ° 



kidf anishinabewag, your neighbors. 
V widf a7iis?iinabe\\an, their neighbors. 



Likewise, nidf bimddisi, my fellow-liver, (fellow-man), etc. 

Remark. This Form 1 is seldom used. The animate substan- 
tives with possessive pronouns, take almost always th6 posses- 
sive terminations 7n, tin, or v7n. 

There are likewise three rules for the possessive terminations 
of the animate substantives, viz: 

Rule 1. Animate substantives, ending in a vowel, take the pos- 
sessive termination m, when they are preceded by a posses- 



• See Note p. 50. 



— 53 — 



eive pronoun. F. i. KJe-Manito, God ; nin Kijc-Manitn\\\, my 
God. Ogima, chief, king ; nind ogimdm, my chief. Inini, man ; 
nind ininim, my man, my liusband. Ikwe, woman ; nind 
ikwem, my woman, my wife. Moshicc, handkerchief; nin 
moshwem, my handkerchief 

Rule 2. Animate 8ub8tantive8 forming tlxeir plural by adding 
ag, ig, or iag, take the possessive termination im, when a poe- 
sesaive pronoun is prefixed to them. F. i. Manishianish, 
sheep, (pi, manishhinitihag,) nin manishianishim, my sheep. 
MaHinitchigan, image, (pi. maninitchiganag,) nin masinitchi- 
gamrn, my image. Op'in, a potatoe, (pi. opimg,) nind opinun, 
my potatoe. Gigo, fish, (pi. gigdia,'^,) nin gigoun, my fish. 

Rule 8. Animate substantives that form their plural by adding 
og or tcdg. take the jx)8sesive termination om, when they have 
a possessive pronoun before them, when theg don't terminatein 
a vowel in the singular. (If the substantives with the plural 
termination in wag, terminatein a voicel in the singular, they 
belong to the first of these rules, and take the possessive ter- 
mination m ; as, ikwe, woman, (pi. ikicewag). nind ikwem. Pi- 
jiki, ox, {p\. pijikiwug], nin pijikim, etc. 

Examples to iiin.E 3. 

^ahos, rabbit, (pi. loahosog,) ninwabosom, u\y rabbit. Andng, 
star, (pi. anangog,) nind anangom, my star. Ai'ik, rein-deer, (pi. 
atikwag,) nind atikom, my rein-deer. Jingwak, pine-tree (pi. 
jingwakw&g), ninjingwakom, my pine-tree, etc. 

All the substantives with possessive pronouns, mentioned in 
the above three rules, belong to the following form. 

Form 2. 



Singular. 



Plural. 



Nind ogimdm, my chief, 
kid oglmam, thy chief, 
od ogi7nam&n, his (her) chief 
nind ogimamag, my chiefs, 
kid ogimamag, thy chiefs, 
od ogimam&n, their chiefs. 



m 



IP 






— 54 



^i^ 



V i 

11^ 



J 

T 



Singular. 



Plural. 



( Aitid (Kfimatinnan, } ... 

' 1 . 1 . • > our chief, 

' kid of/imatmuan, ^ 

] kid ogimamxwti, your chief, 

l^ od ogimamlwiiu, their chief. 

f idad o<iimam\ni\\\\\i, ) , . „ 

, . , ' . . . y our chiefs, 
' kid Oijimammau]'', j ' 



J 



] 



kid ogimam'iwag, your chiefs, 
l^ od ogimamiwan, their cJiiefs. 

Besides all the animate substantivejj with possessive pronouns, 
that have the possessive tern»inations, those also that add a;/ in 
the plural, belong to this fornj, as some of the follow ingexaniples 
will show you. 

EXAMPI.KS. 

Mino inaknnigcicag kid ogimdnunan'ig ; our chiefs make good 

laws, (regulations). 
Nrbwakad (nutthinabeo habatnitawan od ogimiinmn ; a prudent 

Indian listens to his chief 
Nissiway nin kitc/ii pijikiminanig, nananiwag dash nin pijikin- 

.vminanig ; the number of our cows is three ; and of our calves, 

five. 
Gi-mino-nitawigimig na kid ojAnimmag ? Have you got a good 

crop of potatoes? 
liatainoicag na kid ikwesennimtig ? — Nawateh batdinotcag nin 

ktoiicisenxitna*^. Hast thou many girls ? — I have niore boys. 
Nin gi-wabamimanan od andnguman, wubanong ; we have seen 

his star in the east. 
Nind indwcmagan, my relative, (pi. nind inawemagan&g.) Non- 

gom nibiwa nind inawnnagan'uiVLiug gi-bi-ijawag oma ; to-tlay 

many of our relatives came here. 
Kotawdn, a large piece of wood for fuel, a block, (pi. kotawan&g.) 

Ki kotawaniwu'r, your blocks ; nin ^'o/aMJa/tinanig, our blocks ; 

o kotawan&ix, his block, or his blocks. 
Kitchipiaon, a belt, (pi. kUchipisonng.) liij ki kiichipison&g ; 

bring here thy belts. Nin kiichipi^on'inan, our belt ; ki kit- 

cA?^t«oNinanig, our belts. 






55 



In tlie terms that mark the dift'erent degrees of relationship, 
there is 80ine deviation from the pretiediiig forms, some irregu- 
larity, which we have to consider »iow. 



luKKouLAR Form 1. 



Singular. 



Plural 



Singular. 



Plural 






Nosh, my father, 
kosH, thy father, 
o.sHun, '^i- her) father. 

/nAv.><ag, my fathers, * 
/xo.ssii<r, thy futh'jrs, 
f.s.vaii, his (her) fathers. 

( NoHH'miiu, ) . . 

I , . > our father, 

} Avw.viniiii, ) 



1 



I 



kosHwvvk, your tather, 
f>.s.viwan, their father. 



( Mo.v,»inanig, ) „ , 

I , . > our fathers, 

I A'o.s.sinanig, ) 



A-o.v.fiwag, your fathers, 
o.'j.viwan, their fathers. 






u 'I 



A. 

'■1 



This form is irregular only in tlie third persons, which are not 
preceded hy od, as the regular Ibrm is, nd oginmman, od orfima- 
miwan. E.xactly after this form is inflected the term iiokomiss, 
my grand-mother. 

The following terms of relationship: Nimi-fhomiaft, my grand- 
father; nimjiriss, my son; niiidnniss, my daughter; ninldja. 
nis.s, my child ; nisinitf.s, my liither-in-law ; and others which 
you will find below, in the list displayed aller these irregular 
forms, are also inflected according to C.iis first irregular form, 
except in the third persons, where they take o or od : ominhoinis. 
san, ogwissan, odaniitsan, onidjanitisaii, osinisHaii, etc. 



* A person may have two fathers, or two mothers ; one by nature, and ano- 
ther by adoption. 



(H 






I 

i 

V.:. 



I'fi 



— 56 — 
Irregular Form 2. 

Ningd, my mother, 
Singular. I kiga, thy mother, 

ogin, his (her) mother. 

ningaiag, my mothers, 
Phiral. ) kigaiag, thy mothers, 
ogin, his (her) mothers. 



Singular. "{ 



f Ninqanan, ) , 

• > our motlier, 



Plural. 



kiganan 

I kigiwa, your mother, 

l^ ogiwan, their mother. 

r ninqananu/, ) 
' , . . > our mothers. 

kigananig, ) 

kigiwag, your mothers, 
ogiwan, their mothers. 



This form, as you see, is altogether irregular ; and tliere is no 
other word belonging to it. ♦. 



Singular. 



Plural. 



Singular. 



Plurrfl. 



Irregular Form 3. 

Ninsaie, my brother (older than I,) 
kissaie, thy brotlier, 
ossaiei&n, his (her) brother. 

nissaii'isig. my brothers, 
Armrt/eiag, thy brothers, 
osnaie\an, his (her) brothers. 

( Ni.Hsairn&n, ) , ., / 

I , . . > our brother, 

kismvenan, ) 

kiHsaieiwA, your brother, 

ossaieiwau, their brother. 

f nissainmmg, 
j Ama/enanig, 



our brothers, 



kissaiemsLg, your brothers, 
ossaieiwan, their brothers. 



ii t 



— 57 — 

Here are some animato substantives with possessive pronouns 
belonging to this form ; viz : 

Nimishome, iny uncle, {my father^s brother.) 

Nijlshe, my uncle, (my mother's brother.) 

Ninoshe, (ninwishe ] my aunt (my mother's sister.) 

Nimisse, my syster, (older than I.) 

Nishime, my brother or sister, (younger than I.) 

NidjikiwCy my friend, my brother, (widjikiwexskw.) 

Ninddngoshe, my she-cousin, (a female speaking.) 

Ninddngwe, my sister-in-law, or my friend, (a female speaking.) 

Ifojishe, my grand-child, {ojishel&n ; ojishe'iwan.) 

Besides these terms of relationship, all the animate substan- 
tives with possessive pronouns, that make their plural by adding 
iag, belong to this form ; as : 

Nijode, twin -, nin mjode\a.g ; ki niJodenAn\g \ ki nijodeiwa,. N 
Abinodji, child ; nind abinodjinAn ; kid abinodJi\wa.g. 
Mindimoie, old woman ; nin mindimoien&u'ig ', o mindimoiei&n. 
Bineshi, bird ; o bineshii&n ; ki bineshimg ; nin bineshinan. 
Pakadkw^., cock, hen; nin pakaakwena,n\g', ki jpakaakweviQ,xiy 
etc., etc. 

The other terms of relationship, (besides the above,) conform 
themselves to the preceding irregular forms, or to the regular 
forms, according to i\\^\T plural. If you know the first and the 
third person of the first singular, and the first persons of the 
first plural and second singular, you can construct the rest ac- 
cording to the above forms. In the following Hst these four per- 
sons are indicated. 

Ninslniss, * my father-in-law 5 oshmsan, ninsinissag, ninsinis- 

sinan. 
Ninslgosiss, my mother-in-law ; osigosissan, ninslgosissag, ninsi- 

gosissinan. 
Nita, my brother-in-law ; witan, t nitag, nitanan. 



* See Remark, p. 46. 



t See ybte, p. 47. 



58 — 



m '* 



Nhiim, my sister-in-law, (or my brother-in-law ; a femalt^ 

speaking ;) vnnimon, ninimotj, ninimonnn. 
Nitdwiss, my he-cousinf ; tcitmcissan, nifdichssaf/, nifdicissinan. 
NinimoshS, my she-cousin ; winimoshHan, ninimosheiag, nini- 

moshenan. 
NikdnisK, my friend, my brother ; (a male speaking ;) nnkdnis- 

san, nikdnisntuj, nikdnisainan. 
Ninhif/iran, my son-in-law ; oniiujwanan, niiniKjwanaf/, nininy- 

waninan. 
Nisslm, my ilaughter-in-lavv ; ossimin, nisstimuj, niHsiminan. 
Ntnsujoss, my uunt, (my J'ai/ier\s sister;) osujonsan, niimif/os- 

sat/, uiitNiyo.s.sinaii. 
NinuKjwaiiiss, my nephew ; oningwaninsan, nimnyioaniHsag, ni- 

ningwamasinan. 
NishimUs, my niece, (a 7wa?e speaking •,)oshim7ssan, nishimissag, 

fiishhnisxinan. 
Nindnjiiii, my step-son, or my nephew ; odojiman, nindojimag,. 

nindojiniinan. 
Nindojimikwem, my step-daughter, or my niece ; odojimikweman, 

nindojhnikwemag, nindnjimikweinman. 
Uinddijiwiss, my niece, (a yez/m/^ speaking,) odojiimssan, nindo- 

Jimi.s.wij, H iiulnjiiii isNinaii . 
Ifindiuddmi, the father or the mother of my daughter-in-law ; 

odinddwan, nindindduHig, nindinddwanan. 



Otrhipwe termafor '* my cousin." 



A male 
will nay 



my uncle's {nimhhome) f son, nissaie (or nishi- 

me,) my cousin, 
I daughter, H/mme (or ni- 
^ s/iime,) my cousin, 
son, nitdwhs, my cou- 
sin, 
daughter, ninimoshe, my 
coueiu. 



my uncle's (nijishe) 



d 



A female 
will .say : 



— 59 — 
' my uncle's (iiimishome) 

niv uncle's (uyisAe) 



A male 
will Pav 



' my aunt's (iiinsi<josK) 



my aunt'p (ninwishe) 



A female 
will sav : 



my aunt's Qiinsiyoss) 



my aunt's Qiiuuushe) 



son, nissaie (or nishime,) 
my cousin, 

daughtT, niinisse (or ni- 
shime,) my cousin, 

son, ninimoshe, my cou- 
sin, 

daughter, ninddngoshe, 
my cousin. 

son, )iitdwiss, my cou- 
sin, . ' . • 

daughter, ninimoshcmy 
cousin, 

sou, nissaie (or nishime), 
my cou.><in, 

daughter, nimisse (or 
nishime), my cousin. 

son, ninimoshe, my cou- 
sin, 
daughter, ninddngoshe, 
niy cousin, 
f Bon, nissaie (or nishime), 
j my cousin. 
I daughter, nimisse (or ni- 
[^ shime), niy cousin. 



ml 

1 ':1 



t\iii 



A male 
will say : 



Otchipwe terms for " my nephew," and '* my niece. 



'my hrother's (nissaie, f mn, nindSjim, my woph- 
nishime) J ew, 

\ datightiT, nidojimikwem, 
y my niece, 

) my syster's (nimisse, C son, ninini/icaniss, my 



■! 



nishime) J nephew, 



J daughter, nishimiss, niy 
(^ niece. 



;5 



60 — 



I 



•!! 



A female 
will say : 



my brother's (nissaie, ( eon, ninrngwamss, my 
nishime) J nephew, 

j daughter, nishimis», my 
(^ niece, 
my sister's (nimisse, ( son, nindojimiss, my 

nephew, 



imisse, ( 
ishime) 1 



nishi 



I 



{ daughter, nindojimiss, 
L my niece. 



Otchipwe terms for '* ftiy brother-in-law," and '* my sister- 
in-law." 

f my wife's brother, 7iita, my brother in-law, , ' 
A male J my sister's husband, nita, my brother-in-law, 
will say: J my wife's sister, ninim, my sister-in-law, 

V^ my brother's wife, ninim, my eister-in-law. 

( my husband's brother, ninim, my brother-in-law, 
A female 1 my sister's husband, ninim, my brotlier-iu-law, 
will say : j my husband's sister, ninddmje, my sister-in-law, 

i, my brother's wife, ninddnge, my sister-in-law. 

Peculiarities in regard to these tei'ms of relationship. 

1. The Englinh term, " my brother," is given in Otchipwe by 
two terms, nissaie and nishime ; the former signifying a brother 
of mine that is older than I am ; and the latter a brother younger 
than I. And the English term, *' my sister," is also given by two 
terms, nimisse, my sister older tl\an I ; and nishime, my sister 
younger than I. , 

2. The English term, "my urcle, " is given in Otchipwe by 
nimishome, which signifies, my father's brother ; and by nijishe, 
which denotes my mother's brother. And the term, " my aunt,'* 
is expressed by ninsigoss, my father's sister ; and ninwishe 
(ninoshe,) my mother's sister. 

3. Like the Jews and other ancient nations, the Otchipwe 
Indians call the children of two brothers, or of two sisters, bro-^ 
ihers and sisters, {nissaie, nimisse, nishime,) which are called 



I 



61 — 



cousins in English and otlier modern languages. But the children 
of a brother and a sister, they call cousins, nitdwiss, (ninimoshe, 
ninddngoshe) 

4. TheOtchipwe cannot name distinctly any higher degree in 
the ascending line, than grand-father and grand-mother, nimisho- 
miss and nokomiss. For great grand-father and great grand- 
mother, they have the same terms as for grand-father and grand- 
mother. They have the term, nind aidnike-nimishomiss ; but this 
does not strictly signify, my great grand-lather ; it signifies any 
of my ancestors higher than grand-father. In the descending line 
they call both a grand-son and a grand-daughter with the same 
term, nojishe. And all that is lower than nojishe, is called ani- 
kobidjigan. 



II 



Examples. 

Wenlc^jdnissidjig o kitchi sdgiawan iko onic{}dniss'n\&n ; parents 
use to love very much their children. 

Naningim omd bi-ijdwag nitdwiss'nmmg ; our consins come here 
frequently. 

Eji-sdgiidisoiang ki da-sdgiandnig kidj^dnishindhe\mn\g ; as we 
love ourselves we ought to love our fellow-n>en. 

Joseph ossai^'\9.x\ midadatchigicaban, oshime'\Q,n dash bejigoiiigo- 
ban ; Joseph had ten brother (holder than himself,) and one 
brother (younger than himself.) 

Ndngom nin gi-wdbamag nij kinimog ; to-day I saw two of thy 
sisters-in-law, (speaking to a male ;) or two of thy brothers-in- 
law, or sisters-in-law, (sptakind to a, female.) 

Ki wdbamdwag na ko kishlmissiw&g ? Do you see eometimes 
your nieces ? (speaking to a male) 

Anin eji-bimddisiwad kidojimiss'iw&g ? How do your nieces do ? 
(speaking to & female.) 

Kikinoamaw masinaigan kishimemg; teach thy brothers (or sis- 
ters, younger than thou,) to read. 

Nin pyikimmBLXi pakdkadoso, kinawa dash ki pijikimiyfAg kitchi 
wininowag ; our ox (or cow) is poor, but your oxen (or cows) 
are fat. 



% 






■ i . 






.J. 



— G2 — 

Nishime o gi-hmtndjian o tibaiglsiftswanau ; niv (younger) brother 
spoiled Ijis watch. 

Minosse inn tibaighisswan'man ; our clock goes right (or is right.) 

Sayegwa bdtanioioag ki ni(ljdniss\nan'\g ; our children are al- 
ready n)any. 

Mi oma ga-doJi-nHuirfgiavffiilivn Kakina mnuJjdniss'xnamg ; it h 
here we brought up all our childn-n. 

Nind afdwetcinininan o mino dOdawan od anishintibetn&n ; our 
trader treats well his Indians. 

NUa<j pitc.h'mntjo nin (ji-bi-t/anonif/nrf ; my brothers-in-law iamale 
speaking) came yesterday and spoke to me. 



i' 



h 



I i i 



All these substantives with possessive pronouns can be trans- 
formed into verbs, and they are often so ; and then they are con- 
jugated. They have two tenses, the j>rftve«/ and the imperfect. 

We will employ here the examples of our preceding form. Now 
mind this : The present tense of these substantives with possess- 
ive pronouns transformed into verbs, is exhibited in the prece- 
ding forn, regular or irregular ; and the imperfect tense will be 
shown in the following tbrms. 

A. Possessive P/wjo?«'.stri7/( inanimate Substantives transformed 

irto Verbs. 



Form 1. 

^ Imperfect Tense. 

Nin ichimdn'Amn, the canoe I had, (or formerly my 

canoe,) 
ki tchimdmh&n, the canoe thou hadst, 
n tchi?ndn\hi\n, the canoe he (she) had. 
f nin tchimdnlhamn, the canoes I had, (or formerly 

my canoes,) 
ki tchimdn'ihtimn, the canoes thou hadst, 
/t-Aim^Mibanin, the canoes they had. 



Singular. 



Plural. 



I 

1 



^ 



— g:{ — 



Singular. 



Plural. 



) 

1 
I 



'V our former canoe, 

ki tc/iimihmviihiin, the canoe you had, 
o tchimanwyahiin, the canoe they had. 

ni)i f<'hiii>i'in'mii\)iimn, ) „ , 

,.,,.,. , . y fornjerly our canoes, 
ki irjiimini\uii\)iin\u, } 

ki /r/(//H/?rti\vabaniii, the canoes you had, 

/f/i/««««i\vabanin, the canoes they luid. 

' Examples. 



Mi oic nin kitit/dmhan, hakdn <l(ish nint/uirhi noiujnm nin kiti- 
ge ; this was lornieriy my held, but now I make my field else- 
where. 

Anindi gioaiak gn-aiaj ki iP<ikai<jan\\\a.\)Q,n ? Where is the spot 
where your house stood ? 

Ki.skime <>d aian nin inasinaigan\b&n ; thy brother has the book 
I had before. 

Gi-sdkide endaiang, kalcina dash nin masinaignn'uMihiimn gi- 
tchagidewan ; our house took fire, and all our books we had, 
burnt down. 

Ki mojwdgan\\\B.hdknm, once your scissors. O mojwOgam\\Q,\iQ.x\, 
once his (her) scissors. 

Form 2. 
Imperfect Tense. 

Nind aha}\Uin, my pjle (lodge-pole) which I lost, 
Singular. < kid rt/^i/iban, thy pole thoti hadst, 
od abajxhau, the pole he (she) had. 



Plural. 



Singular. 



C nind afta/ibanin, the poles I had, 

kid abaj'ihan'm, the poles tliou hadst, 
' od uhajWmmu, the poles he had. 



C Nind «/m;maban,) , , 

I 7 . J . •• I r the pole w( 
I hid abaj\nfihai\ , i * 

I kid afco/iwaban, the polo you 



»'e had, 

you had, 
od cf^oyiwaban, the pole they had. 



i 



i(»-»,.6:A'. 



WWP 



— 64 — 



'%r 



Ill I 



! ; 



f Am(Za6rtymal)nnin,) ,, , , , 

,.,,.. . .V the poles we had, 
p. , ! «(/ rt/»/^inabanin, J ' 

I /W(i a6a,/iwal)anin, the poles you had, 

(^ o(Z a6a7iwabanin, the poles they had. 

Examples. 

Mojagmn mikwendan ninindfihan ; nin kashkendam giieanitoidn ; 

I think often on the hand I h:i/v , I am sorry to have lost it. 
Nimisse o mawiton onindj\\)Q.\\ ; n>y sister is crying because she 

lost her hand, (or she is bewailing the hand she lost.) 
Apinenind aui7ibanin, kawin nin mikansinan ; the spears I had, 

are lost, I don't find them. \ , 

Form 3. . 

Imperfect Tense. 



Singular. 



Plural. 



Singular. -< 



Nin makakohvkW, the box I had, (my former box,) 
ki wrtA-rtA-oban, the box thou hadst, 
o maAraAroban, the box he (she) had. 

nin ma^rtA-obanin, the boxes I had, , 

ki mw^aArobanin, the boxes thou hadst, 

o maA:aAobanin. the boxes they had. 



Nin waAraA-onaban, "» 
ki wtaA'tfA'onaban, I 



our former box. 



ki maAraAowaban, the box you had, 
maA:aA:owaban, the box they had. 



f nin maAaA;onabanin, 



Plural. 



\ 

y 



the boxes we had. 



ki wnA'aAronabanin, / 
ki ?nffA-aAowabanin, the boxes you had, 
maA.-aA'owabanin, the boxes they had. 

Examples. 



Oi-gawisscmagad nin pijikitciganiigoh&n ; the stable I had, tum- 
bled down. 



— 66 — 



MinossSbanin hi wCigCikwadorWkh&nm ; the axes we had were 

good. 
Nind atdwiicigamigohan oma atehan; here was the store I had. 
Kid atdw^wigamigow&heLn; the store you had, once your stcTe. 

Note. The Remark on page 46 is applicable also to these three 
forms. 

B. Possessice Pronouns with animate Substantives transformed 

into Verbs. 

Form 1. 






Singular. 



Plural. 



Singular. 



Plural. 



Imperfect Tense. 

Nind a^/Aroban, the kettle I had, 
kid aArtAroban, the kettle thou hadst, 
od a^iAobanin, the kettle he (she) had. 

nind aA-^jA'obanig, the kettles I had, 
kid a^iA'obanig, the kettles thou hadst, 
od aA;?^obanin, the kettles he (she) had. 

iVmd aAt"A:onaban,i , , ,,, , , 

, ,j ... , > the kettle we had, 
kid aAr?A.-onaban, i 

kid aHAowaban, the kettle you had, 

od aWArowabanin, the kettle they had. 

nind aArtl-onabanig, i 

1 . t 1 .1 1 . r tile Kcltlco Wc IIUU, 

kid aA:tA:onabanig, j 

kid aAriA'owabanig, the kettles you had, 
od aA:iA,'owabanin, the kettles they had. 



I 



Examples. 

Mi sa aw ikwe od aAri^obanin ; to this woman belonged the kettlCr 

(or the kettles.) 
Gi-batainowag nind aArtX'onabanig ; the kettles we had were 

many. 
Nin nind a«.9a&iban aw ; nongom dash kawin nind ossabissi ; 

this was my net ; but now I have no net. 
Gi-niwiwan od as«a6iwabanin ; they had four nets before. 



— 66 — 



1 



Mdf aniihi ualn\>ant iii' fellow-man (brotlier) I had, or my de- 
ceased follow-maii (l)rotli('r.) Wi'iif anli/n nahehau'in, liis de- 
ceased fellow-jnaii. Kidf «/</.>(////u</>enabanig, our deceased 
fellow-men. 

FOKM 2. . • , . V 



Imperfci't Tense. 

Mud ogitndtmhan, my deceased chief, (or the chief 

I had Ix'fore,) 
Iiid <)(/i>m1mU>nu, thy deceased chief, 
od o(/iniam\hau\u, his (her) deceased cliief. 

niti of/imnmhnn'ig, my deceased chiefs, ' 

kid ojjimdniihiiuh^, thy deceased chiefs, 
od o(/inn7nnha,u\u, his (her) deceased chiefs. 

C Niiid otfimd m'mahan,-) our deceased cliief, (or the 
I kid (>(/imntn'\n(x\)nn, f chief we had before,) 



Singular. 



Plural. 



Singular 



ceased chief, 

ler) deceased chief. 



Plural. 



I kid (>(jii>i(7in'\\\!ihan, your dccei 
(_ od ():/it)iai)i\\\'a.\nimu, h'lH (her 

( nind ovfw/Jwtinabanig, ■> , , , . . 
- , . , ■ . ^ . , . > our late chiefs, 
lad o////H^/«Mnal»aiiig, J 

kid oijimnnnwahmug, your former cliiefs, 

od o<7//H(7/Miwabanin, their deceased chiefs. 



?■ 



EXAMPLKS. 

Ki kitchi nf/im(ini'\ua.hiin od inakoniuewin ; our late king's law. 

Nin widjiwdi/(i)nha.n oil iiiodeunsiunn ; my deceased companion's, 
(or partner's) property. 

Kaioiii wika nongovi aioiia nin wdbomassig nin kikinoamiigan- 
ibanig ; I never see now any of my former scholars. 

Nissai, kddbina ki mikioeniimi ki widigimdgamhan ? My brother, 
dost thou yet remember thy deceased wife ? 

Igiw nij ikwhmg o gi-miiio-dodawawan mojag o toidig^nidgan,' 
iwabanin ; these two women have always treated well their de- 
ceased husbands. 



J:! 



— 67 — 

N' Hag It gi-H/ifiiawnn o iritliijPm/iiftin'ws'ahnuiu ; my brothors-in-law^ 
liiivf loved their deceased wives. 

Kitchi ////»' '«/ ;fi-aitnni(/oni iund nin ham'i (ni/an'\unhfxn ; our de- 
ceased se. .-aiit vvHrt very long employed here. 

The words of tlic irre(iu1ar forms belong to this Form 2, in 
their imperfect tense, as : 

iVo.v.v, my father. iVW«iban,my deceased father. A"o.f.fiiiaban,our 
deceased father. iV'o^.sinabanig, our deceased fathers. 

Nimishomiutt, my grand-father. A7/H/.>f/ro;/t/.v.'*inabanig, our de- 
ceased grand-lathers. Kiininhumi.in'ih&u , thy deceased grand- 
father. 

M'okomiss, my grand-mother. A^oA-owtminaban, our deceased 
grand-njother. 

N^insaiS, my older brother. PTinmu'elhau, my deceased brother. 
A'm(«/<?inabanig, our deceased brothers. 0^."««Viwal)anin, their 
deceased brother, (or brothers.) 

N'itawiss, my he-cousin. fPitauuasihan, my deceased cousin. Wi- 
/aiomiwabanin, his deceased cousins. 

Ninirfljim, my ste|)-son. 7\7«if/'o/""'ban, my deceased stej)-son. 
A'Woy/wnnaban, our deceased stejj-son. AVt/'qyi/Hiwabanig, your 
deceased 8tej)-8ons. 

Some of the words of the irreijular forms, when in the imper- 
fect tense, belong to other fornj.'^, according to the explanations 
given at every form, as : 

Nita, my brother-in-law. iV?7«ban, my deceased brother-in-law. 

iViVanabanig, our deceased brothers-in-law. Jf//abanin, liis 

deceased brother-in-law, (or brothers-in-law.) (Alter " Nidf 
anishindbe." Nidf aninhin/ibehau.) 

Ninim, my sieter-in-law ; (pi. ninimotj.) Ninimobaw, v\\y deceased 
sister-in-law. Winimoho.iuii, his deceased sister-in-law, (or his 
deceased sisters-in-law.) KinmoivAhau, our deceased sister-in-^ 
law. (Alter " A^i/j(ZaAiAronaban,) etc , etc 



_ 68 — 

The term ningd, my mother, makes its imperfect in a peculiar 
tnanner ; viz : 



Singular. 



Plural. 



Singular. 



Plural. ^ 



Ningiban, my deceaped mother, 
kigiban, thy deceased mother, 
oyibanin, his (her) deceased mother. 

ningibanig, my deceased mothers, 
kigibanig, thy deceased mothers, 
ogibanin, his (her) deceased mothers. 

NiiKiinaban, ) , • ^, 

, . : , > our deceased mother, 

kiginaban, J 

kigiwaban, your deceased mother, 

ogiwaban, their deceased mother. 

mnninnbaniq,^ , • .1 

, . . , . > our deceased mothers, 
kiginabaing, i 



kigiwabanig, your deceased mothers, 
ogiwabanin, their deceased mothers. 



The dubitntioe or traditional mood of speaking is often used in 
the imperfect tense of terms denoting relationship, when they 
e{)eak of deceased persons whom they neper saw. 

The invariable rule for the formation of the traditional in this 
imperfect tense is, to put the syllable go before the letter b in the 
terminations of the imperfect tonse. F. i. 

ITossibany my deceased father ; n'ossigobarii my deceased father 

whonj I never saw. 
K'okomissinalmn, our deceased grand-mother ; k^okomissinagoban, 

our deceased grand-mother wliom we did not see. 
Nind ogimnminuban, o\ir deceased chief ; nind ogimdminagoban, 

our deceased chief whom we did not see. 
Kimishomissinabanig, our deceased grand-fathers ; kimishomissi- 

nagobanig, our deceased grand-fathers whoni we never saw. 



And 00 on, putting always go before b in the terminations. 



— GO- 



OF THE THIRD PERSON'S. 

There is another p.'^culiarity of the Otchipwe language, which 
I must treat of here. Three different third persons are distin- 
guished in animate substantives, each of which has its own 
construction ; namely: the simple third person, the second third 
person, and the third tiiird i^erson. I would have mentioned 
this in the Chapter of Substantives ; but as the three third persons 
have influence also on substantives with possessive pronouns, I 
mention and explain it here. 

Third person s'lxwple. 

The third person simple is that which is the only one in tlie 
sentence ; as : Nin sayia n\)ss, I love my father. Nin babamitawa 
ningd, I listen to my mother. N'oss and ningd are the third 
persons simple in these sentences. There is no particular rule 
about that. 

2. Second third person. 

When there are two third persons in a sentence, one of tlieni 
is our second third jwrson ; according to the construction of the 
verb. F. i. 

Mdbam kwiwisens o minddeniman ossan ; this boy honors his 

father. 
Aw inini od anolcitawan n^ossan ; that man works for my father. 
Nimisse o widokawan nimfaian ; my sister is helping njy mother. 
Kitchitwa Mane o gi-nigian Jesusan; St. Mary gave birth to 

Jesus. 

The second third pcsons in the above sentences are : ossa/i, 
n'ossan, ningaian, Jesusan. Those tlmt understand Latin, must 
not think that the second third person always correspond?! with 
the Latin accusative. It often does indeed, but not always. In 
the above four sentences the second third persons exactly express 
the Latin accusative. But this is not invariably the case. Where 
there are two third persons in a sentence, one or the other may 



, 



I 



"« 









— 70 — 

be our second thin! person, the accusative or llie no?ninative, 
according to the vorl. The Ibllowing exainplen will illustrate 
this matter. 

O kikinimawaii nosxau kukina anishindbet/ oma eiHhtnak'i<1ji(j ; 
all the Jiidians of thiw place know my lather, (pairem ineutn.) 

O kikcnimignican nossan kakina ((iu.'</nimhrg (una cndauakidjig ; 
my father (pater mens) knows all the Indians of this place. 

Fn these two sentences, the second third person is always 
nosftan ; hut in the lirst sentence iio^san expresses the arrusatwe, 
(pafrein nieum,) and in the second it cvpresses the nominative, 
(pater incus.) (See Remark after the paradigm of the Passive 
Voice in the iv. Conj.) 

3. Thi'*d third person. ' 

When there are three third persons in a sentence, one of tliem 
is the .strond third person (according to the construction of the 
verb,) and the third third person is that which has the nearest 
report to the second. F. '. , 

Joseph () (ji-odapi nam A lodj'iian oi/iniijaie, (or offiniwau,) mi 
dash ija-iji-niadjad ; Joseph took the Child and his mother, 
ami departed. 

In this sentence, Alnnodjuan is the second third person, and 
otjini the third third person. 

Remark. Sometimes there are three and more third persons 
in a sentence ; hut if all are in equal and immediate relation to 
one, this one is the third person simple, and all the others are 
second third persons, and there is no third third person in the 
sentence. F. i. 

Kitchi oi/ima Flerodc nil>iwa o f/i-ni.t.'ian ahinodjiian, nifnwa gaie 
ininiwan, oshkinawen, ikn^ewan t/aie o(jinissan ; King Herod 
slew nuuiy children, and he also slew nuxny men, young men, 
and women. 

Aw Wemitigoji o mino Inimian, o.sinissan, wiwan, oniilJanis.'^an, 
mtan ifaie ; that Frenchman takes well care of his father-in- 
law, of his wife, children and brotlipr-in-law. 



11 



— Ti- 



ll! these two sentences, Herode and Wemitigoji, are simple 
third persons ; all the rest are second third persons ; there is no 
third third person. 

- Formation of the second and third third person. 

A. Fot^naiion of the BQCOYiA third person. 

This person is formed by adding certain terminations to the 
singular of the third person simple. These terminations are 
seven in number, viz: n, an, ian, in, oian, on, wan. We Hhall 
consider them in examples. (Breve iter per exempla, longum 
per pruicepta.) 

Term. Siynple third person, 

n. Anishindbe, Indian, (qr man,) 



Manito, spirit, 

0<jim<i, chief, 

Joniia, silver, money, 
an. Noss, my father, 

Ninidjdniss, my child, 

Gijik, cedar, 

Mnd 6(jimam, my chief, 

Pijikins, calf, 
ian. Ninyd, my mother, 

KiinissS, thy sister, 

NissaiS, my brother, 

Senibd, ribbon, 

Gil/6, fish, 
in. Jinyoh, fir-tree, 

Op'in, potatoe, 

Nisstm, my daughter-in-law, 

Nishkdnj, my nail, 
■oian. (In proper names :) Monaogidig, 

Kitchigijig, 

Maniiogisisa, 

tfewassang, 
on. Ninim, my sister-in-law. 



Second third person. 

anishindhen. 
maniton. 
ogiman. 
joniian. 
nossan. 
ninidjdnissan. 
gijikan. 

nind ogimaman. 
pijikinsan. 
ningdian. 
kimi.sseian. 
nissaiSian. 
senihdian. 
gigoian. 
jingobin. 
opinin. 
nissimin. 
nishkanjin. 
Mo nsogidigoian . 
Kitchigijigoian. 
Manitogisissoian . 
Wewassangoian. 
ninimon. 

6 



rw 



-^ 72 — 



Term. Simple third person. 

Miiif/, tree, 
Amm, mean dog, 
Andtuj, star, 
wan. Anjeni, aiigcl, 

Weniitijfoji, Frenchman , 
Ininiy man, 
IkipS, woman, 
Amiky beaver, 



Second third person^ 

mitigon. 
animon. 
an any on. 
Anjenitran. 
Wemi ligojiwan . 
ininiwan. 
ikweican. 
amikwan. 



The general and invariable rule for tJie application of these 
different terminations, in forming the second third person, ia^ 
to change the letter //, in which all animate Hubstantives end in 
the plural, into n. (Examine the above examples.) 

B. Formation of the third third person. 

The third third person always terminates in ini, except in 
spme pntper Indian names, where it ends in am. Thiw person 
is formed front the second third person. Let ne examine the 
above seven terminations of the second third person, and see 
how the third third person is obtained from them. 

1. To the terjninations n, in, on, add ini, for the third third per- 
son. F. i. Manitnn, manitonini. Nis.timin, ni.^.stminitii. Mi- 
tigon, mitigonini. 

2. The terminations AM, and ian, are changed into ini. F. i. 
fpoHsnn, tCosHini. Ossan, onsini. Vgwiasan, ogtcissini. Ki- 
mianeian, kiminneini. (Sometimes the syllable ican is here 
added, as : Onainiwan, n\m.Hinimtn, ogwinttiniwan, etc.) 

3. The termination oian (in proper name.'') adt^s * for the third 
third ^lerson. F. i. Manitogi.ni.tsoian, JUanttoguihnioiani. Mon- 
sogidigoian , Monnogidigoian i. 

4. The tenninatioii jr^*/* is chunLr"d into irini. F. i. Wemitigo- 
Jiwan, Wemitigojiwini. Ikwaran, ihrewinl. Witean, wiwini. 
— Exception. Ogin, his niother, takes only t for the third 
third person: ogfwu", sometimes <<j^»rti4oo»». 



! i 
I 



.1 



73 — 



This distinction of tlirec tliird pcrpoiis is one of the beauties 
and perfections of the Otchipwe language. It contriltutes mate- 
rially to the unequivocal understanding of the whole sentence; 
whereas in English and in other languages we are sometimes 
obliged to insert a proper name or another word to avoid misun- 
derstanding. 

Illustration. In the sentence : Paul is indeed a wicked man, 
he almost killed his brother and his wife; you cannot know 
whether Patil almost killed his own wife, or his brother's wife; 
botli senses can be understood in (he above sentence ; and when 
it becomes necessary to avoid inisxmderstanding, you must in- 
sert Paul's name, or some other word, and say : he almost killed 
his { '^anPs) wife ; or, he almost killed his brother and his own 
wife. And if you want to say that Paul almost killed liis bro- 
ther's wife, you have to say : he almost killed his brother and 
his brother's wife. This double sense of the sentence is avoided 
in the expressive Otchipwe language, by the third third |)erson. 
They will say : Paul geget matchi ininiwi, getja ogi-nis.<tan os- 
aaieiauy wiwini (or wiwlniwan) gaie. The third third person, 
wiwini, can only mean Paul's brother's wife ; because if Paul's 
wife be meant, it would beiwitroH, the seconti third person ; and 
then it w uld read : gega o (fi-nissan ossaieian, wiwan gain; he 
almost killed his brother and his (Paul's) wife. 

Another illustration. In the sentence : Han/ is a very indus- 
trious woman, she alicai/s helps her cousin and her mother ; you' 
cannot know with certainty, whose mother is meant. It can be 
Mary's mother, or her cousin's mother. In Otchipwe there can 
be no double sense in such sentences. If you say Marie kitchi 
nita-anoki, niojag o widakawan odangosheian, ogin gate; it is 
clear that you want to say, Mary always help.- her cousin, and 
her own (Mary's) mother. But if you say Marie mojag o widokor 
wan odangosheian, ogini gaie; it is clear that Mary always 
helps her cousin and her cousin's motlicr. 

Remark. The third person appears sometimes even in inani- 
mate substantives with possessive pronouns ; but it is not so 






lii-'f 



i^, t 



h 1 

i 

8 



JiS 



VJ '■ 



— li — 

commonly u»c<J, nor s<> important as in animate substantives 
with po88C8fiivepi'unuun8. 

Examples. 

Enamiad weweni o (jad-oddpinamawan Jesnsan wiidwini ; tiie 
ChriHtian ou<icl»t to receive worthily the body of Jeeus. [Ena- 
miady simple third i^erson ; }e.nisan, second third person 5 
wiidwini, third third person.) 

Deb€nji(j('.d <> b(tni</idctauHin aianwenindixonidjin bdtudowinini 
(or o bdtddoivininiwan ;) the Lord Ibrgives their sins to those 
that repent. {Debendjiijed, simple third p rson ; aianuu nin- 
disonidjin, second third per.son ; o bdtddowinlni, (or o bdld- 
dowininiwan), third third person. 

Kitchitwd Marie dpitchi toeweni o yi-yatiawendamawan Jenusan 
od ikitoicinini ; St. Mary kept very well the word of Jesus. 

Nind awii[i div ikwe odanan od onayaniniican ; that woman 
lendrt me her daughter's dishes. 

III. DEMONSTRATIVE I'UOXOUNS. 

Oemnnsfrative Pronouns are those that indicate or point out 
the persons or things spoken of. They are divided according to 
the two classes of sub.'^tantives or nouns, in those that refer to 
■animate substantives, and those that have report to inanimate. 

1. First Class : Demonstrative Pronouns referring to 
animate ot>Jects. 

For near objects. 
ISing. Ato, icaaw, mdbam ; this, this one, this here. 
Plur. OgdWfVidmitj ; these, these here. 

For distant objects. 
Sing. Aw, that, that one, that there. 

(For the second third pers. ; iniw, or aniw.) 
Plur. Igiw, or agiw, those, those there. 

(For the second third pers. : iniw, or aniw.) 

Remark. There is no ditference of sex perceptible in the Ot- 



f 'i 



— 75 — 

chipwedemonstrntive pronomiH. The snine pronoun is employ- 
0(1 to refer to a nmn, a wonmn, a chiM, or even a lifeleps object, 
when it is used in Otchipwe like a living being. 'See p. 14, 15, Ifi.) 

Examples. 






MAhmi Ahhunlji (a-ki(rhi-d(/oniPeiawa ; this child slmll be much 

spoken again^. 
Mi (IIP inini drbcnimad iniw mant.s/if/inishnn ; this is the man 

that owns those sheep. 
Mi mdmiij ninidjunisnay, iniw daJth nijishe onidjdnittsnn ; these 

here are n>y children, ami those there my uncle's children. 
Memin<laf/e mo inini jftu'endaijoxi, eji-mino-ejiircbinid ; this man 

(or that man) is really happy, being so good. 
Mi mnbum pak'wrji(/(ni !/iJi</(>ii(/ tcendjibad ; this is the bread 

which comes down fmm heaven. 
Kid ashamin oyow mishiminay ; I give thee these apples here to 

eat. 
Aw ikwe wewdni o i, '^/iicegian onidjanissan ; tliis woman brings 

well up her children. 
Kitchi mawishki • v.« ikwesens ; this little girl is always 

crying. 
Kawin na hi nnnddwaasig mamig ngimag ekitowad ? Dost thoui 

not hear these chiefs what they say ? 
Igiw ikwewag kitchi nitd-nagamowag ; tho.se women are good' 

singers. 
Ki sitdtawag na ogow ininiwag 'f ngow nshkinmoeg ? Dost 

"• ou understand these men here ? these young men here? 
Nin kikenimaaw inini wedi beviossed ; I know that man that 

walks there. 
Nin sCigid aw kwiwisens aitipitchi-nibwCtk&d ; I like that very 

wise boy. 
IPoss dibeniman iniw pijikiwan ; my father is the owner of this 

ox, (or these oxen,) (this cow, or these cows.) 
Mi sa igiw, odenang ged-ijddjig ; those are the persons tliat will 

go to town. 



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— 76 — 

Kakma iyiw aniahin/ibeg ningoting ia-anamiawag ; all those lu- 
(JiaiiH will once be Christians. 

2. Second Chms : Demonstrative Pronounn referring to inani- 
mate objects. 

For ntar objects. 

Sing. Ow, mdndaii ; this, thi« here. 
Plur. Onow,iniw ; these, tluse here. 

For diSf( xi objects. 

Sing. Jw, that, that there. 
Plur. Jniw, those, those there. 

EXA.MPI,ES. 

Nin kitchi sagiion oic masinaigan, ow gaie ojihiigan ; I like very 

tnuch this book, and this writing. 
Wegonen tndndan? Ka na wika ki tvdbandansin ? What is this ? 

Hast thou never seen it? 
Ki nissitdwinan na iw ? Dost thou know that ? (or recognize it ?) 
Nin manddjiion mdndan anamiewiganiig ; I respect (I honor) 

this church. 
Nin kitchi minotdnan iniw nagamonan ; I like very much to 

hear those hymnn. 
Onow ki minin masindiganan ; mind indbadjiton ; I give thee 

these books here ; make a good use of them. 
Nin gi-majnakddendan iw kitchi anamiewiganiig Moniang eteg ; 

I admired that great church in Montreal. 
Maididokan iniw apabiwinan; carry away these chairs (or 

benches). 

IV. INTERROOATIVE PRONOUNS. 

■■•>\:'- - ; ■ -' ■■'''',. 

Interrogative Pronouns are tho.se that serve to ask questions. 
There are three ol' this kind in the Otchipwe language, viz : 
For animate objects: Awenen? who? which? what? Plur: 

Aiomenag ? 
For inanimate ohjactB. Wegonen? Aniti? what? 



— 77 — 
Examples. 

Aw4nen ge-dibakoninang gi-ishkwa-biniddUiiang aking ? Who 

will judge us after our life on eartli ? 
Awenen gijigong qed-^jad ? Who shall go to heaven ? 
Aw^nenag wedl hemishkadjig ? Who are those in that cauoetliere? 
Awmenag igiw negamodjigf Who are tliose that sing ? 
Wegonen nnidgatawendaman ? What art thou thinking on? (or 

contemplating?) 
Wegonen iw ckitoieg ? What are you saying? 
Wegonen ge-dodang aicjia tchi jdwenddgosid kdgigt'kamig ? 

What has a i)erson to «lo in order to be happy eternally ? 
Ininiwidog, nikdtiisshiddog ! anin ged-iJiiclUgeidng ? Men, bre- 
thren ! what shall we do ? 
Anin ckitoian ? What sayest thou? ' 

Anin endkamigak ? What is the news ? 

Remark. The second third person o{ awenen and awnienag, is 
aiciinenan, which exactly expresses the English whom. F. i. 
Awenenan ga~aiinnddjin Jenus tchi gagikwenid enigokwag ak\ ? 
Whom did Jesus employ to preach every where on earth ? 
Awenenan Jesus ga-apitchi-sdgiadjin 7ninik ga-dashinid o klki- 

noamdganan 'f Whom did Jesus especially love among all his 

disciples ? 
Awenenan ga-mawadissddjin kishime piichindgo ? Whom did 

thy brother visit yesterday ? 



V. IXDEFINITIVE PRONOUNS. 

Indeftniticc Pronouns are those which denote persons or 
things indefinitely or generally. There are four of this descrip- 
tion in tlie Otcliipwe language ; viz : 

For animate objects. 
Awiia, one, somebody, some person, any body. 
Ka awiia, or kawin awiia, none, nobody, no person. 
Awegtcen, whoever, or whosoever, I don't know who. Plural : 

awdgwenag. 

For manma^e objects, ''■-■ ? 

Wegotogwen, whatever, or whatsoever, all, I don't know what. 



f 



! i 






1 

I 



— 78 — 

KXAMPI.KS. 

Atciia o pakiUUm ishkic/itidem; Homcliody knockH on the door. 

Awiia na nid /i<i\vtilfhiniiY Is tlioro any hotly without? 

Kawin atriia vins/n datfirifi/iiiisi ; n(ih<Hly (or no person) Uax ar. 

rivetl yet. 
Kawin (iiriia o )h1-)/(i.s/ikHo.<tsin, i\ij {/e-fh'hniimi</(»ljin trhi ann- 

/iifmrad ; nolxxly cun MTve two niUHtcrH. 
Awiu/iiu'it i/(^nis/ik(hlisitnuui(/tren inktiiiinndn anislut, iamotrhi- 

dodam ; whosoever h hall he an j;ry with \\'\n l»rolher without a 

cause, will tloevil. 
(he (t yi-iinin Ji.siis n kikhuuimfiijanau: Airrfpren (/<^ifn.<tsiam/iweff' 

wen o iKiti'idniriiiini, mi aw (/c-i/d.ssiif/tnh'iiiff. Jesus siiid to hin 

disciplei; : Whose Htjever sins you remit, they are remitted 

\into them. 
Wcr/ntf)(/wi'ii (jc-iiaiidotain/iw/i(jwen. Wenssimind nind 'ijinik/fso- 

winiihf, ki (fa-iiiiuiifttW(i ; kid iijuuaii Jenuit. .Fesup says \into 

us: Whatsoever you shall ask the Father in my name, \\v 

will jrive it yt)U. 
Wigot<i</wen wwikifiH/weii, kawin nin niasifotdwassi ; I don't 

know what he wants to say ; I don't understand him. 

Itemark \, The second third iwrmm of a wetf wen and aweywe- 
nag, is aioeyjrcHfnj, which is expressed in Enjilish l»y : I <lon't 
know who, <»r, we don't know \tho. F. i. 
Aw^gwenan ga-^wuhiigogwenan aw ga-gahibingwe-nigipan ; gi- 

ikitowan onigiigon. We don't know who haij opened the eyes 

of this horn hiind, said his parents. 
Awegwenan ga-hi-ganonigogwenan ni.ihiine; geget nongom mino 

ijiwihisi. I do not know who came and spoke to nsy hrother ; 

he hehaves now well. 

liemark 2. If you are asked : Awenen aw ."Who is this or that 
person ? C >, awenenag ogow ? or, igiw ? Who are these or those 
persons ? And if you don't know, you will have to answer, for 
the singular : Axcfgwen ; and for the plural : Awegwetuty ; wliich. 
both signify, I don't know who. F. i. 



— 79 — 

Awtnen aw badAssamonfied y Awegwen. Who is that person 

there coining thiH wny ? I iloji't know. 
Avuenen nw ikwe (ja-hHJad oma ji'ba ? Aweywen. Who is that 

woman that cunie liere tliifl inorniiij;? I don't know. 
Awniftiat/ f/e-m/itfjnilji(f tr/ihan;/':' Awetfirena;/. Who are tljo«e 

that will ."itart to-iiit»rrow ? I doii't know. 
Awnicua;/ itfiw j/a-fpojixcilji;/ jntrhinnno '* Awajwenag. Who are 

those tliat have lioon a hunfinj; yeHtenhiy? I don't know. 

The second third pernon oCthis word of annwer is Awn/ivenan, 
Tor hoth the Hiii^rnlar anil plnnil. F. i. 
Airi'iivnan un-aituwuiiiiadjin itimislwme ? Airegweyan. Whom 

diti my tmele reprimand? i d«tn't kn^>w. 
AipeneiKin ya-hi-ifuuonujddjin nixfih)ief Aweywenan. Who came 

and .Mpoke to my brother ? I don't know. 



Before we clothe tlie Chapter of Pronouns we must observe 
that there are no relathe jtronouus in the Otchipwe lanjruage. 
The sentencen in which there are relative jtronouns in English^ 
(who, which, that, what,^ are given in Otchipwe by what \h call- 
ed, in this (iramnuir, '* The. Chnnye ttfthe firxt voiotl," forming 
chieriy participles. We have already employed this " Chaiye** 
in some e.\an>ple.«, but we liave had till now no opportunity of 
mentioning it ; and even now we mention it only because the 
relative pronouns are always expressed by the Chanye. But in 
the next Chapter, towards the end of the first Conjugation, you 
will tind a full explanation of it. This explanation naturally 
belongs to the Chapter of Verbs, because the Chanye never oc- 
curs but in verbs. 

Here are a few examples in whicli you will see how the sen- 
tences with relative pronouns are given in Otchipwe. All this, 
however, you will better understand when you study it again 
after a careful perusal of the next Chapter. 

Kije-Manito mist yeyo, ga-yyilod, mist yego yaie mdninang, we- 
nidjAnissiiijin ki sdyiiyonan ; God ir/io made all things, and 
who gives us all, loves us like children. 



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Jdwenddgosiioag waidbandangig waidbandameg ; blessed are 

they who see what you see. 
Jdwenddgosi daiebwetang dno wdbandansig ; blessed is he thai 

believes although he sees not. 
Ininiwag ga-dno-nandomindjig, kawin gi-bi-ijdssiwag ; the men 

that have been called, did not come. 
Jnini ga-wdbamag, ga-ganonag gate The man thai I have 

seen, and whom I have spoken to 

Oshkinawe endnad gi-bi-ija omajeba; the young man lohom 

thou employest, came here this morning. 
}kwe wddigemag ; the woman to ivhom I am married. 
Inini wddigemag ; the man to whom I am married. 



CHAPTER III. 




OF VERBS. 

A Verb is that part of speech which expresses an action or 
state, and the circumstances of time in events, or in a being. 

The being which does or receives the action expressed by the 
verb, is called its subject ; and the being to which relates the 
action, in some verbs, is called its object. 

The verb is the principal and most important part of speech, 
especially in tlie Otchipwe language, which is a language of 
verbs. 

DIVISION OF VERBS. 

The principal grammatical division of verbs is in two classes, 
transitice and intransitive. Each of these two classes has its 
subdivisions, which are detailed here. It was necessary to give 
to some sorts of verbs peculiar names, which do not occur in 
other Grammars. But in the Grammar of the Otchipwe lan- 
guage, which differs so much from other languages in its gram- 
matical system, it seemed necessary to establish distinct deno- 
minations for certain peculiar kinds of verbs. 



— 81 — 



TRANSITIVE VERBS. 



1. Active verbs, or transitive-proper, express an act done (or 
that could be done) by one person or thing to another. F. i. 
Nin sdgia noss, I love my father. Nind ojibian masinaigan, I 
write a letter. Nin da-ganona lodhamag, I would speak to him 
if I saw him. 

2. Reciprocal verbs are those which designate a reaction of 
the subject on itself. F. i. Nin kikenindis, I know myself. Sd- 
giidiso, he loves himself. Kitinidgiidisowag, they make them- 
selves poor. 

3. Communicative verbs. So are called the verbs that express 
a mutual action of several subjects upon each other, in a com- 
municative manner. These verbs have only the plural number. 
F. i. Igiw nitam ga-bi-anamiddjig, weweni gi-sdgiidiwag, gi-jdwe- 
nindiwag, mojag gi-mino-dodddiwag. The first Christians loved 
much each other, were charitable to each other, and treated 
each other well. — It must, however, be remarked, that these 
verbs do not always signify a mutual action of several subjects 
upon each other ; but sometimes they mean that the siibjects of 
the verb act together, or are influenced together, in a common or 
communicative manner. F. i. Nin tibaamddimin, we are paid 
together. Nimiidiwag, they are dancing together. Widjindmag, 
they are going together. 

4. Personifying verbs. We call, in this Grannnar, those verbs 
personifying, which represent an inanimate object acting like a 
person, or another animate being. F. i. Nishtigicdn nin nissigon, 
my head kills me, (I have a violent head-ache.) Masinaigan nin 
gi-bi-odissigon, a letter came to me. Ninde ki nandawenimigon, 
my heart desires thee. Jshkotewdbo ki makamigon kakina kid 
aiiman, ardent liquor (fire-water) is robbing thee of ail thy 
things. 

There is yet another kind of personifying verbs, which arc 
formed by adding magad to the third person singular present, 
indicative, of verbs belonging to the I., II., and III. Conjuga- 
tions, These verbs give likewise to inanimate objects the acti- 



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— 82 — 



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vity or quality of a person, or another animate being. F. i. Ijd- 
magad, it goes, (//«, he goes.) Ndhikwiln bibonishimagad oma, a 
vessel winters here, (Inbonishi, he winters.) Mandan masinai- 
gan jdgandshhnnmagad, this book speaks English, (jdgandshi- 
mo, hespeak.s English.) 

liemark 1. When the third person singular, above mentioned, 
ends in a consomaU, you must first add to this third person the 
mutative vowel, and then the termination magad, to form these 
personifying verbs. The mutative vowel is that in which ends 
the third person singular, present, indicative; or with which 
commences the termination of the third person jpZ?«'aZ. F. i. Nin 
ikkit, I say ; third per.'^on singular, ikkito, he says ; this o is the 
mutative vowel. If you annex ?wa(/a<Z to this o, you will have 
the personifying verb ikkitomagad, it says. But when the said 
third person singtilar ends in a consonant, you have to go to the 
third person plural, and see its conjugational termination ; and 
the vowel with which this termination begins, is our mutative 
vowel. F. i. Dagwishin, he arrives ; the third person plural is, 
dagivinhinog ; now this o is the mutative vowel ; and now add 
to this the termination magad, and you will have the personi- 
fying verb dagunshinomagad, it arrives, it comes on. In sub- 
stantives the mutative vowel appears in the termination of the 
plural. F. i. Anang,a. star; plural, anangog-, o is its mutative 
vowel. Assin, a stone ; plural, assin'ig ; i is its mutative vowel. 
Biwdbik ; biwdbikon. 

liejnark 2. Sometimes abbreviations are employed in the for- 
mation of these verbs. F. i. Kitimdgisi, he is poor. According 
to the rule we ought to form the personifying verb by adding 
magad to this third person, and say, kitimdgisimagad ; but they 
say, hitimdgad, it is poor. Kitimdgad endaidn, my dwelling is 
poor. Kitimdgad nind agiviwin, my clothing is poor. 

B. INTRANSITIVE VERBS. 



; 



1. Neuter verbs, or intransitive-proper, are those verbs that 
express a stale of being, or an action not going over on any ob- 
ect. F. i. Nin kashkendam, I am sorrowful, sad. Kid dkkos. 



— 83 — 



thou art sick. Minwendam, he is contented, glad, happy. Nihd, 
he 8leep.s. These are intransitive verbs, becau.se they express a 
state of being. The Ibllowing express an action confined to the 
actor, not passing over on any subject, and are therefore intran- 
sitive. Nin mddja, I depart, I start. Ki dagwishin, thou arriv- 
est. Wdbange, he is looking on. Anishindhewidjige, he lives 
and acts like an Indian. 



too much dancing, [mmi, 
are in the habit of lying. 

3. Substantioe verbs are 



2. Reproaching verb.s. So are called here tlie verbs which 
signify that the subject thereof has some reproachful habit or 
quality. F. i. Aiv kwiwisens 7iibdshki, this boy likes too much 
sleeping, (nibd, he sleeps.) Nimisse nimishki, my sister likes 

she dances.) Gindwiskkiwag, they 
Gimodishki, he is a thief. 

those that are formed directly from 
substantives. F. i. Aking gi-ondji-ojitchigdde kiiaw, minawa 
dash ki gad-akiw ; out of earth was formed thy body, and tliou 
shalt be earth again. [Aki, earth ; nind akiw, I am earth ; aki- 
wi, he is earth.) Lot wiwan giabandbhvan, mi dash ga-iji-jiwi- 
tdgaimvinid ; Lot's wife looked back and became salt (a pillar of 
salt.) [Hwitdgan, salt ; nin jiwitdganiw, I am salt ; jiwitdga- 
niwi, he {she) is salt.) Nlnd aniahindbew ; nind ininiw; nind 
ikwew. 

4. Abundance-verbs. These verbs are likewise formed from 
substantives, and they designate that there is abundance of the 
object signified by the substantive from which they are formed. 
They all end in ka, and are unipersonal verbs, belonging to the 
VII. Conjugation. F. i. Nibika oma, there is much water here. 
Anishindbeka wedi, there are many Indians there. Tibikong gi- 
kitchi-anangoka, last night there was plenty of stars, (many 
stars were visible.) Assinika, there is abundance of stone. Gi- 
goika, there is plenty of fish. 

5. Unipersonal verbs are those that have only the third person. 
The verbs of the preceding number are unipersonal verbs. These 
verbs are commonly called by Grammarians i/npersonaZ ; but 
the term unipersonal is undoubtedly more adapted to them; 
because they are not entirely destitute of persons, but they have 



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— 84 



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only one ; so tliey are ratlier unipersonal thanx impersonal. P. i. 
Kissind or kisHlndmaijad, it is cold. Kijdte, or kijdtemagad, it 
is warm. Gimiwan, it rains. Sanagad, it is difficult. 

6. Defective verbs are those that want some of the tenses and 
persons, which the use does not admit. F. i. Jwa, he says, 
(inquit). Nin dind, I am, I do; ania endiian? how do you do ? 

There are many other kinds, or rather modifications of verbs, 
of which we will speak after all the Conjugations, under the 
h.QVi,di oi Formation of Verbs. 

There are no auxiliary, or helping verbs, in the Otchipwe lan- 
guage. The verbs of all the Conjugations of this Grammar are 
inflected or conjugated by themselves without the help of any 
other verb.s. Tlie verbs to he and to have, which are auxiliary 
verbs in other languages, are principal verbs in the Otchipwe 
language. In.stead of auxiliary verbs, the Otchipwe verbs take 
certain prefixes or signs in certain moods and tenses. 

There are five prefixes, or signs, in the Otchipwe Conjuga- 
tions, by which the different moods and tenses are distinguish- 
ed ; viz : ga--, ge~, gi-, da^, ta-. 

Ga-, (pronounced almost ka,-,] for the perfect and pluperfect 
tenses, (in the Change,) and participle perfect and pluperfect. 
Ga-, [gad-,] and ta-, for the future tense indicative. 
Ge-, {g^d,) (pronounced almost ke-, ked-,) for the future tenses, 

subjunctive, and participle future. 
Gi~, for the perfect and pluperfect tenses. 
Do/-, for the conditional mood. 

Remark. The English language has also several signs which 
are employed in the Conjugation of verbs ; as, will, would, 
shall, should, ought, etc. But there is a great difference, in re- 
gard to the use of signs, between the two languages. The Eng- 
lish signs are sometimes 'used by themselves, separately from 
their verbs ; and one sign may serve for several subsequent 
verbs. Not so in Otchipwe. In this language the signs always 
remain attached to the verb, and can never be used separately ; 
and the sign must be repeated before every verb which stands 
under the influence of the same. 



ii: I 



— 85 — 



This remark is rather a syntactical one ; but speaking liere of 
these signs, as attached to verbs etymologically , I make it here. 
You will better understand it when you return to it after the at- 
tentive perusal of the long Chapter of Verbs, 



SOME ILLUSTRATING EXAMPLES. 

In ^H^Zis^ you would say : I will work to-morrow ail{*V' ; in- 
deed I will. Here the sign ti>iZ^ stands alone, separate^ from 
its verb, only referring to it. 

But in OicMjnve you must say: Nin gad-anoki wdhang kabe- 
gijig ; geget nin gad-anoki. You cannot put the sign only 
and say : Geget nin gad. The sign can never be used separa- 
tely from its verb ; it must remain attached to it ; you must 
say: Gegetnin gad-ayioki. 

So again you would say in English : He ought to pay thee ; yes, 
he ought. The sign ought is separated from its verb. 

In Otchipioe you have to say : Ki da dibaatnag sa. E, ki da di- 
baamag. — The sign dor-, remains attached to its verbs. 

In the following example you will see how the Otchipwe sign 
must be repeated at every verb to which it relates. 

In English you would say, for instance: He would be loved, 
respected, and well treated, if he did not drink so much, — The 
sign wotild be, is put only once for the three subsequent verbs. 

But in Otchipwe you must repeat the sign before every verb, 
and say : Da-sdgia, da-minddenima, da-mino-dodawa gaie, 
osam minikwessig. You see how the sign, dor-, is repeated be- 
fore every verb to which it refers. 

INFLECTION OT VERBS, 

To the inflection of verbs belong voices, forms, moods, tenses, 
7mmbers and persons, and participles. We shall now consider 
each of these articles in particular, and state the peculiarities of 
the Otchipwe Grammar. 



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U. Hi 



— 86 — 

A. Of Voices. 

Voice in verbs shows the relation of the subject of the verb to 
the action, or state of being, expressed by it. We have two 
voices in the Otchipwe verbs ; viz: 

1. The Active Voice, so called because it shows the subject of 
the verb acting upon some object ; as : Mnd ashama bekaded, 
I feed tlie hungry. A7 kikinoamdioag Idnidjdnissag, thou teach- 
€8t thy children. bibdgiman ogin, he calls his mother. 

2. The Passive Voice, so called because it shows the subject of 
the verb in a passive state, acted upon by some person or thing ; 
as : Ashama bekaded, the hungry person is fed. Kikinoammod- 
wag kinidjdnissag, thy children are taught. Wegimid bibdgima, 
the mother is called. 

B. Of Forms. 

There are two forms throughout all our Conjugations, the affir- 
mative and the negative forms. 

1. The Affirmative Form, which shows that some state of exis- 
tence, or some action, is affirmed of the subject ; as : Wdwijen- 
dam, he is joyous. Nm wassitdwendam, I am sad. Kid adissoke, 
thou art telling stories. Gashkigwdsso, she is sewing. 

2. The Negative Form, which shows that some state of exis- 
tence, or some action, of the subject of the verb, is denied ; as : 
Kawin nin nibdssi, I am not asleep. Kawin hi nibdgwessi, thou 
art not thirsty. Kawin bigwdkamigibidjigessiwag, they don't 
plough. 'awin kid agomoetossinoninim, I do not gainsay you. 
Ojibiigessigwa, if they do not write. Anokissig, if he does not 
work. 

Remark. It must be observed, as a peculiarity of the Otchipwe 
Grammar, that throughout all the Conjugations the negative 
form must be distinctly developed, fully displayed, because it is 
80 peculiar, difficult, and varying, that no general rules can be 
abstracted for the formation of it. It must be exactly pointed 
out in every Conjugation, and in every part of it. The negation 
is effected by placing before the pronoun and verb the adverbs 



— 87 — 

lea or kawin, no, not ; or kego, do not, don't. And it is also ex- 
pressed in tlie verb itself. In many cases this latter kind of ne- 
gation only is employed, and tiie above negation-adverbs are not 

used. 

C. Of Moods. 

Mood in verbs is the manner of indicating the state of exis- 
tence, of action, or passion, in subjects. The Otchipvve verbs 
have four moods ; viz : 

1. The Indicative, which simply affirms or denies something,, 
or asks a question ; as ; Pijikiwag oddhiwag, the oxen are draw- 
ing, hauling. Gagiocdihenima, he is tempted. Kawin mdmind- 
disissi, he is not proud. Kawin awiia nin miskamdsui , I don't 
insult anybody. Ki nishk^nima na awiia ? Hast thou angry 
thoughts against anybody ? Kawin 7ia ta-ijdssiioag ? Will they 
not go? 

2. The Subjunctive or Conjunctioey which represents something 
under a doubt, wish, condition, supposition, etc. Verbs in this 
mood are preceded by some conjunction, tchi, kish])in,missawa,. 
etc. ; and they are preceded or followed by another verb not.in 
the subjunctive ; as: Ninminwendam, missaioa kititndgisiidn, I 
am happy, although poor. [Kitimdgisiidn is in the subjunctive 
mood.)- Kiwindamon iw, tchi kikendaman, I tell thee this, that 
tho\i mayst know it. (Kikendaman, subjunctive.) Wdbamad 
kishime, ki gad ina tchi bi-ijad oma; if thou seest thy brother, 
thou wilt tell him to come here. ( Wdbamad, that is kishpin 
wdbamad, if thou see hiin ; kishpin is understood.) 

3. The Conditional, which implies liberty, or possibility of a 
state or action, undei' a certain condition,, expressed in another 
verb in the subjunctive, preceding or following the verb in the 
conditional ; as : Wissinissiwdn nin da-hakade, if I did not eat, 
I would be hungry. [Nin da-bakade, is in the conditional mood.) 
Kishpin kibdkwaigasossig,da-biija ; if he were not in prison, he 
would come. (Da-bi-ija, is in the conditional.) 

Remark. The ^ngVish. potential mood ia expreBsed in Otchip- 
we by the adverb gonima, or kema, perhaps ; which is placed 
before the verb that is in the potential in English, but in Ot- 



y* 



liff 



11 



— 88 — 

cliipwe it remains in the indicative; as: It may rain, gonimd 
ta-gimiwan. He may preach or sing, k^ma ta-gagtkwe, kivia 
gaie tanagauio. But when the Enghsh potential implies condi- 
tion, (which is only understood,) in Otchipwe the conditional is 
employed ; as : I would go, (if. . .) nin da-ija, (kisltpin. . .) You 
should ohey your lather, ki da-babamitaioawa k'oasiwa . . . (if you 
wish to do your duty . . .) 

4. The Imperative, which is used for commanding, exhorting, 
praying, permitting or prohibiting ; as: Doddnitv, do that. Oji- 
ton ow, make this. Enamiangin bimddiHiiog, live like Chris- 
tians. Deb4nimiiang, bonigidetawisldndmga-iji-biiiddiicmg ; Lord, 
forgive us our sins. Mddjdn, go. K^go tnddjdken, don't go. 

lietnark. There is properly speaking, no Infinitive Mood in the 
Otchipwe language. What some believe to be the infinitive, as : 
Ikkitoin, tchi ikkitong, tchi inendaming, etc., is not that mood ; it 
is the indepnitive third person aingnlar ; which may be given in 
English with the indefinitive pronoun one. Better yec it is ex- 
pressed in French and German. F. i. Ikkitom, signifies in French, 
" o/i (ii<," and in German, ^' man sagt." In English we may 
say," one sai/n," or "they say;" but this is not so expressive 
as, ikkitom, or on dit, or man sagt. In the paradigms of the Con- 
jugations we will express this person, at least iu some tenses, in 
French, for such as understand this language. 




D. Of Tenses. 

Tenses in verbs are those modifications of the verb, by whicli 
a distinction of time is marked. There are naturally omy three 
times; viz: the present, the perfect, and the future time. But 
to express more exactly the circumstances of time in events, ac- 
tions, or states of existence, three other distinctions of time have 
been adopted. This makes six tenses we have in Grammar, viz : 

1. The Present, which indicates what is actually existing or 
not existing, going on, or not going on ; as : liejigo Kije-Manito, 
kawin nississiway ; there is one God, there are not three. Nind 
ojibiige, kawin nin babdmossessi ; I am writing, n6t walking 
About. 



89 — 



2. The Imperfect, which represents a state, action, or event, 
as past, or as continuing at a time now past; as: Nind incndCi- 
n&baii tela ijaidn gaie nia ; 1 tliought to go luyaelf too. Wisni- 
niban api pandigeiamj ; he was eating when we came in. Nimisse 
dkoHihan ba-mddjaidn ; nty sister was sick, wlien I started to 
come here. 

3. Till' i'e/ybr^, which represents event , actions or states, as 
completely finished and past ; as: Mnoshe </i nibo ; my aunt is 
dead. (ji-nissdn o pijikiman ; he lias killed his ox. 

4. The Pluperfect, which signifies that an action or event was 
over, when or before another begun, which is also past ; as : 
Nin (ji-ishkwa-ojibii(jendba>i, bwa inadweaninj kitotdyan ; I had 
done writing, before the bell rang. A7 (ji-gijUondban na apdbi- 
win, api pdndiyewad? Fadst thou finished the bench when 
they came in ? 

5. The Future, which represents actions or event.", definitely 
or indefinitely, as yet to come ; as : Wdbang nin ga-bi-ija mina- 
wa ; to-morrow I will come again, [definitely.) Ndyatch nin ga- 
hi-ijaminawa ; by and by I will come again, [indefinitebj.) 

6. The Second Future, which indicates that an action or event 
will be over, when or before another action or event likewise 
future shall come to pass ; as : Kakina ge gi-bimddinidjig akiny 
ta-abitchibdwag, tchi biva dibdkoniding ; all that shall have 
Uved on earth, will rise again before the general judgment. 

E. Of Numbers and Persons. 

The Numbers are two in every tense and mood, the singular 
And the^Zura^. And each number has three Persons, the first, 
the second, and the third. 

The subjects of verbs are ordinarily nouns or pronouns. The 
pronouns that are employed to serye as subjects to verbs, are 
the two personal pronouns, nin, I, me, we ; and ki, thou, thee, 
we, you, us. These two pronouns serve for both sexes and both 
numbers; nin for the first persons, and ki for the second. — The 
third persons have uo personal pronouns in the immediate con- 
nexion with verbs. In some Conjugations, indeed, the third 



'■ , > 






*> 



1 ::.1 



l,ii 



Ml 



!il 



Si 



Hi 

I ■ S" 



— 90 — 

persons are preceded by an o ; but this o does not signify he, she, 
it, or they; it signifies him, her, it, or them, the object of the 
verb. F. i. wdbaman, lie sees him, (her, them.) wdbandan, 
he sees it. wdbandanan, he sees them. This o is also a pos- 
sessive pronoun signifying his, her, its, their, as we liave seen in 
the preceding Ciiapter. 

F. Of Participles. 

A i^ar^icj/j^e is apart or form of the verb, resembhng, at the 
same time, an adjective, and occasionally also a sub8tanti\ 
and has its name from its participating of the qualities of the 
verb, the adjective, and the substantive. 

The Otchipwe participles have two forms, all the i?ix tenses, 
the three persons, and both numbers, singular and plural. 

The two forms of the participles are : 

1 . The Affirmative Form ; as : Gdgitod, speaking, or he that is 
speaking. D^gwishing, he that arrives, arriving. Senagak, what 
is difficult. Wenijishing, what is fair, good, (being fair.) 

2. The Negative Form ; as: Gdgitossig, he that \a not speak- 
ing. D^gwishinsig, he that arrives not, not arriving. Senagas- 
sinok, what is not difficult ; not being difficult. Wenijishinsinogy. 
not being fair, good. 

The six tenses of the participles are the same as stated above ; 
viz ; Thepresent, the imperfect, the perfect, the pluperfect, the 
Juture and the seco7id future ; as: Gagitoidn, I who am speak- 
ing. Gdgitoiamban, thou who wast speaking. Gd-gigitod, he 
who has been speaking. Gd-gigitoidng%ban, we who had been 
speaking. GS-gigitoieg, you who will be speaking. G^-gi-gigi- 
towad, they that will have been speaking. 

Towards the end of the paradigm of the I. Conjugation you 
will find an important Remark on the Otchipwe participles,^ 
which you will please mind well. 

Of the Dubitative. 

The Dubitative or Traditional is used when persons are spok- 
en of, whom the speaker never saw, or who are absent ; or other 



— 91 — 

objects, that he never saw nor experienced hiut.self ; or speaking 
of events which hai)pened not before the eyes or ears of the per- 
son speaking, or sliall come to pass in future ; as : Mi-(ja-ikkitog- 
wen aw akiwesi bwa nibod, so said tlmt old nmn before he died. 
Anindi eidd k'issaie? — Moniang aiddog. Where is tliy brother? 
— He is in Montreal ; (or I think lie is in Montreal, but I am 
not certain.) Ki kikendan na ga-ijiwehadogwen endaieg aivass 
hibonong? Dost thou know what hai)penc'd in your house the 
winter before last? 

Speaking of common uncertain event' or object-*, or of com- 
mon persons absciit, or of times past, we may employ it with 
propriety. For this reason it is also called Traditional. It is 
also employed with the indennitive pronoun awegwen, whoever, 
or who.soever ; as; Atcegiven ged-ikkitogwen. . . . Whoever shall 
say . . . Awegwen ged-ijdgwen . . . Wliosoever shall go . . . 

But what shall we call ihh, Dubitatice, or Traditional? We 
cannot call \t n mood ; it has moods itself, the indicative and 
subjunctive at least. We cannot call it a, form either, because it 
lias itself two forms, the affirmative and the negative. We can- 
not even call it a voice, as we find in it two voices, the active 
and the passive. I think the most appropriate name for it wouk! 
be : Dubitative Conjugation. 

The dubitative Conjugations have not all the tenses and moods 
of the common Conjugations. We shall exhibit in the paradigms 
of the dubitative Conjugations those tenses that are commohly 
used in them. 

Note When we observe the Indians in their speaking, we see 
that they have three manners of expressing themselves, when 
they speak of uncertain, or unseen and unexperienced events or 
persons. 

1. They use the Dubitative, as established in the Dub. Conj. 
of this Grammar F. i. Abidog, he is perhaps in ; gi-mddjddoge- 
nag, they are perhaps gone away. 

2. They use not the Dubitative, but they employ adverbs Ae- 
noting uncertainty ; as, gonimi, ginabatch, in'ikija, all which 



U ^ .:i^ 



— 92 — 



l^' 



¥< >. 



:|l 



i 



III' I^!It"' ' '■- 



dignify perhaps. F. i, Gonima obi, perhaps he is in ; ganabaick 
gi-mddjdivag, perliaps tliey are gone away. 

3, They use the Dubitative and the3e adverbs of uncertainty 
together. F.I. Gonima aW(fo(7, perhaps he is in ; gonima gi~ 
mddjddogenag, perliaps tliey are gone away. 

They have also, for the expression of such phrases, the words 

kiwe and madtv^-, which signify, they say, or, it is said* F. i. 

Gi-nibo kiwe ; or, gi-madwe-nibo, they say he is dead ; Gi-dag- 

wishinog kiwe, or, gi-madtvS-dagi"ishinog, it is said that they 

have come. 

CONJUGATIONS OF VERBS. 

The Conjugation of a verb is a written or recited display of its 
different voices, forms, moods, tenses, numbers and persons, and 
participles. To accommodate and arrange with ease all the dif- 
ferent kinds of verbs of this " language of verbs," we must as- 
sume no less than nine Conjugations. 

Remark I must, however, make here a similar remark, as I 
did in the precv 'ing Chapter, p 50. 1 will lay here in the fol- 
lowing Conjugations, where all kinds of the Otchipwe verbs are 
conjugated at large through o,ll their voices, forms, moods, 
tenses, numbers and persons, and participles, I will lay, I say, a 
full and complete display of them before the eyes of the learner ,• 
because I think that by this method a thorough knowledge of 
the use of the Otchipwe verbs may be easier conveyed to his 
mind and memory, than by any other plan I could think of. 
But I say again here, as I said in the above cited remark, that 
this detailed display of verbs is principally intended to assist the 
beginner, and to show him at once the whole verb in all its in- 
flections. 

The characteristical mark by which verbs are known, to 
which Conjugations they belong, is the *Hrd person singular, 
present, indicative, aflirmative form. Besides this person, the 
quality of the verb must be considered. At the commencement 
of every Conjugation it will be said, which ve hs belong to it. 

The following table shows the nine different Conjugations, and 
the verbs belonging to each of them. 



■t .*^<^. 



93 — 



roKJUOATIOX TABLE. 



Con}. 



I. Conj. 



II. Conj. 



III. Conj. 



IV. Conj. 



V. Conj. 



VI. Conj. 

VII. Conj. 

VIII. Conj. 

IX. Conj. 



Quality of verbs. 



Term of the 
iid. person. 



Iniransitive (or neuter) verl)s, ending 
in a vowel at the 3d. person .sing, 
pres. indie, the reproaching and 
sut>stant.-verhs ; likewise the r<^«- 
procal&.r\dcomiminicatioe,Q\t\\o\\^\\ 
transitive. , 

Intraiuitive verb.'', ending in am at 
the 3d.per8. fing.pre.s. indie, (and 
likewise so at the first person.) 

hitransitwe verbs, ending in in or on 
at the 3d. pers. sing. pres. indie, 
(and likewise so at the first person.) 

Transitive {or active) verbs, animate, 
ending in an at the 3d. person sing. 
pres. indie. ; (at the first person 
in a) 

Transitive verbs, animate, ending in 
?i«ri at the3d. pers. sing. pres. indie, 
(and likewise so at the first per- 
son.) - 

Transitive vei-bs, inanimate ; and the 
personifying. 

Unip^rsonal verbs, ending in a voicel 

Unipersonal verbs, ending in ad. 

Unipersonal verbs, ending in art or in 



a, e, I, 0. 



am. 



in, on. 



an. 



nan. 

(in, en, in, on. 
a, e, i, 0. 
ad. 
an, in. 



iA 



./.'.Ti'^W 



WW 



— 94 



I:: i- fiu j; 



Remark. The order of lliese Conjugations may appear singu- 
lar. It is so indeed ; the intransUive verbd precede the transi- 
tive. But this plan and order again I have adopted to accom- 
modate the beginning learner. The Conjugations of the transi- 
tive verbs are much more difficult and complicated than those 
of the intransitive. These are simple and easy ; and may be 
considered as the first steps in the scale of the Otchipwe Conju- 
gations, by which the learner will easily ascend to the more 
difficult ones. But if he had to commence with the Conjuga- 
tions of transitive verbs, he would begin with the most difficult 
and embarrassing of all these Conjugations, with iXxa fourth in 
the above table ; and might possibly be frightened and discour- 
aged. 

I. CONJUGATION. 

To this Conjugation belong the intransitive or neuter verbs 
that end in a oowel at the third person singular, present, indi- 
cative. There are also other verbs ending at the third person, 
in a vowel, but they belong to the VII. Conjugation, being xmi- 
personal verbs. 

This vowel in which ends the third person above mentioned, 
and which is the characteristical mark of the intransitive verbs 
belonging to the I. Conjugation, may be a, e, i, or o. F. i. 



Intransitive verbs. 
Nin mddja, I depart, I start, 
Nin mijagd, I arrive (in a canoe, etc.,) 
Ninjdwendjige, I practice charity, 
Nind ijitchige, I do, I act, 
Nin bos, I embark, 
Nind ab, I am (somewhere,) 
Nin gigit, I speak, 
Nin mindid, I am big. 

To this Conjugation also belong the reciprocal verbs, because 
they all end in o at the third person singular, pres. indie ; as : 
Nin kikenindis, I know myself; kikenindiso. Nin gagwedjindisy 



Third person, 
mddja. 
niijag&. 
jdivendjige.] 
ijitchige. 
bos'i. 
ab'i. 
gtgito. 
mindido. 



— 95 — 



I iask myself ; gagwMjindiso. MnpakiUodis, I strike myself; 
pakit^odiso. The reciprocal verbs are in some respect transitive, 
because they express a reaction of the subject on itself. Still 
they don't belong to the transitive Conjugations, because the 
action of the subject does not go over upon an object, but 
redounds on the same that is acting. 

Likewise do all the commimicative verbs belong to this I. Con- 
jugation, although they are of a real transitive signification. 
They are used only in the plural, where they conjugate exactly 
like intransitive verbs, not bearing any marks of transition in 
their construction ; as : Nin widokodddimin, we help each other ; 
ki widokodddim, loidokodddiwag. Ki pakiteodimin, we strike 
each other ; ki pakiteodim, pakii^odiwag Nin icdbandimin, we 
see each other ; ki wdbandim, wdbandiwag. 

The reproaching verbs and the substantive-verbs are intransi- 
tive, and all end in i at the third person above mentioned, and 
of course belong to this Conjugation ; as: Nin minikweshk, I am 
in the habit of drinking ; minikwcshki. Nin bdpishk, 1 am in 
the habit of laughing ; bdpishki. Nin mitigow, I am wood ; mi' 
tigowi. Nind assiu I am stone ; assiniivi. 

Remark 1. In the paradigms or patterns of the Conjugations, 
the terminations of all the moods and tenses are printed in /?o/rt^an 
the better to show the inflection of the verb. 

Remark 2. In regard to the ditierence between nin and ki, we, 
see Rem. 3, page 42. And in regard to the euphonical d, see Rem. 
1, page 41. These remark.s must be well borne in mind, as they 
will be of use throughout the Conjugations. 

Remark 3. Remember well, dear reader, that in the patterns 
or paradigms of these Conjugations, we don't express both first 
persons plural, nin and ki, (or nind, kid,) we; we put only one, 
ni7i, (or nind;) the other one, ki, (or kid,) is understood. This 
will save many a line in this book. But remember well, that in 
all the forms,in all the moods and tenses of all these Conjugations, 
where there are first persons plural, both can be used, accord- 
ing to the above remarks. So, for instance, instead of saying in 
the paradigm 









r| 



— 96 — 



'..V'^ 






f'W jlll 



we will say thus: 



Nind ikkit, I say, etc. 
kid ikkit y 
ikkiio, 
nind ikkitomin, \ 
kid ikkitom'm , ' 
kidikkifom, 
ikkiiowafr ; 

Nind ikkit, 
kid ikkit, 
ikkitn, 
nind ikkiiomin, we fsay, 
kid ikkitom, 
ikkiiowag. 



And you will have to supply yourself the second first person 
plural, which is ordinarily the same in the verb, the pronoun 
only is different. But where the verb itself differs in the two 
persons plural, there we express thenri both ; as in the subjunc- 
tive mood, in participles, etc. 

Remark 4. In the paradigms of these Conjugations, we express 
the English verb only at the first person singular in every tense, 
and the others will again be supplied by you ; because we don't 
teach here to conjugate in English, but in Otchipwe. 

Remark 5. The characteristical third person of the verbs be- 
longing to this Conjugation, may end in any of the four vowels, 
in a, e, i, or o; and the end-vowel of this third person remains 
throughout the whole Conjugation. To this characteristical 
vowfl the ^ermma^ions are attached; but the vowel itself does 
not belong to the terminations, which are always the same for 
all the verbs of this Conjugation ; whereas the characteristical 
vowel is different in different verbs. In the following four verbs 
the end-vowel of the third person is different in each of them; 
but the terminations are always the same. 



G\ 

0\ 



r " 



lifiii 



— 07 — 

Gaba, he debarks, nin gabuin\n, Jci gabdm, gabdw&g. 
Gdgikinge, he exhorts, nin gdgikingemin, ki gdgikingem, gdgi- 

kingewag. 
Nimi, he dances, nin nimim'in, Mnimim, nimiw&g. 
Nibd, he is dying, nin nibom'm, ki nibom, nibowag. 

Here follows now the paradigm of the I. Conjugation, fully 
displayed. Endeavor especially to commit to memory the ter- 
minations. If you know the terminations, and know the charac 
teristical vowel of the third person sing. pres. indie, you will 
easily conjugate every verb of this Conjugation. This charac- 
teristical third person is sometimes difficult to know. For this 
reason I took a particular care in the Dictionary to express it at- 
every verb. 










,:■.,■, -98- ,, .\ ■ •- 

AFFIRMATIVE FORM. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 
PRESENT TENSE. 

Nind ikkii, I say, 
kid ikkii, 

ikkito, C one says, 
ikkiiom, < (on dit,*) 
nind ikkitomm, v or they say. 
kid ikkitoxw, 
ikkitowag. 

IMPERFECT TENSE. 

Nind ikkifonahan, I ^aid, 
kid ikkitonvihiin, 
ikkitohan, 
nind ikkitoi 1 1 in aban , 
kid ?A'A'/7oniwaban, 
ikkitohsimg. 

PERFECT TEXSE. 

Mn gi-ikkit, I have said, 
ki gi-ikkit, 
gi-ikkito, 

gi-ikkitom, they have said, (on a dit,) 
nin gi-ikkitoiwin, 
ki gi-ikkitom, 
gi-ikkito\vaig. 

PLUPERFECT TENSE. 

Nin gi-ikkitonahsin , \ I had said, 
ki gi-ikkiton aban , 

j-» ■i—'\ /,■• /.■»/» V*-i iAr» «\ 



gi-ikkitohau . 



* See Bemark, p. 88. 



t Note. This pluperfect, and the imperfect tense, are not so sharply distin- 
guisbecl In Otchlpwe, as they are iu Englbh, or la other civilized languages. la 





tl 
C 



Kawin 



a 



Kawin 



a 

(S 



Kawin 



(t 
it 

ft 



Kawin 
u 



— 99 — 
NEGATIVE FORM. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 
PRESENT TENSE. 

7iind ikkitoBsi, I do not say, 
kid ikkitoHs'i, 
ikkitoss'i, 

ikkitosaim, they don't say, (on ne dit pas.y 
nind ikkiiosaimin, 
kid ikkitoas'im, 
ikkitossiwsig. 

IMPERFECT TENSE. 

nind ikkitoss'mahan, I did not say, 
kid iMt^ossinaban, 
ikkitosBihAn , 
nind lAr^i^ossiminaban, 
kid iH-/<ossimwaban, 
iH'i^ossibanig. 

PERFECT TENSE. 

nin gi-ikkito8s\, I have not said, 
ki gi-ikkitossi , 
gi-ikkitosa\, 

gi-ikkitoss'im, they have not said, (on n'a paS' 
nin gi-ikkitoBs\mm, pas dit.) 

ki gi-ikkitoas\m, 
gi-ikkiioasiwa,g. 

PLUPERFECT TENSE. 

nin gi-ikkitoaBinsihan , I had not said, 
ki gi-ikkito8Bineiha,n, 
gi-ikkiioaBiha.n, 



Otchlpwe they are used promiscuously. So, for Instance, to express, " He «a(d,"^ 
the Indian will say Ikkitoban, or gi-ikkitoban, etc. This note applies also to other 
Conjugations. 



11 



n\ 






':vM 



I • 



ill 



i^i! 




11:1 



lii 



— 100 — 

7iin ^i-iH"7ominaban, 
ki gi-ikkitomvfa\)a,n, 
gi-ik/citohaxug. 

FUTURE TENSE. 

Niagad-ikkit, I will say, 
ki gad-ikkU, 
ta-ikkito, 
ta ikkitom, 
nin gad-ikkiton\\n, 
ki gad-ikkitom, 
ia-ikkitowag. 

SECOND FUTURE TENSE. 

Nin ga-gi-ikkit, I will have said, 
ki ga'gi-ikkit, 
ia-gi-ikkito, 
ia-gi-ikkitom, 
nin ga-gi-ikkitonnn, 
ki ga-gi-ikkitom, 
ta-gi-ikkitovfag. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

PRESENT TENSE. 

Ikkitoikn, * I say, or, that I say, 

ikkito'ian, 

ikkitod, 

ikkitong, (qu'on dise,) 

ikkito'ikng, 1 ,i , 

•7 7 M • c that we say, 

ikkitoxang, i •" 

ikkitoieg, . ,; . j, 

ikkitow&d. 



• see ICemark I, p. iio. 



— 101 — 

Kawin iiiii gi-ikkitosmimi&hau , 
" ki (ji-ikkitos^Bimv/ekhiXu, 

" yi-ikkiiossihanig. 



FUTURE TENSK. 

Kawin niii gad-ikkilo8&\, I will not .-ay, 

" ^ki (/ad-ikkitoaa'i, 

" ta-ikkitossi, 

" ia-ikkito:iH\m, 

" niii gad-ikkitoHs'innu , 

" ki <jad-ikkito»Ain\, 

" ta-ikkilviiiiiwag. 



SECOND FUTURE THNSE. 

Kawin nin ga-gi-ikkitoHs\, I will not have said, 

" ki ga-gi-ikkitotiHi, 

" ia-gi-ikkitoBs'i, 

" ta-gi-ikkitosmn , 

" nin ga-gi-ikkitotishn'in , 

" ki ga-gi-ikkitosa'uu, 

" ta-gi-ikkitosa'iwdg. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

PRESENT TENSE. 

/M-i7os8iwan, if I do not say, 

ikkitoaaiwavii 

ikkitosaig, 

ikkitosa'wg, that they say not, (qu'oa ne 

diae pas,) 
iMitossiwang, I ^,^^^ ^^.g 
iA;A;i7o88iwangi J 
ikkitossmeg, 
ikk-itoa8\gwa, 



f 

A 



i 

V 



r 



S:! 






'■■ i 



'll' 



— 102 — 

PERFECT TENSE.* 

(!rHA;/c27oian,t because I have said, or, as 

gi-ikkito'mn, [I have said, 

gi-ikkitod, 

yi-ikkitong, , 

(ji-ikkiiomng,^ j^ ^^^ ^ 

gi-ikkito\a,r\g, > 

gHkkiio'ieg, 

gi-ikkitowskd, 

PLVPEHFECT TENSE. 

Ikkitomrnhkn, if I had said, or because 

I had said. 

ikkUo\aM\h&n, 

ikkitopan , 

ikkitong\han , 

iMi^oiangiban, "I -^ „ 
., , . . , y if we . . . 

^A•A;^/olangooan, J 

ikkiio'iegohan, 

ikkitow&pein, 

FUTURE TENSE. 

Ged-ikkito'i&n, that I will say, 

ged-ikkito'ian, 

ged-ikkitod, 

ged-ikkitong, 

ged-ikkitomng, | ^j^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^ 

gm-ikkitoiang, i 

ged-ikkitoieg, 

g€d-ikkito\\a,d. 

SECOND FUTURE TENSE. 

Ge-gi-ikkitomii, as I shall have said, 

ge-gi-ikkito\a,T], 

ge-gi-ikkitod, 

ge-gi-ikkitong, 



* See Bemark 2, p. 110. 



t See Note, after all the Remarks^ 



— 103 — 



PERFECT TENSE. 



} 



if we 



Gi-ikkitoBsman, I have no- said, or because 

I h&vi net saiJ, 
gi-ikkiioBBiw&n , 
gi-ikkitoBBig, 
f/i-ikkitoBBing, 
gi4kkitoB6iv:&.ng, 
gi-4kkiioB8\w &ng, 
gi-ikkitoBsiv/eg, 
girikkitoSBigwei, 

PLUPERFECT TENSE. 

IkkiioBniwsimh&n, t if I i>ad not said, or had 

I not said, 
iM*«7o88i warn ban , 
t'Mi^ossigoban, 
iA;Ai7o88ingiban, 
iM-t/ossi wangiban , 
t'ArW/ossi wangoban , 
i^A;t7o88iwegoban , 
tA;H<088igwaban, 

FUTURE TENSE. 

Ged-ikkitoasiw&n, that I will not say, 

ged-ikkitoaB\w&n, 

gedrikkitoBBxg, 

ged-ikkitosBing, 

ged4kkitoBBmkng, | ^j^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ 

ged-ikkito8Bi\v&ng, f 

ged-ikkitoaaiweg, 

ged-ikkitoaa\gw&. 

SECOND FUTURE TENSE. 

Ge-gi-ikkiioBBiwsiu, as I shall not liave said, 

ge-gi-dkkiioBBiw&xx , 

ge-gi-ikkitoaaig, 

ge-gi-ikkitoaaing. 



} 



' ''li 






t See Benutrk 3 at the end of thin paradigm. 



■k' i'lM 



.1 



■; 



— 104 — 
g^gi^kkito\&ug, I ^g ^g ^j^^ii g^y 

ge-gi-ikkitoieg, 
ge-gi-ikkitov/eA. 

CONDITIONAL MOOD. 

PRESENT TENSE. 

Nin da-ikkit, I would say, or I ought to say, 
ki da-ikkit, 
da-ikkitOy 

dorikkitom, they would say, (on dirait,) 
nin da-ikkitomin, 
ki da-ikkitom, 
da-ikkito'w&g. 

PERFECT TENSE. 

Nin da-gi-ikkit, I would have said ; I ought to have 

said. 
ki da-gi-ikkit, 

da-gi-ikkito, 

da-gi-ikkitom, 

nin da-gi-ikkitom'\n, 

ki da-gi-ikkitom, 

da-gi-ikkitovf a,g. 



Ge-gi-ikkitomn, what I would have said. 
Etc., as above in the second future tense of the subj. mood. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Ikkiton, ■> ., 

ikkitok&u, ) ' * 

ta-ikkiio, let him, (her, it,) say, 
torikkitom, let them say, (qu'on disc,) 
ikkitoda, let us say, 
ikkitog, ^ 
ikkitoiog, > say, say ye, 
ikkitokeg, ) 
ta-ikkitovf&gy let them say. 



fc '> 



— 106 — 



} 



as we 



ge-gi-ikkitoBBivf&ng, 
(/e-gi-ikkiioBBiwAng, 
<je-gi-ikk i /osei weg, 
ye-gi-ikkitoQBXgwA. 

CONDITIONAL MOOD. 

PRESENT TEXSE. 

Kawin nin da-ikkiioBBiy I would not say; I ought not 
" ki da-ikkitof^ai, [to say, 

da-ikkito8B\, 

da-ikkitosBim, tliey would not say, (on ne 
nin da-ikkitoBBimm, dirait pas.) 

ki da-ikkitoBBim, 



« 



da-iA;A;t7o88i wag. 

PERFECT TENSE. 



Kawin nin da-gi-ikkitoaa'i, I would not have eaid ; I 



tt 



ki da-gi-ikkitoBBi, 
da-gi-ikkitoaax 
da-gi-ikkitoaaim , 
nin dd-gi-ikkitoaahmn, 

ki da-gi-ikkitoaaim f 
da-gi-ikki <08si wag . 



[ought not to have said. 



Ge-gi-ikkito8s'iwSin, what I would n. h. s. 
Etc., as above in the second future tense of the subj. mood. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Kego ikkitoken, * do not say, (thou,) say not. 
kego torikkitoaai, let him (her) not say, 
kego torikkitoaaim, let them not say, (qu'on d dise 
kego ikkitoaaxda, let us not say, pas.) 

kego ikkitokegon, do not say, (you,) say not, 
kego torikkitoaaivf&gflet them not say. 



* See Remark 4 at the end of the present paradigna. 



4' 







— 106 











Remark. The following Otchipwe participles cannot be given 
in English, throughout all the tenses and persons, in the shape 
of participles. There are no such participles in the English 
language. They must be expressed by the use of relative pro- 
nouns. Only the participle of the present tense, in the third 
person singular, could be expressed by a corresponding English 
participle ; as : Ekkitod, saying ; baidpid, laughing, etc. 

The Latin participles of the verbs called, verba deponentia, 
can answer three tenses of the Otchipwe participles, the present, 
the perfect, and the future ; and not only the third person, but, 
by the use of personal pronouns, all persons and numbers. Let 
us take the verb, nin gdgikinge, I exhort, for an example, to il- 
lustrate the matter. It is deponens in Latin, exhortor. 

Participles. 

PRESENT TENSE. 

Nin gegikingeidn, ego exhortans, 
kin gegikingeian, tu exhortans, 
win gegikinged, ille (ilia) exhortans, 
nh. .wind gegikingeidng, l ^^^ e^hortantes. 



kinawind gegikingeiang 



;} 



PARTICIPLES. 



PRESENT TENSE. 



Nin ekkito'xkn, * I saying, (I who say,) 
kin ekkitoxAn, thou saying, etc., 
toin ekkitod, 

ekkitong, what they say, (ce qu'on dit,) 



♦ See Remark 5. 



— 107 ~ 

kinawa gegikingeieg, vos exhortantes, 
winawa gegikingedjig, illi (ilhe) exliortaiites. 



PERFECT TENfE. 



Nin ga-gdgikingeidn, ego exhortatus, (a), 

kin ga-gdglkingeian, tu exhortatus, (a), 

win ga-gdgikinged, ille exhortatus, (illaexhortata), 

jiinawind ga-gagikingeiang, \ ^^^ gxhortati, (£e) 

kinawind ga-gagikingeiang^ i 

'kinawa ga-go ikingeieg, vos exhortati, («), 
winaica ga-giigikingedjig, illi (illce) exhortati, (oe). 



FUTURE TENSE. 



Nin ge-gdgikingddn, ego exhortaturus, (a), 
kin ge-gdgikingeian, tu exhortaturus, (a), 
etc., etc. 

By these examples we see that the following are true Otchip- 
we participles ; but they cannot be given in English, nor in other 
modern languages, in the shape of participles. 






PARTICIPLES. 



PRESENT TENSE. 



Nin €kkit08s\\\'a.n, I not saying, (I who say not,) 
kin ekkito»8\wa.n, thou who dost not say, 
win ekkitoss'ig, 

ekkiioseing, what they don't say (ce qu'on ne dit pas,) 




■■; ■;*,'" 



III 

i ■ 



if!.'! 



— 108 — 

ninawind ekkitomng, | ^^^ ^^^ ^j^^^^ 
kinawind ekkitomng, i 

kinawa ekkitoieg, 

winawa ekkitody\g, t 

IMPERFECT TENSE. 

Nin ekkitoi&mhan , I who said, 
kin eA:A;i<oiamban, 
loin ekkitop&n, 
ekkitongih&n, 
ninaioind eA;A;i<oiangiban, 
kinawind gA-'H^oiangobanj 
kinawa ekkitoiegoha.n, 
winawa €kkitopa,n\g, 



I we who said, 



PERFECT TENSE. 




IM 




Nin ga-ikkitoi&n , 1 who have said, 
kin ga-ikkitoiau , 
winga-ikkitod, 
ga-ikkitowg. 



ninawind ga-ikkito'vdng, \ 

kinawind ga-ikkito\a,ng, > 

kinawa gorikkito'ieg, 

winawa gorikkiiodyig. 



we who have said. 



PLUPERFECT TgNSE. 

Ni7i ga-ikkitoiamlmn , I who had said, 

kin ga-ikkitoia.inha.n, 

win ga-ikkitopa.r\ , 

ga-ikkitongihan , 

ninawind qa-ikkitomngibsin , 1 i i i j 

, . . , .,,.,. , >■ we who had said, 

kinawind gartkkuo\B.ugohii.n, i 

kinawa ga'ikkito'xQgoh&w, 

minawa ga-ikkitopa.mg, 



t See Benutrk, p. 23. 



Sin 



ii; 



— 109 — 

ninawind ekkitoasmkng,)^ ^^ ^j^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^.^ 
kinawind ekkitoaewvang, i 

kinawa ekkitomXwtg, 

winawa ekkitossigogy 

IMPERFECT TENSE. 

Nin eA;A:i<os8i warn ban, I who did not say, 
kin ekkitoashv a,mh&n, 
will eH77o98igoban, 
ekkito9smg[ha,n, 

ninawind ekkitoBamang]han, | ,ve who did not say, 
kinawind eHt'^ossiwangoban, i 

kinaica ekkitosaiwegohan , 

winawa ekkitoaaigoh&mg. 



PERFECT TENSE. 

Nin ga-ikkitoaaiwan, I who have not said, 
kin ga-^kkito?,siwa.l^ , 
win ga-ikkitoaaig, 
ga-ikkitoaa'mg, 
ninaivind ga-ikkito£ai\\a,ngy 
Jcinawind ga-ikkitoaama,ng, 
kinawa ga-ikkitoaa\weg, 
winawa ga-ikkitoaaigog. 



> we who have not said, 



PLUPERFECT TENSE. 

Nin ga'ikkitoaaiw&mha,n , I who had not said, 
kin ga-ikkitoaa\wa.mh&n, 
win ga-ikkiioaa\goha,n, 
ga-ikkiioa8'mgihB,n, 
ninawind ga-ikkitoaa\w&ngih&n, 
kinawind ga-ikkiioaaiw&ngoh&n, 
kinawa ga-ikkitoaaiwegoban, 
winawa ga-ikkiioaaigoh&mg. 



> we who had not said, 






r* 



— 110 — 



iii 



FUTURE TE;S'SE. ': 

Nin ged-ikkitolkn, I who shall say, 
^ kin ged-ikkiio'mn, 

win (jed-ikkitod, 
ged-ikkitong, 
ninawind ged-ikkitomng, 
kinawind gedrikkitoxAng, 
kinawa ged-ikkito\eg, 
winawa ged-ikkiiodyig. 



V we who shall say, 



SECOND FUTURE TENSE. 



Nin ge-gi-ikkitomn, I who shall have said, 
kin ge-gi-ikkiio\&n, 

Etc., as above in the first future. 






Remark I. The conjunctions, kishpin, if ; missawa, though ; 
ichi, that, to, in order to,' and others, are often placed before the 
verbs in the subjunctive mood, to express a condition, supposi- 
tion, wish, etc. But they do not necessarily belong to this mood. 
This is the reason why they are not always laid down in the 
Conjugations. If you say: Kishpin gego ikkitoidn; or only, 
gego ikkitoidn; both expressions have the same signification : 
If I say something. 

Remark 2. There is no imperfect tense \x\ the subjunctive mood. 
The jjZwper/ec^has the grammatical appearance of the imperfecty 
but it is its own construction. 

Remark 3. This pluperfect tense is sometimes preceded by the 
participle gi-, forming : Gi-ikkitoidmban, gi-ikkitoiamban, etc. 
But this particle does not change its signification at all. If you 
say, Kishpin gi-ikkiioidmban iw, ki da-windamon; if I had said 
that, I would tell thee ; or, Kishpin ikkitoidmban iw, ki da-win- 
rfa7«(?n ; it is all the same. ■ •, -.-rv >■ >. .r-- 



- Ill — 



FUTURE TENSE. 



Nin ged-ikkitossivvhu, I who shall not say, 
ki7i ged-ikkiiosfi\v:a,n , 
win ged-ikkitoHHig, 
ged-ikkitos6ing, 
rdnawind ged-ikkitos,Mng, 1 ^^ ^^j^^ ^^^^^ „^^ 
ktnawind ged-ikkitosBiw&Tig, i 
kinaiva ged-ikkitoes'iweg, 
winawa ged-ikkiioBR\gog. 



m 



SECOND FUTURE TENSE. 



li in ge-gi-ikkitoBHiw an, I who shall not have said, 
kin g6-gi-ikkitoss\wan, 
always prefixing ge-gi- to the verb. 



Remark 4. The imperative in the second person singular is 
expressed in two manners, ikkiion and ikkiiokan. The seco/id 
manner, ikkiiokan, seems to be a kind of polite imperative, 
which is expressed in English by preposing the word please to 
the simple imperative, as : Bi-ijdkan oma wdbang, please come 
here to-morrow. (In the plural ikkitdkeg.) 

Remarks. The participles can have ^erso/iaZ pronouns before 
them, and have them often, as: Nin ekkitoidn, kin ekkitoian, 
win ekkitod, etc. But they could also do without them. For 
the better accommodation of the beginner the pronouns are ex- 
pressed in the paradigms of our Conjugations. 

Remark 6. ft is necessary to observe here, that the first per- 
sons of the pZi/raZ, ending in tdn^r or dng, with the circumflex 
accent, are employed in the cases where nin, (nind,) or ninawind, 
is expressed or understood, according to the rules and remarks 
mentioned above, page 42. But in the cases where ki, (kid,) or 
kinawind, is expressed or understood, the termination iang or 
a/tg* has no accent ; it is pronounced very short, and almost as 



U'.- 






i-ii* 



I 

it 



ii 






- 112 - 

ieng or eng. It is necessary to pay attention to tliis difference 
of pronunciation, because it changes the meaning of the sen- 
tence. If you say for instance : Mi wdhang tchi bosiiang ; it 
means that to-morrow we will all embark ; the person or persons 
speaking, and the person or persons spoken to. But if you say : 
Mi wdhang tchi hosiidng, (with the accent on the last syllable,) 
it means that only the persons speaking will embark to-morrow, 
not the person or person spoken to. So also, F. i. 

Enddiung, in our house or dwelling, (the person or persons 
spoken to, excluded.) 

Enddiang, in our house or dwelling, (the person or persons spo- 
ken to, included.) 

Remark 7. Likewise in the first and second persons of the 
singular, ending in idn or an, and ian or an, nothing but the ac- 
cent distinguishes the first person from the second. The termi- 
nation of the first person idn or an, is pronounced long ; whereas 
that of the second person, ian or an, is very short. Let the fol- 
lowing examples be pronounced to you by some person that 
speaks'the Otchipwe language correctly, and try to get the right 
idea of this difference, in writing and pronouncing. 

Ekkitoidn ta-ijiwebad ; it will be (or happen) as I say. 
Ekkitoian ta-ijiwebad; it will be (or happen) as thou say est. 
Apegish enendamdn ijiwebisiidn ; I wish to behave as I please. 
Apegish enendaman ijiwebisiidn ; I wish to behave as thou 

pleasest. 
Apegish enendamdn ijiwebisiian ; I wish thou wouldst behave 

as I please. 
Apegish enendaman ijiwebisiian ; I wish thou wouldst behave as 

thou pleasest. 

If you look on the four last sentences, they would appear, if 
without accents, perfectly equal all of them. And nothing but 
the accent in writing, and the emphasis in pronouncing, effects 
the difference, which you will find material, if you consider the 
English sentences. ■ j . - ■ ^. 



— 113 — 

Remark 8. In regard to the syllable ban, which you will see 
attached to verbs in some tenses, in all our Conjugations, it 
must be observed, that sometimes it is necessary, and must re- 
main with the verb to which it is attached. But sometimes it 
can be omitted without the least change of the meaning or sense 
of the verb to which it is attached, or the sentence in which the 
verb occurs. I have observed the Indians purposely on this 
point, and have noticed it a great many times, that they use or 
omit this syllable as they please, without any intention to effect 
a change of meaning by using, or by omitting it. Let us now 
see when it is necessary, and when it can be omitted. 

1. It is NECESSARY in the imperfect and pluperfect tenses of 
the indicative mood, and the participles, and in the pluperfect 
tense of the subjunctive &nd conditional moods. In all these cases 
the final syllable ban must remain attached to the verb ; as you 
will see in all the Conjugations of this Grammar. 

2. But it can be omitted in the present tense of the subjunc- 
tive mood, and consequently in all the tenses which are formed 
after the present tense, as you will see again in all our Conjuga- 
tions. In these tenses the Indians sometimes attach the syllable 
ban to the verb, and sometimes they do not, which makes no 
difference in the meaning of the verb. 

Examples. 

Kawin nin gashkitossimin tchi bisdn-abiiangidwa (or, abiiangid- 
waban) ninidjdnissinanig. We cannot make our children be 
still. 

Nin da-gi-ina. Mi sa iw ge-gi-inagiban, or, ge-gi-inag. I wouM 
have told him. That is what I would have told him. 

Respecting the annexation of the syllable ban, you have to 
observe that the final letter n of the verb to which ban is to be 
attached, is changed into m; which is always the case, where 
these two letters come together in compositions. 

When the final letter of the verb is g, a vowel is inserted be- 
tween this g and the syllable ban. This vowel is ordinarily i, as 
you see in the ab ^^e examples ; but in some instances the vo- 



*i 






5 . t^ 



lb; ■ . I 



: k 1' 



■ • . _ 114 __ 

wel o is inperted ; as you will see in the Conjugations, in some 
niooda and tenses, where the including first person plural [kina- 
wind) ends in gohan. 

When the final letter of the verb to which the syllable ban is 
to be attached, is d, this letter is taken off', and the syllable j[;aH, 
instead of 6an, is added, _ ... 



Examples. 



He 



He 



Kawinnongom o da-gashkitossin tchi ijad, or, ichi ijapan. 

would not be able to go to-day. 
Kawin gi-inendansi IcM gi-ganojid, or, tchi gi-ganojipan. 

was not willing to'speak to me. 
Kawin gi-inendansiwag tchi gi-ganojiwad, or, tchi gi-ganojiwa 

pan. They were not willing to speak to me. 
Anawi o da-gi-gashkitonawa tchi gi-ojimoicad, or, tchi gi-ojinio- 

wapan. They could have fled away. 

Remark that in all these cases a future time is signified, at 
which some action or event shall take place, although the first 
verb has the full appearance of ih^ perfect tense. (This appear- 
ance of the ^er/et'< could be given also to the English verb ; we 
could say: " As soon as he has made it, he will bring it here." 
Even oi the present : " As soon as he makes it, he will bring it 
here.") 

But >yhen actions or events are signified, which have^w^^^as^, 
the same verb in the Change is employed, (which is the 3d Rule 
ot the Change, p. 122.) To illustrate the matter, let us take the 
same examples as above, applying them to e\ent8 just past. 
Ga-ikkitoidn loenijishing gcgo, nin gi-mddja ; when I Imd saiJ 

(as soon as I had said) something useful, I went away. 
Ga-dagwishinang, ki gi-windamoninim iw ; when we had arrived, 

I told you that. ... . •»: 

Panima ga-nanagatawendamdn) nin gi-gigit ; afterwards, when.I 
had reflected, I spoke. :. > ; . v 

Ambe pasigwida, mddjada, aici-anokida mdmawi; let us rise and 
go and work together. ,, . , ,, . .,,^ 



N 



— 115 — 



Kego matchi ikkitossida, kego matchi ijiwebisissida, ki nondago- 

nan aa, ki icdbamigonan gaie Debendjiged ; let us not say any 

bad words, and let us not act wrong, because the Lord sees us 

and hears us. 
liisdn aidg, wcweni namadabiiog; he still, be pitted quietly. 

Ikogag oma, kwiwisensidog ; mddjag, giicciog ; be gone boys ; 

go away, go liotne. 
Kego wika loairjingekegon, enamiaieg, kego gaie nibiwa masi- 

naigigekegon ; do never cheat. Christians, and do not take 

much on credit. 
Ta-ashamdwag kakina igiw anishindieg ; kego ta-<i''nessiwag 

tchi bwa wissiniwad ; let these Indians have something to eat ; 

let the not go home before they eat. 

PARTICIPLES. 

Persent Tense. — Gagitod ninpisindawa ; I listen to the person 
that speaks, (to the speaking person.) 
Babdmitaw gegikwedjig ; obey the preaching (persons.) 
Netd-bimossedjig nind anonag ; I hire well walking persons. 
Kin enokiian enamiegijigakin, ki gad-dnimis ningoting ; thou 
who workest on Sundays, thou wilt suffer once. 
Kinawa enamiassiweg ki kitimdgisim ; you who are not Chris- 
tians, are miserable. 

Waidbissigog nin kitimdgenimag ; I pity those who do not 
see, (the blind.) 

Imperfect Tense. — Mi igiw anishindbeg enamiapanig ; here 
are the Indians that were Christians. 

Kin etiokissiwamban pitchinago api ba-ijaidn oma, nongom 
enigok anokin; thou who didst not work yesterday when I 
came here, work to-day with all thy force. 
Nin miktoenima ikkiiopan iw ; I remember the person who 
eaid so. 






.. . . .w ' 



* , -r 



« THE CHANGE." 



What is called " The Change" in this Grammar, is one of the 
most difficult parts to understand. 

This ** Change" is made ordinarily on the first vowel or syl- 
lable of the verb or of the adjective, and this vowel or syllable 
is changed in another vowel or syllable, and sometimes in two 
or even three, according to the rules given here. 

The use of the language only can make you comprehend when 
the '* Change" is employed in the phrase. The following table 
will show, how this " Change " is effected. 



' ■*; 



— 117 — 




O V 



V 



s a 

2 O 

M).2 
.S <u 

-d -a 

a X 

CO .3 

O •- 

* .s 









<V 



-« '?S 



2 



,2 



SE 13 



^ ^ 



O 'O 



,3 



c •- « 



« 






-5 J- C* - ** o £ 



Si 



eS JD c 



« sr2 



a> 



§ 



oo 



'5 o ^o o •?» 
* bfl '^i -ca .s 






fcjO '^ j5 



g 



CO 



:§•- 



^ '« QD ^e 'Ts 



vs 



^ S '« 



00 



i -5 s -« ;^ ^ * ;^ 



*j 



a) V 



-<J n-l .« '^ 

8 .ti 



•^ ^ 



c; 



£2 "^ to 



*9 .« 









O' 



,£5 !»i 









^ .2 






<u 



30 



:§ 



V3 



'9i 






S 






<x> 



(1> 



-3 



V 



UJ, 



'iS^ 



o 

c3 



ll> 



o 



O) 



e8 



f^ 



^r 



— 118 — 



w 



In 


i| 




'■ 


■,-, 


'Ij^H 


! 


1 


1 


1 


11 


J 



Remark I. Some verbs beginning with a d, make the Change 
Ly prefixing the syllable en ; as: . ' ; 

Nin dd, I dwell, I stop ; endaidn, where I stop or dwell ; endad, 

where he stops, or who stops, dwells, etc. 
NindanXs, I am in a certain place; endanisid oma, he wlio is or 

lives here ; mi ima endanisiidn, I am there, etc. 
Nin danakl, I reside, or am native of a certain place ; Moning- 

wanekaning endanakidjig, the natives or the permanent inha- 
bitants of Lapointe. 
Nin dodam, I do ; mi cndodamdn, I do so ; mi endodaman, thou 

dost so ; mi endodang, he does so. 
Nin dapinc, I die in a certain place ; nibikadg endapinedjig, 

those that die in the water; nojpiming tndapined, he that dies 

in the woods. 

There are many verbs, beginning likewise with a d, that make 
the Change regularly, according to the above table ; as : 

Nin dagwishin, I arrive ; dcgwishing, he that arrives ; dassing 
degwishindnin oma ki wdbamin, every time I arrive here I see 
thee. 

Nin dibddjim, I tell ; dehddjimodjig^ those thaJ tell ; kawin nin 
debwetawassi aw anotch gego debddjimod ; I don't believe him 
who tells so many different things. ! 

Remark 2. In the perfect, pluperfect and future tenses the 
Change is not made in the verb itself, but in the particles or 
signs that precede the verb. These particles or prefixes are : 

gi-, ga-, gad-. Gi-, is changed into ga- ; gor- into ge-; gad- 

into ged-. F. i. 

Gi-gXgito, he lias spoken ; mi aw ga-gigiiod, this is me one that 

has spoken . 
Gi-sigaanddso, he has been baptized ; ga-sigaanddsodjig, those 

that have been baptized. 

Remark 3. There are two other particles or signs, bi-, and wi-, 
which use to precede verbs; and the Change is made in these 
signs ; bi-, which indicates approaching or comiDg, is changed 



— 119 — 



into 6a-; and wi-, wliich ordinarily denotes inteation, will, or 
wish, ifl changed into «?a-. F. i. 

Nin bi-ija, I come here ; ba-ydidnin, whcu I come here; dassing 
ha-ijdiegon ki bidonawa gego, every time you come here, you 
bring something; ba-ijddjig, ilioae that come here. 

Nin wi-mddja, I intend to go away ; mi ''(/iw wa-mddjadjig, those 
are the persons that want lo depar ; wa-mddjabanig, those 
that intended to go ; awenanwd-mddjad? who wants to go? 

liemark 4. When two of tlipse signs precede the verb, the 
Change is made in the first one. F. i. 

Nin gi-bi-bimishkd, I came here (1 have come here) in a canoe; 
ga-bi-bimishkad, he who came here in a canoe ; ga-bi-bimi,sh- 
kadjig, those who came here in a canoe, boat, etc. 

Remark 5. Verb.^ that are preceded by certain particles or pre- 
lixes, by preponitionH, adverb.s, or adjectives, make the Change 
in the first vowel oi' these w^nls. When more tlian one of such 
words precede the verb, and relate immediately to it, i\\G Change 
is made in the first vowel of the first of them ; and in writing we 
attach them with liyphens to the verb, beginning from the 
Change. F. i. 

Gego nind ondji ikkit iw, I say that for some reason ; wegonen 

loendji-ikkitoian iw ? why dost thou say that ? 
Nin mino bimddis, I live well ; m^no-bimddisid, who lives well. 

Progressive scale of Change. 

Aid, he is ; • 

eiac?, he that is ; 
meno-aiad,he that is well ; 

ketchi-mino-aiad, he that is very well ; , ' 

aidpitchi-kitcM-mino-aiad, he that is perfectly well ; 
wa-dpitchi-kiichi-mino-aiad, he that wishes to be perfectly well ; 
ge-wi-dpitchi-kitcM-mino-aiadt he that intends to bi perfectly 
well. 







* 

— "^-ii 




III 



\i] 



■dL 






i 


t j 
1 i 

1 1 

j 1 


! 


; i 


ill 




il 


y 



— 120 — 

Remark 6. In regard to the orthogr hy of the above-mention- 
ed signs, viz : 

gi- ; ga-, . . . - denoting tlie perfect or pluperfect 

tenseS; 
denoting the future tense, 

" coming, approaching, 
" intention, will, 
" condition. 



ga-, gad- 
hi-; ba- 
rn-; wa 
dor, 



ta- ; ge-, ged- 



etc, etc. 



In regard, I say, to the orthography of these signs or prefixes, 
I wish to observe that I think it very proper and grammatical, 
to attach them with hyphens to their respective verbs, to which 
they are really incorporated, in the Change as well as without it. 
You will perhaps say that in the English Conjugations we also 
have signs, to e.xpress different significations and positions of 
the verb; as: have, shall, will, should, would, etc.; but we 
don't join them, in writing, to their verbs with hyphens. — Yes, 
that is true ; but the analogy is not quite adequate. These Eng- 
lish signs in Conjugations are at the same time words by them- 
selves ; whereas our Otcliipwe signs are not words by them- 
selves, are never employed alone, but only used with verbs to 
give them the above-mentioned significations. Tin . must be 
considered as portions or parts of their verbs. This is the rea- 
son why some write them in one word with the verb ; which I 
also did formerly myself But considering the thing gramma- 
tically, I think it is better to let the verb appear by itself, and to 
join its sign by a hyphen to it. 

For an illustration of the inadequateness of the above analogy, 
consider the following examples : 

In English yon say : "I will go ;" and if asked: Will you go? 

your answer is: " Yes, I will." Here you use only the eign 

will. • ■ • 

In Otchipwe you say : " Nin gad-ija," and if asked : Ki gad- 

yana? your answer cannot be, "E, nin gad.'' You cannot 

use only the sign, gad; you must put the verb with it and 

say : '* £, nin gad-ija.'* 



. «• 



I 



— 121 — 

In English again you say: "I have written five letters yester- 
day." And then affirming you will say : " Certainly, I have." 

In Otcliipwe you say : " Ndnan masinaiganan nin yi-ojibianan 
piichinago." And then affirming you cannot say: " Geget 
nin gi" As soon as you pronounce gi, you must also express 
the verb, and say : Nin gi-ojibianan. 

You see by these illustrations, that these Otchipwe signs are 
inseparably connected with their respective verbs ; and that it 
is reasonable to join them to the verbs also in writing ; but in a 
manner as not to disfigure the verb, and still to appear joined to 
it; which is effected by the use of hyphens. 

And in grammaticabconsequence of this method of joining the 
signs to their verbs by hyphens, all the words between the sign 
and its verbs, must come under the same rule. F. i. Nin bim6r- 
(Zis, I live ; nin ga-bimddis ; nin ga-mino-bimddis ; nin ga-ki- 
tchi-mino-bimddis ; nin gad-dpitchi-kitchi-mino-bimddis. — All 
these words between the sign and the verb, are in the immediate 
connection with the verb like one word with it ; and throughout 
all the movements and changes of the verb, they will remain in 
the same position to it, like a constellation. F. i. 

Nin gi-dpitchi-kitchi-mino-bimddis ; 
ki gi-dpiichi-kiichi-mino-bimddis ; 

gi-dpitchi-kiichi-mino-bimddisi ; ^ 

etc. 
Ta-dpitchi-kitchi-mino-bimddisi; 
ta-dpitchi-kitchi-mino-bimddisiivag ; 
etc. 
Kin ga-dpitchi-kitchi-mino-bimddisiian ; 
ga-dpitchi-kitchi-mino-bimddisid. 

But where ther^ is no such sign with a hyphen in the begin- 
ning, the adverbs or adjectives that precede the verb, will not be 
attached to it, by hyphens ; therein lo grammatical reason for 
it ; as : Nin mino bimddis ; nin kitchi mino bimddis ; nind api- 
tchi kitchi bimddis . 



— 122 



I 






" 1' 






We have now seen how the Change is eft'ected ; let us here con- 
sider, when it is used, as much it can be explained. 

Rule I. It is used in all the pa7'ticiples of all the tenses, as you 
will see in all these Conjugations. F. i. Ekkitod, who says ; 
ga-inendang, who thought ; nin ge-dagvnshindn, I who shall 
arrive ; nin waidhamag, I who see him, etc. 

Rule 2. It is employed in sentences which express periodical 
actions, events, or slAtes of being. These sentences or expres- 
sions contain in English the words : each, every one, every 
time, when, whenever, as often as .... F. i. 

Anamiegijigad, it is Sunday, (VIII. Conjugation.) Dassing ena- 
miegijigakin, every Sunda}-, (as often as it is Sunday.) Ena- 
miegijigakin, on Sunday.s. 

Nin ganona, I speak to him ; gegonagin nin nagweiag, when I 
speak to him, he answers me ; genonindivanin, when they are 
spoken to. 

Nind ah, I am ; ehiidnin oma, bi-nasikaivishikan, when I am 
here, come to me ; dassing i'bidjia ivedi, minikwe, every time 
he is there he drinks. 

Rule 3. The Change is likewise employed in sentences which 
express actions or events as Just past, and contain in English 
the words, when, as soon as, etc. F. i. 

Oa-mddjad k^oss, gi-ikkiiaicag iw ; when thy father had gone 
away, (or, after he went away,) they said that. 

Ga-ishkwa-nagamoumd anamie-nagamon , gi-mddjawag ; when 
tiiey had sung a hymn, they went . . . 

Rule 4. The Change is employed after the interrogative adverbs 
dniii? how? what? Q.nA dniniwapi? when? And after the in- 
terrogative \iVono\xus, aw enen? awenenag? who? and wegonen? 
what? Likewise after the adverb api, or mi api, when, at that 
time, then. F. i. 



— 123 — 

Anin eji-bimddisiian ? how dost thou do? (how dost thou live ?) 
Anin ekkitod Jc'oss ? what says thy father ? 
Aiiin ejinikddeg ow ? what they call this ? 
Aninmapi ga-nibopan ? when has he died ? 
Awencn ga-bi-pindiged? who came in ? 
Wegonen ged-ikkitoian ? what wilt thou say ? 
Api gertiiboiang , when we shall die. 

After the interrogative adverb am'ndi? where? the Change \^ 
made sornetimes ; l)at ordinarily it is not used. F. i. Anindi 
ijdian ? where art thou going ? Anindi ateg ? where is it? Anin-^ 
di aiad Jesus nongom? where is now Jesus ? The Change is used 
after anindi when iw is expressed or understood. F. i. Anindi 
ga-danisid Jesus bwa mashi gagiktoed ? where lived Jesus, be- 
fore he began to preach ? iw is understood : Anindi iw ga-dani- 
sid ? (where is that place where he lived ?) 

Rule 5. The Change is used in sentences expressing comparison, 
and containing in English the conjunction as. F. i. 

Enendaman nin gad-ijiichige, I will act as thou wilt. 
Enendaman apegish ijiwebak, be it as thou will, (thy will be 

done.) 
Wewini ijiwebisin, swanganamiadjig ejiioebisiwad, live upright, 

as good Christians live. 
Ekkitoian ml ge-diidn, be it done to me as thou say est. 

Rule 6. The Change is used in sentences that express quality, 
and contain the adverbs minik, kakina, misi, all, all that, 
whatever ; wegoiogwen, whatsoever. F. i. 

Minik ekkitod Kije-Manito, debiveioinagadini, all that God says 

is true. 
Kakina minik eji-kagikimigoian, eji-wdbandaman gaie ki masi- 

naigan, kakina wewcui gandwendan ; whatever thou art taught 

in sermons, and all that thou readest in thy book, keep all well. 
Wegotogwen ge-dodamogwen, ged ikkitogwen gaie ; whatsoever 

he shall do and say. 



i 



S 






N 



IS. 



_ 124 — 

Wegoiogwen gernandotamdwegwen Weossimind nindijinikkasowi- 
iiing, ki go-mini gowa ; whatsoevei* ye shall ask the Father in 
my name, he will give it to you. 

Rule 7. The Change is employed in some tenses of the subjunc- 
tive mood in the Dubitative Conjugations ; as you will see 
there. F. i. EkkHowdnen, if I say perhaps. 

£A;H<05'we?i, if he perhaps says. . . . 

Kishpin gwaiak ga-anamiassiwdnen, if I have perhaps not well 
prayed. ^ 

Rule 8. Ordinarily, (not always,) the Change is employed after 

mi. F. i. 
Mi enendamdn, mi ekkitoidn ; sol think, so I say. 
Mi ijiwehak oma aking, so it is here on earth. 
Mi sa ga-ikkitod, mi dash ga-iji-mddjad ; so he said, and went 

away. 
Mi na eji-kikinoamdgoian ? art thou taught so ? 

Let us now consider the verb of our paradigm of the I. Conju- 
gation, in the cases of the Change. 

The participles are displayed in the paradigm. 

In the sentences expressing periodical actions, events, or 
states of being, the verbs of the I. Conj. are formed thus : 

AFFIRMATIVE FORM. 

PRESENT TENSE. 



Ekkito'vAinn, when I say, or, whenever I say, 

ekkitoiamn, 

ckkitod^m, 

ekkitougin, (quand on dit,) 

ekkitoiAnson, "I , 

. }■ when we say, 

ekkitdi&ngon, > 

ekkito'iegon, 

ckkito\va,d]\n. 



m 



— 125 — 
NEGATIVE FORM. 

PRKSENT TENSE. 

Efckitoasivf An'm, when I don't say, 

ekkitoa&iw&mn, 

ekkitosBigon , 

ekkitoaHin^in, (quand on ne dit pas,) 

ekkitossiwkns.ow, "I , j ji 

. , . . . ^ > when we don t say. 
ekkttosBiyr&ii^ou, J , ' 

ekkitosBiwegon . 

ekkitoss'igwamn. 

Uemark, In the sentences Qx^v^m\r\g periodical actions, events 
or states, not only the Change is made, but also one of the syl- 
lables in, nin, or on, is added to the verb, as you see here above, 
and in the examples of Rule 2, page 122. This is done, when 
the adverb dassing, (which signifies, whenever, as often as, every 
time,) is expressed or understood. At the third persons, that 
end in d, the letter J is inserted between d and the syllable in, as 
you see above. (See an analogy of it in Remark, p. 23.) 

Please remember well this Remark. It is applicable to almost 
all our Conjugations. 

\ni\\<i perfect aw A future tenses the terminations remain the 
same, and the Change is made in the signs, or prefixes, gi-, and 
he former beincr changed i 



ga 



gad- 



ga- 



ge-, or ged- ; as : 



Ga-ikkito'ikx\m, when (or whenever) I have said ; 

ga-ikkitodi]m, when he has said ; 

ga-ikkito\^go\\,Qic. . . 

ged-ikkito\kmx\, whenever I shall say, 

ged-ikkitoi&n i n , 

ged-ikkitowady\n, etc. . . 

G a-ikkitossivf aniu, when I have not said ; 






mmmaammmBmLr 



11 'i 



ilrl 1. 



i,M 



.. i 



31- I 



— 126 — 

ga-ikkiio&sigon, when he ha8 not said ; 
ga-ikkito8Bmegon , etc. . . 
(/ed-ikkiioBsiw&n'm, whenever I shall not say, 
ged-ikkitdseiwan'm, 
yed-ikkitoBfiigw&mn, etc. . . 

Remark 1. Respecting the conjunction iji, (in the Cha7ige, eji-,) 
which you see often to precede verbs, it must be remarked, that 
it is never employed alone, but always in connection with a verb, 
which it precedes immediately ; and the Change in the verbs 
preceded by iji, is made in this conjunction, which is then at- 
tached to the verb with a hyphen, in the cases of the Change, 
not otherwise ; according to the rules stated above. The signifi- 
cation of this conjunction is : as, as-so, as-as. . . F. i. 

Eji-sdgiidisoian, ki da-sdgiag kidf anishindbeg ; as thou lovest 

thyself, thou oughtst to love thy neighbor. 
Eji-kikendamdn kid iji windamon ; as I know it myself, so I tell 

it to thee. . , 

Goriji-jawenimiian gi-dkosiidn kid, iji jawenimin dkosiian ; as 

thou hadst pity on me when I was sick, so I have pity on thee 

while thou art sick. 

But sometimes the conjunction iji seems to accompany the 
verb superfluously, because it can be omitted without the 
least change of the meaning of the sentence. F. i. 

Atchinq, oma gi-aia, mi dash ga-iji-mddjad ; he was here a short 

time and went away ; or, mi dash gi-mddjad. 
Mi dash ga-iji-kitchi-nishkddisid ; and he flew in a passion ; or, 

mi dash gi-kitchi-nishkddisid. 
Kid iji pagossenimin, Dehenimiian, tchi jawenimiian ; Lord, I 

pray thee, to have mercy on me; or, ki pagossenimin. . . . 
Ki windamon ga-iji wdhandamdn, or ga-wdhandamdn ki winda. 

mon. Both sentences equally mean : I tell thee what I have 

seen. ' ' 

Remark 2. If you examine the paradigm of this I. Conjugation, 
and the examples till now related, you will see how all is form- 



ed 

yoil 

milt 

an(J 

yoiJ 

are 

Coi 

mui 

aga 



— 127 — 



ed and derived from the third person sing. pres. indicative. If 
you know this third person, you have only to add to it the ter- 
minations, and make the Change according to the abu"e rules, 
and you will find no verb belonging to this Conj-gation, which 
you would not be able to conjugate correctly, The terminations 
are fully displayed in the above paradigm or pattern of this 
Conjugation; but the third person and the Ch. ige (participle> 
must be learned by practice and the Dictionary. This Remark 
again is applicable to all our Conjugations. 






im 




I : '■- 



— 128 — 

I. DUBITATIVE CONJUGATION. 
AFFIRMATIVE FORM. 

■ IXDICATIVE MOOD. 
PRESENT TENSE. 

Ni7id iJcMtomidog, perhaps I say ; 
kid ikkitomidog, perhaps thou sayest ; 
ikkitomdog, * 

ikkiionndog, (on dit peut-etre,) 
nind ikkiiom'msidog, 
kid ikkitonwv adog, 
ikkitowidogenAg, * 

Form after this tense, the perfect and the Juiure tenses ; 

PLUPERFECT TENSE. 

Gonima gi-ikkitow amhan, f I had perhajDS said, 
" gi-ikkito\\'an\han, 
gi-ikkitogohan , 
gi-ikkitowangihan X 
gi-ikkitowangohau , 
gi- ikkitow egohan , 
gi-ikkitogwahan . 



iC 

c( 
(c 

(C 



} 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

PRESENT TENSE. 

Ekkitow awexi, if I say perhaps, 

ekkitowawew, 

ekkitogweu, 

ekkitow an gei\ , 

ekkitowangen 



;} 



•These two persons are often expressed by adding only dop, or. 'dogenap, to 
the mutative vowel ; as, abldog, ahldogen&g ; l/ddog, ijaaogenag ; wissinidog, 
ivissinidogen&g, etc. 

t To torm the imperfect tense, (which is not much used,) you have only to 



take off t 

also in sc 

t See 



— 129 — 

I. DUBITATIV^E CONJUGATION. 
NEGATIVE FORM. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 



PRESENT TENSE. 

Kawin nind ikkito&&\m\dog, perhaps I don't say, 

" kid ikkito9s\n\'n\og, 

" ikkito»%\\\\Aog, 

" ikkit ossim'idog, 

" nind ikkito^^'wnm&dog, 

" kid zA;A;i/o8siinwadog, 

^ ^^'^•^<ossi\vidogenag, 

as : Nin gi-ikkitomidoff, .... Nin gad-ikkitomidog . 



PLUPERFECT TENSE. 

Kawin ^ri-iM'tVossiwamban, I had perhaps not said. 

" ^i-z^A:i^ossiwaniban, 

** gi-ikkito»ti\go\)i\n , 

" 5ri-zM'i7os8iwangiban, -> 

** ^i-t7fA:t7o8si»vangobai), j 

** f/HA;^i7os8iwegoban, 

" <7^-^^*^■^7os8ig\vaban. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

PRESENT TENSE. 

£M"?7ossivvanen, whether I say not, 
eM'ifossiwanen. 
€^H<o8sigwen, 
c^•fc^<os^i\vangen, "1 
ekkito&sii'N&ugf'.n, ' 



take off the prefix flrt- ; as : Ikkitowdmban, t/ckitopoban, ikkitogivaban. And so 
also in some other Conjugations. 
X See Remark 3, page 42. 



*ut,'„ 



'i- 



4 



'!■ 



i:j 



— 130 — 

ekkitowegwen , 
ekkitow&gwen. 

After this tense form the perfect and the future tenses ; 



PLUPERFECT TENSE. 



M 



11 



III 



/,- 



Jkkitow&mh^nen, if I liad perliaps said, 

iMt7owambanen, 

ikkitogoha.nen , 

iA:A;i^owangibanen, {ninaicind,) ■» 

tA:A;i^ovvangobanen, (kinaicind,) j 

ikkitowegohanen , 

«&A;i<o wagobanen . 

PARTICIPLES. 

PRESENT TENSE. 

Nifi ekkitow hnen, I who perhaps say, 

kin ekkitdwa,nen, 

win ekkitogwen, 

ninawind ekkitow&nsen, > , , 

J . .7,7.. '^ V we who perliaps say, 

kinawind efcfcijowangen, J r r j 

kinawa e^•A;^7owegwen, 

toinawa eA;A;i7og\venag. 

After this tense, ihe perfect and i\\e future tenses are formed ; 

PLUPERFECT TENSE. 

Mn ga-ikkito\vkm\)kx\Qx\, I who had said perhaps, 

kin ^a-^^•A;^7owambanen, thou who per. hadst said, 

win ga-ikkitogoh&nen, 

ninawind flra-rA;A;t7owangibanen, ■» , , , • , 

, . • J <7 7 •j-« u )■ we who had p. said, 

kinawind g'a-tArAzrowangobanen, j *- ' 

kinawa ^a-iMi7owegobanen, , ; 

winawa ^a-tAA;i7ogobanenag, > . 



131 — 



cH*t<ossi\veg\ven , 
ekkitoanlwagweu , 



&» : Ga-ikkitowdnen, 



Ged-ikkitoictinen. 



PLUPERFECT TENSE. 

Kaioin ikkitoHBXw amhancn, if I had perhaps not saitl, 
tH^Vossiwainbar.en, 
?A;A,'i<of<sif:;obaneii . 
iM'iVoBsiwangibanen, [ninaivind] 
tA:A:t7o8.«iwangobanen, [kinawind) 
i^'W/osHiwegobanen, 
ikkiiosi^ i wagoban en. 






PARTICIPLES. 



PRESENT TENSE. 

Nin ckkiloBHiwaneu, I who perhaps don't say, 
kin ekkitoi^aiwancu, 
win ckkitoHUxgwan, 
■ninawtnd e/c/aVossiwangen, ) 
kinawind eA.'H/o8.siwangen, J 
kinawa eH'iios.siwegwen , 
winawa eA,•^•^;<ossig\vcnaiJ. 



we who 



as: Nin ija-ikkitowdnen 



A^in fjed-ikkitowdnen 



PLUPERFECT TENSE. 

Nin (7a-iA;A;i<os8iwambanen, I who had p. not said, 
kin ^a-iA;^i<os8iwambanen, 
win ^a-iA;.a<o8sigobanenj 
ninawind 5ra-iA;A;i<o8siwangibanen, 
kinawind ga-ikkitoasiw&ngqh&nen , 
kinOfWa ga-ikkitoa&m Qgoheknexii 
winawa fira-iA;A;i7o88igobanenag. 



> we who . . 



132 — 



1 ' l 








1 1 

ii ; 

K 1 

r 


'i4 



4 



^i; 



f 1H 



llB|tf 

M 



EXAMPLES ON THE I. DUHITATIVE CONJUGATION'. 

Nin maichi ikkitomidog naniiujim, kawin dash kakina nin mik- 

wendansin nongom. I suppose 1 fpeak often ill, but I don't 

remember now all. 
Gi-ani-mddjadog, (ji-giwedog, kawin sa ningotchi nin wtihamassi. 

He is probably gone away, he is gone home, I suppose, Idon't 

see him anywhere. 
K\ mishomissinubanigioaieshkat Moniang gi-danakigwaban, bwa 

bi-gosiwad oma. Our grand-father (forefathers) had formerly 

lived in Canada, before they moved to this place. 
Endogwen keiCtbi maichi gijwiwanen. Ki gi-boniton na maichi 

gijwewin ? I don't know whether thou speakestyet y)ad words. 

Hast thou abandoned bad speaking? 
Endogwen ga-igiichigegioen guriji-aiangwamimagiban, I doubt 

whether he has perfornied (or not,) what I had recommended 

him. 
Kishpin ikkiioivagobanen iic, da-gidibddjimowag gi-gagwedji- 

mindwa. If they (perhaps) had said that, they would have 

told it when they were asked. 
Kakina ndganisidjig ininiwag gi-maioandjiidiwag ; namandj 

ged-inakonigewagwen. All the principal men have assembled ; 

I don't know what law;, (regulations) they will muke. 
Ged-ikkitowanen mi-ge-dodamdn ; minik dash ge-ginaamdgewa- 

nen, kawin 7iin wi-ijiichigessi. Whatever thou shalt say 

(command,) I will do it ; but whatever thou shalt forbid, I 

will not do it. 
Kin neid-dajingewanen ki gad-animis dibakonige-gijigaky kishpin 

gegei ijiwebisiian. Thou who — t (as they say) in the habit 

of backbiting, thou wilt sufiP the day of judgment, if 

thou really art so. 
Awegwen ga-bi-dibddjimo j,tchi dajindiwin. — Kego debwe- 

tangegon. I don't kno\v uo has told here the calumny. Do 

not believe it. 
Kawin nin gi-wdbamassig igiw ga-bosigwenag pitchindgo. I have 

not seen those that have gone away yesterday (in a canoe, 

boat, etc.) (as I understood.) 



133 — 



t, if 



Anixh'ndbeg waieshkat (ja-bimddisu/obanenag aking, gi'maichi- 
yiwebisigwaban. People wlio had lived on earth in the liegin- 
iiiii}.', were wicked. 

Aicenen aw ged-ijiichigegwen mojag, ga-inakonigeiang nongnm 
«////(/o^• /'Who is likely todoalways what we have ordered to-day? 

Remark in regard to the neeond third pei'son. * 
In the nimple third person Hingular, present, indicative, atiir- 
iiiative form, you say : Ikkito, he says. But in the second tliird 
person you liave to say : Ikkitowan, etc., because the verb must 
follow the .«anie rule as the substantive. The simple third per- 
.son, to which the second is relating, is often understood only, 
not expressed, as you will see here below. 

Examples, 
affirmative form. xegative form. 



Ossan ikkitowan, his liatlier 
says. 

Ossan ikkitobanin, his father 
said. 

Kaskendam gi-niponid ossan, 
he is afflicted because his fa- 
ther is dead. 

Nin kikendam get-ijitchigenid 
oshimeian, I know what his 
brother will do. 

Ogwissan gwaiak ijiwebisinipan, 
k a to in da-gi-animisissiwan, 
had his son behaved right, he 
would not have been punished 

Debeniminang o sdgian enamid- 
nidjin, the Lord loves the 
Christians. 

Ossayi iniw ekkitonipanin, it was 
his father who said so. 



Ossan kawin ikkitossiwan, his 
father does not say. 

Ossan kawin ikkitossibanin, his 
father did not say. 

Minicendam gi-nipossinig ossan, 
he is glad that his father is 
not dead. 

Wegonen get-ikkitossinig oshi- 
meian ? what will his brother 
not say ? 

Ogioissan givaiak ijiicebisl^sini- 
goban, da ^ i-animisiwan, had 
his son not behaved right, lie 
would have been punished. 

Debeniminang kawin o sdgias- 
sin enamidssinigon, the Lord 
does not love pagans. 

Mi na ossan iniw gwaiak ekki- 
iossinigobanin ? is he that did 
not say right, his father ? 






n 




See page 69. 



— 134 — 



II. CONJUGATION. 

To this Conjugation belong all the intratisitive or neuter verbs 
ending at the rharacteristical third person in am. They like- 
wise end so at the fir.'t person singular, present, indicative. This 
in, in Yi^ui^h all the verbs oi' this Conjugation end, is put among 
the terminations, as you see in the paradigms. The reason is, 
because it does not remain in all the tenses, but is sometimes 
changed into n. 

Note. In the I. Conjugation, I displayed the negative form in 
full, (on the opposite page.) In order to save room, I will put, 
in the subsequent Conjugations, only the terminations of the ne- 
gative form, the hoih/ of the verb remaining the same in this 
form, as in the afHrmative. F. i. Nind incndaxw, negative, Ka- 
win nind inenda\Mi\ . Kidinendam, neg. Kawin kid inendans'i. 
Inendaiw, neg. Kaunn inendan»i, etc. 

Here are some verbs belonging to this Conjugation : 



Firstjyerson. 

Nin ndnagatdwendam, I meditate ; 

Nind dnijitam, I give up ; 

Nin scgendaui, I am afraid ; 

Nin dodam, 1 do, I act ; 

Nin kashkendam, I am sad ; 

Nin pisindam, I listen ; 

Nin pagosscndam, I ask, I hope ; 

Nind initam, I hear something ; 

Nin loassitdwendam, I am sorrowful ; 

Nin sdgaam, I go out ; 

Nin songcndam, I have a firm thought ; 

Nind dgonwetam, I disobey, I contradict ; 

Nin gljendam, I resolve ; 

Ninjajihitam, I gainsay ; 

Nin bonendam, I forget something ; 

Nin dibwetatn, I believe ; 

Nin wissagendam, I suflfer ; 



Third Person. 

ndnagatdwendam . 

dnijitam. 

segendam . 

dodam. 

kashkendam. 

pisindam. 

pagosscndam. 

initam. 

loassitdwendam . 

sdgaam. 

songendam. 

dgonwetam. 

gljendam. 

jajibitam. 

bonendam. 

debwetam. 

wissagendam. 



— 135 — 



AFFIRMATIVE FORM. 



NEGATIVE FORM, 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 

PRESENT TENSE. 

Nind inendam, I think * (or, I will), Kawin nsi, 



Jcid inendam 


ee 


nsi, 


inendawi. 


(C 


nsij 


inend&m, tliey think, ( 


on " 


nsim, 


pense) f one think.s, 






nind inendannn, 


(( 


nsimin, 


kid inendam, 


(( 


nsim. 


inendamog, 


Si 


nsi wag. 


IMPERFECT 


TENSE, 




Ni7id inendana.ba,u , I thought, 


Kawin 


nfiinaban, 


kid in€ndar\&l)a.u, 


a 


nsinaban, 


inendamohaix, 


a 


nsiban, 


nind inendamina.\)Siu, 


i( 


iiHiniinaban, 


kid /Heurfamwaban, 


a 


nsiniwal)an. 


inendamoh&mg, 


ti 


nsibanig. 



PKRFECT TENSE. 

Nin gi-inendam, I have thought, Kawin nsi, 
ki (ji-inendam, 
(ji-inendam, 

(ji-inenddm, (on a pensej 
nin girinendamm, 
ki gi-inenddm, 
gi-inendamog, 

PLUPERFECT TENSE. 

Nin gi-inendam\ha,nyt I had though t,A'airm nsinaban, 
ki gi-inendana,ha.i\, ** nsinaban, 

gi-inendamoh&n, Kawin nsiban, 

nin gi-inendam'\na,ha.n , " nsiminaban, 

ki gri-ine/uZamwaban, " nsimwaban, 

//i-mendamobanig, *' nsibanig. 





nsi. 




nsi. 




nsim. 




nsimin, 




nsim, 




nsiwag. 



* See Bemark 4. p. ! 



} See M)U p. 08. 



t See ItcTnark, p. 08. 



10 



iliiiii 



— 136 


— 




FUTURE TENSK. 


• ' 


■ ; 

Nin gad-inendam, I will think, 


Kawin 


nsi. 


ki gad-inendam, 


a 


nsi, 


ta-inendam, 


a 


nsi, 


ta-inenddm, 


(I 


nsim, 


nind gad-inendammy 


(C 


nsiiniu. 


ki gad-inenddm, 


<c 


nsim. 


ta-inendamog, 


C( 


nsiwag. 



SECOND FUTURE TENSE. 



Nin gargi-inendam, I shall have thought, Kawin nsi,^ 

ki ga-gi-inendami ' 

ta-gi-inendam, ' 

ta-gi'inenddin, * 

7iin ga-gi-inendamm, ' 

kiga-gi-inenddiw, ' 

ia-gi-i7iendamogy ' 



nsi, 

nsi, 

nsim, 

nsim in,. 

nsim, 

nsiwag. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



PRESENT TENSE. 

Jnetidaumny * ill tliink, 

inendaman, 

inendang, 

inendaming, tliat they think, 

(qu'on pense) 

inendamkng, ) .„ ,11 
... " > if we think, 

tnendamang, J 

tuenaanieg, 

inendamow&d, 



nsi wan, 
nsiwan, 
nsig, 
using, 

nsiwang, 
nsiwang, 
nsiweg, 
nsigwa. 



<<■ See the Remarks coucerulng this and the following two tenses p 110- 




■- 137 — 

PERFECT TENSK, 

Gi-inendanmn, because I have 

thoiiglit, 

gi-inendam&n, 

</i-inendang, 

ffi-inendam\ng, 

(/i-inendamRne, "i , 

. . , y because we. . 

gi-inendamang, i 

gi-inendaiueg, 

gi-inendamow&d, 

PLUPERFECT TEXSE. 

/ne/KZamamban, if I had thought, 
itiendamamh&n, 
ineiidangihan , 
mendaming\ha,n , 
inendamang'ih&u, ■> 
inendamangohiiu, i 
inendamegoha.n , 
inendamowapsin , 



if we. 



n SI wan, 

nsiwan, 

nsig, 

using, 

nsiwang, 

nsiwang, 

nsiweg, 

nsigwa. 



nsiwamban, 

nsiwaniban, 

nsigoban, 

nsingiban, 

nsinwangiban, 

nsinwangobany 

nsiwegoban, 

nsigwa ban. 



til 



FUTURE TENSE. 

(ied-inendamein,v:\\B,tl shall think, nsiwan, 

(jed-hiendam&n, nsiwan, 

(fed-inendang, "«ig> 

(jed-inendaming, nsing> 

ged-ineiidamSing, nsiwang. 

Etc., as above in the j^resent tense, prefixing ged-. ' 

SECOND FUTURE TENSE. 

(ie-gi-inendan\an, what I shall have nsiwan, 

tliought, 
ge-gi-inendaumu , nsiwan, 

Etc., as in the present tense, always prefixing ge-gi-. 



litJ 



mm 



K^±i 



'I I '' 






— 138 — 
CONDITIONAL MOOD. 

PRESt:NT TKNSE. ■ ' '. . . 

Niii da-ineiidain, I would think Kawin nsi, 
(or I ought to think,) 

ki da-inendam " nsi, 

da-inendam, " nsi, 

da-inenddm, they would think " nsini, 
(on penserait,) 

nin da4nendam\n , " nsiniin, 

ki da-inenddm, " nsim, 

dorinendainoi;, " nsi wag. 

PERFltCT TENSE. 

iVm da-gi-inendam, I would have thought, Kawin nsi, 

or I ought to have thought, 

ki da-gi-inenddm, " nsi, 

da-gi-inendaxn , ' " nsi, 

da-gi-inenddm, " nsim, 

nin da-gi-inendam'iu , " nsimin, 

ki da-gi-inenddm, " nsim, 

da-gi-inendamog, " nsiwag. 

Ge-gi-inendamiin, what I would usiwan, 
have thought. 

Etc., as above in the second future tense of the subj . mood. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Kego ngen, 



Inenddn, ■» think, 

inendamok'dn J (thou,) 
ta-inendam, let him (her, it,) think, 
ta-inenddm, let hiin think, (qu'on 

pense,) 
inendanda., let u.>^ think, 
Miendamog, think, (you,) 
ia-in€7idaxnog, let them think, , 



cc 

(C 

(( 
<( 



nsi, 
nsim. 



nsida, 



ngegon, 
nsiwag. 



— 139 — 
PARTICIPLES. • 

PRESENT TEXSE. 



Nin enendamkn , I who think, 


nsiwan , 


kin enendama.x\, thou who tliink- 


nsiwan, 


est, 


■ > ', 


win enendang, 


nsig, 


enetidaming, what one thinks, 


nsing. 


(ce qu'on pense,) 




ninawind enendanmng, ■» we that 
kinawind enendam&ng, f think, 


nsiwang, 


neiwang. 


kinawa enendameg, 


nsiweg. 


winawa enendar\g\g. 


nsigog. 


IMPERFECT TENSE. 




Nin enendamkmhkw, I who tho't, 


nsiwutiiban, 


kin enencZamaniban, 


nsiwaniban, 


win enendavig\h&\\. 


nsigoban. 


cnejiaamingiban, 


nsingiban. 


ninawind enendamkwg\ha.n, \ we who 
kXnawind cjicncZamangoban, / tliought, 


neiwangiban, 


nsiwangoban, 


kinawa enenda\negohkn. 


nsiwegoban, 


winawa enendar\g\hQXi'\g, 


nsigobanig. 


PERFECT TENSE. 




Nin ga-inendamkn, I who have 


nsiwan, 


thought, 




kin ga-inendama.n. 


nsiwan, 


win ga-inendang. 


nfiig. 


ga-inendammg, 


nPing, 


ninawind ga-inendamkng, ■> we who have nsiwang. 


kinawind ga-inendam&ng, J thought, 


nsiwang. 


kinawa ga-inendameg. 


nsiweg. 


winawa ga-inendang\g, 


nsigog. 



I' 



iL 



* 8ee Remark 5, p. 111. 



4..-- 



iHI 


'::: ■ 


w 




w 




M 


1 






i,.:: 



11 i : '>: 



m 




— 140 - 



PLUPKRKfCT TENSa. 



"} 



we who 
had th. 



Niii gorinendanmmhiin, I who had 

thought, 
kin ga-in^ndam&,n\h&n, 
will goriumdaugihein , 
ga-inendam'mgihan , 
niimioind ga-inenda\x\kng\ ba n , 
Icinawind ga-inendamB.ngo\i^\^ 
kinawa ga-inendamQgohun , 
winawa ga4iiendawg\hB.\i ig, 

FUTURE TENSE. 

Mil ged-iiiendamkn, I who shall 
think, 
kin ged-inendaman, 
will ged-inendang, 
ged-inendamiug. 



naiwambaii, 

nsiwamban, 

nsigoban, 

usingiban, 

nsiwangiban, 

nsiwangoban, 

nsiwegoban, 

nsigoban ig. 



nsiwan, 

nsiwan, 

nsig, 

nsing, 



ninawind ged-inendanmng, 1 we who shall nsiwang. 
kinawind ged-ineiidam&ng, 






think, n.siwang, 



kinawa ged-inendameg, 
winawa ged-iiiendangig, 



nsiweg, 
nsigog. 



SECOND FUTURE TENSE. 



n.siwan. 



nsiwan. 



Nin ge-gi-inendawmn, I who shall 

have thought, 
kin ge-gi-ineiidaman , 

Etc., as above in the first future, always prefixing ge-gi-, to 
the verb. 

Remark. The letter n before the syllable si, in the negative 
form, is commonly not heard in pronouncing. F. i. Kawin 
enendansi, is ordinarily pronounced : Kawin inendasi, etc. . . . 
But this n must be in, grammatically, because otherwise there 
would be two s in the negative form, as this always is the case 
between two vowels ; and the above word would then be, inen- 
dassi; but it does not sound so. Correct speakers pronounce 
the n enough to be perceived by an attentive ear. 



— 141 — 

Let ua now consider the Change of the verbs of tlie II. Conju- 
gation. 

The participlen, vvhicli have always tlie Ckangey are fully 
displayed in tiie above paradigm. 

In the sentences expressing periodical actions or states of 
being, the verbs of this Conjugation are foinied thus: 



AFFIRMATIVK FORM. 



NEGATIVE FORM. 



PRESKNT TENSE. 

Enendamhnw, when, (or whenever) I think, 

6Jtt'HfZanianin, 

enendangxn, 

enendam'mgxn, 

«rta7ifZanmngin, 1 , 

, , > when we . . . 

cncnaaniangon, J 

cne«(ianiegon, 

cnentiamowadjin, * 



nsiwanin, 

n. si wan in, 

n.'iigon,, 

nsingon, 

nsiwangin, 

nsiwangon, 

nsiwegon, 

nsigwanin. 



In the perfect awd. future tenses the terminations are the same 
as here above, and the Change is nmde in the prefixes, gi-, and 
ga- or gad-. Gi- in changed into ga-; and ga- or gad- into 
ge- or ged-. F. i. 

Ga-inendan\&n\n, when (or whenever) I liave 

thought, 
/ya-inentZaman i n , 
ga-inendangin, 

tretZ-j/ie/iriamanin, wlien I shall think, 
ged-itieudau\a.ngin , 
(/ecHnentZamowadjin , 

In the other cases of the Change, (see p. 122, 123 and 124,) it 
is made in the same way as liere stated ; only the end-syllables, 
in, {Hn,) nin, or on, are omitted; as: Enendamdn; ga-inenda- 
mdn, ged-inendamdn, etc. . . 



nsiwanin, 

nsiwanin, 

nsigon, 

nsiwanin, 

nsiwangin, 

nsigwanin. 



m 



* See Remark, p. 23. 



i 



-'•i ! 



142 



EXAMPLES ON THE II. CONJUGATION. 




li 



Pakadkwe bonam, kakina gate bineshUag bonamog ; the hen 

lays eggs, and all the birds lay eggs. 
Ki kashkendanaban, waieshkat oma ba-aidian ; thou wert lone- 
some when thou first stayed here. ^ 
Kawin nakawe ki gi-ndnagatawendansi ged-ikkUoian ; thou hast 

not reflected before hand what thou wouldst say. 
Nin gi-mamakddendanaban waieshkat tvabandamdn ishkoUna- 

bikwdn ; I wondered when I first saw a steamboat. 
Mojag nin ga-ndnagatatoendam ichi bwa gigiioidn ; I will al- 
ways reflect before I speak. 
Ninga-gi-gijendam tchibica minawa wdbamiian; I shall have 

taken a resolution before thou seesl me again. 
Apejish mojag mino inendamdn, wika dash ichi maichi inendan- 

siwdn; I wish I had always good thoughts and never bad 

thoughts. 
Gi-wewibendaman, mi wa'iba gorbi-ondjigiweian ; because thou 

hast made haste, therefore thou hast come back soon. 
Dodansiwegoban ga-dodameg, kawin ki darmino-aidssim nongom ; 

if you had not done what you did, you would not be well now- 
Ki ga-windamon ge-dodamdn ; I will tell thee what I shall do. 
Ki ga-windamon gergi-inendamdn ; I will tell thee what J shall 

have thought. 
Ki da-mimcenddm na tchi wdbameg kinigiigowag ? Would you 

be glad to see your parents ? 
Nin da-gi-kitchi-wassitdwendam, mikwinimossiwagiban Debend- 

jiged ; I would have been very sorrowful, had I not thought 

on the Lord. 
Debweienddn, kego, dgonwetangen, kego gaie maichi inendangen ; 

believe, do not contradict and think not evil. 
Ninjawenimag wassagendangig ; I pity those that suflfer. 
' iw ininiwag aidgonweiangibanig, nongom weweni debweiamog ; 

those men that contradicted before, believe now. 
Nond ga-sdgaangig kawin o gi-nondansinawa gagikwewin ; those 

that went out too soon, did not hear the sermon. 



i I 



— 143 — 

Ga-dpitchi' lebweiendangibanig oma aking, nongom Cipitchi mino 

aidwag gijigong ; those that had a perfect faith on earth, are 

now exceedingly happy in heaven. 
Mi sa igiw ged-anijitangig waiba ; these are the persons that 

will soon give all up. 
Ge-gi-mino-dodangig aking, kdginig ta-dibaamdwawag gijigong ; 

those that shall have acted right (done well) on earth, shall 

be eternally rewarded in heaven. 



Ill 



%"■ 



m. 



144 



Ji i :^' 



II. DUBITATIVE CONJUGATION. 
AFFIRMATIVE FORM. . 

INDICATIVE MOOD. ' 



PRESl'.NT TENSE 

Nind inendam'idog,,l think perhaps, 
kid inendamidog, 
inendamodog, 

inenddmidog, one thinks perhaps, (on pense 
7iind inendamin&dog, [peut-etre,) 

kid iiiendamw Sidog, 
iiiendamodogenag, 

Form after this present tense, iheperj'ect and the future 

PLUPERFECT TENSE.* 

Goiiima gi-inendamow&mhkn, I liad perhaps tl . . . . 
gi-inendau\o\\ a.n\ha.n , 
<ji-ine7idamogoh&u , 

gi-iuendanww8ingihan, "i that we had perhaps 
<ji-ine7idamo\\angohQ.n, ) 



<t 



[thought. 



(ji-inendau\o\\'egoheLX\ , 
gi-inendamogwekh&n , 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

PRESENT TENSE, 

£neH(?aniowanen, if I think perhaps. 

enendamowaneu, 

euendamogwQn, 

c;ie;irfaniowangen, (ninawind)^ .„ 

eumdmnoyf&ngen, (kinawiiid) f 

enendamowegweiif 

enendamow&gwen, 



"■'■ See second Note, page 128. (Inendamowambcn ; inendixmogoban.) 



Ill I 



— 145 — 

II. DUBITATIVE CONJUGATION. 

NEGATIVE FORM. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 



« 

a 



PRK8ENT TEN«E. 

Kawin nind inendanBimkiog, I do perliaps not think, 
kid mendansim'idoo;, 
inendanaidog, 
inendawmnidog, 
nind inendanmninmiog, 
kid inendauahnw&dog, 
inendanaidogGnag, 

tenses ; as : Mu (ji-inendamidog . Nin gad-incndamidog. . . . 

PLUPERFECT TENSE. 

Kawin gi-inendanmwkmhAu, I had perhaps not thought, 

" (/w/wi/tdansiwpniban, 

" (/i-i/ie/tdansigoban, 

'* oi-iuendansiAvangiban, *» ,, 

. . . , . 1 > that we . . . 

" ^i-z/icwaansiwangoban, J 

" ^i-iw6H(ian8iwegoban, 

" gi-inendav\9^gvlQ^)0.x^, 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 






PRESENT TENSE. 

^/te/idansiwanen, if I do perhaps not think, 

enendanBxwSkwen, 

euendansigwen, 

CJicndansiwangen, ■» . , 

.J . > if we do perhaps not. 

ene^ittansiwangen, J f t- 

€W«t(?an8iwegwen, 

crtenrfansiwagwenj 



Wi 



i 

ft . 



— 14G — 
Form after this tenHc the perfect and the future tenses ; as : 

PLUPERFECT TEXflE. 

//icndamowambaneii, if I had thought I suppose, 

inentiainowaiubanen, 

/nendamogobanen, 

m€n</ainowani'ibaiien, 1 .« , , , , . 
, ^ , ' V if we liad thought, 

tnwiaomowaiigobanen, J 

«>i«udamo\vegobanen , 

motdamowagobanen, 



PARTICIPLES. 



PRESENT TENSE. 



Nin enendamowanen, I wlio tliink perlmps, 

kill enendamowanQny thou who. . . . 

tvin enendamogwen, 

ninawind enendamowa,ns.en, i , , • i i 

, . . J ^ J >- we wJio think perhaps. . . . 

kmawind euenaamowangen, J ' ^ 

kinmoa eneutZamowegwen, 

winawa eucudamogwenag, 

The perfect and future tenses are formed after this present 



PLUPERFECT TENSE. ' 

Nin 5ro-inendamowambanen,I who had perhaps th. 
kin gorinendamovf amhfinen, 
win gorinendamogohanen , 
ninawind ga-inendamowsingihtinen, } ^ i i ^ 
kinawind gorinendamow&ngoh&nen, l 
kinawa gorinendaniowegohanenf 
winawa ^fo-inewdamogobanenag, 



* For the imperfect, (seldom used,) Nin cnendamowambanen, . . . Kin enen- 
danwwambanen, . . . 



— 147 — 
Qa-dnendamowdnen Ged-inendamowdnen., 

PLUPERFECT TENSE. 



7n«ndan8i\vAml)anoii, if I had not thought I suppose, 

?!nJ7tc/aiisi\vambanen, 

inendann'ifinhiint'u, 

inendaui*\\\n\\s\ha.\Miu, -» .„ , , 

. . 1 I V it we had not . . . 

inendauHwviiugobanen, ) 

inc/wZansiwegobanen, 

inendanHwvagohanen. 

PARTICIPLES. 

P R E H E \ T TENS K . 

Nin ene?icZan8iwanen, I who do perhaps not tliink, 
kin eneiidaxmw anen, thou who. . . 
icin enendmmgwen, 



niiiawind e/tcHc^ansiwangen, 
kinainnd e/tJ/itJIansiwaniren 



' \ we who do perhaps not tliink, 

5 J 



kiiiawa eneHf/ansiwegwen, 
winawa enenf?ansig\venag, 

tense; as : Ninya-inendamowdnen, Nin fjed-inendamowdnen.... 



PLUPERFECT TENSE. 



Nin </a-me»idansiwanibanen, I who had perhaps not th. 
kin f/a-mcnriansiwanibanen, 
win ga-inendans'igohanen , 



iiiuawind <7a-i/te?jr7ansiwangibanen, "» 
kiaawind ya-in^ ndansiwangoYKinew, ) 
kinuica ^a-tneHcZcmsiwegobanen , 
unnawa </a-men(?an8igobanenag. 



we who had . . . 



«f 



f'U 



u 



^ i 




All ■ 

- *7 *■ 



1 • "i 




148 



EXAMPLEH OX THE 11. DUBITATIVE CONVUOATION. 

Aw aidkosid inini kitchi masitdgosi ; wissagendamodog dpitchi. 

This sick man groans much ; lie must suft'er exceedingly. 
Ki gi-agonwetamwadog gi-nondameg gagiheewin, kawin hi gi- 
dehwetansimwadog. I think you have contradicted when you 
had heard the sermon, you have probably not believed. 
Nishime John kawin kiv)e waieshkat gi-minwendansigohan, kiki- 
noamdding wi-yad ; nongom dash kitchi minwendam, kitchi 
dadatahi gaze kikinoamCigosid masinaigan. My brother John 
liad not been willing at first to go to school, (as I understood ;) 
but now he likes it very much, and is learning very fast to 
read. 
Kawin waiha ganahatch ia-gijendansidogenag tchi bonitowad 
minikwemn. They will perhaps not soon take a resolution 
to give up drinking. 
Jdigwa wdiba ta-inendamodog tchi anamiad. He will probably 

soon have a mind to become a Christian, (to pray.) 
Anawi anamia aw anishindbe; endogwen dash meshkawenda- 
mogipen mojag tchi anamiad. This Indian indeed is a Chris- 
tian ; but it is doubtful whether he has a strong resolution, 
(thought,) to be always a Christian. 
Kishpin ga-nishkdde>»damogwen, kawin nin nin gi-nishkidssi. If 
he has had perhaps angry thoughts, ic was not I that made 
him angry. 
Kishpin gigendamcgobanen un-mddjad, da-gi-hosi ndbikwdning 
pitrhindgo. If he had, {I suppose,) made up his mind to go 
away, he would have gone on board the vessel yesterday. 
(ied- iko-mashkawendamoioegwen, kawin ki ga-waiejimigossiwag 
matchi-ijiwebisidjig. As long as you shall have a strong re- 
.solution, (thought,) you will not be seduced by the wicked 
ones. 
Aw ininitoika saiegendansigwen, ta-segendam api ge-nibod. That 
man who seems never to fear, will be afraid at the time of his 
death. 
M aw inini nond ga-sagaamogwen gi-gigitong. This is the man 
who went out, (as I heard,) before the council was over. 



— 149 — 



Kinawa ga-matchi-dodamoivegtcen, ningotiny ki ga-kikenddgo- 
sim ga-ijiwebisiwegwen nongom. You who liave perhaps done 
evil, you will once be known, how you have (perhaps) l)ehav- 
etl now. / ' ■ 

Igiw waieshkat ga-dehweiendamogohanenag, gi-kiichi-mino-ijiive- 
aigwaban. Those who had believed in the beginning, (the first 
Christians,) behaved very well, (as we read.) 

Aio ge-kashkendansigwen, ge-nishkddendaiisigwen gaie, gego tce- 
nitodjin,nibwdkawininhig ta-apiieninia. He that shall not be 
sad, nor shall; have angry thoughts, when he loses something, 
will be esteemed a wise man. 

Awegwenag wika ge-pisindanHigxcenag matchl babamddjimowin , 
bisdii tarbimddisiwag aking. Those who never shall listen to 
bad reports, shall live quietly (in peace) on earth. 






' 1*1 



i. i--\ 



ft \i 



'« 



150 — 



'1 ! ■■■ 






v' • * Some Examples in regard to 
AFFIRMATIVE FORM. 

MinwendamowdiW na ossan, oma tela M-ijdmA ? Is his father 
willing that he should come here ? 

Apitchi kashkendamownn omisseian. His sisters are very sad 
(lonesome. I 

And so forth in all the tenses 

widi(/emdf/anau i;tenc?amobanin tchi gishpinndon'xd aki. It. 
was the will of his wife, (or, her liusband,) to buy land. 

Onigiigon //jcufZamobanin tchi tfidjemadiniw ikwtwan. It was 
the will of his parents that he should nmrry that woman. 

6'r-A-a(/aan)obanin witdn bio a pi ndig emd mjicissan. His brother- 
in-law had gone out, before his son came in. 

Kishpin ossan minwendain'mid, ta-hi-ija oma. If his father is 
willing, (consenting,) he will come here. 

Apegich mashkawendaxmn'xd ogwissan, tchi mino-ijiwebisimd. I 
wish his sons would firmly resolve to behave well. 

And so on in the other tenses 

Kishpin oginmimvendam'm'ipsin, da-gi-widige an- oshkinigikwe. 
That young woman would have married, had her mother given 
her consent. 

U'cM'/fti-a^aaminipan ossaieian, kawin da^gi-gikandissim. Were 
his brother gone out immediately, there would have l)een no 
(juarreling. 

Kuwin Kije-Manilo o sdgiassin enamidnid.jin aiagonweta\mn\dy\\\. 
God does not love Christians who are disobedient, (who con- 
tradict.) 

Kaioiii awiia gica^ak cnamiado tcissokawassinmetchi-dodam\r\\A- 
jin. No true Christian associates with those that aredoing wrong. 

Paul it sfigiabania oshimeibaniu, mojag meno-inendai\uu\\)&n'\\i. 
Paul loved his deceased brother who always had good inten- 
tions, (a good will.) 

John o sdgiabanin o widigemdganibanin, mojag menivendam'iin- 
panin. Jolm loved his deceased wife, who always was con- 
tented (cheerful.) 

Form the other tenses of these 

* See page Oi». 



— 151 — 

the second third person. 

NEGATIVE FORM. 



Kaicin minwendausiwaw ossan tchi mddjdn'xA. Hie father is not 

willing that he should go away. 
Kawin na geyet oniisseian kashkendausiwaiu ? Are his sisters not 

really sad (lonesome?) 

that are derived from the present. 
Kawin o widi(jemfi;/unan //ten</«nsibanin tchi bosiu'ul. It was 

not tlie will of his wife, (or, her husband,) to embark. 
Kawin onigiigon /uc/u/ansibanin tchi icidigemad iniw ikwetoan. It 

was not the will of his parents that heshould marry that woman. 
Kaiuiii mashi gi-:.ugaam\\Min\n witda api pandigeu'ul ogwissan. 

His brother-in-law hail not yet gone out, when his son canie in. 
Kishpin ossan tninw€ndanH\n'\jr, kawin ta-bi-ijassi. If his father 

is not willing, (not consenting,) he will not come. 
Kishpin mashkawendaus'im^^ ogwissan, kawin ginwenj ta-mino- 

iJiwebisim'iwQ.n. If his sons have not a firm resolution, they 

wiil not long behave well, 
formed after the present. 
Kishjnn ogin wj/ujrc?jrfffnsinigol>an, kairin da-gi-widigessi ni- 

wisse. My sister would not have married, had her mother 

not given her consent. 
Ossaieian sagaans'imgohau wewib,da-gi-kikandim. Were his bro- 
ther not gone out immediately ,there would havebeen quarreling 
Dcbendjiged o nitd-jaweniman enamianidjin wika aiagonwetaus'i' 

nigon The Lord loves Cliristians who never contradict, (disobey.) 
Kawin awiia gwaiak enamiad o widokawassin meno-dodans\n'\- 

gon. No true Christian helps those, (keeps company with 

those,) who act not right. 
John kawin gwetch o sagiassil>anin ossaieibanin wika meno-inen' 

(/ansinigobanin. John did not much love his deceased bro- 
ther, who never had a good will. 
Paul kawin o sagiassibanin a widigemaganibanin, tvika nien- 

M'c/jrfansinigobanin. Paul did not love his deceased wife, wjio 

never was contented, 
participles afler these two. II 



m 







- 152 — 



III. CONJUGATION. 



To this Conjugation belong the intransitive or neuter verbs, 
that end at tlie tliinl person ningular, present, indicative, in in 
or on; and they likewise end so at the lirst person. 

Here are some of the verbs of this description. 



First Person. 

Nin daywishin, I arrive ; 

Nin pangishin, I fell ; 

Nind dpitrhishin, I fall hard ; 

Nind agodjin, I hang, o** I am on high ; 

Ninjingishin, I am lying ; 

Ninminoshin, I lie well ; 

Nin twdshin, I break through the ice ; 

Nind ojdahishin, I slide or glide ; 

Nind osdmidon, I speak too much ; 

Nin dandnagidon, I talk ; 

Nin mishidon, I have a long lK?ard ; 



Third Person. 

dagwishin. 

pangishin. 

dpitchishin. 

agodjin. 

jingishin. 

minoshin. 

twdshin. 

ojdshishin. 

osdmidon. 

dandnagidon. 

mishidon. 



AFFIRMATIVE FORM. NEGATIVE FORM- 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 



PRESENT TENSE. 






Nin dagwishin, I arrive, * 


Kawin 


si. 


ki dagwishin, 


(< 


si. 


dagwishin, 


*( 


si. 


dagwishimm, one arrives. 


t( 


sim,. 


they arrive, (on 






arrive,) 






nin diiwishinlmlu, \ 


(( 


simin. 


ki dayjcishinim, 


« 


sim, 


dagwishinog, 


(( 


si wag .. 



* »ee Bemark 4, p. 00. 



t See Remark 3, p. 95. 



— 153 — 

IMPERFECT TENSE. 

Nin dagwishin'umh&n, I arrived, 
ki dagiinshinin&hau, 
dagwitthinoh&u, 
nin dagwit hi ninnuahan , 
ki dagwishininwv&h&u, 
dagwishinohamg, 

PERFECT TEX8R. 



Kawin sinabaii, 
" sinahan, 
sil»an, 
piiniiiaban, 
fiiniwahaii, 
sibaiiig. 









si, 
si, 



Nin gi-dagwishin, I have arrived, 
ki gi-dagwishin, 
gi-dagwinhin, 

Etc., as above in the present tense, always prefixing gi-, to 
the verb. 

PLUPERFECT TENSE. 

Nin gi-dagwinhinrnkhsLW, I liad arrived, Kawin siiiaban, 
ki gi-dagwishin'\na.hB,n, " sinaban. 

Etc., as above in tlie imperfect tense, always prefixing gi", to 
the verb. 

FUTURE TENSE. 



Nin ga-dagwishin, I will arrive. 


Kawin 


si. 


ki ga-dagwishin. 




s'l, 


ta-dagwishin, 




si, 


ia-dagivishin\m , 




sin), 


nin ga-dagwishinim'in , 




siinin 


ki ga-dagtcishin'im. 




si in. 


ta-dagwithinog, 




si wag 



SECOXn FUTURE te; <<E 



Nin ga-ji-dagivishin, I shall have arrived, Kawin si, 

ki ga-gi-dagivishin, "si, 

ta-gi-dagivishin, t" si. 
Etc., as above. 




Hi 



1 11; 



J I i«' '■ 



— 154 — 
SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

PRESENT TEN8E. 



€agwishinkx\, if I arrive, 


siwan, 


'dagwishinB.n, 


8iwan, 


dagwis fling, 


sig, 


dagwishin'ing, 


sing, 


dagwishiimug, ^ if we ar. 
dagwishmang, J 


siwang. 


sivvang, 


dagwifthineg. 


siweg, 


dagwishinowQ,d, 


sigwa. 


PERFECT TEN82. 





Gi-dagwishimm, because I liave 

arrived, or when I arrived, 
gi-dagwisTiinvLW , 



siwan, 



siwan, 



Etc., as above in the present tense, prefixing gi-, to the verb 

PLUPERFECT TEX8E. 

Dagwishinkmh^n, if I had arrived, 
<lagwishin».\\\hQ.n, 



if we had 



dagwishing\hvi.n , 
dagwis1iin\x\g\\)ii\\, 
dagwia hi nAugihiin, -y 
<iagwishiniingoha.n, / 
dagwishinegohixn , 
dagwishinowsip&u , 

FUTURE TENSE. 

Ge-dagwishiniin, that I shall arrive, 
ge-dagivishinan , 
Etc., as above in the present tense, prefixing ge-. 



si warn ban, 

siwaniban, 

sigoban, 

singiban, 

siwangiban, 

siwangoban, 

eiwegoban, 

sigwa ban. 



siwan, 
siwan. 



sreOND FUTURE TENSE. 

Oe-gi-dagwishin&n , that I shall have siwan, 

arrived, 
ge-gi-dagwishinan , siwan. 

Etc., as above in i\ie present tcnso, prefixing ge-gi-. 



— 155 — 
CONDITIONAL MOOD. 

PRESENT TENSE. 

Nin da-dag wishiii, I wouUi arrive, or I ought 

to arrive, 
ki da-dagwishin, 
da-dagwishin, 

da-dagicishiiiim, they woukl arrive, 
(on arriverait,) 
nin da-dagicishin\m i n , 
ki da-dagwishiii'im, 
da-dagwishinog, 

PERFECT TENSE. 

Nin da-gi-dagwishin, I would have arrived, 
or I ought to have arr. 
ki da-gi-dagwishin, 
da-gi-dagwishin, 
dargi-dagwishimm , 
nin dorgi-dagwishinhnin, 
ki da-gi-dagwishin\m , 
da-gi-dagwishinog. 



81, 



Kawin si, 

si. 












sim,^ 



simin, 
sim, 
si wag- 



si,. 

si, 

siiu, 
simiuy 
sim, 
si wag. 



Ge-gi-dagicishinan, tliat I would have siwan„ 

arrived, 
Etc., as above in the second future of the suhj. mood . 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



f| 



■.> 



Daqwishinm, \ 

, • I • 1 r fvrr. thou, 
dagwishinokan, ) ' 


Kego gen. 


ia-dagwishin, let him (her, it) 


" si, 


arrive. 




iordagwishimm, let them arrive. 


" sim. 


(qu'on arrive,) 




dagieis?nnda, let us arrive, 


" sida. 


dagwishinog, arrive ye, 


« gegon,. 


firdagtcishinog, let them arrive. 


'' siwag. 



156 — 



M 



•lit 



IlitPi 



I, 

it 



PARTICIPLES. 



PRKSENT TKN8E. 



Nin degwitfhiiikn, I who aj rive, 
,' u (le(jwishin&u, tliou who arr., 
win degwishing, 
deifwlshmmg, 



we that arr. 



ninawind degwishinang, ^ 

kinawind degioishin&wg, i 

kinawa degwishineg, 

winawa degivishinglg, 



IMPERFECT TENSE. 

Nin degwishinamh&n, I who arrived, 
ki7i degicishinamhsiny 
win degioishingihan, 
ninmoind degwiiihin&ngW)^}) , •» 
kinawind degin ' //jangoban, J 
kinawa degwi.Jiinegoha.n, 
ivinawa degwishing\ha.n ig, 

PERFECT TENSE. 



81 wan, 
si van, 

eing, 

siwang, 

siwang, 

eiweg, 

sigoo-. 



eiwamban, 

siwaniban, 

eigoban, 

siwangiban, 

siwangoban, 

siwegoban, 

eigobanig. 



Nin ga-dagwishin&n, 1 who have arrived, eiwan, 

kin gordagwlshin&n, eiwan, 

Etc., with the terminations of the present, and prefixing ga-, 
to the verb. 

PLUPERFECT TENSE. 

Nin ga-dagivishina,n\han, I v/ho had arr. siwaniban, 

kin ga-dagio'ishina,n\hai\, siwaniban. 
Etc., putting the terminations of the imperfect, and prefixing 
ga-. 



FUTURE TENSE. 



Nin ge-dagwishinan, I who shall arrive, 
kin ge-dagwlshin&n, 
Etc., after the present, prefixing ga-. 



81 wan, 
si wan, 



— 157 — 



8EC0ND FUTURE TENSE. 



Nin ge-gi-dagxLiahinkn, I who shall have ar. siwAn, 

kill ge-gi-dagwlshin&n, sivvan, 

Etc., after the pi'esent, prefixing ge-gi-. 

Review diligently the Remarks and Notes of the two preceding 
Conjugations, and mind them well ; especially the littles and 
Hemarks regarding the Change. 

Remark. In regard to the conditional mood of these Conjuga- 
tions it must be observed, that only two tenses, the present and 
the jt^oyecf, are commonly used in it. A third one, called the 
necond perfect tense, cowXA be expressed; as: Nin da-gi-ikkito- 
ndban ; nin da gi-inendannban, etc. But it is not in common 
aise ; therefore it is omitted in the paradigms. 



4 lit} 



EXAMPLES ON THE III. CONJUGATION. 



Nin tndnishin, kawin nin minoshinsi, ikkito aw aidkosid. I lie 
uncomfortable, I don't lie well, says that sick person. 

Keidbi jingishinobanig ba-mddjaidn. They were yet in bed 
when I started to come here. 

Nissing nin gi-pangishin pitchindgo, mikwaming gi-bimosseidn ; 
nijing dash nin gi-twdshin. I tell three times yesterday, walk- 
ing on the ice ; and I broke through twice. 

Ginwenj Jesus gi-agodjinoban tchibaidtigong, bwa nihod ; Jesus 
had hung long on the cross, before he died. 

Aw ikwe mikwaming bemnssed ta-ojdshishin ganabatch, ia-dpit- 
chishin dash. That woman who walks on the ice, will proba- 
bly glide and fall hard. 

Nin gagi-dagwishin iwapi, mi dash wedi tchi wdbandiiang ; I 
shall have arrived by that time, and so we will see each other 
there. 

Ambebisdn bimosseiog tchi pakitcshinsiweg ; walk carefully lest 
you fall. 

Blbonong, gi twdshindn, gega nibikang nin gi-dapini. Last 

winter, when I broke through the ice, I almost perished in the 
water. 



I 



I. • :A*J 



■^ 



III! I 



liiiii! 



*H* 



ilillliif' 



— 158 — 

Osdmidonsiwerfohan, kaicin aiciia dorgi-fiishkadisissi ; had yoi? 

not talked too much, nobody would have been mad. 
Mino (janawntindiftoing, kawin ki kikendansinawa api (le-dagwi- 

shiiuj anishindhe Ogwusan. Beware well, for ye know not 

when the Son of man shall come. 
Mi iwapi kitchi aguming ge-gi-dagwishindn metoija ; at that time 

f nliall have arrived in Europe long ago. 
Kitchi butddowining wdiba ki da-pangishin, kishpin nissnkawad 

avo oshkinawe ; tliou wouKLst soon fall in greats'.^' > thou 

frequented that young nmn- 
Nin da-gi-minoshin Uhikong, akosissiwdmhan ; I would have 

lain comfortably last night, had I not been sick. 
Bisdnis'hin, nihnn kego bdpiken ; lie still, sleep, do not latigh. 
Bi-daguns/iinokan minatoa wdbatig ; nin tniwmddmin bi-ijiiian. 

Please come to-morrow again ; we are happy when tliou 

comest. 
Kitchi onijishiwag anangog ishpiming egodjiiigig ; the stars oi» 

high are very beautiful. 
Kinawa kabe-bibon pekiteaJiinsiwegoban, geget ki mino ganawe' 

nindisom bimosseieg. You who never fell all winter, you walk 

with great precaution indeed. 
Aw Abinodji ga-jinjishing ningoting pijikiwigamigong, mi aw 

Debendjiged ki Kije- Manifomiiidn. The Child that lay once in 

a stable, is the Lord our God. 
Mi ogow anishindbeg ga twdshingibatiig awdssonngo ; tlie.se are 

the Indians that broke through tlie ice the day before yesterday. 
Mi aw ge-danduagidong miiiawa kabi'gijig ; she is the one that 

will talk again all day. 
Kakina igiw ge-gidagwishinsigog anamiewigamigong, tchi bica 

mddjitad viekatewikwanaie, kawin ta-mino-dodansiwag. All 

those that shall not have arrived at the church, before the 

priest begins the service, will not do right. 



J I 



— 159 — 



III. DUBITATIVE CONJUGATION. 



AFFIRMATIVE FORM. 



NEGATIVE FORM. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 



PRESENT TENSE. 



(( 



Nin dagwishimmidog, I arr. perhaps, 
ki dag wis hi7i\midog, 
daywishinodogf 

daywishin'umdog, one arr. perh. 
nin dagwishinmnnsidog, 
ki dagwishin'mwvadog 
dagwishijiodogenag, 
After this present tense are forined the perfect and the future 
tenses; as: Nin yi-daywishinimidoij ; etc. . . . 



Kawin simidog, 
" siniidog, 
" sidog, 
simidog, 
siuiinadog, 
sinnvadog, 
sidogenag. 







PLUPERFECT TENSE. 



Gi-dat/wishino\\iiiuha.n, I had per. 

arrived, 
</i-dagwishi7iowa.x\\htLii, 
gi-dag wis hi nogoh&n, 
gi-dagwishino\vkug\ ban , 1 
gi-dagwishinowa,ngohan, i 
gi-dagwishinowegohm\, 
gi-dagwishinogw&hfiu, 



Kawin 8inowarnl)an, 



(( 


sinowamban, 


(( 


sigoban, 


(( 


sinowangiban. 


(( 


sinowangiban. 


(( 


.sinowegoban. 


(< 


sigwaban. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



PRESENT TENSE. 



Degwishinowanen, that I perh. ar., siwanen, 
degwishinow&nen, siwanen, 

degwishinogwen, sigwen, 






iii'i ' 



♦"i» 



— 160 — 



*?c7ir/."<A/;jo\vj\ngeiij •» tlmt we p. 
</ey{p».v/i/«(>\vaiigen, i arr. 



Hiwftngeii, 
''iwangen, 
siwegwen, 
si wag wen. 



(le(/ivinhi nowcfi^wvu, 

Atler this present tpnse are formed the perfect and future 
tensea ; as : Oa-daywishinowdnen, . . . (je-daywlshinowdnen. . . . 



I'LrPERFECT TKNSE. 




Da[/wishinowaw\)Skn('u , if I liad ar- 
rived, 1 HUpjMJ.Se, 

</rt^M'/.><A7/towatubanen, 
daf/ipishino^ohaueu, 
da</iPinhiao\va,ng\h&nen, ") I sup. 
rZar/Jc/.^A/Howangobanen, / if we . . . 
f/rtZ/jr/.y/jj/Jowegobanen , 
.rfia^M'w/ti/towagobanen , 



siwantbanen, 

wiwanibanen, 

sigobanen, 

siwaiigibaiK'n, 

siwangobanen, 

siwegobanen, 

siwagobanon 



s: 1 



PARTICIPLES. 



PRESENT TENSE, 




i 


111 


1 


ill i 


I 


1 



Nin def/wixhinowaueu, I wlio arrive perhaps, 
kin deywin hi nowancn , 
win degwishinogweu , 



ninawind de(/icinhino\vHngei\ , ") 

kinawind de(/wishinowan\icn, -» 

kinawa degwis/iinogwcnAg, 

tcinawa deywishinowvgwi'n , 



we wlio arr. perh. 



PRESENT TENSE, 



Nin dei/wi.shins\wa,uen, I ,vho do perh. not arr. 
kin degwufhinBiw&ueu, 
win deywishinsigwen, 



— 161 — 



'"'I we who do p. not arr. 
?n,i 



ninawind degwis hi uniwHUfi^en , 

kinawind degtcinhinHiwuugei 

kinaxca degwUhiim\\e»wei\ , 

winaiva detjwinhinfigwen&g. 

After this present tense are (brinc the perfect ami future 
lenses ; as : Nia tja-dagwinkinowdaen, . . . Nin ge-dagicinhino- 
icdnen. . . . 



PLUPERFECT TE>8K. 



Nin ga^dagirh<<hiuo\\i\iu\mu(.'u, I wlio had perh. arr. 
kill gordagwi.'ifiiuowa.uihauen , 
win ga-dagwinfiino^o\ni.ueu, 



ninawind ga-dagwifthinowHugihaupw, 1 
kinawind ga-dagwi-skinownugohuuvn, > 
kinawa ga-dagwishinowogohsim'u , 
u'inaica gordagwishinogoh&ncuag. 



we who had 



PLUI'ERFECT TENSE. 



Nin ga-dagwishins\wi\u\hhr\eu, I who did p. not arr. 
Arm </a-rfa^JCi»/jmsiwanjl»anen, 
win ga-dagiinshini^'igoh&uvn , 
iiinnwind gardagipishinm\vHug\bfiuen,^ , 

kinawind gardagwishin>>\\\ango\>ai\vu, i 
kinawa ga-dagwishinBi\\egohm\eu , 
winawa ga-dagwishUmgohiinQimg. 



t 

( 



EXAMI'I.ES ON THE III. Dl'BITATIVE CONJUGATION. 



OHamwdiba nin dagwishinimidog, kawin awiia oma aiasi. I 
arrive perhaps too soon, there is nobody yet here. 

Gi-dagwishinodogenag ga-biindjig ; awi-wdbamddanig. The ex- 
pected persons have probably arrived ; let us go and see theiu* 



i 



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jppwpi 



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I* 



I ; 



M 



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111 



limmni 




)- 



— 162 — 

6 „a gi-nihowag nij anishindheg ; niwing knee gi-ani-twAshi- 
nogwaban hwa oditamowad miniss. 'J'wo Indians liave almost 
perished ; they have broken througli the ice four times (they 
say,) before they readied tlve island. 

Wcibang ta-dagwishinodogenag wnigiigog. Gegei nin ga-kUchi- 
minwendam tchi wCihamagwa. To-morrow will perhaps arrive 
my j)arents. I will be happy indeed to see them. 

Endogtven keidbi wesnmidonowagwen igiw ikwetvag, waieshka'i 
ga-ijitoebisiwad. I don't know whether these women are yet 
so talkative, as they have been at lirst. 

Gi-ano-akmvCibamawag kid inmoenidgnnag pitchindgo. Gonima 
ga- lagioixhinowagwen ; axoi-gagwedwen. Thy relations have 
been expected( looked for) yesteruay. They have perhaps 
arrived ; go and ask. 

Nin kitimdginima aw aidknsid inini ; endogwen ga-minoshinog- 
wen fibikong. I pity tliat poor sick man ; I don't know whe- 
ther he lay comfortable last night. 

Kawin nin kikenimassig k^issaieiag tchi gi-dagwishinowagobaneu 
odenang, bwa stikidenig. I don't know w' ether yoitr brothers 
had arrived in the village, (town, city,) before the fire broke 
out. 

Nita mikumming bimosse nongnm kaM-gijig ; namandj dassing 
ge-pakitenhin'>gwen. My brother-in-law is traveling to-day on 
the ice all day ; I don't know how often he will fall. 

Kin pengishinsiwoiieu wika kitchi batadowining, geget kijawen- 
dagoH. Thou who perhaps never fallest in a mortal sin, thou 
art happy indeed. 

Awegwen ga-JinginJiinogwen nin nibaganing nonda-gijig. I don't 
know wiio has lain down on my bed during the day. 

Kinawa ga-pangishinowegwen naningim kUchi batiuhwiningy 
bwa bi-aiad oma mekatewikwanaie, nongom wexceni anwenin- 
disoiog. You who have perhaps often fallen in grievous sine, 
before a Missionary was here, repent now sincerely. 



! 



— 163 — 

Winawa nitam ga-gabeshigob anenagoma, bwa kinawind dagwi- 
$hinang, gi-ojitogwaban ow kitigan. Those tliat first !iad 
settled here, before we arrived, have made this field, (or 
garden.) 

Ktciwisensidog, pisiniamog ,- Awegicen osdm wika ge-dagwishi 
nogwen kikinoamdding, ia-dnimisi. Boys, listen : Whosoever 
shall come too late to school, shall be punished, (or shall 
*'urter.) . 



iPMMilfS! 







l< ! 




I* "' 




— 164 — 

A few Examples in regard 1o 
AFFIRMATIVE FORM. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 



j4fro.9twan onidjanissan, jingi.HhJnoi\ nihaganing. Hie child if* 
sick, he is lying on a bed, (or, Iuh children are sick, etc ) 

William ossan bi'dagwishinow. William's father is coming here. 

And so on in all the tenses^ 

Nibiwa od inawemaganan dagicishinohanwi jfitcf^indgo. Many 

of his relations arrived yesterday. 
Aw ikipe od'anixsan dpiichishiuohtimu nwassondgo. The little 

daughter of this woman fell hard the day helbre yesterday. 
Aio aniahiiidhe ogwisnan nijing gi-twus/iii '>anin!, bwa dagwi- 

.y/</ninid oma; thi.>4 Indian's son had broken twice through th(^ 

ice, before lie arrived liere. 

Kixhpin o widigemdganan dagicinhin'iwid, kawin rniitawa tU'-viud- 
,/V/HHiwan. If her husband comes, he will not go away anymore. 

Kisfipin l:eiabijinginhiiuu'u{ ogivi.snan, geget kiiimiwiwx. If his 
sons are yet in bed, they are really lazy. 

And 80 on in all the tenses 

Kiahpin dagicishin\n\i>nu omixhomiamn api pandigei'in, nin da- 

g: 'i(ibamim.an. Had his g.and-father arrived when I came 

in, I would have seen him. 
Aw inini endasno'tibikadinig o ganawdbnman nnangnn ishpiming 

<'«70(/inidjin. This man is gazing every night on the stars that 

ttrj (hanging) on high. 
Iniw ^ogwinHdii, jntrhindgo ga-dagicithimxuiiyiu, gi-bimossetcan 

tma. His >o:j ihat arrived yesterday, went by here. 



— 165 — 

fhe Becond third person. 

NEGATIVE FORM. 



INDICATIVB MOOD. 



Affawa akcfiwAn onkljamsmn, kaicinjiiif/ishinniwfiu niha(janin(j^ 
W\n child is a little sick ; he is not lying in ,l>ed, (or, his chil- 
dren are a little sick, etc.) 

Kmcin moHhi William ossan dagwishiHs'iw&w. William's father 
jirrives not yet. 

derived troni the present. 

Koicin vKVthi o</in dagwishinHihawlw. His mother did not yet 

arrive. 
Kcncin oma niikanamj lipitrh ishiu(^\hQ,n'u\ aw ikwe od'anissan. 

The little daughter of thi.s woman did not fall on this road here. 
Kuunn nijim/ </i-tnHishinii\\>ami\ air anis/iinuhe oj/icissan, mi eta 

abiding. This Indian's son had nut broken twice througli the 

ice, but only once. 
Mi.s.iawa dagtnis/iinAwng o widij/em/iganan, kawin nongnm hiho" 

ninig ta-mddja.ssi . Although her husband arrive not, »h« will 

not go away this winter. 

derived from the present. 

Kishpin dagwishin»'\\\\^o\\(i\\ omi.'ihomi?san megwa ima niaidn,. 

kawin nin da-gi-wdlmmassi. Had his grand-father Jiot arrived 

while I wa.s there, I would not have seen him. 
Kikinoamdgewinini kawin o minwenima.ssin iiiiw ab'xnodjiian' 

wika kikinoamading degwishinHimgon. The teacher does not 

like those children that never come to school. 
luiw ogwi.tsan, pitchindgo ga-dagwishinH\m)ron , wdhang ta-bi' 

aiawan oma. His son who did not arrive yestefday, will l)e 

here to-morrow. 



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166 — 



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IV. CONJUGATION. 

Here now, dear reader, you are at the most important and tlie 
imost difficult of all our Conjugations. 

To this Conjugation belong all the iransitive or active verbs 
ANIMATE, ending at the third person singular, present, indicative, 
in dn. The object upon which acts the subject of these verbs, 
is always contained in the verb itself. So, nin wdbama, does not 
mean : I see ; but, I see him, [her, it.) 

All the verbs belonging to this Conjugation end in a at the 
first person singular, present, indicative. This final a is placed 
among the terminations, to facilitate the conjugating process of 
these verbs ; and this a does not belong to the body of the verb. 

Note. In the following two paradigms you will find the singu- 
lar in the first column of the page in full, and the terminations 
of the plural in the second column. 

Here are some verbs of the IV. Conjugation : 



Fir.H Person. 
Nin wdhandaa, I show him, (her, it ;) 
Nin nibea, I put him (her, it,) to sleep ; 
Nin sdgia, 1 love hini, (her, it ;) 
Nind amoa, I eat him, (her, it ;) 
Ninnondawa, I hear him, (her, it;) 
Nin wdbama, I see him, (her, it ;) 
Nin widig^ma, 1 live with him, (her, it;) 
Nin jing^nima, I hate him, (her, it;) 
Nin nakomd, I promise him, (her, it ;) 
Ninpismdaxva, I listen to him, (her, it;) 
Nind anona, I employ him, Cher, it ;) 
Nindassd, I put him, (her, it;) 



Third Perso7i. 
wabandadn. 
o nibedn. 
o sagidn. 
od amodn. 
nondawdn. 
o wabamdn. 
widigemdn. 
ojingenimdn. 
o nakomdn. 
o pisindawdn. 
od anondn. 
od assdn. 



Remark. As the Otchip\vc language makes no distinction of 
the two sexes in the personal pronouns, the pronouns of all the 
three genders ought to be expressed in English, in some in- 
stances. Bui, to n)ake it shorter and easier, we will ordinarily 
express only the masculine pronouns : I the feminine and 



— 167 — 

neuter will be understood. So, for instance, Nin wnbama, can 
mean, I see him, I see her, I see it, (some animate object.) Waia- 
bamdd, c&n me&n, he, she, or it, who sees him, her, or it. In- 
stead of this we Will only say: Nin wdbama, I see hint ; waiaba- 
wdrf, he vbo sees him, etc., etc. Tlie feminine and neuter pro- 
nouns will be understood. 

ACTIVE VOICE. 



AFFIRMATIVE FORM. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 



PRESENT TENSE. 



Singular. 


Plural. 


Nin wdbama, 1 see him, 


ag. 


ki wdbama. 


ag. 


wdbam&u, * 


an, 


nin wdbamAn&n, f 


anani>;, 


ki vidbamAwa, 


awag. 


wdbamavf an, 


awan. 


IMPERFECT TENSE. 




JVtn wdba7rnihau, I saw him. 


abanig, 


ki wdbamahau, 


abanig. 


MJa/>arwabanin, 


abanin. 


win M'a6a/rtanaban, 


anubanig, 


ki wdbamawahan, 


awabanig, 


U'd6amawabanin, 


, awabanin. 


PERFECT TENSK. 




Nin gi-wdbama, I have seen him, 




(or, I saw him,) 


ag. 


ki gi-wdbama, 


ag, 


gi-todbam&u, 


an, 



♦ See page 90. 



Remark 3. p. 05. 

12 







— 


168 — 




nin (/i-wabamQ.n&n, 




ananig^. 


ki gi-wdbaiHAwn, 




awag, 


o yi-wnhanmwau, 




awan. 



IM.ri'KRFKCT TKN8E. 

Nin (/i-wdbamahAi) , I had ^evu him ' 

(or, I Haw liim,) ahanig, 
ki gi-wdhavia]\an, ahanig. 

Etc., after the above imperfect tense, prefixinjj; <//-. 

FITURK TKNSK. 

Nin ya-wdhama, T will ."ee him, ajr. 

ki (ja-wdhama, ag. 

Etc., after tlu' above ^r«««n/ tense, prefixing </«-. 

8KC0NI) FUTURE TENSE. 

Nin ga-yi-wnbavm, 1 shall have seen him, ag, 
A:* yd-yi-wdbamix, ag, 

Etc., likewi.se af'ter the present tense, prefixing ga-gi-, 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



PRESENT TENSE. 




WdbamvLg, * if I see liim, 


agwa, 


wdbami\i\, 


adwa, 


wdbamM, 


M, 


wdlmnmugul, {ninawiinl,) t 


angidwa,. 


wdbamung, (kinawind,) 


angwa, 


wdftameg, 


egwa. 


wdltaih&wad, 


awatl. 


PERFECT TENSK. 




Gi-wdbam&g, when I saw him, 


agwa, 


gi-ipdbamtid, 


adwa. 


Etc., as above in t\^ present tense, prefix 


ing gi: 



t See the /ffmarAr« concerning this luul the foUowing two tenses, p. 110. 
* 8e« Remark 3. d. 42. 



8e« Remark 3, p. 42. 



— 169 — 



PM'PKRFKCT TENSK 



Wtihamag'ihixw, had I 


seen 


liini, 


a^waban, 


W(7hamiiii\\>an, 






nil wa ban, 


wdhamupau , 


• 




npan, 


wnhatHSLugniihfiU, y 
w/ihamvLn gob&n, j 






niigidw-ahan, 






angwaban, 


wdhame^ohtin , 






egwaban, 


wdhamnv,- (i[Mu, 






awn pan. 


Fl'TURE TENSE. 




Ge-wdbamagy that I s 


hal] 


see him, 


agwa, 



ge-icdOdnifid, 
Etc., as above in the present tense, prefixing f^e-. 

SECOND Fl'TlRE TENSE. 

Ge-gi-wdham^g, that 1 .»<luill have .seen liini, agwa, 
ge-gi-wdh(iniii(\, , adwa. 

Etc., likewise atler iha j)resent tense, prefixing ge gi-. 

CONDITIONAL MOOD. 

PRESENT TF 'f. 



Mn da-iodbam&, I would see liini, or I 
ought to see him, 
ki da-wdhatna,, 
da-wdhama.n, 
nin da-wdhani.' .i, 
ki da-wibam ' va, 
o da-W-ibamkvia.\\, 

PERFECT TENSE. 

Nin da-gi-'vdbamO', I would have seen him, 

I ought, etc., 
ki da-gi-wdbam&, 

Etc , after the jvesent tense, 

Ge-gi-wdbamHg, that I would have seen 
him. 




ag. 
an, 

ananig 
avvag, 
a wan. 



ag» 



agwa, 



— 170 -- 



J! ■! -I 





IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Wabam, nee liiin, (thou,) 
wdbami\k&u, please see him, 

o ga-wdbamskn, let him see him, 
wdbamada, let us see him, 
wdbam'ig, see him, (you,) 

o garwdba7nak\va,n, let him see him, 

PARTICIPLES. 

PRESENT TENSE. 



Nin 

win 

kin 

win 

win 

iniw 

mnaioind 

kinawind 

win 

win 

kinawa 

win 

winawa 

iniw 



akan, 

ai), 

udanig, 

awan. 



Singular. 

waidbamag, I who see him, 
waidbamag, he whom I see, 
waidbam, thou who seest him, 
waidbamad, he whom thou seest, 
waidbamkd, he who seen him, 
waidbaTnadym, he whom he sees, 
waidbam^ngld, | ^^ ^j^^ ^^^ ,^j^^^^ 
waidbamang, i 

"'«^"f«'^*^"g^^\lhewhomwesee, 
waidbanmug, • 

waidbameg, you who see him, 

loaidbameg, he whom you see, 

waidbamSidyig, * they who see him, 

waidbama,w&dyn\, he whom they see. 

Plural. 



Nin tvaidbama,gwa,, I who see them, 
winaioa waidbain&g\g, they whom I see, 

kimcaidbamskdwsk, ihou who seest them, 
winawa waidbanmdpg, they whom thou seest, 
wm ivaidbamM, he who sees them, 
iniw waidbamadyin , they whom he sees. 



* See Remark, p. 



II! 



— 171 — 



kinawtnd wal/thninnngwa, > 
winawa trflm6«mangicljig, | ^,^^^, ^^,,^„^ ^^ ^^^ 
winawa waidbam&ngog, i 
klnawa wamhamegw&, you who see them, 
winawa wainhajnegofi, tliey whom you Hoe, 
winawa waidhanmiyig, they who see them, 
iniw waidbam{\\\a.ii']'m, tliey wliom they see. 



IMPKRFECT TENSK, 



Nin 

nin 

kin 

win 

win 

iniw 

ninawind 

kinawind 

win 

win 

kinawa 

win 

winawa 

iniw 



Singular. 

wai/?ftnwiagihan, I wlio saw him, 

M'a/aAamAgibaii, he whom I saw, 

waidbam&d\hiin , tliou who sawest liim, 

wainbam&d'\hsLn , he whom thou sawest, 

waidbamaYi&n, he wlio saw him, 

waidbam&pamn, he wliom he saw, 

iratV<6a/wangidihaii, 1 , , . 

" , ' >• we who saw hnu, 
waiaoowangohan, J 

M)a^a6o7«angi(^iban, "I i „ , ^. 

" ' > he whom we saw, 

waiabatnaugohan, i 
loaidbami'goh&n , you who saw him, 
ft^aiaftamegobau, he whom you saw, 
toaidbamnp&mg, they who saw liim, 
waidbatn&w&p&u'in, he whom tliey saw. 

Plural. 



Nin waidbam&gw&han, 1 wlio saw them, 
winawa waiairtwagibanig, they whom I saw, 

kin waidbamadwahau, thou wlio sawest them, 
winawa waia6a?«adibanig, tliey whom thou sawest, 
win waidbamapan, he who saw them, 
i7iiw waidbamapan'm , they whom he saw, 
ninawind M>aia6awangidwaban, ■» 
kinawind waidbamaug^yahan, | we who saw them, 



,^.i^] 



"'•J 



', 



mm 



— 172 — 



li'lM 



Iti' 



fli 



tcinauui M^«tV?&«mangi.m.anig, | „,^^ ^^,^^,^^ ^^ ^^^^ 

lutntttrM trrt?/i/>amangol»anig, J 

kinawa iritiiif>amvi*\ynUm, you who hjiw them, 

winawa xcauV)<tmc\i,o\n\\\\\r, thfv whom you naw, 

Wiiuiua waiHb(imii\Mn\<^, tht-y who naw them, 
iniw jrajtt^amawupanin, they whom they how. 

I'KRFKCT TKNHK. 

Sinijular. 

Nin ifd-irahanm^; I wlio have .seen him, 
win i/a-tvuhaimi}£, he whom I have seen, 
kin (/a-icdbamfid, thou who hast uecn him. 

Plural. 

Nin i/a-wdbam&^wn, I who have seen them, 
winawa ifa-w<Vmnn\\i\^^, they whom I have neen, 
kin (fa-wuhama.d\va, thou wlio liawt Heeii them. 
Etc., after the ahove^re«cu< tenseH, prefixing </a-, to the verb. 

PLUl'KRKKCT TKN8E. 

Singular. 

Nin (fu-w/ihamiig,\b{iu, I who had neeii him, 
win (/a-wdbanmgihtiw , he whom I hadtiteei). 

Plural. 

Nin ifa-wabamiigwnhau, I who liad seen them. 
winawa (ja-wnbamagihau'if!,, they whom I had seen. 
Etc., after tiie above imperfect tense. 

FUTURE TENSE. 

Sint/ular. 

Nin ye-w(ibamag, I who sliall see him, 
win (/e-wdbamag, he whom I shall see. 



— 173 — 

Plural. 

J9in f/e*ttvi/>amugwa, I who shall 8<*c them, 
winaica g€-w(ibamfi^\p^y they whom I Rhall see. 
Etc., after the preneni teiiHe, prefixing ye-. 

8KCONI) KUTURK TEN«K. 

Sinyular. 

Nin ge-gi-tp/ihnmii^, I who shall have seen him, 
win (/e-ifhwnbaniBL^, he whom I shall have seen. 

Plural. 

Nin (je-gi-wdham^^wti, I who shall have seen them, 
winawa (/e-gi-wdbamag\ji^, they whom I shall have seen. 
Etc., likewise atler the present tense, prefixing ye-gi: 

ACTIVE VOICE. 

NEGATIVE FORM. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 
PRESENT TENSE. 

Sinyular. Plural. 

Kawin nin tm^amassi, I don't 

see him, Kawin assig, 
(( 

(( 

<( 

(( 

(< 

IMPERFECT TENSE. 

Jiawin nin trrt6ama8siban, I diil not 

see liim, Kawin assibanig, 

ki ir<?6rt/na8siban, *' assibanig, 

wdbaintLH?h\\x\\n , ** assibanin, 

nin (m&a;/m.s8iwanaban, '^ a.ssiwanabanig, 

ki M^aftawiassiwavvaban, '* asuiwawabauig, 

o w^^amassiwawabanin, " a.»<siwawabanin. 



ki wdhamABBiy 


<( 


assig, 


wdbam&ssin, 


(< 


assin. 


nin («a6amassiwinan. 


(( 


assiwananig, 


ki wrtfiamaHsiwAwa, 


« 


assiwawag, 


M>a6a;«a8siw)\wan, 


<( 


assiwawan. 



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TEST TARGET (MT-3) 




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23 WEST MAIN STREET 

WEBSTER, N.Y. 14580 

(716) 872-4503 




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— 174 




:Ji - 






PERFECT TENSE. 

Kawin nin gi-wdbama.Bs'\, 1 have not seen 

him, Kawin assig, 

" ki gi-ivc%ama,8S\, " assig. 

Etc., after the present tense, prefixing ^fi-to the verb. 

PLUPERFECT TENSE. 

Kawin nin gi-wdbama.ss\hn.n , I had 

not seen hiin, Kawin assibanig, 
" A;i^/-w«6ama88iban, " assibanig. 

Etc., after the imperfect tense, likewise prefixing gi-. 
Kawin nin ga-wdbam&sa'i, I wiW not see him, Kawin assig. 
" ki ga-wdbamafiB'i, *< assig. 

Etc , after tlie present tense, prefixing ga-. 



Et 



SECOND FUTURE TENSE. 



1 



Kawin nin ga-gi-wdbams,asi, I shall not have 

seen him, Kawin assig,. 

" ki ga-gi-wdbamasai, " assig,. 

Etc., likewise after the preseiit tense, prefixing ga-gi-. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



1 1 

['I 

m 



PRESENT TENSE. 

Waftamassiwag, * if I don't 

.see him, assiwagwa, 

wrtftamassi wad , 
wa6araassig. 



wafttMwassiwangid, ■> 
w^ia/wassiwang, j 

lOflfta/wassiweg, 

trrfftaTAmssigwa, 



* Bee Remarks, p. 110. 



assiwadwa, 

assig, 

assiwangidwa,. 
assiwangwa, 

assiwegwa, 

assigwa. 



— 175 



PERFECT TENSE. 



Gi-wdbam&as'wvag, when I did 

not see him, asaivvagwa, 
gi-wdhamB.saiwa,d, aspiwadwa. 

Etc., as above in t\\e pi-esent tense, prefixing gi-. 



PLUPERFECT TENSE. 



l^dfeamassiwagiban, if I had 

not seen him, assiwagwaban, 



wjaftamassiwadiban, 
tcafeawassigoban , 
w^io/ziassiwangidiban, ■> 
tcafeaTnassiwangoban, J 
tcdftawaseiwegoban , 
wdbama.SBigv,'{iha,n, 

FUTURE TENSE. 



assiwadvvaban, 

assigoban, 

assiwangidwaban y 

assiwangwaban, 

assiwegwaban, 

assigwaban. 



Ge-t^oftamassiwag, when I shall 

not see him, assiwagwa, 

^«-w«6a?nassiwad, assiwadwa. 

Etc., after the present tense, prefixing ge-. 



SECOND FUTURE TENSE. 



Ge-gi-wdbamassiwag, when I shall 

not have seen him, assiwagwa, 



ge-gi-wdbam&Bsi wad , 



as.«iwadvva, 



Etc., likewise after the present tense, prefixing ge-gi-. 
CONDITIONAL MOOD. 



PRESENT TENSE. 



Kawin nin da-wabamms'}, I would not 

see him, (or, I 
ought not to see 
him), Kawin assig,. 



■ 



I, 



1 W f 






; •!■■ 



na 



— 176 



hii , 

hi '«' 



Kawin ki da wdbama.8fi'\, 
" o da-wdbama,8sin , 
" nin da-tvdbamsLS8\wanQ.n , 
" ki da-wdbama»sma,wa, 
**■ darwdbama.m'wvsiVfBn, 



Kawin assig, 
" assin, 
" assiwananig, 
•* assiwawag, 



" assiwawan. 



PERFECT TENSE. 



Kawin nin da-gi-wdbdm&Ht^x, I would not 
have seen him, 
or, I ought, etc. 
" ki dorgi-wdbamaas'}, 
Etc., as above in the present tense, always prefixing gi-, to 
the verb. 



Kawin assig, 
" assig, 



S e-gi-wdbam&mm&g, th&i I would not have seen him, assiwagwa. 
Etc., as above in the second future of the subj. mood. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



Kego 



Kego akeu, 



(( 



wdbamnken, don't see 
him, (thou,) 
" ga-wdbam&asm, let him not 

see him, 
■** tmfta/rtassida, let us not 

see him, 
■** wd6amakegon, don't see 

him, (you,) 
" ga-wdbamaasm&w&n, let 

them not see him, 

PARTICIPLES. 

PRESENT TENSE. 



Singular. 
Ni7i ivaiabamkaaiw&g, I who don't see him, 
win waiabamdHHiwag, he whom I do not see, 
kin waiabamass'iwad, thou who dost not see him. 



assin, 
assidanig, 
akegon, 
assiwawan, 



— 177 — 



win 

win 

iniw 

ninawind 

kinawind 

win 

win 

kinawa 

win 

winawa 

iniw 



Nin 

loinawa 

kin 

winawa 

win 

iniw 

ninawind 

kinawind 

winawa 

winawa 

kinawa 

winawa 

winawa 

iniw 



tcaiafeamAasiwad, lie whom thou dost not see, 

waiabamk^mg, he wlio does not see him, 

waiabamkm'xgon, he whom lie does not see, 

tca/a6a7/mssiwangid, | ^^ ^.j^^ j^„,^ ^^^ j^j,,,^ 

waiaoa7na88ivvang, > 

waiabam&.m\wQ.x\"\A, ^ ■, i j^ ^t „ „ 

*" ' V he whom we do not see, 

^i'aia6a»ias8ivvang, i 
waiabamassmeg, you who don't see him, 
ipaia&amassiweg, he whom you don't see, 
ivaiaba7na,iia\gog, they who don't see him, 
tcaiafta/zmssigwanin, he whom they don't see. 

Plural. 

waiabamiiss'igwagwa,, I who don't see them, 

t»at'«/>a?Has8iwagig, they whom I don't see, 

waja^rtmassiwadwa, thou who dost not see them, 

M'aia6o7/ia88iwadjig, they whom thou dost not see, 

M)aia6a;mi8sig, he who does not see them, 

waia&a wtussigon, they whom he does not see, 

trfl/«6fl//mssiwangidwa, 1 ^^^ ^j^^ ^^^,^ ^^^ ^j^^,^^^ 

«jam6amassiwangwa, i 

waia6«»m88iwangidiig, ") ., , j n 

fe J fej I. they whom we don t see, 

icaiaoamassiwangog, i 
waiabam&ss'iwegwa, you who don't see them, 
wata&cwtassiwegog, they whom you don't see, 
M^aiafcamassigog, they who don't see them, 
wamfta/ziassigwanin, they whom they don't see. 

IMPERFECT TENSE. 



Singular. 

Nin waiaframassiwagiban, I who did not see him, 
win MJaiafta/nassiwagiban, he whom I did not nee, 
kin waiafea/nassiwadiban, thou who didst not see him, 
win waiaftamassiwadiban, he whom thou didst not see, 
ivin waiabamsLa%\goha.i\ , he who did not see him, 
iniw «;aia6a/na8sigobanin, he whom he did not see, 



5 









II 


i 




1' 


I..;^.i| 


1 


R;.j" 


s 



hit 






— 178 — 

ninawind waiabamxiSHhvang\d\hax^, j ^e who did not see him, 
kinamnd wamftamassiwangoban, ) 

m/i waia&amassiwangidiban, 1 he whom we did not 8ee, 

win MJaia&amassiwangoban, J 
kinawa ^i'aiatawiassiwegoban, you who did not see him, 

win toamfeamossiwegoban, he whom you did not see, 
winawa waia^awassigobanig, they who did not see him, 

iniio wamftawassigwabanin, he whom they di(i not see. 



Nin 

winawa 

kill 

winatoa 

win 

iniio 

ninawind 

kinawind 

winawa 

winawa 

kinawa 

icinawa 

winawa 

iniw 



Plural. 

wamfeamassiwagwaban,! who did not see them, 
?t'aiaA:ttmassiwagibanig, tliey whom I did not see, 
waiafeawiaswiwadwaban, thou who didst not see them, 
waiafeamassiwadibanigjthey whom thou didst not see, 
toamiamassigoban, he who did not see them, 
w^amftamassigobanin, they whom he did not see, 

i^amftflmassiwangidwaban, | ^^^^odid notseethem, 
waraoamassiwangwaban, ) 

wamfeawassiwangidibanig, "» they whom we did 
wrtiafeamassiwangobanig, J not see, 

waiafoaTnassiwegwaban, you who did not see them, 
waiaiamassiwegobanig, they whom you did not see, 
if^aiaftawassigobanig, tliey who did not see them, 
waiafiawassigwabanin, they whom they did not see. 

PERFECT TENSE. 



Singular. 

Nin ga-wdbaynaasm&g, I who have not seen him, 
win ga-wdbam&Bamag, he whom I have not seen, 
kin ga-wdba7Ha.a8'i'wsi.df thou who hast not seen him. 

Plural. 

Nin ga-todbam.a,aama,g\va,, I wlio have not seen them, 
toiiiawa ^ra-icaftamassiwagig, they whom I have not seen, 
kin (ya-toaftamassiwadwa, thou who hast not seen them. 
Etc., after the^rescw^ tense, prefixing (jra-. 



Nil 

wi\ 

ml 



— 179 — 



PLUPERFECT TENSE. 



Singular. 

Mil ga-wdbamsissmagib&n, I who had not seen him, 
win ^a-wa6awassiwagiban, he whom I had not seen. 

Plural. 

Nin ^a-MJd6a7/iasaiwag\vaban, 1 wh > had not seen them, 
winawa gra-tt'aAamassiwagibanig, they whom I had not seen. 
Etc., after the above imperfect tense prefixing r^a-. 

FUTURE TENSE. 

Singular. 

Nin ge-iodbama.9a'iwag, I who sliall not see him, 
'win ge-wdbamasamag, he whom I shall not see. 

Plural. 

Nin ge-wdbama,ss[v,'&g^a,, I who shall not see them, 
winawa ge-wdbainaasm&gig, they whom I shall not see. 
Etc., after the present tense, prefixing ge-. 

SECOND FUTURE TENSE. 

Singular. 

Nin ge-gi-wdbam&aaiv^'&g, I who shall not have seen him, 
win ge-gi-wdbain&saiw&g, he whom I shall not liave seen. 

Plural. 

Nin ge-gi-wdbama,as\wa.gwsi, I who shall not have seea 

them, 
winawa ge-gi-wdbam&ss\wsig\g, they whom I shall not have 

seen . 
Etc., likewise after the present tense, prefixing ge-gi-. 
Note. Re\ie'w the Eules and Remarks regarding the Change, 
and apply them to these two forms, the affirmative and the 
negative. 



4 ( « 



,i 



' \-*M 



' \i-ti 









• HI 



i? i 




— 180 — 

EXAMPLES ON THE WHOLE ACTIVE VOICE. ' 

Nin sdgui Kije-Manito, nin saQiag (jaie kakina nidf anisldndhegy 
kawin awiia iiin jing^nimassi. I love God, and I love all my 
tellow-men, I hate nobody. 

Mn gagtkimananig rnojag ninidjdnissiiianig ; eniicek dash bisdii 
abiwag. We speak always to our cliildren, (we exhort them,} 
and they are tolerably quiet. 

Mnd dnikanotawahan dw inini megwa oma aiad. I interpreted 
for that man during his stay here. 

Kawin wewini nin gi-nissitotawassi aw inini ga-ikkitod. I have 
not well understood that man, what he has said, (I have not 
well understood what that man said.) 

Nin gi-ishkwa-kikinoamdwahanig abinodjiiag api pandigeicad 
anishindbeg. I had done teaching the children when the In- 
dians came in. 

Ki ga-babdinitawa na nongom koss ? Ki ga-minddenima na ? 
Kawin na minawa ki ga-matchi-nakwetawassi Y Wilt thou 

obey now thy lather ? Wilt thou respect him ? 
not give him any more bad answers? 

Tchi bwa ondgwishig nin ga-gi-klkenima enendanr^ Before even- 
ing I shall have known his idea. 

Wewini gijendan tchi sdgiad Kije-Manito, tchi anokitawad gaie ; 
wika dash tchiwissokawassiwadwametchi-ijiwebisidjig. Firm- 
ly resolve to love God, and to serve him ; and never to join 
the company of the wicked. 

Nin gi-mimoendamin gi-nondawangid mekatewikwanaie gi-ana- 
miejigigak. We were satisfied (contented) wlien we heard the 
Missionary last Sunday. (The person or persons spoken to, 
not included.) 

Wewini ganawenimangidwaban nin joniidminanig, kawin non- 
gom nin da-kitimdgisissimin. Had we well taken care of our 
mone}', we would not be poor now. 

Aniniwapi ga-ndsikawag Jesus ? When shall I go to Jesus ? 



* See Remarks, p. 110. 



See Remark 4, p. 42. 



— 181 — 



Enamiad ge-gi-iji-sdylad Kije-Maniton, mi-yed-iji-aiad kagigc 
himddimvmrng. As the CliristiaTi shall have loved God, even 
so he shall be in life everlasting, (happy or unhappy.) 

KUhpin wdhamad Kije-Manito, unn ejiwdhamik, ki da gossd, ki 
da manddjia gate, kawin dash ondjita ki da-nishkiassi. If thou 
couldfit see God as he sees thee, thou wouldst fear him, tliou 
wouldst respect him, and thou wouldst not purposely offend 
him. 

Km da-gi-amiTenimag ivdbamagwaban. I would liave reprimand- 
ed them had I seen them. 

Anwenim kinidjdniss, kishpin matchi dodang ; habdmenim eji- 
webisid, kego pagidinaken, win enendang tchi dodang. Repri- 
mand thy child, when he does wrong ; turn thy attention to 
his conduct ; don't permii him to do as he pleases. 

Jawendagosi waiabamdd Kije-Maniton gijigong. Happy is he 
who sees God in heaven. 

Nenibikimassigog onidjdnissiwan ta-aniwisniwag dihakonidiwi- 
ning. Those who don't reprimand their children, will suffer 
at the judgment. 

Aw oshkinawe n^ganadiban pitckindgo,j('ba gi-dagwishin. The 
young man whom thou leftst behind yesterday, arrived this 
morning. 

Gi-jawendagosiwag igiiu ga-wdbamadjig Jesusan, ga-nondawad- 
jig gaie ; aivashime dash gi-jaiveiidagositvag ga-babdmitaiv ad- 
jig. Happy were they who saw Jesus and heard him 5 but 
liappier yet were those who obeyed him. 

Igiw ani^hindbeg ga-gagansoma.ngobanig naningim, nongom 
weiveni anamiawag. Those Indians to whom we had spoken 
so often, are now good Christians. (The person or persons 
spoken to, inc hided.) 

Mi aw kwiwisens ga-awidssiivagiban nin masinaigan ; osdm 
banddjiton. This is the boy to whom I had not lent my book, 
because he spoils it too much. 

Oe-nopinanddjig gijigong ibinidjin, ta-daguishinog wedi gaie 
wviawa. They that follow those who are in heaven, will also 
ihemselves arrive there. 



m 



% 




— 182 — 

Win ge-gi-sdgiassig Kije-Maniton oma aking, kawin piichinag 
wedi ajida-bimddisiwining ta-mddjiiossi ivisdgiad. He who 
shall not liave loved God on earth, shall neither in the next 
life begin to love him. 



jiFFIRMATlVli: FORM. 



NEGATIVE FORM. 



PASSIVE VOICE. 
INDICATIVE MOOD. 

PRESENT TENSE. 

Mn wdbatmgo, I am seen, 
ki wdbam'igOi 

wdbama,, 
wdbam'igon, * he is seen by. 
nin wdbam'igomin , 
ki U'dbani'\gom, 
wdbam&'wa.g, 
waftamigowan, they are . . . 

IMPERFECT TENSE. 

Nin w^a6amigonaban, I was seen, Kawin igossinaban, 



'awi 


n igossi, 


C( 


igossi, 


11 


assi, 


it 


igossin, 


il 


igossimin. 


cc 


igossim, 


<l 


assiwag, 


a 


Igossi wan 



ki waftawigonaban, 

wdbamdihsin, 
o w;a6amigobanin, he was. . . 
nin 7/^a6amigominaban, 
ki tfafeamigomwaban, 

?/;d6awabanig, 
o li^aftamigowaba iin, 

PERFECT TENSE. 



« 

« 
te 



igossinaban, 

assiban, 

igossibanin, 

igossiminaban, 

igossimwaban, 

assibanig, 

igossiwabanin. 



Nin gi-wdbam\go, I have been seen, Kawin igossi, 
ki gi-wdbam\go, " igossi, 

gi-wdbama, " assi. 

Etc., after the present ie?ise, prefixing gi-. 



* See Bemark at the end of tbls paradigm. 



ill 



183 — 



PLUPERFECT TENSE. 



Mn girwdbam\gona,h&n, I had Kawin igossinaban, 

been seen, 
ki gi-ivdbam\gona,h&n, " igoesiQaban, 

Etc., after the above imperfect tense. 



FUTURE TENSE, 



Nin ga-wdbamigo, I will l)e seen, Kawin igossi, 
ki gori dbamigo, " igossi. 

Etc., after the above present tense, prefixing ga-. 

SECOND FUTURE TENSE. 

Nin ga-girWdbam\gOf I shall have Kawin igossi, 

been seen. 
Etc., likewise after the present tense, prefixing ga gi-. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

PRESENT TENSE. 



if we. . 



VVd^crmigoidn, if I am seen, 
w^ftamigoian, 
wdbamind, 

wdbaimgod, if he is seen by, 
t wdbamigomng, ^ .. 
w;^6awiigoiang, J 
t^afiamigoieg, 
wdbamindwa, 
tfdfiamigowad, if they . . . 

PERFECT TENSE. 

t Gi-wdbamigoiAn, when I have been 
.1 i . » seen, 

gi-wdbatmgomn, 
Etc., after i}ie present tense, prefixing gi-. 



t See Jtemark 6, p. 111. 
t See Remark 7, p. 112. 



igossiwdn, 

igossiwan, 

assiwind, 

igossig, 

igossiwAog, 

igossiwang, 

igoseiweg, 

assiwindwa, 

igossigwa. 



igossiwdn, 
igossiwan. 



13 



A'- 



m 






i ' '1 Fa 






i I 



— 184 — 



PLUPERFECT TENSE. 




1.^ m 



'! 1 



■I 



Wief&amigoidmban, had I been seen, igoasiwdinban, 



wdbamigoisLm ban , 
M;^6amindiban, 

wdbaTn\gop&n,h&d he been seen by 
if^ftamigoidngiban, "i had 
M;fi6amigoiangoban, J we. 
wfiftawigoiegoban , 
waftamindwaban, 
U'aftawigowapan , 

FUTURK TENSE. 



igossiwamban, 

Assiwindiban, 

igoasigoban, 

igossiwdngiban, 

igossiwangoban, 

igossiwegoban , 

assiwindwaban, 

igOBsigwaban. 



Ge-wdban\gomn, when I will be seen, igoesiwan, 
ge-wdba,n\go'\aa, igoesiwan, 

Etc., after the above present tense, prefixing ge-. 

SECOND FUTURE TENSE. 

//e-</i-tt>^6awigoian, when I shall have... igossiwan. 
Etc., after the present tense, prefixing ge-gi-. 

CONDITIONAL MOOD. 

PRESENT TENSE. 

liin dorwdbarmgo, I would be seen, Kawin igossi, 

igossi, 
assi, 



ki da-wdbam\go, 
da-wdbam&, 
o da-wdbamigon , he would be 
seen by . . . 
tdn da-wdbam\gom\n , 
ki da-wdbam\gom, 
da-wdbam&wsig, 
da'iadbamigow&n, they . . 

PERFECT TENSE. 



(( 



(t 
<< 
(< 
(< 



igossin, 

igossimin, 

igossim, 

assiwag, 

igossiwan. 



Nin da-gi-wdbam\go, I would have been seen, Kaioin igossi, 
after the above present tense. » 

Etc., 



— 185 — 



Ge-gX-wdbamigoikn, that I would have been seen ; Gi-gi- wd' 
^amigoseiwan, that I would not have been seen. 

Etc., as above in the second future of the suljj. mood. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Ki ga-wdbamigo, be seen, (thou,) Kego 

ia-wdbam&, let him be seen, " 

nin ga-wdbamigomiriy let us be seen, " 

ki ga-wdbam\gom, be seen, (you,) *' 
ta-wdbamskw&g, let them be seen. 



(( 



PARTICIPLES. 



PRESENT TENSE. 



Nin waiabamigo'ihn , I who am seen, 
kin waiabamigoi&n, thou who art . . 
win waiabamind, he who is seen, 
win waiabamigod, he who is seen by . . 
ninawind waiabamigoienig, \ we who are 
kinawind waiabam\goiB,iig, i seen, 
kinawa waiabamigo'ieg, you who are . . 
toinawa icaiafeawindwa, they who are . . 
winawa waiabamigodjigy they who are seen 

by... 

IMPERFECT TENSE. 

Nin M>aia6awigoiamban, I wlio was . . 
kin i«aza6amigoiamban, 
win loaiabamindiban, 
ninawind waiaftamigoiangiban, i 
kinawind M^aia&amigoiangoban, J 
kinawa t^amdamigoiegoban, 
winawa waia6amindibanig, 



we 



igossi, 

assi, 

igossirain, 

igossim, 

assiwag. 



Igossi wan, 

igossi wan, 

assiwind, 

igossig, 

igossiwang, 

igossiwang, 

igossiweg, 



PERFECT TENSE. 

Nin garwdbam\go\Bxiy I who have b. s. 
kin ga-wdbarmgomn, . ■ < 
Etc., after the above •present tense. 



igossigog. 

igossi warn ban, 
igossi wani ban, 
assiwindiban, 
igossiwangiban, 
igossiwangoban, 
igossiwegoban, 
assiwindibanig. 



Igossi wan, ' 

ig08siwan» ' 



..■5 '•• ' • 
I 

lb 



M id* 



i 

• II 







•- iXi»^S 



m 




— 186 — 

•j', "■ PMJPBRFEOT TENSB. 

Nin ga-wdbamigoiAmhan, I who had . . igosei warn ban, 
kin gra-M;^6awigoiamban, igossiwamban, 

Etc., after the above imperfect tense, prefixing ga-. 

FUTURE TENSE. 

Nin ge-wdbarmgomn, I who will be seen, igoseiwan, 
fcrn^e-troftamigoiau, ig088iwan, 

Jtc., after the present tense. 

•' • SECOND FUTURE TENSE. 

Nin ge-gi-wdbain\go'vdn, I who shall . . igossiwan, 

Jdn ge-gi-wdbamigoisLn, igossiwan, 

Etc., likewise after the above ^re^en^ tense. 

Remark. When a verb in the passive voice in the third person,, 
has no report to another third person in the sentence, the ter- 
minations of the first kind, in a, awag, etc., are employed ; (see 
p. 182.) F. i. Wdhama aw kwiwisens, that boy is seen ; wdba- 
mawag igiw ikwesensag, those girls are seen ; without any re- 
port to another third person . But when there is a second! third 
person in the sentence, the terminations of the second kind, in 
igon,igowan, etc., are used. F. i. Ossan, o wdbamigon aw kwi- 
wisens, that boy is seen by his father. Ogiwan o wdbamigowan 
igiw ikwesensag, those girls are seen by their mother. Ossan, 
his father, and ogiwan, their mother, are the second third per- 
sons in these sentences. (See page 70.) 

The verbs of this Conjugation ending in awa, are conjugated 
exactly after the paradigm iVm wdbama, throughout the whole 
ACTIVE voice. But in the passive voice they differ a little. 

We shall point out here below the moods and tenses, in which 
the \ jrbs ending in awa, differ from the verb Nin wdbama. We 
take the verb Nin nondawa, I hear him, (her, it,) for^an example. 
Here we don't put only the final a among the terminations, as 
we did in '.'in wdbama, but the w also ; because we use to consi- 
der (m Conjugations,) as the body of the verb only those syl- 
lables and letters, which remain unchanged throughout the 
whole Conjugation. i, .^.v ^ •- ■ , ■ ,., .vi(»^ ,. ■'-.■ 



^r h': 



— 187 — 
PASSIVE VOICE. . , ;, ..„.,. 

AFFIRMATIVE FORM. , ' - NEGATIVE FORM. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

PRESENT TENSE. 

Mn iionddgo, I am heard, 
ki nonddgo, 
nonddwa, 
o nonddgon, lie is heard by . . 
7dn nonddgoimn, 
ki nonddgom, 

wonda wawag, 
o nonddgovfa,n, they are heard by . 

IMPERFECT TENSE. 

Mn nonddgonsihsLU , I have b. h., 
ki noncZdgonaban, 
wowdawaban, 
nonddgoha.n'n\, he was heard by 
nin ?tonrfagominaban, 
ki nonddgomw&han, 
nonddwahsLing, 
o noncZdgowabanin, they were heard 
by . . . 

Form the other tenses of the indicative mood after these two 
tenses, prefixing <ji- or ga-, according to the preceding para- 
digms ; as : Nin gi-nonddgo . . . Mn gi-nonddgonaban . . . Mn 
ga-nonddgo . . . Mn ga-gi-nonddgo. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. . 

PRESENT TENSE. 

Kishpin nondagoian, * if I^m heard, Kishpin gossiwan, 
nonci^goian, " gossiwan, 

wondlawind, " wassiwind, 

nonddgod, if he is h. by . . . " gossig, 



Kawin 


gossi, 


(< 


gossi, 


(( 


wassi, 


it 


gossin, 


« 


cfossmun, 


t< 


gossi m, 


(( 


wassiwag, 


<< 


gossiwan. 


Kawin gossinaban. 


<( 


gossinaban, 


(I 


wassiban , 


r . . •' 


gossibaniu, 


ct 


gossiminaban, 


e< 


gossimwaban, 


(( 


wassiban ig, 


ira 


gossiwabanin. 






,. *^ 

'■ III 

t 



i S| 






'' V 



' ^ (I 



* See Remark 8, page 113. 



I , ') 



■m 



1 [ ^I^i 
t •- -•-■«■? 




— 188 — 



(( 



we are h. 



Kishpin nond&goi&xigf \ . 
woTU^goiang, / 
nonddgoiegy, 
wowddwindwa, 
nonddgovf a,d, if they are h. 
by .. . 

PERFECT TENSE. 

Gi-nonddgoi&n, that I have b. h. 
gi-nonddgoi&n, 
Etc., as above in the present tense, prefixing gi- 



ft 
(( 
tt 
tt 

tt 



gossiwdngy 
goseiwang, 
gossiweg, 
wassiwindwa, 

gossigwa. 

gosjsiwdn,. 
gossiwan, 



PLUPERFECT TENSE. 

NonddgoidmheLXx, had I been heard, 

nondagoiamban , 

norwZawindiban, 

nonddgOTpSLU, had he been heard by . , 

wo»dagoi4ngiban, \had we 

nowdagoiangoban, i been h. 

wonddgoiegoban , 

non(Mwind waban , 

wond^gowapan, had they been heard 



gossiwamban, 

goesiwamban, 

wassiwindiban, 

gossigoban, 

gossiwangiban,. 

goseiwangobany 

gossiwegoban, 

wassiwind waban , 

gossigwaban. 



by... 

Form the two future tenses after the above present tense, pre- 
fixing ge-, and ge-gi-. 

The two tenses of the conditional mood are esiBily formed after 
the present and perfect tenses of the indicative mood ; as : Nin 
da-nonddgo, I would be heard. . . Nin da-gi-nonddgo, I would 
have been heard. . . 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



Ki ga-nonddgo, be heard, (thou,) 
ta-nonddAN&f let liim be heard, 
nin ga-nonddgovciin, let us be heard, 
ki ga-nonddgom, be heard, (you,) 
ta-nonddw&vi&gy let them be heard. 



Kego 



ft 



gossi, 

wadsi, 

gossimin, 

gossim, 

wassiwag. 



— 189 






PARTICIPLES. 



PRESENT TENSE. 






Nin nwanddgoivin, I who am heard, 

kin nwanddgoi&n, thou who art heard, etc,, 

win nwanddwmd,' 

ninawind nwanddso'i&ns, "» u i, j 

, . . - ,^ . > we who are heard, 

kmawind nwanaagoiang, J 

kinawa nwanddgoieg, 

winawa nwanddwrndjig, 

Nin nwanddgoaamSiu, I who am not heard, 

kin nwanddgosaivf&n, thou who . . .etc., 

win nwanddwsLaam'md, 

ninawind nwanddgos8m&.ng, i , * i j 

,^^ . ^ y we who are not heard. 
kinawmd nt^anaagossiwang, J 

kinawa nwanddgoaavNQg, 

winawa nwanddwasBmindyig. 

IMPERFECT TENSE. 

Nin wioawdagoiamban, I who was heard, 

kin nioandagoiamban, 

win nwanddw\ndiha,n , 
ninawind nwawdagoiangiban, -^ , 

kinawind nwawd^goiangoban, j 
kinawa wwawdJagoiegoban, 
winawa wtoawdawindibanig, 

Nin nwawci^gossiwAmban, I who was not heard, 

kin ntoandagossi warn baa, 

loin wtcawdawassiwindiban, 

ninawind nwandagossiwdngiban, i , ^ i j 

, . . , , ° . , > we who were not heard. 

kmawind wwanaagossiwangoban, J 

kinawa wwawd^gossiwegoban, 

winawa myantMwassiwindibanig. 

Form the other four tenses of these participles after the above 
present and imperfect tenses ; as : Nin ga-nonddgoidn. . . Nin 
ga-nonddgoidmban. . . Nin ge-nondagoidn. . . Nin ge-gi-non- 
dagoidn. . . 



'-»■■ 
« 



I -p. 






% 







1 ' ■ 






■I ■- 



ii > 




— 190 — 

Remark. There are Home verbs belonging to this IV Conj., 
which end in oiva. It must, however, be observed, that the let- 
ler o, before the syllable wa in these verbs, is hardly heard, or 
rather not at all, in some moods and tenses ; as i Nind inindjao- 
wa, I send him ; nind agwdnaowa, I cover him ; nin pakiteowa, 
I strike him ; nin Mbdkwaowa, I shut him up ; nin nandoneo- 
wa, I look for him ; nin bashibaou i, I stab him, etc. In hear- 
ing these verbs pronounced, we should think they ought to be 
written : Inindjawa, agwdnawa, pakitewa, i kibdkwawa, nando- 
n^wa, bashibawa, etc. But it is grammatically certain that there 
is an before wa. In some inflections of these verbs this o ap- 
pears openly, (as you will see below,) and we could never gram- 
matically account for its appearance, if we did not assume, that 
these verbs really end in owa at the first person .singular, pres., 
indie, act. voice. An accurate speaker will let it sound a little. 

Let us now examine, how far the verbs ending in owa, differ 
in conjugating from those ending in awa, which we have consi- 
dered above. 

In the ACTIVE voice they conform to the paradigm Nin wdba- 
ma; like those ending in aiva; except in the imperative mood, 
as you will see by and by. But in the passive voice there is 
some diflterence. The indicative mood does not differ. Take off 
the end-syllable wa, as you do in Ninnondawa; and then attach 
the terminations of the paradigm Nin nonddgo, and you will 
correctly conjugate the indicative. F. i. Nin pakiteogo, I am 
struck ; nin pakiieogona.h&n, I was struck ; nin gi-pakiteogo, I 
have been struck. 

The subjunctive mood differs a little, in the third persons, as 
follows: 

PASSIVE VOICE. 

AFFIRMATIVE FORM. NEGATIVE FORM. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



PRESENT TENSE. 

Pakiiiogoian, if I am struck, 

pakiteogoian, 

pakiteoud, 

pakiteogod, if he is struck by . . . 



gossiwdn, 
gossiwan, 
wassiwind, 

gossig, 



— 191 — 



pakiteogo'i&ng, I jf ^.^ 

pakitSogoi&ng, i ' ' ' ; 

pakiteogoieg, 

pakiteondwaL, , / 

PERFECT TENSE. 

Gi-pakiteogo'vdn , when I have heen struck, 
gi-pakiteogoian, 

Etc., after the above present tense. 



gossiwdng, 

gossiwang, 

gossiweg, 

wassiwindwa, 

goesigwa. 

gossiwan, 
gosaiwan. 



if we . . 



goesiwamban, 

gossiwamban, 

waHsiwindiban, 

gossiwangiban, 

goesiwangobau, 

gossiwegoban, 

wasHsiwindwaban, 



PLUPERFECT TENSE. 

* Pakiteogommhan, liad I lieen struck, 
^aA;i/^ogoiaTnban , 
^aH^eoondihan, 
^aA;i7eogoiangibaTi, ■» 
joaA;i7eog6iangoban, J 
^aA;i7eogoiegoban , 
pakiteond'wahhn, 

Form the two future tenses of the subjunctive after the above 
present tense, viz : Ge-pakiteogoidn . . . Ge-gi-pakiteogoian . . . 

The two tenses of the conditional mood are easily formed after 
the above present and perfect tenses, viz : Nin da-pakiteogo . . . 
Nin da-gi-pakiteogo ... 

The imperative mood is to be formed after the above paradigm, 
viz: Ki ga-pakiteogo . . . Ta-pakiteowa . . . etc. 

PARTICIPLES. 

PRESENT TENSE. 

Nin pekiteogo'ian, I who am struck, 

kin pikiteogoi&n, 

Ijuoin pekiteond, 

ninawind pekiteogoians, ) , , , 

, . .,,... > we who are struck. 
kinawmd pefci^eogoiang, J 

kinawa pekiteogoieg, 

winawa pekiteondyig. 



I -m 



]% 



.. I'i 



?> t 






• w 



* See Bernark 3, page HO. 



rrr-fr 




•ji- r 



- 192 — 

Nin pekiteogOBBi-w&n, I who am not struck, 
kin pekiteogOBBiw&n, 
win pekiteow&BBmind, 
ninawind pekiteogoBBiw&ng, ■» 
kinawind pekiteogoBBiw&ng, / 
kinawa pekiteogOBBiweg, 
winawa pekiteow&HBimndjlg. 



we who are not struck. 



IMPERFECT TENSE. 

Mn pekiieogommh&n, I who was struck, 

kin pekiteogoi&mb&u, 

win pekiteondih&n, 

ninawind pekiteosoi^nsihan, "i 

, . ■ J 1 -J • u r we who were struck, 

kinawind pekiteogomngoh&n, J 

kinawa pekiieogoiegoh&u, 

winawa ^efci7eondibanig, 

Nin pekiteogOBBi'^&.mhQ.xi, I who was not struck, 

kin ^eH^eogossiwamban, 

win jpeAri/eowassiwindiban, 

ninawind »eH<eoeo8siwaneiban, •) , ^ x i 

7 • ■ J 1 -2 • u ?■ we who were not struck, 

kinawmd jaeAt^eogossiwangoban, J 

kinawa pekiteogoBBVNQgohQ.n, 

winawa j?eA-i<eowa8siwindibanig. » 

Form the other tenses of these participles after the above two 
tenses, viz : Nin ga-pakiteogoidn . . . Nin ga-pakiUogoiamhan. . . 
Nin ge-pakiieogoian . . . 

EXAMPLES ON THE WHOLE PASSIVE VOICE. 

Nin wdhamigo, nin nonddgo gaie ; dainendam enamiad mdjag, 
misiw% gaie. A Christian ought to think always and every- 
where : I am seen and I am heard. 

Maban ikwesens mino ganawenima, omi-nan o gagikimigon mo-^ 
jag. This girl is well taken care of; she isjalways exhorted 
by her sister. 



w 



— 193 — 

Nin nandomigomiiiaban gate ninawind nimiiding, kawin dash 
nin gi-ydssimin. We were also invited to the ball, but we did 
not go. 

Ketimagisidjig gi-ashamdivag, gi-aguoiawag gaie ; kawin awiia 
gi-ikonajaogossi bwa minind gego. The poor have been fed, 
and have been clothed ; nobody has been sent away before he 
was given something. 

Nin gi-anonigominaban api degwishing nimisTiominan. We had 
been engaged, (hired, employed,) when our uncle arrived. 

Kishpin ossan pisinddgod aw oshkinawe, kawin gego maichi 
ikkitossi; nonddgossig dash ossan, kitchi winigijwe When 
that young man is heard by his father, he does not say a bad 
word ; but when he is not heard by his father, he speaks very 
indecently. 

Pisinddgdssiwamban kawin nin da-gi-kikendansimin ejiwebak 
Kije-Maniio od inakonigewin. If thou hadst not been listened 
to, we would not have known the law of God. 

Kawin ki bonigidetawassiwawag kidf anishindbewag, mi ge- 
ondji-bonigid^tagossiweg gaie kinawa ga-batd-ijiw^bisiieg. 
You don't forgive your fellow-men, therefore you also will not 
be forgiven what you have sinned, (your sins shall not be for- 
given to you.) 

Aniniwapi ge-dibaamagod ga-anonigodjin ? Wegonen ge-minigod ? 
When will he be payed by his employer ? What will he be 
given ? 

Kishpin awiia matchi [dodang, wi-anwenlndisossig da^h kawin 
Kije-Maniton o da-bonigidetagossin. Ifa person committed a 
bad action and would not repent, God would not forgive him. 

Ossan da-gi-aidvngon aw kwiwisens, o da-gi-pakitedgon gaie, . 
wdbamigopan. That boy would have been reprimanded and 
beaten by his father, had he been seen by him. 

Mano ki ga-wdbamigo, kishpin mino dodaman ; mano ki ga-non- 
ddgo, kishpin wenijishing gego dibadodaman. Be seen when 
you are doing good actions ; and be heard, when you are tell- 
ing something good and useful. 

Weweni ta-dibaamawa aw Wemitigoji, kego ta-waiessimassi ;, 



■I I 



f[: 



m 



w\ 



i '1 



i V.' 






I 



.!■: ■! 




— 194 — 

weweni ki gi-anokiiogowa. Let that Frenchman be well paid, 
let him not be cheated ; he worked well for you. 

Ambe, gaie ninawind nin gad-in^nimigomin ichi minigoidng 
oshki masinaiganan. Well, let us also be thought worth to 
receive new books. 

Kekinoa ^Mwassiwindjig abinodjiiag kUimdgisiwag ; kaivin ma- 
sinaigan o ga-nissitaivinansiiiawa. Children that are not 
taught are worth pity : they will not know how to read. 

Aw kdtchi-jingenimindiban nongom sdgia ; kakina bonigidetadi- 
wag. The person that was hated so much, is now beloved ; 

I they forgive each other all. 

Debenimiian, ga-sassagdkiuaogoian tchibaiatigong , nin ondji ; 
jdwenimishin. Lord, who wa.s nailed to a cross, for my sake ; 
have mercy on me. 

Kakina igiw, anamiewin ga-ondji-gotagiindjig, ga-ondjinissind- 
jig gaie jawenddgosiwag gijigong ; those that have been per- 
secuted and killed for religion's sake, are happy in heaven. 



'■B V 



There are some verbs belonging to this IV. Conjugation, that 
make an exception at the second person sing, of the imperative 
mood, in the active voice. There are three kinds of these verbs. 

FIRST KIND. 

Many verbs ending in na at the first person sing, indie, 
change this syllable na in j, at the second person singular of 
the imperative ; as : 

VERBS. 2nd. PERS. SING. IMP. 

Nin pindigana, I make him (her, it) go in ; pindigaj. 

Nin nana, I fetch him, (her, it ;) ndj. 

Nind oddbana, I drag him, (her, it ;) oddbaj. 

Nin mina, I give h'nn, (her, it ',) mij. 

Nin wdwina, I call or name him, (her, it ;) ' wdwij. 
Nind ijiwina, I conduct, lead, carry him, (her, it ;) ijiwij. 

Hemark 1. — Sometimes, in hearing the above imperative pro- 



— 195 ~ 

nounced, we should think there is an -tljefore^; as: ndnj, wd- 
winji, etc. But it is heard so seldom and so indistinctly that I 
think we need not care about it. 

Remark 2. I know no general rule which could point out 
those verbs ending in iia, that make the above exception in the 
imperative mood. There are many, likewise ending in na, that 
make no exception in the imperative ; as : 



m 



VERBS. 



2nd. PERS. SING. IMP, 



Nin sdgidina, I carry or turn him, (her, it,) out ; sdgidin. 
Nin pagidina, I let him, (her, it,) go ; pagidin. 

Nin wibina, I throw him, (her, it,) away ; wibin. 



Remark. It seems, however, that we can say with security, 
that all the verbs of this Conjugation, ending in ana, change the 
last syllable na into j, at the second person singular of the im- 
perative mood. But for those ending in itia and ona, no rule 
is known to me. Some of them, as you see, change the last syl- 
lable na inioj, at the said person of the imp. ; and some do not, 
they have a regular imperative. 

SECOND KIND. 

The verbs of this Conjugation, ending in ssd, at the first per- 
son sing, of the indicative mood, change this termination in shl, 
at the second person sing, of the imp. mood ; as : 



VERBS. 



2nd. PER8. SING. IMP. 



Nin gossdf 1 am afraid of him, (her, it ;) goshi. 

Nind assd, I put him, (her, it ;) ashi. 

Nin nissdy I kill him, (her, it ;) nisld. 

Nia mawadissd, I pay him, (her, it,) a visit ; mawadisht. 

Nind odissdf I go to him, (her, it ;) odishX. 



r-R 



Etc., etc. . . 



tin 



f ii 



A 'I 






— 196 — 



■^V: 



THIRD KIND. ' f. 




1 ' 



;ti 



The verbs ending in owa, form their second person singular 
of the imperative mood, by owa with h. And they form their 
second person plural of the imperative, by changing the last 
syllable wa into g; as : 



VERBS. 



2nd. PERS. 

SINGULAR. 



IMP. 



PLURAL. 



pakiUh, pakitShog. 

sassagdkwah, sassagdkwahog. 



ningwah, 
bashanjeh, 
niwandh 
bassanoweh, 



ningwdhog. 
bashanjehog. 
niwanahog. 
bassanowehog. 



Ninpahiteowa, I strike him, 

(her, it ;) 
Nin sassagdkwaowa, I nail him, 

(her, it ;) 
Nin ningwaowa, I bury him, 

(her, it ;) 
Nin bashanjeowd, I whip him, 

(her, it;) 
Nin niwanaowa, I kill him, 

(her, it;) 
Nin bassanowSowa, I strike him, 
(her, it) on the cheek ; 

'The following verbs are irregular at the second person singu- 
lar of the imperative mood, but they are regular in the plural. 

VERBS 2nd PERS. SING. IMP. 

Nind awd, I make use (of some an. obj. ;) awi. 
Nind ind, I tell him, (her, it ;) iji. 

Nind ondji-nand, I kill him, her, it,) for 

such a reason, (for religion's sake, etc.) ondji-ndni. 
Etc., etc. . . . 

Remark. The verbs of all these kinds are irregular only in the 
imperative mood; but throughout all the other moods and 
tenses they are perfectly regular, as far as the preceding para- 
digms are concerned, which we have conjugated till now. But 
in the " Cases" this irregularity will come forth in all those 
tenses that are derived from the second person singular of the 
imperative mood; as you will see in the paradigms of the 
^* Cases." 



:7»"?-v:;'?^i 



— 19T — 

IV. DUBITATIVE CONJUGATION. 
ACTIVE VOICE. 

AFFIRMATIVE FORM. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 
PRESENT TENSE. 

Singular. 

Nin wdham&diOg, I see him perhaps, 
ki w;^6amadog, 
wdftamadogenan, 
nin w^6a7«anadog, 
ki icafeamawadog, 
o w)iJ6a7wawadogenan, 

IMPERFECT TENSE. 



Plural. 
adogenag, 
adogenak, 
adogenan, 
anadogenag, 
awadogenag, 
awadogenan. 



Ni w^ftawawagiban, I saw him perhaps, 
ki waftamawadiban, 

wdftamagobaii, 
ni to^6amawangidiban, ") 
ki wdftamawangoban, / 
ki tod6amawegoban, 

w;d6awagwaban, 

Form the remaining tenses after these two 
SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



awagwaban, 

awadwaban, 

agoban, 

awangidwaban. 

awangwaban, 

awegwaban, 

agwaban, 



PRESL T TENSE. 

Wiaiafeamawagen, whether I see him, 
waiaftamawaden , 
icaiafeamagwen, 

«>aia6awawangiden, {ninawind,) 
loatafeamawangen, [kinawind,] 
waiafeamawagwen , 
ioaia&amawagwen 



awagwawen, 

awadwawen, 

agwen, 

awangidwawen, 

awangwawen, 

awcgwawen, 

awagwen. 






a 



m 



— 198 — 



PERFECT TENSE. 



) J.f 



II ki 






I 



Ga-W(«6a»ia\vagen, if 1 have perh. seen 

him, ^^ Awagwawen, 

Etc., after the above present tense. , 



awagwabanen, 

aveedwabanen, 

agobanen, 

awangidwabanen, 

awangwabanen, 

awegwabanen, 

awagobanen. 



PLUPERKECV TENSE. 

VV(^6amawagibanen, if I had perh. seen 

him, 
i/'^&amawadibaneii , 
ivdbamagoh&uen , 
^yaftamawangidibanen, "> 
w^6a?*»awangobanen, / 
Mj^fiamawegobanen, 
t/;56awawagobanen , 

Thefutwe tense is formed after tlie present ; as : Ge-iodbam- 
dwagen, etc. . . . 

PARTICIPLES. , 

PRESENT TEN BE. 

Singular. 

Nin waiabam&w&gen, I wlio perhaps see him, 

kin waiabamAw&den, thou who perhaps seest him, 

win waiabam&gv, eii, he who perhaps sees him, 

iniw waiabamfigwena.n, he wliom he sees perhaps, 

ninawind waiaftawawangiden , "» , , , , 

.J , , > we who see him perhaps, 

kinavnnd toaiaoawawangen, J j- r 

kinawa waiafeawawegwen, you who perhaps see him, 

winawa waiabam&gwena,g, they who perhaps see him, 

iniw waiaban.xw&gwen&n, he whom they perhaps see. 

Plural. 

Nin waiabamAw&geneig, I who perhaps see them, 
kin icaia&amawadenag, thou who perhaps seest them> 
m/t loaiafiamagwen, yie who perhaps sees them, 
iniw waiabam&gwen&ni they whom he sees, perhaps, 



— 199 — 

ninawind MJataia/nawangidenag, •» , , 

, . . J . , ° > we wlio perhaps see them, 

kinawa Maia/juwiawegwenag, you wlio perliapw see them, 
winawa ica/a^awagwenag, they who perhaps see them, 
iniio t(ja/«^rtmawagwenan, they whom they perhaps see. 

PERFECT TENSE. 

Singular. 
Niii ga-Wflhamiiw iigcn , 1 who perliaps liave seen him. 

Plural. 
Nin ga-wahamkv:Q.ge\\fig, I who perhaps have seen tliem. 
Etc., after the above ^'resen^ tense. 

PLUPERFECT TENSE. 

Singular. 

Nin ^a-tca/>rt?m*iwagibanen, I who perhapfi had seen him, 

kin f/a-M?a6awmwadibanen, thou wlio . . . 

win ga-ivabaina<iphanen, lie who perliaps liad seen him. 

■iniio </a-im/>a?/mgobanenan, he whom lie . . . 

ninawind f/a-i(7«6a?/iawangidibanen, "j ,11 1 

, . . 7 ^7 , > we who had p. s. h. 

kinamnd </rt-M?aoa?rtawangol)anen, I 

kinaioa <7a-jr«ia?«awegobanen, you wlio had p. seen him, 

winawa </a-MJairt»/awagobanenag, they who had p. s. h., 

iniw ^a-it'a6a?«awagobanenan, he whom they . . . 

Plural. 

Nin ^a-ttvfiawtawagwabunen, I who p. had seen them, 
kin <7a-ttv<6rtwawadwabanen, thou who . . . 
win ga-wdhamvigo\iQ,n(^vy , he wiio perhaps had seen them, 
iniw ga-ivdbamagohsL lan, they whom lie p. had seen. 
ninawind ga-iV(ibamsiwa,ndg\d\\a,hauQn,\ we who perhaps had 
kinaiviiid ga-wdbamfiwa,ngwa,ha.nen, i seen them, 

kinawa ^a-w«6a/«awegwabanen, you who had p. s. them, 
winatca <7a-zod6amawagobanenag, they who p. h. s. them, 
iniw </a-io«6amawagobanenan, they whom they h. p. s. 

14 



fy 



4t 



^1" 






s 

1 




„ m 




4!;?; 



! 



— 200 — 

Note. To form the m^e^yec^ tense, (which ia not much used,) 
you have only to take off the prefix ga-, and make the Change ; 
as : nin waiabamawagibanen, I who perhaps saw him, etc. 

FUTURE TEXSK. 

Singular. 
Nin ge-ivubamii\\agen, I who perhap-j sliall see him. 

Plural. 

Nin ge-iodbamiiwixgcniig, I wlio pcrliaps shall see them. 
Etc., after the above present tense. 



ACTIVE VOICE. 



NEGATIVE FORM. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 

PRESEXT TENSE. 

Singular. 

Kawin nin M>a&amassidog, I don't perhaps see him, 
" ki wdba7nassidog, 

o wa&awassidogenan , 
nin waftamassinadog, 
ki todbamaasiwadog, 
o waftawassiwadogenan. 

Plural. 

Kawin nin ic«6amassidogenag, I don't perhaps see them, 
" ki tpaftamassidogenag, 
o wafiamassidogenan, 
nin wa6a»»assinadogenag, 
ki wafta/nassiwadogenag, 






(C 
(C 



o waftflmassiwadogenan. 



M 



it 



' \ \ did perhaps not . , . 



— 201 — 

IMTEBFECT TENSE. 

Singular. 

Kawin nin woi'amassiwagiban, I did perhaps not see him, 
" ki waftamassiwadiban, 
o w«6aw.assigoban, 
nin W(t6rt7«aasiwangidiban, 
nin waftamassiwangoba 
ki toafeamassiwegoban, 
o wrtfta/wassigwaban. 

Plural. 

Kawin nin tc«6a?/iassiwagwaban, I did perhaps not see them, 
'* ki wttftawassiwadwaban, 

o wa6cr?nassigoban, 
nin waftamassiwangidwaban, \ 
nin wa&amassiwangwaban, > 
ki wa6a?Ma88iweg\vaban, 5 
waftawassigwaban. 

After these two tenses all the others of the indicative mood are 
easily formed. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

PRESENT TENSE. 

Singular. Plural. 
Waiaftamassiwagen, if I p. don't s. him, assiwagwawen, 

tcaiaftamassiwaden, assiwadwawen, 

waiaftamassigwen, assigwen, 

loaia&aTMassiwangiden, ") if we p. don't assiwangidwawen, 

waiafeamassiwangen, J see him, aseiwangwawen, 

icaiaftamassiwegwen, assiwegwawen, 

loaio^awassiwagwen, assiwagwen. 



it 






i'i. 









I 

V 



,k^'''^ 






T^U 



4 



\ ' ' ¥h 



PERFECT TENSE. 



Ga-waftamassiwagen, whether I have 

not seen him, assiwagwawen, 

Etc., as above in the present tense. 



;;i 



^■^'Ai^ 



r ■ 



%> 




im 



- 202 — 



PLUPERFECT TENSE. 



Waftamassiwagibanen, if I had not 

seen him, 
wdbamaeamsid'ih&nen , 
wafeamassigobanen, 
wa6amaseiwagidibanen, "» 
waftamassiwangobanen, J 
wafeawassiwegobanen , 
7ra6awaesiwagobanen, 



if we 



assi wagwabanen , 

aesiwadwabanen, 

assigobanen, 

assiwangidwabaneu 

assiwangwabanen, 

assiwegwabanen, 

assiwagobanen. 



T\\Q future tense to be formed after the present; as: Ge- 
w&bamdssiwagen, . . . Ge-wdbamassiwaden, etc. 

PARTICIPLES. 

PRESENT TENSE. 

Singular. 

Nin waiabamassiwagen , I who perhaps see liim not, 
kin waiabama.38ivfaden, tliou who perhaps seest him not, 
10171 waiabamsisaigwen, he who perhaps does not see him, 
iiiiw t«aia&a?ftassigwenan, he whom lie p. does not see, 
ninawind waia^aymissiwangiden, •» we who don't perhaps 
kinawind waiaftawassiwangen, / see him, 
kinawa waiabamaLsa'iwegwen, you who perhaps don't see him, 
wi7iawa waiaba7na.ssigwena,g, tney who perhaps don't see him, 
iniw loaiaftamassiwagwenan, he whom they p. don't see. 

Plural. 

Mn waia6amassiwagenag, I wlio perh. don't see them, 
kin waia&amassiwadenag, thou whodost not. p. see them, 
win waiabam&saigwen, he who perhaps does not see them, 
iniw waia6amassigwenan, they whom he p. does not see, 
ni7iaioind waiaftamassiwangidenag, "» we who don't perh. sec 
kinawind toaia&amassiwangenag, J them, 

kinawa toata&a/nassiwegwenag, you who p. don't see them, 
winawa waia&amassigwenag, they who p. don't see them. 
iniw icai'atamassiwagwenan, they whom they do p. . . . 



— 203 — 



PERFECT TENSE. 

Singular. 
Nin ga-wdhamsi8sma,gen, I who liave p. not seen him. 

Plural. 
Nin <7a-ica6a?wassiwagenag, I who have p. not seen them 
Etc., after the Skhove present tense. 

PLUPERFECT TENSE. 

Singiilar. 

Nin ga-wdbama,s8\w?igihainen, I who had p. not seen him, 
kin (jra-wafiay/iassiw.'idibanen, thou who hadst p. . . . 
win ga-wdbaniSLSs'igohancn, he who had p. not seen him, 
iniw ga-wdbama.8s\gohanena.n, he whom he had p. . . . 
ninawind gra-u'afiawassiwangidibanen, ■> we who had perhaps 
kinawind ^a-wafear/iassiwangobanen, J not seen him, 
kinawa g^a-waftamassiwegobanen, you who had . . . 
winawa ^a-waftaTnassiwagobanenag, they who had perhaps 

not seen him, 
iniv) ^a-icaiamassiwagobanenan, he wliom they had . . . 

Plural. 

Nin ^tt-icaftamassiwagwabanen, I who had p. not s. th., 
kin ^a-ioafcamassiwddwabanen, thou who hadst p . . . . 
win 5fa-tca6awassigobanen, he who had p. n. seen them, 
iniw <7a-M>a6awias8igobanenan, they whom he had p. not 

seen, 
ninawind ^a-i/;a6awia8siwangidwabanen, ) we who had p. not 
kinawind (jra-wafeawassiwangwabanen, / seen them, 
kinawa ^a-uj^ftamassiwegwabanen, you who had perhaps not 

seen them, 
ioinawa gra-wa&amassiwagobanenag, they who had perhaps 

not seen them, 
iniw ^a-M>d6amassiwagobanenan, tliey whom they had 
perhaps not seen. 






'^ Ad 



n 



mi 



' 


4^H 






■h» 'M 


pi 


1 


' "'Ik 




• 


' ^ Wi 


W 'T ' 






^•. 


» 


• B\ 








'," V- 







'i' 









I 



M 





:|^^^ 






■i 




I^^RM't- 




^^U 


1! 

•' 1 


I 




1 1 


j 




.'! 



Hi:'^- 



li;'"l 



— 204 — 

FUTURE TENSE. 

Singular. 
Nu% (/e-ifa&awmssiwagen, I who slmll p. not see him. 

Plural. 
Nin ge-wdbamaasmagfinag, I who shall p. not see them. 
Etc., after the pi^esent tense. 

Examples on the ACTIVE voice op the iv. dubitative 

CONJUGATION, AFFIRMATIVB AND NEGATIVE FORMS. 

Kawiii nongom naningim ki wubamasshcadog kimissewa, eko 
widiged. You do probably not see often now your sister, 
since she is married. 

Paul gikamdgohan o widigemdganan ; mi wendji-mddjad gana- 
batch aw ikwe. They say Paul scolded his wife ; that is per- 
haps the reason why the woman goes away. 

Ki gi-wissokawadogenag inetchi-gijivedjig , mi wendji-kikenda- 
man nibiwa niatchi ikkitowinan. Thou hast probably fre- 
quented persons that use bad language, therefore thou know- 
est so many bad words. 

Kawin mashi gi-kikeniniassiwadiban pindig aiad, api debadji- 
moianiw. Thou hadst probably not yet known that he was 
in the room, at the time when thou toldst that. 

Bibonong amshindbcg gi-amodgwaban kakina o pagwegiganimi- 
wan, gi-bwa-odjitchissenig anamikodading. Last winter the 
Indians had eaten up all their flour (I understood,) before 
New year's day arrived. 

Geget luedi nongom o gaganonan, endogtocn dash nessitawina- 
wagwen. He is now indeed speaking to him there, but I don't 
know whether he recognises him. 

Kawin kt kikeniwissinon, nongom geget jangenimassimaden, gtn- 
wenj dash ki gi-jingenimaban. I don't know whether now in- 
deed thou dost not hate him, but thou hadst hated him a long 

time. 
Kawin ganabaich o gi-adimassin. Endogwen ga-adimassic^en. 

He has perhaps not overtaken him. It is doubtful whether he- 
has not overtaken him. 



— 205 — 



Endogwen ivika tchi gi-gimodimassiffobancn onigiigon, mi dash 

pitchinag tchi gi-dpitchi-gimodid. It is doubtful whether lie 

had never stolen before anything from his parents, and that 

he only now committed so great a theft. 
Kishpin Wawiiaianong 'ijad,ml idog iwapi ge-wdbamagwen og- 

wissan, Icishpin keidbi bimddisinigwcn. If he goes to Detroit, 

then, I suppose, he will see his son, if he is living yet. 
Mi aw inini ivaiabamaftsigioen wika Bioanaa. Nibiwa nia gi- 

wdbamag. This is, I suppose, the man who never sees (saw) 

a Sioux. I have seen many. 
Kakina igiw tceiejimdgic^nag widf nniskindbeican, o da-mikwe- 

nimatvan Kije-Maniton mini gego kekeadaminidj in. All tiiose 

who (perhaps) cheat their fellow-men,. ought to think on God, 

who knows all. 
Aw ga-matchi-dotawdssigwen wika icidf anishindben, geget ki- 

tchi jauiendagosi. He that perhaps never has done wrong to 

his fellow-men, is very happy indeed. 
Aivegwen ga-nissagwen uiii pakaakiveian, nindaian gate. I don't 

know him who has killed my chickens and my dog. 
Igiio ga-anokiiawassigobanenag IJebeiidj igenidjin, megwa gi-bi- 

mddisiwad aking, kawin novgoin o ^vdbamassiwaicangijigong. 

Those who had not served the Lord, while they lived on earth, 

do not see him now in heaven. 
Aw ge-sdgiagicen, ge-Jawenimagicen gaie wikanissan, ta-jaweni- 

ma gaie win. He who shall love his brother, (his neighbor,) 

and shall have mercy on him, he shall also find mercy. 



PASSIVE VOICE. 



AFFIRMATIVE FORM. 



KEGATIVE FORM. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 

PRESENT TEXSE. 

Nin wdbam'igomidog, I am per- 
haps seen, 
ki ii?a6amigomidog, 

wdbamadog, 
w;d6amigodogenan, * 



Kawin igossimidog, 
" igossimidog, 
" assidog, 
" igossidogenan, 



* 8ee Eemarkt, p. 18fi. 







:i: 



t i 



f'H 



— 206 — 



nin u>a6amigoininadog, 
ki wdbam'igomvf&dos, 
iodbam&dogenag 
o wa6a/nigowadogenan, 



" igossiminadog, 
" igossimwadog, 
** assidogenag, 



igo3si\vadogenan. 



IMPERFKCT TENSE. 

VV«&amigowainban, I was perhaps 



seen, 
wdb ami gowamhan, 
wdba7na.\\indihan , 
wdbatmgogohan, he was per. 
seen by. . . 

_ we 
lodbamigowiin giban , 
waftawigowangoban 
waftamigowegoban , 
tcaftawawind waban , 
?/;a6amigogwaban, they were p. 
seen by . . . 



Kawia igossiwamban, 
igossi worn ban, 
assiwindiban, 






were 
p. 8. 



(( 



igossigoban, 

igossiwangiban, 
igossiwangoban, 
igossiwegoban, 
assiwindwaban, 



" igossicrwaban. 



The remaining tenses of the i/icZica^u'e are to be formed after 



these two. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



PRESENT TENSE. 

Wiatafiamigowanen, if I am perhaps 

seen, 
waiaftamigowanen , 
«oa?"a6amawinden , 
waiaftamigogwen, if he is perhaps 

seen by . . . 
«paia6amigowangen, "» . 
waia6amig6wangen, J 
toaiafeamigowegwen , 
loaiaftamigowagwen, if they are 
perhaps seen by . . . 



if we . 



igossiwanen, 
igossiwanen, 
assiwinden, 

igossigwen, 
igossiwangen, 
igossiwangen, 
igossiwegv.en, 

igossiwagwen. 



Etc. 



mm 



-- 207 — 



PERFECT TENSE. 



Ga'wdbamigo\\'h\en, that I liave 
perhaps been seen, 
Etc., after the ahove present tense. 



igossiwancn, 



igossiwanibanen, 

igossiwanihanen, 

assiwindibanen, 

igossiwangibanen, 

igosssivvangobancn 

igossiwegobanen, 

assiwindwabanen. 



igossiwanen. 



PLUPERFKCT TEXSE. 

VVai>amigo\vanibanen, * if I had perliaps 

been seen, 
waftrtwiigowanibanen , 
w^feawawindibanen , 
toafiawiigowangibauen, "» .„ 
toaftamigowangobanen, J 
toaftamigowegobanen , 
«oa6a?«awind\vabanen, 

FUTURE TENSE. 

Ge-wdbatmsow'iinen, that I will be 
perhaps seen, 

Etc., after the ahove jfresetit tense. 

PARTICIPLES. 

PRESENT TENSE. 

Nin waiabanugowdnen, I who am perhaps seen, 

kin tvaiabamxgowfiwen, thou who art perhaps seen, 

win waiaftamawinden, he who is perhaps seen, 

iniw tcaiafeamigogwenan, he who is perhaps seen by . . 

ninawlnd waiabomlao'w an^en, "» , 

> we who are 
kinawind icaiabam'igoweingen, J 

kinawa waiabam'igowegwen, you are perhaps seen, 

winawa waiaftawAwindenag, who are perhaps seen, 

iniw waia&amigowagwenan, who are perhaps seen by 



See Note, p. 200. 



r 

I 









:<^u 



^ I: 
! I- 







,(^«flllM 



iVtMiina^f,^ ii.wuin vn wBwiifipr' 






: I 



ftl 



— 208 — 

Nin waiabamigosa'nviinen, I who am perhaps not aeen, 

kin waiabam'igdasiw&nen, thou who art perhaps not seen, 

win waiabama,s8mmden, he who is perhaps not seen, 

iniw waiabam'igosHigwenan, he who is perliaps not seen by... 

ninawind ifjam^rtmigossiwangeu, ) 

> we wlio are 
kinawind waiabarrugosaiwangen, J 

kiiiawa it?a?a&a/«igossiwegwen, you who are perhaps not seen, 

winawa wam&awassiwindenag, they who are per. not seen, 

iniw ?oata6amigossiwagwcnan, they who are perhaps not 

seen by . . . 



IMPERFECT TEKSE. 

Nin ?/;aia6rtmigowiimbanen, I who was perhaps k,... .1, 

kin tcaia6a»iig6wanibanen, thou wlio wast . . . 

win ?t'ata6a?>iawindibaiien, he who was perhaps seen, 

iniiv waiabamigogoha.nenan, he who was perhaps seen by... 

ninawind it'aMftamigowangibanen,") , 

. y we wno were . . . 

kinawind loaiaiamigowangobanen, J 

kinaiva waiabanugowegohanen, you wlio were perhaps seen, 

winawa tt^aia&amawindibanenag, they who were perhaps seen, 

iniw luamftawiigowagobanenan, tliey who Avere perhaps 

seen by . . . 

Nin waia6a7?iig08siwfunbanen, I w'ho was per. not seen, 

kin W^'aia6a7«ig6ssiwanibanen, thou who . . . 

win t<?atrt&awassiwindibanen, he who was per. not seen, 

iniw wata6amigossigobanenan, he who was perhaps not 

seen by . . . 

ninawind waiafeawigossiwangibanen, 

kinawind wata6a?mg68siwangobanen, 

kinawa waia6amigossiwegobanen, you who were perliaps not 

seen, 

winawa it'atafiawassiwindibanenag, they who were perhaps not 

seen, 

iniio wata&amigossiwagobanenan, they who were perhaps 

not seen by . . . 



''I 



we who were , 



I'n ^■ 



n 



— 209 — 

The remaining tenses are formed after these two, as: If in ga- 
icdbamigowunen . . . Nin (ja-wdhamigowamhanen . . . Nin ge 
wdbamigoivdnen . . . 

EXAMPLES ox THE WHOLE PASSIVE VOICE OF THE IV DUBITATIVE 

CONJUGATION. * 

Nin nondagomidog oma hihagiidn, onjita dash ganahatch kawitv 
aioiia nin wi-nakwetdgossi. I think I am heard as I am shout- 
ing here, but perhaps purposely nobody will give me an an- 
swer. 

Ossiwan gaiiabatcJi lodhaniigogwaban igiw kwiwisensag, gegci 
ta-animisiwag. The boys were probably seen liy their la- 
ther, they will be punished, (they will suffer.) 

Kawin weweni gi-nitdwigiassidogenag igiw abinodjiiag, anoich 
sa matchi ijiwebisiwag. It seems that these children have not 
been well brought up, because they have many faults. 

Aiiin enakamigak, nidji? Gi-kiichi ashamamndwdban kiwe 
anishindbeg agdming. What is the news, comrade? I hear 
the Indians had a great dinner on the other side. 

Gonima gi-kikinoamagoivamban masinaigan, bwa dagivishindn 
oma. Thou hadst perhaps been taught to read before I arriv- 
ed liere. 

Kishpin kekenimigowdngen oma aiaidng, pabige anisldndbeg nin 
ga-bi-mawddissigonanig . If we only are known to be here, 
the Indians will soon come to see us. (The person spoken to, 
not included.) 

Kawin nin debwetansin ekkitong, mi sa toeweni ga-dihaamagos- 
siwegwen, gi-anokiieg. I don't believe what they say, that is, 
that you have perhaps not been well paid for your w'ork. 

A7 gi-nondam na, ga-kitehi-gimodimdioinden kissaie tibikong ? 
Hast thou heard what is said, that much property has been 
stolen from thy brother last night ? 

Gi-aiawamban iwapi sagaiganing , gi-nissdwindwabanen nij We- 
mitigojiwag. Thou hadst perhaps been on the little lake at 
the time when the two Frenchmen were killed there. 





i' } ' rJ 






* The verbs ending In awa and owa make no diflference In the Dubltatlve 
Conjugation. 



i'if 
u'fi 





I 






— 210 — 

Kishpin mino anokiidn, mi na api geminwenimigowdnen ? IT I 

work well, shall I then be (perhaps,) liked? 
Mi sa aw inini anotch dejimawinden. Anisha dash geget ina; 

kawin matchi ijitchigessi. This is the man who is so much 

spoken ill of, as I understood. But he is spoken of without 

truth ; he docs not act wrong. 
Kinawa wika niashi kekenimigosdwegobanen tchi anwenindisoieg 

ka na nibowin ki gotansinawa ? You who were perhaps never 

known to repent, are you not afraid of death ? 
Atvegwenan gorwdhiigogwenan, kawin ninawind niti kikendan- 

simin ; win igo gagwedjimig. Who he is that has opened his 



eyes. 



we knoAV not ; a.«ik liiin. 



Kin ga-minigdwanen kitchi nibiwa joniia, jawenim kid iuawema- 
ganag ketimdgisidjig. Thou who hast been given so much" 
money, as I heard, have pity on thy poor relations. 

Aw wika ga-ijiwinasniivindibanen matchi minawanigosiwining 
megwa gi-oshkinaweioid, nongom minwendam. He that pro- 
bably never had been seduced into sinful pleasure during his 
youth, is now happy, (contented.) 

Awegiven ge-debwetamogwen, ge-sigaandawdwinden gaie, ta- 
kagige-bimddisi gijigong. Whoever shall believe and be bap- 
tized, shall live eternally in heaven. 

Awegwenag abinodjiiag gemiino-ganawenimawindinak monjak, 
ta mino-ijiwebisiivag ketchi-anishindbewiwadjin. Children 
that shall be always well guarded, (taken care of,) will behave 
well, when they are grown persons. 



The greatest peculiarity as well as difficulty in this IV. Con- 
jugation, consists in the connection of the verbs belonging to it, 
with the personal pronouns me, thee, us, you. We will display 
here the Tivo Cases, in which are comprised all possible modifi- 
cations of the verbs of this Conjugation in connection with the 
above personal pronouns. 

As the right use of these Cases is all-important in conversa- 
tion and allocution, the learner is desired to mind well the ter- 
minations. 



AFFIRM 



— 211 — 



FIRST CASE. 
(/ . . . thee.) 

AFFIRMATIVE FORM. NEGATIVE FORM, 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 



PRESENT TENSE. 

At wubam'm. I see thee, Kawin issinon, 

ki wCihairiigo, * we see thee, 

ki wdbamig, he sees tliee, t 

ki M)«6a/nigog, they see thee, 

kn wdbatmmnim, I see you, 

ki wdbam'igom, we see you, 

ki wdbajmgo^a., he sees you, 

ki M;d6a;nigowag, they see you, 



(( 



(( 






IgOSSl, 

igossi, 

igossig, 

issinoniniin, 

igossini, 

igossiwa, 



igofisiwag. 



IMPERFECT TENSE. 



AFFIRMATIVE FORM. 



Ki wdftamininaban, I saw thee, 
ki ■ji'd&aTnigonaban, we saw thee, 
ki ?^'d6awigoban, he saw thee, 
ki w;a6a/nigobanig, they saw thee. 
Id w«6amininimwaban, I saw you, 
ki wd6a7wigowaban, he saw you, 
ki wdftamigowabanig, they saw you. 

NEGATIVE FORM. 

Kawin ki wa6a?ni88inoninaban, I did no see thee, 
" ki toaftamigossinaban, we did not see thee, 
ki waftawigossiban, he . . . 
ki U'a&amigossibanig, they . . . 
ki t^/'afeawiissinonininiwaban, 
ki ti^d&amigossiminaban, 
ki it'd&amigossiwaban, 
ki w^dfeamigossiwabanig. 






* See Remark at the end of this paradigm, 
t See Remark, p. 166. 



m 



», 




f 



— 212 — 



AFFIRMATIVE FORM. 



NEGATIVE FORM. 



*!■ 



1 






ii 



ii 



I'ERKKCT TENSE. 



AV yi-wdbam\n, I have seen thee, Kawin issinon, 
ki giwdbam\go, we have seen thcc, " igossi, 
Etc., aller the o,ho\Q prcKent tense, prefixing gi-. 

PLUPERFECT TENSE. 

A7 f/i-w^6amininahan, I had seen 

thee, Kawin issinoninaban, 

ki (/iiodham\g,omiha.u , we had 

seen thee, *• igossinaban, 

Etc., after the above imperfect ten.se, prefixing gi-. 
The two future tenses are easily formed after the present, pre- 
fixing //a-, and ga-gi- ; as : Ki ga-wdhamin . . . Ki ga-gi-wdba- 

Jinin . . . 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

PERFECT TENSE. 

Kishpin wdhamm'dw, * ifl see thee, 
toa/>amigoian, if we see thee, 
wdbam\k, if he sees thee, 
w«6amikwa, if they see thee, 
wCiham\\\Q.gog, ifl see you, 
tofl/>rt7?iigoieg, if we see you, 
ivdbammQg, if he sees you, 
it"ab«wn*neg\Va, if they see you, 

PERFECT TENSE. 

Gt-wd6aminan, b .au.se I have seen thee, issinowan, 
gi-wdbam\go'\Q>i\, because we have seen thee, igossiwan. 

Etc., after the a.\)o\Q present tense, prefixing gi-. 

PLUPERFECT TENSE. 

Vy«6a7»inamban, t had I seen thee, issinowamban, 

tf>a6awig6iatnban, had we seen thee, igossiwamban. 



(( 

a 
it 
t( 
(< 



i.ssinowan, 

igossiwan, 

issinog, 

issinogvva, 

issinon agog, 

igossiweg, 

issinoweg, 

issinowegwa. 



* See Eeinark 1, p. 110. 



t See Remark 3, p. 110. 



— 213 — 

tc^&amikil)an, had he seen tliee, issinogihan. 

wdbamWiwiihau, Imd they seen thee, issinogwaimm, 

i/'a7;aminagogol)an, Imd I seen you, isHinonagoguhaii, 

«v«/>«migoiegol)an, Jiad we seen you, igoHsiwegohan, 

M'<l//>aminpgol)an, hud he seen you, issinowegohan, 

wdhafnh gwahan, had they seen you, issinowogwahan. 

Form tlie two/i</ure tensen after the present, prolixing //<•-, 
and //e-f/i-, aH : Ge-wiihaminnn, when I shall see thee, . . . Gc-gi- 
w/ibamindii, when I shall have seen thee, etc. 

You can also foriu the two tenses of the •(nulHional mood af- 
ter the present and perfect of the indicative mood, (p. 211,) pre- 
fixing da-, iis : A7 da-iodbamin, I would see thee, . . , Ki da-gi- 
todbamin, I would have seen thee. . . . 

PARTICIPLES. 

PRKSENT TEN.SK. 

Nin waiabanurtiin, I who see tliee, 
ninawind imiabam\j:^o\iiu, we who soe thee, 
win waiabamWi, he who sees thee, 
winaioa waiabamWug, they who see thee, 
nin waiabam\\\a.gog, I who see you, 
ninawind tcaiabaymgo'iQg, we who see you, 
7vi7i waiabam'xuejr^, he who sees you, 
winawa waiabam\noi^og, they who see you. 

Nin icaiabamis^'mowan,! v.ho don't see thee, 
ninawind waia/^awigossivai!, we who don't see thee, 
win w'am6a?n.issinok, he who docs not . . . 
winawa waiaba7niss\r\okig, they who don't see thee, 
nin ivaiabamiaa'monagog, I who don't see you, 
ninawind waiabamxgoBaxweg, we who don't see you. 
win waiaftamissinoweg, he who does not see you, 
winawa waiaftamissinowegog, they who don't see you. 

MPtRrECX TEXSE. 

Nin waiabam\\\k\whQ,n, I who saw thee, 
ninawind « aiaftawigoianiban, we who saw thee, 

J. ill 



■* 



1-: t 



!' 



!j|^1^9^H( 


r 




1 

.'1 


* 


i.i 




( 


iiiii 


i 







Mil 



li I- tefr 



11 



— 214 — 

win waiaham\k\ha.r\ , he who saw tliee, 
winaif'a waiabamikihatug, they who saw thee, 
?tm wat'aftaminagogoban, I who saw you, 
jiinawind waiaham\go\egoha,n, we wlio saw you, 
win w^aia6awiinegoban, he wlio saw you, 
ivijiawawaiabaimnegohaTi'ig, they wlio saw you. 

Nin waiabanixsamowamhsin, I who did not see thee, 
ninawind rvaiabam\ gosmwsimhan, we wlio did not . . . 
nin u'a/a^amissinogiban, he who did not see thee, 
winawa if;a?'a6amissinogibanig, they who did not see thee, 
7iin ^/^airtftawissinonagogoban, I who did not see you, 
ninawind waiabam\go»8\\\egoha.n, we who did not see you, 
win waiabam'i^s'mowegohan, he who did not see you, 
winawa iramiawissinowegobanig, they who did not see you. 

Form after these two the remaining tenses of these participles, 
as : Nin ga-wdbamindn, I who have seen thee . . : Nin ga-wa- 
bamindmban, I who had seen thee . . . Nin ge-ivdbaminun. I who 
will see thee . . . Nin ge-gi-wdbaminda, I who shall have seen 
tliee . . . 

Remark. In the present tense of the indicative mood, (p. 182,; 
we have, Ki wdbamign, for " we see thee," and ki wdbamigom, 
for " we see you." Properly, ki wdbamlgo, means, thou art 
seen ; and ki lodbamigom, you are seen. (See p. ead.) But it is 
certain that the Otchipwe language expresses it as above. You 
may ask, a hundred times, Otchipwe Indians that understand 
English : How do you say in Otchipwe : We see thee ; we see 
you ? 'J'hey will always answer you : Ki wdbamigo, ki wdbami- 
gom. The Otaioa dialect of the same language has : Ki wdband- 
nimi, for " we see thee," and ki lodbaminimmi, for " we see 
you ;" but this cannot be used in the Otchipwe dialect. 

The verbs ending in awa at the first person singular indicative, 
make some little deviations from the preceding paradigu), as you 
will see here below. We take again the verb Nin nondawUf as 
an example. 

In conjugating these verb- in our "^ First Case," we take oft' 
the whole termination awa, and then apply the terminations of 



— 215 — 



the paradigm ; because, (as you see,) nothing of this termina- 
tion remains unchanged in the conjugating processor this Case. 

AFFIRMATIVE FORM. NEGATIVE FORM. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 



Kawin ossinon, 



PRESENT TENSE. 

Ki nondon, I hear thee, 
Jci nonrfago, t we hear thee, 
ki no7ida,g, he hears thee, 
ki no7idAgog, they hear theo, 
ki nondon'unm, I hear you 
ki nonda.gom f we hear you, 
ki nojidagowa,, he hears you, 
ki nondsigowiig, they hear you, 

IMPERFECT TENSE. 

Ki wonrfoninaban, I heard thee. Kawin ossinoninaban. 



agossi, 

agossi, 

agossig, 

ossinoninim, 

agossim, 

agossiwa, 

agossi -vag. 






agossi naban, 

agossiban, 

agossibanig, 

ossinoninimwaban, 

agossiminal)an, 

agossiwaban, 

agossi wabanig. 



ki no?ic?agonaban, we heard thee, 
ki 7io7idagoha,n , he lieard thee, 
ki woHcZagobanig, they lieard thee, 
ki wo)i(ioninnnvvaban, I lieard you, 
ki ?iomiagoniinaban, we lieard you, 
ki 7ionrfago\vaban, he heard you, 
ki ?iondagowabanig, they heard you, " 

Form the other tenses of the indicative mood after these two, 
as : Ki gi-nondon, I have heard thee . . . Ki (ji-noudoninaban, I 
had heard thee ... Ki ga-nondon, I will hear thee . . . Ki ga-gi- 
nondoiii I shal have heard thee. 

^ SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

PRESKNT TENSE. 

Kishpin nondonC\.n, if I hear thee, 



" ?tOH(Wgoian, if we hear thee, 
** iiondok, if he hears thee, 
" nondokwa, if they hear thee, 



ossinowan, 
agossiwan, 
ossinog, 
ossinogwa. 



t See Remark abov«> 



15 



;Vi 




1;' 



■.m 






1^ ' 
'ft 






i 



!:i) 



— 216 — 

Kiskpin nondon&gog, if I hear you, 
" wontZagoieg, if we hear you, 
" nondoneg, if he hears you, 
" nondonegwa., if they hear you. 



oesinonagog, 
dgossiweg, 
ossinoweg, 
ossinowegwa. 



PERFECT TENSE. 

(H-nondonAii , because I have heard thee, ossinowan, 
ye-nontZagoian, because we have heard thee, ugossiwan. 

Etc., after the aXtove present tense, prefixing gi-. 



ossinowamban, 

agossiwamban, 

ossinogiban, 

ossinogwaban, 

ossinonagogoban, 

agossiwegoban, 

ossinowegoban. 

08siuowegwabaii. 



PLUPERFECT TENSE. 

iVb7i(Zonainban, had I lieard thee, 
/londagoianiban, had we heard thee, 
«o«dokiban, had he lieard thee, 
/ionc?okvvaban, had they lieard thee, 
wandonagogoban, had I heard you, 
no/t(Zagoiegoban, had we lieard you, 
wo7t(ionegoban, had he heard you, 
viondonegwaban, had they heard you. 

Form the iwo future tenses &fter the present, as : Ge-nondondn, 
when I shall hear thee . . . Ge-gi-nondondn, when I yhall have 
heard thee ... 

Form the two tenses of the conditional mood after the present 
and perfect tenses of the indicative mood, (p. 215,) prefixing da , 
as : Ki da-nondon, J would hear thee ... Ki da-gi-nondon, I 
would have heard thee . . . 

PARTICIPLES. 

PRESENT TENSE. 

Ni7i nwandonar, I who hear thee, # 

ninawind wioandAgoian, we who hear thee, 
win nwandok, he who hears thee, 
winawa nwanddkig, they who hear thee, 
nin nwandon&gog, I who liear you, 
ninawind mcand&go'ieg, we who hear you, 
icin nwandoneg, he who hears you, 
winawa nwandonegog, they who hear you, 



— 217 — 



Niii nwandoBmnowan, I who don't hear thee, 
ninawind nwandiigossi\ya.n, we who don't hear thee, 
win wtca/wZossinog, he who does not liear tliee^ 
winawa nwandoBB\x\og\g, they who don't liear thee, 
nin ntcandossinonagog, I who don't hear you, 
ninawind Jiira/idagossiweg, we who don't hear you, 
win MM?u,n(Zossinoweg, lie who does not hear you, 
winawa nirancZossinovvegog, they who don't liear you. 

IMPERFECT TEXSE. 

Nin mvandonAmhan, I who heard thee, 
ninawind nwa?i(?f'igoiaml)an, we who heard thee, 

win nwandoklhan, he who heard thee, 
winawa nM'arttZokibanig, they who heard thee, 

nin ntcantZonagogoban, I who heard you, 
ninawind nwanda,go'iegohan, we who heard you, 

win nu'andonegoha.n, he who heard you, 

Nin wwa»^ossinowaniban, I wlio did not hear thoCy 
ninawind ntcajicZagossiwamban, we who did not . . . 

win nioaHfZossinogiban, he who did not hear thee, 
loinawa ?m)aucZossinogibanig, they who did not hear thec.. 

nin JMoaurfossinonagogoban, I who did not hear you, 
ninawind ?iM'antZagoRsiwegoban, we who did not hear you, 

win 7M^an(Zos8inowegoban, he who did not hear you, 
n^inawa wwa/K^ossinowegobanig, they who did not hear voir. 

Form the remaining tenses of these participles after the above 
two, as : Nin ga-nondondn . . . Nin ga-nondondmhan, etc. 

The verbs ending in oica at the first person singular, indica- 
tive, (p. 196,) are conjugated, in this First Cane, again a little 
differently from those of the preceding sort. The ditFerence if» 
trifling ; but it is important to the beginner to see it at on«» 
plainly. You will see it in the following paradigm. 



i 

i ' 

r 



i > 


V 

1 


[■ 1 




i 

i 


i 



i 



■i^fir 



if. 



"* 



m 



— 218 — 

AFPIRMITIVE FORM. NEGATIVE FORM. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

PRESENT TENSE. 



Ki pakiteon, I strike thee, 
ki pakitSogo, we strike thee, 
ki pakiUogi he strikes thee, 
ki pakitiogog, they strike thee, 
ki pakiteon'imm, I strike you, 
ki pakiteogom, we strike you, 
ki pakiieogowsL, he strikes you, 
ki pakiieogowa,g, they strike you, 

IMPERFECT TENSE. 

Ki pakiteoninah&n , I struck thee, 
ki pakiteogox\a.ha.n, we struck thee, 
ki pakiteogobsin, he struck thee, 
ki pakiteogohanig, they struck thee, 
ki ^a^"^7eoninimwaban, I struck you, 



Kawin ossinon, 

ogossi, 
ogossi, 
ogossig, 
ossinoninini, 
ogossi ni. 



a 
t( 
(( 



ogossiwa, 
ogossiwag. 



Kawin ossinoninaban, 
" ogossinaban, 
" ogossi ban, 
" ogossibanig, 

ossinoninini wa- 

ban, 
ogossiminaban, 
ogossiwaban, 
ogossi wabanig. 



(( 



ki ^a/a/eogominaban, we struck you, " 

ki pakiieogo\ya.ha.n, he struck you, " 

ki pakiteogowahsLmg, they struck you," 
After these two tenses all the others of the, 'indicative mood are 
formed ; as : Ki gi-pakiUon ... Ki gi-pakiteonindhan . . . Ki 
ga-pakiteon . . . Ki ga-gi-pakiteon . . . 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



If 



PRESENT TENSE. 



Kishpin pakiteonan, if I strike thee, 
" j:>aA;i^eogoian, if we strike thee, 
" pakiteok, if he strikes thee, 
pakiteokyfii, if they strike thee, 



(( 



ossinowan, 
ogossiwau, 
OSS i nog, 
ossinogwa, 



— 219 — 




Kiskpin pakiteon&gog, if I strike you, ossinonagog, 




" pakiteogoieg, if we strike you, ogossiweg 




" pakiteoneg, if he strikv-s you, ossinoweg. 




" pakiteonegwa, if they strike you, osaiuowegwa. 


• 


PERFECT TEXSE. 




Gi-pakiteouiiii, because I have struck 




thee, ofesinowan, 




gi-pakiUogo\Q,i\, because we have 




struck thee, ogossiwan. 




Etc., after the present tense, prefixing gi-. 




PLUPERFECT TENSE. 


« 


PakitconvLmhan, liad I s. thee, ossinowdmban, 




^ai-i^^ogoianiban, liad we s. thee, ogossiwamban. 





pakiUokihan, had lie s. thee, 
^aA;i7eokwaban, had they s. thee, 
^a/a7eonagogoban, liad I s. you, 
^aHfeogoiegoban, had we . . . 
^aA:i<eonegoban , had lie s. you, 
jpal-z7conegwal)an, had they s. you. 



o.?8inogiban, 

ossinogwaban, 

ossinonagogoban, 

ogossiwegoben, 

ossinowegoban, 

ossinowegwaban. 



Form the two future tenses after the ahovQ present tense ; as : 
Ge-pakiteondn, that I shall strike thee. . . . Ge-gi-pakiieondn, 
that I shall have struck thee . . . 

Form the two tenses of the conditional mood after the present 
and pCiiect tenses of the above indicatice mood, prefixing da-', 
as : Ki dorpakiteon, I would strike thee, etc. 

PARTICIPLES. 

PEESENT TENSE. 

Nin pekiieonem, I who strike thee, 
ninawind pekiteogomn, we who strike thee, 
win pekiteok, he who strikes thee, 



^'^^^'^ 



I 






I r 



f- I 






1 ) 

i. 



w 



^: I 










ill 
HI 
11 



— 220 — 

winawa j^eti/eokig, they who strike thee, 
nin pekiteon&gog, I who 8trike you, 
ninawind pekiteogo'ieg, we who strike you, 
win pekiteonog,he who strikes you, 
nviiiawa pekiteonegogi they who strike you. 

Nin j9eA;i76'os8inowan,I who don't strike thee, 
.ninawind pekiteogo8B\wB.T), we who don't strike thee, 
ivin pekiteoasinog, lie who does not strike thee, 
winawa pekiteoae'mogig, they who don't strike thee, 
nin pekiieosBinoniigog, I who don't strike you, 
ninawind jyekiteogosslweg, we who don't strike you, 
win jfekiteosf^inowog, lie who does not strike you, 
winawa pekiteomxnowegog, they who don't strike you. 

IMPERFECT TEXSE. 

Nin pekiteon•^\l\hti.\^, I who struck thee, 
mnaioind pekit^ogo'iamhan, we who struck thee, 
win ^^cA'i^eokiban, he who struck thee, 
winvwa ^g/a7eokibanig, they who struck thee, 
nin pekiteonsLgogohan, I who struck you, 
$dnawind pekiteogo\egoha,n, we who struck you, 
win pekiteonegohsm, he who struck you, 
winawa pekiteonegohamg, they wlio struck you. 

Nin j:;eA*i7eo8sinowuinban, I who did not strike thee, 
ninawind ^^eAri^cogossiwaniban, we who did not strike thee, 
win ^eA;i<eossinogiban, he who did not strike thee, 
winawa ^^cH^eof.sinogibanig, they who did not strike thee, 
nin ^eArt^eossinonagogoban, 1 who did not strike you, 
ninawind jjeA:i7eogossiwegoban, wo who did not strike you, 
win j3eA't<eo8sinowegoban, he who did not strike you, 
winawa pekiteosBino'wegoha.mg, they who did not strike you. 
The remaining tenses of these participles are to be formed 
after the above two. . .• • 






— 221 — 



EXAMPLES OX THE FIRST CASE, 



Anindi wendjihaieg kinawa ? Kawin ki kike nimissinoninim. 

Where do you come from ? I don't know you. 
Kijaivenddgosim, kinidjdnissiwcg ki sdgiigowag, ki babamita- 

goivag gate. You are happy, yout children love you and 

obey you. 
K'oss ndmaia ki bashanj^ogoban, minawa dash ki kiwanis. Thy 

father whipped thee, not long ago, and thou beliavest bad 



again. 



Kawin na ki gi-minaigossig ishkoteiodbo ? Have they not given 

thee ardent liquor to drink ? 
Ndiiingiin ki gi-jaiv^nimigobanig igiw ikwewag ga-rnddjadjig 

pitchindgo. Those women that departed'yesterday, had often 

l)een charitable to thee. 
Niii mddja ; kawin dash ganabatch minawa ki ga-ivdbamissino- 

ninim omd aking ; wedi eta gijigong ki ga-icdbamininim. I 

am going away and perhaps I will no more see you here on 

earth ; but there in heaven I will see you. 
Dehenimiian, ged-ako-biniddisiidn ki ga-manddjiin, ki ga-mino- 

anokiton, ki ga-sdgiin enignkodeeidn ; gijigong dash kdginig 

ki ga-wdbamin. Lord, as long as I live, I will adore thee, I 

will well serve thee, I will love thee from all my heart ; and 

in heaven I will eternally see thee. 
Kiviwisensidog, wdbaminegwa eta kinigiigoioag, ki bisdn abim ; 

kishpin dash kaginig ganawinimissinoicegwa,pdbige ki ma- 

tchi doddm. Ye boys, only when your parents see you, you 

are quiet; but when they are not constantly watching you, 

you do mischief immediately. 
Gi-bamiikwa gi-dkosiian, mi wendji-sdgiangidwa. We love them 

because they took care of thee when thou wast sick. 
Enigok bibdgimissinogibati, kaivin ki da-gi-bi-giwessi. If he had 

not called thee very loud, thou wouldst not have returned. 
Jesns Debenimiian, aniniwapi ge-wdbamindn ki kitchiiwdwisi- 

wining ? Lord Jesus, when shall I see thee in thy glory ? 



V 



V 1 



— 222 



i 



'1 

•!ik 



AwSnen ge^anXbikimineg wika, kishpin mojag mino dodameg f 

Who shall ever rebuke you, if you always do right? 
Ki dorsdgiigowa, ki da-jawSnimigowa Kije-Manilo, kishpin wi' 

dnwenindisoiegoban ; God would love you and would have 

mercy on you, if you would repent. * 

Ki dorgi-wdbamin anamiiwigamigong, pindigiiamhan ; I would 

have seen thee in the church, hadst thou come in. 
Winawa minik kekeniminegog, dihddjimoiuag ejiwebisiieg ; all 

those who know you, tell how you behave. 
Gi-mddja aw inini mojag menaikiban ishkotewdbo ; that man is 

gone away who always gave thee to drink ardent liquor. 
Oshkinawedog, mojag mikwenimig kinigiigowag ga-minokiki- 

noamonegog ; young men, remember always your parents 

who have so well taught you. 
Nikanissidog, wika ge-wanenimissinonagog, mojag gate kinatoa 

mikwinimisMg. Brethren, whom I never shall forget, do also 

you always remember me. 



SECOND CASE. 

{Thou . . . me.) 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 



AFFIRMATIVE FORM. 



NEGATIVE FORM. 



Ki 

ki 
nin I 
nin 1 
ki 
ke 
nin 
nin 



PRESENT TENSE, 

Ki wdbam, thou seest me, 

ki wdbamvoi, you see me, 
nin wdbamig, he sees me, 
nin wdbamigog, they see me, 

ki icdftawimin, thou seest us, 
* ki w;d6awimin, you see iis, 
nin «)a6a»iigonan, he sees us, 
nin waftamigonanig, they see us, 



Kawin issi, 
issim, 



<c 

<( 

<c 

(( 

l( 

(C 



IgOSSl, 

igosaig, 

issimin, 

issimin, 

igossinan, 

igossinanig. 



* S«e Xetnark at the end of this paradigm. 



i 



223 — 



IMPERFECT TENSE. 



Kaivin issinaban, 


(( 


issiinwabaiiy 


(( 


igossiban, 


(( 


igossibanig, 


(C 


issiminabany 


(( 


issiminaban. 


te 


igossinaban, 


le 


igossinabanig 



Ki wdbam'mahtin, thou sawest me, 

ki wdbam\mwa,h&n, you saw me, 
nin wdbam'igohan, he saw me, 
nin wdbam'igoh&mg, they saw me, 

ki i/>a6amiminaban, thou sawest U8, 

ke M?d6amiminaban, you saw us, 
m'w. wdbamigonahan, he saw us, 
nin ?<^a6a7wigonabanig, they saw us, 

PERFECT TENSE. 

Ki gi-wdbam, thou hast seen me, Kaicin issi, 

ki gi-wdbam\m, you have seen me, *' issim. 

Etc., after the above present tense, prefixing gi-. 

PLUPERFECT TENSE. 

Ki gi-wdba7nir\ahain, thou hadst seen me, Kaivin issinaban, 
ki gi-wdbain\vt\Vi khQ.w, you had seen me, *' issimwaban. 
Etc., after the above imperfect tense prefixing gi-. 
Form the two future tenses after the present, prefixing ga-^ 
and ga-gi-; as: Ki ga-wdbam, thou shalt see me ; . . . Ki ga-gi- 
wdbam, thou shalt have seen me. . . . 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



I 



I 
I 



:i ' r 



PRESENT TENSE. 

Kishpin ^vdbamua,xl, if thou seest me, 
wflftamiieg, if you see me, 
wdbamid, if he sees me, 
w;a6amiwad, if they see me, 
wdbamn&ng, if thou seest us, 
wd&amiiang, if you see us, 

*i^a6amiiangid, ■> if he sees 
wdbamin&ng, J us, 

• wctftamiiangidwa, ■» if they 
waftaminangwa, J see us, 



issiwan, 

issiweg, 

issig, 

issigwa, 

issiwang, 

issiwang, 

issiwangid, ■» 

issinovvang, ( 

issiwangidwa, 

issinowangwa. 



} 



* These terminations are employed when the person or persons spoken to,, 
are not included, [See Semark 3, p. 42] 




»!• 



t: 






— 224 — 

p.:rfect tens •. 

Gi-wdbamu&n, because thou hast 

seen nie, issiwan, 

gi-wdbamWeg, because you liave 

seen me, iasiweg. 

Etc., aller the above present tense, prefixing (/i 



PLUPERFECT TKKSE, 

t Wiibamuamhav) , hadst thou seen nie, 

ivdbaninegoha, had you seen nic, 

ivdbamipa,n, had he seen me, 

waftawiwapan, had they seen me, 

ivdbamndng\ha,u, hadst thou seen us, 

wdba7nudng[hiin, had you seen us, 

Wrt6a//uian<'idiban,1 i „ i i 

,, . " , ' Vhad he seen us, 
waoami nangoban, ) 

wdbam\\iiu}l\dwiihan,\ had they seen 

^6'«6a/Hinangwuban, i us. 



issiwamban, 

issiwegoban, 

issigoban, 

issigwaban, 

issiwangiban, 

issiwangiban, 

issiwangidiban, 

issinowangoban, 

issiwangidwaban, 

issinowangwaban. 



The two future tenses are formed after tlie 2)resent, by prefix- 
ing ge-, and ge-gi-, as : Ge-ivdbamiian, when thou shalt see me... 
Ge-gi-ivdbamiian, wlien thou shalt have seen me . . . 

Form the two tenses of the conditional mood after the jiresent 
and perfect tenses of tbe indicaiioe mood, prefixing da-, as : A7 
da-wdbam, thou wouldst see me . . . A7 da-gi-wdbam, thou 
wouldst have seen me . . . 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



Wdbam\i^\\\\\, \ 

• imfeamishikan, |«ee me, (thou,) Ae/yo ishiken, 

wdbam'xohxg, see me, (you,) *' ishikegon, 
nin ga-wdbam\g, let him see me, " igossi. 



t See Remarks 2 and 3, p. 110. 
* See Kemarki, p. 111. 



— 225 — 

nin ga-wdbamigof!^, let hiiu see me, \. 

W(2bn7mii\nniiu\, t^ee us, (thou) 

wrfftamishinam, see us, (you,) 

nin ga-wdbam'igonau , let him see us, 

nin ga-wdbam\goua.nig, let them see us, 

PARTICIPLES. 



Kego 



n 



igossig, 

ishikangen, 

ishikangen, 

igossinan, 

igossinanig. 



PRESENT TENSE. 

Kin wai' haviiian, thou who eeest me, 
kinaica waiabamuog, you who see me, 

win waiabam'u\, he who sees me, 
uinawa icaiabam\A}\g, they who see me, 

kin waiabamniiwg, thou who see?t us, 
kinawa waiabamudng, you who see us, 

" ' ' > lie who sees us, 
ivin ivaiabaminiing, i 

winawa waiabamiiangidng, 1 1 

.„ • I • > they who see us, 

winawa waiabammangog j •' ' 

Kin ivaiabanili^siwsLn, thou wlio dost not see me, 

kinawa waiabaini^smag, you who do not see me, 

U'in icaiabain\)isig, he who doe.-j not see mc, 

winawa waja&amissigog, they who ilon't see me, 

kin waiabamiiisiwiing, thou who dost not see u;?, 

kinawa ivaiabamisaiyfCing, you wlio don't see us, 

tciu tvaiabanmaiwangid, ) ■, i i „„ . 
. . ° ' > he who does not 

win waiabajmaswowang, i 
winawa u'fl/«i«;mssiwungidjig, | ^j^^^ ^^j^^ ^i^^,^ ^^^ ^^^ 
icinawa waiabaniiaaxnoweingog, J 

IMPERFECT TKXSE. 

Kin w^aiafta/niiamban, thou who sawest me, 
kinaica waiabamnegohany you who saw me, 
2Vin waiabamipan , he who saw me, 



see us, 



t See Note, p. 223. 



I^-': 



y\ 



m 



ii. I 



N ' 



— 22e — 

ivinawa iramfeamipanig, they who saw me, 

kin W'«/a6awiiianf?iban, tho who sawest usj 
kinawa (naia/>a?/tiiAngiban, you who saw ue, 
win iramftamiianKidiban, | j^^ ^j^^ ^^^ ^^^ 
«n'n wa/a6aminan{?oban, i 



winawa wamftamiiangidibanig, \ .1 1 



saw U8, 



winawa wamtawinangobanig, 

A7« waiabamiHumamhan, thou who didst not see nie, 
kinawa waiaham'iBsiwegoh&n, you wlio did not see me, 

win M?am6amis8igoban, he who . . . 
winawa tcamiawissigobanig, they who . . . 

kin ?<?amftamisHiwangiban, thou who didst not see us, 
kinawa M'ttrnftamissiwiingiban, you who ... 

m« 7/'a/a6amis8iwangidiban, "> , 

mn waia^awissinowangoban, J 
winaioa t"aiaiamis8iwaugidibanig, 
winawa wawiamiHsinowangobanig, 
The other tenses are formed after tliese two. 



} they . 



The verbs ending in owa make also liere some little excep- 
tions from the preceding paradigm. The difference is especially 
pe/ceptible in the third persons. In order to conjugate easily 
these verbs in the Second Ca^e, you will have to take off" the last 
syllable wa, and place instead cf it the terminations of the fol- 
lowing paradigm. 

AFFIRMATIVE FORM. NEGATIVE FORM. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

PRESENT TENSE. 

F' .., thou hearest me, 

ddwim, you hear me, 
niu nOJiddg, he hears me, 
tiin nonddgog, they hear me, 

ki no/idawimin, thou hearest ue, 

A7 no7iddwim'\n , you hear us, 
7iin nonddgon&n, he hears us, 
nin «o?i(?^gonanig, they hear us. 



Kawin 


wissi, 


(( 


wissim, 


« 


gossi, 


« 


gossifeS 


(( 


wiGsimm, 


<< 


wissimin. 


(( 


gossman, 


<( 


gossmanig. 



i 

ffP? 



— 227 — 



IMI'KRKECT TEN8E. 

Ki nonddwinahfin, tliou heardst me, Kawin 
ki lumddvf iniin&h&n, you lieard ine, •' 

nin iionddgoh&\j, lie heard me, ♦* 

7iin 7ionddgoh&mg , they lieard uic, " 

ki 7ioMdawiminaban, thou heardst us, " 
A;i nowrfa\viminaban,you heard us, *' 

nin 7tou^rtgonaban, he heard us, " 

nin wondrtgonabanig, they heard us, " 

After these two tenses you may form all the 
dicative mood. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



wiflsinaban, 
wissiminabaii, 
gossiban, 
gossibanig, 
wissiminaban, 
wissiminabau, 
gossinaban, 
gossinabanlg. 
others of the in- 



PRESENT TENSE. 

Nonddwu&xi, if thou hearest me, 
nonddwiieg, if you hear me, 
nonddwid, it he hears me, 
7wndd\v\w&d, if they hear me, 
nontiawiiang, if thou hearest us, 
nonddw'u'dng, if you hear us, 

«onrf«wiiangid, I jHie hears us, 
?io7idonang, J 
HO/irfawiiangidwa, "^ if they hear 



} 



wissiwan, 

wissivveg, 

wissig, 

wissigwa, 

wissiwang, 

wissiwang, 

wissiwangid, 

ossinowang, 

wissiwangidwa, 

ossinowangv/a. 



• nondonangwa, J us, 

Now in the following conjugations, we mention no more the 
perfect a) d imperfect tenses of the indicative mood, so for the 
future, conditional and participles, the signs or prefixes of 
whicli are : gi, ga, ge, da, etc. 



PLUPERFECT TENSE. 



JVo?idawiiamban, hadst thou heard me, 
wortdawiiegoban, had you heard me, 
W07^(Zawipan, had he heard me, 



wissiwamban, 
wissiwegoban, 
wissigoban. 



* JVote. In these third persons yoa have not only the last syllable wn to 
take off, but the whole terminations awa, before you add the termiiiaCkffli of 
the Conjugation to the veib. 





I • i 


\ I 



r. 






I 



— 228 — 



dh . 



'!{. 



?jo«<?rt\vivvilpan, ha 1 they heard me, 
nonrfawiiangihan, had.st thou lieard 118, 
no7i(Za\vi idgi'oan, had you heard us, 
/io«(iavviiangidiban, 1 had he lieard 
Mondonangoban, J us, 
MO/trfawiiangidwaban,) had tliey lieard 
«o/u?onangwaban, j us, 



wissigwaban, 

wiesiwangiban, 

wissiwangiban, 

wissiwangidiban, 

oesinowangoban, 

wiseivvadgidwaban, 

ossinowaugwaban . 



MPEHATIVE MOOD. 



Nonddwishin. 



Nonddwmun, 1 , .,, , 

,^ . , ., > hear me (thou, 

nonddwish'xg, hear me (you,) 
nin ga-nondd'^, let him hear me, 
nin ga-nonddgog, let them hear me, 

?i07tdrtwishinam, hear us (thou,) 
nandd\\'m\y\i\k\n , hear us (you,) 
nmf/a-iionddgona.u, let him hear us, 
iiiii (/a-nonddgou(in\g, let them hear us, 

PARTICIPLES. 



Kego wisliiketi, 

*• wishikegon, 

" gossi, 
gossig, 
wishikangen, 
wishikangen, 
gossinan, 
gossinanij 



>S- 



Krn 
kinawa 

toiii 
winawa 

kin 
kinawa 

toin 

loin 
winawa 
winaioa, 

Kin 
kinawa 

win 
winaxca 

kin 



PRKSENT TENSE. 

mcanddw nan , thou who hearest me, 
nwanddwueg, you who heir me, 
nwanddw'id, he who hears me, 
nwanddwidyig, they who hear me, 
nwanddwimng, thou who hearest us, 
nwanddwudng, you who hear us, 
nira,id«wiiangid, | j^^ ^^j^^ j^^^^., ^^^^ 
nwandonsiug, J 

moanddm\ang\di\g.. \ ^^ ^j^^ ,^^^^ ^^^^ 
nu'anaonangog, ■» 

7iu'a»t(?«\vissiwan, thou who dost not hear me, 
7iM'rt?trf«wi8siweg, you who don't hear me, 
moa/Kiawissig, he who does not hear me, 
mranfZawissigog, they who don't hear me, 
jiirandawissiwung, thou who dost not hear us. 



ar 

se: 
Cc 

Tl 
te; 

86 



— 229 — 



kinawa wt»a?idrtwis8iwapg, you v ho don't hear us, 



* ' }. he who does not 1 
win nwa/iaossinowang, J 



lear u?, 



winawa nicantZ^hvisfiiwangidiig, "| ., , , ,^ , 

- . to J »' J. tliev who (Ion t hear U9. 

winatca mcanrtossinowangog, ) 

IMPERFECT TKNSE. 

Am mcanddwiiamhan, thou who heardst nie, 
kinawa wtcanr/awiiegoban, you who lieard nie, 

toin nwandd\v'\\)Q.n, lie who lieard me, 
winawa nwandu\\'\\ia.n[g, they who heard me, 

kin nwan(Mwiiiing\ha.n , thou who heardptuf, 

kinawa 7m'a;uWwiiungiban, you who heard us, 

tvin nifajnZrtwiiangidibaii, ) , , , , 

, ° ' V lie who heard us, 

wm nwa/iaonangoban, ) 

winawa iitpanrZawiiangidibanig, ■» 

winatca ;u/;an^onangobanig, | ^^'''y ^^'^'^ ^'^^^^ "•' 

AVn w/JantZawissiwamban, thou who didst not hear nie, 
kinawa 7iican(Zawi9siwegoban, you who did not . . . 

win wMJant/dwissigoban, he who . . . 
winawa ju^'anrfawissigobanig, they . . . 

kin »tM'a?uZ«wi8siwangiban, thou who didst not hear us, 
kinawa wwa?tf?rtwis8iw'angiban, you who . . . 

M?m 7m'aH</awifisiwangidiban,"l . , 

win nicaHf^ossinowangobaii, / 
winawa njoa/trfawissiwangidibanig, 1 .. 
winawa /Jir«»t7o8sinowangobanig, / 
Form the remaining tenses of these participles after these two. 



The verbs of the three kinds we mentioned on p. 194, which 
are irregular at the second person, singular, imperative, con- 
serve this irregularity almost tliroughout the whole "Second 
Case" as you will see in the following paradigms. 

Let us now consider the verbs of the first kind, ending in na. 
The irregularity of these verbs, which consists in changing this 
termination na inj, appears then throughout all the moods, ten- 
ses and persons, wliich are irregular. 









|:i| 



— 230 ~ 



Ei il'l 






AFFIRMATIVli: FORM. NEGATIVE FOBM. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

PERFECT TENSE. 

Kid anoj, thou employest me, Kawin jissi, 

kid a/iojim, you employ me, 
nind aiionig, he employs me, 
nind awonigog, they employ me, 

kid awojimin, thou employest us, 

kid a?tojimin, you employ us, 
nind anonigonan, he employs us, 
nind a/tonigonanig, they employ u.s, 

IMPERFECT Tr SE. 

Kid anojinaban, thou employedst me, Kawin jissinaban, 



(( 


jissim, 


(( 


nigossi, 


l( 


nigossig, 


(( 


jissimm, 


a 


jissimin, 


(( 


nigossinan. 


C( 


nigossiuanig 



<t 
ii 



kid anojimwaban, you employed me, 
nind «Honigoban, he employed me, 
nind anonigobanig, they employed me, 

kid a/tojiminabau, thou employedst us, 

kid a/tojiminaban, you employed us, 
nind a/ionigonaban, he employed us, 
nind anonigonabanig, they employed us. 

The remaining tenses of the indicative are formed after the 
present and the imperfect. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



jissim waban, 

nigossibau, 

nigossibanig, 

jiseiminaban, 

jissiminaban, 

nigossinaban, 

nigossinabanig. 



PRESENT TENSE. 

Kishpin anojiian, if thou employest me, 

a/iojiieg, if you employ me, 

a?tojid, if he employs me, 

anojiwad, if they employ me, 

anojiiang, if thou employest us, 

auojiiang, if you employ us, 

anojiangid,-* 

„ > if he em. us, 
ajionmang, J ' 

auojiiangidwa, 1 if tliey employ 

,va, i 






4t 



anonmangw'i 



us, 



jissiwan, 
jiesiweg, 

jissig, 

jissigwa, 

jissivviing, 

jissiwung, 

jissiwangid, 

nissinowang, 

jissiwangidwa, 

nissinowangwa. 



— 231 — 



PLl'PKBKECT THNSE. 

Jnojiiamban, hadst thou employed me, 
rtnojiiegoVjan, had you employed me, 
a«ojipan, had he employed me, 
ttMojiwapan, had they employed me, 
anojiiangibaii, hadst thou employed us, 
awojiiangibati, had you . . . 
anojiiangidiban, } had he employed 
«woninJingoban, j us, 

rt/iojiangidwaban, "J iiad they employed 
anonina ngwaban, / U8, 



ji8siwambam, 

jissiwegoban, 

ji9.><igoban, 

jissigwaban, 

jissiwangiban, 

jissiwangiban, 

jissiwaiigidiban. 

nisslnowangoban, 

ji.ssiwangidwabaii, 

nissinowangwaban. 



m 



IMPT'^RATIVE MOOD. 

^l;?ojishiii, ■> employ uie, 
anojishikan, J (thou,) 
rt/jojishig, employ me, (you,i 
ni?i gad-anon'ig, let him employ me, 
nin (/ad-anon'xgog, let them employ me, 
«/joji?hinam, employ us, (thou) 
anojishinrim, employ us, (you,) 
nin <7a(Z-a;?onigonan, lethim employ w, 
nin </arZ-fl/2onigonanig, let them emp.us, 



Kego 



c 
(< 
<< 
<< 
(( 



jishiken, 

jishikegoii, 

iiigossi, 

nigossig, 

jishikangen, 

jishikangeu, 

nigossinap, 

nigossinanig. 



xrx/^^VX\^ 



The seco?id kind of irregular verbs comprehends the verbs end- 
ing in ssu. (See page 19.5.) These verbs are perfeeliy regular in 
the active and passive voices, except in the second person sing, 
imper. in the active voice. They also perfectly agree with the 
paradigm of the " First Case," A7 tcCihamin ; but they deviate a 
little fron\ the paradigm of the " Second Case," A7 wdbam. You 
will see the difference here below. 

We have seen, (p. 195) that these verbs change their (ermina- 
tion »«d into «A/, at the second pers. sing, imper.; and this sh 
appears in the moods and tenses, which are irregular ; as you 
will see in the following paradigm. 

16 









ill 



. m 

■'!'*■■ i 









— 232 — 

AFFIRMATIVE FORM. NEGATIVE FORM. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

PRESENT TENSE. 

Kiyofih, thou learest me, 

ki goshmx, you fear me, 
nin goB8\g, he fears me, 
nm </088igo<]5, they fear nie, 

ki ^oshimin, thou fearest up, 

ki ^OHhiuiin, you fear uh, 
nin <7088igonan, he fears us, 
nin //ossigonanig, they fear us, 

IMPERFECT TENSE. 

A7 (/ofihinaltan, thou fearedst me, Kaioin slussiuabaii, 



Kawin 


shissi. 


(( 


shissim. 


<( 


ssigOHsi, 


(( 


ssigassig. 


(( 


shissimin. 


i( 


shissimin. 


« 


ssigossinan. 


<( 


e»sig088inanig 



ki ^oshimwahan, you feared me, 
nin (/oesigobau, he feared me, 
nin (/ossigobaiiig, tliey feared me, 
ki ^oshiminabati, thou feared.st us, 
hi </08himinaban, you feared us, 
nin </OH8igonaban, he feared us. 



(< 

i : 
<( 
(( 



shissimwaban, 

ssigossiban, 

ssigosflibamg, 

.sliissiminabaii, 

shissiminabaii, 

ssigossinaban, 

ssigossinabanig. 



nin (/OHsigonabanig, they feared us, 

Tlie other tenses of the indicative mood are formed after these 

two. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



PKESENT TENSE. 



Kishpin ^oshiian, if thou fearest me, 
" //oshiieg, if you fear me, 
" ^oshid, if he fears me, 
(/oshiwad, if they fear me, 
f/osliiiang, if tliou fearest us, 
</oshiiang, if you fear us, 
t/oshiiangidj "I if he fears 
^ossinang, J us, 
^oshiiangidwa,-* iftliey 
I, J fear us, 












(/oseinangwa, 



<< 



shissiwan, 

shissiweg, 

shissig, 

shissigwa, 

shi.ssiwang, 

■ahissiwang, 

shissiwangid, 

ssissinowang, 

uhissiwangidwa, 

psissinowangwa. 



1 1! Ip 



— 233 — 



PLUPKRFECT TEX8E. 

Gosh iifim bail, liad.st thou feared us, shisfliwambaii, 

(f/o8liiiegoban, had you feared me, shissiwegoban, 

f/oshipan, had lie feared me, shissigoban, 

(/«.«hi\vapan, had they feared me, phissigwaban, 

//osliiaiigiban, hadst thou feared uf, Rhissiwdngibaii, 

(/oshiiangiban, had you feared us, shiHsiwungiban, 
^yoshiiangidibaii,") liad he 
</o.s8inangoban, / feared 



us. 



//oshiiangidwaban,-! had they 
</0Hsinaiig\vaban, / feared us, 



shisniwangidibai) , 
i^sissnowaiigoban , 
shiHsiwangidwabari , 
ssissinowangwabau . 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

6V>.«lushin, ■» fear n..-, 

</oshishikan, j ithou^. Kego 

(/oshishig :2ar me, (you,) 
nin (7a-<yf08sig, lev. him fear me, 
nin (/a-^rossigog, let them fear me, 

(/oshifihinam, fear us, (thou,) 

(/oshishinAm, fear us, (you,i 
nin <7a-(/08sigonan, let him fear us, 
nin //a-f/oseigonanig, let them fear us, 

PARTICIPLES 

AFFIRMATIVE FORM. 
PRESENT TENSE. 

Am (^jt^eshiiaii, thou who fearest me, 
kinawa giceAnxcg, you who fear me, 

wingweH\\\i\, he who fears me, 
winawa r/u'eshidjig, they who fear me, 

I'in (/tceshiiang, thou who fearest u.s, 
kinawa //fi'eshiiang, you wlio fear us, 



win i/tt'cshiiangid, | j^^ ^^,j^^ ^^^^^.^ ^^^^ 

loin f/!/;essinang, J 

winawa //trcshiiangidjig, 1 j,^^y ^^.^^^ f^^^ ^,^^ 

tvinaica </icesinangog, -• 



shishiken, 

sliishikegoii, 

ssigossi, 

ssigossig, 

KJiishikangen, 

shishikangeii, 

sffigossinan, 

ssigossi nan ig. 



y i 



■ ■ 1 

^ ■ ''I ' 

r ' f. 
i; ; V, 

t r| 
I if. 

■ 1 1 ' 






t ' ' 






4 " 



n ■ 



W^ 



234 — 



IMPERFKCT TEXSE. 



Kin «;M?c3hiiamban, thou who fearedst me, 
kinawa //wcshiiegoWan, you wlio feared ine, 

win f/MJcsliipan, lie wlio feared me, 
winawa (jwes\\'\\nxn'\g, the}- who feared me, 

A;m .(/li'esliiiaiigilian, thou who fearedst us, 

Wnawa r/jf?eshiiangigan, 3'ou who feared us, 

Mjm o'weehiiangidiban,"! ^ \ c a 
•^ , *= ' J- he wlio feared us, 

ifin jfjrwcHsiiiangobaii, ) 

wmawa fli^efhiiangidihanig, "I ,1 \ i- i 

'' * *=' }• they wlio ieared us. 

winawa </tpes8inangobanig, J 



h^ 







The third kind of irregular verbs contains the verbs ending 
in oioa. (See p. 196.) We have already noticed some irregula- 
rities of these verbs^ (p. 218, etc.,) but there are some mure, 
which you will find in the following paradigm. 

AFFIllMATIVE FGHM. NEGATIVE FORM. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

I'RESEXT TEXSE. 

Kipakiie, thou strikest me, 

ki 2>(ikiti'!om, yon strike me, 
nin pakitco^f, he strikes me, 
nin j)ttkileogog, they strike me, 

kipakiieom'm. thou strikest us, 

ki2)akiteo\n\n, you strike us, 
nin pakite ogonan, he strikes us, 
nin pakiteogoua.mg, they strike us, 

IMPERFECT TEXSE. 



Kawin ossi. 






ossim, 

ogossi, 

ogossig, 

ossimin, 

ossim in, 

osossinan, 



ogossmanig. 



A"i2)aA:i7t'onaban, thou struckest me, Kaicin ossinal)an, 

A;/ jjaAri/comwabaii, you struck me, 
m'/ijjaA.77cogoban, he struck me, 
nin 2>«^"i^cogobanig, they struck me, 

Jfct ^aA:<7eon»ij»aban, thou struckest us, 

ki pakitiOuvn\ihQ.u, you struck us, 
nmpaA-vVtogonabanig, they struck u«, 



«< 



ossim waban, 

ogossi ban, 

ogossibanig, 

ossiminaban, 

ossinjinaban, 

ogossinabs'iig. 






— 235 — 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



osHiwan, 

ossiweg, 

ossig, 

ossigwa, 

osaiwang, 

ossiwang, 

ossiwangid, 

ossinovvang, 

ossiwaiigidwa, 



PR'CHKXT TKNS!-:. 

Pakiteoi&n, if tlioii strikest me, 
pakiteo'ieg, if you strike me, 
paHieod, if he strikes me, 
jyakiteowsid, if they strike me, 
^)aA,77eoiang, if thou strikest ua, 
pakiteo'ian'^, if you strike U8, 
pakiteomugkl,^ j^i.e g_ .^.^^ 
pakiteonaug, j 
j?aA:t7eoiangid\va, 1 if they s. 
^>aA.77eonang\va, / us, 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

FakiteoHhin, "I ^^^jj^^ ^^^^ (j,,^,,^, 

pakiieoshikan, > 

jpafo'ieoahig, strike me, (you,) 
nin (ja-pakiteog, let Jiim strike me, 
nin ga-pakiteogog, let them strike me, 

joa/t77eoshinam, strike us, (thou,) 

^aA;i/eoshiuain, strike us, (you,) 
nin ga-pakiteogonan, let him strike us, 
nin ga-pakiteogouan\g, let them strike us. 



Examples on tiik secoxd case. . 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present Tense. Dehi'nimiian,in6Jag ki ganawdbam, ki nondaw 
gate iiingot ekklioidn; kid dpitchi kikenim ejiwrbisiidn. Lord, 
thou lookest always upon me, and thou hearest me when I 
say something ; thou knowest me perfectly how I am, (or, 
how I behave.) 

Kawin ganabalch kininsitotdivissim ekkiioida; kawin weiveni 
ki pisindawissim. Perhaps you don't well understand me 
what I am saying ; you don't well listen to me. 



Kego 


oshiken. 


(( 


oshikegon, 


(( 


ogossi. 


a 


ogosaig. 


<< 


oshikangen, 


(( 


oshikangen, 


(< 


ogossinan, 


<( 


ogossinanig. 



;l..-i 









't:^ 



— 236 — 

Ki sdijiigonan Dehi'niminang, hid ini'nimigonan yaie, kdginig 
tchi jawenddgosiianff gijigong. Tlie Lord loves us, and it is 
hiis will, that we should he eternally happy in heaven. 
Kawin niiiidjamssinanig mojag nin babamitagossinanig. Our 
children don't always ohey us. 
Impep.fect tensk. Ki ganojinaban, bckish gaie kitisair nin gano- 
nigoban ; kawin dash nin kiknidansin ga-ikkitoian. Thou 
spokest to me, and at the same time thy brother spoke to me ; 
and so I don't know what thou hast said. 
Ninna ki nandawdbamimioabanjrba? Kawin na gego ki wi- 
gagwrdjimissimivaban ? Did you look for me this morning ? 
Had you not some question to ask me ? 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



1 



Present Texse. Ninidjdniss, kishpin gegci sdgiian, ki ga-babd- 
mitaw ; kishpin dash babamitawiian, ki ga-jawenddgos. My 
child, if thou truly lovest me, thou wilt ohey me ; and if thou 
obeyest me, thou wilt be happy. 

Nikanissidog , kishpin anishindbeg jingeniminangwa, boniglde- 
iawadanig. Brethren,if any persons hate us, let us forgive 
them. (The persons spoken to, included.) 
Kawin nin gi-ganonigossig, gi-kikenimissigwa, wika giwdha- 
missigwa. They have not spoken to me, because they have 
not known me, they have never seen me. 
Oi-wdbamiian, Thomas, ki-gidebweiendam. Thomas, because 
thou hast seen me, thou hast believed. 

Pluperfect Tense. Nandomipan nin dd-gi-ija cndad. — Gag- 
wMjimipan nin da-gi-nakwMawa. If he had called me, I would 
have gone to his house. If he had asked me, I would have 
answered liim. 

Wdhang ta-dagwishin mekatewikwanaie ; mi oma ge-daji-gagi- 
kiminang. The priest will come to-morrow ; and here he will 
preach to us. 



^^^■^ 



— 237 — 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



Ganawdbamishin Debenimiian, kitimdgenimuliin ; mashkawen- 
damlishin tchi wika batd-ijiwebissiwdn. See me, Lord, and 
have mercy on me; give me strength that I may never sin. 

Ninidjdnissidog, babamitaxoishig , odapinamdwishig nind ikki- 
toicin ; kego agonwetawishikegon. My children, listen to me, 
receive my word ; don't disobey me, (gainsay me.) 

Mdno nin ga-nasikdgog abinodjiiag bebmijinidjig, kego 7iin ga- 
gossigossig. Let the little children come to me, let thent not 
be afraid of me. 

Ashdmishindm, nin bakademin. Pindigajishindm enddian, for, 
endaieg,) nin gikadjimin. Give us to eat, we are hungry. 
Take us in thy house, (or, your house,) we are cold. 

Kego sagidjinajaoshikangen, kawin n'mgofchi nin pi7idigessimiti. 
Don't turn us out, we have no house to go in. 

Mdno nin ga-boniigonanig metchi-ikkiiodjig. Let ill-speakers 
let us alone. 

Aw ikwe netd-jawenimipan, o gi-nagadan kid odenaicensindn. 
That woman who used to be so charitable to me, has left our 
little village. 

Debenimiian, kin ge-dibakoniian icdiba, gdssiayndwishin nin ma- 
tchi dodamowinan, tchi bwa nandomiian. Lord, who shalt 
soon judge me, blot out my iniq\iities, before thou callest me. 



A", 



Let us now consider the verb, Nin wdbama, in the " Tioo 
Cases" of connection with the personal pronouns, me, thee, us, 
you, when used in a dubitative manner. 



— 238 — 






m 

I '* ■.■; 



FIRST CASE. 

(/ thee.) 

AFFIRMATIVE FORM. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

t 

PRESENT TEN .S E. 

Ki wdbaimn'iwMo^, I see thee perhaps, 

ki wdbam\g,6dog;y we see tliee perhap.s, 

ki tm&amigodog, he nees thee perhaps, 

ki MJrtfeamigodogenag, they see thee perliaps^ 

ki wdbamimnunwado'^, I see you perhaps, 

ki lodbamigom'idog, we see you perhaps, 

ki «?rtftawigowadog, lie sees you perliap=(, 

ki M^a&amigowadogeuag, they see you perliaps. 

NEGATIVE FORM. 

Kawin ki tod&amissinoninadc^, I do perhaps not see thee, 

** ki M?a6awiig6ssidog, we do perhaps not see tliee, 

" ki tortftamigossidog, he does p. . . . 

*' ki tcaftawtigossidogenag, they . . . 

" ki jm/yawissinonininiwadog, 

*' ki m&amigossimidog, 

" ki trnframigosslwadog, 

" ki wtt&amigossiwadogenag. 

IMPERFECT TENSE. 

VVaiaminowuniban, I saw thee perhaps, • 

wafeamigowaniban, we saw thee perhaps, 
wrffrawnnogoban, he saw tliee perhaps, 
?pflfca?winogwaban, they perhaps saw thee, 
MJafeawiinowagogoban, I saw you perhaps, 
irafrajwigowegoban , we saw you perhaps, 
icafta/ziinowegoban, he saw you perhaps, 
waftawiinowegwaban, they saw. . . 



— 239 — 



Kdwin wdbam\»H\no\vkmh&,x\, I did perhaps not see thee, 

" jpaftawigOHHi warn ban, we did perhaps not . . . 

" jprt&a/wiHsinOfroban, he did perhaps not . . . 

'* fP^6amissino{?waban, they did perhaps not . . , 

'* w^ftawissinowagogoban, 

" M»rt&amigosHiwegoban, 

" t/?a6amissinowegoban, 

" u)d6ammissinowegwaban. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

PRESENT TENSE. 

Kishpin icaiahannnow Awf'w, if I see thee perliaps, 
joataftamigowunen, if we see thee perhaps, 
tt'am&«/ninogweii, if lie sees thee, 
wamftaw inogwawen, if they see thee, 
t«aia6rt//niionogwaweii, if I see you perhaps, 
waiafoamigowegwen, if we see you, 
wamftawinowegwen, if lie sees you, 
M^atafta/ninowegwawen, if thev see \'on. 

Kishpin waia&amissinowanen, if I perhaps see thee not,. 
j<?am6rtwigossiwanen, if we see thee not, 
iTfliaftawissinogwen, if he does not see . . . 
ipamftawiissinogwawen, if they don't . . . 
waiaia/wissinonogwawen, 
«'rti'a6a»iig08si wegwen , 



(C 

(( 
(( 

(C 

<( 
(( 
(I 



(C 






MJatafiawiiseinowegwawen . 



PERFECT TENSE. 

^/o-wadaminowanen, whether T have seen thee, 
(ra-waftawiissinowanen, whether I have not seen tliee. 
Etc., after the present tense. 

PLUPERFECT TENSE. 

H^aftaminovvambanen, if [ had perhaps seen thee, 
wdiamigowanibanen, if we . ad perhaps seen thee, 
M?d6awinogobanen, if he had seen thee, 
ird6aminogwabanen, if they had seen thee, 






■ I 






i.i .■ 



- 240 — 



I Hi' 
I- I 



:'^ 



H^ 
;!«;' 






«ca6aminagogobanen, if I bad perhaps seen you, 
M'^^awigowoj^obaneii, if we had seen you, 
jrd/>amino\vo«^obanen, if lie had seen you, 
?pd6aminowei»;wabanen, if they liad seen you. 
WrtftawisHinowainbanen, if I had perhaps not seen thee, 
Mwftawigossiwanibanen, if we . . . 
ipdtawissinojiobanen, if he . . . 
tp^6a»jis8i!u»<i;\vabanen, 
«'d/>a»ns8inagogobaMen, 
ir^6amigossi\vegobanen , 
•j/vtftamissinowegobanen, 
7rfl&rt wtissi nowegwabanen . 

SECOND CASE. 

( Thou . . . me.) 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

PRESENT TENSE. 

A7 wdbamido^, tliou seest me perhaps, 

ki M?d6aminiidog, you see me perhaps, 
nin waftamigodog, he sees me perhaps, 
nin «?a6amigodogenag, they see me perlmps, 

ki toaftawiiminadog, thou seest us perliaps, 

ki teaftawtiminadog, you see us perhaps, 
nin wdftamigonadog, he sees us perhaps, 
niti wd6a/Migonadogenag, they see us perhaps. 

NEGATIVE FORM. 

Katoiii ki wdbamiss'ido^, thou dost perhaps not see me, 
ki ?(ja6awissimidog, you do perhaps not . . . 
" nin M-'d6amigos8idog, 
" nin tfd6amigossidogenag, 
ki wdftamissiminadog, 
ki wdfia^/iissirainadog, 
" nin ir(^6amigossinadog, 
nin tr^ftamigossinadogenag. 



— 241 — 



IMJ'KUKKCT TKXSE. 



Gonima icdh(nn\\\a.m\)U.\\, pcrliajjs thou Kawest me, 
wdbiim\\\"^v\)iiu, porhui*.-' you naw ine, 
wdhaimjiohau, perhaps he saw me, 
wdhamliiwuhiiw, perhajw they na\v me, 
tvdh<vu\w».n</i\)iu, perhaps thou sawent us, 
wdh<iin\\\i\\v/\\>an, i)erha|>s you saw us, 

'^ ' V periiaps he saw us, 

icdho>n'\uowau>zo\>au, > 

M'«/>rtMMwaii<ii(hvahaii, 1 .„ ., 

^ , ' y perhaps thev saw us, 

tmoawnnowangwahan, ■• 
Gonima kawiii jrrl/^fl;nissiwambaii, perhaps thouilidst not see me, 
jpd/>«/«issiwej^ohaii, perhaps you did not . . . 
j««/;a/«issii>;oban , 
ji'a7>a/Missigwaban , 
iCrtfta/Hissiwan;^iban, 
i/'rt6a/Hissiwangidiban, ") 
WM6a?Missinowan{]!oban, J 



<< 



H 



(C 

<( 

(< 
<( 

<( 
(( 
i< 
(( 



M?a6a7rtissiwangidwaban, 
J0«6a/MisHino\vang\v 



iDan, ■» 
aban, 1 



After tlicse two tenses form tlie others of the indicative. 
SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

PHESliNT TEXSE. 

Ki.fhpia waiabaim\va,uei\, if thou jjerhaps seest me, 
toaiaftamiwegwen, if you perhaps see me, 
ipam/«<w igwen, if he perhaps sees me, 
iramtawiwagwen, if they perhaps see me, 
wamftamiwangen, if thou perhaps seest us, 
iraiafeawiwangen, if you i>erhaps see us, 
M^aiaftamiwangiden \ .^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^ ,^^^ 
irataoawmowangen' -• 
traiaftawiwangidwawen, \ if thev 
M>aia6a/«inowangwawen, f 



(( 

(C 

a 



.ri 

■ H 

. 3-1 



i f:.| 






•vj 



ley |x;rnaps see us. 







1 '\i.] 
f I 



— 242 — 



m 



I 



Kishpin tra/a?>aMtlpsiwaneii, if thou perhaps pee me not, 
?r«m^>fl/rtiHsiweffweiij if yoii perliaps . . , 
jt'a?a/«»«issigweii, 
waiahttnmHxwagwQw , 
wa/airt wiHsiwaugen, 
/rttja/>a/«i8«i\vangeii, 









Kwa/>awuH8iwaiigidoii, ■» 
jra/a/<aw issiiiowaiigen, / 
wa/a6awtiHHi\vaiigid\va\vc' ii, ■) 
jr«ja/>awfi8siiiu\vaiig\va\veii, J 



if they perhaps .«eeua not. 



iH.siwanen. 



PERFi.cT t;:ns/:. 

a- wdbaimw anew, as tliou jx'rhaps liast seen nie. 
Etc., after the abttve jtreftciit iense. 

im.ui'Eufkct tk.nsk. 

lV«6rt/«i\vainbanen, if thou perhaps hadst seen me, 

jra^awnwegobanen, if you perhaps liatl i^een me, 

M'«7>a///igobanen, if he perhaps liad seen me, 

?m6rt/«i\vagobauen, if they perhaps had seen me, 

/m6<»/»iwangibanen, iftliou perhaps hadst seen us, 

«'«/>a/«ivvringibanen, if you perhaps had seen us, 

M'«/>awi\vangidibanen, 1 •/• i i i . 

•^ ' V It lie perhaps had seen us, 

M'awrtmmowangobanen, J 

jrairtwiwangidwabanen, 1 •,. .i i i ■ 

"^ r '* ^''^'V perhaps liad . . . 

Mvt^rtWMnowangwabanen, > 

W«/;</missi\\ambanen, ifih«)U perhaps hadst not seen me, 

M'^6a/«issiwegobanen, if you perhaps . . . 

/m/>awissigobanen. 



»'(^/>rt/«issi\vagol)anen, 

M'dftamissiwHngibanen, 

M'rt^a?/ii8siwangil)anen, 

jr«/>(/;/<issi\vangidibanen, 

tra/^a/nissinowangobanen, 

>Prt/>«//MSsi\vangidwabanen, ■» 

{mbamissinowangwabanen, j 



} 



Form the future tenses after tl>e present, as : Ge-icdhamiwa- 
ncn . . . Ge-t/i-u'tibamiwanen . . . 



-- 24:j — 



EXAMPLES ON THE TWO CASES OF THE IV. DUUITATIVE 

CONJUGATION. 

Kcgo oir ikh'i token : Nin irdliamii/odoij Kije-Maniio. — Girniak niii 

irdhamiff tniniire ; ikkifon mojng. Do not .«ay : I supixjse Goil 

KH'H nic, (or i)erl»aps lie Koes me.) Always say : He fco.s nie 

certainly everywhere. 
AV ffi-wdhami(jowadot/ (ji-dmj 'xhineg ; wa'iha tu-hi-ija. He has 

probably seen yon when y*.,. arrived ; he will poon come here. 
Av oshh'nawe ki ga-nau>ftniiif/o(lft(f «/air kin ninn'iih'n;/ ; kef/n 

(lash ijuken. That youn;ii; man will porhap.s invite thee also 

todancin;:, but don't \hk 
Endogwen, ninidjuninn, saiat/iiicanen ; kairia na ki bahdmitawis- 

.si. I don't know, my child, whether thou lovest me; tliou 

dost not obey me. 
Mi ga-ondji-hata-diidn, liehenimiian, ireweni ga-xugiitisinoirdnon. 

Ijord, I liave behaved sinlully, because, I think, I have not 

loved thee enou<^h. 
Kishpin kinigiigog kikeniminogwahanen gd-dodiwnin, ki da-gi- 

linshdnjeogog ganahafr/i. W thy parents Imd known what 

thou hast done, they would perhaps had whipped thee. 
Gagnnsotnis.siirdngilxnifn, kairin g(()Kd>atrh irika nin dit-gi-nnti- 

viiussiniin. Had you not e.xhorted us, we would ])erhap.s ne- 
ver have become Christians. 
Nioginiss nin gnd-incnd ; mi dash api ganfilxitch g'^-wdhaniiireg- 

wen vmnaira. I will be absent four months,- and then il 

think) yon will see me ai^ain. 
Wnialxnnigirendg nongom in-diliridjiniowng rndndtimnn. Those 

who jK'rhaps see me now, will tell what I am doing. 
Kin tcika mcdndatrissin'dndninrn, nnngnm wcireni ki ici-kikinoa- 

mon ge-dodanian. Thou whc perhaps never heardst me, 

(preaching, I T will now instruct thee exactly what thou shalt do. 
Ktnrin nin wi-kikeninianyinu'iianig gn-dajimiiningidvndg. We 

don't want to know those that have spoken ill oCns. 
Kin gn-wdhamiw(tmbancn niQgwa kirin'i.irnfiin'iidn, keiahi na ki 

viikwenim? Thon wlio hadst .«<een me (as thev savi wiien 1 

was a l)oy, dost thou yet remember me? 



I ■•' 






■ f 



^ ; i:, 

I \ pi 
■ v] 



. i 






*" «»•- 



244 — 



it • " 



fl, 



Aw hiini wika ffa-ganouissinogohanen, ki hi-anamikag. This 
jnan, \vlu> jjorhaps never liaii spoken to lliee, comes to salute 
thee. 

Aniithinnhcdog, awegwenag wika ge-minaissintnoegicenag ishko- 
tewdho, ta-mino-dodamog. Ye Indians, those who shall never 
jrjve yoii ardent liqnor to drink, shall do well. 

Hcmark. In regard to the .yet'on^^ third person in the "Two 
Cases," we have t j observe that in the I. Case it does not alter 
the vcrit. We say : Axp oshkinawc ki wdhamig, that young man 
sees thee ; and likewi.«e : Aw o.s/ikinawe ossan ki wdhamig, that 
young nuiir's father sees thee. IJut in the II. Case there is some 
ditierence, F. i. 

Kis'/i2)iu aw oshkinawe ossan n'dham'm'ul, ta-l)i-ijd\\a.x\ omu. If 
that young man's lather sees nie, he will come here. 

Aw ikice o gi-inan oddnissan irhi ijimd ga-nondau\\\ud. That 
Woman told her little daughter to tell me what she heard. 

Kawia win iiia nnndagossi, ogwissaii iiiiw //«vN<'?(Muinidjin He 

(l(»es not hoar me, it is liis son thai hears me. 
Etc., etc. 
Kis/ij)in ossan wdham'iss'imy^, kawin /«-6i-//«ssiwan. If his father 

sees nte not, he will not come. 
gi-inan oddnissan irhi ?//ssinig */a-uom/aminid. She told her 

little daughter, not to tell me what she heard. 
Anawi irin nin ganonig iko ; ogwissan dash iniw wika genojis»\- 

nigon. He uses to speak to me ; but it is his son that never 

speaks to me. 

Before we close the IV. Conjugation, let us consider, in sliort 
E.xamples, the verb Nin wdbama, in regard to the second third 
person. 



— 245 — 






AFFIRMATIVE FORM. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 
PRESENT TEXSE. 

Nin wdhamhwkn ossan, * I see lii« father, 
ki wdhammniw " thou seest his father, 

o MJa7>alldalna\v^in ossiniwan, lie nee.s liis fatlier, 

nin wdbamunkwfiw, ossan, we see hin father, 
kiwdbain\mii\va.\if " you see his fatlier, 
o M?^6o;Mndiiina\vawan' ossiniwan, thev see . . . 

NEGATIVE FORM. 

Kairin nin icdbamimCitni'm ossan, I do?i't see his father, 

ki rra/>rtw,iinassiri, " thou dost not see his father^ 
o {m/>flndania\vassiM ossiniwan, he does not see his t'. 
nin ifrt/>amimassinan, ossan. we don't see . . . 
ki ?w/6<7winias9iwan *' you don't see . . . 
o tt'a/>rnidainawassiwawan ossiniwan, they don't see hi» 
father. 

IMPERFECT TENSE. 

Nin im&flr7/iinial)aniii ogin, I saw his mother, 
ki UYtiawiniahaniti " thou sawest his mother, 
o M'a6andamawabanin, oginiwan, he saw his mother,. 
nin jrctia/nimanabanin oijin, we saw his mother, 
Art ir«6«?/Mmawabanin " j yo'i saw his motlier, 
o t^^ctftandamawawabanin oginiwan, they saw hi* 
mother, 
Kawin nin ica/mmimassibanin ogin, I did not see his mother, 

ki wd^amimassibanin " , thou didst not see his mother,. 

o «?d6andamawassibanin oginiwan, he did not see hi» 

mother, 

nin irdftawimassinabanin ogin, we did not see his mother, 

ki jTrtftawimassiwabanin " , you did not see his nu)ther, 

o ird^andamawassiwabanin oginiwan, they did not see 

his mother. 



u 

<( 
<( 
tt 



■ A.' 



y 






i 

I 

f: 

f 

! '. 

Ml 
l: 



* NiiKUbiOftawa Kije MHnlto,"(ndf.bivetawimai\ gaic Ogwissan, I bellev* 
in God, and I believe in hia Hon. 



Til ^ 






— 246 — 

After tliose two tenses yon can form all the rentaining tenses 
of the indicative, and all the tenses of the conditional mood. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

PRESENT TENSE. 



« 
(( 
(( 
ts 
te 



Kis/ipin wdbam'uu&g ogwi.tsan, if I .•'ec his son, 

wdbam " if tlinn seest his son, 

waiandamawad ogin'fisiniwan, \{ ho sees his son, 

wdbam\ruanir\d offwissanA jf ...^ see his son, 
?m/>awimang " ■' 

icdhannmc}^, " if yon see his son, 

■jp«/>andama\va\vad ogiciHuiniwun, if they see his son. 
Kislqrin itylia/winiassiwag, oywisNan, if I dtjn't see his son, 
" «'d/«<wimassiwad " if thou dost not see 

his son, 
jpa/>andama\vassig o(/iri.st<iniw(tn, il" he does, not see 

his son, 
R'«7>a;/Hma^*si\vHngid nffwisnan, \ if we don't see 
«v«6a/wima8siwang " J his Mon, 

«'«6awnmasf<iweg " ifvou don't see his 



(( 



it 
ft 



itt 



son , 



ica&andamawassigwa oi/wissiniican, if tlicy don't 
see his son. 

I'LUPEBFECT TENSE. 

Vy«6rtWMmngil»an ossaieian, had I seen his brother, 
wdhain'iumd'ihiin " hadst thou s. h. I>. 
M?a/>andamawapaji ossaieiniwan, had he seen his br. 
wrt/>«>winuingidiban ossaieian, > had we seen 
jrrf?>rtw<inuig«)ban " i his brother, 

'/r/?/>a/«inieg()ban " had yi»u seen his br. 

?r/t/>rtndamawawapan ossaieiniwan, luid they seen 

his brother, 

fFri/m/Himassiwagiban ossaieian, liad I not seen 

<p«6amimassiwadiban " hadst thou not seeu 

his brother, 









— 247 — 



liad you not seen 



waftandamawasHigoban ossaieiniican, )iad he not 

seen his brother, 
waftawnniassiwangidiban ossaitian, ^ had we not 
waftaH/inuiSrtiwangobau, " J seen his br. 

wdbam i ni ass i wegoba n * * 

his brother, 
waiandaniawasisigwaban ossaieiniwan ? Imd they 

not seen his brotlier? 

After these two tenses all the others are formed in the sub- 
junctive mood. 

Remark 1. You see in tliene Examples, that the syllable ini is 
inserted between the ho<iy of the verb and the terminations ; and 
this syllable indicates the report to a .second third jjerson in the 
sentence. 

Remark 2. The number makes no dlHereiice in these expres- 
sions. Nin wdbamiman (ujwissan, means, I see his fon, or, his 
sons. tcabandamawan odanan, means, he sees his daughter, 
or, his daughters. 

V. CONJUGATIOiV. 

Besides the transitive or active verbs animate, belonging to 
the preceding Conjugation, which all terminate iu a, there is an- 
other kind of these verbs, ending in nan, at the tirst person sing, 
indicative ; and likewise so at the third person. And these verl»s 
l>el()ng to this V. Conjugation. 

Here are some verbs of this Conjugaticiu. 



I. pei's. 

Nind ijanan, I go to him, or, f visit him, 

Nind atdwcnan, I sell him, 

Nind atdwangenan, I borrow him, 

Nin Modinan, I steal him, 

Nind apniimonan, I trust in him, 

Nin manitokenan, I adore him, [an idol,) 

Nind anokinan, I order it to l)e made, 

Nin budawenan, I burn it up tor tuel, 



3. jiers. 

od ijanan, 
od atawenan, 
od atnwawjcnan, 
o gi modi nan, 
od apenimonan, 
o manitokenan, 
od anokinan, 
bodawenan, 
17 



W 



;■ i/i1 



1' ■ ' 









u 



' 



\l 






I 



fj'i 



— 248 — 

Nind ashangenan, I give it for fooci, or as 

food, Oil ashangenan, 

Nin migiwenan, I give it away as a present, o migiwenan. 



AFFIRMATIVK FORM. 

INDICATIVE MOOD 

PRESENT TENSK. 

Singular. 
Nind apniimon&xx, I trust in him, 
kid apenimoxmu, 
od apenimonan, 
nind apoiimonun, 
kid apenimonawa, 

od apenimon&w'iiu, 

Plural 

Nind ajhuimowag:, I trust in them. 

kid apeniinonn.^^, 

od apeniinouau, 
nind ajpcniniounn, 

kid apenimoxMiwa}:, 
od oj^eniinouawixn, 

IMPF-UFI-CT TKN8E. 

Singular. 
Nind apenini'>na.haii,\ trusted in him, 
kid apeniinon&hau, 
od apeu/»(onalianin, 
nind aptuiinounuiihixu, 
kid apenimoinwAhan, 
od (i/>e;<///«>na\vulianin; 



NEGATIVE FORM. 



iaiciii 


Hsinan, 


i( 


Rg.inar , 


<( 


ssinan, 


<< 


ssimin, 


(( 


ssinawa. 


i< 


sisinawaii. 



Katrin ssinag. 





ssmag, 




ssinan, 




ssimin. 




sfiinawag. 




ssinawan . 



Kanu'n S8inahari, 



(< 



BHinaban, 

Hsinabanin, 

ssiua' min, 

ssintvvaban, 

" swinawabanin. 
Plural: 

Nind ajyi'niiaonahan'ig, 1 trusted in them, Kawin sf^inabanig, 

kid a/>e/JWonabanig, " spiuabanig, 

od a;>e/<///ionabanin, ** ssinabannin, 

iiind ape/t///t(>minabanig, " ssiniinabanig, 

kid. ajf>e»//«om\vabanig, ** ssimwabanig, 

«(/ apc'tmonawabauin, " ssiTiawabanin. 






— 249 — 
SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

rUliSEXT TENSE. 

Singnlar niui Plural. 

Apemmo'vdi\y because I trunt in liiin, (thein,i ssiwari, 

npenimomn, ssiwan, 

apeniinodf csig, 

(ipenimmanjiy "i liecause we ssiwang, 

(ipe}uind\o.ng, i trust . . . ssiwang, 

apenimoleg, Hsiweg, 

npenimowoni, usigwa. 

PI.UHIiKFECT TEN'SE. 

Singular and Plural. 

A2)enitnonunh{i\\, had I tr. in him, (them,) ssiwamhan, 

apinimn\iim\)a.n , 

apeiiimopun, 

ffpeHmoii*infril>an, "l had we 

apeni7m)'mu<^oha.u , ) truHled. 

f/;>e/</Moiegoban, 

apenimowiipiLU, 



ssi warn ban, 

p.'^igoban, 

ssiwangiban 

fjpiwangoban, 

ssiwegoban, 

Hsigwaban, 



rMrEKATivi::viooD. 

Singular and Plural. 
trust (thou) in 



|tr 
I hi 



Apeiiimou, 

apetiimokau, i liim, ithens) AV70 ken, 

a gad-apinemon&w, let liitn tr. in h. (them,) " Hsinan, 

apenimoda, let us tru.st In him, " Hsida, 

«|>c/jmodanig, let us trust in them, " ssidanig, 

apenimo'\o^, trust (you) in him, (them) " kegon, 

o gad-apenimonu,\vi\Uf lettheni tiMi.-st in him, 

(them,) '* flfiinawan. 









.'i: 



Mi if 



Vv:1 



250 — 



PARTICIPLES. 



in 



II 



ill 



PRESENT TENSE. 

Siufjular and PliiraL 

Nin epi'niKwmn, I who trust in him, 

(them,) Hsiwjin, 

kin €])('' nimnUin, thoti who truatost, 8siwan, 

win epenimoii, lie rtho tnusts*, ssig. 

Remavk. The verbs of tlie V. Ct»njnj:;ation cannot be fr^von in 
the Two Ca.seti l»_v them-^elves, l)ut only by the help of the follow- 
ing Rubstantiveawith {losses.sive pronouns, viz : iiiiiar, my body ; 
kiiaw, thy body ; viiaw, his (her^ Itody ; niitnriiiuniii, our bo- 
dies ; kiiawinani n, onr bodies; kiiairiirun, your bodies; wiia- 
»r?wa«, their bodies ; which are employed to express the perso- 
nal pronouns, I, me; he, she, it, him, lier ; we, us; you, ye; 
they, them. In the " Examples on the V. Conju^xation," nn.i 
" on the V. Dubitative Conjuj^Mtion," you will lind several which 
contain the above words, by which, as you will see, the " Two 
Cases" are expressed, d . . . thee; thou . . . me.) Tiiese expres- 
.sions are so mitural to the Otchipwe laniruuj^e, that they are 
correctly applied even to the Lord (jlod, who has no body; be- 
cause they stand for the personal pronouns, and are not used 
with the intention to signify a nn^terial body. 

Here follow some Examples illustrating the use of the above 
surrogates of personal pronouns. 

Mi aw inini hcmitod niiaw ; {mi aw inini bcmiid, nin iciditjema- 
yan.) This is the man that takes care of me, (my husband.) 

Ninjiiwendan niiaw ; {ninjawenin(iis.\ I have pity on myself. 

Kis/ipin tnalchi ijiwcbiftiian, nin kikemJnn jingcndnman niiaw; 
ijinfjenindisoii'in.) Jf I behave bad, T know that I liate myself. 

O gi-niton wiiaiv t/a-apifrh-ka.thkendaH;/ ; yi-nissidiso.) He was 
so sad, that he killed himself. 

Jesns o ffi-kitim/lijitnn iciiaw, kinawind ondji ; {<ji-kitimCnjiidiiSO.) 
Jesus iiiade himself poor for our sake. 






— 251 — 



Aw oshk'innwe o nv'no tlodan wiiaw nn'no yitrebisid ; imino do- 
daso.) TliiH yoiinjr iiinn does jrood to huuf^eir in l>eliavinj^ well. 

Nin vi-mhio-(/anau'enda»iin itiiauununin ichi-batn-ijiicchishsi- 
icfituj ; {Ilia ici-inino-t/anaweiandisoinin.) We will take well 
care of ourselven, that we may not win ; (the person H|X)l<en to, 
uof included.) 

A7 haiiadjitntnin Ixiinirhianhi, kia/iju'ii hahamendansiirauff ana- 
mieu'hi; {ki hanudjiidisomiu. We ruin i injure) ourselves, if 
we don't care for religion ; ithe person spoken to, included.) 

Enamiaiet/, irewtni ijanmrendamfnj kiiairiwan. trhi malchi ijiwe- 
hisisftiire;/ ; (weircni (/andweiiiiidisttioij., Christians, take well 
care of yourselves, in order not to hehave hud. 

Enamiansiicef/, J(iireiidam()(f Ixiiawinuin ; (Jaireiiindisot/ ;] kajige 
kitatjiiowiniiKj kid (ijXKjitondirufi kiiawiwan, kis/ipin jingen- 
damej/ anatnieit'in ; ikid apaidifiom.) Pii^'uns, have mercy on 
yourselves ; you are precipitating yourselves into eternal nn- 
sery, if you hate religion. 

Osa7n nibiica irassiiiidji(/ od ako.sifnnaicdii wiiairiiran ; iakosii- 
disowcuj.) Those that eat too much, nuike themselves sick. 

Nind inaif abinoyjiiiuj tchi biniiownd iriimciwan, tchi bwa bi- 
ijairad kikinoamadinf/, {tchi biniidisoicnd. I tell the children 
to clean themselves hefore they come to school. 

EXAMPLES ON' THE V. COXJIOATIGN. 

Oebenjiged nind apoiimomiii, kaivin bektininid awiia niiul apeni- 
mossimin. We trust in the Lord, we don't trust in any other. 

Aiiisfiindbec/ na kid ijancuj ? Kairiii nniujom nind ija.ssinaff ; W'e- 
mitiyoji aiakosid nind ifjdnan. Dost thou go to see the Indians ? 
No, I don't go to see then) to-day ; 1 go to a sick Frenchman. 

Aic kwiicisens naningim o bi-ginwdiaan minhiniinan. That boy 
comes often liere to steal apples. 

Waieshkai naningim nind ijdnnbanig ani.shindbeg, anamiexoin 
gi-kikinoamawagica. In the beginning I went often to the In- 
dians ; I taught them to say prayers. 

Kabe-bibon kawin kid ijassimwdbanig kid inaicemaganiwag ki- 
tchi odenang. All winter you did not go to see your relations 
in the c'ty. 



■ I 



■ ! H 



i.f '] 



M 



f i 






I 



is i 



ill 



— 252 — 

Juda gi-atdwenan Jesusan, inssriniilnita dunnicnbik joniian //i- 
minnawenimad. Jiulnh 1ms hoKI Jesus, bt'cuuse lie lias covet- 
ed the tliirty pieces of silver. 

Anishiadhey cnamidsxiijoij o <ii-<pinndinawaii ahinndjiian ode- 
nang. Some pagan Indiuiis have stolen a child it) the village. 

Ki (ji-bCtdawcuinj na naha<jii<Ha<fini>«iii oma ffa-abidjit/ ? Kavnn niu 
gi-bndawexuhmy. Hast thou hurnt up the little boards that 
were here? No, 1 havcj not hurnt them up. 

Ki mimocnddm na, Kia ,'iiaweni(i(/(iiiiir(i!/ ijait^n nongoin ? Are 
you glad to go on a visit to your relations to-day? 

Kiahpin vri-atnwex.sitvaii pakioejif/aii , mi go (jaic nin fchi wi-ata- 
wessiiodn. If thou dost not want to sell any tlo»ir, then V don't 
want to sell any. 

Ki (fi-Jaweniin<t(j iijiw etKnnindJiif, Debeiidjigeidn, kin eia gi-ape- 
ninwwad kiiair. Thou hast had mercy on these Christians, 
O Lord, because they have trusted in Thee alone. 

Kawin ki gi-mino-dodansi gi-ijussiiran iiiekafewikwanaie, Pak gi- 
odjitchisseg. Thou hast not done right that thou hast not 
gone to the Missionary at Kaster, (in the Easter-time.) 

AiauHiugesfiiwdmbanjrbd yntkirejii/dii, kairin nongoin ki da-amo- 
assi ; kawin aiciia pukircjigaii kid aiairan.siiranan. If I had 
not borrowed thi.s morning some llour, thou wouldst uot eat 
bread now; we have no flour. 

Debendjiged ki Kije-Maniiom eta cnigokodeeian apcnimon, kego 
dash gwetr/i airiia bemddixid apeninudyfu. Trust in the i^ord 
thy (lod only from all thy heart, but don't trust much in any- 
body living on earth. 

Ijdkan aw aiakosid iniiii,Ja'cenim, gegvt kiiclii kotagito. Go to 
that sick man, be charitable to him, he suffers much indeed. 

gad-atawenan od opwdganan, kego dash o moshwemau o gad- 
afdwessinan ; nind ina aw aiiishiudbe. I say to that Indian 
thus : Let him sell his pipe, but let him not sell his handker- 
chief. 

Ijdddnig anishindbeg awi-gagikimangwa ; kego dash aiawe 
winini nongom ijassida. Let us go to the Indians to preach 
to them, (to exhort them,) but let us not go to-day to the 
trader. 



— 253 — 



EninhiiMbewiie(f, ketjo fjimodikegon npiniij kitiijaniinj ; ki f/ad- 
animisim. Ye, Indians, don't steal potatoea in the Held; you 
will be puninhed for it. 

0;/ad-onhanijenawan knkoshan, pakipejii/nnan ijahi. Let them 
give pork and tlour, (for food, not for sale, etiM 

Kawin irika lu'n (ja-iraueniinatisi)/ epcin'modjiif niiair, kat/ini;/ niu 
ga-widokdwa(j ; ikkitn Dehcniminani/. I will never forji;et tiiose 
who trust in me, I will always assist tliem, saith ihe Lord. 

Epi'nhnod anixhimihen, naninf/hn tcnirjinia, Kijotianitnn dash 
apenh))od, ka icika iraieJhnasNi. He that trusts in man, is 
often deceived ; hut he that trusts in (lod, is never deceived. 

Apitchi malrhi dodam air ma.v'nUr/iif/anan mcuitnked. Enarni- 
as.ntjotj mi ujiw vtenHnkedjhj maninitchujanan. He that adores 
an image, (idol,) does exceedingly wrong. Pagans (heathen) 
are those who adore images, (idols.) 



V. DUBITATIVE CONJUGATION. 



AFFIRMATIVK FOR.M. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

I'KKSEXT TEXSK. 

Shojular. 
Nitid apenimona,do}i,\ triist [)erhaps in 



XE(JATIVE FORM 



him, 
kid apeniiitoundog, 
nd apenimoimdogcnan, 
iiind. apenem (nn'iuado}!,, 
kid apenimounyadog, 
od «^>t'«//Honawadogenan , 

Plural 
Nind apenimon&dogenat^, I trust per- 
liaps in then), 
kid apeni momidogen&g, 
od apenimonadogQn&n, 
nind rt;>e»mominadogenag, 
kid ap€idmo\uw&dogena.g, 
od apemmonawadogenan, 



Kawin ssinadog. 






ssinadog, 
ssinadogenan, 
ssiminadog, 
ssimwadog. 



ssinawaiJogenan. 



Kaioiii ssinadogenag, 
" ssinadogenag, 
ssinadogenan, 
ssiminadogenag, 
ssimwadogenag, 
ssinawadogenan. 






■ 1^ 



hi i 






8! I "I 



_ 254 — 

Tlie^x'r/^r/ tense is formed l»y prefixing t/i- to the verb, as r 
Nin yi-apemmonadoij. . . . 

IMA'I'KRFECT TKN8E. 

Singular x\\u\ Plural. 

Gonima gi-apemmow\\\n\m\\, I had perlinps 

triiHted in him, (them,) Kawin ssiwaniban, 
" (ji-apenirnowamhtin, , '* Hsivvnmban, 

** tji-apenhno^^oh&n, 

[li-apenimo\\\o\\iin\i.\ha.r\, y we 
<//-a/>c///mo\van<j:ol lan , 
<ji-apenimo\se\io\)a.n, 
gi-apeniinogwahaii, 



a 

<< 

(< 
(( 



r' 






flf<igoban, 

ssiwangiban, 

ssiwangoban, 

ssiwegoban, 

HHigwaban. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

l-REHEXT TENSE. 

Singular and Plural. 
Epe7iiino\vdnen, that I perliap« trust in him, 



(them,) 



epcnimowanon, 
epenhnogwon, 
€/>enmtf>wangen, \ 
epenimowangen, > 
epenimowegwon, ) 
epemtnowagwcu, 



ssiwAnen, 

ssiwanen, 

ssigwen, 

Hsiwanjren, 

ssiwangen, 

psiwegwen, 

Hsiwagwen, 



PARTICIPLES. 



PRESKNT TENSE. 

Shujular and Plural. 

Nin epe/J?;«owanen,I who perhaps tru.st in him, (them,) 
A-JH epcMtwowanen, thou who perhaps tr. . . . 
win epenimogwen, he who perhaps tr. . . . 
ninawind epenimowkngen, ^ we who perhaps trust in him, 
kinawind epemmowangen, J (them,) 



— 255 — 



h'nnwa epenimowocj^weu, yon who pcrhnp.'* tr. . . 
icinawa epenhna}iwcua}i, tlicy wlio porhnpH tr. . . . 

Nin epenimosf^'iw&wen, I wlio porlmps do not tr. . . . 

kin «;>f''«/mossi\vanon, thou wlio . . . 

win epenimo^n'i'^weu, 

' <" ' V we wiio porlinpH do not . . . 

kindicina t7>t'«//woftHuvan<;en, i 

kinawa epeni moHHiwo^weu, 

ivinauHt epenhnoaau^weufiti, 

IMl'KRFECT TENSE. 

Siiii/iihir and Plural. 

Nin q)enimn\\im\\»'incn, I who perhaps truHtod in him, 

(them,) 
kin ep('nimowa\\\\)An(}\\, tlum who . . . 
win epeni mogo\tiiuvn , 
ninawind epenimnwii njri hanen , 
kind wind epcniinowanp^o\>tincu 
kinawa epeniinowvfiohaneu , 
winawa epenimo>iohixnenag. 



"'|we... 
n, ) 



S1 



EXAMl'LKS ON TUE V. DIBITATIVK CONJUUATION. 

Kdti'in Kije-Maniton od apeninwssinadnf/erian, mi apiichiwendji- 
siyisid. He doe.'< prohaldy not put hi." tru-^t in God ; that is 
the reason he fears .•^o much. 

Kawin abinsiivai/ ; anishindhen od ijanawadoijenan. They are 
not at home ; they probahly are visitinfT tlie Indians, (on a 
visit to the Indians.) 

Kid apenimomwadoy niiaw, ininiwidoy, mi ganahatrJi wendji- 
naKikavnieg nonyom. Men, I suppose you ph'.ee your confi- 
dence in me ; that is perhajw the reason you come to me to-day. 

Kid inawemaganay ki (fi-ijdnadogenaf/pifrhindgo ; kawin sakabe^ 
gijiy ki gi-wabamissinon. Thou hast probably been to see 
thy relations yesterday ; so I did not see thee all day. 



Ih 



ftil 



Tnr 



IT 






— 260 — 

Aic onhkinawe osnm o (/i-dpeniinonailni/cnan, knkiiin'yci/o anisha 
tchi oH(linama(jod kawln dash (/i-nnokinsi. Tluit yonnj^ fellow 
relied |)erluipM too much uii him, that he woiiM let him have 
all things lor iiothiiijr ; and «o !;e did not work. 

Endoi/iren aw inini epenhnoifireu niiatP ; kawin tjwaiak niii kike- 
nimiijosni. I douht whether that man has any confidence in 
me ; he does not know me well. 

NantdndJ rjifr/ii</('ifin'ii, ijn</ireii ofi.snn, ijoiii .>.. r/aie ejassiywen. 
I don't know what he is doing, and whether he goe.s to his 
father, or not. 

Kiitiiwa ketcln-apenim()we<j\rrn ui'hiir, ireyouni <n'-iji-ii<iHhkitn- 
ttyhnh(hien ichi d()dona(/o(f 'f You who liave perhaps niueh 
eonlidenee in nu*, what would I he ahle to do for you ? 
. Kin (ti\1f)it(\ii-a}>niininw(iiicn (tir inini, ki ifii-kitr/iiwairjimifjo 



HI HI, 



i/iitin</. 



Jiou w 



ho t 



rustest so mucii in 



that 



man, ma 



1 



heard,) thou shall he once much deceived. 
Kiiuiira ('Jfiiceifiren mojajf aidkofiidjiij, ki {/u-i<iireninii;fnina Ji'xn.s 
dibalcuni<i('-(jiji<i(tk, ki.s/ipin n-in u'endji-dodamcij. You who 
visit t'retpu'ntly tlu' sick, (as I umlerstood,! .Icmuh will l»e mer- 
ciful to you on the day itfjudgnicnt. if yon do it for hi.s sake. 



■ 


1^ 


1 


, 111 

■ 


1 


* 


B 




^B 





VI. CONMICATIOX. 

To this Conjugation helong all the verhs tn(nnitiri' or (tclitu:^ 
INANIMATK. The oliject, upon which acts the snhject of these 
verhs, is always compriseil in the verh; as: Niu U'ah(in<ldn, does 
not mean only, I see; hut, I see it, (sonje inanimate ohject. See 
page 11.) 

All the verhs of this Conjugation end in //, {an, en, in, on,) at 
the first person fing. |iresent, indicative ; and likewise so at the 
characteristical Ihird jjerson. 

Here are a few verhs hclonging to this Conjugation. 



1. perx. 

Nin drhicctdn, I helievo it, 
Nin kik^nddn, I know it, 
Nin ininikwi'n, I drink it, 



;{. peri<. 

o deb wet an, 
o kikenddn, 
o minikweiit 






. ,1 ' 



v« 



od apandjiijeuy 
o muijiu, 
od (it/irin , 
o hidoH, 
o biliin. 



— 257 — 

Nind apundjhjen, 1 cat it with some other 

thing, 
Mn mldjin, I cat it, (some in. ohj.,) 
Nind (kjhhh, I put it on, (clothing,) 
Ain hidoii, I bring it, 
Mn In ton, I wait lor it, 

NoU:. In tiic panuUgnj, thin Hiuil n is placed among the termi- 
nations, because it docf* not always remain with tlie verl). 

AFFIUMATIVFJ FOUM. XEUATlVi: lOllM. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

IMIKSENT TKKSK. 

Siniiulnr. 

Nin w/ilmnddu, I pee it, 

ki tPilltnndiln 

o ir/ilxind/fu, 

irnhiiinhhix, tiicy wee it, (on ic voit,) 

one beew it, 
nin ivalxnKtt'muu, 

ki irnh(tnd(hm\v&, 

o irubanddiiiiWix, 

Phmil. 

Nin ivdhandthmn, I see them, {in, obj.) 
ki wafmnddimn, 
o icdlxinduiuiu, 
nin iriVntndihnin, 
ki irdliand/iuiiwun, 
o ivdbandduiiwnn, 

IMl'KUl'KCT TKX8E. 

Sintjnlar. 

Nin trulxi nd dmi\»\n, I saw it, 

ki n^fifninilduahau, 

o uuVninddufx\tiiU, 
nin »/v{/>r//*'AMninaban, 

ki vidlKinddi\ii\v>i\)iui , 
UHiband (iutiwuhfiu, 



htnrin 


n.-iin, 


(( 


nsin. 


« 


nsin, 


(> 


nnim. 


« 


iiHimin, 


(( 


nsinawa. 


(( 


iiHinawa. 



Kawin nflinan, 



<( 


nsinan, 


a 


nRinan, 


t( 


UHimin, 


(< 


n^iiiuwun, 


it 

t 


nsinawan. 



Ktiirin nsinuban, 
*' nsinaban, 
nHinal)an, 
itpiminaban, 
nsiniiwaban, 
nsinawaban. 



<< 



m 



V:l 



rk 






, 1 '- 



!■! ' 



I 



— 258 — 



Plural. 



Nin tviibandfin&ha.mn, I saw tliein, 

cltjt'cts,) 
Art wdbanddna.ha,mn, 
o wuhaiKhlnahanin, 
nin wdbanddminahiiixm 
hi wdhanddnvi\\a\)a.v\'\\\ , 
tt'afean^/atuvvvabanin, 



[in. 



KaiHn nsinabanin. 






SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

PRESENT TENSE. 

Singnlar and Pfural. 

Wdbanddmiin, Ijecause I see it, (them,) 

wdhanddmviw, 

wdbanddng, 

wdbmidduv *, (qu'on le (les) voie,) 

wdbanddmkng, ' ") Itecauso we see it, 

wdbanddmnng, i (them,) 

wdbandd\ni.'g, 

wdbandd\now&d, 

I'LUPERFECT TENSE. 



liimjiilar ami Pfural. 

Wdba7iddummha,n, t had I (seen it, (th.) 
wdbandd\iui\\\\nin, 
wdbanddf\^\ha.i\, 

wdbanduuuwg'xhan, (si on I'eut vu,) 
wdbanddnmuiriUu, | ,^^^, ^^^ _ 
wdbanddm&ngoh&n, i 
wdbanddmv roban, 
w«6ttn<iamowapan , 



nsinabanin, 

nsinabanin, 

nsiminabanin, 

nsinawabanin, 

nsinawabanin. 



nsiwan, 

n si wan, 

nMig, 

nsing, 

nsiwang, 

nsiwang, 

nisiweg, 

nsigwa. 



nsiwamban, 

nsiwamban, 

nsigoban, 

neingiban, 

nsiwongiban, 

nsiwangoban, 

nsiwegoban, 

nsigwaban. 



• See Kemark 3. p. 42. 
t See ieemarA- 3, p. 110. 



\im 



— 259 — 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



j- see it, (tliem,) Ke(jo ngen, 



*< 


nam, 


(< 


nflinan, 


ii 


naida, 




ii^egon, 


*• 


nsiimwa, 


(( 


DHiiiawan 



Wdbandmx 

wdhandnvndkviWi 
o (ja-ioubanddu, let him see it, 
o ga-wnhandiinixu, let him see tliem, 

tcfihdiHh'inda., lot lis aeeit, (them,) 

wabnndamo^^, see it, (tliem,) 
o ga-wubnnddnawa, let them see it, 
A ga-wabandui\siwi\u, let them see them, 

PARTICIPLES. 

PRESEXT TKXSK. 



Nin icaidbandauniv.f I wlio 8ce it, (them,i 
kin wmt'ibdiufitximn, thoii who seest it, (tliem, 
win wuiabnndau}!,, he who sees it, (them,) 
waiabandauxiug, (ce qtie I'on voit,) 

"' V we who see it, (them 
A'inawind wainb(ind<t\ui\n*^, ) 

kinawa waiabnndaiwoi^, yuii who see it, (thein,) 

winawa waiabandaugi}^, they who see it, (them,) 

Nin ^roiabauilanf*\\vi\n,l who do not see it, (them,) 
kin vaiabnndawf'xwau , thou who dost not . . . 
liemavk 1. The verh, nin(l aidn, I have it, makes an exception 

i'lum the above parndij^m in the /A/jv/ pt»rson8 of the subjunctive 

mood and the participles ; as tollows ; 



,) 



AFFIRMATIVK FORM. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

TRKSKNT TKX.SE. 

Siuffuhir and Plnval. 

Aind, because he has it, (them,) 
aidng, becauee one has it, 
flTtVtwad, becau.se they have it, 



XEU.VTIVK roKM^. 



'K 

•: ■ 

•' ^ \ 

■ '■••I 



Hi 



swing, 
ssigwa. 



f 



— 200 — 

PLUPEBFKCT TENSE. 

Sin(/ular ami Plural. 

Aidpan, had lie had it, (them,) 
atawapun, hud they, . . . 

PARTICIPLES. 



ssinoban, 
.saigwaban, 



IMIESKNT TENSE. 



Sintfuldi' and Plural. 

Ei('u\, who has it, (thcni,) 
e/«djig, who have it, (them,) 



mgog. 



1MI'EKFE(T TKNSE. 

S'ligular ami Plural. 

AVftpan, who had it, (them,) H«igohan, 

r/upuikig, who had it, (them,) Hsigobariig. 

liemark 2. All the verbH of this ('onjugation, ending in /In, are 
exactly conjiiguted after the jjreceding paradigm, Nin icdhandnii. 
But the verlw ending in en, in, and on, undergo a little diHe- 
rence in some moodH and tenses. We shell point out here this 
tlilVerenee. The moods and teuHes which are not mentioned in 
the following paradigm, are conformable to the above paradigm, 
Nin loiibanddn. 

We take the verb, Kin unyiton, I like it, fur an example ; but 
the verbs in en, ond in, are conjugated exactly like those in on 

In the AFKiUMATiVK form the whole indicatirt mood ot Nin sd- 
<liton, is exactly conjugated as in Nin wdbanddn. 

Hut in the ni;(iative form you have to rememl>er, that in the 
terminations of thi*> lorm, the lettere «.v in the preceding para- 
digm, are always changed into .f.y, for the verbs in en, in and on. 
So, for instance, you say : Kawin nin ttfibandmmw ; <'hange thiM 
«« in ."»», for the verb, Nin ndf/ilon, and you will have : Kairin 
nin sdgHo»»'\n. And so on. alway.^ changing nx into xs. TUit* is 
the only ^ dirterence between Nin irdbanddn and Nin siigi- 



Mii 



- 261 — 



tmifdc, for thi: whole inilirnlire moinl. But in tlio sufijunctu'e 
in(»0(l there i« moimc more ilirtcrt'imncc, us you soo here lu'Iow. 

AKI-'IRMATIVE FORM. NK(}ATIVF. KOIIM. 

srii.nixcTrvKMooi). 

PRKSK.VT TKNSK. 

Singular antl Plural. 
S(l(/ilo'uvi, hocause I like it, (them,) /n.ohjectH, spiwnn, 



ttdtfito'iiiu, 

Stu/itoui^, iqu'ou I'aiine,) 



f;} 



sntjitoivfi, 
ttilifitowailf 

I'LUPKUFKCT TKXSK. 

Siiofulur uiiil i'ln.uL 

SatiU(>'u\\\\\*i\\i, hu'I I like it, (them.) 

j(r?f///'>iamhaii, 

«%<7o|>aii,, 

.v«(//7onHihaii, (si on I'eut aiim'',) 

.vrf(;/Minnphan, | j^^d we . . . 
«rtf/?7f*uivi<ronan. * 
.v<t///7oiegohan, 

JMPKRATIVK MOOD. 

Sdi/ii'on, » ... , , 
.■ ., , > nke it, (them.) 

o (fa-Sfhjitow, let liim like it, 

n i/wxai/itoiuiiy, let him liUc them, 

Mtftfifoda, let us like if, (them,) 

j*«»//7oiog, ■> .... 

.^;/.7og, } l«l<« '^ (tl'em,) 

»> ,r/a-.v(<//<7<«nawa, let them like it, 

«> .7a-«%j7</!»awRn, let them likt* th«'m. 



HHlWai), 

Hsig, 

HKing, 

88i\vAn<r, 

Rfliwung, 

88iwi'^, 
Hsi^^Wil 



p.'*i\v;'iml>an, 

ssiwamhaii, 

ssi^ohari, 

swinj^ihun, 

Hsiwaii^'iburi, 

HHiwaii<j;ol»ati, 

s.siwefrohaii, 

s.ii^walir.u. 

keyo ken, 

** hh\u, 
*• sninan, 
*• s^iflu. 



kefron, 

Hfiiiiawa, 
HHiriawan. 



-K 






: l:., 



rVJ 



"' ,1" 



!,>, 

■•i^-! 



J 



— 262 



PARTICIPLES. 



11 Ml 

:1 



Nin 
kin 
win 

ninawind 

kinawind 

kinawa 

winawa 

Nin 

kin 

win 

ninawind 

kinawind 

kinawa 

ioinawa 



PRESKNT TENSK. 

Singular and Plural. 

naiagitn'mn, I who like it, (tlicm,) 
saiayitoxan, thou w)to Ukest it, ithoni,) 
saia<jito*\, he wlio likes it, (tlieiii,) 
naiagitong, wlmt one likes, 
saiagitoiHug,^ , ,., • 

saiagitomug, | ^^'^ ''^'^ '''^^ '*' <^^^'"') 
saiagitoieg, you who li'-'e it, (them,) 
saiagitndyxgy they wlio ike it, (them.) 
saiagito>ii*'\wi\n,l who don't like it, (them,) 
saiagitosniwau, thou who dost not like . . ■ 
.v</my//oHMig, lie who does not like it, (them,) 



naiagifoAHiwiiug, ■\ 
fidiagiioHfi'wviing, / 



we who don't 



.saiagHi)fifi\\\vg, you who don't like, 
iiaiagit(niti)go}i, they who . . . 



IMPERFECT TENSE. 



i 



Singular and Plural. 

Ntn saiagitouiinimn, I who liked it, ithem,) 

kin ,saiagitoiuin\>mi, thou who likedHt it, (them,) 

win 8aiagito\M.u, he who . . . 

aaiagiiouftihau, (ce qu'on aimait,) 

ninawind saia<fifo'u\ug\han, •) , ,., , 

I . .J • ' -J • u > we who liked . . . 

kmawmd ;taiagifo\nugobau , j 

kinawa saiagiioicgoh&n, you who liked . . . 

winawa naiagitopmug, they who . . . 

Nin J}a/a7(7f>(*siwamban, I who did not like it, (them,) 
Arm satayt'/oHsiwamhan, thou who didst not like . . . 
win naiagitoHsigohau, he who did not . . . 
.faitf</i/o88ingiban, what one did not like, 



— 263 



ninawind sniaifitoafiiw AugiUn, j ^^.^ ^^.j^^ ^^|^j ^q^ 
kinaipind saiagiioHs'wv&ngohan, i 

kinawa saiaffiioss'wvenohAn, you who did . . . 

winawa .wmy/ZoHHigohanig, thoy who . . . 

Form ftfler these two tenses all the otliers oftheae participles. 
Exactly as the vcrh, Nin stiffiton, arc conjugatt'd the verbs 
which we ca\\ personifijiiuj. (See page HI.) They all end in on. 
These verbs person i/'i/ inanimate things, that is to ."ay, they re- 
prciHent them as doing actions, which only persons or other liv- 
ing beings can do. F. i. 

Kid ikkitowin nin nihwdkaigon. Thy word makes me wise. 
Anamiewin nin t/inaamat/on matcki dodamowin. Religion for- 
bids me bad actions. 
Kitc.hi akosin'in ki (ji-odissigomin. A great sickness has come 

to us, (has visiteil us.) 
Nifam hatddowin kakinti anishindheg o gi-iniijaigonawa. The 
first sin has injured all men, (all mankind.) 
Here are some inoo<ls and tenses of these verbs, only exempli 
gratia. 



AFKI" 



KOR.M. NKOATIVE KOR.M. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 



^1 



.1 




t 1, 







PKKSKXT TENSK. 


. 








Sin 


ijular. 






Nind odissii/on, 


it comes 


to me, 


Kawin 


sain, 


kid odissit/on, 


(< 


(( 


" thee, 


<( 


ssin. 


od odis.siyon, 


« 


(( 


" him, 


(( 


ssin, 


nind odissij/oimu. 


(< 


(( 


«' us, 


(< 


ssimin, 


kid odis.sigouawii, 


(( 


(( 


" you. 


<( 


ssinawu, 


od o(/j»s/</onawa. 


t< 


(( 


" them. 


(< 


ssinawa. 



Plural. 
Nind odiasigon&Uy they come to me, 
[in. obj.) 
kid odissigonai}, they come to thee, 
od odissigoimu, " " " him, 



Katcin ssinan, 
** ssinan, 
" ssinan, 






.1 



18 



' 



il 



— 264 — 



nind of/m/;/oniiii, they come to us, Kawin sfiiniin, 
kid odinfiij/ouiiwau, " " " you, '* SHiiiawan 
od odissi(joua,wau, " " *' them, " ssinavvan. 



IMI'KRKKCT TKNSK. 

Siiif/iilar, 



Hind odissiifinmhan, 
kid odin.iii/nt i ii I »a ti , 
od odis,si;fonii\ni\> ' '* 
nind od issij/nunuuinm , etc 
kid odin.sitfonuwiihiui , 
od odissiyoimwahiu, 



It came to me, 

'* " " thee, 

' " " him. 



Kawin m'iu&hnu, 
Hsiiiahan, 
Hsiuahaii, 
ssimiiiaban^ 
ssiiiawaban,, 
Huinawabuti. 



<< 
<( 
■< 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



!!li 



'! Ittf 



odissi(/o'mu, if it '* 

odisnii/oi\, if it •' 

odinsiyo'uXug,^ . 
,. . . > it It " 

odixsiyoieg, if it "' 

odisnitjowml, if it ** 

Etc. 



I' UK si; .NT TK.N'SK. 




Simjular 


and Plural. 




es (they come) to me, 


681 wan. 


(< 


to thee, 


ssiwan. 


(< 


to him. 


HHlf, 


(( 


to us, 


ssiwHiifr, 
e.aiwang. 


(( 


to you, 


ssiweg. 


<( 


to tliem, 


ssigwa. 


. . Etc. 


• • 





PAltTICIPLES. 



I'KKSKXT TKNflK. 



Nin wedissi(/o\au, I to whom it comes, (they conie,> 
kin wedissiyo'mn, thou to whom . . . 
win wedissiijod, he to whom . . . 
ninawind wedissigo'i&ng, -» 
kinatoind tccdissigoiaug, | '''^ ^^ ^^»^'» ' • ' 
kinama wedissi</o\eg, you . . . 
winawa wedissigodygy they . . . 



— 2G5 — 



I'KKSK.NT TKXSE. 



Nin treilisniifnsu'wyuu, I to whom it does (tlioy do) not come, 
kin u'cdi.stiiij6sti\\vi\u, thou . . . 
iriii irvtlis.sii/oHtih^, he . . . 

7n'natciii(l M'(v//.«<.v/«/o.-iHi\vaiii?, ■» 

I . .1 J. . • > we ... » 

ktnaiciiid u'cahisHjin^mwiiU'^, j 

kiiniicu iceiliiisi(/o>»i\vv>r, you . . . 

winaica M"C(//.'<.v/(/ossigog, they . . . 

Etc . . , etc . . . 

Example.1. 

1 per.t. pa.i.<i voice, persntiiJ'yiiKj verbs. 

A7/t lOiihamiijo, I am seen, niii wnbamiijnn, it sees me. 

Kin nixsitjo, I uiii killed, nin ni.itii</on, it kills me. 

AV« yanonigo, I urn spoken to, nin ganonignn, it speaks to me. 

Nin nia/ikititiijo, I unt made angry, nin nislikiniiyon, it makes 
me angry. 

Nin sCuiiiijo, I am luveil, nin sf7ijii<jnn, it loves me. 

Nin nupinaniijo, I am followed, nin nopinanit/on, it follows me. 

A'mr/ amcenimiyo, I am reproached, nind uniceniinit/on, it re- 
proaches me. 

Ninjin;/^nimi(jo, I am hated, ninjin<j4nimiijnn, it hates me. 

Nin kikcnimi;/n, I am known, nin kikeniini<joi^ it knows nie. 
Etc . . . etc . . . 

Vr. DUBITATIVE CONJUGATION. 



AFFIRMATIVE KOUM. 



NEGATIVE FORM. 







INDICATIVE MOOD. 



PUE.SENT TEXSE. 

Singular. 

Nin w{ibandan(n\og, I see it perhap.^, 

ki wabandanai\o<^, 

o icdbandanadog, 
nin tc«6«H(?aminadog, 

ki wabandanvLwadog, 
wdbandauiiw&doi 



Kaicin nsinadog, 
nsinadog, 
nsinadog, 
nsiminadog, 
nsino'vttdog. 



^b> 



i( 
(( 
(( 
(( 
(( 



nsinawadog. 



"*■ . l'^ 



I 



— 2r>6 — 



Plural. 



Hin w/lbandantniojTcnnu, 1 see them perhaps 
(in. ohjectfl,; Kair 

ki wdbanfhi\ui(\o<:^cutii\ , 

o wdbaiuluuiido^vnau, 
nin wuhamlmn'wMulojivn&u , 

ki M'^/>am/«im\va(l(t;reiiaii, 

o iDaban<hinii\vado}!:ouan , 



n naina<loj»ennn, 
iiHiiiado^onai), 
nsiiiatlogenan, 
nsiininadogenan, 
iHiiiavvaiiogeiiaii, 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

PRESENT TEX8K. 

Waiabaiidamowuncu, * whether I see it, 

(them,) 
ipaiabaiKhnnowawcu , 
waiubaniht\nof,wcn, 
waiabduddmowtiUji^on , •» 
waiabandnmosuxuiTouA ^vhether we . . . 
waiabdiKhnnowQ'^WL'u, 
Mjata6autZ(tmo\vag\veii , 

« IM.ll'ERFECT TKNSK. 

H^c<ftaHr/aino\viliiil>aiien, if I had seen it, 

(them,) 
W(^6rtnr^miowainhaiien , 
ica/>n/i</<Mnogobanen , 
wrt/mnrfamowangihanen, -j 
wdbandmwow&nffohixneD,) 
wdbandauiOwego\>ane.x\ , 
^oubanda\lH')\\'^\^oh&uou, 



if we had 



nsinawadogenaii. 



iiHiwAnen, 
nsiwanei), 
nsigwen, 

nsiwangeii, 
UHiwangeii, 
Msiwegwt'ii, 
Msiwaguen. 



nsi\vaml»aiien, 

nsiwamhanen, 

n.'-ig»)i>anoii, 

nsiwaiigilianen, 

n.siwangohaiien, 

nsiwegohaiien, 

jisiwagohanen, 



Form the yi(<j(»'e tense alter the present; as: G e-wdbandamch 
wunen . . . 



* Bee Semaik nt th' "mi orihitj paradigm. 



1 ;i 
I' 



— 2Cu 



PARTICIPLES. 



PUESEST TENSK. 

Nin W(ii(ihninhm\o\\i\neu, I who ptThaps see it, (thein,t 
kin wahil>an*limiowtiuvu, thou who . . . 
iptn iPnitih(in(lau\o}i\vpny 

i», r 

kinawa waiabon(l(iuiowe}i\\(.'n, 
uunawa jru/aiam/amoj^wenag. 



ninawiiKl tcdiabointamowiiugeny 
kinawiiul W(ii>ih(tn«ltiUHt\va.nfi,e 



we who j>erhap8 see 



PRESENT TENSE. 

Nil! }rai(ihan(lau8\v,i\ucn, I who p. ilon't see it, (theru,)« 

kin icuiuhandauf^'nvnueu, thou who p. . . 

«'/u waiubanil(iim}i^w{:u , 

ninawind era/diam/ansiwaiijion, •» 

, . .J • I 1 ■ > we who p . , . 

kinaica icaiahandanaiwei^wcu , 

winawa icaiabandaus'igweuug. , 

t 

IMPERFECT TENSE. 

Kin waiabundamo\\^M\hQ.\\o\\y I who pcrli. saw it, (them,). 
kin it'«/«/>rtU(/au)owaml)aiien, thou wlio p . . . 
win fOflia6tt/it?aniogoltanen , 
ninawind j/v/m/>a/tc/fnnowangihanen, ■» 
kinawind waiabandmno\\a.wgoha,\wn, / 
kinaxca waiabandamowQgohawQu , 
winawa waiabandamogohanenag, 

Nin tpam^anrfaiisiwambanen, I who did perhaps not see it^ 

(theni,) 
kin icaiabandansiwaxuhaueu, thou who . . . 
win wa/afiam/ansigobanen, 
ninawind ica/aftawrfansiwangibaneii, -» 
kinawind MJatata/ttiansiwangobanen, / 
kinawa M^rt/a^aHt/ansiwegobanen, 
winaica jra/a6a/t6?ansigobanenag. 






;■'! 



we wlio . . 



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TEST TARGET (MT-3) 




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Photographic 

Sciences 
Corporation 



23 WEST MAIN STREET 

WEBSTER, N.Y. 14580 

(716) 872-4503 













^. 




— 268 — 



\l :''.!:*: 



n 



Remark. Respecting tlie verbs ending in en, in and on, (page 
256,) you will please remember, that in all the cases where the 
verbs ending in an, take the syllable mo in the Dubitative Con- 
jugation, this syllable is taken out, for the verbs ending in en, 
in a,nd on. So you say: Waiabandamownnen, tcaiabandamog- 
wen, etc . . . but you will not say : Saiagitomoiodnen, saiagito- 
mogwcn ; but : Suiagitowdnen, saiagitogwen ; and so forth, al- 
ways taking out the syllable mo, for the verbs in en, in, on. 

EXAMPLKS ox Tlli': WHOLE VI. COXJUGATIOX. 

Dejig eta lodkaigan nin wdbandan, kaicin nij nin lodbandansinan. 
I see only one house, I don't see two. 

Mn bitomin ndbikwdn tcM bagamo,.<ising. Kawia nin kikendan- 
simin api ge-dagwUhinoniagadogwen. We are waiting for the 
vessel to come in. We don't know when it shall arrive. 

Aio kwiwisen.'i kaivin gego o kikendansinaban bwa-dagwi.nng oma, 
nongom dash weiceni o icdbandan masinaigan. This boy 
knew nothing when he came here, but now he reads well. 

A7 gi-giioiiwidonan na anokdnowinan f Brjig eta nin gi-giweivi- 
don; nij dash kawin 77iashi nin gi-aio.s.'iinan. Ha.st thou car- 
ried back the tools ? I liave carried back (returned) one only ; 
but the other two I have not yet used. 

Nin gwinawdbandan loidss oma ga-aieg ; animosh o gi-bi-gimo- 
dinadog. I cannot find (I miss) the meat that was here ; I 
suppose a dog has stolen it away. 

Weweni nin ga-ganawendanan Kije-Manito o ganasongewinan, 
kawin minatva ondjita ninga-n'i-bigobidossinan. I will faith- 
fully keep the commandments of God, I will no more break 
them purposely. 

Ninidjdniss, kishj)in gego dihddodaman, gonima gaie gego ojito 
ian, mikwenim Debendjiged misi gego waidbandang. My 
child, if thou art telling something, or doing something, re- 
member the Lord who sees all. • 

Kishpin toa-aidmowanen gego, gagicedjimishin, ki ga-minin. Bi- 
dddjimowin nwandamowegwen, kego pakige debicetangegon. If 
thoti perhaps wishest to have something, ask me, I will give 



— 269 — 



it to thee. If you happen to hear reports, don't believe them 

immediately. 
Jiawatch waiba mikamdngiban tchimdn, mewija nin dcu-gi-dagwi- 

shinimin. Hatl we found a canoe sooner, we would have ar- 
rived long ago. 
Minikwdssixcamban iw loenijishing mashkikiwdbo, ginwenj ki da- 

gi-akos. Hadst thou not taken this good medicine, thou 

wouldst have been sick a long time. 
Ge-gi-kitigadameg Kije-Manito o kitigdning, enamiaieg, mi iw ge- 

mamaieg wedi, ge-ishkwa-bimddi.meg aking. Whatever you 

shall have sown on the field of God, Christians, that you 

shall reap there, after your life on earth. 
Ki da-wanendanawa Debeniminnng od ikkitowlii, kishpinivika 

nondantiiweg gagikwewiii. You would forget tlie word of the 

Lord, if you never heard sermons. 
Nij jaigwa wdkaiganan o da-dibendanan, nij gaie kitigdnan o 

da-aianan aw inini, minikwessig. That man would already 

possess two houses, and would have two fields, (gardens,) if 

he did not drink. 
Ki darWxbandanmasinaigan,ioendamitdssiwanln, Thou oughlst 

to i*ead when thou hast leisure time. 
Weweni sdgiton kid anamiewiii, minotan anamie-gagikwewin, 

miau Indbadjitoti dash. Like well thy religion. Listen witli 

pleasure to religious sermons, and make a good use of them. 
irijigado-masinaigan ojitokan, tchi kikendamdng gijigadon. 

Please make a calendar, that we may know the days. 
Kego wika gego gimodiken, ki todbamig sa aw ge-dibakonik. Ne- 
ver steal anything, because he who will judge thee, sees thee. 
Nin nagadanan oma aiiind nind aiiman ; kego awiia o gama- 

mossi^an. I leave here some of my things ; let nobody take 

them away. 
Ambe ijdda, awi-wdbandanda ga-ijiwekak Bethleheming. Let us 

go, let us see what happened in Bethlehem. 
Kego babamendansida matchi minawanigosiwin aking, tchi wani- 

tossiwang iw kagige minawanigosiwin gijigong. Let us not 



- 'l 1# 



! . 1 




M 



I 



fi 



» 



1 * ^V^s 




— 270 — 

care lor sinful pleasures on earth, lest we lose that everlast 

ing joy in heaven. 
Kin waidhandamamban nihiwa maianadak, kego iw bdpish kiki- 

nowdbandangen. Thou who eawest so many evil things, do 

not take any example on those things. 
Nin, ga-pisindamdn iw gigitoioin, nin igo nin dibddjim ; debice- 

tawishig. I who have listened to that discourse, I do report ; 

believe me. 
Kawin bekdnisidjig da-gagwedjimassiwag ; igiw sa ininiwag ga- 



Afew Examples in regard 
AFFIRMATIVE FORM. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 
PRESENT TENSE. 

Kawinwin gego icdbandansin, ogwissan o wdba7idam'\m. He 

sees nothing, his son sees it. 
Kawin winawa o bi-nadissinawan masinaiganan, oshimeiican sa 

bi-nadim\n\. They don't come for the books, their brothers 

(sisters) come for them. 

And BO on in all the tenses 
SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

PRESENT TENSK. 

Kishpin ossan wdbandaimn'id ga-iji-anokinid, ta-minwendainon. 

When his father sees how he has worked, he will be contented. 
Kishpin onigiigon wdbandaimmg minik ga-ojiionid, o ga-mini- 

gon gego. When his parents see how much lie has done, they 

will give him something. 



— 271 — 

wdbandamogicenag matchi dodamowm, dagagvoedjimawag. Not 
others ought to be questioned ; those men who have seen the 
ill doing, (as I understood,) ought to be called. 

Jawendagosiwag ga-wdbandansigog, anaivi dash gi-debwetamog. 
Blessed are they that have not seen, and yet have believed. 

Ge-mino-ganawendang od anamiewiii ged-akobimddUid, kagini^ 
gijigong ta-debisi. He who shall keep well his religion (be a 
good Christian) as long as he shall live shall eternally Ite 
happy in heaven. 



to the second third person. 

NEGATIVE FORM. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 
PRESENT TENSE. 

Win eta o kikendan, kawin ossaieian o kikendansmxxn. He only 
knows it ; his brother knows it not. 

Winawa geget o sdgiionawa anamiewin, kawin dash onic^jdnissi- 
wan o sdgitossimm. They truly like religion, but their chil- 
dren don't like it. 

derived from the present. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

PRESENT TENSE. 

Kishpin ogin odapinax\s\mgiio wdboian, winigo o ffododajnnem.- 
If her mother does not take that blanket, she will take it her- 
self. 

Kishpin onigiigon gego odapinans'inig, anisha ta-gi-anokivrskxt. If 
his parents take no payment, they shall have worked for' 
nothing. 







!S !l 



— 272 — 



PARTCIPLES. 



PRESENT TIi:NSE. 



Mi sa witan uiaiahandam\x\\\\]\\\ niojag masinaigan. It is hia 
brother-in-law that is always reading, (looking in the book.) 

■Kawin win o dihandasin iw ; omishomissan mi iniw debendam'i- 
iiidjin. He does not own this; it is liifigrandfather thatowns it. 



i 



And so in other tenses 



'•' 'I 



Vn. CONJUGATION. 

In order to accommodate all the verbs of the Otchipwe Ian' 

guage, we must establish three more conjugations, for the uni- 

^ptrsonal verbs ; (see page 83.) One of these Conjugations will 

be for the unipersonal verbs ending in a vowel ; the two others 

will be for those ending in a consonant. 

To this VII. Conjugation then belong all i\\Q unipersonal \%xh9 
ending in a vowel. This vowel )nay be a, e, i, or o. 

Here are a few verbs belonging to this Conjugation. 

Kissind, it is cold, (speaking of the weather.) 
Sasagd, it is full of brushes, or underwood. 
Jihiia, there are no brushes, no underwood. 
Ijinikdde, it is called, (some inanimate object.) 
Jjilchigdde, it is made, constructed. 
Uagonigdde, it is mixed with .... 
Kijite, it is warm, (speaking of the weather.) 
.j4^e, there is ofit; it is. 

■Odjitchisse, it arrives, (speaking of a certain day or time.') 
./)mt, it is deep, (a river, etc.) 



- 273 — 



PARTICIPLES. 

PRESENT TENSE. 

Mi iniw onidjdnissan yego kekendan9\n\go\\ . This is his child 
that knows nothing, (or, these are his children that know no- 
thing.) 

Nibiwa loiti o dibendan aid ; widjikiwtia: • xsh iniic ego deben- 
(?ansinigon. He owns n)uch land; it is liis friend (brother) 
that owns none. 

derived from i\\Q present. 



MasJikawdgatni, it is strong, (a liquid.) 
Miskwdgami, it is red, (a liquid.) 
Makatewagami, it is black, (a liquid.) 
Dago, there is, it is. 
Sogipo, it snows. 

To this Conjugation also belong all the verbs which we call 
Abundance-verbs, (seep. 83,) which all end in ka, and are uni- 
personal. You will find a few of these verbs on the same page, 
and some of the in. Numeral verbs, which have only the plural, 
ending in wan. 

Some verbs of this Conjugation have only the third person 
singular, as : Kissina, kijdte, sogipn, etc. Others have the third 
Iterson singular and plural, as: Ijinikdde, ijinikddewan ; ate, 

ate wan, etc. 

AFFIRMATIVE FORM. NEGATIVE FORM. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 



PRESENT TENSE. 




Ijinikdde, it is called 

ijinikddevfan , they are called, [in. obj.) 



Kawin ssinon, 



8.smon. 



f?'^;;-^,' 



f 



\\ 



-s. **/ 



i 'i" 



— 274 — 



IMPKRFECT TliNSE. 




!l| 



!l 



^^1 



/ 



JJhiikddehan , it was called, 
ijinikddehsknm, they were called, 



Kawin ssinoban, 
" ssinobanin. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

PRESKXT TENSE. 

Kishpin ijinikadeg, if it is called, 
" ijinikade^i, if they are called, 

PLUPERFl-CT TENSK. 

j had it been called, 



ssinog, 
ssinog. 



...,», ., / b'i'il 't been called, ") • ^ •u„ 
JlinikMes.h.n { ,^^, ^,^^^ ^^^^ ^^„;,j^ } ssmogiban. 



PARTICIPLES. 

PRESENT TENSE. 

Ejinikddeg, called, (which is called,) 
ejinikddegin, called, (which are called,) 

IMPERFECT TENSE. 

Eji?iikddegiha,n, which was called, 
ejinikddcgi ban i n , 



ssinog, 
ssinogin. 



ssinogiban, 
ssinogibanin. 



VII. DUBITATIVE CONJUGATION. 



AFFIRMATIVE FORM. 



NEGATIVE FORM. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 

PRESENT TENSE. 



Ijinikddedog, it is perhaps called, 
i;miA:adedogenan, they are perhaps called, 
(^inanimate objects.) 



ssinodog, 
ssinodogenan. 



IMPERFECT TENSE. 



Ijinikddegoh&n, it was called, (they say,) ssinogoban, 

ijmikddegoh&nxw, they were called, (they say,) ssinogobanin. 






— 275 — 
SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

PRESENT TENSE. 

Goninia ejiiiikddegw'cn, whether it is called, 

Gonima ssinogwen, 
" €Jinikddeg\,en, whether they are 

called, " s.sinog\ven. 



PERFKCT TKNSK. 

whetlicr it lias been 



Ga-iJinakddegweUf \ called, 



( wh 



ether thev have b. c 



l-ssi 



nogwcn. 



}j inikddegohaxie 



m, ] il 



ssinogobanen. 



PLUPERFECT TKXSE. 

if it had been failed, 
if they had been 
called, J 

EXAMPLES ox THE WHOLE VII. CONJUGATION. 

Adopoiviii ymikdde ow ; onow daah npabiwinan ijinikddewan. 
This is called a table; and these are called chairs, (or benches.) 

Kitchi sogipo nonr/om, kaiviii dash anaici kissindssinon. It 
snows much to-day, but it is not very cold. 

Nopimiiig at6do(j ki wdijakwad ; ki makis'inaii dash kaioiii loedi 
aUssinodogenan. I think tliy axe is in the woods; but thy 
shoes, I think, are not there. 

Gi-apiichi, dtehan kid ishkoteiniwa hwa bi-mddjaian. Your fire 
had been quite out, before I started to come here. 

Kawiii gwetch yi-sogipossinnbaii bibonong bwa Nibdanamiegiji' 
gak. Last winter it had not much snowed before Christmas- 
day. 

Wdiba ow lodkaigan ia-bigobidjigdde, bekanak dash nawalch 
metchag ta-ojitchigdde. This house will soon be taken dov/n, 
and another one larger than this will be constructed. 

Kaicin weweni anokissim, kishpiii osdin kijdteg ; kawin gate 
mino bimossessim, kishpin sogipog kabe-gijig. One does not 
work well when it is too warm ; and one does not travel well 
when it is snowing all day. . 



,^"l 



<■% ! 



if) '/ '-;'}" 











■t^ 



''I 

i, ) 



— 276 — 

Kishpin jiangi eta hodawCideg kijapikisUjaidng, pabUje kitchi 
kijide oiria jnndi'g. When a little fire oi)ly iw made in the 
stove, it i8 immediately very warm in this room. 

Endogwen degonif/adessinoywen ishkotewdbo oma mishimindhong . 
I don't know whether there is no ardent liquor mixed with 
this cider. 

Akosiwiii, nihoivin gaie kawin da-atessinon, kishpin hatadowin 
atessinog. There would be no Hickness and no death, if there 
be no sin. 

Da-kitchi-kijdte nongom, kishpin nodinsinog. — iJa-giJigaie non- 
gom iibikak, kishpin mijakwak, {niijakwanitibikak.) It would 
be very warm to-day if there be no wind. — It would be light 
this night, if there be clear weather 

Meivija onow wdkaiganan da-gi-sakidewan, kakina da-gi-tchdgi- 
deivan, oma aiassiwdmban. These houses would have caught 
fire long ago, and would have all burnt down, had I not been 
here. 

Kawin mashkossiican da-gi-debissessinon kabe-bibon, bejig pijiki 
nissassiiviudiban. Hay would not have been sufficient all 
winter, had one of the oxen not been killed. 

Minik ejibiigddeg Kije-Manito o masinaiganing, dpitchi debwewi- 
nagad. All that is written in the Bible, (in God's book,) is 
perfectly true. 

Kakina aking eteg kawin nin babamendansin, mekwendamdnin 
minik gijigong endagog. For all that is on earth I don't care, 
as soon (or, as often) as I remember wliat is in heaven. 

Wegonin iw endagogobanen kitchi kitiganing, ga-daji-bividdisi- 
wad niiam dnishinabeg ? What is that that was (or, what was) 
in the great garden, (Paradise,) where tlie first man lived ? 

Pitchindgo kakina nind aiiman misiwe eiegibanin nin gi-ma~ 
wandjitonan ; nongom weweni nin wi-ganawendanan. Yester- 
day I gathered all my things together, that were scattered 
about ; I will now well take care of them. , 



!' 



~ 277 — 

VIII. CONJUGATION. 

To this Conjugation belong all the unipersonal verbs emling' 
in ad, as : 

Sanagad, it is difTicult, hard, disagreeable ; dear, liigh in price, - 
\Venipanad\ it is easy ; cheap. 
Manadad, it is bad, wrong, malicious. 
Mindokad, there is dew on the ground. 
Anakwad, it is cloudy. 

Mijakwad, the weather is fair, clear, no clouds. 
Etc., etc. 

Note. The verbs of the preceding Conjugation become ofteii- 
verbs of this VIII. Conjugation, by taking the termination ma- 
gad, wliich do not alter at all their signification, as : 
Kijdte, it is warm weather ; kijatemagad, 

Kissina, it is cold weather ; kissindmagad, 

Sogipo, it SwOws ; sogipomagad, 

Mitcha, it is big, large ; mitcliCanagad, 

Agdssa, it is snjall, narrow ; agdssamagad. 

To this Conjugation also belong iha personifying \evhfi ©f the- 
second kind, (see p. 81,) which are formed by adding magad to- 
the third person singular, present, indicative, of verbs belonging 
to the I. II. and III. Conjugations. (See examples of these verl)s 
on the same page.) 

Note. Some verbs of this Conjugatiou have only the third per- 
son singular ; others liave ih^ plural also. 

Here is the paradigm of a verb of the VIII. Conjugation. 



AFFIRMATIVE FORM. 



XEGATIVE FOUM.. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 



PRESENT TENSE. 



Sanagad, it is difficult ; dear, 
^ana^odon, they are dear, (inan. obj.) 



Katcin ssinou. 



IMPERFECT TENSE. 



5ona<7adoban, it was difficult ; dear, 
.sana^odobanin, they were dear ; diff. 



ssmon. 



Katvin ssinoban, 
" ssiuobanin. 



!i' )Xi,",. 



'W^rs 



wr 



1, 



— 278 — 
SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

PRESENT TENSE. 

.Sanagak, because it is (they are) dift". . . 

PERFECT TEN8E. 

.iii-sanagdk, because it lias been (they have 
been) difl". . . 

PLUPEIU'ECT TENSE. 

rliad it been difF. . . 



soinog. 



RSinog. 



Bsinogiban. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



Torsanagad, be it diff. ; dear, 
fa-sanagadon, let them be dear, 



Kcf/o ssinon, 
*' sainon. 



PARTICIPLES. 

PRESENT TKN8E. 

Senagak, sojiietliing difficult; dear, 
^enagdidn, things dear ; diff. 

IMPERFECT TENSE. 

Senagak\ha,n, that was difficult ; dear, 
*e»a^akibanin, things that were diff. . . 



ssinog 
sainogin. 



ssinogiban, 
ssinoffibanin. 



VIII. DUBITATIVE CONJUGATION. 



AFFIRMATIVE FORM. 



NEGATIVE FORM. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 

PRESENT TENSE. 

Sanagadodog, it is perhaps diff. ; dear, Kawiii ssinodog, 
jjana^ododogenan, tl. jy are perhaps dear, " ssinodogenan*. 

IMPERFECT TENSE. 

J u / ^^ ^^^ perh. diff. . . 
U g *"» \ they were perh. . . A'amn ssinogoban. 



i! 1! 



— 279 — 
SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

PREaENT TENSE. 

(jonitna senagadogwen, where it is dear ; 

iliff . . . Gonima ssinogwen, 

** .senagradogwen, whether they are 

dear ; ditf. . . * 



PERFECT TENSE. 

whether it ha.s been diff. 



r wneiner ii na.s oeen ditt. 
Oarsanagadogv^eu, | ,^i,e,],er they have been 



PLUPERFECT TENSE. 

if it had been dear, 



f II u naa ueen aear, 
^anaflradogobanen, | .^^^^^^ j^^^ ,,g^„ j^^^.^ 

PARTICIPLES. 



8?inogwen. 



Sflinogwen. 



ssinogobanen. 



PRESENT TENSE. 



Sewa^rodogwen, that is perhaps dear, diff. . ssinogwen, 
sena^radogwenan, that are perhaps dear, ssinogwenan. 

IMPERFECT TENSE. 

Stfna^radogobanen, a thing that was perh. 

diff. ssinogobanen, 

sena^fodogobanenan, things that were perh. 

dear. ssinogobanenan. 

Some Examples in regard to the second third person, expressed 

by an inanimate object. 

Sanagadini od anokiwin. Kawin gwetch sana^assinini, nind 

inendam. His work is hard, (difficult). It is not very hard, I 

think. 
^Sawa^radiniwan aw atawewinini od aiiman. wdboianan kawin 

gwetch sana^rassininiwan. The goods (or things) of this trader 

are dear. His blankets are not very dear. 

19 



■i 



^#>^ 




4 t 



— 280 - I 

Missawa sanagadm\g od dkosiwin, weweni od oddpinan. Al- 
though his eickness be difficult, (painful,) he accepts it well, 
(he takes it with resignation.) 

Kishpin osdm sa7iagadin\g od anokiwinan, kawin kakina o gn- 
gijiiossinan. If his works are too difficult, he will not do 
them all. 

Kishpin sana^assininig bimossewin, wdbang ta-dagwishin. If 
walking is not difficult, he will arrive to-morrow. 

Kishpin sawa^andininig aw atawewenini o babisikawdganan, ni- 
biwa gad-aiawenan. If this trader's coats are not too dear, 
he will sell many. 

Senagadxxng anogadjigan nin gi-wdbandamawa nongom ; (sena- 
(grassininig.) I have seen to-day his dear (valuable) merchan- 
dise ; (not dear.) 

iScna^adinigin od aiiman dnind o gi-wanitonan ; (sewa^'aseinini- 
gin.) He has lost some of his dear (valuable) things ; (not 
dear.) 

IX. CONJUGATION. 



To this Conjugation belong the unipersonal verbs ending in 
atr, or in ; as : 

Onzjishin, it is fair, handsome ; good, useful ; (an inanimate ob- 
ject.) 
Ndngan, it is light, not heavy. 
Kosigwan, it is heavy. 
Blwaii, the snow is driven by the wind. 
Mlkandwan, there is a road, a trail. 
Mbtwan, it is wet, (a piece of clothing, etc.) 
Sdngan, it is strong. 
Nodin, it blows, it i windy. 
Anwdiin, it is calm, there is no wind. 
Pangissin, it falls, (an in. object.) 
Gashkadin, it freezes ovo , (a lake, or river, etc.) 
Mashkawadin, it freezes, (any in. object.) 

To this Conjugation also belong some of the in. Numeral 
verbs, ending in the pluralin nan. 



— 281 — 

Note. Some verbs of this Conjugation are used only in tlie 
third person singular ; and some have also the third person 
plural. 

Here follows the paradigm of one of these verbs. 



AFFIRMATIVE FORM. 



NEGATIVE FORM, 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 

PRESENT TENSE. 



Onijishin, it is fair, good, useful, 
onijishinon, they are good, (in. obj.) 



IMPERFECT TENSE. 



Kawin sinon, 
" sinon. 



Onijishinohan , it was fair, good, 
onyishinoh&niu, they were good, 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



Kawin sinoban, 
" sinobanin. 



Onijishing, because it is (they are) fair, 

PLUPERFECT TENSE. 

( had it been fair, 
0niji3hmgihan,[^^^^ they been fair, 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

la-onijishin, let it be fair, good, 
ia-onijishinon, let them be fair, good, 

PARTICIPLES. 



81 nog. 



sinogiban. 



Kego sinon, 



sinoD. 



i». 1 J 



PRESENT TENSE. 

Wenijishin, what is fair, good, 
wenijishingin, things that are fair, 

IMPERFECT TENSE. 

WenyishingihsLnin, things that were fair, 



smog, 



smogm. 



sinogibanin. 



•.^ - 



.:m 



!'3i 



■■r ^ 



— 282 — 
IX. DUBITATIVE CONJUGATION. 

AFFIRMATIVE FORM. NEGATIVE FORM. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Onijishinodog, it is perhaps fair, good, Kawin sinodog, 
omjishinodogenfin, they are perh. fair, 

(i/i. obj.) sinodogenan, 

IMPERFECT TENSE. 

r it was perhaps fair, ) 
O/ii/isAinogoban, l^j^gy ^^gj.g p^.j^jj.^ | AaituM sinogoban. 

'Form after these two tenses, all the others of the indicative. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

PRESENT TENSE. 

Wenijishinogwen, whether it is (they are) fair, 

PKRFECT TENSE. 



sinogwen. 



Ga-oniJishinogwei\, whether it has (they have) 
been good, 



sinogwen. 



PLUPERFECT TENSE. 

07iijishinogoha,nen, if it (they) had been fair,good, sinogobanen. 

PARTICIPLES. 

PRESENT TENSE. 

Wenijishinogwen, a thing that is perhaps good, sinogwen. 
wenijishinogwenan, things that are perh. good, sinogwenan. 

IMPERFECT TKNSE. 



Wenijishinogohanen, a thing that was perhaps 
good, 



sinogobaneu. 



— r83 — 

A few Example? in regard to the second third person, expressed 

by an inanimate object. 

Ofiijishinim o babasikawdgan, o wiwdkwdn eta kawin onijishin- 

sinini. His coat is nice, (good,) but his hat is not nice. . 
Onijishin'm'\wa,u o makissinan, o lodboianan dash katoin oniji- 

s/Mwsininiwan. His shoes are good, (fine,) but liis blankets are 

not good. 
Kishpin onijishin'im^, od anokiwin, weweni ta-dibaamaiva. If 

his work is good, '(fair,) he will be well paid. 

Kishpin ode onijishi m^lnim^, kawin gaie od ikkitowinan ta-oniji- 

s/misininiwan. If his heart is not good, (clean,) neither will 

his words be good, (fair.) 
Missawa onijishinin'ig kakina o masinaiganan, kawin gicetch o 

wdbandansinan. Although his books are good, (useful,) he 

does not much read them, (look into them.) 
Kishpin onijishinm'xmg od ikkitowinan, kawin gaie ode binasm- 

mni. If his words are not decent, neither is his heart clean. 
Wenijishinimg o k'ltiganens o gi-ataioen, (wenijishinsimmg.) He 

ha^ M his fine garden, (not fine.) 
kitchisdgitonanwenijishin'uugin o masinaiganan; [wenijishin- 

inigin.) He likes very much his fine (useful) books ; (not fine.) 

Examples on thr viii. and ix. conjugations. 

Nin ndbikawdgan nokendagwad, nin btmtwanan dash ndngan ; 

ikkiio Debendjiged. My yoke is sweet, and my burden is 

light ;8ay8 the Lord. 
Sanagad na iw wejitoian ? Kawin sanagassinon. Is that diffi- 
cult what thou art doing? No, it is not diflicult. 
Onijishinoban keiabi nin masinaigan ga-ioanitoidn, oshkinagwa- 

doban. The book that I have lost, was good yet, it appeared 

like new. 
Gi-kitchi-niskadad pitchindgo kabegijig ; tibikong gaie kabe- 

tibik gi-gimiwan. It has been bad weather yesterday all day ; 

and last night it has rained all night. 



.1 - ■ ■ i> 



I 






.•l;''.| 

k 






-FFTT 
lali;' 



II 



— 284 — 

Apegisk mijakwak, inendam awiia; minatca dash hejig ; ape- 

gish kimiwang, inendam. Anin dash ged-ijiioebakiban ? One 

person thinks : I wish it would be clear weather ; another 

again thinks : I wish it would rain. Now how should it be ? 
Missaw^ sogipomagak, kitchi niskadak gate, potch nimoi-mddja. 

Even if it snows, and if the weather is very bad, T will still 

depart. 
Osdm sanagassinogiban bimossewin, mino gijigakiban gaie, pi- 

ichindgo 7iin da-gi-dagwishininiin. Had walking not been so 

difficult, and had the weather been fair, we would have arriv- 
ed yesterday. 
Minwanimakiban, kimiwansinogiban gaie,jcba ki da-gi-bosimin . 

Had the wind been fair, and had it not rained, we would have 

embarked this morning. 
Dorkitchi-sanagad kakina gego, kishpin bejig eia aiawSwinini 

oma aiad. Every thing would be very dear, if there be only 

one merchant here. 
Kawin bdpish da-rninwendagwassinon oma, gegei da-kitchi-kash- 

dagwad, kishpin kin rnddjaian. It would not be agreeable at 

all here, it would be very sad indeed, if thou shouldst go away 

from here. 
Ta-wasseiamagad, gi-ikkito Debeniminang Kije-Manito ; mi dash 

ga-iji-wasseiamagak. Let there be light, said our Lord God ; 

and there was light. 
Kego osdm ta-sanagassinon kid aiiman, mano ta-wendadon ; nin 

gi-ina atawewinini. Let your goods not be too dear, let them 

be cheap; said I to the merchant. 
Pindigeiog egassadHamagak ishkwandeming, tchi mikameg ka- 

gige minawanigosiwin. Go in through the narrow gate, to 

find joy everlasting. 
Kagina gego maianadak, keshkendagwak gaie, atemagad oma 

aking ; gijigong dash aiapitchi-minwendagwak eta dagomagad. 

All that is evil, and all that causes sorrow, is here on earth ; 
but in heaven is only that which gives the greatest content- 
ment, (joy.) 



!r«1 ' 



— 285 — 

Ojindan kakina wenijishinsinogin ikkitowinan. Shun all worda 
that are not fair, (indecent.) 

Dibdkonige-gyigak kakina ta-kikendjigdde, minik ge-gi-ijiwebak 
omaaking. On the day of judgment all will be known that 
shall have happened here on earth. 

Kakina ge-gi-kddj igddemagak nongom aking, wedi mijishd ta- 
nagwad. All that shall have been hid now on earth, will ap- 
pear there openly. 

DEFECTIVE VERBS. 

Defective verbs are called those which are not used in all the 
moods, tenses and persons of common verbs. There are some 
■defective verbs in the Otchipwe language ; as : 

Jwa, he (she, it) says, (inquit.) 

Iwiban, he (she, it) said. 

Jwibanig, they said. 

Gi-iwd, he (she, it) has said. 

This is all I ever heard of this verb. There is another defec- 
tive, and also irregular verb, which is somewhat more complete 
than the above. In the following paradigm are exhibited the 
moods, tenses and persons, which are commonly used of this 
verb. It has several significations ; it signifies : I do, I am, I 
conduct mvself, etc. 

AFFIRMATIVE FORM. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 



•ir 



.. i:- 



f 



PRESENT TENSE. 

Nind ind, I do, I am, 
kid ind, 

{di,) ino, he (she, it) is, 

ino, it is, (in. object,) 
nind indimin, (nin dimin,) 
kid indim, {ki dim,) 

dowag, 



k: 



w 



BB^ 



» 



IBM 







IT' !' 



— 286 — 
NEGATIVE FORM. 



Kawin nind indissi, 
" kid indissi, 
" dissi, 

" nind indissimin 
" kid indissim, 
" dissiwag, 



or : Kawin nin dissi, 
ki dissi, 
dissi, 
nin dissimin^ 
ki dissim, 
dissiwag^ 

PERFECT TENSE. 

(No affirmative.) 

Kawin nin gi-dissi, I liave not done, been, 
Etc., as above. 

FUTURE TENSE. 

[No affirmative.) 

Kawin nin ga-dissi, (kawin nin ga-wi-dissi.) 
Etc., after i\\Q present tense. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

PRESENT TENSE. 

Tchi diidn, that I do, be, 
diian, 

(did, digid;) ing, (bata-digid,) 
diidng, bata-diidng,) 
diiang, (hata-diiang ,) 
diieg, (hata-diieg ,) 
dowad, (hata-dowad) 
Tchi dissiwdn, 

" dissiwan, 

" dissig, 

" dissiwdng, 

" diss twang y 

" dissi w eg, 

" dissig way 






we wlio . . . 



_., 287 — 
PARTICIPLES. 

PRESKNT TENSE. 

Nin endiidn, I who do, who am,. 
ki?i endiian, thou who dost, who art, 

win endid, (endigid,) he (she, it) who 

iw eng, it which is, (tw. obj.) 
ninawind endiidng, •) 

kinawind endiiang, } ^« '''^'^ ^''' ^^^^^ ^°' 
kinawa endiieg, you who do, are, 
winawa endidjig, tliey who do, are, etc. 
Nin endissixodn, I who was not, etc., 
kin endissiwan, thou who wast not, 
ivin endissig, he who . . . 
ninawind endissiwdng, •» 
kinawind endissiwang, J 

kinawa endissiweg, you wlio do, are, 
winawa endissigog, they who do, are, etc. 

PERFKCT TKNSK. 

Mil ga-diidn, I who have been, done, 
kin ga-diian, 
xoin ga-did, iga-digid,) 
iw ga-ing, it that has been, {in. obj.) 
Nin ga-dissiwdn, I who have not done, 
kin ga-dissiwan, thou who, etc . . . 
Etc., after the present tense. 
Here are some of the most common cases of Change in this-- 
defective verb. 

PRESENT TENSE. 

Mi endiidn, it is thus I am, I do, I behave, 

mi endiian, it is thus thou art so, 

mi endid, 

mi eng, it is thus it is, it is so, 

mi endiidng, [ninawind,] \ 

mi endiiang, [kinawind,] > 

mi endiieg, 








J 



— 288 — 

mi endowad, it ia thus they are they do so, etc., 
Endiidnin, when I am po, when I do so, etc., 
endiianin, when thou art so, etc., 
eiididjin, 

endiidngon, {endiiangon.) 

endiiegon, 
endowadjin, 

PERFECT TENSE. 

* 

M gordiidn, it is thus I have done, I have been, etc., 

mi ga-diian, 

mi ga-did, [ga-digid,) 

mi ga-ing, it was thus it happened, it has been so, etc. 

mi ga-diidng, 

mi ga-diiang, 

mi ga-dowad, so they have been, done, etc. 

Remark. The prefix en in endiidn, ^ndiian, etc., is only an 
effect of the 6^Aa?t5re, (.see p. 118.) It is omitted in compositions; 
as : Ga-diidn, ge-diidn ; nin baiatd-diian, I a sinner ; baiatd- 
digid, a sinner ; baiatd-didjig, sinners, etc. The end-syllable t'/i, 
in endiianin, etc., is likewise an effect of the Change, in another 
case. 

Here are some specimens of the DubitaUve of this defective 
verb. 
Endowdnen, I don't know how I am, how I do, etc., 



endowanen 
endogwen, 
endowdngen, •» 
endowangen, j 
endowegwen, 
endowagwen, 



how thou art, etc., 

liow he (she, it) does, etc , 



(( 



how we are, do, behave, etc., 

how you are, do, . . . 

how they are, behave, etc. 
Endogobanen, how he (she, it) was, did, 
endowagobanen, how they did, were, etc., 
Ga-dowdnen, how I have been, how I have done, 
Ga-dowanen, how thou hast been, etc., 
jga-dogweriy how he, . . . 



— 289 — 

ga-inogwen, how it has been, (in. obj.) 
ga-dowdngen, how we have been, etc., etc. . . 
Oe-dowdnen, how I shall be, how I will do, etc., 
ged-inogweuy how it shall be, how it will happen, 
ge-dowdngen, how we shall be, how we will be, behave, etc., etc. 

Afeto Examples on the Defective Verbs. 

Wdbang nin wi-^iddja, kitchi ginwenj dash nin gad-inend, iwd. 
He says: I will depart (start) to-morrow, and will be absent 
very long. 

Ki gi-wdbama na ? nlnd ana gagwedjima. — Kawin ki wi-winda- 
mossiiion, iwd dash. I ask him indeed : Hast thou seen him ? 
but he says : I will not tell thee. 

Ifin ga-gosimin wdbang ; iwibanig pitchindgo. They said yes- 
terday : We will move to-morrow. 

Wegonen ga'ikkitod awishtoia ? — Nin gad-ojiton wdgakwad ; 
gi'iwd sa. What has the blacksmith said ? — He has said j I 
will make the axe. 

Egatchingin nind indimin, inojag bata-diidng. We behave shame- 
fully, because we are sinning always. 

Debenimiiang, widokawishindm ningot endiiangin ; angotama- 
wishindm gate ga-bi-aindiidng, {ga-bi-diidng.) Lord, assist 
us when anything happens us ; and take from us what we 
have done, (committed,) (our sins.) 

Debenimiiang, kaginig dibendan ge-dowdngen, minik gaie ge- 
kitimdgisiwdngen. Lord, always govern, (be master of,) what- 
ever we shall be, and whatever misery (poverty,) shall befall us. 

Anin endiian nongom ? Endiidn sa nind ind. How dost thou do 
to-day ? I do as I do. 

FORMATION OF VERBS. 

There are several kinds or modifications of verbs in the Ot- 
chipwe language, which are formed from principal verbs, * or 
from substantives, to express different circumstances, which use 



* Wecallpri^ictpat rerba, the tramltive-proper , and the irUranslttve-proper 
verbs. 



f c 



YJA 



•V* 



■ i. 



ww:' 



f 



, tJi, 



— 290 — 

to be expressed in other languages by the combination of two or 
more parts of speech. 

We will exhibit here these kinds of verbs, and give the rules 
for their formation, in as much as Hules can be indicated for 
that. 

I. Reciprocal Verbs. 

They show a reaction of the subject on itself. They all end 
in as or dis, at the first person singular, indicative, present ; 
and at the third person in o, belong to the I. Conjugation. Here 
are the Rules for their formation. 

Rule 1. Transitive verbs ending in awa, change their last syl- 
lable loa into s, in order to form reciprocal verbs. 

Examples. 

Nin hahdmitawa, I obey him; nin babatnitas, I obey myself 
iVi?i nondaioa, I hear him ; nin nondas, I hear myself 

Rule 2. Transitive verbs ending in aa, ea, ia, oa, or a with a 
consonant before it, (excepting m and w,) change the final a 
into idis. 

Examples. 

iW'n wttnaa, I give him to drink ; nin minaidis, I give to drink 

to myself 
Nin ganona, I speak to him ; nin ganonidis, I speak to myself. 

Rule 3. Transitive verbs ending in owa, change their last syl- 
lable wa into dis. 

Example. 

Nin pakiteowa, I strike him; nin pakiieodis, I strike myself 
Rule 4. Transitive verbs ending in ma, change this syllable 



into ndis. 



Examples. 



Nin wdbama, I see him ; nin lodbandis, I see myself. 

Nin kikenima, I know him ; 7iin kikenindis, I know myself 



t 



- 291 — 

II. Communicative Verbs. 

These verbs show a mutual action of two or more subjects 
upon each other. Tliey have only the plural number, and they 
all end in dimin, at the first person plural, indicative, present. 
(To the I. Conj.) Tliey are formed after the reciprocal verbs, 
according to the following Rules. 

Rule 1. The reciprocal verbs ending in an, change this as into 
adimin, in order to make communicative verbs 

Examples. 

Ninnondas, I hear myself; ninnondadimin, we hear each otlier. 

JWn m'«M<o<a«, I understand myself ; nin nissitoiadimia, we un- 
derstand each other. 

Nind anokiias,! work for myself; nind anokiiadimin, we work 
for each other. 

Rule 2. The reciprocal verbs ending in dis, change this syllable 
into dimin. 

Examples. 

Nin hamiidis, I take care of myself; nin bamiidimin, we take 

care of each other. 
Nin nishkiidis, I make myself angry ; nin nishkidiidimin, we 

make each other angry. 

Note. The personal pronoun ki is to be employed instead of 
nin in the communicative verbs in the first person, when the 
person spoken to is included. (See Hem. 3, p. 45.) 

III. Personifying Ver ^. 

They serve to represent an inanimate thing as doing actions 
of an animate being. There are two kinds of these verbs; the 
one ending in on, and the other in magad. 

IV. Reproaching Verf.s. 

A reproaching verb is used in order to signify that its subject 
has a habit or quality, which is a reproach to him. They are all 






i: 






"• ^il 



— 292 — 



derived from intranHitive verbs of the I. Conjugation, and they 
also all belong to this Conjugation, iMJcause they all end in iat 
the characteristical third pernon. 

The only Rule for their formation is this : Take the verb you 
want to transform into a reproaching verb, in tlie third person 
singular, indicative, present, affinnative form, and add shk to 
this person, and you have the reproaching verb. 

Examples. 

Nin niha, I sleep; 3 pers. niba ; nin nihashk, 1 sleep too much. 
Nin minikwe, I drink ; .3 pers. minikwe ; nin minikweshk, I drink 

too much ; I am a drunkard. 
Mn masinaige, I make debts; 3 pers. masinaige; nin masinai- 

geshk, I make always debts. 

V. Substantive verbs proper. 

This kind of verbs is derived from substantives. They end in 
i at the third person. (I. Conj.) In regard to the formation of these 
verbs, two Rules are to be observed, viz : 

Rule 1. To a substantive amma^e or i»ani»ia<e, ending in a vo- 
wel, only a M> is added, to form a verb. 



Examples. 

nind ininiw, I am a man. 
nind ikwew, I am a woman. 
nind ogimaw, I am a chief. 
nind akiw, I am earth. 
nin sibiw, I am a river. 



Inini, man ; 
Ihoe, woman ; 
Ogima, chief; 
Aki, earth ; 
5i6i, river ; 

" Exception. To a substantive ending in a vowel that has the 
nasal sound after it, (a, e, i, 6, *) you have [to add the syllable 
iwy to form a verb. 

Examples. 



Akiwesl, an old man ; 
Mndimoii, an old woi.ian ; 



7iind akiwesiiw, I am an old man. 
nin mindimoieiw , I am an old 
woman. 



• Bee page 16, No. 3. 



.-» m .«>.««« ^ »^<W ■yt: 



293 — 



Abinodjlf a child} 
Gi(/d, a finh ; 



nind abinodjii'tp, I am a cliilcJ. 
nin giyoiw, I atn a fish. 

Rule 2. To a substantive, animate or inanimate, ending in arow- 
aowa/t^ tlie syllable jw is added, to make a verb of it. Only 
those substantives ending in a consonant, whose mutative vo- 
wel is 0, t (which make their plural in o</, and some in way,) 
take the syllable oto, to become verbs. 

Examples. 

Wdbigan, clay ; nin wdbiganito, I am clay. 

Jiwitdgan, salt ; ninjiwitdganiw, I am salt. 

Assin, a stone ; tiind a^siniw, I am a stone. 

Note. There is yet another kind of substantive verbs in this^ 
language. They are Mm^er«o/ta^ and belong to the IX. Conju- 
gation. They are derived from inanimate substantives ending 
in win; and their formation consists in adding iwan to the end- 
syllable win. 

EXAMPLKS. 



Minawdnigosiwin, joy ; 

KashMndamowin, sorrow ; 

Bdpivoin, la«ughter ; 
Mdmwin, weeping ; 
Bakadewin, starvation ; 

VI. 



minawdnigosiwiniwan, there 

is joy. 
kashkendamowiniwan, there 

is sorrow. 
bdpiwiniwan. there is laugh. 
mdwiwiniwan, there is w. 
bakadewiniwan, there is st. 

Abundance- Verbs. 



These verbs are also substantive-verbs, being formed from sub- 
stantives. But as they signify at the ^ same time abundance of 
what they express, they justly form a distinct class of verbs^ 
called as above. They are unipersonal verbs, belonging to the 
VII. Conjugation. 

There are two Rules for their formation, somewhat relating to 
those of the preceding number. 



t See p. 32. 




{' 1 'V 



i ' ^'■•tf^J- 



:^H 



mmmmmmtim 





If : 


■ '' 


'.Bmaiuv 


f! 




r 




1 





— 294 — 

BuLE 1. To form an abundance-verb, add the syllable ka to a 
eubstantive ending in a vowel, may it be animate or inanimate. 



Examples. 



Anishindbe, Indian ; 



anishindbeka, there is plenty of 

Indians. 
sagimeka, there is plenty of mos. 
nibikn, there is much water. 

animikika, there is a thunder- 
storm. 
Exception. Substantives ending in a vowel which has the nasal 
:fl0und, take ika, to become abundance-verbs. 



Sagime, moscheto ; 
Nibi, water ; 
Animiki, thunder ; 



Gigo, fish ; 
Abinodji, a child ; 



Examples. 

gigoika, there is plenty offish. 
abinodjiika, there is abundance of chil- 
dren. 
Assabikeshif a spider ; as,sabikshUka, there is abundance of 

spiders. 
Mishike, a turtle ; mishikeika, there is plenty of turtle. 

BuLE 2. Substantives animate or inanimate, ending in a conso- 

'' nani, require the addition of ika or oka, to be transformed 

intb verbs of this class. (The mutative vowel o requires oka.) 

Examples. 



Mikwam, ice ; 
fion, snow ; 
Ashishk, dirt, (on the 

road, etc.) 
Nam^goss, trout; 



mikwamika, there is much ice. 
gonika, there is much snow. 



ashishkika, there is much dirt, mud. 
namegossika, there is abundance of 
trout. 
Miskwimin,a. raspberry ; miskwiminika, there is plenty of rasp- 
berries. 
Andng, a star ; anangoka, there are many stars. 

Mitig, a tree ; mitigoka, there is abundance of trees. 

Wdbos, a rabbit ; wdbosoka, there are many rabbita. 



295 — 



V^JI. PossEssivK V'krbs. 

These verbs indicate possession or property, in a very pecu- 
liar manner. They are substantive-verbs, being derived from 
substantives, animate or inanimate, hy prefixing o or od, and 
the personal pronoun nin or nind in the first person, etc. ; and 
they belong to the I. Conjugation, being intransitive verbs, end- 
ing in a vowel at the characteristicul third person , ''at is, in i 
or 0. (This o refers to the mutative o.) 

Those that terminate in a consonant at the first person singu- 
lar, indicative, present, do ordinarily not take the possessive 
terminations. Some may take them occasionally. 

But those that end in a votcel at the said person, take the pos- 
sessive te. Jiinations. These all end in i at tlie characteristical 
third person. 

EXAMPLKS. 

Tchimdn, canoe ; nind otcliimdn, I have a canoe. 

Mokomdn, a knife ; nind omokomdn, I have a knife. 

■Oddbdn, a sledge ; nind ododdbdn, I have a sledge. 

Noss, (n-oss,) my father ; nind ooss, I have a lather. 
Ningwiss, ( n in-yiv iss,) 

my son ; nind ogiois!}, I have a son. 

Note. These end in i at the third person, oichimdni, etc. 
Wdgdkwad, an ax; nindowdgdkwad, I have an axe. 

Makak, a box ; nind omakak, I have a box. 

Akik, a kettle ; nind odakik, I have a kettle. 

Mitig, a tree or wood ; nind omitig, I liave a tree or wood. 

Note. These end in o at ihe third person, owdgdkwado, . . 
Joniia, silver, juoney ; iiind ojoniidm, I have money. 

nind opijikim, I have a cow. 
nind odopinim, I have potatoes. 
nind odakim, I have land. 
nind odishkotem, I have fire. 



Pijiki, a cow ; 
Opin, a potatoe ; 
Aki, earth, land ; 
Jshkote, fire ; 



Note. These have the possessive terminations, ending in i at 
the third person, ojoniidmii opijikimi. . . . 

20 






«• •, 



1 M 1 



■I ' 




•'fiiii 



— 296 — 

Vrir. Working Vkrbs. 

The verbs of this claes signify the doing of a loork; and so I 
think they are properly called xcorking verbs. They are sub- 
stantive-verbs, all being derived from substantives, animate or 
inanimate, and follow the same Rules in their formation, as the 
abundance-verbs of No. VI. These verbs belong all to the I. 
Conjugation. 

Examples. 



lis . : it' 



Mikana., path, road ; nin mikandke, I make a road. 
Jshkote, fire ; nind ishkoteke, I make fire. 
Akakanje, charcoal ; 7iind akahdnjeke, I burn charcoal. 
Joniia, silver ; ninjoniiake, I work silver. 

Mashkikiiodbo,x\\Qd\Q,'\x\Q ; nin mashkikiwdboke, I prepare a medi- 
cine. 

IX. Feigxing Vkrbs. 

These verbs are used to designate feigning or dissimulation.. 
A verb of this kind represents its subject doing something for 
show only, or by dissimulation. They all terminate in kds, at 
the first person singular, indicative, present ; and in o at the 
eharacteristical third person ; and consequently belong to the 
I. Conjugation. Some of them are derived froiu other verbs,, 
and some from substantives. 

Those derived from suhstantices, follow in their formation 
exactly the Rules established in No. VI. All you have addition- 
ally to do is, to add s to an abundance-verb, and to prepose nin 
(nind,) and you have a feigning verb, nindanishindhekds, I play 
or act the Indian, I teign to be an Indian. Abinodjiika ; feign- 
ing verb, nind abinodjiikdn, I play the child. Wdbosoka; feign- 
ing verb, nin todbasokds, I feign to be a rabbit, (in fables.) 

Those feigning verbs that are derived from verbs, add the syl- 
lable kds to the eharacteristical third person of the verbs from 
which they are formed. 



■'i"iwn«jp;p(ii,Plii«ijjni!ii^W ' 



— 297 — 

Examples. 

Mil niba, I sleep ; 3d. person, niba; nin nibdkds, I feign to sleep, 
Nin gagibishe, I am deaf ; 3d. person, gagibishe ; ningagibishckds, 

I dissemble to be deaf, 
Nind dkos, I am siok ; 3d. person, dkosi; nind dkosikds, I feigit 

to be sick. 
Nin nib, I die ; 3d. person, nibo ; nin nibdkds, I feign to die. 

X. Causing Verbs. 

These verbs are called so, because they indicate that th«" si*!')- 
ject of such a verb causes some animate object to 6e in a c^itaitu 
circumstance, or to do something. They are all a/mnafe verbs,, 
belonging to the IV. Conjugation. They are obtained from the 
characteristical third person of intransitive verbs, by adding a, 
ia, or oa; according to the following Rules. 

Rule 1. When the characteristical third person ends in a vowels 
the letter a only is added, to form a causing verb. 

Examples. 

Nind dbitchiba, I rise from the dead ; 3d. person, dbifchiba ~. 

nind dbiichibaa, I raise him from the dead. 
Nin manisse, I chop ; 3d. person manisse; nin manissea, I make 

him chop wood. 
Nin widige, I am married ; 3d. person, loidige ; nin widigea, I 

make him be married. 
Kind anoki, I work ; 3d. person, anoki ; nind anokia, I make 

him work. 
Rule 2. When the characteristical third person ends in a conso- 
nant, the syllable ia or oa is added to make a causing verb. 
(The syllable oa refers to the mutative vowel o.) 

Examples. 

Nin kashkendam, I am sad ; 3d. person, kashkendain ; nin kash 
kendamia, I make him sad. 

Nin mashkawendam, I am firmly resolved ; 3d. perfioii,mashka- 
wendam ; 7iin mashkawaidamia,! canse h'un to be firmly re- 
solved. 






t '-J 

'■I 






f tf ». ^ 



— 29S 



Nin dodarn, I do it ; 3d. person, dodam ; nin dodamoa, I make 

him do it. 
Nin twdshin, I break tlirough the ice ; 3d. person, hcdshm ; nin 

twdshinoa, I cause him to break through the ice. 

Note 1. All the verbs of the II. and III. Conjugations, when 
transformed into causing verbs, ought to end in oa, because 
their mutative vowel is o. But usage seem.M to require to add ia 
to those that are composed of inendam, (he thinks,) as the first 
two of these Examples, and many others. 

Kote 2. It must be observed here, that not all the verbs of the 
first three (or otlier) Conjugations use to be transformed into 
causing verbs ; and souie have their own way of becoming verbs 
of this kind, as : Niba, he sleeps; nin nihca, I cause him to 
sleep. Kitimdyisi, he is poor : ninkitimdgisi, I make him poor. 
Widif/endiway, they are married together ; nin widigendaag, I 
marry them together. ivdbandan, he sees it ; nin wdhandaa, 
I cause him to see it, I show it to him. kikenddn, he knows 
it ; nin kikendamoa, I cause him to know it, I make it known 
to him, etc., etc. These are verbs by themselves. 

XI. Frequentative Verbs. 

This kind of verbs is used to indicate a repetition or reitera- 
tion of the action expressed by the verb. The contrivance which 
makes common verbs become frequentative, is, to double the 
lirst syllable of the verb. ' 

Examples. 

Nin pakiteoiva, I strike him; nin papakiteowa, I strike him 

repeatedly. 
Nin tdnyishkawa, I kick him ; nin tatdnyishkawa, I kick him 

several times. 

But sometimes, especially when the first syllable of the com- 
mon verb has tlie vowel i, this i is changed in a in the first syl- 
lable of the frequentative verb. 



201) — 



»?!• 



Examples. 

Ni7i gigit, I speak (a short time ;) nin gdgigii, I speak long, 

much. 
Nin pindige, I come in ; ninpdpindige, I come often in. 
Kin nibaw, I stand ; nin ndnibaw, I stand here and there. 

XII. PiTYixo Verbs. 

This modification of verbs is used to manifest ^ri'^y, which the 
subject of these verbs Ims on himself, or on others. In English 
it requires a whole phrase to express the meaning of such a verb. 
We will exhibit here some of them ; and below are the English 
phrases which express their meaning. 



Pit. V. 1 pers. 
Nin debimdsh ; 



Nin hakadesh ; f 
Nin gagihishesh ; % 
Nind dkosish ; II 
Nind ijiwesinh ; § 



Suhj. mood, pres. 
dehimdshan. 
bakadeshan. 
gagibisheshan. 
akosishan. 
ijiivesishan. 



3 pers. 
debimdshi ; 
bakade.^hi ; 
gagVmheahi ; 
dko.nahi ; 
ijiwcsiski ; 

* It is but too true what they say of me. 
t I am worth pity, being so hungry. 
t I am worth pity, being deaf. 
II I am worth compassion, being sick. 
§ I am miserable, being so. 

Debimdshinddog ; I think, what they say of that poor fellow, 
is but too true. (Thirteen words for one.) 

Remark 1. Many active verbs ending in amaioa, indicate by 
this termination something belonging to the object of the verb, 
or relating and alluding to it. This modification of verbs is 
much used in the Otchipwe language, and is expressive. 

Some Examples. 

Nin wdbandamawa od inanokiwin ; I see his work. 
Nin gi-wdbandamawa od ijibiigan ; I have seen his writing. 
Nin jingendamawa o batadowin ; I hate his sin. 
Ninjingendamawa o gaginawi>ihkiwin ; Iliate liis habit of lying . 






' }tt' 



' -I 



V.', ■ 



— 300 — 

You could, indeed, say: Nin wdbandan od inanokiwin ; nin 
Jingendan o gaginawishkiwin ; nin kikendan odijiwebisiwin ; nin 
' nondan maichi gijwewin ; etc. . . This would be understood 
by Indians, but it is not genuine Otchipwe. 

You see by these Examples, that the last syllable of the verb, 
^which always is a verb of the VI. Conjugation.) from which a 
verb of this description is formed, is changed into awatf^a, (which 
makes it become a verb of the IV. Conjugation) But in some 
verbs ending in on, this last syllable is not changed in amdwa, 
but in awa ; as : 

Mn mddjidon, I carry it away ; nin mddjidawa, I carry it to 

him. 
Nin bidon, I bring it; nin bidaiva, I bring it to him. 
Mnd aton, I put it ; nind atawa, I put it to him, or for hinu 
Nin kddon, I hide it; ntn kddawa, I conceal it to him. 
Nin sdgiton, I like (keep) it; ninsdgitaiva, I don't give it to him. 

Etc. . . etc. . . 

It is evident that the verbs ending in dn, change invariably 
this syllable in amdwa, to become verbs of this description. But 
for those ending in on, I can discover no Rule which could show 
us those that change this on in amdwa, and those that change it 
in awa. 

Remark 2. Let me now say a word of contracted verbs. The 
Otchipwe language is full of them. There are no fixed Rules for 
this contraction ; usage contracted or abbreviated them, and es- 
tablished them in the language. Nor is it the business of the 
Grammar, to give a detailed account of them; this is the duty 
•of the Dictionary . I will here only give you a few specimens of 
contracted verbs, and at the same time a hint, to be attentive 
and diligent in the analyzing of compound and contracted verbs 
and other parts of speech. Here are a few specimens. 

Nin nddonddn, I fetch and bring it on my back, [Nin nddin, I 
fetch it ; nin bimonddn, I carry it on my back.) 

Biddssimishka, he is coming here in a canoe. (Bi, denoting ap- 
proach ; onddss, come here ; bimishka, he goes or comes in a 

canoe, boat, etc.) ... ,, , ..... 



301 — 



Jfin hidddjim, I come and tell something. {Biy denoting coming ; 

nin hidddjim, I tell it.) 
• And innumerable otherfl. 



CHAPTER IV. 



OF ADJECTIVES. 

An Adjective is adjected or added to a substantive to express 
its quality or manner of existing. 

The Otchipvve adjectives, like the English, are perfectly inva- 
riable, respecting gender, number and case. So we say : Mino 
kwiwisens, a good boy ; mind ikwesens, a good girl ; mino do- 
damowin, a- good action. As long as they are adjectives they are 
invariable ; but they are ordinarily transformed into verbs, and 
then they are conjugated. 

There are only a few adjectives proper in the Otchipwe lan- 
guage, they are almost all adjective-verbs. 

1. Here are some of the first sort, adjectives proper. 

M«o, good. Gegeimino inini kissaie; thy brother is indeed a 

good man. 
Mino ikweban aw o gi-kitchi-nita-jawenimdn tvidj^ anishindben ; 

she was a good woman, she was very charitable towards her 

neighbor. 
3Iin6 aki na endaji-kitigeiegf Is the soil good where your field is? 
Matclii, bad, evil. Matchl manito ki wi-minigonan matchl inen- 

damowinan ; the evil spirit suggests us bad thoughts. 
Matchl anishindbeg anotch matchi ijiwebisiwinan od aianawan, 

matchl nihi gaie o sdgitonawa ; bad. Indians have many evil 

habits, and they also like liquor, (bad water.) 
Matchi ahinodjiiag ; bad children. 
'Oete,o\di, ancient Gete anishindbeg gi-kitchi-batdinowag ; the 

Indians of old were very numerous . 



wi\ 



wsm 



— 802 — 

Nin geUl masinaigan nin hidon, bekdnak dash mijishikan ; I 

bring my old book, please give me another one, Gete kitiga- 

nan ; old fields. 
Oshkl, new, recent ; young. Oshki maainaigan ki bi-nandota- 

mon ; I come to ask thee for a new book. 
Gwaiak, good, jiist, right, upright, straight. — Gwaiak inini, & 

good or just man ; gwaiak ataiceioimniwag, good traders. 
Kagige, eternal, everlasting. — Gwaiak enamiadjig kagige himd- 

disiioin gijigong ia-mindwag ; to good Christians life everlast- 
ing will be given in heaven. 
Kitchitiod, holy, saint. — KUchitwa Marie ; Saint Mary. Kitchit- 

wd Paul; Saint Paul. Kitchitwd Anamiewigamig ; tlie holy 

Church. 
iW6/wa, much, many. Nihiwa aki o gi-gishpinadon ; he bought 

much land. 
Pangl, some, a little, a few. — Panji jiwitdgan mijishikan ; give 

me some salt. 

Note. These two adjectives, nihiwa and parigi, are oftener ad- 
verbs than adjectives. 

2. Here are some of the second sort, adjective^verbs. 

Nibiodkd aw mini ; this is a wise man. 
Nita-anoki aw ikwii ; this is an industrious woman. 
Neta-anokidjig kitigeivininiwag kitchi ddniwag ; industrious 

farmers are wealthy. 
Kakina ninidjdnissag dkosiwag, my children are all sick. 
Bakadc, he is hungry ; nibdgwe, he is thirsty ; kitimdgisi, lie is 

poor ; jawenddgosi, he is happy. 
Kissind, it is cold ; kijate, it is warm ; amcatin, it is calm ; nd- 

din, it is windy. 

Remark 1. Where we use in English an adjective with the 
auxiliary verb to he, the Otchipwe language will employ a verb, 
in which the adjective and the auxiliary verb are joined in one 
verb. For this reason we call these words adjective-verbs. So,. 
for instance, in the above sentences, nibwakd, does not signify^ 






— no3 — 

only icise, but, he is wise ; bakade, means not only hungry, hwty 
he is hungry ; kissina, not only cold, but, it is cold, etc. 

Remark 2. These adjective- verbs are true verbs denoting qua' 
lity, and arc conjugated. They don't belong all to the same Con- 
jugation. The characteriftical third person and the quality of 
the \ierb indicate the Conjugation to which an adjective-verb be- 
longs, 
Nin wdbishkis,! am white; nin rnakatewis, T am black; nin 

jaicendagos, * I am happy ; Jiin sdgiigos, I an> amiable, (or 

loved.) To the I. Conjugation. 
Nind agddjin, I ajn hanging ; nin minoshin, I am well placed,. 

(lying down.) To the III. Conjugaiion. 
Wdbishka, it is white ; bigoshka, it is broken ; wusseia, it is light ; 

7mnosi'e, it is convenient, it goes well, fits well.) To the VII. 

Conjugation. 
Wdbishkamagad, it is white ; mnnddad, it is bad ; kashkendag- 

wad, it is melancholy, sorrowful. To the VIII. Conjugation. 
Gwandtchiioan, it is beautiful ; songan, it is strong ; onijishin,, 

it is fair, useful. To the IX . Conjugation. 

DEGREES OF COMPARISON IX ADJECTIVES, 

There are three degrees of qualification or comparison which 
can be expressed in adjectives, the Positive, Comparative a^A 
Sxiperlative. In the Otchipwe language these degrees of com- 
parison are expressed in the adjective-verbs, by placing before 
them certain adverbs, as the Exaniples of No. 2 and 3 will show. 

1. The Positive 

Adjectives in the Positive express the quality of objects sim- 
ply, without respect to other objects, as : 
Bekddisi, tabassenindiso gaie aw oshkinawe ; this young man 

is meek and humble, (without respect to the meekness and 

humility of others.) 



. "J . . I. -. 



* By the Intercalation of the syUablewf, between the final o and«, in the 
last syllable of adjective-verbs ending incfo.*, the Otchipwe language gives ta 
these verbs the signification of the i»i}litfinc^o//)ty;neJ'ott)e>' or Goodness, F. I- 
A'irt sdgiigowis, I am loved by God, (God loves me.) 



m 



! 






— not — 

*Giwashkwcbiwag igiw aninhindheg ; thcfie Indians are drunk, 
(without expressing wliether they are more or less drunk than 
others.) 

(iwandtchiwan ki kitigan; tliy field is heautiful. 

<Onijishin 6w mashkiki ; this medicine is good. 

Note. All the adjectives j>ro/?er, and the adj ectiv e-mrh s o^^i\\Q 

Dictionary are in the Positive. 

2. The Comparafice. 

Adjectives in the Comparaiice express the quality of an object 
in a higher or lower degree than that of another ; and according 
'to these two kinds of comparison, the comparative also is double, 
— the comparative of superiority, and the comparative of 
inferiority. 

^. The comparative of superiority is formed, in the Otchipwe 
language, by placing the adverbs aioashime or nawatch before 
an adjective-verb in the positive. These two adverbs have 
both the same signification ; they signify 7nore. 

Paul nawatch kitimi, John dash ; Paul is more lazy than John. 

jiwashinie apitenddgwad anamiewin, kakina dash aking enda- 
gog ; religion is more worth than all other things on earth. 

Ninjdwendagos geget aioashime dash kin ki jdwendagos ; I am 
happy indeed, but thou art more happy, (happier.) 

Nawatch gisiss wasscsi, tibikigisiss dash; the sun is brighter 
(more bright) than the moon 

tb. The comparative of inferiority is formed by placing before an 

adjective-verb the two adverbs nawatch pangl, which signify 

less, or not so much, as : 
Jfawatch pangi kissinamagad nongom, bibinong dash; it is not 

so cold now than it was last winter. 
Namatch panji dkosi nongom, pitchindgo ga-digid ; he is not so 

sick to-day, as he was yesterday. 

3. The Superlaiive. ir ■: 

Adjectives in the Superlative express the quality in a very 
liigh or low, or even in the highest Or lowest degree in one ob- 



a. 



',1 



— 305 — 

9 

j?ct compared witli one or more others; and according to this 
distinction, the superlative also is double, relative and absolute. 

a. The relative superlative (which expresses a very high or low, 
but not the highest or lowest degres of all,) is constructed by 
placing the adverbs dpitchi, or kitchi, before an adjective- 
verb. These adverbs signify very, very much. Sonietimes 
also, to give more strength to the superlative, both a<lverbs, 
Cipitchi and kitchi, are put together. 

Examples of this Superlative. 

Kitchi ginosi aw initil ; this man is very tall, (but not the tallest 
ofali.) 

Apitchi mino himddisi aw kwiwisens ; this is a very good-natur- 
ed boy. 

Kitchi minwenddgossiwag ogow ahinodjiiag ; these are very 
amiable children. 

Apitchi kitchi dkosi ; he is extremely sick. 

Apitchi kitchi kitimdgisinetd-giwashkw^bid ; a drunkard is ex- 
tremely miserable. 

b. The absolute superlative, wliich expresses the highest or low- 
est degree of all,) is constructed by placing before an adjective- 
verb, the adverb mamdwi, which signifies together, or, at all, 
{In the Change it sounds maidmawi.) 

Examples of the absolute Superlative. 

Mi aw maidmawi-ginosid inini ; this man is the tallest of all. 
Aw kwiivisens mdmawi nibwdka endashiwad nin kikinoamaka- 

nag ; this boy is the wisest of all my scholars. 
Maidmawi-nigdnisid Kitchi-mekatewikwanaie ; The Sovereign 

Pontiff, (the highest or foremost Bishop.) 
Maidmawi-Ishpenddgosid ; the Most-High. 

Remark. By the right use of the above adverbs, the strictest 
distinction of the degrees of comparison can be expressed. It 
must, however, be observed, that in common speaking the ad- 
verb dpitchi is often employed to denote the absolute superla- 






114V 



„ |„. 



II 



— 30G — 



tive. F. i. KijelUanito /}pitchi kijhcddisi, fipitrM gate f/waiak 
ijiwehisi ; God is mont luerciCul uiid most just, (in tlie higheat 
degree, of courpe.) 




■<t; (• 



i 



CHAPTER V. 



OF NUMBERS. 



Numbers, (vvliich are properly adjectives, adverbs and verbs,) 
serve to express exactly the quaiitity and succession of objects 
that can be counted. 

There are in the Otchipwe la jguage^^ye distinct sorts of num- 
bers. These sorts of numbers I have arran^^ed here according 
to their derivation from each other. This order is unusual in 
Grammars, but natural in the Otchipwe Grammar, {Nij, n^nij, 
Nijing, nenijing, cko-nijing.) 

1. Cardinal numbers, which express an exact quantity of 
objects without atiy report. 

2. Distributive numbers, which denote distribution and repar- 
tition. 

3. Multiplying numbers, which indicate reiteration or repeti- 
tion. 

4. Multiply ing-distributive numbers, which combine the idea 
of multiplication and distribution in one expression. 

5. Ordinal numbers, which mark the order and succession of 
objects. 



CARDINAL NUMBERS. 



Bejig, 

Nissivi, 

Niwin, 

Ndnan, 

Ningotwdsswi, 

Nljwdsswi, 

Nishwdsswif 



one. 

two. 

three. 

four. 

five. 

six. 

seven. 

eight. 



i, ■ 



— 307 — 



Jdngasswi, 
Miildtinwi, 

Middnnwl uhIu bejig, 
Middsswi anhi nij, 
Middsswi an hi ninnwi, 
** nlwin, 



If 

« 
(I 



«t mil, 

ni.'igoiiodnfiioi, 

ntjwdsni, 

nishwdsntvi, 

jdnydsHwi, 



Nij tana, 

Nytana, aahi bejig, 
nij, 
" nisuwi, 
Nisshnidana, 
Nissimidana ashi bejig, 
Nimidanu, 
Ndn^ idana, 
MngottodKHimidana, 
Nijw ass im ida na, 
Nishwdssimidana , 
Jdngassimdana, 
Ningotwdk, 
Ningoiwdk asM bejig, 
" nij, 



tt 
n 
tt 
tt 
tt 



middsswi, - - - 

middsswi ashi hejij, 

" ningotwdsswi, 

nijtana 

nij tana ashi wHnan, 
Mjwdk, - - - - - 

" ashi ndiiimidana ashi nij, - 
Nisswdk, - , - 
Niwdk - ■ - . - 

Ndnwdk, - •- -. 



nine. 

ten. 

eleven. 

twelve. 

thirteen. 

f'uurteen. 

fifteen. 

sixteen. 

seventeen. 

eighteen. 

nineteen. 

twenty. 

21. 

'22. 

23. 

30. 

31. 

40. 

50. 

(10. 

70. 

80. 

90. 

- ^ 100. 

101. 

002. 

110. 

111. 

11(5. 

120. 

125. 

200. 

252. 

300. 

400. 

600. 



n4=V^ii 



•Vi,. 





r 



— 308 — 

Ningotwdssivdl-. - - - - GOO. 
Nijwdsswak, - - - - 700. 
Nishv)dsswdk, - - - - 800. 
Jangdsswdk, - - - - 900. 
Middsswdk, .... i,000. 
Middsswdk ashihejig, - - - 1,0C'. 
" middsswi - - - 1,010. 
" 7iijwdk ashinissirnidana, 1,230. 
Nijing middsswdk, - - • - 2,00n> 
Nissing " .... 3,000. 
Niioing " ... . 4,000. 
Mning " .... 5,000. 
Ningotwdtchiiig middssiodk, - - - 6,000- 
Nijwdtching " - - - 7,000. 
Nishwdtching " - - - 8,000. 
Jdngatching " ... 9,000. 
Middtching " - - - 10,000. 
Middiching ashi abiding middsswdk, - 11,000. 
Middtcking ashi dbiding viiddsswdkaski niu- 
goiicdk ashi middsswi ashi hejig '- • 11,111. 
Middiching ashi nijing middsswdk, - 12,000. 
" nissing " - 13,000. 
«« nishwdtchiny •' - 18,000. 
Middtching ashi jdngatching middsswdk ashi 
nijwdsswdk ashi nishwdssimidana ashi nin- 
gotwdssi, .... 19,786. 
Nijtana dasso middsswdk, • - 20,000. 
" ashindnan, - 20,005. 
" ashi middssiodk - 21,000. 
" ashi middsswdk ashi 
ningoiwdk ashi middsswi ashi nij, - 21,112. 
Nijtana dasso middsswak ashi ndning middss- 
wdk, ... . 25,000. 
" niswdiching 
middsswdk ashi nisswdk, - - 28,300. 
Nissimiiana dasso middsswdk - - 30,000. 



Mi 



— 309 — 



Nduimidana 



50,000. 



ashi ndnicdk ashi 



ndnan, ... . 50,505. 

Jdngassimidana dasso middsswdk, - 90,000. 

Ningotwdk ". - - 100,000. 

Nisswdk " - - 300,000. 

Middssmdk «* - • - 1,000,000. 

Etc., etc. 

Remark \. To express 2000, they also say: nijtandk ; 3000,. 
nissimidandk ; 4000, ntmidandk ; 5000, nanimidandk ; 6000,, 
ningolwdssimidandk ; 7000, mjwdssimidandk ; 8000, nishwdssi- 
midandk ; %00,jdngassimidandk. Tliis is the same as: twenty 
liundred, thirty l\un(:lred, forty liundred, etc. 

Remark 2. In counting from eleven up to twenty, they ordina- 
rily omit middsswi, and only say : ashi bejig, eleven ; ashi nij,. 
twelve ; ashinisswi, thirteen, etc. 

Remark 3. In common quick counting they 8a,y jdng, instead 
of Jdngdsswi, nine ; and kwetch, instead of middsswi, ten. TliiS' 
is however not to be imitated. 

Examples. 

Adam, nitdm inini, jdngasswdk ashi nissXmidana dasso bibdn 

gi-bimddisi oma aking. Adam, the first man, lived nine hun- 

dx"ed and thirty years on earth. 
Nijo bibon gi-anoki, mi dash ndiiwdk dasswiblk joniiaa gi-gash- 

kiad. He has worked two years and earned 500 dollars. 
Ndning middsswdk ininiwar. -^esus o gi-ashamdn pagwadakamig,- 

jidnan dash eta pakwejiganan o gi-awan. Jesus fed 5000 men 

in the desert with only five loaves of bread. 

Remark 1. The Cardinal numbers from one to ten undergo a 
little change before substantives signifying ?rtea,9i«*f, of time or' 
of other things; and these substantives always remain in the 
singnlar nnmher. In tend of beJig, nij,nissivi, etc., we say be- 
fore those substantive - : ningo, nlJo, nisso, nio, ndno, ningot- 
wdsso, nljwdsso, nishivdsso, Jdngdsso, middsso. Some instances- 








I 



— HIO — 

of this you have seen in tlie above Examples, and I will give you 
some more here. 

Ningo gisiss nin gi-anonig. He hired nie for a niontli, or for 

one month. 
Kawin na ki dci-mijissi ningo tihaigan manitowegin ? Wouldst 

thou not give me a yard of cloth. 
Nijo hihon gi-aici Moniang. He was two years in Montreal. 
Nissd tibaigan papagiwaidnigin ki minin. I give thee three 

yards of cotton. 
Gcga ningotwdsso giniss gi-incndi. He was absent nearly six 

months. 

Remark 2. Cardinal numbers from ten to nineteen, when be- 
fore substantives denoting measure, are expressed in three man- 
ners, viz : 

1. Midd-fso bibon asJd bejig, eleven years. 

" nij, twelve years. 

'' ndnan, fifteen years, etc. 

2. Middsso bihon asM ningo bibon, eleven years. 

" gisiss " nijo gisiss, iweXwemon^MH. 

" dibaigan ashijangdsso dlbaigan, nineteen bushels, etc. 

3. Ashi ningo bibon, eleven years. 

Ashi nisso dibaigan, thirteen yards, bushels, feet, etc. 
Ashi ndno gisiss, fifteen months, etc. 

Note. These <A?'ee manners of expressing numbers are to be 
ivpplied also to the subsequent Remarks ; mutatis mutandis. 

Remark 3. When the Cardinal numbers before substantives 
denoting measure, are expressed in round numbers, twenty, 
thirty, fifty, hundred, thousand, etc., the word dasso * is put 
between the number and the substantive, this latter remaining 
invariably in the singular. But when numbers under ten are 
joined to the round numbers , the rules of the foregoing ^ema?*^; 
take place. You have already seen some cases of this in the 
-above Examples, ahd here are some more. 



Note. The word drwso signifies nothing in itself ; it is only used in connec- 
tion with wordi signifying Hieasure, of time or of other things. 



— 311 — 



{jxoaiak nijtana dasso bibon gi-bimddisi nindnnissiban. My de- 
ceased daugliter has lived just t.venty years. 

Mmidana dasso tibaigan seniba nin gi-glshpinana. I bouglit 
forty yards of ribbon. 

Nijwdk dasso tibdbishkodjigan,anokadJigan o bimondan. He 
carries on his back 200 pounds of goods. 

Niniishomissiban ningotwdk dasso bibon ashi nijo bibon gi-bimd- ' 
disi. My deceased grand-father lived a hundred and two 
years. 

Nissimidana ashi ndno tikdbishkodjigan pakwejiganan nin gi- 
ashamig. He gave me thirty -five pounds of Hour. 

Remark 4. When the substantive following the Cardinal num- 
ber, from one to nineteen, signifies objects ofivood, stone, metal, 
etc., or when (?fl)/s are mentioned, the Cardinal number is con- 
nected with certain syllables alluding to the material, or shape, 
of the object expressed by the substantive ; according to the fol- 
lowing scheme. 
'a. With the syllable <7ioan, to indicate days; as: 

Nijogwan nin gi-bimosse. I walked two days. 

Jaigwa nissogwan kdwin icissinissi. He has eaten nothing 

now three days. 

Ndnogwan gi-aid omd. He stayed here five days, 

Niogwan, nishwdssogican, middssogican ; middssogican ashi 

nijogwan, or only ; ashi nijogwan, etc. 

To express one day, they will say, ningo gijig. 
b. With the syllable ssag, to denote wooden vessels, such as bar- 
rels, kegs, boxes, etc., as: 

Ningotossag manddminag nin ga-gishpinanag. I will buy a 

barrel of corn. 

Nljossag pakw^jigansan od aiawan. He has two barrels of 

crackers. 

Jdngdssossag sagdiganan. Nine kegs of nails. 

Mssos;mgjoniia. Three boxes of money. 

Niossag, ndnossag, middssossag ; middssossag ; ashi bejig, etc, 
<. With the syllable weg, to mark clothing materials, as : 

B^jigweg wdboian. One blanket. - 

21 



i 



'■* »■ 



wv- f ■ 








i '' 



I 



— 312 — 

Nijweg tcdbdianan, niweg dash papaghimidnan, nissweg dash 

moshweg, mi minik ga-dibaamagoidn. My pay consisted iu 

two blankets, four sliirts an<l three liandkerchiefs. 

Ndaweg, nvigotwastiweg, middssiceg ; nuddssiiieg ashi hejig. . . 
d. With the syllables xodtig to allude to wood or lumber ; as : 

Kawin ganage hejigwdtig nabagisaag nind aidwassi. I have 

not a single board. 

Middssicdtig missan bulon. Bring ten sticks of wood. 

NisswdUg abwln. Three paddles. 

Ningotwdsswdtig ajeboianan. Six oars. 

Nijwdtig, ndniodtig, nijiodsswdtig ; middssiodtig ashi bejig, 

midasswatig ashi niiviii ; ashi nanwdtig. 
€. With the syllables xodbik, to signify metal, stone, or glass ; as : 

Bejigwdbikjoniia kl ga-dibaamon. I will pay thee one dollar. 

Middsswdbik tvassetchiganabikoii. Ten window-glasses, (ten 

panes of window-glass.) 

Nisswdbik kijabikisiganan. Three stoves. 

Ndnwdbik jigwanabikog nin biiiag. I bring with nie five 
grindstones. 

Niwdbik, nishwdsswdbik ; middsswdbik ashi nijwdbik, or, 

midasswdbik ashi nij, or only ashi nijwdbik, ashi nisswdbik... 
f. With the syllables minag, to designate globular objects, as : 

B^jigominag tchiss ganag^ ashamdkan. Give him at least 

one turnip. 

Nissominag mishiminag ki ga-minin. I will give thee three 

apples. 

Niominag opinig. Four potatoes. 

Middssominag anioXn. Ten musket-balls. 

Middssominag ashi bejig ; middssominag ashi nij; midasso- 

minag ashi niominag askinanominag, ashi jangdssominag . 
There are many other syllables of this description in the Ot- 
chipwe language, which are attached to Cardinal numbers to 
allude to some particular object. 

Here are again some of them. 
</. w6naa, ^Wwdxwgiodi. pair or pairs, Q.s: 

Ningotwcwan makisinan, a pair of shoes ; nijwewan, nisswe- 



— HI 3 



wan, niweioan ; namcewan pijikiwag, five pair of yoke of 
oxen. Middsswewan asM hejiy ; midasswewan ashi nimjot- 
wassioewan ; aslii jangdssicewan, nineteen pair. 
h. oshkin, to allvide to a bag or sack, as : 

Ningotoshkin opinig, a bag of potatoes; nijoshkin, nissoshkin,. 
ndnoshkin ; nijwdssoshkin mhliiminag, seven bags of applea ;; 
middssoshkin ashi ndnan, fifteen bags. 
i. onag, to allude to a canoe, boat, vessel, etc., as : 

Ningoionag, nijonag ; nionag tchimdaan niti lodhandanan. 1 
see four canoes ; nana nag ; middnsonag ndbikwanan, ten ves- 
Bels ; middssonag ashi nanonag ishkotendbikwonan gi-niho- 
magadon, fifteen steamboats liave perished. 
j. viiVi, alluding to the outstretched arms of a man measuring a 
fathom, as : 

Ningotonik, nijonik, nissonik, nionik, ndnonik ; middssonik 
himinakican, ten fathoms of cord ; midassonik ashi ningot- 
wdssonik, sixteen fathoms. 
k. sid, alluding to the measurement by the foot, as : 

Ningotosid, nijosid, nissosid, nannsid, nishiodssosid ; midus<- 
sosid, ten feet ; midassosid ashi bejig ; midassosid ashi nijo- 
sid; ashi nissosid, thirteen feet. 
I. lodkiooagan, alluding to the measurement by the span, as : 
Ningotivdkwoagan, nissicdk ivoagan ; midasswdkwoagan, ten 
epan ; midasswdkwoagan ashi namvdkwoagan, fitleen span. 
7n. nindj, alluding to a finger, for the measurement by the inch^ 
as: 

NingofoniadJ, one inch; nijonindj, nissonindj ; Jangdss- 
oninj, nine inches; middssonindj ashi bejig, eleven inches. 

Remark 5. The same syllables are also annexed to the inter- 
polation-word dasso, under the circujustances referred to in the 
preceding Remark 3, when the Cardinal numbers before the 
substantive above described are round numbers ; as twenty, 
thirty, forty, eighty, hundred, thousand. — The following Exam- 
ples will illustrate this Remark. 

a. gioan, nijtana dassogwan, twenty days ; ndnimidana dassog- 
%can, fifty days. 



.'.f 






m 



m 



— 314 — 

6. ssat/, ninfjoticCik dasaoHsay biniide, a liundred barrels of oil ; 
nissimidana dassossag gi<jd, thirty barrels offish. 

c. weg, ningotwdssimidanadassweff wdboianan, sixty blankets; 
nimidana dassic'g addpowiniginon, forty tablecloths. 

d. tcdtig, nywassimidana dasstcdtig gijikag, seventy cedars ; 
nijtana dasswdiig abajln, twenty lodge-poles. 

e. wdbik, nishwdssimidana dasswdhik Joniia, eighty dollars ; 
middsswak dasswdhik sagdiganan, one thousand nails. 

f. minag, nissimidana dassominag anindjlmin, thirty peas ; jan- 
gdssimidana dassominag ogwissimdnan, ninety pumpkins. 

And so also with the other syllables ; dassioeican, dassoshkin, 
dassonag, dasonik, dassosld, dasswdiooagan, dassonindj. 

Numbers xinder ten, attached to those round numbers, will 
follow the rules of Remark 2. As, nijtana dassogwan ashi nij- 
ogipan ; ningotwdk dassossag ashi ndnossag, etc. etc. 

The manner of expressing age, the day of the month, and the 
honr, is another peculiarity and difficulty of the Otchipwe lan- 
guage, which we have to consider here. 

Manner of expressing age. 

1. If the age of a child is under a month, it is, expressed in the 
in the same manner as the dag of the 7no}ith,(p.'3l5.) F. i. 
Anin endassogwanagisid aio abinodjl? How many days is 
this child old ? Nijogwanagisi, nissogwanagisi, niogwana- 
gisi, midassogwanagisi, etc. . . It is two, three, four, ten 
days old, etc. . . 

2. If the age of a child is to be expressed in months, they say' 
thus : 

Anin endasso-gisissicagisid aw abinodji ? How many months 
is this child old? Ningo-gisisswagisi, n'ljo-gisisswagisi, nio- 
gisiss w agist, ningotwasso-gisiss wagisi, middsso-gisisswagisi 
ashi nisswi, nijtana dasso-gisisswagisi ashi nij, etc. . . . He is 
one, two, four six, thirteen, twenty-two months old, etc. 

3. If the age to be expressed is not over ten years, they connect 
the Cardinal number with the word bibon, (which signifies 
winter or year,) and make a verb of it ; thus : 



— 315 — 



Anin endasso-hihonagislian? Niii nishwdsso-bihonagis . How 
many years art thou old? I am eight years old. Anin cndas- 
so-bihonar/isid ? Middsso-bibonagisi. How many years is he 
(she) old ? He (siie) is ten years old. Ogoto nijoddag kawin 
mashi ndno-bibonagisisslwag . Tl.ese twins are not yet live 
years old. 

4. If the age is from ten to ninetecii jears, it 9an be expressed in 
three different manners ; thus: 

Middsso-bipdnagisi ashi mo bibonagisi, or middsso-bibonagisi 
ashi 7ilw in, or as hi nio-bibonagisi ; he is fourteen years .old. 
(In the first person the second manner is usual ; as, nin mi' 
ddsso-bibonagis ashi nij ; nin middsso-bibonagis ashi ndnan, 
etc.) 

6. If the age is over nineteen years, and expressed in round nun^- 
bers, they put dasso before bibon, and frame the whole into a 
verb. Nin nimidana dasso-bibonagis , or nimidana nin dasso- 
bibonagis ; I am forty years old. Nanimidana dasso-bibona- 
gisi ; he is fifty years of age. Aioashime nijtana dasso-biho- 
nagisiwag nishimeiag ; my brothers are over twenty years old. 

G. If the age is upwards of twenty years, and expressed in mixed 
numbers, it is given as follows, viz: 

Nijtana dasso-bibonagisi ashi niwin ; he is twenty-four years 
old. Nin nanimidana dasso-bibsnagis ashinissiol; I am fifty- 
three years old. Nijtana dasso-bibonagisi nin bebejigoganjim, 
ashi nij ; my horse is twenty-two years old. 







Manner of expressing the day of the month. 

The Otchipwe names of the twelve months or moons : 

1. Manito-gisiss, the moon of the spirit, (January.) 

2. Namebini-gisiss, the moon of suckers, (fish,) (February.) 

H, Ondbani-gisiss, the moon of the crust on the snow, (March.) 

4. Bebokwedagiming-gisiss, the moon of the breaking of the 
enow shoes, (April.) 

5. Wdbigon-gisiss, the moon of flowers and blooms, (May.) 

6. OUiniini-gisiss, the moon of strawberries, (heart-berries) 
(June.) 



' ' I 



mA, 






■MMMMH 



'wm 






i^\''' 

1^;: 



m 



1 






— 316 — 

7. ^liskwimini-gisiss, the moon of raspberries, (red-berries,) 

(July.) 
,8. Min-<iisiss, the moon af whortleberrietJ, (August.) 
5. Manominike-yisisfi, the moon of the gathering of wiM rice, 

(September.) 

10. Bindkwi-(/isiss, the moon of tlie falHng of leaves, (October.) 

11. Gasfikadino-gisiss, the moon of freezing, (November.) 

12. Manito-yisissona, the little moon of the spirit, (December.) 

The word gisiss which means sun and moon, is an animate 
substantive. * 

The question after the date is in Otchipwe thus : Anin cndas- 
sogwanagisid yisiss nongotn ? How many days is the moon old 
to-day ? or, anin epitch gisissowagak ? How late is the moon? 

The answer is, for the j^Vi'/ day : Nongom mddaginHO manito- 
gisiss, nam^bini- gisiss, etc. ; to-day the month of January, Feb- 
ruary, etc., begins to be counted. ¥ov i\\Q following days they 
say : Such a month, or moon, is so and so many days old. F. i. 

Manito-gisiss nongom njogwanagisi, to-day is the 2d of Jan. 
" nissogwanagisi, to-day is the 3d Jan. 

" nlogwanagisi, to-day is the 4th Jan. 

** ndnogicanagisi, to-day is the 5th Jan. 

Namchini-gisiss nongom nishivdssogwanagisi, to-day is the 8th 

of February. 

middssogwanagisi, to-day is the 10th of 
February. 

midassogwanagisi aslii bejig, to-day is the 
11th of February. 
Ondbani-gisiss nongom aski nijogwanagisi, to-day is the 11th of 

March. 
" nijogwanagisi, " I3th March. 

' f^ mu^o^i«asso^wayia^m,to-day is the 16th of 

March. 



« 



(( 



f 



* When tbey want to express the distinction between these two luminaries, 
they will say gisUa for the sun, and UbikigUiss, (night suu,) tor the moon.| 



— 317 — 

Wdbigon-gisiss nongom 'ashi n'ljicds.sogwanagisi , to-day is the 

17tli of May. 
" jdiujassogwanagisi, to-day i.s the 19th of 

May. 
Wdbigon-gisins nongom nijtana dassogwaaagisi, to-day is the 

20th of May. 
Odeimin-gisiss nongom nijtana dassogwaaagisi ashi bejig, to-day 

ia the 21st of June. 
Odeimin-gisiss nongom nijtana dassogwanagisi ashi nij^ to-day 

is the 22d of June. 
Bindkwi-gisiss nongom nijtana dassogwanagisi ashl ndnan, to- 
day is the 25th of October. 
Bindkwi-gisiss nongom nijtana dassogwanagisi ashi Jangdsswi, 

to-day is the 2!)th of October. 
Manito-gisiss nongom nissimidana dassogwanagisi, to-day is the 

30th of December. 
Manito-gisiss nongom nissimidana dassogwanagisi ashi bejig, 
to-day is the Slat of December. 

Manner of expressing the hour. 

The Indians have no proper term for hour in tlieir language. 
They call it dibaigan, wliich signifies measure in general, and is 
applied to several divisions of time and other things. It means : 
i mile, sere, bushel, yard, foot, etc. Applied to the twelve hours 
tis nsed tlius: 
For the question : 

Anin endasso-dibaiganeg ? What o'clock is it? or, Anin epitch 
gijigak? (epitch tibikak?) How late is it in the day? (in 
the night?) 
For the answer : 

Ningo dibaigan, it is one o'clock ; 

mjo dibaigan, it is two o'clock ; 

nijo dibaigan ashi dbita, it is half-past two ; 

nisso dibaigan, it is three o'clock ; 



nio " 

ndno " 
nishcdsso' 
middsso ' 



four 
five 
ght 



ei 



tea 






hi 




— 318 — 

midasso dihaigan ashi dbiia, it is half-past ten ; 

middsso dibaiyan ashi be/ig, it is eleven o'clock ; 

middsso dibaigan ashi nij, it is twelve o'clock. 

Instead of middsso dibaigan ashi nij, they coninjonly say r 
yidtvokwe, or, ndwokwemagad, it is noon ; abitd-tibikad , it is 
midnight. 

2. Distributive Numbers. 



BSbejig, ,- 

nenij, 

nenisswi, - - - 

n^niwin - - - 

nendnan, - 
n^ningotwdsstvi , 
ncnijwdssioi, 
nenishwdsswi , - 
jrjangasstvi, 
memiddsswi, 
memiddsswi ashi bejig, 
memiddsswi ashi nij, 
memiddsswi ashi ndnan, 



1 by 1; 1 each, or to each, 
2 every time, 2 each, or to each,. 



3 
4 

5 
6 

7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
15 



memiddsswi ashijdngasswi 19 



nenijtana, - - - 
nenijtana ashi bejig, - 
nenissimidana, - 
ncnimidana 
n4ndnimidana, - 
neningotwdssimidana, - 
nenij wdssimidana 
nenishwdssimidana 
jejdngdssimidana, 
ncningotwdk 
neningotiodk ashi bejig, - 
ncnijwdk. - - - 
jejangasswdk, 
memidasswdk, 
nijing memidasswdk, 



20 

21 

30 

40 

50 

60" 

70 

80 

90 



a 

ti 

(t 

(( 

f( 

a 

ti 

I. 

II 

(( 

(( 

(( 

i( 

(( 

(C 

ee 

.< 

<( 
(< 

(C 



3 
4 
5 
6 

7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
15 
19 
20 
21 
30 
40 
50 
60 
70 
80 
90 



(C 

(( 

(( 
<( 



(< 

(C 

(( 
(( 

(( 
(( 
I. 
ce 

(( 



(( 
(( 
(c 

<( 
(( 



(( 
(( 
(I 
a 
i( 
<e 

(C 

It 

t( 



ft 
ft 



100 every time 100 each or to each,. 

101 " 101 " " 
200 " 200 " " 
900 " 900 " " 

1000 " 1000 " 
2000 " 2000 '• " 



— 319 ■- 



" 3000 " " 

" 11000 

" 12000 

" 20000 " " 

" 100000 



(( (( 



(( <t 



(< f( 



nissing mimidasswdk , - 3000 

midatching as hi abid- 
ing m^midasswdk, - 11000 

midatching ashi nijing 
m^midasswdk, - - 12000 

nijana dassing memidass- 
wdk, - - - 20000 

ningoiiodk dassing memi- 
dasswdk, - - 100000 
Etc., etc. 

E.XAMl'LES 



Kakina ogow ininiwag hehejig mitigotchimdn' gi-mindwag. A 
boat was given to each of these men. 

Neniwin masinaiganan od aianawan. They have four hooks 
each. 

Naningim hi-ijdn, nenij dash bi-icidjiw kidji-kwiivisensag. Come 
often, and bring every time two other boys with tliee. 

Anishindheg nmijweg xodhoianan gi-dibaamaiodicag. The In- 
dians received in their payment two blankets each. 

Memiddssossag pakwejiganan od aiawanan. They Jiave ten bar- 
rels of flour eacli. 

Nissaieiag neningotwdk dassd dibaigan aki o gi.gishpinadonawa. 
My brothers bought a hundred acres of land each. 

Nissing gi-ijd idshkibodjiganing, jejdngasshnidana dasswdiig 
dash nabdgissagon o gi-binan. He went three times to the 
mill, and brought ninety boards every time. 

Memiddsswdbik ashi ndnan sagaiganan nin gi-bi-nandotamagogy. 
nenijtana dasswdbik dash nin gi-minag. They came and ask- 
ed me fifteen nails each, and I gave to each twenty, (or twenty- 
each.) 

Nenijtana, nenissimidana gaie bemddisidjig gi-nibowag endasso- 
gijigadinig odenang, mcgwa aidmagak kitchi dkosiioin. 
Twenty or thirty persona died every day in the city, during 
the time of cholera. 

Remark. All the five Remarks (p. 309-313,) are applicable to 









> >9 



' ill 



-« um 





— 320 




i ■! 






Distributive Niimhoi-H as wi'll as to Cunliiml, ns you sec in some 
• of the above Exainpios. 

3. Multiplying Numbers. 

Ahidinij, 

nijiiKj, 

nisning, 

nhcing, 

n/ining, 

ningatwnicldnf), . . . 

mjicdichiiuj, . . . . 

nishtvntrhinri, . . - - 

jdmiatchinii, - - . . 

midCitchinri, .... 

middiching aHld dbiding, - 

middtching ashi nijing 

middtching aKhiJdngatching, 

lujtana dassing, - - . 

n'ljtana dassing ashi abiding. - 

mjiana dassing ashi nijing, 

nissemitana dassing, 

ningotwdssimidana dassing, 

ningotwdk dassi'g, 

ningotwdk dassing ashi abiding, 

ningotwdk dassing ashi middtching ashi nijing 

nisswdk dassing, .... 

nanwdk dassing, . . . . 

tnidassiodk dassing, .... 

midasswdk ashi nisswak nrhi nijtana dassing 

ashiniwing, - ... 

middtching midasy 
.ningotwak dassc 
Etc., etc. 



ing, 

oak dassing. 

Examples. 



once, 




twice, 




three times. 


4 times, 


5 


(< 


6 


.( 


7 


(< 


H 


(( 


9 


.< 


10 


(( 


11 


(( 


12 


ei 


19 


i< 


20 


i( 


• 21 


((, 


- 22 


(( 


- 30 


(( 


- r.o 


i( 


- 100 


<( 


- 101 


<( 


', .112 


(( 


- 300 


(( 


- 500 


<< 


- 1,000 


(( 


- 1,324 


(( 


- 10,000 


(( 


100,000 


(( 



Mijing ki ga-dipdkonigonun Kije-Manito. God will judge us 
twice. 



15 1 



— 321 — 

KHrhHira Pniil uaiiiiiff (ji-haxlKinjeowa, auamiewiii ondji. St. 

Ptiul was fldgf^cd five times, for relin^ion's sake. 
Nuujotwdk daaniiKj kiiohidamoninim tr.ki yimodiaaiiceu, mimdrh 

dash nijiiKj minawa ki <ji-tjimodin. I tell you a hundred 

times nut to nteal, and yet you l»ave stolen twice again. 
Middtchini/ ashi imning nin (ji-xodhama bibdiwny. I 8aw him 

thirteen times last winter. 
Meiw-ijiwehisid iniiU uijwdti'hiiuj jxmghhin, minawa dusk pa- 

siywi. A just man falls seven times, and rises up again. 
Pierre, numjom tilnkak nissiiuf ki i)ad-d(jonwetam kikcnimiian. 

Peter, this night thou shalt deny me three times. 

4. MLLTIlMA'ING-DlSTlSIHrTIVE Nu.MBKRS. 






Aidhiding, 

nniijiiif/, 

iicnissiiuj, 

neniwiiuj, 

nendniiKj, 

ni' n i iKjoi u'dichi luj f 

nenijimtckimj, 

nenishwdtcldnij, 

jejaiKjdlcSimj, 

vidmiddti'kinij, 

memiddicking ashi 
abiding, 

memitatching ashi 
nijing, 

memidaiching ashi 
naning, 

iwnijtaita dassing, 

nenijtana dassing 
ashi abiding, 

nenissimidana das- 
sing, 

nenimidana dassing, 40 



once every time ; once each, or to each, 

twice every time ; twice each, or to each, 

3 times every time ; 3 times each or to each 



4 


<( 


4 




(< 


5 


a 


5 




(( 


G 


(I 


t; 




tt 


7 


a 


7 




if 


8 


(( 


8 




tt 


y 


(i 


9 




(t 


10 


i( 


10 




(( 



11 times every time ; 11 tim. e., or to e., 



r 

15 
20 

21 

30 



f< 
ft 

« 

tt 
tt 



12 

15 
20 

21 

30 
40 






(t 












•if. 






■ f 



— 322 



Ifii 



i.i'. 

S3 



l;'-'1 



\iht 



jejangassimidan a 
dassing, i»0 

neningotwdk das- 
sing, 100 

neningotwCk das- 
sing ashi abiding, \0l 

neningotwdk das- 
sing achi midat- 
ching asliijdn- 
gatching, 119 

n^nijwdk dassing, 200 

nenisswdk dassing, 300 

jejangassiodk das- 
sing, 900 

niemidasswdk das- 
sing, 1000 

loemidassiodk ashi 
nijwak ashi nis- 
simidana dassing 
ashi niwing, 1234 

memidafching 
midasswdk das- 
sing. 10,000 

neningotwdk das- 
sing midass- 
wdk, 100,000 
Etc., etc. 



tt 



(( 



90 " 

100 " 

101 " 



(C 


119 


(( 


<c 


(( 


200 


(( 


<c 


<e 


300 


(( 


a 


i( 


900 


k( 


(( 


(( 


1000 


t( 


ei 



1234 



10,000 " 



100,000 



Examples. 



Gigetmatchi kioiwisensish niaham; nenijing, nenissing gaie o 
gi-papakiteowan iniw widji-kwiwisensan. '''his i.s indeed a 
bad boy ; he struck twice or three times each of these his fel- 
low-boys. 

Nij ningwissag nendnig gi-ijdwag odenang. Two of my sons 
went to town five times each. 

Mssing bi-ijawag endasso-gijigadinig, niniwing dash mojag nin 



— 323 



V 



kikinoamawag. Tliey come three times a day ; and I teach 
them their lessons four times every ti.ne (tliey come.) 

Nij masinaiganan nind didnan, nemjwdiching dash jaigwa nin 
gi-xvdbandanan. I have two books, and I have read them al- 
ready seven times each. 

Nenissing nin gi-qanonag. I have spoken three times to eacli, 
(to every one of them.) 

Nissici nind inamhuaganag wdssa aiawag, ni'nishwdiching da-ih 
jaigwa nin mddjihiamdwag . Three of my reUitives are far off, 
and I have ah'eady written eight times to each. 

5. Oruixal Numbers. 

Netamissing, or niiam, tiie first, or first ; 
^ko-nying, the .second, or secondly ; 
eko-nlssing, the tliird, or thirdly ; 
eko-niwing, the fourth, or fourthly; 
eko-ndnaning , the fifth, or lifthlv ; 
eko-ningotwdtc/nng , tlie sixth, ur si.xthly ; 
eko-ny watching, the seventh, ur seventhly ; 
eko-nishwdtching, the eighth, or eighthly ; 
eko-jdngatrhing, the ninth, or ninthly ; 
eko-middtching, the tentli, or tenthly ; 
eko-ashi-bejig, the eleventh, or eleventhly ; 
eko-ashi-7i ij ing ,tlie twelfth, or twelfthly ; 
eko-ashi-nissing, the thirteenth, or thirtcenthly ; 
eko-as'hi-Jang( frfiing, the nineteenth, or nineteenthly ; 
eko-n'ijtanaweg, the twentieth, or twentietlily ; 
eko-nijtanawcg aski bejig, the twenty-first, or twenty-firstly ; 
eko-nijtana anhi nijing, the twenty-second, or twenty-secondly ; 
eko-n'ijtana aahi nis.'iingf the twenty-third, or twenty-tliirdly ; 
eko-nisslmidanaweg, thirtieth, or thirtiethly ; 
ekn-nissim'idanaweg aahi bojig, the thirty-fir.st, or thirtv-firstiy ; 
eko-niss'imidana ashi nijing, the thirty-.second , or thirt y-sccondlv; 
ekn-nisHmidana ashi ndning, the thirty-fifth, or thirty-fifthly. 
eko'nlmiddnaweg, the fortieth, or fortiethly; 
cko-ndnimiddnaweg, the fiftieth, or fiftiethly ; 



324 



€ko-ninf/otwdssimidanaioe(/, the sixtietli, or fiixtiethly ; 

eko-nijtvassimidanaweg, tlie seventieth, or seventietlily ; 

eko nishwassimidanawey, tfie eightieth, or eightiethly ; 

eko-jdnrjassimidanawed, tlie ninetieth, or ninetieth ly ; 

ekn-niiKjotwdkwak, tlie hundredtli, or Imndredthly ; 

eko-niiu/oiwdkwak ashi hejiij, the liundred-firr-t, or liundred- 
firstly ; 

eko-ningotiodk ashi nijing, the Imndred and second, or hundred 
and secondly ; 

eko-ningotiodk ashi nissing, the Inindred and third, or liundred 
and thirdly ; 

eko-niiujoiiodk ashi middtchlng ashi bejig, the hundred and ele- 
venth, or hundred an<l eleventhly; 

eko-ni)igofwak ashi middsswi ashi nijing, the hur 'red and 
twelfth, or hundred and twelfth ly ; 

eko-ningotwdk ashi middssioi ashi nissing, the lumdred and 
thirteenth, or hundred and tliirteenthly ; 

eko-uingaftcdk ashi nijtanaiceg, the huiulred and twentieth, or 
hunilred and twentiethly ; 

eko-ningotwdk ashi nijtanaweg ashi beiig, the Imndred and 
twenty-liryt, or hundred and twenty-firstly ; 

eko-ningotwdk ashi nijtana ashi nijing, the hundred and twenty- 
second, or liundred and twenty-seoondly ; 

eko-ningotwdk ashi nissimidanaweg, the hundred and thirtietli, 
or hundred and tliirtiethlv ; 

eko-nijwakwdk, the two liundredth, or two hundredthly ; 

eko-nisswakwdk, the three hundredth, or three hundredthly ; 

eko-Jangasswakwdk, the nine hundredth, or nine hundredthly j 

eko-midasswakwdk, the thousandtli, or thousandthly ; 

eko-nijing midasswdk, the tvvo thousandth, or two thousandthly j 
Etc., etc. 

Examples. 

Nitam inini Adam kitchi ginwenj gi-bimddisi. The first man 

Adam lived very long. 
Eko-nissing apdbiwinan namadabi. He sits on the third bench. 
Kitchi gandsongewin eko-niwing KiJ^Maniio o gandsongewinan. 



325 — 



The fourth comniandinent of God is a great conimandinerii, 
Eko nytana ashi nisifvi;/ loakair/dnanodenai/, mi ima endaidn.- 

I live in the twenty-third liouse in the village. 
Kitchi nlhiwa atewan wedi maainaiganan, eko-aiihi-nissing dash 

hldawishin. Tliere are a great nianv books there, hriiK' nie 

the thirteentli. 
Anin iw ekomiddaswdka'ak as/ii hrjir/ f/agwendjindiivlnan? 

Which is the thousand and first question ? 
Eko-ndnaning omodensan bidon ; whiijishing mashkXki pindr- 

magad. Bring iiere the fifth vial; there is a gooil medicine 

in it. 
Eko-nijing gaheshiwinaii ml maidmaxoi-onijisliing. The pecond 

encampment is the best of all. 

Hemark. You see in the above Exanii^.es, that the Otchipwe 
substantive following the Ordinal Number, is always in the jdu- 
ral, different from the English, which is in the singular. The 
reason for this is, because the Otchipwe Ordinal denotes a nelec- 
iion out of .several objects. So, for instance, in the above Ex- 
amples : Eka-nis.nng apdbiwinan, tlie proper sense is : the third 
of the benches that are standing there. — Eko-nandning omoden- 
san : the Jifth of the rials that arc placed somewhere. — Ekf^ 
nijing gabvshiwinan: the second of all the encampments on a 
certain route. 

Cardinal numbers are frequently transformed into verbs,, 
which may be called Numeral verbs. This transformation is 
performed in two different ways, according to the substantive to- 
which the numeral verb refers, being different for each of the 
two classes of substantives, animate and inanimate. 

1. Numeral Verbs for stn'nuSLte Sub.s'tantices. 

lii'jig, one ; nin bejig, I am one, or alone, 

ki bejig, thou art one, 

bi'jigo, he (she) is one, 
Niji two ; nin mjimin, we are two of u.«!, 

ki mjim, you are two, 

nijiwag, they are two, 






— 326 — 



Jfisswl, three ; niii nissimin, we are three, 
ki nissim, you are three, 
nissiwag, they are three. 
Niwin, four ; nin 7iiwimin, we are four of us, etc. 
Ndna>i,hve; nin 7idnanimin, we are five. 
Ningatwilssi, six ; nin ningotwdtchimin, we are six. 
Nijwasswi, seven ; nin mjwatchimin, we are seven. 
Nishwdsswi, eight ; nin nishivdfchimin, we are eiglit. 
Jdngdsswi, nine ; nin jdngdichimin, we are nine. 
MiddsHwi, ten ; nin middtchimin, or nin midddatchimin, we are 
ten. 

Middftswi aalii bejig, eleven ; nin midaddtchimin ashi hejig, wc 

are eleven. 
Midd.sswi ashi nij, twelve; nin midaddtchimin ashi nij, we are 

twelve. 
Middsswi ashi nissici, thirteen ; nin midaddtchimin ashi nisswi, 

we are tliirteen, etc. 
Nijtaaa, twenty ; nin nijtanawemin, we are twenty of us. 
Nijtaiia ashi hejig, iweniy-one; nin nijtanawemin ashi hejig, we 

are twenty-one. 
Nisslmidanay thirty ; nin nisslmidayiaui^min, we are thirty. 
Nijwdssimidaiia, seventy ; nin nijwdssimidanawchnin, we are 

seventy. 
Jdngdssimidana, ninety ; nin jdngdssimidanawcmin, we are 

ninety. 
Ningoiwdk, a hundred ; nin ningotwdkosimin, we area hundred. 
Ningotwdk ashi hejig, \0\ ; nin ningotiodkosimin ashi hejig, we 

are 101 of us. 
Nivgotwdk ashi middssici, 110; nin ningoticdkosivnn ashi mi- 

ddsswi, we are 110. 
Ningotwdk ashi nijtuna ashi nisswi, 123 ; nin ningotwdkosimin 

ashi nijiana ashi nisswi, we are 123. 
Nijwdk, 200; nin nijwdkosimin, we are 200. 
Middsswdk, 1,000 ; nin middsswdkosimin, we are 1,000. 
Nijiug middssioak, 2,000 ; nijing midasswdkosimin, we are 2,000. 
Jidning middsswwak, 5,000 : nailing nin midasswdkosimin, we 

are 5,000. 



— 327 — 

Middicliiug midasswak, 10,000 ; middtching niii midasswdkosi- 

min, we are 10,000 of us. 
Middtching ashi abiding rniddsswdk, 11,000; middtching ashi 

abiding nin midasuwdkosimin, we are 11,000. 
Middtching ashi nissing rniddsswdk, 13,000 ; middtching ashi 

nisxing nin midasswdkosimin, we are 13,000. 
Middtching ashi niwing iniddsswdk ashi nisswdk ashi middssioi 

ashi iiijwdsswi, I4,iil7 ', middtching ashi niwing nin iniddss- 

wdkosirnin ashi nisswdk ashi middssioi ashi nijwdssi, we are 

14,317. 
Nijtana dasso rniddsswdk, 20,000 ; nijtana nin dasso middsswd- 

kosit)iin, we are 20,000. 
Nijtana dasso middsswak ashi middsswak, 21,000 ; nijtana nin 

dasso midusswdkosimia ashi midasswdk, we are 21,000. 
Nijtana dassu middsswak ashi middsswak uv/V' ningotwdk ashi 

middsswi ashi bejig, 21,111; nijtana nin dasso midasswdko- 

siinin ashi middsswak ashi irgotwdk ashi middssci ashi 

bcjig, we are 21,111. 
Ningotwak dasso rniddsswdk, 100, i)00; ningotwdk nin dasso mi- 

ddsswdkosimin, we are 100,000. 
Midasswdk dasso rniddsswdk, 2,000,000 ; middsswak nin dasso 

midasswdkosimin, we are a million of people. 
Etc., etc. 

Remark 1. All the^e numeral verlis belong to the I. Conjuga- 
tion, and may be conjugated throughout all the lenf^es and 
inoods, both in the affirmative and negative forms, in the plural, 
(except the first one.) 

Uemark 2. As a particularity of the Olchipwe language, we 
observe liere, that ther^o numeral verbs are sometimes even em- 
ployed in the singular. F. i. Nissi, he is three, (three in one, as 
in the Blessed Trinity.) They also say, for instance, wlien a 
man has a wife and four children : Ningotwdtchi, he is six. 
When a widower or a widow has three children, they will say: 
Niwi, he (she) is four. 



22 






— 328 — 



Examples. 



Bejigo eta ninidjdniss, kin dash kinidjtmissag lujwdtchiwag . I 

have only one child, but thou hast weven of tlieni. 
Ndnanibanig ninidjdnissag, nij dash gi-nihoivag, mi dash uon- 

gom lussiwad eta.. I had live children, but two died, and ho 

there are now only three. 
Kawiii midassiodkosissiwag eta omd odenang hemddisidjig, na- 

watch bdldinowag. Not only a thousand persons live in this 

town, l»ut more. 
Middiching ashindning imdassiodkosiwag kakina Otchipxceg en~ 

dashiwad. The number of the Chippewa Indians is fit"teen 

thousand. 
Otdwag dash niiving mida.<iswdkosiwag. And the number of the 

Otawa Indians is four thounand. 
Kitchi odciiang Wawiidianong gega nijtana dasso midasswdko- 

siwag banddisidjig. The number of the inhabitants of the 

city of Detroit is about twenty thousantl. 
Nongom ga-bi-i/ddjig klkinoaindding kawin gi-de-nijtanawessi~ 

wag. Those that came to-day to school, were not qiiite twenty, 
Midddafc/tiirag nin ]>ijikimag, niii maaishtanishimag dash mi- 

dddatchiwag ashin niwin. I have ten cows and fourteen 

sheep. 

2. Numeral Verbs Jar inanimate Substanticea. 

Dejig, one ; bi'jigwan, one thing. 
Nij, two ; n'ljinon, there are two things. 
Nisswl, three; iii.ssinon, there are three things. 
Niwin, four; niwinon, there are four things. 
Ndnan, five ; ndnaninon, there are five things. 
Ningotwdssici, six; ningottcdtckinon, there are six things. 
Nijwdsswi, seven; nijwdtchinon, there are seven tilings. 
Nishicdsstci, eight; nishwdtchinon, there are eight things. 
jdngasswi, nine ; jdngatchinon, there are nine things. 
Middssici, ten ; midddatchinon, there are ten things. 
Middsswi ashX bijig, eleven ; midddatchinon ashi bejig, there are 
eleven things. 



«. » 



329 — 



Middsswi aslii ndnan, fifteen; midndatcMni.n anhi nilnan, there 

are fifteeti things. 
Nijtana, twenty ; nijtanaweioan, there are twenty things. 
Nijtana ashi hcjig, twonty-one ; nijtanawcwati aahi hejig, tJiert? 

are twenty-one thinj^^s. 
NuKjotwaasimidana, sixtv ; ningoticussi/nidanawctvan, there arc- 
eixty things. 

Ningotwdkwadon, 100 

Nin(/otwdkwado7i ashi hejig, 101. 

NiiigotwCikwadoii ashi middsswi, 110. 

Nijicdk-icadon, 200. 

Nissiodkwadon, 800. 

Middssivdktcadon, 1 ,000. 

Middsswdknmdon ashi ningoiwdk, 1,100. 

Nijing rniddsswdkwadon, 2,000. 

Middtchiiig middsswdktcadou, 1 0,000. 

Nijtana dasso middsswdkwadon, 20,000. 

Ningotwdssimidana dasso middsswdkwadon ^.(^0,000'^ 

Ningotwdk dasso middsswdkwadon, 100,000. 

Middssioak dasso middsswdkicadon, 1,000,000 of 
inaniniate.s objects. 

Hemark. Some oftliese inanimate numeral verhs, (being alE 
unipersonal,) belong to tlie VII. Conjugation, in the pluraly. 
(e.\e<'pt tlie lirst,) and others to the IX. Conjugation. 

Examples. 

Nijinon nind adopowinan, ningotwdtchinon dash nind apdhiwi- 

nan. I have two tables and six chairs. 
Oma odenang midddafchinon anamiewigamigon ashi hejig. In 

this city there are eleven churches. 
Ndnaniniwayi * o lodkaiganan. He possesses five houses. 
Anin endassing ki masinaiganan? — Nijtanawewan ashi nissici. 

How many books hast thou?— Twenty-tliree, (or, there are 

twenty-tliree.) 



* Report to B second third person. 



— 330 — 

Aioashime rtihiwa nin nind aidnaii ; gcga mwdkwadon nin masi- 
naif/anan. I liave more ; I have nearly four hundred books. 

Midddatchinon Kije-Mnniio o gandsongewiuan. There are ien 
comniandnienls of Goth 



CHAPTER VI. 



OF PREPOSITIONS. 



A Preposition is a word placed before a suh.«!tantive or a pro- 
noun, to show the relation between it and some other word in 
the sentence. 

The word following a preposition, is the complement thereof, 
or its object. 

There is a great difference, regarding prepositions, between 
the Otchipwe langu?ige and other languages. 

The same preposition is sometimes employed to point out dif- 
ferent relations. We shall see here how the principal preposi- 
tions of the English language, in their different relations, are 
given in Otchipwe. 

There are in this language scarcely any prepositions that lyre- 
cede the substantive ; they are ordinarily connected with the sub- 
stantive which is their complememt, forming with it only one 
word ; or they precede the verb to which they refer, and are con- 
jugated with the verb. 

We shall see here : I*" which are the prepositions that pre- 
cede the substantive, their complement. 11" We will consi- 
der the prepositions that are connected with the substantive, 
their complement, forming but one word with it. Ill" We shall 
point out the manner, how prepositions precede the verb, their 
complement, and are conjugated with it. 

The principal Otchipwe prepositions that 2>>'ccede a substa)i- 
tive, (and which may properly hn called prepositions,) are the 
following, viz : 



— xn — 

1. TcJiif/aii or trM(f\ near, nigh, by, close by, at, to, v. g. 
Tchigaii tchibaiuiitfou;/ (/i-nibdwiwatj K. Marie, K. Jean gaie. 

Near tl»e cross (or, by the cross) stood St. Mary and St. John. 
Tchig^ iahkote atou itv. Put thi.s to the fire, (near the tire.i 

Remark. The abbreviated preposition tcMg' is sonietintes con- 
nected with tlie complement, and clianges it a little, F. i. h'hi- 
gikana, close by the road, or, near the path; instead of ichig' 
mikana ; tchigikanajingishin, he lies near the road ; tihigikana 
namadabihaUjha \\i\.» HiiCxn^i^ by the path. — Tvhigdtig, near a 
j)iece of wo(k1, instead of /r.7</r/' wdlig ; tchigulig niii namadab, 
I am sitting by a piece of wood. 

2. Giwitaii, round, around, v. g. 

Kakina giicitan kitrhigaming nin gi-bimishkd. 
8. Pimljaii or pindf, in, within, inside of, v. g. 
Pindf anamiewigamig, in the church ; pindjaii kiliganing, in 
the field, (within the enclosure.) 

fiemark The English preposition in is more commonly ex- 
pressed by terminations added to the complement, than by pindf 
or pindjaii. (See the Examples of No. 11.) 

4. Kabe or megwa, during, throughout, v. g. 

Pitchindgo kabc-gijig nin gi-kifrhi-anoki. Yesterday I have 
worked hard all day, or during all day. 

M^gwamigdding, during war. Megwa ndiookwe-w'issining, dur- 
ing dinner. 

5. Ndwaii or ndssawaii, between, through, amidst, v. g. 

Jesus gi-sassagdkivaoiva tchibaidtigong ndssaicaii nij gemodish- 
kinidjin. Jesus was crucified between two thieves. 

6 Megwe, among, v. g. 

Megwe anishindben gi ani-nitdwigi. He was brought up among 
the Indians. 

7. Andmaii or andm', under, underneath, below, beneath, v, g. 
Andmaii adopowining jingishin gdjagens. The cat lies under 

the table. Andmaii nibaganing ; under the bed. 

8. Og'itchdii or ogitch\ on, upon. v. g. 

Kego ogitchaii nibaganing awi-namadabiken. Don't sit down 
upon the bed. Ogitch^ adopoicin, on the table. 






— 332 ~ 

Jiemark, The English preposition 07i or ujwn is more com- 
monly expressed, in the Otehipwe langua<;;e, by terminations 
added to its complement, than by ogitckaii or ogitch\ 
5. Ajaicaii, behind, v. g. 
Ajawaii wdkaiganing gi-kdsoidiso. He liid himself l>ehind the 

house. 

Hemark. The preposition behind is often expressed by the 
word which signifies ///e />ar'A;. F.i. Nin pikxcanang nibawi, he 
•stands behind me ; [nin pikwan, my hiidV.) Awenen aw ki pi- 

kwanang nemadabidf Who is sitting behind thee? [ki pik- 

wan, thy back.) 
10. Nakakdia, or inakaki'ia) tow ardf*, to. about. (These words 

are always put after the complement.) V. g. 
Kishpin osdm kashkendamnn oma aking, gijigong nakakcia ind- 

bin; mi sa wedi ge-Jawendagosiian kaginig. When thou art 

too much grieved on earth, look towards heaven ; there thou 

wilt be happy eternally. 
MOniang nakakeia nin wi-ija sigwang. I inte id to go to Montreal 

next spring. 

Hemark on No. I. 



. 



All the prepositions of this Number are as well adverbs aspre- 
9^)Ositioiis, and most of them rather adverbs than prepositions. 

II. 

Let us consider now the prepositions that are connected loith 
the substantive wliich is their complement, forming with it but 
one word. Or rather, (to speak Otchipwe grammatically,) let 
us see, how the Otchipwe language, instead of using distinct 
prepositions, adds certain terminations to substantives, by which 
English prepositions are expressed. 

These English prejwsitions are : at, in, from, out, of, on, to. 
The Otchipwe language expresses them by the following five 
terminations, which are annexed to the complements of the said 
prepositions ; viz : g, ng, ang, ing, ong. — Examples will illus- 
trate the matter. 



— 333 — 



1. Torniinatioi), g. Kitigewininiwag kitchi anokiwag o kitig/ini- 
wang. Farmers work hard in tlieir lields. (0 kitigamicaii, 
their fields : o kitiganiwang, in their fields.) wigiwami- 
wang ondjibdwagy they come out f>/" their houses, (or lodges.) 
wigiwdviiwan, their houses; o wigiwCimiwang, out o/' their 
houses. 

wigiwdmiwang aiatoag, they are in their houses. {0 wigi- 
icamiwan, tlieir houses; o wigiivamiwang, in thc'ir houses.) 
Nibing, in summer. (Nibin, summer.) Bibung, in winter. 
{liibOn, winter.) 

2. Termination, ng, Gigdiag nibing bimddisiwag, fislies live in 
the water. [Nibi, water ; nibing, in the water.) 

Sibing nin gi-biviiahkdmin, we traveled (in a boat) on a river. 

{Sibi, river ; sibing, on a river, or in a river. 

Kiivhigaining ki ga-bimdn/iimin, we will sail on the lake. 

{Kitchigami, lake, kitchigaimng, on, or in the lake.) 

Jdgandshiwaking nitam nin wi-ijd, pdnima dash Wemiligoji- 

waking. I will first go to England, and then to France. (Jd- 

gandshiwaki, England ; Jagandshiwaking, to, (in, or from,) 

T^ngland. Wemitigojiwaki , France ; Wemitgojiwakiug, to, 

{in, or from,) France. 

Jdgandshiwaking nind ondjiba, I come from England. 

Jagandshiioaking danisi, he lives in England. 

Jomindbong, in the wine. [Jomindbo, wine.) 

Odenang, in, to, from, the village or town. (Odena, village, 

♦own, city ) 

3. Termination, aH«7. Wegonen eteg omamashkimodangl What 
is i/t that bag? (Mashkimod, bag.) 

Nin pikivanang, nin gi-pakiteog, he struck me on my back. 

(Nin pikwan, my back.) 

Min ondjigd li'oidivagang, matter is running out of my ear . 

(Otdwag, his ear.) 

Mini ateni otdivaga,ng, there is matter in his ear. 

Onik&ng, in, or on, his arm. (Onik, his arm.) 

Nisidang, in, or on my foot. (Nisid, my foot.) 

OmissadAng, in, or on, his belly. (Omissad, his belly.) 






.: 



— 334 — 

4. Tonnination, ing. Anisbin/ihe an/lkanin^t nomadahl wUainiJ y. 
mil dash apabiwimn^ nin namadah, adopowimng ddxh nin 
wusin. The Indian nits on a mat when eatin<r, but I sit on a 
chair, and eat on a table. (A)idkan, a mat ; apdbiwin, a chair ; 
adopowin, a table.) 

Ninindfmg, in my hand. {NiiundJ, my liand.) 
AUkwam'ing, on the ice. {MikiPain, ice.) 
\VH/mnm\n<f, in a lod<?e, (or house). ( Wiyiwdm, lodge.) 
JeruHdleimw^, in or from Jerusalem. 

Kitujdmwg nind ondjiba, I come from the field. Kitif/unlng 
nind ija, I am going to the field. (Kiti(/aii, field, garden.) 

5. Termination, ont/. Meno-ijiwebisidjiu .y/y'/V/ong ia-ijdwarf. The 
good one will go to heaven. {Gijifj, heaven, sky, day.) 
Wil\wC'don)f (ji-ondji-inddja, Watciiutanonjif (ji-ani-ija, nongom 
danh Kebekong wi-ija. He . 'started yrom L'Anse, went to De- 
troit, and now he intend.s to go to Quebec. ( Wikwcd, L'Anse ; 
Wawiidtan , Detroit; Kibek, Quebec.) 

Tchibaidtigong, on the cross. (Tchibaidtig, cross.) 

/lA,7A.-ong, in the kettle. [Akik, kettle.) 

Oshkinj\gong,in his eye, or face. (Otihkinjigyhis eye, or face.) 

liemarks on No. If. 

You see that the same termination can express several prepo- 
sitions ; as, for instance, in the second termination, where ,laga- 
«a.s/*aoa^•^ng can mean : in, to, from, V^nghmd. The verb must 
decide, which of the three prepositions you have to employ, 
when you translate from Otchipwe into English. 

The same five terminations are also employed to render in Ot- 
chipwe the English phrases that express comparison, and con- 
tain the words like, or as. ...as. We will consider some Examples 
on each of the above five terminations. 

1. Term. Nibing iji kijdte nongom, it is warm to-day like in sum- 
mer, or as warm as in summer. (Or, ndbinjin iji kijdte.) 
Bibong iji kissinamagad jdigwa, it is already cold lik <? in win- 
ter. (Or, bebongin iji kissinamagad.) 



— 335 — 

Hihong ijindgicad, it looks like winter. (Or, hehonrjin ijini" 
nagwad. 

2. Term. Nibmg iji biiwgami He, tliin liquid is as clear (clean)as 
water. 

Jominnbong I'pogwad, it tastes like wine. 
Aninhin/ibenji gi-bimadini Kije-Maniio oma aking, God livetfi 
' on earth in the form of a man (like a nmn). 

Oshkinmoen^^ iji kijika aw akitcen), this old man walks a.sfa.'^t 
as a youii'^ man. 

3. Term. M<i.s/ikimodang ijinagwad nin papagiwaian, my .'<hirt 
looks like a l)n<j;. 

Kitawagixng iji ginwamngad iw, this is as long as thy ears. 

4. Term. Anamiewimng apitendagicadon mino nagamonan, goo<l 
hymns are of as high a value as prayer. 

Assinxng iji man/ikaionmogad itr, this is as hard as a .stone. 

Matclii manitokeuiin'wg iji vianadad bishigwadisiivin, Ibrnica- 

tion is as bad (as great a sin) as idolatry. 

Term. Wawiiaianong iji mitchamugad iw o^/e/m, that city is a* 

large as Detroit. 

Mitigong, ijinagwad ow, this looks like wood. 

Gega ajawes/ikoug, iji ginwamagad ki mokomdn, thy knife is 

almost as long as a sword. 

III. 



5. 



A' U«; 



til 



I ■ ■ J! ' 



tJ 



All the other prepositions of the Otchipwe language are con- 
nected with verbs, in a manner altogether peculiar to this lan- 
guage. As there are no general rules for this connection, it must 
be acquired by iise. 

The following Examples on some of the prepositions of this 
description, will facilitate to the learner the acquirement of theiir 
correct use. 
1. Ondji, (In th^ Change wendji,) for, for the sake of, because,. 

on account of, relating, regarding, respecting, in regard to ^ 

therefore, by reason of, through, v. g. 

Am nin bi-ondji-ija oma, I come here for thy sake, on account 

of thee. 



St;!' ti 







I 



\ -' • 



— 336 — 

Kije-Manito ondji-anwenindison gi-hala-diian, repent of thy 

fiins for God's Hake. 

Nitam aninhindbey yi-hata-dodamowad, mi wendji-nihownd 

kakina anishindbey ; because tlie first men sinned, therefore 

all men die. 

Dehenimiiiawj Gjawendjt'gewin nin gad-ondji-honiton nin mat- 

rhi ijiwebisiwiii ; through tiic grace of the Lord I will aban- 
don my bad conduct, (had behavior.) 
:2. Eko-, (ja-ako-, tjed ako-, .since, ago, all the time, ever since, as 

long as, V. g. 

Jaujioa nisso bibonayadlni (ja-ako-mddjad, lie left here these 

three years ago. 

Kdkina bakdit ijhidywad eko-aiaidn oma, all is changed here 

since my arrival. 

Kko-bimddisiian mojag ki mino yanawenim ; thou tookest 

Avell care of me all my lifetime, (since the beginning of my 

life.) 

Ek(>-bihonayak apin kid dkos, thou hast been sick ever since 

the beginning of winter. 

(icd-ako-bi inadi.siinii , as long as I shall live. Eko-akiwang, 

wince the creation of the earth. 
.3. hhkwd-, gi'iahkica-, ged-ishkiva-, after, or the end of some- 
thing, V. g. 

Cii-ishkwd-annmieyijiyak, after Sunday ; gi-iahkivd ndwok- 

weg, after noon. 

Aniuiwapi ged-ishkivd-akUcany? Wlien will the end of the 

world be ? 

Kije-Manito eta o kikendan api ged-ishkwa-ak'twaninig. God 

only ktiows when the end of the world will be. 

Oi-ishkwa-wisiiiuiidn nin ga-mddja, I will start after dinner, 

(after eating.) 

Remark on No. III. 

These prepositions again are rather adverbs. We vvill do bet- 
trter to consider the rest of them under the head of Adverbs. 

The following remarks and examples nuiy yet be useful in 
/the Chapter of Prepositions. 



337 — 



The following English prepo.^itions : vuth, withonf, to, (beflire 
names of persons,) he/ore, except, excepting, as Jur, accnrdiiuj 
to, against, instead of, are ('XY)rQ!*sed m Otchipwein a very pe- 
culiar manner, which cannot he establiphecl by rule.", hut muf<t 
he learne<l from use. The Examples given here helow will make 
you understand a little this particular manner of expressing 
prepositions. 

1. Wit/i. The just ones will goto heaven ?c<f/tsoul an<l body, af- 
ter resurrection. Kegi-otchitdij, kef/l-wiiaw f/aie (jijitjong ta-ijd- 
wag mnio-ijiwrhisidjig gi ahitrJiihdwad. I came in the house 
with my snow-shoes on ; kegl-dgim nin gi-pindige wakaiga- 
iiing. 

Thou comest \cith thy axe ; kegi-wn gakwad ki-lii-ijn. 1 am 
married with this woman ; nin icidignna aw ikwr. I eat M'j7/i 
somebody, nin widopdmn awiia. I sleep with somebody, nin 
wihema awiia. I sit down with him, (lier,! /</» widat)inia. I 
am standing with him, (her), nin widjigdlxiwitawa. I walk 
with somebody, nin widjiwn awiia. 1 write with a pen, mig- 
tcan nind awa ojibiigeinn. 

I struck him xcith my iumd, ninindj nin gi-pakiteowa. Thou 
struckest him jr///« a stone, rt.v.v/u A7 gi-pakiteowa. He struck 
him with a stick, viitign gi-pakiteowan. 

1 made a hole in the ice with an axe, nin. gi-twiiige icdgdk- 
wad. 

2. Without. (This preposition is always expressed in Otciiipwe 
witli a verb in the negative form.) 

He is a man M'i7/iOM/ malice, aw inini kawin manjininiwagi- 
si.<fsi. 

Those that live without the knowledge of Ood, are unhappy ; 
kitimdgisiwag kekniimass.'^igog Kije-Maniton. 
One cannot live without eating, kawin dd-bimddisissim wU- 
,nnis.<ting. 

Nobody can see without eyes, kawin awiid dd-wdhissi oshkin- 
jigos.ng. 

I could not write without lumds, kawin nin da-gashkito.i.tin 
tchi oyibiigeidn onindjissiwdn. 



_ 338 — 

3. To, (before nouns o{ pernons,) I will return to my father, noss 
nin uu'-ijdnan. 

Sinner, return fo the Lord tliy God, and to Jesus thy Savior ; 
haiata-ijiwebinian, awi-nasikaw neidh Debendjiged ki Kije- 
Manitom, Jesun yaie ga-bimddjiik. 
He is <;one to his parents, only ////ow od ijdnan. 

4. Before. Nothinj; is liidden before God, kawin f/ego kddjigd- 
de/t.v'non ends.snmid Kije-Manito. 

The hypocrites of old stood before tlie liouses of tlie city, 
when praying ; gaiat ga-bi-anamiekasodjig nnniliawibanig 
eiidxsamissininig wdkaiganan odenang enamieioadjin 
We sliall all appear before Jesus, to be judged ; kakina kiga- 
iribdwimin endsHam(d>id Jesus, tr/ii dibdkonigoiang. 
Before nie, (when I am standi luj,) enassamigubwiidn. 
Before tliee, (when thou art sitting,) endssamabiian. 
Before him, (when he is lying,) endssamishing, etc., etc. 

5. Except, excepting. He works every day, except Sunday ; en- 
dassd-gijigak anoki, enaun'egijigadinigin eta kawin. 

T woiild willingly lose all, except my religion ; 7iin da minwen- 
dam kakina gego tchi wanitoidn, nind anamiewin eta kawin. 
All my (diildren died, except the oldest one ; kakina ninidjd- 
nissag gi-nibowag, se.ukisid eta i.Hhkwane. 
We are all sick in the house, except luy mother ; kakina tiind 
dkosiniin ondashiiaug, ninga eta kawin. 

6. As for. . . As for me, (for niy part,) I will not go where they 
dance ; nin win kawin nin wi-ijassi nimiiding. 

As for him, (for his part,) lie has no objection ; win igo ka- 
win win ningot ikkitoss-i. 

As for thee, tliou hast a good knowledge of religion, but tliy 
brother knows nothing of it ; kin win ki kikendan iveweni 
anamiewin, kishime dash kawin gego o kikendansin. 
As for your work, I will speak to you to-morrow about it; iw 
das/i kid anoklwiniwa ejiwebak, wdbang ki gaipindamoninim. 

7. According to. Lord, let all be according to thy will; Debeni' 
miian, apcgish enendaman ijiwebak kakina. 



.*» 



— 339 — 



I regulate my life accordinCf to thy instructions ; nin ijiiiuton 

nin biimuiisiwin eji-ijaf/'ikimiian. 

According to thy word ; ekkitoian. AccordiiKj to the roporta 

of people; ekkitowad aniahinubeg, or bemddisUljiij. 

Live according ^) the coninmndtnents of God, and you will 

be happy ; eji-ganfis«mgcd Kije-Manito, iji-bimddisiiog, mi 

dash tchi jawendagosiieg. 

8. Against. Who is not with me, is against nie; aw loadjiicis- 
sig niiul agonwetag. 

He goes away against my will ; mlnotch mCidja ano ginaama- 

ivog. 

He that acts against the will of God, is a sinner ; aw aiagon- 

wetawad Kije-Maniton, t>atn-ijiwet>isi. 

Never do anything </^^</y<.s'< the injunctions of thy religious 

instructor ; kego wika gego dudangcn iji-ginaamok cnamie- 

gaglkiinik. 

9. Instead of. Thou wouldst not give to thy child a stone //t- 
stead of \n'eiid ; kawin ki da-dodansi iw tchi minassiwad ki- 
nidjaniss pakwejiganan , mcskkwat dash assinin tchi m'tnad. 
Instead o/' happiness which the sinner endeavors to procure, 
he willtind real misery ; baiatd-ijiwebisid kawin Jawendago- 
siwin o gad-aiansin nendawendang, meshkwat gwaiak kitimd- 
gisiwin o ga-mikan. 

Instead of a, hook thou givest nie a little picture; kawin mu' 
sinaigan ki mijissi, meshkwat masinitrhigans ki mij. 



^ m 

m 
m 



C II A P T E U \ I I. 



OK AUVKKHS. 

An Adverb is a word joined to a verh or to an adjecti.e, and 
sometimes to another adverb, to denote or modify some circum- 
f«tance respecting it. So, for instam:e, when we say, <nc inini 
kitchi dkosi, this man is very sick ; the adverb kitchi, very, 
luodities the verb dkosi, he is sick, and denotes how tJie man is 
eick. 



if 



— 340 — 

Adverba may be divided into various classes, according to 
their eif^nification. We will mention liere some of each class, 
with short Examples, to facilitate the use of this part of speech. 

1. Aiherhs denoting manner. 






Weweni, well, rightly, correctly, v. 

Kishpin (/ego loejitoian, wciceni ojiton ; when thou art doing 

something, do it well. 

Weioeni ojibiigen ; write correctly. 

Iw qnte7idugw(ik tchi ojiiong, apitendagwad weweni ichi oji- 

tong ; what is worth doing, is worth doing well. 
MdmaiiJ, bad, negligently, v. g. 

MamanJ j gi-oJUOnawa. They made it negligently, bad. 

Kego mdmanj kiligeken ; don't farm so negligently. 
lleka, slowly, softly, easily, not loud, v. g. 

Beka bimosseti, walk slowly. 

Kin/ipin awiia ivi-d7iivenimad, hekn gandj. Iftliou wilt repri- 
mand someltudy, speak to him gently. 
liisdii, still, quietly, v. g. 
Bisdn abiiog, kiciivitiensidog ! Be still, boys ! 
Bisun ima namadain kabe-gijig, kawin anokhi. He is sitting 

there quietly all day, lie does not work. 
Nm'gatch, (has the same signification as beka.) 
AgCiwa, hardly, scarcely, a little, v. g. 

Agdwa nin gashkilon tvi-bimosseidn, nind dkos. I can hardly 

walk, I am sick. 

Agdwa jdgandahimo, he can talk a little English. 

Agdwa nin gi-gashkid, I could scarcely prevail upon hini. . . . 
Kitrhi, very, v. g. 

Nin kitvhi mino aid) nin kitchi jawenddgos, I am very well, 

I am very happy. 
Tebindk, (l\a.s the same signification as mdmanj.') 
Sesika or tchisika, suddenly, all at once, subitaneously, v. g. 

Sesika gi-nibo, he died suddenly. 

Kego sesika ombinaken gego kwesigwxng. Don't lift up sud- 
denly any lieavy object. 



341 — 



Ge(ja, alniost, nearly, about, v. g. 

Nin gi-dkos, gega niii gi-nib. I was sick, I almost died. 

Gega ningotwdk dasso bibonagiai. He is nearly a huiulredl 

rears old. 

Gega nijtana. gega nisaimidana. About twenty, about thirty. 
Memuidnge, especially, principally, very, v. g. 

Eaamiadjig memindage da-jajawendjigewag. Christians ought 

to be especially charitable. 

Memindage kitimishki, he is very lazy. 
U'lnuika, unprovoked, without reason, spontaneously, v. g. 

lUninika nishkddisi aw inini. This man is angry unprovoked.. 

Kawiii wika bXiiisika gogo nin minigossi. He never gives me 

anything spontaneously. 
6'm>(«'(/A", justly, uprightly, straight, v. g. 
Gwaiak bimddisin, ki ga-Jawendagoti. Live uprightly, and tl^oftv 

wilt be happy. 

Gtcaiak ivedi ani-ijdda. Let us go straight there. 
Apifc/ii, extrejnely, exceedingly, quite, most, entirely, v. g. 

Apiirlii jawendjige Dtbcndiiged. 'J'he Lord is n>ost merciful. 

Apiichi dkosi ningd. My mother is quite sick. 

Ki.ssaie dpitcki bakdn ijiicebisi nongoni. Thy brother changed 

entirely. 
Awdndjifih, purposely, notwithstanding a prohibitiun, v. g. 

Nind dno-ginaamawa tchi ijditsig, awandjish dash ija. I for- 
bid him to go, but he goes notwithstanding my prohibition. 

Aicandjish bdpiwag. They laugh, although forbidden. 
Napdtch, wrongly, not in the right order, v. g. 

Kakina napdich o gi-atonawa. They put all wrongly, (,i(>th- 

ing in its due place.) 
Ani.shd, vainly, without etlec't, without reason, falsely, for noth- 
ing, gratis, V. g. 

Wegonen ba-ondji-ij '"g oma? Anishd. What do you come 

here for? Nothing. 

Anisha nugiweiog. Give it for nothing, gratis. 
Memeshkwat , alternately, by turns, mutually, one after another,. 

v.g. 









1! t 



•:J 



— 342 -- 

Memi'shhwat nagavioda. Let us sing alternately. 

Jajawenindiiog memeshkwat. Be charitable mutually to each 

otlier. 

Memeahkicat aj'lboiciog, row hy turns. 

Keyo hukina m/imaici ffigitoke[/on ; inetHCuIikwat gigitoiog. 

Don't 8]K'ak all at one time ; speak one after another. 

2. Adoerbs denoting interrogation. 

Jlnin ? How? v. g. 

Anin (ji-htinddisiian ? How dost thou do? 

Anin vjinikudamcg ow ? How do you call this ? (for inanimate 

olijet'ts.) 

Anin (jinikanng aw? How ilo you call this? (for animate 

objects.) ' 

Wrgonen ? What ? v. g. 

Wcgoncn iir ? What is that ? 

Wegoitin Ini-takdnaman kinidjing f What dost thou hold in 

thy hand coming here? 

Wegoneu loendji-ntiiwiian ? What art thou crying for ? 
Ams/iioiu? Why? What is the reason? (There is always a re- 

j)roa«di contained in this interrogation.) W g. 

Ani.slnrid bi-ijaasiwan anamii'mgamigong ? Why dost thou 

not eonic to church ? 

Ani.s/iwia niojag dajimad kidf anitihindbe f Why dost thou al- 
ways speak ill of thv neighbor ? 
.Nah? Do.st thou hear me? or, do vou hear me? or, is it so ? 

.V. g. 

Ki g(i-bos ganabatck loalmng, ndh? Thou wilt perhaps embark 
to-morrow, is it so? or, wilt thou not ? 

Kawin ki kikendansinaica mashi gerdodcmeg, ndh ? You don't 
know yet what you shall do, do you? or, is it so ? 
Anin ekkitoieg 'f ndh Y What do you say ? do you hear me ? 
IVa ? What ? (This interrogating adverl» is only used to answer 
u call interrogating ; or to reciuest a repetition of what was 
said, but not understood by the person spoken to.) V. g. 
John !—\\'af Jolm !-What? 



— 343 — 



Wdbang naki wi-bos'! — Waj'Wilt tlion oinl»ark tomorrow? — 

What ? 

Anindi aidwdd nongoni ga-matchi-pimfldmdjig akiiuj Y Where 

are now those that led a bad life on earth ? 

Anindilvnss? Anindi kigd? Where Ih thy father? Where is 

thy mother ? 

Anindi aidd Deheniminang Kije-Manito ? Where is God our 

Lord ? 
Aniniwapi ? When V v. g. 

Aniniwapi ged-ishkwa-akhoang ? When will be the end of tlie 

world ? 

Aniniwapi ge-nibowad ki tchitchdgonig? When will our souls 

die ? 

Aniniwapi ga-bi-ijad Jesus oma aking f When came Jesuo on 

earth ? 
Anin dassing ? How often ? v. g. 

Aniu, dassing ge-nibnian ? How often .'-hall thou die? 

Anin dassing ge-dibakonigoian ? How often wilt thou be 

judged ? 

Aning dassing ga-ijdwad Monidng ? How often have they been 

in Montreal? 
A7iin niin'ik ? How much ? v. g. 

Anin min'ik ge-dibaanmwind enamiod, kishpin iveweni anokita- 

wad Debendjigenidjin '{ How much will the Christian be paid, 

if he .serves well the Lord? 

Anin mln'ik ga-minad aw kefimdgisid inini ? How much hast 

thou given to that poor man ? 
E, • yes, or perhaps better ; enh ! cnh ! v. g. 

E nange ka, yes certainly. E nange, O yes. 
Aningwana, certainly, to be sure. 






* ThisafBrmatlve adverb cannot be expressed exactly in writing; it rau.st 
he heard. I have seen different essays to write It, but tiiey are deficient, be- 
cause it is impossible to give it correctly. When I saw that, I adopted the 
simplest way of writing it, by the siuKle letter sor, rnh .' eiih .' only to slgnlty 
that the adverb which Is used for afflnnnllon, is to be pronounced here. I re- 
mar)c here at the .same time, that the Indians will use this affirmative adverb 
e, where we would say In English no. F. 1. Kawln nn kiihlme ^vi-bl-ijcu»i f E. 
Will thy brother not come ? No. This is an abbreviated answer ; the whole 
would be, E, kawin wl-bl-ijdssi ; yes, It is ao as you say, be will not come. 

23 






— 344 — 

Ki kikendan na gn-ikkitoian pitchindgo ? Aningwana, kawin 
nin wanendansin. Dost thou know wlmt thou hast said yes- 
terday ? Certainly, I did not forget it. 
Geget, verily, truly yes indeed, v. g. 
Ki gi-wlndamawi na ga-inindn? Geget. Didst thou tell him 
what I said to thee ? Yen. 

Geget kitimdgisi. He is poor indeed ; or, he is truly miserable. 
Geget kid inininim. Verily I say unto you. 

4. Adverbs denntijig negation. 

Ka, or kdwin, no, not, v. g. 

Kidnkosna? Ka, kdwin nind dknsissi. Art thou sick? No,^ 

I am not sick . 

Ka bdpish, or kawin hdpish, not at all. 

Kdtvin hdpish wi-bi-ijdssi. He will not come at all. 

Nind ano ganona, kdicin dash hdpish wi-gigitossi. I talk to 

him, but he will not speak at all. 

Kdwin hdpish gcgo ki kikendansi. Thou knowest nothing at 

•II. Kixoi-mij na? Kdh ! * Wilt thou give me ? No! 
kaw6ssa, it won't do, I cannot, no, sir, v. g. 

Ki wi-mij najoniia /* kawessa. Wilt thou give me money ? 

No, sir. 

Nind dno wikwatchiton ; kawessa dash. T endeavor to do it ; 

but I cannot. 
Ka wika, or, kawin wika, never, v. g. 

Kawin wika ishkotewdbo o minikwessin. He never drinks ar- 
dent liquor. 

Ka tcika nind dko.sissi. I am never sick. 

Ki tchitchdgondnig kawin tcika ta-nibossXwag . Our souls will 

never die. 
Kagego, or, kdwin gego, nothing, (for inanimate objects. y v. g. 

Kawin gego o wdbatidansin. He sees nothing. 

Wegonen nSndawdbandaman y — Kdwin gego. What art thou 

looking for ? — Nothing. 
Kdwin ningdtchi, nowhere, v. g. 

I* To give the right sound of that negation, the better Is to put h at the end. 



— 346 -. 



Kije-Manito kdwin ninyotcM ishkwa-aiassi, misiwe aia. God 

iH nowhere absent, he is everywhere. 

Kdwin nitiijolrhi nin ici-ijdssi. I will go nowhere. 
Art manhi, or kuwin manfii, not yet, v. g. 

Kawia tnashi .nt/aanddivafi.ii. He iu not yet baptized. 

Gi-mddjawa(/ na Y—Ka itiaski. Are they gone ? — Not yet. 

Kawin manhi ndnimhlana ki ddss(fbihoHa<jiaviisi, Ahraham 

dash ki yi-wdbama? Thou art not yet fifty years old, and 

thou hast seen Abraham ? 
Kawin yw etch, not uiucl), v. g. 

Kawin ywefch dkosisfi. He is not much sick. 

Kawin ywetch nin yi-seyisissi. I was not mucii afraid. 
Keyn, (expression of prohibition,) don't, never do. Noli, v. g. 

Keyo ijdken xoedi. Don't go there. 

Keyo wika minikweken ishkotcivdho. Never drink ardent 

liquor. 

Keyo yimodiken, keyo yiwanimoken. Don't .steal, don't lie. 

5. Adoerbs denotiny place. 

Oma, here, v. g. 

Omjishin oma. It is pleasant here. 

Apitchi yiyoika omd naninydtinony. 

plenty of fish here. 

Kitimdyisiway oma eiddjiy kitimiwad 

are poor, because they are lazy. 
Imd, wedi, iwidi, there, v. g. 

Iwidi nin wi-ijd, mi dash imd mojay ye-wi-aididn. I will go 

there and always remain there. 

Ki kitimdyisimin omd akiny ; wedi dash yijiyony ki yorjawen- 

ddyosimin. We are miserable here on earth ; but there in 

heaven we will be happy. 
Daji, in, at ; from. (In the Chanye it makes endaji,) v. g. 

Jesus Bethleheniiny yi-daji-niyi. Jesus was born in Bethlehem. 

Kebekony dcyi inini; Moniany daji ikwe. A man from Que- 
bec ; a woman from Montreal. 

Kitimdyisi kiichi batadowininy endaji-bimddisid. He who 

is living in great sins, is miserable. 



Sometimes there is 
Those that live here 






f 



V 



II 



— 346 — 

Pindig, in ; (in a hou86 or other building, or in some vessel,) v. g. 

Anindi k'o.ss 'f — Pindig aia. Where is thy father? — He is in. 

Pindig anoki. He \vorl<8 in the house. 

Kahe-hibon pindig aimoag pijikiwag. The oxen are all winter 

in the stable. 
JPindJaii) inside. <In the interior of a building or vessel,) v. g. 

Kawin mashi pindjaii ojitchigddesttinon anamietcigamig . The 

church is not yet finished inside. 

Memindage onijiahin pindjaii ow wdkaii zn. This house here 

is very fine inside. 
Agwatchmg, out, (out of doors,) v. g. 

Jgwdtching ydda. Let us go out. 

Agwatching nibdwiivay. They are standing out of doors. 

Sanagad dgwalcliing nibdng bibong. It is hard to sleep out of 

doors in winter. 
Agwatchaii, outside, v. g. 

A7 wdkaigan kitchi minwdbamina gwad dgwatchaii . Thy house 

looks beautiful outside. 

Oshkindgwad nin masinaigan dgwatchaii. My book looks new 

outside. 
Agdming, on the other side, on the opposite shore, v. g. 

Agdming, ondjibdwag. They come from the other side, (of a 

river, lake, etc.) 

Agdming nin wi-ija nongom. T will go to the other side to-day. 

Agdming, on the beach. 
Agaming keidbi atcwan nind aiiman. My things are yet on 
the beach. 

Kitchi wmijishidjig assintnsag aidwag agam'ing. There are 
beautihil agates on the beach. 
Agaming nin gi-mikdn ow. I found this on the beach. 

Onddssagdm, on this side, (of a river, lake, etc.) v. g. 

Onddssagdni ta-bi-ijdwag nongom agdming eiddjig. The 

folks of the other side will come to this side to-day. 

Nawatch bdtdinowag bemddisidjig anddssagdm, agdming dash. 

There are more persons living on this side than on the other. 
Awassagdm, on the other side, (of a river, lake, etc.) 



— 347 — 



Nawdtch gigoika aiodssagdm, omd dash. There is more pleaty 

offish on the other side than here. 
Eiawdgdm, on both sides, (of a river, lake, etc.) v. g. 

Etawdgdni ainwag enaviiadjig. There are Christians on l>oth 

sides. 

Etawdgdm matcddishiwe omd ha-ijddjin. He makes visits on 

both sidesj, when he comes here. 
Ogiddki, on a hill or mountain, v. g. 

Ogiddki nin wi-ijd. I will go on the hill. 

Ogiddki kitige. He has hia field on the hill. 

Ogiddki idwag. They live on the hill. 
Nissdki, down hill, on the f(iot of u hill or mountain. 

Nissdki ijd. He is gone down hill. 

Nissdki atewan kakiiia lodk.iigaiian. All the hou.ses are on 

thefoot of the hill. 
Wdssa, far, far off". 

Wdssa ondjibdwag. They come from far, v. g. 

Kitchi wdssa gi-iju, kawin viinawa ta-bi-g'iwessi. He is gone 

very far oft' ; he will come back no more. 
Beslio, near by, v. g. 

Besho nin pagiddwdmin. We set our nets near by. 

Besho nin gi-ondji-wdbama. I saw him near, from a small 

distance. 

Besho aidn, kego wdssa ijdken. Remain near here; don't go 

far. 
Tibishko, opposite, over against, v. g. 

Tibishko kikinoamddiwigamig endagog nin ddmin. We lodge 

(or dwell) opposite the schoolhouse. 

Tibishko kitchi jingwak patakisod nin gi-nibaio. I stood op- 
posite the great pine-tree. 
libishko also signifies, equal, like, similar, but then it is an ad- 
jective. 
Ningotchi, somewhere, v. g. 

Ningotchi ijd, kawin oma aidssi. He is gone somewhere, he 

is not here. 

Ningotchi nin gi-aton nind agawateon, kawin nin mikansin. 

I put somewhere my umbrella ; I cannot find it. 






1^ 

> •' 

si','; 
•'•)■) 



' . ' ■■'>•« 



— 348 — 



6. Ailoerhs denothnj direction, v. g. 

hhpimiiKj, up, upstairM; on high. 

Ishpiminy innbin. Look iip, (on liigh.) 
Inhpimiiuj nin wi-ijd awi-nibaidn. I'll go up stairs to sleep. 
Ishpiminy 'jijiifonf/ itiml indanniiina;/ ninitljdninnay. I think 
(believe) that u\y children are on high in heaven. 

Taban his h, down, low; below. 
Oadm tabdfthish nin namddab. 1 an) sitting too low. 
Knwin f/waiak ki gi-atossin ow ; tabasliish ki da-nton Thou 
hast not put this in its due place ; thou oughtst to put it below. 

Nigdn, tbrentost, in advance ; beforeljand. 
Bejitj nigdn fa-binmsse. One will walk foremost. 
Kakina nlgdn ki (/i-windanidgonnn ged-ijiwebak. He told us 
all beforehand what shall come to pass. 

Ishkuridng, behind, back. 
Keidbi ishkweidny aidwag. They are behind, (dr Itack tiiere.) 
Ningotchi ijaidng, viojag ishkici'iang ki bimoftse. When we are 
going somewliere, thou walkcst always behind. 

Remark. These four adverbs are [frequently followed by the 
adverb, nakakcia, which n)akes them to be the more, *' adverbs 
denoting direction^ This nakakcia corre.-jponds exactly with 
the syllable ward, (or M»a/'(/.?,) which is commonly annexed to 
English adverbs denoting direction, as: 
Ishpimi7ig, np ; ishpiming nakakna, upward. 
laba^sfmh, down ; tabashish nakakcia, downward. 
iW^c'^u, before ; nigdn /mAaAreta, forward. 
Ishkweidng, back; ishkwciang nakakcia, backward. 

Tliie adverb, nakakcia, corresponds with the English ward, 
also in other adverbs formed from substantives, as : 

Homeward, endaidn nakakeia, (the Otchipwe verb varying ac- 
cording to the person.) 
Heavenward, g'ljigong nakakSia. 
Hellward, andmakaming nakakeia. 



— 349 — 



7. Adverbn deiiotiny time, v.g. 

Jfingfitin(f, once. 

Ningolhuj aw inini nin kitchi ininododdgoban. That man did 

me once f ,'reat good nervice. 

Ningoliny ki ifa-nih. Thou shall once die. 

Nlngotinif nin (ja-kitchi-jawenddgoH. Once I will be very happy . 
Pdnimn, afterwards ; not l)efbre. 

Panirna gi-inhkwd-ioisniniian ijdkan. do after dinner. 

Kigijeb nitam anamidn, panima daxli niddji-anokin. In tlie 

morning pray firrtt, and afterwards begin to work, 

Panima wdbang , panima s'lgwang. Not before to-njorrow ; 

not before next spring. 
Ifakawe, first. 

Nakawv pin'inddivi.shi n , panima kigad-ikkit wa-ikkitoian. First 

listen to me, afterwards thou wilt say wliat thou hast to say. 

Nakawe ndnagatawendan, tchi bum gigitoian. Think first, 

then speak. 
Bica, or Inca maahi, l)efore. 

Kije-Manito o gi-m'igiwenabanin o gandmngewinan, bwa bi- 

nigid Jesus. God had given hia commandments before Jesus 

was borti. 

Apitchi kitshi nibiwa anishindbeg gi-aiabanig omd a king, k\- 

nawind bwa aidiang. E.xceedingly many people had been 

here on earth, before we were. 

Tchi-bwa bibvny ; tchi-bwa nibing. Before winter ; before 

summer. 
Mas hi ndnge, not yet. 

Mashi ndnge gego o kikcndan. He knows nothing yet. 

Mashi ndnge nin nibwakd. I am not yet wise. 
Megwa, during, when, while. 

Megwa abinodjiwid gi-slgaandawa. He was baptized wlien a 

child, (during childhood.) 

Apegish gwaiak ijiwebisiidn megwa bimddisiidn aking. I wish 

to behave well while living on earth, (during my lifetime on 

earth.) 

Megwa ojibiige; megwa nagamo. He is writing, lie is singing. 






i ..J 



— 350 — 

Wdiha, rtoon. 
Gego wa-migiweianin, waiba miyiwen. Wlien thou art to give 
something, give it soon. 

Aw iraiba mdgiwed, nijing mi<jiwe. He that gives ^oon, gives 
(louhle. 
Waiba bi-giweu. Come back soon. 

Wika, late. 

Wika go nin nibnntin. We go to bed quite late. 

Wika gi-dnweiiindiso, nongoni dash gwaiak anamia. He re- 
pented late, but now he is a good Christian. 
Wika gi-mddjdwag. They started late. 
Binish, till, until. 

Mojag nin tci-anamia pinish fchi niboidn. I will always be a 

Chriatuin, until I die. 

Jesus od Anamirin'gainig mnjag ta-afhii nma aking binish tchi 

ishktrd-akiuuiiig. The Church of Je.^u." will alway.« be on 

earth, until the earth is no more. 

Binish oma ; binish Moniang. Till here ; till Montreal. 
Kiichi awassovdgo, three days ago. 
Awassondgo, the day before yesterday, (two days ago.) 
Petrhindgo, yestordny y (one day ago.) 
Nongom, or, nongom gijignk, to-day, 'this day.) 
Wdbang, to-morrow, (after one day.) 
Awdsswdbang, after to-njorrow, (alter two days) 
Kitchi aicisswdbang, after three days. 
Jeba, this morning. 

Jeba 7iin gi-bi-ganonig. He came this morning and spoke to 

me. 
Mewija, a long time ago, (or, already.) 

Mewija dkosiban. He has been sick now a long time ago. 
Gigapi, finally, lastly, ultimately. 
Wdtcika, seldom, rarely. 
Waihhkaf, at first, in the beginning. 
Pdbige, immediately, directly. 
WiiPib, quick, immediately. 
Jaigwa, already. 



A 

A 
h 

A 



G 



M 



m 



— 351 — 



Kija, in advance, beforehand. 

Api, when. 

Gaiat, formerly, lieretofore. 

ffanincfotinong, sonietimea. 

Nemnyim, or, HaHdgwana, often, frequently. 

iVq/a//, always, constantly. 

Anwdkam, several times, often. 

lirdpi, then, at that time. 

Keidbi, vet. 

NUam, tirst. 

Apine, continually, ever since. 

Kd(/ini(/, or, ka(/i(/i''kami;/, always, eternally. 

Noitd, before the en<l ; rather. 

UaxHing, every time, as often as. . . 

Kejidin, or, krjidine, or, Ae^f;/j(Z//te, quick, soon, immediately. 

Pitchlnag, only now, inot before this time,) soon, by and by. 

PUr/iifUKj diKjunahin. He comes only now, (not before this 

hour.) 

Piff/ihiaf/ nin mfulja. I start only now, (or so late.) 

Pifrfiinaif uin t/adija endaian. I will go to thy house, (I will 

go to see thee,) by and by. 

MudJAiiy kikiiiof>mddhi(f ijdn. — PHrhutcu/. Go to school. — 

By and liy. 

8. Adverbs denoting/ uncertainty. 

(ionimdy or, (/an(ihatr/i, perhaps. 

Niamfc/iiwan nind ijd, </nnimu dntih ni.sso (jisiss nin <jnd-inend. 

\ am going below, and will be, perhaps, ai)st'nt three months. 

AV da-yrtshkiioH na nijike tchi bidjiamawad kissaie '* — Gana^ 

bafrh sa uin dd-ijashkitnii. l^ould.st thou write, all aioTU', a 

letter to thy brother? — Perhaps I could. 

Nishkddisi j/nnabafch. He is perhaps angry. 
Mdkija, njay be, perhaps. 

Gi'nibo na kiminhoine 'f — Mdkija .• kawin ninnhi nin kikendan- 

sin. Is thy uncle dead ? — May be ; I don't know yet. 

Mdkija anishd ikkiiom. It is perhaps a false report. 



l;^ 




• va 



— 352 — 

Mdkija (jegei. May be so indeed. 
Nanmu<lj, I d«»n't know what. . . ., it is doubtful Vow . . . 

Mamdm^j yed-ikfcito(/weti. I don't know what lie will Hay. 

Namandj yc dodamowdnen. I don't know what I sliall do. 
IfamdndJ \do<j, it is uncertain, unknown, doubtful. 

Anin (ia-xJHchi<ied? — NaindndJ ido</. How did he manage it? 

— I don't know. 

Remark. Thiw namandj, which ifi properly an adverb in Ot- 
chipwc, cannot be given in English with an adverb, but only 
with a verb, a.^ above. 

9. Adrerhs denoiiiKj quantity, v. g. 

Nibitra, ov,pan(ji nduge, much. 

Nihiwa whtiiiii. He oats much. 

Nibiwa kitiijc. He cultivates a large Hold. 

Pantfl ndni/c niii himostfc kabr-hibnii. 1 am walkin;^ much all 

winter. 

Hemat'k. When nibiwa signi' ' many, it is an adjective. 
Pantjl or, n'tbiwa iidnye, little, a little. 

Panyi rfa nin bhlmi. \ bring only a little. 

Panyi i/'ii/iliin, nibiwa dan/i ndnayatawtnddu. Talk little and 

thinkinuc^h. 

Nibiwa ndnye ki ya-matfhi-ikkit, kisfi2)iu mojag takwniimad 

Kiji'- Manila. You will scarcely ever pronounce a bad word, 

if you constantly romomber God. 
Ncnibiwa, mucb, ouch, or much every time. 

Neuibiwa minawug. They are given mucli each, (they receive 

great share.) 

Ninibiwa auamid cndasso-gijigadinig. He prays much every 

day. 
Pi'pangi, little each, or a littiC every time, by little and little, 

gradually. 

Pepangi kiiigewag anishindbcy. The Indians cultivate a small 

field eacli. 

Pepangi nibd, pepangi gate wissini. He sleeps little (every 

night,) and cats little (every time.) 



— 353 



Kt minin ow masinaigau ; pegaiuji dash wnhaiiddn endanso- 
gijiyak, binUh kakina gi-wabandaman. I give thee this 
book ; read a little every day, until thou readeHt it all. 

Panghhe, very little. 

Mi hr, or, mi ininik, enough, that is all. 

Minawa, again, more, boyideH. 

Kakina, all. 

10. Adi^erb.s denoting comparison. 

Awashime, more. 

Awashime nin dd-mimrendant Ichi nixnigoidn, iir dash nind 

enanmwin tchi wcbinnmban. I would be more willing to be 

killed, than to reject my religion. 

Aicashinie apitenddgwad mino ijiivtbisiwiny daniivin dash. 

Virtue in more worth than richew. 
Nawatch, hi\- \\\v Hame s'lgu'itU'aUou nt* awashime ; but it al^o 

«ignifieH, a little, some. Nawatch nind dkos ; this can mean, 

I am more sick .- or, f am a little nick. 

AV bakadc na ? — Nawatch sa. Art thou hungry ? — A little. 

Ki gashkitnn na wi-Jagandshimnian '* — Nawatch sa. Canst 

thou speak English? — Some. 
Iw minik, or, ow minik, so much, as much as. 

Gaie win iw minik od iji gashkiton, kin cji-gashkitoian. He 

can do as much as thou canst. 

Ow minik lidokan. luring so much. 

Kawin ow minik eta da-debissesinon. So much only would not 

be Hufficiet.* 
Baknn, ditterently, otherwise. 

liakdn ijiwebisi eko anamidd. He behaves ditlerently since 

he besame a Christian. 
Nawatch nlbiwa, more. 
Nawatch pangl, less. 

liemark. The word nang^, (which occurs in No. 7 and 9,) can- 
not be given in English by itself; there is no word in the Eng- 
lish language that would exactly correspond with nange. 
We may perhaps say it corresponds with not, because it makes 



m 



--■■' 

s, 
i 



m 



\ ' 



— 354 — 

the word to whicli it is connected, signify the contrary ; but it 
has another position in the sentence, for instance : 
Dehenimiian, nind apiiendAgos nanye ge-ganonindmban. Lord, 

I am not worthy to speak to thee. 
Mil nibwdka nange. I am not wise. 
Nibiwa nange nin klkendan. I do iiot itnow much. 
E nange ka. Yes, not no. 



CHAPTER VIJ I. 



OP CONJUNCTIONS. 

A Conjunction is a part of s|)eech wlii(;li is u.^ed to connect 
words and .sentences. 

Conjunction.'^ are divided into two sorts, copulatire conjunc- 
tions, which servo to cimnect or to continue a sentence ; and dis- 
junctive conjunctions, which serve to express opposition in dif- 
ferent circumstances. 

The following are tlu' principal Otchipwe conjunctions. 

1. Copulative Conjunctions. 

Gaiv, and, hotii, also. (This conjunction is ordinarily put after 
the word that Js connected by it to another word, like the 
Latin que. Sometimes it is put before the word, especially 
when it signifies also.) 

Koss kiga gaie ki gn-minddenitnag. Honor father and mother. 
Gi-pindige anarniewigamigong, weweni gaie o gi-pisindawan 
gegikicenidjin, He went to church, and listened well to the 
preacher. 

Mojag Imbamadisi, biboninig, nilrininig gaie. He travels al- 
ways, both winter and summer. 

Nin wi-ija ; gaie kinawa ijdiog. T will go ; go ye also. 
Gaie kin. Thou also. 

Ashi, and. (This conjunction serves only to connect numbers.) 
Nijtana ashi nij. Twenty-two. (You cannot say: nijtana 
gaie nij ; or, nijtand,ni' ii€.) 



355 



Midassiodk axhi nishwasswdk ashi tiammidana, 1860. 
Tchi, or, tehi wi, that. 
Ki windamon iw, ichi wi kikendaman. T tell thee this, that 
thou mayst know it. 

Nin hi-ijo. onia, tehi kikenhmian keiabi bimddisiidn. I come 
liere, that thou inayst know I asn living yet. 

Remark. English nentcnces containing the conjunction that, 
areconununly and better given in Otchipwe without tehi. F. i. T 
am glad that thou art come; nin minwendam\da(/uu.shinan, — 
Dost thou know that my father i.s dead ? Ki kikendan na gi-nibod 
noss? — I know that .slie is charitaMe ; niti kekenima kijewddisid. 
(In all these phrases the English conjunction that could like- 
wise be omitte'i.i 

Mi wendj- ivarying according to the tenor of the verb,) therefore. 
Mino ijiivebixi, nita-jawendjiife <jaie, mi tceudji-jawendagosid. 
He is good and charitable, therefore he is happy. 
Osdm minikwenhki, mi wendJi-kitimdi/iKid dpitcki. He drinks 
too much, therefore he is so poor. 
Ki.s/ipin, if, provided. 
Kinhpin bafddnwia (jotamaa, kawiii nibmria ki ga-ijotansin. 
If thou fearest sin, thou wilt not l»e afraid of death. 
Kis/ipin (/umiak <inokiian, kawin ki ga-kiiimdifiaissi. If thou 
workest well, thou wilt not be poor. 

This conjunction, kis/ipin, is sometimes omitted, and some- 
times put after the verb. In the sentence : Panimaniijwang nin 
ga-mddja, kishpin Inmddisiidn ; ne.xt spring I will go away, if I 
live; in this sentence we may omit kishpin, and say: Panima 
.sitfwang nin <ja-mddja, Iriniddixiidn. This is even better Otchip- 
we. — And we may also say : Panima sitjwany nin (ja-mddja, 
bimddiniidn kishpin. — This postposiiion of ki.^thpin is sometinies 
iieard among the Indians. 
Sa. This particle signifies sonietimea : because, for. 

Odena Niniir kawi)t <fi-banadiJitrhif/(ides.sinon, </i-aniceniridino- 
wag mimd (fa-danakidjiij. The city of Nineveh was not des- 
troyed, because the inhabitants did penance. 
Nin ga-minig Kije-Manito kagigr tnmddisiwin gijigong, dpitchi 



ir 









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W: ' 



— 356 



It ' ' 



.v« kijeicwiisi. God will give me life everlasting in heaven, 
l»eca\JHe lie is infinitely ^ood. 
bank, after the word. Thift conjunction in copulative or disjunc- 
tive, according to it.s signification. It is cnpulathe when sig- 
nifying and. 

Niii (fi-nijimin, nhihime, nin dash. We were two of us, my bro- 
ther and myself. 

Uoniton ki mafchi ijiirehisiin'n, ki (ja-jam'nimuj dash Dehend- 
jiytd. Al>and(»n thy had conduct, and the Lord will have 
mercy on thee. 

lii-ijdti, annkin dash onia, ki j/a-dihaamon dash weiPcni. Come 
and work here, and I will pay thee well. 

'2. Disjunctive Conjunctions. 

Dash. It is disjunctii'i', when signifying, but, than. 

KiJ^-Hlanito o iji-ojinn nilani ininiicau tchi dpitchi mino aianidy 

win dash (fi-kifitnut/iidiso yi baid-dodany. (JckI made the first 

man to he perfectly happy, hut he made himself unhappy hy 

sinning. 
[ Nibiicajoniia ki (/ashkia, nsdin d<tsh kid atdyc, mi dash iw y ego 

tpendji-danisissiwan. Thou earnest much money, but thoix 

playest too much, and therefore thou hast no property. 

Namitvh nin sa^slkis, kin dash. I am older than thou. 

Nawatch nibicaka Paul, .lohn dash. Paul is wiser than John, 

Awashimejawendayosinebwn'cad, ketrhi-danid dash. A wise 

man is happier than a rich one. 
Missawu, although. 

Mi.ssauHi maichi iyoidn, kawia nin awiia nin wi matchi indssi. 

Although spoken ill of, I will speak ill of nobody. 

Missawa yaywedjimay, kawin nin nakwetayo.'<si. Although I 

ask him, he does not answer me. 
(ionimd, ki'ma, or ; either, or. 

Nioywan, yonima nanogwan nin yad-intnd. I will be gone 

tour or five days. 

li^iy nijiiey o yi-bi-mamon oma nin niasinaiyan ketna kin, 

keina kishime. One of you came here and took ray book, 

eitlier tliou or thy brother. 



— 357 — 

Kainn . . . , knioin gaie . . . , neither . . . , nor . . . 
Kitwin nin nin (/i-mamnffsin kimasi naif/an, kamn </aie nishime. 
Neither I took thy book, nor n)y brother. 

Kawin bexhigwddisidjiy , kawin gaie neta-giwashku'ebidjig ta- 
pmdiges.siwag ogimdiciwining gijigong. Neither aduherers 
nor (Iruiik.'inlH shall enter into the kingdom of heaven. 

Tchi, with the verb in the negative form, stands for the English 
conjunction lent. 

Nin gi-kihnkuHiowa pijiki, tchi m/idjassig. T shot up the cow, 
lest she run away. 

Jawniini kitimagisid, tchi windamdwassig Tehendjigenidjin 
eji-maichi-dodawad, mi dash tchi l>ata-diian. Have mercy on 
the poor, lest h'ill cry tmto the Lord against thee, and it be sin 
unto thee. 

Kishpin, with the verb in the negative form, serves for unless, 
or, except. 

Kishpin anwinindisosftiweg, kakina ki ga-hatuidjiidisom. Un- 
less you repent, you siiall all perish. 

Kishpin nawatvh mi no iji "ebisissiwan, kawin ki ga-pindi- 
gessi Debenimiko minawanigosixcining. Unless thou behavest 
better, thou shalt notent.; ^^ the joy of thy Lord. 
Kishpin enigok wXkwata^ isitoan, kawin wika ki ga-gashki- 
tossin ici-Otchipwemoian. Unless thou endeavorest earnestly^ 
ihou wilt never be able to speak^Otchipwe. 

Minotch, but still, yet. 
Kitchi nisk.T iad, kissina gaie, minotch bi-ijdwag. It is very 
bad weath . and cold, but still they come. 
Ktgo minuweken ishkotewdbo, ki gi-inindban ; minotch mojag 
ki minikiven. I told thee, don't drink any ardent liquor ; yet 
thou drinkest it always. 

Anawi, dno, but, altliough. 
Anishindbeg kitimdgisiwag, anawi dash mimcendamag. Tlie 
Indians are poor, but they are contented. 
Nind dno pinndawa, kawin dash nin nissitotawassi. Although 
I listen to him, I cannot understand him. 



'' W' 



■ .1 






I:: 



P'i 



'tl3 



— 358 — 

Nmd dno pagidawa, kawin dash gego nin pindaannin. Al- 
though I set nets, I catch nothing. 

iji, «£/*■> * (varying according to the tense of the verb connected 
with it,) as, as ... as, as .. . so. 

Debeiiimiian, apegish iji sdkihindn eji sdgiiian. Lord, I wish to 
love thee as thou lovest me. 
Mino ijiwehisiuy eji-mino-ijiwebisiwad swanganamiadjig. Be 

as good aH true Chri.^tiaiis are good. 

Eji-kik'moamagoieg, mi ged-ani-dodameg. As you are taught, 
so do. 



f i' 



1 1 



CHAPTER IX. 



OF INTERJECTIONS. 



An Jnie)'jection is a word that is used to express an emotion or 
a feeling of the person speaking. 

It is to be observed, as a peculiarity of theOtchipwe language, 
that the men have their own interjections, and i\\G females their 
own ; and some are common to both sexes. 

To express joy, admiration, surprise, fear, astonishment, im- 
patience, compassion, even anger and indignation, 

The men and the boys will say, Ataia ! tiwe ! \ aha ! ah ! 
The women and the girls will say, Nid!\o\\\ alas! 
n'gd ! n'g^ ! Mia I 

The difference between these two kinds of interjections is so 
sharp, that it would be the most ridiculous blunder for an aston- 
ished man to say, Nid! or for a surprised woman to say, Ataid ! 

The interjections common to both males and females, are the 
following : 



» See p. 126. 






I ' 



-J. 



— :^59 — 

To express impatience : heka '. heka •' beka ! slowly I stop ! 

iatj/i ! well ! 

" iiidijrMatioii, anger: tajinindji ! tnjim«1tlji in' n ! \ni\ 



pam. 



f'orrow : /o / oh ! ah ! 



" Hversion: .<*<?/ sluiine ! pshaw! 

(tw(t'<it ! he^ioiK'! away! go uitead ! 
" approl'ation : o! well! ay, ay ! 
" underHtaiiding or recollecting : ixhtr ! aha! yes? 
To call or excite attention: na ! iiui ! nas/i/ci^.' 1(»! see! hark! 
To encourage : tayd! ho! lialloo! 

haw! haw! halloo! courage! hurrah! 
ambe ! nmhesHn! well ! well ! come on ! 
To call sumehody : hisht ! hey! hear! 
To stop: beka! hold on I stop ! 
To admonisli, exhort: pintl ! hehold ! now ! ianwatan bina ! 

cease now !) 
To answer a call : hoi ! halloo ! 
To command silence : sh't ! xhe ! hush! silence! 

biadn ! hist ! be still! 



if 



OF PRKKFXE8 AND OTHER PARTICLES. 

There are in the Otchipwe language many particles or little 
words, some of which precede, and others follow verbs, and give 
them a certain accessory signification. We will exhibit here the 
most common of tliose particles, with the accessory signification 
they give to the verbs. 



Parik-leti. Acces. nia. 



Examples. 



na? 



-sa, 



of question. Ki xatjia na KiJe-MaaUo ? Nin myia sa. 
Dost thou love God? I love him. 

9 

of answer. Ka na Id nondanxi? Nin nondam sa. 

Dost thou not hear? I l>ear. 

Kawin na Paul ijinikasossif Mi sa ejini- 

ka.tod. Is not his name Paul ? That 

is his name. 

24 



►% 



I ( 



-- 360 — 

koy iko, oluie, custom. Nindija ko. . . 1 use to go. 

Ki minikwen na kojomindbo 'f Do8t tliou 

use to drink wine? 
Mn minikicendban sa ko. I uwed to 
drink it. 
bi-, of approach. Bi-//rt/t, bi-nasikaitishin.* Come here, 

come to nje. 
Bi-wubandan ow masinaiyan. Come and 

see this book. 
Nijiiuj nin (ji-bi-nibdinin. We slept twice 
in coming to thi.'^ place. 
ni-, ani-, of departure Gi-ani-mMja. He is gone awav. 

or going. Gi-ni-yiwedog. I think he returneil home. 

Jdwenimish indin Debenim Ha ay, ywaiak 

tchi ani-bimddi.siidvy. Have mercy on 

U8, Lord, thiit we may behave well in 

future. 

awi-, of going on. Jesii.s niasiny yi-awi-anamia nijike, kiti- 

yaniiiy Gtthsemani. Jesiis went three 
times to pray alone, in the garden of 
Getheenuvne. 
Mddjdda, awi-wdbandanda ya-ijiwebak. 
Let u8 go and see what lias liapijened. 

bimi-, of passing. Wegonen Jesus ya-bimi-dodang bekish 

yi-kikinoamagedf What did Jesus do 
at tlie same places that he preached 
(passing through different places) ? 
Anindi ye-bimi-ijaiang ? Through which 
place shall we pass ? 

wX-y wa-, of will, in- Nin wi-niba. — Nin wi-onishka. I will ga 
tentiou. to sleep. — I will get up 

Ki wi-wissin na ? Ki wi-minikwe na ? 

Wilt thou ea».? Wilt thou drink? 
Worijad. — Woranamiddjig. He that in- 
tends to go. Those tliat intend to be- 
come Christians. 



/-*«. 



361 — 



go, igo ; ma, ofre-'mforce- Nin ign. — Kinawa go. 1 myself. — You 
merit. yourselves. 

Kaginig igo ki ga-minn-ai/imin gijigong. 
We will he happy (or well) in heaven, 
for all eternity. 
Kakina go gHJdwag. They are all gone, 

(without exception.) 

Win ma gi-ikkito. He has said it himself. 

Ka ma win. No, no. 

da-, of condition. Nin <la-ija, ki.shpin ... I woiild go, if. . . 

(iwaiak iia ki da-dibddjimotaw ga-gad- 

wedjiminnmbdn? Would.«t thou tell it 

tonieright, (sincerely,) if I asked thee. 

gi-, ga-, of time past. gi-icdbaman. — Mi aw ga-wdbamind. He 

saw him. — This is the person that wa.s 
seen, etc., etc. 
of future Ta-nagamn. Tamdwi. He will sing. He 
time. will cry, etc. 

Nin ga-dodam. Ki gad-ikkit. I will do. 

Thou wilt say ; etc. 
Mi aw ge-mddjad, ged-ijad td.shkibodjiga- 
ning. This is the person that will 
start, that will go to the saw-mill. 



to- 
ga-, gad-, 
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PART THIRD. 




SYNTAX. 

Syntax, or Si/ntaxis, is tliat part of Grannnar, (according to 
the meaning of this greel<: word, joininc/ toyether,) wliich teaches 
to join words, or the parts of speech, together in a proper man- 
ner, into correct sentences. 

A sentence is tlie connection of several words in such a man- 
ner as to give a complete sense. 

Every sentence must have a subject, to which something is re- 
ferred, or of which something ii^affirnieii or denied ; and an at- 
tribute, (predicate,) whicli refers or alludes to the subject, or is 
affirmed or denied of it. To join the attribute to its subject, a 
third part of the sentence is necessary, wliich is the verb 

To form a regular and complete sentence, three parts are ne- 
cessary : the subject, the attribute, the verb. 

The syntax of the Otchipwe language is peculiar. We shall 
reduce it to a few chapters, and a few rules and remarks in each 
chapter. Many remarks and rules that could have been placed 
in this Third Part, occur in the preceding part, where they 
stand in connection with otlier rules, properly belonging to the 
part. 



CHAPTER I. 

SYNTAX OF SUBSTANTIVES OR NOUNS. 

KuLE 1. The snbstantive (joverns the verb, respecting number and 
kind. 

a. Respecting number. 

A substantive in the singular number requires a verb in the 
singular ; as : Paul niba, Paul sleeps. Inini manisse, ikwegash- 



363 



kigicaso ; tlie man chops wood, the woman sewf. Manilan wa- 
kaif/an onijishin, .soiu/an gaie ; this house is heautit'nl and strong. 
A Huhstantive in thophiral mnnher must liave a verl> hke- 
wise in the pkiral ; as : Abinodjiiag 07nl)iip'siuHi(/,c\\\U\reu make 
noise. Kakina ininiwag gi-gopiioag^ikwewag eta ahiwag. All the 
men are gone in the interior (inland), the women only are here. 
Nin sdgitonan iiin masinaiganun, niojag niii icCibamianan. 1 like 
my hooks, I read them always. 

Note. In English the verb does not always sliow its lieing 
governed by the substantive, respecting num1)er. In the last 
sentence here above, for instance, tlie verb, / like, i.s always 
the same, whether 1 like one book only, or several book* But 
in Otchipwe we say : Nin sagiton masinaigan, Nin sdgitonan 
masijiaigansLn. 

Exception. There is one case of exception from this rule in the 
Otchipwe language, where a substantive in tho .singular nxunhvr 
has a verb in the j)Iural after it. The case is, when oidy one 
member of a liousehold is taken for the whole ; as: Nos.s enda- 
wad gi-niba tibikong ; he slept last night at my fathers's, (where 
ray father dwells.) John enduwad nind ondjiba ; J come from 
John's, (where John dwells.) .Nnningiin nind ija nimi.'i.sr endfi- 
wtld; I go frequently to my sister's, (where my sister dwells.) 
This is the usual way of expressing this case. Although I could 
also say : JoJin enddd nind ondjiba. Niniisse endad nind ija. 
• This would be correct, but not usual; except if John, for in- 
stance, sliould live all alone in a house, I would then correctly 
say; John enddd nind ondjiba ; and I could not say otherwise, 
because then Jolin would not be a member of a household. 

Note. But when in tlie names of nations, one individual is 
taken for all, the substantive retains its rigiit ; it has a verb in 
the singular with it ; as : Wemitigoji endanakid nin ivi-ija. I 
intend to go wliere the Frenchmen live, (to France.) Jdgandsh 
nibiwa dihenddn aki ; the Englisii are in possession of much 
land, (in difterent parts of the world.) Kitchimokomdn noiiiaia 
gi-migdso ; tlie Americans have lately been at war. 



K if 



* 



' Si' 



I 



: i 



l\ i 



I *, 



— 364 — 

' ^ b. Respecting kind. 

The Otchipwe eubstantivea are of two kinds, animate and 
inanimate. (See page 14.) 

An animate substantive must invariably have a verb of the 
same kinil, if in connection with a verb; it must have an ani- 
mate verb of the IV. or V. Conj ; as : Nin wdbama inini, I see a 
man. Ninnoiidawar/ikwewag, abinodjiiagfgaie,! hear women 
and cliildren. Kid atawenag opinig. thou sellest potatoes. 

An inanimate substantive requires an inanimate verb, of the 
VI. Conj. ; as : Nin tcdbandan tcdkaigan, I see a house. gi- 
gishpinadonan middssici mokomdnan f-^he has bought ten knives. 
Kawin nin bidossin ki masinaigan,niii gi-icaniken : I don't bring 
thy book, I forgot it. 

This is to be understood of the transitive or active verbs. 

In regard to the intransitive or neuter verbs, the general syn- 
tactical rule is, that an animate subject always takes an intran- 
sitive verb of the three first Conjugations; and an inanimate 
subject takes a unipersonal verb of the three last Conjugations. 
As: Koss gi-dagioishin. Ndbikicdn gi-dagwishinomagad. Thy 
father arrived. A vessel arrived. Nissaie jdgandshimo. Man- 
dan masinaiganjdgandskimomagad. My brother speaks Enn; 
lish. This book speaks English, (is written in English ) Ai< \i- 
ndbe aia oma. Wiidss aydmadad oma. There is an Indian .../e. 
There is meat here. Onijishi kinidjdniss. Onijishin ki masi- 
naigan. Thy child is beautiful. Thy book is beautiful.! 

Rule 2. Two or more substantives in the singular number, taken 
in connection, require a verb in the plural, as : 

K'oss kigagaie ki ga-minadenimag, thou shalt honor thy father 
and thy mother. John, William, Nancy gaie gimddjaioag ; John, 
William and Nancy, are gone away. Mokomdn, ^mikivdn, ond- 
gan gaie winadon ; ki da-binitonan. The knite, the spoon, and 
the dish, are unclean ; thou oughtst to clean them. 

Rule 3. Two or more substantives in the singular number, taken 
separately, require a verb in the singular, as : 



— 366 — 

Nissaie, gonima > nishime, ta-ija. My eldest brother, or my 
younger brother, (sister) will go. K'oss kemakiga, kema kimisse, 
ia-hi-ija omd nongom. Thy father, or thy mother, or thy sister, 
is to come here to-day. Aw kwiwisens gonima ki masinaigan, 
gonima dash ki mokomanens, o ga-hanadjiton. This boy will 
spoil either thy book or thy penknife. 

Rule 4. When two substantives come together, denoting the pos- 
sessor and the object possessed, the sign o or od is put between 
them. (See page 36, where you will also find Examples.) 

Rule 5. When two substantives come together, not denoting pos- 
session, but some other relation, they are connected together in 
various ways. 

1. By juxta-position, in putting the two substantives one after 
another, without any alteration, connecting them with a hyphen, 
as : Wigwdss-tchimdn, bark-canoe. Ishkotcndbikwdn, steam- 
boat, (fire- vessel.) Ndbikwdn-ogima, captain of a vessel. Gi-go- 
bimide, fish-oil. Assema-makak , snuff-box, etc., etc. 

2. By adding the letter i or o to the first substantive, (that is, 
its mutative vowel ; seep. 81.), and then joining both together 
with a liyphen, as : 

John o gi-bapa-gagikwenodan anwenindisowini-sigaandadiwin. 
John preached the baptism of repentance, (repentance-bap- 
tism.) 

Bind, nongom jawenddgosiwini-gijigak ! Behold, now is the 
day of salvation, (salvation-day.) 

Batadowiui-gdssiamdgewin. Forgiveness of sins, (sin-forgive- 
ness.) 

Assini-wdkaigan. House of stones, (stone-building.) 

Biwdbiko-mikana. Railroad, (iron-road.) 

Mitigo-wdkaigan. House of logs, trees, (log-house.) 
Etc, etc. 

3. By contracting the two substantives in one, abbreviating 
them at the same time. 

Some of these contracted words are very properly written in 
one word, as : Nagamowinini, singer, (naganion or nagamowin, 



1 



I 



r 



tiri 
til 






- ma — 

song ; and inini, man.) Dibakonu/^winini, judge, {dihakonige- 
M)i/t, judgment, and »mti, man.) Darnitdf/ekwe, a maid-servant, 
(bamitdgewin, service, and ikwe, woman.) Gaahkigivcisowikwe^ 
a seamstress, (gashkigwdsowin, sewing ; and ikwe, woman.) 

But others of the contracted words are more properly written 
separately, and connected only witli a liyphen, as : 
Nagawo-masinaigan, t^ong-book. Anamie-nagamon^ religious 
song or liymn, [anamieioin, religious prayer.) A namie-gagikwe- 
win, religious sermon. Gagikwe-masinaigan, sermon-book. And 
innumerable others. 

Respecting the position of the substantive, or the place which 
it occupies in the sentence, we have in Otchipwe no positive 
rule. It may, like in Latin, precede or follow its verb, almost 
always, without any material difference, as : Bwa bi-nigid Jesus, 
gi-ijiwebadogwen iw ; this had happened, before Jesus was born. 
You may as well say : Jesus bwa Jbi-nigid, gi-ijiwebadogwen iw. 
But you cannot well say in English : Jesus before was born_, 
this had j happened. — NiJ masinaiganan nin gi-gishpinadonan, 
or, nin gi-gi.shpinadonan nij masinaiganan ; is perfectly the 
same. 

Tliere is much liberty in the Otchipwe language in regard to 
the transposition of words in a sentence ; almost as much as 
there is in Latin. I say almost ; not quite so much, but more 
than in English. 

K'oss ta-bi-ija oma nongom. Thy father will come here to-day. 

Nongom oma ta-bi-ija k'oss. To-day here will come thy father. 

la-bi-ija k^oss oma nongom. Will come thy father here to-day, 

Nongom omo k^oss ta-bi-ija. To-day here thy father will come. 

Oma nongom k'oss ta-bi-ija. Here to-day thy father will come. 

Ta-bi-ija k'oss nongom oma. Will come tliy father to-day here. 

K'oss nongom ta-bi-ija oma. Thy father to-day will come here. 

Oma ta-bi-ija nongom k'oss. Here will come to-day thy father. 
Etc., etc. 

Observe the Indians when they speak, and you will see how- 
much transposition of words is used in their language. 



— 367 — 

Note. In citations or quotations, the substantive denoting the- 
person wliose words are quoted, must be placed at the end of 
the quotation, not in the beginning, as in Englisli. 

Examples. 

Baha-ijaio(j eniyokway aki, i^' n'tdjimouiin yayikimiy kakina 
bemddisidjiy ; o yi-indn Jesus j kikinoam yanau. Jesus said 
to his disciples : Go ye into all the world and preach the Gosr 
pel to every creature. 

Keyo nonyomninyotc.hi ij liken ; nin yi-iy n'oss jeba. My lather 
said to me this morning: Don't go anywhere to-day, (don't to- 
day anywhere go.) 

Wdbany nin ya-hos, kishpinanicdiiny ; ikkito nissaie. My bro- 
ther says : I \vill embark to-morrow, if it is calm. 

If you want to put the substantive denoting the person whose 
words you have to quote, in the beginning, you must .«ay : Ow 
ikkito ; or, ow yi-ikkito, yi-ikkitowuy, etc., always preposing ow,. 
that, thus. 

Examples. 

Ow ikkito Debendjiyecl : Jawenddyosiway bdnideedjiy, Kije- Ma- 
niton ya-wdbaniawan. The Lord says : Blessed are the pure 
in heart, for thev shall see God. 

Ow kid iyonan Jesus : Sdyiiy metchi-dodoneyoy ; jawenimiyy 
mino dodawiy janyenimineyoy. Jesus says to us : Love them 
that do you evil; have mercy on them and do good to them 
that hate you. 

Ow yi-ikkito : Nibiny nin yad-ija Moniany. He said : Next sum- 
mer I will go to Montreal. 

In relating what a person said, you have to give it in Otchip- 
we in the way o( qiiotation rather than otherwise. 

Examples. 

Paul said that his brother arrived last night Nissaie yi-hi-dag- 
wishin tibikony, yi-ikkito Paul. 



ISA 



i ^ 



te^-?w ■, ' 


1 


i 


1 



— 368 — 

They said they would come to our liouse to-morrow. Nin gad' 
ydmin endaiegwdbang,ikkitohanig. That is: We will come 
to our house to-morrow : They said. 

I told him I had no money. Kawin nind ojoniidmissi, ningi-ina. 



Of the Otchipwe Pronoun, Syntax has but little to say : Ety- 
mology talks much of it. 

Pronouns are often absorbed in the verbs ; as we have seen in 
the Conjugations. F. i. Kishpin sdgiiieg, if yon love me; both 
pronouns, you and 7»e, are contained in the form of the verb, 
sdgiiieg. 

The Rule of the English Syntax : " When two or more nomi- 
natives combined are of different persons, the verb and pronoun 
in the plural, prefer the first person to the second, and the second 
to the third," is exactly the same in Otchipwe. 
Win, nin gaie, nin gad-ijdmin. He and I wil'. go, (we will go.) 
Kin, win gaie, ki gi-ikkitom. Thou and he have said, (you 

have said.) 
Ninawind, ivin gaie, nin gi-kitchianokimin. We and he work- 
ed hard, (we worked hard.) 
Kinawa, nin gaie, ki gad-ijdmin. You and I will go, (we will 

go.) 
Kin, winaioa gaie, ki gi-ikkitom. Thou and they have said, 
(you have said.) 

The repetition oi i\\& personal pronouns, I myself, thou thy- 
self, he himself, etc-, is expressed in Otchipwe by repeating the 
same personal pronoun ; which, however, can be done only in 
the first and second person, not in the third, because the third 
person has no pronoun in the Conjugations. 



Nin, nin gi-ikkit iw. 
r.ln, nind ijdndban. 
Kin, ki ga-nondawa. 



Examples. 

I have said that myself. 

I went myself. 

Thou shait hear him thvself. 




Kin, kid ikkiiondban. Thou saidst thyself. 
Win, gi-ojiton ixo. He made that himself. 
Mnawind, nin wi-ijdmin. We intend to go ourselves. 
Kinawa, ki gad-animisim. You will suffer yourselves. 
Winawa, ia-gagwedjimdwag . They will be asked themselves. 

If yet more stress is intended, the particle go, or igo, is put 

between the two personal pronouns, or after \cin and icinawa, 

(in the tlird person,) as: Nin igo nin gi-ikkit iw ; yes, I have 

43aid that myself. Kinawa go ki gad-animisim, yes, you will 

suffer yourselves, etc. 



CHAPTER II. 



SYNTAX OF VERBS. 



The first Rule in the Syntax of substantives, may also be con- 
sidered as the first in the Syntax of verbs. 

Rule 1 . The verb must agree with its substantive, its subject, 
(expressed or understood,) in number and kind; that is, a 
verb that refers to a subject in the singular number, must be 
employed in the singular ; and a verb referring to a subject 
in ih^ plural, must likewise be placed in the plural number. 
And a verb that alludes to an animate subject, musi be ani- 
mate itself; and the verb applied to an inanimate subject, 
must also be inanimate. (See Examples of that under Hule 
1., in the preceding Chapter.) 

Respecting the 7;o6f?7ion of the verl) in the sentence, we say, 
(what we said of the substantive in the preceding Chapter,) that 
there is no positive rule for it. The Otchipwe verb is allotted 
to precede or follow its subject ; as you have seen in many Ex- 
amples here above. ■ ^_ 

In regard to quotations, we have one remark more to make. 
The verb indicating quotation, not only i'^ ^vords but also of 
thoughts, is always placed after the quotatio.i, may its subject 







..( 











■1 ■ 








' 1 


f 

-• 


'M 



Iti^ ,1 



— 370 — 

be expresHeil or only understood, (except you begin witli ow, as- 
stated above.) 

Examples. ^ 

Nin (pr(/a(/ansoma aw inini pitrhhtngo, oma ic/ii hi-ijad. Kawin 
nin ^oUijdssi ; gi-iwCi (lanh. I exliorted tbat man yesterday to 
come bcre ; but he said : I will not go, or, I will not go, but 
lie said. 

Ki niasitotawa na ekkitodf — Kawin. — Nin kilchi mtmoendam 
wdhamindn ; ikkito. Dost thou understand him what he 
says? — No. — He says: I am very glad to see thee. 

Ta-gimiwan nongom ; nin gi-inendani jeha. I thought this 
morning, it would rain to-tlay. 

Kishpin nasikawag niekafewikwanaie, nin ga-nanihikimig ; inen- 
daniodog. He probably thinks : If I go to the Missionary, he 
will reprimand me. 

Kaioinnin loi-ijds.nmin anamiewi garni gong nongom, osdm niska- 
dad; inendamodogenag. They probably think : The weather- 
is too bad ; we will not go to church to-day. 

The Englisli syntactical rule : " One verb governs another in 
theinfimtioe mood;" is different in Otcliipwe. In this language 
it will read thus : 

Rule 2. One verb governs another in the sxdtjunetive mood. 

Examples. 

Mnd inendam ichi mddjaidn. I think to go away, (to depart,)' 
or, nin ga mddjdn, nind inendam. 

Kawin nin da-ga.^hkitos.nn nongom tehi mddjdidmbdn. I cannot 
start to-day. 

Kawin o mikwendan.fin ichi gi-ikkitod. He does not remember 

*to have said it. 

Iji John, William gaie kikinoamdding tchi ijdicad. Tell John 
and William to go to school. 

Nin kashkendaniin gi-bosiidng jeba. We are sorry to have em- 
barked this morning. 

Minwendam abinodjt odaminod. The child likes to play. ^ ■ 



— 371 — 

Rule H. " Two verbs {or other terms) impbjiiuj neyalhn in the 
same sentence, are improper, unless we mean to a/firm." Tliis 
syntactical rule of other languages undergoes some nioditica- 
tions in the Otchipwe language. 

1. In Otchipwe the negation is expressed by two terms, (ex- 
cept in some tenses, as you have seen in the Conjugations,) by 
the adverbs kawin or kego ; and by a certain syllable or syl- 
lables at the end of the verb. 

2. There is a vcrli in this language, which is particular in 
this respect, the verb nin ijinaamdwa, I forbid him. By observ- 
i ng the Indians in their speaking, you will find that they some- 
times use it, implying a double negation, and do not mean to 
affirm ; and at other times they will employ it, as it is employ- 
ed in other languages. 

EXI'LAXATIOXS. 

Ki ginaamon tchi mudjdssiwan nonyom. I forbid thee, not to 
start to-day. — This sentence in Englisii is equivalent to this: 
/ t'owma/uZ tliee to start to-day ; because two terms implying 
negation, constitute an attiruiation. — But in Otchipwe it 
means : I forbid thee to start to-day. 

Kije-Manitoyo gi-yinaamdwan nitam anishindhen, tchi midjissi- 
nig maniwang hejig mitig. God forbade the first man, not to 
eat tbe fruit of a certain tree ; that is to say in English; he 
commanded him to eat it. — But in Otchipwe it lias the right 
signitication : he forbade him to eat it. 

So they use this verb ordinarily. But sometimes they^mploy 
it in the usual way of other languages, implying only one nega- 
tion. F. i. 

Enamiad ginaamdwa tchi gimodipan. The Christian is forbid- 
den to steal. 
Kawin nin wi-ijdssi icedi wigiwdming ; nin ginaamdgo tchi ijai- 
dmbdn. I will not go to that house; I am tbrbidden to go. 






"m 



n t 



— 372 - 

Of Pai'ticiples we have to observe liere, tliat they are pome- 
tinies subsiantiven, and sonietimeH adjectives. 

Examples op Participles used ah Substantives. 

Enarniad, IX Chriat'iaii ; (part. pres. of the intran. verb anatnia,. 

he prays.) 
Ketchitwdioendflyosi , he is jrlorious, (holy.) 
I)cbe7ulji(/ed, Jiiaster, lord ; (part. pres. of the iiitr. verb dibend- 

jige, lie is master. ) 
KekiiwanuKjed, a teacher, school-teaclu (part. pres. of the- 

intr. verb kikinoammje, he teaches.) 
Tckdmdniked, a boat-builder; (part. pres. of the intr. verb tchi-- 

indnike, he makes a boat, or cnnoe.) 

All these substantives form t'.ieir plural by adding^"///, as:. 
Enamiddjitj, Christians; ketcliitwdwuiddijosidjiij, the Saints, etc.. 

Examples of Participles used as Adjectives. 

Wenijishiiuj, good, fair, u.seful ; (part. pres. of the unip. verb, 

onijishin, it is good, etc.) 
Maid nddak, had ', (part. pres. of the unip. verb manddad, it is 

bad.) 
6'e»a(/a^•, difficult ; (part. pres. of the unip. verb sanagad, it is 

diflicult.) 
Nebwdkad, wise ; (part. pres. of the intr. verb nibwdka, lie (she). 

is wise.) 



I'll 



CHAPTER III. 

OP parsing or analyzing. 

Parsing is the an. iomy of Grammar. As anatomy decomposes 
or analyzes all the members and parts of the body, and shows 
them separately, and then their coherence ; so Parsing decom- 
poses or resolves a sentence into its elements, members, or parts 
of speech, and shows their relation and connection. 



— 373 — 



J|-l-- 



RULES FOR PARSING. 

First it must he stated, at every word in the sentence, what 
part of speech it is; and every part of speech may then be parsed 
according to the following Rules. 

1. A substantive or noun is parsed hy telling its kinil, whether a 
common noun or a proper name ; whether animate or inani- 
mate ; its subject and object ; the number, whether singular or 
plural; the person, whether the sin»ple, the second, or the 
third third person ; and the case; and indicating the termina- 
tion of its plural. 

2. A. pronoun is parsed by stating the kind, (there are. five kinds 
or classed of pronouns,) the number audperson ; and by show- 
ing its connection with a verb, or with a substantive. 

.3. A verb is parsed by telling it.s quality, and to which Conjuga- 
(jation it belongs, which is done by naming the Conjugation, 
or the characteristical third person ; by naming lia participle 
present, by which the verb's Change is known ; * by stating 
its voice, form, mood, tense, person and number. 

4. An ac(/ec'<u'e is parsed by telling of which sort it is, whether 
adjective proper, or adjective-verb; by telling whether com- 
pared or not ; and the degree of comparisc \, if compared. 

5. A ntimber is parsed by indicating its class or kind, (there are 
five different classes of numbers.) If it is transformed into a 
verb, tlie Conjugation to which it belongs, is to be stated. 

6. A prepo.sition is parsed by pointing ont th»? words between 
which it shows the relation. 

7. An adverb is parsed by stating its class, (there are ten classes 
of adverbs,) and by indicating the word it modifies. 

8. A conjunctionia parsed by stating its sort, and by showing the 
words or sentences which it joins together. 

9 An interjection is parsed by merely naming it as such. 

As a general Rule for parsing, take this : State everything 
that belongs to a part of speech in the sentence you analyze, ia 

* See p, 116. 






f 



• i: • i 



/ 




'II. 



— 374 — 

:as few words as possible, and always in the same manner, as 
much as can be. 



r 1: 1 



(■'! ■ 



hill 



I 



:|l 



,1 
I 1 

I ;, . ,1 



SPECIMENS OF PAKSINO OR ANALYZING. 

Parse the following sentence according to the above Rules : 
Sagiada Jesus, loin sa lu'tom />/ gi-sdguf/ondn. (Let us love Je- 
sus, because he has tirst loved us.) 

Sdgiada . is a verb, derived from ninsngia, I lovehiin ; which 
is a transitive animate verlt of the IV. Conjugation. It is in 
the imperative, first person plural, affirmative form, active 
voice. Its subject (understood) is Ari/tairmd, we; its object is 
Jesus. Its participle present is saidgiad. 

Jesus, is a substantive, proper name, simple third person, object 
of sdgiada. 

Win, is a personal pronoun, he, ma.sculine (here), singular, 
third person ; it stands instead of Jesus, ami is connected 
with the following verb, sdgiigonan. 

Sa, is here a copulative conjunction, signifying because, for ; it 
joins the pronoun win with the following verb. 

Mtam, first, is an adverb of the seventh class, denoting time ; it 
modifies the verb sdgiigonan. 

Ki, is a personal pronoun, us, first person plural ; it is used 
when the person spoken to is included. It is connected with 
the following verb. 

Gi-, is a particle or sign, imlicating the perfect tense ; in cases of 
Change it is ga-. 

Sdgiigonan, is a verh from nin sdgia, I love him; which is a 
transitive animate verb of the IV. Conj., II. Case ; it is toge- 
ther with the preceding sign, in the perfect ten8e,|third person 
singular, relating to the first person plural; atfirmative form, 
indicative mood. Its subject is the above pronoun, win; its 
object is the preceding ki, iis. 

Another sp'i'cimen in the following sentence : Dehendjiged o 
gi-inan Debenimidjin : Namadabin nin kitchinikang. (The Lord 
.said unto my Lord : Sil on my rigliv hand ) 



i:i 



i! ' 



— 376 



Vebendjiged, is the participle present, third person singular, 
from nin dibendjige, I am master, lord ; which is an intranf •- 
tive verb of the I. Conj. This participle is here employed as 
a substantive, in the simple third person ; it is the subject of 
the next following verb. Its plural is formed by adding jig. 

0, is a possessive pronoun, third person ; but here it is the ob- 
jective case of the personal pronoun toin, him. 

Gi-, is a sign denoting the perfect tense ; in the Change ga-. 

Inan, is derived i'romnind ina, I tell him, I say to him; which 
is a transitive animate verb of the IV. Conjug. ; irregular in 
the imperative, iji. It is, in conjunction with o and gi-, in the 
active voice, affirmative form, indicative, present ; third per- 
son singular, relating to a second third person singular. Its 
subject is Dehendjiged, its object Debenimidjin. Participle 
present, enad. 

Debenimidjin, is derived from nin dibenima, I am liis master, 
his lord ; which is a transitive animate verb of the IV. Conj. 
It is in the II. Case, participle present, affirmative form, in 
i\i^ second i\\\rdY)Qr%on, Debendjiged being the simple third 
person. 

Namadabin, is an intransitive verb of the I. Conj., nin namadab, 
I am sitting, or, I sit down ; affirmative form, imperative, 
second person singular. Participle present, nimadabid. 

Mn, is a pronoun, personal and possessive, here it is possessive 
conjunctive, mg ; first person singular. It is connected with 
the following substantive, and refers to iJebendjiged, instead 
of which it stands. 

Kitcldnikang, is a substantive, kitchinik, the right arm. It is a 
common noun, inanimate ; the object of the preceding pro- 
noun win ; in the singular number, simple third person; its 
plural is formed by adding an. The English preposition an, 
is expressed by the termination ang. (See Prepositions, No. 
ir., 3. term., page 333.) 

A third specimen of parsing. Sentence : NeUi-baid didjig 
matchi maniton o dibenimigowan ; aw dash Kije-Maniion saior 
giad kawin nita-bata-ijiwebisissi. (Those that sin habitually, 

26 







I 



li 



ii' • 



iii 



I i 



— 376 — 

are the servants of the evil spirit, (he is their master;) but he 
that loves God, is not in the habit of sinning.) 

Net&baid-didjig, is a verb composed of three parts. The first 
part is nitor, which is no distinct part of speech, but only used 
in compositions, to signify a habits or custom. In the Change 
it makes, neta-. The second part is baid-, which again is no 
distinct part of speech, never used by itself, but only in com- 
positions, where it signifies sinning or injuring one's self. The 
third part is the defective verb, niri dind, I am, I do, etc. . . . 
The whole is in the affirmative form, participle present, sim- 
ple third person plural. It is the object of the verb dibenimi- 
gowan; signifying : " Those that sin habitually." 

Matchi, is an adjective-proper, in the positive, simply qualifying 
the following substantive. It signifies evil, bad, etc. 

Maniton, is a common substantive, manito, spirit. It is animate, 

singular, the second third person, referring to neta-baia-did- 

jig, which is the simple third person. It is the subject of the 

verb dibenimigowan. Its plural is formed by adding g, mani- 

tog. 

0, is here the objective case of the personal pronoun winawa, 
they ; it refers to neta-baia-didjig. 

Dibenimigowan, is a verb derived from nin dibenima, I am his 
master ; which is a transitive animate verb of the TV. Conj. 
It is in the passive voice, affirmative form, indicative, present, 
third person plural. Its subject iis maichi-maniton, and its 
object, neia-bata-didjig ; its participle is debenimad. 

Aw, is a demonstrative pronoun, singular; signifying that, or he 
that. The substantive instead of which it stands, is not ex- 
pressed, but understood : as : A man, a person, a Christian, 
etc. It is the simple third person, and the subject of saiaaiad. 

Dash, is a conjunction, both copulative and disjunctive; here it 
is disjunctive, because it signifies but. 

Kije-Maniton, is a substantive, the name of the Lord God. Kiji- 
Manito properly signifies, Kind Spirit. It is the second third 
person ; the preceding pronoun aw, (or the substantive in 



'*■ r 



-ii. 



— 377 — 



stead of which it stands,) being the simple third person. It is 
the object of the following verb. 

Saiagiad, is a verb derived from nin sdgia, I love him ; which 
is a transitive animate verb of the IV. Conj. It is here in the 
participle present, affirmative form, third person singular. 

Its subject is aw, and its object Kije-Maniton. 
Kawln, is an adverb of the fourth clas^ denoting negation. It 
modifies the following verb. 

Nitd-hata-ijiwehisissi, is a verb composed of three parts. The 
two first parts are the same as in the first word of this sen- 
tence. The third part is a verb derived from nind ijiwehift, I 
behave, I conduct myself ; which is an intransitive verb of the 
I. Conj. ; its third person is, ijiwehisi ; its participle present, 
ejiwehisid. Its subject is aw. The whole is in the negative 
form, indicative, present, third person singular ; and signifies, 
in connection with the preceding adverb: "He is not in the 
habit of behaving sinfully." x 

Parsing or analysing sentences, is the most useful granmiati- 
ji'J exercise that can be found. It accounts for every word and 
every syllable in the sentence, it recalls to memory all the Rules 
of Grammar, and shows practically their use and application. 

Dear reader, if you wish to acquire a solid and systematical 
knowledge of this language, be diligent in parsing sentences, 
and write down your parsing exercises, like these Specimens. 
The above Rules and Specimens show you the manner ; and 
sentences for parsing you will find in abundance in the numerous 
Examples of this Grammar. 

FAMILIAR PHRASES 

TO FACILITATE CONVERSATION. 






f i 



I. For questioning, affirming, denying, going, coming, etc. 
Who is that? Wliat is that? Aweuen aw f Wegonen ow f 
What is the matter ? Wegonen ? or • Anin ejiwebak ? 
What is the news ? Anin enakamigak 1 



— 378 — 



t ;1 



II 



ii n 



ill! h 



in 
ill I 



What is your name ? * Anin ejinikasoian ? 

What is the name of that man, woman, boy, girl? Anin ejini- 

kasod aw inini, ikwe, kwiwisens, ikioesens ? 
What is the name of this thing ? Anin ejinikddeg ow ? (in. obj.)t 

Anin ejinikasod aw ? [an. obj.) 
What do you say ? How ? What? Anin ikkitoian f Anin ? Wego- 

nen ? Wa ? 
Wliat are you doing ? (eing.) Wegonen wejitoian ? 
What are you doing? 'plur.) Wegonen wejitoieg 1 
Have you done ? Ki gi-ishkwata (ishkwatam) na ? 
What do you want ? Wegonen wa-aidian (aiaieg) f 
What do you come for ? Wegonen ha-ondji-ijaian (ijaieg) ? or : 

Wegonen ha-osikaian (osigaieg) ? 
What do you mean ? Wegonen wa-ikkiioian (ikkitoieg) ? 
What is the meaning of that ? Wegonen wa-ikkitomagak iw f 
May one ask you? (sing.) Ki da-gagwedjimigo na ? 
What do you want to ask me ? (sing.) Wegonen wa-gagwedji- 

miian ? 
Who lives here? Whose house is this? Awenen oma endad? 

Awenen ow wewakaiganid (wewigiwamid) ? 
Whose books are these ? Awenen onow wemasinaiganid ? 
What have we to do ? Wegonen ge-dodamangiban ? (or, ge-doda- 

mang ?) 
Do you know that? {all in the si7ig.) Ki kikendam na iw ? 
Do you hear me ? Ki nondaw ina ? 
Do you understand me ? Ki nissitotaw ina ? 
Do you remember (recollect) ? Ki mikwendan ina ? 
Do you know me ? Kikikenim ina ? 
Whom do you look for? Awenen nendawdbamad? 
What do you look for? Wegonen nendawabanddman ? 
What have you lost ? Wegonen ga-wanitoian ? 
Why don't you answer ? Wegonen wendji-nakwetansiwan ? 
Wouln't you give me . . . send me . . . bring me . . . lend me ... ? 

Ka na ki dorjnijissi . . . nindaissi . . . bidawissi . . . awiissi ? 



* Note. In these Phrasea^e express the Indian second person singular , by 
the second person plural in English, this being in English the usual way. 

t See Bemark p. 13. (The mark a)u signifies a)i,imale objects ; and the mark 
in., inunimcUe, objects. 



— 379 — 



Go and fetcli it. Awi-ncidin, (in. obj.) awi n&j, (an. object.) 

I assure you. It \a the truth. Geget. Debwewitnagad. 

I speak the truth ; believe me. Nin dSbwe ; debwetawishin. 

It is not so ; you tell a lie. Kmoin awansmon ; kikiwanim gosha. 

It is said so; every body says it. Ikkiiom sd ; kakina ikkito- 

wag. 
I contradict it ; I don't believe it. Nind agonwetam ; kawin nin 

debwetansin. 
It is a false report, don't believe it. Anisha dibddjimom, kego 

debwetengen. 

Do you jest (joke) ? Anisha na kid ikkit tchi bapiian ? 

I believe you. I don't believe you. Ki debweton. Kawin ki bebwe- 
tossinon. 

You are in the right. Ki debwe. 

He is in the wrong. Kawin debwessi. 

I say yes. I say no. E, nin ikkit. Kawin, nind ikkit. 

What do you say ? Nothing. Wegonen dash kin ekkitoian ? Ka- 
win ningot, [kawin gego) 

You have been imposed upon. Ki gi-giivanimigo. 

Don't believe immediately everybody. Kego pabige dabwetawa- 

ken beniddisidjig. 
Who has told it to you ? Awenen gd-dibddjimotok ? 
I intend to do it ; I will do it. Nind inendam tchi dodamdn ; 

nin wi-dodam. 
I consent to it ; I approve it. Nin minwendam tchi ijiwebak iw ; 

nin minwdbandan. 
I am against it. Kawin nin minwendansi tchi ijiwebak iw. 
I for my part, I say nothing. Nin win, kawin ningot nind ikki- 

iossi. 
It would be better for me to . . . Nawatch nin dor-minododam 

tchi . . . 
I had rather . . . Nawatch nin da-minwendam . . . 
You speak too much. You speak too loud. Kid osdmidon. Osdm 

ki kijiwe. 
Hold your tongue. Kid ombigis. 
Don't say a word. Kego ningot ikkitoken. 



I- 






— 380 — 



III f 



Be quiet; you make too much noise. (j:>?w?*.) Bisdii ahiy [ahiiog) ; 

osdm kid omhigisim. 
Do you know that man ? Ki kikenimana aw inini ? 
I saw him, but I never spoke to him. Nin gi-wdbama, kawin 

dash wika nin gi-ganonassi. 
I forgot his name. Nin wanenima ejinikasod. 
I heard several reports. Anotch babamddjimowin nin gi-nondan. 
It is not worth while to speak ol' that. Kawin apitendagwassi- 

non tchi dajindamingihan. * 
I request you to make that for me. Ki pagossenimin tchi ojiia- 

mawiian ow. 
I thank you for your kindness towards me. Migwetch mino do- 

dawiian. 
You are too good to me. Osdm ki mino dodaw. 
I could never do too much for you. Kawin wika nin dagashki- 

tossin osdm tchi mino dodondn, (or, dodondmban.) 
You are very kind indeed. Geget ki kitchi kijewddis. 
I give you too much trouble. I give you too much work. Osdm 

ki kotagiin. Osdm kid anokiin. 
It affords me pleasure to do that ; to make that for you. Geget 

nin minwendam tchi dodamdn iw ; tchi ojitondn iw. 
Where are you going? Where are they gone? Anindi ejdian? 

Anindi ga-ijawad ? 
1 am going farj I am going near by. Wassa nin wi-ija. Besho 

nin wi-ija. 
I am going home. Nin giwe, (endaidn nind ija.) 
He is going home. They are going home. Giwe, (endad ija.) 

Giwewag, (endawad ijawag.) 
You wa;lk too fast. They walk too slow. Osdm ki kijikd. Osdm 

kesikawag. 
Are you in a great hurry ? ApHchi na ki wewibishkd ? 
Let us go on the other side of the bay, (river,) or, lot us cross 

the bay, (river, etc) Agaming ijada, or, ajaowada, (in a ca- 
noe, etc.), ajaogakoda, (on foot on the ice ) 
Let us cross the road. Ajoadoda mikana. 



* Bee Remark 8, page 113. 



~ 381 — 



Let us go in. Let us go out. Pindigeda. Sagaandanda. 

I go up. I go down. Nind akwandawe. Nin niasandawe. 

Let us go this way. They go that way. Oma nakakeia ijada, 

Wedi nakakeia ijawag. 
He goes to the right, he does not go to the left. Okitchinika- 

mang nakakeia ija, kawin namandjinikamang nakakeia ijassi. 
<to Straight along. Gwaiak ani-ijdn. 
Go back a little. Ajegabawin pangi. 
Go back again, (return.) Ajegiwen. 
Stay here, don't go away. Oma aian, kego mddjaken. 
Where do you come from ? (whence come you ?) Anindi wendji- 

baian ? 
I come from your house. Enddian nind ondjiba. 
I come from home. Endaidn nind ondjiba. 
I come from my uncle's. Nijishe (or, nimishSnie *) endawad 

nind ondjiba. 
Come here, or hither. Onddshdn, or, bi-mddjdn, bi-ijdn oma. 
Go there. Wedi ijdn, mddjdn. 
Come to me. Sit down with me. Bi-nasikawishin. Widabimi- 

shin 
Come along with me. Stand here with me. Bi-widjiwishin. 

Widjigakawitawishin oma. 
Come near the fire, warm yourself. Bi-nasikan ishkote, bi-awa- 

son. 
Stop, hold on ; stay a little. Beka; nag-gabawin nakawe. 
I will wait for you. Wait for me here. Ki ga-biin. Biishin oma. 
Open the door, the window. Pakdkonan ishkwandem, wasset- 

chigan. 
Let us shut the door, the windows. Bibakwaanda ishkwandem, 

wa.'isetcMganan. 
I will go home now ; to-morrow I will come here again. Nin 

wi-giwe nongom ; wdbang minawa nin ga-bi-ija. 
I exhort him to go, to work, etc. Nin gagansoma tchi madjad, 

tchi anokid, etc. 



■?*■ 



1^.: 



r ■■€'^ 









' Nijishe, my mother's brother. Nlmiihonie, my father's brolhcr 



*^ 




— 382 



It is all the eame whether he come s or riof. Mi tibishko tcht 

dagwichiny, kema gaie tchi iagwishinsig. 
Thou deservest to be whipped. Ki wikwaichiiamas tchi bashan- 

jeogoian. 
I am poor for your nake, (you are the cause of my poverty.) 

Kinawa nind ondji Htimdgis. 
Religion will be the cause of thy happiness. Anamiewin ki gad- 

ondji-jawendagos. 
They have been ill treated for religion's sake. Anamiewin gi- 

ondji-matchi-dodawawag. 
Tell me what you think, what you are doing, etc. Windatna- 

wishig enendameg, endodameg, etc. 
He looks like a dead person ; you look sick ; they speak like 

angry people. Nebongin ijindgosi ; aiakosingin kid ijindgos ; 

neshkadisingin iji gijwewag. 
One laughs, and the other weeps. Bejig bapi, bejig dash mawi. 
Some are rich and some are poor. Avind daniwag, anind dash 

kitimdgisiwag. 
One or the other will come here, (or, let one or the other come 

here.) Bejig nijiwad ta-bi-ija oma. 
One of them will embark. Bejig endashiwad ia-bosi. 
I have a good memory, I shall not forget it soon. Nin nitamind- 

jimendan gego, kawin waiba nin ga-wanendansin. 
He is happier than you. Nawatch win jawendagosi, kin dashy 

(or, kin eji-jawendagosiian.) 
John is wiser than Paul. Nawatch John nibwdka, Paul dash,. 

(or, ^i-nibwdkad Paul.) 
How much have you been charged for this gun ? Ani7i minik 

ga-inagindamagoian ow pdshkisigan ? 
William was charged more. Nawatch nibiwa William gi-inagin- 

damawa. 
I shall not go away before I speak to him. Kawin nin wimdd^ 

jassi tchi bwa ganonag. 
He is wiser than he is rich. Nawatch nibwdka, eji-danid dash^ 
He is as rich as he is wise. Epitchi nibwdkad ml epitch danid. 
You are as happy as I am. E^ji-jawendagosiidn mi eji-jawenda~ 

gosiian gaie kin. 



— 383 — 



The older he grows, the deafer he is. Eshkam gagibishe eji-- 

gikad. 
The more they are taught, the more they are ignorant. Eshkam 

gagibatisiioag ano kikiiioamawindwa. 
The more I work, the better I am off. Eshkam nin mino aia 

anokiidn. 
As long as I shall behave well, I will be loved. Ged-dpitch- 

mino-ijiwebisiidn, nin ga-sdgiigo. 
I am not rich enough to buy that. Kawin nin de-danisissi ge- 

gishpinadoidmban iw. 
You are not learned enough to be his teacher, (to teach him.y 

Kawin ki ga-de-kikinoamawasst 
He is old enough to be his own master, and to take care of him- 
self. De-apitisi ge-debenindisod, ge-bamiidlsod gaie. 
They arrived to-day sooner than they usually do. Nawatch non- 

gom waiba gi-dagwishinog, eji-dagwishinowad iko. 
John is the wisest of all my scholars. Joh7i awashime nibwdka 

endashiivad nin kikinoamaganag. 
This book is the most precious of all my books. Oio masinai- 

gan awashime apitendagwad endassing nin masinaiganan. 
I am not the per.son to do that. Kaioin nind awissi ge-dodamdm' 

ban iw. 
He is not capable of stealing. Kawin o da-gashkitossin tchi gi- 

modid, (or, ichi gimodipan.) 
I don't hate you, on the contrary, I love you. Kmoin ki jinge- 

nimissinon, gwaiak ki sdgiin. 
You are by far not so strong as he is. Ki mashkaiois nange eji- 

ma^hkawisid. 
I give him leave (permission) to go, to do that, to marry, etc, 

Nin pagidina tchi mddjad, tchi ojitod iw, ichi icidiged, etc. 

, 2. To inquire after health. 

Good day, sir ; how do you do to-day ? Bon jour, nidji ; anin 

eji-bimddisiian (or, endiian) nongom ? 
Thank you, I am well. Migwetch, nin mino bimddis, [nin mino^ 

aia.) 






T 



M !i 



— 384 — 

How do your children do ? Anin eji-himddisiwad kinidjdnia- 

sag? 
They are likewise well; nobody is sick. Mino aiawag gate 

toinawa ; kawin awiia akosissi. 
How does your sister do? [Anin eji-aiad (endigid) kimisse 

(kishime) ? 
How does your brother do? Anin eji-aiad (yi-bimddisid) kissaie 

(kishime) ? 
Is your mother in good health ? Mino aia na kiga ? 
She is not well. Kawin mino aiassi. 
She is a little indisposed. Pangi dkosi. 
What is her illness ? Anin enapined f 
She has got a cold. Agigoka sa. 
She has a violent headache. kitchi dkosin osJitigwdn, (o nis- 

sogon oshtigwdn.) 
I have heard your uncle is also unwell. Kimishome (kijishe) 

dkosidog gate win. 
He has got a sore throat. gonddgan od dkosin. 
I have tootliache. Nibid nind dkosin. 
Has this child been sick now a long time ? Mewija dkosihan aw 

abinodji ? 
No, not very long. Kawin dpitcld mewija. 
Have you long been sick ? Mewija na kid dkosinaban f 
A week. Ten days. A month. Ningo anamiegijigad. Midds- 

sogwan. Ningo gisiss. 
But now I think on it ; how does your aunt do ? Pitchinag nin 

mikwendan ; anin eji-aiad (eji-bimadisid) kinoshe (kisigoss) ? * 
She is not yet recovered ; she is yet very sick. Kaioin mashi 

nodjimossi, keidbi kitchi dkosi. 
I have sore eyes, but my legs are not sore now. Nishkinjigon 

nind akosinan, kaioin dash nikadan nongom nind akosissinan . 
My breast is sore, (a female speaking,) but my sister has no 

more a sore breast. Nin totoshimag nind dkosinag, kawin 

dash nimisse keidbi od dkosissinan. 
My brother is getting better. — My mother is perfectly well. Nis- 



* Ninoshe,{ or, ninwtshe,) my mother's sister. Ninsigoss, my fatber's sister. 



— 385 — 



sale (or, nishime) eshkam nawaich ininn aia. — Ninyd dpitchi 

mi no aia. 
I am happy to hear it. Nin minweiidam iw nondamdn. 
My tiither is quite sick ; he fell sick suddenly last night. Noss 

kilchi dkoni ; aesika gi-dkon iibikong. 
Have you any medicines ? Ma^hkiki na kid aianf 
I have many good medicines. Anotch mashkiki wetiljishing 

nind aian. 
Have you any purging medicine ; castor-oil, salt (for purging;) 

vomitive or emetic; camphor (Opodeldoc,) etc.? Kid aian na 

jdhosigan ; bimide-Jdbosigan, jiioitdgani-jdbosigan ; jashiga- 

gowesigan ; gwendasseg, etc. ? 
This child is sick ; it has perhaps worms ; it is always occupied 

with his nose. Akosi aw abinodji; gonima ogcjagimiwidog, 

mojag odjanj o dajikan. 
Here is some vermifuge. Oio ogejagimi-matihkiki. 
I have the diarrhcea. I have the fever, (ague.) I have pains in 

the bowels, (colic.) I have pain in the breast. Nin jdboka- 

wis. Nin nininyishka. Nind dkoshkade. Nin kakigan nin 

dkosin. 

3. Of the age. * 

How old are you? Anin endasso-bibonagisiian? 

I am twenty years old. Nin nijtana dasso bibo7iagi.s. 

How old is your father ? Aniii endasso-bibonagisid k'oss ? 

I don't know his age; he is already old. Kawin nin kikenimassi 

enddsso-bibonagisigwen ; jdigwa kitchi anishindbcwi. 
He (she) is young ; he (she) is a child. He is a young man ; she 

is a young woman. He is a man : sh '^ a woman. He is an 

old man ; she is an old woman. Oshkibimddi.n, abinodjiiwi. 

Oshkinawewi. Ininiwi ; ikicewi. Akiioesiiwi ; mindimoieiwi. 
He (.'<he) is very old; extremely old. Gikd ; dpitchi gikd. 
He (she) returned to childhood. Neidb abinodjiiwi. 
You are active (vigorous) yet, although very old. Keidbi ki ki- 

jijawis ano gikaian. 

* See p. 314. 






■i'u 
•'(■ i . 








I \ 
■ t' 

I 



_ 386 - 

1 thank tlic Lord wlio gives me gocxi health in my age. Migwetch 

nind ina Debendjiyed keiahi mijid mino bimddisiwin epitisiidn. 
Are you of my age ? EpitUiifin na kid apitie f 
I am the oldeHt. Nin nin saslkis. 
I am the youngest. Ondass nind ondadis. 
WIjo is the oldest of you two (of you both) ? Awenen sesikisid 

kinawa naienj (or, nijiieg) ? 
How many brotliers have you ? Anin endashiwad kissaidag 

{kuhimeiag) ? 
How many sisters have yon? Anin endashiwad kimisseiacf 

{kishimdag) f 
I have tliree older brothers, and two younger than I. Nissiwag 

nissaidag, nijiwag dash nishimeiag kioiwisensag. * 
I liave two older sisters, and three younger tlmn I. Nijiwag 

nimissdag, nissiwag dash nishimeiag ikwesensag. 
How old is the oldest of your brotliers (sisters) ? Anin endasso- 

bihonagisid sesikisid kissaie [kimisse] ? 
How old is the youngest of your brothers (sisters) ? Anin erdas- 

so-bibonagisid awashime egashiidkishime kwiwisens (ikwestns)? 
You are very tall for your age. Ki kitchi ginos epiiisiian. 
Is not Paul older than William ? Kawin na Paul awashime saki- 

kisissi, William dash f 
No, he is younger. Kawin, ondass win ondadisi. 
How old may this young woman be ? Anin endasso-bihonagi- 

sigwen aw oshkinigikwe ? 
She is young yet, but she is tall. Oshkibimddisi keidbi, anisha 

dash ginosi. 
My cousin is adult. My nieces are not yet adult (grown up), 

Gi-nitawigi nitawiss. Kawin mashi nitawigissiwag nishimis- 

sag. 
Very seldom a person now lives to the age of a hundred years. 

Kitchi wika awiia nongom ningotwdk dasso bibon bimddisi. 

4. On the hour, t 
What o'clock is it (what time is it) ? Anin endasso-dibaiganeg ? 

♦ Bee p. 9. t See p. 317. 



- 387 — 



It is one o'clock, two o'clock, /^tc. Ningo dihaigan, nijo dibai- 
gan, etc. 

The day-hreak will soon appear. Jaigwa gega ta-wCiban. 
The day-break appears. — The sun is rising. Jaigwa wdban. — 
Gisus bi-mokaam. 

Is it late? (speaking in the morning.) No, it is not late, it is 

early yet, (inor»Mng yet.) Ishpigijigad na f—Kawin ishpXgiji- 

ga^sinouy keidbi kigijebawagad. 
How late may it be (in the day)? Anin epitchi-gijigadogweti. 
la it already noon ? Nawokwe (or, nawokwemagad) na jaigwa f 
No, it is not yet noon. Kawin mashi nawokwessinon. 
It is just noon now, twelve o'clock. Gwaiak nawokwe nongom. 
He started aller twelve o'clock (noon.) Ga-ishkwa-nawokwenig 

gi-mddja. 
Three o'clock in the afternoon. Nisso dibaigan goriskkwanor 

wokweg . 
Is it early yet? (speaking in the afternoon.) Ishpigijigad na 

keidbi f 
It is not earl} (in the afternoon), it will soon be evening. Kawin 

ishpigijigassinon, jaigwa ani-ondgoshi. 
It is evening. It is twilight. Jaigwa ondgoshi. Tibikabaminag- 

wad. 
Is it late in the night ? — No, it is not late, ishpitibikad na f — 

Kawin ishpitibikassinon . 
It is night. It is a very dark night ; I see nothing. Nibdiibik, 

Kitchi kashkitibikad ; kawin gego nin wdbandansin. 
Is it already midnight ? — No, it is not yet midnight. Abitdtibi- 

kad najdigxoa f Kawin mashi abita-tibikassinon. 
How late may it be (in the night)? Anin epitd-tibikadogwen f 

(or, epitch tibakadogwen) f 

It is eleven o'clock. Middsso tiba ' rn sa ashi bejig. 
It is just midnight. Abitd-tibikad y^jaiak. 
It is now past midnight. Gi-ishkwa-abitd-tibikad nongom. 
I will start after midnight. Gi-ishkwa-abitd-tibikak nin ga-mddja- 
I started after midnight. Ga-ishkica-abitdtibikak nin gi-mddja. 
He started after midnight. Ga-ishktca-abitd-tibikadinig gi-^madja. 



r- 



— 388 — 



Do you get up early in the morning. Wdiba na Jca kid onishka 

kigijeh f 
I always get up in the morning early ; this morning only I did 
not get up early. Mojag kitchi kigijeb nind onishka ; jiba eta 
kawin ivdiba nm gi-onishkassi. 
Get up, my brother, (sister,) it is day-light. Onishkdn, nishim ; 

jaigioa gi-wdban. 
You are lazy ; you use to sleep too long. Ki kitimishk ; osdm 

giniveaj ki niba ko. 
It is not yet ten o'clock. Kaivinmashimiddsso dibaiganessinnn. 
Are you accustomed to get up at ten o'clock ? Meddsso-dibai- 

ganeg na ko kid onishka f 
See the watch, (clock,) is it going? Wdbam dibaigisisswan. Mad- 

jishka. na f 
It is not going ; 1 have not wound it up. I vvill wind it up now. 
Kaicin madjishkassi ; kawin nin gi-ikwabimvassi. Nongom nin 

gad-ikioabiowa. 
When does the sun set ? Aniniioapi gisiss pengishimod f 
It sets at six o'clock. Nengotwdsso-dibaiganeg sapangishimo. 
When will you go home? (plur.) Anlniwapi ge-giweieg f 
We will go home exactly at seven o'clock. Najwdsso-dibaiga- 

neg sa gwaiak nin wi-giioeniin. 
This watch is very fine. How much did it cost ? Kitchi oniji- 

shi aw dibaigisissiodn. Anin dasswdbik ga-inaginsod ? 
It costs twenty dollars. Nijtana sa dasswdbik gi-inaginso. 
It is an old watch ; it is not new. G^ta-aiaa, kawin oshkiaiaawissi. 
This watch goes too slow ; too quick ; it is broken ; sometimes 

it stops. Aw dibagaigisisswdn osdm besika; osdm kijika; gi- 

bigoshka ; naningotinong nagashka. 
When will you go out to-day ? Aniniwapi ge-sdgaaman nongom f 
I will go out at nine o'clock ; and before three o'clock I will 

come home again. Jangasso-dibaiganeg sa nin ga-sagaam ; 

ichi bwa dash nisso dibaigan nin ga-bi-giwe minawa. 
Laborers work ten hours every day. Anokiwininiwag midasso 

dibaigan anokiwag endasso-gijigadinig. 
How many hours do you sleep every night? Anin dasso-dibai- 

gan nebaian tebikahin f 



389 



I sleep six hours 'every niglit. Ningotwasso dibaigan sa nin 
niba endasso-iibikak. 

5. For and at breakfast. 

When do you use to take breakfast ? Aniniwapi wassintieg iko 

kigijeb ? 
At seven o'clock. Najwasso-dibaiganeg sa. 
Our breakfast is ready. Mijaigwa wi-wiasiniiang. 
Come and sit down here ; sit down here by my side. Oma bi- 

namadabin ; bi-widabimishin. 
What do you choose ? Wegonen ge-wi-aiaian ? 
I w'" eat some fish. Gigo nin gad-amoa pangi. 
Here is trout, and here is white-fish. Which do you like best ? 

Mi aw nawegoss, aw dash atikameg. Aniyiaio nawatchmenwe- 

nimad ? 
I will take oome white-fish this morning. Atikameg nin wi-amoa 

nongom. 
Is it fresh fish ? Oshki gigo na ? 
No, it is salted fish. Kawin, jiwitdgani-gigd aw. 
It is very nice ; it has an excellent taste. Geget kitchi onijishi ; 

kitchi winopogosi. 
Take some bread ; some crackers. Mami aio pakwejigan ; ogow 

pakwesigansag. 
These crackers are very fine; very good. Kitchi onijishiwag 

pakwejigansag ; kitchi minopogo.nwag. 
Don't you wish to eat potatoes ? Kawin na opinig ki mamoas- 

sig f 
I took some : I am eating them. I am very fond of potatoes. 

Your potatoes have a g'X)d taste indeed. Nin gimamag sa; 

nind amoag. Nin kitchi minwenimag opinig. Geget minopO' 

gosiwag kid opinimiwag. 
Will you drink some chocolate ? Miskwdbo na ki wi-minikioen f 
I will drink some. Nin wi-minikwen sa. 
But I will drink some coffee. Nin dash makate-mashkikmdbo 

nin wi-mmikwen. 
Who will drink some coffee ? Awenen ge-wi-minikwed makaie' 

mashkikiwdbo f 



li 




I i 



w 



'^*'I"'4»""'"' • 



— 390 



; i 



I will take some. Nin nin wi-minikwen pangi 

*Oive me your cup. — Tin ' s enough ; you give me too much. 

Bidon kid ondgans. — Mi iw ; osdm nibiwa hi mij. 
Take some milk in it, and sugar. Totoshdho dagonan, sisibdk- 

wad gaie. 
Will you drink some more ? Give me your cup. Minawa na hi 

wi-minikwen ? Bidon kid ondgans. 
I thank you ; that is enough. Migwetch ; mi iw. 
There is also some tea, who will drink some ? Anibishdbo gaie 

6ma atemagad, awenen ge-minikwed f 
Thank you, I will drink none. Migwetch, kawin nin nin wi- 

minikwessin. 
And you, sir? Kin dash, nidji ? 

I will drink a little, very little. Pangi nin wi-minikwen, pangi go. 
This tea is very strong. Kiichi mashkawdgami oio anibishdbo. 
I like strong tea. Nin minwendan meshkawdgamig anibishdbo. 
I don't like it, I like better weak tea. Kawin nin minwendansin, 

awashime nin minwendan tchi jagwagamig. 
You did not take any butter, do you never eat any ? Kawin 

mashi totoshdbo-bimide kid odapinansin, kawin na wika ki 

midjissin ? 
I eat it sometimes, I will take a little. Nin midjin sa ko, pangi 

nin wi-mamon. 
You eat very little of every thing. Kitchi pipangi kiwissin. 
1 thank you, I have eaten considerably. Migwetch, eniwek nibi- 
wa nin gi-wissin. 
I must go now, I must go to work ; I have much work to do 

to-day. Nin wi-mddja dash nongom, nin wi-anoki ; nibiwa 

anokiwin nind aian nongom. 



. 



6. On the weather. 

How is the weather ? Anin eji-gijigak? 

Is it fine weather ? — Is it bad weather ? Mino gijigad na ? Mat- 

chi gijigad na ? 
It is fine weather. — It is bad weather. Mino gijigad sa. Matchi 

gijigad sa. 



— 391 — 



The weather ia very bad. Niskddad, [kitehi nisTcddad.) 

It is cloudy .—It is clear fair weather, the sun shines. AnfikMd}^ 

— Mijakwad. v>\'M\>h\ 

It is dark, gloomy weather all day. Agawa gijigad kab^^ji^g.*'^'^ 
It is foggy, the sun does not appear. Awdn, kawin gisih^ti- 

nagosissi. 'i;l ■mIT 

It blows, it is windy. Nodin. 'i -idT 

It blows hard, it is stormy. Kitehi nodin. -V" 

It is a dreadful time indeed. Geget goiamigwad. 'wl 1 

It blows a gale, a hurricane. Apitchi kitehi nodin. ' 

The wind blows cold. Takassitu ♦! 

The wind turned, shifted. Gwekdnimad. 

I think it will rain to-day. Ta-gimiwan nongom, nind inendam. 
It is likely enough. Mi geget ejinagwak. 
It drizzles. — It rain.s. — It hails. Awanibissa. — Giiniwan. — Sess'e- 

gan. 
Does it rain ? Does it not rain ? Gimiwan na ? Kawin na gimi- 

wansinon ? 
It rained when I left home, but it does not rain now. Gimiwa- 

noban api ba-mddjaidn, kawin dash nongom gimiwansinon. 
It rains again. It rains very fast. It rains a little. Minawa 

gimiwan. Kitehi gimiwan. Agdwa gimiwan. 
I am wet, I am all wet. Nin nis.sdbatve, nind dpitchi nissdbawe. 
Are you not wet ? Kaioin na kin ki ?iissdbaio€s.si ? 
I am wet too, I have no umbrella. Mi go gaie nin, kawin .fa 

gego agawateon nind aiansin. 
Are you afraid of getting wet ? Ki gotan na iw tchi nissdbaweian ? 
Yes, I am afraid of it ; I use to be sick when I get wet. E nin 

gotan sa; nind dkos iko nessabaweidnin. 
It is cold. It is very cold. It is extremely cold indeed. Kissina, 

or kissinamagad. Kitehi kis.nna. Apitehi geget kissina. 
,1 am cold, very cold. Ningikadj, nin kitehi gikadj. 
I am starving with cold. Nin gawadj. 
My fingers are benumbed with cold. Nin takwdkiganjiwadj. 
Come in and warm yourself, there is a fire here. Pindigen, bi- 

awason, ishkotewan oma. 

26 



^1 -I 






0: 



'M 







m 



— 392 — 



''3 1 



It^(i<?»\X^ fast. — It snows thick. Sogipo, or sogipomagad. Ma- 

mangadepo. 
The^Jf^l^e, the river, etc., is freezing over. Sdgaigan, sibi, etc.,. 

:!(fashkadin. 
The lake is hard frozen over. Sdgaiagan gi-kitchi-gashkadin. 
This afternoon I will skate. Nongom gi-ishkwa-nawokweg nin 

wi-joshkwadae. 
I have a fine pair of skates. Geget kitchi onijishinon nin josh- 

kwddaaganan. 
It thaws now, (it is niiUl weather.) Jaigwa abawa, or abawama- 

gad. 
The snow is soft. The snow nielts away. Jakdgonaga. Gon 

ningiso, or angoso. 
It begins to be warm. Jaigwa kijdte, or kijdtemagad. 
How warm is it? — It is very warm. Geget kijdte? — Kitchi kijdte. 
I am warm. Nind abwes, (I Bweat.) 
I am excessive hot. Nind apitchi abwes. 
Let us go into the shade. Agawateg ijada. 
We will have a heavy rain, it is too warm. Ta-kitchi-gimiwan , 

osdm kijdte. 
The sky is cloudy all over. Kitchi dnakioad. 
It lightens excessively. Kitchi wassamoivag animikig. 
It thunders, the thunder roars. Animikiwan, masitdgosiwag 

animikig. 
What a clap of thunder ! Geget kitchi animiki ! Pashkakwd- 

amog ! 

Are you afraid of thunder ? To be sure. Ki gossag na animi- 
kig ? E nange. 

Many people are afraid of thunder. Nibiwa bimddisidjig o gos- 
sdwan animikin. 

I never was afraid of it. Kawin nin wika nin gossassig. 

Be not afraid, the storm is over. Kego segisiken, Jaigwa ishkwa- 
niskddad. 

It clears up. Eshkam mijakioad. 

I see the rain-bow. Nin wdbandan nagweidb. 

This is a sign of fair weather. Mi wendji-kikendaming ichi mino 
gijigak. 



— 393 — 

It is very good (pleasing) that it has rained, the ground was 
already too dry ; but now the fields will produce well. Kitchi 
minwendagwad (li-gimiwanij , osdm jaigwa bibinekamigidebaii 
aki ; nongom dash weweni ta-nitmoiginon kitiganan. 

It i8 dirty now after the rain. Ajishkika nongom gi-gimiwang. 

It is bad walking. Sanagad himosseng. 

7. For and at dinner. 



m 



It is twelve o'clock now. Come in, we will dine. Jaigwa na* 

icokwe. Bi-pindigen, ki ga-icissinimin. 
Come sit down on this chair. Bi-nabadamin oio apabiwining. 
Put another plate (cover) here. Minawa bejig tessinagan atoiog 

oma. 
There is some meat here. Wiiass oma atcmagad. 
Beef, veal, pork, ham, <lcer-meat, bear-meat. Pijikiwi-wiiass, 

pijikinsiwi-tciiasss, kokos/tiwi-wiiass, loawdshkeshiwi-^iiass, 

mako-wiiass. 
Help yourself. A7/i igo mamon minik menwendaman. 
You don't eat, are you sick ? Kaioin ki wisinisui, kid dkos na ? 
No, I am not sick, I eat much. Kawin nind dkosissi, nibiwanin 

tvissin. 
Potatoes are there and turnips too. Which you like better? 

Opinig aiaioag, tchiss gate oma ate. Wegonen nawatch men- 
wendaman ? 
I will take some turnips. Tchiss nin wi-mamon. 
Bring salt here and pepper, you did not put it on the table. Ji. 

loitdgan bidoiog gawissagang gaie, kawin ki gi-atossinawa ado- 

powening. 
Take some more meat. Minawa wiiass mamon. 
This ham is very nice, I ate some. Mandan kokoshitci-wiiasi 

kitchi minopogwad, nin gi-midjin pangi. 
This deer-meat has an excellent flavor, and is done nicely. Jw 

toawdshkeshiwiwiiass memindage minopogwad, weweni gaie 

gijidemagad. 
Have the Indians killed many deer this winter? Nibiwa na 

anishindbeg o gi-nissawan ivawashkeshiwan nongom biboninig ? 



».'1;'j 



¥4 



I. ■<:; 




mm 



ii 



■' I' 



Mlil 



M. 



— 394 — 

Yep, fiir, a great many; a young man killed seven deer, not long 
ago. Geget kitchi nihiwa ; bejig oshkinawe nomaia nijwdsswi 
gi-nissan wawdshkeshiwan. 
Deer-meat is very good. Hike it better than any other kind o 
meat. Waiodshkeshiwi-wiiass memindage minopogwad, awa- 
shhne nin minwendan, kakina dash anind wiiass. 
Are there many rabbits here ? Wdhosog na hatainowag oma ? 
There are a great many here, and the Indians are veryj skillful 
in trapping them. Kilchi hatainowag oma, kitchi wawingesi- 
wag dash anishindheg dassonawad. 
I will eat some of this rabbit. Pangi nin tci'amoa aw wdbos. 
Are there partridges also here? IHnewag na gaie aiatvag oma ? 
There are, we eat them often. Aiawag sa, naningim nind amoa- 

nanig. 
In summer pigeons will be here in great quantity. Nihing dash 

omimig ta-osaminowag oma. 
We must also drink at our dinner. Ki ga-minikwemin gaie wis- 

siniiang. 
Let us drink, but we will only drink water, no wine. Minikwe- 

da, nihi dash ki ga-minikweviin, kawin winjomindho. 
We have all taken the temperance pledge, we will keep it. Ka- 
kina mamawi ki gi-mamomin minikwessi-masinaigansan, ki 
wi-ganawendamin dash. 
I, for my part, I will always keep it faithfully as long as I live. 

Nin win ged-ako-bimadisiidn nin loi-ganawendan weweni. 
And so will I. Mi go gaie nin. 
There are also some apples here, would you eat any? Mishimi- 

nag gaie oma aiawag, kawin na ki da-amoassig ? 
1 will eat some. Nin da-amoag sa. 
I ate one, two, three, etc., apples. Bejigominag, * nijominag, 

nissominag, etc., mishiminag nin gi-amoag. 
Eat some of these strawberries, there are very many now here. 
Odeiminan gaie midjin, kitchi batainadon nongom geget oma. 
Raspberries will also be in great abundance, by and by. Mis- 
kwiminag [miskominag] gaie ta-batainowag ndgatch. 



* See page 312. 



- y^ 



— 395 — 



I will eat some raspberries. Pangi nin wi atnoag miskwiminag. 

Will you take some more? Keidbi na ki loiaiawag ? , 

No, sir, I thank you; I'll eat some of these sweatmeats (pre- 
serves.) Kawiri migwetch ; pangi paskkiminassigan nin wi- 
midjin. 

I have ilined very well. Weiveni nin gi-nawokwe-wissin. 

So have I. Mi go gaie nin. 

8. Concerning the Otchipwe language. 

I wish to know well the Otcliipwe language. Apegish weweni 

kikendaman wi-Otchipicemoidn. 
The Otcliipwe language is very difficuU, I can speak it a little. 

Kitchi sanagad Otchipwemowin, pangi nin gashkiton wi-Oi- 

c/iiptcemoidn. 
You will soon speak it better if you endeavor. Waiba naivatch 

toeweni ki gad-Otchijncem, kisfipin wikwatchitoian. 
I endeavor indeed very much, but I can eflf'ect nothing. Nind 

ano ivikwatcJuton dpitchi, kawe.s,sa dash nin gashkitossin. 
I think it will be long before I learn to speak well Otchipwe. 

Wika ganabafch nin ga-gashkiion weweni tchi Otchipwemoian. 
I will always speak Otchipwe when I speak to you, if you are 

willing. Nin gad-Otchipwem mojag genomindnin, kishpin 

minwennaman. 
Thank you, friend, do that and so I shall indeed know it sooner. 

Migwetch, nidji, mi ge-dodoman, mi dash geget waiba nawatch 

tchi kikendamdn. 
Speak slowly, my friend, you speak too fast ; I cannot even un- 
derstand a half of what you say. Beka nawatch gigiton, nidji, 

osdvi ki daddtghi; kaioin ganage abita ki nissitotossinonekki- 

toian. 
How do the Indians call this ? Anin oiv ejinikadamoioad anishi- 

ndbeg ? 
This is called .... .... ijinikdde ow. 

And this, how is it called ? Ow dash, anin ejinikadeg ? 
It is called .... . ... mi ejinikadeg. 

I will write down these words, and I will write all the Otchipwe 



i 



■I 




4t * "13 



— 39G — 



words, by these means also, I shall learn the Otchipwe lan- 
guage. Nin gad-ojihianan iniw ikkitowinan, nin wi-ojibianan, 
mi ima gaie ge-ondji-kikendaman Otchipwemowin. 

Have you nobody that would teach you constantly ? Kawin na 
awiia kid aidwassi ge-kikinoamokiban mojag ? 

No, I have nobody yet, but I will employ soniebody to teacli me 
regularly. Kawin mashi awiia nind aidwassi, nin gad-anona 
dash awiia ge-kikinoamawid vieweni. 

I will employ you, if you will teach mo, and you will come every 
day to give me lessons. Kin ki gad-anonin, kishjnn wi-kiki- 
noamawiian, endasso-gijigak dash ki ga-bi-kikinoamaw. 

Yes, 1 promise it to you, I will come every day to teach you. 
We will begin to-morrow. E,kinakomin sa, endasso-gijigak 
ki ga-bi-kikinoamon. Wdbang ki ga-madjitdmin. 

I would be very happy if I could soon speak well the Otchipwe 
language, in order to preach right (well) to the Indians. Nin 
da-kitchi-mimoendani, waiba tchi kikendamdn iceweni tchi Ot- 
chipwemoidn, mi sa givaiak tchi wigagikimagwa anishinaheg. 

Do you understand all 1 say, when I am speaking to you ? Ki 
nissitotaw ina kakina minik ekkitoidn genonindnin ? 

Yes, certf.inly, I understand you well. E nange ka, ki nissito- 
ton tjeweni 

Do yoa understand every Indian ? Kakina na anishindbeg ki 
nissitotaivag ? 

I don't understand every one, I understand some of them ; but 
some speak too quick when they are s])eaking to me, and I 
don't know what they say. Kawin kakina nin nissiiotdwas- 
sig, bebejig eta nin nissiiotawag ; anind dash osdm daddtabi- 
wag genojiwadjin, kawin dash nin kikenimassig ekkitoioagwen. 

When they are speaking to each other, do you understand them 
well? Kishpin dash ganonidiivad ki, nissitotawag na iveweni ? 

When they are speaking to each other, I don't much under- 
stand them ; I understand them better when they speak to 
me. Kishpin ganonidiwad, katvin givetch nin nissiiotawassig ; 
awashime nin nissitotawag ganojiwad. 

You will soon know it, endeavor, don't be discouraged, (die- 



— 307 — 

heartened.) Waiha nawaich ki ga-kikendan, aiangwamisin, 
kego jagwenimoken . 

I am not diHcouraged, and I will not give it up. Kawin nin jmg- 
wenimossi, kawin gate nin wi- anijiiami. 

9. On traveling hy land in the Indian country, (in winter.) 

When shall we start (depart) ? Aniniwapi ge-madjaiang ? 
We shall soon now depart, prepare. Jaigwa waiba ki gamudja- 
min, ojitdn. 

I am preparing, I am about. Nind ojita, nind apitchita. 

Have you made my snow-shoe.' ' Ki gi-gijiag na nind agimag. 

Your snow-shoes are not quite made ; I made indeed the frame, 
but they are not yet filled, (laced.) Kawin manhi apitchi giji- 
assiwag kid agimag ; anawi nin gi-wdginag, kawin dash mashi 
ashkimdsossiwag . 

Who will fill them ? Awenen dash gcd-ashkimdnad ? 

My wife will fill them to-morrow. Nin icidigemagan o gad-ashki- 
mdnan lodhang. 

Are my moccasins made? Ninviakisinan na gi-gijitchigadewan ? 

Yes, my sister made them ; she has made one pair, two pair, 
three pair, four pair, etc. E, o gi-njitonan sa nimisse ; nin- 
gotwewan, nijwewan, nissivewan, niwewan, etc., o gi-ojiionan. 

I brought also nips, (foot-rags,) one pair, two pair, etc., for your 
use. Ajiganan gaie nin gi-hidonan, ningotweivan, nijwewan, 
etc., kin ged-aioian. 

And my mittens ? Nin mandjikdwanag dash ? 

Aha! I forget them. I will fetch them. Jshte ! nin giwanike- 
nag. Nin wi-ndnag. 

We will start (depart) after Sunday, (on Monday.) Gi-ishktoa- 
anamiegXJigak sa ki ga-mddjdmin. 

We will start in two days, in three days, in four days. Nijog- 
wanagak, nissogwanagak, niogwanagak, ke ga-mddjdmin. 

"What provisions shall we take for our voyage? Wegonen dash 
ged-ani-nawapoiang ? 



K"' i.'i '< 



",l 



m 






"«'f • 



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— 398 — 









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fi III 



II 



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1 



We will take Home pork and flour ; we will also take 8ome meat. 
Kokosh,pakw€Jigan (jaie ki (ja-nawapomin, wiiass gaie ki ya- 
nawapomin. 

Is that pork cooked ; and in the Hour baked (into bread) ; is the 
meat cooked ? Glsiso na aw kukosh, pakivcjiyan gate ; gijide 
na wiiass ? (or, gijidemayad.) 

Not yet, the day after to-morrow my sister will cook the pork 
and bake bread; she will also cook the meat. Kawin inashi, 
awasHwawang nimisse o ga-gisiswaii kokoslum, j)ugwejiganan 
gate ; wiiasn gaie o ga-gisisan. 

Well, let us start. — I will tie up my pack, (my load.) Ambey 
mddjada. Nin wi-takabidon nin bimiwanan. 

Oho! my pack is very heavy. Ataid! kltchi kosigwan nin bi- 
miwanan. 

Do you carry all that we shall need? Ki mndjidoa na kakina 

go-wi-aioiang ? 
I think I have all, a little kettle, little dishes, knives, a hatchet. 

Mi go kikina, nind inendam, akikons, undgansan, mokomdnan, 

wawakivadons. 
Don't you forget anything? have yon any matches? Kawin na 

gego ki wanikcssi '/ IshkoteAoat igonsan na gaie kid aianan ? 
Yes, they are here. Let us go. E, atcumn. Mddjada. 
We go too fast. — We go too slow. Osdm ki kijikamin. — Osdm 

. ki besikamin. 
We don't go in the right direction ; there, there! Kawin givaiak 

kid a7ii-ija,ssimin ; wedi go.sha ! 
yes ! indeed! I almost went astray. Ishte ! geget! gega nin 

gi-^oanishin. 
Hold on ! I will drink some water here. I am very thirsty, I am 

sweating so much. Beka! nin wi-minikwen nibi oma. Nin 

kitchi nibdgwe, osdm nind abwes. 
Don't drink too much water, and don't eat any snow, or else 

you will be tired very soon. Kego osdm nibiwa nibi minikwe- 

ken, kego gaie gon amodken, gonima waiba ki gad-aiekos. 
Is there a trail all along, where we are going? Mikanawan na 

m.ojag ejaiang ? 



— 399 



There is indeed a trail, but it sliows very little; it ha.-* snowed' 

too much of late. Anawi tnikanawan, agawa das k nay wad j^ 

osdm (ji-sogipo nomaia. 
Why ! are you tired? Anin ! kid aiekos na? 
I am not yet tired, I walk easily. Kawin mashi nind aUkosiaaiy 

nin mi no bimosse. 
Walking is good here, it ia a fine place, there is no (underwood 

here. Mino bimonsewinaf/ad oma, onijishin,Jiheiama(jad. 
But here there is much 'iiidcrwood, it is bad walking indeed. 

The enow is soft. The snow is deep. 0/na dash kitchi sasagay 

geget sanagad bimosseng. Jakdgonaga. hhpagonaga. 
There is no trail (no road) here ; wo will go astray. Kowin oma 

ynikanawansinon ; ki ga-wanishinimin. 
We are already gone astray. That is very bad. Mi Jaigwa gi- 

ivanishinang. Geget sanagad. 
Stop, I willlook for the road, (trail.) Here it is! Come here I 

Beka, nin ga-nanduuean mikana. Mi oma! Onddss ! 
It is now noon, (twelve o'clock.) Let us now take a meal. Jai^ 

gioa nawokweg. Nakawe loissinida. 
Weill I will make a fire ; we will make some tea. Haw! Nin 

ga-bodawe ; anibis hdbo ki gad-ojitomin. 
I am a little tired. At tlie same time I have pain in one of my 

legs ; (I am lame.) Nawatch nind aiekos. Uaidtoj nind dko- 

sin bejig nikdd. 
We will not walk long now; evening is approaching. Kawin 

gimvenj ki ga-bimossessimin ; jaigwa ani-onagoski. 
Where shall we camp? There is no fine place. Anindi ge- 

gabeshiiang 'f Kawin ningotchi onijishinsinon. 
Let us camp here ; this is a fine place. Oma gabcshida; oniji- 

shin oma. 
There is much snow, the snow is deep. I must throw out much 

snow, to make a camp. Geget gonika, ishpdgonaga, (ishpate.) 

Kitchi nibixoa gon nin ga-webina ichi ojitoidn gabeshiwin. 
I will take (or break) boughs ; I will take many, in order to 

make a good bed. Jingobig nin wi-mamag, [ninwibokobinag ;y 

nibiioa nin wi-mamag, weweni tchi apishimanikeidn. 



' -1 ' 



r: I; 



H ' 



— 400 — 



JFriend, chop much wood, it will be pcrliaps cold to-night. Nibi- 
wa tnanissen, nidji, ta-kissinamagad yanahatch iibikad, (ta- 
kissintibikad.) 

.So much wood will be enough Mi iw ge-debisseg missan. 

Let us make tire. Let us cook. Let us eat. Bodaweda. Tchi- 
bdkweda. Wissinida. 

Hang up my moccasins and my nips, (foot-rags,) to dry. Ago- 
don nin makisinan, nind ajiganan gaie, tchi bateg. 

Let us lie down, the niglit is advanced. Gawishimoda, jaigwa 
ishpitibikad. 

Halloo ! let us get up ; the dav-hreak will soon appear. Ambe! 
onishkada ; jaigwa gega ta-wdban. 

My moccasins and nips have dried well. Weweni gi-batewan nin 
makisinan, nind ajiganan gaie. 

Let us start. Is it far yet where we are going? Mddjada. Wdssa 
na keiahi ejaiang y 

We will have to sleep twice more, that is, this evening, and to- 
morrow ; and the day after to-morrow we will arrive. Keiabi 
nijingkigad-ani-mbdmin,misa, nongom nndgoshig, wdbang 
gaie; awasswdbang dash ki ga-dagwishinimin. 

We are walking smartly all day. Weweni ki bimossemin kahe- 

Now the sun will soon set, let us camp. Jaigwa gega ta-pangi- 

shimo gissis ; gabeshida. 
We have come far to-day. Wdssa nongom ki gi-dagwishiniminl 
Let us make a good camp again. Weweni minawa ojitoda gabe 

shiwin. 
Let us get up and start. If we walk very fast, we will see this 

evening the house we are goin" to. Onishkada, mddjada. 

Kishpin dpitchi kijikaiang, nongom, ondgoshig ki ga-iodban- 

damin ivakaigan ejaiang. 
I will be very glad to reach the house to-day. Nin da-kitchimin- 

wendam tchi oditamdn wdkaigan nongorn. 
The house is now near; two miles more. Jaigioa boshowad 

wdkaigan ; keiabi nijo dibaigan. 
There is the house. Mi icedi wdkaigan. 
i am very glad. Nin kitchi minwendam. 



— 401 — 
10. On traveling by water, in the Indian country, {in summer. 

Friend, when shall we embark ? Aniniwapi ge-bosiiang, niiiji? 

I don't know. I will probably not embark soon ; I have no ca- 
noe. Endogwen. Wika ganabatch nin nin ga-bos ; kawinnind 
otchimdnissi. 

Do you intend to mak^ to yourself a canoe? A7 xci-ojiion nadash 
ki tchimdn? 

Yes, I will make one soon The bark is here; a;id to-morrow I 
will go for some cedar. Geget, waiba nin wi-njiton. Atcmagad 
wigwass ; wdbang dash nin wi-passaige. 

You are skilful, friend, in making canoe.s. Ki wawinges, nidjit 
tchimdnikeian. 

It is a long while since I always make canoes. Every summer I 
juake two or three canoes. Mewija eko-tchimanikeidn mojag- 
Endasso-nibinnij, nisswi gaie, nind ojitonan tchimandn. 

Make also for me a canoe, friend ; I will pay you well. Gaie nin 
nidJi,oji umatvishikan tchimdn ; iceweni ki ga-dibaamon. 

1 will iDake one ; I will make it perfectly well ; I have nice bark. 
Nin gadojiton sa ; dpitchi weweni nimvi-ojiton ; gwanaick 
wigwass nind aian. 

Please make it soon, friend. I will use that tiiis summer. Wai- 
ba ojitokan, nidji. Mi iw ged-aioidn nongom nihing. 

I intend to go far ; I will be absent long. Wassa nin wiija ; gin- 
loenj nin gad-inend. 

Yes, I will make it soon. Gegei waiba n>n gad-ojiton. 

I come to see you making a canoe, You are skilful indeed, 
(you do it well.) Ki bi-iodbamin tchimdnikeian. Geget ki wa. 
winges. 

Well, friend ! is my canoe already made? Anin, nidji! jaigwa 
na gi-gijitchigade nin tchimdn ? 

It is indeed all made, but there is no pitch yet on it. I will pitch 
it to-morrow. Anawi kakina gi-gijitchigade, cawin dash ma- 
shi pigikadessinon. Wdbang nil wi-ingikadan. 

Here is your canoe. Are you contented ? Mi ow ki tchimdn. Ki 
minwendam ina ? 











■,i 


1 










1* 

1. ^: 






.:")^! 



— 402 — 

Yes, 1 am conte- *e(J, it i^ nice; I suppose it is strong. E, nin 

mimoendam, onijishin sa; songanodog. 
Here is your payment. Oiv ki dibdamogoivin. 
I thank you, sii', you pay me well. Migwetch, nidji, tveweni ki 

dibaamaw. 
I will embark the day after to-morrow, if it is calm. Awassicd- 

bang nin ga-bos, hishpin amvtiting. 

I intend to hire three Indians ; one will steer, and two will pad- 
dle. Ninswi anishindheg nin wi-anonag ; bejig taodake, nij 
duHh ta-trhimewag. 

I ask you, Paul, fir.st: Will you hire? I will be absent long ; 
perhaps two month.s. A7/;, Paul, nitam ki gagwedjimin : Ki 
wi-anonigos na ? GinivenJ ningad-inend; nijo gisiss ganabatch. 

I promise you, I will embark with you. Ki nakomin, ki gad- 
adaawamin sa. 

And look for two oilier men, Paul, who would embark with us. 
Minawa das/i, Paid, niJ ininiwag nandaiodbam gedadaawami- 
nangog. \ 

I have found two young fellows. Nin gi-mikaicag nij oshkina^ 
weg. 

Are they good paddler^ ? Nifa-fchinietrag na ? 

First rate Would it not be bt • r that we should row? Apitchi 

sa. Kawin na nawatch da-oniji.fhinsinon tchi ajeboieiang ? 

Yes, it would be good ; we go quicker by rowing, than by pad- 
dling. Gegci da-onijiskin; awashime sa kijikam ajeboiang, m 
dash tchiweng. 

I will make two oars ; and I have a paddle. Nin gad-ojitonan 
nijwatig ajeboianakon ; abiiii dash nind aian. 

Halloo, halloo, my boys! let us embark! It is very calm. Ilaw^ 
haw, kwimsensidog ! bosida! Kitchi anwdtin. 

Embark all things. Here are your provisions. Embark the 
axe also ; the dishes and our beds ; all together. Bositoiog 
kakina. Mi mandan ki nawapicdnindn. Wdgdkicad gaie bo~ 
sitoiog, ondganan, ki nibaganinanin gaie ; kakina go. 

All is shipped now. Mi kakina gi-bosHrhigadeg. 

All is not yet shipped ; here is the tent ; put it in the canoe* 



f-:. 



— 403 — 

Kawin maslii hakina bosUchigadessinon ; mi ow papagiwaiane- 
gamig ; hositoiog. 
Fetch it, friend John, put it here. Bidon, nidji John, oma aiori' 
That's all. Let us embark ! Mi kakina. Bosida! 
It is very calm indeed. Row smartly, my boys. Kitchi anwCitin 

geget. Weweni ajeboieiog, kwiwisensidog. 
There is more and more wind; the wind is fair, we will sail. 

Eshkam nodin ; minwanimad, ki ga-himoshimin. 
Put up the mast and hoist the sail. Patakinig ningassimonnnak, 

ombdkobidjigeg. 
Aha! we are sailing very fast. Ataia ! geget ki kijeidshimin. 
Paul steer well ; take care of the canoe. Weiceni odaken, Paul ; 

ganawendan tchimdn. 
It blows harder and harder ; and the sea runs higher and liigher. 
Waves come in. Eshkam kitchi nodin ; eshkam gaie mamau- 
gashka. Bosiwag tigoicag. 
The wind shifted. Take down the sail. Jaigwa gwekdnimad. 

Bindkonigeg. 
It will be dreadful ; let us .save ourselves. Is there a river near? 

Ta-kifchi-sanagad ; ojimoda. Sibi na dago besho? 
There is a large river ; we will fly there. Steer for that place 
Paul. Wedi kitchi sibi ; mi wedi ged-ininijinioiany. Mi wedi, 
Paul, ged-inikwcaman. 
This is a very fine river. I am glad that we are here. It blows 
harder and harder. It blows from the lake. Geget gwanaich 
sibi. Nin minwendam oma. aiaiang. Eshkam kitchi nodin. 
Ndiciich ondin. 
A dreadful time! See, "'.ow the lake looks ! Kitchi [goidmigwad ! 

Na, ejinnagwak kitchigami ! 
The wind will probably blow long from the lake ; we will be 
long wind-bound here. OinwenJ ganabatch nawiich ta ondin ; 
ginwenj ki ga-ginissinaogomin oma. 
Pitch the tent, boys, it will rain ; it is very cloudy. Patakidoiog 
papagiwaianrgamig, kwiwisensidog, ta-gimiwan ; kitchi anak' 
load. 
Bring in here all our luggage, it will be very bad weather. Pin' 
digadoiog oma kakina kid aiiminanin, sa-kitchi-niskadad. 




r 



i 



— 404 — 

Put also the canoe better inland, lest the wind carry it off. 

Tckimdn gaie nopimhiy nawatck atoUxj, tchi webassinog. 
We have now been wind-bound here two days— three days — four 

days ; to-morrow I hope we will embark. Jaigiva nijogwan — 

nissogwan — niogwan ki ginissinaogomin oma ; loCihang ganw 

batch ki ga-bosimin. 
We will start very early in the morning, if it 's calm. Kitchi 

kigijeb ki ga-bosimin, kishpin anwdting. 
Wake up, boys, get up ; it is calm,, we will embark, (start.)- 

Goshkosi iog , kwiicisensidog , onis/ikag ; amoatin, hi ga-bosimin. 
I see there two canoes. Let us go there and see those that tra- 
vel there, (in canoes ) Tchimandn nijonag nin wdbandanan 

wedi. IJada awi-wdbamada ivedi bemishkadjig. 
Bonjour ! bonjour ! Where do you come from ? Bo jo ! bo Jo ! 

Anindi wendjibaieg ? 
Sault Ste. Marie — And you? Bawiting sa. — Kinawa dash * We 

come from L'Anse. — What news at the Sault? Wikwedong 

nind ondjibamin. — Anin enakamig Bawitiog ? 
Not any. Two children died lately. — \Ve are starving ; we have 

nothing to eat. Kawin ningot. NiJ abinodjiiag gi-nibowag 

nomaia — Nin bakademin ninatvind. 
Paul, give them some pork and flour. Paul, asham kdkoshan, 

pakicejigdnan gaie. 
Well I thank you ! — We will eat nicely indeed. ! o ! mig- 

weteh, migwetch ! — Geget nin ga-mino-wissinimin. 
And we have also nothing to smoke. Nin manepwdmin gaie 

ninawind. 
Here is some tobacco. Gw assima. 
Ho ! that's right, that's riglit ! you make us happy indeed. t 

toendjita, loendjita ! Geget ki debiimin. 
Bonjour! Farewell, farewell I Bo Jo ! Mddjdg,mddjdg! 
Let us land , boys ; evening is approaching. Gabada^ kwiwisen- 

sidog ; Jaigwa ani-onagoshi. 
Let us not land there, it is too stony. Kego icedi gabassida, osdm 

assinika. 
Let us land here, there is sand here. This is indeed a fine land- 



405 — 



ing-place. Oma gabada, mitowanga oma. Geget gwanatch 

gab^win. 
If it is calm to-morrow, or if the wind is fair, then we will arrive 

to-morow at the village. Kishpin anwaiing tcdbang, gonima 

gaie minwanimak, vii icdbdng tchi de-inijagaiang odenaiig. 
Let us embark (start), the wind is fair ; we are happy. Bosida, 

minwanimad ; kijau -ndagosimin. 
We are again sailing very fast. Ni kitchi kijeiashimiii minawa. 
The sea runs higher and higher. T am sick, I am sea-sick. I 

am always so, when the sea is high. Eshkam mamangashka ; 

nind dkos, niii majidee. Mi niojag endiidn, kishpin maman- 

gashkag. 
Sea-sickness is very disagreeable. I wish we should soon arrive. 

Geget sanagad iio majideewin. Apegish waiba mijagaiang. 
"We shall soon arrive. — Here is the village we are going to. Wai- 
ba ki ga-mijagandn. — Mi icedi odena ejaiaug. 
I am glad indeed. Geget nin minwendam. 




i 



3 



-W" 




• m 



r' ( 



!iOTES FOR THE AID OF BEGINNERS. (*) 



OF NOUN. 

There are two kinds of coimnon tioun.'* : the verbal noun, 
^usually in tcin or gan, and the root noun, the terminations of 
which are various. 

FORMATION OF NOUNS. 

The verbal noun in win ia formed from the reflective verb, by 
adding win to the third person singular indicative, v.g. dnawe- 
'lindisowin, self disapprobation, self amending ; or from the 
mutual, by changing in the third person plural wok into win, 
v. g. l-agwanissakcnindi\\\r\, mutual hatred ; or from the inde- 
finite, oy a ding win, sdkihiwew'-^, the action of loving some 
one or from the indefinite passive verb, by adding win to the 
fire person, v. g. sdkihikow'in, the action of being loved ; or 
from aneuter or indefinite verl^endingbv aconsonant, bvaddins 
will to the first mutative vowel, v, g. gashkendam, he is j^orrvj 
•tedious 5 ^a.9/i^•enda/«owin, sorrowfulness, tediousness; or from 
vthe negative verb, by adding win to the third person singu- 
lar negative : papamittansiw'm, disobedience. 

The names of instruments whicli for the most part end in gan, 
are formed from the termination of the verb in (Z/tA-e, signifying, 
to do, by changing djike into djigan, or of other verbs, by 
changing ike .nto igan, v. g. soshkudjike, soshkudjigan, a 
polisher ; pakunehike, pakunehigan, a piercer. We indicate 
here the usual formation only, as all the root nouns will 
be found ready formed in the Dictionary, as well as those less 
regular. 

The root nouns are those ready formed, v. g.pijikki, an ox; 
ahwi, a boat-oar. 

(*) These notes have been taken from the little Sauteux Grammar '"Rev. O. 
Belcourt. We give them here for more explanations in the Otchipwe Grammar. 

27 




\. 




t '; 
■ (1; 



lii 



I 



■": 



lf-l 





— 408 — 

There arc in the Otchipwe language irregular nouns chan- 
ging their form according to the nouna or pronouns accompa- 
nying them ; some are the compound noun.s, which are 
numerous ; the others are the irregular nouns, in very small 
number. 

A horse, pepejikokanje, from pepejik, one by one, ami 
okanj, its shoe-horn, that is to say, tlie one who has only a 
single shoe-horn. Among the Cree Indians and in thi.s country 
they use to say a horse, /ww^a^/m, from mistsha, big, and attim, 
composing-particle signifying a dog in the Cree language ; 
among the Otchipwe Indians the composing particle signifying 
a <log is assirti, v. g. ii'«6assini, a white dog, and by extension, 
after the Cree acception, a white horse. 

In the possessive case, this word clianges its form, for it is 
then irregular, V. g. a horse, miatatim ; my horse, nind ay ; 
my liorses, nind aya-k ; that irregularity attects that word only. 
Tlie word mistatim is conjugated regularly ; and the word 
nind ay is also conjugated regulajly according to that form. 

In the vocative case, the word n'os makes n'osse, nin ga 
makes nin ge, n^okkuniis, my grand-mother, makes n'okko ; 
tliey also say, 7M71 ^M?is instead of nin gwisis, my son, nind an 
instead of nntcZ«?m, my daughter ; that word nind an makes 
also ot dnan, his daughter. 



On the formation ok Nouns. 

There are nouns formed from the verbs in wn by adding 
dgan, v. g. nind appeninmn loiyaw, I hope in his own person, 
nind appenimuwigsiu, my hope. 

In the verbs in /* making ho in the third person, the noun is 
formed by adding wdgan, v. g. nind ondjiho-wdgan, my defen- 
der, from ondjiho, he defends his body, he defends himself. 

The names of fruit trees, as far as fruit trees, are formed from 
the singular of the name of the fruit by adding akaonj, v. g. 
sCwirnin, grape, sowiminakaonj, the vine. 



— 409 - 



Many or almost all the tree^ liave a second name, with 
abstraction of their quality of fruit trees, v. g. .sowimindiiWi, 
the wood of the vine ; mUtikomij, oak ; mittikomin, acorn ; 
■mittikominakaouj , the oak as a fruit tree, female oak bearing- 
its fr'it, from onj which signifies in con.< position child, v. g. 
nittavi onjtln, the eldest r^ild, the first born child ; j/tm making 
minak in many plural nouns, signifies fr lit in composition . 
when alone, it signifies blue-berry ; it makes then minan in 
tlie plural number. 

There are names of things signifying a dress or ornament, or 
a part thereof ; they are formed from the verb, by changing the 
final in the third person into uii, v. g. kitshippiso, he ig 
belted ; kUskippiswn, a belt ; umcokkivehOso, he is wrapped 
up, wilookkwehasnn , a wrapper, a husk of peas, etc.; tittinin- 
djihiso, his finger is surrounded by, tHtinindjihis\u\, a ring, 
a digital ring. 

The names of clothes generally are expressed by the termi- 
nation weydn, pijikki-ioeydn, the skin of an ox, that is the skin 
with the hair on it ; and so on of all other animals, adding 
mei/du to the name of the animal; and these words are animate 
by accpption,/>/yV^■A•/u'f//a7nlk, ox skins with their hair; thence 
wdhoweydn, white cloth, blanket. 

The numeral nouns, joined collectively, do not take the plu- 
ral number, v. g. mjoivdbik, two n)easures, v. g. of water, 
because the usual measure is a metal pot ; nijotdbdndk, two 
cart-loads. 

Some nouns are nothing but the participle from which some 
thing has been taken off, v. g. mekkateokonayed , positive par- 
ticiple, he being clothed in black. We say : mekkateokonaye, 
a priest, the black-gown. This manner of forming nouns is 
generally used only in proper nouns. 

The participle, adjective and verb are frequently used 
as a substantive, v. g. ningo-takkopitek or pejik-takkopitek, 
something tied up, a sheaf, etc., and plural, takkopitekin. If 
this word was not preceded by the numeral noun incorpo- 
rated with it, it would be used in tlie positive, v. g. iekkopitek 



\'t li 



} V 






I 



IV. 



4 






H 



m 



U 



I i^ 









— 410 — 

pejik. NiiKjo is the word pejik used in composition ; one 
should not say tekkopUek ningo ; it is alwavrJ more conform- 
able with the genius of the language to use the word entering 
in composition, and still better to say : ninifo takkopitek, than 
pejik-iakkopiiek. 

Tlie name of the place where a thing is made is formed from 
tJie indefinite, v. g. ponakkadjike, he casts anchor ; ponakkad- 
jikewang, the place where they cast anchor, anchorage. 

The particle taji means that one is engaged in, v. g. taji- 
ioissini, he is engaged in eating. 

Tlie particle en used in tlie positive participle in many man- 
ners of saying, means t!v^ place where, v. g. the place where 
I am engaged in working, entd/i-aiiokkii/an, my laboratory. 



On DiMixuTivKs. 

The diminutive nouns are formed by adding «.s- to the noun 
ending by a vowel, v.jf. pijikki, an ox, piJikkinSjO, calf, a young 
ox. The nouns ending by a consonant take ns after the 1st. 
mutative vowel, which is known by the plural of the word, 
V. g. mistatim, makes in the plural number miaiaiimok ; the 
in 7nok is what 1 call the 1st. mutative vowel ; add to it ns, 
you will have misUdimons, a ^small horse, a colt. Kincbik, 
kinehikok, whence kineJu'kons, little adder. 

The exceptions are: the wordsending by «and taking .y to form 
the diminutive of words whose last syllable is short, 
V. g. sakaMgan makes .'idkaigans, a small lake. It takes ens 
when that last syllable is long, v. g wewehandhdn, whence 
wewebandbdncntif, a small fishing - line ; otdbdn, whence 
o<a6«/tens, a small carriage. Do not be astonished at hearing 
*«ome Indians confounding some times this rule, which one must 
certainly follow to speak correctly. 



ON ADJECTIVES. 



There are adjectives in es making est in the 3d. person ; they 
are formed from the noun in gan by adding to it esi in order to 



'^ii 



B iTirTr*~"n fa ^^ag w 



— 411 — 

make it an animate adjective, v. g, 1ajinddgaiwn\, lie who is 
every wliere the subject ofcon versation ; it is rutlier taken amiss. 
Wdwindflgaji, is taken in iioo;I i)art to mean a celebrated man. 



Tkrmixatioxs ok ADJtcTivKS IN s/ika, .shin, ssin, sse. 

The termination in shka applies to the animate and 
inanimate, and indicates that the thing is in the passive state of 
the action of the verb, v. g. pf7k-kakn!^hka ishkumudam, the door 
opens (by itself), or misiwe pikushka mikkivam, tlie ice is break- 
ing everywhere. 

The termination in shin is used for the animate and indicates 
the action already suflered either in failing, either in lying on 
the ground, either in its manner of being, v. g. minos\ux), it 
lies well, or, it is well Hxed in its place, v. g. a clock, a watch ; 
akdtsh'iu, it is in its manner of being s\ispended, v. g. the sun, 
the stars, etc. ; poku^hiu, v. g. my watch, it exists broken, 
V. g. falling. 

The adjective in ssin is used for the inanimate, and indicates 
the action already suftered, v. g. p((kk(ikiiHi'in ishkicandim, the 
door stands open ; minonHiu, this is well laid on, suits well. 

The adjective in sse indicates that the action is not suftered, 
but is made in such or such a numner when one pleases, v. g. 
pdkkukui^BC ishkumndem, the door opens (when one wishes), or, 
minosse oho wdkdkkwat , this axe suits well, is handy, that is 
to say when one makes use of it 

These adjectives are formed from the indefinite in ssidjike, by 
changing ssidjike into shka, shin, ssin, sse, whenever the 
meaning of the verb is susceptible of the same. They make in 
the plural number, shkdwok, and shkdwan inanimate ;ssewok, 
and sseiran inanimate ; shinok, and ssinon inanimate. 

All the verbs in djike, make the verbal adjective in djikdso, 
animate, and djikdte, inanimate; plural, djikdsowok, djikd- 
iewan. 

The adjectives in ?.9makea^ in the inanimate, v.g. /L•^7^w«^■isi, 
he is miserable, he is wretched ; kitimdka,i, would be said, 






Iff 

1 1 



i' •' 



II 



<' 



i I 



lil 



— 412 — 

V. g. ofa barren, improductivc land ; ni ninaimH, J am weak; 
ninamat lodkkahhjan, the houHe 18 weak, not Htroni;;. 

The adjectives in tie or te, make ssn or so in the 3d. animate 
person, v. g. paiakkhc, it is planted, v. g. my knife ; ^ja/aA-fciiso 
assdtinn, the little aspen-tree is planted ; all the nouns of trees 
are animate, if thov are not dead. Wdhnttv, wdhdfisa, whitened 
in the sun. Tiie adjectives in ic make (eivun in the phiral 
niunber ; iek in the participle ; tekin at the plural participle. 
'The animate adjective is conjugated like ni minoenddytiH, with 
the exception tliat the Ist. mutative vowel is o instead of i. 

Some would sometimes say indniwaa at the end of an adjec- 
tive, V. g. ajimddji-win shiijwa kitimdkat\\\i\.\\\\\ii.n misiwe, 
alas, wretchedness is reigning everywhere. This part of the 
word indicates that the thing spoken of is general and common 
to all, V. g. minawdniagottondniivan, or vi6djikim\kn\vi^\\ 
kitshi kijikoiKj, one rejoices in heaven. They say also, accord- 
ingly to the root, kifimdki-ndniwaa ; modjiki-ndniwan. 



OF irrp:gular verbs. 

1" Neuter, as nin gafifikendain, I am sorrowl'ul. 

2° Verbs in tin, an, as iiiiid appenimuii, I hope in something. 

8" Tlie impersonal, as sanakisiin, one is suflering, etc. 

4" The objective verb, as sanakisiwan, agrees with a noun 
in the objective case. 

5" The negative verb, kdwin nind ikkifo.sui, \ do not say. 

5" The contingent verb, cAA//o//«//in, every time 1 say.^ 

7° The dubitative, nind ikkiioin-ifiik, I perhaps say. 

8" The verb in favor of, nind anokkitamowa, I work tor him. 

9" The verb with a double inanimate object, nind ojiftamo- 
wdn, I do it to him. 

10" The verb with a double animate object, nin kikkenimi- 
man, I know of something belonging to him, v. g. his son. 

The verbs in nn make unan for the animate ; they are 
formed, 1° from the verb in im, by adding to it unan, v. g. nind 
appenim, I re! ; upon myself ; nind appenimwn, iuanimat.e. 



— 4i;5 



iiind appeninfiUiKDi, animate, F rely on liiin, I hope in him. 2* 
They are also tunned tVoni the indelinite hy addinj: n, inanimate, 
jta7J, animate, V. ^'. nind atCiwe, I sell, or, rather,! hurgui n (as 
it also sij^nifies 1o buy) ; nind atnwen ni mokknmdn, I sell my 
knife ; nind atdioewim nind ay, I sell my horse. 3" They are 
also formed from tlie reflected or the verl)al adjective in s, by 
adding to it nn,nnan, v. y^.nin kashkittam/ifi, I ol»tain for my- 
self; nin kashkiUamdswn, inanimate, nii\ kaHhkittamusunAw, 
animate, etc. 

These verbs are regularly conjugated in the inanimate, as 
any inanimate relative verb. For the ajiimate, its three persons 
singular are in an with their plural in ak instead of an, v. g. 
nind aidwena,\\, nind aidwenak, I trade them ; kitatdiocnvi\\,Q.\^, 
thou, etc., ot atdwenan. In all the rest of the conjugation, 
the animate is conjugated like the inanimate relative, v. g. nind 
atdioemin, kit atdwendiva, 6t atdwendwdn ; a very irregular 
thing is that they used to say in the 3d. person plural,a/^tM)eM?oA; 
miatatimo.'i, they bargain horses, without using the sign, o, of 
the 3d. person ; it is often heard, and one must say, I think, 
ot atdivendwdh mistatimoh, they trade horses. 

The objective verb is used in the 3d. persons only ; in the 
indicative it is formed by adding wanio the 3d. person singular 
and wall to the 3d. person singular to form the plural, v. g. his 
son is sick, dknsiwan o kivisissan ; his children are sick, 
dkuniivah o nidjdnissah. 

In the participle, ni is added before the final d or t of the 3d. 
person singular participle, in all tlie verbs whose 3d. persoti 
singular is in d or t, v. g. mih'' aniw sesekisinh o kwisissaii, 
here is his elder son, from sasekisit, 3d. person singular of 
the participle simple ; in the j)lural, jin is added to it, v. g. 
God will juilgethe living and dead, Kije Manito o ka tipakimdh 
pemdtisimiym yaye nepunidjin ; in this case, the f has a more 
articulated sound oi' d. 

In the neuter verbs, the indicative of the objective verb is 
formed in the same way ; but for the participle, as those having 
their 3d. person singular in ng, nuike minitjin, v. g. he said to 



— 414 — 



t ^ 



im 



ik' 



I 



••i 



his son who was lonely, nt in/in (/eshkendaininhyin o kttissis' 
san, from the 3d. person sinfjfular participle gatfhkejidanff. 

The negative verb \» a iiiodiHcatiof applicable to all the- 
verbs. 



Formation ok thk Negative. 

Rule I. To form the negative of the relative verb animate, 
asi is added to the Ist. person of the indicative, and it keeps 
tliat syllable throu<i;hont the whole conjufj:ation, the verb being 
conjugated regularly, v. g. kamiini sakilmm\, I don't love him, 
kdwin o Hdk'ihnmin, he does not love him, knivin ki sakifidsBi- 
ban, lie did not love thee, etc. 

The participle is formed by adding snIio to the 1st. person 
indicative, and adding to ssiw the characteristic oftiie animate^ 
participle ak, v. g. ndkihdi^mvak, .s«A-/Artssi?ra/ ,• but in the 3d. 
person we. say, .fdkihdsf^lk, and saki/ids/Anvu for the plural. 
All the rest keep ssiw before their respective mutative, v. g. 
sdkihdiismany, sdkihdHf*\i(U'(j, etc. 

II. In the inanimate verb, tlu- .v.v/ is inserted lietwrcn the 
vowel and consonant of the last .syllable, and holds that place 
everywhere, v. g. kaioin til sdkiH6s>^'u\, 1 ilon't lovo it, from »/ 
ndkitton, I love it. 

In the participle, .s-.v/ makes ssiw as in the animate, with the 
characteristic of the inanimate participle, v.g. sdkittoydu, nega- 
tive, sdkittoHsiwdn, ss\wan, ssiA-, ssiwa/<(/, ssiwer/, ssiktt'o. The 
inanimate participle, tlie reflected participle, in short, all the 
participles similar in the affirmative are also similar in tlu" 
negative. 

III. The reflectir all the adjectives in .f, and the inde- 
finite verb, fori' gative of the 3(1. person singular by 
adding ssi, v. <,kawisi, he is strong, kawin mashkmoisi- 
ssi, he is not s. .ig ; thus formed, it is conjugated regularly 
through all its tenses and moods ; in its participle, it is con" 
jugated like the inanimate verb. 

IV. In the verb from 3d. person to first, relative passive verb,. 
and in the indefinite passive verb, the negative is formed fron* 



— 415 — 

the first person singular i)asHive indefinite, by adding ssi ; it 
remains so all through, the characteristics and niutativeslK'ing 
conjugated as u.sual ; knwin ni Hdklliikomxy he don't love nie, 
kawinki sdkihik6^f'\, kawin osdkihikotm'm, etc. The Md. person 
pa"ssive indefinite tnakes : kawin sdkihdf^Hi, he is not loved. 

The negative is applied to the participle, 1" for tlie passive 
relative kikkeyninf^Wi, ssinok, kuswik, ssinowaw^, ssinoweg, 
kussikwa. Its imperfect is formed Ity adding ibart everywhere. 
2" For the indefinite passive the negative participle is tormed as 
it is in the indetinite, .sdkihikoSf^'iwdii, ssiwan, ssiwam/, ssiweg; 
for the '.id. person, ssivvind, ssiwindira, plural, is added to the 
3d. person singular indicative, v. g. .saA'/Arfssiwind, if he is not 
loved ; bakkitiehuiat>H'\w'uulwa, if they are not struck. The 
passive impersonal indefinite, is regular, adkihikusHing, from 
sdkihikutuj, one, being loved. 

V, In the verb from 1st. person to 2d. the negative is formed 
by changing the final n into ssinoti, v. g. kit iaiu, I tell you, 
kawin kit fm'ssinon, kawin kit inissinoninim, in the in)per- 
fect, the reciprocal characteristicsof each person are added, 
kawin ki ki //tmi/wninaban, kawin ki ki /rttssinoiiinimoMv/- 
ban, etc. 

The negative participle is iniB^'xmowdn, inias\nona(/ok. ikd- 
Bsiwo;/, ikoAii'xw eg . 

VI. The verb from 2d. person tolst. is conjugatetl as follows 
in the altirmative ; it is nothing else but the 2d. person singular 
of the imperative of th animate relative verb preceded by the 
pronoun ; vve must except the verb nind ina, which makes in 
the iniperative iji, or ishi instead of ink, either regularly, 
or irregularly, v.g. 

Kdivin ki bakkitteh ussi, you don't strike jne. 

Kawin ki bakkitteh ussi?«, you (many) don't strike me. 

-^ — ussimin, you don't strike me. 

• ' — — ussimmin, you don't strike us, etc. 

The imperfect, regularly, according to tlie negatives. 






1 ji 


1 


\': 








1. ^ 








1 '■.. 




^m • 


1 

1 


1 ^l 


] 


III 


\ 

i 
1 


1 


1' 
i 


I 


; 


^H 








H 


'j 


^H 




^^H 


:; 


^H 


u. 


^H 


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^^1 




1 


1' 

I 


1 i - 


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^1 ! 




^^^B 


^ 


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m 


i 



— 41fi — 
Participlk. 
hakkitieh UHsiwa», 

— w^axw any. 

The first mutative u is changed into / in tlic verbs whose 
.mutative is i, v. g. katvin ki sdkiMssi, you don't love me. 

Negative, or P' ohibitive Imperatives. 

Keko. ikkito-A7iT». 
Keko, — kkek. 
Keko, — fiitii' 
Keko, — .sitak. D. 

1" In the indefinite, these terminations are added to the first 
person of the present, v. g. keko hakkittehike kken, or howe- 
liken, animate indefinite, don't strike. 

2° In the animate relative they also add that termination to 
the 1st. person of the present ; keko hakkUiehwdVkQn, don't 
strike him. 

3" In the animate relative, the final n is replaced hy those 
terminations ; this rule concerns the animates in on only, v. g. 
keko ojittokkew, do not make it ; in the inanimate verbs in an, 
the n is not taken oft", but it becomes mute, keko bakkittehan- 
ken ; then, on account of the n, one of the k becomes useless 
and is dropped. 

4" In all the verbs that have a vowel in the 3d. person sin- 
gular, that termination is added, which must be understood 
also as to the verbal adjectives in .s*, v. g. keko bakkittehotiso- 
kken, do not strike yourself ; keko anokkikkcn, do not work, 
/•e^oj/jVi^/k ken, don't look ; kekopi.nndtisikkvn, do not be dissi- 
pated, light-headed ; keko dkuiiikkdsokk<?i\, don't pretend to be 
ill ; and so as to the indefinite i)assive, the prohibitive of 
which is formed from the 1st. person, keko /(>/«A"okken, let it 
not be done to you. 

6" In the verb from 2d. person to 1st. to form the prohibitive, 
they change n in the 2d. person of the imperative into kken, 



— 417 — 

kkek, kkaiujen, v. ^. keko ijishikken, don't tell me, etc., from 
iji.shin, tell nie, in which the n is dropjx^d. 

()" In the neuter verbs in am, m is changed into a mute n in 
the prohibitive, v. g. keko f/ashkendanken, as the inanimate 
relative. (Vide supra 3"). 

7" The proliibitive of tiie relative passive verb is formed from 
ihe IM. person singular, by dropping n in the animate as well 
as in the inanimate, and b}' using in its place the usual ter- 
minations of the prohibitive, keko ikokkcn, let him not tell 
you ; keko gashkendamihikukkeu, let that not make you 
uneasy, from ot ikon, and o r/ashkendamihikuii, that makes 
him uneasy. 

Vir. The dubitative is formed nearlv in the san>e way 
through all the voices. 

1" The active indefinites as .• nin tebive, I say true, makes at 
#,he dubitative, 



Nin ^('^icemituk. 

— — mituk. 

— iebwe-tuk. 

— — mindiyik. 

— — mowatuk. 
febive-iukenak. 

Participlp:. 

Tai/ebwe wdncw. 

— wa/HMi. 

— kweu . 

— wingen. (Imp. 

— irtingcn. (D.i 

— wancfen. 

— ivegioen . 

— wdkwen. 



Imperikct. 

Nin tebicendban-ituk . 
ki icbwendban-Uvk. 

iebti^eguban. 
nin iebwcniindban-itnk. 
ki tebwemindban-ituk . 

febicef/ubanik. 

Imi'krkkct, 

Ta>/cbu'(!\\finbdn en . 

— wotiban en. 

— gubanen, 

— icingibanen. (Imp.) 

— wdn<jiibanen. iD.) 

— tnanijubanen. 

— iccijubanen. 

— wdgnbanen. 




Thus are to be conjugated in the dubitative all the verbs in 
endam, which make, v. g. nind incnddni-ihtk, I think perhaps ; 



4 




i 



i 






i 






i 



— 418 — 

this said, all the others are regular ; they say at the 3d. per- 
son inendamotuk. etc., participle, enendamo-wihien, etc. The 
others are regular. 

The verbs taking a vowel in the 3d. person add the m to it 
in the dubitative, v.g. nin aonrfeniniomituk ; 3d. i)erson, songe- 
/MWo/MA-,perhf.ps he presumes much of his own courage; wab\y 
he sees ; ki wubimituk, perhaps you see ; 3d. person, iimbituk, 
etc. The participle is regular, irai/ahiwniioi, etc., awangeiii- 
niGwaneii, etc. 

One may see therefrom that the ilubitative, either in the 
indicative, or in the participle, is formed from the 3d. person 
singular of the verb. 

The mutual is conjugated as the plural of t' e indefinite in 
the dubitative, v. g. sdkitiminntnk, etc. 

VIIJ. In the animate adjectives, the negative is formed 
into .sr.s'/, V. g. kaunn mashkawisim\, kawin kossigiranisiil, he is 
not strong, he is not heavy. The negatives of an animate 
adjective are formed by changing / into >inin6n, v. g. kawin 
dbata^HinCm ; and by adding sintm to tiie adjectives in m, v. g, 
kawin nokkansinm ; the final « of the adjective is then pro- 
nounced mute. 

IX. The verb in favor o/'is formed by adding tfa7nowa, age, 
dtan, ddjike, to the root or indefinite of the verb, v. g. 7iiud 
anokki, I work, whence nind anokkiitanidwa, I work tor him ;. 
nind anamikeltamdwa, I pray tor him, etc. 

Remark. According to the rule IV, one might observe 
a deficiency, which is the objective formation of the inde- 
finite pnsnive verb, which is as follows, v. g. inn, .3d. in<le- 
finite passive person nuikes inind in the participle, and in the 
objective, inimdn, inimdh, okwisissau, they say of his son, 
etc. ; hinJq)in iiiimind o kwisissan, if they say of his son. To 
form that objective, 7id of the 3d. person participle is changed 
into man for the indicative, and into mind for the participle, 
V. g bakkiitehwfi, himd, makes bakkittehnmiiu and bakkitte- 
huui'ind. 

The irregular latin verb inqnit is translated by iwa which is 
used in tlie singular only, iwiban, iwibanik, in the imperfect. 






— 419 — 

liKViARKS 

on some particles veriifrctpicntly used in the Otchipwe language^ 



Althougli these worilsi arc explained respectively in the Dic- 
tionary, we shall lay here in (he reader's sight, those njost 
frequently used, in order to impart a quicker knowledge of 
them, 

1" Iko is frequently met with in conversation and de^notes 
affirmation, v. g. your friend sets forth a proposition which 
.agrees well with your opinion. If you wish to tell him i/c.s, you 
will not say keget only, hut keget-iko, v. g. it is awful weather, 
is it not? kagioanissakikijigat-ina '* ., «, indeed, keget-iko. 

2" hsa, denotes that one attirms something said hy one's 
^self, without minding the opinion of aiiv other person, v. g 
keget issa kagwaiiitisakdnimai, the wind is awful. 

3' Akkoy in the end of a word, denotes an hahitnal action . 
although it affects the verh, it is placed usually after the first 
word, V. g. imijds akko ni midjin, I am in the hahit of eating 
flesh, or merely, I eat flesh meat (heing understocnl, when I 
have some). To the first vowel of tliese three words iko, isso, 
akko, the apostrophe is substituted, whenever they are pre- 
ceded by a vowel. 

4" <7M«/ia, denotes that one insists upon a proposition which 
one would have seenied to deny, or had already denied, v. g. 
gwei/ak ki iipddjimottdn, ni tji, I relate the fact e.xactly fo 
you, njy friend. Keget-ina ? Do you ? A'<?//c/gusha, Ido, indeed. 

5" Dina is used when a person having being ordered to do 
soinething, it becomes necessary to give tiiat person a new 
order ; then one says : ambe bina, go on, do. 

<i" Kuta is used as a synonynte of bina, but rather impro- 
perly. It is used properly when one, after some resistance, 
accomplishes at last what was ordered to one, v. g. I have for 
a long while refused to go where he wished to bring me, I at 
last consent to go, and tell liim so : ambe kuta ijuta, well, 
come, let us go. 



Ml 



!!» I 



420 — 




1 



7" 1/dnin is* used to afHrin the truth of a tiling which seemed 
not to be true, or was not expected to be so, v. g. from his 
appearance, I tliink he is coward, ahagoiehc wahaw nind iji- 
nawa ; well, nevertheless he is not, kawin ikinin ; v. g. }idh 
'kinin epih-h inashkaiciait, see how strong he is, that is to savr 
I would never have suspected that he was so strong. 

8' Avibc signifies come, let us go ; v. g. come, let us go away, 
ambe, kiweta. 

9' iVa/i means the apostrophe here, v. g. here, my friend, I 
give you this, nahy nitji, oho ki miniu. 

10" Taka is almost a synonyme of mube ; it is the apos- 
trophe made to one to have one relate, sing, or do something, 
V. g. well, you arrived lately, tell us the newi^, pdicUewiyan 
taka, HpMjimun enakkamiyak. 

11° Na is a particle not differing from the interrogative, it is 
used in speaking to a superior or a respected person, of whom 
soniethiiig is wished for ; v. g. hand me the bread, if you please^ 
iaka-na, pakkwejiyan ininamdwuhin. 

12" Iki.th, is a synonyme ofiko ; it is used when one advances 
a proposition as true, without being very sure of it ; if T am 
aware that one's proposition is true, I shall answer, keyet ikish. 
13" Ajikish is a sarcastic expression used when some body's 
actions prove that he is not what he pretends to be, v. g. a man 
pretends to be generous, or reputed so ; I see him accomplish- 
ing a deed of sordidness, and I say of him ; ajikish kijeivdtiai ; 
without translating, I express that idea by the ironic french 
phrase : le roilA, ce pr^tendu g^nereux ; so true it is that he is a 
generous man. 

X.— Conjugation of the vkkb with a double animate 

Objective. 

That verb is formed from the 1st. person singular of th^ pas- 
sive animate relative, by changing k into mdn, v. g. ni sakihik^ 
he loves me, whence ni .'idkihim&x), I love that in him, v. g 
kwisissari, his son ; nim pakitinik, he lets me go, nim 
pakitiniman, I let that from him go ; ni wikkupinik, whence 



— 421 — 

ni wikkupininmu , I draw tliat of him ; nm bakkittehuk^ 
whence 7iim bakkittehuman, I .strike that of him. With tlie 
exception of the irregular verb, nind ina, I tell him, makiii;^ 
irregularly nind ik ; I am told by him, it makes nevertht'- 
less in the double objective : nind iniman, I (ell him. 

Prksknt — Singular. 

Ni sdkihirndn. 
ki .sdkihirndn. 
o sdkihirndn, h. 



Sg. PI. 

P. A't sdkihimdndn\k. 
ki ndkihimdndnW. 
ki sdkihimdwdk. 
o .sdkihimdwdh. 



,D.) 



I IP' 
I Hi' 






-i* 



ImI'ERFECT — SlN<Jl!,.\R. 

Ni sd kill imd ban i k . 
ki fidkihimdhauik. 
adhihimdbanih. 
Ni sdkih imd n dham k . 
ki .sdkihimdndbamk. 
ki .sdkih imd wdban i k . 
o .sdkihimdwdbumh . 



!•>' 



I.MI'KRATIVE. 



Sdkihim. 

.sdkihimik. 

sdkihimdta. 

Future— Impkrkkct. 

SdkihimdVkiiu , kkattvdk. 
sdkih imdk kek , kkeywdk. 
sdkihimdkksLng, kkanywdh. 

Participle. 

Saydkihimakwsk. 
himatsva. 






'VW ' 



— 422 — 

/limdd. 

himangwa.. 

himaiH/Uwa. 

himefjfwa. 

himdwdd. 

Imperfect. 

Say dki him a k'lhau, \v.'il»an, etc 

Na. — In the verbs in awa or owa, the double animate objec- 
tive is formed regularly, if you supjwse that the passive 
animate relative is formed as in other verbs, and that one may 
say: ni nissilotfav/fk ; it is therefrom formed regularly, and 
they say : 7ii nissUoitawimdn, I understand that of him. 

XI. The verb with a double inanimate object is formed 
from the Ist. inanimate person singular indicative, in the 
verbs in on, by changing the linal n into wan, v. g. nind ojit- 
ion, whence nind ojiftmvdn, I do it for him ; and from the 
same person in the verbs in an, by changing the final n into 
mowdn, v. g. ni todnikkdtdn, whence ni lodnikkdtamowdn, I 
dig that for him ; ni nissitoitdn, whence ni nissiiottainowau , I 
•under.^Jtand that of him, etc. It is conjugated as above. 



A LA.ST WORD. 

In closing let it be allowed that the Indian language is perfect 
in its oxon way, and has many beauties not to be found in our 
modern languages ; for instance, the verb in the Indian idiom, 
is the supreme chief of the language; it draws into its magical 
circle, all the other parts of speech, and makes them act, 
move, suffer and even exist in the manner, and in such si- 
tuations as is pleasing to it. In truth a learned philologist 
likened the verb of the Indian language to Atlas that carries 
the world on its shoulders. U a language can be compared to 
a world, this comparison appears to us very just ; for the verb 
^an carry it entirely in its bosom. 



y. /. p. ^ /4. j. 



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it- 
he 
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