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Cornell University Library 
BL 1570.H37 1907 

Essays on the sacred language, writings, 

3 1924 023 157 104 

Cornell University 

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3WE mmiTOR. 


The author of these Essays intended, after his return from 
India, to expand them into a comprehensive work on the 
Zoroastrian Eeligion ; but this design, postponed from 
time to time, was finally frustrated by his untimely 
death. That he was not spared to publish all his varied 
knowledge on this subject, must remain for ever a matter 
of regret to the student of Iranian antiquities, In other 
hands, the changes that could be introduced into this 
second edition were obviously limited to such additipns 
and alterations as the lapse of time and the progress of 
Zoroastrian studies have rendered necessary. 

In the first Essay, the history of the European re^ 
searches has been extended to the present time; but,. for 
the sake of brevity, several writings have been passed 
over unnoticed, among the more valuable of which those 
of Professor Hlibschmann may be specially mentioned. 
Some account has also been given of the progress of 
Zoroastrian studies among the Parsis themselves. 

In the second Essay additional information has been 

viii PREFACE. 

given about the Pahlavi language and literature; but the 
technical portion of the Avesta Grammar has been re- 
served for separate publication, being better adapted for 
students than for the general reader. 

Some additions have been made to the third Essay, 
with the view of bringing together, j from other sources, 
all the author's translations from the Avesta, except those 
portions of the G&thas which he did not include in the 
■first edition, And Which it would be hazardous for an 
editor to rfefise. Further details haVe ulso bseii given 
regarding the contents of the Kasks. 

Several additional translations, having b^en found 
among the author's papetg too late for insertion in the 
third Essay, have been added in an Appetidix after care- 
ful revision, together With his notes descriptive of thfe 
itiode of performing a few of the Zoroastrian ceremonies. 

Some apology is due to Saaskrit Scholars for the 
liberties taken with their usual systems of representing 
Sanskrit and Avesta sbutids. These deviations from 
pi*sefit Systems have been made for the sake of the 
geiieral reader, whether English or Indian, -W-ho can 
hardly be expected to ptftnoutifce Wbrds correctly unless 
they ate spelt in accordance with the usUal sounds of the 
letters in English. Probably no European language ' can 
represent Indian consonants S'o easily as English ; but 
as every English VOwel has more than one fthMactetistic 
sound, it is necessary t6 Icok to ■ some ether Mtoipean 


language for the best representation of Indian vowels. 
The system nov? genetally adopted by Englishmen in 
liidia, and followed in these Essays, is to use the con- 
sonants to represent their usual English sounds, the 
vowels to represent their usual Italian sounds, and to 
avoid diacritical marks as much as possible, because they 
are always liable to omission. In applying such a sys- 
tem to the Aryan languages of India, Englishmen require 
very few arbitrary rules. They have merely to observe 
that g is always hard and ch always soft, that th and pJi 
are merely aspirates of t and p (not the English and Greek 
th and fK), and that a represents the short vowel sound in 
the English words utter ^ mother, c(jm6, and Uood. As this 
use of u is often repugnant to Englishinen, it may be 
remarked that all the other vowels have to be appro- 
priated lor other sounds, and that it ia also strictly in 
accordance with the Sanskrit rule that when one a 
coalesces with another the resulting Sound is A, which 
could not be the case unless there were a close relation- 
ship between the two sounds. 

Some unfortunate representations of Indian sounds 
have become too inveterate to be lightly tampered with ; 
so it is stUl necessary to warn the general reader that 
every w in the Avesta ought to be pronounced like an 
English «, and that every « in Sanskrit or the AveSta 
closely resembles an English w, unless it be followed by 
«, i, e, H, Ot a Consonant, in which case it has a sound 


somewhere between v and A. Again, Sanskrit has two 
sets of letters represented by ^, th,didh, n, sh; one set 
is extremely dental (pronounced with the tip of the 
tongue touching the extremities of the teeth, or as close 
to them as possible in the case of sh), the other set is 
lingual (pronounced with the tip of the tongue far back 
upon or near the palate). The EngUsh t, d, n, sh are 
pronounced between these two extremes, but all natives 
of India consider the sounds of these English letters as 
decidedly lingual, so that they always represent them 
by Indian linguals when transliterating English words. 
Unfortunately, European scholars have been of the op- 
posite opinion, and have represented the dental t, th, d, 
dh, n as unmodified, and the linguals as modified, either 
by a diacritical dot (as in this work) or by using italics. 
For the sake of uniformity, this practice has been here 
extended to sh; but there can be no doubt that the 
dentals ought to be modified and the linguals unmodified, 
though neither group can be exactly represented by Euro- 
pean sounds. Further, the letters ri do not adequately 
represent that peculiar Sanskrit vowel as pronounced in 
MaM/rdshtra, where the Brahmans have been least dis- 
turbed by foreign influences. They say there that the 
correct sound is ru, and the tendency in colloquial 
Mar4thl is to corrupt it into u. The nearest European 
approach to this sound appears to be the English re in 
pretty, which word is never pronounced petty when the 


r is indistinctly sounded, but has a tendency to become 

In Avesta words th has the same lisping sound as in 
English and Greek, n and n have the sound of tig, g ought 
to be sounded like hhw, zh bears the same relation to 
sh as 3 to s (that is, it has the sound of s in pleasure), and 
shk is pronounced sk by the Parsis. They also pronounce 
the other sibilants s and sh as written in this work, and 
there seems no sufficient reason for departing from their 
traditional pronunciation, which is corroborated, to a 
great extent, by Pahlavi and Persian words derived from 
the Avesta, such as Zaratusht, dtash, &c. 

The author's principal object in publishing these Essays 
originally was to present, in a readable form, aU the 
materials for judging impartially of the scriptures and 
religion of the Paisis. The same object has been kept 
in view whUe preparing this second edition, giving a 
larger quantity of such materials collected from a variety 
of sources, which I may now leave to the reader's im- 
partial judgment. 

E. W. WEST. 

MijNCHEN, Fehmary 1878. 


Biographical Sketch ..... xvii 

Inteoduction to the Third Edition . ; . xxxiii 




AND Religion of the Parsis , . . " . 3 
I. — The Reports of the Greeks, Romans, Armenians, 

AND Mohammedans . . . . 3 

II. — The European Researches ... 16 

III. — Zoroastrian Studies among the Parsis . . 54 


Languages of the Parsi Scriptures . . .65 

I. — The Language of the Avbsta, erroneously 

CALLED Zend ..... 67 

II. — The Pahlavi Language and Pazand . . 78 

III. — The Pahlavi Literature Extant . . ■ 93 


The Zend-Avesta, or the Scripture of the Parsis . 119 

I. — The Name OP THE Parsi Scriptures . . 119 

II. — The Original Extent of the Zend-Avesta — The 

Nasks ...... 123 

III. — The Books now Extant and the supposed Zoroa- 
strian Authorship ..... 134 

IV.— Yasna . . . . . . -139 

v.— GIthas . . . ■ .■ • .' .142 



— GiiHA Ahunavaiti . 






. IS4 


—The last three GIthas . '■■ . 

. 167 


— Yasna Haptanhaiti and the Minor Texts or the 

Old Yasna ..... 

. 170 


—The later Yasna .... 

. 174 

I. Hdma yasht .... 
2. Yasna xbc. .... 

. 175 
. I8s 

3. Ivii. .... 

. 189 


— ViSPARAD ..... 



-Yashts ..... 


1. Hormazd yasht 

2. Hapten, Ardibahisht, and KhordSd yashts 

3. Ab^n yasht .... 

4. Khurshgd and Mah yashts . 

5. Tlr and G6sh yashts .... 


6. Mihir yasht ..... 

7. Srosh Had6kht and Eashnu yashts . 

8. Fravardtn yasht .... 

9. Behrain and R&m yashts 

10. Din and Ashi yashts .... 



11. Asht&d, ZamySd, and Vanant yashts 

12. Two fragments of the H4d6kht nask ; the 

Afrln-i Paighambar Zaratusht, and Vish- 


tasp yasht . ... 



-Shorter Texts (NtIyish, ApringIns, GIhs, Sik6- 

zah) ....... 




1. The first fai^ard 

2. The second fargard 

3. The third fargard 

4 The touith fargard 

5 The fargards v.-xvii. 






6. The eighteenth fargard . . . 243 

7. The nineteenth fargard . . . 252 

8. The fargards xx.-xxii. . . . 257 
XV. — ^Bribf Survey of Atesta Literature . . 257 


The Zoroastrian Religion as to vsa Origin and 

Development ..... 267 

I. — The relationship between the Brahmanical and 

Zoroastrian religions . . . .267 

1. Names of divine beings . . . 267 

2. Names and legends of heroes . . 276 

3. Sacrificial rites .... 279 

4. Religious observances, domestic rites, and 

cosmographical opinions . . . 285 

II. — Origin of the Zoroastrian religion. — Spitama 

Zarathushtra and his probable age . . 286 

1. Traces of the origin to be found both in the 

Vedas and Zend-Avesta . . . 287 

2. Causes of the schism .... 292 

3. Spitama Zarathushtra . . . 294 

4. The age wlien Spitama Zarathushtra lived . 298 
III. — Spitama Zarathushtba's theology and philoso- 


X. Zarathushtra's monotheism . . . 301 

2. Zarathushtra's two primeval principles . 303 

3. Development of Zarathushtra's doctrines of 

the Supreme Being. — The two supreme 
councils ; Srosh and Boundless Time . 305 

4. The two intellects, two lives, heaven and 

hell, resurrection, and palingenesis . . 310 

xvl CONTMWS-i 

APPENDIX. . ,;. 


1. Vendidadj fargard jii. 1-23 and 34? 3S • • 3i5 

2. „ „ iv. 44-55 • • -319 

3. „ „ V. . . . I 322 

4. „ ,, xix. 10-26 and 40-47 . 333 
II. — Translations from the Pahlavi Vebsions . 338 

. I. Pahlavi Yasna xxviii. . . - . , , 338 

2. „ „ xxix. . . . • ;; . 341 

3. „ „ XX3C, . . . .345 
4* y) jj XXXI. . V ' , " . 34° 

5. „ „ xxxii. I . . . , -354 

6. Pahlavi VejididSd i. . . . . 355 

7. „ „ xviii. . , , 364 

8. „ „ xix 379 

9- » » XX 391 

III. — Notes Desceiptjvb op some Parsi Ceremonies . 39; 

1. The ceremony preparatory to Ijashue . . 394 

2. The Ijashne ceremony . . . , . 403 

3. The Darun ceremony .... 407 

4. The Afrlngfin ceremony . . . 408 
, Index . . . . ,. , . 411 


Maetin Haug was a native of Ostdorf, an obscure Wiir- 
temberg village, situated not far from the famous castle 
of HohenzoUern, in ■ the picturesque and fertile region 
extending between the ISTeckar and the Danube, from 
the chalk-clitfs of the Swabian Alps to the iir-clad hills 
and romantic valleys of the Black Forest.-^ He was born 
January 30, 1827, the eldest of six children. His father 
was a simple peasant of more than average intelligence, 
and in quite comfortable circumstances for a person of 
his class, and was especially proud of being able to trace 
his pedigree for many generations through an unbroken 
line of sturdy, and, for the most part, stolid peasant ances- 
try. It was this feeling that caused him to deprecate 
the extraordinary love of study which was shown at an 
early age by his first-born, and which threatened to divert 
the youth from the hereditary agricultural occupations 
and obligations strictly imposed upon hiw by primogeni- 
ture. That the heir to a few acres of arable land should 
freely renounce his birthright, and wilfully refuse to spend 
his days in guiding the plough a^d swinging the ox-goad, 
was, to a Germau Stockbauer, a matter of no less astonish- 
ment than if a prince '' apparent to the crown " should 

^ The events of Haug's life until lished autobiography, from which 

the twenty -seventh year of his age, source, supplemented by letters, 

i.e., until his habilitation as privat- diaries, and oral communications, 

decent in the University of Bonn in the fact^ of this sketch are chiefly 

1854, are narrated in his unpub- derived. 



reject " the round and top of sovereignty " and refuse to 
wield the sceptre of his forefathers. 

Fortunately, however, the unusual tastes, and talents 
of the boy were appreciated by his maternal grand-uncle, 
the village \i&il\S{Schultheiss), a man who was remarkable 
for his liberal opinions, his sound judgment, and the strict 
rectitude and even-handed justice with which he discharged 
his official duties, and whom Auerbach might have taken 
for the prototype of "Lucifer" in the "Black Forest Village 
Tales." These noble qualities left upon the boy's mind an 
impression which was never effaced, and exerted a decisive 
influence upon the formation of his character by inspiring 
him with the unimpeachable integrity and disinterested 
devotion to truth for which he was distinguished. 

In the sixth year of his age Martin was sent to school, 
and one of the teachers, observing his zeal and ability, 
offered, for a hundred florins (eight pounds) a year, to 
take the entire charge of his education and to prepare 
him for the schoolmaster's career. This proposal did not 
suit the wishes of the father, and still less those of the 
mother, who, with the narrow prejudices and religious 
concern of a pious BauerfraUf expressed her solicitude lest 
through much learning her son should become " as great 
a heretic as Strauss." But the intervention of the grand- 
uncle decided the question in opposition to the parents, 
and in 1838 the boy became Sehulincipient, and received 
the extra instruction in branches pertaining to his future 

When scarcely twelve years old, although physically 
quite delicatOj his enthusiasm was such that he often 
studied during the greater part of the night. His father 
complained of this waste of oil, and, taking his lamp 
away, drove him to bed ; but he quietly rose again and 
continued his studies, so far as possible, by moonlight. 
Even at his meals he could not divest his thoughts from 
his all-absorbing pursuits ; his eagerness for knowledge 
seemed to blunt every lower appetite ; he always kept a 


book by his plate, and was more anxious to feed his mind 
than his body. He was particularly desirous of learning 
Latin and Greek ; the schoolmaster encouraged him in 
this purpose, but could not assist him, and he therefore 
applied for aid to the pastor of his native village. This 
clerical gentleman, who, like Pfarrer Stollbein in Heinrich 
Stillings Jiinglings-Jahre, " loved humility in other people 
uncommonly," not only refused to help him, but sternly 
rebuked the peasant's son for his unseemly ambition, dis- 
coursed to him about the sin of arrogance, ridiculed him 
for trying to get out of his sphere, and, finally, insinuated 
with sarcastic sneer that perhaps the Bauerbuh would 
" even have the presumption to think of studying theo- 


It is a noteworthy and significant fact, that of the 
clergymen with whom Haug came in contact during his 
long and severe struggle to get an education, and from 
whom, as university men, he would naturally expect sym- 
pathy and advice, not one deigned to cheer him by a 
single word of encouragement or friendly counsel The 
best that he can say of any of them is, that " Pastor 
B was a humane man, and did not lay many obsta- 
cles in my way." Surely no extraordinary merit attaches 
to a virtue so purely negative and a humanity so cold 
and colourless as that which animated the bosom of this 
exceptionally good shepherds 

Fortunately, the young student, in addition to good 
pluck, was endowed with a remarkably tenacious memory, 
and soon mastered the Latin Grammar and Dict'onary; 
and read such texts as he could get hold of. Before he 
was fourteen years old) he began also to study Hebrew, 
his earliest instructors being Jew boys, wlio visited Ost- 
dorf as rag-buyers and dealers in second-hand clothes ; 
the honorarium for this tuition he paid in old linen and 
other scraps purloined from the family rag-bag. The 
mother, as a thrifty housewife, mourned over the loss of 
her Lumpen, but the father, now for the first time, showed 


some interest in his son's studies, since he regarded the 
desire to read the Holy Scriptures in the original as a 
thing well-pleasing to God, and accordingly bought him 
Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar, and permitted him to take 
three lessons a week in Hebrew from a candidate of theo- 
logy in the neighbouring town of Bolingen. He paid six 
kreutzers (twopence) a lesson ; and, owing to this " great 
expense," his father soon compelled him to reduce the 
number of lessons to one a week. 

In May 184 1 Haug passed a public examination for 
admission into the Schiilstand, i.e., into the class of offici- 
ally recognised and certificated teachers. For two years 
he perforflied intermittingly the duties of schoolmaster in 
his native village, and in November 1843 ^^s appointed 
assistant teacher at Unterensingen, where he had about a 
hundred children under his charge, and was confined to 
the schoolroom from five to six hours daily. In compen- 
sation for his services he received forty florins (three 
guineas) a year, with board and lodging. His sleeping 
^nd study room had no fireplace, and could not be heated, 
and he suffered severely from the cold as soon as the 
winter set in. The head-master was a dull pedagogue, 
and the village parson a coarse and arrogant person. 
Neither of these men had the least sympathy with Haug's 
nobler ai^ns a,nd aspirations. Indeed, the parson having 
received an intimation that the new assistant was engaged 
in reading I^atin, Greek, and Hebrew, warned him to 
desist, and threatened hitn with dismissal in case of per- 
sistency, Ha>ig gave no heed to these admonitions, and 
only continued his pursuit of knowledge with increased 
energy and stricter priva,cy ; and as Vesalius investigated 
the laws of organic structure and the principles of ana- 
tomy by stealthily dissecting the human body with the 
cuiistant fear of the Inquisition before his eyes,, so Haug 
analysed Hebrew forms and phrases in secret, and cau- 
tiously kept his daily acquisitions in learning out of the 
sight of his pastoral and pedagogical overseers. For this 


purpose he took refuge in the garret of a grist-mill be- 
longing to a distant relative, and there read Tacitus, 
Plato, and Isaiah, in what was anything but " the still 
air of delightful studies." Occasionally, too, the miller's 
daughters discovered him in his retreat ; but these wpsa- 
rasas had no power to turn away the young mimi from his 
austere devotion to science. Only for a short time did 
one rustic beauty threaten to prove the fatal MenakS, 
capable of diverting his ardour to herself, and thus blight- 
ing by her fascinations the fruits of his past efforts, and 
destroying the prospect of still greater achievements in 
the future ; but he soon saw the folly of his passion, and 
returned with all the fervour of undivided affection to his 
first love — Philologia. 

At this period Haug begati to take a lively interest in 
religion, or rather in religions, their origin and develop- 
ment. He even discoursed on Sunday afternoons on these 
topics to the inhabitants of Hardthof, a cluster of farm- 
houses where he was employed as schoolmaster to about 
thirty children. It is quite characteristic of him that, on 
these occasions, he was not content with Luther's trans- 
lation, but read the Bible from the original text. No 
doubt the young preacher of sixteen had to aim very low 
in order not to shoot over the heads of his rustic auditors ; 
but he spoke from the fulness of his heart, and his ser- 
mons seem to have won general approbation, although a 
few of his hearers, who were of a more rigidly theological 
and dogmatic turn of mind, or more distinctively pietistic 
in sentiment, complained that he was too historical, and 
laid too little stress on the cardinal doctrines. What 
more adequate exegesis of specifically Christian truth 
could be expected from one who had already learned to 
look at all sacred scriptures and traditional creeds from a 
comparative standpoint ? 

Although, in preparing for the university, he was 
obliged to devote special attention to classical philology, 
he still kept up his Oriental studies. He procured a copy 


of Bopp's edition of Nala and Damayanti, containing 
the Sanskrit text with a literal Latin translation. Ey 
comparing the proper names in the translation with the 
corresponding combinations of signs in the original, he 
succeeded in gradually constructing for himself the Sans- 
krit alphabet and acquiring a knowledge of the gramma- 
tical forms, and thus learned to read and interpret the 
text by the same laborious process that was used by 
scholars in deciphering the cuneiform inscriptions of 
Western i^sia and restoring the lost language of Akkad. 
Subsequently he procured Eosen's Badices. SanscritcB, 
Bopp's Kritische Grammatih der Sanshrita-Sprache and 
Ewald's Ausfuhrliches Lehrbnch der liehraiscken Sprache. 
The last-mentioned work, on account of its rational sys- 
tem and comparative method, had peculiar attractions 
for him; and in order to impress it more indelibly on his 
mind, he read it through, section by section, and wrote it 
out from memory. He often studied all night, bathing 
his head occasionally to cool his heated brain ; and dur- 
ing the heat of summer he was accustomed to refresh his 
jaded nerves and ward off sleep by keeping his feet in a 
tnb of cold water. 

With impatient and almost feverish longing, Haug 
read gach new list of lectures of the Tiibingen University 
published semi-annually in the Swabian Mercury, and 
fixed his eyes particularly on Ewald's announcements. 
His highest ideal of hun;an happiness, he tells us, was to 
sit at the feet of this great teacher and to learn of him. 
Once, in passing through Tiibingen, he could not resist 
the temptation of dropping into one of Ewald's lectures 
on Hebrew antiquities. He drank in with avidity every 
word, and the excitement produced such a wonderful 
tension of his faculties and put him into such a state of 
intellectual exaltation, that on leaving the auditorium he 
could repeat the entire lecture verbatim. Shortly after- 
wards (in April 1847) he addressed a letter to Ewald, 
expressing his high esteem and admiration, and stating 


liis own aims and desires. A very friendly and cheering 
reply, which was soon received, determined him to free 
himself without further delay from the galling yoke and 
intolerable thraldom of pedagogy. It was one of the 
noble traits in the character of Ewald, himself the son of 
a poor weaver, that he never forgot the poverty of his 
birth and the severe struggles of his early life, and never 
failed to extend his hearty sympathy and helping hand 
to those who were in like circumstances. 

In the autumn of 1847 Haug signified to the school 
inspector his intention of trying for the university, 
whereupon that official flew into a towering rage, and 
upbraided him for his conceit in imagining himself to be 
" too good for a schoolmaster." This outburst of impo- 
tent anger, so far from deterring Haug from his purpose, 
only served to strengthen him in it. Fearing lest, in a 
moment of dejection or physical weakness, he might prove 
untrue to himself and return to his old servitude, he 
resolved to render such a relapse impossible by not only 
ceasing to teach, but by divesting himself also of the 
public character and legal status of a teacher. He felt 
that he had undertaken a desperate enterprise, from 
which he must cut off all hope of retreat by burning 
every bridge behind him. By this step he severed him- 
self from a source of sure though sour bread ; but he 
had faith and foresight to oast aside all pennywise 
prudence and bondage to the rule of three, and to follow 
the calling that was in his character and not in his 
circumstances. He was already Oriental enough to trust 
something to his star and to the power of fate, believing 
that with the necessity would come also the ability to 
work the miracle of the loaves and the fishes. 

Immediately, therefore, on recovery from a dangerous 
illness caused by over-study, he surrendered his certifi- 
cate, and laying down for ever his rod of office, the 
birchen sceptre, with only two florins (forty pence) in his 
pocket, entered, in March 1848, the Gymnasium at Stutt- 


gait, where he also had access to the treasures of the 
Eoyal Library. He rented a small room in a garret for 
two florins a month, and supported himself chiefly by 
giving private lessons in Hebrew. In the seclusion of 
this poor attic he worked on with a diligence and cheer- 
fulness which no destitution could depress, and by his 
earnestness and efficiency soon won the recognition of his 
instructors, among whom he often mentioned Professors 
Zeigler and Klaiber with the warmest expressions of 

In the autumn of 1848 Haug was matriculated at 
the University of Tiibingen as candidate of philology. 
Ewald, to the young student's intense regret, had just ac- 
cepted a call to Gottingen ; but he attended the lectures 
of Walz, Jeuffel, and Schwegler on classical philology, and 
read Sanskrit, Zend, and Persian with Ewald's succes- 
sor, Eudolph Pi,oth. In the winter of 1 849-50, Haug him- 
self delivered a course of lectures on Isaiah, at the solici- 
tation of some Prussian theological students to whom he 
had already given private instruction. He also won, in the 
following summer (August 9, 185 i), the prize proposed 
by the Pliilosophical Faculty for the best essay " On the 
Sources used by Plutarch in his Lives " {In fontes guihus 
Plutarchus in vitis conscrihendis usus est inquisatur, pub- 
lished in 1 8 5 4). These successes contributed to his fame 
as well as to his finances, the state of which was soon 
afterwards further improved by a stipendium procured 
for him by Professors Schwegler and Keller. In March 
1852 he took the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, and 
a few days later the sudden death of his father recalled 
him to Ostdorf. 

In recognition of his merits as a scholar Haug received 
from the Wiirtemberg Government a travelling stipend of 
three hundred florins (twenty-four pounds), which, with 
his portion of the family inheritance, enabled him to go 
to Gottingen (April 1852), whither he was attracted 
by Benfey (Sanskrit), Hermann (classical philology). 


and especially by Ewald, who gave him private instruc- 
tion in Hebrew, Arabic, Syriac, Turldsh, and Armenian, 
and encouraged him in every way to devote his life to 
Oriental studies. He was also treated with the greatest 
kindness by Frau Ewald (a daughter of the illustri- 
ous astronomer Gauss), whom he characterises in his 
autobiography as " one of the most charming women he 
ever knew." 

On November 9, 1854, Haug habilitated as privat- 
docent in Bona, with a dissertation on "The 
Zarathushtra according to the Ancient Hymns of, .the 
ZendrAvesta," which was printed with additional Avestan 
studies in Die Zeitschrift der. Deutschen^Morgmldndischfin 
Gesellschaft for 1855 (voL ix. pp. 683 sqq!) Although 
surrounded by pleasant friends and occupied with , conge- 
nial pursuits, he still found himself as an unsalaried 
tutor lecturing on subjects which from their very nature 
attracted but few, pupils and produced a correspondingly 
small income from fees, in straitened pecuniary circum- 
stances. From this financial stress he was relieved by an 
invitation from Baron von Bunsen to remove to Heidel- 
berg as his private secretary and collaborator on his 
Bibelwerlc, duties which he performed for about three 
years, conjointly with Dr. Kamphausen, afterwards pro- 
fessor of theology in Bonn. His salary of six hundred 
thalers (ninety pounds) a year sufficed not only to free 
him from present solicitude as to what he should eat 
and drink and wherewithal he should be clothed, but en- 
abled him also, during the summers of 1856 and 1857, 
to visit Paris and London, and make use of the manu- 
script treasures of the BMiotheqite Imp^ricde and the 
East India Company's Library. 

Although the Bibelwerlc claimed nearly all his time 
and energy, still his industry and facility and goodly store 
of Sitzfleisch, or power of sedentary endurance, enabled 
him to continue his researches in the Avesta and prepare 
the results for publication. He translated and annotated 


the first Targard of the Vendidad, which, at Bunsen's 
urgent request, was incorporated in the third volume of 
" Egypt's Place in Universal History." He also completed 
a still more important as well as more difficult work, 
entitled Die, Filnf GdtMs, oder Savimlungen von Liedern 
und Spruchen Zarathvshtra's, seimr Jilnger und Nachfolger 
(The Five Gath^s or Collections of the Songs and Sayings 
of Zarathushtra, his Disciples and Successors), which was 
published (vol. i. in 1858, and vol. ii. in i860) by the 
German Oriental Society in Leipsic. It consists of a 
translation of the text, an exact Latin metaphrase, and a 
freer German version, to which are added copious notes, 
etymological, exegetical, critical, and historical. 

In the spring of 1858 an unexpected and most invit- 
ing field of labour was opened to Haug by Mr. Howard, 
Director of Public Instruction of the Bombay Presidency, 
who, through Dr. Pattison, of Lincoln College, Oxford, 
offered him the position of superintendent of Sanskrit 
studies in the Government College at Puna. He resolved 
to accept this ofi'er, and immediately dissolved his con- 
nection with Bunsen, and, pending further negotiations; 
resumed his former duties in Bonn. In June 1859 he 
married Sophia Speidel of Ofterdingen, to whom he had 
been betrothed since 1852, and in July left Bonn for 
England, whence he set sail for India. After a voyage 
of ninety-seven days he landed in Bombay early in 
November, and before the middle of the month was com- 
fortably settled in his bungalow on the Muta, in the 
ancient capital of the Mahrattas. 

Hang's object in going to India was threefold: i. 
To acquaint himself with the learning of the Brahmans 
and Parsis, their theological dogmas and ritual obser- 
vances ; 2. To reform native learning by substituting for 
the old school of Sanskrit and Zend scholarships the freer 
and more fruitful methods of European science ; 3. To 
collect manuscripts. In the first place, he wished to 
gather up, as far as possible, the threads of tradition, and 


trace them to tlieir origin in the complicated -web and 
weft of Brahmanical and Parsi creeds and ceremonies, 
and to ascertain how far they form a part of the ancient 
texture, or to what extent they must be regarded as later 
insertions. Even before leaving Europe he was not satis- 
fied with the theory which is disposed to regard these 
threads as all thrums, and to discard the whole fabric 
of native tradition as a worthless thing of shreds and 
patches in which no scrap or filament of the primitive 
warp and woof remains. Through his intimate and 
cordial intercourse with Brahmans and Dasturs he suc- 
ceeded in obtaining the most extended and accurate in- 
formation concerning their beliefs, rites, and customs ever 
vouchsafed to any European. 

In 1862 he published at Bombay his "Essays on the 
Sacred Language, Writings, and Eeligion of the Parsis." 
" It is a volume," wrote Max Miiller on its first appear- 
ance, "of only three hundred and sixty-eight pages, 
and sells in England for one guinea. Nevertheless, to 
the student of Zend it is one of the cheapest books ever 
published." The second and third editions of this work, 
revised and enlarged (chiefly from the author's post- 
humous papers) by Dr. E. W. West, are kept by the 
scholarly editor fully abreast with the rapid progress of 
Avesta studies. 

In 1863 Haug published also at Bombay the text 
and an English translation of the Aitareya Brdhmanam 
of the Bigveda, embodying in the introduction to the 
first and the foot-notes to the second volume a vast 
amount of rare knowledge concerning the theory of the 
sacrifice, the manner of its performance, and the special 
purpose of each rite. It implies no discredit to European 
Sanskritists to affirm that such a work could have been 
written only by a scholar who had lived in India, and 
who, by actual autopsy, had learned the real meaning 
of Brahmanical ritualism. 

In his efforts to raise the standard and change the char- 



acter of native scholarship Haug was untiringly assidu- 
ous and eminently successful. He inspired the younger 
eneration of Brahmans and Parsis with an intelligent 
interest in their sacred writings ; and on the eve of his 
return to Europe he received, among other testimonials 
and tokens of affection, an address in Sanskrit signed by 
his native pupils, expressing their deep regret at the 
departure of their priyagum, and their gratitude for the 
entirely new light which they had derived from his 
instruction in ancient Sansl^rit literature and comparative 
philosophy. It is due in no inconsiderable degree to 
his influence that science in India is now becoming com- 
pletely secularised, and the old priestly class of pandits, 
who cultivated grammar as a means of grace and valued 
phoneticB and orthoepy as passports to eternal bliss, is 
rapidly passing away and will soon be numbered with 
niegatheroids and other extinct mammals. 

The collection of manuscripts was an object which. 
Haug had especially set his heart upon and never lost, 
sight of. For this purpose he made a three months' 
tour in Guzerat during the winter of 1863-64. He 
was everywhere enthusiastically received, and frequently 
invited by native gentlemen to lecture on the Vedas and 
the Avesta. In one city the place where he sat during 
his discourse was marked by a marble slab with a lauda- 
tory inscription. He succeeded in procuring a large 
number of manuscripts, partly in the oldest extant ori- 
ginals, and partly in copies made under his supervision, 
some of them being very rare even ia India, and hitherto 
altogether unknown in Europe. This fine collection 
after his death was purchased by the Eoyal Library of 

Towards the close of the year 1865, Haug resigned 
his place in Puna College and prepared to return to 
Europe. On his arrival in India, instead of abating his 
ardour to suit the debilitating climate, he kept up the 
habits of close and continuous application to study which 


he liad formed in Germany, not even resting in the hot 
season. His health had become so seriously impaired 
through this imprudence that he resolved to seek its 
restoration in the cool and invigorating air of his Swabian 
fatherland. Spontaneous expressions of sorrow at his 
departure and esteem for his labours and learning met 
him on every side from the native population. The 
Brahmans and Parsis of Puna and Bombay attested their 
appreciation of his services by addresses of thanks and 
by splendid gifts. 

On his return to Germany in 1866, Haug settled for 
a time in Stuttgart, where he edited "An Old Zand- 
Pahlavi Glossary," which was published by the Government 
of Bombay. In 1868 he accepted a call to the newly 
established professorship of Sanskrit and comparative 
philology in the University of Munich, where he soon 
secured for these hitherto alien and neglected studies a 
warm welcome and recognition, and effected their com- 
plete academical naturalisation. In his lecture-room 
and library he gathered round him students from differ- 
ent parts of Germany, from Spain, Portugal, Italy, Greece, 
Eussia, England, and America, and spread out before 
them the treasures of his learning with a fulness and 
freshness, a depth and keenness of insight, that fixed the 
attention and kindled the ambition of his hearers. 

In the Sanskrit address presented to him by his 
Brahman pupils of Puna, his uniform kindness and 
affability are particularly praised in contrast with the 
chilling and estranging reserve usually shown by foreign 
professors, who "never forget the distance between the 
gurib and the chhdttra (preceptor and pupil), and thus check 
the spirit of inquiry." " To our exceeding good fortune," 
they add, " your conduct towards us has been the very 
reverse of this. In your manifestations of affection and 
sympathy, you have realised the character of the good 
teacher as described in the laws of Manu." The same 
freedom and friendliness and singleness of heart and of 


purpose, the same lively interest in their progress, marked 
his intercourse with his pupils in Munich, and bound 
them to him by like ties of personal attachment. He 
possessed, in reality, a frank and kindly nature, although 
he has been sometimes censured for his over-sensitive- 
ness. No doubt he was often too quick to resent, with 

" The flash aud outbreak of a fiery mind," 

stints and thrusts against which men of thicker cuticle 
would have remained callous. Thus he acquired among 
those who did not know him personally an exceedingly 
unenviable and wholly undeserved reputation for testiness 
and pugnacity. The excess of every fine quality becomes 
a defect. To be thin-skinned and high-mettled marks a 
superior organisation, but at the same time puts one at 
serious disadvantage in a combat with pachyderms. 

The works which Haug published during the last few 
years of his life embraced various and disparate topics, 
and although small in bulk compared with the ordinary 
<ypus of the German savant, are great in the erudition 
they contain and in the results they produced. They 
consist, for the most part, of monographs, reviews, and 
academical dissertations, which took a decidedly critical 
and polemical character, originating not in any innate 
contentiousness or love of controversy, but in the inci- 
pient and somewhat formless and nebulous state out of 
which these studies are only just emerging. These pub- 
lications, often only thin pamphlets, were the results of 
original researches, and contributed more to the advance- 
ment of science than many a ponderous tome crammed 
with second-hand erudition. 

Coming from the close and enervating atmosphere of 
India, Haug found the cool and invisforatins though raw 
air of Municli refreshing and strengthening to his relaxed 
nerves, and expressed his surprise that the climate should 
have such a bad reputation. Eventually, however, the 
tonic proved too harsh and irritating for his lungs and 


too powerrul for his nerves, intensifying the excitability 
of his ardent temperament, and stimulating to intellectual 
efforts out of proportion to his physical strength. In the 
summer of 1875 he made a tour through the Swiss 
mountains, but over-taxed himself, and returned home 
sick and exhausted. During the following winter he 
was able to lecture only for a few weeks, fell into a 
rapid decline, and, by the advice of his physician, went 
to Eagatz in Switzerland, where, a few days after his 
arrival, he expired, June 3, 1876. There, too, he was 
buried, a delegation from the University of Munich 
attending his body to the grave, and paying him the 
last tribute of respect. 


Oclobw 1883. 


The issue of a third edition of these Essays affords an 
opportunity, not only for briefly describing the recent 
progress of Zoroastrian studies, but also for mentioning 
several emendations of the text which have been sug- 
gested, and are more or less deserving of attention. For 
the convenience of the reader, these additions and sug- 
gested amendments are here given in the form of notes, 
with references to the pages of the text to which they 
relate, or in connection with which they should be read 

Pages 3, 4. — The existence of a chief of the Magi at the court 
of Nebuchadnezzar has been disputed, and the title Eab-mag is 
said to mean " commander of the fleet." 

The recent discovery of two cuneiform inscriptions of Cyrus, 
in which that king seems to proclaim his faith, and that of his 
son Cambyses, in the Babylonian gods, has also been considered 
a sufficient disproof of his having professed the religion of the 
Magi. But it appears from hieroglyphic inscriptions that Cam- 
byses was likewise a devoted adherent of the Egyptian divinities ; 
and yet the flattering language used by Isaiah in speaking of 
Cyrus is hardly such as could be justifiably applied to an 
idolater. The only reasonable way of reconciling these three 
contradictory facts seems to be the acceptance of all of them as 
being true from diflferent points of view. These kings, like all 
great conquerors and statesmen, compelled to govern many dif- 
ferent races and religions, found it necessary to conciliate all 
their loyal subjects in turn, and thus induced the priests of each 


religion to applaud them as defenders and promoters of the 
particular faith which those priests advocated. 

Page 5. — The identity of Hara, the Avesta name of the 
mountain supposed to encompass the earth, and Heb. har, 
" a mountain," may be disputed. 

Page 53. — The last six years have been a period of consider- 
able activity among European investigators of the Parsi scrip- 
tuies; and, in some cases, new views regarding the origin of 
Zoroastrianism have been advocated, which are so revolutionary 
in their character as to require much more adaptation to long- 
recognised facts than they have yet received before they can be 
safely adopted by careful scholars. Without attempting any 
exhaustive enumeration or analysis of the works and essays that 
have been published, the following may be mentioned as best 
known to the writer : — 

M. C. DE Haelez has not only completed his French trans- 
lation of the Avesta, mentioned in p. 51, but has also published 
a second edition of the work iwith an extended introduction to 
the study of the Avesta and the Mazdian religion, which, though 
disfigured by numerous Inispriiits, and capable of improvement 
in many of its details, is a very instructive treatise on the history, 
scriptures, and dogmas of Zoroastrianism. Both in this treatise 
and in his essay " On the Origin of Zoroastrism," published in 
the Journal Asiatique,^ M. de Harlez expresses two opinions of 
somte novelty, which require much more evidence to support them 
than he has yet been able to collect. One of these opinions is 
that Darius Hystaspes was not a Zoroastrian, although his cunei- 
foiiu inscriptions proclaim his faith in AftramazdS.. But, as 
AAramazdfl is a compound name, traceable to the two terms 
Ahurd, and Mazda, used separately by Zarathushtra and his 
successors in the G^thas, and never becoming an actual compound 
in any part of the Avesta, it is only reasonable to suppose that 
this compound must have originated at a later date than its 
component parts. In other words, we must continue to believe 
that Darius lived later than Zarathushtra, and professed the 
same religioh as he did, unless it can be shown that faith in 
Allramazdd was something materially diflFerent from faith in 

' Des Origirlis du Zoroastrisme, par M. Ci de Harlez, extrait du Jownai. 
Adatique: Paris, 1879-80. 


Ahuramazda, as stated in the Githas, the only portion of tlie 
Avesta that can be quoted as embodying the faith of Zara- 
thushtra himself.^ The other novel opinion of M. de Harlez is 
that Zarathushtra may have come into contact with some of 
the captive Israelites in Media in the eighth century B.C., from 
whom he may have imbibed the monotheistic ideas and general 
tone of morality which he adapted to his former faith. In other 
words, M. de Harlez wishes to believe that all the good in Zoro- 
astrianism has sprung from Hebrew ideasi, We know too little 
of Zarathushtra's real history to form any definite opinion as to 
the possibility of his being in Media at the time mentioned. But 
it would have been strange if a people who, like the Israelites, 
were led into captivity on account of their idolatry, should have 
become such ardent teachers of monotheism as to lay the foun- 
dation for a durable form of that faith differing materially from 
that professed by their own priesthood. 

M. de Harlez has also published useful French manuals, both 
of the Avesta and Pahlavi languages, containing grammars and 
selections for reading with the necessary glossaries.^ 

A very different view of the origin of Zoroastrianism has been 
adopted by M. James Daemesteter, in his English translations 
of the Vendidad, Sirozah, Yashts, and Nyayish, published in the 
series of " Sacred Books of the East " (vols. iv. and xxiii.) The 
translations themselves are of a very masterly character, givinf 
full weight to the teachings of tradition ; but they might; in 
many cases, have been made more literal, and, in some placesj 
rather too much consideration has been paid to traditional 
renderings that are probably later than the Pahlavi versions. 
Notwithstanding this tendency to give an almost undue con- 
sideration to tradition in his translations, the views adopted by 
M. Darmesteter in his introduction as to the origin of Zoroastri- 
anism would trace all its legends, and even the person of its 
founder, to a series of meteorological myths altogether incon- 
sistent with tradition, but affording ample scope for the exercise 

' It is usual to assume that the either later sacerdotal developments 

laws relating to ceremonial impurity, or mere tolerations of older bustoms. 
the d-sposal of the dead, and similar ^ Manuel de la Languc de V Avesta ; 

matters, are Zoroastrian; but we have grammaire, anthologie, lexique : 

no real authority for tracing them Paris, 1878. Manuel du FeMevi des 

to Zarathushtra himself, and they Manuscrits ; gralnttiaire. anthologicj 

have more the appearance of being lexique, Icgendes : Paris, 1880. 


of a vivid imagination. To obtain this result, however, some 
valuable results of older researches have to be sacrificed. The 
striking fact that the gods of the Brahmans have become the 
demons of the Zoroastrians and vice versa (see p. 268), is no 
longer admitted as arguing some former enmity or schism 
between the two religions, but is assumed to be only the result 
of a survival of two different names for gods, one of which was 
accidentally selected as supreme by one religion, and the other 
by the other religion. Inasmuch as this assumption gives no 
reason for the accidental selection, it is less reasonable than the 
older theory of a schism, even if the latter were unsupported by 
further facts of a similar character. 

M;. Darmesteter has also published in French a valuable col- 
lection of " Iranian Studies," including a comparative grammar 
of the language of Persia from the time of Darius to that of 
!^rdausi, with several essays on particular details of Iranian 
etymology, mythology, and legend, as well as transcripts of the 
original texts of some Pahlavi, Sanskrit, and Persian translations 
of the Yashts and Ny&yishes.^ 

Turning to the Qerman scholars who have recently devoted 
their attention to the literature of the Parsis, Dr. W. Geigee may 
be noticed as a judicious scholar and careful writer. To his 
Pahlavi version, of the first chapter of the Vendidad, with Ger- 
man translation and eommentary,^ it has been chiefly objected 
that his transcript of the fahlavi text in Hebrew characters is 
n)t,uoh less useful than one in Jloman type would be, and, as 
Pahlavi is now known to be an Iranian language (which merely 
employs a lipiited numbei?' of Semitic words to express itself in 
writing), the use of a purely Semitic alphabet is likely to give 
students an erroneous idea of the character of the language. 
^t is probable, however, that Dk Geiger will abandon the use 
of Hebrew type, and perhaps use the original Pahlavi character, if 
he should, hereafter continue his Pahlavi version of the Vendi- 
dad, of which this first chapter was intended merely as a specimen. 

■* Etudes iramennes, par James Dar- ^ Vie PeJilenversion des a-stem Capi- 

ipesteter ; etudes sur la gramraaire teh des Vendiddd heraBSgegeben, 

historique de la langue 'persane, nebst dem Versuoh einer ersten 

ipadlanges iraniens, et traductions XJebersetzung und Erklarung, von 

indigenes du Xhorda Avesta ; Paris, Dr. Wilhelm Geiger : Erlangen^ 

18S3. 1877. 


In his " Aogemada^cbS, " 1 be has published, for the first time, 
a short P3,zaud-Sauskrit text commencing with that Avesta word, 
together with a German translation, commentary, and glossary. 
This text also occurs in Pahlavi (see pp. 99, 100), and seems to 
be a kind of meditation on death and the state of the soul after 
death. Like the Ntrangist&n, it is interspersed with many Avesta 
passages, which constitute, more or less completely, the original 
text J but these have been translated and amplified by the Pahlavi 
commentator in the usual manner . of an Avesta-Pahlavi text. 
There can be little doubt that we have here a fragment of bne 
of the lost NaskS) which has not yet been identified^ 

Dr. Geiger has also published a very complete German " Hand- 
book of the Avesta Language," containing a grammar, selections 
for reading, and the necessary glossary.^ But his most com- 
prehensive work is a German account of the " Oivilisatioti of 
Eastern Iran in Ancient Times." ^ tn this book he has not 
only detailed all the allusions to manners and customs, laws and 
superstitions, which occur in the Avesta, but has also minutely 
investigated the probable geography of all the places mentioned 
therein. This investigation carefully avoids the common error 
of confusing the later geographical statements of tbe Bundahish 
with the earlier ones of the Avesta, and shows how little alter- 
ation is required in the hypotheses of earlier scholars in order to 
bring them up to tbe present state of our knowledge on tlie subject. 

Professor H. Hubschmann, who had formerly written several 
essays on particular portions of the Avesta, has now turned his 
attention chiefly to the Armenian language. But, under the 
title of " Iranian Studies," * he has published an important 
German essay on the Avesta alphabet, with some remarks ou 
the alphabetical systems of other Iranian languages. As it is 
utterly impossible to ascertain the exact pronunciation of any 
living language a few centuries ago, it is useless to attempt any 

^ Aogemadakd ein Pjlrsentractat Glosaar ; von Dr. Wilhelm Geiger : 

in Pazend, Altbaktrisch und Sans- Erlangen, 1879. 

krit, herausgegeben, iibersetzt, erk- ^ Osttrdnische Kultur im Altertum, 

lart und mit Glossar versehen, von von Wilhelm Geiger ; mit einer 

Dr. Wilhelm Geiger : Erlangen, Uebersiohts-Karte von Ostlran : 

1878. Erlangen, 1882. 

'■' Handbuch der Awestaspracke ; * Iranische Studien (Zeitschrift 

Grammatik, Chrestnmathie und fiir vergleiohende Sprachforschung, 

xxiv. pp. 323-415). 


great precision in expressing the sounds of a language tliat has 
been dead for a millennium. Professor Hiibschmann has, there- 
fore, been satisfied with ascertaining the general character of the 
sound of each letter, and pointing out its proper place in the 
alphabetical system. His researches will have to be carefully con- 
sidered by any one who wishes to improve the usual systems 
of transliteration ; but his own mode of transcription is more 
scientific than practical, being too much burdened with Greek 
letters and diacritical marks. 

Among these younger scholars. Professor K. Geldner is one 
of the chief representatives of the scho(jl which trusts to etymo- 
logy and its own ingenuity, rather than accept the teachings of 
tradition, in studying the meaning of the Avesta. In his Ger^ 
man work " On the Metre of the Later Avesta," ^ he has exercised 
much ingenuity and perseverance in discovering metrical pasi 
sages, not only where they undoubtedly exist, but also where their 
existence ma}' reasonably be doubted. He shows that many 
passages can be made truly metrical either by the omission of 
certain words, which may be considered as mere glosses, or by 
some slight alteration of words or syllables. So that strict 
attention to metre may become a valuable means of amending 
the text. To a considerable extent his conclusions are certainly 
correct, but unless his method be used with extreme caution, it 
may easily convert the most prosaic passage into modern verse, 
which it would be folly to attribute to the ancient writer. 

In his " Studies on the Avesta " ^ he gives many specimens of 
his etymological powers, which are of a very high order ; but, 
after all, Sanskrit is not our only source of knowledge for deter- 
mining the meaning of Avesta words. We have the remnants 
of old tradition, diluted with mediaeval commentary, in the 
Pahlavi versions, which, however forbidding in appearance, are 
apt, like other rugged friends, to rise in our estimation as we 
become better acquainted with them. It is this tradition that 
Professor Geldner should carefully study before he proceeds to 
carry out his scheme of an improved Avesta lexicon, of the 

1 Vebet die MetriJc des jungeren ^ Studien zum Avesta, vou Karl 
Avesta, nebst Uebersetzung ausge- Geldner: Strassburg, 1882. 
wahlter Abschnitte, von Karl Geld- 
ner : Tubingen, 1877, 


preliminary investigations for whicli these studies were intended 
as a specimen. 

He is now actively engaged in the preparation of a new 
edition of Westergaard's "Avesta Texts;" and as, through the 
hearty co-operation of the owners of manuscripts in India, he 
will be able to consult all the best sources of information known 
to exist, it may be presumed that his edition of the Texts will 
contain all that can be expected, until some other family of 
manuscripts is discovered in Persia. 

An American clergyman, the Eev. L. H. Mills, lias been 
studying the Gathas for several years, and has carefully con- 
sidered the writings and opinions of all scholars who have 
examined these ancient hymns. The result of his studies and 
inquiries is in the press, and will include the Avesta, Pahlavi, 
Sanskrit, and Persian versions of the hymns, with English trans- 
lations of the first three. 

The study of tlie Avesta has also been taken up in Italy, 
where Professor Pizzi has published the " Tishtar Yasht," with 
an Italian translation.* 

Among the European contributions to the study of Pahlavi 
may be mentioned the German translation of the KirnS,mak-l 
Artakhshir-i PS,pakiii, by Professor Noeldekb, who has also 
done much to illustrate the period of the Pahlavi writings by 
his German " History of the Persians and Arabs in the Time of 
the Sasanians,'' translated from the Arabic of Tabari.^ While 
Dr. Andeeas has done good service to Pahlavi students by his 
edition of the Pahlavi Mainy6-i Khard, published in facsimile 
from the only manuscript of the original Pahlavi text known in 
Europe.^ And Dr. West has made several Pahlavi works acces- 
sible to English readers by his translations of the Bundahisb, 

1 Tishtar- Yasht ; I'lnno a Tistrya gen und Ergiinzungen versehen, von 
nell' Avesta ; testo zendo con tra- Th. Noldeke : Leyden, 1879. 
duzione e commento ; saggio del ' The Book, of the Mainy6-i-Khard, 
Dott. Prof. J. Pizzi (estratto dalle also an old fragment of the Bunde- 
Memorie della Reale Accademia hesh, both in the original Pahlavi ; 
delle Scienze di Torino, serie ii., being a facsiiuile of a manuscript 
torn. XXXV.): Torino, 1882. brought from Persia by the late Pro- 

2 Geschichte der Perser und Araher fessor Westergaard, and now pre- 
zur Zeit da- Sasanidcn, aus der ara- served in the University Library 
bisohenChronikdesTabariiibersetzt of Copenhagen; edited by Frederic 
nnd mit ausfiihrlichen Erliiuterun- Charles Andreas : Kiel, 1882. 


Bahman YasLt, Sh^yast - 1& - sh^yast, DIdist&n - i Diiiik, and 
Epistles of M^nlishcMhar, published in the series of " Sacred 
Books of the East " (vols. v. and xviii.) 

Page 58. — The probable meaning of the Pahlavi word vehijaMk 
or rather vehAchaMk, is ^'- fit for anything good, auspicious." 

Page 60. — Two more volumes of Dastur Peshotanji's Dinkard 
have been published. The slow progress of this work appears 
to be due to no want of energy on the part of the editor, but to 
the pecuniary delays and diflBculties .that usually beset the publi- 
cation of a long series of volumes by subscription. 

Arrangements have been made for the early publication of the 
PSzand, Sanskrit, and Pahlavi texts of the Shikand-gumani, with a 
vocabulary, under the joint-editorship of Dastur Hoshangji and 
Dr. West. 

Page 61. — Dastur Jamaspji has published three volumes of his 
Pahlavi, Gujai^ti, and English Dictionary, in which he explains 
the meaning of more than 7000 words, but has advanced only 
as far as atrar, following the order of the Sanskrit alphabet. 
His collection includes both actual words and copyists' errors, 
with their traditional readings and the meanings he attaches to 
them. So far he has discovered about twenty times as many 
words as have been previously glossarised, but this excess will 
probably diminish as the work proceeds. The meanings have 
evidently been carefully considered, but no one acquainted with 
the uncertainties of Pahlavi readings will expect any great accu- 
racy in determining the meaning of unusual words until all the 
texts containing them have been satisfactorily translated. 

Page 85. — The word Ivlzvwrish, or, more correctly, allzvdrish, 
is a variant of zuvdrish, " being old or worn out," an abstract 
noun derived from the verb zuvdrtdan. Darmesteter prefers 
tracing it directly to Av. zhar, "to be crooked, distorted, or 
perverted," or to the allied form zavvara, borrowed by the Arabs 
in the sense of " he altered or corrupted " a text, with the idea 
that hUzvdrish means " a disguised mode of writing." But we 
have no reason to suppose that Mzvdnsh was adopted for the 
purpose of concealment, as it was used in all Persian writing of 
Sasanian times. It would be better described as the use of obso- 
lete words in writing, and the word zuvdrish, whether it means 
" decay " or " antiquity," would express this idea sufficiently welL 


Page 87, note i. — It seema most probable 'that the common 
,HlizvS,risk termination -man is merely an altered mode of writing 
the single Sasanian letter whose pronunciation is uncertain. 
Professor Levy has suggested that it is the Semitic A, which has 
no other representative separate from Ich in the Sasanian alpha- 
bet ; but, if it were h, why was it not used in AiZ, havint, yehvUin, 
and the prefix of Hiphil verbs ? and why was it used as an equi- 
valent of the Chaldee emphatic termination -A, i 

Page 98. — Transcripts of the Pahlavi translations of the 
Kkdrshed, Mdh, and Srdsh Md&kht yashts, and of the Kli-ArsMd 
ny&yish have been published by Darmesteter in his JEtudes 

Page 99, — An independent manuscript of the Ntrangutdn, 
brought from Persia a few years ago, and said to be more com- 
plete and accurate than those previously in India, is now in the 
possession of Mr. Tehtnuras Dinshawji Anklesaria of Bombay. 

Page 100. — Transcripts of the Pizand and Sanskrit version of 
the AogemddaScJuu, with its Avesta passages, have been published, 
with a German translation, by Dr. Geiger, as mentioned above 
(p. xxxvii). 

Page 102. — An independent copy of about one-fifth of the 
Dinlcard has been recently discovered in a manuscript brought 
from Persia by the late Professor Westergaard in 1843, and now in 
the , University Library at Copenhagen. This manuscript con- 
tains four chapters of the third book, the whole of the fifth, nearly 
all the sixth, and about three-tenths of the ninth book. The 
copy of the sixth book is dated ninety-five years earlier than the 
manuscript in Bombay, and is decidedly more correct. 

It appears from a manuscript of the Dddistdn-i-Uiiiik, brought 
from Persia by the late Professor Westergaard in 1843, ^"d now 
in the University Library at Copenhagen, that the correct date 
given by its author in one of his Epistles is a.y. 250 (a.d. 881). 
An English translation of this work, and also of the Epistles of 
Mdnushchihar (which are found in the same manuscripts), has 
been published in the eighteenth volume of the " Sacred Books 
of the East ; " and a portion of the Selections of Zdd-sparam 
has likewise been translated from these manuscripts and pub- 
lished in the fifth volume of the same series. 

Page 105. — ^An English translation of the Bundahish has been 


publisbed in the fifth volume of the " Sacred Books of the East." 
But it is now known that the Bundahish contained in the 
Indian manuscripts is only a collection of extracts from a larger 
work of about 30,000 words, of which two complete manuscripts, 
brought from Persia, are now in the possession of Mr. Tehmuras 
Dinshawji Anklesaria of Bombay. A fragment of the last 
chapter of this larger Bundahish has also been found in the 
manuscript of Westergaard, containing the Dlnkard at Copen- 
hagen, and has been published in facsimile by Dr. Andreas in 
his edition of the Pahlavi Mtn6k-1 Khirad. 

Fage 106. — The original Pahlavi tezt of the Mhith-t Khirad, 
as contained in Westergaard's manuscript, has been published in 
facsimile by Dr. Andreas, as mentioned above (p. xxxix). And 
a more complete manuscript of the same text has been recently 
brought fiom Persia to Bombay, and is now in the possession of 
Mr. Tehmuras Dinshawji Anklesaria. These two manuscripts 
are the only copies of the original Pahlavi text yet known. 
They confirm the general opinion of the substantial accuracy of 
Neryosangh's Pazand-Sanskrit version ; while, at the same time, 
they show that he occasionally misunderstood the Pahlavi text, 
or altered it to make it more intelligible. He has also omitted 
two or three short passages containing names which he could 
not identify. 

An English translation of the ShAyast-lorsh&yast has been pub- 
lished in the fifth volume of the " Sacred Books of the East." 

Page 107.— It appears from the English translation of the 
Bahman yasht, in the fifth volume of the " Sacred Books of the 
East," that it does not mention the Musalmans by name, although 
many of the details evidently refer to the devastations committed 
by them, as well as by the Turanians and Christians. Another 
copy of the Pahlavi text has been discovered in the manuscript 
of Westergaard containing the Dinkard at Copenhagen, but this 
copy is neither so old nor so correct as the one previously known 
to exist in the same library. 

Page in. — A German translation of the Kdrndmah-t 
ArtakhsMr-i PdpaMn has been published by Professor Noldeke, 
as mentioned above (p. xxxix). 

Page 112. — An English translation of the Mddtgdn-t haft 
ameshdspend has been published in the fifth volume of the 


" Sacred Books of the East," as part of the appendix to the 

Fage 113. — The supposed Pahlavi version of the Sad-dar, or 
Sad-dar Bundahi&h, has been examined and found to be merely 
a portion of the SbSyast-lSrshS,yast. It is doubtful whether the 
name of the Sad-dar Bundahish (which is a Persian work distinct 
from the Sad-dar) is correctly read. It is frequently quoted in 
the Persian Eivayats, but tho name is there written in three 
different modes, which can be reconciled only by reading Sad- 
darhand-i hush. 

To the Pahlavi texts already detailed must be added a frag- 
ment of an old manuscript obtained by Mr. Tehmuras Dinshawji 
Anklesaria from Persia a few years ago, and now in his library. 
Tbis fragment consists of twenty large folios, containing about 
8600 words, and is incomplete at both ends, its first folio being 
numbered 74. It appears to be part of a very full treatise on 
the laws of property, somewhat analogous to one portion of the 
HdspSram Nask, as stated in the Diiikard, and it contains many 
quotations of the opinions of tlie old commentators whose names 
occur in the Pahlavi Vendidad ; several of the later Sasanian 
kings are also mentioned. As Ylid&n-Yim is one of the com- 
mentators whose opinions are cited, this work is probably not 
older than the Dadistan-i Diulk, which was written by the son 
of a high-priest of that name. 

One of the manuscripts of the larger Bundahish, belonging to 
Mr. Tehmuras (see p. xlii), also contains about 270 questions 
and answers on miscellaneous subjects, ascribed to HImM-i 
AshavahishtS,n, who was probably the father of the last reviser 
of the Diukard. As the extent of these questions and answers 
is three-fourths of that occupied by the larger Bundahish, they 
must contain about 22,000 words. 

Of the total extent of Pahlavi literature now known to be 
extant, which may be estimated as consisting of about 569,000 
words, the texts which have been edited do not amount to more 
than 182,000 words. The texts translated into English contain 
about 158,000 words, and the German translations include about 
7600 words of further texts. 

Regarding the age of the Pahlavi books in their present form, 
some definite information has been recently obtained. The third 


Epistle of M&nHshcMhar is dated' a. Y. 250 (a.d. 881), so that 
his other work, the DMistdn-t Dmik, and the Selections of Zdd- 
sparam, who was his brother, must have been also written about 
the latter half of the ninth century. It also appears from Bund, 
xxxiii. 10, II, that the writer of that chapter, which forms part 
of the larger BLUidahish, was a contemporary of Z&d-sparam and 
also of Atiir-pad, son of H^mid, who is mentioned in the 
Dinkard as the last reviser of that extensive work. With this 
information we may safely refer the latest recensions of both 
the Bundahisli and Diiikard to the latter half of the ninth 
century, although some copyist of the last chapter of the Bunda- 
hish has added his own date, A.Y. 527 (a.d. 1158), to that 
chapter. We are further told by MS,n1ishchthar (Ep. I. iv. 15, 
1 7), that Mshahpuhar, the m6bad of mdbads, was a councillor 
of King KhiisrS, son of KavM, surnamed AiiSshirvin (a.d. 531- 
579). Now NishahpHhiir is the name of a commentator often 
quoted in the Pahlavi Vendidad and Ntrangistdn, and in the 
Ardd-Virdf ndmak it is said to have been a title of Ardai-Viraf ; 
we are, therefore, justified in ascribing the latest recensions of 
these three works to some period after the sixth century, but before 
the ninth, when the first two were quoted by Mfinfishchthar. 

The oldest Pahlavi manuscript that has been discovered con- 
sists of several fragments of papyrus found five or six years ago 
in the Faylim district in Egypt. On these fragments many 
Pahlavi words are distinctly legible in writing of the eighth 
century, but the sentences are too fragmentary to admit of 
complete decipherment. 

Page 121. — As the connection of Av. vi with. Pahl. avt 
(written apt) is liable to dispute, the word avkzalc, " pure," may 
be quoted as one in which it is quite certain tliat the Avesta v 
has taken the form of p in Pahlavi. 

Page r 74. — Chapters xix— xxi. of the later Yasna are called 
the Balcdm in some manuscripts, and, as the first throe fargards 
of the Bak6 Nask are said (in tlie Dinkard) to have treated of 
the same subjects, it is probable that these chapters were taken 
from that Nask. 

Page 217. — The star Vanant is called the southern leader of 
the stars in the Bundahish, and, as such, may be best identified 
with Fomalhaut. 


Page 272. — It should be borne iu mind by those who are 
ojiposed to the author's views as to an ancient schism between 
primitive Zoroastrianism and primitive Brahmanism, that he is 
here collecting all the facts that tend to uphold his hypothesis, 
but he does :iot mean to assert that all these facts are of equal 
value. It is quite possible to explain away some of these facts 
as accidental coincidences without sensibly weakening the argu- 
ment based upon other facts that are more refractory. Thus we 
know too little about the personal hist iry of the Zoroastrian 
demons Indra, Sdiirva, and Ndot^kaithya to enable us to judge 
whether the resemblance of their names to those of the Brah- 
manical sacred beings, Indra, Sharva, and Ndsatya, be more 
tlian an accidental coincidence. But if these coincidences be 
accidental, that fact does not weaken the argument based upon 
the words aliura and daeva being used by the Zoroastrians in an 
opposite sense to the asura and deva of the Brahmans, and upon 
the change that took place in the meaning of asura in tlie later 
Vedic period. The question is whether these developments of 
meaning in opposite directions can be better explained by any 
other hypothesis than that adopted by the author, and by one 
that is more consistent with all the facts of the case. 

Page 296. — According to the genealogy of Zarathushtra, pre- 
served in the Bundahish, Dinkard, and other Pahlavi books, 
Haechadaspa was his great-great-grandfather. 

Page 298. — With reference to the lineage of Vtshtdspa, it 
should be observed that Aurvadaspa, his father, was not a son, 
but a cousin, of his own predecessor, Kava Husrava. According 
to Bund. xxxi. 28, the genealogy of Vtshtdspa was as follows : — 
Kai-KavM (Kavi Kavdta), Kai-Apivgh (Kavi Aipi-vanglm), 
Kai-Pisin {Kavi Pisanangh), Mantish, A^izav, L&harSsp {Aurvad- 
aspa), Vtshtasp. But this family lineage is quite as different 
from that of Darius Hystaspes as the succession of kings' names 
given in the text. 

Page 299. — The author has mentioned (pp. 15, 136, 264) 
other dates that might be suggested for 2^rathushtra on various 
grounds, and according to various modes of calculation. But in 
his introduction to the Zaud-Pahlavi Glossary he was inclined 
to adopt the date (B.C. 610) mentioned in p. 15, and to this 
opinion he seems to have subsequently adhered. This opinion. 


however, depends entirely upon certain statements of Parsi and 
Mohammedan writers, and these are evidently based upon the 
identification of Vtsht^spa with the progenitor of Darius, which 
has been shown to be exceedingly doubtful. The Bimdahish, 
which evidently adopts this view, makes the interval between 
the beginning of the reign of Vlshtispa and that of Alexander a 
period of 288 years, which corresponds very well with the 280 
years mentioned by Miisudl (see p. 15). But the chronological 
chapter of the Bundahish is a comparatively modern addition to 
that work, being specially headed by the words madam shnat 
mar-i Tdztlcdn, " on the year-reckoning of the Arabs," and can- 
not, therefore, be quoted as an independent authority of ancient 
date on this subject. 

It is also necessary to observe that the language in which 
Zarathushtra and his early successors composed their Gathas 
is closely allied to the Vedic Sanskrit. If, therefore, we place 
Zarathushtra in the seventh century B.O., we must be prepared 
to assign nearly the same date to the Vedas. 

Page 317. — Darmesteter translates the reply of Ahuramazda 
ill Vend. iii. 11 as follows : — "It is the place whereon the wife 
and children of one of the faithful, O Spitama Zarathushtra ! 
are driven along the way of captivity, the dry, the dusty way, 
and lift up a voice of wailing." And Geiger takes the same 
view of the passage in his Ostlranische Kultur, p. 190. 

Page 322, note i. — The term g6kard-h6mand means " brim- 
stcined," and saokenlavaittm means " provided with burning 
matter, or ignitible." From the latter word comes Pers. saugaiid, 
" an oath," which is always said to be " eaten " when it is ad- 
ministered, because it formerly meant swallowing the prepared 
water as an ordeal. 

Pcge 335. — The term voTmmand, here translated "good- 
minded man," is also applied to his clothing, as Darmesteter Las 
observed ; and in Vend. xix. 20-25 it appears sometimes to 
mean the one, and sometimes the other. The sadarah, or sacred 
shirt, is called the vohUmantih vistarg, "garment of Vohliman," 
in the Dadistan-i Dinik, xxxix. 19, xlviii. 9, because "it is 
needful (to be) perfectly pure white (and) single, which one fold 
is because Vohtiman also is thus the one creature who (was) 


first, and afterwards from him the garment which is innermost 
and concealed is called in revelation " (Dd. xl. 2). 

Page 346, note 3. — The Pahlavi equivalent of Av. Tchraozli- 
dishteng should be read sdhhto-sago-nihiXft, "hard-stone-covered ; " 
referring to the old idea that the sky is formed of ruby-coloured 
adamant, so as to be indestructible by wear. In the Pahlavi 
translations sag is usually written for sang, " stone." 

Page 366, § 4 (9). — Better thus : " he uses the goad of 
reckoning so that one groans at it [some say that one atones]." 
The word mar may be either " a miscreant " or " the account " of 
sin to be rendered. 

Page 372, § 30 (70). — The name of the drilj is not Khiiduk, 
" disgrace," but Auduk (Av. Uda), a demon who is described in 
Bund, xxviii. 19, as endeavouring to make men speak at those times 
when they have taken a prayer inwardly and ought to be silent. 
By speaking at such times they are supposed to break the spell 
produced by the prayer, lose its protection, and commit a serious 

Page 374, § 44 (98a). — It is better to speak of the "origin" 
(instead of the " beginning ") of a Tanapllhar sin. The sin is 
supposed to take root in the sinner, and can be eradicated only 
by a proportional amount of good works. 

Page 377, § 62 (124a). — Better thus : "and it is no matter 
to her." 

Page 378, § 69 (137). — Better thus : " he should slaughter a 
thousand young (cattle)." The last five notes have been sug- 
gested by Darmesteter's criticism of the second edition. 

Page 381, § 5 (18). — The name of tlie water is better read 
Eydnsdi or Kydnsih. It is the brackish lake and swamp now 
called ', " the desert," or Zarah, "the sea," which formerly 
contained fresher water than it does now. 

Page 385, § 23 (77). — The voh4nian6 vistarg is the sacred 
shirt (see the remarks above, regarding p. 335) ; and " the good- 
minded one " (voliuman) of § (78) is probably the same. We 
ought also to read " so that those divinely-produced stars shall 
illumine (it) ; " as rdshaninem is no doubt a miswriting of 
rdshanina, there being very little difference between a and Sm 
in many manuscriists. 


Page 388, § 31 (102a). — Better thus: "where he performs 
the duty of controlling those acting as household attendants 
(Jchavag-i-mAn-lcardno)." In the DMistftu-1 Dlnlk, xxxi. 5, we 
are told tliat Vohiiman makes the righteous souls household 
attendants of Afiharmazd. 

E. W. WEST. 

October 1883. 










In this Essay it is intended to give a brief outline of the 
gradual acquaintance of the Western nations with the 
Zoroastrian religion (now professed only by the small 
Pevrsi community in India, and by a very insignificant 
number which remain in their ancient fatherland in 
Persia), and to trace the history of the scientific researches 
of Europeans into the original records of this ancient 
creed, where the true doctrine of the great Zoroaster and 
his snucessors, buried for thousands of years, is to be 

To the whole ancient world Zoroaster's lore was best 
known by the name of the doctrine of the Magi, which 
denomination was commonly applied to the priests of 
India, Persia, and Babylonia. 

The earliest mention of them is made by the Prophet 
Jeremiah (xxxix. 3), who enumerated among the retinue 
of King Nebuchadnezzar at his entry into Jerusalem, the 


" CMef of the Magi " (rah mag in Hebrew), from which 
statement we may distinctly gather, that the Magi exer- 
cised a great influence at the court of Babylonia 600 
years B.C. They were, however, foreigners, and are not to 
be confounded with the indigenous priests. In the Old 
Testament no account of their religion is given, and only 
once (Ezekiel viii. 16, 17) it is hinted at.l The Persians, 
however, whose priests the Magi appear to have been, are 
never spoken of as adhereilts to idolatry; and the Persian 
kings, especially Cyrus (called Kor^$h jn Hebrew, l^krush 
in the cuneiform inscriptions), favoured the Jews. In 
Isaiah this great king is called " the anointed (mashiaJch 
in Hebrew) of the Lord" (xlv. i), "the shepherd who 
carries out the Lord's decrees" (xliv. 28)5 he is the 
" eagle 2 called from the orient, the man appointed by the 
Lord's counsel" (xlvi. 11);' he is "strengthened by the 
Lord to subdue the heathens " (xlv. i).^ From these high 
terms, in which King Cyrus, who professed the religion of 
the Magi, is spoken of^ we are entitled to infer that this 
religion was not so diametrically opposed to the Mosaic as 
the other ancient religions were ; that Cyrus, at aU events, 
was no idol- worshipper ; a supposition we shall find con- 
firmed by Herodotus, and by the sacred books of the 
Parsis themselves. The Zoroastrian religion exhibits even 
a very close affinity to, or raither identity with, several 
important doctrines of the Mosaic religion and Chris- 
tianity, such as the personality and attributes of the devU, 

1 The religious custom alluded to ^ In ^schylms's celebrated play 
in Ezekiel undoubtedly refers to the "The Persians " the eagle is the sym- 
religion of the Magi. The prophet bol of the Persian empire (verses 
complains that some of the Jews 205-10). The eagle was, as Xeno- 
worship the sun, holding towards phon reports (Cyropoedia, vii. i, 2), 
their faue certain twigs. Exactly the the ensign of the ancient Persians. 
Same oustoib of holding a bundle of s ijjg Hebitew word goyim (liter- 
twigs in the hands is reported by ally "people"), used in the plural, 
Strabo (xv. 3, 14), as being observed as it is here, denotes the heathenish 
by the Magi when engaged in prayer, nations, the idol - worshippers, in 
It is the so-called Barsonl (Beresma their strictest opposition to the Is- 
iii the Avesta), still used by the Parsi - raelitSa. 
priests when engaged in worship. 


and tlie resurrection of the dead, which are both ascribed 
to the religion of the Magi, and are really to be found in 
the present scriptures of the Parsis. It is not ascertained 
whether these doctrines were borrowed by the Parsis from 
the' Jews, or by the Jews from, the Parsis; very likely 
neither is the case, and in both these religions they seem 
to have sprimg up independently. In the Zend-Avesta we 
meet with only two words 1 which can be traced to the 
Semitic languages, neither of them referring to religious 
subjects. In the later books of the Old Testament we find 
several Persian words and many names, but they have 
nothing to do with religion. The most famous of these 
Persian words iu the Old Testament, now spread over the 
whole civilised world, is the word "paradise," which means 
origiaally a park, a beautiful garden fenced in. ^ 

The name Magi occurs even in the New Testament. In 
the Gospel according to St. Matthew (ii. i), the Magi 
(Greek magoi, translated in the English Bible by " wise 
men ") came from the East to Jerusalem, to worship the 
new-born child Jesus at Bethlehem. That these Magi 
were priests of the Zoroastrian religion, we know from 
Greek writers. 

The earliest account of the religion of the Magi among 
the Greeks is to be found in Herodotus, the father of 
history (b.c. 450). In his first book (chap, cxxxi., cxxxii.) 
we read the following report on the Persian religion : — 

' I know that the Persians observe these customs. It 
' is not customary among them to have idols made, temples 

1 These are tanHra, ''an oven;" pairi-daSza (in the Zend-Avesta), 
aadhara, "a mountain," found only " ciroumvallation or enclosure;" in 
in the name Hard beresaiti, "high Hebrew we find it in the form par- 
mountain," considered to be the chief des; in Greek as paradeisos. Pairi 
oi all mountains; preserved now-a- is peri in Greek; daiza corresponds 
days in the nume Alborz. TanAraia to cieAa in Sanskrit— i.e., enclosure, 
evidently the same with the Hebrew generally applied to the body. Of 
tanUr (Gen. xv. 17; Isa. xxxi. 9), the same root is the English thick 
" an oven or furnace ;" kara is iden- (very likely identical with S. digdha, 
tical with Aa»' iu Hebrew, "a moun- past participle of the root dih. "to 
tain." besmear, pollute," in a more comprp- 

2 The original form of the word is hensive sense "to surround." 


' biiilt, and altars erected ; they even upbraid with folly 
' those who do so. I can account for that, only from their 
' not believing that the gods are like men, as the Hellenes 
' do. They are accustomed to offer sacrifices to Zeus on the 
' summits of mountains ; they call the whole celestial circle 
* Zeus. They offer sacrifices to the sun, moon, earth, fire, 
■' water, and winds, thQse. elements originally being the only 
' objects of worship ; but they accepted from the Assyrians 
' and Arabs the worship of Aphrodite, the Queen of 
' Heaven, whom the Assyrians call Mylitta, the Arabs 
' Alitta, the Persians Mitra.' 1 

' The Persians offer sacrifices to the aforesaid gods in 
' the following manner. They neither erect altars nor 
' kindle fires when they are about to offer a sacrifice ; they 
' neither use libations, nor flutes, nor wreaths, nor barley ; 
' but when any one is willing to offer a sacrifice, he then 
' carries the sacrificial beast to a pure spot, and after 
' having twined round his turban a great many wreaths of 
' myrtle, in preference to any other leaf, he invokes the 
' deity. The sacrificer ought not to pray only for his own 
' prosperity ; he must also pray for the welfare of all the 
' Persians, and for the king, because he is included among 
' them. When he has cut the animal into pieces, he then 
' boils its flesh, spreads the softest grass he can get, espe- 
' cially preferring clover, and places the pieces of flesh on 
' it. After having made this arrangement, one of the Magi 
' who is present sings a theogony,^ as they call the incan- 

1 Here Herodotus has committed a Mitra is the well-known sun-god of 
mistake ; not as to the matter, but the Persians and a male deity. 
as to the name. The Persians, in ^ Herodotus, who exhibits through- 
later times, worshipped a, great fe- out the whole report an intimate 
male deity, who might be compared knowledge of the Persian sacrifices, 
with the Mylitta of the Babylonians means by theogony here, those sec- 
(the Ashtaroth or Astarte of the Old tions of the sacred books which are 
Testament), but she was called Ana- called Yashts or invocations, con- 
HITA (in the Zend-Avesta and cunei- taining the praises of all the feats 
form inscriptions), and was known to achieved by the deity in whose honor 
the Arab and Greek writers by the the sacrifice is to bo offered. See the 
name of Anaitis. She represented third Essay, 
the beneficial influence of water. 


' tation (which is used); without one of the Magi no 
' sacrifice can he offered. After waiting a short time, the 
' sacrificer takes off the pieces of flesh, and uses them as 
' he likes.' 1 

In the 138th chapter of the same book, the father of 
history says : ' Lying is regarded as the most discreditable 
' thing by them ; next to it is the incurring of debt, 
' chiefly for this reason, that the debtor is often compelled 

* to tell lies. If any one of the inhabitants of a town be 
' affected with leprosy, or white spots (another kind of 
' leprosy), he cannot enter the town, nor have any inter- 
' course with the other Persians ; they believe him to have 

* that disease in consequence of having sinned in one way 
' or other against the sun.2 All foreigners affected with 
' these diseases are driven out of the country; for the same 
' reason many expel even white pigeons. They neither 

* make water, nor spit, nor wash their hiands, in a river ; 
' nor will they allow any one else to do so ; for they pay a 
' high reverence to rivers.' 

In another passage (iii. 16) Herodotus reports that the 
Persians believe Fire to be a god ; wherefore Cambyses 
committed a great sin, as he says, in burning the corpse 
of King Amasis. 

The chief Greek writers on the manners and religion 
of the Persians were Ktesias (b.c. 400), the well-known 
physician to King Artaxerxes II., Deinon (b.o. 350), who 
is looked upon as a great authority in Persian matters by 
Cornelius Nepos (in the life of Konon), Theopompos of 
Chios (b.c. 300), and Hekmippos, the philosopher of 
Smyrna (B.C. 250). The books of all these writers being 
lost, save some fragments preserved by later authors, such 

1 This custom is still maintained be used by him ; but it is never 

by the Parsis. The flesh (or any thrown into the fire, 

other sacrifice) to be offered is first ^ The name given to sinners against 

consecrated by the priest, then for a the sun is mithrS-drukhsh, i.e., one 

short time left near the fire, and who has belied Mithra (the sun), 

finally taken off by the sacrificer, to Such diseases were believed to be the 

consequence of lying. 


as Plxttaech, Diogenes of Laerte, and Pliny, we cannot 
judge how far they were acquainted with the religion of 
the Magi. The two chief sources whence the Greeks and 
Eomans derived information about the religion of the 
Magi were Theopompos's eighth book of the history of 
King Philip of Macedonia, which was entitled "On Mira-. 
culous Things," and specially treated of the doctrine of 
the Magi; and Hermippos, who wrote a separate book 
" On the Magi." "We are left without information whether 
or not Theopompos deriyed his statements on the lore of 
the Magi from his intercourse with the Persian priests 
themselves; but Hermippos, who composed, besides his 
work on the Zoroastrian doctrine, biographies of lawgivers; 
the seven sages of Greece, &c., is reported by Pliny (His- 
toria Naturalis, xxx. 2) to have made very laborious 
investigations in all the Zoroastrian books, wMch were 
said to comprise two millions of verses, and to have stated 
the contents of each book separately. He therefore really 
seems to have had some knowledge of the sacred language 
and texts of the Magi, for which reason the loss of his 
work is greatly to be regretted. 

It is not intended to produce all the reports on the 
Zoroastrian religion and customs to be met with in the 
ancient writers, but only to point out some of the most 

According to Diogenes of Laerte (Pro-oemium, chap, vi.), 
EuDOXOS and Aeistotle stated that in the doctrine of the 
Magi there were two powers opposed to each other, one 
representing the good god, called Zeus and Oeomasdes 
(Ahuramazda, Hormazd), and the other representing the 
devil, whose name was Hades and Aeeimanios (Angro- 
mainyush, Ahriman). Of this chief doctrine of the Magi 
Theopompos had given a further illustration. According 
to Plutarch (De Iside et Osiride) and Diogenes of Laerte 
(Pro-cemium, chap, ix.), he reported that Oromasdes ruled 
for three thousand years alone, and Areimanios for three 
thousand wore- After this period of six thousand years 


had elapsed they begdn to wage war against each other, 
one attempting to destroy the other ; but finally (he says) 
Ai-eimanios is to perish, mankind is to enjoy a blessed 
state of life ; men will neither be any more in need of food, 
nor will they cast shadows ; the dead are to rise again, 
men will be immortal, and everything is to exist in conse- 
quencs of their prayers. 

A brief but fuU account of Zoroaster's doctrine is to be 
found in Plutarch's book " On Isis and Osiris (chap, xlvi., 
xlvii.), which being in detail, seem.s to have been borrowed 
from a writer who was actually acquainted with the origi- 
nal texts. The philosopher Hermippos, abovementioned, 
being the only scholar of antiquity who can be supposed, 
with sufficient reason, to have had a real knowledge of the 
sacred language of the Zend-Avesta, we may regard hiili 
as the author of Plutarch's statements. These are as 
follows : — 

' Oromasdes sprang out of the purest light ; among all 
' things perceived by the senses that element most re- 
' sembles him ; Areimanios sprang out of darkness, and is 
' therefore of the same nature with it. Oromasdes, who 
' resides as far beyond the sun as the sun is far from the 
' earth, created six gods (the six Ameshaspentas, now 
' Amshaspends, " the archangels ") ; the god of benevo- 
' lence {VoJiu-mano, "good-mind," now called Bahman); 
' the god of truth (Asha vahisJita, or ArdibaJiishi) ; the 
' god of order {Khshathra vairya, or Shahrivar) ; the god 
' of wisdom (Armaiti, or Isfendarmad) ; and the god of 
' wealth and delight in beauty {Saurvatdt and Ameretdt, 
• or Khorddd and Amerddd). But to counterbalance him, 
' Areimanios created an equal number of gods counteract- 
' ing those of Oromasdes. Then Oromasdes decorated 
' heaven with stars, and placed the star Sirius (Tishtrya, 
' or Tishtar) at their head as a guardian. Afterwards he 
■ created twenty-four other gods,i and set them in an egg ; 

^ This statement seems at the first may easily explain it from the Avesta 
glance to be very strange. But one texts. This writer had evidently in 


' but Areimanibs forthwith created an equal number of 
' gods, who opened the egg ; in consequence of this, evil is 
' always mingled with good. Thus the good god and the 
' demon are engaged in a constant war. Of plants and 
' animals, some belong to the good, some to the evil spirit ; 
' to the good one belong dogs, birds, and crabs ; to the evil 
' one, water-rats. At the end, the time is to come when 
' Areimanios will perish and disappear, in consequence of 
' disease and famine, caused by himself. Then the earth 

• will become even and equal, and there wUl be only one 
' state and one language, and one and the same manner 
' of living to the happy men who then speak only one 
' language.' 

Steabo the geographer (b.c. 6o) has given in the i Sth 
book of his celebrated Geography an account of the religion 
and customs of the Magi, of which some passages may he 
thus translated : — ' To whatever deity the Persians may 

* offer sacrifice, they first invoke fire, which is fed at their 
' sacred places with dried barkless pieces of wood, and is 
' never to be extinguished ; they put fat over it, and pour 
' on. into it ; if anybody happens to throw or blow into it 
' anything dirty or dead, he is to die ; the fire is to be 
' kindled by blowing.' 

In another passage (xi. 8, 4) he enumerates as Per- 
sian deities Anaitis, Omanes, and Anadates or Anandates.'^ 

Pausanids, the celebrated Greek traveller (a.d. 180), has 
the following report on the fire-worship of the Magi (v. 
27, 3). ' In the temples of the Persians there is a room 
' where ashes of another colour than those being burnt on 
' the altar are to be found.2 To tliis room he first repairs, 

view the thirty spirits ijresiding over in these. In the P.irsi calendar (Siro- 

the particular days of the month ; he zah, thirty days) Hormaid is included 

was informed, or he gathered it from in the number. 

his own reading of the texts, that ^ Anaitis is Andhitd, a goddess, 

there are two distinct classes of divine representing the celestial waters. 

■beings to be worshipped, six forming Omanes is Vohu-man6 or Bahman ; 

the higher order, twenty-four the Anandates is Ameretdt, spirit of the 

lower ; the Supreme Being, the crea- trees. 

tor Ahuramazda, was not comprised ' The two kinds of ashes men- 


' puts dry wood upon the altar, puts on the tiara, and then 
' sings the invocation of the god, reading it from a book, 
' in a language utterly unintelligible to the Greeks. The 
' wood is to be ignited on the ashes, without fire, and to 
' flame up into a bright blaze.' 

Passing over Dio Cheysostomos (a.d. 130), who has left 
to us, in his sermons, some remarks on the theological 
ideas of the Magi, as to their comparing the universe to 
a chariot in continual motion, drawn . by four horses ; we 
may notice an important passage of the historian Aga- 
THiAS (a.d. 500)' respecting Zoroaster. He says (ii. 24) : 
' The present Persians almost entirely neglect their former 
' customs, and have even changed them, and observe some 
' strange and spurious usages, professing the doctrines of 
' Zoroaster, the son of Ormasdes.l The time when this 
' Zoroaster or Zarades (he is called by both these names) 
' flourished and gave his laws, is not to be ascertained. 
' The Persians now-a-days simply say that he lived at 
' the time of Hystaspes ; but it is very doubtful, and the 

• doubt cannot be solved whether this Hystaspes was the 
' father of Darius, or another Hystaspes. At whatever 
' time he may have Hved, he was at aU events their pro- 

• phet, and the master of the Magic rites. After having 
' changed the ancient form of worship, he introduced 
■ manifold and strange doctrines. For they (the Per- 
' sians) formerly worshipped Zeus and Kronos, and all 
' other gods celebrated by the Greeks, only under other 

• names, as for example they call Zeus, £el, Heracles, 
< Sandes, Aphrodite, Anaitis,^ and the others otherwise, 

tioned here are those of the D^d-gah performed hefore the sacred fire. 

{DdityS-gdtush), or common hearth of The observance is still maintained, 

the temple (or any house), and of the i Plato (Alcibiades, i. 37) says the 

Atash-gah, or place for the sacred fire, same, calling Zoroaster n. son of Or- 

which is fed with the greatest care, mazdes.i.e., Aimramazda, Hormazd. 

By'tiara'(aturhan)thePenom(5)aiii- * In this report true and false 

ddna) is meant, a cloth used to cover statements .are mixed together. It 

the lips to prevent the sacred fire is true that the religion of the Parsis 

from being polluted. Pausanius well anterior to Zoroaster was much 

describes here the divine service as nearer to that of the Greeks than 


■ as is repoTted by Eerosos the Babylonian, and Athe- 
' NOKLES and Simakos, who wrote on the most ancient 
' history of the Assyrians and Medes.' 

Before concluding this notice of the Greek records, and 
proceediag to those of the Armenians and Mohammedans, 
we may notice some passages of later Greek writers, who 
lived after Christ at the time of the Sasanians, on the 
supposed primitive principle of Zoroastrian theology, 
which will be treated of fully in the last Essay in this 

The first Greek writer who alludes to it is, Damascius. 
In his book " On Primitive Principles" (125th p. 384, ed. 
Kopp) he says, ' The Magi and the whole Aryan nation 1 
' consider, as Eudemos writes, some Space, and /others 
' Time, as the universal cause, out of which the good 
' god as weU as the evil spirit were separated, or, as 
' others assert, light and darkness, before these two spirits 
' arose.' 

On the same matter Theodoeos of Mopsuestia writes 
as follows, according to the fragment preserved by the 
polyhistor Photios (Biblioth. 81): 'In the first book of 
' his work ' (on the doctrines of the Magi), says Photios,2 
' he propounds the nefarious doctrine of the Persians 
' which Zarastrades introduced, viz., that about Zaeox;am,3 
'whom he makes the ruler of the whole universe, and 
' calls him Destiny ; and who when offering sacrifices' in 
' order to generate Hoimisdas, produced both Hormisdas 
' and Satan.' 

This opinion on the primitive principle of the Zoroas- 
trian theology seems to have been current among the 
Christians at the time of the Sasanians, as we may learn 
more fuUy from Armenian writers of the fifth century, from 

after his time ; but it is not true that be understood. According to Hero- 

the Persians at that time worshipped dotus their original name was Ai-ioi. 
Bel, who was the chief god of the 2 He was a Christian. 
Babylonians, and entirely unknown s He means Zanan akarana, 

to the Zend-Avesta. • boundless time. ' 
^ By this name the Medea are to 


EzNiK, who -wrote a book against heretical opinions, and 
from Elis^us, who compiled a history of Vartan, and the 
wars waged by the Armetiians against the Persiaris, Eznik 
says, in his refutation of heresies (in the second book), con- 
taining a " refutation of the false doctrine of the Persians : '' 
* Before anything, heaven or earth, or creature of any 
' kind whatever therein, was existing, Zeruan existed, whose 
' name means fortune or glory.i He offered sacrifices for 

• a thousand years in the hope of obtaining a son, Oemizt 
' by name, who was to create heaven, earth, and every- 
' thing therein. After having spent a thousand years in 
' sacrificing, . he began to deliberate : Are these sacrifices 

• of mine to produce any effect, and will a son, Ormizt by 
' name, be bom to me ? While he was thus deliberating, 
' Ormizt and Arhmen were conceived in the womb of their 
' mother, Ormizt as the fruit of his sacrifices, Arhmen as 
' that of his doubts. When Zeruan was aware of this 
' event he said : Two sons are in the womb ; he who will 
' first come to me is to be made king. Ormizt, having 
' perceived his father's thoughts, revealed them to Arhmen, 
' saying : Zeruan, our father, intends to make him king 

• who shall be born first. Having heard these words, 
' Arhmen perforated the womb, and appeared before his 
' father. But Zeruan, when he saw him, did not know 
' who he was, and asked him : Who art thou ? He told 
' biTTi : I am thy son. Zeruan answered him : My son is 
' weU-scented and shining, but thou art dark and ill- 
' scented. While they were thus talking, Ormizt, shining 
' and well-scented, appeared before Zeruan, who, seeing 
' him, perceived him at once to be his son Ormizt on account 
' of whom he was sacrificing. He took the rod 2 which he 
' had used in sacrificing, and gave it to Ormizt, saying : 
' Hitherto this has been used by myself in offering sacri- 

1 This interpretation is wrong. The 2 This is the so-called Barsom (£e- 

•word zwrvan means simply ' ' time " in resma, a bundle of twigs), always used 

the Zend-Avesta, and is preserved in by the Parsi ijriests when engaged in 

the modern Persian zamdri, worship. 


' fices for thy sake ; henceforth thou mayst' sacrifice for my 
' sake. When Zeruan handed over his rod to Ormizt, and 
' blessed him, Arhmen approached him, saying : Hast thou 
' not vowed to make that one of thy two sons king who 
' should first come to thee ? Zeruan, in order to avoid 
' breaking his vow, replied to Arhmen : Oh thou liar and 
' evil-doer ! the empire is to be ceded to thee for nine 
' thousand years ; but I place Ormizt over thee as chief, 
' and after nine thousand years, he will reign and do What 
' he likes. Then Ormizt and Arhmen began the work of 
' creation; everything produced by Ormizt was good and 
' right, and everything wrought by Arhmen was bad and 
' perverse.' 

From both these Armenian writers, Eznik and ELisAmrs, 
we further learn that the Zoroastrians in their times (5 th 
century a.d.) were split into two parties, inimicaUy opposed 
to each other ; the one was called MoG (Magi, Maghava), 
the other, Zendib:.! 

Passing on to Mohammedan writers, who lived after the 
conquest of Persia by the Mohammedans A.D. 650, we may 
notice some interesting passages. 

Masudi, the celebrated Arabian historian and traveller 
(A.b. 950), has preserved to us the following notice of the 
sacred books of the Parsis.2 ' The first book, made by 
' Zeeadusht, was Avesta. The Persians, not being able' 
' to understand it, Zeradusht made a commentary, which 
' they called Zend ; further he made a commentary to this 
•commentary, and called it Pazend. After Zeradusht's 
' death, the Persians made a commentary of the commen- 
■ ' tary, and an explanation of all the books just mentioned; 
' and called it. Yazdah.' 3 

' The Magi were chiefly spread over * See Ohwolsohn in the Zeitsohrift 
the West, in Media and Persia ; the der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Ge- 
Zendiks over the East, in Bactria. sellsohaft, vol. vi. pp. 408, 409. 
The former seem to have acknow- ^ He understands by it those piece 
ledged only the Avesta or original which are called Yashts, and are tin- 
texts of the sacred writings ; thelatter doubtedly the latest productions in 
followed the traditional explanation, the Zend-Avesta, 
called Zend. 


In another passage, he has the following remark on the 
origin of the word Zendik, i.e., heretic in Persian : ' Tlie 
' Zend being only a commentary on what was formerly 
' revealed from heaven (viz., the Avesta), the Persians 
' called any one who put forward religious opinions opposed 
' to the Avesta a Zendik, because he held his own inter- 
' pretation (Zend) against that of the Avesta.' 

On Zoroaster's age he remarks, that according to the 
Magi he lived 280 years before Alexander the Great (or 
about B.C. 610), that is, at the time of the Median king 

Shahkastani, a celebrated Mohammedan writer, who 
died at Bagdad, A.D. 1 153, has given in his highly valuable 
work " On EeHgious Sects and Creeds " {kitdfnir^l-milal wa 
na'hal) an account of the religion of the Magi, of which he 
had a better opinion than many other Mohammedan 
writers. Whilst Dimishqi (who died a.d. 1327), Ibn Foz- 
LAN, and others,! identify the Magi with idolaters and 
pagans, Shahrastani brings them under the same head as 
Jews, Cheistians, and Musalmans, or those whose creed 
is founded on revealed books ; and makes them diametri- 
cally opposed to those who follow their own imaginations 
and inventions (as many philosophers did), the Brahmans 
and Sabeans (star-worshippers). From his reports we 
further learn that the Magi were split into several sects, 
which very likely arose at the time of the Sasanians, such 
as the Mazdakyahs, who believed in the transmigration of 
souls, like the Brahmans and Buddhists (a doctrine which 
is altogether strange to the Zend-Avesta) ; the Katomar- 
THITAH, who believed in a revelation made by God to the 
first man, called Gayomaed by the Parsis, corresponding to 
Adam of the Bible; the Zeevanits who believed in Zar- 
VAN AKABANA, i.e., boundless time, as the supreme deity, 
which doctrines being altogether strange to the ancient 
books, were derived from other creeds. 

Before taking final leave of these Mohammedan writers, 
' See Chwolsolia, Die Sabier, i. p. 281 ; ii. p. 690. ■ ' 


we may notice a peculiar circumstance which deserves atten- 
tion. In several Mohammpdan writings, especially in ver- 
nacular Persian dictionaries, we find Zoroastek, or, as he 
is there called, Zaeadusht, identified with Abraham, the 
patriarch. The Magi are said to have called their religion 
KSsh^i-Ibrdhim, i.e., creed of Ahraham, whom they con- 
sidered as their prophet and the reformer of their religion. 
They traced their religious books to Abraham, who was 
believed to have brought them from heaven. This was 
altogether untrue, but the Magi, or Parsi priests^ invented 
it for the purpose of escaping the persecutions of the 
Mohammedans, and that they might be tolerated to a 
certain extent ; for only those creeds were tolerated by the 
Mohammedans, the followers of which were able to con- 
vince them of their possession of sacred books, connected 
in any way with the Jewish religion, whose prophets had 
been acknowledged by Mohammed, 


The nations of modern Europe came into contact with 
the adherents of the Zoroastrian religion in the western 
part of India, where they had settled when they left their 
fatherland, Persia, to escape the persecutions of the Mo- 
hammedans. Already, in the seventeenth century, manu- 
scripts of the sacred books of the Parsis were brought to 
England as mere articles of curiosity, but were sealed 
books to every one. The first who attempted to give a 
complete description of the doctrines of the Magi was the 
celebrated Oxford scholar, Hyde. In his very learned 
work, " Historia religionis veterum Persarum eorumque 
Magorum," the first edition of which was published in 
the year 1700, he displays a vast deal of information on 
the Parsi religion, derived from all the sources which were 
accessible to him ; from Greek and Eoman, as well as from 
Arabian and Persian writers ; and tries his utmost to throw 
light on the religion of the Magi, so famous in antiquity; 


but being utterly unable to read the OTiginal texts of tlie 
Zend-Avesta, though he himself was in possession of several 
manuscripts of them, he could not succeed in furnishing 
his readers with a real insight into that ancient creed. His 
work acted, however, as a stimulus to others to take more 
interest ia the matter. 

The first scholar who made Europeans acquainted with 
the contents of the sacred books of the Parsis was the cele- 
brated Frenchman, Anquetil Dupeeeon. His ardour and 
zeal are almost unparalleled in the history of scholarship. 
He happened once to see a facsimile of some pages written 
in Avesta characters, which was circulated as a mere curio- 
sity. Actuated by the Liveliest desire of earning the glory of 
first opening the Zend-Avesta to Europeans, he suddenly 
resolved upon setting out for Western India in order to pur- 
chase manuscripts of aU the sacred books of the Zoroastrian 
religion, and to obtain a thorough knowledge of their con- 
tents, and of the religious customs of the Parsis from their 
priests. Being himself unable to afford the means required 
for carrying out his plan, he entered himself as a sailor in 
a ship of the French Indian Company, bound for Bombay, 
in the year 1754, where he safely arrived after a very pro- 
tracted and dangerous voyage. AH the hardships he had 
to suffer during his passage would have been endured in 
vain, and he -would have ultimately failed in obtaining 
what he was aiming at, if the French .Government had not 
granted him support. The Parsi priests, being fuE. of dis- 
trust towards him, were not wiUing to sell him valuable 
manuscripts, and far less to teach him the language of 
their sacred books.l Finally, the only means of obtaining 
the object wished for was money. He bribed one of the 
most learned Dasturs, Dastur Darab, at Surat, to procure 

1 Since the Parsis and theiif priests a benevolent interest in these mat- 
have come more into contact with ters ; and are always wilKng to give 
Europeans, this distrust has SB,bsided him full explanations of rites and 
to a great extent. The Dasturs -will ceremonies, and even to lend him 
now readily converse about their valuable and unique manuscripts, 
sacred books and their re^igion, with provided theyare satisfied that he will 
any European scholar who really takes not misuse the information he obtains. 

B I 


him manuscripts, and to instruct him in the Avesta and 
Pahlavi languages, But to ascertain that he was not de- 
ceived by the Dastur, he opened an intercourse -with some 
other priests (Kaus and Manjerj), and was very well satis- 
fied at finding that the manuscripts he purchased first 
were genuine. When he thought himself proficient enough 
in the Avesta and Pahlavi, he set about making a French 
translation of the whole Zend-Avesta. He commenced 
that work in March 1759, and was engaged in it up to the 
time of his departure. He left for Europe in 1761, after 
six years' stay in different places in Western India. He 
had purchased about 180 manuscripts in different Oriental 
languages, among which were copies of the sacred books of 
the Parsis. When, after a long and painful passage, he 
arrived in Europe, he did not proceed at once to his father- 
land, France, but went first to England to ascertain whether 
or not the Avesta manuscripts to be found there 'agreed with 
those in his own possession. Finding that they did not 
differ, he returned quite satisfied to France. AU his manu- 
scripts, together with the dictations of the Dasturs, were 
deposited in the National Library at Paris, where they may 
be still inspected and used by the student. Ten years 
after his departure from India he published (in 1771), as 
the fruit of his indefatigable zeal and industry, the follow- 
ing highly important work in French, Zend-Avesta, the 
work of Zoroaster, containing the theological, physical, and 
moral ideas of this lawgiver, the ceremonies of the divine 
service which he estuUished, and several important traits 
respecting the ancient histoo'g of the Persians, translated into 
French from the Zend original, with Notes and several 
Treatises for illustrating the matters contained in it. By 
Anquetil Duperrou. 2 vols. 4to. 

This groundwork for Avesta studies in Europe created 
an immense sensation when -it was published. A new 
world of ideas seemed to have been disclosed to European 
scholars; the veil which covered the mysteries of the 
famous founder of the doctrines of the Magi seemed to be 
lifted. But the philosophers found themselves soon greatly 


disappointed. Ka.nt, the great German philosopher, said, 
after a careful perusal of the whole work, that throughout 
the whole Zend-Avesta not the slightest trace of philo- 
sophical ideas could be discovered. 

The chief question, however, was the authenticity of 
these hooks. Some contested, others advocated it. In 
England the opinion prevailed that the books were forged, 
and Anquetil imposed upon by the priests. The celebrated 
Oriental scholar. Sir William Jones, published in 1771 a 
letter in French addressed to Anquetil Duperron (W.Jones's 
Works, vol. X. pp. 403-99), where he tried to prove that the 
works translated by that scholar could not be considered 
as the composition of the celebrated Zoroaster. The chief 
reason alleged by him was, that their contents grossly 
contradicted common sense and all sound reasoning; the 
authority of these books as the chief source of information 
on the doctrines of Zoroaster was thus denied, and they 
were represented as the fictions of priestcraft brought 
forward as the works of Zoroaster. Eichaedson, the cele- 
brated Persian lexicographer, tried to prove the spurious- 
uess of the Parsi books translated by Anquetil, mainly 
from philological reasons. He held the opinion (in the 
preface to his " Persian Dictionary") that the two languages 
Zend and Pahlavi, from which the learned Frenchman had 
translated them, were mere inventions, which had never 
existed in the provinces of the Persian Empire. His 
opinion was founded upon four reasons : (i) there is too 
great a number of Arabic words in both of them, which is 
a strong proof against their genuineness; (2) the harsh 
combinations of consonants are contrary to the genius of 
the Persian language ; (3) there is no connection between 
them and modern Persian ; (4) the contents of the booksj 
besides, are so childish that they cannot be ascribed to the 
ancient Persians. AH these reasons can be easily refuted 
in the present state of research into the Zend-Avesta; 
but it would be a mere waste of spacS and time to enter 
into a real discussion about the authenticity of the Avesta 


and PaMaVi. In these languages theM are no Arabic 
words whatever ; the Avesta is written in a purely Aryan 
dialect, thfe elder sister of Sanskrit, as can he easily seen 
on comparing it with the language of the Veda ; in Pahlavi 
there are l^any Chaldee, but no Arabic words, and the 
greater part of the language has a close connection witi 
modem Persiaii. 

In Fra,nce the authenticity ol these books was not 
doubted, aind the great merits of Anquetil were at once 
acknowledged^ In Germany the opinions of scholars were 
at issue. Some, as Mbinees a;nd Tyohsen, acceded to the 
proofs al^ege^ against the genuineness of these books ; but 
another xenowwd German scholar, Kleukee, not only 
admitted the authenticity of Anqii«etil's work, but trans- 
lated the whole of it inito German, aind added several 
appendices, containi:ftg passages from ancient writers on 
the religion of the Magi In advocating the authenticity 
of Anquetil's Zend-Avesta, he relied chiefly on the accord- 
ance of the reports of classical writes with those contained 
in these books. 

For a long time the correctness of Anquetil's translation 
was hot doubted by any one, for h© had learned the lan- 
guages from the most competent Parsi priests themselves, 
who were supposed to possess necessarfly a thorough and 
profound knowledge o| their sacred books. In Germany 
the work was thenceforth the standard authority for all 
researches into the ancient Persiaoi religion, and the divines 
used it even, for the. interpretation of the Old Testament. 
In England it was laid aside as spurious, and not deserve 
ing any attention., The most comprehensive and best 
description of the Persian religion, chiefly according to 
the work of Anquetil, was compiled by Rhode, "The 
Poly Tradition of the Zend People" (i8^oj). 

Inquiries into the real nature of the Avesta and Pahlavi 
languages were not made until more than fifty years after 
Anquetil's work had appeared. The first who attenipted 
to study thi^. difficult subject was the great Danish scholar 


Bask, who had himself been in Bomhay, and had pur- 
chased many valuable Avesta and Pahlavi manuscripts, 
which are now deposited in the University Library at 
Copenhagen. He wrote in 1826 a pamphlet " On the Age 
and Genuineness of the Zend Language." In this little 
book he proved the close affinity of the language of the 
Zend-Avesta to Sanskrit. This proof was sufficient to 
remove whateveir doubts might have been entertained as 
to the genuineness of the Avesta language. If this lan- 
guage was a true and genuine sister to Sanskrit, then of 
course it could not be a mere invention of priests, who, 
moreover, would have been Utterly unable to invent such 
a well -organised language as that of the Avesta really is. 
Although Anquetil had deposited aU the rough copies of 
his work, together with the dictations of his Parsi teachers 
(they go by the name of " les brouiUons d' Anquetil "), in 
the National Library at Paris, for the purpose of subject- 
ing his translation to public examination, for a long time 
no examiner came forward. As Anquetil possessed neither 
grammar nor dictionary of the Avesta language (because 
they did not exist), there were, m fact, no means of sub- 
jecting his work to a rigid examination. First, the gram- 
matical structure of this ancient language, and the ety- 
mology of its words, had to be discovered ; but the only 
means of accomplishing this were by comparing it with 
Sanskrit, with which highly-finished language Europeans 
have become acquainted since the end of last century. 
Anquetil himself was thinking of acquiring a knowledge 
of this language from the Brahmans, and translating the 
Vedas, but he did not succeed. The study of Sanskrit 
spread rapidly from England to France and Germany; 
everywhere the high importance of this classical language 
was at once acknowledged. Scholars early discovered its 
close affinity to Greek and Latin, and as soon as attention 
was directed to the Zend-Avesta, the relationship of its 
language to Sanskrit could not but strike the inquirer as 
still closer, even at the first glance. As already mentioned, 


Eask first proved tMs close affinity, but lie gave only a few 
hints, tending to lead men of Mgli talents to discoveries ; 
so that Eask himself cannot be considered as one of the 
founders of Avesta philology. This honour was also re- 
served for a Frenchman. 

The first who laid the foundation of a real Avesta philo- 
logy was Eugene Bubnouf, Professor of Sanskrit at the 
College de France at Paris, one of the most gifted and 
talented scholars of his time, a man of whom, as their 
countryman. Frenchmen have just reason to be proud. 
Being himself exceedingly well versed in the classical 
Sanskrit (not in that of the Vedas) — of his mastery over 
which language he has left us more than sufficient speci- 
mens in his translation of the Bhdgavata Purdna, and his 
classical works on Buddhism — ^he applied his sound and 
critical knowledge of it to the discovery of the rudiments 
of Avesta grammar and etymology ; and his laborious re- 
searches were crowned with success. He then first dis- 
covered the great incorrectness of Anquetil's translation, 
the necessary result of a total want of acquaintance with 
anything like the grammar of the Avesta language. In 
making his researches he availed himself of Neeyosangh's 
Sanskrit translation of the greater part of the Yasna, or 
liturgy, but criticised it by means of comparative philo- 
logy, chiefly with Sanskrit. Most of his researches he 
published in his excellent work entitled " Commentary on 
the Yasna" (1833—35), ^ which, starting from ITeryo- 
sangh's Sanskrit tra.nslation, he gave the translation, with 
too copious an explanation, of only the _;?rs^ chapter out of 
the seventy-two which make up the present Yasna, or 
liturgy. In several numbers of the " Journal Asiatique " 
(1844-46) he published a revised text, translation, and 
explanation of the ninth chapter of the Yasna, containing 
the praise of Homa (corresponding to the Soma of the 
Brahmans) . He published, besides, lithographed, the fairest 
copy of a Vendiddd Sddah (comprising the Vendiddd, 
Yasna, and Visparad, without the Pahlavi translation) 


whicli he found atoong tlie manuscripts brought to Europe 
hy Anquetil. This was the first edition of Avesta texts 
•which appeared iu Europe (1829-43). After that publi- 
cation he relinquished his Avesta studies, and engaged 
himself chiefly in researches into Buddhism. In 1852 a 
premature death put an end to his important discoveries 
in several branches of Oriental antiquities. 

Before proceeding to trace the further course of Avesta 
studies, especially in Germany, we may briefly review the 
merits of the two Frenchmen who have just claims to be 
regarded as the founders of our investigations into the 

Anquetil DtJPEERON furnished Europe with the mate- 
rials for these researches, and by his translation introduced 
the literary world to the chief contents of the sacred books 
of the Zoroastrians. His work, although utterly incorrect 
and inaccurate, nevertheless gives a notion of the whole of 
the Zoroastrian ideas. One could learn from his books the 
different names of the divine beings, the evil spirits, cere- 
monies, observances, doctrines, and the contents in general. 
The reader could see, for instance, that in the first chapter 
of the Vendiddd the names of sixteen countries were enu- 
merated, which being originally good, were spoiled by the 
bad creations of the devil ; that in its second chapter, the 
story of Tima (Jamshed) was treated; that the Tasna 
contains prayers of different kinds, addressed to different 
objects of worship ; &c. But it is in the easier parts only 
that he could gain even an approximate knowledge of the 
contents ; in the more difficult ones, such as the Gathas, 
he could not attain even so much, because in them nearly 
aU was translated by Anquetil Duperron according to his 
own fancy and imagination. Beiag utterly unable to dis- 
tinguish cases, tenses, moods, personal terminations, &c., 
he was liable to the gravest errors and mistakes, which 
gave rise to wrong conceptions, not only of subordinate 
points, but of such as were of the highest importance to 
those interested in the Zoroastrian religion. 


To enable the reader to judge of Anquetil's way of 
translating, we may take his translation of one of the most 
celebrated passages of the Vendidad (xix. 9, edition of 
Westergaard), which was supposed to prove Zarvan 
e^raifia, " boundlesa time," to be the primitive being, and 
creator of the good and the bad spirits. 

' Ahriman,^ master of the bad law ! the being absorbed 
' in glory has given (created) thee, the boundless Time has 
' given thee, it has giveu also, with magnificence, the 
' Amshaspends,' &c. According to this translation 
Hormazd and Ahriman are not the two primitive spirits, 
but they themselves were created by a supreme being 
called Zdrvdn akarana, "boundless time." This doctrine 
being altogether strange to the Zend-Avesta, as we shall 
see hereafter, was merely interpreted into this passage by 
Anquetil according to the teaching of his masters, the 
Dasturs, in consequence of his ignorance of Avesta gram- 
mar. He translates the words zruni akarane as a nomi- 
native case, whilst a very superficial knowledge of Avesta 
and Sanskrit grammars suf&ces to recognise both the forms 
as locatives ; they are therefore to be translated only, " in 
boundless time," the subject of the sentence being spento 
mainyush, " the bountiful spirit " (a name of Hormazd) ; 
were it the nominative case, and the subject of the sen- 
tence, then we should expect to find zarva akaranem. 
The right translation is as follows : — 

' evil-knowing Angr8mainyush (Ahriman) ! The 
' bountiful spirit made (these weapons required to defeat 
' the influences of the evil spirit) in boundless time,2 the 
' immortal benefactors assisted him in making tTiem! 
.. Although we may gather from this specimen that 
Anquetil's translation is nowhere to be relied upon, always 
lacking accuracy, yet we must thankfully acknowledge how 

1 This verse concludes an old song, will find a translation of the 

deseribinp; the devil's attacks upon whole. 

ZafathUshtra, and the conversation " That means only, at a time un- 
earned on hetweeu them. In the known, at a time immemorial, or iu 
third Essay of this work the reader the beginning. 


mucli we owe to him as the founder of all researches subse- 
quently made into the Zend-Avesta. Whilst the translation 
itself isi utterly inaccurate and erroneous, his descriptions 
of ceremonies and rites are quite correct, as the author can 
assure the reader from his intercourse with Parsi priests.^ 
He was a trustworthy man in every respect, and wrote 
only what he was taught by the Parsi Dasturs.2 These 
high-priests of the Parsi community, who are the only 
preservers of the religious traditions, and their interpreters, 
derive all their information about their religion not from 
the original Avesta texts themselves, but from the Pahlavi 
translation made of them at the time of the Sasanians. 
Considering that even this translation is not quite correct, 
and, moreover, that it is not understood by the Dasturs in 
a critical and philological way, how can Anquetil be ex- 
pected to have furnished us with an accurate translation ? 
In many instances also Anquetil misunderstood the Das- 
turs \ so that his translation was tinged with errors of three 
kinds, viz., those of the Pahlavi translations, those of the 
Dasturs, and those of his own misunderstandings. His 
work, therefore, cannot stand the test of close examination, 
and from a critical point of view it can hardly be styled a 
translation ; it is only a summary report, in an extended 
form, of the contents of the Zend-Avesta. But he cannot 
be blamed for that ; at his time it was impossible for the 
most learned and sagacious scholars to do more than he 


' Anquetil was evidently a correct passed for the most learned priest of 

obaerver and an accurate deacriber of his time in India,, quotes in his Guj- 

what he saw. His description of the rati work " MujizSit-i-Zartosht " (the 

cave-temples in Salsette could be read Miracles of Zoroaster), p. 10, Anquetil 

on the spot a century after his visit, as an authority in order to counte- 

as the only accurate account of them nance his strange and quite erroneous 

that had ever been published. explanation of the word stehrpaSsan- 

2 The European reader will not be Aem. (decorated with stars), as meaning 
a little astonished to learn that An- tadarah, " the shirt " worn by the 
quetil'a work was regarded afterwards Parsis, an interpretation which con- 
as & kind of authority by the Dasturs tradicts the tradition as well- as the 
themselves. As, for instance, the contexts of the passages, and was con. 
late high-priest of the Parsis in Bom- sequently not acknowledged by other 
bay, Edal}i Darabji Kustamji, who Dasturs. ' ^ 


actually did. rrom the Dasturs he learned the approxi- 
mate meanings of the words, and starting from this very 
rudimentary knowledge, he then simply guessed the sense 
of each sentence. 

BUKNOUF, who first investigated, in a scientific way, the 
language, of the Zend-Avesta, would never have succeeded 
in laying, the foundation of Avesta philology without the 
aid of Anquetil's labours. Anquetil had left ample mate- 
rials for future researches, and had furnished scholars with 
a summary of the contents of the Zend-Avesta. Burnouf^ 
in making his researches, availed himself chiefly of a San- 
skrit translation of the Yasna, or liturgy of the Parsis, and 
found on closer inquiry that this work was more reliable 
than Anquetil's translation. The Pahlavi translation, 
upon which this Sanskrit one is founded, would have better 
answered his purposes; but as he did not take the trouble 
to study this very peculiar language, it was of no use to 
him. Neryosangh's Sanskrit translation was then, as to 
grammatical forms and etymologies, rectified byBurnouf by 
means of comparative philology, chiefly Sanskrit. But these 
aids did not prevent him from committing many errors. On 
the one side he relied too much on Neryosangh's imperfect 
work ; on the other, he applied too often to Sanskrit ety- 
mologies, It is true he had made extensive preparations 
before he commenced his researches, for he compiled for 
his private use a vocabulary of the Avesta words with 
quotations from the Zend-Avesta, where each particular 
word occurs. In making his laborious inquiries into the 
meaning of any particular word, he quoted parallel passages, 
the broad ground on which the whole of modern philology,, 
now so highly developed, rests. But there being at his 
disposal no printed editions of the Zend-Avesta, based on 
different manuscripts, and pointing out the various read- 
ings, he could not peruse the whole of it so carefully as 
would have been requisite to guard himself against mis- 
takes, which he was otherwise unable to avoid ; he was, 
therefore, often obliged to forego and overlook important; 


passages which woidd have guided him, in many instances, 
in ascertainiQg the exact meaning. 

In his etymological proof* he was not always fortunate.l 
He lacked, to a certain extent, the skiU requisite for form- 
ing sound etymologies (which is really a very difficult task), 
and besides, his acquaintance with the most ancient forms 
and words in Sanskrit, as they are to he met with only in 
the Vedas, was too superficial. The Iranian languages, 
such as Persian (the application of which requires even 
greater skiU and knowledge than in the case of Sanskrit), 
were hut little attended to hy him. Whilst Burnouf often 
failed in his etymologies, he was almost always successful 
in determining the grammatical terminations, their affinity 
to those in Sanskrit being too close not to be recognised at 
once by a good Sanskrit scholar. And notwithstanding 
some undeniable defects in his researches, he was the first 
who gave, not a mere paraphrase or approximate statement 
of the contents, but a real translation of two chapters of 
the Yasna (ist and 9th). That was a great step taken 
towards a sound philological interpretation of the whole 
Zend-Avesta. : But this great scholar seems to have be- 
come, in the course of his studies, weary of spending many 
years in the explanation of only a few, chapters, and did 
not pursue his inquiries further. After having simply 
pointed out the way, and partially paved it, he left it for 
others to follow in his tracks. His results refer chiefly to 

1 Thus he saya dlchtHirya (Yas. ix. nised the word as a numeral, meaning 

14, Vend. X. 11) is derived from the "four times" (literally, "till the 

Vedio root anj (to which he ascribes fourth time "), and being composed of 

the meaning " to sing"), and may be the preposition d (up to, till, as far 

taken in the sense of " made for being as), ani. khtMrya, "fourth" (comp. 

sung." This is utterly wrong. The gua^wor in Latin, ietori in Lithuanian, 

root anj, to which he traces the word "four"). To the word karafan (he 

in question, never means in the Vedas writes the crude form wrongly kav' 

"to sing," but "to smear, anoint" afna, guessing it from the very fre- 

(being identical with the Latin unguo, quent genitive plural, learafndm), he 

**tosmear"). The context of the pas- ascribes the meaning "deaf," while it 

sage, where the word in question oc- means, according to the Vedio Ian. 

curs, besides, requires another mean- guage, a "performer of sacrifices," as 

ing. Had he cast a glance only at we shall see in the fourth Essay. 
Vend. X. 3, 7, he would have recog- 


grammatical points and the meaninga of words, but very 
little to the general contents of the sacred books of the 
Zoroastrian religion, or to its origin and development. 
About these matters his knowledge W'ent but little be/yond 
that of Anquetil. He had no idea of the importance of the 
Gathas ; he neither knew that their language differs from 
the usual Avesta language of the other books, nor that they 
are metrical compositions, their metres agreeing with those 
of the Vedie hymns ; so that he was unable to trace even 
an outline of the history of the Zoroastrian religion and its 
sacred writings. This task was, however, at his time, too 
difficult to be carried out ; but he discharged his duties as 
the founder of the first outlines of Avesta philology with an 
accuracy, faithfulness, conscientiousness, and sagacity which 
endear him to every sincere reader, and make his prema- 
ture death a matter of deep regret. He was really a master 
in scholarship and scientific investigations, and every page 
he 'wrote, even where he erred, bears witness to the truth 
of this statement. ■ 

Whilst the honor of having first opened the venerable 
documents of the Zoroastrian doctrines to the civilised 
world belongs to France, Germany and Denmark have to 
claim the merit of having further advanced this entirely 
new branch of phUological and antiquarian studies. 

The first German scholar who took- up the study of the 
Zend-Avesta was Justus OlshausEn, Professor of Oriental 
Languages at Kiel. He intended to publish an edition of 
the Zend-Avesta according to the manuscripts extant in 
Europe, chiefly at Paris and Copenhagen, and to furnish 
the learned public with a grammar and dictionary. He 
commenced his edition by publishing the first four chapters 
of the Vendidad, or religious code of the Parsis, in the year 
1 829 ; but after this first number had appeared he stopped 
his edition, and relinquished this extremely difficult, and 
in many respects thankless, branch of studies. 

This fragment, published by Olshausen, and the edition 
of a copy of the Vendidad SMah belonging to the National 


Xibrary at Paris, by Burnouf, were the otily means avail- 
able for German scholars who had a desire to decipher the 
language and teaching of the great Zoroaster. The utter 
insufficiency of these, in order to make any progress in 
these studies, was felt by all Oriental scholars in Germany. 
They were, therefore, driven to content themselves with 
the results arrived at by Burnouf. 

The first who made an extensive and useful application 
of them, now and then adding some reniarks of his own, 
was FeanCis Bopp, the celebrated compiler of the first 
comparative grammar of some of the chief languages ot 
the Aiyan stock. He tried to give an outline of Avesta 
grammar, chiefly according to the results arrived at by 
Burnouf, but nowhere made discoveries of so much im- 
portance in the Avesta language as that famous French- 
man had done. His sketch of Avesta grammar, scattered 
throughout his comparative grammar, although imperfect 
and incomplete as a first outline, was a valuable assistance 
to that increasing number of Oriental scholars who were 
desirous of acquiring some knowledge of the Avesta lan- 
guage, without taking the immense trouble of investigating 
the original tezts themselves. 

The first step to be taken by German scholars towards 
an advance in unravelling the mysteries of the Zend- 
Avesta, was to put themselves in possession of larger and 
better materials for their researches. There being no 
Avesta manuscripts of importance in any German library, 
students were obliged to go to Paris, Copenhagen, London, 
and Oxford, the only places where Avesta manuscripts of 
value were to be found in Europe. Among the German 
States the honor of liaving provided scholars with the 
necessary means to stay at these places in order to coUect 
more ample materials belongs to Bavaeia. 

The Bavarian Government granted considerable sums 
for these purposes to two scholars of its country, to Maec 
Joseph Mullee, afterwards Professor of Oriental Lan- 
guages at Munich, and to Feedeeic Spiegel, now Professor 


of Oriental Languages at the Bavarian University of 
Erlangen. Miiller went to Paris to copy the most impor- 
tant Avesta, and Pahlavi manuscripts, and seems to have 
heen very busy during his stay at Paris ; he himself, how- 
ever, made but little use of the materials collected by him. 
He published only two small treatises, one on the Pahlavi 
language (in the French Asiatic Journal 1839), treating 
solely of the alphabet ; and one on the commencement of 
the Bundahish (in the Transactions of the Bavarian Aca- 
demy of Sciences). Both are valuable, but chiefly based 
on AnquetU's papers, which the author thankfully acknow- 
ledged. Miiller, very likely deterred by the enormous 
difficulties, Kke many others, then gave up this branch 
of study, and handed most of his materials over to 
his younger and more energetic countryman, Feedeeic 

This scholar intended to give the learned world the first 
critical edition of all writings in the Avesta language, 
commonly called the Zend-Avesta, to be based on a care- 
ful comparison of all manuscripts then extant in Europe. 
The materials left to bim by Miiller and Olshausen not 
being sufficient to achieve this task, he went, munificently 
supported by the Bavarian Government, to Copenhagen, 
Paris, London, and Oxford, and copied all the manuscripts 
which he required for his purpose. His intention was not 
only to publish all the original texts, together with the 
ancient Pahlavi translation, but also to prepare a German 
translation of them with notes, and to issue both at the 
same time. But before he was so far advanced as to be 
able to publish a part of his large work, an edition of the 
Vendiddd Sddah (comprising the ' Vendiddd, Yasna, and 
Visparad), in Eoman characters, with an index and glos- 
sary, appeared in 1850 at Leipsic. 

The author of this really very useful work, which made 
the original texts of the Zend-Avesta known to the learned 
public at large, was Hermann Beockhaus, Professor of 
Sanskrit at the University of Leipsic, Not being in pos- 


session of such extensive materials as Spiegel, he con- 
tented himself with a transcription, in Eoman characters, 
of Burnouf's edition of the Avesta, and pointed out in 
footnotes the various readings of Framji Aspendiarji's 
edition published at Bombay in the years 1842-43 in 
Gujrati characters. To facilitate the researches of stu- 
dents, he added an index, indicating in alphabetical order 
the passages where each particular word occurs. In a 
glossary (distinct from the index) he collected the explana- 
tions of the Avesta words, so far as they had been given 
by Burnouf, Bopp, Spiegel, &c. It was a rudimentary 
Avesta dictionary, but of course very incomplete, the 
author confining himself only to those words which were 
already explained by other scholars. Now and then he 
corrected errors. 

This useful book contributed largely towards encourag- 
ing Avesta studies in Germany. Burnouf's edition and his 
commentary on the first chapter of the Yasna were too 
costly and comprehensive to become generally used among 
the students of German universities. But the work of 
Brockhaus formed a manual for those Sanskrit students 
who had a desire of making themselves acquainted with 
the sacred language of the Zend-Avesta. The German 
Sanskrit Professors began, now and then, to teach the 
Avesta, but their knowledge of this language being very 
limited, they could not succeed in training young men for 
this branch of study so successfully as they did in San- 
skrit. The subject is really so extremely difficult, that 
any one who is desirous of acquiring a complete know- 
ledge of it, is compelled to lay aside for many years nearly 
all other studies, and devote his time solely to the Avesta. 
The language could not be learned like Sanskrit, Arabic, 
Persian," Hebrew, Chaldee, Syriac, Jithiopic, Turkish, 
Chinese, &c. (all which languages are taught in German 
universities, but of course not always at the same place), 
from grammars and dictionaries ; in fact, the Avesta lan- 
"ua<Te, before it could be learned, had first to be discovered. 


But even to begin tHs task, a Tery comprehensive and 
accurate Tinowledge of several Oriental languages, as the 
starting-point for further 'inquiries, was indispensable. 

In the meantime, the importance of the Avesta lan- 
guage for antiquarian and philological researches became 
more generally known, chiefly in consequence of the 
attempts made to read the cuneiform inscriptions found in 
Persia. The first language of these inscriptions (which 
are engraved at Persepolis and on the rock of Bisutiin in 
three languages) is an Aryan one, and decidedly the 
mother of the modern Persian. Its very close affinity to 
the Avesta language struck every one at the first glance ; 
hence the great importance of this language for decipherr 
ing these inscriptions was at once acknowledged. That 
circumstance removed many doubts which were still enter.- 
tained, especially in England, about the genuineness of 
the Avesta language. The first work written in English 
which shows any acquaintance with the original Avesta 
texts was the Eev. Dr. Wilson's book on the Parsi reli- 
gion, published at Bombay in 1843, wMch, although it 
relies chiefly upon the results of Burnouf's researches, 
also contains frequent indications of independent inves- 

Whilst Spiegel was preparing his critical edition of the 
Zend-Avesta, Westeegaaed, Professor at Copenhagen, 
announced another one also, prepared from the same 
materials as were at the former's disposal. This gfeat 
Danish scholar had the first claims to the publication of 
an edition of the Avesta texts, on account of the great 
trouble he, had taken to collect additional materials for 
such a work. Not satisfied with the materials extant in 
Europe, he left for India and Persia in order to search 
after new ones. During his stay in India and Persia 
(1841-43) he unfortunately did not succeed in obtaining 
manuscripts of much value. There were, indeed, some 
old copies of the Avesta books extant in Gujrat, and even 
in Bombay, but it is very difficult to purchase them. In 


Persia, no books, hitherto unknown, could be discovered 
by Westergaard, and even of those known to the Parsis in 
India, he found only very few copies. We must there- 
fore consider Western India, but more particularly Gujrat, 
as the only place Avhere any books, hitherto unknown, 
may be discovered. In the advertisement of his edition 
of the Zend-Avesta, Westergaard announced the addition 
of a complete dictionary, with a grammar of both the 
Avesta dialects, an English translation of the whole, and 
an account of Iranian antiquities according to the Zend- 

The first frnit of Westergaard's Iranian studies was, 
however, not an edition of the Zend-Avesta, but one of the 
Bundahish, or " original creation," still extant in Pahlavi, 
but not in the Avesta. It is a compendious descrip- 
tion of much of the Parsi religion, but is not acknowledged 
by the Dasturs as a canonical book, like those styled 
Zend-Avesta ; its contents agreeing so exceedingly well 
with the reports of Theopompos and Hermippos, men- 
tioned above, that we are driven to assign to the original, 
or its sources, a date not later than tlie fourth century 
before the Christian era. Westergaard's edition (Copen- 
hagen, 1 851) contains, however, only a lithographed ver- 
sion of one very old codex of the Bitndahish, extant in the 
University Library at Copenhagen. He added neither 
translation nor notes ; the only addition he made was a 
transcript of two inscriptions of the Sasanians, found in a 
cave at Hajiab^d, which were copied by him during his 
stay in Persia. This edition was reviewed by the writer 
of these Essays, and the review was accompanied by a 
short sketch of Pahlavi Grammar.^ 

Before Spiegel issued tlie first number of his edition of 
the Avesta texts, he published a " Grammar of the Parsi 
Language" (Leipzig, 1851). He means by Parsi language 
that which is now called Pfeand by the Dasturs. It 

1 See ' Ueber die Pehlewi-Spraohe und den Bundehesh,' in the ' Gottinger 
gelehrten Anzeigen,' 1854. 



differs very little from modern Persian, except in the want 
of Arabic words, and is nearly identical with the language 
written hy the great Persian poet Firdausi, A.D. loco. 
We are, therefore, fully entitled to call it a somewhat 
obsolete form of modern Persian. Spiegel added some 
specimens of religious literature extant in Parsi, with a 
German translation. This book was also reviewed (in 
J 85 3) by the writer of these Essays, who found himself 
compelled to take an unfavorable view of the scholarship 
displayed by its author. 

A short time after this grammar, the first number of his 
edition of the Zend-Avesta, comprising the Avesta text of 
about ten chapters of the Vendidad, appeared. It was 
printed with beautiful new type at the Imperial printing- 
office at Vienna (185 1), and is really a masterpiece of 
typography. This number, containing the mere text, with- 
out either various readings or the Pahlavi translation, did 
not suffice to enable the reader to form a judgment of the 
way in which the text was edited ; and the publication of 
the remaining portion of the Vendidad, together with the 
Pahlavi translation of the whole, was delayed till 1853. 
In the same year the first number of Westergaard's edi- 
tion, printed at Copenhagen, appeared. It comprised the 
text of the Yasna, only, chiefly based on a very old codex 
(written a.d. 1323),! but with footnotes indicating some 
of the more important various readings of other codices. 
This edition, although not printed with such beautiful 
type as that used by Spiegel, was very accurate, and made 
a nmch better impression upon the student than tliat of 
his rival. In this first number one could see that he had 
recognised the five Gathas as metrical pieces. These first 
numbers of Spiegel's and Westergaard's editions, together 
with Spiegel's translation of the whole Vendidad, were 

' This codex is probably the oldest writer, but dated twenty-two days 

ivesta manuscript in the world, and later, is in the library of Dastur 

contains the Yasna alternating with Jamaspji Minoohiharji Jamaspasana 

its Pahlavi translation. Another in Bombay. 
«»py of the same texts by the same 


reviewed (1852-53) by one of the most distinguislied and 
sagacious Sanskrit scholars in Europe, Theodok Benfey, 
Professor of Sanskrit at the University of Gottingen, in 
Hanover. He showed that, by a comparison with San- 
skrit, which corresponds very closely with the Avesta 
language, one might arrive at a much better understand- 
ing of the Zend-Avesta than had been attained by Spiegel, 
who appeared to have relied chiefly upon the Pahlavi 
translation and the information supplied by Anquetil. 
This Pahlavi translation, made at least thirteen hundred 
or fourteen hundred years ago, would be a great assistance 
to any modern translator who understands it thoroughly, 

1 That Spiegel did not understand take the first sentences of the Veu- 
how to avail himself of the Pahlavi didad as an iUustration. The ori- 
translation much better than Anque- ginal Avesta text, with a literal in- 
til, seems probable from many pas- terlinear translation, is as follows : — 
sages in hi^ translation ; but we may 

Mraod Ahur6 Mazddo Spitamdi ZarathusMr&i : Azem dadham, Spitama 
Spake Ahuramazda to Sjtitama Zarathushtra : I created, O Spitama 
Zarathushtra ! asd rdmS-ddittm ndid kudad shditim; ySidhi 

Zarathushtra ! a place of pleasant formation not anywhere habitable ; if 

aJ asem nSid daidhydm, Spitama Zarathushtra I as6 fdm$^ 

then I not should have created, Spitama Zarathushtra ! a place of plea- 

dditim nSid kudad shdittm, vtspS a^hush astvdo Airyanem 

sant formation not anywhere habitable^ all life existing into Iran 

vatj6 frdshnvdd. 

the pure would have poured forth. 

This passage is rendered in the " for it is not possible to go so far as 
Pahlavitranslation, with explanatory 'from region {Jchhvar) to region, 
phrases (here included in brackets), ' except with the permission of the 
as follows: — ' Attharmazd said to ' yazads (angels) ; some say that it is 
' Sptt&m&n Zarat&shtar : I created, O ' possible to go also with that of the 
' SpitSmau ZaratCishtar ! a delightful ' demons]. ' 

' creation of a place where no com- Spiegel's translation of the same 
' fort was created [this is where man passage is as follows : — ' Ahura Maz- 
' is, the place where he is born and ' da said to the holy Zarathushtra : 
' they bring him up, seems good to ' I created, holy Zarathushtra ! a 
' him, that is, very excellent and ' place, a creation of pleasantness, 
' comfortable ; this I created] ; for if ' where nowhere was created a possi- 
' I should not have created, O Splta- ' bility (for drawing near). For if, 
' m9,n Zaratilshtar ! a delightful crea- ' holyZat-athushtra ! I hadnot created 
' tion of a place whei'e no comfort ' a place, a creation of pleasantness, 
' was created, there would have been " where nowhere was created a possi- 

• an emigration of the whole material ' bility, the whole world endowed 
' world to Alr4n-v6i (the earthly ' with bodies would have gone to 

• paradise), [that is, they would have ' Airy ana- vacj.i.' 

' remained in the act, while their In this translation Spiegel differs 
' going would have been impossible ; from Pahlavi in two notable in- 


as it contains much traditional information which would 
be vainly sought for elsewhere; but this information is 
given in a character and idiom not only very difficult to 
understand, but also particularly liable to be misunder- 
stood. In many cases the Pahlavi translation fails to 
explain the original text, or evidently misinterprets it. 
Under these circumstances it can be safely used only as a 
supplementary authority, in confirmation or modification 
of results already obtained (after the manner of Burnouf ), 
by a careful comparison of parallel passages, and search 
for Sanskrit equivalents ; or, when these means fail, the 
Pahlavi translation may often afford valuable assistance, 
if used judiciously. 

Before Spiegel published the second volume of his 
edition of the Zend'Avesta (iSsS), containing the Yasna 
and Visparad, with their Pahlavi translations, Westergaard 
succeeded in editing all the Avesta texts which are known 
as yet ; and to him we owe, therefore, the first complete 
edition of the Zend-Avesta. The work is entitled Zend- 
Avesta, or the Religious Boolcs of the Zoroastrians, edited and 
translated, with a Dictionary, Grammar, &c., hy N. L. 
Westergaard. Vol. I. The Zend Texts (Copenh., 1852-54); 
but of the two remaining volumes nothing has yet 
appeared. Westergaard knows too well the enormous 
difficulties with which the study of the Zend-Avesta is 
beset to come forward with a hasty translation, grammar, 

stances, and, unfortunately, without connection with the meaning of 

sufBoient reasqn. The first deviation "holy." The other deviation is with 

ia with regard to the word Spitama, regard to the word shditttn, which 

which he translates " holy," in ac- Spiegel translates " possibility," but 

cordance with Burnouf 's explajia,tiMi, the Pahlavi translates, more correctly 

which was assented to by all Euro- hj dsdntfi, "comfort." It is derived 

pean scholars for a long time. But from the root khshi, ' to reside,' and 

in Pahlavi it is translated by the the meaning of the sentence in which 

patronymioal adjective SpUdmdn, it occurs, is that a place was made 

"tiie Spitaman, or descended from delightful which had previously been 

Spitama " who was the ancestor of nowhere habitable. Spiegel now ap- 

Zarathushtra in the ninth genera- pears to prefer comparing shdittm 

tion, as recorded in the Pahlavi with the Persian shddt, "pleasure, 

books. The Dasturs' tradition con- joy," which is more in accordance 

iirms this explanation, and the word with the Pahlavi. 
tp'Uama never occurs in any other 


aud dictionary ; he knows that none but he -who spends 
many years in mere preparatory studies is able to give 
anything like a correct translation of even a portion of the 
Zend-Avesta. As a'iirst edition of all the Avesta texts, 
Westergaard's work deserves much praise ; he follows, in 
most cases, the best manuscripts ; but if he finds their 
readings decidedly incorrect, he amends them according to 
sound pliilological principles. Compound words, so far as 
he could discover them, are always marked. From a care- 
ful perusal of his work, one may gather that Weste'rgaard 
understood already a good deal of the texts, and had 
extensive collections of words, forms, various readings, &c., 
at his disposal. In every respect except typography, 
Westergaard's edition of the Avesta texts is far prefer- 
able to that of Spiegel, but he did not add the Pahlavi 

Passing over some small treatises by Spiegel, published oc- 
casionally in the Journal of the German Oriental Society and 
the Transactions of the Bavarian Academy, of which the best 
was his essay on the 19th Fargard of the Vendidad, we may 
now proceed to speak of the researches in the sacred writ- 
ings of the Parsis made by the author of these Essays. 

He commenced the study of the Avesta language in the 
autumn of 1852, shortly after the publication of the first 
number of Westergaard's edition of the Zend-Avesta con- 
taining the Avesta text of the Yasna. He was already 
acquainted with the results arrived at by Burnouf, which 
knowledge was chiefly due to Brockhaus's valuable com- 
pilation already noticed. But he was quite convinced, at 
the very outset of his studies, that, from all that had been 
hitherto written on the Avesta language and the Zend- 
Avesta, one could obtain little but merely elementary in- 
formation on the subject. Actuated by mere love of these 
ancient records, and cherishing the hope of making some 
discoveries in this terra incognita, he set about the task of 
instituting inquiries into these sacred texts. He possessed 
no other aids than those which were accessible to all other 


scholars, while Spiegel and Westergaard had all the manu- 
scripts, or copies thereof, and the Pahlavi and Sanskrit 
translations, at their disposal. Westergaard's edition of 
the Yasna enabled the author to commence this study, but 
it was soon apparent that unusual difficulties attended 
every step in this branch of philological study. He first 
directed his attention to the metrical portions of the Yasna, 
called the five Gathas, or hymns, the explanation of which 
had never been attempted before by any Oriental scholar. 
It is true Spiegel first observed that their language is dif- 
ferent from the usual Avesta language to be found in the 
"Vendidad, Yashts, Visparad, and the other parts of the 
Yasna ; but he rested satisfied with pointing out some of 
the most striking differences, such as the constant length- 
ening of final vowels, and had never undertaken to trans- 
late these hymns. The author first tried to make out the 
meaning of a few lines by means of Anquetil's translation, 
but was soon convinced of its utter insufficiency even as a 
guide for ascertaining the general meaning. In the Ven- 
didad and the other books Anquetil may guide one in this 
respect, but not in the Gathas. The chief reason is the 
peculiarity of these hymns as to language and ideas ; they 
contain no descriptions of ceremonies and observances, like 
the Vendidad, nor any enumeration of the glorious feats 
of angels, like the Yashts, but philosophical and abstract 
thoughts, and they differ widely from all other pieces con- 
tained in the Zend-Avesta. As they have been unintelli- 
gible to the Parsi priests for more than two thousand years, 
we could not expect Anquetil to give even an approximate 
account of their general contents. As Anquetil's work 
afforded no assistance, it became necessary to take the 
trouble of collecting all the parallel passages throughout 
the Zend-Avesta, and arranging them alphabetically. The 
index of Brockhaus to the Vendidad, Yasna, and Visparad 
was a considerable aid ; but it was necessary to make an 
index to the Yashts, which form about one-half of all the 
Avesta texts extant, and were for the first time published 


in Westergaard's edition. Being convinced, like Burnouf, 
that the language of the Vedas stands nearest of all Aryan 
dialects to the Avesta language, the authou betook himself 
to the study of the sacred writings of the Brahmans, espe- 
cially that section which is called the Bigveda Samhitd, 
being a collection of rather more than a thousand very 
ancient hymns. Only one-eighth part of this large work 
being published at that time, it was necessary to copy out 
from a manuscript, kindly lent by Professor Benfey at 
Gottingen, the remaining seven parts. After that was 
done, an alphabetical index, at least to some portions of 
this extensive collection of hymns, had also to be made ; 
but in this tedious work assistance was given by a friend, 
GoTTLOB WiLHEiiM Heemajstn (a young clergyman in Wiir- 
temberg), who possesses a remarkable knowledge of San- 
skrit. Not content with these aids, the author commenced 
the study of Armenian (which is affiliated to the Iranian 
languages), and also that of Pahlavi (being already ac- 
quainted with modern Persian). The study of Pahlavi, 
which language resembles a mixture of Persian and Chal- 
dee, was much facilitated by his being acquainted, to a 
certain extent, with all Semitic tongues, which knowledge 
he owed chiefly to his great teacher, Professor EwALD, at 
Gottingen. After these preparations, the philological 
operations were commenced in the following manner : — 
First, all the other passages were examined where the word 
or form to be investigated occurred, in order to ascertain 
its approximate meaning. But the parallels referred to 
being often as obscure as the passage upon which they 
had to throw light, it was frequently necessary first to make 
out their meaning also by a reference to other parallels. 
The approximate meaning of the word being thus arrived 
at, in most cases after much trouble, it was confirmed or 
modified by means of a sound etymology ; first applying to 
those words and forms of the Avesta language itself which 
there was reason to suppose to be cognate to the word in 
question, and then consulting the Vedas, especially the 


hymns of the Eigveda. There being neither index nor 
glossary to these hymns, the same trouble had to be taken 
with them as with the Zend-Avesta, in order to ascertain 
from parallels the meaning of the Yedic word referred to. 
When no satisfactory result was obtained by these means, 
further search was made in modern Persian and Armenian, 
and now and then in Latin and Greek also. Modern Per- 
sian, especially in its older form, commonly styled Parsi, 
was of the highest value for such etymological researches. 
But an appeal to this genuine niece of the sacred language 
of the Zend-Avesta is in general more difficult, and sub- 
ject to greater liability of error, than that to Vedic San- 
skrit, which is an elder sister of the Avesta language. In 
modern Persian a good many Avesta words are preserved, 
but they have undergone such great changes as to make 
them, hardly discernible by a somewhat inexperienced ety- 
mologist. Such corruptions of the ancient words are, 
however, reducible to certain rules, which, being only par- 
tially known as yet, had first to be discovered. To illus- 
trate these remarks on the corruption of ancient words in 
modern Persian by some examples, we may take the Avesta 
■zaredaya, " heart," which has become dil in modern Per- 
sian; sareda, "year," is sal; kerenaoiti, "he makes," is 
kimad ; dtarsh,"ia&," is dtash; &c. In Sanskrit, as the 
elder sister, the corresponding words are much easier to 
recognise : thus, zaredaya is liridaya, saredha is sharad i 
(in the Vedas), kerenaoiti is krinoti (the Vedic form, altered 
in classical Sanskrit into karoti), dtar-sh is athar (pre- 
served only in its derivative atharvan, "fireman, priest"), 
&c. Of the ancient grammatical forms, such as the dis- 
tinctive terminations of cases, tenses, &c., nothing remains 
in modern Persian, but all are extant in Vedic Sanskrit. 

1 Spelt as pronounced ; the letter f, by no means an imaginary evil) more 

generally used by European Oriental- than counterbalances any etymologi- 

Ists, misrepresents the sound of the ciil advantage that can be gained by 

palatal sibilant, which is that of sh using k, g, and f to represent palatal 

in sheet, or ss in assure. The risk of sounds, 
leading to mispronunciation (which is 


From tliese remarks, it -will be readily perceived that San- 
skrit must be of mucb more use than modern Persian in 
deciphering the Avesta language. 

The first fruit of these laborious researches was an 
attempt to explain the forty-fourth chapter of the Yasna 
(forming a part of the second Gatha), which appeared in 
the Journal of the German Oriental Society (1853-54). 
On account of the great difficulty of the subject, and the 
incompleteness of the intended preparations, at that early 
date it was impossible to be certain of many of the inter- 
pretations proposed. But being convinced, from this first 
attempt, that the Gdthas contained the undoubted teaching 
of Zarathushtra himself, as he imparted it to his disciples, 
the author thought it worth the trouble to pursue these 
studies six years longer, and published the results of his 
laborious investigations in a work entitled, "The Five 
Gathsls, or Collections of Songs and Sayings of Zarathush- 
tra, his Disciples and Successors," edited, translated, and 
explained (2 vols., Leipzig, 1858-60). It contains the 
text, revised according to philological principles, and trans- 
scribed into Eoman characters, a literal Latin translation, 
a free translation into German, and a complete critical and 
philological commentary, with introductions to each of the 
seventeen chapters, and concludes with an introduction to 
the whole. The basis of the whole work is the commen- 
tary, which gives, at full length, the results of a comparison 
-of all parallel passages in the Zend-Avesta and the Veda, 
and the etymological researches in the Avesta and cognate 
languages, together with a partial review of the traditional 
explanations, so far as they were accessible in a bad trans- 
cript of Neryosangh's Sanskrit translation of the Gathas. 
Some portions of this work, much revised, will be hereafter 
submitted to the reader in the third Essay. 

About six months after the publication of the first part 
of this work, Spiegkl published a translation of the whole 
Yasna (including the Gathas), together with the Visparad. 
In this translation of the Yasna he appears to have relied 


chiefly upon Neryosangh's Sanskrit version, which, in its 
turn, is a mere echo of the Pahlavi translation. This is, no 
doubt, the traditional interpretation; but, unfortunately, 
the tradition goes but a short way back in the history of 
such ancient writings as the G^thas, which had evidently 
become as unintelligible (from age or difference of dialect) 
in the time of the Pahlavi translators as they are to the 
Dasturs of the present day. Any translation based upon 
such imperfect tradition can claim little attention as a 
work to be relied on. 

Spiegel had previously (in 1856) published his " Gram- 
mar of the Huzvaresh Language," a term applied to Pah- 
lavi, and usually written zvdrish by Persian writers ; it 
appears, however, to mean the peculiar mode of writing 
adopted in Pahlavi, in which Semitic words (or other obso- 
lete forms) could be substituted by the writer for their 
Iranian equivalents, and would be read by the reader just 
as if the Iranian words had been written. This mode of 
writing is by no means peculiar to Pahlavi, for even in 
English we often write forms which are strictly analogous 
to Huzvdrish, such as viz., i.e., e.g., lb., %, £ s. d., Xmas, 
&c., which we generally read as if they were written. 
" namely," " that is," " for example/' " pound," " per cent.," 
" pounds, shillings, and pence," " Christmas," " et cetera." 
Spiegel's grammar was based upon the forms he found in 
the Pahlavi translations of the Avesta, and in the Eunda- 
hish ; and so far as the collection and arrangement of these 
forms was concerned, it was very complete and useful ; but 
he was unfortunate in his explanations of the Huzvarish 
forms, and so many of these explanations have since been 
disproved, that his grammar is practically obsolete, and 
likely to mislead. 

In i860 Spiegel published, as a second part of his 
Huzvarish grammar, a work on the traditional literature of 
the Parsis, illustrated by quotations from the original texts, 
with translations, aud a glossary. This work contains 
many valuable notices of such Pahlavi texts as were acces- 



sible to him, especially the Bundahish, Bahman Yasht, 
Minokhird, and the Pahlavi translations of the Vendidad, 
Yasna, and Visparad ; together with some allusions to the 
Vajarkard-i-dinl, Arda-Viraf-namah, Sad-dar Bundahish, 
Zaratiisht-namah, Changhragh^ch-namah, ' Ulama-i-IslEim, 
Jamasp-nHmah, the EivSyats, and a few minor writings. 
With some of the longest of the Pahlavi writings Spiegel 
was then unacquainted, and he was inclined to identify 
the Shayast-nashayast with the Sad-dar Bundahish, not 
being aware that it is the name applied to the Pahlavi 
Pdvayat by the Dasturs, and that there is also a Persian 
book of the same name extant. 

Before proceeding to later researches, some other publi- 
cations relating to the Zend-Avesta have to be mentioned. 
Lassen, the well-known Sanskrit scholar, published an 
edition of the Avesta text of the first five chapters of the 
Vendidad (Bonn, 1851)5 but he added neither translation 
nor explanatory notes. 

Max Dunckee, the author of a " History of Antiquity " 
which is highly valued in Germany, treated of the ancient 
Persian religion, its sacred books and prophets, in the 
second volume of his work. Although himself a mere 
historian, and no Oriental scholar, he succeeded in drawing 
a fine and correct general picture of ancient Iranian life^ 
according to the reports of the Greeks and the modern 
researches in the Zend-Avesta, 

WiNDiscHMANN, a Eoman Catholic clergyman of high 
position at Munich, published two valuable essays, one on 
the deity Anaitis worshipped by the ancient Persians, 
and mentioned, under the name Anahita, in the Yashts 
(Munich, 1856) ; the other was a translation of the Mihir 
Yasht, with notes (Leipzig, 1857). His latest researches 
were published, after his premature death, under the title 
of " Zoroastrian Studies," edited by Spiegel (Berlin, 1863). 
This work contains a very useful translation of the Bunda- 
hish, with extensive explanatory notes and essays upon 
several of its subjects, including a translation of the first 


half of the Fravardin Yasht. His translations were a great 
improvement on those of Anquetil, being made on scien- 
tific principles. In the case of the Bundahish, he had 
really to rely upon the single text published by Wester- 
gaard, as previously mentioned ; for Anquetil's manuscript 
of the text was originally copied from the same codex, now 
at Copenhagen. 

In 1864, Bleeck published an English translation of the 
Avesta, at the request of Seth Muncherjee Hormusjee Cama. 
Tliis was merely a translation from the German of Spiegel, 
but the translator referred to the origiaal text as a guide to 
his choice of words in many places, and in some instances 
he complains of the German version being quite as unin- 
telligible as the Avesta text itself. This translation was 
intended for the information of the Parsis, but it has also 
been useful to that portion of the English public which 
takes an interest in Zoroastrianism, though unprepared to 
face the difficulty of foreign languages. It contains, of 
course, all the imperfections of Spiegel's translations. 

The further researches of the author of these Essays were 
greatly facilitated by his being appointed, in 1859, super- 
intendent of Sanskrit studies in Poona College, near Bom- 
bay. He was thus brought into contact both with Brah- 
mans and Parsi priests, the present possessors of all the 
traditional Vedic and Zoroastrian lore that has not been 
lost. After a short interval, employed in learning MarS.thi, 
the vernacular language of that part of Western India, and 
in the further study of English, he began his observations 
of the native modes of study, and followed them up by 
close inquiries regarding their rites and ceremonies. He 
had, in the first place, to unlearn much that he had learnt 
in Europe ; and to his readiness in accepting the fact that 
European scholarship must often stand corrected before 
Indian tradition was probably due his ever-increasing 
influence over the natives, which enabled him, in the 
end, to obtain fuUer information regarding their ceremonies 
than had ever previously been given to a European. 


The Parsis had gradually lost much of their reluctance 
to discuss religious matters with Europeans, which had 
been engendered or aggravated by their bitter controversy 
■with the missionaries, some twenty years before, and which 
had been brought to a climax by the publication of the 
Eev. Dr. Wilson's book before mentioned. They felt that 
this book was so far one-sided as to give a false idea of 
their religion, and they were naturally indignant at the 
sarcasms it contained.^ But the progress of time and 
education had dissipated this ill-feeling, and they were 
delighted to find a European scholar who understood so 
much of their religion as to appreciate its good points 
without dwelHng too severely upon those which are doubt- 
ful or objectionable. With a feeling of growing confidence, 
the priests discussed their ceremonies and sacred books, 
and the laity were glad to receive, from a European scholar, 
explanations , of their older scriptures which had hitherto 
been nearly sealed books to all. To meet this increasing 
demand for information, a public lecture, " On the Origin 
of the Parsi Eeligion," was delivered on the ist March 
1861 ; and the first edition of these Essays was published 
in 1862. 

In the cold season of 1 863-64 the author undertook a 
tour in Gujrat, under Government patronage, to search for 
Avesta, Pahlavi, and Sanskrit manuscripts. During this 
tour he examined most of the Parsi libraries in Surat,2 
Nawsari, Bhroch, and Balsar, and succeeded in purchasing 
several manuscripts for the Bombay Government, including 

' Any personal ill-feeling whicli Dr. that in his controversy with them he 

Wilson may have occasioned by his had only acted as his duty compelled 

book soon disappeared ; but it was him. 

many years before his habitual kind- "^ The only Parsi priest in Surat 

hness, and conscientious efforts for who knew anything of Anquetil Du- 

the improvement of the natives of perron was DasturKai-KhusroDarab, 

India, regained the confidence of the who recollected hearing that Dastur 

Parsis. On his death, however, in Darab had taught Anquetil theAvesta, 

1875,, no one felt m.ore deeply than and shown him the sacred fire, when 

tlie Dasturs themselves that they had disguised as a Parsi. 
lust one of their best friends, and 


a very old copy of the Avesta text of the Yasna, aa old 
copy of the Vendidad with Pahlavi, and a Vendidad-sadah 
written in 1626. Some other manuscripts were presented 
to him as tokens of personal respect on the part of their 
owners. Among these was a very old manuscript contain- 
ing the Visparad with Pahlavi, HadSkht Nask, Pahlavi 
Eivayat, Arda-Viraf-nimah, Bundahish, and several minor 
texts, written in 1397; also copies of the Mrangistan, 
Shikand-gumani, &c. With regard to Sanskrit transla- 
tions, he could find none of the Yasna extending beyond 
the Srosh Yasht ; and of the Vendidad, only Fargards viii. 
79, 80, and ix. 1-4 (Westerg.), appear to have been ever 
translated into Sanskrit. He also saw a Sanskrit Sirozah 
and an incomplete Avesta-Sanskrit glossary. At. ISTaw- 
sari he found two copies (one in Avesta and the other in 
Avesta with Pahlavi) of a book called the VaStha Nask, 
from its beginning with the word va^tha.; and other copies 
.of it were seen elsewhere. Both its Avesta and Pahlavi 
were full of grammatical errors, and there is reason to 
believe that this work was fabricated by some Dastur more 
than a century ago, for the purpose of settling the inheri- 
tance of the children of a non-Zoroastrian wife, which it 
fixes at one-half the property, while the widow is to 
receive the other half This is contrary to the opinion of 
most Parsi priests, who would consider such children not 
entitled to any share of the paternal property, although 
there appears to be nowhere, in the Avesta texts extant, 
any direct prohibition of intermarriages between Zoroas- 
trians and non-Zoroastrians. 

After his return to Poona, in 1 864, the author recom- 
mended the Government of Bombay to employ Dastur 
Hoshangji Jamaspji, a younger brother of the high-priest 
of the Parsis at Poona, to prepare editions of several Pah- 
lavi works for publication ; and he subsequently under- 
took to revise these works, and see them through the 
press, on his return to Germany in 1866. He also de- 
livered a lecture, " On an Original Speech of Zoroaster " 


(Yasna xlv.), before an almost exclusively Parsi audience, 
at Bombay, on the 8th October 1864, at their special re- 
quest. And in pursuance of his schemes for encouraging 
Parsis ia the study of their religious literature, the pro- 
ceeds of this lecture were appropriated as prizes for the 
best translations, by Parsis, of two Palilavi works, one of 
which, the Pandnamah of Adarpad M^raspend, was pub- 
lished in 1869. 

Turning back to Europe, we find a young and indus- 
trious scholar, JusTi, of Marburg, publishing a " Handbook 
of the Zend Language " (Leipzig, 1 864), containing a dic- 
tionary (Avesta and German) of all words in the texts 
published by Westergaard, a grammar, and selections for 
reading, all printed in Eoman type. This dictionary is a 
very useful compilation in a handy form, and, so far as 
arrangement is concerned, it leaves little to be desired ; 
but having been prepared with too little study of the 
texts, it is often incorrect in its definitions, and is there- 
fore likely to perplex the careful student, and mislead the 
unwary, unless it be used rather as a handy index than a 
complete dictionary. Many of these defects will probably 
disappear in a second edition, which ought also to include 
the Avesta words peculiar to the Zend-Pahlavi glossary 
and Mrangistan; but the Avesta dictionary long ago 
promised by Westergaard would be more welcome, and 
be used with more confidence. 

In 1868 Justi also published a translation of the Bun- 
dahish, with the Pahlavi text lithographed and trans- 
literated into Persian characters, and a glossary, in which 
the Pahlavi words are printed in Persian type. From 
some misconception, he claims, on the title-page, to have 
published the Bundahish for the first time, whereas the 
lithographed text had been already published by Wester- 
gaard in 185 1, and translations had been published by 
Anquetil in 1 77 1, and by Windischm-ann in 1863. Justi 
had the advantage of collating another recension of the 
text, contamed in a Pahlavi MS. at Oxford and a Pazand 


MS. in London, both of whicli have evidently been derived 
from the very old MS. written in 1 397, and presented to 
the author of these Essays at Surat, as mentioned above. 
The translation is, therefore, more correct than its prede- 
cessors, though blunders are not unfrequent. Justi argues 
that the Bundahish is not older than the time of Fir- 
dausi, and its statement about the accession of the Arabs 
cannot, of course, be more than three centuries older ; but 
many of the other signs of late date which he relies on 
are fallacious. It seems plausible enough to argue that 
the more old forms of words a MS. contains, the older it 
must be ; but when one finds old forms substituted in a 
modern MS. for latex forms in a MS. five hundred years 
old (as often happens in Pahlavi), this argument evidently 
faUs, and we have to suspend our judgment until the period 
when the later forms first arose has been historically 
ascertained. With regard to the Bundahish, it has pro- 
bably been too hastily assumed that it is a single con- 
tinuous work ; it may be half-a-dozen fragments, either, of 
the same or various works, thrown together in different 
orders by different writers, as the MSS, vary in arrange- 
ment, and the fragments constituting Anquetil's Chapters 
xxviii., xxix., xxx., and xxxii., have been hitherto found 
only in the MS. at Copenhagen, and its two modern 
copies. This fragmentary condition of the book is more 
consistent with the supposition of its antiquity than of its 
later origin ; it also explains how some fragments may be 
much older than others. However this may be, the ar- 
rangement of the fragments in the Copenhagen MS. is 
probably that adopted in the latest edition, as it is most 
consistent with the idea of a continuous text. 

The author of these Essays, after his return to Germany 
in 1866, revised and published, for the Government of 
Bombay, some of the Pahlavi works prepared by Dastur 
Hoshangji, as mentioned above. The first of these was 
the " Old Zend-Pahlavi Glossary," which is found in two 
of the oldest Pahlavi MSS. extant. The text was printed 


in the original character, with an interlinear transliteration 
in italics, and accompanied with an introduction, English 
translation, and alphahetical index to the Avesta words, 
arranged as an Avesta glossary. The introduction treated, 
first, of the age and origin of Pahlavi ; and, secondly, of 
the age and value of the glossary ; and it contained the 
first systematic attempt to connect the Pahlavi of the 
Sasanian inscriptions with that of the Parsi hooks. This 
glossary was published in 1867, and was followed in 1870 
by the " Old Pahlavi-Pazand Glossarj'," of which the text 
and index had likewise been prepared by Dastur Hosh- 
angji. The index, which was arranged as a Pahlavi- 
English glossary, was considerably enlarged by the addi- 
tion of all the Pahlavi words in the " Zend-Pahlavi 
Glossary." And the work was preceded by a long and 
important introductory essay on the Pahlavi language, in 
which the nature of that language was, for the first time, 
fully and critically examined, and a sound basis laid for 
future investigations. This essay began with a history 
of the researches in Pahlavi literature, inscriptions, and 
numismatics which had been made in Europe. It then 
proceeded to discuss the meaning of the terms Pahlavi 
and Huzvarish, identifying Pahlavi with Parthian 01 
ancient Persian, and explaining Huzvarish as the mode 
of writing Pahlavi with a large intermixture of foreign 
or obsolete words. It next deciphered several Sasanian 
inscriptions, and compared their language with that of the 
Parsi books, with the view of determining the character 
of Pahlavi, which it defined as a Semitic language, with 
an admixture of Iranian words, and a prevailing Iranian 
construction, if we look only to the way it is written (all 
the pronouns and particles, and most of the common 
words, being usually Semitic) ; or as a purely Iranian lan- 
guage if we consider only the way in which it is read; 
and to this practice, of reading the Iranian equivalents of 
the written Semitic words, it attributed the total disappear- 
ance of these Semitic words in modern Persian as soon ae 



the writers began to write as they spoke. The essay con- 
cluded by discussing the origin and age of Pahlavi, and 
showed that traces of that language can be discovered in 
some short inscriptions of the fourth and seventh centu- 
ries B.C. Although this glossary was originally published 
by Anquetil in his Zend-Avesta in 1771, it was in such a 
modified fornf that it remained for a century practically 

Shortly after the publication of the first of these glos- 
saries, the author of these Essays was appointed Professor 
of Sanskrit and Comparative Philology at the University of 
Munich, where he continued to publish, from time to time, 
short essays on subjects connected with Parsi literature ; 
among them an essay " On the Present State of Zend Phi- 
lology" (1868), in which he sought to correct the mis- 
apprehensions of other scholars with regard to the mean- 
ings of certain Avesta words. Also a translation of the 
eighteenth Fargard of the Vendidad, with a commentary 
(1869) ; and an essay on the Yatha-ahu-vairyo, one of the 
most sacred formulas of the Parsis, with a translation of 
its commentary in Yasna xix. (1872). 

The last of his works connected with the Parsi religion 
was the revision and publication of Dastur Hoshangji's 
edition of " The Book of Arda-Viraf" (1872), and its glos- 
sary (1874). In the preparation of these works, and also 
in the Pahlavi-Pazand glossary, he was assisted by an 
English friend, E. W. West, whose attention had been iirst 
•directed to Pahlavi by the discovery of inscriptions in that 
language at the old Buddhist caves of Kanheri, about 
/twenty miles north of Bombay. To the Pahlavi text and 
ttransliteration of the book of Arda-Vir§,f were added the 
texts and transliterations of the tale of G6sht-i Pryano 
and the Hadokht Nask, with English translations of all 
three texts, and introductory essays describing the manu- 
scripts used, the system of transliteration adopted, and the 
contents of the texts. The glossary, which was prepared 
by West from the original texts and from materials sup- 


plied by Dastur Hosliangji, was arranged in the alpha- 
betical order of the Pahlavi characters, as compared with 
their modern Persian equivalents. It forms a complete 
index to the three texts, and to some Pahlavi fragments 
which had heen published, but not glossarised, in the 
introductions and notes to the previous glossaries. It 
would be a great assistance to scholars if other Pahlavi 
texts were published in a similarly complete manner, but 
the labour of doing so, with sufficient accuracy, is alarm- 
ingly great. To the glossary was added an outline of 
Pahlavi grammar. 

Besides assisting in the publication of Dastur Hos- 
hangji's works, West had also published " The Book of the 
Mainyo-i-khard" (1871) which professes to give the utter^ 
ances ,of the Spirit of Wisdom on many of the doctrines 
and details of the Parsi religion. In this work the P4zand 
text and ISTeryosangh's Sanskrit translation were printed ih 
Eoman type, and accompanied by a glossary of all the 
Pazand words, with an outline of Pazand grammar. 

Passing over some short essays, such as Sachau's " Con- 
tributions to the Knowledge of Parsi Literature>'' and also 
larger works of more pretension, such as Spiegel's " Iranian 
Antiquities," this account of European researches may be 
iconcluded by a short notice of some French works. 

A new French translation of the Avesta is in the course 
of publication by C. DE Harlez, Professor at the University . 
■of Louvain, in Belgium. The first volume (1875) contains a 
translation of the Vendidad, with an introductory historical 
account of Zoroaster and the Avesta, and some details re- 
garding Zoroastrian doctrines and ceremonies. The second 
volume (1876) contains translations of the Visparad, Yasna, 
Hadokht ISTask, and the first ten Yashts of Westergaard'j 
iedition of the texts. These translations are based not only 
;upon Spiegel's translations, but also upon the works of all 
other scholars hitherto published, which have been care- 
fully compared with the origiual text by M. de Harlez, who 
.has .selected the most satisfactory explanations, or modified 


them in accordance with his own researches. He has 
endeavoured to give the meaning of the text without being 
slavishly literal in his translation, because the French 
language, in his opinion, does not tolerate strictly literal 
translation where the meaning is obscure. This is unfor- 
tunate, as there are many obscure passages into which it 
would be very hazardous to import more meaning than the 
original text implies. Perhaps it would be more correct to 
say that Fsench writers, like Orientals, cannot tolerate that 
strict accuracy of translation which seems so desirable to 
Teutonic scholars. 

With regard to the Vendidad, it may be noticed that all 
translators have been misled into admitting Avesta quota- 
tions, made by the Pahlavi commentator, as integral por- 
tions of the Avesta text. This mistake has arisen from 
the Avesta text being printed separate from the Pahlavi, 
instead of alternating with it as in the original manu- 
scripts. Neither the writers of the Vendidad SSdah, nor 
the European editors of the texts, have been always able to 
distinguish these quotations from the original text ; nor is 
it sometimes easy to do so ; bnt Vend. i. 4 (i. 2, Westerg.) 
consists of four such quotations which form part of the 
Pahlavi commentary. 

A young French scholar. Jambs Darmestetee, has 
recently engaged in the study of the Avesta texts in a 
strictly scientific manner, and has published several essays 
of considerable importance. Among these may be men- 
tioned his " Zend Notes," and " Notes on the Avesta," in 
which he traces the philological relations of many Avesta 
words, for the purpose of fixing their meanings. His essay 
on "Haurvatad and Ameretad" (1875) traces the history 
of these two ideas, health and immortality, as they first 
became personified as archangels who oppose Tauru and 
Zairicha, the demons of sickness and death ; secondly, as 
these archangels acquired the attributes of protectors of 
water and vegetation, and then- opponents became the 
demons of hunger and thirst ; and finally, as their names 



became corrupted into Khurdai and Murdad, when there 
appeared a tendency to treat them as titles of fire and the 
angel of death. This account of these two Ameshaspentas 
is ably supported, and to a great extent substantiated, by 
quotations from the Avesta and Veda. 

His latest work is an exhaustive essay " On Ormazd and 
Ahriman" (1877), in which he has applied the method of 
comparative mythology to explain the myths, equally with 
that of comparative philology to explain the texts. The 
conclusion he arrives at is, that Mazdayasnianism was 
originally a dualism which taught that the universe was 
created by two beings, Ahuramazda, who is luminous and 
good, and Angra-mainyu, who is gloomy and bad ; and the 
history of the universe is a history of their struggles for 
supremacy. Ahuramazda can be traced back to Asura, the 
supreme god of Indo- Iranian times, and is the representa- 
tive of Varuna, Zeus, or Jupiter. But Angra-mainyu is a 
later idea of the Iranians only, although he takes the place 
of the Indo-Iranian serpent-demon who fought with the 
fire-god in storms. This dualism satisfied the popular 
mind, but philosophers found it necessary, iu the end, to 
set up a First Cause, whom they called Boundless Time, or 
Destiny, and from whom they imagined that both the crea- 
tive beings proceeded. These conclusions, so far as the 
primary dualism is concerned, will hardly be accepted by 
the Dasturs as a correct view of Zarathushtra's teachings. 
The Parsis are now strict monotheists, and whatever may 
have been the views of former philosophical writings, their 
one supreme deity is Ahuramazda. Their views of Angra- 
mainyu seem to differ in no respect from what is supposed 
to be the orthodox Christian view of the devil. Whether 
Darmesteter's conclusions regarding the dualism can be 
fully maintained is rather doubtful ; the question depends 
rather upon the exact meaning of a few difficult passages 
in old writings, which are confessedly mere fragments, than 
upon the wide generalisations of comparative mythology, 
which may easily mislead. 



Before concluding this Essay, we may briefly notice the 
efforts of the Zoroastrians themselves to preserve and 
elucidate their ancient religion and literature. 

The Persian cuneiform inscriptions inform us that the 
Achaemenian kings believed in Ahuramazda, and that their, 
language was closely allied to that of the Avesta ; in fact, 
the period of their rule appears to have been the Augustan 
age of Zoroastrian literature, when it was completed and 
arranged in twenty-one books, called Nasks, each indexed 
by one of the twenty-one words composing the sacred 
YaM,-ahvrvavry6 formula. This period is approximately 
mentioned in the book of Arda-Viraf, when it states that 
for " three hundred years the religion was in purity, and 
men were without doubts." 

We know from classical writers that Alexander, in a 
drunken frolic, burnt the citadel and palace of the Achee- 
menian kings at Persepolis, in which one of the two 
complete copies of the Zoroastrian literature had been 
deposited ; thus one copy was burnt, and the other is said 
to have been plundered by the Greeks. Any other copies, 
more or less partial, must have suffered greatly during the 
next 550 years, while the Zoroastrian religion received 
little support from either Greeks or Parthians, although 
the fourth book of the Dinkard mentions that Valkhash 
(Vologeses) the Ashkanian ordered all extant writings to 
be collected and preserved. 

The earlier kings of the Sasanian dynasty collected and 
rearranged the scattered writings, and the more peaceable 
of the later kings encouraged literary pursuits; but the 
Mohammedan conquest of Persia, and the troubled times 
which followed, swept away nearly all these writings, not- 
withstanding two or three attempts of leading Zoroastrians 
to preserve what was still extant. Of these attempts it is 
recorded, at the end of the third book of the Dinkard, that 


AdarpS,d-i Adarfrobag-i Faruklizadan collected all the old 
writings he could find; and this collection falling into 
decay, was again copied by Adarpad-i Admltan, and 
arranged in the form of the Dlnkard, the fourth and fifth 
books of which appear to contain the sayings of Adarfro- 
bag-i Farukhzadan, and those he selected from the reli- 
gious books. Of the subsequent fate of the Dlnkard more 
will be said in the next Essay. 

The Zoroastrian fugitives who settled on the western 
shores of India found it difficult to preserve all their reli- 
gious ceremonies and literature, and frequently applied to 
their persecuted brethren in Persia for information during 
the first ten centuries after the Mohammedan conquest. 
Parsi writers may probably exaggerate the ignorance of 
their forefathers in India, as it was during these dark ages 
that one of their priests, the famous Neryosangh Dhaval, 
was able to translate several of their religious books from 
Pahlavi into Sanskrit. Among these books are the 
Shikand-gumainl, Mainy8-i-khard, and the greater part of 
the Yasna, the translations of which exhibit a knowledge 
of the original Pahlavi that is hardly yet surpassed by 
modern Dasturs. Neryosangh appears to have aimed at 
popularisiag the obscure Pahlavi texts by transliterating 
them into Pazand ; but why he should have added a San- 
skrit translation is not so apparent, unless it were for the 
information of strangers, or as a somewhat unnecessary 
stepping-stone to a Gujrati version. As manuscripts of 
the early part of the sixteenth century are still extant, 
which have descended from Neryosangh's writings, it is 
evident that he must have lived as early as the fifteenth 
century ; and judging from their genealogies, the present 
Dasturs are tnclLned to think that he flourished about that 

The Parsis are also indebted, to some priests of these 
dark ages, for the successive copies of their sacred books 
which have preserved their religious writings from total, 
destruction. The oldest of these copyists whose manu- 


scripts still survive was Mihiapan-i Kal-Khusro-i Mihra- /. 
pSn-i SpendySd-i 1 Mihrap^n-i Marjpan-i 'BahTsOa., who 
appears to have heen a voluminous though rather careless / 
copyist, as we find his name in many colophons dated 
about 550 years ago. He seems to have completed the book 
of Arda-Viraf and G6sht-i Pry^no (copied in Kjo now at ' 
Copenhagen) on the i8th of the tenth month A.Y. 690; the 
first part of the so-called Pahlavi Shahn^mah (now in the 
library of Dastur Jamaspji at Bombay) on the i ith of the 
sixth month A.Y. 691, and the latter part on the 19th day of 
another month in the same year ; the Yasna with Pahlavi 
(now at Copenhagen) on the 27th of the tenth month 
A.Y. 692 ; another copy of the same (now in the library of 
Dastur Jamaspji at Bombay) on the 19th day of the 
eleventh month a.y. 692 ; the Vendidad with Pahlavi (now 
at Copenhagen) on the 24th day of the fourth month 
A,Y. 693 ; the Shayast-la-sh§,yast (copied in Kjo now at 
Copenhagen) on the 9th day of the seventh month A.Y. 700; 
and the HS,d6k:ht Nask (copied in the same) on the 1 8th 
day of the ninth month a.y. 720 ; also the Vendidad with 
Pahlavi (now in the India Office Library at London) 
seems to be in his handwriting, but the colophon is lost. 
Of these eight manuscripts, four are still extant in MihrSr 
pan's handwriting ; three we know only from copies taken 
about five hundred years ago, and now contained in the 
manuscript Kjo at Copenhagen ; and the handwriting of the 
Pahlavi Shahndmah is so like that of K^o, that it may be a 
similar copy from Mihrapsin's manuscript. Three of his 
books were copied at KambS,yat from manuscripts {yadman 
nipih) written by Eustam-i Mihrapsln-i Marjpan-i Dahishn- 
yar, who may have been his great-grand-uncle. 

Passing on to later times, we find the arrival of the 
Iranian Dastur Jamasp (surnamed WOayati, "foreign") 
giving a considerable impulse to the study of religious 
literature among the Indian Parsis. He is reported to 
have left Persia on the 27th November 1720, and to have 

1 Oiice written Speudy&r. 



given the Dasturs at Nawsari, Surat, and Bhroch much 
information regarding the customs and learning of the 
Zoroastrians in Persia. The chief Dastur at Nawsari, 
Jamasp Asa, became celebrated for his learning, and at his 
death, about 125 years ago, left a large library of manu- 
scripts, which has become much scattered among his pos- 
terity, now in the fifth generation. The visit of Dastur 
Jamasp Wilalyati appears to have first called the attention 
of the Indian Parsis to the fact that their calendar was 
exactly one month behind that of their Persian brethren. 
This was a matter of some importance, as it would, in their 
opinion, destroy the ef&cacy of their prayers if the wrong 
month were mentioned, and it altered the date of all their 
festivals. It was not, however, till after further inquiries 
in Persia, and the arrival of another priest therefrom, that 
several Indian Parsis determined to adopt the Persian 
calendar, which they did on the 17th June 174S, corre- 
sponding to the 29th day of the ninth month a.y. i r 14 of 
the Persian reckoning, which they styled qadim, " ancient," 
while the old Indian reckoning, which has been retained 
by the majority of the Parsis, is styled rasmi, " customary," 
or shdhanshdM, "imperial;" the term qadim, however, 
when found in older doeimients, is said to mean the old 
reckoning of the Indian Parsis. 

This alteration in the calendar, and several small altera- 
tions in ritual in accordance with Persian usage, such as 
pronouncing voM for vohu, constituted a complete schism 
requiring a distinct priesthood, and occasioned much 
controversy. The old-calendar party accounted for the 
difference in reckoning by supposing that the people in 
Persia had forgotten to insert an intercalary month which 
their fugitive brethren had remembered to do shortly after 
their flight from the Mohammedans : if this were the case, 
it is difficult to understand why the intercalary month 
was not again inserted every 1 20 years, according to the 
supposed practice. To support this theory it became 
necessary to prove, from the religious books, that such an 


intercalary (TcaMsah) month was therein enjoined, and this 
led to the habisah controversy, in which the chief advo'- 
cates for the intercalation were Dastur Aspendiarji Karn- 
dinji of Bhroch, who published a book on the subject in 
1826, and Dastur Edalji Darabji of Bombay, who published 
the book of the Khorehe-Vghijak in 1828. Their chief 
opponent was Mulla Firiiz, who published the Avijeh-Din, 
in 1830, to refute Dastur Edalji's views. Much of the 
controversy turns upon the meaning of one or more Pah- 
lavi words, generally read vShijaMk, which Dastur Edalji 
translates as "intercalary," and Mull^ Firiiz explains as 
referring to new-year's day, or the beginning. In some 
cases the word cited means evidently " additional," but 
none of the passages quoted, seem to bear much on ■ the 
question of an intercalary month, either one way or the 
other, although Dastur Edalji has mistranslated one obscure 
passage so as to prove his case. That there must have 
been some mode of keeping the calendar in accordance 
with the sun in former times appears evident from the 
Bundahish (p. 59, Westerg.), where two of the gahanhdr 
festivals are made coincident with the longest and shortest 
days respectively; but there seems to be no account in 
the Parsi books of the mode adopted for the rectification 
of the calendar. 

The growing demand among Parsis for further informa- 
tion regarding the contents of their sacred books was met, 
to some extent, by the publication (in 1 843) of the Yasna 
text in Gujrati characters, with a Gujrati translation, by 
AsPANDiAEJi Peamji; and a similar translation of the 
Vendidad was made about the same time. These transla- 
tions are noteworthy as being the latest Parsi works of 
this nature which are free from European influence, and 
can therefore be consulted by European scholars as the 
last embodiment of pure traditional information. 

The foremost of the Parsi writers who represent the 
period of transition from confidence in old traditions to 
reliance on European scholars, is Dastur Peshotanji 


Behkamji SanjAnI, the present high-priest of the Bombay 
Parsis of the predominant sect. In 1848 he published the 
Pahlavi text of the Vajarkard-i-dinl, from a modern copy 
of an old manuscript at Surat : this is probably the first 
book printed with Pahlavi type. In 1853 he published a 
Gujrati translation of the Pahlavi KS,rn^mak-i Ardashir-i 
Papak§,n, which is a fairly good specimen of correct trans- 
lation. Before the publication of his " Grammar of the 
Pahlavi Language" (in Gujrati, 1871), Dastur Peshotanji 
had ample opportunity to study the views of European 
scholars ; and his grammar, which is very complete, 
though rather too voluminous, is a great improvement 
upon the one or two Pahlavi grammars previously pub- 
lished by Parsi writers. He thinks that the pronunciation 
of the Semitic portion of the Pahlavi in Sasanian times 
has been correctly handed down by tradition, and that its 
variations from Chaldee are due to corrupt pronunciation 
when the words were first adopted, and not to mere mis- 
reading of the characters after the correct pronunciation 
was lost. This opinion, however, is not confirmed by 
reference to the inscriptions of Sasanian times ; thus, the 
word traditionally pronounced j'dnun, " become," is found 
inscribed yahvun in unambiguous Sasanian characters, 
exactly as had been anticipated by European scholars, 
whose proposed readings of several other Huzvarish words 
are fully confirmed by the Sasanian inscriptions. In some 
cases the inscriptions have contradicted the views of 
European scholars, so Parsi writers exercise a wise dis- 
cretion in not departing from their traditional readings too 

The latest work of Dastur Peshotanji, of which the first 
volume appeared in 1874, is the Dinkard, in which he gives 
the Pahlavi text with a transliteration in Avesta letters, 
a Gujrati and English translation, and a glossary of some 
selected words. This first volume contains about one- 
eighteenth part of the extant portion of the Dinkard, or 
about one-eighth of the third book, which is the least 


interesting part of the work, and perhaps the most difficult 
to translate. Many improvements in the translation 
might be suggested, but it gives the meaning of the original 
as nearly as can be expected in a first translation of a 
difficult text. The second volume, published in 1876, 
completes the first tenth part of the extant text, and fully 
maintains the character of this edition of the Dinkard 
for accuracy. 

The works of Dastur Hoshangji Jamaspji have already 
been mentioned (p. 48-51) as having been revised by the 
author of these Essays, and published under his super- 
vision. In their original state they displayed a very con- 
siderable knowledge of Pahlavi on the part of Dastur 
Hoshangji, who had disposed of many of the chief diffi- 
culties which might otherwise have troubled the reviser ; 
most of the corrections required were due to additions, and 
to the progress of knowledge in the interval between the 
first preparation and the publication of the works. Dastur 
Hoshangji has also prepared an edition of the Pahlavi and 
PSzand texts of the Shikand-gum&ni, with a glossary of 
the Pahlavi words ; and also an edition of the Avesta and 
Pahlavi texts of the Vendidad, with a glossary of the 
Pahlavi words ; but neither of these works are yet pub- 

In 1866 a prize was offered by Seth Khurshedji 
Eustamji K^mS, for a new Gujrati translation of the 
Vendidad, with a complete glossary of the words in the 
Avesta text. This translation was supplied, three years 
afterwards, by Kavasji Edalji Kanga, but was not pub- 
lished till 1874. It is based upon Westergaard's text and 
the best European translations which had appeared, and 
the writer has added, in many places, a good deal of ex- 
planatory commentary. This is likely to remain the 
standard translation for the use of the Parsi community, 
and it is to be regretted that its author has not avoided 
the mistake of translating Avesta quotations, made by the 
Pahlavi commentator, as part of the Avesta text, which 


has been ali-eady noticed (p. 52) as a general error of 
translators. In addition to the quotations admitted into 
the text by M. de Harlez, he has translated the five quota- 
tions "which constitute Vend. ii. 6 (Westerg.), and finds 
considerable difficulty in adapting them to the text, as 
might be expected. If he had consulted a manuscript of 
the Vendidad with Pahlavi he would have seen at once 
that these five sentences are merely quoted by the Pahlavi 
commentator to prove the correctness of his assertions. 
The fact that these Avesta quotations form no part of the 
text is noticed by Dastur Hoshangji in his manuscript 
edition of the texts of the Vendidad. 

In concluding these remarks upon the progress of Zo- 
roastrian studies among the Parsis, it may be mentioned 
that Dastur JAMASPJI Minochihakji Jamaspasana of 
Bombay has been engaged for many years in collecting 
materials for a Pahlavi dictionary, the first part of which 
is now in the press. This dictionary is likely to be ex- 
ceedingly useful, being by far the largest collection of 
Pahlavi words hitherto made ; and these are arranged in 
the order of the Sanskrit alphabet, which is convenient for 
a people speaking Gujrati. It will adhere strictly to 
traditional readings and interpretations, of which it ought 
to form a permanent record, valuable to all parties in 
these times of progressive transition. 

Thus much had to be noticed regarding the general 
course of researches into the sacred writings of the Parsis. 
Slowly the ideas of past ages, buried for thousands of 
years in documents written in a language more or less 
unintelligible, begin to be unfolded ; but many years and 
many laborers wiU be required to make this new field 
for antiquarian and philological research yield much fruit. 
The Dasturs, who are most concerned, and other younger, 
talented, and well-to-do members of the Parsi community, 
ought to. coBsider it their duty to collect and multiply 
correct and unimproved copies of all the oldest manu- 
scripts extant, and to supply themselves with all the 


means (such as a knowledge of Sanskrit, Persian, Chaldee, 
< &c.) now required for a successful investigation of the 
Avesta and Pahlavi languages, in order that they may- 
study the contents of their manuscripts, and learn the 
foundations on which their religion rests. Let them not 
be discouraged if the results be not so flattering to their 
self-love as they anticipated. So far as their researches 
disclose what is good and proper in their religion, they 
must strengthen the belief in its divine origin ; and so far 
as they disclose what is bad and improper, they merely 
indicate the corruptions introduced by 'human tradition. 
Such corruptions can be neither concealed nor defended 
with safety ; but when discovered, they must be rejected 
as mere human inventions and superstitious errors. All 
religions have passed through human minds and human 
hands, and are therefore likely to abound with human 
errors ; so that the man who believes in the infallibility 
of a book is but one step removed from the superstition 
of him who believes in the infallibility of a high-priest; 
he merely removes the idea of verbal inspiration from the 
broad daylight of the present, where its improbability 
would be too obvious, into the dim obscurity of the past, 
where difficulties become lost in the misty shadows of 
antiquity. Whatever is true in religion wiU bear the 
fullest investigation and most searching criticism; it is 
only error that fears discussion. 





The languages of Persia, commonly called Iranian, form 
a separate family of the great Aryan stock of languages 
which comprises, besides the Iranian idioms, Sanskrit 
(with its daughters), Greek, Latin, Teutonic (with Eng- 
lish), Slavonian, Letto-Lithuanian, Celtic, and aE allied 
dialects. The Iranian idioms arrange themselves under 
two heads : — 

1. Iranian languages properly so called. 

2. Affiliated tongues. 

The first division comprises the ancient, mediaeval, and 
modern languages of Iran, which includes Persia, Media, 
and Bactxia, those lands which are styled in the Zend- 
Avesta airydo dahJidvo, " Aryan countries." "We may 
class them as follows :—' 

(«.) The East Iranian or Baetrian branch, extant only 
in the two dialects in which the scanty fragments of the 
Parsi scriptures are written. The more ancient of them 
may be called the " G l,tha dialect," because the most 
extensive and important writings preserved in this pecu- 
liar idiom are the so-called GS.thas or hymns ; the later 
idiom, in which most of the books of the Zend-Avesta are 
written, may be called " ancient Baetrian," or " the classi- 
cal Avesta language," which was for many centuries the 
spoken and written language of Bactria. The Baetrian 
languages seem to have been dying out in the third cen- 
tury B.C., and they have left no daughters. 

(6.) The West Iranian languages, or those of Media and 


Persia. These are known to us during the three periods 
of antiquity, middle ages, and modern times, hut only in 
the one dialect, which has, at every period, served as the 
written language throughout the Iranian provinces of the 
Persian empire. Several dialects are mentioned by lexi- 
cographers, but we know very little about them.^ Of the 
ancient Persian a few documents are still extant in the 
cuneiform inscriptions of the kings of the Achaemenian 
dynasty, found in the ruins of PersepoKs, on the rock of 
Behistun, near Hamadan, and some other places in Persia. 
This language stands nearest to the two Bactrian dialects 
of the Zend-Avesta, but exhibits some peculiarities ; for 
instance, we find d used instead of z, as adam., " I," in the 
Avesta azem ; dasta, " hand," in the Avesta zasta. It is 
undoubtedly the mother of modern Persian, but the differ- 
ences between them are nevertheless great, and in reading 
and interpreting the ancient Persian cuneiform inscrip- 
tions, Sanskrit and the Avesta, although they be only sister 
languages, have proved more useful than its daughter, 
the modern Persiaii. The chief cause of this difference 
between ancient and modern Persian is the loss of nearly 
all the grammatical inflexions of nouns and verbs, and the 
total disregard of gender, in modern Persian ; while in the 
ancient Persian, as written and spoken at the time of the 

^ In Sayyid Husain Sh&h Haklkat's or language of the court, according 

Persian grammar, entitled Tulifatu- to this writer, spoken at Balkh, Bok- 

l-'Ajam, there are seven Iranian Ian- hara, Marv, and in Badakhsh6.n; and 

guages enumerated, which are classed Pahlavt, or Pahlavdni, the language 

under two heads, viz. (a) the obso- of the so-called Pahlav, comprising 

lete or dead, and (6) such dialects the districts of Eai (Bagha in the 

as are still used. Of the obsolete he Zend-Avesta), Ispahan, and Dln&r. 

knows four: SughiM, the language Dari he calls the language of Kr- 

of ancient Sogdiana (Suiihdha in the dausi, but the trifling deviations he 

Zend-Avesta) ; ZduH (for Zdhuli], mentions to prove the difference be- 

the dialect of Za,bulistfl.n ; Sakzt, tween Dari and Pdrst (for instance, 

spoken in Sajast^u (called Sakastene ashham, "belly," used In Dari for 

by the Greeks) ; and Hirivit, spoken shikam^ and aid, " with," for hd), 

in Herat ( Har6yu in the Zend- refer only to slight changes in spell- 

Avesta). As languages in use he ing, and are utterly insufficient to 

mentions Pdrst, which, he says, was induce a philologist to consider Dari 

spoken in Istakhar (Persepolis), the an idiom different from PArsi. 
ancient cajntal of Persia ; then Dmi, 


Achsemenians (b.c. 500-300), we still find a great many 
inflexions agreeing with those of the Sanskrit, Avesta, 
and other ancient Aryan tongues. At what time the 
Persian language, like the English, became simplified, and 
adapted for amalgamating with foreign words, by the loss 
of its terminations, we cannot ascertain. But there is 
every reason to suppose that this dissolution and absorp- 
tion of terminations, on account of their having become 
more or less unintelligible, began before the Christian era, 
because in the later inscriptions of the Acheemenians 
(B.C. 400), we find already some of the grammatical forms 
confounded, which confusion we discover also in many 
parts of the Zend-Avesta. No inscription in the verna- 
cular Persian of the Arsacidans, the successors of the 
Achsemenians, being extant, we cannot trace the gradual 
dissolution of the terminations ; and when we next meet 
with the vernacular, in the inscriptions of the first two 
Sasanian monarchs, it appears in the curiously mixed 
form of Pahlavi, which gradually changes till about a.d. 
300, when it differs but little from the Pahlavi of the 
Parsi books, as we shall shortly see. 

The second chief division of the Iranian tongues com- 
prises the affiliated languages, that is to say, such as share 
in the chief peculiarities of this family, but differ from it 
in many essential particulars. To this division we must 
refer Ossetic, spoken by some small tribes in the Caucasus, 
but differing completely from the other Caucasian lan- 
guages ; also Armenian and Afyhanic (PasMu). 

After this brief notice of the Iranian languages in 
general, we shall proceed to the more particular considera- 
tion of the languages of the Zend-Avesta and other religious 
literatxire of the Parsis. 


The original language of the Parsi scriptures has usually 
been caUed Zend by European scholars, but this name has 


never been generally admitted by Parsi scholars, although 
it may have been accepted by a few on European autho- 
rity, which is apt to be treated with too much deference 
by Oriental minds. We shall see, hereafter, that this 
application of the term Zend is quite inconsistent with its 
general use in the Parsi books, and ought, therefore, to be 
discarded by scholars who wish to prevent the propagation 
of error. At present we need only observe that no name 
for the language of the Parsi scriptures has yet been found 
in the Parsi books ; bvjt whenever the word Zend (zaTid) is 
used alone, it is, applied to some Pahlavi translation, com- 
mentary, or gloss; and whenever the word Avesta (avistdk) 
is used alone, it is applied to the Parsi scriptures in their 
original language. The language of the Zend, therefore, 
is Pahlavi, and this is a sufScient reason for not applying 
that term to another language, with which its connection 
is probably slight. Por want of a better term, we may 
follow the example of most Parsi scholars in using the 
term Avesta foi- the language of the Avesta ; and to avoid 
confusion, we must discard the word Zend altogether when 
speaking of languages; although, for reasons given here- 
after, we may stOl use Zend-Avesta as a general term for 
the Parsi scriptures. 

The general character of the Avesta language, in both 
its dialects, is that of a highly developed idiom. It is rich 
in inflexions, both of the verbs and nouns. In the latter, 
where three numbers and eight cases can be distinguished, 
it agrees almost completely with Vedic Sanskrit, and in 
the former it exhibits a greater variety of forms than the 
classicali Sanskrit. We fimdj besides, a multitude of com- 
pound words of various kinds, and the sentences are joined 
together in an easy way, which contributes largely to a 
ready understanding of the general sense of passages. It 
is a genuine sister of Sanskrit, Greek, Latin, and Gothic; 
but we find her no longer in the prime of life, as she 
appears rather in her declining age. The forms are not 
always kept strictly distinct from each other, as is the 


case in Sanskrit, Greek, and Latin ; but are now and then 
confounded, much less, however, in the verbs than in the 
nouns, where the dissolution first began. The crude form, 
or original uninflected state of the word, is often used 
instead of the original inflected forms ; thus, we find tZaewa, 
" demon, evil spirit," which is really the crude form of the 
word, employed as the instrumental singular, which ought to 
be daevena, or at least daevA, and as the nominative plural, 
which ought to be daemonJio or daeva. The long vowels 
a and i are out of use in tlie nominative feminiae, so that 
the gender is not so easily recognised from the termina- 
tion alone as in Sanskrit; thus we have daSna, "creed, 
belief," instead of daenel ; moreover, the forms of the dative 
and instrumental are often confounded, especially in the 
plural. These deviations from the regulat forms, and the 
confusion of terminations, are far more frequent in the 
classical Avesta than in the G^tha dialect, where the gram- 
matical forms are, in most cases, quite regular. 

Notwithstanding these symptoms of decay, the relation- 
ship wf the Avesta language to the most ancient Sanskrit, 
the so-called Vedic dialect,^ is as close as that of the dif- 
ferent dialects of the Greek language (^olic,- Ionic, Doric, 
or Attic) to each other. The languages of the sacred 
hymns of the Brahmans, and of those of the Parsis, are 
only the two dialects of two separate tribes of one and the 
same nation. As the lonians, Dorians, ^tolians, &c., were 
different tribes of the Greek nation, whose general name 
was Selhnes, so the ancient Brahmans and Parsis were 
two tribes of the nation which is called Aryas both in the 

1 T,hk is 'distinct from ttie usual Ing of ceremonies, their eflfects, &c. 

Sanskrit, wliicli alone is studied now- They learn them parrot-like by heart, 

adays by the Brahmans. The most but care nothing about understand- 

kamed Pandits of the present Brah- ing their prayers. If they are asked 

manic stranninity, who are perfectly to explain the meaning, they refer to 

acquainted with the classical Sanskrit a comnientarj' made several hundred 

language, are utterly unable to ex- years ago by a highly celebrated Brah- 

plaiu the more ancient portions of man (S^ya^a), which often fails to 

the Vedas, which consist chiefly of give a complete insight into Vedio 

faymcs, and speculations on the mean- antiq[uity. 


Veda and Zend-Avesta ; the former may be compared with 
the lonians, and the latter with the Dorians. The most 
striking feature perceptible when comparing both Avesta' 
dialects with Sanskrit is, that they are related closely to 
the Vedio form of Sanskrit, but not to the classical. In 
verbal forms, especially moods and tenses, the classical 
Sanskrit, though very rich in comparison with modern 
languages, is much poorer than the more primitive dialect 
preserved in the Vedas ; thus it has lost various forms of 
the subjunctive mood, most tenses of all moods except the 
indicative (the imperative and potential moods preserving 
only the present tense), the manifold forms expressing the 
iniinitive mood.l &c. ; whereas all these forms are to be 
found in the Vedas, Zend-Avesta, and Homeric Greek, in 
the greatest completeness. The syntactical structure in 
Vedic Sanskrit and the Avesta is simple enough, and 
verbal forms are much more frequently used than in 
classical Sanskrit. There can be no doubt that classical 
Sanskrit was formed long after the separation of the Ira- 
nians from the Hindus. 

The differences between Vedic Sanskrit and the Avesta 
language are very little in grammar, but are chiefly of 
a phonetical and lexicographical nature, like the differ- 
ences between German and Dutch. There are certain 
I'egular changes of sounds, and other phonetic peculiarities 
perceptible, a knowledge of which enables the philologist 
to convert any Avesta word easily into a pure Sanskrit 
one. The most remarkable changes are as follows : — 

Initial s in Sanskrit is changed in the Avesta into A; 
thus soma (the sacred juice used by the Brahmans) = 
haoma ; sama, "together, the same," = Kama; sa, "that, 
he," = ha; sack, "to follow," (Lat. sequi^ = hack In the 
middle of a word the same change takes place, as in asu, 
" life," = anhu ; except now and then in the last syllable, 
as in Av. yazaislia, " thou shalt worship," where sh is pre- 

' In the Vedic dialect eleven sucli forms can be found, which are re- 
duced to one in classical Sanskrit. 


served. At the end of a word sh remains unless preceded 
by a, in which case the termination ask is changed into d, 
except when followed by the enclitic conjunction cha, 
when the sibilant is preserved; thus asura-s, "living," 
becomes ahuro, instead of ahurash, but we find ahurashcha, 
" and the living." 

The Sanskrit h, when not original, but only a derived 
sound, never remains in the Avesta. It is generally 
changed into z, as in zi, "then, therefore," = S. M; zivia^ 
"winter," = S. MmM; zbe (root), "to invoke," = S. hve. 
The Avesta z is also sometimes ec[uivalent to a Sanskrit /, 
as in zan, " to produce," (Pers. zddan) = S. Jan (Lat. 
gigTio) ; Mzva, " tongue," = S. jihva. 

In comparing Avesta with Sanskrit words, we often 
observe a nasal in the former which is wanting in the 
latter; this nasal is usually followed by h, as in aiihu, 
"life," = S. asM. 

Instead of Sanskrit sliv we find sp in the Avesta, as in 
aspa, "horse," = S. ashva (Lat. cquus, Gr, hippos); vispa, 
" aU," = S. vishva ; spa, " dog," = S. sMd. 

In place of Sanskrit ni, besides the regular change into 
ard,^ we find ash as an equivalent in the Avesta, as in 
mashya, " man," = S. martya (Lat. mortalis, Gr. Irotos); 
asha, " right, true," = S. rita. 

Instead of Sanskrit sv the Avesta has a peculiar guttural 
aspirate represented by g, and corresponding in sound 
probably to gu in Latin and hhw in Persian, as in gafna, 
" sleep," = S. svapna (Lat. sommis, Gr. hypnos, Pers. 

These are the most remarkable phonetic difi"erences 
between Sanskrit and Avesta words. By attending to them 
it is very easy to find the Sanskrit word corresponding to 
one in the Avesta, and we can thus discover a large number 
of words and forms similar to those in the Vedas. There 
are, of course, now and then (as is always the case in the 

' The Sanskrit vowel p is always represented by are or ere; fit itself is a 
corruption of art. 


dialects of every language) peculiar words to be found in 
the Avesta, but these are always traceable to Sanskrit 

A comparison of the grammatical forms in the Avesta 
and Sanskrit can be dispensed with. They are so very 
similar, even when not quite identical, that they are 
readily recognised by any one who has a slight knowledge 
of Sanskrit. The strongest proof of the original identity 
of Sanskrit and Avesta grammatical forms is their harmony 
even in irregularities. Thus, for instance, the deviations 
of the pronominal declension from that of the nouns are 
the same in both languages, as ahndl, "to him," = S. 
asmdi ; Jmhmdi, " to whom,'' = S. hasindi ; yaesh&m, " of 
whom" (p].), = S. yesJidm. Also in the declension of 
irregular nouns we find span, "dog," = S. shvan* sing; 
nom. spa = S. shod, ace. spdnem, = S. shvdnam, dat. sune = 
S. sTiime, gen. sun6 = S. shunas, pi. nom. spdno = S. shvdnas, 
gen. sunam = S. shundm ; likewise pathan, " path," = S. 
patMn, sing. nom. panto, = ^.pantJids, inst. paiha = S. pathd; 
pi. nom. pantdnd = S. panthdnas, ace. pathd = S. pathas, 
gen. pathmn, = S. pathdm. 

The extremely close af&nity of the Avesta language to 
Vedic Sanskrit can be best seen from some forms of the 
present tense, in which the classical Sanskrit differs from 
the Vedic. Compare, for instance, Av. kerenaomi, " I make," 
with Ved. hrinomi and S. karmii ; Av.jamaiti, "he goes," 
with Ved. gamati and S. gachchhati ; Av. gerewndmi, " I 
take," with Ved. gribhndmi and S. grihTidmi. 

With regard to the differences between the two dialects 
of the Avesta, the language of the Gathas and the classical 
or ordinary Avesta, we can here only discuss their relation- 
ship to each other in a general way. The chief question 
is, whether they represent the same language at two 
different periods of time, or whether they are two con- 
temporary dialects, spoken in two different provinces of 

* Spelt as pronounced, sh representing the palatal sibilant, and sh the 
cerebral sibilant. 


the ancient Bactrian empire. Our knowledge of the 
dialects of the Iranian languages and the periods of their 
development, previous to the Christian era, is so limited, 
that it is extremely difficult to decide this question in a 
satisfactory manner. 

The differences between these two dialects are both of a 
phonetical and grammatical nature. Were the deviations 
merely of the former kind, we should be fully entitled to 
ascribe them to two different ways of pronouncing certain 
vowels and consonants, as generally happens in different 
districts with nations speaking the same language; but 
should we discover in one dialect fuller and more ancient 
forms, and in the other evidently later and more con- 
tracted ones, then the difference between the Gatha 
language and the ordinary Avesta must be ascribed to 
their being written at different periods. 

The phonetical differences of the GS,tha language from 
that of the other books are, at a first glance, so considerable 
as to induce one to trace them to different localities of the 
same country, and not to different ages. But on closer 
inquiry we find that several of these phonetical peculiarities, 
such as the constant lengthening of final vowels, and the 
severing of one syllable into two (as of the nom. pi. n. of 
the relative pronoun yci into eed), are attributable to the 
original chanting of the Gathas and other shorter pieces, 
constituting the older Yasna, and are not to be traced to 
dialectical differences. These writings are the most im- 
portant and holiest prayers used in the Zoroastrian divine 
service, and the way of chanting them was, very likely, 
analogous to that ia which the Brahmans (origiuaUy near 
relations of the Parsis) used to chant the verses of the 
S§,maveda at the time of solemn sacrifices, and which is 
kept up to this day on such occasions. On hearing a 
SImaveda priest chant some verses of this Veda, one 
notices that he lengthens the final vowels of the words, 
even when they are short. In Sanskrit, where the 
grammar was fixed by rules, the texts were not altered 


according to tiie mode of chanting them; while in the 
Avesta, where nothing regarding the grammar and pro- 
nunciation was settled, these peculiarities produced by 
chanting the G§,thas and some other pieces crept into the 
manuscripts, which were generally written from inemory 
only, as is still often the case. Besides these phonetical 
changes which can be explained as the result of chanting, 
there are a few other changes of vowels, such as that of a 
final 6 or initial a into e, as in M = ko, " who ? " and 
emavat = amavat, " strong ; " also some changes of con- 
sonants, as that of t into s in stavas = stavat, " praising," 
and the softening of harsh consonants, as in ddreng = 
dthras (ace. pi. of dtar, " fire "). These deviations are sug- 
gestive of dialectical differences, but they are of no great 
importance, and no great weight can be attached to them ; 
they are merely such differences as might exist between 
the idioms of neighbouring towns in the same district. 
That these peculiarities, notwithstanding their insignifi- 
cance, have been preserved so well, and not been dissolved 
and changed into the current Bactrian language, which is 
preserved in the largest portion of the Zend-Avesta, in- 
dicates the great reverence in which these hymns were 
held by the Zoroastrians. Considering that the Gathas 
contain the undoubted teaching of Zarathushtra himself 
(without adverting to other reasons), we do not hesitate to 
believe that the peculiar language used in the G3.thas was 
the dialect of his own town or district. 

As to grammatical forms, the G§,tha dialect exhibits not 
a few deviations from the ordinary Avesta language. 
Most of these differences evidently represent a more pri- 
mitive state of the Bactrian language, nearer to its Aryan 
source; but some might be considered as merely dialec- 
tical peculiarities. The genitive singular of masculine 
nouns in a ends, nearly throughout the G§,thas, in ahyd, 
which corresponds exactly with the Sanskrit genitive ter- 
mination asya, while in the ordinary Avesta we always 
find«aA4 apparently a contraction of ahya, thus G^th. 


daevahya, " of a demon," = Av. daevahe = S. devasya. 
Again, tlie first pers. sing, imperative, expressing intention 
or volition, requires only the termination a or di in the 
GIthas, whereas in the ordinary Avesta the derived 
termination dni prevails, and this is also used in Sanskrit ; 
the usual infinitive formation in the GIthas is that in dycii 
which is also extremely frequent in the Vedic dialect, 
while it is nearly unknown in the ordinary Avesta, 
and wholly so in classical Sanskrit. In the pronouns, 
especially, the language of the G^thas exhibits more 
ancient forms than we find in any other part of the 
Zend-Avesta, as for example maibyd, " to me," which an- 
cient form, agreeing so well with Sans, mahyam and Lat. 
mihi, is nowhere to be found in the ordinary Avesta ; ob- 
serve also mahyd, m. maqydo, f. " of my," &c. The fre- 
quent use of the enclitic pronominal particles i, im, Mm, 
&c. (which is a peculiar feature of the Vedic dialect, distin- 
guishiag it from classical Sanskrit), and the great freedom 
with which prepositions are separated from their verbs (a 
chief characteristic of Vedic Sanskrit and Homeric Greek), 
indicate a more ancient stage of language in the G^tha 
dialect than we can discover in the ordinary Avesta, where 
these traces of a more varied and not quite settled form of 
expression are much fewer, and only met with, occasion- 
ally, in poetical pieces. 

Judgiag from these peculiarities, there seems no doubt 
that the dialect of the Gathas shows some traces of a higher 
antiquity than can be claimed for the ordinary Avesta. 
But the differences are not so great as between the Vedic 
and classical Sanskrit, or between the Greek of Homer and 
that of the Attic dialect, the two dialects of the Zend- 
Avesta being much closer to each other. They represent 
one and the same language, with such changes as may 
have been brought about withia the space of one or two 
centuries. The G^tha dialect is, therefore, only one or two 
centuries older than the ordinary Avesta language, which 
was the standard language of the ancient Iranian empire. 


Much ^i the difficulty of understanding the Zend-Avesta 
arises, no doubt, from grammatical defects in the texts 
extant, owing to the want of grammatical studies among 
the ancient Persians and Bactrians. Had the study of 
grammar, as a separate science, flourished among the an- 
cient Mobads and Dasturs, as was the case with Sanskrit 
grammar among the ancient Brahmans, and had Iran pro- 
duced men Kke P^nini, K^ty&yana, and Patanjali, who 
became lawgivers of the classical Sanskrit language, we 
should have less ground to complain of the bad condition 
of the texts, and have found fewer difficulties in explain- 
ing them than we have now to encounter. There is every 
reason to believe that the grammar of the Bactrian lan- 
guage was never fixed in any way by rules; thus the 
corruptions and abbreviations of forms, which gradually 
crept from the popular and colloquial into the written 
language, became unavoidable. In Sanskrit the gramma- 
rians built, by means of numerous rules, under which every 
regular or irregular form ia that language was brought, a 
strong bulwark against the importation of forms from the 
popular and vulgar language, which was characterised by 
them as Pr§,krit.l Grammar became a separate branch of 
study ; manuscripts were then either copied or written in 
strict accordance with the rules of grammar, biit always 

1 Oiie must not, however, lose sigljt mar is no exception, to the general 
of the fact that a language ia not made rule that laws are hurtfnl unless sub- 
by grammarians, but by the common ject to constant revision ; for a lavr 
people whom they despise. The work that cannot be altered becomes a 
of grammarians is merely to take the dogma, an impediment to discussion, 
language as they find it, and try to progress, and improvement, whether 
ascertain what rules they can manu- it be grammatical, medical, legal, 
faoture to account for the various scientific, social, or religious, Whe- 
forms and idioms used by the jjeople ther the stoppage of Hindu progress 
around them. So long as such rules in knowledge beyond a certain point 
are laid down merely as explanations be not due to the excessive systema- 
of existing facts, they will be useful tising adopted by their writers when 
to the scholar, and will not impede they approached that point, is a mat- 
progress ; but once let them be enun- ter worth consideration. Arrived at 
L^ated as inflexible laws, unalterable a certain amount of progress, they 
as those of the Medes and Persians, ceased to look forward, but contented 
and then they hinder progress, ossify themselves with surveying and ar- 
thought, and stop discovery. Gram- ranging what they already knew. 


■with attention to phonetical peculiarities, especially in 
Vedic books, if they had any real foundation. To these 
grammatical studies of the Brahmans, which belong to an 
age long gone by, we chiefly owe the wonderfully correct 
and accurately grammatical state of the texts of the Vedas 
and other revered books of antiquity. In Iran almost all 
knowledge of the exact meaning of the terminations died 
out at the time when the ancient Iranian languages under- 
went the change from inflected to uninflected idioms. 
Books were extant, and learnt by heart for religious pur- 
poses, as is still done by the Parsi priests. But when the 
language of the Zoroastiian books had become dead, there 
were no means for the priests, who cared more for the mere 
mechanical recital of the sacred texts than for a real know- 
ledge of their meaning, to prevent corruptions of the texts. 
Ignorant of anything like grammar, they copied them me- 
chanically, like the monks of Europe in the middle ages, 
or wrote them from memory, and, of course, full of blun- 
ders and mistakes. On this account we find the copies 
now used by Mobads and Dasturs in a most deplorable 
condition as regards grammar; the terminations are often 
written as separate words, and vowels inserted where they 
ought to be omitted, in accordance with the wrong pronun- 
ciation of the writer. The best text, comparatively speak- 
ing, is to be found in the oldest copies ; while in Vedic 
manuscripts (if written for religious purposes) there is not 
the slightest difference, whether they are many centuries 
old or copied at the present day. Westergaard has taken 
great trouble to give a correct text, according to the oldest 
manuscripts accessible to him, and his edition is, in most 
cases, far preferable to the manuscripts used by the priests 
of modern times. If older manuscripts than those used 
by "Westergaard be known to the Dasturs, they should con- 
sider it their bounden duty to procure them for the purpose 
of collation with Westergaard's valuable edition, so that 
they may ascertain all preferable readings for their own 
information and that of other scholars. Why will they 


remain behind the Brahmans and the Jews, who have 
preserved their sacred writings so well, and facilitated 
modern researches to so great an extent ? The era for a 
sound philological explanation of the time-hallowed frag- 
ments of the Zoroastrian writings has come, and the Das- 
turs, as the spiritual guides of the Parsi community, should 
take a chief part in it. The darkness in which much of 
their creed is enshrouded should be dispelled ; but the only- 
way of obtaining so desirable a result is by the diffusion of 
a sound and critical knowledge of the Avesta language. 


It has been already noticed (p, 6"]) that after the five 
centuries of obscurity, and probable anarchy,! which fol- 
lowed the death of Alexander, when we next meet with 
the vernacular language of Western Iran, it has assumed 
the form of Pahlavi, the name generally applied to the 
language of the inscriptions of the Sasanian dynasty, 
whether on rocks or coins. 

Various interpretations of the word Pahlavi have been 
proposed. Anquetil derives it from the Persian pahlu, 
" side," in which case Pahlavi would mean " the frontier 
language ; " but although this opinion has been held by 
some scholars, it can hardly be correct, as it is difficult to 
imagine that a frontier language could have spread over a 
vast empire. It has also been connected with pahlav, " a 
hero," but "the hero language" is a very improbable 
designation. Native lexicographers have traced Pahlavi 
to the name Pahlav of a town and province ; that it was 
not the language of a town only, is evident from Pirdausi's 
statements that the Pahlavi traditions were preserved by 
the dihgdn, " village chief; " it may have been the language 

^ ' In the Karn4mah of ArtakhsMr-i ' F4rs and the borders adjacent to it 

' PApakto it was written that after ' were in the hands of a chieftain of 

' the death of Alexander of Rftm, ' Ardavto. PApak was governor and 

'there were 240 small rulers of the ' sovereign of F4rs, and was appointed 

' country of ASriln. The warriors of ' by Ardav^n.'— Kamamak-i A. P. 


of a province, but the province of Pahlav is said to have 
included Ispahan, Eai, Hamad an, Nihavand, and Adar- 
baljan, and must have comprised the ancient Media, but 
that country is never called Pahlav by Persian and Arab 
historians. Quatremfere was of opinion that Pahlav was 
identical with the province Parthia, mentioned by the 
Greeks ; he shows, by reference to Armenian authors, that 
pahlav was a royal title of the Arsacidans. As the 
Parthians regarded themselves as the most warlike people 
of the Orient, it is not surprising that pahlav and pahlavdn 
in Persian, and palhav or pahlav, and pahlavig or palhavig 
in Armenian, became appellations for a warrior ; the name 
thus lost its national meaning altogether, and became only 
a title for bold champions of old. It spread beyond the 
frontiers of Iran eastwards to India, for we find the 
Pahlav§,s mentioned as a mighty foreign nation in the 
Etim§,yana, Mah^bharata, and the Laws of Manu, and we 
can only understand them to have been the Persians. Ee- 
garding the origin of the word, we may compare it with 
pdhlum, " excellent," but cannot derive it therefrom. 

As the name of a nation, we can discover it only in the 
Parthva of the cuneiform inscriptions, which is the Parthia 
of the Greeks and Eomans. The change oi parthva into 
pahlav is not surprising, as I is not discoverable in the 
ancient Iranian tongues, where r is used instead, and th in 
the middle of an ancient Iranian word generally becomes 
h in Persian, as in Av. mithra = Pers. mihir. It may be 
objected that the Parthians were not Persians but pro- 
bably a Scythic race, and that Pahlavi could not have been 
the language of the Parthians. This objection, however, 
wiU not hold good when we consider that the Parthians 
were the actual rulers of Persia for nearly five hundred 
years, and made themselves respected and famous every- 
where by their fierce and successful contests with the 
mightiest nation of the ancient world, the Eomans. It is 
not surprising, therefore, that the name which once struck 
such terror into the hearts of Eoman generals and emperors 


was remeiabered in Persia, and that everything connected 
with antiquity, whether in history, religion, letters, writing, 
or language, was called pahlavi, or belonging to the ancient 
rulers of the country, the Parthians. Pahlavi thus means, 
in fact, nothing but " ancient Persian " in general, without 
restriction to any particular period or dialect. This -we 
may see from the use made of the word by Mohammedan 
writers ; thus, Ibn Hauqal, an Arab geographer of the 
tenth century, when describing the province of Ilrs, the 
ancient Persis, states that three languages were used there, 
viz. (a) the Farsl (Persian), spoken by the natives when 
conversing with one another, which was spread all over 
Persia, and understood everywhere ; (&) the Pahlavi, which 
was the language of the ancient Persians, in which the 
Magi wrote their historical records, but which in the 
writer's time could not be understood by the inhabitants 
of the province without a translation ; (c) the Arabic, which 
was used for all of3Bicial documents. Of other languages 
spoken in Persia he notices the Khuzl, the language of 
Khuzist&,n, which he states to be quite different from 
Hebrew, Syriac, or Parsi, In the Mujmilu-t-tawMkh there 
is an account of " Pahlavi " inscriptions at Persepolis, 
but the writer evidently means those in cuneiform char- 

From all this we may clearly see that the name Pahlavi 
was not limited to any particular period or district. In 
the time of Firdausi (a.d. iooo), the cuneiform writing as 
well as the Sasanian inscriptions passed for Pahlavi char- 
acters ; and the ancient Persian and Avesta were regarded 
as Pahlavi, equally with the official language of the 
Sasanian period, to which the term has been now restricted, 
since the others have become better known. The term 
Pahlavi was thus, in fact, never used by the Persians 
tliemselves in any other sense than that of "ancient 
Persian," whether they referred to the Sasanian, Arsacidan, 
Achaemenian, Kayanian, or Peshdadian times. Any reader 
of the Shahn^mah wUl arrive at this conclusion. This 


misapplication of a more recent name to earlier historical 
facts is analogous to the misuse of the appellation Arumdk, 
" Eoman," which the Parsi writers apply to Alexander, the 
Macedonian conqueror, because he entered the Persian 
empire from the quarter where the Eoman armies appeared 
in later times. 

However loosely the term Pahlavi may have been for- 
merly applied, it has long been practically restricted to the 
written language of Persia during the Sasanian dynasty, 
and to the literature of that period and a short time after, 
of which some fragments have been preserved by the 
Parsis, in a character resembling that of the Avesta, but 
very deficient in distinct letters. These Pahlavi writings 
are of a very peculiar character : instead of presenting us 
with a pure Iranian dialect (as might be expected in the 
language of a period commencing with the purely Iranian 
ancient Persian, and ending with the nearly equally pure 
Iranian lauguage of Firdausi), it exhibits a large admixture 
of Semitic words, which increases as we trace it further 
back, so that the earliest inscriptions of the Sasanian 
dynasty may be described as being written in a Semitic 
language, with some admixture of Iranian words, and a 
prevailing Iranian construction. Traces of the Semitic 
portion of the Pahlavi can be found on coins of the third 
and fourth century E.C., and possibly on some tablets found 
at Mneveh, which must be as old as the seventh century 
B.C.; so there is some reason to suppose that it may be 
derived from one of the dialects of the Assyrian language, 
although it differs considerably from the language of the 
Assyrian cuneiform inscriptions. Practically, however, our 
acquaintance with Pahlavi commences with the inscrip- 
tions of the first Sasanian kings on rocks and coins. 

Since the Mohammedan conquest of Persia, the language 
has become greatly mixed with Semitic words from the 
Arabic, but this Semitic admixture is of a totally different 
character to that we find in Pahlavi. The Arabic element 
in modem Persian consists chiefly of substantives and 


adjectives, referring to religion, literature, or science ; few 
particles or verbs have been adopted, except when whole 
phrases have been borrowed; in fact, the Arabic words, 
although very numerous, are evidently borrowed from a 
foreign language. The Semitic element in Pahlavi writ- 
ings, on the contrary, comprises nearly all kinds of words 
whicli are not Arabic in modern Persian ; almost all pro- 
nouns, prepositions, conjunctions, and common verbs, many 
adverbs and substantives in frequent use, the first ten 
numerals, but very few adjectives, are Semitic ; while 
nearly every Arabic word in modern Persian would be re- 
presented by an Iranian one in Pahlavi writings. It is 
optional, however, to use Iranian equivalents for any of 
these Semitic words when writing Pahlavi, but these 
equivalents are rarely used for some of the pronouns, pre- 
positions, and conjunctions ; so rarely, indeed, that the 
orthography of a few of them is uncertain. Notwithstand- 
ing the Semitic appearance of the written Pahlavi, we find 
that all traces of Semitic inflexions have disappeared, except 
in a few of the earliest Sasanian inscriptions, written in a 
peculiar character and dialect, called Chaldajo-Pahlavi, in 
which the Chaldee plural suffix in is still often used, as in 
mcdkm malkd , " king of kings," instead of malhan malkd 
in the ordinary Sasanian Pahlavi inscriptions of the samo 
age, where the Iranian plural suffix dji is used. Besides 
this Iranian suffix to nouns, we find the verbs appearing in 
one unchangeable Semitic form, to which is added certain 
Iranian suffixes, except in the earliest inscriptions in Sasa- 
nian Pahlavi, where these suffixes are wanting. In addition 
to these indications of Iranian grammar, we also find a 
prevailing Iranian construction in the sentences, as much 
in the older inscriptions as in the later writings. 

The explanation of this extraordinary compound writ- 
ing, fundamentally Semitic in its words and Iranian in its 
construction, is that it never literally represented the 
spoken language of any nation. The Iranians must have 
inherited their writing from a Semitic people, and although 


they were acquainted witla the separate sounds of each of 
the letters, they preferred transferring the Semitic words 
bodily, so as to represent the same ideas in their own Ira- 
nian language, and each Semitic word, so transferred, was 
merely an ideogram, and would he read with the sound of 
the corresponding Iranian word, without reference to the 
sounds of the letters composing it ; thus the Persians wrote 
the old Semitic word malkd, " king," but they pronounced 
it shah. When the Semitic words had more than one 
grammatical form, they would, for the sake of uniformity 
be usually borrowed in one particular form, and probably 
in the form which occurred most frequently in the Semitic 
writings. As these ideograms were to represent an Iranian 
language, they would be arranged, of course, according to 
Iranian syntax. For certain words the writer could find 
no exact Semitic equivalent, especially for Iranian names 
and religious terms ; to express them he had recourse to 
the alphabet, and wrote these words as they were pro- 
nounced ; thus laying the foundation of the Iranian element 
in the Pahlavi. As the Semitic ideograms remained un- 
changed,! it was necessary to add Iranian suffixes to indicate 
the few grammatical forms which survived in the spoken 
language ; these additions appear to have been only gra- 
dually made, for the sake of greater precision, as some of 
them are not found in the older inscriptions. In later 
writings we find a few other Iranian additions to Semitic 
words, used generally to indicate some modification of the 
original word ; thus alu = 2'^d, " father," is altered into 
alidar=pidar; am = mad, "mother," into amidar—mddar; 
&c. In these later writings, we also find the proportion of 
the Semitic element considerably reduced, being confined 
to the representation of some three to four hundred of the 
commonest words in the language, while all other words 
are Iranian, written as they are pronounced. 

1 The only exceptions extant seem tions before mentionecl (p. 82) ; but 
to be a few Semitic plurals in -in even these are used in phrases of Ira^ 
found in the Chaldseo-Pahlavi inscrip- nian construction. 


As a proof tliat tlie Persians did not use the Semitic 
words in speaking, we may quote the statement of Ammi- 
anus Marcellinus (xix. 2, 11). When referring to the war 
between the Eoman Emperor Constantius and Shahpuhar 
II., about A.D. 350, he says that the Persians used the 
terms saansaan and ^yrosm, meaning " king of kings " and 
" conqueror." Both these terms are Iranian, the first being 
$'hdhdn-shdh, and the latter piruz, "victorious," and show 
conclusively that the Persians of those times did not pro- 
nounce malMn malkd, although they wrote those words, 
but they both wrote and pronounced piruz, which has no 
Semitic equivalent in Pahlavi. More than four centuries 
later, Ibn Muqaffa, a Mohammedan writer of the latter half 
of the eighth century, states that the Persians ' possess a 
' kind of spelling which they call zavdrish ; they write by 
' it the characters connected as well as separated, and it 
' consists of about a thousand words Cwhich are put toge- 
' ther), in order to distinguish those which have the same 
' meaning. For instance, if somebody intends to write 
' g6sM, that is lakhm (meat) in Arabic, he writes hisrd, but 
' reads g$sht ; and if somebody intends to write ndn, that 
' is khubz (bread) in Arabic, he writes lahmd, but reads 
* ndn. And in this manner they treat all words that they 
' intend to write. Only things which do not require such 
' a change are written just as they are pronounced.' It 
appears from this that the Persians of the eighth century 
did exactly as a Parsi priest would do at the present 
time ; when they came to a Semitic word while reading 
Pahlavi, they pronounced its Persian equivalent, so that 
their reading was entirely Persian, although the writing 
was an odd mbcture of Semitic, Persian, an,d hybrid words. 
It was always optional to write the Persian word instead 
of its Semitic equivalent, and it was only necessary to make 
this the rule, instead of the exception, to convert the old 
Pahlavi into piire Persian. This final step became com- 
pulsory when the Persians adopted a new alphabet, with 
which the old Semitic ideograms would not amalgamate, 


but which facilitated the adoption of Arabic terms intro- 
duced by their Mohammedan conquerors. Hence the 
sudden change from Pahlavi to- modern Persian was rather 
a change in writing than an alteration in speaking. The 
spoken language changed but slowly, by the gradual adop- 
tion of Arabic words and phrases, as may be seen from a 
comparison of the language of Firdausi with that of recent 
Persian writers. 

Ibn Muqaffa uses the term zavdrish for the Semitic ele- 
ment in Pahlavi, and this is the term usually employed in 
Persian, although written occasionally azvdrisk or uzvdrsh ; 
in Pahlavi it is written h&zvdrish or a<uzvdrishn, but it is 
doubtful if the word occurs in any very old writings. 
Several attempts have been made to explain its etymology, 
but as its correct form is by no means certain, it affords 
very little basis for trustworthy etymology. The term 
Huzvarish is applied not only to the Semitic ideograms, 
but also to a smaller number of Iranian words written in 
an obsolete manner, so as to be liable to incorrect pronun- 
ciation ; these obsolete Iranian written forms are used as 
ideograms in the same manner as the old Semitic words. 
The habit of not pronouncing the Huzv§,rish as it is ■written 
must have tended to produce forgetfulness of the original 
pronunciation of the words ; this was to some extent ob- 
viated by the compilation of a glossary of the Huzv§,rish 
forms, with their pronunciation in Avesta characters, as 
well as their Iranian equivalents. When this glossary was 
compiled is uncertain, but as the pronunciation of some of 
the Huzv§,rish words is evidently merely guessed from the 
appearance of the letters, we may conclude that the true 
sounds of some of the words were already forgotten. 

It has been already noticed (p. 68) that Pahlavi trans- 
lations of the Avesta are called Zand, and we may here 
further observe that the Iranian equivalent of Huzv§,rish 
is called P^zand, reserving further explanation of these 
terms for the third Essay. This Pi,zand may be written in 
Pahlavi characters, as happens when single P§,zand worda 


are substituted for their HuzvS-risli equivalents in a Pah- 
lavi text ; or it may be written in Avesta characters, which 
happens when the whole text is so transliterated, and is 
then called a PIzand text ; or this P^zand text may be 
further transliterated into the modern Persian character, 
when it is still called P§,zand, and differs from the Iranian 
element of modern Persian only in its frequent use of ob- 
solete words, forms, and construction. It would be conve- 
nient to call this Persian form of Pazand by the name 
P^rsi, but it is not so called by the Parsis themselves, nor 
in their books ; with them, Ptei or PHrsi means simply 
modern Persian, more or less similar to Pirdausi's language. 

It has been mentioned above that it would be easy to 
forget the pronunciation of the Huzv^rish words, and it is 
now necessary to explain how this could be. The Pahlavi 
alphabets, being of Semitic origin, have not only all the 
usual deficiencies of other Semitic alphabets, but also some 
defects peculiar to themselves, so that several sounds are 
sometimes represented by the same letter ; this ambiguity 
is greatly increased, in Pahlavi books, by the union of two 
or more of these ambiguous letters into one compound 
character, which is sometimes precisely similar to one of the 
other single letters ; the uncertainty of reading any word, 
therefore, which is not readily identified is very great. No 
short vowels are expressed, except initial a, but it is pre- 
sumed they are to be understand where necessary, as in all 
Semitic alphabets. 

Two or three of the earliest rock inscriptions of the 
Sasanian kings record the names and titles of Ardashir-i 
Papakan and his son Shahpiihar I. (a.d. 326-270) in three 
languages, Greek and two dialects of Pahlavi. The Pah- 
lavi versions are engraved in two very different characters, 
one called Chaldseo-Pahlavi, from some resemblances to 
Chaldee in letters and forms, the other called Sasanian 
Pahlavi, as being more generally used by the Sasanian 
kings in their inscriptions, both on rocks and coins. This 
latter character changes by degrees, on the coins of the 


later Sasahian kings, till it becomes nearly identical with 
the Pahlavi character in the naanuscripts stUl extant ; while 
the Chaldseo-Pahlavi appears to have gone out of use be- 
fore A.D. 300. Two more inscriptions, of greater length, 
are engraved in both these Pahlavi dialects, but without 
any Greek translation ; of one of these inscriptions only a 
few fragments are yet known, but the other is complete, 
and we may take it as a specimen of the Pahlavi writings 
of the early Sasanian times, as it refers to King Shahpuhar 
I. (a.d. 240-270). 

This inscription is engraved on two separate tablets (one 
for each dialect), cut on the rock- wall at the entrance of a 
cave near the village of H^jiabg-d, not far from the ruins of 
Persepolis. Copies of the two versions were published by 
Westergaard at the end (pp. 83, 84) of his lithographed 
edition of the text of the Bundahish. Plaster casts of the 
whole of the Chaldseo-Pahlavi, and of the first six lines of 
the Sasanian Pahlavi version, are preserved in the British 
Museum and elsewhere ; and a photograph from one set 
of these casts was published by Thomas in the " Journal 
of the Eoyal Asiatic Society," new series, vol. iii. From a 
comparison of these copies with the photograph we obtain 
the following texts, the words of one version being placed 
immediately below those of the other for the sake of con- 
venient comparison, and short vowels being introduced 
where they seem necessary. 


[Sasauian Pahlavi.]— yagraMAJ zenman'^ U mazdayasn bagi ShahpHhai-t, 
[CHALDiEO-PAHLAVl.] — Karz^vanl zenman It mazdayazn alah^ Shah!ptihart, 

malkdn mailed Airdn va Antrdn, min6-chitH min yaztdn, barman mae- 
malkln malkS. Ary4n va An^ryan, minO-shihar min y^ztan, bari sjaz- 

' The syllable man is represented man, lanman, and yadman, as well as 

by a single letter in both characters, in the uncommon forms gadmatman, 

which evidently corresponds with the atarman, and panman. In tamman, 

common Pahlavi termination man, as the syllable man corresponds to mdn 

we iind it here in the common Pah- in Chaldee, but in other words we 

lavi words zenman (= denman), bar- must suppose it to represent an origi- 

man, ragelman, valman, tamman, hS- iial vdn, vain, or dn. Thomas reads 


day am hagt ArtaJchshatar, malMn malkd Airdn, minS-chiirt min paetdn, 
il^azn alaha, Artakhshatar, malkln malkS, Aiyd,ii, minfi-shlhar min yiztan, 
napi lagt Pdpaki malM, ; afan amat zenman khitayd shadt 
patarl ptlhar bag Pftpak malka ; va amat Ian zenman khirerayS, sha- 
tun, adinan levini shatradardn va barUtdn la vacharkdn va dtdtan 
(lit, qadmatman khshatradarln, barbitto, rab4u va &za,tan 

sliadUun, afan ragelman pavan zenman dikt hankhetAn, afan khitayd 

shadit, nagarln patan zenman v6m haqMrndt, va kliirerayA 

leckad'6, zak chtidk bard ramtlun, bard valman vaydk aik khitayd rami- 
leliad 1 lehCi shlti lebar^ ramtt, blsh tamman and khirerayS, naflat 
tun, tamman vaydk zak argitn Id yehvUn, a<tk hat cMtdk chUi ASman, adin 

leliavlnd, atarman Uyehflt, alk ak shltl banlfc havJndS, kal 

btiUni patydk yehv4n hSman ; akhar lanman framdt: Min6 

lebarS, shadedra. ^kasl yeh<lt hav!nd4 ; adin Ian afipadisht : Mind 

chUdkt a'&rundari chitt, mind yadman ketab hSman, zak ragelman 

shltl panman satar banlt, avat mind yad^ kedab havSnt, nagarln 

pavan zenman dtkt ayH hankhetUn, va khitayd val zuk chUdkt ayH 
patan zenman vSm hip haqalmdd, va khirerayS, kal hft shltl hip 
shadttun, akhar minS khitayd val zak chitdk ramitun ; valman yadman 

shadyfi, min5 khireraya kal hft shltl yimzCid ; lehdp yad4 

kedab havlnd. 

A few words in this inscription are not quite intelligible, 
but by comparing one version with the other, which corre- 
sponds closely in all but two or three phrases, we can 
arrive at the meaning of most of the obscure passages, and 
translate as follows : — 

' This is an edict of me, the Mazda- worshipping divine 
' being Shahpuhar, king of the kings of Iran and non-Iran, 
' of spiritual origin from God; son of the Mazda- worshipping 
' divine being Ardashlr, king of the kings of Iran, of spiritual 
' origin from God ; grandson of the divine being P^pak, the 
' king. And when this arrow 2 was shot by us, then it was 
' shot by us in the presence of the satraps, grandees, mag- 

the letter t, because it resembles { in traditional man on the authority of 

some old alphabets. For a similar the Chaldee tamTndn, and because we 

reason Andreas reads it d. Thomas do not see why there should be a 

points to the correspondence of bar- second d in the alphabet. 

man, in one dialect of our, with ^ Andreas reads this word lechad, 

bari in the other. Andreas points to as the h is peculiarly formed, and may 

a similar correspondence of yadman perhaps represent the letter tsade, or 

with yadd; he also shows that the cA in Pahlavi. 

reading d overcomes many etymolo- 2 x^e form of the word is plural, 

gical difficulties. We adhere to the but used probably for the singular. 


• nates, and nobles ; and our feet were set in this cave, and 
' the arrow was shot out by us towards that target ; but 
' there where the arrow would have dropped was no place 

• (for it), where if a target were constructed, then it (the 
' arrow) would have been manifest outside ; then we or- 
' dered : A spirit target is constructed in front, thus a spirit 
' hand has written : Set not the feet in this cave, and shoot 
' not an arrow at that target, after the spirit arrow shot at 
' that target ; the hand Las written that.' 

Comparing the two versions of this inscription with the 
Pahlavi of the manuscripts, it will be noticed that though 
the Chaldseo-Pahlavi differs most, it still corresponds with 
the manuscripts to the extent of about one-third of the 
words, amongst which the preposition kcd, " to, at," explains 
the manuscript ghal, which has been often read ghan or 
ghu, and is used for either val or valman. The construc- 
tion of the Chaldseo-Pahlavi resembles generally that of 
the manuscript Pahlavi, but it does not sufSx the pronoun 
to the initial conjunction or adverb in each phrase, which 
is a peculiarity of Pahlavi as compared with modem Per- 
sian. Furthermore, the Chaldseo-Pahlavi has begun to use 
Iranian terminations to Semitic verbs, as t in haqdimut, 
yehut, haxtnt ; d in lehatind, haqdimM, ydmzud ; and the 
conditional de in haxtnde. The Sasanian version has not 
advanced to that stage in which it adopted Iranian termi- 
nations to Semitic verbs, although they are freely used in 
other inscriptions some twenty or thirty years later ; but 
ia all other respects the Sasanian approaches much closer 
than the Chaldaeo-Pahlavi to the language of the manu- 
scripts, about two-thijds of the words being identical, and 
the construction of the sentences precisely the same. Thus 
we find the pronoun suffixed to the initial conjunction or 
adverb in some phrases, as in afan and adtnan, only the 
.pronominal sufBx is Semitic; but in later Sasanian inscrip- 
tions we find Iranian suffixes, as in afam and afash. This 
inscription leaves the question of the origin of the idhdfat, 
or relative particle, very uncertain. This particle is nearly 


always expressed in Pahlavi ■writings,^ and not merely 
tmderstood, as it is generally in modern Persian. In this 
inscription several words, in both versions, end in i, but as 
this vowel termination cannot be the idhdfat in some cases, 
it may not be so in any. Thus in the Sasanian version the 
final i may be an idh&fat in lagi, Shahpuhari, napi, PdpaM, 
levini, and possibly in chitri, but it cannot be so in dihi, 
Mruni, and chUdM, and an idhlfat is wanting after malkd, 
harvmn, Artahhshatar, and lechaditJb. In the Chaldaeo-Pah- 
lavi version the final i may be an idhS,fat in SkaMpuhari, 
iari, and puhan, but it cannot be so in sMti and dkasi, 
and an idh§,fat is wanting after alahd, malkd, Artakhsha- 
tar, puhar, lag, Pdpak, and lehad, and perhaps after sMhar 
and qadmatman. The omission of an idhlfat after malkd 
is most significant, as it is a position in which it would be 
expressed even in modern Persian ; it is, therefore, very 
doubtful whether any final i is intended as an idhdfat. In 
inscriptions a few years later we find the idhS,fat in the 
form of the Semitic relative zi. 

To compare with the early Sasanian Pahlavi of the in- 
scriptions, we may take, as a specimen of the manuscript 
Pahlavi, a passage from the K^rnamak-i Ardashir P^pak§,n, 
in which the Semitic ideograms are given in italics, and a 
complete Pazand version, in Neryosangh's orthography,2 is 
interlined; so that the upper line gives the text as it is 
written, and the lower as it is pronounced : — - 

[Pahlavi], — Pipak amat&sh na,mak dlij andfthkftn yehevUnd, o/ash pavan 
[Pazand]. — Pftpak kash nama did andfthgin hd^, vash pa 
pasukh6 val Ardakhshlr kar(J nipisht ati/h : Lak Id din^kyisli kard, amat 
pasukh 6 Ardashir kard navasht ku : Th5 ne dd,naih& kard, ka 

pavan mindavam-l mAn zly^n Id ajash shayast bCidano, levatman vajfirg^n 
pa this-e ke ziS, ne azhasli sh^yast bddan, awS. guzurgS,n 

stSjak yedi-Antniao milayd drftsht-adv^jylsh atlbash gdft. Kevan bfijishn 
stezha burdan sakhun durusht-S,wftzhiha hayash guft. Nun bdzheshn 

^ A few exceptions to this general ^ Derived from other works, as no 

rule, besides unintentional omissions, version of the K&m^mak by Neryo- 

may be discovered, especially in ma- sangh is known, 
nuscripts from Persia. 


yemalelun, pavan p^4'k-mandak ^ ang^r ; maman d&.n&k&,n gflft yekavimO,nt<l 
g6, pa pashemanl anga,r; chi d^n^ga guft ested 

al/fe; DhshTa&n pavan dftshman zak Id tixhkn vakM4niSLno m4n^ ash6 mard 
ku : Dushman pa dushman & ne tuS. griftan ke ashb mard 

min k&nishn-l nafshman afibash ras4d. Denmanich gCift yekavimiin&d atgh : 
ezh kuiieshn-i qesh havash rasecj. Ifi-oha guft ested ku : 

Min zak atsh mtistS,varmS,nd al yehevUnih miln javlrl min vahiian Id vijarS(j. 
E2I1 a, kas mustSiVarmad ma bash ke jad ezh 6i ne guz^red. 

Va lak henafshman dfi,n6d^ atgh Ardavan madam li va lak va kabed&n 
U thd qa(jl d&nag ku Ardav^n awar men u thfi u vas&n 

ansk-dtd-i dSn g^hin pavan tand va khaya va ckaWn va khv^stak k^mkirtar 

mardum-1 afldar geha, pa tan u jitn u khir u qS,sta kamk^rtar 

pi\dakhsh&l atto. Va kevanich andavj-1 li val lak denman sakhttar, atgh 

padishah hast. U nuii-cha andarzb-i men 6 th6 ifl sakhttar, ku 

kkad'Aktnsikih va farm&,n-l)(ir^iar* rdd'O-nSt nafsJiman-t&nii varz val atiben- 
eug^na! u farmS,-burdar kuu qesh-tan varz 6 avin- 

bftdih al avasp&r. 
bftdl ma awasp^r. 

This passage may be translated as follows: — 'Papak, 
' when he saw the letter, became anxious, and he wrote in 
' reply to Ardashlr thus : Thou didst unwisely, when, to 
' carry on a quarrel with the great, in a matter from which 
' there need be no harm, thou spakest words fierce and 
' loudly about it. Now call for release, and recount with 
' soiTOW ; for the wise have said that an enemy is not able 
' to take that, as an enemy, to wliich a righteous man 
' attains by his own actions. This also is said : Be not an 
' antagonist of that person, away from whom you depart 
' not. And thou thyself knowest that Ardav^n is a very 
' despotic sovereign over me and thee and many men in 
' the world, as to body and life, property and wealth. And 
' now also my advice to thee is most strongly this, that 
' thou practise conciliation thyself, and act obediently, and 
' yield not to want of foresight.' 

It will be noticed that many of the words in this Pahlavi 

1 A doubtful word, and pashemant no difference between these words in 
is mereiy a guess. Pahlavi writing. 

2 All MSS. have kardano min, and « Plural used for the singular. 

no doubt some old copyist has read * So in all MSS., but the text is 
vddHntano (= kardan) instead of either corrupt, or the construction 
mkhdilntano (- griftan), there being peculiar. 


text, such as did, hard, nipishf, &c., are Pazand, although 
they have Semitic or Huzv^rish equivalents, such as 
TcTiadtiund, vddund, yeUihund, &c., which might have been 
used. This is generally the case in Pahlavi manuscripts, 
as it is quite optional for the writer to use either the 
Huzvarish word or its P^zand equivalent, except perhaps 
in the case of some of the particles and detached pro- 
nouns, which are hardly ever used in their PIzand form 
in Pahlavi writings. It is necessary to observe that the 
proportion of Huzvarish words in a manuscript is no 
criterion of its age, but merely an indication of the style 
of its writer, for it is not unusual for a manuscript of 
yesterday to contain more HuzvSrish than one of the 
same text written five hundred years ago; though 
sometimes the case is reversed. The reason for this un- 
certain use of Huzvarish is obvious; the copyist either 
knows the text by heart, or reads it from a manuscript, 
but in either case he repeats it to himself in P§,zand, so 
that he has nothing but frequent reference to the original 
to guide him in the choice between Huzv§iish and P§,zand 
modes of writing, and for want of frequent reference he 
will often substitute one for the other, or even use a wrong 
equivalent (if he does not quite understand his text) when 
there are two Huzvarish forms with nearly the same PIzand, 
or when he has misread a Huzv§,rish form which has two 
meanings. Thus we often find the Huzv§,rish amat, " when," 
confounded with mm, " which," because the P^zand 'of 
both is ka or ke; and sometimes the Huz. aicrh, "that," 
is similarly confounded, owing to its having been read ki 
instead of ku ; on the other hand, as the Huz. vakhdund, 
"taken," cannot be distinguished from vddund, "done," 
they are both liable to be read and written either kard 
or grift, according to the knowledge or ignorance of the 



Pahlavi writings may te divided into two classes : first, 
translations from the Avesta; and, secondly, writings of 
whicli no Avesta original is known. The translations are 
always written in sentences of moderate length, alternating 
with those of the Avesta text; they are extremely literal, 
but are interspersed with short explanatory sentences, and 
sometimes with long digressions, serving as a commentary 
on the text. The Pahlavi writings without an Avesta 
original are nearly entirely of a religious character, though 
a few are devoted to historical legends. Pazand versions 
of some of these writings, as well as of the translations, exist 
both in the Avesta and modern Persian characters. Some- 
times the Pazand, when written in the Avesta character, 
alternates with a Sanskrit or Gujrati translation; and 
when written in the modern Persian character, in which 
case we may call it a Parsl version, it is usually accom- 
panied by a Persian translation, either alternating with 
the P§,rsi sentences or interlined ; in the latter case, it is a 
literal translation, and in the former it is more of a para- 
phrase. Some writings are found only in Persian, and 
this is more especially the case with the Pdv^yats or 
collections of memoranda and decisions regarding cere- 
monial observances and miscellaneous religious matters; 
these are generally very free from Arabic words, but some 
of them contain nearly as much Arabic as is used in 
Mohammedan Persian writings. These Eivayats also 
contain metrioall Persian versions of some of the more 
popular Pahlavi and P&zand books; these distant imita- 
tions of the Shahnamah are generally from two hundred 
to three Irandred and fifty years old. 

Having thus taken a brief survey of the Pahlavi writings 
and their connection with Parsi literature generally, we 
may now proceed to give further details of such works as 


are known to be still extant, beginning witli the translations 
from the Avesta. 

The Pahlam Vendiddd is probably the most important 
of these translations, and extends to about 48,000 words.l 
Each sentence of the Avesta text is continuously followed 
by a literal translation, or attempted translation, in Pahlavi, 
interspersed with short explanations of unusual words, and 
often concluding with an alternative translation, introduced 
by the phrase, " There is (some one) who says." In many 
places the translation of a sentence winds up with a longer 
commentary, containing Avesta quotations, and citing the 
opinions of various old commentators who are named, but 
regarding whom very little is known. As the next sentence 
in the Avesta text follows without break of line, it is often 
difficult to distinguish it from one of the Avesta quotations 
before mentioned. In the translation there are probably 
fragments of various ages, as some of the commentaries 
bear traces of translation from Avesta originals, while 
many of the shorter explanations appear more modern, 
but they must have been brought together in their present 
form before the Mohammedan conquest. All the known 
extant copies of the Vendidad with Pahlavi appear to have 
descended from a manuscript of herbad Hom§,st, from 
which a copy was made in Sistan in A.Y. 554 (a.d. 1185) 
by Ardashir Bahman, and taken to India by herbad 
Milhy^r M^h-mihir, who had been passing six years with 
the herbads of Sistan, whither he had come from the town 
of Khujak on the Indus. After the arrival of this MS. in 
India it was re-copied by Eiistam Mihir§,p§,n, who has for- 
gotten to mention the year, 2 and from his copy the oldest 
manuscript now extant was copied by herbad Mihirap^n 
Kal-Khusro (who was probably his great-grand-nephew) in 

^ In estimating (more or less acou- counted compounds as either one or 

rately)tlie number of words in each two words according to the usual 

of the works he has examined, as the mode of writing them, 

best standard of their length, the ^ He copied the Arda- Virdf ndmak 

editor has not included the oonjunc- in a.t. 6x8 (a.D. 1249), and had visited 

tion va and idhMat i: and he has Persia. 


A.\. 693 (a.d. 1324) in the town of Kambay. This manu- 
script is now in the University Library at Copenhagen, but 
is very defective; the first portion of the manuscript 
(Vend. i. i-v. 78, Sp.) having fallen into other hands, 
probably on some division of property among brothers ; 
and nearly half the remainder is so much damaged, by 
the ink corroding the paper, that it is almost useless. 
Another manuscript, which appears to be in the same 
handwriting, but the colophon of which is missing, is in 
the India Office Library in London ; this is also defective, 
as the folios containing Vend. i. i-iii. 48 and iv. 82-viii. 310 
have fallen into other hands, and have been replaced by 
modern writing; the folios containing Vend. iii. 4g-iv. 81, 
and a few others, are also damaged by the corrosive action 
of the ink used by Mihir^p^n Kal-Khiisra From a com- 
parison of these two manuscripts, we can ascertain the 
state of the text 553 years ago, except with regard to 
Vend. i. i-iii. 48 and a few other short defective passages, 
for which we must refer to other old manuscripts. One of 
these was formerly in the library of Dastur Jamasp Asa at 
Nawsari, and is said to have been transferred from Bombay 
to Teheran in Persia some twenty years ago. It was copied, 
probably from the Copenhagen MS., in a.y. 963 (a.d. 1594), 
by herbad Ardashir ZivS,, in the town of Bhroch ; it is rather 
carelessly written, and many of the later copies are descended 
from it. "I Another old manuscript, now in the University 
Library at Bombay, was obtained at Bhroch ; it corresponds 
very closely to the one last mentioned, and is probably about 
the same age, but its colophon is lost. The PahlaviVendidad 
was printed at Vienna separate from the Avesta text, and 
was published by Spiegel in 1853, but his text can be much 
improved by careful collation with the old manuscripts 
above mentioned. None of these MSS. contain the twelfth 
fargard of the Vendidad, so that the Pahlavi translation of 

1 The descent of manuscripts can shaped letters ; but it is hazardous to 

generally be traced by their copying argue on the authority of only one 

errors, which have been insufSciently such blunder, 
erased; or by their misreading ill- 


this fargard, which occurs in a few modem MSS., is pro- 
bably the work of some Dastur in India. It is difficult to 
account for the omission of the twelfth fargard in the old 
MSS., as the fargards are all numbered, so that any acci- 
dental leap from the eleventh to the thirteenth ought to 
have been soon discovered; and it is unlikely that the 
twelfth fargard would have occupied exactly the whole of 
any number of folios which may have been lost from some 
original manuscript before it was copied. 

The PoMavi Yasna contains about 39,000 words, ex- 
clusive of the hiriya or introductory prayers. It is written 
alternating with its the same manner as the Vendi- 
dad, but the long interpolated commentaries are much less 
common, and fewer commentators are quoted; so it may 
be suspected of containing less old matter than the Pahlavi 
Vendidad. For the oldest manuscripts of this text we are 
again indebted to herbad Mihirlp^n Kai-Khusr6, who 
copied at Kambay a manuscript of the Yasna with Pahlavi 
(now in the University Library at Copenhagen) in a.t. 692 
(a.d. 1323) from a manuscript written by Eustam Mihir- 
§,p§,n ; in the same year he also wrote a second manuscript 
of the same, which is now in the library of Dastur Jamaspji 
Minochiharji in Bombay, and is dated only twenty-two 
days later than the first, but it does not mention whence 
it was copied. Both these manuscripts begin with a series 
of introductory prayers in Avesta and Pahlavi, of which 
the commencement is lost; some of the folios are also 
damaged in both by the eorrasive action of the ink used 
by the writer ; and one folio in the middle of the Bombay 
copy is lost, and many others are worm-eaten. Several 
more modern manuscripts of the Yasna with Pahlavi exist, 
but they are less common than those of the Vendidad. 
The Avesta and Pahlavi texts were printed separately at 
Vienna, and published by Spiegel in 1858, but his text 
would be improved by collation with the old manuscript 
in Bombay. 

The Pahlavi Visjparad contains about 3300 words, and 


resembles in character the Pahlavi translation of the 
Yasna. Probably the oldest copy of this text extant is 
contained in a manuscript of miscellaneous texts brought 
from India by the author of these Essays ; this copy was 
written by Pgshyotan ES-m KS,mdin at Bhroch in a.y. "jQS 
(a.d. 1 397). The Avesta and Pahlavi texts were printed 
separately at Vienna, and published by Spiegel, along with 
the Yasna texts, in 1858. 

The Hddokht nash in Pahlavi is a mere fragment, con- 
taining about 1530 words, and consisting of three fargards 
which were probably not consecutive in the original Nask. 
The first fargard details the value of reciting the Ashem- 
vohu formula under different circumstances, and is probably 
ah extract from the first division of the Nask. The second 
and third fargards describe the fate of the souls of the 
righteous and wicked respectively during the first three 
days after death; but their contents do not agree very 
well with the description of the Nask in the Diiikard, 
where it is stated to have consisted of three divisions con- 
taining 13, 102, and 19 sections respectively.! The oldest 
copies of the text known to be extant are contained in the 
manuscript of miscellaneous texts written in A.D. 1397, 
which includes the Visparad, as mentioned above; also 
in a veiy similar manuscript in the University Library 
at Copenhagen, which must be about the same age. The 
Avesta and Pahlavi texts, alternating as in the manuscripts, 
were printed at Stuttgart, and published with the Arda- 
VMf N^mak in 1 872, and a translation of the Avesta text 
will be found in the third Essay. 

The Vishtdsp yasht is found with a Pahlavi translation 
of about 5300 words, but only one manuscript has been 
examined; this is in the library of Dastur Jamaspji in 
Bombay, and is said to have been written some thirty-five 
years ago. The Avesta text is probably descended from 
the Kirman manuscript used by "Westergaard, and now at 

1 The total number of sections is error of one in some one of these -four 
given as 133; so tncro must be an numbers. 


Copenhagen, and the Pahlavi text has the appearance of a 
modern translation. 

Pahlavi translations of other Yashts also exist ; such as 
those of the Auharmazd yasht, about 2000 words; the 
Khurslied yasht and Mdh yasht, each about 400 words ; the 
Srosh yasht hddohht, about 700 words; the Eaptdn yasht, 
Behrdm yasht, and probably others which have not been 
examined. In these, as in all the other translations, the 
Pahlavi alternates with the Avesta ; and there seems little 
doubt that most of these Yasht translations are old. 

Among the remaining translations are the Pahlavi texts 
of the Atash nydyish, about 1000 words; the Khurshed, 
nydyish, about 500 words ; the Abdn nydyish, about 450 
words; the Afringdn gdtha, the Afringdn gahanldr, the 
Afrtngdn dahmdn (Yasna, lix. 2-1 5 Sp.), the last containing 
about 450 words ; the Afrin myazd, also called Afrin Zara- 
tusht; the Sirozah in both its forms, containing about 530 
and 650 words respectively ; and many short extracts from 
the Yasna which are much used in the Khurdah Avesta, 
such as the Ashem-vohu, Tathd- ahu-vairyd, and Yenhe- 
hdtctm formulas; Yasna, v. i, 2; xxxv.4-6, 13-IS; i- 65-67, 
Sp. ; &c. 

The CMdak avistdh-i gdsdn, or selection from the Gatlias, 
is an old miscellaneous collection of short passages, some- 
times merely single lines, from various parts of the Gathas, 
alternating with the usual Pahlavi translation. Altogether 
y6 lines are quoted from the Avesta, and the Pahlavi 
translation of about iioo words does not differ materially 
from that given in manuscripts of the Yasna. Several 
copies of this selection exist, but the oldest seems to be 
that in the manuscript of miscellaneous texts written in 
A.D. 1397, as mentioned above. 

Intermediate between the translations and the purely 
Pahlavi works, there are those which contain many Avesta 
quotations, which are often translated, but do not in them- 
selves form any connected text, as the bulk of the work is 
Pahlavi. The following three are of this class : — 


The JUirangistdn contains about 30,000 words, including 
the Avesta quotations, many of which are no longer extant 
in the Zend-Avesta. It consists of three fargards, and 
treats of a gxeat number of minute details regarding rites 
and ceremonies, and precautions to be adopted while per- 
forming them. Its contents correspond very closely with 
the description of the second section of the Husparam 
Nask, as given in the Dlnkard; and the name of that 
section was Nirangistan. The opinions of many of the 
old commentators mentioned in the Pahlavi Vendidad 
are also often quoted in this work. A manuscript of the 
Mrangistan was brought from Persia to India by Dastur 
Jamasp WiMyati, a.d. 1720 ; this was copied from a manu- 
script dated A.Y. 840 (a.d. 1471), but whether it stiU exists 
is uncertain ; it was re-copied by Dastur Jamasp Asa of 
ISTawsari in A.Y. 1097 (A.l). 1727), and this copy is now in 
the library of the Khan Bahadar Dastur NSshirvSnji 
Jamaspji at Poona. Several later copies exist, but owing 
to the text being difi&cult and little known to copyists, 
their variations from the original are unusually numerous. 

The Farhang-i otm khaduk, or vocabulary of Avesta and 
Pahlavi, so called from its first words being otm khaduk, 
consists of about 3300 words, including the Avesta, and 
contains several words and phrases which are no longer 
extant in the Avesta texts. Very old copies of this voca- 
bulary exist in two manuscripts of miscellaneous Pahlavi 
texts, one brought from India by the author of these 
Essays, and written in A.D. 1397, and the other at Copen- 
hagen, written about the same time. Dastur Hoshangji's 
edition of this vocabulary, printed at Stuttgart, and pub- 
lished in 1867 with the title of "An Old Zand-Pahlavi 
Glossary," could probably be improved by collation with 
these old copies of the text. 

The Afrin-i dahmdn, including the aogemadaicha Avesta 
quotations, contains about 2000 words. The first of the 
quotations is Yasna, vii. 60 Sp., but most of the others are 
no longer extant in the Avesta. They are also found with 


alternating PS,zand and Sanskrit translations, and without 
the introductory sentences of the Afrin. 

We may now proceed to notice the purely Pahlavi works, 
which contain but few quotations from the Avesta, and 
those are generally references to the proper texts to he 
recited on particular occasions. There is much diversity 
in the style of these compositions, some being merely 
descriptive, in which the language is easy and the con- 
struction simple ; while others are more philosophical, and 
their language difficult and obscure. 

The Vajmha,Tcl-i dtni, containing about 19,000 words, 
might almost be classed with the preceding, as the latter 
part of it contains several quotations from the Avesta. It 
is a very miscellaneous collection of injunctions and de- 
tails regarding religious matters, resembling a EivS,yat, and 
divided into three chapters, professing to have been written 
by Medy&mS.h, oiae of the oM commentators quoted in the 
Pahlavi translations and other works. An old manuscript 
of the work, written in Kirm^n, A.Y. 6og, (a.d. 1240), is said 
to have been brought to India and deposited in the Kbrary 
of the Mody family in Surat, where it was copied A.Y. 1 123 
('a.d. 1754) by an uncle of the late high-priest of the Parsis 
in Bombay ; from this copy the text was edited by Dastur 
Peshotanji, and printed in Bombay in 1848, as akeady 
mentioned (p. 59). This work includes three or four of 
the minor texts hereafter mentioned, as will be noticed 
when we come to them. 

The D^liard is the longest Pahlavi work extant, although 
the first portion of it, containing the first and second books, 
is missing ; the latter part, of the work, consisting of books 
iii.-ix., eontaiins about 170,000 words. The third book con- 
sists of a series of explanations of religious matters and 
duties, for general infoimation and removal of doubt, con- 
cluding with a deseription of the solar and lunar years, 
a.nd a legendary history of the Dinkard which is evidently 
identified with that of the ISTasks generally; this book 
contains 73,000 words. The fourth book contains various 


statements selected from the religious books by Adarfro- 
bag-i rarukhz§,d&n, the original editor of the Dinkard (see 
p. SS), extending to about 4000 words; these statements 
commence with the characteristics of the Ameshaispends, 
and in discussing those of Shatrovair, the third AmeshS,- 
spend, an account is given of the endeavours of various 
sovereigns, from Visht§,sp to KhfisrS-i KavM§,n (NSshir- 
vS,n), to. collect and preserve the national literature. The 
fifth book contains the sayings of the same Adarfrobag 
from a book called Simr§,,l and his replies to many ques- 
tions on obscure and difficult matters in history, astrology, 
and religious customs, extending to about 6cCio words. 
The sixth book contains the opinions of the 'i^ryoiMshAn 
(professors of the primeval religion of Zarathushtra) on all 
matters of tradition, customs, and duties, with many say- 
ings of Adarp§,d-i M^raspendSn ; the whole extending to 
about 23,000 words. The seventh book contains an ac- 
count of the wonders, or miracles, of the Mazdayasnian 
religion from the time of G%6mard, the first man, to that 
of S&sh3,ns, the last of the future prophets ; including many 
details of the life of Zaratiisht, and extending to about 
i6,oco words. The eighth book contains an account of 
the twenty-one Kasksjgiving a short description of each, but 
going into more details of the four Nasks xv.-xviii, which 
constitute the majority of the seven " legal " Nasks ; this 
book consists of about 20,000 words. The ninth book 
contains a much more detailed account of the contents of 
each fargaid of the first three Nasks, concluding with some 
remarks upon selections from the whole Yasna, and ex- 
tending to about 27,000 words. The work concludes with 
colophons to the extent of nearly 1000 words, which relate 
that this latter part of the Dinkard was copied at the place 
where it was found, Khushkand in Asurist^n, from an 
original which had been written by elders of the family of 
Adarpld-i Maraspend^ MS-hvandidNarimahlnBehram 
Mihir§,p§,n, and finished on the 24th day of the 4th month 

^ There are, of course, many other ways of reading this name. 


A.Y. 369 (7th July A.D. 1000). From this copy others dated 
A..Y. 865, 1009,^ and 1038 1 have descended, and the last 
appears to have been brought from Persia to Surat in a.y. 
1152 (A.D. 1783) by Mull^ Bahman, and about four years 
afterwards some copies of the manuscript of A.Y. 1038 (a.d. 
1669) were spread among the Parsis; but before any of 
these copies were made,' the manuscript from Persia had 
been lent to various parties, and more than one-sixth of 
the whole had been abstracted, so that all the manuscripts 
are now deficient to that extent; but out of 69 folios 
missing, 64 have been discovered, though they stOl remain 
in various hands. The manuscript itself is in the library 
of Dastur Sohrabji Eustamji, the high-priest of the Kadmi 
sect of Parsis in Bombay. Dastur Peshotanji is publish- 
ing an edition of the text, with Gujrati and English trans- 
lations, as has been already mentioned (p. 59), but it 
wOl be many years before he can complete his task. 

The name Dddistdn-i-dini is usually confined to a work 
of about 30,000 words, written by Dastur Minochihar 
Yud^n-daman, who was high-priest of the Mazdayasnians 
in PEirs and Kirm§.n about A.Y. 3502 (a.d. 981). It con- 
sists of 92 questions and answers about religious duties, 
customs, and legends; the last of these answers seems to be 
incomplete, so that a portion of the original work may 
have been lost. The oldest manuscript of this text that 
has been examined was written in Kirm^n by Marjp^n 
Frgdun in A.Y. 941 (A.D. 1572) ; his writing was 'to supply 
the deficiencies in a stUl older manuscript, of which only 
28 folios now remain ; and his manuscript has, in its turn, 
had its deficiencies supplied from later copies. In this 
manuscript the text of the D§,dist§,n-i-dini is preceded and 
followed by other somewhat similar writings by the same 
Dastur, and by Z§,d-sparam-i YTid§,n-dam§,n, who appears 

' These dates no longer exist in the " Altered to 250 in the old manij- 

manuscript brouglit from Persia, but script written by Mar]pfi.n Frfidfin, 

are taken from the copies and from but "whether the alteration was made 

the account given by MuIU Firttz in by the original writer or not is un- 

his Avijeh-Din. certain. 


to have been Ms brother. The first part of theso extra 
writings contains about 23,000 words, and the last part 
about 30,000 words, of which 5000 are lost ; if these writ- 
ings be taken as part of the DMist§,n-i-dlnl, the whole 
work contains about 78,000 words extant. The author of 
these Essays recommended the Parsis, twelve years ago, to 
have this work translated, and it is said that a translation 
was prepared, but has not been published. If the non- 
appearance of this translation be due to any of the opinions 
of the old Dastur of Kirm§,n differing from those of Parsis 
of the present day, it is to be regretted, as the proper 
course in such a case would be to publish a correct trans- 
lation, and point out the probable cause of the original 
writer's errors in notes ; this is all the more necessary as 
none of the Pahlavi books are free from statements which 
would be considered heterodox nowadays. Thus, whenever 
they give details regarding Tchvetuh-^das, or next-of-kin mar- 
riage, they describe it as applying to closer relationships 
than present customs tolerate; but whatever may have 
been the reasons for the establishment of this custom 
when the Zoroastrian faith was in power,l it is evident 
that when the faith was held merely by a persecuted 
remnant of the Persian people, their priests advocated the 
custom as a specially meritorious act, with the view of 
discouraging intermarriages with their Mohammedan 
neighbours, which would have led to the final extinction 
of Zoroastrianism. That the present customs of the Parsis 
are not quite the same as those of eight or ten centuries 
ago is not surprising, when we consider that it was the 
usual practice of all Christian sects who had sufficient 
power, two or three centuries ago, to put heretics and 
witches to death by burning or otherwise ; such practices 
•were then not only legal, but were considered highly meri- 
torious ; now they would be called judicial murders. 

' They had probahly something to the Jews to adopt stringent excep- 

do with the dislike of Eastern nations tional marriage laws, in case of a 

to any absolute alienation of family failure in direct heirs, 
property ; a feeling which led even 


The Shihand-gumdni vij&r is a controversial work of 
atout 18,000 words, written by Mard§,n-farukh-i Auhar- 
mazd-d&d, who acknowledges the instruction he has re- 
ceived froia the Dinkard of Adarfrobag-i Farukhzldln, 
which contained a thousand chapters {dar), as well as 
from the Dtnkhard l of Adarp^dy^vand, a work no longer 
known, unless it be the book of the Mainyo-i-khard, men- 
tioned hereafter. The writer begins by answering some 
questions of MihiryS,r-i M§,hmM§,n of Ispahan regarding 
the existence and work of the evil spirit being permitted 
by Auharmazd ; he then proceeds to prove the existence 
of God, and to disprove the arguments of atheists, and of 
those who disbelieve in the evil spirit, and attribute both 
good and evil to God ; and he concludes by criticising the 
doctrines of the Jews, Christians, and Manichseans. Most 
of the manuscripts of this work are incomplete, and only 
the first 3600 words are found in the Pahlavi character; 
the more complete manuscripts are in Ptizand with Neryo- 
sangh's Sanskrit translation, but there are evident indica- 
tions of the PIzand text having been originally transliter- 
ated from Pahlavi. An edition of the Pahlavi and P§,zand 
texts has been prepared by Dastur Hoshangji, but is not 
yet printed. 

The Bundahish calls itself ' the Zand-dkds 2 (zand-know- 
'ing, or tradition-informed), which is first about Auhar- 
' mazd's original creation and the antagonism of the evil 
' spirit, and afterwards about the nature of the creatures 
' from the original creation till the end, which is the future 
' existence, just as it is revealed by the religion of the 

1 The Mulia, Ftrftz library in Bom- 2 xhe word min, "from,'' witli 
bay contains two modern Persian which many of the manuscripts com- 
manuscripts, named respectively Din- mence, appears to be a later addition, 
kard and Dinkliird ; these were writ- ps it is not found in tlie Copenhagen 
ten by Mull4 "Firfta to describe his manuscript, and has evidently been 
voyage toPersia and the answers he ob- added by a later hand in the only 
tained to seventy-eight questions pro- other manuscript of equal age men- 
posed by the Indian Dasturs. Tliese tioned in the text. 
Persian works must not be confound- 
ed with their namesakes in Pahlavi, 


'Mazdayasnians.' The contents of this book are too well 
known to require further description ; it contains about 
13,000 words, but the manuscripts do not agree either in 
extent or arrangement. The most complete and best-ar- 
ranged text, but not the most accurately copied, is that iu 
the manuscript of miscellaneous Pahlavi texts at Copen- 
hagen, which is about five hundred years old, and has lost 
one or more folios in the middle of the text of the Bunda- 
hish, but contains more sections (chaps, xxviii., xxix., xxx., 
and xxxii. of Anq[uetLl) than are found in other independent 
copies. The text is found differently arranged, without 
those sections, but more accurately copied, in the similar 
manuscript of miscellaneous texts brought from India by 
the author of these Essays, and written in 1 397. Most of 
the manuscripts in India seem to have been copied from 
the latter of these two old manuscripts, but they some- 
times ^ary further in their arrangement. The Copenhagen 
text was lithographed in facsimile and published by 
Westergaard in 1851 ; a French translation was published 
by Anquetil in 177 1, and German translations by Win- 
dischmann in 1863, and by Justi in 1868. 

The Ml-mh-i l klmrd, called in P^zand Mainyo-i khard, or 
Spirit of Wisdom, consists of sixty-two answers given by the 
said Spirit to the inquiries of a wise man regarding the 
tenets, legends, and morals of the Mazdayasnian religion. 
It contains about 12,000 words, but the text ends abruptly, 
as if incomplete ; and its introduction bears some resem- 
blance to that of the Shikand-guman}, so as to lead to the 
suspicion that it may be the first portion of the Dinkhard 
consulted by the author of that work. An old manuscript 
of the Pahlavi text was brought by Westergaard from 

1 This word, which is traditionally not by d. On the other hand, the 

read rnaMnad, has been pronounced Persian mtn6 must have been mtndk 

mtnavad, or v.atnivad, and traced to in Pahlavi ; this would be hable to be 

a supposed ancient Persian form, mai- written mtnSg, and the addition of 

nivat. Wbetlior such a form actually circumflexes (all the uses of which, 

existed is not known, and if it did, we in Pahlavi, are not thoroughly under- 

should expect to find its final letter stood) changes this word into the tra- 

represented hj d = t in Pahlavi, and ditioual maUdnad. 


Persia, but the Palilavi versions in India are probably 
merely translations from the better-known PS,zand text 
■which generally alternates with Neryosangh's Sanskrit 
translation; a manuscript of this P^zand-Sanskrit text, 
written in A.n. 1520, is preserved in the India Oifice Library 
in London. A few fragments of the P§,zand text were 
published, with a German translation, by Spiegel in his 
" G-rammar of the Parsi Language "(1851) and his " Tradi- 
tional Literature of the Parsis" (i860); and the whole 
text, both P4zand and Sanskrit, was published by West, 
with an English translation, in 1871. 

The Shdyast Id-shdyast, or Pahlavi Eiv§,yat, contains 
about 10,000 words, and treats of sins and good works, 
the proper treatment of corpses and other kinds of impu- 
rity, with the proper modes of purification, the proper use 
of the sacred thread and shirt, other customs and rites, 
with the reasons for reciting each of the G§,thas, and details 
of the extent of those hymns ; all subjects which are gene- 
rally explained in the Persian Eiv§,yats ; but here the 
statements are enforced by quotations of the opinions of 
several of the old commentators, and by references to some 
of the Nasks no longer extant. The oldest extant copies 
of this work are contained in the two manuscripts of mis- 
cellaneous Pahlavi texts, written about five hundred years 
ago, which have been already mentioned. In these manu- 
scripts the text appears in two detached portions of about 
7500 and 2500 words respectively. 

The Ardd'^ Virdf ndmaJc, or book of ArdS, YkM, con- 
tains about 8800 words, and describes what was seen by a 
chosen high-priest in a vision of the other world, where 
he was shown the rewards of the righteous, the punish- 
ments of the wicked, and the neutral state of stationary 
expectation of those who belong to neither extreme. It is 
stated in this work that ArdS, Viraf was called Mkhshapiir 

' Sometimes written Arddt, whioli doubt merely a title meaning " right- 

ehould perhaps be read Arddk, having eons ; " the Parsis say, however, that 

been .iltered into arddg, which is not it is also a name, 
distinguishable from arddt It is no 


by some ; this is not only the name of a town, but is also 
that of one of the old commentatorsi sometimes quoted in 
the Pahlavi Vendidad, and very often in the NlrangistS-n ; 
it is possible, therefore, that this commentator may have 
written the book of Arda Vir§,f. Copies of this text are 
found in the two old manuscripts of miscellaneous texts 
written about five hundred years ago, which have been 
already mentioned. A manuscript of a P^zand and San- 
skrit version, written a.d. 141 o, was also brought from 
India by the author of these Essays ; and Persian versions, 
both in prose and verse, are likewise extant. The Pahlavi 
text was printed at Stuttgart, and published, with an Eng- 
lish translation, in 1 872. 

The Mddigdn-i G6sht-i Frydno, of about 3000 words, is 
a tale of the evil Akhtya of the Aban Yasht (81-83), pro- 
pounding thirty-three enigmas to Y6isht6-y6-Fryananam, 
to be solved on pain of death ; after this is done he has to 
solve three enigmas in his turn, but fails and is destroyed. 
The enigmas are generally of a very trivial character, 
and nine of them seem to be omitted. This text accom- 
panies that of the book of ArdR VMf in the two old manu- 
scripts before mentioned, and was published with it in 

The Bahman yasht, of about 4200 words, professes to be 
a revelation from Anharmazd to Zaratusht of the sufferings 
and triumphs of the Mazdayasnian religion, from his time 
to the end of the world, apparently in imitation of part of 
the Sudkar Nask. As it mentions the Musalmans, and 
gives many details of the sufferings occasioned by them, it 
must have been written a considerable time after the Mo- 
hammedan conquest. It details how the power of the 
Mazdayasnian religion is to be restored by the victories of 
Vahiram-i Varj^vand, a prince {kai) of the Kay§,n race, 
wlio at the age of thirty is to put himself at the head of 
Indian and Chinese armies, whose power will be felt as far 
as the banks of the Indus, which is called the country of 
Bambo. Foreigners should be careful not to confound thif» 


name with Bombay, which is merely a European corrup- 
tion, through the Portuguese, of Mumbat; a corruption 
which native writers still avoid when writing in the ver- 
nacular languages. The Pahlavi text of this work is found 
in the old manuscript of miscellaneous texts at Copenhagen, 
and its two copies, one of which is at Paris, but no other 
copies have been met with ; a P^zand version is, however, 
common in India. Spiegel has given a German transla- 
tion of extracts from the Bahman Yasht in his " Traditional 
Literature of the Parsis." 

In the same old manuscript at Copenhagen is the 
Andarj-i Huddvar-i l ddndk, containing about 1800 words, 
of which one-third have been lost, as two folios are missing. 
This admonition {andarj) is given in reply to questions 
asked by his disciple (ashdkard). No other copy of this 
work has been met with, but it will be found, of course, in 
the two copies of the Copenhagen manuscript. 

In the same manuscript is also a copy of the Md^tgdn-i 
gujastak Ahdlish, containing about 1200 words. The ac- 
cursed Abi,Iish appears to have been a zandih or heretic, 
who relied upon later corrupt traditions in preference to 
the true faith. In the presence of M§,mftn, the commander 
of the faithful (amir-i milminin) at Baghdeld, he proposes 
seven questions to a Mobad, who replies to the satisfaction 
of Mi,mun and the confusion of Ab§,lish himself The 
writer concludes by blessing Adarfrobag-i ParukhzElrMn 
(the author of an old edition of the Dtnkard) for having 
destroyed Abolish; and he could not have written this work 
before a.d. 830, as M§,mun was living at that time.. Many 
copies of it exist in Pahlavi, P^zand, and Persian. 

The Jdm&sp iidmak consists of Jelmdsp's replies to King 
Gusht^sp's questions regarding creation, history, customs 
of various nations, and the future fate of the religion. The 
most complete manuscript examined contains about 5000 
words, but seems unfinished. The Pahlavi text is rare. A 
very old manuscript in Dastur Peshotanji's library in 

' This name may also be read KhAshvar-i, or otherwise. 


Bombay contains about one-fourth of tbe text, but no other 
copy has been met with. The PIzand and Persian ver- 
sions are found in many manuscripts. 

A very old manuscript in the library of Dastur Jamaspji 
in Bombay has been called the Pahlavi ShdhndmaJc, as it 
contains several short tales connected with the kings of 
Persia. Its colophon states that it was finished in India, 
in the town of T^nak,l on the igth day of some month 
A.Y. 691 (a.d. 1322), by MihiTtp§,n Kai-Khusi6, the copyist 
who wrote the oldest manuscripts of the Yasna and Ven- 
didad that are still extant. The handwriting, however, 
more nearly resembles that of the old manuscript of mis- 
cellaneous texts at Copenhagen, which contains several 
copies of Mihirapan's writings, with his colophons attached ; 
so that the Pahlavi Sh^hn^mak may also be a copy of his 
manuscript, but, like that at Copenhagen, it is certainly 
about five hundred years old. This manuscript is much 
wormeaten, but a copy of it exists at Teheran, made one 
hundred and ten years ago, before the original was much 
damaged, which will probably supply most of the defi- 
ciencies in those texts of which no other copies are known 
to exist. 

Of the texts contained m this old manuscript and its 
single complete copy, the following are not known to exist 
elsewhere in Pahlavi: — (i.) YddMr-i Zarirdn, of about 
3000 words, containing an account of the war between 
King Vishtasp and Arj&sp. (2.) Cities of the Land of Iran, 
about 880 woi'ds, giving their names and a very brief 
account of each. (3.) W&ndevs and Prodigies of the Land 
of Sktdn, in about 290 words. (4.) Khiisro-i Kavdddn 
(Nfishirvan) and the Slave-hoy, who replies to the king's 
thirteen inquiries, as to what things are the most pleasant, 
about 177G words. (5.) Admonitions to Mazdayasnians in 
six separate paragraphs, about 940, words. (6.) Andarj-i 

» la another colophon, in the mid- zilah, the date being the 6tli day of 
(He of the manuscript, this place is the sixth mpnth A.T. 691. 
called TamCik in Jazirak (or Cujtrak) 


KhusrS-i Kavdddn (N6sliirv§,ii), about 380 words, said to 
contain the dying injunctions of that monarch. (7.) 
Sayings of Adarfrobag-i Farukhz§,d^n and Bakht-S,frld, 
about 320 words. 

The following texts, contained in this old manuscript, 
are also found in Dastur Peshotanji's old manuscript, 
which has been already mentioned as containing part 
of the J§,m^sp-n^mak ; but they are not known to exist 
elsewhere in Pahlavi: — (i.) MdMgdn-i si rdz, about 460 
words, is a statement of what ought to be done on each of 
the thirty days of the month ; at the end it is called an 
admonition {andarj) of Adarp4d-i Miraspend^n to his son, 
which leads one to suspect that it may be a detached por 
tion of his Pandn^mak. (2.) Dirakht-i Asurik, about 800 
words, is a debate between a tree and a goat as to which 
of them is the more worthy. (3.) Chatrang ndmak, about 
820 words, relates how a chessboard and chessmen were 
sent by Devasarm, a . great kiug of India, to Khusro-i 
Anoshak-riiban (N63hirv§,n), with a request for an ex- 
planation of the game, which was given by Vajurg-mihir-i 
Bukhtak^n, who afterwards takes the game of Mv-Ardashir 
to India, as an effectual puzzle for the Indian sages. (4.) 
Injunctions given to men of the good religion, about 800 
words. (5.) The Five Dispositions, of priests, and Ten 
Admonitions, about 250 words, which also occur in the 
Vajarkard-i-dini (pp. 13-16 of Dastur Peshotanji's edition). 
(6.) Ddruk-i khtirsandt, about 120 words. (7^) Anecdote 
of King Vahiram-i Varj3,vand, about 190 words. (8.) Advice 
of a certain man {fuldn gahrd), about 740 words. Of the 
following texts contained in the two old manuscripts of 
Dastur Peshotanji and Dastur Jamaspji, a third copy 
exists in the library of the latter Dastur: — (i.) Forms of 
Letters to kings and great men, about 990 words, found 
also in the Vajarkard-i-dinl (pp. 1 02-1 13 of Dastur 
Peshotanji's edition). (2.) Form of Marriage Contract, 
dated a.y. 627 (a.d. 1258), about 400 words. (3.) Vdchak 
aechand (some sayings) of Adarpld-i MaraspendS,n, about 


1 270 words. (4.) Stdyishn-i drSn va sipdsddrt-i myazd^dn, 
about 560 words. 

Of the following texts contained in Dastur Jamaspji's 
old manuscript many copies exist: — (i.) Fandndmak-i 
ZaratusM, about 1430 words, contains admonitions as to 
man's duties. A copy of three-fourths of this text exists 
in the University Library at Copenhagen, (2.) Andarj-i 
Adarpdd-i Mdraspenddn, about 1700 words, is sometimes 
called his PandnSmak, and contains his advice to his son 
Zaratusht ; but the last quarter of the text is missing in 
the old manuscript, and the end is very abrupt in other 
manuscripts, which makes it probable that the next text 
in the old manuscript, the Mddigdn-i si rdz, may have 
been originally the conclusion of this, as has been already 
noticed. This Pahlavi text was printed in Bombay, and 
published, with a Gujrati translation, by Shahry§,rji 
Dadabhai in 1869; and an English version of this Guj- 
rati translation, by the Eev. Shapurji Edalji, was published 
in 1870, but being a translation of a translation, it differs 
considerably from the meaning of the original. (3.) Kdr- 
ndmak-i Artakhshir-i Pdpakdn, about 5600 words, records 
many of the actions of KingArdashir and his son Shahpuhar, 
beginning with the discovery of SS,sS,n, the father of the 
former, among the shepherds of Papak, and ending with 
Auharmazd, the son of the latter, ascending the throne ; 
but this is not the original work, as it begins with the 
phrase, ' In the K§,rnamak of Artakhshir-i Papak§,n it was 
' thus written.' A Gujrati translation of this text was 
published by Dastur Peshotanji in 1853. (4.) Fand- 
ndmak-i Vajurg-mihir-i BukUakdn, the prime minister of 
King Khusro Noshirv^n, contains about 1690 words, but 
seems to be merely a fragment of the work, as it ends very 
abruptly. This text is also called the Ganj-i sMigdn, be- 
cause it states that it was placed in the royal treasury 
{ganj-i shahakdn in the old manuscript). 

The other old manuscript in Dastur Peshotanji's library, 
which includes some of the above-mentioned texts, likewiee 


contains the following: — (i.) Mddigdn-i si yazaddn, about 
80 words, stating the one special quality of each of the 
thirty Yazads who give their names to the days of the 
month. Another simiilar statement, in the old manuscript 
of miscellaneous texts brought from India by the author of 
these Essays, specifies different qualities in most cases. (2.) 
MdMgdn-i mdh Fravar(^.in roj-i Horoadad, about y66 
words, which details all the remarkable occurrences said 
to have taken place, at different periods, on the sixth day 
of the first month of the Parsi year. A Persian version of 
this text is found in the Eivayats. (5.) Another Mddigdn-i 
si rdz, about 1 150 words, detailing the proper business and 
duties for each of the thirty days in the Parsi month and 
the five G^tha days at the end of the Parsi year. This 
text is also contained in the Vajarkard-i DinJ (pp. 113-125 
of Dastur Peshotanji's edition). 

Copies of the remaining texts are numerous both in 
Pahlavi and P§,zand. The Mddigdn-i haft ameshdspend, 
about 990 words, contains a detail of the various duties of 
the seven Ameshaspends, as revealed by Auharmazd to 
Zaratusht. The Andarj-i ddndh mard, about 520 words, 
details the advice of a wise man to his son. 

The PaMavi-Pdzand favhang, about 1300 words, is the 
glossary of HuzvSrish and P§,2and edited by Dastur 
Hoshangji and published in 1870. It is called the 
MdHTcndmah-i AslXrih, or Assyrian vocabulary, by Dastur 
Peshotanji in the list of Pahlavi works given in the intro- 
duction to his Pahlavi Grammar; but the origin of this 
name requires explanation, as it appears to be unknown 
to the Dasturs generally. 

The Patit-i Adarpdd-i Mdraspend, abo^st 1490 words, is 
a form of renunciation of every possible heinous sin, to be 
recited by the sinner. The Patit-i kh4d, about 1000 
words, is a similar form of renunciation, but somewhat 
abbreviated. Avar eMm-i drSn, about 380 words, regard- 
ing the symbolism of the ceremonial wafer-cakes, and the 
use of them in the mydzd,, or sacred feast. The Pahlavi 


dshirvdd, or marriage blessing, about 460 words. The 
Ndm-stdyishni, or praise of Aiiharmazd, about 260 words. 
The Afrin-i " tfH p6shgdh-i khddd," so called from its first 
words, about 190 words. And other benedictions and 
prayers which have not been examined. 

A Pahlavi version of the Saddar Bundahish is also said 
to exist, but must be a modern translation, for the Sad-dar 
itself, although often written in Avesta characters, seems 
to be rather Persian than P^zand, as it contains many 
Arabic words. Dastv^r Peshotanji mentions a few more 
Pahlavi texts, some of which may be included among 
those described above, but under different names. There 
are also several Persian texts, such as the book of DM§,r 
bin DM-dukht, &c., which may have originated in Pahlavi. 
From the above details we may form some idea of the 
probable extent of the scanty remnants of Pahlavi litera- 
ture. Without making any allowance for works which 
remain unexamined or have escaped observation, it appears 
that the extant Pahlavi translations from the Avesta ex- 
ceed 104,000 words, and the other Pahlavi works exceed 
413,000 words, making a total of upwards of 517,000 
words in all the extant Pahlavi writings which have been 
examined. This total is nearly eleven times the extent of 
the Pahlavi Vendidad, or forty times that of the Bundahish. 
The Parsi community has been doing a good deal, of late 
years, for the preservation of the last remnants of their 
national literature, but it would be better if their efforts 
were of a more systematic character. Before much more 
is done for encouraging the publication of isolated texts, a 
systematic inquiry for manuscripts should be set on foot, 
for the purpose of ascertaining which are the oldest and 
best manuscripts, so as to avoid the error of editing texts 
without reference to the best materials. Iniiueutial mem- 
bers of the Parsi commimity, assisted by the Dasturs, 
ought to have but little difficulty in inducing all possessors 
of manuscripts to supply a properly organised committee 
with complete catalogues of their collections. Such cata- 



logues need only be lists of the names of the works, with 
the names and dates of the copyists when these are re- 
corded; but all undated manuscripts supposed to be more 
than a century old should be specially noted. From such 
lists the committee could easily prepare a statement of all 
extant texts and of the owners of several of the more valu- 
able manuscripts of each text. Possessed of this informa- 
tion, the next step would be to obtain a copy of the oldest 
manuscript of each text, beginning with the rarest works, 
and have it collated with one or two of the next oldest 
manuscripts (not being copies of the first). These collated 
copies, if correctly made without any attempt at emendation, 
would form standard editions of the texts, and should be 
carefully preserved in some public institution accessible to 
all members of the Parsi community, such as the MuM 
Firuz Library. 

It can hardly be expected that Westergaard's edition of 
the Avesta texts can be much improved from any manu- 
scripts to be found in India ; although copies from Yazd 
or Kirm5,n, in Persia, might afford valuable emendations 
coming from an independent source, but it is generally 
understood in India that there are very few such manu- 
scripts still existing in Persia. Justi's Old-Bactrian Dic- 
tionary is a tolerably complete collection of the Avesta 
words, but requires to be supplemented by the addition of 
many words contained in the Nlrangist§,n, Farhang-i olm 
khadftk, and Aogemada§cha ; and the meanings attached 
to the words want careful revision. 

With regai'd to Pahlavi texts, it would be important to 
discover any Pahlavi Vendidad or Yasna descended from 
any other source than the manuscripts of Miliir3,p£ln Kal- 
Khusro, also to find the first three fargards, missing from 
his manuscripts in Europe, in his own handwriting. The 
first two books of the Dinkard, the Pahlavi text of the 
latter part of the Shikand-gumanl, chaps, xxviii.-xxx. of 
the Bundahish, and a complete Pahlavi version of the 
Jamasp-namak, are all desiderata regarding which some 


information might be obtained by a systematic inquiry for 
manuscripts. Hitherto the Parsis have had to rely upon 
Europeans for all explanations of their literature, beyond 
the merely traditional learning of their priesthood ; they 
may always rely upon some European being ready to carry 
on such investigations, provided the materials be forth- 
coming ; and Europeans, in their turn, ought to be able to 
rely on the Parsis for the discovery of all existing materials, 
and for rendering them accessible. 







In this Essay it is intended to give a brief statement of the 
contents of the whole Zend-Avesta, together with transla- 
tions of some important or interesting passages contained 
therein, which will enable the reader to form some judg- 
ment of the true character of the sacred books of the 
Parsis. After some preliminary remarks about the name, 
extent, and preservation of the sacred books, the separate 
parts of the present Parsi scriptures will be described in 
detail, and finally, an attempt will be made to give a 
short, critical, and historical sketch of this religious 


The sacred writings of the Parsis have usually been 
called Zend-Avesta by Europeans, but this is, without 
doubt, an inversion of the proper order of the words, as 
the Pahlavi books always style them^ avistdh va zand 
(Avesta and Zend), and this order is confirmed by the 
traditional, as well as the critical and historical, explana- 
tion of both terms. In the opinion of the present Parsi 
priests, Avesta means the original text of the sacred books, 
and Zend denotes the Pahlavi translation. This view is 
correct to a great extent, as many passages may be quoted 

■ Only one exception has been noticed in many hundred occurrences of the 


from the Pahlavi books in which Zend means simply 
" translation," or " commentary ; " thus the old Farhang-i 
oim khad4k commences (in the old manuscripts) with the 
words : Madam hard-shindkhiaoio-i vdj va mdrikdno-i 
Avistdk, aighash Zand maman va cliig'dbn, ' on fully under- 
' standing the words and phrases of the Avesta, that is, 
' the nature and quality (Ut. the what and the how) of its 
' Zend.' But it is probable that the term Zend was ori- 
ginally applied to commentaries written in the same lan- 
guage as the Avesta, for in the Pahlavi translation of the 
Yasna, when the scriptures are mentioned, both terms, 
Avistdk va Zand, are used,i as if of equal authority, which 
would have been an instance of gross self-conceit on the 
part of the translator, if he meant his own translation by 
the term Zend. From this use of the denomination 
Avesta and Zend by the Pahlavi translators, we are fully 
entitled to conclude that the Zend they mentioned was a 
commentary on the Avesta already existing before they 
undertook their translation; and as they considered it 
sacred, this Zend was probably in the same language as 
the original Avesta. There are many traces, in the Avesta 
quotations and other phrases of the Pahlavi translations, 
of much of this old Zend having been replaced by the new 
Zend of the Pahlavi translators ; but there are also traces 
of a good deal of it remaining incorporated in the present 
Avesta text, as will be pointed out from time to time in 
the translations which follow. The term Avesta and 
Zend, or Zend-Avesta, cannot be considered, therefore, as 
wholly inappropriate when applied to the Parsi scriptures 
in their original language, although the word Zend is im- 
properly used when applied to that language itself, as it 
is much more commonly employed as a name for Pahlavi 

From the above remarks, it will be seen that the term 

^ See Yasna, xxx. i, xxxi. i, where geDerally renders the word Zend by 

the Avesta and Zend of both sayings, artha, "meaning," in his Sanskrit 

or both blessings, are specified in translation of the Yasna. 
the Pahlavi translation. Neryosangh 


Avesta was originally confined to the sacred texts ascribed 
to Zarathushtra and his immediate disciples ; but in the 
course of time this term has been gradually extended to 
all later explanations of those texts written in the same 
language, till at the present time it includes aU writings 
in that language, whatever their age. All these writings, 
having become unintelligible to the majority of the Zoro- 
astrians, came to be regarded as equally sacred. 

The word Avesta does not occur in the sacred texts 
themselves with the meaning now attached to it, and it 
must not be confounded with the Sasanian apistdn, en- 
graved on gems in the phrase apistdn val yatddn, as this 
phrase is also found in the Pahlavi texts, with the mean- 
ing of " prayers to God," whereas the Pahlavi apistdk, or 
avistdk (Avesta), is a distinct word, never used in that 
sense, which, indeed, would be inapplicable to nine-tenths 
of the Avesta. So far as the form of the Pahlavi avistdk 
is concerned, it might be best traced to ava + std, in the 
sense of " what is established," or " text," as was proposed 
by M. J. Miiller in 1839; but such a meaning, though it 
might be fairly applicable to most of the Avesta now 
extant, would hardly describe the very miscellaneous con- 
tents of the Nasks which have been lost, and which are 
all said to have had both Avesta and Zend. A more 
satisfactory meaning can be obtained by tracing avistdk to 
d + vista (p. p. of vid, " to know "), with the meaning 
" what is known," or " knowledge," l corresponding nearly 
with veda, the name of the sacred scriptures of the Brah- 
mans. It may be objected to this etymology that the first 
syllable of avistdk is written like op, and an Avesta v does 
not usually change into a Pahlavi _p; this is only true, 
however, when the p would be initial ; in other cases, such 
as vi = Pahl. api, the change is common. 

With regard to the term Zend, we see that its applica- 
tion varied at different times. Originally it meant the 

iMore literally, "what is announced," 01 "declaration;" approaching 
the meaning of "revelation." 


commentaries made by the successors of Zarathushtra 
upon the sacred writings of the prophet and his imme- 
diate disciples. These commentaries must have been 
written in nearly the same language as the original text, 
and as that language gradually became unintelligible to 
all but the priests, the commentaries were regarded as a 
part of the text, and a new explanation, or Zend, was 
required. This new Zend was furnished by the most 
learned priests of the Sasanian period, in the shape of a 
translation into Pahlavi, the vernacular language of Persia 
in those days ; and in later times the term Zend has been 
confined to this translation. 

The word Zend may be traced in dzaintish (Yas. Ivi. 
3, 3 Sp.) and is to be referred to the root zan, " to know," 
Sans. Jiid, Gr. yvm, Lat. gno (in agnosco and cognosco), so 
that it has the meaning of " knowledge, science." What 
passages in the present Avesta may be supposed to be 
remnants of the old Zend will be pointed out when- 
ever they occur in the translations we propose to give 
further on. 

The term P§,zand, which is met with frequently in con- 
nection with Avesta and Zend, denotes a further explana- 
tion of the Zend, and is probably a corruption of paiti- 
zanti, which must have meant " fe-explanation ; " this 
word does actually occur (Yas. lix. 2 Sp.), but with a 
more general meaning. Some ' passages in the present 
Avesta will be pointed out, in the translations further on, 
which may be supposed to represent an old P§,zand in the 
Avesta language ; but at present the term P^zand (as has 
been already shown in the second Essay) is applied only 
to purely Iranian versions of Pahlavi texts, whether 
written in the Avesta or Persian characters, and to such 
parts of Pahlavi texts as are not Huzv&rish. 



From the ancient classical •writers, as well as from the 
tradition of the Paisis, we learn that the religious litera- 
ture of the ancient Persians was of considerable extent, 
though the Zend-Avesta, in its present state, is a compara- 
tively small book. This circumstance necessarily leads us 
to the conclusion, that the sacred literature of the Zoroas- 
trians has suffered very heavy losses. Thus Pliny reports, 
on the authority of Hermippos, the Greek philosopher 
(see page 8), that Zoroaster composed two millions of 
verses ; and an Arab historian, Abu Jafir Attavari,! 
assures us that Zoroaster's writings covered twelve hun- 
dred cowhides (parchments). These reports might appear, 
at the first glance, to be exaggerations, but for the enor- 
mous extent of the sacred books of other Oriental nations,2 
which affords us sufficient reason for believing that the 
number and extent of the books ascribed to Zoroaster by 
his followers may have been very considerable. 

The loss of most of these writings, known to the ancient 
Greeks, is ascribed by the Parsis mainly to the ravages 
attendant upon the conquest of the Persian Empire by 
Alexander the Great. Thus it appears from the third 
book of the Dlnkard, that at the time of Alexander's 
inroad there were only two complete copies of the sacred 
books (a term which the Dinkard seems to identify with 
itself); one of these was deposited in the royal archives at 

1 Hyde, De Eeligione Vetemm Per- words, we may conclude that each 
Barum, p. 318. line must contain as much as ten lines 

2 Thus,' for instance, the text of the of any ordinary poetical measure, 
sacred books of the southern Bud- Thus, 4500 X 2 x 9 X 10 = 810,000 Unes 
dhiats of Ceylon, Birma, &c., accord- of ordinary measure. Again, the 
ing to Tumour's computation, com- commentary extends to a greater 
prises 4S00 leaves, each page being length than the text, so that there 
about two feet long and containing must be nearly 2,000,000 lines in the 
nine lines. The text being written wliole of these sacred books, 
without any spaces between the 


Persepolis, -which were burned by Alexander, and the 
other, which was deposited in another treasury, fell into 
the hands of the Greeks, and was translated into their 
language. The Arda-Vlr^f-namak mentions only the one 
copy of the Avesta and Zend of the religion, which was 
deposited in the archives at Persepolis, and burned by 
Alexander ; but it also mentions that he killed many of 
the priests and nobles. Both these accounts were written 
ages after the events they describe, so they merely repre- 
sent the tradition that had been handed down, probably 
in writing, or otherwise it would have been more exag- 
gerated ; but as these accounts appear to have been written 
before the Mohammedan conquest, they cannot have con- 
founded Alexander's ravages with those of the Mohamme- 
dans, for details of which we may refer to the Bahmaa 
Yasht. But although these accoimts must be founded 
upon tradition, they are singularly confirmed by the ac- 
counts given by classical writers. Thus we find from 
Diodorus (xvii. "jz) and Curtius (v. 7), that Alexander 
really did burn the citadel and royal palace at Persepolis, 
in a drunken frolic, at the instigation of the Athenian 
courtesan Thais, and in revenge for the destruction of 
Greek temples by Xerxes. Arrian (Exped. Alex., iii. 18) 
also speaks of his burning the royal palace of the Persians. 
This act of barbarous foUy was evidently the result of 
hasty impulse, and was probably committed at night, 
when the palace was full of attendants, courtiers, and 
priests ; the last, who had special charge of the archives, 
would naturally attempt to save their treasures, and would 
certainly be opposed by the intoxicated Greeks, at the 
cost of many lives. The sacred books would be burned 
with the archives, in which they were deposited, and many 
Persians, priests and others, would lose their lives in the 
confusion. Such would be the natural consequences of 
the facts mentioned by the Western writers, and such are 
the traditional statements of the Parsis. 
But besides the ofi&cial copies of the sacred books, there 


must have been other copies of many portions of them, 
which would be indispensably necessary in all cities where 
priests and judges had to perform their duties ; and the 
copies of the sacred books, which the first Sasanian 
moiiarchs collected, were no doubt derived from these 
scattered copies. Notwithstanding the long interval of 
550 years of foreign domination and domestic anarchy, 
which had intervened between Alexander and Ardashlr 
P^pa],can, the Sasanian kings were able to collect a large 
proportion of the old writings, if we may believe the 
details given of the contents of the books in their days ; 
and it is, therefore, to the later ravages and persecutions, 
occasioned by the Mohammedans, that we must attribute 
the final loss of most of the writings. No doubt the 
books, as restored by the Sasanians, were chiefly collec- 
tions of fragments; but some portion of nearly every 
book seems to have been recovered by them, and the 
total disappearance of most of the books must be traced 
to recent times. 

The names of all the boolis are, however, extant, to- 
gether with short summaries of their contents. Accord- 
ing to these reports, the whole scripture consisted of 
twenty-one books, called Nasks,l each contaiaing Avesta 
and Zend, i.e., an original text with a commentary on it. 
The number 21 was evidently an artificial arrangement, 
in order to have one Nask to each of the 21 words of 
the most sacred formula of the Zoroastrians, which are 
as follows : — 

Yathd aha vairyd, atkd ratush, ashdd cht^ hachd, 
VaiQjwush dazdd mananhS, shkyaothnmiam, aifhewsh masddi, 
Khshathremchd ahur&i d, yim dreguby6 dadha^ vdstdrem. 

Each of the Nasks was, as it were, indexed under one 
particular word of this formula; and in the same manner 

1 This word occurs in the Zend- seems to be of foreign origin, and is 

Avesta itself (Yas. ix-. 73 Sp.) in the pnobably identical with the Assyrian 

compound nashS-frasdoiQ.M, "study- nusku, and the Arabic nuskhah, pi. 

ing the Nasks," that is to sny, the nuscdh. 
different parts of the scripture. It 


ag this formula consists of three lines or verses {gdii), 
so also the Nasks were divided into three classes, ac- 
cording to their subjects to some extent, but not very 
strictly so. 

Several descriptions of the contents of these Nasks are 
extant. The longest of these accounts forms the eighth and 
ninth books of the Dlnkard, as has been already noticed (p. 
10 1), and goes into many details with regard to about one- 
third of the Nasks, though noticing the others much more 
superficially. Another Pahlavi description of the Nasks 
is found in the Dtnl-vajarkard, and this does not differ 
much from thope given in the Eiv§,yats. Persian descrip- 
tions of the same are found in the Eivlyats l of K^mah 
Bahrah, Barzu QiyS,mu-d-dln, and Narlm^n H6shang; 
these differ but little, except in small details. The fol- 
lowing statement of the contents of the Nasks is taken 
from the Dlni-vajarkard,2 except where otherwise noted, 
but their names and the order in which they stand are 
corrected from the Dinkard. 

I . S'dbdkar, " conferring benefits," corresponding to the 
Avesta word yathd in the Yathd ahA vairyd formula, 
and called St^dgar, or Istftdgar, in the Eivi,yats and 
Dlnt-vajarkard, consisted of 22 sections. It contained 
advice to mankind as to prayer and virtue, the perform- 
ance of good actions and meditation, producing harmony 
among relations, and such-bke matters. In the Eiv^yats 
and Dlnl-vajarkard this Nask is the second, as their lists 
begin with the twenty-first IsTask, which removes all the 
others one step lower down ; this error appears to have 
been occasioned by the Dlnkard giving two lists, one 
dividing the Nasks into three classes, gdsdnik, hddak- 

1 The Riv4yat3 are miscellaneous from the Vajarkard-i-dlnl described 

collections of information and deci- in p. loo, but it has not been exa- 

sions regarding the religion, made by mined. The passage referring to 

various old Dasturs, chiefly in Per- the Naska was extracted from a 

sian, but also containing translations manuscript in the library of the 

of passives from religions books, both Khan Bahadar Dastnr Ndshirvanji 

in Persian verse and PAzajid. Jamaspji, at Foona. 

^ This must be a different work 


inAnsarih (or yasJdah-mansartk), and dddik;'^ tlie other 
recapitulating the names in their proper order, which is 
preserved in the after descriptions of their contents. The 
first or classified list begins with the twenty-first Nask 
on the general list, and this may have led the writers 
of the Eiv^yats to consider it the first Nask. That 
the second list in the Dlnkard is correct, appears from 
its placing the Vendidad nineteenth on the list, which 
is confirmed by Eustam-i Mihir§,pln's colophon in the 
old Vendidad with Pahlavi at Copenhagen ; whereas the 
EivS,yats and Dini-vajarkard make it the twentieth. 

2. Varshtamdnsar, corresponding to Av. ahlj, in Y. a. v., 
and called Vahisht-mansrah (or m§,ntar) in the Eiv. and 
D.V., consisted of 22 sections. It contained reasons for 
being trustful and heedful of the Mazdayasnian religion, 
for attending to religion, and using the benedictions and 
praises of the blessed Zaratusht; also all events before 
Zaratusht which were manifestly good, and aU events 
which are to be after Zaratiisht until the future exist- 
ence ; the benefits of this world, and such-like matters. 

3. BaJcd, corresponding to Av. vairyd in Y. a. v., and 
called Bagh in the Eiv. and D.v., consisted of 2 1 sections. 
It contained an explanation of the Mazdayasnian religion 
and the ideas which Auharmazd taught to men ; the exer- 
cise of reverence, heedfulness, law, and judgment; the 
performance of the proper duty and good actions of a 
magistrate ; stopping the admission of the evil spirit into 
one's self, attaining spiiitual existence for one's self, and 

4. Ddnuldnt, corresponding to Av. athd in Y. a. v., and 
called Dvazd'ah-hamast (or homast) in the Eiv. and D.v., 
consisted of 32 sections. It contained an explanation 01 
the spiritual existence and heaven, good and evil, the 
material existence of this world, the sky and the earth, 
and everything which Auharmazd produced in water, 

1 The seven gdsdnik are Nasks 21, mdnsartk are Nasks 4-10 ; and the 
I, 2, 3, II, 20, "13 ; tlie seven hidak- seven dadtk are Kasks 15-19, 12, 14. 


fire, and vegetation, men and quadrupeds, reptiles and 
birds, and everything which is produced from the waters, 
and the characteristics of all things. Secondly, the pro- 
duction of the resurrection and future existence ; the con- 
course and separation at the Chinvad bridge ; on the re- 
ward of the meritorious and the punishment of sinners 
in the future existence,! and such-like explanations. 

5. Nddar, corresponding to Av. ratush in T. a. v., and 
called M(Jur in D.v., consisted of 35 sections. It con- 
tained explanations of the stars, both fixed and planetary, 
the good and evU (influence) of each star, the course of 
all the planets in the signs of the zodiac and lunar 
mansions. It is translated into Arabic and Persian, and 
they named the book But&l; in Persian it is named 

6. PAjak, or Pdji, corresponding to Av. ashdd in 
Y. a. v., and called PSjam in the Eiv. and D.v., con- 
sisted of 22 sections. It contained explanations of the 
slaughter of quadrupeds and sheep, and how they are 
to be slaughtered ; which quadrupeds it is lawful to eat, 
and wliich kinds are not lawful ; how he who slaughters 
should strike at the time the sheep is expiring.^ The 
more that is spent upon a Gahanb§,r,* so much the more 

' The text appears to be va madam ' The slaughtering is performed by 

vindshdrdn pddafrds-i yehevUnid pa- cutting {peskUntano), but the animal 

van tanH-i pastn in the Dinl-vajar- must be finally killed by a blow, as 

kard. If the meaning be that the explained by Dastur Hoshangji. 

punishment is to endure during the ^ One of the six season festivals 

future existence, which is not quite which are held on the 4Sth, losth, 

certain, the D.v. differs from the iSath, zioth, 290th, and 36sth days 

orthodox view; it is not, however, of the Parsi year, which commences 

a book of any authority, aa the text now on the 20th of September ac- 

is evidently a mere translation of cording to Indian Parsi reckoning, 

modern Persian. or on the 21st of August according 

' The Eiv^yats are quite uncertain to Persian reckoning, but retrogrades 

how to read these names, but they one day every leap-year. These 

prefer Bawaft&l and Faw&msubhhS.n, periods, which seem originally to 

but Faw^mjasin, Faw4mlkhs&n, and have been the six seasons of the 

even Khawasahh^n, occur in different year, came to represent, in latei 

copies. The Dinkard knows nothing times, the sis periods of creation, 

about the contents of the N4dar See section xi. of this Essay. 
Nask, so that the Kiv&yats must have 
had other sources of information. 


is the reward ; how much it is needful to bestow upon 
Dasturs, Mobads, and Herbads, and upon the unwavering 
doers of good works in the good religion; to every one 
who celebrates a Gahanbar, and consecrates a dress l for 
a (departed) soul, what happens in the last times and 
in heaven, and what merit accrues to him; the giving 
of a dress in charity for righteous relatives, using media- 
tion on the part of the righteous, the five greater and 
lesser Fravardig§,n 2 days; and the performance of good 
works on these ten days is enjoined in this Nask; all 
men should 'read this book, with good and wise under- 
standing, who would become fuUy aware of its explana- 

7. Ratdshtditi, corresponding to Av. ehid in Y. a. v, 
and called EatushtM in the Eiv. and D.v., consisted of 
50 sections until the accursed Alexander burnt the IN"asks, 
but after that only a fragment containing 13 sections 
came to hand, as the rest no longer existed. It con- 
tained explanations of performing service, giving orders, 
and remaining at the command of kings, high-priests, and 
judges; the means of preserving cities is declared; the 
commands of religion, and means of taking reptiles, birds, 
cattle, and fish ; everything which is a creation of Auhar- 
mazd and Ahriman ; accounts of all seas, mountains, and 
lands ; and matters similar to those mentioned. 

8. Barish, corresponding to Av. hachd in Y. a. v., con- 
sisted of 60 sections at first, but after the accursed Alex- 
ander's (time only) 12 remained. It contained informa- 
tion as to how kings should rule, and what should be 
the orders and decrees of the judges of the religion ; the 
preservation and protection of the world; making every 
new city flourish ; accounts of false-speaking men, sinners, 
and such-like are given in this Nask. 

1 Or "a cup," the text being la {fravashi, fravarti), or spiritual rc^ 
jam-i pavan r4bdn yezbekhUnM. presentatives, of the deceased are 

" The last five days of the old year laelieved to come to the houses ; and 
and the fii-st five of the new one. the days are, therefore, called Fra- 
During these ten days the friliars variJSgan. 



g. KashJcisrdhd, corresponding to Av. vanhmsh in Y. 
a. v., and called Kashkasirah or Kashsr6b in the Eiv. 
^nd D.V., consisted of 60 sections formerly, but after the 
accursed Alexander's (time only) 15 remained. It con- 
tained accounts of wisdom and knowledge, the cause of 
childbirth,! teaching guides to wisdom, performance of 
purification, speaking truth, bringing mankind from evil 
to good, bringing them from impurity and filth to purity ; 
greatness and promotion are for men near kings ; and in 
what manner men become tellers of falsehood to relatives 
and kings, and such-like. 

10. Vishtdsp-sdstd, corresponding to Av. dazdd in Y. 
a. v., and called Visht^sp-sh§,h or Visht§,sp in the Eivayats, 
and Visht§,spad in D.v., consisted of 60 sections, but after 
the accursed Alexander's (time only) 10 remained.2 It 
contained an account of the reign of Gusht^sp; that 
Zaratusht-i Spitam§,n brought the religion from Auhar- 
mazd, and King Visht^sp accepted it and made it current 
in the world ; and such-like. 

1 1. Vashti or Dddalc,^ corresponding to Av. mananhS 
in Y. a. v., and called Khasht in the Eiv§,yats, and Kh'Astd 
in D.V., consisted of 22 sections originally, but after the 
accursed Alexander's (time only) 6 remained (called /wzwa, 
" portion, bundle of folios," in the Eivayats). The first 
portion was about understanding the attributes of Auhar- 
mazd, being without doubts about the religion of Zara- 
tusht, all the duties and good .works which are enjoined 
in the religion, and such-like. The second portion was 
about accepting service, the truth of religion, and all 
commands, from kings ; and withholding one's hand from 
evil doings, so that it may be far from vice. The third 
portion was about debt to virtuous disputants, the ad- 
vantage and merit of the last deliverance from hell, and 
such-like. The fourth was about the creation of the 

' Chtm-i pS(}dk-yehcvilntano min " It is doubtful whether the first 

mniifar in the original text. letter in one of the lists be part of 

' The Kivd.yat of Barzft Qiy^rau-d- the name, or merely the conjunction 

dill says "ciglit." fa. 



world, the practice of agriculture, the cultivation of trees 
the date-tree and all fruit-trees; whence is the chief 
strength of men and cattle; on the obedience of tho 
doers of good works and the virtuous, on obedience to 
Dasturs, and such-like. The fifth portion was on the 
ranks of men; all are mentioned whose knowledge is 
great, as kings, judges, and the learned in religion; in 
the second rank are all who take care of the country 
and attack the enemy ; in the third rank are those who 
are called vastrydshan, " agriculturists ; " the fourth rank 
is said to be those of great skill, market dealers of dili- 
gence and volubility to avoid loss, giving one-tenth to 
the Dastur and king, offering praise on their hardened 
knees, and whose last reward is that they obtain in 
heaven. The contents of the sixth portion are not 

12. ChidrasMS, corresponding to Av. shhyaothnanam in 
Y. a. v., and called Jira^ht in the Eiv. and D.v., consisted 
of 22 sections. This Wask was sent by Auharmazd to 
manifest to men what are the details of that science 
through which mankind is born ; l how many individuals 
are stiU-born, and how many will live ; then, how many 
men become kings, and how many perform the mission 
of prophesy and high-priesthood, how many men are 
very great, and how many are very small men, and 
how this happens; from first to last the time men are 
born, and all those details are ia this Nask. The 
numbers of all the preceding Nasks, as given in the 
Eivayats and Dini-vajarkard, have been one in excess 
of those given in the Dtnkard, their order being in both 
cases the same; but this Nask and the next one have 
changed places (and so have the i6th and 17th ISTasks) 
in the Eiv. and D.v., which make this the 14th ISTask. 

13. Spend, corresponding to Av. anMush iu F. a. v., 
and called Sfend in the Eiv§,yats, consisted of 60 sections, 

' Maman chim zah ddnishn-i miln zerhhiln4d in the original text, meaji- 
mardUm min ashkSmio-i mddo lard ing "midwifery." 


■which are valuable to great men, productive of virtuous 
actions, and cause attention to the great and religious. It 
contained accounts of Zarat^sht from his being brought 
forth by Dughda till his tenth year. Every Dastur and 
Mobad, who shall reverentially recite this Nask for several 
days in purity and by heart, shall obtain every wish for 
himself, or any favour he may request for others. This is 
the 1 3th Nask according to aU authorities. 

14. Bakdn-yastd, " worship of divinities," corresponding 
to Av. mazddi in Y. a. v., and called Baghln-yasht in the 
Eiv. and D.v., consisted of 17 sections.^ It contaiaed 
accounts of Auharmazd the lord, the knowledge of his 
attributes, the service and sublimity of A-Sharmazd, when 
is the time of every G4h (time of prayer) till the future 
existence, what duty is to be performed, the offering praise 
for every benefit from Auharmaad, obtaining benefits from 
him ; the appearance (chitar) of the Amesh§,spends, and 
knowing in the future existence what is such-and-such an 
appearance of such-and-such an AmeshS,spend. This Nask, 
made in homage of Auharmazd and the Amesh^spends, is 
very fine. 

15. Nikdd'dm, corresponding to Av. ihshatliiKmchd in 
Y. a. v., and called Niyarum 2 in the Eiv. and D.v., con- 
sisted of 54 sections. It contained details about preserv- 
ing wealth and placing it out, bargaining and measuring 
by the cubit and handful ; everything the creator Auhar- 
mazd has ordained as innocent; deliverance from hell, 
and how to walk in the path of reverence and worship; 
what is in the mind of man, and everything which is in 
the body of man, and similar matters to those mentioned. 

16. DvidsT'djd,^ or D4'bdsr4d, corresponding to Av. 
alhurdi in Y. a. v., and called Dv^srujad, Dvasrunjad, 

^ D.v. says 18, but this is probably this form of the name, but this is 

a copyist's error. probably a copyist's blunder ; the 

' Evidently a modem Persian blun- second form is evidently reproduced 

der, as r and d are very similar in in the last Rivftyat form, which would 

that alpliabet. be dvdsrUt if it were not wronglj 

' The Dinkard prefixes dUbdrS'^ to pointed. 


DvasTub in different Eiv&yats, and Dv§,srftzd in D.v., con- 
sisted of 65 sections. It contained accounts of khv4t4Mas 
(next-of-kin marriage), forming connections among rela- 
tives, and such-like. In the Eiv. and D.v. this is the 
1 8th IsTask, having changed places with the next one, 
as has been already noticed in the remarks on the 12th 

17. R'Aispdram, corresponding to Av. A in Y. a. v., and 
called Asp§,ram in the Eiv^yats, and Asp§,riim in D.v., 
consisted of 64 sections according to the Rivayats (one of 
them says 60), or 65 according to D.v. It contained 
religious matters which all people know well, the punish' 
ment suffered by sinners which they receive in their last 
career; everything which is innocent is allowable, and 
what is not innocent is not allowable; the stars which 
preside over the destiny of men, and such-like. This is 
the 17th Nask according to all authorities. 

1 8. Sakdd'dm, corresponding to Av. yini in Y. a. v., and 
called Askaram in the Eiv§;yats, and Askariim in D.v., 
consisted of 52 sections. About giving orders and exer- 
cising authority, practising wisdom in everything ; causing 
the resurrection, by which every man who has passed 
away is made living again, and the malformations of 
Ahriman and the demons are destroyed ; and the like. 

19. Vik-dSv-ddd, Vih-sMdd-ddd, or Javid-sMdd-ddd, 
corresponding to Av. dregiCbyd in Y. a. v., and called Van- 
did^d, or Jud-dSv-dsld, in the Eiv§,yats and D.v., consists 
of 22 sections. About what preserves men from evil and 
impurity, and will restrain them from all kinds of pollu- 
tion. Of all the 21 Nasks, the Javid-dev-dad has re- 
mained complete ; while several remained scattered by 
the wretched accursed Alexander, this Vendidad remained 
in hand, and from its elucidation the Mazdayasnian reli- 
gion exists now. 

20. Hdddhhtd, corresponding to Av. dadad in Y. a. v^ 
and called HS,dukht in the Eiv^yats, consisted of 30 sec- 
tions. It contained much goodness and much gratifica- 


tion. Every one who recites this Hadokht, drives the evil 
Ahriman far from him, and approaches and comes near 
to Aiiharmazd. This is the 2ist ISTask according to the 
Eivlyats and D.v., which remove all the ISTasks, except 
tlie 1 3th, 13 th, 1 6th, 17th, and 21st, one step lower on 
the list. 

21. Stild-yasid, corresponding to Av. vdstdrem in Y. a. v., 
and called Stud-yasht in the Eiv. and D.v., consisted of 
33 sections. It contained the praise and reverence of 
Aiiharmazd and the Amesh§,sp6nds, and thanksgivings. 
Auharmazd sent this Nask ints the world that every one 
should recite it from memory; and to every Dastur who 
recites both the Avesta and Zend of this Nask three 
times accurately the Amesh§,spends will come near; he 
knows this without doubt. This is the ist Nask in the 
Eiv^yats and D.v., as has been previously mentioned. 


Of these twenty-one Nasks, which have been enume- 
rated, only the nineteenth, the Vendidad, is preserved 
complete ; of a few of the others, such as the Vishtdsp~ 
sdstS and Hdddhhtd, and perhaps the Bak6^ some frag- 
ments only are extant ; but by far the larger number of 
these ancient sacred books have been lost for ever. There 
are, however, in the Zend-Avesta, as used by the Parsi 
priests nowadays, other books extant besides the Vendi- 
dad, which are either not mentioned in the foregoing list, 
as the Yasna and Vispavad, or not clearly indicated, as 
the Yashts. These last, as well as the shorter prayers 
{Nydyish, Afrimgdn, Gdhs, SlrSsah), were very probably 
contained in the 14th and 21st Nasks. 

1 In the library of the Kh&n Bah9,- the treatment of a dead body and 

dar Dastur N6shirvanji, at Poena, the fate of the soul immediately 

there is a small fragment said to be- after death ; but Dastur Hoshangji is 

long to this Nask, and referring to doubtful about its authenticity. 


As to tlie Yasna and Visiparad, they are not to te 
found in any of the twenty-one Nasks, if we examine 
the statements of their contents. They were probably 
separate from them altogether, occupying in regard to the 
Kasks the same rank as the Vedas, in the Brahmanical 
literature, do in reference to the Sh^stras and Pur^nas. 
That the Yasna is the most sacred book of the whole 
Zend-Avesta may be easily ascertained by perusing and 
comparing it with the other books contained in the scripture 
of the Parsis nowadays, where (as in the Vendidad) many 
verses from it are quoted as most sacred and scriptural. 

The difference between the Yasna and the Avesta-Zend 
said to have been contained in the twenty-one Nasks is 
about the same as that between the five Mosaic books 
(Pentateuch), which were always believed by the Jews 
to be the most sacred part of the Old Testament,! and 
the other books of the Old Testament together with 
the different parts of the extensive Talmud.'^ There is 
no doubt, and the present state of the only Nask now 
completely extant, viz., the Vendidad, seems to prove it, 
that by far the larger bulk of the various contents of 
these books contained Zend, or the explanation of an 
ancient sacred text called Avesta. A good deal of the 
contents of these Zend books is in all probability extant 
in the Pahlavi literature, as yet very imperfectly known 
in Europe. 

From the contents of the Nasks, as given above, we 
clearly see that they must represent the whole religious 
and scientific literature current throughout the ancient 
Persian Empire; for they treated not only of religious 
topics, but of medicine, astronomy, agriculture, botany, 
philosophy, &c. That the contents of those Zoroastrian 
books which were known to the Greeks and Eomans, 

1 The Samaritan Jews aoknow- to surpass the original extent of the 

ledge, to this day, only the five books twenty-one Nasks, especially those 

of Hoses as scripture. called ffalakah, "rule," are as 

* Some portions of this enormously authoritative for the Jews as the 

lai-ge work, which may be said even Thoiah (Pentateuch) itself. 


were of such a various character, undoubtedly follows 
from the reports which have reached our time. Indexes 
of them, like the catalogues of the ancient literature 
known to Parsi priests nowadays, were extant at the 
time of Alexander the Great; because Hermippos (see 
p. 8) is said to have read and perused such a catalogue. 
This extensive ancient literature, which in all probabihty 
was already complete in B.C. 400 (see the last section of 
this Essay), shows the great activity and scientific in- 
terest exhibited by the priests of the Zoroastrian religion 
in olden times. So comprehensive a literature was of 
course the work of centuries, especially if one takes 
into consideration the scarcity and expense of fit writ- 
ing materials,! the clumsiness of the ancient characters 
used (in all probability a kind of cuneiform), and the 
long time which Orientals require for original composi- 
tion. The composition of the sacred literature of the 
Jews, from the time of Moses (B.C. 1300 to 1500) down 
to the close of the Talmudic literature (a.d. 960), occu- 
pied a period of about 2400 years. Were we to apply 
the same calculation to the Zoroastrian literature, its be- 
ginning would have to be placed as early as B.C. 2800, 
which would not in the least contradict the statements 
made by the Greeks,2 about the age in which the founder 
of the Parsi religion was believed by them to have lived. 
At all events, this much seems to be certain, that at least 
a thousand years must have elapsed before a sacred litera- 
ture so various and extensive could have grown up out of 
the seeds sown by the great founder of the Parsi creed, 
Spitama Zarathushtra. 

^ They used cowskins, which ■were of alphabetical writing, as practised 

prepared for the purpose. In the now by European nations, was per- 

fragments of the ancient literature, feotly understood by the Persians in 

extant in the Zend-Avesta, no word the sixth century before the Christian 

meaning "to write" is anywhere to era, we know now from the inscrip- 

be found. This is merely fortuitous, tions of the kings of the Achsemenian 

because systematic books on scientific dynasty, sucli as Cyrus and Darius, 
matters can never be composed with- ^ See the fourth Essay, 
out the aid of writing. That the art 


As to the authorship of these books, they were ascribed 
by the ancient Greeks and Eomans, and are so by the 
present Parsis, to Zoroaster himself. This opinion being 
so old as to have been known to the Greeks several 
centuries previous to the commencement of the Christian 
era, we may presume that it is not without foundation ; 
though, on the other liand, it is impossible for a modern 
critic to believe that so extensive a literature as this, 
treating of such various topics, was the work of a single 
man. The Parsi tradition, it is true, gets over this diffi- 
culty by asserting that aU the twenty-one Nasks were 
written by God Himself, and given to Zoroaster, as his 
prophet, to forward them to mankind. But such asser^ 
tions being inadmissible in modern criticism, which tries 
to solve problems by appeal to reason, not to miracles of 
the most extraordinary character, we must dispense with 
them entirely, the more so as such claims to God's im- 
mediate authorship of the whole Zend-Avesta are never 
made in any of the books which are now extant. They 
lay claim to divine revelation (only the Yasna, not the 
Vendidad), but not in such a form as to exclude all 
activity on the part of the receiving prophet. As to 
the nature of this revelation, the reader may best learn 
it from the second Gatha, of which a translation will 
be given in the 7th section of this Essay. He will see 
that the prophet was believed to have held conversa- 
tions with God Himself, questioning the Supreme Being 
about all matters of importance, and receiving always the 
right answers to his questions. The prophet accordingly, 
after having been instructed, communicated these accounts 
of his conversations with God to his disciples and the 
public at large. Who wrote them down is quite uncer- 
tain; for in the old books no mention of this circum- 
stance is made. The scanty texts which can be traced 
to the founder himself were very likely not written 
down by him, but learned by heart by his disciples, as 
was the case with the numerous Vedic hymns which 


for centuries were handed down orally only. To the 
European reader it may be somewhat astonishing to 
hear that such large works as the Vedas could he faith- 
fully and accurately retained in the memory for cen- 
turies ; but considering that at the present day thousands 
of Brahmans exist who are able to recite parrot-like with 
the greatest accuracy, even as to accents, the whole of 
one of the Vedas, we are driven to admit that the same 
might have been the case in those early times to which 
we must trace the origin of the Zoroastrian religion. As 
long as the language of the hymns or prayers repeated 
was a living one and perfectly intelligible, there was no 
need of committing them to writing ; but as soon as it 
had become dead, the aid of writing was required in 
order to guard the sacred prayers against corruption and 
mutilation. That was, in all probability, the case already 
a thousand years before the beginning of our era. 

To revert to the supposed Zoroastrian authorship of the 
w^hole Zend-Avesta, believed by the ancient Greeks as well 
as by the modern Parsis, the solution of the difficulty is 
simple, if we take the name " Zarathushtra " (Zoroaster), 
not as the proper name of only one individual, but as 
the general title of the spiritual heads of the religious 
community of the ancient Persians. That this was really 
the case the reader will see from the fourth Essay. The 
founder is distinguished by the name " Spitama." The 
high-priest of the whole Parsi community was believed 
to be the successor of the great founder, Spitama Zara- 
thushtra, and to have inherited his spirit. His sayings 
and decisions, therefore, were listened to with the greatest 
reverence, and in the course of time believed to be as 
sacred and divine as those which are with reason to be 
ascribed to the founder alone. The meaning of the sup- 
posed Zoroastrian authorship of the whole Zend-Avesta 
is that the scripture is the joint work of the high-priests 
in the ancient Persian Empire and other priests nearest 
to them in rank, compiled in the course of centuries. 

YASNA. 139 

This circumstance throws light upon the fact, that only 
the Dasturs, or present high-priests, are required to 
understand the meaning of the Zend-Avesta, and no one 
who has not thoroughly studied it can be acknowledged 
as a real Dastur. 

The texts extant now, and collected for the first time 
in Westergaard's valuable edition, comprise the following 
books : — Yasna, Vispaead, Vendidad, and twenty-four sec- 
tions called Yashts, including fragments of the H§,d6kht 
Nask (No. 22 in Westergaard's edition) and Vishtisp Nask 
(No. 24) ; to these are added some short prayers of dif- 
ferent kinds, called Afeingan (3), Nyayish (6), Gah (5), 
with some miscellaneous fragments (9), and the Sirozah 
(thirty days)' or calendar. We shall treat of each of them 
successively in detail. 

rv. — ^YASNA. 

The word yasna l corresponds exactly to the S. yajna, 
" sacrifice," and does not signify only mere prayers, like 
the NyS-yish, but prayers referring to sacrificial rites, and 
includes the performance of the latter. The solemn recital 
of the Yasna before the fire is always connected with cere- 
monies, to which several of the prayers contained in the 
Yasna allude. Thus they require consecrated water 
(zaothra), a kind of bread {qaretem, " food "), butter (gdush 
hudhdo), fresh milk (gdush Jtvya), meat (myazda),^ the 
branches of the Homa plant together with one of the 
pomegranate QiadhdvaSpdta), the juice of the Homa plant 
{para-Kaomd), hair of an ox (varasa), and a bundle of 
twigs {iaresma, nowadays larsom) which are tied together 

1 Yajishn (sometimes aijishno) in stand it to mean " fruit," whicli they 

PaUavi, transliterated into IJashne use when performing the Ijashne 

in Gujrati; the root is yae, yas, "to ceremony. But originally it meant 

worship by means of sacrifices and "flesh," as may be clearly seen from 

prayers;" na forms abstract ' nouns the cognate Armenian mis, "meat," 

in the Avesta, and in Pahlavi iihn (comp. Sans, mdma) being identical 

answers the same purpose. with " meat." 

* The Dasturs nowadays under- 

14.0 YASNA. 

by means of a reed. Withoiit these implements, which 
are evidently the remnants of sacrifices agreeing to a 
certain extent with those of the Brahmans, as we shall 
see in the fourth Essay, no Ijashne can be performed by 
the priest. All these things must be in readiness, except 
the prepared Horn a juice, and placed on a table of marble 
opposite to the fire of the Dddgdh, or the common hearth 
of the temple (not before the sacred fires Adardn or Beh- 
rdm), before the Ijashne ceremony can be commenced. 

The Yasna at the present time comprises seventy-two 
chapters, which number (6 times 12) is probably to repre- 
sent the six gahanhdrs, or seasons, during which Ahura- 
mazda is said to have created the world. At all events, 
the extension of the several sections of the Yasna, called 
JSd (from Av. hdta), to the number of seventy-two, is not 
accidental, but was purposely made, as we may guess 
easHy from the fact that several chapters occur twice 
within the compass of those seventy-two. For instance, 
the 6 1st and 72d chapters are the same, and the i8th eon- 
tains nothing but verses from the G§,tha portion of the 

On closer inquiry, we find the Yasna really consists of 
at least two different parts, distinguishable by consider- 
able differences in language and contents. One part we 
may call " the old," the other " the later Yasna." The old 
Yasna is written in a peculiar dialect, styled the Gatha 
dialect in the second Essay, where its chief peculiarities 
have been pointed out. 

All parts written in this peculiar dialect l formed origi- 
nally a separate book, which was believed to be sacred 
even at the time of the composition of the other books con- 
tained in the present Zend-Avesta. The original name of 
this collection was, in all probability, mathra sjpefota, " bene- 

' These are the five G&thas : — Tas. 9, 17, 18 ; xii. ; xiii. ; xiv. ; xv. 2, 3 ; 

xxviii.-xxxiv. ; xliii.-xlvi. j xlvii.-l. ; xxvii. 13, 14 ; Ivi, ; Iviii. All refer- 

li. ; liii. ; FasJia ftaptoriAaiW (Yasna of ences made to the Avesta, in this 

seven chKijters), xxxv.-xli., ands-mie Essay, are to Westergaard's edition 

other smaller pieces, as Yas. iv. 26 , aI. of the texts, unless otherwise noted. 

VASNA. 14, 

ficent ritual" (called Mdnsarspend in Persian writings), 
which is several times mentioned in the Vendidad (iv. 44) 
with the meaning of " Scripture." Its different parts were 
known by different names, as Gdthas or hymns, Yasna 
haptanJiaiti or the Yasna of seven chapters, which are 
often quoted in the other books, as in Yas. Ivii. 8 (where 
the angel Si osh is said to have first recited the five Gdthas 
of Spitama Zarathushtra), Yas. Ixxi. 11, 12, 18 (where the 
Gathas, the sacrificial prayers, and Yasna haptanhaiti, 
are distinguished, and a collection of all prayers is men- 
tioned besides). In the Vendidad, especially in its tenth 
chapter, many sacred prayers are quoted, which are aU to 
be found in the old Yasna, written in the peculiar Gatha 

In the first chapter of the Visparad we find a series of 
sacred prayers (or rather their angels i) invoked. This 
passage being of the greatest importance for the history of 
the Avesta literature, I shall point out here all that refers 
therein to this matter. As sacred prayers and sacred 
literature in general, the following writings are there 
enumerated:— I. The three most sacred short formulas, 
viz., Yathd ahii vairyd (Yas. xxvii. 13), ashem wM (Yas. 
xxvii. 14), and ySiiM Mtam 2 (Yas. iv. 26) ; 2. the Gdtha 

^ According to Zoroastrian ideas, ' for the sake of righteousness, (to be) 

evei-ything in the good creation, ' the girer of the good thoughts, of 

whether animate or inanimate, is pre- ' the actions of life, towards Mazda ■ 

sided over by an angel, as the reader ' and the dominion is for the lord 

will learn from the nth section of ' (Ahura) -whom he (Maada) has given 

this Essay. ' as a protector for the poor. ' The 

^ These three formulas are very Ashem ■soh-A formula, which is even 

short; it is, therefore, somewhat more frequently used than the Ahuna- 

huzardous to venture npon a transla- vairya, may be translated as follows ; 

tion of tbem. The words themselves — ' Righteousness is the best good, a 

do not offer much difficulty, but the ' blessing it is; a blessing be to that 

context does. The text of the first ' whicli is righteousness towards Asha- 

has already been given (p. 125); it's ' vahishta (perfect righteousness).' 

usually called Ahuna-vairya, and It is to be understood that "righteous- 

hence the first Gltha is called Ahu- ness," here and elsewhere where it 

navaiti. as it is written in the s.nme translates ashem, means " what is 

metre and follows this formula, which riglit or meritorious " in a ritualis- 

may be translated as follows : ' As a tic or materialistic sense, and does 

' heavenly lord is to be chosen, so is not necessarily imply holiness, any 

' an earthly master (spiritual guide), more than the Sans, puni/am does. 

142 GATHAS. 

ahunavaiti (Yas. xxviii.-xxxiv.) ; 3. Yasna haptanhaiti 
(Yas. xxxv.-xli.) ; 4. Gdtha ushtavaiti (Yas. xliii.-xlvi.) ; 
5. Gdtha spentd-mainy4 (Yas. xlvii.-l.); 6. Gdtha vohu- 
hhshathra (Yas. li.) ; 7. Gdtha vahishtdishti (Yas. liii.) ; 8. 
Dahmi vanuM and dfriti (the Dahmdn Afringdn, Yas. Ix., 
tlie principal prayer for deceased pious Zoroastrians, called 
dahmd) ; 9. Airyama ishyd (Yas. liv., a, short prayer now 
used at the time of the solemnisation of a marriage) ; 10. 
Fsh4shS-mdthra (Yas. Iviii., a prayer for prosperity) ; 11. 
BerezS hadaokhdha (perhaps Yas. xv.); 12. the conversa- 
tions with and teaching of Ahuramazda, as imparted to 
the ruler and chief high-priest {ZarathushtrStemd, "the 
highest Zarathushtra ") of a whole country, by which a 
book like the Vendidad is to be understood, as we shall 
see afterwards. 

In Vendidad xviii. 51, three classes of sacred writings 
are enumerated in the following order : — G§,thas, Yasna (by 
which very likely the Yasna haptanhaiti is to be under- 
stood), and a sacred tradition in a conversational form 
(called jpaitiparshfS-srava7ihem), which appears to have 
been a work like the present Vendidad. 

From these passages we may gather with certainty that 
the old Yasna, i.e., that part of the present Yasna which is 
written in the peculiar G^tha dialect, is the most ancient 
of the whole Zend-Avesta, being known as scripture 
already to the later Yasna, the Visparad, and Vendidad. 
All other parts of the Yasna, written in the ordinary 
Avesta language, are evidently of a later date ; they may, 
therefore, be called the later Yasna. We shall first exa- 
mine the contents of the chief parts of the old Yasna, 
the Gathas. 


The Gathas, five in number, are comparatively small 
collections of metrical compositions, containing short 
prayers, 3ongs, and hymns, which generally express philo- 
sophical and abstract thoughts about metaphysical sub- 

GATHAS. 143 

jects. The name " Gatha," which is also well known in 
Sanskrit and PMi literature, means " song " (especially a 
stanza which contains allusions to historical facts, as pre- 
served in the mouths of the ancient bards), from the root 
gai, " to sing." That they were sung is not to he doubted, 
as we may learn from Greek reports (see p. 11), and from 
their being metrical compositions, the recital of which is 
always designated by a separate word : frasrdvaySiti.'^ At 
present, the priests do not make any distinction as to the 
way of repeating the different parts of the Zend-Avesta; 
they recite them equally in a singing tone. That is not 
to be wondered at, the different constituents of the Yasna 
being unknown to the present priests, which was not the 
case in ancient times. 

As to the metres used in the Gathas, we find them of 
the same nature as those which are to be found in the 
Vedic hymns. No rhyme is observed, only the syllables 
are counted, without much attention being paid to their 
quantity. The five collections into which the Gathas 
have been brought exhibit each a different metre. Verses 
of the same metre were put together, irrespective of their 
contents. So the first Gdtha contains verses, each of 
which consists of forty-eight syllables ; in the second, the 
metre is of fifty-five syllables; in the third, of forty-four, 
&c. The number of syllables is not always strictly 
observed ; we find, now and then, one less or one more. 
To give the reader an idea of this poetry, some specimens 

1 There are three expressions used general. Drenj means evidently a 

for the recital of the sacred texts, peculiar kind of recital; it is chiefly 

viz., mar, " to recite," drenj (or applied to spells, and may be oom- 

framru), "to recite in a low tone," jjared to the recital of the verses ot 

and srdvay, frasrdvay, " to recite the Yajurveda, which is done with a 

with a loud voice and observing mu«i- low voice, and monotonously. Fra- 

oal accents." The first expression srdvay is the solemn recital in the 

conveys the most general meaning, form of a very simple tune, compar- 

•nz., " to repeat from memory " (mar able to the way of singing the Sima- 

= S. smar, " to recollect "), which veda by the Brahmans. This exprcs- 

was very likely done in the same way sion is pre-eminently applied to the 

as the Br.ihmans repeat the verses of GAthas. Compare Yas. xix. 6, Vend, 

the Eigveda, observing tlie accents in iv. 45, Yt. xiii. 20 



are here quoted. In the first G§,tha (called ahunavaiti, 
from the Ahuna-vairya formula which precedes it), each 
verse consists of three lines, each comprising sixteen 
syllables, as may be seen from the following example 
(Yas. xxxi. 8) : — 

Ad thwd mehht paourvtm 
so thee I thought first 

mazdd yazHm st6i mananM 
Mazda great in creation in mind 

Vanlieush ptarem w-ananhd hyad thwd hem chashmaini hengraieiA 
of the good father mind therefore thee together in the eye I seized 
Baithim ashahyd ddmtm ajiheush ahurem shkyaothanaSshH.^ 

true of righteousness creator of life Ahura in actions. 

In this verse the cesura is after the seventh syllable ; 
the second half of each line comprises, therefore, nine 
syllables. Were the cesura after the eighth syllable, and 
if the whole verse comprised only thirty-two syllables, 
instead of forty-eight, this metre would coiTespond to the 
Sanskrit shloka, consisting of four half-verses (pidas) 
each comprising eight syllables, which metre is preserved 
in some fragments of epic songs in the Zend-Avesta, as 
we shall see hereafter. It stands nearest to the G^yatrt 
metre, which consists of twenty-four syllables, divisible 
into three padas, each comprising eight syllables. 

In the second G^tha (called ushtavaiti, from its first 
words, ushtd ahmdi, " hail to him ! ") there are five lines in 
each stanza, each consisting of eleven syllables, for instance 
(Yas. xliv. 3) : — 







ahurd I 

That thee 

I will ask 


me tell 

Ahura ! 

What man 


father of 


paouruyd S 

What man 


and stars 


advdnem > 

Ke yd 
Who that 

the moon 



besides thee ? 

such things 


I wish 

and oiher 

to know. 

^ See a freer translation further on. 
' Thvia^i is ihe ablative case, depen- 

dent on ke (kS), who ? The meauing 
"besides, else," here absolutely re- 



This metre is very near to the Vedic trishtuhh, which is 
sacred to the god Indra, and consists of four p§,das, each 
comprising eleven syllables, which make forty-four in all. 
The Ushtavaiti G^tha only exceeds it by one p^da of eleven 
syllables. In the third G3,tha,. called spentd-mainyil, how- 
ever, the trishtubh is completely represented,, as each verse 
there comprises four padas, each of eleven syllables, in all 
forty-four, just as many as the trishtubh is composed of.l 
To obtain the number of syllables which is required for 
each pMa or foot, in the specimen quoted above (ta4 thwd 
peresd), as well as in other verses of the Gathas, the sound 
ere, corresponding to the Sanskrit vowel ri, makes only one 
syllable ; and the short e (in vascmi, S. vashmi, " I want, 
wish "), being a mere auxiliary vowel, and u in viduy6 (in- 
stead of vidyi) being of the same nature, are not to be 
counted. The syllables va and fa, y4, are often made liquid, 
as is the case in the Vedic metres also, that is to say, they 
are pronounced as two syllables like ua, ia, iyt The verse 
quoted above is, therefore, to be read as follows :-^ 

Tad thwd persd ersk mH vochd ahurdf 
iamd sdthd ptd ashahyd- pouruyC ! 
kasnd qe^g staremchd ddif adudnem ? 
kS yd mdo ukhshiyHti nerfsailt thwad P 
tdcht^ mazdd va&mi anydchd vidyi. 

In the fourth G^tha each stanza comprises three verses, 

quired for a translation into modern '■ To illustrate this assertion, I sub- 

hiDguages, lies implied in the context ; join a specimen of this metre taken 

iMuy^ is, a pecijliar infinitive form of from E^gveda, i. 189, i. 
the root vid, " to know." 

D fire god t 


supathd rdye 
ou the good way to wealtt 





knowing !. 


from us 

■wrath kindled. 



on thee 



. us bestow ! 

(Agni ! provide us with riches through hast felt angry with us ; let us pre- 

gpodfortune, O thou god, who know- pare for thee a most excellent hymn 

est aU arts of obtfiining wealth ! Ee- for thy worship.) 
move from us all' faolts at whieh thou 


or six p^ldas or feet, each consisting of seven syllables, 
which make in all forty-two. In the fifth G§,tha, various 
metres are used. 

The five G^thas are expressly designated as the " five 
Glthas of Zarathushtra " (Yas. Ivii. 8), in order to distin- 
guish them from other G^thas or hymns, as, for instance, 
those devoted to the praise of Homa (Yas. x.) That they 
really contain the sayings and teaching of the great founder 
of the Parsi religion, Spitama Zarathushtra himself, cannot 
be doubted, as the reader will perceive from a perusal of 
the larger portion of them, which will be found in the fol- 
lowing sections. 


This G^tha is divided into seven chapters 2 (Yas. xxviii- 
xxxiv., Westerg.), which comprise loi verses, all of them 
being composed in the same metre, described above (p. 
144). As to its contents, it resembles more a collection of 
scattered verses than one continuous whole. It is even 
doubtful whether the author is always the same, the style 
being now and then different. But in consequence of one 
and the same spirit pervading the whole G§,tha, we must 
admit that it all belongs to the same age. "We have in it, 
in all probability, the sayings and songs of Zarathushtra 
himself, mixed with those of his disciples Jdmdspa, Vish- 
tds]pa, and FrashaosMra. Thus, for instance, the following 
verse (Yas. xxviii. 7) must be considered as the composi- 
tion of one of the disciples of the prophet : — 

' Come with the good mind, grant prosperity for life 
' long, by means of thy mighty words, thou Mazda ! give 
' both Zarathushtra and us thy powerful assistance to put 
• down the assaults of our enemy.' 

Here Zarathushtra being spoken of in the third, and the 

To the explanation of this GSltha " The chapters of the Tasna are 

ihe-wholeofthefirst voltttneof theau- called Hfts, which is a Corruption of 

thor'a German work on the G&thas the Avesta word hdta. 
(coutainiug 246 pages) ia devoted. 


author in the first person, we are fully entitled to ascribe 
the verse to one of his followers, not to himself. 

The heading of this Gatha, ' The revealed thought, the 
• revealed word, the revealed deed of the righteous Zara- 
' thushtra ; the archangels first sang the Gdthas,' ^ is of 
high interest, because it does not refer to this GS,tha alone, 
but to all five indiscriminately, These introductory re- 
marks are written not in the peculiar GS,tha dialect, but in 
the common Avesta language, which circumstance shows 
clearly that they proceed not from one of the authors, but 
from a subsequent collector of these sacred verses. We 
learn from them that the G^thas were believed to contain 
all that has been revealed 2 to Spitama Zarathushtra ; that 
he learnt them from the choir of the archangels, who saner 
them to his mental ears WheQj in a state of ecstasy, his 
mind was raised to heaven. 

Translations of some parts of this GS-tha will be pre^ 
sented to the reader. In its second section (Fas. xxix.) it 
is related that the Glush iirvd,^ " the soul of the animated 

1 A full explanation of this heading the name is corrupted into gdshilriln, 

is given in the author's German work which is very litely preserved in the 

on the GAthas, vol. i. pp. 41-46. modern Persian gawhar, "nature." 

^ The term in the original is y&nim. According to the tradition; it was the 

which does not signify "good, happy," first animated creature, in the shape 

as the Dastars think, Wt anything of an ex, from whith, after having 

seen when in a state of ecstasy, This been killed and cut into pieces, the 

meaning is even preserved in the mo- whole living creation is said to have 

dem Persian word ydn, " a reverie of sprung. The slaughterer of this pri- 

a fanatic, a trance. " The literal Wean- mary ox, the supposed ancestor of the 

ing is " a walk," as may be seen from whole animal kingdomj is often al- 

its use in the Vedic Sanskrit (root yd, luded to by the name geush tashd, 

" to go"), but applied to the gesticu- " clitter of the ox." Who ifras the 

lations of a prophet or seer whell in killer of this o± is not stated in thfe 

ecstasy, it means what he perceives 2end-Avesta, but tradition charges 

with his mental eye in such an extra- this murder, of coarse, to Angrd- 

ordinary frame of mind. The word mainyush, the devil. This legend 

" to see " is really used in reference to about the origin of the animated crea- 

revelation in ttae GMhas (see Yas. tion apparently refers to sacrificial 

xEii. s, xxxi. 8, xxviii. 6). This ap- rites, i*e creation of the world being 

plication of the word is wholly in considered by several ancient nations 

accordance with its meaning in the as a sacrifice ; by the Brahmans as 

Vedas, where it is stated that the that of Brahma himself ; by the an- 

sacred songs (mantra) have been seen cient Scandinavians, the people of the 

by the Eishis. Edda, as that of the primary giant 

* In the Parsi or P^zand language, BSr. 


creation," was crying aloud in consequence of attacks made 
npon its life, and imploring the assistance of the arch- 
angels. The miardereB, frightened by this cry, asked one 
of the archangels, Aska (Ardibahisht), as to who had been 
appointed to. protect this soul of the earth. Asha referred 
him to Mazda, who is " the most wise, and the giver of 
oracles." Mazda answered that Geush umd was being cut 
into pieces for the benefit of the agnculturist. Mazda now 
deliberated with Asha as to who might be-fit tO' communi- 
cate this declaration of the heavenly eouneil t© mankind. 
Asha answered that there was only one maa who had 
heard the o-rders issued by the celestial counciMois, viz., 
Zarathushtra Spitama ; he, therefore, was to be endowed 
with eloquence ta bring their messages to the world. 

Geush urvd means the universal soul of earth,, the cause 
of all life and growth. The literal meaning of the wordj 
"• soul of the Gow," implies a simile ; for the earth is com- 
pared to a cow.i By its cutting and dividing, ploughing 
is to be understood. The meaning of that decree, issued 
by Ahuramazda and the heavenly council, is that the soil 
is to be tUled ; it, therefore, enjoins agriculture as a reH'- 
gious duty. Zarathushtra, when encouraging men by the 
order of Ahuramazda to cultivate the earth, acts as a pro- 
phet of agriculture and civilisation. In this capacity we 
shall' also find him afterwards. 

In the third section of this G^tha (Yas. xxx.) one of 
the most important sections of the G^tha literature is 
presented to us. It is a metrical speech, delivered by 
Spitama Zarathushtra, himself,, when standing brfore the 
sacred fire, to a numerously attended maeting of his coun- 
trymen. The chief tendency of this speech is to induce 
his countrymen to forsake the worship of the devas or 

^ Gdus lias in Sanskrit the two Teutoni* mythology), who represent 

meanings "cow" and "earth." In the creative powers in nature, are said 

Greek jr^, " earth," is to be traced to to "have out the cow and made fertild 

this word. In the Vamadeva hymns the earth." The term evidently re- 

(ifourth book of the Rigveda), the fers to the cultivation of the soil. 
Ilibhus (comparable to the elves of the 


gods, i.e., polytheism, to bow only before Aburamazda, 
and to separate themselves entirely from the idolators. 
In order to gain the object wished for, he propounds the 
great difference which exists between the two religions, 
Monotheism and Polytheism, showing that whereas the 
former is the fountain of fill prosperity both ia this and 
the other life, the latter is utterly ruinous to manlcind. 
He attempts further to explain the origin of both 'these 
religions, so diametrically opposed to each other, and finds 
it in the existence of two primeval catises, called *" exist- 
ence " and " non-existence." But this merely philosophi- 
cal doctrine is not to be confounded with his theology, 
according to which he acknowledged only one God, as will 
be clearly seen from the second G§,tha. The following is 
a translation of the whole of this inaugural speech of 

Yas. XXX. I. I will now tell you who are assembled 
here the wdse sayings of Mazda, tlie praises of Ahnra, and 
the hymn's of the good spirit, the sublime truth which I 
see arising out of th^se sacred flames. 

'2. Ton shall, therefore, hearken to the soul of nature ^ 
(i.e., to plough and cultivate the earth) ; contemplate the 
beams of fire with a most pious mind ! Every one, both 
men and women, -ought to-day to choose his creed (be- 
tween the Deva and the Ahnra religion). Ye offspring 
■of renowned ancestors, awake to agree with us {i.e., to 
approve ot my lore, to be 'delivered to you at this 
moment) ! 

(The prophet begi^is to deliver the words revealed to 
him through the sacred flames.) 

3. In the beginning there was a pair of twins, two 
spirits, each of a peculiar activity.; these are the good 
and the base, in thought, word, and deed. Choose one of 
these two spirits ! Be good, not base ! 

4. And these two spirits united created the first (the 

■1 '<?et<sA «n)'?, see p. 147-8. It ia here evidently an allusion made to the 
legend mentioned .aboi.e- 


material things); one, the reality, the other, the non- 
reality. To the liars (the worshippers of the devas, i.e., 
gods) existence will become bad, whilst the believer in the 
true God enjoys prosperity, 

5. Of these two spirits you must choose one, either the 
evil, the originator of the worst actions, or the true, holy 
spirit. Some may wish to have the hardest lot (i«., those 
who will not leave the polytheistic deva-religion), others 
adore Ahuramazda by means of sincere actions. 

6. You cannot belong to both of them {i.e., you cannot 
be worshippers of the one true God, and of many gods at 
the same time). One of the dev^s, ag8»inst whom we are 
fighting, might overtake you, when in deliberation (what 
faith you are to embrace), whispering you to choose the 
worst mind.l Then the devas flock together to assault the 
two lives (the life of the body and that of the soul), praised 
by the prophets, 

7. And to succour this life (to increase it), Armaiti? 
eame with wealth, the good and true mjnd ; she, the 
everlasting one, created the material world ; but the soul, 
as to time, the first cause among created beings, was with 

8. But when he (the evil spirit) comes with one of 
these evils (to sow mistrust among the believers), then 
thou hast the power through the good mind of punishing 
them who break their promises^ righteous spirit ! 3 

9. Thus let us be such as help the life of the future.* 
The wise living spirits 6 are the greatest supporters of it. 

1 Aktm manS (superlat. achishtem low that preticlied by Zarathnsbtra, 

mand) means literally "evjl mind," will be punished ty God should thej 

It ia a philosophical terra applied by break their promise. 

Zarathushtra to designate his prin- * In this passage we have the germs 

eiple of non-existence, non-reality, of the doctrine of the resurrection of 

which is the cause of all evils. the dead ; see the author's German 

^ She is the angel of earth, and the work on the Gftthas, vol. i. pp. 109- 

personification of prayers, 112. 

' That is to say, those who give • These are the archangels (Am' 

today the solemn promise to leave shaspends). 
the polytheistic religion and to fol- 


The prudent man wishes only to be there where wisdom 
is at home. 

10. Wisdom is the shelter from lies, the annihilation of 
the destroyer (the evil spirit). All perfect things are 
garnered up in the splendid residence of the Good Mind 
(Vohu-man6), the Wise (Mazda), and the Eighteous 
(Asha),l who are known as the best beings. 

11. Therefore, perform ye the commandments which, 
pronounced by Mazda himself, have been given to man- 
kind ; for they are a nuisance and perdition to liars, but 
prosperity to the believer in the truth ; they are the foun- 
tain of happiness. 

In the fourth section of the first Gatha (Yas. xxxi.) we 
have a collection of urv^ias, " sayings," of Ahuramazda, 
revealed to his prophet Zarathushtra, for the purpose of 
protecting the good creation from the attacks of wicked 
men and evil spirits. The chief means of checking evil 
influences is the cultivation of the sodl. Some of these 
verses are here translated. 

Yas. xxxi. 7. He (Ahuramazda) first created, through 
his inborn lustre,^ the multitude of celestial bodies, and 
through his intellect the good creatures, governed by the 
inborn good mind. Thou Ahuramazda, the spirit who art 
everlasting, makest them (the good creatures) grow. 

8. When my eyes beheld Thee, the essence of truth, 
the Creator of life, who manifests his life in his works, 
then I knew Thee to be the primeval spirit, Thou Mazda, 
so high in mind as to create the world, and the father of 
the good mind.3 

9. In Thee was Arraaiti (spirit of earth), in Thee the 
very wise fertiliser of the soil,^ Ahuramazda, Thou 

* Three names of archangels. life in men and animals, the principle 

* Qdthrd, " by means of hig own of vitality. If Ahuramazda is called 
fire." Ahuramazda, as the source of the father of Vohu-man6, it means 
light, which most resembles him, and that all vital powers in the animated 
where he appears to bis prophet, is beings have sprung out of him, as the 
called qdthri, '' having bis own light " supreme being. 

(not borrowed). * Literally, " the cutter of the cow " 

* Vohu-mand. He represents the (geiish-taahd), see p. 147. 


spirit ! when Thou hast made her paths that she might 
go from the tiller of the soil to him who does not culti- 
vate it.i 

10. Of these two (the agriculturist and the herdsman), 
she chose the pious cultivator, the propagator of life, 
whom she blessed with the riches produced by the good 
mind. All that do not till her, but worship the devas 
(false gods), have no share in her good tidings (the fruits 
produced by her, and the blessings of civilisation). 

11. When Thou madest the world with its bodies, and 
(gavest them) motions and speeches, then Thou Mazda! 
hast created at first through Thy mind the gaithas (enclo- 
sures), and the sacred visio-ns {daindo), and intellects.^ 

1 8. Do not listen to the sayings and precepts of the 
wicked (the evil spirit), because he has given to destruc- 
tion house, village, district, and province. Therefore, 
kill them (the wicked) with the sword. 

The fifth section (Hi) of this GUtha (Yas. xxxii.) is cue 
of the most difficult pieces of the whole Yasna. It depicts, 
in glowing colours, idolatry and its evU consequences. The 
prophet directs his speech against the devas, or gods, in the 
following manner : — 

Yas. xxxii. 3. Ye devas have sprung out of the evil 

* The meaning is, that Armaiti, the phets through visions. The root of 

spirit of earth, is wandering from tlie word is dt, "to see" (preserved 

spot to spot to convert deserts and in the modern Persian dtdem, "to 

wildernesses into fruitful fields. Sh« see ; " it is related to the Sansbrit root 

goes from the agriculturist to the dhyai, " to think," thinking being 

shepherd, who still adheres to the considered to be a seeing by meacs 

ancestral nomadic life, to call upon of the mental eyes). Afterwards it 

him to cultivate the soil also. passed into the more general meaning 

2 By gaSthaSi frequently mentioned 'of *' religion, creed," and is retained 

in the Zend-Avesta, the ancient set- in ihe form din down to this day in 

tlemenfcs of the Iranian agriculturists Persian, whence it was incorporated 

are to be understood. Ahuramazda into Arabic, like many other Iranian 

is constantly sailed their creator, words, at a time anterior to Moham- 

which means, that these settlements med. This word is also to be found 

belong to a very remote antiquity, in the Lithuanian language (a link of 

and that they form the basis of the the Aryan stock) in the form dainS, 

Ahura religion, or the religion of the meaning "a song" (the mental fiction 

agriculturists. The daSnas are the of the poet), 
revelations communicated to the i>ro- 


spii'it who takes possession of you by intoxication (Shoma), 
teaching you manifold arts to deceive and destroy man- 
kind, for which arts you are notorious everywhere. 

4. Inspired by this evil spirit, you have invented spells, 
which are appEed by the most wicked, pleasing the devas 
only, but rejected by the good spirit; but the wicked 
perish through the wisdom and righteousness of Ahura- 

5. Ye devas and thou evil spirit! ye by means of your 
base mind, your base words, your base actions, rob man- 
kind of its earthly and immortal welfare by raising the 
wicked to power. 

Of the sixth and seventh H4s (Yas. xxxiii. xxxiv.) a few 
verses are here translated. 

Yas. xxxiii. 2. Whoever are opposed, in their thoughts, 
words, and actions, to the wicked, and think of the welfare 
af the 'Creation,! their eff<Drts will be crowned with success 
through the mercy of Ahuramazda. 

3. Whoever of two lords, of two yeomen, of two bonds- 
men,2 behaves himself well towards a righteous man (an 
adherent of the Zoroastrian religion), and furthers the 
works of life by tilling the soil, that one will be in the 
fields of the righteous and good (e.e^ in paradise), 

4. But by means of prayer I wUl remove from Thee 
(from thy community), Mazda! irreligiousness and 
wickedness, the disobedience of the lord, and the false- 
hood of the servant belonging to him and his yeoman, 
and frustrate the most wicked desigas plotted for destroy- 
ing the fields. 

14. Among the priests Zarathushtra maintains the 
opinion that the peculiar nature of each body (living 
creature) subsists through the wisdom of the good mind, 

' The teFKi in the Avesta is aMi, i^as, but not in the other books of the 

"existence." It ia the consequence Zend-Avesta. The word for lord is 

of adherence to the good principle. qaHu, " owner ; " that for yeoman, 

2 These three names of the mem- airyama, " associate, friemd;" that 

bora of the ancient Iranian community for bondsman, i»ere3e«o, "workman, 

are very frequently used in the GS,- labourer." 


tlu'ougli righteousness of action, and the hearing of, and 
keeping to, the revealed word. 

Yas. xxxiv. i. Immortality, righteousness, wealth, health, 
all these gifts to be granted in consequence of (pious) 
actions, words, and worshipping, to these (men who pray 
here), are plentiful in Thy possession; Ahuramazda ! 

VII. — GATHA USHTAVAITI (Tas. xliii.-xlvi.)l 

Wliilst the first GS.tha appears to he a mere collection 
of fragments of hymns and scattered verses, made without 
any other plan than to transmit to posterity what was 
believed to be the true and genuine sayings of the prophet, 
in this second G§,tha we may observe a certain scheme 
carried out. Although its contents, with the exception of 
a few verses only (xlvi. 13-17), are all sayings of Zara- 
thushtra himself, yet they have not been put together, as 
is the case in many other instances, irrespective of their 
contents, but in a certain order, with the view of present- 
ing the followers of the prophet with a true image of the 
mission, activity, and teaching of their great master. In 
the first section of this G&tha (Yas. xliii.), his mission, by 
order of Ahuramazda, is announced; in the second (Yas. 
xliv.), he receives instructions from the Supreme Being 
about the highest matters of human speculation; in the third 
(Yas. xlv.), he appears as a prophet before a large assem- 
bly of his countrymen, to propound to them his new doc^ 
trines ; and in the fourth or last section (Yas. xlvi.) we 
find different verses referring to the fate of the prophet, 
the congregation which he established, and his most emi- 
nent friends and supporters. 

As this G§;tha is the most important portion of the 
whole Zend-Avesta for giving an accurate knowledge of 
Zarathushtra's teaching and activity, a translation of the 

' See the text, with a literal Latin and the «pn)Ri«ntary on it, ibid,, PP. 
translation, in the author's German 39^154! 
work on the G^thas, vol. ii. pp. a-i8. 


wliole of it is submitted to the reader in the foHo-wing 

I. (Yas. xliii.) 

1. Blessed is he, blessed is every one, to whom Ahura- 
mazda, ruling by his own will, shall grant the two ever- 
lasting powers (health and immortality). For this very 
good I beseech Thee (Ahuramazda). Mayest Thou through 
Thy angel of piety, Armaiti, give me happiness, the good 
true things, and the possession of the good mind. 

2. I beUeve Thee to be the best being of aU, the source 
of light for the world. Every one shall choose Thee (be- 
lieve in Thee) as the source of light. Thee, Mazda, most 
beneficent spirit ! Thou createdst all good true things by 
means of the power of Thy good mind at any time, and 
promisedst us (who believe in Thee) a long life. 

3. This very man (Sraosha) may go (and lead us) to 
Paradise, he who used to show us the right paths of hap- 
piness both in the earthly life and in that of the soul, in 
the present creations, where Thy spirit dwells, the living, 
the faithful, the generous, the beneficent, Mazda ! 

4. I win believe Thee to be the powerful benefactor, 
Mazda ! Por Thou givest with Thy hand, filled with helps, 
good to the righteous man, as well as to the wicked, by 
means of the warmth of the fire 1 strengthening the good 
things. For this reason the vigour of the good mind has 
fallen to my lot. 

5. Thus I believed in Thee, Ahuramazda ! as the fur- 
therer (of what is good) ; because I beheld Thee to be the 
primeval cause of life in the creation, for Thou, who hast 
rewards for deeds and words, hast given evil to the bad and 
good to the good. I will believe in Thee, Ahu ra ! in the 
last (future) period of creation. 

6. In whatever period of my life I believed in Thee, 
Mazda, munificent spirit! in that Thou earnest with 

1 The fire is supposed In the Zend-Avesta and the Vedas to be spread 
eveiTwhere as the cause of all life. 


wealth, and with the good mind through whose actions our 
settlements thrive. To these (men who are present) Ar- 
maiti i fcells the everlasting laws, given hy Thy intellect, 
which nobody may abolish. 

•J. Thus I believed in Thee, Ahuramazda ! as the fur- 
therer (of what is good) ; therefore he (Sraosha) came to 
me and asked : Who art thou ? whose son art thou ? How 
dost thou at present think to increase and improve thy 
settlements and their beings (to increase the power of the 
good mind in all thy territories where thou appearest) ? 

8. I replied to him : Firstly, I am Zarathushtra. I will 
show myself as a destroyer to the wicked, as well as be a 
comforter for the righteous man. As long as I 'Can praise 
and glorify Thee, Mazda ! I shall enlighten and awaken 
all that aspire to property (who wish to separate them- 
selves from the nsmadic tribes and become settlers in a 
certain ceuntry). 

9. Thus I believed in Thee, Ahuramazda ! as the fur- 
therer {of what is good) .; therefore he came to me with the 
good mind (and I asked him)-: To whom dost thou wish 
the increase of this life should be communicated ? Staad- 
ing at Thy fire amongst Thy worshippers who pray to Thee, 
I will be mindful of righteousness (to improve a.ti good 
things) as long as I shall be able. 

10. Thus mayest Thou grant me dghteousness. Then 1 
shall call myself, if -accompanied by the angel of piety, a 
pious obedient man. And I will ask in behalf of both of 
us 2 whatever Thou mayest be asked. For the king will, 
as it is only allowed to mighty men, make Thee for Thy 
answers a mighty fire (to cause Thy glory a,nd adoration to 
be spread over many countries like the splendour of a large 
blazing flame). 

1 1. Thus I believed in Thee, O Ahuramazda ! as the fur- 
therer (of what is good) ; therefore he (Sraosha) came to 

1 The spirit of earth. and renown the prophet is here pray- 

* This refers to Zarathashtra and ing. 
Kava Viahtaspa, for whose welfare 


me witli the good mind. For since I, who am your most 
obedient servant amongst men, am ready to destroy the 
enemies first by the recital of your l words, so tell me the 
best to be done. 

12. And when Thou camest to instruct me, and taitghtest 
me righteousness ; then Thou gavest me Thy command not 
to appear (before large assemblies as a prophet), without 
having received a (special) revelation, before the angel 
Sraosha, endowed with the sublime righteousness which 
may impart your righteous things to the two friction woods 
(by means of which the holiest fire, the source of all good 
in the creation, is produced) for the benefit (of all beings), 
shall have come to me. 

13. Then I believed in Thee, O Ahuramazda! as the 
furtherer (of what is good) ; therefore he came to me with 
the good mind. Let me obtain the things which I wished 
for ; grant me the gift of a long life : none of you may 
detain it from me for the benefit of the good creation sub- 
ject to Thy dominion. 

14. Therefore (Sraosha), the powerful proprietor (of 
all good), communicated to me, his friend, knowledge of 
Thy helps (Thy powers) ; for endowed with all the gifts 
granted by Thee, as to the various kinds of speech, like 
all other men who recite Thy prayers, I was resolved upon 
making my appearance (in public as a prophet). 

15. Thus I believed in Thee, Ahuramazda! as the 
furtherer (of what is good) ; therefore he came to me with 
the good mind. May the greatest happiness brightly blaze 
out of these flames ! May the number of the worshippers 
of the liar (evil spirit) diminish! may all those (that are 
here present) address tliemselves to the priests of the holy 

16. Thus prays, Ahuramazda! Zarathushtra and every 
holy (pure) man for all that choose (as their guide) the 
most beneficent spirit. May vitality and righteousness 

^ This refers to Ahuramazda and the archangels forming the celestial 


(tlie foundations of the good creation) become ptedomi- 
nant in the world! In evety being which beholds the 
sun's light may Armaiti (the Spirit of piety) reside ! She 
who causes all growth by her actions through the good 

2. (Yjis. xliv.) 

1. That I shall ask Thee, tell it me right, Ahura! 
whether your friend (Sraosha) be willing to recite his own 
hymn as prayer to my friend (Frashaoshtra or Vishti,spa), 
Mazda ! and whether he would come to us with the good 
mind, to perform for us true actions of friendship.! 

2. That I shall ask Thee, tell it me right, Ahura! 
How arose the best (present) life (this world) ? By what 
means are the present things (the world) to be supported ? 
That spirit, the beneficent (Vohu-man6) O righteous Mazda! 
is the guardian of the beings to ward off from them' every 
evil ; He is the promoter of all life. 

3. That I shall ask Thee, tell it me right, Ahura! 
Who was in the beginning the father and creator of right- 
eousness ? Who created the path of the sun and stars ? 
Who causes the moon to increase and wane but Thou ? 
This I wish (to know), O Mazda ! besides what I know 

4. That I shall ask Thee, tell it me right, Ahura! 
Who is holding the earth and the skies above it ? Who 
made the waters and the trees of the field ? Who is in 
the winds and storms that they so quickly run ? Who is 
the creator of the good-minded beings, Mazda ? 

5. That I shall ask Thee, tell it me right, Ahura! 
Who created the lights of good effect and the darkness ? 
Who created the sleep of good effect and the activity? 
Who (created) morning, noon, and night, reminding the 
priest always of his duties ? 

^ The meaning is, the prophet would make oommunioations to hia 
wants to ascertain from Ahuramazda, (the pl-ophet's) friend, 
whether or not the angel Sraosha 


6. That I shall ask Thee, tell it me right, Ahura! 
Whether these (verses) which I shall recite, are really 
thus ?i (a) Armaiti doubles righteousness by her actions. 
(6) He collects wealth with the good mind, (c) For whom 
hast thou made the imperishable cow E§,ny6-skereti ? 2 

7. That I shall ask Thee, tell it me right, Ahura! 
Who has prepared the Bactrian (bereMdha) home with its 
properties ? Who fashioned, by a weaving motion, the 
excellent son out of the father ? 3 To become acquainted 
with these things, I approach Thee, Mazda, beneficent 
spirit ! creator of all beings ! 

8. That I shaU ask Thee, tell it me right, Ahura! 
What soul (what guardian angel) may teU me good things, 
to perform five times (a day) * the duties which are en- 
joined by Thyself, Mazda ! and to recite those prayers 
which are communicated for the welfare (of all beings) by 
the good mind. Whatever good, intended for the increase 
of life, is to be had, that may come to me. 

9. That I shall ask Thee, tell it me right, Ahura ! How 
shall I bless that creed which Thy friend (Sraosha), who 
protects it with a true and good mind in the assembly (of the 
heavenly spirits), ought to promulgate to the mighty king ? 

10. That I shall ask Thee, tell it me right, Ahura ! The 
faith which, being the best of all, may protect my posses- 
sion, and may really produce the good things, by means of 
the words and actions of Armaiti (the spirit of earth). My 
heart wishes (it is my lively desire) that I may know 
Thee, Mazda ! 

' Here are quoted the first phrases sticks, which was in ancient times 

of three ancient prayers which are no the most sacred way of bringing into 

longer Icnawn. existence the fire, commonly called 

^ This is a mythological name of 'Ahuramazda'sson.' See the author's 

the earth, to be found in the G^thas work on the Gathas, vol. ii. pp. 81, 82. 

Only. It means "producing the two * The so-called fire g^hs : HavanI, 

friction woods (two wooden sticks, from6toioA.M.; Bapithwina, 10A.M. 

by means of rubbing which fire was to 3 P.M. ; tTzaygirina, from 3 to6 p.m. 

produced)." See the author's work (sunset) ; AiwisrClthrema, from 6 to 12 

on the Gathas, vol. ii. pp. 91, 92- *-M. ; Ushahina, from 12 p.m. to 6 

3 This refers to the production of A M. 
fire by the friction of two wooden 

i6q gate a USHTAVAITI. 

11. That I shall ask Thee, tell it -me right, Ahura! 
How Armaiti l may visit those mea to whom the belief in 
Thee, Mazda ! is preached ? By those I am there 
acknowledged (as a prophet); but all dissenters are regarded 
as my enemies. 

12. That I shall ask Thee, tell it me right, Ahura! 
Who is the righteous man and who the impious, after 
whom I wish to inquire 1 With which of the two is the 
evil (spirit), and with which the good one ? Is it not right 
to consider the impious man who attacks me or Thee to 
be an evil one ? 

13. That I shall ask Thee, tell it me right, Ahura! 
How shall we drive away the destruction (destroyer) from 
this place to those who, full of disobedience, do not respect 
righteousness in keeping it, nor care about the thriving 
of the good mind (that it may be diffused all over the 
earth) ? 

14. That I shall ask Thee, tell it me right, Ahura I 
How shall I deliver the destroyer into the hands of truth, 
to be annihilated by means of the hymns, for Thy praise ? 
If Thou, Mazda ! eommunicatest to me an efficacious 
spell to be applied against the impious man, then I will 
destroy every difficulty and every misfortune. 

15. That I shall ask Thee, tell it me right, Aliura! 
When or to whom of the lords givest Thou as proprietor 
this fat flock (of sheep), two armies being gathered for a 
combat in silencei by means of those sayings which Thou, 
Mazda ! art desirous of pronouncing ? 

16. That I shall ask Thee, tell it me right, Ahura! 
Who killed the hostile demons of different shapes, to enable 
me to become acquainted with the rules established for the 
coui'se of the two lives (physical and spiritual) ? So may 
the angel Sraosha, assisted by the good mind, shine for 
every one towards whom Thou art propitious. 

1 This refers to the ■wanderings of agriculture and thfr xsii of a mora 
Aimaiti, the spirit of earth, by which civilised life, 
is to be understood the progress of 


17. That I shall ask Thee, tell it me right, Ahura! 
How may I come, Mazda ! to your dwelling-place (that 
of God and the angels) to hear you sing? Aloud I ex- 
press my wish to obtain the help of (the angel of) health, 
and that of immortality, by means of that hymn which is 
a treasure of truth. 

18. That I shaU. ask Thee, teU it me right, Ahura! 
How shall T, Eighteous ! spend this gift, ten pregnant 
mares and a camel,l to obtain in future the two powers of 
health and immortality, in the same way as Thou hast 
granted them to these men (to others known to the pro- 
phets) ? 

19. That I shall ask Thee, tell it me right, Ahura! 
How is the first intellects of that man, who does not return 
(what he has received) to the offerer of this gift,3 of him who 
does not grant anything to the speaker of truth ? For the 
last intellect of this man (his doing) is already known to 

20. What, good ruler Mazda ! are the Devas (evil 
spirits) ? Thus I might ask Thee for those who attack 
the good existence (the good beings), by whose means the 
priest and prophet of the idols expose the earth (the 
cultivated countries) to destruction ; and (I wish to know 
beaides) what the false prophet has gained by doing so. 
Do not, Eighteous ! grant him a field to fence it in (to 
make it his own property). 

3. (Yas. xlv.) 

I. All ye, who have come from near and far, should 
now listen and hearken to what I shall proclaim. Now 
the wise have manifested this universe as a duality. Let 

^ This refers to a sacrifice. Sacri- first intellect is that which is innate 

fioes of animals were customary in in the soul, which came from heaven ; 

Zarathushtra's time. the last is that one which man him- 

The first and last intellects are self acquires by experience, 
notions of the Zoroastrian philo- ^ That is to say, ' who is ungrateful 

sophy; see the fourth Essay. The towards God.' 



not the misfcjbief-maker destroy the second life, since 
he, the wicked, chose with his tongue the pernicious 

2. I will proclaim the two primeval spirits of the world, 
of whom the inureaser thus spoke to the destroyer : Do 
not thoughts, do not words, do not wisdoms, nor doctrines, 
do not speeches, nor actions, do not meditations, do not 
souls follow us ? 

3. I will proclaim the primeval (thought) of this life 
which Ahuramazda, who knows it, spoke unto me; for 
those of you who do not carry my word into practice so as 
I think and speak it, the end of the life will come. 

4. I wiU proclaim the Best in this life. Mazda knows 
it in truth, who created it as the father of the Good Mind 
who is working (in the minds); its daughter is Devotion 
(Armaiti) with good works. The Lord (Ahura) who is 
gi\'ing all (good things) cannot be deceived. 

5. I will proclaim the word which the Most Beneficent 
(the source of all prosperity) spoke to me, which is the 
best for men to hear. All those who give a hearing to 
this my word, will be free from all defects and reach im- 
mortality. Mazda is Lord through the instrumentality of 
the Good Mind. 

' 6. I will proclaim, as the greatest of all things, that one 
should be good, praising only righteousness. Ahura- 
mazda will hear those who are bent on furthering l (all 
that is good). May He whose goodness is communicated 
by the Good Mind, instruct me in his best wisdom. 

7. All that have been living, and will be living, subsist 
by means of His bounty only. The soul of the righteous 
attains to immortality, but that of the wicked man has 
everlasting punishment. Such is the rule of Ahuramazda, 
whose the creatures are. 

8. Him whom I wish to extol with my praises I now 
behold with (my) eye, knowing him to be Ahuramazda, 
the reality of the good mind, deed, and word. Let us thus 

^ Literally, " who are good with the increasing (beneficent) spirit." 


set down our gifts of praise in the dwelling-place of the 
heavenly singers (angels) .1 

9. Him I wish to adore with my good mind, Him who 
gives us fortune and misfortune according to His will. 
May Ahuramazda make our progeny (and) cattle thrive, 
that of the master as well as that of the servant, by pro- 
ducing in them the good qualities of the Good Mind. 

10. Him I wish to extol with the prayers of my devo- 
tion, who calls himself Ahuramazda, that is,^ He knows 
with his true and good mind, and gives to this world the 
freedom from defects and immortality, which are in His 
possession, as two permanently active powers. 

1 1. Whoever thinks the idols and all those men besides, 
who think of mischief only, to be base, and distinguishes 
such people from those who think of the right ; his friendj 
brother, or father is Ahuramazda. This is the beneficent 
revelation of the supreme fire-priest. 

4. (Yas. xlvi.) 

1. To what land shall I turn ? whither shall I go in 
turning? owing to the desertion of the master (Zara- 
thushtra) and his companion ? None of the servants pay 
reverence to me, nor do the wicked rulers of the country. 
How shall I worship Thee further, Ahuramazda ? 

2. I know that I am helpless. Look at me being 
amongst few men, for I have few men (I have lost my 
followers or they have left me); I implore Thee weeping, 
Ahura ! who grantest happiness as a friend gives (a pre- 
sent) to his friend. The good of the good mind is in thy 
own possession, Eighteous ! 3 

4. The wicked man enjoys the fields of the angel of 
truth who is protecting the earth in the district as well as 

1 The meaning is that our prayers, dently to Zarathushtra's persecution, 
offered here, may go up to heaven, to The third verse, consisting of several 
be heard before the throne of God. sentences which seem not to be con- 

" What follows is an explanation of neoted with each other, is omitted. 
the meaningof the name Ahuramazda. See the author's work on the G^thas, 

2 These two verses (i, 2) refer evi- vol. ii. pp. 130, 131. 


in the province ; but by choosing evil, instead of good, he 
cannot succeed in his deeds. Whoever drives him out of 
his dominion, or out of his property, Mazda ! he is going 
further on the paths of good intellect.i 

5. If in future a ruler takes hold of one who trespasses 
the law, or if a nobleman takes hold of one who violates 
the bonds of friendship, or if a righteous man, living 
righteously, takes hold of a wicked man : he shall then, 
having learned it, inform the master ; into distress and 
utter want he shall be thrown to be unhappy.2 

6. But whoever, although he may be able, does not go 
to him (the chief of the community), he may, however, 
follow the customs of the untruth now prevailing. ^ For 
he is a wicked man whom another wicked one considers 
to be the best, and he is a righteous man whose friend is 
a righteous one. Such sayings of old hast Thou revealed, 
Ahura ! 

7. Who * is appointed protector of my property, 
Mazda! when the wicked endeavour to hurt me? who 
else, if not Thy fire, and Thy mind, through whose opera- 
tion Thou hast created rightful existence (good beings), 
Ahura! Tell me the power necessary for upholding 
the religion,. 

8. Whoever spoils my estates, and does not clioose me 
by bowing before my fi,re (the symbol of the deity), retri- 
bution may be maide to him for his person in the same 
way. He shall be excluded from every good possession, 
but not from a bad one filled up with evils, Mazda ! 

9. Who is that man, who whilst supporting me, made 

^ It is considered to be a good work does not assist in punishing such 

to destroy the enemies of agriculture, crimes as apostasy and promise-break- 

because by laying waste the culti- ing, is himself an infidel and no more 

vated soil they cause great damage to to be recognised as a member of the 

the good creation. Zoroastrian community. 

^ This and the following verses re- * This verse is one of the most cele- 

fer to the breaking of solemn pro- brated prayers used by the Parsis 

mises (called mithra, see Vend, iv.) now-a-days. It is the so-called Snsh 

and apostasy. h^, 

^ The meaning is that a man, who 


me first acquainted with thee as the most venerable being, 
as the beneficent righteous Lord?l The true sayings 
revealed by the maker of the earth 2 come to my hands by 
means of thy good mind. 

10. Whatever man, or woman, , Ahuramazda ! per- 
forms the best actions, known to thee, for the benefit of this 
(earthly) life, promoting thus the truth for the angel of truth, 
and spreading thy rule through the good mind, as well as 
gratifying all those men, who are gathered round me, to 
adore (the heavenly spirits) : all these I will lead over the 
bridge of the gatherer (heavenly bridge ^ to Paradise). 

1 1. The sway is given into the hands of the priests and 
prophets of idols, who by their (atrocious) actions, endea- 
vour to destroy human life. Actuated by their own 
spirit and mind, they ought to avoid the bridge of the 
gatherer, to remain for ever in the dwelling-place of de- 
struction (hell). 

12. When after the defeat of the enemy Fryana the 
true rites (fire-worship and agriculture) arose amongst the 
(Iranian) tribes, and their allies, thou fencedst with stakes 
the earth's settlements. Thus Ahuramatda, having fenced 
them all, assigned them to those men (his worshippers) as 

13. Whoever amongst men pays reverence zealously 
to Spitama Zarathushtra, such a one is fit to deliver in 
public his lore. To him (Zarathushtra) Ahuramazda 
entrusted life (the existence of all good beings to protect 
them); for him he established through the good mind the 
settlements ; him we think to be your good friend (that is, 
of thyself and thy angels), Eighteous ! 

'•■ This refers very likely to the which can be facilitated to the de- 

gemh m-vd, " the soul of earth," to ceased by prayers recited for him. 

whose oracles the prophet was con- * Here the origin of the gaSthas, 

stantly listening. "possessions, estates," so frequently 

2 Lit. " the cutter of the cow," alluded to in the Zendavesta, is de- 

see p. 147. 

scribed. We must understand by 

3 None can enter Paradise without them the original settlements of the 
having first passed the " bridge of the Iranians exposed to constant attacks 
gatherer" {Oliinvat), the passing of on the part of nomadic tribes. 


14. Zarathushtra ! Who is thy sincere friend (to assist 
in performing) the great work ? Or, who will deliver it in 
public ? The very man to do it, is Kav4 Vlsht^spa. I 
will worship through the words of the good mind all those 
whom thou hast elected at the (heavenly) meeting. 

15. Ye sons of HSchad-aspa Spitama! to you I wiU 
speak; because you distinguish right from wrong. By 
means of your actions, the truth, (contained) in the ancient 
commandments of Ahura, has been founded. 

16. Venerable Frashfishtra ! Go thou with those helpers 
whom we both have elected for the benefit of the world 
(the good beings), to that field where Devotion resides, 
attended by Eighteousness, where the stores of the Good 
Mind may be acquired, where is the dwelling-place of 
Ahuramazda (i.e., Paradise). 

17. Where from you only blessings, not curses,^ vener- 
able wise J^m^spas ! are to be heard, always (protecting) 
the goods of the leader and performer of the sacred rites, 
namely of Ahuramazda himself, endowed with great intel- 
lectual power. 

18. Por him, who bestowed most favours on me, I 
collect all the best of my goods (acquired) through the 
Good Mind. But to their last shifts I will put aU those, 
Mazda, righteous ! who have put us to them. I will 
beseech you to assist me. Such is my decision conceived 
according to my intellect and understanding. 

19. Whoever makes this very life increase by means of 
righteousness, to the utmost for me, who am Zarathushtra 
myself, to him the first (earthly) and the other (spiritual) 
life will be granted as a reward, together with all goods to 
be had on the imperishable earth. Thou art the very 
owner of all these things to the greatest extent, thou who 
art my friend, Mazda ! 

1 When on earth, they used to pro- words can he heard from them. They 
nounce curses as well as blessings, were celebrated Magi ifnagmas). 
But in Paradise only good, no bad. 



Yas. liii.) l 

These three collections of ancient hymns are much 
smaller than the first two; the fourth and fifth consist 
only of one Ha (chapter) each. Merely a short account 
of them will be given, with a translation of a few verses. 
The several chapters, except the last of the third Gatha 
(Yas. 1.), form nowhere a whole as regards composition, 
but are generally mere collections of detached verses, 
which were pronounced on different occasions, either by 
Zarathushtra himself, or by his disciples. While in the 
first two Gathas the majority of the verses can be traced 
to Zarathushtra himself, in these last three Gathas most 
of the verses appear to be the work of the master's dis- 
ciples, such as J4m^spa, Frashoshtra, and Vtsht§,spa, and 
some verses are perhaps the work of their pupils, as they 
themselves are therein spoken of (especially in Yas. li.) 
with great reverence. 

Yas, xlvii. i. Ahuramazda gives through the beneficent 
Spirit, appearing in the best thought, and in recti- 
tude of action and speech, to this world (universe), 
perfection (Haurvat§,t) and immortality (Ameretat), 
wealth (Khshathra) and devotion (Armaiti).2 
2. From his (Ahuramazda's) most beneficent spirit 
aU good has sprung in the words which are pro- 
nounced by the tongue of the Good Mind (FoM 
mand), and the works wrought by the hands of 
Armaiti (spirit of earth). By means of such know- 
ledge Mazda himself is the father of all rectitude 
(in thought, word, and deed). 
Yas. xlvui. 4. He who created, by means of his wisdom, 

1 See the author's German work, only God and Spirit, in whom good 
Tol. ii. pp. 20-38 and 155-217. and evil both originate. All the 

2 Ahuramazda is in this, and the Ameshaspentas (archangels) of the 
following two verses, described aa the later Parslism are only his gifts. 


the good and evil mind in thinking, words, and 
deeds, rewards his obedient followers with pro- 
sperity. Art Thou (Mazda !) not he, in whom the 
final cause of both intellects (good and evil) exists? 

10. When will appear, Mazda! the men of vigour 
and courage to pollute that intoxicating liquor (the 
Soma) ? This diabolical art makes the idol-priests 
so overbearing, and the evO. spirit, reigning in the 
countries, increases (this pride).l 

Yas. xlix. 4. Those poor (wretches) who, instigated by 
their base minds, cause mischief and ruin to the 
wealthy (settlers) through the spells uttered by 
their tongues, who are devoid of all good works and 
find delight in evil doings only ; such men produce 
the demons (devas) by means of their pernicious 
5. Mazda himself, and the prayers (offered by men), 
and every one who is a truly noble son of Armaiti, 
(the earth), as well as all that are in Thy dominions, 
Ahura ! will protect this faith (Zoroastrian reli- 
gion) by means of the good (inborn) mind. 

1 1. The spirits (of the deceased) 2 are fighting against 
the wicked, evil-minded, evil-speaking, evil-doing, 
evil-thinking, disbelievers (in the true god, Ahura- 
mazda). Such men will go to hell ! 

Yas. 1. 6. Zarathushtra is the prophet who, through his 
wisdom 3 and truth, utters in words the sacred 
thoughts (mantras). Through his tongue he makes 
known to the world, the laws given by my * intel- 
lect, the mysteries hidden in my mind. 

' This verse refers to the Brahmanio pire upon the kingdom of light and 

Soma worship, which, as the cause of goodness, is frcuvashi, " guardian 

so much evil, was cursed by Zara- spirit," which name is, however, 

thnshtra. See the second section of never to be met with in the G^thas. 
the fourth Essay. ' Lit. " through rnazda " which 

^ In the original undnd, "souls." word is, now and then, used in the 

In the other books the common name appellative sense "wisdom." 
of the spirits of the deceased pious * The speaker in this verse, as well 

Zoroastrians, who are fighting against as in the whole soth chapter, is the 

the attacks made by the hellish em- geush urvd. 


10. All the luminaries with their bright appearances, 
all that is endowed with a radiant eye by the good 
mind, stars and the sun, the day's foreteller, wander 
(in their spheres) to Thy praise, righteous Ahura- 
mazda ! 
Yas. li. 6. Ahuramazda bestows, through His power, the 
best of all upon him who brings offerings to please 
Him ; but the worst of all will fall to the lot of him 
who does not worship God in the last time of the 
world (when the good is engaged in a hard struggle 
against the bad). 
7. Thou who hast created earth, water, and trees, 
give me immortality (Ameret§,t) and prosperity 
(Haurvat§,t), Mazda, most beneficent spirit ! Those 
everlasting powers I will praise with a good mind. 

15. Zarathushtra assigned in times of yore, as a re- 
ward to the Magavas 1 the Paradise where first of 
all Mazda Himself had gone! You (0 Amesha- 
spentas !) have in your hands through your good and 
true mind those two powers ^ (to obtain everlasting 

16. KavS, Visht^spa obtained, through the possession 
of the spiritual power {maga), and through the 
verses which the good mind had revealed, that 
knowledge which Ahuramazda Himself, as the cause 
of truth, has invented. 

17. Frash6shtra, the noble, wished to see my High- 
lands (herehhdha Tcehrpa, i.e., Bactria), to propagate 
there the good religion. May Ahuramazda bless 
this undertaking ! cry aloud that they may aspire 
after truth I 

18. The wise J^maspas, the noble, the illustrious, who 
have the good mind with truth, prefer the settled 

* This word is the original form of it seems to have denoted the earliest 
"Magi," which name was given in followers of Zarathushtra. 
later times to all the Persian priests. 2 These are Ameretdt,»Mii Haurva- 
Its form in the cuneiform inscriptions tdt, the last two of the seven arch- 
is magush. According to this verse angels in the Parslism of later times. 


life.l saying : Let me have it, because I cling to Thee, 
Ahuramazda ! 
Yas. liii. i. It is reported that Zarathushtra Spitama pos- 
sessed the best good ; for Ahuramazda granted him 
all that may be obtained by means of a sincere 
worship, for ever, all that promotes the good life, 
and he is giving the same to all those who keep 
the words, and perform the actions, enjoined by the 
good religion. 


The Yasna Jiajptavkaiti, or as its name indicates, the 
Yasi.d of seven H§,s (comprising the sections from Yas. 
XXXV. to xli.), though written in the G^tha dialect, is to be 
distinguished from the G&thas. It is undoubtedly very 
old, but there is no sufficient evidence to trace it to Zara- 
thushtra himself. Its contents are simple prayers, in 
prose, which are to be offered to Ahuramazda, the Amesha- 
spentas, and the Fravashis ; to the fire, as the symbol of 
Ahuramazda who appears in its blazing flame (Yas. xxxvL 
i) ; to the earth and other female spirits (called gencu, 
"wife," Qxeek, gyTd, see Yas. xxxviii. i), such as the angel 
presiding over food {tzhd, corresponding to ild, a name 
of the earth in the Veda), devotion, speech, &c. ; to the 
waters, to the animating spirit of creation, and to all beings 
of the good creation. Compared with the GIthas, they 
represent the Zoroastrian religion not in its original un- 
altered, but in a somewhat developed and altered state. - 
The high philosophical ideas which are laid down in Zara- 
thushtra's own hymns, are partially abandoned, and par- 
tially personified; and the philosophical, theological, and 

' This can be understood only, if tribes, who were inimical to this new 
one bears in mind, that the Zoro- mode of life, continued to lead the 
nstrian religion arose at the time of pastoral life of their ancestors. Agri- 
transition from pastoral life to agri- culture was considered as a religious 
culture. The kindred Brahmanical duty by the ancient Zoroastrians. 


moral doctrines have given way to the custom, which has 
lasted to the present time, of addressing prayers to all 
beings of a good nature, irrespective of their being mere 
abstract nouns (such as Asha, "rightfulness, truth," or 
FoA-iimawd, "good thought"), or real objects (such as 
waters, trees, or fire). The formula, with which here and in 
the later Yasna (for which the Yasna Kaptmhaiti has un- 
doubtedly furnished the model) the prayers begin, viz., 
yazamaidi, " we worship," is entirely strange to the GS-thas, 
as well as the invocation of waters, female spirits, &c. ; 
even the name Ameshaspenta (except in the heading of Yas. 
xxviii. I, see p. 147) as the general term for the highest 
angels, and the term Fravashi, which is so extremely fre- 
quent in the later Avesta literature, are never to be met 
with in those metrical compositions. 

Although the Tasna haptanhaiti is more recent than the 
Gathas, still it has just claims to be considered as more 
ancient and original than the sections of the later Yasna. 
A very striking proof, besides the difference of dialect, is 
that the objects of worship are much fewer than in the 
later prayers; thus, for instance, the six seasons, the five 
divisions of the day, the five Gathas, Zoroaster, the sacred 
twigs (Barsom), the sacred drink (Homa), &c., are never 
mentioned in the Yasna of seven chapters. It formed 
origiaally a separate book, and was very likely composed 
by one of the earliest successors of Zoroaster, as it stands 
intermediate between the GS.thas and the later Yasna, in 
point of style. 

The following are some extracts from it : — 
Yas. XXXV. I. We worship Ahuramazda the righteous 
master of righteousness. We worship the Amesha- 
spentas (the archangels), the possessors of good, the 
givers of good. We worship the whole creation of 
the righteous spirit, both the spiritual and earthly, 
all that supports (raises) the welfare of the good 
creation, and the spread of the good Mazdayasnian 


2. We praise all good thoughts, all good words, all 
good deeds, which are and will be (which are being 
done and which have been done),l and we likewise 
keep clean and pure all that is good. 

3. Ahuramazda, thou righteous happy being! we 
strive to think, to speak, and to do, only what of 
all actions may be best fitted to promote the two 
lives (that of the body and that of the soul). 

4. We beseech the spirit of earth by means of these 
best works (agriculture) to grant us beautiful and 
fertile fields, to the believer as well as to the un- 
believer, to him who has riches as well as to him 
who has no possession. 

Yas. xxxvii. i. Thus we worship Ahuramazda, who 
created the spirit of earth and righteousness, and 
who created the good waters and trees, and the 
luminaries, and the earth, and all good things. 

2. Him we worship by the first prayers which were 
made by the spirit of earth, because of his power 
and greatness and good works. 

3. We worship him in calling him by the Ahura 
names which were chosen by Mazda himself, and 
which are the most beneficent. We worship him 
with our bodies and souls. We worship him as 
(being united with) the spirits (Fravashis) of righte- 
ous men and women. 

4. We worship righteousness, the all-good (Ashem 
vahishtem), all that is very excellent, beneficent, 
immortal, illustrious, every thing that is good. 

Yasna xii. is written in the G§,tha dialect, and contains 
a formula, by which the ancient Iranians, who were weary 
of worshipping the Devas (Brahmanical gods) and of the 
nomadic life, were received into the new religious com- 
munity established by Zarathushtra Spitama. 

' The words veresyamnanamchd words, yadachd " (yet) now,'' and 
vdverezyamnandmchd are evidently aiiyodacAiJ, "not now,"t.c., eitherin 
only an exiilanntory note on the rare the future, or in the past. 


1. I cease to be a Deva (worshipper). I profess to be a 
Zoroastrian Mazdayasnian (worshipper of Ahiiramazda), an 
enemy of the Devas, and a devotee of Ahura, a praiser of 
the immortal benefactors (Ameshaspentas), a worshipper 
of the immortal benefactors. I ascribe all good things to 
Ahuramazda, who is good, and has good, who is righteous, 
brilliant, glorious, who is the originator of all the best 
things, of the spirit of nature (ffdush), of righteousness, of 
the luminaries, and the self-shining brightness which is in 
the luminaries. 

2. I choose (follow, profess) the beneficent Armaiti, the 
good ; may she be mine ! I abominate all fraud and in- 
jury committed on the spirit of earth, and all damage and 
destruction of the quarters of the Mazdayasnians. 

3. I allow the good spirits, who reside on this earth in 
the good animals (as cows, sheep, &c.), to go and roam 
about free according to their pleasure. I praise, besides, 
aU that is offered with prayer to promote the growth of 
life. I will cause neither damage nor destruction to the 
quarters of the Mazdayasnians, neither with my body nor 
my soul. 

4. I forsake the Devas, the wicked, bad, wrongful origi- 
nators of mischief, the most baneful, destructive, and basest 
of beings. I forsake the Devas and those like Devas, the 
sorcerers and those like sorcerers, and any beings whatever 
of such kinds. I forsake them with thoughts, words, and 
deeds ; I forsake them hereby publicly, and declare that 
all lie and falsehood is to be done away with. 

5. 6. In the same way as Zarathushtra, at the time 
when Ahuramazda was holding conversations and meet- 
ings with him, and both were conversing with each other, 
forsook the Devas, so do I forsake the Devas, as the righteous 
Zarathushtra did. 

7. Of what party the waters are, of what party the trees, 
and the animating spirit of nature ; of what party Ahura- 
mazda is, who has created this spirit and the righteous 
man; of what party Zarathushtra, and KavS, Vishtaspa, 


and FrashSshtra, and J§,m§,spa were ; of what party all the 
ancient fire-priests (S6shyant6), the righteous spreaders of 
truth, were — of the same party^ and creed (am I). 

8. I am a Mazdayasnian, a Zoroastrian Mazdayasnian. 
I profess this religion by praising and preferring it to 
others (the Deva religion). I praise the thought which 
is good, I praise the word which is good, I praise the work 
which is good. 

9. I praise the Mazdayasnian religion, and the righteous 
brotherhood which it establishes and defends against ene- 
mies, the Zoroastrian Ahuryan religion, which is the 
greatest, best, and most prosperous of all that are, and 
that will be. I ascribe all good to Ahuramazda. This 
shall be the praise (profession) of the Mazdayasnian 


This part of the Yasna, which is written in the common 
Avesta language, is of much less importance, as regards 
the history of the Zoroastrian religion, than the older 
Yasna. Its contents are, however, of various natures, and 
consist evidently either of fragments of other books, or of 
short independent writings. Thus, for instance, the chap- 
ters i.-viii. contain the preliminary prayers to the Ijashne 
ceremony (see p. 139) ; chapters ix.-xi. refer to the pre- 
paration and drinking of the Homa juice ; chapter Ivii. is 
a Yasht, or sacrificial prayer, addressed to the angel Srosh ; 
chapters xix.-xxi. are commentaries (Zend) on the most 
sacred prayers, YatM, alvfk, vairyd, Ashem vohu, and Y4nM 

Eefraining from giving a full account of it, we shall 
notice here only some remarkable passages, and translate 
a few extracts. 

In Yas. viii. 5-8 there is a short prayer, concluding 
with a benediction by the high-priest, the two last verses 

^ The word used is varana, varena, lit. "choice" (var, "to choose"); it 
is, then, applied to religion. 



of which are of particular interest. The high-priest, who 
calls himself Zarathushtra (see p. 188), addresses all the 
heads of the rarious divisions of the Iranian empire as 
follows : — 

7. I, who am Zarathushtra, exhort the heads^ of houses, 
vUlages, towns, and countries to think and speak and act 
accordiag to the good Zoroastrian Ahuryan religion. 

8. I hless the splendour and vigour of the whole rightful 
creation, and I curse 2 the distress and wretchedness of the 
whole wrongful creation. 

I. — H6ma Yasht. 

Chapters ix. and x., which compose the so-called Hdina 
Yasht, are, strictly speaking, no part of the Yasna, but 
belong to that extensive class of Avesta literature which 
is known by the name of Yashts, or sacrificial invocations 
of a special spiritual being, and which we shall describe 
hereafter. As to style, these two chapters contain no 
prose, but on close inquiry we find they consist of verses, 
and at the end (Yas. x. 19) they are even called gdthdo, 
" hymns." The metre itself is near the Sanskrit Anush- 
tubh (four times eight syllables, with the cesura in the 
middle of every half verse), which has given origin to the 
common Shlokas, but it is apparently often irregular. 
Each half verse consists of seven to nine syllables, the 
normal measure being limited to eight. 

To give the reader an idea of this ancient metre, the 
commencement of this Yasht is here subjoined: 3 — 

^ The word used is fratema (S. pro- => Tor blessing and cursing one and 

tkama] " first." It is one of the Per- the same word is used, dfrtndmt. 

sian words which are to be found in The same peculiarity is to be observed 

the Old Testament. Its form there in the old Hebrew word berek, to give 

is partemtm {tm is the Hebrew plural a blessing, and to curse. 

sufiix), by which the grandees of the ' ere is to be read as a single sylla- 

Persian empire are meant. In the ble, and the short c does not generally 

sense of " head, chief," the word ratu constitute a separate syllable, 
is more usual in the Avesta. 



Hdvanim d 
morning prayer at 

ratHm d 
time at 

dtarem pairi yaozkdathentem 
{who was) fire everywhere cleaning 



Zarathushtrd : 
Zarathushtra : 

vtspaM a^heush 
of the whole life 

having bodies 



ameshaM ! 


ashava d1lraosh6 : 
righteous death-removing : 


ashava dUraoshd ; 
righteous death-removing ; 

fi'd mam hunvanuha 
me squeeze out 

qareUS ; 
to taste (me) ; 



the other all 

Haomd updid Zarqthushtrem, 
Homa came to Zarathushtra 

gdthdoscha srdvaya&tem. 
and hymns singing. 

K6 nare ahi yim azem 

Who, man, art thou? whom I 

srahhtem ddda/resa qah6 

the best I have seen of his own 
Then to me 

Azem ahmi Zarathushtra I 
I am O Zarathushtra ! 

d mam ydsanuha Spitama I 

to me bring worship, Spitama ! 

OCT mdm staomaini stUidhi, 
on me in praising praise, 

saoskyantd stavan. 

fire-priests praised. 

m paiti-aokhta 
that one answered 

The word Homa, wMcli is identical with the Vedic word 
Soma, is used in two senses in the Zend-Avesta. First it 
means the twigs of a particular tree,l the juice of which is 
extracted and drunk before the fire ; secondly, they un- 
derstand by it a spirit who has poured his life and vigour 
into that particidar plant. There were many stories cur- 
rent in ancient times about the miraculous effects of the 
drinking of the Homa juice (a panacea for all diseases), 
which led to the belief, that the performance of this cere- 
mony (which is only the Soma worship of the Brahmans, 
very much reformed and refined) proves highly beneficial 
to body and soul. These stories were embodied in a hymn 
(preserved in Yas. ix.), which contains an enumeration of 
the miracles effected by Homa, composed in his honour. 

The following is a translation of the first part of this 
Yasht : — 

Yas. ix. I. In the forenoon (Havan Gah) Homa came 
to Zarathushtra, while he was cleaning around the fire,2 

^ The Dasturs obtain them from 
Persia in a dried state. For their 
preparation, see section I. 3, of the 
fourth Essay. 

2 Meaning, probably, that he was 
averting evil from the fire by feeding 
it around with fuel. 


and cHanting the G&thas. Zarathushtra asked him : Who 
art- thou, man ? 1 who appearest to me the finest in the 
whole material creation, having such a brilliant, immortal 
form of your own.2 

2. Thereupon answered me Homa the righteous, who 
expels death : I am, Zarathushtra ! Homa the righteous, 
who expels death. Address prayers to me, Spitama! 
and prepare me (the Hom juice) for tasting. Eepeat 
about me the two praise hymns,3 as all the other Sosh- 
yants repeated them. 

3. Then spake Zarathushtra: Eeverence to Homa! 
Who was the first who prepared thee, Homa ! for the 
material world ? What blessing was bestowed upon him ? 
What reward did he obtain ? 

4. Thereupon answered me Homa the righteous, who 
expels death : Vivanhi,o was the first man who prepared 
me for the material world; this blessing was bestowed 
upon him, this reward he obtained, that a son was born 
to him, Yima-khsha6ta (Jamshed) who had abundance of 
flocks, the most glorious of those born, the most sun-like 
of men; that he made, during his reign over her (the 
earth), men and cattle free from death, water and trees 
free from drought, and they were eating inexhaustible food 

5. During the happy reign of Yima there was neither 
cold nor heat, neither decay nor death, nor malice pro- 
duced by the demons ; father and son walked forth, each 
fifteen years old in appearance. 

1 Some MSS. of ihe Yasna with- has been translated) iato Pahlavi, 

out Pahlavi insert hero the phrase : the usijal langijiage of the present 

Mithrd zaydd Zarathushtrem, " may Zend. 

Mithra favour Zarathushtra." This " IM -phrase, amereza gaySM stUmt, 

is evidently an Avesta phrase for- " O imperishable pillar of life," coa- 

merly existing in the Pahlavi com- eludes the commentary on this sen- 

mentary, but now translated into tence, and is another fragment of the 

Mitrdk kk4po aito Zarat'SiShtar, and original Zend. 

the commentary implies that this was ^ Beading staomaini, instead of 

a friendly salutation proffered by staomainS. The two hymns may ba 

Homa on bis arrival. Here we have the two chapters of this Tasht (Yas. 

a distinct trace of a commentary, or ix. and x.), or the two Homa rituals 

Zend, in the Ayesta language, which (Yas. xi. and xii. to xxvii.). ' 



6. Who was the second man who prepared thee, 
Homa ! for the material world ? What blessing was be- 
stowed upon him ? What reward did he obtain ? 

7. Thereupon answered me Homa the righteous, who 
expels death : Athwya was the second man who prepared 
me for the material world; this blessing was bestowed 
!upon him, this reward he obtained, that a son was born 
to him, ThraStona (Fr^dun) of the hero tribe,l (8.) who 
smote the Serpent (Azhi) Dahlka which had three mouths, 
three heads, six eyes, a thousand spies,^ which was of 
enormous strength, a fiendish destroyer, an evil, a devas- 
tator of the Gaethas 3 (settlements), a nuisance which was 
a destroyer of most enormous strength, and (which) Angro- 
mainyush produced in the material world for the destruc- 
tion of the settlements of righteousness.* 

9. Who iraa the third man who prepared thee, Homa! 
for the material world ? What blessing was bestowed upon 
him ? What reward did he obtain ? 

10. Thereupon answered me Homa the righteous, who 
expels death : Thrita the most useful (of the family) of 
the S§,mas was the thitd man who prepared me for the 
material world; this blessing was bestowed upon him, 
this reward he obtained, that two sons were born to him, 
Urv§,khshaya and Keres^spa; the one was a judge ad- 
ministeriag justice, the other a youthful hero who wore 
a sidelocks and carried a club, (11.) who slew the serpent 
Srvara6 which devoured horses and men, which was 

^ This is the literal translation of ' Eeading gaSthd-vayd, in accord- 
do "which may, however, be ance "with several old MSS. 

the name of a locality. The Pahlavi * The Pahlavi commentary contains 
translation is o/iiir-rfs, " of a village the imjjerfect Avesta phrase: k6 
of resources ; " and it explains afzdr- thwam yim Ahurem mazddm, " who 
visth by "his house became numer- (worshipped) thee who art Ahura- 
ons from the continued residence of mazda?" probably, 
his forefathers, and was retained by ^ The Pahlavi translates gaisush 
the oppression of Dah^k ; and his by gisvar = Pers. gis-har, " ringlet- 
authority was .that he preserved the wearing." Compare the epithet 
relatives who had disappeared." kapardin, "wearing braided hair," 
" In Pahlavi hazdi- vajdstdr add^- applied to the Vasishthas, Bigveda, 
ah) pavan gdharako, " a thousand vii. 83, 8. 
Inquirers unjust in disposition:" ^ Pronounced Sriiara. 


poisonous and yellow, over whicli yellow poison flowed 
a hand's-breadth higli.l On which Keres§,spa cooked 
a beverage in a caldron at the mid-day hour, and the 
serpent scorched, hissed, sprang forth, away from the 
caldron, and upset the boiling water ; KeresS,spa Narema- 
n§,o fled aside frightened. 

12. Who was the fourth man who prepared thee, 
Homa ! for the material world ? What blessing was be- 
stowed upon him ? What reward did he obtain ? 

13. Thereupon answered me Homa the righteous; who 
expels death : Pourushaspa was the fourth man who pre- 
pared me for the material world; this blessing was be- 
stowed upon him, this reward he obtained, that thou wast 
born to him, thou righteous Zarathushtra ! of the house 
of Pourushaspa, (who art) opposed to the demons, and of 
the Ahura religion. (14.) Famous in Airyana-vaej& thouj 
Zarathushtra! first recitedst the Ahuna-vairya four- 
times, with pauses between the verses,^ each successive 
time with a louder recitation.3 (15.) Thou madest aU the 
demons hide themselves beneath the earth, who formerly 
flew about the earth in human shape, Zarathushtra! 
who wert the strongest, firmest, most active, swiftest, and 
most triumphant of the creatures of the two spirits (Spento- 
mainyush and AngrS-mainyush). 

16. Then spake Zarathushtra: Eeverence to Homa! 
good is Homa, well-created is Homa, rightly createdj of a 
good nature, healing, well-shaped, well-performing, suc- 
cessful, golden-coloured, with hanging tendrilSi* as the 

1 The PaMavi says, " as high as a literally taking asunder the yerses. 
horse ; " it also quotes the following The Ahuna-vairya formula consists 
Avesta phrase : IchshvaSiiiaya vainaiti of three such padas, lines, or verses. 
barenush, " the angry one (?) strikes ^ This practice of gradually raising 
by darting.'' the voice with each successive reoita- 

2 The epithet vi-ierethwantem, is tion, is also observed in the Hotri 
from the root bar — Sans. bhp, = hri, ritual of the Brahmans. 

" to take." In the Brahmanical ^ The Pahlavi translation has narm- 

ritual viharati (originally vibharati) tdk, " with soft tendrils ; " but nam- 

ia a technical term for pausing after ydsush must be traced to the root 

each pada, while reciting verses, nara, " to bend downwards. '' 


best for eating and the most lasting provision for the 

17. O yellow (Homa)! I keep in thee by my word 2 
(thy power of giving) knowledge, strength, victory, health, 
healing, advancement, growth, vigour to the whole body, 
understanding of subjects of every kind. I keep in (thee 
by my word) that (power) that I might wander freely in 
the world, putting an end to troubles (and) annihilating 
the destructive powers (of the enemies of the good 
creation). (18.) I keep in (thee by my word) that (power) 
that I might put down the troubles caused by those whose 
very nature is to give troubles, such as the demons and 
(bad) men, the soicere^s aad witches, the oppressors, 
wizards, and idol-priests, the criminals with two. legs, the 
apostates with two l^s, the wolves with four legs, of the 
army with a wide front, shouting and flying (in the air).3 

ig, On this, first walk* I ask from thee, Homa! who 
expeUest death, the best life (paradise) of the righteous, 
the splendjid, the aU-jadiant with its own briUianey. On 
this second walk I ask from thee, Homa \ who expeUest 
death, the health of this body. On this third walk I ask 
fijom thee, ^oma, ! who expeUest death,, the long life of 
the soul. 

1 The term pdihmainya means "re- the Yeda, s-weeping throu^ the air, 
maining on the way," hence provi- wh'< are all represented as shouting 
sions for a journey. and making a noise. 

^ TJhe words ni mrny&, "I cal} * That the word ydnem has here 

down," are here used technically in its primitive Meaning of " walk" 

the sense of binding by calling to- {itoiayd, "to go") is clear from the 

gether, so. that none of the powers practice of the Parsi priests who, 

may be dissipated.. In the Erahmani- during the Homa ceremony, walk 

cal Soma ritual this is done by reeit- about six times round the sacred fire 

ing eight mantras before the juice is with the Hem, and each time a dis- 

extraeted from the Soma twigs. tinct blessing seems to be asked for. 

2 The term davaithydo must be Nearly the same ceremony is per- 
traced to the root du, "to talk (as formed by the Brahmans, when they 
an evil being)," and is very appro- put the Soma twigs on a cart, and 
priate to this flying host of evils carry them round the sacrificial area 
which is analogous to the band of in the six directions: east, west, 
Odhin among the Scandinavians, the south, north, up, and down (accord- 
Wodan's heer of the ancient Ger- ing to an ancient Aryan division), 
mans, and the host of Marutas of ' 


20. On this fourtli walk I ask from thee, Homa ! who 
expellest death, that I may stand forth at will, powerful 
(and) successful upon the earth, putting down troubles 
(and) annihilating the destructive powers. On this fifth 
walk I ask from thee, Homa ! who expellest death, that 
I may stand forth as victor (and) conqueror ia hattle upon 
the earth, putting down troubles (and) annihilating the 
destructive powers. 

21. On this sixth walk I ask from thee, O Homa ! who 
expellest death, that we may first become aware of a 
thief, murderer, (or) wolf; may no one else become aware 
(of him) sooner! may we become aware of everything 
first ! 

22. Homa grants strength and vigour to those who 
mounted on white horses, ^yish to run over a race-course.^ 
Homa gives splendid sons and righteous progeny to those 
who have not borne children.2 Homa grants fame and 
learning to all those who are engaged in the study of 

23. Homa grants a good and rich husband to those who 
have long been maidens, as soon as he (Homa), the wise, 
is entreated. 

^ Xh.« verb takhsheStti is % deiddera- ing. It has been probably borrowed 
tive form of the root tach, " to run ; " by Arabic, in the forms nuskkat, " a 
erendum is explained as "a horse" copy" (pi. nusakh), and naskhi, the 

by the Pahlavi translator, but this name of Arabic writing ; for these 

can be merely a gwess ; it mast be words can have no real connection 

traced to the root or = Sans, ri, "to with the Arabic root nasakha, "he 

move, go, instigate," and is here obliterated, abrogated." The appli- 

taken as *' a race-course." cation of a general term for " book " 

^ So the Pahlavi translator under- to sacred writings in particular, is 

stands the word d^zanditibish, but common to many religions ; thus the 

in that case the prefix d must be mis- Brahmans use the word grantha, 

written for the privative a. which denotes any literary composi- 

' This is the only occurrence, in tion, for the Vedic writings, and in 

the extant Avesta, of the word naskd Mah&rdish^ra the compound dasJia- 

whioh is applied, in later writings, grantM, "one who knows the ten 

to the twenty-one books, or divisions, Granthas by heart," refers solely to 

of the Zoroastrian writings ; here, the Vedio writings, for the ten Gran- 

however, it is probably used in the thas are the Saflhit4, Pada, Brah- 

general sense of "book," and even manam, Arana (always used there 

nowadays Parai writers sometimes for Aranyaka by the Brahmans), and 

apply the term to any Avesta writ- the six Tedlnga*. 



24. Homa deposed Keres§,nii from his sovereignty, wliose 
lust of power had so increased that he said : No §,thrava's 
(fiie-priest's) repetition of the wpam aiudshtish 2 (" approach 
of the waters ") shall he tolerated in my empire, to make 
it prosper ; (and) he would annihilate aU that are prosperous, 
(and) put down all that are prosperous by destroying them. 

25. Hail to thee who art of absolute authority through 
thy own strength, Homa ! hail to thee ! thou knowest 
many sayings rightly spoken. Hail to thee I thou askest 
for no saying but one rightly spoken, 

26. Mazda brought to thee the star-studded, sphit- 
fashioned girdle (the belt of Orion) leading the ^Paurvas^ 
[(PS,zand) the good Mazdayasnian religion]; then thou 
art begirt with it, (when growing) on the summit of the 
mountains, to make lasting the words and long accents* of 
the sacred text (mathra). 

1 It is evident, from the content, 
that Keresani ia the name of some 
enemy of the Athraya religion, and 
there can be little doubt that he is 
the Krishfl,n\i pf the Vedic bopks, 
who appears ^s the guardian of the 
Soma in heaven (Aitareya Br^hm. iii. 
26) ; he ia Represented as an archer 
(Rigveda ix. 77, 2 ; x. 64, 8 ; iv. 27, 3), 
and identified with fire (Vftjasaneyi 
safihita v. 32, Sh^nkh&yana shrauta- 
sutraa vi, 12, Baghuvailsha ii. 49). 
As a personage KpshS,nu appears to 
represent " lightning," and perhaps a 
particular kind of it. 

2 These words are evidently a 
technical name for the Atharva-veda 
SafShita which commences, in some 
manuscripts, with the mantra : sliari 
no devirhhishtaya dpo bhavantu vUaye, 
in which both words occur; thia 
mantra is omitted at the commence- 
ment of the printed edition, but is 
given in i. 6, j, where it also occurs 
again in the manuscripts alluded to. 
That the Atharva-veda actually com- 
menced with these words about 2000 
years ago, is clearly shown by Patan- 
jali's quotation of the initial words of 

the four Vedas, in his introduction 
to the MahSibhtohya, where the 
words : shan no devtrbhithtaye re- 
present the Atharva-veda. 

' In the word Paurva we readily 
recognise the Persian name of the 
Pleiades, which ia variously written 
parll, parvah, parvtn, and paniz; 
this parvU is given as the name of 
the third and fourth lunar mansions 
in the Bundahish (p. 6, Westerg.), 
corresponding to the Indian Naksha- 
tras krittikd (Pleiades) and rohmt 
(Aldebaran and Hyades); the fifth 
Nakshatra is mj-igashiras (in the 
head of Orion), over which Soma 
( = Homa) is presiding deity (Tait- 
tiriya Brslhmanam iii. i, i:, 3) ; hencel 
the constellation Orion is in advance 
of the Paurvas on the moon's path, 
and the epithet " leading the Paur- 
vas" is appropriate for Orion's belt. 
The idea of Homa being begirt with 
Orion's belt, implies that the Homa 
plant was supposed to be specially 
under the sideral influence of the con- 
stellation Orion. 

* The term aiwidhdUi must bd 
equivalent to Sana. abhUMnOi 


27, Homa ! (thou) lord of tlie house, lord of the clan, 
lord of the tribe, lord of the country, (thou) successful 
physician !l I further invoke thee for strength and pro- 
sperity for my body, and for the attainment of much 
pleasure.2 (28.) Keep far from us the vexations of (our) 
enemies ! divert the mind of (our) abusers ! Whatsoever 
man in this house, in this clan, in this tribe, in this 
country, may injure (us), take strength from his feet! 
darken his intellect ! disorder his mind ! 

29. May he be paralysed in the feet! may he be 
palsied in the hands! 3 may he not see the earth with 
(his) eyes ! may he not see nature with (his) eyes ! who 
injures our mind, or injures our body. 

30. Strike a deadly blow, yeUow Homa! at the 
yellow blackish * serpent, emitting poison for destroying 
the body of the righteous man.5 Strike a deadly blow, 
yellow Homa ! at the murderer who has wrought mis- 
chief, who angrily inflicts wounds for destroying the body 
of the righteous man. 

31. Strike a deadly blow, yellow Homa! at the im- 
pious tyrant in human form, who has a darting at the 
heads for destroying the body of the righteous man. Strike 

"name, appellation, word;" and he not be able to work with the 

the reading gar&shcha, (preferable hands ! " 

to graHshcha) gives garu, which re- * Sima is here taken as equivalent 

presents Sans, guru, " a long vowel," to Sans, ahydma, " dark-coloured," 

a very noticeable feature of ' the from the root shyai, some derivatives 

G^thas. of which change shyd into shi. 

1 Literally, "master of physicians * The construction AeArpcm TtiJsAcm- 
(or doctor of medicine) through ndi ashaonS is literally "for the 
beneficence;" vaidhyd here must righteous being made to lose (his) 
be equivalent to Sans, vaidya, "a. hody;" compaie drishevishvdi/a s4r- 
physicia,n," or vaidyd, " a drug." yam, " that all should see the sun" 

2 Thrima must be traced to the (Kigveda, i. 50, i); kehrpem is not 
root tar = Sans, t^i, "to pass over, governed by pffiiW, hvAhjndshemndi, 
attain ; " and haokhshnahS is to be and is to be regarded as the aconsa- 
taken in the same sense as laosh- tive of the object which retains its 
ndoscha in Tt. iv. i, i.e., "pleasure, original case when the active con- 
enjoyment," compare Sans. Ihuj, " to struction is changed to a passive one. 
enjoy." * This appears to be an allusion to 

3 More literally, " May he not be Zohak and his troublesome serpents. 
able to progress with the feet ! may 


a deadly blow, yellow Homa ! at the body of the dis- 
turber of righteousness, the impious, who destroys the life 
of this (Zoroastrian) religion, by proposing thoughts and 
words, but not carrying them into action, for destroying 
the body of the righteous man. 

. 32. Strike a! deadly blow, yellow Homa ! at the body 
of the bewitching courtezan who causes madness, who 
acts as procuress, whose mind is unstable as a cloud 
driven by the wind, for destroying the body of the right- 
eous inan. Strike a deadly blow, yellow Homa! at 
whatever serves for destroying the body of the righteous 
man. . 

Yas. X. I. Let the water-drops fall here for the destruc- 
tion of the Devas and Devis. May the good Sraosha slay 
(them) ! May Ashi-vanuhi (the spirit of fortune) take up 
her abode here ! May Ashi-vanuhi grant happiness here, 
in this sacred abode of Homa, the transmitter of right- 

2. I accompany thy preparation, at the beginning each 
time, with words of praise, intelligent ! when he (the 
managing priest) takes thy twigs. I accompany thy pre- 
paration, in each successive act by which thou art killed 
through the strength of a man, with words of praise, 
inteUigent ! 

3. I praise the cloud and the rain which make thy 
body grow on the summit of the mountains. I praise the 
high mountains where thou hast grown, Homa ! 

4. I praise the earth, the wide-stretched, the passable, 
the large, the unbounded, thy mother, righteous Homa ! 
I praise the earth that thou mayest grow, spreading fast 
(thy) fragrance, as thou growest on the mountain, 
Homa! with the good Mazdian growth; and that thou 
mayest thrive on the path of the birds (i.e., on high), and 
be, in fact, the source of righteousness. 

5. Grow I through my word, iu all stems, in all branches, 
and in all twigs. 

6. Homa grows when being praised. So the man who 


praises him becomes more triumphant. The least extrac- 
tion of Hoii.- juice, the least praise, the least tasting (of 
it), Homa ! is (sufficient) for destroying a thousand of 
the Devas. 

f. The defects produced (by the evil spirit) vanish from 
that house, as soon as one brings, as soon as one praises, 
the healing Homa's evident -vvholesomeness, healing power, 
and residence in that village. 

8. For all other liquors are followed by evil effects,! tut 
this which is the liquor of Homa is followed by elevating 
tighteousness,2 (when) the liquor of Homa (is in him who) 
is grieved.3 Whatever man shall flatter Homa, as a young 
son, Homa comes to the aid of him and his children, to be 
(their) medicine. 

9. Homa ! give me (some) of the healing powers where- 
by thou art a physician. Homa ! give me (some) of the 
victorious powers whereby thou art a victor. &c. 

From th^ contents of this Hoina Yasht one may clearly 
see, that the Homa worship was not instituted by Zara- 
thushtra, but was known at a much earlier period. Zara- 
thushtra is only said to have adopted it. But in the 
second division of the fourth Essay, we shall see that he 
was fighting against tJie Brahmanical Soma worship and 
trying to overthow it. 

i. — Yasna xix. 

This chapter, written in prose, is a kind of theological 
commentary on the most sacred formula, Ahvma-vairya 
(Honovar). The following is a translation of this 
chapter :— 

I, 2. Zarathushtra asked Ahuramazda: Ahuramazda! 
most munificent spirit, creator of the settlements supplied 
with creatures, righteous one ! Which was the word, 
Ahuramazda ! that thou spakest unto me, (which was) before 

'Literally, "by the cruel A^sh- 'Or perhaps, " the liquor of Homa 
ma " CWrath, one of the demons). exhilarates." 

' Literally, "by Asha who is carry- 
ing up." 


the heavens, before the water, before the earth, before the 
animals, before the trees, before the fire, son of Ahura- 
mazda, before the righteous man, before the demons and 
savage men (cannibals), before the whole material world, 
before all good things created by Mazda, that are of right- 
ful origin ? 

3, 4. Then said Ahuramazda : This was the parts of the 
Ahuna-vairya, Spitama Zarathushtra ! which I spake 
unto thee, (which was) before the heavens, before the 
water, &c. (as before). 

5. These my parts of the Ahuna-vairya, when recited 
without mistake (and) without mispronunciation, are 
equal, Spitama Zarathushtra ! to a hundred of the other 
principal stanzas (G^thas), recited without mistake (and) 
without mispronunciation. Even recited with mistakes 
(and) mispronunciation (they are) equal to ten other 

6. And whoever, in this my world supplied with crea- 
tures, Spitama Zarathushtra! shall recall (mentally) 
one part of the Ahuna-vairya, or in the course of recaUing 
shall mutter it, or in the course of muttering shall chant 
it, or in the course of chanting prays to it,^ his soul will 
I, who am Ahuramazda, carry aU three times over the 
bridge to paradise ( VahisMem ahiUbm, " the best life," BahisM 
in Pers.), [(P^zand), to the best life, to the best righteous- 
ness, to the best luminaries.] 

7. And whoever in this my world supplied with crea- 
tures, Spitama Zarathushtra ! takes off in muttering a 
part of the Ahuna-vairya, either a half, or a third, or a 
fourth, or a fifth of it, his soul will I, who am Ahura- 
mazda, separate from paradise, to such a distance in width 
aad breadth as the earth is, [(P^zand) and the earth has 
the same width as breadth]. 

8. And I spake for myself this saying, about the heavenly 

^ Here the different ways of recital hymn, being considered a being) with 

are mentioned ; see p. 143. After the formula : Tazamaid^ (we wor- 

chanting, or reciting, sacred verses ship, pray to) Ahunem vairim (the 

one prays to them (the verse, or Ahan>j.-vairya formulaj. 

VA'SNA XIX. 187 

lord {ahv), and earthly master {ratu), before the creation 
of the heavens, before the water, before the earth, before 
the trees, before the creation of the four-footed animals, 
before the birth of the righteous biped man, before the 
sun-composed matter for the creation of the archangels 

9. The more beneficent of my two Spirits ^ has produced, 
by speaking it, the whole rightful creation, which is, and 
was, and will be, through the operation of the actions of 
life towards Mazda.2 

10. And this is the highest saying of those sayings 
which I have spoken, and do speak, and (which) are to be 
spoken ; for the nature of this saying is such that if the 
whole material world had learned it, being preserved by 
reciting it, it would escape liability to destruction. 

1 1. And this our saying I proclaimed, and repeated, and 
counted (the repetitions), as it is for every being for the 
sake of the righteousness which is best. 

12. As he (who recites it) has here said that he has 
appointed it as heavenly lord (ahv) and earthly master 
{ratu), so he recognises him who is Ahuramazda as prior 
to the creatures, the first being the Mind. As he acknow- 
ledges it as the greatest of all things, so he acknowledges 
the creatures are (due) to it. 

13. That the good beings are (works) of Mazda he 
shows by reciting the third phrase (beginning with) van- 
heush (" of the good "). (With the words) dazdd mananhd 
(" the giver of mind ") he acknowledges it (the Ahuna- 
vairya) from the first as the Mind. As (the word) man- 
anhd thus makes it the producer for the Mind, he then 
makes it the heavenly lord of actions {shhyaothnanam 

14. As he acknowledges it for the creatures through 

» The two spirits nnited in Ahura- = These words (shkyaothnanam an- 

mazda, as the one God, are spe»e3 heush Mazddi) are quoted from the 

mainyush, "the beneficent spirit," second line of the Ahuna-vairya for- 

and anrS mainyush, "the hurtful mula, and are again referred to la 

spirit." verses 13, 14. 

i88 .YASNA XIX. 

Mazda, so (lie does) this, that the eteatures are his. (The 
phrase) hhshathrem Ahtirdi (" the dominion is for Ahura ") 
acknowledges it as thy dominion, Mazda ! (The phrase) 
dregubyd vdstdrem ("protector for the poor") acknow- 
ledges, as a friend to Spitama, the five phrases, the 
whole recital of the saying, the complete saying of 

15. The most excellent Ahnramazda proclaimed the 
Ahuna-vairya ; the Most-excellent, the Eternal, caused it to 
be repeated (after him). Owing to a pause Evil origiaated, 
but he restrained the Wicked One with this interdict: 
Neither our thoughts, nor sayings, nor intellects, nor creeds, 
nor words, nor deeds, nor creative ideas, nor souls, agree. 

16. And this saying, uttered by Mslida, has three verses 
(lines), the four classes, the fiv8 Chiefs, (tod) a 'conclusion 
with liberality.i How (Arose) its verses ? (through the 
words) well-thought, well-spoken, Well-done.'S 

17. Through what classes? the priest, warrior, agri- 
culturist, (and) artizan, throttgh the whole duty pertaining 
to the righteous man, to think rightly, to speak rightly, to 
act rightly, to appoint a spiritiial giUde, (and) to fulfil 
religious duties, through '^hich wolrks the earthly settle- 
ments advance in righteousness. 

18. Which are the chiefs ? '('^^hoge) of the house, of the 
village, of the tribe, of the proviliee, (and) Zarathushtra as 
the fifth in those countries which are distinct from the 
Zarathushtrian Eagha.* The Zarathushtrian Ragha has 

' This IS an fiUusion to the words seems to haVe been used, as we find 

d/regubyd vdstdrem, '* protectorfor the traces of more than one form of the 

poor," in the last phrase of the name in Greek writings. That one 

Ahuna-vairya, which evidently Imply form should he used here, and the 

liberality. other in the next phrase, is owing, no 

2 These words, humatem, hHkhtem doubt, to the next phrase being a 

hvarshtem, contain the fundamental later addition to the text. It is also 

principles of Zoroastrian morality, possible that the regular ablative of 

and are repeated habitually on many Ragha, which would be Baghiydd or 

occasions. Baghayad, might become Bajdid by 

' The word Bajdi^ is the ablative the change of ayaintoa^, S, 6i, which 

of a crude form Raji, a softer form change would probably occasion the 

of Baghi, which variant of Bagha softening of gh inioj. 

VASNA LVn. 189 

iour chiefs. Which are its chiefs ? (Those) of the house, 
of the village, of the tribe, (and) Zarathushtra as the 

19. What is "weU-thought"? The righteous original 
Mind. What is " well-spoken" ? The munificent Word. 
What is " well-done " ? (That done) by the praising crea- 
tures, first in righteousness. 

20. Mazda proclaimed. What did he proclaim ? The 
righteous (Ahuna-vairya) both spiritual and earthly. What 
was he who proclaimed the recital (of the Ahuna-vairya) ? 
The best ruler. As what (did he proclaim it) ? As true 
perfection, but not despotic authority [i.t., subject to the 

3. — Yasna Ivii. 

This chapter is devoted to the praise of the angel 
Sraosha (Srosh), and is, therefore, called the Srosh Yasht. 
He is the personification of the whole divine worship of 
the Parsis. This Yasht is to be recited at the commence- 
ment of the night-time. 

2. We worship (the angel) Srosh, the righteous, the beau- 
tiful, the victorious, who protects our temtories, the true, 
the master of truth, who of Ahuramazda's creatures first 
worshipped Ahuramazda by means of arranging the 
sacred twigs (Barsom), who worshipped the Ameshaspen- 
tas (the archangels), who worshipped the two masters, the 
two creators l {thworeshtdra) who create all things. 

3. Tor his splendour and glory, for his power and 
victory, for his praying to the angels (in our behalf), I wiU 
worship him with an audible prayer and with the offering 
of consecrated water (zaothra). May he come to help us, 
he, the victorious, righteous Srosh ! 

6. He who first arranged the bundle of sacred twigs 
(Barsom), that with three, that with five, that with seven, 
and that with nine stalks, those which were as long as to 

1 These are the two spiritsi spentd-mainyusfi and angrd-rmmyush, men- 
tioned in the note to Yas. xix. 9. 


go up to the knees, and those which went as far as the 
middle of the breast, (he arranged them) to worship, to 
praise, to satisfy, and to extol the archangels. 

8. He who first sang the five G^thas of the righteous 
Spitama Zarathushtra according to their stanzas and 
their sentences, distinguishing their high and low tones. 

10. He who wounds after sunset with his drawn sword 
the cruel demon Aeshemo (i.e., attack, rapine). 

15-18. He who slays the demon of destruction (cZct;^ 
clrukhsh), who prevents the growth of nature, and murders 
its life. He who is the guardian and protector of the whole 
world here below.i He who, never slumbering, preserves 
by vigilance the creatures of Mazda. He who, never slum- 
bering, protects by vigilance the creatures of Mazda. He 
who guards, with his sword drawn, the whole world sup- 
plied with creatures after sunset. He who never enjoyed 
sleep since the two spirits, the beneficent and the 
hurtful, created (the world) ; he is watching the territories 
of the good creation and fighting, day and night, against" 
the Devas (demons) of Mazenderan.2 He is never 
frightened nor runs away when struggling with the 
demons ; but all the demons must flee from him and hide 
themselves in darkness. 

21. He who has a palace with a thousand pillars erected 
on the highest summit of the mountain Alborz.3 It has 
its own light from inside, and from outside it is decorated 
with stars. He whose victorious sword is the Ahuna- 
vairya formula, the Yasna of seven chapters (see p. 170), 
the victorious Tshusha-prayer (Yas. Iviii.), and all the 
sections of the Yasna. 

24. He who walks, teaching the religion, round about 

1 In the original /rai'^isA (seethe Mazanian Devas, several times alluded 
same in Yt. x. 103), which has the to in the Zend-Avesta, are evidently- 
same origin as the modern Persian the Divs of Mazenderan, so well 
farH, farHd, "down, downwards." known to the readers of the Sh&h- 
The Pahlavi translators (who have nS,mah, 

frdj, "forth, forwards") misunder- ^ In the Avesta, har6 berezaiti " the 

stood this rare word. high mountain," 

" In the original mtizanya. These 


the world. Ahuramazda, Yohu-manS, Ashem-vahislitem, 
Khshathra-vairya, Spenta4rmaiti, Haurvatat, Ameretat/ 
the Ahuryan question, and the Ahuryan creed {i.e., theii- 
respective angels) believed in this religion. 

25. Protect our two lives, that of the body and that 
of the soul, Srosh ! against death, against the attacks 
of evil spirits. &c. 


The name Visparad (A v. vispi ratavd) means " all 
chiefs, or heads." By this name a collection of prayers, 
composed of twenty-three chapters, is understood. They 
are written in the usual Avesta language, and bear a great 
resemblance, as regards their contents, to the first part of 
the later Yasna (chap, i.-xxvii.). They refer to the same 
ceremony, as does that part of the Yasna, viz., to the pre- 
paration of the sacred water, and the consecration of cer- 
tain offerings, such as the sacred bread, the twigs of Homa, 
with a twig of the pomegranate - tree, and the juice 
obtained from them (called Parahoma), fruits, butter, 
hair, fresh milk, and flesh, which are carried round about 
the sacred fire, and after having been shown to it, are 
eaten by the priest, or by the man, in whose favour the 
ceremony is performed. These offerings, which are 
nothing but a remnant of the ancient Aryan sacrifices, 
so carefully preserved to this day by the Brahmans (see 
the fourth Essay), represent a meal, given to all the heads 
or chiefs (called ratus) of both the visible and invisible 
world, who are aU severally invoked. In the first chapter 
of the Yasna, there are a good many more enumerated 
than in the first chapter of the Visparad. In the Yasna 
the enumeration of " the heads " begins with Ahuramazda 
and the archangels, while in the Visparad the invitation ^ 

1 The six names after that of Ahu- (I prepare a meal and invite to it), 
ramazda are those of the archangels. With nimSdhaySmi compare the nai- 

2 The formula is nivaSdhaySmi hafi- ■vedya of the Brahmans, i.e., the food 
i«ra2(^mi, "linvite and prepare for" given to the gods. The Brahmans 


commences with the heads of the spiritual (maim/ava) 
and terrestrial (gaethya) worm, the chiefs of all that is in 
the water, in the sky, born out of eggs, of what is walking 
on its face (quadrupeds), and of water crabs.l In this 
rough division of created living beings (of the good crea- 
tion only) the whole animal kingdom is comprised. The 
primary type of each class is its respective ratu or chief. 
After the chiefs of the animals, the six chiefs of the year, 
or the six seasons,2 are enumerated, which are now called 
Gahanbars. These are believed to have been instituted 
by Ahuramazda in commemoration of the six periods, 
during which, according to the Zoroastrian doctrine, the 
world was created, and they are strictly observed by the 
Parsis to this day. The names of these six seasons are : — 
I, Maidhyd-zaremya (now 3d November); z, Maidhyd- 
shema (now 2d January); 3, Paitish-hahya (now i8th 
March); 4, Aydthrema (now 17th April); 5, Maidhydirya 
(now 6th July); 6, HaTimsjpathmaidaya (now 19th Sep- 
tember), the season at which great expiatory sacrifices 
were offered for the growth of the whole creation 3 in the 
two last months of the year.* 

After the six seasons, the chiefs of all the sacred prayers 

begin all their ceremonies with the epithet a?'ci(!-te'eJAajwi," killer of ene- 

words, aham karishye, "I shall per- mies," by which animals of the bad 

form a ceremony." creation, as frogs, lizards, serpents, 

' Char^ranhdch, " who follow (the are to be nnderstood. In the Bun- 
species) chat/,ra," Pers. changra, " a dahish this season is said to be about 
crab." That crabs are creatures of the vernal equinox, while Maidhy- 
Ahuramazda, is reported by Plu- ^irya is made to correspond with mid- 
tarch ; see p. lo. winter, and Maidhy6-shema with 

2 The ancient name for "season" midsummer; but since the disuse of 

was the word ratu itself, which is intercalary months, the season-festi- 

preserved in the corresponding San- vals have receded to the dates given 

skrit ritu (the six seasons, as repre- in the text according to the Indian 

sentatives of the Creator Prajftpati or Parsi reckoning, or thirty days further 

Brahma, are often mentioned in the back according to the Persian Parsis. 
Tedio writings). But after the em- * In the first period heaven was 

ployment of this word in a mora created, in the second the waters, in 

general sense, ydre was used for the third the earth, in the fourth the 

" season," being evidently identical trees, in the fifth the animals, and in 

with "year.'' the sixth man. 

^ This the name implies, and also its 


(which are believed to be angels), including more especially 
the G^thas, are invited, together with the female spirits 
(^hena), " who give abundance of all things, and especially 
posterity ; " also Ardvi Sura Anahita (the heavenly water, 
see the Ab^n Yasht), the mountains, the angels Behram, 
Mithra, E^ma-qlstar (presiding over food), the ruler of the 
country, the Zarathushtrotema (supreme highpriest or 
Dastur-i-Dastiir§,n), &c. 

After this general invitation of the spirits of all orders 
to come to the meal prepared for them, the water and Bar- 
som (sacred twigs) are presented to them as a welcome 
(chap. ii.). Several other invocations follow (chap. iii.). The 
chief priest, who superintends the whole ceremony, the 
Zaota (called Hota in the Vedas), orders his subordinate 
priest Bathtvi (now Baspi^ AdJivavyu in the Vedas) to sum- 
mon the different orders of priests, the representatives of 
the three castes (priests, warjiors, cultivators)^ the heads of 
houses, villages^ towns, and districts, the ladies of houses, 
other respectable women, &c. Very likely all chiefs of the 
Iranian society of a whole district were, if possible, obliged 
to be present at the time of the celebration of the Gahan- 
b^rs, for which the Visparad seems to be particularly in- 
tended, and on which occasions it must be used even now. 

This whole assembly then praises all good things (chap, 
iv.), after which the chief priest (Zaota) says, that he 
is the praiser and worshipper of Ahuraniazda and the 
archangels, and that he is worshipping them with words 
and ceremonies (chap, v., vi.). Then the member^ of the 
congregation invoke several spirits, as Sra,osha, Mithra, &c. 
(chap. vii.). 

After these introductory prayers, the principal parts of 
the meal, Homa with a branch of a pomegranate tree, but- 
ter, fresh mnk, bread, fruits, and flesh, are consecrated and 
presented to the chiefs of the whole creation (chaps. ix.-s;ii.). 
After the whole meal has been offered in a solemn way, 
the ritual concludes with a series of prayers and invoca- 
tions, in which, however, nothing remarkable occurs. 


194 YASHTS: 


The name Tasht (ySshti, "worship by prayers and sacri- 
fices ") is applied to certain collections of prayer and 
praise, of which there are twenty extant, which have been 
collected and published for the first time in Westergaard's 
edition of the Zend-Avesta (pp. 143-293). Their chief 
difference from the prayers of the Yasna and Visparad is, 
that each of them is devoted'to the praise and worship of 
one divine being only, or of a certain limited class of divine 
beings, as Ahuramazda, the archangels (Amshaspends), the 
heavenly water Ardvi S^ra An§,hita, the sun (Mithra), the 
star Tishtrya, the Fravashis, &c., whereas in the Yasna 
and Visparad all these beings are invoked promiscuously. 
The majority of these beings are called Yazaias'^ (now 
Izads) or angels. 

The devotee endeavours, by an enumeration of all the 
glorious feats achieved by the particular angel, and the 
miracles wrought by him, to induce him to come and enjoy 
the meal which is prepared for him, and then to bestow 
such a blessing upon the present worshipper, as had been 
bestowed by the angel upon his devotees in ancient times. 

These praises are often highly poetical, and on close in- 
quiry we find they really contain, iii several cases, metrical 
verses. They are to be traced to the songs of the Median 
bards, who are mentioned by Greek historians, and were 
the primary sources of the legends contained in the Sh^h- 
n§,mah. Tor the legendary history of the ancient Iranians, 
and especially for a critical inquiry into the celebrated 
Sh§,hn§,mah, the Yashts are the most important part of 
the Zend-Avesta. 

In the following pages a brief summary of them is given, 
and occasionally some extracts are translated from the 
more ih.tei?esting parts. 

1 Corresponding to the Vedio Yd- " God," is the pliiral of this word 
jata, ' ' a being which deserves wor- Voeato. 
ship." The modem Persian Yazddn, 



Zaratliusttra asked AhuramazSa for the most effectual 
spell {mMhrd) to guard against the influence of evil spirits. 
He was answered by the Supreme Spirit, that the utter- 
ance of the different names of Ahuramazda protects best 
from evil. Thereupon Zarathushtra begged Ahuramazda 
to communicate to him these names. Ahuramazda then 
enumerates twenty names. The first, for instance, is ahmi, 
" I am ; " the fourth, ashor-vahishta, " the best righteous- 
ness" (the name of 'the archangel Ardibahisht) ; the sixth, 
■" I am the wisdom ; " the eighth, " I am the knowledge ; " 
the twelfth, aAwra, "living;" the twentieth, "I am who I 
am,l Mazda " (ahmi yad ahmi mazddo). Ahuramazda says 
then further : " If you call me by day or at night by these 
names, I will come to assist and help you, the angel Srosh 
wiU then come to assist and help you, the spirits of the 
waters and the trees, and the spirits of deceased righteous 
men wOl come to assist you." For the utter defeat of the 
evil spirits, bad men, sorcerers, Parish (pairika), &c., a 
series of other names of Ahuramazda are suggested to Zara- 
thushtra, such as protector, guardian, spirit, the holiest, the 
best fire-priest, &c. 


In the Haptdn Yasht (i.e., the praise of the seven su- 
preme spirits) Ahuramazda and the six archangels, who 
constitute the celestial council, are invoked. The greater 
part of it is of no particular interest. At the end (Yt. ii. i i) 
there is a short spell, such as we find now and then in the 
Zend-Avesta. It is composed of short verses, each consist- 
ing of six or seven syllables, in the following manner •.■^- 

^ Compare the explanation of the known to the readers of modem Pei"- 

name Jehovah, as given in'Exod. iii. sian poetry, are evil spirits in tho 

14 ; ehyeh asher ehyeh, " I am who I Zend-Avesta, because they seduce 

am." men by their beauty. 

' The Paris, i.e., fairies, so well 


Ydtu, it Zarathushtra, i vanad daiv6 

may he come then Zarathushtra, 

K6% nmanahi, iddha 

who (are) in the house, soon 

Vtspa drukhsh jdndiU, 

every evil spirit is slain, 

Yatha haonaoiti 

when he hears 

may he destroy the devils and had men 
Spitanm Zarathushtra I 
Spitama Zarathushtra ! 
vispa drukhsh n&sh&M, 

every evil spirit goes away, 

ahhdm vachdm,. 

these words. 

In the ArdibahisM TasM, Almramazda requests Zara- 
thushtra to protect and promote the asha vaMshta (now 
Ardibahisht), "the best righteousness," by praising, in- 
voking, inviting (to sacrificial meals), worshipping, sing- 
ing, &c., in order to keep up the splendour and light of the 
luminaries, which is indispensable for the growth of the 
good creation. 

Zarathushtra is ready to obey the divine command, but 
he first wants to know the appropriate words which would 
have the effect proposed by Ahuramazda. The chief 
mathra for this purpose is the AiryemA ishyd prayer (Yas. 
liv.).i Some spells follow, which are intended to remove 
diseases and evils of every kind, like the spells found in 
the Atharvaveda, and those used down to the present time 
by wizards in Europe, as, for instance, " Go away, diseases ! 
Go away, death ! Go away, ye devils ! " &g. 

Then the killing of the " serpent seed " (azM-chithra), 
i.e., all noxious creatures, such as wolves, frogs, mice, ants, 
snakes, &c., which are believed to be the mere disguises of 
evil spirits, is enjoined as meritorious, and contributing 
largely towards the growth of nature and preservation of 
light, which are both represented by the archangel Ardi- 
bahisht. The last sentences of this Yasht occur also in 
Vend. viii. 21. 

The Khorddd Yasht is devoted to the archangel Khorddd 
{Haurvatdd in the Avesta}, which name signifies "com- 
pleteness, wholesomeness, health." Ahuramazda says to 
Zarathushtra : " I created the Haurvat§,ds for the righteous 
men, and aids so that the archangels come to help them." 

' Addressed to A iryama, an angel men, and in possession of numerous 
who is a friend and assistant of pious resources. 


As a chief means of preserving the HaurvatM, or the same 
good condition in which every being of the good creation 
has been created by Ahuramazda, the recital of mathras is 
recommended, together with the Barashnom ceremony (de- 
scribed in Vend. ix. ; see section xiv. 5). The mathra, 
which is intended to drive away the evil spirits, is hardly 
intelligible in a grammatical point of view ; the grammar 
of this and the two preceding Yashts being extremely bad. 
At the end Zarathushtra is strictly ordered by Ahuramazda 
not to communicate this effective spell to any other man 
than to a son, or brother, or relative, or to a priest of one 
of the three orders {thrdyava, i.-e., Herbads, Mobads, and 
Dasturs). Such interdictions of divulging mdtJwas, or 
spells, are not unfrequent in the Yashts. 

3. Aban Yasbt. 

This Yasht, which is of considerable length (thirty sec- 
tions containing 132 verses in all), is devoted to Ardvi 
Silra Andhita (now called Arduisur), the mighty goddess 
Anaitis of the ancient Persians, corresponding to the My- 
litta of the Babylonians, and the Aphrodite (Venus) of the 
Greeks. Her name Andhid is even still preserved in 
modem Persian, and well known to the readers of Hafiz. 
In this Yasht she is always called by the three names just 
mentioned, which are only epithets. Ardvi means " high, 
sublime," s'Ara " strong, excellent," and andhita " spot- 
less, pure, clean," which terms refer to the celestial waters 
represented by her. The contents are as follows : — 

i. Ahuramazda calls upon Zarathushtra to worship Ana- 
hita, who rolls under bridges, who gives salubrity, who 
defeats the devils, who professes the Ahura religion, who 
is to be worshipped and praised in this living world. She, 
as the giver of fertility, purifies the seed of all males, and 
the wombs of all females, and provides the latter at the 
right time with milk. Coming from one of the summits 
of the mountain Alborz, she is as large as all other waters 
taken together, which spring out of this heavenly source. 
When she discharges herself into the sea Vouru-kasha, 

19.8'. ABAN- YASHT. 

then all its shores' are> widened. This heavenly fountain 
has a thousand springs and a thousand canals, each of them 
forty da,ys' journey long. Thence a channel goes through 
aU the seven Mskoars, or regions of the earth, conveying 
everywhere pure celestial water. She was created by 
Ahuramazda himself for the benefit of the house, village, 
town, and country, 

iii. Her chariot is drawn by four white horses, which 
defeat all the devils. 

From the fifth section, nearly to the end, all the praises 
which Anlrhita has received, and the rewards which she 
has granted to her devotees, are enumerated, 

V. Ahuramazda himself is said to have worshipped her, 
in order to secure her assistance in inducing Zarathushtra 
to become his prophet. She readily granted his request. 

vi. Haoshyanha {KSshang in the Shlhnlmah) sacrificed 
to her a hundred horses, a thousand cows, and ten thou- 
sand young animals. She gave him strength to conquer 
all the demons and men, and to establish an empire. 

vii. Tima Khshaita (Jamsh^d) asked the same blessing 
from her which she readily granted, while she refused 
(viii.) to grant AsM dahdka's (Zohak, an incarnation of the 
devil) prayer for strength to kill all the men on the sur- 
face of the earth, (ix.) But she assisted ThraStaona 
(Fr^diin), who had worshipped her also, to destroy this 
tyrant. Besides these heroes, a good many others are 
mentioned as worshippers of Anihita, such as JCava Us {Km, 
Kavus in the Sh^hnlmah), Kava Husrava (Kai Khusr6), 
&c. The example set by Ahuramazda himself and the 
great heroes and sages of Iranian antiquity, of worshipping 
Anahita in order to obtain blessings from her, was followed, 
of course, by Zarathiishtra and his royal disciple Kma 
Vishtdspa (Kai Gushtdsp in Sh.), who are always repre- 
sented as having respected the ancient forms of worship. 

In sections xxi. and xxx. two short hymns are pre- 
served, on the recital of which Anahita was expected to 
appear. The first is ascribed to Ahuramazda himself. It 
commences as follows :^ 


&iM,i paiti ava-jasa, 

come before (me) come down, 

Ardm-s4ra An&hitil 

Arduisur An^hita ! 
Tiacha ava^byS starebyi, 

from yonder stars 

avi zdwt, AhuradMtdm. 

on to the earth created by Ahuramazda. 

Thwam yazdonU aundonM 

Thee shall worship, the handy 

ahurdonh&^ danhupatayS, 

lords the rulers of countries, 

puthrdonh6 danhupaitindm. 

sons of the rulers of countries. 

4. Khukshbd and Mah Yashts. 
The first of these Yashts is devoted to the sun, which is 
called in the Avesta hvare khshaSta, " sun the king " (pre- 
served in the modern Persian khursMd, " sun ") ; the second 
is devoted to the moon, called mdonh (in modern Persian 

The prayer addressed to the sun commences as follows: — 
"We worship the king sun, the immortal, brilliant. 
When he burns with his rays, then all the heavenly spirits 
rise by hundreds and by thousands to spread his splendour, 
to send it down to the earth, created by Ahuramazda, for 
protecting the cultivated iields (gaithdo) and their bodies.2 
When the sun rises, then he purifies the earth, created by. 
Ahuramazda, he purifies the flowing water, as well as that 
of springs and lakes, he purifies all the creatures of the 
beneficent spirit. As long as the sun has not risen, all the 
demons are endeavouring to spread havoc throughout the 

' It is nom. pi. From this passage ' In this passage, as well as in many 

one may clearly see that ahura is not others in the Yashts and the Vendi- 

a title confined to the Supreme Being, dad, some interpolations hare beej^ 

but can be applied to men also. The made in later times to illustrate 

same is the case with the Hebrew phrases which were considered hardlj 

word ctoAim, "God," which is now and intelligible. Thus, for instance, 

then used in the sense of "judges," hdm-b&rayUnti (anhdshtan, "to fill ^' 

Ejcod. xxi. 6 (acoordingto the ancient in Per?.), " they carry eveiywhere," 

Caialdaic translator Onkelos), and in is explained by nip&rayHnti, "^hey 

that of " kings" [see Ps. Ixxxii. i, 6). make pass dowh (eyerywhere)." 


seven regions of the earth, and none l of the heavenly 
spirits -withstands and slays them, whilst all the living 
creation is drowned in sleep." 

At the end the conjunction of sun and moon is par- 
ticularly mentioned as the luckiest of all conjunctions. 
The word for " conjunction," haJchedhrem, is of particular 
interest, because it is preserved in the modern Persian 
aJchtar, " star," whose original meaning " conjunction " 
may still he found in some phrases, such as akhtar-i- 
ddnish, " Jupiter and Mercury" (literally, the conjunction 
foreboding wisdom). 

In the M§,h Yasht the moon is invoked by the epithet 
gaochithra, which means " cow-faced." All " the immortal 
benefactors (archangels) rise and spread the moonlight 
over the surface of the earth created by Ahuramazda, then 
the light of the moon shines through tlie tops of the golden- 
coloured trees ; and gold-like it rises from the earth (i.e., 
it is reflected by her)." 2 The new moon and the full moon 
are especially alluded to. 

5. Tin AND GdsH Tashts. 

The Tir Yasht is devoted to the praise of the star Tish- 
trya, "Mercury" (tashtar in Parsi, tir in modern Pers.). 
He is called the giver of wealth (bakhta sh&ithraM) ; his 
lustre is red, and of great beauty. His most significant 
epithet is afsh-chithra, " waterfaced " (of one and the same 
nature with the water), because he brings the waters from 
the celestial ocean, Youru-kasha, down on the earth to 
fertilise the soil. He discharges this duty, which is assigned 
to him, with the utmost quickness, being " as swift as the 
river Tighrish, which has the swiftness of an arrow, and is 
the swiftest of all Aryan (rivers) when it falls from the 

' This seems to be in contradiction order ; he is the representative of the 

to the Sroah Yasht, where Srosh is religion itself ; if it were not for him 

said to fight at night-time against the the world would fall a prey to the 

evil spirits. But one has to bear in demons during the night-time, 

mind that Srosh is not one of the - The reflection of moonlight is 

yazaias, or angels, but of a higlier called jpojficfWi, "what looks cgainst.'' 


Khshaotha mountain down to the Qanvat mountain." (Yt. 
viii. 6.) 

He defeats and expels the fairies (pairika = pari in 
Pers.), who " fall as star-worms (i.e., glow-worms) between 
earth and heaven into the sea Vouru-kasha (to prevent the 
waters from coming out)." But Tishtrya enters this sea 
in the shape of a horse, and by swelling it, makes it over- 
flow its shores, and so carries its waters, as showers, over 
the " seven regions of the earth." 

His worship was compulsory at the time of a drought ; 
for unless the prayers of men were addressed to him, he 
was powerless to defeat the evil spirits, who kept back the 
waters in the sea. If men invoke him, says he, as they 
invoke other angels, then he proceeds from his magnificent 
palace to the Vouru-kasha. He steps into the sea in the 
shape of a red horse with yellow ears. There the Deva 
Apaoshd, in the shape of a black horse with black ears and 
tail, encounters him. Both fight for three days and nights; 
at length he is defeated by the Deva. Tishtrya then leaves 
the sea, crying aloud : " I am lost, the waters are lost, the 
trees are lost, the Mazdayasnian religion is destroyed. Men 
do not worship me as they worship otlier angels. If they 
would worship me, I would gain the strength of ten horses, 
ten camels, ten oxen, ten mountains, ten navigable rivers." 
When men then come to aid him by their prayers, and 
consequently his strength increases, he descends for a 
second time into the sea, attacks the Deva again, and defeats 
him. After having conquered him, he proclaims the vic- 
tory, gained by him, to the whole good creation. He makes 
the waters of the sea then flow over its borders, and fertilises 
the soil. In the midst of the sea there is a mountain 
called Eendva (very likely the Hindu-kush range of moun- 
tains is to be understood), over which the clouds gather 
together. The winds carry them rapidly off, and they then 
discharge their watery load upon the thirsty and parched 

The Gosh Yasht is devoted to a female spirit who is 


called here Bnvdspa, i.e., one who keeps horses in health. 
The name Gosh, " cow," which was given her in after times, 
refers to geusli urvd, the universal soul by which all li\^ing 
beings of the good creation are animated. From, the terms 
in which Drvlspa is spoken, of in this Yasht, she was 
believed to preserve the life of the good anima,ls. In 
heaven she represents, the Milky- way^ and in this respect 
is- described as ha,ving many spies (eyes), having light of 
her OM'n, having a far way, and a long constellation 

She was worshipped by the heroes of antiquity, s^ieh as 
Saoshyanha Paradhdta (Hoshang the Peshdadia,n in the 
Shahni,mah), Tima (Jamshid), TJiraAtaona, (Fr^dftn), Kawcf, 
VisMdspa, Zwrathushtra himself, &c., and different favours 
were asked of her, such as, to give strength for defeating 
enemies, to rid the creation from the evils of heat and cold, 
to propagate, the good religion, &<?. 

6. MiBiR Yasht. 

In this long Yasht, which comprises thirty-five sections 
(146 verses in Wester.), the angel presiding over, and 
directing the course of the sun, who was called Mithra, 
" friend " (mihir in Persian), is invoked and praised. His 
worship was widely spread, not only in ancient Persia 
itself^ but far beyond its frontiers in Asia Minor, and even 
in Greece and Eome. 

In the first section, of this Yasht, Ahuramazda says to 
Spitama Zarathushtra : " I created Mithra, who rules over 
large fields (vouru-gaoyaoitish), to be of the same rank and 
dignity (as far as worship is concerned) as I myself am. 
The wretch who belies Mithra,! spoils the whole country. 
Therefore, never break a promise, neither that contracted 
with a fellow-religionist, nor that with an infidel. Mithra 
gives those who do not belie him, swift horses ; the fiie, 

^ ilfii/ira has several meanings, viz., ing, or lying, or not paying debts 
"angel of the sun, sun, friend," and which have been contracted, is called 
"promise, contract." Promise-break- Mithrd-drukhsh, " belying Mithra." 

Mim-R YA.SHT. 203 

Ahuramazda's soa, leads suek m,en on the straightest way, 
the Frohars (I"ravashis) give them children of superior 

Near the end of the first section there is a short hymn 
by which Ahuramazda is said to call him. It consists of 
verses, each of ahout eight, syllables, and commences aS' 
follows : — 

dcha, n& 
Hither to ua 

jamyM avanhi, 
may come to help, 



to us 

ughr6 qiwitMrt, yasnyS, 
the stropg conqueror deserving 
vispemi d anuhi 
4II in the life sup] 



I dcha n6 jamydd ra 

I hither to us may come to face 
(before us), 

jamyiid rafnai}hS, <kc. 

may come to joy, &c. 

I vahmpd, anaiwidrukhld, 

I deserving praise, not to be belied, 


supplied with bodies (i.e., in the creation), 

rules over large fields. 

" Mithra, who always speaks the truth, has a thousand 
ears, ten thousand eyes, and is always watching, without 
falling asleep, over the welfare of the creation " (ver. 7). 

" He,, first of the celestial spirits, crosses the mountain 
Eard-berezaiti (Alborz, the supposed centre of the world) 
on its eastern side, where the immortal sun with his swift 
horses is stationed ; he first, covered with gold, reaches 
the summits of that mountain, and thence overlooks the 
whole of Iran. Through him the rulers build their high 
fortresses, through him the high mountains, with their 
many pasturages, produce food for the animals, through 
him the deep wells have abundance of waters, through 
him the large navigable rivers run swiftly through Aish- 
Icata} Fouruta (Pa,rthia, Parthava in the cuneiform in- 
scriptions), Mmru (Ma?-v), EardyA (Herat), Gau SiigMha 
{Sogdiam^ Samarkand), and $(Jm2«m (Khowaresmia). He 
brings light, to all the seven regions (the whole earth); 
victory resounds in the ears of those who, by their know- 

1 A locality not yet Identified. 


ledge of the appropriate prayers and rites, continuously 
worship him with sacrifices." (Yt. x. 13-16). 

He protects those who do not break their promises 
when in distress and misery; but inflicts severe punish- 
ments upon those who sin against him by lying and pro- 
mise-breaking; he makes their arms and feet lame, their 
eyes blind, their ears deaf (ver. 23). The same idea is 
embodied in the short hymn which forms the nth section 
(vers. 47-49). The verses consist of eight syllables, as in 
the following specimen : — 

djod y<'4 Mithrd fravazaiti I avi hainaydo khrvishySitish, 

Then when Mithra drives | in the two armies ready for battle, 

avi hdm-yanta rasmaoy6 I aiitare daAhu-pdperetdni, 

agaii'st they encounter in two battle lines I in order for the country 
(each other) to fight, 

apaik gav6 ^arezayiiti, 

away the hand he binds, 

(Uhra nariim mithrd-dnijdm 
then of the men who break 

pairi daSma vdrayHti, cfec. 

round the face he covers, &o. 

i.e., at the time of a battle taking place between two hos- 
tile armies, and both being arrayed in battle lines against 
each other, in order to fight for a country, Mithra drives 
in his chariot to the battlefield, and punishes all those 
who were formerly sinning against him by breaking pro- 
mises ; he causes some to be made prisoners, and dooms 
others to lose their eyes, or their feet, or their ears. 

The residence of this mighty angel, the punisher of 
rascals and scoundrels, is on the mountain Hard-herezaiti 
(Alhorz), where Ahuramazda himself has built a palace for 
him, where is " no night, no darkness, no cold wind, nor 
hot, no smoke, no putrifaction, no fogs," which is the 
model of an Iranian paradise (ver. 50). 

All the demons (devas) flee from him when he, as the 
ruler of the whole earth, drives in his chariot on her ri^t 
side. On his right side he is followed by Sraosha, the 
angel ruling over the whole of the divine service, and by 
Bashnu razishta (Eashnu r§,st), the angel of justice, and 
the spirits of the waters, trees, &c. (vers. 100, lOi). 


In verse 104 mention is made of the eastern and 
M^estern Hindus (hindvd = sindhavas, i.e., the (seven) rivers 
in the Vedas, the ancient name of India). 

Ahuramazda paid his respects to him. He drives out 
from paradise (garddemdna) in a splendid chariot, drawn 
by four white horses. He carries with him weapons of 
all kinds for the destruction of the Devas ; among them 
is the vazra,'^ the most powerful. 

7. Srosh HadSkht and Eashnu Yashts. 

The former Yasht, which is now particularly used at 
the time of initiating priests (chiefly of the lower grade, 
the Herbads) into their office, is dedicated to the angel 
Sraosha, of whom we have already given an account (see 
p. 189). An analysis of this Yasht would, therefore, 
afford no particular interest. 

In the Eashnu Yasht the angel Rashnu razishta, " the 
rightest righteousness," who is believed to preside over 
the eternal laws of nature, as well as morality (corres- 
ponding to the idea of Themis among the ancient Greeks), 
is invoked and worshipped. He is everywhere, and re- 
presents, to a certain extent, the omnipresence of the 
divine being. He is particularly distinguished by firm- 
ness and the greatest hatred of disorder and immorality 
of every kind. His devotee, in paying reverence to him, 
by placing various sweet fruits and oil before the sacred 
fire, invokes and praises him wherever he may be, whether 
in one of the seven regions (karshvare), or in different 
parts of the sea Vouru-Jcasha (the ocean surrounding the 
earth), either on the large tree, bearing all kinds of fruits 
at the same time, which is planted in its middle, or on its 
shores, or in its depths. He is further praised whether he 
be on the ends of the earth, or on the celestial mountain 
Rard-lerezaiti (Alborz), or in one of the stars, such as 

1 Gun, " a club, battleaxe," in " thunderbolt," in the Vedas, where 
Persian is identical with vajra, it is Indra's weapon. 


Churl's Wain (Ursa uiajor) called Haptdiring?- or in the 
•water stars, or Vegetation stars, or in the moon, or sun, 
or in the luminaries which were from the beginning 
'{anaghra raocJido), ot in paradise. 

8. Fhavardin Yasht. 
This Yasht, comprising thirty-one chapters, which are 
divided into 158 verses, is the longest of all. It is dedi- 
cated to the praise of the Frohars, Fravashi in the Avesta 
(preserved in the name Phraortes, which is Fravartish 
in the ancient Persian of the cuneiform inscriptions), 
which means "protector." These Frohars or protectors, 
who are numberless, are believed to be angels, stationed 
everywhere by Ahuramazda for keeping the good creation 
in order, preserving it, and guarding it against the con- 
stant attacks of fiendish powers. Every being of the good 
creation, whether living, or deceased, or still unborn, has 
its own Fravashi or guardian angel who has existed from 
the beginning. Hence they are a kind of prototypes, and 
may be best compared to the " ideas " of Plato who sup- 
posed everything to have a double existence, first in idea, 
secondly in reality .2 Originally the Fravashis represented 

1 In modern Persian haftwarang. commenced to deify those great 
This word is highly interesting from founders of Brahmaniam, nothing 
its identity "with the ancient Vedic was more natural than to assign to 
and Greek names of the same con- them a place in the sky, and make 
stellation. The original form in the them one of the brightest and most 
Vedas is riksha, "a bear" (-which is beautiful constellations. In the Iran- 
found only once in the hymns of the ian languages, however, the old name 
Eigveda, i. 24, 10) = Greek arktos. "the seven bears" was faithfully 
According to an account in the Sha- preserved. 

tapatha Br^hmana, ii. i, :i, 4 (second " The ideas are the models (para- 
part of the white Yajurveda) this deigmata) of everything existing; 
name was changed afterwards into the realities (or, according to Plato, 
that of Sapta fishayah^ "the seven non-realities, because only the ideas 
Eishis," by which name the stars of have a real existence according to his 
Ursa major are called in the later doctrine) being only imitations there- 
Vedic hymns (see Eigveda x. 82, 2, of. The ideas are unborn, eternal, 
Atharvaveda vi. 40, i) and in the invisible, imperishable, but their imi- 
classical Sanskrit writings. The tations, the substances, are subject to 
Bounds of riksha, "bear," and fishi, all changes. See Parmenides, p. 132, 
"seer, proijhet," were so near to one d. Steph. Timoeus., 48, 0. 52 a. Ac- 
another, that at the time when they cording to Aristotle (Metaphysics, i. 


only the departed souls of ancestors, comparable to the 
pitaras, " fathers," of the Brahmans, and the McCnes of the 
Eomans. The following extracts are translated from the 
¥ravaidin Yasht :^— 

i-)'. Ahuramazda spoke to Spitama Zarathushtra : To 
thee alone I shall tell the power and strength, glory, use- 
fulness, and happiness of the holy guardian-angels, the 
strong and victorious, righteous Spitama Zarathushtra ! 
how they come to help me, [(Zend) how they give me 
assistance]. By means of their splendour and glory I up- 
hold the sky which is shining so beautifully, and which 
touches and surrounds this earth ;i it resembles a bird 
which is ordered by God to stand still there ; it is high as 
a tree, wide^stretched, iron-bodied, having its own light in 
the three worlds (fhrishvtt) ; oh which (the sky) Ahura- 
niazda, together with Mithra, Eashnu, and Spenta Armaiti, 
puts a garment decked with stars, and made by God in 
such a way that nobody can see the ends of its parts. 

By means of their splendour and glory, I uphold the 
high, strong An§,hita (the 'celestial water) with bridges, the 
salutary, who drives away the demons, who has the true 
faith, and is to be worshipped in the world, and to be 
praised in the world ; the righteous who furthers life, the 
righteous who increases wealth, the righteous who increases 
property, the righteous who makes the fields thrive, tlie 
righteous who makes the countries thrive ; who purifies 
the seed of all males, who purifies the wombs of all females 
to make them fit for conception, who makes all pregnant 
females bear fine offspring, who provides females at the 
right time with milk ; the praised, the far-renowned, who 
is as large as all the waters which flow over the earth, who 
runs with might from the celestial heights into the sea 

9, 2), Plato imagined as many "ideas" ^ Bav&va would be according to 

as there are things really existing. Sanskrit the first person dual, but this 

Such celestial, or invisible, prototypes meaning does not agree with the struc- 

of terrestrial things are mentioned ture of the sentence; it is evidently 

also in the Bible; see Heb. ix. 23; put f or ftawiti m, " it is for both. " 
Exod. XXV. 9, 40. 


Vouru-kasha. All its shores are then overflowing from its 
very centre, when those waters fall into it, when the high, 
strong An§,hita pours them forth into their channels. She 
has a thousand springs, a thousand channels ; each of 
these springs and each of these channels is of the circuit 
of a forty days' journey for a well-mounted messenger. 

11. By means of their splendour and glory, I keep, 
Zarathushtra ! the embryos alive in the pregnant females, 
to be formed out of a formless inanimate mass, to obtain 
a living soul, bones, form, consistency, growth of the 
faculty of walking, and speaking. 

12. If the strong guardian-angels of the righteous would 
not give me assistance, then cattle and men, the two best 
of the hundred classes of beings, would no longer exist for 
me ; then would commence the devil's power, the devil's 
reign, the whole living creation would belong to the devil. 

1 3. Between earth and heaven may the devilish spkit 
take up his residence ! [(Zend) between earth and heaven 
may the devil reside !] ; but he (the devil) will not be 
able to destroy entirely (the influence) of the beneficent 
spirit (Ahuramazda). 

14. By means of their splendour and glory, the waters 
flow straight forward in inexhaustible sources; by means 
of their splendour and glory, trees grow out of the earth ; 
by means of their splendour and glory, the winds blow, 
carrying with them vapours from inexhaustible sources. 

15. By means of their splendour and glory, the females 
are getting with children ; by means of their splendour and 
glory, they produce good offspring; by means of their 
splendour and glory, there will be descendants. 

16. By means of their splendour and glory, that ingen- 
uous man (Zarathushtra), who spoke such good words, 
who was the source of wisdom, who was born before 
Gotama ^ had such intercourse (with God, obtained revela- 

' Gaotema (in the original) is the Gautama, That Buddhism ejciated at 
proper name of Buddha, the founder Balkh is well known, 
of Buddhism. Its Sanskrit form ia 


tion). By means of their splendour and glory, the sun 
goes on his path ; by means of their splendour and glory, 
the moon goes on her path ; by means of their splendour 
and glory, the stars go on their path. 

17. These guardian-angels of the righteous give great 
assistance in great battles (to be fought against the devil- 
ish empire). The guardian-angels of the righteous among 
the believers in the old religion, or those of the prophets 
{SaoshyaMd) to come, for making perpetuation of life, are 
the strongest of all ; then the guardian-angels of the living 
righteous men are stronger than those of the dead. 

18. When a man living, who is the ruler over all the 
estates of a country, supports well the guardian-angels of 
the righteous, then each of his dominions will be well 
populated [(Zend) who supports well your good friend (the 
sun, miihra) with his far-extended dominions, and the pro- 
bity wMch is protecting and sheltering estates]. 

19. Thus I teU thee, holy Spitama! the power, strength, 
glory, support, and delight of the strong, victorious guardian- 
angels of the righteous, as they come to assist me, [(Zend) 
as the strong guardian-angels of the righteous bring me 

20. Ahuramazda said to Spitama Zarathushtra : When 
in this world, Spitama Zarathushtra ! thou hast to pass 
mischief-bringing, bad, baneful ways, and thy Hfe is threat- 
ened, then shalt thou recite these words, [(Zend) then shalt 
thou speak these victorious words, Zarathushtra !] : 

21. I praise, invoke, and extol the good, strong, bene- 
ficent, guardian- angels of the righteous, We praise those 
who are in the houses, those who aye ia the villages, those 
who are in the towns, those who are in the countries, those 
who are in the Zoroastrian communities, those of the pre- 
sent, those of the past, those of the future righteous, aU 
those invoked in countries where invocation is practised. 

22. Who uphold heaven, who uphold water, who uphold 
earth, who uphold nature, &c. 

49. 50- We worship the good, strong, beueficent, guardian- 


angels of the righteous, who come to the village in the 
season called Hamaspathma^da. Then they roam about 
there during ten nights, wishing to learn what assistance 
they might obtain, saying : Who wiU praise us ? who will 
worship (us) ? who will adore (us) ? who will pray (to us) ? 
who will satisfy (us) with milk and clothes in his hand, 
witli a prayer for righteousness 1 whom of us will he call 
here ? whose soul is to worship you ? To whom of us will 
he give that offering in order to enjoy imperishable food 
tor ever and ever ? 

51, 52. Then the man who worships them with milk in 
his hand, and With clothes, and the prayer for righteous- 
ness, upon him the pleased (with this sacrifice), favourable, 
not-hurtingj strong guardian- angels of the righteous bestow 
blessings. In this house (where they are worshipped in 
such a way) there will be abundance of cows and of men 
(posterity) ; there will be a swift horse and a well-fastened 
carriage ; there will be found a prudent man who will 
worship us (in future) with milk and clothes in his hand 
and with the prayer for righteousness. 

82-84. ^6 worship the good, strong, beneficent guardian- 
angels of the righteous, those of the immortal benefactors 
(Ameshaspentas), the rulers with their watchful eyes, the 
high, powerful, swift, living ones of everlasting truth. All 
seven are of the same mind, speak the same words, per- 
form the same actions ; [(Zend) they have the same mind, 
the same words, the same action, and the same master and 
ruler, the Creator Ahuramazda]. One looks into the soul 
of the other, considering about good thoughts, considering 
about good words, considering about good deeds, consider- 
ing about the best life, that the prayer may go up to their 
brightly shining paths. 

85. We worship the good, strong, beneficent guardian- 
angels, that of the blazing, beneficent, penetrating fire, and 
that of Sraosha, the righteous, swift, self-speaking, swiftly- 
running, the living, and that of Nairyosanha (the angel). 

86. That of the rightest righteousness (Bashnu razishta), 


that of Mithra with his far-extended dominions, that of 
the holy word (Mathra spenta), that of the day, that of 
M'ater, that of earth, that of the trees, that of nature, that 
of existence, that of the two righteous worlds (visible and 
invisible, earthly and spiritual). 

87. We worship the guardian-angel of Gayfi-marathan 
(Gayomard, Kayomars, the Adam or Manu of the Iranians), 
the righteous, who first listened to Ahuramazda's thoughts 
and sayings ; out of whose body he (Ahuramazda) formed 
the central mass (nd/S, " navel ") 1 of the Aryan countries, 
the surface of the Aryan countries. 

88-94. We worship the rule and the guardian-angel of 
Zarathushtra Spitama, who first thought good thoughts, 
who first spoke good words, who first performed good 
actions, who was the first priest, the first warrior, the first 
cultivator of the soil, the first prophet, the first who was 
inspired, the first who has given (to mankind) nature and 
truth and words, and hearing of words, and wealth and all 
good, created by Mazda, of rightful appearance. Who first 
made turning the wheel among gods and men,2 who first 
was praising the rightfulness of the living creation, and 
destroying idolatry, who confessed the Zarathushtrian 
worship of Mazda, the religion of Ahura opposed to the 
demons. Who first spoke the word opposed to the demons,^ 
being the religion of Ahura in the animated creation, who 
first promulgated the word opposed to the demons, being 
the religion of Ahura in the animated creation. Who first 
spoke the whole of what is given by the demons in the 
animated creation, and what is neither to be worshipped 
nor invoked (it is profane), that is the strong, blessed, old 
religion of the countries (the ante-Zoroastrian, Deva reli^ 
gion).* Through whom the whole true and revealed word 

1 Compare the Greek appellation of ' That is to say, the Vendidad. 

Delphi: Omphale g^s, "navel of the ^ This means that Zarathushtra is 

earth," i.e., its centre. theoriginatorof aUreligiousthoughts, 

' This is a Buddhistic expression, both those current after, and those 

meaning " established and propagated current before his time, 
the good religion. " 


was heard, which is the life and guidance of the world, the 
praises of the righteousness l which is the greatest, best, 
and most excellent, and the promulgation of the best reli- 
gion of those existing. Whom all Ameshaspentas, together 
with the Sun, worship with believing inquiry in the mind, 
for the duration of life, as the patron spirit and religious 
preceptor of the world, as praiser of the righteousness 
which is the greatest, best, and most excellent, and the 
promulgator of the best religion of those existing. Through 
his knowledge and speech the waters and trees become de- 
sirous of growing ; through his knowledge and speech all 
beings, created by the beneficent Spirit, are uttering words 
of happiness. For our welfare the fire-priest {dthrava), 
Spitama Zarathushtra, was born, he offered sacrifice for us, 
and arranged the holy twigs. Thus comes forth from the 
waters (is., from its source) the good religion of the Maz- 
dayasnians, spreading over all the seven regions of the 

95 . There the friend of the waters (the sun), ruling over 
far-extended dominions, produced all virtues of the coun- 
tries by their means, and makes them play when overflow- 
ing ; there the son of waters, the strong fire, produced all 
virtues of countries, aind appeases them when overflowing. 

We worship the virtue and the guardian angel of 
Maidhyo-mlonha, the disposer (of the good faith), who first 
heard Zairathushtra's speech and sayings. 

99. We worship the guardian-angel of Kavi Vishtlspa, 
the bold, who speaks his own verses, the attacker of the 
demons, the believer in Ahura, who defiled,2 for the benefit 
of the good creation, the face of the devil and the witches, 
[(Zend) who cleft the face of the devil and the witches, 
that is to say, who was the arm and support of the Zoro- 
astrian belief in Ahura] ; (100.) who carried away from the 

^ The " praise of righteousness " is traMcha, contain fragmmits of an old 

the Pahlavi technical name of the epic poem in honour of Kavi Vish- 

Ashem-vohu formula. taspa, with some interpolations. The 

2 The words from y6 druja, to vds- metre is the Shloka, 


Hunus ^ the standard [(Zend) which was tied], and depo- 
sited it in the impregnahle fortress Maidhy6ish§,dha, shield- 
ing cattle and fields, [(Zend) favourable to cattle and fields]. 

104. We worship the guardian-angel of Hushkyaothna, 
son of Frashaoshtra, that of QMa^na, son of Frashaoshtra, 
that of Hanhaurvat, son of JS,ni^spa, that of Vareshan, son 
of Hanhaurvat, that of Vohu-nemanh, son of Av3,raoshtra, 
to ward off the mischief done by nightmares, by ghosts 
disguised as black-coloured animals, by demons, and by 

105. We worship the guardian-angel of Simaezhi, the 
reciter of spells, the Herbad, who slew most of the Usa- 
ghanas, who polluted the bodies and disturbed righteous- 
ness, who were irreligious, acknowledging neither patron 
spirit nor religious preceptor, who Were charmers, frustrat- 
ing the help of the guardian-angels to resist the hostilities 
which were crushing the righteous. 

129. We worship the guardian-angel of Astvad-ereta 
who is called the victorious Saoshylins. He is called 
Saoshy^ns, as he will conduce (sdwaydd) to the welfare of 
the whole animated creation. He is called Astvad-ereta, 
as he is keeping up the animated creation, guarding it 
against destruction, especially against the destruction 
caused by the two-legged Drukhsh (the personification of 
destruction), caused by the hatred of (the demons) who 
annihilate rightful things. 

9. BbhbAm and RAm Yashts. 
The Behr§,m Yasht is devoted to the angel Behrdm. 
The original form of this name is Verethraghna, whicli 
means " killer of enemies," i.e., conqueror, and is to be iden- 
tified with Indra's name Vritrahd to be found in the Vedas. 
He is the giver of victory, and appears personally before his 

1 This nation ia mentioned by the to have often been engaged in war 

name of H&nds in Indian writings with them. They were the white 

also. See Viihnu Purdna, translated Huns who were once the terror of 

by H. H. Wilson, pp. 177, 194. They Europe, 
were hostile to the Iranians, who seem 


devotee in such different forms as lie may choose to assume. 
He appears in the form of a wind, in that of a cow, in 
that of a horse, in that of a camel, in that of a boar (varAza, 
Sans, vardha), in that of a boy aged fifteen, in that of a 
warrior, &c. Zarathushtra worshipped him, and was re- 
warded by the angel with strength in his arms and vigour 
in his whole body. 

Zarathushtra once asking Ahuramazda in what way the 
angel Behrim should be worshipped, is answered in the 
following manner : The Aryan countries (i.e., their inha- 
bitants, the Iranians, ancestors of the Parsis) shall conse- 
crate water (called zaothra), arrange the sacred twigs called 
Barsom, and kill an animal of a reddish or yellowish colour, 
the flesh of which is to be cooked. Of this meal of Beh- 
r3,m, which is prepared occasionally to this day, neither a 
criminal, nor a courtezan, nor an infidel who is an enemy 
of the Zoroastrian religion, is allowed to eat. Should that 
happen then the Aryan countries will be visited by plagues, 
and devastated by incursions of hostile armies. 

The E§,m Yasht is devoted to the angel E^m, who is, 
however, never mentioned in it by this name, but is called 
vayush l u-parS-hairyS, i.e., the wind whose business is above 
(in the sky), the celestial breath ; or he is simply invoked 
by the names of Apd, " who is far, remote," and Bagha,^ 
" destiny." He is described as being everywhere (on all 
sides), and as the primary cause (dkJishti) of the whole 
universe. From these remarks we may gather that he re- 
presents that very fine and subtle substance which is called 
ether, and known to the Indian philosophers as dkdsha. 

He was worshipped by Ahuramazda and the great heroes 
and sages of antiquity, such as Haoshyanha, Takhma-wrv/pa 
{TahrrfAras), Yima, &c. Old maids beg him to grant them 

In the last (eleventh) section his manifold names are 

^ This name seems to be connected ^ See the £rst section of the fourth 
with the Vedic god Vdyu, " the Essay, 
wind," the original long d having 
been shortened to a. 


explained. Vayush is there traced to the root vi, " to go, 
penetrate," and to va, " both," and explained by " I go to 
both creatures, those of the beneficent, and those of the 
malevolent spirit." By this and other names he is to be 
invoked at the time of worship. He has then the power 
of defeating hostile armies. 

10. Din and Ashi Yashts. 

In the Din Yasht the daSna mdzdayasnish, or the Zoroas- 
trian religion, is invoked as an angeL She was, of course 
pre-eminently worshipped by Zarathushtra. The way in 
which he invoked her is described in a short hymn com- 
mencing as follows : — 

Yt. xvi. 2. Eise from thy place! go out from thy 
house ! thou wisdom, created by Mazda ! which is the 
tightest ; if thou art in the front (of the house), put up 
with me ; if thou art behind it, return to me. 

AsM is a female angel whom the Dasturs at present 
compare with Zakshmi, the Hindu goddess of wealth. But 
the Yasht devoted to her does not countenance this opi- 
nion. Her full name is Ashish vanuM (now corrupted to 
Ashishang), which means " the good truth." She is called 
a daughter of Ahuramazda, and a sister of the Amesha- 
spentas or archangels. She makes the wisdom of all pro- 
phets continue, and inspires them in their turn with the 
heavenly (lit. original) wisdom. She comes to help all 
that invoke her from far and near. The ancient heroes and 
sages, Yima, ThraStaona, Zarathushtra, KavS, Vishtlspa, 
&c., worshipped her, and to aU she granted what they were 
praying for, such as wealth, victory, or children. 

II. AshtId, Zamyad, and Vanant Yashts. 
The name Ashtdd, which is to be traced to the Avesta 
word Arshtdd, " height," does not occur in the Yasht bear- 
ing this name. The glory of the Aryan countries (i.e., 
their riches and wealth in trees, cows, sheep, and all other 
things of the good creation, which are the most effective 
means for destroying the works of the demons, and for pre- 


serving everything in its original rectitude), and the AsJd 
vanuhi herezaiti (the good, high truth) are invoked in this 
Yasht. The glory (qarend) being chiefly the subject of the 
ZamyM Yasht, and the Ashi Vanuhi that of the preceding 
Ashi Yasht, we cannot ascribe any independent value to 
this AshtM Yasht, which is only an appendage to those 
two others. The name Asht^d, by which the Dasturs un- 
derstand the height of mountains, was given to this short 
chapter only to distinguish it by a separate name from the 
two other Yashts. 

The name Zamydd refers to the earth. She is not 
directly invoked in this Yasht, which is chiefly devoted to 
the praise of the '' glory " {qarein^) above mentioned. Its 
first section, which describes the origin of all mountains 
out of the heart of the central and primeval mountain 
Alborz (Hard berezaiti),^ stands separate. Several names 
of mountains are particularly mentioned,^ such as Ushidhdo 
(creator of light), Ushi-darenem (district of light), &c. 
The number of all the mountains is said to be 2244. 

In the following sections of this Yasht we find always 
invoked "the mighty glory which was peculiar to the 
Kavis " (the chiefs of the Iranian community in ancient 
times, mostly before Zoroaster). Ahuramazda produced it 
at the time of creating all that is good, bright, shining, and 
propagating life. It attached itself generally to one of the 
great heroes of antiquity, such as Thraetaona, Yima, &c., 
and enabled him to achieve great feats. This heavenly 
glory is essential for causing the dead to rise at the end of 
the world. About this resurrection of the dead, which is a 
genuine Zoroastrian doctrine, we find in this Yasht two very 
interesting passages, which are almost identical (Yt. xix. 
II, 12 and 89, 90). The following is a translation of the 
second passage : — 

^ Here we find the peculiar form rate mountain, surrounded by its vast 

haraiti baresh, in which haraiti is an mountain ranges, 
abstract noun, meaning "mountain * To express the word " mountain " 

range," and 5arcaft, 5(wcz (in the Vedas we find here two words usedij^amand 

IinAas) "elevated, high." Its heart jjaMniato, which are both to be fo'ind 

(zaredM) is here regarded as a sepa- also in Sanskrit {gii'i and parvata). 


' This splendour attaches itself to the hero (who is to rise 
' out of the numher) of prophets (called Saoshyantd) and to 
' his companions, in order to make life everlasting, unde- 
' caying, imperishable, imputresoihle, incorruptible, for ever 
' existing, for ever vigorous, full of power (at the time) 
' when the dead shall rise again, and imperishableness of 
' life shall commence, making Life lasting by itself (without 
' further support). AU the world will remain for eternity 
' in a state of righteousness ; the devil wiU disappear from 
' all those places whence he used to attack the righteous 
' man in order to kiU (him) ; and all his brood and crea- 
' tures will be doomed to destruction.' 

The Vanant Yasht is a very short prayer addressed to 
the star Vanant (by which the Dasturs understand the 
Milky-way, or Kdh-i-kashdn in Persian), to kill all dis- 
turbers of the good creation. This constellation is said to 
stand directly over heU in order to frighten the demons.l 

12. Two Fragments o» the HAr>6KHT Nask ; the AFRtN-i 
Paighambau Zabatdsht and VishtIsp Yasht. 

These four texts conclude the collection of all the Yashts 
extaut, in Westergaard's edition. 

In the first fragment of the Hd<^dlcht Nask, the praise of 
Ashem or righteousness is recommended by Ahuramazda 
to Zarathushtra as one of the most meritorious works. By 
this praise we can understand only the recital of the sacred 
formula, A shew, vohu, which is called, in Pahlavi, "the praise 
of righteousness." The larger or smaller amount of merit, 
resulting from repeating this prayer, depends on the time 
and occasion when it is done. Thus, for instance, the 
merit is far greater if the praise is uttered at night than if 
uttered in the day-time. 

The second fragment treats of the fate of the soul imme- 
diately after death, tiU it reaches either heaven or heU on 

' The Dasturs are of opinion, that Mithra at the head of the Cevas, as 
this constellation is the weapon stated in the EhuTshSd Yasht. 
{vazra) which is constantly aimed by 


the fourth morning (inclusive of the day of death), accord- 
ing as its good words, or its sins, have preponderated during 
life. The follovsdng is a translation of these fragments : — 
Yt. xxi. I. Zarathushtra asked Ahuramazda: Ahura- 
mazda ! most munificent spirit, creator of the settlements 
supplied with creatures, righteous one ! in whom ^ alone is 
thy word, the enunciation of all good, of all that is of 
rightful origin ! 

2. Ahuramazda answered him : In the Ashem-reciter,2 

3. Whoever recites the Ashem, with believing inquiry 
(remembrance) in his mind for the continuance of life, he 
praises me who am Ahuramazda, he praises the water, he 
praises the earth, he praises the cattle, he praises the trees, 
he praises all good, created by Mazda, that is of rightful 

4. For this saying, Zarathushtra ! being recited cor- 
rectly (in addition) to the saying Ahuna-vairya if out- 
spoken, is for strength and victory in the soul and religion 
so benefited. 

5. For one recital of the Ashem, or one eulogy of a 
righteous man, is worth, Spitama Zarathushtra ! a hun- 
dred sleep- (prayers), a thousand (prayers) when eating 
meat, a myriad (of prayers) for the conception of bodies 
occurring in the primary existence. 

6. What is the one recital of the Ashem which is worth 
ten of the other recitals of the Ashem in greatness and 
goodness and excellence ? 

7. Ahuramazda answered him: That, indeed, right- 
eous Zarathushtra ! which a man recites as the Ashem for 
Haurvat§,d and Ameret^d when eating, praising good 
thoughts and good words and good deeds, renouncing evil 
thoughts and evil words and evU deeds. 

8. What is the one recital of the Ashem which is worth 

' Reading hahmya, which in the * Ashem-atHtd, taken here as a loca- 
Avesta character is very like kahmdi tive, seems to be a genitive, 
the form given in all the mauuscripts. 


a hundred of the other recitals of the Ashem in greatness 
and goodness and excellence ? 

9. Ahuramazda answered him : That, indeed, right- 
eous Zarathnshtra ! which a man recites as the Ashem 
after swallowing of the out-squeezed Homa, praising good 
thoughts, &c. [as in ver. 7]. 

10. What is the one recital of the Ashem which is worth 
a thousand of the other recitals of the Ashem in greatness 
and goodness and excellence ? 

11. Ahuramazda answered him: That, indeed, right- 
eous Zarathushtra ! which a man recites as the Ashem, 
starting up from sleep and going to sleep again, praising 
good thoughts, &c. [as in ver. 7]. 

12. What is the one recital of the Ashem which is worth 
a myriad of the other recitals of the Ashem in greatness 
and goodness and excellence ? 

13. Ahuramazda answered him: That, indeed, right- 
eous Zarathushtra! which a man recites as the Ashem, 
awakiag and rising from sleep, praising good thoughts, &c. 
[as in ver. 7]. 

14. What is the one recital of the Ashem which is worth 
the whole region of Qaniratha, with cattle and with wealth 
in humankind,! in greatness and goodness and excellence ? 

15. Ahuramazda answered him: That, indeed, right- 
eous Zarathushtra ! which a man recites as the Ashem at 
the extreme end of life, praising good thoughts and good 
words and good deeds, renouncing all evil thoughts and 
evil words and evil deeds. 

16. What is the one recital of the Ashem which is worth 
aU this which is in the earth and in the sky, and this earth, 
and those luminaries, and all good things created by Mazda 
(and) of rightful origin ? 

17. Ahuramazda answered him: That, indeed, right- 
eous Zarathushtra ! when one forsakes evil thoughts and 
evil words and evil deeds. 

Yt. xxii. I. Zarathushtra asked Ahuramazda : Ahura- 
1 Or perhaps '' with chiefs among men.'" 


mazda ! most munificent spirit, creator of the settlements 
supplied ■with creatures, righteous one ! when a righteous 
man passes away, where dwells his soul that night ? 

2. Then said Ahuramazda : It sits down in the vicinity 
of the head, chanting the GS.tha Ushtavaiti, imploring 
blessedness (thus) : Blessed is he, blessed is every one to 
whom Ahuramazda, ruling by his own will, shall grant 1 
(the two everlasting powers). That night the soul experi- 
ences as much of pleasure as all that which (it had) as a 
living existence (i.e., when living in this world). 

3. Where dwells his soul the second night ? 

4. Then said Ahuramazda: &o. [as in ver. 2]. That 
night, too, (the soul perceives) as much of pleasure, &c. [as 
in ver. 2]. 

S- Where dwells his soul also the third night? 

6. Then said Ahuramazda : &c. [as in ver. 2]. And that 
night, too, (the soul perceives) as much of pleasure, &c. [as 
in ver. 2]. 

7. On the passing away of the third night, as the dawn 
appears, the soul of the righteous man appears, passing 
through plants and perfumes. To him there seems a wind 
blowing forth from the more southern side, from the more 
southern quarters, a sweet scent more sweet-scented than 
other winds. 

8. Then, inhaling that wind with the nose, the soul of 
the righteous man considers : Whence blows the wind, the 
most sweet-scented wind which I have ever inhaled with 
the nostrils ? 

9. Advancing with this wind there appears to him what 
is his own religion (i.e., religious merit), in the shape of a 
beautiful maiden, brilliant, white -armed, strong, well- 
grown, erect, tall, higli-bosomed, graceful, noble, with a 
dazzling face,2 of fifteen years, with a body as beautiful in 
(its) limbs (lit. growths) as the most beautiful of creatures. 

' These phrases constitute the first two lines of the GAtha TJshtavaitL 
tioe p. 155. 
^ Or " of brilliant origin.'' 


10. Then the soul of the righteous man spoke to her, 
asking : What maiden art thou whom I have thus seen as 
yet the most beautiful of maidens in form ? 

11. Then answered him his own religion: I am, O 
youth ! thy good thoughts, good words, good deeds, (and) 
good religion, who (am) thy own religion in thy own self. 
Every one has loved thee for such greatness and goodness 
and beauty and perfume and triumph and resistance to 
foes, as thou appearest to me. 

12. Thou hast loved me, youth! the good thoughts, 
good words, good deeds, (and) good religion, with such 
greatness, &c. [as in ver. 11] as I appear to thee. 

13. When thou chancedst to see another performing 
burning (of the dead) and idol-worship, and causing op- 
pression, and cutting down trees, then thou wouldst sit 
down, chanting the G§,thas, and consecrating the good 
waters and the fire of Ahuramazda, and extolling the 
righteous man coming from near and far. 

14. Then (thou madest) me being beloved, more beloved, 
(me) being beautiful, more beautiful, (me) being desirable, 
more desirable, (me) sitting in a high place thou wouldst 
seat in a still higher place, through this good thought, 
through this good word, through this good deed. Then 
men afterwards worship me, Ahuramazda, the long-wor- 
shipped and conversed-with. 

15. The soul of the righteous man first advanced with a 
step he placed upon Humata (good thought) ; the soul of 
the righteous man secondly advanced with a step he placed 
upon Hiikhta (good word); the soul of the righteous man 
thirdly advanced with a step he placed upon Huvarshta 
(good action) ; the soul of the righteous man fourthly ad- 
vanced with a step he placed on the eternal luminaries.^ 

16. To him spake a righteous one, previously deceased, 
asking : How, righteous ©.ne ! didst thou pass away ? 
how, righteous one! didst thou come away from the 
dwellings supplied with cattle, and from the procreative 

^ These £our stages, aia tke four grades in heaven. 


birds ? from the material life to the spiritual life ? from the 
perishable life to the imperishable life ? how long was it 
for thee in the blessing ? l 

17. Then said Ahuramazda : Ask not him whom thou 
askest, who has come along the frightful, deadly, destruc- 
tive path which is the separation of the body and soul. 

18. Of the nourishments brought to him (is some) of the 
Zaremaya oil ; 2 that is the food, after decease, of a youth 
of good thoughts, of good words, of good deeds, of good 
religion ; that is the food, after decease, for a woman @f 
very good thoughts, of very good words, of very good deeds, 
well-instrueted, ruled by a master, (and) righteous. 

19. Zarathushtra asked Ahuramazda: &c. [as in ver. i] 
when a wicked man dies where dwells his soul that night ? 

20. Then said Ahuramazda : There, indeed, righteous 
Zarathushtra ! in the vicinity of the head it runs about, 
chanting the G§,tha Kam-'nem6i-zam, the saying : To 
what land shall I turn ? whither shall I go in turning ? 3 
That night the soul experiences as much of discomfort as 
all that which (it had) as a living existence {i.e., when 
living in the world). 

21. 22. Where dwells his soul the second night ? &c. [as 
in ver. 20]. 

23, 24. Where dwells his soul the third night ? &c. [as 
in ver. 20]. 

25. On the passing away of the third night, righteous 
Zarathushtra ! as the dawn appears, the soul of the wicked 
man appears, passing through terrors and stenches. To him 
there seems a wind blowing forth from the more northern 
side, from the more northern quarters, a stench more foul- 
smelling than other winds. 

26. Then, inhaling that wind with the nose, the soul of 

1 That is, "how long wast thou re- ing it the soul is supposed to become 
citing the G&tha TJshtavaiti? " See oblivious of all worldly cares and con- 
ver. 2. cems, and is thus prepared for eternal 

2 A cupful of this beverage is said happiness. 

to be given, by the archangel Vohn- ^ These phrases constitute the first 
m an, to the soul of a righteous person line of the fourth section (Yas. xlvi.) 
before it enters paradise. By drink- of the G4tha UshtaTaiti. See p. 163. 



the wicked man considers : Whence blows the wind, the 
most foul-smelling wind which I have ever inhaled with 
the nostrils ? 

27-33. [This passage, which must have heen the con- 
verse of ver. 9-15, is omitted in all known manuscripts as 
far as] the soul of the wicked man fourthly advanced with 
a step he placed on the eternal glooms.^ 

34. To him spake a wicked one, previously dead, asking: 
How, wicked one ! didst thou die ? how, wicked one ! 
didst thou come away from the dwellings supplied with 
cattle, and from the procreative birds ? from the material 
life to the spiritual life ? from the perishable life to the 
imperishable life ? how long was thy distress ? 

35. Angr8-mainyush shouted : Ask not him whom thou 
askest, who has come along the frightful, deadly, destruc- 
tive path which is the separation of the body and soul. 

36. Of the nourishments brought to him (are some) from 
poison and poisonous stench ; that is the food, after death, 
of a youth of evil thoughts, of evil words, of evil deeds, of 
evil religion ; that is the food, after death, for a harlot of 
very evil thoughts, of very evil words, of very evil deeds, 
iU-instructed, not ruled by a master, (and) wicked.2 

TheAfrin-iPaigharribar-Zaratusht contains the blessing, 
by which the high priest (Zarathushtra) of the Iranians 
used to bless a governor or king. It is said to have been 
bestowed by Spitama Zarathushtra on his royal friend 
Kavi Visht^spa. The high priest wishes the king to have 
children, to be as victorious as the hero Fr^dun, as brilliant 
as Kai Kaus, as radiant as the sun, as shining as the moon, 
as just as the angel of justice himself, as free from disease 
and death as Kai Khusro ; and that, hereafter, he (the 
blessed) may enjoy the happy Hfe of the blessed in the 

1 This is the fourth and lowest = The remaiDing sentences, append- 
grade in hell ; the first three grades ed in Westergaard's edition, do not 
being dushmata, " evil thought," dus- belong to the Hadokht Nask. 
Mkhta, "evil word," and duzh- 
varshta, " evil deed." 


land of light and splendour. The blessing concludes by 
the words " so it shall happen i as I bless you." 

The VisUdsp Yasht, the first chapter of which is partly 
identical with the preceding text, is so corrupt in its 
grammatical forms that we may refrain from examining 
its contents, which, besides, do not appear to be particu- 
larly interesting. It is divided into eight chapters, of 
which the last is nearly identical with part of the second 
fragment of the Hdd6kht Nask (Yt. xxii. i-i 8) ; but the 
whole composition seems to be of comparatively late date. 


These writings, which are comparatively very short, 
contain the prayers most commonly used by the Parsis 
nowadays ; but their contents, which are all taken from 
other parts of the Zend-Avesta (chiefly from the Yasna 
and Yashts), are of no particular interest either for the 
history of Avesta literature, or for that of the Parsi 

The five Nydyishes or praises are devoted to the Sun 
(khursh^d), the Angel of the sun {Mithra, Mihir), the 
Moon (mah), Waters (§,bS,n), and Fire (§,tash). The prayers 
addressed to the Sun and Mithra, are to be repeated thrice 
every day by every pious Parsi. Habitual neglect of this 
prevents the soul from passing the bridge CMnvcuJ, after 
death. Thrice every month the praise addressed to the 
moon is absolutely necessary. The repetition of the praise 
of the waters and fire is meritorious, but not so indis- 
pensable as that of the three other NyS.yishes. 

Afringdns- are blessings which are to be recited over a 
meal consisting of wine, milk, bread, and fruits, to which 
an angel or the spirit of a deceased person is invited, 
and in whose honour the meal is prepared. After the 

* Athajamyd^ in Vae &yesi&; this phrase coiresponds to our amen at the 
end of prayers and blessings. 


consecration (which only a priest can perform) is over, the 
meal is eaten by those who are present. 

The performance of these Afringslns is required of every 
pious Parsi at certain fixed times during the year. These 
are the six Gahanb^rs, each lasting for five days (at the 
six original seasons of the year), for which the Afringdn- 
Gahanidr is intended ; the five G§,tha days (the five last 
days of the year), during which the AfringdnGdtha must 
be used ; and lastly, the third day (Ardibahisht) of the 
first month (Fravardin) in the year, at which the perform- 
ance oiAfringdn Eapithwin, devoted to the spirit presiding 
over the southern quarter (who is the guardian of the path 
to paradise), is enjoined to every Parsi whose soul wants 
to pass the great bridge Chinvad after death. 

The five Gdhs are the prayers which are devoted to the 
several angels who preside over the five watches, into 
which the day and night are divided (as detailed above in 
the note on p. 159). These prayers must be recited every 
day at their respective times. 

The Swozah, referring to the thirty days, is extant in 
two forms. It is nothing but a calendar enumerating the 
names and attributes of the thirty spiritual beings, each of 
whom is supposed to preside over one of the thirty days 
of the month, and by whose names the days are called. 
It is chiefly recited on the thirtieth day after a man's 

XIV. — vendidAb. 
The Vendidad,! which is the code of the religious, civil, 
and criminal laws of the ancient Iranians, consists, in its 
present state, of twenty-two chapters, commonly called 
fargards (exactly corresponding to the word perleche), i.e., 
sections. The style of its constituent parts is too varied 
to admit of ascribing it to a single author. Some parts are 

^ Tbis name is a corruption of lA- their influence. In Pahlavi it ii 
fia4v6-ddteni, " what is given against usually translated literally by jaiitijf 
the demons," i.e., to guard against shi<M-ddd. 



evidently very old, and might be traced to the first cen- 
turies subseq^uent to the prophet ; but the greater bulk of 
the work contains (like the Talmud) too minute a descrip- 
tion of certain ceremonies and observances to allow a 
modern critic to trace it to the prophet, or even to one of 
his disciples. The Vendid&d as a whole (some of its parts 
seem to be lost, especially those containing the original 
texts, or the Avesta, of the old laws) is apparently the 
joint work of the Zarathushtras, or high-priests, of the 
ancient Iranians during the period of several centuries. 
They started with old sayings and laws (Avesta), which 
must partially have descended from the prophet himself,^ 
and interpreted them in various ways, often contradicting 
each other. These interpretations, the so-called Zend, 
became in the course of time as authoritative as the Avesta, 
or the original text, of the scripture itself, and in many 
cases, seem to have superseded it. This Zend was then 
capable of further explanation, which was less authori- 
tative and went by the name "P^zand." That we can 
actually discover these three different stages in the present 
Vendid§,d, the attentive reader wiU learn from a perusal of 
the following pages, where they wOl be separated from 
each otlier as much as possible. 

The VendidM may, as to its contents, be divided into 
three parts. The first (fargard i.— iii.) is only introductory, 
and formed very likely part of a very ancient historical or 
legendary work of a similar kind to the Sh^hnsimah. It 
contains an enumeration of sixteen Aryan countries, over 
which the Zoroastrian religion was spread (farg. i.), the 
legends of King Yima (farg. ii.), and strong recommenda- 
tions of agriculture as the most useful and meritorious 
work (farg. iii.). The second part (farg. iv.-xvii), forming 
the groundwork of the Vendidi,d, treats of laws, ceremonies, 
and observances, without keeping to any strict order. The 
third part (farg. xviii.-xxii.) is apparently an appendix 
treating of various subjects. Several extracts from this 
1 Compare for instance Vend. iv. with Yas. xlvi. s (see p. 164). 


text are liere translated, and a summary is given of the 
contents of the remainder. 

I. The First Faegard of the VendidId. 
Tht First Sixteen Settlements of the Iranians. 

I. Ahuramazda said to Spitama Zarathushtra : I created, 
Spitama Zarathushtra ! a delightful spot (which had 
been previously) nowhere habitable; for if I had not 
created, Spitama Zarathushtra ! a delightful spot (which 
had been previously) nowhere habitable, aU earthly life 
would have poured forth towards Airyana-vagj3 (the 
earthly paradise). 1 

3. As the first best of regions and countries) I, who am 
Ahuramazda, produced Airyana-va^jS of good capability. 
Thereupon, as an opposition to it, Angro-mainyush, the 
deadly, formed a mighty serpent and frost caused by the 


4. Ten months of winter are thete, two of suinmer ; 2 
and these (the latter) are cold as to water, cold as to earth, 
cold as to plants ; 3 then, as the snow falls around, then 
is the direst disaster. 


5. As the second best of regions* and countries, I, who 
am Ahuramazda, produced G§,u, in which Sughdha is 

^ The disconnected phrases which "and afterwards also hapta henti 
constitute ver. 2 are evidently frag- hoMint mdonhd,paficha sayana(aevm 
ments of an old Avesta commentary, are the sUmmer ihonths, five the win- 
either quoted by the tahlavi trans- ter) is declared." 
lator, or left untranslated by him, ' The phrase adAazimaA^maMMm, 
and must be read as portions of the adha zintaM karedha^m (then is mid- 
commentary, not as part of the text, winter, then is the heart of winter)) 
The Pahlavi commentary, which con- not being translated by the Pahlavi 
bains these Avesta phrases, is rather commentator, appears to be merely 
obscure, but evidently refers to the quoted by him from some older 
general arrangement of the after part Avesta commentary. 
of the fargard, as well as to the * That is, "second of the best 
details of the first sentence. regions." 

' The Pahlavi translator adds : 


situated. Thereupon, as an opposition to it, Angr6- 
mainyush, the deadly, formed a pestilence ^ which is fatal 
to cattle great and small. 

6. As the third best of regions and countries, I, who 
am Ahuramazda, produced M6uru (Marv), the strong, the 
righteous. Thereupon, as an opposition to it, Angr6- 
tnainyush, the deadly, formed war and pillage. 

7. As the fourth best of regions and countries, I, who 
am Ahuramazda,. produced fortunate BSkhdhi (Bactria), 
with the lofty banner. Thereupon, as an opposition to it, 
Angr6-mainyush, the deadly, formed buzzing insects and 
poisonous plants. 

8. As the fifth best of regions and countries, I, who am 
Ahuramazda, produced Ms^ (Nissea), [(Zend) which is 
between Mouru and BIkhdhi]. Thereupon, as an opposi- 
tion to it, Angr6-m9,iayush, the deadly, formed the curse 
of unbelief. 

9. As the sixth best of regions and countries, I, who 
am Ahuramazda, produced HarSyu (Herat), the water- 
diffusing. 2 Thereupon, as an opposition to it, Angr6- 
mainyush, the deadly, formed hail and poverty. 

10. As the seventh best of regions and countries, I, who 
am Ahuramazda, produced VaSkereta,3 in which Duzhaka 
is situated. Thereupon, as an opposition to it, Angr6- 
mainyush, the deadly, formed the witch {pairika, " malevo- 
iBut fairy ") Khnltthaiti, who attached herself to Keres^spa. 

11. As the eighth best of regions and countries, I, who 
am Ahuramazda, produced UrvS,,^ abounding in pasture. 
Thereupou, as an opposition to it, Angro-mainyush, the 
deadly, formed the curse of devastation.5 

1 The Pahlavi translation has believe in their beoomiBg purified 
hUrako mSjf, " a swarm of locusts." after a ce^^tain lapse of time. Herat 

2 The Pahlavi translator calls it is called Hariva in the cuneiform 
"the village-deserting ; and its village- inscriptions. 

desertion is this, where we keep the ^ Probably Sajast^n ; though the 

periods of nine nights and a month, Pahlavi translator identifies it with 

they desert the house as evil, and go Kabul. 

away :" that is, they deserted pol- * Perhaps Kabul. 

luted houses altogether, and did not * Perhaps " evil invasions." 


12. As the ninth best of regions and countries, T, who 
am Ahuramazda, produced Khnenta,^ in which Vehrk§,na 
is situated. Thereupon, as an opposition to it, Angro- 
mainyush, the deadly, formed the evil, inexpiable deeds of 

13. As the tenth best of regions and countries, I, who 
am Ahuramazda, produced the fortunate Haraqaiti.2 There- 
upon, as an opposition to it, Angro-mainyush, the deadly, 
formed the evil, inexpiable deeds of burying the dead. 

14. As the eleventh best -of regions -and countries, I, 
who am Ahuramazda, produced Ha§tumat,3 the brilliant, 
the glorious. Thereupon, as an opposition to it, Angro- 
mainyush, the deadly, formed evil sorceries. 


15. And this was its essential token, this -(its) essential 
appearance ; as wherever tkey attained the sorcery of 
incantation, then are the worst sorceries, then those evea 
arise which are for murder and wounding the hearty they 
are capable of any blights and potions.-* 


16. As the twelfth best of regions and countries, I, who 
am Ahuramazda, produced Eagha with the three races.5 
Thereupon, as an opposition to it, Angro-mainyush, the 
deadly, formed the curse of over-scepticism. 

17. As the thirteenth best of regions and countries, I, 

1 Possibly Kandahar. iato Pahlavi, states that 'sorcery is 

2 The Harauvati of the caneiform ' this, that although they desire it 
iiDscriptions, and Araohosia of the ' not, yet it happens, and tlien it is 
classics. ' said that it is in a way not allow- 

* The modem Hiknajid, and Ety- ' able ;' &c. [as in ver. 15 in the 

mander of the classics. text]. 

■* These phrases are evidently the ^ The PaMairi explains the three 

remains <of am old Zend in the Avesta raeesaathethreeoriginalclassesof the 

language, the iirst portion of which community : the priests, warriors, 

is given by the Fahlavi translator and husbandmeB. The extra phrase 

at&y in Pahlavi, 'wiiile he gives these vaSdhanhS n8id uzdish is to be taken 

phrases in both languages. This old probably in connection with the end 

Zend, «r commentary, as translated of the Pahlavi commentary. 


who am Ahuramazda, produced Chakhra, the strong, the 
righteous. Thereupon, as an opposition to it, AngrS- 
mainyush, the deadly, formed the evil, inexpiable deeds of 
burning the dead. 

1 8. As the fourteenth best of regions and countries, I, 
who am Ahuramazda, produced Varena, which is four- 
cornered ; 1 at which was born ThraStaona (Fr^diin), the 
slayer of the destructive serpent (Azhi-Dah§,k). There- 
upon, as an opposition to it, Angr6-mainyush, the deadly, 
formed untimely menstruations, and non- Aryan plagues of 
the country.2 

19. As the fifteenth best of regions and countries, I, 
who am Ahuramazda, produced (the land) of the seven 
rivers (India). 3 Thereupon, as an opposition to it, Angro- 
mainyush, the deadly, formed untimely menstruations, and 
irregular fever. 

20. As the sixteenth best of regions and countries, 
I, who am Ahuramazda, produced those who dwell 
without .ramparts on the sea-coast. Thereupon, as an 
opposition to it, AngrS-mainyush, the deadly, formed frost 
caused by the Devas, and hoar-frost as a covering of the 


21. There are also other fortunate regions and countries, 
valleys and hills, and extensive plains. 

2. The Second Faegard. 
{Yima, or JamshSd, the King of the Golden Age.) 

I. Zarathushtra asked Ahuramazda: Ahuramazda! 

' Varena is probably Ghlia,n ; but Indus country, or India. The ad- 

thePahlavi translator states that some ditional phrase : hacha ushastara 

say it is Ktrm&n, and that it was Mindva avi daoshatarem Mindum, 

called four-cornered because it had "from the eastern (lit. more morn- 

either four roads, or four gates. ing) Hindu to the western (lit. more 

2 Perhaps " non- Aryan invasions of evening) Hindu," is merely an Avesta 

the country." phrase quoted by the Pahlavi trans- 

^ Hapta Hindu is the sapta-sind- lator. 
tavas of the Vedas, a name of the 


most munificent Spirit, creator of the settlements supplied 
with creatures, righteous one ! with what man didst thou, 
who art Ahuramazda, first converse, besides me, who am 
Zarathushtra (i.e., before me) ? [(P§,zand) to whom didst 
thou teach the Ahuryan, Zoroastrian faith ?] 

2. Then said Ahuramazda : With Yima, the fortunate, 
the rich in flocks, righteous Zarathushtra ! with him I, 
who am Ahuramazda, conversed first among men, besides 
thee (i.e., before thee), who art Zarathushtra. [(P§,zand) 
to him I taught the Ahuryan, Zoroastrian faith.] 

3. Then I said to him, Zarathushtra ! I, who am 
Ahuramazda : Become, fortunate Yima Vivanghana ! 
my promulgator and bearer of the faith (the Zoroastrian 
religion). Then he, the fortunate Yima, answered me, 
Zarathushtra ! Neither am I fit, nor known, as promul- 
gator and bearer of the faith. 

4. Then I said to him, Zarathushtra ! I, who am 
Ahuramazda : If thou, Yima ! wilt not become my pro- 
mulgator and bearer of the faith, then enclose my settle- 
ments ; then thou shalt become the conservator and the 
herdsman and the protector of my settlements. 

5. Then he, the fortunate Yima, answered me, Zara- 
thushtra ! I wOl enclose l thy settlements ; I wiU become 
the conservator and the herdsman and the protector of 
thy settlements; in my empire there shall be no cold 
wind nor hot, no fog, no death.2 

7. Then I, who am Ahuramazda, brought forth his im- 
plements, a golden sword ^ and a goad decorated with 
gold. Yima is to bear the royal dignity. 

8. Then the sway was given to Yima for three hundred 
winters {i.e., years). Then his earth was to be filled with 

' Or "enlarge, extend." ' In Pahlavi sHIdk-Mmand, "har- 

^ The phrases which constitute rer. ing holes, a sieve," which supporta 

6 are merely Avesta passages quoted the view that s«/i"(i=Sans. sMI/rpa, 

by the Pahlavi commentator in sup- "winnowing tray." A ploughshare 

port of his statements, and form no would be sMak (not sUl&k) in Pahlavi. 
part of the text. 


cattle, oxen, men, dogs, birds, and red blazing fires. They 
found no room therein, the cattle, oxen, and men. 

9. Then I made known to Yima: fortunate Yima 
Vivanghana ! the earth is to be filled with the assemblage 
of cattle, oxen, men, dogs, birds, and red blazing fires. 
They find no room therein, the cattle, oxen, and men. 

10. Then Yima went forth towards the stars on the 
sun's noonday path;l he touched this earth with the 
golden sword, he pierced into it with the goad, speaking 
thus : Extend, bounteous Armaiti ! enlarge and spread, 
bearer of cattle and oxen and men ! 

11. Then Yima made the earth expand herself by one- 
third larger than she was before ; there the cattle and 
oxen and men walk according to their own will and 
pleasure, [(Paizand) just as it is their pleasure]. 


12-15. Then the sway was given to Yima for six 
hundred winters, &c. [as in ver. 8-n, but substituting 
« two-thttds" for " one-third"]. 

16-19. Then the sway was given to Yima for nine 
hundred winters, &c. [as in ver. 8-1 1, but substituting " to 
three-thirds " for " by one-third "],^ 


21. An assembly was held with the heavenly angels by 
Ahuramazda, the creator, the renowned in Airyana-va^jd 
of good qualities. 


An assembly was held, with the best men, by Yima, the 
king, rich in flocks, the renowned in Airyana-va^jo of good 
qualities. To this assembly, with the heavenly angels, 
came Ahuramazda, the creator, the renowned in Airyana- 
valjo of good qualities. 

' That is, towards the soKtli ; ^ The phrases constituting ver. 20 

rapithwa means the time called gdh are merely Avesta passages quoted by 

rapithwan, lasting from 10 A.M. to the Pahlari commentator, and form 

3 P.M. no part of the text. 


To this assembly, with the best men, came Yima, the 
king, rich ia flocks, the renowned in Airyana-vaej6 of good 

22. Then spake Ahuramazda to Yima : fortunate 
Yima Vivanghana! unto the material world the evil of 
winter will come, and consequently a strong, deadly frost. 

Unto the material world the evil of winter will come ; 
consequently much driving smow wiU fall on the highest 
mountains, on the summits of the heights. 

23. From three places, Yima ! the cows should go 
away, when they are in the most baneful of places (deserts), 
and when they are on the tops of the mountains, and when 
in the gorges of the valleys, into the well-fastened cottages. 


24. Before the winter the produce of this country was 
pasturage ; the water used before to overflow it, and after- 
wards the melting of the snow, aod pools would occur 
there, O Yima ! in the material world, where the footprints 
of cattle and their young would appear. 

25. Then malse that enclosure the length of a riding- 
ground on each of the four sides ; bring thither the seeds 
of cattle, oxen, men, dogs, birds, and red blazing fires. 


Then make that enclosure the length of a riding-ground 
on each of the four sides, for a dwelling-place of men ; the 
length of a riding-ground on each of the four sides, as a 
field for cows (a cattle-run). 


26. There collect the water into a channel the size of a 
H&,thra;l there fix land-marks on a gold-coloured spot 

' A measure equivalent to a Farsang of one thousand footsteps of two 
feet ; see Bund. p. 63. 


(provided) with imperishable food; there erect houses 
(composed of) mats and poles and roofs and walls. 


27. Thither bring the seeds of all men and women who 
are the greatest and best and finest on this earth. Thither 
bring the seeds of all kinds of cattle which are the greatest 
and best and finest on this earth. 

28. Thither bring the seeds of all plants which are the 
tallest and most odoriferous on this earth. Thither bring 
the seeds of all foods which are the most eatable and most 
odoriferous on this earth. Make pairs of them unceasingly, 
in order that these men may exist in the enclosures. 


29. There shall be no overbearing, no low-spiritedness, 
no stupidity, no violence, no poverty, no deceit, no dwarf- 
ishness, no deformity, no monstrous teeth, no leprosy 
overspreading the body, nor any of the other signs which 
are the badge of Angr6-mainyush, and are laid upon men. 

30. In the uppermost part of the country make nine 
bridges, in the middle six, in the lowermost three. To the 
bridges in the uppermost part bring the seeds of a thousand 
men and women, to those of the middle part six hundred, 
to those of the lowermost part three hundred ; and com- 
pass them in the enclosures with the golden sword,^ and 
furnish a door to the enclosure, (and) a self-lighting window 
from the inside. 

31. Then Yima considered: How shall I make the 
enclosure as Ahuramazda told me ? Then Ahuramazda 
spoke to Yima: fortunate Yima Vtvanghana! distend 
this earth with the heels, rend it with the hands, like as 
men now separate the earth in cultivating. 

32. Then Yima did so as Ahuramazda desired ; he dis- 

' If this implement be a plough it enclosure. If the implement be a 
would surround them with a furrow, winnowing-tray, they are to be 
hut this would not be a very effectual covered over with it. 


tended this earth with the heels, he rent it with the hands, 
like as men now separate the earth in cultivating.! 

33-38. Then Yima made the enclosure, &c. [correspond- 
ing to ver. 25-30]. 


39. Creator of the settlements supplied with creatures, 
righteous one ! Which then are those lights, righteous 
Ahuramazda ! which shine there in those enclosures which 
Yima made ? 

40. Then spake Ahuramazda: Self-created lights and 
created ones. [(P^zand) All the eternal lights shine up 
above, all created lights shine below from inside.j Once 
(a year) one sees there the stars and moon and sun rising 
and setting. 

41. And they thiak that a day which is a year. Every 
forty years two human beings are born from two human 
beings, [(PIzand) a pair, female and male]. So also with 
those which are of the cattle species. Those men enjoy 
the greatest happiness in these enclosures which Yima 

42. Creator of the settlements supplied with creatures, 
righteous one ! Who propagated there the Mazdayasnian 
religion in these enclosures which Yima made? Then 
spake Ahuramazda : The bird Karshipta, Spitama 
Zarathushtra ! 

43. Creator of the settlements supplied with creatures, 
righteous one! Who is their heavenly lord and earthly 
master ? Then said Ahuramazda : Urvatad-nar6, Zara- 
thushtra ! and thou who art Zarathushtra. 

3. The Third Faegard. 
(The, Holiness of AgricuUmre, Vend. iii. 24-33.) 

A vesta. 
24. For this earth is not a place which is to lie long un- 

' This verse is found only in the VendidM S4dah, and is probably an 
addition made by the Zendist. 


cultivated. She is to be ploughed by the ploughman, th.'it 
she may be for them (men) a habitation of a good (kind). 
Then the beautiful woman (the earth), who long goes 
childless, so (produces) for them male progeny (bulls) of a 
good (kind). 


25. "Whoever cultivates this earth, O Spitama Zara- 
thushtra ! with the left arm and th? right, with the right 
arm and the left, unto him she bears fruit ; in like manner 
as a loving man does to (his) beloved, she stretched on the 
connubial couch [(P§,zand) lying on a place *] brings forth 
to him a son [(P§,zand) or fruit]. 

26. Whoever cultiv-ates this earth, Spitama Zara- 
thushtra ! with the left arm and the right, with the right 
arm a,nd the left, then spealcs th« earth to him : man ! 
who cultivatest me with the left arm and the right, with 
the right arm and the left, (27) I will, indeed, prosper the 
countries here, I will, indeed, come to bear all nourish- 
ments here; [(Psizand^ may they (the fields) yield a full 
crop besides barley]. 

28. Whoever does not cultivate this earth, Spitama 
Zarathustra ! with the left arm and the right, with the 
right arm and the left, then speaks the earth to him : 
man ! who dost not cultivate me with the left arm and 
the right, with the right arm and the left, (29) here thou 
standest, indeed, at another's door obtaining victuals 
[(P§,zand) among the beggars], and victuals are brought to 
thee, sitting outside, indeed, in driblets. [(Pizand) They 
are brought to thee by those who have abundance of goods.] 

30. Creator, &c., [as in ii. 39] : What causes the growth 
of the Mazdayasnian religion ? Then said Ahuramazda : 
Whatever is efficacious in the cultivation of barley, 
Spitama Zarathushtra ! 

> The words gdtuBh sayamnd are amn6. Vantu evidently appertains 

an explanation of the older phrase to vaiita, which is defined as "a virtu- 

vafdavS stareta ; gdtush, "place," ous woman" in the Farhang-i Oiin- 

explaining vaiUavS, and stareta, khad&k. 
"stretched," corresponding to sa;/- 


31. Whoever cultivates barley, lie cultivates righteous- 
ness, [(Pazand) he promotes the Mazdayasnian religion], he 
extends this Mazdayasnian religion as by a hundred resist- 
ances (against the demons), a thousand offerings, ten thou- 
sand prayer-readings.i 


32. When barley oecurs,2 then the demons hiss ; 
When thrashing occurs, then the demons whine ; 
When grinding occurs, then the demons roar ; 
When flour occurs, then the demons flee. 


So the demons are driven out from the place [(Pazand] 
in the house for this flour] ; they shall burn their jaws, 
whereby it happens that the greater number are fellow- 
fugitives when barley becomes plentiful 

33. Then may he (the cultivator), therefore, recite the 

There is no strength in those who do not eat, 
ISTeither for vigorous righteousness, 
Nor for vigorous husbandry, 
Nor for vigorous begetting of sons. 
[(Pazand) Por by eating all living beings exist ; with- 
out eating they must die.] 

4. The FauBTH Faroaeb. 
(Civil and Criminal Zaus.) 

I. Whoever does not xetxun. property to the owner of 
the property, becomes a thief of the property, taking it by 

1 Cultivation of barley, or wheat, is 1000, and 10,000 other meritorious 

equivalent, so far as the destruction works. 

of the bad creation (the duty of every " The original is in metrical verses, 

Zoroastrian) is concerned, to 100, which contain even rhymes. 


force.i if he seize for his own out of anything of theirs 
agreed upon, whether by day or by night. 

2. Creator of the settlements supplied with creatures, 
righteous one ! how many such agreements (rnithra) are 
thine, who art Ahuramazda ? Then said Ahuramazda : 
Six, righteous Zarathushtra ! The first by words, the 
second by offering the hand, the third by (depositing) the 
value of a sheep, the fourth by (depositing) the value of 
an ox, the fifth by (depositing) the value of a man (slave), 
the sixth by (depositing) the value of a district [(Pi,zand) 
of a well-thriviag, fenced-in, walled-in, well -arranged, 
prosperous district]. 

3, 4. The word makes the first agreement (promise). 
After that, the offering of the hand is marked, [(P§,zand) the 
offering of the hand takes place after that among friends] ; 
after that, that of a sheep's value is marked, [(P§,zand) that 
of a sheep's value takes place among friends] ; after that, 
that of an ox's value is marked, [(P^zand) that of an ox's 
value takes place among friends] ; after that, that of a 
man's value is marked, [(P^zand) that of a man's value 
takes place among friends] ; after that, that of a district's 
value is marked, [(P^zand) that of a district's value takes 
place among friends]. 

5. Creator of the settlements supplied with creatures, 
righteous one ! What punishment has the breaker of an 
agreement, made by words, to undergo ? Then said Ahu- 
ramazda : He has to pay a fine of 300 pieces to the next 
kinsmen (of the defrauded one). 

(The fine varies from 300 to 1000 pieces; the breaking 
of the second class of agreement is fined by 600, that of 
the third by 700, that of the fourth by 800, that of the 
fifth by 900, and that of the sixth by looo pieces of atone- 
ment money.) 

^ The phriise ya^ nd kasvikdmchana transUtoT, and forms no part of tho 
is merely quoted by the Pahlavi text. 



II. Creator of the settlements supplied with creatures, 
righteous one ! Whoever violates an agreement made by 
words, what is his punishment ? Then said Ahuramazda : 
One may give him three hundred blows with a horse-goad 
[(later PS,zand) three hundred with a whip]. 

(According to this P^zand the number of blows varies 
from three hundred to one thousand, exactly in the same 
order as in the Zend above.) 


17. When a man's weapon rises, that is his attempt (%e- 
repteTTi) ; when it assails, that is his assault (avaoirishtem) ; 
when it penetrates any one with evil intention, that is his 
perpetration (of manslaughter, aredush) ; at the fifth per- 
petration the man forfeits himself (his life). 

What follows (ver. 18-42) is P^zand, which, as to its 
character, is completely in accordance with the Pazand in 
ver. 11-16. The Zend or old explanation of this criminal 
law is lost, but from this Pazand it may be seen that the 
distinctions regarding the degree of guilt in attempted or 
accomplished murder, have become in course of time much 
more numerous. In the old text or Avesta, as quoted 
above (ver. 17), there are only three degrees distinguished, 
namely, dgereptem, or attempt; avaoirishtem, or assault; 
and aredush, or perpetration. In its Zend or commentary 
there were probably more distinctions made, and different 
degrees of punishment mentioned, as we may infer from 
the Zend following ver. i. In this Avesta capital punish- 
ment is ordered only when aredush has been committed 
five times. In the Pazand or sub-commentary there is a 
detailed list of punishments, consisting of blows with a 
horse-goad or whip, varying from five to two hundred in 

Towards the end of the fourth Fargard (ver. 44-54). ^e 
have only Avesta without Zend or commentary. This 


Avesta, which is certainly very old, and refers apparently 
to various subjects, is so very obscure in style as to be the 
most difficult passage of the whole Vendidad. In its be- 
ginning there is an ancient law,, enjoining the greatest 
friendship and equality among the members of the Zoro- 
astrian community. It runs as follows : ' And when men 
' of the same (Mazdayasnian) religion should eome here, 
' either brothers or friends^ seeking a field, or seeking a 
' wife, or seeking wisdom, if they should eome seeking a 
' field, they may acquire their field here, if they should come 
' seeking a wife, you may make some of the women marry ; 
' if they should come seeking wisdom, you may recite the 
' beneficent texta' 

5, The Faesaeds V.-XVII. 

From the fifth to the eighth Fargard, we find very minute 
and detailed precepts for the treatment of a dead body, the 
construction of Dakhmas or " towers of silence," and the 
purification of men or things- tn-ought into contact with a 
corpse. The idea pervading the whole is the utter impu- 
rity of a dead body, and the extreme purity and sacred- 
ness of earth, fire, and water. No. impure thing can, 
therefore, be thrown upon any one of these elements, be- 
cause it would spoH the good creation by increasing the 
power and influeace of the datvas or demons, who take 
possession of the body as soon as a man is dead. The 
corpse is, therefore, to be carried on to the barren top of a 
mountain or hill, and to be placed on stones (or iroa plates), 
and exposed to dogs and vultures, so as to benefit in this 
way the animals of the good creation. A man who touches 
a dead body, the contagious impurity of which has not 
been previously checked by holding towards the corpse- a 
peculiar kind of dog,^ is said to be at once visited by a 

' Which is called "the four-eyed colour of the rest of his body varies- 
dog," a yellow spot on each of its eye- from yellow to white. To his eyes- 
lids being considered an additional a kind of ma^etic influenoe is as- 
eye. He has yellow ears, and the eribedv 


spectre, representing death itself. This is called druTchsh 
nasush, " the destructive corruption." To get rid of this 
annoyance he is to be sprinkled with water on the different 
parts of his body, as described with the greatest minute- 
ness in the eighth Fargard. 

In the same Fargard (vers. 73-96) the preparation of the 
sacred fire is described. Fires from sixteen different places 
are required, which, after having been purified by praying 
over them, must be brought to one and the same hearth 
(called ddityS-gdtush, now Bddgdh). The fire in which a 
dead body is being burnt is indispensable ; although it be 
the most impure of all,i it is believed to have absorbed the 
fire (heat or electricity) which was in the animal body. It 
is called nasupdka, and its obtainment and purification by 
putting it into a certain number of holes called handareza 
(Persian anddzah, " a measure "), which requires much 
trouble, are more minutely described than the acquisition 
of the other fires (those of dyers, potters, glassworkers, 
blacksmiths, bricklayers, &c.). The collective fire obtained 
in this way represents the essence of nature, the fluid per- 
vading the whole earth, the cause of all growth, vigour, 
and splendour, and it is, therefore, regarded with great 
reverence by the Parsis. 

In the ninth Fargard there is a very detailed description 
of the great purification ceremony, called the " Barashnom 
of nine nights," which lasts for nine days (or rather nights). 
It is intended for the removal of any impurity whatever, 
and is practised chiefly by priests. The person who has to 
undergo the ceremony must drink the urine of a cow, sit 
on stones within the compass of certain magic circles, and 
while moving from one heap of stones to another he must 
rub his body with cow's urine, then with sand, and lastly 
wash it with water. This custom has descended from the 
most ancient times, when a purifying and healing influence 

' To burn a dead body is, according to th«i spirit of the ^oroastrian law, 
one of the greatest crimes. 


■yas ascribed to the urine proceeding from so sacred an 
animal as the cow was to the ancient Aryans.^ 

In the tenth and eleventh Fargards prayers are enume- 
rated, which were believed to have the power of removing 
the impurity caused by contact with a dead body. All 
these prayers are to be found in the older part of the 

The twelfth Fargard treats of the duration of mourning 
tor the death of the head of a family, and of relations in 
different degrees. For those who die as righteous men by 
the law of nature (who are called dahmas) only half as 
much time of mourning is required as for those who die 
by their own hands, or are executed (who are called tanu- 

The thirteenth and fourteenth Fargards treat of dogs and 
water-dogs (udra, " otter "), which are not to be badly 
treated, wounded, mutilated, starved, or killed. Should 
a man be found guilty of such charges, he is to be severely 
punished. The killing of an otter is especially regarded as 
a horrible crime, since this animal is believed to contain 
the souls of a thousand male and a thousand female dogs. 
A man who commits this crime has to receive ten thou- 
sand lashes with a horsewhip, according to the later inter- 
pretation ; or he must kill ten thousand animals of the bad 
creation, such as snakes, mice, lizards, frogs, &c., and carry 
ten thousand loads of wood to the fire, &c. 

In the fifteenth Fargard various topics are treated, such 
as the sins called peshS-tamt (i.e., such actions as are not 
of themselves considered specially hurtful or injurious, 
but which may under certain circumstances cause damage 
or injury), the crime of procuring abortion in the case of 
an illegitimate child,^ and the treatment of pregnant dogs. 

The whole sixteenth Fargard is devoted to the treatment 
of women at the time of their menstruation. 

^ Cow's urine was probably a meta- ^ This is strictly prohibited, and if 

phorical name for " rain-water " ori- it be committed, the seducer, the girl, 

ginally — the clouds being cows meta- and the nurse, are equally guilty of 

phorically. the murder. 


In the seventeenth Fargard precepts are given how to 
treat hair and nails which have been cut. The demons 
must be prevented from using the cuttings for doing injury 
to the good creation. 


The commencement of this Targard is probably lost, as 
it appears to begin now in the middle of a subject ; and 
its contents are of a very miscellaneous character, as may 
be seen from the following translation : — 

1. For many a man — so said Ahuramazda: righteous 
Zarathushtra ! wears another mouth-veil l {pendm, though) 
unclothed with religion ; falsely he is termed a fire-priest ; 
thou shouldst not call him a fire'priest,-"so said Ahura- 
mazda : righteous Zarathushtra ! 2 

2. He carries another vermin-killer 3 (khrafstragJma, 
though) unclothed with religion; falsely he is termed a 
fire-priest; thou shouldst not call him a fire^priestj^so 
said Ahuramazda : righteous Zarathushtra ! * 

3. He carries another plant* (as harsom, though) un- 
clothed with reli^on; falsely he is termed a fire-priest; 
thou shouldst not call him a fire'-priest,— so said Ahura- 
mazda : righteous Zarathtlshtra ! 

4. He wields the deadly poniard (for sacrificing, though) 
unclothed with religion ; falsely he is termed a fire-priest ; 

> That is, not the kind of rttouth- ^ Tha extta words haS-erezii-frath- 

veil used by priests. The paitlddna, anhem, "two fingers' breadth," are 

"a putting-on, » mouth-veil" (Pahl. merely an Avesta quotation, made by 

paddm, FAz. penSm), consists of two the Pahlavi translator, with reference 

pieces of white cotton cloth, hailging to the extent of the Pen6m. 

loosely from the bridge of the nose t* * That isj not the kind used by 

at least two inches below the mouth, priests. The krafstraghna was some 

and tied with two strings at the back implement that has now gone out of 

of the head. It must be worn by a use. 

priest whenever he approaches the * The two additional phrases are 

sacred fire, so as to prevent his breath quoted by the Ptthlavi translator. 

from contaminating the fire. On cer- ' This seems to refer to the use of 

tain occasions a layman has to use a twigs of any improper plant for the 

Bulistitute for the penSm by screening sacred harsom. 
his mouth and nose with a portion of 
his muslin shirt 


thou shouldst not call him a fire-priest, — so said AhTira- 
mazda : righteous Zarathushtra ! 

5. Whoever lies the whole night through -without pray- 
ing, without reciting (the G^thas), without repeating (the 
short prayers), without performing (any' ceremony), with- 
out studying, without teaching,^ in order to acquire a soul 
fit for the Chinvad (bridge),^ falsely he is termed a fire- 
priest; thou shouldst not call him a fire-priest, — so said 
Ahuramazda : righteous Zarathushtra ! 

6. Thou shouldst call him the fire-priest — so said Ahura- 
mazda : righteous Zarathushtra ! — who, the whole night 
through, would interrogate a righteous understanding, free 
from anxiety (or defect), fit for the widening (and) gratify- 
ing 3 Chinvad bridge, (and) obtaining the life, righteous- 
ness, and perfection of the best life (paradise). 

7. Inquire, just one ! of me who am the Creator, the 
most munificent, the wisest, and the readiest replier to 
questions ; so will it be better for thee, so wilt thou be 
more beneficent, if thou wilt inquire of me. 

8. Zarathushtra asked Ahuramazda : Ahuramazda ! 
most munificent spirit, creator of the settlements supplied 
with creatures, righteous one! through what is one a 
criminal worthy of death ? 

9. 10. Then said Ahuramazda: By teaching an evil reli- 
gion, Spitama Zarathushtra ! Whoever, during three 
spring seasons, does not put on the sacred thread-girdle 
(kusti),*' does not recite the G§;thas, does not reverence the 
good waters, and whoever sets this man,^ delivered into 
my custody, again at large, thereby performs no better 

' Or, perhaps, "mthout stndying ^ Or, perhaps, "assisting," "ser- 

the accents, and "without intoning viceable." 

them : " comp. Sana, shikshd. * The Parsis wear the kusti as an 

2 That is, a soul so good that it indispensable symbol of their religion; 

•will find the Chinvad bridge wide itisformedof seventy-twofinewoollen 

enough to allow it to pass over it to threads twisted together, 

heaven. If the soul be wicked it is ' Who neglects his duties as before 

said to find the bridge too narrow for stated, and so incurs punishment o» 

it to pass over. tribulation. 


work than if he should cut the extent of the skin off his 

11. For the prayer of one heretical, evil, unrighteous 
(man) lengthens the chin; (that) of two lengthens the 
tongue ; of three there is no (such prayer) whatever ; four 
invoke themselves.^ 

12. Whoever gives of the out-squeezed Horn-juice, or of 
the consecrated meats, to one heretical, evil, unrighteous 
(man), thereby performs no better work than if he should 
lead a troop of a thousand horse into the Mazdayasnian 
villages, should slay the men, and should drive away the 
cattle as booty. 

13. Inquire, just one ! &c. [as in ver. 7]. 

14. Zarathushtra asked, &c. [as in ver. 8, to] righteous 
one ! who is the dutiful attendant (sraoshdvareza) of Srosh 
the righteous, the mighty, the embodiment of the sacred 
word, the impetuous runner ? 

15-17. Then said Ahuramazda : The bird named Paro- 
darsh, Spitama Zarathushtra ! which evil-speaking men 
call by the name Kahrkat§,s.^ Moreover, this bird raises 
(its) voice at the approach of dawn * (thus) : Arise ye men ! 
praise the righteousness which is most perfect; repulsed 
are the demons ; this one oppresses you, Bdshyasta ^ the 
long-handed, she lulls to sleep the whole living creation 
after it is awakened by the light (saying): Sleep long, 
man ! it befits thee not (to rise) ; trouble not about the 
three best things, the well-considered thought, the well- 
spoken word, and the well-done action; (but) trouble 
about the three worst things, the iU-oonsidered thought,- 
the ill-spoken word, and the ill-done action. 

18, 19. Moreover, for the first third of the night, my fire 

> That is, should scalp him. * The term usham sHram is given 

2 The meaning of this verse is very as a name for the third quarter of the 

obscure, and the text may be defec- night in the Farhang-i Olm-khadtik. 

tiv«. " The demoness personifying un- 

* A nickname of the domestic seasonable sleep and lethargy. 



of Ahuramazda l entreats the master of the house (saying) : 
Arise to help, master of the house ! put on thy clothes, 
wash thy hands, fetch firewood, hring it to me, with washed 
hands make me blaze again by means of pm-ified firewood ; 
the demon-formed Azi (covetousness) may get at me, he 
seems clinging around (my) life. 

20, 21. Then for the second third of the night, my fire 
of Ahuramazda entreats the husbandman (saying) : Arise 
to help, husbandman ! put on thy clothes, &c. [as in ver. 


22. Then for the third third of the night, my fire of 
Ahuramazda entreats Srosh the righteous (sajdng) : Arise 
to help, righteous, handsome Srosh ! does one bring to 
me any of the purified firewoods of the material world with 
washed hands ? the demon-formed Azi may get at me, he 
seems clinging around (my) life. 

23-25. Then he, Srosh the righteous, wakes the bird 
named Paro-darsh, &c. [as in vers. 15-17]. 

26. Then speaks each of two companions lying on a bed : 
Do thou arise ! he (the cock) drives me away ; whichever 
of the two rises first will attain to the best life (paradise) ; 
whichever of the two brings to the fire of Ahuramazda 
(some) of the purified firewoods with washed hands, him 
will the fire, pleased (and) unharmed, bless in the follow- 
ing manner : 

27. May a herd of cattle accompany thee ! (and so) may 
a multitude of men (sons) ! may an active mind and an 
active life attend thee ! mayst thou subsist with an exist- 
ence of the nature of (this) blessing, so many nights as thou 
shalt live ! This is the blessing of the fire for him who 
brings dry firewood, selected for burning, (and) purified by 
the utterance of the Ashem (-vohu formula). 

28. And whoever had given away, with perfect recti- 
tude, these my birds, Spitama Zarathushtra ! in a pair, 
male and female, to a righteous man, may consider his 

1 That is, my sacred fire, often called the son, or offspring, of Ahur* 


gift a mansion witli a hundred columns, a thousand girders, 
ten thousand rooms,l (and) ten thousand windows. 

29. And whoever had given a morsel 2 of flesh to this 
my hird Paro-darsh, I who am Ahuramazda shall never be 
asking him a second word, forth I will depart to the best 
life (paradise). 

30. The righteous Srosh, with lowered club, asked the 
Drukhsh : Drukhsh, inglorious (and) inactive ! dost thou 
then alone of all the living creation engender without 
cohabitation ? 

31. 32. Thereupon, she who is the fiendish Drukhsh 
answered him : righteous, handsome Srosh ! I do not 
alone of all the living creation engender without cohabita- 
tion : indeed I have even four paramours ; they cohabit 
with me just as any other males cohabit with females for 

33. The righteous Srosh, with lowered club, asked the 
Drukhsh : Drukhsh, inglorious (and) inactive ! who is 
the first of these thy paramours ? 

34, 35. Thereupon, she who is the fiendish Drukhsh 
answered him : righteous, handsome Srosh ! that, indeed, 
is the first of these my paramours, when a man gives not* 
the merest trifle of unused clothes to a righteous man 
(when they are) begged for with perfect rectitude, he 
cohabits with me just as, &c. [as in ver. 32]. 

36. The righteous Srosh, with lowered club, asked the 
Drukhsh : Drukhsh, inglorious (and) inactive ! what is 
the extermination of (the result of) this ? 

37, 38. Thereupon, she who is the fiendish Drukhsh 
answered him : righteous, handsome Srosh ! this is the 
extermination of it, when the man gives even a trifle of 
unused clothes to a righteous man (when they) are not 
begged for with perfect rectitude, he destroys my concep- 

l The exact meaning of the words otherwise translated, but hnrdly so 

translated "rooms" and " windows" as to make sense out of all parts of 

is very uncertain. the sentence. The flesh would pol- 

^ The words tanu maz6 may be lute the cook if he ate it. 


tions just as a four-legged wolf would utterly tear a child 
out of the womb. 

39, The righteous Srosh, with lowered club, asked the 
Drukhsh: Drukhsh, inglorious (and) iuactive! who is 
the second of these thy paramours ? 

40, 41. Thereupon, she who is the fiendish Drukhsh 
answered him : righteous, handsome Srosh ! that, indeed, 
is the second of these my paramours, when a man makes 
water an instep's length beyond the toesji he cohabits 
with me just as, &c. [as in ver. 32]. 

42. The righteous Srosh, &c. [as in ver. 36]. 

43, 44. Thereupon, she who is the fiendish Drukhsh 
answered him : righteous, handsome Srosh ! this is the 
extermination of it, when the man, after he shall stand 
up,2 shall repeat, three steps off, the Ashem (-vohu formula) 
thrice, the Humatanam (Tas. xxxv. 2) twice, the Hukh- 
shathrotem§,i (Yas. xxxv. 5) thrice, shall then recite the 
Ahuna-vairya (Yas. xxvii. 1 3) four times, (and) shall pray 
YenM-h^tam (Yas. vii. 27) ; he destroys my conceptions, 
&c. [as in ver. 38]. 

45. The righteous Srosh, with lowered club, asked the 
Drukhsh: Drukhsh, inglorious (and) inactive! who is 
the third of these thy paramours ? 

46, 47. Thereupon, she who is the fiendish Drukhsli 
answered him : righteous, handsome Srosh ! that, 
indeed, is the third of these my paramours, when a man 
asleep emits semen ; he cohabits with me just as, &c. [as 
in ver. 32]. 

48. The righteous Srosh, &c. [as in ver. 36]. 

49-52. Thereupon, she who is the fiendish Drukhsh 
answered him : righteous, handsome Srosh ! this is the 
extermination of it, when the man, after waking from 
sleep, shall repeat the Ashem (-vohu formula) thrice, &c. 

1 Literally : ' the length of the measure equivalent to a hand's- 

' fore-part of the foot beyond the breadth. 

' fore-part of the foot ; ' frabda ^ From the squatting position (rest- 

(Sima. prapada), " the fore-part ing merely on the soles of the feet) 

of the foot," is understood to be a which is customary in such cases. 


[as in vers. 43, 44]. Then he speaks to the bountiful 
Armaiti (spirit of the earth): bountiful Armaiti! I 
commit to thee this progeny (lit. man), mayst thou restore 
this progeny to me at the triumphant renovation (of 
creation, at the resurrection) ! as one knowing the Gslthas, 
knowing the Yasna, attending to the discourses,^ intellec- 
tual, experienced, embodying the sacred word. Then thOu 
shouldst announce his name as Fire-produced {dtare-ddta), 
or Fire-offspring (atare-chithra), or Fire-race (dtare-zantu), 
or Fire-land (dtare-daqyu), or any other name of (those) 
formed with (the word) Fire.^ 

53. The righteous Srosh, with lowered club, asked the 
Drukhsh : Drukhsh, inglorious (and) inactive ! who is 
the fourth of these thy paramours ? 

54, 55. Thereupon, she who is the fiendish Drukhsh 
answered him : righteous, handsome Srosh ! that, indeed, 
is the fourth of these my paramours, when a man, after 
(his) fifteenth year, frequents a courtezan, ungirdled or 
uncovered,^ then at the fourth departing step, immediately 
afterwards, we who are demons, at once we occupy (his) 
tongue and marrow ; afterwards the possessed ones destroy 
the settlements of righteousness (which are) supplied with 
creatures, as the spells of sorcerers destroy the settlements 
of righteousness. 

56. The righteous Srosh, &c. [as in ver. 36]. 

57-59. Thereupon, she who is the fiendish Drukhsh 
answered him: righteous, handsome Srosh! there is 
no extermination whatever of it ; when a man, after (his) 
fifteenth year, &c. [as in vers. 54, 55]. 

60. Inquire, just one ! &c. [as in ver. 7]. 

61. Zarathushtra asked, &c. [as in ver. 8, to] righteous 
one ! who offends thee, who art Ahuramazda, with the 

1 Or "conversations," referring used for still-born children, who 
probably to such conversations be- must all be named. 

tween Ahuramazda and Zarathushtra ^ That is, without sacred thread- 
as are common in the Vendidad. girdle (ktMl) or sacred shirt (xadarah)\ 

2 The same kind of names, accord- andbddtS is a contraction of anaitoi- 
ing to Dastur Hoshangji, ought to be ddi6. 


greatest offence ? [(Zend) who annoys (thee) with the 
greatest annoyance ?] 

62. Then said Ahuramazda: Truly the courtezan, 
righteous Zarathushtra ! who commingles the seed of the 
pious and impious, of idolaters and non-idolaters, of self- 
destroying sinners and non-self-destroying sinners (i.e., 
thbse whose sins are heinous and mortal and the reverse). 

63. With a look, Zarathushtra ! she stagnates one- 
third of the mighty waters flowing in streams. "With a 
look, Zarathushtra ! she destroys one-third the growth 
of the up- shooting, flourishing, golden-coloured l trees. 

64. With a look, Zarathushtra! she destroys one- 
third the coverings (crops) of the bountiful Armaiti (spirit 
of the earth). With a leer, Zarathushtra ! she destroys 
one-third of the strength, and success, and righteousness 
of a righteous man of very good thoughts, of very good 
words, of very good deeds. 

65. I tell thee, Spitama Zarathushtra! these females 
are also more destructive than darting serpents, or than 
howling wolves, or than a she-wolf suckling her young ^ 
(who) rushes into a (sheep-) fold, or than a frog spawning 
thousands (who) dives into the water. 

66. Inquire, just one ! &c. [as in ver. 7]. 

6^, 68. Zarathushtra asked, &c. [as in ver. 8, to] righte- 
ous one ! whoever, knowingly (and) intentionally cohahits 
with a menstruous woman (who is) conscious, knowing, 
and informed (of it), what is his punishment ? what is his 
atonement? what works performed in compensation for 
this may the culprit execute ? 

69, 70. Then said Ahuramazda : Whoever, knowingly, 
&c. [as in ver. 6'j, to] informed (of it), he shall furnish a 
thousand young cattle, and he should offer, with perfect 
rectitude, the fat of the kidneys 3 of all these cattle to the 

^ Perhaps "green-coloured, ver- suggested, but the meaning is very 

dant." uncertain. 

2 This translation of the epithet ' All the old MSS. read asmamm&o 

azrd-daidhim is only a guess ; per- (not afsmanivdo), and the Pahlavi 

haps " seeing a goat " might also be translation quotes, as an explanation, 


priest for the fire ; he should offer (it) to the good waters 
with (his) arm. 

71. He should offer with perfect rectitude a thousand 
loads ^ of hard firewoods, well-hewii, (and) selected (as 
dry), for the fire ; he should offer, with perfect rectitude, a 
thousand loads of soft firewoods of the sandal-wood 
(urvdsna), or benzoin (yohli-gaona), or aloe-wood (vohd- 
kereti), or pomegranate (hadhdnaSpata),^ or any other of 
the most odoriferous trees, for the fire. 

72. He should lop off a thousand loppings ' for the 
sacred twigs (Barsom). He should offer, with perfect recti- 
tude, to the good waters, fallen twigs of the shrub which 
is called pomegranate, for a thousand consecrated waters 
(zaothra) T/ith Homa and milk, (which are) purified, 
examined (as to purity), purified by a pious man (a priest, 
and) examined by a pious man. 

73. He should kill a thousand serpents gliding on their 
bellies, (and) two thousand others. He should kill a thou- 
sand land-frogs, (and) two thousand water- (frogs). He 
should kill a thousand ants carrying away corn, (and) two 
thousand others. 

74. He should erect thirty bridges across navigable 
waters.* One should strike (him) a thousand blows with 
a horse -goad, two thousand with a scourge (sraoshd- 

75. y6. That is his punishment, that is his atonement, 
such are the works, performed in compensation for this, the 
culprit may execute. If he shall execute (them) he shall 
attain that life which is for the righteous, (but) if he shall 

the A vesta phrase : pad afitare veredh- frastairyAd cannot refer to the pre- 

ka asma reja, from which it appears paration or final arrangement of the 

that asman is connected with veredh- Barsom, which can be performed only 

ka, "a kidney." hy a priest. The same remark ap- 

1 That is, loads for a man's back. plies to all the other offerings here 

* Such are the traditional explana- mentioned, which must be brought 

tions of these terms for odoriferous to a priest for him to offer. 

woods. * That is, he should form foot- 

' That is, he should supply the bridges across streams which are not 

material for the Barsom. The verb fordable with safety. 


not execute (them) he shall attain that Kfe which is for the 
wicked (and is) gloomy, originating in darkness, (and) dark.* 


{The deviFs attempts to frustrate Zarathusthra's doings.) 
The verses 1-3 are introductory to the ancient song, and 
evidently intended as some explanation of the contents of 
this ancient text. In this introduction is described how 
Drukhsh, one of the evil spirits in Ahriman's service, came 
forth from the northern regions at her master's command, 
to destroy Zarathushtra. The prophet frustrated all such 
attempts to ruin him by simply repeating the sacred 
formula Tathd-ahH-vairyd. Drukhsh, having been thus 
defeated, told the chief of the evil spirits, Angr6-mainyush, 
that it was impossible to do any mischief to the prophet. 

Zarathushtra perceived the snares laid for him, and 
thought about escaping them. This is described in the 
verses of the old song, which were undoubtedly current in 
the mouths of the Iranian people. The song is composed 
in the heroic metre of the ancient Aryans, the AnusMubh, 
which has given rise to the common Shloka.^ 

' It is probable that this sentence in this world, as well as in the futuro 
refers to rewards and punishments existence. 

2 The original ballad is here subjoined in its metrical form, its translation 
being given in the text. 


Usehishtad ZarathmhtrS asareti aka mananha 
khruzhdya dbaSshd parshtandm, acdnS zasta drazhimnd. 

Paiti ahmdi adavata | dwshddmd AnrS mainynsh: 
Md mi ddma merenckanuha, | ashdum. Zarathushtra 1 
TUm, ahi PourushaspahS \ puthrS barethryd^ hacha 
Zdvishi ; apa-stavaniiha | vartuhtm dalnam mdzdayasnim, 
ViMdi ydmem yatha vindad \ Vadhaghand danhupaitish. 


PadU ahmdi avashata 
N6id M apastavdni 
N6id asta ndid ushtdnem 


SpitdmS Zarathmhtr6 : 
dainam, mdzdayasnim. 
baodhascha urvisyd^ 


1. From the northern quarter [(PS,z.) from the northern 
quarters], Angr8-mainyush, the deadly, the demon of 
demons, rushed forth. Thus spoke the evil-doing AngrS- 
mainyush, the deadly : Drukhsh (demon of destruction) ! 
rush forth and kill the righteous Zarathushtra. Then the 
Drukhsh rushed ahout him, the demon BMti, the destroyer 
intending to kill. 

2. Zarathushtra recited the Ahuna-vairya (formula) ; he 
invoked the good waters of good qualities, he confessed 
the Masdayasnian religion. Drukhsh was overthrown hy 
it ; the demon Biiiti, the destroyer intending to kill, ran 

3. Drukhsh then replied : Impostor Angro-maiayush ! 
I do not think about doing any harm to Spitama Zara- 
thushtra [(P§,z.) the aU-glorious, righteous Zarathushtra]. 
Zarathushtra perceived in his mind that the wicked, evil- 
doing demons were laying snares for him. 


4. Zarathushtra arose [(Paz.) Zarathushtra went forward] 
uninjured by the hostile intentions of the evil spirits, hold- 
ing a stone (?) in his hand, [(Zend) as large as a cottage]. 
The righteous Zarathushtra was praying to Ahuramazda 
the creator : "Wherever thou touchest this wide, round, far- 
extended earth, incline to support Pourushaspa's house. 

5. Zarathushtra informed Angro-mainyush : EvU- doing 
Angro-mainyu&h ! I will destroy the creatures produced 


duzhddmS Anr& mainyush : 

kahS vacha apayasdhi ) 

mana ddma AnrS mainyush! 

Paiti ahmdi avashata \ yd SpHdm6 ZarathushM : 

B&vanacha tashtacha haomacha vacha mazdd-fraolchta 

Paiti ahmdi adavata 

Kahi vacha vandhi i 

Kana saya hukeret&o^hd 

Mana naya asti vahishtem; 

Ana vacha apa yasdni, 

lii duzhda Anra mainyd I 

Dathad zruni akarang, 

Eulihshathrd hudhdonh&. 

vacha vandni, 

ana zaya hukcretdonhd^ 

dathad spentd mainyush. 

fradathen ameskdo spefda 


by the demons, I will destroy death produced by the 
demons, I will destroy the witch Khnathaiti ^ for whose 
(deetniction) the triumphant Soshy§,ns will be born out of 
the water Kasoya from the eastern quarter [(Paz.) from 
the eastern quarters]. 

6. To him spoke Angr6-mainyush the creator of evils : 
Do not destroy my creations, righteous Zarathushtra \ 
Thou art Pourushaspa's son, from birth thou invokest. 
Curse the good Mazdayasnian religion, (then) thou shalt 
obtain fortune such as King Vadhaghana obtained. 

7. To him replied Spitama Zarathushtra: I wiU not 
curse the good Mazdayasnian religion, not (if my) body, 
not (if my) soul, not (if my) life should part asunder. 

8. To him spoke Angro-mainyush the creator of evils : 
With whose words wilt thou smite? with whose words 
wilt thou suppress my creatures (who am) Angr&- 
mainyush ? (and) with what well-made weapons ? 

9. To him replied Spitama Zarathushtra: The mortar 
and dish and Homa, and the words pronounced by Mazda 
are my best weapons ; with these words wUl I smite, with 
these words will I suppress, with these well-made weapons, 
evil-doing Angr6-mainyush ! The beneficent spirit 
made (them), he made (them) in boundless time, the 
immortal benefactors (Ameshaspentas), the good rulers 
and good arrangers, co-operated. 

{The fate of the soul after death, vers. 27-32.) 

27. Creator of the settlements supplied with creatures, 
righteous one ! What are the events [(Paz.) what events 
happen? what events take place? what events are met 
with ?] (when) a man shall give up his soul in this world 
of existence ? 

28. Then said Ahuramazda : After a man is dead [(Paz.) 
after a man has departed, when the running evil-doing 
demons make destruction (of his life)], at daybreak after 
the third night, [(Paz.) when aurora is shining], he reaches 

■ Probably an idol-worshipper in Kandahar, or thereabouts. 


Mithra, rising above tlie mountains resplendent with their 
own rightful lustre [(P^z.) when the sun rises]. 

29. The demon Vlzaresh6 by name, Spitama Zara- 
thushtra ! carries the soul bound towards the country of 
the wicked Deva-worshipping men.^ It goes on the time- 
worn paths, which are for the wicked and which are for the 
righteous, to the Chinvad bridge, created by Mazda, and 
right, where they ask the consciousness and soul their 
conduct in the settlements (i.e., world) [(P§,z.) what was 
achieved in the world of existence]. 

30. She, the beautiful, well-fOrmed, strong, (^and) well- 
grown, comes with the dog, with the register, with chil- 
dren, with resources, with skilfulness:^ She dismisses 
the sinful soul of the wicked into the glooms (hell). She 
meets the souls of the righteous when crossing the (celestial 
mountain) Har6-berezaiti (Alborz), and guides them over the 
Chinvad bridge [(PeIz.) the bridge of the heavenly spirits]. 

31. Vohu-man6 (the archangel Bahman) rises from a 
golden throne ; Vohu-man6 exclaims : How hast thou come 
hither to us, righteous one ! from the perishable life to 
the imperishable life ? 

32. The souls of the righteous proceed joyfully to 
Ahuramazda, to the Ameshaspentas, to the golden throne, 
to paradise (Gar6-nemS,na) [(P^z.) the residence of Ahura- 
mazda, the residence of the Ameshaspentas, and the resi- 
dence of the other righteous ones.] 

{Fragment not connected with the. preceding.) 

33. The righteous man being purified, the demons, the 
wicked evil-doers, are so frightened at (his) scent, after 
death, as a sheep encompassed by wolves is frightened by 
a wolf 

1 The country of the deva-wor- dently refers to the maiden who is a 

shippers is India. personification of one's actions during 

" The dog is requisite to he looked life, and is said to meet the soul after 

at by a man at the last gasp, but the its third night's separation from the 

meaning of the two following epithets body. Compare the Had6kht Nask 

is very uncertain. This passage ev.- (Yt. xxii. 9, p. 220). 


34. The righteous men assemhle, NairyS-sanha assem- 
bles. Say: Ahuramazda's friend is Nairyo-sanha; thy- 
self invoke, Zarathushtra ! this creation of Ahiaramazda 

35. Zarathushtra said unto me the words: I praise the 
rightful creation, formed by Aburamazda; I praise the 
earth created by Ahura, the water created by Mazda, the 
rightful vegetation; I praise the sea Vouru-kasha {i.e., 
having distant shores) ; I praise the brightly-shining sky ; 
I praise the eternal luminaries (the fixed stars), the self- 

36. I praise the best life (paradise) of the righteous, 
(which is) resplendent (and) all-glorioms ; I praise the 
house of song (garS-nemdna, equivalent to " paradise "),the 
residence of Ahuramazda, the residence of the Ameshas- 
pentas, the residence of the other righteous ones j I praise 
the bridge Chinvad (bridge of the gatherer), created by 
Mazda, in the self-created intermediate region (between 
heaven and hell). 

37. I praise good fortune, the wide-eyed ; I praise the 
strong guardian-angels (Fravashis) of the righteous, bene- 
fiting aU creatures; I praise Behram created by Ahura, 
the bearer of splendour created by Mazda ; I praise the 
shining, glorious star Tishtar (Ttr, Mercury), with the body 
of a golden-horned ox. 

38. I praise the .beneficent hymns (the five G^thas), 
ruling over the (five) periods (of the day), the righteous 
ones. I praise the Ahunavaiti Gatha ; I praise the Ushta- 
vaiti Gatha ; I praise the Spentei-mainyfi: G§,tha ; I praise 
the Vohu-khshathra GS-tha; I praise the VahishtSishti 

39. I praise the region (Kavshvare, or Keshvax), Arezahi 
(and) Savahi; I praise the region Fradadhafshu (and) 
Vidadhafshu; I praise the region Vouru-bareshti (and) 
Vouru-jareshti ; I praise the region Qaniratha; I praise 
the splendid H^tumat (Hilmand), the shining, the glorious. 
I praise the good wealth (Ashi) ; I praise the good science, 

' Throughout these verses ' I invoke ' would be more correct than ' I praiset' 


I praise tlie rigMest science. I praise the glory of the 
Aryan countries j I praise the glory of Yinia the king, rich 
in flocks. 

8. The Fargards xx.-xxii. 
These last three Fargards of the Vendidad seem to have 
belonged originally to some medical book. They contain 
spells for curing diseases, which resemble very much the 
mantras which are intended for the same purpose in the 
Atharvaveda. Thrita is said to have been the first phy- 
sician who relieved mankind from the distress and misery 
caused by diseases. The angel, presiding over the medical 
art, is called Airyaman, to whom even Ahuramazda des- 
patches his messenger Nairyo-sanha (Neryosangh). 


Having described, and illustrated by selected specimens, 
the various branches of the sacred Kterature of the Parsis, 
we may conclude this Essay with a brief summary and 
survey of the whole. 

At the head of this literature undoubtedly stand the 
FIVE GATHAS, which we must regard as the work of Spitama 
Zarathushtra himself and his disciples, as any one can 
easUy convince himself by a careful perusal of the nume- 
rous passages, translated above from these hymns, and by 
comparing them with those extracted from other parts of 
the Zend-Avesta. Besides the internal evidence, which is 
strong and convincing enough, some external reasons may 
be alleged to corroborate the opinion that these Gathas 
contain the undoubted teachings and sayings of the cele- 
brated Zoroaster himself. Wlule the other parts are no- 
where said to be the work of Spitama Zarathushtra himself 
he is distinctly and expressly mentioned, in the Srosh 
Yasht, as the author of these ancient and sacred songs (see 
p. 141). Whereas in the other parts of the Zend-Avesta 
Zarathushtra is spoken of in the third person, and even 
occasionally invoked as a divine being — ^in the G§,thas he 



speaks of himself in the first person, and acts throughout 
as a man who is commissioned by God to perform a great 
task. "We find him placed among men, surrounded by his 
friends, Kava Vtshtlspa, Jlm^spa,and Frashaoshtra, preach- 
ing to his countrymen a new and purer religion, exhorting 
them to forsake idolatry and to worship only the living 

The G^tha literature was, in ancient times, certainly 
not confined to the scanty fragments which are now extant. 
There existed, no doubt, a much larger collection of the 
hymns and sayings of Spitama Zarathushtra and his dis- 
ciples, including those of the ancient prophets called 
Saoshyantd, which are now and then alluded to in the 
Yasna. Out of this larger collection those verses were 
selected, which were believed to be most efficacious for 
putting down the evil influences of the hostile Devas and 
their priests (the Brahmans), and for increasing the welfare 
of the Zoroastrians ; and these only have been preserved. 
The collection of the G^thas, extant now-a-days, may be 
well compared to the SS-maveda, which contains detached 
verses, selected from the Eigveda, intended only for 
being sung at the celebration of the great Soma sacrifices. 
While the Brahmans preserved their complete Eigveda, 
or entire collection of hymns, irrespective of their litur- 
gical application, the ancestors of the Parsis, who were 
apparently more careless of their sacred literature than 
their Brahmanical brethren, lost it almost entirely. 

Next to the G§,thas in rank stands the Yasna of Seven 
Chapters (see p. 170). For reasons pointed out above, 
we cannot regard it as a genuine work of Spitama Zara- 
thushtra himself. It appears to be the work of one of the 
earliest successors of the prophet, called in ancient times 
Zarathushtra or Zarathushtrdtema (see sect. ii. 3, of the 
fourth Essay), who, deviating somewhat from the high and 
pure monotheistic principle of Spitama, made some con- 
cessions to the adherents of the ante-Zoroastrian religion 
by addressing prayers to other beings than Ahuramazda. 


The first part of the Yasna, styled above the Lateu 
Yasna, is certainly of a far later date than even the 
"Yasna of Seven Chapters," The high-priests seem to 
have tried to conciliate the men of the old party (called 
paoiryS-tka^shd, " of the old creed "), who were unwilling 
to forsake the ancient polytheistic religion, and its time- 
hallowed rites and ceremonies. The old sacrifices were 
reformed, and adapted to the more civilised mode of life 
of the Iranians. The intoxicating Soma beverage was 
replaced by a more wholesome and invigorating drink, 
prepared from another plant than the original Soma plant, 
together with twigs of the pomegranate tree, and without 
any process of fermentation (water being merely poured 
over them) ; but its name in the Iranian form, Haoma-, 
remained, and some of the ceremonies also, as we shall see 
in the fourth Essay ; the solemn sacrificial cakes of the 
Brahmans {puroddsha) were superseded by the sacred 
bread called draond (Darun). New invocations, addressed 
to those divine beings who occupied the places of the 
ancient Devas or gods (branded by Spitama Zarathushtra 
as the originators of all evil and sin), were composed and 
adapted for the reformed Soma sacrifice (Homa ceremony). 
These new pi-ayers form the substance of the later Yasna 
which was to represent the formulas of the Brahmanical 

If we compare this later Yasna with the G§,thas, we find 
(irrespective of the difference of dialect) such a vast differ- 
ence' in their contents, that it is quite impossible for a 
conscientious critic to assign them to one author. While 
in the Gathas we never find mentioned either Homa, 
Barsom, or gods like Mithra and Anahitaj or even Amesha- 
spenta, the general name for the heavenly councillors, we 
meet with their names in nearly every page of the later 
Yasna. Here naturally arises the question why the author 
of the G4thas, in propounding his new religious doctrines, 
entirely overlooked the things which were considered in 
after times as the most indispensable implements of divine 


service, and why he disregarded those gods and divine 
beings whom it was afterwards held very sinful to neglect? 
The only answer is, that he neither believed in them, nor 
thoiaght them to be an essential part of religion. 

In the same rank as the later Yasna may be classed the 
VisPARAD (see p. 191). It was composed by one of the 
later high-priests for the celebration of the Gahanbelrs. 

While the Yasna and Visparad represent the Vedas 
among the Parsis, their Vendidad corresponds exactly to 
the Smritis^ or ooQlections of customs, observances, laws, 
penalties, and fines, which form the groundwork of the 
so-called Dharma-Sh^stia. Its different constituent parts 
have been noticed above (p> 225), and every thinking man 
can convince himself of the impossibility of ascribing the 
whole to Spitama Zarathtishtra himself. The book only 
professes to give the conversatians, which Zarathushtra is 
unanimously said (even in the Gathas) to have held witli 
God himself ; aad that there was„ in very ancient times, a 
work in existence purporting to contain such conversations, 
follows undoubtedly from the notice of such a work 
to be found in, the Visparad and Vendidad itself (see p. 


If we compare Zarathuishtra's conversations with Aiura- 
mazda,. as contained in the G4thas, with those which are 
reported in the Vendidad,. we find a considerable difference 
between the twa In the Gathas there is never any allu- 
sion madSe to the numerous ceremonies and observances 
which were deemed absolutely necessary for a pious 
Hormazd-worshipper. Thus, for instance, among the ques- 
tions put by Spitama Zarathushtra to Ahuramazda in 
Yasna xliv., (see p. isS), about the true religion and its 
observance, there is not a single one which refers to the 
treatment of the dead body, one of the most important 
things in the time of the Vendidad, or to the great purifi- 
cation ceremony (see p. 241), deemed so essential for the 
welfare of the Iranian community. Very likely Spitama 
Zarathushtra himself never gave any direct precepts about 


the customs and usages whicli already existed in his time. 
Had lie done so we should expect him to allude to them, 
especially in those verses where, he mentions the means 
of checking the evil influences exercised by the Devas 
(demons) ; but all he mentions are the splendour of fire, the 
mighty words revealed to him by Ahuramazda, the cultiva- 
tion of the soil, and purity in thought, word, and deed. 
From his never mentioning the ceremonies enjoined in 
the Vendidad, it undoubtedly follows that, though lie 
might know them, he did not attach much weight to their 

Only on one point we ifind the laws given in the Ven- 
didad corroborated by the G^thas. These are those which 
refer to the sacredness of a promise or contract, called 
Mithra, as one ma,y learn from comparing Vend. iv. (see p. 
238) with Yas. xlvi. 5 (see p. 164). These seem to have 
originated from Spibama Zarathushtra himself, when he 
called into existence a new religious community, to be. 
founded on the principle of inviolable faith and truth. 

From a careful consideration of these and other circum- 
stances which al'e pointed out above (p. 226), we cannot 
regard the Vendidad as a work of Spitama Zai-athushtra 
himself, but as the joint work of his successors, the supreme 
high-priests of the Iranian community. That the chief 
high-priests, together with the kings, were believed to 
stand in direct communication with Ahuramazda himself, 
and to receive from him answers to their questions, we 
may see distinctly from Visp. i. g (quoted above, p. 193). 
The chief high-priest is there called Zarathushtrdtemd, 
which word literally means " the greatest Zarathushtra, or 
high-priest " (teTrva being the superlative suffix). His com- 
munications are held sacred in this passage, and placed on 
a level with the G^thas. From this circumstance we may 
distinctly gather that the works of the Zarathushtrotemas 
were held in ancient times to be about equally sacred 
with those of Spitama Zarathushtra himself. If we then 
consider the Vendidad as their joint work, compiled during 


several successive centuries, it is not to be wondered that 
we find it so highly revered by the Zoroastrians even to 
the present day. 

Of the three stages which we can discover in the present 
Vendidad, the AvESTA, no doubt, is very old, and perhaps 
partially traceable to oral sayings descended from the 
prophet himself. Even the Zend, which makes up by far 
the larger portion of the present Vendidad, belongs to a 
very early age, and seems to be at least as old as the later 
Yasna. The Pa^and is comparativdy recent, and seems 
to be more of a literary ^d learned character than of 
practical consequence. 

In the Yashts (see p. 194), which correspond partially to 
the Pur§,nic literature of the Brahmans, one may distinguish 
generally two classes of works, firstly, hymns, and secondly, 
conversations with Ahuramazda. 

The metrical pieces or hymns represent the fragments of 
the ancient epio poetry of the Iranians, as living in the 
mouths of their bards, and are not only to be found in the 
properly so-caUed Yashts, bwt are scattered throughout the 
whole Zend-Avesta (see Yas. ix., x. ; Yend. xix.). In their 
present form the Yashts, together with the shorter- prayers, 
such as Afring§,ns, G§.hs, &e. (see p. 224), are evidently 
the most modern pieces of the Zend-Avesta, and have not 
the slightest claim to have been compased by Zarathushtra, 
or even by his earlier successors. This kind of literature 
grew up at a time when the Zoroastrian religion had 
already very much degenerated, and its original monotheism 
had partially given way to the old gods, who had been 
stigmatised and banished by Spitama Zarathushtra, bixt 
were afterwards transfornjied into angels. The songs of 
the bards, which we find introduced into the Yashts, may 
be old and genuine, but, strictly speaking, they have very 
little concern with the Zoroastrian religion. The Zoroas- 
trian coxiversations with Ahuramazda, which we often find 
in the Yashts, may be the work of the later high-priests. 


but they seem to be entirely foreign to all that we know 
of Spitama. 

The tendency of the authors of these Yashts was to 
raise the dignity of the angels, such as Mithra, Tishtrya 
Anihita, &c., to that of Ahuramazda, with whom they are 
said even to have equal rank (see p. 202). Therefore 
Ahuramazda himself is called, now and then, their wor- 
shipper. Zarathushtra is also reported to have paid them 
great reverence, but not the slightest trace of this can be 
discovered in his own G§,thas. 

This kind of literature has, no doubt, largely contrihuted 
towards the deterioration of the religion founded by Spitama 
Zarathushtra, and has partially re-established what the 
prophet endeavoured to destroy. As to its age, there is 
happily a certain historical hint to be found in the Fra- 
vardin Yasht, where mention is made of Gaotema (Gautama 
Buddha), the founder of Buddhism (see p. 208). That 
Buddhism was spread over Bactria, at a very early time, 
we know from other sources. Buddha entered Nirv§,na 
(died) in B.C. 543 ; and before his lore could spread in 
Bactria, at least one or two centuries must have elapsed 
after the master's death. Thus we arrive at a date, 
between B.C. 450 and B.c. 350, for the Fravardin Yasht : 
and there is no difference, in language and ideas, between 
it and the others. A later date than this cannot be reason- 
ably assigned to the majority of the Yashts, because their 
language had already begun to die out before the com- 
mencement of the Christian era, and most of the Yashts 
are written in comparatively correct language, without 
more grammatical errors than abound in some parts of the 
Vendidad. There is, besides, another reason for attribut- 
ing the principal Yashts to the fifth century before the 
Christian era. At that time, as we learn from two inscrip- 
tions of King Artaxerxes Mnemon,^ the worship of Mithra 
and Anahita was spreading through all the dominions of 

' See Benfey, "Persische Keilin- on the Scj'thio version of the Behis- 
schriften," p. 67; Norris, "Memoir tun Inscription," p, 159. 


the Persian Empire, whicli was not the case at the time of 
Darius Hystaspes, who never mentions these deities in his 
numerous inscriptions. This new form of worship called 
into existence a new appropriate sacred literature, which 
is partially preserved in the Yashts. 

The question as to the age of the other and older parts of 
the Zend-Avesta is closely connected with the determina- 
tion of the period at which Spitama Zarathushtra himself 
lived. As we shall see in the fourth Essay, we cannot 
place his era at a much later date than B.C. 1 200 ; and if 
we assign this date to the G§,thas, as the work of Spitama 
Zarathushtra and his disciples, then we must iix the age 
of the larger portion of the Vendidad at about B.C. 1000- 
900, and that of the later Yasna at about B.C. 800-700. 
The PS.zaud portion of the Vendidad is very likely not 
older than B.C. 500, and at the same time the collection of 
its different parts may have taken place. 

If we date the commencement of the sacred literature of 
the Parsis from B.C. 1 200, and place its close at B.C. 400, 
we aUow a period of about 800 years, which is, in compari- 
son with other sacred literatures, such as those of the Jews 
and Brahmans, rather too short than too long. 





1 207 ) 



In this Essay it is intended to give a summary view of the 
origin of the Zoroastrian religion,^ its general character and 
development, so far as they can be ascertained from the 
original Avesta texts. The reader being furnished, in the 
preceding Essay, with translations of a good many passages 
referring particularly to this subject, the conclusions to be 
drawn from them can be here condensed into compara- 


Before we can properly discuss the question of the 
origin of the Zoroastrian religion, and the time when its 
founder flourished, certain traces of an originally close 
coimection (which the attentive reader of both the Vedas 
and Zend-Avesta will readUy perceive to exist) must be 
pointed out between the Brahmanical and Zoroastrian 
religions, customs, and observances. 

I. — Names of Divine Beings. 
The most striking feature, in this respect, is the use 
which we find made, in both the Vedas and Zend-Avesta, 
of the names, deva and asura (ahura in the Avesta). Deva 

1 This subject has been already 1861, at Poona; and more fully in 

briefly treated in the author's " Lee- the Essay appended to his German 

ture on the origin of the Parsi reli- work on the Gathas, vol. ii. pp. 

gion," delivered on the ist of March 231-259. 


is in all the Vedas, and in the whole Brahmanical litera- 
ture, the name of the divine beings, the gods who are the 
objects of worship on the part of the Hindus to the pre- 
sent day. In the Zend-Avesta, from its earliest to its 
latest texts, and even in modern Persian literature, deva 
(Pers. div) is the general name of an evil spirit, a fiend, 
demon, or devil, who is inimical to all that comes from 
God and is good. In the confession of faith, as recited by 
Parsis to this day, the Zoroastrian religion is distinctly 
said to be iA-da6v6, " against the Devas," or opposed to 
them (see Yasna xii i, p. 173), and one of their most sacred 
books is called vi-daiv6-ddta (now corrupted into Ven- 
diddd), i.e., what is given against, or for the removal of, 
the Devas. The Devas are the originators of aU that is 
bad, of every impurity, of death ; and are constantly 
thinking of causing the destruction of the fields and trees, 
and of the houses of religious men. The spots most liked 
by them, according to Zoroastrian notions, are those most 
filled with dirt and filth, especially cemeteries, which places 
are, therefore, objects of the greatest abomination to a true 

Asura is, in the form Ahura, the first part of Ahuea- 
MAZDA (Hormazd), the name of God among the Parsis; 
and the Zoroastrian religion is distinctly called the Ahura 
religion (see Tasna xii. 9, p. 174), in strict opposition to the 
Deva religion. But among the Hindus Asura has assumed 
a bad meaning, and is applied to the bitterest enemies of 
their Devas (gods), with whom the Asuras are constantly 
waging war, and not always without success, as even Hindu 
legends acknowledge. This is the case throughout ■ the 
whole PurEinic literature, and as far back as the later parts 
of the Vedas ; but in the older parts of the Eigveda San- 
hit3, we find the word Asura used in as good and elevated 
a sense as in the Zend-Avesta. The chief gods, such as 
Indra (Eigveda i. 54, 3),! Varuna (Ev. i. 24, 14), Agni 

' In the qnotaiiona from the Rig- ten), the second to the hymn, and the 
veda, the first number refers to the third to the verse. 
Maiidivla (" book," of which there are 


(Ev. iv. 2, 5 ; vii. 2, 3), Savitri (Ev. i. 35, 7), Eudra or 
Shiva (Ev. v. 42, 1 1), &c., are honoured with the epithet 
"Asura," which means "living, spiritual," signifying the 
divine, in its opposition to human nature. In the plural, 
it is even used, now and then, as a name for all the gods, 
as for instance in Ev. i. 108, 6: "This Soma is to be dis- 
tributed as an offering among the Asuras," by which word 
the Rishi means his own gods whom he was worshipping. 
We often find one Asura particularly mentioned, who is 
called "Asura of heaven" (Ev. v. 41, 3; heaven itself is 
called by this name, Ev. i. 131, 1), "our father, who pours 
down the waters " (Ev. v. 83, 6) ; Agiii, the fire god, is 
born out of his womb (Ev. iii. 29, 14) ; his sons support 

In a bad sense we find Asura only twice in the older 
parts of the Eigveda (ii. 32, 4 ; vii. 99, 5), in which pas- 
sages the defeat of the " sons or men of the Asura " is 
ordered, or spoken of; but we find the word more fre- 
quently in this sense in the last book of the Eigveda, 
(which is only an appendix to the whole, made in later 
times), and in the Atharvaveda, where the Eishis are said 
to have frustrated the tricks of the Asuras (iv. 23, s), and 
to have the power of putting them down (vi. 7, 2). 

In the Br§.hmanas, or sacrificial books, belonging to each 
of the Vedas, we find the Devas always fighting with the 
Asuras.1 The latter are the constant enemies of the 
Hindu gods, and always make attacks upon the sacrifices 
offered by devotees. To defeat them all the craft and 
cuniung of the Devas were required ; and the means of 
checking them was generally found in a new sacrificial 
rite. Thus the Asuras are said to have given rise to a 
good many sacrificial customs, and in this way tliey largely 

' In tbe Furtoas the Asuras are into existenee. The bad sense at- 
fightiug not with' the Devas, but with taohed to Asura was thought to lie 
the Suras. The latter word is a mere iu the negative prefix a, and there- 
fiction of later times, and not to be fore their opponents should appear 
found in the Vedas. A false etymo- without it, in the form -Sum. 
logy has ealled this new class of goda 


contributed towards making the Brahmanical sacrifices so 
complicated and full of particular rites and ceremonies. 
To give the reader an idea of the way in which the battles 
between the Devas and Asuras are said to have been 
fought, a translation of a passage, taken from the Aitareya 
BrdhinaTm (i. 23) i of the Eigveda, is here given : — 

'The Devas and Asuras waged war in these worlds. 
' The Asuras made these worlds fortified places {pur, i.e., 
' polis, town), and made them as strong and impregnable 
' as possible ; they made the earth of iron, the air of silver, 
' and the sky of gold. Thus they transformed these worlds 
' into fortified places (castles). The Devas said : These 
' Asuras have made these worlds fortified places ; let us 
' thus build other worlds in opposition to these (now occu- 
' pied solely by them). They then made out of her (the 
' earth) a seat, out of the air a fire-hearth, and out of the 
' sky two repositories for sacrificial food (these are called 
' Ravirdhdna), The Devas said : Let us bring the Upa- 
' sads ; ^ by means of a siege (upasada) one may conquer 
' a large town. When they performed the first TJpasad, 
' then they drove them (the Asuras) out from this world 
' (the earth) ; when they performed the second, then they 
' drove them out from the air ; and when they performed 
' the third, then they drove them out from the sky. Thus 

^ An edition and translation of the after the great Pravargya ceremony, 

•whole work (in two volumes) was duiing which the priests produce for 

published by the author in 1863, the sacrificer {yajam&na) a golden 

giving full information regarding the celestial body, with which alone he 

Brahmanical sacrifices, which were is permitted by the gods to enter 

previously little known to European heaven. When in this way the sacri- 

Sanskrit scholars, as it is scarcely ficer is born anew, he is to receive 

possible to obtain a knowledge of them the nourishment appropriate for an 

■without oral information from pro- infant's body, and this is milk. The 

fessional sacrificial priests. But they chief part of the TJpasad ceremony is, 

are too essential a part of the Vedic that one of the priests (the Adhvaryu) 

religion (now chiefly preserved by the presents milk to him iu a large 

so-called Agnihotris) to be overlooked wooden si)Oon. which he must drink, 

by those who are inquiring into the Formerly it had to be drunk from 

Brahmanical religion and its history, the cow which was to be milked by 

^ This is a particular ceremony the Adhvaryu. But this custom lias 

which is to take place immediately now fallen into disuse. 


' they drove them out from these worlds. The Asuras, 
' thus driven out of these worlds, repaired to the Ritus 
' (seasons). The Devas said : Let us perform Upasad. 
' The Upasads beiag three, they performed each twice 
' (that makes six in all, corresponding with the six seasons). 
' Then they drove them (the Asuras) out from the Ritus. 
' The Asuras repaired now to the months. The Devas 
' made twelve Upasads, and drove them out from the 
' months. After having been defeated here also, they re- 
' paired to the half-months. The Devas performed twenty- 
' four Upasads and drove the Asuras out of the half- 
' months. After having been defeated again, the Asuras 
' repaired to the day and night ; the Devas performed the 
' Upasads and drove them oat. Therefore, the first Upasad 
' ceremony is to be performed in the first part of the day 
« and the other in the second part of the day. He (the 
' sacrificer) leaves thus only so much space to the enemy 
' as exists between the conjunction of day and night (that 
' is, the time of twilight in the morning and evening).' 

That the Asuras of the Brahmanical literature are the 
supreme beiags of the Parsis (Ahuramazda with his arch- 
angels) is, according to these statements, hardly to be 
doubted. But there exists, perhaps, a stUl more convincing 
proof. Among the metres, used in the Yajurveda, we find 
seven which are marked by the epithet dsuri, such as 
Gdyatri dsuri, Vskmh dsuri, Pankti dsuri} T^ese Asura 
iQetres, which are foreign to the whole Rigveda, are actu- 
ally to be found in the G^tha literature of the Zend- 
Avesta, which professedly exhibits the doctrines of the 
Ahura (Asura) religion. The Gdyatri dsuri consists of 
fifteen syllables, which metre we discover in the GS,tha 
Ahunavaiti (see p. 144), if we bear in miad that the number 
of SLjcteen syllables, of which it generally consists, is often 
reduced to fifteen (compare, for instance, Yas. xxxi. 6, and 
the first two lines of xxxi. 4). The Ushnih dsuri, consist- 
ing of fourteen syllables, is completely extant in the Gatha 

1 See the " White Yajurveda," edited hy A. Weber, vol. i. p. Ix, 


Vohu-khsliathra (Tas. li.), each verse of which comprisea 
fourteen syllables. The Panhti dsuri consists of eleven 
syllables, just as many as we found (p. 144) in the GSthas 
Ushtavaiti and SpentSi-mainyfi. This coincidence can 
certainly not be merely accidental, biit shows clearly, that 
the old Galtha literature of the Zend-Avesta Avas well 
known to the Rishis who compiled the Yajurveda. 

Of great importance, for showing the original close re- 
lationship between the Brahmanical and Parsi religions, is 
the fact that several of the Indian gods are actually men- 
tioned by name in the Zend-Avesta, some as demons, others 
as angels. 

Indra, the chief god of the B'rahmans in the Vedic times, 
the thunderer, the god of light and god of war, for whom 
pre-eminently the Risfiis, the ancient founders of Brah- 
manism, squeezed and drank the iustoxicatiog Soma bever- 
age, is expressly mentioned in the list of the Devas or 
demons which we find in Vend. xix. 43. -^ He is there 
second only to Angr^-mainyush (Ahrimao), the arch-fiend 
who is sometimes designated dcuSvanam daSvd, " demon of 
demons " in the Avesta, but " god of the gods " in Sanskrit 

Next to Indra stands SAurva da&oa, whom we discoveir 
in one of Shiva's names Sharva (see the- White Yajuiveda, 
xvi. 28). In Ndmlutithfa daiva we readily recognise 
the Ndsatyas of the Vedic hymns, which name is there 
given to the two Ashvins-, the Dioskuri of the Indian 

Some names of the Vedie Devas are, however, used in a 
good sense, and are transformed into Tazatas or angels in 
the Zend-Avesta. The most noticeable is Mithra, the 
Sanskrit formi being Mitva. In the Vedic hymns he is 
generally invoked tc^ther with Varuna (identical with 
the god Uranos ©f the Greeks), the ruler of heaven and 
master of the universe ; ^ but in the Zend-Avesta he was 

1 This p.issage is omitted! in two of the Vedic hymns he occupied a much 

the ohlest n>auii»cripts. higher position. The whole universe 

^ In later times be was believed to is swbje^t to kis- lawsv 
preside over the waters only ; bwt in 


everywhere separated from his ancient companion. How- 
ever, there is one hymn in the Eigveda (ui. 59, mitrd jandn 
ydtagati) in which Mitra alone (as the sun) is addressed 
in the following way : — 

' Mitra calls men to their work ; Mitra is preserving 
' earth and heaven ; Mitra looks upon the nations always 
' without shutting his eyes. To Mitra bring the offering 
' with ght ! 

' Mitra ! that man who troubles himself to keep thy 
' order (rule), son of eternity (ddiiya) ! shall have abun- 
' dance ; he, protected by thee, shaU neither be slain nor 
' defeated ; no distress befalls him, neither from near, nor 
' from far.' 

In comparing these verses with the extracts given above 
from the Mihir Yasht, one may easily be convinced of the 
complete identity of the Vedic Mitra and the Persian Mithra. 

Another Vedic deity, Aryaman, who is generally asso- 
ciated with Mitra and Varuna (Ev. i. 136, 2), is at once 
recognised in the angel Airyaman of the Zend-Avesta. 
Aryaman has in both scriptures a double meaning, (a) " a 
friend, associate " (in the G^thas it chiefly means " a 
client"); (&) the name of a deity or spirit who seems 
particularly to preside over marriages, on which occasions 
he is invoked both by Brahmans and Parsis (see p. 142). 
He seems to be either another name of the sun, like Mitra, 
Savitp, Pus^ian, &c,, or his constant associate and repre- 
sentative. In the Bhagavad Glta (x. 29) he is mentioned 
as the head of the ;pitaras, " manes, or ancestral spirits," 

Bhaga, another deity of the Vedas, belonging to the 
same class as Mitra and Aryaman (to the so-called 
Adityas), is to be recognised in the word hagha of the 
Zend-Avesta, which word is, however, not employed 
there as a name of any particular divine being, but con- 
veys the general sense of " god, destiny "^ (ht. "portion"). 

1 This word is to be found in the onic mythology knew a hiel log or 
Slavonic languages {Russian, Polish, white god, and a czerny bog or blads 
&c.) in the form bag as the oommon god. 
name for " God." The ancient Slav- 



That the Vedic god Bhaga (compare the adjective iaghS- 
laJchfa, " ordained by fate," which is to be found in both 
the Veda and the Zend-Avesta) vs^as believed to be a deity, 
presiding over the destiny and fortune of men, may be 
clearly seen from some passages in the Eigveda, of which 
Ev. vii. 41, 2, is here quoted: 'Let us invoke the victor 
' in the morning (i.e., the sunlight which has defeated the 
' darkness of night), the strong Bhaga, the son of Aditi 
' (imperishableness, eternity), who disposes all things (for 
' during the night all seemed to be lost). The poor and 
' the sick, as well as the king, pray to him, full of trust, 
' saying : Give us our portion.' 

Aramati, a female spirit in the Vedas, meaning: (a) 
" devotion, obedience " (Ev. vii. 1,6; 34, 21) , (i) " earth " 
(x. 92, 4, 5), is apparently identical with the archangel 
Armaiti, which name has, as the reader will have learned 
from the third Essay, exactly the same two meanings in 
the Zend-Avesta. In the Vedas, however, her name is of 
rare occurrence, being found in some hymns of the Eigveda 
only.^ She is called a virgin who comes with butter offer- 
ings in the morning and evening to Agni (Ev. vii. i, 6), a 
celestial woman {gnA, see p. 170) who is brought by Agni 
(Ev. V. 43, 6). 

Nardshansa (see Y^ska's ISTirukta, viii. 6), an epithet of 
several Vedic gods, such as Agni, Piistan, and Brahman- 
aspati (but especially of Agni), is identical with Nairyd- 
sanha (ISTeryosangh), the name of an angel in the Zend- 
Avesta, who serves Ahuramazda as a messenger (see 
Vend, xxii.), in which capacity we find Agni and Fdskan 
in the Vedic hymns also. The word means " one praised 
by men," i.e., renowned. 

The Vedic god Vdyu (wind, especially the morning 
wind), " who first drinks the Soma at the morning sacri- 
fice," is to be recognised in the spirit Vayu of the Zend- 
Avesta, who is supposed to be roaming everywhere (see 

^ See, about Aramati and Armaiti, the German Oriental Society, vol. 
the author's article in the journal of viii, (1854) p. 769-771, 


the Earn Yasht above, p. 214). He is the only Vedic deity 
who is mentioned by name (vayHi) in the GS.thas (Yas. liii. 
6), but, of course, not called a deva, which word has always 
a bad meaning in the Zend-Avesta. 

Vritrahd, " killer of Vritra (a demon)," one of the most 
frequent epithets of Indra in the Vedic books, is to be 
recognised in the angel Verethraghna (Behrim, see the 
Behram Yasht above, p. 213). It looks rather strange at 
the first glance, that we should find one and the same 
Vedic god, Indra, with his proper name " Indra " entered 
in the list of demons, and with his epithet " Vritraha " 
worshipped as a very high angel. But the problem is very 
easily solved if one bears in mind that Vritrahd is applied 
in the hymns of the Eigveda not exclusively to Indra, but 
also to another deity, Trita, who occupied in the most 
ancient times the place of Indra as thunderer and killer of 
the demons of the air (Ev. i. 18, 71). That this Trita is 
identical with Thraetaona (Jredun) in the Iranian legends, 
we shall soon see. 

A very remarkable coincidence, as to the number of 
divine beings worshipped, is to be found between the 
statements of the Vedas and the Zend-Avesta. In the 
Vedas, especially in the Atharvaveda and the Brahmanas, 
the gods mimber thirty-three (irayas-irinshad devdh) in 
all. Although the passages do not vary as to the numberj 
they do not throughout agree as to the names of the indi- 
vidual gods by which the number is made up. In the 
Aitareya Br^hmanam (ui. 22, p. 6y, of the author's edition) 
they are enumerated in the following order : eight Vasavas, 
eleven Budras, twelve Adityas, one Prajdpati, and one 
Vashatkdra} Instead of the last two we find Dydvd- 
Frithivi (heaven and earth) enumerated in the Shatapatha 
Brahmanam (forming part of the white Yajurveda), iv. 5, 
7, 2. In another passage (xi. 6, 3, 5) of the same work, 

'^ This is a personification of the by the sacrificial priest, When throw- 
formula Vaushat, "may he (Agni) ing the offering into the fire. When 
carry it up ! " which is pronounced personified, the efficacy of the sacri- 
with a very much lengthened sound fice is to be understood. 


we find India and Prajipati mentioned as the last two. 
In the E&m^yana (iii. 2, 15) the two Ashvins are men- 
tioned instead of them.i In the Atharvaveda (x. 7, 13, 
?2, 27), all the thirty- three gods are said to be included in 
Praji,pati (Brahma) as his limbs.2 

With these thirty- three Devas of the Vedas we may 
compare the thirty-three ratus, or chiefs, for maintaining 
the best truths, as they are instituted by Mazda, and pro- 
jnulgated by Zarathushtra (Yas. i. 10). From their not 
being expressly enumerated according to their' several 
classes, as the thirty-three Devas are in the Vedas, we may 
gather, with some certainty, that the " thirty-three ratus " 
was only a time-hallowed formula for enumerating the 
divine existences^ the bearing and import of which was no 
Jonger understood by the Iranians after their separation 
from the Brahmans. 

3. ---Names and Legends off Heroes. 

There is not only a great similarity between, and even 
identity of, names of divine beings in both the Veda and 
Zend-Avesta, but a similar close resemblance extends also 
to the legends of heroic feats related in both scriptures. 
But, at the very outset, we can discover, notwithstanding 
this similarity, a striking difference between the Iranian 
and Brahmanical notions regarding these legends. The 
Brahmans attribute them generally to gods, the Iranians 
partly to great heroes and partly to angels. The foUowing 
are some of the most striking resemblances : — 

Yima hhshoMa (JamsMd) and Yama rdjd. The names 

* The later traditioo, as laid down deplorable state in wbieh vre fimd it 

in the Partoas, has increased the now. 

Vedic number of thirty-three deities ^ This tendency towards establi^ 
to thirty-three ko^is, or 330 millions, ing a kind of monotheism is, now 
This fact is a striking instance how and then, to be disce-vered in the 
nnsompulously and ridiculously the ancient Vedic hymns. Compare, for 
statements of the Vedas have been instance, the celebrated passage, Big- 
expanded and exaggerated in later veda i 164, 46, where it is said that 
times, which has contributed to- "the wise men understand by the 
wards bringing Hinduism into the different gods only one being." 


a.ii'l epithets are the same; Yima is identical with Yama, 
and khdiaita means " king/' the same as rdjd. The family- 
name of both is the same : Vhanhdo or son of Vivanghvat 
in the Zend-Avesta (see the second fargard of the Vendidad 
above, p. 231), and Vaivasvata or son of Vivasv-at in the 
Veda. In the Zend-Avesta Yima gathers round him men 
and animals in flocks, and fills the earth with them ; and 
after the evils of winter had come over his territories, he 
leads a select number of the beings of the good creation to 
a secluded spot, where they enjoy uninterrupted happiness. 
According to the hymns of the Higveda, ' Yama, the king, 
' the gatherer of the people, has descried a path for many, 
' which leads from the depths to the heights ; he first 
' found out a resting-place from which nobody can turn 
' out the occupants ; oli the way the forefathers have gone, 
' the sons will follow them' (Rigveda x, 14, t, 2). Yama 
is here described as the progenitor of mankind; as the 
first mortal man he first experienced death, and first went 
up from the low valley of this earth to the heights of 
heaven, where he gathers round him all his descendants^ 
who must follow in his track by the law of nature, and 
rules over all who have entered his dominions, which are 
full of bliss and happiness. This happy ruler of the 
blessed in paradise has been transformed, in the modern 
Hindu mythology, into the fearful god of death, the 
inexorable judge of men's doings, and the punisher of the 
wicked. In the legends of the Iranians, as extant in the 
Zend-Avesta and Sh^hn^mah, he was the king of the 
golden age and the happy ruler of the Iranian tribes. 

Thriia^ Thraitaona (FrMdn) and Trita, Traitana. 
Thrita, one of the Sslma family (from which the great hero 
Eustam sprang), is in the Zend-Avesta (see p. 257) the 
first physician, the curer of the diseases created by Ahri- 
man ; an idea which we find also attached to Trita in the 
Vedas. He is said, in the Atharvaveda (vi. 113, i), to 
extinguish illness in men, as the gods have extinguished it 
in him; he must sleep for the gods (xix. 56, 4). He 


grants a long life (Taittiriya SafihitS., Black Yajurveda, 
i. 8, 10, 2). Any evil thing is to be sent to him to be 
appeased (Eigveda viii. 47, 13). This circumstance is 
hinted at in the Zend-Avesta by the surname Sdmm, which 
means " appeaser." He is further said to have been once 
thrown into a well, whence Brihaspati rescued him (Ev. i. 
105, 17). The Indian tradition makes him a Rishi, and 
ascribes several, hymns of the Eigveda to him (as for 
instance Ev. i. 105). There are some traits discoverable 
in the ancient hymns which make him appear rather like 
a god than a mortal man. He drinks Soma, like Indra, 
for obtaining strength to kill the demon Vritra (i. 1 87, i), 
and, like him, he cleaves with his iron club the rocky cave 
where thp cows (the celestial waters) are concealed 
(i. 52, 5). 

Thraitaona {FrM,4m) is easily recognised in the Vedic 
Traitana,, who is said to have severed the head of a giant 
from his shoulders (Ev. i. 158, 3). His father is called 
Aihim/6, which corresponds exactly with the frequent sur- 
name of Trita in the Vedas, viz., ^ptya. Trita and 
Traitana seem to have been confounded together in the 
Veda, whereas originally they were quite distinct from 
one another. Trita was the name of a celebrated physician, 
and Traitana that of the conqueror of a giai^t or tyrant ; 
the first belonged to the family of the Sdmas, the latter to 
the AptT/as. In the Zend-Avesta the original form of the 
legend is better preserved (see about Thraitaona, p. 178). 

Kava Us (Kaihd'As in the Shihn§,mah) and Kdvya 
Vshanas. He is one of the great heroes of the Iranians, 
and believed to have been a ruler over Iran. In the later 
Indian literature, he is identified with Shukra, the planet 
Venus, and said to have been during his lifetime the Guru 
(prophet or teacher) of the Daityas or Asuras, the enemies 
of the gods. But he is not viewed in this light in the 
ancient Vedic hymns. There he is associated with the god 
Indra, who calls himself Kdvya Ushand (Ev. iv. 26, i), 
and is invoked by the name Kavi Ushand (Ev. i. 1 30. 9> 


Tliis K§,vya TJshan§, (meaning " Ushand, son of Kavi ") 
installed Agni as a high- priest for mankind (Ev. viii. 23, 
17); he led the heavenly cows (the clouds) to pasturage 
(Ev. i. 83, 5), and made Indra's iron club, by which the god 
killed his enemy Vritra. In the Bhagavad Glta (x. 27) he 
is considered as the first of the poets, wherefore Krishna, 
who calls himself the first in every particular branch, 
identifies himself with Ushanas, According to the Maha- 
bh^rata (i. 2544) he has four sons, who offer sacrifice to the 
Asuras. In the Iranian legend he does not appear as 
blameless; he is said to have been so proud and self- 
conceited as to endeavour to fly up to heaven, for which 
arrogance he was then severely punished. 

The name Ddnava is given, both in the Vedas and 
Zend-Avesta, to enemies with whom wars are to be waged. 
Compare Yt. v. 73, and Atharvaveda iv. 24, 2. In the 
Eigveda it is often a name of the archdemon Vritra, with 
whom Indra is fighting. 

In the legend of Tishtrya (see p. 200) some of the par- 
ticulars relating to Indra and Brihaspati in the Vedas may 
be recognised. Tishtrya cannot bring the rain from the 
sea Vouru-kasha over the earth, if not assisted by the 
prayers of men. In the same way Indra cannot release 
the celestial cows (the clouds) from the rocky cave, whither 
they have been carried by demons, without the assistance 
of Brihaspati, who is the representative of the prayers sent 
up by men to the gods, and the personification of their 
devotion and meditation. 

3. — Sacrificial Rites. 

Although sacrifices are reduced to a few rites in the 
Parsi religion now-a-day.!, we may discover, on comparing 
them with the sacrificial customs of the Brahmans,^ a great 

1 Most of the Vedio sacrifices are Their number was very large at the 

still ia use. Those Brahmans, who time of the Peshwas, andis even now 

perform all the sacrifices required for considerable in some of the native 

going to heaven, according to the states, as for instance, in the do- 

Vedic system, are called Agnihotj-is. minions of the Gaikwar at Baroda 


similarity in the rites of the two religions. Some of the 
most striking of these resemblances wiU be here pointed 

At the very outset the attentive reader of the Vedas 
and the Zend-Avesta will observe the identity of a good 
many terms referring to priestly functions. The very 
name for " priest " in the Zend-Avesta, dtJirava, is to be 
recognised in the atharvan of the Vedas, by which term a 
priest of Fire and Soma is meant. The Vedic words ishti 
(a series of invocations of several deities, accompanied by 
the offering of the sacrificial cakes^ the so-called Purod^sha) 
and dhuti (the invocation of one deity with the offering, 
within the limits of the ishti) are to be recognised in the 
ishti and dzditi of the Zend-Avesta, where the original 
peculiar significations are lost, and only the general mean- 
ings "gift" and "invocation or praise" have survived. 
The particular names of several officiating priests, at the 
time of performing a solemn ceremony, are the same in 
both religions. The ITotd, or reciter of the mantras of the 
Eigveda, is identical with the Zaota priest, while the 
Adhvaryu or managing priest, who has to prepare every- 
thing for the Hot§,, is the same with the Rathm (now 
called Easpi), who is only the servant of the Zaota or 
chief priest. In the SraoshAvareza, who represents the 
angel Srosh, the Prati;prasthdtd of the Brahmanical sacri- 
fices may be recognised, because this priest holds in his 
hand a wooden sword, during the time of sacrifice, to drive 
away the evil spirits, which weapon is constantly ascribed 
to Srosh for the same purpose (see p. 190). In the 
Atarevakhshd, who has charge of the vessel in which the 

The performance of the manifold selves at the Daksbina meeting at 

sacrifices enjoined to the Agnihotps, Foona, between the isth November 

or the strict followers of the Vedic and isth December 1861, only one 

religion, entails too much expense could be found (and he was from 

upon an individual to be performed Sat&ra) who had performed all the 

by many without public suppu^fc. numerous sacrifices, some of which 

The Peshwas used to support them, require from six to twelve days for 

Among all the Agnihotris (about their peiformance and an outlay of 

twel ve or nf teen) who presented them- many thousands of rupis. 


fire is, we find the Agnidhra (who holds the fire) of the 

The Yajishn or Ijashne ceremony, as performed by the 
Parsi priests now-a-days (see p. 1 39), contains all the ele- 
ments which constitute the different parts (four or seven) of 
the Jyotishtoma cycle of sacrifices, the prototype of all the 
Soma sacrifices. The Agnishtoma (i.e., praise of Agni, the 
fire), which is the opening sacrifice of this cycle and indis- 
pensable for every Agnihotri to gain the object wished for, 
viz., heaven, bears a particular resemblance to the perform- 
ance of Ijashne. Of course, the whole ceremony is much 
shortened, and the rites changed in accordance with the 
more enlightened and humane spirit of the Zoroastrian 
religion. In the Agnishtoma four goats must be kUled 
and their flesh is partly offered to the gods by throwing it 
into Agni, the fire, who is the mediator between gods and 
men, and partly eaten by the sacrificer and the priests. 
During the Ijashne ceremony no animal is killed; only 
some hair of an ox is placed in a small vessel and shown, 
together with the other things, to the fire. This is now-a- 
days the only remnant of animal sacrifice on this occasion, 
but formerly they used a piece of meat besides. The 
Puroddska of the Brahmans, or the sacrificial cakes, which 
must be offered to different deities in a certain order, 
during the recital of two mantras for each deity, is changed 
into a flat kind of bread (similar to a very small pancake), 
called Dar4n. The fresh milk, required at the time of 
performing the Upasad ceremony (see p. 270), is to bo 
recognised in the gdush jivya (see p. 139). Ghl, butter, 
&c., required for less important ceremonies at the time of 
the Agnishtoma (when making the so-caUed Praydjas for 
the six seasons) are represented by the gdush hudhdo (see 
p. 1 39). The Zaothra or consecrated water is required at 
the commencement ol the Brahmanical sacrifices also, 
where it is called udaha shdnta. 

The most important part of the offerings in both the 
Jyotishtoma sacrifices and the Ijashne ceremony, is tlie 


juice of the Soma plant. In both the twigs of the plant 
itself (the Brahmans use the stalks of the Piitika, which is 
a substitute for the original Soma, and the Parsis use the 
branches of a particular shrub which grows in Persia) in 
their natural state are brought to the sacred spot, where 
the ceremony is to take place, and the juice is there ex- 
tracted during the recital of prayers. The contrivances 
used for obtaining the juice, as well as the vessels em- 
ployed, are somewhat different, but, on closer inquiry, an 
original identity may be recognised. The Brahmans beat 
the stalks of the plant, which are placed on a large flat 
stone, with another smaller stone till they form a single 
mass ; this is then put into a vessel and water is poured 
over it. After some time this water, which has extracted 
the greenish juice, is poured through a cloth, which serves 
as a strainer, into another vessel. The Parsi priests use, 
instead of stones, a metal mortar with a pestle whereby 
the twigs of the Homa plant, together with one of the 
pomegranate tree, are bruised, and they then pour water 
over them to obtain the juice, which is strained through a 
metal saucer with nine holes. This juice (Parahaoma) has 
a yellow colour, and only very little of it is drunk by one 
of the two priests (the Zaota) who must be present, whereas 
aU the Brahmanical priests (sixteen in number), whose 
services are required at the Jyotishtoma, must drink the 
Soma juice, and some of the chief priests (such as the 
Adhvaryu and Hot^) must even take a very large quantity. 
The Parsi priests never throw any of the juice into the 
iire, but the Brahmans must first offer a certain qiiantity 
of the intoxicating juice to different deities, by throwing 
it from variously-shaped wooden vessels into the fire, before 
they are allowed to taste " the sweet liquor." The Parsi 
priests only show it to the fire, and then drink it. After- 
wards the juice is prepared a second time by the chief 
priest (Zaota) and then thrown into a well. These two 
preparations of the Homa juice correspond to the morning 
libation (jirdtahsavaTw) and mid-day libation (marfAyawc^^JM 


savand) of the Bralimans ; for the third, or evening liba- 
tion, there was no opportunity in the Parsi ritual, because 
no sacrificial rites are allowed to be performed in the 
evening or night time. 

The Barsom (Baresma), or the bundle of twigs which is 
indispensable at the time of reciting Ijashne, is to be traced 
to one of the sacrificial rites at the great Soma sacrifices. 
It has hitherto been erroneously identified with the Barliis 
or sacred gi-ass (Kusha grass is used) of the Brahmans, 
which they spread at their sacrifices as a seat for the gods 
who are expected to come. But the close connection of 
the Barsom with the Ijashne ceremony, and the circum- 
stances that wood (branches of a particular tree) and not 
grass is taken, and that these branches are laid on a stand, 
not spread on the floor, lead to the conclusion that it does 
not represent the seat for the divine beings, as the Kusha 
grass does. It refers, in aU likelihood, to a peculiar rite 
at the great Soma sacrifices, which is as yet little known, 
but about which the author had an opportunity of obtain- 
ing oral information. At the time of the Soma libation 
(called Savana), which is to be performed three times on 
the same day, from 8-12 a.m. (morning libation), 1-5 p.m. 
(mid-day libation), 6-1 1 p.m. (evening libation), the three 
SS,maveda priests, the Udg^tl, the Prastot^, and the Prati- 
hart^, require a certain number of wooden sticks to be placed 
in a certain order when chanting the sacred Si-mans (verses 
of the SSmaveda). They use for this purpose the wood of 
the Udumbara tree, and call them kusha, which name is 
generally given to the sacred grass. In the Agnisttoma 
fifteen such sticks axe required at the morning libation, 
seventeen at noon, and twenty-one in the evening; in 
other sacrifices, such as the Aptoryama, even a much 
larger number of such sticks is required. The three 
singers must then chant successively, one by one, in a 
very solemn manner, the five parts,^ into which every 

' Such S4mana are called pancha- viz. : Prastdva (prelude), Udgttha 
bhaUika, i.e., divided into five parts, (the principal part, to be chanted by 


S§,maii or verse adapted for singing is divided at certain 
sacrifices, while putting some of the sticks into a certain 
proper order. This ceremony is considered to be most- 
essential, and unless observed and properly performed, all 
the effect of the Salmans (which are believed to carry the 
sacrificer up to heaven, the most important of all being 
called Rathuntaram, " carriage ") is lost. 

At the same time there is another peculiar custom to be 
observed, which may be traced in the Yasna also. As soon 
as the singers have chanted their verse, one of the Hotis 
must repeat a series of mantras from the Eigveda (not in 
the usual way of repetition, but in one approaching the 
recital of the Yajurveda), in order to praise and extol the 
SSman, which ceremony is called Shastram. At the end 
of the different Has of the Yasna, especially its G^tha 
portion, verses of these hymns are often invoked as divine 
beings, and in Yas. xix, 6 (p. i86) we have seen that it is 
considered very meritorious to worship the Ahuna-vairya 
formula after having repeated it. 

With regard to the division of the Sdmans into five 
parts, it may be remarked that the Ahuna-vairya formula, 
which is as important for the Parsis as the Eathantaram 
S^man was for the Vedic Brahmans, was also divided into 
five parts (see p. i88). 

In the Afring^n ceremony of the Parsis (see p. 224) 
there may be discovered a trace of the Brahmanical Apri 
ceremony (see Aitareya Brahmana, ii. 4, p. 28, of the 
author's edition), which is preparatory to the killing and 
offering of the sacrificial goats. The name is the same : 
d-pri in Sanskrit, d-fri in the Avesta (the formula used 
being dfrindmi), which literally means to "invite;" with 
which invitation the name of the being or beings, in whose 
honour the ceremony is being performed, must always be 
mentioned. The Parsis mention the name of a deceased 
person,, or of an angel ; the Brahmans insert the names of 

the TTdgAta), Pratihdra (response), (great finale), to be cianted by all 
Upadrava (little finalej, and Nidhana three. 


difFerent deities l (there are eleven invocations), who are 
expected to come and enjoy the meal prepared for them. 
These solemn invitations being accompanied with a bless- 
ing, the Parsis understand by this ceremony a benediction, 
which form it seems to have assumed at a very early 

The Darsha ipHrnama ishti (new and f nil moon sacrifice) 
seems to correspond with the Bar'&n ceremony of the. Parsis. 
Both are very simple ; the Brahmans use chiefly the Puro- 
d§.sha, or sacrificial cakes, the Parsis the sacred bread 
(Dariin), which corresponds to the Purod§,sha. 

The Glidturmdsya ishti, or the sacrifice offered every four 
months or two seasons, corresponds to the Gahanb^r cere- 
mony of the Parsis, which is celebrated six times a year. 
Sacrificing animals was essential for the proper performance 
of these ceremonies among the Parsis until recent times; so it 
is with the Brahmans also. Brat as to animal sacrifice, there 
is always a great difference between the Brahmanical 
and Zoroastrian rites. The Brahmans must throw some 
parts of the slaughtered animal, such as the va-pd (peri- 
toneum), into the fire ; while the Parsis simply consecrate 
the flesh and eat it as a solemn meal, without throwing 
anything into the fire. On such occasions even the Brah- 
mans now-a-days also eat some of the flesh. 

4. — Eeligious Obseevances, Domestic Eites, and 
cosmographical opinions. 

Although there are a good many similarities to be dis- 
covered in respect to observances, domestic rites, &c., we 
must confine our remarks to a few of the most striking 
points of coincidence. 

The great purification ceremony (see p. 241), by means 
of cow's urine (called gomiz), as practised by the Parsis to 
this day, may be compared with a similar observance ot 
the Brahmans, The latter use, in order to remove all 

1 See Y^ska'a Nirukta, viu. 4-21, and Max Mi'iller's " History of Ancient 
Sanskrit Literature," pp. 463-467. 


inward impurity from the body, the so-called Pancha- 
gavyam, or five products of the most sacred animal, the cow, 
one of which is her urine. This custom comes from the 
most ancient times, when this liquid was regarded as a 
very effective remedy against any disorder of the bodily 
organs. Such remedies as cow-dung and cow's urine have 
been used even on the continent of Europe by peasant 
physicians down to our times. 

To the Parsis, as well as to the Brahmans, the investi- 
ture with the sacred thread (called kusti by the Parsis, 
aiwycLonhanein in the Zend-Avesta) is enjoined as a reU- 
gious duty. As long as this ceremony has not been per- 
formed, one is no real member of either the Brahmanical 
or Zoroastrian community. The time for performing it 
lasts among the Brahmans from the eighth to the sixteenth 
year (see Yajnavalkya, i. 14, 37) ; the Parsis are invested 
with the Kusti in their seventh year. 

With regard to the funeral rites of both religions some 
similarities may be pointed otit. After the death of a 
man, Brahmans as well as Parsis must pray to raise the 
soul of the deceased up to heaven, which is the so-called 
third-day's ceremony of the Parsis. On the tenth day 
after the death, the Parsis perform a certain ceremony 
(Ijashne is read), and the Brahmans use the important 
ceremony of KdJcasparsha, that is, they expose a baU of 
rice to be taken by a crow. 

As to cosmographical opinions the Brahmans divide the 
whole world into seven dvipas, the Parsis into seven Msh- 
vars Qcarshvare in the Avesta), i.e., zones or regions. Both 
acknowledge a central mountain, which is called by the 
former Merii, by the latter Alborz {Hard herezaiti in the 


After having established, in the preceding section, the 
fact that a close and intinaate connection once existed 


between the religion of the Parsis and that of the Brah- 
mans, we may now proceed to trace the origin of the 
Zoroastrian religion, and characterise the period at which 
it must have arisen. 

I. — Traces of the Origin to be Found both in the Vedas 


In the Vedas, as well as in the older portions of the 
Zend-Avesta (see the GS,thas), there are sufficient traces to 
be discovered that the Zoroastrian religion arose out of a 
vital struggle against the form which the Brahmanical 
religion had assumed at a certain early period. Both 
creeds are known as diametrically opposed to one another 
in both their scriptures. One is called the belief of the 
Asuras (Ahura in the Avesta), the other that of the Devas. 
This circumstance cannot be merely accidental, the less so, 
as we find the word Amira used in the older Vedic hymns 
(see p. 268) in a perfectly good sense, and as a name of 
several Devas themselves, which fact clearly shows that 
there must have been once a vital struggle between the 
professors of the Deva and those of the Ahura religion, in 
consequence of which the originally good meaning of Asura 
was changed to a bad one. 

Although it is, therefore, impossible to deny the exist- 
ence of the original close connection between the Deva 
and Asura religions, some might still be inclined to doubt 
whether the adherents of the Deva religion were actually 
the direct ancestors of the present Brahmans. It is true 
the word de,va 1 and the cognate word dymis are found in 
most of the Aryan languages with the meaning of " heaven," 
or "divine being," and the Deva- worshippers, combated 
by the Zoroastrians, might be another kindred tribe of the 
Aryan stock, different from the Brahmans. But the fact 
that several of the Brahmanical Devas are mentioned by 

' Best preserved in the Lithuanian and the name of an ancient Teutonic 

diewas, "god," and in Latin deus. god Tius, preserved in the word 

The cognate dyaus, "heaven," is ex- "Tuesday" (in Anglo-Saxon: Tives 

tant in the Greek Zeus, gen. Dios, dag). 


name in the Zend-Avesta, leaves no doubt whatever that 
the opponents of the Ahura religion actually were the 
ancient ^Brahmans ; for the names of the Devas, mentioned 
in the Zend-Avesta, such as Indra, Sharva, N^satya, are 
purely Brahmanical, and unknown to any other nation of 
the Aryan stock. 

We have seen above that the names of the Indian Devas 
or gods were not all entered in the list of the Zoroastrian 
Devas or demons, but some of them retained their old 
dignity by being transformed, in accordance with the 
new spirit of the Zoroastrian religion, from gods into 
angels (Yazatas). The names of these are also identical 
with those of some Vedic deities, such as Aryaman, Mitra, 
Aramati, &c. 

Some of the ancient gods occur with one name in the 
list of angels, and with another in that of the demons. 
Thus, for instance, the Zoroastrian demon, Indra, has 
become, under his other name, Verethraghna (VritrahS.), 
one of the mightiest angels, as has been shown above 
(p. 275). 

These facts tlirow some light upon the age in which that 
great religious struggle took place, the consequence of 
which was the entire separation of the ancient Iranians 
from the Brahmans, and the foundation of the Zoroastrian 
religion. It must have occurred at the time when Indra 
was the chief god of the Brahmans. This was the case at 
that early period to which we must assign the composition 
of the majority of the Vedie hymns, before the Brahmans 
had immigrated into Hindustan Proper. In the poet- Vedic 
period, whose events called into existence the great epic 
poems Mah^bharata and E^m^yana, we find Indra's place 
at the head of the gods occupied by the Trimurti of Brahma, 
Vishnu, and Shiva, which idea is utterly foreign to the 
Vedic hymns. The Trimurti never being alluded to in the 
Zend-Avesta, we must assign to the religious struggle a 
much earlier date. 

Before proceeding to fix the probable age of the origin 


of the Zoroastrian religion, some facts derived from pas- 
sages in the Vedas and Gathas may be adduced, which 
throw much light upon this difficult subject. 

The priests and prophets of the Devas are mentioned by 
the names Imvi, karapan, and usikhsh in the G§,thas (see 
Yas. xxxii. 14; xHv. 20; xlvi. 11 ; xlvui. 10; li. 14). The 
first is of very frequent occurrence in the Vedic hymns, 
the third is also occasionally met with there, and the verb 
(kalpayati) l and noun (kalpa) connected with the second 
name are very frequently employed. Kavi, which means 
" poet " in the classical Sanskrit, is the name of seers and 
priests in the Vedic hymns (Ev. i. 128., 8 ; 142, 8 ; 188, i) ; 
by drinking the " delicious," but intoxicating, Soma juice, 
the power of Kavi is attainable (Ev. i. 91, 14) ; the term is, 
therefore, applied to the Soma priest (Rv. ix. 37, 6 ; 72, 6) ; 
these Kavis or seers, being beUeved to be in possession of 
divine revelation and secret wisdom, were consulted as 
prophets (Ev. i. 164, 6; vii. 86, 3). The gods themselves, 
especially Agni, are called by this name (Ev. ii. 23, i ; iii. 
14, i), which circumstance clearly shows that it was a high 
title, which could be given only to the heads and spiritual 
guides of the ancient Brahmanical community. 

Synonymous with this name is ushij, which exactly cor- 
responds to usikhsh (nom.) in the Gathas (Yas. xliv. 20). 
It means " a wise, intelligent man," as one may see from 
such passages as Ev. ii. 21, 5 ; x. 46, 2, and Shankh^y ana's 
Grihya Sutra vi. 12, 19, where it changes places with kavi, 
as is the case in Yas. xliv. 20, also. 

By the karapand, who are mentioned togathe? with the 
kdvayas in the Gathas, we must understand specially the 
sacrificial priests, the performers of the sacrifices, those 
men who are known nowadays to the Brahmans by the 
name of Shrotriyas. As to its grammatical formation,, this 
word is derived from a root karap, which corresponds 
exactly with the Sanskrit root kalp, " to perform a cere- 

1 The sound I, being completely i^nknown in the Avesta language, is there 
always represented hy v. 



mony," whence the word halpa, " the ritual, or the doctrine 
of the ceremonies," is derived. Karapand, therefore, means 
really ■" performers of sacrificial rites." 

These two names, havi and karapccn, designate in the 
fullest sense all the spiritual guides of the professors of 
the Deva religion) who tried to put down the adherents of 
the Ahurama^da religion, and we necessarily find, there- 
fore, a bad meaning attached to them in the G^thas. This 
appears the more strange, as the word havi itself forms 
part of the nathes of highly celebrated personages of 
Iranian antiquity, SuCh as Kavi Husrava (Kai Khusro), 
Kavi Kavlta (Kal Kab^d), Kavi Visht^spa (Kat Gushtasp), 
&c., and has become, in its derived adjectival form "Kaya- 
nian," the designation of a whole dynasty of the ancient 
Bactridrt rulers. 

Here the question iiatilrally arises, how could a desig- 
nation, which distinguished the bitterest enemies of the 
Zoroastrian religion, be applied to kings who were, like 
Kavi Visht^spa, believed to be its staunchest friends and 
protectors? Tlie only Reasonable answer is, that before 
the outbreak of the schism, when the Iranians and Brah- 
mans lived peacefully together, the Kavis were at the 
head of both communities ; and that, on account of their 
violent opposition to the religious and social reforms which 
were adopted by some of the Aryan tribes, such as the 
Iranians, their very name was branded, and became a 
word of abomination with the Zoroastrians. But the 
designation having been already closely connected with 
their ancient history, and having become the constant 
epithet of some of their greatest hei'oes and kings, it was 
difficult, nay, impossible, to expuhge it entirely in its good 
and high sense from the language. The adversaries of the 
Kavis, therefore, had to rest satisfied with a slight change 
of the hateful word when they wished to use it with a 
good meaning. Thus we actually find this word in the old 
texts, when forming part of the names of the great Iranian 
heroes and kings, changed from its only true and original 



form : Kavi into KavA, as, for instance, KavA Vishtdspa, 
instead of Kavi Vishtdspa} 

Now this word Kavd became a party name, denoting the 
opponents of the Deva religion. And in this sense we find 
it unmistakeably employed in the ancient Vedic hymns. 
Kavdsakha or Kavdri or Kavatnu, which all mean " fol- 
lowers of Kavd or adherents of Kava," are names, given to 
,the enemies of Indra and the despisers of his sacred drink 
(Soma). In one passage (Ev. v. 34, 3) Kavdsakha is even 
called a magJiavd, by which name the disciples and earliest 
followers of Zarathushtra are denoted in the G§,thas (see 
p. 169). Indra is there said to turn out the Maghava, who 
follows the Kava party, from his possession, which refers 
to the settlements (gaSthas) of the Iranians. 

That Zarathushtra's attacks were really directed against 
the Soma sacrifices of the Brahmans, undeniably follows 
from several passages of the GIthas (see Yas. xxxii. 3 ; 
xlviii. 10). This is not to be wondered at, if we bear in 
mind that the Indian tribeSj as described in the ancient 
hymns of the Vedas, never engaged themselves in their 
frequent predatory excursibns for stealing coVs, horses^ 
sheep, &c., without having previously secured the assist- 
ance of Indra by preparing for him a solemn Soma feast. 
The Karapans dressed it in due manner, and the Kavis 
composed or applied thoSe verses which were best calcu- 
lated to induce Indra to accept the invitation. The Kavis 
were believed to recognise by certain signs the arrival of 
the god. After he had enjoyed the sweet beverage, the 
delicious honey, and was supposed to be totally inebriated, 
then the Kavis promised victory. The inrodds were under- 
taken, headed by those Kavis who had previously intoxi- 
cated themselves, and they appear to have beten in most 
cases successful. The Iranian settlers, who had to suffet 
so much from these attacks (see p. 173), ascribed th^ 
success to those Soma sacrifices, which, therefore, must 

1 See further particulars in the author's work on this Gathas, i. p. 179, 180, 
and ii. p. 238-41. 


have been objects of abomination and horror to them. 
But the belief ia the great efficacy of such a ceremony, as 
the solemn squeezing and preparing of the Soma juice, 
being too deeply rooted in the minds of the Iranians, as 
well as in those of the ancient Indians, the Iranians for- 
sook only the old Aryan fashion of preparing the sacred 
drink, and invented one of their own, which was more in 
accordance with the spirit of their new religion (see p. 282). 
As we have seen, Spitama Zarathushtra himseK never 
mentions this reformed Homa (Soma) ceremony in the 
G^thas; it is doubtful, therefore, whether it existed in 
his time, or, if so, whether he approved of it. It is true, 
legends were afterwards circulated, to the effect that he 
himself had given his sanction to this ceremony, as the 
reader will have learned from the Homa Yasht (see p. 176). 
Having established now, beyond any reasonable doubt, 
the fact that the Zoroastrian religion arose in consequence 
of a serious conflict of the Iranians with those other Aryan 
tribes which emigrated into Hindustan Proper, and whose 
leaders became in later times the founders of Brahmanism, 
the questions as to the cause of this religious schism, the 
leader of the seceding party, and the time at which this 
great event happened, have to be decided^ 

2. — Causes of the Schism. 

The causes, which led to the schism, may be readily 
learned from the more, ancient parts of the Zend-Avesta, 
especially from the G^thas. They were of a social and 
political as well as of a religious nature. The Aryan 
tribes, after they had left their original home, which was 
in all HkeHhood a cold country (see the allusions to it in 
the first and second Fargards of the Vendidad), led mainly 
a pastoral life, and cultivated only occasionally some 
patches of land for their own support. In this state we 
find the ancient Aryan community throughout the earlier 
Vedic period, and the Brahmanical tribes were given to 
this nomadic life as long as they occupied the upper part 


of the Panj^b, whence they afterwards emigrated into 
Hindustan Proper. Some of these tribes, whom we may 
Style the Iranians proper, became soon weary of these 
constant wanderings, and after having reached such places 
between the Oxus and Yaxartes rivers and the highland of 
Bactria as were deemed fit for permanent settlements, they 
forsook the pastoral life of their ancestors and their brother 
tribes, and became agriculturists. In consequence of this 
change the Iranians estranged themselves from the other 
Aryan tribes, which still clung to the ancestoral occupa- 
tion, and allured by the hope of obtaining booty, regarded 
those settlements as the most suitable objects for their in- 
cursions and skirmishes. How frequent these attacks of 
the Deva-worshippers upon the property of the Mazda- 
yasnians must have been, the reader can learn from the 
formula, by which the Deva-worshippers abjured their 
religion, and entered the community of the Ir'anians (see 
p. 173), and from some verses of the G^thas (especially 
Yas. xxxii. and xlvi.). 

The success of the attacking Deva-worshippers was, as 
we have seen, mainly ascribed to spells (mantras) and 
sacrificial skill. Their religion, thereforCi must have be- 
come an object of hatred in the eyes of the Iranians, 
although the latter were well aware that it was closely 
related to their own, or even to a certain extent identical 
with it. Their own religion, therefore, had to be totally 
changed, in order to break up all communication whatever 
with the devastators of their settlements. The Deva reli- 
gion was branded as the source of all mischief and wicked- 
ness, and instead of it, the Ahura religion of agriculture 
was instituted, which separated them thenceforth for ever 
from their Brahmanical brethren. 

If we ask who instituted this Ahura religion, we can 
hardly believe that it was the work of a single man only, 
though it is not to be denied that the peculiar form which 
it assumed was mainly due to one great personage, Spitama 


3. — Spitama Zarathushtra. 

In the G§.thas we find Zarathushtra alluding to old 
revelations (Yas. xlvi. 6), and praising the -wisdom of the 
Saoshyantd, "fire-priests" (Yas. xlvi. 3; xlviii. 12). He 
exhorts his party to respect and revere the Angra (Yas. 
xliii. 1 5), i.e., the Angiras of the Vedic hymns, who formed 
one of the most ancient and celebrated priestly families of 
the ancient Aryans, and who seem to have been more 
closely connected with the ante-Zoroastrian form of the 
Parsi religion than any other of the later Brahmanical 
famihes. These Angiras are often mentioned together 
with the Atharvans or fire-priests (which word, in the 
form dfhrava, is the general name given to the priest caste 
in the Zend-Avesta), and both are regarded in the Vedic 
literature as the authors of the Atharvaveda which is 
called the Veda of the Atharvangiras, or the Atharv§,na, 
or Angirasa veda, i.e., the Veda of the Atharvans or Angiras.^ 
This work was for a long time not acknowledged as a proper 
Veda by the Brahmans, because its contents, which consist 
chiefly of spells, charms, curses, mantras for killing ene- 
Doies, &c., were mostly foreign to the three other Vedas," 
which alone were originally required for sacrifices. On' 
comparing its contents with some passages in the Yashts 
and Vendidad, we discover a great similarity. 

Although a close connection between the ante-Zoroas- 
trian and the Atharvana and Angirasa religion can hardly 
be doubted, yet this relationship refers only to the magical 
part, which was believed by the ancient Greeks to be the 
very substanee and nature of the Zoroastrian religion. 

In all likelihood, as the names Atharvana and Angirasa, 
or fire-priests, indicate, the worship of fire was a charao- 
teristic feature of this ancient religion. 

The Saoshyanto, or fire-priests; who seem to be identical 
with the Atharvans, are to be regarded as the real prede- 
cessors of Spitama Zarathushtra, who paved the way for 
^ See Max Miiller's History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 448. 


the great religious reform carried out by the latter. It is 
distinctly said (Yas. liii. 2) that the good Ahura religion 
was revealed to them, and that they professed it in opposi- 
tion to the Deva religion, like Zarathushtra himself and 
his disciples (Yas. xii. 7 ; see p. 173). We must, therefore, 
regard these ancient sages as the founders of the Ahura 
religion, who first introduced agriculture and made it a 
religious duty, and commenced war against the Deva reli- 

The struggle may have lasted for several centuries before 
Spitama Zarathushtra appeared in Iran, professedly by 
divine command, to strike a death-blow at idolatry, and 
to banish it for ever from his native soil. But however 
this may have been, the decisive step of completely sepa- 
rating the contending parties, from one another, and estab- 
lishing a new community governed by new laws, was taken, 
by Spitama Zarathushtra. He has, therefore, many claims 
to be regarded as the founder of the true Mazdayasnian or 
Parsi religion, which absorbed the old Ahura religion of 
the ancient fire-priests. He himself was one of the 
Saoshyant6 or fire-priests, because we find him, when 
standing before the sacred fire, delivering his speeches and 
receiving answers from Ahuramazda out of the sacred 

The events of his life are almost all enshrouded in dark- 
ness, to dispel which will be for ever impossible, should no 
authentic historical records be discovered in Bactria, his 
home. The reports regarding him, given by the Greeks 
and Eomans (see the first Essay), are as unhistorical and 
legendary as those found in the majority of the Avesta 
books themselves. In the Vendidad and the Yashts (see 
p. 212) he is represented to us not as a historical, but as 
a dogmatical personalty, stripped of nearly everything that 
is peculiar to human nature, and vested with a super- 
natural and wholly divine power, standing next to God 
himself and being even elevated above the archangels. 
The temptations of the devil, whose whole empire was 

2g6 traces of the ORIGIN OF 

threatened by the great prophet, form a favourite subject 
of the traditional reports and legends. He was the con- 
centration of aU -wisdom and truth, and the master and 
head of the whole living creation (see p. 211). 

The only source whence we may derive some very scanty 
historical facts is the older Yasna. In this part of the 
scriptures only, he appears before our eyes as a real man, 
acting a great and prominent part in the history of his 
country, and even in the history of the whole human race 
in general. He was a member of the Spitama famUy, 
which name is given to the Haichadaspas also (Yas. xlvi. 
15), who seem, therefore, to have been his nearest relations. 
His father's name was PSurushaspa, according to the later 
Yasna and Vendidad. Of his children only his daughter 
Faouruchista (Yas. liii. 3) is mentioned by the two names 
Haichadaspdnd Spitdmi, which can be interpreted only as 
"belonging to the Spitama famQy of the Ha^chadaspa 
lineage." He was distinguished by the surname Zara- 
thushtra, which the Greeks corrupted to Zarastrades or 
Zoroastres, and the Eomans to Zoroaster, by which name 
alone he is known to Europeans, while the Persians and 
Parsis changed it to Zardosht. Although the original 
meaning of this name is uncertain,^ yet it can hardly be 
doubted that it was not merely the proper name of the 
founder of the Parsi religion, but denoted a certain high 
dignity, that of the high-priest of the country. This fol- 
lows clearly from Yas. xix. (see p. 188), where the Zara- 
thushtra is mentioned as the fifth chief, in those countries 
where there are four others of an inferior order, and as the 
fourth, where there are only three others below him ; and 
it is also evident from the title ZarathushtrStemd. This 

1 See the author's work on the author suggested formerly, but 

6&thaa, ii. p. 245-46, note i, where "senior, chief" (in a spiritual sense), 

the different explanations of the and the word may be traced to the 

name hitherto given are mentioned Sanskrit jarat, which means in 00m- 

and refuted. The most probable pounds ' ' old ; " ushtra is then equi- 

meaning of " Zarathushtra " is not valent to uttara, "superior, excel- 

"the most excellent poet," as the lent." 


title must mean, according to grammar (foma being the 
superlative suffix), " the greatest or highest Zarathushtra," 
which denomination can be understood only if we assume 
the existence of several contemporaneous Zarathushtras, 
at whose head he was placed. The name "Zarathushtra'' 
must, therefore, have conveyed in ancient times nearly the 
same meaning as the word " Dastur " does nowadays : it 
must have meant the spiritual guide and head of a whole 
district, or even province. The Zarathushtrdtemo is, there- 
fore, to be compared with the Dastur-i Dastur§,n or chief 
high-priest. Even according to the notions of the modern 
Parsis, a Dastur occupies a very high rank among them ; 
he is a ratu or chief in the living creation, and in his praise 
and honour even ceremonies may be performed. 

A clear proof that the word " Zarathushtra " itself was 
not alone deemed sufficient to distinguish the prophet 
from other men, is that his family name " Spitama " is 
generally prefixed 1 when he is spoken of. This circum- 
stance implies distinctly that there were other Zarathush- 
tras besides the one who was distinguished by the name 
" Spitama," and who alone was regarded as the real founder 
of the Mazdayasnian religion. 

His home seems to have been in Bactria, which is called 
Berekhdha drmaiti in the Gathas, and Bdkhdhi (a corrup- 
tion of the former) in the Vendidad. In his own works he 
calls himself a mathran, "reciter of mantras," a dlXta, 
" messenger," sent by Ahuramazda, a speaker (maretan) ; 
he listens to the oracles given by the spirit of nature 
(geush urvd), and sacred words are revealed to him by 
Ahuramazda through the flames. 

His doings are best learned from the Gathas, extracts 
from which have been given above (see pp. 149-170), so we 

1 In a similar manner each of tlie instance, Peshotan Dastur Behramji 

present Dasturs introduces the title, Sanjana (see the title-page of that 

Dastur, between his own name and learned Dastur's edition of the Din' 

that of his father, so that his own Icard). 
name is prefixed to the title, as, for 

2q5 traces of the origin of 

may here confine ourselves to a few remarks as to the 
probable age in which he liverl, 

4. — The Age when Spitama ZaeathosHtra. Lived. 

The accounts given of the time when he is said to have 
flourished, differ so widely from one another, that it is impos- 
sible to fix exactly the era when he was living. The Greeks 
and Eomans make him very ancient. Xanthos of Lydia 
(B.C. 470), the earliest Greek writer who mentions Zoroaster, 
says that he lived about 600 years before the Trojan war 
(about B.C. 1800). Aristotle and Eudoxus place his era 
as much as 6000 years before Plato, others say 5000 years 
before the Trojan war (see Pliny, Historia Naturalis, xxx. 
1—3). Berosos, the Babylonian historian, makes him a 
King of the Babylonians, and the founder of , a dynasty, 
which reigned over Babylon between b.o. 2200 and B.C. 

The Parsis believe that their prophet lived at the time 
of Darius's father, Hystaspes, whom they identify with the 
Kava Vishtdspa of the Zend-Avesta, or Kal Gusht§,sp of 
the Sh^hn§,mah, and place his era accordingly about B.C. 
550. But the groundlessness of this supposition may be 
seen on comparing the names of the predecessors of Hys- 
taspes with those of the ancestors of Vlsht^spa. The 
lineage of Vishtdspa or Hystaspes, according to the Bisutfin 
cuneiform inscription of Darius, and the statements of 
Herodotus, is as foUows: — Sakhdmanish (Achsemenes), 
Chaishpish (Teispes), Ariydrdmna (Ariaramnes), Arshdma 
(Arsames), Vishtd^a (Hystaspes), Ddrayavush (Dareios). 
But the lineage of Vishtdspa or Gusht4sp, according to 
the Avesta and Sh§,hn§,mah, is as follows : — Kavi Kavdta 
(Kai-KabM), Kava Usa (Kal-K§,iis), Kava Husrava (Kai 
Khusro), Aurvadaspa (Lahurslsp), Kava Vishtdspa (Kai 
Gusht§,sp). From these genealogies it will be seen that 
the names of the ancestors of. the Visht§,spa mentioned in 
the cuneiform inscriptions (called Hystaspes by the Greeks)^ 
are totally different from those of the ancestors of th§ 


Vislit3,spa celebrated in Zoroastrian tradition (tlie Gushtisp 
of the SMhn§,niah). We must, therefore, conclude that 
the Visht§,spa of Iranian tradition was a totally distinct 
person from the Hystaspes of the Greeks, the father of 
Darius. That the Persians themselves, in the time of the 
Sasanians, were quite uncertain as to when the former 
Visht§,spa lived, appears clearly from the testimony of the 
historian Agathias, quoted in p. 1 1, 

On comparing the accounts of the Greeks aoout the 
early era of Zoroaster, with the researches into the original 
texts of the Parsi scriptures, we must believe their con- 
current testimony to be much more trustworthy and reli- 
able than the opinions held by the modern Parsis. There 
can be no doubt whatever that Sprtama Zarathushtra, 
the founder of the Parsi religion, lived at a very early 
period, because the great religious movement, of which he 
was the chief leader, is even alluded to in the earlier 
portions of the Vedas. Of his high antiquity at least two 
significant traces may be discovered in the present Zend- 
Avesta. Pirstly, as we have seen in the fifteenth section 
of the third Essay, his writings stand at the head of the 
extensive Avesta literature, which required centuries for 
its growth, and which was already complete about B.C. 
400. Secondly, he is expressly called "the famous in 
Airyana vaSjd " (Yas. ix. 14), which means, " the famous 
in the Aryan home," whence the Iranians and Indians 
emigrated in times immemorial. Tliis title would cer- 
tainly not have been given to him had his followers not 
beheved him to have been living at that early time. 
Under no circumstances can we assign him a later date 
than B.C. 1000, and one may even find reasons for placing 
his era much earlier and making him a contemporary of 
Moses. Pliny, who compares both Moses and Zoroaster, 
whom he calls inventors of two different kinds of magic 
rites, goes nmch further in stating that Zoroaster lived 
several thousand years before Moses (Historia Natiu^alis, 
XXX. 2). The confusion of opinions regarding his age was. 


no doubt, mainly caused by his appellation " Zarathusbtra " 
or higb-priest, wbicb was afterwards taken as tbe proper 
name of tbe prophet. Tbe assertion that be was born at 
Baglia {Rai near Teheran) is owing to tbe circumstance 
that, according to Yasna xix. (see p. i88), this large town 
seems to have been governed by tbe Zaratbusbtras them- 
selves; it was, therefore, pre-eminently tbe Zoroastrian 

in. — spiTAMA zaeathushtka's theology and philosophy, 


Having shown in tbe preceding section the historical 
origin of tbe Zoroastrian religion, we may proceed next 
to consider the new ideas, theological and philosophical, 
which Spitama Zaratbusbtra introduced into tbe world, 
and in consequence of wbicb he may be said to have 
become the founder of a new religion, and to have exer- 
cised a lasting influence on tbe history of the human 

His real doctrines, untouched by tbe speculations of 
later ages, can be learned only from tbe older Yasna, chiefly 
from tbe G§,tbas. Tbe leading idea of bis theology was 
Monotheism, i.e., that there are not many gods, but only 
one; and the principle of his speculative philosophy 
was Dualism, i.e., the supposition of two primeval causes 
of the real world and of the intellectual ; while bis moral 
philosophy was moving in tbe Triad of thought, word, and 
deed. Having regard to tbe early period at which he 
must have lived, long before tbe Greeks were acquainted 
with anything like philosophical speculation, we cannot 
expect him to have established a complete and developed 
system of philosophical thoughts, which cannot even be 
said of Plato ; but the few philosophical ideas which may 
be discovered in bis sayings, show that he was a great and 
deep thinkei', who stood far above his contemporaries, and 
even above tbe most enlightened men of many subsequent 


centuries. The great fame he enjoyed, even with the 
ancient Greeks and Eomans who were so proud of their 
own learning and -wdsdom, is a sufficient proof of the high 
and pre-eminent position he must once have occupied in 
the history of the progress of the human mind. 

I. — Zarathushtra's Monotheism, 
That his theology was mainly based on monotheism, 
one may easily ascertain from the G^thas, especially from 
the second (see pp. 1 5 5-166). His predecessors, the Saosh- 
yant6, seem to have worshipped a plurality of good spirits, 
whom they called ^Attros, "the living ones," wl 10 were 
opposed to the Devas. Spitama, not satisfied with this 
indistinct expression of the Divine Being, reduced this 
plurality to unity. The new name, by which he called 
the Supreme Beiag, was AhurS- mazddo, which means, " the 
Ahura who is called Mazdaa" Mazddo, which has been 
compared with the Vedic medhds, " wise " (or when applied 
to priests, "skilful, able to make everything"), means 
either "joint creator," or " creator of all." ^ Those Ahuras 
who were regarded as creative powers might have been 
already called by the name inazdda (we find the plural, 
irmzddonhd, in Tas. xlv. i) by the SaoshyantS; but these 
old fire-priests had no clear conception of the nature and 
working of this creative power. Although Spitama com- 
bined the two names (which were formerly used sepa- 
rately, and not intiniately connected with one another) 
into one appellation, AhurSrmazddo, yet they were still 
not considered as a compound, because we find both con- 

' That maed<Jo is phonetically iden- is very frequently prefixed to other 

tical with Sans, medhds, is not to be words ; and if prefixed to dhdo, 

denied, but its original ipeaning is "creating," the compound must be 

not "wise." Were this the case, we changed, according to phonetioal laws, 

ought to suppose it to be a contrac:- into mazddo. The general meaning 

tion of maiti-dhdo, "producing wis- of mad being "together with, all" 

dom ;" but mairi," thought, wisdom," (see Visp. xiv. i), the word masddo 

(Sans, mati) is generally affixed, not must mean either "joint creator," or 

prefixed, to another word, as in tard- "creator of all," as may be clearly 

maiti, "perverse thought, disobedi- seen from Yas. xlv. i. 
ence." But the word ma^, " with," 


stituent parts subject to inflection {e.g., ahur'di mazddi in 
the dative, not Ahura-mazddi) ; one part, Mazddo, was' the 
chief name; the other, ahura, was an adjectival epithet. 
But in consequence of their heing jointly employed to 
express the name of the Supreme Being, they were after- 
wards considered a compound, as we may distinctly see 
from the cuneiform inscriptions of the Achsemenian kings, 
where the Supreme Being is generally called A'(Lramazdd, 
and only the latter part of the word is subject to inflection, 
except in a few instances where both' words are inflected. 
In the Sasanian times the name was changed to A'dM.T- 
mazdi, and in modern Persian to H&rtrwizd or Ormazd, 
which forms are used by the Parsis nowadays. In the 
G§,thas we find the two words frequently separated, and 
indiscriminately employed to express the name " God," as 
no difference of meaning is attached to either. In trans- 
lating them, Ahura may best be rendered by "living" 
or " lord," and Mazddo by " wise " or " creator of the 

Spitama Zarathushtra's conception of Ahuramazda as 
the Supreme Being is perfectly identical with the notion 
of MoMm (God) or Jehovah, which we find in the books 
of the Old Testament. Ahuramazda is called by him 
" the Creator of the earthly and spiritual life, the Lord of 
the whole universCj in whose hands are all the creatures." 
He is the light and source of light ; he is the wisdom and 
intellect. He is in possession of all good things, spiritual 
and worldly, such as the good mind (vohu-manS), immor- 
tality (ameretdd), health (haurvatdd), the best truth [asha 
vahishta), devotion and piety (drmaiti), and abundan(3e of 
every earthly good ^ (khshathra vairyd). All these gifts 
he grants to the righteous man, who is upright in thoughts, 
words, and deeds. As the ruler of the whole universe, he 
not only rewards the good, but he is a punisher of the 
wicked at the same time (see Yas. xliii. 5). All that is 
created, good or evil, fortune or misfortune, is his work 
' See especially Yas. xlvii. i (p. 167). 


"(Yas. xlviii. 4. p. 167, and li. '6, p. 169). A separate evil 
spirit of equal power with Ahuramazda, and always 
opposed to him, is entirely foreign to Zarathushtra's 
theology ; though the existence of such an opinion among 
the ancient Zoroastrians can be gathered from some of the 
later writings, such as the Vendidad. 


The opinion, so generally entertained now, that Zarathush- 
tra was preaching a Dualism, that is to say, the idea of 
two original independent spirits, one good and the other 
bad, utterly distinct from each other, and one counter- 
acting the creation of the other, is owing to a confusion of 
his philosophy with his theology. Having arrived at the 
grand idea of the unity and indivisibility of the Supreme 
Being, he undertook to solve the great problem which has 
engaged the attention of so many wise men of antiquity, 
and even of modern times, viz., how are the imperfections 
discoverable in the world, the various kinds of evils, 
wickedness, and baseness, compatible with the goodness, 
holiness, and justice of God ? This great thinker of remote 
antiquity solved this difficult question philosophically by- 
the supposition of two primeval causes, which, though 
different, were united, and produced the world of material 
things, as well as that of the spirit ; which doctrine may 
best be learned from Yas. xxx. (see pp. 149-151). 

The one, who produced the " reality " {gaya), is called 
vohu-man6, " the good mind," the other, through whom the 
"non-reality" (ajyditi) originated, bears the name akem 
mand, " the evil mind." All good, true, and perfect things, 
which fall under the category of " reality," are the produc- 
tions of the "good mind;" while all that is bad and 
delusive, belongs to the sphere of " non-reality," and is 
traced to the "evil mind." They are the two moving 
causes in the universe, united from the beginning, and 
therefore, called " twins " (yemd, Sans, yamau). They are 
present everywhere ; in Ahuramazda as well as in men. 


These two primeval principles, if supposed to be united 
in Ahuramazda himself, are not called vohu-man6 and 
akem mand, hut spentd mainyush, " the beneficent spirit," 
and angrS mainyush, "the hurtful spirit." That Angr6- 
mainyush is no separate being, opposed to Ahuramazda, is 
to be gathered unmistakeably from Yas. xix. 9 (see p. 187), 
where Ahuramazda is mentioning his " two spirits," who 
are inherent in his own nature, and are in other passages 
(Yas. Ivii. 2, see p. 1 89) distinctly called the " two creators" 
and " the two masters " (pdyi). And, indeed, we never 
find Angro-mainyush mentioned as a constant opponent of 
Ahuramazda in the G§,thas, as is the case in later writings. 
The evil against which Ahuramazda and all good men are 
fighting is called drukhsh, " destruction, or he," which is 
nothing but a personification of the Devas, The same 
expression for the " evil " spread in the world, we find in 
the Persian cuneiform inscriptions, where, moreover, no 
opponent of Ahuramazda, like. Angr6-mainyush is- ever 
mentioned. God (AUramazdd), in the rock records of 
King Darius, is only one, as Jehovah is in the Old Testa- 
ment, having no adversary whatsoever. 

Spento-mainyush was regarded as the a^uthor of all that 
is bright and shining, of all that is good and useful in 
nature; while Angro-mainyush eaUed into existence all 
that is dark and apparently noxious. Both are as insepar- 
able as day and night, and though opposed to each, other, 
are indispensable for the preservation of creation. The 
beneficent spirit appears in the blazing flame, the presence 
of the hurtful one is marked by the wood converted 
into charcoal. Spento-mainyush has created the light of 
day, and Angro-mainyush the darkness of night; the 
former awakens men to their duties, the latter lulls them 
to sleep. Life is produced by SpentS-mainyush, but ex- 
tinguished by AngrS-mainyush, whose hands, by releasing 
the soul from the fetters of the body, enables her to rise 
into immortality and everlasting life. 


3. — Devewpment op Zahathdshtba's .Doctrikes of the Supreme 
Being. The Two Supreme Councils ; Srosh and Bound- 
less Time. 

Such is the original Zoroastrian notion of the two crea- 
tive spirits, who form only two parts of the Divine Being. 
But in the course of time, this doctrine of the great 
founder was changed and corrupted, in consequence of 
misunderstandings and false interpretations. Spento- 
mainyush was taken as a name of Ahuramazda himself, 
and then, of course, Angro-mainyush, by becoming entirely 
separated from Ahuramazda, was regarded as the constant 
adversary of Ahuramazda ; thus the Dualism of God and 
Devil arose. Each of the two spirits was considered an 
independent ruler endeavouring to destroy the creation of 
the other, and thus both waged constant war. This 
Dualism is best perceived in the first fargard of the 
Vendidad. After the sovereignty emd independence of 
these two spiritual rulers was opce acknowledged by some 
of the most influential leaders of the congregation founded 
by Spitama Zarathushtra, each of them was then supposed 
to have, like terrestrial rulers, his own council and court. 
Thes number of councillors was fixed at six, who were 
regarded as the actual governors of the whole universe, 
each ruling over a separate province assigned to him by 
his spiritual ruler. To Ahuramazda, or Spento-mainyush, 
no other power was left but to preside over the celestial 
council. "We often find him even included in the number 
of the celestial councillors, who are thep called " the seven 
Ameshaspentas " (now corrupted to Atashaspends), i.e„ 
immortal benefactors. 

The several names, by which we find the Ajneshaspentas 
called, viz., Vohu-man6, Asha-vahishta, Khsbathra-vairya, 
Spenta-Armaiti, Haurvat§,d, and Ameret^d, are frequently 
mentioned in the G^thas, but they are, as the reader may 
clearly see from the passages (see Yas. xlvii. i) as well as 
from etymology, nothing but abstract nouns and ideasi 



representing all the gifts which Ahuramazda, as the only 
Lord, grants to those who worship him with a sincere 
heart, by always speaking truth, and performing good 
actions. In the eyes of the prophet they were no person- 
ages ; that idea being imported into the sayings of the 
great master by some of his successors. 

Vohu-man6 (Bahman) is regarded as the vital faculty 
in all living beings of the good creation. Originally, his 
name was nothing but a term for the good principle, as 
emanating from Ahuramazda, who is, therefore, called the 
father of Vohu-mano. He pervades the whole living good 
creation, and all the good thoughts, words, and deeds of 
men are wrought by him. 

AsHA-VAHiSHTA (Ardibahisht) represents the blazing 
flame of fire, the light in luminaries, and brightness and 
splendour of any kind whatever, wherever it may exist. 
The fiist part of the name, asha (plural of ashem), has 
various meanings, such as " rectitude, righteousness, truth," 
and its epithet vahishta means originally " most splendid, 
beautiful," but was afterwards used in the more general 
sense of " best." Light being of the nature of Ahuramazda, 
and being believed to pervade the whole good creation, 
Asha- vahishta represents the omnipresence of the Divine 
Being. Light maintaining the vitality of the whole crea- 
tion, animate and inanimate, and being the cause of all 
growth, Asha-vahishta is the preserver of all life and all 
that is goodi He represents, in this respect, God's Pro- 

Kshathra-Vaieya (Shahrivar) presides over metals and 
is the giver of wealth. His name means simply " posses- 
sion, wealth," afterwards it was applied to metal and 
money. Wealth is considered as a gift from Ahuramazda. 

Spenta-Akmaiti (Spendarmad or Isfendarmad), "the 
bountiful Armaiti," represents the earth. The original 
meaning of Armaiti, as we have seen above (see p. 274), 
however, is " devotion, obedience." She represents the 
pious and obedient heart of the true worshipper of Ahura- 


mazda, who serves God alone with body and soul. When 
the name is applied to the earth, it means that she is the 
servant of men, who, if well treated (i.e., cultivated), will 
yield abundance of food. 

Hauevatau and Ameketad (Khord^d and Amardg,d) 
preside over vegetation, and produce all kinds of fruits ; 
but this is very likely not their original meaning. As the 
names indicate {Haurvatdd means " completeness, health," 
and ATTierddd, " immortality "), they represent the preser- 
vation of the original imcorrupted state of the good crea- 
tion, and its remaining in the same condition as that in 
which it was created by God. They are generally both 
mentioned together, and express; therefore, a single com^ 
pound idea. 

Quite separate from the celestial council stands Seaosha 
(Srosh), who is, however, regarded as an archangel vested 
with very high powers. While the Ameshaspentas in 
Zarathushtra's eyes represented nothing but the qualities 
and gifts of Ahuramazda, Sraosha seems to have been con- 
sidered by him as a personality. He is the angel who 
stands between God and man, the gxeat teacher of the 
good religion who instructed the prophet in it. He shows 
the way to heaven and pronounces judgment on human 
actions after death (for further information see the Srosh 
Yasht, p. 1 89). Originally his name meant " hearing " (from 
the root sru to hear), which, taken in a religious sense, 
means the sacred tradition. In this respect we may best 
compare the word with the Sanskrit ^hruti, by which 
name the Brahmans understand the sacred tradition, as 
laid down in the various parts of the Vedas, especially in 
that which treats of sacrificial rites. All that is said of 
Srosh, in the Srosh Yasht, fuUy agrees with this meaning 
of his name. We must, therefore, regard him only as the 
personification of the whole divine service; including the 
prayers as well as the sacrificial rites. Wlien he is said 
to be the guardian of the whole creation, and that without 
his protection the world would fall a prey to the demons, . 


i,t is meant that men must offer up prayers to God and 
■\yorship him ; and should they fail to do so, the good mind 
{yohvr^manS) within them becomes powerless, and the ba,d 
mind {A-'kem-manS) takes entire possession of them, insti-. 
gating th,em to commit sins and crimes, in consequence of 
which they will become utterly cast away, both in this 
life and in thg,t to come. Srosli fights chiefly against the 
Pevas. This means, that the Zoroastrian divine service is 
destined to counterbalance the mischief which the Indian 
Pevas we^e supposed to be doing to the good creation. 

]>ike Ahuramazd% his adversary Angr6-mainyush was, 
in later tiipes, s^posed to, be also surrounded by a council. 
This idea is completely foreign, to the older texts, and is 
evidently only an imitation of the celestial council. The 
number of comnciUors of the inffernal kingdom was like- 
wise fixed at six' (not in the Avesta texts, but only in the 
Bundahish), who were called pre-eminently Bevas and 
headed by Angr&-mainyush,, who, for this reason, was 
called Baivandm Daivd, or archdemon. The first in rank 
after AngrOrmainyush was Akem-jhano, which means the 
" evil mind," and is nothing but Zarsithushtra's philoso- 
phical term of th,© second principle, the "non-reality." 
He produces all bad thoughts in men,, and makes them 
utter bad worda and coimnit sins. His influence is 
checked by V'ohu-manO, the good mind. The second seat 
in the infernal council is. occupied by the King of the 
Vedic gods, Indea ; the third place is assigned to Saueva, 
the Shiva of thp Hindus. Fburth in ranji is Naonhaithya, 
the collective name of the Indian Ashvins ('Dioskuri) ; the 
fifth and sixth places are occupied by two personifications. 
Darkness and Poison (see the. Bundahish, edited by 
Westergaard, p. 5). 

There are a good many other names ©f Devas to b© 
found in the Zend-Avesta; but almost all are nothing but 
personifications of vices and evils. Thus, for instance, 
Aishema means "rapine, attack," Driwish is "poverty," 
Baiwish, " deceit," &c. While the celestial council is 


always taking measures for promoting life and spreading 
truth, the infernal councillors are constantly plotting de- 
signs for the destruction of life, and endeavouring to spread 
lies and falsehood everywhere. The Zoroastrian idea of 
the Devil and the infernal kingdom coincides entirely with 
the Christian doctrine. The Devil is a murderer and father 
of lies according to both the Bible and the Zend-Avesta. 

In consequepce of this entire separation of the two parts 
of Ahuramazda, and the substitution of two independent 
rulers governing the universe, the 'Unity of the Supreme 
Being was lost, and Monotheism was superseded by Dual- 
ism. But this deviation from, and entire change of, the 
prophet's doctrine coiild not satisfy the minds of all the 
divines and philosophers in anCien't Persia. It was very 
likely only the ifihovation of an influential party or sefCt, 
probably that which was called ^endik, i.e., following the 
interpretation (Zend), and which was opposed to that of 
the Magi (see p. 14). That Dualism was actually the doc- 
trine of the Zendiks, we best learn from the commence- 
ment of the Bundahish, which book purports to expound 
the lore of tkis party. The Ma^ seem still to have clung 
to the prophet's doctrine of the unity of the Supreme 
Being. But to refiite th* heteti'cal opinions of the Zendiks, 
which were founded on iaterpretations of passages from 
the sacred texts, a new and fresh proof of the unity of tlie 
Supreme Being was required. This was found in the term 
Zarvan c^a.Q'WfM, " boundless time," which we meet with 
occasionally in the Zend-Avesta. The chief passage, no 
doubt, was Vetad. xix. 9 (see pp. 24 and 254) ; but the in- 
terpretation for proving that Zarvan akarana means the 
Supreme Being, out of whom Ahuramazda and Angro- 
mainyush are said to have sprung, rests on a grammatical 
misunderstanding, as we have seen above (p. 24). This 
interpretation, however, must be very old ; for all the pre- 
sent Dasturs believe in it as an incontrovertible fact. 

That this doctrine of Zarvan akarana was commonly 
believed in Persia, during the times of the Sasanians, may 


be distinctly seen from the reports quoted above (pp. 
12-14). Tbe true meaning of the expression, that "the 
beneficent Spirit made (them) in boundless time," is that 
God (Ahuramazda) is from eternity, self-existing, neither 
born nor created. Only an eternal being can be indepen- 
dent of the bounds of time to which all mortals are subject. 

4. — The Two Intellects ; Two Lives ; Heaven and Hell ; 
Resuerection ; and Palingenesis. 

In the G§,thas we frequently find " two intellects " 
Qchratu) and " two lives " {aim) spoken of. These notions, 
therefore, formed undoubtedly part of Spitama Zarathush- 
tra's specula,tion. The two intellects are distingTiished as 
the " first " and " last." From the passages where they are 
mentioned (Yas. xliv. 19, xlviii. 4), their meaning cannot 
be ascertained with certainty. But happily we find them 
mentioned in later Avesta writings (see Yt. ii. i) by more 
expressive names; one of the intellects is called tismd 
hhratu, " the original inteUeot or wisdom," which we can 
best identify with the " first " in the G^thas ; the other is 
styled gaoshS-sr4,t6 hhratu, " the wisdom heard by the ear," 
which corresponds to the "last." Another name of the 
" first " is mainyu hhratu (mind hhird), " spiritual or hea- 
venly wisdom." Now we cannot be mistaken as to the 
meaning of these two intellects. The " first intellect " is 
not from earth, but from heaven ; not human, but divine. 
The " last intellect " represents what man has heard and 
learned by experience. The wisdom gained in this way is, 
of course, inferior to the heavenly wisdom. Only the latter 
can instruct man in the higher matters of life, as we see 
from a later book called " Mln6khird," which is written in 
P^zand (see p. 105). 

The " two lives " are distinguished as astvat, " bodily," 
or pardhu, "prior life," and as mariahya, "mental," or 
daibitya, " the second" (see Yas. xxviii. 3 ; xliii. 3 ; xlv. i ; 
xlvi. 19). Their meaning is clear enough, and requires no 
further comment ; they express our idea " body and soul." 


To be distinguished from these " two lives," are the " first" 
and the " last lives," which mean this life and that here- 

The idea of a future life, and the immortality of the 
soul, is expressed very distinctly already in the Gathas, 
and pervades the whole of the later Avesta literature. 
The belief in a life to come is one of the chief dogmas of 
the Zend-Avesta. See the passages about the fate of the 
soul after death, translated in the third Essay (pp. 220, 254). 

Closely connected with this idea is the belief in Heaven 
and Hell, which Spitama Zarathushtra himself clearly 
pronounced in his G§,thas. The name for Heaven is G(M'6- 
demdna (Garotmdn in Persian), " house of hymns," be- 
cause the angels are believed to sing hymns there (see 
Yas. xxviii. 10; xxxiv^ 2), which description agrees en- 
tirely with the Christian idea as founded on Isaiah vi. and 
the Eevelation of St. John. Gar8-demlna is the residence 
of Ahuramazda and the most blessed men (Yas. li. 15). 
Another more general name for Heaven is ahu vahishta, 
"the best life," afterwards shortened to vahishta only, 
which is still extant in the modern Persian hahisht, " para- 

Hell is called Briljd demdna, " house of destruction," in 
the G§,thas. It is chiefly the residence of the poets and 
priests of the Deva religion, the Rishis of the Brahmans 
(Yas. xlvi. 11). The later name is Duzhanka (Yasht xix. 
44), which is preserved in the modern Persian BHizakh, 
" hell." 

Between Heaven and HeU is Chinvat Pbeetu {Chin- 
vad p'Al), " the bridge of the gatherer," or " the bridge of 
the judge" (Chinvat can have both meanings), which the 
soul of the pious alone can pass, while the wicked fall 
from it down into Hell. It is mentioned, as we have seen, 
already in the Gathas (Yas. xlvi. 10, li). 

The belief in the Eesubeection of the body at the time 
of the last judgment also forms one of the Zoroastrian 
dogmas, as the reader will have learned from the passage 


quoted above (p. 217). In consequence of Biirnoufs in- 
quiries into the phrase yavaicha yavatdta6clM (which had 
been translated by Anquetil " till the resurrection," but 
which means nothing but " for ever and ever"), the exist- 
ence of such a doctrine in the Zend-Ayesta was lately- 
doubted. But there is not the slightest reason for doubt- 
ing it, as any one may convince himself from the passage 
quoted in p. 217, where it is clearly stated that the dead 
shall rise again. That the resurrection of the dead was a 
common belief of the Magi, long before the commencement 
of our era, may be learned from the statement of Theopom- 
jios (see pp. 8, 9). Now the question arises, had Spitama 
^arathushtra already pronounced this doctrine, which is 
one of the chief dogmas of Christianity, and of the Jewish 
and Mohammedan religions, or is it of later, perhaps 
foreign, origin f 

Though in the G§-thas there is no particular statement 
made of the resurrection of the dead, yet we find a phrase 
used which was afterwards always applied to signify the 
time of resurrection, and the restoration of all life that has 
been lost during the duration of creation. This is the 
expression frashem kerenaon ahiXm (Yas. xxx. g^ see p. 
150), "they make the life lasting," i.e., they perpetuate 
the life. Out of this phrase the substantive frasM-kereti, 
" perpetuation" of life, was formed, by which, in all the 
later Avesta books, the whole period of resurrection and 
palingenesis at the end of time is to be understood. The 
resurrection forms only a part of it. That this event was 
rea;Ily included in the term of frashd-kereti one may dis- 
tinctly infer from Vend, xviii. 51, where Spenta-Armaiti 
(the earth) is invoiced to restore " at the triumphant reno- 
vation" of creation, the lost progeny, in the form of one 
" knowing the Gathas, knowing the Yasna, and attending 
to the discourses " (see p. 249). 

According to these statements, there can be no doubt 

• A full explanation of it is to be found In the author's work on the 
Gathas, vol. i. pp. log-iiij. 


that tEis important doctrine is a genuine Zoroastriau 
dogma, which developed itself naturally from Spitama 
Zarathushtra's sayings. There is not the slightest trace of 
its being borrowed from a foreign source. Besides these 
direct proofs of its forming a genuine and original part of 
Zoroastrian theology, it agrees co^lpletely with the spirit 
and tendency of the Parsi religion. All life of the good 
creation, especially that of man, bodily as well as spiritual, 
is a sacred pawn intrusted by G-od to man who must keep 
his body free from impurity, and his. soul from sin. If 
death destroy the body (in the natural course),l it is not 
the fault of man who falls to an inexorable fate ; but it is 
considered as the duty of God, who is the preserver of all 
life, to restore all life that has fallen a prey to, death, to 
destroy this arch-enemy of human life, and so make life 
everlasting. This is to be done at the time of the resur- 

A detailed description of the resurrection and the last 
judgment is contained in the 31st chapter of the Bun- 
dahish (see pp. 70-77 Westerg.), which is, no doubt, 
founded on original Avesta sources which are now lost. In 
it an old song is embodied, the purport of which is to show 
that, though it appears to short-sighted mortals impossible 
for the body (when once dissolved into its elements, and 
those elements scattered in every direction) to be restored 
again, yet nothing is impossible for the hand of the 
Almighty, who created heaven and earth, endows the trees 
with sap, gives life to embryos in the womb, &c. 

Eor awakening the dead bodies, restoring all life de- 
stroyed by death, and holding the last judgment, the great 
prophet Sosyosh {Saoshyds in the Avesta) will appear by 
order of Ahuramazda. This idea is already to be found in 
the Avesta texts, only with the difference, that sometimes 
several (see p. 217), sometimes only one Soshyans is men- 

1 Suicide is, according to the Zoro- same class belongs adultery. The 

astrian religion, one of the most hor- committal of such sins leads straight 

rible crimes, belonging to the class of down to hell, whence no Ijashne can 

marff-araiin, or "deadly "sins. To the release the soul. 


tioned (see p. 254). The later Parsi legends distinguish 
three great prophets who will appear before the end of the 
world. These are the men who will perpetuate life (who 
will produce /rasAd-^ere<i), men of the same stamp as the 
ancient prophets and fire-priests, and bearing the same 
name, viz., Saoshyanto. They will be commissioned to 
check the influence of the devil, which increases at the 
time when this world is verging towards its end, by restor- 
ing truth and faith and the good Zoroastrian religion. 
Their names are poetical and imply a simile; the dark 
period of wretchedness and sin, in which they appear, 
being compared to night, and the era of eternal bliss, they 
are endeavouring to bring about, being likened to the bril- 
liant day. The first of these prophets is called HuMisha- 
thra Mdo (Hushedar-m&h), " the moon of happy rule ; " 
the second is Hukhshathra Bdmya (HushSdar-b§,ml), " the 
aurora of happy rule ; " and the third and greatest is called 
Saoshyds (Sosyosh). He is believed to be a son of Spi- 
tama Zarathushtra, begotten in a supernatural way. This 
means, that just as Spitama Zarathushtra was the greatest 
prophet and priest in ancient times, so will Sosyosh be the 
greatest of those to come. Therefore, he alone brings with 
him a new Wask of the Zend-Avesta, which was hitherto 
unknown, and reveals it to mankind. 



Some further translations from the Zend-Avesta, prepared at 
various times by the author, but not hitherto publislied, together 
with his notes descriptive of the mode of performing some of the 
Parsi ceremonies, are here added in the form of an Appendix to 
the foregoing Essays. 

I. — Translations from thk Avesta. 

These translations, which were written by the author in Ger 
man, supply the following additions to the passages already given 
in the third Essay : — 

I. — Vendidad, Fargard III. 1-23, and 34, 35, 

I. Creator of the settlements supplied with creatures, righte- 
ous one ! Where is the first most pleasing (spot) of this earth % ^ 
Then said Ahuramazda : Wherein, indeed, a righteous man shall 
pray,2 O Spitama Zarathushtra ! holding the firewood, holding 
the Barsom, holding the milk-offering [gdush jtvya), holding the 
Homa-mortar. [(P&zand) Recite the words containing dkhshU ^ 

^ Or "Where is the first (spot) most ' This appears to refer to the word 

pleasing to this earth," according to dkhshti in the Afring&n Dahm&n (see 

the Pahlavi translator. Yas. Ix. s). The passage containing 

^ So understood by the Pahlavi this word is the most sacred part of 

translator, who uses the word frand- the Afring^n, during the recital of 

mid; compare also Yas. Ixii. i. This which some sandal-wood is thrown 

Pahlavi word can, however, also be into the fire, and it must occur in all 

lead fravdmid, "goes forth." AfrSngans, 


with religion ; they may invoke both Mithra, ruling over wide 
fields, and E.lina-q&stra].^ 

2, 3. Creator, &c. [as in ver. i]. Where is the second most 
pleasing (spot) of this earth % Then said Ahuramazda : Wherein, 
indeed, a righteous man has built a honse provided with fire, 
with cattle, with a wife, with a son, with plenty. Thencefor- 
ward the cattle of this house are in abundance, the righteousness 
in abundance, the pasture ^ in abundance, the dog in abundance, 
the wife in abundance, the child in abundance, the fire in abund- 
ance, the whole good creation in abundance. 

4. Creator, <fec. [as in ver. i]. Where is the third most pleas- 
ing (spot) of this earth % Then said Ahuramazda : Wherein, 
indeed, one cultivates, O Spitama Zarathushtra ! tlie most corn, 
and pasture, and ffuit-bearing trees ; either where one provides 
water for un watered (land), or where one provides drainage for 
watery (land). 

5. Creator, &c. [as in ver. l]. Where is the fourth most 
pleasing (spot) of- this earth ? Then said Ahurama2da : Wherein, 
indeed, cattle and draught beasts are born most. 

6. Creator, &a [as in ver. i]. Where is the fifth most pleasing 
(spot) of this earth? Then said Ahuramaada : Wherein, indeed, 
cattle and draught beasts void most urine.* 

7. Creator, <kc. [as in' ver. i]. Where is the first most un- 
pleasing (spot) of this earth % Then said Ahuramaadsi, : What is 
ou the ridge of Arezdra,* O Spitama Zarathushtra ! on which the 
demons congregate out of the pit of destruction (hell), 

8. Creator, &c. [as in ver. i]. Where is the second most un- 
pleasing (spot) of this earth ? Then said Ahuramasda : Wherein, 
indeed, both dead dogs and dead men are most lying buried. 

9. Creator, &a £as in ver. i]. Where is the third most uii- 

^ This passage is here taken either * Some MSS. and the Pahlavi tran- 

as a Pizand interpolation, or as an' slation have "clothing." 

Avesfca quotation in the Pahlavi tran- ^ The five most pleasing spots on 

slation. It has reference to the Dir- the earth (or most pleasing to the 

Mihir or Agiari, where Mithra and spirit of the earth, if we accept the 

K&ma-q&stra (the angel £&m, see p. Pahlavi interpretation) are, therefore, 

214) are supposed to dwell, and where the fire-temple, the house of a pious 

they must be invoked. Some MSS. Zoroastrian, cultivated lands, stables, 

have " I will invoke," in which case and pastures. 

the passage may perhaps, be taken as * A mountain said to be situated at 

an exclamation of the righteous man. the gate of hell. 


pleasing (spot) of this earth \ Then said Ahuramazda : Wherein, 
indeed, vaulted tombs 1 are most constructed, in which dead men 
are deposited. 

10. Creator, .fee. [as in ver. i]. Where is the fourth most un- 
pleasing (spot) of this earth ? Then said Ahuramazda : Wherein, 
indeed, there are the most holes (of the creatures) of Angro- 

ir. Creator, &c. [as in ver. i]. Where is the fifth most un- 
pleasing (spot) of this earth ? Then said Ahuramazda': Wherein, 
indeed, O Spitama ZaTathushtra ! the wife or child of a righte- 
ous man shall travel the devious 2 path, (and) he brings forth 
wailing words coupled with dust and with sand. 

12. Creator, &c. [as in ver. i]. Who first rejoices this earth 
with the greatest joy ? Then said Ahuramazda : When, indeed, 
he most digs up where both dead dogs and dead men are lying 

13. Creator, <tc. [as in ver. 1]. Who secondly rejoices this 
earth with the greatest joy ? Then said Ahuramazda : Wlien, 
indeed, he most demolishes the vaulted tombs in which dead 
men are deposited. 

14. No one is carrying nione what is dead.* For if he should 
carry alone that which is dead, the Nasush would indeed defile 
(him) from the nose, fro^m the ey», from the tongue, from the 
chin, from the sexual part, from the anus.* This Drukhsh 
Nasush falls upon them (on such carriers), on their speech,* 
(and) afterwards they ar« impure for ever and ever. 

' Covered tombs are forbidden Ijo- t^aa, two men, aeoording to the reli- 

tlie Zoroastrians, as the corpse must gious laws of the Zoroastriana. 

remain exposed to the light of the * The drukhsh yd nasush, or demon 

sun, and not be laid in any closed of corruption, issues from the corpse 

sepulchre. and settles mpon tlie man who is 

2 The Dasturs undleratand by jfaro- carrying it improperly. It seems 

Uhhn, pantdm the forbidden or peril- likely that the text means to state 

ous path of death, and consider this tbat the Nasush issues from all the 

passage as a direst prohibition of ^ nine openings of the body, but in that 

lamentations an4 onitwa^^d. signs of case the doubtful word ^aitisA-garena 

mourning for the dead. The PahlaTi must be "ear" (not "chin" or "jaw"); 

commentary is obscnre, but appears it is equivalent to a Sanskrit form 

to describe the path as grievous, but pratisvarana, which would not be an 

to return upon it as still more gloomy impossible term for an *' ear." 

or impracticable. ^ This is the traditional explana- 

2 No corpse can be carried by less tion, which seems probable enough. 


15. Creator, &e. [as in ver. i]. Where should be the place of 
this man who is an iristd-kasha ^ (single carrier of the dead) ? 
Then said Ahuramazda : Where there may be the most waterless 
and treeless (spot) of this earth, with the most ground fit for the 
purification ceremony and the most dry land ; and the cattle 
and draught beasts shall go least forth on the paths, and (there 
are least) fire of Ahuramazda, and Barsom rightly arranged, and 
men who are righteous. 

16. Creator, &c. [as in ver. i]. How far from fire, how far 
from water, how far from the Barsom to be arranged, how far from 
righteous men ? 

17. Then said Ahuramazda: Thirty steps from fire, thirty 
steps from water, thirty steps from the Barsom to be arranged, 
three steps from righteous men. 

18. 19. There the Mazdayasnians should enclose for hiin an 
enclosure of this earth. Then for victuals they who are Mazda- 
yasnians shall provide — then fot clothes they who are Mazdayas- 
nians shall provide — (some) among the very hardest and foulest. 
These victuals let him eat, these clothes let him wear, always 
till when lie shall become an aged man, elderly or impotent.^ 

20, 21. Then when he shall become an aged man, elderly or 
impotent, the Mazdayasnians should afterwards, in the most 
effectual, most rapid, and most skilful manner, strip the extent 
of the skin, the support of the hair,* oS his head. To the most 
voracious of the beneficent spirit's carnivorous creatures, the birds 
(and) vultures, one should deliver over the body, speaking thus : 
These depart with him, all (his) evil thoughts, and evil words, 
and evil deeds. And if other wicked deeds were perpetrated by 
him, his atonement is through pafitd (renunciation of sin) ; 
moreover, if other wicked deeds were not perpetrated by him, 
the patita of that man is (completed) for ever and ever. 

22. Creator, &c. [as in ver. i]. Who thirdly rejoices this 

' The irisid-kashM is one who car- zauriird, " elderly man," is one of 

ries the dead in an improper manner, fifty ; and the pairisktd-khshudrd, 

and must be carefully distinguished "impotent or decrepit man," is one 

from the nasa-kasha (Vend. viii. 11, of ninety years. 

13), who is the lawful carrier. ' The Pahlavi ranslator says ; " He 

' According to the Pahlavi transla- is detained on a sammit, on the top 

tion, and the Farhang-i Oim-khadftk of a hill," till they scalp or behead 

(p. 5, ed. Hoshangji), the hand, " aged him. 
man," is one seventy years old; the 


earth with the greatest joy ] Then said Ahuramazda : When, 
indeed, he most destroys the holes of (the creatures) of Angr6- 

23. Creator, &c. [as in ver. i]. Who fourthly rejoices this 
earth with the greatest joy % Then said Ahuramazda : When, 
indeed, he cultivates, Spitama Zarathushtra ! the most corn, 
and pasture, and fruit-bearing trees j either where he provides 
water for unwatered (land), or where he provides drainage for 
watery (land). 

24-33. [S^6 *^^ translation in pp. 235-237.] 

34, 35. Creator, &c. [as in ver. i]. Who fifthly rejoices this 
earth with the greatest joy ? Then said Ahuramazda : When, 
indeed, Spitama Zarathushtra ! he shall labour on this earth, 
(and) gives with righteousness and goodness to a righteous man. 
When, indeed, Spitama Zarathushtra ! he shall labour on this 
earth, (and) gives not with righteousness and goodness to a 
righteous man, one should thrust him out of the bountiful earth 
(Armaiti) into darkness, and distress, and the worst existence, 
and he must submit to all thorns. 

36-42. [Not translated.] 

2. — Vendidad, Fargard IV. 44-55. 

44-46. And 1 when men of the same (Mazdayasnian) religion 
should come here, either brothers or friends, seeking property, 
or seeking a wife, or seeking wisdom ; if they should come seek- 
ing property, they may acquire their property here ; if they 
should come seeking a wife^ you may let a woman marry ; if 
they should come seeking wisdom; you may recite the beneficent 
text 2 both early in the daytime and late, both early in the night- 
time and late, for the increase in wisdom of the learner^ for the 

1 Ver. 44 has been already tran- peated (?) it through righteousnesa 
slated in p. 240, but it is so closely (that is, he may have quite under- 
connected with the following verses stood what is declared by it)." The 
that it is necessaiy to repeat it here. Avesta word vtdrvdnaM ("of the 

''The Pahlavi translation adds: learner") occurs nowhere else, and is 

" That is, its words are to be here explained by hard dardd in Pah- 

tau^ht." lavi, which is equally obscure, hut 

" The Pahlavi version is: "When the general sense indicated by the 

it tnay have increased his wisdom Pahlavi is that of " learner or pupil. " 

(that is, when it may be made quite It may, however, be remarked that if 

easy to him) and he may have re- vldrvdnahS be traced to vi-dru we ob- 



sake of righteousness ; and witK righteousaess and reverence he 
sits at home for increase in wisdom.* In the middle of both day 
and night he may sleep, by day and by night, always till when 
they should recite those sayings which the Herbads had previ- 
ously recited.^ They (the sayings) are adapted for men (who 
are) like boiling water (through zeal). Not for meat, not for 
clothes, (but) unrewarded, must he (the teacher) utter the chap- 
ters (H^).3 

47. And, moreover, I tell thee thus, O Spitama Zarathush- 
tra ! verily the priest (magceva) * must recite from it sooner for 
the married man than for thee, for him with a house than 
for him without a house, for him with a son than for him 
without a son, for bim with property than for him without 

48. And of these two men he shall be more possessed of the 
good mind (Vohu-man6) who shall promote the growth of meat 
(or cattle) than he who does not. So he being dead, he is as 
much as an asperena,^ he is as much as a young aiaimal, he is 
as much as a draught beast, he is as much as a man (in 

tain ii meaning (" of the fogitive 01 
refugee ") which would also suit the 
passage, as the men seem to have 
come as exiles from their o>wn loomes. 
The anomalous Pablavi word) da/rdd 
can also be read giHkht, which s^g~ 
gesta firirttW, "fled" (althoiighi thi» 
is generally written virtkht\ ; aad the 
Pahlavi phrase would then mean : 
**and he may have fled oat account of 
righteousness." The explanatory 
phrases of the Pahlavi translation, 
given above in parentheses, are pro- 
bably later interpolations. The 
phrase " to make easy " is a Pahlavi 
and Persian idiom for "to learn by 

^ The Pahlavi version is- : "In awe 
of God and thankfulness towards Gtod 
that wisdom increases which is made 
easy to him, (and) he is constant in 
exertion that he may retain it by 
labour and the grace of God." That 
yaonem, (which is here rendered by 
PahL ayHjishn, "exertion") means 

"■home, place," is plain from the' pas- 
sage. Tend. xxi. 4: ham yaStdonhi 
yaonemcha avi zdmcha, sdmcha avi 
yaonemcha, " (the waters) striving to- 
wards home and tlie earth, towards 
the earth and home (in the seaVouru- 

' The Pahlavi version adds tlie 
name of Adarp9id M3.raspend4n. 

^ The Pahlavi version is; "Thou 
shouldst not speak of the- non-giving 
ef meat zior of clothes which should 
be thine ; always say : No! and after- 
wards even, at the time, say: A 

^ The I*ahlavi version renders yatha 
magavA fravdkJishdid by : " as (one) 
•who has progressed in the Maghi (the- 
Barashnom ceremony), tlbat is, has no 
wife>" alluding to the fiact that a 
man undergoing that ceremony must 
live separate from' his wife. 

' A weight equivalent to a dirham, 

* Probably referring to. the weight 
of his good worksv 


49. For this man, on meeting, fights with Ast6--vtdh6tu.i 
Wlioever fights an arrow shot by himself, whoever fights Zemaka 
(the Wiater demon, and) wears scanty clothing, whoever fights 
a wicked man, a tyrant, and (strikes him) on the head,^ whoever 
fights an unrighteous apostate (and) starvation ; ^ (any) of these 
deeds being performed a first time, is not (to be done) a second 

50. That such as are in this material world may here under- 
stand (the agony) of this exploit there,* one should cut away to 
the bones with iron knives ; verily, it is greater than any such 
(agony) of his mortal body.^ 

51. That such as are in this material world may here under- 
stand (the agony) of this exploit there, one should tear away to 
the bones with iron pincers ; verily, it is greater than any such 
(agony) of his mortal body. 

52. That such as are in this material world may here under- 
stand (the agony) of this exploit there, one should fall involun- 
larily into a pit (deep as) a hundred men ; verily, it is greater 
than any such (agony) of his mortal body. 

53. That such as are in this material world may here under- 
stand (the agony) of this exploit there, one should stand involun- 
tarily on an extreme verge (of a precipice).^ 

^ The demon of deatli, who is said, thesis is not found in the oldest MSS. 

in later writings, to cast a halter In the Pahlavi each clause of the seu- 

around the necks of the dead to drag tence is also wound up by stating that 

them to hell, but if their good works " his fight is with Ast6-vldh5tu," that 

have exceeded their sins they throw is, at the risk of death, 

ofi the noose and go to heaven. Per- * That is, of the conflict of th? soul 

haps the grammatical difficulties of with Ast6-vldh6tu in the other world, 

this sentence may be best overcome Possibly a^tadha (here translated 

by the following translation :— " For "here ") may be taken ^s the missing 

this one, Ast6-vldh6tu, on nneeting noun " agonies ; " compare aiith&hv,, 

men, fights." *' through, t^rors," Yt. xxii. 25, see 

2 The Pahlavi version says : " A p. 222. 

beheader like Zarhfindad." ^ The translation of this difficult 

3 If asha be taken in its primitive passage has been much revised, so aa 
sense of "right," this phrase may to correspond more closely with thu 
merely mean: "whoever fights mis- text without introducing additional 
chievous and unusual hunger." Th^ words, which are alwa,ya hazardous 
Pahlavi version, instead of *'starva- suggestions. 

tion," has : " a tyrant like Mazdak(-i " The Pahlavi translator misunder- 

B9,md£ld4n who ate his own liver, and stands this verse as referring to sexual 

it was given to him in anguish and enjoyment, 
death];" but the passage ill paren-: 


54- That such as are in this material world may here under- 
stand (the agony) of this exploit there, one knowing a lie should 
drink up the beneficial, golden, intelligent water with denial of 
the truth (Hashtiu) and breach of promise (Mithra)?- 

55. Creator, &c. [as in iii. i]. Whoever knowing a lie should 
drink up, &c. [as in ver. 54]; what is his punishment? Then 
said Ahuramazda : One may strike seven hundred blows with a 
horse-goad, seven hundred with a scourge.^ 

3. — Vendidad, Fargavd V. 

1. A man dies there in the depths of the valleys ; thereupon 
a bird flies aloft from the summits of the hills into the depths 
of the valleys ; it feeds upon the body of the dead man. Then 
the bird flies aloft froin the depths of the valleys to the summits 
of the hills ; it flies on to a tree, either of the hard or of the soft 
(kinds). It (the nasiish, *' dead matter ") is vomited on it, is 
voided on itj is dropped on it. 

2. A man goes forth there from the depths of the valleys to 
the summits of the hills ; he goes up to the tree where that bird 
was ; he wants faggots for the fire ; he fells it, he hews it, he 
splits it,^ he kindles it in the fire, the offspring of Ahuramazda. 
What is the punishment for this ? 

3. Then said Ahuramazda : No dead matter (nasush) brought 
by a dog, none brought by a bird, rlone brought by a wolf, none 
brought by the wind, none brought by a fly, pollutes a, man. 

1 This l-eferS to an ordeal in which ^ The additional words, ddyata 
a cup of water is drank after solemnly ddityd-pairishta, " it was kept law- 
invoking curses upon one's head it fully inspected," appear to be merely 
one has not told the truth. The an Avesta quotation in the Pahlavi 
water is prepared with great solem- translation. This inspection is after- 
nity, and contains various sacred sub- wards more fully noticed in the long 
stances, among them some Homa Pahlavi commentary to ver. 4, where 
juice, which is referred to in the it is stated that firewood must be re- 
Pahlavi version by the epithet jrdiard- jeoted if contaminated with dead 
hdmand for saokentavaittin, " bene- matter, or if decayed, or from a gal- 
ficial;" and a little gold is added, lows, or mixed with grease, or pol- 
which accounts for the second epithet luted by a menstruous woman, except 
in the text. See the Saugand- in case of death or distress ; the burn- 
ntoah. ing of such firewood is a tandpAhar 

^ The Pahlavi version adds : ""Who- sin, but burning greasy wood is a 

ever performs an ordeal (var) his mortal sin. 
punishment — says a voice — is this." 


4. If, indeed, the dead matters which are brought by a dog, 
and brought by a bird, and brought by a wolf, and brought by 
the wind, and brought by a fly, are the dead matter (which) 
would be polluting a man, speedily my whole material world 
would overthrow (its) essential righteousness (or regularity, and 
be) distressing the soul (and) ruining the body, through the mul- 
titude of these dead matters which have perished upon this 

5. Creator, &c. [as in iii. t]. A mail pours water on to a 
corn-field ; he shall go into the water-channel (vaidMrn) ^ through 
it, into (it) a second time, into (it) a third time, and after the 
fourth time they drag dead matter in, (be they) dog, or fox, or 
wolf. What is the punishment for this 1 

6. Then said Ahuramazda, &c. [as in ven 3]. 

7. If, indeed, the dead matters, (fee. [as in ver; 4].^ 

8. Creator, &c. [as in iiii i]. Dues the water destroy a mau^ 
Then said Ahuramazda : The water dbcs not destroy a man. 
Ast6-vidh6tu binds him ; the flying demon ( Va^d) ^ conveys him 
bound ; the water carries (him) up, the water carries (hinl) 
down, the water casts (him) away ; the birds {vay6) then de- 
vour him. There * he then proceeds; through fate he then 

9. Creator; &c. [as in iii. i]. Does the fire destroy a man] 
Then said Ahuramazda : The fire does not destroy a man. Ast6- 

1 In PahlaYiy^t, " a rivulet." from tiny impurity in its way. Most 

2 Tlie Pahlavi commentary on this of this commentary is omitted in 
passage states: "It is declared by Spiegel's edition of the Pahlayi text; 
the Aresta, the dry channel of a but will be found in the old MS. at 
rivulet (j6t khilshk vur4, Pers. burU) the India Office Library in Londoli, 
is to be inspected for dead matter, mentioned in p. 95. 

Yisi vaaen Mazdayasna zdm raodh- ^ Tyt-i saritar, "the evilVy6,"ia 

ayen ('If the Mazdayasnians wish the Pahlavi version ; this is the VaS 

they may irrigate the land')." It i-vatarof the Mainy6-i-khard(ii. 115)) 

then proceeds to say that a man be- where he is one of the demons who 

fore admitting the water must de- oppose the soul's progress towards 

scend three times into the channel heaven. 

and inspect it carefully, to see that * That is, to the other world. The 

it is free from impurity, and after a Pahlavi version has : " "When he sets 

fourth inspection he may allow the out back from thence (that is, shall 

water to enter. Further provisions come) fate will convey him back (that 

are made in case of the inspection is, she is in the leading path when he 

being impracticable, and as to the shall come)." 
merit acquired by diverting the water 



vldhotu bifida him; the flying demon (VaytY conveys him 
bound; the fire consumes the bones and vitality. There he 
then proceeds, through fate he then departs.^ 

HO. Creator, <fcc. [as in iii. i]. They pass out of summer, then 
in wintet bow should they act, they who are Mazdayasnians ? 
Then said Ahuramaada : In every dwelling, in every neighbour- 
hood,3 they shall erect three Katas for any one when dead. 

II. Creator, (fee. [as in iii. i]. How large are these Katas for 
^ny one when dead ? Tlien said Ahuramazda : So that he may 
not strike his head against the upper part,* nor the further end 
with the feet, nor across with the hands ; verily, this is a lawful 
Kata for any one when dead. 

1 The PaMavi version adds : "That 
is when, as some say, the good V^9, 
■will ever receive him." This refers 
to the VaS-i-yeh of th? Mainyfi-i- 
khard (ii. 115), where he is one of th^ 
?ngeis who assist tlie soul's progress 
to heaven. He is identical with the 
angel Rim, the Yayu of the E§,m 
Yasht, see p. 214. 

2 The Pahlavi commentary on this 
passage is : " Worldly (benefits are 
acquired) through fate, spiritual 
through action ; some say that wife, 
child, wealth, authority, and life are 
through fate, tlie rest through action. 
The happiness which is not destined, 
for a man be n^ver attains to ; (this) 
is evident from, the passage (begin- 
ning) : gairi-masS anh6 aMahi.{"thoa 
mightest be mountain-sized of this"); 
that which is destined for him, an^ 
which will cwne before him through 
exertion, is any$ aredv& zeSgS qarend 
('■'the other persistent glory"), and 
it was through; his sinfulness when 
ironblje happens to him.. Add qa- 
reni, fra/pairyHti ("then glory die- 
livers '*) and the misfortune destined 
f<)r him he, is, able to avert by proper 
exertion ; powu-qarenaiih& ashava 
ZurathusMra ("fall of glory (he is) 
righteous Zarathuishtra !"); and his 
sinfulness ever anew destines it (mis- 
fortune) for him. ASshdmcka nardm 
(" and of these men ") one man, when 
through the destiny of another man it 

was necess.iry for him, had died when 
through the destiny of that dead one 
it was still improper, but he (the first 
one) was able to do it so that, through 
the slaying of that innocent one, jus- 
tice {radih) should well deal with 
this quarrel.'' This commentary is a 
fair specimen of the mode in which 
.^vesta quotations are used in the 
Pahlayi vei'sion of the Vendidad. In 
the above quotations the word qarena, 
" glory, brilliance," is probably used 
for hakhta^ "fate, destiny," which 
would obviously be more appropriate 
in meaning. Both these words would 
be equivalent to the same Hiazv&rish 
logogram, gadman, and this fact 
might lead to the one word being 
substituted for the other, provided 
we assume that the Avesta quotations 
had been, at one time, written in 

3 The oldest PaMavi MSS. have 
merely, Mdn vis hhdnak khadHk dast 
kfi^, explaining mdn by khdnak, " a 
house, " and vis by dast-i kado, "group, 
of huts." 

* The Pahlavi MS. version has ; 
" So much as, when standing (that 
is, living) the head strikes not against 
the limits {dhdn), nor when the foot 
is forth (that is, when the foot is ex- 
tended), nor when the hand is un- 
moved (tliat is, his hand is held 


12. There shall they deposit his lifeless body for two nio-hts, 
or three nights, or a roouth long, until the (^timej when the birds 
shall fly forth, the plants shall shoot out, the descending (floods) 1 
shall run off, (and) the wind shall dry up the ground, 

13. Then when thus the birds shall fly forth, the plants, shall 
shoot out, the descending (floods) shall run ofi", (and) the wind 
shall dry up the ground, the Mazdayasnians should now set his 
body viewing the sun^ 

14. If the Mazdayasniaps should not set thisi body viewing 
the sun for the length of a year, thott shalt order as much punish- 
ment as for murdering a righteous man (a Zoroastrian), in order 
that the corpses (be) attended to, the Dakhmas attended to, the 
impurities 2 attended to> and the birds gorged. 

15. Creator^ &c. [as in iii. j]. Wilt thou, who art Ahura- 
raaada, release the water ftom the sea Vouru-kasha^ together witli 
the wind and clouds t 

i6w Wilt thou convey (it) to a corpse, thou who art Ahura- 
maada ? Wilt thou coftvey (it) on to a Dakhma, thou who art 
Ahuramazda % Wilt thou convey (it) on to impurity, thou who 
art Ahuramazda? Wilt thou pour (it) forth on a bone, thou who 
art Ah.ura,mazda ? Wilt thou conduct (it) forth unnoticed, thou 
who art Ahuramazda ? With those (impurities) wilt thou con- 
duct (it) forth to the sea Ptiitika? 

17. Then said Ahuramazda : Verily it is so, O ^arathushtra ! 
as thou sayest, O upright one ! I who am Ahuramazda will re- 
lease tlie water from the sea Vouru-kasha, together with the wind 
and clouds* 

18. I will convey (it) to a corpse, I who am Ahuramazda ; I 
will convey (it) on to a Dakhma, I who am Ahuramazda ; I will 
convey (it) on to impurity, I who am Ahuramazda ; I will pour 

■■ What are "lying low" or "di- as the Pablavi translator adds, "the 
r«eted downwards," as implied by the adversity of winter shall depart ; " but 
word «2/(Jo^eW, must be guessed from these readings are too irregular in 
the context, and floods, streams, foim to be relied on. 
iciqles, and snow might be suggested. ^ Tjjg term hikhra, "impurity," is 
The Pahlavi equivalent of nydonchS applied to any bodily refuse or ex- 
is amhigUQUs, even in the old MSS., cretiou from mankind or dogs, in- 
andmay bereadeitheriJasAcJj/ins'Mmtt, eluding saliva, skin, hair, nail-parings, 
,"a qleaiing offi, an open sky,"ormsA- &c. In this passage it appears to 
di/lngunih, "solidification, congela- refer to exudations from, a corpse. 
tion ; " the latter might be preferred, 



(it) forth on a bone, I who am Ahuramazda; I will conduct (it) 
forth unnoticed, I who am Ahuramazda ; with those (impurities) 
I will conduct (it) forth to the sea Puitika. 

19. There exist streaming currents ^ in the inner part of the 
sea for purifying, (and) the waters flow from the sea Puitika to 
the sea Vouru-kasba,^ to the tree Hv&paj^ here grow all my 
trees of every kind.* 

20. I rain these down together,^ I who am Ahuramazda, both 
as food for the righteous man and fodder for the well-yielding 
ox. Man shall e^t n»y corn, and fodder is for the weH-.yield- 
ing ox. 

2 1. This is better, this is more excellent, than thou, upright 
one ! sayest. By this speech the righteous Ahuramazda rejoiced 
him, the righteous Zarathushtra : Mayst thou purify for man the 
best (things) for procreation.^ This which is the Mazdayasnian 
religion is pure, Zarathushtra ! He who purifies himself by 
good thoughts and good words and good deedsj 

22. Creator, &c. [as in iii. i]. How much greater, better, and 
more excellent is this Zarathushtrian Provision against the 

^ Or perhaps " splashing waves ;'' 
the Pahlavi translation is obscure, 
but seems to say : "they remain in a 
water-skin {&v khdiJe, Pers. khtk) and 
bucket {dUld) kept full." 

'^ The Pahlavi version adds : " T9- 
■wards the southernmost side, and it 
(the wiiter) stays behind in mist 
{pavan Mr, or khir), and the blue 
(kavud) body of (the sea) Satavafisa 
stays behind around it. PMtika 
stands away from the shore of Sata- 
vaSsa, this is a fact, but from which 
shore it stands away is not clear to 
me. The water comes to Satavafesa 
through the bottom (plkh) ; some say 
that it traverses a fissure (Te&fah)." 

3 ThePahlavi version adds: "Afarg 
says the root of a tree ; MSd6k-ma,h 
(says) a forest." 

4 Some MSS. add the Avesta : "by 
hundreds, by thousands, by myriads 
of myriads ; " and the Pahlavi version 
adds : " among species, chaiti henti 
unwranam saredha ("how many are 
the kinds of trees ? ") that is the prin- 

cipal species." Either a list of spe- 
cies is omitted, or chaiti here merely 
means " many," as the Pahlavi chand 
often does. 

^ That is, both waters and plants. 
The Pahlavi commentary ascribes this 
to Tishtar, according to the later tra- 
ditioni thus : " he who is Tishtar 
takes the water (that) they may take 
it in the veils of waters it comes 

^ This is a quotation from the 
Sp?flta-mainyti Gatha (Tas. xlviii. 5) 
which continues as follows : — " for the 
ox mayst thou nourish that of those 
labouring for our food." It forms 
part of an address to Armaiti, the 
spirit of the earth. The disconnected 
phrases which follow are probably 
also texts quoted from the Scrip- 

' The Pahlavi version adds the note 
that, " anhvdm (life, self) smidaSnam 
(intuition, religion, self) are both the 


Devas^ above the other traditions in greatness and goodness 
and excellence. 

23. Then said Ahuramazda : Verily, one may consider, O 
Spitama Zarathushtra ! this Zarathushtrian Provision against 
the Devas above the other traditions in greatness and goodness 
and excellence, as the sea Vouru-fcasha is above the other 

24. Verily, one may consider, &c. [as in ver. 23], as the greater 
water overpowers the lesser waters.^ Verily, one may consider, 
&c. [as in ver. 23], as the greater tree overshadows the lesser 
trees. ^ 

25. Verily, one may consider, &c. [as in ver. 23], as it has been 
both on and around this earth.* 

Let the judge i^ratu) be nominated, let the executor of the 
sentence (sraoshdvarem) be nominated, on a Draona (consecrated 
cake) being uplifted or not uplifted, on a Draona being offered 
or not offered, on a Draona being delivered or not delivered.^ 

26. Afterwards this judge is able to remit for him a third of 
this punishment. And if other wicked deeds were perpetrated 
by him, his atonement is through patita (renunciation of sin) ; 
moreover, if other wicked deeds were not perpetrated by him, 
the patita of that man is (completed) for ever and ever.^ 

1 The Vendidad, which is a corrup- {ntrang) of worship. " There is evi- 

tion of vidaivd-cUitem, see p. 225- dently a change of subject here. 

^ The Pahlavi version has : "as the ° The Pahlavi commentaries on this 

great water when it advances upon the passage are : "The Dastur considers, 

little water, bears (it) away when it (the Sraoshlvareza) accuses of sin.'* 

falls into the cAiiAa" (perhaps equiva- And with reference probably to the 

lent to cMh, "a pit"). offender, the Dastur considers : "what 

' The Pahlavi adds an obscure was in liis thoughts but not com- 

phrase which may perhaps, in the mitted, and not in his thoughts but 

oldMSS., be: sarvAn malkd di>-akM- committed; what was promised him 

zak-a4, "the king of cypresses is one was not brought, and not promised 

(growing) in a marsh." was brought ; what was his intention 

* The Pahlavi version in old MSS. but not performed, and unintended 

has: " as it will travel (Sard SiJmiri^d) but performed." This, however, 

to this earth and over the sky , that tlirows little light into the obscurity 

is, ever in all (places)." Then follows of the Avesta text. 

a commentary which seems to refer ^ This passage has occurred also in 

to the succeeding sentence, thus : iii. 21, and perhaps " his punishment 

"some say this about Nasush, and is abandoned" might be substituted 

that in the eighth (fargard) about de- for "his atonement is through ^a- 

<;ision and judgment, is that in the tita," and " acquittal " be read in- 

H&sp4r(am (Nask) about the formula stead of the second "patita." The 


27. Creator, &c. [as in iii. i]. When men happen to be in 
the same place, on a rug together, or on a mat together, and 
Othersare on it ; there may be two men, or five, or fifty, or a hun- 
dred; (and) the same of women ;^ (and) then one of these men 
shall die; how many among the men does this Drulchsh Nasush 
(the destroyer, Corruption) reach with impurity, and rottenness 
and filth ? 

28. Then said Ahnramazda : If he be a priest (who dies), 
Tsrily, G Spitama Zarathushtra ! this Drukhsh Nasush rushes 
forth> if she reaches the elewenth she pollutes indirectly to the 
tenth. If, however, lie be a warrior, verily, Spitama Zara* 
thushtra ! this Drukhsh' Nasush rushes forth; if she' reaches the 
tenth she pollutes indirectly to the 'ninth. If, however, he be a 
husbandman, verily, Spitama ZarathushtVa 1 this Drokish 
Nasusb rashes forth ; if she reaches the ninth she pollutes; in- 
directly to the eighth. 

29. Moreover, if it be a shepherd's dog {piisush-^hdurva), verily, 
&c.' [as, in ver. 28] ; if she reaches the eighth she pollutes in- 
directly to the seventh. If, however,; it be a. house-dog (mdi- 
haurvin), verily, &c. [as in ver., 28] ; if she reaches; the seventh 
she pollutes indirectly to the sixth. - , 

30. If, however, it be a bloodhound (yoliunazga), verily, &ci 
[as in ver. 28] ; if she reaches the sixth she pollutes indirectly 
to the fifth. If, however, it be a young (taurv/nd) dog, verily, 
&c. [as ill ver. 28].; if she reaches the fifth she pollutes indirectly 
to the fourth. 

31. If, however, it be a snhuruna^ dog, verily, <kc. [as in 
ver. 28] ; if she reaches the fourth she pollutes indirectly to 

drift of the sentence being that no the judges' own ; when it shall be the 

offender can be tried or punished for judges' own it will be allowable to re- 

S.n older offence than the one for mit the whole of it. " 

wliich he has been already condemned. ^ The Pahlavi version misinterprets 

The Pahlavi version adds : "that is, ham ndiriiiam by "in fellowship 

when the Dastur considers and de- (and) in contact." 

plores the sin, and they shall perform ^ What description of dog or animal 

good works iincomplainingly, it will is meant by this epithet, or any of the 

be allowable for the judge {ratu, i.e., three succeeding, is quite uncertain. 

Dastur) to remit one-third of the The Pahlavi version merely tran- 

soul's sin ; this is declared where the scribes the Avesta words, and owns 

decision is among the judges [as in that the last three are not intelli- 

c:uies of appeal or joint decisions], not gible. 


the third. If, however, it be a jazhu, dog, verily, &c. [aa in 
ver. 28]; if she reaches the third she polhites indirectly to the 

32. If, however, it be an aiioizu dog, verily, &c. [as in 
ver. 28]; if she reaches the second she pollutes indirectly 
the first. If, however, it be a vhu dog, verily, <fec. [as in 
ver. 28]; if she reaches the first she pollutes indirectly the 

33. Creator, &c. [as in iii. i]. If, however, the dog be a fox 
(urupi), how many of the creatures of the beneficent spirit does 
the dog which is a fox pollute directly ? how many does it pol- 
lute indirectly ? >■ ' . 1 ,- : . 

34. Then said AhuramaKda: This dog, wjhich is a. fox, 
does not pollute directly (any) of the creatures of the bene- 
ficent spirit, nor does it pollute indirectly, any other thiin 
he that smites and kills (it). To him it adheres for ever and 
ever. ' 

. 35- Creator, &c. [as in iii, t]. Moreover, if he (who dies) be 
a miscreant, a two-legged unbeliever {drvda),"^ as an unrighteous 
apostate is, how many of the creatures of the beneficent .spirit 
does he pollute directly ? how many does he pollute i[i- 
directly? . ; 

36. Then said Ahuramazda : Like any toad*- dried up (and) 
over a year dead; for living, 0:Spitama Zarathushtra ! a mis- 
creant, a two-legged unbeliever, as an unrighteous apostate is, 
pollutes directly (any) of the creatures of the beneficent spirit ; 
living he pollutes (them) indirectly. 

37. Living it (the toad) spoils the water, living it quenches 
the fire, living it drives the cattle mad; living it strikes the righte- 
ous man a blow depriving of consciousness (and) cutting off life ; 
not so (when) dead. 

38. So, living, O Spitaina Zarathushtra ! a miscreant, a two- 
legged unbeliever, as an unrighteous apostate is, plunders the 

1 Bam ra£thwaySiti means that it = Or "a two-legged, unbslieving 

contaminates or communicates con- serpent." 

tagiou by direct contact, and paiti- ' Strictly speaking, vasagha is a 

ro/^thwayiiti means that it infects or poisonous lizard; 
spreads infection through an inter- 
mediate person or thing. 


righteous man of a profusion ^ of food and clothing and wood and 
carpet ^ and iron ; not so (when) dead. 

39. Creator, &c. [as in iii. i]. When we bring together, 
righteous Ahnramazda ! in the dwellings in this material world, 
the fire and Barsora and cups and Homa and mortar, (and) after- 
wards either a dog or a man of this dwelling shall die, how should 
they act, they who are Mazdayasiiians ? 

40. Then said Ahuramazda : Off from these dwellings, 
Spitama Zarathushtra ! they should carry the fire and Barsom 
and cups and Homa and mortar, off from (them) the dead one. 
They may think of it as the lawful man (that) is both brought 
to the lawful (place) and devoured.^ 

41. Creator, <fec. [as in iii. i]. How should these Mazdayas- 
iiians bring the fire back again to this dwelling where the man 
had died } 

42. Then said Ahuramazda : Nine nights should they who are 
Mazdayasnians hesitate in winter, but in summer a month long; 
afterwards these Mazdayasnians may bring the fire back again to 
this dwelling where the man had died. 

43. Creator, &c. [as in iii. i]. And if these Mazdayasnians 
should bring the fire back again to this dwelling where the man 
liad died within the space of the nine nights, (or) within the 
space of the month long, what is the punishment for this? 

44. Then said Ahuramazda : One- may inflict on the vitiated 
body of such a one two hundred blows with a horse-goad, two 
hundred with a scourge. 

45. Creator, &c. [as in iii. i]. When in this Mazdayasnian 
dwelling a woman shall go with child for one month, or two 
months, or tliree months, or four months, or five months, or six 
months, or seven mpnths, or eight months, or nine months, or 

^ ThewordcenAeusA," of the world," translated in Pahlavi by ierih, "re- 

although it would suit the sense well pletion," which is an approximation 

enough, appears to be a corruption to the meaning of asarth, while 

since the time of the Pahlavi tran- neither word can be used for "world." 

slatiou. Some MSS. have hanhush, " In Pahlavi namad, Pers. namad. 

others hanheush, and the Pahlavi s Alluding both to the dead body 

version translates the word hy asarth, being taken to the Dakhma to be de- 

"endlessness"(sar, "head,"isalway3 voured by birds, and also to the 

applied to the " end " in Pahlavi, Mn, Homa juice, considered as a creature 

"root, origin,'' being the "begin- to be consumed by a righteous man 

ning"). In Yas. liii. 4, hanhush ia in the consecrated place. 


ten months, and then this -woman shall be delivered in child- 
birth of something lifeless, how should they act, they who are 
Mazdayasnians ? 

46-48. Then said Ahuraniazda : Where there is in this Maz- 
dayasnian dwelling especially the most ground fit for the puri- 
fication ceremony, and the most dry land, &c. [as in iii. 

49. There the Mazdayasnians should enclose for her an en- 
closure of this earth. Then for victuals they who are Mazdayas- 
nians shall provide, then for clothes they who are Mazdayasnians 
shall provide. 

50. Creator, <fec, [as in iii. 1]. What food should this woman 
first eati 

S I. Then said Ahuramazda : Ashes with bull's urine, three 
draughts, or else six, or else nine ; these she should pour (by 
drinking)! on the receptacle of the dead within the effusing 

52. Then, afterwards, (she may swallow some) of the warm 
milk of mares and cows and sheep and goats, of (the fruits) with 
rind (and) without rind, and cooked meat undiluted, and true 
corn undiluted, and honey undiluted. 

53. Creator, &c. [as in iii. i]. How long should they hesi- 
tate ? how long does she remain in seclusion, eating meat and 
corn and honey ? 

54. Then said Ahuramazda : Three nights they should hesi- 
tate ; three nights does she remain in seclusion, eating meat and 
com and honey. Then, moreover, after the three nights she 
should wash over (her) body, freed from clothing, with bull's 
urine and water, on the nine stones {magha) ; so they should 
purify (her). 

55. Creator, &c. [as in iii. i]. How long should they hesi- 
tate ? how long does she remain in seclusion after the three 
nights, in a separate place, with separate food, with separate 
clothing, apart from the other Mazdayasnians 1 

56. Then said Ahuramazda : Nine nights they should hesi- 
tate ; nine nights does she remain in seclusion after the three 

1 So nnderstood by the Pahlavi rather to outward purification, pre- 
translator and modem Parsis, but paratory to drinking the mOk, than 
the Avesta may perhaps refer here to drinking itself. 


iiigbts, in a separate place, with separate, food, witli separate 
clothing, apart from the, other Mazdayaanians. Then, moreover, 
after the nine nights she should wash, <fec. [as in ver. 54J 

57. Creator, <fec. [as in iii. i], Are tjjose clothes, set apart 
after purifying (and) washing, for the Zaota, or for the H9.vanan, 
or for the Atarevakhsha, or for the Fraharetar, or for the Aber- 
eta, or for the Asnl,tar, or for the EaSthwishkara, or for the 
Sraosb4vareza,i or for the priest (who is) a man, or for tlie war- 
rior, or for the husbandman ? 

58. Then said Ahuramazda r Those clothes, set apart after 
purifying (and) washing, are not for the Zaota, &o. [as in ver. 
57, but substituting everywhere "not" for "or"].^ 

59. When ia this Mazdayasnian dwelling there shall be a men- 
struous woman, or when there is a place niairked by defloration 
(and) stained by intercourse, here she remains in it, and a rug 
and mat should cover (her) up, always so that she may frequently 
put out (her) hands together. 

60. For I, (who am) Ahuramagda, allow no defiling of unused 
clothes, not the size, of axi asperma, not even so much as the iii- 
;finitesimal quantity ' this damsel would defile. 

^ These appeiu- to be names of eight n4n, at the ttorth-west corner ; 3, 
lOfficiatiDg priests in the ceremonies of Atarevakhsha^ at the south-west 
ancient times, of whom only two are corner ; 4, Fraharetar, at the north- 
now employed, the Zaota, who is the east comer ; s, Abereta, at the south- 
chief ofBoiating priest, and his assis- -east corner; 6, Asna.tarj on the west 
tant, the Kathwi, who takes the place side ; 7, Ba^thwishkara, on the east 
of the remaining seven. These seven side; 8, Sraosh^vareza, on the south 
:are now considered as spirits who are side. FrOm the word mashydi, " mor- 
summoned by the Zaota when begin- tal, man," being put in apposition 
ning to recite Visp. iii. (after finish- with athawwnS, the general term for 
ing Tas. xi. ), and the Rathwi answers " priest " which follows the enumera- 
in the name of each as he stands sue- tion of the ofBciating. individuals in 
oessively in their proper places, Ac- the text, it may be suspected that 
cording to a diagram, given in some these latter were not considered as 
MSS. , the Zaota's station being near mortals even at the time this text was 
the northern end of the Arvis-gdh, or written. 

ceremonial space, as he looks south- ' The meaning is that such clothes 

wards towards the fire he has one of cannot be used b.y any respectable 

the spiritual priests facing him from person, but only by the very lowest 

beyond the fire, and a line of three of classes. 

them stationed along each side of the ^ What is immeasurably small, an 

Arvis-gdh. The stations of the eight indivisible atom; the word is a-»mam, 

priests, real and ideal, are as follows : not avi-mdm. An asperena is a dir- 

I, Zaota, on the north side ; z, H^va- ham. 


61. And if these Mazdayasniaiis should cast over the dead one 
an infinitesimal quantity, such as the infinitesimal quantity this 
damsel would defile, none (of them) living shall be righteous, 
none (of them) dead has a share of the best existence (paradise). 

62. He shall have tha;t life of the wicked which is gloomy, 
originating in darkness, and dark. Verily, the wicked, through 
their own deeds, through their own tradition, shall depart that 
life for the worst existence (hfell). 

4. — Vendidad, Fargard X7X, 10-26, and 40-47. 

10.^ Zarathushtra recited the Ahuna-vairya (formula, thus) : 
As a (heavenly) lord is to be chosen, &c.^ The righteous Zara-^ 
thushtra uttered (the hymn) : That I shall ask Thee, tell it me 
right, O Ahura ! * 

11,12. Zarathushtra asked Ahuramazda: Ahuraniazda ! 
most munificent spirit, creator of the settlements supplied with 
creatures, righteous one ! (I am) waiting for (what are) to be 
fixed, on the roof * (as protection) for * Ahuramazda, for the good 
well-thought (Vohun)an6), for perfect rectitude (Asha-vahishta), 
for suitable wealth (Khshathra-vairya), for bountiful devotion 
(Spenta-S,rmaiti). How shall I defend them from that Drukhsh, 
from the evil-doing Angrfipmainyush % How shall I exorcise the 
direct pollution, how the indirect pollution, how the corruption 
(nasush), from that Mazdayasuian home ? How shall I purify 
the righteous man ? How shall I bring the righteous woman 
purification ? 

^ For verses 1-9, see pp. 3S3ii ^4- language jaad in Sanskrit profa'-Aiittra 

2 See p. 141, note 2. (Kv. vii. 66, 14) is a term for the 

' Yas. xlif., see pp. 158-161. vault of the sky. Darejya has been 

* This refers to what is mentioned mistaken for the river Ddraja men- 

in Zarathushtra^s address to Ahura- tioned in the Bundahish (pp. 53, 58, 

mazda in ver. 4 (see p. 253), which W.) as having the house of Pouru- 

would be better translated as fol- sh aspa on its bank ; but it is evidently 

lows:— "Where dost thou, keep (any) only a gerund of the verb darej= 

of this (as(in^ ?) on this wide, round, darei, "to fix." Some Dasturs 

far-compassed earth, to be fixed on understand by asdnS (in ver. 4) the 

the roof of the dwelling of Pouna,- naugirah, or "nine-jointed" staff 

shaspa?" The word paitisharahi used by Zarathushtra as a defence 

can only be the loeative of paMi- against the demons ; they also under- 

zbaranh, equivailent to Siins. pratU stand 2Aa7'afti as the same " weapon " 

hvarcis, which would inean " a curving (comp. Pers. ztbar, a " shield "). 

towards, a lean-to," a significant term = Or " Eesting-places (are) to be 

for a roof whieh is actually used, in fixed on the roof for," &c. 
the latter fonn, in English technical 


13. Then said Ahuraraazda : Do thou invoke, O Zarathushtra ! 
the good Mazdayasnian religion. Do thou invoke, Zara- 
thushtra ! that the Ameshaspentas may keep guard over the 
seven-regioned earth. Do thou invoke, O Zarathushtra ! (the 
spirits) of the self-sustained universe, of boundless time, of the 
upper-working air (vayu). Do thou invoke, O Zarathushtra ! 
the mighty wind created, by Mazda, (and) the bountiful one 
(Armaiti), the lovely daughter of Ahuramazda. 

14. Do thou invoke, O Zarathushtra ! the Spirit (fravasM) 
of me who am Ahuramazda, that which is the greatest and best 
and most excellent, and strongest and wisest and most beautiful, 
and most pervaded by righteousness, whose soul is the beneficent 
text. Do thou thyself invoke this creation of Ahuramazda. 

15. Zarathushtra proclaimed my word (thus) : I invoke the 
rightful creation, created by Ahuramazda. I invoke Mithra of 
the wide cattle-pastures, the well-armed, with most glorious mis- 
siles (rays), with most victorious missiles. I invoke Srosh the 
righteous, the handsome, holding a sword in both hands against 
the head of the demons. 

16. I invoke the beneficent test (mathrd spentd) which is very 
glorious. I invoke (the spirits) of the self-sustained universe, 
of boundless time, of the upper- working air. I invoke the 
mighty wind created by Mazda, (and) the bountiful one (Armaiti), 
the lovely daughter of Ahuramazda. I invoke the good Mazda- 
yasnian religion, the Zarathushtrian Provision against the Devas 

17. Zarathushtra asked Ahuramazda : O giver of good,i 
Ahuramazda ! with what ceremony shall I feverence, with what 
ceremony shall I propitiate, this creation of Ahuramazda 1 

18. Then said Ahuramazda: Thou shalt go, O Spitama Zara- 
thushtra ! to (one) of the growing trees, a handsome, full-grown, 
strong (one, and) recite this saying : Reverence (to thee) good 
tree, created by Mazda (and) right 1 righteousness is the best 
good, (fee. [as in p. 141, note 2]. 

19. One may cairy off the Barsom (twigs) from it, a span 
long, a barley-corn thick. Thou mayst not clip its clipped Bar- 

1 The reading ddtS-vanhen is doubt- the Pahlavi version by ddddr avdd 
f ul ; it has been altered to ddtS anhen hbman&e, " Creator, mayst thou be 
in the old MSS., and is rendered in (or may they be) prosperous ! " 


som, they should be righteous men (priests who do that). (One 
should be) holding (it) in the left hand, reverencing Ahuramazda, 
reverencing the Arneshaspentas, and the golden-hued Homa, the 
exalted,! and the handsome (spirits), and the gifts of Vohumano 
(saying to the Barsom) : good one, created by Mazda (and^ 
right ! (thou art) the best. 

20. Zarathushtra asked Ahuramazda : Omniscient Ahura- 
mazda ! thou art sleepless, unstupefied, thou who art Ahura- 
mazda ! a good-minded man pollutes himself directly, a good- 
minded man pollutes himself indirectly, from a person who is 
stricken by a demon, he pollutes himself directly with a demon ; 
may the good-minded man become purified % 

21. Then said Aliuramazda ; Thou shouldst procure, O Zara- 
thushtra ! bull's urine lawfully formed by a young entire bull. 
Thou shouldst bring out the purified tbings^ on the ground 
created by Ahura. The man who is a purifier (priest) should 
score around (it) a surrounding furrow. 

22. He should mutter a hundred praises of righteousness 
(thus) : Eighteousness is the best good, ifec. [as in p. 141, note 2]. 
Twice (as often) he should recite aloud the Ahuna-vairya (thus) . 
As a (heavenly) lord is to be chosen, &c. [as in p. 141, note 2]. 
With four washings he should wash with bull's urine of (that) 
supplied by the bull, twice with water of (that) created by 

23. Purified shall they be, the good-minded man ; purified 
shall they be, the man (who polluted him). The good-miuded 
man shall draw on (his clothes) with the left arm and the right, 
with the right arm and the left. Then thou shouldst expose the 
good-minded man to the power-formed luminaries, that (some) 
of the stars appointed by destiny may shine upon him, always 
till when his nine nights shall elapse. 

24. Then after the nine nights thou shouldst bring consecrated 
waters {zaothra) to the fire, thou shouldst bring (some) of the 
hard firewoods to the fire, thou shouldst bring (some) of the 
benzoin incense to the fire, (and) the good-minded man should 
have himself fumigated. 

' Perhaps the gratninatical irregu- " Or, perhaps, "the purifier," if we 

laritiea would be diminished by taking suppose the nominative to have been 

this as a verb, and assuming that the substituted for the accusative, which 

priest's Speech is addressed to the is not an unusual irregularity in this 

Homa, and not to the Barsom. fargard. 


25. Purified shall theybe, && [as in ver. 23, to] and the left. 
The good-minded man shall exclaim : Reverence to Ahurainazda ! 
reverence to the Ameshaspentas ! reverence to the other righteous 
ones ! 

26. Zarathushtra asked Ahuramazda : O omniscient Ahura- 
mazda ! shall I arouse the righteous man 1 shall J. arouse the 
righteous woman ? shall I arouse the frontier of the turbulent 
Deva-worshipping men 1 (that) they may consume the land 
created by Ahura, (that) they may consume the flowing water, 
the crops of corn, (and) other of its superfluities] Then said 
Ahuramazda: Thou mayst arouse them,, O righteous Zara- 
thushtra ! 

27-39. [See the translation in pp. 254—257.} 

40. Srosh the righteous, prayed to (and) invoked, is pleased 
(and) attentive, the iandsome, triumphant Srosh, the righteous ! 
Thou shouldst bring consecrated waters (saothra) to the fire, thou 
shouldst bring (some) of the hard firewoods to the fire, thou 
shouldst bring (some) of the benzoin incense to the fire. Thou 
shouldst propitiate the fire V^zishta, the smiter of the demon 
Spenjaghra. Thou shouldst bring cooked victuals (and) plenty 
of sweetmeats.* 

41. Thou shouldst propitiate Srosh the righteous, (that) Srosh 
the righteous may destroy the demons Kunda (stupidity 1),, Banga 
(drunkenness, and) Vibanga^ (dead-drunkenness). He attacks 
the frontier of the wizards, the turbulent Deva-worshipping men, 
from the nearest* country having the purification ceremony. 
One should persevere in the practice, (and) should cultivate 
sheep's food (and) food for cattle in the pastures. 

42. I invoke the Kara * fish (which is) in the water at the 

' Very probably " gravy ; " the seem to hare been aatended from the 

idea of sweetness is based vipon tbe Tendidad S&dah. The word daiv6, 

Pahlavi version, which is not, how- which occurs in the MSS. before 

ever, altogether nnambignous. nazdishtdd, belongs to the Pahlavi 

'^ The Pahlavi version explains version of the- preceding elause. 

■Sjibanga as "druufe without wine," * The ehief of the water creatures, 

or mhereutly drunk; rf must be vised Ten of these fish, according to the 

here as an intensive prefix. Bundahish, are constantly employed 

' From this point to the name in guarding the Horn tree, in the 

Angr6-mainyush in ver. 44, both text midst of the sea Y'oujruj-kasha, from 

and Pahlavi translation are omitted the assaults of a poisonous lizard 

in all MSS. of the Vendidad with sent by Angr6-m3anyush to injure 

Piihlavi, except one o.r two which it. 


bottom of deep lakes. I invoke the primeval self- sustained 
boundary, most resisting the creatures of the two spirits. I 
invoke the seven illustrious in fame, they are aged men, sons, 
(and) descendants. 

43. He shouted (and) countershouted, he considered (and) re- 
considered, (did) the deadly Angr6-mainyush,i the demon of 
demons, (with) Indra ^ the demon, Saurva ^ the demon, N4on- 
haithya ^ the demon, Tauru, Zairicha,^ A^shma * the impetuous 
rusher, Akatasha the demon [(Plzand) he causes frost produced 
by the demons, deadly decay, (and) old age ill-treating the 
fathers], Bliiti^ the demon, Driwi^ the demon, Daiwi" the 
demon, Kasvi ^ the demon, Paitisha the demon, the most de- 
moniacal demon of the demons.'^ 

44. Thus shouted he who is the evil-causing Angr6- 
mainyush,* the deadly : Why do the demons, the turbulent 
evil-originators, assemble in an assembly on the summit of 
Arezura ] * 

45. The demons rushed, they shouted, the turbulent evil- 
originators ; the demons howled, they shouted, the turbulent 
evil-originators j the demons displayed an evil eye, the turbulent 
evil-originators : We must assemble in our assembly on the sum- 
mit of Arezfira. 

46. Born, indeed, is he who is the righteous Zarathushtra, at 
the dwelling of Pourushaspa, How shall we procure his death? 
he is the smiter of the demons, he is the opponent of the demons, 
he is the destroyer of destruction (or falsehood) ; downcast is 

^ This appears to be a fragment of IJihaskm in Persian). This A^hmi 

an old hymn in octosyllabic metre, daSv6 appears to be the Asmodeua 

which, with some irregularities, can of the Apocryphal boiok of Tobit 

be traced through the greater part iii. 8. 

of verses 43-45 ; it begins as f oj- ^ Compare San& bhilta and the ver- 

lows : — naoular bhUt, the general name for 

„ J . ,j , goblins or evil api^ta in India. 

„ . < ,_ ' These three demons are respec- 

J e ■ i „i...i.t tively Povert}', Deceit, and Dwariish- 

' ' "^ jiess ; see vend. ii. 29, p. 234, 

2 See pp. 272 and 308. ' The word dadv6, is taken as the 

' The demons of disease an^ decay, last of this verse, and not as the first 

compare Sans, tura = dtura, "dis- of the next one. 

eased," and jaras, "decay." (See ^ Here ends the omitted passag« 

Darmcsteter's Haurvatat et Amore- mentioned in p. 336, note 3. 

tilt, pp.33, 34.) ' '^^^ mountain said to be situated 

* The demon of Anger or AVrath at the gate of liell. 



the Deva-worshipper, (with) the impurity (iiasush) produced by 
the demons, lying, (and) falsehood. 

47. The demons shouted, they rushed, the turbulent evil- 
originators, to the bottom of the world of darkness which is the 
raging hell. 

11. — Translations from the Pahlavi Versions. 

Excepting the first fargard of the Vendidad, these translations 
were written by the author in English. In revising them use 
has been made of collations of Spiegel's edition of the texts 
with Dastur Jamaspji's old MS. of the Pahlavi Yasna (see p. 96), 
with the London and Teheran MSS. of the Pahlavi Vendidad 
(see p. 95), and with Dastur Hoshangji's unpublished edition of 
the same. 

The Pahla'^i versions of the Avesta throw but little light upon 
the obscure passages in the original text, which are generally 
rendered by a slavishly literal translation, or even transliteration, 
with some faint attempt at explanation, more or less unfortunate 
in its result. The chief value of these versions consists in the 
longer commentaries which are often interpolated, especially in 
the Vendidad. They also indicate how the original Avesta was 
understood in the later Sasanian times,i and how it is under- 
stood by the present Dasturs, who rely almost entirely upon the 
Pahlavi version. 

t.— Pahlavi tasna t XVI II. 

Sappy Was the thoUght, happy the word, and happy the deed, 
of the righteous Zarathushtra. [On account of proper thought 
and word and deed he was estimable in virtue.] ^ The Amesh- 
aspends held forth the GS,thas, [that is, they were kept forth in 
the world by them]. Devotion to you, righteous Gathas ! 

I. (a) I beg the reward of him who is Adharmazd himself, 
through devotion, when I make intercession (with) God (for) the 

1 To which the last thorough re- Pahlavi translators are enclosed in 

vision of the Pahlavi texts may pro- brackets, to distinguish them from 

bably be referred, whatever date we the words inserted by the present 

may assume tor their original compo- translator, which are given in pajren- 

sition. theses. 

^ Explanations interpolated by the 


good, uplifting the hand (and) the mind also with its own joy. 
(6) In spirituality AHharraazd is first, in the G4tha-lore 1 is the 
increase of righteousness which (should) be in every action, [that 
is, actions are all to be performed through the Gatha-lore]. (c) 
In that which is His wisdom, in the original wisdom, is the 
satisfaction of GQshlirun,^ [that is, the care of cattle is to be 
undertaken with judgment]. 

2. (a) When I shall attain uuto you,^ Auharmazd ! through 
good thought (Vohumau), [that is, perfect in rectitude I shall 
have come unto your own possession] ; (6) give ye to me in both 
lives, (that) which is material and (that) which is spiritual, the 
happiness which is here (in this world) and that also which is 
there (in the other world), (c) Prosperity is owing to the assist- 
ance of righteousness, [that is, you give me through rectitude 
the abundance ^ which you give to that gladdener], and it is 
necessary to cause glory through joy. 

3. (a) When I shall be your own, O Ashavahisht (and) 
Vohuman, who is first ! [that is, I shall remain in your posses- 
sion] ; (5) and I shall be also Auharmazd's own, through whose 
unweakened acquisition is their dominion, [that is, his sovereignty 
over the Ameshaspeilds is strict] ; (c) and of her also who is the 
giver of increase, Spendarmad, I shall be her own, she comes to 
me with joy through calling ; when I shall call unto you, come 
on towards me with joy. 

4. (a) Whoever gives (his) soul into paradise {garddTn&nd; it 
is) through the assistance of good thought (Vohuman); [that is, 
every one who gives has given it through the assistance of Vohu- 
man]. (5) And his respect for the doers of deeds who do for 
him what is proper, is evidenced by that of AHharmazd and the 
religion of Aftharmazd. (c) As long as I am a supplicant and 
wealthy, so long I have learned ^ the requirements of righteous- 
ness, duty and good works. 

5. (a) Ashavahisht ! When do I see thee through the in- 

^ Or " psalmody " or " hyinnology," G&tha8; "ye"<*r ",yoU"alwaysreferis 

but ^(4s(Jjjttft can hardly mean Gatha- to the whole celestial council of the 

chantino- here. Ameshaspends, including Afthar- 

^ The Pazand tenn for geush wrvd, liiazd. 

"the soul of the ox or earth." * Reading padikh'Mi='Pii.z. padtqt, 

3 Observe that " you " and "thou " see Mainy6-i-khard il. 2, xlix. 6. 
are not used indiscriminately in the * Or "taught," or "am taught." 


struction of good thought (Volmman)? this I (would) know, 
[that is, I see thee at the time when e-very one is intelligent 
through rectitude, when will it be ?] (6) When do I see also 
the place of Afiharmazd, who is a seeker of worth J that place 
is known througli Srosh, [that is, when they have a Dastur he 
ought to know what happiness is from that place], (c) That is 
the greatest text ; he whose understanding is confounded by its 
belief and maintenance, he also whose understanding is con- 
founded by the tongue, for him this one thing is excellent, when 
they shall form a priestly assembly (a&rpatisldn). 

6. (a) Grant the coming of good thought (Vohuman) to the 
body of others (and) the giving of long life to me, O Ashavar 
hisht ! [th5^t is, may he not grant that thing which, in the future 
existence, they would require again to destroy] ! (6) Through 
the true word he has shown thee, O Alaliarmazd ! to ZaratAsht.j 
it is owing to him who is Thy powerful Vishtisp that I am Thy 
delight, [that is, I am carrying Thee forth in goodness to the 
rulers], (c) And my people (mantkdn) also, Auharmazd ! my 
disciples, are also carrying Thee forth in goodness. The distress 
of the distressers is when they shall thus take injury, [that is, the 
distress owing to them becomes inoperative]. 

7. (a) Grant me, O, Ashavahisht ! the reverence which is in 
plenteousness of good thought (Vohuman), [that is, may he so 
grant me reverence which, in the future existence, they shall not 
require again to destroy] 1 (6) And do thou grant me, O Spend- 
armad ! that which is to be requested from Visht&sp, the mobad- 
ship of the mobads (the high-priesthood); and my people also, 
my disciples, grant them the jnobadship of the mobads. (c) And 
gjrant me a sovereign praiser, O Aliharmaad ! Vishtisp who when 
they chant this your text, [that is, they shall speak your tradi- 
tion {dtn)lj, fuTnishes the arrangements so that they may make 
(it) continuous (they may propagate it). 

8. (a) When thy excellence and thy religion, which is the 
best of otber things, are in the best righteousness (Ashavahisht), 
let me enjoy it * through rectitude, (b) Let me obtain by 
prayer, O Aflharmazd ! the man who is rrash6shtar, [that is, 
give up Frashdshtar into my discipleship] ; give Frasli6shtar my 
people also in his discipleship. (c) To them also then be liberal 

' Reading ghal liam-Mshdni. 



as long as all are in good thought (Vohuman), [that is, ever 
cause thereby the happiness of Frash6shtar and the disciples of 
Frash&shtar till the future existence]. 

9. (a) Because of not coming to you, Atiliarmazd ! I may 
not do this, [that is, I shall not come to you] ; and Ashavahisht 
too I trouble not about happiness, I ask not even a single happi- 
ness which Ashavahisht deems undesirable. (6) Vohuman also, 
the excellent, I trouble not him, who is he who gives you this 
your infinitude, the praisers, [that is, he will bring Hushedar, 
Hfishedar-mah, and Sfishins to your conference], (c) You are 
propitious through the prayer of a beneficial sovereignty, [that 
is, you will be pleased with a beneficial sovereignty, and will 

10. (a) Wiien thus I shall be acquainted with* righteousness, 
and that also which is the gift of good thought (Vohuman), [that 
is, I shall have become fully acquainted with truth and recti- 
tude], (6) which is proper, O AuharniaaJ ! may ye fulfil my 
desire with them ! [that is, cause my happiness thereby} (c) 
When thus, by what is useless to you, food and clotliiiig are 
obtainable,* by that chanting, when it is not useful in your 
worship, let him obtain food and clotliing. 

11. (a) When I shall guard righteousness by observance, and 
good thought (Vohuman) also unto everlasting, [that is, I shall 
cause the protection of truth and rectitude], (6) teach Thou forth 
to me what is AHharmazd, that is Thyself, in words. («) Spirit- 
uality is the Gfitha-lore which is declared from this by Thy 
mouth, and till it is declared by that Thou wilt speak by Thy 
mouth, which was the first in the world, [that is, He who was 
first^ His law became the Githa-lore]. 

8. — Pahlavi Yasna XXIX. 

r. (a) To you, O Ameshaspends ! G6sli(irun complained, 
[some say 2 the lord Bull spoke towards the direction of Afihar- 
mazd],* thus : To whom, am I allotted as to feeding (and) keep- 

' Beading dk&s hSmandnS. the Pahlavi version is literally : 

'' Reading viHdinidede, "caused to "there is (one) who thiis says." 

obtain." * The oldest reading is khUidt-gdsh 

' This frequent phrase for intro- gH/t val AUkarmazd rUrio. 

ducing alternative interpretations in 


ing ? For whom am I formed ? [that is, for whom am I created 1] 
(6) This is he I (have) : Wrath wha smites me with anger and is 
oppressive, [that is, he harasses me utterly], who is torturing, 
[that is, my immoderate beating disfigures me perpetually], and 
also a tearer away, [that is, he accomplishes the destruction of 
my life],i and a plunderer too, [that is, he utterly robs me], 
(c) There is no well-wisher (vdsntddr) for me besides you, [that 
is, I know not any one from whom my welfare so (proceeds) as 
from you], so let one prepare for me what is good pasture. 

2. (a) So he who is the former of cattle, Auharmazd, asked 
thus : Ashavahisht ! who is the master of thy cattle ? [that is, 
how is thy opinion of this as to who is the master of cattle T\ 
(6) Who is given this authority to feed (and) to keep 1 who is it 
gives them pasture, and is also diligently promoting the cattle 
creation 1 [that is, gives it pasture, and thereby indicates its 
one cattle-guardian who will increase cattle], (c) What is that 
lordship with goodness which, when they provide no nourish- 
ment, feeds it with authority ? Who gives this reply to the non- 
Iranian 2 devastation of wicked Wrath, that they may make him 
stupefied 1 

3. (a) To him vyho (has) the guardianship of the bodies of 
cattle Ashavahisht spoke the reply : (He is) not without distress, 
for (he is) in distress, [that is, they shall effect his punishment]. 
(b) They are not aware of the peace of Eashn the just, and may 
they not know what (and) how much punishment they shall in- 
flict upon the soul of a wicked one \ (p) Of beings he is the 
more powerful, [that is, the strength of him is th^t which is 
more effectual], who comes into action on calling to him, [that 
is, when they call him thus : Perforni duties and good works ! he 
does (them)]. 

4. (a) Auharmazd is a computer of words, that he may form 
an account as to the sin and good works (6) which were done by 
them, demons and men, both formerly and also what they prac- 
tise hereafter, (c) He is the deciding Lord, [that is, he deter- 
mines action and law], so we are as is His will, [that is, even 
(what) is wanted by us is what He (wants)]. 

^ This is the sin of I6ij6k-zi^, which also the sin of spoiling good clothes oi 

is defined in modern times as that of food, 
selling men or cattle, whether stolen ^ Qj. "unmanly." 
or one's own property, into misery ; 


5. (a) So (rather) than you, O Ameshaspends ! I diligently 
reverence, with uplifted soul (and) mental uplifting of bands, 
Him (who is) AHharmazd, [that is, I reverence one thing more 
than the Ameshaspends, I reverence the things of Auharmazd 
more, and I do (them)] ;i (6) that my soul may be with the bull 
Az, [that is, may I give my soul a reward ^ ], (and) may I con- 
sult him who is Atharinazd (about) that which is in doubt ! [that 
is, (about) that of which I may be doubtful may it be possible 
for me to inquire of Auharmazd] ! (c) For the upright liver is 
no utter ruin, [that is, whoever lives with uprightness, in liis 
soul is no ruin], nor for the increaser,^ [that is, for the increaser 
who possesses anything through rectitude it is not so as (afore- 
said], except him who is wicked, for to the wicked one it hap- 

6. (a) Thus with his mouth said Auharmazd intelligently : 
Destruction is to be avoided, [that is, wisely was it said by him 
that there is a remedy for the mischief from the evil spirit]. 
(6) No such lordship is to be admitted, [that is, in that place it 
is not possible to effect a remedy because they do not even con- 
sider the Lord as lord], no mastership whatsoever, for the sake 
of righteousness, is to be given, [that is, a Dastur even, such as 
it is necessary to introduce, they do not possess], (c) So for 
him who is an increaser, who is a tiller, thou art destined and 
art formed, [that is, for him who is diligent (and) moderate thou 
art given]. 

7. (a) That which is copiousness in the text Auharmazd 
(gives) to that worker who is in friendliness with righteousness, 
[that is, they give the reward revealed by the text to him who 
shall perform duties and good works]. (6) AHharniazd makes 
the cattle grow, [that is, he will increase them], for the eaters, 
that one may eat in moderation ; that which is plentiful Alihar- 
mazd taught (one to eat) by the lapful and armful.* (c) Who 
is this good thought (Vohnman) of thine ? [that is, this one who 
leads to thee], who gives the reciters (and) priests a mouth with 
all the Avesta and Zand ? 

1 This explanatory clause appears which resembles a Pahlavi word for 

to be in great confusion in all MSS. "goat." 

^ As the Persian muzd is both "a, ^ Or "cultivator." 

reward" and "a he-goat," this may * Literally : "by the bosom size 

possibly be an attempt to explain AZy and arm size. " 


8. (a) This myi gift he obtained, [that is, that (which is) so, 
this one obtained], to that teaching of ours this one is he who was 
listening : (6) Zaratflsht the Spitaman, for him is our will of 
AAharmazd and righteousness also, [that is, a desire for complete 
duty and good works], (c) He chanted also a counterspell,^ 
[that is, he uttered a remedy for the destroyer {drAj) in the 
world], through which saying one gives unto him a good place, 
[that is, on account of the excellence of the saying he utters 
they give him there, in heaven, a good place which is excel- 

9. (a) So too G6sh1ir(in complained thus : It is owing to the 
non-applicant I am powerless, O Zaratfisht t unseemly thinking 
(comes) through what is illiberal giving, when they will not 
bestow on it copiously, (6) owing to the insufiBcieiioy of the 
words even of those men, when the religion is not fully current, 
whose desire is a demand for onr ^ sovereignty, [that is, owing 
to them a mobadship of the mobads is necessary for me], (c) 
How does that gift ever exist % [that is, does that time ever 
come ?] when it is given to him through the aid of powerful sup- 
plication, to him who" is Zaratusht. 

10. (a) And ye give assistance to them, O Auharmazd, and 
Ashavahisht, and Khshatv^r ! that Zaratusht and the disciples 
of Zaratusht may thereby practise virtue. (6) So also Vohuman, 
the good mind which gives him a place of pleasant dwelling 
there (in the other world) and likewise joy. (c) I too am he, 
AHharmazd ! that Zaratusht, by him something is lirst to be 
obtained from Thee, [that is, his virtue is first from Thee]. 

11. (a) Where is the gift, O Ashavahisht, and Vohuman, and 
Kh&hatv^r ! which thus ye send to me, the speech of Zaratdsht ? 
[that is, (in) what place remains that reward 1] (&) Ye reward 
me much, O Auharmazd ! by this arch-Magianship, [that is, they 
would effect my reward by this pure goodness].* (c) Atihar- 
mazd ! now our desire is (that) what is liberality towards us 
(shall be) from you ; now when I know more of your wondrous- 
ness, benefits from you are more desired by me ; [some said that 

* The word "my" is accidentally * The mas-magih or arch'Magian- 

omitted in the old MSS. ship is here explained as " pure good- 

^ Literally: "a remedy-making." ness," and in the Farhang-i OSm-kha- 

' So apparently in Dastur Jam- dftk (p. 25) magha is also explained 

aspji'sMS. by aii^jai, "pure." 



now when the religion (has) become quite current, I and the dis- 
ciples (have) a desire for benefits and reward from Thee]. 

3. — Pahlavi Yasna XXX- 

1. (a) So both those sayings are to bs desired, which are the 
Avesta and Zand given by AHharmazd, (by) whomsoever is in- 
telligent, [that is, the priestly studies are to be performed ^ by 
him (who is) wise]. (6) Which (sayings) are the praise of 
Adharmazd and the reverence of good thought (Vohuman) re- 
vealed by those which are the Avesta and Zand, (c) Whoever 
is a virtuous thinker through righteousness, even he who thinks 
of virtuous things, his good work is as great as a religious cere- 
monial (yazishn), (he it is) whose happiness (consists) in looking 
into their light,^ [that is, when they see their spiritual worship 
it becomes their joy]. 

2. (a) The listening to what is heard by the ears, [that is, the 
ear listened to it (and) became glad], they will call the extension 
of the best, [that is, his performance of priestly study], and 
whatever is not affording him vision (becomes) what is light 
through the mind, [that is, the light of the priests is dark to 
him]. (6) Desires are to be discriminated by us who are men 
(and) women, for our own selves, [that is, proper things are to 
be discriminated from those which are improper, and those which 
are improper are not' to be accomplished by us], (c) As, be- 
sides, in that great performance through the consummation in 
the future existence they announce a reward for what is our 
teaching, [that is, on account of our teaching proper things they 
will provide a reward]. 

3. (ct) So both those spirits, AHharmazd and the Evil one, 
first proclaimed themselves (as) those who are a pair, [that is, 
they declared themselves (as) sin and good works]. (6) Of 
what is good, and also of what is bad* of the tliought, speecli, 
and deed of both, one thinks, speaks, and does that which is 
good, and one that which is bad.* (c) From them choose ye 

^ Or perhaps "a priestly assembly plication of the pronouns in many 

is to be formed. " places. 

« Or possibly "into the light of the ' This negative is omitted by mis- 

Yazads (angels)." There is consider- take in most MSS. 

able doubt about the proper aj)- < Literally "worse "or "very bad." 


out rightly him who is wise in good, A<iharmazd, not him who 
is wise in evil, the Evil spirit. 

4. (a) So also both those spirits have approached together to 
that which was the first creation, [that is, both spirits have come 
to Gayomard]. (6) Whatever is in life is through this purpose 
of Auharmazd, that is : So that I may keep it alive ; and what- 
ever is in lifelessness is through this purpose of the Evil spirit, 
that is : So that I may utterly destroy it ; whatever is thus, is 
so until the last in the world, so that it may occur even to men 
of another (race), (c) The utter depravity of the wicked ^ and 
the devastation owing to Ahriman and the wicked are fully seen, 
and so is the righteous perfect thoughtfulness which accompanies 
AAharmazd everlastingly. 

5. (a) Of the two spirits that (one) is liked, by him who is 
wicked, who is the evil-doing Ahriman, he who was desirous of 
evil-doing. (&) Eighteousness likes the spirit of righteousness, 
the fostering Auharmazd ; by whom^ also the hard-pot-covered ^ 
sky likewise is conipleted around the earth through this purpose, 
that is, so that righteousness may become current, (c) Whoever 
also satisfies AHharmazd, and his desire is that of Auharmazd, 
is for Aftharmazd through public action, [that is, he should come 
to Auharmazd with that desire and action]. 

6. (a) They who are demons do not allow (one) to discrimi- 
nate rightly in any way, [that is, the demons would not do any- 
thing proper], even (one) whom they deceived ; they whom the 
demons have deceived can form no right desire. (6) For inquiry 
they have come on, [that is, there is a consultation of them with 
the demons], (they) by whom the worse in thought is liked, 
(c) So they (the demons) have run in together with Wrath, and 
the lives of men are weakened by them, [that is, with Wrath 
they disfigure men]. 

' Of course "the wicked " include This epithet is evidently based upon 

all unbelievers in Zoroastrianism as a rather eccentric etymology of the 

■well as the mere transgressors. Avesta word khraozhdishteng, which 

^ As the Avesta word is ye it is the Pahlavi translator divides into 

probable that amat, "when," ought three paits, namely, khraxizh, which 

to be m«Jn., "whom," the substitution he represents by sakht, "hard;" 

of one of these words for the other dish by dig, "a pot" and teng hj 

being a common blunder of tran- nihAft, " covered ; " reminding one of 

scribers. some European attempts at etymolo- 

^ Or perhaps "hard-shell-covered. " gising the name of Zarathushtra. 


7. (a) To him ^ comes Khshatvgr, and Yobuman and Asha- 
vahisht also come up to him to work. (6) And so Spendarmad 
gives him a powerful body without lethargy, [that is, whilst it 
is his he is not stupefied], (c) They are thine, [that is, they 
come thus to that person], whose coming is such as the first 
creation, [that is, his desire and action are those of Gayomard]. 

8. (a) So also hatred comes into the creation, in the future 
existence, to those haters and sinners, [that is, they shall execute 
their punishment]. (&) So, Aiiharmazd ! whoever is for thy 
sovereignty Vohuman will give him the reward, (c) Through 
their teaching of Aiiharmazd, in the religion of Auharmazd, when 
(given) to him who (has) righteousness, [that is, he is instructed 
in proper things], the destroyer is given into his hand, and the 
mischief {dr'Aj) of infidelity. 

9. {a) So also we who are thine, [that is, we are thine own], 
by us this perpetuation {frashakard) is to be made in the world, 
(i) Also the whole congregation of Afiharmazd and likewise the 
bringing of Ashavahisht, [that is, an assembly about the future 
existence is always to be formed by them], (c) Whosever 
thought is endless, [that is, thought in priestly authority (dastd- 
barth) is the life (or guardian angel) which he possesses], his 
knowledge is there (in the other world), [that is, he will know 
the end of things through rectitude], in (his) place. 

10. (a) So in the creation in the future existence he who is a 
destroyer, the evil spirit, is in discomfiture, when his things shall 
stand still for weakness, and (his) army is shattered. (J) So 
they swiftly spring to seize the reward, that which is in the 
good dwelling of Vohuman, when they have continued in recti- 
tude, (c) To Adharmazd and Ashavahisht too they spring who 
establish what is good renown, [that is, that person goes to seize 
the reward who is well-famed]. 

11. (a) Both those benedictions are to be taught which 
Auharmazd gave to men, (6) and whose heedless ^ teaching is 

• The other, who prefers righteous- which runs as follows : m4nich gin 

ness. dmUkhtishno zak minda/vam, &o. , with 

" This is merely a guess. The text ahinh written over qin either as a 
in the Copenhagen MS. (as published gloss or as an addition to that doubt- 
by Spiegel) is here unintelligible, and ful word. It is possible that instead 
the obscurity is only partially re- of Pazand qin we should read the 
moved by Dastur Jamaspji's MS., similarly written Pahlavi av^ri, " uu- 


the thing that should not be during my celebration of worship ; 
■whose lasting injury also (arises) from such celebration by the 
wicked, (c) And (they are) also an advantage of the righteous, 
[that is, as it is necessary to perform (them) so afterwards they 
are beneficial], when that advantage (has) become complete. 

4. — Pahlavi Tasna XXXI. 

1. (a) Both those benedictions which I recite unto you, the 
Avesta and Zand,i we teach him who is no hearer of tlie infidel,^ 
by speaking ; in a doubtful matter (varMmandth) he is to be 
told three times, and one time when (one) knows without doubt 
(aivar) that he learns. (6) They who, by benediction ^ of the 
destroyer of righteousness, utterly • devastate the world, when 
they maintain the destroyer by benediction, (c) then even they 
may be excellent when they shall be causing progress in what is 
Atiharmazd's, [that is, of even those infidels this one thing may 
be excellent, when they shall make current the religion of 

2. (a) Whoever does not believe through observation is in 
what is to him no doubtfulness when he is not even doubtful 01 
God in anything, [that is, assertion* about existence is good 
when they exhibit it by an estimate of the world]. (6) So all 
come to you, [that is, every one will come into your possession], 
when thus they become aware of the mastership of AAhaimazd, 
[that is, they shall know the miraculousness of Auhaiiiiazd]. 
(c) From Aliharmazd, from them (the Ameshaspends) it is to 
come when I live with the aid of righteousness ; from the 
Ameshaspends is this benefit for me, from AAharinazd, when I 
live on with the duties and good Avorks which are mine. 

seeing, heedless," whioh suits the HSS. it ought to be translated : "we 

sense very well ; the PAzand gloss teach him who is no hearer, the in- 

ahinh must then be read awina, fidel," &c. 

which would be very similar in form, ' Referring probably to the incan- 

and would confirm the meaning tations of sorcerers. 

" heedless " here adopted. * Dastur Jamaspji's MS. has Id- 

^ It is not certain from his language yazishnth^ ''irreverence, non-wor- 

that the Fahlavi translator did not ship," instead of niktzisknth. It 

mean the Avesta and Zand of both cannot be said that this explanatory 

benedictions. clause throws much light on the 

2 As the sentence stands in the old subject. 



3. (a) What 1 the fire and Ashavahisht gave by spirituality, 
and was explained by Thee to the disputants, (was) understand- 
ing, [that is, the purified and the defiled were made known by 
Thee]. (6) And by Thee, who gave a desire of benediction to 
the interpreters of numbers (arithman cists), was given the rite 
of ordeal {jiirang-i var) ; tell it to us intelligibly, Auharmazd ! 
wisely, that rite of ordeal, (c) Through Thy tongue, in (my) 
mouth all kinds of living creatures believe, and afterwards it is 
said of it that I speak. 

4. (a) When in the creation in the future existence I shall be 
an invoker of Ashavahisht and AHharmazd also, [that is, let me 
have such a virtue that it may be possible for me to invoke 
Auharmazd and Ashavahisht] ; (6) and I shall be an invoker of 
her also who is the submissive Spendarmad, I pray for excellence, 
the gift of good thought (Vohuman). (c) (May) the authority of 
my people also, my disciples, be from him who is powerful, 
[that is, give them sovereignty from Soshins], through whose 
bravery, [that is, through his own resources he is able to do it], 
the destroyer (drAj) is beaten, [that is, I know this, that at that 
time it is possible to make the destroyer confounded]. 

5. (a) Speak decided to me, speak clear, where is that reward ? 
how ought one to make (it) one's own 'i which (comes) to me 
through righteousness when duty and good works are performed 
by me, the good gift, [that is, the giving of that good reward to 
me]. (6) Grant me the gift of understanding through good 
thought (Vohuman), [that is, talk wisdom through excellence], 
which is mine througb the good judgment i^hiUMjdrth) which is 
his, [that is, through the excellence of that wisdom it is possible 
for me to give a reply of good judgment], (c) Aliharmazd 
speaks that also which does not exist by means of that which 
exists, [that is, by means of the Gl.tha4ore which exists he says 
where it does not exist}. 

6. (a) He is the best who would speak intelligently to me 
(what is) manifest and clear, [that is, the priest is better than 
the disciple^ (S) the text which is all-progressive, [that is, all 
creatures by way of the text come back into the possession of 
Auharmazd], which when they preserve it with righteousness is 
■working well, (and) one's immortal progress arises therefrom in 

1 Assuming that amat kas beeo substituted for miln, see p. 346, uote 2. 


the fifty-seven years.^ (c) The dominion of Allharmazd is so lon^ 
as good thought (Vohuman) grows in one, [that is, his sove- 
reignty in the body of a man is so long as good thought (Vohu- 
man) is a guest in liis body]. 

7. (a) His promise came first who mingled His glory with the 
light, who is the Aftharmazd who did this, [that is, the goodness 
which is His here (in this world) is with Him there (in the other 
world) ; this thing has happened to Him so that his GS.tha-lore 
may return to Him]. (6) His are the creatures, [that is, the 
proper creatures are His own], who possesses righteousness 
through wisdom and perfect thinking, [that is, he considers with 
uprightness and propriety], (c) Both those (creations) Adhar- 
mazd causes to grow through spirituality, [that is, he will 
increase spiritual and worldly things], (He) who is also now the 
Lord for ever.^ 

8. (a) Thus I thought, O Aftharmazd ! regarding Thee, that 
Vohuman might be the first ainong Thy offspring, and when I 
saw Vohuman I thought thus, that (he) was Thy child. (6) Art 
Thou Vohuman's father % Thou art the father of Vohuman 
when thou art taken in altogether by my whole eyesight, [that 
is. Thou art seen by both my eyes], so I thought that Thou art 
the father of Vohuman. (c) Manifest are the creatures of right- 
eousness, (and) clear, [that is. Thy proper creatures are created] ; 
through deeds in the world Thou art Lord, [that is, they shall 
form an account with sin and good works]. 

9. (a) Thine is Spendarmad, [that is, Thine own], with Thee 
is that which is the fashioner of cattle, wisdom. (6) Through 
spirituality, AHharmazd ! a path is given to her by Thee, [that 
is, the path of that place (the other world) is given to her by 
Thee], (c) Whoever is in activity comes, [that is, his duty and 
good works are performed], whoever is no worker is not allowed 
by Thee. 

10. (a) So both the origin and produce are assigned by Thee 
to that (one) of those men who is a worker (and) acquirer of 
wealth,^ [that is, tbe source and produce of cattle are given by 

In the Bundahish (p. 72) it is also ^ Reading m.'&n hevanich hamdl 

stated : " In fifty-seven years Sosh&ns 

(and his companions) prepare all the ^ The terms used seem to imply 

dead ; all men arise, both (those) "who ** an agriculturist and cattle-breeder." 

are righteous and (those) who are 



Thee to him who is diligent (and) moderate], (6) The lord is 
righteous whose wealth ^ (comes) through good thought (Vohu- 
man), [that is, they should exercise the ownership of cattle with 
propriety], (c) Adharmazd does not allot to him who is an 
idler, the infidel who is any hypocrite in the sacred recitations. 
In the good religion it is asserted that even as much re- 
ward as they give to the hypocrite they do not give to the 

ii. (a) When for us, Aubarmazd ! the world was first 
formed by Thee, and religion, (they were) given by Thee through 
this wisdom of Thy mind. (6) When life was given by Thee 
to the possessors of bodies, [that is, life was given by Thee to 
the body of Gayomard], it, too, was given through this wisdom 
of Thy mind, (c) When work (and) instruction were given by 
Thee, [that is, work (and) proper instruction were given by 
Thee], (they), too, were given through this wisdom of Thy mind. 
And when (there is one) whose desire is for that place (the other 
world), by Thee his desire was granted, [that is, that which he 
requires when he shall come to that place, this which is so 
required by him is given by Thee, in that way he will come to 
that place], it, too, was granted through this wisdom of Thy 

12. (a) There the Voices are high, that of the teller of lies, 
the Evil spirit, and that of the teller of truth, Aliharmazd, 
(6) that of the intellectual Aliiiarmazd and that of the unintel- 
lectual Evil spirit, in the solicitation for the heart and mind of 
Zaratusht, [that is, while we shall solicit them 3], (c) who, 
through complete mindfulness as to what the spirit communi- 
cated by the religion of the spirit, (has) his abode there (in the 

1 That is, wealth in cattle. time when he conveyed fodder to 

2 This appears to refer to a passage cattle with tliat one foot." In the 
in the Spend Nask, -ti^hich the Sha- Arda-Viraf-namak (ch. xxxii.)a simi- 
yast-ia-shayast quotes thus: " As ia lar tale is told of "a lazy man whom 
the Spend Nask it was shown to Zara- they called Davanfls," whose right 
t(isht, concerning a man, that the foot is treated with the same excep- 
whole body was in torment and one tional mercy, which is not granted to 
foot was outside. Zaratfisht asked the infidel or apostate in ch. xlvii. 
Atiharmttzd about the matter. Kh- There seems little doubt that tliis 
harmazd said that he was a man Davans is a representation of the 
Davans by name ; he was ruler over davas translated "hypocrite" in the 
thirty-three provinces, and he never text. 

practised any good work, except one ' Literally "it" or "him." 


other world), [whoever shall quite mindfully perform priestly 
studies,! his place is there (in the other world)]. 

13. (a) Whoever converses with what is public must perform 
public good works, Afiharmazd ! whoever converses with what 
is secret sin may commit much secret sin. (&) Whoever in 
what is a small quarrel tries (aHzmdyed) that which is great, for 
the sake of deliverance, [that is, they would commit a small sin 
and, afterwards, they would commit a lai^e one, so that it may 
not be apparent], (c) it is be who would be in both (Thy) eyes, 
[that is, Thou seest], in that combination Thou art Lord, [in 
sin which is mingled with good works], over righteousness Thou 
art also Lord,^ and Thou seest over everything. 

14. (a) Both those I ask of Thee, O Aliharroazd ! what has 
come? (and) what yet comes? (6) Whoever gives a loan of 
what is from lenders to him who is righteous, (gives) of that 
which is such as is necessary to give, O Aflharmaad ! (c) And 
whoever (gives) to the wicked is as they are, so the settlement is 
this, that is ; What is the decree 1 tell me what is the decree 1 

15. (a) Thus it should be asked him : Would his punishment 
in that perdition be well inflicted who would provide a dominion 
for him who is wicked, (&) who is evil-doing,* O Atiharmazd ! 
who does not announce life even through a reward? [that is, 
when they give him a bribe he would not release a maQ who is 
yet alive], (c) He also persecutes the agriculturist who is avert- 
ing destruction anaong cattle and men, [that is, even a good man 
who well preserves mankind and cattle, him he regards with 

16. (a) Thus it should be asked him : * Would his reward be 

1 Or perhaps "foim a priestly this and thepreeeding verse are rarely 

«ssembly." used, such as pHrst-ydd, pdrst Md, 

' This part of the verse is omitted "there sbr.uld be an aslking, or it 

in Spiegel's edition. should be asked ; " yehab'(ln,i-hd(j,, 

^ Evidently referring to Ahriman, " there -woHld be a giving, or it woulij 

■who is here represented as incornip- be given ; " and the form which can 

tible in his adherence to evil. The be only doi»btfully read vddHny&n-tt, 

idea of a being wicfeed enowgh to be "it would bedone orinffieted." This 

bribed to betr.iy an evil cause to last form "there 

whicli he still remains .levoted, ap- is a vad'&nySn, or there is a they- 

l)ears to be a refinement in evil of wo«ld-do," p clumsy way of saying 

later date than either Ahriman or the "it would be done,." if that be the 

devil. origin, of the ioT3ix. 

1 The forms of some of the vei'los in. 


well given in whose dwelling ((iem4n) He who is wise in good- 
ness is Lord? [that is, Auharmazd through spirituality is made 
lord within his body]. (6) And in the town which is in His 
country he who is (engaged) in the propagation of righteousness 
is no chastiser, [that is, in His world that one is lord who, when 
they would perform duty and good works, does not chastise], 
(c) Such are Thine, Aliharmazd ! in whose actions it is 
even so. 

1 7. (a) Which convinces more, the righteous or the wicked 1 
[that is, does he who is righteous (among) people convince more 
thoroughly, or he who is wicked ?]. (6) Speak information for 
him who is intelligent, and become not him who is ignorant 
thereafter while I shall speak to thee, (c) Apprize us, Allhar- 
mazd ! [that is, fully inform us], and mark us out by good 
thought (Vohuman), [that is, furnish us with a badge through 

18. (a) So no one of you should hear the teaching of the text 
from that wicked one, [that is, hear not the Avesta and Zand 
from the infidels] ; (b) for in the dwelling, village, town, and 
country he produces evil proceedings and death, he who is an 
infidel ; (c) so prepare ye the sword for those infidels. 

19. (a) The listening in which is discretion (and) righteous- 
ness is thus acquainted with both worlds, O Auharmazd ! [that 
is, he in whom is discretion (and) righteousness understands the 
working of spiritual and worldly affairs]. (5) Bightly spoken 
speech is that which is authorised, which is fearless in tongue 
persuasion, [that is, for his speech which is true and proper 
(one's) wishes are to be renounced], (c) This Thy red fire, 
Ailharmazd ! will give a decision to disputants, that they 
may fully make manifest the certain ap.d the undecided (offi- 

20. (a) Whoever oomes to the righteous with deceit his lamen- 
tation is behind him, [that is, it becomes lamentation in his soul], 
(6) and long is his coming into darkness, [that is, he must be 
there a long time], and bad feeding, [that is, they give him evep 
poison], and he says (it is) an unjust proceeding, [that is, it has 
happened to him unjustly], (c) To the world of darkness, ye 

1 This evidently refers to the ordeal by fire, one form of the ntranff^i 


who are wicked ! the deeds which are your own religion ^ lead 
you, (and) must do (so). 

21. (a) Atlbarmazd gave Horvadad and Amer6dad the perfect 
to bim who is righteous, [him by whom duty and good works 
are performed]. (6) And His own authority (patth) is in the 
domination (sarddrth) of him who is lord, [that is, the sove- 
reignty which is His He maintains in the Dastur], (c) whose 
munificence is of the good thought (Vohuman), [that is, the re- 
ward which Vohuman gives he also gives], whicli is for him who 
is a friend of his own spirit through deeds. 

22. (a) Manifestly he is well-informed when he gives (and) 
thinks according to his knowledge, [that is, in thought he minds 
him who is spiritual lord {ah4) of his Dastur]. ^ (6) Good is the 
lord who would practise righteousness in word and in deed; 
(c) he whose body is a conveyer of Thee, Aliharmazd ! [that 
is, Thy lodging in the world is in his body]. 

$.^Pahlai)i Tdsna XXXII. 

I. (a) He who is in possession of his life begged what is its 
productiveness together with submissiveiiess, [that which is a 
reward the demons (begged of) Auharmazd himself in these 
(words) : That we may be productive and submissive to Thee ! 
By them it was begged]. (6) They who are his ^ demons are of 
my (way of) thinking, [that is, our thinking is as excellent as 
Zaratlisht], he who is AHharmazd's delight. [By them it was 
begged] : (c) That we may be testifying ! [that is : May we 
become Thy promoters !] we hold those who harass you, [that 
is, we hold them back from you]. 

2-1 6. [Not translated.] 

1 Protably referring to the tradi- 2 g^ ;„ Dastur Jamaspji'a MS., 

tional hag who is said to meet the otherwise " he minds those who are 

aouls of the wicked on the fourth his guardian angel and Dastur " would 

morning after death, and is a per- be a preferable reading, 

sonifioation of their evil religion and s Probably meaning those who are 

deeds (see Ar^a-VlrM-nimak, xvii. called demons by ZaratCisht ; but this 

12). The Original description of this v^rse is by no means free from ob- 

being in the Hadokht Nask (Yasht sourity. 
xxii. 27-33) is lost (see p. 223). 



6. — Pahlavi Vendidad J.i 

1. (i)2 AAharmnzd said to SpMman Zarattisht : (2) I created, 
O Spitiman Zaratusht ! the creation of delight * of a place where 
no comfort was * created ; (a) this is where man is, the place 
where he is born (and) they bring him up seems good to him, 
[that is, very excellent and comfortable]; this I created. (3) 
For if I should not have created, Spitaman Zaratusht ! the 
creation of delight of a place where no comfort was created, (4) 
there would have been an emigration of the whole material world 
to Airan-v#j, (a) that is, it would have remained in the act, while 
their going would have been -impossible, for it is not possible to 
go so far as from region (Mshvar) to region, except with the per- 
mission of the angels {yazaddn) ;8 some say that it is possible to 
go also with that of the demons. 

2. (4) (6) As6 rdmd-dditim (" a pleasure-dreative place "), 
ntid (" not ") aojdrdmishiam (" most pleasing in strength ") ; « 

' For th Pahlavi text of the first 
part of the Tendidad we have to rely 
apon MSS. which are only second- 
rate in point of age, as has heen al- 
ready noticed in p. 95. This is all the 
more to be regretted as the first far. 
gard contains many rare words and 
obscure phrases which one would wish 
to have, as neai'ly as possible, in their 
original form. Fortunately these se- 
cond-rate MSS. are stiU 283 years old, 
and were therefore written before the 
mania for "improving " old texts set 
in (some time last century), which has 
induced some copyists to adapt the 
text to their own limited knowledge, 
in preference to raising their know- 
I'dge to some comprehension of the 
text as they found it. 

^ The paragraphs are numbered to 
correspojid with Westergaard s edi- 
tion of the Avesta text and its trans- 
lation in pp. 227-230 of these Essays; 
but the subdivisions of Spiegel's edi- 
tion, which correspond with those of 
the Pahlavi MSS., are also numbered 
in parentheses. For the further indi- 
cation of the Pahlavi commentaries 
and their subdivision by the letters 

W> (5)> (c), &o., the present editor is 

^ The meaning appears to be, that 
whatever creates delight in a place 
was created by A^iharmazd, as mora 
fully detailed in the sequel. 

* The writer seems to use the usual 
present form of this verb for the past. 
See " remained " in (4 a). 

^ It is doubtful whether yazaddn is 
to be taken in its original sense of 
" angels," or in its later meaning 
" God." In the Bundahish (p. 21 W. ) 
we are told, "It is not possible for 
one to go from region to region ; " and 
the Mainy6-i-khard (ix. 6) says, " It 
is not possible to go from region to 
region otherwise than with the per- 
mission of the yazads or the permis- 
sion of the demons," which corre- 
sponds closely with the statement in 
the text. 

8 This seems to be a critical remark 
on the foregoing Avesta text, and im- 
plies that there had been sorne doubt 
whether as6 rdmd-ddUim (the read- 
ing adopted) should not have been 
aojO-rdmishtdm. It may be noted that 
the two phrases are more alike whev 


the effect wonld be one (the same), the effect would be " the 
delight of a place ;"^ some say it is also (zahotch) "the delight 
which (arises) from industry." (c) Paoirim (" the first '") is 
hittm (" the second ") ; this enumeration is that first the work of 
the law was produced at a place, and the second at that place, 
till the spirit of the earth arranged the whole in connection,^ is 
the work of opposition. The place where he mentions two — 
one, that in the original creation, and one, that whicli is after — 
is dxid aM pait^drem (" thereupon, as an opposition to it "),* 
(cZ) Every one of the following places and districts is the joint 
production of both; some say that a "place'' (jindk) is that 
place whereon mankind do not dwell, and a " district" {r&stdh) 
13 that place iiKhereoB mankind dwell, (e) Mashamdrava slialham 
Uaitim. (" he has proclaimed the existing destruction ") ; * this is 
revealed in this fargard, (and) every place is mentioned. Some 
say AU-homand (^' material ") is also a river.* 

3. (5) The first of places and districts produced perfect by 
me, me who am Afiharmazd, was (6) Alran-v6j, where the good 
Daitlh (" orga,nisation ") is; (a) and its good Daitih is this, that 
the place sends out even our Dajt while they perform work 
(agriculture 3) with the avaepaJem (" stream ") ; some say that it 
eomes out in a stream unless they perfoim the work of the 

■written in PaUayi charaoieas than * Mashamdrwea is here supposed to 

they are in sound. The remarks be for mashmrdva, which is taken as 

■which follow, if their meaning has Vae perf. third sing, of a root shmrv, 

been oorreetly caught, imply t^t = mra, " to speak ;" compare mar = 

either phrase would be. suitab!^. Saus. arm. The reading ash mdrava, 

1 Two other readings of this obr "very deadly," has also been pro- 
&Bure phrase may be suggested : first, posed, which would be synonymous 
' ' one thing is ' an army ' {liinak), one with pduru~ma)irk6, the usual epithet 
thing is ' the dieUght of a place ; ' " of the evil spirit. 

secondly, "the work is of iwo kinds ^ Thia is evidently a later supple- 

{dd ainak), one work is. 'the delight mentaiy comment, and refers to the 

of a place.'" The reading 4oM (i(5 for vroid ast-Mmand, "material," in (4); 

kdr da is. a modern guess. this would be aUt-ltdmand in Huzt&- 

* Or "gave up the whole into one rish, and has reminded some oommen- 

hierarchy," aecording as we read tator of the uiver thus described in the 

khadH-kardakih, or khadHk radakth. Bundahish (p. 52 "W.): "The Alt&. 

Mostof this latter part of the commen- mand (Hfitumend) river is in Slstto, 

tary refers to what follows in the text, and its sources are from Mount ApSji- 

2 These are the words which intro- sin ; this is distinct from that which 
duce each Avesta account of the evils restrained FrfelyStV."' See alsa p,. 
l)roduced by the evil spirit, as detailed 229, note 3, 

in the following verses. 



place.i (7) And in opposition to that were formed by the evil 
'spirit, who is deadly, (8) both the KMik ("river"?) serpent 
(which) becomes numerous, and the winter, produced by the 
demons, (which) becomes more severe. 

4. (9) Ten months are winter there, and two months summer ; 
(a) and afterwards also hapta henti Mmind mdorjha, pancha 
zayana (" seven are the summer months, five the winter ") is 
declared.^ (10) Those, too, have eold water, cold earth, (and) 
cold vegetation, those ten months j some say the two months ; 
(u) adha zimaJS maidMrn, ad/ia dmafiS zaredhaiSm (" then is 
midwinter, then is the heart of -winter "), (a) in that manner the 
month Vohuman is the month Shatverd, which is the heatt of 
winter, [that is, it would be more severe (compared) even with 
this that is ever severe ; and afterwards also, at that time, it 

1 This is the traditional interpreta- 
tion which describes DMtlh as a river; 
thus the Bundaliish (p. 51 W.) says, 
" The Dattik (Daiti) river is the rive^ 
which comes out from Alrta-vSj, and 
goes on by the mo'untain of Panjasta ; 
of all rivers the noxious creatures in 
it are most, 43 it is said, the D^iti 
river is full of noxious dreatutes." It 
may be guessed from the teit that 
the river came from snowy mountains, 
and therefore Aowed most freely in 
the spring and summer; hence the 
idea that its flowing was dependent 
upon the tiUage of Ait8.n-vdj, which 
produced either more than the natural 
drainage or less, according to the view 
taken by the commentator. Tradi- 
tionally, avaSpaSmisn "subterranean 
channel or drain, " and it can be easily 
explained as " 4 stream. " Its identi- 
fication with the P^zand avSbim, 
"fearless," is merely a guess of later 
times, ingenious but hazardous. If it 
■\vere adopted, and the material river 
were idealised into "organisation or 
law," we should have to translate 
somewhat as follows : " And its good 
organisation is this, that the place 
sends out even our organisation (or 
splendour) wliile they perform work 
<or duty), as it were, fearlessly (stead- 
fastly) ; some say that it oomes out, 

as it '*irS*e, ■fea'rlessly, ftnless they per. 
form the duty of the place. " It is, 
however, far safer to assume that the 
Pahlavi tommentator takes the most 
material view of every passage. Many 
MSS. have r&d, "the river," instead 
of lanvMn, "our;" and it may be 
noticed that the latter Pahlavi word, 
when badly written, can be easily 
read as the former, but the converse 
mistake is not so easy. 

" The word ashkare is merely the 
Pahlavi dshkdrak, " declared, mani- 
fest," written with the P^zand termi- 
nation -e instead of the Pahlavi -ak. 
This commentary on the alteration in 
the relative lengths of summer and 
winter agrees with tlie Bundahish (p. 
60 W.), which states that the months 
from Fravardin to Mitrfl (the first 
seven months of the year) are summer, 
and from Av^n to Spendarma^ (tlie 
last five months of the year) are win- 
ter. It must be observed that the 
Persian Parsi calendar has not corre- 
sponded with that described in the 
Bundahish since the eleventh century 
(say A.Y. 400) ; but as that book de- 
scribes the year as always correspond- 
ing with the sun, it implies that some 
mode of intercalation was employed, 
so that it may have been written at 
any earlier date. 


becomes mofe severe].^ (12) Then when the winter falls off, [that 
is, goes], then is the frd&std vdghne (" chief disaster "),^ [that is, 
the opposition winter ever goes off with it ; some say that anni- 
hilation enters thereby]. 

5. (13) The second of places and districts produced perfect 
by me, me who am Aiiharmazd, was (14) Gav^, which is the 
SHrik dwelling, [that is, the plain of the Stirtk dwelling-place ; 
the characteristic thereof is no disturbance]. (15) And in oppor 
sition to that was formed by the evil spirit, who is deadly, (16) 
a swarm of locusts (kHruko m&g) which even destroys {yaMd-ich) 
the cattle, and is deadly ; (a) this locust comes forth, (and) corn 
that is without blade comes up ; to tie up the ox is not neces- 
sary, (and) it becomes the death even of the sheep. 

6. (17) The third of places and districts produced perfect by 
me, me who am AHharmazd, was (18) Marilv, of resources com- 
bined with the work of the law, and active, [that is, they do 
much in it]- (19) And in opposition to that were forrued by 
the evil spirit, who is deadly, (20) inquisition (and) privacy 
(ffdshak) ;^ [inquisition, that is, they would make an inquisition 
of friends there ; and privacy, that is, solitary incontinepce is 

' The meaning is, that the summer of the two months in the text, as 
was as cold as winter, and the winter Toh<iman is a winter month, and 
still colder. As the months stand in Shatv^rfl a summer one, in the Bun- 
the text, they would answer very well dahish (p. 62 W,). 
for the present time, when the qadim 2 There seems here to be some per- 
month Bahman occurs in June- July, ception of the disastrous consequences 
and Shahrivar in January-February ; of a sudden thaw in snowy regions, 
but we find the same months given in But one of the commentators seems to 
MSS. written 283 years ago, when the anieistani frdistd vCghni a,a "gone 
Parsi months were seventy days later forth to destroy," misled perhaps by 
in the year, and we have every reason the FeraisLn firistdd, "sent." 
to believe that they were also given ' Modern tradition suggests d^sAoi, 
in MSS. written 553 years ago, when "tivil;" but as rfijs7i, "evil," is al- 
the months were 138 days later in our ready an adjective, the form d4shak is 
year than they are at present. It doubtful. If it were adopted the sen- 
seems hazardous to assume that the tenoe might be thus translated : 
Parsi months were allowed to retro- "Commerce (lit. reckoning) and evil 
grade continuously during Sasanian commerce, [that is, the commerce 
times, otherwise we might suppose which friends would practise there is 
that this commentary was written evil, that is, unnatural intercourse is 
about 1460 years ago, when the months there]." This, however, would be 
would have been in their present posi- taking advantage of an ambiguity in 
tion. But it is more probable that the English word " commerce," whicli 
dome copyist has reversed the position the Pahlavi dmdr does not possess. 



7. (21) The fourth of places and districts produced perfect 
by me, me who am Adharmazd, was (22) BukhUri the handsome 
in appearance, with uplifted banner, [that is, they keep 2 a ban- 
ner elevated ; some say that they domineer over a multitude, 
that is, they overwhelm it ^]. (23) And in opposition to that 
was formed by the evil spirit, who is deadly, (24) an ant-hill 
(which) becomes numerous 5 [some say that a place furrowed by 
a plough till it springs up will become an ant-hill].* 

8. (25) The fifth of places and districts produced perfect by 
me, me who am Auharmazd, was (26) Nis&i, which would be 
between Maruv and Bukhar ; [I mention that since there is also 
the other ^]. (27) And in opposition to that was formed by the 
evil spirit, who is deadly, (28) scepticism ; [in the concerns of 
the angels (or God) they are doubtful whether they exist ; ^ some 

' Or it may be Bakhar or B4hl. 

' Some MSS. have "come with," 
others "bring." 

5 Some modem MSS. have "they 
slaughter the enemy." 

* This clause presents several diffi- 
culties to the translator, and the text 
is probably corrupted. In all proba- 
bility the word nurtu or nurutu {Das- 
tur Hoshangji mentions nub), which 
ends the Avesta version in the printed 
editions, is really a F^zand word be- 
ginning the Pahlavi version, and the 
missing equivalent of the Avesta hra- 
varem. It might be taken for the Per- 
sian navardj ** combat," but this is 
uaparto in Pahlavi. Possibly the t is 
a corruption of mH, (see p. 357, note 
i), and the whole word a blunder for 
a Pahlavi form, vurmtin or barmUr, 
"a bee;" but this is a mere guess. 
The word gUlchakM (oTie old MS. 
gives dUrchalcat as a gloss) is tradi- 
tionally understood as "an ant which 
carries off corn," the m6r-i ddn-kash 
of Vend. xiv. 14 and xviii. 146 Sp. ; 
but how tradition arrived at this con- 
clusion is not obvious. Here chakd^ 
is taken in its usual sense of " summit, 
hill," and gill is assumed to be a cor- 
ruption of mdr, "ant" (m inverted 
being k, an error which sometimes 
occurs, and id)' being practically equi- 

valent to gill in writing). The Tehe- 
ran MS. has gUlale-chahdij, in one in- 
stance, which would lead up to the 
translation "porcupine mound" were 
it not that the porcupine or hedgehog 
is specially an animal of the good 
creation (because it destroys ants), 
and could not have been produced by 
the evil spirit. Darmesteter's sug- 
gestion (Revue Critique, No. 33 of 
1877, p. 90) of jUrdh-kdd for jUr^&k- 
kd(j, "greedy of corn," is hardly ad- 
missible, as no old P4zand writer 
would be likely to use dh for a final 
4: If we were to throw aside the 
tradition altogether, and assume that 
the Pahlavi translator was better ac- 
quainted with the meaning of the ori- 
ginal Avesta word usadhas than the 
traditionalists were, we might take 
gUl-chakdf^ as the name of some noxi- 
ous weed which sprang up all over 
the country ; gM or gUlak, "flower," 
being frequently used as the first 
member of the name of a plant. The 
reading adopted for the phrase, " a 
place furrowed by a plough till it 
springs up," is jindk sUlak-dd^ (or 
sUl-kisht) vad bard khUmbi^. 
^ Or "since it still exists." 
^ More literally, "that is, if they 
should not be. " 


say that they are (so) also in those of the demons whether they 

9. (29) The sixth of places and districts produced perfect by 
me, me who am Aubarmazd, was (30) Harib (or Har^v) the 
village-deserting ; {a) and its village desertion is this, where we 
keep the periods of nine nights and a month,i they desert the 
liouse as evil {IcMtmIc pavan vadaJc) and go away. (31) And in 
opposition to that was formed by the evil spirit, who is deadly, 
(32) the mosquito" whose cry of long-continued annoyance {der- 
sejaMh) would be this : I am hungry ! » [some say that they may 
perform with a drum]. 

10. (33) The seventh of places and districts produced perfect 
by me, me who am Aftharmazd, was (34) KS,vul the evil-shadow- 
ing,* [a) and its (evil) shadowing is this, that the shadow of the 
trees on the body is bad ; some say tliat of the mountains. 
(35) And in opposition to that was formed by the evil spirit, 
who is deadly, (36) a longing for witches, the adoration of idols, 
with whom Kereshaspo associated, [that is, he practised it, and 
they also would practise not according to the law]. 

11. (37) The eighth of places and districts produced perfect 
by me, me who am AAharmazd, was (38) Ur6 full of pasture 
(and) grandees,^ (a) and its full pasturage is this, that there is 

1 Dastnr Hoshangji observes that ' Or "a dagger," according as we 
these periods refer to the time which read gushnak or dashnak. 

places once defiled remain unclean, * It seems singular that a place 

which varies according to the season when made perfect should still have 

of the year. an evil shadow, and no doubt we can 

2 The word sarchd or sarchakh is read KdvAl-i vSh-sdyako instead of 
here assumed to mean "a gnat or KdvAl-i dHnh-sdyako, and can tran- 
mosquito," in accordance with the slate as follows: "K^vftl the well- 
traditional meaning of the phrase, shadowing, and its shadowing is this. 
It may, however, be only the PAzand that the shadow of the trees is on a 
form sardha, " sort, kind," in which bad body which is called that of the 
case we should have to read a " kind mountains." But as the Pahlavi 
of long-continued annoyance whose translator found duzhakS in the 
cry would be this," &c., referring per- Avesta text, he could hardly avoid 
haps to beggars. It is singular that translating it by dlish, "evil." As 
the Pahlavi translator should have the Pahlavi version differs here," in its 
missed using the Persian wordsdcasfti, translation of Av. shayanem, from 
''a gnat," for the Avesta sraskem ; (14) and (42) Dastur Hoshangji sug- 
and Dastur Hoshangji observes, very gests sayanem as the correct reading, 
justly, that sarchd4 may be merely a ^ Or we may read mSgdn, " fogs," 
miswriting of sarchask, which might (Pers.m^^rA); or perhaps »($stof-mas(in. 
well be a copyist's transposition of " forage-gatherers " (compare Pera. 
sarask-ich. mastdan, " to gather "). 


plenty of corn and pasturage in it. (39) And in opposition to 
that was formed by the evil spirit, who is deadly, (40) the worst 
of residences when its grandees dwell on it. 

12. .(41) The ninth of places and districts produced perfect 
by me, me who am Aiiharmazd, was (42) Khnan, the abode of 
wolves, [that is, the Khnan river is the habitation of wolves ; 
the characteristic ^ thereof is disturbance]. (43) And in opposi- 
tion to that was formed by the evil spirit, who is deadly, (44) 
the vile sin of those who cannot pass the bridge,^ which is inter- 
course with men, [that is, sodomy] ; (a) this they should not 
perpetrate according to the law of the angels (or God). 

13. (45) The tenth of places and districts produced perfect 
by me, me who am Afiharmazd, was (46) HarakhmSud the 
handsome in appearance. (47) And in opposition to that was 
formed by the evil spirit, who is deadly, (48) the vile sin which 
cannot pass the bridge, which is burying the dead ; (a) this is 
heathenish (aJc-dirirMmcmd), and according to their law. 

14. (49) The eleventh of places and districts produced perfect 
by me, me who am Auharmazd, was (50) HSt-h6mand the illus- 
trious (and) glorious ; (a) busy and diligent is the spirit which 
it subdued,^ some say tha.t of the VSh river.* (51) And in op- 
position to that was formed by the evil spirit, who is deadly, 
(52) that which is vile, [that is, sorcery], which is ever evil; (a) 
some say that of the FrS,,ii ; ^ they were able to perform 
that, and were not able to abandon it. (6) Some say that sor- 

' The old MSS. have dashak, but rivers flow forth from the north part 

compare the end of (1:4). of the eastern Alborz, one towards 

For whom the bridge Chinvad, the west, that is the Arang, (and) one 

which leads to paradise, is impas- towards the east, that is the Teh 

sable; this is neatly expressed by the river." The spirits of the two rivers 

single Pahlavi word andp^halakdrit are also mentioned (Bund. p. 50), and 

".those not for the bridge," or those further particulars are given, thus 

Tvhose sins ate inexpiable. (Bund. p. 51) : ** The V^h river 

* Reading t sUcast (for i ihikast) ; or passes by on the east, goes through 
it may be t kasist, "the smallest." the land of Sind, (and) flows to the 
Some modern MSS. alter the word sea in Hind(lst&n, and they call it 
into SSst^n because the H^tumand there the Mehr& river ; " and in p. 53 
river is in Slst^n, see p. 356, note 5. it is stated that the VSh river is also 
The whole clause seems doubtful. called the KAsak in Stnd. 

* The V6h (or good) river is one of ^ The descendants of Fi-ftsiy^v the 
the two chief rivers of the world ac- Turanian, the Afr^siydb of the 
cording to the Bundahish, which Sh^hn^mah. 

states (p. 49 W.) that "these two 


eery is this which although they desire (it) not, yet it happens 
easily ijiarm), then it is said that (it is) in a way not allow- 

15. (53) This also is the token of its manifestation, which I 
call the practice of. the thing; (54) and this also, its manifes- 
tation, is through examination; when they observe it becomes 
manifest. (55) As wherever they come (there) is evidently an 
outburst {jasto) of sorcery, (56) so also they are most addicted 
to extreme sorcery : (57) so also they bring up snow and hail, 
[that is, they would occasion even them] ; (a) some say that the 
snow and hail will so arise from them where sinfulness, through 
them, becomes excessive. (58) Whosoever is sick (mudah) and 
whosoever is again impotent (are so through the deeds of such 

16. (59) The twelfth of places and districts produced perfect 
by me, me who am Auharmazd, was (60) Kak of the three races 
of Atar6p^tak4n ; (a) some say RM ; and its triple race is this, 
that its priest, warrior, and husbandman are virtuous and belong 
to it. (6) Some say Zaratiisht belonged to that place, and it 
was his govertmient (patih) of all these three which was called 
Eai ; ^ its triple race is this, that his union of these three arose 
and issued from that place : vaidhaiihd ndid uzdish (" of know- 
ledge, not of conjecture" ?). (6r) And in opposition to that was 
formed by the evil spirit, who is deadly, (62) the vilest over- 
scepticism,* [that is, they are doubtful themselves, and will also 
make others doubtful]. 

17. (63) The thirteenth of places and districts produced per- 
fect by me, me who am Atiharmazd, was (64) Chakhar of re- 
sources, the grand doer.^ (65) And in opposition to that was 

* The author's translation of this ^ This seems to be a pun on the 

fargard ends here. name Ell, which can be divided, in 

2 As already noticed (p. 229, note 4), Pahlavi, into the two words li 3, "my 

the whole of this paragraph seems to three." 

be translated from an old commen- * Perhaps "active scepticism" or 

tary in the Avesta language. The "rampant unbelief" would express 

last sentence is translated here as it the meaning better, though not the 

stands in the printed text, but it will words. 

probably be discovered hereafter that ^ Perhaps maziln, taken here as 

the word tiln in the Avesta text is "grand," may be for mazUnd, "a 

part of the Pahlavi translation; and balance," or mazdUn, "selling," or 

that the final words lakhvdr atH are mazdUr, " a labourer." 
altogether corrupt. 


formed by the evil spirit, who is deadly, (66) the vile sin of those 
who cannot pass the bridge, by whom dead matter was cooked ; 
(a) this is not according to the law of the angels (or God), yet 
they cook many (things), such as the fox and weasel.^ 

18. (67) The fourteenth of places and districts produced 
perfect by me, me who am Ailharmazd, was (68) Varen the four- 
cornered, subduing 2 Mount PadashkhvS,r,8 some say Kirman; 
(a) and its quadrangularity is this, that it stands upon four 
roads ; some say that its city has four gates. (6g) At which 
(place) FrSdiin was born for the destruction of Azhi Dahak. 
(70) And in opposition to that were formed by the evil spirit, 
who is deadly, (71) both the unnatural menstruation (which) be- 
comes more violent, and dwelling on non-Aryan territories, 
(during) the winter of (him) who says Mount Padashkhvir (and) 
the autumn of (him) who says Kirm^n.* 

19. (72) The fifteenth of places and districts produced perfect 
by me, me who am Auharmazd, was (73) (that of those) who are 
the seven Hindus (Uind'O.hdn) ; (a) and its seven-Hinduism is 
this, that the chief rulers are seven ; yet I do not say this, that 
there are not seven, since (it is) from the Avesta hacha usJiastara 
Hendva aid daoshastarem Hendum (" from the eastern Hindu to 
the western Hindu ").^ Some say that there is one to each 
region (Jceshvar).^ (74) And in opposition to that were formed 
by the evil spirit, who is deadly, (75) the unnatural menstruation 
which becomes more violent, (and) the unnatural heat which is 
bej'ond measure. 

20. (76) The sixteenth of places and districts produced per- 
fect by me, me who am Afiharmazd, was (77) on the waters of 

1 Probably the ichneumon or Indian Klrm&n chieiiy a hot one, it would be 

mangHs. natural for the inhabitants to quit 

" The old MSS. have Hr — gir, the former in the winter and the 

" seizing ;" otherwise we laight read latter in the autumn or hottest 

sar, " the chief," meaning the metro- season. Perhaps we should read 

polis or seat of government of Mount oma*, " when," for miln, " who," and 

Padashkhv^r. translate " when it is the winter of 

3 According to the Bundahish (p. the said Padashkhvftrgar, when it is 

23 W.), " the Padashkhv4rgar moun- the autumn of the said Klrma,n." 

tain (or range of Mount Padashkhvto) ' The commentator probably means 

is that in Tapiist^n and that side of to say that the doubt about there 

Giian." being seven Hindus. is not his own, 

* Such appears to be the meaning but is occasioned by an Avesta text 

of the commentator, as Padashkhv^r- which mentions only two. 

gar being chiefly a cold country, and * Of which there are seven. 


ArangtstS,n,i which is Ariim,^ (78) whose residences are unwalled 
(adlv&r), so that they soon retreat ; (a) some say they have no 
ruler in authority. (79) And in opposition to that was formed 
by the evil spirit, who is deadly, (80) even the winter, produced 
by the demons, (which) becomes very severe.* 

21. (81) There are also those famous places and districts 
which remain unmentioned, which are handsome in appearance, 
profound in the work of the law, desirable, [that is, suitable], 
... * [that is, they would appoint many as chiefs], splendid, 
[that is, having fame,* some say flourishing* as FArs the pure is 

7. — Pahlavi Vendiclad XVIIf. 

I. (i) Many are the men — this way spoke Aiiharmazd — 
righteous ZaratHsht ! [that is, the men in the world are many ; 
some say that they who are like these are many] (2) (who) wear 
the other mouth-veil'^ (though) unversed in religion, [that 
is, he has not performed its ceremonial; some say that he does 
not mentally abide by the religion], (3) Owing to the deceit 
which he utters to others, the priesthood is his own, [that is, he 
says : man ! I am a good man]. (4) Don't say of thiit that 

• That is, th« oountTy of the Arang explanation. Some modem MSS. 

river, one of the two chief rivers of have, therefore, altered the text to 

the Iranian world, see p. 361, note 4. the following : "inquisitive, [that is, 

It is likewise said in the Bundahish they make much inquiry]," which is 

(p. 51 W.): "Th« Arag (or Arang) simply absurd as an epithet of a 

river is that of which it is said that It place. 

comes out from Alborz in the land of ' Reading shem-hSmand. The Te- 

Sflrak, which they also call (or in heran MS. has drJm-A(3mfflTCd, probably 

which they also call it) Ami, (and) for bdm-hSmand; and modern MSS. 

it passes on through the land of improve this into gadman-hdmand, 

SpStfls whieh they also call M"sr, and "glorious." 

■ they call it there the NSv." * This word is doubtfully read 

2 The eastern empire of the Ro- vaJkhsdk, for vakhshdk, "growing." 

mans. In the Farhang-i Oim-khadftb (p. 6, 

' The second clause of the Avesta ed. Hosh.) we probably have the same 

sentence is not translated by the word in the phrase idviik 

Pahlavi commentator, but that it vSsdk, where it may perhaps be com- 

forms a part of the Avesta text is .pared with Pers. vtoMnft, "exalted." 

shown by the enclitic conjunction ' See p. 243, note i. A layman has 

cha occurring in both clauses. to veil his month and nose when per- 

* The equivalent of the Avesta forming the Aban and Atash Nya- 

word frashdoscha seems to be omitted yishes, Patit, or any Nam^z, 
in all old MSS., which give only its 


(it) is priestliood — this way spoke Auliarmazd — righteous 
Zaratlisht ! (a) The mnuth-veil (paddm) may be of any stuff, 
(and) while it keeps back on the mouth it must be two fingers 
beyond, (as) is clear from the passage, bae erezu frathanhem 
("two fingers' breadth"), (h) The two ties {do-vand) of a 
mouth-veil project as ringlets {pavan gurs) ; it should be double 
(dd'bdi) and it should be perfect ; some say that one fastening 
(ddshtdi-) is behind, [it is said that aU there are should be (so)], 
(and) it should be stronger ^ than that which even the Msit re- 
quires, (c) With a mouth- veil once (tied) which is single ^ (and) 
strong,! while it is not allowable to pray for the Darua yet un- 
presented for tasting,^ it is allowable to perform the ceremony 

2. (s) He carries the other vermin-killer [snake-killer] (though) 
unversed in religion. (6) Owing to the deceit which he utters 
to others is (his) priesthood.* Don't say of him that (he) is a 
priest — this way spoke A^harmazd — O righteous Zaratlisht ! 
(a) A mouth-veil may be of any stuff, (and) while it comes back 
on the mouth it must be two fingers beyond, (as) is declared by 
the passage, bai erezu di asMum Zarathushtra (" two fingers, O 
righteous Zarathushtra ! ").* (6) The snake-killer * may be of 
anything ; a leathern (one) is good, (as) is declared by the pas- 
sage^ (beginning with) VohH manaijJia janaiti apemchid A7}rd 

^ Beading iusAWi; compare Pera. ' The priests used to recite the fol- 

tUsh, " strength." lowing formula as often as they per- 

- ^esLiing'paddmX-^inAkhad'tl-vdk. formed the meritorious work of kill- 

The whole clause is diflScult to tian- ing any creature of the bad creation : 

slate. Shkanom, vdnom, nizdr kunom, kdl- 

3 The word atafddd (compare Pers. bu^-i skumd, dlvdn va di-6jdn va 
tmii, "feast ") is probably the same as j/dd'ddn va farydn, pa h6m va baresom 
occurs in the following sentence from va din-i rdit va darust ke man chdsMi} 
the Parhang-i Olm-khaddk (p. 38, ed. ("I break, smite, and make withered 
Hosh. ) : " Ataft-ddd is that when the bodies of you demons and demon- 
one keeps food and drink away (from esses and sorcerers and witches, 
him) in whom is hanger and thirst." thromgh the hfim and barsom and 

* This sentence is omitted in the the true and correct religion which 

Pahlavi version of the old MS. in Lon. is taught me"); compare Mainy6-i 

don, which abbreviates many repeti- Khar4 Ivii. 28. 
tions in the text. ' This Avesta (quotation is evidently 

' This is evidently clause (4a) re- ineomplete, and probably only the 

peated by mistake, owing to the pie- first few words are given, which is 

ceding sentence being the same in the usual Eastern mode of quoting 

both places. It contains, however, passages, 
some variations, from that clause. 


mainyush ("whatever water Angr6-mainyush shall smite, by 
Vohuman6," &c.). 

3. (7) He carries the other plant [Barsom, some say Mttiio i] 
(though) unversed in religion. (8) Owing to the deceit, ifec. (as 
in (3) and (4), which are not repeated here in Pahlavi by the old 
MS. in London). 

4. (9) He uses the goad and the miscreant ^ so that he groans 
[and some say that he passes away], (though) unversed in reli- 
gion. (10) Owing to the deceit, &c. (as in (3) and (4), which are 
not repeated here in Pahlavi by the old MS. in London). 

5. (11) Whoever lies ^ ever throughout the night a non-prayer 
and a non-chanter, [that is, he does not utter the Avesta residing 
in the chanting of the service], (12) a non-reciter, a non-per- 
former, speechless, and wishing for his mourning in life ;* (13) 
owing to the deceit, &c. (as in (3) and (4), which are not repeated 
here in Pahlavi by the old MS. in London). 

6. (14) Say of him that (he is of) the priesthood — this way 
spoke Aliharmazd — righteous ZaratAsht ! (15) who all through 
the night consults the wisdom of the righteous, [that is, forms a 
priestly assembly ^ so that he may learn (or teach) rightful 
things], (16) which is preservation from'difficulty," the expander 
of the intellect, the giver of good existence on the Chinvad 
bridge [stout-heartedness on the Chinvad bridge], (17) deserving 
spiritual lords (ahildn), deserving the place of righteousness, and 

' Probably the name of some plant be correctly explained by khUftan, 

improperly used for the Barsom. It "to lie down, to sleep." 

may be an adjectival form meaning * According to the old MS. in Lon- 

" made of kUt or hard." dorr, which has asdkhUa a/ash val 

^ The reading of the old MS. in shtvan kd'malc pavau khayd. The 

IjondoTi is ashtar va mar kAned. The writer of a modern MS., not uuder- 

ashiar, "goad," is the usual imple- standing that the Panlavi translator 

ment mentioned in the Yendidad for meant to express the Av. chinvad by 

the punishment of criminals (see kdn ak, has added the words makhi- 

p. 239), and seems to have been spc tunSdvadilkth-i Ghinvad pAha!, "de- 

oiaUy used by the priests and their stroys the benefit of the Chinrad 

assistants. bridge." 

3 Tills is the correct meiining of the 'Or perhaps "performs priestly 

Huzvarisli verb shckhhUnastan, which studies." 

is variously given by different autho- ^ Reading i min tancjVi. The ol'. 

ritiea. In Dastur Hoshaiigii's edition MS. in London has a??itZrfaf/^/t, "frtje- 

of the Pahlavi-Pilzaud Glossary (p. dom from ailment," which would suit 

15, line 11), tlie PAzand vindddan the sense well enough, but is not a 

should be omitted, and then both good equivalent of the Av. dz^, which 

shckblnlnastcin and khdmULnian would is usually translated by tangth. 


deserving the paradise of duty and good works, the reward (and) 
recompense in the better world. 

7. (18) Aski again of me, pure one ! [that is, the question 
was the last, and He hereupon considered whether something 
might not yet remain] (19) of me who am the Creator, [that is, I 
created the creatures], the most developing, [that is, from one 
thing I know 2 many things], the most intelligent, [that is, by 
calculation I know much], the best replier to questions, [that is, 
of those from whom they would make inquiry I give the best 
reply]. (20) For so it is good (for) thee, so mayst thou become 
prosperous, if thou askest again of me. 

8. (21) Zarattisht inquired of Auharmazd thus: O Auhar- 
mazd, favouring spirit ! creator of the material world, righteous 
(one) ! 5 in whom is the secretly-progressing destruction % [that 
is, in whom is its lodging ? and owing to whom is its progress 
most ?] 

9. 10. (22) And Auharmnzd said to him thus : In him (who 
is) the guide of a vile religion, O Splt^m^n Zaratusht 1 the in- 
fidel who is a deceiver. (23) Whoever does not put on the sacred 
string-girdle (for) three spring seasons, [that is, dees not have a 
iadarah (iind) Msti^ (for) three years], (a) some say that who- 

1 Here begin a series of disloca- first two words (which Spiegel omits) 

tions in the text of the old MSS., here, namely, lakhv&r min, but for 

which is fully described and accounted the next words we have to turn over 

■for in the introduction (p. 4) to Wes- several pages (equivalent to the eight 

tergaard's edition of the Avesta texts, folios (3-8, 2, 9) to p. 206, line 6, of 

Some MS. from which the oldest now Spiegel's text, where we find the rest 

existing (and through them all later of the sentence, namely, li avhak 

ones) have descended, must have con- p-Ars, ha. "We must then turn back 

sisted of bundles of ten folios each ; again to find sentence (19) in its right 

but the bundle containing most of the place, 

remainder of this f argard had its folios ^ So all MSS. , but a slight altera- 

■displaced, so that they stood in the tion in the form of one letter would 

■following order: 3-8, 2, 9, I, and folio give us hankhetHnam, "I place or 

10 was lost. In Spiegel's edition this dispose." 

displacement has only so far been ^ This opening sentence is not given 
rectified as to put the complete sen- inPahlavi by the old MSS. here, as it 
fences right, while any fragment of a has so often occurred in previous far- 
sentence with which one folio ended gards. 

is left (as in the old MSS.) in connec- ^ The muslin shirt and string girdle 

tion -with the fragment of another worn by Parsis of both sexes, except 

sentence with which the next mis- young children, as enjoined by thei^ 

placed folio began. Thus, in this religion, 
sentence (18) the old MSS. give the 


ever does not put on the sacred string-girdle ^for) those three 
spring seasons is the third * year an outcast, forsaken below and 
forsaken above ; ^ (it is) according to the law of such that it is 
not necessary to have a sadarah (and) hAsti. (24) (And whoever) 
does not chant the Gftthas (and) does not consecrate the good 
water.^ (25) Whoever also has taken him, who is my man, into 
confinement, [that is, has taken him (as above) described (nip- 
ishtak) into it],* (and) delivers him up to liberty, [tliat is, makes 
him an exile], (26) does no better by that act than though he 
had forced ^ the extent of the skin (off) his head, [that is, had 
cut the head and had made it alive again}. 

11. (27) For the blessing of one unrighteous, vile infidel is a 
curse the leiigth of his jaw ; (28) of a second, the length of a 
tongue ; of a third, ^ nothing ; a fonrth progresses himself, [that 
is, becomes himself]. 

12. (29) Whoever gives an unrighteoiiis, vile infidel the out- 
squeezed Hom-jnice, and the priesthood {zdWh), (30) (and) then 
the consecrated feast ^jnydzd) [this is said because with him are 
the good and worthy of the feast],' (31) does no better by that 
act than though the enemy's army, having a thousand horse [five 
hundred men with two horses (each) from the professed warriors], 
should be conveyed by him on to a village of the Mazdayasnians, 
(and) he ^ should slay the people (and) they ' should drive away 

1 Daatur Hoshangji suggests that tbai the Trord csui be taken in its 
the first two letters of this word have literal meaning. 

changed places, and that we should " The old MS. in London has kar^ 

read tasHm, "fourth," instead of the hSmande atgh rShhman, &c. 

unusual sitAm, " third." * Here we have the second dislocar 

2 Beading arajdstS frdbt^o miav tiom of the text,, as described in p. 367, 
bUjo, and taking arajdstS as a variant note i ; and for the remainder of sen- 
of arajistd, " most wrong, most err- tp'ice (28) we have to turn to the end 
ing. " The literal meaning is probably ot (98) on p. 205, line 10, of Spiegel's 
" most wrongful, escaping from what edition. The additional words in the 
is below, and escaping from what is old MS. in Londoa are Id mindavam, 
above,'* that is, from both the world tasHm ■nafshman sdtUnStJ, a'igh nafsli" 
and heaven. man yehevHaed. The incoherence in 

^ The old MSS. add the Avesta this sentence is due to the Avesta 

quotation yd'ish yazaiti (" with wluieh original. See p. 245. 

he performs ceremonies "). ' Or "he would say the good and 

* That is, has taken such a one as worthy are in his feast." 

just described into custody. Most ^ go ij, the old MS. in London, but 

inodern MSS. attempt to alter nipish- the persons are reversed, in Spiegel's 

Uik, as their writers have failed to see edition. 


tte cattle as plunder.^ (a) That is, when ^ one gives him the 
priesthood {z6tth) (it is) a tMiApiUhar ^ (sin), and when 2 they 
shall do it frequently (it is) a m(»rtaL sin (margarjdn). 

13. (32) Ask again of me, &c. (as in ver. 7 (18-20} above). 

14. (33^ Zaratusht inquired, &c. (as in ver. 8 (21) to) right- 
eous (one) ! who is he (belonging to) Srosh the righteous, the 
mighty, the self- subduing, [that is, he keeps (his) body in God's 
control], the admirably-armed,* the lord (kh4dd) of the hrdithrd^ 
te&Aew ^ (" sharp \idi,tt\G-sis.e") frashusaiti Sraoshd asht/d ("the 
righteous Srosh goes forth "), (who is he) the Srtshavarezb 1 
[that is, who is his stimulator of the world] % 

15-17. (34) And Auharmazd said to him thus : The bird 
whose name is Par6darsh, SpitamS,u Zaratdsht ! (a) This 
Par6Jarsh would be " prior indication " {phh-daklishaWi), and its 
prior iudication is this, that first it flaps (its) pinions, [that is, 
wings], (and) then utters a cry.^ (35) On whom men, in dis- 
paragement, bestow the name of fowl, some would say the cock ; 
(a) though (if) they did not say (so) it would be possible for him 
to do better. (36) That bird raises an outcry during the pre- 
paration of dawu,^ which arises at midnight,^ (37) thus: Rise 
up ! be men ! praise the righteousness which is perfect ! and 
overthrown are the demons, [that is, when righteousness is 
praised by them the demons are overthrown by them] ; (38) for 
this (one) wlio has run to you is BAshisp the long-talking,^ [some 
say thus : This (one) has run to you, EdshSsp the long-pawed],* 
(39) who by prosy chatting (^fr&j-gdp-ldyishnih) with the whole 

^ Or perhaps " in a drove." ParSkdarshth ai, aighash fratUm 

" Perhaps mdn, "whoever," should pardn skikAvSi, va akhar vdng vd- 

be read for amat, "when." dUnid. 

3 A sin which prevents the soul ' This aHah afzdr is defined in the 

from passing over the Chinvad bridge Farhang-i Olm-khad&k (p. 42) as the 

to paradise. third quarter of the night, in which 

* The author adds here " the ruler the Ushahina G4h begins. 

in the Arezahi and Savahi(bSshvarB)," ^ The third dislocation of the text, 

a gloss taken from a modem MS. as described in p. 367, note i, occurs 

Such modern glosses are, however, after the first Avesta word in clause 

mere guesses, of no authority. (37) ; but being in the Avesta text, it 

^ Mentioned in the Srosh Yasht has been properly corrected in Spie- 

(Yas. Ivii. 31). gel's edition. 

8 The same explanation of par6- " It is doubtful whether these two 

darsh is given in the Pahlavi transla- epithets, dSrang-giibo and dirang-ffAk, 

tion of the fragment in Westergaard's are not both intended to mean "long. 

Yasht xxii. 41, as follows: afash handed" or "long-x)awed." 

2 A 


material world, when every one ought to be free from sloth 
(bUshdsp), lulls it off to sleep. (40) This she says : Sleep a 
long time (dareptnth) ! be men ! for there is nothing which re- 
quires you,i [that is, your work of the law ^ will not stop]. (41) 
And let not the three perfections be over yourselves, good 
thought in the mind, good words in speech, (and) good deeds in 
action; [(a) some say that the religion asserts that Blishisp 
speaks for this reason, lest the three perfections should be over 
yourselves, good thought in the mind, good words in speech, 
(and) good deeds in action]. (42) But let the three turpitudes 
{vadt-Amih) be over yourselves, bad thought in the mind, and 
bad words in speech, and bad deeds in action. 

18, 19. (43) Theii the first third of the night my fire, (who 
am) Aliharmazd, begs the householder of the house ' for assist- 
ance, thus : householder of the house,^ rise up ! (44) put on 
(your) clothes ! wash (your) hands thoroughly ! request that they 
may bring me firewood ! illumine my molester {pattydr.ah) * with 
firewood purified (by) thoroughly-washed Lands. (45) Fur it 
seemed to me (it was) Az, produced by the demons, with forward- 
gliding coils, who tore out (my) lifej^ 

20, 21. (46) Then in the second third of the night my fire, 
who am Auharmazd, begs the husbandman for assistance, always 
(with) the same phrase {hamtshah kdr-i), thus : husbandman, 
rise up ! (47) (as in (44) and (45)^ which are not repeated here, 
in Pahlavi, by the old MS. in London). 

22. (48) Then the third third Of the night the fire of Atihar- 
mazd begs Srosh the righteous for assistance, thus : O Srosh the 
righteouSj the handsoine ! (49) then let any firewood of the 
material world be brought ^ unto me, purified (by) thoroughly- 

' Literally "for (there is) not that ^ The old MS. in London has here 

which suits you." ' maman bard U-t ds-t shSdddn-M^-t 

" The old MS. in London has kdr khamih phh-tajishno-t ahU hard sed- 

va dtndi " work and religious duty,'' Mnd medammUnast, hut in {50) it has 

that is, secular and religious duties, the following variations : U dz-i sM- 

This phrase is generally written M)' dddn-ddd mayd ; ahU-i; a,ni medam- 

dind, and it may be doubted whether mUnid. 

the conjunction va or the relative J is ^ The old MS. in London has ded- 

to be understood as connecting the rAnyhi,-yd(}, but modern MSS. of 

two words. course alter the termination to a form 

■' The old MS. in London has mdnd better understood by their writers, 

mdvpat in both places. without much attention to the mean 

* So in the old MSS., and parjirak ing. 
seems no improvement. 


■washed bands. (50) For there seems the water of Az, produced 
by the demons, flowing forward on me, which is a tearing away 
of life.i 

23-25. (51) Then Srosh the righteous upbraided {frdj-g6p- 
Idyid) the bird whose name is Par6darsh, Spit&mS,n Zaratllsht! 
(52) (as in (35) to (42), which are not repeated here, in Pahlavi, 
by the old MS. in London). 

•26, 27. (53) Then speaks a friend to his friend, they who 
shall lie on a bed, (54) thus : Do thou rise up ! for I am driven 
away. (55) Either one who shall rise up beforehand, his pro- 
gress is towards the best existence (paradise), (a) so that they 
proclaim that even with a good work of three srdshd-charan&m ^ 
it is possible to attain to the best existence. (56) Either one who 
(shall have) brought beforehand, up to the fire of AHharmazd, 
firewood purified (by) thoroughly-washed hands, (57) him the 
fire blesses, when pleased, uninjured, (and) satisfied, (58) thus : 
May the herd of cattle attain (dhlddd) unto thee ! [that is, may 
it be thine !] (59) besides the full continuance of men [much 
progeny] ! (60) May a desire in the mind for the will of thy 
(heavenly) lord {a.h4) attain unto thee ! [that is, may that some- 
thing be in thy mind which should be thy (heavenly) lord and 
high priest !] (61) and may the well-pleasted lord {ah'A) live in 
(thy) life ! ^ so that th6 nights when thou shalt live thou mayst 
live in joy. (62) This is the blessing which the fire always offers 
him, [that is, (it is) ever (for) him], who (has) brought to it fire- 
wood which is dry (and) inspected according to rule (rdshanth), 
(63) on account of a wish for rectitude [on account of a desire 
for duty and good works], (and) which is purified, [that is, pure], 

28. (64) Whoever gives thkt bird of mine, which is Par6darsh, 
O Spitamin Zarattsht ! female and male together, to a right- 
eous man with perfect rectitude, (65) thinks of it thus : It will 
produce me a dwelling ; (ffl) when they give him the reward (and) 
recompense, he considers about it thus : "When a dwelling like a 

1 Translated here differently from small Veight of the same name, by 
(45), in accordance with the variations which the value of the most trivial 
in the old MS. in London, but the actions is estimated. 

reading may&, " water," for khandh, = The old MS. in London has m 

"coiling," is very improbable. niHroaJchsAt (or M-ravahh-d&j.) ahv6 

2 This' is not the scourge or com- pavan khayd zivS4. 
poller of attention, but some very 


palace '^ shall! be given to me it may even be large ; (6S) (witli) 
a hundred colunins, a thousandi corridors,,^ a myriad large (and) 
a myriad small (rooms). 

29. (67) (Of him) who givea that bird of mine, which is Par6. 
darsh, small morsels of meat ^ along with pildv,*' some say cumin 
seed,^ [(a) some say that he gives out meat in that quantity to 
a righteous man], (68) of him, the ever-buinging,^ I who am 
iifAharmazd would not be an inquirer for his second statement, 
[(a) once I shall ask'^ everybody], (69) for he proceeds onwards 
to the best existence (paradise). 

30. (70) Srosh the righteous asked of the Drllj, of Disgrace,' 
[(a) some say that (it is) of Wrath ; some, of the evil spirit], 
(71) without the accompaniment of a club, [that is, he put down 
h,is club, (a) so that be might intimate that confession (JchHisHjMh) 
through fear is not to be considered as confession], (72) thus: 
Q Drilj, who art inglorious, [that is, thou hast no benefit what- 
ever from it *], (and) inactive ! [that is, thou doest nothing which 
is proper] ! (73) art thou thus conceiving without cohabitation of 
the whole living creation ? [that is, when they do not cohabit 
with thee dost thou become pregnant ?]. 

31. 32. (74) And she who is the demon DrUj exclaimed (in) 
reply to him, thus : O Srosh the righteous, the handsome ! (75) 
^ do not conceive, without cohabitation of the whole living crea- 

1 It is assumed here that gltn iamJ dish in which boiled mutton or fowl 
^ a oorruption of gAnha^, "a dome," is smothered in rice, and garnished 
which ia usually written gUmhaif,, with hard-boiled eggs, onions boiled 
^he reading gH/Ty ' ' a tomb,"' is hardly and fried, raisins, almonds, and spices, 
probable' ' Assuming that zArak means zirak: 

2 This is a guess at the meaning of ' Perhaps akaraz-vwr should be cor- 
fi-as, ooTop&ice frasp, frasip, "abeam rected into oto'as. 

or lintel." ' Or " they have inquiry made of." 

' This is translated in, accordance * Reading khAduk for Pers. khudHlc; 

H^th the view taken of the Avesta a similar Pahlavi form occurs in Vend. 

text in, p. 247, but a more literal v. 133, where it must be read khD/}ak 

translation <>^ the Pahlavi would be: =Pers. khUdah, " truth," as it is the 

" (Of him) -v^ (away) meat the equivalent of Av. ashem. 

s,ize of the body of that bird of mine," * Meaning probably from the divine 

&o. The Pahlavi translator evidently glory. But the word ajash ought 

considered the whole passage as re- perhaps to be omitted, as it is an addi- 

ferring to the meritorious work of tion to the text in the old MS. in 

charity. London, and we should then read 

* The old MS. in London has pilM., " thou hast no goodness whatever." 
a way of writing pildv, an Eastern 


tioB. (76) There are even (for) me too ^ four males. (77) They 
inipreguate me just as any other male, when the semeu is in the 
females it impregnates, [that is, I becom« pregnant], 

33. (78) Srosh the righteous:, &c. (as in (70) to (72), which 
are not repeated here in Pahlavi by the old MSS.) : Which is 
the first of those thy males ? 

34> 35- (79) And she who is the demon Drflj exclaimed (in) 
reply to him, thus : O Srosh the righteous, the handsome ! (80) 
even that (zah-tcH) is the first of those my males, '(81) when a 
man gives not even a trifle of his hoard of wealth, when he 
lived (z&i), [that is, exists], to a righteous man with perfect rec- 
titude. (82) He impregnates me, <fcc. (as in (77) above). 

36. (83) Srosh the righteous, &c. (as in (70) to (72), which 
are not repeated, in Pahlavi, by the old MSS.) : What is a coun- 
teraction of the effect of that? 

37, 38. (84) And she who is the demon Diuj exclaimed (in) 
reply to him, thus : Srosh the righteous, the handsome ! (85) 
it is a counteraction of the effect of that, (86) when the man 
gives even a trifle of his hoard of wealth, when not alive ^ (M 
zid), to a righteous man with perfect rectitude. (87) He will 
so destroy my pregnancy as a four-legged wolf when it tears out 
a son from the womb by tearing, (a) This is evident from the 
Avesta : it happens so when the former (valman) is ((me) who ia 
impure {m/dn palisht), and the latter (va le-denman) is in want 
through dissemination of good ; when he gives up such wealth 
to such a man he will destroy the Druj ; even when he gives up 
the wealth to that man the Druj is destroyed, although that man 
also should give up the same wealth lest (al hat) it should like- 
wise be contaminated ; some say that she is destroyed after- 

39. (88) Srosh the righteous, &c. (as in (70) to (72), which 
are not repeated, in Pahlavi, by the old MSS.) : Which is the 
second of those thy males ? 

• The most probable reading fe ' This commentary would be hardly 

h£m.and4ch It-ch 4 gUshan. intelligible without the corrections 

2 Meaning probably that he ar- supplied by the old MS. in London. 

ran"es by will for a charitable distri- The form le-denman is occasionally 

bution of his property after death, used for denman, of which it was pro- 

which appears to be a misunderstand- bablyan almost obsolete form at the 

in" of the language of the Avesta. time when the commentator wrote. 


40, 41. (89) (She) who is the demon Drftj exclaimed (in) 
reply to him, thus : Srosh the righteous, the handsome ! (90) 
even that is the second of those my males, (91) when a man, 
through sinfulness, makes water an instep's length beyond the 
front of the instep. (92) He impregnates me, &c. (as in (77), 
which is not repeated here, in Pahlavi, by the old MSS.). 

42-44. (93-95) (As in (83-85), which are not repeated, in 
Pahlavi, by the old MSS.), (96) when the man, after standing 
up three steps (off), [some say beyond ^ the three steps], (97) 
having repeated three (praises of) righteousriess,^ and two Hu- 
matanams (Yas. xxxv. 2), and three Hukhshathr6temlis (Yas. 
XXXV. 5), recites aloud four Ahunavars (Yas. xxvii, 13, and) 
prays aloud the Y^nh^-hitam (Yas. vii. 27), (98) he will so de- 
stroy, &c. (as in (87) above), (a) This is evident from the 
Avesta : it happens so when a man, through sinfulness, makes 
water an instep's length beyond the front of the instep ; for him 
(it) is the beginning of a tan^puhar (sin), and he atones for it 
by the Avesta.^ When he makes water standing up it is the 
beginning of a tan&puhar (sin) for him, and he does not atone 
for it by the Avesta. It is in front,^ it is not backwards. It is 
as to that which proceeds from the body ^ (that) ehvad yad he 
IcasishtaM erezvd fratemem, dbaeshish ("as much as the extremity 
of his smallest finger is an offence ") ; that amount of distance, 
(when) bent together, is suitable for every foul action.^ G5g&- 
shasp '' said that for the sake of preserving the clothes it is allow- 
able to make water far off. (6) When (one) accomplishes the 
action lawfully (and) well, when he squats down, one Yath^-ahu- 
vairy6 is to be uttered by him. S6sh&ns ^ said that, in case of 

'' It appears in the sequel that SariJ MS. in London, but is omitted by 

min must mean "beyond," that is, Spiegel and most later MSS. 

"more than" the three steps off; ^ Beading zak-t dArak dmdr ham- 

hut according to its usual meaning hhAl visp khUrak glial kAnishn vurds, 

it would be "without" taking three There are many difficulties in the 

steps backwards. sentence, and the traditional expla- 

2 That is, three Ashera-vohft for- nation is different, but decidedly 

mulas. See p. 141, note 2. eiToneous. 

' By reciting the Avesta passages ' The name of one of the old com- 

above prescribed. mentators who is often quoted in the 

* Probably ' ' in front of the toes " Pahlavi version of the Vendidad and 

is meant. The whole of this commen- other works. 

tary is difficult to divide correctly ^ The name of another old com- 

into separate sentences. mentator. 

' The word tanA is given by the old 


baste {aihlitdp), -when he utters (it) on a road it is also allowable, 
(c) And when he stands np the Avesta is all to be uttered by him 
within the three steps ; some say beyond the three steps, and on 
his walking ^ apart, the Avesta is ever to be uttered, [this walk- 
ing is that when he goes on from the three steps], or the Avesta 
is taken inwardly by him.2 (d) When he accomplishes the 
action lawfully (and) well, (but) through sinfulness does not 
utter the Avesta, it is not clear to me (whether it is) one (or) 
two^ srdsM-charandms of a tandpilhar (sin). G6g6shasp said 
that when he accomplishes the action lawfully (and) well, he also 
(utters) three Ashem-vohus.* 

45. (99) Srosh the righteous, &c. (as in (70) to (72), which 
are not repeated, in Pahlavi, by the old MSS.) : Which is the 
third of those thy males ? 

46, 47. (100) And she, &c. (as in (89) above) ! even that is 
the third of those my males, (loi) when a man asleep has an 
emission of semen, [that is, his semen comes out]. (102) He 
impregnates me, &c. (as in (77), which is not repeated, in Pah- 
lavi, by the old MSS.). 

48-50. (103-105) (As in (83-85), which are not repeated, in 
Pahlavi, by the old MSS.), (106) when the man, after arising 
from sleep, extols righteousness, [that is, recites three Ashem- 
voh<is], (107) two Humatanams, (and) three Hukhshathrdtemais, 
and prays aloud four Yathd-ah1i-vairy6s (and) Ylnhd-hatam,^ he 
will so destroy, &c. (as in (87) above). 

51. (108) Then this (man) speaks to Spendarmad thus: 
Spendarmad! (109) I deliver up to thee this man, and do thou 
deliver this man back to me, (no) on the production, by skill. 

1 Traditionally, chamishn is "mak- as described in p. 367, note i, occurs 

ing water " (compare Pers. chamin, after the words ashem ■vohH (the last 

"urine"), but here it is otherwise having been the catchword at the 

explained by the commentary itself. end of a folio in the original MS.) ; 

^ That is, it is muttered in u low the remaining words, vohA vahish- 

tone of voice. tern 3, are found attached to the first 

' So in the old MS. in London, word (usehishta) of the Avesta of (37) 

This mode of translation is in accord- in MSS., and have been omitted by 

ance with the idea of " the beginning Spiegel. The last eight Pahlavi words 

of a tanapfihar" mentioned in (a), a^ added to (98) really belong to (28), as 

a tandpHhar is equivalent to a great noticed in p. 368, note 6. 

number of sr6sh6-charandms. ° The same prayers as those en- 

* The fourth dislocation of the text, joined in (97). 


of the reorganisation in the future existence, (iii) knowing the 
Gdthas and knowing i * * * 

55- (lis) * * taking (the fourth step), quickly afterwards, 
we who are demons, at once we injure him by disease of the 
tongue. (ii6)^ Khshayamna paschaMa mereghente gaethdo 
astvaittsh ashaM patha zanda ydtumenta merenchante gaMh&o 
ashahe (" afterwards -the possessed ones destroy the settlements 
of righteousness, supplied with creatures, as the spells of sor- 
cerers destroy the settlements of righteousness "). (a) So that tip 
to the fourth step it is not more (than) ^ three srdshd-charandms, 
and at his fourth step it amounts to the beginning of a tandpd- 
har, [some say that (he is) within what is permitted him in going 
the three (steps)]. When he walks on very many (steps) it is 
also not more than a tan&pAhar, all that* remains over from the 

56-59. (117, 118) (As in (83-85), which are not repeated, in 
Piihlavi, by the old MSS,), (119) (not given, in Pahlavi, by the 
old MSS.). (120, 121) (As in (115, 116), which are not repeated, 
in Pahlavi, by the old MSS.). 

60, 6r. (122) (As in (18-21), which are not repeated, in Pah- 
lavi, by the old MSS. to) righteous one ! (123) Who persecutes 
thee, thee who art Alharmazd, with the greatest persecution, 
and annoys with the greatest annoyance ? [that is, (does) all this 
another time].^ 

62. (124) And Aliharmazd said to him thus : The courtezan, 

' The fifth dislocation of the text, has been accepted as part of the 

as described in p. 367, note i, occurs Avesta text both here and in (121), 

after the words va dkds, where there see p. 249. It is not translated into 

is a break in the text owing to the Pahlavi, and the commentary which 

loss of a folio in the original MS. follows it belongs to the preceding 

This is all the more to be regretted sentence in the Avesta text, 

as it is evident, from the small quan- ' It is doubtful whether we should 

tity of missing text, that the lost not read "not more than (a{) a sj-dsM- 

folio must have contained a long com- charaiidm." 

mentary. The remaining eighteen * Assuming that we may read miln 

Pahlavi words attached to (in) really instead of amat, see p. 346, note 2. 

belong to (18), as noticed in p. 367, This phrase seems to mean that he 

note I ; the word min being repeated only completes the tandpAhar, already 

because it was the catchword at the begun, by walking beyond the fourth 

end of a folio. step ; but the phrase is obscure. 

^ There seems little doubt of this ' Or perhajis "does all this at ona 

being merely an Avesta quotation be- time." 
longing to the commentary, which 


rigtteous ZaratAstt ! -who mingles together the seed of the 
pious and impious, the idolaters and non-idolaters, the tanapCL- 
Aar-sinners and also "the non-towdjcuiZ/tar'-sinners, (a) and it is not 
her business ; for when cohabitation is three times conceded by 
her (she is) worthy of death {marg-arjdn). G6g6shasp said that 
this is a courtezan who is within bounds (yimand).^ 

63- (125) Of one-third the waters flowing from the mountains 
the power is exhausted by her gazing on (them), Zaratdsht ! 
(126) Of one- third the trees which are growing, graceful, and 
golden-hned, the growth is exhausted by her gazing ou (them), 
Zaratiisht ! 

64. (127) Of one-third of Spendarmad (the earth) the freedom 
from scarcity {atangih) is carried off by her walking on (it), 
Zarattisbt! (128) Of one-third the excellent thoughts, the ex- 
cellent words, the excellent deeds of a righteous man she 
abstracts the strength and dignity {shulcAhih), the success, 
fame {khanid/th), and even righteousness, through agitation 
{levatman nafdmishn), O Zaratiisht ! 

65. (129) Concerning such (females) also I say unto thee, O 
Spitftm^ii Zaratdsht ! that tbey are more destructive than a dart- 
ing serpent (ciz), [some say a darting snake (rndr)], (130) than a 
raving {sMt)^ wolf, (131) than a jungle-bred ^ wolf when it rushes 
into enclosures upou the sheep, (132) than a frog spawning 
thousands when it plunges into the water,* [that is, it drops at 
once into the water ; some say from the male to the female]. 

66-68. (133) (As in 18-21) which are not repeated, in Pah- 
lavi, by the old MSS. to) righteous one ! (134) whoever obser- 
vantly, [that is, lie sees that (she) is menstruous], knowingly, 
[that is, he knows that (it) is a sin], (and) risking penalty, [that 
is, he would say thus : I will incur the penalty], cohabits with a 
woman suffering from any kind of menstruation,^ with that ob- 
servation and knowledge and risk of penalty, (135) what is (his) 

1 Meaning perhaps "in bondage," ' This epithet is very doubtful; 
but the sense is rather uncertain, and " jungle " is to be understood in 
The word dhid, wliich follows in its wide Indian meaning of "wilder- 
the old MSS., is probably only the ness," not in its limited European 
Pahlavi att, "is," or hdd, "would sense of "forest." 

be," in a PS-zand form, and ought to * Thereby polluting it. 

end this sentence. " This is merely a free transla- 

2 Or perhaps yahSd, " who de- tion. 
s troys." 


penalty in cash (Jchvdstah) 1 and what is it (at) the bridge ^ with 
the goad (and) scourge (sr6shd-charandm) ? How does he remove 
the penalty for the perpetration of that action 1 [that is, how 
should he atone ?]. 

69, 70. (136) And Aliharmazd said to him thus : Whoever, 
observantly, &c. (as in (134) above), (137) he should^ search 
out a thousand young (cattle), (138) and of all those cattle, of 
those which are suitably decorated,^ and (consecrated) with holy- 
water, pad antare veredhka asma reja, ("what is in the kidneys, 
the kidney fat"),* he should carry forth for the fire with perfect 
rectitude; (139) (his) arm should carry (it) forth for the good 

71. (140) A thousand back-loads of hard iirewood, dry and 
inspected,^ he should carry forth for the fire with perfect recti- 
tude. (141) A thousand back-loads of soft firewood emitting 
fragrance, or benzoin, or aloe-wood, or pomegranate,^ or any 
other of the most sweet-scented of trees, he should carry forth 
for the fire with perfect rectitude. 

72. (142) He should (have) a thousand Barsoms arranged in 
(their) arrangement. (143) A thousand consecrated waters, 
with Horn (and) with flesh, which are purified, [that is, pure], 
watched, [that is, they are kept by a chief (priest)],^ purified by 
a holy man,^ [that is, prepared by a holy man], and watched 
by a holy man, [that is, a holy man kept (it) as chief (priest)], 
in connection^ with which are those plants which are called 

1 At tlie Chinva^ bridge where the fire along with pieces of sandal-wood 
soul has to account for its actions in and pomegranate twigs. 

this life. ^ To ascertain that it is free from 

^ Grammarians should notice that impurity, 

the conditional in these sentences ^ The hadhdnaipata, being classed 

(137-149) is formed by prefixing (in- here among odoriferous substances, 

stead of affixing) the auxiliaries <U, S, can hardly have been the pomegranate 

or hana, to the indicative present. shrub, as assumed by tradition. 

2 'Rea.dmgvu7-dzvardz=Peia. burdz ^ The eaota, or chief officiating 
bardz ; this is, however, doubtful, as priest at all • important ceremonies, 
the oldest reading is gvd rdz nrdz, all must be intended by sarddr here. 

in P4zand, and may perhaps be some ' That is, by a priest, which must 

part of an animal. be the meaning of ddhmdn here. 

* The words asma rqa look more ' Assuming that ham-gHmih stands 

like "stone and gravel," but the for ham-gAmejth. The oldest reading 

phrase is traditionally understood as is Imm-yHnamVi, which might be a 

referring to fat smeared on splinters miswriting of ham-gHnakih, " the 

of wood which are thrown into the same manner" (an inverted A being m 

in Pahlavi), 


pomegranate, he should carry (all these) forth for the good water 
with perfect rectitude. 

73. (144) A thousand serpents who are created erect {lAldr 
daMshno) ^ he should destroy, two thousand of those other female 
snakes {mdr-ldnlXh). (145) A thousand land-frogs he should 
destroy, and two thousand of those of the water. (146) A thou- 
sand ants carrying off corn (ddn-kash) he should destroy, two 
thousand of those other venomous ones {daMrak).^ 

74. (147) He should throw thirty over-bridges across navigable 
water (and) streams containing water, with arches (dahan).^ 
(148) He is to be beaten with a thousand blows of a horse- 
goad, (or) two thousand srdsM-charandms. 

75. (149) That is his penalty at the bridge;* that is his 
penalty in cash {Mivdstah), that is his (penalty at) the bridge, 
with the goad (and) scourge (sr6sh6-charandm) ; and so he should 
remove the penalty for the perpetration of that action, [that is, he 
should atone]. 

76. (150) If he removes (it) he gathers ^ for the better world 
of the righteous, [that is, his gathering is made for that place]. 
(151) If he does not remove (it) he gathers^ for the world of 
the wicked, [that is, his gathering is made for that place], (152) 
of those deserving gloom, [that is, their desert is for that place], 
of gloomy origin, [that is, the Driij who makes a man wicked 
originates from that place], (and) gloomy, [that is, a dark place]. 

8. — Pahlavi Yendidad XIX. 
I. (i) From the northern direction of the directions, from the 
northern direction of the place, from the direction of the demons, 
the evil spirit rushed forth, the deadly demon of the demons ; 
(2) and thus exclaimed he, the evil spirit, the deadly : (3) Kush 
on, DrUj ! and destroy him, the righteous ZaratHsht. (4) On 
to him they rushed, the DrUj, the demon Bllt, and secret-moving 
Destruction, the deceiver. 

^ That is, who stand partly erect clause appears to be .'iuperflaons, but 
•when prepared to strike their prey or occurs in the oldest MSS. 
enemy, like the cobra and many other "■ That is, he accumulates a store of 
snakes. good works, or sin, as the case may 

2 Assuming that dahtrak (the oldest be. The meaning can hardly be " he 
reading) stands iov zdhirak, "poison- is gathered to," although the phrase 
pug" might perhaps be so translated witli- 

■* This is merely a guess. out doing much violence to grammar, 

• See p. 378, note j.. This first 


2. (5) ZaratAs'lit chanted aloud the Atana-vairya (fornvula), 
[those two Yatl)4-ah-ii-vairy6s which stand before hushiti (Yas. 
Ixviii. 14)], and be coBsecrated the good wateT which is of good 
ireatioUji and the Mazdayasnian religion was professed by him, 
[that is, he uttered the fravardnt, (Yas. i. 23)]. {S) The Driij 
was confounded by that ; away they rushed, the demon Blit and 
secret-moving Destruction, the deceiver. 

3. (7) The DrUj exclaimed (in) reply to him thus : Thou art 
a misleader, evil spirit! this thoii art, [that is, anything un- 
looked for, which it is not possible for thee to do thyself, thou 
orderest us {to do)]. (8) The ruin of him, who is SpitS,mS,n 
Zaratfisht, is not contemplated by us, (9) owing to the full glory 
[owing to the great diligence] of the righteous ZaratAsht ; (a) so 
that they announce that whoever remains in activity, on him less 
affliction comes. "(lo) Zaratllsht perceived in (his) mind thus : 
The wicked demons, astute in evil, consult together about my 

4. (11) Up rose Zaratilsht, forth went <^aratd.sht, (12) from 
the extinction of evil thought iAMmand) [when the evil thought 
in his body is ex:tinguished] by severely distressing questions, 
[by those questions, so severe, which are proposed to it] ; (a) 
some say that evil thought is extinguished by him when it asks 
what is severely distressing.^ (13) And he held a stone {sag) in 
his hand, which was the size of a hut, the righteous Zarattisht ! 
[the rocky stone,* some say, is the spirit of the YathS,-ah-(i-vairy6], 
(14) who thus besought the creator Aiiharmazd : (15) Where is 
that kept on this wide, round, far-traversed (earth, which) is to 
be fixed on the roof* in the dwelling of P6r<ishasp ? (a) Some 
say it is kept on this earth, so wide, round, (and) far-traversed, 
and the place which is kept for it is fixed on the roof in the 
dwelling of P6r1ishasp. 

1 The " good Daitl " would pro- word for " stone " in the Pahlavi 

bably be identified, by the Pahlavi Vendidad, there seems little doubt 

translator, with the river of that that a stone is meant, though tradi- 

name, see p. 357, note i. tion prefers to understand the phrase 

^ It is not clear whether the Pah- as "the thrice three," applicable to 

lavi translator means to personify the »a«,7M'aA, or "nine-jointed" staff 

Akflman5 as a, demon existing inde- of Zaratttsht, see p. 333, note 4. 

pendent of the mind or not. * The words darjtk zhdr, being 

5 Or "the stone of three kinds," if merely a transcription of the Avesta, 

we read sag-i 3-giln6 instead of sag-i are translated in accordance with the 

eagtnC. As sag (not sang) is the usual meaning adopted in p. 333, note 4. 


5. (16) Zaratiislit proclaimed iiloud, [that is, Pie openly [paidtd) 
conveyed], to the evil spirit, tEus : evil spirit, astute in evil ! 
(17) I destroy the creatures produced by lie demons, I destroy 
the corruption (?ia;««is/t). produced by the demons, (18) I destroy 
the desire for witches, [the worship of idols], until the triumphant 
S4d-h8mand (" benjeficiiil one ")■ is brought forth by the water of 
Kashi&s&l, [(a) both I destroy and my disciples destroy thee ; and 
after he arrives he will annihilate thee by his own deeds], (19) 
from the eastern directioa of the directions, (a) (From) the place 
where the sun comes up on the longest day to the place where it 
comes up on the shortest day is the east ; from the place where 
it comes up on the shortest day to the place where it goes down 
on the shortest day is the south- ; from the place where it goes 
do vn on the shortest day to the place where it goes down on the 
longest day is tha west ; and the remainder is the north. Some 
say that the north is an abyss..^ 

6. (20) (In) reply to him exclaimed the evil spirit, astute in 
evil, (21) thus : Destroy not these my creatures, righteous 
Zaratfisht ! (22) Thou art the; sou of Porfishasp, and thou art 
from the conception of thy mother's womb, I know thee, [(a) some 
say that I had the worship of thy ancestors, and do tliou also 
worship me]. (23) Curse the good religion of the Mazdayas- 
niaus, (and) obtain happiness as V6ghn6, the king, obtained it 

7. (24) (In) reply to him spoke he who is Spitimin Zara- 
t^sht, (25) thus: I curse not that which is AAharmazd's own, 
the good religion of the Mazdayasnians ; (26) not for love of 
body nor life, not for much result and not for good result, not 
on account of the parting of body and soul, [that is, although 
they cut off my head yet I ourse not]. 

8. (27) (In) reply to him exclaimed the evil spirit, astute in 
evil : (28) With what words dost thou smite me 1 [that is, 
wouldst thou make me confounded ?] and with what words wilt 
thou molest me t [that is, wouldst thou force me apart from the 
creatures?] with (what) well-formed implement, (from) these 
creatures of me who am the evil spirit 1 

9. (29) (In) reply to him spoke he who is Spitduifin Zara- 

1 Keading tOi-i, "a bottom.'' as the mountain Areztira at the gate of 

hell is supposed to be in the north, hell, see p. 316, note 4, and p. 337, 

But the word may be also read td-i, note 9. 
"a summit," which might refer to 


tlisbt, (30) thus : With the Homa-mortar and dish and Homa, even 
the words AHharmazd pronounced, the Avesta, (31) are my best 
implements. (32) With those words I smite thee, [that is, I 
would make thee confounded], with those words I molest thee, 
[that is, I would force thee apart from the creatures], with those 
well-formed implements, O evil spirit, astute in evil 1 (33) which 
were given to me by him, the beneficent spirit, and were given 
to him in boundless time, [some say thus : which were given to 
me by him, the beneficent spirit, and were given to me by him 
in boundless time], (34) and were given over to me by them, the 
Ameshaspends, the good rulers and good arrangers, [that is, they 
have been assisting in the giving by them].i 

10. (35) Zaratusht chanted aloud the Ahuna-vairya, [that is, 
the YathS,-ahu-vairy6] ; (36) the righteous Zarattisht spoke out 
thus : That which I ask of thee Thou tellest to me right, 
Auharmazd ! ^ I am firmly of opinion, [some say thus : Right is 
what Thou tellest to me]. 

^i- (37)^ Through what is to be fixed on the roof * where 
Auharmazd (and) the good one [Vohuman] of good estimation 
are stationed (dhist), [this " estimation " (stands) for Vohuman 
again], (38) (with) Ashavahisht, Shatvgr, (and) Spendarmad. 

12. (39) How should I act with them (to defend) from that 
Drllj who is from the evil spirit, astute in evil ? [that is, how 
should I make her quite confounded ?]. (40) How when it has 
become polluted directly, how when it has become polluted in- 
directly, how shall I dispossess the corruption {nasush) from the 
residence (vis) of Mazdayasnians ? (41) How do I purify a 
righteous man ? How do I bring purification on a righteous 
woman ? 

13. (42) And A<iharmazd said to hiin thus : Thou mayst call, 
Zaratusht ! upon the good religion of the Mazdayasuians, 

1 These words, " by them," lead tereat to grammarians, as they show 

one to suspect that the Pahlavi trans- that two pronominal suffixes can be 

later considered "boundless time" added to one particle. 

as much an individual as "the bene- " Yas. xliv., see pp. 158-161. 

fioent spirit," and that we ought to ^ The Pahlavi translator omits the 

read "by boundless time "(the Pah- usual opening invocation of the 

Uvi pavan being both "by" and Creator, see the translation o£ the 

"in"). The rare forms mllnamash, Avesta text, p. 333. 

afamash, and afamshUn (fpr afam- * See p. 380, note 4. 
ahdn), in these sentences, are of in- 


[that is, celebrate a Vendidad]. (43) Thou mayst call, Zara- 
tusht ! upon the Ameshaspends in invisible concealment on the 
seven regions of the earth, [that is, although thou seest them 
not they are to be propitiated]. (44) Thou mayst call, Zara- 
tusht ! upon the self-sustained universe, [its self-sustainment is 
this, that through the energy which is within it nothing from 
without is wanted within it], and boundless time, (and) the 
upper-working air {yOft). (45) Thou mayst call, Zaratusht ! 
upon the swift wind created by Auharmazd, and also call Spen- 
darmad, the graceful daughter of AHharmazd. 

14. (46) Thou mayst call, Zarattsht ! upon the spirit 
{fravashi) of me who am Auharmazd, (47) which is (of the 
creations) of A'O.harmazd the greatest in body, the best in worth, 
the most excellent in appearance, the most formidable [strongest], 
the most sagacious [wisest], the best-shaped, [that is, the limbs 
most adapted one for the other], the highest in righteousness, 
(48) the soul of which is the beneficent text. (49) Thou 
shouldst thyself, O Zaratusht ! call these creatures of Aiihar- 
mazd, [that is, do not surrender (it) from (thy) hand]. 

15. (50) Zaratusht considered 1 ray words, [that is, he heark- 
ened to them] ; (a) some say that ZaratHsht considered my 
words, [that is, he believed about them that it would be neces- 
sary to keep (and) hear (them)]; (51) (and said) : I call upon 
the righteous Atbarmazd, the creator of creatures. (52) I call 
upon MitrS of the wide cattle-pastures, the well-armed, glorious 
with missiles,^ the most victorious of missiles, [that is, these are 
good (and) more (than) those of the angel Vahrim]. (53) I call 
upon Srosh the righteous, the handsome, when he holds a sword 
in (his) hand over the head of the demons, at that time I call 
him most. 

16. (54) I call upon the beneficent text which is very glori- 
ous. (55) I (iall upon the self -sustained universe, boundless 
time, and the upper-working air. (56) I call upon the swift 
wind created by Atharmazd ; Spendarmad, the graceful daughter 
of Auharmazd, I also call. (57) I call upon the good religion 

1 This sentence is corrected by com- sUes," but the word is ambiguous, 
paring it with {114) further on. and might be read zaMshno, " emana- 

2 Beading zdydno, " arms, mis- tion, radiation." 


of the Mazdayasuians ; the. law against the demons,^ the law of 
Zai-atlisht, I also call. 

17. (.58) Zatatdsht inquired of Aliharmazd thus : Thou art a 
geuerous creator/ Alllaarmazd ! [thait \&, the benefit from him 
is much] ; (59) with what words do 1 reverence, with what words 
do I worship Thee ? (and do) my disciples and these creatures of 

18. (60) And Atiharmazd. said to him thus : When thou 
earnest up to a growing, tree, O SpitS,mS,n Zaratiisht ! (61) which 
is fine, well-grown, (and) strong,, recite these words : (62) Salur 
tation to the good tree created by Auharmazd (and) righteous ! * 
(a) Eighteousness is the, best prosperity, [a store of these is 
good, duty and good works] ; {h) virtuous is righteousness^ vir- 
tuous is he who is a right-doer through perfect righteousness^ 
[that is, he performs duty and good works].* 

19. (63) Tiiou mayst, carry off Barsom for that ceremony a 
span long,, a barley-corn thick. (64) Thou shouldst not cut up 
the Barsom with over-attention,^ [that is, thou shouldst leave 
(it) to] ^ men, become righteous,'^ and it is held by them in the 
left hand ;, (65) and AAharmazd is prayed to by them, and the 
Ameshaspends are prayed to by them. (66) Homa, too, the 
golden-hued, the exalted, and they also who are excellent, 
Vohuman and good liberality created by Aliharmazd, the right- 
eous (and) best, are prayed to likewise by them. 

20. (67) Zaratiisbt inquired of Aliharmazd thus : Thou art 
omniscient, O Aliharmazd ! (68) Thou art sleepless, AAhar- 
mazd ! and uniutoxicated, thou who art Aliharmazd ! (69) A 

1 The Vendidad. text, however, refer to the cutting of 

' Or it may be translated as in p. the Barsom itself, which is now hardly 

334, note I. ever done, as they generally use metal 

^ Dastur Hoshangji observes that wires, instead of twigs, 

when a Parsi priest goes nowadays ^ This Pahlavi translation of the 

up to a pomegranate tree to cut the Ashem-vohft formula is omitted by 

urvardm he does not use these words, Spiegel, but is given by the old MSS. 

but washes his hands and the knife ® The word a/var-niktrishnik is not 

with consecrated water, thrice recit- » correct equivalent of the Avesta 

ing khshnaothra AhuraM Mazddo, pairi-keretem, but it is hazardous to 

ashem vohA, and outs a twig from the alter it into avar-kartnishnih. 

pomegranate tree for the urvaram, 6 Qr " thou shouldst break (it) off 

and a leaflet from the date tree for for," if sMkan-de be read instead of 

the aiwydonhana, or girdle of the shedkiln-Ae. 

Barsom. The instructions in the ' That is, priests. 


good-minded man is mingled in direct pollution with him (vat), 
a good- minded man is mingled in indirect pollution with him 
(vaZ) whose body is stricken by the demons and defiled, and the 
demons mingle him with it, [that is, they would make (him) 
completely defiled] ; did the good-minded (one) become purified ? 

21. (70) And Al\harmazd said to him thus; Seek for bull's 
urine, O Zarattisht ! of a yowng, entire bull, lawfully inaugur- 
ated.^ (71) Thou mayst carry on the purification on the land 
created by Atiharmazd, [that is, they may perform (it) in a wild 
spot of nava viMzva drdjd (" nine fathoms length ")]. (72) With 
a surrounding furrow he should score (it) around, the man who 
is purifying. 

22. (73) One hundred praises of righteousness are to be 
recited (thus) : Ashem vohll, (ifec, and) (74) two hundred 
(Yath^ahl3.-viury6s).^ (75), With four times thorough washing 
he is washed over, (by) the. man who is purifying, with bull's 
urine produced by bulls, twice with water which should be 
created by Aliharmazd,' which should be well-formed. 

23. (76) Purified becomes the good-minded man, purified 
becomes the man who shall come with him.* (77) The cloth- 
ing of the good-minded (one) is to be taken up by the left arm 
with the right, and by the right arm with the left, with the 
assistance of one another. (78) Then the good-minded (one) is 
to be called out ^ in the light produced by skill, that we may 
brighten his star given by destiny, (79) always till those nine 
nights shall elapse over the man. 

24. (80) After the nine nights thou mayst ca.i;ry forth conse- 
crated water to the fire, thou mayst carry foi;th the hard 
firewood to the fire, thou mayst carry forth sweet-scented 
incense to the fire, (8i) (and be) who is. good-minded should 
fumigate his clothes. 

1 The bull whose urine is employed *> -Probably- meaning pure water. 

for such purposes has to be once pro- In the old MSS. the conditional /U 

perly consecrated by a certain cere- eccui-s twice, as here translated, 

mony, when he becomes dcjaj/^-i-eceid, * Or "who shall come in contact 

and can then supply lawful urine for -with him." 

the rest of his life. ^ So all unaltered MSS., but Da» 

■•' The words yathd ahil vairy6 vad tur Hoshangji suggests that aliart 

vdstdrem, which have been taken into tUnishn, "is to be opened or exposed,' 

the Avesta text (see p. 335), belong, should be read instead of kartMnishn 
no doubt, to the Pahlavi translation. 

2 B 


25. (82) Purified becomes the clothing of the good-minded 
(one), purified becomes the man who holds the clothing. 
{83) The clothing, &c. (as in (77) above). (84) The good- 
minded (one) exclaims thus : Salutation to Afiharmazd ! saluta- 
tion to the Ameshaspeiids ! salutation to those other righteous 
ones ! (a) Afarg ^ showed from this passage that he whose 
hands are not washed should not reverence the sun, and should 
not engage in silent prayer (ydj). 

26. (85) ZaratHsht inquired of Auharraazd thus : Thou art 
omniscient, O Allharmazd ! (86) Shall I raise the righteous 
man ? shall I raise the righteous woman 1 shall I raise the 
wicked and the idolaters, the men who are polluters? 2 (87) 
The giving up ^ removes away the earth created by Atiharmazd ; 
the giving up removes away the flowing water, the grown corn, 
and the other wealth. (88) And Auharmazd said to him thus : 
Thou mayst raise (them), O righteous Zaratiisht ! 

27. (89) Creator of the material world, righteous one!* 
Where ave those events * in lodgment ? where do those events 
proceed ? [that is, where is the place of their coming and 
going ?] wherewith are those events in connection ? where do 
those events come back to the same place for a man whom they 
give up to his own soill in the material life of mankind ? ^ 

28. (90) And Allharmazd said to him thus : After the pass- 
ing aw'ay of men, after the proceeding forth ot men, [that is, 
when their proceedings in the world are completed], after the 
tearing away of the life from the former body by the demons, 
the wicked ones astute in evilj [that is, of everyone they most 
tear away that from which unseparated {i abard) he does not 
die] ; (cji) on the complete up-lifting of the third night, when 
the dawn glows, the beaming, (92) on the mountain of the 

1 The name of one of ih6 old com- resurrection, or to the soul's entrance 
mentators. into its separate spiritual life, as de- 

2 The reading of the old MSS. is tailed in the following verses, 
certainly gusAno-zahishndn, a misin- * This opening sentence is abbrevi- 
terpretation of the Av. merezujtttm. ated in the old MSS. 

* Taking bard yehahUntano (which ^ The traditional meaning of ddsar 

the old MSS. append to both clauses is *' destiny." 

of the sentence) as the nominative. ^ As the meaning is not very clear 

It might be translated " result," but it is safest to give the literal trans- 

the passage seems to refer to the lation. 


glory of righeeousness where it^ arouses Mitrd the well-armed, 
(93) and the sun rises up there in (its) ascent. 

29. (94) The demon Vizarsh by name, O Spttamlin Zara- 
tusht ! carries off the soul bound, the wicked (and) the idolaters, 
the men who are polluters, (a) That is, with a halter {})and) 
which falls upon the neck of every one when he dies ; when 
righteous it falls off from his neck (ash min chavarman), when 
wicked they will drag him with that same halter to hell. 
(95) He comes to the time-worn path, whoever is wicked (and) 
whoever is righteous, [(a) Every one will come to that place 
to behold Aftharmazd (and) Ahriman j he who is righteous to 
offer prayer, (but) he who is wicked is unable to offer prayer 
and becomes repentant, and by his repentance they restore the 
dead again]. (96) (To) the Chinvad bridge created by A<ihar- 
mazd, where they clear away (bard zadend) the worldly portion 
of the consciousness (and) soul, (97) which was given to them 
in the material world. 

30. (98) She who is graceful in appearance^ Well-formed, 
[that is, it is not necessary to do anything to her],^ strong, [that 
is, powerful], 3 well- developed, [that is, she has grown in excel- 
lence], comes (99) with a dog, [that is, protection is with her], 
with discrimination, [that is, it is evident who is -Who and which 
is which], with replies,* [that is, with goodness and crime], ^ 
.willing, [that is, as a man requires], (and) provided with skill. 
(100)® . . . She supports the soul of the righteous across 
Alborz. (lei) They pass acrOss by the Chinvad bridge whose 
two extremities (2-sarih) are their own heavenly angels ; (a) one 
stands at Cbak^d-i Diitih,^ and one at Alborz. 

' Probably the dawn. Dastur Hosliangji suggests reading 

" Literally : "it is not necessary to vSsh iachale, " many children." 

perform an operation upon her." ^ The old MSS. omit the Pahlavi 

' Assuming that ktk atgh tuban, translation of the first Slause of this 

the reading of the old MSS. in Lon- sentence in the Avefeta : " She dis- 

don, stands for taktk Utgh tUbdn. misses the siuful soul of the wiclced 

* The oldest reading is pasukho- into the glooms " (see p. 255). This 

himand, hut Dastur Hoshangji sug- is, no doubt, a blunder, as there is rib 

gests reading pusfin-A^mtmci, "having reason to suppose that this clause is 

sons." an Avesta quotation introduced by 

^ Probably meaning that she has the Pahlavi translator, 

the replies both of the good and the ' The Bundahish (p. 22, W.) statfes 

bad. The oldest reading is irastt va that the mountain " ChakM-i Diitih 

bajak, and vastk is very like vehih ; is that of the middle of the world, 


31. (102) Vohuman shall rise up from a throne made of 
gold, (a) where he transacts the affairs of the dominion of the 
eternal ones.i (103) Vohuman exclaims thus : How hast thou 
come up here ? righteous one ! tasting immortality (andsli- 
vasMamiln), (104) from that perishable world which is afflicted, 
unto this imperishable world which is unafflicted 1 

32. (105) Contented the soul of the righteous goes on from 
Vohuman (106) up to AHharmazd and up to the Ameshaspends 
and Up to the throne made of gold, (107) up to Gar&dmin, the 
abode of Aliharmazd, the abode of the Ameshaspends, the abode 
of those others who are also alike {hamtch) righteous ones. 

33. (108) Owing to the purified state of that righteous 
(one), [owing to the protection ^ of purity in the soul], after 
passing away, the wicked demons, astute in evil, are frightened 
away by its scent, (109) as a sheep molested by wolves when it 
is frightened off by the scent of a wolf. 

34. (no) The righteous men come together ^ every one; 
(a) some say HushMar, HushMar-mih, and S6shy&ns ; (in) 
and N6ry6sang brings them together. (112) The messenger* 
of Aliharmazd call Nlrydsang; (113) thou shouldst thyself, 
Zaratdsht ! call upon these creatures of Atiharmazd, [that is, 
do not surrender (it) from (thy) haud],^ 

35. (114) Zarat^sht considered my words, &c. (as in (50) 
above) ; (115) (and said) : I call upon A^harmazd the righteous, 
the wise.^ (116) I call upon the earth created by A<iharmazd, 
the water created by Auharmazd, and the rightful vegetation. 
{117) I call upon the sea which is made wide.'' (118) I call 
upon the sky, the handsome-formed, [that is, it is formed well- 
vaulted].^ {n.g)l call upon the endless light, the self-sustained, 
the height of a hiindre(J men, on 3 fj^e old MSS. are here, for once, 
which the Ohinvad bridge stands, and more corrupt than the modern ones, 
they take account of the soul at that * Traditionally, " the friend." 
plac§." 5 This is a repetition of (49), and 

1 Beading^ iM;WomiJ»iterfoo, " those the subject now returns to the point 
acting without time," but this is it left when interrupted by the in- 
liable to the objection that avt ought quiries in (58). 
to be otherwise written. 6 This is a misinterpretation of the 

^ The word pdnakth seems to have Avesta, see p. 256. 

been written by mistake in the old ' A free translation of Vouru- 

MS. in London, and to have been kasha, which is always 

corrected by a marginal gloss into in Pahlavi. 

pdkih ; later copyists give both words 8 go i^ the old MSS. , but " vaulted 

in the text, as here translated. together " in later ones. 


[that is, its self-sustainment is tliis, that they ^ make every one 
its own for itself]. 

36. (120) I call upon the better world of the righteous, of 
all-glorious light. (121) 1 call upon Gar^dm&n, the abode of 
Atlharmazd, and the abode of the Ameshaspends, and the abode 
of those other righteous ones. {122) I call upon th« constantly 
advantageous place,^ the self-sustained, [its constant advantage- 
ousness is this, that when it once became (so) all of it became 
thereby ever-advantageous] ; th-e Chinvad bridge, created by 
Auharmazd, I also Ciill. 

37. (123) I call upon good-fortune the wishful-eyed> the 
favouring, the spirit of favour (liiL-chashmih). (124) I call upon 
the valiant guardian-angels of the righteous, who benefit all 
creatures. (125) I call upon the victorious angel Verehr&n 
(Behr^m), created by Aliharmazd, who bears the standard of the 
glory created by Auharmazd. (t26) I call upon the star 
Tishtar, the brilliant, the glorious ; at the time when (it is) in 
the form of a bull with golden horns I call it most. 

38. (127) I call upon the propitious G^thas, ruling the chiefs 
(of the creation, and) righteous ; [their rulership of the chiefs 
is this, that it is proper to pray to any of the others through 
them]. (128) I call upon the Ahunavaiti G4tha ; I call upon 
the Ushtavaiti G^tha ; I call upon the Spenta-mainyu GUtha ; 
I call upon the Vohu-khshathra G§,tha ; I call upon the Vahishi- 
t6ishti Githa. 

39. (129) I call upon the region {Mshvar) of Arezahi and of 
Savahi ; I call upon the region of Fradadafshu (and of) Vida- 
dafshu ; I call upon the region of Youru-bareshti and of Vouru- 
jareshti; I call upon the region of Qaniratha the splendid; 
(a) this they assert as they are stationed (Ahist) in this (one). 

(130) I call upon Het-h6m'and * the illustrious, the glorious. 

(131) I call upon the good Ashishang.* I call upon th« most 
rightful {r<yisfak), the learned, the good. (132) I call upon the 

1 The fixed ■stars, whieh jwoduce works exactly counterbalance their 
their own light. sins, and where they remain in a 

2 This S<tmishak-sil4ak gdsitp^efiTS stationary state till the final resur- 
to be the place of the HamistaMn of rection. 

the later books, the intermediate s See Vend. i. (50), p. 361. 
place, between heaven and hell, re- * See p. 215. 
served far those souls whose good 


glory of the Iranian countries. I call upon the glory of Jam 
shid the rich in flocks. 

40. (133) When Srosh is satisfied with the three nights' ^ 
worship, and (has) recognised, [that is, completed (its) con- 
sideration], and accepted (it), Srosh the righteous ! the handsome, 
triumphant Srosh, the righteous ! (134) consecrated water is to 
be carried forth to the firej thou shouldst carry forth hard 
firewood to the fire, (and) thou shouldst carry forth sweet- 
scented incense to the fire. (135) The fire Va?isht is to be 
propitiated, which smites the demon Spenjagar. (136) Cooked 
food is to be carried forth, full of dried sugar-plums.? 

41. (137) Thou shouldst propitiate Srosh the righteous ; (138) 
Srosh the righteous who destroys the demons, who are stupid, 
drunk, and causelessly drunk, [that is, drunk without wine]. 
(139) He hurls them down to the Pruj of Ask^n,^ the wicked 
(and) the idolaters, the wien who are polluters, back to VJzarsh 
the demon.* 

44. (140) (The evil spirit exclaimed) thus : Why do we 
assemble in an assembly, O wicked demons astute in evil ! on 
the summit of Arezur 1 ^ [that is, when we go b^ck wh^t Report 
{srdldh) do we carry back ?] 

45. (141) They rushed and they shouted the cries of demons, 
they became worse about the matter, the demons, tjie wicked 
ones astute in evil.^ . . . (142) (For) this we assemble vo, ap 
assembly on the summit of Arezur. 

' Meaning the three nights after a ^ The oldest reading is di'Hj-i as- 

death, during which ceremonies in kdno, but the meaning is uncertain, 

honour of Srosh are to be performed. It seems to be merely a transcript of 

After the third day and night cere- the Avesta drujaskan&m. 

monies commence in honour of the * The word daiv6 (which although 

Arcj^ Sravard or righteous guardian in Avesta letters seems to belong to 

angels The word meaning "the the Pahlavi text) is omitted by Spie- 

three nights " is traditionally pro- gel. A long passage (see pp. 336, 337) 

nounced sed6sh or sadis (see Mainy6- is here omitted in the old MSS. with 

i-khard xxi. lo ; Ixiii. 7), and is the Pahlavi translation. This omis- 

sometimes confounded with Srosh ; sion has evidently been caused by the 

but it seems to be nothing but sai^^A, loss of a folio in some original MS., 

" a triplet," (compare Pers. satil). whence they hare all descended. 

2 The oldest reading looks like JartJ ° Seep. 337, note 9. 

ihashdqi shakarpdk, but should pro- ^ Two clauses of this sentence (see 

bably be read bard khushkirj, shakar- p. 337) r\re omitted in the old Pahlavi 



46. (143) Because the righteous Zaratiislit is born in the 
dwelling of P6rushasp. (144) Where (can) we procure his 
death ? for he is the smiter of the demons, and he is the adver- 
sary of the demons. (145) He restrains the destroyer from de- 
stroying, [that is, he takes away his oppressiveness], he puts 
down idolatry, [that is, he makes (it) powerless]. (146) He 
proclaims avoidance of the corruption ^m.s'aslC) produced by the 
demons; the falsehoods of Mttdhht (the liar) he also makes 

47- (147) The demons shouted, the demons fled, the wicked 
ones astute in evil, to the bottom of the world of darkness which 
is the grievous ^ hell, and back to constant smoke. 

9. — Pdldavi Yeiididad XX. 
I. (i) ZaratHsht inquired of Auharmazd, &c. (as in Vend, 
xviii. (21), p. 367, to) righteous one ! Who was the first of the 
men who are careful ones,2 [who know well how to take care of 
the body, such as Spendy^d ; ^ some say that a sword * made no 
effect upon (him)], (2) (who are) accomplished ones, [sages, such 
as KM- Us], (3) (who are) willing ones, [such as Jamshid], (4) 
(who are) fortunate ones, [and powerful ones, such as Patsr6b],^ 

(5) (who are) brilliant ones, [and skilful ones, such as Zaratlisht], 

(6) (who are) valiant ones, [such as KeresSspa], (7) (who are) 
those of the early law (peshddddn), [such as H6shdng ; this early 
law was this, that he first set going the law of sovereignty], (8) 
(and) by whom disease was kept ° to disease, and death was kept 
to death by him, [that is, they could not escape from his con- 
trol {band)\ ; (9) he kept (back) the drawn dagger,'' [that is, it 
was stopped by him on the way], (10) and the scorching of fire 
was kept by him away from the bodies of men? 

' Beading atrang ; compare Pers. ' Traditionally identified with Kai- 

drang. The Dasturs prefer reading Kh(lsr6, but this seems only a guess. 

atrdg, which they translate "stink- It is more probable that P^t-khftsro 

ing." is meant, who is said to have been a 

^ Said to mean those rendered se- brother of Visht&sp in the Pahlavi 

cure or invulnerable by means of ShahnS,mah. 

spells. ^ Beading ddsht in all the phrases 

' The Pahlavi form of Isfendy^r, a (as suggested by Dastur Hoshangji) 

son of Vishtisp, who conquered Ar- instead of the ash ddd of the MSS. ; 

jfep. the Pahlavi letters being the same in 

•* Or a battle-axe, according as we both oases, 

compare HsA with Pers. tish, or ttshah. ' This is merely a guess. 


2. (i i) And AAliarniazd said to him thus : Srit ^ was the first, 
SpitamS,n Zaratlisht ! of the men who are careful ones, &c. (as 
in (i-io) above), (a) That is, Srlt of the Simins, not Srlt of 
the SSrj^ns,^ (at) the place where he had come he was able to 
act. (6) Some say that he was Yim, and his Sritship was this, 
that he was the third riiler.^ 

3. (12) He begged (and) obtained a weapon ((eMichlhar) from 
Shahrivar, [(a) some say that it was obtained through Shahrivar, 
so that its top (and) bottom might be bound with gold],* (13) 
for withstanding disease, for withstanding death, for withstand- 
ing pain, for withstanding fever, (14)^ . . • for withstanding 
aghish " the putrid, the disfigurer, tbe malignant eye which the 
evil spirit formed in the bodies of men ; [every one is good as to 
bis own (and) evil as to others]. 

4. (ig) Tben I who am Auharm.izd brought forth healing 
plants; (16) many and many hundreds, and many and many 
thousands, and many and many myriads ; (17) and therewith 
one G6keren6, the Homa which is vvhite.^ 

5. (18) The inviter to work of every kind, the commander 
(and) Dastur of every kind, the possessor of every kind of bless- 
ing, [that is, it provides healthiness of life], for the bodies of 

7. (19) Disease ! I say unto thee : Flee away ! Pain ! I say 

' The Avesta Thrita, see pp. 178, angel who has special charge of all 

277. metals. 

2 So spelt in the old MS. in Lon- ■' The names of eight diseases are 
don ; later MSS. alter it into SSr- here left untranslated by the Pahlavi 
z&n. The nearest Avesta equiva- version. 

lent appears to be the sarejdoi Yas. * The name of this disease or evil is 

xxix. 3 ; but perhaps the allusion is written , in Avesta characters, aghdish 

to Thritfi aSv6-saredh6 in Yasht xiii. here and in (24), and dghishin (20), in 

125, as Serjdri can also be read ^sarjdn^ the old MS. in London, 

and the Pahlavi ch=j is a letter of ' This is the tree of life which is 

practically the same form as the Av. said to grow in the sea Vouru-kasha, 

dh. where it is carefully preserved from 

3 This is an attempt to connect the the evil spirit, in order that it may 
name Thrita with Av. thrltya, " third," furnish immortality at the end of the 
As H6shfi,ng has already been men- world. See Bundahish (p. 42, W. ). 
tioned as the first sovereign (see (7) ^ Verse 6, which is a repetition of 
above) Yima would be, of course, the (13) and (14), is not translated in the 
third. Pahlavi version. 

* Because Shahrivar is the arch- 


unto thee ; Flee away ! and Fever ! I say unto thee : Flee away I 
(20)1 . . . AghishI I say unto thee : Flee away ! 

8. (21) What is vanquished by the vigour of that Homa is the 
DrUj, and the vigour of that Druj is vanquished (by) its re- 
sources. (2 2) What is the strength of its dominion is I who am 

9. (23)' ... I counteract disease, I counteract death, I coun- 
teract pain, I counteract fever, (24)* ... I counteract agUsh 
the putrid, the disfigurer, the malignant eye, which the evil 
spirit formed in the bodies of men, [every one is good as to his 
own (and) evil as to others]. 

10. (25) I counteract every disease and death, every sorcerer 
and witch, and every wicked courtezan. 

11. (26) The longing for Airman* is for me the arrival of 
ioy, [that is, it is necessary for thee to come with joy], (and) 
they compel (him) to act for the men and women of Zaratusht. 
(27) Vohuman is joyful, [that is, it is necessary for thee also to 
come, that they may compel thee to act with joy]. He who is 
desirous of religion becomes worthy, with the reward here (in 
this world) and that also there (in the other world). (28) The 
reverent supplication for righteousness is Ashavahisht, [that is, 
my reverence is through him] ; may he become the dignity of 
Auharmazd, [the mobadship of the mobads]. 

12. (29) The longing for Airman destroys every disease and 
death, every sorcerer and witch, and every wicked courtezan. 

III.— Notes Descriptive of some Parsi Ceremonies. 

These notes were written by the author in German, merely as 
memoranda of what he noticed during the performance of the 
ceremonies, and of such information as the priests communi- 
cated. It is to be regretted that the author confined his notes 
almost entirely to the ceremonies connected with the celebration 

i The exorcism of the eight other verses (g-ia, W.) of this fargard occur 

diseases is here left untranslated by again as the conclusion of each of the 

the Pahlavi version, as in (14). fargards xxi. and xxii. 

2 The Avesta of the latter part of * The names of the eight diseases, 

this verse is a paraphrase of Yas. omitted in {14) and (20) are here again 

xxzi. ij:. l^f' untranslated by the Pahlavi ver- 

2 The names of four other diseases sion. 
or evils are here left untrinslated by ^ The angel Airyaman, see p. 273. 
the Pahlavi version. The concluding 


of the Yasna or Ijashne ; but he probably relied upon Anqnetil'a 
description of the commoner ceremonies being a sufficient me- 
morandum, as he had found his statements quite correct on such 
matters (see p. 25). 

The editor's revision of these notes has been confined to such 
further explanation as seemed necessary for making the rough 
memoranda intelligible to the reader. If any Parsi priest should 
notice errors in these notes, he will confer a favour by pointing 
them out in a letter to the editor through the publishers. 

I. — The Geremony preparatory to Ijashne. 

This preparatory ceremony is called pa>-p'a?inaA or paragnah, 
and commences with the arrangement of the various ceremonial 
vessels and materials in the arvts-gdh or ceremonial area. This 
arrangement is shov?n upon p. 395. 

The ceremonial vessels and apparatus are made of metal, 
generally brass or copper, but more valuable metals can be used. 
They consist of several round-bottomed cups (about the siae of 
tea-cups) and saucer-like dishes, besides other vessels of a more 
special character. 

The fire burns on a bed of ashes in a vase-like vessel placed 
on a stone near the southern end of the Arvjs-g&h where the 
Rathwi (RUspi) or assistant priest is stationed, facing the Zota 
or chief officiating priest, who sits cross-legged on a low stone 
platform near the northern end of the Arvts-g^h, but facing 
the fire. Both priests wear close-fitting trousers instead of the 
usual loose pyjamas, so as to avoid touching any of the appara- 
tus vrith their clothes ; they also wear the pendm or mouth-.veil 
(see p. 243, note i). 

Some spare ahma or firewood (in the form of chips of sandal- 
wood) and bdi or incense (benzoin) are laid alongside the fire to 
the E&spi's left ; and small fire tongs and an incense ladle are 
similarly laid to his right. 

The Zota has a supply of water in a large metal water-vessel 
to his right, which also contains the pestle and strainer for the 
Honia ; and before him the remaining apparatus is arranged on 
a low stone platform called the takht-i dldt. Besides the cups 
and saucers mentioned above, the following apparatus (p. 396) 
stands on this platform. 





R&s^A!^ station. 



Fire in a vase 
on a stone. 

Spare firewood 
and incense. 








and butter 



in cnp with 


saucer cover. 

Homa and 
twig saucer. 

Horn a 

juice cup. 

Viiras cup 
with cover. 



Zor cup. 


laid on 



ts stands, saucer 

ZoT cnp. 

and pestle. 

ZoUjCs seat. 



The harsom-ddn or stand for the Barsom, consisting of two 
separate stands with upright stems and creseent-shaped tops, 
hence called TO(J/i-riJ, "moon-faced." The Barsom, when arranged, 
is laid resting on the two crescents. The Mrd-i barsom-cMn, or 
knife for cutting the Barsom, &c., is also laid on the taiht. 

The hdvanim or Homa mortar is generally shaped like a wine- 
glass, with foot and stem, but much larger ; and the pestle or 
dastaJi, chisel-shaped at one end, is kept till wanted on one side 
in the large water-vessel. The Homa strainer or tasMa hd- 
s&rdkh is one of the saucers with nine small holes, arranged 
diamond- fashion about half an inch apart, in its bottom ; this 
also lies on one side in the water-vessel. 

The dardn (draona) or ceremonial wafer-bread is a small, 
tough, flexible pancake (about the sis:e of the palm of the hand), 
made of wheaten flour and water, with a little melted butter (ffM), 
and fried. Afrasast is a similar pancake marked on one side, 
before frying, with nine superficial cuts (in three rows of three 
each) made with the finger-nail while repeating the words humat 
h-Alcht huvarsM thrice, one word to each of the nine cuts. Any 
Dariln or Frasast that is torn must not be used in any ceremony. 
A small piece of butter, called gdush-hudhdo, generally accom- 
panies the Darlin. Other ceremonial apparatus is suflSciently 
explained in the fDllowing notes. 

The aiivynonhanem is the girdle or tie with which the Barsom 
is to be tied together. It is prepared from a leaflet of the date- 
palm, which is cut from the tree by the priest after he has poured 
consecrated water over his hand, the knife, and the leaflet.i 
When brought to the Arvis-g&h in the water-goblet the leaflet is 
split longitudinally into thread-like ribbons. Six of these leafy 
threads are then laid together, three one way and three the 
other,^ and are all tied together in a knot at one end. One tri- 
plet is then twisted tightly together with a right-handed twist, 
and the other triplet with a left-handed twist, so that when laid 
together the two triplets twist together into a single string, by 
]iartially untwisting, and they are then secured together by a 

^ A twig is out in the same manner ' That is, the ends belonging to the 

from a pomegranate bush to form the base of the leaflet are at one end of 

urvaram. And the Barsom twigs one triplet, and at the other end of 

were also similarly cut in former the other triplet, 
times, before metal wires were used. 


knot at tlie other end. The Aiwyionhanem is now ready for 
use, and is laid upon the Barsom-dSn. 

The varasa consists of three, five, or seven hairs from the tail 
of a white bull, which are tied to a gold ^ ring, as large as a 
thumb-ring. The ring has a gap in its circumference, as the 
metal wire of which it is formed does not quite meet. This 
Varasa, when once prepared, can be used as long as the bull 
lives, whose hair has been taken. But as often as it is used it 
must be consecrated by the recital of the looi names of God, 
that is, by ten repetitions of the loi names, which are all that 
are now known. 

The zaothra or Zor is water consecrated in the following man- 
ner : — The priest takes two metal cups in his hands, and recites 
ashem-vohu thrice, fravardne (Yas. iii. 24,, to) frasastai/aicha, 
aiwyd vanuMbi/d (as in Frag. vii. i, p. 333, W. to) frasastayaecha, 
and yailid aML vairyd (Yas. iii. 25, omitting W.'s second line). 
Then reciting the words frd te staomaide he fills both cups with 
water, and continues reciting yathd ahU vairyd twice, yasnemcha 
vahmemcha aojascha zavarecha dfrin&mi (Yasht i. 23), and 
aiwyd vanuhibyd (as before, to) twva ahurdne ahuraM. These 
last three words must be recited twice, once aloud and once mut- 
tered as a hdj. The water is now Zpr, and the cups are placed 
on the talcht, one over the other, with a saucer between them. 

The Barsom consists of a number of slender rods or tdt, for- 
merly twigs of some particular trees, but now thin metal wires 
are generally used. The number of these tdt depends upon 
the nature of the ceremony to be celebrated. For Ijashne 
(yazishn) alone 21 tdt are required, for Ijashne with Veudidad 
and Visparad ^;i tdt, for Yasht-i Kapithwin 13 tdt, for Darun 
Baj five tdt, or bcven when a priest becomes a herbad.^ Besides 
these tdt, which form the actual Barsom, two other tdt are re- 
quired, one to lie across the saucer which contains the milk or 
ffdush jtvya, and the other to lie on the projecting feet of the 

1 Or silver, copper, or brass. from any tree whose trunk is sound, 
^ According to other information and that they should be from one to 
the Dartm Bij requires seven t&t of three spans in length and a barley- 
double thickness, or nine if performed corn in thickness, and their number 
in the house of a king or chief high- either 3, s, 7, 9, 12, 15, 21, 33, 69, or 
priest. In the Nirangistan it is started 551, according to the circumstanons of 
that the Barsom twigs may be out the ceremony. 


two mdh-rH which form the Barsom-dan ; the first of these 1M is 
called t\x&jiv&m, the other the fr&sfdm. At first the Fragam is 
laid at one end of the bundle of tdt forming the Barsom, so that 
it projects beyond the rest, as the priest takes the bundle in his 
left hand and the Jtvam in his right ; the Aiwyaonhem being 
laid upon the two mdhrr'A. The priest then recites ashem vohu 
thrice, fravardn^ (Yas. iii. 24, to) frasastayaecha, khshathraM, 
&c. (Siroz. i. 4),^ khshnaothra yasndiclia vahmdicha Tchshnao- 
ihrdicka frasastayaecha, y. a. v.^ (Yas. iii. 25, omitting W.'s 
second line, to) mraoM, ashem a. v.,^ y. a. v. twice, yasnemcha 
(Yt. i. 23, to) dfrindmi, khshathraliM, &c. (Siroz. i. 4), a. v. 
thrice, and fravardne (Yas. iii. 24, to) frasastayaecha. Then 
while reciting the words AhuraM mazddo raevatd qarenanhatd 
the priest proceeds to tie the Barsom together with the Aiwyaon- 
banem in the following manner : — The Jivam being held in his 
right hand, and the FragSm projecting from the Barsom held in his 
left hand, he prepares to pass the Aiwyaonhanem thrice round 
the middle of the Barsom and to tie it with knots, in the same 
way as the kusti or sacied thread-girdle is secured round the 
waist of a Parsi man or woman.* But, first, the above formulas, 
from khshnaothra to mraot-A, must be again recited, and then 
ashem a. v. thrice.^ Each time the words ashem ashem vohu are 
uttered the Barsom must be dipped in water and again taken 
out. This water, which is not Zor, and will be used in the Homa 
ceremony, is called apem Ivaomyam. The Barsom is now tied 
together with two double knots in the Aiwyaonhem, one .above 
and the other below, while reciting y. a. v. twice ; and the two 

1 Formerly, before wires *ere ilsed, And the ends passed round the waist 

only the words AhuraM mazddo ra£- by the hands meeting behind, ohaBg- 

vaid qarenanjiald were used. ing ends there, and bringing them 

" Henceforth yathd ahU vait'yS will round again to the front, so that the 

be contracted into y. a. v. , and ashem string has then twice encircled the 

vohu into a. v. In all cases the whole waist. The long hanging ends are 

formula is to be understood, when it is then tied loosely together in front, 

not otherwise stated. first with a right-handed knot and 

3 "Wherever ashem a. v. is used it then with a, left-handed knot ; and 

indicates that the first word (asJiem) the long loose ends are finally passed 

of the formula is spoken twice. backwards, the third time round the 

* This is done as follows : — The waist, and tied again behind with a 

middle of the string, beingtaken in the similar double knot, 

hands, is applied to the waist (outside ^ Formerly, four times, 
the aadarah or muslin shirt) in front. 


projecting ends are cut to an equal length with the knife, each 
time reciting y. a. v., and a single knot is tied in each end; after 
these two y. a. v. must follow yasnemcha, &c. (as before). The 
priest then saj-s Ahurahe mazddo raevato aloud, and lays the 
properly-arranged Barsom on the two MUh-rfi while muttering 
the same words as a Bij. After the Barsom is thus laid on the 
Barsom-dan he takes out the Fr4gS,m, and lays it upon the pro- 
jecting feet of the two M^h-rli. 

The Homa twigs must next be purified. These twigs are 
brought from Iran by traders, and are, therefore, considered 
impure until they have been purified, laid aside for a year, and 
again purified. The purification is accomplished by water and 
formulas. The priest takes the Homa twig (one is sufficient) in 
his right hand, holding a copper goblet of water, in his left, from 
which he pours water, at intervals, over the twig as he thrice 
recites Idishnaoihra AhuraM mazddo, &c., and a. v. He then 
takes the Jiv&m in his left hand and recites a. v, thrice, frava- 
rdne (Yas. iii. 24, to) frasastaya&cha, haomaM ashavazanhd 
(Yas. X. I, but only these two words), kltshnaothra, <fec. (as in 
p. 398, lines 8-10 above, to) mraot-d, and asliem a. v. thrice, each 
time dipping the Jiv^m and Homa, which he holds one in each 
hand, into the water. Tben follow y. a. v. twice, yasnemcha 
(Yt. i. 23, to) dfrtndmi, and haomahe ashavazanhd; these last 
two words must be first spoken aloud, and then repeated in a 
low voice as a BSj. The Homa twig is now laid in its place, in 
a metal saucer on the talcht. 

The priest takes three small pieces of the Homa and one of 
the Urvaram (the hadhdnaipal&m or pomegranate twig), and 
lays them on the HS,vanim or Homa mortar which is placed, 
upside down, upon the takht. When the Varasa is to be laid in 
its place, in a cup on the tahhij after being consecrated, it must 
be held below between the fingers. 

The Homa juice is now to be prepared. The priest takes the 
Varasa and JlvS,m ^ in his hands, and recites a. v. thrice, frava- 
rdnS (to) frasastayaecha, and Zarathushtrahe SpitdmaM (to) 
mraotd. He then dips the Varasa into a cup full of water, 
utters the word ashem twice (once aloud and once in a low voice 
as a Baj), and then lays the Varasa in its proper place. 
1 Some call this the Zor tdt. 


The priest then recites Yas. xxiv. 1-9 as far as the words 

manarihd shhyanti, but he must omit the clause containing the 

words gam jtvyam (in vers, i and 6), because the milk is not yet 

in its place on the talcM. He must then recite ydoacha uiti 

(Yas. iv. 4-8, to) rdmand qdstrahe, and next invoke the angels 

of the day and the month in which the ceremony is being cele^ 

brated ; for instance, if the ceremony be performed on the day 

of Spendarmad in the month of Ardibahisht, he must recite 

spentayAo vanhuydo drmaldish y. v. hh.f. dad dish dvaedhayamahi, 

and then ashahe vahishtahe sraeshtaM y. v, kh. f. dad disk 

dvaedhayamahi. Then follow tava dthrd (Yas. iv. 17-22, to) 

dad dish dvaiJhayamahi, Zarathushtrahe (Yas. iv. 23, to) dad 

d. d., asliaonam (Yas. iv. 24, to) dad d. d., vispaeiby6 vaiihvr 

dhdhyd (Yas. iv. 25, to) vahishidd, and Yas. xxv. 1-3. (omitting 

the clause containing the words gam jivyam in ver. i, as before). 

While reciting the words ameshd spentd (Yas, xxv. i), the priest 

knocks the H&vanim thrice upon the tahht ; at the words imeia 

haomem ashaya uzddtem yazamaide he puts the small pieces of 

the Homa twig into the Havauimi, and at the words imamchd 

urvaram hadhdnaepatam he puts in the small piece of the 

Urvaram (the dirakht-i and)- or pomegranate twig). He pours 

a little of the consecrated water from the upper Zor cup into the 

HS.vanlm while uttering the words aiwyd iianuhihyd imdo 

zaothrdo (ifec, to) yaz.; and alsa more water (apem haomyam) 

from the large vessel to his right (which contains the pestle and 

strainer) while uttering the words aiwyd vanuhihyd apemclia 

haomyam yaz. After Yas. xxv. 3, there follows ZarathuslilraM 

(Yas. xxvi. 5, to) yaz., on the recitation of which the priest bows 

to the Varasa, He then takes the strainer out of the water in 

the large vessel to his right, and places it upon a cup (the Homa- 

juice cup) before him while reciting irlatanam urvand (Yas. 

xxvi. It, to) fravashayd, followed by y^nht Mlam (&c., to) 

tdoschd yaz.^ Then, while reciting athd ratush ashddcMd hachd 

frd ashava lAdhvAo mraotd, he takes the pestle out of the water, 

holding it so us to touch, with the lower part of its side, the 

north-eastern part of the rim of the large water-vessel, and 

1 ■WlienKSrang-clin{o'te&)or Var- incense lyirg near the fire is now 

asa is to be prepared (each of which thrown into it. This is not done, 

requires a formal Ijashne with Homa), however, in the ordinary Ijaslme. 
a small ijiece of the sandal-wood and 


passes it all round ia contact with the rim (N. W. S. E.) to the 
same point again. With the pestle in his hand he recites aUad 
(Yas, xxvii i, to) datsdydi ahUmcha (he knocks the lower end of 
the pestle on the takht) ratilmcka (he knocks its upper 
end on the fahM) yim Ahurem mazddm (he bows to the fire). 
Continuing the recitation of Yas. xxvii. i, the Devas are 
beaten by striking sonorous blows with the pestle on the outside 
of the mortar in the following manner : — With a blow on the 
eastern side he recites snath&i Ai).raM mainyeush drvatS, with a 
blow on the southern side he recites snatli&i AhhmaM hhrvt- 
draosh, with a blow on the western side he recites snathdi 
Mdzainyanam da^vanam, with a blow on the northern side he 
recites snathdi vtspandm daivanam, with three more blows on the 
northern side he recites daevanam varenyanamcfta drvatam. The 
priest then recites in a low voice, as a B^j, the P^zand formula 
shihasfa Gand-mainy6, &c.} and fradaihdi ahuroM (Yas. xxvii. 
2, to) aslMondm aloud, and then begins to pound the Homa and 
Urvaram in the mortar while reciting y. a. v. four times ; dur- 
ing the first three he pounds with the pestle on the bottom of 
the mortar, but during the fourth he strikes it against the sides, 
so as to produce a ringing sound. He continues the same prac- 
tice during four recitations of mazdd ad mdi (Yas. xxxiv. 15, to) 
uhdm, and four recitations of d Airyemd ishyt (Yas. liv. i, to) 
mxjbzddo, pounding on the bottom during the first three, and 
against the sides, with a ringing sound, during the fourth. He 
next takes the upper Zor cup in his hand, recites a. v. thrice, 
and pours a little Zor into the mortar each time he utters the 
word ashem. Then, he recites haoma pairi-hareshyante (Yas. 
xxvii. 6, 7, to) vadmm in eleven portions ; during the recital of 
each portion he passes the pestle once round (N. W. S. E.) in 
contact with the inside of the mortar rim. He then takes the 
fragments of Homa and Urvaram out of the mortar, and, holding 
them between his fingers and thumb, he touches with them the 
Barsom at the word otM (Yas. xxvii. 7), the saucer for the milk 
at the words it tie, the Homa cup at the word humdyQ, the 
Arvls-gS,h at the word tara, and throws them back into the 
mortar at the word anhen. He next takes the upper Zor cup in 

1 Some Mobads repeat the formula 3 the mortar; but they strike them 
for beating Angr5-mainyush and the while reciting the formula /ratoSdi, 
Devas without striking blows upon &c. {Yas. xxvii. 2). 

2 G 


his left hand, and continues to pound the Homa with his right 
hand, while reciting four the following manner: — During 
the first y. a. v. at the word oiM he pours a little Zor into the 
mortar with his left hand, and continues to pound with his 
right ; at the word yim he passes the pestle once round (as 
before) in contact with the inside of the mortar rim; and at 
the last word, vdstdrem, he pours the, whole contents of the 
mortar (Homa, Urvaram, and water) into the strainer, whence 
all the liquid portion of the contents runs through into the 
Homa-juice cup below it (see p. 400, line 30). The solid por- 
tion remaining in the strainer is then thrown back into the 
mortar, and the pounding is resumed while the second y. a. v. is 
recited to the word ashdd, when more Zor is poured into the 
mortar and the after proceedings are similar to those connected 
with the first y. a. v. A similar routine is adopted in connection 
with the third and fourth y. a. v., the Zor being poured into the 
mortar at the word hacM in the third, and at the word dazdd in 
the fourth. By means of these four successive dilutions, pound- 
ings, and strainings, all the properties of the Homa juice are 
supposed to be extracted. The solid remains of the twigs, out 
of which the liquid has been well squeezed by the fingers in the 
strainer, are laid aside to dry thoroughly,^ and the pestle is 
washed and returned to its place. 

The priest then takes the strainer off the Homa-juice cup 
while reciting ye sevisMd (Yas. xxxiii. 11, to) paitt thrice, and at 
the final repetition the last words, dddi JcahydioMd paitt, must be 
recited thrice. The strainer is now washed and laid upon the 
mortar ; the Varasa is put into the strainer so that the knots in 
the hairs are upwards, and the priest recites xis mdi uzdresJivA 
(YaSi xxxiii; 12—14, to) Iclisliathremchd, followed by a. v. twice, 
once aloud and once in a low voice as a B^j. He then pours 
all the Zor which remains in the upper Zor cup into the strainer, 
through which it runs into the mortar ; and the upper Zor cup 
is then placed near the lower one, instead of over it as hereto- 
fore. He next takes the strainer, containing the Varasa, in his 
right hand, and the Homa-juice cup in his left, and proceeds to 
recite Tiumata hUhhta livarshta in a low voice, as a B&j. When 

' "When thol:oughly dry, thej' are put into the Are at the tiMe of Atash, 


be mutters the word humata he pours a few drops of the Homa 
juice through the strainer on to the Arvis-g&h ; when he mutters 
the word liUhhta he puurs a few drops, in a similar manner, into 
the upper Zor cup, which has just been emptied ; when he 
mutters the word livarshta he pours a few drops, in a similar 
manner, into the mortar ; and he does this thrice. The Homa- 
juice cup is now put in its proper place, the strainer containing 
the Varasa is placed upon it, all the liquid in the mortar is 
poured into the strainer, through which it flows into the Homa- 
juice cup, and the mortar is put into its proper place. The 
gduslv-jtvya or milk-saucer is also put into its proper place near 
the two Mih-rli. The priest then takes the Varasa in his left 
hand and recites y. a. v. twice, yasnemcha (Yt. i. 23, to) dfri- 
nami, and Zcurathushtrahe Spitdmahe ashaond fravasKee twice, 
once aloud and once in a low voice. He then, dips the Varas.a 
into the Zor, and puts it into its proper place. The strainer is 
also put back into the large water-vessel, and the Jivim is laid 
upon the milk saucer. '^ The priest must now leave the Arvts-ffdh 
and go outside, reciting a. v. once, ahmdi raeshcha (Yt. i. 33), 
hazarprem, jasa me, and kerfe mozda (Piz.). He must then per- 
form the Kusti ceremony, and the preparatory ceremonial is 

2. — The Ijashne Ceremony. 

After the Paragnah is completed, the Zota and E^spi go to the 
tahht on which all the necessary things (Homa juice, &c.) have 
been placed, and each of them repeats a. v. once ; that is, they 
take the Bfij inwardly in this manner. They then recite y. a. v. 
several times, the number depending upon the nature of the 
Ijashne. If it be celebrated for Eapithwin, twelve are necessary; 
if for Hormazd, ten ; if for the Frohara, eight ; if for Srosh, 
five ; and if for all the Yazads, seven. 

The Zota then takes the consecrated watei: in his hand, and 
goes to the stone on which the fire-vase stands, whei:e he recites 
nemase tt dtarsh (Atash Ny^yish 4, to) yazata, a. v., and washes 
the stone, walking round it ; he then Washes his hands (by pour- 
ing the water over them) and returns to his place. 

He then mutters humata h'A'khta hvarshta in a low voice, as a 
BSj, and announces for whom the Ijashne is being Celebrated by 

1 If any incense happens to be at hand, it may now be thrown into the fire. 


reciting m TchshnHman (of so-and-so) he rasM (&c., to) patit hom. 
Then follow /ms^Mye (Yas. xi. 17, 18), a. v. thrice, anA framrdne, 
&c. ; then the hhshnuman (according to the SIrozah) of each of 
the angels in whose honour the Ijaahne is being celebrated ; then 
y-. a. V. (&c.,, as in Tas. iii. 25, omitting W.'s second line) ; and 
then a. v. thrice, and y. a. v. four times ; the last time the final 
words, dadad vd