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!•''••'     »     ■*    »    »     •     »  '   ^    , 
•  -  •  •       •  '  •    .      ••'•*••  ;i  , 

■,    »»»  !»»»  »•*  ' 

•  •       •   < 

•        -•      •  ....  .  •  ■       ,        ,       , 

.    »  t  t    J    «   t        (  u    •* 

EDWARD:  gAffiOUS,  L  R.  C.  S.  E., 





VOL.  IV. 





r     •       '. 

■i  V.  /.    : 


«   -  •   #       / 

«  •  •      • 

\*  ' 




)  I 


/.'  ». 

■<rO  '';■ 


N,  the  fourteenth  letter  of  the  English  alpha- 
bet, is  a  nasal  conaonant,  and  its  sound  is  ob- 
tuned  by  placing  the  tongue  against  the  palate 
and  erpelling  the  breath  through  the  nostrils. 
Its  principal  sound  is  that  heard  in  bun,  done, 
but  when  followed  by  g  or  Ar,  it  takes 


other  sounds  as  in  singer,  finger,  brink.  When 
final  afier  m,  it  is  silent,  condemn.  In  the 
Nagari  alphabet  there  are  fbiir  symbols  for  n, 
the  sounds  of  all  of  which  occur  in  the  English, 
althoDgh  not  represented  in  it  by  separate  let- 
tezs,  chiefly  caused  by  the  preceding  or  follow- 
ing letter.  There  is  an  n  in  the  Tamil  tongue 
wi^  a  dental  nasal  soimd,  and  in  Hindustani, 
Giuerathi  andMahrati,  there  is  a  nasal,  usually 
a  final,  although  sometimes  a  medial,  which  is 
scarcely  sounded,  although  it  gives  a  nasal 
sound  to  the  preceding  vowel. 

NA  also  Sua,  Tib.  A  wild  sheep  of  La^ 
dak.  Vigne  calls  it  of  the  size  of  an  ordinary 
sheep,  of  a  duD  brownish  gray  colour  with  cur- 
ved, smooth,  and  four  sided  horns. , ,  ft  is,  called, 
by  de  Koros,  a  large  sheep-hlre^eef*  AMajor-' 
Cunningham  supposes  it  the  same*  dd  the  Nahur 
of  Nepal,  the  Ovis  nahur.  *'!!   \*\\  * 

NAA,  a  very  hard,  fine,  close-graihed; ,  And, 
very  ponderous  Ceylon  wood,        ^     !:''.!'•    '. 

NAAD,  a  district.     See  KoranSbat;  l^gSdl  *  /• 

NAAF,  a  river  of  Chittagong. 

NAAKUT-MIN,    Tax.    Pleuronectes  solea. 

NAAT  or  Nat,  Tam.  Anything  relating  to 
a  locality  or  district.     See  Nad. 

NAAT  CARD  AST,     Tak,    Country  paper. 


NABALUS  CURTA,  see  Naia. 

NABAR.  Hbtd.    Ribes  leptostachyum. 

NABAT-SI,  the  ancient  people  of  Petra  in 

NABATI.  Hun).  Pale  brown  color,  like  sugar. 

NABHA  territory,  Ci8-Sutlej,ha8  an  area  of 
863  sq.  m.,  a  population  of  276,000  souls,  and 
a  revenue  of  four  lakhs.  The  chief  is  of  the 
same  stock  as  the  maharajahs  of  Patiala  and 
Jheend,  but  is  the  elder  branch  of  the  family. 
The  &mily  behaved  iU  in  the  Sikh  war  of  1846-6 
but  did  well  in  the  revolt  of  1857  and  were  re- 
warded by  a  grant  of  land  out  of  the  Jhujjur 

NABHA  JI,  see  Bhakta  mala. 

NABHAT.  Pers.     Candy. 

NABHAY.     Odinawodier. 

NABLOOS  or  Naplouse,  as  the  French  wrjte 
it,  18   the  Arabic  attempt    to  pronounce    the 


Greek  name  Neapolis,  the  "  new  city,"  the  title 
given  to  the  old  Canaanite  town  of  Shechem 
when  it  was  restored  or  rebuilt,  probably 
during  Vespasian's  reign. 

NABON,  see  Ears. 

NABONASSAR.  A  prince  of  Babylon,  un- 
der whose  reign  astronomical  studies  were  much 
advanced  in  Chaldea.  The  first  day  of  the  era 
which  he  established  was  Wednesday  the  26th 
February  747  b.  c.  He  is  known  to  the  Arabs 
and  in  mahomedan  literature  as  Bukht  oon 
Nasr.  The  era  of  Nabonassar,  1st  king  of  the 
Chaldd&ans  falls  on  Wednesday  26th  February 
A.  A.  c.  747.  Its  year  was  of  365  days,  with- 
out any  intercalary  day  on  the  4th  year.  The 
Arabic  name  is  not  very  dissimilar  to  that  used 
by  the  Hebrews,  but  Bakht-un-nasr  is  that  by 
which  the  Arabs,  Turks  and  Persians  designate 
this  king  of  the  Assyrians  and  Babylon.  But 
Oriental  historians,  and  partictdarly  the  Per- 
sians also  style  him  Raham,  also  Gudarz. 
jyHerhelot^  tome  3,  p.  1  ;  MigncnCs  TravelSj 
^^i^H^y  See  Sennacherib  ;   Nineveh. 

'•'NABOPOLASSAR,  the  father  of  Nebuchad- 
'nfelffiar,  became  the  Assyrian  satrap  of  Baby- 
'Xt9zt,  in  the  123rd  year  of  Nabonassar.  Sar- 
^capalus,  king  of  Assyria,  commanded  him 
W  march  against  the  Medes  who  had  revolted, 
but  he  allied  himself  with  Cyaxares,  and 
marched  with  him  against  Nineveh,  and  Baby- 
lon became  independent  on  the  destruction  of 
Nineveh  in  B.C.  606. — Bunsen. 

NA-BUG-NYAH,  see  Kashmir. 

NACCINOLE,  also  AveHne,  It.    Hazel  Nut. 

NA'CHAN-GAON,  a  town  in  the  Huzur 
tahsil  of  the  Wardha  district,  lying  two  miles 
to  the  south  of  the  Pulgaon  railway  station, 
and  about  twenty-one  miles  from  Wardha.  It 
is  said  to  be  very  old,  and  parts  of  the  wall 
which  formerly  surrounded  it  still  exist. 

NACHASH,  see  Serpent. 

NACHCHUTEL.Utricularia'fasciculata,  and 
U.  SteUaris  L,—R.  i.  143 ;  Cor.  180. 

NACHEZ,  see  Hindoo. 

NACH'H,Hiin).  A  dance,  also  written  Nautch. 

NACHNI,  Hind.     A  dancing  girl. 

NACHRAVALI,  Tam.  the  Asees,  Husm.  is  a 
form  of  hindu  benediction,  only  bestowed  by 
women  and  priests  :  it  is  performed  by  clasp- 
ing both  hands  over  the  person's  head,  and 
waving  over  him  a  piece  of  silver  or  other  va-. 
luable  which  is  bestowed  in  charity.  The 
Tamil  people  similarly  wave  a  fowl  or  sheep's 

N  1 



head  around  a  sick  man.  This  is  a  very  ancient 
ceremony,  and  is  called  Nachravali.  Col.  Tod 
frequently  had  a  large  salver  filled  with  silver 
coin  waved  over  his  head,  which  was  handed 
for  distribution  amongst  his  attendants.  It  is 
most  appropriate  from  the  ladies  from  whom 
also  he  had  this  performed  by  their  proxies, 
the  &.mily  priest  or  female  attendants.  It  is  also 
a  mahomedan  rite. — ToiTs  Bajasthan  Vol,  i.  p, 
618.     See  Bulain  Lena.  Sacrifice. 

NACHU  TBi».Lemnaorbiculata,  also  Blyxa 
octandra,  Rich, — Vallisneria  octandra,  R.  iii. 
752 ;  Gor,  165.  Also  applied  generally  to 
small  aquatic  plants. 

NACRE,  Fr.  Mother  of  Pearl.  See  Molluscs, 
Mother  o'  Pearl. 

NACSHATRA,  Hnro.  Th&Tyajya  (wrongly 
spelt  Thyajum  and  Thyagum)  ;  that  portion  of 
a  Nacshatra,  which  is  deemed  unlucky,  is 
called  Varjya,  and  the  period  of  its  duration 
is  the  Tyajya. — It  is  called  Devi  when  it  oc- 
curs at  day  time,  and  Ravi  when  at  night. 
It  is  therefore  an  astrological  element :  but  is 
nevertheless  registered  every  day  in  the  Ephe- 
merides  ;  where  the  instant  of  its  commence- 
ment is  registered.  Its  mean  duration  is  about 
4  guddia  (Ih  36'  European  time),  so  that  the 
beginning  being  known,  the  end  may  be  sup- 
ported, with  sufiicient  accuracy  for  practical 
purposes,  without  actual  computation. 

NAD,  Can.     A  territorial  division.  \\ \\\  y\ 

NADANAR  KARU,   an  agricultuB«  hnhif 
of  Mysore,  who  pretend  to  be  pure  sudras.  .••  ; 

NADA    UMDALUM,    a    district    midvayj 
between  Madura  and  the  Pulitaver  country.  .* ./ 

NADA  UN,  see  Jawala  mukhi.  •/  ;•• 

NADDI,  Hind.,  a  river,  a  streamlet.       '   *  * 

NADHYA-DESA,  see  Inscriptions. 

NADI  or  NARI,  Beng.  A  caste  who  make 
ornaments  of  lak  for  mahommedan  women. 

NADIR  SHAH,  a  native  of  Khorasan. 
His  name  was  Tamas  Kuli  Khan.  His 
country  had  been  conquered  in  1722  by  the 
Ghilji,  he  freed  his  country  from  the  Ghilji,  ex- 
pelled the  Turks  and  Russians  from  their  pos- 
sessions and  at  the  request  of  the  people  re- 
sumed the  throne  which  he  had  bestowed  on 
Thamasp,  son  of  Shah  Hussain  the  Sufi 
monarch  of  Persia.  In  1738,  he  commenced 
the  seige  of  Candahar,  but  on  the  emperor  of 
Delhi  refusing  to  restore  some  ftigitives,  he 
crossed  the  Indus  with  65,000  veteran  soldiers  ; 
the  emperor  however  made  his  submission  and 
Nadir  Shah,  in  March  1739,  entered  the  palace 
of  Delhi  with  him.  On  the  following  night  a  feJse 
report  was  raised,  that  Nadir  Shah  had  been 
murdered,  on  which  the  people  of  Delhi  rose 
and  murdered  nearly  1000  of  his  soldiers.  Nadir 
Shah  on  learning  this,  in  the  morning  ordered  a 
general  massacre   of  the  people.     In  this,  8,000 

days  and  he  returned  to  his  country  with  im- 
mense plunder:  Nadir  Shah's  plunder  destroyed 
the  Mogul  empire.  The  Mahrattas,  the  na- 
bob of  the  Carnatic,  the  Asof  Jahi  family  of 
Hyderabad,  the  subadars  of  Bengal  and  Oudh, 
and  the  Jat  of  Bhurtpore,  aU  declared  for  inde- 
pendence and  set  the  imperial  power  at  defiance. 
In  the  fifty-eight  days  that  he  remained,  Nadir 
demolished,  burnt,  and  ransacked  all  Delhi,  and 
undid  the  doings  of  several  hundred  years. 
The  amount  of  booty  that  he  is  said  to  have  car- 
ried oflfis,  by  the  highest  computation,  seventy 
crore,  and  by  the  lowest  thirty-two,  Among 
it  was  the  throne  representing  the  tail  of  a  pea- 
cock displayed,  composed  of  precious  stones, 
which  still  adorns  the  audience  chamber  in  the 
palace  at  Teheran.  Nadir  Shah's  route  into 
India  was  the  ordinary  one,  by  Attock  and 
Lahore,  and  he  retui*ned,  as  appears  by  Abdul 
Karim  and  M.  Otter,  by  nearly  the  same  route; 
save  that  instead  of  crossing  the  Indus  at  Attock, 
he  went  higher  up,  and  passed  the  borders  of 
Sewad,  in  his  way  to  Jalalabad  and  Kabul. 
Ahmed,  styled  khan  or  shah,  king  of  the  Ab- 
dalla  accompanied  Nadir  Shah  to  India  in  1739. 
In  1747,  Ahmed  with  an  army  of  16,000  men 
overran  the  Panjab,  but  at  Sirhind  he  was  met 
and  defeated  by  Ahmed  Shah,  the  son  of  tlie 
emperor  of  Delhi  Mahomed  Shah,  and  he 
returned  to  Afghanistan.  In  1741,  he  returned 
•Jip  I^^^-aliJ  J^ore  and  Multan  were  ceded  to 
&im.V  Me^a^tliiid  time,  invaded  India,  took  and 
pi^^^}qp^ed'39elhi,  but  left  for  his  native  country, 
^fepfeiicfe  'occurring  amongst  his  troops.  He 
ha4*4wlAced  Ghazi-ud-din  from  the  post  of 
.-yVi^&fl^ie- emperor,  and  on  his  withdrawal, 
^Ghdzl-M-difi' obtained  the  aid  of  the  Mah^^attas, 
who  advanced  on  and  captured  Delhi,  re-instated 
Ghazi-ud-din ;  Raghoba,  the  commander  of  the 
Mahrattas,  then  marched  on  Lahore,  defeated 
Timur,  son  of  Ahmed,  and  wrested  Lahore  and 
Multan  from  the  Abdalla.  Ghazi-ud-din  assas- 
inated  the  emperor  Alamgir  in  1759 ;  but  in 
September,  Ahmed  had  again  crossed  the  Indus 
and  invaded  India.  In  1760,  he  overtook  the 
Mahratta  chiefs  and  defeated  them  one  after 
another.  Sada  Siva  Rao,  Bhao,  who  had  re- 
placed Raghoba,  marched  to  meet  Ahmed. 
His  army  was  composed  of  Mahrattas,  Rajput 
cavalry  and  the  Jaundar  Surj  Mull,  the  whole 
numbering  about  270,000.  Surj  Mull  advised 
Sada  Siva  Rao,  Bhao  to  harass  Ahmed.  This 
advice  was  not  followed,  and  the  Jat  and  Raj- 
poot armies  consequently  withdrew.  The  Bhao 
occupied  Delhi,  and  came  in  contact  at  Paniput, 
with  Ahmed's  army  of  38,000  foot,  49,000 
cavalry,  besides  the  Rokilla  and  Oudh  auxil- 
iaries.    Several  indecisive  encounters   ensued. 

but,  on  the  7th  January  1761,  an  obstinate  bat- 
tle was  fought.     The  result  continued  doubtful 
were  slain,  and  the  city  wMpiQagcd  for  fifty-eight   until  the  Bhao  fled  from  the  field,   leaving  his 

2  N 



CroopB  in  disorder,  and  Ahmed's  victory  vras 
complete  and  about  200,000  of  the  Mahratta 
army  fell.  Wiswas  Rao,  the  son  of  the  Peshwa 
was  slain  and  after  the  battle,  Junkaji  Sindhia  and 
Ibrahim  Khan  Gardi  were  put  to  death.  This 
completely  broke  the  Mahratta  imperial  power. 
When  Nadir  Shah  proceeded  to  establish  his 
sudunity  in  Sindh,  he  found  the  ancestor  oi 
the  Bahawulpoor  &mily,  a  man  of  reputation 
in  his  natiTe  districts  of  Shikarpoor.  The  Shah 
made  him  the  deputy  of  the  upper  third  of  the 
prorince ;  but,  becoming  fiuspicious  of  the  whole 
dan,  he  resolVed  on  removing  it  to  Ghuznee. 
Hie  tribe  then  migrated  np  the  Sutlej,  and 
seized  lands  by  force.  The  Daoodpotra  are 
80  caQed  from  Daood  (David)  the  first  of  the 
fiunily  who  acquired  a  name.  They  fabulously 
Inbee  their  origin  to  the  kaliph  Abbas ;  but  they 
may  be  regarded  as  Sindhian  Baluchi,  or  as 
fifaluch  changed  by  a  long  residence  in  Sindh. 
In  establishing  themselves  on  the  Sutlej,  they  re- 
duced the  remains  of  the  ancient  Limgga  and 
Joiiyya  to  ftuther  insignificance  ;  but  they  intro- 
duced the  Sindhian  system  of  canals  of  irriga- 
tion, and  both  banks  of  the  river  below  Pakput- 
hun  bear  witness  to  their  original  industry  and 
fove  of  agriculture.  One  of  Nadir  Shah's  features 
of  policy  was  the  colonization  of  the  countries  he 
ooDquered,and  in  pursuance  thereofhe  encouraged 
settlonent  in  Afghanistan  by  the  various  tribes  of 
the  vast  Persian  empire.  At  the  time  of  his  death 
numbers,  under  such  intention,  had  reached 
Meshed,  and  were  subsequently  invited  to  come 
by  Ahmed  Shah,  Dorani;  a  large  Per- 
sian force  escorting  treasure  from  India  at  that 
critical  period,  were  also  induced  to  enter  the 
employ  of  the  new  Afighan  sovereign,  and 
renounce  their  native  country.  Hence,  at 
Kabul,  at  thia  day,  are  found,  Juanshir,  Kurd, 
Rika,  A&har,  Baktiari,  Shah  Sewan,  Talish, 
Baiyat,  in  short,  representatives  of  every  Per- 
sian tribe.  Under  Ahmed  Shah,  and  his  suc- 
ceaaors,  .they  formed  the  principal  portion  of 
the  ghulam  khana,  or  household  troops. 
Nadir  Shah  entered  Delhi  on  the  9th 
March  1739,  and  in  returning  from  India, 
retiuned  all  the  west  of  the  Indus  at  Attock. 
He  was  assassinated  in  his  tent  at  Meshid  in 
Khorassan,  by  three  of  his  officers,  on  8th  June 
AJ>.  1747.  The  fate  of  the  Nadir  has  been 
thus  recorded,  doubtless  by  some  mooUah, 

Nftdir  biduzakh  rait. 
"  Nadir  is  gone  to  the  abyss  of  heU." 
These  letters  give  1161,  the  year  of  the  Hijra 
which  corresponds  with  a.d.  1747,  in  which 
Nadir  was  put  to  death.  The  Roman  system 
of  using  letters  to  indicate  figures,  is  followed 
by  all  mahomedans ;  the  death  of  the  worthy 
Kureem  Khan,  Send,  is  commemorated  in   the 

sentence  ; 

Ei  va'e  Kureem  Khan  moord. 
**  Woe  and  alas !  Kureem  Khan  is  dead.'* 


The  numeral  values  of  the  lettera  composing 
these  few  words,  being  added  up,  give  1193, 
the  year  of  the  Hijra,  corresponding  with  a.d. 
1779,  in  which  this  good  king  died.  Ouseley 
mentions  that  one  of  the  attendants  who  at  a 
levee  presented  to  him  pipes  and  coflfee,  was  a 
grandson  or  great  grandson  of  the  mighty  Nadir 
Shah.— Tr.  of  a  Hind,,  Vol.  ii.  p.  320; 
BennelU  Memoir,  p,  112  ;  Cunningham^ 8  His- 
tory of  the  Sikhs,  p,  121  ;  Masson's  Joumej/'s, 
Vol.  ii,  p.  297;  Bumes;  Ouseley' s  Travels, 
Vol.  ii.  p.  222.  See  Afghan,  India,  Iran,  Kaffir, 
ELandahar,  Kazzilbash. 

NADOONG-GASS,  Sikgh.  Dalbergia  moo- 
niana. — Thw. 

NADULEE,  Hind.  A  stone  engraved  with  a 
verse  of  the  koran,  and  suspended  as  a  charm 
round  the  necks  of  children. — Herhlots. 

NAEK.  A  Tamil  race  who  have  adopted 
brahminism,  they  have  few  lands  and  are 
largely  employed  as  £9irm  servants. 

NAEK,  or  Naidu,  a  term  in  use  by  a  class  of 
the  Tiling  sudra,  as  an  honorific  distinction. 

NAEK,  in  the  British  Indian  Army  a  rank 
equivalent  to  a  corporal. 

N.&MEN,  BuBM.  Eurycles  Amboinensis. 

NAET  or  Nao-ait,  a  mahomedan  race  in  the 
peninsula  of  India. 

NA-FARMAN,  Hind.    Delphinium  ajacis. 

NA-FARMANI,  Hind.  A  blue  colour  from 
the  flower  of  Cheiranthus  annuum .  Lilac,  mauve . 

NAFIEL,  Abab.     GraJbanum  officinale.  Don. 

NAFR,  Pbbs.  Hind.  A  servant.  In  the  west 
of  Bengal  the  Nafr  and  his  ojSspring  are  slaves 
for  ever  and  are  transferable  and  saleable.  In 
Pumeya  the  Nafr  is  sometimes  a  domestic  slave, 
sometimes  an  agricultural  slave.  In  the  native 
cavalry  of  India  the  term  is  applied  to  a  horse- 
keeper  or  groom,  also,  though  rarely,  to  a  per- 
son who  is  hired  to  ride  a  horse,  equivalent  to 

NAF-TALNA,  Hind.  Lit.  shifting  of  the 
navel,  a  disease. 

NAG,  Hind.,  a  serpent.  See  Naga;  Takshak. 

NAG,  Hind.  Vjnj&  communis,  pear  tree, 
see  Naspati. 

NAGA,  a  powerfid  Scythic  race  who  appear 
to  have    invaded   India    about  six   centuries 
before  Christ  and    occupied   it  prior   to  the 
appearance  of  the  Aryans.     In  the  mythology 
of  India  they  are  described  as  true  snakes.     In 
the  PersepoHtan  inscription,  Xerxes  calls  him- 
self Nagua  or  Nuka,  the   Greeks  anax,  and 
some    writers  have    surmised   that    this    may 
the   true   meaning  of  the   Naga  dynasties  of 
Kashmir  and  Magadha.     The  Naga  race  seem 
to   have    ruled  in   Magadha   until  dispossessed 
by  the  Aryan   Pandava ;  the  Mannipur  rulers 
were  also  of  that  Scythic  race  and  most  of  the 
Mannipur  peopJe  continued  to  worship  snakes 




till  the  banning  of  the  19th  century,  as  is  still 
the  custom  amongst  Aryan  and  non-Aryan  tsibes 
throughout  the  Peninsula  of  India.  Naga 
and  Takshac  are  Sanscrit  names  for  a  snake 
or  serpent,  the  emblem  of  Boodha  or  Mercury. 
The  Naga  race  are  said  to  have  occupied  Cey- 
lon on  the  northern  and  western  coasts 
before  the  Christian  era,  and  to  have  worship- 
ped snakes.  Strabo  calls  the  people  of 
Phrygia  and  the  Hellespont  the  Ophio  or 
serpent  races,  and  the  snake  tribe  was,  till 
recently,  one  of  the  greatest  of  the  tribes  of  N. 
American  Indians.  The  Naga  race  extended  their 
power  over  the  coimtry  of  Magadha  in  Bahar, 
and  ruled  there  for  ten  generations.  The 
brahmanical  body  being  the  chief  source  of 
learning,  endeavour  to  deduce  all  descents  from 
their  ancient  books,  and  Arjima  is  said  to  be 
the  ancestor  of  the  Naga,  by  UlupL  Colonel 
Tod  is  of  opinion  that  the  Naga  or  Takshak 
were  buddhists.  He  considers  the  Ay  of  the 
Tatars,  the  Yu  of  the  Chinese,  and  the  Ayu  of 
the  Poorans,  to  indicate  the  great  Indu 
(Lunar)  progenitor  of  the  thi-ee  races.  Boodha 
(Mercury),  the  son  of  Indu  (the  moon),  became 
ihe  patriarchal  and  spiritual  leader  ;  as  Fo  in 
China;  Woden  and  Teutates,  of  the  tribes 
migrating  to  Europe.  Hence  he  believes  the  reli- 
gion of  Budha  must  have  been  coeval  with  the  ex- 
istence of  the  Naga  nations ;  was  brought 
to  India  Proper  by  them,  and  guided  them 
until  the  schism  of  Krishna  and  the  Surya 
worshippers  of  Bal,  in  time  depressed  them : 
When  the  Boodha  religion  was  modified  into  its 
present  mild  form,  the  Naga  race  were  so  nu- 
merous in  Ceylon  that  it  was  called  Nagadwipo, 
the  island  of  Snakes,  as  Rhodes  and  Cyprus 
received  the  ancient  designation  of  Ophiusa, 
from  their  being  the  residence  of  the  Ophites 
who  introduced  snake  worship  into  Greece. 
According  to  Byrant,  Euboea  is  from  Oubaia 
and  means  serpent  island.  The  books  of  the 
hindoos  and  the  thoughts  of  the  people  are  not 
without  grand  conceptions  of  a  father  of  all 
and  of  a  future  state.  But  along  with  this 
there  have  ever  been  atheistic  views,  a  preva- 
lence of  nature  worship,  worship  of  creatures, 
like  the  snake,  and  polytheism  mixed  with  that 
first  worahip  of  the  All-Good, — a  reverence  of 
parents, — a  spirit  worship,  a  hero  worship  and 
a  pure  monotheism.  Of  the  religion  of  the 
ancient  races  who  dwelt  in  India,  prior  to  the 
advent  of  the  Aryans^  little  or  nothing  is  known. 
They  are  alltided  to  in  ancient  books,  as  the 
Naga,  Bakshasa,  Dasya,  Asura.  The  whole  of 
the  Scythian  race  are  mythically  descended 
from  a  being  half-snake  and  half-woman  who 
bore  three  sons  to  Heracles  (Herod,  IV.,  9, 
10)|  the  meaning  of  which  probably  is  that 
the  ancestral  pair  were  of  two  races  and  the 
(Apringi  took  the   snake  as 


similarly  to  the  Nimdri  or  Lumri  Baluch  of 
the  present  day,  who  are  foxes  and  the 
Cuchliwaha  raj  puts  who  are  tortoises.  The 
snake  nation  seem  to  have  made  extensive 
conquests  and  to  have  spread  into  North 
America.  The  Abbe  Domenech  mentions 
an  Indian  race  in  America,  who  traced 
their  origin  from  the  snakes  o£  Scy thia ;  the 
serpents  who  invaded  the  kingdom  of  the 
Lydians  just  before  the  down&Uof  Crsesus,  were 
probably  the  Scythian  Naga  {Herod)  race  and 
people  of  this  race  seem  to  have  early  entered 
India  and  to  have  been  ruling  diere  when  the 
Aryans  arrived.  The  dynasty  of  Maghada  or 
Behar  in  the  time  of  the  Psmdava  were  of 
the  Naga  race  and  they  held  sway  there,  for 
ten  generations.  A  branch  of  them,  the  Nag- 
bunsee  chieftains  of  Ramgurh  Sirgooja,  have 
the  lunettes  of  their  serpent  ancestor  engraved 
on  their  signets  in  token  of  their  lineage.  Whence 
the  Scythic  Naga  came,  whether  they  preceded 
or  followed  the  Vedic  Aryans,  into  India,  or 
whether  they  came  from  the  N.E.  whilst  the  Ary- 
an race  advanced  from  the  N.W.  is  not  known. 
But  they  seem  to  have  come  in  contact  in  the 
lands  where  the  Jumna  joins  the  Granges  at 
a  time  when  the  Aryans  were  divided  as  to  t^e 
object  of  their  worship  between  Indra,  Siva 
and  Vishnu.  One  of  the  opening  scenes  of  the  Ma- 
habharata  describes  the  destruction  of  the  forest 
of  Khanduva  and  a  great  sacrifice  of  serpents ; 
and  though  the  application  of  the  term  Nag  or 
Naga  has  come  to  be  taken  literally,  there  can 
be  no  doubt  that  the  descriptions  in  the  Maha- 
bharata,  and  as  to  Krishna's  exploits  against 
snakes,  relate  to  the  opposing  Naga  race.  In 
India,  the  term  Nag  or  Naga,  is  applied  to  the 
cobra  serpent,  and  the  race  who  were  so  desig- 
nated, are  believed  to  have  paid  their  devotions 
to  that  reptile.  There  seems  no  reason  to 
doubt  that  the  Naga  rulers  of  India,  were  a 
Scythic  or  Turanian  race,  a  body  of  them 
have  preserved  their  independence,  in  Munni- 
pur,  up  to  the  present  day,  and  until  the 
beginning  of  the  18th  century  hinduism  had  not 
made  any  progress  amongst  them.  The  Vedic 
deities,  Indra,  god  of  the  firmament,  Vamna,  god 
of  the  waters,  Yama,  the  judgeof  the  dead,  A^ii, 
god  of  fire,  Surya,  the  sun.  Soma  or  Chandra, 
^e  moon,  Vayu,  the  god  of  winds,  the  Marut, 
the  Aditya,  were  mere  personifications  of  the 
powers  of  nature,  which  were  invoked  for  aid  or 
their  wrath  deprecated.  The  Ayrans  appear  not 
to  have  had  idols  nor  temples  but  they  sacri- 
ficed often,  the  elements  being  clarified  butter, 
curds,  wines  or  spirits,  cakes  and  parched  grain, 
thrown  into  the  fire :  also,  the  roasted  ox  is 
named  as  an  offering  to  Indra,  and  a  horse 
was  occasionally  sacrificed  to  Indra  or  the  sun. 
These  sacrificial  rites  seem  to  have  been  con- 
their  emblem,    nected  with  theil*  meals  and  probably  were 

N  4 



libations  and  first  offerings,  to  the  gods.  Up  to 
the  present  day,  every  morning,  when  perform- 
ing early  worship,  a  water  libation  is  poured 
from  the  denkoa  or  sacrificial  spoon,  the 
Aryan  brahmin  Tisits  his  temple  and  makes 
offerings  to  his  gods,  every  hindoo  in  India  every 
Saturday,  offers  to  the  village  deity,  flowers, 
ooooanuts,  and  at  least  once  a  month,  the  helot 
races  make  offering  of  cakes,  and  on  great 
oocasioQS,  the  non-hindocs  take  rice  and  flour, 
safion,  vermilion  to  the  village  deities,  the  Ai, 
Ammaand  Amman,  and  all  worship  the  snake. — 
Eerod^  IV.  d-10;  WUson  ;  Sonnerat's  Voyage, 
p.  162. 

NA6A,  Hnm.  A  class  of  hindoo  mendicants 
who  go  naked  and  carry  arms ;  they  are  now 
abnost  extinct ;  but   they  used  to   form  some- 
times    mercenary  bands  in  the    service     of 
hindoo  princes.     All  hindoo  sects  have  fol- 
lowers  to  whom   this  designation   is   applied. 
The  Naga  in  all  essential    points,    are  of  the 
same  description  as  the  Viragi  or  Sanyasi,  but 
in  their  zeal,  they  used  to  leave  off  every  kind 
of  covering  and  go  naked.      They  are  the  most 
worthless  and  profligate  members  of  the  hindoo 
lehgion.  They  always  travel  with  weapons,  usual- 
ly a  matchlock,  a  sword,  and  shield,' and  sangui- 
ary  conflicts  have  occurred  between  the  hindoo 
Naga  mendicants  of  opposite  sects.   The  Saiva 
Naga  are  very  nimierous  in  many  parts  of  India, 
diey  are  the  particular  opponents  of  the  Viragi 
Naga,  and  were  no  doubt  the  leading  actors  in 
die  bloody  fray  at  Haridwar,  in  1790,  which 
exduded  the  Vaishnava  from  the  great  fair 
there,  until  the  country  came  under  the  sway 
of  the    British.       On    that  occasion   18,000 
Viragi  were  left  dead  on  the  field.     A  party  of 
them  attacked  Colonel  Goddard's  troops  in  their 
march  between  Dorawal  and  Herapur,  and  on 
s  critical  occasion  6,000  of  them  aided  Sindhia. 
The  Saiva  Sanyasi  smear  their  bodies  with 
ashes,  allow  their  hair,  beards  and  whiskers  to 
grow  and  wear  the  projecting  braid  of  hair 
called  the  jata;   like  the  Viragi  Ni^,  they 
laed  to  carry  arms,   and  wander  about   in 
bodies  soliciting  alms  or  levying  contributions. 
The  Saiva  Naga  are  generally  the  refuse  of  the 
Dandi  and  Atit  orders,  or  men  who  have  no 
inclination  fer  a  life  of  study  or  business.     When 
weary  of  the  vagrant  and  violent  habits  of  the 
Naga,  they  re-enter  one  of  the  better  disposed 
ebases,  which  they  had  originally  quitted.    The 
term  Naga  is  aJso  applied  to  a  class  of  the  Dadu 
Ptotlii  hindoo  sect,  they  carry  arms  and  serve 
hindoo  princes  making  good  soldiers.   A  sect  of 
the  GoHdn  are  likewise  termed  Naga,  because 
they  perform  their  ablutions  (Sth'nanam)  in  a 
state  of  nudity.     The  Gosazn  profess  asceticism, 
hot  weH  informed  hindoos  believe  ih&t  almost 
afl  of  them  originally  adopt  the  tenets  of  the 
fledv  with  the  obgeet  of  securing  a  living  with- 

5  K 

out  labour,  and  that  few,  not  more  than  one  in 
a  hundred,  live  as  celebates,  and  the  personal 
appearance   of    these   men,   sleek,   with   well 
covered    muscles,   supports  this  view.     They 
wander  to  very  distant  places,  begging  for  their 
math  or  monastery  and  have  very  scanty  cloth- 
ing, only  a  small  strip  of  cloth  between  their 
thighs.  Immoralities  when  detected  are  ptmished 
by  fine.     The   ascetic  Grosain  can   withdraw 
irom  the  monastery  on  payment  of  a  fine,  can 
marry  and  engage  in  business.     Only  the  brah- 
man,  Kshetrya    and  Vesya  are   admitted  as 
gosains,  the  head  of  the  math  is  styled  mahant. 
NAGA,  a  race,  or  races,  occupying  the  moun- 
tains bounding  to  the  south,  the  valley  of  As- 
sam, from  lat.  25^  N.,  and  long.  93^  £.  to  let. 
26^  40',  and  long.  96^  30'.     But  Naga  is  a 
term  applied  by  Europeans  to  forty  or  fifty 
tribes  who  occupy  the  space  between  the  Khas- 
sya  hills  on  the  west,  ihe  Singpo  on  the  east, 
Assam  on  the  north  and  Munipur  on  the  south. 
They  do  not  call  themselves  Naga,  but  each 
tribe  is  split  up  into  numerous  clans  and  each  is 
called  after  its  village.     The  Naga,  Mikir,  Ka- 
chari,  Garo  and  Kassia  are  the  five  races,  in 
whose  possession  chiefly  are  the  broad  high- 
lands of  the  Assam  chain  extending  from  the 
N.E.  near  the  head  of  the  Kynduayn  and  Nam- 
rup,  on  one  side,  along  the  valley  of  the  Brah- 
maputra to  its  southern  bend  round  the  west- 
cm  extremity  of  the  chain,  and  on  the  other 
side,  south-westerly,  along  the  valley  of  the 
Burak  and  Surmu,  these  highlands  are  thus 
embraced   by  the  valleys  of  the  Brahmaputra 
and  its  affluents  on  all  sides  but  the  S.  E., 
where  they  slope  to  the  Kynduayn.     The  Naga 
dialects  are : — 










On  the  west,  the  Naga  march  and  intermix 
with  the  Rang-tsa,  a  branch  of  the  Kachari  or 
Bodo.  The  term  Naga  is  supposed  derived  from 
the  Hindi,  Nanga,  naked,  because  they  use  little 
clothing,  and  that  is  manufactured  and  dyed  by 
their  women.  They  come  in  contact  with  the 
Mikir,  Kuki  and  Cachari ;  the  Naga  villages 
of  from  20  to  100  houses  are  fixed,  and  they 
crop  and  leave  fallow  their  lands.  They  inter 
their  dead  at  the  threshold  of  their  doors.  The 
Naga  race  are  described  as  simple,  social,  and 
peacefol,  unless  when  blood  has  to  be  avenged 
and  then  he  is  treacherous  and  cruel.  Semeo  is 
the  name  of  their  god  of  riches,  Kupiaba,  a  ma- 
lignant deity,  with  one  eye  in  the  centre  of 
his  forehead,  and  Kangaba,  is  a  blind,  malici- 
ous deity.  The  Naga  fie  north  of  Munipur  and 
its  dependencies.  The  AngamiNaga  are  a  rude 
pagan  tribe  on  the  range  of  hills  in  upper 
Assam,  on  the  eastern  frontier  of  the  Mikir 
and  Cachari.  They  speak  one  of  the  Naga 
dialects.    On  Idie  southern  Assam  frontier  we 




have  the  numerous  Naga  and  Singpo  dialects, 
the  Mikir  and  Angami,  the  languages  of  the 
Kliassia  and  Jaintia  hillmen,  the  Boro  in  Ca- 
char,  and  the  Garo  in  the  hills  of  that  name. 
The  Kooki  occupy  parts  of  Tipperah  and  Chit- 
tagong,  and  the  Mug  race  are  in  Arrakan  and 
Chittagong.  The  Naga,  Dhimali,  Hayu,  Kus- 
war,  Kiranti,  Limbu,  Chepang  and  Bhramu 
tongues,  of  which  tlie  first  is  Indo-Chinese,  and 
the  rest  Himalayan,  all  belong  to  the  prono- 
menalized  class  of  languages.  The  mountain 
range  which  bounds  Assam  on  the  south  is 
known  by  a  great  diversity  of  names  in  differ- 
ent parts  of  its  course,  according  to  the  differ- 
ent tribes  by  whom  it  is  inhabited. 

The  Khassia  hills  rise  abruptly  on  the  south 
from  the  plains  of  Silhet  to  the  height  of  about 
4,000  feet,  and  thence  more  gradually  to  6,000 
feet.  The  culminating  point  is  Chillong  hill, 
the  elevation  of  which  is  about  6,600  feet. 

To  the  westward  of  the  Khassia  hills  lie  the 
Garo  hills  which  are  lower,  the  maximum  ele- 
vation being  probably  nowhere  more  than 
three  or  four  thousand  feet.  To  the  east,  be- 
yond Jyntea  or  Jaintia,  which  is  similar  in 
general  character  to  Khassia,  there  appears  to 
be  a  considerable  depression  in  the  range,  a 
large  river  with  an  open  valley  penetrating  far 
to  the  north.  To  the  east  of  Cachar,  again, 
tliere  are  lofty  hills,  inhabited  by  Naga  tribes, 
but  quite  unexplored,  except  in  one  place, 
where  they  were  crossed  by  Griffith  in 
travelling  from  upper  Assam  to  the  Hu- 
kum  valley,  on  a  tributary  of  the  Irawadi. 
Tlie  country  occupied  by  ^e  Angami  Naga, 
south «  of  Now-gong,  is  bounded  on  the 
north  by  the  Dhunseeree  river,  on  the  south 
by  a  high  range  of  mountains,  forming  the 
boimdary  between  the  Muneepoor  territory  and 
Now-gong,  Poplongmaee  being  the  most  sou- 
thern Angami  Naga  village  within  the  dis- 
trict. The  western  boundary  extends  as  far  as 
Hosang  Hajoo.  The  limit  of  the  eastern  boun- 
dary is  still  undefined  and  unexplored ;  but  the 
Deeyong  river  on  the  north-east  separates  the 
Lotah  Naga  in  the  Seebsagur  district  from 
the  Angami  Naga.  From  a  tubular  state- 
ment it  appears,  that  thirty-two  villages  con- 
tained 6,899  houses  which,  at  four  persons  to 
each  house,  would  give  a  population  of  2,756 
persons.  The  Rengma  Naga  are  evidently 
descended  from  the  Angami  Naga;  it  is 
said  that,  in  consequence  of  oppression  and 
feuds  in  their  own  tribe,  they  emigrated  to  the 
high  hills  occupied  by  the  Tokophen  Naga ;  but 
further  dissensions  and  attacks  from  the  Lotah 
and  Angami  Naga  compelled  them  to  take  re- 
fuge on  their  present  low  hills  in  the  vicinity  of 
the  Mikir ;  the  Rengma  Naga  appear  degenera- 
ting. In  physiognomy  they  differ  but  little  from 
the  Cachar  tribes,  and  many  have  married  Ca- 

chari  and  Assamese  wives.  The  .villages  are 
smaU,  and  they  have  but  few  domestic  animals. 
Like  other  hill  tribes,  they  acknowledge  the 
power  of  a  plurality  of  gods ;  and  sacrifices  of 
cows,  pigs  and  fowls  are  offered  on  all  occasions. 
The  Rengma  Naga,  like  the  Angami  Naga, 
inter  their  dead,  and  place  the  spear  and  shield 
of  the  deceased  in  the  grave ;  a  few  sticks  with 
some  eggs  and  grains  are  laid  upon  it,  and  the 
funeral  ceremonies  conclude  with  lamentations 
and  feasting, 

In   the   Report  of  the   British   Association 
for   1845,    Dr.    Latham    remarks    that    the 
distinction   between    the   languages  of  Thibet 
and  China,  as  exhibited  by  Klaproth,  must  be 
only  provisional :  over  and  above  the  gramma^ 
tical  analogy  there  is  an  absolute  glossarial  affi- 
nity.    Of  the  languages  of  the  trans-gangetic 
peninsula  the  same 'may  be  asserted.     Where 
languages  are  monosyllabic  alight  changes  make 
palpable  differences.   The  vocabularies  of  Mr. 
Brown,  for  more  than  a  score  of  the  Burmese 
and  Siamese  tongues,  have  provided  us  with 
data  for  ethnographical  comparis(His.     By  deal- 
ing with  these  collectively,   we  find  in  one  diar- 
lect  words  which  had  been  lost  in  others.     The 
Chinese,  Thibetan,  Bhootan,  Burmese,  Siamese 
and  all  the  so-called  monosyllabic   languages 
hitherto  known,  are  allied  to  each  other.     The 
general  affinities  of  the  Indo-Chinese  tongues 
are   remarkable.      With   Marsden's    and   Sir 
Stamford  Raffies'  tables  on  the  one  side,  and 
those  of  Brown  and  Klaproth  on  the  other,  it 
can  be  shown  that  a  vast  number  of  Malay 
roots  are  monosyllabic.     The  Malay  languages 
are  monosyllabic  ones,  with  the  superaddition 
of  inflections  evolved  out  of  composition,  and 
euphonic  processes  highly  developed.     Dr.   Lar- 
tham  is  of  opinion  that  the  nations  on  the  bor- 
dei's  of  British  India,  in  the  north-west,  the 
nordi-east  and  east,  form  an  ethnological  group 
which  contains  the  Tibetans,  the  Nepal  tribes, 
several    populations    of    the    Sub-Iiimalayan 
range,  the  Burmese,  the  Siamese,  the  Natives 
of  Pegu,  the  Cambojians,  the  Cochin  Chinese 
and  the  Chinese,  in  populations  which  cover 
perhaps  one-fifrh  of  Aais.,     Their  countries  are 
mostly  inland,  and  mountainous,  but  contain 
the  watersheds  of  mighty  rivers,  the  Indus,  the 
Brahmaputra,  the  Irawadi  and  die  Yellow  river. 
The  complexion  and  features  of  these  peoples 
is  that  to  which  the  term   Mongolian  has  been 
applied.     Though  wild  paganism  and  mahome- 
danism  exist,  the   majority  are  of  the  buddhist 
religion,  but  all  speak  a  language  the  least  de- 
veloped of  all  the  forms  of  human  speech,  being 
generally  monosyllabic  and  with  little  power  of 
grammatical  inflexions.     These  people  are  ar- 
ranged under  four  great  politicsd  powers,  the 
British,  the  Burmese,  the  Siamese  and  Chinese. 
EthBologically  they  are  capable  of  being  classed 






io  three  considerable  sub-groups.  The  first  of 
these  is  the  Bhot  or  Bot,  which  is  used  in  com- 
pound words  as  Bult  in  Bultistan,  as  But  in 
Butan,  Bet  in  Tibet,  and  in  the  tribes  known 
as  Bhuda  and  Bootia,  and  comprises  the  Little 
Tibetans,  the  natives  of  Ladak,  the  Tibetans  of 
Tibet  Proper  and  the  closely  allied  tribes  of 
Butan.  The  Bhot  area  is  bounded  on  the 
South  by  India  and  Cashmir,  on  the  North  by 
Chinese  Tartary,  and  on  the  West  by  Little 
Bokhara  and  Kafiristan.  Amongst  the  Bhot 
popuhktions  may  be  mentioned  the  mahomedan 
Bhot  of  Bultistan  or  Little  l^bet,  of  Kongdo, 
Skardo,  Parkuta  and  Khartakshi,  of  Shigar, 
Chorbad,  &£.,  the  buddhist  Bot  of  Ladak,  Hun- 
grung  and  Kunawar,  the  Bhot  of  the  Chinese 
Empire ;  the  Tibetans  of  Rudok,  Garo,  '^jfoga, 
&c^  of  Lhasa  and  Tishu  Limibu,  the  Sifan, 
the  Lhopa  of  Butan,  the  Tak,  the  Bhot  of  Gar- 
wbJ,  Kumaon  and  Nepal,  the  Chepang  and  pro- 
bably the  Rhondtu',  the  Chak  and  Drok,  the 
Hor  and  the  Kolo.  Further  east  are  the  Kocch, 
the  Dhimal  and  Bodo,  arranged  into  the  Wes- 
tern Bodo  of  Sikkim  and  the  Butan  frontier, 
and  the  Eastern  Bodo  or  Burro  of  Assam  and 
Cachar, — the  Graro,  the  Kasia,  the  Mikir.  On 
the  south  are  the  hill  tribes  of  Assam,  the  Aka, 
Dofla,  Abor,  Miri  and  Bor  Abor  tribes,  the 
Miahmi,  Muttuck,  Singhpo  and  Jili,  with  the 
Naga  in  Assam.  The  color  of  the  Bhot  and 
buddhist  populations  are  of  various  shades  of 
white,  yellow  and  brown;  while  that  of  the 
pagan  races  is  various  hues  of  black. 

The  Naga  do  not  consume  milk,  and  cattle 
are  not  used  for  tilling  the  ground,  but  are 
kept  chiefly  for  sacrifices  and  feasts.  They 
have  many  pigs  and  fowls,  and  eat  every  kind 
of  flesh.  T^at  of  the  elephant  is  highly 
esteemed  and  a  dead  elephant  is  a  glorious 
pri25e  for  a  whole  village.  It  is  also  said 
that  they  are  not  averse  to  tigers  flesh. 
Their  houses,  are  gable-ended,  and  about 
thirty  or  forty  long  by  twelve  or  sixteen  feet 
wide.  Each  house  is  divided  off  into  one  or 
two  rooms ;  the  pigs,  fowls,  wife,  and  children, 
are  all  huddled  together,  with  the  grain  in 
large  bamboo  baskets  five  feet  high  and  four 
in  diameter,  in  the  same  room.  In  one  comer  is 
seen  a  trough  filled  with  some  kind  of  fermented 
liquor  made  of  rice,  which  was  thick  and  white 
aiid  moat  offensive  to  the  sense  of  smell.  In 
this  trough  they  dip  their  wooden  cups  or  gourd 
bottles,  and  all  the  morning  the  Naga  lounge 
about  in  the  sun  in  their  little  courtyards,  and 
seated  upon  a  high  stone  commanding  some 
extensive  view,  sip  this  abominable  beverage. 
The  Naga  of  Mozo-mah  manufactm*e  a  strong 
thick  cloth  well  adopted  for  their  changeable 
and  cold  climate,  it  is  made  of  the  bark  of  the 
stalks  of  the  nettle  plant,,  is  of  a  brown  colour 
widi  black  red  stripes,  or  quite  plain,  and  is  ge- 

nerally used  by  the  Naga  as  chadder  or  sheet 
covering  thrown  over  the  body.  The  climate 
is  not  favourable  to  the  growth  of  cotton,  but 
they  procure  abundance  from  Sumokhoo-Ting. 
In  a  large  building  called  Rangkee  or  the 
Dakachang,  all  the  boys  of  the  village  reside, 
until  they  are  married.  The  building  is 
about  sixty  feet  long,  and  twenty  high,  with 
gable  ends.  The  inside  of  the  house  con- 
sists of  one  large  room,  in  the  centre  of  which 
a  wood  fire  was  burning  on  the  ground,  and 
wooden  stools  were  aiTanged  in  rows  for  the 
boys  to  sleep  upon.  At  one  end,  a  small  room 
is  partitioned  off  for  the  accommodation  of 
an  elderly  man,  who  is  superintendent  of  the 
establishment.  The  Hilokee  (a  building  of 
similar  dimensions  and  construction  with  the 
Rangkee),  is  devoted  entirely  to  the  use  or 
residence  of  the  girls  of  the  village,  who  live  in 
it  altogiethcr,  in  the  same  manner  as  the  boys, 
until  the  day  of  their  marriage.  The  damsels 
are  all  decently  attired,  a  large  sheet  with  coloured 
stripes  is  worn  round  the  waist,  extending  to 
the  knees,  a  blue  cloth  is  folded  over  the 
breast  under  the  the  arms  ;  a  profusion  of  glass 
bead  necklaces  adorned  their  necks  wifii  a 
number  of  brass  ear-rings  of  all  sizes.  An  old 
woman  superintends  the  establishment,  and 
the  utmost  order  prevails  in  both  the  Rang- 
kee and  the  Hilokee.  The  boys  and  girls 
take  their  meals  with  their  parents,  work  for 
them  during  the  day,  and  at  night  retire  to 
their  respective  asylums  ;  all  the  youths  see 
the  girls  during  the  day  without  the  smallest 
restraint,  and  they  select  their  own  wives,  and 
are  married  by  the  consent  of  their  parents. 
Mr.  Butler  relates  that  "  in  the  aflemoon,  the 
chief  came  down  to  our  camp  with  all  the 
unmarried  girls  of  the  village.  Line  having 
been  formed,  and  the  camp  assembled,  two 
damsels  stepped  out  in  front  of  the  party, 
and  danced  with  a  peculiar  kind  of  hop-step 
on  one  leg  alternately,  different  from  any- 
thing I  have  ever  seen,  in  excellent  time,  to  a 
song  and  clapping  of  hands  by  the  young  men. 
In  stature  the  Naga  women  are  short  and 
athletic,  with  flat  noses,  small  shai-p  eyes,  the 
upper  front  teeth  projecting  a  little  ;  and  the 
hair  cut  short  whilst  single,  but  when  married, 
the  hair  is  allowed  to  grow  long.  They  are 
coarse  and  plain,  which  is  not  to  be  wondered 
at,  as  they  perform  all  manner  of  drudgery  in 
the  field,  supply  the  house  with  water  and  fuel, 
and  make  whatever  clothing  is  required  by  the 
family.  The  Naga  he  adds  eat  dogs,  rats, 
elephants,  tigers,  rhinoceroses,  cows,  pigs  and 
fowls  ;  but,  strange  to  say  they  have  no  ducks. 
The  Kooki  race,  now  inhabitants  of  Northern 
Cachar,  in  the  Nowgong  district,  aver  that  they 
(the  Kooki)  emigrated  from  Tippai*ah  to  Nortliern 
Cachar,  in  the  reign  of  Kishen  Chunder,  about 




A.  D.  1800,  andin  the  years  1828, 1829,  Gobind 
Ghunder,  rajah  of  Cachar,  employed  them  to 
wage  war  with  Tooleeram  Senaputtee.  In  the 
year  1846-47,  several  colonies  of  new  Kooki 
immigrated  from  Tipparah,  via  the  bed  of  the 
Barah  river,  and  joined  their  brethren  in 
Northern  Cachar.  The  number  of  tribes,  and 
the  total  population  of  all  classes  residing  inNorth- 
em  Cachar,  is  estimated  by  the  following  table 
at  21,345  souls,  reckoning  five  to  each  house. 

Names  of  Clans. 

Hozae  Cachari. 
Hill  Cachari.... 


Old  Koolri 

New  Kooki  


Number  of 

Total  of  each 















They  live  in  the  most  friendly  terms  with  the 
Kachang  Naga  and  Mikir  tribes,  and  are 
greatly  respected  by  them  for  their  known 
martial  character.  The  marauding  Angami 
Naga  look  on  the  Kooki  with  awe  or  respect 
and  have,  in  consequence,  never  dared  to  attack 
them.  In  the  Tipparah  district  there  are 
innumerable  tribes  or  clans  of  Kooki  under 
the  rule  of  hereditary  rajahs  or  chiefs.  In 
Northern  Cachar  the  principal  old  clans  are 
four  in  number,  viz. :  Khelemali,  Ranthoe, 
Bete,  Lamkron,  and  with  the  last  colony  several 
rajahs  or  chiefe  had  arrived,  whom  all  the 
Kooki  seem  to  respect.  They  are  divided 
into  three  clans,  with  41  villages  and  1,515 
houses,  as  follows  : — 

Jangsen  clan 28     . .     90C 

Taddaee  „ 12     ...    556 

Shingshoon  . .      . .        1      . .       52 

If  a  woman  leave  her  husband,  and  is  guilty 
of  adultery,  the  injured  husband,  invites  the 
members  of  the  council  to  visit  him  at  his  house, 
places  a  jug  of  liquor  before  them,  and  states  his 
complaint.  The  faithless  woman  is  not  taken 
back  by  her  injured  husband,  but  is  permitted 
to  remain  with  the  defendant. 

The  dress  of  the  Angami  Naga  consists  of  a  blue 
or  black  kilt,  prettily  ornamented  with  cowrie 
shells :  and  a  coarse  brown  cloth  made  of  the  bark 
of  the  nettle-plant  is  Iposely  thrown  over  the 
shoulders.  The  warrior  wears  a  coUar  round 
the  neck,  reaching  to  the  waist,  made  of  goat's- 
hair,  dyed  red,  intermixed  with  long  flowing 
locks  of  hair  of  the  persons  he  has  killed,  and 
ornamented  with  co^vrie  shells.  No  one  is 
entitled  to  wear  these  insignia  of  honour,  unless 
lie  has  killed  many  of  his  enemies,  and  brought 
home  their  heads.  Every  Angami  village  has  a 
polity  of  its  own.  Their  government  is  decidedly 
democratic.  The  crime  of  murder  cannot  be  ex- 
piated ;  the  relations  of  the  murdered  person  in- 
stantly, if  possible,  spear  the  murderer,  without 

8  N 


reference  to  the  council  of  elders,  unless  the  de- 
linquent take  refuge  in  another  village,  when  he 
may  escape  for  years,  but  he  is  never  safe. 
Years  after  the  deed  has  been  committed  he  tnay 
be  surprised  and  killed,  for  revenge  is  con- 
sidered a  sacred  duty  never  to  be  neglected  or 
forgotten.     Adultery  is  also  an  offence  that 
admits  of  no  compromise.     If  a  man's  wife  is 
seduced,  the  injured  husband  will  surely  spear 
the    seducer  on    the  first  opportunity.     The 
Angami  Naga  imagine  there  are  many  gods, 
or    good  and  evil  spirits,   residing    in  their 
hills.       To  one,  they  offer  up  sacrifices   of 
cows    and    mithun ;    to  another,   dogs ;   and 
to  a  third,    cocks  and  spirituous  liquor.     At 
sixteen  years  of  age  a  youth   puts  on  ivory 
armlets,    or    else     wooden,    or     red-coloured 
cane  collars,  round  his  neck.     He  silspends  the 
conch  shells  with  a  black  thread,  puts  brass 
earrings  into  his  ears,    and  wears  the  black 
kilt ;  and  if  a  man  has  killed  another  in  war, 
he  wears  three  or  lour  rows  of  cowries  round 
the  kilt,  and   ties  up  his  hair  with  a  cotton 
band.     If  a  man  has  killed  another  in  war, 
he  is  entitled   to  wear  one   feather    of   the 
dhune's  bird  stuck  in  his  hair,  and  one  feather 
is  added  for  every  man  he  has  killed,   and 
these  feathers  are  also  fastened  to  their  shields. 
They  also  use  coloured  plaited  cane  leggings, 
wear  the  war  sword,  spear,  shield,  and  choonga 
or  tube  for  carrying  panjies.     They  also  attach 
to  the  top  of  the  shield  two  pieces  of  wood  in 
the  shape  of  buffalo  horns,  with  locks  of  hair 
of  human  beings  killed  in  action  hanging  from 
the  centre.     Before  they  set  out  on  a  war  ex- 
pedition, all  assemble  together  and  decide  on 
the  village  to  be  attacked,  and  the  chief  ap- 
pointed to  command  the  party   consults  the 
usual  omens,  which  proving  propitious,  a  fowl  is 
killed  and  cooked,  and  all  paxteJse  of  it.     They 
then  provide  themselves  with  spears,   shields, 
and  a  panjie  choonga,  and  cooking  two  days 
food  wrap  it  up  in  leaves  in  baskets  with  some 
meat,  and  set  out  for  the  village  to  be  attacked, 
near  which  they  lie  in  ambush   during  the 
night  till  the  break  of  day,  when  they  rush  in 
upon  it  with  a  great  noise,  and  spear  the  first 
they  meet  with,   and  afterwards  cut  off  the 
head,  hands,  and  feet,  of  their  enemies,  roll 
them  up  in  a  cloth,  and  return  home.     They 
then  take  the  skulls  to  each  house  in  the  vil- 
lage apd  throw  rice  and  spirits  over  them,  and 
tell  the  skulls  to  call  their  relatives.     The  man 
who  has  cut  off  the  head  keeps  it  under  his 
bedstead  five  days :  during  that  time  the  war- 
riors eat  no  food  prepared  by  women,  and  do 
not  cook  in   their    accustomed  cooking    pot. 
Afler  the  fifth  day,  however,  the   heads  or 
skulls  are  buried,  and  a  great  feast  is  given  oi 
pigs  and  cows,  after  which  they   ba^e  and 
return  to  their  avocations.    They  do  not  go 




out  singlj  on  inroads,   but  in  bodies.     A  Naga 
can  never  giye  up  his  revenge  :  he  must  avenge 
the  death  of  a  relative  in  some  way  or  other, 
either  bj  stealth  or  surprise ;  kill  one  or  two  in 
return,  and  cany  off  their  heads,  panjymg  the 
road  afier  their  retreat  to  prevent  their  being 
pursued.  When  a  respectable  man  dies  in  the  vil- 
lage, the  inhabitants  do  not  quit  it  for  three  days, 
and  keep  the  body  in  the  house,  afler  which  they 
kin  cows  and  pigs,  and  give  a  feast  of  rice  and 
spirits  to  the  whole  community.     The  body  is 
then  conveyed  to  the  burying-ground,  where  it 
is  interred,  and  a  stone  tomb  is  built  over  the 
grave,  three  or  four  feet  high,  and  all  the  men, 
being  dressed  in  their  war  habiliments,  make  a 
great  noise,  and  juntp  about,  and  say,  '<  Wliat 
spirit  has  come  and  killed  our  friend  ?  Where 
have   you  fled  to  ?"   They  then  place  on  the 
grave  all  the  articles  of  dress  worn   by   the 
deceased,  as  well  as  his  arms,  his  sword,  spear, 
shields,  panjie  tube,  wearing  apparel,  bamboo 
spirit-cup,  spirit-gourd  bottle,  waistband,  aliells 
worn  round  the  neck  and  arms,  red  cane  arm- 
lets, cane  bands  worn  on  the  legs,  and  coloured 
cane  l^gings  and  dhunes  feathers  worn  in  the 
head.     Such  is  the  custom  on  the  death  of  men ; 
but   if  a  woman  die,  her  petticoat  waistband, 
cloth  tied  over  the  breasts,  brass  ornaments 
worn  on  the  arms,  and  necklaces  and  spirit- 
gourd  bottle,  shuttle  lor  weaving,  spinning  stick 
for    ootton,  cotton  thread,  dhan  grain,  pestle 
and  mortar  for  cleaning  rice,  are*  all  placed  on 
her  grave.    The  skulls  of   pigs  and  cows  are 
likewise  stuck  upon  sticks  at  one  end  of  the 
grave    in    memory  of  the    hospitality   exer- 
by  the  deceased.    A  woman  may  live 
a  man  without  being  married,  and  then 
go  to  another ;  but  she  gives  up  her  progeny, 
and  the  children  remain  with  the  father.     If  a 
Naga  divorce  hia  wife  for  any  fault,  she  does 
not  return  to  her  parents,  but  resides  in  a  house 
by  herself,  and  she  can  marry  again.     If  a  man 
commit  adultery  hia  head  is  cut  off.     If  a  chief 
]■  caoght  in  the  fact,  he  is  killed.     When  the 
Angaini  Naga  have  nothing  to  do,  they  sit  about 
an  the  tombs  in  groups,  and  pass  the  day  in 
drinking   spirits    and   goflsipping,  and    form- 
ing plans  for  hostile  inroads  on  their    neigh- 
boms.      The  Naga  sink  pits    in  the  jungles 
mx  or  seven  feet  deep,  and  fill  them  with  pan- 
jies,  that  if  any  animal  should  fall  into  the  pit 
it  would  be  killed.     The  surface  of  the  pit  is 
covered  over  with  branches  and  leaves  of  trees, 
and  the  new  earth  taken  out.     Their  mode  of 
taking  oaths  is  singular.     When  they  swear  to 
keep  the  peace,  or  to  perform  any  promise, 
they   place   the  barrel  of   a  gun   or  a  spear 
between  their  teeth,  signifying  by  this  ceremony 
diat,  if  they  do  not  act  up  to  their  agreement, 
they  are  prepared  to  fall  by  either  of  the  two 
weapons.     Another  simple  but  equally  binding 


oath  is,  for  two  parties  to  take  hold  of  the  ends 
of  a  piece  of  spear-iron,  and  to  have  it  cut  into 
two  pieces,  leaving  a  bit  in  the  hand  of  each 
party ;  but  the  most  sacred  oath,  it  is  said,  is 
for  each  party  to  take  a  fowl,  one  by  the  head 
and  the  other  by  the  legs,  and  in  this  manner 
to  pull  it  asunder,  intimating  that  treachery  or 
breach  of  agreement  would  merit  the  same 
treatment.     They  likewise  erect  a  large  stone 
as  a  monument  on  the  occasion  of  taking  an 
oath,  and  say  that,  '*  as  long  as  this  stone  stands 
on  the  eartli,  no  differences  shall  occur  between 
us."     The  only  weapons  used  by  the  Angami 
Naga  are  a  spear  and  dao,  a  short  sword  or 
hand-bill.     Amongst  the   Naga  it  is  consider- 
ed a  point  of  honour  to  recover  the  skulls  of 
their  friends.   It  is  also  totally  incompatible  with 
Naga  honour  to  forego  taking  revenge,  and  it 
is  incumbent  on  him  to  ransom  or  recover  the 
skull  of  a  relative  murdered  or  captured  in  war. 
— Battler's  Travels  ami  Adventures  in  Assain^ 
pp.  47 — 158  ;    Wilson  ;  Latham  ;  Mr,    Hodg- 
son No,  6  of  1865,  of  Beng.  As,  S.oc,  Jouni. ; 
Tod^s  Bajasthany  Vol,,  p,   57.  LatJiams  Desc. 
Ethn.;  Latham  in  Ueport  British  Association. 
See  Mozome  ;  Kuki  ;  India. 
NAGA.     Bbno.     Cyperus  pertennis. 
NAGA,  also  Nag,  Hind.  The  term  by  which, 
in  the  Hindi  tongue,   the  Naja  snake   is  desig- 
nated.   It  is  the    venemous    snake   known  to 
Europeans  as  the  cobra,  also  cobra  di  capello, 
the  term  cobra,  being  the  ordinary  name  by 
which  Europeans  in  India  designate  the  Naja 
genus  of  venemous  Colubrine  snakes   of  the 
family  Elapidae.     There  is  only  one  species,  the 
Naja  tripudians,  Merr,^  which  has  a  moderate 
body  with  rather   short  tail.     It  has  a  small 
or  moderate  eye  with  a  round  pupil,  a  poison 
fang  in  front  of  the  maxillary,  which  is  but 
little  moveable  or  erectile,  and  only  one  tooth 
behind.     The  anterior  ribs  are  elongate  and 
erectile,  and  the  skin  of  the  neck  is  dilatable. 
When  the  cobra  rises  in  play,  or  for  amuse- 
ment, it  spreads  out  the  skin  of  the  neck,  from 
which  it  gets  the  Spanish  name  of  "  Cobra  di 
Capello,"  in  English  the  "  Hooded  Snake."     Its 
bite  is  certain  death.     It  is  said  that  the  poison 
can  be  cotnbatted  by  injecting  potash  into  the 
veins,  but,  owing  to  the  rapidity  of  the  poisons 
action,  this,  even  if  true,  is  valueless.     Not- 
withstanding this,  the  natives  of  Ceylon  do  not 
kill  the  cobra  when  caught,  but  enclose  it  in  a 
mat  bag  with  some  boiled  rice  for  fix>d,  and 
place  it  thus  in  a  flowing  stream.     In  Guzerat 
the  hindoos  do  not  kill  &is  or  any  other  snake. 
There  are  two  varieties  of  the  Naga  tripudians  ; 
(a.)  The  spectacled  or  Bin-ocellate  cobra,  has 
its   neck,   on    the    steel  brown  skin,  marked 
with  a  white,  black  edged  d  or  <t  enclosing  at 
either   extremity   a  black  ocellus.     It  is  only 
seen  when  the  hood  is  expanded.  It  is  found  in 

N  9 


Southern  India  and  in  Burraah  ?  Lb  grows  to 
6i  feet,  (b.)  The  monocellate  or  one  marked 
cobra,  has  a  plain  white  ocellus,  with  black 
centre,  and  margin,  and  grows  to  4J  feet  in 
length.-  It  is  the  cobra  of  Central  India  and 
Burmah.  The  cobra  is  worshipped  by  all  the 
races  following  hinduism .  and  by  nearly  all 
the  non-Aryan  races  in  British  India,  and  its 
form,  as  an  idol,  with  one,  three  or  nine  heads, 


their  settlements,  that  he  was  convinced  all 
were  of  the  Tak,  Takshac,  or  Nagvansa  race 
from  Sacadwipa,  who,  six  centuries  anterior  to 
Vicramaditya,  under  their  leader  Sehesnaga, 
conquered  India,  and  whose  era  must  be  the 
limit  of  Agnicula  antiquity. — Tod^s  Eajoithan, 
Vol,  ii.  p,  445. 

NAGADSAKA,  see  Bhattiya. 

NAGA  GILI  GICHCHA,  Tel.     Crotalaria 

in  stone  or  brass,  may,  in  India,  be   everywhere    trifoliastrum,  WiVUL-^R,  iii!  277— "FT.  and  A. 

seen.  It  is  generally  bending  over  the  idol 
of  the  lingam.  The  cobra  sometimes  swims 
out  to  sea.  The  Indian  genera  and  species  of 
the  family  Elapidae  are  as  under : 

Hamadryas  elaps,  Schl,  Andamans. 
Naja  tripudians,  Men\  Bengal,  Pegu,  Tenassenm. 
Syn.,  N.  lutescens,  Laur, 
N.  kaonthia,  Lesson, 
N.  sputatxix,  Rein, ' 
N.  atra,  Cantor. 
Syn.,  N.  larvata,  Cantor, 
Var  a  with  spectacles. 

b  without  spectacles. 
Bungarus  casruleiw,  Sch,y  Calcutta,  Pegu, 
tropidonotus,  Seh, 
ceylonicus,  Gunth,,  Ceylon. 
Xenureleps  bungaroides,  Cantor.,  Cherrapunji. 
MegftToplus  flaviceps,  Rein.,  Mergui,  Penang. 
Elaps  McLellandu,  Rein,,  Assam,  Pegu, 
melanurus,  Cantor,,  Pegu,  Tenassenm. 
intestinalis,  Lour.,  Singapore. 
Callophifl  bivirgatus,  Bote,  Malay  peninsula, 
intestinalis,  Laur.,  Malay  penmsula. 
gracilis,  Gray,  Penang,  Singapore. 
McClellandu,  12«nA.,  Hunalaya,  ^epal. 
annularis,  Gthr.,  Assam.  , 

trimaculatus,  Baud,,  Tenassenm,  Bengal, 
maculiceps,  Gthr.,  Malay  penmsula. 
nigrescens,  Gthr.,  Neilghemes. 
NAGAor  Sesh  Naga,  see  Indra,  Nagardroog.* 
NAGA  Batta  Deva,  see  Inscriptions. 
NAGABALI,  Tel.     Chavica  betle,   Mtg,— 

Rocc,  W.J,  ^  ^  _     _ 

NAGA  BULLA,  Sans.     Webera  tetranda. 
NAGA  CESARA,  Sans.     Mesua  ferrea. 
NAGA-CHAUTI,  see  Serpent.  Snake. 
NAG  AD  ANA,  Hind.  Artemisia  vulgaris,  L, 
NAGA-DANTE,  or  Nela-amida.  Tel.  Jatro- 

^  nIgA  DANTI  CHETTU,  Tel.  Tiaridium 
Indicum,  Lwi.— Heliotropium  In.  R.  1  454. 

NAGADI  have  a  complexion  invariably  ot 
the  deepest  black,  their  hj^ir  thick  and  curly, 
their  features  brutish,  their  forms  diminutive 

Campbell  p.  23. 

NAGA  DONDA,  Tel.  Bryonia  rostrata, 
jlottl,—W,  Sf  A,  1080— B.  pilosa,  R,  iii.  72G. 

NAGA  DROOG.  Colonel  Tod  shows,  in  the 
annals  of  Marwar,  that  the  Rahtor  race  con- 
quered Nagore,  or  Naga-droog,  (the  Serpent's 
castle),  from  the  Mohil,  who  held  fourteen 
hundred  and  forty  villages  so  late  as  the 
fifteenth  century.  So  many  of  the  colomes  of 
Agnicula  bestowed  the   name   of   serpent  on 


597  ;  Ic,  421— C.  verrucosa,  W.  and  A.  578 
—22.  iii.  273. 

NAGAGOLUGU,  Tel.  Murraya  exotica, 
Z.— iZ.  ii.  374.—  W.  and  A.  335  ;  Ic,  96. 

NAGAHA,  Singh.  Mesua  fefrea,  Linn,  D,C. 

NAGA-KESARA,  Sans.,  also  Naga  kesara 
chettu,  Tel.     Mesua  ferrea. — Linn  D,C, 

NAGA  KESARA  CHETTU,  or  Gajapush- 
pamu,  Tel.  Mesua  roxburghii,  R  W.  III.  i., 
127  ;  Ic.  118-961.— i2.  ii.  605. 

NAGA-KULI.     Battisa-S'iralen  is  a  town  in 
Sattara  collectorate  in  lat.   16°  67',  N.  long. 
74°  15',  famous  as  a  place  of  serpent-worship. 
Here,  at  the  present  day,  the    snakes    called 
Nagakuli,  said  to  be  not  very  poisonous,  are 
actually  caught  on  the  day  of  the  Nagapan- 
chami,  and  kept  either  in  earthern  pots   or 
covered  bamboo  baskets.     They  are  fed  with 
milk  and  edibles,  and  worshipped  in  other  res- 
pects, like  the  snake  images  and  drawings  of 
snakes.      The   day  after   the  Naga-panchami, 
they  are  taken  back  to  the  jungles  and  set  free. 
There  is  at  this  town  a  curious  tradition  in  con- 
nection with  the  Gorakha-chincha  tree  ( Adanso- 
nia  digitata)  or  the  tamarind  of  Gorakha.  Tra- 
dition ascribes  this  tree  to  be  the  result  of  a 
miracle  performed  by  a  saint  called  Gorakha- 
natha  or  Grorakshanatha. 

NAGAKUNNY,  Tam.  A  Tinnevelly  wood 
of  a  whitish  brown  colour,  used  for  building  in 
general. —  Colonel  Frith. 

NAGALAM,  Tel.     Jatropha  curcas. 

NAGALI  DUMPA,  or  Tiragali  pendalam, 
Tel.     Dioscorea,  sj). 

NAGA  MALLE,  Tel.  Rhinacanthus  com- 
munis, Nees,—  W,  Ic,  464— Justicia  nasuta,  R. 
i.  VZO^IUuede  ix.    69.,     also  Jasminum  lati- 

folium,  R,  var, 

pegiree  or  Nagaleka  baljee  wanloo  are  worship- 
pers of  Siva,  in  the  form  of  a  cobra. 

The  Siva  Chippaga  wanloo,  are  worshippers 
of  Siva,  they  are  found  in  the  Bellary  collec- 
torate of  the  Madras  Ceded  Districts. 

NAGA-MANIPURI,  see  India. 

NAGAMA    VALLE,    Maleal.      Bauhinia 

anguina. — Roxb. 

NAGA-MOOTHA,  Hind.  Cyperus  rotundus. 

NAGA-MUGHATI,  Tam.  Calonyction 
grandiflorum . — Choisy . 

n'  10 


NAGA  MULLI,  Tbl.,  Tam.  Rhinacanthus 

NAGA  MUSADA,  also  Naga  Musadi,  Tel. 
Stiychnos  colubrina. — Linn. 

NAGA  MUSfflN,  or  Tige  mushini,  Tbl. 
TiiiacQra  acuminata,  Miers — Hook  /and  Th. 
— Cocculus  ac.  W,  and  A,  44. — Menispermum 
ac.  B.  iii.  806-202 ;  but,  at  442,  O'Sh.  applies 
it  to  Strychnos  colubrina ;  with  more  pre- 
babilitj  it  may  be  given  to  S.  bicirrhosa,  which 
is  commonly  ^led  Tige  mushti. 

NAGANTAKA,  Saxs.,  irom  naga,  a  ser- 
pent, and  antaka,  the  end.  See  Garuda  or 
Gurada,  Serpent. 

NAGA-PANCHAMI,  a  festival  much  attend- 
ed to  by  all  the  hindoo  religionists  of  British 
India.     The  Naga  serpent  deity    is   worship- 
ped by  all  hindoQS   on    the    Nagapancltami, 
held     on     the     fifUi     lunar     dxiy     of    the 
month    Sravan ;    offerings    are     then     made 
to  snakes,  of  milk,  grain  and  other  articles 
poured  into  holes.     The  crest  and  signature  of 
tiie  raja  of  Ghota  Nagpur  is  the  head  and  hood 
of  a  snake  called  Nagsant.    Nagapanchami  is 
the  fifth  day  of  the  first  or  bright  half  of  the  lunar 
month,   named  Sravana,  which  generally  cor- 
responds with  August  and  September   of  the 
Christian  year.     S'rayana  is  a  month  in  which 
the  hindoos  generally  have  some  vrata  or  cere- 
mony  to  perform  every  day,  and  sometimes 
joore  than  one  festival  occurs  on  one  and  the 
same  day.    The  fifi^h  day  of  the  month  is  con- 
sidered sacred  to  the  Naga  or  serpent.     On 
this   day,   early   in   the  morning,  each  family 
brings  an  earthen  representation   of  a  serpent, 
or  paints  a  £eimily  of  ^Ye^  seven,  or  nine  ser- 
pents, widi  rubbed  sandalwood  or  turmeric.     If 
there    be    a  temple  of  the  Naga  in  the  vil- 
lage, every  one   goes   there  to  perform  wor- 
ship.    The  serpent  goddess  is  worshipped  in 
the  Euphorbia  antiquorum.  The  goddess  mother 
of  the  serpents,  and  goddess  presiding  over  them 
is  Manasa,  the  object  of  love  and  devotion,  and, 
39  the  name  implies,  an    allegorical  creation. 
Indeed,  tree  and   serpent  worship   may  be  said 
u>  have  originated  partly,  if  not  entirely,  in  the 
iznagination   of  the   people,   and  in  figures  of 
speech.     The   chief  of  the  serpents  is  Ananta, 
eternity,  literally  endless,  of  which  the  univer- 
sally acknowledged   symbol*  is   a  coiled  snake. 
Though   represented  as  the  support  of  Vishnu, 
while    fioatiug  on  the   fathomless  sea  of  chabs 
be£>re  creation  (God   in  eternity,)  he  is,  in  the 
Poianas,  described  as  having  the  form  of  Vishnu 
meaning    perhaps,    the    eternity     of   Vishnu. 
The   Canara    district  in   the   South   of  India 
may  be  said  to   be  sacred   to  serpent-worship. 
In  the  Canarese  districts  generally,  the  Naga- 
panchami festival  is  celebrated,   as  in  the  Dek- 
kan,  on  the  fifth  of  the  bright  half  of  S'ravana. 
Sunnerat   relates  (Voyage  p.  162)  that  "the 



term  of  Nagapoutche    signifies    ofiice  of  the 
snake  :  women  are  commonly  charged  with  this 
ceremony.  On  certain  days  of  the  year,  he  says 
when  they  choose  to  perform  it,  they  go  to  the 
banks  of  those  tanks  where  the  arichi,  and  margo- 
sier  grow ;  they  carry  under  these  trees  a  stone 
figure,   representing  a    Hngam,  between  two 
snakes :  they  bathe  themselves,  and,  after  ablu- 
tion, they  wash  the  lingam,  and  bum  before  it 
some  pieces  of  wood  particularly  assigned  for 
this  sacrifice,  throw  flowers  upon  it,  and  ask  of 
it  riches,  or  numerous  posterity  and  a  long  life 
to  their  husbands."     A  Singhalese  does  not  kill 
a  cobra,  but  encloses  it  in  a  wooden  cage.  A  J^aga, 
temple,  dedicated  to  the  goddess  Naga  Tambiran, 
exists    in  the  island  of  Nainatavoe,  S.  W.  of 
Jaffiia,  in  which  consecrated  serpents  are  reared 
by  the  pandarams  and   daily  fed  at  the  ex- 
pense of  the  worshippers.     Such  temples  are 
to  be  seen  in  many  places  in  the  south  of  India : 
there  are  several  in  the  town  of  Madras,  and 
one  of  great  extent  at  Vasarapad  a  suburban 
village  on  its  north,  where  crowds  of  brahman 
women   come  every  Sunday  morning  to  wor- 
ship.     The    priests    are     the    wild    Yenadi. 
Amongst  the    Tartar    races,  who    designated 
their  septs  after  some  beast,  as  the  Naga  or 
snake,  the  lungaha  or   wolf,    the    lumri    or 
numri  or  fox,  the  sessu  or  hare,  cutchwah  or 
tortoise,  &c.,  the  sept  reverenced  the  creature 
from  which  they  took  their  name.  Few  subjects 
have  more  occupied  the  notice  of  the  learned 
world  than  the  mysteries  of  Ophite   worship, 
which  are  to  be  traced  wherever  there  existed  a 
remnant  of  civilization,  or  indeed  of  humanity ; 
among    the     savages    of    the    savannahs     of 
America,  and  the  magi  of  Fars,  with  whom  it 
was  the  type  of  evil,  their  Ahrimanes.     The 
Naga,  or  serpent-genii  of  the  Rajpoots,  have  a 
semi-human   structure,  precisely*  as  Diodorus 
describes  the  snak^mother  of  the  Scythse,  in 
whose  country  originated  this  serpent-worship, 
engrafted  on   the  tenets  of  Zerdusht,  of  the 
Purans,  of  the  priesthood  of  Egjrpt,  and  on  the 
fables  of  early  Greece.     Dupui^,  Volney,  and 
other  expounders  of  the  mystery,  have  given 
an  astronomical  solution  to  what  they  deem  a 
varied  ramification    of  an    ancient    fable,    of 
which  that,  of  Greece,  "  the  dragon  guarding 
the  fruits  of  Hesperides,"  may  be  considered 
the  most  elegant  version.     Had  these  learned 
men  seen  those  ancient  sculptures  in   India, 
which  represent  "  the  fall,"  they  might  have 
changed  their  o])inion.     The  traditions  of  the 
Jains  or  Budhiste,  (originating  in  the  land  of 
the  Takyac,  or  Turkist'han). assert  the  creation 
of  the  human  species  in  pairs,   called  joogal, 
who,  fed   of  the  ever-fcucti  tying  calpa  vrisha, 
which  possesses  all  the  characters  of  the  Tree 
of  Life,  like  it  bearing 

"  Ambrosial  fruit  of  vegetable  gold  f 

N  11 



which  was  termed  amrita,  and  rendered  them  |  western  extremity  of  the  chsun  :    and  on  th^ 

immortal.  A  drawing  brought  by  Col.  Coombs, 
from  a  sculptured  column  in  a  cave  temple  in 
the  south  of  India,  represents  the  first  pair  at 
the  fdot  of  this  ambrosial  tree,  and  a  serpent 
entwined  among  the  heavily  laden  boughs, 
presenting  to  them  some  of  the  fruit  from  his 
mouth.  The  tempter  appears  to  be  at  that 
part  of  his  discourse,  when 

"  his  words,  replete  with  guile, 

"  Into  her  heart  too  easy  entrance  won, 
"  Fixed  on  the  fruit  she  gazed." 
This  is  a  curious  subject  to  be  engraved  on  an 
ancient  pagan  temple  ;  if  Jain  or  Budhist,  the 
interest  would  be  considerably  enhanced.  The 
fifth  of  Sravan  is  the  Nagpanchami,  or  day  set 
apart  for  the  propitiationof  the  chief  of  the  rep- 
tile race,  the  Naga  or  serpent.  On  this  festival, 
at  Oodipoor,  as  well  as  throughout  India,  they 
strew  particular  plants  about  the  threshold, 
to  prevent  the  entrance  of  reptiles. 

NAGAPATTANA,  a  town  in  the  district  of 
Tanjore,  with  a  celebrated  temple  of  Naga-na- 
tha :  inside  the  temple  near  the  idol  of  Naga-na- 
tha,  there  is  a  white  ant  hill  to  which  large 
oflferings  are  made  in  honor  of  the  serpent-god. 

other  side,  south-westerly   along  the  vaUey  of 
the  Burak  and  Surmu:  these  highlands  are 
thus  embraced  by  the  valleys  of  the  Brahma- 
putra and  its  affluents  on  all  sides  but  the  S. 
E.,  where  they  slope  to  the  Kynduayn.    The 
Garo  are  called  by  the  villagers    and  upper 
hill  people,  Coonch  Garo ;  though  they  them- 
selves,  if  asked  of  what  race  they  are,  will 
answer,    "Garo,"   and    not    give   themselves 
other  tribal  appellation  though  there  are  many 
tribes  of  the  Garo.     A  Garo  is  a  stout,  well- 
.shaped  man;     hardy,  and  able  to  do  much 
work ;  of  a  surly  look ;  flat  caffre-like  nose ; 
small  eyes,  generally  blue  or  brown  ;    forehead 
wrinkled,  and  over-hanging  eye-brow  ;    with 
large  mouth,  thick  lips,  and  face  round  and 
short :  their  colour  is  of  a  light  or  deep  brown. 
The  women  are  short  and  squat,  with  masculine 
expression  of  face ;  in  the  features  they  differ 
little  from  the  men.     The  dress  of  these  people 
corresponds  with  their  persons.     They  eat  all 
manner  of  food,  even  dogs,  frogs,  snakes,  and 
the  blood  of  all  animals.     Th^  last  is  baked 
over  a  slow  fire,  in  hoUow  green  bamboos,  till 

NAGA-PUSING,  Malay.     The  auris  of  a  M^  becomes  of  a  nasty  dirty  green  colour.   They 
species  of  anisthiria  ?   growing  at  Singapore,    ^^  ^^nd  of  drinking  to  an  excess.     Liquor  is 

which  display  much  irritabili^  when  warmth 
is  applied. 

NAGA  and  KHASIA  HILLS.  The  moun- 
tain range  which  bounds  Assam  on  the  south  is 
known  by  a  great  diversity  of  tiames  in  diflfer- 
ent  parts  of  its  course,  according  to  the  differ- 
ent tribes  by  whom  it  is  inhabited. 

The  Khasia  or  Cossyah  hills  rise  abruptly  on 

put  into  the  mouths  of  infants  almost  as  soon 
as  they  are  able  to  swallow.  Their  religion  is 
a  mixed  hinduism  and  shamanism,  they  worship 
Mahadeva;  and  at  Baunjaur,  a  pass  in  the 
hills,  they  worship  the  sun  and  moon.  To 
ascertain  which  of  the  two  they  are  to  worship 
upon  any  particular  occasion,  their  priest  takes  a 
cup  of  water,  and  some  wheat :  first  calling  the 

the  south  from  the  plains  of  Silhet  to  the  height    name  of  the  sim,  he  drops  a  grain  into  the  water; 

of  about  4,000  feet,  and  thence  more  gradually 
to  6,000  feet.  The  culminating  point  is  Chil- 
long  hill,  the  elevation  of  which  13  about 
6,600  feet. 

To  the  westward  of  the  Khasia  hills  lie  the 
Garo  hills,  which  are  lower,  the  maximum  ele- 
vation being  probably    no  where  more  than 
three  or  four  thousand  feet.     To  the  east,  be- 
yond Jyntea  or  Jaintia,  which  is  similar  in 
general  character  to   Khasia,  there  appears  to 
be  a  considerable  depression  in   the  range,  a 
large  river  with  an  open  valley  penetrating  far 
to  the  north.     To  the  east  of  Cachar  again 
there  are  lofty  hiUs,  inhabited  by  Naga  tribes, 
and  also  quite  unexplored,  except  in  one  place, 
where  they  were  crossed  by  Griffith  in  travel- 
ling from  upper  Assam  to  the  Hukum  valley, 
on  a  tributary-  of  the  Irawadi.    The  Burak  and 
Surmu  rivers  run  in  valleys  of  the  Assam  chain. 

The  Naga,  Mikir,  Elachari,  Garo,  and  Khas- 
sya,  are  the  five  races  in  whose  possession 
chiefly,  are  the  broad  lands  of  the  Assam  chain 
extending  from  the  N.  £.  near  Kynduayn  and 
Namrup  on  one  side,  along  the  valley  of  the 
Brahmaputra  to  its  southern  bend  round  the 


if  it  sink,   they  are  lien  to  worship  the  snn ; 
and  should  it  not  sink,  they  then  would  drop 
another  grain  in  the  name  of  the  moon,  and 
so  on  till  one  of  the  grains  sink.     All  reli- 
gious ceremonies  are  preceded  by  a  sacrifice 
to  their  god,  of  a  bull,  goat,  hog,  cock,  or  dog. 
Except  milk  they  use  everything.    They  Uve 
in  houses  raised  from  the  ground  on     piles. 
The  youngest  daughter  inherits.     The  woman 
marries  the  brother  of  her  deceased  husband  ; 
if  he   die,   the   next:  if  all,  the  father.     The 
dead   are   kept  four  days,  then  burnt  amidst 
feasting  and  drinking  and  the  ashes  buried  on 
the  spot.     A  small  dish  of  bell  metal  with  em- 
bossed figures,   called  a  Deo-Kora  is   hung  np 
as  a  household  god  and  worshipped  and   sacri- 
ficed to  :  and  Ae  Garo  believe  that  when  the 
household  are  asleep,  the  Deo  or  figure   of  the 
Kora  issues  in  search  of  food  and  returns  to  its 
Kora  to  rest.    The  Graro  are  under  British  .con- 
trol.    They  are  classed  as  Che-anna  (6  Annas) 
and  Das  Anna  (10  Annas)  but  they  consider 
themselves  one  and  the  same  people.     They  use 
sharp  bambu  panji  or  stakes,  four  inches  long 
as  a  means  of  opposing  invasion.    In  a  treaty 

N  12 


in  1848,  thej  consented  to  abstain  from  hang- 
ing hmnan  skulls  in  their  houses.  They  build 
their  houses  on  piles.  The  Marquis  of 
Hastings'  description,  however,  somewhat 
diffen  from  the  above.  He  says  they  are 
divided  into  many  independent  commu- 
nities, or  rather  clans,  acting  together  from 
a  principal  of  common  origin,  but  without 
any  ostensible  head  of  their  league.  With 
them  aU  property  and  atithority  descends  whol- 
ly in  the  female  line.  On  ihe  death  of  the 
mother,  the  bulk  of  the  family  possessions  must 
be  to  the  favourite  daughter  (if  there  be  more' 
than  one,)  who  is  designated  as  such,  without 
regard  to  primogeniture,  during  the  life-time  of 
her  parent.  The  widower  has  a  stipend  secur- 
ed to  liim  at  the  time  of  marriage.  A  moder- 
ate portion  is  given  to  each  of  the  other  sisters. 
A  son  receives  nothing  whatever,  it  being  held 
among  the  Garo  that  a  man  can  always  main- 
tain himself  by  labour.  The  woman  acknow- 
ledged as  chief  in  each  of  the  clans  is  called 
Miiihar.  Her  husband  is  termed  Muharree. 
He  is  her  representative  in  all  concenis,  but 
obtain?  no  right  in  her  property.  The  clan 
will  interfere  if  they  see  t^e  possessions  of  the 
Muhar  in  course  of  dissipation.  If  a  daughter 
be  the  issue  of  the  marriage,  a  son  of  the 
iasae  of  the  Muhar's  fietther  is  sought  in  prefer- 
ence to  become  her  husband  ;  and  in  default 
of  such  a  person,  the  son  of  the  nearest  female 
relation  of  the  Muhar  (he  being  of  due  age) 
would  stand  next  for  selection.  The  husbands 
to  the  sisters  of  a  Muhar  are  called  Lushkur, 
and  it  is  a  denomination  to  which  a  notion  of 
nmk  is  attached. 

Thej  have  frequently  made  descents  on  the 
plains.  '  A  party  of  them,  in  May  1860,  mur- 
dered sixteen  natives  of  tlie  plains  in  the  North 
of  the  Mymensingh  district,  and  afterwards 
mutilated  the  bodies.  They  confessed  the 
crime  and  three  were  executed  in  their  own 
villages  before  iheirown  people.  Their  accom- 
plices, in  number  some  20  men,  were  condemn- 
ed to  transportation  for  various  periods.  Their 
object  was  not  so  much  plunder,  as  human 
heads  to  offer  to  their  spirit  of  the  mountains. 
The  rs^ah  of  Nustung  one  of  the  Khassyah 
states  subsequently  undertook  to  aid  in  repress- 
ing these  raids.  The  Garo  hilh,  are  a  confused 
assemblage  from  1,000  to  6,000  feet  in  height 
of  estimsuted  area,  4,347,  square  miles.  Charac^ 
terof  country,  wild.  The  rock  formation  is 
soppoaed  to  be  chiefly  of  gneiss,  or  stratified 
granite.  The  rajah  of  Nustung,  one  of  the  Cos- 
syah  states,  is  well  nigh  independent  and  the 
most  powerful  and  influential  of  all  the  hill 
ddefr,  not  alone  from  his  position  but  from  his 
QBosaal  popularity.  He  had  conferred  upon  him, 
about  the  year  1868,  the  titles  of  Rajah  Baha- 
door  in  consideratioxi  of  his  uniform  loyalty  to 


the  British,  notwithstanding  the  strenuous 
efforts  made  to  enlist  him  in  the  revolts  of  the 
hill  tribes.  The  Nustung  territory  forms  the 
South  West  portion  of  the  Cossyah  district,  and 
borders  on  the  Garo  country  ;  and  its  rajah  en- 
tered into  a  convention  with  the  British  that, 
should  it  be  at  any  time  requisite  to  the  latter 
power  to  move  troops  in  the  Garo  hills  from  the 
eastward,  they  shall  have  a  free  passage  through 
his  territory.  His  turbulent  and  refractory 
neighbours  are  the  Jynteah,  Cossyah,  Garo, 
Bhootanese,  Naga,  and  Abor.  Dr.  Buchanan 
Hamilton  says,  the  under  bark  of  the  Celtis 
orientalis  tree,  like  that  of  the*  West  India  Cel- 
tis, consisting  of  numerous  reticulated  fibres, 
forms  a  kind  of  natural  cloth,  used  by  the  Graro 
for  covering  their  nakedness.  (*Lin.  Trans.,' 
xvii,  p.  209).  He  also  describes  it  in  his  re- 
port on  Assam,  as  a  kind  of  rug  worn  by  the 
Garo  in  the  cold  weather,  and  serving  them  .as 
a  blanket  by  night.  Captain  Reynolds  sent  a 
specimen  of  it  to  the  Agri-Horticultural  So- 
ciety ;  the  Garo  make  several  such  cloths  of 
different  colours  from  various  barks.  The  Graro 
who  come  to  the  plains,  generally  buy  some 
small  ends  of  cloths  from  the  Bengalees,  to  at- 
tend the  hauts  (fairs)  in,  not  as  clothing  to 
protect  them  from  wind  and  weather." 
Mr.  Hodgson,  writing  in  the  Bengal  Asiatic 
Society's  Journal,  inclines  to  the  opinion  that 
the  aborigines  of  the  Sub-Himalaya,  as  far 
east  as  the  Dhansri  of  Assam  belong  to  the 
Thibetan  stock  and  east  of  that  river  to  the 
Chinese  stock — except  the  Garo  and  other 
tribes  occupying  that  portion  of  the  hills  be- 
tween Assam  and  Sylhet;and  that  the  abori- 
gines of  the  tarai  and  forest  skirting  the  entire 
Sub-Himalaya,  inclusive  of  the  greater  part  of 
the  marginaicircuit  of  the  Assam  valley,  belong, 
like  those  last  mentioned,  to  the  Tamulian 
stock  of  aborigines  of  the  plains  of  India  gener- 
ally. Mr.  Eobinson  tells  us  that  in  the 
Assam  valley  and  its  mountain  confines,  are 
three  classes  of  languages.  One  of  Sanscrit 
origin  and  the  others  of  two  great  classes,  viz., 
those  connected  with  the  Thibetan .  and  those 
deriving  their  origin  from  the  Tai  or  Shyan 
stock.  Of  the  Assamese  proper,  that  is  the  lan- 
guage of  the  valley,  eight-tenths  of  the  language 
is  identical  with  Bengali,  and  nearly  four-fifths 
of  the  words  in  common  use,  are  derivations 
from  the  Sanscrit.  The  country  from  time 
immemorial  had  been  governed  by  rulers  of 
Shyan  origin,  and  the  very  small  number  of  Tai 
words  that  can  be  traced  to  Tai  origin  is  remark- 
able. The  Thibetan  and  the  Tai  or  Shyan 
languages,  all  approximate  towards  the  Chinese 
colloquial  system  and  more  or  less  possess  the 
characteristics  of  being  originally  monosyllabic 
and  all  intonated.  The  Tai  or  Shyan  class  are 
also  destitute  of  inflections.    The  borders  o£ 





the  valley  are  remarkable  for  the  numbers  of  its 
populations.  Many  of  them  are  of  that  great 
Bhot  family  which  we  find  extending  from  the 
west  of  Chinese  Tartary  eastwards.  All  the  native 
populations  here  are  more  or  less  akin  to  the 
peoples  of  the  Burmese  empire,  and  seem  to  be 

remnants  of  Bhot  tribes  left  behind   in  the  I  the  South  are  the  hill  tribes  of  Assam,  the 


the  Rhondur,  the  Chak  and  Drok,  the  Hor  and 
the  Kolo.  Further  East  are  the  Kooch,  the 
Dhimal  and  Bodo,  arranged  into,  the  Western 
Bodo  of  Sikkim  and  the  Butan  frontier,  and 
the  Eastern  Bodo  or  Borro  of  Assam  and  Ca- 
char, — the  Garo,  the  Kasia,  the  Mikir.     On 

pressui'e  of  the  larger  bodies  to  the  south.  Se- 
veral writers  have  noticed  the  tribes  in  and 
^ear  the  Assam  valley.  Dr.  W.  W.  Hunter, 
names  those  of  them  in  the  N.  E.  of  Bengal  as 
the  Bodo ;  Dhimal ;  Kocch  ;  Garo  ;  Kachari ;  in 
the  Eastern  Frontier  of  Bengal  are  the  Muni- 
puri  ;  Mithan  Naga  ;  Tablung  Naga  ;  Khari 
Naga  ;  Angami  Naga  ;  Namasang  Naga  ; 
Nowgong  Naga  ;  Tengsa  Naga  ;  Abor  Miri  ; 
Sibsagor  Miri  ;  Deoria  Chutia  ;  Singhpo. 

Dr.  Latham  observes  that  the  nations  on 
the  borders  of  British  India,  in  the  north- 
west, the  north  east  and  east,  form  an  ethnolo- 
gical group  which  contains  the  Tibetans,  the 
Nepal  tribes,  several  populations  of  the  Sub- 
Himalayan  range,  the  Burmese,  the  Siamese, 
the  Natives  of  Pegu,  the  Cambojians,  the 
Cochin  Chinese  and  the  Chinese,  in  populations 
which  cover  perhaps  one  fifth  of  Asia.  Their 
countries  are  mostly  inland,  and  mountainous, 
but  contain  the  water-sheds  of  mighty  rivers, 
the  Indus,  the  Brahmaputra,  the  Irawadi 
and  the  Yellow  river.  The  complexion  and 
features  of  these  peoples  are  those  to  which 
the  term  Mongolian  has  been  applied.  Though 
wild  paganism  and  mahomedanism  exist, 
the  majority  are  of  the  buddhist  religion, 
but  all  speak  a  language  the  least  de- 
veloped of  all  the  forms  of  human  speech, 
being  monosyllabic  and  with  little  power  of 
grammatical  inflexions.  These  people  are 
arranged  under  four  great  political  powers,  the 
British,  the  Burmese,  the  Siamese  and  Chinese. 
Ethnologically  they  are  capable  of  being  classed 
in  three  considerable  sub-groups.  The  first  of 
these  is  the  Bhot  or  Bot,  a  term  which  is  used  in 
compound  words  as  Bult  in  Bultistan, — But  in 
Butan, — Bet  in  Tibet,  and  in  the  tribes  known 
as  Bhutia  and  Bootia,  and  comprises  the  four 
little  Tibetans,  the  natives  of  Ladak,  the  Tibe- 
tans of  Tibet  Proper  and  the  closely  allied 
tribes  of  Butan.  The  Bhot  area  is  bounded  on 
the  south  by  India,  and  Cashmir,  on  the  North 
by  Chinese  Tartary  and  on  the  West  by  Little 
Bokhara  and  Kafiristan.  Amongst  the  Bhot 
populations  may  be  mentioned  the  mahomedan 
Bhot  of  Bultistan  or  Little  Tibet,  of  Rongdo, 
Skardo,  Parkuta,  and  KJaartakshi,  of  Shigar, 
Chorbad,  &c.,  the  buddhist  But  of  Ladak,  Hun- 
grung  and  Kunawar,  the  Bhut  of  the  Chinese 
Empire ;  the  Tibetans  of  Rudok,  Garo,  Goga, 
&;c.,  of  Lhasa  and  Tishu  Lumbu,  the  Sifan,  the 
Lhopa  of  Butan,  the  Tak,  the  Bhot  of  Garwal, 
Kumaon  and  Nepal,  the  Chepang  and  probably 


Aka,  Dofla,  Abor,  Miri  and  Bor  Abor  tribes, 
the  Mishmi,  Muttuck,  Singhpo  and  Jili,  with 
the  Naga  in  Assam.  The  colors  of  Bhut  and  Bud- 
dhist populations  are  of  various  shades  of  white, 
yellow  and  brown ;  while  that  of  the  pagan 
races  is  various  hues  of  black.  LathanCs  Desc, 
Ethn,  Ben»A»  Soc.  Journal  No.  eci.   MarcJi, 
1869,— CoZe  Mifik.   Hind.,  p.  320  ;  Hasting' s 
Private  Journal^   Vol.,  p.p.  132,  316 ;  RoyU 
Fib.y  PI.  317.      Bttchatian,   Hamilton,    Linn. 
Tr.,  xvii,  p.  209.     See  Khassya,  Mikir,  Kuki, 
Singhpo,  India,  Krishna,  Hindoo,  Serpent,  Sikh. 
NAGAR  or  Bednur,  a  town  in  the  northern 
part  of  Mysore.  It  belonged  to  the  ancient  Cha- 
lukya  dynasty.     It  is  usually  written  Bednore 
but  is  also  called  Nagar.    The  Nagar  district,  in 
Mysore,  is  to  the  north  of  Coorg,     It  consists  of 
table-topped  hills,  4,000  to  6,000  feet  in  mean 
elevation,  the  Baba-buden  hills  are  6,700  feet, 
and  some   parts    are    6,000    feet.     Coffee  is 
largely    grown,    its    climate    and    vegetation 
appear  to  be  identical  with   that  of  Malabar. 
For   the  most  part  it  consists  of  rounded  or 
table-topped   hills,  4-6,000  feet  in  mean  eleva- 
tion, often  cultivated  to  that  height,  and  rising 
in  some  places  to  upwai*ds  of  6,000  feet,  the  por- 
tion called  Baba-buden   hills  being   said  to  be 
5,700   feet.     As    with    all  other    parts  of  the 
western  chain  the  climate  of  the  western  parts 
is  excessively  humid ;  the  rains  at  the  town  of 
Nagar   (or  Bednor)  elevated    4,000    feet  on  a 
spur  to  the  westward  of  the  chain   are  said  to 
last  for  nine  months,  during  six  of  which  they 
are  so  heavy  that  the  inhabitants   cannot  leave 
their  houses. — Hooker  6f  Thomson.  See  Chalukya. 
NAGAR,  a  river  near  Surkole  in  Bauleah 

NAGAR,   Hind.,  from  Nagara,  a  town,  any 
town  as  Nagar,  Ahmednugger,  Vizianagram. 
NAGARA,  SiNaH.  A  tribe  of  Guzerati  brah- 


NAGARA,  harbour,  is  an  inlet  of  the  sea. 

NAGARAHARA  or  Jalalabad,  is  the  Nang^ 
go-lo-ho-lo  of  the  Chinese.  Its  capital  was  at 
Hidda,  the  Hi-lo  of  the  Chinese,  and  it  was  tlie 
Nagara,  or  Dionysopolis  of  Ptolemy.  From 
Lamghan,  the  Chinese  pilgrim  Hwen-Thsang 
proceeded  for  100  li,  or  nearly  17  miles,  to  the 
south-east,  and,  after  crossing  a  large  river, 
reached  the  district  of  Nagarahara.  Both  the 
bearing  and  distance  point  to  the  Nagara  of 
Ptolemy,  which  was  to  the  south  of  the  Kabul 
river,  and  in  the  immediate  vicinity  of  Jalalabad. 
The  natural  boundaries  of  the  district  are  the 

N  14 


Jagdaiak  Plaas  on  the  west,  and  the  Khybar  Pass 
on  the  east,  with  the  Kabul  river  to  the  north, 
aad  the  Safed  Koh,  or  snowy  mountains,  to  the 
sondi.  Within  these  limits  the  direct  measure- 
ments on  the  map  are  about  75  by  SO  miles, 
which  in  actual  road  distance  would  be  about 
the  same  as  the  ntunbers  stated  by  Hwen- 
Tfasang.  The  position  of  the  capital  would 
appear  to  have  been  at  Begram,  about  two 
miles  to  the  west  of  Jelalabad,  and  five  or  six 
miles  to  the  W.  N.  W.  of  Hidda,  which  every 
inqoirer  has  identified  with  the  Hi-lo  of  the 
Chinese  pilgrims.  The  town  of  Hilo  was  only 
foor  or  five  li,  pr  about  three-quarters  of  a  mile, 
in  circuit ;  but  it  was  celebrated  for  its  posses- 
sion of  the  skuU-bone  of  Buddha,  which  was 
deposited  in  a  stupa,  or  solid  roimd  tower,  and 
was  only  exhibited  to  pilgrims  on  payment  of  a 
pece  of  gold.  Hidda  is  a  small  village,  five 
miles  to  the  south  of  Jalalabad ;  but  it  is  well 
known  for  its  large  collection  of  buddhist 
stupas,  tumuli,  and  caves  which  were  explored 
by  Maason.  Similarly  the  skull-necklace  of 
Siva  IS  called  simply  the  asthi-mala,  or  bone- 
necklace.'  Nagarahara  was  identified  by  Las- 
sen with  the  Nagara  or  Dionysopolis  of  Ptolemy, 
which  was  situated  midway  between  Kabul 
and  the  Indus.  The  second  name  suggests  the 
probability  that  it  may  be  the  same  place  as  the 
Nysa  of  Arrian  and  Curtius.  This  name  is 
perhaps  also  preserved  in  the  Dinus  or  Dinuz  of 
Abu  Rihan,  as  he  places  it  about  midway 
between  Kabul  and  Parashawar. — Cunning- 
hanCs  Ancient  Geography  of  India,  p.  44,  46. 

NAGA-RAMA-KATTI.  Tel.     Calonyction 
giandifiorum.     It  has  very  large,  pure  white 
flowers  is  a  native  of  the  W.  Indies  but  culti- 
vated in  India. — Chmsy, 

NAGARATRA,  a  hindoo  sect  who  appear 
to  bekmg  both  to  the  Vaishnava  and  Saiva 
creeds,  some  following  the  tenets  of  the  Lingayata. 
— Bkuhanan,  ••  Jorurney  from  Madras  through 
Mysore,  Canara  and  Malabar, 

NAGARI,  in  lat,  13°  18'  N.;  long.  79*'  35'  E. 
in  the  Kamatic,  a  small  village  on  the  southern 
loot  of  the  Nagari  ghat  bangalo  is  406  feet 
above  the  sea. — A.  SM, 

NAGAKI  GHAT,  in  lat.  13°  2V  N.,  long. 
79°  35'  in  the  Kamatik,  a  pass  in  the  eastern 
ghats.      Top  of  the  ghat  is  558  feet. — SchL,  A. 

NAGAKI,  HnTD.  Relating  to  a  town  or 
dty,  applied,  especially,  to  the  alphabet  of  the 
»nscrit  language;  and  its  modifications  in 
Hindi,  Marathi,  &c.,  sometimes  with  deva- 
(divine)  prefixed  as  Devanagari.  At  the  present 
day,  the  hindi  tongue  is  written  in  Deva  Nagari 
character,  the  Burmese  in  the  Pali,  the  Tamil, 
Telugu,  Canarese,  Mahrad,  Malealum,  Bengali, 
Guzerati,  Urya  and  others  have  each  their  own 
separate  character. 

NAGAK  JAMIAN,  Hutd.    Ficus  reticulata. 




NAGARJUNA  CAVE,  oneof  the  Behar  caves, 
in  the  neighbourhood  of  Rajagriha :  the  milk- 
maids cave  and  brahman  girls  cave  have  in- 
scriptions, in  the  Lath  character;  they  are 
about  200  B.  C.  and  are  the  most  ancient  caves 
of  India.  The  Nagarjuni  cave  and  Haft  Kha- 
neh  or  Satghar  group  are  situated  in  the  southern 
arm  of  the  hiU  at  some  little  distance  from  the 
brahman  girl  and  milkmaid  s  cave.  Another 
group  is  the  neighbouring  Kama  Chapara  and 
Lomas  Rishi  caves.  Nagarjuna  cave,  at  Buddha 
Gaya,  has  numerous  inscriptions  in  Sanskrit ;  but 
requiring  the  aid  of  a  Pali  scholar  to  translate  it. 
The  date  is  Samvat  73  or  74  of  the  Gopala  or 
Bhupala  dynasty  of  Gaur,  corresponcfeng  to 
1197  A.p.  or  1140  ?  The  character  used  in  the 
inscriptions  is  the  Graur  alphabet,  the  immediate 
parent  of  the  modern  Bengali,  and  like  the 
Harsha.  Amongst  religions  or  divinities  or  sages 
mentioned  is  a  salutation  to  Budda,  Mahavira 
swami.  Sahasrapa,  the  treasurer  of  the  raja,  is 
called  a  conscientous  bodhisatwa.  The  kings  or 
princes  mentioned  are  Asoka  Chandra  Deva ; 
his  brother,  Dasaratha  Kumara,  and  Sri  Mat 
Lakshamana  ;  Seva  Deva.  This  inscription  is  of 
considerable  importance,  as,  by  its  era  of  73,  it 
confirms  Mr.  Colebrookes  correction  by  a 
thousand  years  of  Dr.  Wilkin's  date  of  the  Gaya 
inscription  translated  by  the  latter.  It  is  of 
great  importance,  also,  as  it  distinctly  shows 
the  buddhist  impression  in  those  days  of  what 
Nibutti  or  Nirvana  meant,  namely — as  expressed 
in  the  inscription — "  the  absorption  of  his  (the 
writer  s)  soul  in  the  Supreme  Being,"  disposing 
of  the  question  of  buddhist  atheism.  The  in- 
scription shows  that  the  buddhists  had  still  a 
hold  in  India  in  the  twelfth  century.  It  was 
recorded  by  Sahasrapada,  the  treasurer  of 
the  raja  Dasaratha  Kumara.  The  princes 
are  not  met  with  in  hindu  history.  In 
another,  of  date  the  1st  century  B.  C. 
the  character  used  in  the  inscriptions,  is  No,  2 
Lat* — Yajna  Varma,  Ananta  Varma  are  men- 
tioned. This  remarkable  inscription,  found  in- 
scribed in  a  buddhist  cave,  records  the  consecra- 
tion of  the  saiva  images,  Dheetapati  and  Devi. 
In  the  Budda  Gaya  vaulted  cavern,  or 
Nagarjuni,  other  inscriptions  in  the  Sans- 
krit are  of  the  date  alter  Allahabad  No.  2 
and  of  the  ninth  or  tenth  century.  The  char- 
acter used  in  the  inscriptions  is  the  Gaya  ;  and 
differs  slightly  from  the  Gujarat  alphabet  of 
Mr.  Wathen,  having  many  compound  letters, 
and  is  therefore  more  modern  than  it.  Yania 
is  mentioned,  also  son  of  Ananta  Varma.  These 
inscriptions,  in  the  same  character  as  the  pre- 
ceding, only  contain  praises  of  the  Varma  princes, 
who,  Mr.  J.  Prinsep  thinks,  were  of  tho  Gupta 
family.  They  are  all  in  the  Buddha  cave  of 
Nagarjuna.—  Vol  v.  p.  660  jxvi.  p.  595  ;  See 
Burabur  Caves,  Inscriptions. 



NAGARKOTE,  see  Kathi  or  Katti. 

NAGAR  MOTHA,  or  Nagar  mothi,  Hutd. 
Cyperus  juncifoliuB,  also  Cjperus  longus,  and 
C  rotundus,  &c. 

NAGA-RUNGA,  also  Swadoo  Naringa,  Sans. 

NAGARU  TIGE,  Tel.  Tephrosia  racemosa, 
W,  and  A,  666. — Robinia  rac.  i2,  iii  329. 

NAGASAKI,  a  chief  sea-port  town  in  Ja- 
pan. The  entrance  to  Nagasaki  harbour  is 
lovely.  Porcelain  made  at  Nagasaki  is  solid  and 


NAG  DOWNA,  ain).?  Of  Bombay  Crinmn 
asiaticum,  in  other  districts,  Crinum  toxicarium, 
also  Ajsparagus  officinalis,  also  Artemisia  vul- 
garis.—  WiUd,  Herb. 

NAGEESAR,  Hnn).,  a  species  of  Garcinia; 
on  the  Calcutta  side  of  Indiait  is  the  Mesua  ferra. 
Throughout  his  travels  in  India,  Dr.  Hooker 
was  struck  with  the  undue  reliance  placed 
on  native  names  of  plants,  and  information 
of  kinds.  It  is  a  very  prevalent,  but  erro- 
neous   impression,    that    savage     and     half- 

at  the  same  time  elegant!  It  is  a  government  |  civilised  people  have  an  accurate  knowledge  of 
monopoly.  To  procure  a  service  for  twelve 
persons,  the  permission  of  the  authorities 
was  required,  and  then,  an  ordinarily  hand- 
some one  would  cost  at  least  £10.  Exquisite- 
ly worked  basket  cups  of  the  thin  porcelain  is 
bound  by  a  fine  net-work  of  cane  or  young 
bamboo,  so  neatly  woven  that  the  meshes  are 
imperceptible.  There  are  some  gi'osser  speci- 
mens of  this  workmanship,  but  the  well-finished 
platting  is  inimitable.  The  origin  of  this 
beautiful  texture  was,  no  doubt,  a  protection 
to  the  fingers  of  tea-drinkers :  and  many  are  so 
well  done,  that  they  appear  to  have  been  paint- 
ed on  the  cup.  The  French  word,  biblo,  com- 
prehends in  its  meaning  anything^  dnd  all 
things  which  have  no  use,  but  still  are  curiosi- 
ties or  ornaments,  and  bought  as  such. — Frere 
Antipodes y  jp.  388.     See  Japan,  Kiu-siu. 

NAGA  SAMPANGI,  Tbl.  ?  Mesua  ferrea. 
NAGA  SARA,  Tel.     Amphidonax  karka. 
NAGASSARIAM,   Rumph  Amb.,     Mesua 
ferrea,  Linn,  DC, 

NAGA  SARA  TIGE,  Tel.    From  Kondavid, 
Guntur  with  the  following  remarks,  "  Root 



a  tuber,   creeps  on   the    ground,   fiowers 
August  and  fruits  in  November." 

NAGA  TALI,  Tel.  According  to  Br.  1242, 
"  a  medicinal  plant  useful  in  snake  bites," 
"  Trichosanthes  anguina."? 

NAGATAMMA,  see  Hindoo. 

NAGA  TUMMA  or  Kasturi  tumma,  Tel- 
Vachellia  Famesiana,  W.  and  A, 

NAGA  VALLI,  or  Tamala  paku.  Saws.,  Tel. 
Chavica  betle,  Miq. 

NAGA  VALLI,  Saijs.  Canthium  parviflo- 
rum,  also  Bauhinia  scandens. 

NAGAYCHE  ALU,  Tel.    Cassia  buds. 

NAG  BALA,  Hind.  Alysicarpus  nummu- 
larifolius,  also  Alyssicarpus  nummularia. 

NAGA-BARYALA,  Bbno.     Sida  alba. 

NAG-BEL,  Hind.  Chavica  seriboo,  Miff,, 
also  Piper  betel,  and  Bauhinia  anguina. 

NAG-BULA,  Bbng.     Sida  alba. 

NAG  CHAMPA,  also  Pyilaru,  Mar.,  Can. 
Mesua  ferrea. 

NAGDAUN,  Hind.  Staphylea  emodi,  Abe- 
Ira  triflora,  Viburnum  faetens. 

NAG  DOWNA,  Hind.  Artemisia  vulgaris,  L.  ,  blossom  of  a 

objects  of  natural  history,  and  a  unifbrm 
nomenclature  for  them. — Hooker^  Him.  Jwx, 
Vol,  ii,  p.  328. 

NAGEIA  PUTRANJIVA,  Roxh.  Syn.  of 
Putranjiva  Roxburghii,  WaU. 

NAGEL,  also  Spiker,  Ger.     Nails. 

NAGELN-BOOMEN,  Ditt.     Cloves. 

NAGELU  BALA  KURA,  Tbl.  An  ama- 
rantaceous  plant  so  named  by  the  Konda  Do- 
ralu,  probably  a  var.  of  Digera  muricata. 

NAGERKOT,  not  far  from  Nagerkote,  is 
Joallamooky,  a  temple  built  over  the  subterrane- 
ous fiT^, — P^nanfs  Bindoostan,  Vol,  i,  p,  36. 

NAGERY,  a  village  about  30  miles  N.  E. 
of  Madras,  in  the  Collectorate  of  North  Arcot. 
It  is  built  near  a  hill,  the  projecting  point  of 
which  in  lat.  13°  25'  N,  is  known  to  mariners 
as  Nagery  nose. 

NAGESAJR,  Hind.     Mesua  ferrea. 

NAGESH-ALU,  Tel.     Cassia  Bud^. 

NAGGAN  KOT,  See  India. 

NAGHA-MUGHATI,  also  Valad  ambu,  Tam. 
Calonyction  grandiflorum,  Clioisy, 

NA  GHEE,  Btom.  A  timber  of  Tenasse- 
rim,  of  maximum  girth  3  cubits,  and  maximum 
length  16  feet.  When  seasoned  it  floats  in 
water.  It  is  a  tolerably  good  wood,  used  for 
mallets,  but  not  durable  enough  to  be  recom- 
mended.—  Captain  Dance, 

NAGHORI,  Guz.  A  tribe  of  moham  ma- 
dans  in  Guzerat,  usually  employed  in  driving 
carts  and  keeping  cattle. 

NAGILUM  PALAM,  Tam.  Pomegranate. 

NAGISHVORO,  Uria.  Of  Ganjam  and 
Gumsur,  supposed  to  be  Mesua  ferrea?  Its 
extreme  height  is  30  feet,  circmnference  3i 
feet,  and  height  from  the  ground  to  theinter- 
section  of  the  first  branch,  9  feet.  A  medicine 
used  for  diarrhoea,  rheumatism  &c.,  is  extract- 
ed from  the  flower.  The  flowers  are  also  worn 
by  the  Oriyas  and  the  rajahs  stuflf  their  pil- 
lows with  diem.  The  tree  is  tolerably  com- 
mon, but  no  use  seems  to  be  made  of  the  wood. 
— Captain  MacdonaM. 

NAGKESAR,  HiND.,Mesua  ferrea,  Linn,  D.C. 
In  hindoo  mythology,  the  five  arrows  of  Kama, 
the  hindoo  god  of  love,  are  each  tipped  with  the 



flower,  which  is  devoted  to,  and 


^uj^msed  to  preside  over,  a  sense  :  the  flowers 
are  of  a  heating,  inflaming  quality ;  and  are 
named,    and  well  described,  in  the    lines  of 
the  hynm  hy  Sir  William  Jones,  which  paint 
Vasanta  preparing  the  bow  and  shafts  for  his 
niisoliierous  friend  ; 
*"'  He  bemls  the  luscious  cane,  and  twists  the 
With  bees,  how  sw^eet !  but,  ah  !  how  keen 

'  their  sting ! 
He  with  five  flowrets  tips  their  ruthless  darts, 
Which  through  five  senses  pierce  enraptured 

hearts : 
Strong  Chumpa,  rich  in  odorous  gold  ; 
W'arm  Amer,  nurs*d  in  heavenly  mould ; 
Dry  Nagkeser,  in  silver  smiling ; 
Hot  Ritticum,  our  sense  beguiling  ; 
And  last,  to  kindle  fierce  the  scorching  flame, 
Loveshaft,  which  gods  bright  Bela  name" 
The  Chumpa,  or  Champa,  more  classically 
called  Chainpaka,  is  the  Uie  Michelia  champaca 
of  European  botanists :    it  is  of  two  sorts,  white 
and  yeUow,   small,   and   in  its  foliage  like  an 
expanded  rose-bud.     Hindoo  gardeners  make, 
and  expose  in  the  shops,  chaplets  and  long  strings 
of  the  blossoms,  with  wliich  the  hindu  women,  on 
the  supposition  that  its  fragrance  excites  favour- 
able  sensations  in  the  votaries  of  Kama,  deco- 
rate their  hair,  and  wear  round  their  necks ; 
its  potency  is,  however,  so  great,    that   nerves 
unaccustomed  to  it  can   scarcely  bear  its  odour 
within  doors.    Another  flower  commonly  called 
iQugri,   or  mogri,  is  of  the  same  description, 
and  maj>  perhaps,  be  one  of  these  classically 
named  in  the   hymn.     The   fragrance  of  the 
Chumpa  is  so  very  strong  that  bees  refuse  to 
extract   honey   from    it  a   circumstance   that 
could   not   escape  the   keen   eye  of  the  hindu 
poets ;  and  they  accordingly  feign  the  Chumpa 
to   be  sadly   mortified  at  this  neglect.     They 
have,  however,  afforded  it  consolation,  dedicating 
it  to  Krishna,  the  black  deity,  as  they,  contrary 


saccion  longifolium  also  of  Mesua  ferrea.  The 
root  of  the  Mesua  ferrea  tree  is  considered 
astringent  and  refrigerant :  one  tola  is  taken 
internally :  is  applied  externally  in  cynanche. — 
Genl  Med.  Top,  p,  147. 

NAGKESSUR,  Guz.,  Cassia  buds  ? 

NAG-KUNDALA,  see  Siva. 

NAGLA,  Duk.   Eleusiue    coracana.     Gcert, 

NAGLA  RAGEE.     See  Graminace*,  Ragi. 

NAGLEIN,  also  Gewurz-Nelken,  Ger.  (loves. 

NAGLEIN,  Ger.,  Cloves. 

NAGXA,  see  Jain. 

NAGODE  and  Oocheyra.  Like  Kotee,  the 
state  of  Oocheyra  was  originally  included  as 
one  of  the  feudatories  of  Punnah  in  the  sunniid 
granted  to  raja  Kishore  Sing.  Tlie  raja 
rendered  good  service  during  the  mutinies,  and 
was  rewarded  with  the  grant  of  a  jaghire  from 
the  confiscated  estate  of  Bijeeragogurh.  He 
also  received  tlie  right  of  adoption.  The  area 
of  this  petty  state  is  450  square  miles,  and 
the  population  70,000  ;  the  revenues  are  ru- 
pees 72,400. 

NAGORE,  a  small  town  on  the  Coromandel 
Coast,  in  lat.  10°  40'  N.,  4  miles  from  Nega- 
patam.  It  is  a  seaport  town,  in  Tanjore,  chiefly 
inhabited  by  mahomedans  of  the  Labbi  race. — 

NAGORE,  a  river  near  Bhuplah  in  Purncah. 

NAGORKOTE,  see  Kathi. 

NAGOUREE  a  river  near  Rampoor. 

NAGPIIANNI-KAND,  Bbng.  Arum  cam- 

NAG-PHENA,  Beng.  Hedge  Prickly  Pear, 
Opuntia  Dillenii. 

NAG-PHOOLEE,  Bbng.  Heliotropium  cora- 

NAG-POOT,  Hum.     Bauhinia  anguin^ 

NAGPORE,  or  Nagpur  is  the  name  of  a 
town  and  a  province  in  Central  India,  the 
Nagpore  district  now  forming  part  of  the  Cen- 

to some  European  poetical  naturalists,  consi-    tral  Provinces.  The  Nagpur  district  is  bounded 

der  the  union  of  yellow  and  black  peculiarly 
beautiful.  Krishna  is  mostly  seen  profusely 
decorated  with  garlands  of  flowers.  The  Chum- 
pa is  farther  consoled  by  the  preference  it  has 

on  the  north-west  by  a  short  stretch  of  the  river 
Wardha,  on  the  north  by  the  districts  of  Chind- 
wara  and  Seoni,  and  on  the  east  by  the  district 
of  Bhandara.     A  small  portion  of  the  Chanda 

obtained  in  bedecking  the  glossy  locks  of  black    district  adjoins  its  extreme  southern  frontier,  and 

haired  damsels,  as  just  noticed,  also  in  the  fol- 
lowing stanza,  literally  translated  from  the 
fkuskrit : — That  thou  art  not  honoured  by 
the  ill-disposed  bee,  why,  O  Champaka !  dost 
thou  so  heavily  lament?  The  locks  of  lotos- 
eyed  damsels,  resembling  the  fresh  dark  clouds 
adorning  the  sky ;  let  these  embellish  thee.^^ 
As.  MisceUany^  Vol,  II,     See  Kama. 

NAG-KESHUK,  Beko.  Mesua  ferrea,  Linn, 
also  Mesua  Roxburghii. 

Sjzygium  zeylanicum. 

NAGKESUR,  Hind.,  flower  buds  of  Caly- 


throughout  its  whole  length,  from  north-west 
to  the  south-east,  it  is  bounded  by  the  new  dis- 
trict of  Wardha.  The  early  history  of  the  last 
Nagpore  ruling  family  is  somewhat  obscure,  but 
its  importance  in  Indian  history  may  be  said 
to  date  from  Raghojee,  who,  as  a  leader  of  pre- 
datory expeditions,  had,  at  the  time  of  his  death, 
in  1755,  established  the  Mahratta  supremacy 
over  the  country  between  the  Nerbudda  and 
the  Godavery,  firom  the  Adjuntah  hills  east- 
ward to  the  sea.  On  the  death  of  Madhojee  in 
1788,  the  uncontrolled  power  devolved  on 
Raghojee,  who  was  then  twenty-eight  years  of 

N  17 

Bge.     Ragliojee  died  in  181C,  and  was  succeed- 
ed by  hisonty  son  Pursojee.     Ttiia  prince  being 
incapacitated  for  government  by  a  complication 
of  diseases,  a  regency  was  formed  under  Mad- 
hojee  Bhonsla,  better  known  as  Appa  Sabib, 
Purwyee'a  cousin.     In  1817  Pursojee  died  sud- 
denly, having  been  murdered,  as  was  afterwards 
discovered,   by  Appa   Sahib,     Soon   after  his 
acceapion,  Appa  Sahib  made  common  cause  with 
the   peshwa,  who   was   then   inciting  all   the 
Mahrattaa  to  unite  againat  tlie  English.     After 
an  unsuccessful  attempt  to  regain  his  hold  of 
Nagpore,  he  fled   to   Hindostan   in    February 
1819.     He  died  at  Jodhpore  in  1840.     On  the 
deposition  of  Appa  Sahib,  a  grandson  of  Ragho- 
jee  by  his  daughter  was  placed  in  power  on 
26th    June  1818.     In    1826,  when  tlie  rajah 
attained     his     majority    and     was    entrusted 
with     the     administration,     a     Treaty      was 
made  with  him,  by  which  he  ceded  for  ever 
territories  to  pay   the  cost  of  tlie   atibsidiary 
force,  and  assigned  lands  as  a  guar.iutee  for  the 
payment  of  tlie  troops  which  he  was  bound  to 
maintain,  and  which  were  thenceliirth  to  be 
under  the  control  of  tlic  British  government, 
Eaghojee  retained  the  administration  of  affairs 
tiU  the  da^  of  his  deatli,  11th  Dcccmbor  1853. 
He  died  without  a  son,  without  any  heir  what- 
ever,  and  without  any  adopt«d  child,  and  it  was 
determined    to    incorporate  with    the   British 
territories  the  Nagpore  state,  which  had,  in 
1818,  been  forfeited  by  the  treachery  and  hosti- 
lity of  Appa  Sahib,  had  been  declared  to  belong 
to  the  British  Government  by  right  of  conquest, 
had  beei)  conferred  by  free  gift  on  Kaghoji 
bis  heirs  and  successors  by  the  Treaty  of  18S 
and  had  now  lapsed  to  the  British  Government 
by  default   of  heirs.     In  1855,  the 
ffidifti^s  of  the  Jate  rajah  adopted  as  iheir  son 
and  heir,  Janojee  Bhonsla,  a  collaltral  relation 
of  the  rajah  iq  the  female  line.     In  considera- 
tion of  the  loyalty  of  the  family  during  the 
rebellion  of  1857,  the  title  of  Rajah  liahadoor  of 
Deor,  and  the  lands  of  Deor  in  the  district  of  1  unscrupuli 
Sattara,  were  oonferred  in  perpetuity  on  Jano- 
joe  and  His  heirs,    whether  by    bloixl   or  by 
adoption.     The  fani'ly  receive  pensions  amount- 
ing at   present  to   Rupees   3,33,000   a  year. 
The  zanjindars    with    whom  yritten  engage- 
ments    were      contracted     were       those      of 
Chutesgurh,  Chanda,  and  Dcogurh  or  Chind- 
"       igufh  zanjindai's,  including 
ir,  with  whom   a   separate 
3n     concluded,     and      the 
■ond     and     Kafcair,     were 
unber,  lujd  paid  an  annual 
,38,032.    In  Chanda  there 
•f  Qond   zainindars,  paying 
B  of  only  Rupees  420.     The 
if    Dflogurh  were    fourteen 
usually   paid  only  a  trifling 
18  N 

quit  rent.  Besides  these  there  were  thirty-two 
zamindars  in  the  Wyn  Gunga  districts,  who 
paid  a  total  tribute  of  Rupees  1,41,594,  but 
with  whom  no  written  engagements  were  form- 
ed. The  Nagpore  territory  and  the  Saugor 
and  Nerbudda  territory  have  been  formed  into 
a  separate  administration  under  a  chief  Com- 
missioner, to  which  have  been  added  Sumbnl- 
pore  and  its  dependences.  The  territories 
under  the  jurisdiction  of  the  chief  Com  miBMoner 
are  now  known  as  the  Central  Provinces.  The 
principal  ehiefs  in  the  Central  Provinces  are  the 
rajahs  of  Bustar,  Kharond,  and  Mukrai,  to  all 
of  whom  tlie  right  of  adoption  has  been 
conceded.  The  rajah  of  Bustar  pays  an 
annual  tribute  of  Rupees  4,000.  The  Kharond 
chief  pays  Rupees  4,500.  The  revenues  of 
Bustar  and  Kharond  are  respectively  Rupees 
25,870,  and  Rupees  29,878,  and  the  population 
about  80,000  in  each  state. 

Madhoji'a  8ons  were  Bapiijr,  Parsoji,  and  Sabaj  i, 
contemporaries  of  the  great  Sivaji,  and  in  his  . 
military  ser^■ice.  Piirsoji  only  was  distinguish- 
ed ;  and  under  Sahu  Raja  he  was  entrusted 
with  an  extensive  military  command  and  the 
collection  of  "  chauth"  in  Berar.  He  died 
abotit  the  year  A.n.  1709  and  was  SAicceeded  by 
his  son  Kanhoji,  who  fixed  his  residence  at 
Bham  in  Berar.  Raghoji  Bhonsla  was  the  Ron 
of  Bimbaji,  the  third  son  of  Bapuji,  the  brother 
of  Parsoji,  Taking  advantage  of  the  difBcol- 
tics  in  which  the  Peshwa  found  himself  placed 
in  1744,  Raghoji  obtained  for  himself  a  sanad 
conferring  on  him  the  right  of  collecting  all 
revenue  and  eonlributions  from  Lucknow,  Patna, 
and  I/iwer  Bengal,  including  Bchar,  and  vest- 
ing him  with  the  sole  authority  to  levy  tribute 
from  the  whole  territory  from  Bernr  toCuttack. 
Bold  and  decisive  in  action,  he  was  the  perfoot 
tj-pe  of  a  Maratha  leader.  He  saw  in  the 
troubles  of  other  states  only  an  opening  for  liis 
own  ambition  ;  he  did  not  wait  even  for  a  pre- 
test for  plunder  and  invasion.  Though  he  was 
unscmpnloue  in  his  dealings  with  his  neigh- 
bours, yet  he  was  liked  and  admired  by  his 
countrymen,  who  even  now  look  with  pride  to 
Raghoji  Blionsia,  the  first  and  greatest  of  the 
Nagpur  hoiiac.  With  him  occurred  the  great 
infills  of  Marathas,  which  resulted  in  the  spread 
of  the  Kunbi  and  cognate  Maratha  tribes  over 
district.     And  in  this  there  w 

policy,  as  the  Bhonslas  would  be  seen  holding 
the  Nngpur  territory  from  the  Gonds,  and  not 
subject  to  the  paramount  power  at  Puna,  and 
this  deriving  a  position  superior  to  that  of 
other  military  chiefs  of  the  Maratha  empire, 
who  owed  their  elevation  to  the  Peshwa,  and 
held  their  fielii  by  his  favour.  Raghoji  was 
succeeded  in  i..n.  1755,  by  his  eldest  son 
Janoji,  though  not  without  opposition  from 
the  otter  brother  Mudhoji.  After  the  deatl) 



ci  Jauoji,  before  Mudhoji  with  his  youdiful 
son  Raglioji  the  late  kiiiga  nepliew  and  heir 
by  adoption,  could  reach  Nagpiir,  Sabaji, 
another  brother  of  Janoji,  had  usurped  the 
government.  He  waa  succeeded  by  his  son 
Paraoji — a  man  blind,  lame,  and  paralysed. 
Very  goon  after  his  accession  the  new  I'aja  be- 
came totally  imbecile,  and  it  was  necessary  to 
appoint  a  regent.  A  few  days  after  his  de- 
parture the  Kaja  was  found  dead  in  his  bed — 
poisoned,  by  liis  cousin  Appa  Sahib. 

The  Rev.  Stephen  Hislop  of  Nagpore,  writ- 
ing on  the  age  of  the  coal  strata  in  Western 
Bengal  and  Central  India,  obsen^es  that  per- 
haps the  meet  interesting  part,  in  a  section  of 
the  rocks  of  Central  India,  is  the  junction  of  tlie 
thick  bedded  sandstone  above,  with  the  laminated 
strata  below.  The  latter,  however  various  they 
may  be  in  different  localities  as  regards  tlieir 
hthologic  and  sometimes  even  their  palieonto- 
logic  features,  may  readily  enough  be  distin- 
guiahed  by  their  relation  to  the  superior  beds, 
whose  identity  again  is  suj£ciently  attested  by 
the  iron  bands  which  run  through  their  mass. 
This  ferruginous  sandstone  is  well  developed  at 
the  ^lahadeva  Hills,  in  tlie  north  of  the  pro- 
vince of  Nagpore,  in  the  vicinity  of  the  city  it- 
self, and  at  Kota  on  the  Pranhita,  in  the  do- 
minions of  the  Nizam.  The  subjoined  sections 
represent  the  succession  of  the  strata  at  these 
places  respectively,  as  far  as  they  are  known  : 


















O  :0 


PQ  -*'  ft 










•'W    w 

V — 

'V£Z  *1}95  '%ilZ 





p  is 

— •  2  »s  o 












■1J08     •«(«      'IJOt 

•%B9i  gi 



Immediately  under  the  upper  sandstone, 
laminated  rocks  are  seen  in  all.  In  section  1st, 
the  shales  are  bituminous  ancl  carbonaceous, 
while  in  section  2nd,  they  are  of  argillaceous 
sand.  But  they  are  of  the  same  age,  many 
species  of  fossils  being  common  to  both.  Section 
3rd,  instead  of  having  the  limestone  all  collec- 
ted in  the  lower  part  the  section,  as  is  the  case 
at  Nagpore  and  in  many  parts  of  the  Nizam's 
country,  has  it  interstratiiied  with  the  shale ; 
but  the  bituminous  strata  occupy  the  same  posi- 
tion as  in  section  1st :  choosing  section  2nd,  as 
being  better  known  for  comparison  with  it,  in- 
stead of  section  1st,  gives  us,  in  descending  order 
sandstone  and  clay,  red  shale  and  limestone.  It 
has  been  a  question  whether  the  fern-bearing 
coal  shales  and  laminated  sandstones  of  Nag- 
pore are  the  same  as  the  fish-producing  bitumin- 
ous shales  of  Kota.  The  Kota  fishes  that  rewarded 
the  researches  of  Drs.  Walker  and  Bell  were  pro- 
nounced by  Sir  P.  Egerton  to  be  true  Oolitic 
forms,  and  probably  of  the  age  of  the  Lias ; 
between  Nagpore  and  Chanda,  the  upper  sand- 
stone has  the  usual  iron  bands,  and  the  lower 
laminated  beds  the  common  vegetable  remains, 
there  is  a  district  with  Mangali  as  the  centre 
(sixty  miles  S.  of  Nagpore)  where  the  superior 
sandstone  is  less  ferruginous,  and  the  inferior 
or  laminated  beds  are  coloured  by  iron  of  a 
deep  brick  red.  In  the  latter  strata  the  re- 
mains of  reptiles,  fishes  and  entomostraca  pre- 
dominate, while  the  few  vegetables  that  are 
found,  are  generally  very  different  from  those 
occurring  in  other  parts  of  the  Nagpore  terri- 
tory. The  skull  of  a  Labyrinthodont,  named 
Brachyops  laticeps  by  Owen,  might  suggest  for 
it  a  Triassic  or  even  Carboniferous  age,  but  the 
plentifulness  of  scales  of  lepidotoid  fishes  for- 
bids us  to  assign  a  more  ancient  epoch  than  the 
Jurassic ;  and  the  conclusion  is  unavoidable, 
not  that  our  laminated  sandstone  is  older  than 
the  age  we  have  attributed  to  it,  but  that  in 
India  any  Labyrinthodont  family  has  come  down 
to  a  more  recent  period  than  in  Europe. 

The  vegetable  remains  are  Ta9niopteris, 
Equisetum  laterale,  Taeniopteris  magnifolia, 
Phylothecas,  Knorria,  Lepidodendron,  Aphyl- 
lum,  Aspidiara,  Entomostraca  belonging  to  the 
genus  Estheria. 

In  the  bituminoiLs  shales  of  the  Mahadevas 
we  have  the  following  Bengal  fossil  plants : 
Tryzygia  speciosa,  Vertebraria  indica,  and  a 
species  of  Phyllotheca,  a  fragment  of  which  is 
figured  by  Dr.  McCelland  as  Poacites  minor. 
Geol.  Surv.  Tab.  XVI.  f.  4.  In  the  carbona- 
ceous shales  of  Umret,  besides  the  Phyllotheca 
now  alluded  to,  another  stem,  but  unfurrowed, 
which  seems  to  resemble  McClelland's  Poacites 
muricata  Tab.  XIV.  f.  6.  In  the  laminated 
sandstone  of  Kamptce,  in  addition  to  Verte- 
braria and  the  two  Poacites  as  above,  Tseniop- 




lerU,  perhaps  of  the  same  species  as  at  liaj- 
mahal,  and  McClellantVs  Pecopteris  affinis,  Tab. 
XII.  f.  11.  6.,  which  in  Nagpore  is  a  well 
marked  species  with  a  tripinnate  frond* 

In  all  these  localities  the  genus  Glossopteris 
abounds.  Nagpore  seems  to  have  outstripped 
North  Eastern  India  in  Cyclopteris  and  several 


Ja^hpur  to  Ranchi,  consist  of  metamorphic 
rocks  with  the  exception  ol'  a  cap  of  trap  and 
laterite  on  Main  Pat. 

Indications  of  the  existence  of  coal  seams 
were  afforded  bj  the  occurrence  of  fragments  of 
coal  in  the  rivers,  especially  in  tlie  Mand,  he 
found  a  few  seams  near  Chitra,  twelve  miles 

other  vegetable  remains,  but  is  decidedly  be-  i  west  of  Rabkub  and  nearly  thirty  east  of  Korba. 
hind  in  regard  to  the  Cycadaceae.  The  only  |  Two  or  three  are  seen  in  the  Mand  about  three  to 
specimen  procured  is  a  small  fragment  from  !  four  miles  east-north-east  of  Chitra,  but  they 
the  sandstone  of  Kamptee,  the  leaflets  of  which  '  are  only  from  a  foot  to  1 8  inches  in  thickness. 

are  narrower  than  a  minute  blade  of  grass. 
Though   amongst    the   Cutch  oolitic  strata 

In  a  small  stream,  the  Koba  Naddi,  which  runs 
south  of  Chitra,  one  seam  about  three  feet  in 

some  arc  evidently  marine,  vet  from  what  Mr.  thickness  is  seen  near  the  village  of  Tendumuri, 
Hyslop  had  seen  of  those  m  the  Deccan  or  more  than  a  mile  south-west  of  Giitra.  It  is 
those    in   Bengal,    none   of  them  in  either  of  j  nearly  horizontal,  having  a  very  low  irregular 

these  districts  exhibit  the  least  evidence  of 
having  been  deposited  in  the  sea  or  ocean  : 
all  seem  to  be  of  fresh-water  origin. 

In  Chanda  and  Berar,  one  of  the  great 
sources  of  doubt  as  to  the  extent  of  the  coal 
deposits  rose  from  the  fact  that  the  beds  in 
the  group  of  rocks  in  which  the  coal  here 
occurs   (known   to  Indian    Geologists   as    the 

4ip  to  the  west  or  south-west.     Part  consists  of 
fair  coal,  the  remainder  is  shaley. 

The  only  seam  examined  from  which  it  is 
possible  that  a  usefiil  supply  of  fuel  might  be 
obtained,  is  exposed  in  the  same  stream  rathef 
nearer  to  Chitra,  being  about  a  mile  from  that 
village,  close  to  the  boundary  of  the  village  of 
Tendumuri,  it  appears  to  be  of  considerable 

Barakur  group)  had  invariably  a  tendency  to  !  thickness,  perhaps  20  feet,  and  the  lower  por- 
exhibit  very  great  variations  both  in  thickness  tion  appeared  to  be  fair  in  places.  Tlic  dip  is  about 
and  quality  within  short  distances.  Tliey  are  ,  15°  to  north-north-west.  Lieutenant  Sale,  of 
oflen  of  great  thickness  locally,  but  thin  out !  the  Chota  Nagpur  Topographical  Survey  found 
and  nearly  disappear  within  short   distances:  j  a  seam  of  coal  about  four  miles  north-west  of 

til  is  variation  also  being  not  only  in  the  thick- 
ness, but  also  in  the  quality  of  the  beds,  so 
that  what  shows  as  a  bed  of  good  coal  in  one 
place  may,  within  a  few  yards  or  a  few  hun- 
dred yards,  pass  into  a  shale  without  coal  or 
even  into  a  sandstone.  Coal  was  found  about 
fifteen  miles  north  of  Dumagudiam,  near  the 
junction  of  the  Tal  river  near  Lingala. 

Mr.  Medlicott  is  of  opinion  that  the  present 
limits  of  the  coal  measure  fields  in  North  India 

Rabkub  in  a  small  stream  running  into  the 
Mand,  and  this  may  be  the  source  of  the  blocks 
in  the  river  bed. 

Several  coal  localities  have  been  lately  found 
by  the  officers  of  the  Topographical  Sur>'ey  and 
recorded  in  their  maps.  They  are  all  north  of 
Korba  and  Udipur.  The  rajah  of  Jashpur 
told  that  coal  occiured  in  his  territory  in  tlie 
Kluirea  country,  twenty-four  miles  nortli-west 
of  Jashpur  Nagar,  about  one  hundred  miles  or 

coincide  approximately  with  the  original  limits   rather  more  west  by  south  of  Rancih. 

of  deposition  and  are  not  the  result  of  faulting, 
or  even  mainly  of  denudation.  All  these  suc- 
cessive beds  (possibly  with  the  exception  of 
the  Talchir)  representing  an  enormous  lapse 
of  time,  ajn'ce  in  one  respect,  that  they  seem 
to  be  purely  fresh-water  (fliiviatile  or  fluvio- 
lacustrine)  or  estuarine  deposits.  The  liani- 
gunj,  the  Jherria,  the  I^karo,  the  Ramghur, 
and  tlie  Karunpura  fields  all  belong  to  tlie 
drainage  basin  of  the  Damudah  river. 

Mr.  W.  T.  Blanford  reports  that  the  coalbear- 
ing  (Damoodah)  beds  of  Korba  extend  for 
about  forty  miles  to  the  eastwai'd,  as  far  as 
Rubkub  in  Udipur  (Oodeypore).  They  also 
extend  far  to  the  south-east  towards  Gangpur, 
and  to  tlie  northwards  towards  Sirguja,  and  in 
all  j)robability  are  continuous,  or  nearly  so, 
with  the  dejKJsits  of  the  same  nature  known  to 
occur  in  these  districts.  Main  Pat  and  the 
neighbouring  hills,  and  all  the  country  on  the 
road  from  Main  Pat  through  Chandargarh  and 

20  N 

The  Rev.Stephen  Hislop  makes  the  following 
remarks  on  the  age  of  the  fossiliferous,  thin- 
bedded  sandstone  and  coal  of  the  province  of 

Nagpur  Circle. — If  with  a  radius  of  14 
miles  a  circle  be  drawn  around  the  city  of  Nag- 
pur, it  will  include  within  its  northern  half 
Kampti,  Ik>khani,  Silewada,  Tondak*heiri,  Ba- 
bulkheda  and  Bharatnada;  but  it  will  leave 
out  Arajmet,  which  lies  20  miles  west  of  Nag- 
pur, and  Chorkheiri,  which  is  35  miles  to  tlie 
north-east,  while  Chanda  is  situated  85  miles 
to  the  south.  At  all  these  places  the  thin-bed- 
ded sandstone  with  vegetable  remains  is  the 
same,  as  it  presents  the  same  appearance  both 
palaeontological  and  lithological. 

Barkoi  and  Mahadeva  HiUs. — He  ascertained 
that  this  thin-bedded  sandstone  is  identical 
with  the  coal-shale  at  Little  Barkoi  near 
Umret,  and  at  the  base  of  the  Mahadeva  HiUs, 
in  the  N.  N.  W.  part  of  Nagpur  province. 



Kota  on  the  Prauhita. — Under  a  great 
thickness  of  coarse  iron-banded  sandstone, 
developed  in  tlie  neighbouring  hills  we  have 
thin-bedded  strata  abounding,  as  at  Mangali, 
in  animal  remains,  including,  Lepidotus  dec- 
canensis,    L.     longiceps,     L.    breviceps,    and 


8.  Rhaetic  Beds — with  characteristic  fossils. 

9.  Liassic  Group — divided   into   an  upper 
and  lower  series. 

10.  Jurassic  Group — with    cycadeaj.     Di- 
vided into  upper,  middle  and  lower  stages. 

11.  Cretaceous  Series — with   fine   forms  of 

i*}chmo<ias    egertoni,    in    addition    to    those  i  ammonites  and  other  shells, 
ganoid  fishes  obtained  by  the  late  Drs.  Walker        12.     Eocene. — (a.)   Nummulitic  limestones. 
and  Bell,  Mr.  Hislop  procured  from  the  same  ,  — (h).     Fresh  water  deposits  of  lakes,  over  and 
k>calitj   the   exuviae   of  insects   and   entomo-    through  which  sheets  of  lava  have  been  erupted. 

straca.  He  inferred  their  contemporaneous- 
ness, and  from  the  discovery  of  what  appears 
to  be  a  species  of  gloasopteris  at  Kota,  he  was 
led  to  tlie  conclusion  that  the  rocks  there  are 
connected  in  age  with  those  near  Nagpur. 

13.  Miocene. — Laterite,   and  other  strata 
of  several  kinds. 

14.  Pliocene. — Ossiferous  gravels,  clays,  &c. 

15.  Recent. — Gravels,    clays,  and   mud  of 
rivers,    &c.     It  is  impossible  to  go  over  the 

Rajmahal  Hills. — The  equivalents  of  the  i  above  great  series  of  beds  so  truly  representa- 
upper  Rajmahal  beds  have  been  met  with  by  tive  as  they  are  of  the  European  system,  and 
Mr.  H.  B.  Medlicott,  on  the  Hurd  river,  a  presenting  ot\en  in  minute  detail  a  marked 
little  south  of  the  Nerbudda.  j  correspondence  with  the  English  sub-divisions 

According  to  Dr.  Oldham's  views  the  age  ^  and  formations  without  being  struck  with  the 
of  the  Indian  coal-fields  between  the  parallels    wonderful  uniformity  of  nature's  operations  in 


20°  and   25°   N.,    is   upper   carboniferous 
rather    later   stage   than    tliat    of    the 

coal   measures   of  Britain,   and   more   closely    less  remarkable  than   the   paloeontological  for 

ancient  times  over  vast  portions  of  the  globe. 
The  stratigraphical  resemblances   are  also  not 

allied  to  the  "  fern-coal"  series  of  Silesia.  Some 
doubta  have  been  expressed  as  to  the  correct- 
ness of  this  view,  at  least  of  the  age  of  the 
SUesian  coal-fields,  which  are  known  to  rest 
on  limestones  containing  large  Producti  and 
other  foHsils  of  the  carboniferous  limestone. 
The  following  is  a  brief  summary  of  the  forma-  I  siderable  elevation,  Nagpur  and  Bhandara 
tiim    of    the    Indian  Peninsula   in    ascending  j  are  principally  on  gneissose  rocks,  with  much 

the  genera  and  some  species  of  fossils  of  the 
triassic,  liassic  and  cretaceous  formations  are 
identical  with  those  of  Europe. 

The  great  drainage  basin  of  the  Grodavery 
includes  Nagpur,  Bhandara,  Wardah,  Chanda 
and  Sironcha.     These  districts  have  no  con* 

order  as  described  by  Dr.  Oldham  : — 

1-  I^urentain  granitoid  gneiss — highly 
metamorphic  and  traversed  by  innumerable 
trap  dykes.  This  ia  the  floor  of  all  the  other 

trap  in  Nagpur.  Wardah  is  almost  entirely 
on  trap  rocks ;  Chanda  and  Sironcha  have 
a  very  varied  structure  including  more  or 
leas  of  all  the  formations  that  have  been  named. 
The  crystalline  and  metamorphic  rocks  consist 

2.  Quartzose,  micaceous,  and  hornblendic  j  of  gneiss  of  different  varieties,   often   highly 
rocks  much  contorted.  !  granitoid  and  form  the  substratum  of  the  whole 

3.  Lower  Silurian,  or  Cambrian. — Sub-me-  i  area,    and  are  seen  all   around  the  border  of 
tamorphic  schists  and  massive  conglomerates  of  j  the  trappean  rocks, 
local  rocks.     Th^e  rocks  occur  in  the  eastern  1  The  Nagpore  district  has  a  population  634,121 : 


4-  Devonian. — The  Vindhyan  series,  prin- 
cipally sandstones,  distributed  into  four  groups. 

5.  Carboniferous — (a.)  Mountain  lime- 
stone of  the  salt  range,  classified  as  such  from 
the  fossils  collected  by  Dr.  Eleniiug. — (b.) 
The  Talcheer  series,  sandstones  of  a  peculiar 
character  and  colour,  resting  on  a  "  boulder 
bed,''  or  ancient  sliingle  beach. — (c)  The 
coal-bearing  rocks  of  India  forming  the  coal- 
fields of  Damuda,  Nerbudda,  &c. 

6.  Permian?  or  intermediate. — Beds  with 
rrptilian  remains,  representing  in  Dr.  Old- 
ham's opinion  the  physical  break  between  the 
palaeozoic  and  mesozoic  periods  of  Eiuope. 
It  13  indicated  here  as  doubtfully  permian. 

7.  Triaasic,  upper  and  lower. — In  this  lat- 
tw  there  are  beds  of  limestone  with  ceratites 
(muschelkalk  ?) 


Europeans       2,462 

Maratha,  Kunbi  and  cognates. .      . .      177,183 
Kansar,  Sipi,  Sonar,  Gurao,  Beldar, 
Barhai,   Koshti,    Dhobi,    Khatik, 
Nai,  Bhoi,  Dhimar,  Banjrra,  Ma- 
drassee,  Bhamtya,  and  Rangari. .      118,019 
Dher,  Chamar,  Mhang,  Bhangi  114,407 

Pardesi,  Teli,   Mali,  Ahir,  Pardhan, 

Barai 106,483 

Bania,    Ponwar,    Marwari,    Halwai, 

Kalal 17,118 

Brahman         26^597 

Rajput 3,458 

Vidur  (illegitimate  brahmins)        . .  5,094 

Gossain 5,203 

Gond  with  a  few  Kurku  and  Bhil. .  30,698 

Mahomedan 27,371 

Parsee 28 

The   language   is  a  mixture  of  Hindi  and 

N  21 




If agel,  Spiker, 




Guz.  Hind. 












ed  as  an  unnatural  monster  were  he  to  show 
such  signs  of  grief  at  the  death  of  a  child, 
which,  from  long  cohabitation  and  love  with  its 
mother,  he  might  suppose  to  be  his  own,  as  he 
did  at  the  death  of  a  child  of  his  sister.  A 
man's  mother  manages  his  &mily,  and  afi^er  her 
death  his  eldest  sister  assumes  the  direction. 
Brothers  almost  always  live  under  the  same 
roof; — but,  if  one  of  the  family  separate  from 
the  rest,  he  is  always  accompanied  by  his 
favorite  sister.  Even  cousins,  to  the  most  re- 
mote degree  of  kindi*ed,  in  the  female  line,  ge^- 
nerally  live  together  in  great  harmony  :  for  in 
this  part  of  the  country,  love,  jealousy,  or  dis- 
trust, never  can  disturb  the  peace  of  a  Nair 
family.  A  man's  movable  property,  after  his 
death,  is  divided  equally  among  the  sons  and 
daughters  of  all  his  sisters.  His  land  estate  is 
managed  by  the  eldest  male  of  the  family,  but 
each  individual  has  a  right  to  a  share  of  the 
income.  In  case  of  the  eldest  male  being  un- 
able, from  infirmity  or  incapacity,  to  manage 
the  aflairs  of  the  family,  the  next  in  rs^nk  does 
it  in  the  name  of  his  senior.  Under  these 
social  rules  it  is  not  easy  to  see  the  inducement 
to  the  Nair  to  marry,  as  he  has  all  the  burthen- 
without  any  of  the  enjoyments  of  wedded  life. 
As  Latham  states,  *  no  Nair  son  knows  his  own 
father,  and  vice  versa,  no  Nair  Either  knows 
his  own  son.     The  property   of   the   husband, 

Kila,  Me 

Chiodi,  CliioAi,  AgutI,  It. 

Paku,  Malay. 

Small  metal  spikes. — McCulloctCs  Commer- 
cial IHcticnary,  p,  811. 

NAIMNATH,  the  22nd  Buddlia.    See  Nim- 


NAI  MUNI,  see  Nepal. 

NAINSUKH.  A  valley  in  kaghan  famous 
for  ghee,  which  is  quite  solid  and  cuts  like 
cheese ;  about  a  dozen  mules,  laden  with  this 
commodity  passed  Dr.  Cleghorn  daily. — Cleg- 
Jiorn  Punjab  Report  p,  178. 

NAIPALA,  see  Nepal. 

NAIPES,  Sp.     Cards. 

NAIK,  a  race  on  the  Malabar  Coast,  following 
the  hindoo  religion  and  claiming  to  be  of  the 
sudra  caste.  The  royal  family  of  Travancore 
are  of  this  race ;  the  whole  of  the  Nair  race 
follow  the  rule  of  female  descent,  but  as  with 
other  races  also  both  there  and  in  other  parts  of 
India,  from  this  custom  results  the  curious 
practice  that  a  man's  heirs  are  not  his 
own,  but  his  sister's  children.  In  British 
India  the  Kasia,  the  Kooch  and  the  Nair  races, 
as  also  the  artizans  the  Teer  race  and  some  of 
the  Moplah  mahomedans  of  Malabar  have  this 

custom ;  among  the  Buntar  in  Tulava,  also,  a  |  de.«i^ends  to  the  children  of  his  sisters.  Picart 
man's  property  does  not  descend  to  his  own  quStes  Oviedo  as  stating  that  the  Nair 
children,  but  to  those  of  his  sister.  Most  of  women  regard  association  with  men  to 
the  people  of  Malabar,  notwithstanding  the  be  an  institution  so  holy  that  they  believe 
same  diversity  of  caste  as  in  other  provinces,  virgins  to  be  secluded  from  paradise,  but 
all  agree  in  the  usage  of  transmitting  property  :  this  seems  merely  an  excuse  put  forward  by 
through  females  only.  It  is  the  custom  in  some  one  of  the  race,  who  has  been  ashamed 
IVavancore,  among  all  the  races  except  Ponan  of  this  social  custom.  A  Nair  writer  observes 
and  the  Namburi  brahmins.  The  Nairs  marry  that  the  Teyettee  or  Teeyer  women,  are  notori- 
before  they  are  ten  years  of  age,  but  the  bus-    ous    harlots    and    become   the    concubines    of 

band  never  afterwards  associates  with  his  wife. 
Such  a  circumstance,  indeed,  would  be  con- 

strangers  of  any  caste  or  religion,  and  this  with- 
out the  least  prejudice  to  their  own  caste  or  any 

aidered  as  very  indecent.  He  allows  her  oil,  i  loss  of  esteem  in  society;  on  the  other  hand,  any 
ckithing,  ornaments  and  food ;  but  she  lives  in  •  such  act  proved  against  any  females  of  the 
her  mother's  house,  after  her  parents  death,  j  other  castes,  subjects  the  person  to  excommuni- 
with  her  brothers,  and  cohabits  with  any  person  ,  cation  from  caste,  banishment  from  society, 
that  she  chooses,  of  an  equal  or  higher  rank  than    and  all  religious  advantages.     The  Teeyer   fe^ 

.  her  own.  If  detected  in  associating  with  any 
low  man  she  becomes  an  outcaste.  It  is  no  kind 
of  reflection  on  a  woman's  character  to  say  that 
she  has  formed  the  closest  intimacy  with  many 
persons ;  on  the  contrary,  Nair  women  are 
pvoiid  of  reckoning  among  their  favoured  lovers 
many  brahmins,  rajas,  or  other  persons,  of 
high-birth.  In  consequence  of  this  strange 
manner  of  propagating  the  species,  no  Nair 
knows  his  &ther ;  and  every  man  looks  upon 
liis  sister's  children  as  his  heirs.  He,  indeed, 
looks  upon  them  with  the  same  fondness  that 
fathers  in  other  parts  of  the  world  have  for 
their  own  children ;  and  he  would  be  cousider- 


males  of  South  Malabar  however,  do  not,  so 
readily  as  those  of  the  North,  yield  themselves 
to  this  practice. 

With  the  Nair,  the  Teeyer,  and  indeed  all 
the  other  numerous  castes  of  Malabar  (includ- 
ing the  Cochin  and  Travancore  coim tries,  these 
being  indeed  the  most  striking  in  this  respect), 
reformation  is  much  needed.  It  is,  he  says^ 
very  lamentable  to  find  them  dormant  in  their 
original  state  of  depression  and  not  seeking  for 
reformation  rather  than  growing  blindly  proud 
of  their  vain  and  different  castes  and  privileges 
and  ready  to  run  any  risk  even  that  of  hazard- 
ing their  lives,  only  to  preserve  their  castes. 

N  24 


Nair  women.  The  customs  are  alluded  to  by 
Van  Linschoten  in  the  16th,  Fryer  in  the  17th, 
and  Buchanan  and  Day  in  the  19th  century. 
The  Zamorin  of  Calicut  is  a  Nair.  Nairs  are 
of  11  classes,  the  Villium  are  namburs  and 
brahmans.  The  Nair  people  of  the  Malaya 
and  Tnlava  country  are  frequently  educated 
and  good  acccountants ;  they  hold  many  public 
offices  and  compete  for  office  employments  with 
the  brahmans.  The  Nairs  are'a  good  sized,  well 
featured  race,  but  rather  dark.  They  serve  as 
soldiers.  The  Nairs  of  Malabar  were  former- 
ly accustomed  to  duelling.  The  practice  was 
coiled  Ankam,  but  hired  champions  were  often 

It  may  be  mentioned,  while  noticing  the 
customs  of  the  Nair  race,  that  among  the  Lim- 
boo  tribe  in  N.  E.  India,  near  Darjeeling,  the 
boys  become  the  property  of  the  father  on  his 
paying  the  mother  a  smaU  sum.  of  money,  when 
the  child  is  named,  and  enters  his  father's  tribe, 
girls  remain  with  the  mother,  and  belong  to  tlieir 
mothers  tribe.  Among  the  Batta  of  Sumatra,  the 
succession  to  the  chie&hips  does  not  go,  in  the 
first  instance,  to  the  son  of  the  deceased,  but  to 
the  nephew,  by  a  sister,  the  same  rule,  with  res- 
pect to  the  property  in  general,  prevails  also 
amongst  the  Malayas  of  that  part  of  the  island,  and 
even  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Padang. — Ten- 
nenfsCeyhn,  Vol,  ii.,p.  459;  Perry's  Birds 
Eye  View,  Ch.  xiv.,_p.  84;  As,  Researches, 
Vol,  T.,  p.  12  ;  Btuhoman,  Mysore,  Vol,  ii.  p, 
412  ;  Beng,  As,  Soc.  Joum,  Vol.  ix.  p,  834  ; 
BtuAanan  Hamilton  quoted  in  Joum,  In  Arch,, 
Vol.  iii.,  No.  6.,  June  1849;  Lubbock,  Origin  of 
Ova,  p.  106  ;  PicaH,  Vol,  vi.,  p,  242  ;  lUd, 
p.  54  ;  p.  75  ;  WHs,,  Oloss  ;  See  India,  Kuki, 
Eummalar,  Korambar,  Marumaka-Tayam, 

NAI6UE,  a  non-commissioned  rank  in  the 
native  army  equal  to  a  corporal.     See  Naek. 

NAINITAL,  in  lat.  29°  23'  6 ;  L.  79°  30'  9 ; 
in  Kamaon,  a  sanitarium  in  the  outer  ranges 
of  the  Himalaya.  The  cistern  of  the  barometer 
at  Dorett's  Hotel,  showed  a  height  of  6,565  feet. 

NAIRANJAR,  the  ancient  name  of  a  river, 
near  the  town  of  Gaya  it  is  now  called  Phalgn, 
is  opposite  Gaya,  and  the  name  of  Lilajan,  or 
Nilajan,  is  restricted  to  the  western  branch, 
which  joins  the  Mohaxd  5  miles  above  Gaya. 
The  town  was  thinly  peopled,  but  it  contained 
about  1,000  families  of  brahmans.  The  city  is 
still  called  Brahm-Gaya,  to  distinguish  it  from 
Bauddh-Gaya. — CunningJianCs  Ancient  Geo- 
graphy of  Indiay  p,  45. 

NAIMTTI  or  Niritti,  the  dread  earth  god- 
dess, of  whom  terror  and  deprecation  were  the 
only  worship,  is  all  but  certainly  the  evil  god- 
dess of  the  hill  tribes  to  whom  tilie  Khonds  till 
lately    offered    human    victims.     She    seems 


thrust  by  fear,  rather  than  adopted,  into  the 
Vedic  pantheon — the  germ  of  the  bloody  Kali 
and  the  murderess,  Bhawani,  in  a  day  merci- 
fully late,  and  to  the  Vedic  men  far  away  in 
the  future.  The  Arians  performed  human 
sacrifices  ?  In  a  legend,  there  is  mention  of  a 
king  so  devoting  his  son.  There  are  bonds 
alluded  to  in  die  Vedas,  most  probably,  allego- 
rical, but  there  is  little  doubt  that  the  imagery 
is  drawn  from  re^  human  sacrifices,  offered  by 
the  wild  tribes  in  the  neighbourhood  to  Nairitti, 
"with  unfriendly  looks,"  as  she  is  expressly 
named  in  tliis  Sakta.  The  legend  may  per- 
haps point  to  an  earlier  practice,  which  Viswa- 
mitra  and  his  party  set  themselves  against.  A 
god  named  Nairita,  of  a  fierce  and  evil  nature, 
is  said  to  have  been  worshipped  by  the  SaksQ. 
See  Brahminicide,  Hindoo,  India. 

NAISO  GATA,  Japan.     Grampus  sieboldii. 

NAI  URUVI,  Tam.  Achyranthes  aspera, 
Linn,;  Roxb, 

NAI  VEDYA,  Hiiro.  Food  offered  to  a 
hindoo  god,  a  meat  offering,  belonging  to  the 
puja  or  worship  of  a  hindoo  deity. 

NAI  VELLA,  Tam.,  also  Nai-Veli.  Gynan- 
dropsis  pentaphylla,  DC,  Cleome  viscosa,  W, 

NAJA  BALLI,  Mal.  Eauhinia  scandens, 

NAJACE2El,IAndl,,  an  order  of  plants  com- 
prising, 6  gen.,  24  sp.,  viz. : — 1  Caulinia ;  4 
Najas;  1  Ruppia;  1  Zamichellia;  13  Pota- 
mogeton ;  4  Spathium. 

NAJAP,  according  to  some  mahomedana,  the 
place  where  Adam  was  buried  :  See  Abu-kubays. 

NAJI,  BuBM.  Pterocarpus  acerifolium : 
Pterocarpus  subacerifolium. 

NAtTRAN,  a  town  in  the  north  of  Yemen ;  it 
was  once  filled  with  christians,  Dzu  Nowas 
obtained  possession  of  it  by  treachery,  and 
gave  it  up  to  plimder.  Large  pits  were  dug  in 
the  neighbourhood  and  filled  with  burning  ftiel, 
and  all  who  refused  to  abjure  their  faith,  amount- 
ing to  many  thousands,  were  committed  to  the 

NA  JUK,  BsNe.  Mimosa  pudica,  Linn.,  Boxh,; 
Sensitive  plant. 

NAK,  Hiiro.     Pyrus  conmiunis. 

NAKA  BALLI,  see  Hindoo. 

NAELA.L,  see  Mahabharata. 

NAKANDA,  a  kind  of  rice,  of  Kangra.    * 

NAKA.  PUTA  CHETTU,  Tbl.  Rostellaria 
procumbens,  Nees, 

NAKARA,  Hind.,  a  drum ;  a  kettle-drum ; 
nakarah  khanah,  literally  signifies  the  ''  kettle- 
drum house,"  from  nakareh,  a  small  brazen 
bodied  drum ;  and  khanah  a  house.  But  it  is 
generally  used  to  express  an  assemblage  of 
military,  or  field  musicians,  whose  instrum^its, 
are  loud,  harsh  and  disagreeable,  long  brazen 
trumpets,  called  Karrena,  the  sounds  €i  which, 





may  be  compared  to  the  braying  of  asses,  and 
two  Surna,  in  appearance  not  unlike  clarionets, 
but  sending  forth  notes  such  as  might  be  ex- 
pected from  two  discordant  bag-pipes  without 
a  drone.  The  royal  Nakarah  Khanah,  at 
Tehran,  does  not  excite  a  more  favourable 
opinion  of  the  Persian  field  music.  The  Sihtara, 
the  Kamancheh  and  other  string-instruments ; 
produce  with  good  voices  in  chamber  concerts, 
very  soft  and  pleasing  melody, — OuseUy's  Tra- 

velSy  Vol.  i. 

NAKAREE,    a  river   near  Pittooreeah   in 

Chota  Nagpore. 

NAKATIYA,  Singh.,  an  astrologer;  the 
practice  of  astrology  at  the  present  day,  in 
Ceylon,  and  the  preparation  of  the  ephemeris 
predicting  the  weather  and  other  particulars 
of  the  forthcoming  year,  appears  to  have 
undergone  little  or  no  change  since '  this  cus- 
tom of  the  inhabitants  of  India  was  described 
by  Arrian  and  Strabo.  But  in  latter  times  the 
brahmans  and  the  buddhists  have  superadded 
to  that  occupation  the  casting  of  nativities  and 
the  composition  of  horoscopes  for  individuals, 
from  which  the  Sophists©  described  by  Arrian 
abstained.  It  is  practised  alike  by  the  highest 
and  most  humble  castes  of  Singhalese  and  bud- 
dhist,  from  the  Vellala  or  agricultural  aristo- 
cracy, to  the  beaters  of  tom-toms,  who  have 
thus  acquired  the  title  of  "  Nakatiya"  or  astro- 
logers. The  attendance  on  particular  cere- 
monies, however,  called  BaH,  which  are  con- 
nected with  divinition,  belongs  exclusively  to 
the  latter  class.  Amongst  the  mahomedans  of 
British  India,  astrology  is  almost  unheard  of, 
though  they  keep  their  calender,  or  Jantn,  and 
the  hindoo  Joshi  calculates  the  ephemeris.  The 
hindoos  also  have  their  calender  or  Panjangam, 
but  they  all  practice  divinition  from  books,  of 
which  the  Chintamini  pastakam  is  in  use  in  the 

south  of  India,  ^ 

NAKBEL,  Hnn).    Boerhaavia  diffusa. 

NAK-CHIKARA.  The  leaves  of  a  small 
plant  found  about  Ajmeer,  also  imported  from 
Delhi :  are  very  hot,  and  a  good  sternutatory : 
three  massee  are  given  in  pills,  as  a  dose,  in 
colic,  which  is  said  to  be  thus  speedily  relieved. 
^Qenl.  Med,  Top.,  p.  147. 

NAKCHIKNI,    Hnn).     Myriogyne  minuta. 

NAK  CHILNI,  Dot.    Epicarpus  orientalis, 

NAKDOUN,  Hnn).    Asparagus  officmalis, 


NABIED,  the  practice  of  appearing  naked,  is 
alluded  to  in  Deut.  xxviii,  48,  in  Job  xxii,  6, 
and  24,  7,  in  Ezekiel  xviii,  7  and  16,  Matthew 
XXV,  36  and  44,  and  2nd  Corinth,  xi  20  James, 
ii,  15.  See  Naga. 

NAKERA  CHETTU  or  Nakeru,  Tbl.     Cor- 

dia  myxa,  Linn. 

N AKHAE,  a  fabulous  race,  dwelling  under 



the  earth. — Bishop  Pallegoix  ;  Boturing's  Siam, 
Vol.  i,  p.  40. 

NAKHCHINKNI,  Hind.  Myriogyne  minuta. 

NAKHI,  see  Hindoo. 

NAKHIS,  religious  ascetic  mendicants, 
amongst  the  hindoos,  who  live  by  begging ;  they 
resemble  the  Urddhar-bahu  and  Akas-mukhi. 

Devils  date  palm,  a  dwarf-giant  of  palms  which 
grows  near  Zanzioar.  It  has  no  trunk,  but  the 
mid  rib  of  each  branch  is  thick  as  a  man's 
thigh.  Eccentric  in  foliage  and  frondage,  it 
projects  over  the  waves  its  gracefully  curved 
arms,  sometimes  thirty  and  forty  feet  long. — 
Black.  Mag.  March  1858,  p.  286. 

NA-KIIONG-VAT,  a  great  temple  in  Cambo- 
dia, which  seems  to  have  been  built  in  the 
tenth  century.  It  is  600  feet  in  the  base,  and 
in  the  centre  180  feet  high.  Every  angle  of 
the  roof,  every  entablature,  every  cornice  bears 
the  seven-headed  serpent. — Horshurgh. 

NAKHODA  from  Nao,  a  vessel,  and  Khoda, 
lord  or  master,  a  ship  captain. 

NAKHTAR,  Huro.  Cedrus  deodara,  Pinua 
longifolia ;  the  generic  name  of  pines  among 
the  Affghans,  of  which  there  are  several  kinds, 
perhaps  fraom  Naahtar  a  lancet,  owing  to  the 
sharp  points  of  its  leaves. — GlegJiom's  Punjab 
Report,  p.  215. 

NAKHTHAN,  Hnn).    Faba  vulgaris. 

NAKHUD,  Pebs.  Cicer  arietinum,  Linn,, 
Bengal  gram. 

NAKHUN,  Hind.  A  kind  of  sheU  used  as 
a  drug.  It  is  like  a  finger  nail,  hence  the 

NAKIRI  GADDI  or  Nakka  korra,  Tkl. 
Panicum  helvolum,  L. 

NAKKA,  Tel.  Canis  aureus.  Linn.  Ely. 
The  jackaJl. 

NAKKA  DOSA  or  Dosa,  Tel.  Cucumis 
utillissimus,  R.  var.  This  variety  is  grown 
largely  by  the  ryots  in  their  grain  fields. 

NAKELA  KORRA,  Tbl.  Panicum  helvolum, 
L. — P.  glaucum.  R.  i,  284. 

NAKKA  NARAYANA,  Tel.  Indigofera, 
sp.  This  name  was  attached  to  a  dried  specimen 
from  Kondavid,  which  was  not  I.  trita. 

NAKKA  NARU,  Tel.  Indigofera  trita, 
L.—  W.  6r  A.  636;  Ic.  315-386.— JK.  iii, 
371 ;  I.  cinerea,  R.  iii,  ^72—Rheed,  ix.  36. 
also  Poa  koenigii,  Kmithy  or  Poa  interrupta,  i2. 

i.  335. 

NAKKA  NEREDU,  Tel.  Flacourtia  sapida, 

Roxh.  W.  ^  A. 

NAKKA  NEREDU,  Tel.  Flacourtia  sapida, 
R.  iii,  835  ;  Cor.  69— TT.  ^  A.  104,  Ic.  84. 
also  applied  to  Ardisia  solanacea. 

NAKKA  PASUPU  or  Konda  pasupu,TEL. 
Curcuma,  sp.  Wild  turmeric,  C.  montana  or 
C.  angustifolia. 

N  26 



NAKKA  RENU,  or  Lakuchamu,  Tel.  Arto- 
carpus  lacoocha,  E, 

NAKKA  TOKA  GADDI,  Tel.  Poa  5p. 
Fox-tail  grass. 

NAKKA  TOKA  PONNA,  Tel.  Uraria 
lagopoides,  DC.—  W,  ^  A.  689;  also 
Hemionitis  cordifolia,  R,  The  name  means 
"  fox-tail  plantf  syn.  Dhavani,  W.  444- 

NAKKAVmi  CHETTU,  Tel.  Cucumis,  sp. 
Br.  473 — where  it  is  explained  by  Uruvaru,W. 
163,  "  a  sort  of  cucumber." 

NAKKENA,  Tbl.  Canthium  didymum, 
GxBHn.—B.  i,  535.— TT.  ^  A.,1301. 

NAKKERU  or  Ura  nakkeru,  Tbl.  Cor- 
dia  myxa,  L, — R.  i,  590. — Bheede^  iv,  37,  also 
Ximenia  americana,  L. 

NAKL,  Benq.    Tree. 

NAKL-KHWAJA—  ?  Buchanania  latifolia. 

NAKL  OOS  SHAYTAN,  Arab.  The 
DeTil's  Date  palm,  a  dwarf-giant  of  palms  grows 
near  2^nzibar.  It  has  no  trunk,  but  the  mid 
rib  of  each  branch  is  thick  as  a  man's  thigh. 
Eccentric  in  foliage  and  frondage,  it  projects 
over  the  waves  its  gracefully  curved  arms,  some- 
times thirty  and  forty  feet  long. — Black.  Mag., 
Marth  1858,  p.  285. 

NAKO,  see  India,  Kunawer. 

NAKOOREEy  a  river  and  town  in  Almorah. 

NAKRARAG,  Hind.    Hyena  striata,  Zim^ 

NAKRIZE,  Hon).    Lawsonia  inermis. 
NAKSHAN,  HiKD.    Faba  vulgaris. 
NAKSHATRA,  a  Lunar  mansion.  Inhindoo 
astronomy  diere  are  27,  of  13^20'  each, 
Their  names  are  : — 

1  AswinL 

2  Bbanni  or  Antakam. 

3  Kritika  or  Agniya. 

4  Rofaiiu  or  Brahmam. 

6  Ardra,  or  Baudra. 

7  Punarvasa,  or  Aditya. 

8  Poahiya  or  Tishiya. 

9  Aaleeha  or  Sarpam. 

10  Bfogha  or  Pitriyam. 

11  Purva  Phalguni. 

12  Uttan  Pha^uni 

13  HastSy  or  Arid 

14  Chaitra. 

See  Hindu;  Surya. 

NAKSHATRA-MALA,  a  garland  of  twenty- 
seven  pearls,  the  number  of  the  Nakshatra  or 
hmar  mansions. — Hind.  Theat,   Vol.  ii.  p.  QQ» 

NAKSH-BANDI,  HiKD.  A  mohammadan 
fakaa  or  darvesh,  characterized  by  carrying  a 
lighted  lamp  in  one  hand  and  going  about  sing- 
ing verses  in  honor  of  the  prophet,  &c.,  they 
derive  their  institution  and  name  from  Khaja 
Bah^^ud-din  of  Naksh-band. 

NAKSH-I-KEJEB,  Sculptures  in  the  moun- 
tains of  Rah  mat,  near  Persepolis. 

N  AKSH-I-RUSTOOM,  the  rocks  on  which  the 
ba9-relie&  of  Naksh-i-Rustoom  are  sculptured, 
bear  the  name  of  Koh-i-Hoossain  -,  they  form  the 

27  N 

15  Swati. 

16  Vaisakha. 

17  Anuiadba. 

18  Jyeflhtha. 

19  Neriti  or  MiUa. 

20  Purva  Asharha. 

21  Uttara  Asharha. 

22  Sravana. 

23  Sraviflhtha. 

24  Satabhisha. 

25  P.  Bhadrapada. 
20  U.  Bhadrapada. 

27  Bevati  or  Paushna. 

continuation  of  the  ridge  lying  south  of  the 
valley  of  Kamin  and  serve  for  a  northern  boun- 
dary to  the  district  of  Hafrek.  They  are  rugged 
cliffeofwhite  and  yellowish  marble  with  hardly 
any  slope  towards  the  plain.  The  more  ancient 
sculptures  are  known  by  the  designation  Royal 
Tombs.  These  are  seven  in  number,  of  which 
four  are  at  Naksh-i-Rustoora,  and  three  in  the 
rocks  of  Rahmet,  at  Takht-i-Jamshid.  The 
former  are  supposed  to  contain  the  four  Persian 
monarchs  who  immediately  followed  Cjrrus, 
namely,  Cambyses,  Darius  I.,  Xerxes  and 
Artaxerxes  I.  The  remaining  three  kings  of 
the  Achemenid  race  are  supposed  to  have  been 
interred  in  the  three  other  tombs  in  the  rock 
of  Rahmat,  at  Takhfr-i-Jamshid. — Baron  C.  A. 
DeBode's  Travels  in  Luristan  and  Arabistan, 
pp.  97,  98,  99. 

NAKTRUSA,  Hind.     Sisymbrium  iris. 

NAKULA,  one  of  the  five  Pandava. 

NA-KYEEN,  Bttrm.  This  is  the  soondri  wood 
of  Calcutta,  Heritiera  minor,  where  it  is  so 
common  as  to  serve  for  firewood,  although, 
from  its  superior  qualities  for  tuggy-shafts, 
hackery  or  cart  axles  and  wheels  and 
other  purposes  requiring  great  strength  and 
toughness,  it  is  highly  prized.  In  Amherst 
the  timber  is  employed  for  house  posts  and 
rafters.— Co^.  Ea;.  1862. 

NAL,  Hdtd.    Arundo  donax^ 

NAL,  also  Nul,  Beng.  Amphidonax  karka, 

NAL,  Hind.  A  hollow  reed  or  cane,  a  tube, 
a  pipe.  The  reeds  used  as  pens  or  kalm,  for 
writing  in  the  Persian  character.  The  best  are 
red  without,  white  within,  and  hard  as  stone. 
See  Graminaceaa. 

NAL,  also  means  *  a  tube,*  whence  the  war- 
like nal-gola,  a  kind  of  arquebuss  ;  a  ball  pro- 
pelled by  whatever  force  from  a  tube ;  a  term 
used  by  the  old  martial  poets  of  India  for  a 
warlike  engine,  long  before  gunpowder  was 
known  in  Europe.  A  single  barrelled  gun  is 
ek-nalli-karbanduq ;  do-nali-ka-banduq,  a  double 
barrel. — Toc^s  Travels,  p.  25. 

NAL,  Tam.    Day. 

NAL,  see  Kelat. 

NAL  (?)  Hind.  A  gang  of  freebooters  in 
Bundelkhuiyi  as  Sanoria,  or  Uthaigir. 

MALA,  Hind.  Is  a  term  applied  to  a  mountain 
stream,  from  nal,  *  a  defile,*  indicating  that  the 
course  of  a  stream  always  presents  some  mode 
of  penetrating  into  mountainous  regions.  Vulg. 
a  nullah,  a  water-course  or  stream :  often  a 
long  inlet  from  one  of  the  great  rivers  and  re- 
ceiving the  drainage  of  the  country,  but  not 
having  any  origin  in  a  spring  or  snow  bed,  as 
fivers  and  streams  have ;  usually  a  rivulet,  a 
channel  cut  in  the  soil  by  rain-water,  or  water- 

NALA  and  Damayanti,  a   story  of  ancient 



hindoo  life,  in  the  later  Vedic  period  preceding 
brahmanism.  Nala  inhabited  Nishada,  the  Bhil 
country  and  Damayanti  was  a  daughter  of  the 
Vidarbha,  in  the  modem  Berar.  Nala,  lost, 
for  a  time,  both  his  kingdom  and  his  faithful 
wife  Damayanti.  The  rajah  of  Jeypore  claims 
to  have  sprung  from  the  ancient  rajah  Nala  of 
romantic  memory. 

NALAND A,  a  famous  monastery  in  Magadha, 
near  Gaya,  now  called  Baragaon.  It  is  the 
most  famous  buddhist  monastery  in  all  India. — 
CrmninghaTrCs  AyvderU  Oeog.  of  India,  p.  16. 

NALAPANA  KULINGOO,  CurcuHgo  orchi- 

NAL  BANS,  Hind.  Bambusa  arundinacea. 
The  bamboo. 

NALCHE,  see  Kunawer. 
NALDRUG,  a  fortress  in  the  western  part  of  the 
Hyderabad  dominions,  27  miles  from  Sholapore. 
NAL  ENNE,  Tam.     Oil  of  Sesamum  orien- 
tale,  Gingelly  or  Sesamum  oil. 

NALI,  Tel.     Ulmus  integrifolius,  Eoxh, 
NALI,  Him).  Ipomsed,  reptans. 
NALKAPUR,   17^    17';    78°   48',   in   the 
Dekhan,  32  miles  east  of  Hyderabad.     Mean 
height  of  the  village,  above  the  sea  is  1,591  fl. 
NALKEE,  Beng.     Hibiscus  cannabinus. 
NALEJ,  a  kind  of  palanquin. 
NALKIA,  HiOT).    Tulipa  stellata. 
NALL,  Hind.  A  hollow  bamboo.     See  NaJ. 
NALLA,  Tbl.     Black,  hence 
Nallaragisi,  or  Avisi,  Tbl.  Linum  usitatissimum, 
X.,  Sans.  Atasi,  W.  15. 
„  ariti,  Tel.    Musa  paradisiaca,  var,  also  Mi- 
chelia,  tp.  Sk.  explains  it  by  Champa  which 
W,,  318,  renders  both  Michelia  and  a  var.  of 
the  plantain. 
„  asakahi,  Tbl.    Paspalmn,  ^,f 
„  ativasa,  Tbl.    Curcimia  coasia,  JR.,  i,  29.    One 
oi  the  Sans.  syn.  is  Sati  which  Tr .,  826,  says, 
is  a  kind  of  Churcuma,  and  in  Bengal,  C.  coesia 
is  still  called  black  Haldi  and  Nuakantha. 
„  balusu,  or  Nakkena,  Tbl.    Canthium  didy- 

mum,  Gcsrtn, 
„  budama,  Tbl.  Gucumis  turbinatus,  H,,  ill,  723, 

W.  and  A,  1059. 
„  chamalu,  Tbl.  Panicmn  miliare,  Lam.  R.  1, 309. 
„  Chandra  or  Chandra,  Tel.  Acacia  sundra,  DC. 
„  ohikkudu,  Tbl.    Lablab,  sp. 
„  chitra  mulam,  Tbl.    Plumbago  capensis,  Th. 
„  chukka  kada,  Tbl.    Eleiotis  sororium,  DC— 
W.  and  ^.711.  Boxb.  has  Nalla  sera  kada 
evidently  a  mis-print  for  Nalla  sukka  or 
chukka  kada,  t.  e.,  "  black  spot"  from,  the 
dark  mark  in  the  middle  of  each  leaflet. , 
„  daduga,  Tbl.    Miliusa  velutina,  Hook.f.  and 

r^.— Uvaria  villosa,  R.  ii,  664. 
„  dintena  orDintena,  Tel.    Clitoria  tematea,  L, 

a.  coeruleoflora. 
„  doggradi,    Tbl.    Amarantus   spinosus,  L.     A 
dried  sp.,  with  this  name  was  sent  from 
Kondavid,  but  it  probably  refers  more  pro- 
perly to  some  of  tne  many  dark-coloured  sp. 
»  gaggdra  or  Tulasi,  Ocimum  sanctum,  X.     W. 
218,  Krishnarjaka  and  Eala  tulasi  in  Bengal. 
„  nalla  gili   gichcha,  Crotalaria  hirsuta,  WiUd. 

R.  in,  270.— H^.  and  A.  5S2.  The  flowers  are 
black  or  purple  spotted.  • 




NaUagiri  gili  gichcha^  Tel.  Crotalaria  UnifoliA,Z. 
W.  and  A.  589— C.  coespitoea,  R.  iii,  269.    So 
called  from  the  ovoi<]^  black  legume — nalla, 
black; gin  round. 
„  gilikarra,  Tel.    Nigella  sativa. 
„  nalla  giniya,  Tbl.  Occurs  in  Sk.  as  the  equiva- 
lent of  Katabhi  which  W.  180,  makes  to  be 
Ctoiiospermum  halicacabum — ^also  Clitoria.  * 
„  guli  vinda  or  Gidivinda,  Abrus  precatorius,  i. 
y.   melanospermus,  Boxb.   ii,  292,   applies 
the  same  name  to  Cardiospermum  hahcaca- 
bum,  the  seeds  of  which  are  black  with  a 
white  spotj  very  like  the  seeds  of  Abrus  pre- 
„  gunta  kalagara  or  Gunta,  Kalagara  eclipta,  ^.  f 
The  Sans.  syn.  is  Maha  bhringah  or  great 
Eclipta,  not  in  W. 
„  gurujinja,  Tel.    Abrus  precatorius,  X»m, 
„  irugudu,TEL.    Dalbergialatifolia,Tr.<fe^.;  J2. 
„  iswara,  Tel.  Aristolochia  acuminata,  X.— i2.  iii, 

„  jidi  chettu  or  Jidi  chettu,  Semecarpus  anacar- 
dium,  L.—R.  ii,  83 ;  Cor.  1 2— PT.  and  A.,  523; 
Ic.  558. 
„  jila  karra,    NigeUa  sativa,  Z.,  8  liidica,  DC. 
Jilakarra  or  Jira  is  cumin,  black,  or  Kali 
jira,  NigeUa  sativa. 
„  Jilledu  or  Jilledu,  Calotropis  procera,  R,  Br, 
This  application  is  made  from  the  dark  color 
of   thft    flowers.      Hamilton  identifies   thia 
sp.  with  C.  HaniiltoniL  R.  \\\ 
„  jiluga,  Cassia  pumila,  Xom.—^.oiM?  .4. 904 — 

Senna  prostrata,  R.  ii,  352. 
„  kaka  mushti  ?  Diospyros,  ap.— D.  sylvatica,  JR.  ? 
A  doubtful  name.    Mushti  is  Strychnos — 
Beddome     adds,    "only    foimd  in     fruit, 
D.  sylvatica?"    or  Gata,  p.  58.    It  is  more 
probably  D.  cordifoHa.  See  £aka  ulimera  and 
Nalla  ulimera. 
„  kakara,    Momordica,  «p.    From  Kondavid. 
„  kakasijOrDevatamalle,  Randiauliginosa,2>C 
„  kaluva,  NymphoBa  stellata,  WiM.—W.  and  A, 
55;    Ic.  178— J2.  u,  579;  N.  cyanea,   577; 
Nilotpalam,  W.  486. 
„  kamanchi    or  Kamanchi,   Solanum   rubnim. 

Mill. — fi.  melanopyrenum. 

„  kasana,    Ormocarpum  sennoides,  Beauv. — W. 

and  A.  072;  Ic.  297— Hedysarum  sen.  J2. 

iii,  216. 

„  kavani,  Dicerma  biarticulatum,  DC.  ;  W.  emd 

A.  710;  Ic.  419— Hedysarum  bi.,  R.  iii,  366. 

„  kokkita,    Ipomoea  obscura,  ^er— Conv.  obs— 

R.  i,  472. 
„  kuppi,  also  Nalla  opie,  Tel.    Clerodendrojx 
inerme,  Gegrt.  Syn.  of  Volkameriainermis,  X. 
„  mada  or  Mada,  Avicennia  tomentosa,  R.  iii,  88. 
„  maddi,    Terminalia  tomentosa,  W.  and  A,  972  ; 
Ic.  195.— Pentaptera  torn,  R.  ii,  440,  also 
Maba  buxifolia,  Pbrs.  Tlie  bark  dyes  black. 
„  man^  Randia,  ap.    Perhaps  K  uliginoea. 
„  mam,    Ficus  ? 

„  mulu  goranta,  Barleria  obovata,  L — B.  buxi- 
folia, R.  iii,  37.  The  syn.  is  Sairiyaka,  W. 
944.— Common  in  Mysore  and  Malabar  with 
pinkish  violet  flowers :  another  variety  oc- 
curs in  Guntur  with  pure  white  flowers,  or 
tella  mulu  goranta. 
„  nela  g^iimmudu  or  Bhuchakra  gadda,  Batataa 
paniculata,  Ch.  ? 

„  nifambari,  Eranthemum  nervosum,  R,  Br. 

E.  pulchellum,  JK.,i,  111 ;  Justicia  pul..  Cor. 
„  nallani  padmam,  Euryale  ferox,  Salish. ;  Nym- 
phcca  stellata,  WiUd.  ?    Nallani  padmam  is  a 
black  or  purple  lotus.    The  only  species  an- 






swering  to  this  deacription  ifl  Euryale  ferox, 
which  no weyer  is  unknown  in  the  south,  but 
it  is  only  giTen  in  Sk.  as  a  syn.  of  the  Sans. 

pagadapu  chettu  or  nalla  purugudu,  Tbl.  Ani- 
Bonema  multilloray  J2.  W, 

palleru,  or  nili  palleru,  Tel.  Indigofera  echi- 

pamulagedda,  Tbl.    Sfnlomis  cheela,  Detud. 

pedda  goianta,  Barleria  cristata^  L, — M,  in, 
37— #.  Ic.  463. 

pesaltt  orpesalu,  Tel.  Phaseolus  mungo,  L,—$, 
melanospermus — Ph.  max.,  It,  (not  L,J  iii, 

pomiku,  PeltophoruB  myurus,  JS^om. — Manisu- 
rus  my.,  J2.  i,  361 ;  Cor,  117. 

paiagadaor  purugudu,  AniBonema  multiflora, 
i2.  If .— Phylhm^us  mul,  E.  iii,  QG^^Itheedey 
X,  27.  Fruit  black.  The  reference  to  Bheede 
is  Wight's.  Dillwyn  assigns  the  figure  to  Ph. 

putiki,  Anstida  depreesa,  J2e^.,  JR.  i.,  361.— 
OuBtaiia  dep.,  Beauv. 

puvYula  afnilli,  Allium,  tp.  The  words  mean 
black-flowered  onion. 

lantu,  £ndopogon,  «p.  This  was  the  name 
given  by  the  Konda  Doralu  at  Sinhachalam 
to  a  very  pretty  sp.  with  pale  blue  flowers, 
whether  an  Endopogon  or  a  Stenisiphonium, 

ratiga,  Tsl.  Yitis  qnadrangularis,  WalL ;  W, 
«fe  A.,  W,  7c.,  Bheede, 

regn.  Acacia  amani,  WiUd,—W.and  A.  848— 
Munosa  am,  i2.  ii,  548;  Cor.  122. 

aagandhi  pafat,  Hemidesmus  indicus,  B.  Br. 
Tar.  The  flowers  are  always  dark  purple  or 
blackish,  but  there  are  several  well  marked 

tady  gudda^  also  nalla-tatargudda,  Tel.  Curcu- 
ligo  orchioides,  Ot^n    See  Musli. 

tapeta,  TsuSonchus  orixensis,i2.  iii,  402.  Br.  un- 
der nela  tapi)eta  389,  has  "  name  of  a  tree"  and 
adds  the  syn.  grishma  sundaramu,  which  W. 
306,  explains  to  be  a  kind  of  pot-herb,  quot- 
ing Erythrtea  (Chironia)  centauroides ! — 
Wight  contr.  27,  considers  sonch.  orix.  and 
oieraceos  to  be  the  same — tappeta  is  Asysta- 

tegada  or  Tegada,  Black  tegeda.  The  Sans. 
syn.  given  is  palmda  which  according  to  W. 
531,  is  jasminum  pubescens;  palindi  is  ex- 
plabied  to  be  teori,  and  palindhi  to  be  the 
black  teori.  Teori  occurs  in  Pid.  Ind.  in 
^^wede's  calendar  and  in  Voigt,  as  the  hindoo 
name  of  Ipomooa  turpethum.  Teori  is  also  the 
hindinameof  Lathyrus  sativus,  the  expressed 
oil  of  the  seeds  of  which,  is,  according  to 
(XSh.  317,  a  powerful  purgative,  and  as  it  has 
large  blue  flowers,  the  similarity  of  the 
name  may  have  led  to  the  uSe  of  the  term 
black  or  naUa  tegada,  the  root  of  Ip.  turpe- 
thum possessing  similar  qualities. 

tige  or  ula  katte,  Ichnocarpus  frutescens. — 

toomi  kara,  Tbl.    Ebony. 

tumiki  or  Tumiki  Diospyros,  tp.  Br.  428,  under 
tubiki,  has  karra  tumiki,  **  eoony,"  but,  goes 
on  to  r^er  to  embryopteris.  The  name  in  the 
text  probably  refers  to  D.  melanoxylon, 

tmnma.  Acacia  arabica,  Wiid.—W.  A  A.  858.— 
Kimoea  ar.,  JL  ii,  557;  Cor.  149;  Br.  428. 
Jour.  As.  Soc.,  Cole.,  vi,  392. 

ummetta,  Tel.  Datura  fastuosa,  MUL  Boxh. 

vavali,TEL.  Oendarussa  vul^ris,  also  yitex 
negundo,  Lmn-,  Boxh. ,  W.  Ic. 

.29  N 











Nalla  valu,  Tel.    Sinapisglauca,  B,  iii.,  118.  Saks. 
Syn.  krislinika. 
Tandi  karra,  a  name  ^ven  by  the  Eonda  Do- 
ralu to  an  undetermmed  tree  at  Sinhachalam. 
vatti  veni,  or  vatti  veru,  andropogon  murici^ 
tus^  Betz.   The  syn.  in  Pt.  II,  Jalasayah,  W. 
345,  is  stated  to  be  Khashhas. 
vaviU,  Vitex  negundo,  Z.—R.  iii,  10— W.  Ic. 

519— Bheede  ii.,  12. 
vegisa  or  vegisa,  Pterocarpus,  gp. 
vishnu  kranta,  or  Vishnu  kranta,  Evolvulus 

alsinoides,  L. 
udata,  or  ball  komma,  Cansiera  rheedii,   Om., 
W.  Ic.  1861.— C.  scandens,  S.  i,  441;  Cor.  103., 
Bheede  vii,  2-4.  Opilia  amentacea,  B.  ii,  87 ; 
Cor.  158.    This  name   is    applied  to  both 
plants  by  the  Eonda  Doralu. 
uduga,  or  uduga,  Alangium  hexapetalum.  Lam, 
— k  Ic.  194.    m,  m--Bheede  iv,26.   This 
name  was  given  to  specimens  from  Eonda^ 
vid.    It  is  probably   the   same  as  Rheede's 
karangolum  which  Dillwyn  identifies  with 
A.  hexapetalum,  Zam.  (not  WiUd.)  Are  they 
different?    \,Wiaht,  IU.,\\,2. 
ulimera,  or  Eaka  ulimera,  Diospyros  cordifo- 

ummetta,  Datura  fastuosa,  MiU. — B.  i,  561 — 

W.  Ic.  1396. 
uppi,  Gapparis  sepiaria,  L. — B,  ii,  568 — W.  %• 
A.  92.  Br.  105,  under  Uppi  quotes  this  name, 
and  also  Monetia  which  is  Telia  u])pi  adding 
a  "  thorny,  medicinal,  styptic  shrub,  with  a 
ligneous,  hollow  fruit  or  gall,  as  large  as  a 
nut-meg''  and  gives  as  a  syn.  Mouktika 
urimida,  or  nalla   ulimera,  Diospyros  cordifo- 

Ua,  J2. 
yirugudu   chettu,   Dalbergia  latif olia,  B.  iii, 
221 ;  Cor.  113— TF.  ^  A.Si4;  Ic.  1156. D.  lati- 
folia  is  called  Sweta  sal,  i.  e,,  white  sal  in  N. 
India.    The  Srishna  simsupa  which  is  the 
syn.  of  Nalla  yirugudu  in  Sk.  seems  to  refer 
to  another  species,  V.  Patsa  yirugudu  chet- 
tu, but  the  Tel.  name  exactly  corres|)onds 
with  its  Eng.  syn.  "  black-wood." 
nalleru,  Vitis  cissus   quadrangularis.     Wall.— 
W.  <^-  A.  410— If.  Ic.  bl—B.\  407.    Br.  480. 
nalli  or  medakava,  Grewia  piiosa,  Lam.  Br.  480. 
NALLA-GADHA,   Tel.     Aquila  nsevia. — 

NALLA    JUTE,  Anglo-Bbng.      Corchorus 

NALLAK,   Tbl.     The  male  bird  of  Eudy- 
namis  orientalis,  Linn, 

NALLA  MALLA,  two  hill  ranges  near  Cud- 
N  ALLA-PAT,  •  Beng.    Jute. 
NALL-ENNAI,  Tam.     Gingelly  oil. 
NALLERU,  Tbl.     Vitis   quadrangularis. — 
Wall.,  W.  ^  A.,  W.  Ic,  BJuede. 

NAL-SAHIB    (lit.     Mr.     Horse-shoe,)     an 
Alam  or  standard  of  mahomedans. 

NALTA-PAT,  Bbng.,  Hind.  Corchoriis  cap- 
sularis.    . 

NALU,  Hind.     Arundo  donax. 
NAM,  Hun).     A  name. 
NAMA,    Hind.     A   name   applied   to   the 
marks  which  the  sects  of  hindoos  wear  on  their 
NAMA,  Amb.     Arenga  saccharifera,  LaJbill^ 







NAMA,  also  Nama  dampo,  Tbl.  Apono- 
get»n  monostachyon,   Willde. 

NAMA  KARANA,  Saks.  From  nama  a 
name,  and  kree,  to  make,  a  Hindoo  ceremony  of 
naming  a  child. 

NAMAK-ARANAM,  see  Hindoo. 

NAMAK  DULLA,  Husro.  A  salt  of  soda,  a 
natron  salt  from  the  waters  of  the  lake  of 
Loonar.  It  is  used  in  dyeing,  in  medicine  and 
the  arts. 

NAMA  ?  KETTI  GADALU,  Tbl.  Apono- 
geton  monostachyon,   Willde. 

NAMA  KIRTANA.  In  the  hindoo  religion 
the  constant  repetition  of  any  of  the  names  of 
the  deity. 

NAMAK  KA  TEZAB,  Hiin).  Muriatic  acid. 

NAMALLI  PILLI,  Tam.  Felis  rubiginosa, 
Is.  Oeoff, 

NAMA  SrVAYA,  the  principal  Mantra  of 
the  Saiva  sect  of  hindooe. 

NAMASEIARA  is  a  reverential  salutation  to 
an  idol  or  a  brahman. 

NAMASUDRA,  corruptly,  Numoosoodr(?) 
Beng.     a  low  caste,  a  chandala. 

NAMAZ,  Pbrs.,  Hind.  Prayer.  The  maho- 
medan  prayer- time  occurs  five  times  daily. 

Ta  dil  ba  mihnat  dadim, 
Dar  bahr-i-fikr  uftadim, 
Chun  dar  namaz  istadim, 
Kuwat  amad  anderim. 

^Tule  Cathay,  Vol  iUp.  499. 

NAMBALL  PAIO,  Malbal.  Eugenia  ma- 
laccensis,  Linn. 

NAMBI,    Tam.,  Malbal. 

Kambiyana,  Kab.  I  Nambiyan,  Tam. 

Nambadi,  Malbal.  | 

The  title  of  an  inferior  class  of  brahmans 
said  to  be  sprung  from  a  Kshatriya  mother 
and  brahmin  father,  and  usually  officiating 
as  priest  in  Vaishnava  temples  in  tbe  South 
of  India. 

NAMBOGUM,  MaleAl.    See  Tibilebu. 

NAMBUDIRI,  commonly  pronoimced  and 
written  Namburi,  Mal.,  Tam.  A  brahman 
of  the  highest  order  in  Malabar.  The  Nam- 
buri brahman  race  of  Malabar  are  arrang- 
ed into  two  tribes,  the  Panniur  grammakar 
or  Boar-villagers,  and  the  Choour  gramma- 
kar or  Bird-villagers.  When  the  Namburi  brah- 
man women  are  guilty  of  connection  with 
inferior  castes,  they  are  of\;en  sold  by  their 
relatives  and  chiefly  to  the  mahomedan  Mapilla. 
Under  the  terms  head-price  and  breaat-price, 
the  princes  of  Malabar,  in  granting  certain  lands 
to  the  christians  in  a.  d.  316,  allowed  them  the 
revenues  derived  from  the  sale  of  males  and 
females  for  serious  caste  offences,  a  practice 
which  the  Namburi  continue.  A  Namburi 
brahman  of  Malabar  is  always  the  Rawal  or 
chief  priest  of  the  temple  of  Badarinath  in  the 
Mana  Pass  of  the  Himalaya. —  Wilson,  See 
Sankara  Achari. 



NAMBU  VETUVAR  ?  a  class  of  slaves  in 

NAMBYARA,  Mal.  A  tribe  of  Nayar,  or 
Nair  in  IVfalabar. 

NAMCUL,  near  Salem,  a  fortified  detached 
hill  with  a  pretty  large  town  at  the  foot. 
The  hill  is  steep  but  not  high ;  its  rock  is  sienitic, 
in  which  white  quartz  and  felspar  prevail :  in 
some  places  it  contains  garnets  in  hornblende 
and  a  greenstone  which  possesses  the  characters 
of  felspar  and  is  composed  of  the  same  con- 
stituents ;  th€  latter  compound  seemed  to  prevail 
particularly  in  the  lower  country.  The  sand 
in  the  nullas  and  in  some  part  of  the  road  was 
mostly  an  aggregate  of  small  garnets  and 

NAMDAH,  Hind.  Pbrs.  A  thick  felt  used 
by  the  nomade  races  of  Persia  and  Afghanistan 
for  their  tents,  hence  the  term  nomside.  The 
numda  is  also  largely  used  as  a  sleeping  rug  and 
for  carpeting.     See  Nammad. 

NAMDUNG,  a  river  at  Rungpoor. 

NAMEDE.  A  rather  hard,  very  fine,  close- 
grained,  heavy  Ceylon  wood. 

NAMELUDDOOGOO,  Tbl.  See  Junglee 
shumbaloo,  Hind. 

NAMI,  a  root  of  the  form  of  a  large  potato, 
which  grows  in  Mindoro,  cultivated  also  in  Ti- 
mor and  in  the  Moluccas.  It  is  said  to  be  the 
Manioc  or  Cassava  of  South  America. 

NAMILLE,  Tel.    Ulmus  integrifolia.  Boxh. 

NAMMAD,  Pbrs.  Narrow  strips  of  thick 
soft  felt,  handsomely  ornamented  with  vario>us 
colours,  which  are  placed  round  the  rooms  in 
Persia  and  Koordistan,  and  serve  instead  of 
sofas  and  chairs. — Miches  residence  in  Koordis- 
tan Vol,  i.  p,  85.     See  Namdah. 

NAMMA  DUMPA,  or  Gotti  gadda,  Tsl. 
Spathium  chinense.  Lour. 

NAMMAM,  Arab.     Thymus  chamsBdrys. 

NAM  ME,  BxTRM.     A  river. 

NAMO,  or  Lamo  Island,  called  also  Nan 
Gaou,  on  the  south  coast  of  China,  is  12  miles 
long  from  east  to  west,  and  5^  miles  broad.  It 
is  very  barren,  but  well  peopled  by  a  fishing 
population. — Horsburgk. 

NAMOONE-KOOLE,  a  mountain  near 
Badulla  in  Ceylon,  nearly  7,000  feet  high. 

NAM  PAP  ATA.  Pavetta  tomentosa,  Sm — 
Ixora  tom,  E.  i.  386— TT.  /c,  180. 

NAM-PHRIK.  A  sauce  used  by  all  classes 
in  Siam,  it  is  prepared  by  bruising  a  quantity 
of  red  pepper  in  a  mortar,  to  which  are  added 
kapi  (paste  of  shrimps  or  prawns),  black  pepper 
garlic,  and  onions.  These  being  thoroughly 
mixed,  a  small  quantity  of  brine  and  citron- 
juice  is  added.  Ginger,  tamarinds,  and  gourd 
seeds  are  also  employed.  The  nam-phrik  is  a 
most  appetite-exciting  condiment. — Bowring^a 
Siam,  Vol.  i.,  2^.  108. 

N  30 


NAMRUD.  Nine  miles  from  Baghdad  ia  | 
the  sinalj  Akarkouf,  the  ground  around  the 
rained  pile  is  called  by  the  Arabs  Tall  Namrud, 
ajid  by  the  Turks  Nararud  Tapassi.  Both 
these  terms  mean  the  hill,  not  the  tower,  of 
Nimrod  and  the  term  Akarkouf  or  Agargouf 
given  by  the  Arabs,  is  intended  to  signify  the 
ground  only,  around  it. 

NAM  SAKI,  Sans.    Namesake. 

NAMSAN6,  a  rude  pagan  tribe  on  the  hills 
of  Assam,  on  die  eastern  frontier  of  the  Mikir 
and  Cachar.  See  India,  Naga. 

NAMUM,  Tam.    Pipeclay. 

NAMUM,  the  marks  hindoos  make  on  their 

NAMUM,  Tam.  The  marks  on  the  fore- 
heads of  the  hindoos  indicating  the  sects  to 
which  they  belong.  That  of  the  Ramanuja 
consists  of  two  perpendicular  white  lines, 
drawn  from  each  root  of  the  hair  to  the 
commencement  of    the    eyebrow,    and    con- 


NANAH,  Mahr.  Lagerstraemia  parviflora, 
R.  also  Lagerstraemia  macrocarpa. — Boocb. 

NANAK,  was  the  son  of  a  grain-factor  at 
Talwundee,  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Lahore. 
He  was  born  in  tlie  year  1469,  and  in  early 
life  deserted  the  humble  shop  of  his  father  to 
seek,  in  study  and  retirement,  a  more  genial 
occupation  for  a  naturally  reflectiye  mind.  The 
tenets  of  the  hindoo  and  mahomedan  of  that 
day  alike  dissatisfied  him ;  and  he  came  forward 
as  a  reformer  of  his  country's  faith.  He  began 
to  teach  a.  d.  1490.  For  the  gross  polytheism 
of  hindoo  mythology  he  substituted  what  may 
be  defined  a  high  philosophic  deism,  and  succeed- 
ed in  collecting  together  a  large  body  of  follow- 
ers, whom  he  called  Sikh,  or  "  disciples  ;"  and 
these  he  organized  under  a  theocratic  form  of 
polity,  being  himself  recognised  as  their  Gooroo, 
or  "  teacher."  For  many  years  this  rapidly 
increasing  body  of  converts  continued  to  lead  a 
peaceful  meditative  Ufe,  absorbed  in  the  study 

nected  by  a  transverse  streak  across  the  root  of  of  their  holy  book,  the  "  Gnmth,"  which  con- 

the  nose.  In  the  centre  is  a  perpendicular 
itreak  of  red,  made  with  red  Sanders  or  with 
Roll,  a  preparation  of  turmeric  and  lime.  They 
have  also  patches  of  Gopi  chandana  with  a 
oenteal  red  stroak  on  the  breast  and  each  up- 
per arm.  The  marks  are  supposed  to  repre- 
sent the  Sankh  (Shell),  Chakra  (Discus),  Gada 
(Club),  and  Padma  (Lotus)* 

NAMUTI,  Bbng.  Grangea  Maderaspatana, 

NAMZAD  BAZI,  Pers.  Pushto,  in  Afghan- 
istan a  custom  of  allowing  the  engaged  couple 
to  see  each  other. 

NAM  ZEYLANICA,  Linn.  Syn.  of  Hy- 
drdea  zeylanica,  VM. 

NAN,  Pebs.     Leavened  bread. 

NAN,  a  dependency  of  Siam,  N.  £.  of  Ban- 
koli.  Its  capital  is  in  a  fertile  valley.  Lu,  one  of 
the  Laos  tribes,  are  perpetually  at  war  with  Nan. 

NANA,  Arab.  Pkbs.    Mint,  Mentha  sativa. 

NANA,  Mahr.    Ben-teak. 

NANA  BALA,  Tel.  Euphorbia  hirta,  Z.— 
jR.,  ii.,  472. 

NANA  FARNAVES,  see  Baji  Rao. 

NANAH,  the  Tamil  name  of  a  tree,  pro- 
bably the  Morinda  citrifolia,  which  grows  in 
Travancore  and  Malabar  to  about  twelve  feet 
in  height,  and  ten  inches  in  diameter.  It  is 
generally  curved  in  its  growth,  and  very  soft 
and  light.  It  resembles  the  American  red- 
birch  as  to  its  silvery  grain.  The  native  car- 
penteTs  use  it  for  the  frames  of  small  vessels. 
It  ia  of  little  value  in  consequence  of  its  early 
decay. — Edye  M.  and  C. 

NA-NAH.  BuRM.  Is  a  very  large  tree, 
thorny.  Fruit  deep  red,  size  of  a  small  plum, 
skin  very  thin,  full  of  hard,  white  triangular 
seeds.  Prized  only  by  the  Natives. — MaXcom, 
V^.  U  V'  181. 

31  N 

tained  all  the  recorded  dogmas  of  their  founder. 
They  gradually  spread  over  other  parts  of  India, 
a  college  of  them  existed  so  far  south  as 
Patna,  probably  founded  by  gooroo  Tegh  Bahar- 
dur.  An  interesting  account  of  this  college  is 
given  in  an  early  number  of  the  Asiatic  Society's 
Journal,  from  the  pen  of  C.  Wilkins,  Esq.,  dated 
March  ]  7,  1781.  But  in  the  beginning  of  the 
seventeenth  century,  Govind  Singh,  the  tenth 
gooroo,  gave  a  new  character  to  this  religious 
community.  He  was  a  man  of  a  naturally  war- 
like spirit  and  ambitious  views,  and,  thirsting  to 
be  revenged  for  domestic  wrongs,  soon  convert- 
ed the  hitherto  contemplative  Sikhs  into  a  band 
of  warriors.  These  were  the  men  who  a  century 
afterwards  formed  the  flower  of  Runjeet  Singh  s 
army,  and  whose  rampant  fanaticism  present^ 
so  formidable  an  array  on  the  different  battle, 
fields  during  the  Sutlej  and  Punjab  campaign. 

NANAK  SHAHI,  religious  mendicants  or 
vagrants.  See  Kabir  panthi. 

NANAMBOO,  Tam.  A  wood  of  Travancore, 
of  a  brown  colour.  Used  for  common  build- 
ings.— Col,  Frith, 

NANA  PADAM,  Tel.    Bleaching. 

NANA  RAO,  or  the  Nana  sahib,  of  Bithoor, 
who  claimed  to  be  an  adopted  son  of  Baji  Rao 
the  last  Mahratta  Peshwa  was  infamous  for  his 
cruel  outrages  at  Cawnpore  in  1857  against 
helpless  m6n,  women  and  children.  He  joined 
early  in  the  revolt  of  1857-8-9  and  his  cruel- 
ties in  Cawnpore  were  great.  The  most  noto- 
rious and  distinguished  characters  among  the 
rebels  in  1857  were  Tantia  Topee,  once 
a  shroff  in  the*  Oudh  bazaar  and  subse- 
quently servant  of  the  Nana  at  Bithoor ;  Jwalla 
Pershad,  the  Kotwal  of  Cawnpore,  subsequently 
Commander-in-Chief  of  the  Nana's  Army  ; 
Khan  Bahadoor  Khan  of  Bareilly,  an  old  servant 



and  pensioner  of  the  British  Governjnent,  and 
long  the  successful  leader  of  revolt  in  his  district — 
all  three  were  hanged.  Mummoo  Khan,  a  low 
menial  whom  the  passions  of  the  Begum  of  Luck- 
now  raised  from  the  kennel  to  power,  was  trans- 
ported to  the  Andamans.  Hispai-amour  and  her 
boy  Brijis  Kudr,  who  claimed  the  throne  of  Oudh 
went  to  KatmandoOjUnder  the  care  of  the  Nepau- 
lese,  where  also  the  Ranee  Chunda  of  Lahore, 
that  Messalina  of  Indian  history,  had  long  found 
an  asylum.  Bala  Rao,  the  brother  of  the  Nana ; 
Azeemoolah  whom,  once  a  khitmutgar,  he  sent 
to  London  as  his  Agent  and  who  was  his  con- 
fidant throughout  the  revolt,  and  the  Nana  him- 
self are  said  to  have  died  in  the  Dookurh 
valley  of  fever.  Feroz  Shah,  the  aspirant 
to  the  honoura  of  Delhi  and  the  compa^ 
nion  of  Tantia  Topee,  was  never  captured.  The 
three  claimants  for  power  in  India  were  the 
Nana,  Brijis  Kudr  and  Feroz  Shah.  The  claim 
of  the  second  was  to  Oudh  and  of  the  third  to 

NAN  AS,  M^LLLY,    Pine  Apple. 

NANASAI?  A  religious  mendicant 
in  the  west  of  India,  who  extorts  alms  from  the 
shop-keepers  and  others  by  importunities,  abuse, 
and  threats.  These  seem  to  be  the  Nanak  shahi, 
vagrant  mendicants,  professing  to  be  followers  of 
Nanak  shah,  the  founder  of  the  sikh  i^ligion. 

NA-NAT,  BiTRK.  Pine  Apple,  Ananas  sativus, 

NAN  BAI,  Hdtd.    A  bread-seller,  a  baker. 

NANCOWRY,  in  laf  8^  0',  long  93°  46'  E. 
one  of  the  Nicobar  Islands. 

NANDA,  a  person  not  of  princely  extrac- 
tion, who  successfully  rebelled  against  Hnga- 
makha,  the  last  of  the  Sisunaga  kings  of  Mag- 
hadha,  captured  Patalipura  and  ascended  the 
throne,  b.  c.  378.  His  younger  brother  was  de- 
throned and  killed  by  Chandragupta,  B.  c.  313. 
Nanda,  and  his  sons,  b.  c.  378  to  313,  and  the 
Maury  dynasty,  b.  c.  312.     B,  iii,  541. 

NANDA,  the  cow-keeper  foster-father  of 
Krishna,  in  whose  house  Krishna  grew  up. 
€rokul  is  a  small  town  on  the  banks  of  the 
Jumna,  below  Mathura,  and  Radha,  the  mis- 
tress of  Krishna  was  wife  of  a  cowherd  of  Grokul. 
Hence  one  of  Krishna's  titles  is  Gokul  Nath, 
lord  of  Gokul.  Grokul,  is  almost  an  island,  and 
is  one  of  the  prettiest  spots  in  the  holy  land  of  ■ 
the  hinlioos.  The  scene  there  is  stiU  as  pastoral 
as  it  hsuA  been  three  thousand  and  five  hundred 
years  ago.  Large  herds  of  heavy-uddered  kine 
remind  us  of  the  days  of  Nanda,  though  their 
number  is  far  short  of  nine  lacs,  possessed  by 
that  shepherd-chief  of  old.  See  Kasyapa, 
Krishna,  Magadha. 

NANDA  DEVI,  a  peak  in '  the  Himalaya, 
25,749  feet  high,  3,253  feet  less  than  Gauri- 
sankar.  The  villages  in  most  cases  are  built 
considerably  above  the  bed  of  the  river,  some- 



times  on  terraces  remaining  within  the  eroded 
channel,  but  more  generally  upon  the  slopes 
above  the  erosion. 

NANDA  MAHAPADMA  b.  c.  415,  but 
Wilson  340  and  Jones  1602.  «  He  will  bring 
the  whole  earth  under  one  umbrella.  He  w^ 
have  eight  sons,  Sumalya  and  others,  who'  will 
reign  aller  Mahapadma.  He  and  his  sons  will 
govern  for  100  years.  The  brahman  Kautilya 
will  root  out  the  nine  Nandas.''  See  Bhattya, 
Barhadratha,  Chandragupta,  Inscriptions, 

NANDAN  SAR,  a  small  lake  in  the  Pir 
Panjal  range. 

NAND  BANSA,  a  branch  of  the  Ahir. 

NANDER,  19°  9';  77°  20',  in  the  Dekhan, 
on  the  left  bank  of  the  Godaveri:  Level  of  the 
Godaveri  here  is  1,152  feet.  The  mean  height 
of  the  village  1,276  feet.— Cm/Z. 

NANDI,  also  called  Basavi,  also  Rishaba,  the 
sacred  bull  of  Mahadeva,  or  Siva:  it  is  his 
vahan,  and  by  some  described  as  the  emblem 
of  justice.  In  the  institutes  of  Menu,  Oh. 
8,  Vol.  16,  the  divine  foim  of  justice  is 
represented  .  as  Vrisha,  or  a  bull ;  and  the 
gods  consider  him  who  violates  justice  as  a 
Vrishala,  or  one  who  slays  a  bull.  Nandi  is 
the  epilliet  always  given  to  the  vehicle  of  Siva. 
We  sometimes  find  it  is  used  in  speaking  of 
Garuda,  the  vehicle  of  Vishnu,  and  of  the  goose 
or  swan,  Hanasa,  the  vahan  of  Brahma;  but 
the  term  Vahan  would  be  more  correct. — Moor, 
See  Bull,  Burabur  caves,  Hindoo,  Lustral 
ceremonies,  Mahadeva,  Siva,  Vrishala. 

NANDI,  Tel.  Cedrela  ^toona. — Eoxb,^  Cor,, 
W.^-  A. 

NANDIAL,  a  town  in  the  Cuddapah  district. 
There  is  a  forest  race  in  the  district  called 
Chenchwar.  They  have  no  language  of  their 
own,  but  speak  Telugu,  with  a  harsh  and  pecu- 
liar pronunciation.  Brahmans  say  they  for- 
merly were  shepherds  of  the  Terra  Golla  caste. 
They  have  large  dogs,  and  a  few  are  employed 
as  hill  police,  in  the  pass  from  the  Kiunan  to 
Budwail.  The  Nandial  Chenchwar,  assert 
their  ignorance  of  a  god  or  a  soul.  They  have 
no  images.  They  are  polygamists  ;  they  bury 
their  dead,  but  sometimes  bum,  and  Uke  the 
Tartars,  the  Nandial  Chenchwar  carry  the  de- 
ceased's weapons  to  the  grave.  They  have  the 
spear,  hatchet,  the  matchlock  and  a  bamboo 
bow  and  reed  arrow  tipped  with  iron. 
They  look  on  weaving  and  otiier  manufacturing 
arts  with  contempt,  and  they  have  in  gene- 
ral only  a  rag  for  covering.  They  are  patient 
and  docile.  It  is  suggested  by  Mr.  Logan 
that  the  Chensuar  are  a  continuation  of  the 
wild  forest  Surah  of  ihe  mountainous  tracts, 
further  north  in  the  line  of  the  Eastern  Ghats. 
Vocabularies  of  six  of  the  non-Arian  tongues, 
the    Kond,   Savara,   Gadaba,   Yerukala,    and 

N  32 



Chentsu  ore  given  at  p.  39,  No.  of  1856,  of 
Beng.  As.  Soe.  Journal ;  Newhold  in  E.  As. 
Soc,  Joum,^  1845  ;  Logan  in  Jo  urn.  Ind.  Arch. 

NANDIA  VATAM,  Tam.  Tabemajmon- 
tana  coronaria,  R,  Br.y  Moxh.,  W.  Ic,  JRh, 

NANDID^,  a  family  of  fishes  as  under : 

Fajc.  33. — Nandidae. 

FiBST  Group. — Plesiopina. 
GttL  5  Plesiops,  1  Tracbinops. 

SscoND  Group. — Nandina. 

Gen.  2  Badis,  3  Xandus,  3  Catopra. 

Third  Group. — Achamina. 

Gen,  1  Achames. 

NANDIER  VATAM,  Malral.  Tabern»- 
montana  coriara,  R.  Br. 

NANDI-KESVARA,  a  form  of  Iswara  or  his 

NANDINA,  see  Lustral  ceremonies. 

NANDINA  DOMESTICA,  Thhg.  A  tree 
of  Japan,  with  red  berries,  a  plant,  which  takes 
the  place  of  the  English  holly :  the  Nandina 
domestica,  is  called  by  the  Chinese  the  "  Tein- 
chok,"  or  sacred  bamboo.  Large  quantities  of 
its  branches  are  brought  in  from  the  country 
and  hawked  about  the  streets.  Each  of  these 
branches  is  crowned  with  a  large  bunch  of  red 
berries,  not  very  unlike  those  of  the  common 
holly,  and,  when  contrasted  with  the  dark  shin- 
ing leaves,  are  singularly  ornamental.  It  is 
used  chiefly  in  the  decoration  of  altars,  not 
only  in  the  temple,  but  also  in  private  dwel- 
lings and  in  boats,  for  here  every  house  and 
boat  has  its  altar — and  hence  the  name  of 
"  sacred  bamboo"  which  it  bears. — Fortune,  p. 
122  ;  Roxb,  Vol.  ii,  p.  184  ;   Voigt.,  p.  27. 

NANDI  REKA,  or  BiUa  juwi,  Tel.  Ficus 
nitida,  Hiumb, 

Tabemaemontana  coronaria,  R.  Br. — fi  plena 
S.  ii.,  23 ;  W.  Ic.  477 ;  Rhude,  ii.,  65. 

NANDOBAR,  see  India. 

NANT)RA-KAIA,  Tel.    Crab. 

NANDRAMI,  Rupees  of  Kabul. 

NANDRU,  HiXD.     Scopolia  praealta. 

malabaricus,  are  fish  of  the  rivers  of  Malabar, 
which  build  nests  among  the  rushes  at  the  mar- 
gin of  the  water,  deposit  their  eggs  therein  and 
keep  guard  over  them  like  a  stickleback.  The 
Ophiocephalus  striatus,  Ophiocephalus  marubus, 
and  O.  diplogramme,  exhibit  parental  affection, 
swimming  always  close  below  their  ofispring 
and  attacking  everything  that  comes  near 
cfaem.  This  they  do  till  the  fry  are  about  three ' 
inches  long,  when  they  turn  on .  and  eat  them 
themselves  if  they  do  not  disperse.  Other  fish 
i^Miwn  in  the  sand,  in  the  gravel,  and  even 
on  rock.  Some  fish  seem  to  be  almost  entirely 
herbivorous,  and  they  find  an  ample  supply  of 
fresh  water  weeds  on  all  the  rocks  in  the  rivers. 
Six  different  sorts  of  podostemaceas  have  been 

33  N 

gathered  in  flower  and  seed,  but  the  names  of 
only  two  of  them  have  been  ascertained. 
These  are  Moriopsis  hookeriana  and  Dalzellia 
pedunculosa.  Others  prey  on  their  brethren, 
and  others  again  are  omnivorous,  and  none 
more  so  than  the  mahseer. — Mr.  Thomas. 

NANEH  GHAT,  in  the  Dekhan,  has  a  cave 
chamber  with  an  inscription  in  old  Pali  of  date 
B.C.  in  the  old  Lat  character.  The  inscription 
relates  to  the  buddhist  religion  and  has  the 
words  Glory  to  Dharma,  Indra,  the  Lords  of 
Sakra,  sun  and  moon,  sanctified  saints,  Yama, 
Varuna,  and  spirits  of  the  air,  and  Lokapala, 
or  upholders  of  the  world.  It  mentions  the 
young  prince  Rakesa,  the  great  warrior  Tun- 
akayiko,  prince  Hakusaro,  connected  with  the 
house  of  Amara  Pala.  This  is  part  of  a  long 
inscription  in  a  chamber  cut  in  the  rock  over- 
looking the  Konkan  in  one  of  the  passes,  which 
was  evidently  the  high  road  from  Adjunta, 
EUora,  Junir,  to  Kalian  and  the  cave  temples 
in  Salsette.  The  inscriptions  in  all  these 
localities  are  very  numerous,  and  call  for  trans- 
lation.—  Vol.  vii,  p.  565. 

NANESHWER,  a  subordinate  incarnation 
of  Vishnu,  described  by  Major  Moor  as  having 
taken  place  at  Alundy,  near  Poonah,  about,  as 
some  state,  seven,  or  according  to  others,  twelve 
hundred  years  ago.  In  that  gentleman's  work 
he  is  stated  to  have  been  a  religious  ascetic, 
and  to  have  been  buried  alive  at  Alundy, 
where  his  tomb  is  seen  under  a  splendid  temple, 
and  where  he  yet  appears  (for,  although  buried, 
he  is  not  dead)  to  pious,  if  at  the  same  time, 
wealthy  visitors. — Cole.  Myth.  Hind.,  p.  390. 

NANG,  Hind.     Cornus  macrophylla. 

NANGAL,  a  village,  generally  inhabited 
by  the  hindoo  Sadh  sect.  Their  body  is  left 
naked,  except  the  lower  part,  which  is  covered 
by  a  piece  of  coarse  cloth.  They  wear  wooden 
shoes,  and  commonly  do  penance  in  the  Hima- 
laya mountains.  Their  hair  is  exceedingly 
long,  and  made  brown  by  ashes. — Mohan  LaVs 
Travels,  p.  19. 

NANGALA,  see  Hindu. 

NANGAR,  HiWD.    A  plough. 

NANGARWAL,  Hind.    Ephedra  alata. 

NANGASAKI,  see  Japan. 

NANGIRA,  Hind.  Derajat,  a  wild  grain. 
A  kind  of  amaranth. 

NANGKA,  Malay.  Artocarpus  incisa,  in 
several  districts  of  Java  where  teak  is  not 
found,  the  timber  of  this  tree  is  almost  exclu- 
sively used  in  the  construction  of  houses 
and  for  other  domestic  purposes :  the  wood  is 
more  close  and  ponderous  than  the  suren,  which 
it  otherwise  resembles ;  it  takes  a  tolerable  polish 
and  is  sometimes  employed  for  furniture.  The 
colour  is  yellow ;  but  it  is  made  to  receive  a 
brownish  hue,  by  the  application  of  the  young 
teak  leaves  in  polishing  :  its  bark  is  used  as  a 



yellow  dye.  This  and  the  Champadah,  are 
species  of  artocarpus  inte^folia,  and  dLOTer 
from  each  other  in  the  smaller  size,  and  hairy 
stems  of  the  latter. —  WUd.;  Low^s  Sarawak^ 
p.  73. 

NANGKE,  HiOT.    Ribes  rubrum. 

NANG  KOD,  the  name]  applied  to  Balti  by 
the  Dard  race. 

NANGO.  In  descending  from  Nango  in  East 
Nepal,  Dr.  Hooker  passed  at  first  through 
Bhododendron  and  Juniper,  then  through  Black 
silver  fir  (Abies  webbiana),  and  below  that 
near  the  river,  he  came  to  the  Himalayan  larch, 
a  tree  quite]  unknown,  except  from  a  notice  in 
the  Journals  of  Mr.  Griffith,  who  found  it  in 
Bhotan.  It  is  a  small  tree,  twenty  to  forty  feet 
high,  perfectly  similar  in  general  characters  to 
a  European  larch,  but  with  larger  cones,  which 
are  erect  upon  the  very  long,  pensile,  whip-like 
branches.  He  adds,  its  leaves,  now  red,  were 
fisilling,  and  covering  the  rocky  ground  on  which 
it  grew,  scattered  amongst  other  trees.  It  is 
called  "  Saar"  by  the  Lepchas  and  Cis-Hima- 
layan  Tibetans,  and  "  Boargasella''  by  the 
Nepalese,  who  say  it  is  foimd  as  far  west  as  the 
heads  of  the  Cosi  river :  it  does  not  inhabit 
Central  or  West  Nepal,  nor  the  North-West 

NANG-PUT,  Hnn).  Bauhinia  anguina. — 

NANING,  an  inland  territory  in  the  Malay 
peninsula,  in  length  about  forty  and  in  breadth 
about  ten  miles,  to  the  north  of  the  old  Portu- 
guese capital.  It  is  an  undulating  district,  com- 
posed of  jungly  knolls  and  round  valleys — in- 
habited chiefly  by  MaBiys — about  6,000  in 
number.  They  dwell  in  rudely  built  villages. — 
John* 8  Indian  Arehipelago,  Vol,  ii,p.  91. 

NANKA.   Nankin. 

NANKA  ISLANDS  are  three  in  number, 
and  are  situated  about  four  or  five  miles  from 
the  Banca  shore,  in  the  Straits  of  Banca. — 

NANKAR.  There  are  two  kinds  of  recog- 
nised perquisites  which  landholders  enjoy  in 
Oude,  and  in  most  other  parts  of  India — the 
nankar  and  the  seer  land.  The  Nankar  is  a 
portion  of  the  recognised  rent-roll,  acknowledged 
by  the  ruler  to  b,e  due  to  the  landholder  for  the 
risk,  cost  and  trouble  of  management,  and  for 
his  perquisite  as  hereditary  proprietor  of  the 
soil  when  the  management  is  confided  to  another. 
It  may  be  ten,  twenty,  or  one  hundred  per  cent, 
upon  the  rent-roll  of  ^e  estate,  which  is  recog- 
nised in  the  public  accounts,  as  the  holder 
happens  to  be  an  object  of  fear  or  of  favour,  or 
otherwise  ;  and  the  real  rent-roll  may  be  more 
or  less  than  that  which  is  recognised  in  the 
public  accounts.  The  seer  lands  are  those 
which  the  landholders  and  their  families  till 
themselves,  or  by  means  of  their  servants  or  | 

8*  N 


hired  cultivators.  Generally  they  are  not 
entered  at  all  in  the  rent-rolls  ;  and  when  they 
are  entered,  it  is  at  less  rates  than  are  paid  for 
the  other  lands.  The  difference  between  the 
no  rent,  or  less  rates,  and  the  full  rates  is  part 
of  their  perquisites.  These  lands  are  generally 
shared  out  among  the  members  of  the  family  as  * 
hereditary  possessions.  The  word  Nankar  used 
to  mean  a  grant  to  zemindais  and  other 
hereditary  local  officers,  is  a  compound  Persian 
phrase  of  Nan  "bread,"  and  Kar  "work," 
meaning  support  for  service.  Some  of  them  in 
Malwa  have  rich  endowments.  The  zemindary 
of  Nolye  is  estimated  at  above  sixty  thousand 
rupees  per  annum. — Sleeman's  Journey ^  Vol.  iii, 
pp.  23-6;  MdholiH^s  Central  India,  Vol.  i, 
p.  8. 

NAN-KHOAH,    Pbss.   Ajwain   seed,  Pty- 
chotis  ajowain. 

NANKEEN,  also  Nankin. 

Nankings  linnen,  Dnr. 

Toile-de-Nankin,  Fb. 

Nanking,  Gr. 

Nankin,  Ouz. 








A  Chinese  cotton  cloth  either  of  white,  blue, 
or  brownish-yellow  colour.     In  point  of  strength 
and  durability,  it  is  unrivalled  by  any  of  the 
cotton  fabrics  of  Europe.     In  some  of  the  south- 
em   parts  of  Europe,    the  warmer  parts   of 
America,  and  the  British  settlements  in  Africa, 
Nankeen  is  worn  by  both  sexes  all  the  year 
roimd,  and  constitutes  the   principle  article  of 
attire.  In  Great  Britain  and  India  it  is  now  almost 
disused.     This  kind  of  cotton  cloth  is  so  named 
from  Nanking,  where  the  reddish  threads  were 
originally  made.      Nankeens  are  also  manu* 
factured  in  Canton  and  other  parts  of  the  em- 
pire, but  the  fabric   is  of  an   inferior  quality. 
Those  made  in  Canton  still  maintain  their  su- 
periority in  coloxu"  and  texture  over  the  imita- 
tions of  other  countries.     The  price  varies  ffom 
$  45  to  S  90  per  hundred  pieces.  This  cloth  ia 
extensively  worn  by  the  Chinese  themselves,  who 
usually  dye  it  with  indigo.    The  exportation  is 
now  trifling.     The  duty,  which  was  formerly  a 
discriminating  one,  has  been  equalized  under  tlie 
new  taiiff,  and  includes  nankeens-  and  all  other 
kinds  of  native  cotton  cloths.  The  durable  cot- 
ton cloth  made  in  the  central  provinces  of  China, 
called  Nan-keen  by  foreigners,  is  the  chief  pro- 
duce of  Chinese  looms  from  cotton,  the  aerial 
muslins  so  highly  admired  by  the  hindoos  not 
being  woven.     The  nankeen  is  generally  ex- 
ported without  dyeing,  but  the  people  usually 
colour  it  blue  before  making  it  into  garments. 
The  import  of.  raw  and  manufactured  cotton 
constitutes  a  large  item  in  the  foreign  trade,  but 
forms  a  small  part  of  the  native  consumption. 
In  preparing  the  cotton  for  spinning,  it  is  clean- 
ed and  firecd  from  knots  by  placing  the  string 
of  a  bow  under  the  heap,  and  striking  it  with  a 
beater ;  the  recoil  separates  it  into  flocks  with- 




oat  injuring  the  staple*  Naakeans  were  for- 
merij  sent  abroad  in  considerable  quantities, 
but  instead  of  exporting  their  own  fabrics,  the 
Chinese  now  purchase  cottons  from  their  for- 
mer customers  to  a  laige  amount.  There  are 
few  fabrics  more  durable  than  the  nankeen, 
and  it  forms  the  principal  material  for  cheap 
gannenta  among  the  people.— 'Fat«2^m^ ;  Mor- 
Tuon;  WUHafn's  Middle  Kingdom,  Vol.  ii, 
poffe  124  ;  MeCuUoeh^s  Commercial  Dictionary, 
p.  812. 

NANKIN,  Girz.,  Hihi>.     See  Nahkeen. 

NANKIN  COTTON,  Gossypium  religiosum. 

NANKING,  or,  according  to  the  court  pro- 
nunciation, Nanchang,  is  not  a  corruption,  but 
18  the  Chinese  name  of  the  old  metropolis  of 
the  empire,  and  means  "  southern  capital"  just 
as  Peking  (in  the  court  pronunciation  Peiching) 
means  northern  capital.  King,  in  Chinese, 
means  an  imperial  capital,  as  in  Peking, 
Nanking ;  Tu,  in  Chinese  is  a  court  or  imperial 
residence,  asTaitu,  Shangtn ;  Fu,  in  Chinese  is  a 
city  of  the  first  class,  or  rather  the  department 
of  which  it  is  the  head  ;  Cheu  is  a  city  of  the 
second  class,  or  the  district  of  which  it  is  the 
head.  The  great  porcelain  tower  at  Nan-kin, 
in  the  province  of  Kiang-nan,  is  the  most  extra- 
ordinaiy  building  in  China,  it  was  bmlt  by  the 
emperor  Yong-lo,  and  is  called  by  the  Chinese 
the  Temple  of  gratitude.  The  tower  is  erected 
npcm  a  pile  of  bricks,  and  is  formed  upon  a 
most  substantial  timber  frame-work  ;  it  stands 
about  two  himdred  feet  high,  and  is  of  an  oct- 
angular shape. — Meadouf*s  Desidtory  Notes,  p, 
10 ;  rule  Cathay,  ii,  p.  262 ;  Sit^e  China  and 
ike  Chinese,  Vol.  ii,  p.  426. 

NANKING,  Gbb.    Nankeen. 

NANKINGS  LINNEN,  Dot.    Nankeen. 

NAN-LUNG-KYEN,  Bitem.  Acacia  arabica. 
— WUld.,  Idnn.,  W.  4c  -^-i  ^Jso  Vachellia 
femesiana,  Wight. 

NAN  MAH,  Cbxs.  A  kind  of  cedar,  of 
China.     See  Deodar. 

NANNA,  see  Sati. 

NANNA,  BiAHB.  Lagerstrcemia  reginse,  Eb. 

NAN  NAN,  BuBM.  Coriandrum  sativum,  L, 
Coriander  seed. 

NAN-NAN-YA-WET,  Bubm.  Fennel,  Ni- 

NANOGK,  see  Nanak. 

NAN-PAEVARASHI,  Hnro.,  Pbbs.  A  pen- 

NANQIUNA,  Sp.    Nankeen. 

NANQUINO,It.    Nankeen. 

NAN  SINH,  see  Sikhs. 

NANSJERA-PATSJA,  Hoya  pendula. 

NANTABUK,  Bubx.    Liquidambar  altin- 

NANTU-YOK,  Btjbm.     Liquid  amber. 
NANUK,  the  ifounder  of  the  Sikh  religion, 
ixdtea  styled  Nanuk  Shah  or  king  Nani^  by 

the  Sikh  historians,  who  likewise  styled  him 
Nanuk  Narinkar,  or  Nanuk  the  Omnipotent. 
Nanuk  was  a  hindoo  of  the  Ejshatriya  caste' 
and  Vidi  tribe,  was  bom  a.  d.  1469,  at  the 
small  village  of  Talwandi  (since  become  a  town 
and  now  called  Rayapur,)  on  the  banks  of  the 
Beas,  in  the  district  of  Bhatti  and  province  of 
Lahore. — History  of  the.  Punjab ,  Vol.  i,jp.  79. 

NANURI,  or  Nonari  ver,  mIl.,  Tam.  He- 
midesmus  indicus. 

NAO,  Hun).,  Pbbs.  New,  used  in  many 
compound  words,  W. 

NAO,  Hind.  A  ship,  a  boat ;  Nao-khuda, 
a  shipmaster. 

NAO-AIT,  HisTD.    A  mahomedan  sect. 

NAOO,  Bubm.  Im  Amherst,  a  timber  used 
for  house  posts :  the  leaves,  flowers,  and  roots 
are  said  to  be  used  for  medicine.  It  is  a  brown, 
substantial,  solid  wood,  not  liable  to  the  attacks 
of  insects. 

NAO-ROZ,  the  Parsees  of  India  have  a  New 
year's  day  in  March.  Themahomedans  of  Persia 
•reckon  the  year,  from  their  Nao-roz  or  New 
year's  day,  the  day  on  which  the  sun  enters 
Aries,'  but  the  mahomedans  of  India  follow  the 
lunar  months  and  have  no  intercalary  periods, 
so  that  their  anniversaries  and  festivals 
make,  continuously,  circuits  of  the  seasons. 
The  hindoos  of  India  follow  the  lunar  months, 
but  every  twenty-fifth  year  insert  an  intercalary 
month  to  adjust.     See  Era. 

NAOSHIRWAN,  the  celebrated  son  of  Ko- 
bad,  in  his  reign  an  embassy  came  to  the  Per- 
sian court  from  the  emperor  of  China,  bringing 
splendid  presents. — Yule  Cath,  Vol.  i,  p.  ^. 

NAPA-BIJ,  Hnsro.  Fruit  of  Nymphoea  lotus. 

NAPALA  OIL.     Croton  oU. 

NAPALAM,  Tbl.  The  Jatropha  curcas, 

NA  PEW  GEE,  or  Let  Thouk  Gee,  Bttbm. 
In  Amherst,  Tavoy  and  Mergui,  a  wood  of 
maximum  girth  1^  cubits,  and  maximum 
length  14  feet.  Abundant  all  over  the  pro- 
vinces. When  seasoned,  it  floats  in  water. 
It  is  a  wood  of  inferior  grain,  and  not  durable. 
— Captain  Dance. 

Neft,  As.    KeaoBo  noabra,         Jav. 

Mang-ho-yu,  Chin.    Minak  tanah,        Malay. 

Bitiime  de  Judi,  Fb.    Bhumi  tailum,  Sans. 

Nuk-teil  Gui.,  Hind.    Mun  tylum,  Tah. 

Mitti-ka-tol  „  Manti  tyliim,  Tbl. 

The  term  naphtha  is  usually  limited  to  the 
thinner  and  purer  varieties  of  rock  oil;  and 
petroleum  to  the  darker  and  more  viscid 
liquids.  Naphtha,  rock  oil,  or  petroleum,  are 
mixtures  of  various  hydrocarbons ;  but  in  its 
purest  form  naphtha  may  be  said  to  consist  of 
C«  He*  and  yielding  a  vapour  of  the  density  of 
2*8.  Such  a  hydrocarbon  is  obtained  as  a 
natural  product  at  Baku  on  the  shores  of  the 
Caspian,  where  the  soil  is  a  clayey  marl  im- 





pregnated  with  naphtha.    In  the  peninsula  of 
Ahcheran,  on  the  western  shore  of  the  Caspian, 
naphtha  rises  through  a  marly  soil  in  vapour, 
and  is  collected  bj  sinking  pits  several  yards 
in  depth,  into  which  the  naphtha  flows.     It 
is  also  procured  from  Monte  Ciaro  near  Piacenza 
in  Italy,  by  sinking  pits  in  the  horizontal  beds 
of  argillite,  which  gradually   fill  with  water; 
and  the  naphtha  oozes  out  of  the  rock  and 
floats  upon  the  surface,  from  which  it  is  skim- 
med off.     There  is  an  abundant  spring  near 
^Jniana,  in  the  Duchy  of  Parma.     The  spring 
at  Amiana  is  used  tor  illuminating  the  city  of 
Genoa.   Mr.  Dana  says  that  in  the  United  States 
it  was  formerly  collected  for  sale  by  the  Seneca 
and  other  Indians  ;  the  petroleum  is  therefore 
commonly  called  Gensee  or  Seneca  oil,  under 
which  name  it  is  sold  in  the  market.     This 
substance  has  also  been  obtained  pure  in  a  liquid 
form  from  the  coal-pits  of  Derbyshire.     In  the 
Burman  empire,  on  one  of  the  branches  of  the 
river  Irawaddy,  there  are  upwards  of  600  naph- 
tha and  petroleum  wells,  which  afford  annually 
412,000  hogsheads.     The   Burmah  petroleum 
contains  the  compound  Parafine.     Petroleum  is 
used  as  lamp-oil  in  Burmah,  and  when  mixed 
with  earth  or  ashes  as  fuel,  naphtha  is  used  both 
for  fuel  and  Hght  by  the  inhabitants  of  Bakou, 
on  the  Caspian.     The  vapour  is  made  to  pass 
through  earthen  tubes,  and  is    inflamed  as  it 
passes  out,   and  used   in   cooking.     Naphtha 
may  be  obtained  by  the  distillation  of  petro- 
leum,  it    is  aiso    one  of  the    results  of  the 
destructive  distillation  of  coal,  it  often  passes 
with  the  gas  to  the  distant  parts  of  the  appara- 
tus, and  may  be  found  in  gas-meters  and  gas- 
meter  tanks,  and  even  in  the   mains.     Care- 
fully rectified  naphtha,  whether  from  natural 
or  artificial  sources,  appears  to  possess  similar 
properties.     The  sp.  gr.  of  the  purest  Persian 
and  Italian  naphtha  is  said  to  vary  from  0*750 
to  0*760,  while  that  of  coal-naphtha  may  be 
'820  or  higher.     The  odour  of  the  natural 
naphtha  is  bituminous  but  not  unpleasant ;  that 
of  coal  is  penetrating  and  disagreeable.  It  does 
not  congeal  at  Zero.     It  ignites  readily,  and 
bums  with  a  voluminous  sooty  flame.    It  is  not 
soluble  in  water,  although  it  communicates  its 
odour  to  that  fluid.     It  dissolves  in  absolute 
alcohol,  in   ether  and  the  oils.     The  boiling- 
point  varies  in  different  specimens  from  320^ 
to  365^.    Naphtha  has  been  found  to  be  a  good 
stimulant  in  some  chronic  diseases.  It  has  been 
externally  applied  as  a  lotion  in  cutaneous  af- 
fections. It  is  sometimes  substituted  for  drying 
oil  in  making  paints.     It  is  also  employed  for 
preserving  the  metals  of  the  alkalies,  potassium 
and  sodium,  which  cannot  be  kept  in  contact 
with  any  substance  containing  oxygen.     It  is 
used  for  the  purpose  of  diminishing  the  friction 
of  machinery  as  a  substitute  for  sperm-oil.     It 



is  now  obtained  artificially  from  coal,  and  also 
in  a  solid  form,  from  which  candles  are  made. 
Naphtha  dissolves  the  greater  number  of  the  es- 
sential oils,  and  the  resins ;  and  is  extensively 
used  for  dissolving  caoutchouc  to  render  cloth 
waterproof ;  with  certain  vegetable  oils,  it  forms 
a  good  varnish  and  for  this  purpose  is  sometimes 
substituted  for  turpentine.  The  naphtha  pit  near 
Kifri  is  in  the  pass  through  which  the  Ak-au 
penetrates  to  the  plains.     The  hills  are  about 
a  mile  S.  E.  of  the  to'wnofTuzkurmatti  close 
to  the  gypseous  hills  of   Kifri  and    the    pit 
being  in    the  bed    of   the    torrent  is  some- 
times    overflowed    by    it,    and,    for  a  time, 
spoilt.      The   pit  is  about  fifteen  feet  deep, 
and,  to  the  height  of  ten  feet  filled  with  water  ; 
on  the  surface  of  which  black  oil  of  naphtha 
floats,  small  air-bubbles  continually  rising  to  the 
surface.     They  skim  off  the  naphtha,  and  ladle 
out  .the  water  into  a  channel,  which  distributes 
it  into  a  set  of  oblong,  shallow,  compartments, 
made  in    the  gravel,  where  they  allow  it  to 
crystallize,  when  it  becomes  very  good  salt,  of 
a  fine,  white,  brilliant  grain,  without  any  inter- 
mixture of  bitterness.     Great  quantities  of  this 
are  exported  into  Koordistan  ;  and  it  is  worth 
annually  about  20,000  piastres,  which  is  distri- 
buted among  the  different  members  of  the 
family  of  the  late  daflerdar.  The  oil  of  naphtha 
is  the  property  of  the  village.  Part  of  it  is  con- 
sumed by  the  manzil  khaneh,  or  sold  for  its 
support,  and  part  for  religious  estabhshmentB, 
&c.  About  two  jars,  each  containing  six  oaka, 
or  one  Bagdad  batman,   of  naphtha,  may  be 
skimmed  from  this  well  in  twenty-four  hours. 
The  spring  is  at  the   bottom  of  die  pit,    and 
once  a  year  they  cleanse  the  well,  on  which 
occasion  the  whole  village  turns  out,  victuals 
are  distributed  to  all  the  poor,  and  sacrifices  of 
sheep,  are  made,  to  the  sound  of  drums  and 
oboes,  in  order  to  insure  the  good  flowing  of  the 
spring  again — a  ceremony,  in  all  probability, 
derived  from  remote  antiquity.     The  principal 
naphtha  springs  are  in  the  hills,  a  considerable 
distance  south  of  this,  towards  Elifri.     They  are 
five  or  six  in  number,  and  are  much  more  pro- 
ductive than  this  pit,  but  no  salt  is  found  there. 
Indeed,  it  is  probable  that  naphtha  may  be  found 
in  almost  any  part  of  this  chain.  Near  the  naph- 
tha-pit in  the  hills  are  alum  (zak  or  sheb)  and 
chalk  (tabashir),  of  a  very  fine  close  white  grain, 
but  the  natives  make  no  use  of  these  productions. 
An  earth  is  found,  which  they  employ  to  give 
an  acid  flavour  to  some  of  their  dishes,  no  doubt 
it  is  vitriolic.     Sulphur  is  also  found,  and  is 
used  by  the  peasants  to  cure  the  itch  in  their 
cattle   and  themselves.     Naphtha  is  obtained 
near  Kirkook.  It  is  scooped  out  with  ladles  into 
bags  made  of  skins,  which  are  carried  on  the 
backs  of  asses  to  this  town,  or  to  any  other  mart 
for  its  sale.    The  profits  are  estimated  at*thirty 

N  36 


or  hrtj  thoQsand  piastres  annually.     The  Kir- 
book  naphtha  is  principally  consumed  by  the 
markets  in  the  south-west  of  Kurdistan,  while 
the  pits  not  fer  from  Kifri  (see  Kifri)  supply 
Bagdad  and  its  enyirons.  The  Kirkook  naphtha 
is  black  ;  and  close  to  its  wells  lie  a  great  pool 
of  stagnant  water,  very  muddy,  and  covered 
with  a  thick  scum  deeply  tinged  with  sulphur. 
A  few  hundred  yards  to  the  eastward  on  the 
Bummit  of  the  same  hill,  is  a  flat  circular  spot^ 
measuring  fifty  feet  in  diameter,  full  of  small 
holes,  to  the  number  of  a  hundred  at  least;  whence 
issae  as  many  clear  flames  without  an  atom  of 
smoke,  but  smelling  most  sulphiureously.  In  fact, 
the  whole  suriaceof  this  perforated  plot  of  ground 
appeared  a  crust  of  sulphur  over  a  body  of  fire 
wi^iin ;  and  on  Major  Porter  digging  a  hole  into 
it  with  his  dagger,  to  a  depth  of  ten  or  twelve 
inches,  a  new  flame  instantly  burst  forth.  From 
this  spot  the  government  derives  another  source 
of  revenue  from   the  sale  of  its  sulphur.  The 
natives  call  the  place  Baba  Gurgur.  Gur  being 
an  Arabic  name  for  naphtha  or  bitumen.     Mr. 
Rich  describes  the  principal  bitumen-pit  at  Kit 
(which  place  must  have  fiumished  the  builders 
of  Babylon)  as  having  two  sources  and  being  divi- 
ded by  a  wall,  on  one  side  of  which  the  bitumen 
bubbles  up,  and  on  the  other  the  oil  of  naphtha. 
The  manner  of  qualifying  the  bitumen  for  use  as 
a  cement,  he  observes,  is  very  troublesome,  for 
to  render  it  capable  of  adhering  to  the  brick  it 
must  be  boiled  with  a  certain  proportion  of  oil. 
Its  chief  purpose,  when  applied  to  building, 
appears  to  have  been  in  the  lower  parts  as  a 
preservative  against  damp  ;  and  at  present  it 
is  used  for   coating  cisterns,  baths,   caulking 
boats,  &c.  ;  in  short,  to  every  thing  put  in  the 
way  of  injury  from  water.     The  black  naphtha 
springs  at  Baku,  on  the  Caspian,  are  of  similar 
benefit  to  the  inhabitants  of  that  part  of  the 
country  ;  and  Jonas  Hanway  describes  their 
appearances  and  applications,  to  be  nearly  the 
same  as  they  exist  at  the  present  day.     He 
mentkxDs,  that  when  the  weather  is  thick  and 
hazy,  the  springs  boil  up  higher  ;  and  that  the 
na|]^tha,  sometimes  taking  fire  on  the  sur&use  of 
the  earth,  runs  like  burning  lava  into  the  sea.    In 
boiling  over,  the  oily  substance  makes  so  strong 
a  consistency  as  to  gradually  become  a  thick 
pitcfaj  substance  all  round  the  mouth  of  the  pit. 
The  poorer  sort  of  people  use  it  as  we  would  do 
oil,  in  lamps,  to  boil  their  food.    They  find  it 
born  best  with  a  small  mixture  of  ashes  :  but, 
fin-  fear  of  accidents,  they  preserve  it  in  earthen 
vessels,  imder  ground,  and  at  some  distance 
finra  their  dwdllings.     There  is  also  a  white 
naphtha,  of  a  thinner  fluid  than  the  black,  and 
not  fiyimd  in  such  great  quantities.     It  is  some- 
times recommend^  medicinally,  inwardly,  for 
chest  complaints,  and  outwardly,  for  cramps 
and  rheumatisms.    Both  it  and  the  black  are 



used  for  varnish.  When  it  takes  fire  by  accident, 
the  consequences  have  oflen  been  fatal  ;  and 
Strabo,  who  calls  it  liquid  bitumen,  asserts  that 
its  flame  cannot  be  extinguished  by  water.  The 
experiment  tried  by  Alexander  was  horrible  in 
its  efiects  ;  and  with  a  very  little  addition  made 
by  a  poetical  fancy,  might  induce  us  to  believe 
that  the  celebrated  consuming  garments  which 
Medea  bestowed,  were  robes  dipped  in  the  naph- 
tha that  flowed  so  near  her  native  land.     The 
flaming  soil  or  everlasting  fire,  as  it  is  called, 
of  Baku,  is  not  less  famous  than  its  naphtha 
springs.     It  is  now  part  of  the  eastern  territory 
of  Russia.  The  bitumen  so  famous  in  the  Baby- 
lonian history,  and  so  often  described  by  tra- 
vellers, is,   when  taken  from  the  pit,  a  thick 
dark  liquid  resembling  pitch,  similar,  although 
of  a  finer  quality,  to  the  pitch  from  the  lake 
in  the   island  of  Trinidad.      It   is  undoubted- 
ly   a   most    excellent    substitute     for   pitch. 
The  bottoms  of  most  of  the  vessels    which 
navigate  the  Euphrates  and  Tigris  are  covered 
with  it ;  and  it  is  also  used  in  the  lamps,  in- 
stead of  oil,  by  the  natives.     There  are  several 
fountains  of  this  bitumen  in  Irak  Arabi,  and 
the  lower  Kurdistan.     The  most  productive  are 
those  in  the  vicinity  of  Kerkook   Mendali  and 
Hit  on  the  banks  of  the  Euphrates.  The  white 
naphtha  is,  of  a  much  thicker  consistency,  and 
more  like  tallow.  It  has  no  resemblance  to  pitch, 
afibrds  a  better  light,  and,  at  the  same  time, 
emits  a  less  disagreeable  smell  than  the  other. 
It  fioats  like  a  crust  on  the  surface  of  the  water, 
whilst  the  black,  on  the  contrary,  is  procured 
by   digging  a  small   pit,  about  three  feet  in 
diameter  and  ten  or  twelve  in  depth.     The  pit 
fills  of  itself  after  a  certain  period,  and  is  then 
emptied  with  a  leathern  bucket,  and  fit  for  use 
immediately  afterwards.     The  only  fountain  of 
white  naphtha  which  Major  Porter  had  seen,  is  si- 
tuated at  the  foot  of  the  mountains  of  Bucktiari, 
half-way  between  the  city  of  Shuster    and   the 
valley  of  Ram  Hormuz.  Naphtha  springs  occur 
at  Ayer-i-Nosh.  The  flaming  soil  or  everlasting 
fire  of  Baku  is  the  attraction  to  pilgrims  and 
is  not    less  famous    than   its  naphtha  springs. 
Naptha     holding  in  solution    a     bituminous 
matter  was  obtained  by  Vigne  near  Deraband 
in  the  Suliman  mountains. 

AtTung-shao,  near  Tam-sui  in  the  island  of 
Formosa  are  wells  yielding  paraffin,  or  thick  bi- 
tumen diflering  from  the  Burmah  or  American 
rock  oils.  A  naphtha  is  said  to  be  obtained  in 
Corea.  During  the  war  between  the  Chinese 
and  the  British  in  1842,  much  naphtha  was 
brought  from  Sech-uen,  stored  at  Ningpo  for 
the  purpose  of  de8tro3ring  the  British  Fleet. 
Naphtha,  of  a  reddish  colour,  by  the  Ja- 
panese called  Tasutsona  Abra,  which  signi- 
fies red  earth,  is  found  in  a  river  of  the  pro- 
vince Jetsingo.     It  is  taken  Up  in  such  places, 

N  37 



where  the  water  hath  little  or  no  run,  and  the 
natives  burn  it  in  lamps  instead  of  oil. 
Naphtha  is  used  for  cheap  varnishes.  It  dis- 
solves the  resins  more  readily  than  ordinary 
spirit  of  wine,  but  the  varnish  is  not  so  brilliant. 
— Toinlinson;  Dana,  Manual  of  Mineralogy  ; 
Gregory^  Hand-hook  of  Organic  Chemistry  ; 
Eng,,  Cyc. ;  PauUcner  ;  BichkS  Eesidenee  in 
Koordistan,  Vol.  i.  jpp.  27 — 9 ;  Porter's  Travels, 
Vol.  ii,  p.  440  to  443.  ;  Smith  Mat.  Med.,  p. 
155;  History  of  Japan,  Vol.  \,p.l\l.  See 
Kirkook,  Edfri,  Jogi,  Asphalte,  Bitumen, 
£arth  oil,  Petroleum,  Rock  oil. 

NAPIER,  Sir  Charles,  k.  c.  b.,  a  British 
Infantry  officer  who  commanded  an  army  in 
Sindh,  and  fought  and  won  the  battles  of  Dub- 
bee  and  Meanee.  He  was  afterwards  Com- 
mander-in-Chief of  India.  He  died  on  the  29  th 
August  1853. 

NAPIER,  Robert,  Lord  Napier  of  Magdala, 
an  officer  of  the  Bengal  Engineers,  who  rose  to 
the  rank  of  General  officer,  was  engaged  in  the 
wars  against  Lahore  and  was  styled  the  Bayard 
of  the  Punjab.  Subsequently  he  was  engaged  in 
the  wars  of  the  rebellion  in  1867-8-9,  in  the  se- 
cond China  war,  was  a  member  of  the  Viceroy's 
Council,  then  Commander-in-Chief  of  Bombay, 
and  commanded  the  expedition  to  Abyssinia, 
into  which  he  led  success^Uy  a  mixed  army  of 
Natives  of  India  and  Europeans  through  the 
mountains  of  Abyssinia  to  the  storm  of  Magdala, 
the  capital  of  the  emperor  Theodore  of  Abys- 
sinia. Theodore  destroyed  himself  at  the  gate- 
way. The  march  to  and  irom  Magdala  has 
not  been  surpassed  since  Hanibal  crossed  the 

NAPIT,  Hun).  A  barber,  a  shaver,  who 
usually  acts  also  as  a  surgeon,  the  village  bar- 
ber and  barber-surgeon.  Along  with  the  ori- 
ginal term,  the  dialects  have  various  modifica- 
tions of  the  word,  as  Nai,  Hind.,  Naida, 
Nainda,  Napig,  Kam,  Nau,  Nahir,  Nhawi, 
Nahawi,  Nahu,  and  Nhawi,  Mar. 

NAPUTA^  HiwD.  Didynamia  gymnosperma. 

NAQOOS,  Ab.    a  bell  or  conch-shell. 

NAQSHA,  HuTD.     Chart,  map,  plan. 

NAR,  Hind.  Arundo  donax,  Amphidonax 
karka,  also  Rhamnus  virgatus. 

NAE,  Hik0.  of  Kaghan,  Hazara,  &c.,  used 
for  nalah,  and  meaning  mountain  stream. 

NAR,  Tusx.    Pomgranate. 

NAR  or  Nul,  Beng.  Amphidonax  karka, 
employed  for  making  the  mats  known  by  the 
name  of  Durma,  which  are  formed  of  the  stalks 
split  open.  In  Sindh  the  grass  called  Sur, 
which  perhaps  is  Arundo  karka,  has  its 
culms,  sur  jo  k^nee,  made  into  chairs,  and 
its  flower-stalks  beaten  to  form  the  fibres  called 
moony  ah.  These  are  made  into  string  or  twine 
{moonyah  jo  naree,)  and  into  ropes  (moonyah 
jo  ruasa). — RiyyU. 

NAR,  Tam.  Fibre. 

NARA,  Hini).  The  tape  or  band  for  the 

NARA  and  Naraiyana  in  one  hindoo  legend, 
sons  of  Dharma  and  Ahinsa :  devoted  ^em- 
selves  to  ascetic  exercises  which  alarmed 
the  gods,  and  Indra  sent  Kama  and 
Vasanta,  or  love  and  spring,  with  the 
nymphs  of  heaven  to  inflame  t^e  sages  with 
passion  and  thus  end  their  penance.  Nara- 
yana  observing  the  gambols  of  the  party  sus- 
pected their  purpose.  He  invited  them  to  ap- 
proach, and  treated  them  with  so  much  civility, 
that  they  thought  their  object  was  attained. 
The  sage,  however,  taking  up  a  flower-stalk, 
placed  it  on  his  thigh,  when  a  beautiiul  nymph 
appeared,  the  superiority  of  whose  charms 
covered  the  nymphs  of  heaven  with  shame. 
Narayana  then  told  them  to  return  to  Indra, 
and  bear  him  a  proof  he  needed  not  the  com- 
pany of  beauty,  in  the  present  he  made  him  of 
the  new-born  nymph,  who  accompanied,  the 
Apsarasas  to  Swerga,  and  was  called  Urvasi 
from  uru,  a  thigh  (Vamana  Purana).  A 
commentator  on  the  drama  says,  Nara  and 
Narayana  were  Avataras,  descents  or  incamar- ' 
tions  of  Arjuna  and  Krishna. —  WtUon^s  Hindu 
Theatre,  Vol  p.  201 ;  The  Hero  and  the  Nymph, 
see  Yoni. 

NARA  or  Kinara,  see  Zingarri. 

NARABALI,  see  Hindoo. 

NARA  BOTUKU,  Tbl.  Eriochloena  hobke- 
riana,  TV.  and  A.  259.  The  term  nara  implies 
a  fibrous  texture. 

NARA  CHETTU,  Tbl.  Tetranthera  mono- 
petala,  jB.  iii,  821 ;  Cor.  148. 

NARAD  A,  in  hindoo  mythology,  a  famous 
rishi  and  the  prince  of  musicians,  frequently, 
going  on  errands,  usually  regarded  as  one  of  the 
ten  Rishi  or  Prajapati,  first  created  by  Brahma 
and  called  his  sons.  He  is  des<iribed  as 
a  friend  of  the  god  Krishna,  as  a  celebrat- 
ed lawgiver,  and  as  the  inventor  of  the 
vina  or  lute.  Narada  is  mentioned  in 
Manu  1,  34,  35,  as  one  of  l^e  *  ten  lords  of 
created  beings,  eminent  in  holiness.'  In  the 
hindoo  plays  Narada  usually  acts  as  a  kind  of 
messenger  of  the  gods.  See  Vikramorvasi  end 
of  Act  V ;  and  Sa^nmtala,  end  of  Act  vi.  He 
is  constantly  employed  in  giving  good  counsel. 
He  is  by  some  considered  to  belong  to  the  or- 
der of  the  Denashi,  and  by  others  to  the  Brah- 
marshi.  It  was  Narada  who  declares  to  king 
Harischandra  the  benefit  of  having  a  son. — 
WiUiam's  SUtry  of  Nala,  p.  167. 

NARA  DABBA  or  Dabba,  Tbl.  Citrus 
medica,  L. 

NARADIDI  VRIKSHA,  Caw.  Eugenia 

NARA  EPE  or  Epe,  Tbl.  Hardwickia  binata» 
E.  u,  423 ;   Cor.  209—  W.  and  A.  879.     Th© 






bark  jields  a  strong  fibre  which  people  extract 
considerable    quantities    and     employ    as 


cordage,  without  liirther  preparation,  in  the 

island  of  Sivasamndram. 

NARAGA  MABAM,  Tak .  Ehretia  ovalifo- 

NARAH,  Malbal.  A  tree  of  Malabar  and 
Canarathat  grows  to  about  twelve  feet  Jiigh,  and 
ten  inches  in  diameter.  It  is  ciured  in  growth, 
and  is  used  for  the  firames  of  vessels.  It  is  not 
very  durable,  and  ranks  as  one  of  the  inferior 
torts  of  jungle  wood. — Edye,  M.  and  C, 

NARAIN,  a  river  near  Moondura  in  Saugor. 

NAKAINA,  40  miles  from  Jaipiu*,  the  chief 
site  of  the  Dadu  Pantlii  sect. 

NARAKA  or  Narakam,  Saitsc.  Hell,  the 
abode  of  the  wicked. 

NARAKARU,  part  of  tlie  inferior  village 
servants  of  India,  thej  are  similar  to  the 
menials  of  the  ballotta  system. 

NARA  MA  MIDI,  Tel.  Tetranthera  rox- 
buighii,  NeeM — a.  apetala,  R.  iii,  819 ;  Cor. 
147.  Nara  or  Nara  chettu,  is  a  generic  term 
&r  Tetranthera  at  Vizagapatam. 

NARA  M£DHA,  Saivb.  A  human  sacrifice. 

NARANG,  Ar.  Citrus  aurantium,  Linn, 

NARAXGAMU,  Tel.  Citrus  aurantium,  L. 

NARANGI,  Hind.  Citrus  aurantium. 

NARANGAS,  Sp.  Citrus  aurantium,  Linn. 

NxVRANJ,  Fbbs.  Citrus  aurantium,  i/inn. 

NARANJA,  Sp.  Orange. 

NARANI,  a  met  in  Sagor. 

NARAPATI  or  Chola  dynasty  of  Kamata, 
Dravira,  and  the  southern  portion  of  the  Penin- 
BuJa  of  India,  embraced  a  period  of  534  years, 
during  which  27  rajas  reigned,  from  A.  n.  266 
to  A-  D.  800.  After  the  overthrow  of  the 
NarapQti  dynasty,  Kamata  and  Dravira  seem 
to  have  been  separated  from  the  southern  dis- 
tricts, in  which  the  Chera,  Chola  and  Pandava 
lines  were  at  first  united,  under  one  sovereign- 
ty. Thereafter,  13  maharajas  of  Madura, 
Tanjore  and  Coimbatore,  reigned  239  years, 
after  which  follow  the  Belal  rajas  of  the  Kar- 
nata,  and  the  petty  Polygar  djmasties  of 
Madura,  &c. — Prin$ep\  p.  275. 

NARA-SIilJ,  Bbno.  Euphprbium  antique- 
mm,  JjiwHf 

NARASIMHA,  Vishnu's  incarnation  as  man- 

NARA-SINGHA  or  Man-lion  avatar,  of 
Yiahna  in  which  he  took  the  form  of  a  monster 
to  punish  the  wickedness  of  Hiranya-casipa, 
a  profane  and  unbelieving  monarch,  the 
bniher  of  the  gigantic  demon  mentioned  in  the 
third  avatar,  and  his  successor  on  the  throne, 
who  also  revised  to  do  homage  to  Vishnu. 
Quarrelling  with  his  son,  Pralhaud,  the  king 
boisted  that  he  hinoself  was  Lord  of  the  Universe, 
aod  aaked  wherein  Vishnu  was  greater  than 
luiDself.    F^alhaud  replied  that  Vishnu  was 


supreme  over  all  and  was  everywhere.  Is  he, 
cried  Hiranyacasipa,  in  this  pillar  ?  striking  it 
at  the  same  moment  with  his  sceptre,  if  he  be, 
let  him  appear.  In  an  instant  the  magnificent 
column  was  rent  in  twain,  and  Vishnu  in  the 
form  of  a  man  with  the  head  of  a  lion,-  issued 
irom  it  and  tore  Hiranyacasipa  in  pieces.  See 
Avatar,  Sacti,  Salagrama,  Inscriptions,  Vishnu. 

NARASINGHI,  a  name  of  Lakshmi,  as 
the  sacti  of  Vishnu  in  the  Naraaingh  avatar. — 
CoU.  Myth.  Hind.,  p.  390. 

NARA  TEGA  or  Nara  tifee,  or  Eddu  toka 
dumpa,  Dioscorea  glabra,  R.  Tega  is  the  tuber- 
ous root,  tige  the  twining  stem. 

NARAVALI  FIBRE,  Auglo.-Tam.  Fibre 
of  Cordia  angustifolia. 

NARAVARMA,  see  Inscriptions. 


Chagul-bati,  Bmra.  |  Atragene  zeylanica,        L. 

A  handsome  fiowering  climbing  plant  of 
Ceylon,  British  India,  Burmah  and  Tenasserim. 
— Drs.  Roxh.,  Mason^  VoigU 

NARAYANA,  in  Hindu  mjrthology,  the 
Spirit  of  Grod,  Brahm.  The  term  means 
moving  on  the  waters.  By  the  Vaishnava 
sect,  he  is  identified  with  Vishnu,  but  in  the 
Saiva  theogony,  Narayana  and  Siva  coalesce. 
Narayana,  is  pronounced  and  written  Narayan, 
or  sometimes  Narrain :  it  is  a  common  name 
with  hindoos  of  several  sects,  and  often  occurs 
in  tlieir  writings  without  reference  beyond 
mere  mortality.  Dasa,  usually  written  by  the 
English,  Dass,  or  Doss,  is  a  common  termination 
to  hindoo  names  of  men,  especially  among  the 
tribe  of  Banias,  as  Narayan  Doss.  Bhagavan 
Da8a,fbr  instance,  signifies  the  slave  of  Bhagavan, 
Vishnu,  or  Crishna ;  similarly  to  Abid  Ullah, 
the  slave  of  Grod,  among  the  mahomedans, 
Ramdas  is,  in  like  manner,  the  slave  or  servant 
of  Rama.  In  the  Ins.  of  Menu,  c.  1,  v.  10, 
the  waters  are  called  Nara,  because  they  were 
the  first  production  of  Nara,  or  the  Spirit  of 
God ;  and  since  they  were  his  first  ayana,  or 
place  of  motion,  he  is  thence  named  Narayana, 
or  moving  on  the  waters.  Narayana  in  his 
watery  cradle,  is  a  most  mystical  and  profound 
subject :  his  boat-shaped  Argha,  its  rim,  its 
termination  ;  the  endless  figure  he  assumes  by 
the  conceit  of  putting  his  toe  in  his  moutli, 
symbolical  of  eternity,  furnish  enthusiasts  with 
fancies  of  a  corresponding  endless  and  puerile 
description.  The  cradle  is  also  styled  vat 
patra,  meaning  of  the  leaf  of  the  sacred  pipala ; 
and  pan-patara,  or  leafy  vessel ;  as  well  as 
Argha  patra,  and  by  each  of  the  words 
forming  the  last.^  In  marriage,  and  funeral 
ceremonies,  as  well  as  in  that  copious  sacrifice 
of  Sradlia,  an  Argha  is  an  indispensable 
utensil.  At  the  very  extremity  of  a  pro- 
montory on  the  island  of  Bombay,  called 
Malabar  Point,  is  a  cleft  rock,  a  fancied  resem- 

N  39 


blancc  of  the  Yoni,  to  which  numerous  pilgrims 
and  persons  re«ort  for  the  purpose  of  regenerar- 
tion  by  the  efiicacj  of  a  passage  through  tliis 
sacred  type.  This  Yoni,  or  aperture,  is  of  con- 
siderable elevation,  situated  among  rocks  of  no 
easy  access^  and,  in  the  stormy  season,  inces- 
santly buffetted  by  the  surf  of  the  ocean.  The 
hindoos  are  prone  to  fancying  a  type  of  some- 
thing mysterious  in  almost  every  subject  that 
can  come  under  their  contemplation :  any 
thing  hollowed  out,  conveying  an  idea  of 
capacity,  they  deem  typical  of  the  Yoni,  or 
Argha,  itself  a  type  of  female  nature,  or  the 
Sacti,  or  power,  of  Siva.  The  sea,  a  pond,  a 
well,  a  cave,  the  palm  of  the  hand,  or  any  thing 
similarly  hollowed,  convey  to  their  enthusiastic 
minds  an  idea  of  the  Argha ;  and  their  peri- 
phery, real  or  imaginary,  an  idea  of  the  Yoni. 
In  like  manner,  a  mountain,  a  hill,  a  tree,  de- 
prived of  its  boughs,  a  mast,  a  pole,  an  obelisk, 
a  pyramid,  or  anything  conical  or  erect,  ex- 
cites an  idea  of  the  Linga ;  and  such  objects 
as  they  can  fancy  its  symbol ;  a  conical  stone 
is  particularly  so  esteemed,  or  fire  or  fiame 
whose  natural  and  necessary  form  is  conical. 
Hence  a  triangle,  with  its  apex  upwards,  is 
the  immediate  type  of  Mahadeva,  who  in 
some  relations,  is  fire  personified.  Vishnu 
is,  in  like  manner,  a  personification  of  the 
principle  of  humidity ;  and  water  is  sym- 
bolized by  a  cone,  or  triangle,  with  its 
apex  downwards  :  these  types  correctly  denot- 
ing the  ascending  and  descending  properties  of 
their  respective  prototypes,  elemental  fire  and 
water.  The  two  conjoined,  express  the  junction 
or  union  of  the  two  elements,  or  deities :  this 
mark  or  character,  is  said  to  represent  also 
Vishnu  and  Prit'hivi,  of  whom  an  equilateral 
triangle  is  severally  the  type.  The  larger  the 
object,  the  more  venerable.  The  As.  Res.,  Vol. 
ii,  p.  478,  mention  a  cone,  in  Bengal,  of  363 
feet  diameter.  The  sea  itself,  or  rather  its 
containing  concave,  is  regarded  as  the  Argha 
of  the  world.  In  hindoo  mythology,  the 
beverage  of  immortality  drank  by  the  gods, 
Narayans  gem  and  other  gifks  to  man  are 
fabled  to  have  been  produced  by  churning  tlie 
ocean,  along  with  other  precious  gifts  to  man. 

Chitra-ratha  describes  in  song  how 
"  Whilom  from  the  troubled  main, 
The  sovereign  elephant  Airavan  sprang : 
The  breathing  shell,  that  peals  of  conquest  rang ; 
The  patient  cow,  whom  none  implores  in  vain ; 
The  miUcwhite  steed,  the  bow  with  deaf  ning  clang ; 
The  goddesses  of  beauty,  wealth,  and  wine ; 
Flowers,  that  unfading  shine ; 
Naravan's  gem ;  the  moonlight's  tender  languish ; 
Blue  venom,  source  of  anguish ; 
The  solemn  leech,  slow,  moving  o'er  the  strand, 
A  vase  of  long-sought  Ararit  in  his  hand — 
To  soften  human  ills  dread  Siva  drank 
The  poisonous  food  that  stain'd  his  azure  neck ; 
The  rest,  thy  mansions  deck. 
High  Swerga  stored  in  many  a  blazing  rank.** 

— Moor y  pp.  79  ^  399  ;  As.  Ees.,  Vol.  vii,  Arts. 


viii  and  ix,  by  Mr,  ColebrooTce.  See  Argba, 
Bhaktamala,  Brahma  or  Hiranyagharbha, 
Hindoo,  Linga,  Narayan  Das,  Sati,  Vishnu, 
Yavana,  Yoni. 

NARAYANI,  a  name  usually  applied  to 
Lakshmi,  as  the  Sacti  of  Vishnu  ;  but  may 
also  be  applied  to  Parvati  and  Saraswati.  See 
Liakshmi,  Narayana,  Sacti,  Salagrama. 

NARBADA,  a  river  of  Central  India,  which 
rises  on  the  plateau  of  Amarkantak  and  disem- 
bogues in  the  Gulf  of  Cambay.  It  is  written 
Nerbadah,  Nerbuddah.  From  Haran  Pal  or  the 
Deer's  Leap  to  the  temple  of  Sulpani  Mahadeva, 
a  distance  of  some  seventy  miles,  there  occurs 
the  main  barrier  of  tlie  Narbada.  Here 
the  Narbada  displays  all  her  terrors.  There- 
after the  Narbada  enters  on  the  rich  plains 
of  Broach  which  border  on  the  sea.  In  this 
particular  section  it  is  securely  navigable,  and 
is  actually  navigated  by  country  craft.  The 
Narbada,  then  rising  in  the  highest  land  of 
Central  India,  5,000  feet  above  the  sea,  and 
pursuing  a  serpentine  westerly  course  for  750 
miles  through  a  hUly  tract,  which  runs  parallel 
to,  and  borders  closely  both  its  banks,  may  be 
said  to  flow  through  a  longitudinal  cleft  rather 
than  a  distinct  valley,  and  to  present  the  gene- 
ral characters  of  a  mountain  stream  more  than 
anything  else.  No  great  depth  of  water  can 
ever  be  expected  in  it,  from  the  nature  of  its 
tributaries,  except  in  the  monsoon  ;  neither, 
were  they  to  promise  better,  could  it  be  retain- 
ed, owing  to  the  great  declivity  of  the  bed  of 
the  river,  which  from  Jhansi  Ghat,  near  Jabal- 
pur,  to  the  sea  falls  1,200  feet  in  500 
miles.  The  falls  are  those  of  Kapiladhara 
and  Dudhdhara  near  its  source,  the  former 
of  78  feet.  The  next  is  at  Umaria  in  the 
Narsinghpur  district  of  about  ten  feet.  At 
Mandhar,  ninety  miles  below  Hoshungabad, 
and  about  twenty-five  below  liandia,  there 
is  a  fall  of  forty  feet ;  at  Dadri,  near  Punasa, 
twenty-five  miles  below  Mandliar,  there  is 
another  fall  of  forty  feet.  The  classes  which 
prevail  most  among  the  agricultural  population 
of  the  Narbada  valley,  are  the  Gujar,  the  Jat, 
the  Kaonra,  and  the  Kirar ;  these  are  hardly 
represented  in  Damoh.  The  Kurmi  are  the 
most  numerous  caste.  Tlien  follow  the  Lodhi, 
Chamar,  Gond,  Brahman,  Ahir,  &c.  In  num- 
ber 262,641,  they  may  be  roughly  classified 

thus  : — 

Kurmi 34,907  Ahir 15,281 

Lodhi 31,980  Bania 9,783 

Chamar 28,401  Rajput 9,187 

Gond 29,724  Other  castes 82,718 

Brahman 23,686 

See  Nagpore,  Sagor  and  Nerbuddah. 

NARCINE,  a  genus  of  Fishes  inhabiting  the 
Indian  Ocean. 

NARCISSUS.  From  the  habit  of  planting 
the  Narcissus  upon  tombs  and  shrines^  it  has 






acquired  a  certain  sacrednesa  of  character.  The 
hindooa  have  few  tombs.  They  have  shrines 
however,  many  of  which  have  been  adopted  by 
the  mohammadans.  The  Narcissus  is  common 
m  the  Panjab.  The  Narcissus  flowers  are 
of  easy  culture  in  a  light  soil,  though  they  throw 
cot  a  profusion  of  leaves,  they  rarely  blossom. — 
Ben.  Aa.  See.  Jour^  No.  11  of  1864,  p.  146 ; 
Bdddl.  See  Hemerocallis  fulva,  Nargua. 

NARGONDAM,  see  Volcanoes. 

NABGOTICS,  in  use  amongst  eastern  nations, 
are  oommonly  of  vegetable  origin,  such  as 
opium,  bhang,  madad,  majum,  ganja. 











Nardy  said  to  be  the  spikenard  of  Solomon  and 
of  St.  Mark,  is  the  Nardos  indike,  or  Nardos,  also 
N*  gangetica,  and  the  Nardoatachys  jatamansi, 
Be  OandoUe.  Celtic  nard  is  the  Valeriana  celtica 
and  mountain  nard  the  Aaarum  europasum. 
The  term  Nard  was  in  use  amongst  the  ancients 
to  Hfflignak*  any  Indian  essence,  as  Attar  (Otto) 
19  DOW  uaed.  The  spikenard  of  Solomon's  song, 
is  the  Nardostachys  jatamansi.  Albastron,  of  the 
ancients,  were  phials  used  for  holding  their 
pecious  scents  or  cosmetics.  Dioscorides  (I.  i, 
c.  6)  describes  three  kinds  of  Nard,  of  the  first 
and  principal  of  which,  there  are  two  varieties, 
Syrian  and  Indian,  die  latter  is  also  called 
Gflogitea,  from  the  river  Ganges,  near  which, 
flofwing  by  a  mountain,  it  is  produced.  The 
second  kind  is  called  ''  Celtic,"  and  the  third 
•^Mountain  Nard."  On  consulting  Avicenna,  we 
are  referred  from  Narden  to  Sunbul,  pronounc- 
ed Snmbul,  and  in  the  Latin  translation  from 
Nardum  to  Spica,  under  which  the  Roman,  the 
mountain,  the  Indian  and  Syrian  kinds  are  men- 
tioned ;  and  Sanbul,  misprinted  Senbel,  is 
given  aa  the  sjmonymous  Arabic  name.  This 
pnnrea,  aa  stated  by  Sir  Wm.  Jones,  that  Sum- 
bol^  in  Persian  dictionaries,  translated,  the 
hyacinth, — the  spikenard,  to  which  the  hair  of 
a  miatreBS  is  compared — an  ear  of  com,  &c.,  was 
always  considered  by  Arabian  authors  as  syno- 
Dinioaa  with  the  Nardes  of  the  Greeks.  On 
oonsulting  the  Persian  works  on  the  Materia 
Medica  in  use  in  India,  and  especially  the 
MokhsQiirOQl  ^wiah,  we  are  referred  from 
Naiden,  in  the  index  to  Sumbul,  in  the  body  of 
the  work.  Under  this  name,  however,  four 
aqparate  articles  are  described — 1st,  Sumbul- 
lundee  ;  2nd,  Sumbul-roomee,  called  aJao 
Sumbul  ukletee,  and  Narden-ukletee,  evidently 
the  i^mpdo^  tyBuc\  of  Dioscorides,  said  also  to 
be  called  Sumbul-italioon,  that  is,  the  Nard, 
which  grows  in  Italy,  tiie  3rd  kind  is  Sumbul- 
jibulleey  or  Mountain  Nard  (papBof  op£iv\i)  ; 
and  4th  Smnbul  fursee,  which  is.  a  bulbous 
plant,  and  probably  a  kind  of  hyacintii.  Po- 
tuberosa  is  described  as  being  one  of  the 

kinds  of  Persian  Sumbul.  But  the  first  alone 
is  tiiat  which  is  valued  for  its  fragrance.  The 
synonymes  of  it,  given  by  Persian  authors  are  in 
the  Arabic,  Sumbul-ool-teeb,  br  fragrant  nard, 
in  the  Greek  narden  ;  in  Latin,  nardoom,  in 
Hindee,  balchur  and  jatamansee.  The  last  is  a 
Sanscrit  name,  and  tiiat  which  was  given  to  Sir 
Wm.  Jones,  as  the  equivalent  of  Sumbul-hindee 
and  which  he  informs  us,  like  otiier  Satiscrit 
names  applied  to  tiie  same  article,  has  reference 
to  its  resemblance  to  locks  of  hair. —  WUld. ; 
BoyWs  III.  Him.  Bot,  p.  242. 

NARDAR  BOUTHAH,  see  Bazeegur,  Nat  : 

NARDEN,  also  Nardos,  Gb.  Spikenard. 

NARDJIL,  Arab.    Cocoe  nucifera,  L, 

glabrous  stem,  oblong  glabrous  leaves,  with 
solitary  terminal  flowers  ;  the  capsule  is  downy, 
and  the  lobes  of  the  calyx  evidentiy  denticulated. 
It  is  a  native  ofNepaul  and  Kumaoa. — lAindUy^ 
Flora  Medica  ;  Eng.  Cyc. 


Valeriana  jatamansi^ofietf. 
Patrinia  jatamansi,  Van. 



,1       hindi, 

Muygiab,  „ 

JatamaQBi,  Bbno.,  Hna>.^ 
Sams.,  Tam. 
Spikenard,  Eno. 

Indian  „  „ 





of  Bavi. 


a    long 

Nardos  indike, 








A  dwarf  herbaceous  plant  with 
hairy  taproot;  stems  perennial,  very  short^ 
and  simply  divided  into  a  number  of  shaggy 
scaly  crowns,  from  which  tiie  leaves  are  pro- 
duced ;  the  branches .  erect,  downy,  and  a 
few  inches  high;  leaves  obovate,  lanceolate. 
5-ribbed,  downy,  those  at  tiie  base  acute, 
the  upper  ones  obtuse;  tiie  flowers  are  of  a 
pale  pink  colour,  clustered  in  tiie  axils  of  tiie 
upper  leaves,  which  form  a  kind  of  involucre 
for  them.  The  true  spikenard  of  the  an- 
cients is  supposed  to  have  been  obtained 
from  the  Nardostachys  jatamansi.  Considerable 
discussion  has  arisen  as  to  the  true  origin  of  tiie 
celebrated  spikenard  of  tiie  ancients,  but  the 
labours  of  Sir  William  Jones  and  Professor 
Royle  leave  no  longer  any  reasonable  doubts  as 
to  its  being  truly  referrable  to  tiiis  plant.  It 
is  a  native  of  Nepaul,  on  the  Himalaya  moun- 
tains, and  in  Delhi,  Bengal,  the  Dekhan,  and 
Pimjab  Himalaya,  where  it  ranges  from  10,000(?) 
feet  upwards.  The  roots  of  the  jataoiansi 
are  brought  down  frcHn  the  mountains  in  large 
quantities.  The  root  is  of  a  blackish  colour, 
and  resembles  the  bushy  tail  of  the  ermine. 
Its  odour  is  strong  and  fragrant,  and  is  much 
esteemed  by  all  eastern  nations.  For  medici- 
nal purposes  experience  leads  to  the  belief  tiiat 
the  species  is  a  perfect  representative  of  the 






valerian  of  the  English  Pharmacopoeia ;  it  is  used 
to«centand  clean  the  hair,  also  in  medicine  as  a 
stimnlant  and  antispasmodic.  This  species  of 
valerian  smells  strongly  of  patchouli,  and  is  a 
very  favourite  perftime.  It  is  used  in  scents 
for  its  strong  odour ;  it  is  also  used  as  refrige- 
rant. Dose,  gr.  V.  to  3  j.  in  infusion.  Price  6 
annas  per  lb.,  employed  chiefly  as  an  expecto- 
rant in  coughs  and  colds.  Dose,  grs.  xlv.of  the 
powder,  price  9d,  per  lb.  In  Chumba,  its  root 
is  said  to  be  added  to  the  beer  of  that  tract,  and  it 
is  exported  to  the  plains  to  be  used  in  medicine, 
being  considered  cordial.  The  Indur  lalib,  of 
which  Davies'  Trade  Report  states  that  five 
maunds  are  imported  fit)m  Persia  via  Kabul 
and  Peshawar  annually,  has  been  dubiously 
identified  with  this  drug. — SimmaruTs  Comml. 
Product,  572 ;  O'Shaughnessy,  pages  403,  404; 
PoweU  Handrhook^  Vol.  i,  p.  354 ;  Hookers 
Him.  Jovft.,  FoZ.i,  p.  217 ;  J.  L.  Stewart^  M.D. 

NARDUM,  Lat.    Spikenard. 

NARE,  Tax.    Fox. 

NAREDA,  in  hindoo  mythology,  is  a  son  of 
Bralima  and  Saraswati.  He  is  the  messenger 
of  the  gods,  and  the  inventor  of  the  vina,  or 
hindoo  lute.  He  was  not  only  a  wise  l^islator, 
an  astronomer,  and  a  musician,  but  a  distin- 
guished warrior.  The  mythological  ofi&pring  of 
Saraswati,  patroness  of  music,  was  famed  for 
his  talents  in  that  science — so  great  were  they, 
that  he  became  presumptuous,  and  emulating 
the  divine  strains  of  Krishna,  he  was  punished 
by  having  his  vina  placed  in  the  paws  of  a 
bear,  whence  it  emitted  soimds  far  sweeter 
than  the  minstrelsy  of  the  mortified  musician. 
In  a  picture  of  this  joke,  Krishna  is  forcing  his 
reluctant  friend  to  attend  to  his  rough  visaged 
rival,  who  is  ridiculously  touching  the  chords 
of  poor  Nareda's  vina,  accompanied  by  a 
brother  bruin  on  the  symbols.  To  this  day 
Nareda  is  represented  in  the  hindoo  Jatra  un- 
der a  long  grizzled  beard. — Calebs  Myth.  Hind., 
p.  7  ;  Tr.  of  Hind.,  Vol.  i,  p.  269.  See  Brah- 
madica,  Krishna,  Narada,  Saraswati,  Veda. 

NAREDE  CHETTOO,  Tel.  Eugenia  caryo- 

NAREDOO  KARRA,  Tkl.  Wood  of  Eu- 
genia caryophilifolia. 

NAREE,  Saits.     From  nee,  to  obtain. 

NAREE-PAYATHEN-KAI— ?  Phaaeolustri- 

Nela-nansgam,     Malbal.  |  Turroea  alata,  Wight. 

A  pretty  garden  plant  of  the  Travancore 
forests,  used  in  medicine. 

NAREL,  Dux.  Cocos  nucifera,  L.  Nareli 
cocoanut  toddy.  Sap  (or  toddy)  of  the  cocoa- 
nut  tree.  Narel  ka  jhar,  Hiin>.  Cocos  nucifera 
or  cocoanut  palm  tree.  Narel-ka-tel,  Hind. 
Cocoanut  palm  oil. 



NARGAMOLLE,  Tel.  Rhinacanthus  com- 
munis, Nees. 

NARGEEL,  Pees.     Cocoanut  palm. 

NARGIL,  Pees.     A  tobacco  pipe. 

NARGILLI,  Arab.     Cocoanut  palm. 

NARGIS,  Hiiro.  Narcissias  tagetta.  Ho- 
nigberger  states  that  the  roots  of  this  are  offici- 
nal, being  brought  firom  Kashmir. — Dr.  J.  L. 
Stewart,  Punjab  Plants,  p.  235. 

NARGUS,  also  Gool-Nurgus,  HiifD.,  Pbrs. 
Hemerocallis  fulva.  Narcissus. 

NARI,  also  Nali-kera — ?   Cocoanut  palm. 

NARI,  Nari-khorsum,  Gnari  or  Mnah-ris, 
the  Tibetan  name  for  the  north-western  part 
of  Tibet,  a  Tibetan  Chinese  province  connect- 
ed with  British  India,  by  the  five  Bhot  passes 
in  Garhwal  and  Kumaon.  The  Chinese  vice- 
roys are  Tibetans  with  200  Mongol  or  Turk 
troops  or  perhaps  Mantshu  Tartars,  as  they 
are  said  to  use  horseflesh,  which  no  Tibetan 
and  no  Chinese  would  do.  It  is  enormously 
lofty,  utterly  barren,  and  almost  uninhabited, 
except  on  tiie  lowest  part  of  the  ravine  of  the 
Indus.  It  is  wholly  under  Chinese  influence. 
It  was  entered  by  Moorcroft. — H.f.  et  T.,  225. 
See  Kohistan,  India. 

NARI,  Cak.   Canis  aureus,  Linn.,  the  jackal. 

NARI,  Hnn).  Equisetum  debile,  also  Ipo- 
moea  reptans. 

NARIA,  Hind.     Arundo  donax. 

NARI-COOMARI,  Tam .    Salsola  nudiflora. 

NARIJI  CHETTU,  Tel.  Citrus  aurantium, 
L.  var. 

NARIKEL,  Bbno.    Cocoanut  palm. 

NARIKELA,  also  Narikaylum,  Sanb.  Co- 
coanut palm. 

NARIKELEE-KOOL,  Bexg.  Zizyphus  jujuba. 

NARIL,  Arab.,  Dtik.,  Guz.  Copra,  also  the 
cocoanut  palm.  Cocos  nucifera,  L.  Naril  ka 
Goor,  Dto.  Sugar  from  cocoanut  palm.  Naril- 
ka  Kroote,  Duk.  the  greens ;  Narilli,.  Dnc. 
Sap  of  the  cocoanut  palm,  Palm-wine.  Naril 
ka  tel,  DiTK.     Oil  of  Cocos  nucifera,  L. 

NARINGHI,  Due.,  Hind.  Citrus  aurantium, 

NARINGI  KE  BAS  ka  GHANS,  Dxtk. 
Andropogon  nardus. 

NARJIL,  Aeab.,  Pees.     Cocos  nucifera,  L. 

NAR-KACHUR,  Hind.   Zinziber  zerumbet. 

NAR  LEI,  Hind.    Tamarix  orientalis. 

NARMA,  Hind.     Trianthema  pentandra. 

NARMADA,  Sans.  A  name  of  the  Nerbudda 
river.     See  Vikramaditya. 

NARNA,  see  Kutch.      . 

NARODA,  in  Guzerat  a  tribe  of  half-caste 

NAR-PUTTE,  Tam.  A  Ceylon  tree  which 
is  used  for  canoes,  planks  of  vessels,  &c.  It 
grows  to  about  thirty  feet  in  height,  and 
twenty  inches  in  diameter ;  is  not  durable,  and 
is  of  little  use. — Edt/e,  Ceylon. 

N  42 



NARR,  HnrD.     Malva  parvi flora. 
NARRA  CANAL,  a  Canal  in  Sind'h.    See 

NARRAINPETT,  Dhanwar  and  Muktul,  in 
the  Nizam  s  territories ;  Gudduk  and  Betti- 
gherrj  in  Dharwar,  Kolapoor,  Nassik,  Yeola, 
and  manj  other  are  manufacturing  towns  in  the 
Deocan ;  Amee  in  Chingleput  and  elsewhere, 
send  oat  cotton  iabrics  of  excellent  texture, 
with  beautifully  arranged  colours  and  patterns, 
both  in  stripes  and  checks.  Comparatively  few 
natiye  women  of  anj  class  or  degree  wear 
white ;  if  they  do  Wi^ar  it,  the  dress  has  broad 
borders  and  ends.  But  women  of  all  classes 
wear  coloured  clothes,  black,  red,  blue,  occa- 
aicMially  orange  and  green,  violet  and  gi'ey.  All 
through  Western,  Central  and  Southern  India, 
sarees  are  striped  and  checked  in  an  infinite 
variety  of  patterns. 

NARRI,  HiK]).  Polygonum  barbatum,  also 
Arundinaria  fidcata :  bag  narri,  is  the  Arundo 

NARRI4X)MB00,  Tam.?  The  Jackal's 
bonif  which  natives  say  only  grows  on  the  head 
of  the  leader  of  the  pack.  The  Singhalese 
and  the  Tamil  races  regard  it  as  a  talisman, 
and  believe  that  its  fortunate  possessor  can 
command  by  its  instrumentality  die  realization 
of  every  wish,  and  that  if  stolen  or  lost  by  him, 
it  will  invariably  return  of  its  own  accord.  It 
is  the  popular  belief  that  the  fortunate  dis- 
coverer of  a  jackal's  horn  becomes  thereby  in- 
vincible in  every  law  suit,  and  must  irresisti- 
bly triumph  over  %very  opponent.  In  the 
Museom  of  the  college  of  Surgeons,  London,  is 
a  cranium  of  a  jac^ud  which  exhibits  this 
strange  osseous  process  on  the  super-occipital 
btme  and  Sir  J.  £.  Tennent  placed  along  with 
it  a  specimen  of  the  horny  sheath,  which  was 
presented  to  him  by  Mr.  Lavalliere,  district 
Judge  of  Kandy. — Tennen^s  Sketch,  Nat.  Hist,, 
pp.  36-37. 

of  Cordia  obliqua,  also  of  C.  angustifolia,  Baxh. 

Ganges,  see  Crocodilidae,  Sauria. 

angnslifolia,  Boxb. 

minalia  angustifolia,  Jcusq, 

ma uigustifoHa,  Boxb. 

NARSINGA,  or  Nursoo,  a  hindoo  deity.  See 

NARSINGHPUR,  a  district  of  Central 
India  between  22^  45'  and  23°  15'  of  north 
latitude,  and  78°  38'  and  79°  38'  of  east  longi- 
tude. It  consists  of  three  distinct  portions.  The 
laigest  of  these  lies  south  of  the  Narbada, 
and  on  the  north  has  the  Narbada,  on  the  east 
by  the  Sone,   and  on  the  west  by  the  Dudhi.  | 

43  N 

The  southern  boundary  is  an  irr^ular  east  and 
west  line  including  a  strip  of  the  Satpura 
table-land,  generally  narrow,  but  of  varying 
width.  The  trans-Narbada  portions  are  two 
isolated  tracts.  The  easternmost,  a  mere  in- 
significant patch  of  hill  and  ravine,  the  western- 
most is  a  smaU  but  fertile  valley,  enclosed  by 
the  Narbada  in  a  crescent-shaped  bund  of  the 
Vindhyan  range.  The  whole  area  of  the  dis- 
trict is  1,916  square  miles,  of  which  about  half 
is  cultivated.  The  extreme  length  from  east  to 
west  is  about  seventy-five  miles,  and  the  extreme 
breadth  about  forty  miles.  The  number  of 
villages  is  1,108,  giving  an  average  area  to 
each  village  of  nearly  a  square  mile  and  three 
quarters.  The  face  of  the  Satpura  range  over- 
looking the  valley  is  generally  regular,  probably 
nowhere  rises  more  than  500  feet  above  the 
the  low  land.  The  Vindhyan  range  of  flat- 
topped  cliffs  is  marked  by  great  uniformity 
of  outline,  averaging  from  three  hundred  to 
four  hundred  feet  above  the  level  of  the  valley, 
in  rare  cases  rising  to  eight  hundred.  In  a 
similar  manner  the  line  of  escarpment  bound- 
ing the  valley  on  the  south  marks  the  northern 
hmit  of  the  Talchir,  Damuda  and  Mahadeo 
series  of  rocks,  &c. 

On  both  sides  of  the  valley  the  high  ground 
is  often  occupied  by  basaltic  trappean  rocks. 
On  the  north  such  rocks  spread  into  wide 
patches  over  the  country  towards  Bhopal,  Sagar, 
and  Damoh,  in  which  direction  they  gradually 
die  out,  on  the  S.  and  S.  W.  the  trap  is  found 
to  cover  considerable  areas  among  the  Grond- 
wana  hills,  and  it  becomes  gradually  more  and 
more  the  prevaihng  sur&ce  rock  in  this  direc- 
tion, and  so  far  as  known,  connects  itself  with 
the  great  trap  area  of  the  Deccan.  The  pre- 
valence of  regularly-bedded  fine-grained  grits, 
with  a  characteristic  red  colour,  is  the  most 
striking  lithologicaJ  feature  of  itie  Vindhyan 
group,  and  speaking  of  the  formation  generally, 
its  most  marked  characteristic  certainly  is  the 
persistency  of  this  lithological  aspect  over  great 
areas.  This  sameness  of  texture  is  strongly  in 
contrast  with  the  prevailing  character  of  all  tiie 
more  recent  sandstone  formations  to  the  south. 
Ripple-marking  may  be  considered  as  a  phenome- 
non characteristic  of  tiie  Vindhyan  series ;  almost 
totally  absent  in  all  tiie  othefr  groups  of  sand- 
stone of  Central  India,  it  is  ahnost  everywhere 
throughout  them  found  preserved  in  the  most 
extraordinary  perfection.  The  Narbada  is  fed 
almost  entirely  from  tiie  south,  as  the  water- 
shed of  the  Vindhyan  table-land  stands  but 
Httie  back  from  its  southern  face.  As  soon  as 
the  limits  of  the  ''  haweU,"  or  black  soil  tracts, 
are  passed,  the  characteristics  of  tiie  country 
change.  The  population  of  the  Narsinghpur 
district  is  336,000,  of  whom  rather  more  than 
one-third  are  non-agricultural   classes.     The 




average  population  rate  b  about  175  to  vue 
square  mile.  The  mohammedans  number  little 
more  than  three  per  cent,  of  the  whole.  Most  of 
the  Gond  race  who  dwell  in  the  valley  conform 
to  hindoo  rites  and  observances.  There  are  a 
few  Jain  merchants  and  mountain  Gonds.  The 
most  influential  landholding  classes  ox,e  the 
Brahman,  Rajput,  Raj-€rond,  Lodhi,  Kurmi, 
and  Kaonra.  The  Brahman  and  Rajput  za- 
mindars  are  scattered  all  over  the  district.  The 
Raj-6ond  and  Kaonra  are  to  be  found  princi- 
pally in  the  western  sub-division — ^Gradarwara ; 
the  Lodhi  in  the  eastern  and  central  subniivi- 
sions  and  the  Eurmi  in  Nandnghpur.  Besides 
genuine  Rajputs  and  the  Kaonra  there  are 
three  other  castes,  well  represented  among  the 
land-holding  body,  who  claim  Rajput  descent, 
viz:  Bundda,  Raghubansi,  and  Kirar.  The 
total  number  of  land-holding  classes  is  thirty- 
two,  and  the  total  number  of  castes  represented 
in  the  district  is  not  less  than  twice  that 
number.  The  people  of  the  valley  are  gene- 
rally well-grown.  Among  men  of  the  pea- 
sant class  the  favourite  colour  of  the  angarkha, 
or  long  coat,  is  yellow,  with  a  green  shade 
from  the  mhowa  dye.  The  sleeves  are  turned 
back  on  the  wrists,  and  the  waist-doth  is 
worn  on  or  below  the  hips,  with  a  white 
turban.  The  chie6  affect  the  Maratha 
turban  tied  so  much  on  one  side  as  almost  to 
cover  one  eye,  or  what  appears  to  be  a  Grond 
fashion — a  turban  composed  of  innumerable 
folds  of  cloth  twisted  like  a  rope.  Their  dress 
seldom  corresponds  with  their  pretensions,  and 
some  of  the  oldest  rajas  and  thakurs  might  be 
taken  for  poor  peasants.  Titles  of  honor  are  so 
common  as  to  have  lost  much  of  their  signific-' 
anoe.  Raja,  Thakur,  Rao,  Diwan  and  Chau- 
dhari  abound  in  every  part  of  the  district,  and  it 
is  so  much  the  custom  to  adopt  any  available 
distinction,  that  such  designations  as  Jamadar 
and  Mukhtar  are  pressed  into  the  service  as 
hereditary  honors.  There  is  certainly  neither 
the  closeness  of  ritual  observance,  nor  the  rigi- 
dity of  social  usage,  which  prevail  in  Hindu- 
stan. Among  brahmans,  the  Kanojia  still  keep 
up  their  intercourse  with  their  parent  country, 
and  adhere  to  their  traditionary  rights  and 
habits ;  but  the  Sanoria  who  take  a  high  rank 
in  Upper  India,  are  here  very  lax,  forming  con- 
nections with  women  of  otheF  classes,  and  neg- 
lecting the  niceties  of  hindoo  worship. 

The  foiur  known  periods  of  the  history  of  this  part 
of  the  valley  are  the  Gond  rule,  the  dominion 
of  the  Maratha  subas  of  Sajar,  the  rule  of  the 
Bhonsla  rajas  of  Nagpur,  and  British  adminis- 
tration. The  origin  of  the  Grond  rajas  of  Garha 
Mandla  is  lost  in  antiquity,  but  the  Gond  Raj- 
put family,  which  was  supplanted  by  the 
Marathas,  is  said  to  have  sprung  from  Jadhava 
Raya,  a  Rajput,  who  succeeded  his  &ther-in- 

44  N 

law,  the  Gond  raja  Nagdeo,  in  A.i^.  35t$.  Forty- 
eight  in  descent  from  him  was  raja  Sangram 
Sa,  who  is  stated  to  have  extended  his  domi- ' 
nions  over  fifty-two  districts,  only  three  or  four 
of  which  he  received  from  his  father.  The 
Narsinghpiur  district  came  under  the  Mandla 
rule  in  hiis  reign,  and  he  is  said  to  have  built 
the  fort  of  Ohauragarh.  The  prindpal  imple- 
ments of  husbandry  now  employed  are  the 
**  bakhar"  and  the  ordinary  plough.  The 
former  is  a  kind  of  scarifier,  having,  instead  of 
a  share,  a  broad  iron  blade  set  horizontally  and 
at  right-angles  to  its  body.  It  is  used  in  pre- 
paring the  land  for  the  rain  crops,  twice  if 
possible  before  the  setting  in  of  the  rains,  and 
twice  afterwards.  Iron  pits  lie  north  of  ^e 
Narbada,  near  the  Vindhyan  hills;  and  the 
excavations  for  coal  have  been  made  at  Moh- 
pani,  in  the  Satpura  hills  at  the  debouchure  of 
the  Ghitar-Rewa  rivei:. — Gazetteer  of  CewtrcU 

rula assafsBtida. 

NARUL  KA-TEL,  Hind.,  of  Dera  Gha«i 
Khan,  a  compound  oil  used  as  a  drug  in  some 
eye  complaints. 

NARUMPANEL,  MALSiLL.  Uvaria  naram, 

NARUNGEE,  Pebs.,  also  Narunghi,  also 
Kounla,  Gus.,  Kum.  Citrus  aurantium; 
orange,  sweet  orange. 

NARU  NINDI,  Malbal.  Hemidesmus 
indicuH,  i2.  Brown. 

NARUVALLI,  Tam.  <5brdia  angustifbUa,  IL 

NARU  VALLUM,  ALujbal.  Crobon  tiglium. 

NARVALI  FIBRE,  Akolo-Tam.  See  Nar- 

NARVALLI  MARAM,  Tam.  Species  of 

NARVELL,  a  Ceylon  tree,  sometimes  called 
Jambu,  in  Tamil  and  Portuguese.  It  grows 
to  about  eighteen  inches  in  diameter,  and  from 
ten  to  fourteen  feet  in  height.  It  is  used  for 
the  frames  of  native  vessels  and  boats,  but  ia 
not  considered  a  very  durable  wood.  After  it 
has  attained  its  full  growth  it  produces  a  berry 
which  the  natives  use  as  food.  This  seems 
a  species  of  Eugenia,  or  the  Dillenia  speciosa 
of  Thunberg. — Edye^  Ceylon. 

NARWALI  or  Narvali,  fibre  of  Cordia  angus- 
tifelia,  ropes  are  made  of  the  fibres. — M.  E. 

NARWULI,  Tam.  Cordia  angustifolia  and 
Cordia  obliqua. 

NARY  AN  A,  see  Inscriptions 

NARYEL,  HiKD.  A  cocoa  nut  shell,  a  kind 
of  hukka. 

NAS,  HiKB.  Hordeum  caeleste,  Thibetan 

NAS,  HiWD.     Snuff. 

NASA-BHAGA,  Bsno.  Peristrophe  bicaly- 



NASAL,  As.  Family.  Nasal-Namah,  Hikb., 
Rns.     A  ^nealogioal  tree. 

CAfaan  of  Borneo,  f  Bangkatan  of  Labuan. 

The  proboscis  monkey,  well  known  in  Labuan 
and  Borneo,  its  glossy  coat  is  richly  coloured. 
It  is  shy. 

NASHA— ?  Phyllanthns,  species. 

NASHDAK,  Rus.    Emery. 

NASHPATI,  Hum.    Pyrns  communis. 

NASHTA&,  Hind.,  Pkbs.,  Pshtu.  Cedrus 
deodtta,  deodar  or  Himalayan  cedar.  Nashtaror 
nakhtar,  Pshtu,  is  the  Pinus  longifolia,  long- 
leaved  pine,  any  pine,  gul  nashtar  Hind.,  is  the 
firylhrina  arborescens. 

NASHTAR,  Pkbs.    Lancet. 

NASIRI,  a  nomade  race  of  Affghans,  who 
occupy  the  Tohki  and  Hotuki  countries  in 
summer,  and  the  Daman,  or  skirts  of  the  Suli- 
man  range  in  winter.  In  their  migrations, 
tfaey  i^ipoint  a  Chahlwasti  or  Captain  of  Forty, 
and  a  Khan  oar  Director  General. 

Baixairi.  Baizavi  was  the  literary  takhallus  of 
kaaiNasir-4id-din  Abdallah  bin  Omar,  Albeizayi, 
who  died  in  the  year  1299,  Hig.  699.  His  book 
IS  in  Persian,  entitled,  Nizam*ut-Tuarikh,  which 
signifies  the  Order  of  Chronological  Histories. 
He  was  a  kazi  or  judge.  He  has  treated  of 
most  of  the  Asian  monarchs,  and  particularly  of 
the  ancient  Moguls. — Ettiory  of  Qtnghiacwa^  p. 

NASJEERA  RATSJA,  Malbil.  '  Hoya 
pendula,  Wight  and  AmoU, 

NASKEIi,  Naril,  Nargel.  BxFa.,Hiin).  Cocos 

NASNIJAN6I,DuK.  Trianthemaobcordata, 

NASPAL,  rind  o(  the  pomegranate,  Punica 
granatuxn.  Besides  its  astringency  this  is 
itadf  used  alone  as  a  dye,  giving  a  somewhat 
iSeeble  yellow. — Pcwms  Hamdimk^  Vol,  i. 
p.  452. 

NASPATIfHnim.Pynis  communis,  pear  tree 

NASRIN,  Hnn>.  Rosa,  sp. 

NASSARA,  Nazarene,  a  term  used  by 
mahomedans  in  India,  when  intending  to 
apeak  abuaLvely  of  christians. 

NASS£RI,  r^ments  of  soldiers  raised  at  the 
aoggestioa  of  Sir  David  Ouchterlony  from  the 
Garkfaas  who  took  service  with  the  British,  after 
the  &st  Nepal  campcugn. 

NASSICK,  a  town  in  the  Bombay  Deikhan. 

NASSIGK  DIAMOND,  taken  in  the  Dekhan 
w,  onginany  valued  at  j£dO,000,  was  sold  to 
Lard  Westminster  for  ^7,000. 

NASSIR  JUNG,  second  son  of  Nizam-ul- 
Mulk,  an  whose  death,  in  1748,  he  assumed  the 
sobaUdp  of  die  Dekhan.  He  took  partwith 
Mshomed  Ali  and  the  British  against  Chandah 
8akib  and  the  French.     After  varied  fortunes 

45  I 


he  dwelt  at  Arcot  in  an  indolent  and  voluptu- 
ous manner,  in  1760,  however,  he  again  took  the 
field  against  the  French  but  was  killed  by  the 
Pathan  nabob  of  Cuddapah,  and  three  of  the 
conspirators  to  his  death  fell  in  one  day.  His 
death  gave  great  joy  to  Dupleix,  Chandah 
Sahib  and  Pondicherry. — OTrme. 

NASTI,  Sans.  Non-existence;  annihilation. 

NASTIKA,  S.  An  atheist,  also  one  who 
denies  the  authority  of  the  Vedas. 

NASTRO  DI  SETA,  It.  Ribbon. 

NASTURTIUM,  a  genus  of  plants  of  the 
order  Brassicacen.  The  water-cress.  N.  offici- 
nale, R,  Br,f  the  Sisjonbrium  nasturtiimi, 
Linn,f  the  Lutputiah  of  India,  is  cultivated  in 

busa  arundinacea. 

NASTUS  STRICTUS,  Sm.  Syn.  of  Dendro- 
calamus  strictus,  Nee$. 
NASUA,  see  Viverridae. 
NASUK,  see  Nazuk,  Vishnu,  Viswakarma. 
NASURANGI,  Dra.  Trianthema  obcorda- 
tum,  Itoxh.y  also  Trianthema  monogynia. 
NASUT,  Hnn).  Ipomoea  turpethum. 
NAT,  BuKM.     Spirit.    The  Natare  supposed 
to  have  been  objects  of  Burmese  worship,  in  pre- 
buddhistic  times.     They  correspond  to  the  Deo 
of  the  hindoos,  whose  place  they  take  in  the 
Burman  buddhist  system. — Tule,  p.  17. 

NAT,  or  Nut,  in  Bengal,  a  wandering  tribe, 
who  are  dancers,  actors,  athlet«.  They  resemble 
the  gypsies  in  habits.  The  Nut  are  called  also 
Nut  Sirki  bash  (dwellers  under  mats) ;  those  in 
the  Dekhan  are  not  distinguishable  from  Dher. 
NATA,  Beno.,  also  Nata  Kanja,  Hini). 
Guilandina  bonduc,  Linn. 

NATA,  Mal.,  Tam.,  Tel.  A  country,  relating 
to  the  country,  used  to  form  many  compound 
words. —  Wils, 

NATA  KARANJA,  Bkno.  Guilandina  bon- 
duc, Linn.y  W.  and  A, 

NATA-KOTHIAR,  a  race  in  the  south  of  the 
peninsula;  all  speak  Tamil  and  follow  brah- 
minism,  they  are  large  merchants,  and  all  of 
them  have  the  marked .  African  protruding 
lips  and  nose,  sharply  cut  at  the  forehead. 

NATAL,  a  district  in  Africa ;  also  one  in 

NAT  AM,  or  Nattam,  an  extensive  tract  of 
mountainous  country  beginning  about  10  miles 
N.  of  Madura,  through  which  a  pass  leads. 
NATARU,  Guz.  Second  marriage. 
NATATORES,  an  order  of  swimming  birds, 

Obdxb  yiII«~Natatores. 
A.  IVibe,  Longipennes. 
Fam    Laridso. 

Suh-fam,  Larinsi,  2  gen.,  5  sp.,  viz.,  1  Catarracta 
4  Larus. 

Sulhfam.  Steminse.  Div,  I  Skitnmers,  1  gen.,  I 
^.,  V12 :   1  Rhynchops  alUcollis.  Div,  2  mar»h 



Temgy  5  gen.,  10  ep.,  1  Sylochelidon  ;  1  Gelocheli- 
don,  2  Uydrochelidon ;  1  Thalasseus ;  1  Seexui ;  3 
Sterna ;  1  SiemuUa.  2>i«.  4  Oceanic  TertUf  2  gen., 
4  BD.,  2  Onychoprion  ;  2  Anous. 

Fam,  Procellarida ;  6  gen.,  12  sp.,  vii.  4  Diome- 
dea ;  4  Prooellaria  ;  1  Prion,  1  Pelicanoides ;  1 
Puffinus,  1  Thalassi  droma. 

B.  Tribe,  Totipalmati. 
Fam.    Pelicanidae,  5  gen.  12  sp.  viz.  2  Phaeton, 

2  Sula,  8  Peiecanua,  4  Graculue,  1  Plotus. 

C.  Tribe  Lunellirostres. 
JPom.  Anatidn:  Gooses. 
8tib-fam,    Pluenicopterinse,  1  gen.,  1  sp.,  viz.  1 

Pneenicopterus  roseus. 

Suh-fam,  Anserinae.  Div,  1  StoanSf  1  gen.,  2  sp.,  2 
Cygnus,  olor,  atrata.  Div.  2  Geese,  2  sen.,  4  sp.,  3 
Anser,  1  Bemicia.  Div.  3,  Packing  Ueeie,  2  D^- 
drocygna ;  2  Sarddiomis ;  1  Nettapus.  Div.  4,  Shel- 
drakes, 1  Casarea  rutila,  1  Tadoma  yulpanser. 

Sub-fam.  Anatinie,  1  gen.,  6  sub^n.,  10  sp.,  viz., 
1  Spatula^  3  Anas ;  1  Dafihi ;  1  Cnaulelasmus ;  1 
Mareca ;  3  Qaerquerdula. 

Sub-fam.  PnhgnliniB,  1  gen.,  1  sub-gen,.  5  sp., 
viz.,  4'Fuligula,  1  Branta. 

Sub-fam,  MerginjB,  1  gen.,  1  sp.,  viz.,  1  Mergus 

Fam.  Podicipid8B|,  1  gen.,  2  sp.,  yiz.,  2  Podiceps 
eristatus,  Philippensis. 

The  Grallatorial  and  Natatorial  birds  begin 
to  arrive  in  Nepaul,  from  the  north,  towards 
the  close  of  August,  and  continue  arriving  till 
the  middle  of  September.  The  first  to  appear 
are  the  common  snipe,  and  jack  snipe,  and 
rhynchoea;  next,  the  scolopaceous  waders  (except 
the  wood-cock  ;)  next,  the  great  birds  of  the 
heron  and  stork,  and  crane  &umilies  ;  then,  the 
Natatores  ;  and  lastly,  the  wood-cocks,  which  do 
not  reach  Nepaul  till  November.  The  time  of  the 
re-Appearance  of  these  birds,  from  the  south  is 
the  banning  of  March ;  and  they  go  on  arriv- 
ing till  the  middle  of  May.  The  first  which  thus 
return  to  Nepaul  are  the  snipes ;  then  come 
the  teal  and  ducks  ;  then  the  large  Natatores ; 
and  lastly,  the  great  cranes  and  storks.  The 
Grallatores  which  visit  Nepaol  or  pass  over  it, 
are  much  more  numerous  than  the  Natatores  ; 
and  Mr.  Hodgson  was  of  opinion  that  ob- 
servation in  the  plains  of  India  would  satis- 
factorily prove  that  this  is  a  just  and  de- 
cisive indication  of  the  superior  prevalence  of 
wading  over  swimming  birds  in  tiiat  extensive 
region.  India,  as  he  supposes,  is  too  hot 
for  the  Natatores — a  great  majority  of 
which  seem  to  affect  arctic  regions,  or,  at  least, 
high  latitudes.  The  wild  swan  was  never  seen 
there  but  once,  in  lihe  mid  winter  of  1828, 
when  the  apparition  suggested  a  new  version  of 
the  well  known  hexameter, — 

'  Bara  avis  in  terns,  aXboque  simillinia  cygno.' 
Such  a  bird  is  never  seen,  he  supposes,  in  the  plains 
of  India  ?  None  of  the  Natatores  stay  in  Nepaul 
beyond  a  week  or  two,  in  autumn  (when  the  rice 
fields  tempt  them)  or  beyond  a  few  days,  in 
spring,  except  the  teal,  the  widgeon,  and  the 
coot,  which  remain  for  the  whole  season,  upon 
some  few  tanks  whose  sanctity  precludes  all 

46  N 

Matamy,  Maxaax. 

RaiikayTftjettipullu,  Sans. 
Kelwangu,  Tax. 

Ponasa,  Tfimidalu, 


molestation  of  them.  There  are  cormorants 
throughout  the  season  upon  the  larger  rivers 
within  the  mountains  ;  but  none  ever  halt  in 
the  valley,  beyond  a  day  or  two :  for  so  long, 
however,  both  they  and  pelicans  may  be  seen, 
occasionally,  on  die  banks  just  mentioned. 
The  Larus  and  Sterna  are  birds  which  usually 
affect  the  high  seas, — but  Mr.  Hodgson  had 
killed  both  the  red-legged  gull,  and  a  genuine 
pelagic  tern,  in  the  valley  of  Nepaul,  but  so 
had  he  fishing  eagles ;  and  in  truth  who  shall 
limit  the  wanderings  of  these  long-winged  birds 
of  the  etherial  expanse  ? 

Munia,  Bemo. 

Ragj,  Dux. 

Natchenny,  ragi,Gnz.Hna>. 
Eleusine  coracana,  Gceri., 
Raxb.,  Lat. 

Eleusine  c6racana,  a  useful  grain,  is  grown 
throughout  British  India  and  is  eat^n  by 
the  labouring  classes.  It  is  about  the  size 
of  mustard  seed,  and  darkish  coloured.  It 
is  made  chiefly  into  cakes,  but  is  also  prepared 
in  several  other  ways ;  it  has  a  sweetish  taste. 

NATCHENNY  RAJIKA,  Sans.  Eleusine 
ooracana.     See  Graminaces. 

NAT-GYEE,  fiuBM.  A  tree  of  Mouhnein, 
wood  used  for  posts  and  knife  handles. — Cai. 
Cat.  Ex.  1862. 

NATH,  Sans.  Lord ;  hence  Jaganatha,  verna- 
cularly Jagannath  or  Juggemath,  Lord  of  ihe 
world,  a  name  especially  applied  to  Krishna  in 
the  form  in  which  he  is  worshipped  at  the 
temple  of  Jaganath  at  Puri  in  Orissa.  All  the 
land  within  20  miles  round  this  pagoda  is  con- 
sidered holy,  but  the  most  sacred  spot  is  an  area 
of  about  six  hundred  and  fifty  feet  square, 
which  contains  fifty  temples.  The  most  cxa- 
spicuous  of  these  b  a  Iqlly  tower  about  one 
hundred  and  eighty-four  feet  in  height,  and 
about  twenty-eight  feet  square  inside,  called 
the  Bur  Dewali,  in  which  the  idol  and  lus 
brother  and  sister,  Subhadra,  are  lodged.  Ad- 
j(»ning  are  two  pyramidical  buildings.  In  one, 
about  forty  feet  square,  the  idol  is  worshipped, 
and  in  the  other,  the  food  prepared  for  tJie 
pilgrims  is  distributed.  These  buildings  were 
erected  in  a.  d.  1198.  The  walls  are  covered 
with  statues,  many  of  which  are  in  highly 
indecent  postures.  The  grand  entrance  is  on 
the  eastern  side,  and  close  to  the  outer  wall 
stands  an  elegant  stone  column,  thirty-five  feet 
in  height,  the  shaft  of  which  is  formed  of  a 
single  block  of  basalt,  presenting  sixteen  sides. 
The  pedestal  is  richly  ornamented.  The  column 
is  surroimded  by  a  finely  sculptured  statue  of 
Hanuman,  the  monkey  diief  of  the  Ramayana. 
The  establishment  of  priests  and  others  belong- 
ing to  the  temple  has  been  stated  to  consist  of 
three  thousand  nine  hundred  fisunilies,  for  whona 
the  daily  provision  is  enormous.    The  holy 



ia  presented  to  the  idol  three  times  a  day. 
mcaJs  lasts  ahoat  an  hour,  during  which 
le  the  dancing  girls,  the  Deva-dasi,  belong- 
to   the  temple  exhibit  their  professional 
in  an  adjoining  bidlding.    Twelve  festivals 
c^ebrated  during  the  year,  the  principle 
which,    is  the    l^tli   Jattra.    Jaganadi's 
Lf^BB  are  also  numerous  in  Bengal,  and  are, 
ivariafaly,  of  a  pyramidical  form.    During  the 
kterrys  of  woniiip  they  are  shut  up.    The 
of   this  god   in  Orissa,  is  a  rude  block 
iroody  and  has  a  frightful  visage  with  a  dis- 
mouth.    His  arms,  which,  as  he  was 
led  without  any,  have  been  given  to  him  by 
piiealB,  are  of  gold.  He  is  gorgeously  dress- 
as  are  also  the  other  two  idols  which  accom- 
ij  him.     In  a  compartment  in  the  temple 
Kama,  he  is  represented  in  company  with 
Rama  and  Snbhadra  wi&out  arms  or  legs. 
idols  are  doubtless  handed  down  from 
times. — Colics  Myth.    Hind,y 

NATHA,  Saits.,  or  Nadi,  corruptly  Nauth, 

Taut,  Nantum,  andNatan,  Tak.  A  lord,  a  mas- 

a  name  borne  by  some  classes  of  religious 

its.    See  Kaia  Priyanath. 

NA-THAT,  Burm.  In  Pegu,  a  forest  term 

that  have  died  from  natural  causes. 

te  term  aeems  to  be  applied  also  to  seasoned 

or  to  trees  that  have  been  girdled. 

fatfaat  teak  trees  ought  to  be  removed,  but 

these,  no  teak  tree  below  six  feet  in 

ought  to  be  felled. — MeCleUand's  Report, 

ro.  xzifiii,  p.  2  ;  Dr.  Braridis,  Selection  from 

Records  of  Govt,  of  India  Foreign^  Dq>t., 

28,  p.  24. 

NAT'HDWARA.  This  is  the  most  celebrate 

of  the  fanes  of  the  hindoo  Apollo.   Its  etymo- 

is  *  the  portal  (dwara)  of  the  god'  (Natli), 

the  same  import  as  his  more  ancient  shrine 

Dwarka  at  the  *  world's  end.'  Nat'hdwara  is 

rentj-two  miles  N.  N.  E.  of  Oodipoor,  on  the 

_  it  bank  of  the  Bunas.     Although  the  prin- 

ipal  resort  of  the  followers  of  Vishnu,  it  has 

»thing  very  remarkable  in  its  structure  or 

Ltion.     It  owes  its  celebrity  entirely  to  the 

of  Krishna,  said  to  be  the  same  that  has 

worshipped  at  Mat'hura  ever  since  his 

ication  between  eleven  and  twelve  hundred 

before  Christ.  As  containing  the  represen- 

e  of  the  mildest  of  the  gods  of  the  hindoos, 

at^hdwara  is  one  of  the  most  frequented  places 

pflgrimage,  though  it  must  want  that  attrao- 

to  the  classical  hindoo  which  the  caves  of 

the  shores  of  the  distant  Dwarica,  or  the 

iral  Vrij,  the  place  of  ^e  nativity  of  Krishna, 

to  his  imagination  ;  for   though  the 

gloves  of  Vindra,  in  which  Kaniya  diBported 

with  the  €ropi,  no  longer  resound  to  the  echoes 

«f  the  flute ;  though  Sie  waters  of  the  Yamuna 

daily  polluted  with  the  blood  of  the  sacred 



kine,  still  it  is  the  holy  land  of  the  pilgrim. 
It  was  in  the  reign  of  Aurungzeb,  that  the 
pastoral  divinity  was  exiled  from  Vrij,  that 
classical  soil,  which,  during  a  period  of  two 
thousand  one  hundred  years  had  been  the 
sanctuary  of  his  worshippers.  He  had  been 
compellcKi  to  occasional  flights  during  the  visi- 
tations of  Mahmood  and  the  first  dynasties  of 
Affghan  invaders ;  though  the  more  tolerant  of 
the  Mogul  kings  not  only  reinstated  him  but 
were  suspected  of  dividing  their  faith  be- 
tween Kaniya  and  Mahomed.  Akbar  was  an 
enthusiast  in  the  mystic  poetry  ot  Jydeva, 
which  paints  in  glowing  colours  the  loves  of 
Kaniya  and  Radha,  in  which  lovely  personifica- 
tion the  refined  hindoo  abjures  all  sensual  in- 
terpretations asserting  its  character  of  pure 
spiritual  love.  Jehangir,  by  birth  half  a  Raj- 
poot, was  equally  indulgent  to  the  worship  of 
Kaniya :  but  Shah  Jehan,  also  the  son  of  a 
Rajpoot  princess,  inclined  to  the  doctrines  of 
Siva,  in  which  he  was  initiated  by  Sid-rup  the 
Sanyasi.  Sectarian  animosity  is  more  virulent 
than  faiths  totally  dissimilar.  Here  we  see 
hindoo  depressing  hindoo :  the  followers  of 
Siva  oppressing  those  of  Kaniya ;  the  priests  of 
Jupiter  driving  the  pastoral  Apollo  from  the 
Parnassus  of  Vrij.  At  the  intercession,  how- 
ever, of  a  princess  of  Oodipoor,  he  was  replaced 
on  his  altar,  where  he  remained  till  Aurungzeb 
became  emperor  of  the  Moguls.  In  such  de- 
testation did  the  hindoos  hold  this  intolerant 
king,  that  in  like  manner  as  they  supposed  the 
beneficent  Akbar  to  be  the  devout  Mokund  in 
a  former  birth,  so  they  make  the  tyrant's  body 
enclose  the  soul  of  Kal-yamun,  the  foe  of 
Krishna,  ere  his  apotheosis,  from  whom  he  fled 
to  Dwarica,  and  thence  acquired  the  name  of 
RinchoF. — Tod^s  Bajasthan,  Vol,  i,  p».  521- 

NATETH—  ?  Timber,  a  log  of  wood,  a  beam. 

NATH'H  BAWA,  see  Jogi. 

NATHUR,  Guz.    Canes. 


NATIKI—  ?  Tetranthera,  «p. 

NATI-SCHAJViBU— ?  Eugenia  malabarica. 

NATIVE,  the  terms  Hindoo,  and  Native  of 
India,  are  the  ordinary  names  by  which  the  idol- 
worshipping  people  and  mahomedans  of  British 
India  are  at  present  known,  but  the  terms  are 
aU  of  very  recent  use.  The  hindoo  peoples  to 
whom  they  are  applied  are  only  now  lusing, 
under  the  firm  sway  of  the  British  rule,  and 
never  before  had,  nor  could  have  had,  one  com- 
mon designation.  Nadves  of  India  first  sat  on 
the  petty  jury  on  the  25th  July  1828. 

NATIVE  BLISTER-FLY,  Meloe  telini. 

NATIVE  CINNABAR,  see  Cinnabar. 

NATIVE  COMPANION,  see  Egret. 

NATRALOO,  Hiwn.     Sweet  Potato,  is  the 





root  of  Batatas  edulia,  C?ioisy,  which  is  boiled, 
roasted,  and  eaten.  It  is  of  two  kinds  or 
colours,  white  and  red.  The  white  is  suppos- 
ed to  have  been  brought  from  some  foreign  land, 
and  under  this  supposition  it  is  called  Walaitee 
natraloo,  European  or  Foreign  natraloo,  and 
the  other  Nat  ka  Natraloo  or  country  Natra- 
loo. The  white  is  the  better,  the  correct 
spelling  for  the  Batatas  edulis  or  sweet  potato 
is  Natr-alu. 

NATRON,  Fr.,  6br.  SodsB  sesquicarbonas. 
Sodse  biboras,  Carbonate  of  soda.  Natron  is 
abundant  in  the  vicinity  of  Ava,  where  it  is 
used  by  the  Burmese  instead  of  soap,  and  they 
call  it  "  earth  soap." — Mason. 

NATRON  LAICE  of  Lunar,  see  Lunar  Dyes, 
Alkaline  minerals. 

NATSJATAM-CIVA,  Cocculus  cordifolius. 

NATSO-KARAM,  Tam.    Soap. 

NATSU-PIA,  Bhot.  Gallus  fcrrugineus. 

N  ATTALA  (?)  The  name  of  a  class  of  slaves 
in  Kamata. 

NATTAMAKAN,  also  Nattamakkal  and 
Nattamar,  Tam.  A  sub-division  of  the  ValaJa 
tribe,  husbandmen,  farmers. 

NAT-TA-MIN,  Burm.  A  reddish  grey  wood 
of  British  Burmah,  loose  grained,  and  recom- 
mended for  cigar  boxes.  Breaking  weight  129 
lbs. ;  a  cubic  foot  weighs  33  lbs.  In  a  tiill- 
grown  tree  on  good  soil  the  average  length  of 
the  trunk  to  the  first  branch  is  60  feet,  and 
average  girth  measured  at  6  feet  from  the 
ground  is  6  feet.  It  sells  at  4  annas  per  cubic 
foot.— 2>r.  Brandts,  Cal.  Cat.  Ex,  1862. 

fruit  of  Terminalia  catappa. — Zmn.,  Raxb., 
W.  Sr  -4.,  Bheede. 

NATTES,  Fr,    Mats. 

N  ATTOO-BAD  AM,Tam.  Terminalia  catappa. 

NATTU,  Tel.  Ischoenum  pilosum,  iE.  W., 
Mad.  Jour.  Lit.  and  Se.,  ii,  139,  cum.  /c,  p. 
144,  Br.  475.  This  is  the  grass  that  infests 
the  r^ada  or  black  cotton-soil  to  the  great 
detriment  of  cultivation.  It  is  called  kunduru 
nattu  or  "  grievous-weed,"  Bm.  237,  to  distin- 
guish it  from  jaraka  nattu,  or  *' grass-weed" 
which  is  Cynodon  dactylon. 

NATTU  VADOM  MARAM,  Tam.  Termi- 
nalia catappa,  Linn.,  Baxb.,  W.  Sf  A.,  Bheede. 


NATUNAS  ISLANDS,  in  the  China  Seas, 
extend  from  the  coast  of  Borneo  a  great  way 
to  the  north-west  and  are  arranged  into  the 
north,  great  or  grand,  and  south  Natunas. 
The  north  Natunas  comprize  Pulo  Laut,  Pulo 
Stokpng.  The  great  or  grand  Natuna,  is 
caUed  by  the  Malays  Pulo  Boong  Ooran,  and 
extends  fh)m  lat.  3°  39'  to  4^  16'  N.  The 
interior  is  high  with  two  high  mountains,  Goo- 



nong  Bedong  or  Quoin  Hill,  in  lat.  4P  9  N^,  and 
Goonong  Ranay  in  lat.  4°  N. 

NATURAL  HISTORY,  see  Ajaib  ul  Mak- 
lukat,  much  of  which  is  fabulous.  Nature 
and  its  varied  scenery  and  objects,  its  birds 
or  trees  or  beasts  or  seas,  form  no  subject 
of  wonder  to  either  the  Indian  mahomedan  or 

NATURE-WORSHIP,  or  Totemism,  is  a  cult 
in  which  natural  objects,  trees,  lakes,  stones,  ani- 
mals, &c.,  are  worshipped.  According  to  Bunsen, 
the  earliest  Bactrian  fiuth  was  a  pure  nature- 
worship  as  recorded  in  the  Vedas.    That  was 
superseded  by  an  ethical  fidth,  when  light  and 
darkness,  sunshine  and  storm,  became  repre- 
sented by  good  and  evil,  but  in  the  change, 
Zoroaster  denotes  the  spirits  of  evil  by  the 
term  Deva,  common  to  the  old  Aryan  divi- 
nities.   The  Bactrian  religion  continued  un- 
changed amongst    the  Aryan  emigrants  untO 
they  reached  the  Punjab.    In  the  west,  Zara- 
thustra  Spitama,  the  Zoroaster  of  Europe,  one 
of  the  mightiest  Intellects  and  greatest  men 
of  all   time,  appeared  in   the  reign  of  Vi^ 
taspa,   a  Bactrian    king,    towards    the    year 
3000  B.  G.     His  contemporaries  accounted  him 
as  a  blasphemer,  atheist,  firebrand,  worthy  of 
death,  and  he  was  regarded,  even  by  his  own 
adherents,   and  after  some  centuries,  as   the 
founder  of  magic,  a  sorcerer  and  deceiver ;  but 
Hippocrates,  Eudoxus,    Plato    and    Aristotle 
looked  on  him  as  a  great  spiritual  hero  and  the 
earliest  sage  of  a  primeval  epoch.    Zoroaster's 
views  are  expressed  in  a  hymn,  or  Gatha,  con- 
sisting of  eleven   3-line  strophes.    It   seems 
to  have  been  composed  on  some  great  public 
occasion,  and  offers  the  choice  of  following  a 
true  path  or  of  continuing  in  the  existing  super- 
stition, and  in  the  3rd  strophe,  announces  the 
presence  of  two  twin  spirits,  the  Good  and  the 
Base,  and  commands  them  to  choose  between 
them.    In  the  fifUi  strophe,  he  names  Ahuia 
Mazda,  the  AU  Holy  and  All  True ;  there  is 
no  mention  of  the  name  of  Ahriman,  later 
regarded  as  that  of   the   evil  principle,   but 
in  the  seventh  strophe  Armaiti  is  named  as 
the  mother  of  the  corporeal  world  who  comes 
with  Power,  and  with  Truth  and  with  Piety  to 
succour  this  life.    Later,  this  religion  d^ene- 
rated  into  magism :  from  this,  Persians  have 
derived  their  Shah-River :  Ashta,  or  Truth  is 
the  second,  which  has  become  the  Ardi  Beheaht 
of  the  Parsi:  and  the  third  is  Vohu  Mano, 
signifying  the  good  pious  mind  or  piety,  out  c£ 
which   has   grown   the   later  term   Bahman. 
Zoroaster's  doctrine  spread  from  Bactria  into 
Media.    But  in  the  year  b.  c.  2234,  Zoroaat^-^ 
a  king  of  Media,  conquered  Babylon  where  the 
true  magism  as  taught  by  the  disciples  of  Zoro- 
aster, soon  mingled  with  Chaldean  philosophy, 
and  under  the  despotisms  of  Xerxes  and  otlier 

N  48 



rulers,  so  early  sa  the  times  of  Artaxcrxes, . 
ritea  were  introduced  into  Persia,  glaringly 
contradictory  of  the  ethico-spiritual  nature  of 
ZonuBter's  religion,  which  has  now-a-<iay3 
degenerated  into  a  fire-worship  and  magical 
formula.  Zoroastriana  used  the  Zend  language 
which  is  newer  than  the  language  of  the  Vedas, 
but  older  than  Sanscrit.  The  Bactrian  lan- 
guage ia  Gonunonly  called  Zend :  the  Vedic 
language  is  stereotyped  Bactrian,  the  Zend  is 
the  continuation  of  this  old  Bactrian  tongue, 
with  two  phases  of  which  we  are  acquainted. 
One  of  them,  the  language  of  the  Zend  books, 
the  other  that  of  the  cuneiform  inscriptions 
from  Cyrus  and  Darius  down  to  Artaxerxes  II. 
The  Saoiscrit  is  the  weakened  prose  tbrm  of  the 
old  Bactrian,  the  poetical  form  of  which  exists 
in.  the  hymns  of  the  Kig  Veda.  These  hymns 
were  transmitted,  orally.  Literature  proper  only 
commences  with  Sanscrit  after  it  became  a 
learned  language,*  and  it  became  the  sacred 
language  about  the  year  1000  b.  c.  at  the 
beginning  of  the  fourdi  age.  Both  Vedic  and 
Sonacrit  were  at  first  living  languages,  spoken 
by  the  people.  Spirit-worship,  amongst  the 
Aryan  hindoos,  the  non- Aryans  and  the  Parsees 
or  Zoroastrians,  has  almost  displaced  the  Nature 
worship  of  the  Vedas. — LuJbhocJcy  Origin  of  Civil. 
p.  119;  Bunsen,  God  in  Hist.,  Vol,  i,pp.  270 
to  293;  TocTs  RajasOuin,  Vol  ii,  p.  217; 
BwnsetCs  Effypty  Vols,  iii  and  iv.  See  Afi*ghanis- 
tan,  Aryan,  Greeks  of  Asia,  Iran,  Koh,  Kabul, 
Inscriptions,  Semiramis,  Hindoo,  Kattywar,  Zo- 

NATU  VADOM  COTTAY,  Seeds  of  Ter- 
minalia  catappa. 

NAU,  HiiTD.  A  boat,  a  ship.  Nau-Khodah, 
ship  master,  corrupted  into  the  Anglo-hindi 
Nakodah.— TF. 

NAU,  Hum.     Saccharum,  sp. 

NAU,  Hind.,  Saks.  Nine ;  nau-naga,  nine- 
headed  snake ;  also  Nau,  Hind.  New. 

NAU-AIT,  in  the  south  of  India,  a  class  of 
mshomedans  engaged  in  civil  life,  who  came 
from  Persia  to  Guzerat.     They  are  fair  men. 

NAUCLEA,  a  genus  of  plants  of  the  natural 
order  Cinchonacese,  lAndX.  The  following  spe- 
cies are  known  to  occur  in  the  East  Indies,  viz. : 

acida,  Hunt,  Peoang,  Java, 
cadamba,  Baxh,  Peninsula,  Bengal. 

Cf^teUta,  Watt, P 

cirrhifloray Malayans. 

eoadnata,  Roxb,  Ceylon, 
cordifolia,  Boxb,  British  India. 

elliptica Penang. 

gambiefr,  J&nt  Malayana. 
glabra,  Koxb,  Moluccaa. 
unoea,  Pair.  Penang. 
macrophyUa,  Roxb,  Amboyna. 
ovalifolia,  Roxb,  S^lhet,  Penang. 
paryif  olia>  Roxib.  mtiah  India. 

padidllata Moluccas, 

purpurea,  Roxb,  Goromandel. 
rotiuidif  olia,  Roxb,  Chittagong. 

scandens,  Sm.  N.  E.  India, 
sclerophylla,  Hnnt,  Penang. 
seesifiora,  Roxb.  Assam, 
sessifructus.  Roxb,  N.  E.  India, 
undulata,  JRorb,  Moluccas. 
NAUCLEA  ?  ? 





Under  these  names.  Captain  Sankey  notices 
a  nice,  clean  working,  Nagpore  wood,  of  a  yel- 
low colour  and  straight  grain,  which  has  appa- 
rently but  little  essential  oil.  It  is  very  scarce 
but,  when  obtainable,  is  used  by  the  natives 
for  all  purposes  ;  in  strength  it  ranks  next  to 
"  eyne,*  and,  therefore,  if  procurable  in  large 
quantities  and  of  a  proper  size,  would  be  a 
most  valuable  wood.  The  timber  procurable 
ranges  from  15  to  17  feet  in  length  and  is 
about  3  feet  in  girth.  Major  Pearson  considers 
that  this  is  the  Terminalia  bellerica;  the  timber 
in  colour  is  similar  to  the  Hurdo. — Capt, 

NAUCLEA,  species. 
Hagin-kae,  Can.  |  Hagin  mara,  Can. 

A  tree  of  Canara  and  Sunda,  frequent  in 
the  upper  third  of  the  ghats  to  the  south. 
Wood  described  as  being  strong  and  serviceable 
for  houses  and  implements. — Dr.  Gibson, 

NAUCLEA,  Species.  Htein<-ga-lah,  Bxtric.  A 
wood  of  British  Burmah  of  a  light  chesnut 
colour,  recommended  for  furniture.  Breaking 
weight  208  lbs.  A  cubic  foot  weighs  lbs.  43 
to  56.  In  a  full-grown  tree  on  good  soil  the 
average  length  of  the  trunk  to  the  first  branch 
is  40  feet,  and  average  girth  measured  at  6 
feet  from  the  ground  is  6  feet.  It  sells  at  8 
annas  per  cubic  fi)ot. — Dr,  Brandts^  Col,  Cat, 
Ex,  1862. 

NAUCLEA,  species.  Hteinthay,  Bimv.  A 
wood  of  British  Burmah.  Breaking  weight 
170  lbs.  A  cubic  foot  weighs  35  lbs.  In  a  full- 
grown  tree  on  good  soil,  the  average  length 
of  the  trunk  to  the  first  branch  is  30  feet,  and 
average  girth  measured  at  6  feet  from  the 
ground  is  6  feet.  It  sells  at  8  annas  per  cubic 
foot,— 'Dr.  Brandts,  Cal.  Cat.  Ex.  1862. 

NAUCLEA  CADAMBA,  Roxb,,  Rheede. 

Kaddam,        Brno.,  Hind.    Kadapa  chettu,  Tkl. 

Maoo-ka-doon,  BuaK. 

Maoo  tha,  „ 

Kudda-vailoo,  Can. 

Halamba-gans,  Sinqu. 

Vella  cadamba.  Tax. 



Kadapa  chettu, 
Kadimi  manu, 
Prenkanapu  chettu, 

This  is  a  noble  ornamental  tree  of  all  British 
India  and  British  Burmah,  it  has  orange-co- 
loured flowers,  collected  into  heads  the  size  of  a 
small  apple,  it  is  common  in  Ceylon,  up  to  an 
elevation  of  2,000  feet ;  it  is  ibund  in  Travancore 
and  in  the  Dekhan.  It  attains  a  height  of  70 
to  80  feet  with  a  girth  of  from  6  to  15  feet  and 
a  stem  of  32  feet  to  the  neaisst  branch.  It  is 
made  into  boats,  its  flowers  are  oflered  to  the 
hindoo  deities,  it  is  used  for  various  kinds  of 
furniture.     The  wood  is  of  a  deep-yellow  coloui' 






but  loose  grained.  A  cubic  foot  weighs  lbs.  37. 
It  selk,  in  Burmab,  at  8  annajs  per  cubic  foot, 
is  suitable  for  furniture,  and  is  used  for  building 
purposes.  According  to  hindoo  mythology,  this 
is  one  of  the  four  shady  trees  that  grow  on 
mount  Meru,  the  others  being  the  Eugqnia,  the 
Ficus  indica  and  Ficus  religiosa. — Thw»  En, 
PL  Zeyl,^  Captain  Macdonaldy  Dr,  ClegJiom, 
Col.  Cat.  Ex.  of  1862,  Captain  Puckle  in  Mad. 
Cat.  Ex.  1862,  Irvine's  Med.  Top. 

Bakmee-gass,  Singh. 

Common  in  the  warmer  parts  of  Ceylon. — 
Thw.  En.  PI.  Zeyl.,  ii,  p.  137. 

NAUCLEA  CORDIFOLIA,  Roxb.,  W.  ^  A. 

Keli  kadam,  Beno. 

U'Nau,  BuKM. 

Hedde,  Can. 







Adumbay,  Tag. 

Munia  cadamba,        Tam. 

Bandaru:  Daduga,      Trl. 

Bettaganapa :  Passupu- 
kadimi  „ 

Paspoo  karami,  Tib. 

Holondho,  Uria. 

This  large  tree  grows  in  the  hot  drier  parts 
of  Ceylon,  and  abundantly  in  the  mountainous 
districts  of  the  peninsula  of  India ;  it  is  a  com- 
mon tree  in  the  coast  forests  of  the  Bombay 
Presidency,  but  never  found  inland, — it  is  get- 
ting scarce  in  Ganjam  and  Gumsur,  it  is  com- 
mon in  the  N.  W.  ProNdnces.     It  is  said  to  be 
a  tree  of  Jubbulpore,  abundant,  and  its  wood 
much  in  request,  being  light  and  easily  worked. 
In  Behar  it  is  common  and  resembles  a  young 
sycamore.    Its  strength  is  not  great,  but  it  is 
lasting  if  ;iot  exposed  to  the  weather.     In  the 
Siwalik  hills  it  yields  a  poor  wood  used  for 
planks,  but  which  quickly  decay.     In  British 
Burmah  it  appears  as  a  large  tree  of  regular 
growth,  but  not  very  common.     Wood  yellow, 
rather  close-grained  :  used  to  make  combs^  may 
be  expected  to  prove  valuable  for  iurniture  ;  it 
decays   when  exposed  to  wet.     In  Granjam  and 
Gumsur,  it  attains  an  extreme  height  of  75  feet 
with  a  circumference  of  7  feet,  the  heijght  from 
the  ground  to  the  first  branch  being  36  feet : 
but,  in  British  Burmah,  in  a  fiill-grown  tree,  on 
good  soil,  the  average  length  of  the  trunk  to  the 
first  branch  is  80  feet,  and  average  girth   mea- 
sured at  6  feet  from  the  ground  is  10  feet,  and, 
there,  a  cubic  foot  weighs  42  lbs.  and  sells  at  12 
annas.     The  wood  is  pretty,  yellow,  rather  close- 
grained,     soft,  and  easily  worked.     In  Coim- 
batore,  it  is  much  used  for  common  purposes 
and  sustains  a  weight  of  320  lbs.     In  the  Bom- 
bay Presidency,  it  is  most  extensively  used  for 
all  purposes  of  planking  in  in-door  work.     The 
timber  deteriorates  from  steeping,  and  therefore 
should  not  be  floated  to  its  destination.     In 
Gumsur  and  Ganjam,  on  account  of  its  size  and 
lightness,  it  is  used  for  boats,  which  are  made 
from  a  single  log  by  simply  scooping  out  the 
inside  and  afterwards  shapening  in  a  rough 
manner.    It  is  also  used  for  the  masts  of  native 
dhoneys,  and  bazar  measures,  and  is  cut  into 

planks  and  made  into  doors,  boxes,  &x:.  It  is 
best  suited  for  work  which  is  sheltered,  bedsteads, 
house  carpentry  furniture,  said  to  be  a  good 
wood  for  model  work,  it  polishes  well,  re- 
sembles box-wood,  and  is  good  for  turning; 
but  it  cracks  and  warpsr.  It  is  used  for 
making  slates  for  scholars  in  native  schools. 
Is  close-gi'ained,  very  durable,  much  employed 
in  building  and  joiner  work,  and  when  var- 
nished looks  very  pretty  being  much  affected  by 
alternations  of  dry  and  wet  weather,  could 
probably  be  qreosoted  with  advantage.  At  one 
time  there  were  great  forests  of  this  tree  in 
Kamaon,  but  these  have  been  thinned.  The 
tree  rises  with  a  clear  stem  of  30  to  40  feet, 
and  has  a  girth  of  6  to  12  feet.  When  grow- 
ing singly  it  throws  out  branches  close  to  the 
ground,  and  gives  support  to  itself  by  pro- 
jecting large  buttresses,  from  the  bole.  Timber 
when  freshly  cut  is  of  a  light  yellow,  turning 
to  a  nut-brown  on  seasoning. — Dr.  J.  L.  Stewart ^ 
p.  116;  Cal.  Cat.  Ex.,lSQ2  ;  Cleghom,  Pmijab 
Report,  Kullu  and  Kangra,  p.  82  ;  Thw.  ; 
Drs.  Wight,  Gibson,  Brandis,  Roxb.,  Uookery 
Him.  Journal,  Vol.  i,  p.  26 ;  Captain  Mac- 
donald,  Cal.  Cat.  Ex.  1862  ;  Madras  Exhibit. ; 
Mr.  Rohde,  MS.  ;  Mr.  Thompson. 

Ringah?  Bingah  ?  .     BuRic.  |  Pungah  ?  Bubm. 

A  wood  of  British  Burmah,  of  a  light  yellow 
colour,  not  much  used  but  may  be  recommended 
for  furniture.  A  cubic  foot  weighs  lbs.  45. 
In  a  full-grown  tree  on  good  soil,  the  average 
length  of  the  trunk  to  the  first  branch  is  60 
feet,  and  average  girth  measured  at  6  feet  irom 
the  ground  is  7-^  feet.  It  sells  at  8  annas  per 
cubic  toot.— 2)r.  Brandis'  Cal.  Cat.  Ex.  1862. 

NAUCLEA  GAMBIR,  Syn.  of  Uncaxia 
gambir,  Roxb. 

NAUCLEA  PAKVIFOLIA,  Roxb.,  W.  ^  A. 

Cephalanthus    piluUfer, 

Kalam ;  Karam,  Pakjab. 

Kaim ;  Keixn, 


Nir  kuddemliay, 

Bota  Kadimi,  „ 

Bottta  kadapa  chettu,    „ 

Buta  kadambe,  „ 

Biita  Karamee,  T^sl, 

Moondo-monde,  Uria  ? 





N.  parviflora,  Pers. 
N.  orientalis,  G<ertn, 

Kalham,  Beas,  Ravi. 

Htein,  Bxtrm. 

Hedoo  mara.  Can. 

Neer  codumbay,  „ 

Yetega,  „ 

Yetegal,  „ 

Kyen,  Hind. 

Phaldoo,  Kamaon. 

Kuddum,  Maiir. 

ThL<)  large  tree  is  found  in  the  western  and 
northern  provinces  of  Ceylon,  in  the  hot,  drier 
parts  of  the  island,  where  its  close-grained  hard 
timber  is  used  for  common  house-building  pur- 
poses. It  weighs  lbs.  42  to  the  cubic  foot  and 
is  calculated  to  last  40  years.  Dr.  Wight, 
writing  in  Coimbatore,  says,  it  has  a  strong 
line  grained  timber,  sustaining  400  lbs.,  and 
yielding  considerable  beajus,  dark-coloured,  but 
soon  rots  if  exposed  to  wet.  From  the  fine- 
ness of  its  grain  it  seema  well  fitted  for  cabinet 
purposes,  and  has  the  advantage  of  being 
easily  worked.     On  the  western  coast  it  is 

N  60 


valued  for  yielding  flooring  planks,  packing 
boxes,  &c.  It  is  mentioned  by  Captain  Mac- 
donald  aa  a  tree  of  Ganjam  and  Gumsur, 
of  extreme  height  60  feet,  circumference  4^ 
feet  and  height  from  the  ground  to  the  inter- 
section of  the  first  branch,  22  feet.  The  wood 
is  used  there,  occasionally  for  beams,  planks, 
&C.,  but  is  not  in  much  request,  and  the  tree 
is  not  rery  plentiful.  In  the  Bombay  Presi- 
dency, it  is  rather  a  common  tree  in  the  coast 
ibrests ;  less  so  inland,  but  is  found  in  quan- 
tities in  the  dells  above  the  ghats ;  the  wood 
is  reddish  coloured,  close-grained,  and  rather 
valuable  for  gun-stocks,  in  the  making  of  which 
it  is  chiefly  used.  That  of  the  Sunda  and  Canara 
forests  is  valued  as  affording  the  best  plank  for 
flooring  of  houses  and  house  be^Uns.  It  is 
found  in  the  Nalla  mallai,  and  is  a  hard,  tough 
wood,  light  red  in  colour  and,  used  there,  for 
yokes,  posts  and  small  beams.  In  British  Bur- 
mah,  a  cubic  foot  weighs  lbs.  43,  and  it  is  used 
for  planking.  In  a  tiiU-grown  tree  on  good  soil 
the  average  length  of  the  trunk  to  the  first 
branch  is  30  feet,  and  average  girth  measured 
at  6  feet  from  the  ground  is  6  feet.  This  tree 
grows  in  the  Philippines  ;  it  grows  to  a  con- 
siderable size,  and  in  some  numbers  in  the 
Siwalik  tract  up  to  the  Beas.  At  Sanpla,  west 
from  Delhi,  there  are  some  hundreds  of  trees 
up  to  10  feet  (one  about  13)  in  girth,  and  50 
or  60  feet  high.  The  leaves  are  given  as 
fodder,  and  might  be  suitable  for  sleepers  if 
impregnated  with  mineral  salt. — Mr,  Mendis, 
Dn.  fVight^  Gihsoriy  Stewart  Cleg,,  Raxh,  and 
Bramdis;  Captain  Macdonald;  Cal.  Cat.  Ex. 
1862;  Mr.  Latham ;  Thw. ;  PoweU. 

K.  triflora,  Moon*B  Cat,    \  N.  purpurse,  Hoxb.y  var, 

A  moderate-sized  tree  of  Ceylon  in  the  Saf- 
fragam  and  contiguous  districts,  up  to  an 
elevation  of  1,000  feet,  not  uncommon  in  the 
Central  Province. — Thw.  Eaum.  PI.  Zeyh^  Vol. 
ii,p.  137. 

tree  of  Ceylon,  one  variety  very  abundant  in 
the  Kokoolcorle.  Another  variety  in  the 
hot,  drier  parts  of  the  island. — Thw.,  Enwn. 
PI.  Zeyh,  Vol.  ii,  p.  137. 


Ma-oo  lettan,  Bubm. 

A  soft  useless  wood  in  British  Bnrmah,  de- 
cays in  less  than  a  year.  Breaking  weight  80 
to  120  lbs.  A  cubic  foot  weighs  22  to  34  lbs. 
In  a  full-grown  tree  on  good  soil  the  average 
length  of  the  trunk  to  the  first  branch  is  100 
feet,  and  average  girth  measured  at  6  feet 
from  the  ground  is  15  feet.  It  sells  at  2  annas 
per  cubic  foot. — Dr.  Brandts,  Cat.  Cat.  Ex. 
of  1862. 

NAUGRATE8,  th^  Pikt-flsh  genus  of  fishes, 



belonging  to  the  family  Scombridae,  which  may 
be  thus  shown : — 

Fam.  16. — Scombridae. 
First  Group. — Scombrina. 
Gen.  12  Soomber,  13  Thynnus,  6  Pelamys,  12 
Auzis,  9  Cybium,  1  Naucrates,  1  Elacae,  10  Eche- 
iieis,  1  Hypsiptera. 

Second  Groxtp. — Nomeina. 
Om.  1  Gasterocliisma,  2  Nomeus,  2  Cubicex)s,  1 
Neptomenus,  1  Platystethus,  1  Ditrema. 
Third  Group. — Cyttina. 
Gm.  6  Zeas,  2  Cyttus,  Oreosoma.    . 

Fourth  Group. — Stromateina. 
Gen.  9  Stromateus,  3  Centrolophus. 

Fifth  Group. — Coryphsenina. 
Gen.  6  Ck>r^'ph8Bna,  4  Brama,  1  Taractes,  4  Pterao- 
lis,  3  Schedopliilus,  1  Diana,  1  Ausonia,  1  Mene,  1 

The  Pilot-fish,  Naucrates  ductor,  usually  ac- 
companies tlie  shark :  its  ordinary  length  is 
from  4  to  8  inches. 

NAUGEI,  HiwD.     Jaaminum  officinale. 

NAUGKX)LOO.  Chicacole  is  the  principal 
civil  station  in  the  Ganjam  district.  It  is  in 
lat.  19°  18'  N.  long.  83°  58'  E.,  abo\it  567 
miles  from  Madras.  It  lies  four  miles  direct 
west  of  the  sea,  and  is  situated  on  the  north 
bank  of  the  river  Naugooloo,  It  is  the  station 
of  the  judge  and  the  sub-collector. 

NAUGULI,  SiND.  Eleusine  coracana,  Gart., 

NAUJA,  Tam.,  Tel.  Soil  where  rice  can 
be  cultivated. 

NAUKRA  BAG,  Beno.    Hyaena. 

NAUNGOO,  Tam.  A  wood  of  Tinnevelly,  of 
a  red  colour,  specific  gravity  1*009.  Used  for 
building,  wheel-wrights'  work,  handspikes. — 
Colonel  Frith. 

NAUPATTI  (?)  Hun).  A  banker  of  the 
highest  caste,  a   mahajan. 

NAU-RATN,  Hdjd.  •  Nine  gems,'  an  orna- 
ment worn  in  the  arm,  which  indicates  the  only 
jewels  that  are  esteemed  as  precious,  they  are 
— diamond,  ruby,  emerald,  sapphire,  topaz, 
pearls,  coral,  turkis,  tansala.  The  others,  and 
also  the  inferior  gems,  agates,  blood^stone, 
&c.,  are  mostly  in  use  for  signet  rings,  in 
the  art  of  engraving  which  natives  of  India  are 
extremely  skilful. 

NAU  RATRI,  a  hindoo  festival  lasting  nine 
days,  three  of  them  in  honour  of  Saraswati 
and  six  for  Siva's  consort. 

NAUREI,  Tam.  Eugenia  caryophyllifolia, 
Roxb.,  W.  le. 

NAURIA,  Hind.  A  class  of  merchants 
trading  with  the  Panjab  from  the  south  coun- 
try, &c. 

NAURVEALY,  Tam.  A  Ceylon  tree  which 
grows  to  about  twenty  inches  in  <£ameter, 
and  fifteen  feet  in  height.  It  produces  a  small 
red  fruit  of  a  very  glutinous  nature,  much 
esteemed  by  the  natives  of  Malabar.  From 
the  bark  a  kind  of  cordage  is  made,  which  is 

N  61 


used  for  the  purposes  required  in  the  hills,  and 
in  the  conveyance  of  timber,  &c.  This  seems 
to  be  the  Narwali  or  Narvali  tree,  Cordia 
angustifolia ;  ropes  are  made  of  the  fibres. — 
Edye^  Ceylon ;  M,  E. 

NAUSHADAR, Hind.  Sal-ammoniac; chlo- 
ride of  ammonium. 

NAUSHADAR-KANI,  Hind.  An  artificial 
bi-flulphuret  of  arsenic. 

NAUTCH,  Hnrn.  A  dance,  a  Hindustani 
nautch-girl  does  not  dance  like  Taglioniand 
Cerito,  but  by  a  movement  of  women's  feet  to 
music.  The  dancing  of  nautch-girls  on  public 
occasions  is  always  decorous.  They  are  to 
a  European  dreary,  not  only  not  graceful  but 
monotonous,  wearisome. — Kay£i  Christianity 
in  India,  p.  309. 

NAUTILID^,  a  family  of  cephalopod- 
ous  molluscs  ;  according  to  Liamarck,  they 
constitute  the  sixth  family  of  his  Poly thalamous 
cephalopoda,  consisting  of  the  genera,  Dis- 
corbites,  Siderolites,  Polystomella,  Vorticialis, 
Niunmulites,  and  Nautilus.  To  these,  Mr.  6.  B. 
Sowerby,  jun.,  adds  Simplegas  and  Endosi- 
phonites.  In  the  system  of  M.  DeBlainvUle  it 
is  the  fifth  family  of  his  Polythalamacea,  and 
comprises  the  genera  Orbulites,  Nautilus,  Poly- 
stomella, and  Lenticulina.  The  genus  Nautilus 
is  the  type  of  this  family.  The  species  inhabit 
the  seas  of  warm  climates,  especially  those  of 
Asia  and  Africa,  and  their  islands,  Amboyna, 
Zanzibar,  and  New  Guinea ;  and  the  Pacific  and 
Australian  Oceans.  The  position  of  Nautili 
amongst  the  Cephalopod  may  be  thus  shown  : 

Class  I. — Cephalopoda  Cepbalopods. 

Ordisr  I. — IHbranchiata. 

Section  A.— Octopoda. 

Family  I.— Argonautidso. 

G£Nus.    Argonauta,  Argonaut  or  paper  sailor  ; 

recent,  4  ep.,  fossil  1  sp.,  Syn.  octhoe,  nautilus. 

Family  II,— Octopodidse. 

Qekeba.    Octopus,  rec.  46  sp.  Syn.  cistopus. 

Svh-genus,    fmmoctopus,  rec.  2  sp. 

Piimoctopus,  Finned  octopus,  rec.  1  sp.  P. 

Eledone,  rec.  2  species. 
Cirroteuthis,  rec.  1  species  C.  MuUeri. 
Philonezis,  rec.  6  species. 

Section  B.— Decapoda. 
Family  III. — ^Teuthidsd.  Calamaries,  or  Squids. 
Sub-family  A. — Myopsid^.   Eyes  covered  by  the 
Grneba.  Loligo,  Calamaiy,  rec.  21  sp.    Syn. 
Subgenus,  Teudopis,  fossil,  5  sp. 
Gonatus,  rec.  1  species ;  G.  anusna. 
Sepioteuthis,  rec.  13  sp. 
Beloteuthis,  fosedl,  6  sp. 
Geoteuthis,  fossil,  9  sp.  Syn.  belemnosepia. 
Crancbia,  rec*  2  sp. 
Sepiola,  rec.  6  sp. 
Suh^eTms  Bossia,  rec.  6  sp. 
Sub-family  B.—Oigopsidse.    Eyes  naked. 
Loli^opsis,  rec.  o  sp. 
Cheuroteuthis,  rec  2  sp. 
Histioteuthis,  rec.  2  sp. 

52  N 


Onychoteuthis.  Uncinated  calamary,  rec.  6 
sp.  Syn.  andstroteuthis,  onychia. 

Enoploteuthis.  Armed  calamary,  lec  10  sp. 
Syn.  andstrochirus  and  abraua,  octopodo- 

Ommastiepbes.   Sagittated   calamary,   rec. 

14  8pw 

Family  IV.— Belemnitidse. 
Genera.  Belemnites,  fossil,  100  sp. 

The  belemnites  have  been  divided  into  gproupe 
by  the  presence  and  position  of  farrows 
in  the  surface  of  the  guard. 
Section  I.— AccdIl 
Sub-Section  1.    Acuarii,  20  sp. 
2.    Clavati,  8  sp. 
Section  II.-^GastaroocBli. 
Sub-Section  1.    Canalicalati,  5  sp. 
2.    Hastati.  19  sp. 
Section  III.— >otoc<Bli,98p. 
Belenmitella,  fossil,  5  sp. 
Acanthoteuthis,  fossil.  Syn.  kehsno. 
Belemnoteuthis,  recent,  also  fossil. 
Conoteuthis,  fossil. 

Family  V.— Sepiadao. 
Geneba.  Sepia,  rec.  30  sp.,  fossil,  5  sp.  Syn.  belo- 
Spinilirostra,  fossil, 
fieloptera,  fossil,  2  sp. 
Belemnosis,  fossil. 

Family  VI.— Spirulidw. 
Genus.  Spirula,  rec  3  sp. 

Obdeb  II. — Tetrabranchiata. 
Family  I.— NautilidsB. 
Genfjeia.  Nautilus,  rec.  2  or  4  sp.  fossil,  100  sp. 
Subgenera.  Aturia,  fossil,  4  sp. 
?  Discites,  fossil. 
Tenmocbeilus,  fossil. 
Cryptoceras,  fossil. 
Lituitee,  fossil,  15  sp.  Syn.  hortoloa 

Trochooeras,  fossil,  16  sp. 
Clymenia,  fossil,  43  sp. 
Family  II.— OrthoceratidsB. 
Geneba.  Orthoceras,  fossil,  125  sp.  Syn.  gonio- 
ceras,  cycloceras. 
Subgenera,  Cameroceras,  fossil,  27  sp. 
Actinoceras,  fossil,  6  sp. 
Ormoceras,  fossil,  3  sp. 
Huronia,  fossil,  3  sp. 
Endoceras,  fossil,  12  sp. 
Gomphoceras,  fossil,  10  sp.  £fyn.  apiooeras, 

Oncoceras,  fossil,  3  sp. 
Phragmoceras,  fossil,  8  sp. 
Crytoceras,  fosbil,  36  sp.  Syn.  c^mpulites, 

Gyrooeras,  fossil,  17  sp.  Syn.  nautilooeras. 
Ascoceras,  fossil,  7  sp. 

Family  III.— Ammonitid«. 
Geneba.  Goniatites,  fossil,  150  sp. 
Bactrites,  fossil,  ^  sp. 
Ceratites,  fossil,  25  sp. 
Ammonites,  fossil,  5o0  sp. 
Crioceras,  fossil,  9  ^.  Syn,  tropnum. 
Tozoceras,  fossil,  19  sp. 
Ancyloceras,  fossil,  38  sp. 
Scaphites,  fossil,  17  sp. 
Hehcocera& fosmLll  sp. 
Turrilites,  fossil,  27  sp. 
Hamites,  fossil,  58  sp. 
Ptychoceras,  fossil,  7  sp. 
Baculites,  fossil,  11  sp. 
The  Paper  nautilus  is  one  of  the  Aigfmauta. 




The   Naatilus  Pompilius,  or  Pearly  nautilus, 
occurs  at  Amboyna. 

NAUTILUS,  a  genus  of  molluscs  of  the 
£uiiilj  Nautilidse, 

Light  as  a  flake  of  foam  upon  the  wind, 
Keel  upward,  horn  the  deep  emerged  a  shell. 
The  native  pilot  of  this  tittle  barque, 
Pats  out  a  tier  of  oars  on  either  side ; 
Spnadfl  to  the  wafting  breeze  a  two-fold  sail, 
And  mounted  up  and  glided  down  the  billow. 


NAVACHARUM,  Tam.  Sal  ammoniac, 
Iforiate  of  ammonia. 


NAVA-KHANDA,  or  Nine-divisions,  is  the 
title  of  an  account  of  India,  which  was  first  des- 
cribed by  the  astronomers  Parasara  and  Varaha- 
Mihira,  although  it  was  probably  older  than  their 
time,  and  was  afterwards  adopted  by  the 
aathors  of  several  of  the  Puranas.  According 
to  this  arrangement,  Panchala  was  the  chief 
district  of  the  central  division,  Magadha  of  the 
tfist,  Kalinga  of  the  south-east,  Avanta  of  the 
ssuUi,  Anarta  of  the  south-west,  Sindhu-Sau- 
vira  ^  the  west,  Harahaura  of  the  north-west, 
Madra  of  the  north,  and  Kauninda  of  the  north- 
east. The  division  of  India  into  five  great  pro- 
vinces would  appear  to  have  been  the  most 
popular  one  during  the  early  centuries  of  the 
christian  era,  as  it  was  adopted  by  the  Chinese 
pilgrims,  and  firom  them  by  all  Chinese  writers. 
According  to  the  Vishnu  Purana,  the  centre 
was  occupied  by  the  Kuru  and  Panchala,  in 
the  east  was  Kamarupa,  or  Assam ;  in  the  south 
were  the  Pundua,  KaUnga  and  Magadha,  in 
the  west  were  the  Sura^tra,  Sura,  Abhira, 
Arbuda,  Karuaha,  Malava,  Sauvira  and  Saind- 
hava,  and  in  the  north  the  Huna,  Salwa,  Sar- 
kala,  Bama»  Ambashta  and  Parasika. — Cunr- 
nmffham^  Jndeni  €f€og.  cf  India,  pp,  5,  7. 

NAVAKIRE,  near  Pootoor,  21  miles  from 
izSasLf  in  Ceylon,  is  a  remarkable  well  which 
rises  and  &Us  once  every  twelve  hours  and 
retains  the  same  quantity  of  water  however 
drawn.     It  is  aUuded  to  in  Sinbad's  travels. 

NAVA  MALIKA,  Tel.  Jasminum  sambac, 
var.  fi,  duplex. 

NAVANAGGAR,  see  Kattyawar. 

NAVANAY,  Qks.  Setaria  italica,  Itahan 
miUet;  it  is  grown  in  very  few  places  in  Mysore, 
and  serves  as  food  for  poor  people. — M,  E. 

NAVANDGARH,  or  Naondgarh,  is  a  ruined 
fert  fimn  250  to  300  feet  square  at  top  and  80 
feet  in  height.  It  is  situated  close  to  the  large 
village  of  Lauriya,  15  miles  to  the  N.  N.  W.  of 
Bettiah,  and  10  miles  from  the  nearest  point  of 
the  Gandak  river.  The  ancient  remains  con- 
sist of  a  handsome  stone-pillar,  surmounted  by 
a  ban  and  inscribed  withAsoka's  edicts,  and 
of  three  rows  of  earthen  barrows  or  conical 
Boimda  of  earth,  of  which  two  rows  lie  from 



north  to  south,  and  the  third  from  east  to  west. 
The  stupas  usually  met  with  are  built  either 
of    stone    or    of    brick;    but    the    earliest 
stupas  were  mere  mounds  of  earth,  of  which 
these  are  the  mofit  remarkable  specimens  that 
General  Cunningham  had  seen.     He  believes 
that  they  are  the  sepulchral  monuments  of  the 
early  kings  of  the  country  prior  to  the  rise  of 
buddhism,  and  that  their  date  may  be  assumed  ^ 
as  ranging  from  600  to  1500  b.c.     Every  one 
of  these   barrows  is  called  simply  bhisa,   or 
"  mound,"  but  the  whole  are  said  to  have  been 
the  kotd  or  fortified  dwellings  of  the  ministers 
and  nobles  of  raja  Uttanpat,  while  the  fort  of 
Navandgarh  was  the  king's  own  residence.  The 
word  stupa  meant  originally  cmly  a  "  mound  of 
earth,"  and  this  is  the  meaning  given  to  it  by 
Colebrooke,  in  his  translation  of  the  '  Amara 
Kosha/    The  author  of  the  Ceylonese  *  Attha- 
katha'  explains  that  they  are  yakhatthanani, 
or  edifices  belonging  to  Yakha,  or  demon-wor- 
ship.   The  Yakha  in   Sanskrit,  Yaksha  and 
Jaksha    were  the  attendants  of  Kuvera,  the 
God  of 'Riches,  and  the  guardians  of  his  trea- 
sures, and  their  chief  residence  was   called 
A  lakapura.     Somewhere  in  the  neighbourhood 
of  the  Gandak  there  was  a  city  named  Ala- 
kappo,  inhabited  by  a  people  named  Balaya  or 
Buluka  who   obtsdned  a  share  of  Buddha's 
relics. — CunningJiam,  Ancient  Oeog,  of  Iiidia, 
pp,  448,  450. 

NAVARA  CHETTU,  also  Navili  chettu, 
Tel.  Ulmus  integrifolia,  22.  ii,  68  ;  Cor,  78. 
Holopetala  integrifolia,  Planch/yii,  W,  Ic.  1968. 
Roxb.  calls  it  Nali,  it  is  also  pronounced  Nemali 
or  Namali  by  the  mountaineers. 

NAVARATRICAM,  Tam.  See  Kali,  Nava- 
ratri,  Nau-ratri. 

NAY  ARIA,  Mal.  Setaria  italica,  Italian 

NAVASARAM,  Tel.  Hydrochlorate  of 

N AVELLU  M ARAM,  Tam.  A  Malabar  tree 
which  signifies  "  tongue-wood."  It  grows  to 
about  fifteen  inches  in  diameter,  and  twenty 
feet  high  :  it  is  considered  a  strong  and  durable 
wood,  and  more  particularly  so  under  water. 
The  native  carpenters  prefer  it  for  the  frames 
of  small  vessels  in  consequence  of  its  strength 
and  durability. — Edye,  Forests  of  Malabar  and 

NAVICELLA,  a  genus  of  Molluscs;  see 
Mollusca,  Neritidae. 

NAVILE— ?  Oil  seeds  of  Bassia  latifolia. 

NAVILI,  Tbl.     Ulmus  integrifolia,  Baxh, 

NAVILI  JUTTU,  or  Mayura  sikhi,  Tbl. 
Actinopteris  radiata,  lit.  "  Peacock's  crest." 

NAVIS,  Pbbs.  Writing,  Khush-navis,  a  good 
penman,  W, 

NAVURU,  or  Nagaru,  Tbl.  Premna  tomen- 
tosa,  Willd,,  R.  iii,  76,  W.  Ic.  1468. 

N  53 

NAVY,  during  the  rule  of  the  English 
East  India  Company,  the  first  application 
of  ships  in  war  was  to  suppress  pii'acy  along 
the  coast  of  Malabar.  The  fteet  was  named 
the  Bombay  marine,  but  ftbout  1S33  was 
'    >  the  Indiui  Navy.     In  1850,  the 

fleet  w 

Suling  VemeU. 










ShcBmah,  (PattBlnar.) 

Pownah,  <Pftttftmar,)    

M..rgMet;  Yacht,    ,!!    


Maldiva,  (Surveying  Tender,)    

Cudivu,  (Survejing  Tender,)     











NAWA,  AxB.  Arenga  sacdiarifera,  LabUl. 
The  Gomnti  palm  tree. 

NAWAB,  Ab.  plural  of  naib,  a  soTereign, 
a  viceroy,  corrnptly  Nabob,  also  the  highest 
title  under  a  mahomedtin  sovereign  in  India. 
The  mahomedan  titular  distinctions  are  Baha^ 
dur,  Khan,  Dowla,  Umra,  Jah,  Nawab. 

54  N 


NAWAB  GANJ.  the  battle  of  Nawabganj, 
in  Oudh,  occurred  on  the  14th  June  1858. 

NAWAB  NADDI,  a  small  river  in  the 
Bareilly  district. 

NAWAIT,  Hind.,  lU.  new  comers,  a  body  of 
mohamedans  of  a  fair  xanthous  colour.  They 
seem  to  be  Persians,  but  the  moliamedans  of 
southern  India  describe  them  as  descendants  from 
some  citizens  of  Medina  who  attempted  to  carry 
off  the  corpse  of  Mohammed,  and  were  therelbVc 
exiled  and  driven  from  city  to  city. — Qaiu>on-i- 
Islam,     See  Nau-ait,  Mahomedan. 

N,4WAE,  HuTD.,  of  Spiti,  muatard  seed. 

NAWEL,  Hind.,  Syzygium  jambolftomn. 

NAWEL  BUSI  ERAGU,  TvL.  Vitei  arbo- 
rea,  Rox-b.,  liheede. 

N  A  WEL  MARAM,  Ta».  Calyptranthescaryo- 
phyllifolia,  Eugenia  caryophyllifclia,  the  Syzy- 
gium  jambolanura,  WiUd,  Sviarlz,  Roxb.,  W.Ie. 
Nawel  PuUum,  Tui,  Fruit  of  Caiyptranthes 
caryophyllifolia.  Nawel  Wood,  Amolo-Tax. 
Wood  of  Eugenia  caryophyllifolia,  Caiyptran- 
thes caryophyllifolia. 

NAWLEE  EKAGQ,  Tat.  Vitex  arborea, 
Roxh.,  Bhetde. 

NAWLEE,  Tel.  Uhnus  integrifolia  SoaA. 

NAW-MARAM,  or  Nagoo  maram,  Ptero- 
carpus,  species,  a  very  strong  and  durable  wood, 
common  on  the  lower  elevations  of  the  Nailgher- 
ries  :  an  ordinary  sized  tree. — Melvor,  M.  E. 

NAWaOZ,Pi»s.  New  year's  day.  Jemahid'e 
institution  of  that  festival  is  placed  by  Sir  Wil- 
liam Jones  at  eight  hTindred,  and  by  BaiUyand 
D'Hancarville  at  three  thousand  two  hundred 
years  before  the  christian  era.  If  one  was  too 
sparing  of  centuries  in  his  calculation,  the 
others  appear  extravagantly  profuse  In  theirs. 
— Joaeg's  Shmi  Hitt.  of  Persia ;  Outdey't 
Travels,  Vol.  i,  p.  225.     See  Nau-riz. 

NAXOS  EMERY,  is  regarded  as  granular  or 
amorplious  corundum  coloured  with  iron,  and 
is  not  known  to  occur  in  India,  where  corun- 
dum is  used  by  the  people  in  its  place.  It  is 
principally  imparted  into  Britain  irom  the 
island  of  Naxos  in  the  Grecian  Archipelago, 
and  was  found  by  Mr.  Smithson  Tennant  to 
consist  of  Alumina  86,  Silica  3,  Oxide  of  Iron  4, 
total  93. 

NAYADI,  corruptly  N^ade,  Mai..  An  oat- 
caste  tribe,  found  only  in  the  northern  parts  of 
Cochin.  They  are  the  most  degraded  of  all  tho 
low  tribes. 

NAYAKA,  this  is  an  honorific  appellation, 
used  amongst  most  of  the  races  in  the  south 
of  India,  under  the  pronunciations  Naik,  Nai- 
kan,  and  in  the  plural  Naidu.  It  is  also  in 
use  in  the  native  army  of  British  India  as  tho 
designation  of  a  non-commissioned  officer  equi- 
valent to  a  corporal. 

NAYARAH,  gee  Polyandry. 

NAYAKU  PONNA.  or  Muyyaku  ponna. 



Tel.    Paeudarthria  viscida,   W.  and  A,,   pro- 
bably an  erroneous  form  of  Muyyaku,  q.  v. 

NAYA  KUEOONDU,   Singh.    Cinnamon. 

NAYALU,   HiKD.  In  Spiti,  an  astringent 
rood  or  twigs  used  in  dyeing. 

NAY  AN  A  PAL  A,  see  Inscriptions. 

NAYAV AYLIE—  ?  Polanisia  icosandra, 

NAY-KYAT-HGYING,  Burm.   EcUpse  of 
the  sun. 

NAY  NAMPA,  also  Pynaru,  Can.  Mesua 

NAYLA-TUNGADU,  also  Nila  Ponna,  Tel. 

NA-YOO-GA,  BuBJC.  A  Tenasserim  wood, 
of  maximum  girth  3  cubits,  and  maximum 
length  22  feet.  Scarce,  but  found  all  over  the 
Tenasserim  provinces.  When  seasoned  it  floats 
in  water.  It  is  a  durable,  tolerably  good  wood 
with  a  curled  grain  ;  used  by  Burmese  for  oars, 
much  like  English  oak  in  appearance,  but 
deficient  in  tenacity.  It  is  scarce,  and  equally 
good  woods  are  abundant. — Captain  Dance, 

NAYOOTA,  or  Mxmja,  i.  «.,  presents  car- 
cried  in  state,  a  mahomedan  ceremony. 

NAYOR,  Bbkg.     Cicca  indica,    W.  and  A, 

ton  oil. 

NAYPALUM  VITTILU,  Tel.  Croton  seed. 

NAZAR,  Ah.,  Hind.,  Pees,  A  present,  a 
fine  or  fee  paid  to  the  state. 

NAZAEETH,  or  Nassara,  as  it  is  now 
called,  a  small  town  six  miles  west  from  Mount 
Tabor.  It  is  situated  at  the  western  slope  of  a 
delightful  valley,  encompassed  by  rocky  moun- 
tains of  no  great  height,  but  meeting  together, 
aa  it  were,  to  guard  it  from  intrusion.  Within 
this  aecluded  enclosure,  all  smiling  and  verdant, 
Christ  was  conceived.  Here  he  returned  at  an 
early  age,  and  passed  the  days  of  liis  youth. 
So  certain  are  these  facts  in  a  historical  point 
of  view,  that  to  this  day  throughout  the .  east, 
those  who  believe  in  the  divinity  of  his  mission 
are  called  by  way  of  derision  Nazerani,  or 
Naasra,  meaning  followers  of  the  man  of 
Nazarelii. — Rdbin$ovLS  Travels  in  Palestine  and 
Syria^  Vol.  i,  p^  209 ;  De  Syria  ;  Morier's  Se- 
emed Journey,  p,  109. 

NAZARITE,  Numbers,  vi.  18,  *  the  Naza- 
lite  shall  shave  the  head.'  Thehindoos  after 
a  vow,  cease  to  cut  their  hair  during  the  term 
of  the  vow ;  at  the  expiration  of  which  time  they 
ihave  it  oS,  at  the  place  where  the  vow  was 
made.  It  is  a  very  ancient  form  of  votive 
dSaiag.  Acts,  xviii,  18.  Cenchrea  vr.OA  a 
pQft  on  the  east  side  of  the  Isthmus  of  Corinth, 
oppc^te  to  the  Lecheum,  another  port  on  the 
vest.  Here  a  christian  church  was  planted 
bj  Paul ;  for  we  find  him  commending  Phoebe 
to  the  r^arda  of  the  Koman  believers,  as  a 
servant  of  the  church  which  is  at  Cenchrea. 
(Eoob,  xxi,  1')    By  this  pious  female  he  sent 


from   Corinth   his  epistle  to  the  Romans.     It 
has  been  a  subject  of  much  dispute,  whether 
it  was  Paul  who  shaved  his  head,  or  Aquila. 
Chrysostom,  Isidore  of  Seville,  Grotius,  Ham- 
mond,   Zegerus,   Erasmus,   Baronius,   Pearce, 
and  Wesley,  refer  the  vow  to  Aquila ;  while 
Jerome,  Augustine,  Bede,  Calmet,  Doddand 
KosenmuUer,  attribute  it  to  Paul.     The  latter 
opinion  is  the   more  proljable.     The  .^thiopic 
and  the  Latin  versions   refer  the  vow  to  both, 
reading  they  shaved,  instead  of  having  shaved, 
perhaps  on  account  of  the  difficulty  of  deciding. 
It  is    probable     that    Paul  had     become  a 
Nazargeus    votivus,    and,    consequently,    had 
bound  himself  to  observe  the  law  of  the  Naza- 
rites  for  a  certain  time.    The  Nazarsei  votivi 
(Num.,  vi,)  were  required  to  abstain  from  wine, 
grapes,  and  all  inebriating  liquors,  during  the 
time  of  their  separation.     They  were  also  to 
let  their  hair   grow  without  cutting,  till  the 
days  of  their  vow  were  lulfilled ;  then  it  was 
to  be  shaved  off,  and  the  appointed  sacrifice  to 
be  offered  in  the  temple.     From  this  practice  of 
the  Je\vish  Nazarites,  the  heathens  probably 
derived    their    custom    of  consecrating   their 
hair,  in  times  of  danger,   &c.,  to  their  divi- 
nities, which  Lucian  represents  as  of  frequent 
occurrence,  and  with  which  he  himself  had 
complied.      The    emperor   Nero    is   said,  by 
Suetonius,  to  have  cut  off  his  first  beard,  and 
to   have    devoted   it    to   Jupiter   Capitolinus, 
placing  it  in  a  golden  box,  set  with  jewels. 
Nazaritisra  was  partly  a  religious  institution, 
and    partly     civil   and  prudential.     Its   laws 
were  promotive  of  the  strictest  sanctity,  and 
calculated  to  preserve  the  health,  sobriety,  and 
temperance   of  the   community.     Hence,   we 
read,  "  her  Nazarites  were  purer  than  snow, 
they  were  whiter  than  milk."     (Lam.  iv,   7.) 
Samson,  Samuel,  John  the  Baptist,  and,  ac- 
cording to   tlie   rabbins,    Absolom  were  Na- 
zarites, and  Joseph  is  said  to  have  been  nazir 
echaiv,  which  we  translate,  "separated  from 
his  brethren,"  but  which  the  Vulgate  renders 
**  Nazaraji  inter  fratres  sues."   Persons  recover- 
ing from  sickness,  or  preserved  from  danger, 
frequently  took  upon   them  the  vow  ;  and  it  is 
probable,   tliat    Paul    had    experienced  some 
deliverance  on  this  occasion,  which  the  histo- 
rian has  not  narrated.     At  the  present  time  in 
Persia,  if  a  child  be  sick,  the  mother  frequent- 
ly makes  a  vow,  that  the  razor  shall  not  come 
upon  his  head  for  a  certain  time,  and  some- 
times for  life,  as  in  Sam,  i,  11.     When  the 
time  that  is  limited  expires,  the  child's  head  is 
shaved,  money  is  collected  from  the  relatives, 
and  sent  as   nazr  or  offerings  to  the   mosque, 
and  consecrated.      Homer  spea^  of  parents 
dedicating  to.  some  deity,  the  hair  of  their  child- 
ren which  was  cut  off  when    they  came  to 
manhood,  and  consecrated  to  the  gods.  Achilles 





cut  off  his  golden  locks  at  the  funeral  of  Par 
troclufl,  and  threw  them  into  the  river,  his 
father  having  dedicated  them  to  the  river-god 
Sperchiiis.  In  the  South  of  India,  at  the  sacred 
hill  of  Tripaty,  thousands  of  both  sexes  annually 
cut  off  their  hair,  and  leave  it  as  a  votive 
o^ering. — Milner's  Seven  Churches  of  Asia, 
j3»p.  110-111 ;  Iliady  Vol,  xxiii,  p,  149,  4"^.; 
JSncsid,  Vol.  i,  p.  698. 

NAZIM,  Ar.,  Hdtd.  a  supervising  ser\'ant, 
a  mahomedan  official  name  for  a  eunuch. 
Jeipoor  and  Boondi  are  the  only  two  of  the  Raj- 
poot principalities  who,  adopting  the  mahome- 
dan custom,  have  contaminated  the  palaces  of 
their  queens  with  the  presence  of  thesecrea- 
tures. —  W.x  Tod's  Rajauthan,  Vol,  ii,  p.  382. 

NAZIR  JUNG  succeeded  Nizam-ul-mulk  in 
the  Dekhan  and  gave  to  Mahomed  Ali  the 
title  of  Nabob  of  the  Camatic. 

NAZM,  Ar.,  Hind.,  Pebs.  Order,  arrange- 
ment :  poetry,  as  distinguished  from  Nasr, 
prose. —  Wlls, 

NAZR,  an  offering  from  an  inferior  to  a 
superior,  a  present,  a  sight,  a  look  :  it  is  the 
present  sent  before  as  in  the  time  of  (Gen., 
xxxii,  18)  Jacob  and  Esau,  when  the  servants 
said  it  is  a  present  sent  unto  my  Lord  Esau. 
I.  Samuel,  ix,  7.  Then  said  Saul  to  his  servant, 
"  But  behold,  if  we  go,  what  shall  we  bring  the 
man  ?  for  the  bread  is  spent  in  our  vessels,  and 
there  is  not  a  present  to  bring  to  the  man  of 
God  :  what  have  we  ?"  It  is  very  common  in 
British  India  for  a  person,  who  is  desirous  of 
asking  a  favour  from  a  superior,  to  take  a 
present  of  fruits,  or  sweetmeats  in  his  hand. 
If  not  accepted,  the  feelings  of  the  offerer 
are  greatly  wounded.  The  making  of  presents 
to  appease  a  superior  is  also  very  common. 
There  are  periodical  occasions  in  Persia, 
at  which  all  who  are  admitted  to  stand  in 
the  presence  of  its  monarch  are  expected 
to  appear  before  him  with  a  present.  Of 
these,  the  chief  is  the  No-Roz,  or  new  year, 
which  occurs  about  the  end  of  March  or  be- 
ginning of  April.  Plural  Nazrana,  taxes  or 
presents. — Fraser^s  Journey  into  Khorasan,  p, 

NAZUC,  Hind.     Zizyphus  jujuba. 

NAZUL,  Hind.  Property  belonging  to  Grov- 
emment  usually  in  charge  of  District  Local 
Fund  Committees,  the  property  is  chiefly 
houses,  gardens,  or  plots  of  land  in  cities.  In 
the  Panjab  the  various  nazul  gardens,  (i.  e.. 
Government  property)  are  generally  planted 
with  mangoes,  as  weU  as  other  trees ;  and  the 
right  to  sell  the  fruit  is  sold  on  contract  by 
auction  at  the  beginning  of  the  season ;  the  pro- 
perty of  a  large  garden  like  that  of  ShaU- 
mar,  at  Lahore,  is  something  very  considerable. 
—PoweU,  p.  279. 

NBUBAY,  Bu&sc.     A  Burmese  wood,  one  of 



the  Anacardiaceas,  has  a  dense  wood,  but  brittle. 
— Major  BeMon, 

NDALO —  ?    Colocasia  macrorrhiza.' 

NE,  Hind.     Hordeum  hexastichum. 

NE  AGAM,  Egtpt.  Achyranthes  aspera,  Linn . 

NEAMAH,  also  Tir-ud-jammel,  Arab.  The 
ostrich.  See  Struthionidae. 

NEARA —  ?  Cocoa-nut  palm. 

NEARCHUS,  the  general  whom  Alexander 
the  Great  commissioned  to  survey  the  Southern 
Asiatic  coast  from  the  mouth  of  the  Indus  to 
that  of  the  Tigris.  He  sailed  along  the  coast. — 
ImL  in  15th  Cent.  See  Inscriptions,  Kishni 

NEATS  FOOT  OIL,  used  as  a  softener  of 
leather,  &c.,  &c.  See  Oil. 

NEBBE,  Ar.     A  prophet. 

NEBEDE,  Singh.  A  Ceylon  wood,  used 
for  common  house-building  purposes.  The  tree 
grows  in  the  southern  and  western  parts  of 
the  island.  A  cubic  foot  weighs  51  lbs.,  and  it 
is  esteemed  to  last  20  years. — Mr.  Mendis. 

NEBKH,  Ar.  Rhamnus  nabeca. 

NEBONG,  a  Penang  wood  of  a  dark  colour. 
It  is  from  a  tall  and  thin,  but  straight  tree ; 
used  for  railings.  See  Nibong. 

NEBOO,  BsNo.     Citrus  acida,  acid  lime. 

NEBUCHADNEZZAR,  king  of  Babylon,  de- 
feated Nechao  II,  near  Kar-cheitiish  b.  c.  605 
while  crown  prince :  he  burned  and  pillaged  the 
palace  and  temple  of  Jerusalem,  b.  c.  586,  Jeru- 
salem razed,  Zedekiah's  children  slain  and  his 
eyes  then  put  out.  He  died  b.  c.  563.  The 
name  of  Nebuchadnezzar  is  written  in  many 
ways  in  the  Bisutun  inscription,  we  have  Na- 
bokhodrossor,  Nabukhadrachar,  and  Nabukhu- 
drachar.  In  pure  Babylonian  inscriptions  it 
undergoes  even  more  numerous  changes.  In 
Daniel  he  is  called  Nebuchadnezzar  or  Nabu- 
chodonosor,  in  Ezekiel  (ch.  xxvi,  v.  7)  tlie 
name  is  written  Nebuchadrezzar.  The  first 
component  of  the  word,  Nebo,  was  the  name 
of  a  Babylonian  divinity.  (Isaiaih,  ch.  xlvi,  t. 
1.)  The  interchanges  which  take  place  in 
consonants  is  shown  by  the  names  of  several 
Babylonian  kings,  as  given  by  the  Greeks; 
thus,  the  Labunitus  of  Herodotus  is  called 
Nabunidus  by  Berosus. — Layards  Nin&ifeh^ 
Vol.  ii,  p.  177  ;  Bunsen.  See  Kranganore, 

NECHA,  HiNB.  A  pipe  of  a  hooka  or  of  a 
still.     Necha-Changhani  is  a  kind  of  hooka. 

NECHETTY  KALUNG,  Tam,  Isoetescoro- 

NECHO,  a  king  of  Egypt  who  reigned  about 
600  years  b.  c.  He  was  desirous  of  joining  the 
Red  Sea  with  the  Mediterranean.  He  is  also 
said  to  have  commanded  some  Phoenicians  to 
sail  from  the  Red  Sea  to  the  Mediterranean, 
round  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope — a  voyage  which 
they  accomplished  in  two  yean.    Ifti^ePho^- 




oidaiiB  really  did  complete  the  voyage,  which 
is  by  no  neans  improbable,  they  anticipated 
die  discovery  made  by  the  Portuguese  about 
2,000  years  afterwards !  In  any  case,  it  is 
apparent  that  the  king  was  in  those  days  fully 
afire  to  the  advantages  of  the  trade  from  the 
EsbL  About  100  years  later,  Egypt  fell  under 
the  kings  of  Persia,  and  Darius  determined 
upon  completing  the  projects  of  Sesostris  and 
Neeho  by  digging  a  canal  between  the  Red 
Sea  and  £he  Nile ;  but  being  assured  by  the 
engineers  of  the  period  that  the  Red  Sea  was 
hi^er  than  the  Nile,  and  that  its  salt  water 
woold  overflow  and  ruin  the  whole  land  of 
Egypt,  he  abandoned  his  purpose. 

NECKLACE.  Necklaces  of  the  precious  me- 
tals, of  shells,  seeds,  Slc.,  are  worn  by  all  races 
of  British  India,  by  men  and  women  amongst 
hindoos,  by  women  amongst  mahomedans,  but 
no  mahomedan  man  wears  such, 

of  Ceylon.     See  Birds. 

NECTOPODA,  see  Carinaria,  Molluscs. 

NEDEL  AMPEL,  Tam.,  Mal.  Villarsia  in- 
dica,  Vent. 

NEDJD,  a  district  of  Arabia.     See  Nejed. 

NEDON,  SnTGH.  Dalbergia  lanceolaria,  L.  fil. 

NEDSITU,  Tax.    Vemonia  cinerea,  Less. 

NEDUM  SCHETTI,  Malbal.  Memecylon 

NEEBRUNG,  see  Kunawar. 




8ai,  Qvz^  Hi2a>.  I  wusigai 

Jarom,  Mal.  |  Suduni, 

Needles  are  made  fix)m  th^  best  steel,  re- 
duced by  a  wire-drawing  machine  to  a  suitable 
diameter.  The  construction  of  a  needle  requires 
about  120  operations;  but  they  are  rapidly,  and 
unintemiptedly  successive. — FaulkTiir, 

pogon  aciculatus. 

NEEJA,  a  lance  carried  about  at  the  Mo- 

NEEKAH,  Ab.,  Hum.  The  solemnization 
of  matrimony.  Neekah  ka  seegah,  the  maho- 
medan marriage  contract ;  properly  Nickah. 

NEEK'HUR.  The  Gudurea,  also  written 
Gadaria,  is  a  shepherd  race  of  which  there  are 
several  sub-divisions  in  Hindustan,  Neek'hur; 
Toaselha  or  Pnchhade,Chuck,Dhangur,Bureyea, 
Pyfawar  and  Bhyeatur.  Of  each  of  these  there 
are  also  many  sub-divisions. — EU,  Supp,  Gloss, 

NEEL,  Hehd.  Neelimi,  Tax.  Indigofera 
tinetoria.  Indigo,  the  Indigo-plant. 

NEELA,  Sans.  Dark-blue. 

NEELA-KANTA,  Saits.,  from  neela,  dark- 
bine,  and  kanta,  the  throat ;  a  name  of  Siva. 

NEELAMPELLAH,  Tax.  ?  A  Travancore 
wood  of  a  light  brown  colour,  used  for  house- 
boilding,  ceilings,  &c.,  also  written  Neelum 
]iala.— (7o{.  Frith. 



NEELA-PARVATA,  Saks.,  from  neela, 
blue,  and  parvata,  a  mountain. 

hinia  purpurea. 

tederia  vaginalis. 

the  southern  parts  of  the  Peninsula  of  India. 
See  Neilgherries. 

NEEL-JHANJEE,  Bme.  Utricularia  reti- 

NEEL-KALMEE,  Biwo.  Pharbitis  nil. 

NEEL-MALL,  Him).  Strychnos  potatorum. 

NEELUM,  Tax.  Indigofera  tinetoria. 

NEELUMPALLAH,  Tax.?  A  Travancore 
wood  of  a  light  brown  colour,  used  for  light 
work. — Col.  Frith.  . 

NEEL-LUTA,Bbno.  Thunbergiagrandiflora. 

NEEL-PUDMO,  Beng.    Nymphoea  cyanea. 

NEEL-UPURAJITA,  BBNff.Clitoriatematea. 

NEEM,  HiNi).  The  Margosa  tree,  or  Vepa 
maram.  Tax.  Azadirachta  indica,  and  all  tlie 
species  of  Azadirachta  and  Melia. 

NEEM,  Pbbs.  Half.  Neemcha,  a  mixed  race. 

NEEMA  — ?  dress. 


NEEMI  CHAMBEU,  Hind.  Bignonia  su- 
berosa,  Boxb. 

NEEM  NUDDY,  a  rivulet  near  Abrowlie  in 
Allygurh,  runs  near  E^hasganj  in  Budaon. 

NEEMOOKA,  Bnm.  Root  of  several  species 
of  Cissampelos. — Ben.  Phar. 

NEEN-THA,  Bubx.  A  very  abundant  tree 
along  the  sea  coast  near  Tavoy  and  Mergui. 
Its  wood  when  seasoned  sinks  in  water.  It 
is  used  for  niters  of  houses,  is  a  very  heavy 
wood,  but  liable  to  split,  therefore  not  recom- 
mended for  ordnance  purposes. — Oajptain  Dance. 

NEERADI  MQOTOO,  Tbl.  Species  of  Ja- 


Jungli  Badam  ka     tel,  1  Neerada  fiootoo  Yennai, 

HiSD.  I  Tax. 

This  valuable  oil  was  sent  to  the  Madras  Ex- 
hibition under  the  various  names  of  Neeradee- 
mootoo,  jungle  Almond,  Maroty,  Tamana, 
Maravetti,  Neervetti  and  Soorty.  It  is  in  great 
repute,  as  a  medicine  amongst  native  practi- 
tioners, and  the  kernel  enters  largely  into  their 
prescriptions.  It  might  probably  be  foimd  of 
use  in  the  arts,  it  much  resembles  almond  oil 
but  is  rather  thicker.  The  seeds  cost  in  Mad- 
ras As.  2-6  per  seer— excellent  specimens  were 
contributed  by  the  Madras  Tariff,  Travancore 
and  Cochin  Local  Committees  and  Lieut.  Hawkes. 

NEERADI-MUTOO,  Tbl.?  Hydrocarpus 

NEER-CUDDEMBAY,  Tbl.  Nauclea  par- 

NEERGOBBI  VAYROO,  1^.  The  root  of 
Barleria  longifolia,  Linn. 

N  57 


NEERGOONDABY,— ?Vitex  bicolor,    W. 

NEERIJA  BARK,   AKGLO-Hnn).  Bark  of 
EloDodendron  roxburghii. — Ben,  Ph, 

NEER-MOOLLDE,  Tam.  Asteracantha  lon- 
gifolia  or  Barleria  longifolia,  Linn, 

NEERMOOUE  VAYR,  Tam.  The  root. 

Neeroodee,  Hind.  |  Chiana  neeroodee,  Tel* 

NEER-PIRIMI,  Tam.  Herpestis  monniera. 

NEETEE  PASS,  a  pass  in  Kunawer.  See 
Mountains,  Passes. 

NEETI,  Sans.,  from  nee,  to  obtain. 

NEEUT,  Ar.,  Hind.     A  vow. 


NEFRUARI,  see  Hindu. 

NEFT,  Arab.,  Pers.  Is  a  good  avenue  tree, 

NEGALYA-PONYA,  Nep.  Ailurus  elegans, 
F.  Cuv,,  Bly.y  Hard, 

NEGAPATAM,  on  the  Coromandel  Coast, 
is  in  lat.  10°  45  j'  N.,  long.  79°  56'  E.,  in  the 
Tanjore  district.  The  town  has  a  considerable 
coasting  trade,  is  near  one  of  the  mouths  of  the 
Cauvery.  It  was  taken  from  the  Portuguese 
by  the  Dutch  in  1660,  and  henceforward 
became  the  head-quarters  of  the  Dutch  trade  on 
the  Coromandel  Coast. — Oal.  22«;.,  Jan,  1871- 

NEGHKA,  Malkal.  Fruit  of  Tamarindus 
indica,  Lmn,,  Rosch.    Tamarind. 

NEGOMBA,  on  the  west  coast  of  Ceylon,  in 
lat.  7°  12'  N.,  is  a  place  of  some  trade. 

NEGRAIS,  an  island,  a  river,  and  a  cape  of 
this  name.    The  cape  is  in  lat.  16°  2i^  N., 
long.  94°  13'  E.,  is  the  south-west  land  df  the 
coast  of  Ava.    A  riv^  of  the  same  name  is 
navigable  a  great  way  inland,  by  a  channel  on 
each  fflde  of  the  island. 
NEGRETTI,  see  Red  Sea. 
NEGRO  RACES.  Ethnologists  are  of  opinion 
that  Africa  has  had  an  important  influence  in 
the  colonization  of  Southern  Asia,  of  India  and 
of  the  Eastern  islands,  in  times  prior  to  au- 
thentic history  or  traditions,   and  numerous 
races  of  an  Africo-Turanian  type  are  found 
in  British  India.    The  marked  African  features 
of  some  of  the  people  in  the  extreme  south  of 
the  Peninsula  of  India,  the  Negro  and  Negrito 
races  of  the  Andamans  and  Great  Nicobar,  the 
Jakim  of  the  Malay  Peninsula  and  the  Negrito 
and  Negro,  Papuan  and  Malagaai  races  of  the 
islands  of  the  Indian  Archipelago,  Australia 
and  Polynesia,  indicate  the  extent  which  cha- 
racterises their    colonizati(»i.    Much  of   this 
needs  ^rther  inquiry,  but  it  is  a  subject  which 
will  well  reward  investigators.     Historical  re- 
searches have  shown  how  frequent  during  the 
past  four  thousand  years  were  emigrations  and 
conquests  between  Media,  Arabia,  Persia,  Pales- 
tine and  Africa.    Negro  races  occupy  the  hills 
in  the  Dandilli  district  of  N.  Canara.    Their 

'        58 


origin  haa  not  been  traced,  but  since  the  maho* 
medans  of  Arab  origin  have  been  fighting  in 
India  for  dominion  almost  all  the  rulers  hsve 
retained  large  bodies  of  Africans,  either  of 
the  large-lipped,  curly-haired,  negro  type,  or 
of  the  sofler-featured  Abyssinian,  and  one 
fanuly  of  these  Abyssinian  races,  the  Hab^ 
or  Sidi  of  Janjirah  near  Bombay,  is  still  ruling. 
The  Adal-shahi  and  Nizam-dbAh  Bhairi  dy- 
nasties, who  ruled  in  Bejapore  and  Ahmed- 
nuggur  in  the  15tli  and  16th  centuries  had 
considerable  bodies  of  negro  soldiers  as  their 
household  troops ;  the  negro  sailors  of  the  Sidi 
of  Janjira  continued  up  to  the  18th  century, 
the  most  ruthless  pirates  on  the  pirate  coast 
of  India ;  the  Amirs  of  Sind  had,  tUl  the  latest 
hour  of  their  rtde,  bodies  of  African  negroes 
aroimd  them,  the  nabobs  of  the  Camatic  had  a 
small  body  of  the  negro  race  as  their  house- 
hold slaves,  the  race  are  still  numerous  in  Los 
and  Mekran,  and  at  Hyderabad  in  the  Dekkan 
they  still  form  part  both  of  the  regular  and 
irregular  troops  of  the  nizam  of  the  Dekhan. 

According  to  Mr.  Logan,  the  oldest  races  of 
India,  Ultra^India  and  Asianesia,  were  of  a 
variable  African  type,  the  two  principal  forma 
being  Australo-Tamulian  or  quasi  Semitic  and 
Negrito,  followed  in  Asianesia  by  the  Malagaai. 
He  is,  likewise,  of  opinion,  that  (lie  present  pre- 
valentUltrar-Indian  races  entered  the  regicHi  from 
the  north-east  and  at  a  very  remote  period  spread 
on  the  one  side  over  Ultra-India  and  the  basins 
of  the  Brahmaputra  and  Granges,  and  partly 
into  southern  India ;  and,  on  the  other,  were 
diffused  by  a  long  succession  of  movements  all 
over  Asianesia.      Thoughout   these    regions, 
they  came  in  contact  with  more  ancient  races, 
and  have  in  some  places  variously  blended 
with  them  and  in  some  dislodged  or  extermi- 
nated them,   while  in  others,   the  old  tribes 
have  been  able  to  maintain  a  certain  degree 
of  independence  and  purity .    In  southern  India, 
the  ancient  element  was  preserved  in  some 
degree,  owing  apparently  to  a  civilization  early 
received  from  partially  alHed  Semitioo-African 
and  Semitic  nations.    In  the  Andamans,  the 
interior  of  the  great  Nicobar,  the  jungles  of 
the  Malay  Peninsula,  in  Australia  and  in  the 
various  Papuan  and  partially  Papuan  Islands, 
the  African  element  has  been  maintained  from 
the  comparative  isolation  of  the  tribes.    In  the 
Gangetic  province,  as  in  the  greater  portion  of 
Ultra-India,  including  the  Malay  Peninsula,  the 
intrusive  race  appears  to  have  been  recruited 
by  the  entrance  of  new  tribes  from  the  north- 
east and  to  have  ultimately  assimilated  the  native 
race,  although  the  influence  of  the  latter  is  still 
slightly  perceptible.    He  remarks  that  wiien 
we  consider  the  position  of  India,  between  the 
two  great  n^ro  provinces,  that  on  the  west 
being  still  mainly  negro,  even  in  most  of  its 

N  58 



imjffoved  races,  and  that  on  the  east  preserving 
the  ancient  negro  basis  in  points  so  near  India 
as  the  Andamans  and  Eadah,  it  becomes  highly 
probable  that  the  African  element  in  the  po- 
palalkni  of  the  peninsida  has  been  transmitted 
from  an  archaic   period    before  the  Semitic, 
TQFBDian   and  Irsmian  races   entered    India, 
and  when  the  Indian  Ocean  had  negro  tribes 
along  its   northern  as  weU  as  its  eastern  and 
west^n  shores.     The  basis  of  the  present  popu- 
lation of  the  Dekhan,  he  says,  was  of  an  African 
ehaneter  which  was  partially  improved  by  Tora- 
niaBs  or  Irano-Toranians  and  Semitico-Tura- 
nians  from  the  N.  W.  and  afterwards  by  more 
advanced  ancient  N.  E.  African  and  Semitic 
settlers.     Perhaps  all   the  original  population 
of  aouthem  Arabia  and  even  of  the  Semitic 
famds  generally,  was-  once  African ;  and  the 
Semitic  race  had  descended  on  them  from  a  tribe 
located  in  the  mountains  at  the  head  of  the 
Euphrates.     From  the  time  when  the  adjacent 
ahores  of  the  Indian  ocean  began  to  be  the  seats 
of  general  commercial  and  maritime  nations, 
ih»  peninsula  must  have  been  exposed  to  the 
regolar  influx  of  foreign  traders  and  adventur- 
es.    From  the  antiquity  of  the  Egyptian  civi- 
liaatioQ,  it  is  probable  that  the  earliest  com- 
mooial   visitors  were  Africans   from  eastern 
Africa  or  southern  Ai-abia.    It  is  certain  that 
the  subsequent  Semitic  navigators  of  Arabia  at 
an  early  date  established  that  intercourse  with 
India  which  they  have  maintained  to  the  pre- 
sent day.    The  trade  between  India  and  the 
westy  appears  to  have  been  entirely  in  their 
hands  for  about  B,000  years.     Duhng   this 
period,  flie  Arab  nayigators  not  only  remained 
for  some  mon^  in  the  Indian  ports,  between  the 
outward  and  home  voyages,  but  many  settled 
in  them  as  merchants.    Mr.  Xiogan  thinks  that 
the    influence  of  African   and  Arabic  blood 
must  have  preceded  that  of  the  Arian  in  the  pe- 
ninsula.    In  afler-ages,  the  Arian  ingredient  in 
the  peninsular  population  became  considerable, 
but  it  has  not  modified  the  native  races  in  the 
same  d^ree  as  it  has  done  the  Bengali.    The 
iaqguages  are  still  essentially  distinct  and  the 
ttm-Arian  physical  element  remains  strong. 
In    southern    India,    are   languages    of  one 
fixmatiom  which  is  broadly  distinguished  from 
the  Arian  or  Sanscrit  on  the  one  side,  and 
from  Tibetan  and  Ultra-Indian  on  the  other. 
Phjsicallj,  the  population  of   Southern    In- 
dia is   one  of  the  most  variable  and  mixed 
which  any  ancient  archaic  province  displays, 
&e  number  of  varieties  amongst  the  people 
hang  too  great  to  allow  of  their  being  rderred 
tD  a  single  race  of  pure  blood.    Some  are  ex-- 
ceedingly  Iranian,  more  are  Semitico-Iranian, 
snne  are  Semitic,  others  Australian ;  some 
fenund   us  of  Egyptians,  while  others  again 
have  Malaya-Polynesian  and  even  Simang  and 


Papuan  features.  Yet  when  the  eye  takes  in 
the  whole  group  at  once,  they  are  seen  to  have 
all  something  in  common.  They  are  not  Ira- 
nians, Polynesians,  Papuans,  &c.,  but  South 
Indians.  The  strong  Africanism  of  some  of 
the  lower  south  Indian  castes,  is  believed 
to  be  the  remnant  of  an  archaic  forma- 
tion of  a  more  decided  African  character. 
In  certain  of  the  classes  of  Southern  India, 
in  which  the  complexion  is  fairer,  an  Egyptian 
style  of  features  is  not  unfrequently  observable. 
In  this,  the  nose  is  not  indented  at  the  root. 
It  is  long  and  slightly  curved;  the  eyes  almond- 
shaped  and  slightly  oblique  and  the  chin  is  short. 
In  general,  the  physiognomy  is  more  the  Ira- 
nian than  the  East  African  and  Egyptian. 
Where  the  Arian  or  Semitic  crossing  is  not 
striking,  the  person  is  generally  rather  small 
and  slender,  the  legs  in  particular  being  very 
thin,  compared  with  those  of  the  Gangetic  race. 
The  colour  varies  from  black  to  different  de- 
grees of  brown  and  yellowish  brown,  in  general 
contrasting  strongly  with  the  Ultra-Indian  and 
Indonesian  races.  There  is  a  tendency  to  cer- 
tain peculiar  physical  traits,  neither  Ulti*a-In- 
dian,  Tibetan  nor  Arian,  but  seem  to  be  East 
African..  The  typical  East  African  head  is 
removed  both  from  the  exaggerated  prognath- 
oift  ferm,  prevalent  amongst  the  Guinea  negroes 
and  the  highly  Semitic  form  characteristic  of 
tribes  that  have  been  deeply  crossed  by  Arab 
blood,  and  is  in  some  respects  intermediate 
between  the  Iranian  and  Turanian,  while  it 
has  specialties  of  its  own.  The  cheek  bones 
are  often  much  more  prominent  than  in  the 
Iranism,  and  less  so  than  in  the  typic^  Tura- 
nian, the  projection  being  frequently  anterior 
more  than  lateral.  The  lips  are  full  or  turgid 
and  turned  ou^  frequently  with  sharp  edges. 
Slightly  prognathous  heads  are  not  infrequent. 
In  the  SOU&  Indian  population  as  a  whole, 
the  bridge  of  the  nose  is  generally  less  promi- 
nent than  in  the  Iranian,  and  much  more  so 
than  in  the  Turanian.  Even  where  the  root  of 
the  nose,  between  the  eyes,  sinks  in,  the  uf^er 
line  as  a  whole  is  much  more  thrown  out  from 
the  ^e  than  in  the  Turanian  head,  so  as  to 
render  the  point  comparatively  sharp  and  pro- 
minent. The  alsB  have  an  upward  expansion, 
leaving  the  upper  part  of  the  septum  exposed 
and  the  elongated  nares  open  and  conspicuous^ 
This  is  a  Semitico-African  trait.  In  the  Tura- 
nian the  septum  is  contracted  and  thickened 
at  the  base,  pulling  down  the  point  of  the- 
nose  or  rendering  it  low  and  obtuse,  forcing 
the  nares  to  spread  out  laterally  and  making 
the  nares  rounded.  The  eyes  in  the  Dravidian 
are  large,  are  of  Ml  size,  horizontal  and  Well- 
separated  and  the  beard  is  generally  sufficiently 
strong.  The  Africo-Papuan  pyramidal  nose, 
with  a  deep  and  sharp  sinking  in  at  the  root,  is 

N  59 


common,  particularly  in  some  of  the  lower 
castes,  in  which  the  colour  is  nearly  black. 
Mr.  Logan  thinks  it  probable  that  this  lower 
and  apparently  the  more  normal  southern  type 
characterised  the  whole  population  of  India  at 
one  period.  Amongst  the  Vindhyans,  some 
tribes  are  fotmd  who  seem  to  approximate  to  it 
su^h  as  the  little  ill-favored  Tamariah,  the 
neighbours  of  the  Ho  and  the  short  and  jet- 
black  Surah  who  are  spread  for  200  miles 
from  the  hilly  southern  side  of  the  basin  of  the 
Ganges  along  the  eastern  face  of  the  gliauts  to 
the  Godavery  who  are  much  in  person,  in 
civilization,  akin  to  the  Gangetic  population. 
The  Chensuar,  (Suar-Surah  ?)  who  occupy 
the  western  portions  of  the  continuation  of  the 
ghauts  between  the  Pennar  and  the  Kistna,  and 
who  are  probably  a  continuation  of  the  Surah, 
are  described  by  Captain  Newbold  as  having 
small  and  animated  features,  the  cheek  bones 
higher  and  more  prominent  than  those  of  the 
generality  of  hindoos :  the  nose  flatter  and  the 
nostrils  more  expanded,  the  eye  black  and 
piercing,  the  stature  lower  than  that  of  their 
Telugu  neighbours,  and  the  person  light  but 
well-formed.  He  characterizes  them  as  being 
between  a  Telugu  and  Jakun  of  the  Malay 
Peninsula.  The  Chensuar  live  in  beehive-shaped 
huts  like  the  African,  Nicobarian  and  many 
of  the  ruder  Asianesian  tribes. 

The  Jakun  of  the  Malay  Peninsula,  is  the 
most  African  and  prognathous  of  the  lank- 
haired  Indianesian  tribes. 

In  the  Neilgherry  hills,  the  Kurambar  and 
Erular  belong  to  the  same  low  type.  In  the 
ghauts  of  the  northern  part  of  the  peninsula, 
tile  Koli,  Ramusi,  Beder,  Warali,  Katadi  or 
Katkar  tribes  appear  to  be  allied  to  the  lower 
type,  but  in  general  tiie  African  element  has 
been  eliminated.  One  of  the  most  African 
of  these  petty  northern  tribes  is  the  Elatadi. 
They  are  of  a  deep  black  colour,  and  Mr.  Vau- 
pell  describes  tiiem  as  being  more  like  mon- 
keys than  any  race  of  men  he  ever  saw. 
The  Warali  are  more  slender  and  somewhat 
darker  than  the  common  Marathi. 

The  sequestered  tribes  of  .Southern  India 
appear  to  belong  chiefly  to  the  lower  form. 
In  some  cases  they  approximate  to  the  more 
Turanian  African  type,  in  which  tiie  nose  is 
flatter,  the  beard  scan^,  and  the  person  shorter. 
There  is  so  considerable  a  difference  between 
tills  type  and  the  more  Semitic,  that,  whatever 
may  be  the  original  relationship  of  the  two  it 
is  necessary  to  recognize  both  as  existing  in 
India  at  the  earliest  era  which  ethnology  can 
descry.  A  similar  phenomenon  presents  itself 
on  the  western  side  of  the  Indian  ocean  and, 
what  is  still  more  important  witii  reference  to 
India,  it  is  found  aJso  in  tiie  n^gro  population 
of  tiie  eastem  side.    Many  of  the  East-African 


tribes  are  very  short  and  slender,  small-eyed, 
flat-faced,  and  beardless,  while  others  are 
middle  sized  and  even  taU  and  robust,  witii  the 
Semitico  AMcan  beards,  aquiline  or  pyra* 
midal  noses,  raised  nares  and  large  eyes» 
of  the  otiier  archaic  types  of  Southern  India. 
Both  types  preserve  a  black  complexion,  alike 
in  Africa,  India,  the  Andamans,  the  Malay 
Peninsula,  the  Malayo-Pol3me8ian  Islands,  and 
Australia,  although  modifications  of  colour  also 
occur  throughout  this  area.  He  thinks  that 
littie  weight  is  to  be  attached  to  the  present 
absence  of  spiral  hair  in  S.  India,  for  some  of 
the  spiral-haired  Papuan  tribes  of  New  Guinea 
and  Torres  stiuits  are  of^n  more  Afnoo-Semi* 
tic  and  S.  Indian,  in  their  physiognomy,  than 
the  Australians,  while  tiie  latter  have  the  fine 
hair  of  S.  Indians  and  some  Mid-Afirican  na- 
tions and  a  linguistic  formation  which  resembles 
the  S.  Indian  more  than  any  in  the  world. 

In  further  India,  in  the  extreme  South 
East  of  Asia,  are  two  marked  ty^  of  the 
human  family.  These  are  the  lank-haired 
Malay  and  brown  races,  and  the  curly-haired 
races,  to  whom  the  terms  Negro,  Negrito, 
Papuan,  Alfura,  &c.,  have  been  applied.  The 
Ultra-Indian  races  in  their  fundamental  cha- 
racters, physical  and  mental,  and  in  all  their 
social  and  national  developments,  from  the 
lowest  or  most  barbarous  stage  in  which  any  of 
their  tribes  now  exist  to  the  highest  civilization 
which  they  have  attained  in  Burmah,  Pegu, 
Siam  and  Kambojia,  are  intimately  connected 
with  the  predominant  Oceanic  races.  The 
tribes  of  tiie  Niha  Poljmesian  family  who  appear 
to  have  proceeded  those  of  the  Malayan,  re- 
semble the  finer  type  of  tiie  Mon,  Burman  and 
the  allied  Indian  and  Himalayan  tribes. 

The  Malayan  famUy  approximates  closely  to 
the  ruder  or  more  purely  Mongolian  type  of 
Ultra-India,  and  the  identity  in  person  and 
character  is  accompanied  by  a  close  agreement 
in  habits,  customs,  institutions  and  arts,  so  as 
to  place  beyond  doubt  that  the  lank-haired 
populations  of  tiie  islands  have  been  received 
from  the  Gangetic  and  Ultra-Indian  races.  The 
influx  of  this  population  closed  the  long  era  of 
Papuan  predominance  and  gave  rise  to  tiie  new 
or  modified  forms  of  language  which  now 
prevail.  It  is  generally  supposed  that  when 
they  entered  on  their  career  of  conquest,  the 
Malays  spread  from  the  Menangkabau  district 
in  Sumatra.  The  language  of  the  rude  mari- 
time tribes  who  frequent  the  coasts  and  islands 
of  the  Malayan  peninsula,  and  amongst  whom 
several  distinct  tribes  are  distinguishable  by 
their  physical  characters,  is  one  mainly 
Malay  but  witii  differences  in  pronuncia- 
tion. In  all  the  seaports  and  courts  of  the 
Archipelago,  the  Malays  are  a  tall  handsome 
class,  whose  fine  eyes  and  wellnshaped  features 






betray  the  presence  of  Arab  or  Indian  blood. 
The  Malayan  races  of  Pinang  and  province 
Wellesley,  is  short;  five  feet,  two  or  three 
inches  being  considered  the  average  height  of  a 
Bian,  and  that  of  a  woman  is  a  few  inches 
shorter.  Their  bones  are  large  and  clumsily 
put  together,  but  strongly  knit ;  arms  and  legs 
usnafly  short  compared  with,  the  «nd  of  the 
body,  and  the  whole  frame  robust  and  capable 
of  much  labour.  The  head  is  round  and  elon- 
gated at  the  summit,  broad  at  the  back,  and 
set  on  a  stout  thick  neck.  Eyes  long  and 
narrow,  ra^er  deep  set,  black  or  dark  hazel  in 
ookiar  and  seldom  clear  about  the  white.  Nose 
kng,  wide  at  the  nostrils  and  not  very  flat. 
Fardiead  broad  and  receding:  cheek  bones 
▼ery  prominent  and  jaws  wide  and  square ; 
teedi  regular,  large  and  white,  unless  discolour- 
ed by  lime  and  gambier.  The  facial  angle 
seldom  exceeds  Mty  d^rees,  while  that  of  &e 
Euzopean  is  seldom  less  and  sometimes  is 
nearly  ninety  or  perpendicular,  hair  black  and 
coarse.  It  is  plentifld  on  the  head,  but  other 
parts  of  the  body  are  smooth.  The  moustaches 
alone  are  retiuned  on  the  &ce,  other  hairs 
being  removed  by  pincers, — ^mouth  large  with 
thin  lips :  ears  large  and  ill-shaped.  The  body 
is  fleshy  and  muscular,  legs  remarkably  so, 
thighs  so  large  as  to  be  unwieldy.  Habit  of 
body  lean,  Malays  seldom  become  obese.  The 
women  are  pretty  when  young,  but  soon  show 
signs  of  old  age :  they  become  wrinkled  and 
haggard  after  bearing  a  few  children,  and  in 
old  age  are  hideous.  Malays  are  frank,  courte- 
ooB  and  honest,  brave,  generous  and  sensitive  to 
a  £uilt,  in  youth  grave  at  times  and  anon  over- 
flowing widi  mirth ;  in  advanced  life  sedate. 
They  are  proud,  and  if  ill-treated,  revengeful ; 
bat  under  generous  treatment  are  gentle,  kind, 
humane,  grateful,  docile  and  faithful.  Capable 
of  the  warmest  attachments,  and  yet  impelled 
to  mn/1nABa  and  the  commission  of  the  most 
revolting  deeds  by  real  or  imaginary  unkind- 
neas.  They  are  dutiful  children  and  kind 
parents.  They  treat  their  aged  kinsmen  with 
the  greatest  kmdness  and  even  feel  it  a  duty  to 
relieve  the  wants  of  an  indigent  relation.  Old 
and  women  are  always  regarded  with 
The  Malays  are  frequently  quite 
Bnrmans  in  appearance,  but  the  normal  and 
leaat  mixed  Malays  are  more  Binua  and  also 
more  Siamese  than  the  western  Burmans.  The 
MaJays  of  Johor  when  employed  in  gathering 
camphor,  use  a  fictitious  vocabulary,  constructed 
in  a  similar  manner  to  the  deferential  dialect  of 
Javan,  and  used  to  propitiate  the  spirit  of  the 
camphor  tree. 

Fimn  Timur  to  New  Guinea,  there  runs  a 
long  chain  of  islets,  forming  as  it  were,  a  wall 
or  barrier  to  the  south-eastern  portion  of  the 
Axdiipeiago.     In  some  of  these  islands  the  in- 



habitants  are  of  a  different  race  from  the  Ma- 
lays, and  speak  many  languages.  Till  recently, 
by  £a.T  the  most  ample  and  authentic  account  of 
them  has  been  given  by  Mr.  Winsor  £arl, 
who,  after  a  longer  experience  of  the  countries 
in  which  they  are  spoken  than  any  other 
European,  makes  the  following  observations. 
"  In  the  south-eastern  parts  of  the  Indian 
Archipelago,  where  opportimities  of  social  inter- 
course between  the  various  petty  tribes  are  of 
rare  occurrence,  every  island,  every  detached 
group  of  villages,  has  its  own  peculiar  dialect 
which  is  oflen  unintelligible,  even  to  the  tribes 
in  its  immediate  neighbourhood.  In  some  of 
the  larger  islands,  Timur,  for  example,  these 
tribes  are  so  numerous,  and  the  countiy  occupied 
by  many  of  them  so  extensive,  that  it  becomes 
impossible  to  form  even  an  approximate  estimate 
of  their  number."  Of  one  language,  the  pre- 
vailing one,  among  several  languages  of  the 
island  of  Kisa,  one  of  the  Sarawati  group,  in 
the  chain  of  islets  already  mentioned,  Mr.  Earl 
furnished  a  curious  and  instructive  vocabulary 
of  330  words.  The  Kisa  is  an  unwritten 
tongue,  but  its  vowels  are  the  same  as  those  of 
the  Malay  and  Javanese.  Timur  is  a  word  which 
means  the  east,  and  was  probably  imposed  on 
this  island  by  the  Malays,  to  whose  language  it 
belongs,  because  this  was  the  extreme  limit  of 
their  ordinary  commercial  voyages  to  the  south- 
east. Timur  is  about  three  times  the  extent 
of  Jamaica.  Its  principal  inhabitants  {ire  of 
the  Malayan  race,  but  it  contains  also  Papuans 
or  Negroes,  and  tribes  of  the  intermediate  race. 
The  two  languages  of  Timur  are  the  Manatoto 
and  the  Timuri,  the  first  spoken  at  the  north- 
east end  of  the  island,  and  the  last  used  by 
many  of  the  tribes  as  a  common  medium  of 
intercourse.  No  alphabet  has  ever  been  invent- 
ed in  Timur ;  but  judging  by  the  specimens  of 
its  languages,  the  vowels  are  the  same  as  those 
of  the  Malay  and  Javanese. 

In  the  Archipelago,  there  seemed  to  Mr. 
Craw^d  to  be  four  races  of  man,  the  Malays 
proper;  the  Semang  or  dwarf  Negro  of  the 
Malay  peninsula ;  the  Negrito  or  Aeta  of  the 
Philippines;  the  larger  Negro  race  or  Papua 
of  New  Guinea  and  a  race  whom  Crawfturd 
styles  the  Negro  Malay,  intermediate  between 
the  Papuan  and  Malay. 

The  Malay  are  supeiior  to  all  the  others  in 
intellect  and  civihzation.  They  occupy  the 
whole  of  the  Malay  peninsula,  haif  of  Sumatra, 
all  the  sea  coast  of  Borneo.  Their  numbers  are 
estimated  at  1,600,000  m  Borneo ;  1,250,000 
in  the  Malay  peninsula;  and  1,000,000  in 
Sumatra.  The  Malay  are  short,  squat,  with 
roimd  face,  wide  mouth,  large  high  cheek  bones ; 
short  small  noses,  black,  small,  deep-seated  eyes. 
Their  hair,  is  lank,  black  and  luu:8h,  and  the 
men  have  little  or  no  beard. 

N  61 


The  Semang  are  a  small  Negro  race. 

The  Jakun  of  Jahore,  are  superior  to  others 
in  many  respects,  are  the  best  dressed,  having 
also  a  great  number  of  rings  on  their  fingers. 

The  Negrito  are  short,  but  well-made,  active, 
soft  frizzled  hair,  nose  slightly  flattened,  fea- 
tures more  regular  and  skin-less  dark  than  the 
African  Negi*o. 

The  Papua  of  New  Guinea  are  true  Negroe 
and  have  made  some  advances  in  civilization. 

The  Negro-Malay  are  fairer  than  the  Negro, 
darker  than  the  Malay,  intermediate  between 
the  Malay  and  Papua. 

Mr.  Wallace,  however,  believes  that  the 
Archipelago  is  divisible  into  an  Asiatic  and  an 
Australian  portion,  that  the  flora  and  fauna 
differ,  and  that  all  the  peoples  of  the  various 
islands  can  be  grouped  either  with  the  Malay 
or  the  Papuan,  two  radically  distinct  races  who 
differ  in  every  physical,  mental  and  moral 
character,  and  he  states  his  belief  that  under 
these  two  forms,  as  types,  the  whole  of  tl|p 
peoples  of  the  Malay  Archipelago  and  Poly- 
nesia can  be  classed.  He  considers  that  a  line 
can  be  drawn  which  shall  so  divide  the  islands 
as  to  indicate  the  one-half  which  truly  belong 
to  Asia,  while  the  other  no  less  certainly  is 
allied  to  Australia,  and  he  designates  these 
respectively  the  Indo-Malayan  and  the  Austro- 
Malayan  divisions.  He  gives  to  Mr.  Earl  (pp. 
12,  13  and  36)  the  credit  of  having  been  the 
first  to  indicate  the  division  of  the  Archipelago 
into  an  Australian  and  Asiatic  region.  All 
the  wide  expanse  of  sea  which  divides  Java, 
Sumatra  and  Borneo  from  each  other,  and 
from  Malacca  and  Siam,  rarely  exceeds  forty 
fathoms  in  depth,  and  the  seas  north  to  the 
Philippine  islands  and  Bali,  east  of  Java,  are 
not  a  hundred  fathoms  deep;  and  he  is  of 
opinion  that  these  islands  have  been  separated 
from  the  continent  and  from  each  oiher  by 
subsidence  of  the  intervening  tracts  of  land. 
In  the  islands  of  Sumatra  and  Borneo  are  the 
elephant  and  tapir,  and  the  rhinoceros  of 
Sumatra  and  the  allied  species  of  Java,  the 
wild  cattle  of  Borneo  and  the  species  long  sup- 
posed to  be  peculiar  to  Java  all  inhabit  some 
part  or  other  of  southern  Asia.  Of  the  birds 
and  insects,  every  family,  and  almost  every 
genus  of  ihe  groups  found  in  any  of  the 
islands,  occur  also  on  the  Asiatic  continent  and 
in  a  great  number  of  cases  the  species  are 
exactly  identical.  The  resemblance  in  the 
natural  productions  of  Java,  Sumatra  and  Bor- 
neo with  those  of  the  adjacent  parts  of  the  con- 
tinent, lead  to  the  conclusion  that  at  a  very 
recent  geological  epoch  the  continent  of  Asia 
extended  far  beyond  its  present  limits  in  a 
south-easterly  direction  including  the  islands  of 
Java,  Sumatra  and  Borneo,  and  probably  reach- 
ing as  far  as  the  present  100  fathom  line  of 


soundings.  The  Philippine  Islands  agree  in 
some  respect  with  Asia  and  die  other  islands, 
but  present  some  anomalies  which  seem  to  in- 
dicate that  they  were  separiated  at  an  earlier 
period  and  have  since  been  subject  to  many 
revolutions  in  their  physical  geography. 

But  all  the  islands  firom  Celebes  and  limbok, 
eastward,  exhibit  almost  as  close  a  resemblaiice 
to  Australia  and  New  Guinea  as  the  western 
islands  do  to  Asia.  Australia  in  its  natural 
productions  differs  from  Asia  more  than  any  of 
the  four  ancient  quarters  of  the  world  difiPer 
from  each  other,  and  all  its  striking  pecnliari- 
ti^  are  found  also  in  those  islands  wluch  form 
the  Austro-Malayan  division  of  the  Archipelago, 
and  the  contrast  between  the  Asiatic  or  Indo- 
Malayan  forms  and  those  of  the  Austro-Malayan 
are  abruptly  exhibited  in  passing  from  .the 
island  of  Bola  to  that  of  Limbok,  though  the 
strait  is  only  15  miles  wide,  and  in  travellings 
from  Java  or  Borneo  to  Celebes  or  the  M<^uo- 
cas  the  difference  is  still  more  striking,  leaving* 
the  only  inference  that  the  whole  of  ^e  islands 
eastwards  beyond  Java  and  Borneo  do  essen- 
tially form  a  part  of  a  former  Australian  or 
Pacific  continent  although  it  may  never  have 
actually  been  joined  to  it,  and  it  may  have 
been  broken  up  before  the  western  islands  were 
separated  from  Asia,  and  probably  before  the 
extreme  south-eastern  part  of  Asia  w«8  raised 
above  the  waters  of  the  ocean. 

The  Aru,  Mysol,  Waigiou  and  Jobi  islands 
are  called  Mo-toung,  also  Moo-long.  Their  Ian- 
guage  is  said  to  be  distinct.  Of  the  two  great 
races  of  Malajrs  and  Negroes,  most  of  the 
former  have  embraced  mahomedanism.  The 
Malays  apply  to  the  people  of  New  Guinea, 
the  epithet  of  Puwa-puwa,  or  Papuwa,  which 
is  the  adjective  "  frizzly,"  or  "  crisping,"  and  is 
equally  applied  by  them  to  any  object  partaking 
of  this  quality.  The  term  Negro,  from  the 
Latin  niger,  is  that  usually  employed  to  designate 
the  races  of  whom  mention  is  now  made.  Their 
numbers  in  Africa  are  vaguely  estimated  at 
twenty  millions,  including  the  Hottentot  and 
Kafir  off-shoots  from  the  great  &mily.  The 
race  on  the  American  continent  number  about 
five  millions.  Their  numbers  on  the  Asiatic 
continent,  on  the  shores  of  the  Red  Sea  and 
Persian  gulf,  and  on  the  Malay  Peninsula,  may 
not  exceed  half  a  million,  but  from  the  Andaman 
islands  eastwards  to  the  races  in  the  Pacific,  of 
the  people  generally  classed  as  Negroes,  there 
are  at  least  twelve  varieties  differing  from  each 
other  in  physical  appearance,  some  being  pig- 
mies under  five  feet  and  others  large  and 
powerful  men  of  near  six  feet.  Excepting  in 
the  Andamans,  in  all  the  N^gro  languages  ci 
which  Mr.  Crawfiird  had  seen  specimens,  Ma- 
layan words  are  to  be  found.  N^;ro  races 
occupy  the  Andaman  and  Great  Nioobar  islands* 





and  the  Minkopi  of  the  Andaman  group  have 
some  pecoliaiities  which  indicate  a  difference 
from  otherB  of  the  N^pno  tribes.  The  Semang, 
a  pagan  tribe  of  the  Malay  Penainsula,  are  cer* 
tamly  of  Negro  origin,  alao,  ihe  Aheta,  Ita  or 
Negiilo  race  of  the  Philippines.  The  Negros 
of  Bngke  Island  from  lat.  9-4  to  lat.  9*50  N. 
The  inland  inhabitants  of  New  Guinea,  Ceram 
and  all  the  larger  islands  in  the  south-eastern 
part  of  the  Indian  Archipelago,  also  of  Minda- 
nao are  Papuans.  The  Arruans  of  the  Arru 
iBlands  have  Afiican  features  and  bear  a  strong 
resemblance  to  the  natiyes  of  Port  Essington. 

Mr.  Lqgan  thinks  there  is  no  doubt  that 
SoQthem  Asia  had  always  been  occupied  as  at 
present  wtth  several  races,  tribes  and  languages, 
and  that  S.  W.  Asia  and  Asianesia  had  been 
ecntemporaneoasly  occupied  by  1st,  Archaic 
Indo-Aiistralian ;  2,  Papuan  ;  3,  Tibeto-Chi- 
nese  or  Ultrarlndian ;  4,  Dravidian  ;  5,  Scy- 
thic ;  6,  Iranian ;.  7,  Semitic  races,  and  the 
qanl-haiied  Negro  race  seems  to  have  pre- 
ceded the  lank-haired  brown  race :  whether 
KegxD  tribes  and  dialects  did  not  in  a 
still  more  ancient  era,  occupy  Ultrs^India 
and  India,  before  any  of  the  present  non-negro 
races  moved  into  their  xi^gions,  he  says,  is  a 
qUQStion  deserving  investigation.  At  present,  a 
Negrito  race,  of  small  stature^  is  found  in 
several  parts  of  Asianesia ;  traces  of  the  Negro 
face  are  also  found  in  Formosa  and  Japan. 
Lesaon  allnding  to  the  Australian  Negro  says 
the  race  does  not  differ  in  any  essential  thing 
firom  the  Oceanic  race,  of  which  the  Papuans 
alone  form  another  somewhat  distinct  branch. 
They  have  a  similarity  of  form  and  external 
character  to  the  inhabitants  of  New  Britain, 
New  Ireland  and  very  probably  those  of  New 
Caledonia.  He  supposes  that  they  have  emi- 
grated   fnxn  New  Guinea  and  Madagascar. 

Tlie  Negroes  of  the  Andamans  are  in  the 
verj  lowest  and  most  abject  state  of  human 
society,  without  fixed  dwellings,  unclad,  and 
vaao^uainted  with  the  meanest  of  the  useiul 
arts  of  life.  In  disposition  they  are  shy, 
unsocial,  and  mischievous.  They  seem  to  have 
been  isolated  for  the  past  two  or  three  hundred 
years,  and  when  the  British  last*  settled  on 
tiieir  idands,  in  1858,  they  were  found  in  the 
lowest  condition  to  which  human  beings  can 
fiill.  Hiey  are  not  cannibals  as  was  long 
snpfMaed, — but  live  on  pork,  fish,  grains,  roots, 
eoooanut  and  other  fruits,  and  broil  the  flesh  of 
thor  ^>«CTnAlfl  before  eating  it.  They  may  be 
eaBed  hanters  and  fishermen,  hunting  game  in 
own  wilds  and  jungles,  using  the  bow  and 


to  cover  their  persons.  They  construct  huts, 
but  of  the  rudest  character.  They  are  in- 
tensely averse  to  the  intrusion  of  strangers 
and  so  lar  as  known,  up  to  the  year  1865, 
only  two  persons  had  been  allowed  to  live. 
They  are  small  in  stature,  seldom  rising  in 
height  over  five  feet.  The  head  is  smaller  &an 
that  of  the  ordinary  Asiatic,  and  depressions 
exist  in  the  temporal  region.  The  teeth  are 
nearly  white,  but  often  so  irregular  as  to  seem 
in  double  rows.  They  are  muscular,  and  are 
deficient  in  the  roundness  and  fulness  which 
give  such  symmetry  of  form  to  other  races.  In 
youth,  to  beautify  their  persons,  their  bodies 
are  scarified  all  over  with  broken  glass,  which 
gives  the  skin  a  bead-like  appearance,  the  lines 
running  longitudinally  down  the  arms  and  bust. 
Their  religion  is  supposed  to  be  a  kind  of  Fe- 
tichism.  When  pleased  with  any  thing  to 
which  their  attention  is  drawn,  they  gently 
bite  with  their  teeth  the  lower  edge  of  the  palm 
of  the  right  hand  and  then  smartly  strike  the 
left  shoulder.  They  also  contract  ihe  lips  as  in 
kissing  and  make  a  hissing  noise  like  that  of 
grooms  in  cleaning  horses.  When  they  speak 
to  one  another  their  pronunciation  is  so  .indis- 
tinct as  to  resemble  a  chatter,  but  they  are 
sharp  in  catching  words  and  sounds.  They  are 
said  to  be  passionately  fond  of  music,  though 
they  have  no  musical  instrument.  In  dancing, 
they  hop  on  one  foot,  beating  it  down  smartly 
in  regular  time,  keeping  both  hands  raised 
above  the  head.  They  change  feet,  keeping 
cadence  with  the  song,  work  the  head,  bow  the 
body  and  thus  spring  and  jump  till  the  dance 
is  closed.  The  Andaman  language  is  diflsyl- 

Further  eastward,  in  the  northern  portion  of 
the  Malayan  Peninsula,  within  the  territories 
of  the  Malay  provinces  of  Queda,  Perah,  Pa- 
hang  and  Tringanu,  is  a  negro  race  known 
to  the  Malays  under  the  names  of  Simang  and 
Bila.  Their  complexion  is  black,  or  sooty,  the 
hair  woolly,  the  features  approaching  to  the 
African,  and  the  stature  dwarfish.  An  adult 
Simang  male,  said  to  be  of  the  mean  height  of 
this  people,  was*  fotmd  to  be  only  4  feet 
9  inches  high.  Some  of  the  Simang,  or  Bila, 
have  fixed  habitations,  and  practice  a  rude 
agriculture,  but  the  majority  lead  an  erratic  life, 
gathering  the  rude  products  of  the  forest  to 
exchange  with  the  Malays  for  the  necessaries 
of  life,  or  substituting  by  the  chase.  The 
Simang  and  Bila  of  the  Malay  peninsula  appear 
to  have  several  tongues,  and  that  of  the  Simang 
though  containing  Malay  and  Javanese  words 
with  which  they  are  expert,  and  em- 1  is  considered  by  Mr.  Crawfurd  to  be  aii  origi- 

flioy  the  bark  of  a  tree  for  fishing  lines.  They 
ure  no  clothing,  but  go  entirely  naked  and 
aaem  unoonacious  of  that  feeling  of  shame 
which  giodeB  the  other  races  in  the  world 

63  1? 

nal  tongue.  The  Simang  and  the  Philippine 
Negroes  are  of  diminutive  stature.  The  average 
height  of  the  wild  tribe  of  Simang  on  the  Malay 
Peninsula  appears  to  be  under  five  feet.    In 



the  remoter  portions  of  Asianesia,  some  of  the 
bla^k  tribes  possess  all  the  traits  of  the  Guinea 
Negro,  but  ihe  Simang  and  Andaman  appear, 
like  the  greater  number  of  Asianesian  Negro 
tribes,  to  have  been  partially  modified  by  mix- 
ture with  other  races.     This  is  certainly  the 
case  with  the  Simang,  some  of  whom  are  Aus- 
tralo-Tamulian    in  appearance,   while  others 
differ  Httle  save  in  their  frizzled  or  spiral  hair 
and  dark  complexion,  from  some  of  the  adja- 
cent Binua.     The  average  height  of  the  adults 
of  a  party  of  Simang  Bukit  on  the  Ijan,  a 
feeder    of   the     Krian    was  four    feet   eight 
inches,    the    highest    four  feet    ten   inches. 
Head  small,  ridged,   that  is,  rising  above  the 
forehead  in  an  obtuse  wedge-shape,  the  back 
rounded  and  markedly  narrower  than  the  zygo- 
matic or  middle  zone ;  the  face  generally  nar- 
rower and  smaller  than  the  Malay :  eye-brows 
very  prominent,   standing  out  from  the  fore- 
head and  projecting  over  the  occular  furrow 
which  extends  across  the  face,  the  root  of  the 
nose  sinking  into  it  and  forming  a  deep  angle 
with  the  base   of  the  supercilliary  ridge.    The 
ncse  short  and  somewhat   sharp  at  the  point, 
and  often  turned  up,  but  the   alsB  spreading ; 
eyes  fine,  middle-sized  and  straight :  iris  large, 
piercing,    conjunctive  membrane  yellow,  die 
upper  '  eye-ladiies,    owing  to   the  deep  ocular 
depression  or  prominent  ridges  are  compressed 
or  folded,  the  roots  of  the  hair  being  hidden. 
The  cheek  bones  generally  broad,  but  in  some 
cases    not  remarkably  prominent,  save  with 
reference    to    the  narrow   forehead.     Mouth 
large  or  wide  but  lips  not  thick  or  projecting, 
the  lower  part  of  the  face  oval  or  round  but  not 
square.     The  deep  depression  at  the  eyes  and 
sinking  in  at  the   root  of  the  nose  gives  a  very 
remarkable  character  to  the  head  compared 
with  the  Mal^y.     The  projecting  brow  is  in  a 
vertical   line  with   the  nose,  mouth  and  chin, 
and  the  upper  jaw  is  not  projecting  or  progna- 
thous.    The  person  is  slender,  the  belly  protu- 
berant owing  to  their  animal  life  in  the  jungle 
and  precarious  food.  This  induces  them  to  cram 
themselves  whenever  they  can,  and  the  skin  of 
the  abdomen  thus    becomes-^^fiaccid  and   ex- 
pansible like   that  of  an  ape.     The  skin  ge- 
nerally is  fine  and  soil,  although  often  dis- 
figured by  scurf,    and  the  colour  is  a  dark- 
brown,  but    in    some  cases  lighter   and  ap- 
proaching to  the  Malay.    The  more  exposed 
hordes  are  black.     The  Simang  of  Tringanu 
are  not  of  such  a  jet-black  glossy  colour  as 
the   I^dah    tribe.     The    hair    is  spiral    not 
woolly,    and  grows    thickly  on   the   head  in 
tufts.     They  have  thick  moustaches,  the  growth 
being  much  stronger  than  in  th^  Malay  race. 
The  head  is  neither  Mongolian,  nor  Negro 
of  the  Guinea  type.    It  is  PapuarTamulian  ; 
the  expression  of  the  face  is  mild,  simple  and 

64  N 


Stupid.  The  voice  is  soft,  low,  nasal  and  hollow 
or  cerebral ;  a  line  of  tattooing  extends  from  the 
forehead  to  the  cheekbones.  The  right  ear  10 
pierced,  the  orifice  being  large.  The  hair  is 
cropped  save  a  ring  or  fringe  round  the  fore- 
head, Simangs  are  found  in  aU  the  rivers  of 
Pera  and  are  classed  as  the  Simang  paya  who 
frequent  the  low  and  marshy  alluvium  between 
the  sea  and  the  hill ;  the  Simang  bulpt  who 
wander  in  the  forests  of  the  hills,  and  the  Sold 
who  are  confined  to  the  mountains  of  the 
interior.  There  are  said  to  be  thousands  of 
Simangs  in  the  interior  of  Patani,  Tringanu^ 
Kidah  and  Pera,  wherever  tibe  country  is 
covered  with  forest  and  there  are  few  or  no 
Malays.  Simang  tribes  of  Kidah  and  Pera 
have  a  language  mainly  dissyllabic  like  other 
Asianesian  ones.  The  people  of  Elidah  more 
often  approximate  to  the  eastern  Negro  type 
than  in  southern  Malaya,  and  Mr.  Logan  was 
particularly  struck  with  the  repeated  occur- 
rence of  the  deep  nasal  depression  of  the  Si- 
mangs, the  Australians  and  Papuans.  Small 
heads,  with  all  the  features  as  it  were  contract- 
ed or  compressed,  were  common. 

The  ruder  Binua  dialects  of  the  peninsula 
are  rapidly  disappearing.  The  Binua  or  Sakai 
of  Pera  appears  to  resemble  in  its  phonetic 
character,  the  ruder  dialects  of  the  Burman 
group.  This  character  is  intermediate  between 
that  of  the  Simang  on  the  one  side  and  that  of 
the  ruder  Sumatran,  Javan  and  Bomeon  on 
the  other.  The  Johor  Binua,  is  more  guttoral, 
aspirate  and  harsh,  remarkably  broad  and  slow. 
In  the  Binua,  the  cheekbones  are  broad  in 
all  directions  and  prominent,  giving  to  the 
face  below  the  base  of  the  forehead  a  marked 
lateral  development,  beyond  it  or  to  the  fore- 
head an  appearance  of  being  compressed.  The 
lower  jaw  is  masmve,  spreads  out  and  does  not 
rise  rapidly,  thus  producing  an  obtuse  chin  and 
the  anterior  maxillary  projection  considerable. 

The  Arm  Islands  extend  100  miles  from 
north  to  south.  Inland  are  many  fresh  water 
swamps  with  thick  impenetrable  jungle  in 
other  places.  Their  produce  is  pearls,  mother 
of  pearl,  tortoiseshell,  birds  of  paradise  and 
trepang.  The  timber  of  the  Islands  is  much 
pnused.  Arru  Islanders  have  much  inter- 
course with  strangers.  They  are  fond  of  ar- 
rack, and  purchase  from  the  Bugis  the  Papu- 
an slaves  brought  from  New  Guinea,  who  are 
then  employed  in  diving  for  pearls  and  in  the 
beche  de  mer  fisheir*  The  Arm  Islanders  are 
impoverished  by  their  excessive  use  of  in- 
toxicating liquors,  imported  from  Java  and 
Macassar.  In  personal  appearance  the  people 
are  between  die  Malayan  and  Polynesian  1 
N^gro.  They  are  not  many  degrees  further 
advanced  in  civilization  than  the  natives  of  I 
the  north  coast  of  Australia  to  whom  many 




of  them  bear  coasiderable  personal  resem- 
biance.  Some  of  the  Ami  men  profess  Chris- 
tianity and  some  are  mahomedans.  In  stature 
they  surpass  the  civilized  natives  of  Celebes. 
The  dress  of  the  men  is  a  piece  of  matting 
or  cloth  girded  round  the  loins  and  drawn 
tight  between  the  thighs,  and  a  salendan  or 
shawl.  No  fillet  is  worn  round  the  head. 
The  hair  ia  woolly  and  frizzled  out  like  that  of 
the  Pftpua.  The  men  are  of  a  jealous  disposi- 
tion and  eaaaly  roused  to  anger  by  abuse  of 
Uieir  women  or  ancestors,  otherwise  they  are 
mild,  of  disposition.  The  women  wear  a  mat 
in  front  and  one  behind.  When  a  person  of 
consequence  dies,  these  are  stripped  off  and 
they  rush  into  the  sea  where  they  disport  for 
some  time.  In  the  Arm  Islands,  Christianity 
was  introduced  many  years  ago  by  the  Dutch 
of  Amboyna  and  nearly  all  the  principal  people 
profesd  this  creed.  The  Arm  Paupan  ornament 
their  houses  with  brazen  trays,  dulam  or  talam, 
and  elephant's  teeth,  which  are  broken  up  when 
the  owner  dies. 

In  Dori,  the  Papuans  are  called  Myfore. 
They  are  about  5  feet  3  inches  high,  few  attain 
5  feet  6  inches.  They  wear  their  crisped  hair 
its  full  length,  aud  generally  uncared  for, 
which  gives  them  a  wild  scared  appearance. 
The  men,  not  the  women,  wear  a  comb.  The 
beani  is  crisp.  The  forehead  is  high  and  nar- 
row; eyes  large,  dark-brown,  or  black:  nose 
flat  and  broad:  mouth  large,  lips  thick  and 
teeth  good:  few  have  regular  featiu'es,  and 
mo^t  are  apathetic.  The  ordinary  men  wear 
a  waist  cloth  made  of  the  bark  of  a  tree,  called 
"  mar,"  which  is  wrapped  round  the  waist 
and  passed  between  the  legs.  Women  wear 
a  short  sarong  to  the  kne^^  generally  of  blue 
cloth.  Men  and  women  tattoo  their  bodies 
on  occasions,  by  pricking  the  skin  with  a  fish- 
bone and  rubbing  in  lamp  black.  The  Dori 
people  are  a  sea^faring  people  and  are  expert 
swimmers  and  divers.  Their  Prahu  have  out- 
riggers and  are  excavated  from  the  trunk  of  a 
single  tree.  Their  food  consists  of  millet,  obi, 
maize,  a  little  rice,  fish  and  hog^s  fiesh  and 
liruits,  sago  is  imported  in  small  quantities. 
Theft  is  considered  a  grave  ofiencc :  they  are 
chaste  and  marry  one  wife. 

Ffores,  New  Guinea, — It  is  not  known  that  the 
great  islands  of  Sumatra,  Java,  Borneo  and 
Celebes,  ever  contained  any  Negro  race.  But  a 
Negro  race  occurs  in  the  ledand  of  Flores,  and,  in 
the  great  Island  of  New  Guinea,  they  form  the 
whole  native  or  aboriginal  population,  as  they 
also  do  of  the  islets  near  its  coasts.  Even  within 
New  Guinea  itself,  there  would  seem  to  be 
than  one  race.      M.  Madera,  of  the 


Dutch  Navy,  quoted  by  Mr.  Earl  in  the 
Jbumal  of  the  Indian  Archipelago,  describes 
t«o  of  them  whom  he  saw  on  the  south-west 

coast.  Mr.  Earl  describes  the  features  of  the 
New  Guinea  Papuans  as  of  a  decidedly  negro 
character : — broad  flat  noses,  thick  lips,  reced- 
ing foreheads  and  chins,  and  that  turbid  colour 
of  what  should  be  the  white  of  the  eye  which 
gives  a  peculiarly  sinister  expression.  Their 
complexion  is  usually  a  deep  chocolate-colour, 
sometimes  closely  approaching  to  black,  but 
certainly  a  few  shades  lighter  than  the  deep- 
black,  that  is  often  met  with  among  the  Negro 
tribes  of  Africa,  In  New  Guinea,  the  many 
Papuan  tribes  are  generally  in  a  state  of  war- 
fare with  each  other  and  return  from  their  war- 
like expeditions  with  heads.  The  New  Guinea 
people  worship  a  wooden  deity  called  Kar- 
war,  18  inches  high,  whom  they  consult  on  all 
occasions.  A  widow  remains  in  the  family  of 
her  deceased  husband.  The  Negroes  of  New 
Guinea  are  in  various  states  of  civilization. 
Some  of  the  rudest  dwell  in  miserable  huts  and 
seek  a  bai'e  subsistence  by  the  chase  or  the 
spontaneous  productions  of  the  forest.  There 
are,  however,  other  Negro  tribes  living  on  the 
coast  who  have  made  some  advance  in  civilizan 
tion.  These  dwell  by  whole  tribes  in  huge  barn- 
like houses  raised  on  posts,  like  those  of  the 
wild  inhabitants  of  Borneo,  but  ruder. 

Philippines. — ^Negroes  are  found  in  several 
islands  of  the  Philippine  Archipelago,  especially 
of  the  principal  island,  Lucon,  and  in  Negross, 
which  is  said  to  take  its  Spanish  name  from 

Waigyu, — The  inhabitants  of  the  Islands  of 
Waigyu,  Ijring  between  New  Guinea  and  Gilolo, 
one  of  the  Moluccas,  are  Negroes.  M.  Du  Perry 
represents  them  as  having  more  regular  features. 

Gehhe. — M.  Freycinct  has  described  the  Ne- 
groes of  Gebbe,  an  island  also  between  New 
Guinea  and  Gilolo,  and  ,not  far  from  the  latter. 
The  nose  is  flat,  the  lips  thick  and  projecting,  the 
complexion  a  dark-olive,  the  eyes  deep-seated, 
and  on  average  the  facial  angle  77°,  but  as 
high  as  81°.  In  Gebbe,  Waigyu  and  some 
parts  also  of  the  coast  of  New  Guinea,  the 
Malayan  race  may  have  become  intermixed 
with  the  Negro,  as  the  complexion  is  hghter 
and  peculiar  texture  of  the  Negro  hair  altered  or 

All  the  islands  extending  from  New  Guinea 
up  to  the  Fiji  group  appear  to  be  inhabited  by 
Negroes.  But  they  differ  greatly  in  physical 
appearance  in  New  Ireland,  MaUcollo,  one  of 
tlie  great  Cyclades,  Tanna  and  New  Caledonia 
in  the  New  Hebrides. 

The  Alfuro  seem  to  have  afiinities  with  the 
Tagala  race  of  the  Philippines  through  the 
Sanguir  islands.  A  Papuan  or  Timorese  is 
darker,  and  with  more  frizzly  hair  than  the 
Polynesian,  New  Zealander  or  Otaheitan,  but 
their  features  are  almost  identical, 

Mr.  Wallace  (ii,  280)  believe*  that  the  nu- 





merous  intermediate  forms  which  occur  among 
the  countless  islands  of  the  Pacific  are  not  mere- 
ly the  result  of  an  intermixture  of  these  races 
but  are  to  some  extent  truly  intermediate  or 
transitional,  and  that  the  brown  and  the  black, 
the  Papuan,  the  natives  of  Gilolo  and  Ceram,  the 
Fijian,  the  native  inhabitants  o(  the  Sand- 
vrich  islands  and  those  of  New  Zealand  are  all 
varying  forms  of  one  great  Oceanic  or  Polyne- 
sian race.  Professor  Huxley,  however,  is  of 
opinion  that  the  Papuans  are  more  nearly 
allied  to  the  Negroes  of  Africa  than  to  any 
other  race.  The  whole  of  the  great  island  of 
New  Guinea,  the  Ke  and  Am  islands,  with 
Mysol,  Salwatty,  and  Waigiou  are  inhabited 
almost  exclusively  by  the  typical  Papuan,  and 
the  same  Papuan  race  extends  over  iJie  islands 
east  of  New  Guinea  as  far  as  the  Fiji  islands. 
The  people  on  the  coast  of  New  Guinea  are  in 
some  places  mixed  with  the  browner  races  of 
the  Moluccas.  In  the  typical  Papuan,  the 
colour  of  the  body  somewhat  varies :  general- 
ly it  is  a  deep  sooty-brown  or  black,  somewhat 
approaching  but  never  quite  equalling  the  jet- 
black  of  some  Negro  races,  but  it  is  occasion- 
ally a  dusky  brown.  The  hair  is  harsh,  dry 
and  frizzly,  growing  in  little  tufls  or  curb, 
whioh  in  youth  are  very  short  and  compact, 
but  afterwards  grow  out  to  a  considerable 
length  forming  the  compact  frizzled  mop,  whioh 
is  the  Papuan's  pride  and  glory.  The  £sice  has 
a  beard  of  the  same  frizzly  hsur,  and  the  arms, 
legs  and  breast  are  also  more  or  less  clothed 
with  hair  of  a  similar  kind.  In  stature  the 
Papuan  is  superior  to  the  Malay,  and  the 
equal  or  superior  of  the  average  European. 
The  legs  are  long  and  thin,  and  the  hands  and 
feet  larger  than  those  of  the  Malay.  The  face 
is  somewhow  elongated,  the  forehead  flattish, 
the  brows  very  prominent,  the  nose  is  large, 
rather  arched  and  high,  the  face  thick,  die 
nostrils  broad  and  the  aperture  hidden,  owing 
to  the  tip  of  the  nose  being  elongated.  The 
mouth  is  large,  the  lips  thick  and  protuber- 
ant. He  is  impulsive  and  demonstrative  in 
speech  and  action,  his  emotions  and  passions 
express  themselves  in  shouts  and  laughter  in 
yells  and  frantic  leapings,  women  and  childien 
take  their  share  in  every  discussion.  The 
Papuan  has  much  vital  energy.  In  the  Mo- 
luccas, Papuan  slaves  are  often  promoted  to 
places  of  considerable  trust.  He  decorates  his 
canoe,  his  house,  his  domestic  utensils  with 
elaborate  carving.  They  are  often  violent  and 
cruel  towards  their  chUdren.  The  Papuan  is 
taller,  black-skinned,  fnzzly-haired,  bearded 
and  hairy-bodied,  long-faced,  has  a  large  and 
prominent  nose,  and  projecting  eyebrows,  bold 
impetuous,  exciteable  and  noisy,  joyous  and 
laughter  loving  and  displays  his  emotions.  If  the 
tide  of  Euioposoi  civilization  turn  towards  New 



Guinea,  the  Papuan  like  the  true  Polynesian 
of  the  farthest  isles  of  the  Pacific  will  no 
doubt  become  extinct.  A  warlike  and  ener- 
getic people  who  will  not  submit  to  national 
dependence  or  to  domestic  servitude  must  dis- 
appear before  the  white  man.  A  race  identl'- 
cal  in  all  its  chief  features  with  the  Papuan,  is 
found  in  all  the  islands  as  far  east  as  ihe  f^ji. 

Mysol  and  Waigiou  are  Papuan,  mixed,  part- 
ly from  Gilolo,  partly  from  New  Guinea. 

Alfura,  is  written  Alfor&,  Alafora,  Arafora, 
Alfiir,  Arafura  and  Halafora.  According  to 
Mr.  Crawfurd  it  is  from  the  Arabic  article 
Al,  and  fbra,  but  another  source  is  said  to  be 
the  Portuguese  word  Alforias  and  to  mean  free 
men,  manumitted  slaves,  also  independent 
tribes  of  the  interior. 

The  Atheta  or  Negrito  race,  are  found  in 
the  Philippines,  the  second  name,  meaning 
little  Negro,  being  given  to  them  by  the 
Spaniards  ;  but  that  of  Ita  or  Ahetas, 
written  Ajetas,  is  their  usual  appellation 
among  the  planters  and  villagers  of  the 
plains.  The  woolly-haired  tribes  are  more 
numerous  in  the  Philippines  than  in  any  other 
group  of  the  Indian  Archipelago,  they  were 
estimated  by  M.  Mallat  in  1842  to  amount 
to  25,000.  The  islands  Samar,  Leyte  and 
Zebu,  have  not  any  of  them;  but  they 
are  found  in  N^pros,  Mindanao,  Mindoro  and 
Luzon.  In  the  early  accounts  of  them  by 
Spaniards,  they  are  described  as  being  smaller, 
more  slightly  built  and  less  dark  iit  colour, 
than  the  Negroes  of  Africa,  and  as  having  fea- 
tures less  marked  by  the  Negro  characteristics, 
but  as  having  woolly  instead  of  lank  hair  ;  and 
their  social  condition  could  not  then  have  been 
much  better  than  now,  since  they  are  describ- 
ed as  living  on  roots  and  the  produce  of  the 
chase ;  and  as  sleeping  in  the  branches  of  the 
trees,  or  among  the  ashes  of  the  fires  at  which 
they  had  cooked  their  food.  The  name  be- 
stowed on  them  by  the  Spaniards  is  '  Negritos,' 
or  little  negros,  but  that  of  *  Ita'  or  *  A&etas,* 
so  pronounced  but  written  Ajetas,  seems  to  be 
their  usual  appellation  among  the  planters  and 
villagers  of  the  plains.  They  are  all  well- 
formed  and  sprightly,  but  very  low  in  stature, 
as  they  rarely  exceed  four  feet  and  a  half  in 
height.  The  character  of  the  Negrito  is  un-^ 
tameable,  and  it  is  impossible  to  surmount  their 
tendency  to  idleness.  Prompted  by  an  irresis- 
tible instinct  to  return  to  the  place  of  their 
birth,  they  prefer  a  savage  l^e  to  all  the 
charms  of  civilization.  The  Ajetas  or  Ne^tos 
are  ebony-black  like  Negroes  c^  Africa.  Their 
utmost  stature  is  four  feet  and  a  half;  the  hair 
is  wooDy,  and  as  they  take  no  pains  in  clear- 
ing it,  and  do  not  know  how  to  arrange  it,  it 
forms  a  sort  of  crown  round  the  head,  whidh 
gives  them  m  exceedingly  &ntwtic  aspect^and 

N  66 



makes  the  head  appear,  when  seen  from  a  dis- 
tanoe,  as  if  surrounded  with  a  sort  of  aureole. 
The  Negrito    of  the  Philippines,  black  and 
woolly-haired,  are  of  small  dwarfed  stature,  4 
feet  6  inches  to  4  feet  8  inches  high,  which  is  8 
inches  leas  than  the  Malays.    The  hair  agrees 
with  that  of  the  Papuan  and  many  Negroes  of 
Africa,  but  the  Papuans  are  taller  than  the 
Malays.    The  Negritos  of  the  Philippines  are 
pdyUieistB,  but  widiout  temple  or  ritual.    They 
beheve  in  omens,  invoke  Camburan  (€rod),  the 
moon  and  stars,  and  adore  the  rainbow  a^r  a 
storm.    They  have  also  a  worship  of  ancestors, 
a  god  of  the  harvest,  of  the  fisherman  and 
hmiter ;  and  a  remnant  of  fetichism  in  a  gro- 
tesque native  devil.     Mindanao  and  Mindoro 
contain   several  tribes  of  Negritos,  and  they 
hm  the  chief  population  of  ihe  less  accessible 
parts  in  the  mountain  ranges  of  Lucon,  the 
largest  island  of  the  Philippine  group.    The 
accounts  of  the  N^itoe  given  by  the  early 
Spanish  navigators  perfectly  apply  to  their  pre- 
set condition.    They  are  described  as  being 
smaller,  more  slightly  built,   and  less    dark 
in  coJour  than  the  Negroes  of  Africa,  and  as 
having  features  lesa  marked  with  the  Negro 
chara^eiistics,   but    as    having  woolly  hair. 
Papuans  of  Dory  worship^  or  radier  consult,  an 
idol  called  *^  Karwar,"  a  figure  rudely  carved 
in  wood  and  holding  a  shield,  with  which  every 
house  is  provided.    The  idol,  which  is  usually 
about  eighteen  inches  high,  is  exceedingly  dis- 
proposlioned,  the  head  being  unusually  large, 
the  nose  long  and  sharp  at  ^e  point,  and  die 
mouth  wide  and  well  provided  with  teeth. 
The  natives  have  also  a  number  of  '<  Fetishes," 
generally  carved  figures  of  reptiles,  which  are 
suspended  from  the  roofs  of  the  houses,  and  the 
posts  are  also  ornamented  with  similar  figures 
cut  into  the  wood.    Within  the  geographical 
limits  of  the  Indian  Archipelago,  tibe  Papuans 
only  appear  as  inhabitants  of  the  sea  coast  in 
New  Guinea  and  the  islsmds  immediately  adja- 
cent.   In  other  parts  of  this  region  they  are 
found   only  among  the   mountain   ^stneases, 
maintaining  an  unequal  struggle  with  the  brown 
races  by  whom  th^  are  surroxmded.    In  some 
of  the  Spice  Islands,  the  group  nearest  to  New 
Guinea,  ^  their  extirpation  is  matter  of  history," 
as  observed  by  Mr.  Crawfrud.    (History  of  the 
Indian  Archipelago,  Vol.  i,  p.  18.)    In  Ceram 
and  Gillolo  a  few  scattered  remnants  of  the  race 
still  exist ;  but  they  hold  little  or  no  intercourse 
with  their    more  civilized  neighboura,   flying 
into  the  thickets  which  afford  them  dielter 
and  concealment  on  the  first  aj^earanoe  of  a 
stranger,  experience  having  taught  them  that 

death  or  captivity  will  he  their  fate  if  they  fall 
into  the  hands  of  their  natural  enemies.  The 
charaeteiistics  of  the  mountain  Papuans  must 
dbeielbre  be  soi^ht  in  i&ose  islands  where  their 

67  N 

nbk;(ro  races. 

numerical  strength  permits  them  to  lead  a  life 
more  fitted  for  human  beings  than  that  of  their 
hunted  brethren.  It  is  an  error  to  suppose 
that  these  poor  creatures  disappear  before 
civilization.  Their  chief  destroyers  are  the 
wild  and  warlike  hunting  tribes  of  the  brown 
race ;  and,  excepting  the  case  of  the  Moluccas, 
wherever  European  civilization  has  been  intrc^ 
duced,  the  Papuans  are  more  numerous  than 
elsewhere.  In  the  Philippines,  for  example, 
according  to  an  intelligent  modem  traveller, 
their  number  in  the  year  1842  amounted  to 
25,000  souls.  (M.  Mallat,  "  Les  Philippines,*" 
&c..  Vol.  i,  p.  97,  Paris,  1846.)  The  large 
island  of  Moysol  or  Msesual,  which  lies  nearly 
midway  between  the  north-western  extreme  of 
New  Guinea  and  Ceram,  is  said  to  have  been 
occupied  exclusively  by  Papuans  when  this 
region  was  first  visited  by  Europeans,  and  they 
still  form  the  bulk  of  the  inland  population, 
but  the  villages  of  the  coast  are  occupied  by 
a  mixed  race,  in  which  the  Papuan  dement, 
however,  prevails.  The  islands  of  Coram, 
Ceram-laut,  Bo,  Poppo,  Geby,  Patani  Hoek, 
and  the  south-eastern  extremity  of  Gillolo,  are 
also  occupied  by  people  of  the  mixed  race,  who 
are  remarkable  for  their  maritime  activity,  and 
for  their  friendly  disposition  towards  European 
strangers.  The  woolly-haired  tribes  are  more 
numerous  in  the  Philippines  than  in  any  other 
group  of  the  Indian  Archipelago,  with  the  ex- 
ception of  New  Guinea.  M.  B^dlat,  as  already 
stated,  gives  the  amount  of  the  "  Negrito"  po- 
pulation in  1842  as  26,000.  This  can  only  be 
considered  as  approximative,  still  it  is  probably 
not  far  from  the  true  amount.  The  race, 
therefore,  can  scarcely  be  less  numerous  now 
than  on  the  first  arrival  of  the  Spaniards  more 
than  three  centuries  ago.  Indeed,  their  distribu- 
tion among  the  islands  of  the  group  seems  to 
have  been  much  the  same  then  as  at  the 
present  day ;  for  the  island  on  which  they  were 
first  seen  was  named  bv  Magellan  **  Isla  dos 
Negros,"  to  distinguish  it  mm  the  adjacent  island 
Zebu,  where  his  ships  remained  for  some 
months.  Negros  Still  contains  a  large  popu- 
lation of  Papuans,  while  Zebu  is  altogether 
free  from  them,  and  no  record  exists  of 
their  having  ever  been  found  there.  Samar 
and  Leyte  are  similarly  situated  with  Zebu. 
From  a  number  of  inquiries  among  Papuans 
who  were  marked  with  the  raised  cicatrices,  it 
appears  that  those  on  the  arm  and  breast,  which 
are  the  largest  and  most  prominent,  were  made 
in  order  to  qualify  them  for  admission  to  the 
privileges  of  manhood,  by  showing  their  capa- 
bility of  bearing  pain.  The  Malayan  term  for 
crisped  or  woolly  hair  is  '^rambut  pua-pua." 
Hence  the  term  "puarpua,"  or  '^papua," 
(crisped),  has  come  to  be  applied  to  the  entire 
race ;  and  expresses  their  most  striking  pecu^ 



liarity.  The  features  of  the  Papuans  have  a 
decided  negro  character  :  broad  nose,  thick 
and  prominent  lips,  receding  forehead  and 
chin,  and  that  turbid  colour  of  what  should  be 
the  white  of  the  eye,  which  is  apt  to  give  the 
countenance  a  sinister  expression.  Their  natu- 
ral complexion  is  almost  universally  a  choco- 
late colour,  sometimes  closely  approaching  to 
black,  but  certainly  some  shades  lighter  tlian 
the  deep-black  which  is  often  met  with  among 
the  negro  tribes  of  Africa.  The  Papuans, 
when  placed  in  circumstances  favourable  for 
the  development  of  their  powers,  are  physical- 
ly superior  to  the  races  of  South-eastern  Asia. 
Some  of  the  New  Guinea  tribes  would  bear  a 
comparison,  in  point  of  stature  and  proportions, 
with  the  races  of  Europe,  were  it  not  for  a  defi- 
ciency about  the  lower  extremities.  Even  the 
more  diminutive  moimtain  tribes  are  remark- 
able for  energy  and  agility — qualities  which 
have  led  to  tlieir  being  in  great  demand  as 
slaves  among  their  more  civilized  neighbours. 
With  regard  to  mental  capacity,  also,  they  are 
certainly  not  inferior  to  the  brown  races ;  but 
their  impatience  of  control  while  in  an  inde- 
pendent state,  utterly  precludes  that  organiza- 
tion which  would  enable  them  to  stand  their 
ground  against  encroachment ;  and  they  in- 
variably fall  under  the  influence  of  the  Mala- 
yans whenever  the  two  races  are  brought  into 
contact.  The  islands  in  which  remnants  of 
Papuan  tribes  may  .yet  be  found  are  Sumba  or 
Sandalwood  Island,  Bum,  the  Xulla  Islands, 
and  the  small  eastern  peninsula  of  Celebes, 
which  terminates  at  Cape  Taliabo,  Sumba  is 
a  mountainous  island,  three  hundred  miles  in 
circumference,  lying  to  the  south  of  Flores, 
from  the  coast  of  which  it  is  distinctly  visible 
in  clear  weather.  The  inhabitants  of  Savu  pos- 
sess a  settlement  near  the  south-west  extreme 
of  the  island,  and  the  Bugis  traders  of  Ende 
have  two  or  three  small  stations  on  the  north 
coast  which  are  occasionally  visited  by  small 
European  vessels  for  the  purpose  of  obtaining 
horses ;  but  the  natives  of  Sumba  all  dwell  in 
the  uplands,  where  they  cultivate  maize,  yams 
and  other  produce  similar  to  that  grown  on 
Timor,  and  are  said  to  use  the  plough,  which  is 
unknown  in  any  other  island  to  the  eastward  of 

The  Kei  group  of  ten  islands  adjoin  the  Arru 
Islands.  Ke,  Kei,  or  Ki,  is  prefixed  to  the  names 
of  all  their  villages.  The  great  Kei  is  about  the 
size  ofTanakeka,  an  island,  near  Macassar.  The 
men  profess  mahomedanism,  but  eat  hog's  flesh, 
and  the  islands  produce  Maratigo  and  Banyaro 
woods,  well  adapted  for  masts.  In  Don,  the 
Papuans  are  called  Myfore.  They  are  about 
5  feet  3  inches  high,  few  attain  5  feet  6  inches. 
They  wear  their  crisped  hair  its  full  length, 
Bud  generally  uncared  for,  which  gives  them  a 


wild,  scared  appearance.     Tlie  men,  not  the 
women,  wear  a  comb.    The  Papuan  women 
of  Ke  are  not  secluded,  the  children  are  merry, 
noisy  and  have  the  nigger  grin,  and  amongst 
the  men  is  a  noisy  confusion  of  tongues  and 
excitement  on  every  occasion.     The  Ki  group 
form  the  northern  of  the  south-easterly  islands. 
The  islands,  are  covered  with  luxuriant  forests. 
The  islands  are  occupied  by  two  races,  one 
of  them  the  Papuan  who  m9ke  cocoanut  oil, 
build  boats   and  make   wooden  bowls,  their 
boats  are  from  small  planked  canoes  to  prahua 
of  20  to  30  tons  burden.     They  build   the 
skin  first  and  fit  on  the  knees  and  bends  and 
ribs.     Money  is  not  used,  but  every   trans- 
action is  in  kind.    The  Papuan  wears  a  waist 
cloth  of  cotton  or  bark.     The  other  race  are 
mahomedans  who  were  driven  out  of  Banda. 
They  wear  cotton  clothing.     They  are  probably 
a  brown  race,  more  allied  to  Malays,  but  their 
mixed  descendants  have  great  varieties  of  hair, 
colour  and  features,  graduating  between  the 
Malay  and  Papuan  tribes. 

Ceram  is  the  largest  island  of  the  Moluccas 
and,  next  to  Celebes,  of  all  the  Archipelago. 
It  is  162  miles  long,  but  its  greatest  breadth  is 
only  42  miles.  The  island  is  one  long  moun- 
tain chain  that  sets  off  transverse  spurs,  and 
some  of  the  peaks  are  6,000*or  6,000  feet  in 
height.  The  people  of  Ceram  approach  nearer 
to  the  Papuan  type  than  those  of  Gillolo.  They 
are  darker  in  colour,  and  a  number  of  them 
have  the  frizzly  Papuan  hair ;  their  features 
are  harsh  and  prominent,  and  ihe  women  are 
far  less  engaging  than  those  of  the  Malay  race. 
The  Papua,  or  Alfuro  man,  of  Ceram,  gadbers  his 
frizzly  hair  into  a  flat  circular  knot  over  the 
left  temple,  and  place  cylinders  of  wood,  as 
thick  as  one's  fingers  and  coloured  red  at  the 
ends,  in  the  lobes  of  the  ears.  They  are  very 
nearly  in  a  state  of  nature,  and  go  almost 
naked,  but  armlets  and  anklets  of  woven  grass 
or  of  silver,  with  necklaces  of  beads  or  small 
fruits,  complete  their  attire.  The  women  have 
similar  ornaments,  but  wear  their  hair 
loose.  All  are  tall,  with  a  dark-brown  skin, 
and  well-marked  Papuan  physiognomy.  The 
Alfuro  or  Papuan  race  are  the  predomi- 
nant type  in  the  island  of  Ceram.  Of  twenty- 
eight  words  of  the  language  of  Ceram,  nine 
of  the  words  are  Malay,  two  Javanese,  and 
seventeen  are  common  to  these  two  languages. 

In  Celebes,  the  Trans-Javan  or  Timorian 
band,  and  the  Moluccas,  is  a  large  and  import- 
ant class  of  Indonesians,  who  graduate  between 
the  Anam  type,  the  Burman  and  the  Negrito. 
The  most  prevalent  head  or  that  of  the  predo- 
minent  is  ovoid,  but  it  is  somewhat  Burman  or 
Indo-Burman  in  nose,  eye  and  colour.  The 
great  island  of  Celebes  may  be  considered  the 
centre  of  a  group  of  languages,  which,  although 






tgreeing   with  those  heretofore   described,  in  ]  the  Polynesian   Islands    alone,     real    dialects 

simpficity  of  grammatical  stucture,  differs  very 
widely  from  them  in  phonetic  character, 
although  spoken  by  the  same  race  of  men. 
Celebes  ia  intersected  by  the  equator,  leaving 
a  smftll  portion  of  it  in  the  northern  and  the 
mau  in  the  southern  hemisphere.  Its  greatest 
ieng&  is  about  500  miles,  but  its  greatest 
breadth  does  not  exceed  100 ;  and  in  some 
pJaces  it  is  hardly  one-third  of  this  width. 
Celebes  may  be  considered  to  be  the  focus  of 
an  original  and  independent  civilization  which 

of  a  common  tongue  do  exist,  but  there  tlie 
number  of  words  common  to  such  dialects,  and 
to  the  languages  of  the  Archipelago,  is  so  tri- 
fling that  it  refutes  at  once  the  notion  of  a 
common  origin.  In  Malay,  the  most  familiar 
words  for  the  head,  the  shoulder,  the  face,  a 
limb,  a  hair  or  pile,  brother,  house,  elephant, 
the  sun,  the  day,  to  speak,  and  to  talk,  are  all 
Sanskrit.  In  Javanese,  Sanskrit  furnishes 
words  for  the  head,  the  shoulders,  the  throat, 
the  hand,  the  face,  father,  brother,  son,  daughter. 

probably  sprung  up  amongst  the  moat  advanced    woman,   house,   buffalo,   elephant,  with  syno- 

of  the  nations  which  occupy  it,  called  by 
themaelvea  Wugi,  and  by  the  Malays,  and 
after  them  by  Europeans,  Bugi.  In  material 
civilization  the  Bugi  are  equal  to   the  Malays 

nymes  for  the  hog  and  dog,  the  sun,  the  moon, 
the  sea,  and  a  mountain.  In  the  language  of 
Bali,  the  name  for  the  sun  in  most  familiar 
use  is   Sanskrit,  and  a  word  of  the  same  lan- 

Lanffuage$. — Mr.  Crawfurd  (Dictionary    of   guage  is  the  only  one  in  use  for  the  numeral 
the  Malay  language),  considers  that  a  certain    ten.     It  is  on   the  same  principle  that  Mr. 

connexion  of  more  or  less  extent  exists  between 
most  of   the  languages  which    prevail  from 
Madagascar  to  E^ter  Island  in  the  Pacific, 
and  ftt>m  Formoaa,   on   the  coast  of   China 
to  New  Zealand;  thus,  over   200  degrees  of 
longitade  and  seventy  of  latitude,  or  over  a 
fifth  part  of  earth  s  surJace.     In  this  are  the 
innumerable  islands  of  the  Indian  Archipelago, 
fiom  Sumatra  to  New  Guinea,  the  great  group 
of  the  Philippines,   the  Islands   of  the  North 
and  South  P&cific,  and  Madagascar.     It  is  in- 
habited by  many  different  and  distinct  races  of 
men,  aa  the  Malayan,  the  brown  Polynesian, 
the  TnJTnlar  n^gro  of  several  varieties,  and  the 
A&ican  of  Madagascar.     Of  these,  the  state- of 
ciTilization  is  so  various  that  some  are  abject 
aaTages,  while  others  have  made  a  respectable 
progress  in  the  useful  arts,  and  even  attained 
some  knowledge  of  letters.     He  is  of  opinion 
that  the  leading  race  in  the  Archipelago  is  one 
and  the  same,   but  the  languages  are  many, 
with  more  or  less  intermixture  of  some  princi- 
pal ones  throughout.  In  Borneo  there  are  at  least 
40  languages  ;  in  Celebes  and  its  islands  at 
least  10 ;    in  Flores  6 ;  in  Smnbawa  3  ;  in 
Sumatra  and  its  islands  not  fewer    than    10 ; 
and  even  in  civilized  Java  with  its  islands,  3. 
It  19  the  same  in  the  Phihppine  islands,  and  in 
Laicon,  alone,  there  are  three.    The  Indian  Ar- 
chipelago   consists    of  the   islands  extending 
from   Sumatra  to  the  western  shores  of  New 
Groineay  and  respecting  which  our  information 
is  most  complete.     He  says  that  no  languages 
in    it  exist   derived  from  a  common  stock,  or 
Btj»"dmg  to  each  other  in  the  relation  of  sister- 
hood,  as  Italian,   Spanish  and  French,  do  to 
f^w>h  other ;  or  as  GaeUc  does  to  Irish,  or  Ar- 
mcsiican  lo  Welsh,  or  Scotch  to  English.    The 
only  dialects  that  exist  are  those  of  the  Malay 
aTMJ  Javanese  languages,  but  they  consist  of  little 
thim  differences  in  pronunciation,  or  the 
or  less  frequent  use  of  a  few  words.    In 


Cra^vfurd  accounts  for  the  existence  of  a  simi- 
lar class  of  Malayan  words  in  the  Tagala  of 
the  Philippines  although  the  whole  number  of 
Malayan^  words  does  not  exceed  one-ftftieth 
part  of  tlie  language.  Head,  brain,  hand, 
finger,  elbow,  hair,  feather,  child,  sea,  moon, 
rain,  to  speak,  to  die,  to  give,  to  love,  are 

Some  personal  pronouns  are  found  in  the 
Polynesian  dialects,  where,  in  a  vocabulary,  of 
five  thousand  words  a  himdred  Malayan  terras 
do  not  exist.  A  sentence  of  Malay  can  be  con- 
structed without  the  assistance  of  Javanese 
words,  or  of  Javanese  without  the  help  of 
Malay  words.  These  two  'languages  can  be 
written  or  spoken,  without  the  least  difficulty, 
without  a  word  of  Sanskrit  or  Arabic.  The 
Malay  and  Javanese,  although  a  large  propor- 
tion of  their  words  be  in  common,  are  distinct 
languages,  and  their  Sanskrit  and  Arabic 
elements  are  extrinsic  and  unessential.  When 
this  test  is  applied  to  the  Polynesian  languages 
we  find  an  opposite  result.  A  sentence  in  die 
Maori  and  TaJiitan  can  be  written  in  words 
common  to  both,  and  without  the  help  of  one 
word  of  the  Malayan  which  they  contain,  just 
as  a  sentence  of  Welsh  or  Irish  can  be  con- 
structed without  the  help  of  Latin,  although  of 
this  language  they  contain,  at  least,  as  large  a 
proportion  of  words  as  the  Maori  or  Tahitan 
do  of  Malayan. 

Mr.  Crawfurd  is  of  opinion  that  the  Malay 
and  Javanese  languages  furnish  the  stock  of  the 
wide-spread  words  which  are  common  to  so 
many  tongues  in  the  Archipelago  and  which 
have  been  chiefly  derived  from  the  languages 
of  the  two  most  civilized  and  adventurous 
nations  of  the  Archipelago — the  Malays,  and 
Javanese ;  and  he  uses  the  word  Malayan  for 
whatever  ia  common  to  these  two  people. 

Of  the  languages  of  Celebes,  the  next  in 
importance  to  the  Bugis  is  the  Macassar.    The 

N  69 


people  who  speak  this  tongue  inhabit  the  same 
peninsula.  They  call  themselves  and  their 
language  Mankasara,  and  hence  the  Makltsar  or 
Mangkasar  of  the  Malays,  whence  the  Engli^ 
name.  Besides  Bugis  and  Macassar,  the  two 
principal  languages,  there  are  three  other  lan- 
guages of  Celebes  written  in  the  same  character, 
or,  at  least,  occasionally  written  in  it ;  the  Man- 
dar,  the  Manado,  and  the  Gorongtalu.  The 
Mandar  is  spoken  by  a  people  on  that  side  of  the 
south-western  peninsula,  which  fronts  Borneo. 

The  island  of  Sumbawa,  the  third  in  a  direct 
line  east  of  Java,  about  three  times  the  extent 
of  Bali  or  Lombok,  and  divided  by  a  deep  bay 
into  two  peninsulas,  has  three  languages,  the 
Sumbawa,  the  Bima,  and  the  Tambora.  The 
natives  of  Sumbawa  are  little  inferior  in  culti- 
vation to  the  most  improved  nations  of  Celebes. 
The  Sumbawa  and  Bima  languages  are  written 
in  the  Bugis  character,  but  there  exists  in  this 
island  a  singular  and  curious  obsolete  alphabet. 
It  is  ascribed  to  the  Bima  nation,  but  the  cha- 
racters do  not  generally  correspond  .with  the 
simple  sounds  of  the  Bima  language  as  exhi- 
bited in  the  specimen  given  of  it. 

The  large  island  of  Flores,  the  fifth  in  a  line 
east  from  Java,  due  south  of  Celebes,  and  of 
volcanic  formation,  affords  the  first  example  of 
a  race  of  men  seemingly  intermediate  between 
the  Malay  and  Papuan,  or  Negro,  but  partak- 
ing far  more  of  the  physical  form  of  the  former 
than  of  the  latter.  The  complexion  is  a  good 
deal  darker  than  that  of  the  Malay,  the  nose 
flatter,  the  mouth  wider,  and  the  lips  thicker. 
The  hair  is  not  lank  as  in  the  Malay;  but 
buckles,  without  frizzling  as  in  the  Papuan. 
The  stature  is  the  same  as  that  <^  the  Malay, 
that  is,  short  and  squab.  According  to  the  state- 
ments made  to  Mr.  Crawford  by  Bugis  traders, 
themselves  settlers  in  the  island,  Flores  is  inha- 
bited by  six  different  nations,  speaking  as  many 
different  languages ;  the  EndQ,  the  Mangarai, 
the  Edo,  the  Boka,  the  Konga,  and  the  Grale- 
teng,  names  derived  from  the  principal  places 
of  their  residence. 

Timur  is  a  word  which  means  the  east,  and 
was  probably  imposed  on  this  island  by  the 
Malays,  to  whose  language  it  belongs,  because 
this  was  the  extreme  limit  of  their  ordinary 
commercial  voyages  to  the  south-east.  Timur 
is  about  three  times  the  extent  of  Jamaica.  Its 
principal  inhabitants  are  of  the  Malayan  race, 
but  it  contains  also  Papuans  or  Negros,  and  tribes 
of  the  intermediate  race.  The  two  languages  of 
Timur  are  the  Manatoto  and  the  Timuri,  the 
first  spoken  at  the  north-east  end  of  the  island, 
and  the  last  used  by  many  of  the  tribes  as  a 
conunon  medium  of  intercourse.  No  alphabet 
has  ever  been  invented  in  Timur ;  but  judging 
by  the  specimens  of  its  languages,  the  vowels  are 
the  same  as  those  of  the  Malay  and  Javanese. 

70  N 


From  Timur  to  New  Guinea,  there  ran*  a 
long  chain  of  islets,  forming  as  it  were,  a  wall 
or  barrier  to  the  south-eastern  portion  of  the 
Archipelago.  In  these  islets  the  inhabitants 
are  (^  the  same  race  with  the  Malaya,  and 
speak  many  languages.  By  far  the  most  ample 
and  authentic  account  of  them  has  been 
given  by  Mr.  Winsor  £arl,  who,  after  a  longer 
experience  of  the  countries  in  which  they  are 
spoken  than  any  other  European,  makes  die 
following  observations.  "  In  the  soath-easlern 
parts  of  the  Indian  Archipelago,  where  oppor- 
tunities of  social  intercourse  between  the  various 
petty  tribes  are  of  rare  occurrence,  every  island, 
every  detached  group  of  villages,*  has  its  own 
peculiar  dialect  which  is  often  uninteUigible, 
even  to  the  tribes  in  its  immediate  neighbour^ 
hood.  In  some  of  the  laiger  islands,  Timur, 
for  example,  these  tribes  are  so  numerous,  and 
^e  country  occupied  by  many  of  them  so  ex- 
tensive, that  it  becomes  impossible  to  form  even 
an  approximate  estimate  of  their  number." 
Of  one  language,  the  prevailing  one,  tanang 
several  languages  of  the  island  of  KiiMt,  one  of 
the  Sarawati  group  in  the  chain  of  islets  al* 
ready  mentioned,  Mr.  Earl  furnished  a  cuzioua 
and  instructive  vocabulary  of  2S0  words.  The 
Kisa  is  an  unwritten  tongue,  but  its  vowels  are 
the  same  as  those  of  the  Malay  and  Javanese. 

Spiee  Islands. — Sir  Stamford  Bai&es  for^ 
nished  specimens  of  three  of  the  languages  of 
this  furthest  east  portion,  viz.:  those  of  Ceram, 
correctly  Serang,  of  Temate,  correctly  Tamatiy 
and  of  Saparuwa,  one  of  the  Banda  isles.  Of 
the  languages  of  Ceram,  nine  of  the  words  are 
Malay,  two  Javanese,  17  are  common  to  these 
two  language.  Ceram  Laut  is  the  great  place 
to  which  the  Bugis  carry  the  Papuan  slaves 
whom  they  steal' fVom  New  Guinea. 

The  great  group  of  the  Philippines,  although 
contiguous  to  the  proper  Indian  Archipelago, 
differs  materially  in  climate  and  the  manners 
of  i^  inhabitants.  It  extends  over  fifbeen  de- 
grees from  n^ar  latitude  5^  to  20^  N.,  and  con- 
sists of  many  islands  of  which  only  Lucon  and 
Mindanao  are  of  great  size.  The  bulk  of  the 
people  are  of  the  same  tawny  complexioned^ 
lank-haired,  short  and  squab  race,  as  the  prin- 
cipal inhabitants  of  the  western  portion  of  the 
Indian  Archipelago,  The  focus  of  the  abori- 
ginal cirilization  of  the  Philippines,  as  might 
be  expected,  has  been  the  main  island  of  the 
group,  Lucon.  The  principal  languages  of  Lucon 
are  the  Tagala,  the  Pampanga,  ^e  Pangasanan, 
and  the  Hoco,  spoken  at  present  by  a  popula- 
tion of  2,250,000 ;  while  the  Bisaya  has  a  wide 
currency  among  the  southern  islands  o^  the 
group,  Leyte,  Zebu,  Negros  and  Panay,  contain- 
ing 1,200,000  people.  Mr.  Crawfurd  tdls  na 
that  it  does  not  appear,  from  a  oomparison  of 
the  phonetie  character  and  grammatical  stnio- 



tare  of  the  Tagala,  with  those  of  Malay  and 
JaTSnese,  that  there  is  any  ground  for  fancying 
them  to  he  one  and  the  same  language,  or  lan- 
guages sprang  from  a  common  parent,  and  only 
diversified  by  the  effects  of  time  and  distance, 
md  that  an  examination  of  the  Bisaya  Diction- 
ary gives  similar  results.  The  great  islands  of 
Mindanao,  Falawang,  and  the  Sulu  group  of 
iaktBy  ibrming  the  southern  limits  of  the  Philip- 
pine Archipdago,  contain  many  nations  and 
tribes  speaking  many  languages  of  which  little 
has  been  published.  Mr.  Crawfurd,  on  the 
infiNrmation  given  by  Mr.  Dalrymple,  informs 
OB  diat  even  in  the  little  group  of  the  Sulu 
islands,  a  great  many  different  languages  are 
spoJoen,  and  he  gives  a  short  specimen  of  88 
words  of  one  of  those  most  current.  Sulu  has 
Ibr  many  years  been  the  market  where  the 
Lanon  and  other  pirates  disposed  of  much  of 
their  founder,  and  in  former  times  itself  was 
deeidedfy  piratical.  The  mahomedan  religion 
has  made  much  progress  in  Mindanao  and  the 
Soht  iriands,  as  has  the  Malay  language,  the 
agaal  channel  through  which  it  has  at  all 
times  been  propagated  over  the  islands  of  the 
Indian  Archipdago.  Mr.  Crawfurd  remarks 
that  whether  ihe  principal  languages  of  the 
FhHippineB  be  separate  and  distinct  tongues 
or  mere  dialects  of  a  common  language,  is  a 
q^MStion  not  easy  to  determine.  Certainly,  the 
phonetic  character  of  the  Tagala,  the  Bisaya, 
the  Fsmpangan  and  Ilooo  are,  sound  for  sound 
or  letter  for  letter,  the  same.  Words  of  the 
Malayan  languages  are  to  be  found  in  the  lan- 
goage  of  the  aboriginal  inhabitants  of  Formosa, 
iff  Talmn  ;  and  as  this  large  island  about  half 
as  big  as  Ireland,  stretches  as  far  north  as  the 
25P  df  latitode,  this  is  the  extreme  limit  in  a 
northerly  direction  to  which  they  have  reached. 
Hie  aboiigines  of  Formosa  are  short  in  stature, 
of  tawnj  complexions  and  lank  hair.  Although 
inhabiting  a  great  and  fertile  island,  affording 
to  all  i^>pearance  a  fait  opportunity  of  develop- 
ment, they  never  made  any  progr^  in  civili- 
and  at  present  seem  to  live  in  a  state  of 
They  are  thought  by  Mr.  Craw- 
ford to  belong  to,  or  much  to  resemble,  the 
brown-cc»ni4exioned  race  of  the  Archipelago 
of  vrhom  the  Malays  are  the  type. 

The  ialands  of  the  Pacific  extend  from,  the 
east  of  New  Guinea  and  the  Philippines,  to 
within  two  thousand  five  hiuidred  miles  of  the 
coast  of  America,  and  from  about  the 
of  north  to  the  47^  of  south  latitude.  The 
iangoages  spoken  over  this  vast  area  are,  pro- 
bably, nearly  as  numerous  as  the  islands  them- 
selves. The  language,  with  variations,  is 
jpofeen  by  the  same  race  of  men  from  the  Fiji 
graop,  west  to  Easter  island  eastward,  and  from 
ihe  Sandwich  ishinda  north  to  the  New  2Sea- 
Ind  islanda  south.    It  has  been  caQed  the 



Polynesian.  The  whole  number  of  Malayan 
words  in  the  Maori  dialect  of  the  Polynesian, 
as  they  are  exhibited  in  the  William's  Diction- 
ary, only  amount  to  85. — John  Crawfurd, 
JBsq.j  F,  S.  /Si.,  Malay  Orammar  and  DtcHon^ 
ary,  also,  in  Journal  Indian  Archipelago, 
Vol,  i,  p.  i,  to  cxli.  ;  Bev.  Dr,  GaldwelVs 
Comparative  Orammar  of  the  Tamil  ianguage, 
and  also  Tinnevelly,  Shanars ;  CwnninghanCt 
Bhiha  Topes  ;  Yule's  Embassy  to  Ava  ;  J.  R. 
Logan,  &q.,  F,  O.  S.,  in  Journal  Indian 
Archipelago  from  1848  to  1850,  passim,  p. 
774 ;  Dr.  Latham's  descriptive  Ethnology ; 
Drs.  Pritchard,  Mcut  MiiUer  ;  General  Briggs  ; 
Messrs.  SMagentweit,  in  Beports  British  As- 
sociation, 1845  to  1858;  Messrs.  Hodgson, 
RobiTisan,  SamweUs,  in  Journal  of  Asiatic 
Society  of  Bengal ;  Captain  Neuihold  in  JRoyal 
Asiatic  Society's  Journal  and  Madras  Literary 
Society's  Journal;  Calcutta  Review,  to  1860; 
Rev.  William  Taylor,  A.  M.,  in  Journal 
Madras  Literary  Society ;  Dr.  Thompson's 
Travels  in  Western  Himalaya  ;  Dr.  Moore, 
M.  D. :  Lost  Tribes  and  Saxons  in  ihe  East ; 
Captain  H.  O.  Raverty,  Dictionary  of  the 
Pukhto,  Pushto  or  Affghan  language ;  Mr. 
PiddingUnCs  Index  ;  TJie  Hindoos  ;  Sir  ErsJcine 
Perry's  Bird's  Eye  View  of  India  ;  Chevalier 
Bunsen,  Egypt's  place  in  Universal  History ; 
M.  Spreewenherg,  in  Jour.  Ind.  Arch.,  December 
1858.  See  Africa,  Aheta,  Andamans,  India, 
Masailma  and  £1  Aswad,  Negros  or  Buglos 
islands.  New  Guinea,  Papuans,  Semitic  races. 

NEGRO-DE-HUMO,  Sp.   Lamp-black. 

NEGRO-DE-ZAPATOS,  Sp.    Blacking. 

NEGRO-FUMO,  It.   Lamp-black. 

NEGRO  PRESBYTIS,  see  Simiad». 

NEGROS,  or  Buglos  island,  extends  from  lat. 
9°  4'  to  lat.  9°  50'.  Of  the  central  group  of  the 
Philippines,  consisting  of  Panag,  Negros,  Sa- 
mar,  Leyte,  Masbate,  Bohol,  and  Zebu,  the 
two  former  are  the  only  islands  in  which 
Negrito  tribes  exist  to  the  present  day,  and 
even  as  regards  Panag,  the  fact  must  be  con- 
sidered doubtful.  Negros,  however,  contains 
a  considerable  Negrito  population,  the  crest  of 
the  mountain  range,  which  extends  throughout 
the  length  of  the  island,  a  distance  of  one 
hundred  and  twenty  miles,  being  almost  ex- 
clusively occupied  by  scattered  tribes. — Mr^ 
Earl,  p.  141.     See  Aheta,  Negrito,  Negro. 

NEGUNDO,  see  Acer. 

NEHAS,  Abab.  Copper. 

NEHEMIAH,  is  believed  to  have  been  bom 
in  Babylon. 

NEHESH,  HiB.  Copper. 

NEHOEMECA,  or  Nehoemaka,  Malbal. 
Bryonia  laciniosa. 

NEHOR  NEHU,  a  hirge  sheep,  or  goat,  or 
antelope,  £>und  in  the  very  rugged  mountains 
north  of  the  Yaroo  river,  and  in  Sie  neighbour- 





liood  of  the  salt  mines  or  lakes.     It  is  four  feet  1  from  Mysore  towards  the  middle  of  the  17th 

high,,  has  very  large  horns,  sloping  back,  and 
four   feet  long,  has  a   tail  15  inches  long,  is 
.  shaggy,  and    of    various    colours,    sometimes 
black  and  red. 

NEHUWALA,  of  D'AnviUe,  is  the  capital 
of  the  Balhara  sovereignty  of  the  Arabian  tra- 
vellers of  tlie  eighth  and  ninth  centuries. — 
To(Vs  Rtijasthariy  Vol,  i,  p,  497. 

NEIBUHR,  M.  Carsten.  In  a.  d.,  1762,  an 
expedition  wna  organized  by  king  Frederick  V 
of  Denmark,  for  the  exploration  of  Arabia,  but 
more  particularly  of  the  province  of  Yemen. 
It  was  under  the  charge  of  the  learned  M.  Cars- 
ten  Neibuhr,  with  whom  were  associated  Pro- 
fessor Von  Han  en  as  linguist ;  Professor  For- 
skal  and  Dr.  Cramer  as  naturalists,  and  M. 
Bauronfeind  as  draughtsman.  They  arrived  in 
Yemen  in  the  end  of  December  1762.  Von 
Hanen  died  at  Mokha  on  the  25th  May  1763, 
Forskal  died  at  Yereem  on  the  17th  July  fol- 
lowing, M.  Baurenfeind  expired  at  sea,  near 
the  island  of  Socotra,  on  the  29th  August,  and 
Dr.  Cramer  at  Bombay  on  the  11th  February 
1764.-— Playfair's  Aden. 

NEILGHERRIES,    a  magnificent  mass    of 
mountains  in  the  peninsula  of  India  near  the 
southern   extremity  of  the   Western   Ghauts, 
rising  to  an  altitude  of  8,600  feet  at   Doda- 
betta,  where  an  observatory  was  established  in 
1845.     Dr.  Birch  wrote  a  topogra{)hical  report 
of  the  hills  in  Mad.  Lit.  Trans.  1838,  Vol.  viii, 
86.     The  Neilgherries  are  the  highest  hills  in 
the  south  of  India,  they  lie  to  the  west  of 
Col  legal.     The  surrounding  rocks  are  of  granite 
and  gneiis,  but  the  summits  of  the  mounUiins  are 
of  greenstone.     The  Kunda  range  is  extremely 
irregular  in  its  outline.     It  forms  the  seaward 
flank  of  the   Neilgherries   with  a  very  steep 
slope  towards  the  Malabar  Coast.     It  attains 
in  its  higher  parts  an  elevation  of  7,500  to 
8,200  feet  above  the  sea.    llie  Kunda  or  Sispara 
ghaut  or  pass  which  leads  to  Calicut  is  6,742 
feet   above   the  sea.     Neilgheri,   means  blue 
mountain.    The  Neilgherries  had  been  traversed 
by  a  party  of  Pioneers  under  Captain  Bevan  and 
Dr.  Ford,  in  1809,  and  were  partially  surveyed 
under  the  direction  of  Colonel  Morrison,  so  far 
back  as  1812.     But  they  appear  to  have  been 
almost  unknown  to  Europeans  till  about  the 
year  1819,  when  tliey  were  fqrst  ascended  by 
Messrs.  Whish  and  Kindersley,  in  pursuit  of  a 
band  of  smugglers.    Their  report  led  to  Mr. 
Sullivan  establishing  himself  there,  and  ulti- 
mately to  their  being  selected  as  a  convalescent 
station.    The  remains  of  two  forts  are  still  to  be 
seen,  each  of  which  was  used  as  a  state  prison, 
and  was  occupied  by  a  small  garrison  in  the 
time  of  Ilyder  Ali  and  Tippoo  Sultan.    The 
Baddagah,  or  agricultural  inhabitants,  have  a 

century.     Of  the  origin  and  history  of  the  Toda, 
nothing  certain  is  known.    The  hiJJs  are  situated 
between  L.  1 1°  and  12°  N.,  and  L.  76°  and  77° 
E.,  on  the  confines  of  the  provinces  of  Mysore, 
Coimbatore,  and  Malabar.    To  Mysore,  they 
are  joined  by  a  narrow  neck  of  land,  of  much 
inferior  height  however.     On  all  the  other  sides 
they  are  completely  isolated.     The  sea  is  40 
miles  distant  at  the  nearest  point  on  the  west. 
The  summit  of  the  hilb  forms  an  undulating 
table  land  of  considerable  extent  in  the  form  of 
an  irregular  parallelogram,  40  miles  long  from 
E.  to  W.,  and  with  a  medium  breadth  of  about 
15  from  N.  to  S.    The  surface  may  be  rotighly 
estimated  at .  650  square  miles,  and  presents 
several  distinct  ranges  of   undulations    with 
pecuhar  features.     That  to  the  west  called  the 
Koondahs,    rises    abruptly    from    the    plain, 
bordered  by  several  precipices  of  great  heip^ht, 
and  accessible  only  at  one  or  two  points.     The 
upper  surface  is  intersected  by  narrow   deep 
valleys,  thickly  dotted  with  wood,  and  present- 
ing some  most  picturesque  scenery.     Several 
considerable  streams  take  their  rise  here  and 
unite  to  form  the  Bowany  river,  wich,  descend- 
ing by  a  succession  of  beautiftil  falls  into  a 
most  romantic  gorge,  forces  its  way  through 
the   southern  edge  of  the  tableland,  where  it 
makes  an  abrupt  turn  to  the  east,  and  flows 
along  the  whole  southern  aapect  of  the  hills  till 
it  meets  the  Moyar  descending  in  a  similar 
manner,  and  with  similar  accompaniments  of 
scenery  from  the  northern  face.     A  prolonga- 
tion of  the  Koondahs  to  the  north  is  called  the 
NeddimuUa  range,  and  forms  a  narrow  ridge, 
shooting  up  into  sharp  peaks,  and  bordered  by 
lofty  precipices  on  the  west.     On  the  inner 
side,  the  Koondalis  sink  into   a  lower   range 
of  tableland,   formed  by  a  succession  of  low 
rounded  hills  and  valleys,  less  richly  wooded 
and  bounded  to  the  E.  by  the  great  central 
range  of  Dodabet,  running  completely  across 
from  N.  to  S.     This  is  the  highest  point  of  the 
hills,  being  8,730  feet  above  the  sea.     On  the 
west  side  of  the  range,  immediately  below  the 
liighest  summit,  is  Ootacamund,  situated  in   a 
basin  surrounded  by  high  hills  on  all  sides*      At 
the  northern  extremity  of  the  range  is  Coonoor, 
from  which  a  magnificent  gorge  descends  to  the 
plain  of  Coimbatoor,  giving  a  passage  to   the 
Coonoor  ghaut,  one  of  the  principal  roads.      A 
corresponding  fissure  on  the  N.,  but  much  less 
deep  and  not  so  picturesque,  contains  the  Segoor 
ghaut  which  gives  access  to  the  hills  from  Mysore 
and  the  north.  After  crossing  the  Dodabet  range, 
the  country  sinks  considerably  and  is  covered 
with  Buddagah  villages  and  cultivation  for  8om« 
miles,  when  it  again  rises  into  long  grassy  ranges 
like  the  Koondahs,  but  without  the  loffcy  peaks 

distinct  tradition  of  their  having  migrated  thither   which  distinguish  the  latter.   At  the  commeace- 

72  N  72 


raent  of  the  rise  is  situated  Kotagherry,  and  a 
little  to  the  N.  a  deep  valley  running  E.  and  W. 
deec^ids  abruptly  into  the  low  country,  and  is 
known  as  the  orange  valley,  from  containing  a 
number  of  wild  orange  trees.     It  also  contains  a 
pictoresqae  waterfidi  of  some  height.      The 
^leiceat  finom  the  tableland  of  Kotagherry,  though 
leas  abrupt  than  that  of  the  Koondahs,  is  suffi- 
eientlj  sadden  to  present  a  bold  and  imposing 
a^)eet  when  viewed  from  below.    About  the 
middle  of  liie  E.  face,   nearly  opposite  the 
Guaelhatty  pass,  which  ascends  into  Mysore, 
is  the  dd  Jackanairy  Pass  which  for  many  years 
was  the  oiily  practicable  access  to  any  part  of 
them.    The  views  on  the  Koondahs  are  bold  and 
magnificent.    Those  towards  and  near  Ootaca- 
mimd,more  pastoral ;  and  in  the  vicinity  of  Kota- 
gherry, richer  and  more  agricultural.   The  want 
of  rich  trofHcal  v^tation  presented  by  some  of 
the  ghauts  to  the  northward  is  conspicuous,  and 
the  absence  of  the  deciduous  plants  and  the  con- 
sequent want  of  Uie  rich  variety  of  autumnal 
tints  seen  in  the  £>re8ts  of  Europe  gives  an  air 
of  monotDi^  to  the  woods,  which   so  richly 
clothe  the  upper  portion   of  the   table-land. 
The  general  elevation  d*  the  table-land  differs 
a  little  in  the  Uuree  principal  divisions.     That 
o£  the  Koondah  range  may  be  estimated  at 
7,600  feet.    The  central  portion  at  7,100  or 
7,200,  and  the  Kotagherry  division  at  6,000. 


most  important  points    of  climate  compared 
with  similar  phenomena  in  Great  Britain  : 

Koondah  Kanse  and 

CuddnJad  hiU...Ft  8,502 

Avalanche    bunga- 
low     6,71d 

Avalaaiohe        Pass 
(tc»>. 7,745 

Woodcock  valley...    7,630 

Kakurtee  peak. 8,403 

Ceotral  Bangs. 

tI«adofS^goorPaa8    7,304 

Kuthattf  bungalow   5,538 

DaTiosohij  Betta  (N 
of  Ootecanmiid).    8,380 

Dodabet    (hi^^  I 

point  of  hills) 872SJ.7  I 

Kundanogaj      hill 
(oppodto  Ballia)    7,818 

Ootecamand  lake..    7,361 

Tankemeas  cottage 

(Or.  Baikie)  Ft  7,416 
Coonoor  bungalow.  5,911 
Daverbetta   (oppo- 
site Coonoor) 6,671 

Kotagherry  Range. 
Kotagherry       (Dr. 

Eaton'b  house)...  ^71 
Dimbutty     bunga- 
low   6,506 

Orange  Talley  (cen- 
tre)     ^847 

Bookul  Betta  (above 
do.) 7,267 

LowCountiy  adjoining. 

MutapoUium  bung- 
low 942 

Coimbatore  palace.    1,483 

Segoor  village  (foot 
ofSegOOTPaas)-.    4fiOX 

The  great  elevation  of  the  Nelgiris,  coai- 
bined  irith  their  perfectly  isolated  position,. 
eqnallj  influenced  by  both  monsoons,  unite  in 
prpdncing  one  of  the  most  perfectly  temperate 
and  equable  dimates  in  the  world.  The  mean 
annual  tempwature  of  Ootacamund  is  58^-68®. 
The  annual  range  is  considerable,  being  equal 
in  some  years  to  38°,  the  highest  observed 
temperature  ia  the  shade  being  77°  and  the 
kffPeitdd^.    The  mean  daily  range  is  17°. 

The   Mowing  table  presents  a  view  of  the 

Quantity  of 



8   . 







— IS,, 














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*e9iivg  a«9]i{ 




'nmvptiK  viOR 






•■9maMan»Ai           i 




The  mean  temperature  of  the  year,  the 
mean  maximum  and  mean  minimum,  bear 
about  the  same  relation  to  each  other  as  in  Bri- 
tain, hut  are  about  10°  higher,  while  the 
daily  range  is  somewhat  less.  The  highest 
observed  temperature  and  the  lowest  in  Eng- 
land are  greatly  above  and  below  respectively, 
the  corresponding  points  on  the  Neilgherrii^ 
that  is  to  say,  the  extremes  are  greater.  The 
number  of  days  on  which  rain  fells  in  Eng- 
land (exclusive  of  snow)  greatly  exceeds  the 
corresponding  number  on  the  hills,  only  160 
fair  days  being  Jeft  in  the  one  case  and  237 
in  the  other. 

At  Ootaoamund,  mean  Mean  annual  mnge.  0*495 
height  of  barometer  28-018  Mean  daily  ran«?  0-^ 
Greatest  range,  0-700    Greatest^y  Snge  0-^ 

The  hygrometrical  state  of  the  atmospheie 
varies  from  intense  dryness  (from  January  to 
May)  to  saturation,  with  moisture,  during  the 
monsoon,  and  evaporation  is  in  ahnost  direct  ratio 
with  the  dryness  of  the  air.  January,  February 
and  the  half  of  March,  arp  u^ifofmly  fair) 
clear,  a^d  dry.  The  nights  are  very  cojd,  and 
frost  IS  almost  always  to  be  found  in  valleysan^ 
sheltered  situations  towards  morning,  disappear- 
ing as  the  sun  acquires  power.  The  s^  the 
shade  is  always  cold,  but  the  ray^  of  the  sun 
are  very  powerful.     Rain  seldom  occurs  before 





the  end  of  March  when  the  frost  disappears  ; 
the  air  hecomes  milder  and  there  are  generally 
a  few  heavy  showers.  April  and  May  are 
mild  pleasant  months  with  frequent  heavy 
shpwers  and  thunder-storms.  In  Jime  the 
S.  W.  monsoon  sets  in ;  in  general  10  or  14 
days  later  than  on  the  Malahar  Coast.  At  first 
the  rain  is  pretty  constant  and  heavy,  but  dur- 
ing the  whole  continuance  of  the  monsoon,  that 
is,  till  the  middle  or  end  of  September,  there 
are  frequent  intervals  of  most  delightful  wea- 
ther. The  temperature  being  peculiarly 
equable  and  the  dampness  very  trifling.  Octo- 
ber is  an  uncertain  month,  being  occasionally 
blustery  and  showery,  occasionally  very  fine 
and  dry  according  as  the  N.  £.  monsoon  occurs 
early  or  late.  November  is  showery  and  un- 
pleasant, but  afler  the  occurrence  of  some 
heavy  fogs  in  the  early  part  of  December,  the 
frost  sets  in  and  the  weather  becomes  dry, 
cold,  and  bracing.  The  seasons  are  subject  to 
great  fluctuations,  almost  as  much  so  as  in 
Europe.  The  climates  of  Kotagherry  and 
Coonoor  are  considerably  milder  than  that  of 
Ootacamund,  and  there  is  also  some  difference 
in  the  seasons.  The  S.  W.  monsoon  being 
comparatively  light  at  both  these  stations,  while 
the  N.  £.  is  heavier.  The  formation  consists 
almost  entirely  of  sienite  in  all  its  modifications, 
granite  more  rarely,  covered  in  most  places  by 
a  cap  of  Hthomargic  earth,  in  which  the  vari- 
ous constituents  of  the  primitive  rock  can  be 
distinctly  traced  in  various  stages  of  disintegra- 
tion and  decay.  The  latter  in  some  places 
assumes  the  form  of  laterite  or  soapstone. 
The  soil  is  of  very  various  quality  and  composi- 
tion .  In  the  valleys  and  swamps  it  is  generally  of 
a  deep  black  colour,  and  consists  of  disintegrated 
sienite  (mostly  hornblende)  mixed  with  vegetable 
matter,  vexj  rich,  and  when  thoroughly  drained 
is  highly  productive.  In  the  woods  also  there  is 
a  large  admixture  of  vegetable  matter  and  the 
soil  is  of  great  depth— on  the  sides  of  the  hills 
again  it  is  much  thinner,  more  mixed  with 
lithomargic  earth,  and  consequently  poorer. 
The  soil  is  richer  and  more  fitted  for  agricul- 
tural purposes  towards  the  verge  of  the  high 
ground,  where  the  agricultural  portion  of  ^e 
community  (the  Buddagah  and  Kothar)  are 
exclusively  located,  and  experience  has  taught 
them  not  to  turn  up  the  soU  too  deeply.  V^e- 
tables  and  fruit  of  every  description  are  plenti- 
ful. The  Buddagah  cultivate  barley,  wheat, 
ragee,  and  a  small  species  of  millet  in  great 
quantities — a  small  grain  called  keerei-mow, 
(Amaxantus  tristis)  poppies,  garlic,  onions  and 
mustard — and  without  culture  are  wild  oranges 
in  one  or  two  localities,  the  Brazil  cherry,  the 
hill  gooseberry,  strawberries,  raspberries,  bram- 
bleberries,  and  barberries.  The  Orchis  mascula 
which  produces  the  celebrated  salep  nusree,  is 

74  N 

plentiful  in  certmn  localities.    Of  wild  animals, 
are  the  tiger  and  cheeta,  the   elephant,  the 
bison  (Bibos  cavi6x)n8  of  Hodgson)  the  samber 
or  black  rusa  (Kusa  aristotelis  of  Cuvier)  an 
undescribed  species  of  wild  goat,  apparently  the 
Capra  aegagrus.     The  jangle  sheep  (Gervus 
muntjak,)  the  bear  (Ursus  labiatos)  the  wild  hog, 
jackalls  and  wild  dogs,  also  otters  which  nre 
numerous  in  the  large  rivers.     PorcupixMs, 
martens,  two  species  of  monkeys,  hares  in  con- 
siderable numbers.    In  the  ghauts  and  slopes 
towards  the  low  country,  the  woodcock,  sditarj 
and  common  snipe,  jungle  fowl,  spur  fiswl,  pear- 
fowl  and  quail.     Hawks  in  great  numbers  and 
variety  and  a  black  eagle  are  also  to  be  foond. 
The  black  bird,  the  thrush,  wren  and  laik  are 
the  same  as  their  prototypes  in  Europe.     A 
very  small  fish  is  found  in  great  numbers  in  the 
Pykaira  river,  and  the  deep  pools  are  inhabit- 
ed by  kaboose  of  a  laige  size.    Crabs  are  com- 
mon.   A  small  harmless  green  snake  is  very 
commcm.    Cobras  are  not  uncommon  in  Orange 
valley  and  a  rather  large  description  of  boa. 
Fleas  are  very  troublesome  at  certain  seaaona 
and  appear  to  breed  in  the  ground. 

The  Todawara  or  Todalu  are  the  oldest  of  the 
inhabitants,  but  of  their  origin,  history,  &c., 
nothing  whatever  is  known.  Their  eostume  and 
physiognomy  are  peculiar.  Their  language 
is  partly  derived  from  the  Hahi  or  ancient 
Canarese.  Each  Mund  or  village,  has  a 
separate,  and  somewhat  larger  house  set  apart^ 
and  sacred,  as  a  dairy,  into  which  women  are 
not  aUowed  to  enter.  They  are  entirely 
nomadic  and  subsist  by  the  produce  of  their 
herds,  receiving  ako  a  sort  of  ground-rent  in 
kind  from  the  Buddagah  and  Kota  who  acknow- 
ledge them  as  the  lords  of  the  soil.  They  are 
polyandric,  the  brothers  of  the  family  having 
only  one  wife  in  common  :  female  infanticide 
prevails ;  they  slaughter  a  number  of  buffaloes 
at  funerals  attended  with  some  ceremonies. 
They  appear  to  be  decreasing  in  number. 

llie  Buddaga,  by  fiur  the  most  numerous  race 
on  the  hills,  are  the  descendants  of  Mysore 
soodras,  who,  sometime  in  the  middle  of  the 
\7th  century,  quitted  their  original  location  in 
Mysore  to  avoid  the  oppression  of  the  rajah. 
They  are  almost  entirely  employed  in  cultiva- 
tion— but  they  keep  large  flocks  and  herds  of 
cattle  and  readily  act  as  coolies,  cowkeepen, 
&c.  They  are  a  most  industrious  race.  Their 
numbers  are  increasing,  and  their  villages  are 
populous  and  thriving. 

The  Kotha  are  a  race  with  habits  like  the 
chucklers  below.  They  are  rather  looked  down 
upon  by  the  Buddaga  fVom  their  eating  carrion, 
but  they  are  equally  industrious,  and  are  the 
universal  artizans  of  the  hills,  making  and 
repairing  ploughshares  and  other  agricul- 
tural implements,  as  also  the  silver  ornaments 



worn  by  the  Toda  and  Baddaga  women  and 

Hie  Erular  and  tiie  Moola-Goorumbar  are 
almost  in  a  state  of  nature,  inhabiting  the 
wildest  recesses  of  the  jangles  on  the  slopes  of 
the  hills,  where  they  erect  wretched  hats,  sur- 
loonded  by  a  few  plantain  trees  and  a  little 
wretched  cultiyation.  They  avoid  mankind,  and 
are  regarded  as  sorcerers  by  the  other  inhabi- 
tants, who  attribute  to  their  agency  every  piece 
of  ill  lock  that  be&lls  their  cattle  or  themselves. 
In  the  year  1835,  after  a  severe  murrain  had 
pcevttJed  among  die  cattle,  the  Goorumbars  to 
the  number  (^  60  or  60  were  assembled  to  a 
fieaat,  and  in  the  height  of  their  merriment  were 
crodUiy  massacred  by  the  Toda  race,  scarcely 
ome  escaping. 

The  experience  of  many  years  has  undeniably 
proved  the  perfect  adaptation  of  the  climate  to 
the  sound  European  constitution  and  its  great 
power  of  restoring  to  health  those  who  have 
suffered  fiom  the  various  diseases  produced  by 
tropical  climates.  For  confirmed  liver-disease, 
and  chronic  dysentery,  and  for  teething  child- 
ren, diey  are  wholly  unsuited.  Little  benefit 
is  to  be  expected  firom  a  mere  change  to 
the  Neilgherries  without  a  prolonged  residence 
there,  and  caution  is  required  in  guarding 
against  peculiar  effects  of  the  climate.  From 
the  great  elevation  and  consequent  rarefaction 
of  the  air,  heat  is  much  more  rapidly  abstracted 
from  the  body  at  a  corresponding  temperature 
near  the  level  of  the  sea.  The  power  of  the 
sun's  rays  or  the  difference  between  the  tem- 
perature in  the  sun'  and  in  the  shade  is  much 
greater  than  below,  often  amounting  to  nearly 
90^1  this  is  peculiarly  remarkable  early  in 
ihe  morning,  and  again  after  sunset  when 
invalids  or  delicate  persons  are  very  subject 
to  sodden  chills,  in  the  one  case  by  coming 
into  die  house  or  shade,  when  heated  by 
exercise  in  the  open  air,  in  the  other  by  re- 
maining outside  after  the  sun  has  gone  down. 
Allowance  must  also  be  made  for  the  effects  of 
diminished  presBure  of  the  atmosphere,  increas- 
ing the  quantity  of  blood  circulated  in  the 
capillaries  on  the  surface  of  the  body,  and  more 
tapetaaidy  on  the  air  cells  of  the  lungs,  by  which 
the  general  circulation  will  be  accelerated  and 
die  other  effects  of  a  powerftil  stimulus  {uroduced : 
to  this  cause  may  be  attributed  the  malaise, 
head-ache,  sleeplessness  and  other  unpleasant 
sensatioiia  experienced  by  many  delicate  per- 
sons on  their  first  ascent.  Great  attention  is 
also  requisite  to  clothing,  diet,  and  exercise ; 
and  no  invalid  should  omit  to  avail  himself  of 
dbe  able  medical  advice  to  be  had  on  the  spot  on 
his  first  arrival. 

Ootacamund  is  picturesquely  situated  in  the 
bann  formed  by  the  central  chain  of  Dodabet, 
from  which  two  considerable  spurs  ran  in  a 

75  .N 


semi-circular  direction  to  the  west,  and  com- 
pletely enclose  it  on  all  sides  except  the  W.  N. 
W.  The  subordinate  hills  and  interjacent 
vallies  have  each  its  house  perched  at  the  sum- 
mit or  sheltered  in  the  nooks,  and  the  terreplaine 
of  the  valley  is  advantageously  occupied  by  a 
long  narrow  lake  formed  by  an  artificial  dam 
which  closes  it  to  the  W.  and  retains  all  the 
waters  of  the  basin.  The  site  has  been  admir- 
ably closen,  its  central  position  giving  it  all  ad- 
vantages of  climate  while  it  is  free  from  the 
suspicion  of  malaria  which  attaches  to  places 
nearer  the  edge  of  the  ghauts,  and  it  presents 
a  great  extent  of  level  ground  than  almost  any 
other  point  on  the  hills,  the  principal  drive 
round  the  lake  forming  a  circuit  of  firom  6^  to 
8  miles. 

Kotagherry,  17  miles  E.  of  Ootacamund, 
affords  an  agreeable  relief  at  certain  seasons 
when  the  cold  at  Ootacamund  is  too  severe  or 
during  the  prevalence  of  the  S.  W.  monsoon. 
It  is  also  generally  preferred  by  those,  who, 
from  long  residence  in  India  or  natural  delica- 
cy of  constitution,  are  unpleasantly  affected  by 
the  suddenness  of  the  transition  from  the  low 
country.  This  remark  applies  still  more  strongly 
to  Coonoor,  the  climate  of  which  is  a  shade 
milder  than  Kotagherry. — Dr.  Buist ;  British 
Almanac  for  1836  and  1838  ;  DanieVs  Meteoro- 
logical  Essays  :  ])r,Bmm^%nlMMadra$J(ywrnal 
of  Literature  and  Science,  No,  13 ;  Harhnest^ 
account  of  a  singular  Aboriginal  race  on  the 
Neilgherries,  London,  1832;  Topographical 
Report  on  ihe  NeHgherries,  hy  Dr.  Birch,  mj)., 
Madras  Journal  of  Literature  and  Science, 
No.  20;  BailMs  Observations  on  the  Neil- 
gherries^ edited  by  W.  H.  SmotOt,  Esq., 
Calcutta,  1834,  ^c,  ^c."  See  India,  Khtar, 
Buddagar,  Kurumbur  and  Thodawar. 

oococca  trinerva. 

pestes  fiiscus,  Waterh.,  Bl. 


NEIIXJHERRY  GRASS.  This  is  a  species 
of  lobelia,  which  probably  came  firom  Java, 
the  Lobelia  succulenta  of  Blume,  a  Java  plant. 
Wight,  writing  on  the  lobelias  says :  "There  is 
a  small  cesf^tose  species  much  cultivated  in 
pots,  by  amateurs,  under  the  strange  name  of 
Neilgherry  grass. — Mason. 


Urtica  beterophylla,   Rox. 
Girardinia  leachenaultii. 
Hooroo,  Surat  of  Awam. 




Herpah  or  Serpah, 

Thexig  Mab, 
This  is  the  most  widely  difi^ised  of  die  large 
Indian  Nettles  being  found  in  South  Concan, 
along  the  Malabar  coast;  the  Mysore,  the  Neil- 
gherries, the  valleys  of  the  Himalaya,  in  As- 
sam and  Bumah.  It  is  an  annual  plant,  the 
sting  of  it  produces  intense  pain,  the  bark 
abounds  in  fine,  white,  glossy  silk  like  fibres, 



but  these  probably  differ  with  the  locality  in 
which  the  plant  is  grown.  Dr.  Wight  describes 
those  of  the  Neilgherries,  as  a  fine  soft  flax-like 
fibre,  and  fitted  to  compete  with  fiax  in  the 
manufacture  of  even  very  fine  textile  fabrics. 
The  Toda  extract  it  by  boiling  the  plant, 
and  use  it  as  a  material  for  making  thread. 
Mr.  Dickson  passed  it  through  his  machine  and 
liquid!  which  rendered  it  like  a  beauti^,  soft, 
silky  kind  of  flax.  He  caUs  it  a  wonderful  fibre, 
of  which  the  tow  would  be  useful  for  mixing 
with  wool,  aa  has  been  done  with  China  grass. 
— Eoyle, 

perroteti,  Dwu, 

Sciurus  sublineatus,  Waterh.j  Bly, 

giricuB,  Jerdon, 

hylocrius  Jenrd, 

NEILL,  Sir  James,  an  officer  of  the  Madras 
Army,  who  rose  in  the  Madras  Fusilier  regi- 
ment. He  wa8  the  first  to  stem  the  tide  of 
rebellion  in  1857.  A  statue  was  erected  to  his 
memory  in  Ayr,  his  native  place,  and  another 
in  Madras. 

NEILUNG,  see  Kunawer. 

NEISWURTEL,  Dan.      Helleborus   niger. 

NEJD  occupies  nearly  the  centre  of,  and  is  the 
largest  province  in,  Arabia,  being,  in  its  greatest 
limits,  640  miles  in  length  fh)m  north  to  south, 
and  750  miles  fropi  edst  to  west.  On  the  east 
is  the  long  strip  of  El  Hassa,  or  Hadjar,  on  the 
noriii  that  part  of  Attibia  Deserta  called  Tauf, 
the  Hijaz  oh  the  west,  with  a  part  of  Yemen  on 
the  south,  and  the  desert  of  Ahkaf  on  the  south- 
east. The  surfkce,  as  the  name  implies,  is 
elevated,  but  it  is  diversified  with  mountains, 
▼alleys,  and  plains.  Some  writers  consider  the 
mountainous  district  Nejd  Arad  fas  a  separate 
province.  The  existence  of  a  firesh-Water 
lake  at  El  Asha,  and  of  several  in  Nejd,  as 
ascertained  by  Captain  Sadleir,  has  establii^ed 
the  fidelity  of  Strabo  in  this  particular.  There 
are  others,  but  of  small  size,  in  Arabia  Felix, 
in  Tehameh  and  in  Oman,  and  one  called 
Salome  in  Ahkaf.  The  Anezi,  according  to 
Burchardt,  are  the  most  powerfiil  Arab  nation 
in  tl^e  vicinity  of  Syria,  and  of  their  brethren 
in  Nejd  he  added,  they  are  the  most  consider- 
able body  of  bedouins  in  the  Arabian  deserts. — 
Vol.  iii,  f,  464,  of  Trans,  of  ih^  Bombay  LU. 
8oc  ;  Niehhvh^s  Travds  in  ArahuL,  translated 
by  Bob&rt  Heron,  VoL  i,  p,  297 ;  BuUetin  de 
laSoeiete  de  Geographie  de  Paris,  1843,  j9. 101; 
Col.  Chesney,  p.  B7h  Euphrates  and  Tigris. 
See  Arabia,  Aramaan,  Beni,  Wahabi. 

NEJRAN,  a  province  of  Arabia.  In  the 
Koran,  the  burning  of  the  christians  there  is 
Btroog^  condenmed.  See  M&qb  galluSy  WahabL 



NEK-HKAT,  Btoh. 
NEKMUNDUN,  a  venerated  mahomedanaaint. 

NEKRA,Tkl.   Oordiamyxa. 

NEKRA,  Hum.    Ganis  pallipes,  Sykes. 

NERSH-I-RUSTAM,  see  Kara  oghlan, 
Naksh-i'«Rustura,  Babylon. 

NBL,  or  Nella,  Nelli,  NeUu,  Kax9.,  Malsax, 
Tam.    Unhusked  rice,  Orisa  sativa,  IF. 

NELA,  Tam.  A  wood  of  a  dark  red  oolonr, 
good  for  boat-work ;  tree  produces  a  small  fruit, 
which  the  natives  eat  raw. — EdySy  M,  and  0» 

NELAALUMU,Tbl.  Rhyncho6ianuda,2>(7. 

NELA-AMIDA,  Tbl.  Jatrc^ha  ^andulifera. 

NELAB£NDA,Tbl.  Abelmoschusficulneus, 
W,  and  A,f  196,  ic.,  154,  or  Hibiscus  prostra- 
tus,  JS.,  ui,  208,  also  Sida  hnmilis,  WiUd.,  IL^ 
iii,  171,  W.  and  A.,  223. 

NELA  CHEPPUDU,  or  Cheppu-tatta,  Tel, 
Elytraria  crenata,  VaM,,  or  Justicia  acaulis,  R*, 
i,  119  ;  Cor.,  127. 

NELA-CUMUL  VAYR,  or  Nela  gumul  vayr, 
Tam.    Root  of  Gmelina  asiatica,  Boa;b. 

NELA  6ULI,  or  Nelagulimidi,  Tel.  Slevog^ 
tia  verticillata,  D.  Don.  Adenema  hyssopifoliumy 
W.  Ic,  600 — Gentiana  verticillata,  R.,  ii,  71* 

NELA  GUMMUDU,  or  Bhuchakra  gadda» 
Tbl.    Batatas  paniculata,  Ch. 

NELA  GURUGUDU,  or  Nela  gulimidi,  Tbl. 
Slevogtia  verticillata,  D*  Don. 

NELA  JAMMI»  or  Chinna  jammi,  Tbl. 
Acacia  cineraria,  WUld. 

NELA  JIDI,  Tax.  Marking  nut.  Nelajidi 
nuna,  Marking  nut-oil. 

NELA  JIDI,  or  Konda  amudam,  Tbl.  Bali- 
oapermum  polyandrum,  JRi  W. 

NELA  KALIGOTTU,  or  Kaligotto,  Tbl. 
Bignonia,  sp.  A  small  species ;  Q.  .^jschynan- 
thus  parasiticus,  WaU.  ? 

NELA  KOBBARI,  or  Purusha  ratnam,  Tbl. 
lonidium  suffiniticosum,  Oing. —  W.  and  A^ 
116 ;  W.  le.,  30S*-.Viola  suf.,  E.,  i,  649. 

NELA  KUMUL,  Tax.  Gmelina  asiatica,  2^. 

NELAM  PATA,  Malbal.  Grangea  made- 
raspatana.  Pair. 

NELA  MURA,  or  Nela  cheppudu,  Elytra- 
ria crenata,  VM.^-^'R.  i,  119.  Pid.  IndL 
writes  Nela  mira. 

NELA  MULAKA,  or  Nelik  mullaku,  or 
N^a  vakudu,  Solanum  jacquini,  WiUd, — >m. 
difiusum,  R.  i,  568.  The  fruit  of  this  var.  is 
large  and  white,  used  as  a  vegetable. 

NELA-NAR(£GAM,  Malbal.  Naregamia 
alata,  W.  4l'  ^ 

NELA  NEREDU,  Tbl.  Premna  herbacea, 
R.  iii,  80,  syn.  Bhu  jambu,  Bhui  jamb.  There 
is  some  confusion  between  Premna  herbacea 
and  Ardisia  humilis — or  Kaki  neredu. 

NELA  NIRGANDA,  Saks.  Gendarmm 

NELANJANUM)  also  LanjanAm,  Tbl.  An« 

N  76 


NELA-NUGA,  'Pbl.  Lagenam  yulgaris, 
Sir,  w.    Gucuibita  lagenaria. 

hathiiB,  8p^  Lmm.    Perh»pB  P.  niruri. 

NELA  PALA,  or  Chtjri  pala,  Tel.  Oxys- 
telaia  escnlentam,  R.  Br^  This  is  applied  to 
a  variety  common  about  Bejawada,  ruuning 
aking  the  siurfiKe. 

NELAPANI---?  Gorculigo  orchioides. 

NELA  PIPPAU,  Til.  Zapania  nodiflora, 
Imi.— iZft«Mi«,  x»  47. 

NELA  POKA,  Tbl.  CalamYu  erectus,  R. 
iii,  774  ?  The  words  mean,  ^'  ground  areca/' 
and  the  botanical  name  it  assigned  conjee- 
tunlly,  the  seeds  of  Gal.  eaectus  being  used 
for  b0tel*nat* 

NELA  PONNA,  Tbz..  Cassia,  «p.  Br.  682, 
81^  C.  sennar^Bheede,  ii,  52,  has  Ponna 
tagara  for  C  sophora. 

NELA  POONA,  Tax.     Cassia  lanceolata, 

NELA  SAMPENGA,  or  Veru  sampenga, 
Polyaathet  taberaa,  L.—B.  ii,  166,  Br.  1005. 

NELA-SANIGHELU,  Tbl.  Nut  of  Arachis 

NELA  TADI  or  Nela  tati  gndda,  Tsl.  Cur- 
cnbgo  Qffchioides,  Qiertn, — J2.  ii,  144,  Cor,  13 
— Bkudej  xii,  59. 

NELA  TANGEDU,  Tbl.  Cassia  obtusa,  B. 
ii,  S34r-1F.  €md  A.  891— FT.  /c,  767. 

NELA  TAPPIDA,  or  Nela  cheppudu,  Tbl. 
Eljtraria  crenata,  Vahl. 

NELA  TSJIRA,  Maxa&l.  Pbrtulaca  quad- 

NELA  UMATA,  Malbal.    Datura  fastuosa. 

NELA  USIRIEA,  Tbl.  PhjUanthus  ni- 
nni,  Z.— il.,  iii,  669.— TT.  /c,  1894.— -JB^ecfo, 
z,  15.  According  to  Koxb.,  P.  madraspatensts 
is  also  called  Nela  or  Nalla  usirika. 

NELA  VAKUDU,  or  Nela  mulaka,  Tbl. 
Sofamnm  jaoquini,  WiUd.,  0,  fVuit  small, 

NELA  YAMINATA,  or  Kukka  vaminta, 
Tbqu  Folanisia  icosandra,  W.  and  A,  It  may 
ala»  refer  to  the  smaller  sp.  of  Cleome  and 
iroald  be  especially  applicable  to  C.  burmanni. 

NELA  YAVTLI,  Tbl.  Gendarussa  vulgaris, 
ifMi. — W.ICj  468.— Justicia  gend.,  B.i,  128 
— Metd^,  ix,  42.  Gandharssa,  Sabs.,  literally 
*'  cBBcnoe  of  smell  or  perfume."  The  word  does 
sot  i^>pear  to  signify  any  particular  flower.  It 
oooaa  in  Bumph.  Amboina,  iv,  tab.  28,  whence 
it  has  been  adq>ted  by  Lum.,  Willd.  and  others. 
Boocb.  applied  the  word  to  the  incense  obtained 
ham,  Boawellia  serrata  the  B.  thurifera  of  Colebr. 

NELA  VELAGA,  or  Velaga,  Tbl.  Feronia 
d^ihatttum,  Oorr.  var.  This  var.  is  common 
in  aadaboat  tillages.  It  is  a  small'  shrub  with 
die  petioles  m«^  winged. — Br,^  793. 

NELA  TEMBU,  Tax.  Andit^aphis  pani- 
cakta,  LUm» 



NELA  VEMU,  Tbl.  Andrographia  panicu- 
lata,  WaU. —  W.  /e.,  518. — Justicia  pan.,  22., 
i,  ll7.'-BhMd6,  ix,  66. 

NELAM  PATA,  Tam.,  Malbal.  Grangea 
maderaspatana,  Foir. 

NELEM-PALA?— -Wrightia  tomentosa. 

NELEM  PARENDA  Jonidium  su&uticosum. 

NELE-PANAY  KALNG,  Tam.  Curculigo 
orcliioides.     See  Moosli. 

NELI-POULI,  or  Kamarang,  Averrhoa 

N£LI  TALI,  or  Kedangu,  Sesbania  segyp- 

NELI,  Saks.,  Tbl.  Indigofera  tinctoria,  L. 


N.  polygama,     Spreng.    I  Eugenia  polygama,  Roah, 

I  fl.  ind.,  ii,  j».  491. 

A  plant  of  Penang,  Voigt^  46. 

NELKAR,  Hind.  Dalbergia  sissoo. 

NELLA,  Tbl.  Andrographis  paniculata. 

NELLA  BUDINQA,  Tbl.  Cucumia  pube- 
scens,  WiUd,,  W.  ^  A. 

NELLA  GIRI  GILI  GACH-<3HA,  Tbl.  Cro- 
talaria  linifolia,  Linn, 

NELLA  GULI,  Tel.  Cicendia  hyssopifolia, 

NELLA^ULI-SIENDA,  Tbl.  Cardiosper- 
mum  halicacabum,  Linn, 

NELLA-JIDI,  also  Jidi-Ghenzalu,  Tbl. 
Marking  nut.     Semecarpus  anacardium. 

NELLA  JIDI  NOONA,  Tbl.  Maricing  nut 
oil,  also  oil  of  Semecarpus  anacardium. 

NELL  A  JILLIDU,  Tbl.  Calotropis  gigantea. 

NELLA  KALAVALU,  Tbl.  Hongay  or 

NELLA  MADU,  Tbl.  Terminalia  tomentosa, 
W.  and  A. 

NELLA-MANTHI,  Malbal.  Inuus  sflenus, 
Jtrdofn.    Lion-monkey. 

NELLA  MOLUNGA,  Tbl.  Solanum  jao- 
quini,  WiUd. 

NELLA-PANNA,  Curculigo  orchioides. 

NELLA  PIKU,  also  Nelle  pirkum,  Tam. 
Cucumis  tuberoBus,  Heyne. 

NELLA  POLEEKI,  Tbl.  In  the  Nalla  Mai- 
lai  a  light  wood,  of  coaise  grain,  unserriceable 
except  for  temporary  purposes. — Mr,  Latham, 

NELA  PUBUGUDU,  Phyllantfius  multiflo- 
rus,  WiM. 

NELLA  UMATA,  Maleal.  Datura  fastuoso, 
MiU,,  Bowb, 

NELLA  ULIMERA,  Tbl.  Diospyros  chlo- 
roxyion,  Boob, 

NELLE  PIBKUM,  Tam.  Cucumis  tuberosus. 

NELLI,  Malbal.  Cicca  disticha,  Linn, 

NELLI,  Tam.  Emblica  officinalis,  Otsrt,  ? 

NELLI  CHETTU,  Tbl.  Pierana  esculents, 
B.  iii,  81,  also  Premna  latiolia,  B,,  iii,  76, 
TT. /c869.  Br.,  512,  refers  to  Usirika  or  Em- 
blka  and  PhyUanthus  confounding  the  Tamil 
widi  the  Telugu  name. 

N  77 



NELLIKA,  or  Boa  malacca,  a  fruit  of  Japan 
which  is  preserved,  as  is  also  a  fruit  called  Che- 
rimeile.  In  this  state  the  former  tastes  quite 
soft  and  tender,  and  is  as  large  as  a  hen's  egg. 
The  pulp  has  a  subacid  taste. — Thwa.  2Vow., 
Vol.  ii,  p.  292. 

N£LLI-KAI,  Tam.,  Maixal.  Fruit  of  £m- 
blica  officinalis,  Emblic  myrobalan. 

NELLI-MARA,  Gak.  Nelli  maram,  Tax. 
Emblica  officinalis,  Ocertn, 

NELLI-POO,  Tam.  The  flower,  and  Nelli- 
pallam,  Tam.  The  fruit  of  Phyllanthus  emblica. 

NELLOO,  SufreH.  A  generic  term  for  any 
one  of  the  Acanthacese.    See  Acanthus. 

NELLORE,  a  town,  also  a  district  in  the 
Madras  Presidency  near  the  Bay  of  Bengal,  170 
miles  long,  70  utiles  broad  and  with  935,600 
inhabitants.  Its  chief  towns  are  Nellore,  On- 
gole ;  the  Pennar  is  its  only  river,  but  it  has  the 
Pulicat  Marine  lagoon,  from  the  waters  of  which 
much  salt  is  made  by  evaporation.  The  lan- 
guage spoken  throughout  the  district  is  Telugu, 
but  several  races  continue  migratory  or  unset- 
tled. The  Yanadi  race  in  the  Nellore  dis- 
trict are  estimated  to  number  20,000.  Red, 
yellow,  purple,  brown  and  grey  sandstones  occur 
in  the  Podelay,  Panoor  and  Pedda  Beddapully 
talooks,  and  from  PuUaybootoo,  fine  grained 
sandstones.  Nellore  is  in  lat.  14^  27  N.,  long. 
79*^  69'  E.,  12  miles  W.  of  the  sea-shore.  The 
mean  height  of  the  village,  80  feet. 

NELLU,  Tax.  Unhusked  grain  of  Oryza 
sativa,  Linn. 

NELLY,  Tax.  A  Travancore  wood  of  a  light 
brown  colour.  Used  for  building  in  general. — 
Col.  FrUk. 

NELLY  MARAM,  Tax.  Emblica  officinalis. 

NELU,  Tax.  A  Malabar  wood  of  a  dark- 
red  colour,  and  considered  good  for  boat-work  ; 
it  produces  a  small  fruit  which  the  natives  eat 
in  a  raw  state. — Edye^  Forests  of  Malabar  and 

NELU,  SnreH.  The  Honey  plant,  grows  on 
Horton  plains,  Ceylon ;  the  flowers  emit  a  fla- 
grant aroma  resembling  that  of  new  honey. 
It  flowers  once  in  eight  years,  and  bees  then 
cluster  on  the  blossoms. — Sim^s  Ceylon. 

NELUMBALY,  Tkl.    Nerium  tomentosum. 

NELUMBL^CEiE,  Lindl.  The  sacred-bean 
tribe  of  plants  consisting  of  1  species  of  the 
genus  Nelumbium.  They  are  herbaceous  plants, 
with  very  large  leaves  and  flowers,  inhabiting 
stagnant  and  quiet  waters  in  North  America, 
West  Indies,  the  Caspian  region,  India,  Persia, 
China,  and  Egypt.  Writing  regarding  a  Ne- 
lumbium of  China,  Mr.  Fortune  says  no  flower 
could  be  more  beautiful  or  more  majestic  than 
the  Nelumbium  was  at  this  season ;  looking  down 
frt>m  a  bridge,  the  eye  rested  on  thousands  of 
these  flowers,  some  of  which  were  white,  others 
red,  and  all  were  rising  out  of  the  water  and 

78  N 

standing  above  the  beautiful  clear  green  feGage. 
The  leaves  themselves,  as  they  lay  upon  the 
smooth  surfiEU^  of  the  lake,  or  stood  erect  upon 
long  foot-stalks,  were  scarcely  less  beautifiil 
than  the  flowers,  and  both  harmonised  well 
together.  Grold,  silver,  and  other  kinds  of  fishes 
were  seen  swimming  swiftly  to  and  fro^  and 
apparently  enjoying  ^emselves  under  the  sliade 
of  the  broad  leaves.  At  another  place  he  says, 
he  once  observed  in  the  garden  o£  a  mnniiarin 
at  Ningpo  a  very  beautiful  variety  of  the  Nelmtt- 
bium,  N.  vittatum,  diflerent  from  the  red  and 
white  kinds  of  Nelumbium,  its  flowers  beii^ 
finely  striped.  It  was  evidently  extremely  rase 
in  that  part  of-  China.  They  are  abundant 
in  all  parts  of  the  province  of  Klang-nan,  at 
Shanghae,  Soochow  and  Nanking,  where  the 
ponds  and  lakes  are  often  frozen  up  and  the 
thermometer  frequently  sinks  to  within  a  few 
degrees  of  zero.  During  the  spring  and  sum- 
mer months  the  plants  form  and  perfect -their 
leaves,  flowers,  and  frxdt :  in  autonm,  all  the 
parts  which  are  visible  above  water  gradually 
decay,  and  nothing  is  left  in  a  living  state 
except  the  large  rooti,  which  remain  buried 
deep  in  the  mud,  and  they  continue  in  a  domuuit 
state  until  the  warmth  of  spring  again  calls  vege- 
table life  into  action.  The  Laen-wha  Nelum- 
bium is  cultivated  very  extensively  in  Qiiua 
for  the -sake  of  its  roots,  which  are  esteemed  an 
excellent  vegetable  and  are  much  used  by  all 
classes  of  the  community.  The  roots  attain 
their  largest  size  at  the  period  when  the  leaves 
die  off;  and  are  dug  up  and  brought  to  market 
during  the  winter  months  in  the  north  of  China. 
The  stalls  of  the  green  grocers  are  always 
loaded  with  them  at  that  season  of  the  year. 
Although  in  high  repute  amongst  the  natives, 
being  served  up  with  many  of  their  dishes  and 
forming  part  of  others,  they  are  not  generally 
liked  by  foreigners.  An  excellent  description 
of  arrowroot  is  made  from  them,  which  is  con* 
aidered  equal  in  quality  to  that  which  England 
imports  from  the  West  Indies.  The  seeds  are 
also  held  in  high  estimation  ;  they  are  ooa^ 
monly  roasted  before  being  served  up  to  table. 
—  Voigtj  p.  9  /  FDHune,  pp.  350-52. 

NELUMBIUM,  a  genus  of  plants  belonging 
to  the  natural  order  Nelumbiacess  ot  Sacred 
bean.  The  blue  lotus  grows  in  Kashmir  and 


Nymphsea  nelumbo,  Linn,  I  T^mara  rubra,  Sosob. 

Nelumbo  nuoifera,  Gart. 

Komol ;  padma  podu,  Bbmo. 
Komal,  „ 

Ponghuj,  „ 

The-kjah,  Burm. 

Lien-ngau,  Chin. 

Kangwel,   .  Dun. 

Red  and  white  lotus,  Eno. 
Egyptian  bean, 
Pythagorean  bean, 




Sacred  bean, 

Egyptian  lotus,  „ 

Kungwel;kanialai  Hncn. 
Kanwal;padiim;ambu}y  „ 

Kamal,  „ 

Lai  kwinalj  .^ 

Saled   „  „ 

Kaul-dodah,  „ 

Kanwaldodah,  ^ 






Tamaxay,  Tax. 

Tamam ;  padmam,  TBl. 
Erratamara  padmam,   „ 
Telia  padmamu,  „ 

Pundarikamu,  „ 

Ut-pala,  Tib. 
Hehmy                    SiKoH. 

Of  tfatt  plant,  there  are    two  varieties  (a). 
mbrain,  the  Rakto-padmo  of  Bengal,  with  rose- 
coloured  flowers,    and  (jS)  album,  the  shwet- 
padmo  with  white  flowers.      The  lotus  grows 
throoglioat  the  East  Indies,  also  in  Persia,  Tibet, 
China  and  Ji4»n.    The  leaves  and  flowers  of 
die  plants  spring  from  beneath  the  waters,  and 
in  Kashmir  the  broad  leaves  form   a  verdant 
carpet,  over  which  the  water-hens  run.    In  the 
liot  weather,  ^e  stalks  are  very  commonlj 
eaten  by  the  poorer  classes  and  boiled  in  their 
carries,  and  the  seeds  are  strung  together  like 
beads,  and  are  eaten  raw,  roasted  or  boiled.  The 
Sowers  are  a  flivourite  offering  at  the  Burmese 
pagodas.  Hie  firoit  is  as  large  as  the  closed  hand 
teming  an  exact  hemisphere,  on  the  flat  sur- 
&ee  of  which  about  twen^-ibur  seeds  are 
imbedded,  which,  when   ripe,  are  black  and 
hard.  The  stalks  are,  in  Hindi,  called  Kanwal 
kukri,  Kanwal  gatha,  nalru  bheng.    The  long 
fine  filaments  contained  within  the  cells  of  the 
stem  are  drawn  out,  and  the  thread  spun  from 
the   filament,   is  used  as  the  wicks    of  the 
lamps  in  pagodas,  the  seeds  and  roots  are  used 
hy  natives  as  food,  either  raw,  roasted  or  boiled, 
and  abo  as  a  cold  remedy  in  cholera  and  indi- 
gestion, demulcent,  said  also  to  be  diuretic  and 
oooling.    It  is  highly  venerated  by  the  hindoos 
Iml   it    is  the  more   immediate  attribute  of 
Vlahnbo,    from  being  the  prime    of  aquadc 
Tegetables,  and  he  a  personification  of  water. 
It  is  also  peculiarly  sacred  to  Lakshmi,  the 
wife  of  Vishnoo,  who  is  sometimes  called  Ka- 
mala,  or  Idtus-like :  it  is  moreover  an  emblem 
of  female  beauty.     This  plant  is  the  true  lotus 
of  the  Egyptians,  and  the  Nympluea  nilofer  of 
Sir  Wiliuun  Jones,  nilofer  being  its   Arabic 
The  new  blown  flowers  of  the  rose- 
red  lotos  have  an  agreeable  fragrance  ; 
of  the  white  and  yellow  have  less  odour. 
There   is  a  variety  which  is  blue,  a  native  of 
OiinayGashmir  and  Persia.    Its  flowers  are  used 
hy  hindoos  in  their  religious  ceremonies.  Every 
moraing  at  Caahmir,  vast  numbers  of  these 
which  had  served  in  the  hindoo  rites 
down  the  river.    Its  boiled  roots  are  eaten 

i  pot-herb  by  the  natives ;  in  Lahore,  they 
<aDed  Pe,  m  CJashmir  Nadroo.  In  China, 
fSke  nehmibium  covers  extensive  marshes  in 
Ae  eastern  and  northern  provinces,  other- 
wise mialig^tly  and  barren.  The  root  is  two 
er  tfuree  £»t  long,  and  pierced  longitudinally 
widk  several  holes ;  when  boiled  it  is  of  a  yel- 
iswidh  ookmr  and  sweetish  taste  not  unlike 
tamip.  Tars  is  used  less  than  the  nelumbium, 
mod  so  are  the  water-caltrops  and  water-chest- 

79  N 


nuts. — McUeolnCs  TraveU  in  South-eastern  Asia^ 
Vol.  i,  p.  183 ;  P&weirs  Hand-book,  Vol.  i,  p. 

329  ;  Aim.  Mat.  Med.,  pp.  162-251  ;  Honi^- 

hergeTy  p.  315 ;  WiUiamCs  Middle  Kingdom, 
Vol.  xi,  p.  44  ;  Emil.  Schlagentweit,  L.L.D.  ; 

Buddhism  in  Tibet,  London,  1863,  p.  66  ; 
Voigt ;  Roxburgh  ;  Mason  ;  Smith,  p.  139. 

NELUMBO  NUCIFERA,  Ooert.  Syn.  of 
Nelxunbium  speciosum,  WiUd.     See  Dyes. 

NEMALI  SIKHA,  or  Mayura  8ikhi,TEi. 
Actinopteris  radiata,  Adiantum  melanocaulon, 

NIMAR  was  literally  a  desert,  when  taken 
over  by  the  British  Government  in  1818,  its 
lands  waste  and  its  few  people  miserable  and 
hopeless.     In  1864,  its  people  were  well  off. 

NEMELAY,  Tm.    Pavo  cristatus. 

NEMESIA  FLORIBUNDA,  one  of  the 
Scrophulariacese  plants  which  may  be  cul- 
tivated from  seed  in  any  rich  light  soil,  the 
colour  of  the  flowers  is  purple. — RiddeU. 

NEMI,  a  name  of  Krishna,  he  is  called 
Arishta^Nemi,  'the  black  Nemi,'  frt>m  his  com- 
plexion. Krishna,  before  his  own  deification, 
worshipped  his  great  ancestor  Budha ;  and  his 
temple  at  Dwarica  rose  over  the  ancient  shrine 
of  the  latter,  which  yet  stands.  In  an  inscrip- 
tion from  the  cave  of  Gaya,  their  characters  are 
conjoined  ;  "  Heri  who  is  Budha."  According 
to  western  mythology,  ApoUo  and  Mercury 
exchanged  symbols,  the  caduceus  for  the  lyre  ; 
so  likewise  in  India,  their  characters  inter- 
mingle :  and  even  the  Saiva  sectarian  propi- 
tiates Heri  as  the  mediator  and  disposer  of  the 
'  divine  spark'  (jote)  to  its  re-union  with  the 
*  parent  flame :'  thus,  like  Mercury,  he  may  be 
said  to  be  the  conveyer  of  the  souls  of 
the  dead.  Accordingly,  in  frmeral  lamenta- 
tion, his  name  only  is  invoked,  and  Heri-bol ! 
Heri-bol !  is  emphatically  pronounced  by  those 
conveying  the  corpse  to  its  final  abode.  The 
vahan  (qu.  the  Ss^on  van)  or  celestial  car 
of  Krishna,  in  which  the  souls  (ansa)  of  the 
just  are  conveyed  to  Suiya^Mandal,  the  *  man- 
sion of  the  sun,'  is  painted  like  himself,  blue ; 
(indicative  of  space)  Nem-nath  and  Sham-nath 
have  the  same  personal  epithets,  derived  fixnn 
their  dark  complexions,  the  first  being  fami- 
liarly called  Arishta  Nemi,  '  the  black  Nemi,' 
the  other  Sham  and  Krishna,  both  also 
meaning  '  dark-coloured,'  and  when  this  is  not 
only  confirmed  by  tradition,  but  the  shrine  of 
Budha  is  yet  preserved  within  that  of  Krishna 
at  Dwarica,  we  have  no  reason-  to  question  that 
his  £aiih,  prior  to  his  own  dei^cation,  was  that 
of  Budha. 

son. A  fish  of  the  Archipelago,  one  of  the  Ophi« 
diss,  scaleless  with  sharp-pointed  teeth.  Adams, 

NEMINATH,  a  deified  saint  of  the  Jains. 



It  waa  to  counteract  A  fervour  towards  women 
that  the  jains  of  Western  India  set  up  their 
image  of  Neminath,  a  fact  communicated  in 
confidence  to  Colonel  Tod  by  one  of  the  sect. — 
Tr.  of  Hind,,  Vol,  ii,  p.  45. 

NEMI-TIRTHA,  a  ghaut,  sacred  to  the  me- 
mory of  ChcMtunya  for  his  having  halted  and 
bathed  here  in  tlie  course  of  his  wanderings. — 
Tr.  of  Mind.,  Vol  i,  p.  8. 

NEML,  Turk.    Ant. 

NEMMA  PUNDOO,  Tel.  Citrus  auranti- 
um,  Orange. 

NEMMl  CHETTU,  Tbl.  Dalbei^  oojei- 
nensis,  R,,  Vol.  iii.p.  220  ;  W.  Ie.,p.  391. 

NEMNATH,  see  Krishna,  Nemi. 

NEMOOKA  ROOT,  tlie  roots  of  several 
species  of  Cissampelos,  efficient  substitute  for 
Pareira. — CShaughnessy, 

NEMOPHILA  AURITA,  one  of  the  Hydro- 
phyllaceas,  all  annual  plants,  and  require  a 
gr,eat  deal  of  moisture,  growing  and  flowering 
in  shady  situations,  the  colours  are  white  and 
purple,  blue  and  dark-purple,  they  are  natives 
of  California,  and  North  America.  Nemophila 
insignis,  and  maculata  are  too  tender  to  suc- 
ceed well  on  the  plains.  N.  maculata,  the  spotted 
variety,  succeeds  to  a  certain  extetit  if  sown  after 
the  heavy  rains  are  past. — Riddell ;  Jaffrey. 

pricornis  bubalina,  Hodgson. 

of  Nemorhosdus  bubalina,  J^rd. 

NEMROUD  TEPESSY,  a  mound  about 
9  miles  irom  Bagdad^  a  ponderous  mass  of 
ruin,  which  is  called  by  the  Arabs  Tull  Aker- 
kouf,  vulgarly  Agergoaf,  and  by  the  Turks 
Nemroud  Tepessy,  both  which  appellations  sig- 
nify the  mound  of  Nemroud,  or  Nimrod,  not 
the  tower  of  Nemroud,  as  it  has  been  trans- 
lated.— MignarC^  TraveU^p.  102.  See  Akar- 
kouf,  Babylon. 

NEMUK,  Gtrz,,  Hind.    Salt. 

NEMUKA,  Hind.   Cissampelos. 

NEMUK  KA  TEZAB,  Hind.  Muriatic  acid. 

NENDOON,  SiKOH.  Dalbergia  lanceolaria, 
LiiMi,  fil.  Yielding  a  hard,  though  coarse, 
open-grained,  heavy  Ceylon  wood. 

NENEK,  see  Kedah. 

NECERA  LAPIDA,  "^jCramer.  Limacodes 
graciosa,  WwUr.  A  moth  common  on  the 
western  side  of  Ceylon,  with  dark-brovm  wings, 
which  is  produced  from  a  caterpillar  that  feeds 
on  the  carissa  and  stings  with  virulence. 


Vtdturgingianus,  Dmid,      I  Peicnopterus  eegyptiacus, 
V.  Bteicorariufl,  Lap^,         \  8Uph. 

Soo&gra>  Soonda,  Smnm. 
Pitri^wlda.  Tah. 

Manju  tiricu,  „ 

Telia  borawa,  t£l. 

Smd'ho^     of  tiie  VTagne. 




Egypiiao  vulture,       Emo. 
Xhuigbitd,  „ 

PharoftblB  rtiinkew,        ^ 
White-scavenger  vul- 
ture, „ 
Jfal-muK|^,              HixD. 


This  bird,  one  of  the  Neophroninft,  inhabits 
Europe,  Africa  and  Asia,  is  common  in  the 
peninsula  and  in  Central  and  Northern  India, 
but  is  not  known  in  Bengal.  A  sin^e  pair 
has  been  known  to  stray  beyond  its  ordinary 
haunt  so  far  as  Britain.  Its  chief  food  is 
refuse  of  all  kinds.  This  bird  is  evidently  the 
*  Kite'  of  Major  A.  Cunningham's  '  Ladak/  p. 
205).  He  writes — '*the  eagle  (cha-nak,  or 
the  *  black  bird')  and  the  kite  (chsJ-kote,  or  the 
white  bird)  are  common  enough,  and  so 
is  the  large  raven."  A  second  species  of  this 
genus,  the  N.  pileatus,  inhabits  Africa  only. 

NEOZA  and  Chilgoza,  ako  Neor»  Hurs. 
Pinus  gerardiana*  Gerard's  pine. 

NEPAL.  This  kingdom  is  in  Mid*Himaiaya, 
between  the  snowy  range  and  the  vaUey  a£  the 
Granges.  It  is  separated  from  Tibet  by  the 
Ifimalaya  mountains  and  bounded  on  the  south 
by  the  British  territory.  The  mythological  his- 
tory of  Nepal  like  that  of  Kashmir,  commences 
with  the  desiccation  of  the  valley,  finr  ages  full 
of  water  by  a  muni,  called  Nai  muni,  whence 
the  name  of  the  countiy  Naipala,  whose  de- 
scendants swayed  the  country  600  yean.  The 
first  authentic  history  is  B.c.  844  ?  yeara.  Then 
the  Kerrat  tribe  of  eastern  mountaineers  b.c. 
646.  Then  the  Surya  vansa  race  of  rulers  B.C. 
178.  The  Ahir,  or  original  sovereigna  began 
in  ▲.!>.  43.  The  Neverit  dynasty  was  restored 
in  A.n.  470.  It  waa  one  of  this  dynasty,  Rag- 
hoba  deva,  who  in  a.]>.  880,  introduced  the  me 
of  the  Samvat  era  into  Nepal.  In  the  Newar 
year  731,  a.]>.  1600,  Jaya  Eksha  Mall  (or  Jye 
Kush  Mull)  divided  Patan,  Khatmandoo,  Ba-* 
nepa  and  Bhatgaon  between  his  daughter  and 
three  sons,  and  one  of  the  Bhatgaon  race,  in  aj>. 
1721,  Ranjet  Malla  formed  an  alliance  with 
Gurkha  which  ended  in  his  own  subvernoa 
and  finally  in  that  of  all  Nepal.  The  Gurkhali 
dynasty  descended  from  llie  Udayapur  Rajputi, 
occupied  Kemaon  and  Noa  kot  for  six  or  eight 
centuries  prior  to  their  conquest  of  Nepal  in 
A.D.  1768. 

Nepal  lies  between  Kumaon  on  the  west, 
and  Sikhim  on  the  east,  at  the  foot  of  the  Hima- 
laya range,  between  the  Himalaya  and  the 
Terai.  It  is  500  miles  long;  east  to  wort 
90  to  160  miles  broad  with  an  area  of  54,560 
square  miles.  The  surface  generally  oonnslB 
of  valleys  varying  from  3,000  to  6,000  ftet 
above  the  Bengal  plains,  the  capiMd  of  Kal-  an  ovalHiha|)ed  valley,  12  miles 
long  from  north  to  souths  and  from  east  to 
west  10  miles,  long.  2T  AS!  N.,  lat.  m"  18'  £^ 
and  4,628  feet  above  tiie  sea.  Bhynturee,  is  in 
lat.  29°  35'  N.,  long.  79°  30'  £.,  and  5,61€ 
feet.  The  slope  to  aouth  and  the  valley  is 
drained  by  the  Ghogm,  Omiduk,  and  Coesy*, 
The  geobgioal  fonnalioii  of  the  hilly  tract 
siflta  of  limestone,  horaatone,  and  coDgli»a< 

N  80 



Vegetable  productions  occur  of  most    remark- 
able statelinees,  beauty,  and  variety.     The  cli- 
mate resembles  that  of  southern  Europe.    The 
valley  is  bounded  on  the  north  and  south  by 
stupendous  mountains.    To  the  east  and  west 
by  others  less  lofly,  the  western  end  defined 
principally  by  a  low  steep  ridge,  called  Naga 
Arjoon,  which   passes   close  behind   Sambhoo 
N^,  and  is  backed  by  a  more  considerable 
one  named  Dhoahouk.     To  the  eastward  the 
most  remarkable  hills  are  those  of  Kanichouk 
and  Mahabut,  but  they  do  not  reach  the  eleva- 
tion of  Phalchouk  (the  highest  on  the  south), 
or  of  Sheopoori,  which  is  by  far  the  highest 
mountain.    The  bottom  of  the  valley  is  uneven, 
intersected  by  deep  ravines,  and  dotted  through- 
out with  little  hills.    The  country  is  diversified 
by  several  inhabited  valleys.     The  hills  rise 
towards  the  culminating  ridge  of  the  Himalaya, 
consist   of  limestone,   hornstone,   and  conglo- 
merate.    Owing  to  its  elevation,  Nepal  enjoys 
a  climate  resembling  that  of  South  Europe. 
Snow  lies  on  tlie  mountain-chain  which  sur- 
rounds the  capital,  in  winter,  and  occasioiially 
£Uk  in  the  valley.     The  whole  region  is  well- 
watered.     The  Nepal  kingdom  extends  for  500 
miles  along  the  Himalaya,  from  the  western 
extremity  of  Sikkim  to  the  eastern  border  of 
Kmnaon,  from  which  it  is  separated  by  the 
riTer  Kali.    Its  capital,  Kathmandhu,  is  4,000 
feet  above  the  sea,  and  about  thirty  miles 
from  the  plains  of  India.     The  position  of 
the  axis  of  the  Himalaya  at  this  part  of  the 
zaDge,   has  not  been  traced  ;  but  two  giant 
masses  project  fi^m  the  axis  towards  the  Indian 
plain,   the  culminating  peaks  of  which   form 
s  conspicuous  feature  from  Kathmandhu  and 
even   finom  the  Grangetic  plain  so  that  their 
elevation    has    been    correctly  determined, — 
that  of  Dhawalgiri  being  27,600   feet,   and 
that  of  Gossainthan   24,700   feet.     By  these 
maaseSy   the  whole  of  Nepaul  is  divided  into 
three  great  river  basins,  that  of  the  Kamali  or 
Gogra  to  the  westward,  that  of  the  Gandak  in 
the  centre  and  that  of  the  Kosi  or  Aran  to  the 
eastward.     Sheopore  on  the  water-shed  between 
the  Gandak  and  the  Kosi,  is  upwards  of  10,000 
leet.     Nepaul  lies  betwixt  the  27th  and  37th 
f^TAUt^hi  of  latitude,  separated  from  Tibet  by  the 
Hamalaya  mountains  and  bounded  on  the  south 
by  the  British  territory.     The  mythological  his- 
tory of  Nepaul  liLe  that  gf  Kashmir,  commences 
wi^  the  desiccation  of  the  valley,  for  ages  full 
of  water,  by  a  muni,  called  Nai  muni,  (whence 
the    name  of   the    country  Naipala,)    whose 
descendantB  swayed  the  country  500  years. 
Kepaul    occupies  a    tract    of  country    about 
seven  hundred  and  fifty  nules  in  length,  and 
sxty  to  one  hundred  and  seventy  in  breadth, 
flkaated  between  2&^  31'  and  30"^  N.  lat.     It 
B  boanded  on  the  north  by  a  part  of  Tibet, 


from  which  it  is  separated  by  the  Himalaya 
chain ;  on  the  east,  by  Bootan  and  the  Httle 
state  of  Sikkim,  from  which  it  is  separated  by 
the  river  Teesta ;  on  the  south,  by  the  British 
Indian  province  of  Tirhoot,  from  which  it  is 
divided  by  theTerai,  an  immense  forest,  the  east* 
ern  part  of  which  is  called  the  Moray  district  j 
and  on  the  west,  by  the  kingdom  of  Oude.  The 
divisions  of  Nepaul  are  Jumla,  Groorkha,  Nepaul, 
Muckwanpore,  ahd  Morimg.  The  principal 
rivers  which  traverse  the  territory  are  fiie 
Kalee  and  Surgoo,  which,  meeting  at  a  place 
called  Pramadee,  form  the  Goggra  and  Gun- 
duk.  The  Gunduk  is  supposed  to  rise  in  the 
Himalaya,  and  flows  into  the  Ganges  near 
Patna,  The  upper  part  of  the  river  is  called 
Saligramee,  from  the  fossil  ammonites,  called 
saligrara,  which  are  found  in  it,  and  which 
the  hindoos  hold  in  veneration.  To  the  ex- 
treme west  of  Nepaul,  lies  Almorah,  a  hill 
station,  wrested  from  the  Nepaulese  in  the 
wars  of  1815-16  ;  to  the  extreme  east  is  Darjel- 
ing,  another  hill  ^tation,  used  by  the  Supreme 
Government  of  India  as  a  sanatorium  for  inva- 
lids. The  principal  British  cities  ahd  military 
stations  which  border  on  the  Nepaul  territory 
along  the  line  of  the  Ganges,  are,  Berhampore 
(contiguous  to  the  Morung  district),  Monghyr, 
Patna,  Dinapore,  Ghazeepore,  Benares,  Allaha- 
bad, Cawnpore,  Lucknow,  Futtighur,  and 
BareiUy  ;  the  last-named  town  lying  op- 
posite to  a  Nepaulese  fort  called  Doti,  and 
a  few  miles  from  the  hiU  station  of  Almorah. 
The  Terai,  or  Turry,  or  Turyanee,  is  a  long 
strip  or  belt  of  low  level  land.  The  word  pro- 
bably, signifies  low  or  marshy  lands,  but  it  is 
sometimes  applied  to  the  fiats  lying  below  the 
hills  in  the  interior  of  Nepaul,  as  well  as  to  the 
level  tract  bordering  immediately  on  the  British 
frontier.  It  abounds  with  large  and  lofty  forest 
trees,  the  chief  of  which  are  the  Sal  and 
the  Bechiacori  pine.  Some  of  the  Sal  spars 
reach  the  length  of  seventy  to  eighty  feet,  and 
are  generally  considered  unequalled  for  strength 
and  durability.  In  this  respect,  however,  they 
must  yield  to  the  teak,  for  there  is  this  peculiarity 
in  Saul,  that  it  is  seen  to  warp  soon  after  hav- 
ing been  employed  in  bulk  for  many  years,  rising 
into  large  fissures  longitudinally,  and  falling  a 
prey  to  the  white  ants.  Small  quantities  of 
gold-dust  are  found  in  the  Gunduk,  which  runs 
through  the  Terai,  and  Cassia  lignea  likewise 
produced  in  the  jungle.  It  is  named  Singh 
Rowla,  and  is  much  used  in  Hindostan  in 
spicery :  the  bark  of  tlie  root  does  not  difiPer 
widely  from  cinnamon^  for  which  it  has  often 
been  mistaken,  but  the  bark  of  the  trunk  and 
branches  possess  little  of  the  cinnamon  flavour. 

Enormous  timber  trees  are  found  in  the  Terai. 
In  addition  to  the  Sal,  and  the  Bechiacouri 
pine,  are  to  be  found  the  Sissoo,  the  Setti-saul, 

N  81 



the  Phullamkal,  an  iron  wood,  the  Kalikset,  a 
sort  of  black  wood,  the  Sajk,  the  Burra,  the 
Sunni  and  the  Moolta.  Besides  these,  there  is 
a  small  quantity  of  ebony.  These  woods  con- 
stitute in  a  great  measure  the  commercial 
wealth  of  Nepaul.  Wood  merchants  congr^ate 
at  the  southernmost  point  of  the  forest  near  the 
river  Gimduk,  because  of  the  facility  presented 
by  that  river  of  floating  the  timber  to  Calcutta. 

Beyond  the  Terai,  and  still  bearing  its  name, 
is  a  range  of  hills  of  about  the  same  width,  at 
the  northern  base  of  which  commences  the 
Nepaul  vaUey,  nearly  oval  in  shape,  about 
twelve  miles  from  north  to  south,  and  nine 
miles  from  east  to  west.  Its  circuit  has  been 
roughly  estimated  by  the  inhabitants  at  twenty- 
live  coss,  or  from  forty  to  fifty  miles.  The 
range  of  mountains  to  the  north  of  the  valley 
is  stupendous ;  the  ranges  to  the  east  and  west 
are  much  less  lofty,  the  immediate  head  of  the 
valley  to  the  westward  being  defined  principally 
by  a  low,  steep  ridge  covered  with  brushwood. 
At  the  foot  of  the  northern  range,  situated 
upon  the  eastern  bank  of  a  small  river  called 
the  Bishenmuttee,  in  lat.  2T  42'  N. ;  long.  85® 
E.,  stands  the  city  of  Khatmandoo,  the  capital 
of  Nepaul.  It  is  not  the  largest  of  the  towns  in 
the  valley,  but, it  is  the  residence  of  the  rajah, 
or  ruler  of  Nepaul.  In  length,  Khatanandoo 
may  measure  about  a  mile ;  its  breadth  is  incon- 
siderable, nowhere  exceeding  half  and  seldom 
extending  beyond  a  quarter  of  a  mile.  The 
town  is  distinguished  in  ancient  books,  as  Gor- 
goolputten :  the  Newar  call  it  Yindes,  whilst 
among  the  Parbuttia,  or  mountaineers,  it  is 
styled  Kultipoor,  an  appellation  which  seems  to 
proceed  from  the  same  sourcie  with  Khatmandoo, 
and  derived,  it  is  believed,  from  its  numerous 
wooden  temples,  which  are  among  the  most 
striking  objects  in  the  city.  These  edifices  are 
not  confined  to  the  body  of  the  town,  but  are 
scattered  over  its  environs,  particularly  along 
the  sides  of  a  quadrangular  tank,  or  reservoir 
of  water.  The  houses  are  of  brick  and  tile, 
with  pitched  or  painted  roofs.  On  the  street 
ade  they  have  frequently  enclosed  wooden  bal- 
conies of  open  carved  work,  and  of  a  singular 
fashion ;  the  front  piece,  instead  of  rising  per- 
pendicularly, projecting  in  a  sloping  direction 
towards  the  eves  of  the  roof.  They  are  of  two, 
three,  and  four  stories,  and  almost  without  a 
single  exception  are  of  a  mean  and  poor  appear- 
ance.   The  streets  are  exceedingly  narrow,  and 

very  filthy. 

The  city  of  Pflrfwn  is  of  the  next  importance. 
It  occupies  a  rising  spot  of  ground,  situated 
about  two  miles  S.  by  E.  of  Khatmandoo,  and 
close  to  the  confluence  of  the  Munnohra,  Took- 
cha  and  Bhagurutty  rivers.  The  figure  ascrib- 
ed to  it,  is  that  of  the  Chucro,  or  wheel  of 
Narain.    Patun  is  called  Yellodes  by  the  Ne-  |  Goorkha  soldiers.    They  have  considerable  in- 

82  N  82 


war;  and  it  is  likewise  occasionally  distin- 
guished from  Deo  Patun,  by  the  appellations  of 
Lallit-Patun  and  Lall-Patun.  It  is  a  neater 
town  than  Khatmandoo. 

Bhatgong  ia  perhaps  stiU  more  superior  to 
Khatmandoo,  for  though  the  least  considerable 
of  the  three  towns  in  point  of  size,  yet  its  build- 
ings in  general  have  a  more  striking  appear- 
ance ;  and  its  streets  if  not  much  wider,  are  at 
all  events  much  cleaner  than  those  of  ^e  me- 
tropolis, a  distinction  which  it  owes  to  its  ad- 
mirable brick  pavement.  Bhal^ng  lies  £.  by 
S.  of  Khatmandoo,  at  a  distance  of  nearly  eight 
road  miles.  Its  ancient  name  was  Dhurmapar 
tun,  and  it  is  called  by  the  Newar,  Khopo- 
des  ;  by  whom  it  is  also  described  to  resemble 
in  figure  the  Dumroo,  or  guitar  of  Mahadeo. 
It  is  the  favorite  residence  of  the  brahmins 
of  Nepaul,  containing  many  more  families 
of  that  order,  than  Khatmandoo  and  Patun  to- 

Kirthipoor  occupies  the  summit  of  a  low  hill, 
about  three  miles  west  of  Patun.  It  was  atone 
time  the  seat  of  an  independent  prince  ;  and 
.  its  reduction  cost  the  Goorkhali  prince  so  much 
trouble,  that  in  resentment  of.  the  resistance 
made  by  the  inhabitants,  he  barbarously  caused 
all  the  males,  whom  he  captured  in  it,  to  be 
deprived  of  their  noses. 

Chohar  is  also  situated  on  an  eminence, 
which  with  that  of  Kirthipoor,  forms  a  kind  of 
saddle  hill. 

Nepaul  contains  every  variety  of  climate. 
The  fourth  of  it  lies  in  the  hot  plains  of  the 
Ganges,  and  the  remaining  three  parts  lie  on  the 
slope  of  the  Himalaya  from  the  elevation  of  five 
thousand  feet  up  to  the  limit  of  perpetual  snow. 
It  is  alleged  to  contain  from  forty-three  thousand 
to  fifty  thousand  square  miles,  and  to  have  two 
million  inhabitants.   It  may  be  called  the  Swit- 
zerland of  India  ;  but  its  area  is  equal  to  that  of 
three  Switzerlands,  while  the  amount  of  its  popu- 
lation is  no  more  than  one-third  part  as  great. 
The  height  of  Nepaul  above  the  level  of  the  sea 
is  about  four  thousand  feet.     The  thermome- 
ter notwithstanding  this  height,  ranges  to  87*^  its 
usual  height  about  noon  varies  from  81®  to  84°. 
A  little  after  sunrise,  it  stands  between  50®  and 
54®,  but  it  is  occasionally  as  low  as  47-     At 
nine  in  the  morning,   it  fluctuates  from  62®  to 
66®.     The  mean  temperature  in  March  is  67®. 
The    seasons  are  pretty  nearly  the  same  as 
those  of  Upper  Hindostan.     The  raina  com- 
mence a  little  earlier,  say  in  the  month  of  May, 
and  set  in  from   the  S.  E.  quarter ;  they  are 
usually  very  abundant,  and  break  up   towards 
the  middle  of  October.    In  the  west  of  Nepal  are 
the  Gurang  and  Magar  tribes,  small,  with  fea- 
tures of  an  extreme  Mongolian  type,  full  of  mar- 
tial ardour  and  energy.    They  are  known  aa  the 



Llmbicbhong  ;  BalaJi ;  Saiig-pang ;  Dumi ; 
Khaling;  Dungmali. 

Broken  tribes  of  Nepaul. — Darhi :  Denwar ; 
Pahri ;  Chepang ;  Brahmu ;  Vayu ;  Kuswar  ; 
Kusunda;  Tharu. 

The  martial  classes  of  Nepaul  are,  the 
Khas,  Magar  and  Gurung,  each  comprising  a 
very  numerous  clan  or  race,  variously  ramified 
and  sub-divided.  It  has  been  calculated  that 
there  are  in  Nepaul  no  less  than  thirty  thou- 
sand Dakhriah,  or  soldiers  off  the  roll  by  rota- 
tion, belonging  to  the  above  three  tribes.  Their 
energy  of  character,  love  of  enterprise,  and  free- 
dom from  the  shackles  of  caste,  are  conspicuous, 
and  in  the  opinion  of  competent  judges,  they 
are  by  far  t^e  best  soldiers  in  India  ;  their 
gallant  spirit  and  unadulterated  military  habits 
might  be  relied  on  £>r  fidelity. 

The  Newar  compose  the  army,  engross  all 
situations  of  trust,  whether  civil  or  military, 
and  are  confined  almost  to  the  valley  of  Nepaul. 
The  Dherwar  and  Mhargi  are  the  husbandmen 
and  fishei*s  of  the  western  distiicts ;  and  the 
Bhootia,  though  some  families  of  them  are  planted 
in  the  lower  lands,  occupy,  generally  speaking, 
such  parts  of  the  Kachar  as  are  included  in  the 
Nepaul  territories.  The  Bhama  are  a  sort  of 
separatists  from  the  Newar,  supposed  to  amount 
to  five  thousand ;  they  shave  their  heads  like  the 
Bhootia,  observe  many  of  the  religious  rites, 
as  well  as  civil  costume  of  the  latter,  in  a 
dialect  of  whose  language  they  are  said  to 
preserve  their  sacred  writings.  To  the  east*- 
ward  of  Nepaul  some  districts  are  inhabited  by 
Limboo,  Naggunkot  and  others.  The  Newar 
axe  divided  into  several  castes  or  orders,  most 
of  which  derive  their  origin,  like  those  among 
the  more  ancient  hindoos,  trom  a  primitive 
classification,  according  to  trades  and  occupa- 
tions. The  peasantry  of  the  Parbattiah,  or  hill- 
people,  are  divided  into  four  classes,  denomi- 
nated Awal,  Doom,  Seoom  and  Charam,  liter- 
ally first,  second,  third  and  fourth.  The  Awal 
peasants  possess  five  plougha  and  upwards; 
the  Doom  have  fi'om  one  to  five ;  the  Seoom  are 
those  who,  without  being  proprietors  of  ploughs, 
are  considered  to  be  at  the  head  of  a  few  or 
more  labourers ;  and  the  lands  of  Nepaul  proper 
are  cultivated,  almost  without  exception,  by 
Newar;  those  to  the  westward,  as  Noorkale, 
&c.,  by  the  Parbatty  tribe,  called  Dherwara. 
The  ryots  or  peasantry  are  distinguished 
also  into  Koohrya  and  Perja.  The  former  are 
those  settled  in  bertha  proprietory,  or  other 
rent-free  lands,  and  are  not  liable  to  be  called  on 
by  government  for  any  services,  except  the 
repair  of  roads,  and  attendance  in  the  army 
upon  particular  occasions.  The  Perja,  who 
occupy  lands  actually  belon^ng  to  the  prince, 
though  perhaps  in  the  immediate  possession  of 
«Dgja ;    Thuhmgya  ;    Babingya ;    Lohorong ;  |  jagheerdars,  are,  on  the  contrary,  obliged  to 

83  N  83 

tellectual  ability.  The  lands  of  Nepaul  proper 
are  cultivated  almost  without  exception  by  Ne- 
war who  arrange  themselves  into  several  castes 
and  orders,  and  their  peasantry  into  first,  second, 
third  and  fourth  classes.  The  Parbattiah  tribe, 
called  Dherwara,  cultivate  the  western  lands  at 
Nmkale,  &c.  Amongst  the  Nepaulese,  the 
Imidoo  distinction  prevails  of  brahmans  and 
khetri  with  their  various  sub-divisions,  viz. : 
of  Newar,  confined  almost  to  the  valley  of 
Nepaul :  the  Dherwar  and  Margi,  the  husband- 
men and  fishermen  of  the  western  districts ; 
and  the  Bhotiah  who  occupy  generally  Kachar, 
though  some  families  are  planted  in  the  lower 
lands.  The  Bhama  are  said*  to  be  separatists 
hfXBi  the  Newar,  who  shave  their  heads  like 
Bhotiah.  To  the  eastward  of  Nepaul,  some 
districts  are  occupied  by  Limbu,  Naggankote 
aad  others.  The  great  aboriginal  stock  of  the 
iiiLabitants  of  the  mountains  east  of  the  river 
Kali,  88  in  Nepaul,  is  Mongol,  the  martial  classes 
of  Nepaul  are  the  Khas,  Magor  and  Gurung, 
each  comprising  a  very  numerous  clan  or  race 
Tariously  sul^ndivided.  The  Eltiiariah,  who 
speak  the  Khas  language,  are  descendants  more 
or  less  pure  of  Kajputs  and  other  Khetri. 
The  Chepang,  Haigu  and  Kusundu  are  three 
tribes  residing  amongst  the  other  inhabitants  of 
the  valley.  In  Nepaul  is  a  perfect  maze  of  dia- 
lects. Beginning  from  the  Singhaleela  range  we 
find  Limbu  or  Kiranta  which  goes  west  as  far  as 
the  Dudkoosi  river,  in  longitude  86^  44'. 
Sberwill  found  the  Gurung  in  the  higher  parts 
of  Singhaleela,  closely  connected  with  whom  are 
the  Murmi.  Along  the  lower  hills  are  the  Ma- 
gar,  who  extend  to  the  west  as  far  as  Palpa. 
Somewhere  about  here  we  should  apparently 
place  the  Brahmu,  Chepang,  Hayu  or  Vayu,  and 
Kusumbha.  In  Centnd  Nepaul  are  the  Newar, 
Pahri,  and  Brahmo,  a  dialect  of  Magar,  also 
the  Darahi  or  Dorhi,  Danwar  and  |^aksya. 
The  Tharu  live  in  the  Terai,  between  Chumpa- 
roxn  and  the  Khatmandoo  valley,  as  far  west  as 
the  river  Gandak.  These  last  four  are  classed 
^inmig  Indo-Germanic  languages.  The  rest 
are  Turanian,  with  more  or  less  infusion  of 
Hindi.  The  Parbattia  or  Paharia,  a  dialect  of 
Hindi  is  spoken  all  over  Nepaul  and  is  the 
court  language.  West  of  this  again  comes  the 
Palpa,  then  the  Thaksya,  Sunwar,  and  Sarpa, 
^le  dialects  of  Kumaon  and  Gurhwal,  which 
carry  us  on  to  the  Milchan  of  Kunawar,  the 
Hoxidisi,  and  Tibarskad  north  of  it.  Dr.  Hun-' 
ter  gives  the  Nepaul  races  as  under : — 

depend,  Eeul  to  West, — Serpa;  Sunwar; 
Gnnmg ;  Murmi ;  Ms^ar ;  Khaksya ;  Pakhya ; 
Newar;  limba. 

JTtnmti  (9ro»p,  East  Ne^vH — Kiranti  ;  Ro- 
dong;  Songchenbnng ;  Chhingtangya ;  Nach- 
Waling;   Yakua;  Chourasya;    Kul- 


perform  vaxious  services,  both  at  the  call  of  the 
jagheerdar  and  of  the  prince.  The  great 
aboriginal  stock  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  moun- 
tains, east  of  the  river  Kali,  as  in  Nepanl, 
is  Mongol.  The  fact  is  inscribed,  in  charac- 
ters so  plain,  upon  their  faces,  forms,  and 
languages,  that  we  may  well  dispense  with  the 
superfluous  and  vain  attempt  to  trace  it  histori- 
cally in  the  meagre  chronicles  of  barbarians. 
Laasa  and  Digurchee,  in  Thibet,  two  large  cities, 
are  great  fur  depots  ;  they  are  only  forty  marches 
from  Khatmandoo.  Beautiful  dresses  made  of 
furs  are  brought  by  the  native  merchants  from 
these  cities  ;  a  fur  cloak  with  thick  silk  lining, 
can  be  had  lor  one  hundred  and  fifty  Moree 
rupees,  in  British  money  little  more  than  ten 

The  mountainous  parts  of  Nepaul  are  rich  in 
mines  of  iron  and  copper.  The  copper  is  of  a  very 
superior  kind,  and  before  the  opening  of  a  trade 
between  Great  Britain  and  India,  was  prefer- 
red for  consumption  in  the  territories  of  the 
king  of  Oude  to  that  exported  from  Britain. 
Lead  mines,  yielding  also  a  proportion  of 
silver,  are  to  be  found  in  Moulkote,  and  it  is 
supposed  that  there  are  gold  mines  to  the  north, 
though  as  yet  no  traces  of  gold  have  been  dis- 
covered excepting  in  the  beds  of  the  torrent 
which  rush  through  Kachar  to  the  eastward. 

Katmandoo  is  situated  at  the  junction  of  the 
Bhagmutty  and  Bishmutty,  and  contains  a 
population  of  30,000  inhabitants.  A  tradition 
is  current  in  Nepaul  that  the  valley  of  Katman- 
doo was  at  some  former  period  a  lake,  and  it  is 
difficult  to  say  in  which  character  it  would  have 
appeared  the  most  beautiful..  The  valley  of 
Nepaul  is  almost  unrivalled*  in  its  fertility,  sup- 
porting as  it  does  in  comfort  and  plenty  a  popu- 
lation of  400,000  inhabitants,  being  300  per- 
sons to  the  square  mile.  Throughout  its  whole 
length  and  breadth  not  a  stone  is  to  be  found  : 
it  is  well-watered  ;  its  temperature  is  delightful, 
the  thermometer  in  the  hottest  month  seldom 
reaches  75°,  in  the  coldest  never  falls  below 
30°.  In  phonology  the  Nepaul  languages  have 
a  strong  resemblance  to  each  other  and  to  the 
Abor.  The  Lepcha  is  more  Tibetan  in  its 
terminals  than  the  others,  having  about  70  per 
cent,  of  consonants,  m  forming  no  less  than  14. 
So-Khaitiy  "  anything,"  becomes  tham.  The 
Serpa  resembles  the  spoken  Tibetan,  having 
about  34  per  cent,  of  nearly  the  same  conso- 
nants. The  other  languages  are  more  vocalic. 
All  possess  a  considerable  portion  of  nasals, 
with  the  exception  of  Sunwar  and  Magar.  In 
Sunwar,  Gurung,  and  Newar,  w  is  absent  or 
rare.  Newari  is  the  most  vocalic  of  the  whole, 
ng  and  n  being  almost  the  only  consonantal 
terminals.  In  thus  possessing  labial  finals,  the 
Nepaul  group  is  more  consonantal  than  the  east 
Gangetic  languages,  including  Abor.    In  their 



phoregetic  elements  Serpa  and  Lepcha  resemble 
spoken  Tibetan. 

The  Gurung  and  Magar  tribes  are  small,  with 
features  of  an  extreme  Mongolian  type,  full  of 
martial  ardour  and  energy.  They  are  known 
as  the  Goorkha  soldiers.  They  have  consi- 
derable intellectual  ability.  The  Newar  have 
Tibetan  features  with  a  fair  and  ruddy  com- 
plexion. The  language  of  the  Magar,  Gurang 
and  Newar  is  chiefly  Tibetan.  Further  east 
are  the  Keranti,  Murmi  and  others. 

The  Khas  or  dominant  race,  according  to 
Manu,  are  outcaste  military  tribes. 

The  Goorka  race  ruling  in  Nepaul,  claim  to 
be  Rajputs,  but  Mr.  Hodgson  says  they  are  bas- 
tard brahmans,  descendants  of  brahman  immi- 
grants and  women  of  the  hills,  said  to  be  of 
mixed  origin,  but  brave  and  fierce,  and  by  the 
Chinese  called  Ku-ru  Ka-li.  Not  only  are 
they  brave  and  skilful  soldiers,  but  they  are 
wonderfully  advanced  in  the  art  of  fabricating 
the  implements  of  war  :  they  cast  their  own 
ordnance,  manufacture  their  own  muskets,  shot, 
powder,  and  cartridge-boxes;  in  fact,  every 
instrument  or  weapon  used  in  civilized  warfare 
often  clumsily  enough,  but  capable  of  being 
iLsed,  with  effect.  The  Goorka  conquerors  of 
Nepaul  now  compose  the  army;  tiiey  have 
grants  of  land  called  jaghires,  on  which  they  live 
when  not  actually  on  service.  They  are  a 
handsome  and  independant  race,  priding  them- 
selves upon  not  being  able  to  do  anything  but 
fight ;  and  have  a  free  and  sometimes  noble  car- 
riage like  the  Tryolese.  The  Goorka  and' 
Bhutani,  on  the  east,  and  the  Lahidi  and  Kana- 
wari  on  the  west,  dwelling  amongst  the  valleja 
of  the  Himalaya,  are  according  to  Cunningham, 
mixed  races,  between  the  Bhot  family  of 
Tibet  and  the  hindoo  race  of  the  south.  In 
feature  and  figure,  the  tane  Goorka  are  always 
remarkable,  from  their  broad  Chinese  or 
Tartar-like  physiognomy,  the  small  eyes,  flat 
nose  and  meagre  whiskers,  as  well  as  the  stout 
square  make  and  sturdy  limbs.  The  Goorka^ 
iii  every  description  of  costume,  and  in  all 
degree  of  raggedness,  are  to  be  seen  mingled 
with  inhabitants  of  Kumaon,  Sirmor,  and 
Gurwhal.  In  1792,  the  Goorka  race  mas- 
tered the  whole  of  the  valley  of  Nepaul,  and 
the  hill  country  fipom  Sikhim  to  the  Gogra  and 
a  party  of  them  crossed  the  Himalaya,  and 
appeared  suddenly  before  Teeshoo  Loomboo. 
The  Llama  and  priests  hastily  evacuated  their 
convents,  and  fled  to  Lhassa,  and  the  place 
was  plundered  by  the  Goorka,  who  retired 
immediately  with  their  booty.  The  Tibetans 
applied  to  China  for  aid,  and  an  amy  was  col- 
lected for  the  punishment  of  this  act  of  unpro-> 
voked  outrage.  The  Groorka  submitted  tm^ 
conditionally  to  the  Chinese  commander,  wlio 
imposed  a  tribute  and   triennial  mission   to 

N  84 



Pekin,  besides  restitution  of  all  the  booty  token  j  chee  and  Teesta  rivers  ceded  under  this  treaty, 
at  Teeshoo  Loomboo,  and  he  took  hostages  for   were  made  over  to  Sikkim. 

the  performance  of  these  stipulations.  The 
rajah  of  Sikhim  was  at  the  same  time  taken 
under  Chinese  protection.  Checked  towards 
the  east  by  these  events,  the  Goorka  extended 
their  dominion  westward,  subjugating  Kumaon, 
Sirinugur,  and  all  the  hill  coimtry  to  the  Sut- 
lej.  When  Lord  Hastings  commenced  his  admi- 
nistration, their  dominion  extended  as  far  as 
the  river  Teesta  to  the  east,  and  westward  to 
the  Sutlej,  thus  occupying  the  whole  of  the 
strong  country  in  the  moimtainous  tract  which 
stretches  on  the  northern  Borders  of  India,  be- 
tween that  and  the  highlands  of  Tartary.  They 
bad  acquired  these  territories  diu*ing  the  pre- 
ceding 50  years,  from  many  disunited  hill 
chiefs  whom  they  dispossessed,  exterminating 
die  families  as  each  raja  i'ell  before  them. 
The  early  intercourse  of  the  British  Govern- 
ment with  Nepaul  was  exclusively  of  a  com- 
mercial nature.  British  political  relations  with 
it  date  from  the  invasion  of  the  valley  by  the 
Goorka  race  under  rajah  Pirthee  Narain. 
In  1767,  the  Newar  rajah  of  Katmandoo, 
being  hard-pressed  by  the  Goorka,  applied 
for  assistance  to  the  British  Government.  Aid 
was  granted,  and  Captain  Kinloch  was  des- 
patched with  a  small  force  in  the  middle  of 
the  rainy  season.  He  was,  however,  compelled 
by  the  deadly  climate  of  the  Terai  to  retire. 
lie  Goorka  chief,  meeting  but  a  feeble  resist- 
ance, overran  Nepaul,  and  extinguished  the 
Newar  dynasty,  and  was  eventually  recognized 
by  the  British  Government  as  rajah  of  Nepaul. 
For  several  years  previous  to  1792,  the  Goor- 
ka power  had  been  extending  their  conquests 
in  the  direction  of  Tibet.  They  had  advanced 
as  far  as  Digarchi,  the  Llama  of  which  place 
was  spiritual  father  to  the  emperor  of  China. 
Incensed  by  the  plunder  of  the  sacred  temples 
of  Digarchi,  the  emperor  of  China  despatched  a 
large  army  to  pimish  the  Nepaul  rajah  and 
the  Groorkas  concluded  an  ignominous  treaty 
with  the  Chinese  within  a  few  miles  of  their 
capital.  War  between  the  Groorka  and  the 
British  was  formally  declared  on  1st  November 
1814.  An  arduous  campaign,  in  which  the 
Gioorkas  fought  most  bravely  and  with  much 
sncceas,  left  the  British  in  possession  of  the 
hills  west  of  the  Kalee,  and  the  Goorkas  dis- 
posed to  treat  for  peace.  Negociations.  were 
however,  twice  broken  off  by  the  Goorkas  re- 
fosijig  to  comply  with  the  demand  tor  the 
cession  of  the  Terai,  and  hostilities  were  there- 
Inre  rigorously  pushed  by  the  British  Govern- 
ment till  the  4Ui  March  1816,  when  the  Ne- 
pocolese  commissioners  delivered  to  Sir  David 
Ooehterkmy  the  treaty  of  Segowlee  duly  signed 
and  executed.  The  hill  lands  east  of  the  Nu- 
chee,  and  part  of  the  Tend  between  the  Nu- 

85  N 

The  murder  of  Guggun  Singh,  a  favourite  of 
the  maharani  and  the  massacre  of  thirty-one 
of  the  most  influential  chiefs  in  1846,  paved  the 
way  for  the  rise  of  Jung  Bahadoor  to  the  office 
of  prime  minister,  and  he  was  created  a  maha- 
rajah  by  the  maharajah  of  Nepaul,  and  invested 
with  the  perpetual  sovereignty  of  two  provinces. 
He  effected  the  marriage  of  a  son  and  two  daugh- 
ters into  the  royal  family  of  Nepaul.  During  the 
mutiny  of  1857,  and  the  subsequent  campaigns, 
Jung  Bahadur  rendered  avssistance  to  the  Bri- 
tish in  the  re-occupation  of  Goruckpore,  the  re- 
capture of  Lucknow,  and  the  subsequent  capture 
of  the  rebels  who  infested  the  Terai.  In  con- 
sideration of  these  services  he  was  created  a 
Knight  of  the  Grand  Cross  of  the  Bath,  and 
under  a  treaty  concluded  on  Ist  November 
1860,  the  tract  of  territorv  on  the  Oudh 
frontier,  which  had  been  ceded  to  the  British 
Government  in  181 6,  was  restored  to  Nepaul. 
The  Nepaulese  usually  estimate  the  popu- 
lation of  Nepaul  at  5,200,000  or  6,600,000, 
but  it  is  probably  not  more  than  2,000,000. 
The  city  of  Katmandoo  contains  from  30,000 
to  35,000  inhabitants.  The  area  of  the  king- 
dom is  about  54,000  square  miles.  Its  revenue 
is  unknown,  but  is  suppased  to  be  about  43 
lakhs.  The  Groorkas  pay  no  tribute  to  the 
British  Government,  but  every  five  years  a 
mission  is  sent  from  Katmandoo  with  presents  to 
Pekin.  Previoas  to  the  Nepaul  war  in  1814 
the  (loorkas  had  extended  their  conquests  west- 
wards as  far  as  the  Sutlej.  By  the  5th  Article 
of  the  Treaty  of  1815,  the  Nepaulese  renounced 
all  claim  to  tlie  countries  west  of  the  Kali,  and 
the  Ikitish  were  left  in  possession  of  the  whole 
tract  of  hills  from  the  Grogra  to  the  Sutlej. 
Kumaon  and  the  Dehra  Doon  w^ere  annexed  to 
the  British  dominions,  and  the  rest  of  the  ter- 
ritory, with  the  exception  of  Subathoo,  Raen- 
gurh,  Sundoch,  and  a  few  other  military  posts, 
was  restored  to  the  hill  rajahs  from  whom  it 
had  been  conquered  by  the  Nepaulese.  In  Ne- 
paul they  use  the  bark  of  Photina  dubia  or 
Mespilus  bengalensis  for  dyeing  scarlet.  Nepaul 
is  said  to  contain  1,940,000  inhabitants,  of  which 
500,000  are  buddhists.  The  Nepaulese  were 
defeated  by  Sir  David  Ouchterlony  on  the  28th 
February  1816,  and  the  Nepaul  war  ended  on  the 
12th  March  1816.  Nepaul  ceded  Kumaon  by 
the  convention  of  Almorah  on  the  27th  April 
1815. — Sir  John  Shore,  Lond,  As.  Trans.y 
Vol,  ii,  p.  30  ;  Thomas^  Prinsep,  p.  270  ;  San. 
Co^n.Eeport;  Smith's  Five  Years  at  Nepaul^ 
VoL  i,  p.  63.  See  Buddha,  India,  Inscripticns, 
Katmandu,  Khas,  Krat,  Lepcha,  Limbu,  Ne- 
war, Sanskrit,  Shawl-goat,  Tope. 

NEPAL    CHILLY,    Capsicum    frutescens, 
Z/tnn.,  also  Capsicum  minimum. 



NEPAL  HORSE-SHOE  BAT,  see  Cheirop- 


NEPAL  PAPER  PLANT,  see  Daphne  can- 
nabina,  also  Thymeleae. 

NEPAL  PIGMY  SIHIEW,   Sorex  hodgsoni, 


NEPAI^WOOD  SHREW,     Sorex  nem<Mi- 

ragus,  Hodg. 

NEPAlA,  Sans.    Nepalam,    Seiot.     Cro- 

ton  seed. 

NEPALAM,  Tel.     Jatropha  curcas,    L, — 

R,  iii,  QS(i. 

NEPALA  VEMU,  Tkl.  The  exact  transla- 
tion of  this  name  is  "  bitter  croton."  The 
Sajts.  sjni.  is  Jwarantaka,  which  in  TF.,  who 
renders  it  Medicago  esculenta,  is  Jwarapah,  p. 
356,  lit.,  "  fever  removing."  The  only  plant 
answering  this  description  is  Croton  cascarilla 
of  S.  America.  The  name  would  indicate  the 
existence  of  a  plant  with  similar  properties  in 
India.  Some  kinds  of  Phyllanthns  have  bitter 
roots,  but  are  only  used  as  diuretics.  Croton 
and  Jatropha  possess  drastic  but  not  antifebrile 

NEPALEiE,  HooN-LiNa,  Thib.  Syn.  of 

NEPALUM,  Tbl.     Croton  tigliiim. 

NEPENTHACE^E,  LindL  The  pitcher- 
plant  tribe  of  one  genus  and  six  species.  The 
pitcher-plant  grows  on  grassy  hills  about  Am- 
wee,  near  the  Jyntea  hills  and  crawls  along  the 
ground. — Hooker,  Him.  Jour.,  Vol.  xi,  p.  315. 


N.  indica,  Lam.  \  N.  phyllamphora. 

Chu-long-tzo,  Chin. 

The  natives  of  Amboyna  believe  that  rain 
will  fall  if  they  empty  the  pitcher.  N.  ampull- 
lacea,  Jack.,  and  N.  raiflesiana,  J(ulc.,  grow  in 
.  Singapore.  One  species  grows  in  Ceylon  ;  seve- 
ral species  occur  in  Borneo.  The  Dutch  call 
this  plant  Kannekens  kniyd,  or  the  can-fruit, 
from  its  singular  form. — PennanCs  Hindoostan, 
Vol  i.  jp.  236  ;  Bennet. 

NEPENTHES  of  Homer  (Odyss.  iv,  1.  221) 
supposed  by  some  to  have  been  hemp,  Cannabis 
sativa.  It  has  also  been  supposed  that  opium 
was  the  Nepenthe  of  Homer. — PoweWs  Ha^vd- 
hooJc,  Vol,  i,p,  321. 

NEPERA,  Singh.     Caryota  urens,  lAnn, 

NEPETA  AMBOINICA,  Linn.  Syn.  of 
Anisomeles  ovata,  E.  Br. 

N.  leucophyila,  BL  \  Zuf a  yaWfl,  Panj. 

It  occurs  in  the  Punjab  Himalaya,  at  from 
4,000  to  8,000  feet  and  is  given  in  sharbat  for 
fever  and  cough. — Dr.  J.  L.  Stewart,  m.d. 

NEPETA  DISTICHA,  Bl.  Syn.  of  Aniso- 
meles  ovata,    R.  Br. 

NEPETA  MALIBARICA,  Linn.  Syn.  of 
Aniflomeles  malibarica,  R.  Br. 

86  N 


NEPETA     RUDERALIS,     Badranyboya, 
Panjab,  PoweWa  Handrhook,  Vol.  i,  p.  366. 

NEPHELIUM,  a  genus  of  plants  of  the  natural 
order  SapindacesB.  Under  the  Canarese  and 
Mahratta  names  Andgeree  and  Yaroo,  Dr.  Gib- 
son mentions  a  tree  growing  in  Canara  and 
Sunda,  above  the  ghaut  chiefly  at  the  Nilcoond 
and  southern  jungles.  Wood  said  to  be  service- 
able in  house-building.  Mr.  Thwaites  notices 
in  Ceylon,  Nephelium  bifbliatum,  77iw.,  a 
moderate-sized  tree  on  the  lower  Badulla  road 
from  Kandy,  at  no  great  elevation  which  flowers 
in  April ;  Nepheliuip  eximium,  a  large  tree,  of 
the  central  province,  at  an  elevation  of  1,()00 
to  2,000  feet,  flowers  in  May  and  fruits  in  July, 
and  Nephelium  erectum,  Thw.,  also  of  the  cen- 
tral protnnce,  up  to  an  elevation  of  3,000  feet. 
Three  species  of  the  genus  are  celebrated  for 
their  fruits,  viz.,  N.  litchi,  Don.,  the  litchi  of 
south  eastern  Asia :  N.  longanum,  the  longan 
of  China :  and  N.  lappaceum,  the  rambutan  of 
the  Malay  peninsula.  Dr.  Mason  mentions  a 
small  inferior  Tenasserim  fruit  as  the  red  nephe- 
lium, eaten  by  the  natives  only,  though  be- 
longing to  the  same  genus  which  ptroduces  the 
famous  lichi,  and  bearing  its  fruit  in  bunches 
like  that.  One  of  the  indigenous  Nephelium 
trees,  a  wild  rambutan  of  Tenasserim,  bears  a 
fruit  whose  subacid  is  very  agreeable  to  the 
palate,  and  much  resembles  that  of  the  ram- 
butan so  famous  at  Malacca.  Malays  say  it 
is  the  wild  rambutan,  and  the  tree  certainly 
belongs  to  the  same  genus,  the  species  known 
are  N.  lappaceum,  lichi  ;  longan,  rimosum, 
rubrum,  verticillatum  and  variabile. — Mitson  ; 
Thw,  Bn.  PI,  Zeyl.,  Vol,  i,  p.  57 ;  Voigt. 

Rambut ;  Rambut-an,  Maiat. 

The  rhambut-an  fruit  is  produced  in  bunches 
terminally ;  the  pulp,  which  surrounds  a  seed 
of  the  size  and  flavour  of  a  cob-nut,  is  transpa- 
rent, and  of  a  delicate  sweetish  acid  flavour ; 
it  is  in  appearance  not  much  unlike  the  fruit  of 
the  arbutus,  but  larger,  of  a  brighter  red,  and 
covered  with  coarser  hair  or  sofl  spines,  from 
whence  it  derives  its  name.  The  part  eaten  is  a 
gelatinous  and  almost  transparent  pulp  surround- 
ing the  kernel,  of  rich  and  pleasant  acid. — 
Low^s  Sarawak,  p.  73 ;  MarsdevCn  History  of 
Sumatixi,  p.  101. 


Dlmocarpus  lichi,  Zour.     Euphoria  lichi,  JDerf. 
Scytalia  lichi,  Bo:sh. 

Tftn-li :  lichi,  Crih.  |  Kaleng  ken :  Lichi,  M azat. 

This  tree,  a  native  of  China,  is  an  ever- 
green, and  grows  to  a  lai^e  size.  The  fruit  k 
of  a  dark-brown  colour,  and  contains  a  glatiaoas 
yellow  sweet  soft  of  pulp ;  in  British  India  it  is 
not  much  prized — perhaps  from  its  inferior 
quality  to  ^e  Chinese  fruit,  which  is  much 
esteemed.      The  fruit  ripens  ia  March  and 



April*  The  tree  grows  in  all  parts  of  Cliixm. 
The  son-dried  fruits  are  largely  exported  from 
Fob^ai  and  Canton  prorinces  being  in  de- 
mand as  a  marriage  present  or  dessert  at  feasts. 
—Bidd^  Smkh. 


Eaphoria  loDgana,    .  Lam.  \  .Dimocarpus  longan,  Raxh. 

Ckot.  I  Poovttttu  nuunun,      Tam. 

A  tree  of  the  peninsula  ai  India,  the  Khassia 
hills,  the  Malay  peninsula,  Cochin-China  and 
China.  A  moderate-sized  tree,  having  a  straight 
trunk  and  fine  globular  head.  It  occurs  in 
Gotmbatore,  but  is  rare  in  the  Bombay  presi- 
dency, being  confined  to  their  Raee  or  green- 
wood jungles.  In  China,  it  grows  in  Fnh-kien, 
Kwang-tun  and  Kwang-si.  It  is  more  easily 
grown  than  the  litchi.  The. fruit  is  globular, 
it  18  not  equal  to  the  Idtchi.  The  wood  is 
white,  hard,  and  close  grained. — Drs.  Wight 
mnd  Qib9on  ;   Voigty  iSmith^  p,  155. 

NEPHRITE,  jade,  or  axenstone,  the  Yashm 
or  Sang-i-yashm,  so  much  valued  in  China,  is 
Ibond  in  Caitral  Asia,  New  Zealand  and  Western 
America.    See  Jade. 

mas. — Bonigberger, 

NEPOTISM,  see  Polyandry. 

NEPTUNUS  PELAGICUS,  and,  N.  san- 
guinolentuB,  species  of  Crabs. 

NEPU,  Tkl.    Fire. 

NEP  YAN,  BuBiossE.    Plantain,  Musa  para- 

NER,  Hum.    Skimnua  laureola. 

NERA,  or  Nerar,  Tbl.  ?  of  the  Nalla  Mallai, 
the  Syzigium  jambolana. 

NERA,  Hnm.     Rhododendron  anthopogon. 

NERA,  Malay.     Palm  wine. 

NERADI,Tkl.  Syzigium  jambolanum,  call- 
ed Neradee  in  Kumool,  and  is  a  very  useful 
wood,  of  a  light  sepia  colour,  of  medium  hard- 
nem,  and  used  generally  as  planks. 

NERAMEDHA,  see  Kali. 

NERAND  GAUM,  a  town  and  river  in  Nag- 

NEEtASI,     TsL.    Elseodendron  roxbiu^ghii,, 

NERASO,  UsiA..  In  Ganjam  and  Gumsur, 
a  tree  with  an  extreme  height  of  25  feet,  and  a 
circumferenee  of  2^  feet.  Height  from  the 
grcmnd  to  the  intersection  of  the  first  branch,  8 
ieeL  It  is  tolerably  common  and  burnt  for 
firewood.  Plough-shares  are  sometimes  made  of 
the  wood.  The  bark  is  used  medicinally  for 
wounds. — Captain  Macdonald, 

NERBUDD  A,  a  river  of  Central  India,  which 
rises  in  the  dominions  of  the  rajah  of  Rewah 
at  Amarkuntak,  a  jungly  table-land  in  lat. 
22°  39',  long.  8P  49'  from  3,500  to  5,000 
feet  above  the  sea.  It  runs  nearly  due  west 
with  occasional  bends,  to  the  Gulf  of  Cambay, 



which  it  enters  below  the  town  of  Baroach  by 
a  wide  estuary,  afW  a  course  of  801  miles.  It 
receives  tlie  Herrun,  Saraarsee,  60  miles  ;  Suk- 
tha,  70  miles;  and  about  60,000  square  miles 
are  drained.  The  river,  notwithstanding  the 
great  width  of  its  bed  in  some  parts  of  its 
upper  course,  is  scarcely  anywhere  continu- 
ously navigable  for  any  considerable  dis- 
tance, in  consequence  of  the  innumerable  bas- 
altic rocks  scattered  over  its  channel.  It  is 
regarded  as  the  boundary  between  Hindustan 
and  the  Deccan.  Its  ancient  name  as  found 
in  tlie  Puranas  is  Bewa ;  and  it  bears  a  high 
reputation  for  sanctity.  Local  devotees  some- 
times place  it  above  the  Ganges ;  and  there  is 
a  saying  that,  whereas  it  is  necessary  to  bathe 
in  the  Ganges  to  obtain  forgiveness  of  sins, 
the  same  object  is  attained  by  mere  contem- 
plation of  die  Narbada.  The  source  is  at 
Amarkantak,  a  massive  flat-topped  hill,  form- 
ing the  eastern  terminus  of  that  long  mountain 
range  which  runs  right  across  the  middle  of 
India  from  west  to  east.  South  of  the  Himar- 
laya  there  is  no  place  of  equal  celebrity  so 
isolated  on  every  side  from  habitation  and 
civilisation.  The  river  bubbles  up  gently  in  a 
very  small  tank  in  one  of  the  imdulating  glades 
on  the  summit  of  the  mountain.  But  soon  the 
waters  are  reinforced  by  the  countless  springs 
which  abound  in  those  trap-rock  formations, 
and  afler  a  course  of  some  three  miles  from  the 
source,  the  abrupt  edge  of  the  Amarkantak  pla- 
teau is  reached.  There  it  tumbles  over  the  ledge 
of  a^black  basaltic  cliff  with  a  sheer  descent  of 
seventy  feet,  a  glistening  sheet  of  water  against 
the  intensely  dark  rock.  These,  the  first,  and 
perhaps  the  loveliest,  of  all  the  many  falls  of 
the  Narbada  are  called  Kapila-dhara.  A 
short  distance  from  the  stream  is  another  fail 
of  lesser  height  called  Dudhdhara,  or  the 
'  Stream  of  mUk,'  the  myth  being  that  once  the 
river  here  ran  with  that  liquid.  Thus  fsur  the 
river's  course  constantly  interrupted  •  by  rocks 
and  islands,  has  been  frequently  tortuous.  But 
below  Ramnagar  for  several  miles  down  to 
Mandla  it  flows  in  a  compairatively  straight 
line  with  an  unbroken  expanse  of  blue  waters, 
between  banks  adorned  with  lofty  trees.  These 
pools  or  reaches  (called  "  doh"  by  the  natives) 
in  many  of  the  rivers  of  the  Central  Provinces 
are  reckoned  as  gems  in  the  landscape.  The 
doh  or  pool  of  the  Narbada,  between  Ramnagar 
and  Mundla,  is  quite  the  finest  of  them  all. 
The  banks  for  a  considerable  distance  be- 
tween Mundleysir  and  Chiculdah  are  from  forty 
to  seventy  feet  high,  and  consist,  independent 
of  a  thin  upper  layer  of  rich  vegetable  moul4, 
of  two  distinct  strata  of  alluvium,  the  upper 
which  is  very  light  coloured  contains  a  great 
quantity  of  indurated  marl,  and  is  strongly 
impregnated  with  muriate  of  aoda  or  common 




salt,  which  the  natiyes  extract  by  lixiviation  and 
subsequent  evaporation  by  the  sun  in  shallow 
compartments  near  the  banks,  and  they  sell 
it  to  the  poorer  classes,  particularly  the  Bheels, 
in  the  neighbourhood.  This  stratum  is  usually 
from  thirty  to  forty  feet  thick.  The  one  on 
which  it  reposes,  and  from  which  it  is  divided 
by  a  strongly  marked  horizontal  line,  and  a 
diflference  of  colour  (this  last  being  of  a  redder 
hue)  contains  a  very  large  proportion  of  car- 
bonate of  soda  in  general,  but  slightly  contar- 
minated  by  the  muriate.  This  bed  rarely  ex- 
ceeds ten  or  fifteen  feet  thick,  and  rests  imme- 
diately on  the  basalt  forming  the  bed  of  the 
river.  In  the  dry  season,  both  these  salts  form 
a  thick  efflorescence  on  the  surface  of  the  bank, 
and  this  alone  is  collected  by  the  natives.  That 
from  the  lower  bed  forms  an  article  of  export 
for  the  use  of  the  washermen^  &c.,  &c.,  but  the 
soda  itself  is  not  extracted  like  the  common 
salt,  nor  is  its  value  but  in  the  above  way  known. 
The  bed  of  the  Narbada,  consisting  for  a  consi- 
derable portion  of  its  course  of  basaltic  rocks 
gives  rise  to  numerous  shallows  and  small  falls. 
Of  these,  the  principal  are,  one  at  Deyree,  where 
the  river  is  much  contracted,  a  second  at 
Semadarah,  a  little  below  Mhysir,  and  a  third 
at  the  Hurn  Pahl,  or  Deer's  Leap  below  Chicul- 
<lah,  whence,  till  its  entrance  into  Guzerat,  the 
stream  finds  its  way  contracted  to  within  half 
its  usual  breadth  between  two  hUly  ranges, 
its  course  being  much  impeded,  so  as  to  render 
navigation  impracticable,  by  large  masses  and 
elevated  ridges  of  the  rock.  Passing  higher  up 
the  stream  from  Mundleysir,  the  northern  bank, 
after  about  thirty  miles  becomes  rocky  and  pre- 
cipitous and  consists  of  gently  inclined  beds 
chiefly  of  greenstone  slate,  containing  interpos- 
ed mica  in  small  grains.  But  the  island  of  Mun- 
datta  and  part  of  the  opposite  bank  appear  most- 
ly to  consist  of  homstone  slate  of  a  reddish 
or  greenish  grey  and  sometimes  porphyritic 
Above  this,  for  a  considei'able  distance  is,  on 
each  bank,  a  very  wild  woody  tract,  resembling 
that  already  noticed  below  Chiculdah,  except- 
ing that  the  river  is  in  general  deep  and  leas 
obstructed  by  rocks.  This  part  consists 
of  a  succession  of  low  hills  and  deep  ravines, 
and  water-courses  is  covered  with  high  thick 
forests,  and  is  scarcely  capable  of  being  travel- 
led in  most  parts  for  seven  or  eight  miles  from 
the  river  by  any  but  foot-passengers.  Iron  ore 
abounds,  but  the  country  being  almost  desolate, 
it  is  only  smelted  at  Kantcole  and  Chundgurh, 
fdr  the  supply  of  the  Indore  and  neighbouring 
markets.  It  is  of  a  good  quality,  but  from  the 
imperfect  mode  of  working  tlie  metal  is  little 
valued,  excepting  for  common  purposes.  The 
hilly  tract  below  Chiculdah  is  better  populated, 
chiefly  by  wild  Bheel  tribes,  and  nearer 
Broach  on  the  southern  bank  are  the  Rajpeeply 

■     88 


hills  inhabited  by  the  coolie  tribe.  In  these 
hills  ai'e  situated  the  several  corndian  mine^. 
From  Burwaee  to  Chiculdah,  the  whole  valley 
from  the  Satpoora  to  th^  Vindya  mountains,  is 
nearly  level,  well-watered,  cidtivated  and  in- 
habited. At  Jubbulpoor  and  in  the  neighbour- 
hood of  Saugur,  fossil  mammalia,  shells  and  sih- 
cified  palms  have  been  recently  discovered. 
Fossil  shells  have  also  been  found  in  some  of 
the  trap  hills,  which  have  broken  up  the  sand- 
stones near  the  sources  of  the  Taptee.  This 
river  is  separated  from  the  Narbada  by  a  range 
of  basaltic  mountains;  and  having  the  same 
direction  as  the  Narbada,  its  whole  course  ap- 
pears to  be  in  the  basaltic  formation. — Centfid 
Provinces  Quzetteer ;  Dr,  Copland,  V6L  i,  of 
the  Bombay  Literary  Transactions  Jour,  of 
Asiatic  Soc.,  Vol.  xiii,  pp.  516-517.  See  N. 
W.  comer  of  Map. 

NEREDI-CHETTU,  Tel.  Calyptranthes 
caryophylliiblia.  Neredi-pandoo,  Tbl.  Its 
fruit. —  fVilld.  ;  Swartz, 

NEREDU,  Tbl.  Eugenia  jambolana,  Lam., 
R.  ii,  484,  Syzygium  jam.  W,  Sc  A. 

NEREM  JEN  A,  near  Patun  Sangee  in  Nag- 

algae,  forms  dense  forests  in  Norfolk  Bay  and 
all  about  Sitcha.  Its  stem  resembles  whip- 
cord and  is  often  300  feet  long  and  terminates  in 
a  large  air  vessel,  6  or  7  feet  long,  aAd  crowned 
with  a  bunch  of  dichotomous  leaves,  each  30 
or  40  feet  in  length.  The  sea  otter  when 
fish-fishing  rests  on  the  colossal  air  vessels  of 
this  giant  sea  weed,  and  its  stems  furnish  fish- 
ing tackle. — Hartwig, 

NERGUNDI,  BsNG.  Vitex  negundo,  Linn. ; 
Roxh.  ;  fV.  Ic, 

NERIJA  DICHOTOMA,  Ro.vb.  Syn.  of 
Elaeodendron  roxburghii,  JV,  Sf  A. 

NERIJA  MANU  or  Nerasi*,  Tel.  Elax)- 
dendron  roxburghii,  W.  ^  A. ,  • 

NERIKU,  Tam.     SeeOlay. 

NERINJI,  Tam.  Neringil,  Malbal.  Tri- 
biilus  lanuginoQus,  Linn. ;  Roxh, ;  W.  6f  A, 

Neriimi  oleander. 

NERITA,  a  genus  of  Gasteropodous  mol- 
lusca,  the  type  of  the  family  Neritidae. 

NERITID  Ji],  a  fiimily  of  molluscs,  as  under  : 

G^cn.— Nerita,  the  Nerite,  rec,  116,  «p.  fossil,  60  sp. 
Sub-Genera. — ^Neritoma,  fossil. 

Neritopsis,  rec.  I  spj  fossil,  20  sp. 
YelateSj  fossU. 
Pileolus,  fossil,  3  sp. 
Neritina,  iPresh-water  nerite,  rec,  76  sp.yo9- 

sil,  20  sp. 
Navicella,  rec.  18. 

of  Wrightia  antidysenterica.  See  Connesi 
seed,  Connessi  bark,  Dyes. 

N  88 




Scarlet  oleuider. 
Wri^htia  coccinea. 

Nerium  coccinea. 
Soorkh-kanel,        Hind. 



Jovana  arali, 






Ghenneru  kusturi- 

patte,  Tkl. 

Gandere,        Trans  Indus. 

of  Kuliu 



of  Ravi. 



Common  in  gardens  at  Ajmeer  and  highly 
ornamentaL  In  Tenasserim,  European  com- 
poundd  are  occasionally  scented  with  tliis  useful 
shrub,  whose  orange-red  flowers  have  the  grate- 
fiil  fragrance  of  the  pine-apple. — Genl.  Med. 
Top.,  />.  186 ;  Mason. 

NERTUM  CORONARIUM,  Ait,,  and  N. 
diTaricatum,  Linn.,  syns.  of  Tabernsemontana 
coriara,  R.  Br. 

of  Cryptostegia  grandiflora,  H.  Brown. 


Nerium  odoratum.  Lam.    Nerium  oleander,  Lour. 
„       indicum,  MiU. 

Lai  khanxbi,  red  var.  Bexo. 
Shwet    „  white  „        „ 
Kanera  of  Chenab. 

Kaner,  Dux. 

Roae-Bay  oleander,    Exa. 
Sweet  scented  „  „ 

Spurge  laurel,  „ 

NqyMor  PodoScvpor 
-PoSoSa^Mi,  Ga.  ofDiosc. 
Kaner-gandara,         Hind. 
Kakt-inner,  red  var.,    „ 
„     kftrbir,  „ 

There  are  two  varieties  of  this  shrub,  one 
witii  white  flowers,  the  other  with  red,  it  grows 
wild,  but  is  cultivated  in  every  garden  of 
the  East  Indies.  In  the  Dekhan,  the  double 
red  and  white  grow  wild  on  the  banks  of  rivers, 
bearing  both  white  and  red  flowers  ;  the  root  is 
poisonous.  There  are  two  other  varieties  very 
commooly  met  with  bearing  double  flowers 
both  red  and  white,  and  by  budding  the  red 
colour  on  the  opposite  one  in  several  parts  of 
the  same  stalk,  a  very  pretty  appearance  may 
be  given  to  the  shrub.  The  yellow  conge- 
ner is  called  the  Exile — introduced  from 
America.  Grows  easily  from  cuttings.  The 
whole  plant  is  impregnated  with  a  dangerous 
principle  which  has  not  as  yet  been  insulated, 
though  many  attempts  have  been  made  to  pro- 
cure it.  Its  activity  and  volatility  are  very 
great ;  it  is  even  a  popular  belief  that  the 
vapour  of  the  flowers  in  a  close  apartment 
will  prove  poisonous.  Amongst  hindooa,  its 
flowers  are  sacred  to  Siva.  The  single  white 
is  called  in  Hindi  sufedd-kurpud,  the  single 
roae-colored  lal-kurpud  and  the  beautiful  large 
double  rose  variety  is  called  pudma-kurpud. 
The  root,  the  bark  and  the  leaves  are  officinal, 
and  are  poisonous.  The  root  contains  a  yellow 
pobonous  resin,  tannic,  acid,  wax,  and  sugar, 
but  no  alcholoid  or  volatile  poison.  The  bark 
and  flowers  contain  the  same  poisonous  resin 
whkh  is  most  abundant  in  the  liber  or  inner 
bark,  it  is  very  soluble  in  carbonate  of  soda,  and 
tfaougfa  not  volatile  is  carried  over  mechanically 
when  the  plant  is  distilled  with  water.  The 
TOot  is  frequently  resorted  to,  for  the  purpose  of 

self-destruction  by  the  women  of  India  when 
tormented  with  jealousy.  The  root  of  the  hiU- 
plant  is  much  more  violent  than  that  of  the 
garden,  and  in  the  hills  is  considered  poisonous. 
Jealous  women  so  frequently  have  recourse  to 
it  that,  it  is  proverbial  among  the  females  of 
the  hills,  when  quarrelling,  to  bid  each  other 
go  and  eat  of  the  root  of  Kaner.  In  a  case  of 
poisoning  by  common  oleander  (Nerium  odo- 
rum),  a  man  about  35  years  old  swallowed  an 
ounce  of  the  expressed  juice,  and  immediately 
fell  senseless  on  the  floor.  He  did  not  recover, 
even  by  vigorous  treatment,  from  a  state  of 
collapse,  under  40  hours,  and  during  that  time 
had  constant  spasmodic  seizures  of  the  whole 
body.  The  stalks  are  said  to  be  used  as  hookah 
tubes.  The'  powder  of  the  dried  leaves  is  given 
in  colic  and  used  as  an  errbine.  A  wash  is 
made  from  th^  bark  which  is  used  in  itch  and 
for  destroying  vermin.  Externally  the  leaves 
and  bark  have  been  used  (and  sometimes  even 
internally)  as  a  remedy  in  herpes  and  itch. 
The  rasped  wood  is  employed  as  rat's-bane. 
The  wood  itself  is  used  by  some  eastern  nations 
as  the  best  material  for  gunpowder  charcoal. — 
PoweWs  ffand-booJcy  Vol.  i,  p.  360 ;  Ent;.  Cyc. ; 
Drs.  Riddell ;  Irvine,  p.  186  ;  Ainslie^s  Mat. 
Med.,  p.  70  ;  Ilonijberger,  pp.  316,  326 ; 
O^Shaughnes»ij,  p.  445  ;  Mason. 

Eschaltumpiscidlum,  Wight.  \  Echalat  of  Sylbet. 

This  is  common  in  the  Khassya  and  Sylliet 
mountains,  where  it  forms  an  extensive  pe/ennial 
climber.  Its  bark  contains  a  large  quantity  of 
fibre,  which  the  natives  use  for  the  same  pur- 
poses as  hemp.  Dr.  Roxburgh,  in  steeping 
some  of  the  young  shoots  in  a  fish  pond,  in 
order  to  facilitate  the  removal  of  the  bark  and 
to  clean  the  fibres,  found  that  many,  if  not  all 
the  fishes,  were  killed  :  hence  the  specific 
name  which  he  applied.  Dr.  Wight  formed 
the  plant  into  a  new  genus,  Echaltum.  The 
whole  femily  of  "  Apocynacese,''  termed  "  dog- 
banes, to  which  Uiis  belongs,  are  truly  so. — 
RoyU,  Fib.  PI.,  p.  302  ;  Roxh.,  Vol.  ii,  jp.  7 ; 
O'Shaitghnessy,  p.  445  ;   Voigt,  p.  525 

NERIUM  TINCTORIUM,  Roxh.  Syn.  of 
Wrightia  tinctoria,  R.  Br.     See  Dyes. 

NERIUM  TOMENTOSUM,  Roxb.  Syn.  of 
Wrightia  tomentosa. — Rom.  ^  S(^. 

NERKA,  GoNDi.  Canis  aureus,  Linn.,  Bly.,  Ell. 

NERMADA,  a  name  of  the  Nerbudda  river. 
See  Inscriptions,  Salagrama. 


NERO  DI  FUMO,  It.    Lamp  black. 

NERRELOO,  Singh.  A  tree  of  the  central 
province  of  Ceylon,  the  wood  of  which  weighs 
lbs.  56  to  the  cubic  foot  and  is  said  to  last  40 
years.  It  is  used  in  common  house-building. 
— Mr.  Mendis. 






NERUDIAR,   in  Malabar,   a  caste  of  salt-  i  bier  (Uncaria  ^ambier)  to  preserve  them  from 

makers  and  fishermen  comprising  the  Vettuver 
and  Mukaver,  or  Mukwa  castes. 

NERURI — ?  Phyllanthus  neniri. 

NERVALAM,  Tam.  Croton  tiglium ;  Ner^ 
vallum  cottay,  Tam.     The  seed. 



NERWALLAH,  the  ancient  capital  of  Guze- 
rat.     See  Camala  devi. 

NESHR,  also  Chal,  Hind.  Eagle.  See  Neshr. 

NESHTRI,  see  Hindoo. 

NESOKIA-HUTTONI,  Bit/.  Syn.  of  Nesokia 
hardwickei . — Jerdon, 

NESOKIA  INDICA,  Jerd.  Syn.  of  Mus 
providena . — Elliot. 

NESR,  Arab.  Eagle.  It  is  the  Nesr  of  the 
Hebrews,  and  Nesher  of  the  Chaldeans. 

NESSIA,  a  genus  of  snakes  of  the  family 
Acontiadidae  which  may  be  thus  shown  : 

Fam.    Acontiadidie, 

Acontias  layardil,  Keb,y  Colombo. 
Kesia  burtonii,  Grey^  Ceylon. 
„      monodactyla,  BeUf  Ceylon. 

NEST,  Ekg.  Gbr. 

Sp.,  Tax. 
Turk.,  Tbl. 

The  nests  of  birds  greatly  vary.  Those  of 
the  weaver  bird,  tailor  bird,  honey-sucker  and 
oriole,  are  made  with  much  art.  The  edible 
nest  of  the  colocalia  swallow  is  formed  of  in- 
spissated saliva  in  caverns :  swallows,  swifls, 
bee-e£kters  and  weaver  birds  build  in  companies. 

NESTOR,  see  Simiadae. 

NESTORIAN,  a  christian  sect  in  Kurdistan 
and  Mesopotamia,  so  called  from  Nestorus,  who 
was  Bishop  of  Constantinople  in  the  5th  century 
and  whose  doctrines  were  spread  with  much 
zeal  through  Syria,  Egypt,  Persia,  India,  Tartary 
and  China.  ,  Nestorian  Tiyari  women  and  girls 
bathe  unrestrained  in  the  presence  of  men,  in 
the  streams  that  pass  their  doors.  See  India, 
Kurdistan,  Mesopotamia. 


Ghonsala,  Ghar,       Hnn).  I  Nido, 
Nido;  Nidio ;  Nidiata,    It.  [  Yiwah, 

Netz,  Grb. 

Jhal,  Hend. 

Rete,Reticella,Bagma,  It. 


Pukat,  Panauk, 




Jala,  Malay.  |  Agh, 

Net-making  or  the  art  in  which  the  fabric  is 
required  to  be  transparent,  but  in  which  the 
fibres  are  decussated  and  retained  in  their 
places  by  knots,  that  the  interstices  may  retain 
wheir  form  and  size,  and  prevent  objects  from 
escaping,  seems  to  have  been  known  in  the 
earliest  ages  in  Egypt,  and  is  practised  with 
the  greatest  skill  throughout  the  E.  Indies  in 
great  variety,  from  a  few  to  fifly  fathoms  in 
length.  Those  from  Singapore  are  made  with 
cotton,  and  others  with  the  fibre  which  is  very 
similar  to,  if  not  identical  with,  that  forming  the 
so  called  China  grass.  Nets  are  woven  also  of 
hempen  thread,  and  boiled  in  a  solution  of  gam- 


rotting.  The  smacks  which  swarm  along  the 
Malay  coast  go  out  in  pairs,  partly  that  the 
crews  may  afford  mutual  relief  and  protection, 
but  chiefly  to  join  in  dragging  the  net  fastened 
to  theirboats  .In  the  shallows  of  rivers,  rows  of 
heavy  poles  are  driven  down,  and  nets  secured 
to  them,  which  are  examined  and  changed  at 
every  tide.  Those  who  attend  these  nets,  more- 
over, attach  scoops  or  drag-nets  to  their  boats, 
so  loaded  that  they  will  sink  and  gather  the 
sole,  ray,  and  other  fish  feeding  near  the  bot- 
tom. Lifting  nets,  20  feet  square,  are  sus- 
pended from  poles  elevated  and  depressed  by  a 
hawser  worked  by  a  windlass  on  shore ;  the 
nets  are  baited  with  the  whites  of  eggs  spread  on 
the  meshes.  There  are,  also,  Casting  nets,  and 
Siene  nets.  The  Rami  fibre.  Trap  fibre,  cotton 
and  hemp  are  all  employed  in  net-making. — 
Royle,  Arts,  ^c,  of  India,  p,  605.  See  Fisheries. 
NETAR,  Hun).   Low  land. 

NETAVIL  MARAM,  Tam.  Antiaris  innoxia, 
Blume,  Rumphivs, 

NETAVIL  MARAM,  or  Chundao,  Taic. 
Lepuranda  saccadora,  a  very  common  and  the 
most  gigantic  tree  of  all  in  the  Wynaad  jungles. 
Coramboor  bags  or  sacks  are  made  from  the 
bark  :  wood  not  much  used. — Mclvor,  M,  E, 

NETELDOEK,  Dm.  Muslin. 

NETER,  Hbb.  Soda. 

NETHERLAND,  a  name  in  use  for  a 
European  coimtry,  called  Holland,  occupied  by 
the  Dutch,  also  for  Belgium.  The  Dutch  have 
large  possessions  in  the  Eastern  Archipelago. 
See  Archipelago,  Dutch  Possessions. 

NETI  BIRA,  or  Nune  bira,  Tel.  Luffa  pen- 
tandra,  B.,  iii,  712. 

NETI  DONDA,  or  Tiyya  donda,  Tbl.  Bry- 
onia umbellata,  Klein, 

NETTLE.  This  name  is  applied  to  plants  which 
when  touched  impart  a  stinging  sensation.  They 
are  classed  by  botanists  under  the  natural 
order  Urticaceae  of  Endlicher,  which  comprises 
the  genera  Ampalis,  Antiaris,  Artocarpus, 
Batis,  Boehmeria,  Broussonetia,  Cannabis,  Cono- 
cephalus,  Dorstenia,  Eptcarpurus,  Ficus, 
Lepurandra,  Moms,  Parietaria,  Pouzolzia, 
Procris,  Trophis,  and  Urtica.  Of  the  species 
of  the  genus  Urtica,  of  which  there  are  known 
about  twenty,  many  sting,  as  also  do  those  of 
Boehmeria.;  Urtica  and  Bo^meria  fiirnish 
useful  fibres,  and  the  Broussonetia  papyrifera,  a 
paper-like  bark.     See  Urticacese. 

NETTLE  FIBRE,  see  Decaschistia  crotoni- 

NETTE  PALE,  Tam.  The  country  goose- 
berry tree,  the  fruit  is  one  of  the  most  power- 
frd  acids  of  India.  The  tree  grows  to  about 
twelve  inches  in  diameter,  its  wood  is  not  of 
any  use. — Edye,  Mai.  and  Can, 

N  90 



2m.  The  white-bodied  goose  teal  or  cotton  teal 
<tf  British  India,  Ceylon,  Burmah  and  Malajana, 
is  a  pretty  little  goslet,  it  is  unwaiy  and  familiar, 
frequents  weedy  and  grassy  tanks,  flies  with 
rapidity,  and  utters  a  cackling  call.  It  breeds 
in  holes  of  old  trees,  ruined  houses,  temples, 
chimneys,  and  lays  eight  or  ten  small  white 
eggs.  It  is  the  Bemicea  girra  of  Gray  and 
Dendrocygnus  afiinis  of  Jerdon,  and  is  13  or  14 
inches  long. 

NETU,  also  Neru,  Tbl.    Water. 

NEUERA.  £LIA,  a  moimtain  summit  in 
Geylon,  taking  its  name  from  Nuwara,  Sdtgh., 
an  imperial  residence,  and  elia,  light.  It  was 
first  visited  by  English  officers  in  1826,  and  by 
1829y  Sir  Edward  Barnes  had  opened  it  as  a 
sanitarium.  It  is  6,222  feet  above  the  sea,  and, 
on  its  north,  mountains  rise  2,000  feet  higher 
still.  Its  temperature  ranges  from  36°  to  81°, 
with  a  mean  daOy  variance  of  11°  the  average 
at  noon  being  62°,  and  the  highest  observation 
of  the  unexposed  thermometer  70°.  The 
quantity  of  rain  falling  has  perceptibly  de- 
creased of  late  years,  probably  owing  to  the 
extensive  clearing  of  the  surrounding  forests,  to 
prepare  them  ibr  coffee  planting.  Its  highest 
peak  is  Pedu-ru-tallargalla,  8,280  feet  in  eleva- 
tion which  derives  its  name  from  the  plants 
which  grow  there  amongst  the  rocks  (galla) 
and  are  substituted  for  the  ("  talla")  leaves  in 
making  mats  (pedum).  It  is  a  favourite  place 
of  resort  from  the  commencement  of  January 
to  the  middle  of  May.  At  that  time  the  rainy 
season  commences,  and  visitors  rapidly  dis- 
appear.— Bakers  Bifle,  pp.  32-33 ;  Temfunfs 

NEUR,  Hind.,  of  Kotgarh,  Cupressus  toru- 
losa,  twisted  cypress. 

NEUROPTERA  (from  vZvpov,  a  nerve,  and 
wTe/>oV,  a  wing),  one  of  the  orders  into  which 
.the  Insects  class  is  divided.  It  may  be  illus- 
trated by  the  Libellula  or  dragon-fly ;  Ephe- 
mera or  May-fly,  and  Phryganea  or  alder-fly. 
The  following  are  E.  Indian  genera  and 
species: — 
.  Order  Neuroptera. 

Sec.    Necromorphoetica. 
Sab-Sec    Planipennes. 

Ascalaphus   teeselatus,    Westwoody     East    Indies. 
Expansion  of  wings,  2}  inches,  black. 

A.  segmentator,  Weetwood,    East  Indies.    Expan- 
sion 3  inches,  yellow. 

A.  eanifrons,    Weetvoood^  East  Indies.     Exx)ansion 
1^  inches,  brown. 

A.  dentifer,  Weetwood,  East  Indies. 

A.  javanns — ?  Java. 

A.  angulatiiSi  Weehooody  Assam.  Expansion  3  inches. 

A.  ofascnnxs —  ?  East  Indies,  Expansion  2^  inches. 

Mjnneleon    singulare,     Weetwood,   East    Indies. 
Expansion  4  inches,  buff  coloured. 

Qaiiuodes  sabfasciatus,  Weetwoody  Sylhet.    Expan- 
sion l-5-6th8.  inches^lackish. 

5emoptera  filipennis,  Weetwood^  Central  India.  Ex- 
pansion nearly  1  inch,  dull  fulvous. 


Mantispa   nodosa,  Weetwood,   Assam.    Expansion 
nearly  2  inches. 

NEVA  LEDI,  Tbl.  Vitex  leucoxylon,  i2., 
m,  74. 

NEVALI  ADUGU,  1^.  Vitex  arborea, 
jK.,  iii,  73. 

NEVARI  DHANYMU  or  Nivari  dha- 
nyamu,  Tel.  wild  var.  of  Oryza  sativa,  L, 

NEVERIT,  see  Nepal. 

NEWAL,  Hind.  Herpestes  griseus,  Oeoff^t 

NEWALA,  Hind.    Vitis  indi^. 

NEWAR,  a  race  who  occupy  the  great  central 
and  fertile  valley  of  Nepaul.  They  use  well-built 
houses.  The  native  Achar  is  selected  as  their 
priests.  They  eat  beef  and  drink  alcoholic 
liquors.  They  bum  their  dead.  On  the  11th 
August,  the  Newar  fanner  distributes  mashed 
rice  to  the  frogs.  The  Newar  are  the  cultivat- 
ing peasantry,  have  Tibetan  features  with  a 
fair  and  ruddy  complexion.  The  language  of 
the  Magar,  Girang  and  Newar  is  chiefly  Tibe- 
tan. Further  east  are  the  Karanti,  Murmi  and 
others.  The  Newar  are  divided  into  several 
castes  or  orders,  most  of  which  derive  their 
origin,  like  those  among  the  more  ancient 
hindoos,  from  a  primitive  classification,  accord- 
ing to  trades  and  occupations.  The  Newar  are 
more  skilful  artisans  than  the  Ghorka,  but  their 
talent  does  not  lie  in  the  same  direction.  The 
Newar  excel  also  in  bell-making ;  it  is  the 
trade  of  the  land  ;  they  are  all  bell-makers  from 
their  youth,  and  proo&  of  their  skill  are  exhi- 
bited hanging  at  &e  comers  of  pagodas,  swing- 
ing from  the  roofs  of  houses,  surmounting 
dachas,  in  fact,  the  device  upon  a  Nepaulese 
banner  should  be  a  bell.  In  jewellery  they 
are  no  Less  expert,  and  are  elaborate  workmen 
in  aU  metals.  A  coarse  paper  is  manu&ctured 
by  them  from  the  bark  of  a  tree,  which  is  first 
reduced  to  a  pulp  and  then  spread  over  a  sheet 
and  dried.  They  are  as  excellent  agriculturists 
as  tradesmen,  and  the  rich  soil  of  &e  valley  is 
not  allowed  by  the  industrious  peasants  to  lie 
fallow  a  moment  longer  than  is  necessary. 
There  are  not,  however,  many  Newar  employ- 
ed as  Nepaul  soldiers,  and  the  army  is  chiefly 
composed  of  Muggur,  Gurung,  and  Krat.  The 
Newar  women,  are  lady-like  in  their  appear- 
ance, when  compared  with  some  of  the  Bhotia 
tribe.  In  an  account  of  Nepaul  in  1803,  Colonel 
Kirkpatrick  observes  that  "  though  the  Newar 
have  roimd  and  rather  flat  faces,  small  eyes, 
and  low  spreading  noses,  they  bear  no  resem- 
blance to  Chinese  features ;"  but  there  is  a  great 
similarity  of  the  mass  of  the  lower  orders  to 
the  Chinese.  Their  imperturbable  good  humour, 
unaffected  simplicity,  their  picturesque  dweUings 
and  sturdy  limbs,  plainly  prove  them  a  hill 
race.  This  clSas  of  the  inhabitants  of  Nepaul 
are  a  cheerful,  happy  race. — OUpluxrU's  Journey y 





pp.  73,  74,  134;  Colmiel  Kirkpairick^s  Account 
of  Nepal.     See  India,  Nepal,  Saurashtra. 

NEWARA,  Hind.  Herpestes  griseus,  also 
malaccensis,  F.  Cuv.,  Ely. 

NEWBERRY,  see  Leedes. 

NEWBOLD,  Captain  T.  D.,  an  infantry 
officer  of  the  Madras  Presidency,  known  for 
his  continuous  contributions  on  the  geology  and 
history  of  parts  of  Southern  Asia.  Capt. 
Newbold  rose  in  the  12th  M.  N.  I.,  was  a 
distinguished  geologist,  and  most  accomplished 
orientalist  and  ^scholar,  Assistant  to  the  Resi- 
dent at  Hyderabad.  Oh.  1850.  Wrote  on  the 
Beryl  mine  in  Coimbatore,  in  Edn.  New  Phil. 
Jl.,  Vol.  XX,  241 ;  Valley  of  Sondoor,  Mad. 
Lit.  Trans.  1838,  Vol.  viii,  part  I,  128  ;  Tem- 
perature of  the  springs,  wells,  and  rivers  in 
India  and  Egypt,  Phil.  Trans,  and  re-published 
Edin.  New  PhU.  JL,  1846-46,  Vol.  xi,  99 ; 
Geological  notes  on  the  Southern  Mahratta 
Country,  in  Bl.  As.  Trans.  1845,  Vol.  xiv,  part 
1,  268 ;  Osseous  breccia  and  deposits  in  the 
caves  of  Billa  Soorgum,  Southern  India,  Ibid., 
1844,  Vol.  xiii,  part  2,  p.  610 ;  Visit  to  the 
bitter  lakes, '  Isthmus  of  Suez,  in  Lond.  As. 
Trans;  1845,  Vol.  viii,  355;  Geological  notes 
from  Masulipatam  to  Goa;  On  the  Alpine 
glacier,  iceberg,  diluvial,  and  wave  translation 
theories,  with  reference  to  the  deposits  of 
Southern  India,  in  Bl.  As.  Trans.,  Vol.  xiv,  part 
1,  217 ;  Geological  notes  across  the  peninsula 
of  Southern  India,  from  Kistapatam;  Ibid., 
398 ;  History  of  the  Persian  poets,  in  Mad. 
Lit.  Trans.,  Vol.  ii,  245;  Summary  of  the 
geology  of  Southern  India,  in  Lond.  As. 
Trans.  1845,  Vol.  viii,  138,  213 ;  Essays  on 
the  metrical  compositions  of  the  Persian  poets, 
with  a  notice  of  their  poetry,  Mad.  Lit.  Trans., 
Vol.  iii,  113,  232  ;  On  the  code  and  historical 
MSS.  of  the  Siamese ;  On  the  progress  of 
Buddhism  to  the  eastward  ;  Ibid.,  Vol.  vi,  117; 
Recent  fresh  water  deposits  near  Kurnool,  in 
Bl.  As.  Trans.,  1844,  Vol.  xiii,  213 ;  Account  of 
the  Mahomedan  Kings  of  Acheen ;  Ibid,  Vol. 
iv,  117 ;  Notice  of  Malayan  code ;  Ibid,  390  ; 
Site  of  Hai,  or  Ai,  royal  city  of  the  Canaanites, 
in  Bom.  Geo,  Trans.,  Vol.  viii,  335 ;  A 
biographical  notice  of  him  appeared  in  the 
Bombay  Times,  May  1850.-»-i)r.  Buisfs  GatOr- 

NEW  CALEDONIA,  see  India.  . 

NEWEL  FRUIT,  Calyptranthes  caryo- 

NEW  GUINEA  or  Papua,  a  great  island 
on  the  eastern  border  of  the  Eastern  Archi- 
pelago. Its  north  coast  is  generally  high ; 
towards  the  sea,  there  is  low  land,  but  a 
little  way  inland,  a  chain  of  mountains 
extends  parallel  to  the  coast  and  elevated 
in  some  places  4,000  or  5,000  feet  above  the 


and  is  1,500  miles  in  extreme  length,  or  nearly 
double  that  of  Borneo ;  but  its  superficial  area 
is  probably  less  than  that  of  the  latter  island 
(200,000  square  geographical  miles),  as  there  is 
every  reason  to  believe  that  the  south  ooBst  of 
New  Guinea,  immediately  opposite  to  the  gulf 
of  Carpentaria  in  Australia,  forms  a  deep  in- 
dentation similar  to  the  Great  Bay  on  the  north 
coast,  there  being  a  space  of  two  degrees  and  a 
half  of  longitude  in  which  the  land  has  not  yet 
been  seen.     Of  this  unexplored  space,  118  miles, 
or  four-fiflhs  of  the  whole,  were  taken  possession 
of  by  proclamation,  in  the  name  of  the  king  of 
Holland,  in  the  year  1828.    As  the  commanders 
of  Her  Majesty  s  ships  employed  in  the  Survey- 
ing service  are  said  to  have  general  instructions 
not  to  interfere  with  coasts  claimed  by  foreign 
powers,  unless  the  interests  of  navigation  absolute- 
ly require  it,  this  in  some  degree  accounts  for 
die  fact  that  so  large  a  space  of  coast,  within 
609  miles  of  a  European  settlement  that  has 
been  established  more  than  three  centuries,  re- 
mains still  unknown  to  civilized  nations.     The 
names  by  which  the  island  is  known  to  Eu- 
ropeans and  Asiatics,  New  Guinea  and  Tajina 
Papua,  both  distinctly  refer  to  the  leading  pe- 
culiarity of  the  race  by  which  the  coasts  are 
inhabited.      The    most    striking   geographical 
feature  of  the  great  eastern  peninsula  consists 
in  a  back-bone  of  lofty  mountains,  which  ap- 
parently extends  throughout  its  length.     Their 
practice  of  standing  up  to  paddle  their  canoes 
is  repeatedly  noticed  by  Lieutenants  KolS*  and 
Modera,  and  it  seems  to  be  general  throughout 
the  coasts  of  New  Guinea.     The  brown-coloured 
natives  of  the  Archipelago  all  sit,  or  "  squs^t,'' 
while  paddling  their  canoe&,  excepting  the  Baju 
Laut,  or  Sea  Gypsies,  who  stand  like  the  Papuans, 
and  give  as  a  reason  for  assuming  this  posture, 
the  superior  facilities  it  affords  them  of  seeing 
turtle,  and  of  chasing  them  when  discovered. 
'  The   trade  with  New  Guinea  and  the  Eastern 
Islands,  (commonly  called  the  Bugis  Trade,) 
and  the  Trepang  fishery  on  the  north  coast  of 
AuBtralia,  is  carried  on  chiefly  in  vessels  caUed 
Padewahkan.     These  leave  Macassar  and  the 
other  ports  of  Celebes,  for  the  Eastern  Islands 
during  the  westerly  monsoon,  returning  with  the 
south-east  trade  wind.   The  northern  part  of  this 
island,  that  is  to  say,  the  portion  lying  to  the  N. 
W.  of  the  range  of  mountains  akeady  allnded 
to,  partakes  of  the  rugged  and  broken  character 
of  the  volcanic  islands  of  the  Indian  Archipelago, 
but  the  south-western  part  is  low  and  undula- 
ting, and  we  may  conclude  that  it  bears  consi- 
derable resemblance  to  the  northern  coasts  of 
Australia,  since  the  several  Dutch   navigators 
who  explored  the  gulf  of  Carpentaria,  and  who 
are  in  the  habit  of  coasting  tliis  part  of  New 

Guinea  on  their  way  to  Austrailia,  considered 
It  is  the  great  seat  of  the  Papuan   race,  |  them  as  being  portions  of  the  same  continent* 

92  N  92 



and  they   were  thus  delineated  in  our  maps 
until  Cook  passed  through    Torres  Strait  and 
decided  the  question  as  to  their  insularity.     A 
very  interesting  account  of  the  S.  W.  coast  of 
New  Guinea,  is  given  in  Modera's  '*  Narrative 
of  the  voyage  of  the  Dutch   Corvette  '  Triton' 
in  the  year  1828,"  when  this  coast  wiis  ex- 
plored with   a  view  to  forming  a  settlement: 
and  conttuns    information   which   beai*s   upon 
this  poj&t.     Its  S.  W.  part  is  known  to  native 
traders   as  Papua-kowiyee  and  Papua-Onen : 
it  is  inhabited  by  the  most  treacherous  and 
blood-thirsty  tribes,  and  up  to  the  present  time 
traders  continue  to  be  murdered  there.     The 
Fa^Kian  races  of  Mysol,  Salwatty,  Waigiou,  and 
some  parts  of  the  adjacent  coast,  have  become 
peaceable.     On  the  S.  W.  coast,  however,  and 
in  the  large  island  of  Jobi,  the  Papuan  race 
are  in  a  very  barbarous  condition  and  take 
every  opportiinity  to  rob  and  murder.     The 
race  in  the  interior  of  Dori  are  called  Arfak, 
they  are  savages.     The  Papuans  of  Dori  hang 
the  skulls  of  the  Arfak  under  the  eaves  of  their 
hoQses,  which  are  built  in  the  water,  on  posts, 
and  led  up  to  by  rude  wooden  bridges.     There 
is  ja    large   council    chamber   at    Dori,   sup- 
ported on  lai^er  posts,  on  each  of  which  is  a 
rode  carving  of  a  naked  man  or  woman  with 
other  revolting  carvings  near.     The  people  of 
Don  resemble  those  of  the  Ke  and  Am  islands, 
many  of  them  are  very  handsome,  tall,  well- 
made,  with  well  cut  features  and  aquiline  noses. 
Their  coloor  is  a  deep  brown,  often  approaching 
to  black,  and  their  frizzly  hair  is  combed  up 
into  a  mop-like  form  by  means  of  a  long  six- 
pronged  fork.    The  language  spoken  at  Dori 
is  not  understood  by  the  Papuans  at  Humboldt 
Bay.     The  Dori  people  are  great  carvers  and 
painters.    Their  food  is  roots  and  vegetables 
with  fish  and  game  as  a  luxury.     The  ArUak  or 
hillmen  of  N.  Guinea  are  generally  black  but 
some  are  brown  like  the  Malay.     Their  hair, 
though  more  or  less  frizzly,  is  sometimes  short 
and  matted,  instead  of  being  long,  loose  and 
wooUy.     ^Ir.  Earl  describes  the  features  of  the 
X.  Guinea  Papuans  as  of  a  decidedly  negro 
character : — broad  flat  noses,  thick  lips,  reced- 
ing foreheads  and  chins,  and  that  turbid  colour 
of  what  should  be  the  white  of  the  eye  which 
gives  a  peculiarly  sinister  expression.     Their 
complexion  is  usually  a  deep  chocolate  colour 
Bometiines  closely  approaching  to  black,   but 
certainly  a  few  shades  lighter  than  the  deep 
black  dfiat  is  oflen  met  with  among  the  negro 
tribes  of  Africa.     The  many  Papuan  tribes  in 
N.  Guinea,  are  generally  in  a  state  of  warfare 
with  each  other  and  return  from  their  warlike 
expeditions  with  heads.     They  are  superstitious 
and  wcHship  a  wooden  deity  called  Karwar,  18 
inches  high,  whom  they  consult  on  all  occasions. 
A  widow  remains  in  the  fiunily  of  her  deceased 

husband.     The  negroes  of  N.  Guinea  are  in 
various   states  of  civilization.      Some   of  the 
rudest  dwell  in  miserable  huts  and  seek  a  bare 
subsistence  by  the   chase  or  the  spontaneous 
productions  of  the  forest.     There  are,  however, 
other  negro  tribes  living  on  the  coasts  who  have 
made   some   advance   in   civilization.      These 
dwell  by  whole  tribes  in  huge  barn-like  houses 
raised  on  posts,  like  tliose  of  the  wild  inhabit- 
ants of  Borneo,  but  ruder.     Their  beard  is 
crisp.     The  forehead  is  high  and  narrow  ;  eyes 
large,  dark-brown,   or   black  :    nose  flat  and 
broad :  mouth  large,  lips  thick  and  teeth  good : 
few  have  regular  features,  and  most  are  apathe- 
tic.    The  ordinary   men  wear  a  waist  cloth 
made  of  the  bark  of  a  tree,  called   "  mar," 
which  is  wrapped  round  the  waist  and  passed 
between  the  legs.     Women  weai*  a  short  sarong 
to  the  knee,  generally  of  blue  cloth.     Men  and 
women   tattoo  their  bodies  on  occasions,  by 
pricking  the  skin  with  a  fish  bone  and  inibbing 
in  lamp  black.     The  Dori  people  are  a  seafar- 
ing people  and  are  expert  swimmers  and  divers. 
Their  prahus  have  outriggers  and  are  excavated 
from  the  trunk  of  a  single  tree.     Their  food 
consists  of  millet,  obi,  maize,  a  little  rice,  fisli 
and  hog's  flesh  and  fruits.     Sago  is  imported  in 
small  quantities.     Theilt  is  considered  a  grave 
offence :  they  are  chaste  and  marry  one  wife. 
The  dresses  of  the  chiefs  among  the  natives  of 
Dori  consist  of  the  saluer,  or  short  drawers  of 
the  Malays,  and  the  kabya,  or  loose  coat  of 
calico,   with   a  handkerchief  tied   round   the 
head.     The  common  men,  and  the  chie&  them- 
selves, when  not  in  the  presence  of  strangers, 
wear  only  a  chawat,  or  waist  cloth  of  the  bark 
of  the  fig,  or  of  the  paper  mulberry  tree,  beaten 
out  like   the  bark  cloth    of   the  Polynesians. 
The  Papuans  inhabit   the  shore,   the  Arfak 
dwell  in   the  mountains  and  interior.     Both 
these  main  classes  are  divided   into  different 
tribes,  who  are  generally  in  a  state  of  hosti- 
lity with  each  other.     The  Papuans  of  Dori 
resemble  those  of  Mysole  which  .is  called  Long 
Island  in  the  English  charts,  and  lies  about  ten 
miles  to  the  east  of  Dori.     In  general  they  are 
short  in  stature,  the  most  6^,  very  few  5^  feet 
high,   but   muscular  and   well-made.     Their 
colour  is  dark-brown,  inclining  to  black  in  some. 
Two  Albino  children  were  seen  there  (of  the 
same  mother)  with  white  skin,  rather  passing  to 
yellow,  with  some  brown  spots  on  the  back  and 
with  white  crisped  hair  and  blue  or  green  eyes. 
The  Papuans  of  Dori  are  generally  affected  vnth 
skin-diseases,  in  some  the  skin  looks  as  if  it  were 
covered  with  scales  (ichthyosis.)      The  hair  is 
black  and  crisped.     It  has  a  reddish  tint  at  the 
outer  ends.     They  usually  wear  the  hair  the 
full  length  to  which  it  will  grow,  which  makes 
their  head,  from  a  distance,  appear  twice  its 
actual  size.      In   general  they    bestow   little 





care  upon  it,   so  that    it  has    a    disorderly 
appearance,   and  gives   them  a  wild  aspect. 
There  are  some,  however,  whose  hair,  whether 
through    art  or    naturally,    is    smooth    and 
even,   as  if  it  had  been  clipped.     The  men 
wear  a  comb  in  their  hair,  consisting  of  a  piece 
of  bamboo  having  3  or  4  long  points  on  the 
under  side,   hke  a  fork,   running  into  a  point 
above  and  generally  carved.  This  comb,  which  is 
stuck  in  obliquely  at  the  side,  has  a  small  strip 
of  coloured  cotton  fastened  at  the  top  which 
hangs  out  like  a  streamer.     The  women  do  not 
wear  this   ornament.     The   beard   is  strongly 
crisped  but    short,   the    hairs   of   the  beard 
are    sometimes    pulled    out.    Most     Papuans 
have   a  high  but  small  forehead,  large  dark- 
brown  or  black  eyes,  flat  broad  noses,  lai'ge 
mouths  with  thick  lips  and  good  teeth  ;  many, 
however,  have  thin  crooked  noses  and  thin  lips, 
which  gave  them  a  European    physiognomy. 
They  pierce  the  ears,  and  wear  some  ornaments 
in  them,  or  their  tobacco,   which   they  roll  in 
pandan  leaves  and  of  which   they  are  great 
consumers.     The  appearance  of  the  Papuans  is 
lazy  and  stupid  ;  most  of  them  are  very  ugly, 
only  a  very  few  have  regular  features  and  a 
lively  aspect.  The  dress  of  the  chiefs  is  the  before- 
mentioned  kabaya,  breeches  and  handkerchief, 
which  they  have  some  difficulty  in  fastening 
on   their  stiflT  crisped  hair.     The  rest  of  the 
men  are  wholly  naked,  with  the  exception  of  a 
chawat  or  waist  cloth.  This,  which  is  composed 
of  the  bark  of  a  kind  of  fig  tree  beat  out,  is 
called  by  them  mar,  and  is  wrapped  round  the 
middle,  drawn  through  between  the  legs  and 
fastened  behind.    The  women  wear  a  short 
sarong,  generally   of  blue  cotton,   which  hangs 
to  the  knees,  or  a  kind  of  breeches  with  very 
short  legs.      The  body  is  otherwise   entirely 
uncovered.     Some  however  wear  the  sarong  to 
above  the  bosom.     The  children  of  both  sexes 
go  entirely  naked  until   the  age  of  puberty. 
ATI  wear  rings  on  the  arms  composed  of  fish 
bones,  shells,  cppper,  silver,  twisted  rattans  or 
rushes.      These  last,  of  the   breadth  of  two 
fingers  and  usually  red-coloured,  are  put  on  the 
arm  at  an  early  age,  and  adhere  tightly  to  the 
skin  as  the  limb  grows.     The  men  mostly  wear 
a  similar  band  of  rattan  on  the  wrist  of  the  left 
hand,  but  much  broader  and  which  sits  loose  on 
the  wrist,  in  order  to  prevent  the  skin  being 
stripped  ojff  by  the  hard  string  in  shooting  with 
the  bow.     They  tattoo  themselves  on  different 
parts  of  the  body  after  the  death  of  one  of  their 
relations,  for  instance,  on  the  cheeks  and  under 
the  eyes  after  the  death   of  the  father  ;  on  the 
breast  for  the  grandfather  ;  on  the  shoulders 
and  arms  for  the  mother,  and  on  the  back  for  a 
brother.     The  women  also  tattoo,  but    chiefly 
afler  the  death  of  one  of  their  female  relations. 
The  figures  appear  to  be  chosen  at  will ;  mostly 


like  thoae  on  two-crossed  klewang,  or  two  curls 
running  into  each  other.  This  tattooing  is 
performed  by  young  girls,  by  pricking  the  skin 
with  a  fish-bone  and  rubbing  in  soot.  Large 
scars  are  seen  on  some,  as  if  they  had  been 
burned.  The  number  of  such  scars  on  one 
person  are  sometimes  as  many  as  ten,  and  are 
probably  used  as  ornaments. 

The  weapons  of  the  Papuan  consist  chiefly  of 
bows  and  arrows,  the  spear,  klewang,  and  par- 
ang, as  well  as  the  shield  for  protection.  The 
bows  are  formed  of  bamboo  or  of  a  kind  of  very 
tough  red  wood ;  the  string  rests  in  two  notches 
near  the  ends  and  is  made  of  rattan.  The  bows 
which  they  use  in  war  are  6  or  7  feet  long,  those 
for  ordinary  use  are  mostly  3  or  4  feet.  The 
arrows  are  formed  of  reeds,  a  little  shq^ter  than 
the  bows ;  they  have  very  long  tapering  points 
of  bamboo,  fish  bones,  pointed  bones  or  wood 
hardened  in  the  fire ;  sometimes,  but  not 
generally,  these  points  are  of  iron.  Most  of 
the  points  have  sharp  barbs,  which  generally 
produce  incurable  wounds,  especially  in  the 
case  of  those  who  have  no  knowledge  of  the 
healing  art,  and  leave  the  cure  to  nature. 
They  do  not  apparently  use  poisoned  arrows. 
The  points  are  put  into  the  arrows  and  fastened 
with  thread,  being  oflen  subsequently  blacken- 
ed. They  generally  have  a  great  quantity  of 
arrows  in  readiness  for  use.  The  spears,  like 
the  arrows,  have  barbed  points  and  are  generally 
8  to  10  feet  long,  and  frequently  have,  just 
below  the  point,  a  small  btmch  of  cassowary 
feathers.  The  klewang  and  parang,  which  they 
make  themselves,  or  purchase  from  ships,  are 
of  the  usual  form.  The  shield  is  of  wood,  four- 
sided,  5  to  6  feet  high,  2  broad,  somewhat  b«nt 
out  at  the  edge  and  furnished  with  a  handle  at 
the  back.  They  are  generally  carved  on  the 
outside  and  ornamented  with  the  figure  of  a 
Papuan  in  a  sitting  posture. 

The  flora  of  these  countries  is  rich  in  Filices, 
Scitamineae,  Aroideae  with  edible  roots,  Convol- 
vulacea  and  Solanace«.  The  Graminese  furnish 
Saccharum,  Milium,  Otjzsl,  Zea,  the  beautiful 
Phalaris  arundinacea.  Amongst  the  fruit  trees 
were  seen  Carica  papaya,  Musa  paradisiaca, 
Bromelia,  Ananas,  Citrus  aurantium  in  great 
quantity,  Canarium  commune,  Terminalia 
catappa  and  Myristica  moschata.  Along  the 
shore  there  are  Rhizophora,  Myrobalanus,  Man- 
gium,  Avicennia,  Barringtonia,  Ela&ocarpus, 
Xanthoxylum,  Celastrineae,  Ficus,  Ricinns, 
Artocarpus,  Calamus,  Flagellaria,  Bambnaa, 
Acacia,  and  Casuarina.  More  than  150  kinds 
of  insects,  Scarabei,  Buprestides,  Curculionidea, 
and  also  beautiful  Lepidopteres  and  Hemipteres. 
This  coimtry  is  also  rich  in  beautiful  coloured 
Arachnides.  Amongst  the  birds  there  are  found 
Psittacus  galeritus,  Phlyctolaphus  sulphurens,'. 
Psittacus  aterrimus  and  species  of  BuceiOB.    Of 





the  birds  QfParadise  are  the  brown-feathered  with 
beautifol  white  and  orange-coloured  feathers  on 
the  sides  ;  the  wholly  black  with  long  tail  and 
laige  bent  beak;  a  small  yellow  kind  with 
orsnge-coloored  breast ;  another  kind  red,  with 
two  pens  projecting  from  the  tail,  with  a  small 
green  coloured  curled  bunch  of  feathers  at  the 
ends.  Epimachus  magnus,  a  bird  of  tlie  coasts 
of  New  Guinea,  is  ti^e  Upupa  magna,  Om.^ 
and  U.  saperba,  Latk,  Its  tail  is  3  feet  long, 
and  its  head-feathers  are  lustrous  steel-blue. 
The  mammiferous  animals  are  few  in  number. 
Only  some  wild  hogs,  and  a  species  of  mar- 
sopud,  Perameles  doryanus,  about  the  size  of  a 
rat,  with  scanty  reddish  hair  like  bristles,  an 
extended  pointed  snout,  short  tail,  and  a  pocket 
<»  the  belly  in  which  it  carries  its  young  ones. 
At  Dori  the  inhabitants  were  found  by  Lesson 
and  Duperrey  to  be  quiet  and  inoffensiye.  Not 
a  single  Malay,  or  Bugis,  or  Ceramese  settlement 
exists  on  N.  Guinea  though  several  are  scattered 
over  the  outlying  islands ;  the  principal  being  at 
Salwatty,  a  large  island,  forming  the  apparent 
north-west  extremity  of  New  Guinea,  from  which 
it  is  separated  by  a  very  narrow  strait.  The  state- 
ment often  found  on  maps  that  New  Guinea  is 
**  inhabited  by  Papuans  and  Malays,"  is  there- 
fore incorrect.  The  whole  northern  peninsula 
of  New  Guinea,  as  well  as  the  islands  of  Wa- 
giou,  Salwatty  and  Balauta,  are  exceedingly 
rugged  and  moimtainous.  There  is  a  continued 
succession  of  jagged  and  angular  ranges  of  hills, 
and  everywhere  behind  them,  ridge  beyond 
ridge  stretch  far  away  into  the  interior.  Over 
the  whole  country  spreads  an  unvarying  forest, 
at  a  somewhat  stunted  appet^rance,  broken 
only  by  the  very  widely-scattered  clearing  of 
the  natives  on  the  lower  slopes.  Near  Dori 
the  loftier  mountains  retire  a  little  backward, 
and  seem  to  reach  their  greatest  altitude  in  the 
Ar£&k  range,  which  the  officers  of  the  CoquiUe 
ascertained  to  have  an  elevation  of  9,500  feet. 
Dori  harbour,  or  bay,  is  formed  by  a  long, 
low  promontory,  curving  round  towards  the 
Arfiik  range,  which  rises  abruptly  from  the 
opposite  side  of  the  bay.  Towards  the  extre- 
mity of  this  promontory  is  situated  the  village 
of  Dori,  and  opposite,  at  about  a  mile,  is  the 
inhabited  island  of  Mansinam,  and  a  smaller 
one  uninhabited.  The  inhabitants  of  Dori  live 
always  on  the  coast,  or  more  properly  in  the 
sea,  as  they  always  build  their  houses  at  or 
below  low  water-mark,  raised  on  posts,  and 
reached  by  a  rough  and  tottering  causeway 
from  the  beach.  The  natives  of  the  interior 
do  not  differ  perceptibly  in  physical  cha- 
ncter,  but  have  a  distinct  language,  and  are 
caDed  "Arfeki"  by  the  Dori  people.  Their 
booses  are  very  similar,  but  are  raised  12  or  15 
&et  high,  on  a  perfect  forest  of  thin  poles. 


the  whole  from  falling  with  the   first   wind. 
The  people  of  Dori  are  fishers  and  traders,  the 
Arfaki  are  agriculturists.     The  former  catch 
turtle  and  tripang,  which  they  sell  for  beads, 
knives  and  cloth,  and  purchase  of  the  Arfaki 
their  rice  and  yams,  plantains  and  bread-fruits 
and  niunbers  of  tame   cockatoos  and  lories, 
which  they  sell   again   to   the  Temate   and 
Tidore  traders.     All  these  natives  have   the 
character  of  the  Papuan  race  very  strongly 
marked ;  the  flat  forehead,  heavy  brows,  and 
large  nose,  with  the  apex  bent  downwards ;  are 
almost  universal,  as  well  as  the  harsh  curly 
hair,  which  often  forms  an  enormous  stiflT  mop, 
and  is  then  highly  esteemed.     It  has,  in  fact, 
a  very  grand  and  imposing  eflfect.     The  colour 
of  the  skin  varies  greatly.     In  general  it  is  a 
dirty  black,  or  sooty  colour,  but  varies  to  a 
fine  brown   which  is  oflen  quite  as  light  as 
that  of  the  pure  Malay  races.     In  mental  and 
moral  characteristics   the  Papuans  differ  re- 
markably from  the   Malay  races.     They  are 
much  more  impulsive,  and  do  not  conceal  their 
emotions  and  passioijs.     They  are  inquisitive, 
talk  much  and  loudly,  and  laugh  boisterously  ; 
reminding  one  of  the  negro  character,  as  much 
as  of  the  negro  form  and  aspect.     The  natives 
of  Dori  are  not  to  be  trusted  in  anything  where 
payment  is  concerned.     If  they  do  not  actually 
steal,  it  is  only  from  fear  of  consequences,  They 
are,  however,  not  a  fair  sample  of  the  New  Guinea 
tribes,  having  been  too  much  in  contact  with  the 
lowest  class  of  mahomedan  traders  with  whom 
tlicy  find  it  necessary  to  take  every  advantage 
in  self-defence.     They  possess  the  rude  artistic 
genius  of  so  many  of  the  Oceanic  tribes,  de- 
corating their  household  utensils  and  the  prows 
of  their  canoes  with  elaborate  carving,  and  the 
posts  of  their  council-house  with  obscene  cary- 
otides.      The  language  of  the  Dori  people  re- 
sembles that   of  the  Ani   and  Ke  islands   in 
containing   a  large   number .  of  monosyllabic 
words,  as  well  as  others  excessively  polysylla- 
bic,  offering  a    remarkable    contrast    to   the 
striking  dissyllabic  character  of  the  whole  Ma- 
layan   group    of  languages.      The    principal 
article  of  trade  on  the  northern  coast  of  New 
Guinea  is   a  fragrant  aromatic  bark,   called 
mussoey,  which  is  carried  to  Java  where  the"^ 
natives  extract  an  oil  of  great  reputed  efficacy 
as   a  remedy  for  various   disorders.     This   is 
obtained  only  at  one  locality,  Wandammen, 
deep  in  the  great  bay.     Besides  this,  tortoise- 
shell  is  an  important  article  of  trade,  with  a 
small  quantity  of  beche-de-mer  and  sago. 

Adi  or  Ai  Island,  near  New  Guinea,  is  the 
Pulo  Adi  of  the  Malays,  Wessels  Eylandt  of  the 
Dutch,  and  is  in  lat.  4P  19'  S.,  long.  143°  47' 
E.,  (East  Point).  Pulo  Adi  is  separated  from 
the  large  island  of  which  Cape  Katemoun  forms 

a  few  of  which  are  put  diagonally,  and  prevent    the  S.  W.  extremity,  by  a  straight  8  miles  wide, 

95  N  95 


which  seems  to  be  full  of  dangers,  and  should 
only  be  ventured  upon  with  the  greatest  caution. 
Modera  is  about  25  miles  in  length  lying  to 
the  N.  N.  E.  of  the  great  Ke,  distant  about  60 
miles,  and  is  the  south-weatemmoat  of  a  group 
of  high  islands  which,  until  lately,  were  consi- 
dered as  forming  a  part  of  New  Guinea.     The 
inhabitants  are  Papuans,  and  as  they  do  not 
bear  a  high  character  among  their  neighbours, 
they  are  rarely  visited  except  by  traders  from 
Goram  and  Ceram  Laut,  who  have  found  means 
to  conciliate  them.     The  sea  is  unfathomable 
at  a  short  distance  from  the  island,  but  there 
are  several  indifferent  anchorages  on  the  north 
side.     No  vessel  should  attempt  to  visit  the 
island  for  purposes  of  trade  without  previously 
obtaining  a  pilot  at  Goram,  who  will  also  act  as 
interpreter,  the  natives  not  being  acquainted 
with  the  Malayan  language.     Wild  nutmegs, 
trepang  and  tortoise-shell  are  to  be  obtained 
here,  but  not  in  sufficient  quantities  to  tempt  a 
European  vessel  to  visit  the  island  for  purposes 
of  trade,  particularly  as  these  articles  can  be 
obtained  more  readily  at  some  of  the  adjacent 
ports  of  New  Guinea.     Red  calico,  parang  or 
chopping  knives,  coarse  cotton  shawls  and  hiind- 
kerchiefs,  with  iron,  Java  tobacco,  muskets  and 
gun-powder,  are  the  principal  articles  in  de- 
mand.    The  chief  traffic  is  in  slaves  which  are 
distributed  among  the  neighbouring  islands  of 
tlie  Archipelago,  and  are  sometimes  carried  as 
far  as  Bali  and  Celebes.  This  probably  accounts 
for  the  deficiency  of  other  articles  of  export. 
Aiou  or  Yowl,  is  a  group  of  Islands  situated 
about  70  miles  W.  N.  W.  from  the  Cape  of 
Good  Hope,  on  the  west  coast  of  New  Guinea, 
and  30  miles  N.  E.  from  the  island  of  Waygiou 
in  the  Gillolo  passage.     The  group  consists  of 
circular  low  isles,  16  in  number.     The  largest 
lies  in  about  lat.  (f  25'  N.,  long.  131°  0'  E. 
The  group  is  surrounded  by  an  extensive  coral 
reef,  nearly  a  degree   in   circumference,   the 
south-western   portion  of  which   is   separated 
irom  the  main  reef  by  a  narrow,  but  deep  chan- 
nel.    Aiou-Baba,  the  largest  of  the  group,  lies 
on  this  detached  portion  of  the  reef  and  is  about 
7  miles  round  and  500  feet  in  elevation.     The 
north-eastern  or  larger  reef,  which  contains  the 
islands  of  Abdon  and  Konibar,  with  several 
coral  islets,  is  said  to  have  an  opening  on  the 
N.  W.  side  which  admits  large  vessels  within 
the  reef,  but  if  this  be  the  case,  the  harbour  is 
not  frequented,  there  being  no  temptation  in 
the  way  of  refreshments  to  induce  large  vessels 
to  put  in  there.     The   inhabitants,  who   are 
Papuans,  are  few  in  number  and  occupy  thenri- 
selves    almost    exclusively  in  fishing  and   in 
catching  turtle,  with  which  the  lagoons  within 
the  reef  abound.    The  chief  exports  are  tor- 
toise-shell of  good  quality,  which  Is  obtained 
here  in  large  quantities,  and  trepang.    These 




are  purchased  by  Chinese  and  sometimes  Euro- 
pean traders  from  Temate,  in  Moluccas,  the 
ruler  of  which  place  assumes  supreme  authority 
over  all  those  parts  of  the  coast  of  New  Guinea 
which  his  subjects  have  been  in  the  habit  of 
visiting  for  purposes  of  trade.  The  traders  to 
Aiou  all  employ  small  vessels,  which  alone  are 
adapted  for  going  within  the  reef  of  Aiou-Baba, 
their  chief  resort.  They  bring  red  and  white 
calicoes,  thick  brass  wire,  old  clothes,  glass 
beads,  and  all  sorts  of  ornamental  finery  which 
the  Negroes  of  New  Guinea  delight  in  as  much 
as  those  of  Africa.  The  natives  are  tolerably 
friendly  to  strangei-s,  but  must  not  be  trusted 
too  much,  as  they  ar^  inclined  to  be  treacher- 
ous and  revengeful,  which  is  the  case,  indeed, 
with  all  the  Papuan  tribes.  A  vessel  visiting 
these  islands  for  purposes  of  trade  should  always 
be  provided  with  a  native  of  Temate  or  Tidorc 
to  act  as  pilot  and  interpreter. 

Armis  island  is  inhabited  by  Papuans.  Their 
houses,  built  on  posts,  are  placed  entirely  in  the 
water.  At  very  low  water  only  is  the  beach 
partially  uncovered.  This  beach  consists  of  mud, 
in  which  the  mangroves  grow  luxuriantly  and 
completely  obstruct  a  landing.  The  gardens, 
from  this  cause,  are  situated  on  the  surrounding 
islands,  principally  on  an  island  with  a  high  beach 
lying  opposite  to  the  kampong.  The  Ansus 
Papuans  wear  their  hair  in  tufts.  Their  appear- 
ance is  good-natured,  faces  regular,  eyes  beau- 
tifully black,  the  mouth  broad  with  beautifiil 
regular  teeth,  and  the  forehead  high  but  nar- 
row. Many  have  thin  lips  and  finely  curved 
noses,  which  give  them  a  more  European  phy- 
siognomy. The  men  are  generally  handsome 
and  well-formed,  stout,  witliout  being  too  tliick, 
strong  and  muscular ;  the  women  very  good- 
looking;  and  some  children '  with  very  regular 
soft  faces,  and  long  pendant  curling  hair. 

The  Arm  group  of  islands  is  situated 
on  the  northern  verge  of  the  Great  Austra- 
lian bank,  and  extends  from  N.  to  S.  about 
100  miles;  but  as  the  eastern  side  of  the 
group  has  not  been  explored,  its  limits  in  that 
direction  are  uncertain.  Some  of  the  aouthem 
islands  are  of  considerable  extent,  but  those  to 
the'  north,  lying  close  to  the  edge  of  the  bank, 
are  rarely  more  than  6  or  6  miles  in  circum- 
ference. The  land  is  low,  being  only  a  few  feet 
above  the  level  of  the  sea,  except  in  spots  where 
patches  of  rock  rise  to  the  height  of  20  feet, 
but  the  lofty^ trees  which  cover  the  face  of  the 
country  give  to  it  the  appearance  of  being  much 
more  elevated,  Coral  reefs  extend  from  the 
shores  of  all  the  islands,  and  in  the  eastern 
parts  of  the  group  these  ai'e  often  of  great 
extent.  The  islands  are  divided  from  eadi 
other  by  narrow  channels,  some  of  which  are  of 
great  depth,  and  in  one  of  these  there  is  said  to 
be  a  whirlpool  of  so  formidable  a  descripticHi 

N  96 



that  the  natives  will  not  venture  to  approach 
it  even  in  their  larger  vessels.  Upon  the  whole,  it 
is  evident  that  this  group  has  not  been  left  quite 
untouched  by  the  convxilsion  which  has  shaken 
its  neighbours,  a  circumstance  that  might  natu- 
rally be  expected  from  its  position  on  the  very 
edge  of  the  bank,  and  in  the  close  vicinity  of 
the  volcanic  chain,  the  Great  Ki  Island  being 
only  60  miles  distant. 

Brtirmr  Island  is  on  the  south  coast  of  New 
Guinea,  the  women  are  tattooed  on  the 
face,  arms,  and  front  of  the  body,  but  gene- 
rally not  on  the  back,  in  vertical  stripes 
leas  than  an  inch  apart,  and  connected  by  zigzag 
markings.  On  tbe  face,  these  are  more  com- 
plicated, and  on  the  forearm  and  wrist  they 
are  frequently  so  elaborate  as  to  resemble 
face-work.  The  men  are  mor*2  rarely  tat- 
tooed, and  then  only  with  a  few  lines  or  stars, 
on  the  right  breast.  Sometimes,  however,  the 
markings  consisted  of  a  double  series  of  large 
stars  and  dots  stretching  from  the  shoulder  to 
the  pit  of  the  stomach.  In  the  great  Island  of 
New  Guinea,  with  its  savage  negro  population, 
and  with  the  same  deficiencies,  the  presence  of 
any  kind  of  writing  is  not  reasonably  to  be 
looked  for. — EarVs  Papuan,  pp.  40,  71,  121, 
131  ;  Mr,  Logan,  in  Jaur,  Tnd.  Arch,,  p.  S21 ; 
Wdllare,  Vol,  ii,  p,  62  ;  CraivfurcTs  Malay 
Cham,  and  Die,,  Vol,  i,  p.  143 ;  BiJcmore, 
p. 204 ;  McQitlivray*sVoyage  of  theBaitlesnake, 
Vol.  i,  p,  262 ;  Luhboek'^  Orig,  of  Ciml., 
p,  44 ;  Notes  of  a  Voyage  to  New  Ghiinea,  by 
Alfred  R,  Wallace,  Esq,,  r.  B.  o.  s.,  in  Jouimal 
of  the  Royal  Geographical  Soci-ety,  Vol,  xxx, 
pp,  172  <o  174  ;  Horshurg,  Wallace's  Archi- 
pelago, ii,  62,  180-200  ;  Journ,  Tnd,  Arch, 
June  1852,  pp.  330-3.  See  Abeta,  birds, 
India,  Negrito,  Negro  races,  Negros,  Pitt  Strait. 

NEW  HEBRIDES.  In  Tana,  the  colour  of 
the  native  skins  is  a  shiny  black,  and  their 
bodies  covered  thinlj?  with  hair,  or  a  kind  of 
down.  Some  have  black  or  brown  crisp  hair  ; 
but  that  of  the  greater  niunber  is  twisted  and  tied 
up  into  an  immense  number  of  thin  cords,  the 
ends  being  frizzled  out,  about  two  inches  from 
the  extremity,  where  the  colour  is  a  sandy- 
red.  The  nose  is  generally  rather  flat,  and 
the  eyes  of  a  chocolate  colour  ;  the  ears  of 
ahnost  all  being  pierced,  and  flat  rings  of  tor- 
toise-shell and  other  trinkets  hanging  from 
them.  They  wear  universally  the  wrapper, 
the  end  of  it  being,  in  many  cases,  tied  up  by 
a  narrow  band  of  some  kind  of  plait,  passing 
round  the  hips,  and  producing  a  mnch  stronger 
effect  of  indecency,  according  to  our  notions, 
than  the  total  absence  of  clothing  would  have 
done  ;  the  more  so,  that  this  strange  garment 
serves  as  a  pocket,  wherein  to  deposit  a  pipe, 
piece  of  tobacco,  or  any  suck  article  that  they 
may  obtain  by    traffic.    Several  women  were 

seen  fishing  on  the  reefs  which  line  the 
eastern  side  of  the  bay  ;  and  they  were  dress- 
ed in  a  petticoat  reaching  to  the  knees. 
The  features  of  the  men  would  not  be  dis- 
agi-eeable,  but  for  the  common  custom  of 
daubing  their  faces  with  black-lead,  to  which  a 
thick  plastering  of  red  ochrous  earth  was 
generally  added.  The  Conus  textilis,  Linn., 
found  at  Aneiteum,  of  the  New  Hebrides,  bites 
and  injects  a  poisonous  acrid  fluid  into  the 
wound,  occasioning  the  part  to  swell,  and  often 
endangering  life. — Captain  Elphinstone  Ershine, 
Islands  of  the  Western  Pacific,  p,  306. 

NEW  *IRELAND.  Captain  Keppel  mentions 
that  the  water,  where  he  anchored,  was  so 
beautifully  clear,  that  in  forty  fathoms  deep  the 
coral  shells,  and  seaweed  growing  at  the  bottom 
could  be  distinctly  seen,  and  give  it  all  the 
appearance  of  a  beautiful  submarine  garden. — 
KeppeVs  Tnd.  Arch.,  Vol.  ii,  p.  208. 

NEWSPAPER  PRESS,  the  first  English 
newspaper  was  published  at  Calcutta  on  the 
29th  January  1780.  There  are  now  several 
hundred  newspapers  printed  in  British  India, 
in  the  European  and  many  of  the  vernacular 

NEW  TESTAMENT,  a  sacred  book^of  the 

NEWUJ,  a  river  near  Bhopalpoor  in  Raj- 

NEW  ZEALAND,  in  the  South  Pacific  Ocean, 
between  Australia  and  N.  America,  consists  of 
two  large  and  several  small  islands  lying  between 
L.  3^  and  47i  S.,  and  L.  166^  and  178|  E., 
is  800  miles  long  from  North  to  South  and  120 
miles  broad,  with  an  area  of  99,969  English 
square  niiles=4,703  German  square  miles. 
It  was  discovered  towards  the  close  of  the  18th 
century  by  Captain  Cooke,  a  British  navigator. 
Its  two  chief  Straits  ar§  named  afler  Cook  and 
Foveaux.  The  first  human  inhabitants  of  New 
Zealand  were  the  ancestors  of  the  Maori.  Two 
races  of  human  beings,  a  brown  and  a  black- 
skinned,  inhabit  the  islands  scattered  over  the 
Pacific  Ocean.  The  brown  race  occupy  all  the 
islands  from  the  Sandwich  gi'oup  in  the  northern 
hemisphere  to  New  Zealand  in  the  southern, 
and  from  the  Tonga  group  in  the  west  to  Easter 
Island  in  the  east.  The  black  race  people 
occupy  the  islands  extending  from  the  Fejee 
to  New  Guinea  both  inclusive.  Certain  physi- 
cal features  distinguish  each  race.  Those 
with  brown  complexions  have  generally  lank 
hair  and  scanty  beards,  and  speak  essentially 
the  same  tongue,  although  divided  into  many 
dialects ;  while  the  black  race,  numbering 
several  varieties  of  men  and  speaking  several 
distinct  languages,  have  frizzly  but  not  woolly 
hair,  and  abundant  beards.  French  naturalists 
call  the  islands  which  the  black  race  occupy 
Melanesia,  or  the  islands  of  black  men,  while 






Polynesia  is  applied  to  the  islands  peopled  by 
the  brown  race.  Intermixture  has  occurred 
between  the  black  and  brown  raoes  at  their  points 
of  junction ;  300  miles  across  the  trade  wind,  from 
the  Fejee  islands  to  the  Tonga  islands,  being  a 
a  voyage  of  no  difficulty  to  a  mai'itime  people. 
The  Polynesians,  or  brown-skinned  race,  have 
been  again  subdivided  in toMicronesiansandPoly- 
nesians  proper.  The  former  occupy  the  Pelew, 
Caroline,  Marianne,  and  Tarawa  islands,  ajid 
the  latter  the  Sandwich,  Navigators,  Marquesas, 
Tonga,  Society  islands^  the  Dangerous  Archi- 
pelago, Easter  island,  and  New  Zealand.  The 
Micronesians  are  distinguished  from  the  Poly- 
nesians proper  by  their  low  stature,  their  lan- 
guage, Mongolian  conformation,  and  absence  of 
the  system  of  Tapu  or  Tabu.  Between  the  Micro- 
nesians and  the  Polynesians  proper  there  is  as 
much  difference  as  there  is  between  Dutchmen 
and  Englishmen.  Ethnologists  have  clearly 
established  that  the  Polynesians  proper  are 
sprung  from  the  Malay  family  of  the  human 
race,  and  Mr.  Hale,  the  best  authority  on 
the  migrations  of  the  Pol3mesians,  is  of  opinion 
that  the  Samoa  or  Navigator^s  islands  were 
first  occupied,  and  that  from  them  all  ikie 
other  Polynesian  islands  were  peopled.  For  ages 
Malay  fleets  have  habitually  resorted  to  Australia, 
and  at  the  present  day  200  Malay  proas  accord- 
ing to  Captain  King,  annually  frecjuent  the 
northern  coasts  of  that  continent  to  fish.  For, 
although  ignorant  of  the  compass,  the  Polynesi- 
ans have  names  for  the  cardinal  points,  and 
steer  by  the  stars.  It  was  this  grand  principle 
of  selecting  a  course  which  brought  the 
Malay  fleet  to  Navigator's  islands.  From  the 
Malay  and  Polynesian  custom  of  giving  new 
places  similar  names  to  those  from  which 
they  came,  evidence  is  furnished  that  the 
Malay  route  to  Polynesia  just  given  is  the 
correct  one.  New  South  Wales  and  New  Zea- 
land derive  their  civilized  names  from  a  modifi- 
cation of  this  law.  It  will  be  observed  that 
several  places  in  the  Indian  Archipelago  have 
analogous  names  to  Samoa  or  Savii,  the  Poly- 
nesian name  of  the  Navi^tor*s  islands,  Sama 
in 'Malay  signifies  "  like  as,"  Samoa,  "  all  to- 
gether." Thus  in  close  proximity  to  Timor, 
ihere  is  a  small  island  oalled  Samoa ;  the  south- 
em  extremity  of  Timor  is  called  Sammow,  and 
there  is  a  Sumbava,  Sama,  Java,  and  other 
names  in  the  Archipelago  resembling  Samoa  in 
sound.  Even  the  birthplace  of  the  Malays, 
Sumatra,  the  derivation  of  which  term  is  un- 
known, cannot  fail  to  strike  both  the  eye  and 
the  ear.  From  the  remaias  of  some  Hindoo 
and  Jewish  customs  among  the  New  Zealand 
branch  of  the  Polynesian  race,  and  the  entire 
absence  of  anything  like  mahomedan  customs, 
it  is  inferred  that  the  Malay  migration  from  the 
Indian   Archipelago 


after  the  hindoo   influence   began   to  prevail 
there,  and  before  the  arrival  of  the  mahomedan 
traders  and    settlers    from    Arabia.      Indian 
colonies  were  established  in  Java  in  the  first 
century  after  Christ.     According   to  Javanese 
annals,  the  first  arrival  of  the  hindoos  in  the 
Indian  Archipelago  from  Western  India  occur- 
red about  A.  D.  800,  and   the  mahomedans 
tradition   to  the  Archipelago  began  in  a.  d. 
1278.     The  date  of  the  last  migration  is  prob- 
ably correct,  that  of  the  hindoos  being  more  dis* 
tant  is  uncertain.     From  these  two  great  events, 
it  is  inferred  that  the  Malay  ancestors  of  the 
Polynesians  left  the  Indian  Archipelago  soon 
after  the  commencement  of  the  christian  era. 
No  light  is  thrown  on  the  origin  of  the  New 
Zealanders  from  the  name  Maori  which  they 
call  themselves.     This  word,  rendered  by  Hn- 
guists  "native,"  is  used  in  contra-distinction 
to  pakeha,   or  stranger.     But  the  Re^.  Mr. 
Maunsell   thinks    the  New  Zealandei-s    have 
sprung  from  different  islands,  in  consequence 
of  three  lingual  peculiarities.     The  Ngapuhi 
nation,  living  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  bay 
of  islands,  pronounce  h  as  if  it  were  i^,  and 
Hongi  is  rendered   by  them  Shongi.     The  Ta- 
ranaki  natives   do  not  prqnounce  the  k  at  all, 
but  supply  its  place  by   a  curious  jerk  in  the 
voice  ;  hei  becomes  ei,  and  bohoro,  orra  in  their 
mouths.     Some  tribes  in  the  Bay  of  Plenty  do 
not  give  Ng  the  singidar  nasal  sound  of  good 
Maori  hnguists,  and  in  its  place  use  Nd.     The 
physical  form  of  the  Polynesians,  to  whom  the 
name  of  New  Zealanders  can  now  be  given  is 
as  follows.  In  stature  they  almost  equal  English- 
men,  and  they  are  taller  than    the   inhabi- 
tants of  the  temperate  countries  of  the  conti- 
nent of  Europe,  the  average  height  of  the  male 
sex  being  five  feet  six  inches  and  a  quarter. 
Chiefs  by  birth  are  not  taller  than  free-born 
men,  but  they  are  taller  and  better  developed 
than  slaves.     The  tallest  New  Zealander  seen 
was  six  feet  five  inches  and  a  half.     In  bodily 
weight  and  girth  of  chest  New  Zealanders  are 
equal  to  Englishmen;  ten  stone  avoirdupois. be- 
ing their  average  weight  without  clothes.    Thdr 
bodily  shape  is  peculiar,  and  this  peculiarity 
consists  in  having  longer  bodies  and  longer  arms 
with  shorter  legs  than  Englishmen  of  similar 
stature.    The  lengthening  of  the  arms  occurs  in 
.the  fore-arms,  and  the  shortening  of  the  legs  in 
the  bones  below  the  knee,  the  leg  bones  of  New 
Zealanders  are  indeed  an   inch   and   a   half 
shorter  than  these  bones  are  in  Englishmen. 
Their  long  bodies  are  produced  by  the  size  of 
the  spinal  bones  and  the  cartilages  between 
these  bones.     The  inferior  extremities  of  New 
Zealanders    are   stout,    but    in    consequence 
of  the  shortening  below  the  knee,  the  calves  of 
their  legs   look   ijnusually  high    up;   and    in 

to   Polynesia   took   place    walking   they  turn  in  their  toes,  take  shorter 
98  N  98 


steps,  and  move  in  narrower  paths  than  English- 
men,       The    feet    of    the   New    Zealanders 
are  short  and  broad,  and  the  arch  of  the  foot 
is  often    badly   developed;    their   hands   are 
small  and  tapering.     Thew  head-hair  is  abund- 
ant and  generally  black,  but'  some  have  hair 
with  a  msty-red  tinge.    This  red  tinge,  which 
is  likewise  found  in  the  head-hair  of  other 
Polynesian  races,  has  been  ascribed  to  the  use 
of  alkaline  washes,  but  such  is  not  the  case 
among    the    New    Zealanders.     A    few  have 
lank  head-hair,  a  few  frizzly,  but  the  majo- 
rity have  dark  hair   with  a  slight   wave  in 
it.     The  head-hair    looks   coarse,   but   when 
wa^ed,   oOed,    and    brushed,  it    assumes    a 
raven  darkness  and  a  downy  softness.     Their 
beards  and  whiskers,  since  the  custom  of  ex- 
tracting the  hair  has  fallen  into  disuse,  are  oc- 
casionally considerable ;  but  on  the  trunk  it  is 
scanty,   and   they  look   with    wonder  at  the 
hairy  frames  of  Englishmen.     Few  New  Zea- 
famders  become  bald,  although  many  are  grey. 
Like  ail  people  living  in  a  simple  state,  the 
New  Zealanders  have  good  teeth.     The  nose  is 
sh<Ht  and  broad,  with  an  imperfect  bridge,  but 
there  are  some  good  noses,  and  many  Rotorua 
natives  possess  a  Jewish  style  of  features.     The 
skin  is  oif  an  olire-brown  colour,  not  unlike  a 
seasoned  filbert,  but  it  has  many  shades,  some 
New  Zealanders  being  so  fair  that  blushes  can  be 
detected  on  their  faces,  while  others  are  so  dark 
that  the  tattoo  marks  are  seen  with  difficulty. 
The    white  parts  of   New    Zealanders'    eyes 
less  clear  than  those  parts  are  in  Englishmen  ; 
the  pupil  is  dark  and  large,  the  iris  is  brown, 
never  blue,  even  half-castes  rarely  have  blue 
eyes,  although  the  progeny  of  half-castes  and 
Europeans  have   blue  eyes  frequently.     The 
moa^  is  coarse,  the  face  broad,  and  the  upper 
^p  long.     The  forehead  is  high,  narrow,   re- 
treating, and  pyramidal ;  the  skin  is  cool,  and 
the  circulation  of  the  blood  is  slower  than  in 
Englishmen.     The  size  and  darkness  of  the. 
eyes  of  New  Zealanders  give  to  their  counten- 
anees  an  air  of  gravity.     In  youth  the  expres- 
aon  is  generally  open  and  happy ;  in  middle  age 
sleepy,  morose,  and  thoughtfrd ;  while  in  the 
old  this  last  expression  almost  amounts  to  sad- 
ness.     From  want  of  intellectual  cultivation, 
there  is  not  much  individuality,  of  features,  and 
the  soul's  emotions  are  but  slightly  reflected  in 
their  &ce8.     Travellers  have  perceived  a  pecu- 
liar and   distinctive    odour    among    different 
noes  of  men.    Chinese  houses  are  redolent  of 
musk,  hindoo  towns  of  garlic,  and  New  2^ealand 
huts  are  characterised  by  the  smell  of  dried 
fish.    The  females  are  less  handsome  than  the 
males,   although    the    young    are    invariably 
pleasing.    The  women  have  very  long  eyelashes, 
sod  the  habit  girls  have  got  of  casting  them,  sia 
if  from  lassitude,  over  the  bright  restless  eyes, 



throws  into  their  faces  an  indescribable  mildness, 
while  their  soft  voices  give  a  peculiar  sweetness 
to  their  language.     There  is,  indeed,  a  pathos 
about  their  voices  when  speaking,  a  plaintive 
pathos  when  allusions  are  made  to  persons  dear 
to  them,  and  an  indifference  and  ease  of  manner 
unknown  among  many  other  races,  which  are 
alike  charming  to  hear  and  pleasant  to  see. 
The  New  Zealanders  are  a  mixed  race,  and 
may  be  divided  into  brown,  reddish,  and  black. 
Out  of  a  hundred  persons  eighty-seven  have 
brown  skins,  with   black,  straight,  and  waving 
hair  :  ten  have  reddish-brown  skins,  with  short 
frizzly,  or  long  straight  hair,  having  a  rusty-red 
tinge  in  it ;  and  three  have  black  skins  with 
dark  frizzly  hair,  which  does    not,  however, 
spread  over  the  head  as  in  negroes,  but  grows 
in  tufts  which  if  allowed  to  join,   twist  round 
each  6ther  and  form  spiral  ringlets.     Among 
some  tribes  the  black  and  reddish  men  are  more 
numerous   than  among    others.      Chiefs    are 
generally  brown-coloured,  occasionally  reddish, 
rarely  black.     Every  tribe,  however,  comprises 
the  diree  varieties,  all  speak  the  same  language, 
and  all  arrived  in  New  Zealand  at  the  same 
time.        Crozet    accounted  for     this  mixture 
of  men,  by  supposing  that  New  Zealand  was 
formerly  inhabited  by  a  black  race  similar  to 
the  Australians,  but  there  is  not  a  tittle  of  evi- 
dence to  support  this  opinion.    .Most  races  of 
men  have  endeavoured  to  improve  the  human 
body   by    disfiguring    it,    in   which   art    the 
New  Zealanders  have  out-stripped  all  others. 
First  among  the  New  Zealand  list  of  disfigiua- 
tions  is  tattooing,  a  Polynesian  word  signifying 
a  repetition  of  taps,  but  which   term  is  un- 
known in  the  knguage  of  the  New  Zealanders  ; 
moko  being  the  general  term  for  the  tattooing 
on  the  face,  and  whakairo  for  that  on  the  body. 
Xattooing  is  the  most  ancient  personal  disfigu- 
ration on  record,  and  it  is  likewise  the  most 
universal.     Dampier  in  1691  brought  to  Eng- 
land the  first  tattooed  south  Sea  islander,  a  man 
who  was  well-known  in  London  as  the  painted 
prince,  at  which  place  he  died  of  small-pox. 
The  present  generation  of  male  New  Zealanders 
tattoo  their  &ces,  hips,  and  thighs  ;  and  the 
women  their  lips,  chins,  eyelids,  and  occasionally 
straight  lines,  the  ofibpring  of  each  woman  s 
fancy,  are  drawn  on  their  bodies.     Every  line 
has  a  name,  and  among  distant  tribes  the  tattoo 
marks  are  alike,  although   the  figures  tattooed 
are  not  made  up  of  the  same  number  of  lines. 
And  among  the  New  Zealanders  it  is  a  mark 
of  rank  to  have  the  streaks  of  a  fish  carefully 
cut  on  their  bodies.     The  New  Zealanders  dis- 
like, as  much  as  eastern  nations  glory  in,  hairy 
faces ;  and  consequently  the  hair  was  eradicated 
from  various  parts  of  their  bodies  with  the  aid 
of  shell  pincers,  beards  on  tattooed  &ces  are 
not  picturesque,  and  tihe  proverb  of  "  no  wife 
N  99 



for  the  hairy  ipan,"  made  young  men  carefully 
pull  out  every  indication  of  beard  or  whisker. 
It3  tertiary  strata  contain  remains  of  the  giant 
bird  the  Moa,  and  the  genus  Dinornis,  and 
Palapteryx.  It  has  coal,  gold,  copper,  iron, 
chrome  ore  and  graphite.  It  is  remarkable  for 
its  wingless  birds,  of  the  Apteryx  species.  Earth- 
quakes are  frequent,  especially  in  the  volcanic 
line  between  Tongariroand  White  Island,  where 
on  lake  Tarawera,  not  a  single  month  passes 
without  at  least  one  slight  shock.  The  root  of 
Pteris  esculenta,  formerly  formed  the  chief  ali- 
ment of  the  New  Zealand  natives.  Tlie  Kauri 
(Dammara  australis) ;  the  Kahikatea  (Podocar- 
pus  dacrydioides)  and  the  black  birch,  the 
Tawai  (Fagua  fiisca)  are  the  chief  forests,  but 
mixed  witJi  them  are  the  following  trees ; 

PodocarpuB  totara  or  totara. 
„       spicata  or  matai. 
Dacrydium  cupressinum  or  Rimu. 
Phyllocladus  trichomanoides  or  tanekaha, 
Smghtia  excelsa  or  Rewarewa. 
Elsdocarpus  hinau,  the  Hinau. 
Edwardsia  microphylla,  the  Eowai. 
Dammara  austraus. 
Dacrydium  cupressinum  or  Rimu. 
Podocarpus  dacrydioides,  and  P.  ferruginea. 
MetroBideros  robusta. 

„  tomentosa. 

Vitex  littoralifl. 
Hartighsea  spectabilis. 
Knightia  excelsa. 
Mira  salicif olia. 

Amongst  the  largest  forest  trees  are  Metro- 
sideros  robusta  or  Rata,  the  trunk  of  which  fre- 
quently measures  40  feet  in  circumference ; 
the  Kahikatoa  (Leptospermum),  Tawa  (Laurus) 
Pukatea  {Laurelia),  Karika  (Corinocarpus.) 
The  Dammara  australis  furnishes  the  best  ships' 
masts,  and  spars,  and  its  gum  is  largely  export- 
ed, its  timber  to  the  value  of  X34,376  and  its 
gum  to  jC20,776.  The  oldest  trunks  attain  a 
diameter  of  16  feet,  a  height  of  100  feet  to 
the  lowest  branches  and  150  to  180  feet  to 
the  crown,  trees  ot  60  to  80  feet  to  the 
crown,  are  probably  250  to  300  years  old. 
The  New  Zealand  flax  or  Phormium  tenax,  is 
a  flag-like  plant.  The  blossoms  contain  a  sweet 
honey  juice,  and  each  plant  will  produce  nearly 
half  a  pint.  At  the  root  of  the  leaves  is  a 
semi-liquid  gum-like  substance  which  serves 
for  sealing  wax  and  glue.  Its  relative  tena- 
city is. 

European  hemp,  11.     |  New  Zealand  flax,  23. 
flax,  16.         I  Silk,  34. 

The  best  part  of  the  leaf  furnishes  th^  flax, 
by  water  steeping,  drying,  braked,  swingled, 
and  combed. 

The  wingless  birds  Apteryx  australis  and  A. 
mantelli,  A.  owenii  and  A.  maxima  occur.  The 
Dinomifl  giganteus  now  extinct,  was  about  9^ 
feet  high,  and  the  D.  elepha^topus.  The 
Palapteryx  ingens,  6|^  feet  high.  The  people 
are  known  as  Maori  and  are  about  45,000,  but 

are  rapidly  diminishing  in  number.  They  are  of 
the  Melanesian  or  Papuan  race. 

Captain  Elphinstone  Erskine  heard  it  as- 
serted that  there  did  not  exist  in  1845  many 
New  Zealand  males,  of  twenty  years  of  age 
who  had  not,  in  their  childhood,  tasted  of 
human  flesh.  In  New  Zealand  the  natives 
produce  a  most  brilliant  blue-black  dye  from 
the  bark  of  the  Eno  tree,  which  is  in  great 
abundance.  Some  of  the  borders  of  the  native 
mats,  of  a  most  magniflcent  black,  are  dyed 
with  this  substance.  It  has  been  tried  in  New 
South  Wales  ;  but,  although  found  well  suited 
for  flax,  hemp,  Unen,  or  other  vegetable  pro- 
ductions, it  could  not  be  fixed  on  wools  or  ani- 
mal matter.  It  is  of  great  importance  that 
chemical  science  should  be  applied  to  devise 
some  means  of  fixing  this  valuable  dye  on  wooL 
As  the  tree  is  so  common,  the  bark  could  be 
had  in  any  quantity  at  about  £3  10s.  a  ton  ; 
and  tweed  manufacturers  are  in  great  want  of 
a  black  dye  for  their  check  *and  other  cloths. — 
Captain  Elphinstone  Erskine  Islands  of  the 
Western  Pacific,  p.  275 ;  Tlwmson's  Story  of 
New  Zealand^  Vol,  i,  pp,  51-78  ;  Hvmbold^s 
Dissertation  on  the  langtutge  of  Java ;  Latham  ; 
Pritclvard ;  Williams  ;  Von.-Hochstellers  Ifew 
Zealand  ;  Ethnology  and  Physiology  of  ike 
United  States  Exploring  Expedition  from  1838 
to  1842,  hy  Horatio  Hale,  Philadelphia,  1840. 

NEW  ZEALAND  PINE,   Agathi  australis. 
NEW  ZEALAND  SPINAGE,  see  Spinagfe. 
NEW  ZEALAND  WHALE,  Balaena  antar- 

NEYADASSE-GASS,  Siwoh.  Eurya  japoni- 
ca,  Thunh. 

NGA  BAGI,  BxTRU.     Swietenia  chickrassa. 

NGA-DEliN,  see  Karang  boUang. 

NGA-DJU,  the  name  of  the  inhabitants  on 
the  Kahayan  or  Dyak  river  in  Borneo. 

NGANNAM,  a  name  of  Anam  or  Annam. 

NGAN-TSOING-SHA,  Bvkk.  A  bast  of 
Arracan.     See  Linden. 

NGARI,  a  territory  which  embraces  the 
whole  of  the  upper  valley  of  tlie  Sutlej,  from 
the  Manasarovara  lake  to  the  crest  of  the  Por- 
gyal  mountain,  ^e  Gnari,  India,  Nari,  Shawl- 

NGA  THIN-GYEE,  Burm.  Ficus  cordi- 

NGA  YOUK  THI,  Buwi.     Capsicum. 

NG-HYET-PRA,  Bttrm.     Plantains. 

NGOO-BENG,  Bitrm:  In  Tavoy,  a  strong 
wood  used  for  posts  and  planking. — Dr.  WaUieh, 

NGOO-THA,  BuBSf.     Cassia  species. 

NGU-SI,  BxiRM.     Cassia  lignea. 

NGY-SOUNG-THA,  Bxtrm.  A  Tenasserim 
wood  of  maximum  girth  3|  cubits  and  maxi- 
mum length  22  feet.  Abundant  all  over  the 
provinces.  When  seasoned  it  floats  in  water. 
It  is  a  wood  of  no  durability  or  strength  ;  splits 






readilj,  with  a  short  grain,  and  is  only  fit  for 
firewood. — Captain  Dance. 

NHAN, — ?  Sesamum  orientale. 

NHARUI.  Lieutenant  Pottinger  states  that 
the  races  occupying  Baluchistan  are  divided  into 
two  great  claeses,  severally  known  by  the  appel- 
lation of  Belooch  and  Brahm,  and  that  these 
again  are  sub-divided  into  an  infinite  number 
of  tribes,  who  take  their  names  from  the  chief 
under  whom  they  serve,  the  district  or  country 
to  which  they  belong,  ox  the  traditions  whence  1  — Taylor.     See  Inscriptions. 


firuticans)  of  which  the  sides  also  are  composed. 
— Low's  Sarawak^  p,  150.  See  Neebong, 
Nipa,  Thatch. 

NIBU,  Beno,  Citrus  b^rgamia,  Risso,  also 
the  lemon  Citrus  limoniun. 

NIBUTTI  of  the  buddhists  is  identical  with 
the  uivertd  or  moksham  of  tJie  brahmans,  and 
possib^  analagous  to  the  Apolutrosis  and  ex- 
anastasis  of  St.  Paul.  Nibutti  means  the 
release  from  re-appearance  in  a  material  body. 

^ey  derive  their  descent.  The  Beloochee 
paitakes  considerably  of  the  idiom  of  the  Persian 
and  at  least  one-half  of  its  words  are  borrowed 
from  that  language,  but  greatly  disguised  under 
a  oornipt  and  unaccountable  pronunciation. 
The  Brahuiki,  on  the  contrary,  is  so  dissimilar 
in  its  soond  and  formation,  that  he  did  not 
recollect  to  have  majrked  in  it  a  single  expres- 
sion in  any  way  approaching  to  the  idiom  of 
the  Fenian.  It  contains  a  portion  of  ancient 
hindoo  words.  The  contour  of  the  people  of 
duM  two  classes  is  as  unlike,  in  most  instances, 
as  their  languages,  provided  they  be  descend- 
ants of  a  r^;ular  succession  of  ancestors  of 
either ;  but  the  frequent  inter-marriages  which 
take  place  amongst  them  have  tended  ip  some 
degree  so  to  blend  together  the  peculiar  charac- 
teristicB  of  both,  that  in  many  families,  and  even 
whole  tribes,  they  havB  ceased  to  exist.  The 
Beloochee  branch,  in  the  first  instance,  from 
the  original  class  of  that  name,  into  three 
principal  tribes,  called  Nharooi,  Rindi  and 
^ughsee.  The  Nharooi,  principally  inhabit 
that  portion  of  Beluchistan,  which  lies  to  the 
westvrard  of  the  desert,  and  there  are  likewise 
khels  of  them  at  Nooshky  and  in  Seistan.  See 
Beluchistan,  Eelat,  India,  Wooshky. 

NHI ATRANG  BAY,  on  the  coast  of  Cochin 
China,  is  large,  there  are  a  river  and  town  of 
ame  name,  where  silk  is  manufactured. 

NI  ALA  NEMIKI,  Tel.  Sypheotides  auritus, 

NIALA,  or  Nialo,  Hiirn.  Polygonum  tortu- 

NIAMCHO,  Hnm.     Astragalus,  sp, 

NLA  MUSLI,  Beko.,  Hind.  Curculigo 
QTchioides,  Otert,     Bee  Moosli,  Musli. 

NIAN,  Bhot.  Ovis  ammon,  the  wild  sheep 
of  Ladak.     It  is  fleet,  and  agile  and  graceful. 

NIANGNA,  HoTD.     Ribes  leptostachyum. 

NIAR,  Hum.    Rhamnus  virgatus. 

NIARGAL,  Hnrn.    Oxytropis  macrophylla. 

NLAS,  see  India. 

NIBO — ?  Antichans  arabica. 

NIBONG,  Malay.  Caryota  urens,  lAnn,, 
tr  Palma  brava.  At  the  time  of  Pigafetta's 
mt,  the  town  of  Borneo  was  built  of  wood  on 
strong  and  substantial  posts  ;  it  is  now  con- 
tracted entirely  of  nibong,  which  soon  decay, 
lad  is  thatched  with   the  nipah  leaves,  (Nipa 

101  N 

NICANDER,  see  Conium  maculatum. 

Winter  Cherrj,  Eno.  |  Kaknaj,  HnfD. 

Said  to  be  diuretic  and  purgative,  useful  in 
ulcerations  of  the  bladder. — Powell's  Hand- 
hook^  Vol,  i,  p^  364. 

Atropa  physalodes,  Zmn. 

Is  said  to  be  diuretic. — CShaitgk,,  p,  460. 

NICARAGUA  WOOD  or  Peach  wood. 

Nicarafaholz,  Gbb.  I  Bois  de  Nicarague,         Fa. 

Blutholtz,  „    I  Lcgno  sanguigno,  It. 

Bloed-haut,  Ditt.  |  Palo  de'sangre,  Sp. 

Bois  de  sang,  Fb.  |  Pao  sanguinho,  Port. 

McCulloch's  Commercial  Dictionary,  p,  851. 

NICANOR,  Lieutenant  of  Antigonus,  (305, 
B.  c.)  seized  the  whole  of  Media,  Parthia,  Asia 
and  all  the  countries  as  far  as  the  Indus.  Sec 
Affghanistan,  Greek,  Asia,  Kabul. 

NICATOR,  see  Greeks  of  Asia. 

NICHI  IIAMA,  see  Suhoyum. 

N ICHNI,  Hind.     Rhododendron  anthopogon. 

NICHOLSON,  Dr.,  Bombay  Medical  Service, 
wrote  an  account  of  the  Kooree,  or  Eastern 
branch  of  tlic  Indus,  showing  the  probable 
changes  of  its  course,  and  the  manner  in  which 
the  old  channels  have  been  blocked  up,  in 
Bom.  Geo.  lYans.,  Vol.  vi.  111 ;  Account  of 
the  Island  of  Perim,  in  Bom.  As.  Trans.,  Vol.  i, 
10.  Of  the  submerged  city  of  Balabbipura,  in 
Lond.  As.  Trans.,  1852. 

NICHOLSON,  John,  a  Bengal  raihtary 
officer.  He  was  a  Deputy  Commissioner  in  the 
Punjaub  Civil  Commission  when  he  waa 
suddenly  called  upon  to  assume  a  high  mili- 
taiy  command  in  the  attacking  force.  Aq 
a  Civil  Officer,  his  reputation  was  of  the 
very  highest,  he  waa  in  every  place  where  he 
could  be  of  the  least  possible  assistance,  and  he 
effectually  superviseid  every  official  in  his 
district.  This  extraordinary  man  had  more 
influence  with  his  subordinates  than  perhaps 
any  native  of  Great  Britain  in  the  East  has 
ever  had.  One  class  of  natives  actually 
termed  themselves  '*The  Nicholsanee  Fa- 
keers."  A  native  speaking  of  him  said, 
"  The  sounds  of  his  horse's  hoo&  were  heard 
from  Attock  to  the  Khyber."  In  an  official 
report  of  the  Punjaub  Government,  this  sen- 
tence occurs,  ^'  Nature  makes  but  few  such 
men,  and  the  Punjaub  is  happy  to  have  had 



one.**  Nicholson  waa  employed  in  the  Affghan 
war  of  1838  to  1842,  and  fell  at  the  re-taking 
of  DeM.-^Tr.  of  Hind.,  FoZ.  ii,  ^.  368. 

NICIAS,  see  Greeks  of  Asia. 

NICKEL,  a  brilliant  white  metal  resembling 
silver :  ductile  and  malleable,  and  capable  of 
receiving  a  high  polish.  It  is  usually  procured 
from  speise,  a  compound  of  the  metal  with 
arsenic,  found  associated  with  cobalt  in  Germany. 
AJloyed  with  copper,  it  forms  argentane  or 
German  silver ;  and  is  besides  used  in  making 
mariner's  compasses,  and  for  other  purposes. 
Nickel  and  cobalt,  occur  near  Safli*agam,  in 
Ceylon. —  Watergton  ;  Faulkner, 

NICOBAR   ISLANDS  lie  between  6°  50' 
and  9°  20'  North  latitude,  and  92°  50'  and 
94°  10'  East  longitude.     The  group  consists  of 
nine  smaller  islands  and  some  smaller  ones. 
The    most   southern   are    called   respectively 
Great  and  Little  Nicobar.      The  island  is  more 
than  2  miles  long  and  8  across  in  the  widest 
part.    The  Danes  formed  a  settlement  on  this 
group  in  1756,  but  abandoned  it   12   years 
after.    In  1864,  Captain  Steem  Bille,  the  Com- 
mander of  a  Danish  Corvette,  having  reported  to 
his  Grovemment  the  present  unhealthy  state 
of   these  nominal  possessions  of  the   Danish 
crown,   and  the  great  expense  which   would 
attend  any  attempts  to  make  them  inhabited 
by  Europeans,  IIis  Danish  Majesty    came  to 
the   determination   of  finally   abandoning  all 
right  to  the  islands.      The  Officiating  Superin- 
tendent of  Marine,  in  his  letter  to  Grovemment, 
dated    the    13th    January  states    that    Mr. 
Mackey    speaks  very  favorably  of  the  Nico- 
bars  as  a  field  for  colonization,  and  is  of  opinion, 
that  if  the  jimgle  were  cleared  away,  and  other 
sanitary  measures  adopted,  the  Nicobars  would 
become  as  healthy  as  Penang  ;   an  opinion  in 
which  the  Officiating  Superintendent  adds,  he 
has  every  reason  to  concur.     The  surface    of 
these  islands  is  hilly.  At  the  southern  harbour 
of  Great  Nicobar,  the  nearest  hill  on  being 
measured  was  found  to  be  1,575  feet  above  the 
level  of  the  sea.    There  were  others  in  the 
interior,  of  a  greater  height.     In  Little  Nico- 
bar, some  of  tibe  hills  are  supposed  to  be  about 
1,000  or  1,200  feet  above  the  sear-level.    The 
island  of  Bompoka  rises  abruptly  from   the 
beach  to  the  height  of  750  feet.    Pulo  Cobra 
is  a  small  high  i^nd,  bristling  with  cocoanut 
and  betel-nut  trees.     Little  is  known  of  the 
interior  of  these  islands.     At  Great  and  Little 
Nicobar  "  not  a  cleared  spot  is  to  be  seen,  ex- 
cept here  and  there  a  slip  of  land.    A  large 
quantity  of  coal  was  obtained  from  the  natives 
of  Little  Nicobar,  also  on  Trice  Island,  at  low- 
water.      Lignite  or  haJf-charred   wood  when 
burned  emitted  a  strong  sulphurous  vapor.  Coal 
was  also  found  at  Busch  Island,  at  Pulo  Condul, 
on  the  north-east  side  of  Great  Nicobar,  and 



at  the  southern  bay  of  the  same  island.     Thi 
coal,  though  collected  in  various  parts  of  thi 
Nicobars,  seemed  to  be   very  much  alike 
their  nature,  though  di£fering  a  little  m  appear] 
ance.  They  burn  with  little  flame.     Theyseei 
to  bear  both  in  appearace  and  chemical  proper^ 
ties,  a  near  resemblance  to  the  pitch,  or  can^ 
nel  coal  of  the  Little  Tenasserim  river.     Th^ 
amount  of  the  whole  population  spread  or  scat 
tered  over  the  Nicobar  Archipelago  does  n< 
exceed  the  moderate  number  of  8,000  sotds 
of  whom  about  2,000  inhabit  Car-nicobar.  Th< 
ressa  had  a  population  of  about  500  souls.    Th< 
Nicobarians  are  strong  and  capable  of  carryin( 
very  heavy  burdens,  some  of  them  carryini 
without  any  trouble  200  cocoanuts.     The   Ian] 
guage  used  is  polysyllabic,  abounds  in  yow< 
and  its  pronunciation  is  harsh  and  far  from  ~ 
monious.  The  chief  food  is.the  pulp  of  the 
nut,  yams,  plantains,  papayas,  fowls,  and  abov< 
all  pigs,  which  abound  in  those  islands.     It 
not  uncommon  to  see  round  a  single  hut,  40,  50J 
or  60  of  them.     The  quantity  of  pigs  killed  an< 
eaten  is  almost  incredible.     The  Nicobai 
though  voracious,  separate  the  grease  from  ^i 
flesh,  and  keep  it  separately  for  culinary  pi 
poses ;  they  never  eat,  or  ra&er  devour  any 
but  the  flesh,  and  tiiiat  for  a  single  festival 
There  was  seen   and  counted  75  large  pij^ 
killed  for  satiating  the  wolf-like  appetite  of  th< 
inhabitants  of  an    inconsiderable    district 
Theressa  Island.     In  this  respect,  the  Chin< 
could  not  be  a  match  for    the    NicobariansJ 
The  Nicobar    Islands  are  called  by    the 
lays,   the  Sambilang  or  Nine  Islands.     Eight 
or  nine    of   them    are  of   considerable    sizej 
the  others,  nine  or  ten  in  number,  generallj 
small.     They  extend  N.  N.   W.  and  S.  S.  E, 
about  53  leagues ;  having  several  safe  chann< 
between  them.    They  are  unhealthy  to  £i 
peans,  who  are  subject  there  to  attacks  of 
mittent  fevers.   Car  Nicobar,  is  the  most  north- 
ern of  the  group.    Its  centre  is  covered  wil 
long  grass.     The  names  of  the  other  islands 
Batty,  Malve,  Chowry,    Theressa,    Bompoka, 
Katchaee,  Nanoowry,   Canmorta,    Trincuttee, 
Tillangching,  Sombreiro,  Meroe,  Little  I* 
Island  and  Great  Nicobar  Island.     The  peoph 
are  described  as  having  a  dark  skin,  the  sclei 
tic  coat  of  the  eye,  yellow ;  flat  ^es,  am 
scanty  beards.     Their  chief  aliment  consisting 
in  hogs,  poultry  and  cocoanuts.     They  worshi] 
the  Ividi  or  genii  of  the  hills  and  woods,  an< 
their  priests  are  called  Malain.     The   sp 
mens  of  the  languages  of  Carnieobar  and 
Nicobar    Islands    offer    dissimilarities.      Th^ 
Nicobar  Islanders  appear  to    have  been 
early  colony  of  the  Mon  race  in  its  pure 
more  west  Chinese  and  less  Indian  condil 
They  are  flatter  faced  and  more  oblique  ey< 
than  the  Rakhoing  and  Mon,  in  this  resembling 





the  more  sequestered  hill  tribes  of  the  Burman 
race.  In  some  islands,  they  have  been  much 
mixed  with  Malay  colonists.  Nicobar  phono- 
logy is  allied  to  that  of  the  Silong  and  Simang. 
The  Nicobar  people,  probably  migrated  from 
Smnatra,  but  the  interior  of  Great  Nicobar 
island  is  occupied  by  a  Negro  race.  Caloenas 
Nieobaricufl.  ^e  Nieobar  pigeon  is  of  great 
size  and  sAndour;  its  appearance  and  habits 
exhibit  a  ^ar  approach  to  the  gallinaceous 
birds.  It  lives  chiefly  on  the  ground,  rims  with 
groat  swiftness,  and  flies  up  into  a  tree  when 
disturbed.  Its  nest  is  of  the  rude  platform 
ooostniction  usual  among  the  pigeon  iamily, 
one  of  them  was  built  in  a  tree  about  ten  feet 
finom  the  ground  and  contained  a  single  white 
egg.  The  Great  and  Little  Andamaif  Islands 
and  the  Little  Gocos,  and  their  dependencies, 
and  the  Island  of  Nancowry,  the  Islands  of 
Great  Nicobar  and  Car  Nicobar,  with  those 
lying  near  them,  including  Tillanchong,  have 
been  created  into  a  Chief  Commissionership. — 
Sdtetions  from  Ihe  Records  of  the  Oovt.  of  In- 
dia^ Borne  Dept.y  No.  25,  pp,  66-67  ;  Jour. 
Ind.  Arch.,  Vol  iii.,  No.  6,  1849,  page  272  ; 
MaepUivray's  Voyage,  Vol.  i,  page  244 ;  Ilors- 
burgh^  Latham.   See  India,  Malacca,  Monsoons. 

NICOLAIEFF,  see  Kherson. 

NICOLODI-CONTI,  or  in  Latin,  De  Comi- 
tibus,  a  Venetian  of  noble  family,  who,  when 
a  young  man,  resided  as  a  merchant  in  the  city 
of  Damascus.  In  what  year  he  started  from 
tiience  in  his  travels  to  the  East,  is  not  precise- 
ly known ;  but  it  seems  to  have  been  about  a.d. 
1419.  He  passed  throi^gh  Persia,  sailed  along 
Uie  coast  of  Malabar,  visited  some  parts  of 
the  interior  of  Hindustan,  ^d  also  the 
islands  of  Ceylon,  Sumatra  and  Java.  He  after- 
wards went  to  the  south  of  China ;  and  on  his 
return  passed  alcxig  the  coasts  of  Ethiopia,  sail- 
ed up  the  Bed  Sea,  crossed  the  desert  and 
reached  Cairo,  where  he  lost  his  wife  and  two 
children,  and  returned  to  Venice  in  1444,  afler 
twenty-five  years'  absence  :  and  as  a  penance 
for  having  apostatised  to  the  mahomedan  re- 
ligion, the  Pope  Eugene  IV.,  required  him  to 
relate  his  adventures  to  Poggio  Bracciolini,  the 
Pope's  Secretary,  and  the  original  Latin  appear- 
ed in  the  fourth  book  of  Poggio's  treatise,  de 
Varietate  Fortuni,  hbri  quatuor,  Paris,  1723. , 
He  visited  Cambay,  Vizianagur,  Palgonda,  St. 
Thome,  Ceylon,  Sumatra,  Tenasserim,  Ava, 
Java,  thence  to  Quilon,  Cochin,  Calicut,  Soco- 
Iza  and  homeward. — Ind.  in  15  Cent. 

NICOL  PRISMS,  see  Gums  and  resins. 

NICONOR,  see  Kabul. 

NIOOTIANA,  a  genus  of  plants  belonging 
to  the  order  Solanacese.  Loudon  has  14  species. 
lindley  31,  but  the  following  are  the  better 
known,  and  all  are  recognised  tobacco  plants  ; 
N.  sngustif  olia,  Buk  4*  Pav.,  Chill 

103  N 

N.  bonariensis  Lehm.,  Buenos  Ayres. 

N.  fruticosa,  X.  the  N.,  frutescens  Cav.,  India. 

N.  glutinosa,  Z.,  of  Peru.  It  is  the  N.  militaris, 
Li  Tabacus  viridis,  Monch :  Qairanthus  glu- 
tinosus,  G.  Don. 

N.  multivalvis— ?  Columbia  river. 

N.  nana — ?  Rocky  mountains. 

N.  paniculata,  Lmn.y'N.  viridiflora  of  C<w.,Peru. 

N.  persica,  Lmd.,  Persia  ;  Shimz  tobacco. 

N.  plumbaginif  olia,  Viv.,  the  N.  cerinthoides  of 
Vittm.,  Rio  Grande. 

N.  quadrivalvis,  Parsh.,  N.  America,  Missouri 

N.  repanda— f  Cuba,  Havannah  tobacco. 

N.  rotundifolia,  Linaiey.,  Swan  river. 

N.  rustica,  Litm.,  Europe,  Asia,  Africa,  Ameri- 
ca, English  tob.,  Godaveiy  tob.,  Sjnrian  tob. 

N.  tabacum,  Linn,,  the  N.  havanensis  of  Lag., 
The  genus  Nicotiana  contains  about  14  spe^ 
cies,  most  of  tbem  yielding  tobacco  for  smoking, 
and  many  of  them  cultivated  in  the  gardens  of 
Europe.  The  name  Nicotiana  was  given  these 
plants  afler  Jean  Nicot,  of  Nimes,  in  Laugue- 
doc,  who  was  an  agent  of  the  king  of  France 
at  Portugal,  and  there  procured  the  seeds  of 
the  tobacco  from  a  Dutchman  who  had  procur- 
ed them  in  Florida.  Nicot  sent  them  to 
France  in  1560.  Tobacco  was  the  name  used  • 
by  the  Caribbees  for  the  pipe  in  which  it  was 
smoked,  but  this  word  was  transferred  by 
the  Spaniards  to  the  herb  itself.  Tobacco  leaves 
when  properly  dried  have  a  greenish  yellow 
colour,  a  strong  pleasant  smell  and  acrid  taste ; 
taken  into  the  stomach,  by  persons  not  habitu- 
ated to  its  effects,  violent  vomiting,  diarrhaea,  and 
collapse  are  occasioned.  N.  quadrivalvis  has 
capsules  with  four  valves ;  it  grows  near  the 
Missouri  River,  and  is  there  smoked  by  the 
natives.  N.  multivalvis  has  capsules  with 
many  valves  ;  it  is  cultivated  by  the  Indians 
on  the  Columbia  River  for  smoking.  It  is  a 
fetid  plant,  and  the  calyx,  the  most  fetid  part, 
is  selected  by  the  Indians  for  smoking.  N. 
nana,  a  small  species  of  tobacco,  is  a  native 
among  the  rocky  mountains  of  North  America, 
and  is  smoked  by  the  Indians.  N.  repanda 
is  a  native  of  Cuba,  and  is  said  to  furnish 
the  tobacco  for  making  the  small  cigars  known 
as  Queen's.  The  Macuba  tobacco,  which  grows 
in  Martinque  is  deemed  the  finest,  and  next  to 
it  in  esteem  is  the  Cuba  tobacco.  Nicotiana 
macrophylla,  or  Orinoco  Tobacco,  is  a  herbace- 
ous plant,  with  ovate-acute  leaves  clasping  the 
stem ;  throat  of  corolla  inflated,  segments  short- 
pointed.  The  stem  rising  from  6  to  7  feet  high. 
It  is  a  native  of  America,  and  is  frequently 
used  for  smoking,  the  milder  Havannah  cigars 
are  said  to  be  made  from  it.  The  Havanah, 
Persian,  Manilla  and  Maryland  tobaccos  have 
been  extensively  introduced  into  the  Peninsula 
of  India.  The  English  smoke  more  of  the 
strongest  tobacco  than  any  nation  in  the  world. 
O'Shaughnesfy,  p.  471 ;  Bng.  Cyc. 
NICOTIANA  PERSICA,  Shiraz  tobacco,  is 




a  herbaceous  plant,  clothed  with  clammy 
down,  with  the  leaves  of  tlie  root  oblong,  those 
of  the  stem  acuminate  and  sessile ;  corolla 
salver-shaped,  with  a  long  tube,  and  rather 
unequal  segments.  This  tobacco  is  milder  than 
that  produced  by  the  N.  tabacum,  and  but  a 
small  quantity  is  consumed  in  England. — Eiig. 

Kakkar-tAmaku,  Chbnab. 

Tseang,  Qmju. 

English  tobacco,        Enq. 





Salonica  tobtux;o, 




Kandahari  tamaku, 

Kalkatti  tamaku, 






•  This  plant  is  a  native  of  Europe,  Asia,  Africa, 
and  America,  but  grows  on  the  coast  of  the 
Mediterranean,  and  thence  findtf  its  way  into 
India,  where  it  is  highly  valued.  It  has  a  her- 
baceous sqiiare  stem,  with  petiolate  ovate  quite 
entire  leaves ;  tube  of  corolla  cylindrical, 
longer  than  the  calyx  ;  segments  of  the  limbs 
roundish,  obtuse.  It  was  the  first  species  that 
was  introduced  into  England  for  growth  from 
America.  It  grows  very  well  in  that  climate, 
and  in  some  places  is  almost  naturalised.  The 
tobaccos  of  Salonica  and  Latakkia,  which  are 
much  esteemed,  appear  to  be  the  produce  of  N. 
rustica.  From  the  extensive  range  of  climate  and 
dijQTerence  of  situation  which  this  plant  occupies, 
its  characters  suffer  considerable  change ;  hence 
a  number  of  varieties  have  been  described. 
Dr.  Hooker  writing  of  this  species,  says,  to 
wind  up  the  feast,  we  had  pipes  of  excellent 
mild  yellow  Chinese  tobacco  called  *'  Tseang," 
made  from  Nicotiana  rustica,  which  is  cultivat- 
ed in  East  Tibet  and,  according  to  M.  M. 
Hue  and  Gabet  in  West  China.  It  resembles 
in  flavour  the  finest  Syrian  tobacco,  and  is 
most  agreeable  when  the  smoke  is  passed 
through  the  nose.  Under  various  names,  it  is 
cultivated  at  many  other  places  in  the  Panjab, 
Multan,  Hoshiarpur,  Delhi,  Hurriana,  &c.,  also 
in  the  gangetic  Doab,  Gudh,  &c.,  it  appears  to 
be  this  species  that  ]»  grown  to  some  extent  in 
Cooch  Bahar,  Rungpur,  and  Assam,  Eng,  Cyc.  ; 
Dr.  Jl  L.  Stewart^  m.d.;  Punjab  Plants-,  Hooker 
Himm.  Journal. 
N.  havanensis.  Lag. 

Bujjir  bhang,  Ab. 

T^Ka,  Bu&u. 

Tobacco,  Eno. 
Common  tobacco, 
Virginian  tobacco^ 

Herbe-arla-reine^  „ 
Sweet  scented  tobacco,  „ 



Tambaku,   Hna>.,  Malay. 

Tumbaku,  Mai/BAi*. 







HutD.  I  Poghaku, 

This  species  is  said  to  have  been  imported 
from  England  in  the  time  of  Akbar.  It  is  a  her- 
baceous plant,  with  acuminated  oblong-lanceo- 
late sessile  leaves,  lower  ones  decurrent ;  throat 
of  corolla  inflated,  segments  of  the  limb  pointed. 
This  plant  is  a  native  of  the  West  Indies,  where 


it  first  became  known  to  the  Spaniards,  and  of 
Virginia,  where  the  English  first  became  ac- 
quainted with  its  properties.  Of  the  various 
speoies  it  is  that  which  is  most  commonly  culti- 
vated in  gardens  as  an  ornament.  It  is  largely 
cultivated  in  Europe  for  the  purpose  of  smok- 
ing. It  is  grown  over  all  the  plains  of  the  E. 
Indies  in  tiie  Himalaya  up  to  '^►400  feet  at 
least  on  the  Chenab  to  11,600  fe^'  The  other 
species  are  however  in  some  cases  preferred. 
Schrank  has  described  a  large  number  of 
varieties  of  the  common  tobacco,  varying  in 
the  size  and  form  of  their  leaves,  as  wefl  as  the 
colour  and  form  of  their  corollas.  This  spe- 
cies is  the  one  most  commonly  employed  for 
making  tobacco  and  cigars.  Mr.  Royle  men- 
tions on  the  authority  of  the  Persian  works  on 
Materia  Medica,  that  it  was  introduced  into  India 
in  A.  H.  1014  (a.  d.  1605)  towards  the  end  of 
the  reign  of  Jelal-ud-din  Akbar  padshah.  From 
India  tobacco  probably  found  its  way  to  the 
Malayan  peninsula  and  China,  though  Royle 
quotes  the  authority  ot  Pallas,  Loureiro  and 
Rumphius,  who  think  tobacco  was  used  in 
China  at  a  period  anterior  to  the  discovery  of 
the  New  World.  The  common  tobacco  of  India 
(Nicotiana  tabacum)  is  much  imported  into 
Tibet,  where  it  is  called  "  Tumma,"  (probably 
a  corruption  of  the  Persian  "  Tumak'hu,'')  and 
is  said  to  fetch  the  enormous  price  of  30«.  per 
lb.  at'Lhassa,  which  is  sixty  times  its  value  in 
India.  Rice  at  Lhassa,  when  cheap  sella  at  2^. 
for  5  lbs. ;  it  is  all  bought  up  for  rations  for  the 
Chinese  soldieiy. — Eng.  Cyo. ;  Drs.  Masony 
Hooker,  Him.  Jour.,  Vol.  iv,  p.  232. 

NICOTRIS,  the  queen  mother  of  the  king  of 
Babylon  ;  she  counselled  resistence  against 
Cyrus,  but  after  a  seige  of  two  years,  Cyrus 
drained  the  Euphrates  into  the  trenches  which  he 
had  dug  around  the  city,  and  his  soldiers  entered 
it,  through  the  bed  of  the  river,  and  opened 
the  gates  for  the  rest  of  his  army,  a.d.  504. 

NIDAM  PAINI,  Maleal.  A  Malabar  tree 
which  means  long  Paini.  It  grows  to  about 
two  feet  in  diameter,  and  seventy  feet  high, 
and  produces  a  sort  of  varnish  which  is  used 
with  wood  oil  for  painting  wood.  Tlie  natives 
use  the  spars  for  rafting  timber  down  the  rivers, 
and  for  the  yards  of  small  vessels.  It  is  a  wood 
of  little  value  being  neither  strong  nor  durable. 
— Edge,  Forests  of  Malabar  and  Canara. 

NIDAM  SHETTI,  Maleal.  Memecjlon 
amplexicaule,  Roxb. 

NIDANA,  Sans.  A  first  cause,  from  nee, 
prep,  and  da,  to  give,  Nidhee,  'Sans.,  from 
nee,  prep,  and  dha,  to  place. 

NIDI  DI  TUNCHINO,  It.  Edible  birS-nests. 

NIDOS  DE  LA  CHINA,  Sp.  Edible  bud- 

NIDRA,  Tel.  Desmanthus  -triquetms, 
WiUd. ;  W.  and  A. ;  R.  ii,  552. 

N  104 


NIDS  DE  TUNKIN,  Fr.  Edible  bird-nests. 

NIDUNGANAD,  see  Kummaler. 

NIEBUHR,  a  Dane,  a  traveller  on  the 
shores  of  the  Ked  Sea  and  between  Bombay 
and  Aboshahr,  remarked  strange  alterations 
in  the  sea,  which  once  appeared  white,  like  a 
plain  of  snow ;  at  another  time,  fieiy,  &c. — 
Toy.  en  Arab.  T.,  ii,  p.  71.     (Amst,  1780J. 

H.  Imeaxis,  JDC.  |     Gapparis  linifolia,  Boxh. 

A  Coiomandel  plant,  one  of  the  Cappari- 
daces,  it  has  a  greenish  dark-purple  dower. — 
Roach.;  Vciat. 

CbpfMiia  oUongifolJa^jPor^  |  G.  heteroclita,  RosA. 
Jfonnilca  ljbu8arkara,TKL.  |  Patta  tige,  Tbl. 

A  plant  of  the  Peninsula  of  India,  of  Agra 
and  Dehli.  Boxh,  Voigt. 

NIECHAK,  HnTD.     Hippophae  rhamnoides. 

NIEPERE  PALM—?  Caryota  urens. 

NIESCHAKA,  Sans.  Alangium  hexapeta- 
hiBL,  lAnn, 

NBEi-TAL,  see  Kwang-tung-chi. 

NIFT-I-ROOMI,  Pbrs.    Bilumen. 

NIETNER,  a  resident  in  Ceylon,  about  a.  d. 
1850,  who  wrote  on  the  coffee  plant  and  its 
enemies.  He  stated  that  a  fdngus  had  done 
enormous  damage  in  the  Ceylon  coffee  planta- 
tiona.  When  a  coffee  tree  is  attacked  by  the 
hagf  it  IS  deprived  of  its  sap  and  its  nourish- 
ment, whilst  the  fungus  which  never  fails  to 
attend  on  the  bug  prevents  re^ration  by  clos- 
ing die  stomates  through  which  the  tree  breathes 
and  respires.  Bug,  he  tells  us,  existed  on  the 
estates  to  an  incalculable  extent, — ^none  are 
believed  to  be  quite  free  £rom  it.  Whole  estates 
are  seen  black  with  bugs,  %.  e.,  With  the  fun- 
gus :  and,  he  asks,  "  am  I  wrong  in  saying  that 
if  there  was  no  bug  in  Ceylon,  it  would  at  a 
rough  guess  produce  50,000  cwts.  of  coffee 
more  than  it  actually  does.'*  The  value  of  this 
quanti^  on  the  spot  being  about  £125,000, 
this  sum  represents  the  aggregate  of  the  annual 
loss  by  bug  sustained  by  the  Ceylon  planters. 

NIGAL,  HniD.     Arundinaria  fiedcata. 

NIGALA,  PuKJAB,  BxETo.,  Hum.  Arundi- 
naria utilis. 

NIGAND,  Bum.    Ecylpta  erecta. 

NIGAND  BABRI,  Nigand  panr,  Hind. 
Odmum  basilicum. 

NIGAR.  Richard  Andree  gives  a  very  com- 
plete view  of  the  spread  of  anthropophagy  in 
&e  Erganzungsblattem.  The  motives  of  this 
hideous  aberration  are  extremely  varied. 
Besides  mere  sensual  gratification  and  hunger 
brought  on  by  the  dearth  of  other  animal  food, 
the  passions  of  revenge  and  hatred,  as  well  as 
reh^oua  precepts  and  gloomy  superstition,  play 
an  bnpoTtant  part  in  historical  times.  Anthropo- 
phagy has  b^  gradually  disappearing,  but  in 
one  single  instance  (that  of  tiie  Bassutopeo- 


pie)  the  habit  had  newly  arisen,  having  been 
previously  unknown.  Anthropophagy  has  van- 
ished witii  the  people  themselves  from  among 
the  Iroquois  and  Algonkin  ;  it  has  disappeared 
from  among  the  people  of  the  high  plains  of 
Anahuac,  the  Indians  of  Peru,  and  most  Brazi- 
lian races.  It  is  increasingly  circumscribed  in 
the  Southern  Ocean  by  tiae  dying  out  of  the 
cannibal  race  and  the  pressure  of  white  settiers. 
The  number  of  cannibals  is  still,  however,  very 
considerable.  The  following  figures  are,  of 
course,  only  proximately  correct,  but  they  afford 
a  stand  point  from  which  to  take  a  census  of  the 
class : — ^The  Batta  of  Sumatra,  according  to 
Friedman,  may  be  reckoned  at  200,000  souls ; 
the  cannibals  of  the  Nigar  Delta  at  100,000 ; 
the  Fan,  according  to  Fleuriot  de  Langle,  at 
80,000 ;  the  cave-dwellers  of  the  Baasuto  coun- 
try (about  a  tenth  of  the  whole  population),  at 
10,000 ;  the  Niam-Niam  at  about  500,000 ; 
the  Miranha  and  Mesay,  according  to  Marloy, 
at  2,000;  other  South  America  cannibals  at 
1,000 ;  the  Australian  aborigines  at  50,000 ; 
the  Melanesians  (without  including  New  Gui- 
nea), 1,000,000.  This  calculation  gives  a  total 
at  the  present  of  1,943,000  human  beings 
addicted  to  anthropophagy,  a  number  in  no 
degree  exaggerated,  but  which  actually  repre- 
sents the  690th  part  of  tiie  whole  population  of 
our  planet,  or  0*14  per  cent.  A  native  paper 
of  British  India  in  a.  d.  1870,  stated  that  a  per- 
son has  been  transported  for  life  by  the  Session 
Court  at  Jhansie,  on  a  charge  of  eating  dead 
human  bodies  stolen  from  graves.  It  is  said  that 
he  had  lived  on  this  fare  for  a  number  of  years. 
— P.  M.  Gazette.  SeeAghora,  cannibals. 

NIGELLA  SATIVA,  Linn.,  var,  indica,  DC. 

Shoonez,  Ab. 

Hub-sindi,  „ 

Kal-jira,  Bbno% 

Sa-mung-net,  Bubm. 

Kulunjen,  Duk. 
Small  fennel  flower,  Eno. 

Devil  in  a  bush,  „ 

Devil  in  a  mist,  „ 

Melanthion,  Gb. 

Kalimien,  Hnn>. 







Krishna  jirakae, 



Karin  siragum, 

Nalla  jilakara, 






This  is  a  native  of  the  south  of  Europe,  Egypt, 
Barbary,  and  the  Caucasus  and  is  extensively 
cultivated  in  India.  The  seeds,  resembling 
coarse  gunpowder,  are  triangular,  slightiy  com- 
pressed, obtuse  above  with  oblique  bases, 
rugose,  black  externally,  internally  of  a  green- 
ish white  hue.  The  capsules  are  polysper- 
mous,  oblong,  and  pointed  at  the  side.  The 
seeds  are  of  strong  aromatic  odour,  and  flavour 
resembling  sassafras  or  cubebs.  These  pro- 
perties are  due  to  an  essential  oil,  of  which  the 
seeds  yield  from  5  to  10  per  cent.  The  nigella 
seeds  have  been  long  used  in  medicine,  and  were 
praised  by  Hippocrates  as  a  tonic  condiment. 
At  present  they  are  chiefly  employed  by  the 

N  105 


xxBihe  Hakim  aad  Balda,  aa  aromadc  adjuncts  to 
purgatiTe  or  bitter  remedies.  In  Bengal  they 
are  given  to  nurses,  in  the  belief  that  they 
increase  the  secretion  of  milk,  and  facts  tend 
to  corroborate  that  opinion.  In  eruptions  of 
the  skin,  the  seeds  reduced  to  powder  and 
mixed  with  sesamum  oil,  are  much  used  as 
an  external  application.  The  seed  will  sel- 
dom be  prescribed  in  substance.  The  tinc- 
ture i$  a  useftil)  warm  stimulant,  and  may 
be  added  conveniently  to  numerous  draughts 
and  mixtures  intended  for  other  purposes.  The 
popular  mode  of  giving  the  nigella  to  nurses 
is  by  inixing  the  powdered  seed  with  curry,  to 
which  however  it  communicates  a  very  heavy 
and  disagreeable  flavour.  The  price  of  the 
seed  in  the  bazaars  is  from  one  to  two  annas 
the  seer  =s  2  lbs.  avoirdupois.  The  tincture 
of  it  is  stimulant  and  diaphoretic.  Dose,  half 
a  fluid  drachm  to  two  drachms.  To  prevent 
injury  to  furs,  feathers,  books,  papers  and 
clothes  that  are  lodged  in  trunks,  book  cases, 
&c. ;  it  is  useful  to  place  along  with  them 
small  packets  of  camphor;  or  little  cups  of 
camphor  dissolved  in  alcohol ;  packets  of  Nigella 
sativa,  the  "kala  jira"  of  the  bazaars:  pieces 
of  the  roots  of  the  Aconitum  ferox,  the  dread- 
ful "  bisb ;"  "  Ati  Singeea  bish,"  or  bishnak  of 
the  bazaars,  may  a]£K>  be  used,  but  its  highly 
poisonous  effects  on  animal  life,  require  its  use 
Id  be  bad  lecourse  to  with  the  greatest  precau- 
tion. Cups  of  carbolic  acid  are  useful.  The  oil 
fh>m  N.  sativa  seeds,  is  a  clear  and  colourless  but 
ntfier  viscid  oil*  It  is  employed  prindpally  as 
a  medicine, '  It  is  called  jui^le  jeerab  oil  in 
UyBOT^T-(yShav^h.p.  164;  Beng.Phar,,p  430. 








Fennel  4ower  80ed, 

Small        ^        n         M 

Hub-us-BWBd,         Egypt. 

Gemsin  nigeljie,         Cfbb. 

Melanthion,  Ga. 


Kulinji,  GxTZ. 

ICala-iira,  Hun). 

Kolinii ;  Kali-jira,  „ 

Siah  oanah,  Pbks. 

Krishna  jiraka,  Sans' 

Kaloodooroo,  SmoH. 

Carin  siragum,  Tam. 

Nulla  iila£a.ra^  Tkl. 

These  ^eeds  have  a  great  resembl?ince  to 
coarse  gunpowder,  are  triangular,  slightly  com- 
prened,  obtuse  above  with  oblique  bases,  rugose, 
black  externally,  intern*Uy  of  ^  greenish  white 
hue.  They  have  ^>  strong  luromatic  odour,  and 
flavour  resembling  sanalV^s  or  pibebs.  They 
are  used  in  medicine  by  th^  native^,  as  an  aro- 
matic adjunct  to  pjurgative  or  bitter  remedies ; 
and  alio  in  curries  and  pickles. 

NIGEB,  Air€HM)-Uf:iN.  Th^  black  seed^  of 
Seasmum  orientaie. 

NIGER,  Ut.    Black. 

NIGEE,  see  Indigo. 

NIGGI,  HiHi).,o*'Kulu,  &p.,  Daphne  canna- 
bina.  It  is  the  Jeku  of  Basahir ;  and  the  San- 
narkat  of  Cashmir. 

NIGGI,    also  Tulenni)   also    Phul  golunk, 



Hind.,  of  Ravi,  Hamiltonia  suaveolens,  .ficME^., 
also  Daphne  oleoides,  (bhat)  niggi,  Hisd^  is  the 
Wikstrasmia  salicifoUa. 

NIGHANTI,  Saits.  A  Glossary  of  the  Vedas. 

NIGHT  OF  POWEE  among»t  hindoos,  the 
7th  night,  of  the  7th  month,  of  the  77th  year, 
of  a  man's  age,  is  termed  Bhimaratri,  or  Night 
of  Power !  and  is  considered  the  end  of  his 
natural  life.  After  that,  a  hindoo  is  considered 
exempt  from  all  instituted  observances. —  WiU, 

flowering  Cereus,  Eko.    Cereus  glandifloms. 

NIGHTINGALE.  Dr.  J.  D.  Hooker,  in  his 
Himalavan  Journal,  twice  notices  **  the  Night- 
ingale, as  having  been  heard  by  him ;  but  at 
a  time  of  the  year  at  which  no  real  nightin- 
gale ever  sings.  The  true  nightingale  r^ular- 
ly  ceases  to  sing,  somewhat  abruptly,  About  the 
beginning  of  the  month  of  June,  and  this  alike 
whether  it  has  young  to  tend  in  the  wild  state, 
or  when  confined  in  a  cage ;  and  captive  night- 
ingales re-commenoe  their  song,  if  in  health 
and  vigour,  about  January,  and  continue  in  full 
song  for  two  months  or  more  before  their  wild 
brethren  arrive  from  their  southern  hauntp. 
Thi3  bird  never  sings  out  of  season.  Dr.  Hoe- 
ker  8  ''  nightingale"  refers  to  some  other  bixd> 
and  most  probably  to  the  Shama.  "  On  the  4t}i 
October,"  he  remarks,  '*  I  heard  the  nightao- 
gale  for  the  flrst  time  in  the  season ;"  aad  wheit 
at  Peniiongchi  (a  former  capital  of  Sikhim),  ux 
January,  he  notices  tiiat  "  nightiii^gales  warble 
deliciouflly  ni^t  and  morning,  which  fath^ 
surprised  us,  as  the  minimum  thennometer  fell 
to  28^,  and  the  gi*ound  next  day  was  opvered 
witli  hoar  frost.  These  birds  migrate  hither 
in  October  and  November,  lingering  in  the 
Himalayan  valleys  till  the  cold  of  early  epring 
drives  them  further  south  to  the  plajbos  of 
India,  wh^ice  they  return  north  in  Mwrfih 
and  April."  But  among  tiie  nu^neropa  cot- 
lections  of  Sikhim  birds  examined,  no  speci- 
men of  a  nightingide  has  ever  occurred :  nqr 
is  the  bird  enumerated  in  Mr.  Hodgson's  lists 
of  the  species  inhabiting  that  region.  The 
Calliope  camtschatkensis,  a  delicate  little  bixd 
much  like  a  nightingale,  but  with  a  brilliant 
ruby-throat,  which  is  not  rare  in  the  vicinity  of 
Calcutta  during  the  cold  season,  arrives  *'  early 
in  April,  with  the  snowfleck,  in  tlve  Lower 
Kolyma  district"  in  Northern  Siberia,  aa  we  ar^ 
told  by  Von  Wrangell ;  that  is  to  say,  before 
the  \fist  of  them  have  led  Bengal :  but  it  is 
remarkable  that  this  bird  has  never  been  seen 
in  the  very  numerouf  collections  fix>ni  t}ie 
Hin^^rfaya  examined  hitherto;  though  anoth^ 
aad  non-migratory  specie^  of  tlie  si^^  geai^ 
(C.  pectoralis),  peculiaf ,  so  far  af  known  to  U^e 
Himalaya  is  of  coi^mon  occ^rrenoe  i^  siieh 
collections.    It  is,  however,  enumerated  in  Vr. 

N  106 


Hoclgaoo's  liat  of  the  birds  of  Nepal:  tlie  C. 
camtKhatkensia  does  not  seem  to  breed  exten- 
aretj  on  this  side  of  the  snow ;  although  the 
Bengal  birds  may  not  have  to  find  their  way 
qotte  so  fajr  as  to  Northern  Siberia  to  pass  the 
sammer.  The  nightingale  of  the  £nglish 
rendents  in  Ceylon  i»  the  dayal-bird  or  dial- 
biid  (Gopjaydbus  saularis).  The  more  sombre 
pioBfige  of  the  female  which  is  seldom  seen 
widi  the  male^  except  during  the  breeding  season 
has  deceived  many.  The  song  of  this  species  is 
lick  and  sweety  and  it  frequently  imitates  the 
ootea  of  other  birds.  In  habits  fomifiar,  it  is  a 
oamnon  tenant  of  the  gardens,  where  it  pours 
teh  its  welcome  notes  in  the  afternoon  or 
eniy  morning,  and  like  its  rival  redbreast,  ailgs 
a  bar,  and  then  wilite  a  short  time  for  another 
iadiviinal  to  reply. — BifA  in  Indian  Fidd  ; 

NIG&T  JAB  OF  G£YLONy  Gaprimcdgus 

NIGHT  SHADE  OHi,  Oil  of  Atropa  bella^ 

NIGRAHA^rHANA,  Saks.  Nigraha  sig- 
nifies disfsvoor,  and  stliana,  place. 

NI6AMANA,  Saxb.  A  sure  decision,  irom 
oee,  {»%p.,  and  gum  to  move. 


NIHALy  amongst  the  Gond,  a  helot  race. 

NIHANGy  the  Sikh  sects,  and  Nihang  believe 
in  Nanak  Baba ;  but  the  manners  and  dress  of 
the  latter  are  quite  different  from  those  of  the 
fiarmer.  The  Nihang  sect  were  careless  of 
their  own  lives,  and  consequently  of  those  of 
others. — Mofiyn  LaPs  JownMys,  jp.  9. 

NIJ A,  Hind.    Sacchamm  semi-decumbens. 

NIJNl,  Hmn.    See  Injni. 

NURAN,  see  Kaffir,  Nejran. 

NUROW.  The  natives  of  Nijrow,  who  have 
SBBomed  the  name  of  Tajik,  have  become  bet- 
ter mahomedans  than  they  were  in  the  time  of 
Baber,  and  their  valour  and  difBcult  country 
have  generally  been  sufficient  to  preserve  their 
independence.  They  are  numerous  and  well 
armed,  having  all  muskets.  The  Pashai  fami- 
lies in  the  vicinity  of  Nijrow  are  a  distinct 
community,  but  on  a  good  understanding  with 
their  neighbours.  Their  largest  village  is 
ffidipi^  and  they  are  represented  as  extremely 
hospitable.  Hete,  as  in  other  valleys,  are 
abimdance  of  mines  and  cares. — MasswCs  Jour- 
9ey9,  Vol.  i,  p.  222. 

NIKAHiAB.,Hiin>.,PBRi^.  Marriage,  amongst 
naiiomedans,  Nikah  namah,  the  marriage  cer- 
tiftcate.  In  Arabia,  Egypt,  and  Persia  the 
nikah  is  the  principal  marriage  ceremony.  lu 
lxk&,  a  marriage  confined  to  the  nikah,  is 
deemed  disreputable,  or  it  b  with  some  person 
of  inferior  tank.  In  the  case  of  a  spinster  of 
eqioal  rank,  the  dhadi  or  rejoicings  lasting  for 
five  days  put  aD  the  religiouB  ceremonial  of  the 

107  N 


nikah  into  the  shade.  The  nikah  engagement, 
though  inferior  to  marriage,  is  still  respectable. 
It  is  common  where  the  condition  of  the  parties 
is  too  unequal  to  adbiit  of  one  more  publie. 
Nikah  and  Shadee  are  often  in  India  used 
synonymously,  as  meaning  the  marriage  or  the 
marriage  ceremonial  of  the  mahomedans.  The 
Nikah,  however,  is  the  form  of  words  used  by 
the  Kazee  in  uniting  the  couple  and  the  shadee 
or  rejoicings,  are  all  additional,  and  may  be 
lengthened  or  curtailed  at  the  will  of  t^e  rela- 
tives. About  Delhi,  the  ceremony  of  Nikah 
would  appear  to  be  styled  **  Burat."  The 
Shadee  ceremoniill  in  India  is  generally  used 
only  where  the  bride  is  a  spinifter  and  of  e^ual 
rank  with  the  husband. — »ifa2eo&7iV  Central 
India,  Vol  Up.  268. 

NIKAIA  is  identified  by  GeHl.  Otmoin^am. 
with  Kabul,  The  town  of  that  name  on  th« 
Hydaspe^  is  ideiLtifiedwith  Mon^^ 

NIKAKSHA,  see  BavanH. 

NliLALGO,  seet  Kaezilbash^  Kfflar. 

NIKAHI,  Hslfi^.    Ctetaneft  indi«». 

NI-KEI,  Ja^Av.    Cinnai»Dtiram  loui^itil. 

NIKEPHOROS,  see  Greeks  of  Asia. 

NIKHARNA,  Hind.     Bleaching. 

NIKKI,  Hun).    Small. 

NIEJKI  BEKKAR,  Hind.    Grewia  rothii^ 

NIKKI  JAPHROTI,  Hind.  Bedio{^>6nn«tm 

NIKKI  KANDER,  Hind.  Rhamnus  peraica. 

NIKU,  Hind.  Rhododendron  campuiulatum. 

NIL,  Singh.  Sapphire. 

NIL,  A&AB.,  BEve.,  Hind.,  Puts.,  SnroH. 
Indigo,  c^  Indigofera  tinctoria,  Ltnm.,  also  blue 
color.  When  used  in  the  Panjab  for  indigo,  it 
is  usually  written  with  the  word  ^'  kabuda''  after 
it,  to  distinguish  it  fit>m  the  word  *'  til,"  which, 
in  vernacular,  differs  only  in  one  point. 

Nil  ka  bij,  the  seeds. 

Nil  safa  or  Nil  Wilayiti,  Pnusian  blue,  Ferro- 
cyanade  of  iron. 

NIL,  or  Lil,  Hind.    Portax  ptcjtus,  Jerdon. 

NILA,  or  Naila  jidi,  Tra».  S^mecarpus 
anacardimn,  Lirin. 

NILAB,  from  nil  <  bhie,'  and  ab  '  water ;' 
hence  the  name  of  the  Nile  in  Egypt  and  in 
India.  I^nd  or  Sindhu,  appears  to  be  a 
Scythian  word.  Sin,  in  the  Tatar^  tsin  in 
Clnnese, '  river  .^  Henoe  the  inhabitants  of  its 
higher  course  termed  it  aba  sin^  *  parent 
stream ;'  and  thus,  veify  pmbably,  Abyssfaiia 
was  formed  by  the  Arabians ;  *  the  country  on 
the  Nile,' or  aba  sin. — 2Ws  Sajcuthan^  Vol. 
i,  p.  212. 

NILA  BARUDENA  or  Valooliiala,  Tm;. 
Solanum  melongena,  Brinjal. 

NILAGHIRA,  Malkal.  Portukca^  quadri- 
fida,  Linn. 

NILA  GHmyi,  2d8o  Nfla  ghiriia  khume. 
Sans.    Glitoria  temstea. 



NILAGIRI,  see  Inscriptions. 

NILA-HUMMATU,  Datura  featuoaa. 

NILA  KAI,  Paitjab.  Trichodesma  indicum, 
M.  Br. 

NILAKANTAH,  a  name  of  Siva,  from  his 
having  a  blue  throat,  in  consequence  of  having 
drank  the  poison  produced  at  the  churning  of 
the  ocean. — CoUy  Myth.  Hind,,  p,  390.  See 
Vidya,  Vishnu.       ^ 

NELiAKIL,  Hun).  Grentiana  kurroo,  Wall. 

NILAEIRAI,  Hun).  Crozophora  tinctona,  also 
Trichodesma  indica,  also  C)mogloBsmn  micran- 

NILAM,  HuTD.,  Malay.     Sapphire. 

NILAM,  Hind.     Ballaat. 

NILAM,  Tax.    Public  auction. 

NILAMBARAM,  Tbl.  Barleria  cosrulea, 
22.  iii,  p.  39,  the  blue  Barleria,  also  some 
species  of  Eranlhemum. 

NILAM-PALA,  Mauiai.,  Tam.  Wrightia 
tomentosa,  Bom.  et  Sch.  A  Malabar  tree  that 
grows  to  about  twelve  or  fi^en  inches  in 
diameter :  it  is  not  of  much  consideration ;  it  pro- 
duces a  small  fruit  which  is  used  by  tiie  natives 
medicinally. — Edye,  Forests  of  Malabar  and 

NILAN,  Hun).     Crozophora  tinctoria. 

NILA  NIRGAND  A,  or  Nila  nirghoondi.  Sans. 
JuBticia  gandaruasa. 

NILAN JANAM,  Tel.  Sulphuret  of  antimony. 

NILA  PALA,  Tam,  A  small  tree  of  Malar 
bar,  the  wood  of  which  is  very  close-grained; 
it  is  used  in  house-work.  The  root  is  used  as 
a  medicine,  and  applied  in  cases  of  rheumatism ; 
this  tree  in  Travancore,  is  sacred. — Edye, 
Forests  of  Malabar  amd  Canara. 

NILAPANAG  KALANGU,  Tam.  The  root 
of  Curculigo  orchioides,  Qa^. 

NILA  THARI,  Hun).    Ouscuta  macrantha. 

NILA  TUTLV,  also  Neela  tutia,  Hind.  Blue 
stone  :  Sulphate  of  copper.  Blue  vitriol.  This 
is  extracted  from  copper  ore.  The  stone  is 
pulverized  and  is  tiirown  into  earthen  vessels 
filled  with  water,  and  allowed  to  stand  during 
the  night,  after  which  the  liquid  is  poured  into 
another .  vessel  and  the  crystals  of  blue  vitriol 
obtained  by  spontaneous  evaporation  of  the 
liquid  in  ue  same  way  as  alum. — PowelVs 
Handbook,  Econ,  Prod.  Pimjah,  p.  67. 

NILA  USARIKA  or  Nila  usharika,  Tbl. 
Phyllantiiufl.niruri,  Lam. 

NILA  VALUTHANA,  of  Rheede.  Syn.  of 
Solanum  melongena,  Linn. 

NILA-VAVILI,  Tbl.     Vitex  trifolia. 

NILA  PANA,  Malbal.  Curculigo  orchioides, 
Ooert. ;  Cassia  laneeolata,  Boyle. 

NILA-VOOLLA,  Feronia  elephantum. 

NIL-BANDAR,  Bbng.  Inuussilenus,  JJjrdon. 

NILE.  Xhe  rains  from  the  mountains  to 
the  south  of  Abyssinia,  flowing  through  Meroe, 


Ethiopia,  and  Nubia,  reach  Egypt  in  the  middle 
of  June,  when  the  Nile  begins  to  rise  at  Syene. 
The  little  plains  which  fHnge  its  banks  through 
the  Thebaid  to  a  greater  or  less  width  are  first 
overflowed,  and,  during  the  months  of  August, 
September  and  October,  the  fields  in  the  Delta 
become  a  sheet  of  water,  leaving  the  villages 
on  the  raised  mounds  standing  like  so  many 
islands  in  the  ocean.  Why  there  was  most 
water  in  the  Nile  in  the  dryest  season  of  the 
year,  was  a  subject  of  never-ceasing  inquiry 
witii  the  ancient  travellers  and  writers  on  phy* 
sics.  Thales  said  that  its  waters  were  held  back 
at  its  mouths  by  the  Etesian  winds,  which  blcvw 
from  the  north  during  the  summer  months ; 
and  Democritus  of  Abdera  said  tiiat  these  winds 
carried  heavy  rain  clouds  to  Ethiopia ;  whereas 
the  north  winds  do  not  b^n  to  blow  till  the 
Nile  has  risen.  The  Nile  begins  every  year 
to  rise  about  the  middle  of  June,  and  continues 
rising  40  or  50  days ;  it  then  falls  by  d^;reeB, 
till,  in  the  end  of  May,  next  year,  it  is  at  the 
lowest.  The  causes  of  its  rise  are  now  well 
known.  During  the  hot  months  of  the  year, 
rain  falls  every  day  in  Habbesh  or  AbyBsinia» 
and  all  that  rain-water  is  collected  into  the 
Nile,  which,  from  its  entrance  into  Egypt  till 
it  reaches  the  sea,  runs  through  a  wide  vale. 
It  does  not  rise  alike  high  through  all  £gjpt. 
At  Cairo  the  full  height  is  at  least  24  feet 
above  its  ordinary  level.  At  Rosetta  and  Da- 
mietta  it  is  only  four  feet.  At  Cairo,  the  Nile 
being  confined  to  one  channel,  between  high 
banks,  must  necessarily  rise  to  a  much  greater 
height  than  nearer  the  sea,  where  it  is  divided 
into  two  streams,  after  running  over  bo  much 
barren  ground,  and  forming  so  many  lakes.  The 
branch  upon  which  Rosetta  stands,  is  only  650 
feet  broad ;  and  that  by  Damietta,  not  more 
than  100.  As  soon  as  the  Nile  begins  to  rise, 
all  the  canals  intended  to  convey  the  waters 
through  the  coimtry,  are  shut  and  cleaned. 
They  are  kept  shut,  however,  till  the  river  rise 
to  a  certain  height  which  is  indicated  by  the 
Nilometer  in  the  isle  of  the  Rodda.  A  shaikh 
attends  for  this  purpose,  by  the  mikkias,  and 
gives  notice,  from  time  to  time,  of  the  rising  of 
the  river,  to  a  number  of  poor  persons  who 
wait  at  Fostat  for  the  information,  and  run 
instantly  to  publish  it  in  the  streets  of  Cairo* 
They  return  every  day  to  Fostat,  at  a  certain 
hour,  to  learn  £rom  the  shaikh,  how  many 
inches  the  river  has  risen.  And  its  rise  is  every 
day  proclaimed  in  public,  till  it  reaches  the 
fixed  height,  at  which  the  canals  are  permitted 
to  be  unlocked ;  the  usual  tax  is  then  paid  for 
the  waters,  to  the  sultan,  a^d  a  good  year  ex- 
pected. The  canal  at  Cairo  is  first  opened,  and 
then,  successively,  all  the  other  great  canals 
down  to  the  sea.  Between  the  dyke  of  the 
canal  of  Cairo,  and  the  Nile,  a  pillar  of  earth 






9  nkedj  nearly  of  the  height  to  which  the 
waters  of  the  rivers  are  expected  to  rise.  This 
pillar  is  called  Anes,  or  the  bride,  and  serves 
as  a  sort  of  Nilometer,  for  the  use  of  the  com- 
mon, pec^ie.  When  the  waters  enter  the  canal, 
tfiis  bride  is  carried  away  by  the  current.  A 
hke  eoBtom,  which  prevuled  among  the  ancient 
Egyptians,  has  subjected  them  to  the  imputa- 
tkfa  of  sacrificing  every  year  a  virgin  to  the 
Nile.  Nnkta  signifies  in  Arabic,  both  a 
drop  and  the  time  of  the  sun's  entering  the 
sign  of  Cancer;  at  which  season,  the  great 
niaa  £bJ1  in  Abjrssinia,  which  occasion  the 
swidliiig  of  the  Nile. — Sharpens  HUtory  of 
Bg^^  Vol.  i,  pp.  4,  401 ;  Nidmhai^$  TraueU, 
pp.  67*71.     See  Iran,  Siam,  Vishnu. 

NILESHWAB,  see  India. 

NIL4xAI,  or  Nil-gao,  Hind.  Portax  trago- 
camclns,  is  one  oi  the  largest  and  most  magni- 
ficent of  known  antelopes  being  upwards  of  4 
ieet  high  at  the  shoulder;  it  resides  in  the 
dense  forests  of  India,  is  a  vicious  animal,  of 
very  uncertain  temper,  and  even  when  domes- 
tidied  is  both  violent  and  changeable. 

NIL6IR,  Hm).  The  munal  pheasant,  Lopho- 
phorus  impeyanus. 

NILGfiOntl  and  Kuig  mountains  to  the  north 
of  the  Ccimhatore  valley,  rises  abruptly  to  8,000 
feet  elevation  as  the  NUghiri  range,  and  is  con- 
tinued northward  as  the  mountains  of  Kurg  at 
nearly  the  same  elevation.  The  rain-fall  which 
is  excessive  to  the  westward,  is  much  diminished 
before  reaching  the  axis  of  the  chain  at  Doda- 
betta,  it  is  100  inches ;  and  at  Utacamund  only 
64  inches. 

Dimhmty 6,166  Ft. 

Kotagherry 6,407 

Utacamund.. . . .   64 rain.  7,197 
Dodabetta. 100 8,429 

The  Toda  dialect  has  special  affinities  with 
the  Tamil,  and  the  Badaga  of  the  same  hills 
have  also  some  dialectic  peculiarities.  Further 
Dorth  the  Koorg  mountaineers  have  their  own 
dialect,  the  Kodagu.  The  insular  languages  of 
the  S.  Indian  province,  or  those  of  Ceylon,  the 
Lsccadives  and  the  Maldives,  also  belong  to  the 
Dravidian  family.  The  closely  connected  Tamil 
and  3£alayalam  of  the  south,  of  which  Todava  and 
Kodagu  may  be  considered  as  sub-dialects,  the 
Tehnga  of  the  east,  and  the  central  Kamataka, 
appear  to  have  exterminated  or  absorbed  the 
numerous  continental  dialects,  of  the  former 
existence  of  which  the  physical  evidence  of  a 
nuddtnde  of  distinct  tribes  having  been  scattered 
ever  southern  India,  in  its  barbarous  era,  leaves 
00  doubt.  That  the  Dravidian  race  did  not 
Wiog  with  it  into  India  the  civilization  which 
4e  present  great  southern  nations  possess,  as 
4e  Arians  certainly  did  theirs,  appears  to  be 
litde  questionable  when  we  consider  tiie  antique 
Aancter  and  affinities  of  the  dialects  of  the 

109  N 




64-0  F. 

Male,  Orond,  Khond,  and  Toda,  the  very 
archaic  and  barbarous  character  of  many  of  the 
customs  of  the  widely  separated  tribes  which 
speak  them,  and,  above  all,  the  nature  of  the 
relationship  of  these  dialects  to  those  of  the 
civilized  nations,  which  is  inconsistent  with  the . 
hypotiiesis  tiiat  the  former  originated  in  the 
metamorphosis  of  non-Dravidian  dialects  of 
rude  aboriginal  tribes,  through  the  influence  of 
tiie  intrusive  and  dominant  race.  The  known 
ethnic  facts  of  all  kinds  lead  us  directiy  to  the 
conclusion  tiiat  the  uncivilized  Dravidian-speak-  • 
ing  tribes  are  no  otiier  than  genuine  Dravidi- 
ans  who  have,  in  great  measure,  escaped  the 
culture  which  the  more  exposed  tribes  have 
received,  and  tiius  preserve  a  condition  of  the 
race  certainly  not  more  barbarous  than  that 
which  characterized  it  when  it  first  entered. — 
Joum.  Ind.  Arch.,  No.  IV,  and  April  and 
May,  1853,^.  208.     See  India,  .Neilgherries. 

NILI CHETTU,  Tbl.  Indigofera  tinctoria,  L. 

NILI-KAI-MAEA,  Can.  Nili-kai-maram, 
Tax.    EmbUca  officinalis,  Gmrtn. 

NILINI,  Tel.    Indigo. 

NILr-ISBAND,  Hind.    Clitorea  tematea. 

NILIUM — ?  Panicum  miliaceum,  millet. 

NILJAPA,  Hind.  Blue.  Hibiscus  striatiflorus. 

NIL^KALMI,  Bbnq.,  Hind.  Pharbitis  nil, 
Choisy,  Ipomsea  c^rulea. 

NILKANTH,  Hind.  Gentianakurroo,  WaU., 
also  Clitorea  ternatea. 

NILKANTH,  a  name  of  Siva.    See  Vishnu. 

NILKANTHI,  Hind.  Ajuga  bracteata,  also 
Crozophora  tinctoria,  also  Crozophora  plicata. 

NILKATTEI,  Hind.  HeUoteropium  brevi- 

NILKATTA  RODU,  Singh.  Clitorea  ter- 
natea, Liftn. ;  Boxb. ;  W.  ^,  A, 

NILLA-PANE,  Tam.  Curculigo  orchioides, 
€hsrt.    See  Moosli,  Musli. 

NILLA  TIRTAVA,  Maleal.  Ocymum  sanc- 
timi,  Liwn, 

NILLE  MAKAREYA,  see  Ceylon,  Surya- 

NILHO,  Singh.  A  Ceylon  plant.  When 
the  blossom  of  tiie  nilho  fades,  the  seed  forms ; 
this  is  a  sweet  littie  kernel,  with  the  flavour  of 
a  nut.  The  bees  now  leave  tiie  country,  and 
the  jimgles  suddenly  swarm,  as  though  by 
magic,  with  pigeons,  jungle-fowl  and  rat.  At 
length  the  seed  is  shed  and  tiie  nilho  dies. — 
Baker^s  Rifle,  p.  305.    See  Golunda  rat. 

NILLUR,  Hind.  Vitis  quadrangularis  or 
Cissus  quadrangularis,  WaU.  Nillur-ka-binj, 
Drx.     Its  seed. 

NIL  NARAY,  Tam.  Bustard :  Otis  tarda. 

NILAGURH  or  Hinder.  The  chief  of  tiiis, 
belongs  to  a  Rajpoot  family.  A  sunnud  was 
granted  in  1816.  The  population  at  the  last 
census  was  49,678.  The  revenue  amounts  to 
Rupees  60,000. 




NILOFAR,  HiKD.  Nymphaea  lotus,  N.  alba, 
N.  pttbescena,  the  edible  lotus  is  nym^^aea 
edulis,  nilofiir  bekki,  the  root,  nilofiiir  tukh- 
mi,  the  seeds. 

NIL-PITCH  A,  SnroH.  Guettarda  speciosa,  L. 

NIL  PADMA  also  Lila  phool,  Hivd.  Nym- 
phoea  cyanea. 

NIL-SAFA  or  Nil  irilayiti.  Hind.  Pmasiaii 

NII/-TACH  the  Jay,  is  sacred  to  Rama. 

NILTAVA  MEDANOPS,  the  Terditer  fly- 
catcher, appears  in '  spring,  and  is  one  of  the 
most  common  fly-catchers. 

NILUM,  Maleal.    Indigofera  anil. 

NILUPARAJITA,B]S!ro.  Clitoria  tematea,  L. 

NILUVU  PENDALAM,  Til.  Dioscorca 
alata,  t.  e,,  upright  or  standing  yam  from  its 
oblong  tubers.— J&.  /  R.  iii,  797  ;  W,  Ic.  810  ; 
Bh€€de  yii,  38. 

NIMAR  is  the  westernmost  district  of  the 
Central  Provinces  of  British  India.  On  the  east  it 
marches  with  the  Hoshangabad  district,  the 
Chhota  Tawa,  and  its  tributary  the  Grangapat  to 
the  north  and  the  Guli  to  the  south,  marking  its 
boundary  almost  from  point  to  point ;  on  the 
north  it  touches  the  territories  of  the  ponwar 
of  Dhar  and  of  the  maharaja  Holkar ;  and  on 
the  west  it  is  bounded  throughout  by  the  domi- 
nions of  Holkar.  On  the  south  it  meets  the 
Khandesh  collectorate  of  the  Bombay  presi- 
dency and  the  border  of  West  Berar.  The 
modem  district  has  an  area  of  about  3,340 
square  miles.  Nimar  has  always  been,  as  it 
still  is,  a  border  land.  The  aboriginal  in- 
habitants even  belong  to  two  distinct  divisions 
— the  Bhil  and  Koli  of  Western  India  here 
meeting  the  Gond  and  Kurku  of  the  Eastern 
Central  Provinces.  Hindoo  sacred  literature 
states  that  Mahishmati,  the  modern  Maheswar, 
a  city  of  Prant  Nimar  (now  Holkar's),  was  the 
capi^  of  the  Haihaya  kings.  The  Haihaya 
are  said  to  have  been  expelled  by  the  brah- 
mans,  who  established  the  worship  of  Siva,  in 
the  form  of  the  Linga  Omkar  on  the  island  of 
Mandhata,  in  the  river  Narbada.  We  next 
read  in  Rajput  poetry  of  the  country  being 
ruled  by  the  Chauhan  Rajputs  who  held 
A'sirgarfa,  though  their  capital  was  at  Makavati 
(Grarha  Mandla.)  They  were  supporters  of  the 
gods  of  the  brahmans,  and  appear  to  have  been 
at  last  overcome  by  the  Pramara  Rajputs  who 
established  the  great  buddlust  kingdom  of 
Malwa.  A  branch  of  this  family  caJled  Tak 
held  A'sirgarh  from  the  banning  of  the  ninth 
to  the  close  of  the  twelfth  century  of  our  era. 
Several  times  during  this  period  the  Tak 
of  A'sir  are  mentioned  by  the  poet  Chand,  as 
leaders  in  the  hindoo  armies  battUng  in  Northern 
India  against  the  mohoraed  an  invader.  During 
thk  pmod  the  Jadn  religion — was  panunonnt 
in  Nimar,  and  numerous  remains  of  fine^ 

carved  temples,  &c.,  yet  remain  at  Wun, 
Barwani,  and  other  places  in  Prant  Ninuff,  and 
at  Khandwa  and  near  Mandhata  in  the  modem 
district.  Before  the  invasion  of  the  mahome* 
dans,  the  Chauhan  again  seem  to. have  re- 
covered A'sirgarh  and  the  southern  part  of  the 
district.  In  a.  n.  1295,  sultan  Ak^od-din, 
returning  from  his  bold  raid  in  the  Deccaa, 
took  A'sir,  and  pnt  all  the  Chauhan  to  the 
sword,  excepting  one,  whose  descendants  were 
afterwards  the  rajas  of  Haranti.  The  present 
rana  of  Piplod  in  Nimar  also  claims  deecent 
from  the  A'sir  Chauhan,  and  his  pretenoicms 
are  in  great  measure  supported  by  his  genea- 
logy and  fomily  history.  Northern  Nimar  about 
this  time  came  into  the  poasesuon  of.  a  raja  of 
the  Bhilala  tribe,  and  his  descendants  are  still 
to  be  found  in  the  chief  of  Bhamgarh^  Mand- 
hata and  Silani.  The  historian  Fenshta  relates 
a  story  of  a  shepherd-chief  called  A'sa,  mting 
over  all  Southern  Nimar  at  the  time  of  the  in- 
vasion of  the  mahomedans,  and  boiidiiig  the 
masonry  fort  which  was  caUed  after  him 
A'sirgarh  (from  A'sa  and  ahir,  a  herdsiitan)^ 
The  tale,  however  seems  doubtiUl.  In  A.  d. 
1370,  Malak  Raja  Faruki  obtained  Southern 
Nimar,  then  unconquered,  from  the  D^hi 
emperor,  and  after  establishing  the  maho- 
medan  power  in  the  Tapti  valley,  was  suc- 
ceeded by  his  son  Nasir  khan,  who  assumed 
independence  established  the  Faruki  dynasty 
of  Khandeshy  in  a.  d.  1399.  He  captured 
A'sirgarh  (according  to  Ferishta  from  A'sa 
Ahir),  and  founded  the  cities  of  Burhaapur 
and  Zainabad,  in  honour  of  the  mahomedan 
shaikhs  Burhan-ud-din  and  2^n-ud-din,  on 
opposite  banks  of  the  river  Tapti.  The  Faruki 
dynasty  held  Khandesh,  with  their  capital  at 
Burhanpur,  during  eleven  generations,  from 
A.  D.  1399  to  A.  D.  1600.  Their  independence 
was,  however,  of  a  very  modified  sort,  as  they 
were  throughout  under  the  suzerainty  of  the 
more  powerful  kings  either  of  Gujarat  or  Malwa» 
and  whenever  they  ventured  to  throw  off 
their  vassalage,  or  attacked  their  neighbours, 
were  quickly  brought  to  their  senses  by  a  fi>rce 
which  they  in  no  case  successfully  resisted.  In 
the  later  disputes,  between  the  nizam  and  liie 
peshwa,  Nimar  was  often  plundered  by  the. 
latter,  until,  by  the  treaty  of  Mimge  Pattan, 
northern  Nimar  became  the  peshwa's  in  a.  n. 
1740.  Baji  Rao  peshwa,  however  .died  the 
same  year  at  Raver  on  the  banks  of -the  Nar- 
bada, which  he  was  just  about  to  cross  on  a  ' 
second  invasion  of  Hindustan.  His  cenotaph  ', 
of  variegated  sand-stone  is  still  to  be  seen  at  \ 
Raver..  Eight  years  later  his  great  rival  A*aoi^  \ 
Jah  died  at  Burhanpur.  The  Pindhari  in.  j 
Nimar,  had  their  chief  camps  in  the  denaa  ! 
wilds  of  Handia,  between  the  Narbada  ai^l  the  | 
Vindhyan  range.    Chitu,  the  most  danBg,of 





their  leaden,  usually  frequented  the  jungles  of 
Irwas  and  Limanpur,  due  north  of  Nimar.  In 
1817  Uie  British  troops  attacked  the  Pindhari 
and  drove  them  out  of  these  haunts.  Chitu 
himself,  afW  fleeing  to  Pachmarhi  and  A'sir- 
garh,  heing  again  diiyen  to  the  haunts  he  knew 
to  well,  was  lolled  hj  a  tiger  in  the  Sita  Ban 
jungle  of  Limanpur,  a  place  still  well  known 
10  Rdtish  sportsmen  as  a  sure  find  for  tigers. 
Hie  population  of  Nimar  numbers  l,d0,440 
atmls,  oif  whom  34,805  are  Bhil,  Kurku, 
Idc  There  are  scarcely  any  Gond  in  Nimar. 
Hie  population  of  Nimar  also  consists  of 
Diier,  Hhaog  and  other  non»hindoos.  18,446 

Eun^wans 402 

Brahmins 6,983 

Hindoo  immigrants 1,18,608 

Mahomedans 18,279 

The  best  cultivators  in  Nimar  are  the  Kun- 
bi,  Gujur,  Biali  and  Rajput  races.  The  lan<-> 
gnage  is  a  mixture  of  Hmdi  and  Marathi,  with 
a  good  many  Persian  words,  and  it  is  written 
in  a  peculiar  current  Devanagari  character. — 
Ctnihral  Pirovinees  QctzetUer, 

NDf,  Arajs.,  Bnre.,  Hnm.,  Mahr.,  Pkrs. 
Axadirachta  indica,  and  species  of  Melia. 

Nim-karchal,  Hum.  Margosa  bark.  Bark 
ef  species  of  Azadirachta  and  Melia. 

Nim-ka-phool,  Dttx.  Flowers  of  Melia 

Nim  ka  tel,  Hixn.     Oil  of  Margosa  seeds. 

NIM-SIM,  Hnmi.  Boundaries  of  lands,  a 
grant  on  copper  plate  enumerating  revenues 
(haal)  contributions  (burar),  taxes,  dues  (lagutbe 
lagut,)  trees,  shrubs,  foundations  and  boundaries, 
(nim  sim) :  the  sovereign  can  only  alienate  the 
revenues  (hasil),  and  not  Ihe  soil.  The  nim- 
sim  is  almost  as  powerful  an  expression  as  the 
old  grant  to  the  Rawdons : — 

From  earth  to  heaven, 
From  heaven  to  hell, 
From  thee  and  thine. 
Therein  to  dwell. 

-<2Ws  Bajatthan,  Vol.  i,  p.  564. 

NIMACH,  in  L.  24*  2r  6,  L.  74*  in 
Rajanda,  5  miles  north  of  Mhow. 


Sunamha  qusssioides,  Don. 

Bora,  putbotin,  CjuasAS. 
MUhu,  Mont  „ 


Feebo,  Birjo, 



A  tall  straggling  plant  common  in  places  in 
ihe  Punjab  Himalaya  from  the  Sutlej  to 
the  Chenab,  at  from  3,000  to  9,000  feet.  It  is 
kowsed  by  goats  and  sheep,  and  in  Chumba  the 
kives  are  applied  to  itch.  In  some  parts  the 
led  fruit  is  eaten.  It  was  discovered  in  Nepal  by 
Dr.  Hamilton,  and  is  stated  by  Dr.  Royle  to  exist 
iiTufanda,oa  the  banks  of  the  Sutlej,  in  more 
31®  of  north  latitude.  Dr.  Royle  has  also 
with  it  in  valleys  in  Gnihwal,  in  a  valley 


near  the  town  called  Thankot.  It  has  eliptical 
oblong  leaflets,  which  are  acuminated  and  ser- 
rated. The  corymbs  are  trichotomous.  It  is 
as  bitter  as  the  quassia  of  South  America. 
In  general  appearance  and  intense  bitterness 
this  tree  is  closely  allied  to  the  Simarubeae. 
The  wood  is  light-coloured  and  very  bitter,  and 
although  it  has  not  as  yet  been  subjected  to 
experiment,  we  are  led  from  analogy  to  enter- 
tain the  most  confident  opinion  of  its  proving  a 
perfect  substitute  for  the  West  Indiui  article. 
It  rises  to  near  the  snow  line  of  the  Himalaya 
mountains.  The  wood  has  long  been  used  for 
killing  insects,  and  latteriy  recommended  in 
fever  by  M.  Macardieu. — Don^  Deehlamdeou$ 
Plants  ;  LindUy,  Flora  Msdica  ;  in  Eng,  Cye, ; 
aShmbghnesty,  page  269  ;  Ind.  Jn.,  106 ;  iV. 
J.  L,  Stewart, 

NIMAK,  Hnn).  Salt. 

Nimak-guman,  coarse  rock  salt  of  the  hill 

Nimak-ustifirag,  said  to  mean  tartar  emetic. 

Nimak-kahi,  the  reh  salt,  a  salt  of  soda. 

Nimak-maniyari,     Hum.     Salt   residue  in 
glass-melting  as  to  Ejichlun. 

Nimak-nali,  fused  salt  in  long  pipes. 

Nimak-safed,  white  salt. 

Nimak-sambar,  salt  of  Sambhur  lake. 

Nimak-shisha,  crystal  salt. 

Nimak-shor,  coarse  salt  educed  in  the  pro- 
cess of  making  saltpetre. 

Nimak-einda,  salt  from  Sindh. 

Nimak-sonchal,  black  salt.  See  Eala  nimak. 

Nimak  ka-tezab,  sulphuric  acid. 
See  Salt,  Reh.  Kah-. 

NIMA  PANDU,  TSL.  Syn.  of  Citrus  berg«r 
mia,  Misso, 

NIMAWAT,  see  Somakadi  sampradaya, 

NIMBA,  also  Nimbamu,  Sijrs.  Azadirachta 
indica.  Ad.  Jus»> 

NIMBADITYA,  see  Sanakadi  sampradayi. 

NIMBALKUB,  a  powerful  Mahratta  &mily, 
whose  estates  are  in  Kolapore. 

NIMBAMU,  Sahs.  .  Azadirachta  indica, 
Ad,  Ju8i.,  W.  4r  A. 

NIMBAfi,  Hnn).  Acada  leucophlcBa,  aho 
Seneoio  laeinioBUs. 

NIMBABA,  Maeb.    Melia  superba. 

NIM-BHUB  or  Nimber,  Hxhb.    Zizyphus. 

NIMBOOK A,  Sajts.  Citrus  beigamia,  jBisso 
4'  Bnt,,  Boxb.,  W.  4r  A. 

NIMBOBA,  BsHO.  lonidium  soffiruticosum, 

NIMBU,  Hnm.  Citrus  aoida,  bergamia,  iZtsso. 

Bajauri  nimbu,  is  Citrus  medica. 

Mitha  nimbu,  is  Citrus  limetta. 

The  nimbu  tree  supplies  the  images  of 
Vishnu  in  his  different  forms ;  also  of  Dooiga, 
Badha,  Lnkshmee,  Shiva,  Guroodu,  Choitnnyu, 
&c.     None  of  the  wooden  images  are  kept  in 





pmate  houses,  but  in  separate  temples.  They 
are  generailj  from  one  to  three  cubits  in  height. 
—  Wwr^i  View  of  the  Hindoos,  Vol.  ii,  p.  12. 

NIMBU  JAMBIRA,  Hum.   Citrus  Hmonum. 

NIMBUKA,  Binro.     Citrus  limonum,  Bisio, 

NIMBU-WULEE,  see  Hotrsprings. 

NIM-CHAH,  a  half-breed  race,  on  the  south- 
em  slope  of  the  Indian  Caucasus,  between  the 
Affghans  and  the  higher  peaks.  They  speak  a 
language  related  to  the  Indian  tongues,  but 
possessing  some  curious  affinity  to  Latin.  In 
the  lower  country,  the  people  near  the  debou- 
chure of  the  Kashgar  river,  speak  a  mixed 
tongue  called  Lughmani.  The  people  in  Kash- 
gar submit  quiedy  to  their  rulers.  From  all 
times  the  Kashmir  valley  has  been  the  retreat 
from  the  heats  of  India,  for  the  conquering 
races,  and  it  is  not  improbable  that  bands  of 
their  followers  may  have  preferred  to  remain 
in  the  valley. — Campbell,  p,  146. 

NIMCHAK,  Hiwi).     Well^urb. 

NIMICHAKRA,  see  Kasambi. 

NIM-GILO  ? — Menispermum. 

NIMI CHAMBELI,  Hum;  Bignoniasuberosa. 

NIMI LADAGOO,  Tkl.  See  Nameluddoogoo. 

NIMim,  TxL.  Terminalia  paniculata,  W,  ^  A, 

NIMI  MUKA,  HivD.  Clypea  hernandifolia, 
W.Sr  A. 

NIMITTA,  Saits.    A  cause. 

NIMMA,  Tbl.  Citrus  bergamia,  Basso  and 
Poit.,  var.  a.  R.  iii,  390  ;  W.  4-  A.  344,  var  3. 
Common  or  Bergamotte  lime. 

NIMMA  GADDI,  or  Chippa  gaddi,  Txl. 
Andropogon  schoenanthus,  L. 

NIMMA  TAYI,  Til.  Ceropegia  bulbosa, 
B.  ii,  27 ;  Cor.  7;  W.  Ic.  845.  The  Yanadi 
and  Chenchu  eat  the  roots. 

NIMMA  TULASI«  Tbl.  Ocimum  gratissi- 
mum,  L.,  a  Tulasi  with  the  scent  of  a  lemon. 

NIMO,  see  Indus. 

NIMOOKLA,  Bfliro.     Clypea  hernandifblia. 

NIMROD  had  two  sons,  one  of  whom,  Toktan, 
proceeded  southwards  about  b.  c.  4500  or  5000, 
and  formed  and  founded  there  13  principalities. 
Nimrod's  name  is  connected  with  all  the  cities 
and  towns  as  &r  as  the  highlands  of  Kurdistan 
and  even  Phrygia. — Bunsen,  Vol.  iv,  p.  412. 

NIMROUD,  the  mound  wherein  sculptures 
have  been  discovered  at  this  ancient  place  is  not 
far  from  the  Tigris,  and  about  four  hours'  distance 
from  Mosul.  Xenophon,  in  his  account  of  the 
retreat  of  the  10,000,  makes  mention  of  a  pyra- 
mid in  a  town  called  by  him  Larissa.  It  is  most 
probable  that  the  mound  marks  the  site  of  that 
place,  which  the  Turks  generally  believe  to  have 
been  Nimrod's  own  city  ;  and  one  or  two  of  the 
better  informed  with  whom  Rich  conversed  at 
Mosul  said  it  was  Al  Athur  or  Ashur,  from  which 
the  whole  country  was  denominated.  The  vil- 
lagers of  Derawei^  still  consider  Nimrod  as  their 
founder.    The  village  story-teUers  have  a  book 


they  call  the  ''  Kisseh  Nimrod,"  or  Tales  of 
Nimrod,  with  which  they  entertain  the  peasants 
on  a  winter  night.  Over  the  ruins  at  Nimroad, 
Mr.  Layard  discovered  ancient  tombs,  of  a  race 
unknown  and  of  which  he  could  not  assign  any 
date.  Many  of  the  vases,  necklaces,  and  orna- 
ments have  a  resemblance  to  those  of  the 
Egyptian  tombs.  Two  or  three  purelj  Assy- 
rian cylinders  were  also  discovered  in.  the 
tombs.  Mr.  Layard  considers  that  the  mode 
of  burial  which  is  there  evidenced,  more  nearly 
resembles  that  adopted  by  the  early  Persians. 
Cyrus  and  Darius  were  buried  in  Sarcophagi  in 
troughs.  Darius  in  one  of  Egyptian  alabaster. 
The  alabaster  iruXoc  or  tub,  in  which  Darius 
was  buried,  is  mentioned  by  Theopbrastus. 
The  Assyrians,  like  the  early  Persians  may 
have  buried  their  dead  entire,  and  preserved 
the  bodies  in  honey  or  wax.  (Herod,  lib.  i^  c. 
J.40,  Arian  de  BeUo,  Alex.  Theoph.  de  Lapid, 
c.  XV.)  According  to  .£lian,  when  Xerxes 
opened  the  tomb  of  Belus,  he  found  the  body 
in  a  coffin  filled,  nearly  to  the  brim,  with  oil. 
Mr.  Layard  infers  that  these  tombs  belonged 
to  an  intermediate  people  or  race  who  occupied 
Assyria  after  the  building  of  the  most  ancient 
palaces  and  before  the  foundation  of  the  most 
recent.  He  (Nimrod)  went  out  into  Assyria 
and  built  Nineveh  and  Calah  ;  the  same  is  a 
great  city.  (Gen.  x,  11,  12.)  The  rains  of 
Nimroud  had  been  identified  with  Resen,  of 
which  Larissa  was  believed,  first,  by  Bochart, 
to  be  a  corruption,  arising  from  the  (presumed) 
use  by  the  inhabitants  of  the  cotmtry,  of  the 
common  Semitic  article  "  al"  before  the 
word.  In  the  first  place,  the  philological 
grounds  are  inadequate;  and,  if  this  were  Besen, 
no  room  would  be  left  for  the  site  of  Nineveh,  a 
still  greater  city.  A  great  dam  was  built 
by  Nimrod,  and  in  the  autumn  before  the 
winter  rains,  the  huge  stones  of  which  it 
was  constructed,  squared,  and  united  bj 
cramps,  of  iron,  are  frequently  visible  above 
the  surfiatce  of  die  stream.  This  daAi  is  called 
by  the  Arabs,  either  Sukr-elrNimroud,  irom 
the  tradition,  or  £1  Awavee,  from  the  noise 
caused  by  the  breaking  of  the  water  over  the 
stones.  Large  rafts  are  obliged  to  unload  befinre 
crossing  it,  and  accidents  frequently  happen  to 
those  who  neglect  this  precaution.  Diodoms 
Siculus  states  that  the  stones  of  the  bridge  built 
by  Semiramis  across  the  Euphrates  were  united 
by  similar  iron  cramps,  whilst  the  interstdces 
w^e  filled  up  with  molten  lead.  The  dams 
greatly  impeded  the  fleets  of  the  conqueror  in 
their  navigation  of  the  rivers  of  Susiana  and 
Mesopotamia,  and  he  caused  many  of  them  to  be 
removed.  By  Strabo  they  were  believed  to 
have  been  constructed  to  prevent  the  ascent  of 
the  rivers  by  hostile  fleets,  but  their  use  is- 
evident.     Tavemier  mentions  in  his  travels. 





(Vol.  i,  p.  226),  this  very  dam,  he  says  that  his 
raft  went  over  a  cascade  twenty-six  feet  high  ; 
but  he  must  have  greatly  exaggerated. 

AUkuTy  the  mined  city  near  the  mouth  of  the 
upper  Zab,  now  usually  known  by  the  name  of 
Nimmd  ia  called  Ashur  by  the  Arabic  geogra- 
phers, and  in  Athur  we  recognise  the  old  name 
of  Assyria,  which  Dio  Cassiua  writes  Atyria, 
remarking  tihat  the  barbarians  changed  the 
Sigma  into  Tau.  The  Bors  Nimrud  and  mound 
are  supposed  by  travellers  to  represent  the 
tower  of  Babel,  but  others  conjecture  it  to  be 
the  remains  of  a  temple  of  the  ancient  Borsippa 
which  is  mentioned  as  having  been  near  Baby- 
Ian,  and  where  Alexander  halted  on  his  road 
toEcbatanawhen  warned  by  he  Chaldeans  not 
lo  «itar  Babylon  from  the  east. — Riches  Besir- 
iatu  in  Kordittan^  Vol,  ii,  p.  131 ;  Layarc^s 
NkievA^  Vols,  i,  ii,  pp,  4,  5,  8,  220  ;  MuU&r's 
LeOnm^  p.  233 ;  Straho,  p.  1861,  Ed.  Ox.^ 
1807.    See  Babel,  Luristan,  Mosul,  Tigris. 

NIMRUT,  HiKD.  Mother  o'  pearl. 

NIMUKA,    BxNG.      Clypea    hemandifolia, 
W.  i'  A. 

NIMUK  DULLA,  or  Nimuk-ka-dalla,  Hind. 
Muriate  of  soda  \  Salt. 

NINDI,  HiKD.  Vitex  negundo. 

NINEVEH,  built  by  Asshur,  son  of  Shem,  (see 
Genesis  x,  11)  who  went  forth  from  the  land 
of  Shinar,  is  not  again  mentioned  in  scripture 
until  the  time  of  Jonah  when  its  population  is 
supposed  to  have  been  half  a  million.  Nahum 
foretold  its  destruction,  and  in  b.  c.  606,  it 
fell  before  the  combined  forces  of  Cyaxares,  king 
of  Persia  and  Media,  and  of  Nabopolassar  who 
seems  to  have  been  the  ruler  of  Babylon,  or 
the  Assyrian  governor  of  the  city.  The  walls 
of  Nineveh  are  described  to  have  been  60  miles 
in  drcuniference,  and  100  feet  high  with  ]  ,500 
bastions  each  200  feet  in  height.  Diodorus 
Sicnlus  mentions  that  the  city  was  destroyed 
partly  by  water  and  partly  by  fire,  and  so  utter 
was  the  destruction  that  though,  in  400  b.  c. 
Xenophon  must  have  passed  within  a  few  miles 
of  its  site,  he  makes  no  mention  of  it,  and 
Locian,  a  native  of  Samasata,  near  the  Eu- 
phrates, living  between  a.1).  90  and  180,  states 
^lat  its  site  could  not,  then,  be  pointed  out. 
Hr.  Rich,  however,  in  1820,  detected  it,  in  the 
mounds  opposite  Mosul,  and  M.  Batta,  in  1843 ; 
and  Mr.  Layard  in  1845  obtained  numerous 
sculptures  from  it.  When  visited  by  Jonas, 
who  was  sent  thither  by  Jeroboam,  king  of 
Israel,  it  was  three  days'  journey  in  circumfer- 
ence ;  and  Diodorus  Siculus,  who  has  given 
the  dimensions  of  Nineveh,  says,  that  it  was 
four  hundred  and  eighty  stadia,  or  forty-seven 
miles,  in  circuit :  that  it  was  surrounded  by  a  wall 
and  towers ;  the  former,  one  hundred  feet  in 
beight,  and  so  broad  that  three  chariots  might 



drive  on  it  abreast ;  and  the  latter  two  hundred 
feet  high,  and  amounting  in  number  to  fifteen 
hundred.  Above  thirty  generations  elapsed 
between  Ninus  and  Sardanapalus.  But,  with 
regard  to  Ninus  and  Semiramis,  hke  all  heroes 
of  primitive  history  and  early  tradition,,  their 
names  appear  to  have  become  conventional — 
all  great  deeds  and  national  events  being  as- 
signed to  them.  Originally,  historic  characters 
they  have  been  to  some  extent  invested  with 
divine  attributes.  If  there  be  no  interpolation 
in  the  book  of  the  Genesis,  we  have  mention  of 
Nineveh  at  least  1,500  years  b.  c.  The  down 
fall  of  the  Ninyads,  in  the  person  of  Sardana- 
palus, occurred  b.  c.  748.  Nineveh,  b.  c.  606 
fen  before  an  alliance  of  the  kings  of  Babylon 
and  Media,  Nabopolassar  and  Kyaxares.  Ni- 
niveh,  as  the  metropolis  of  the  Assyrian  empire, 
in  B.  c.  526,  governed'  Babylon  and  Media. 
Nineveh,  the  city  of  Ninus,  on  the  Tigris, 
opposite  Mosul,  was  the  capital  of  the  As- 
syrian empire.  The  term  assigned  by  Hero- 
dotus to  the  Assyrian  dominion  in  Upper  Asia, 
is  520  years.  The  Assyrian  empire  came  to 
an  end  in  b.  c.  1278.  The  territory  of  Authilr 
(from  Asshur,  Shem's  son)  was  originally  of 
small  extent,  and  formed  the  second  part  of  the 
kingdom  usurped  by  the  giant  warrioi^,  Gren.  x, 
11,  12,  who  built,  or  rather  restored,  the  three 
cities,  Rehoboth,  Calah,  and  Resen,  besides  the 
capital,  Nineveh.  The  ruins  of  the  latter  city 
are  known  from  the  descriptions  of  Rich,  Layard 
Ainsworth,  and  earlier  travellers.  They  are  in 
Assyria  proper,  on  the  left  bank  of  the  Tigris, 
opposite  Mosul,  and  the  natives  still  call  them 
by  the  original  name.  Two  remarkable  lacts 
in  Layard's  latest  work  of  Nineveh  show  that 
the  national  records  of  Assyria  were  written 
on  square  bricks,  in  characters  so  small  as 
scarcely  to  be  legible  without  a  microscope ;  in 
fact,  a  microscope  was  found  in  the  ruins  of 
Nimroud.  Nabopolassar,  the  &ther  of  Nebu- 
chadnezzar, became  the  Assyrian  satrap  of  Ba- 
bylon, in  the  128rd  yearofNsibonassar.  Sar- 
danapalus, king  of  Assyria,  commanded  him 
to  march  against  the  Medes  who  had  revolted, 
but  he  allied  himself  with  G3raxares,  and 
marched  with  him  against  Nineveh,  and  Ba- 
bylon became  independent  on  the  destruction  of 
Nineveh  in  b.  c.  606.  The  Ninevites,  in  all 
their  various  monuments,  have  left  uf  no  trace 
of  their  ideas  concerning  the  dead,  while  their 
neighbours,  the  Babylonians  attached  that  care 
to  Uie  rites  of  sepulture  which  betokens  strong 
belief  in  another  life.  The  sepulchral  urns  ob- 
tained in  Babylonia,  contain  the  remains  of  the 
dead,  with  jars  and  utensils  for  food  and  water, 
made  of  baJced  clay,  and  with  remains  of  date 
stones,  the  head  of  the  dead  reverently  laid  on 
a  sun-dried  brick  as  a  pillow.  Their  ancient 
tombs,  rare  in  Assyria  and  upper  Batbylonia, 

N  lis 



are  chiefly  in  ChalJea  proper,  and  the  Rev. 
G.  Kawlinson  (i,  107)  sugge8ts  that  the  dead 
may  have  been  conveyed  to  the  sacred  land  of 
Chaldea,  aimlarly  as  the  Persians,  even  now, 
send  their  dead  to  Karbila  and  Meshid  Ali, 
and  as  the  hindoos  from  remote  India,  send  the 
bones  or  the  entire  bodies  to  the  Ganges  at 
Benares.  Chagda  or  Chackrada,  near  Sook- 
sagur,  is  an.  abyss  said  to  have  been  made  by 
the  chariot  wheel  of  Bhagiruth.  The  legend 
points  to  an  antiquity  which  is  not  borne  out 
by  any  old  vestiges  or  ancient  population.  But 
the  place  is  a  great  golgotha  where  the  dead 
and  djdng  are  brought  from  a  great  way  off  to 
be  burnt  and  consigned  to  the  Ganges.  The 
deceased  is  seldom  conveyed  by  any  of  his  rela- 
tioAs,  unless  from  a  short  distance,  and  poor 
people  generally  send  forward  their  dead  for 
incremation  in  charge  of  bearers  who  never 
l>etray  the  trust  reposed  in  them.  The 
arrow-headed  character  was  that  used  on  the 
sculptures  of  Nineveh  and  is  still  occasion- 
ally used  in  writing  Arabic,  as  also  is  the 
Cimc  or  Kufic  which  had  its  origin  in  the  town 
of  Kufa,  but  the  Nashk  and  Talik  characters 
are  now  usually  employed. — Kinneia^s  Oeogra- 
phical  Memoir  J  p,  269 ;  LayarcTs  Nineveh, 
Vols,  i  and  ii,  pp.  18,  225  ;  Btmsen,  p.  494  ; 
Vol,  iii,  p.  605  ;  Euphrates  and  Tigi'is,  Col. 
Chesney,  p.  119 ;  Curiosities  of  Science^p.  42; 
Tr.  of  Vol.  i,p.  18. 

NING-PO  lies  in  29°  46'  north  latitude,  and 
in  121°  22^  east  longitude  ;  is  situated  on  the 
banks  of  the  river  Tae-hae,  and  in  the  province  of 
Che-keang:  the  town  of  Ning-po  is  about  twelve 
miles  distant  from  the  sea,  being  in  a  westward 
direction  from  the  cluster  of  the  Chusan  islands. 
Over  the  river,  an  extraordinary  bridge  is  con- 
structed, in  a  most  ingenious  manner.  Ningpo 
was  taken,  13th  October  1841,  by  the  British. — 
Sirups  China  and  the  Chinese,  Vol.  i,  p.  195. 

NINNI,  see  India. 

NINUS.  The  first  year  of  his  reign  was  b.c. 
1273,  Semiramis  seems  to  have  reigned  jointly 
with  Ninus  after  his  tenth  year.  Ninus  estab- 
lished the  Assyrian  empire  in  its  entire  extent 
in  his  17th  year.  Semiramis  afler  him  reigned 
as  sole  sovereign. 

Ninus,  B.C.  2128.  Years,   b.  c. 

Assyrian  monarchy  lasted  1,306 

years  before  the  empire    ....      676     1,912 
During  the  empire,  24  kings  . .     526     1,237  I 
Sardanapalus,  b.c.  876. 
After  the  empire,  6  kings    ....     106        711 


Capture  of  Nineveh 606 

There  are  indeed  sufficient  grounds  for  the 
conjecture  that  there  were  two,  if  not  more,  dis- 
tinct Assyrian  d3niasties,  .the  first  commencing 
with  Ninus.     The  Bactrian   and  Indian  expe- 

114  N 

ditions  of  Ninus,  the  wonderful  works  of  Semi- 
ramis, and  the  effeminacy  of  Sardanapalus, 
are  points  in  their  several  reigns. — LayardCs 
Nineveh,  Vols,  i,  ii,  pp,  20, 217.  See  Hercules, 
Lud,  Nineveh,  Semiranm. 

NINYAD  or  Assyrian  kings.  See  Babylon, 
Babel,  Nineveh,  Ninus,  Semiramis. 

pentapetala,  Poir^  DC,  and  Niota  tetrapetala. 
Wall.     Syns.  of  Samadera  indica,  Qcertiu 

NIP  A,  Saks.     Eugenia  racemosa,  Linn. 


*  Cocosnypa,  Lmtr. 

Da-ni,  Bubic  I  Atap,  Maiay 

Water  cocoanut,         Emo.  | 

This  lowly  stemless  palm  grows  very 
abundantly  in  Tenasserim,  the  Malay  Peninsola 
and  Eastern  Archipelago.  Thatch  is  made 
of  the  Mnge  of  the  leaves,  doubled  down  and 
sewed  on  sticks  or  lathes  of  bamboo  and  used 
as  thatch  for  the  roQ&.  The  pulpy  kernels  of 
the  fruit  (called  buah  atop)  are  preserved  as  a 
sweetmeat,  but  are  entirely  without  flayour. 
It  grows  in  the  tidal  waters  and  bears  a  large 
head  of  nuts.  The  nuts  of  a  similar  plaint 
abound  in  the  tertiary  formations  at  the  mouth 
of  the  Thames,  buried  deep  in  the  salt  and  mud 
that  now  forms  the  island  of  Sheppy.  The 
'*  nipa"  and  "  sasa"  of  the  Philippine  islands 
possesses  various  useful  purposes.  The  Nipa 
iruticans  has  affinities  with  the  screw  pines. 
The  leaves,  besides  being  used  for  thatch,  mats, 
and  baskets,  when  burnt  they  yield  salt :  toddy 
or  palm  wine  is  extracted  from  the  spathe, 
convertible  into  syrup,  sugar,  vinegar,  yeast 
and  a  strong  spirit.  The  nipah  palm  in  the 
nature  of  its  flowers,  approaches  the  screw 
pines ;  to  the  Mergui  river,  it  is  found  in  per- 
fection, but  only  a  few  specimens  occur  as  &r 
north  as  Moulmain.  It  flourishes  in  brackish 
water,  along  with  the  mangrove,  and  its  lower 
parts  are  inundated  when  the  tide  rises. 
Writing  of  this  plant  Dr.  Hooker  says,  **  Reced- 
ing from  the  Megna  the  water  becomes  salter, 
and  Nipa  fruticans  appeared,  throwing  up  pale 
yellow-green  tufts  of  feathery  leaves,  from  a 
short  thick  creeping  stem,  and  bearing  at  the 
base  of  the  leaves  its  great  head  of  nuts,  of 
which  millions  were  floating  on  the  waters,  and 
vegetating  in  the  mud.  Marks  of  tigers  were 
very  frequent.  The  trunk  never  exceeds  a 
man's  height.  It  is  the  inhabitant  of  low 
marshy  situations.  like  other  pahns  it  yields 
a  wine  by  the  usual  process,  and  in  some  parts 
of  the  Archipelago,  particularly  in  the  Philip- 
pines it  is  cultivated  for  its  wine.  Its  princifud 
use,  however,  is  for  the  leaf,  usually  called 
Atap,  the  common  term  for  thatch  among  the 
Malays,  but  specially  applied  to  the  leaves  of  this 
palm,  because,  among  diat  people,  it  is  almoei 
the  only  material  used  for  that  purpose.  The 
nipa  leaf  is  also  used  for  the  &brication   of 




coaiae  oiats.  The  small,  insipid  pulpy  kernels 
are  wmetimes  presenred  as  sweetmeats.  The 
tuba,  or  juice,  is  extracted  from  the  tree  whilst 
in  itsflowenng  state,  in  the  same  way  as  that  of 
the  ooooanut  tree,  and  afterwards  distilled  by 
a  similar  process ;  but  it  is  more  spirituous, 
from  six  to  six  and  a  half  jars,  being  sufficient 
to  jield  one  of  wine.  The  great  difference 
remarked  in  the  prices  of  the  liquor,  from  the 
cocosnnt  and  nipa  trees  arises  out  of  the  great 
nomber  of  uses  to  which  the  fruit  of  the  cocoa- 
nat  tree  is  applicable,  and  the  increase  of  ex- 
pense and  labour  requisite  to  obtain  the  juice, 
owing  to  the  great  height  of  the  cocoanut  plant, 
and  die  frequent  dangers  to  which  the  gathei^ 
en  are  exposed  in  passing  from  one  tree  to 
another,  which  they  do  by  sliding  along  a  simple 
cue. — MarfdmCM  Hist,  of  Sumatra;  Hooker^ s 
Bim.  Jour^  Vols,  i,  ii,  2>P*  1*  355  ;  Seeman  ; 
Ro^$  Fib.  Plants,  p.  35  ;  Mason  ;  Walton's 
Stais,  pp.  119,  120. 

NIPHANDA  of  Ptolemy,  probably  the  same 
as  Ophiana. 

NIPAL,  see  Nepal,  Koh-insafed,  Oojein. 

NIPHAT£S,  the  ancient  name  of  the  range 
of  the  prolongation  of  the  Taurus.  The  Tigris 
and  Euphrates  rise  from  its  opposite  sides. 

NIFON,  The  four  laige  Japanese  islands  are 
Nipon,  Kiu-fliu,  Jeaso,  and  Sikoff,  which 
tof^ther  fyrm  a  group  not  dissimilar  in 
geographical  configuration  to  Great  Britain 
and  Ireland.  In  the  first  island  are  situated 
Tedo  and  Miako  the  two  capitals,  the  Tycoon, 
the  tempoml  sovereign,  resided  in  Yedo,  and 
die  Mikado  or  spiritual  sovereign  in  Miako. 
llie  island  of  Nipon  popularly  call^  Japan,  and 
known  to  the  Chinese  as  Yang-hoo,  or  Jih-pun- 
kwo,  is  the  largest,  and  its  name  signifies  land 
of  the  rising  sun.  Kiundu  or  Ximo,  the  most 
soatbem  of  this  group,  in  lat.  32°  44'  N.  and 
kng.  1219P  52'  T  £.  has  the  harbour  of  Nan- 
gataki  on  its  western  side,  is  a  hundred  and 
fifty  miles  north  to  south  by  two  hundred  and 
seventy  east  to  west.  Sikoff  is  about  a  hundred 
miles  in  length  by  sixty  in  breadth.  The 
gnn  area  of  &e  empire  is  estimated  at  265,500 
square  miles,  and  its  population  at  40  or  50 
milKona.  Ss^een  island  is  a  little  smaller  in 
extent  than  Nipon,  and  was  formerly  divided 
between  the  Chinese  and  Japanese,  the  former 
holding  the  northern  and  the  latter  the  south- 
cm  half.  Its  native  population  are  the  Kunles, 
a  very  hairy,  wild  and  untutored  race.  The 
chief  town  in  the  island  of  Jesso,  is  Matsmai  : 
tke  second  is  Hakodadi.  Matsmai  is  an  imperial 
city,  built  upon  undulating  ground,  and  the  hills 
nesr  are  covered  with  oaks,  firs,  cedars,  poplars, 
tiieyew,  the  ash,  cypress,  birch,  aspen  and  maple. 
Nipon,  or  Nifim,  or  Niphon,  constitutes  the 
Bsia  body  and  strength  of  the  Japanese  empire. 
Ha-da,  a  port  in  Nipon,  is  about  40  miles  from  Si- 

moda,and  is  built  on  a  plain,  eighty  miles  from  the 
metropolis,  it  contains  about  8,000  people.  The 
town  is  divided  into  wards  separated  by  wooden 
gates.  It  contains  nine  buddhist  and  one  sintu 
temple.  Since  the  treaty  of  Kanagawa,  by 
which  the  port  was  opened  to  the  Americans, 
Simoda  has  been  raised  to  the  dignity  of  an 
imperial  city.  A  hot  spring  flows  from  a  rock 
at  Simoda,  stated  to  be  sulphurous.  The  island 
contains  the  largest  towns,  and  the  manufactured 
articles  produced  in  this  island  are  considered 
the  best. — MacFarlane's  Geo.  ^  His.  of  Japan, 
p.  147.     See  India,  Japan. 

Pongamia  uliginosa  or  Butea  superba?  The 
word  means  "  fiery-red  colour"  and  indicates  a 
species  with  flaming  bright  flowers ;  also  perhaps 
Wagatea  spicata. 

NIR,  Beko.,  Hind.,  Karn.,  Malea.l.  Mahk., 
Tel.     Water. 

Neradi  mootoo  oil. 

NIRADHAR,  Niratar,  Niratari,  Hind.  Cus- 
cuta  reflexa,  supposed  to  be  a  corruption  of 
nila-tar  green  thread. 

NIRAKARU,  Sans.,  from  Nir  prep.,  and 
akaru,  form. 

NKALLI  or  Nakkena,  Tel.  Canthium 
didymum,  Chertn. 

NffiAM,  Hind.     Ballast. 

NIBANGI,  Can.    Poinciana  elata. 

NIRANKOT  or  Haidarabad,  the  ancient 

NHtARLAY,  Tam.  Eugenia  jambolana, 
Lam.,  Roab. 

NIRARUGA,  Tbl.  Paspalum  scrobiculatum, 
L. — $  Kora,  P.  kora,  R.  i,  279. 

NIRA,  or  Sainda,  Dttk,,  Guz.     Toddy. 

NIRBISI,  Hindi.  Ciu*cuma  zedoaria,  Roxh., 
a syn.  of  C.  aromatica,  Salisbury;  also  Kyllingia 
monocephala.  Bara  Nirbisi  is  the  Scirpus 
glomeratus.  Nirbisi,  means  the  antidote,  and 
is  sometimes  said  to  be  the  root  of  a  species  of 
aconite,  but  is  generally  supposed  identical  with 
jadwar  or  zadwar,  the  zedoaria  of  old  writers. 
In  Sirmoor  the  root  of  Delphinium  pauciflorum 
is  also  called  Nirbisi. 

NIRCHA,  Hind.     Corchorus  capsularis. 

NIR  CODUMBA,  Tam.    Nauclea  parviflora. 

NIREIPUTI,  Tam.  RosteUaria  procumbens, 

NlRGAL  also  Nirgali,  Hind.  Arundinaria 
falcata,  a  hill  bamboo. 

NIRGUBI,  Trl.     Asteracantha  longifolia. 

NIR  GUBI  VERU,  Tel.  Root  of  Barleria 

NIRGANDA,  Duk.  Vitex  trifolia,  Idnn., 
also  Vitex  negundo.  Leaves  of  Vitex  negundo 
are  useful  in  acute  rheumatism  and  inter- 
mittent fever  and  special  diseases,  also  said  to 
relieve  headache  and  catarrh  also  after  oonfinc- 





meat.  The  fruit  is  acid,  its  action  m  similar  to 
that  of  the  Vitex  trifolia,  but  less  powerful. — 
PcmMs  Hand-booh^  Vol,  i,  p.  364. 

NIRGUN,  see  Satnami. 

NIRGUNA.  In  Hindu  metaphysics  there  are 
three  Guna,  Satya-guna  or  property  of  truth,  the 
source  t)f  purity  and  wisdom — the  Rajo-guna, 
or  property  of  foulness,  the  source  of  passion 
and  error,  and  the  Tamo-guna  or  property  of 
darkness,  the  source  of  inertness  and  ignorance. 
Deity,  abstractedly,  is  Nirguna,  or  witiiout  any 
of  the  three  properties. —  Wilson. 

NIRGUNDI,  Bbng.    Vitex  negundo. 

NIRIJA,  or  Bira,  Tel.  Eloeodendron  rox- 
burghii,  W.and  A.,  492— W.  Ill,  71— Nerija 
dichotoma,  B.  i,  646.  The  name  Bira  is  very 
doubtful,  it  was  only  found  at  Palamanair. 
The  root  of  this  tree  is  much  prized  as  a  cure 
for  snake-poison,  apparently  not  without  some 
reason.— -Br.,  502  ;  (ySh,,  271. 

NIRIKA,  Hind.,  Sans.    Hell.     See  Hindoo. 

NIRIKH,  Pbrs.    a  price  list, 

NIRINGI-KIRE,  Tam.    Tribulus  terrestris. 

NIRIT,  see  Indra,  Nairit. 

NIRIZ,  see  Pars. 

NIRJIN  DUMBA,  Hind.    Ficus  glomerata. 

NIRMAL  also  Nirmali,  Beng.,  Hind., 
Mahr.     Strychnos  potatorum,  Linn. 

NIRMALA,  see  Hindoo,  Sikhs. 

NIR-MULLI,  Tam.  Asteracantha  longifolia, 

of  the  Ceded  Districts.  Amongst  the  arts  and 
manufactures  of  South  Eastern  Asia,  may  be 
mentioned  the  lacquer  work  of  Burmah,  China 
and  Japan,  the  ivory  work  of  China,  the 
marble  work  of  Burmah,  the  gold  and  silver 
work  of  Trichinopoly  and  Cuttack,  the  horn 
work  of  Vizagapatam,  the  sandalwood  work  of 
Canara,  the  lac  work  of  Kumool,  the  tutenague 
work  of  Beder,  the  wood  work  of  Nirmul  and 
of  Hyderabad  in  Sind,  the  shawl  and  woollen 
work  of  the  N.  W.  of  India  and  the  muslins  of 

NIR  MULU,  Tam.  Asteracantha  longifolia. 
Nir  Mulli  Vera,  Tam.  The  root  of  Barleria 

NIRNA,  Can.     Water  dog ;  Lutra  nair. 

NIRNAYA,  Sans.  From  nir,  prep.,  and 
nee,  to  obtain. 

NIR  NOCHI,  Tam.     Vitex  trifolia. 

NIR  NOTSJIL,  Malbai.  Clerodendron 
inerme,  Gasrt. 

NIRO-KANCHA,  Tel.  Pontedra  vaginalis, 

NIROOKTA,  Sans.  From  nir,  prep.,  and 
ookta,  spoken. 

NIR  PIRIMI,  Tam.  Gratiola  monniera, 
syn.  of  Herpestes  monniera,  H.  B.  and  Kunih, 

NIR  PONGILION,  Maleal,  Spathodea 
rheedii,.  iSpr^^wr 

116  N 


NIRU,  Tbl.     Water :  hence 

Niru  agni  vendra  paku,  Tbl.  Jussieua  vil- 
losa.  Lam. —  W.  and  -4.,  1041 — J.  exaltata,  R. 
ii,  401 — Eheede,  ii,  50;  Properly  Ammania 
vesicatoria,  Pt.  i,  p.  12.  The  word  means 
"  the  burning  leaf  growing  in  water." 

Niru  bachchali,  Tel.  Jussieua  repens,  L, 
—22.  ii,  401— PT.  and  A.,  1040. 

Niru  boddi,  or  Boddi,  Tbl.  Rivea  hypocrar 
terifbrmis,  Ch. 

Niru  budiki,  or  Antafa  tamara,  Tel.  Pistia 
stratiotes,  L. 

Niru  chikkudu,  Tbl.     Lablab,  9p, 

Niru  chirri,  Tbl.  Centrostachys  aquatica, 
WaU.—-W.  Ic,  1870.  Achryanthes  aq.,  E. 
i,  673.  The  syn.  in  Sanscrit  is  Markahah, 
which  according  to  W.,  is  Amarantus  oleraqeui. 

Niru  ganneru,  Tbl.  Polygonum  rivulare, 
Kon. — E.  ii,  290,  also  Polygonum  glabram, 
Waid.-^R.  ii,  287—  W.  /c,  1799,  also  Hydro- 
cera  triflora,  W.  and  A.,  463. — Impatiena 
natans,  E.  i,  652.  The  name  is  applied  to  any 
narrow-leaved  sp.  The  syn.  Nichulah,  accord- 
ing to  W.,  is  Bsurringtonia  acutangula. 

Niru  gili  gich'cha,  Tbl.  Crotalaria  quin- 
quefolia,  L.—E.  iii,  279— W.  cmd  A^  606— 
Eheede,  ix,  28. 

Niru  gobbi,  Tbl.  Asteracantha  longifolia, 
Nees.^W.  /c,  449— Ruellia  Ion.,  E.  iii,  50— 
Eheede,  ii,  45. 

Niru  goranta  or  Nalla  pedda  goranta,  Tel. 

NIRMUL,  a  town   in  the  Kumool  province ,  Barleria  cristata,  L. — |S  rosea.    A  light-tinted 

Goranta  of  a  pale  red  colour. 

Niru  ippa,  Tbl.  The  name  implies  a  Sapo- 
taceous  tree  frequenting  water.  Sk.,  Gouraaakah 
is,  according  to  W.,  a  sp.  of  Baasia. 

Niru  jiluga,  or  Jiluga,  Tbl.  .^schynomene 
aspera,  L. 

Niru  kacha,  Tbl.  Pontedera  vaginalis,  Zr. 
-22.  ii,  121 ;  Cor.  110— Eheede,  xi,  44.-  A 
doubtful  name  from  Roxburgh. 

Niru  kussuvoo,  Tel.  Commelyna  cummunia. 

Nirupadi,  Tel.  Br.  502»  a  plant  called 

Niru  pavila,  Tbl.  Bcrgia  verticillata,  WiUd, 
—E.  ii,  456 ;  B.  aquatica.  Cor.  142— Eheede^ 
ix,  78. 

Niru  pippali,  Tbl.  Pongatium  indicuia. 
Lam. — Sphenoclea  zeylanica,  E.  i,  507. 

Niru  prabba,  or  Bettamu,  Tbl.  Calamoa 
rotang,  L.  The  genua  delights  in  majshy 
plains  but  C.  Rotang  especially. 

Niru  tamara,  Tbl.  Pontedera  haatata,  j&« — 
E.  ii,  121;  Cor.,  Ill,  This  name  rests  on 
Roxb.'s  authority  ak>ne. 

Niru  tota  kura,  Tbl.  Amarantua,  s^. 
The  common  cultivated  speciea,  requires  plenti* 
ful  watering. 

Niru  tumiki,  or  Niti  tumiki  aod  Erutumiki, 
Tel.  Diospyros,^  sp.  Ebensoeoua  treo  fre- 
quenting water  ?     Sk.  syn.  is  Dii^gha  patraka. 



Niru  talavapu,  Tei;.     Desmodium  natans, 

WUld. —  W,  afid  A.^  835— Mimosa  nat.,  E,  ii, 

5d3:  Cor.    119.     Nir  tavili  means  touching 

the  water  refering  to  the  floating  habit  charao- 

teristic  of  this  plcuit. 

Nim  vanga,  Tsl.  Solanum  melongena,  L. 
— S.  kngnm,  R.  i,  567.—Bhe€de,  x,  74.  This 
weQ  known  variety  is  under  culture  at  all  sea- 
aons  and  requires  much  water,  hence  the  name. 

Nira  Temki,  Tel.  Ottelia  alisnoides,  Pers,, 
alio  Damasonium  indicum,  B.  ii,  216;  Cor. 
185;  Bkeede^  xi,  46.  This  name  does  not  seem 
to  be  right,  the  plant  is  called  Gurrapu  dekka. 

MRULLI,  Til.  AJlima  cepa,  L.—E.  ii,  142, 
A*.  502. 

NIBVALA,  Mat.kal.  Croton  tiglium,  also 
€iat»va  nurvala.  Bam. 

NIRVALUM,  Tam.  Croton  tiglium.  Nir- 
valom  jennai.  Tax.  Croton  oil :  Napaulah  oil. 

NIRWANA  or  Nirvana,  or  Nigban,  in  bud- 
dhism, final  emancipation,  a  buddhist  idea  of 
annihilation,  of  the  spirit's  extinction;  but  Bun- 
KQ  asserts  it  to  mean  the  absence  of  desire 
in  this  life ;  inward  peace.  M.  St.  Hilaire, 
IL  Eugene  Bnmouf  and  Prof.  Max  MuUer, 
identify  tfie  Nirvana  of  Buddha  with  abso- 
lute annihilation,  the  pure  not  being,  in 
which  there  is  no  absorption  in  the  higher  life 
of  the  uncreated  essence,  no  consciousness  of 
peace  and  freedom  from  evil,  but  the  loss  of 
being  and  consciousness  at  once.  This  doctrine 
is  shadowed  forth  in  the  despair  of  Job  and 
Jeremiah  ;  in  the  deep  melancholy  of  Eocle- 
aiastes ;  in  the  choruses  of  Sophocles,  the  Apolo- 
gia of  Plato  and  in  the  soliloquy  of  Hamlet,  yet 
this  has  nowhere  led  to  suicide,  as  the  path  to 
Nirvana,  but  to  fasting,  prayer,  ahnsgiving,  and 
selfsacrifice.  But  the  doctrine  was  offered  to 
people  who  held  to  the  belief  of  a  natural  im- 
mortality and  metempschycosis,  to  whom  death 
brought  no  sure  deliverance,  but  might  lead  to 
ilb  greater  than  in  this  world,  new  forms  of 
human  or  brute  life  more  miserable  than  what 
they  had  passed  through.  The  life  of  self-sacri- 
fice of  its  founder,  his  voluntary  acceptance  of 
poverty,  his  proclamation  of  a  universal  brother- 
hood, and  his  making  war  on  the  caste  system, 
are  remarkable  features  of  his  career.  But  after 
him  hrahmanism  rose  triumphant  and  drove 
buddhism  into  other  lands,  and  the  region  of 
Sakya  Muni's  birth  and  labours  became  a  place 
of  pilgrimage  to  peoples  from  distant  countries. 
The  Nirvana  of  Sakya  Muni,  according  to  the 
Raj-guru  of  Assam  occurred  in  the  18th  year  of 
Ajatra  Satru,  and  196  years  before  Ghandra- 
gapta,  the  contemporary  of  Alexander  which 
Dayagreethus34d4-lS6»544. — Bunsen^  God 
ia  ^tsf^  Vol.  i,  p.  5.  See  Buddha,  Chinese, 

NIRVANA,  Hebrew,  signifying  satisfied  or 

117  N 


NIRVANEE,  Sans.  From  Nirvanu,  libera- 

NIRWAR,  see  Kush. 

NISHA,  Hind.  See  Kush. 

NIS^A,  the  Nisaia  of  Ptolemy  called  also 
Nisa  and  Nisaea,  a  city  on  the  upper  Oxus,  was 
the  chief  town  of  the  district,  in  northern  Par- 
thia,  faiAous  for  its  breed  of  horses,  bordering 
on  Hyrkania  and  Margiana.  The  fourth  set- 
tlement of  the  Arians  was  in  Nisaya  (Northern 
Parthia.)  It  (v.  verse  8.)  says  "  the  fifth  best 
land  is  Nisaya ;  there  Ahriman  created  unbe- 
lief." This  is  the  Nisaia  of  Ptolemy,  fiimous 
for  its  breed  of  horses,  commonly  called  Nisa, 
the  renowned  district  of  Northern  Parthia,  bor- 
dering on  Hyrkania  and  Mai^giana.  The  city 
of  Nis89_  is  situated  on  the  Upper  Oxus.  The 
term  "  unbelief  signifies  the  apoetacy  from 
pure  fire  worship.  Here,  therdbre,  the .  first 
schism  took  place. — Bunsen^  Vol.  iii.  See 

NISAETUS  BONELU,  Temm.  The  Crest- 
less  hawk  eagle. 

Aquila  intermedia,  JSonellu 
M'hor-angah,  Hind. 


Nisaetufi  niveus*      Jerd, 
Rajali,  Tam. 

Kundeli,  small  Tbt.. 

This  eagle  is  about  27  inches  long  and  is 
found  throughout  India,  in  the  hilly  and  jung- 
ly districts.  It  preys  on  game  birds  and  pea- 
fowl, ducks,  herons  and  waterfowl. 

NISAETUS  NEPALENSIS,  Hodg.,  also  N. 
pulcher,  Hodg.^  Syns.  of  Limnaetus  nipalensis, 

NISAETUS  OVIVORUS,  Jerd.,  Syn.  of 
Neopus  malaiensis,  Eeinwardt. 

NISAETUS  PALLIDUS,  Hodg.  Syn.  of 
Liumaetus  nivssus,  Temm. 

NISARNA,  Hind.  To  blossom,  the  blossom- 
ing of  sugar-cane  is  thought  very  unlucky. 

NISHADA  of  the  Sanscrit  writers,  a  race  who 
seem  to  have  been  the  occupants  of  India  prior 
to  and  opponents  of  the  Aryans  and  especially 
to  the  wild  and  barbarous  forest  and  mountain- 
ous tribes.  It  is  a  term  applied  in  the  Vedas  to 
the  ancient  aborigines  of  India,  and  Professor 
Max  Muller  proposes  to  apply  th^  words 
Nishada  languages  to  all  the  non-Arian  tongues. 
—  WiU,  See  India,  Siva. 

NISHAPOUR,  at  one  time  the  greatest  and 
richest  city  of  Khorasan,  is  seated  in  a  plain, 
formerly  irrigated  by  about  twelve  thousand 
acqueducts,  most  of  which  have  been  suffered 
to  fall  to  decay,  and  are  now  destitute  of  water. 
This  city  was  founded  by  Taimuras,  and  de- 
stroyed by  Alexander  the  Great.  It  was,  after 
the  lapse  of  many  yeai*s,  re-built  by  Sapor  the 
First ;  and  the  statue  of  that  prince  was  to  be 
seen  at  Nishapour;  until  it  was  overturned, 
and  broken  in  pieces,  by  the  Arabs.  The  town 
and  district  of  Nishapour,  are  situated  about 
sixty  miles  to  the  south-west  of  Mushed.  On 
die  death  of  Nadir  Shah,  it  was  seized  by  Ah- 




has  Kuli  Khan,  a  chief  of  the  Turkish  tribe  of  a 
Byat.     The  name  is  a  compound  of  Ni  reed 
and  Shahpoor,  and  the  term  Ni,  which  denotes 
the  produce  of  the  plain  in  which  it  stands, 
was  given  to  distinguish  it  from  the  city  of  Shah- 
poor in  Fars,  which  was  also  founded  by  Shah- 
poor the  First.      The  fruits  of  Nishapur  are 
uncommonly    fine,    particularly    melons  ;    its 
mountains  are  cultivated  to  the  very  summit. 
In  these  mountains,  the  Ferozah,  or  Turquoise 
stone,    is    found.      General    Ferrier    says  he 
suffered  many  disappointments  at  Nishapour, 
but  it  was  from  thence  only   he  could  visit 
the  turquoise-mines    in    the    neighbourhood. 
The  mines  are  near  the  village  of  Madene, 
about  thirty-two  English  miles  firom  Nishapour ; 
the  road  to  it  is  for  the  first  five  miles  across 
a  plain  of  great  extent.     Salt  abounds  in  this 
locality,  mnd  the  principal  mine,  Dooletaly,  is 
about  six  miles  from   Madene.     This  is  an 
enormous   rock,  covered  on  its  exterior  sur- 
face with  a  thin  layer  of  red  clay.     The  mines 
are    the   property  of  the    Government,    who 
lease  them  to  die  highest  bidder.     At  pre- 
sent the  rent  is  only  150   tomauns    yearly. 
A  good  workman  can  extract  about  800  lbs. 
a  dAy.     The  salt  is  beautifully  white  and  of 
a  fine  grain.    The  turquoises  are  divided  into 
two  classes,  according  to  the  positions  in  which 
they  are  found.    The  first,   called  sangi,  or 
stony,  are  those  which  are  incrusted  in  the 
matrix  and  which  must  be  removed  by  a  blow 
of  the  pick  or  hammer ;  the  second  are  found 
in    washing    the  alluvial    deposits,    and    are 
called  khaki,  or  earthy :  the  former  are  of  a 
deep  blue ;    the   latter,   though   larger    from 
being  paler  and  spotted  with  white,  are  of  less 
value.    These  are  seen  as  if  incrusted  or  glued 
in  the  matrix  to  the  number  of  from  twenty-five 
to  thirty,  and  more  or  less  near  one  another. 
Each  of  these  stones  is  enveloped  in  a  thin  cal- 
careous covering,  white  on  the  side  adhering 
next  to  the  turquoise,  but  brown  on  that  next 
to  the  matrix.   Mr.  Fraser  mentions  that  on  the 
24th  of  January,  about  five  in  the  morning,  he 
set  off  to  visit  ^e  turquoise  mines,  about  nine 
fursungs  to  the  westward  of  Nishapoor.     Part 
of  these  are  but  pits  dug  in  grey  earth  like 
that  of  the  Khurooch  mine,  and  may   possibly 
be  also  the  remains  of  some  former  working. 
The  gem  is  also  found  in  small  veins  variously 
dispersed   through  the  body  of   the*  rock  ;  a 
man  who  was  working  here  offered  him    the 
produce  of  his  day's  labour   in  an  old  shoe, 
consisting    of   pieces    of   various     sorts    and 
sizes.    He  ascended  to  a  considerable  height 
to  where,  in  a  cleft;  of  the  hill,  is  situated  the 
mine  called  Abdool  Rezakee,  from  having  been 
discovered,  or  formerly  worked,  by  a  person  of 
that  name.    The  chief  excavation  is  under  a 
great  overhanging  rock,  of  the  same  natuic  as 

118  N 

that  of  the  Madan-e-siah  and  others,  and  from 

this  mine  were  obtained  the  finest  and  largest 

stones  of  any.      In  this  mine  the  turquoise 

matter  did  not  appear  to  run  so  much  in  veins ; 

but  this  might  be  accidental,  for  we  were  told 

that  the  greater  part  of  the  gem  is  found  in 

this  manner. — Fraser^s  Journey  into  Khoramn^ 

pp.  407-413  ;  Rinneir's  Geographical  Memoir^ 

p.  185  ;  Malcolm's  History  of  Persia^  Vol,  ii, 

pp.  218,  220  ;  Ferritr's  Joum.,  pp.  105,  106, 


NISHAN,  Hon).  Sign,  flag,  or  standard, 
sjnionymous  with  a  company  of  soldiers. 

NISH^-PATEE,  Saks. 'from  nisha,  night, 
and  patee,  lord. 

NISHASHTA,  Pbrs.  Starch.  Nishast-i- 
gandam.  Gluten  of  wheat. 

NISfflNDA,  or  Nisinda,  Eesq.  Vitex  nes- 
gundo,  and  Vitex  trifolia,  Linn. 

NISHKRAMANA,  aurs.  A  going  forth,  from 
nir,  prep.,  and  krum,  to  step. 

NISIBIS,  a  fort  situated  between  die  Tigris 
and  Euphrates,  the  possession  of  which  was 
continually  contested  by  the  Romans  and  Per- 
sians. It  was  taken  after  Shahpoor  had  sub- 
dued Armenia.  Persian  authors  term  this  fort 
Nisibyn  and  Nisibi. — Malcolm's  History  of  Per- 
siay  Vol.  i,  p.  97.     See  Mesopotamia. 

NISINDA,  also  Nisindha,  also  Seduari, 
HnrD.  Vitex  n^;undo  and  V.  trifolia. 

NISOMALI,  Saks.  Polygonum  aviculare. 

NISCM^HAKA,  Sans.  Alangium  decape- 
talum,  Lam. 

NISOT,  Beno.,  Hind.  Ipomoea  turpethum. 

NISR,  Hbb.  Eagle. 

NISSAB,  Ar.  (lit.  alms)  the  repeating  an 
attribute  of  the  deity  a  certain  number  of 

NISUNG.  In  this  town,  the  Tartar  husband- 
men have  a  custom  similar  to  those  of  the  Scotdi 
farmers,  who  plait  the  first  com  cut  three-fold, 
and  fix  it  over  the  chimney-piece  till  next 
harvest,  when  it  is  renewed.  The  Tartars  use 
three  ears  of  barley,  which  they  paste  outside, 
above  the  door.  At  Nisung  there  was  not  a 
house  in  the  village  but  was  ornamented  in  this 
way.  The  Tartars  are  called  by  the  Kunawar 
inhabitants  of  the  lowest  parts,  Zhad,  Bhoteea 
or  Bootuntee,  and  their  country  is  often  named 
Bhot  and  Bootunt;  the  Tartars  are  very 
different  in  appearance  and  manners  from  the 
inhabitants  of  the  Lower  Kunawar ;  all  those 
of  Basihur  were  formerly  under  the  Chinese. 
The  Tartars  of  Kunawar  are  not  so  stout  as  those 
farther  to  the  eastward,  and  have  less  of  the 
Chinese  features.  Thq  others  are  muscular, 
well-made,  and  tall ;  Gerard  saw  few  under 
five  feet  ten,  and  many  were  six  feet  or  more ; 
their  strong  athletic  forms  were  remarkably 
contrasted  with  the  puny  diminutive  figures  of 
his  attendants,  several  of  whom  were  inhabi-  j 




lants  of  the  plains.  Their  countenance  m 
mddy,  and  they  have  small  oblong  eyes,  high 
cheek  bones,  thin  eye  brows,  and  very  few  have 
either  mustachios  or  beards,  which  they  admire 
much.  Many  of  them,  especially  from  twelve 
to  eighteen  years  old,  are  extremely  handsome, 
of  a  very  prepossessing  appearance,  and  fine 
^jedmens  of  Tartar  youth. — Capt,  Gerard* s 
Aecawni  of  Kunawur^  pp,  3  to  102. 

NITA,  Tam.     Aloe  fibre. 

NITAil-PALA,  Tam.  A  Malabar  tree  that 
grows  to  about  twelve  or  fifteen  feet  long  and 
fifteen  inches  in  diameter :  it  is  not  of  much 
oouideration ;  it  produces  a  small  fruit  wbicb  is 
Dsedby  the  natives  medicinally. — Edye,  M,C. 

NIT  BIRALU,  Nbpaul.    Viverra  zibetha, 

NTTI,  a  pogB  of  Kumaon,  in  lat.  30°  67'  N., 
km.  7»°  64'  E ;  the  crest  is  16,814 ;  viUage 
of  Niti,  11,464  feet  It  is  open  from  the  end  of 
Jane  to  October.  Niti  is  considered  the  best 
piaB  between  Kumaon  and  Tibet,  and  is  one  of 
the  principal  cbaonels  of  trade  between  Chinese 
Tartuy  and  Hindooetan. 

NTTKI,  Eto.     Thread. 

NITO,  a  doth  used  by  the  wUd  natives  in 

mm  GANNERU,  or  Bagga  patti,  Tel. 
limnophila  racemosa,  Benih.  Any  aquatic 
plant  with  long,  narrow,  oleander-like  leaves. 

NFTI  TUMIKI,  or  Niru  tumiki  and  Era 
tumiki,  Tel.  Diospyros,  sp.  So  called  by  the 
Konda  Doralu. 

NTTRARIA  TRIDENTA,  a  plant  of  Tunis, 
the  true  Lotus  of  the  lotophagi,  and  Nitraria 
flooberi^  the  berry  of  which  is  the  chief  luxury 
of  the  tribes  of  the  Caspian  desert,  might  be 
introdiiced  into  India. 


NITRATE  DE  SOUDE,  Fr.  Nitrate  of  soda. 

NITRATE  OF  LIME  is  recommended  as  a 
probable  chemical  antidote  for  the  salts  of 
the  "  reh."  It  has  been  known  that  the  best 
remedy  for  reh  is  the  saline  efflorescence  of  old 
mortar  on  walls,  or  which  appear  on  ground 
containing  carbonate  of  lime  and  animal  mat- 
ter. In  this  substance,  nitrate  of  lime  is  found, 
lod  this  salt  would  act  by  producing  the  inso- 
hible  carbonate  of  lime,  and  the  sparingly 
sohible  sulphate  of  lime,  and  the  deliques- 
cent nitrate  of  soda,  instead  of  the  efflorescent 
sulphate  and  carbonate  of  soda,  which  are  the 
pnncipal  constituents  of  reh.  This  is  prepared 
by  distilling  shora  or  saltpetre  with  kahi  safed, 
ud  neutralizing  the  acid  liquor  that  passes 
over  with  chunam.  The  natives,  in  some 
pirta,  have  long  been  accustomed  to  exxiploy 
'^chikna kuUur,"  or  earth  which  looks  damp; 
dm  earth  is  found  where  animal  remains  are 
deposited,  and  usually  contains  nitrate  of  lime. 
Ife  leh  b  composed  principally  of  siilphate  of 


soda  and  chloride  of  sodium,  with,  in  some 
places,  carbonate  of  soda :  the  sulphate  and 
carbonate  of  soda  are  very  efflorescent  salts,  and 
melt  partly  in  their  water  of  crystallization  at  a 
temperature  of  about  98*^,  while  they  are  rather 
sparingly  soluble  when  the  temperature  falls 
below  60°.  Kence,  during  the  hot  weather  the 
reh  melts  and  percolates  the  ground  to  some 
considerable  depth  ;  but  as  the  weather  becomes 
cooler,  crystals  tbrm  in  this  soil  and  form  a 
capillary  net-work,  upon  which  it  travels  till  it 
arrives  at  the  surface,  where  the  salt  gives  off 
its  water  of  crystallization**,  and  fells  into  a  dry 
powder  by  efflorescence.  If  to  a  solution  of 
these  salts,  nitrate  of  lime  is  added,  no  change 
is  produced  by  it  on  the  chloride  of  sodium,  but 
the  sulphate  and  carbonate  of  soda  are  con- 
verted into  nitrate  of  soda,  a  deliquescing  salt, 
while  the  lime  is  changed  either  into  the  inso- 
luble carbonate  of  lime,  or  the  sparingly  solu- 
ble sulphate  of  lime,  neither  of  which  are 
efflorescent,  or  in  any  way  injurious  to  vegeta- 
tion.— PoweWs  Hand-book  ;  Econ,  Prod.,  Pun- 
jab, pp,  95,  112. 

NITRATE  OF  SILVER.  This  salt  is  now 
made  at  Lahore  for  photographic  purposes  and 
called  kastak,  a  corruption  of  caustic. 


Nitrate  de  Soud,  Fb.  |  Wtirfel  saltpetre,       Gbr. 

This  salt  occurs  in  Bellary  and  Hyderabad, 
where  it  forms  a  natural  efflorescence.  Its 
chief  use  is  as  a  substitute  for  saltpetre  for  the 
manufacture  of  nitric  and  other  acids  and  che- 
mical substances.  It  is  too  deliquescent  for 
making  gunpowder,  though  it  answers  well  for 
some  descriptions  of  fireworks.  It  is  found  in 
immense  quantities  in  deposits  in  South  Ame- 
rica, particularly  in  the  districts  of  Atacama 
and  Tarapaca  in  Fera.  See  Alkaline  minerals 
and  Soda. 



Nitrate  of  potash, 




Nitrate  de  potase, 


Saures  Kali, 

Nitre,  or  Saltpetre,  must  early  have  been 
known,  as  both  the  Indians  and  Chinese 
have  long  been  acquainted  with  the  making 
of  fireworks,  and  the  former  have  an  easy 
process  for  making  nitric  acid,  in  which  they 
have  been  followed  by  Geber  and  other  Ara- 
bian authors.  The  names  neter  in  the  Old 
Testament,  and  nitrum  in  ancient  authors^  were 
applied  to  carbonate  of  soda,  but  they  were 
also  used  in  a  generic  sense.  Nitre  is  found 
effloresced  on  the  soil  in  many  parts  of  India, 
where  there  is  no  animal  matter,  and  being 
washed  out,  a  fresh  crop  is  formed  afler  a  few 

N  119 






It.,  8f. 





Nitras  potassie, 














years.  The  soil  Is  sandy,  with  mica  interspersed, 
which  will  continue  to  yield  a  supply  of  i)otash, 
while  the  nitric  acid  mast  be  furnished  by  the 
combination  of  the  oxygen  of  the  atmosphere 
with  its  nitrogen,  probably,  as  suggested  by  Lie- 
big,  by  the  oxidation  of  the  ammonia  which  he 
has  proved  is  always  present  in  the  atmosphere. 
Mr.  Stevenson  (Prinsep's  Journ.,  ii,  p.  23)  has 
detailed  the  process,  and  shown  that  the  saline 
earth  contains  salts  soluble  in  water,  sulphate 
of  soda,  muriate  of  soda,  nitrates  of  lime  and  of 
potash.  The  nitrate  of  lime  is  easily  converted 
into  that  of  potash  by  lixiviating  the  saline 
soil  over  a  filter  of  woodashes,  which  contains 
carbonate  of  potash  (the  carbonic  acid  com- 
bines with  the  lime,  and  the  nitric  acid  with 
the  potash),  a  carbonate  of  lime  is  precipitated, 
and  the  nitrate  of  potash  in  solution  is  evapo- 
rated and  put  aside  to  crystallize.  The  salt 
obtsuned  contains  irom  45  to  70  per  cent,  of 
pure  nitrate  of  potash.  It  is  re-dissolved  and 
crystallized,  but  still  contains  impurities,  which 
are  termed  so  much  per  cent,  of  refraction. 
The  ordinary  kinds  are  called  rough  or  crude 
saltpetre,  and  the  purer  East  India  '*  refined." 
In  Europe  nitre  is  prepared  artificially  in  nitre- 
beds  or  nitre-waUs,  and  in  ditches  covered  by 
sheds,  where  urine  is  added  to  different  mixtures 
of  earth  with  refiise  vegetables,  various  animal 
substances,  and  calcareous  matter,  &c.  The 
whole  is  exposed  to  the  action  of  the  aif .  The 
nitrogen,  combining  with  the  oxygen,  forms 
nitrates,  and  the  foregoing  processes  being 
adopted,  similar  results  are  obtained.  Nitre  is 
manufactured  in  many  districts  of  the  South  and 
East  of  Asia. — Smith  ;  Royle.     See  Saltpetre. 



Acidum  nitricum 

^urum,  Lat. 

Spiritus  nitrici  glauberi,  „ 
Arak-i-shora,  Pbbs. 

Aqua  forte,  Post. 

Vedj-lunu-rasa,  Singh. 
Pettluppu  dravagum,  Tam. 
Petiuppudrava-kam,  Tel. 

Maulabker,  Ab. 

Sterk  water,  Dur. 

Aqua-fortis,  Eno. 

Acide  nitrique,  ,    Fb. 

Salpeter  saure,  Geo. 

Suriakhar-ka-tel,  Hind. 
Shore  ka  tezab, 
Acidum  nitricum, 
Aqua  f ortis, 

This  was  known  to  Geber,  and  probably 
also  to  the  hindoos.  In  combination  with 
potash,  soda,  and  lime  or  ammonia,  it  is 
foTuid,  effloresced  on  the  soil  in  some  countries ; 
also  in  some  minerals ;  likewise  in  some  vege- 
tables, as  in  the  officinal  Pareira  root,  in  tiie 
state  of  nitrate  of  potash.  When  manufac- 
turers make  nitric  acid  they  employ  only 
half  the  quantity  of  sulphuric  acid  and  use 
nitrate  of  soda  instead  of  nitrate  of  potash, 
because  it  is  cheaper.  The  acid  obtained  is  of 
a  brownish  colour,  fiimes,  and  is  called  nitric 
acid  of  commerce.  When  pure,  it  is  colourless, 
but  as  met  with  in  commerce,  it  is  yellowish, 
owing  to  its  containing  nitrous  acid  in  solution ; 
besides  which  it  is  often  highly  diluted,  and 
mixed  with  sulphuric  and  muriatic  acids.    It 

Acidum     nitro-muriati- 

is  exceedingly  corrosive,  and  its  taste  is  sour 
and  acid.  Nitric  acid  is  employed  in  a  great 
variety  of  chemical  processes ;  in  metallurgy 
and  assaying,  for  etching  on  iron  and  copper, 
in  dyeing  and  in  medicine.  Nitric  acid,  is 
made  in  Lahore,  by  acting  on  pure  nitrate 
of  soda  with  a  quantity  of  sulphuric  acid. 
This  sort  is  used  for  the  pmrification  of  silver, 
and  the  formation  of  the  nitrate.  A  less  pure 
kind  is  made  by  the  action  of  Kahi  (impure 
sulphate  of  iron)  on  nitre,  but  this  is  rather  a 
mixture  of  nitric  and  hydrochloric  acids,*  and 
will  dissolve  gold  leaf. — Boyle;  Fattikner : 

NITRO,  It.     Salitre,  8p.    Saltpetre. 


Acidum       nitro-hydro- 


Eau  regale,  Fb.  |  Xonigswaaaer,         6£s. 

This  acid  is  made  by  mixing  nitric  acid  with 
muriatic,  and  has  probably  been  known  since 
the  discovery  of  these  acids.  The  Arabs  must 
have  been  acquainted  with  it,  as  they  had 
a  solvent  for  gold.  Nitro-hydrochloric  acid 
is  of  a  golden  yellow  colour  with  the  suffo- 
cating odour  of  chlorine,  and  the  irritant  cor- 
rosive properties  of  the  strong  aoids.  The 
manufacturers  mix  gradually  in  a  cooled  ves- 
sel, and  where  the  fumes  can  easily  escape. 
Nitric  acid  1  part,  muriatic  acid  2  parts  (both 
by  measure).  They  keep  the  mixture  in  a  well- 
closed  bottle  in  a  cool,  dark  place.  The  resultr 
ing  acid  is  not  a  mere  mixture  of  the  two  acids, 
for  both  become  decomposed.  It  is  distinguished 
by  the  property  of  dissolving  gold. — Royle 

NITRON,  Potasse  nitras,  Salpetre. 

NITURI  or  Katou  nii-uri,  Fhyllanthus  multi- 

NITYAMALLE  or  Adavi  nitaya  mallee, 
Hibiscus  hirtus,  L. 

NITYANANDA,  Sans.,  from  nitya,  constant, 
and  ananda,  joy.     See  Chaitunya. 

NIU-JU  also  Niu-nai,  Chdt.    Milk. 

NIU,  HiKD.     Alnus,  «p. 

NIUMA,  Hind.    Brassica  rapa. 

NIUNKAR,  Hind.     Brassica,  «p. 

NIURTSI,  Hnro.     Artemisia  sacromm. 

NIUSKAR,  HrwD.  Brassica,  sp, ;  Khamnb 
nubti,  Hnd).,  is  Ceratqnia  siliqua. 

NIVARI  DHANYAMU,  Tel.    Oryza,  «p. 

NIVERTTI,  see  Nibutti. 

NTVE^AM,  Tam.  NivesaAamu,  Tel.  a 
ground  of  2,400  feet  square  of  ground. 

NIYAL,  Hdid.,  of  Kangra.    A  weasel. 

NIYAZBO,  Hiin>.    Ocymum  basilicum. 

NIYAMA,  Saitb.    A  resolution. 

NIZAM,  the  title  of  the  mahomedan  ruler 
of  the  kingdom  of  Hyderabad  in  the  Dekhan, 
a  sovereign,  with  a  British  resident  at  hi^ 
court.      The   coxmtry  of  the  Nizam   is  now 





smaller  than  it  was  in  the  middle  of  the  18th 
centorj.  By  the  treaty  with  the  British  Go- 
Temment  of  1759,  he  ceded  Masulipatam  and 
other  districts;  by  the  treaty  of  1766,  the 
Northern  Circars,  and  by  the  death  of  its  jag- 
heerdar  in  1788,  the  Guntoor  Circar.  The  au- 
thority of  the  founder  of  the  State  of  Hyderabad 
at  one  time  extended  from  the  Nerbudda  to 
Trichinopoly  and  from  Masulipatam  to  Beejapoor . 
Orme  makes  it  still  larger — "  in  a  line  nearly 
north  and  south  from  Berhampoor  to  Cape 
Comorin,  and  eastward  from  that  line  to  the 
sea."  The  area  of  the  country  the  Nizam  now 
holds  is  computed  to  be  95,337  square  miles. 
It  lies  between  the  15th  and  21st  degrees  of 
north  latitude,  and  the  75  and  82  degrees  of 
longitude,  forming  a  lateral  square  of  more  than 
450  mUes  each  way.  This  tract  is  traversed  by 
the  Krishna  with  its  feeders,  the  Beema  and  Tum- 
boodra,  the  Wurda  and  its  tributaries,and  the 
Godarery  with  its  tributary  streams  of  the 
Doodna,  Manjera,  and  Pranheeta.  This  coun- 
try of  the  Nizam,  called  Hyderabad  afler  the 
capital,  is  three  times  larger  than  either  Mysore 
or  Gwalior — the  next  two  large  powers  with 
whom  the  British  have  subsidiary  treaties,  ten 
times  larger  than  Holkar*s  country,  Indore, 
and  abnoBt  as  large  as  both  Nepal  and  Cashmere 
together — the  two  independent  powers  in  alli- 
ance with  the  British.  The  modem  Dekhan 
ocHnprises  most  of  Telingana,  part  of  Gond- 
vana,  and  that  large  portion  of  Maharashtra 
which  is  above  the  western  range  of  ghauts, 
and  which  extends  from  the  Nerbudda  to  the 
Krishna.  Hyderabad  in  the  Dekhan  is  com- 
monly used  in  contradistinction  to  Hyderabad 
in  Sind.  This  country  of  the  Nizam  consists  of 
elevated  tableland,  never  less  than  1,800  feet 
above  the  level  of  the  sea,  and  it  has  always 
been  populated :  for  it  long  formed  a  large  part 

Assuming  the  title  of  Asoph  Jah,  Nizam-ul- 
Mulk  crossed    the  Nerbudda  at   the  head  of 
12,000   men.      The  fort  of  Asseerghur  was 
given  up  to  him  by  Jalib  Khan  for  a  sum  of 
money.     Soon  after,  in  the  month  of  October 
1723,  he  took  an  opportunity,  on  pretence  of 
gning  on  a  hunting  excursion,  to  depart  for 
his  vice-royalty  in  the  Dekhan ;  and  from  that 
time,  although  he  always  professed  obedience 
to  the  emperor,  even  when  waging  war  against 
him,  Nizami-ul-Mulk  became  wholly  independ- 
oit ;  and  the  countries  south  of  the  Nerbudda, 
&e  conquest  of  which  had  engaged  the  Mogul 
phnocs  in  much  more  than  a  century  of  wars, 
were  torn  for  ever  from  the  throne  of  Delhi. 
After  the  battle  of  Shukurkhara,  Nizam-ul- 
Mnlk  had  fixed  his  eye  on  Hyderabad — the 
aocient  capital  of  ^e  Kootub  Shahee  kings — 
at  fitted  for  the  seat  of  government  of  the  inde- 
pendent sovereignty  which  ho    himself  had 



founded ;  and  it  was  very  desirable  for  this 
purpose  to  remove  the  Maharatta  collectors 
from  that  quarter  on  any  terms. 

One  of  the  traditions  of  the  Nizam's  ancestry 
is  that  the  family  is  of  Tartar  origin,  and 
claims  descent  from  Baha-ud-Deen — a  person 
much  celebrated  for  his  devotional  zeal  as  well 
as  for  the  austerity  of  his  life.  He  took  the 
appellation  of  Khajeh  Nakshbund,  and  was 
the  founder  of  the  order  of  Nakshbundee  Der- 
vises  which  still  prevail  in  India,  Turkey 
and  Tartary.  His  descendants  to  this  day 
generally  prefix  the  word  Khajeh  to  their 
names,  and  distinguish  themselves  by  the  ap- 
pellation of  Nakshbundee.  Khajeh  is  a  term 
of  honour  usually  applied  to  persons  who  ai*e 
eminent  either  for  their  sanctity  or  learning. 
The  literal  meaning  of  Nakshbund  is  fixing 
an  impression  ;  and  the  term  was  figuratively 
adopted  by  Baha-ud-Deen.  Nizam-ul-Mulk 
was  the  Pugri  buddul  Bhae,  or  '  turban-ex- 
changed brother,'  of  the  Hara  prince.  When 
Asoph  Jah,  Nizam-ul-Mulk  died  in  A.  d.  1748, 
he  was  104  years  old.  He  leflt  five  sons ; 
Ghazi-ud-Deen,  Nazir  Jung,  Salabat-Jung, 
Nizam  Ali  and  Basalat  Jung,  of  whom,  the 
second  son  Nazir  Jung  succeeded.  For  cen- 
turies an  intermittent  war  had  raged  be- 
tween the  great  Moguls  at  Delhi,  and  the 
mussulman  princes  of  the  Dekhan.  Every 
disaffected  chieftain  in  the  court  of  the  Mogul, 
every  rebellious  prince  and  every  statesman 
under  a  cloud,  sought  to  make  his  way  to  the 
Dekhan,  where  he  might  at  least  find  a  refuge 
from  his  enemies  if  not  the  means  of  revenge. 
At  last  the  Moguls  established  a  grand  army  in 
the  Dekhan,  which  became  famous  in  the 
reigns  of  Shah  Jehan  and  Aurungzeb.  That 
army  became  the  school  of  all  the  great  Mogul 
warriors  of  the  time ;  of  men  who  not  only 
achieved  the  conquest  of  the  country  but  who 
were  subsequently  nominated  to  high  military 
command  as  subahdars  and  nabobs ;  and  who 
subsequently  established  their  real  independ- 
ence in  their  own  provinces,  and  left  the  Mogul 
power  at  Delhi  to  fall  in  pieces  before  the 
destroying  hands  of  Mahrattas  and  Affghans. 
Foremost  amongst  these  men  was  the  ancestor 
of  the  Nizam  of  the  Dekhan.  His  first  title  was 
Asoph  Jah,  but  he  is  better  known  by  his  second 
title  of  Nizam-ul-Mulk,  or  'Regulator  of  the 
State.'  The  life  of  this  man  extended  over  the 
extraordinary  period  of  an  hundred  and  four 
years,  and  the  events  with  which  it  was  crowded 
would  fill  volumes.  He  was  born  in  1645,  about 
the  time  when  Shah  Jehan  was  carrjang  on 
the  conquest  of  the  Dekhan,  and  when,  as  we 
may  say,  Charles  I.  was  stiU  waging  war 
against  his  Parliament.  He  was  a  youth  when 
the  sons  of  Shah  Jehan  were  waging  that  ter- 
rible war  against  each  other  wliich  ended  in 

N  121 


which  the  tents  of  the  wandering  tribes  of  Cen- 
tral Asia  haA'e  always  been  and  still  are  com- 
posed, have  supplied  the  root  to  the  word 
vofiahtKos,  The  nomad  tribes  of  Turkoman,  are 
the  representatives  of  a  family  which  has  existed 
from  times  anterior  to  history,  and  exist  at  the 
present  time  in  the  immense  steppes  of  Tar- 
tary.  The  Turkoman,  out  of  whom  the  Turks  of 
the  towns  and  cities  of  Southern  and  Western 
Asia  sprung,  were,  apparently,  those  of  the 
Persian  frontier,  the  ancestors  of  the  present 
Yamud,  Goklan,  Tekke,  and  Ersan  tribes,  who 
lie  along  the  frontier  of  Persia  from  the  Caspian 
to  the  south-western  feeders  of  the  Oxus. 
Except  on  the  valley  of  the  Attruk,  where 
they  have  developed  an  imperfect  agi-iculture, 
more  akin  to  gardening  than  to  farming,  th^y 
are  nomades,  with  no  towns,  with  more  tents 
than  houses,  and  with  pre-eminently  predatory 
liabits,  as  the  Persians  of  Elhorasan  and  Astera- 
bad  know  to  their  cost.  Unrivalled  riders,  with 
a  breed  of  horses  that  will  endure  any  hard- 
ship they  are  infamous  for  their  forays ;  and, 
as  they  have  a  great  robbing-ground  to  the 
south  where  the  occupants  are  other  than  Turk, 
they  are  more  incorrigible  plunderers  than  even 
the  central  Kirghiz  and  Usbek.  When  set- 
tled in  more  favourable  localities  they  are  slow 


were  fevers,  cutaneous  and  nervous  disorders, 
and  especially  blindness.  The  Dhangar  or 
shepherd  race  of  the  peninsula  of  India  are  its 
sole  nomade  people,  but  their  movemenis  are 
restricted  to  the  forest  and  open  tracts.  The 
nomades  of  S.  Asia,  on  the  contrary  move  for 
some  hundred  miles  to  the  garm  sair  and  sard 
sair  lands.  Residents  of  British  India  who 
have  witnessed  a  large  Banjara  camp  migrating, 
will  have  seen  a  true  picfure  of  the  nomade 
life  of  Central  Asia.  Turanian,  Nomadic  or 
AllophyUan  are  names  applied  by  Pritchard  to 
all  languages  not  belonging  to  the  Arian  or  Se- 
mitic, and  which  comprise  all  languages  spoken 
in  Asia  or  Europe  not  included  by  him  under 
the  Arian  and  Semitic  families,  with  the  ex- 
ception perhaps  of  the  Chinese  and  its  dialects : 
These  are, — 

Tungus,  I     Turki,  I      Finn. 

Mongol,  I     Samoiede,  | 

The  writers  on  this  class  of  tongues  are  Rask, 
Klaproth,  Schott,  Castren,  and  Muller.  But 
Muller  admits  that  the  characteristic  marks  of 
union,  ascertained  fur  this  great  variety  of  lan- 
guages are  as  yet  very  vague  and  general,  if  com- 
pared with  the  definite  ties  of  relationship  which 
severally  unite  the  Semitic  and  Arian.  llie 
Turanian  languages  occupy  by  far  the  largest 

to  lay  aside  their  original  habits.  So  far  as  they    portion   of   the    earth,   viz.,    all    but    India, 

are  mixed  in  blood,  it  is  the  Persian  element 
that  has  mixed.     Such   are   the  Turkomans. 
A  true  picture  of  Iliyat  nomade  life  is  express- 
ed in  Isaiah  xl,  11,  **  He  shall  feed  his  flock 
like  a  shepherd  :  he  shall  gather   the  lambs 
with  his  arm,  and  carry  them  in  his  bosom,  and 
shall  gently  lead  those  that  are  with  young."  As 
the  Iliyat  move  along,  the  women  are  seen  with 
their  spinning-wheels  on  their  shoulders,  some 
twisting  woollen  yara,  others  bent  foi*ward,  and 
advancing  slowly  with  tlieir  children  astride  on 
their  backs,  clasping  their  little  arms  around 
their   mother's  neck,  and  twisting  their  little 
legs   round .  her  waist :  the  smaller   ones  are 
usually   tied   up   in   a  bag   behind   the  back, 
while  infant  babies,  together  with  their  clumsy 
cradles,  are  hoisted   on  the   heads  or  shoulders 
of  their  fond  mothers,  sinking  under  the  weight. 
An  Iliyat    tribe   whom   Baron  de  Bode  met, 
belonged  to  a  Lur  stem,  which  was  transplant- 
ed into  Pars  by  Aga-Muhammed   Khan,   the 
uncle  of  the  late  FatTi-Ali-Shah,  from  Luristan 
Kuchuk.     Afler  his  death,  many  returned  to 
their    primitive   encampments   in   the   Zagros 
chain,  but  some  remained  behind.     The  word 
Iliat  or  Hat,  is  derived  from  Eel,  "  a  tribe." 
It  is  also  expressed   by  Zem  or   Zim,   which 
Ibn  Haukal  explains  by  the  equivalent  Arabic, 
Kabilah.    Many  of  the  nomades  met  with  by 
Vigne  were  of  a  sickly  complexion,  attributed 
to  the  pernicious  alkaline  quality  of  the  water. 
The  diseases  to  which  they  were  most  subject 

124f  N 

Arabia,  Asia  Minor  and  Europe,  but  except 
agglutination  there  is  not  a  single  positive 
principle,  which  can  be  proved  to  pervade  them 
all.  It  has  points  of  affinity  with  the  langua- 
ges of  Africa  and  America  and  even  with  the 
Chinese. — Essay  on  the  Origin  of  Languagtj  by 
F.W.Farrar,  A.M.,  London,  1860;  Latham^ 
Nationalities  of  Europe^  Vol,  ii,  p,  70-1 ;  Baron 
C,  A,  De  Bode's  Travels  in  Luristan  and  Arab^ 
trtan,2)p.  118-19-255  ;  Ouseleys  Travels,  VoL 
\,p,  307;  Vign^s  A  personal  Narrative,  p.  83. 

NOMORCHI,  Lepch.  Decaisnea. 

NOMRI,  IIiND.  A  fox,  see  Liunri,  Noomri. 

NOMURDI,  a  tribe  in  the  hill  tract  on  tlio 
western  side  of  the  Indus.  In  Rennell's  time  they 
were  very  troublesome  to  the  villagers  and  tra- 
vellers. The  Ayin  Acbaree  names  tliis  tribes' 
strength  about  the  year  1560,  as  7,000  infan- 
try, and  300  horsemen.  This  being  a  part 
of  the  tract  named  Indo-Sc3rthia  by  the  anci- 
ents, a  doubt  arises,  whether  they  may  not 
be  the  descendants  of  the  Scythian  Nomades* 
if  the  Scythians,  on  the  borders  of  mount 
Imaus,  did  really  call  themselves  by  that  name, 
and  that  it  was  not  a  term  applied  to  them  by 
the  Greeks  alone. — BenneWs  Memoir,  p.  185. 

NONA,  MxiAT.  Anona  reticulata,  Bullock's 

NONCHA,  HiKO.    Portulaca  oleracea. 

NONEA  ROSEA,  one  of  the  Boragineau,  a 
plant  of  no  great  beauty,  may  be  raised  in  com* 
mon  garden  soil. — BiddelU 




NOXGOUAIl,  Uria.  Conocarpua  latifolia, 
Jiai-b,,  /f .  4-  A.,  W.  Ic. 

NONGYA-CHOR,  Bbnq.  Felia  tigris,  Linn. 

NUNNUS,  see  Yavana. 

NONPAREIL,  see  Capers. 

NOOCHIE  OIL,  AweLo-TAM.  Oil  of  Vitex 

KOOLSHIMA,  Nepal.  Ehretia8errata,.B<w?6. 

N00GA-GASS,SiNOH.Ficualaccifera,  Hoa^. 

NOOLI-TUDD  A,  Tbl.  Helicteres  isora,  Linn, 

NOOMRI,  Dux.  Vulpes  bengalensis,  Shaw, 
the  fox. 

NOOMRI,  Loomri  or  Looka,  all  of  which 
mean  fox,  a  sub-division  of  the  Baluch  race. 
These  are  the  Komadiea  of  RenneU. — TocCs 
BajatthaHy  Vol.  i,  p.  62. 

NOONA  BARK,  of  Morinda  mnbellata,  yields 
the  Noona  dye  famous  in  Tanjore,  where  the 
plant  is  grown  in  large  quantities,  the  colour  is 
red  but  not  so  bright  as  that  extracted  from  the 
Imboora,  which  is  exported  to  Madura  and  with 
it  the  famous  Madura  turbanda  are  dyed. — 

NOONBORA,  Ben G.  lonidium  suffruticosum. 

NOON-DAB,  HiKD.  From  Noon  or  loon, 
salt,  aad  dabna,  to  dip,  bespatter,  or  sprinkle, 
a  custom  among  the  Rajput  races,  of  dipping 
the  hand  in  the  salt ;  the  Noon-dab,  is  the  most 
sacred  pledge  of  good  faith.  It  has  had  recourse 
to,  to  increaae  the  solemnity  of  an  occasion  and  to 
banish  all  suspicion  of  treachery,  as  well  as  to 
extinguish  ancient  feuds,  and  reconcile  chiefs 
who  had  never  met  but  in  hostility. — Tod^s 
Bn^asthan,  Vol.  ii,  p.  409.     See  Munwar-piala. 

NOONIARE£,  Looniaree  or  Noononea, 
Uru.  a  common  tree  of  Ganjam  and  Gum- 
sur,  of  extreme  height  36  feet,  circumlerence 
4  feet)  and  height  from  the  ground  to  the 
intersection  of  the  first  branch  7  feet.  Used 
for  firewood  and  ploughshares.  The  bark  is 
employed  medicinally. —  Captain  Maedonald, 

NOONYA,  Bexg.,  HiKn.  Portulaca  ole- 
raoea,  and  i^rana  scandens. 

NOORPOOR,  see  Kohistan. 

NOORZYE,  see  Afighan. 

NOOS,  see  Adam. 

NOOSHKY,  is  on  the  borders  of  the  Seistan 
desert.     See  Kelat,  Nushki. 

NOOTKANEE,  see  Khyber. 

NOPH£E»  HsB.  Emerald.  The  Nophek 
of  the  Old  Testament,  translated  emerald,  seems 
to  have  been  a  carbuncle  or  apOpax,  but  under 
ihk  term,  the  ancients  included  all  gems  of 
a  red  ooloury  such  as  hyacinths,  rubies,  garnets. 
At  present  the  carbunde  is  a  gem  manufactured 
fiom  the  garnet.  The  carbuncle,  in  Hebrew, 
Birakat,  signifying  flashing  stone,  or  lightning 
Mone,  was  supposed  to  &11  from  the  clouds 

aiaid  flashes  o[  lightning.     Carbuncles  of  supe- 

xior  brilliancy  are  called  '^  males,"  and  those 

of  aoperior  oolour,  females. 

125  N 

NORAY  COONGILLIUM,  see  Dammar. 

NOKD  CAPER  WHALE,  or  Nord  kapper 
whale,  variety  of  Baloena  mysticetus. 

NORFOLK  ISLAND  PINE,  Araucaria  ex-  • 
ceLsa,  grows  also  in  New  Caledonia,  Botany  Island, 
Isle  of  Pines ;  it  is  a  majestic  tree  growing  to  the 
height  of  from  60  to  228  feet,  with  a  circumfer- 
ence of  30  feet.  Its  wood  is  useiul  for  carpenters' 
in-door-work  but  is  too  heavy  for  naval  purposes 
as  spars. 

cinetia  baueriana,  belongs  to  the  Pandanese  or 
Screw  pines.  Its  stem  is  marked  by  rings, 
like  those  of  the  cabbage  where  the  old 
leaves  have  fallen  off,  and  it  lies  on  the  ground, 
or  climbs  like  ivy  round  the  trees.  The 
branches  are  crowned  with  crests  of  broad 
sedge-like  leaves,  from  the  centre  of  which  the 
flowers  arise,  the  petals  of  which  are  a  bright 
scarlet,  and  the  sepals  green,  and,  when  they 
fall  off,  clusters  of  three  or  four  oblong  pulpy 
fruit,  four  inches  in  length,  and  as  much  in  cir- 
cumference, appear. — KeppeVs  Ind.  Arch,,  Vol. 
ii,  p.  284. 

NORIMON,  an  oblong  box,  used  in  Japan 
as  the  palanquins  in  India,  carried  by  means 
of  poles  passed  through  iron  loops  on  either 
side.  There  are  many  kinds  of  norimon. 
The  Governor  has  one  kind,  the  priests  another, 
the  doctors  a  third,  and,  with  decisive  marks 
which  distinguish  the  "  norimon"  of  the  great 
from  the  "  kako"  of  the  humble.  The  norimon 
in  Japan,  is  what  the  palkee  is  in  India  and 
chairs  in  China.  They  always  look  as  if  one 
side  of  a  pair  of  flat  square  scales  (such  as  are 
seen  near  stone  quarries,  or  on  whar&)  had  been 
run  on  a  pole,  and  if  for  a  big  man,  are  covered 
with  curtains,  if  a  common  hack  norimon,  it  is 
left  in  its  original  naked  ugliness  and  discomfort* 
The  occupant  must  sit  cross-legged,  and  even 
then,  can  hardly  raise  hia  head. — Hodgson's 
Nagamki,  p.  202 ;  Frere'a  Antipodes,  p,  431. 

NORMAN,  Chables,  General,  c.  b.,  was 
Acting  Adjutant-General  of  the  Bengal  army: 
when  serving  before  Delhi,  both  pen  and  sword 
were  ever  in  his  hand,  aild  to  those  who  knew 
him  then  and  fought  beside  him,  his  name  will 
be  inseparably  connected  with  Metcalfe's  mined 
home,  and  that  intrenched  position  on  the 
heights  commanding  Delhi  where  Hindu  Rao 
once  lived.  In  the  amalgamation  it  was  his  plan 
of  establishing  a  Staff  Corps  that  was  followed, 
and  the  immediate  pressure  waa  removed,  but 
the  real  difficulties  of  the  situation  were  in- 
creased ten-fold,  and  after  six  years  of,  for  an 
army,  demoralization  and  anxiety,  only  in 
1867  was  some  conclusion  come  to,  but  even 
then  leaving  the  whole  of  the  officers  utterly 
disassociated.  In  practically  endeavouring  to 
obliterate  all  former  service,  claims  and  regi- 
mental pride,  the  government  pursued  an  un« 




wise  policy,  calculated  to  estrange  the  army. 
—Thurlow,  pjy,  26,  27-28. 

NORMAN  FRENCH,  see  Hindoo. 

NORNE  of  Tavoy,  Castanea  martabanica. 

NOSHADAR,     Hikd.      Hydrochlorate     of 
Ammonia,  Sal-ammoniac. 

NORTH  ARGOT,  a  revenue  district  of  the 
Madras  presidency,  embracing  a  portion  of  the 
country  with  peoples  speaking  tlie  Telugu 
and  Tamil.  It  is  rich  in  iron  ore  and  mine- 
rals. Kurse  Mungalum  near  Vellore  has  a  stone 
called  Muddy  Sagapcx)  CuUoo,  a  brown  steati- 
tic  sandstone.  Baulapilly  near  Arcot  has 
grey  Chert  for  paving  porcelain  mills.  Chum- 
baukum-droog,  has  a  quartzose  rock  suited  for 
paving  porcelain  mills.  Ennore  gi'it,  is  a  nodu- 
lar, bluish  gritty  limestone  irom  the  bed  of  the 
Ptdicat  Marine  Lagoon.  TriAoor  has  a  brownish 
sandstone.  Muddoor,  Arnee,  bluish  grey  sand- 
stone suited  for  grindstones.  Triputty  and  Kur- 
kumbady,  yellow  red  and  purplish  sandstones. 

NORTilCOTE,  Sir  Sta^ffokd  H.,  an  enlight- 
ened statesman,  for  many  years  Secretary  of 
State  for  India.  He  gave  every  support  to  the 
progress  of  railways,  canals,  channels  of  irriga- 
tion and  sanitation. 

NORTH  CAN ARA,a  Bombay  revenue  district 
in  the  country  on  the  sea  coast  of  the  western 
side  of  the  peninsula  of  India.  With  the  ex- 
ception of  tlie  transfer  of  North  Canara  from 
Madras  to  Bombay  and  the  addition  of  Sindh 
to  Bombay  on  the  conquest  of  that  province, 
these  presidencies  have  retained  very  nearly 
their  original  limits,  including  the  provinces 
conquered  from  the  Peshwa  and  Guikwar 
between  1800  and  1818. 

NORTHERN  CIRCARS.  This  Madras  district 
comprises  a  narrow  tract  of  land  extending 
(between  16°  and  20°  N.  latitude)  from  the 
sea  coast  on  the  eastern  side  of  the  peninsula 
to  the  eastern  ghauts  by  which  it  is  separated 
from  the  great  table-land.  It  is  a  tolerably 
level  district,  with  occasional  spurs  from  the 
ghauts  approaching  the  sea  coast ;  has  little  or 
no  natural  wood,  except  towards  the  ghauts, 
the  sides  of  which  are  in  some  places  clad  with 
thick  jungle  of  bamboos  and  forest  trees,  and, 
with  the  exception  of  large  groves  of  palm 
trees,  has  but  litde  wood  throughout  it.  This 
district  is  perhaps  hardly  separable  from  the 
Carnatic  by  its  physical  features  alone,  but  the 
di£ference  of  latitude,  causing  a  change  in 
climate  and  a  greater  variation  of  temperature, 
perhaps  authorise  its  separation.  It  has  a 
small  body  of  native  6ol(^ers  in  the  towns  of 
Waltair,  Berhampore,  Sumbulpore,  Vizagapa- 
tam,  Vizianagram,  Cuttack  and  Samulcottah. 

NORTHERN  INDIA,  a  term  by  which,  in 
British  India,  the  provinces  about  Oudh  and 
Delhi  are  designated. 


•     126 

NORTHERN  Ml!;DIA,  Northern  parthia, 
see  Arians. 


NORTH  MALABAR,  see  Kummaler. 

NORTH  SEA,  see  India. 

NOR-WESTERS,  occur  in  lower  Bengal  in 
March  and  April,  accompanying  most  refreshing 
falls  of  rain.  The  season  of  the  north-w&st*rs, 
is,  above  all  others,  that  which  requires  the 
most  attention  and  care  by  voyagers  on  the 
Ganges.  Should  one  of  those  squalls  approach, 
and  no  creek  or  inlet  offer  for  shelter,  when 
in  the  wide  rivers,  there  is  much  danger.— 
RennelVs  Memoir,  p,  361. 

provincial  subordinate  government  of  British 
India,  including  the  Doab  or  Mesapotamia  of 
the  Granges  and  the  Jumna.  The  provinces  lie 
along  the  middle  and  upper  course  of  the  Ganges, 
and  extend  to  the  skii-ts.  of  the  Himalaya.  These 
provinces  are  between  L.  30°  7'  and  23°  51'  N., 
and  L.  77°  4'  and  84°  40'  E.  They  are  bounded 
on  the  north  by  the  snowy  range,  the  Himalaya, 
Kumaon,  Oudh  and  the  Nepalese  Terai ;  on 
the-  south  by  the  Saugor  district  of  the  Central 
Provinces,  and  the  Native  States  of  Bundle- 
kund  and  Rewah ;  on  the  west  by  the  river 
Tonse,  until  its  junction  with  the  Jumna,  thence 
by  the  Jumna  till  the  28th  degree  of  latitude ;  on 
the  south-west  by  the  Native  States  of  Gwalior, 
Dholpore  and  Bhurtpore ;  and  on  the  east  and 
south-east  by  the  Sarun,  Shahabad,  Behar  and 
Palamow  districts  of  Ix)wer  Bengal.  The  North- 
western Provinces  contain  36  distiicts,  of  which 
35  are  grouped  into  7  commissionerships.  The 
"  non-regulation"  jwrtions  are  Kumaon  and 
Gurhwal  to  the  extreme  north,  Jhansie  to  the 
south-west,  and  Ajmere,  which  is  separated 
from  the  western  boundary  by  several  interven- 
ing Native  States.  This  last  division  from  its 
isolated  position,  requires  distinct  demarcation. 
It  lies  to  the  west,  extending  between  L.  22® 
16',  and  27^  45'  N.,  L.  7P  45'  and  77°  22'  E. 
It  is  bounded  on  the  east  by  the  Rajpoot  States 
of  Kishengurh  and  Jeypoor,  on  the  north  and 
west  by  Jodhpore,  and  on  the  south  by  the 
territory  of  Odeypoor.  The  Ajmere  division 
comprises  Ajmere  proper  and  Mairwarra.  The 
Mairwarra  tract  belongs  in  unequal  portions  to 
the  British  Government,  to  Mewar  or  Odey- 
poor, and  to  Marwar  or  Jodhpore.  The  Me- 
war possessions  consisting  of  three  Pergonnahs, 
and  the  Marwar  of  two,  were  made  over  to  the 
direct  management  of  the  British  in  1822-23. 
Benares  is  the  most  thickly  peopled  district. 
The  density  stands  at  797,  or,  including  the 
military  and  railway,  803,  per  square  mile. 
Looking  at  its  80  millions  of  people  accord* 
ing  to  creed,  nearly  26  millions  are  lundoos 
and  4|  mahomedans.    Mahomedans  form  about 

N  126 


a  sixth  of  the  whole  population,  there  being 
onlj  100  to  every  609  hindoos.  They  are 
iiu»t  numerous  in  Meerut  and  Rohilkund, 
where  they  comprise  nearly  a  fifth  of  tlie  popu- 
btion :  more  than  half  of  the  entire  number  of 
the  mahomedans  in  the  North-west  Provinces, 
vi2.,  2,197,202  out  of  4,243,207,  reside  in 
ihose  northern  districts.  The  numbers  of  the 
different  creeds  are : 




...  21,831 
...     3,9o8 
...    4,702 

Buddhist  &  Jain  . 


Other     religious 






Mdhomedan — 4,105,206. 
Notclaaaified  ...  2,207,576 
Sheikhs  ...  1,140,208 

Pathans  ...     515,420 

Svuds  ...     170,248 

Moguls  ...       41,748 

/ftWoo— 25,671,819. 
Brahmins         ...  3,451,692 
Kshatryaa        ...  2,827,788 
Vaisjras  ...  1,091,250 

Soodras  ...18,304,309 

The  aborigines  are  returned  as  313,215,  and 
seem  to  be  mixed  up  with  the  other  sects.  The 
numbers  of  men  and  boys  exceed  those  of  the 
women  and  girls. 

The  intense  desire  of  all  the  hindoos  of  India, 
on  religious  grounds,  is  for  a  son.  The  boy  is 
reared  with  care  not  shown  to  the  girl.  The 
girl  is  exposed  to  chances  productive  of  greater 
female  mortality,  being  married  the  moment 
she  attains  the  age  of  puberty,  bearing  children 
at  12  and  1,3,  subject  to  a  sedentary  and  list- 
less life  in  the  zenana,  or  one  of  hardship  in  the 
fields,  and  treated  oppressively  as  a  widow. 
Two-thirds  of  the  population  are  engaged  in 
agricultural  pursuits.     The  avocations  are : 



Bards   and   acro- 




...      3,733 








...  154,622 

School-masters  ... 



...  343,893 




...  207,668 




...  206,413 




...     16,405 



Buyers  &  sellen 

J...  954,732 

Picture-painters. . . 



...  437,333 



Land  proprietors. 

Dancing  ^irls 
Do.        DOJB      ... 

.   8,065 








WeaTerss  chiefly  of  fabrics  and  drpss 


Food  and  dri  nk-producers. 


Arts  and  Mechanics 

■  •«                •••                 •■•                 •«• 


beaiecs  in  metals 

••*                ■•■                 «■■                 ••• 


Da     in  V^etable  substajices     


Do.     in  Animal 

y^                           • « •               ■■• 


''■    Book-sellers. 

•  *•                ••«               •*•                ■•• 


Uold  and  Silversmiths.          


Non-prodvcHw  and  Indefinite, 



Makers  of  Caste- 















Sturdy  begxnkrs    ...         35 
Professional  thieves        23 

Pedigree  makers  ... 




,  FUttcfrers  for  gain.. 



...       133 








...       851 

Diraderly  (b^- 


...     1,123 




...       259 

GaTe-diggers      ... 



...       143 



...  22,534 


In  1865,  the  North-west  Provinces  had  361 
to  the  square  mile,  excluding  Kumaon :  the 
mass  of  the  population  are  cultivators  of  the 
soil.  By  the  revenue  settlement  of  1833,  the 
Government  rent  was  fixed  for  30  years.  Its 
chief  towns  are  Agra,  Cawnpore,  Allahabad, 
Benares  and  Delhi. 

The  non-regulation  portions  are  Kumaon  and 
Garhwal  to  the  extreme  north,  Jhansie  to  the 
south-west,  and  Ajmere,  which  is  separated 
from  the  western  boundary  to  several  inter- 
vening native  states.  This  last  division  from 
its  isolated  position  requires  distinct  demarca- 
tion. It  lies  to  the  west,  extending  between 
lat.  22°  15'  and  27°  45'  N. ;  long.  71°  45'  and 
77°  22'  E.  It  is  bounded  on  the  east  by  the 
Rajpoot  States  of  Kishenghur  and  Jeypoor ;  on 
tlie  north  by  Jodhpur  and  on  the  south  by  the 
territory  of  Oudeypur.  The  Ajmir  division 
comprises  Ajmir  proper  and  Mairwarra.  The 
Mairwar  tract  belongs  in  equal  portions  to  the 
British  Government,  to  Mewar  or  Oudeypur 
and  to  Marwar  or  Jodhpur.  The  first  attempt 
to  take  a  census  of  the  N.  W.  Provinces  wiis 
made  on  the  night  of  the  3l8t  December  1852, 
and  the  next  attempt  was  made  on  the  10th 
January  1865.  Benarese  is  the  most  thickly- 
peopled  district,  its  density  being  797  to  the 
square  mile,  or,  including  the  military  and  the 
railway  bodies,  803.  The  most  thinly-popu- 
lated districts  are  in  the  Kumaon  division, 
where  the  density  averages  58  to  the  mile. 
Ijarge  tracts  of  Gurhwal  are  thickly  populated 
where  the  situation  is  favourable,  the  cultiva- 
tion may  often  be  seen  stretching  high  up  the 
hills,  terrace  after  terrace.  Of  the  districts  in 
the  plains,  excluding  the  Terai,  LuUutpur  in 
the  Jhansi  division  is  the  most  sparsely  popu- 
lated, the  average  to  the  square  mile  being 
only  127  persons.  Ajmere  with  its  population 
of  160  to  the  mile  comes  next,  and  in  density 
approaches  very  near  to  Switzerland,  which  it 
slightly  exceeds.  Of  jthe  remaining  districts, 
twenty-nine  in  number,  ^yg  an  average  density 
of  between  200  and  300  persons  to  the  mile ; 
three  between  300  and  400  ;  eleven  between 
400  and  600 ;  fieven  between  600  and  600 ; 
two  between  600  and  700,  and  one  about  800. 
The  extremes  of  density  in  the  sub-divisions 
into  which  the  districts  of  the  N.  W.  Provinces 
are  divided,  vary  from  6,773  to  the  square 
mile  in  the  Dehat  Amanat  of  Benares,  which 
comprise  the  city  of  that  name,  to  37  to  the 
square  mile  in  Agoree,  Roberts-gunj,  in  the 
Mirzapur  district.  The  population  of  the  N.  W. 
provinces  is  equal  to  that  of  Great  Britain  and 
Ireland  and  equal  to  that  of  the  Madras  presi- 
dency. Its  mahomedan  population  is  a  sixth 
part  of  the  hindoo.  Christians  are  in  1,000  of 
the  population  : 




Statemaat  of  arak  population  uid  Rarenue  of  tha  Kortb-lTeltMli  PrOVilKU. 


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SSS»SS*  t£S  — SS3S  — S^BSS  — 3  — ■-    t-olS^    ^s 


s    3    s  S3;:s 


■i=S''i"S3rfSS'S'SSK'«'S£"Si5SS'    cS^SSSS 

■'^i'^-'2sil="K'2's"ia>'ii=;S5i£i  \iiiiii_ 

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5    a    J  JlSE.jjl  I 
5    5    V  555"rf3S  S 

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pi  lin HI  IP  "HI  Illll 





the  British  conquered  the  Panjab,  or.  valley  of 
the  &ve  riyers,  thej   found  a  traffic  already  in 
existence  between  Central  Asia  and  the  Punjab. 
For  ages  past,  the  hardy  Toorki    trader  had 
brought  his  churrus,  pushum  and  turquoises  from 
beyond  the  Karakorum  passes  and  had  taken 
back  opium,  dyed  cloths  and  trinkets.  Yarkand 
was  under  its  native  sovereigns,  and  Cashmere 
and  India   were  ruled  by  mahomedan  poten- 
tates.   The  intervening  territory  of  Ladak  was 
mijlly  governed  by  a  Thibetan  chief  owing  a 
nominal  fealty  to  LTiassa.   All  was  well.    Sub- 
geqnently  Cabul  took  Cashmere,  a  revolution 
pasKd  over  East  Toorkistan  and  the  Chinese  be- 
came its  rulers.     After  that  Cashmere,  and  sub- 
sequently Ladak  itself,  came,  under  the  Sikh 
sway ;   but  the  trade  of  centuries  could  not  die 
oat  in  a  day.     The  heaviest  imposts  were  laid 
on  the  traffic.     Tlie  trade  with  China  was  fos- 
tered and  had  displaced  to  a  great  extent  the 
traffic  with  India.     The  Russian  fairs  began  to 
attract  traders.     The  trade  with  India  would 
have  been  entirely  ruined,  but  that  the  British 
had  approached  the  furthest  confines  of  North 
India,  British  officers  appeared  at  distant  places 
like  Ladak,  and  the   trade  began   to  revive. 
Gradually  tlie  line  of  traffic  began  to  turn  east 
and  to  pass  into  the  Punjab  by  Kooloo.     The 
difficulties  in  the  old  routes  are  very  great. 
On  every  high  pass  in  the  interior  of  the  gi*eat 
Himalaya  there  are  spots  marked  by  bleach- 
ing bones,  where  hundreds,  attempting  to  cf oss 
late  in  the  season,  have  been  overtaken  by  a 
storm  and  buried  beneath  the  snows.    Beyond 
Khoksur  there  is  the  old  road,  not  one  mile  of 
which  is  free  from  the  most  serious  obstructions 
and  dMigers.     From  KooUoo  to  Bajoura,  south, 
the  road  is  excellent.     The  Bajoura  pass  rivals 
the  Sotang  pass  in  its  difficulties.     The   ascent 
fifom  the  north,  especially,  is  dangerously  steep 
and  abrupt,  and  in  some  parts  nearly  impassable. 
The  dak  route  from  Simla  to  Kangra,  Dhurm- 
salla,  Dalhousie,  Jummu  and  Cashmere,  which 
passes  through    Mandi,  is  the  very   worst  of 
all  made  or  unmade  hill  roads.     After  passing 
along  the  beautiful  roads  in  the  valley  of  the 
Satiej,  by  Belaspoor  and  Suket,  the  road  beyond 
Mandi  becomes  impassable.     The  continuation 
pierces  the  Kangra  valley ,  runs  through  the  tea 
gardens  at  Holta.    From  Kangra  the  road  passes 
on  either  to  Noorpoor,  Puthankote,  and  thence 
to  Umritsur  on  the  west,  or  on  the  south  through 
Hoahiarpoor  to  Jullunder  and  Loodiana.     An- 
other road  south-east  from  Koolloo  (at  Bajoura) 
miites  it  to  Simla :  afler  Ladak  and  Srinugger, 
Koolloo  is  the  place  of  largest  traffic  for  the 
trade  of  Central  Asia. 

The  other  main  course  of  traffic  that  the 
British  Government  has  been  opening  up,  is  the 
great  Thibet  road.  Proceeding  north  and  north- 


east  from  Simla  up  the  Sutlej  valley,  32  out  of 
52  miles  had  been  opened  out  in  1865,  and  two 
bridges,  140  and  120  feet  span  respectively, 
completed.  The  desert  country  in  which  the 
work  has  been  carried  on,  may  be  conceived 
from  the  &ict  that  a  thousand  mules  were 
constantly  coming  up  from  and  going  down 
into  the  plains  for  the  food  of  the  working 
parties.  The  gradient  is  a  very  easy  one,  and 
the  road,  so  far  completed,  is  hailed  with  satis- 
faction by  the  natives.  The  annual  snows, 
however,  have  broken  up  some  portions,  and 
indeed  all  hill  roads  must  be  constantly  super- 
vised and  annually  repaired.  But  it  is  stated 
that  this  road  is  to  terminate  at  Chine,  near 
which  British  territory  ends.  The  great  road 
from  Lliassa  via  Gartok  to  Ladak  passes  not  far 
off,  when  the  Koolloo  and  Chine  routes  are  all 
opened  out ;  we  may  expect  a  great  annual 
Simla  Fair  to  rival  the  vast  gatherings  of  Russia. 
— Frleml  of  India,  April  20,  1865. 

NORTON,  John  Bruce,  Barrister  at  Law, 
for  nearly  thirty  years  practising  at  the  Madras 
Bar,  held  successively  the  offices  of  Counsel 
for  Paupers,  Clerk  of  the  Crown,  Government 
Pleader,  Law  Professor  in  the  University  of 
Madras  in  Equity,  Public  Prosecutor  and  Ad- 
vocate General.  He  was  a  Senator  of  the 
Madras  University  and  Member  of  the  Legis- 
lative Council  for  Madras.  He  devoted  much 
of  his  time  to  promote  education,  and  was  long 
the  President  of  Patcheappah's  Institution,  was 
a  Member  of  the  Torture  Commission,  and  of 
the  Commission  on  the  Administration  of  Jus- 
tice and  the  author  of 

Norton's  Law  of  Evidence,  which  attained  a 
7th  Edition. 

Norton's  Topics  of  Jurisprudence. 

Norton's  Educational  Speeches. 

Norton's  Inaugural  Lecture  on  the  Study  of 
the  Law. 

Norton's  Madras  and  its  requirements. 

Norton's  Administration  of  Justice  in  India. 

Norton's  Leading  Cases  on  Hindoo  Law. 

Norton's  *  Nemisis,'  and  *  Memories  of  New- 

Norton's  Rebellion  in  India,  and  how  to  avoid 
another.     He  was  appointed 
Clerk  of  the  Crown  on  the  16th  June  1845. 
Counsel  for  Paupers  in  1847. 
Government  Pleader  on  the  Ist  February  1853. 
Professor  of  Law  on  the  29th  May  1855. 
Clerk  of  the  Crown  and  Crown  Prosecutor  on 

the  15th  August  1862. 
Advocate  General  on  the  2nd  June  1863. 

NOSCHATUR,  Rus.     Sal  ammoniac. 

NOSE-RUBBING,  as  a  salutation,  exists  in 
China,  New  Zealand  and  amongst  the  Lapland 
alps. — Mcuc,  Midler,  Chips, 

NOSHERA,  a  town  on  tlie  left  bank  of  the 
Cabul  river,  the  scene  of  a  great  battle  between 

N  129 


the  Sikhs  under  Ranjit  Singh  and  the  Affghans 
under  Azim  Khan,  who  however,  himself,  held 
hack  from  the  battle  and  ultimately  fled,  and 
the  Affghans  were  defeated  with  great  slaughter. 

NOSHI,  Rus.    Knives. 

NOSH-I-JAN,  Pebs.  A  Persian  congratu- 
latory salutation,  meaning,  may  it  be  a  drink 
of  life  to  you. 

NOSHIZAD,  see  Saurashtra. 

NOSOWOI  TABAK,  Rus.    Snuff. 

NOSTOE  EDULE  is  used'in  China  aa  food ; 
Grelidium  corneum  enters,  it  is  said  by  some, 
into  the  formation  of  the  edible  swallows*  nests 
of  the  Japanese  islands.  Agar-agar  moss  is 
shipped  from  Singapore  to  the  extent  of  13,000 
tons  ar-year.  Irish  moss,  Iceland  moss,  Ceylon 
moss,  and  some  others,  are  also  of  some  import- 
ance. Iodine  and  kelp  are  prepared  to  a 
considerable  extent  from  sea  weeds ;  one  species, 
'  the  Fucus  tenax,  furnishes  large  supplies  of  glue 
to  the  Canton  market,  and  the  orchilla  weed  is 
of  great  importance  to  the  dyer.  In  Siberia, 
Nostoe  pruniforme  is  used. 

NOSTRADAMUS  gives  the  following  ex- 
tract  from  a  MS.  poem  on  the  virtues  of  gems, 
written  by  Pierre  de  Boniface  in  the  fourteenth 
century :  "  The  diamond  renders  a  man  in- 
vincible ;  the  agate  of  India  or  Crete,  eloquent 
and  prudent;  the  amethyst  resists  intoxica^ 
tion  ;  the  cornelian  appeases  anger  ;  the  hjra- 
cinth  provokes  sleep." — Milnet^s  Seven  Churches 
of  Asia,  p,  127 ;  Simmonds. 

NOTACANTHI,  a  family  of  fishes,  the  genus 
Notacanthus  has  five  species. 

wood"  of  Norfolk  Island,  is  used  in  all  wheel- 
wright's work,  and  is  very  hard  and  durable. 
It  is  also  used  for  cabinet  work,  and,  when 
French-polished,  it  is  not  excelled  by  any  of  the 
fancy  woods — KeppeVs  Ind.  Ardi.y  Vol.  ii, 
2>.  283. 

NOTOPTERIDiE,  a  family  of  fishes,  com- 
prising  five  species  of  the  genus  Notopterus. 

NOTATION.  The  decimal  system  of  nota- 
tion has  been  shown  by  Woepcke  to  have  en- 
tered Europe  from  India,  through  the  Arabs. 
Mr.  Bumell  supposes  the  cypher  represents  the 
large  coury  used  by  Indian  astronomers,  in  the 
decimal  places  in  the  very  ancient  method  of 
calculation  by  couries. 

NOU,  or  Nagoo  marum,  Tam.  Pterocarpus 


NOUKA,  Bbng.    Pontedra  vaginalis,  lAnn, 
NOUKA-KHANDA,  Sans.,  from  nouka,  a 
boat,  and  khanda,  a  part. 

NOURATRI.  Amongst  the  Rajputs,  on  the 
Nouratri  festival,  the  sword  is  worshipped,  and 
with  them,  this  imposing  rite  is  sacred  to  the 
god  of  war.  The  festival  commences  on  the 
first  of  the  month  Asoj.  It  is  essentially  a 
martial  rite  and,  confined  to  the  Rajput,  who. 


on  the  departure  of  the  monsoon  found  himself 
at  liberty  to  indulge  his  passion  whether  ibr 
rapine  or  revenge,  both  which  were  necessarily 
suspended  during  the  rains.  Argtiing  from  the 
order  of  the  passions,  we  may  presume  that  the 
first  objects  of  emblematic  worship  were  connect- 
ed with  war,  and  we  accordingly  find  the  highest 
reverence  paid  to  arms  by  every  nation  of 
antiquity.  The  Scythic  warrior  of  Central 
Asia,  the  intrepid  Gete,  admitted  no  meaner 
representative  of  the  god  of  battle  than  his  own 
scimitar.  He  worshipped  it,  he  swore  by  it ; 
it  was  buried  with  him,  in  order  that  he  mi^ht 
appear  before  the  martial  divinity  in  the  other 
world  as  became  his  worshipper  on  earth,  for 
the  Crete  of  Transoxiana,  from  the  earliest 
age^,  not  only  believed  in  the  soul's  immor- 
tality, and  in  the  doctrine  of  rewards  and 
punishments  hereafter,  but,  according  to  the 
father  of  history,  he  was  a  monotheist ;  of 
which  fact  he  has  left  a  memorable  proof,  the 
punishment  of  the  celebratedAnacharsis,  who,  on 
his  return  from  a  visit  tP  Thales  and  his  brotlier 
philosophers  of  Greece,  attempted  to  introduce 
into  the  land  of  the  Sacse  (Sakatai)  the  oor- 
rupted  polytheism  of  Athens. 

The  Nouratri  or  festival  of  nine  nights^  oc- 
cupying the  period  from  the  first  to  the  ninth 
of  the  moonlight  half  of  Asoj,  is  consecrated  to 
the  &mily-^odde8s,  or  to  Doorga,  the  consort 
of  Siva.  On  the  1st  of  Asoj  amongst  the  Raj- 
put chiefs,  the  rana  of  Mewar  after  fasting,  ab- 
lution, and  prayer,  on  the  part  of  the  prince  and 
his  household,  the  double-edged  khanda  is  re- 
moved from  the  hall  of  arms  (awad-sala),  and 
having  received  the  homage  (pooja)  of  the 
court,  it  is  carried  in  procession  to  the  Elishen- 
pol  (gate  of  Kishen),  where  it  is  delivered  to 
the  Raj-Jogi,  the  Mahants,  and  band  of  Jogis 
assembled  in  front  of  the  temple  of  Devi  *  the 
goddess,'  adjoining  the  portal  of  Kishen.  By 
these,  the  monastic  mihtant  adorers  d[  Heri, 
the  god  of  battle,  the  brand  emblematic  of  the 
divinity  is  placed  on  the  altar  before  the  image 
of  his  divine  consort.  At  three  in  the  afternoon 
the  nakarra,  or  grand  kettle-drums,  proclaim 
from  the  tripolia  the  signal  for  the  assemblage 
of  the  chie&  with  their  retainers;  and  the  rana 
and  his  cavalcade  proceed  direct  to  the  stables, 
when  a  buffalo  is  sacrificed  in  honour  <^  the 
war-horse.  Thence  the  procession  moves  to 
the  temple  of  Devi,  where  the  Raja  krishen 
(Grodi),  has  preceded.  Upon  this,  the  rana 
seats  himself  close  to  the  Raj-Jogi,  presents 
two  pieces  of  silver  and  a  coooar-nut,  performs 
homage  to  the  sword  (karga),  and  returns.  On 
the  2nd  of  Asoj,  in  similar  state  he  proceeds  to 
the  Chougan,  their  Champ  de  Mars,  where  a 
buffalo  is  sacrificed ;  and  on  the  same  day 
another  buffalo  victim  is  felled  by  the  nervous 
arm  of  a  Rajput,  near  the  Torun-^1,  w  triiua* 





pbl^te.  In  the  eTening  the  rana  goes  to  the 
temple  of  Amba  Mata,  tJ^e  universal  mother, 
viien  Several  goats  and  buffaloes  bleed  to  the 

On  the  3rd,  thej  repeat  the  procession  to  the 
Cfaougan,  when  another  bu&lo  is  offered,  and 
in  the  afUmoon  five  buffaloes  and  two  rams 
are  ocrificed  to  Harsid  Mata. 

On  the  4th,  as  on  every  one  of  the  nine  days, 
the  fiist  visit  is  to  the  Champ  de  Mars :  the 
daj  opens  with  the  slaughter  of  a  buffalo.  The 
rus  proceeds  to  the  temple  of  Devi,  when  he 
vonhips  the  sword  and  die  standard  of  the  Raj 
Jog],  to  whom,  as  the  high-priest  of  Siva,  the 
god  of  war,  he  pays  homage  and  makes  offering 
of  iqgar,  and  a  garland  of  roses.  A  buffalo  hav- 
ing been  previously  fixed  to  a  stake  near  the 
temple,  the  rana  sacnfices  him  with  his  own 
hind,  by  piercing  him  from  his  travelling  throne 
(nised  on  men's  shoulders  and  surroimded  by 
hii  nMals)  with  an  arrow.  Colonel  Tod  writ- 
ing in  the  early  part  of  the  19th  century 
of  the  reigning  rana  of  his  day,  says  that  in  the 
dajs  of  his  strength,  he  seldom  failed  almost 
to  bmy  the  feather  in  the  flank  of  the  victim ; 
bat  on  the  last  occasion,  his  enfeebled  arm 
made  him  exclaim  with  Pirthi-Raj,  when, 
captive  and  blind,  he  was  brought  forth  to 
amine  the  Tatar  despot,  ''I  draw  not  the 
bow  as  in  the  days  of  yore."  On  the  5th, 
after  the  nsual  sacnfice  at  the  Chougan,  and  an 
elephant-fight,  the  procession  mai^ches  to  the 
temple  of  Aaapuma  (Hope) ;  a  buffedo  and  a 
lam  are  offered  to  the  goddess  adored  by  all 
the  Rajputs,  and  the  tutelary  divinity  of  the 
Chohan  tribe.  On  this  day,  the  lives  of  some 
victuns  are  spared  at  the  intercession  of  the 
Nnggur-Setli,  or  chief-magistrate,  and  those  of 
hk  faith,  the  Jains.  On  the  6th,  the  rana 
TiflitB  the  Chougan,  but  makes  no  sacrifice.  In 
the  afWmoon,  prayers  and  victims  to  Devi,  and 
in  the  evening  the  rana  visits  Bikhiari  Natli, 
the  chief  of  the  Kanfara  Jogi,  or  split-ear 
iKetics.  The  7th— After  the  daily  routine  at 
the  Chougan,  and  sacrifices  to  Devi  (the  god- 
demofdestniction),  the  chief  equerry  is  com- 
nanded  to  adorn  the  steeds  with  their  new 
cafMoisons,  and  lead  them  to  be  bathed  in  the 
lake.  At  night,  the  sacred  fire  (hom)  is 
kindled,  and  a  buffiJo  and  a  ram  are  sacrificed 
to  Devi ;  the  Jogis  are  called  up  and  feasted 
on  boiled  rice  and  sweetmeats.  On  the  con- 
chnion  of  this  day,  the  rana  and  his  chieftains 
▼iated  the  hermitage  of  Sukria  Baba,  an  ancho- 
lite  of  the  Jogi  sect.  8th>— There  is  the  homa,  or 
fire^acrifioe  in  the  palace.  In  the  aflemocm, 
the  prince,  with  a  select  cavalcade,  proceeds  to 
4e  Tillage  of  Sameena,  beyond  the  city-walls, 
ad  viaita  a  celebrated  Gosaen.  9th— There 
isno  morning  procession.  The  horses  from  the 
^^  stables,  as  w eU  em  those  of  the  chiefbains, 



are  taken  to  the  lake  and  bathed  by  their 
grooms,  and  on  return  from  purification  they  are 
caparisoned  in  their  new  housings,  led  forth, 
and  receive  the  homage  of  their  riders,  and 
the  rana  bestows  a  largess  on  the  master 
of  the  horse,  the  equerries  and  grooms.  At 
three  in  the  aflemoon,  the  naks^as  having 
thrice  sounded,  the  whole  state  insignia,  under 
a  select  band,  proceed  to  Mount  Matachil,  and 
bring  home  the  sword.  When  its  arrival  in 
the  court  of  the  palace  is  announced,  the  rana 
advances  and  receives  it  with  due  homage  from 
the  hands  of  the  Raj-jogi,  who  is  presented 
with  a  kelat ;  while  the  mahant,  who  has  per- 
formed all  the  austerities  during  the  nine  days, 
has  his  patera  filled  with  gold  and  silver  coin. 
The  whole  of  the  Jogis  are  regaled,  and  pre- 
sents are  made  to  their  chiefs.  The  elephants 
and  horses  again  receive  homage,  and  the  sword, 
the  shield,  and  spear,  are  worshipped  within 
the  palace.  At  three  in  the  morning  the 
prince  takes  repose.  The  10th,  or  Dussera,  is 
a  festival  universally  known  in  India  and  res- 
pected by  all  classes,  although  entirely  mifitary, 
being  commemorative  of  the  day  on  which  the 
deified  Rama  commenced  his  expedition  to 
Lanka  for  the  redemption  of  Seeta ;  the  '*  tenth 
of  Asoj"  is  consequently  deemed  by  the  Raj- 
put a  fortunate  day  for  warlike  enterprize.  The 
day  commences  with  a  visit  from  the  prince  or 
chieftain  to  his  spiritual  guide.  Tents  and 
cai'pets  are  prepared  at  the  Chougan  or  Mata- 
chil mount,  where  the  artillery  is  sent ;  and  in 
the  aflemoon,  the  Rana,  his  chiefs  and  their  re- 
tainers, repair  to  the  field  of  Mars,  worship  the 
kaijri  tree,  liberate  the  niltach  or  jay,  aa  sacred  to 
Rama,  and  return  amidst  a  discharge  of  guns. 
On  the  11th,  in  the  morning,  the  rana,  wi&i  all 
the  state  insignia,  the  kettledrums  sounding  in 
the  rear,  proceeds  towards  the  Matachil  mount, 
and  takes  the  muster  of  his  troops,  amidst  dis- 
charges of  cannon,  tilting,  and  display  of  horse- 
manship. And  while  every  chief  or  vassal  is 
at  liberty  to  leave  his  ranks,  and  '*  witch  the 
world  with  noble  horsmanship,"  there  is  nothing 
tumultuous,  nothing  offensive  in  their  mirth. 
The  steeds  purchased  since  the  last  festival  are 
named,  and  as  the  cavalcade  returns,  their 
grooms  repeat  the  appellation  of  each  as  the 
word  is  passed  by  the  master  of  the  horse ;  as 
Baj  Raj,  '  the  royal  steed ;'  Hymor,  *  the  chief 
of  horses ;'  Manika,  *  the  gem  ;'  Bajra,  '  the 
thunderbolt,*  &c.,  &c.  On  returning  to  the 
palace,  gifb  are  presented  by  the  rana  to  his 
chiefs.  The  Chohan  chief  of  Kotario  claims 
the  apparel  which  his  prince  wears  on  this  day 
in  token  of  the  fidelity  of  his  ancestor  to  the 
minor  Oody  Sing  in  Akbar's  wars.-  To  others, 
a  fillet  or  balabund  for  the  tm-ban  is  presented ; 
but  all  such  compliments  are  regulated  by  pre- 
cedent or  immediate  merit.    Thus  terminates 





the  nouratri  festival  sacred  to  the  god  of  war, 
which  in  every  point  of  view  is  analogf)as  to  the 
autumnal  festival  of  the  Scythic  warlike  nations, 
when  these  princes  took  the  muster  of  their 
armies,  and  performed  the  same  rites  to  the 
great  celestial  luminary.  If  we  look  westward 
from  the  central  land  of  earliest  civilization  to 
Dacia,  Thracia,  Pannonia,  the  seats  of  the 
Thyssagetae  or  the  western  Getes,  we  find  the 
same  form  of  adoration  addressed  to  the  em- 
blem of  Mars,  as  mentioned  by  Xenophon  in 
his  memorable  retreat,  and  practised  by  Alaric 
and  his  Goths,  centuries  afterwards,  in  the 
Acropolis  of  Athens.  If  we  transport  ourselves 
to  the  shores  of  Scandinavia,  amongst  the 
Cimbri  and  Getes  of  Jutland,  to  the  Ultima 
Thule,  wherever  the  name  of  Gete  prevails, 
we  shall  find  the  same  adoration  was  paid  by  the 
Getic  warrior  to  his  sword. — TocTs  Rajasihan, 
Vol  i,  pp,  582,  585,  588  ;  Forbes'  Ras  Mala 
Hindoo  Annals,-  Vol.  ii,  p. 

NOWREEA,  also  known  by  the  name  of 
"Mai'waree,"  have  clan  correspondents  in  all 
parts  of  India.  The  Marwaree  of  Jeypoor  re- 
gulate >the  exchange  operations  of  almost  all 
natives  in  India,  About  a,  d.  1750,  a  few 
enterprising  traders  having  heard  of  the  rising 
importance  of  Umritsur,  and  stimulated  with 
the  hopes  of  gain,  emigrated  from  Futtehpoor, 
Chooroo,  Ajmere  and  Ramghur,  and  opened 
a  few  small  shops  in  Umritsur,  By  a.  d. 
1850,  the  few  traders  expanded  into  about  70 
large  Firms,  forming  the  most  influential  and 
notable  of  the  mercantile  classes  of  the  city. 
For  wealth,  for  respectability,  none  can  vie  with 
them.  It  also  happens  that  their  bazaar  is  one 
of  the  most  improving,  the  widest,  the  best 
drained,  and  most  prominently  situated.  They 
manage  their  concerns  well.  Their  dealings 
are  entirely  wholesale.  They  seldom  appear  in 
law  courts.  Fraudulent  insolvencies  are  un- 
known. Pecuniary  disputes  arc  adjusted  before 
the  elders  of  their  people,  and  while  the  elders 
do  their  part  with  much  apparent  equity,  the  dis- 
putants betray  none  of  the  litigant  spirit  so  rife 
among  the  retail  dealers.  An  average  of  six 
lakhs  per  month  has  been  quoted  as  the  value 
of  their  monthly  invoices.  Native  and  foreign 
merchandize,  pushmeena,  piece  goods,  spices, 
metals,  drugs — in  these  they  have  nearly  the 
sole  monopoly.  The  dealings  of  the  Nowreea 
with  the  retail  dealers  are  conducted  in  ready 
money.  Credit  to  a  small  extent,  is  sometimes 
given  to  old-established  shops.  They  dabble 
a  little  in  usxuryi  and  sometimes  get  bitten. — 
Indian  Field. 

NOW-ROZ,  This  celebrated  festival  of  the 
ancient  and  modern  Persians  originated  in  the 
time  of  Jamshid.  It  falls  generally  on  the  2l8t 
of  March,  is  coeval  with  the  vernal  equinox, 
and  with  the  Mukhr  Saccarant  of  the  hindoos. 



This  day  is  observed  by  the  modem  Persian, 
Arab,  Turk,  Parsee,  and  several  other  Asia- 
tic nations,  for  the  computation  of  the  aolar 
year,  and  for  state  purposes,  such  as  the  collec- 
tion of  the  revenue  and  the  arrangement  of  the 
agricultural  operations  of  the  year.  In  Persia, 
the  festival  is  kept  up  £dt  several  days  with 
unusual  pomp  by  all  the  inhabitants ;  but  in 
India,  among  the  Parsees,  it  is  simply  a  daj  of 

The  Nowroz  or  New  year's  day,  amongst  the 
mahomedans,  is  the  day  on  which  the  sun  en- 
ters the  sign  Aries.  On  the  Noroza,  or  festi- 
val of  the  new  year,  the  great  Mogul  used  to 
slay  a  camel  with  his  own  hand,  which  is  dis- 
tributed and  eaten  by  the  court  favourites. 
The  great  Akbar  hazarded  his  popularity  and 
his  power,  by  the  introduction  of  a  custom  ap- 
pertaining to  the  Celtic  races  of  Europe  and 
the  Goths  of  Asia;  and  degraded  those  whom  the 
■chances  of  war  had  made  his  vassals,  by  conduct 
loathesome  to  the  keenly-cherished  feelings  of 
the  Rajput.  There  is  no  doubt  that  many  of 
the  noblest  of  the  race  'were  dishonoured  on 
the*  Noroza  ;'  and  the  chivalrous  Prithi  Raj  was 
only  preserved  from  being  of  the  number  by 
the  high  courage  and  virtue  of  his  wife,  a  princess 
of  Mewar,  and  daughter  of  the  founder  of  the 
Suktawut:  On  one  of  these  celebrations  of  the 
Khooshroz,  the  monarch  of  the  Moguls  was 
struck  with  the  beauty  of  the  daughter  of  Me- 
war, and  he  singled  her  out  from  amidst  the 
united  fisdr.  On  retiring  from  the  fair,  she  found 
hei*self  entangled  amidst  the  labyrinth  of  apart- 
ments by  which  egress  was  purposely  ordained, 
when  Akbar  stood  before  her :  but  instead  of  ac- 
quiescence, she  drew  a  poniard  from  her  corset, 
and  held  it  to  his  breast,  dictating,  and  making 
him  repeat,  the  oath  of  renunciation  of  the  in- 
famy to  all  her  race.  The  anecdote  is  accom- 
panied in  the  original  description  with  many 
dramatic  circumstances.  The  guardian  goddess 
of  Mewai',  the  terrific  *  Mata,'  appears  on  her 
tiger  in  the  subterranean  passage  of  this  palace 
of  pollution,  to  strengthen  her  mind  by  a  solemn 
denunciation,  and  her  hand  with  a  weapon  to 
protect  her  honour.  Kae  Sing,  the  elder  brother 
of  the  princely  bard,  had  not  been  so  ibrtunate  ; 
his  wife  wanted  either  courage  or  virtue  to  with- 
stand the  regal  tempter,  and  she  returned  to 
their  dwelling  in  the  desert  despoiled  of  her 
chastity,  but  loaded  with  jewels ;  or,  as  Pirthi 
Haj  express  it :  **  she  returned  to  her  abode, 
tramping  to  the  tinkhng  sound  of  the  ornaments 
of  gold  and  gems  on  her  person ;  but  where, 
my  brother,  is  the  moustache  on  thy  lip  !" — 
TJie  Parsees;  Tod^s  Bajasthan,  Vol.  i,  pp.  72 

NOUSHERWAN  flourished  about  the  middle 
of  the  sixth  century  of  the  christian  era.  He 
was  contemporary  with  the  Roman   emperors 



JosEtinian  and  Justin,  and  in  his  time  the  fahlos 
oTBed  pai  were  translated  into  Pehlevi.  His 
reism  commenced  in  a,  d.  631 ;  and  lasted  till 
1.  D.  579,  and  towards  the  close  of  it,  Mahomed 
WIS  bora  in  Arabia.  Nousherwan  invaded  Sind 
or  its  bonlers.  Varioas  Persian  authors,  quoted 
by  Sir  John  Malcolm,  assert  that  this  monarch 
carried  his  arms  into  Ferghana  on  the  north,  and 
India  on  the  east ;  and  as  they  are  supported  in 
the  first  assertion  by  Chinese  records,  there  seems 
no  reason  to  distrust  them  in  the  second.  Sir 
Henry  Pottinger  (though  without  stating  his 
anthority)  gives  a  minute  and  probable  accoimt 
of  Nousherwan's  march  along  the  sea-coast  of 
Mekran  to  Sind,  and,  as  Ballabi  was  close  to 
Sind,  we  may  easily  believe  him  to  have  de- 
stroyed that  city.  Perhaps  the  current  story 
of  the  descent  of  the  ranas  of  Mewar  from 
Nousherwan  may  have  some  connection  with 
their  being  driven  into  their  present  seats  by 
that  monarch.  Nousherwan  was  the  twentieth  of 
the  Saasanian  dynasty,  wassumamed  *' the  just," 
and  was  distinguished  for  equity,  wisdom  and 
munificence.  He  erected  many  colleges,  cara- 
vansaries, and  other  buildings  of  public  benefit, 
and  gave  great  encouragement  to  learning  and 
pkikeophy. — Pbttinger^s  Travels^  Beluchistan 
and  Sind,  p.  386 ;  Elphinstone^s  History  of 
India,  Vol.  i,  p,  401.      See  Nowsherwan. 

NOUSHERWANI,  a  tribe  in  Beluchistan. 
See  Kelat. 

NOVA,  Tam.  a  Palghat  wood  of  a  white 
colour,  used  for  shafts,  cart-poles,  &c. — Colotiel 

NOVA,  or  Nuvu  Tel.     Sesamum  orientale. 

NOWABATTEE,  see  Cotton  manufactures. 

NOWBUT,  an  instrument  of  music  sounding 
at  the  gate  of  a  great  man  at  certain  intervals. 

NOW-CHOW,  a  small  seaport,  on  the  south 
coast  of  China,  in  lat.  20°  52'  N.,  long.  110° 

NOWGONG,  a  town  near  the  centre  of 
Asam.  The  boundaries  of  the  Nowgong  dis- 
trict are  fi>nned  on  the  east  by  the  Dhunseeree 
and  Deeyong  rivers,  and  an  undefined,  unex- 
plored tract  of  country  occupied  by  Angami 
Nagas ;  on  the  west,  by  the  Mongah  of  Desh 
Cmnooreah  in  the  Kamroop  district ;  the 
fiorrumpooter  on  the  nortli ;  and  on  the  south 
by  Jynteea,  and  the  Tytingah  river  in  northern 
Cachar,  and  a  high  range  of  mountains  separat- 
ing Now-Gong  firom  Muneepoor.  Within  this 
boundary  the  number  of  square  miles  in  the 
whole  district  amounts  to  8,712. — Butlers 
TrmiU  of  Assam,  p,  230.     See  Mikir. 

NOWI  MALTHEE,  Uria.  Hiptage  mad- 

NOWLADDI,  Can.,  of  Mysore.  This  wood 
polishes  well,  is  used  for  house-building  and 
bnatme.— Captain  Pucklis,  Cat.  Ex.,  1862. 


NOWOOLOO  or  Nuvu1u,Tbl.  Gingelly  seed; 
Sesamum  orientale. 

NOW-ROZ,  New  year's  day.     See  Nouroz. 

NOWSAGUR  also  Nowsadur,  Gijz.  Sal 

NOWSARI,  in  Guzerat,  the  city  of  the  Par- 
see  priests,  whence  numbers  are  sent  every 
year  to  Bombay,  to  minister  to  the  Parsee 
population  of  that  city. — Far  sees,  p.  24.  See 

NOWSHADUR,  Pbrs.  Nowsadur,  Sans. 
Nowsagur  also  Nowsadur,  Guz.,  Hind.  Sal 

NOWSHERWAN.  The  king  Kesra  Anow- 
shirwan  reigned  in  Persia  from  a.d.  531  to 
A.D.  579.  See  India,  Mahratta  Governments  in 
India,  Nusherwan. 

NOWUI^ERAGU,  Tel.     Vitex  arborea. 

NOWULGURH  contains  four  thousand 
houses,  environed  by  a  shahr-pannah  or  curtain. 
It  is  on  a  more  ancient  site  called  Roleani,  whose 
old  castle  in  ruins  is  to  the  south-«ast,  and  the 
new  one  midway  between  it  and  the  town, 
built  by  Nowul  Sing  in  S.  1802,  or  a.d.  1746. 
— Tod's  Bdjasthan,  Vol.  ii,  p.  426. 

NOYAKOT  VALLEY,  in  Nepal  is  about 
eighteen  miles  distant  from  Katmandu. — Oli- 
phayifs  Journey,  p,  160. 

NOYA-LUTA,  Beno.  Brachypterum  scan- 

NOYEL,  a  river  that  rises  in  the  Animallay 
hills  in  Coimbatore  and  joins  the  Cauvery 
near  Caroor.  It  rises  on  the  eastern  slope  of 
W.  Ghauts,  lat.  10°  59',  Ion.  76°  44',  and  runs 
east  into  the  Cauvery.     Its  length  is  95  miles. 

NOZES  D'ACAJU,  Port.     Cashew  nuts. 

NOZ-MOSCADA,  PoRT.J^utmegs. 

NREE-MEDHA,  Sans.,  from  nree,  a  man, 
and  medha,  flesh,  a  human  sacrifice. 

NRISINGHA,  Sans.,  from  nree,  a  man,  and 
singha,  a  lion.     The  man-lion  avatar. 

NUBARI,  Beng.,  Hind.  Cicca  disticha, 
Linn.     See  Nubi. 

NUBHASWAT,  Sans.,  from  nubhas,  the 

NUBI,  Beno.    Cicca  disticha,  Linn. 

NUBIA,  the  Hebrews  may  have  used  the  word 
Ophir  to  designate  any  gold-producing  country, 
but,  however  this  may  be,  undoubtedly,  Bere- 
nice on  the  shores  of  the  Red  Sea  was  one 
Ophir.  Even  while  the  gold  of  Ethiopia  may 
have  only  been  picked  up  by  the  unsettled 
tribes  of  the  desert,  it  had  yet  been  a  source  of 
great  wealth  to  Ethiopia ;  but  when  Ethiopia 
was  conquered  by  the  Egyptians  and  its  mines 
were  worked  by  Egyptian  skill,  the  produce 
seemed  boundless.  'The  gold  was  found  in 
quartz  veins  within  a  slaty  rock,  at  various 
spots  in  the  Nubian  desert,  between  Derr  on 
the  Nile  and  Souakin  on  the  coast.  They 
were  said  to  bring  in  each  year,  the  improb- 





able  sum  of  thirty-two  millions  of  minae,  seventy 
millions   sterling,   (Diod  Sic,  lib.  i,  49)  as  was 
recorded  in  the  hieroglyphics  under  the  figure 
of  tlie  king   in   the  Menmonium,  who  is  there 
offering   the  produce  to  Amun-ra.     To  these 
mines   criminals   and   prisoners  taken  in  war 
were  sent  in  chains,  to  work  under  a  guard  of 
.soldiers  ;  and   such   was   their  unhappy  state, 
banished  from  the  light  of  heaven,  and  robbed 
of  everything   that  makes  life  valuable,  that 
the  Egyptian   priests  represented  this  as  the 
punishment  of  the  wicked   souls  in  the  next 
world.     No  other  known  mines  were  so  rich. 
From  the  word  Noub,  gold,    the  country  re- 
ceived the  name  of  Nubia,  or  the  land  of  gold, 
and  gold  was  shipped  from  the  port  afterwards 
by  the  Ptolemies,  named  the  Golden  Berenice. 
Grold  was  henceforth  more  abundant  in  Egypt 
than  in  any  other   country  in  the  world ;  and 
every  natural  product  must  have  been  dearer. 
Under   these  circumstances,  while  they  may 
have  inported  iron  and  copper  from  Cyprus, 
oil   and  silver   from  Greece,  with  a  few  other 
articles,  from  Arabia  and  Palestine,,  they  could 
have   exported  very  little  beyond  gold.    The 
gold  mines  helped  the  people's  industry  in  per- 
forming their  great  works  in  building  and  in 
war;   but  after  a  time  it  undermined   that 
industry,  and  made  the  country  an'easier  and 
richer  prey  for  its  neighbours. — Sharpens  Bis- 
tory  ofEffypt^  Vol.  i,  p.  89 ;  Diod^  Sicidus. 

NUBRA,  the  north-western  district  of 
Ladak,  on  the  Shayok  river,  in  the  norths 
west  Himalaya,  is  in  lat.  35^  36'  N.,  and' long. 
77^  78'  E.  The  Sassar  paas  is  17,763  feet 
above  the  sea.  The  Nubra,  Pangong  and  Ro- 
dok  districts,  in  the  basin  of  the  Shayok  river, 
and  its  affluents,  lie  on  the  S.  fiank  of  the 
Kouenlun  from  ^ti  to  Nari,  and  have  Ladak 
as  their  southern  boundary.  With  the  excep- 
tion of  Nari,  this  is  the  most  lofty  and  sterile 
part  of  Tibet,  the  axis  of  the  Kouenlun  being 
probably  upwards  of  18,500  feet,  the  valleys 
16  or  17,000  feet  and  numerous  peaks  rise 
20  or  23,000  feet.  The  Karakorum  pass 
is  18,300,  the  salt  Pangong  lakes  13,400 
feet.  The  villages  of  lower  Nubra  are  not 
numerous,  but  some  of  them  possess  very 
€xten8iv8  cultivation.  ■  From  Kashmir  east- 
wards, all  the  easily  accessible  portions  of  the 
Himalaya  are  occupied  by  Aryan  hindoos  as  far 
as  the  eastern  border  of  Kumaon  and  the  Kali 
liver  separating  Kumaon  from  Nepaul — the 
Tibetans  being  here  confined  to  the  valleys 
about  and  beyond  the  snow.  People  of  Tibe- 
tan blood  have  migrated  into  Nepaul,  through- 
out its  whole  leng&,  and  have  formed  mixed 
tribes  whose  appearance  and  language  is  more 
Tibetan  than  Indian,  but  whose  religion  and 
manners  are  hindoo.  East  of  Nepaul,  in  Sik- 
kim  and  Bhutan  the  hindoo  element  almost 



disappears,  and  the  Thibetans  are  altogether 
dominant.  Eastward  of  Kashmir,  are  the  Bhot 
race  in  Bulti  and  Ladak.  Bulti  includes 
Hasora,  Rongdo,  Rong-yul,  Shagar,  Skardo, 
Bulti,  Parkuta,  Tolti,  Kartaksho,  Kiris,  EJiay- 
balu  and  Chorbat.  Ladak  or  the  Botj^ 
includes  Spiti,  Zangakar,  Piu-ik,  Sum,  Hembft- 
ko  (Dras,)  Ladak  proper  or  Le,  Nubra,  Kong, 
Rupshu  and  Hanle.  The  language  of  the 
Bhotiahfl  of  Tibet,  the  Bhutiah  or  Thibetan,  is 
also  that  of  Bhutan  and  is  a  connecting  link 
between  the  polysyllabic  and  monosyllabic 
languages.  Garhwal  is  to  a  large  extent  Bhot. 
— Dr,  TkomsorCs  Travels  in  fVestem  Hma- 
laya  and  Tibet,  p.  199  ;  Hooker  and  Thorn- 
aon^s  FL  Indica,  p.  22.  See  Hot  springs,  India, 
Maryul  or  Lowland,  Kailas  or  Gangri  range. 

NUBRA  NIRA,  see  Ladak. 

NUBRA-TSHO,  see  Glacier. 

NUBSIR,  a  river  near  Bura  Bhumoree  in 
Holkar  s  territory. 

NUBTEE,  Akab.     Ceratonia  siliqua,  W. 

NUCH,  Hiin>.  Fraxinus  xanthoxylloidea, 
the  Crab  ash,  also  Juniperus  communis. 

NUCHI,  Tax.  Yitex  negundo,  Linn.,  Boxb, 

NUCIFRAGA,  the  Nutcracker  genus  of 
birds,  comprising  N.  caryocatactes  and  N.  hemis- 
pila,  described  and  figiu'ed  in  Mr.  Gould's  '  Cen- 
tury of  Birds  from  the  Himalayan  Mountains.' 
Nucifraga  caryocatactes  of  the  pine  forests  of 
Europe  and  Siberia  is  replaced  by  N.  hemispila 
in  those  of  the  Himalaya  generally,  and  by  H. 
multimaculata  about  Kashmir. — Eng.  Cyc, 

NUCKA  or  Nakka,  Tkl.    A  fox. 

NUCK43HILINI,  Hind.  Epicarpurus  orien- 
talis,  properly  nakchilni. 

NUCK-TEL,  also  Mitti-ka-tel,  Guz.,  Hiro., 

NUCLEOBRANCHIATA,  see  Carinaris, 

NUDDEA,  a  rich  district,  to  the  north  of 
Barasat.  Its  chief  town  is  Krishnaghur.  Much 
of  Nuddea's  frame  rests  upon  its  being  an 
ancient  seat  of  learning,  which  has  exercised  a 
great  influence  upon  the  politics,  morals  and 
manners  of  the  Bengalees.  The  community  is 
for  the  most  part  composed  of  brahmins  who 
devote  their  lives  to  study  for  many  years. 
There  are  Vaishnavas  who  possess  a  respect- 
able body  of  literature.  The  very  ahop-keepen 
and  sweetmeat-vendors  are  imbued  with  a  tinc- 
ture of  learning.  In  proof  of  the  great  anti- 
quity of  Nuddea,  the  brahmins  show  their 
great  tutelary  goddess  called  Para-maee,  a 
Uttle  piece  of  rough  black  stone  painted  with 
red  ochre,  and  placed  beneath  the  boughs  of  an 
aged  banian  tree.  Nuddea  town  is  on  &e 
Bhagarathi  river,  it  has  more  than  fifty  tole 
or  seminaries.  Choitunya's  father  resided  in 
Nudeya  ;  at  the  age  of  44,  Choitonya 
appears  to  have  had  a  divine  call,  and  he  em* 

N  184 



hnted  a  life  of  mendicity.    The  Gosaee,  his 

ibUoiren,  perform  the  ceremonials  of  marri- 
age and  other  rites  among  themselves.  They 
will  also,  contrary  to  the  -usual  custom  of 
the  faindoos,  dissolye  a  marriage  with  as  much 
fiidlity,  on  an  application  from  the  parties. 
The  Gosaee  observe  none  of  the  hindoo  fes- 
tiTais  except  those  of  Krishna ;  but  the  anni- 
▼enaries  of  the  deaths  of  their  founders  are 
obserred  as  such.  They  do  not,  says  Mr. 
Ward,  reject  the  mythology,  or  the  ceremo- 
nies of  ^e  hindoos,  but  they  believe  that 
tiMse  of  Huree  (Krishna)  only,  are  necessary. 
On  the  nights  of  their  festivals  the  initiating 
iaeantation  may  be  heard  resounding  through 
the  stillneas  of  the  night:  Huree,  Krishna; 
Horee,  Krishna;  Krishna,  Krishna;  Huree, 
Hnree;  Huree,  Ram;  Huree,  Ram;  Ram, 
Sam,  Huree,  Huree. — Cole,  Myth,  Hind.y  p. 
240;  2V.  0/  Hind.,  Vol.  i,  pp.  38,  39.  See 
Chaitanya,  Cheitun. 

NUDDI  KA  SHAIKRA,  Duk.     Caboose. 

NUDELN,Gkr.    VermiceUi. 

NUDERH,  see  Sikhs. 

NUECES  D'ACAJU,  Sp.     Cashew-nuts. 

NUFFELL,  Tak.  A  TinneveDy  wood  of  a 
red  colour;  specific  gravity  0*717.  Used  for 
hnilding  in  general. — CoL  Frith. 

NDRGL  (pL  Nuflen),  a  voluntary  act  of  de- 

NUGARp-MOTHA,  Cyperus  pertennis.  Very 
common  at  Ajmeer :  the  "root  has  a  pleasant 
snell :  used  in  hair  mesahhs :  also  considered 
astringent  and  to  check  diarrhoea :  one  tola  is 
giien. — Gen.  Med.  Top.^  p.  147. 

NUGDI,  also  Chandi,  Grz.     Silver. 

NUGGAR,  see  Chaltdcya. 

NUGGER,  a  revenue  division  of  Mjrsore 
under  a  Commissioner,  its  principal  civil  town 
is  Shemogah.  See  Bednore,  Bednor,  Coffee, 
Gonmdum,  Tea. 

NUGHZ,  or  Nagaz,  see  Kabul. 

NUGU  BEND  A,  or  Tutturu  benda,  Tbl. 
Ahutilon  indicum,  G.  Don. ;  A.  asiaticum,  W. 
md  A. ;  Sida  indica,  R.  iii,  179 ;  S.  populifo- 
lia,  &  iii,  179 ;  Bheede,  vi,  65.  These  species 
seem  to  be  identical. 

NUGU  CHIKKUDU,  Tbl.  Dolichos  gluti- 
MBOS,  E.  iii,  312  ;  W.  and  A.  Nugu  mean- 
ing rough,  hairy,  pubescent;  this  name  is  more 
appropriate  to  D.  tomentosa,  which  however 
difeg  but  little  from  the  other. 

NUGU  DOSA,  or  Kuturu  budama,  Tkl. 
Bryooia  scabrella,  L. 

NUH,  or  Noah,  a  Hebrew  patriarch.  See 
Wiistftn,  Nepal. 

NUH  HASEL,  see  Koh-i-nokreh. 

NUKA,  HnrD.  Land  on  the  ridges  or  banks 
fcft  by  the  dry  course  of  a  running  river. 

NUKCHIKI  BAJI,  Duk.    Asclepias  vdu- 

NUKERU,  Tbl.     Cordia  angustifdia,  Boxh. 

NUKRA,  Hind.     Silver. 

NUKSHATRESHA,  Saws.  From  naksha- 
tra,  a  planet,  and  esha,  a  lord. 

NUKTA,  a  river  of  Budaon,  Moradabad  and 

NUKTERIS,  Gr.    Bat. 

NUL,  Tam.    Thread. 

NUL,  or  Nulkhagra,  Beng.  Amphidonax 

NUL,  or  Nar,  Bbng.,  Hind.  Grass  of 
which  the  mats  known  as  **  Durma"  are  made, 
formed  of  the  stalks  split  open.  See  Gramina- 
cesB,  Nar,  Nal. 

NULiELI  ?  MARAM,  Tam.  Guatteria  ce- 
rasoides,  Daval ;  W.  and  A. ;  Hook,  and  Thorn. 

NULAM-PALLAH,  Tam.  A  Travancore 
wood  of  a  dark-brown  colour,  2  to  4  feet  in 
circumference,  and  30  feet  long ;  used  for  com- 
mon houses  and  carts. — Col.  Frith. 

NULI  TADA  CHETTU,  Tel.  Grewia,  «p. 
Many  species  of  Grewia  yield  a  valuable  fibre. 
The  syn.  of  this  sp.  in  Sk.  is  Vishanika,  which 
in  W.,  792,  is  said  to  be  Meshasringi,  the  fruit 
of  which  is  compared  to  a  ram's  horn.  Thia 
may  indicate  a  kind  of  Asclepiad  or  Apocyna- 
ceous  plant  as  Cryptolepis  buchanani  which  also 
yields  a  good  fibre.  Br.,  504,  has  Helicteres 

NULI  TAU,  Malbal.    Antidesma  bunias. 

NULITI  or  Syamali,  Isora  corylifolia,  Sch. 
and  Endl. 

NULLA,  Anglo-Hindi.  A  bed  of  a  rivu- 
let, or  the  rivulet  itself,  the  "nala"  of  the 
Urdu  tongue.  The  Arabo-Spanish  "  arroya," 
a  word  almost  naturalized  by  the  Anglo-Ame- 
ricans, exactly  corresponds  with  the  Italian 
^<  fiumara,"  and  the  Indian  nullah. 

NULLA,  Tbl.     Black,  hence, 

Nulla  baloosu,  Tel.   Canthium  parviflorum. 

Nulla  yennai,  Tak.  Oil  of  Sesamum  orientale. 

Nulla  ghentana,  Tel.  Clitoria  tematea,  Linn. 

Nulla  gilli-karra,  Tbl.  Fennel  fiower  oil,  also 
Nigella  seed. 

Nulla  kakidum,  Tbl.     Country  paper. 

Nulla  muddee,  Tbl.     Pentaptera  tomentosa. 

NuUa-roolemara  kurra,  Tbl.  Diospyros 

Nulla  somutti,  Tel.     Coronilla  picta. 

Nulla-tooma,  Tel.    Acacia  arabica. 

Nulla  umati,  Tbl.  Datura  fastuosa,  WUld. 
Thorn  apple. 

Nulla  usirijcai,  Tel.  Phyllanthus  maderas- 
patensis,  Zdnn. 

Nulla  vavali,  Tel.  Gendarussa  vulgaris,  Nees. 

Nulla  vellum.  Tax.    Jagree,  coarse  sugar. 

Nulla  woodooloo,  also  Minomolu,  Tel.  Pha- 
seolus  radiatus,  Phaseolus  max. 

NULLERU  TIGE;  Nulleru  vitulu;  Nul- 
leru  akoo,  Tel.  Twigs,  seeds  and  leaves  of  Cissud 






.   NULLI,  Tam.     Ulmus  integrifolius,  Ro.vb, 
NULLIPORID.E,  see  Corallinaceffi. 
NULLI   RUTIGAH,  Tkl.     Vitia  quadran- 
gularia,  WalL 

NULLI  TALI,  Mai^bai..  Antidesmaalexiteria. 
NULLI  TUDDA—  ?  Helicteres  isora. 
NULSHIMA,  Nbp.     Eliretia  serrata,  Iloa:h, 
NULTURA,  Hindi.     Arundo  karka,  Boyle. 
NULU,  Tel.     Thread. 
NULU-CHAMPOO,  Sans.     From  nulu,  the 
name  of  a  king,  and  champoo,  a  particular 
kind  of  composition  in  which  the  same  subject 
\a  maintained  in   all  the  varieties  of  prose  and 

NULU-DANGA,  Sans.  From  nala,  a  reed, 
and  danga,  a  place. 

NULU  TEGA,  or  Antaravalli,  Tel.  Cassyte 
filiformis,   L, — R.  ii,    314 — Rheede,   vii,   44. 
The  syn.  in  Sk.  i^  Akasa  valle,  which  naiiie  it 
still  retains  in  Bengal. —  Vovjt, 
NUMAZ,  Hind.,  Pers.  Prayer. 
Fujur  ki  numaz,  morning  prayer. 
Zohur  ki  numaz,  mid-day  prayer. 
Usser  ki  numaz,  aflernoon  prayer. 
Mughrib  ki  numaz,  sunset  prayer. 
Aysha  ki  nmnaz,  evening  prayer. 
Numaz  ishnuj,  at  7^  a.m. 
Numaz  chasht,  at  9 
Numaz  tuliujjoor,  after  12  p.m. 
Numaz  turaweeh,  afler  8  a.h.,  a  particular 
form  of  prayer  not  of  divine  command. 
Numaz-i-junaza,  the  fuDcral  service. 
Numaz   gah  or  Eedgali,   place   of  public 

Numaz  kurna,  praying,  one  of  the  points  of 
the  mohammedan  religion. 

NUMBER.  This  English  word  has  been  added 
to  all  the  languages  of  India.  The  number 
seven  is  used  frequently  in  scripture,  not  to 
signify  a  definite,  but  a  large  and  sufficient 
quantity  :  hence,  Daubuz  states  its  Hebrew 
etymology  to  signify  fulness  and  perfection  ; 
and  Philo  and  Cyprian  call  it  the  completing 
number.  "  The  barren  hatli  borne  seven," 
said  Hannah  in  her  song,  meaning  a  great 
number.  The  victims  under  the  Jewish  law, 
bled  by  sevens  ;  the  golden  candlestick  had 
seven  branches,  bearing  seven  golden  lamps ; 
the  mcrcy-fieat  was  sprinkled  seven  times  with 
the  blood  of  the  atonement ;  and  to  sacrifice  by 
sevens,  was  a  characteristic  of  great  solemnity 
in  patriarchal  times.  The  key  to  this  rite,  says 
Horsley,  is  the  institution  of  the  Sabbath,  the 
observance  of  the  seventh  day  being  the  sacra- 
ment of  the  ancient  church.  The  numbering 
by  seven  was  doubtless  taken  from  the  phases 
of  the  moon.  The  number  ten  is  often  used  in 
scripture  to  denote  frequency  and  abundance : 
and  is  evidently  taken  from  the  ten  fingera  on 
the  hands.  ''Thou  hast  changed  my  wages  ten 
times ;"  i.  e,,  frequently  changed  them  :  Gen., 


xxxi,  7,  41.  ''Those  men  have  tempted  me  now 
these  ten  times  :"  Num.,  xiv,  22.  "  These  ten 
times  have  ye  reproached  me  :*'  Job,  xix,  3.  "He 
found  them  ten  times  better  than  all  the  magi- 
cians :"  Dan.,  i,  20.  The  ten  days  are  again 
interpreted,  as  indicating  the  shortness  of  the 
persecution,  in  the  same  sense  as  they  are  em- 
ployed by  Terence  :  "  Decem  dierum  vix  mi 
est  familia,"  I  have  enjoyed  my  family  but  a 
short  time.  There  is  in  India  a  very  remarkable 
use  of  seventy-four,  in  epistolary  correspondence. 
It  is  an  almost  universal  practice  in  India  to  write 
this  number  on  the  outside  of  letters  ;  it  being 
intended  to  convey  the  meaning  that  nobody  is 
to  read  the  letter  but  the  person  to  whom  it  is 
addressed.  The  practice  was  originally  bindoo, 
but  has  been  adopted  by  the  mahomedans, 
when  correctly  written,  it  represents  an  inte- 
gral number  of  74,  and  a  fractional  number 
of  10.— TocT*  Eajasthan  ;  Elliofs  Supp.  ;  MH- 
ners  Seven  Churches  of  Asia,  pp.  23,  205; 
Ifeaut.  Act.  5,  S.  Iv. ;  FroUgem.  €td  Ignat. 
See  Seven;  Seventy-four. 

NUMEERI,  Tbl.  Terminalia  paniculata. 
W.^  A. 

NUMENIUS,  a  genus  of  birds  of  tlie  femily 
Scolopacidae.  Numenius  arquata,  the  common 
curlew  of  Europe,  North  Africa,  Asia  to  Japan, 
Malasia  :  very  common  in  India.  Numeniiu 
phoeopus,  the  Whimbrel  of  Europe,  Asia,  North 
Africa :  common  in  India,  along  sea-coasts  and 

NUMGEA,  see  Kunawer. 

NUAHDA  MELEAGRIS,  see  Pavo  japonensis. 

NUMIDA  PTILORHYNA :  the  Guinea 
fowl  is  believed  to  be  descended  from  the  Nu- 
mida  ptilorhyna  of  the  hot  arid  parts  of  East 
Africa,  but  it  has  become  wild  in  Jamaica  and 
St.  Domingo,  and  has  become  small  with  black 
legs.  The  Guinea  fowl  is  the  Bohemian  of  the 
barn-yard.  They  are  hardy,  and  prolific  and 
are  valuable  in  gardens,  as  they  rarely  scratch 
the  ground,  are  eager  in  their  search  for  insects, 
and,  with  a  scraping  motion  of  their  bill, 
gather  the  seeds  of  grasses. — Darwin. 


Shudnaj  udsee,  Arab. 

Officinal  with  the  natives.  They  are  lentil- 
shaped  greyish  pebbles,  of  various  sizes,  con- 
sisting of  carbonate  of  lime  and  iron  witli  a 
nucleus  of  calcareous  crystals.  The  hakims 
administer  them  in  eye-diseases  and  ulcers. — 
Boyle,  Honigberger. 

per name  joined  to  stood,  to  kill. 

NUMRI  or  Lumri,  the  people  of  Luz,  a 
dependency  of  Kelat.  The  clan  can  send  about 
1,600  fighting  men.     They  are  miahomedans.. 

NUMUCHISADANA,  see  Indra. 

NUMUK  CHUSHEE,  Hurn.  A  mahomedan 

N  136 


NUMUSKARA,  Sasb.  A  reverential  mode  of 
obeaance,  firom  namas,  a  bow,  and  kri,  to  make. 
NUN.  Buddhiflm,  which  had  assumed  a  dis- 
tinct form  in  the  middle  of  the  third  century 
B.  c.  became  powerful  during  the  Greek  con- 
nexioii  with  India.     Hindoo  women  embracing 
boddhiam  became  prominent.     Thej  not  onlj 
began  to  frequent  places  of  public  worship,  but 
came  forward  to  join  the  clerical  body  and  were 
admitted  as  nuns.   Maha  Prajapati  was  the  first 
female  admitted  to  the  order.     The  daughter  of 
Aaoka,  Sanghamitta,  also  entered  the  church, 
taking  the  usual  vow  of  celibacy.   She  went  to 
Cejbn  to  ordain  the  princesses  in  compliance  with 
the  request  of  her  brother  Mahendra,  who  had 
been  sent  there  to  propagate  the  religion,he  being 
ofopLoion  that  a  male  priest  could  not  ordain 
a  female.    Gautama  had  five  hundred  women 
admitted  into  the  order.  The  nuns  were,  how- 
erer,  restricted  in  their  liberty  in  holding  com- 
munication with   male  priests.      Women    of 
rank,  such  as    Maha  Maya,   the   mother  of 
Gautama  and  Misaka,  were  moving  freely  in 
aociety,  while  other  classes  of  females  not  only 
moved  from  place  to  place  but  carried  on  dis- 
cossions  with  men  and  took  part  in  secessions. 
There  are  several  notices  of  educated  females. 
Visakha,  a   most    celebrated    buddhist  lady, 
redded  in  Sakita,  or  Ayodhya.      Neverthe- 
les  Buddha's  personal  opinion  as  to  females 
leading  the  religious  life  was :   "  Be  caretid  ; 
do  not  permit    females  to    enter   upon    my 
bw  and  become  Samarans."    He  said,  "  What 
is  named  woman  is  sin,"  i.  «.,  that  she  is 
not  nice   but  sin;    and  *'it  is  better  for   a 
priest  to  embrace  the  flame  than  to  approach  a 
woman,  however  exalted  her  rank."  Mendi- 
cants and  novices  were  not  permitted  to  look  at 
a  woman.    Priests  were  not  allowed  to  visit 
widows,  grown  up  virgins,  or  women  whose 
husbands  were  abroad.    If  a  woman  had  a  fall 
and  required  to  be  lifted  up  by  the  hand,  no 
buddba  would  help  her,  because  it   was  con- 
sidered sinful  to  touch  a  woman,  whether  she 
lived  or  died.     The  Patimokhan   forbids   not 
oolj  ^<  the  contact  with  the  person  of  a  woman," 
but  '*  impure   conversation  with   a  woman," 
sitting  on  the  same  seat  with  her,  reclining 
with  her  on  the  same   place,  being  alone  with 
a  woman,  accompanying  her  on  a  journey,  and 
pitaching  more  than  five  or  six  sentences  to  a 
woman  exeept  in  the  presence  of  a  man  who 
undeistood  what  was  said.     And  yet  according 
to  Hinao,   Buddha  accepted  the  invitation  of 
Ambasali,  the  celebrated  courtesan  of  Vaisali, 
**  who  took  her  seat  on  one  side    of  him." 
The  buddhist  women  were  clad  in  robes.  The 
king  of  Kosala  presented  to  each   of  his  five 
hnndred  wives  "  a  splendid  robe."    The  Bhilsa 
laoQument  shows  the  buddhist  female  drapery 
— **  8  bng  flowing  vest  Resembling  that  which 


we  see  in  Grecian  sculpture.  Fa  Hian,  who 
came  here  in  a.  d.  399  says  that  **  the  females 
were  kept  down  and  ordered  to  follow  certain 
precepts."  He  cites  the  instance  of  brothers 
marrying  non-uterine  sisters  in  the  case  of  the 
sons  of  one  of  the  kings  of  Potala  settled  near 
the  hennitage  of  Kapila.  As  to  caste,  he  says, 
that  although  the  principle  in  the  selection  of 
the  chief  of  rehgion  was  the  moral  merit, 
inasmuch  as  Sakya  was  a  Kshatriya,  and  his 
successor  a  Vaisya,  and  his  successor  a  Sudra, 
yet  the  son  of  the  king  of  Kapila  by  the 
daughter  of  a  slave  was  not  admitted  into  the 
church.  When  he  entered,  the  cry  was, 
*^  The  son  of  a  slave  dares  to  enter  and  be 
seated  here."  In  the  drawings  of  the  excavat- 
ed temples  of  Ajanta  '*  there  are  groups  of 
women  in  various  attitudes,  particularly  in  the 
one  of  performing  tapasya  or  religion  on  the 
Asan  siddha ;"  and  also  '*  of  a  female  worship- 
per of  Buddha"  surrounded  by  a  group,  and 
a  brahmin  among  them  whom  she  is  teaching. 
There  are,  at  present,  in  buddhist  Tibet,  many 
nims. — Calcutta  Review^  No*  109,  pp.  45,  46, 
47,  48. 

NUN,HnrD.    Salt. 

NUNA,  Him).    Soda. 

NUNA,  Tbl.    Salt. 

NUNA.  Most  of  the  traders  of  the  snow 
valleys  have  some  members  of  their  families 
residing  at  Daba  or  Gyani  on  the  Nuna-khar 
lake.  The  great  body  of  the  hillmen  are 
Rajputs.  There  are  a  few  villages  of  brah- 
mins, their  residences  are  respectable,  and 
occupy  the  more  elevated  portion  of  the  village 

NUNA  MARAM  ELLY,  Tam.  Leaves  of 
Morinda  umbellata. 

NUNDAN  SAR,  see  Kashmir. 

NUNDEE-BRIKHYA,  B«hg.  Cedrela  toona. 

NUNDIAVUTHEN,  Tabernamontana  coro- 

NUNDIDROOG,  a  fortified  hiU  in  Mysore. 
See  Tea. 

NITN£,  Tel.     Oil,  vegetable  or  animal. 

NUNE  BIRA,  or  NeU  bira,  Tbl,  Luffa 
pentandra,  R, 

NUNE  GACHCHA,  Tel.  Caesalpinia  digyna, 
Rottl,,  W.  atid  A.  871. 

NUNE  PAPATA,  or  Papata,  Tel.  Pavetta 
indica,  L. 

NUNJU,  also  Nunjunda  maram,  Tam. 
Balanites  ssgyptiaca,  aJso  Gardenia  tuxgida  ? 

NUNNARl,  Tam.  Hemidesmus  indicus,  E, 
Brawn,  Nunnari  vayr,  Tam.,  the  root  of 
Hemidesmus  indicus,  Sarsaparilla. 

NUNRE,  or  Noonre,  Hnrn.  Canes  of  the 
Bhur  grass. 

NUPUTKI,  Beng.  The  Heart-pea.  Car- 
diospermum  halicacabum,  Zrtnn. 

NUQARA^  As.,  a  kettle  drum. 




NUR  J  AH  AN. 


NUQARCHEE,  Ar.,  a  drummer. 
NUQDAY  KA-JORA,  or  Cliooreean,  Wriat 
ornaments  of  silver,  bracelets. 

NUQEER-UL-FUQRA,  a  Mohurrum  fuqeer. 
NUQLEE  SHAH,  a  Mohurrum  fuqeer. 


tlie  empire."  His  splendid  mausoleum  lies 
near  Agra,  close  to  the  railway. — CaZcittta 
Review^  January  1871. 

NURMA,  or  Chanderi  colton.     See  Cotton. 

N  UR-MAN JEE,  Tam.     A  Travancore  wood 

NUQSHBUNDEEA,  a  class  of  mahomedan   of  a  bamboo  colour ;  used  for  light  work.— 
fuqeers  or  devotees.  Nuqshbundee,  a  Mohurrum  I  Col,  Frith, 


NUR,  Malay.  Cocos  nucifera,  L.  Cocoa-nut- 

NURALAM,  Hind.     Eryngium  planum. 

NURANG  KALUNG,  Tam.  Dioscorea 

NURBUDDAH,  a  river  of  the  Central 
Provinces  of  British  India.  See  Coal,  Central 
provinces,  Inscriptions,  Narbuddah,  Nerbuddah. 

NURCHA  ?— Corchorus  olitorius. 

NURDUL,  Beng.     Panicum  interruptum. 

NUREE,  Beng.     Cicca  disticha. 

NUREH,  Ar.,  Pbrs.  Quick-lime,  also  a  depi- 
latory made  of  yellow  arsenic,  (1  oz.)  pounded 
and  mixed  with  quick-lime  (4  oz.)  till  the  com- 
pound assume  an  uniform  yellowish  tinge.  It  is 
applied  to  the  skin  in  a  paste  made  with  warm 
water,  and  must  be  washed  off  after  a  minute 
or  two,  as  it  burns  as  well  as  stains.  This 
admirable  invention  is  ascribed  by  western 
authors  to  the  ingenious  Soliman,  who  could 
not  endure  to  see  5i*e  state  of  Bilkis  of  Sheba's 
bare  legs. — Burton^s  Scinde,  Vol.  i,  p.  278. 

NUREH,  Pbbs.     Quick-lime. 

NURENI  KALANGU,  Maleal.  Dioscorea 
pentaphylla,  Linn, 

NURGIL,  see  Jallalabad. 

NURGUNDI,  Bkng.     Vitex  negundo. 

NURI,  Be5g.     Cicca  disticha,  Linn. 

NURIALAM,  Hruri).     Arum  9p. 

NUR  JAHAN,  Uterally  light  of  the  world, 
was  the  daughter  of  a  Persian  of  some  rank. 
She  was  bom  under  circumstances  of  great 
privation,  whilst  her  father  was  journeying 
towards  India.  She  was  married  to  Sher,  an 
Affghan,  by  whom  she  had  a  daughter.  Her 
husband  was  killed  in  some  quarrel ;  and  she 
was  then  married  by  the  emperor  Jehangir 
who  gave  her  brother  Asof  Khan  and  her 
father  higb  employ.  Her  husband  associi^ted 
her  name  with  his  own  on  the  coins.  After 
the  death  of  Khusru,  the  emperor's  son,  who 
took  a  dislike  to  Shah  Jehan,  the  second  son, 
and  made  efforts  to  have  Shahriar  raised  to  the 
throne,  her  husband  was  taken  prisoner  by 
Mahabhut,  and  in  her  efforts  to  release  the  em- 
peror she  was  defeated.  After  Jehangir*s 
death  she  was  pensioned  on  25  lacs  a  year. 
The  father  of  Nur  Jahan  is  known  in  history 
by  the  names  of  Mirza  Ghiyas  Beg  and  Khaja- 
Aiyass.  The  name  given  him  throughout  by 
De  Laet  (Ethaman  Doulet)  is  obviously  a  cor- 
ruption of  the  title  which  Jahangir  bestowed 
upon  him,  I*timad-ud-Doulah,  or  the  "  trust  of 

138  N 

NURMANSHEER,  see  Kirman. 

NUR-MARITHY,  a  Travancore  wood  ofa 
brown  colour,  specific  gravity  0-615 ;  used  for 
building  common  houses. — Col.  Frith. 

NUR-MINAK,  Malay.    Cocoanut  oil. 

NURMUDA,  Sans.,  from  narma,  sport  or 
entertainment,  and  da,  to  give. 

NURMUK,  see  Kelat. 

NUR  NOTSJIL,  Maleal.  Clerodendron 

NUR  PUNGELION,  Tam.  Bignonia  spa- 

NURPUR :  this  town  derives  it«  name  from 
the  celebrated  Nur  Jahan,  the  wife  of  the 
emperor  Jehangir.  Its  original  name  was 
Dahmari,  or  Dahmala,  or  as  Abul  Fazl 
writes,  Dahmahri,  although  he  mentions  no 
fort.  The  people  pronounce  the  name  as  if 
written  Dahmeri.  It  is  also  called  Patlianija. 
Nurpur,  at  the  entrance  of  the  western 
Himalaya,  where  they  rise  from  the  plain  of  the 
Punjab,  contains  about  15,000  people,  princi- 
pally E^hmii'ians,  engaged  in  the  shawl  trade. 
It  is  in  the  great  road  through  which  Kashmir, 
Chenab  and  Liadak  are  attainable. — Cunning- 
hanCs  Ancient  Oeog.  of  India^  p.  143f.  See 

thia  trifbliata. 

NURRRIALA,  Singh.     Squill. 

NURRI VUNGAYUM,  also  Nurri  vunjyum, 
Tam.   Squill.    Scilla  indiea,  Boxb, 

NURSEEA,  a  hindoo  deity. 

NURSOO,  alias  Narsinga,  fourth  avatar  of 

NURTIUNG.  The  Nurtiung  Stonchenge  in 
the  Jyntea  hills  is  no  doubt  in  part  religious, 
as  the  grove  suggests,  and  also  designed  for 
cremation,  the  bodies  being  burnt  on  the 
altars.  In  the  Khassia  these  upright  stones 
are  generally  raised  simply  as  memorials  of 
great  events,  or  of  men  whose  ashes  are  not 
necessarily  though  frequency,  buried  or  depo- 
sited in  hollow  stone  sarcophagi  near  them,  and 
sometimes  in  an  urn  pl^ed  inside  a  sarcopha- 
gus, or  under  horizontal  slabs.  The  usual 
arrangement  is  a  row  of  five,  seven,  or  more  erect 
oblong  blocks  with  round  heads  (the  highest 
being  placed  in  the  middle),  on  which  are  often 
wooden  discs  and  cones :  more  rarely  pyramids 
are  built.  Broad  slabs  for  seats  are  also  commoa 
by  the  wayside.  Mr.  (afterwards  Colonel)  Yule, 
who  first  drew  attention  to  these  monuments, 
mentions  one  thirty-two  feet  by  fifteen,  and  two 




in  t}iickness ;  and  states  that   the    sarcophagi 
(iriiich,  however,  are  rare)  formed  of  four  slabs, 
resemble  a  drawing   in   Belfs  Circassia  and 
descriptions  in  Irby  and  Manglas'  Travels  in 
Srria.  He  adds  that  many  villages  derive  their 
I     names  from   these   stones,  "  mau*'  signiiying 
!     stone:  thus  '*  mausmai"  is  the  stone  of  oath, 
becaose,  as  his  native  informant  said,  "  there 
was  war  between  Churra  and  Mansmai,  and 
when  they  made  peace,  they  swore  to  it,  and 
placed  a  atone  as  a  witness  ;^  forcibly  recalling 
the  stone  Jacob  set  up  for  a  piUar,  and  other 
passages  in  the  Old  Testament.     *'  Mamloo"  is 
the  stone  of  salt,  eating  salt  from  a  sword's 
point,  being  the  Khassia  form  of  oath ;  '*  mau- 
flong''  is  the  grassy  stone,  &c.  Analogous  com- 
binations occur  in  the  south  of  England  and 
in  Brittany,    &c.,    where    similar    structures 
are  found.     Thus  maen,  man,  or  men  is  the 
Druidical  name    for   a  stone,   whence    Pen- 
maen-mawr,   for   the   hill  of   the   big  stone. 
Maen-hayr,  for  the  standing  stones,  of  Brittany 
and  Dolmen,  the  table  stone  of  a  cromlech. — 
Hdoker's  Him.  Jour,,   Vol  ii,  pp,  320-321 ; 
Ndlei  on  the  Khassia  mountains  and  people^  hy 
Lieutenant  H.   TuU^  Bengal  Engineers,     See 
Banal  customs.  Cairn,  Khassya. 
NURU,  Saxs.     Man,  from  nree,  to  do  right. 
NUR  UD  DIN,  a  Kurd  tribe. 
NURU-SINGHA,  Sans.     From  nara,  man, 
and  aingha,  excellent. 

NURWUR.  Through  the  mediation  of  Ma- 
jor J.  Stewart,  Acting  Resident  at  Sindia's 
court  in  December  1818,  the  pergunnah  of 
Parone  and  six  villages  were  granted  to  Madho 
Sing  of  Nurwur  under  the  guarantee  of  the 
British  Government.  The  rajah  had  been 
deprived  of  his  hereditary  possessions  by  Dowlat 
Rao  Sindia,  and  he  took  to  plundering  in  Sin- 
dias  territories.  The  object  of  the  settlement 
I  was  to  put  a  stop  to  his  outrages.  In  1857, 
I  Man  Sing,  the  ruling  rajah,  joined  the  rebels 
during  the  mutinies,  but  surrendered  in  1859, 
on  condition  of  a  iree  pardon  and  a  suitable 
maintenance  being  granted  to  him.  His  former 
ponessions  were  consequently  restored  to  him 
under  guarantee. 

NUR-ZYE,  an  Affghan  tribe,  a  clan  of  Ihe 

NUSA  KAMBANGAN,  or  the  Floating 
island,  is  about  twenty  miles  long,  but  in  the 
centre  not  more  than  three  broad.  The  water 
between  it  and  Java  being  very  shallow,  there 
is  no  channel  yet  known  for  vessels  to  pass  out 
from  the  harbour  to  the  eastward. 

NUSHKI,  a,  western  sub-division  of  Balu- 
chistan. The  Zigger  Minghal  and  Kask- 
Aani,  who  inhabit  Nushki,  have  no  proper 
towns  or  villages,  but  reside  in  tents,  though 
sot  migratory.  Their  river,  the  Kaisar,  is 
^les  for  irrigation  and  is  lost  amongst  the 


sands.  They  cultivate  wheat  at  the  skirts  of 
the  hill  ranges  supporting  the  plateau  of  Saha- 
vawan.  Snow  seldom  falls.  The  Zigger  Min- 
ghal at  one  time  occupied  the  Dasht-i-Giran 
near  Kelat,  but  their  increasing  numbers  com- 
pelled them  to  migrate  into  Nushki,  dispossess- 
ing the  Rakshani,  of  whom  two  tomans  or  clans 
still  reside  at  Nushki.  They  have  a  much 
valued  breed  of  horses  called  Tarji.  Their 
flocks  are  very  numerous.  The  original  seats 
of  the  Eusofzye  were  about  Garra  and  Nushky, 
the  last  of  which  places  is  on  the  borders  of 
Dushl^i-Loot,  or  Great  Salt  Desert,  and  now 
held  by  the  Beloches  under  Kelat-i-Nusseer. 
The  Eusofzye  were  expelled  from  Garra  and 
Nushky,  about  the  end  of  the  thirteenth  or 
beginning  of  the  fourteenth  century  of  the  chris- 
tian era,  and  soon  after  settled  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood of  Kabul.  Ulugh  Beg,  whose 
power  was,  at  that  time,  strengthened  by  the 
accession  of  many  Moguls,  to  rid  himself 
of  his  troublesome  allies,  began  by  fomenting 
dissensidns  between  the  Eusofzye  and  Gug- 
geeani  (for  the  Khukkye  had  now  broken 
into  independent  clans),  and  he  soon  after 
attacked  them  at  the  head  of  that  tribe  and  his 
own  army.  He  was  defeated  at  first ;  but 
having  cut  off  all  the  chie&  of  the  tribe  at  a 
banquet,  during  an  insidious  peace  which  he 
had  the  art  to  conclude  with  them,  he  plundered 
the  Eusofzye  of  all  their  possessions  and  drove 
them  out  of  Kabul.  The  Eusofzye,  red^ced  to 
extreme  distress,  took  the  way  to  the  neighbour- 
hood of  Peshawar.  That  country  was  then  in  a 
very  different  state  from  that  in  which  it  is  at 
present.  The  tribes  who  now  possess  it,  were 
then  in  Khorasan,  and  the  plain  of  Peshawar, 
with  several  of  the  neighbouring  countries,  were 
possessed  by  tribes  which  have  since  either 
entirely  disappeared,  or  have  changed  their 
seats.  Lughmaun  was  in  the  hands  of  the 
Turkoolani,  who  are  now  in  Bajour ;  the 
tribes  of  Khyber  and  the  Bungush  had 
already  occupied  their  present  lands,  but  all 
the  lower  part  of  the  valley  of  Kabul,  all 
the  plain  of  Peshawar,  with  part  of  Bajour, 
Chuch,  Huzareh,  and  the  countries  east  of  them 
as  far  as  the  Hydaspes,  belonged  to  the  Affghan 
tribe  ofDilazak,whichis  now  almost  extirpated. 
The  country  ^between  the  Dilazak  and  the 
range  of  the  Hindoo  Coosh,  on  both  sides  of  the 
Indus,  formed  the  kingdom  of  Swat,  which 
was  inhabited  by  a  distinct  nation,  and  ruled 
by  sultan  Oveiss,  whose  ancestors  had  long 
reigned  over  that  country.  On  the  first 
arrival  of  the  Eusofzye,  they  threw  themselves 
on  the  generosity  of  the  Dilazak,  who  as- 
signed them  the  Doabeh  for  their  residence. 
Living  among  a  conquered  people,  like 
Spartans  amoi^g  Helots,  and  enjoying  entire 
independence  on  all  around,  every  Eusofzye  ia 





filled  with  the  idea  of  his  own  dignity  and 
importance.  Their  pride  appears  in  the  seclu- 
sion of  their  women,  in  the  gravity  of  their 
manners,  and  in  the  high  terms  in  which  they 
speak  of  themselves  and  their  tribe,  not  allow- 
ing even  the  Doorani  to  be  their  equals. — 
EJphinstofu's  Kingdom  ofCabul^pp.  330,  331, 
334,  348.     See  Baluchistan. 


Boehmeria  salicifolia. 

Amrer  sandri, 
Pincho,  prin. 



Kliarwala,        Affqhak. 
Siaru,  Bbas. 

Sanfiaru :  Suss,  Chkmab. 
Chainchar,  Haz^ba. 

Chainjli,  „ 

A  common  shrub  generally  near  water  at 
many  places  in  the  low  hills  from  1,500  and  oc- 
casionally to  6,000  feet,  in  the  Cis  and  Trans- 
Indus,  and  the  Salt  Range.  In  the  eastern 
part  of  the  Punjab,  as  in  the  N.  W.  Provinces, 
its  bark  is  u^ed  for  making  ropes,  but  it  is  not 
generally  employed  in  this  way.  It  is  browsed 
by  sheep. — 2>r.  /.  L.  Stewart^  P.  Plants^p,  215 ; 
AwelVs  Handbooky  Vol,  i,  p.  602. 

NUSSURABAD,  a  town  in  the  Mymensing 
district  in  Bengal,  281  miles  from  Calcutta. 

NUSURTINGHI  KE  JUR,  Hikd.  Trian- 
thema,  9p, 

NUT,  or  Hazel  nut. 

Noisettes,  Avelines,       Fb. 
Haselnuase,  Ger. 

Naccinole,  Avelane,        It. 








professional  exploits.  These  consist  of  playing 
on  various  instrurafents,  singing,  dancing,  tumlv 
ling,  &c.  The  two  latter  accomplishments 
are  peculiar  to  the  women  of  this  sect.  The 
notions  of  religion  and  a  future  state,  among 
this  vagrant  race,  are  principally  derived  from 
their  songs,  which  are  beautifully  simple.— 
Cole.  Myth.  Hind.,  p.  313.     See  Himalaya. 

NUTA,  Bbko.     Amphidonax  karka. 

NUT-CRACKERS,  a  genus  of  birds,  compria- 
ing  3  sp.  of  Nucifraga,  viz.,  N.  hemispilla  and 
two  others. 

NUTEEYA,  Bbho.     Goronilla  picta. 

NUTEYA,  Hind.    Amarantus,  9p. 


Afis,  Ab. 

Wu-pei-tsze,  Chin. 

Galseble,    .  Dan. 

Galappel,  DuT. 

GHiUs,  Eng. 

Noix  de  galles,  Fa. 

Gallapfel,  Gkr. 

Kekidia,  Gr. 















The  nut  of  the  Corylus  coturna. 

NUT  or  Nutli,  in  India,  a  wandering  tribe, 
who  are  dancers,  actors,  athletsa.  They  resemble 
the  gypsies  in  habits.  The  nut  callea  also  Sirki 
bash  (dwellers  tinder  mats)  met  with  in  the 
Dekhan  are  not  distinguishable  from  Dher. 
The  Bazeegur  and  Nut,  jugglers  and  tumblers, 
may  be  considered  as  the  gipsises  of  Hindu- 
stan ;  both  are  wandering  tribes,  and  have 
each  a  language  understood  only  by  them- 
selves :  they  live  principally  by  juggling,  for- 
tune-telling (by  palmistry  and  other  means,) 
and  are  alike  addicted  to  thieving.  The  gypsies 
are  governed  by  their  king,  the  Nut'h  by  their 
nardar  bouthah.  They  appear  to  be  equally 
indifferent  on  the  subject  of  religion,  jind  in  no 
respect  particular  in  their  food,  or  the  manner 
by  which  it  is  obtained.  According  to  a  list 
furnished  by  Captain  Richardson,  the  languages 
adopted  by  these  people  would  appear  to  possess 
a  very  strong  affinity  to  each  other.  The 
Bazeegur  are  sub-divided  into  seven  castes, 
viz.,  the  Charee,  AtTjhyee'a,  Bynsa,  Purbuttee, 
Ealkoor,  Dorlunee,  and  GungwaT;  but  the 
difference  seems  only  in  name,  for  they  live 
together,  aud  intermarry  as  one  people :  they 
say  they  are  descended  from  four  brothers  of 
the  same  family.  They  profess  the  mahomedan 
rite  of  circumcision ;  they  regard  Tan-Sin 
as  their  tutelar  deity ;  consequently  they  look 
up  to  him  for  success  and  safety  in  all  their 

140  N 


The  galls  of  Europe  are  obtained  from  the  oak. 
Those  of  British  India  from  Ehus  succedanea; 
those  of  China  from  the  Bhus  semi-alata.  See 

NUTHATCH,  Sitta  syriaca,  or  '  Rock  nut- 
hatch'  of  S.  E.  Europe,  and  Asia  Minor,  or  a 
species  of  similar  habits  (most  probably  the 
same),  inhabits  Affghanistan. 

NUTHNEE,  Hind.  A  smaU  nose  ring  worn 
usually  by  children. 

NUTHOO,  also  Nagi  nuthu,  Tam.  Articles 
of  jewellery. 

NUTHRINE  HARN,  Beno.  Axis  porcinua, 

NUTI  KASINDA,  Tel.  Cassia  sophora,  L. 
—  TT.  and  A.  889— Senna  soph.,  JR.  u,  347; 
S.  esculcnta,  ii,  346 — Bheede,  ii,  b2. 


Moachokaridon,  Gam. 
Jaiphul,  DuK.,  Guz.,  Hna>. 
Noi  mo8cada.  It. 

Moscada,  It.,  Post.,  Sp. 
Woh  pala»  Jat. 

Pala :  Buwah  pala,  Malay. 
Buah-pala,  Malsai. 

Jowz  bowa,  Prs. 

Noz  moscada.  Post. 

Musbkatngi,  Orjekh  Rus. 
Jati-phala,  Sascs. 

JatipuUum  sadikai,  Sikov. 
Mus-kat,  Sir. 

Jadikai,  Tam. 

Jajikaia,  Txl.  , 

•e  are  three  specii 

Mynstica,  which  furnish  nutmegs.     The 

description  is  from  Myristica  fragrans,   a 

from  twenty  to  twenty-five  feet  high,   sonw 

what  similar  in  appearance  to  a  pear  tte^n 

The  iruit  is  smooth   externally  pear-flhapedj 

and  about  the  size  of  an   ordinary    peachy 

It   consists,    first  of  an   outer   fieshy    cove 

ing,    called  the  pericarp,   which,  when   mi 

ture  separates  into  nearly  equal  lotigitudii 
























Noix  muscades, 


Noix  de  miiBcade, 






Dr.  Hassall  s 

ays  th( 


parts,  or  valves,  secondly,  of  the  aril,  or  mace, 
which,  when,  recent,  is  of  a   bright  scarlet 
colour,  wid  thirdly,  of  the  seed  proper,  or  nut- 
m^.    This  is  enclosed  in  a  shell,  which  is 
made  of  two  coats,   the  outer  is  hard  and 
smooth,  the  inner,  thin,  closely  invests  the  seed 
sending  off  prolongations  which  enter  the  sub- 
stance of  the  seed  and  which  being  coloared, 
impart  the  marbled  or  mottled    appearance 
characteristic  of  nutmeg.     Nutm^  are  culti- 
Tated  in  the  Molucca  islands,  and  especially 
in  those  called  the  Banda,  or  Nutmeg  islands. 
The  tree  is  also  grown  in  Java,  Sumatra,  Penang, 
Singapore,  Southern  India,  Bengal,  Bourbon, 
Island  of  Madagascar,  and  certain  of  the  West 
India  islands.     The  first  kind  of  nutmegs  met 
with  in  ccHnmerce,  called  the  true,  round,  culti- 
vated, or  female  nutmeg,  is  the  product  of 
Myristica  fragrans.    The  nutmegs  are  char- 
acteiiaed  by  &eir  full  and  rounded  form  and 
delicate  and  aromatic  flavour ;  they  are  occa- 
sonaUy  imported  in  the  shell.     There  is  also 
a  small  variety,  not  larger  than  a  pea,  which 
has  been  described  under  the  name  of  the  royal 

Three  varieties  of  true  nutmeg  are  distin- 
guiahed  by  dealers,  which  are  thus  described 
in  Pereira  s  Materia  Medica : — 

Pmamg  nutmegs  are  unlimed  or  brown 
DUtmega,  and  fetch  the  highest  price. .  They 
are  sometimes  limed  in  Britain  lor  exportation, 
as  on  the  Continent  the  limed  sort  is  preferred. 
According  to  Newbold,  the  average  amount 
annually  raised  at  Penang  about  a.b.  1836  was 
400  piculs  (of  136^  lbs.  each). 

IhtUh  or  Batavian  nutmegs  are  limed  nut- 
megs. In  London  they  scarcely  fetch  so  high 
a  price  aa  the  Penang  sort. 

Smgt^Mn'e  nutmegs  are  a  rougher,  un- 
limed, narrow  sort,  of  somewhat  leas  value 
than  the  Dutch  kind.  According  to  Mr. 
Oxley,  4,085361  nutmegs  were  produced  at 
Singapore  in  1848,  or  about  252  piculs  (of 
18^  lbs.  eacli) ;  but  the  greater  number  of 
the  trees  had  not  come  into  iull  bearing,  and 
it  was  estimated  that  the  amount  woidd  in 
1849,  be  500  piculs.  The  second  kind  of  nut- 
meg is  called  the  false,  long,  wild,  or  male 
mtmeg,  and  is  the  produce  chiefly  of  Myris- 
tica malabarica.  The  seeds  of  Myristica  fatua, 
are  about  half  as  long  again  as  the  true  or 
raond  nutmeg ;  they  are  paler,  and  less  aroma- 
tic The  wild  nutmeg  obtained  from  the  My- 
riftica  malabarica  has  scarcely  any  flavour  or 
odour,  and,  according  to  Rheede,  is  of  the  size 
and  figure  of  a  date.  *'  The  Turkish  and  Jewish 
nerchantB,''  writes  Rheede,  '*  mix  these  nut^ 
megs  with  the  true  long  ones,  and  the  mace 
with  good  mace,  selling  them  together.  They 
ib>  eitract  from  these  inferior  articles  an  oil, 
vith  which  they  adulterate  that  of  a  more 


genuine  quality."  The  importance  of  this  spice, 
requires  that  the  opinions  of  various  writers 
should   be  given.  In  the  Banda  islands,  three 
crops  or  harvests  of  nutmegs  are  obtained  in 
the  year,  the  principal  gathering  is  in  July  or 
August ;  the  second   in  November ;  and   the 
third  in  March  or  April.     The  fruit  is  gather- 
ed by  means  of  a  barb  attached  to  a  long  stick ; 
the  mace  is  separated  from  the  nut  and  se- 
parately cured.     On  accoimt  of  their  liability 
to  the  attacks  of  an  insect  known  as  the  nut- 
meg insect,  considerable  care  is  reqidred  in 
drying  them.     They  should  be  dried  in  their 
shells,  as  they  are  then  secure  from  the  insect. 
They  are  placed  on  hurdles,  and  smoke-dried 
over  a  slow  wood  fire  for  about  two  months. 
In  the  Banda  islands,  they  are  first  dried  in 
the  Sim  for  a  few  days.    When  the  operation 
of  drying  is  complete,  the  nuts  rattle  in  their 
shells  ;  these  are  cracked  with  mallets,  and  the 
damaged,  shrivelled,  or  worm-eaten  nuts  re- 
moved.   To  prevent  the  attacks  of  the  insect, 
the  nuts  are  frequently  limed.    The  Dutch 
lime  them  by  dipping  them  into  a  thick  mix- 
ture of  lime  and  water,  but  this  process  is  con- 
sidered to  injure  their  flavour. .    Others  lime 
them  by  rubbing  them  with  recently  prepared^ 
well-siAed  lime.      This  process  is  sometimes 
practised  in  London.     For  the  English  market, 
however,  the  brown  or  unlimed  nutmegs  are 
preferred.    The  quantities  of  nutmegs  entered 
for  Home  consumption  in  the  United  Kingdom, 
and  the  amount  of  duty  received  thereon  were 
afl  under : 

1840..X.25,041<.  9 
1841 . .  14,861  10 



tons     101 

consumed  67 

in  United    74 

Kingdom    79 




1840..  lbs.  118,664 

1841 113,441 

1842 170,064 

1847,      tons       181 

1848  imported.  164 

1849  150 

1850  100 

1851  139 

1852  lbs.  239,200 

1853  „  206,198 

In  1842,  the  duties  were  fixed  at  Zs,  M.  per 
lb.  on  those  from  a  foreign,  and  at  2s,  6d,  per 
lb.  on  those  from  a  Briti^  possession.  The 
duty  on  wild  nutmegs  in  the  shell  was  then 
also  fixed  at  3d.  without  regard  to  origin.  The 
duty  now  is  I5.  per  lb. ;  on  wild  nutmegs  in 
the  shell,  Bd,  per  lb.,  not  in  the  shell,  6d.  per 
lb.  Wholesale  price.  Is.  9d,  to  4s.  It  appears 
from  Dr.  HaBsall's  inqtdries ;  Ist,  That  nutm^, 
as  they  reach  the  consumer  are  not  in  general 
deprived  of  their  essential  oil ;  a  result  contra- 
ry to  the  opinion  commonly  entertained  on 
this  point ;  2nd,  That,  as  met  with  in  the 
English  markets,  they  are  seldom  limed. 
Crawfurd  says  the  species  of  the  genus  Myris- 
tica are  numerous  and  wide-spread,  for  some 
are  found  in  all  the  islands  of  the  Archipelago, 
in  several  parts  of  Hindustan,  in  the  Indoo-^ 







Chinese  countries,  in  the  Philippines,  in  Aus-  '  also  forwarded  from  the  Bababooden  lliHs, 
traiia,  and  in  tropical  America.  As  a  spice,  j  Mysore,  and  from  Cahara  ;  it  is  much  used  as 
howcTer,  the  M.  moschata  or  aroraatica,  is  the  i  a  substitute  for  the  true  spice,  but  is  almost 
only  one  of  which  the  nut  or  mace  is  of  any  ;  wholly  devoid  of  aroma  and  of  no  intereit. 
value  and  of  this  the  geographical  limits  are  com-  The  nutmeg  tree  has  been  found  growing  wild 
paratively  narrow,  being  comprehended  between    in  Assam,  iat,  27^  30',  and  probably  it  would 

the  126th  and  13dth  degrees  of  east  longitude, 
and  the  3rd  degree  of  north,  and  the  7th  of 
south  latitude.     It  is,  or  has  been,  found  wild 

succeed  in  higher  latitudes  in  America.  It  is 
already  cultivated  in  several  of  the  West  India 
Islands,  but  with  less  success.     The  appearance 

in  the  proper  Moluccas,  in  Gilolo,  Ccram,  I  of  the  rich  brown  shell  of  the  nutmeg  covered 
Amboyna,  Beeroe,  Damma,  the  north  and  with  the  red  fibres  of  the  mace  is  very  beautiful 
south  sides  of  the  western  peninsula  of  New  |  in  the  fresh  fruit.     These  fibres  being  removed, 

Guinea,  and  in  all  its  adjacent  islands.  It 
certainly  does  not  exist  in  its  wild  state  in  any 
of  the  islands  west  of  these,  nor  in  any  of  the 
Philippines.  Wherever  the  soil  and  climate 
are  suitable  for  its  growth  the  an)raatic  nut- 
meg is  raised  with  great  facility.     It  is  even 

the  shells  are  dried  in  the  sun  or  by  a  moderate 
fire  until  they  split,  revealing  the  aromatic 
kernel  or  nutmeg.  Nutmeg  plantations  are 
formed  in  alluvial  ground,  or  in  virgin  forest 
land  in  level  situations.  Declivities  are  un- 
favourable on  account  of  the  slight  hold  these 

transported  to  remote  parts,  and  the  seed  is  1  trees  take  on  the  soil,  and  the  consequent 
disseminated  by  two  species  of  pigeon,  CJolumba  danger  of  their  being  uprooted  during  the  heavy 
perspicillata  and  senea,  which  prey  on  the  nut-  rains  which  occur  in  tropical  countries.  Their 
m^  as   the   wood-pigeons   on  the  acorn,  feed    culture   in   Bencoolen,  which    represents  the 

on  the  mace  and  drop  the  nut. 

In  its  native  country  the  nutmeg  tree  comes 
into  full  bearing  in  its  ninth  y^ar,  and  lives  to 
seventy-five.  In  shape  and  size,  the  ripe  frfiit 
resembles  a  nectarine.  When  ripe,  the  fleshy 
outer  substance  bursts,  the  nutmeg  in  its  black 
shining  shell  is  seen  through  the  interstices 
of  its  reticulated  crimson  envelope,  the  mace, 
which  amounts  to  about  one-fif^h  part  of 
the  weight  of  the  whole  dried  fruit.  These 
two  articles,  the  nut  and  mace,  constitute 
the  spices  which  for  so  many  ages  have 
been  in  request  among  the  nations  of  Europe 
and  Asia,  although  never  used  as  a  condi- 
ment by  the  inhabitants  of  the  countries 
that  produce  it.  The  British  afler  the  un- 
successful efforts  of  two  centuries,  succeed- 
ed at  length  in  participating  in  the  nutmeg 
trade,  in  consequence  of  having  occupied  the 
Spice  Islands  in  1796.  In  1798  the  nutmeg 
was  introduced  into  Bencoolen  and  Penang,  and 
in  1819  into  Singapore,  and  at  these  places  it 
was  once  largely  cultivated,  but  certainly  under 
the  disadvantage  of  growing  as  a  not  already 
acclimated  exotic.  In  countries  native  and 
congenial  to  it,  the  nutmeg  is  reared  with 
great  ease,  requiring  little  care  beyond  shelter 
from  the  sun  and  weeding.  At  the  Madras 
Exhibition  cf  1855,  fine  samples  of  nutmegs 
were  sent  by  General  Cullen  firom  his  gardens, 
Velley  Malay  near  Oodagheny,  south  of  Travan- 
core,  1,800  feet  above  the  sea.  Two  sorts  of 
nutmegs  were  exhibited  by  C,  S.  Vemede, 
Esq.,  Commercial  Agent  to  the  Cochin  govern- 
ment ;  first  sort,  averaging  70  to  the  pound, 
and  the  second  sort,  100  to  the  pound ;  the 
former  are  partictdarly  fine.  In  some  instances 
the  nutmegs  had  been  coated  with  chunam  to 
preserve  them.    Wild  or  spurious  nutmeg,  was 

142  N 

ordinary  mode  of  treatment  has  been  minutely 
described  by  Dr.  Lumsdaine,  in  a  paper 
originally  communicated  to  the  Agricultural 
Society  of  Sumatra,  in  1820,  and  afterwards 
republished  in  Silliman's  American  Journal  of 
Science  and  Arts. 

CiiUivation, — ^In  originating  a  nutm^  plan- 
tation it  is  necessary  to  select  ripe  and  sound  nuts, 
and  set  them  at  the  distance  of  a  foot  apart  in 
a  rich  soil,  covering  them  lightly  with  mould. 
They  must  then  be  watered  every  other  day, 
weeded  occasionally,  and  shielded  from  a  scorch- 
ing sun.  In  from  one  to  two  months  the  young 
seedlings  may  be  expected  to  appear ;  and  when 
about  4  feet  high,  the  heaJtixiest  and  most 
luxuriant  are  to  be  removed  at  the  commence- 
ment of  the  rainy  season  to  the  plantation 
previously  cleared  and  prepared  for  that  purpose, 
and  set  at  the  distance  of  80  feet  from  eadi 
other,  care  being  taken  to  protect  them  from  the 
heat  and  from  violent  winds.  The  plants  are 
set  in  rows,  and  between  these  the  plough  is 
employed  to  clear  the  intermediate  spaces  of 
weeds  and  grasses.  The  plants  continue  to 
require  watering  every  other  day  in  sultry 
weather ;  and  in  nearly  all  cases  the  soil 
requires  to  be  enriched  with  annual  supplies 
of  manure,  which  are  laid  on  during  the  rains, 
and  which  are  made  more  stimulating  as  the 
tree  increases  in  age.  After  the  fiflh  year  the 
trees  no  longer  require  to  be  shielded  from 
the  sun ;  in  the  seventh  year  they  begin  to 
bear  fruit ;  and  from  that  time  to  the  fifteenth 
year  they  generally  increase  in  fruitiulness, 
being  then  in  their  highest  perfection.  During 
the  progressive  growth  of  the  plantation,  the 
beds  of  the  trees  are  regularly  weeded,  and 
the  roots  kept  covered  with  die  mould,  for 
these  have  a  constant  tendency  to  seek  the 



greatly  as  to  fill  up  the  whole  cavity  of  the 
shell,  and  thus  prevent  them  from  rattling, 
which  is  the  criterion  of  due  prepamtion.  The 
drying-house  is  a  hrick  huilding  of  suitable  size, 
and  t£e  stage  is  placed  at  an  elevation  of  10 
feet  having  3  divisions  in  it  for  the  produce  of 
different  months.  The  nuts  are  turned  every 
second  or  third  day,  that  they  may  all  partake 
equally  of  the  heat,  and  such  as  have  under- 
gone the  smoking  process  for  the  period  of  two 
complete  months,  and  rattle  freely  in  the  shell, 
are  cracked  with  wooden  mallets,  and  the  worm- 
eaten  and  shrivelled  ones  thrown  out.  The 
sound  nutmegs  are  rubbed  over  with  recently 
is  then  discontinued.  Nutmeg-trees  are  of  two  l  prepared  well  siiled  dry  lime,  and  packed  tight- 
kinds  in  the  same  plantation,  flower-bearing,  ;  ly  in  chests,  the  seams  of  which  have  been  made 
aod  fruit-bearing.  Th^  productive  plants  are  !  impervious  to  air  and  water.  Another  and  a 
in  the  proportion  of  about  two-thirds  to  the  more  common  method  is  to  dip  them  in  a  mix- 
vhole  plantation.  It  is  impossible  to  discover  '  ture  of  salt-water  and  lime,  and  then  to  spread 
the  difference  in  the  sexes  of  the  plants  until  {  them  out  for  4  or  5  days  in  the  shade  to  dry. 
the  period  of  flow^ering.  Between  die  appear-  But  the  quantity  of  moisture  imbibed  during 
ance  of  the  blossom  and  the  ripening  of  the  this  process,  appears  to  increase  the  liability  to 
fruit,  a  period  of  7  months  generally  elapses ;  |  early  decay  and  to  the  attacks  of  insects.  The 
but  when  once  a  tree  has  begun  bearing,  it  con-  I  surest  way  of  preserving  the  kernel  would  be 
tinues  to  produce  fruit  all  the  year  rotmd,  but  j  to  export  it  in  the  shell ;  this  is  done  in  send- 
more  plentifully  in  some  months  than  in  others,    ing  nutmegs  to  China  ;  but  it  does  not  answer 


gorface:  the  growth  of  lateral  branches  is 
ai<ine  eocouraged,  and  all  suckers  or  dead  and 
unproductive  branches  are  removed  by  the 
Druaing-knife,  so  as  to  thin  the  trees  consider- 
ably, and  admit  of  the  descent  of  the  night- 
dews,  which  contribute  much  to  their  well- 
being,  especially  during  dry  and  sultry  weather. 
The  conclusion  of  the  principal  harvest  is  the 
time  chosen  for  these  prunings.  As  the  trees 
advance  in  age,  the  coarser  vegetation  and 
creepers  are  alone  removed  from  the  intervals 
between  the  trees,  and  the  more  harmless  grasses 
are  allowed  to  remain,  giving  the  plantation 
a  pork-like  appearance.     The  use  of  the  plough 

The  months  of  September,  October,  November 
snd  December,  are  the  period  of  the  great  har- 
vest: those  of  April,  May  and  June,  of  the 
smaller  harvest.  In  the  Moluccas  these  trees 
continue  prolific  for  70  or  80  years  ;  and  the 
annual  pnxluce,  taking  one  tree  with  anotlier, 
amounts  to  about  five  pounds  of  nutmegs  and  a 

in  Europe,  on  account  of  the  heavy  allowance 
for  shells,  which  is  one-third  of  the  weight. 
The  general  qualities  of  the  nutm^  and  mace 
are  the  same  :  their  agreeable  aromatic  odour 
and  pungent  taste  are  well-known,  the  peculiar 
flavour  of  the  mace,  however,  being  quite  dis- 
tinct from  that  of  the  nut.    They  contain,  ac- 

pound  and  a  quarter  of  mace  of  each  tree,    cording  to  Bonastre,  fat  oil  31-6  per  cent.,  vo- 
Wben  the  fruit  is  ripe,  which  is  indicated  by  |  latile  oil  6-0,  starch  24,  gum  1-2,  free  acid  0-8, 

the  bursting  open  of  the  fleshy  portion,  and  the 
appearance '  of  the  kernel,  it  is  gathered  in  by 
means  of  long  booked  sticks.  The  first  step, 
after  removing  the  outer  integument,  is  cau- 
tiously to  strip  off  the  mace,  and  flatten  it  by 
hand  in  single  layers  placed  on  mats  and  dried 
for  3  or  4  days  in  the  sun.  In  damp  and  rainy 
weather  the  heat  of  a  charcoal  fire  is  employed, 
but  with  care  that  no  smoke  or  heat  blacken 
the  surfieu^  of  the  mace.  In  drying,  the  red 
tint  of  the  mace  changes  to  orange,  its  substance 
becomes  homy  and  brittle,  and  its  strongly 
aromatic  odour  and  taste  are  preserved.  When 
well  cured,  it  is  made  up  in  tight  packages  in 
a  dry  situation  ;  but  is  exposed  to  the  sun 
about  once  a  fortnight  to  preserve  its  dryness, 
and  thus  to  keep  it  from  insects  which  attack  it 
if  it  becomes  damp.  The  nuts  being  liberated 
from  their  macy  envelope,  are  conveyed  to  the 
drying  house  and  placed  on  a  raised  stage  or 
frame-work,  which  admits  the  heat  from  a 
aoooldering  fire  beneath  it,  to  pass  freely 
among  them.  The  heat  is  kept  below  140^ 
Fahr.,  because  too  great  a  heat  dries  up  the 
kernels,  while  too  long  continued  heat  produces 
fementatioD,  which  increases  their  volume  so 

143  N 

lignine  54.  Not  more  than  4-5  per  cent, 
volatile  oil  is  usually  obtained  in  the  distilla- 
tions at  Apothecaries'  Ilall.  The  fixed  oil, 
called  nutmeg  butter  or  expressed  oil  of  nut- 
meg, is  prepared  in  HoUand  :  the  nutmegs  are 
beaten  into  a  paste,  which  is  enclosed  in  a  bag, 
steamed  and  pressed  between  hot  plates.  It  is 
imported  in  oblong  cakes,  wrapped  in  flag- 
leaves  or  leaves  of  the  banana,  and  weighing 
about  three  quarters  of  a  pound.  It  is  of*  an 
orange  or  reddish  brown  colour,  and  of  a  fra- 
grant odour.  It  is  liable  to  much  adulteration, 
and  so  also  is  the  volatile  oil,  with  which  tur- 
pentine is  frequently  mixed.  The  article  call- 
ed expressed  oil  of  mace  is  obtained  from  the 
nutmeg,  and  should  bear  its  name.  Nutmeg 
butter,  according  to  Plajrfiur,  consists  of  three 
fatty  substances,  two  of  which  are  soluble  in 
alcohol,  and  the  third  almost  insoluble  in 
that  fluid  :  the  third  substance  has  been  term- 
ed Myristine,  and  from  this  myritic  acid  is 
prepared.  Nutmegs  are  sometimes  passed  off 
as  fresh,  after  the  volatile  oil  has  been  ab- 
stracted from  them.  Such  nutmegs  are  very 
light,  and  when  pierced  with  a  hot  needle,  do 
not  give  an  oily  coating  to  it.    The  best  nut- 




megs  are  small,  but  heavy,  weighing  on  an 
average  90  grains  each.  There  is  a  large  and 
inferior  kind  of  nutmeg,  longer  and  heavier 
than  the  above,  weighing  as  much  as  110 
grains.  This  is  the  produce  of  another  variety, 
and  sometimes  of  a  distinct  species  of  nutmeg, 
and  is  said  to  be  more  liable  to  produce 
narcotic  symptoms  than  the  true  nutmeg. 
Nutmegs  and  mace  are  decidedly  stimulant, 
and  in  small  quantities  wholesome.  When  used 
in  abundance  they  produce,  by  increasing  the 
circulation,  narcotic  effects.  According  to 
Mr.  Simmonds,  the  nutmeg  tree,  Myristica 
moschata,  M.  officinalis,  or  M.  aromatica,  is  of 
a  larger  growth  than  the  clove,  attaining  a 
height  of  thirty  feet,  and  has  its  leaves  broader 
in  proportion  to  their  length  ;  the  upper  surface 
of  these  is  of  a  bright  green,  the  under  of  a 
greyish  colour.  It  is  a  dioecious  plant,  having 
male  or  barren  pale  yellow  flowers  upon 
one  tree,  and  female  or  fertile  flowers  upon 
another.  The  fruit  is  drupaceous,  and  opens 
by  two  valves  when  ripe,  displaying  the  beauti- 
ful reticulated  scarlet  arillus,  which  constitutes 
mace.  Within  this  is  a  hard,  dark-brown,  and 
glossy  shell,  covering  the  kernel,  which  is  the 
nutmeg  of  the  shops.  The  kernels  of  M. 
tomentosa  are  also  used  as  aromatics,  under  the 
name  of  wild  or  male  nutmegs.  Lindley  de- 
scribes two  other  species,  M.  fatua,  a  native  of 
Surinam,  with  greenish  white  flowers,  and  M. 
sebifera  or  Virola  sebifera,  a  native  of  Guiana, 
with  yellowish  green  flowers.  By  expression, 
nutm^  are  made  to  yield  a  concrete  oil,  called 
Adeps  myristicas,  or  sometimes  erroneously  oil 
of  mace.  A  volatile  oil  is  also  procured  by  dis- 
tillation. Nutmegs  and  mace  are  used  medi- 
cinally as  aromatic  stimtdants  and  condiments. 
In  large  doses  they  have  narcotic  effects.  The 
fleshy  part  of  the  fruit  is  used  as  a  preserve. 
Dr.  Oxley,  as  the  result  of  twenty  years' 
experience  at  Singapore,  observes  that  the  nutr- 
meg  tree,  like  many  of  its  class,  has  a  strong  ten- 
dency to  become  monoecious,  and  planters  in 
general  are  well  pleased  at  this  habit,  thinking 
they  secure  a  double  advantage  by  having  the 
nude  and  female  flowers  on  the  same  plant.  This 
is,  however,  delusive,  and  being  against  the  order 
of  nature,  the  produce  of  such  trees  is  invari- 
ably inferior,  showing  itself  in  the  production  of 
double  nuts  and  other  deformities.  It  is  best, 
therefore,  to  have  only  female  trees,  with  a  due 
proportion  of  males.  The  female  flowers,  which 
are  merely  composed  of  a  tripid  calyx  and  no 
corolla,  when  produced  by  a  tree  in  full  vigor 
are  perfectly  urceolate,  slightly  tinged  with 
green  at  the  base,  and  well-flUed  by  the  ovary, 
whereas  the  female  flowers  of  weakly  trees  are 
entirely  yellow,  imperfectly  urceolate,  and  ap- 
proach more  to  the  staminiferoos  flowen  of  the 
male.    The  shape  of  the  fruit  varies  conaider- 

144;  N 


ably,  being  spherical,ob]ong,and  egg-shaped,  but 
the  nearer  they  approach  sphericity  of  figure, 
the  more  highly  are  they  prized.  There  is  also 
a  great  variety  in  the  foliage  of  different  trees, 
from  elliptic,  oblong  and  ovate,  to  almost  purely 
lanceolate-shaped  leaves.  This  difference  seems 
to  indicate  in  some  measure  the  character  of 
the  produce;  trees  with  large  oblong  leaves 
appearing  to  have  the  largest  and  most  spheri- 
cal fruit,  and  those  with  small  lanceolate  leaves 
being  in  general  more  prolific  beareis,  bat  of 
inferior  quality.  Whilst  its  congener  the  clove 
has  been  spread  over  Asia,  Africa,  and  the 
West  Indies,  the  nutmeg  refuses  to  flourish  out 
of  the  Malayan  Archipelago,  except  as  an 
exotic,  all  attempts  to  introduce  it  largely  into 
other  tropical  countries  having  decidedly  failed. 
The  island  of  Temate,  which  is  in  about  the 
same  latitude  as  Singapore,  is  said  to  have  been 
the  spot  where  it  was  truly  indigenous,  but  no 
doubt  the  tree  is  to  be  found  on  most  of  the 
Moluccas.  At  present  the  place  of  its  origin  is 
unproductive  of  the  spice,  having  been  robbed 
of  its  rich  heritage  by  the  policy  of  the  Dutch, 
who  at  an  early  period  removed  the  plantations 
to  the  Banda  isles  for  better  surveillance,  where 
they  still  remain  and  flourish.  But  although 
care  was  formerly  taken  to  extirpate  the  tree 
on  the  Moluccas,  the  mace-feeding  pigeons  hsTe 
frostrated  the  machinations  of  man,  and  spread 
it  widely  through  the  Archipelago  of  islands 
extending  from  die  Moluccas  to  New  Guinea. 
Its  circle  of  growth  extends  westward  as  far  as 
Pinang,  or  Prince  of  Wales'  Island,  where, 
although  an  exotic,  it  has  been  cidtivated  as  a 
mercantile  speculation  with  success  for  many 
years.  Westward  of  Pinang  there  are  no  plant- 
ations, looking  at  the  subject  in  a  mercantile 
point  of  view.  The  tree  is  to  be  found,  indeed, 
in  Ceylon,  and  the  West  Coast  of  India,  but  to 
grow  it  as  a  speculation  out  of  its  indigenoos 
limits,  is  as  likely  to  prove  successful  as  the 
cultivation  of  apples  and  pears  in  Bengal.  In 
the  Banda  Isles,  where  the  tree  may  be  con- 
sidered as  indigenous,  no  further  attention  is 
paid  to  its  cultivation  than  setting  out  the 
plants  in  parks,  under  the  shade  of  large  forest 
trees,  widi  long  horizontal  branches,  called 
"  Canari"  by  the  natives.  There  it  attains  a 
height  of  50  feet  and  upwards,  whereas  from 
20  to  30  feet  may  be  taken  as  a  fair  average  of 
the  trees  in  the  Straits'  Settlements.  A 
nutmeg  plantation,  well  laid  out  and  brought  up 
to  perfection,  is  one  of  the  most  pleasLog  and 
agreeable  properties  that  can  be  possessed.  Yield- 
ing returns,  more  or  less  daily,  throughout  the 
year,  there  is  increasing  interest,  besides  the 
usual  stimulus  to  all  agriculturists  of  a  crop  time, 
when  his  produce  increases  to  double  and  quap 
druple  the  ordinary  routine.  Trees  having  af* 
riyed  at  fifteen  years'  growth,  there  b  no  incerti- 




tnde  or  fear  of  total  failure  of  crop,  only  in  re-  '  the  Tuba  root  is  a  good  remedy  but  where 
lative  amount  of  produce,  and  this,  as  will  be  only  a  i'ew  plants  are  affected,  if  the  spots 
«*n,  b  greatly  in  the  planter  s  own  power  to  be  numerous,  it  is  preferable  to  i>luck  up  the 
command.  The  first  requisite  for  the  planter  is  ]  plant  altogether,  rather  than  run  the  risk  of 
choice  of  location.     The  nutmeg  tree,  aided  by  ;  the   insect  becoming  more  numerous,  to   the 

total   destruction   of  the  nursery.     The   nuts 

manure,  will  grow  in  almost  any  soil  where 
vrater  does  not  lodge,  but  it  makes  a  vast  differ- 
<*nce  in  the  degree  of  success,  whether,  the  soil 
be  originally  good,  or  poor  and  improved  by  art. 
The  tree  does  not  thrive  in  white  or  sandv  soils, 
but  prefers  the  deep  red  and  friable  soils  formed 
bv  the  decomposition  of  granite  rocks  and  tinged 

germinate  in  from  a  month  to  six  weeks,  and 
even  later,  and  for  many  months  after  germina- 
tion the  seed  is  attached  to  the  yomig  plant, 
and  may  be  removed  apparently  as  sound  as 
when  planted,  owing  to  the  great  disproportion 
in  size  between  the  ovule  and  albumen,  the 

with  iron,  and  the  deeper  the  tinge  the  better.  |  Ibrmer  of  which  is  alone  necessary  to  form  the 
He  thinks  that  iron  in  the  soil  is  almost  neces- j  plant.     The   i^lant  may   be   kept   in  nursery 

sary  for  the  full  development  of  the  plant.  If 
under  the  before-mentioned  soil  there  be  a 
rubble  of  iron-stone  at  four  or  five  feet  irom 
the  surface   (a    very    common    formation 

with  advantage  for  nearly  two  years.  Should 
they  grow  rapidly,  and  the  interspaces  become 
too  small  for  them,  every  second  plant  had 
better  be  removed  to  a  fresh  nursery,  and  set 
Singapore),  forming  a  natiural   drainage,   the    out  at  a  distance  of  a  couple  of  feet  from  each 


planter  has  obtained  all  that  he  can  desire  in  the 
groond,  and  needs  only  patience  and  persever- 
ance to  secure  success.  The  form  of  the  ground 
ought  to  be  undulating,  to  permit  the  running 
off  of  all  superfluous  water,  as  there  is  no  one 
thing  more  injurious  to  the  plant  than  water 
lodging  around  its  roots,  although,  in  order  to 

other.  When  transplanted  either  in  this  way 
or  for  their  ultimate  position  in  the  plantation, 
care  should  be  taken  to  remove  them  with  a 
good  ball  of  earth,  secured  by  the  skin  of  the 
plantain,  which  prevents  the  ball  of  earth  fall- 
ing to  pieces.  The  nurseries  being  established, 
the  ground  cleared  and  ready,  the  next  proceed- 

thrive  well,  it  recjuires  an  atmasphere  of  the  most  i  ing  is  to  lay  out  and  dig  holes  about  26  or  30 
humid  sort,  and  rain  almost  daily.  Besides  the  |  feet  apart,  and  the  quincunx  order  has  many 
form  of  the  ground,  situation  is  highly  desirable  |  advantages.  The  holes  should  be  at  least  six 
particalariy  as  regards  exposure.  A  spot  j  feet  in  diameter,  and  about  four  feet  deep,  and 
selected  for  a  nutmeg  plantation  cannot  be  when  refilled  the  surface  soil  is  to  be  used,  and 
too  well-sheltered,  as  high  winds  are  most  de-  not  that  which  is  taken  out  of  the  hole.  Each 
structire  to  the  tree,  independently  of  the  loss  '  hole  should  be  filled  up  about  one  foot  higher 
occasioned  by  the  blowing  off  of  fruit  and  flower.  ,  than  the  surrounding  ground,  to  allow  for  the 
Whilst  the  planter  is  clearing  the  ground,  setting  of  the  soil  and  the  sinking  of  the  tree, 
he  may  advantageously  at  the  same  time  which,  planted  at  tliis  height,  will  in  a  few  years 
be  establishing  nurseries ;  for  these  the  ground  I  be  found  below  the  level.     Over  each, hole  thus 

ought  to  be  well-trenched  and  mixed  with  a 
small  quantity  of  thoroughly  decomjxjsed  ma- 
nure and  burned  earth,  making  up  the  earth 
afterwards  into  beds  of  about  three  feet  wide, 
witli  paths  between  them  for  the  convenience  of 
weeding  and  cleaning  the  young  plants,  and  real- 
ly good  plants,  tlie  produce  of  well-selected  seed, 
will  be  a  great  saving  of  time  and  expense  but 
in  the  selection  of  seed  the  most  perfectly  ripe 
and  spherical  nuts  are  best.  Oval  long  nuts 
are  to  be  rejected,  particularly  any  of  a  pale 
colour  at  one  end.  The  seed  ought  to  be  put  in 
tlie  ground  within  twenty-four  hours  after  being 
gathered,  setting  it  about  two  inches  deep  in  the 

filled  up,  a  shed,  made  of  atap  leaves  or  other 
shelter,  closed  on  two  sides,  east  and  west,  and 
proportioned  to  the  size  of  the  plant,  is  to  be 
erected.  It  is  not  a  bad  plan  to  leave  an  open 
space  in  the  centre  of  the  top  of  each  shed, 
about  twelve  inches  wide,  by  which  the  young 
plant  can  obtain  the  benefit  of  the  dew  and 
gentle  rains,  which  more  than  compensates  for 
the  few  rays  of  sun  that  can  only  fiill  upon  it 
whilst  that  body  is  vertical.  After  the  sheds 
have  been  completed,  each  hole  should  have 
added  to  it  a  couple  of  baskets  of  well-decom- 
posed manure,  and  an  equal  quantity  of  burned 
earth,  when  all  is  ready  for  the  reception  of 
beds  already  prepared,  and  at  the  distance  of  |  the  plant,  which  having  been  set  out,  if  the 
twelve  to  eighteen  inches  apart,  the  whole  nur-  '  weather  be  dry  will  re(juire  watering  for  ten 


sery  to  be  well-shaded  both  on  top  and  sides,  the 
earth  kept  moist  and  clear  of  weeds,  and  well 
naoked  by  burning  wet  grass  or  weeds  in  it  once 
a  week,  to  drive  away  a  very  small  moth-like 

days  or  a  fortnight  after,  in  fact  until  it  takes 
the  soil.  The  planter  having  set  out  all  his 
trees  must  not  deem  his  labours  completed, 
they  are  only  commencing.     To  arrive  thus 

iwect  that  is  apt  to  infest  young  plants  laying  its  '  far  is  simple  and  easy,  but  to  patiently  watch 
t^  on  the  leaf,  when  they  become  covered  with  ]  and  tend  the  trees  for  ten  years  after,  requires 
vdlow  spots,  and  perished  if  not  attended  to  spee-  j  all  the  enthusiasm  already  mentioned.  About 
^y.    Washing  the  leaves  with  a  decoction  of  i  three  months  after  planting  out,  the  young  trees 

145  N  145 


will  receive  great  benefit  if  a  small  quantity  of 
liquid  fish  manure  be  given  them.  In  the 
first  six  years  they  ought  to  be  trenched  round 
three  times,  enlarging  the  circle  each  time, 
the  trenches  being  dug  close  to  the  extremities 
of  the  roots,  which  generally  correspond  to  the 
ends  of  the  branches,  and  each  new  trench 
commencing  where  the  old  one  terminated. 
They  must  of  course  greatly  increase  in  size  as 
the  circle  extends,  requiring  a  proportionate 
quantity  of  manure,  but  the  depth  ought  never 
to  be  less  than  two  feet.  The  object  of  trench- 
ing is  to  loosen  the  soil  and  permit  the  roots  to 
spread,  otherwise  the  tree  spindles  instead  of 
becoming  broad  and  umbrageous.  Manure  is 
beyond  all  other  considerations  the  most  im- 
portant to  the  welfare  of  the  estate ;  it  is  that 
which  gives  quantity  and  quality  of  produce, 
and  without  it  a  plantation  cannot  be  carried 


forming  a  cavity  for  the  deposition  of  their 
larvae.  The  best  mode  of  destroying  them  is 
to  hang  a  portion  of  some  animal  substance, 
such  as  the  entrails  of  a  fowl,  fish,  &c.,  to  the 
end  of  a  pole  thrust  through  and  protruding 
from  the  branches ;  the  ants  will  run  along  the 
pole  and  collect  in  immense  quantities  around 
the  bait,  when,  by  a  lighted  faggot,  they  can 
be  burned  by  thousands.  This  repeated  once 
or  twice  a  day  for  a  week  or  so,  will  soon  rid 
the  tree  of  the  invaders.  In  general  one  man 
for  every  one  hundred  trees  will  be  found  suffi- 
cient to  care  for  the  plantation,  provided 
there  be  some  four  or  five  thousand  trees. 
The  nutmeg  planter  is  under  the  necessity  of 
keeping  up  nurseries  throughout  the  whole  of 
his  operations  for  the  re-placement  of  bad 
plants  and  redundant  males.  Of  the  latter  ten 
per  cent,  seems  to  be  about  the  best  proportion 

on.     The  want  of  it  would  limit  the  cultivation  j  to  keep,  but  completely  dioecious  trees  are  pre- 

in  the  Straits'  Settlements,  and  will  arrest 
many  a  planter,  who  having  got  his  plantation 
to  look  well  up  to  the  eighth  year  with  very 
little  manure,  thinks  he  can  go  on  in  the 
same  manner.  The  nutmeg  tree  likes  well  all 
sorts  of  manures,  but  that  which  is  best  suited 
for  it  seems  to  be  well-rotted  stable  and  cow- 
yard  manure,  mixed  with  vegetable  matter, 
and  when  the  tree  is  in  bearing  the  outer 
covering  of  the  nut  itself  is  about  one  of  the 
very  best  things  to  be  thrown  into  the  dung-pit. 
Dead  animals  buried  not  too  near  the*root8,  also 
blood,  fish,  and  oil  cakes  are  beneficial.  Guano 
b  of  no  use.  All  obnoxious  grasses  must  be 
carefully  kept  from  between  the  trees,  and  the 
harmless  grasses  rather  encouraged,  as  they 

ferable.  No  person  can  boast  to  get  a  plantation 
completely  filled  up  and  in  perfect  onler  much 
sooner  than  fifteen  years.  Of  the  first  batch 
planted,  not  more  than  one-half  will  turn  out 
perfect  females,  not  taking  into  account  monoe- 
cious trees;  already  condemned.  The  tree  shows 
flower  about  the  seventh  year,  but  the  longer  it  is 
before  doing  so,  the  better  and  stronger  will  it 
be.  The  best  trees  do  not  show  flower  before 
the  ninth  year,  and  one  such  is  worth  a  score 
of  the  others.  Dr.  Oxley  has  seen  several  trees 
yield  more  than  10,000  nuts  each  in  one  year, 
whereas  he  does  not  believe  that  there  is  a  plan- 
tation in  the  Straits  that  averages  1,000  from 
every  tree.  The  experiment  of  grafting  the  trees, 
which  at  first  view  presents  so  many  advan- 

keep  the  surface  cool.    The  trunk  of  the  tree  t  tages,  both  in  securing  the  finest  quality  of  nut 

ought  to  be  carefully  washed  with  soap  and 
water  once  a  year  to  keep  it  clear  of  moss. 
Parasitical  plants  of  the  genus  Loranthus  are 
very  apt  to  attach  themselves  to  the  branches, 
and  if  not  removed  do  great  injury.  The  insect 
enemies  of  the  tree  are  not  very  numerous, 
but  it  has  a  few  white  ants  among  the  number. 
They  seldom  attack  a  vigorous  plant,  it  is 
upon  the  first  symptoms  of  weakness  or  decay 
that  they  commence  their  operations.  Their 
nests,  may  be  dislodged  from  the  roots  of  the 
plant  by  a  dose  of  solution  of  pig  dung,  to 
which  they  have  a  great  aversion.  There 
are  several  species  of  insects  which  lay  their 
eggs  on  the  leaves,  and  unless  carefully  watch- 
ed and  removed,  they  commit  great  havoc 
amongst  the  trees.  For  this  purpose  it  is 
necessary  to  wash  the  leaves  with  a  decoction 
of  Tuba  root,  and  syringe  them  by  means  of  a 
bamboo  with  lime  and  water,  of  the  consistence 
of  whitewash ;  this  adheres  to  the  leaves,  and 
will  remain  even  after  several  heavy  showers. 

and  the  certainty  of  the  sex,  has  still  to  be 
tried  in  this  cultivation.  The  advantage 
gained  would  be  worth  any  trouble,  the  quality 
of  some  nuts  being  so  far  above  that  of  othert 
it  would  make  a  diflerence  beyond  present  cal- 
culation ;  in  short,  1,000  such  picked  trees  would 
yield  something  equivalent  to  £4,000  a  year, 
for  £4  per  tree  would  be  a  low  estimate  for 
such  plants.  An  acre  of  land  contains  on  an 
average  92  trees,  and  it  is  calculated  an  outlay 
of  300  dollars  is  required  upon  every  acre  to 
bring  the  tree  to  maturity ;  but  as  not  more 
than  one-half  of  the  trees  generally  turn  ont 
females,  and  as  many  otheis  are  destroyed  by 
accident  and  diseases  to  which  this  plant  is  veiy 
liable,  it  makes  the  cost  of  each  tree,  by  the 
time  it  yields  fruit,  about  8  doUars.  The  nut- 
meg tree  begins  to  bear  when  about  eight  yean 
old,  but  it  gives  no  return  for  sevend  years 
longer ;  and  therefore  to  the  expense  of  cultiva** 
tion  must  be  added  the  interest  of  the  capital 
sunk.     The   plant    being   indigenous   in   the 

Anoiher  nidsance  is  the  nest  of  the  large  red    Moluccas,  the  expense  of  cultivation  thiere  is  ', 
ant;  these  coUect  and  glue  the  leaves  together,   greatly  less.    As  the  fruit  is  brotight  in  by 

146  N  146 



the  gatherers,  the  mace  is  carefully  removed, 
pressed  together   and  flattened   on   a  board, 
exposed  to  the  3un  for  three  or  four  days,  it  is 
tlien  dry  enough  to  be  put  by  in  the  spice-house 
until  required  for  exportation,  when  it  is  to  be 
screwed  into  boxes,  and  becomes  the  mace  of 
commerce.    The  average  proportion  of  mace 
yielded  in  Singapore  is  one  pound  for  every  433 
nuts.    The  nutmeg  itself  requires  more  care  in 
its  coring,  it  being  nece^ary  to  have  it  well  and 
carefully  dried  ere  the  outer  black  shell  be 
broken.  For  this  purpose  the  usual  practice  is  to 
subject  it  for  a  couple  of  months  to  the  smoke 
of  slow  fires  kept  up  underneath,  wliilst  the  nuts 
are  spread  on  a  grating  about  eight  or  ten  feet 
above.      Care    should    be    taken  not   to   dry 
the  nuts  by  too  great  a  heat,  as  they  shrivel 
and  loose  their  iuU  and  marketable  appear- 
ance.    It  is  therefore  desirable   to  keep  the 
nuts,  when   first  collected,   for   eight   or   ten 
dap  out  of  the  drying-house,  exposing  them  at 
fint  for  an  hour  or  so  to  the  morning  sun,  and 
increasing  the  exposure  daily  until  they  shake 
in  the  shell.     The   nuts   ougbt   never  to  be 
cracked  until  required  for  exportation,  or  they 
will  be  attacked  and   destroyed   by   a  small 
weasel-like  insect,  the  larvsB  of  which  is  deposit- 
ed in  the  ovule,  and,  becoming  the   perfect 
insect,  eats  its  way  out,  leaving  the  nut  bored 
through    and   through,   and    worthiesss   as  a 
marketable  commodity.     Liming  the  nuts  pre- 
rents  this  to  a  certain  extent,  but  limed  nuts 
are  not  those  best  liked  in  the  English  market, 
whereas  they  are  preferred  in  that  condition  in 
the  United  States,  and   on   the   Continent  of 
Europe.     When  the  nuts  are  to  be  limed,  it  is 
simply  necessary  to   have   them   well-rubbed 
over    between     the    hands    with     powdered 
lime-    By  the  Dutch  mode  of  preparation,  they 
are  steeped  in  a  mixture  of  lime  and  water  for 
several  weeks.     This  no  doubt  will   preserve 
them,  but  it  must  also  have  a  prejudicial  effect 
OQ  the  flavour  of  the  spice.     After  the  nuts  are 
thoroughly  dried,  which  requires  from  six  weeks 
to  two  months'  smoking,  they  cannot  be   too 
soon  sent  to  market.     But  it  is  otherwise  with 
the  mace ;    that  commodity,  when  fresh,  not 
being  in  esteem  in  the  London  market,  seeing 
that  they  desire  it  of  a  golden  colour,  which  it 
oulv  assumes  after  a  few  months,  whereas,  at 
first  when  fresh  it  is  blood-red,  now  red  blades 
are  looked  upon  with  suspicion,  and  are  highly 
injurioas  to  the  sale  of  the  article.     The  nut- 
meg tree  was  sent  from  Bencoolen  to  Singapore, 
in  the  latter  end  of  1819.    Sir  Stamford  Raffles 
shipped  to  the  care  of  the  resident  commandant, 
Major  Farquhar,  100  nutmeg  plants,  25  larger 
ditto,  and  1,000  nutmeg  seeds,  which  were  com- 
mitted to  the  charge  of  Mr.  Brooks,  a  European 
gardener,  who  was  specially  engaged  by  the 
Eaat  India  Company  to  look  after  their  embryo 


spice  plantations  here.  If  a  plantation  be  at- 
tended to  from  the  commencement  and  the  trees 
be  in  a  good  locality,  the  planter  will  undoubtedly 
obtain  an  average  of  10  lbs.  of  spice  from  each 
tree  from  the  fifteenth  year  ;  this,  at  an  average 
price  of  2s.  6d.  per  lb.,  is  25s.  per  annum,  and 
he  can  have  about  seventy  such  trees  in  an  acre. 
The  total  number  of  nutmeg  trees  in  Singapore 
in  1848  was  55,925,  of  which  14,914  only 
were  in  bearing.  The  produce  of  that  year 
was-  4,085,361  nutmegs,  or  23,600  lbs.  in 
weight.  Plants  were  likewise  sent  to  Ceylon 
and  Cape  Comorin.  It  does  not  appear  that  the 
climates  of  these  two  localities  suit  the  nutmeg 
tree,  as  it  requires  rain,  or  at  least  a  very  <Jamp 
climate  throughout  the  year.  The  East  India 
Company's  spice  plantations  in  Pinang  were  sold 
in  1824,  and  the  trees  were  dispersed  over  the 
island.  In  1843  there  were  3,046  acres  culti- 
vated with  spice  trees  in  Pinang  and  Province 
Wellesley,  containing  233,995  nutmeg,  and 
80,418  clove  trees,  besides  77,671  trees  in 
nurseries  ready  to  be  planted  out ;  and  by  a 
similar  statement  from  Singapore,  which  is  how- 
ever not  so  complete,  that  743  acres  were  cultiva- 
ted, containing  43,544  nutmeg  trees.  The  con- 
sumption of  these  spices  in  Great  Britain  was,  on 
an  average  of  four  years  ending  1841,  nutmegs, 
121,000 lbs.;  mace,18,0001bs.;  cloves,  92,000 

Imported  and  Exported  to  and  from  Singapore. 

•^  ^ 



•sS  . 














412  1 

































Exported  from  Java. 

1830,  piculs..  1,304    piculs... 

1835,       „    ..  5,022 

1839,       „    ..  5,027 

1843,       „    ..  2,133 




In  the  Pinang  papers  for  1857,  the  Gazette 
gives  the  following  statistics :  The  subjoined 
table  of  the  exports  of  Nutmegs  and  Mace 
from  Pinang  during  the  last  ten  official  years 

shows  a  startling  rate  of  increase.  The  ex- 
ports in  1855,  1856,  4624  piculs  of  nut- 
megs and  1340  of  mace— exceed  the  total 
produce  of  the  Bandas  in  1855,  which  Dr. 
Oxley  states  at  4,032  piculs  of  nutmeg  and 
1,008  of  mace. 

N  147 









Official  years. 













'l^4I>4^     „       . 
UM^-4S     .,     .. 
SSS4S-40     „     .. 

477  1,9!»6 
f.6 112,738 
666  2,844 
656  2.742 

1851-52,  piculS 
1852-53     „     .. 
18.'53-54     „     . 
1854-65     „     ... 
1 85.S"5^     .,     . . 



Imjtorts  i)Uo  the   United  Kimjdom  of  Nidnieys^ 
wild  and  cultivated. 


Home  Con- 
sumption . 


Home  con- 
sum  ptibu. 




















a  1,695 

Mace  e,vported — Act lud  growth  of  Singapore. 

1841,  picols..... 


£    683 

1845,  piculs.... 

71    £1,616 

l9*2         ff              •  ■  •  ■ 


..  1,616 

1846      ,.        

8      „     179 

Xo4«S         If              •  •  •  « 


..     943 

1847      ,t         •  •  •  • 

75     „  1,661 

X  951^         ^^              ■  «  •  • 


„     359 

Kv^H^rts  of  Sat metj$  and  Mace  durinrfXO  years,    cular    and    Ls   about    li    miles    in  diameter. 

Giuiong   Api,    is   so   named  from  the  terrible 
volcano     of  wliicli     it    consists      I^ntlioir  w 
commonly  called  the  *  high  land/  other  islands 
are   Kosingain,  Pulo  Aye  and  Pinaug.      The 
island   of  Rosingain  has   been  little  inhabited 
since  the  extirpation  of  spice  trees  by  the  Com- 
pany in  1632,  and  the  cidtivation  of  the  nutmeg 
is    exclusively    confined    to    Banda,  Ix)nthoir 
and  Pulo  Aye.     Gunong   Api   is   unfortunate 
on  account  of  its  frequent  eruptions  and  its 
insalubrity.  It  lies  near  to  Banda  and  I^nthoir. 
Earthquakes  are  frequent  and  ordinarily  pre- 
cede  or  follow  the  eruptions.     The  strongest 
eruptions  were  in  the  following  years: — 1598, 
1015,   1632,  1U91,    1711,1749,1798,1820. 
That  of  1691  was   a   terrible  one.     The  inter- 
vals   betwixt  these    periods  of  eruption  are 
therefore  consecutively   17, 17,  59,  20,  38,  49, 
22,  and  the  general  average  of  these  interval 
is  31  yeai-s  and  a  little   more  than  a  month. 
The  most  fatal  earthquakes  tcx^k  place  in  1629, 
1683,  16S6,   1743  and  1816.  /Ihe  interv-als 
therefore  are  54,  3,  57,   73  years  respectively. 
Thence  it  appears  that  these  convulsions  arose 
from  there  having  been  no  vent  for  the  lava. 
The  Banda  soil  is  stony.    By  the  above  average 
of  eruptions  and  dating  back  to  1820,  an  erui>- 
tion    was    expected   somewhere  about   1857. 
Mr.  Mun  for  1 75()  rated  the  total  produce  of 
the  islands  At  250,000  lbs.  of  nutmegs  besides 
mace.    The  Dutch  author  Stavorinus  acquaints 
us  that  the  annual  average  produce  during  tlie 
early  part  of  the  18th  century  was  700,000  lbs. 
(Dutch)  of  nutmegs,  and  180,000  lbs.  (do.)  of 
mace.     But  he  adds,  that  in  the  year  1778  a 
hurricane  destroyed  all   the   trees     excepting 
8,000  which  last  number  pelded  an  annual 
,  produce  of  30,000  lbs.  of  nutmegs  with  tlie 
usual  proportion  of  maee.     Allowing  10   per 
cent,  oi'  trees  for  males,  which  is  a  very  small 
proportion  when  trees   have  not  from   the  first 
been  regularly  and  systematically  planted  the 
productive  ones  will  have  thus  yielded   4^  lU. 
per  tree  of  nutmegs.     But  of  these  8,000  were 
all  bearing  or  female  trees  the  rate   per  tree 
would  be  3|  lbs.  nutmegs.      Mr.  Martin  esti- 
mated the  province  previou.sly  to  the  above  year 
(perhaps  the  year  immediately  preceding  it)  at, 
for  Europe  250,000  lbs.  nutmegs ;    for  India 
100,000  lbs.  and  mace  80,000  lbs.,  which  would 
admit  of  a  total  produce  of  about  350,000  lbs. 
nuts,  the  best  sorts  only  being  sent  to   Europe. 
This  quantity  of  700,000  lbs.  has  reference  to 
the  beginning  of  the  eighteenth  century.     The 
English  market  was  not  then  so  particular  as  to 
quality  as  it  afterwards  became  so  that  probably 
Nos.  1,  2  and  3  were  sent  to  Europe  about  tliis 
period.     If  the  8,000   trees   yielded    30,000 
lbs.,   then   there   were   168,000   trees  in  tlie 
early   part  of  the  above  century.      But  the 


1 09  piculs  of  imported  mace  were  also  re-ship- 
ped in  1847.  40,000  lbs.  of  mace  were  import- 
ed into  the  United  Kingdom  from  India  in 
1848.  The  extremely  limited  consumption  of 
nutijiegs  and  mace,  and  of  the  latter  especially, 
over  the  world,  as  compared  with  other  tropical 
exportable  produce^  which  has  checked  and  per- 
haps ev«r  will  continue  to  check  any  perma- 
nently large  progressive  increase  of  these  spices. 
The  Dutch  confined  the  cultivation  of  the 
nutmeg,  when  they  got  possession  of  the  Mo- 
luccas from  the  Portuguese,  in  the  end  of 
1598,  to  three  distant  islands.  Lonthoir  or 
great  Banda,  Banda  Neira,  and  Pulo  Aye. 
The  first  of  these  presents  a  ridge  of  hills  of 
varioiLs  heights  from  one  extremity  to  the 
other,  the  sides  of  which  are  cut  into  ravines 
through  which  descend  a  few  small  streams, 
the  only  ones  on  the  Island.  The  island  is 
crescent-shaped,  is  9  miles  Jong  and  2|  miles 
r.cros3  where  widest.  The  highest  hill  on  Banda- 
Neira,  in  lat.  4°  30'  S.,  and  long.  1 28°  18'  E.  of 
Paris  does  not  exceed  800  feet,  and  the  south  side 
is  perfectly  flat.  Gunong  Api  is  a  single  island 
or  cone  of  volcanic  matter  rising  from  a  rocky 
base  and  separate  from  great  Banda  by  a 
narrow  channel.  It  has  the  appearance  of  a 
heap  of  cinders  and  two-thirds  of  it  are  per- 
fectly black  and  bare  of  all  vegetation,  while 
a  constant  smoke  rises  from  the  crater. 
Pulo  Aye,  according  to  Martin,  and  the  S. 
side  of  great  Banda  yield  the  best  nutmegs. 
Neira  i«  Q^-miles  long  and  about  3^  miles 
acrop  .     Pulo  Aye  is  nearly  cir- 





jate  «»f  bearing  here  bnmght  forward  does  not    lowest  1,171  piciils  or  158,08o  lbs.  English, 

reckoning   135  English  llw.   per  Dutch   j)icnL 

quite  tally  with  subsequent  reported  averages. 
In  Dutch  ollioial  records,  Puly  Aye   afforded 

the  best  uutincgs  and  yielded  annually  from 
45,000  trees  the  quantity  of  130,000  lbs.  or  3^- 
llijj.  (Dutch  it  is  supposed)  per  tree  of  nuts. 
Major  Thom  states  that  the  cultivation  of  the 
nutmeg  was  confined  to  Lonthoir  or  the  Great 
Banda,  Neira  and  Pulo  Aye,  which  last  island 
he  takes  to  be  1^  mile  in  diameter.     He  also 
allots  to  its  area  45,459  trees,  which  on  a  rough 
calculation  would  give  about  37  trees  to  an 
acre,  for   more   could  hardly    without    great 
crowding  have    been   planted    on  the    area. 
Indeed,  with  advertance  to  in-egularities  and 
hreab  in  the  surface,  the  trees  may  have  been 
still  more  claiely  packed-   He  states  the  average 
produce  in  1810  to  have  been  for  all  the  islands, 
300,000  lbs.  of  nutmegs,  85,000  lbs.  of  mace. 
The  produce  has  ever  been  subject  to  great 
fluctuations,  owing  to  various  causes,  the  most 
prominent  of  which    were    the   eruptions    of 
voicanoR  and  earthquakes.     We  have  seen  that 
in  1772  a  hurricane  nearly  annihilated  the  plan- 
(ations — and  in  1811  a  severe  storm  destroyed 
much  fruit.      Eruptions  of  the    volcano  and 
devastating  earthquakes  have  occurred   at  no 
very  wide    intervals — high  winds  frequently 
diminish  the  crops  greatly.  Sulphureous  vapours 
sometimes  blast  Uie  trees.     Some  of  the  hills 
even  are  more  or  less  incnisted  with  nutmeg. 
The  nutmeg  decrease  in  size  and  weight  as  the 
tree  advances  in  age    a(ler  a  varying  period* 
The  Dutch  derive  their  nutmegs  and  mace  for 
exportation  from  the  Bandas,  Celebes,  Palem- 
bang  and  Bencoolen   in  Sumatra  and    Java, 
but  scantily  from  the  latter  island,  and  perhaps 
a  few  other  but  insignificant  localities.     But 
the  proportion  of  the  Moluccas  or  Banda  pro- 
duce to  that  of  these  or  other  places,  and  which 
last  is  tenned  free,  is  nearly  as  100   to   11. 
The  mercantile  monopoly  nuts  and  mace  are 
!«enl  to  Europe  and  the  inferior  sorts  arc  crushed 
and  the  oil  is  converted  into  nutmeg-soap,  an 
article  which  has  not  yet  perhaps  been  apprc- 
riated  in  England,  but  migh^  possibly  be  con- 
verteii  to  some  useful  purpose.     The  cultivation 
of  the  nutmeg  in  Java  is  free,  and  about  a.  d. 
iSJf)  ago  the  number  of  trees  then  planted 
out  was  about  40,000.     In  1810,  which  was 
eight  years   before  Bencoolen  wes   given   up 
to  the   Dutch,  it   was   reported    officially  by 
Luni^laine  that  there  were  then  at  that  sta- 
tion 26,049  bearing  trees.     Tiie  estimate  for 
1S25  was  an  addition  to  these  of  15,000  trees, 
makins  the  total  to  be  41,049,  and  for  the  sue- 
ceeding  years  the  expected  produce  was  rated 
at  128,000  lbs.    of  nutmegs,    besides    mace. 

The  highest  produce  in  nutmegs  of  any  one 
year  from  1825  to  1845  both  inclusive,  was 
«,L5d  picDlfl,  or  lb9.  English  1,101,303,  and  the 

149  '   N 

Tlie  avcraae  of  tlio  ton  years  ending  in  1845 
was  4,636  Dutch  piculs  or626,3SG^-  lbs.  English 
per  annum,  being  73;614  lbs.  at  least  less  than 
the  average  of  the  Dutoli  writer  Stavoriniis  for 
the  middle  or  earlier  part  of  the  1 7th  century. 
Of  late  years,  all  the  nutmegs  of  a  fair  mer- 
chantable quality  have  been  sent  direct  to 
Holland — and  the  inferior  sorts  have  been  con- 
verted into  nutmeg  soap.  It  is  not  clearly  shown 
however  where  the  line  lies  which  cuts  off  these 
inferior  nuts.  The  medium  sorts  chiefly  go  to 
China  and  to  the   Ea.storn  Archipelago. 

The  returns  obtained  for  1844-5  showed 
then  in  Penang  and  Province  Wellesley  upwards 
of  fifty  plantations  having  irom  200  bearing 
i'emale  trees  up  to  12,000  besides  390  nutmeg 
gardens  varying  in  their  contents  from  10  up  to 
200  bearmg  trees.  The  total  of  bearing  female 
trees  was  upwards  of  70,000.  But  a  large 
increase  has  taken  place  since  that  year. 

GonswnxptiQn, — It  would  be  difficult  to  ex- 
hibit correctly  the  average  consumption  of  nut- 
megs and  mace  in  the  varioiLs  (iuartei*s  of  the 
world.  There  are  in  fact  but  very  partial  data 
for  a  computation  of  it. 

Crawfurd  averages  the  produce  at  65  ozs. 
avoirdupois  of  nuts  and  mace  together  per  tree, 
which,  deducting  \  for  mace,  will  leave  nearly  3 
lbs.  of  nutmegs  for  each  bearing  tree.  The  weight 
of  a  given  quantity  of  nutmegs  in  the  shell  to  the 
same  when  freed  irom  it  Ls  as  73  to  50  nearly. 
The  mace  may  be  assumed  to  be  about  three 
and  three-fiftlis  of  the  whole.  The  Dutch  used 
to  allow  12^  per  cent,  lass  in  curing  the  nut- 
megs and  mace,  and  the  loss  afterwai-ds  by  waste 
and   accident  at  one-third  of  the  whole,  which 

last,  however,  appears  to  be  a  verj^  high  esti- 
mate if  confined  to  curing  and  transporting. 
Out  of  1,000  nutmegs  the  produce  of  any 
single  ti'ce,  there  wiU  be  only  about  500,  which 
will  be  of  value. 

Dr.  Oxley  (Journal  I  ml,  ArcJi.,  Vol.  xi,  p. 
657),  o])serves  that  good  trees  yield  10  lbs.  of 
spice  after  the  15th  year.  This  doubtless  includ- 
ed mace,  and  if  so  the  proiluce  in  nutmegs  would 
be  after  a  deduction  of  ^  for  mace,  8^  lbs.  per 
female  tree. 

Mr.  Crawfurd  has  stated  the  cost  of  cul- 
tivating nutmegs  in  the  Bandas,  is  at  8 
dollars  the  picul.  It  it  had  been  found 
practicable  by  the  Dutch  to  raise  the  nutmeg 
at  so  low  a  figure,  all  competition  with  them 
would  have  been  at  an  end.  It  is  likely  that 
when  foreigners  first  resorted  to  these  islands 
they  obtained  oidy  the  nutmegs  which  the 
woods  afforded,  as  no  cultivation  had  begun 
until  a  period  long  subsequent  to  their  advent. 
It  may  be  premised  that  the  Moluccas  pos- 
sess no  other  produce  in  such  quantity  of  suffi- 




cient  consequence  to  attract  trade,  and  that  the  |  the  grogs  profit  derived  from  those  sold.  In 
nation  wliich  holds  them  must  tack  on  to  the  !  1814,  when  in  possession  of  the  English  the 
cost  of  raising  the  tree  that  of  protecting  these  j  number  of  nutmeg  trees  planted  out  were  eati- 
islands.  I  mated  at  570,500,  of  which  480,000  were  in 

Martin  acquaints  us  that  when  he  was  Resi-    bearing  including    65,000    monsecious    trees, 
dent  at  Amboyna  there  were  2,160  slaves  in  !  The  produce  of  the  Moluccas  has  been  reckon- 

the  nutmeg  plantation. 

Statistics  of  Nutinegs, — In  the  beginning  of 

ed  at  from  6  to  7  hundred  thousand  lbs.  pw 
annum,  of  which  one-half  goes  to  Europe,  and 

the  19th  century  nutmeg-planting  was  inti-o-  '  about  one-fourth  that  quantity  of  mace.  The 
duced  into  Pinang,  a  number  of  spice  plants  >  imports  into  Java  from  the  Eastern  Archipelago 
having  been  imported  from  Amboyna  by  the  !  in  1843,  consisted  of  nutmegs  740-33  piculs,  and 
East  India  Company.  The  Government  after  j  o^mace  218-06  piculs,  and  the  exports  consisted 
some  time,  sold  their  gardens  in  vrhich  they  had  '  »*'  nutmegs  2,133-29  piculs,  and  of  mace  486-63 
planted  the  clove  and  nutmeg  trees,  but  the  ■  pi^^^s.  The  amount  of  nutmegs  exported  from 
cultivation  would  appear  to  have  made  little  i  J^^^  during  the  10  ye^rs  ending  inl834  aver- 
progreas  at  first,  as  in  1810  we  find  that  there  ,  aged  yearly  about  352,226  lbs.,  and  during  the 
were  only  about  1 3,000  trees  on  the  island,  a  |  eleven  years  during  1 845  about  664,060  lbs. 
few  hundreds  being  all  that  were  in  bearing.  ,  yearly.  The  quantity  of  mace  ex^wrted  during 
In  1818  the  number  of  bearing  ti-ees  had  .  the  first  period  averaged  94,304  lbs.  yearly,  and 
increased  to  6,900.  In  1843  there  were  75,402  '  <i^^g  ^^^  last  169,460  lbs.  yearly.  The  pro- 
trees  in  bearing,  and  111,289  not  in  bearing,  I  ^^^^e  of  the  Straits'  Settlement*  in  1842  was 
besides  males  and  52,510  nui-series.  The  num-  i  reckoned  at  nutmegs  147,034  lbs.,  and  mace 
her  of  bearing  trees  in  Province  Wellesley  in  ■  44,822  lbs.,  thus  bemg  more  than  equal  to  tlie 
1843  was  10,500,  notbeai-ing  7,307,  besides  whole  consumption  of  Great  Britain.  Therestof 
males,  and  a  number  in  the  nursery.  The  I  ^^^ropeithas  been  estimated  takes  about  280,000 
total  number  of  nuts  produced  by  the  Pinang    lt)s.  of  nutmegs,  and  33,000  lbs.  of  mace,  India 

and  Province  Wellesley  trees  in   1842  were 
18,560,281,  and  42,866  lbs.  of  mace.    Nutmeg 

about  216,000  lbs.  of  nutmegs  and  30,000  lbs. 
of  mace,  and  China  about  15,000  lbs.  nutmegs 

trees  were  first  introduced   into  Singapore  in    a^^  ^^out  2,000  lbs.  of  mace.     As  these  quaa- 

tities,  however,  would  leave  a  surplus  production 
of  nutmegs  alone,  above  250,000  lbs.,  it  is  pro- 
bable they  are  now  considei*ably  under  the  real 

1818.  In  1843  the  total  number  of  trees  were 
estimated  at  43,544,  of  which  5,317  were  in 
bearing,  the  produce  being  stated   at  842,328 

nuts.    In  1848,  according  to  the  table  given  by    amounts.     In  ten  years  from  1832  to  1842,  the 

Dr.  0x1  ey,  the  total  number  of  trees  planted 
out  was  estimated  at  55,925,  of  which  the 
numbei-s  in  bearing  were  14,914  and  the 
produce  4,085,361  nuts  besides  mace,  which  is 
estimated  at  about  1  lb.  for  every  433  nutmegs. 
During  the  occupation  of  Bencoolen  by  the 
English,  the  nutmeg  and  clove  were  introduced 
from  the  Moluccas,  and  in  1819  the  number 
of  nutmeg  trees  were  stated  at  109,429,  regard- 
ing their  present  number  we  have  no  informa- 
tion. The  average  quantity  of  nutmegs  annually 
sold  by  the  Dutch  East  India  Company  in  Europe 
during  the  18th  century  has  been  estimated  at 
250,000  lbs.,  besides  about  100,000  lbs.  sold  in 
India.     Of  mace  the  average  quantity  sold  in 

exports  of  nutmegs  and  mace  li-om  Pinang  were 
trebled,  and  from  the  very  great  extension  in 
the  cultivation  which  is  constantly  going  on,  it 
is  pi-obable  that  the  same  result  at  least 
will  take  place  in  tlie  ten  years  succeeding  to 
the  above  period,  viz  :  from  1842  to  1852. 
During  these  ten  years  from  1 832  to  1842,  the 
price  of  nutmegs  in  Pinang  fell  from  10  and  12 
dollars  per  thousand,  to  from  4  to  5  dollars  per 

The  nutmeg  is  a  beautiful  tree,  pretty  in 
form,  foha'^e,  blossom  and  bearing,  rising  to 
a  height  of  25  to  30  feet,  occasionally  50  feet. 
The  fruit  to  within  a  few  days  of  ripening  might, 
had  it  a  pink  cheek,  be  readily  mistaken  for  the 

Europe  was  reckoned  at  90,000  tte.  per  annum  peach.  When  tlie  nut  inside  is  ripe,  the  fruit 
and  10,000  lbs.  in  India.  The  trade  although  j  splits  down  the  centre  and  remains  half-open, 
so  jealously  guarded  by  the  Dutch,  was  never  '  disclosing  the  bright  crimson  mace  that  enwraps 
been   a  very   profitable  one  to  them,  the  ex-  |  the  nut.    In  a  few  days,  if  not  gathered  in,  the 

penses  being  heavy.  In  1 779  the  charges  at 
Banda  amounted  to  f.  146,170  and  tlie  re- 
venues derived  from  the  duties  on  imports,  &c., 
to  f.  9,350,  leaving  an  excess  on  the   charges 

fruit  opens  wider  and  the  nut  with  the  mace 
around  it,  drops  to  the  ground  leaving  the  fruity 
husk  still  hanging  to  the  tree,  till  it  withers  away 
and  falls  off.     When  the  nuts  are  collected,  the 

of   f.  136,820  to  be  deducted  from  the  profit  •  mace  is  carefully  removed  and  placed  in  the 

on  the  spices  ;  and  the  large  quantities  of  species 
frequently  burned  in  Holland,  on  which  heavy 
charges  for  freight,  &c.,must  have  been  incurred, 
must  have  also  formed  a  serious  deduction  from 

—  '         150 

sun  to  dry.  Beneath  the  mace  is  a  thin  hard 
shell  containing  the  nutmeg  which  is  not 
broken  until  the  nuts  are  prepared  for  shipment. 
A  good  tree  yields  600  nuts  yearly,  or  about 

N  150 



8  Ihu  weight.  A  wild  rmtmeg  grows  in  Damma,  |  a  volatile  oil ;  both  of  which  are  used  for  medi- 
Anibojna,  Ceram,  Obi,  New  Guinea,  Gillolo,  of   cal  piu-poses.     Of  the   Ibraier   there  are  two 

«D  elliptical  shape,  an  inch  or  1|  inch  long.   M. 
officinalis,  Jdart.^  is  used  in  Brazil.     Acrodicli- 

varieties ;  the  English,  which  is  the  best,  occura 
in  pieces  of  about  |  lb.  in  weight,  wrapped  in 

dium  camara,  Schomh,,  yields  a  fruit  known  as    leaves  of  the  banana,  it  has  a  uniform  reddish 
the  Camara  also  Ackani  nutmeg   of  Guiana ;  I  colour  inside,  and  the  Dutch    imported  from 

the  clo?e  nutmeg  and  the  Brazil  nutmeg.  The 
fnl^<A  nutmeg  is  from  the  Moreodora  mp'is- 
tica.  In  the  Archipelago  a  species  of  myristica 
called  Dongan  and  another  M.  spuria  are  sub- 
stituted. M.  tomentosa.  Hooker  and  Thomson, 
if  the  nutaieg  tree  of  Penang,  M.  maJabarica, 
Laaaut  and  M.  attenuata,  Wall,^  are  indigenous 
to  the  forests  of  the  Concan  and  Malabar.  M. 
amygdalina,  WaU,,  a  native  of  Martaban  and 
Moulmein,  is  supposed  to  be  identical  with 
M.  attenuata.  It  is  M.  malabarica  that  yields 
the  Malabar  nutmegs  of  commerce. 

Butter  of  Myristica  moschata, 

Jdphol  ka  tael,         Htxd.    Jajikarra  noona,  Tkl. 

Jidipootrie  tilum,     Tam. 

is  obtained  by  expression  from  the  nutmeg, 
it  has  an  aromatic  smell  from  the  volatile  oil  it 
contains.  It  is  a  solid  oil  in  cakes,  extracted 
from  the  nutmeg  by  expression  ;  a  yellow  and 
volatile  oil    is     also    obtained. — Dr.    Oxley^s 

the  Moluccas  chiefly,  in  larger  pieces,  wrapped 
in  leaves  or  paper,  and  of  a  lighter  colour. — 
Waterston ;  Faulkner. 

NUTMEG  PIGEON,  see  Columbidae. 

NUTMEG  TREE,  Eno.    Myristica  moschata. 

NUTMEG,  WILD,  Enq.  Pyryhosia  hors- 
fieldii,  Blume. 

NUTNA,  also  NutTi,  the  nose-jewel,  even  to 
mention  this  is  considered  a  breach  of  delicacy- 
Colonel  Tod  states  that,  as  a  token  of  the  fiill 
confidence  reposed  in  him,  he  was  told  that, 
**  Should  you  even  send  to  the  queen's  apartment 
and  demand  her  necklace  or  nutna,  it  shall  be 
gnxnted." — TocCs  BajaMhan,  FoZ.  i,  ^.  431. 

NUT  OIL,  Oils  of  Corylus  coturna  or 
Juglans  regia. 

NUTSA,  a  tribe,  in  lat.  2V  20'  N.,  and  long. 
99°  E.  with  Lawa  and  Shans  on  the  north. 

NUTS,  ACIIEEN,  are  the  betel  nut,  boiled, 
of  very  inferior   quality,  chiefly  used  by  the 

Jwm.  Ind.  Arch.,  p.  614  ;  Letter  from  H.  B.  I  lower  chisses  in  the  South  of  India  and  are  in 
Martin^  Besident  at  Amboyna,  to  the  Svpreme  no  demand  at  Madras  :  sold  from  35  to  60  Ks. 
Gwemment,  dated  24th  March  1812;  Low's    a  candy. 

Sanupokjp,  216 ;  Captain  Dance  ;  O'Shaugh., 
p.  460;  Gwrtn, ;  Major  Thorn's  Eeports,  1814  ; 
History  of  Java ;  M.  E.  J.  R. ;  Simmond's 
Did. ;  Bikmore,  p.  249  ;  Cameron^  pp.  165-6  ; 
Penang  Oasette,  Nov.  1848 ;  Jour.  Ind. 
Ardi.j  Vol.  V,  iVb.  8,  August  1851  ;  Simmonds  ; 
Craufurd's  Diet.,  p.  305  ;  M.  E. ;  Bonynge, 
Americajp.  155  ;  Food  and  its  adulteration,  p. 
408;  Tomlinson;  Present  staU  of  Banda,  1813 : 
Count  Hogendorp  Coup  d'oel  sur  le  isle  de  Java, 
Sfc,  ;  Singapore  Free  Press,  lAth  Die.  1818  ; 
DefeMS  of  du  East  India  Trade^  written  in 
1821,  supposed  hy  Thos.  Mun. 

Kajphul,  Guz ,  Hikd« 

A  native  of  the  Moluccas,  and  frequently  to 
.be  met  with  in  some  of  the  woods  of  Southern 

NUl'S,  COLUMBO,  are  raw  betel  nuts :  sold 
everywhere  and  are  chiefly  used  by  the  Kayala 

NUTSI RAGUM,  Tam.  Cuminum  cyminum. 

plant,  when  in  blossom,  resembling  the  poppy ; 
they  should  be  grown  in  a  light  rich  soil  of 
vegetable  mould,  the  colour  of  the  flowers  is 
pink,  purple,  red   and  purple. — Riddell. 

NUTTI  CHURI,  TA3r,  Spermacoce  hispida,  /.. 

NUTTY,  Tam.  The  swim  or  sound  in  the 
bellies  of  fish,  the  swimming  bladder.  That  of 
Madras  is  obtained  from  the  Codoovah  min 
and  Koorakathalay  min.  It  is  sold  at  8  Rupees 
per  maund  of  8  viss,  or  160  Rupees  per 
candy.  This  is  bought  by  merchants  and 
\  exported  to  China  where  it  is  used  to   polish 

India.    It  is  covered  with  a  hard  shell,   pro-  !  siU^  a^d  crockery  ware. 

Tided  with  a  pale  arillus.     It  is  one  and  a  half       NUVULU,  Tel.     Sesamum  indicum,  Linn, 

to  two  inches   long,  elliptical,  the  parenchyme        NUVU-PATRIKA,  Saks.    From  nuvu,  nine, 

devoid  of  marbling.     Its  odour  is  weak,  and  j  and  patra,  leaves. 

flavour  disagreeable.     Its  properties  are  analo-  ;      NUVU-RATNA,  Saks.     From  nuvu,  nine, 

gona  to  that  of  the  true  nutmeg,  but  the  oil  is    ^^^  ratna,  a  jewel.     See  Nau-ratni. 

so  inferior  in  proportion,  that  it  is  but  of  little 

commercial  value.    It  is  thought  that  it  might, 

howevejr,  be  greatly  improved  by  cultivation. 

They  are  procurable  in  most  Indian  bazaars. — 


Jtiphol-lEarte],  Hind.  |  Jagikarra  nuna,  Tbl. 

Jftdilaieniie,  Tabc  | 

The  nutmeg  contains  a  fixed  or  solid  oil,  and 

151  N 

NUWU,  Tel.  Sesamum  indicum,  L.  ;  S, 
orientale,  R.  iii,  100. 

NUWA,  BuRU.    Grossypiimi  arboreum,  Linn. 

NUWAB,  Ar.,  Hind.,  Pers.  The  nabob  of 
Europeans,  a  title  amongst  mahomedans  of 

NUW-AITI,  a  mohamedan  tribe. 

NUWERA  ELLIA,  7*"  3';  81*"  52',  a  sani- 
tarium in  the  interior  of  Ceylon. 





NU  WOOD  ASA    KOOK  A,     Tel.     Bryonia   a»  well  as  of  the  southern  parts  of  the  Bengal 


NLTWULU,  Tbl.     Gingelly  seed. 

Nux  vomica,  or  Koochla 
'  tree. 

Falus    Mahi,    Khanak-ul- 
kulb,  A  RAD. 

Jao/,  ul  kai,  „ 

Kiiohla  tree,  Axglo-Hixd. 
Kuc'hla,  Bmxg. 

Matsiii,  Chin. 

Kathla,  DuK. 

l*oison  nut,  Dogbane,  Exo. 
Noix  vomique,  Fb. 

The  Nnx  vomica  is  the  nut  of  Strvclmos  nux 
vomica.  Its  wood  was  supposed  by  Dr.  Chris- 
tison  to  be  often  substituted  for  T-iignum  colu- 
brinum,  snake  wood.  Its  bark  is  often  sold  in 
Calcutta  as  that  of  the  Kohuna  tree,  Soymida 
febrifuffa.  Nux  vomica  was  earlv  used  as  a 
medicine  by  the  hindocxs  ;  by  whom  its  proper- 

Strychnos  nux  vomica, 


Jenicat<^heri,  Kurhla,  Guz- 


Izaraki,  Falus  Mahi,  Per. 
Culaka,  Kataka,  Vesharaos. 
tibejum,  Saxs. 

Kofiakadduruatta,    Singh. 
Yetti  cottay,  Tam. 

Mustig  henza  Musadi  vittu 


ties  must  have  been  investigated  long  before  it 
could  be  known  to  foreign   nations.     It  is  the 
Izarakee  of  Persian  works  on  Materia  Mcdica> 
but  there  is  doubt  respecting  its  name  in  Avi- 
cenna.     Khanuk-al-kulb,  dog-killer,  and  Fa  loos 
mahee,  fish-scale,  are  other  Arabic  names.  But 
imder  the   name    of  Jouz-al-Kue    or    Emetic 
nut,  Dr.  Royle  obtained  the  fruit  of  a  Rubia- 
ceous  shrub.     Dr.  Pereira  thinks  that  the  Nux 
mechil  of  Serapion  is  Nux  vomica ;  but  in  Per- 
sian 'vvorks  this  name  is  applied  to  a  Datura. 
The  plant   is  a  moderate-siaed  tree,   with    a 
short  crix^ked  trunk.     Branches  irregular,  the 
young  ones   long    and   flexuase,  with   smooth 
dark-green  bark.     Wood  white,  close-grained, 
and  bitter.     Leaves  opposite,  with  short  pe- 
tioles, oval,  smooth  and  shining,  3  to  5-nerved, 
differing   in   size.     Flowei-s    small,    greenish- 
jivhite,  in  terminal  corymbs.     Calyx  5-toothed. 
Corol  funnel-shaped ;    limb    5    cleft,   valvate. 
Stamens  5  ;  filaments  short,  inseited  over  the 
bottom  of  the  divisions  of  the  calyx :  anthei*s 
oblong,  half  exserted.     Ovary  2-cclIed,   with 
many   ovules   in   each   cell,    attached   to   the 
thickened  centre  of  the  partition.     Style  equal 
to  the  corol  in  length.  Stigma  capitate.    Berry 
round,  smooth,  about  the  size  of  an  orange, 
covered  with  a  smooth  somewhat  hard  fragile 
shell,  of  a  rich  orange  colour  when  ripe,  filled 
with  a  soft  white  gelatinous  pulp,  in  which  are 
immersed  the  seeds  attached  to  a  central  pla- 
centa.     Seeds  peltate  or  shield-like,  slightly 
hollowed   on   one  side,  convex,  on   the  other, 
about  I  of  an  inch  in  diameter,  and  about  2 
lines  in  thickne«,  thickly  covered  with  silky 
ash-coloured  hairs  attached  to  a  fibrous  testa, 
which  envelopes  the  kernel  composed  of  homy 
bitter  albumen,  of  the  form  of  the  seed  and  of 
the  embryo  imbedded  in  a  hollow  in  its  cir- 
cumference. It  is  a  native  of  the  Indian  Archipe- 
lago and  of  the  forests  of  the  Peninsula  of  India, 


Presidency,  as  near  Midnapore. — Esenb.  atnl 
MernK,  209  ;  St.  ami  Ck.,  xi,  52. ;  Hox^. 
Coroyn.,  i,  t.  4 

NUZUR-0-NYAZ,  Ar.  Vows  and  oblatioiM. 

NGi^UR,  Ar.  An  offering  from  an  inferior 
to  a  superior.  Nuzzerana,  a  fee  for  investiture ; 
a  succession  fee.  Nuzzerana,  or  '  relief,'  marks 
the  original  emanation  of  a  grant,  and  in 
Mewar  was  fixed  at  one  years  revenue  of  the 
^tSLte.— Tod's  Travels,  p.  486. 

NWAY  HNYO,  Bur3I,    Thunbergia,  sp. 

NWAY-KA-ZWON  A  PHOO,  Bfbm.  Ca- 
lonyction  roxburghii,  G,  Don, 

NWAY  NEE,  Burm.  Ajgjrreia  capitata, 

N*WY-K'HYO,  BuRM.  Glycyrrhiza  glabra, 

NYA,  Burm:.     -tEschynomene  palud(»a. 

NYAD,  Hind.  A  term  applied  to  converts 
to  mahomedanism.  The  Nyad  or  proselytes 
from  raj  put  or  other  hind(X)  tribes  are  Zjhut; 
Rajur ;  Oomra ;  Soomra ;  Mair  or  Mer  ;  Mor  or 
Mohor ;  Baluch  ;  Lumria  or  Looka;  Sumaicha; 
Mangulia ;  Baggreah :  Dabya ;  Jobya ;  Kairooee, 
Jangurea :  Oondur,  Beromee  ;  Bawuri ;  Tawuri, 
Chrendea;  Khoasa,  Sudani;  Lohana,  These 
converts  are  ferocious  and  intolerant. 

NYAGAON  llEBAI.  Luchmun  Sing,  one 
of  the  banditti  leaders  of  Bundelcund,  wa^j  in- 
duced to  surrender  on  promise  of  pardon. — 
Engagements  and  Sunnuds. 

NYA-GYEE,  Bttr^i.     Morinda. 

NYAI  RATU  KIDUL,  see  Karang  boUang. 

NYAIN,  Hmn.  Loam}'  land  to  which  ma- 
nure and  irrigation  are  applied. 

N  YAMDAL,  Taxus  baccata.  The  Himalayan 

NYAMDAL,  HinO.     Taxus  baccata. 

NY  AN,  Tibetan.  Ovis  ammon,  is  found  in 
Ladak,  only  in  the  most  inaccessible  places, 
near  the^now  limit. 

NY  AN,  Btjrm.     Desmoduim,  sjyeeies, 

NYA-PEE  or  Gna-pee,  Burm.  The  Balach- 
ang  of  the  Malays,  a  compound  of  several  kinds 
of  small  fish.  Putrescent  fish,  in  some  shape  or 
other  is  a  condiment  among  all  the  races  from 
the  mountains  of  Sylhet  to  the  isles  of  the 

NYAR,  a  river  near  Chandpoor  in  the  AI- 
morah  district. 

NYAR,  a  river  near  the  Cossyah  hills. 

NY  AS  A,  a  form  of  ejaculation  made  -witli 
a  short  and  mystic  prayer  to  the  heart,  the 
head,  the  crown  of  the  head,  and  the  eye,  as 
Om !  Sirase  Namah  !  Om  !  salutation  to  the 
head,  with  the  addition  of  the  Kavacha,  the 
armour  or  syllable  Phat,  and  the  Astra,  the 
weapon  or  syllable  Hum.  The  entire  mantra, 
the  prayer  or  incantation,  is  then,  Om  Sirase 
Namah,  Hum,  Phat.    The  Nyasa  ceremony  is 

N  152 


perfcrraed  at  the  time  of  worship  (pooja,)  and 
coiwste  of  a  number  of  curioua,  minute,  and 
aiffloet  undefinable  motions  of  the  hands  and 
Sogers,  (while  the  peraon  repeats  prayers,)  such 
as  touching  the  eyes,  earfi,  shoulders,  mouth, 
noee,  head,  breast,  &c.,  doubling  and  twisting 
tbehaad;»,  fingers,  &c. — Him,  Th,,  Vol.  n,p.  53. 

NYASA,  Saws.  A  deposit,  from  nee,  prep, 
and  US,  to  throw. 

NYAYA,  Sans,  Justice;  from  nee,  prep, 
and  aj,  to  move. 

NYAYA,  the  philosophy  of  the  hindoos,  a  syl- 
logism. This  school  of  philosophy,  or  logical  sys- 
tem of  Gautam,  corresponds  with  the  dialectic 
xbool  of  Xenophane'5.  It  is  one  of  the  six 
orthodox  schools  of  the  hindoos,  the  other  two 
being  the  Mimans  of  Jeimuni,  and  the  Mimans 
or  Vedant  of  Vyasa.  Of  the  philosphical 
ichools  it  will  be  sufficient  here  to  remark,  that 
the  first,  Nyayu,  seems  analogous  to  the  Peri- 
pitctic ;  the '  second,  'sometimes  called  Vaisi- 
ihiea  or  Vaiseshka  to  the  Ionic ;  the  two  Mi- 
maosa,  of  which  the  second  is  oflen  distin- 
guished by  die  name  of  Vedanta  to  the  Plato- 

!    nic;  the  first  Saiichya   to  the  Italic,  and  the 

i   teeond,  or  Patanjala,  to   the  Stoic  philosophy ; 

;   10  that  Gautama  corresponds  with  Aristotle, 
Kanada  with  Thales,  Jaimini  'w;ith   Socrates, 

;   Vyasa  with  Plato,   Eapila   with   Pythagoros, 
and  Pfttanjali   with   Zeno;   but   an   accurate 
oompaiiaon  between  the  Grecian  and  Indian 
schools  would  require  a  considerable  volume. 
Hie  original  works  of  those  philosophers  are 
Terj  succinct ;  but  like  all  the  other  shastras, 
tkej  are  explained,  or  obscured  by  Upadarsana, 
or  oommentariea,  without  end.     It  results,  from 
this  analysis,  of  Hindoo   literature,   that   the 
Veda,  Upaveda,  Vedanga,  Purana,   Dharma, 
and  Darshana,  are  the  six  great  shastras,   in 
which  all  knowledge,  divine  and  human,  is  sup- 
posed to  be  comprdiended.     The  word  shastra, 
derived  from  a  root  signifying  to  ordain,  means 
generally  an   ordinance,   and   particularly   a 
Bcred  ordinance,   delivered   by  inspiration: 
properly,  therefore,  the  word  is  applied  only  to 
acred  literature.     The  sudras,  or  fourth  class 
of  hindoos,  are  not  permitted  to  study  the  six 
proper  shastras     beforementioned ;     but    an 
ample  field  remains  for  them  in  the  study  of 
profiuie  literature,  comprised  in  a  midtitude  of 
popular    books,   which    correspond   with   the 
lereral  shastras.     AH  the  tracts  on  medicine 
BUBt,  indeed,  be  studied  by  the  Vaidyas,  or 
hereditary  physicians,  who  have  often  more 
lesming,  with  far  less  pride,  than  any  of  the 
hnhmaos;  they  are  usually  poets,  gramma- 
nans,  rhetoricians,    moralists,    and    may   be 
fiiteemed,  in  general,  the  most  virtuous  and 
iBuable  of  the  hindoos.     See  Veda,  Vidya. 
NYAU,  Binuf .     Morinda  exserta. 
NYAU  HWEE,  Buem.     Morinda,  sp. 



NYAUPOOR,  near  Changaon  in  Comillah. 

NYAZ,  Ar.  Mohurrum  kee  Nyaz,  the  mo- 
hurrum  oblations.  Nyaz  oollah,  offerings  in 
the  name  of  Grod.  Nyaz  russool,  offerings  in  the 
name  of  the  prophet  Mahomed. 

NYCTAGINEiE,  RidcleU.  See  Pisonia 

Syn.  of  Jasi'iinum  angustifolium,  VahL,  Willd. 


Scabrita  scabra,  Vahl, 
Scabrita  triflora,  L.^Mari, 

Kuri,  of  Beas. 

Sbioli,  Singahar,       Bbng. 
Hseik-ba-lu,  Burm. 

Hursing,  Can. 

Laduri,  Chisnab. 

Keysur,  DuK. 

Night-flowering  jasmine, 

Sorrowful  nyctanthes,  „ 
Tree  of  mourning,  „ 

Parilium  arbor-tristis, 


Square  stalked  nyctan- 
thes,  Eno. 

Pahar-butti,  Mahr. 

Manjapu-maram,  Malbal. 

Pakura,  Ravi. 

Sephalica,  Sans. 

Sepala,  sbephalica,  SrNOH. 

Pughalamalli,  Tam. 

Poghadamullay,         Tkl. 

Kara  chiya,  Pari,  also 
Parijotamu,    '         Tib. 

This  is  a  tall  shinih  with  rough  scahrous 
leaves,  well-known  for  the  delicious  though 
evanescent  perfume  of  its  flowers.  The  tubes 
of  their  corollas,  called  in  Hindooi  (Dundee), 
are  of  a  fine  rich  yellow  colour  and  are  em- 
ployed alone  or  in  conjunction  with  Parasam 
flowera  (Butea  frondosa),  in  preparing  a  beauti- 
ful though  transient  bright  yellow-dye,  much 
sought  after  by  the  mahomedans  for  dyeing 
their  turbans,  and  used  for  dyeing  silks  especi- 
ally, it  produces  a  good  yellow  colour,  and 
compounds  with  reds,  into  a  pleasing  series  of 
flame  salmon  and  orange  colours.  The  flowers 
called  Dimda  poo,  Te£.,  are  used  for  giving  a 
scent  to  cloths.  Buchanan  mentions  die  pro- 
duct as  the  powder  scattered  at  the  Holi  feast. 
In  Ajmeer,  the  tubes  of  the  corolla  are  used, 
under  the  name  of  *  kesru,'  to  dye  buff  or 
orange  colour.  This  plant  is  very  abundant, 
wild,  at  the  foot  of  the  Vindhya  range,  where 
the  green  tough  stalks  are  used  to  make  lai'ge 
grain  baskets  of.  The  tree  of  mourning,  is 
sometimes  called  night-blooming  flower,  and 
is  as  great  a  favorite  in  India  as  in  the  South- 
em  States  of  America.  Its  dehcate  orange 
and  white  blossoms  pour  the  most  delicious 
fragrance  on  the  evening  air,  and  then  Ml  in 
showers,  bedewing  the  earth's  cold  bosom  with 
sweetness.  Its  flower  is  held  sacred  to  Siva. — 
Drs.  O'Shaugknessy,  p.  436 ;  J.  L.  Stewart ; 
Ains,  Mai.  Med.^  p.  148  ;  Irvine  ;  Gen.  Med. 
Top.,  p.  172;  Mason;  Shade' 8  MSS.;  Bed-^ 
dome  and  Macdonald ;  PoweWs  Hand-booh^ 
Vol.  i,  p.  448. 

Nyctanthes  multiflora,  Binuc.,  and  Nyctanthes 
pibescens,  Retz.,  also  the  Jasminum  hirsutum, 
Linn.,  are  syns.  of  Guettarda  speciosa,  Linn. 

NYCTANTHES  SAMBAC,  Linn.  Syn.  of 
Jasminum  sambac.  Ait. 





of  Jasminum  angustifolium,  VM.,  Willd. 

NYEE,  Tam.,  Tbl.    Ghee. 

NYLr-GHAU,  Hind.     Portax  pictus. 

NYCTAGINACE^,  Lindl  The  man-el  of 
Peru  tribe  of  plants  comprising :  2  gen.,  5  sp., 
viz.,  4  Pisonia  and  1  Oxia. 

Horsf,,  Ely.  Syn.  of  Nycticebus  tardigradus, 

Scotophilia  ftiliginosua,  Jerdon. 

ticejus  luteus,  Ely. 


Murina  formosa,  Jerdon. 

NYCTICORAX  GARDENI,  the  Night  He- 
ron of  Europe,  Asia ;  Africa,  North  America  ? 
or  a  species  at  least  barely  separable,  is  very 
common  in  India.  The  Nycticorax,  genus  of 
birds,  is  of  the  order  Grallatores,  as  imder: 

Svh-fam. — Ardeinae,  1  gen.,  7  sub-gen.,  19 
sp.,  viz :  4  Ardea,  6  Herodias,  1  Butorides,  1 
Ardeola,  1  Nycticorax,  1  Tigrisoma,  1  Botau- 
rus,  4  Ardetta. 

dilatatus,  Horsf.,  and  N.  tenuis,  Horsf.^  are 
syns.  of  Nyctinomus  plicatus,  Jerdon. 

NYCTERIBIA,  a  singular  parasitic  crea^ 
ture  which  appears  to  have  neither  head,  anten- 
nas, eyes,  nor  mouth.  It  moves  by  rolling 
itself  rapidly  along  rotating  like  a  wheel  on  the 
extremities  of  its  spoke?,  or  like  the  clown  in  a 
pantomime,  hurling  himself  forward  on  hands 
and  feet  alternately.  It  was  first  discovered  only 
on  a  few  European  bats.  Joinville  figured  one 
which  he  found  on  the  large  rousette  or  fly- 
ing-fox, and  says  he  had  seen  another  on  a  bat 
of  the  same  family.  Dr.  Templeton  observed 
them  in  Ceylon  in  great  abundance  on  the 
figure  of  the  Scotophilus  Coromandelicus. — 
Tennent's  Sketches  of  Nat.  His.  of  Ceylon,  p.  20. 

NYCULA,  see  Pandu,  Polyandry. 

NYEE,  Tam.,  Tbl.    Ghee. 

NYMPHJEA,  a  genus  of  plants,  the  type  of 
the  natural  order  Nymphaceaa.  There  are 
upwards  of  20  species  of  this  genus  described. 
ITiey  have  all  large  floating  leaves,  with  white, 
red,  or  blue  flowers,  which  appear  at  the  sur- 
&ce  of  the  water.  Grifiith  says  there  are  two 
different  species  of  water  lily  in  the  Tenasserim 
Province.  The  Nymphaceae  or  water-lily  tribe, 
are  all  floating  plants  and  dispersed  through 
most  warm  parts  of  the  "world.  Their  stems 
are  bitter  and  astringent  and  contain  a  con- 
siderable quantity  of  faecula,  which  may  be 
used  as  food.  Nymphaea  alba,  the  common 
white  water-lUy,  is  a  native  of  ditches,  ponds, 
and  lakes  throughout  Europe,  and  is  abundant  in 
Great  Britian.    The  flowers  are  white,  and  ac- 

154  N 

cording  to  Linnaeus,  open  themselves  in  the 
morning  at  seven  o'clock,  and  close  them  at 
four  o'clock  in  the  evening.  The  roots  of  the 
white  water-lily  contain  an  astringent  prin- 
ciple, which  renders  them  useful  in  dyeing. 
They  also  contain  starch,  and  on  this  account 
swine  feed  on  them,  although  other  animak 
reject  them.  A  variety  of  this  plant  occasion- 
ally met  with  called  Alba  minor,  has  nnaller 
flowers  and  leaves  than  the  species.  It  Ls 
found  in  tanks  in  India,  and  grown  as  the 
rest  of  the  species.  The  Nymphaea  nelunibo  is 
considered,  on  account  of  its  beautiful  appear- 
ance, a  sacred  plant,  and  pleasing  to  the  gods. 
The  images  of  idols  were  often  depicted  sitting 
on  its  large  leaves.  The  genera  and  species  are 
as  under : 



Euryale  ferox,  Salisb.,  North  India,  Bengal^ 
Nymphsea  pubescens,  Z.,  British  India, 
rubra,  Soxb,         „  „ 

„     var.  rosea,  Roxb.,  Bengal. 
„        „    major,  the  N.  cyanea,  l?.y  Beng: 
versicolor,  Roxb.,  BengaL 
edulis,  DC,f  „ 

gtellata,  Willd,,  Peninsula  of  India. 

— Etiff.  Gyc. ;  Mason ;  JRoxh. ;  Voigt ;  Biddell ; 
Tkunberffs  Travels,  Vol.  m,  p.  227. 

Nymphaea  esculenta,  Ros^.  \  Costalia  edulis, 

Chota  simdhi,  Bbno.  I  Kalharamu, 

Kotika,  Tm^  | 

The  eatable  water  lily  has  pellate  broad 
oval  entire  leaves,  with  the  under  surfiBU^  pu- 
bescent. It  is  a  native  of  the  East  Indies,  in 
wet  fenny  districts.  Its  flowers  are  small,  and 
white  or  reddish.  Like  all  the  species  it  has 
large  pear-shaped  roots,  which  contain  an 
abundance  of  starch,  and  they  are  consequently 
used  as  articles  of  diet,  as  also  are  the  seeds  of 
a  species  nearly  allied  to  this,  the  N.  rubra^ 
which  has  deep-red  flowers.  Its  flowers  also 
are  held  in  veneration  by  the  hindoos.  The 
Tukhm-i-nilofar  of  Sirsa  are  the  capsules  and 
seeds  of  Nymphaea  edulis,  which  are  eaten  or 
else  mixed  with  flour  and  made  into  cakes  ; 
they  are  also  curried.  The  Bekh-i-nilofar 
of  Srinagar  and  Kashmir  is  the  root  of  the 
edible  lotus. — Eng.  Cyc.  ;  Boa^. ;  RiddM  ; 
Voigt  ;  Powell.     See  Kaul  doda,  &c. 

NYMPHiEA  C^RULEA,  the  blue  water- 
Hly,  has  peltate,  nearly  entire,  leaves  without 
dots,  glabrous  on  both  surfitce,  and  2-lobed  al 
the  base,  the  lobes  free ;  the  anther  with  an  ap- 
pendage at  the  apex ;  the  stigmas  IG-nyed. 
This  plant  is  a  native  of  Lower  Egypt  in  rice* 
grounds  and  canals  about  Rosetta,  Damietta^ 
and  Cairo.  The  flowers  are  very  fragrant,  and 
from  its  frequent  representation  in  the  sculptnrea 
of  Egypt,  it  appears  to  have  been  regarded  as  a  - 
sacred  plant  by  the  ancient  Egyptians. — Bng^ 

NYMPILEA  NELUMBO,  Unn.    Syn.   of 
Nelumbium  speciosum,  WHlld* 




N.  lotus,  BuBif. 

Kahlara;  Kumuda, 



Telia  kaluva^ 






Lotus;  Egyptian 

Lotos,  Eno. 

Koi,  Kunol,  Hocd. 

Bhsmbu ;  bbambal,    y, 
SKBog:  Kuwal-gotta,„ 

A  native  of  Africa  of  all  the  E.  Indies  and 
Java.    It  was  venerated  by  the  Egyptians  and 
is  held  sacred  by  the  hindoos,  being  regarded 
38  ao  emblem  of  fertility.     It  has  large  white 
flowers  with  sepals.     Has  peltate  leaves,  sharply 
•enated;    the  under  soriace  is  pilose  at  the 
len'es,  and  pubescent  between  them,  red  at  the 
BUigins :  the  root  is  large,  tuberous  and  eatable; 
like  that  of  the  Tawmaray,  (Njelumbium  spe- 
ciosom^,   the  root  can  only  be  found  in  dry 
weather,  in  the  beds  of   the  tanks  ;  it  is  plea- 
saat  to  the  taste,  and  is  made  by  the  natives 
into  curries  and  other  dishes.  The  seeds  were 
dried  by  tlie  ancient  Egyptians,  and  made  into 
bread.    Dr.  Buist  gave  a  highly  interesting  ac- 
ooant  of  the  breathing  of  the  Lotus,  but  Lotus 
is  a  name  Applied  to  various  plants  by  the 
andents.    The  Lotus  of  the  Lotophagi  was  the 
Zixy]^u8  lotus  ;  that  of  Homer  and  Dioscorides, 
a  species  of  Lotus,  or  Trifolium  ;  the  Lotus  of 
Hippocrates   is  the  Celtis   australis ;  and   the 
Italian  Lotus  is  the  Diospyros  lotus.  The  halved- 
dried  flowers,  consisting  of  numerous  yellowish 
tbin  petals,  are  considered  by  native  writers 
to  be  a  dry  and  cold  astringent  remedy,  used  in 
fever  and  cholera,  bilious  affections  and  piles, 
abo  in  diarrhoea  and  erupti<5ns  of  the  mouth. 
The  root  is  mucilaginous  and  demulcent,  and  is 
used  in  piles.     The  fruit  called  Napa  bij   or 
Knmod  bij,  is  used  similarly,  is  considered  by 
natives  oool  and  used  as  an  antidote  for  poisons 
abo  in  skin-diseases  and  leprosy. — Eng.  Cyc,  ; 
IrnnCy  Gen.  Med.  Top,,  p.  198  ;  Powells  Hand- 
hook,  Vol.  i,  p.  330 ;  Aindie's  Materia  Indiea, 
p.  248. 

NYMPH^EA  PYGMLA,  a  dimmutive  water- 
Ely,  the  flower  of  which  is  no  larger  than 
a  haim;rown  ;  grows  on  the  Khassia  hills,  in 
China  and  Siberia,  a  remarkable  fact  in  the 
geographical  distribution  of  plants. — Hooher^s 
Bm.  Joum.,  Vol.  u,  p.  312. 


Itaio-r&ktalnimbu],  Bnco. 
yt       kamala,      „ 

IfMieo,  BURM. 

Water-my,  Ehg. 

Bcd-townwl  lotus,       „ 

Bakta  sanduka  ? 

„     kamala, 




This  water-lily  grows  in  tanks  in  the  penin- 
tohft  of  India  and  in  Bengal.    Its  flowers  appear 
at  the  close  of  the  rains,  are  of  an  intense  red, 
«  dark  crimson  colour. 

var.  fi.  Nymphaea  rosea, 
^'boto-iukto  kuxnul,  Bbng.  |  Bakta  kamala,       Huo). 

155  N 

This  has  large  rose-coloured  flowers.  It  is 
cultivated  in  tanks  but  grows  wild. — Irvine, 
Gen.  Med.  Top.,  p.  198 ;  Riddell ;  Voigt. 


Ghlioto  Nil-padma,  Bbno.  I  Nilumbo-janma, 
Soondi,  „     I  Nal-tel-olu, 

Blue  lotus,  Eno. 

Star-flowered  water-lily  „ 
Kahlara;  Indevara,  Sans. 

Nalla  kaluwa, 





Grows  common  in  ponds  and  tanks,  in  the 
peninsulas  of  India  and  in  Bengal,  it  has  small 
blue  flowers ; 

var,  $,  N.  cyanea,  Eoxb, 


Lila  phool, 


Blue  water-lily, 

Grows  in  Bengal,  is  common  in  the  Ajmir 
and  Pashkur  lake,  has  largish,  bluish  flowers ; 
they  are  used  medicinally  being  considered 
astringent  and  refrigerant. — Irvine,  Gen.  Med. 
Top.,  pp.  144  4- 198  ;  Boxh. 

Buro-sundhi,  Bsng. 

A  native  of  Bengal,  has  large  rose-coloured 
or  bluish-white  flowers,  the  var.  p  N.  alba,  a 
native  of  Bengal,  has  white  flowers. 

Cockatoo  parrakeet. 

NYNA,  Bhot.     Ovis  ammon. 

NYOAY-SHA,  Burm.  A  tree  of  Moul- 
mein,  wood  used  for  building  material. — Col. 
Cat.  Ex.,  1862. 

NYOLBA  or  Nyalba,  Tib.  The  Naraka, 
SAN8.,'or  hell  of  the  hindoos. 

KYOUNG  Bu-Dee,  Bubm.  Ficus  ben- 
galensis.         , 

Towns  three  miles  apart,  are  both  embraced  in 
the  space  thickly  spotted  with  the  ruined 
temples  of  the  ancient  Burmese  capital  Pagau. 
They  are  the  chief  seat  in  Burmah  proper,  of 
the  manufacture  of  the  boxes  and  cups  made 
of  the  varnished  basket  work,  commonly  called 
lackered  ware.     See  Pagau. 

NY-OUNG-GYAT,  Burm.    Ficus  cordifolia. 

NYOUNG  OUNG,  Burm.  Ficus  benjami- 
noides.  Mason. 

NYOUNG-LAN,  Burm.  A  tree  of  Moub 
mein,  wood  used  for  building  material. — Col. 
Cat.  Ex.,  1862. 

NYOUNO-MEN-TARA,  see  Ava. 

NYOUNG-THA,  Burm.  A  tree  of  Moul- 
mein.  A  strong  wood  for  any  ordinary  pur- 
pose.—OaZ.  Cat  Ex.,  1862. 

NYSA,  see  Bactria,  Greeks  of  Asia,  Kafir. 

NYU,  HiiH).  of  Kanawar,  Alnus  nepalensis, 
Himalayan  alder. 

NYUL,  Hl\d.  Herpestes  griseus,  Geoff., 
Bly.     Herpestes  malaccensis.  Flew.,  Bly. 

NY-UNG-BU-DI,  Burm.  Ficus  indica,  fibre. 

NYUNG-YUWE,  see  Shan. 




O  is  the  fifteenth  letter  and  fourth  vowel  of 
the  English  language,  in  which  it  has  several 
sounds  ; — long  as  in  tone,  grown,  old  ;  short  as 
in  lot^  not,  lodge,  rot :  a  sound  as  of  the  Italian 
or  German  u,  or  the  French  ou,  as  in  move, 
do,  booty ;  a  similar  but  shorter  sound  as  in  wolf, 
boot,  foot,  and  a  longer  sound  as  in  form,  mor- 
tal. In  Sanskrit  o,  like  e,  is  always  long,  but 
in  the  Southern  dialects,  there  is  a  still  more 
prolated  quantity  of  it. 

OADHAL,  Assam.  Sterculia  viUosa,  a  native 
of  the  mountainous  countries  to  the  east- 
ward of  Bengal.  Trunk  straight,  the  bark  is 
smooth,  but  fibrous  bags  are  made  of  it.  Its 
fibres  are  made  into  cords  by  the  natives  of  the 
eastern  frontier  of  Bengal,  to  bind  wild  ele- 
phants with.  The  rope  is  made  most  readily  ; 
the  bark,  or  rather  all  the  layers,  can  be  stripped 
off  from  the  bottom  to  the  top  of  the  tree  with 
the  greatest  focility,  and  fine  pliable  ropes  may 
be  made  from  the  inner  layers  of  bark,  whilst 
the  outer  yield  coarse  ropes.  The  rope  is  very 
strong  and  very  lasting — wet  doing  it  little  in- 

OADAL,  a  creeper  in  Kemaon,  with  fine 
strong  fibres. 

OAK,  Eng. 















Roble,     ' 

Port.,  Sp. 













In  the  tract  of  country  from  Asia  Minor, 
along  the  north  of  Persia  to  China  and  Japan, 
also  in  the  Tenasserim  provinces,  several 
oaks  occur,  but,  in  the  presence  of  other  valu- 
able timber  trees,  their  woods  do  not  attract 
the  same  attention  as  that  of  English  oak.  An 
oak  is  mentioned  in  the  iloly  Scriptures,  but 
it  is  not  identical  with  the  British  cik,  being 
either  the  evergreen  oak  (Quercus  ilex,)  or  a 
species  nearly  resembling  it.  Neir  Shochcm 
ther^  stood  also  a  tree  of  the  same  g»  nus  wiiicL 
probably  was  remarkable  for  its  size,  being 
called  in  Genesis,  xrxv,  4,  "  The  oak  which 
was  by  Shechem."  In  the  war  of  1812-13  and 
14,  the  natives  of  the  peninsula  and  the  French 
both  frequently  fed  on  the  acorns  in  the  woods 
of  Portugal  and  Spain.  In  Morocco  and  Algiers 
the  acorns  of  Quercus  ballota  are  sold  in  the 
public  markets,  and  the  acorns  "  balut"  of  some 
of  the  oaks  are  met  with  in  all  the  Indian 
bazars.  The  genus  of  Quercus  embraces  about 
150  species.  Several  species  are  indigenous 
in  the  Tenasserim  provinces,  and  on  the  moun- 

]^6  0 

tains  of  Soiith-Eastern  Asia.  Wallich  foimd  seven 
different  species  of  oak  Quercus  fenestrata,  tur- 
binata,  velutina,  Amherstianus,  Tirbba3,  growing 
in  Burmah  and  on  the  Tenasserim  Coast,  and 
all  affording  useful  timber,  though  inferior  to  the 
English  oak.  No  oak  nor  chestnut  ascends 
above  9,000  feet  in  the  interior  of  Sikkim, 
where  they  are  replaced  by  a  species  of  hazel 
(Corylus) ;  in  the  North  Himalaya,  on  the 
other  hand,  an  oak  (Quercus  semecarpifolia,  see 
vol.  i,  p.  187)  is  amongst  the  most  alpine  trees, 
and  the  nut  is  a  different  species,  more  resem- 
bling the  European.  On  the  outer  Sikkim 
ranges  oaks  (Q.  annulata  ?)  ascend  to  10,000 
feet,  and  there  is  no  hazel.  It  is  not  generally 
known  that  oaks  are  often  very  tropical  plants ; 
not  only  abounding  at  low  elevations  in  the 
mountains,  but  descending  in  abundance  to  the 
level  of  the  sea.  Though  little  known  in  Cey- 
lon, the  Peninsula  of  India,  tropical  Africa,  or 
South  America,  they  abound  in  the  hot  valleys 
of  the  Eastern  Himalaya,  East  Bengal,  Malay 
Peninsula,  and  Indian  islands  ;  where  perhaps 
more  species  grow  than  in  any  other  part  of  the 
world.  Such  facts  as  this  disturb  our  precon- 
ceived notions  of  the  geographical  distribution 
of  the  most  familiar  tribes  of  plants,  and  throw 
great  doubt  on  the  conclusions  which  fossil 
plants  are  supposed  to  indicate.  In  Borneo,  the 
trees  which  are  abundant,  and  produce  excel- 
lent timber,  amount  to  upwards  of  sixty  species, 
many  of  the  other  kinds  not  useftil  as  timber 
trees,  are,  or  might  be  valuable,  for  making 
charcoal,  pot^esh,  pearl-ash,  &c.  Several  kinds 
of  oaks  are  found  in  the  forests,  but  being  of 
qidck  growth  and  soft  wood,  their  timber  is  not 
esteemed.  Ebony  is  abundant  in  many  parts 
of  the  island,  particularly  on  the  west  coast,  but 
it  is  said  to  be  inferior  to  that  from  the  Mauri- 
tius, although  it  has  been  found  a  very  profit- 
able export  to  China.  In  the  neighbourhood 
of  the  Lundu  river,  in  the  Sarawak  territory, 
are  large  forests  of  i:.  There  are  three  species  of 
oak  in  tha  Sutlej  valley,  Quercus  incana,  "  ban.** 
Common  hoary  oak,  Q.  semicarpifolia,  "kar- 
GU,"  Q.  dilatta,  "  morhu,"  which  are  next  in 
importance  to  the  pines.  Vast  forests  of  them 
occur  in  various  places,  as  on  the  east  side  of 
Hattu,  on  the  upper  track  between  Muttiana 
and  Nagkanda,  in  Mandi,  Sukhet,  &c.  The 
trees  are  of  great  size,  80  to  100  feet  in  height, 
they  prefer  dry  situations,  and  are  not  generally 
convenient  to  the  river.  The  logs  do  not  float 
the  first  and  second  years,  being  in  this  respect 
like  the  black  wood  of  Malabar.    Oak  wood 



hu  been  well  reported  of  by  General  Caut- 
le?  at  Marri. — St,  Johns  Forest  Trees  of  Bri- 
tain.  Vol.  i,  p.  51  ;  McCuUocfi's  Commercial 
Dietary,  p.  854 ;  I>rs.  Fandkn&r  ;  Mason  ; 
Wight ;  Hooker,  Him.  Jour.,  Vol.  ii,  p,  336  ; 
Lows  Sarawak,  pp.  59-61 .  See  Acorns,  Japan, 
Quercitt,  Tree. 

OAK  GALLS  are  produced  on  different  spe- 
cies of  oak  by  the  female  of  the  Cynipe,  or  Dip- 
loiepis,  piercing  the  buds  of  Q.  imtectoria  and 
depositing  its  eggs.  Dr.  Falconer,  when  tra- 
Telling  in  the  Punjab,  was  informed  that  galls 
were  produced  on  the  Balloot  oak,  Q.  ballota. 
East  India  Galls  of  commerce  are  Bussorah 
Gails,  re-exported  from  fiombay.  Mecca  Galls 
are  also  Bussorah  Galls.  The  Himalayan  oak 
(Quercus  incana),  Chil,  (Pinus  longifolia),  and 
small  rhus  (B.  continus),  are  employed  for 
tanmng. — CUgliorns  Panjah  Report,  pp.  41, 
191 ;  RoyU. 

OAK-AN,  BuBM.  A  tree  of  Moulmein. 
This  wood  is  made  into  canoes. — Gal.  Cat.  Ex., 


Pakal,  Kax^t.  |  Pamokal,  BHalay. 

Old  hempen  ropes  pulled  loose,  and  used  in 
tlie  caulking  of  sailing  vessels.  Oakum  in 
China  is  made  of  the  baru,  a  gossamer-like  sub- 
stance found  at  the  base  of  the  petioles  of  the 
Arenga  aaccharifera. — FauJJcTier. 

OAN-NAIH,  BuRM.  A  tree  of  Moulmein, 
used  for  house-building  purposes. — Col.  Cat. 
Ex.  1862. 

.  OANT,  HiKD.  In  Central  India,  accommoda- 
tkn  bills.  These  are  termed,  on  the  faces  of 
the  bills,  "  chelaun"  or  ciurent,  in  opposition  to 
"Rokra,**  or  ready  money  bills.  The  person 
vbo  accepts  these  irom  the  drawers,  enters  the 
amount  against  him  in  his  books  at  interest. — 
MakohCs  Central  -Ifulia,  Vol.  ii,  ^.  90. 

OAKACTA,  see  Kishm  island. 

OASIS,   a   fertile  portion   of  land  in   the 
deserts  of  Africa  and  Arabia.     Hugh  Murray 
deriTes  this  word  from  the  Egyptian,  and  quot- 
ing Strabo  and  Abulieda  makes  it  synonymous 
with  Auasis  and  Hyasis,  but  it  is  believed  to  be 
a  mere  corruption  of  the  Arabic  word  wady. 
The  "  wady  is,  generally  speaking,   a  rocky 
▼alley  bisected  by  the  bed  of  a  mountain  torrent, 
dry  during  the  hot  season.      In  such  places  the 
Bedouins  love  to  encamp,  because  they  find  for- 
age and  drink, — water  being  always  procurable 
by  digging.     M.  Langles  suggested  the  deriva- 
tion of  Oasis  from  the  Arabic,  and  Dr.  Wait, 
in  a  series  of  interesting  etymologies  suggests 
nai  from  vas,  to  inhabit.     Vasi  and  oasis  or 
vasb  are  almost  identical.      Sir  W.   Ouseley 
gives  nearly  the  same  signification  of  Wadi 
tt  ^peaiB  in  Johnson's  edition  of  Richardson, 

157  O 


viz.,  a  valley,  a  desert,  a  channel  of  a  river, 
a  river ;  wadi-ul-kabir,  *  the  great  river,! 
corrupted  into  Guadalquiver,  which  exam- 
ple is  also  given  in  d'Herbelot  and  by  Thomp- 
son, who  traces  the  word  water  through  all 
the  languages  of  Europe.  The  Saxon  woeter, 
the  Greek  hudor,  the  Islandio  udr  ;  the  Slavonic 
wod,  (whence  woder  and  oder,  *  a  river')  :  all 
appear  derivable  from  the  Arabic  wad,  •  a  river' 
— or  the  Sanscrit  wah ;  the  word  has  (classi- 
cally vas)  is  applied  to  one  of  these  habitable 
spots.  The  word  bustle,-  a  hamlet,  is  from 
vasna,  to  inhabit ;  vasi,  an  inhabitant ;  or  vas, 
a  habitation,  perhaps  derivable  from  wah,  indis- 
pensable to  an  oasis. — Burton's  Pilgrim^e  to 
Mecca,  Vol.  i,  p.  219  ;  Asiatic  Journal,  May 
1830  ;  Tod's  Rajasthan,  Vol.  ii,  p.  294.  See 
Wadi  gehennem. 

Kasni,  Aa.,  Hind.,  Pkbs. 

Oath,  a  religious  affirmation^  an  appeal  to 
witness  of  the  Supreme  God.  The  British 
nation  have,  in  England  and  Ireland,  the  custom 
of  kissing  the  book,  pronouncing  the  words  "  so 
help  me  God."  The  French  custom  raises  the 
hand  as  in  Gen.,  xiv,  22 ;  Deut.  xxxii,  40 ; 
Jeremiah,  v,  7,  forbids  swearing  by  idols,  and 
in  II  Kings  xi,  2,  and  I  Sam.  i,  26,  the  soul 
(or  life)  of  the  exalted  man  is  invoked.  The 
Greeks  and  Romans  swore  by  their  tutelary 
gods  and  the  mediaeval  christians  by  their 
guardian  saints.  The  oath  administered  to  the 
person  who  erects  the  boundary  pillars,  if  a 
hindoo,  is  the  gunga-jul,  or  the  chour  or  raw 
hide  of  the  cow,  or  swearing  by  his  son.  The 
leaves  of  the  tulsi  and  water  are  swallowed 
after  an  oath.  If  a  musulman  the  Koran,  or 
the  placing  his  hands  on  his  son's  head.  To  a 
hindoo  the  chour,  and  swearing  by  his  own  child, 
are  the  most  binding.  In  the  **  Book  of  the 
Oath,"  which  a  Burmese  witness  places  on  his 
head  in  swearing,  one  of  the  numerous  and  tre- 
mendous imprecations  whix^h  it  contains  is,  '*  All 

such  as  do  not  speak  truth if  they  travel 

by  water  whether  in  ships  or  boats,  may  they 
sink,  or  may  they  be  bitten  or  devoured  by 
crocodilei. — History  of  the  Punjab,  Vol.  i,  p. 
151 ;  Yule,  p.  24.     See  Jaflri  oaths. 




Avena  sativa,  L. 






Common  oat, 






Ovyoss :  owes, 






Bromion :  bromos, 




Vena,  avena, 


The  oat  (fipwfioi  of  Dioscordes)  was  known 
to  the  Greeks.  The  oat  is  distinguished  among 
cereal  grains  by  its  loose  panicle.  A  native  pro- 
bably of  the  Persian  region.  Several  varieties 
are  cultivated  in  Europe.  The  grains  of  oat  when 
deprived  of  their  integuments  form  groats,  when 
these  are  crushed,  embden  and  prepared  groats. 




Wlien  the  grain  is  kiln-dried,  stripped  of  its 
husk  and  delicate  outer  skin,  and  then  coarsely 
ground,  it  constitutes  the  oatmeal  of  Scotland. 
The  husk,  with  some  adhering  starch  from 
the  seed,  is  sold  under  the  inconsistent  name  of 
seeds.  Oats  according  to  Vogel,  consist  of  34 
of  husk  and  66  per  cent,  of  meal,  and  oatmeal, 
in  100  parts,  59  of  starch,  43  of  albuminous 
matter.  Bitter  extractive  and  sugar,  8*25,  gum, 
2' 5  with  23*95  of  Lignin  and  moisture.  Dr. 
Christison  finds  as  much  as  72  per  cent,  of 
starch,  and  that  it  consists  therefore  of  neai-ly 
five-sixths  of  real  nutriment.  Groats  and  oat- 
meal are  nutrient  and  demulcent.  When  boiled 
with  water  (3  oz.  to  1  pint,  boiled  down  to 
sj  a  pint),  gruel  is  formed,  which  is  so 
usefrd  as  diet  for  the  sick.  Oatmeal,  when 
of  thicker  consistence,  forms  porridge,  and  may 
be  employed  for  making  poultices.  Oats  are 
in  demand  for  horses.  The  following  is  a  fair 
estimate  of  the  comparative  production  : — 
England,  Acres  2,500,000  Produce  12,500,000 
Ireland,  „  2,300,000  „  11,500,000 
Scotland,     „       1,300,000       „         6,500,000 

It  is  the  hardiest  of  all  the  cereal  grains  culti- 
vated in  Britain,  of  which  there  are  about  40 
species  known  to  botanists.  Oats  were  intro- 
duced into  Patna  and  Monghyr,  but  the  culti- 
vation is  not  carried  on  to  any  great  extent. — 
Bo-yle;  Hassell;  Cat,  Ex.y  1862,  Nees  von 
K,  p.  28. 

OB,    a   serpent:    for    Obi-women,    Obion, 
Oboth,  and  Oub,  see  Serpent. 
OB AL,  Hind.  Fagopyrum  emarginatum,i¥cwi. 

OBAN,  the  principal  gold  coin  of  Japan, 
worth  about  £4  2s. — SimmoruVs  Diet. 

OBAR,  Hind.  Kotaha,  land  dependant  on 
rain  ibr  irrigation  same  as  Barani. 

OBARA,  Hind.  Houbara  macqueenii,  one 
of  the  bustards. 

OBAIRIA,  hard,  rather  fine,  generally 
cloee-grained,  heavy  Ceylon  wood,  presenting, 
however,  many  open  cells. 

OBEH,  see  Kalmuck,  Jews. 

OBELISKS,  see  Maha  deva. 

OBIRA,  or  Kakesa  and  Telia  pidusa,  Tbl. 
Streptium  asperum,  E.  iii,  90  ;  Cor.  140. 
Perhaps  Obera  or  Obhera  would  be  a  more 
correct  orthography. 

OBLATIONS,  Jeremiah,  xHv,  17,  says,  'To 
pour  out  drink-offerings  to  the  queen  of  heaven.' 
The  hindoos  pour  out  water  to  the  sun  three 
times  a  day ;  and  the  moon  at  the  time  of  wor- 
shipping this  planet.  Amongst  hindoos,  kula 
means  a  family,  a  race,  a  tribe.  Properly  the 
got  of  a  hindoo  is  his  tribe,  and  kula  is  the  race. 
But  kula,  among  the  Rajputs  means  a  tribe ; 
and  corresponds  to  the  Affghan  kheil.  Amongst 
the  hindoos  there  are  three  kinds  of  devata  or 
deities  to  whom  worship  is  given,  the  Gramma 
Devata  or  village-god ;  the  Kula  Devata,  the  | 

138  O 

race,  household  or  family-god;  and  the  lata 
Devata,  the  patron  ^or  personal  deity  of  indivi- 
duals. Adhi-devata  is  the  primitive  deity, 
Sthana^evata,  local  deity.  The  Arya^  hindoo 
does  not  recognize  the  village  gods  of  Southern 
India,  but  the  non-hindoo  Turanian  races 
largely  worship  them,  and  even  many  of  those 
Turanian  races  who  have  been  converted 
to  hinduism,  worship  them.  They  are  mostly 
shapeless  pieces  of  wood  or  stone  smeared  wilit 
vermilion,  and  mostly  represent  evil  sprits  or 
devils.  These  are  the  Amma,  Ammim  and 
Amoor  of  the  eastern  and  southern  iparts  of  the 
peninsula,  and  the  Satwai,  Bhairo,  Massoba, 
Chamanda,  Asra,  Ai  and  Marryai  of  the  north- 
ern and  western  parts  of  the  peninsula,  all  of 
whom  are  recognized  as  causing  harm  to  indi- 
duals.  In  health,  they  aire  neglected,  but  when 
sickness  occurs,  either  to  individuals,  or  as  an 
epidemic,  these  spirits  of  evil  are  worshipped 
with  much  solemnity  and  bloody  sacrifices 
are  made  to  them  of  goats  and  sheep  and 
bullocks  and  buffaloes.  Grotra  or  Kula  mean  a 
family  and  existed  amongst  Kshatryaand  Vaisya 
as  well  as  Brahmans.  The  Gotra  depend  on  a 
real  or  imaginary  community  of  blood  and  then 
correspond  to  what  we  call  families.  No  hindoo 
house  is  supposed  to  be  without  its  tutelary 
divinity,  but  the  notion  attached  to  this 
character  is  now  very  fer  fix)m  precise.  The 
deity  who  is  the  object  of  hereditary  or  family- 
worship,  the  Kula-devata,  is  always  Siva,  or 
Vishnu,  or  Durga,  or  other  principal  personagie 
of  the  hindoo  mythology,  but  the  Griha  devata 
or  household  god  rarely  bears  any  distinct  ap- 
pellation. In  Bengal,  the  domestic  god  is  some- 
times the  Saligram,  sometimes  the  tulasi  plant, 
sometimes  a  basket  with  a  little  rice  in  it,  and 
sometimes  a  water  jar,  to  any  of  which  a 
brief  adoration  is  daily  addressed,  most  usually 
by  the  females  of  the  family :  occasionally, 
small  images  of  Lakshmi  or  Chandi  fulfil  the 
office,  or  should  a  snake  appear,  it  is  worshipped 
as  the  guardian  of  the  dwelling.  In  general, 
in  former  times,  the  household  deities  were 
regarded  as  the  unseen  spirits  of  ill ;  the  ghosts 
and  goblins  who  hovered  about  every  spot, 
and  claimed  some  particular  sites  as  their  own. 
At  the  close  of  all  ceremonies,  offerings  were 
made  to  them  in  the  open  air,  to  keep  them  in 
good  humour,  by  scattering  a  little  rice  with 
a.  short  formula.  Thus  at  the  end  of  the 
daily  ceremony,  the  house-holder  is  enjoined 
by  Menu — 3.90  "to  throw  up  his  oblation 
(bah)  in  the  open  air  to  all  the  gods,  to  those 
who  walk  by  day  and  those  who  walk  hy 
night."  In  this  light  the  household  gods  cor- 
respond better  with  the  genii  looorum  than 
with  the  lares  or  penates  of  antiquity. —  Wil' 
90vC$  Hind.  Th. 

OBLON,  Sp.    Hops. 




OBOS,  see  Jullundhiir. 

OBSIDIAN,  a  black  mineral :  it  will  scratch 
I  pjBte,  but  not  a  pure  gem. 

ORST,  Ger.    Fruit. 

OBUL,  HrsD.    Rumex  acutus. 

OBUN,  a  river  in  the  Banda  district. 

OBY  and  Irtish,  rivers  of  Siberia. 

OCCHUS  of  Pliny,  the  Akantheon  aria  of 
Theophrastes,  supposed  to  be  the  Alhagi  mau- 
roram  of  Toumeibrt. 


Bahr,  Bahr  mahit,       As. 
n«5«,  Hind. 






Sans.,  Tel. 

The  south  and  east  of  Asia  is  girt  bj  the 
ocean,  portions  of  which  are  known  as  the  Red 
Sea,  the  Persian  Gulf  or  Bahr-i-Oman,  the 
Anrt>ian  Sea,  or  N.  Indian  Ocean,  the  South 
Indian  Ocean,  the  Bengal  Bay  and  the  Pacific 
Ocean.  Edrisi  says,  "  The  Ocean  Sea  is  called 
the  Dark  Sea,  because  it  is  dark,  and  is  almost 
always  in  commotion  with  violent .  winds,  and 
covered  by  thick  fogs."  To  the  ocean  near 
land  the  Arabs  give  the  name  of  Bahr-ul-Khazr, 
or  Green  Sea  ;  the  natives  of  India,  generally 
style  the  Great  Ocean  as  the  Kala  pani  or 
Black  Water.  The  Indian  and  Pacific  Oceans 
are  stodded  with  islands  in  a  state  of  formation 
by  polypi  and  corallines.  In  the  Indian  Ocean, 
the  tide  follows  the  moon  to  the  west  with  a  some- 
what northerly  course.  Dr.  Bnist,  on  the  autho- 
rity of  Mr.  Laidly,  stated  the  evaporation  at 
Cycutta  to  be  *'  about  fifteen  feet  annually,  and 
that  between  the  Cape  and  Calcutta,  it  aver- 
ages in  October  and  November,  nearly  three- 
fourths  of  an  inch  daily;  between  10^  and  20^ 
in  the  Bay  of  Bengal,  it  was  found  to  exceed 
an  inch  daily.  Supposing  this  to  be  double  the 
average  throughout  the  year,  we  should, 
have  eighteen  feet  of  evaporation  annually." 
All  the  heat  received  by  the  intertropical  seas 
from  the  sun  annually  wotdd  not  be  sufficient 
to  convert  into  vapour  a  layer  of  water  from 
them  sixteen  feet  deep.  It  is  the  observa- 
tioos  as  to  the  rate  of  evaporation  on  shore  that 
hare  led  to  such  extravagant  estiihates  as  to  the 
rate  at  sea.  The  mean  annual  fall  of  rain  on 
the  entire  sor&ce  of  the  earth  is  estimated  at 
about  five  feet.  The  rivers  of  India  are  fed  by 
the  monsoofns,  which  have  to  do  their  work  of 
distributing  their  moisture  in  about  three 
months.  Thus  we  obtain  0*065  inches  as  the 
average  daily  rate  of  efiective  evaporation  from 
the  warm  waters  of  the  N.  Indian  ocean.  If 
it  were  all  rained  down  upon  India,  it  would 
give  it  a  drainage  which  would  require  river9 
Ittving  sixteen  times  t-he  capacity  of  the  Missis- 
Bppi  to  dkcharge.  Nevertheless,  the  evapora- 
tion from  the  North  Indian  ocean  required  for 
«eh  a  flood  is  only  one-«ixteenth  of  an  inch 
daily  thronghoat  the  year.  The  total  amount  of 

159  0 

evaporation  that  annually  takes  place  in  the 
trade  wind  region  generally  at  sea,  according  to- 
Maury's  estimate  does  not  exceed  four  feet. 
Sir  John  Herschel  gives  to  the  winds  the 
entire  right  of  setting  the  ocean  streams 
in  motion  ;  Lieutenant  Maury  holds  the  univer- 
sal circulation  of  the  sea  to  be  caused  by 
nothing  else  than  the  difierence  in  its  specific 
gravity,  and  Dr.  Carpenter  (or  rather  Professc  r 
Buff)  would  bring  about  a  general  interchange 
of  polar  and  equatorial  water  by  the  aid  of 
sunshine  and  frost  alone.  The  water  of  the 
Indian  Ocean  is  warmer  than  that  of  any  other 
sea,  therefore  it  may  be  inferred  that  the  evapora- 
tion from  it  is  also  greater.  The  north  Indian 
Ocean  contains  about  4,500,000  square  miles, 
while  its  Asiatic  water-shed  contains  an  area 
of  2,500,000.  Supposing  all  the  rivers  of  this 
water-shed  to  discharge  annually  into  the  sea 
four  times  as  much  water  as  the  Mississippi 
discharges  into  the  Gulf  of  Mexico,  we  shall 
have  annually  on  the  average  an  effective  eva- 
poration from  the  North  Indian  Ocean  of  60 
inches  or  0*0165  per  day.  The  waters  of  the 
Indian  Ocean  are  hotter  than  those  of  the 
Caribbean  Sea,  and  the  evaporating  force  there 
is  much  greater.  These  two  facts,  taken  to- 
gether, tend,  it  would  seem,  to  show  that 
large  currents  of  warm  water  have  their 
genesis  in  the  Indian  Ocean.  One  of  them 
is  the  well-known  Mozambique  current,  called, 
at  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope  the  Lagulhas 
current.  Another  of  these  warm  currents  frx)m 
the  Indian  Ocean  makes  its  escape  through  the 
Straits  of  Malacca,  and  being  joined  by  other 
warm  streams  from  the  Java  and  China  Seas, 
fiows  out  into  the  Pacific,  like  another  Gulf 
Stream,  between  the  Philippines  and  the  shores 
of  Asia.  Thence  it  attempts  the  great  circle 
route  for  the  Aleutian  Islands,  tempering  cli- 
mates, and  losing  itself  in  the  sea  as  its  waters 
grow  cool  on  its  route  towards  the  north-west 
coast  of  America.  Near  the  shores  there  is  & 
counter-current  of  cold  water.  The  Lagulhas- 
current,  as  the  Mozambique  is  sometimes  called 
skirts  the  coast  of  Natal  as  the  Gulf  Stream 
does  the  coast  of  Georgia,  where  it  gives  rise  tO' 
the  most  grand  and  terrible  displays  of  thunder 
and  lightning  that  are  anywhere  else  to  be 
witnessed.  There  is  sometimes,  if  not  always^ 
another  exit  of  warm  water  from  the  Indian 
Ocean.  It  seems  to  be  an  overfiow'of  the 
great  intertropical  caldron  of  India ;  seeking 
to  escape  thence,  it  works  its  way  polarward 
more  as  a  drifr  than/  as  a  current.  It  is  to  the 
Mozambique  current  what  the  northern  flow  of 
warm  waters  in  the  Atlantic  is  to  the  Gulf 
Stream.  This  Indian  overflow  is  very  large.. 
The  best  indication  of  it  is  afforded  by  the 
sperm  whale  curve.  In  shore  of,  but  counter- 
to  the  "  Black  Stream,"  along  the  eastern  shorea 



of  Asia,  is  found  the  cold  current  of  Okotsk  a 
streak  or  layer,  or  current  of  cold  water  answer- 
ing  to  that  between  the  Gulf  Stream  and  the 
American  coast.  This  current,  like  its  fellow 
in  the  Atlantic,  is  not  strong  enough  at  all  times 
sensibly  to  affect  the  course  of  navigation  ;  but, 
like  that  in  the  Atlantic,  it  is  the  nursery  of 

are  nearly  as  extensive  as  those  of  Newfound- 
land, and  the  people  of  each  country  are  in- 
debted tor  their  valuable  supplies  of  excellent 
fishes  to  the  cold  waters  which  currents  of  the 
sea  bring  down  to  their  shores.    There  are  also 
about  the  equator  in  this  ocean  some  curious 
currents,  which  Maury  called  the  "Doldrum  cur- 
rents'* of  the  Pacific,  but  which  he  says,  he  does 
not  understand,  and  as  to  which  observations  are 
not  sufficient  yet  to  afford  the  proper  explana- 
tion or  description.     There  are  many  of  them, 
some  of  which  at  times  run  with  great  force. 
On  a  voyage  from  the  Society  to  the  Sandwich 
islands  Maury  encountered ont  running  at  the  rate 
of  ninety-six  miles  a  day.     These  currents  are 
generally  found  setting  to  the  west.     They  are 
often,  but  not  always,  encountered  in  the  equa- 
torial Doldrums  on  the  voyage  between   the 
Society  and  the  Sandwich  Islands.  The  Pacific 
Ocean  and  the  Indian  Ocean  may,  in  the  view 
we  are  about  to  take,  be  considered  as  one 
sheet  of  water.     This  sheet  of  water  covers  an 
area  quite  equal  in  extent  to  one-half  of  that 
embraced  by  the  whole  sui*face  of  the  earth,  and, 
accordingly   PJrofessor  Alexander  Keith  John- 
ston   so  states  it  in  the   new  edition   of  his 
splendid  Physical  Atlas.  There  is,  also,  at  times 
another   warm   cun-ent  running  to  the  south 
midway  between  Africa    and    Australia,    of 
which  the  whales  give  indications.    These  con- 
vey immense  quantities  of  highly  saline  water 
which  has  to  be  replaced  by  colder  water.    The 
Aleutian  Islands  are  in  the  tract  of  the  eiurent 
from  the  Straits  of  Malacca.      They  are  as 
subject  to  fogs  and  mists  as  the  banks  of  New- 
foundland.    No  trees  grows  on  them,  and  for 
all  household  purposes  the  natives  depend  on 
the  drift  wood,  amongst  which  camphor  wood 
and  woods  of  Japan  and  China  are  often  seen. 
The  Japan  stream  known  as  the  Kuro  Sino 
sweeps  along  the  outer  or  eastern  shores  of  the 
Japanese  islands.     This  stream  carries  with  it 
the  Gulf  weed  or  Sargossa  with  many  animal 
forms  such  as  Clio,  Cavolina,  Pteropods,  Spiria- 
lis,  Atlanta  and  the  Pelagian  skeleton  shrimps, 
Alima  and  Erichthys ;  also  the  Carapaces  of 
the  sailor-crab  called  Planes.     Near  Japan  a 
current  runs  in  a  thin  layer  in  shore  similar 
to  that  between  ^he  gulf  stream  and  the  Ameri- 
can coast,  and  like  it  is  the  nursery  of  many 
valuable  fisheries.  It  is  in  the  cold  waters  which 
the  currents  of  the  ocean  br